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The countryside on the defensive : agricultural Ontario's views of rural depopulation, 1900 - 1914 Young, William Robert 1971

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THE COUNTRYSIDE ON THE DEFENSIVE: AGRICULTURAL ONTARIO'S  VIEWS OF RURAL DEPOPULATION, 1900 - 1914-  by William Robert Young B.A. (Hon.), York University, 1969.  A Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts  in the Department of History We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  The University of British Columbia March, 1971  In  presenting this  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  that permission  for  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  for extensive copying of  this  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s of  representatives.  this  thesis  It  for financial  is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n gain shall  written permission.  Department o f  mg+nry  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  March, 1971  Columbia  not be allowed without my  A B S T R A C T  Rural observers of the a c c e l e r a t i o n i n Ontario's urbanization witnessed, i n the years before the Great War, of  both the concentration  industry i n urban areas and the spread of communications and  techno-  l o g i c a l advances from the towns to the surrounding countryside. A l l sections of r u r a l s o c i e t y  }  however, recognized that to them, the d r i f t  of population from the r u r a l concession l i n e s to the c i t i e s formed urbanization's most important aspect.  Debate generated by increasing  urban dominance centred around t h i s depopulation of the countryside as the r u r a l inhabitants t r i e d to explain and to solve 'The Problem.' A s p l i t over the issue of depopulation developed i n the ranks of the vocal section of the r u r a l opinion-makers. Smith of The Weekly Sun,  One group, l e d by W. L.  H. B. Cowan of Farm and Dairy and W. C. Good of  the Grange, registered increasing alarm at the continual seepage of the r u r a l population into the towns. of  To them, depopulation placed a s e r i e s  challenges before r u r a l society.  As migration proceeded, they per-  ceived that farmers l o s t t h e i r philosophy of l i f e , Canadian democracy and p o l i t i c a l morality was threatened and r u r a l s o c i a l l i f e ruined.  Blame f o r  the economic uncertainty facing Ontario a g r i c u l t u r e could to a great extent be l a i d at the feet of the diminished numbers working the farms. A second group,  however, comprising the Ontario Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  the s t a f f s of The Canadian Countryman and The Farmer's Magazine, declined to  espouse t h i s complete pessimism.  In addition to the less b e n e f i c i a l  r e s u l t s of depopulation, the l a t t e r group viewed the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of land usage, the consolidation of the schools and churches as w e l l as the modernization of r u r a l s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s as advantages  u l t i m a t e l y a c c r u i n g t o t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n by reason o f t h e i r d i m i n i s h i n g numbers. •The Problem* r e s u l t e d i n much h e a r t - s e a r c h i n g among t h e s e a f f e c t e d groups who  spent much o f t h e i r time and  p o s s i b l e o r i g i n s and t h e i r s o l u t i o n s .  energy  determining  In t h e i r r e a p p r a i s a l o f the. p u r -  pose o f t h e r u r a l f a m i l y s c h o o l , c h u r c h and newspapers, b o t h agreed  two  groups  t h a t these i n s t i t u t i o n s could provide v a l u a b l e a i d i n stopping the  p o p u l a t i o n l e a d from t h e c o u n t r y s i d e .  By r e f o r m i n g t h e s e b a s i c  foundations,  t r a d i t i o n a l a g r a r i a n v a l u e s would be r e a f f i r m e d and d e f i c i e n c i e s i n urban life  highlighted.  L a c k o f s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s became, i n t h e eyes o f r u r a l  o b s e r v e r s , a cause o f o u t m i g r a t i o n which c o u l d be remedied by b r i n g i n g t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t h e u r b a n t e l e p h o n e s , e l e c t r i c i t y and r u n n i n g water: w h i c h e x e r c i s e d such an a t t r a c t i o n f o r r u r a l f o l k . improving  Increasing p r o f i t  a g r i c u l t u r a l methods g a i n e d p o p u l a r a p p r o v a l by t h e farm  by  press  as a means o f a r r e s t i n g t h e c i t y w a r d t r e k . All  t h e s e causes and  remedies were g e n e r a l l y endorsed  by  the  Good-Drury f a c t i o n and t h e F a r m e r s Magazine-Canadian Countryman group . T  The  former h e l d , c o n t r a r y t o t h e l a t t e r , t h a t t h e s e reasons were not  sufficient  explanations of a l l factors underlying depopulation.  T h i s more  r a d i c a l group b e l i e v e d t h a t s o l v i n g t h e s e i s s u e s a l o n e would not depopulation.  stop  In f a c t , some o f t h e Good-Drury f o l l o w e r s p o i n t e d out t h a t  a d o p t i o n o f many o f t h e s e urban-developed m e c h a n i c a l  d e v i c e s and  cosmo-  p o l i t a n s o c i a l o u t l o o k would o n l y m o d i f y t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l s o c i e t y beyond recognition.  Rural l i f e  as a copy o f u r b a n l i f e  and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i m i t a t i o n .  s t y l e c o u l d be but a p a l e  In a d d i t i o n t o promoting unique  social  i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r r u r a l a r e a s , t h e Good-Drury ' r a d i c a l s ' extended  their  economic arguments f a r t h e r ' t h a n the more a d a p t i v e group were p r e p a r e d  to  follow.  Depopulation, the r a d i c a l s averred, r e s u l t e d mainly  from  economic i n e q u i t i e s p e r p e t r a t e d by t h e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e system o f d i s t r i b u t i o n e x e r c i s e d by urban b a n k e r s , r a i l r o a d e r s , m a n u f a c t u r e r s land speculators.  These men,  by c o n t r o l l i n g the p o l i t i c a l system  i n s t i t u t i n g d e v i c e s such as t h e t a r i f f , farmers' p r o f i t s .  r a i s e d t h e i r own  and  and  and lowered the  S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r a d i c a l farmers proposed l o w e r i n g  t a r i f f s and s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l over l a n d - s a l e p r o f i t s and r a i l r o a d s i n o r d e r t o check u r b a n e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e .  They r e c o g n i z e d ,  however, t h a t a g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n c o u l d o n l y c o m p l e t e l y end d e p o p u l a t i o n and economic serfdom i f r u r a l v o t e r s u n i t e d and c a p t u r e d c o n t r o l o f the political  system.  Throughout  t h e y e a r s p r i o r t o t h e G r e a t War,  both the  'radicals'  and t h e ' a d a p t o r s ' g a i n e d adherents among t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n numbers l a r g e enough t o m a i n t a i n an e q u i l i b r i u m .  A rural political  revolt  a g a i n s t urban d o m i n a t i o n d i d not succeed, but a g i t a t i o n t o r e f o r m t h e system o f d i s t r i b u t i o n c o n t i n u e d .  O n l y t h e p r e s s u r e s o f t h e Great  and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d Farmers  of Ontario f i n a l l y  d e p o p u l a t i o n t o dethrone t h e p r o v i n c i a l government i n  1919.  War  caused  Table o f Contents Page CHAPTER I  CHAPTER I I  CHAPTER I I I  CHAPTER IV  CHAPTER V  CHAPTER V I  CHAPTER V I I  INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCESS OF URBANIZATION, DEPOPULATION AND GENERAL RURAL REACTION 'THE PROBLEM*: THE NATURE AND PERCEPTIONS OF DEPOPULATION  11  " I CAN REMEMBER WHEN ": PERCEPTIONS OF THE LOSS OF THE OLD RURAL POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC L I F E  23  THE GUARDIANS OF THE RURAL MYTH: DESTROYERS AND BUILDERS  38  "SUPPING WITH THE DEVIL:" SOCIAL L I F E  67  IMPROVING RURAL  "SUPPING WITH THE DEVIL:" 'SALVATION' THROUGH PRODUCTION MARKETING AND LABOUR  83  IDENTIFYING THE ENEMY: DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH AND THE MOVEMENT TOWARDS POLITICAL ACTION  98 128  CONCLUSION  NOTES:  CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER  I II III IV V VI VIL  CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C  APPENDIX D  APPENDIX E  1  134 140 148 155 165 173 186 201 202  CIRCULATION OF AGRICULTURAL JOURNALS  223  CIRCULATION OF GOVERNMENT REPORTS  226  ATTENDANCE AT FARMERS' INSTITUTES AND RELATED ORGANIZATIONS  228  MIGRATION FROM RURAL AREAS OF ONTARIO COUNTIES •, •  229  POPULATION CHANGE IN RURAL AREAS OF ONTARIO COUNTIES .  232  Table of Contents (continued) Page APPENDIX F  ONTARIO CITIES - MIGRATION AND POPULATION CHANGE, 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 2 1  234  APPENDIX G  FARMERS' SUBMISSION TO THE GOVERNMENT ON THE TARIFF - 1 9 2 0  235  APPENDIX H  A NOTE ON METHODS AND USE OF SOURCES  237  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This thesis has been completed only with the assistance of many people, especially Professor Margaret Prang who supervised my work and provided encouragement, ideas and criticism for the past two years.  Professor J. L. Granatstein was instrumental in the concep-  tion of the problem.  In his classes at York he promoted my f i r s t  interest i n rural social history, although his interest and aid extended to the present, far beyond his classes. Other friends and c r i t i c s who read parts of the manuscript and gave needed cheer include Robert McDonald, Patricia Oxley, Virginia Careless and Catherine Davison. Research assistance came from Mrs. Roberta Gilbank, Archivist at the University of Guelph who provided help i n collecting the primary material from the Guelph collection of agricultural journals, unmatched i n Canada. The financial support of the H. R. Macmillan Foundation and the Ewart Fund of the University of Manitoba provided sustenance for two years.  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION TO T H E P R O C E S S OF U R B A N I Z A T I O N , D E P O P U L A T I O N , AND GENERAL RURAL R E A C T I O N  During  t h e r e c e n t e x p l o s i o n o f urban s t u d i e s , s o c i a l  i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i a n s , a r e a n a l y z i n g t h e s o c i a l , economic,  scientists,  political,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and demographic e f f e c t s o f u r b a n growth i n Canada. e v e r , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t u n t i l r e c e n t l y Canada's  history  predominantly r u r a l h i s t o r y , the d e c l i n e o f the countryside the r i s e o f the c i t i e s  has been a n e g l e c t e d theme.  How-  was accompanying  Although r u r a l  s o c i o l o g y has been an e s t a b l i s h e d f i e l d  s i n c e t h e 1920's, Canadian,  s o c i o l o g i s t s d i d not o r g a n i z e t h e f i r s t  seminar o f t h e changes i n t h e  Canadian r u r a l environment u n t i l up.  1965.  1  Historians are s t i l l  catching  The p o l i t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e a g r a r i a n r e v o l t engendered by  growing u r b a n dominance  have been e x h a u s t i v e l y a n a l y z e d ,  2  and some  3  b i o g r a p h i e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s and h i s t o r j . e s o f t h e O n t a r i o and 4 C a n a d i a n Departments o f A g r i c u l t u r e a r e a v a i l a b l e . the d e c l i n i n g r u r a l c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  The s o c i a l r o o t s o f  however, and t h e s o c i a l changes, t h e  f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e Dost-1914 Canadian r u r a l p o l i t i c a l movements, have 5 n o t y e t been e x p l o r e d . A study  o f u r b a n i z a t i o n must i n v o l v e a n a l y z i n g t h e e f f e c t o f  t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances on t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y . technology  From 1900 t o 1910,  emanating from t h e c i t i e s dominated and i n t e g r a t e d t h e O n t a r i o  c o u n t r y s i d e w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e ' s towns.  Today, t h e t e c h n o l o g y  spreading  from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h r e a t e n s t o dominate and t o i n t e g r a t e t h e c u l t u r e s as w e l l as t h e economies o f t h e Western c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  2 Canada.  With r e g a r d t o t e c h n o l o g y ,  then, a choice s i m i l a r t o t h a t  c o n f r o n t i n g t h e countrymen o f f i f t y y e a r s ago f a c e s Canadians  today.  A d a p t i n g t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l o y a l t i e s as b e s t t h e y c a n , a r e Canadians t o submit t o t h e c u l t u r a l p e n e t r a t i o n c a r r i e d by t h e American s e d u c t i v e l y a t t r a c t i v e good l i f e ?  technology's  Or a r e t h e y g o i n g t o t r y t o p r e s e r v e  a d i s t i n c t i v e way o f l i f e and t o c o n t r o l t h i s c u l t u r a l homogenization?  (i) By 1910, in  over f i f t y  c e n t r e s o f 1,000  p e r cent o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f O n t a r i o  o r more p e o p l e .  r e p o r t e d one w e l l - s u p p o r t e d  lived  During these l a s t t e n y e a r s ,  s t u d y o f p o p u l a t i o n growth, " t h e i n c r e a s e  i n u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n was both r e l a t i v e l y and a b s o l u t e l y t h e l a r g e s t i n 6 the Province's h i s t o r y . "  The u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e o f 41.3  p e r cent  p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d t h e whole p r o v i n c e , s i n c e t h e s o u t h e r n r u r a l s e c t i o n  7 underwent as g r e a t a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as t h e c i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s . t h i s p o p u l a t i o n growth p r o v i d e s t h e c l e a r e s t  While  i n d i c a t o r o f the i n c r e a s i n g  degree o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , t h e p r o c e s s c o n s i s t s o f a composite o f s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic changes.  Under t h e l a b e l  u r b a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d e s three sub-processes:  'centralization',  concentration o f industry  8 and t e c h n o l o g y ,  of  c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f m e t r o p o l i t a n c o n t r o l over  9  diffusion  i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n . In i t s b r o a d e s t  sense, u r b a n i z a t i o n denotes "a p r o c e s s whereby both  countrymen and townsmen come t o share an i n c r e a s i n g l y s i m i l a r and m u t u a l l y interdependent was t h i s ?  set of l i f e  In e f f e c t  experiences.""^  What s o r t o f  interdependence  i t was "a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e m u l t i - f a c e t e d  r u r a l - u r b a n c o n t a c t s t h a t are"urban  dominated.  The concept  does not  i m p l y a one-way p r o c e s s . . . . I t m e r e l y acknowledges one way (urban) d o m i n a n c e . " ^ The achievement o f u r b a n dominance was not t h e r e v e r s a l o f  3 a r u r a l - u r b a n dichotomy, but was a s h i f t towards t h e u r b a n end o f a continuum.  T h i s s h i f t towards t h e u r b a n end o f t h e s c a l e a c c e l e r a t e d  from 1900 t o 1914.  As u r b a n dominance was a c h i e v e d , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between f a r m i n g and m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s c o m p l e t e l y the e a r l y period o f settlement  reversed.  During  i n Ontario  a f t e r i t / a g r i c u l t u r e / had broken t h e s h a c k l e s o f a c l o s e d economy, farming formed t h e b a s i s o f a l i v e l y t r a d e , l a r g e l y an e x p o r t t r a d e . I t c r e a t e d an important f l o w o f t r a f f i c , and w i t h t h e r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e d p r o s p e r i t y , t h i s formed t h e main b a s i s f o r u r b a n growth. Soon a f t e r 1880, t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n reached such s t r e n g t h t h a t i t began t o mould t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use p a t t e r n . . . . 12 C i t i e s dominated n o t o n l y t h e economics, b u t a l s o t h e p o l i t i c s and s o c i e t y of r u r a l  areas.  The  t r a n s f e r o f the f u n c t i o n s o f manufacturing  from t h e O n t a r i o  c o u n t r y s i d e t o c e n t r a l i z e d o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e c i t i e s commenced about 13 1851  and had been g e n e r a l l y completed b y 1881.  As a l l hamlets and  v i l l a g e s , home o f t h e r u r a l non-farm p o p u l a t i o n , were a f f e c t e d , t h e c o b b l e r was r e p l a c e d by t h e shoe f a c t o r y ; t h e b l a c k s m i t h by t h e implement p l a n t s ; homespun b y mass-produced c l o t h from u r b a n t e x t i l e m i l l s ; and l o c a l merchants b y m a i l - o r d e r goods from department s t o r e s . The  i n c r e a s i n g d i v i s i o n o f labour a f f e c t e d the a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n o t h e r ways.  population  The farmer s p e c i a l i z e d o n l y i n food p r o d u c t i o n t o f e e d  neighbouring  c i t i e s , b y g i v i n g up home i n d u s t r y and s t a p l e p r o d u c t i o n  f o r export.  T h i s modern farming  formed a b a s i s f o r u r b a n  development w h i c h r e f i n e d and p r o c e s s e d  i t s products.  industrial  Meat  packers, 14  fruit  and v e g e t a b l e  canners and d a i r i e s s e t up l a r g e  A g r i c u l t u r a l producers  establishments.  became more r e l i a n t upon n e i g h b o u r i n g  c e n t r e s f o r both market and s u p p l i e s .  metropolitan  I n t h e i r eyes t h e y were "almost 15 as dependent upon t h e c i t y as i s t h e c i t y on t h e farmer."  The  second p r o c e s s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n , t y i n g t h e c o u n t r y t o  city*s life The  first  spread  s t y l e , r e s u l t e d from improved t e c h n o l o g y  communications.  a r e a s a f f e c t e d l a y c l o s e s t t o the m e t r o p o l i s as urban c o n t r o l  l i k e a s p i d e r ' s web  a l o n g t h e r o a d s , r a i l w a y s , and  communications c o n n e c t i o n s of  and  the  t o the more d i s t a n t a r e a s .  other  The  c i t y c o n v e n i e n c e s and t i g h t e n i n g o f u r b a n c o n t r o l d a t e d  establishment  of both  farm and  town.  From 1900  c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f urban i n f l u e n c e a c c e l e r a t e d .  t o 19H,  diffusion from t h e  however, t h e  Rural free mail delivery,  improved p r o v i n c i a l r o a d systems, r a d i a l r a i l w a y s , r u r a l t e l e p h o n e e l e c t r i c i t y , a l l f a c i l i t a t e d the adoption a t t i t u d e s , i n business,  s o c i e t y , and  and  i n r u r a l areas o f urban  education.  Needed u r b a n workers had t o come from somewhere; hundreds o f t h o u s a n d s moved from t h e farm. movement t o t h e c i t i e s had was  a chronic condition.  The  ceased  concentration of population  t o be a new  phenomenon and by  In some a r e a s , t h o s e b o r d e r i n g c i t i e s  towns d i r e c t l y , d e p o p u l a t i o n  began i n t h e  1850's.  From  I860  to  t h e magnitude o f t h e movement g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d , u n t i l by 1881 n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c e  and 1900 and  1870, o n l y the  gained p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h  16 migration. was  The  departure  so g e n e r a l by 1891  t i o n a l gains.  from t h e r u r a l a r e a s o f o r g a n i z e d  counties  t h a t o n l y Muskoka and Renfrew r e g i s t e r e d m i g r a -  S i x t e e n c o u n t i e s , from 1881  t o 1891,  r e g i s t e r e d not  only  a l o s s o f p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h m i g r a t i o n , but an a c t u a l p o p u l a t i o n decline. ''' 1  F a r from a b a t i n g , t h i s t r e n d i n c r e a s e d i n the i n t r a - c e n s a l y e a r s 1891  t o 1901.  declines.  Twenty-two c o u n t i e s r e g i s t e r e d a b s o l u t e  In not one  county-in the Province  show m i g r a t i o n l e s s t h a n t h e towns, t h o s e  population  c o u l d the r u r a l p o r t i o n  figure of i t s natural increase."^  " f a i r l y o l d c e n t r e s whose p r o s p e r i t y had been based  Some on  a g r i c u l t u r a l marketing  and d i s t r i b u t i o n a l  f u n c t i o n s , " a l s o showed a 19  d e c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s decade.  Between 1901  and  1911,  t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e c o u n t i e s l o s t more t h a n f i v e per cent o f t h e i r  popula-  t i o n , d e s p i t e some r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s i n t h o s e townships a d j o i n i n g 20 prosperous  and  expanding u r b a n c e n t r e s .  During these years,  t h i r d s o f the t o t a l timespan c o v e r e d by t h i s s t u d y ,  two-  s i x counties  (Bruce,  D u f f e r i n , H a l i b u r t o n , Huron, Grey and Lambton) l o s t over twenty per  cent  o f t h e i r r u r a l i n h a b i t a n t s , and t\-renty-four c o u n t i e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e 21 registered absolute population declines. The t o t a l m i g r a t i o n from t h e s o u t h e r n r u r a l a r e a s amounted t o a minimum o f 125,741 o r a more a c c u r a t e 22 maximum o f 198,088. siphoned  Movement t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Western Canada  o f f some o f t h e r u r a l m i g r a n t s , but a t l e a s t  one  hundred 23  thousand p e o p l e The  l e f t t h e farm t o l i v e i n t h e c i t i e s o f the P r o v i n c e .  f i n a l census p e r i o d from 1911  difference i n established trends:  t o 1921  demonstrates  little  t h e exodus from r u r a l a r e a s  continued;  2%. t h e suburban a r e a s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r growth.  However, t h e r a t e o f  d e p o p u l a t i o n and o u t m i g r a t i o n from r u r a l a r e a s d i d slow down. ten  c o u n t i e s showed a lower r a t e o f o u t m i g r a t i o n from 1911  i n the previous ten years.  The  The to  t o t a l rural decline i s s t i l l  impressive; total  (ii)  c o u n t r y - d w e l l e r s ' r e a c t i o n s t o d e p o p u l a t i o n p r o v i d e the  o f 1919.  phases, t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  As t h e y c o n f r o n t e d d e p o p u l a t i o n ' s  population shifted  key  providing a  d e e p e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f the a g r a r i a n movement which r e s u l t e d i n t h e revolt  than  25  p i n p o i n t i n g t h e changes o v e r t a k i n g O n t a r i o s o c i e t y and  political  but  t o 1921  .56,277 c o u n t r y i n h a b i t a n t s l e f t t h e r u r a l a r e a s , a l t h o u g h t h e p r o b a b l y amounted t o .154,202.  All  t h e i r responses  rural  various  i n confused  6  and contradictory d i r e c t i o n s , although two basic reactions to depopulat i o n emerge.  (See Appendix H "A Note on Methods" f o r an explanation of  the use of the term 'opinion* i n t h i s thesis.)  The advocates of one  p o s i t i o n promoted adaptation to urbanization and depopulation and pointed out the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the population movement i n Ontario's r a p i d l y i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g society.  For the sake of e f f i c i e n c y , they argued, the  c e n t r a l urban f a c t o r i e s had almost completely taken over functions formerly performed by home and l o c a l industry.  Despite the inconveniences o f  t a r i f f - p r o t e c t e d industry, c e n t r a l banks, land speculation and monopolies, urban concentration o f the major economic and manufacturing functions provided a g r i c u l t u r i s t s with benefits of savings i n both time and money. These adaptors accepted the improved technology and w i l l i n g l y applied i t t o the farm.  They spent l i t t l e time contemplating reversing the  decline o f the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t r u r a l communities.  As w e l l as maintaining  only the necessary population on the land, these communications  improve-  ments, along with most urban technological inventions, could mean a more comfortable s o c i a l and economic existence f o r the members o f every farm family. Advocates o f t h i s p o s i t i o n included the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s most c l o s e l y involved with urban i n s t i t u t i o n s .  The two publications,  The Farmer's Magazine and The Canadian Countryman, both presided over by members of the Toronto f i n a n c i a l establishment, adopted t h i s view of urbanization and depopulation.  The former, set up i n 1909 hy John Bayne  Maclean, shared a place i n his publishing empire with The F i n a n c i a l 26 Post.  The Canadian Countryman was established when most farm journals,  led by The Farmer's Advocate and The Weekly Sun, had been campaigning for a r a d i c a l r e v i s i o n of the Bank Act.  I t s executive included Zebulon  Lash, Q. C , as President and S i r Edmund Walker as a Director.  Both men  7 were f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e T o r o n t o banking and t r u s t company These two  elite.  j o u r n a l s o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , w h i l e most sympathetic t o a g r i c u l -  t u r e , were among t h e l e a s t m i l i t a n t  i n promoting fundamental r e f o r m s .  In t h e i r s t a t u s quo approach t o d e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e y were j o i n e d by h i g h officials  o f t h e O n t a r i o Department  t h a t t h e problems accompanying  o f A g r i c u l t u r e who  i n e v i t a b l e paramountcy  perhaps of the  believed  provincial  27 m e t r o p o l i s e s c o u l d be eased by a c o n c i l i a t o r s ' - approach.  Of the o t h e r  magazines, The Farmer's Advocate and The Farming World f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s a f t e r 1900 p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d r a t i o n a l i z i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n . Farming World l e f t T o r o n t o i n 1908 and was  When The  p u b l i s h e d i n P e t e r b o r o as  Farm and D a i r y under t h e m i l i t a n t eye o f H. B. Cowan, i t moved i n t o a more r a d i c a l group.  I t was  joined a f t e r the General E l e c t i o n o f  by t h e l a r g e s t - c i r c u l a t i o n r u r a l weekly, The Farmer's Advocate finally  1911,  which  s u p p o r t e d more fundamental a t t a c k s on t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n power  structure. The  ' r a d i c a l ' s e c t i o n which t h e s e two  j o u r n a l s j o i n e d d i d not  g e a r i t s i d e a s towards p r e p a r i n g f a r m e r s t o a c c e p t a l l a s p e c t s o f urbanization.  I t d e p l o r e d t h e d e c l i n i n g farm p o p u l a t i o n a l o n g w i t h  i n c r e a s e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y and c o n t r o l which c o u l d not be f i e d as i n e v i t a b l e under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s . far  The  justi-  ' r a d i c a l s ' even went so  as t o e x p r e s s s e r i o u s r e s e r v a t i o n s about t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e w h o l e s a l e  adoption o f urban t e c h n o l o g i c a l innovations i n stopping r u r a l  decline.  U n w i l l i n g n e s s t o compromise w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n any o f i t s forms  resul-  ted  from t h e i r almost i n s t i n c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the  various aspects of urbanization.  They viewed i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n as  a cause o f d e p o p u l a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l as i t s handmaiden. They, t h e r e f o r e , attempted t o h a l t a l l t h r e e . and l e g i s l a t i v e  With fundamental  reform, they b e l i e v e d t h e y could r e a s s e r t the  economic  supremacy  8  of agriculture in Canadian society. determinists.  They were, in one sense, economic  They believed that the currently-prevalent social and  business accommodations to industrialization would prove ineffective by themselves i n re-establishing a viable rural society.  Suitable business  and social systems would naturally follow their more fundamental economic reform.  Their dislike of the economic status quo accompanied a desire  for freer trade, the single tax on land values, combines restraint legislation, and elimination of subsidies to industry.  The aim of these  proposed reforms was to change the direction of the growing metropolitan centres i n Ontario. The membership of this reform group maintained few ties with urban economic institutions.  Among i t s leaders was Goldwin Smith who lent 28  his journal The Weekly Sun to the agrarian cause.  Under the editorial  guidance of W. L. Smith, the Sun continued Goldwin Smith's programmes after his death, although i t became even more emphatically rural and less cosmopolitan in emphasis.  The remnants of the Patrons of Industry  Movement (Jabel Robinson, former M.P. for Elgin; D. D. Rogers, M.P. for Frontenac; C. A. Mallory, leader of the Patrons in the Ontario Legislature) were joined as reformers by a younger generation.  E. C. Drury,  W. C. Good, J. J. Morrison and H. B. Cowan, the editor of Farm and Dairy, took over the leadership of the Dominion Grange and of the Farmers' Association, and established the United Farmers of Ontario.  These major  public figures led many others, some connected with the various agricultural organizations, the rest just ordinary farmers. The 'reformers' can be distinguished easily from the 'adaptors' by studying their respective general underlying assumptions. These differ greatly, particularly on the question of the priority to be accorded to reforming the economic system. These two groups, however, shade into  9  e a c h o t h e r on some s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . justified  Both s e c t i o n s , as we w i l l s e e ,  r u r a l e x i s t e n c e through the accepted  a g r a r i a n mythology and 29  recommended s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h i s v i s i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . •reform'  s e c t i o n d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o promote improved t e c h n i c a l methods  in agriculture.  Although  some members o f t h i s more r a d i c a l s e c t i o n  h e l d doubts about t h e u t i l i t y o f u n t h i n k i n g , w h o l e s a l e of  The  rural  adoption  a l l u r b a n s o c i a l i n n o v a t i o n s , even t h e s e men g e n e r a l l y had l i t t l e  o b j e c t i o n t o improving  r u r a l l i f e w i t h urban conveniences.  On t h e o t h e r  s i d e , t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e opinion-makers sometimes p r i n t e d unsympathetic comments i n t h e r u r a l media c r i t i c i z i n g monopolization  of industry.  i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n and  I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , however, t h e i r  d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t the o l d r u r a l s o c i e t y separated  t h e 'reformers*  fierce from  t h o s e who would adapt t h i s s o c i e t y t o f i t t h e i r new m e t r o p o l i t a n existence. Not view found  confined t o the years  from 1900 t o 1914, t h e s e two p o i n t s o f  a d v o c a t e s among t h e r u r a l opinion-makers s i n c e  I n 1878, f o r example, t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e a d a p t i v e thought c o u l d be seen i n t h e support John A. Macdonald*s N a t i o n a l P o l i c y .  Confederation.  strain i n rural  t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n gave t o S i r The r u r a l  'reform*  element grew  s t r o n g e r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s as a g r i c u l t u r e d i s c o v e r e d and p r o t e s t e d e x p l o i t a t i o n by t h e t a r i f f - p r o t e c t e d urban i n d u s t r i e s .  Political  o f t h e 1890's a g a i n s t t h e t a r i f f t o o k form i n both t h e P a t r o n s  protest  of In-  d u s t r y ' s e n t r y i n t o p o l i t i c s and i n t h e f r e e - t r a d e p l a t f o r m o f t h e f e d e r a l rurally-based Liberals.  A f t e r S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r formed h i s L i b e r a l  government i n 1896, h i s moderate t a r i f f and r a i l r o a d c o n c e s s i o n s a g r i c u l t u r i s t s defused r e v o l t but p r e s e r v e d r u r a l areas  fiefs  t h e immediate danger o f an a g r a r i a n  to the  political  t h e b a s i c economic s t r u c t u r e which was making t h e  o f the c i t i e s .  R u r a l resentment remained a f t e r 1900,  10 but  strong a g r i c u l t u r a l v o i c e s c o u n s e l l e d acceptance  s t y l e compromise and a d a p t a t i o n t o the changing b a l a n c e between a d a p t a t i o n and c e n t u r y t o t h e Great War,  social situation.  to  A  p r o t e s t e x i s t e d from t h e t u r n o f t h e  although the a g r a r i a n a c t i v i s m of  i n d i c a t e d the precariousness o f t h i s e q u i l i b r i u m . t h e war  of the L a u r i e r -  The  1911  social strains  of  i n c r e a s e d the p r e s s u r e s r e s t i n g upon t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n  an i n t o l e r a b l e l e v e l .  Obscurred  d u r i n g t h e war  by the  smoke-screen o f t h e U n i o n Government, r u r a l c o n c e r n about and u r b a n i z a t i o n became the i s s u e w h i c h dethroned government o f S i r W i l l i a m Hearst  i n 1919  and  patriotic depopulation  Ontario's  Conservative  a i d e d i n s e t t i n g up  the  f e d e r a l P r o g r e s s i v e s as a t h r e a t i n t h e House o f Commons. The Great War  y e a r s from t h e t u r n o f the c e n t u r y t o t h e outbreak  o f the  are c r u c i a l , t h e r e f o r e , i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the foundation f o r  understanding  t h e post-war p o l i t i c a l  protest i n Ontario.  Growing u r b a n  dominance o f a g r i c u l t u r e and d e p o p u l a t i o n c r e a t e d an i n c r e a s i n g l y portable s i t u a t i o n .  From 1900  t o 1914,  t h e two  insup-  p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the  problem were c o n s i d e r e d by t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , but n e i t h e r a d a p t a t i o n nor r e f o r m gained overwhelming support population.  The war  provided the  among the  rural  s t i m u l u s t o make t h e growing u r b a n i z a -  t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e the b a s i s f o r a p o l i t i c a l r e v o l t  in rural  areas.  11 CHAPTER I I  'THE THE  NATURE AND  PROBLEM':  PERCEPTIONS OF  In t h e eyes o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l men as  DEPOPULATION  p o p u l a t i o n , the d e p a r t u r e o f t h e  and women from the c o u n t r y s i d e t o t h e c i t i e s 'The  Problem*.  In f a c t , t h e r e were two  o f O n t a r i o was  separate d i f f i c u l t i e s , a  c h r o n i c l a b o u r shortage as w e l l as a d e c l i n e o f the o l d r u r a l institutions.  To r u r a l w r i t e r s and  speakers,  d e p o p u l a t i o n meant e i t h e r o f t h e s e two  'The Problem' o r  One  economist,  b e s e t t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e , noted be d i v o r c e d a r b r i t r a r i l y  i n a d i s c u s s i o n of labour i n 1943  rural only  aspects of  difficulties  t h a t "economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s cannot  from t h e e v e r - p r e s e n t s o c i a l  Confusion i s understandable; stemmed from s i m i l a r causes  social  a s s o c i a t e d c o m p l a i n t s ; but not  contemporary o b s e r v e r s had d i f f i c u l t y s e p a r a t i n g t h e s e two depopulation.  known  factors."*""  b o t h components o f d e p o p u l a t i o n  (working c o n d i t i o n s , s o c i a l  t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance, economic i n j u s t i c e s ) .  Although  disadvantages, some  c o n t r i b u t e d more t o t h e l a b o u r shortage t h a n t o t h e s o c i a l  causes decline,most  2 causes  a f f e c t e d both.  R e s u l t s o f and  a s p e c t s were connected: from each o t h e r .  s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s o c i a l and  s o c i a l d e c l i n e and  l a b o u r shortage even r e s u l t e d  I n g e n e r a l however, t h e l a b o u r shortage  n o o r e r f a r m i n g methods, f o r c e d m e c h a n i z a t i o n , cost of l i v i n g .  The  s o c i a l d e c l i n e brought  i n r u r a l s e l f - e s t e e m and d i f f i c u l t i e s  labour  generated  h i g h e r wages, and a h i g h e r  about a c o r r e s p o n d i n g  i n the r u r a l s c h o o l , church  drop and  family. (i) Most farmers must have had Problem.'  some p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h  'The  I f t h e y had not, v a s t numbers came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e  12 p u b l i c i t y g e n e r a t e d by t h e e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r s , government  publicists,  l e a d e r s o f farm o r g a n i z a t i o n , t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s o f a g r i c u l t u r e , women's e d i t o r s , a d v e r t i s e r s and l e t t e r s t o t h e e d i t o r A, B, & C ) .  Farm a c t i v i s t s ,  (See  Appendices  s e t t i n g f o r t h l e n g t h y e s t i m a t e s o f the  movement, began a campaign t o d i s p e l r u r a l apathy toward t h e p o p u l a t i o n drop.  F i g u r e s , g l e a n e d m a i n l y from t h e Dominion  1911 and from t h e O n t a r i o s t a t i s t i c s agency I n d u s t r i e s ) , g a i n e d i n emphasis  (The O n t a r i o Bureau  what t h e y l a c k e d i n a c c u r a c y .  demonstrated an a c u t e awareness o f the magnitude f r o n t page o f The Weekly Sun t o l d from 1890 t o 1909,  combined  censuses o f 1901  or  of They  o f the movement.  The  farmers o f a r u r a l d e c l i n e o f 116,852  w i t h an u r b a n i n c r e a s e o f 176,000 from  1898  Another s t o r y d e c l a r e d t h a t an e s t i m a t e d 20,000 p e r y e a r  left  4 t o 1907.  r u r a l a r e a s f o l l o w i n g 1890.^  A r t i c l e s a d v e r t i s i n g t h e same d i s m a l t a l e  appeared i n t h e v a r i o u s r u r a l j o u r n a l s . Farmer's Review,  9  The Canadian Countryman,  6  The  • 7 8 Advocate, Farm and D a i r y , The O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e and The Farmer's Magazine  10  a l l contributed stories  detailing  t o t h e o r d i n a r y farmer t h e e x t e n t o f the d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n .  No m a t t e r  what methods the j o u r n a l s used t o s t u d y t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s , t h e  11 s t o r y remained the same. Apart from t h e r u r a l p r e s s , o t h e r a g e n c i e s p o p u l a r i z e d knowledge of the population d e c l i n e .  The Canadian M e t h o d i s t Church conducted a  s u r v e y o f Huron County's r u r a l churches from 1880 t o 1914 and  published  a chart, which showed a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f 23,696. by Rev.  The r u r a l s e c t i o n s o f the county d e c l i n e d by 35,900.  A book  John M a c d o u g a l l p u b l i s h e d under the a u s p i c e s o f t h e Board o f S o c i a l  . S e r v i c e o f the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church d e l v e d i n t o the f i g u r e s f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n change. 373,567 who  M a c d o u g a l l emerged w i t h the h o r r i f y i n g e s t i m a t e o f  m i g r a t e d from the r u r a l a r e a s p r i o r t o 1914.  13  Statistical  13 breakdowns o f t h e d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h e c o n c e r n ;lpr a t t h e O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e a t Guelph,  of t h e  students  14 as t h e r u r a l  'Problem'  15  became a f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t f o r d i s c u s s i o n . '  Speeches d e l i v e r e d by a g r i c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s at p u b l i c meetings made t h e masses aware o f t h e Weekly Sun,  estimated  'Froblem's' e x t e n t , ' Gordon Waldron, e d i t o r o f  t o The  Canadian Club o f Toronto  o f 86,000 i n t h e twenty y e a r s b e f o r e 1900 immigration  and  that a r u r a l decline  would i n c r e a s e t o 170,000 i f  n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e were t a k e n  into account.^  Master o f t h e Dominion Grange, t o l d i t s members i n h i s 1913 address t h a t d e s p i t e a 17.16 from 1901  t o 1911,  The  W.  C. Good, t h e  presidential  p e r cent i n c r e a s e i n Canadian r u r a l  population  t h e O n t a r i o r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n l o s t between 100,000 and 17  375,000 o f i t s members.  H i s e s t i m a t e r e v i s e d E . C. D r u r y ' s r e p o r t i n  1908  p l a c i n g t h e r u r a l exodus a t 6,520 a n n u a l l y compared t o an a n n u a l average 18 i n c r e a s e o f 8,869 i n towns and  17,457 i n c i t i e s .  The Deputy M i n i s t e r o f  A g r i c u l t u r e f o r O n t a r i o , C. C. James, t o l d v a r i o u s bodies  such as t h e  Dairy-  19 men  of Ontario  7  t h a t t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n had dropped from 1,108,874 t o  1,047,016 between 1900  t o 1910.  R u r a l people  ought t o n o t i c e , s a i d James,  t h a t t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 1911  c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y f o r t y per cent of t h e 20 t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n compared t o s i x t y per cent i n 1900. R u r a l p u b l i c i t y gained  such momentum t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s f e l t  they  c o u l d improve t h e i r l o t i n r u r a l a r e a s by t a k i n g up t h e numbers q u e s t i o n . N. W.  Rowell,  L i b e r a l l e a d e r i n O n t a r i o i n 1911, c a l l e d f o r a R o y a l 21 Commission t o i n v e s t i g a t e the d e c l i n e . P a r t y campaign l i t e r a t u r e p o i n t e d out t o p r o v i n c i a l v o t e r s t h a t r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n had dropped by  50,000 i n t h e  22 p r e c e d i n g decade.  Federally,  S. S c h e l l , L i b e r a l member o f  parliament  f o r Oxford  South, c i t e d a r u r a l d e c l i n e o f 62,000 i n t h e p r e v i o u s t e n  t o support  t h e L i b e r a l s ' advocacy o f r e c i p r o c i t y i n 1911.  23 When t h e  years  p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s again r a i s e d the question of d e c l i n e i n r u r a l O n t a r i o i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e i n 1913,  the Conservative  t h e government's p o l i c i e s and accused r e f u s i n g Ontario's request  o f 1910  M i n i s t e r , W.  H.  Hearst,  defended  t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l government o f  f o r a R o y a l Commission t o i n v e s t i g a t e  24 r u r a l problems. The  r u r a l opinion-makers, i f no o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l group, had  e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e numbers i n v o l v e d i n t h e t r i e d t o awaken g e n e r a l c o n c e r n . of  flight  Sun's  and  estimate  20,000 per y e a r a r e remarkably a c c u r a t e , w h i l e o t h e r s miss the mark.  example, p i n p o i n t e d t h e b e g i n n i n g  n e t p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e t o 1881. nature  and u n c o n f i n e d  a d j o i n i n g the  25  The  o f t h e problem.  The  press,•  o f t h e movement t o t h e 1870's  and  One  e d i t o r noted  that  i n w h i c h an i n c r e a s e i s shown i s i n townships  l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s where what may  u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n has o v e r f l o w e d  p r o p e r l y be  into the country."  The  c l a s s e d as  usefulness of land  a g r i c u l t u r e d i d not a f f e c t t h e amount o f t h e r u r a l exodus f o r t h e  s e c t i o n s "as w e l l as t h e p o o r e r V i c t o r i a County, one  s e c t i o n s have s u f f e r e d .  Mariposa,  best  in  o f the b e s t townships i n O n t a r i o i n so f a r as s o i l i s  concerned, a t o w n s h i p w i t h e x c e l l e n t r o a d s and w i t h i n easy a c c e s s b o t h 27 L i n d s a y and T o r o n t o The  has dropped from 4,190  r u r a l press recognized that  O n t a r i o o r even Canada, but was t u r e a l l over the w o r l d . obvious  'the Problem' was  t i e d t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s  not unique t o confronting a g r i c u l -  N a t u r a l l y , t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f c o n d i t i o n s was  w i t h r e g a r d t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  of  t o 3,857."  Some a r t i c l e s i n the  o f t h e d e c l i n e i n American r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . "  They d i d n o t ,  most  Ontario  a g r i c u l t u r a l j o u r n a l s went t o g r e a t l e n g t h s t o p u b l i s h s t a t i s t i c a l 28  limit  the  Weekly Sun remarked on t h e widespread 26  e x t e n t o f 'the Problem.'  " p r a c t i c a l l y t h e o n l y cases  for  from t h e c o u n t r y s i d e  Some f i g u r e s , such as The  They r e a l i s t i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d the g e n e r a l n a t u r e for  some  accounts  however,  t h e i r comparisons m e r e l y t o American p a r a l l e l s , but i n c l u d e d most  15 European countries as w e l l .  A g r i c u l t u r a l France's l o s s of  2 5 , 0 0 0  farmers  2 9  rated a comment i n the Ontario press, as d i d the "gr "grave 30 t r o u b l e ahead" foreseen i n England i f depopulation were not checked.'  per year t o P a r i s  S i m i l a r accounts r e l a t e d t o comparable s i t u a t i o n s i n Germany, Belgium  and  Australia.^""" (ii) S t a t i s t i c s give a good p i c t u r e of how the contemporary farm j o u r n a l s viewed the extent of the exodus from the countryside. provide an adequate perception of the degree apprehended i t s seriousness.  They do not, however,  t o which these same w r i t e r s  The press and much of the a t t e n t i v e p u b l i c  was w e l l aware of the s o c i a l and economic d i s l o c a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n the depopulation c f the countryside.  Farm and Dairy went so f a r as t o advocate  a f e d e r a l Royal Commission t o assess the s i t u a t i o n i n the Province caused 3 2  by depopulation.  The most animated d i s c u s s i o n s i n the columns of the  r u r a l newspapers were not "those touching important p r a c t i c a l problems of s o i l c u l t u r e and stock husbandry, but the ones aroused by d i s p u t a t i o u s views on matters of s o c i a l and business r e l a t i o n s h i p s , . . . t h e p e r e n n i a l debates as t o 'Why  the Boys Leave the Farm', and the o c c a s i o n a l exchanges  of opinion regarding the p r o f i t s of pork production, embellished w i t h 33  f a i r l y unanimous views about the a t t i t u d e of the pork packers."  The num-  ber of e d i t o r i a l s , s t o r i e s , advertisements and l e t t e r s which pointed out the seriousness of depopulation v e r i f i e s the accuracy of t h i s  statement.  The f i r s t aspect of depopulation, the labour shortage, was g e n e r a l l y separated from the s o c i a l d e c l i n e i n the press d i s c u s s i o n s . I t s s e r i o u s ness was made worse by the comparatively abundant labour at.low wages 3 4  a v a i l a b l e i n the 1890's.  S t o r i e s s t r e s s i n g the g r a v i t y of the labour  s i t u a t i o n appeared i n 1900 and continued throughout the p e r i o d .  Few  questions of the day, emphasized the e d i t o r s of the o p t i m i s t i c and  16 p r o g r e s s i v e O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e Review, c o n f r o n t e d t h e t u r a l employer w i t h t h e need f o r such  agricul-  " s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n " as  hiring  35 an adequate s u p p l y o f l a b o u r . the labour shortage  p r o v i d e d much g r i s t  the f o l l o w i n g years. had  From t h i s b e g i n n i n g i n 1901,  A farmer  f o r the r u r a l complaint  t o get down on h i s knees t o get someone t o d i g a d i t c h . "  farmer  i s almost  by chance, a farmer  w i l l do v e r y l i t t l e work when a l o n e . a l l t h e time, and  keep pushing  "almost  This  t h e busy seasons, when t h e  h u r r i e d t o death i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a man  h i r i n g , " but a l s o " i f ,  on  mills for  from O n t a r i o County remarked t h a t he  s i t u a t i o n o c c u r r e d not o n l y because " d u r i n g  is  stories  worth  does happen t o f i n d a man...he  His employer needs t o work w i t h  him on, as i t were.  The  him  average h i r e d  f a r more i n t e r e s t e d i n wondering i f i t i s near mealtime and  man  longing f o r  37 pay day t o a r r i v e t h a n he i s i n d o i n g work The merited.  labour shortage  pushed a s i d e o t h e r problems i n t h e a t t e n t i o n i t  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s view, t h e r e was  a f f e c t i n g t h e f a r m e r ' s w e l f a r e , and o f t h e whole c o u n t r y .  s u b j e c t s dwindle  satisfactorily."  Tariffs,  "no  q u e s t i o n as  materially  as a n a t u r a l consequence,  the  welfare  c a t t l e g u a r d s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and a l l o t h e r 38  i n t o i n s i g n i f i c a n c e compared t o t h i s . "  appeared u n p a r a l l e l l e d f o r " a t no time have farmers a c o n d i t i o n o f such v i t a l importance,  The  situation  o f O n t a r i o been met  as t h a t w i t h w h i c h t h e y are now  with con-  39 f r o n t e d i n t h e l a b o r problem.  P u b l i c i t y g i v e n by t h e p r e s s i n c l u d e d  i n c h - h i g h h e a d l i n e s such as " R u r a l D e p o p u l a t i o n Ontario." ^  Creates a C r i s i s i n  Many farmers were d r i v e n t o advocate  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with  the  c o n d i t i o n s i n c e t h e problem c o n t i n u e d f o r such a l o n g time and n e v e r seemed 41 42 t o improve. D e s p i t e o c c a s i o n a l l a p s e s i n t o optimism a t minor r e l i e f , L.3 t h e demand f o r farm h e l p c o n t i n u e d t o o u t s t r i p the s u p p l y . r e s u l t s compiled  by one  a g r i c u l t u r a l j o u r n a l which asked  t h e i r g r e a t e s t problem showed t h a t "almost  without  Questionnaire  farmers  to describe  e x c e p t i o n t h e answer i s  17 found i n t h e s c a r c i t y and high p r i c e of l a b o r . "  44  Near t h e end of the period complaints about the dearth of farm labour were as numerous as during e a r l i e r years.  I f there was one t h i n g  more than another, reported The Canadian Farm that had "hampered the farmer i n recent years i n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y conducting h i s business, i t i s the s c a r c i t y c f help....  This s c a r c i t y of help i s not confined t o any  p a r t i c u l a r area, i t i s general, and there are few farmers i n any part o f Canada who do not f e e l i t s e f f e c t i n some way."  ^ i n support, The  Farmer's Magazine reported that "the h i r e d help question i s one that i s accounting f o r n e a r l y a l l t h e hardships upon the farm today." ^ of newspaper correspondents  Reports  scattered throughout the province i n v a r i a b l y  47 mentioned the labour shortage i n t h e i r s t o r i e s . Dismay over t h e l a c k o f help on t h e farms was not t h e s o l e prerogative c f the farm press.  Speaker a f t e r speaker brought t h i s question  t o t h e n o t i c e of t h e assembled a g r i c u l t u r i s t s a t farm gatherings. I  Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s as e a r l y i n t h e period as 1900,  rt  At l o c a l  and at t h e l a r g e r  49  meeting o f the Dominion Grange i n Toronto i n 1903, t o speeches d e s c r i b i n g the labour shortage.  agriculturists listened  York County C o u n c i l took the  matter t o Queen's Park when a deputation v i s i t e d Premier George Ross i n 1903.  At some of the conventions of the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s such as  the dairymen and the corn growers almost every speech would i n c l u d e some reference t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g labour t o perform a l l the tasks 50 associated with t h e d i f f e r e n t aspects o f farming.  Even the f a i r s ,  events f o r both amusement and i n s t r u c t i o n , o f t e n provided an occasion f o r an address on t h e t i m e l y t o p i c o f the P r o v i n c i a l labour shortage. The pervasiveness of the labour shortage i n r u r a l l i f e and consciousness i s demonstrated by i t s use as an a d v e r t i s i n g theme i n the r u r a l  la journals.  The N a t i o n a l Cream S e p a r a t o r Company s o l d i t s p r o d u c t s  advertisements  titled  "The  q u e s t i o n w i t h e v e r y farmer  under  i s , 'What S h a l l  be  51 Done t o S o l v e t h e Farm Labor Froblem?'"  One  j o u r n a l , The  Farming  World, opened a p r o m o t i o n a l campaign under t h e h a l f - i n c h h e a d i n g ,  "Farm  Help".  the  The b a s i s o f t h e campaign was  t h e o f f e r o f a f r e e book on  52 s u b j e c t o f o b t a i n i n g farm l a b o u r f o r r e a d e r s who sent i n new s u b s c r i p t i o n s . A g e n c i e s were s e t up t o d e a l w i t h t h e r u r a l employers' demands f o r farm  53 l a b o u r and t o s u p p l y workers f o r r u r a l a r e a s . O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l Government, attempted t o p r o v i d e farmers shortage.  and  The S a l v a t i o n Army,  the  s e v e r a l smaller p r i v a t e o p e r a t i o n s ^  w i t h immigrants r e c r u i t e d t o h e l p r e l i e v e  T h e i r advertisements  the  joined those of the labour-saving  machinery i n t h e r u r a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . The r u r a l opinion-makers,  t h e r e f o r e , m o b i l i z e d t h e means o f communica-  t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o b r i n g about awareness o f t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e shortage.  T h i s a c t i o n may  not have been n e c e s s a r y ;  l a b o u r s h o r t a g e were as widespread as the s t a t i s t i c s employers must have had help.  labour  i f the problem o f a i n d i c a t e most  rural  some e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g h i r e d  F i g u r e s on t h e d e c l i n e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , p u b l i c i z e d i n t h e  rural  p r e s s and a t t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l meetings, a l o n g w i t h t h e comments on  the  s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e problem, must have h e l p e d t h e average farmer t o g a i n a more a c c u r a t e assessment c f t h e d i f f i c u l t y and t o see t h e need f o r some further  study. The  problems engendered by d e p o p u l a t i o n had a n o t h e r  d e c l i n e of the old r u r a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s .  The d e p a r t u r e  aspect:  the  o f thousands  o f r u r a l o f f s p r i n g , many j o u r n a l s and w r i t e r s b e l i e v e d , t h r e a t e n e d t h e of l i f e  o f t h e s e who  regained.  Expressions  o f dismay a t t h e s o c i a l con-  sequences o f d e p o p u l a t i o n formed as p o p u l a r a s u b j e c t i n t h e p r e s s and  conventions  as d i d t h e c o m p l a i n t s  way  agricultural  at a l a c k of labour.  Perhaps  19 one r e a s o n f o r t h i s , a n e x p l a n a t i o n which d i d not make i t s way i n t o v e r y many p u b l i c  s t a t e m e n t s , was t h a t t h e f a r m e r s ' c h i l d r e n formed t h e major  labour r e s e r v o i r f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s .  V a r i a t i o n s under t h e t i t l e  "V.hy t h e Boys and G i r l s Leave t h e Farm" o r "The R u r a l S o c i a l r  Problem,"  56 formed  a regular topic of discussion i n r u r a l journals  .. 'and a t a g r i c u l -  57 t u r a l meetings.  The a r t i c l e s  o f t e n emphasized  that the long duration  o f t h e m i g r a t i o n from r u r a l a r e a s had meant t h a t t h e problem was becoming . . 58 a crisis. One metaphor, n o t a b l e f o r i t s gruesome comparison, how t h e onset o f r u r a l s o c i a l decay was  related  a k i n t o t h a t t e r r i b l e d i s e a s e , consumption. At f i r s t , t h e r e i s a s l i g h t cough, a l i t t l e weakness, but no . s e r i o u s symptoms t o cause a l a r m . Then t h e cough g e t s worse, t h e weakness more n o t i c e a b l e . Spasmodic attempts a r e made t o check t h e d i s e a s e , but n e i t h e r t h e p a t i e n t n o r h i s f r i e n d s a r e s e r i o u s l y alarmed. But i f t h e d i s e a s e i s n o t r e s o l u t e l y t a k e n i n hand a t t h i s s t a g e , i t i s almost c e r t a i n t o r e s u l t i n s u f f e r i n g l a t e r and perhaps d e a t h . 59 Weekly e d i t o r i a l s i n most o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l j o u r n a l s s e r v e d t o b r i n g t h e  60 worsening  s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n to t h e n o t i c e o f t h e g e n e r a l farm p o p u l a c e . v  A s e r i e s o f conferences discussed the q u a l i t y o f r u r a l s o c i a l and suggested improvements.  The P r e s b y t e r i a n Church h e l d a c o n f e r e n c e a t  Geneva Park i n 1912, a t which Reverend  John K a c d o u g a l l gave a s e r i e s o f  lectures discussing the r u r a l s o c i a l decline. at  Knox C o l l e g e i n T o r o n t o .  life  6  Ke r e p e a t e d t h e s e  lectures  At a c o n f e r e n c e i n Ottawa i n 1914, t h e  1  S o c i a l S e r v i c e C o u n c i l o f Canada, a body e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e v a r i o u s P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h e s , spent much t i m e g o i n g o v e r s o l u t i o n s t o problems i n Canadian  life  such as slums, w h i t e - s l a v e r y , s o c i a l w e l f a r e , Lord's Day  l e g i s l a t i o n , and temperance.  Cne s e c t i o n o f t h i s c o n f e r e n c e d e a l t w i t h t h e  "Problem o f t h e Country," I n t h i s s e s s i o n , E . C. D r u r y ^ and W. C. Good, o f f i c i a l s o f t h e farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s , rubbed s h o u l d e r s w i t h Rev. John 2  kacdougall,  63  Rev. W. F. Sharp  64  ( O r g a n i z e r o f t h e Huron S u r v e y ) , a l o n g  20  w i t h others such as Rev. Hugh Dcbson,  65  Alphonse Desjardins  66  (Organizer  67  of the Caisses P o p u l a i r e s ) , and Professor Reynolds of O.A.C.  The Huron  Survey, conducted by the Methodist Church i n 1913, provided an  occasion  f o r another s e r i e s of studies and conferences on r u r a l l i f e .  I t gained  much n o t i c e f o r i t s f i n d i n g s  The  u<3 0  n rural social dislocation.  organizers of t h i s survey attempted to c a r r y i t s conclusions t o the r u r a l populace by o r g a n i z i n g d i s c u s s i o n s of the exodus from the countryside by 69  the remaining  population. (iii)  The r e c e p t i o n and r e a c t i o n to r u r a l depopulation accented by the r u r a l opinion-makers was not unanimous. While the considerable m a j o r i t y of a r t i c l e s i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l j o u r n a l s showed concern and dismay at the consequences, a few comments designed to calm r u r a l f e e l i n g acceptance of the labour shortage.  counselled  The b a s i s of t h i s advice l a y i n the  conclusion t h a t the labour shortage i n d i c a t e d r u r a l progress. t h i s vein  Articles i n  were g e n e r a l l y confined to the j o u r n a l s which viewed most  sympathetically the process of u r b a n i z a t i o n and advocated the quick adapt a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e t o urban standards.  70  "A great d e a l of  pother,"  was the way one w r i t e r viewed concern over the labour shortage since " a l l manner of inferences are being drawn" from the census f i g u r e s . He remarked that many j o u r n a l s urged that " ' unless something i s done t o remedy t h i s s t a t e of t h i n g , ' the day of d i s a s t e r i s already at Canadian doors...." An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the 'facts' proved t o t h i s j o u r n a l i s t that "things are 71 not as bad as t h e f i g u r e compilers would have us b e l i e v e . " '  Another  unsympathetic a r t i c l e t o l d a g r i c u l t u r i s t s t o l e t depopulation run i t s course since "any r e s t r i c t i o n put upon t h i s n a t u r a l proceeding would i n e v i t a b l y react against the best i n t e r e s t s of the  country."  72  21 O c c a s i o n a l l y , even some o f t h e u s u a l l y uncompromising d e f e n d e r s t h e farmer's  r i g h t t o l a b o u r appeared t o a d v o c a t e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e permanent  labour c o n d i t i o n . we  may  of  The  e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n had  t o be r e c o g n i z e d and  d e c r y t h i s f a c t , and weigh t h e pros and  n e v e r t h e l e s s remains and  aggravates  "though  cons o f t h i s t e n d e n c y , i t  the s i t u a t i o n i n the country.  The  t e n d e n c y i s t o o s t r o n g t o be r e v e r t e d / . s i c / by i n d i v i d u a l o r even combined effort  on t h e p a r t o f t h e farmer."  ^  C.C.  James, Deputy M i n i s t e r o f  A g r i c u l t u r e , urged a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e l a b o u r s h o r t a g e  although,  he  said,  t h e r e was a day i n t h i s c o u n t r y when farm l a b o r was p l e n t i f u l and cheap, when i t c o u l d s i m p l y be had f o r the asking. 3ut t h a t day i s gone by and i t w i l l n e v e r come back t o us a g a i n . V/e need n e v e r a g a i n expect t o have cheap l a b o r i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , and i t i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f our farmers t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t f a c t and t o a c t a c c o r d i n g l y . Y e a r by y e a r , t h e c r y f o r cheap l a b o r , comes up...and i f we a r e g o i n g t o c a r r y on our farm work, we have got t o work t h i s t h i n g out. So t o work i t out w i t h t h e l a b o r a t our command. 74 I n another  speech t o t h e Dairymen, James t o l d h i s a u d i e n c e t h a t "the  o f our towns and  c i t i e s depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t upon t h e i r b e i n g  by t h e s t r o n g v i g o r o u s  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d young men  and women, who  success  recruited  come from  75 t h e farms." depopulation, Those speakers shortage  i  n  a l l t h e s e comments c o u n s e l l i n g r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t o  o n l y one a s p e c t and w r i t e r s who  c f t h a t two-headed monster was urged t h e farmers  rural  d e a l t with.  to d e a l with the  labour  and t o a d j u s t t h e i r p r a c t i c e s never condoned the s o c i a l d e c l i n e  i n a . s i m i l a r manner. (iv) D e s p i t e t h e few p u b l i c i s t s who  downgraded i t s importance,  'The  Problem* remained an element o f a n x i e t y t o r u r a l opinion-makers.  The  a g r i c u l t u r i s t , a c c o r d i n g t o most o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r e s s , had t o grow alarmed a t t h e d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n .  To o b s e r v e r s  good  reason  l i v i n g i n the  22 p e r i o d , t h e r u r a l exodus must have appeared  ready t o l e a v e t h e t h i c k l y -  p o p u l a t e d c o u n t r y s i d e c o m p l e t e l y s t r i p p e d o f i t s hard-working who had p i o n e e r e d O n t a r i o ' s development. makers d i d not d i m i n i s h throughout T h e i r p a r t i c u l a r concerns from t h e c o u n t r y — t h e  The a p p r e h e n s i o n s  families  o f the o p i n i o n -  t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d from 1900 t o 1914  r  c e n t r e d around t h e major r e s u l t s o f t h e movement  s o c i a l problems and t h e l a b o u r s h o r t a g e .  Each o f  t h e s e two a s p e c t s o f t h e problem o f d e p o p u l a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i t s own  conse-  quences, e v i d e n t t o o b s e r v e r s o f t h e t i m e , which gave a more s p e c i f i c t o t h e foreboding they expressed  about t h e f u t u r e o f r u r a l O n t a r i o .  form  23  CHAPTER I I I  " I CAN REMEMBER WHEN...." : PERCEPTIONS OF THE LOSS OF THE OLD RURAL POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIFE. The r u r a l population's concern over the labour shortage and the decay of i t s s o c i a l institutions occupied the journals and speeches devoted to agriculture.  Examining the effects as the people of the time  perceived them explains the anxiety aroused by these twin problems. According to the view of the a g r i c u l t u r a l populace, the results threatened t h e i r p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic situation i n the country.  Even very  few of the 'adaptors' could see any benefits accruing from the drastic changes induced by depopulation. (i) The worries of the countrymen partly centred around the challenge presented to t h e i r whole world view by depopulation.  The country dwellers  s t i l l wanted to believe, as they had for generations, that "a contented, prosperous, God-fearing, r u r a l population i s the tap-root of national vigour.  As the farmer i s , so i s the nation." They s t i l l believed i n the  corollary to t h i s assumption to the effect that "any force that tends to deprive r u r a l l i f e of i t s most valuable asset / i t s people/ should be sought out and eradicated as a source c f public danger."  Because they  held these convictions very strongly, they had many "heartsearchings to determine the cause of the exodus of young men and maidens from the .  country.  „1  These natural advantages which r u r a l inhabitants believed  the country possessed no longer appeared to be sufficient to support their agrarian philosophy.  "There i s freedom, fresh a i r , good water, health  24 i n i t s e t e r n a l measure and u n l i m i t e d outdoor Advocate,  e t e r n a l j o y f o r the l o v e r of nature i n the  l i f e o f a Canadian  farm,"  enumerated The  Farmer's  "but a l l t h i s has e x i s t e d t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s i n which t h e sons  o f t h e s o i l have been s h a k i n g t h e c l a y o f t h e i r f a t h e r s ' farms o f f t h e i r 2 boots and donning Not  t h e p a t e n t l e a t h e r s o f c i t y pavements."  o n l y d i d r u r a l - b r e d young people i g n o r e t h e advantages o f  c o u n t r y l i f e , b u t t h e y a l s o would " p e r s i s t i n r e m a i n i n g i n t h e c i t y and out o f employment when c o m f o r t a b l e hemes, f a i r wages, good b o a r d , and honest, f a i t h f u l ,  e l e v a t i n g l a b o u r a w a i t s them o n l y a few m i l e s d i s t a n t 3  i n the country...." why,  Again, t h i s s i t u a t i o n forced  farmers t o c o n s i d e r  " I f t h e a t t r a c t i o n s o f t h e f a r m a r e so g r e a t , do so few  a p p r e c i a t e them?"  To t h e o r d i n a r y farmer, t h e answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n  •Why s h o u l d young men  s t a y on t h e farm?'  answered as i t had been f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . concluded that  people  ought t o be as s i m p l y and On second thought,  " j u d g i n g by t h e apparent tendency  farmers  o f young men  c o u n t r y and r e a r e d on t h e farm _ t o move t o t h e c i t i e s / i t may v e r y easy t o s o l v e t h e problem."^  The  t h i s uneasiness.  born i n the not be  s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h o s e who  l e a v i n g were t h e b r i g h t e s t and most a l e r t r u r a l o f f s p r i n g  easily  so  were  strengthened  Evidence c f decay i n the c a l i b r e o f the farming  t i o n cropped up i n t h e number c f . " o v e r l y c o n s e r v a t i v e f a r m e r s , who  populahave,  as a g e n e r a l t h i n g , been slow t o adopt  the improvements i n methods t h a t 5 would i n c r e a s e t h e p r o d u c t i v e n e s s o f t h e l a b o r t h e y employ." A change i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f both t h e r u r a l and urban p o p u l a t i o n gave f u r t h e r cause f o r a l a r m i n t h e r u r a l j o u r n a l s .  The p r e s s viewed  abandonment o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e and t h e growth of urban  industrial  dominance as a t h r e a t t o t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s o f Canadian democracy.  The m u l t i p l a t i o n o f "armies  society  and  o f employees more c r l e s s under  c o n t r o l o f t h e i r c o r p o r a t i o n s , " d i d not bode w e l l f o r Canadian  C  the  political  25 freedom.  Because t h e s e urban men were dependent upon t h e i r  for their  economic  l i v e l i h o o d , t h e y would not be tempted  p o l i t i c a l independence i f i t t h r e a t e n e d t h e i r economic  employers  to assert  security.  any The  c i t i e s were growing so l a r g e t h a t t h e y c o u l d not h e l p but pass under sinister  influences.  V/. L. S m i t h , e d i t o r o f The Weekly Sun, v o i c e d  rural  f e a r s when he noted t h a t ; t h e most common c o m p l a i n t i s apparent on t h e f a c e o f i t . I n a l a r g e c i t y , t h e r e i s l a r g e patronage i n t h e way o f c o n t r a c t s c o n c e s s i o n s and o f f i c e s . There i s something t o g i v e which c o s t s each i n d i v i d u a l member c f t h e community c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e but which i s o f immense v a l u e t o t h e few who r e c e i v e . The n a t u r a l r e s u l t i s f o r t h e few t o o r g a n i z e w i t h a view o f c o n t r o l w h i l e t h e g r e a t mass, l a c k i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h t h o s e who s h o u l d be community l e a d e r s a r e powerless t o r e s i s t . He c o n t r a s t e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n t o t h a t o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e where "men each o t h e r , t h e y know men  know  f i t t e d f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e , and i t i s much e a s i e r  t o work out d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e r e t h a n i n a g r e a t c i t y . "  Indeed,  he c o n c l u d e d , " g r e a t c i t i e s f u r n i s h t h e n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f d e s p o t i c government, t h e despotisms o f o r g a n i z e d s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t s as i n New' Y o r k or t h e p e r s o n a l d e s p o t i s m as i n some European 6 countries." Not o n l y d i d t h e development  o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and t h e d e c l i n e  i n p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y which accompanied  i t t h r e a t e n democracy,  but t h e  "growing p r e s e n c e o f v a s t c o l o n i e s o f r e c e n t l y imported a l i e n s who u n d e r s t a n d t h e E n g l i s h language and a r e s t i l l more i g n o r a n t  do not  regarding  7 the p r o p e r working o f our systems c f government"  a g g r a v a t e d the problem.  Goldwin Smith i n h i s 'Bystander' column remarked  t h a t t h e immigrants, not  good f a r m hands o r a r t i s a n s f o r whom Canada had v a c a n c i e s i n h e r l a b o u r f o r c e , were "the scum and r e f u s e o f Europe.../whp7 even i f t h e y a r e good workers, which t h e y appear by no means u n i v e r s a l l y t o be, a r e bad  citizens.  26 I t i s n o t o r i o u s t h a t t h e f o r e i g n element i n our g r e a t c i t i e s i s bought wholesale at e l e c t i o n s . . . . " t h e c i t i e s would  A l a r g e number o f immigrants crowding  into  " l a y i n t o the f o u n d a t i o n w a l l o f t h i s d e m o c r a t i c  s t r u c t u r e , elements o f v i c e and weakness and s q u a l i d  helplessness,"  9 r e p o r t e d t h e e d i t o r o f The Farmer's Advocate.  P e o p l e were reminded  that  t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f T o r o n t o c o n t a i n e d a one-seventh p r o p o r t i o n o f f o r e i g n e r s , a l l a l i e n s i n language and w h o l l y u n t r a i n e d i n p o p u l a r government.  Large  numbers o f t h e m " s u f f e r from m o r a l and m e n t a l debasement due t o h a v i n g l i v e d f o r c e n t u r i e s under d e s p o t i c and c o r r u p t and a l t o g e t h e r v i c i o u s forms o f government.  Not even i n t h e b e s t o f newcomers has a s e n t i m e n t  o f Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p as y e t been d e v e l o p e d . . . "  Immigrants  joined the  d i s p l a c e d r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n as t o o l s i n t h e hands o f t h e g r e a t u r b a n c o r p o r a t i o n s which c o r r u p t e d them" as a means o f a t t a i n i n g t h e i r  own  endss"^ I f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o d e p a r t from t h e homes i t b u i l t , t h e descendants o f t h e p i o n e e r s o f O n t a r i o i n t h e M e t h o d i s t and P r e s b y t e r i a n communities  o f t h e e a r l y days would d i s a p p e a r .  As t h e y  g r a v i t a t e d t o t h e c i t i e s , t h e i r p l a c e on t h e l a n d would be t a k e n by t h e C e n t r a l Europeans democracy  was  o r F r e n c h Canadians.  The r u r a l b a s t i o n o f Canadian  t h r e a t e n e d by d e p o p u l a t i o n .  Peasant farmers " u n f i t t o s e r v e  t h e p l a c e i n a d e m o c r a t i c government" t o o k o v e r t h e l a n d o f " t h o s e t r a i n e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f democracy.  We  s h a l l be i n danger o f  l o s i n g t h e L i n c o l n i d e a l o f government, by t h e p e o p l e f o r t h e p e o p l e . I n i t s p l a c e we  s h a l l be i n danger o f h a v i n g s e t up government by t h e  c o r p o r a t i o n s which c o n t r o l t h e avenues o f employment i n t h e c i t y and a down-trodden  mass o f peasants on t h e l a n d such as t h e r e a r e now  o f c o n t i n e n t a l Europe.""'"  1  Such unabashed  i n parts  r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e abounded i n the  r u r a l p r e s s which o f t e n d e s c r i b e d immigrants as " h i r s u t e , low-browed,  b i g - f a c e d , w i t h an o b v i o u s l y low m e n t a l i t y , i n e v e r y f a c e o f whom t h e r e 12 is  something wrong."  the  'degradation  which had  1  As  evidence  and d e g e n e r a t i o n  f o r t h i s view, t h e p r e s s p o i n t e d  o f r u r a l a r e a s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s  been s p r e a d i n g t o the O n t a r i o c o u n t r y s i d e and  crime r a t e .  The  c a l l o f the O n t a r i o F a i r s  i n c r e a s i n g the  Association f o r a  rural  p o l i c e f o r c e gave f u r t h e r p r o o f o f t h e widespread n a t u r e o f t h e s e ments among t h e r u r a l  opinion-makers."^  senti-  4.  I n t h e eyes o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , d e p o p u l a t i o n produced i l l u s i o n as t o i t s immediate p o l i t i c a l consequences. that  out  little  R e c o g n i t i o n dawned  " a g r i c u l t u r e i s no l o n g e r t h e paramount i n d u s t r y o f Canada, t h a t t h e  v a l u e o f t h e output o f t h e output  o f Canadian f a c t o r i e s i s now  c f Canadian farms."  The  about d o u b l e  i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s  the  value  statement  was  t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e c o u l d no l o n g e r depend upon i t s overwhelming economic and 15 n u m e r i c a l importance t o compel a c t i o n on i t s l e g i s l a t i v e demands. Not o n l y would t h e p r o f e s s i o n l o s e i t s power i n l o b b y i n g f o r f a v o u r a b l e l e g i s l a t i o n but the d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n meant t h a t i n a c t u a l v o t i n g and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e a t s , p r o v i n c i a l l y and l o s e members.  f e d e r a l l y , r u r a l a r e a s would  Country d w e l l e r s would become p o l i t i c a l l y  subservient to 16 l a r g e u r b a n m a j o r i t i e s i n t h e a d j a c e n t towns o f t h e i r r i d i n g s . One estimate p l a c e d t h e number o f r i d i n g s under urban c o n t r o l i n f e d e r a l c o n t e s t s i n t h e 1911  e l e c t i o n at one-half the t o t a l .  17  p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e s m a l l towns i n both t h e f e d e r a l and e l e c t i o n s c f t h a t year v o t e d almost divided  e l e c t i o n s , swamped as t h e y were by t h e tovms. i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s , were soundly beaten 18  provincial  s o l i d l y T cry while r u r a l areas,  on p a r t y l i n e s , d i d net e x e r c i s e t h e d e t e r m i n i n g  them i n t h e urban c e n t r e s .  The Weekly Sun .  f a c t o r i n the  S e v e r a l members, f a v o u r e d  by t h e huge m a j o r i t i e s a g a i n s t  28 Appeals  t o r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e and  reminders  of the erosion of  p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e were not as p a i n f u l l y f e l t by t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n as t h e p e r s o n a l l y - e x p e r i e n c e d e f f e c t s o f d e p o p u l a t i o n .  The  fall in  numbers meant a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c l i n e i n r u r a l s o c i a l l i f e and an i n c r e a s e in  rural isolation.  19  Abandoned homes s p r i n k l i n g t h e c o u n t r y s i d e p r o v i d e d 20  t e s t i m o n y t o the breakdown i n r u r a l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . man  One  country-  r e m i n i s c e d t h a t he c o u l d remember when s o c i a l l i f e was abundant and good. I t was b e f o r e t h e i n d u s t r i a l boom s t a r t e d i n Canada.... We t h e n had g l e e c l u b s , temperance s o c i e t i e s , l i t e r a r y and d e b a t i n g societies.... Now we have none o f t h e s e ; t h e young p e o p l e t o a l a r g e e x t e n t have l e f t f o r t h e c i t y . Scarcity of l a b o r w i t h a l l t h e work f a l l i n g on a few s h o u l d e r s , makes us t o o t i r e d t o want t o run around a t n i g h t .  These c o n d i t i o n s meant t o t h e o l d t i m e r s t h a t "on t h e whole, t h e i s not as a t t r a c t i v e a p l a c e t o l i v e i n , i n s p i t e o f a l l t h e we  have made, as i t was The  twenty-five years  ago."  country  improvements  21  l i t t l e hamlets and towns had d i s a p p e a r e d , as the  "country  s u r r e n d e r e d t o t h e c i t y a m u l t i t u d e o f o c c u p a t i o n s which once gave i t s o c i a l wealth....  This l o s s confined the choice of occupations i n the  c o u n t r y t o one, t h a t of a g r i c u l t u r e . " u n i f o r m i t y of a s i n g l e c l a s s . A gap had  formed i n t h e l i f e  22  I t had reduced  s o c i a l groups t o t h e  S o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n and  s p i r i t died  o f t h e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s so t h a t t h e  out.  people  23 were l i v i n g " m o r e as i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s t h a n as communities." spirit  sometimes l a c k e d even i n m a t t e r s d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n i n g t h e  tural livelihood.  agricul-  Farmers c o u l d not m a i n t a i n i n t e r e s t , a t t e n d a n c e  f i n a n c e s f o r t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as t h e Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s and l o c a l agricultural societies registered l e a d e r s h i p and  Community  enthusiasm. ^ 2  or  some  s e r i o u s d e c l i n e s i n membership,  29  R u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a f f e c t e d by the population migration included the two mainstays of the community, the school and the church. attendance d e c l i n e d d r a s t i c a l l y .  School  Those b u i l d i n g s which "were f i l l e d w i t h  f o r t y c h i l d r e n as many years ago /1873V now s h i v e r w i t h a beggarly  half-  25 dozen," reported W. C. Good to the Dominion Grange i n 19-13.  According  t o a report released by the Ontario Department o f Education, the a c t u a l drop i n attendance numbered 27,529 from 1903 t o 1910. The continuing shrinkage by a f u r t h e r 6,239 i n 1911 i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e change i n the , 26 . trend. The s i t u a t i o n had worsened t o the extent t h a t many r u r a l school m  sections would have t o c l o s e f o r l a c k o f p u p i l s . not a s i n g l e student r e g i s t e r e d i n 1906,  One school reported that  while most reported minimal  28  attendance.  R u r a l students were a l s o represented  i n low proportion i n  29 the high schools compared t o the number of urban students. l a c k i n g the s t i m u l a t i o n given by teaching to large classes o f e n t h u s i a s t i c p u p i l s , country teachers changed p o s i t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y .  They 30 l e f t the remaining c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r schools without any s t a b l e guidance. F u l l blame could h a r d l y be l a i d on the teachers' shoulders, however, f o r  31  the m a j o r i t y were underprivileged and underpaid.''  The t r u s t e e s ,  skimping on funds, h i r e d cheaper, u n d e r q u a l i f i e d teachers when these were 32 available.  Male teachers deserted the teaching occupation i n i n c r e a s i n g  numbers, l e a v i n g the care of the country c h i l d r e n t o young women.  They  could s c a r c e l y be f a u l t e d , f o r they o f t e n earned an average rate o f pay l e s s than t h a t o f a h i r e d hand. Many of the school b u i l d i n g s presented a sad appearance.  They  'suffered a l a c k o f maintenance so that from the e x t e r i o r they were "desolate-looking places." They were l e f t ''bare and u n a t t r a c t i v e " w i t h no shrubs or t r e e s .  The grounds were too small and lacked play equipment.  34  30  S a n i t a t i o n , l i g h t i n g , heating, medical i n s p e c t i o n , a l l l e f t much t o be desired i n most r u r a l schools.  35  ^ These c o n d i t i o n s , one r u r a l school  inspector b e l i e v e d , e x i s t e d mainly because of the paucity c f both p u p i l s and taxpayers.  36  Too much money was l a v i s h e d cn the t e n per cent of the  p u p i l s i n the high schools expected t o enter t h e p r o f e s s i o n s .  Not enough 37  was spent on t h e seventy percent who remained i n r u r a l areas.  Of the  money devoted t o r u r a l education, much i n d i r e c t l y subsidized the c i t i e s 38  as r u r a l sections bore the cost o f educating many a prospective townsman. Concern over the c o n d i t i o n of the country church can be measured p a r t l y by t h e i n t e r e s t of denominations i n o r g a n i z i n g surveys and publ i s h i n g books about t h e i r problems.  Sharing the a g r a r i a n philosophy, they  b e l i e v e d that "the i n t e r e s t s o f r e l i g i o n are today i m p e r i l l e d by the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the farming population.  When men become d i s s a t i s f i e d with  the sober and honest l i f e of the farmer...there  i s cause f o r r e l i g i o u s 39  people t o be a f r a i d , and today they are a f r a i d . " R u r a l c l e r g y complained about the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of t h e church o r g a n i z a t i o n . The denominations confined t h e i r major e f f o r t s t o towns and c i t i e s , " g i v i n g them of t h e i r 40  best t o the neglect of t h e open country...."  Excessive  denominationalism  and overlapping, another p a r t i a l r e s u l t o f depopulation, l e f t a hamlet w i t h t h r e e , four o r f i v e churches i n a centre of population able t o support one.  Rural m i n i s t e r s , forced t o look a f t e r s e v e r a l s m a l l con-  gregations and t o preach at them a l l each Sunday had l i t t l e energy t o do a proper job i n extending church work.  They expended a l l t h e i r e f f o r t s 42  i n the bare maintenance of each small congregation  and i n the upkeep o f  "poor shabby b u i l d i n g s d i s p l e a s i n g t o the eye i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l design,... u n a t t r a c t i v e w i t h i n and without." -  1  M i n i s t e r s a l s o had t o cope w i t h a  c h r o n i c , d i s h e a r t e n i n g decrease i n numbers; a continuing l o s s of workers  31 and  young people a f f e c t e d a l l d e n o m i n a t i o n s .  44  A t t e n d a n c e showed a  45 p a r t i c u l a r d e c l i n e among t h e  men.  A l o n g w i t h church and  s c h o o l , t h e most important  of a l l r u r a l  s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e f a m i l y , s u f f e r e d under t h e impact c f the c l i n i n g r u r a l population.  The  t h e exodus t o t h e c i t i e s .  As t h e young d e s e r t e d t h e farms, t h e  de-  s i z e o f t h e r u r a l f a m i l y shrank because o f  areas were l e f t t o o l d e r p e o p l e . ^  rural  The average f a m i l y - s i z e shrank  con-  47 siderably,  and  an imbalance i n t h e  sexes r e s u l t e d from t h e l a r g e r  p r o p o r t i o n o f women l e a v i n g t h e c o u n t r y s i d e .  A male s u r p l u s o f almost  86,000 d e v e l o p e d i n ' r u r a l a r e a s , w h i l e women exceeded men  by 11,000 i n  48 the c i t i e s .  A female m a j o r i t y i n a r u r a l a r e a p r e v a i l e d o n l y i n  one  49 county ( . G r e n v i l l e ) .  The  problem o f f a r m e r - b a c h e l o r s  became a b a n d i e d -  50 about t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e r u r a l p r e s s , d i f f i c u l t y i n f e r r e t i n g out  as r u r a l b a c h e l o r s  had  suitable mates.^  (ii) Economic consequences o f d e p o p u l a t i o n d i s a s t r o u s as t h e  s o c i a l and  were c o n s i d e r e d  p o l i t i c a l r e s u l t s by t h e r u r a l  Farmers f e a r e d the growing i n s t a b i l i t y c f t h e i r b u s i n e s s . r e p o r t e d t o The bacon hog  Sun  that although  or d a i r y cow,  he  "may  almost  as  population. A farm l e a d e r  have made some money out o f  t h e farmer i s net sure o f s t a y i n g i n t h e  the  business,  52 and  t h i s u n s e t t l e d s t a t e i s working g r e a t harm f o r t h e f u t u r e . "  sense o f economic s e c u r i t y had The t h i s unease.  l e f t the  u n c e r t a i n t y of the labour  The  countryside.  s u p p l y became a gnawing source  of  R u r a l employers blamed t h e l a c k o f l a b o u r f o r a r e t r o g r e s -  s i o n i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n methods. a c u l t i v a t o r was Many a farmer was  In d e c i d i n g h i s l i n e . o f a g r i c u l t u r e ,  governed almost e n t i r e l y by h i s a b i l i t y t o get "not d i r e c t i n g h i s e n e r g i e s  i n t h e c h a n n e l s he  help. thinks  32  best or i n those f o r which h i s farm and surroundings are best adapted 53  because of t h i s one t h i n g — n o t s u f f i c i e n t help."  Agriculturists  interviewed by the press about the e f f e c t of the s c a r c i t y remarked t h a t they were forced t o give up p r o f i t a b l e operations because of t h e i r inability  t o get h i r e d help.  54  In many areas, b u i l d i n g s were abandoned  and homes s t i l l worth hundreds of thousands of d o l l a r s stood w i t h broken windows and slamming doors.  C o s t l y barns and equipment l e f t i d l e ,  rapidly  55  deteriorated.  The d r i v e of farm businessmen towards i n t e n s i v e  c u l t i v a t i o n appeared i n some respects t o have been h a l t e d . The press reported that much of the most t i l l a b l e cropland i n Ontario was  being  56  converted i n t o pasture.  Labour c o n d i t i o n s forced farmers t o abandon  the more labour-consuming  branches c f a g r i c u l t u r e such as d a i r y i n g and  market gardening where "nothing has yet been devised t o s u c c e s s f u l l y take the place of a p a i r of hands i n the weeding, p i c k i n g , marketing of 57  vegetables and i n the care and m i l k i n g of c a t t l e . " ' Orchard men had t o reconsider t h e i r type of farming as t h e i r t r e e s were attacked by diseases they could net c o n t r o l .  58  An i n c r e a s e i n l i v e s t o c k - k e e p i n g accompanied the l e s s e n i n g production of other branches. was l i m i t e d j  The land was minimally used and  expansion  moreover, the l a c k of outdoor g r a z i n g during Ontario winters  forced farmers t o s e l l surplus c a t t l e they could not a f f o r d to feed over 59  the cold season even i f p r i c e s were low.  According to one estimate,  because of the increased g r a z i n g , the value of p o s s i b l e output from the 60  land d e c l i n e d by seventy-five per cent.  Everywhere farmers  planned  t h e i r operations w i t h a view t o reducing labour t o the minimum.  "A  minimum of labour u s u a l l y means a minimum of output as w e l l , " commented a d i s g r u n t l e d farmer.  The increased ravages of insect pests which  33 accompanied the growing amount c f l a n d devoted t o g r a z i n g caused p a r t the d e c l i n e i n p r o d u c t i o n .  6l  C a t t l e ' f i n i s h e d ' on g r a s s a l o n e  also  had  not t h e q u a l i t y t o command t o p p r i c e s on t h e w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g markets. For t h o s e s t i l l  c u l t i v a t i n g t h e i r f i e l d s , the  labour  meant t h a t t h e weed n u i s a n c e a g g r a v a t e d working c o n d i t i o n s .  of  62  shortage Weeds  p r o l i f e r a t e d because farmers c o u l d not a d e q u a t e l y d e a l with,them. * by p u t t i n g h i s l a n d t o p a s t u r e  c o u l d a man  t h r o u g h h i s f i e l d s , a l t h o u g h he had  . . .  a d r o p i n h i s income.  64  c o n t r o l t h e weeds  to s a c r i f i c e a year's  In some r e s p e c t s , i n c r e a s e d  a g r i c u l t u r i s t ' s best a l t e r n a t i v e .  The  crops  Only  spreading  crops  and  suffer  g r a z i n g l a n d was  the  he d i d produce s u f f e r e d from  65 the  l a c k o f l a b o u r due  s i t u a t i o n was  to i n e f f i c i e n t  summed up by one  ashamed o f the weeds on my I am  about The  switch  c u l t i v a t i o n of the s o i l .  c u l t i v a t o r who  farm, but  remarked t h a t  I cannot h e l p i t :  The "I  am  I can get no  help;  discouraged."^ s o c i a l r e s u l t s o f the l a b o u r  s h o r t a g e r e s u l t i n g from t h e  t o g r a z i n g l a n d d e s e r v e a mention.  Due  to the increase i n  pasture-  land, bachelor  landowners c o u l d work t r a c t s o t h e r w i s e t o o l a r g e f o r them  individually.  The  land, therefore, supporting  only a f r a c t i o n of  the  67 population  i t c o u l d , added l e s s t h a n i t s h o u l d  t o the p r o v i n c i a l wealth.  F a m i l i e s t h a t attempted t o keep t h e i r l a n d i n c u l t i v a t i o n o f t e n had put t h e w i v e s , mothers and o r d e r t o make ends meet. with t h e i r parents.  daughters of the  f a r m t o work i n t h e f i e l d s i n  Boys, kept heme from s c h o o l , worked t h e  Many d i d not even  r e c e i v e a common s c h o o l  These s o c i a l r e s u l t s e x e r c i s e d a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on t h e rural  to  land education.  strained  situation. Although the  Jeremiahs foresaw d i r e consequences i f t h e  d e c l i n e were not h a l t e d , some o b s e r v e r s  rural  o f change i n farm l i f e noted t h a t  34 t h e i n a d e q u a t e and c o s t l y l a b o u r s u p p l y produced farm methods.  Wages had r i s e n tremendously  beneficial results for  and c o m p l a i n t s about  h i g h pay o f f a r m l a b o u r e r s were common i n t h e r u r a l j o u r n a l s .  the  69  This  s i t u a t i o n f o r c e d farmers t o make t h e b e s t use o f a v a i l a b l e manpower to  maintain p r o f i t s .  They d i s c o v e r e d t h a t one way  t o do t h i s was  i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r use o f a v a i l a b l e l a b o u r - s a v i n g machines. e v a l u a t e d t h e comparative c o s t o f l a b o u r v e r s u s machinery.  by  Farmers r e 70  One  farmer  f o r c e d t o adopt t h e cream s e p a r a t o r remarked t h a t : as l o n g as a h i r e d g i r l c o u l d be had f o r f i v e c r s i x d o l l a r s a month, t o make b u t t e r , l u g m i l k pans up and down s t a i r s , and skim m i l k out t o t h e b a r n , we were q u i t e c o n t e n t t o do w i t h o u t a s e p a r a t o r . Now t h a t we c a n ' t get a good g i r l under 515, we f i n d t h a t o l d way out o f t h e q u e s t i o n . We have had a cream s e p a r a t o r now f o r t e n y e a r s , s e n d i n g our cream t o a b u t t e r f a c t o r y , and i t has been a good investment i n more ways t h a n one. In  the f i e l d s , the hay-tedder,  harrows,  s e l f - b i n d e r , two  s i d e d e l i v e r y r a k e s , a l l improved  f u r r o w ploughs, f o u r - h o r s e  e f f i c i e n c y and c u t c o s t s .  T h i s equipment, w h i l e e x p e n s i v e , s t i l l c o s t l e s s t h a n i n e f f i c i e n t h e l p , o r so b e l i e v e d many a d v o c a t e s  of mechanization.  72  71  hired  Labour-saving  c o m p e t i t i o n s were h e l d by-the farm newspapers t o p o p u l a r i z e new  methods  73 of  a l l e v i a t i n g t h e s h o r t a g e i n a l l l i n e s o f f a r m work.  accumulates,"  wrote t h e e d i t o r s o f The Farmer's  "Evidence  Advocate,  t h a t t h e f a r m - l a b o r problem o f t h e p a s t decade, w h i l e a h a r d s h i p f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g has, by h a s t e n i n g t h e a d o p t i o n o f l a b o r - s a v i n g p r a c t i c e s , r e s u l t e d i n an immense, permanent u p l i f t t o t h e i n d u s t r y o f a g r i c u l t u r e , an u p l i f t which, though e n t a i l i n g u n d e n i a b l e h a r d s h i p i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n s t a t e d u r i n g which i t was b e i n g brought about, has g r e a t l y improved t h e farmer's p o s i t i o n i n t h e l o n g r u n , and w i l l y e t improve i t s t i l l f u r t h e r . ;  A f t e r a l l , i t c o n c l u d e d , "the f a r m - l a b o r problem has not been such a v e r y severe hardship t o the f o r e s i g h t e d . p r o g r e s s t h a t a r e c r u s h e d by i t . "  4  I t i s c h i e f l y t h o s e who  resist  35 These sentiments were r e a l i s t i c ,  i f not widespread.  i n c r e a s e i n t h e u s e , o f machinery had d e t r i m e n t a l s o c i a l believed others. s m a l l farms.  Mechanization  Even t h e  consequences,  p l a c e d g r e a t f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e upon  S i n c e t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s c o u l d not s u s t a i n o r generate  the  amount o f c a p i t a l r e q u i r e d f o r machinery, h o r s e s and b u i l d i n g s , mechanizat i o n p r o v i d e d an i n c e n t i v e f o r c o n s o l i d a t i n g f a r m h o l d i n g s i n t o higher, revenue-producing  units.  I f c a r r i e d t o o f a r , however, t h i s s i t u a t i o n would  r e s u l t i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a permanent c l a s s o f farm l a b o u r e r s o r t e n a n t s who  c o u l d be imported  aristocracy.  P o l i s h , I t a l i a n o r Chinese working  T h i s r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r s h o r t a g e was  f o r a landed entirely  unpala-  t a b l e t o the f a r m p r e s s s i n c e t h e c r e a t i o n o f such an a l i e n l a b o u r i n g c l a s s would c a r r y s e v e r e s o c i a l problems w i t h i t .  Tenants, f o r example,  would be a p a t h e t i c t o needed r u r a l improvements s i n c e t h e y had no  stake  i n t h e c o u n t r y , an d a r u r a l p r o l e t a r i a t would c o r r u p t t h e c o u n t r y and i t t o the l e v e l of the degenerate Another  reduce  cities.  economic consequence o f d e p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e d the  rising  76 p r i c e s f c r farm p r o d u c t s i n t h e c i t i e s and towns. the impression that  "farmers a r e r o l l i n g  unconscionable p r o f i t s  and  i n w e a l t h , "^o'egan c o m p l a i n i n g  i n t h e farm p r o d u c t s t r a d e .  a campaign by t h e r u r a l p u b l i c i s t s who c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t e d from  Urban d w e l l e r s , under  This accusation started  r e p e a t e d l y p o i n t e d out t h a t  'The P r o b l e m , which encouraged  increased farmers' c o s t s .  1  7 8  this  t h e poor methods  E d i t o r i a l s t o l d the c i t y d w e l l e r that  c o u l d blame o n l y h i m s e l f s i n c e h i s support o f p o l i c i e s which d e p o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n h i s s u f f e r i n g t h e consequences. ought t o " e x e r t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e towards i n d u c i n g men  of  7 9  he  encouraged City  readers  t o engage i n farm work,"  80 i f t h e y d e s i r e d t o h e l p i n t h e campaign t o reduce the c o s t of t h e i r  food.  The a g r i c u l t u r i s t ,  Laying  h i s j o u r n a l s emphasized, was  o n l y a scapegoat.  36 the blame on t h i s "most patient of men, the farmer, when things go wrong i n the community or when a t t e n t i o n i s t o be d i v e r t e d from the r e a l c u l p r i t s , the b i g d e a l e r s . . . " was nothing but "...uncalled f o r and shameful slander 81 ...and i n s u l t beyond endurance." In t h e i r f u r t h e r defence, countrymen declared that " i n s p i t e o f working from d a y l i g h t t o dark and making use of every device p o s s i b l e t o cut down expenditure, t h e average farmer a f t e r a l l o w i n g himself only a f a i r 82 r e t u r n f o r labor i s not making bank i n t e r e s t on h i s investment...."  The  high r a t e o f per c a p i t a l t a x a t i o n , another r e s u l t of depopulation, c o n t r i buted t o the r i s i n g r u r a l cost of l i v i n g .  Each farmer had t o pay more t o 83 support remaining r u r a l s e r v i c e s such as schools and township roads.  Farmers pleaded common cause w i t h the consumer.  E x p l o i t a t i o n by the profes-  s i o n a l l a n d l o r d who performed no s e r v i c e and made money "simply because he has c o n t r o l of a piece of land God created" r e s u l t e d i n increased costs f o r both groups.  Since the l o c a l m i l l s and s e r v i c e s had come i n t o the hands  of l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s , farmers had t o pay more f o r t h e i r raw m a t e r i a l s such .' 85 as machinery and seed.  P r i c e increases were j u s t i f i e d i n many cases  s i n c e they were "not a matter o f l i f e and death but purely a question o f a f a i r r e t u r n upon investments."  8 6  Sydney F i s h e r , M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e  i n L a u r i e r ' s cabinet, t o l d a gathering of dairymen that he was "glad that the p r i c e s of our a g r i c u l t u r a l products are so high. I am glad f o r the 87 farmers...they aid  have only come i n t o t h e i r r i g h t s . "  These statements d i d not  i n r e s t o r i n g good r e l a t i o n s among the r u r a l and urban dwellers i n  Canada.  The r i f t between town and country seemed t o widen year by year. (iii) This widening breach between the sympathies of the r u r a l and urban  population formed t h e f i n a l consequence i n a chain of r e s u l t s .  The l i n k s  i n t h i s c h a i n , as t h e r u r a l population perceived them, j o i n e d together  37 t h e i r range o f e x p e r i e n c e s ,  s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and  esteem had d e c l i n e d a l o n g w i t h t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l Canada grew controlled aliens.  as t h e farmers  both c i t y and  t h e most important  rural institutions  ?  The  population.  Fears  for  These d i r e c t  by  i n danger because o f t h e  s o c i a l consequences a f f e c t e d  population.  t o change t o accommodate t h e l a b o u r s h o r t a g e ,  o f s h o r t - c u t s and  corporations  c o u n t r y were overwhelmed  f o r school, church,  s u f f e r e d under the impact o f t h e d e c l i n i n g  direction  self-  p o l i t i c a l power o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e was  f a l l i n g p r o p o r t i o n of r u r a l population.  methods had  Rural  p r o j e c t e d a f u t u r e i n which t h e  t h e u r b a n masses and  The  economic.  and  family a l l  Economically, often i n the  inefficiency.  outcomes o f d e p o p u l a t i o n ,  as t h e contemporary p o p u l a t i o n  viewed them, f o r c e d t h e countrymen, i f not t o attempt remedies, a t l e a s t t h i n k about t h e r e a l c h a l l e n g e which c o n f r o n t e d Some o f t h e r u r a l p u b l i c i s t s , t h e a d a p t o r s ,  an a g r i c u l t u r a l  existence.  c o u l d see i n t h i s t h r e a t  i n c e n t i v e t o f o r c e t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s t o adopt u p - t o - d a t e methods. a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , however, were b e w i l d e r e d side.  The  changes i n s o c i e t y and  t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e l i f e - s t y l e which had its  settlement.  by t h e t h r e a t s a r i s i n g on  business  to  an Most  every  seemed, t o most, t o sweep away p r e v a i l e d i n the province  since  38 CHAPTER IV  .THE GUARDIANS OF THE RURAL MYTH: DESTROYERS AND BUILDERS  In  t h e eyes o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , t h e  exodus t o t h e c i t i e s brought d i s a s t r o u s consequences.  The s i t u a t i o n i n  which t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s s u f f e r e d a s s a u l t a f t e r a s s a u l t on t h e i r way o f life  f o r c e d them t o a s k t h e m s e l v e s , "Why?".  In f a c t , the questioning  i n d u c e d by d e p o p u l a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d i t s most i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t . l e a d e r s began a t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s ' o f r u r a l l i f e aimed  Opinion-  at finding the  causes and g a i n i n g an i n d i c a t i o n o f s o l u t i o n s t o h a l t t h e worsening situation. in  A l t h o u g h t h e i r arguments and d i s c u s s i o n were g e n e r a l l y  futile  s t o p p i n g t h e exodus, t h e debate p r o v i d e s i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g . I t  brought t o t h e f o r e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e c o u n t r y t o t h e m e t r o p o l i s , since t h e search f o r the t r u e authors o f depopulation l e d t o r e v e a l i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e r u r a l - u r b a n a s p e c t s o f 'The Problem. s o c i a l o r economic this  i n s t i t u t i o n s t o u c h i n g r u r a l l i f e remained  1  No  immune f r o m  scrutiny. (i) The r u r a l opinion-makers p l a c e d much o f t h e blame f o r t h e exodus  from t h e c o u n t r y s i d e on s o c i a l c a u s e s .  One o f t h e major  social  origins  as w e l l as r e s u l t s o f d e p o p u l a t i o n l a y i n t h e undermining o f t h e r u r a l myth by r u r a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  1  This decline i n agrarian  idealism  came about p a r t l y t h r o u g h t h e work o f t h e r u r a l p r e s s , t h e farm f a m i l y , the  c o u n t r y s c h o o l and t h e r u r a l c h u r c h .  The boy, one farmer  was exposed t o t h e m i s c h i e v o u s e f f e c t o f t h e c l a s s o f l i t e r a t u r e that b e l i t t l e s country l i f e . I n t o o many  remarked,  o f our papers and i s r e p r e s e n t e d as t a l e n t s amid farm h i s own o n l y upon of adventure....  books f o r young p e o p l e , t h e hero one who f i n d s no scope f o r h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s , and who comes t o l e a v i n g t h e o l d home f o r a l i f e 2  The c h i l d r e n o f t h e farmer r e a d about t h e poor l a d who financier,  became a  speculator or p o l i t i c i a n ; of the fancy dress b a l l s  g l i t t e r i n g s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s of the wealthy. concluded, t h i s was  t y p i c a l of c i t y l i f e  Mot  and  brilliant  and  u n n a t u r a l l y , t h e young  "they can h a r d l y be blamed,  i n t h e absence o f r e a l and t r u e knowledge o f many c i t y l i v e s from e n t e r taining  t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h i s apparent  s u c c e s s and  l i k e p l e a s u r e s await 3  them as soon as t h e y can j o i n t h e t h r o n g moving c i t y w a r d . " to  a i d the education of the r u r a l youth contained l i t t l e  The  but t h i s  t r a s h ' which h e l p e d o n l y t o f u r t h e r t h e breakdown o f a p r o p e r of country l i f e . ^  C i t i e s c o u l d be excused  libraries 'cheap  conception  f o r p u b l i s h i n g newspapers  which c o n s t a n t l y p o i n t e d w i t h p r i d e t o t h e g l o r i e s  of t h e i r metropolis;  but t h e i r emphasis on t h i s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s s e r v e d t h e purpose o f honey f o r flies.  The  themselves  farm p a p e r s ,  on t h e o t h e r hand which were "supposed t o  e n t i r e l y t o the interests  . c o u n t r y boy why  devote  o f t h e farmers and t o show t h e  he s h o u l d s t a y on t h e farm, a r e e d i t e d i n t h e c i t i e s and  5 by men  who  l e f t t h e c o u n t r y t o do t h e work."  At t i m e s , t h e  t u r a l j o u r n a l s p o r t r a y e d t h e farmers as p e n u r i o u s , cheap,  agricul-  contemptible  wretches. Much o f t h e c r i t i c i s m which d e s t r o y e d r u r a l i d e a l i s m and t h e d e p o p u l a t i o n c f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , i n f a c t , o r i g i n a t e d i n the t u r a l journals. being  'limited'  led to agricul-  Farm women p a r t i c u l a r l y , were t o l d t h a t t h e y must a v o i d by t h e i r c o u n t r y e x i s t e n c e and by not knowing what l a y  beyond t h e n e a r e s t hamlet.^  One  f o r much o f t h e d e b a t e complained  c o l u m n i s t whose w r i t i n g p r o v i d e d a f o c u s that the  'agricultural  i d e a l ' which  40 i m p l i e d t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l m e t i e r , had n o t f u l f i l l e d i t s function.  The t r e a t m e n t  o f t h e f a r m e r s ' wives p r o v i d e d an example,  since i n no o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a r e we o f f e r e d so g r e a t a c o n t r a s t between t h e s u p e r i o r advantages o f t h e male and t h e a c q u i e s c e n t h u m i l i t y o f t h e female.... Ko— f o r and so p o o r l y p a i d , s o c o m p l a c e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d as o n l y a c h a t t e l , a mere machine, a p o s s e s s i o n v a l u a b l e o n l y a c c o r d i n g t o h e r working and c h i l d bearing capacity. 7 The  h a r d - f i s t e d farmer  Blewett  c o u l d do l i t t l e  portrayed i n the r u r a l press by n o v e l i s t  Jean  t o persuade g i r l s t o s t a y i n r u r a l a r e a s .  He  seldom had t h e g r a c e t o d i e young a n d " l e t h i s p a l e , s o f t - h e a r t e d w i f e wear weeds.  O f t e n e r , he wore t h e w i f e out and when she was sound a s l e e p  under t h e g r a n i t e s h a f t - - t h e r e a l l y handsome g r a n i t e s h a f t — t o o k  another 8  who...proceeded t o spend h i s money and make him 'toe t h e mark ...." 1  Farmers' d a u g h t e r s ,  a c c o r d i n g t o some w r i t e r s , f a r e d l i t t l e  better than  t h e i r mothers and a l s o spent t h e i r l i v e s "working, p l a n n i n g monotonously, f a i t h f u l l y , g r a d u a l l y l o s i n g s i g h t o f a l l o u t s i d e t h e narrow h o r i z o n o f her d u t i e s , " s i n c e " l i t t l e The  farmer  showed h i m s e l f i n t h e eyes o f t h e s e w r i t e r s t o be not  only a hard-hearted, for  c f reward o r o f romance e n t e r s h e r own l i f e . " ^  s e l f i s h man, but a boor who had next t o no r e g a r d  t h e s o c i a l graces admired by a l l women.  The p r e s s r e p e a t e d  a tale  about t h e farm w i f e who had j u s t c l e a n e d h e r house when h e r husband ' r e e k i n g o f t h e s t a b l e ' came i n t o t h e p a r l o r t o t r a n s a c t b u s i n e s s .  In-  s t e a d o f g o i n g t o h i s desk t o w r i t e , he shoved back "the n i c e l y - a r r a n g e d c o v e r o f t h e t a b l e , " upset  a bouquet o f f l o w e r s , water and a l l , t o r e up  s e v e r a l s h e e t s o f paper, and i g n o r i n g t h e wastepaper b a s k e t , threw them broadcast  o y e r t h e floor."""  0  A n o t h e r countryman might show h i s uncouth  n a t u r e by s l e e p i n g w i t h h i s t r o u s e r s over h i s head. woman h a v i n g  "Imagine a s e n s i t i v e  a nosegay l i k e t h a t i n h e r bedroom, l e t a l o n e a t h e r v e r y nose J "  41 exclaimed a h o r r i f i e d neighbour. h a v i n g s a t and watched cut  O t h e r men s p i t  on t h e s t o v e f e n d e r a f t e r  t h e i r wives c l e a n i t , o r t o o k seed p o t a t o e s out and  them on-the k i t c h e n t a b l e , c r moved t h e i r egg i n c u b a t o r i n t o t h e bed-  room, o r changed appeared  t h e i r underwear once a y e a r .  " t o be t h e c h i e f accomplishment  Generally, the a g r i c u l t u r i s t  failed  c o u r t e s i e s a l l women e n j o y e d .  Swearing, noted a n u r s e ,  o f a good many s o - c a l l e d m e n . "  11  c o m p l e t e l y t o p r o v i d e t h e elementary  E v e r y farmer's d a u g h t e r " s e e i n g t h e d e f e r e n -  t i a l c o u r t e s y a c c o r d e d by t h e w e l l - b r e d c i t y man t o h i s l a d y companion, who t a k e s i t so n a t u r a l l y and u n c o n s c i o u s l y as a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e , f e e l s a lump r i s e t o h e r t h r o a t and a m i s t t o h e r eyes, t h a t such t h i n g s a r e n o t 12 for  her."  L i t t l e wonder, t h e s e a r t i c l e s s u g g e s t e d , fewer ;*omen t h a n men  stayed i n t h e countryside. Most farm j o u r n a l s , proud o f t h e s u c c e s s c f t h e 'sons o f t h e s o i l ' who had l e f t t h e farms and made names f o r themselves i n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s , p u b l i s h e d many s t o r i e s about t h e s e men.  The aim o f t h e a r t i c l e s , t o show  how r u r a l c h i l d h o o d gave everyone an advantage, c o u l d not but be s u b v e r t e d to  g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t f o r t u n e s were w a i t i n g i n t h e c i t i e s t o be  g a t h e r e d i n by most c o u n t r y b o y s .  President  James M i l l s  o f O.A.C. asked  an a u d i e n c e a t t h e Guelph W i n t e r F a i r "where a l l our l e a d e r s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l , i n d u s t r i a l and commercial l i f e of  t h e country?  come from?  I s i t n o t from t h e farms  Where t h e n , do t h e b r a i n s come from t h a t l e a d i n t h e  13 avenues thr  of trade?"  W.E.H. Massey p r o v i d e d an example, remarked  r u r a l j o u r n a l s , o f a farm boy who • •  rural origins.  1  and who never f o r g o t h i s  14 J. J. Hill,  t h e U. S. r a i l r o a d magnate was a l s o known t o  be t h e son o f an O n t a r i o farm. '' 1  in  'made i t  upon i n  These s h i n i n g examples were complemented  The Canadian Countryman by a s e r i e s o f a d d r e s s e s each week by prominent  men d i s c u s s i n g t h e v a l u e o f t h e v a r i o u s , urban, o c c u p a t i o n s . ^ 1  42 George C. Creelman o f C.A.C., i n t e r e s t e d i n a s i m i l a r s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s for  t h e s t u d e n t s o f h i s c o l l e g e , asked J . S. V J i l l i s o n , e d i t o r o f t h e 17  T o r o n t o News f o r h e l p i n s e c u r i n g s p e a k e r s . The pa p e r s p o i n t e d out t h a t n o t o n l y businessmen, but a l s o many c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s o r i g i n a t e d from c o n c e s s i o n l i n e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e .  In-  c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were P r o f e s s o r Adam S h o r t t o f Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , and t h e P r e s i d e n t o f V i c t o r i a U n i v e r s i t y , R. P. Eowles, who " s t i l l a l o y a l 13 son o f t h e s o i l " would have chosen f a r m i n g as h i s 'second' p r o f e s s i o n . R u r a l men dominated p u b l i c l i f e . W i l f r i d L a u r i e r and S i r Robert of  Borden p r o v i d e d examples f o r r u r a l  t h e g r e a t number o f farm-bred  called  The c a b i n e t s o f Wcodrow W i l s o n , S i r  politicians.  In the United States, Wilson  a l l but one c o u n t r y - b o r n men t o h i s C a b i n e t .  Canadian  Of t h e members i n t h e  C a b i n e t o f 1913, a l l but one had been r a i s e d i n r u r a l  Of t h e P r o v i n c i a l P r e m i e r s  youth  sections.  o f t h e age n o t one had been b o r n i n a c i t y .  These examples p o i n t e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t "a c h i l d h o o d spent next t o n a t u r e i n c u l c a t e d more o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s t h a t l e a d t o g r e a t n e s s t h a n do  19 c h i l d h o o d days spent i n t h e r u s h and r o a r o f t h e c i t y . "  These s t o r i e s  must have proven a s e f f e c t i v e i n l u r i n g boys from t h e farms as t h e a r t i c l e s about  t h e l a c k o f s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s were i n a t t r a c t i n g g i r l s t o t h e c i t i e s . Not  o n l y t h e newspapers, however, f a i l e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e ' r i g h t '  a t t i t u d e t o a g r i c u l t u r e ; many farmers a l s o l a c k e d a b e l i e f i n t h e i r occupation.  They e i t h e r d e s e r t e d i t f o r t h a t r e a s o n or f a i l e d t o imbue  t h e i r o f f s p r i n g w i t h t h e t y p e o f enthusiasm p e o p l e t o remain on t h e farm.  t h a t would encourage t h e young  Some a g r i c u l t u r i s t s f e l t t h a t " i n some way  a g r i c u l t u r e i s degrading", and t h a t t h e c u l t i v a t o r o f t h e s o i l ought t o d e f e r t o and seek t h e f a v o u r o f -the p r o f e s s i o n a l men. group t o o much "as l i t t l e grovelled at t h e i r feet.  He t r e a t e d  this  gods," t e n d e r e d them t h e h i g h e s t p l a c e s and Farmers, by not u p h o l d i n g t h e ' d i g n i t y o f t h e i r  c a l l i n g ' , a l s o c r e a t e d a f e e l i n g o f u n r e s t i n t h e minds o f t h e i r Farmers' sons c o n s t a n t l y heard a g r i c u l t u r e spoken o f as "an elbows, a m b i t i o n l e s s s o r t o f b u s i n e s s . " "If  I had my  out-at-the  F r e q u e n t l y , a countryman s a i d ,  l i f e t o l i v e over a g a i n , I would n e v e r be a farmer;  go t o s c h o o l and of  22  children.  e n t e r one o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . "  I would  Farmers spoke l o n g i n g l y  t h e day when t h e y c o u l d r e t i r e t o t h e town w i t h enough money t o  comfortably.  23  They thought  t r a v a i l o f t h e c i t y m a n was Farmer's  o f a g r i c u l t u r e o n l y as d r u d g e r y w h i l e  easy i n comparison.  24  "What," demanded  live the The  Advocate. a r e t h e sons o f t h e s e men l i k e l y t o t h i n k o f t h e i r f a t h e r s ' occupation? Are t h e y l i k e l y , a f t e r h a v i n g t h i s sentiment i n s t i l l e d i n t o them from t h e c r a d l e up t o a h i g h s c h o o l age t o show any g r e a t r e s p e c t for agriculture?.... The c h i l d n a t u r a l l y b e l i e v e s t h e parent i s r i g h t i n h i s or her e s t i m a t i o n of the c a l l i n g engaged i n . . . . 25  These young p e o p l e had a l l that g l i t t e r s . "  "no knowledge o f t h e w o r l d , and a c c e p t as g o l d  L i k e many o t h e r c y n i c a l s o u l s , t h e f a r m e r  stopped  b e l i e v i n g i n h i s o c c u p a t i o n , c o n v i n c e d t h a t "he a l o n e bore a l l t h i s earth's burdens....  The man  b e h i n d t h e plow appeared  t o have no  friends,  26 he was in  left  alone."  Few  r u r a l homes had  exerted a r a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e  t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a wholesome a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c o u n t r y l i f e because t h e  parents themselves  d i d not f e e l i t , except h a l f - h e a r t e d l y . T h i s l a c k o f  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a farm l i f e , b e l i e v e d many r u r a l p u b l i c i s t s , was 27 strongest r e p e l l i n g f o r c e i n the r u r a l A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , complained  this  communities." same group o f c r i t i c s , had  t h e i r i d e a l i s m s h o r t by a c c e p t i n g t h e growing commercial s p i r i t age.  "the  sold  of the  They became b e l i e v e r s i n t h e p r e v a i l i n g " g o s p e l o f s u c c e s s " w h i c h  preached  that popular  a c c l a i m g r e e t e d o n l y t h o s e who gained "money and 28  t h e power t h a t goes w i t h t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f w e a l t h . " a c q u i s i t i o n had  become u n i m p o r t a n t ,  The means o f  o n l y t h e p o s s e s s i o n of v a s t  riches  44  mattered.  The disease had infected the whole urban population, for the  working man i n the cities pursued material goods with as much vigour as 29  the financier.  Farmers, also debilitated, had become too money-hungry  to esteem their occupation properly. They just drudged "away from morning t i l l night, from day unto day, year unto year, with one aim i n 30 view, i.e. to make money...."  Infected with this spirit i n the rural  home, the youth could see that other occupations than farming provided a better opportunity for the rapid acquisition of the money he had been taught to esteem. He preferred to take his chance i n the city rather than 31 "follow the slower surer path of agriculture."^  W. C. Good told the  Dominion Grange that this unhealthy attitude on the part of the countrymen themselves partially explained depopulation by their contribution to the "unhealthy commercialism  of America with i t s lowering of ideals, i t s 32 sensation-seeking and i t s tendencies to luxuriousness and display." Not only were the home and press attacked by those wishing to stop the exodus, but the rural school system also suffered criticism for its adverse influence on the young people's outlook.  "It i s not exag-  gerating very much," believed the editor of The Farmer's Advocate," to say that about a l l that an ill-conceived school system could do to depopulate the rural d i s t r i c t s has been done by ours i n the older provinces 33 of Canada."  Some journals used up their space to emphasize that the  "much-lauded" school system possessed lamentable tendencies to draw people away from the land, to f i l l towns and cities at the expense of the rural districts and to overcrowd professional and c l e r i c a l employments.  This  result was especially shameful since education was particularly important 35 to country children. Rural f e couldto lead towards the a narrow should be trained to use hisl icapacity appreciate rural outlook. l i f e style. Because the farmer often had only his own mental resources to rely on he  45 The whole c o u r s e o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s s c h o o l system l e d i t s studentsi n t o h i g h e r echelons then, f i n a l l y ,  o f study:  from p u b l i c t o h i g h s c h o o l , t o u n i v e r s i t y ;  i n t o a p r o f e s s i o n away from a g r i c u l t u r e .  This educational  l a d d e r , b e l o v e d by t h e t h e o r i s t s i n t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n , had s t o p l e a d i n g away from a g r i c u l t u r e i f t h e farm l i f e were t o be  to  preserved  36 from complete d e s t r u c t i o n .  A d e l a i d e Hunter H o o d l e s s ,  the  education  r e f o r m e r and Women's I n s t i t u t e p i o n e e r , commented t h a t t h e p u b l i c system had  school  "sapped t h e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s o f many o f t h e i r b r i g h t e s t and most  v a l u a b l e members.  J u s t so soon as a boy o r g i r l d i s c o v e r s a s p e c i a l  apti-  t u d e f o r t e x t - b o o k w o r k — a n d c o u n t r y l i f e r a t h e r conducts t o a more r e t e n t i v e m e m o r y — f i n d i n g themselves  a t t h e head o f an e x a m i n a t i o n  t h e y become c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i r i n t e l l e c t  list;  i s on t h e genius o r d e r and  they  37 a r e d e s t i n e d t o s h i n e as b r i g h t p r o f e s s i o n a l  lights."  The changes needed t o c o u n t e r a c t t h i s c i t y b i a s i n t h e s c h o o l system would be d i f f i c u l t o u t l i n e d by c i t y men,  trained  to achieve.  the text-books  course o f study  prepared by c i t y men,  was  the t e a c h e r 38  i n a c i t y Normal S c h o o l by i n s p e c t o r s w i t h c i t y i d e a l s .  whole c u r r i c u l u m , many b e l i e v e d , was It  The  public  too  'bookish' and  The  'professional.'  e x t o l l e d v i r t u e s a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h o s e needed on t h e farm.  I t pro-  moted m i l i t a r i s m , f o r example, and a l s o " s c h o l a r s h i p and p e d a n t r y , l a t e r . . . p r o f e s s i o n a l employment and emprise."  f i n a l l y . . . m e r c a n t i l e and  ment throughout  on realms  preference f o r sedentary  only the  I t d i s s o c i a t e d t h e s t u d e n t from manual employ-  the impressionable years of h i s s c h o o l days.  c e n t r i n g the ambitions  then  industrial  D e a l i n g as i t d i d w i t h books and b c o k l o r e , i t developed  mind and n e v e r t h e muscle.  was  of e f f o r t  This led to  p e c u l i a r t o t h e town and t o a  occupations.^  T e s t i m o n i a l s i n t h e columns o f t h e farm p r e s s c o n f i r m e d e x t e n t o f t h e b e l i e f i n t h i s a c c u s a t i o n among f a r m e r - r e a d e r s .  the One  farmer's  46 son reported that he went home from school " f i l l e d with a positive loathing for what seemed to me to be the undesirable drudgery of farm work. There was nothing i n that course of study, as I remember i t , that inspired me to look with favor on the farm or the farmer, yet that was the impressionable time of my l i f e . " ^  When success was achieved by those of rural  origin, the press always attributed i t to education.  This reinforced the  prestige of the city-oriented education system in the eyes of those whose minds i t was directing.^  1  The individual teacher in the rural school also contributed to the glamourization of city occupations.  A teacher brought to her class-  roon "an impression that the farm is a good place for a l l the clever children to get away from i f possible.  So she encourages the brightest  of them to secure an education and become 'something better than a 1  farmer."  A survey made of the staff of one of the farm journals discovered  that not one of the members could r e c a l l ever being encouraged by his teacher to educate himself especially for farm l i f e .  Whenever a teacher  appealed . to ambition, he aimed at promoting more education and rousing  42 a child to 'do better' than his parents.  "Go back readerJ," urged one  article ...to the old school. You probably studied under half a dozen different teachers or mere. Did ever one of them uphold farming or manual labor? Did they not incite you to study by holding up the prospect of a job without hard work? Our schools have been saturated with the pernicious idea that education was a means of avoiding physical exertion, a means by which the son might rise above the station of his parents. The father was 'only' a farmer or 'only' a day-labourer, or jonly' a mechanic as the case might be. The son i f he was clever aspired ^3 to something 'better' and was encouraged in this ambition. The teacher, in many cases, could not be expected to do otherwise for  she was generally "a young person who has spent a l l her l i f e among  brick walls and.sidewalks, dumped a l l at once into a country section."  47 She could not prevent herself from being out of harmony with her new environment.  She would be homesick, not like country ways, unable to  see anything ' i n farming and "in ninety-nine out of one hundred cases 1  doesn't know enough about nature study to be interested even i n that." Teachers, many c r i t i c s believed, showed only their discontent with their jobs.  At the f i r s t opportunity, most would apply for positions in town  44 or city schools or else would leave the profession altogether.  They  had net been trained to work in the rural sections. They a l l learned their teaching methods in the urban environment where the Normal schools had been established; they did not learn such prosaic daily chores as lighting the stoves in the rural schools where there was no caretaker. There was l i t t l e doubt in the mind of ruralists that "the rural-school teacher has much to gain by getting his training under conditions not too remote from those where his work is to be done." To effect any change in attitude on the part of the pupils, there was l i t t l e doubt that reform would have to be founded on a different system of teacher training in the public schools,  45  •, 47 classes.  46  as well as better buildings  and larger specialized  The higher educational systems did l i t t l e to correct this early bias of rural education. cities.  High schools were located in the towns and  Any country children who went cn to this level had to go into  the town at the immature age of 12 cr 13 years and were early weaned away 48 from country ways.  Very few returned to the farm, reported the Depart-  49 ment of Education.  Anti-high school feeling, very pronounced in some  articles, led to at least one recommendation that the number of high schools be reduced.^  Disgruntled farmers felt that the high schools and  universities pointed the way  48 t o t h e s u r g e r y , t o t h e chemist's l a b o r a t o r y , t o t h e mine, t o t h e p u l p i t , t o t h e b a r o r t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e h a l l , but i n how many cases i s t h e r e a s e r i o u s e f f o r t made t o t e a c h t h e students t h e wealth o f t h e sunswept v a l l e y and meadow, and t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t comes t o mind and heart and f o r t u n e by a p u r s u i t o f a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e most a n c i e n t as i t remains t h e most honorable o f t h e a r t s ? 51 Even t h e most a g r i c u l t u r e - o r i e n t e d o f t h e s c h o o l s i n O n t a r i o , The O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , was c r i t i c i s e d  f o r t h e tendency o f i t s  graduates t o accept  jobs i n p o s i t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d  with  field  One joke making t h e rounds i n t h e r u r a l p r e s s  reported  cultivation.  t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n o f two farmers, Hiram:  as f o l l o w s :  Has your son g i v e n up farming?  Obadiah:  I guess s o . He's a t t e n d i n ' one o f them a g r i c u l t u r a l colleges i n the c i t y .  52  In t h i s c a s e , however, a s p i r i t e d d e f e n c e o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e was put forward  b y P r o f e s s o r Reynolds o f t h e C o l l e g e (who l a t e r  became i t s p r e s i d e n t ) .  He admitted  for  t h a t a t t e n d i n g O.A.C. ' u n f i t s ' a man  farm work, because i t opens h i s eyes t o t h e o t h e r modes o f l i f e  a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h an a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n .  At t h e same t i m e , many  g r a d u a t e s o f O.A.C. d i d b e t t e r work f o r a g r i c u l t u r e o u t s i d e t h e f i e l d s as t e a c h e r s , l e a d e r s and d e m o n s t r a t o r s . graduate,  Reynolds p o i n t e d out t h a t f o r a  "O.A.C. opens h i s eyes t o t h e d i s a b i l i t i e s o f farming."  The  blame, t h e r e f o r e , f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n c f most c o l l e g e t r a i n e d farmers away from t h e farm l i e s  " n o t i n t h e e d u c a t i o n he has r e c e i v e d , b u t i n t h e  c o n d i t i o n s o f farm  life."  53  O t h e r l e v e l s o f t h e s c h o o l system gained a measure o f d e f e n c e a g a i n s t c r i t i c i s m o f t h e i r p l a c e as causes o f d e p o p u l a t i o n .  Of a l l t h e  arguments used t o search f o r and e x p l a i n t h e causes c f t h e d e c l i n i n g countryside,.blaming  e d u c a t i o n was " t o s a y t h e l e a s t , t h e most i g n o b l e and  49 groundless," declared one r u r a l commentator.  " I f farming does not allow  developed a b i l i t y or permit the mind to be so trained that i t may appreciate and value the accomplishments of high minds i n the l i t e r a r y or s c i e n t i f i c world, i t i s not to be recommended to the ambitious  youth."  54  "Personally," reminisced one r u r a l woman," I do not believe that the teacher i s one-half—no, not one tenth as responsible i n t h i s matter as the general home atmosphere. Locking back over my own primary school days, spent wholly i n a country school, and with a number of teachers, I cannot remember one sentence nor one impression from that school that could possibly have prejudiced me against the r u r a l l i f e . As c h i l d r e n we spent our time on reading, w r i t i n g , arithmetic, geography, h i s t o r y , and grammar, with a l i t t l e drawing and a few L a t i n roots thrown i n . I have wished many a time since that the L a t i n roots had been v a s t l y increased i n number. We needed every one of the things taught. The curriculum was none too bread to give the breadth of mind that even children need, and I f o r one have not the least sympathy with those who wish to oust h i s t o r y and grammar from the public school curriculum. 55 The aim of the schools ought not t o be to teach country c h i l d r e n to be farmers and urban c h i l d r e n to be professionals.  This s o l u t i o n would only  increase the already e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n between the two populations. schools ought to be arranged  so that a c h i l d , no matter where he  classes, could follow such courses of study that he could enter  The  attended any  profession. The country preacher.was c r i t i c i z e d f o r h i s lack of agrarian idealism.  The urban-centred  nature of the problems which occupied  the  thoughts of most of the churchmen l e f t the country church outside the major consideration of most denominations.  The minister no longer served  as an example of dedicated r u r a l i s m to those debating whether to remain i n the country or to move to the c i t y  because he quite often led the  57 parade away from the hamlets.  The minority championing r u r a l causes  accused the majority of being one-sided  in i t s interests.  "The men  who  50 m i n i s t e r i n our c i t i e s a r e r a t e d h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e i n t h e c o u n t r y , even though men  i n t h e c o u n t r y may  c l a s s e s , " t h e y complained.  have had t h e h i g h e s t r a t i n g i n c o l l e g e  F u r t h e r , t h e " r e p o r t s o f advances through t h e  Laymen's M i s s i o n a r y Movement a r e g e n e r a l l y w r i t t e n from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f 58 a c i t y or town c h u r c h . "  The c h u r c h l e a d e r s , u s u a l l y c i t y men,  m i s s i o n from t h a t p o i n t o f view. and c i t y - b r e d . "  saw  their  The c h u r c h e s ' p o l i c i e s were " c i t y - b o r n  The c o u n t r y c h u r c h e s , r e g a r d e d as b e i n g m e r e l y o f  secondary importance, were expected t o a c c e p t t h e p o l i c y o f t h e churches and t o adopt  city  such p o l i c i e s as b e s t t h e y c o u l d .  The r u r a l m i n i s t e r , l i k e t h e t e a c h e r , t o o o f t e n t o o k t h e c o u n t r y charge with' r e l u c t a n c e . a b i g c i t y church.  H i s hope was  t h a t one day he would be c a l l e d  H i s sermons were prepared and  t h e g r e a t e r f u t u r e he f e l t he d e s e r v e d . s o j o u r n e r among t h e c o u n t r y p e o p l e .  preached w i t h a view t o  He r e g a r d e d h i m s e l f o n l y as a  The c i t y was  h i s home; he b u s i e d  h i m s e l f w i t h c i t y problems so t h a t h i s c h u r c h a c t i v i t i e s aped c i t y activities. for  I n t h e meantime, he f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e t h e f i n e  s e r v i c e i n t h e . r u r a l community.  out o f t o u c h w i t h h i s p a r i s h . ference f o r c i t y l i f e .  church  opportunities  Such a p r e a c h e r scon found h i m s e l f  O f t e n , he would d i r e c t l y e x p r e s s h i s p r e -  A p o s s i b l y apocryphal s t o r y recounted the t a l e o f  t h e m i n i s t e r who  questioned a Sunday-school  occupations.  "praised the f i r s t  He  c l a s s about t h e i r c h o i c e c f  f o r h i s d e s i r e t o be a f a r m e r , but  t o l d the second h i s d e s i r e t o be a t e a c h e r was b e t t e r and t h e t h i r d 5° his  d e s i r e t o be a m i n i s t e r v;as b e s t o f a l l . "  h i n d e r e d any r e f o r m i n t h i s a t t i t u d e because  '  t h i n k I am  embittered  that  The t h e o l o g i c a l c o l l e g e s  i n the t r a i n i n g of  p r e a c h e r s t h e y c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d t h e problems unique t o r u r a l One  to  correspondent r e p o r t e d t o t h a t p r e s s :  new life.  6o  " I do not  f a r wrong when I say t h a t t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e s , t h e Farmers  I n s t i t u t e s , and t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l P r e s s , a r e d o i n g f a r more f o r t h e  51 s a l v a t i o n o f Canada, t h a n a l l t h e m i n i s t e r s o f a l l t h e churches we have." Churches ought t c be reminded t h a t  i f i t were not f o r farmers and t h e i r  f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , t h e y would be i n s e r i o u s t r o u b l e . ^ ~  As much o f  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f c r t h e d e c l i n e i n t h e a g r a r i a n s e l f - e s t e e m resulted  i n depopulation  which  c o u l d be l a i d a t t h e f e e t o f t h e c h u r c h as c o u l d  62 be a t t r i b u t e d t o any o t h e r  institution. (ii)  The  r u r a l press,  s c h o o l , church and f a m i l y , a l l s u f f e r e d condem-  nation f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the decrease i n r u r a l self-respect.  This decline i n self-esteem  p r i d e and i n c r e a s e d  led to a f a l l  i n occupational  t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t any f a r m e r a c c e p t i n g  c i s m would move t c t h e c i t y .  T h i s cause o f d e p o p u l a t i o n ,  the a g r i c u l t u r a l o p i n i o n - l e a d e r s ,  this  criti-  i n t h e eyes o f  suggested i t s own remedy.  Publicists  w i t h ' a c c e s s t o t h e i m p e r s o n a l c h a n n e l s c f communication shewed t h r o u g h • t h e i r published  expressions  a g r a r i a n mythology.  a t h o r o u g h awareness o f t h e need t o shore up  Writers  l e d g e o f t h e need t o i n s t i l l  i n t h e i r a r t i c l e s demonstrated t h e i r knowf e e l i n g s i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l populace which  63 would make them u n w i l l i n g t o l e a v e  i t f o r a n o t h e r urban p r o f e s s i o n .  T h e i r remedy, 'showing t h e f a c t s as t h e y a r e '  c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h  reasserting the traditional philosophical j u s t i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l life. The consisted  approach, used b y t h e promoters o f an a g r a r i a n w o r l d view,  o f an u n r e m i t t i n g  from an urban v i e w p o i n t .  c r i t i c i s m o f t h o s e who a t t a c k e d  rural  life  I f any u r b a n businessman, housewife, or newspaper  d a r e d t o comment upon c o n d i t i o n s echoed from t h e r u r a l p r e s s .  i n the countryside,  prompt condemnation  The c r i t i c i s m would be r o u n d l y  coming from an i n t e r f e r i n g nobody who presumed t o g i v e a d v i c e p o s i t i o n o f ignorance, and f a l s e s u p e r i o r i t y .  condemned a s from a  An example o f t h i s t y p e o f  52 j o u r n a l i s t i c scorn stated t h a t the offending views were "the product of a b r a i n whose s t o r e of knowledge...is very l i m i t e d indeed, and might be such as one would acquire by spending a few days w i t h some f o u r t h r a t e farmer...."^ Farming formed the foundation of a l l wealth and p r o s p e r i t y  ?  r e i t e r a t e d the speeches, poems, e d i t o r i a l s and a r t i c l e s published by the press.  E. C. Drury, f o r example, t o l d the assembled a g r i c u l t u r i s t s at  the Dominion Grange that "we b e l i e v e t h a t our n a t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g demands a steady increase i n the numbers and p r o s p e r i t y of our a g r i c u l t u r a l c l a s s , as the only sure foundation of a l l other forms of p r o s p e r i t y . . . . " ^ 5 Farmers provided by the major market f o r the world's manufactured goods and much c f the raw m a t e r i a l s which kept the c i t y c a p i t a l i s t and workman i n business. explained:  P o s i t i v e t h i n k i n g p r e v a i l e d , as one r u r a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r "The nineteenth century was the century of the town, but the  twentieth century w i l l be the century of the country.... the only i n d u s t r y capable of u n l i m i t e d  " Farming was  expansion.  A f a v o u r i t e and often-repeated  s t o r y t o l d how the young immigrant  l a d who came t o Canada t o work on the farm saved h i s money f r u g a l l y f o r a few years so t h a t he could make a down-payment on a few acres of h i s Labouring under the great disadvantage of a huge mortgage, but  own.  undeterred  by a d v e r s i t y , he cleared himself from debt i n a few years and,expanding h i s operations, b u i l t himself a bigger house and barns.  The f i n a l paragraph,  accompanied by a p i c t u r e c f h i s magnificent acres, t o l d how he had set up h i s sons w i t h s i m i l a r farms around h i s own and ended h i s days the p a t r i a r c h 68 of a large c l a n of contented dull possibilities in  farmers.  This c r e a t i v i t y contrasted t o the  manufacturing.  This a t t i t u d e led e a s i l y i n t o the next j u s t i f i c a t i o n included i n the b e l i e f s of the r u r a l population.  A g r i c u l t u r e , i n t h a t i t predicated  53 itself  on D i v i n e n a t u r a l law, was unique  t h e C r e a t o r as t h e f i r s t  s i n c e i t had. been " s e t a p a r t by  of a l l callings."  w i t h God and n a t u r e i n p r o d u c i n g f o o d .  6 9  C u l t i v a t o r s became p a r t n e r s  As a r e s u l t , a g r i c u l t u r e p r o v i d e d  t h e g r e a t e s t s a t i s f a c t i o n i n l i f e , much g r e a t e r than any o f f e r e d by t r a d e and  commerce.  artificial to  Unnaturalness  marked t h e l i f e o f t h e townsman^ f o r t h e  c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e i n t h e c i t y f o r c e d men t o work a l l n i g h t and  s l e e p a l l d a y " r e v e r s i n g t h e order o f t h i n g s as n a t u r e  intended."  70  U n c o n s c i o u s l y , c i t y d w e l l e r s showed i n t h e i r d e s i r e t o move t o t h e l a n d t h a t t h e y r e a l i z e d t h e i r l i v e s were d i s t o r t e d . i n v o l v e d i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s and seasons t h e town.  71  A g r i c u l t u r i s t s became  o f n a t u r e i n ways undreamed o f i n  Almost e n d l e s s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f r u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s  agricultural journalsj  a r t i c l e s r h a p s o d i z e d over t h e c o u n t r y  "where e v e r y b i r d p u t s f o r t h i t s sweetest  sunsets  s t r a i n o f music and e v e r y b r e a t h  i s f i l l e d w i t h the s c e n t o f new-mown hay...." forced i t s e l f  f i l l e d the  72  The c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e c i t y  73 i n t o each scene. ^  Innumerable other advantages sprang from t h e p r a c t i c e o f such a natural profession.  E c o n o m i c a l l y independent,  t h e countrymen c o u l d a s s e r t  w i t h a degree o f p r i d e t h a t t h e y had not "deigned t o accept a b o u n t y from the p u b l i c treasury."74  R u r a l areas maintained  a constant standard of 75  l i v i n g more e a s i l y t h a n t h e c i t i e s  w i t h t h e i r boom and bust atmosphere.  R e m i n i s c i n g about t h e d e p r e s s i o n s o f t h e 1890's, one o l d - t i m e r remarked t h a t Canadian years. he  farmers f e l t  l i t t l e o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n , t h e worst  i n forty  "How many a g r i c u l t u r i s t s were pinched f o r t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e ? "  asked-. Without f e a r o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n , I say n e t one. The farmer s a t down every day t o h i s u s u a l f a r e , t h e b e s t t h a t t h i s e a r t h can a f f o r d . . . . Ko one c o u l d f e e l by looking at the w e l l - f e d , sturdy-looking, s e l f - s a t i s f i e d a g r i c u l t u r i s t t h a t he was a t t h a t moment p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e g r e a t e s t d e p r e s s i o n , perhaps, t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e  54 had ever seen.. I t made t h i s d i f f e r e n c e t o him, and t h i s o n l y . K i s bank account d i d not i n c r e a s e so r a p i d l y . 7 6 Economic independence formed o n l y one  side cf a t r i a n g l e .  thought and  Farmers c o u l d , e x p l a i n e d  a c t i o n composed a n o t h e r .  Freedom o f John  Dryden, O n t a r i o M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , w h i s t l e when t h e y l i k e ; t h e y r u n when t h e y l i k e ; t h e y y e l l when the;/ l i k e ; t h e y a r e not under t h e c o n t r o l o f our c i t y b r e t h r e n . . . . I t would v e r y s t r a n g e t o see me r u n down Yonge S t r e e t on a f u l l run. Everybody would wonder what would happen and I would have a p o l i c e m a n a f t e r me, but you, gentlemen, on y o u r farms a r e used t o t h i s s o r t o f independence, and you do not l i k e c r i t i c i s m , you r e s e n t i t mere t h a n anyone e l s e . 77 The  g r e a t e s t independent p o l i t i c a l movement i n O n t a r i o , t h e P a t r o n s  Industry,was based i n r u r a l a r e a s .  Farmers were not always  of  'hidebound  .78 partisans  and were a source  Rural l i f e  provided  o f Canada's independent p o l i t i c a l t h i n k e r s .  a c o n t r a s t t o the u n c e r t a i n t y of l i f e  c i t i e s according t o the a g r a r i a n i d e a l .  The  ' t r u e ' p i c t u r e o f urban-  d w e l l i n g would have been enough t o s c a r e any.farmer's son i n t o on h i s f a t h e r ' s a c r e s .  O n l y an e x c e p t i o n a l man  ( a l b e i t he was  r a i s e d on a f a r m ) , and  b o r n and  i n the  remaining  succeeded i n t h e o n l y a f t e r he had  city laboured  79  l o n g and  arduously.  O r d i n a r y vrorkers l e d unpleasant  s t r e n u o u s l y but v a i n l y f o r advancement. employer c o n s t i t u t e d one position. power and  lives,  \>rorking  V u l n e r a b i l i t y t o t h e whims o f h i s  of the greatest r e a l t h r e a t s t o a  labourer's  Farm and D a i r y p o i n t e d cut t h a t t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s r e a l i z e d t h a t "a s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s  their  must be e s t a b l i s h e d i n a town or  80 c i t y where l a b o r i s e a s i l y o b t a i n e d  and  can be f i r e d  v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s theme found t h e i r way c o u n t r y boy,  i n t o the r u r a l p r e s s .  drawn t o t h e c i t y by t h e p r o s p e c t  a h o s p i t a l from overwork. t h e farm c o u l d  at w i l l . "  Repeated One  of wealth, died alone  in  T h i s s t o r y proved t h e m o r a l t h a t " i f boys  on  only r e a l i z e the awful  s t r u g g l e f o r a -mere e x i s t e n c e i n a  55 great city, they would hesitate about paying the price.  If only they 81  knew that eighty per cent of the city workmen become mere machines... 1" Other publicized examples recounted how a townsman after labouring for fifteen years did net make enough even to pay for his house, or told of the  l i f e of the urban man pursuing "the deadly routine i n blind-alley 82  offices, tied to a treadmill existence and unable to get away from i t . " The girls who left their comfortable rural homes to work i n the city did not face an easier time than their brothers.  A g i r l depended on  her landlady's good graces for many cf the conveniences offered on the 83  farm as a matter of course. ^ Female factory workers degraded themselves and regressed i n the social evolution of womanhood. "It i s i n vain that these women may bedizen themselves with either cheap or costly finery.... Without the stability and refining influence of home life...there can be no real social uplifting...nothing i s more hideous and sterile than work 84 which i s purely selfish, sordid and unblest."  Girls ran the danger of  losing their health i n the hot summer days at a sewing machine, or i n 85 dark, e v i l smelling, tumbledown shops, or being laid off work i n winter. Rot very pleasing pictures made up the rural myth which would discourage those thinking of entering the l i f e of the city or town. Not only the workmen, but also the businessmen, professionals, promoters, and manufacturers lived uncertain lives compared, to that.of the  agriculturist, for a l l the men of the town were i n competition unknown  in agricultural pursuits.  Ten or fifteen years of history in towns of over  ten thousand people would generally record the failure of at least half the  men engaged in business. An exemplary tale i n The Farmer's Advocate  told of a prosperous farmer who "sold his farm and went to town to set himself up as a storekeeper. He quickly failed because of his lack of s k i l l i n buying and his soft-hearted credit policy.  A second failure i n  56  the l i q u o r - s e l l i n g business followed on the heels of the f i r s t . former well-to-do man  ended up as an occasional labourer.  up a cobbler's trade so t h a t , as he s a i d , "now  The  F i n a l l y , he set  I am s i t t i n g here on a  cobbler's bench d r i v i n g n a i l s day a f t e r day and not s k i l l e d enough at the t r a d e ever t o hope t o make anything mere than the barest l i v e l i h o o d f o r my 86 w i f e and myself."  P r o f e s s i o n a l men appeared i n such an abundance i n  Canada that i t was beyond the c a p a c i t y of the population t o support them l i b e r a l l y or even adequately.  Competition  forced men t o become status  seekers i n e f f o r t s t o overcome t h e i r disadvantages.  Many remained i n  business long a f t e r they had been due t o r e t i r e , because they had p r e v i o u s l y 87  l i v e d beyond t h e i r f i n a n c i a l means.  These examples countered those  enticements which drew even e s t a b l i s h e d a g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n t o towns. The mythology boosted p r i d e i n the m o r a l i t y associated with a g r i c u l tural living.  The v i c e s fostered by m a t e r i a l i s m were " s c a r c e l y heard of 88  i n the ' r e a l country' and the moral l e p e r there i s a leper indeed." The i n f l u x of young people from the countryside was the only reason c i t i e s had been preserved from t o t a l d i s s i p a t i o n . Wealth and money played a l e s s 89  important did  r o l e i n the countryside than m  the c i t y  not f l o u r i s h to n e a r l y the same extent.  so t h a t c o r r u p t i o n  The farm, explained  editorial, i s more g e n e r a l l y appreciated as the tendency grows to r e v o l t against the s o r d i d v u l g a r i t y of wealth. The a r t i f i c i a l i t i e s which money alone procures w i l l probably never be enjoyed so l a r g e l y on the farm as among the p r i v i l e g e d few c f the c i t i e s . . . . Let us look on these not envying, but p i t y i n g , the purseproud r i c h who t h i n k t o purchase happiness with g o l d . The  'fanfare c f commerce' and  one.  q  ' d o l l a r s and mammon' held no a t t r a c t i o n f o r  91 the true son of the s o i l . eyes.  "How  many men,"  Many things s u b s t i t u t e d f o r money i n r u r a l  demanded a r u r a l i s t , " l o s e t h e i r h e a l t h i n the rush  a f t e r the d o l l a r , where i s they had been s a t i s f i e d to gain a  reasonable  competence on the farm, they might have been happy and healthy men."  92  The argument that countrymen were not only morally better, but physically sounder than their city relatives  formed another round i n  the battery of the mythology of country l i f e .  Physical fitness resulting  from farm labour increased the soundness of the physiques of the cultivators of the s o i l and their families. pamphlet supporting this theory.  One doctor published a  It described how the early physiological  development most important to youngsters was aided by a l i f e and childhood 93 in the country.  The farmer who retired to town usually spent his time  l o l l i n g in an armchair or hammock and quickly began to "lose ground i n 94 physical and mental.powers."  Rural wives, kept busy by the farm,  frequently v/ere less bothered by mental complaints than women who moved 95 to the cities to live i n apartments. The physical setting of the North American metropolitan areas formed another aspect of the rural vision of the city.  The mythology of  the farm journals presented a very special picture of the urban areas. This view, summed up i n one word, was 'the slum.'  No matter which city  came under discussion, the rural press invariably used up the greatest amount of space i n describing the slums.  The slums became a symbol not  only of "bad houses, or unsanitary conditions or poverty; i t means greed, bitterness, unbrotherliness, the hardening of the heart against a fellow mortal, cf which i s born a desire to ignore their distress or even to 96 profit by i t . " Like packing boxes, dwellings seemed "tumbled without calculation or order...with their thin walls and chimneyless roofs,  97 through which crocked pipe ends protruded...."  Numberless families  inhabited 'rears', squalid houses on back alleys, for which landlords could collect double rent like a "hole shelters r a t s . " ^  The inhabitants' view  of l i f e was limited to another row of dirty tenements. Slum dwellers,  5a however, d i d not-want t o l e a v e s i n c e " . . . i t  i s those  sane views, pure minds and n o b l e  who  h i g h e s t esteem. a plague,  and  The  habituees  sentiments  o f broad  hold country l i f e  i n the  o f t h e slums shun t h e farm as t h e y would  i f by chance induced  t o make t h i s  experiment /moving t o  — 90 c o u n t r y / q u i c k l y f o r s a k e i t f o r t h e i r o l d haunts and ways." editorial titled,  outlook,  One  " C i t y H e a l T h y s e l f , " b l u n t l y t o l d urban people t o  u s i n g t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t o cure t h e i r s o c i a l i l l s whole populace i n t o t h e d e g r a d a t i o n  and  the  stop  to quit a t t r a c t i n g  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urban l i f e . * ' "  the  A  0 0  m e t a p h o r i c a l v i e w o f t h e m e t r o p o l i s p o r t r a y e d a l l i t s s o c i a l , economic p h y s i c a l aspects  as a " g r e a t eddy i n t h e stream o f l i f e ; which  a t t r a c t s , t h e n c a r r i e s i t s v i c t i m s - round and t h e i r ultimate destruction."'* Reassertions life  who  'hay  seeds'  l i v e d an o p e n - a i r  round w i t h t h e c u r r e n t " t o  of the t r a d i t i o n b e l i e f s i n the i n f e r i o r i t y of urban R u r a l people were not  independent e x i s t e n c e and who The  d i d not m e r i t  r u r a l v i e w o f t h e c i t y man,  were t o l d , depended e n t i r e l y upon t h e " v i e w p o i n t  our  'moss-  but t h e i n h e r i t o r s o f a l o n g l i n e o f d i g n i f i e d  townsman's e p i t h e t s o r s c o r n .  adopted....  "first  01  r e a f f i r m e d t h e countrymen's c r e e d .  backs' or  and  Let us show i n our b e a r i n g t h a t we  which we  men  any  farmers  o u r s e l v e s have  recognize the d i g n i t y  of  calling." (iii) The  r e j u v e n a t i o n and  r e a s s e r t i o n o f r u r a l mythology; promoted  t h e r u r a l opinion-makers as a means o f p e r s u a d i n g  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  t i o n t o s t o p d e s e r t i n g t h e l a n d , c o u l d not be accomplished c o - o p e r a t i o n and church,  reformation  of r u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  The  without country  f a m i l y and newspaper by-changing t h e i r a t t i t u d e and  by  populathe  school,  structure  c o u l d become s a v i o u r s o f t h e o l d r u r a l s o c i e t y i n s t e a d o f p e r p e t r a t o r s o f its  decline.  They c o u l d a l l p l a y a r o l e i n k e e p i n g  t h e c h i l d r e n on  the  59 l a n d by c o n v i n c i n g them o f t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f c o u n t r y l i f e The  farm  j o u r n a l s , a H a l t on County farmer  a r t i c l e s which proved  and work.  remarked-, s h o u l d  print  t o r u r a l youths t h a t f o r t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f  young men who c o u l d n o t i n h e r i t a f o r t u n e , a farm l i f e was t h e b e s t existence. life"  Papers s h o u l d i n s t i l l "a h i g h e r i d e a l o f l i v i n g and s o c i a l  102 into r u r a l inhabitants."  When j o u r n a l s were w r i t i n g about t h e  farm t h e y s h o u l d "speak w e l l o f i t , " \vrote another  correspondent.  "Iti s  103 worthy s o t o be t a l k e d about."  Another r u r a l i s t  exhorted  agricul-  t u r i s t s t o " t h i n k c f t h e farm and i t s home as an end t o be enjoyed and p e r f e c t e d r a t h e r t h a n a temporary p l a c e i n which t o t o i l and e x i s t  until  104 we c a n escape."  When he was speaking t o h i s c h i l d r e n e v e r y  farmer  ought t o s a y t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e " i s t h e b e s t o c c u p a t i o n i n t h e world when a l l things are considered." v a l u e s i n youth was a n o t h e r  A r u r a l organization t o inculcate agrarian suggestion t o stop the population d r a i n .  To  be c a l l e d t h e "Young Canadian Yeomanry," i t s h o u l d a i m a t " s t i m u l a t i n g 105 t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and a m b i t i o n o f t h e boys and g i r l s . " ^ The proponents of  such a change i n o u t l o o k b e l i e v e d t h e s e  schemes would mean t h a t " t h e  t r e k t o t h e c i t y would n o t be so s e r i o u s and t h e r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n would grow up w i t h a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e The r e n o v a t o r s most important of  remaining  on t h e land."-"^^  o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l mythology saw t h e s c h o o l s as a  f a c t o r i n re-educating r u r a l youth.  As P r e s i d e n t Creelman  t h e C.A.C. remarked, "we must s t a r t v e r y e a r l y t o i n t e r e s t t h e boy and 107  g i r l i nthe ethics of rural l i v i n g . "  The  'get-'em-while-they're-  young' approach r e s u l t e d from a b e l i e f i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y c f t h e beneficial  i n f l u e n c e o f a c h i l d ' s environment.  "As t h e Twig i s Bent so i s t h e  T r e e I n c l i n e d , " was t h e i r m o t t o a n d t h e y t r i e d t o put i t i n t o e f f e c t -  through  108 school reform.  T h e i r i d e a s f o r t h e s c h o o l s were v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e  60 t h e y promoted f o r t h e f a m i l y :  namely, t h a t i f a c h i l d were i n d o c t r i n a t e d  w i t h t h e r u r a l s t e r e o t y p e e a r l y enough, he would be l o a t h t o l e a v e t h e  109 farm.  As e v i d e n c e , t h e y produced t h e r e s u l t  o f an experiment i n N o r t h  Dakota r u r a l s c h o o l s comparing t h e f u t u r e p l a n s o f boys b e f o r e and a f t e r a c o u r s e i n a g r i c u l t u r e was t a u g h t  i n the state schools.  Before t a k i n g  t h e course^most c h i l d r e n aimed a t l e a v i n g f o r t h e c i t i e s , w h i l e a f t e r t h e c o u r s e t h e m a j o r i t y planned The  convention  on making t h e farm t h e i r permanent  horae."^  o f t h e Grange r e s o l v e d t h a t t h e a i m o f t h e r u r a l  ought t o be t o h e l p imbue "a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e s p e c t and l o v e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and c o u n t r y C h i l d r e n c o u l d no l o n g e r be t a u g h t  of, interest  life.""^"'  schools i n , and  -  by t e a c h e r s unprepared t o  promote t h i s world v i e w c r t h e r u r a l exodus would c o n t i n u e .  The  first  o b j e c t o f the r e f o r m e r s was t h e r e t r a i n i n g o f p u b l i c and h i g h s c h o o l ' teachers^  summer c o u r s e s  i n Nature S t u d y had been e s t a b l i s h e d a t Guelph,  and t h e r u r a l p r e s s urged t e a c h e r s t o a t t e n d .  The d i r e c t o r o f t h e  112  programme, 3. B. KcCready, had w r i t t e n h i s B . S . A . t h e s i s on methods o f t e a c h i n g a g r i c u l t u r e i n s c h o o l s , and he t o o k on t h e t a s k o f t e a c h i n g t e a c h e r s t h e b e s t methods o f i n c u l c a t i n g a l o v e o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e i r  113 students.  T h i s was o n l y a stop-gap measure, f o r t h e most  ardent  r e f o r m e r s wanted a f u l l - t i m e c o u r s e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d at  Guelph's O.A.C., s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e t o c o u r s e s t a u g h t  R u r a l Normal S c h o o l s r u r a l areas.  ought t o t r a i n t h o s e  i n Household S c i e n c e .  l o o k i n g forward  t o careers i n  A l l t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s would m a i n t a i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l  farm  and a r u r a l model s c h o o l t o g i v e p r a c t i c e under a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s t o t h e 114 would-be t e a c h e r s . The c u r r i c u l u m , n a t u r a l l y , formed another  s e c t o r o f a t t a c k by those  who wanted t h e m e r i t s o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l l i f e t o r e c e i v e s p e c i a l emphasis in  the schools.  More a g r i c u l t u r e - o r i e n t e d s u b j e c t s ought t o be t a u g h t , or  61 at  l e a s t t h e o l d s u b j e c t s should use  examples drawn from town l i f e . r e a d e r s , and  a g r i c u l t u r a l examples r a t h e r t h a n  T h i s would do much t o make language books,  a r i t h m e t i c more c o m p a t i b l e  w i t h t h e aims o f t h e  Combined w i t h s u b s t i t u t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m  of the  farm. '' 11  'mental pablum' such as  c l a s s i c s , h i s t o r y , geometry and a l g e b r a by more s c i e n c e c o u r s e s ,  these  r e f o r m s would encourage c h i l d r e n t o a p p r e c i a t e a g r i c u l t u r e more. p h y s i c s , and  chemistry,  Botany,  a l o n g w i t h p o l i t i c a l economy, manual t r a i n i n g  domestic science, should  be t a u g h t ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e s e a p p l i e d t o  and the  116 farm.  One  t e a c h e r who  c a r r y out a cow how  followed t h i s modified  census i n t h e i r neighbourhood.  curriculum  c a t t l e and  his pupils  T h i s e x e r c i s e showed them  t o p e r f o r m creamery t e s t i n g , impressed them w i t h t h e  keeping high-producing  had  importance  of  increased t h e i r p r a c t i c e of  117 mathematics. Another way the  t h e a g r a r i a n l i f e c o u l d r e c e i v e a f a v o u r a b l e boost  s c h o o l system would be by i n a u g u r a t i n g n a t u r e  T h i s , from a l l i m p r e s s i o n s , curriculum.  was  study i n t h e  classroom.  t h e c u r e - a l l f o r the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e  I t would, remarked one  observer,  "make s c h o o l l i f e more  i n t e r e s t i n g because i t responds t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c h i l d . g i v e t h e c h i l d an i n t e r e s t He w i l l f i n d everything. for  1  i n h i s environment and  'sermons i n s t o n e s ,  from  books  It w i l l  make him a b e t t e r c i t i z e n .  i n the running  b r o o k s , and  good i n  I t w i l l f i t him  which i t has  b e t t e r f o r h i s l i f e work on l e a v i n g s c h o o l 118 a l l a l o n g been a p r e p a r a t i o n . " By t e a c h i n g him t o  a p p r e c i a t e h i s surroundings  more, t h i s c o u r s e  i n school could  recompense  119 t h e farmer f o r h i s l a c k of u r b a n e x c i t e m e n t . with nature adequately  a l l h i s l i f e and  i t was  o n l y j u s t and  p r e p a r e him f o r t h i s " l i f e .  not  farmer d e a l t i n t i m a t e l y  proper t h a t h i s  education  C h i l d r e n would l e a r n t h e v a l u e  l a b o u r from w o r k i n g i n t h e s c h o o l garden. example, t h a t d i g g i n g out weeds was  The  The  boy  c o u l d be t a u g h t ,  of  for  j u s t a d i r t y , b o r i n g j o b , but  that  62 "weeds a r e  'thieves'  plant i t s e l f , '  stealing  t h e nourishment which should "go t o  a n d , n a t u r a l l y , he becomes i n t e r e s t e d  Such a programme o f s t u d y c o u l d do much more t o f o r a g r i c u l t u r e t h a n any c h o i c e  in their  "counteract  the  destruction."  the  distaste  of p a r t i c u l a r subjects of study i n  later  120 years."  A g r i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l f a i r s a l s o would h e l p i n c o r r e c t i n g  cityward bias  o f the  t h e i r schools the and t h e  e d u c a t i o n a l system.  fruits  of the  C h i l d r e n were t o l d t o b r i n g t o  summer and s c h o o l - t i m e  l o c a l D i s t r i c t Representative  the  labours.  Teachers  o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e  would judge b a k i n g , manual t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s ,  t h e k e e p i n g and c a r e  of  121 a n i m a l s , as w e l l as t h e c r o p s . Supported by t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , t h e f a i r s were endorsed a t the F a r m e r s ' I n s t i t u t e meetings a means o f i n c r e a s i n g the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f c o u n t r y l i f e  i n the  as  eyes o f  122 the  children.  The d i s t r i c t  means o f i n t e r e s t i n g  representatives  c h i l d r e n i n a g r i c u l t u r e by " t a k i n g t h e c h i l d r e n i n t o  the  fields,  the  value of labor s k i l f u l l y a p p l i e d . "  by making them t h i n k i n terms o f t h e  a g r i c u l t u r a l work, n a t u r e s t u d y o f propaganda. than i t  promoted the f a i r i d e a as a  1 2  ^  f a r m , and b y t e a c h i n g  Not a s t r i c t  preparation for  and s c h o o l f a i r s were a more s u b t l e  They made t h e c h o i c e  would have been under t h e  o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l o c c u p a t i o n  p r e v a i l i n g system o f e d u c a t i o n .  I f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n set  them  sort 'easier'  ^  up r u r a l h i g h s c h o o l s i n each  county t o t e a c h a g r i c u l t u r e a l o n g w i t h t h e i r o t h e r s u b j e c t s ,  the exodus o f  125 t h e young s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d  school i n the  t u r a l c l a s s e s i n the high s c h o o l s ,  set  c i t i e s would e n d .  Agricul-  up by the Whitney a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n  1907, gained much p r a i s e from t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r e s s as a s t e p i n the  .  • 126  right direction. they believed, school, to the  The Department c o u l d a l s o set  classes,  f o r t h o s e who d e s i r e d f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n beyond p u b l i c  but who d i d not want a f u l l cities.  up c o n t i n u a t i o n  The aim o f the  high-school  education,  continuation classes  or d e s i r e t o  attached to  the  go  63 existing  p u b l i c s c h o o l s would be t o p r o v i d e a r u r a l - c e n t r e d e d u c a t i o n f o r  t h o s e who  d e s i r e d t o c o n t i n u e which d i d not d i r e c t  professions.  p u p i l s towards t h e  As such, i t ought t o aim at c o n v i n c i n g the r u r a l  t o remain a t home.  Change, however, was  slow.  Ruralists  often believed  t h a t i t would t a k e a g e n e r a t i o n b e f o r e t h e s c h o o l s had been s u f f i c i e n t l y t o correct t h e i r cityward b i a s .  Two  youth  reformed  or t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s  would pass b e f o r e O n t a r i o c o u l d be peopled by "a r a c e o f farmers...who w i l l not o n l y see more i n t h e farm, but w i l l make more out o f i t . " M i n i s t e r s preaching t o country congregations  128  ought t o do t h e i r p a r t  along with schools t o maintain the a g r a r i a n philosophy of t h e i r tions.  The  e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m e r s a l s o promoted summer c o u r s e s i n a g r i c u l -  t u r e f o r r u r a l p r e a c h e r s t o enable them t o understand flocks  and t o l e a r n how  t h e needs o f t h e i r  t o c a t e r t o p a r t i c u l a r l y r u r a l problems.  should know something of the p r i n c i p l e s  of r u r a l co-operation  f a m i l i a r w i t h farm l i t e r a t u r e , a g r i c u l t u r a l economics and organization. Advocate.  "Why  "The  c o n g r e g a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y p r e a c h e r and  his associates, his friends,  sons and d a u g h t e r s .  h i s p e c u l i a r charge.  Ministers  and  be  social  Farmer's  v i l l a g e pastor i s  These a r e h i s p e o p l e ,  U n t i l he can meet them  t a l k t o them not o n l y on t h e beauty and c h a r a c t e r c f C h r i s t  on t h e beauty  and  but  c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r C l y d e s d a l e s ; u n t i l he can show a  mastery o f t h e everyday cannot  rural  s h o u l d t h e s e t h i n g s not be?" asked The  made up o f f a r m e r s , t h e i r w i v e s ,  as f r i e n d s ,  congrega-  problems o f t h e farm and  expect t o command t h e i r r e s p e c t and  o f t h e youth t h e r e o n ,  c o n f i d e n c e when he essays  he  into  129 higher realms." church r e a l i z e d t i o n a l and  P r e s i d e n t Creelman o f O.A.C. noted t h a t s i n c e t h e i t had  been drawn i n t o t h e c u r r e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l , educa-  s o c i a l forces 'resulting  a t t h e expense o f c o u n t r y l i f e and t o p r o v i d e p r o p e r p r e c e p t s and  i n t h e abnormal development o f the  city  i n t e r e s t s • i t ought t o r e a d j u s t i t s e l f  example. ^ 1  0  The  church ought t o become t h e  64 c e n t r e of the neighbourhood. s o c i a l and  I t should  r e l i g i o u s gatherings  but  not be c o n t e n t  ought t o make i t s e l f  " a f f e c t i n g t h e t o n e o f t h e e n t i r e community.... educative  and  i t should  culminate  w i t h merely h o l d i n g  The  into a force  p a r t o f church work i s  i n g i v i n g t o a l l t h e young people a  love  131 for  t h e c o u n t r y and  an i n t e l l e c t u a l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i t . " (iv)  The  a g r i c u l t u r a l opinion-makers d i d not d i s p u t e among themselves  t h e f a c t t h a t t h e achievement c f a b e t t e r s e l f - i m a g e by t h e r u r a l and  t h e r e a s s e r t i o n o f t h e r u r a l mythology was  population  a desirable condition.  The  more r a d i c a l s e c t i o n o f t h e farm l e a d e r s worked as d i l i g e n t l y as t h e more moderate group t o a t t a i n t h i s end.  A measure o f debate between t h e s e  groups began, however, o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e u t i l i t y o f t h i s i n b r i n g i n g an end t o t h e exodus from t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . Farm and D a i r y , and t h e more extreme group p r e s e n t e d who  achievement  The Weekly  Sun,  the view t h a t  b e l i e v e d t h e r e j u v e n a t i o n o f t h e myths would end d e p o p u l a t i o n  those were  mistaken. I n s t e a d , t h i s group b e l i e v e d i n the economic o r i g i n s c f depopulation.  The  Sun  accused t h e p r o t e c t i o n i s t p r e s s  depopulation  on e d u c a t i o n  and  other s o c i a l malaises  o f t r y i n g t o blame i n o r d e r t o obscure  the  r e a l , economic c a u s e .  and  s h i e l d them from p r e s s u r e t o s h o u l d e r t h e i r share  F a u l t i n g education  T h i s would, t h e r e f o r e , p r o t e c t the  alone.  o f the blame.  c o u l d o n l y be r i d i c u l o u s , many a r g u e d , f o r who  deny t h a t e v e r y Canadian had knowledge  corporations  could  a r i g h t t o be educated f o r the sake o f g a i n i n g  Young r u r a l p e o p l e d i d not have t o a t t e n d  i n s t i t u t i o n s m e r e l y t o become e i t h e r farmers or mechanics. would s e r v e o n l y t h e ends o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s  and  was  educational This s o l u t i o n  not n e c e s s a r i l y , as  some e d u c a t i o n i s t s seemed t o b e l i e v e , t h e best s o l u t i o n f o r t h e young  132 people.  Farm and D a i r y and  The  Farmer's Advocate b o t h agreed  editorially  65 t h a t n e i t h e r i d e o l o g i c a l nor s o c i a l r e a s o n s c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e magnitude o f t h e d e c l i n e , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e a c t i o n had  been t a k e n t o remedy t h e s e  133 complaints The  with r u r a l  life.  remedy f o r "The  Problem" c o u l d net be found i n p a l l i a t i v e s  which "only scratched t h e s u r f a c e of the question"  nor i n e d u c a t i o n  propaganda campaigns f o r b e t t e r a t t i t u d e s towards t h e farm, nor techniques f o r the  a p p l i e d t o farming.  "While i n t e n s i v e f a r m i n g  farmer a r e w e l l enough i n t h e i r own  way,  the  and  and  i n advanced  homiletics  o n l y remedies worth  s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n a r e t h o s e which w i l l enable t h e farm t o a t t r a c t  labor  and  c a p i t a l , t h a t i s t o say, which w i l l make t h e rewards o f a g r i c u l t u r e 135 equal to or g r e a t e r than those o f other p u r s u i t s . "  (v) All  s e c t i o n s o f t h e r u r a l media c o - o p e r a t e d  decline i n agrarian values.  They p o i n t e d  v a r i o u s r u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h i s decay. p r a i s e o f the its  success  c r i t i c i s m and  o f c o u n t r y boys who  c o n t r a s t o f r u r a l and  o t h e r elements i n r u r a l s o c i e t y . c h i l d r e n to the  the r o l e p l a y e d by  The  The  country  the  a g r i c u l t u r a l p r e s s , by i t s  succeeded i n the towns and  u r b a n l i f e , was  as g u i l t y as  on t h e farm.  The  s c h o o l s and t e a c h e r s  s p i r i t u a l side of l i f e  l i n e s , as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e o r g a n i z e d  at a l l l e v e l s  A r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d be c o n t e n t e d  on t h e  the  concession  religious  d e n o m i n a t i o n s , a l s o pushed t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n  members b e l i e v e d i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n .  the  by t h e i r c y n i c a l a t t i t u d e  s u b j e c t s which l e d i n t o urban p r o f e s s i o n s i n s t e a d o f p r e p a r i n g  youth f o r a l i f e  by  farmers t h e m s e l v e s d r o v e t h e i r  c i t i e s by t h e i r m a t e r i a l i s m and  towards t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n . taught  The  out  i n d e p l o r i n g the  o f t h e towns.  on t h e l a n d o n l y i f i t s  A campaign t o promote t h e  rural  mythology r e c e i v e d t h e b l e s s i n g o f most o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r e s s as a method o f s o l v i n g t h e problem o f d e p o p u l a t i o n .  C r i t i c i s m of the c i t i e s f o r  66 t h e i r m a t e r i a l i s m , e x c e s s i v e c o m p e t i t i o n , d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e needs o f t h e workers and slums ensued.  T h i s e f f o r t t r i e d t o make t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  rural  v a l u e s such as economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l independence, a l o n g w i t h a h i g h p h y s i c a l and m o r a l t o n e appear d e s i r a b l e i n comparison.  I f these  views c o u l d be adopted and promoted t h r o u g h such i n s t i t u t i o n s  as t h e s c h o o l s ,  churches,  p r e s s and f a m i l y , t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n had a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y  of remaining  h a p p i l y i n t h e i r country  existence.  Although  some r u r a l  t h i n k e r s doubted t h e u t i l i t y o f t h i s method o f s t o p p i n g t h e e r o s i o n o f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , most o f t h e w r i t e r s i n t h e media appeared t o b e l i e v e that i t could provide a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n .  67 CHAPTER V  "SUPPING WITH THE  DEVIL:"  IMPROVING RURAL SOCIAL L I F E  Problems c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between v a r i o u s members o f r u r a l s o c i e t y were as important  i n promoting  b e l i e f i n agrarian philosophy.  These d e f e c t s a r o s e out of l i f e  countryside.  The  d e p o p u l a t i o n as a d e c l i n i n g i n the  i s o l a t i o n o f each f a m i l y , t h e g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t  between t h e farmer and  h i s c h i l d r e n , combined w i t h o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s  which  hampered s o c i a l l i f e , a l l r e i n f o r c e d t h e p r e s s u r e t o move c i t y w a r d .  While  t h e s e problems were i n t e r n a l , t h e most p o p u l a r s o l u t i o n s i n v o l v e d b r i n g i n g t h e towns more d e e p l y i n t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e r u r a l l i f e  style.  The  b e s t s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s , most b e l i e v e d , i n v o l v e d i m p o r t i n g t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t h e s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s and  into  p r a c t i c e s which worked w e l l i n  a t t r a c t i n g the r u r a l f o l k t o the m e t r o p o l i s e s .  (i) The most widespread garding l i f e upon them.  complaint  o f t h e young people and women r e -  i n a r u r a l t o w n s h i p c e n t r e d around t h e i s o l a t i o n i t f o r c e d There were fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r excitement  or an  active  1 s o c i a l l i f e than i n the c i t i e s . agriculturists,  "Man  and woman t o o , " r e c o g n i z e d t h e  " l i k e s t o be i n a crowd.  a l i k e , congregate  i n herds and  a l i k e want t o be t o g e t h e r .  Why  flocks.  The w i l d beast and  The n a t i v e and c i v i l i z e d  Man  country?  i s a hermit o n l y when d i s a p p o i n t e d 2  i n l o v e ; he wants t o be w i t h t h e crowd...." grandparents  people  t a l k o f t h e peace and q u i e t o f t h e  Man's n a t u r e c r a v e s e x c i t e m e n t . . . .  h e r p a r e n t s and  domesticated  One  had more s o c i a l l i f e ,  p a r t i e s , l o g g i n g bees, p l u c k i n g bees, and  farm woman remarked t h a t since "their  b a r n r a i s i n g s , brought  quilting them  68 together frequently and they were free to enjoy themselves.  Now,  i f we  wish for any social intercourse, i t i s almost necessary to go into the town or village."-^  The type of relaxation offered i n the nearest hamlet,  however, was not the most desirable kind. A boy could pitch quoits with the gang around the blacksmith shop, or loaf on the corner swapping yarns about the neighbourhood, or listen to some not very clean joke from the mouth of the village story t e l l e r .  Even this entertainment was infrequent  for l i f e on the farm began early i n the morning and there was  little  profit i n late nights. Once or twice a year, the local community and surroundings had a church social during which the "boys would cut up with the g i r l s while the old folks whispered the latest complaint against the preacher—they didn't like him, yet we couldn't get r i d of him to save our lives—and the latest example of his wife's meanness."^ Occasionally a father would take his boy to town to l e t him wander around "until the old man gets through shopping or a horse trade,...and then he takes the boy home and thinks he has had a holiday. But that does not work with the average boy."'' The other side of this coin included the farm knowledge that urban centres contained many organizations cf a social, literary, religious, musical, and athletic nature to which young people could belong and soon form a circle of friends.  If a man i n the city desired an evening's  entertainment, i t was close and he f e l t i n better shape to work the next morning because of the pleasant recreation.  Only farmers near the towns  had the fortune to be able to provide the same social advantages as an urban employer.  Froof of the importance of their advantage came from the  f a c i l i t y with which they could attract labour to their farms compared to the other rural employers.  69 The most w i d e l y - a d v o c a t e d life city.  i n the country  methods used t o r e l i e v e t h e i s o l a t i o n o f  c o n s i s t e d o f i m p o r t i n g t h e s o c i a l advantages o f the  Combined w i t h the i m p o r t a t i o n o f urban t e c h n o l o g y i n t o r u r a l a r e a s ,  t h e s e methods were w i d e l y a c c l a i m e d f o r the s o c i a l i l l s  i n t h e r u r a l p r e s s as b e i n g t h e panacea  of the c o u n t r y s i d e .  a t t r a c t i v e by modern c o n v e n i e n c e s ,  Village  l i f e was  made much more  b e t t e r modes o f l i v i n g , and a  commingling w i t h o t h e r r u r a l i n h a b i t a n t s .  Some opinion-makers  freer  claimed that  t h e e f f e c t c f t h e s e changes would be t o b r i n g back i n t o r u r a l s e c t i o n s many o f t h o s e who  had d e s e r t e d t o t h e towns.'  The t e l e p h o n e r e c e i v e d the  g r e a t e s t n o t i c e as a means o f l e s s e n i n g t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . W i t h t h i s i n h e r house, t h e farm housewife t h e w i n t e r but members o f her own  who  household  d i d not o f t e n see anyone i n  was  not d e n i e d t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y 8  she needed t o come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . p r o c l a i m e d t o i t s r e a d e r s t h a t "the l o n e l i n e s s and be drawbacks o f l i f e  so because t h e c i t y man M e d i c a l c a r e was  The farmer  to  with  t h a n h i s b r o t h e r i n t h e c i t y , o r even l e s s  o f t e n d i d not even know h i s next-door  c l o s e a t hand."'""'"  g r e a t e f f e c t by t h e t e l e p h o n e  Sun  i s o l a t i o n which used  on t h e farm need no l o n g e r e x i s t . " ^  t h e phone became no more i s o l a t e d  The Weekly  This particular  neighbour."""  advantage was  companies i n t h e i r a d v e r t i s e m e n t s .  phone broadened the farmer's h o r i z o n s , brought  him  into direct  used  0  to  A tele-  contact with  12 t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , and reduced t h e narrowness o f h i s o u t l o o k . Like the c i t y man, t h e farmer who once i n s t a l l e d a phone would never do w i t h o u t i t . It  became p a r t o f h i s v e r y l i f e and  he would s a c r i f i c e o t h e r t h i n g s b e f o r e  13 consenting t o p a r t with the telephone. There a r e some t h i n g s two o p i n i o n s . One o f I"o sound argument can cheap f o r t h e s e r v i c e w i t h o u t a r u r a l phone o f a l l the p r i v i l e g e s should. 14  The farm p o s i t i o n  emphasized that*.  about which t h e r e can be no t h e s e i s the r u r a l t e l e p h o n e . be adduced a g a i n s t i t . I t i s rendered.... A community s e r v i c e i s not a v a i l i n g i t s e l f o f modern c i v i l i z a t i o n - a s i t  70 Instructions on the incorporation of rural telephone companies, details of construction and maintenance, and lengthy discussions over the desirability of small companies f i l l e d the pages of the press. The farm community became extremely excited over the prospect of the extension of phone service. Electric railways and trolley systems expanding into the countryside caught the imagination of the rural press. These innovations were expected to end the depopulation by making urban activities accessible to country-dwellers.  The inhabitants on a trolley line could send their  children to urban schools,"^get a daily newspaper the day i t was published, or board the trolley for an evening's v i s i t to a nearby city to enjoy a 17 concern or attend a meeting. The rural housewife could go to the c i t y and 18 browse through the more attractive products sold i n town shops.  The  extension of the radials, noted some perceptive commentators, moved the city directly into the countryside. Farms along the routes were broken up 19 and sold for suburban housing lots. Economically, the expansion of the roads increased the value of the farm lands along the routes and made formerly depressed areas valuable to farmers as their land became useful to ...  20  the c i t i e s .  Town-country borders were blurred as the city's conveniences  came within easy reach of the farm.  The population of the cities could  also come to v i s i t the country's parks on Sunday and would, some believed, 21 destroy the traditional, quiet, rural Sunday. Improved communication between country and town was the purpose of the Good Roads Movement. Rural highways had been notorious for their poor condition^  bogs i n spring, they became dusty and rutted i n summer and  impassable with snow i n winter.  In fact, highways constituted a main d i f 22  ficulty hindering social intercourse, or school and church attendance. Sydney Fisher remarked to the Goods Roads Convention that to remove "these  71 difficulties,  g i v e t o the people of the country  advantages t h a t a r e found i n t h e c i t i e s , and  something o f t h e same  you w i l l go a l o n g way  towards  23 checking  the p r e s e n t  d r i f t towards t h e c i t i e s . . . . "  J  Accordingly,  the  countrymen p r e s s e d f o r r e f o r m o f t h e f i n a n c i n g and maintenance o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l road systems. They s t r o n g l y advocated a p p r o p r i a t i n g i n c r e a s i n g  24 grants f o r r o a d - b u i l d i n g . under t h e impact o f t h e  T h i s widespread movement s u f f e r e d t e m p o r a r i l y  farmers'  h o s t i l i t y towards t h e a u t o m o b i l e .  f e l t t h a t t h e i r poor roads kept t h a t The  "menace* out o f t h e  They  countryside.  change i n a t t i t u d e towards t h e a u t o m o b i l e showed t h e w i l l i n g n e s s  o f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n t o adopt any could lessen depopulation.  urban communications improvement which  For many y e a r s , t h e v a s t r u r a l m a j o r i t y b e l i e v e d  25 t h a t a u t o s were among t h e l e a s t d e s i r a b l e urban, i n v e n t i o n s .  The  country-  men  fought t o have t h e hours d u r i n g which c a r s were allowed on t h e i r roads 26 27 s t r i c t l y limited; t h e y urged h i g h t a x a t i o n o f motor v e h i c l e s ; they l o b b i e d t h e l e g i s l a t u r e t o have c a r d r i v e r s made l i a b l e f o r i n j u r y t o  and  p e o p l e f r i g h t e n e d by t h e appearance o f t h e machines i n t h e  countryside.-'  E v e n t u a l l y , however, even the much-hated auto changed i t s image.  From t h e  t o y o f t h e r i c h u r b a n i t e , t h e c a r became t h e means f o r a farmer t o the necessary  m o b i l i t y f o r a more c o n g e n i a l  achieve  life.  Some o f t h e r u r a l opinion-makers, a f t e r 1910, o p p o s i t i o n t o the auto i n r u r a l a r e a s .  horses  "The  reconsidered  their  motor v e h i c l e , " wrote  one  commentator, "comes c l o s e s t t o b r e a k i n g down t h e b a r r i e r s o f d i s t a n c e  and  29 isolation."  Ownership o f a c a r a l l o w e d  r e l a t i v e s i n nearby areas  a short afternoon v i s i t  i n s t e a d o f a two-day v a c a t i o n from work.  need no l o n g e r s u f f e r t h e i r customary e n f o r c e d more w i t h t h e r e s t o f the p e o p l e . i n t e l l i g e n t men farmers'  and  wives, the  to  c o u l d mingle  "They a r e made b r o a d e r men,  better c i t i z e n s . i s o l a t i o n and  a l o o f n e s s but  I t /the  Farmers  more  c a r / i s making a new  life  l o n e l i n e s s o f the farm home i s a t h i n g  for  72  of the past. Picnics at campgrounds, socials, theatres, chautauquas, a l l the impossible things of earlier days are now easily attainable."  Car-  owning preachers discovered that they could "do more f a i t h f u l work with an auto than a horse.  They find that the general ownership of autos  brings more people to church."^  Farmers became the best customers of the  car manufacturers, as the auto replaced the electric railroad as the major hope for breaking down rural disadvantages. The auto brought the farm and town together, shortened the distance to market and worked out a social, industrial and educational revolution.  Its justification i n rural areas  came about through i t s achievement of a position of practical value to the mass of agriculturists. The good roads movement, the expansion of radial railroads, the introduction of the automobile i n rural areas, a l l served to enable the rural dwellers to communicate more easily with each other and with the towns. The introduction i n a limited way of rural free mail delivery i n 1908 further improved this communication.  After years of agitation,the  31 farm community received this most desired improvement.  By enabling the  farmer to get his daily newspaper promptly, this service put him "on an equal standing with his city brother" who had previously had an advantage.' The benefits justified any extra expense.  Rural free delivery allowed the  mail order s ysteins of urban department stores to expand so that the countrymen could choose their purchases from as large a merchandise selection as their urban relatives.  33  By forcing the governments to take  measures to keep the roads open in winter i t removed another cause of  -. • J. 34 ' complaint. In fact, reported The Farmer's Advocate, i f rural free delivery were extended throughout the countryside, every phase of country l i f e would be toned up. One item of drudgery on the farm would be wiped out forever with one stroke. The conditions i n the country  73 would begin to balance more evenly with those i n the city. With an attractive landscape and a comfortable fireside and his mail brought to his door, the young man would hesitate before sacrificing these things to enter the city.... 35 Introducing the urban-developed  communications devices made the  affected rural areas more suburban than truly rural in nature.  As suburbs,  these areas become more and more functional adjuncts to the town. As the urban centres were carried into the country by the telephone and trolley, "not far behind /came/' the electric light, and other conveniences making l i f e i n the rural areas not much different from the urban existence." Not many years before, the farmers seemed to have nothing i n common with the commercial .and professional men. There was a pretty clearlydefined line between the people of the towns and the c i t i e s and those whose lives \\ere spent upon the farm. This state of things, for the good of a l l concerned has, i n large measure, passed away. A l l classes now seem to realize that there i s a close association of interests between a l l classes. 37 r  As a remedy for depopulation, this introduction of urban communications devices appeared to work i n some areas.  The suburban townships gained  in population. One writer reported to the farm readers that "where there 38 has been urban growth there has been suburban progress." (ii) The isolation which had plagued country l i f e was only one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s involving social interaction on the farm.  The farmer had to  arrange his social relations with his own family before he could expect both his spouse and his children to be content with their rural l o t . patching up these relationships the town again provided the model.  Ln The  backwardness of the social graces practiced by the agriculturists, i t was 39 alleged, drove boys and girls from the countryside. i n vast numbers.  74 Farmers laughed a t r e f i n e m e n t and had "no t i m e f o r t h e l i t t l e t h i n g s t h a t make l i f e p l e a s a n t . " ^ own  A farmer v i s i t i n g t h e town became a r u s t i c  i n his  eyes when he compared h i s o v e r a l l s w i t h t h o s e " d a i n t y garments" worn  by t h e townspeople.^"  The s o c i a l manners, even o f t h e c l e r k s , who " s m i l e d  b l a n d l y . . . b e h i n d c o u n t e r s and thanked them f o r s m a l l c o i n s l a i d down i n exchange f o r candy, w i t h t h e a i r o f a F r e n c h count," impressed t h e r u r a l visitors.  G e n t l e m a n l y - l o o k i n g businessmen  banks.  passed t o and f r o from  The f a r m e r ' s boy c o u l d n o t b u t s e e v i s i o n s and dream.  g i r l who d a r e d n o t shop i n t h e b e s t s t o r e s because appearance  splendid The young  o f h e r homespun  43  was t h e g i r l most l i k e l y t o l e a v e t h e c o u n t r y f o r t h e town.  F r u s t r a t e d s o c i a l a m b i t i o n s p r o v i d e d a prime cause o f t h e r u r a l exodus. The c o u n t r y w i f e b e l i e v e d she s u f f e r e d from t h e l a c k o f m a t e r i a l a s w e l l as s o c i a l comforts.  The mere f a c t o f h a v i n g t o do l e s s work drew t h e  eyes o f many women t o t h e towns.  44  A survey  had been opened t o t h e l a b o r - s a v i n g household  showed t h a t once t h e i r  eyes  equipment a v a i l a b l e i n towns,  women were c o n t e n t no l o n g e r t o endure t h e p r i m i t i v e , r u r a l way o f l i v i n g . Of t h o s e w i s h i n g t o d e s e r t t h e farm, t h e women had been f a r more to  g e t away t h a n men.  Ninety per cent a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r d i s l i k e o f the  c o u n t r y t o i t s i s o l a t i o n and l a c k o f c o n v e n i e n c e s . of  anxious  Seventy-five per cent  t h e women p i n p o i n t e d t h e l a c k o f r u n n i n g water i n t h e house as t h e  45 most s e r i o u s f a u l t o f t h e farm.  The f a r m e r ' s w i f e was t o o w e l l aware  t h a t "even t h e meanest o f c i t y homes" were s u p p l i e d w i t h l a c k i n g i n many o f t h e b e s t c o u n t r y h o m e s . ^  conveniences  A c i t y g i r l v i s i t i n g her farm  b i r t h p l a c e would meet an o l d p u b l i c s c h o o l c l a s s m a t e , "a t i r e d - l o o k i n g woman, o l d beyond h e r y e a r s , and t h r e e c h i l d r e n . . . . "  " T h i s i s what I  47 escaped J"  y/as h e r r e a c t i o n .  The farmer, h i s d e t r a c t o r s l o u d l y p o i n t e d  o u t , spent more t i m e b u y i n g f i x t u r e s f o r h i s c a t t l e and barns t h a n  fixing  75 up his house for his wife. It was, commented The Canadian Farm, a l l a question as to how much value the farmer places on his wife. Is she not worth a l l the up-to-date appliances, such as her city cousin enjoys? If her services do not count for any more than a rigid regime of slavery, day after day, why...the farmers of today are a dead lot, thinking more of their stock than of their woman who makes hemes of their houses. 48 The wonder was, exclaimed one editor, "that so many of the women and young folks have remained passive so long."  49  The remedy for this social deprivation again seemed simple.  "We  should not let the city people have a l l the good things, "urged one editorialist. not  "We can have them on the farm.  There i s no valid reason why we should  live i n good comfortable houses with lofty rooms and broad verandahs....  The fat of the land i s none too good for the man who t i l l s i t .  A l l the 50  graces of l i f e are the right of the farmer's wife and daughters."  The  greatest urban advantages were not peculiar to or inseparable from the towns. While countrymen did not desire rural "life to be an imitation of city l i f e , they did want running water, a modern bath, an up-to-date 51 heating system, and numerous other conveniences. A continuous press 52 campaign urged farmers to modernize, publicized labour-saving conveniences 53 through articles and advertisements, d e instructions for instal54 lation and adaptation to rural homes. Titles such as "City Conveniences a n  g a V  on the Farm" promoted the new-fangled inventions cf the age. Refurbishing the home as well as keeping women contented could also keep the boys and girls on the farms.  Too many homes, l i t t l e better than  pens, were uninviting to boys and g i r l s , who had no space for themselves. This was a defect indeed for the Shorthorns, Yorkshires and Plymouth Rocks, were attended to i n every detail that would further their improvement and 55 comfort.  Attractive homes surrounded by a garden provided a greater  incentive for the children to remain t h e r e . ^ Stories and advertisements  76 described to the farmer and his wife methods of fixing up their kitchens, bedrooms, dining and living rooms.^7  T h e  p p i t i o n could live i n as 0  U  a  "elaborately-furnished and beautifully-arranged" rooms as their city • , 4 . - 5 8  relatives.  The city provided the reference point from which the rural  people drew their comparisons. Generational conflict was also a threat to rural l i f e and resulted in many sens leaving their father's farm.  John Dryden, Ontario Minister of  Agriculture, told farmers to try to keep the brightest lads on the farm 59  by treating them oetter.  George C. Creelman told of instances where a  farmer would "give the boy a colt and he w i l l break i t and drive i t once 60 or twice, and as scon as i t i s f i t for work, i t i s the boy's no longer...." Boys often were assigned the most monotonous work on the farm. The scarcity of labour in the countryside tended to make the farmer work his sons harder and 61 in turn, this drove them in greater numbers from the farm. Boys given no chance to help in the management of the farm went to the city where they expected greater appreciation of their efforts. Their individuality would 62 not "be wholly merged in another." Under the prevailing conditions, boys, deprived of their needed fun and recreation, lost their s p i r i t . 63 L i t t l e wonder, many became moody and dissatisfied. The conflict between parents and children included daughters as well as sons.  A g i r l found i t d i f f i c u l t to understand why the daughter who  baked, cooked, washed and ironed and looked after chores inside and outside the house was not able to buy a l l her own clcthes and put some money aside for a rainy day.  If she worked half as much in the city, she would earn  good wages. "I cannot," she remarked, "see why,  I say, she should not have  a certain sum given her every month regularly so that she may feel a l i t t l e 64 more like other girls who are free to earn...."  i f the farmers were  77 f o r c e d t o h i r e g i r l s , t h e y would have t o pay out h i g h wages.  They would  have t o s t o p t r e a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n l i k e s l a v e s i f t h e y wanted them t o work a t home. J u s t as t h e businessman gave h i s boy an a l l o w a n c e , a d v i s e d t o d o l e out pocket  money t o h i s c h i l d r e n .  independent so t h a t t h e y c o u l d buy t h e i r own equipment.  t h e farmer  Boys l i k e d t o  entertainment  and  T a k i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o p a r t n e r s h i p , farmers  them some s t o c k o f t h e i r own,^  and  son who  67  sports could give  horse  F o l l o w i n g t h e businessman's example o f p a y i n g a s a l a r y t o the  remained w i t h h i s f a t h e r t o work t h e l a n d  t h e farm.  be  go t o t h e market t o g e t h e r t o i n t e r v i e w  t h e produce d e a l e r s , w h o l e s a l e r s , r e t a i l e r s , f r u i t d e a l e r s and dealers.  was  "James Smith and  Son,  68  would keep t h e boy  on  Farmers," v/ould be j u s t as common as  69 " W i l l i a m Jones and Son,  Drygoods Merchants."  In r e t u r n f o r a p o r t i o n  t h e r e c e i p t s , boys c o u l d pay a share o f t h e expenses. c a t t l e , p i g s o r horses  cf  E n t e r i n g the boy's  i n t h e l o c a l f a i r o r l i v e s t o c k show v/ould r a i s e h i s  70 p r i d e i n accomplishment. farmer  By g i v i n g the boys more i n t e r e s t i n g l a b o u r , a  71  c o u l d m a i n t a i n y o u t h f u l enthusiasm  f o r t h e farm and  i t s work.  Boys s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o spend t h e i r money as t h e y w i s h e d . was  "I  s t a r t l e d , " r e p o r t e d a farm woman, "by a young f e l l o w w h i z z i n g past  on a m o t o r c y c l e . . . .  Ke was  me  a farmer boy whose p a r e n t s were not f a v o r a b l y  i n c l i n e d t o the new-fangled a u t o , but who  d i d not o b j e c t t o t h e i r  son's  72 h a v i n g t h e b e s t t o be had....  Ke had  earned  it."  Boys should have t h e  s o c i a l independence t o d e c i d e t h e course o f t h e i r l i f e . f a t h e r ought t o remember he c o u l d not prevent the f a c t he may  The  farmer-  h i s son from m a r r y i n g  despite  d i s a p p r o v e and he s h o u l d remember t h a t " t h e r e a r e t o o many  ol lo ds e b y ao cu hr elo r s . . . . i Sn ud ruesltyr itohuast boy." / l e t t73 i n g him m a r r y / w i l l be b e t t e r t h a n t o honest,  7B (iii) While most cf the rural opinion-makers approved of adopting urban technology to help restore rural social relations, some, anxious to preserve the rural l i f e they were used to, did not receive these proposed innovations favourably.  Improvements such as rural mail, parcel post, good roads,  trolley lines and telephones, a l l permitted country people to trade i n larger centres, f i f t y , sixty and one-hundred miles away. This drew the business from the small villages.  "Just as a large horse can outdraw a  lighter animal," believed. F. E. E l l i s of Farm and Pair:/, "so the town store can undersell the village store," and cause the decline of local i n s t i t u tions.  By accepting mail order advertising, E l l i s and the other editors 7  of the farm press aided i n the lamented destruction of the local merchants. With the economic ruin of the hamlets came the wane of rural social l i f e . Far from making country l i f e more bearable, the f i n a l result of these 75 improvements could increase i t s loneliness, ^ and have a direct bearing on the exodus to the towns.  The extension of communications from the city  diverted the thoughts of most members of the population i n that direction. 76  The trade and population movement soon followed.  The large number of farm families situated near towns who had access to urban conveniences and s t i l l moved to live i n the city caused the Master of the Grange, Henry Glendenning, to doubt the beneficence of the impact of technology. In his speech to the Grange i n 1912, he noted that farmers of his age were much more independent than those of his father'.s. The farm telephone had come to replace personal communication.  Further ,  since rural areas could never keep up completely with the latest social conveniences of the towns, urban technology could perhaps slow down but never ultimately solve the problem of depopulation.  The more dedicated  79 r u r a l i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t "the farm as a mere r e p l i c a o f t h e c i t y , c a n be but a second r a t e i m i t a t i o n a f t e r a l l .  The r e a l , p o s i t i v e ,  dominating  i n f l u e n c e s t h a t w i l l h o l d p e o p l e t o t h e .land a r e t h e d i s t i n c t l y r u r a l and argicultural features....  The boys and g i r l s must be i n t e r e s t e d not i n  t h e c i t y f a c i l i t i e s t r a n s p l a n t e d on t h e c o u n t r y b u t i n t h e farm and c o u n t r y  77 itself." O n l y by p r e v e n t i n g t h e d e c r e a s e i n l o c a l c e n t r e s and by e n c o u r a g i n g d i s t i n c t l y r u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s could farmers maintain s o c i a l which would b o l s t e r c o u n t r y l i f e . o r g a n i z a t i o n s were needed.  No one d e n i e d t h a t r u r a l  social  D u r i n g t h e l e i s u r e l y w i n t e r e v e n i n g s , young  p e o p l e were t o l d t o "get out c f t h a t n a r r o w i n g groove. book-reading  institutions  I f there i s a l o c a l  c i r c l e , a r u r a l Canadian C l u b , a m u s i c a l s o c i e t y o r o t h e r  o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f young p e o p l e f o r m u t u a l improvement i n t h e l o c a l i t y , b y a l l means t a k e advantage  o f i t s membership and push i t a l o n g . "  w i t h t h e r u r a l y o u t h groups,  79  78  Along  t h e Grange c o u l d p r o v i d e an o r g a n i z a t i o n 80  which, w h i l e p o l i t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d , would s t i m u l a t e r u r a l s o c i a l  life.  R e v i v i n g t h e d i s a p p e a r i n g r u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as t h e s i n g i n g classes would be b e t t e r t h a n t h i r d - r a t e i m i t a t i o n s o f urban c o n c e r t s and l e c t u r e s 81 i n d e v e l o p i n g l o c a l t a l e n t and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t .  Farmers c o u l d "spend  many evenings e n j o y a b l y as w e l l as p r o f i t a b l y . . . a f f o r d i n g some e n t e r t a i n ment o t h e r t h a n t h a t t o be found i n p u b l i c houses where i n t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r s are  kept f o r s a l e . "  social life Nature  82  Teachers i n l o c a l communities c o u l d improve t hie e  by e n c o u r a g i n g and o r g a n i z i n g s o c i e t i e s f o r t h e i r  s t u d y meetings  pupils.  83  i n r u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as t h e Y.M.C.A. t o d i s -  c u s s s u b j e c t s such as ' P l a n t L i f e ' ,  'Bird L i f e ' ,  would be b o t h p r a c t i c a l and i n t e r e s t i n g welcomed t h e Y.M.C.A. because l e a d e r s around whom groups  'V/eather',  f o r countrymen.  4  'Bacteria,'  Agriculturists  i t s e c u r e d " e a r n e s t and competent  local  o f young men o r boys w i l l be formed and  80  everything done that i s found possible and practical to develop their 85  Rural libraries also f i l l e d the void in rural socialI l i f e 86 by encouraging reading and providing r e l i e f from winter-time monotony. interests...."  Travelling libraries set up by a Farmers' Institute should replace the village's Mechanics Libraries f i l l e d with the trashy material luring country87 men into the towns. The social pages of the rural journals promoted contests to discover the best method for organizing a rural liberary society, and out88 lined subjects for discussion i n this stay-at-home rural club. Distances were great, roads often poor, time always limited, yet "scattered over our farming districts are many who would appreciate to the f u l l the opportunity to exchange original ideas.  The younger men and women who have received  educational advantages and have wisely gone back to the farm need some mental 89 polishing to keep the rust spots from the mind's bright surface." In addition to a good library, every farmer's parlour should possess a musical instrument:  piano, organ, v i o l i n , mouth organ, accordion, zither or  90 mandolin.  Boys should be allowed to buy sports equipment and play with 91 their friends at home. A l l home entertainment promoted education, kept the family out of mischief, and developed a love of the farm which kept the 92 boys out of the c i t i e s . Socials and picnics provided a means of bringing the neighbourhood farmers together i n a social way.  "If mere outings 01 this nature could  be arranged," remarked the organizer of a picnic in South Renfrew, "the pleasure of living on the farm would be increased and there would be more unity of spirit among farmers i n matters i n which they have common 93 interests."  i  the same time  learned improved household methods. This gathering would  n  the ivemen's Institutes, wives came into contact and. at  81 r e l i e v e t h e d i s a f f e c t i o n o f many farmers'  wives.  94  Farmers who  organized  a l o c a l w i n t e r f a i r r e l i e v e d t h e monotony o f t h e c o l d season and p r o v i d e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s o c i a l i z e . good l o c a t i o n f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s .  debating  s o c i e t y , the Christmas  The s c h o o l b u i l d i n g was a  With l i t t l e  c o u l d use i t f o r a l i b r a r y , a p l a y h o u s e , and  95  e f f o r t , t h e community  or a meetingplace  entertainments,  for the l i t e r a r y  and Grange m e e t i n g s .  A b a s e b a l l diamond, swings, b a s k e t b a l l and t e n n i s c o u r t s s e t up i n t h e  96  grounds c o u l d be used a f t e r s c h o o l and d u r i n g t h e summer.  (iv) The plagued  proposed remedies f o r t h e problems o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n which  t h e country r a i s e d a curious question.  s a l e takeover  The e f f e c t o f t h e whole-  o f u r b a n c o n v e n i e n c e s and p r a c t i c e s by t h e c o u n t r y s i d e c o u l d  o n l y make r u r a l d i s t r i c t s more l i k e t h e towns i n o u t l o o k and l i f e I s o l a t i o n c o u l d be m i n i m i z e d by u s i n g m a i l o r d e r s , t e l e p h o n e s , r a d i a l s , and b e t t e r r o a d s , but t h e s e of  the old rural society.  style.  automobiles,  'improvements' r a n g t h e d e a t h  knell  S i m i l a r l y , household conveniences and genera-  t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s modelled a f t e r an urban i d e a l diminished t h e ' r u r a l ' character of the countryside. of  These r e s u l t s , i n f a c t , d i l u t e d t h e e f f e c t  t h e r e v i v a l o f t h e a g r a r i a n myth.  c r i t e r i a which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d farmers  While t h e a g r a r i a n terminology  s e t up  from townsmen, t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f  u r b a n c o n v e n i e n c e s i n c r e a s e d t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e two "Life F u r t h e r , when i t adopted urban i n n o v a t i o n s , t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  styles. population  depended on t h e towns f o r l e a d e r s h i p . Some r u r a l i s t s , however, q u e s t i o n i n g t h e b e n e f i c e n c e technology  i n a r u r a l s e t t i n g recognized  the f a c t that t e c h n i c a l l y , r u r a l l i f e e q u a l urban l i f e .  o f urban  i t s homogenizing c a p a b i l i t y and  c o u l d o n l y approximate but never  Once a farmer t a s t e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f an urban  82 e x i s t e n c e o f comparative ease, he would o f t e n net be s a t i s f i e d u n t i l he moved t o t h e c i t y t o l i v e . preventative f o r t h i s . questioned  A d i s t i n c t i v e r u r a l l i f e - s t y l e was t h e o n l y  Moreover, t h e men who doubted t e c h n o l o g y  t h e importance c f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n  i n causing  often  depopulation.  N e i t h e r d i s l i k e o f i s o l a t i o n n o r a c r a v i n g f o r companionship c o u l d e x p l a i n the continuing d e c l i n e , e s p e c i a l l y  since technology  had removed many  07 causes f o r c o m p l a i n t . ' 7  O n l y economic d i s a d v a n t a g e s c o u l d p o s s i b l y e x p l a i n  t h e c o n t i n u a l wearing away o f t h e r u r a l  population.  83 CHAPTER VI  "SUPPING WITH THE DEVIL"  :  'SALVATION' THROUGH PRODUCTION MARKETING AND  LABOUR  A l l a g r i c u l t u r a l opinion-makers agreed that economics played a r o l e i n explaining depopulation.  Increasing the returns of the  farmers  f o r t h e i r labour became, accordingly, an aim of a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l journals. Some believed that the farmers' adoption of prevalent urban business techniques could most e a s i l y increase p r o f i t s ; others, as w i l l be discussed i n another chapter, were convinced that the i n t r o d u c t i o n of these more e f f i c i e n t production methods would l i k e s o c i a l improvements u l t i m a t e l y end in futility.  They postulated that although they supported t e c h n i c a l  innovations as temporarily increasing p r o f i t s , a more fundamental r e organization of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth was necessary to put an end to the exodus from r u r a l a r e a s .  1  (i) Despite the most scrupulous economy and unremitting t o i l , a l l agreed that a g r i c u l t u r i s t s managed only to eke out a bare existence. was,  complained r u r a l labourers, "no harder-earned  There  d o l l a r today than that  2  earned by the farmer."  Sydney Fisher, the Federal M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  bolstered t h i s assertion by t e l l i n g the Ontario Dairymen that people  left  3 the countryside because they could make more and easier money i n the c i t y . The Ontario Department of A g r i c u l t u r e agreed with i t s counterpart.  Its  spokesmen reiterated that the future of a g r i c u l t u r e would "depend upcn i t s being made p r o f i t a b l e , and i f we can keep the p r o f i t s increasing upon the farms of t h i s country, there w i l l not be any great movement from the  84 country t o the c i t y . "  4  One young farmer reported that his elders advised  him not to go West but to "go t o the c i t y and don't farm; f o r on the farm  5 there i s l o t s of hard work and mighty poor pay." a g r i c u l t u r a l neophyte who  Years passed before an  started as a hired hand could accumulate enough  money f o r a down payment on land and implements.  Many more years of hard  6 work were needed before he could be c l e a r of debt. Series of a r t i c l e s emphasized the theme that the decrease i n a g r i c u l t u r a l population had 7  resulted from inadequate p r o f i t s .  Professors from the Ontario A g r i c u l -  t u r a l College agreed with t h i s assessment.  E d i t o r i a l s concluded that  "the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of c u l t i v a t i n g the s o i l and i t s power to a t t r a c t c a p i t a l o and labor must be increased...." i n order t o prevent t o t a l r u r a l collapse. Given i t s other advantages, " i f farming were as p r o f i t a b l e as other enterprises,...people w i l l f l o c k to the land and display ample s k i l l as w e l l as a love f o r the f r u i t f u l s o i l . "  1 0  The vaunted advantages  of r u r a l  l i f e , however, could not compensate f o r the p r o f i t s of the c i t y .  "People,"  the r e a l i s t s believed, cannot l i v e on b e a u t i f u l scenery, fresh a i r leaded /.sic/ with the scent c f apple blossoms and water, be i t ever so.pure. While these, with conveniences not being enjoyed, are factors towards improving conditions, they are not l i f e i t s e l f . They may aid i n throwing a g r i c u l ture i n t o a new l i g h t , but they are not destined t o be the fundamental cause of the changed conditions which are coming. I f the majority of our farm boys are to make farming t h e i r occupation, they must see i n i t an a t t r a c t i v e l i f e and the greatest incentive to the young man i s a f a i r and sure p r o f i t on h i s operations. 11 (ii) The phrase " i n d u s t r i a l business e f f i c i e n c y " became the hallmark of the a g r i c u l t u r a l opinion-makers who as the best course f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  saw adaptation to i n d u s t r i a l society  The farmer increased his chances f o r 13  a p r o f i t i f he became a "speculative," business-style a g r i c u l t u r i s t .  J  85 Manufacturers had c a r e f u l l y developed e f f i c i e n c y i n t h e i r factory methods through long years c f t r i a l and e r r o r . farm, they ought to be used t h e r e . 'business' farmer.  I f these were applicable t o the  A t o t a l change i n outlook marked the  He regarded h i s cows and farm animals as machines rather  than as "Dolly" and "Bess".  Once t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y declined, they were  replaced. For  t h i s group, depopulation was an e f f i c i e n t r e s u l t of the growing  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of farm techniques; they believed that the exodus could be halted at the desired point by a greater a p p l i c a t i o n of urban i n d u s t r i a l methods t o a g r i c u l t u r e .  Urbanization, f o r them, both caused and solved the  problems associated with depopulation of the countryside. They r a t i o n a l ized the problems raised by the exodus from the country.  Efficiency  could not be achieved i f a l l those who had been born and raised on the farms remained i n a g r i c u l t u r e f o r the rest of t h e i r l i v e s .  "A Gladstone  should not spend h i s l i f e behind a plough, nor a Lincoln s p l i t t i n g r a i l s . . . . " they argued.  Many farmers marked time i n a g r i c u l t u r e when they  could have achieved greatness elsewhere."^ This a t t i t u d e accompanied a Darwinian b e l i e f that those who moved to the towns were those most u n f i t t e d f o r a l i f e i n a g r i c u l t u r e . i s a man's job....  "Farming  It i s a business requiring the greatest industry, the  keenest i n t e l l e c t and the best t r a i n i n g of a l l professions."  Those who did 15  not possess the required a t t r i b u t e s were better o f f i n the towns. Since there was not enough land i n Ontario f o r a l l farmers' sons, some of the young-must leave the homestead to carve out new places i n town or out West. ^ 1  The increasing d i v i s i o n c f labour drove the r u r a l population t o  the c i t i e s ; no longer d i d the previously e s s e n t i a l labour need to t i l l 17 the f i e l d s , to spin and weave or t o bake bread.  This logic forced  marginal areas as w e l l as marginal people to adopt a r a t i o n a l usage.  86 Areas which ought never to have been cultivated had t o be returned to 18 pasture as the s o i l , worn cut, was choked with weeds. fewer farmers produced more food.  In such cases,  Systematized a g r i c u l t u r e meant fewer  drones since- the residue remaining on the farms worked at a higher capacity and e f f i c i e n c y .  These arguments exuded the progressivist b e l i e f that  sentimental opposition to depopulation mistakenly attempted  t o halt  processes which ultimately resulted i n the economic betterment of the i n d i v i d u a l and the best interests of society. The promoters of r a t i o n a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e retained the opinion that those necessary f o r the production of the food required to maintain the population ought to stay on the farms.  They feared that depopulation, i f  not checked, could lead to a dearth of s u p p l i e s . Accordingly, they encouraged schemes f o r r a t i o n a l i z i n g farm labour.  These would end the  drudgery of farming and would r a i s e the a g r i c u l t u r a l occupation i n r u r a l estimation.  D i f f u s i n g knowledge of the l a t e s t farm methods would lead to  the adoption of practices which by increasing p r o f i t s would encourage a stable farm population.  Just as urban professionals needed s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g  to prepare f o r t h e i r occupations, the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , through the lower 20 21 schools, p r a c t i c a l t r a v e l l i n g demonstrations, the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College,  22  farm journals and magazines,  23 J  a  2L home a g r i c u l t u r a l l i b r a r y , ^  professional organizations, '' experimental f a r m s , ^ 2  ... facilities methods.  a n  d other extension  27 could gain more p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge of improved business This group believed that "the day has gone by when the s e l f -  made man can make the greatest success i n a g r i c u l t u r e . . . .  Practical  experience counts f o r more i n a g r i c u l t u r e than any other profession, but i t w i l l not do everything.... Today, s c i e n t i f i c practice must go hand i n hand _ _ 28 /with p r a c t i c a l experience/."  87 A g r i c u l t u r a l magazines p r o v i d e d and  i n overwhelming d e t a i l t h e  s c i e n t i f i c knowledge f o r i n c r e a s i n g farm r e t u r n s .  Farmers l e a r n e d  advantages o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and  the d i v i s i o n of labour.  age,  excepted from t h e i r e f f e c t s .  t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s were not  as w e l l as most l a n d , was  fruit  the  Most  men, A  complementary a c t i v i t i e s such as d a i r y i n g  growing i n h i s s p e c i a l t y .  s p e c i a l t i e s a l l c o u l d make q u i c k Extending  the  master a l l branches o f a g r i c u l t u r e , a l t h o u g h  he c o u l d sometimes i n c l u d e two and  Themes o f  s u i t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r form o f f a r m i n g .  farmer c o u l d not t h o r o u g h l y  practical  Along with beekeeping,  these  profits.^  t h i s argument, • r a t i o n a l i s t s ' concluded  that  agricul-  t u r i s t s c o u l d g a i n t h e most money from t h e i r s p e c i a l t y by i n t e n s i v e l y farming  their land.  Smaller  farms, b e t t e r worked, would b r i n g  p r o f i t s than p a r t l y c u l t i v a t e d subdivided support  l a r g e farms.  i n t o s m a l l e r h o l d i n g s and  higher  Large a c r e a g e s near c i t i e s i f  cultivated  f o r market g a r d e n i n g  the r i g h t d e n s i t y of population f o r increased s o c i a l  T h i s t y p e o f a g r i c u l t u r e would r e t u r n t o the l a n d t h o s e who  would  contact. had  not  enjoyed  30 town l i f e but who  c o u l d not a f f o r d a l a r g e farm.  Intensive farming, i t s  promoters b e l i e v e d , was t h e most p r o f i t a b l e b r a n c h o f a g r i c u l t u r e . I t would i n e v i t a b l y spread t h r o u g h o u t the E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s as t h e growing  31 p o p u l a t i o n put provided  increased pressure  on t h e c u l t i v a b l e l a n d .  Fruit  growing  a good example o f a s u c c e s s f u l c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s  of  32 i n t e n s i v e farming  and  specialization.  Even i n s t o c k - r a i s i n g , by  i z i n g i n pure-bred s t o c k , a farmer i n c r e a s e d r e t u r n s and  special-  encouraged h i s  33 boy's i n t e r e s t i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e . produced s e t s t a n d a r d s of q u a l i t y and p r i c e .  The p r o d u c t s t h i s system Higher r e t u r n s provided  34 g r e a t e r i n c e n t i v e s t o remain on t h e s o i l .  In W e l l a n d County,  a g r i c u l t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s caused a r e t u r n t o the l a n d , and i n r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n near urban c e n t r e s  other  these increases  suggested t h i s r e s u l t c o u l d  solve  88  35  'The Problem.'  J  Copying urban techniques of book-keeping and production records was another form of this 'New Agriculture' r u r a l farm businesses from the c i t y .  imported  The modernizers believed these could raise profits by 36  showing the farmer where to expend his efforts most profitably.  Measures  promoting quality control pointed to an urban systematizing and rationali z i n g influence. These efforts included persuading butter-makers that uniform methods and pasteurization, as w e l l as new tests for tuberculosis 37  i n milk, could only help the a g r i c u l t u r i s t .  Ontario had been divided 38  into various d i s t r i c t s for inspection of cheese factories,  and the  farmers wanted to have cheese and butter factories licensed to promote 39  better quality.  I f milk were more closely inspected i n the c i t i e s ,  a g r i c u l t u r i s t s would be forced, to pay more attention to the improvement of t h e i r herds,^  other agitation to regulate poor methods included efforts 41  to have more stringent weed inspection schemes established. Co-operation i n buying and s e l l i n g was among the most attractive of the efforts to systematize agriculture.  This innovation occupies a peculiar  position compared to the other business principles. business  1  By following big  example of competing on one l e v e l and co-operating on another,  the farmer could assure himself of greater returns. The radicals saw co-operation as a means of farm combination to break the power of the 42  middlemen and manufacturers over the individual farmer.  i t was, for them,  a part of a general mobilization of agriculture to gain i t s economic rights. Co-operation could also be a purely business enterprise to s e l l when prices were high and buy i n quantity when costs were down. The experience of the Grange's co-operative ventures suggested that most farmers supported cooperatives only when they proved to be economically advantageous and that they deserted these enterprises when competing businessmen cut their prices.  89 George Creelman, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , p o i n t e d out t o S i r John W i l l i s o n , E d i t o r o f t h e T o r o n t o News, t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n was p r o b a b l y o u r most p r e s s i n g need a t t h e present t i m e — not so much a s t o c u t out t h e middleman and t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g , but t h a t a l l t h e people might have peaches, w h i l e peaches a r e r o t t i n g i n Niagara...and a l l o f o u r l a n d s might be u n d e r d r a i n e d i f o u r farmers would combine t o purchase d i t c h i n g machines. 43 These c o - o p e r a t i v e s  c o u l d be o r g a n i z e d  i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h urban consumers  and were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a n t i - u r b a n . ^  They ought, b e l i e v e d t h e moderate  group, t o c o n f i n e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s t o n o n - c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s . p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s i n t o t h e i r business of co-operatives  operations  f o r t h e f a r m community.  impaired  Intrusion of the usefulness  D a i r y co-ops showed t h e p o s s i b l e  46 achievements o f c o - o p e r a t i o n Fruit-growing,  i n r a t i o n a l i z i n g p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n .  a n o t h e r branch o f f a r m i n g  noted f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o -  o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s , i n c r e a s e d farmer p r o f i t . co-operative  The growers s e t up a c e n t r a l  body, The F r u i t Growers o f O n t a r i o , f o r b u y i n g  s e l l i n g t h e i r products. S t . Catharines  Some f r u i t - g r o w e r s had a c o l d - s t o r a g e p l a n t a t  t o s t o r e and s h i p t h e i r f r u i t  bulk shipping r a t e s .  and g e t s p e c i a l d i s c o u n t s on  The head o f t h e F r u i t D i v i s i o n o f t h e Department o f  A g r i c u l t u r e a t Ottawa suggested t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e i n c l u d e canning  factories.  poultry co-operatives, institutions,51  a  s  w  e  _ i  s u p p l i e s and  50  a  s  48  system be extended t o  Proposed c o - o p e r a t i v e s  r u r a l telephone  49  involved laundries,  companies and a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t  g e n e r a l l a r g e - s c a l e buying  and s e l l i n g  52 companies. (iii) Business  methods and sy-stematiz at i o n extended beyond t h e market-  p l a c e i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e farmers and t h e i r h i r e d h e l p .  High  wages d i d net r e s u l t f r o m t h e l a b o u r e r s ' a b i l i t y t o e x t o r t money from t h e  90  employers; but arose from the agriculturists' labour worth i t s cost.  i n a b i l i t y to make their  Farmers ought to adapt their methods to get maximum 53  returns from the available labour.  The farmer's unbusinesslike attitude  towards his hired man showed i n the poor working c o n d i t i o n s . ^ Lack of regular work drove the hired men t o the towns. The more congenial and steadier conditions of labouring l i f e i n the c i t y meant that no hired man would w i l l i n g l y undergo extra uncertainty and hardship to re55 main on the farm.  J  The hired man, engaged only for a few months during  the busy season, had to remain i d l e or seek employment i n some other l i n e for the remainder of the year.  Seeing nothing i n farm l i f e to induce him  to remain he drifted to the c i t y , or took up land for himself i n a new district.  The farmer i n older d i s t r i c t s had d i f f i c u l t y i n getting suf-  f i c i e n t help during the busy season properly to carry on the work of his 56  farm.  i t took a few seasons to t r a i n a foreigner unacquainted with  Canadian techniques.  Wages for the immigrant worker were seldom as high  as the immigration agents pictured them, and many dishonest farmers gypped workers out of their pay.  The holiday issue, another contentious  often led t o a hired man's discontent.  question,  He had l i t t l e time off I f he were  forced to do chores every day while his boss hitched up and went off t o the 57  f a i r or t o town and l e f t him a l l the work. ' Once a man moved to the towns, there was l i t t l e an employer could do t o get him back cn the farm. Too many farmers engaging a hired man approached the contract by t r y i n g t o get as many hours of work as possible at the least cost.  They  could not be persuaded that i t was not the man who put i n the longest hours who rendered the best service to his employer.  I f the "day's service  begins with sunrise and ends with sunset, a young man and an old man...will 58  hesitate to make a year or s i x months' engagement...." Frequently, apart from his farm work, a hired man was expected to put i n four extra hours  91 per day on c h o r e s . "One  Little  e l s e proved as annoying t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f men.  r e a s o n why many a young man p r e f e r s t h e c i t y t o t h e c o u n t r y i s  because working  hours t h e r e a r e more r e g u l a r and a f f o r d an hour o r two f o r  r e a d i n g c r r e l a x a t i o n i n t h e e v e n i n g , " b e l i e v e d many o b s e r v e r s .  Nothing  a g g r a v a t e d t h e l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s q u e s t i o n more t h a n t h e i n d e f i n i t e hours  working  i n vogue on t h e f a r m s . ^ As t h e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e h i r e d man changed, he was no l o n g e r  q u i t e as a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e f a m i l y as i n e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n s .  Previously,  t h e h i r e d man, t h e son o f a n e i g h b o u r , t r i e d t o save up enough money t o s t a r t a f a r m o f h i s own. member o f t h e f a m i l y .  On t h e same f o o t i n g a s h i s employer, he became a  By 1 9 0 0 , however, t h e h i r e d man was becoming a member  of  a c l a s s a p a r t and n o t s o c i a l l y e q u a l t o t h e f a m i l y . ' The f a m i l y d e s i r e d  to  have t h e i r home t o themselves  while  'the Man' r e s e n t e d h a v i n g t o t a k e  an i n f e r i o r p l a c e a l t h o u g h he l i v e d i n t h e f a m i l y ' s house.^*  He was f o r c e d  i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s employer f o r more t h a n t h e t e n hours a day which prevailed  i n t h e towns.  He had no s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e ; i n extreme cases he  was " c u r s e d and sworn a t a l l t h e t i m e . . . . "  He was a l a b o u r e r .twenty-four  hours a day, never an i n d i v i d u a l . The  farmer u s u a l l y t r e a t e d h i s h i r e d man f a i r l y as f a r as t h e  terms o f employment were concerned.  T h i s made l i t t l e  d i f f e r e n c e t o many  63 h i r e d men f o r h e l p was so s c a r c e t h a t t h e y had t h e i r c h o i c e o f b o s s e s . The r u r a l propaganda machine p r o v i d e d many employers w i t h arguments t o sway t h e i r l a b o u r e r s t c s t a y w i t h them.  The s t r e n u o u s work i n t h e  f a c t o r i e s compared u n f a v o u r a b l y t o t h e h e a l t h f u l c o u n t r y l i f e . ^  Farm  l a b o u r e r s ought t o understand t h a t weather and o t h e r f a c t o r s r u l e d t h e farmer's work s c h e d u l e .  B e s i d e s , t h e h i r e d man was b e t t e r employed on t h e  f a r m t h a n i n " l o u n g i n g around  h o t e l s , and i n company t h a t o n l y  depraves...."  92  such as the-town mechanics. fault.  Feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y were the man's own  65  A l l these arguments were used t o convince the hired men of the  importance of the Canadian farming c l a s s .  6 6  Apart from reasserting the agrarian philosophy, the r u r a l employers took measures t o remedy the complaints by reducing the informal i t y of the hired man's tenure.  They formalized the employer-employee  relations so that these became very similar to those prevailing i n urban industries.  The desire to make the profession more business-like and  increase the productivity of labour promoted t h i s outlook.  The customs of  the previous f o r t y years no longer pertained to the prevailing labour relationship. schedule.  Farmers ought t o introduce a more r i g i d l y defined work  Definite hours gave the hired man a better idea of his free  time so that he had no cause to f e e l overworked. Men were inclined to work extra hours when needed and the position of farmer's helper became more attractive compared t o the factories. ' Hiring a man for a f u l l year and spreading the available work over a longer period of time reduced the insecurity of a hired man. More men could be induced t o remain i n the • 68 country. The a g r i c u l t u r i s t would profit by having a man available the 6 9  whole time even i f he were f j 4 i occasionally. ' Better l i v i n g accome  modation for the hired man and his spouse countered the attraction of the privacy they found i n c i t y l i f e .  Supplemented by a plot of land and a cow, 70  these arrangements made a man's l i f e more contented and secure.  They  cost the farmer less than the often-scarce equivalent i n cash wages. S o c i a l relations between the farmer and his hired hand would be on firmer ground for neither could intrude cn the other's privacy. With t h i s separation, formalization of labour relationships could proceed more easily. 71  The outlay necessary was a "good investment."  93 P r a c t i c a l l y and e f f i c i e n t l y , farmers bent t h e i r e n e r g i e s towards i n c r e a s i n g t h e s u p p l y o f farm l a b o u r and, t h e r e f o r e , r e d u c i n g wages t o l e v e l s which r u r a l employers b e l i e v e d t h e y c o u l d a f f o r d . b u s i n e s s p r i n c i p l e o f 'supply and demand,  1  they t r i e d t o i n c r e a s e the labour  s u p p l y so t h a t p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e s c o u l d be r e t a i n e d . proposed The  t h a t more immigrant farm l a b o u r e r s be a l l o w e d  j o u r n a l s complained  t h a t immigration  t u r a l workers, had brought  Farm employers i n t o Canada t o work.  agencies, forgetting the a g r i c u l -  o n l y t h e urban c l a s s e s from t h e B r i t i s h  Urban immigrants r e f u s e d t h e f a r m e r s '  Lading  e x p e r i e n c e , t h e y were  i n any c a s e , o r e l s e t h e farm immigrants t o  Canada f r e q u e n t l y moved t o t h e West.  Farmers b e l i e v e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l  government ought t o s e t up o f f i c e s i n Great B r i t a i n t o a t t r a c t  labourers t o  t h e r u r a l a r e a s and t o i n c r e a s e a s s i s t a n c e t o t h i s d e s i r a b l e group. The  Isles.  o f f e r s o f work and would t a k e any  k i n d o f j o b j u s t t o remain i n t h e c i t i e s . ? 5 o f l i t t l e use t o farmers  Using the  77  hunger o f a g r i c u l t u r i s t s f o r l a b o u r became so g r e a t t h a t t h e y  were w i l l i n g t o r e l a x t h e r a c e r e s t r i c t i o n s on p r o s p e c t i v e Canadian  citizens.  I n a scene r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e C.P.R.'s i m p o r t a t i o n o f n a v v i e s t o b u i l d t h e r a i l r o a d , The Farming World suggested farm workers.  a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e Chinese as  A s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t f o l l o w e d by m i g r a t i o n t o O n t a r i o would  s o l v e t h e l a b o u r s h o r t a g e as w e l l as B r i t i s h Columbia's r a c e problems. I n s t e a d o f a head t a x on t h e Chinese  immigrants,  t h e paper urged  indentured  78 s e r v i c e f o r each o f t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r s on a Canadian farm.  This  s u g g e s t i o n c r e a t e d g r e a t r e a d e r i n t e r e s t , t h e paper r e p o r t e d l a t e r . e d i t o r concluded  The  t h a t " t h e more one t h i n k s ever t h e m a t t e r , t h e more one  i s i n c l i n e d t o t h e view t h a t t h e Chinaman might h e l p t o s o l v e t h e f a r m h e l p problem which has reached Canada."  79  such an a c u t e s t a g e i n t h e o l d e r p a r t s o f  T h i s c o l d - b l o o d e d l y economic s u g g e s t i o n  80  was extended t o t h e  94 Negroes and  t h e Hindus.  O c c a s i o n a l l y , c h a r i t a b l e statements remarked  t h a t immigrants c o u lLd d :make O n t a r i o "what i t should be" assimilated quickly. Different  82  i f thev could  be  83  o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e t up  schemes t o s e c u r e t h e  d e s i r e d by t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l employers.  Canadian farmers c o u l d h i r e young  B r i t i s h e r s and t e a c h them Canadian farm methods. C o l o n i z a t i o n published advertisements  immigrants  The  O n t a r i o Bureau o f  i n the f a r m j o u r n a l s o f f e r i n g f o r  gr h i r e the E n g l i s h labourers i t a s s i s t e d .  The  S a l v a t i o n Army  arranged  f o r thousands o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s t o be t r a n s p o r t e d t o Canada, Cunard L i n e s opened an i m m i g r a t i o n and  department t o d e a l w i t h farm  labour,  t h e Boys' Farmer League a d v e r t i s e d i t s s u p p l y o f l a b o u r e r s . ^  Central Emigration  Board c f G r e a t  B r i t a i n announced i n 1907  b r i n g B r i t i s h unemployed t o work a s Canadian farm h e l p e r s . shortage,  while  The  t h a t i t would  88  however, o u t s t r i p p e d a l l t h e e f f o r t s t o r e l i e v e i t .  The  labour  89  (iv) The  prophets o f t h e "New  t e c h n i c a l i n v e n t i o n s t o farming  A g r i c u l t u r e " saw  a p p l i c a t i o n o f urban  as a major r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f  t u r a l methods which would r a i s e income.  Efficient  agricul-  l a n d use r e s u l t e d from  g r e a t e r m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e as v / e l l as from s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n t e n s i v e farming.  Mechanization  i n s t e a d of a cause. shortage  c o u l d be a s o l u t i o n t o "The  Through e x t e n s i v e use  c o u l d be made b e a r a b l e  farm would be p l e a s a n t  or be  and  Problem"  o f machines, t h e h i r e d  labour  overcome, and working l i f e on  the  enough t o overcome t h e r u r a l f a m i l y ' s d e s i r e t o  90 move townward.  The  proponents o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n b e l i e v e d t h a t  the  i n t e r e s t s o f every farmer demanded t h a t he buy t h e machinery which would save him t h e most l a b o u r and maintenance.  As  e a r l y as  cause him  1900,  least trouble i n i n s t a l l a t i o n  and  f a r m e r s asked, "What i s t o become o f  the  95 h i r e d man?"  Would  he  soon pass away and become e x t i n c t , o r w i l l he s t i l l be f o u n d , a c u r i o u s o c c a s i o n a l specimen o f a d e p a r t e d genus? The i n v e n t o r s have been t r y i n g t o r e t i r e him t o t h e bench t h i s summer. I n s w i f t s u c c e s s i o n , have appeared i n t h e pages o f t h e _ P a t e n t O f f i c e G a z e t t e , cow-milkers, a u t h c m a t i c _ s i c / w a t e r i n g t r o u g h s , a u t h o m a t i c f e e d b i n s , f e n c e machines, c o r n h u s k e r s , c o r n p i c k e r s , pea and bean h a r v e s t e r s , c o t t o n p i c k e r s , p o t a t o d i g g e r s and e v e r y s o r t o f seed o r v e g e t a b l e p l a n t e r . None o f them want t o borrow t h e buggy Sunday o r demand p i e . 91 No  l o n g e r d i d t h e farmer have t o t r u d g e  team a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e day and  home from t h e f i e l d s behind  see b e f o r e him  m u l t i t u d e o f s m a l l j o b s which had  t o be done.  around t h e house, b a r n and y a r d t o o k t i m e and  his  only the prospect  of a  These never-ending  jobs  labour.  Water had t o  be  pumped, s t o c k f e d , s t a b l e s c l e a n e d , wood sawed, v a r i o u s machines r u n  by  92 hand o r by s u p e r v i s e d horse-power. but  E f f i c i e n t new  o f f e r a much g r e a t e r r e t u r n f o r i n f i n i t e l y l e s s  machinery c o u l d  not  labour.  A l l t y p e s o f machinery were p o p u l a r i z e d t h r o u g h t h e r u r a l p r e s s i n  93 t h e y e a r s b e f o r e t h e G r e a t War.  The number of implement  increased g r e a t l y .  f e l t , had  P r i c e s , i t was  t o value received. ^  The machines f o r use  mechanical m i l k i n g d e v i c e s , b u i l d i n g s o f the such as mowers, f i e l d drainage agriculturist  9 5  97  on t h e farm i n c l u d e d t h e  b i n d e r s and  .100  manure c a r r i e r s ,  equipment and  proportionately  along with f r u i t t r e e s p r a y e r s ,  proper d e s i g n ,  99  decreased  advertisements  i n more e f f i c i e n t  While t h e s e a l l a i d e d  production, the  t h e g r e a t e s t p u b l i c i t y as a boon t o f a r m e r s .  farm  machines  steam powered machinery,  102  ditchers,  assorted f i e l d  9 6  101  98 and  the  g a s o l i n e motor r e c e i v e d  I t was  t h e newest,  cheapest  103 farmer's  power.  i t c o u l d be used t o pump v.-ater, r u n t h r e s h i n g machines  or cream s e p a r a t o r s , saw  wood, g r i n d t o o l s , mow  t h e newest form of t r a c t o r , t o p e r f o r m  g r a i n and, when d r i v i n g  t h e work o f a plough  horse.  In  t h e more i s o l a t e d a r e a s , t h e g a s o l i n e motor c o u l d produce t h r o u g h a 105  96  g e n e r a t o r a l l t h e e l e c t r i c i t y r e q u i r e d f o r t h e house and b a r n . E l e c t r i c i t y from g e n e r a t o r s o r r u r a l power l i n e s p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r s o u r c e of  power which, when tapped, would b r i n g as many advantages  to agriculture  as t h e e l e c t r i c motor."'""*' 0  I n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y o f l a b o u r and i n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s r e s u l t e d n o t o n l y from t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v i c e s i n v e n t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e farm o r t h o s e used d i r e c t l y f o r work p u r p o s e s . c i t i e s which improved economically.  The imported t e c h n o l o g y o f t h e  r u r a l s o c i a l conditions also aided the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s  While good r o a d s , f o r example, improved  social  interaction  among t h e f a r m p o p u l a t i o n , t h e y a l s o i n c r e a s e d the f a r m e r s ' economic r e t u r n s by a l l o w i n g e a s i e r and cheaper communication w i t h and t r a n s p o r t a 107 108 t i o n t o t h e market c e n t r e s . The r a d i a l r a i l w a y s , mail delivery systems,  ^ telephones,*'"'''*' and t h e automobile,"'""'"'" were among t h e o t h e r  t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v i c e s which  saved t i m e , money and l a b o u r , t h e r e b y i n -  creasing the p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f agriculture.  (v) These m e c h a n i c a l improvements gave a g r i c u l t u r i s t s a b e t t e r tunity to increase their p r o f i t s .  oppor-  The economic s i t u a t i o n , as we have seen,  c o u l d a l s o be improved  by farmers c o p y i n g urban b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e s and .  labour r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  As a r e s u l t  for  o f t h e s e d e v i c e s , t h e economic reasons  t h e movement townward from t h e back c o n c e s s i o n l i n e s c o u l d be d e c r e a s e d .  The r e s u l t o f t h i s f u l l s c a l e a d o p t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s o f urban and  s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n c o u l d n o t but c a r r y w i t h i t an i n t e g r a t i o n o f r u r a l  and urban l i f e  s t y l e s , e s p e c i a l l y because o f t h e impetus  a p a r a l l e l s o c i a l movement. the  efficiency  i t received  from  As t h e farmer became a s much a businessman  hardware merchant o r shoe m a n u f a c t u r e r , he became l e s s t h e man o f  as  97  n a t u r e and more independent o f t h e n a t u r a l f o r c e s which had h i t h e r t o  ruled  his  life.  As t h e f a r m e r l o s t h i s economic independence, he s p e c i a l i z e d  his  p r o d u c t i o n and was i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e urban, i n d u s t r i a l economy o f  the  cities.  He produced f o r t h e i r markets and consumed t h e i r  The s p l i t  products.  i n t h e ranks o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l opinion-makers o v e r t h e  u l t i m a t e v a l u e o f t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n widened.  Those who s u p p o r t e d t h e  i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t s p o s s i b l e by u s i n g u r b a n t e c h n o l o g y i n r u r a l a r e a s maintained t h a t countrymen.  e c o n o m i c a l l y , t e c h n o l o g y and i n t e g r a t i o n would b e n e f i t t h e  Those who viewed t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n  c a l l y , doubted t h e s e economic improvements  skepti-  could stop depopulation.  i n s i s t e d t h a t p r o d u c t i o n advances would u l t i m a t e l y be f u t i l e  They  i n halting  d e p o p u l a t i o n u n l e s s t h e y were accompanied by more fundamental d i s t r i b u t i o n a l reforms."'"'^  98 CHAPTER V I I •EDENTIFYIKG THE  ENEMY:  DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH AND  THE  MOVEMENT  TOWARDS POLITICAL ACTION  A c c e p t i n g t h e argument f o r economic c a u s a t i o n , a s t r o n g group o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l e l i t e b e l i e v e d t h a t any  r e f o r m movement t o put an end  •The Problem' must c o r r e c t worsening and  fundamental i n e q u i t i e s i n t h e  system o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h . W.  C. Good, E . C. D r u r y , and W.  H. B. Cowan o f Farm and  p o p u l a t i o n c f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e l a y i n t h e growth and i n d u s t r y , and  the gap  joined  s o l u t i o n t o the concentration  i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f modern economic a c t i v i t i e s .  a l l t h e m a t e r i a l advances.of t h e age,  de-  of Despite  between t h e m a t e r i a l p o s i t i o n  o f t h e p r o s p e r o u s farm and t h e u r b a n businessman widened between t h e  Dairy,  L. S m i t h , e d i t o r o f The Weekly Sun,  f o r c e s w i t h t h e Grange t o a s s e r t t h a t both cause and  considerably  1380's and t h e decade f o l l o w i n g t h e t u r n o f t h e  century.  1  W h i l e t h e Grange a t t h e t i m e o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n promoted e d u c a t i o n a l technological  to  and  reforms,  no farm o r g a n i z a t i o n of l a t e r d a t e / p o s t 1 8 8 0 / s e r i o u s l y a c c e p t e d t h e view t h a t p r o d u c t i o n q u e s t i o n s were an a p p r o p r i a t e f i e l d o f study f o r t h e o r g a n i z e d f a r m e r s . Farm spokesmen c h a l l e n g e d t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s sponsored by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government because t h e y d i v e r t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n c f farm p e o p l e t o problems o f p r o d u c t i o n when t h e r e a l problems were t h o s e c f d i s t r i bution. I t was not knowledge o f the laws o f t h e market which was e s s e n t i a l i f f a r m people were t o get a j u s t r e t u r n f o r t h e i r labour. The most important  method o f e d u c a t i o n which farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s  undertake would be t o f o s t e r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g economy.  Once farmers u n d e r s t o o d how  could  of the f u n c t i o n i n g of  t h e y were b e i n g  the  e x p l o i t e d , they 2  would r i s e and The  demand an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h .  o n l y f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o end t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n i n v o l v e d  o r g a n i z i n g t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s t o f o r c e changes i n l e g i s l a t i v e  programmes.  99 Once t h e  e x t e r n a l economic i n e q u i t i e s had  been r e s o l v e d , t e c h n i c a l and  social  3 questions  would r e s o l v e t h e m s e l v e s .  Farm and D a i r y  A s p e c i a l a r t i c l e by the e d i t o r o f  asked  what improvement i n m a t e r i a l or s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i s needed most u r g e n t l y by t h e farmers o f Canada? The answer i s becoming c l e a r e r e v e r y day. It i s a greater c o n t r o l e v e r t h o s e i n f l u e n c e s o f f t h e f a r m which l a r g e l y c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s cn t h e farm.... Transa c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r / l o s s o f r u r a l power/ a r e p i l i n g up such burdens on t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e farm w h i l e c o n c e n t r a t i n g immense i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s i n our towns and c i t i e s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e need t o wonder why r u r a l d e p o p u l a t i o n proceeds apace. 4 To c o r r e c t t h e s e i n j u s t i c e s wrought upon the organized  a c t i o n was  f a r m by o u t s i d e  sources,  needed. (i)  The upon t h e old  r a d i c a l s e c t i o n o f t h e r u r a l opinion-makers r e j e c t e d r e l i a n c e  s e l f - h e l p and  systems m o d i f i e d  minimally.  make-do p h i l o s o p h y  which prompted c o n t i n u a n c e of  by i n t r o d u c i n g b u s i n e s s p r i n c i p l e s t o i n c r e a s e  I n t h e i r eyes, c o - o p e r a t i o n ,  the  returns  intensive cultivation, specializa-  t i o n , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance d i d l i t t l e t o smooth t h e farmer's r o c k y path t o p r o f i t s l o r d ' s and  strewn w i t h t h e b o u l d e r s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c h a r g e s ,  middleman's p r o f i t s and  a farm a u d i e n c e t h a t  market r e s t r i c t i o n s .  farm improvements worsened t h e  land-  E. C. D r u r y t o l d  labour  shortage  by  5 i n c r e a s i n g the need f o r manpower.  W.  C. Good p o i n t e d  out t h a t  farm 6  improvements had  not  resulted m  higher  production  and  lower c o s t s .  V/. L. Smith remarked t h a t a l t h o u g h e v e r y i n v e n t i o n a v a i l a b l e from 1891 1911  should  t i n u i n g and The it  r e s u l t i n an  easier l i f e  disastrous decline i n  on the  i n q u i r e d The  a con-  population.  farmer's sense of g r i e v a n c e  e v e r o c c u r t o you,"  farms, t h o s e y e a r s saw  to  encompassed most urban groups.  Farmer's Advocate, t h a t  "Did  100 t h e farmer i s the l a s t man i n t h e row? A f t e r e v e r y body e l s e from t h e banker, the r a i l r o a d man, t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r , t h e merchant and t h e s p e c u l a t o r , down t o t h e t r a d e u n i o n i s t has t a k e n what he can g e t , t h e farmer t a k e s what's l e f t . E v e r y important c l a s s , except t h e farmer, has more or l e s s t o do w i t h naming t h e p r i c e c f h i s p r o d u c t . The farmer has t o t a k e what i s o f f e r e d or l e t h i s produce s p o i l . . . . His c h i e f hope o f i n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s l i e s i n t h i n n i n g o f h i s numbers t h r o u g h s t r e s s o f c i r c u m s t a n c e . . . . E v e n t u a l l y , however, enough d r i f t away from i t / f a r m i n g / t o l e s s e n c o m p e t i t i o n p r i c e s f o r farm produce advance a peg and a n o t h e r f a c t o r among many i s added t o t h e c i t i z e n ' s h i g h c o s t c f l i v i n g . Where w i l l i t end? 7 A n t i - u r b a n i s m grew.  The  s e a t o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e ' s problems l a y i n t h e  m e t r o p o l i s and i t s economic c o n t r o l o v e r t h e farm. f r o n t a t i o n loomed. taken a united  An u r b a n - r u r a l con-  The c i t i e s , d e s p i t e t h e i r dependence upon t h e farm,  had  s t a n d a g a i n s t a g r i c u l t u r e , and t h e y s e l f i s h l y promoted  p o l i c i e s which redounded t o t h e i r immediate economic advantage. s e l f i s h n e s s encompassed both t h e manufacturer  who  8  made i n o r d i n a t e  Urban profits  o out o f p r o t e c t i o n and t h e urban l a b o u r e r who  supported t h i s  policy.  Examples o f urban e x p l o i t a t i o n f a c e d t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s on a l l sides.  The B e l l t e l e p h o n e company t r i e d t o d e s t r o y t h e independent  rural  t e l e p h o n e systems and i n c r e a s e i t s monopoly a t the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s ' expense.' The urban m i l k d e a l e r s u n f a i r l y c o l l u d e d t o pay m i l k p r o d u c e r s l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e r e t a i l cost of m i l k .  1 1  Implement manufacturers  through o u t r a g e o u s l y h i g h p r i c e s and b u i l t  'ruled' the  obsolescence i n t o  farmer  their  12 machinery.  Meat packers s e c u r e d p r o f i t s from the p r o s p e r i t y c r e a t e d by  t h e hog r a i s e r s ; farmers f e d hogs f o r a l o s s so t h a t meat packers c o u l d 13 make o v e r 100  per cent p r o f i t .  o f The Farmer's Advocate  P e t e r McArthur  the g r e a t advantages  p o i n t e d out t o t h e r e a d e r s  gained by t h e  Canadian  c h a r t e r e d banks a t t h e countrymen's expense. ^" E v e r y t i m e farmers adopted new methods and became m o d e r a t e l y p r o s p e r o u s , urban f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s 1  d e c i d e d t o make a n o t h e r squeeze.  15  The r e t a i l e r s , i n c e n s e d a t attempts  to  101 establish  r u r a l co-operatives, blocked enabling l e g i s l a t i o n .  took u n j u s t i f i e d  16  Middlemen  p r o f i t s and l e f t t h e producer a m i n i m a l r e t u r n f o r h i s  labour. ''' 1  The  c o u n t r y d i d n o t g e t a square d e a l ; i t was " b l e d white i n n e a r l y  18 every way by t h e greedy c i t i e s . "  Everyone  was "down on t h e poor  farmer";  19 everyone t r i e d t o "do him i n e v e r y way." and newspapermen, a l l had an i n t e r e s t t h o s e who put t h e economic squeeze p e o p l e performed  P r e a c h e r s , d o c t o r s , lawyers  i n t h e s p e c i a l advantages  enjoyed by  on t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  services at a r t i f i c i a l l y  Towns-  i n f l a t e d p r i c e s t o keep t h e o v e r -  20 s u p p l y o f urban p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p l i e d w i t h an adequate  income.  towns had " u n i t e d i n a c t i o n " and were " k e e n l y aware o f t h e i r own  The interests."  They t r i e d t o g e t a s much as p o s s i b l e from t h e r u r a l a r e a s and g i v e a s l i t t l e as t h e y c o u l d i n r e t u r n .  Opposed t o t h e s e , t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  classes,  u n o r g a n i z e d , s e e m i n g l y i n c a p a b l e o f c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n , had no p r o p e r  21 i n f l u e n c e over t h e i r d e s t i n y .  Such economic r e a s o n s abounded f o r t h e  r u r a l exodus. The m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s i n s i d i o u s l y m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r over t h e c o u n t r y s i d e .  The urban i n t e r e s t s  advantages  secured c o n t r o l c f t h e l e g i s -  l a t i v e p o l i c i e s o f t h e government t o guarantee t h e i r economic b e n e f i t s .  The  d e c r e a s e i n t h e r u r a l and t h e i n c r e a s e o f t h e c i v i c p o p u l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d , t o t h e r a d i c a l r u r a l i s t s , t h e f r u i t s o f a system o f l e g i s l a t i o n which had f o r years  disregarded the rights  o f t h e f a r m i n g community and l a i d  f i n a n c i a l burdens upon t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s . relationship  heavy  W. C. Good emphasized t h e  between d e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e l e g i s l a t i v e system which p l a c e d  t h e masses a t t h e mercy o f t h e combines which e x p l o i t e d them. *" The  c i t i e s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r advantages  through the concentration of  c o r p o r a t e economic power which gave them p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l t o r u n t h e country i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t s  and t o d i s r e g a r d t h e needs o f t h e r u r a l  102 population.  The  process  of u r b a n i z a t i o n i n v o l v i n g t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n  of  i n d u s t r y , t h e r e f o r e , promoted p o l i c i e s which l e d t o the c o n c e n t r a t i o n population.  This process  of concentration arose,  one  writer  of  explained,  because o f a few g r e a t c e n t r a l banks w i t h innumerable branches s c a t t e r e d a l l over t h e c o u n t r y . These branches a r e mere c o l l e c t i n g a g e n c i e s by means o f v/hich t h e s a v i n g s c f t h e c o u n t r y a r e poured i n t o t h e g r e a t centres. I n d u s t r i e s n a t u r a l l y d e v e l o p where t h e c a p i t a l on which t h e y depend i s l o c a t e d . Railways c e n t r a l i z e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and means c f employment a t t h e same p o i n t s . Governments spend a t the same c e n t r e s i n o r n a t e b u i l d i n g s and i n t h e employment o f an army o f c i v i l s e r v a n t s . 23 The  dangers o f s u c h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n were expounded on a t l e n g t h i n t h e more  2L  militant rural journals.  Once begun, t h i s p r o c e s s d i d not i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o a few o f men  who  munities.  cease u n t i l t h e companies o f giants administered  e x e r c i s e d "supreme power o v e r t h e f o r t u n e s o f men These economic g i a n t s had  a i d t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l and  by a and  any  handful com-  not combined t o reduce p r i c e s and  o t h e r consumers.  They r a i s e d p r i c e s t o pay  the  26 dividends  of o v e r - c a p i t a l i z a t i o n .  for  ' p a t r i o t i c ' reasons,  and  became a major d e t e r r e n t t o new  Eehind  t h e t a r i f f w a l l s t h e y demanded  t h e y e x e r c i s e d f r e e r e i n over t h e i r business.  Trusts  competition ''' 2  prevented  t h a t spontaneous e x p r e s s i o n o f o p i n i o n and freedom o f a c t i o n which i s t h e i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t o f every f r e e born c i t i z e n . I t should be p o s s i b l e t o do b u s i n e s s w i t h t h e company without f o r f e i t i n g freedom o f speech o r a c t i o n , but e x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e i t i s not so p o s s i b l e . 29 The t r u s t s f o r c e d the workers t o f e e d , c l o t h e , and  house t h e i d l e r s i n  incredible luxury.  centralizing industry,  enabled  The  i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , by  t h e few t h u s t o e x p l o i t t h e l a b o u r o f t h e many.  p o l i t i c a l system, maintained allowed  by t h e s e  An  antiquated  interested i n concealing t h e i r c o n t r o l ,  l e g i s l a t i v e b o d i e s t o become mere t o o l s i n t h e hands of  these  103 • B i g I n t e r e s t s ' who used t h e i r mastery t o g a i n s p e c i a l  legislative  30 favours. R u r a l economic c o m p l a i n t s c e n t r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y around t h e o b v i o u s f a v o u r s enjoyed by urban i n d u s t r y a t r u r a l expense: i n d u s t r i a l bounties.  t a r i f f p r o t e c t i o n and  R e c i p r o c i t y , f o r t h e f a r m e r s , aroused t h e g r e a t e s t  31 p o l i t i c a l debate.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Drury-Good f a c t i o n , t a r i f f s  contri-  buted t h e l a r g e s t f a c t o r i n t h e economics o f t h e d e c l i n i n g r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . A l l segments o f i n d u s t r i a l l i f e had combined t o s e c u r e t a r i f f  legislation.  They a l l charged t h e farmer h i g h e r p r i c e s f o r goods t h a n t h e y c o u l d under a system o f f r e e c o m p e t i t i o n . cities.32  T h i s was t h e . f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e Canadian  -£ c. D r u r y c a l c u l a t e d t h a t t h e t a r i f f d i r e c t l y c o s t t h e average m  O n t a r i o farmer $200  p e r y e a r p l u s an i n c a l c u l a b l e i n d i r e c t  expense.  Farmers p a i d more f o r c l o t h i n g , t o o l s , v e h i c l e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l s t o v e s , household  implements,  f u r n i s h i n g s , e v e r y t h i n g t h e y used except t h e i r  food.  M a n u f a c t u r e r s v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e v a l u e c f t h e i r o u t p u t ; t h e y had, a c c o r d i n g to  Adam S h o r t t , economics p r o f e s s o r a t Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , expanded  w e a l t h more r a p i d l y t h a n any element  i n the country.  their  33  P r e t e n d i n g customs t a x a t i o n d i d not p r e s s h e a v i l y upon t h e farm, contended t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , was r i d i c u l o u s . i t s c h i e f burden of  the s o i l .  on t h e 'broad s h o u l d e r s ' o f t h e man who dug h i s w e a l t h out  The assumption  t a r i f f urban working /manufactured/ that  The t a r i f f , a t a x , p l a c e d  o f t h e p r o t e c t e d i n d u s t r i e s and t h e p r o -  c l a s s "must be t h a t without t h e t a r i f f t a x e s t h e s e  goods would not be made h e r e .  T h i s i s a n o t h e r way o f s a y i n g  i f t h e consumers o f Canada were compelled t o pay more t h a n t h e w o r l d ' s  p r i c e f o r Canadian-made goods, t h e y would be out o f employment i n t h a t particular industry." t h a t manufacturers  The o n l y l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n farmers c o u l d draw was  admitted "they a r e a b l e t o make t h e i r l i v i n g o n l y by t h e 34 g e n e r a l p u b l i c b e i n g taxed t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r i n d u s t r y . " The t a r i f f  104 c o u l d n o t \\rork i n f a v o u r a g r i c u l t u r a l surplus.  o f t h e Canadian farmer as l o n g as he produced an  T h i s c o n d i t i o n would p r e v a i l i n Canada f a r i n t o t h e  35 future.  Because t h e home market was not l a r g e enough t o s u p p o r t t h e  Canadian a g r i c u l t u r i s t he e x p o r t e d farm produce t o keep ahead. market would n o t f o r c e h i g h e r plus disappeared.  The home  p r i c e s u n t i l t h e domestic a g r i c u l t u r a l sur-  In s e l l i n g on t h e f r e e w o r l d market, farmers  claimed  36 t h e y were c o m p l e t e l y a t t h e mercy o f v a g a r i e s post-1900 p r o s p e r i t y , h i g h e r would b e n e f i t O n t a r i o the  content profits.  p r i c e s i n the United  farmers.  business philosophy  i n prices.  According  Despite  Canadian  S t a t e s meant f r e e  trade  t o the r a d i c a l s ' interpretation of  o f f a r m i n g , t h e businessman-farmer would n e t be  once he found t h a t a change i n t h e t a r i f f would i n c r e a s e h i s 3  7  By c i t i n g t h e importance o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e Canadian economy, t h e a g i t a t o r s hoped t o m a r s h a l l  arguments t o support r e v e r s i n g t h e t r e n d s .  M a n u f a c t u r e r s had exaggerated t h e v a l u e r e v e r s i n g t h e p o l i c y and e n s u r i n g Canadian f u t u r e w e l l - b e i n g  o f t h e t a r i f f t o themselves.  r u r a l prosperity , the foundation  c o u l d be e n s u r e d .  Industry,  By for  t o o dependent upon  government s u p p o r t , ought t o f o l l o w t h e s e l f - d e n y i n g example o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l population, tariffs Industry had  M a n u f a c t u r e r s would soon f o r g e t about t h e need f o r  i n t h e rush o f i n c r e a s i n g business f o l l o w i n g t h e i r a b o l i t i o n . i n Canada had passed t h e i n f a n t stage t h a t t h e Canadian t a r i f f  been d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t .  returns  system  Growing economic power and r a p i d l y r i s i n g  showed t h a t m a n u f a c t u r i n g no l o n g e r needed p r o t e c t i o n from f o r e i g n  competition.  The c l a i m t h a t  r a d i c a l s , "the  p l a i n e s t p o s s i b l e proof"  population  e x i s t i n g p r o t e c t i o n was not enough was, t o t h e t h a t t h e s e burdens on t h e Canadian  ought t o be t o l e r a t e d no l o n g e r .  encouraged t o d e v e l o p a g r e a t e r  spirit  M a n u f a c t u r e r s had t o be  of self-reliance.  A l l arguments, t h e  a g i t a t o r s s t r e s s e d , were based not on 'mere' t h e o r i e s , but were founded on  105 t h e hard f a c t s o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e system o f p r o t e c t i o n .  38  O n l y by t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e t a r i f f c o u l d t h e p r o f i t a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n be s e c u r e d ; Another f e a t u r e o f t h e economic system a l l i e d t o t h e t a r i f f i n t h e farmer's mind were t h e s u b s i d i e s granted t o v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l " B e i n g a c a p t a i n c f i n d u s t r y , " remarked  enterprises.  one e d i t o r , "must be a p l e a s a n t j o b  when t h e i n d u s t r y c o n s i s t s , i n t h e main, o f working complacent  governments  39  for subsidies."  i  n  t h e r u r a l view, t h e major o f f e n d e r s were t h e r a i l r o a d s ,  t h e i r o n and s t e e l m a n u f a c t u r e r s and t h e s h i p b u i l d e r s . t u r e r s i n 1905 r e c e i v e d o v e r £1.5 m i l l i o n i n s u b s i d i e s . i n t o t h e House o f Commons p r o t e s t i n g t h e amounts. b e n e f i t t e d from t h e money t h e y g r a n t e d .  41  The i r o n manufac40  Fetitions  flooded  Corrupt p o l i t i c i a n s  Agriculturists believed  that:  R a i l w a y magnates i n t h e i r p a l a c e c a r s have o n l y t o blow t h e w h i s t l e and a p p l y t h e brakes when a p p r o a c h i n g Ottawa and t h e g o v e r n i n g powers haven't o n l y time t o l i s t e n t o t h e i r a p p e a l b u t t o g r a n t c h a r t e r s and bonuses and m i l l i o n s o f a c r e s o f l a n d . But l e t t h e farmers approach Ottawa, h a t s i n hand t o make an a p p e a l and show cause and s t a t e f a c t , t h e m i n i s t e r s a r e so pressed f o r time...there i s n o t t i m e t o be wasted i n common s t o c k . 42 Never c o n t e n t w i t h e x i s t i n g b o u n t i e s , greedy m a n u f a c t u r e r s hounding t h e government f o r more.  A wealthy farmer "would s c a r c e l y be seen  a s k i n g t h e Government t o pay i n t e r e s t w i t h borrowed  money.  kept  on another farm he proposed b u y i n g  And, i f a farmer s h o u l d so f a r f o r g e t h i m s e l f as t o  make such a r e q u e s t , he would get an e x c e e d i n g l y s h o r t h e a r i n g a t Ottawa. S t i l l we a r e t o l d t h a t t h i s L e v i s - S t . John crowd o f b i g c a p i t a l i s t s were a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i r r e q u e s t / f o r a bonus/ would be most c a r e f u l l y and symp a t h e t i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d by t h e Government."  °  Another b i t t e r  on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e Canadian r a i l r o a d s remarked  commentator  t h a t i t was  e n t e r t a i n i n g t o t h o s e who know t h e a c t u a l h i s t o r y o f t h e Canadian F a c i f i c Railway, t o r e a d o r l i s t e n t o t h e cock and b u l l s t o r i e s t o l d and p r i n t e d about t h e p a t r i o t i c optimism, t h e w o n d e r f u l s a g a c i t y , t h e s t e e l y nerve d i s p l a y e d and t h e tremendous r i s k s t a k e n by t h e s e o r i g i n a l  106 s y n d i c a t o r s . Most o f them were p r e t t y c l e v e r men, but t h e y r i s k e d l i t t l e c r n o t h i n g o f t h e i r s . What t h e y d i d r i s k t h e y had back i n t h e i r pockets w i t h a good p r o f i t b e f o r e t h e r o a d was even completed and t h e y as a group t h e n h e l d enough'stock t o put them i n c o n t r o l c f the property. As a m a t t e r c f f a c t , t h e Canadian P a c i f i c was b u i l t w i t h t h e cash and c r e d i t p r o v i d e d by t h e Canadian Government. To any Canadian who knows t h e s e t h i n g s i t i s amusing and perhaps a t t h e same t i m e h u m i l i a t i n g to hear a t v e r y f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s some 'statesman' or p u b l i c body o r newspaper i n d u l g i n g i n some r h a p s o d i c a l and s u b s e r v i e n t eulogium cn one o r o t h e r o f t h e s e enormously w e a l t h y men or noblemen who a r e d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g been 'Makers c f Canada'. The f a c t i s t h a t Canada has made them. 44 S u b s i d i e s r a i s e d t h e p r i c e o f consumer goods and added f u r t h e r burdens t o t h e farmer's a l r e a d y i n o r d i n a t e c o s t s . Why  d i d a g r i c u l t u r i s t s c l a i m t h e "duty b u s i n e s s i s what i s s a p p i n g  t h e h e a r t out o f our f a r m i n g p r o f e s s i o n . " ? ^ " T a r i f f s enabled t h e manu6  f a c t u r e r t o pay wages which c o u l d not come w i t h i n t h e farm employer's a b i l i t y t o pay.  Farmers c o u l d not compete w i t h r a i l w a y b u i l d e r s who  re-  c e i v e d enough i n s u b s i d i e s t o pay t h e wages o f a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n workers, or  the i r o n manufacturers  government b o u n t i e s .  The  who  r e c e i v e d more t h a n t h e i r t o t a l wage b i l l i n  p r o t e c t e d i n d u s t r i e s used t h e i r advantages  "as  47 a l o d e s t o n e t o draw from t h e farm t h e l a b o r needed f o r t i l l i n g t h e Farmers, on t h e o t h e r hand, depended " f o r t h e i r wage b i l l s  on t h e  soil." price  t h e y r e a l i z e d f o r t h e i r p r o d u c t s which were s o l d i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h I  like  rt  p r o d u c t s from a l l over t h e w o r l d , " *  and had t o make up a d e f i c i t  between  49 t h e i r expenses and t h e i r l i f e was  sales.  U n p a t r i o t i c a l l y and a r t i f i c i a l l y ,  s t i m u l a t e d t o " o f f e r more a l l u r i n g inducements t o t h e young  throughout  the country...."  Manufacturers  c o u l d pay t h e wages which  city man robbed  50 the c o u n t r y o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n . p r o v i d e d t h e manufacturer s a v i n g machinery.  The  population decline i n r u r a l  w i t h a market f o r e x o r b i t a n t l y - p r i c e d  The t a r i f f  managed t o t a k e t h e p r o f i t  areas  labour-  out o f f a r m i n g  and  107 draw c a p i t a l as w e l l as l a b o u r from t h e r u r a l a r e a s ,  51 a  n  d a t t r a c t e d the  c l e v e r e s t o f t h e young r u r a l men t o t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g c e n t r e s .  The  a r t i f i c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a i d e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g so t h a t "a few b r a i n s can make a competence" o r even a f o r t u n e w i t h much l e s s hard work t h a n a g r i c u l t u r e  52 demanded.  The Canadian C o u n c i l o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e march on Ottawa  1910, t o l d Premier L a u r i e r t h e y b e l i e v e d  m  "the g r e a t e s t m i s f o r t u n e which  c a n b e f a l l any c o u n t r y " was t o "have i t s p e o p l e huddled t o g e t h e r i n g r e a t centres of population." tendency t o encourage  They r e s o l v e d t h a t s i n c e t h e customs t a r i f f had t h e  d e p o p u l a t i o n and " i n view o f t h e c o n s t a n t movement o f  our p e o p l e away from t h e farm, t h e g r e a t problem which p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t o  53 Canadian people t o d a y i s t h e problem o f r e t a i n i n g our p e o p l e on t h e s o i l . " The moderate s e c t i o n o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l opinion-makers another side of t h e t a r i f f s t o r y .  publicized  As James D u f f , O n t a r i o M i n i s t e r o f  A g r i c u l t u r e , t o l d a farm a u d i e n c e , "we would n e t d e s i r e t h i s t o be an a g r i c u l t u r a l country alone.  We a r e proud o f our farms, b u t we a r e proud  54 too,  o f t h e c i t i e s and towns i n which men o f o u r f l e s h have t h e i r abode."  Canadian c i t i e s were n e c e s s a r y t o round c u t " t h e commercial, national l i f e ,  s o c i a l and  p a r t l y f o r t h e sake o f t h e i r r e f l e x i n f l u e n c e on t h e a g r i -  c u l t u r a l communities."  Whatever t h e i r drawbacks c i t i e s were " g a l v a n i c  55 b a t t e r i e s o f p r o g r e s s i n thought as w e l l a s i n m a t e r i a l t h i n g s . " p i t e some m a n u f a c t u r e r s ' s e l f i s h attempts t o have customs t a x a t i o n tariffs,  raised,  s t i l l a f e a s i b l e means o f c o l l e c t i n g n e c e s s a r y revenue, p r o v i d e d  some heeded p r o t e c t i o n f o r Canadian m a n u f a c t u r i n g . tariff  Des-  The d e f e n d e r s o f a  system had t o admit t h a t t h e y f o s t e r e d a concemmitant farm l a b o u r  s h o r t a g e , b u t t h e y p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a t i s m o f t h e farmer i n a d o p t i n g l a b o u r - s a v i n g methods prevented him from overcoming t h i s as f u l l y a s he c o u l d .  handicap  108 Frequently, they c r i t i c i z e d  what t h e y termed  misleading" pro-reciprocity a r t i c l e s . the  e f f e c t t h a t a l l economic  tariffs not  "inflaramatory and  They d i d not l i k e a s s e r t i o n s t o .  i n e q u i t i e s would  were removed from c e r t a i n a r t i c l e s .  be f o r e v e r e r a d i c a t e d i f t h e The removal o f t a r i f f s  p r e p a r e " f o r t h e consumer a mansion i n h i s U t o p i a . "  tariffs /sic/  were t h e s o l e advantage  would  To argue t h a t  o f the m a n u f a c t u r e r s and were "the r e a s o n  d ' e t r e o f t h e i r a f f l u e n c e i n t h e community, i s c a r r y i n g t h e a u t h o r  away from c o l d l o g i c and l e a d i n g him i n t o t h e c h a n n e l made use o f by so many, namely t h a t  o f p r e j u d i c e and sentiment and  swaying f e e l i n g s . "  The  r e f o r m e r o f t e n had t o be m i s u n d e r s t o o d t o a r o u s e t h e p a s s i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e . The moderates  condemned t h o s e who  cause o f t h e i r t r o u b l e s and who  claimed that  "the t a r i f f i s the sole  seek t o s e t c l a s s a g a i n s t c l a s s t o a i d t h e  56 d e s i r e d consummation."  The f a r m e r who  sought t o c o r n e r a l l t h e b e n e f i t s  o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l w o r l d w i t h o u t p a y i n g f o r them was m o n o p o l i s t who  as g u i l t y as t h e  sought t o accumulate a t o t h e r s ' expense.  were not f r e e t r a d e r , o p p o r t u n i s t s .  Farmers, a t h e a r t ,  Their r a d i c a l leaders, believed  were who m o d e r a t e s , / o n l y p r e j u d i c e d men/claimed  t o speak f o r t h e f a r m e r s .  the  They  57  succeeded i n r e i t e r a t i n g o l d a b s u r d i t i e s a g a i n s t t h e Canadian m a n u f a c t u r e r s . In d e c r y i n g extremism, t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e had t h e s u p p o r t of  The Canadian Countryman. The Farmer's Magazine,  Advocate.  and The  Farmer's  A s p l i t d e v e l o p e d , however, i n t h e p r o - t a r i f f f o r c e s o f t h e r u r a l  opinion-makers.  A f t e r 1911, t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o o k  s t e p s t o s t o p t h e p r o - r e c i p r o c i t y group from u s i n g t h e  practical  Government-sponsored  Farmers' C l u b s t o vent t h e i r o p i n i o n on t h e i s s u e o f customs t a x a t i o n . The Farmer's Advocate changed tariff  journal.  r u r a l economic  i t s s t a n d and became much more o f an  By t h e m i d d l e o f 1912,  t h i s paper p o i n t e d out t h a t  c o n d i t i o n s caused by t h e " t a r i f f s  uneconomic l e g i s l a t i o n " m u l t i p l i e d  58  antipoor  and o t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  farmers' problems and -  curtailed  109 a g r i c u l t u r a l production." been p l a c e d  59  Members o f t h i s a n t i - r e c i p r o c i t y group had  i n t h e e m b a r r a s s i n g p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g t o put  forth  elaborate  60 j u s t i f i c a t i o n s t o prove a t r u e i n t e r e s t The most important  i n the  farm.  c o n f l i c t between t h e pro and  groups took p l a c e d u r i n g t h e e l e c t i o n of 1911.  The  anti-reciprocity  defeat  r e c i p r o c i t y L i b e r a l s showed t h a t t h e j o u r n a l s which had p o l i c y d i d not  represent  t u r i s t s , proclaimed  explanation. defeat  6l  The  The  new  For them, t h e n a t i o n a l markets  p r o - r e c i p r o c i t y advocates put f o r t h a d i f f e r e n t  c i t i e s and towns, t h e y b e l i e v e d , were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e  of r e c i p r o c i t y .  T o r o n t o , H a m i l t o n , F o r e s t , Cayuga, K i n g s t o n , Collingwood,  c e n t r e s , dragged p r o - r e c i p r o c i t y c a n d i d a t e s voted  this  Canada's economic independence from t h e  Guelph, Woodstock, Oshawa, Wingham and  had  supported  the a n t i - r e c i p r o c i t y o p i n i o n - l e a d e r s .  a l s o t h e i r desire to maintain  United States.  pro-  the t r u e o p i n i o n o f t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f a g r i c u l -  r e s u l t s showed a g r i c u l t u r i s t s ' doubt o f s e c u r i n g any and  of the  a few  Dundas,  of the urban  down t o d e f e a t .  The  farmers  i n a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y f o r t h e L i b e r a l s but t h e v a s t  anti-  62 r e c i p r o c i t y v o t e o f t h e towns masked t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e n t i o n s .  The  f a r m e r ' s independent n a t u r e made i t d i f f i c u l t  polls.  to organize  him at the  These s e n t i m e n t s d i d not make f o r c o n g e n i a l r u r a l a t t i t u d e s towards c i t i e s and  towns.  Leading  proponents o f t h e economic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  p a r t i c u l a r l y H. for i t s effect  depopulation,  B. Cowan o f Farm and D a i r y , c r i t i c i z e d t h e u n j u s t t a x system cn d e p o p u l a t i o n .  need f o r i n c r e a s e d t a x e s  Every  i s s u e o f t h i s paper s t r e s s e d t h e  on l a n d v a l u e s .  The  farmer buying  from t h e  i n c r e a s e d t h e u r b a n land v a l u e s but r e c e i v e d none of t h e money h i s created.  Ontario  Anti-urbanism  they r e a l i z e d  and  a n t i - b u s i n e s s f e e l i n g came t o the  l a n d v a l u e s were d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e  community, keen m e t r o p o l i t a n  businessmen gained  fore.  s i z e of  cities  business Since the  c o n t r o l of the urban land  110 so t h a t t h e y c o u l d a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r themselves t h e v a l u e s which t h e  community  63 a t l a r g e had  created.  While urban values  i n c r e a s e d , t h e p r i c e o f farm  l a n d s remained s t a t i o n a r y .  As c i t y r e n t s i n c r e a s e d , both p r o d u c e r s  consumers were v i c t i m i z e d  by r i s i n g p r i c e s f o r manufactured goods, c l o t h i n g ,  and  implements.  R u r a l employers were d e p r i v e d  of the i n c r e a s e d  and  profits  65 which t h e i r b u s i n e s s  created.  K. W.  t o l d an a u d i e n c e a t P r i n c e t o n , Oxford  Rowell,  p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l leader,  County, t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l govern-  ment should not t a x improvements on b u i l d i n g s but  should t a x l a n d  values.  66  Land t a x a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . do t h e Boys Leave t h e Farm?" asked one a r t i c l e answered i t s own  q u e s t i o n by p o i n t i n g t o t h e  on t h i s theme, t h e n  l a n d t a x system.  H. B. Cowan,  t a k i n g h i s c r u s a d e t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l government, p o i n t e d out t h e e f f e c t s o f the Legislature.  t a x i n g l a n d v a l u e s was  l a n d gained  a simple  solution to  Since  t h o s e who  added t o i t s v a l u e ought t o g a i n some b e n e f i t from i t .  the  population, If  a c c o r d i n g t o i t s market p r i c e ,  the  p a i d by s p e c u l a t o r s would c a r r y more c f t h e t a x burden o f The  b e n e f i t s t o t h e burdened countryman were  obvious.  o n l y group which would be h i t by t h i s measure would be.the l a n d  s p e c u l a t o r s and t h o s e businessman. be  i t s p r i c e o n l y from t h e presence o f  or u n o c c u p i e d l a n d were t a x e d  t h e whole p r o v i n c e . The  Ontario  67  problem.  higher taxes  detrimental  l a n d t a x a t i o n system t o t h e s e l e c t committee o f t h e  For the reformers,  occupied  "Why  The  who  e x t o r t e d h i g h r e n t s from t h e working p e o p l e  supply  and  of l a n d would i n c r e a s e , f o r s p e c u l a t o r s would  f o r c e d t o r i d themselves o f t h e i r v a s t h o l d i n g s  i n o r d e r t o pay  their  69 taxes.  I f the  s p e c u l a t i v e v a l u e o f t h e l a n d was  t h a t came from t h e l a n d would f l o w back i n t h e created i t — t h e  farmers.  Then would f a r m i n g  farmers come i n t o t h e i r own.  Then and  destroyed,  the  rent  form o f t a x e s t o t h o s e  "become p r o f i t a b l e and  then only w i l l r u r a l  who  the  depopulation  Ill cease and  country l i f e  become a t t r a c t i v e . "  70  These measures gained s u p p o r t from some county c o u n c i l s  who  p e t i t i o n e d t h e government t o exempt farm b u i l d i n g s from t a x a t i o n c r e a t e an i n c e n t i v e f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s t o improve t h e i r W.  and  facilities.  71  C. Good remarked t h a t "the s i m p l i c i t y o f t h i s system o f t a x a t i o n i s 72  one o f i t s s t r o n g f e a t u r e s .  What can be s i m p l e r . . . . "  Interestingly,  some r e f o r m e r s would extend the t a x measures t o i n c l u d e t h e of  d i r e c t income t a x e s .  Those who  introduction  c o u l d pay t h e most were t h o s e who  ought  73 t o be charged. The widespread n a t u r e c f support f o r t h e s e p r o p o s a l s was'.commended by t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e Farmer's Magazine which d i d not  74 support such measures  itself.  Tax advantages were o n l y one o f t h e b e n e f i t s which r a i l r o a d s r e c e i v e d at  t h e hands o f t h e government.  rampant.  Undertaxation of r a i l r o a d lands  was  A g i t a t i o n f o r i n c r e a s e d l e v i e s on t h e r a i l r o a d companies continued. 75  throughout  t h e y e a r s under study.  American s t a t e s c o l l e c t e d  c a l l y h i g h e r r a t e s o f t a x e s from t h e Canadian them. or  The Canadian  nothing.  astronomi-  r a i l r o a d s which passed  p r o v i n c e s w i t h many t i m e s t h e m i l e a g e  The Weekly Sun. The Grange, The F a r m e r s  1  collected  Association,  through little and  numerous c o r r e s p o n d e n t s  i n t h e r u r a l p r e s s pronounced t h a t t h e y thought 77 t h i s s i t u a t i o n ought t o be remedied. The County C o u n c i l o f Grey urged all  o t h e r c o u n t i e s t o send d e p u t a t i o n s t o Toronto t o push f o r h i g h e r r a t e s 78  for  railroads.  Unexpected a l l i e s - j o i n e d t h i s r u r a l c r u s a d e .  The  p r e s i d e n t o f t h e O n t a r i o M u n i c i p a l A s s o c i a t i o n urged h i g h e r t a x a t i o n o f r a i l r o a d s a t t h e a n n u a l meeting  o f t h a t body i n 1908..  The Sun  remarked  t h a t w h i l e p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s i o n s had been c o n f i n e d t o farmers' o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and a l t h o u g h "farmers f i g h t i n g s i n g l e - h a n d e d have accomplished g r e a t d e a l ; u n i t e d w i t h t h e i r b r e t h r e n o f t h e towns and a c c o m p l i s h v a s t l y more.  7 9  cities,  they  a can  112 Complaints about t h e r a i l r o a d s ' p o s i t i o n monopoly o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . for others'  rights.  The managers  Although the  opposed f o r c e d them b o t h t o  seemed t o have l i t t l e  level.crossing  w a r n i n g s i g n a l s were seldom i n s t a l l e d compensate the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s  stemmed from t h e  c l a i m e d many  voluntarily.  f o r damages  80  roads' regard  lives,  R a i l r o a d s d i d not  u n t i l a b i l l the  railroads  pay damages and t o e r e c t c a t t l e g u a r d s  along  81 their tracks.  The Government's r e f u s a l t o ensure a d o p t i o n o f the  l a t i o n by making i t  a p a r t y measure  irritated  i n t o a s k i n g "Why does t h e Government t r i f l e fashion?  Why does i t  refuse  them j u s t i c e  t h a t w h i l e t h e Government was a f r a i d t o f a r m e r s , t h e farmers c o u l d be f o o l e d ,  m i l i t a n t s who were provoked  w i t h the  year a f t e r  offend  legis-  farmers i n t h i s year?"  either  They c o n c l u d e d  the r a i l r o a d s or  the  but t h e r a i l r o a d s c o u l d never be  82  t r i c k e d i n t o a c q u i e s c i n g i n t h e d i m i n u t i o n of t h e i r powers. A p p o r t i o n i n g t h e c o s t s of p r o p e r d r a i n a g e a c r o s s r a i l r o a d t r a c k s provided another c o n t e n t i o u s ' i s s u e p i t t i n g farm against a minor b a t t l e  compared t o the  rail,  a c r i m o n i o u s debate over t h e  but t h i s  justice  of  was rail  83 charges.  The F a r m e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n demanded a government  investigation  of  r a t e s charged C a n a d i a n farmers because t h e s e were much h i g h e r t h a n comp a r a b l e s h i p p i n g charges be sent t o t h e  i n the United S t a t e s .  seaborad a l o n g the  C a t t l e from C h i c a g o c o u l d  Canadian r o u t e more c h e a p l y t h a n  the  84 shorter distance companies  from Guelph a l o n g the  same t r a c k s .  charge e x c e s s i v e l y , but t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e  Not o n l y d i d the for delays  in  85  r e a c h i n g market which r e s u l t e d i n much s p o i l e d C a n a d i a n farm p r o d u c e . Because o f t h i s economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , f a r m i n g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s had  86  d i s t i n c t advantages i n c a p t u r i n g t h e export markets i n E u r o p e . Farmers j o i n e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n t e r e s t s which a l s o p r e s e n t e d a s t r o n g c a s e t o prove Canadian r a i l w a y s d i s c r i m i n a t e d i n f r e i g h t  rates.  87  113  The Sun  questioned whether Canada"s economic expansion  accomplished by private companies.  had to be  Private ownership was not necessarily  progressive, "nor are the terms of a bargain between the state and a 88 private company progressive i f they are disadvantageous to the State." If the Canadian Facific had been built "as i t should have been" by the Canadian Government, no public money would have been lost. have paid for i t s e l f and produced revenue for the people. coalfields and o i l lands would have been saved....  The road would "The princely  But a l l this i s gone,  89 and there is nothing whatever to show for i t . " ordinary private companies.  The railroads were not  Because cf their monopolistic position, they  could f i x the prices on the goods they carried. They had been created by Canadian law and their powers under the law including the power of expropriation were extensive.  Since Canadian taxpayers had largely borne the  r a i l cost, the roads ought to be more closely controlled. Most of the agricultural press approved of regulating the roads. Farmers ought to get paid for the lowered value cf a farm sliced through 90  the middle by the roads.  Farmers demanded that the government regulate  the rates charged by the different railroads. Canadian farmers wanted, they believed, no more than their rights.  "This appears to be the only  satisfactory solution to this problem," commented The Farming WorM. "given f a i r play in the carrying of his produce to the consumer, we think that the Canadian farmer can hold his own with any producer the world over. But these shackles must be removed and i t is the duty of the government of 91  the day to step in and adjust rates on a f a i r and equitable basis...." Efforts of the rural agitators focussed on demands that the Government appoint a railway commission to regulate and control rates.  The Fruit  Growers of the Province joined the Grange, Farmer's Association, Cattle Dealers, Dairymen's Association, Canadian Manufacturers' Association and  124  Toronto Board of Trade in this request.  92  In this campaign for control of the railway rates the farm could claim some success.  The outside support of the manufacturers may  explain  the results. Hon. Mr. Blair, Minister of Railways^announced in 1902 the  93 formation of the Railway Commission.  Hailed in the agricultural press,  this action was "a recognition on the part of the government that the people have a right to control their own highways."  They believed that  "when this commission i s in f u l l working order, freight rates cf a l l kinds w i l l be placed upon a fairer and more equitable basis than they are at the  94 present time."  Agriculture was given recognition with the appointment  of James Mills to the Commission.  Mills had been, u n t i l he moved to  Ottawa, the president of the Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph, a true son of the s o i l , publicly identified with Ontario agriculture for over twenty-five  years.^5  The agriculturists' struggle with the railroads provides an example of a story with many repetitions. The economic disadvantages inducing the young to depart from rural areas involved other industries as well as the labour unions who took advantage of the countrymen.  Rural employers were  forced to retain their labour by preventing the passage of measures restricting urban working hours.  The f i r s t of these, a b i l l introduced in  the House of Commons by Alphonse Verville, limited working time on federal contracts to eight hours. turists opposed i t .  Each time the b i l l was introduced the agricul-  Farmers suspected that the effect of this measure on  the farm would be to accentuate the farm shortage of labour for "the farmer's work cannot stop on the blow of a whistle nor can i t be held down  96 to an eight hour basis." Attempts to regulate hours were "a menace to the agricultural interest," and would "demoralize the agricultural industry 97 of this essentially farming country." Restriction on labouring hours  115 would spread from t h e f e d e r a l t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l t o t h e m u n i c i p a l government and t h e n t o a l l p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y .  E v e n t u a l l y farmers would be f o r c e d t o  98 comply a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l . for  urban  labour unions.  The  farmer g e n e r a l l y f e l t  The u n i o n c e n t r a l i z e d  little  sympathy  c o n t r o l over l a b o u r and  p r o v i d e d a means o f f o r c i n g t h e farmer t o pay money i n wages and p r i c e s f o r consumer goods.  higher  The r u r a l p r e s s opposed u n i o n - s p o n s o r e d ,  l e g i s l a t i o n such as workman's compensation  because, t h e y argued,  'class'  "every-  body i n t h e s t a t e i s not e n s u r e d . . . i t c o n f e r s on one c l a s s a g r e a t b e n e f i t which i s w i t h h e l d from a l l o t h e r c l a s s e s one o f which, t h e farmer  class,  99 b e a r s m a i n l y , i n t h e end, t h e expense."  A g r i c u l t u r a l j o u r n a l s d i d not  support s t r i k e s f o r h i g h e r wages and s h o r t e r h o u r s . m i d d l e o f the i n d u s t r i a l s t r i f e , or  showed l i t t l e  Farmers, s t u c k i n t h e  sympathy f o r e i t h e r l a b o u r  management. (ii) S o l u t i o n s t o s p e c i f i c economic d i s a d v a n t a g e s  the p u b l i c i s t s '  s e a r c h f o r remedies.  Yet  came e a s i l y t o mind i n  s p e c i f i c suggestions t o  limit  r a i l r o a d s o r o t h e r i n d u s t r y and t o reduce a g r i c u l t u r e ' s economic d i s a d v a n t a g e c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h n o t h i n g u n l e s s s t r o n g e r enforcement taken. urban  measures were  Farmers' l i m i t e d s u c c e s s w i t h t h e r a i l r o a d s and t h e example o f economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e d a s o l u t i o n .  p o i n t e d out t h a t " a r t i s a n s form p o w e r f u l u n i o n s . Manufacturers  C a p i t a l i s t s form t r u s t s .  have t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s .  o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e sake o f economy and  profit  i n d u s t r y except t h e g r e a t e s t — a g r i c u l t u r e . " ^  0 1  The a g r i c u l t u r a l j o u r n a l s  In f a c t ,  intelligent  i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f every  The  farmer had t o d e a l w i t h  t h e s e urban o r g a n i z a t i o n s on a l l l e v e l s — b u y i n g , s e l l i n g ^ and l e a r n e d t h e advantages s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d -pry When manufacturers  or men  credit.  He  from t h e government.  of business i n other c a l l i n g s desired t o achieve  an end, t h e countryman p e r c e i v e d t h a t  116 no m a t t e r what i t may be, t h e y get t o g e t h e r and p r o v i d i n g t h e sinews o f war, map.out a campaign. They g r o w l n o t , n e i t h e r do t h e y grumble. They go t o work, p o s s i b l y w i t h gumshoes on, but anyway t h e y go t o work. A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, p r o v i d e d a g r e a t c o n t r a s t . who  had a c o m p l a i n t " n u r t u r e s h i s grouch a s s i d u o u s l y .  d i a t r i b e s v o l u b l y , so does h i s n e i g h b o u r ,  The  farmer  He d e a l s out  but t h e r e t h e m a t t e r  ends.  They  never t h i n k o f g e t t i n g t o g e t h e r and p e r f e c t i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o go  after  102 what t h e y need or want." R u r a l o p i n i o n - l e a d e r s were awakening t o the need t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r t h o s e who  were f u l l y a l i v e t o t h e i n j u s t i c e o f t h e burdens p l a c e d upon  agriculture.  In one  i s s u e , The Weekly Sun p u b l i s h e d seventeen  f r o m Canadian  farmers u r g i n g t h e i r peers t o o r g a n i z e .  letters  102 t h e F r e s i d e n t o f t h e Farmers' A s s o c i a t i o n , wrote t h a t  j  #  Lockie Wilson,  " i n u n i o n c f our  f o r c e s a l o n e can t h e farmers o f Canada hope f o r r e d r e s s . " t o b a t t l e , The Weekly Sun t o l d  In a  call  i t s readers t h a t ,  manufacturers b o a s t t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t i n Canada today, t h a t t h e i r output exceeds t h e output o f a l l the farms o f t h e Dominion and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d not go hat i n hand t o any Minister.... H e n c e f o r t h i t must be a war t h a t w i l l not end u n t i l Customs t a x a t i o n i s reduced t o a l e v e l m e r e l y s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e Government w i t h the n e c e s s a r y . r e v e n u e t o meet t h e demands o f a p u b l i c s e r v i c e h o n e s t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d . In o r d e r t o a t t a i n t h i s end, f a r m e r s must o r g a n i z e t h e i r s t r e n g t h . I t i s no s t r u g g l i n g i n f a n t , but a g i a n t made s t r o n g a t t h e i r expense t h a t has thrown down t h e gage o f b a t t l e . 104 The Farmer's Advocate,  a moderate j o u r n a l , j o i n e d t h e r a d i c a l s i n demanding  farm u n i t y t o combat t h e o r g a n i z e d h i g h - t a r i f f a g i t a t i o n . must demand t h a t  "the day has more t h a n come when t h e p u r s u i t o f a g r i c u l t u r e  s h a l l no l o n g e r be t h e m i l c h cow t o dance."  Agriculture  over which manufacturers  s h a l l continue  I n d u s t r y would s t o p a t n o t h i n g t o prevent t h e  groups from u n i f y i n g and  agricultural  farmers had t o be e x t r e m e l y c a r e f u l not t o  promise t h e i r u n i t y by a c c e p t i n g c l e v e r d e v i c e put f o r t h by Boards o f  com-. Trade  117 such as an import  t a r i f f on wool which would a l i e n a t e the wool-producers  from t h e r e s t o f t h e  farmers.  W h i l e t h e y a l l agreed farmers, the  1 0 6  on the need f o r g r e a t e r u n i t y among t h e  ' r a d i c a l s ' debated t h e d e g r e e t o which c l a s s i n t e r e s t s  t o p r e v a i l . i n t h e i r movements.  W.  L. Smith, t h e e d i t o r o f The Weekly  t o l d a meeting o f a g r i c u l t u r i s t s t h a t " i t i s t r u e t h a t we o f one  common c o u n t r y and  Sun,  are a l l c i t i z e n s  so have g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s i n common; but i t i s  e q u a l l y t r u e t h a t each c l a s s has those o f other c l a s s e s . "  ought  s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s o f i t s own  apart  from  A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , t h e r e f o r e , were j u s t i f i e d i n  107 organizing to protect their legitimate class interests. agreed  t h a t farmers'  Farm and  Dairy  o r g a n i z a t i o n s had t o o l o n g g i v e n t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t  t h e y needed o u t s i d e f i n a n c i a l support t o s u r v i v e .  The  financial  support  108 o f t h e u r b a n community was W h i l e W.  not d e s i r a b l e i n any o r g a n i z e d r u r a l group.  C. Good promoted t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l u n i t y , he warned  farmers  to o r g a n i z e net o n l y i n our own i n t e r e s t s , but i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l o t h e r c l a s s e s as w e l l , because i t i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o t he i n t e r e s t s o f the whole c o u n t r y t h a t i n j u s t i c e now p r e v a i l i n g should c o n t i n u e t o prevail.... I would not l i k e t o see t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n t a k e an e x c l u s i v e l y c l a s s form.... There i s always danger o f the people c f one c l a s s becoming t o o o b l i v i o u s o f the r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t o f people of o t h e r c l a s s e s . We must keep c a r e f u l l y i n view the f a c t . t h a t -J_Q9 our o r g a n i z a t i o n should be not a g g r e s s i v e but d e f e n s i v e . Remembering the P a t r o n s ' d o w n f a l l , The narrow a p p e a l .  Farming IvorId  blamed i t on a t o o  "There can," warned the e d i t o r , "be no o b j e c t i o n t o  o r g a n i z i n g f o r t h e i r mutual b e n e f i t and  interest.  In d o i n g so, however,  t h e y should not p l a c e themselves i n a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s t o t h e i n t e r e s t s i n the c o u n t r y . . . . t h e farmers we  as a c l a s s and  other  There should be more c o - o p e r a t i o n between  the -other s e c t i o n s . c f the community....  t h i n k , w i l l be gained by working a l o n g t h i s  conceived  farmers  i n an a n t a g o n i s t i c s p i r i t  More,  l i n e t h a n by any o r g a n i z a t i o n  to other c l a s s e s . "  118 Despite t h e i r divergence  about c l a s s r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e  farm  movement, a l l agreed on the remarkable growth c f farm m i l i t a n c y i n t h e p e r i o d from 1900 1900  t o 1907  and  t o 1914.  The  accomplishments, c f the a r o u s e d farmers from  included the a b i l i t y to d r a i n f r e e l y across r a i l r o a d  a farmer was  tracks.  The  compensated f o r any  government had  of h i s animals k i l l e d  lands,  on t h e  railroad  set up t h e r a i l r o a d commission,and r a i l r o a d s  i n O n t a r i o were now  s u b j e c t t o some degree of t a x a t i o n .  t h e most i m p o r t a n t ,  t h e a r r e s t o f m a n u f a c t u r e r s ' e f f o r t s t o r a i s e customs  t a x a t i o n , c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e of the r u r a l population.  i n c r e a s e d m i l i t a n c y and  Organizations  put  p r e s s u r e more on  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the House of C o m m o n s . T o of these r u r a l occurred  'combines' was  i n connection  Despite  with the  some s u c c e s s e s ,  r e s t on t h e i r l a u r e l s . reforms.,  one  public a f f a i r s  of Canada i n a  they b e l i e v e d , a g r i c u l t u r i s t s  I f t h e y d i d not  organize  f u r t h e r and  jeopardized.  a settlement  expansion has  generation." should gain  112  not  other  They would have  little  t o f o r e i g n markets under c o n d i t i o n s of e q u a l i t y .  c o u l d o b t a i n a square d e a l e c o n o m i c a l l y  settlement  their  t h e m i l i t a n t s the  u n l e s s he a g i t a t e d .  t h r o u g h o r g a n i z a t i o n , farmers were t o l d , c o u l d t h e y o b t a i n an just  organization  of t h e most h o p e f u l s i g n s t h a t  t h e i r achievements would be  hope o f g a i n i n g a c c e s s No  "one  These, i n c l u d i n g  113  Only  economically  of t h e i r disputes with i n d u s t r y over the t a r i f f ;  o n l y such  c o u l d i n c r e a s e r e t u r n s from a g r i c u l t u r e enough t o induce  the  114 young p e o p l e t o remain on t h e i r p a r e n t s ' provided charges.  farms.  Increased a g i t a t i o n  the s o l e means o f f o r c i n g t h e t r a n s p o r t companies t o lower t h e i r One  i n c l u d e d few  M.  P. t o l d  r u r a l inhabitants that his post-election mail  l e t t e r s from f a r m e r s .  T h e r e f o r e , t h e y had  only themselves t o  115 blame i f he i g n o r e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . that  "no  matter how  o p i n i o n s w i l l not  be  Disillusioned  farmers s t i l l  t h e y p r o t e s t a g a i n s t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e t a r i f f , respected."  felt their  119 The  r u r a l population  needed o r g a n i z a t i o n s  at a l l levels.  The l a r g e r  o r g a n i z a t i o n , Dominion o r P r o v i n c i a l i n scope, had i t s p l a c e but " i t dees not  g e t down t o t h e o r d i n a r y  The  small organization,  farmer and r e a c h him as he ought t o be r e a c h e d . "  l o c a l i n i t s n a t u r e , though a l l i e d  w i t h some l a r g e r  117 movement, a c c o m p l i s h e d most. each p r o v i n c e  faced  the d i f f e r e n c e s .  '  While t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f  some d i f f e r e n t problems, t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s  A n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y t o b a l a n c e t h e  n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f manufacturers. was the motto.  Nothing short  "In union there i s strength,"  o f a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f farmers  representative  i n i t s character  be  Net u n t i l t h e farmers o f t h e E a s t  effective.  outweighed  118  "truly  a s w e l l a s wide i n i t s membership" would and West u n i t e d  would  a g r i c u l t u r e "have t h e weight and i n f l u e n c e i n t h e c o u n c i l s c f t h e n a t i o n t h a t our numbers and importance d e s e r v e . " Expanding t h e independent a g r i c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s , b e l i e v e d t h e newspapers, was t h e best means o f a g i t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r u r a l c l a s s e s . The  o l d e s t o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s s t i l l i n o p e r a t i o n a t t h e end o f t h e 120 n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was t h e Dominion Grange or P a t r o n s c f Husbandry. The 121 j o u r n a l s , a c c o r d i n g l y , supported t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f more b r a n c h Granges. Another a s s o c i a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , The Farmers' A s s o c i a t i o n , under t h e a e g i s  o f Goldwin Smith and The Weekly Sun i n 1902.  formed  I t s handicap  stemmed from i t s l a c k of a p p e a l f o r t h e l e s s m i l i t a n t members c f t h e farm community, f o r a l t h o u g h i t was supposed t o be n o n - p c l i t i c a l , much o f t h e Patron of Industry  'element' backed i t . Many f a r m e r s q u e s t i o n e d whether 122  its  f a t e would d i f f e r  t h e i r auspicious  from t h e o l d o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The P a t r o n s , a f t e r  b e g i n n i n g , s u f f e r e d a complete and d e m o r a l i z i n g  i n f l u e n c e by 1900.  Despite  declarations of t h e i r abstention  loss of  from a c t i v e  p o l i t i c s , t h e men i n v o l v e d i n t h e P a t r o n movement, i n c l u d i n g C. A. M a l l o r y , former l e a d e r c f t h e P a t r o n s i n t h e O n t a r i o  L e g i s l a t u r e , played  a large  120  role in founding the new organization.  123  • The inaugural meeting reminded  the community that agriculturists were "by far the most important element of the community /and/  should have a voice in saying how legislation 12 4  affecting their interests should be directed."  E. C. Drury remarked  that "though never more than three cr four hundred, i t s members were prominent farmers and i t had an influence much greater than mere member125  ship would indicate." The Farmers' Association immediately began an active programme of agitation by sending a delegation to 0tta;\ a as early as 1903 to present r  126  their views to the Government. According to The Weekly 3un, the aims of this movement attracted many rural people and i t spread rapidly across 4.v,  •  the province.  !27  Many prominent p o l i t i c a l figures attended i t s meetings.  128  Its programme included issues which economically most concerned the farmers (cessation of bonuses, equalization of taxation, fair freight rates and no increase in the t a r i f f ) . Organizational expansion would be useless unless farmers presented a united front to the 'Interests'.  Union of the farm groups, accordingly,  became a further ideal of the rural p r e s s . 3 ] _  o w  _  y  u n t i l 1914 the farm  organizations of Ontario united as the internal squabbling of the preceding years ceased and "young men with education and breadth of mind...allied themselves with men of wider experience in order that Canada's rural population may receive greater consideration at the hands of these in power." ^ ®  community of interest' was developing."^  1  The rural  community ought, believed the leaders cf The Grange, to free i t s e l f from the clutches of the government-sponsored institutions, the Farmers' 132 Institutes and Farmers' Clubs, which stifled freedom of action. the various professional organizations, E. C. Drury remarked that  As for  121 t r u e we have b r e e d e r s o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s s o r t s , f r u i t growers o r g a n i z a t i o n s and v a r i o u s o t h e r b o d i e s more o r l e s s c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e , but t h e s e do not i n any sense r e p r e s e n t the g r e a t a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s of the province. Indeed sometimes t h e i r i n t e r e s t s may be a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h o s e o f the g e n e r a l f a r m i n g community.  133 At t h e i r b e s t t h e y were o n l y p a r t i a l l y This state c f a f f a i r s group.  To them,  representative.  c o u l d not be s a t i s f a c t o r y  " i t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t  t o the more m i l i t a n t  so many v a r i o u s l o c a l f a r m e r s '  o r g a n i z a t i o n s had no bond o f u n i o n . The p l a n n a t u r a l l y suggested i t s e l f , t h e r e f o r e , o f c o n s o l i d a t i n g a l l t h e v a r i o u s l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s by f o r m i n g 13 L a new c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . "  The Dominion Grange took t h e  J  f o r m i n g t h i s new a s s o c i a t i o n .  lead  The U n i t e d Farmers o f O n t a r i o .  convention included representatives  from t h e F a r m e r s ' C l u b s ,  in  The f o u n d i n g Fruit  Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n s , P o u l t r y C i r c l e s , Seed-Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n s , D a i r y Companies, F a r m e r s ' M a r k e t i n g Companies, V e g e t a b l e Growers, B r e e d e r s ' C l u b s and Branch G r a n g e s .  135 -  The p r o s p e c t s ,  i n Farm and D a i r y were t h a t  a c c o r d i n g t o an o p t i m i s t i c  " w i t h i n two t o t h r e e y e a r s ,  15,000  to  editorial  20,000  136 farmers i n O n t a r i o w i l l be u n i t e d . . . . "  E . C . D r u r y p o i n t e d out  that  t h e U n i t e d Farmers o f O n t a r i o which f e d e r a t e d a l l t h e l o c a l f a r m e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t o a r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e body, had a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e t h a n  137 the  G r a i n Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n s  i n t h e West.  U. F . 0. a f f i l i a t i o n  w e s t e r n groups u n i t e d a l l C a n a d i a n farmers i n t h e Agriculture,  which was set  up i n 1910. •""-^  t o t h e Canadian a g r i c u l t u r i s t t h a t  uniting,  we a r e e n t e r i n g upon a new e r a .  electoral  representation  and f e d e r a l l e v e l s  o f government.  that  "the farmers o f Canada a r e  A t l a s t we have come t o g e t h e r . "  t h a t t r u l y e f f e c t i v e r e f o r m a c t i o n would have t o  taken d i r e c t l y i n the p o l i t i c a l arena. increase  Canadian C o u n c i l o f  The 1910 march on Ottawa  signalled  Many b e l i e v e d  with  They advocated  participation to  of the f a r m i n g c l a s s a t t h e As f o r d e p o p u l a t i o n ,  be  provincial  one m i l i t a n t  wrote  139  122 I cannot h e l p t h i n k i n g t h a t the b e s t remedy and t h e g r e a t e s t h e l p t o t h e farmer can come t h r o u g h the farmers themselves i n e l e c t i n g more farmers t o p a r l i a m e n t , and by t h e farmers who are a l r e a d y t h e r e t a k i n g a stand l e s s f o r p a r t y and more f o r t h e c o u n t r y ' s good. I t does seem as i f t h e r e i s too much b o l s t e r i n g up, and not enough m a n l i n e s s working out our p a r t s i n t h e n a t i o n ' s growth. 140 Many b e l i e v e d d e p o p u l a t i o n  r e s u l t e d from f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ' c o n t r o l  over t h e whole p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l system. o r g a n i z a t i o n s aimed at c r e a t i n g an "informed  and  Some  enlightened public opinion  among t h e farmers which would make i t s e l f f e l t t h r o u g h t h e political parties...." ^ 1  1  existing  Once t h i s o p i n i o n had been c r e a t e d ,  t u r i s t s would see t h a t t h e Members were sent t o P a r l i a m e n t 'the people*  farmers'  agricul-  t o do what  wanted, i n s t e a d o f l e n d i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o the  corporations  142 and t o p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s f o r p r o f i t .  The movement f o r farm o r g a n i z a -  t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , aimed a t a c h i e v i n g i t s ends by l o b b y i n g and by  t o w r e s t c o n t r o l o f the p o l i t i c a l system from t h e p r e s e n t S t a t i s t i c s t o l d t h e newspaper r e a d e r s t h a t , a l t h o u g h over  bosses. countrymen made up  s i x t y p e r cent o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Canada, t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f  the farming  p r o f e s s i o n formed l e s s t h a n f i f t e e n p e r cent o f t h e Members o f  Parliament. ^ 1  The  farmers  of t h i s state of a f f a i r s .  had Few  o n l y t h e m s e l v e s t o blame f o r t h e  r h e t o r i c and their first  existence  r u r a l r i d i n g s d i d not produce l o c a l  q u a l i f i e d t o t a k e on t h e j o b o f an M.P.  one  attempting 14^  fawning metaphor," and  They were "unschooled  men  i n pleasing  " t h e i r d a i l y a s s o c i a t i o n with nature  and  hand i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h a l l t h e d i v i s i o n s o f l a b o u r crowded i n t o  have not made them good w i r e - p u l l e r s . "  On t h e o t h e r hand, " t h e y a r e more  ready t o g r a n t the same c h a r i t y o f views t o a l l men perhaps t r u s t t o o much t o o t h e r s . "  which t h e y possess  This tolerance resulted i n c i t y  c a r r y i n g a g r i c u l t u r i s t s * views t o t h e c e n t r e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n .  and  lawyers  T h i s was  a  123  d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h o s e "who l o o k f o r the u p h o l d i n g o f t h e farm  interests .,145  i n F a r l i a m e n t f o r no man can r e p r e s e n t  farmers l i k e one o f  themselves."  Because t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f farmers i n t h e Senate was even lower t h a n i n t h e Commons, ( 2 out o f 9 0 members), r u r a l j o u r n a l s advocated e i t h e r  the 146  a b o l i t i o n o f t h e Senate o r appointment o f men o t h e r t h a n p a r t y s t a l w a r t s . The S e n a t e ' s c a p a b i l i t y would be v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d by t h e presence o f men o f judgement and e x p e r i e n c e who, a c t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e , were  147 q u a l i f i e d to shape l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g  its  interests.  Farmer M . P . ' s  and S e n a t o r s were not members o f t h e group o f p o l i t i c i a n s , C a b i n e t members and judges who had " l i t t l e h e s i t a t i o n i n a c c e p t i n g p o s i t i o n s c f  emolument  on t h e board o f management o f c o r p o r a t i o n s . . . . " """^ D e s p i t e p r o o f 8  that  farmers possessed " g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y f o r honest and e c o n o m i c a l government t h a n men o f o t h e r c l a s s e s , " t h e y d i d not a c h i e v e h i g h p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s if  t h e y were d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e . To change t h i s  s i t u a t i o n , P a r l i a m e n t a r y p r a c t i c e ought t o be t a u g h t  at t he a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s , meetings  149  and farmers s h o u l d be " d r i l l e d i n c o n d u c t i n g  and a c t i n g as chairmen and t h u s p o s t e d i n t h e r u l e s o f  The young farmer t h u s  educated " i s  order."  enabled t o p r e s i d e w i t h d i g n i t y and does  not have t o s t e p a s i d e f o r members o f t h e l e a r n e d p r o f e s s i o n s  on t h e ground  o f t h e i r b e i n g b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d f o r such work." """50 j i a r t i c l e s with such t i t l e s as "The Farmer on t h e P l a t f o r m " b r i e f e d countrymen on p u b l i c o  s p e a k i n g and encouraged them t o express The F a r m e r ' s Advocate remarked t h a t must p r e p a r e them and e l e c t t h e m . . . . get  into this  u  r  n  a  t h e i r views on t h e p l a t f o r m . """""' 5  " i f farmers d e s i r e more Members, It i s the business  p o l i t i c a l game and t o p l a y i t  fair,  they  o f t h e farmer t o  and see t h a t the  other  152 f e l l o w does not w i n w i t h a cold" deck o f c a r d s . " The r u r a l o p i n i o n - m a k e r s agreed on the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a g r e a t e r degree o f r u r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s but t h e y reached no a c c o r d i n  124 d e c i d i n g whether t h i s e x t e n s i o n o f a c t i o n s h o u l d be independent o r w i t h i n existing p o l i t i c a l parties.  One group u n h e s i t a t i n g l y recommended  that  f a r m e r s l i b e r a t e t h e m s e l v e s from t h e p o l i t i c a l system which s t i f l e d t o g i v e them j u s t i c e . C o n s e r v a t i v e s , would Sun. told  efforts  Complaints t h a t f a r m e r s , t i e d t o t h e L i b e r a l s and never obtain f a v o u r a b l e l e g i s l a t i o n f i l l e d  The Weekly  Some p a r t y p o l i t i c i a n s , such a s K. J . F e t t y p i e c e , a L i b e r a l M.L.A., farmers t h e y would  not a c h i e v e t h e i r economic  reforms i f t h e y  153 continued t o d i v i d e along party l i n e s . emphasized,  ^  T a r i f f r e f o r m , numerous a r t i c l e s  would n o t be g a i n e d w h i l e farmers "allov/ed o u r s e l v e s t o be  l e d around t h r o u g h o u r s l a v e r y t o . p a r t y p o l i t i c s . "  There was no  e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p a r t i e s on b a s i c r e f o r m measures.  De-  c l a r i n g i t s p o l i t i c a l n e u t r a l i t y , The Sun e x p l a i n e d t h a t "we c a n h a r d l y see a n y t h i n g t o choose between t h e two s h i b b o l e t h s .  We l o o k i n v a i n i n 155 t h e speeches and m a n i f e s t o e s f o r any r e a l d i f f e r e n c e o f p r i n c i p l e . " Instead o f l o o k i n g t o the e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s f o r r e d r e s s ,  I56 f a r m e r s had t o l e a r n t o depend on t h e i r  own e f f o r t s . '  Yov t h e m i l i t a n t s ,  a b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t o f t h e t a r i f f d i s p u t e i n 1911 was i t s d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d system.  They hoped t h a t i t would cause " e l e c t o r s , f o r once  t o c e a s e adherence t o c e r t a i n groups m e r e l y because t h e y were b o r n  into  157 them..."  J  l  Some o f t h i s group hoped t o e s t a b l i s h an independent  t u r a l p a r t y t o f o r c e t h e L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o end t h e i r talk.  agriculdouble  A r e a d e r urged The Sun t o c o n s i d e r "whether i f i t i s n o t the most  prudent c o u r s e t o d e c l a r e i t s e l f i n f a v o r o f a New P e o p l e ' s F a r t y t o save the p r o d u c e r s and workers from b e i n g f u r t h e r plunged i n t o m i s e r y , p o v e r t y 158 and c r i m e . " Advocate  The 1911 e l e c t i o n dashed t h e hopes o f The Farmer's  f o r i t seemed t o prove a g r i c u l t u r i s t s p o s s e s s e d a " b l i n d u n r e a s o n i n g  l o y a l t y " which f o l l o w e d t h e l e a d o f t h e i r p a r t y newspapers i n s t e a d o f heeding t h e sound a d v i c e o f independent p u b l i c a t i o n s .  V o t e r s were at s e a  125 about issues " u n t i l t h e i r favourite newspaper has declared i t s stand.... Meanwhile, hope of better government l i e s i n more true independence of thought and a c t i o n . . . .  Partisans neutralize each others' votes.  The  genuine i n c o r r u p t i b l e and independent element i s the one that statesmen  159 have to cater t o . . . "  "  The papers used the r e s u l t s of the 1911  election  as an object lesson to prove that the manufacturers and other combines were not allowing partyism to have any effect on t h e i r b a l l o t s .  "These  men  are voting as t h e i r pocket i n t e r e s t s d i c t a t e , " the journals believed,  "Do  farmers propose to farm the only c l a s s that can be moved by appeals to  party prejudice?  Do farmers propose to allow themselves to be hoodwinked  by partizan appeals into voting against something that w i l l be i n t h e i r own interest.?"' The p r o - r e c i p r o c i t y group generally supported extending independent a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i t i c a l action; those with reservations about t a r i f f reform did not f u l l y endorse the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e .  One  that the Grange "had been allowed to go down" and blamed the p o l i t i c a l stands."'"''" 6  l e t t e r noted organization's  The second group believed farmers' organizations  ought t o help the a g r i c u l t u r i s t progress p o l i t i c a l l y but should from d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l action themselves.  stay away  I f farmers stopped allowing  the  old parties to use them and forgot the impractical schemes to set up a new  party, they could organize within the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l framework and  162 take ever c o n t r o l of the older p a r t i e s .  Another r a t i o n a l e for a g r i c u l -  t u r i s t s abstaining from p o l i t i c a l action held that " r i g h t l y or wrongly, there has grown up under B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s a system of government which involves the establishment ....  of two  great p o l i t i c a l parties  The success...has depended almost absolutely upon the  and establishment  of two  parliamentary  great p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . . . .  organization  The p r i n c i p l e i s  there and the c o n s t i t u t i o n i s based on that p r i n c i p l e . "  126 (iii) The  r a d i c a l s ' push i n t o p o l i t i c s  p a r t i e s a g i t a t i o n over d e p o p u l a t i o n major i n f l u e n c e on r u r a l o p i n i o n .  showed how  dangerous t o  established  c o u l d become i f t h i s group became the Concern over d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by  the  system o f d i s t r i b u t i o n accompanied t h e i r resentment o f u r b a n economic dominance as t h e population's  economic d i s l o c a t i o n p r o v i d e d  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e i r  extent  impetus f o r the  economic r e l a t i o n s w i t h urban  i n e f f o r t s t o d i s c o v e r t h e r o o t s c f 'The t o d i s c o v e r i e s o f the  the  Problem.'  t o which t h e  rural industry  This questioning  concentration  o f urban economic  power a l l o w e d t r u s t s u n r e s t r a i n e d l y t o s i p h o n o f f t h e w e a l t h o f the t u r a l population. tariffs  and  Urban c o n t r o l ' o f the  b o u n t i e s t o i n d u s t r y and  l a n d t a x a t i o n gave s p e c u l a t o r s R a i l r o a d monopolies i n c r e a s e d expense.  not  handicapped t h e f a r m e r s .  sway o v e r r e n t s and  r a d i c a l s put  complaints.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s a t the  producers'  u r b a n wages and  hampered  P o s s e s s o r s o f a l l t h e s e economic b e n e f i t s , i t  forward schemes t o r e d r e s s  They demanded t h a t l a b o u r and  of a g r i c u l t u r e .  Lopsided  r a i s e d consumer p r i c e s .  s u r p r i s i n g c i t i e s a t t r a c t e d i n c r e a s i n g numbers from t h e The  each of t h e s e economic  i n d u s t r y cease t a k i n g advantage  o f t h e r a i l r o a d monopoly, a l l r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n i n the r a d i c a l but  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n remained.  t a k i n g urban i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  Rural  Not  Direct political-participation,  press.  greater  u n t i l farmers o r g a n i z e d  c o n s o l i d a t e d would t h e y have t h e power t o remove economic completely.  regulation  activists,  as t h e i r models, promoted  c o n s o l i d a t i o n of r u r a l i n t e r e s t groups.  was  farms.  A b o l i t i o n o f t a r i f f s , reformed l a n d t a x a t i o n ,  Some reforms o c c u r r e d ,  agricul-  l e g i s l a t i v e system r e s u l t e d i n  U n i o n s ' l a b o u r monopoly i n c r e a s e d  agricultural efficiency.  led  and  grievances  e i t h e r by u s i n g e x i s t i n g  p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s t o e l e c t more farmers or by c r e a t i n g a new  farmers'  party,  127 was  one  f a c e t o f t h e r a d i c a l s ' s o l u t i o n w h i l e a n o t h e r was  o f t h e Grange and  t h e o t h e r farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  adapting a g r i c u l t u r e p o l i t i c a l l y , manipulate the  The  e c o n o m i c a l l y , and  consolidation  moderates  socially in efforts to  e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s t o t h e i r advantage, the  f a c t i o n proposals f o r reform challenged  stressed  urban i n f l u e n c e  Drury-Good  directly.  128  CONCLUSION  Throughout t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g a r e a s  o f t h e world, concern f o r t h e  f a t e o f r u r a l c i v i l i z a t i o n grew a s t h e changing u r b a n - r u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p p l a c e d t h e c o u n t r y s i d e on t h e d e f e n s i v e  from 1900 t o 1914.  James  R o b e r t s o n , a Canadian Commissioner o f A g r i c u l t u r e , c o u l d j o i n w i t h S i r Horace P l u n k e t t , an A n g l o - I r i s h c i v i l s e r v a n t  and G i f f o r d F i n c h o t , an  American c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t , i n d r a f t i n g a memorandum u r g i n g an i n t e r n a t i o n a l study o f r u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . •was t h a t " i n t h e r e c e n t  The f i r s t  reason  f o r t h e concern o f these  economic e v o l u t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  the i n t e r e s t s o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l populations  men  nations,  have been s u b o r d i n a t e d  t o the  m a n u f a c t u r i n g and commercial i n t e r e s t s o f t h e towns; and t h a t , i n consequence l i f e and work upon t h e l a n d have been g r a v e l y prejudiced....""'" I n O n t a r i o , d o m i n a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e by t h e towns assumed t h r e e guises:  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e economic power o f i n d u s t r y , h o m o g e n i z a t i o n  o f l i f e - s t y l e s by t e c h o l o g y ,  and a g g l o m e r a t i o n  each o f t h e s e was e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t ,  a philosophy  Although  t h e r u r a l r e a c t i o n t o a l l f o c u s s e d on  t h e most o b v i o u s o f t h e t h r e e , d e p o p u l a t i o n in  of t h e population.  c f the countryside.  p r e d i c a t e d on t h e b e l i e f t h a t a n a t i o n ' s t r u e  Nurtured  welfare,  s o c i a l o r economic, depended upon r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e supremacy o f a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e f a r m e r s were f o r c e d t o f a c e an e r o d i n g r u r a l Even i n i t i a l dismay about d e p o p u l a t i o n of the r u r a l opinion-makers. and  population.  was n o t a unanimous sentiment  C o n f r o n t i n g an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r  shortage  a c o l l a p s e o f many o l d r u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e  a g r i c u l t u r i s t s evinced  great c o n c e r n .  f e r e n c e s , bocks, p o l i t i c i a n s ' estimates  The p r e s s , c h u r c h surveys  and f a r m e r s '  and con-  speeches, a l l had t h e i r  of t h e number l e a v i n g a g r i c u l t u r e and expressed  general  lengthy anxiety  129 o v e r the u n c o n f i n e d  s o c i a l and  economic n a t u r e o f 'The  Problem.'  m i n o r i t y o f the farm o p i n i o n - l e a d e r s , however, minimized alarm.  A  t h e need f o r  Farmers, t h e y b e l i e v e d , had t o a c c e p t t h a t i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e  c o u n t r y , s o c i a l and  l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s changed.  r u r a l a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c e was  The d e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e  o n l y a s t a g e i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s advancement  t o which a g r i c u l t u r e must a d a p t . Proceeding  from t h e i r g e n e r a l p e r c e p t i o n o f the problem, t h e  c u l t u r a l e l i t e examined i t s s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s . ' r a t i o n a l i s t s ' reached results  agri-  Both ' a l a r m i s t s ' and  t h e same c o n c l u s i o n f r o m s t u d y i n g  on the t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  depopulation's  Downgrading t h e  a g r a r i a n p h i l o s o p h y , t h r e a t e n i n g Canadian democracy and p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y , s a p p i n g t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e c o u n t r y s c h o o l , c h u r c h and posed an u n m i s t a k a b l e  challenge t o the country l i f e - s t y l e .  u n c e r t a i n t y o f the l a b o u r s i t u a t i o n decline. ency.  as a c u t e a problem as t h e  r a t i o n a l i s t s , however, maintained  To them, t h e l a b o u r s h o r t a g e  a l i z i n g p r o d u c t i o n , and aspect  was  their  equanimity  ineffici-  on  by f o r c i n g m e c h a n i z a t i o n ,  social  this  ration-  r a i s i n g p r i c e s f o r farm produce, was a b e n e f i c i a l  of the f a l l i n g population. The  s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s t o d e p o p u l a t i o n d i d not b r e a c h t h e  between the a g r i c u l t u r a l  opinion-makers.  b e l i e v e d the  because t h e i r b e l i e f i n r u r a l l i f e  'adaptors,'  undermined by f a m i l y , p r e s s , s c h o o l , and d e s t r u c t i o n , these i n s t i t u t i o n s which t h e y i n s t i l l e d boy was  had  split  Farmers l e f t t h e c o u n t r y s i d e ,  church.  accepted  i n the r u r a l population.  indoctrinated with a m a t e r i a l i s t i c  him towards the g o l d e n m e t r o p o l i s . and  To most, t h e  I t r e s u l t e d i n p o o r e r methods, f a l l i n g p r o d u c t i o n and  The  score.  family, depopulation  had  Instruments  been  of t h e i r  urban norms and s t r u c t u r e s From h i s y o u t h , a  country  p o i n t o f view, which headed  Showing c i t y l i f e  'as i t r e a l l y  was'  r u r a l l i f e as i t c o u l d be, t h e e v a n g e l i s t s o f a g r a r i a n i s m propagan-  d i z e d to c o r r e c t t h i s pro-urban  outlook.  own  Reformed t e a c h e r and  preacher  130 t r a i n i n g t o g i v e the  schools  and  ensure t h e c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n The  churches a s t r o n g  r u r a l outlook.would  t a u g h t an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c o u n t r y  more r a d i c a l s e c t i o n of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l e l i t e a c c e p t e d t h i s  of the d e c l i n e o f t h e a g r a r i a n mythology and situation.  need no  struggled to reverse  l e a k from t h e  the  countryside.  reformers b e l i e v e d that h i n d e r i n g a pleasant  l o n g e r d r i v e countrymen t o t h e towns.  countryside  rural social  life  Urban t e c h n o l o g y gave t h e  i t s t e l e p h o n e s , good r o a d s , m a i l d e l i v e r y , a u t o m o b i l e s ,  t r o l l e y s , a l l of which brought countrymen t h e social interaction. increased  analysis  They were not c o n v i n c e d , however, t h a t t h e s e reforms would  u l t i m a t e l y p l u g the The  life.  the  urban-style  opportunity  of  increasing  T e c h n o l o g i c a l advances l i g h t e n e d the work l o a d  l e i s u r e time, o f a l l members o f t h e farm f a m i l y .  r e l a t i o n s between the g e n e r a t i o n s  f a m i l y q u a r r e l so t h a t t h e  and  Maintaining  patched up many a farm  sons remained on t h e i r f a t h e r ' s farm.  These  s o l u t i o n s a l l found f a v o u r w i t h the r a t i o n a l i s t s , w h i l e t h e more s c e p t i c a l members o f t h e r u r a l e l i t e remained u n c o n v i n c e d . not a c c e p t t h e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h , and these processes implied f o r the  farm.  Rural areas,  styles that  t h e y b e l i e v e d , must  o l d unique s o c i a l  s o c i a l s o l u t i o n could reverse  S o c i a l r e a s o n s e n t i c e d , but  l a t t e r group c o u l d  t a k e o v e r by urban l i f e  r e t a i n a r u r a l i d e n t i t y by c u l t i v a t i n g t h e Many doubted t h a t any  The  organizations.  depopulation.  economic drawbacks f o r c e d , t h e  moderates thought farmers a d a p t i n g  country-  men  t o t h e towns.  The  cal  advances c o u l d  s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c r e a s e r e t u r n s t o make f a r m i n g a com-  p a r a t i v e l y p r o f i t a b l e 'business' f a r m i n g , m e c h a n i z a t i o n and r e f o r m group would not quately.  For  c o u l d net  correct the  operation.  urban t e c h n o l o g i -  While they supported  b e t t e r working c o n d i t i o n s  f o r hired help,  r e l y on t h e s e reforms t o i n c r e a s e p r o f i t s  them, i d e o l o g i c a l r e f o r m and  s o c i a l or p r o d u c t i o n  f u n d a m e n t a l economic and  intensive the  adeadaptation  distributional inequities  131 which herded t h e thousands c i t y w a r d .  O n l y urban e x p l o i t a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e  e x p l a i n e d d e p o p u l a t i o n , b e l i e v e d Good, Drury, Smith and  Cowan.  on t h i s theme, t h e y t r i e d t o convince a g r i c u l t u r i s t s o f t h e  injustices  p e r p e t r a t e d , knowingly o r n o t , by t h e whole urban p o p u l a t i o n . for  e x p l o i t a t i o n , t h e c o r p o r a t i o n s , l a n d s p e c u l a t o r s and  Hammering  Organized  railroads  i m p l a c a b l y p r e s s e d t h e i r m o n o p o l i s t i c , t a r i f f and t a x advantages t o m i l k t h e countryman. D e s p i t e t h e moderates' w a r n i n g t h a t Canada needed prosperous and t h e i r i n d u s t r i e s t o advance, the r e f o r m e r s t h e i r remedy f o r d e p o p u l a t i o n .  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y promoted  S p e c i f i c r e f o r m s t o c o r r e c t economic i n -  e q u i t i e s c o u l d be most e a s i l y a c h i e v e d a u n i v e r s a l farmers'  towns  organization.  i f endorsed  by t h e f u l l weight o f  Farmers, i n 1914,  still  composed more  t h a n s i x t y p e r cent c f the Canadian and a l i t t l e below f i f t y per cent the O n t a r i o p o p u l a t i o n .  Organized  p o l i t i c a l l y t o e l e c t men  support t h e i r c a u s e s , t h e y c o u l d wrest from i t s c o r p o r a t e b o s s e s .  control of the  was  their  legislative  F r e e t r a d e , t h e s i n g l e t a x and  r a i l r o a d s , c o u l d be q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  pledged  to  system  publicly-owned  C o n f r o n t a t i o n , not  adaptation,  aim.  The two  o u t l o o k s , c o n f r o n t a t i o n and  countrymen c o n s i d e r e d t h e  extending  a d a p t a t i o n , cropped  r a d i c a l i z a t i o n of The  up whenever  power o f m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s .  E v o l u t i o n i n e i t h e r o u t l o o k i s d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e throughout The  of  the p e r i o d .  Farmer's Advocate h i n t s t h a t a movement i n f a v o u r  o f more d r a s t i c p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n o c c u r r e d a f t e r the 1911  e l e c t i o n demon-  s t r a t e d the unanimity  The  of  The  o f urban h o s t i l i t y  t o r u r a l aims.  Canadian Countryman, s e t up i n 1911,  and  The  strong  case  Farmer's Magazine i n  promoting a d a p t a t i o n as t h e best means o f s o l v i n g the problems o f d e p o p u l a t i o n shows, however, t h a t t h e i r p o i n t o f viev; r e t a i n e d s t r o n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s among t h e r u r a l  elite.  132 Searching  f o r a way  t o understand and  t o cope w i t h t h e i r  changing  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n d u s t r i a l urbanism, farm o p i n i o n m a i n t a i n e d brium.  an  equili-  Both p o i n t s o f v i e w r e c e i v e d t h e adherence o f i n f l u e n t i a l members  o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l e l i t e and were s t r o n g l y expounded b e f o r e t h e mass o f countrymen.  The  1911  e l e c t i o n demonstrated t h e s t r e n g t h o f the  but t h e growth of the Grange and had  behind  i t the f o r c e of the  or economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s  gradual u n i f y i n g of r u r a l  'reformers.'  Few  s e r i o u s l y threatened  'adaptors'  organizations  unusual p o l i t i c a l ,  t h i s balance  social  from 1900  to  1914. The  l a t t e r y e a r , however, w i t n e s s e d  which u p s e t  the balance  between t h e two  two  p o i n t s of view and  t i o n i n t o the prime i s s u e o f O n t a r i o p o l i t i c s . rences, the  formation  first  made d e p o p u l a of these  Depopulation  and  the  labour  been t h e g r e a t problems c o n f r o n t i n g pre-war O n t a r i o  s o c i e t y , but t h e v a s t numbers l e a v i n g t h e farms f o r t h e army and m u n i t i o n s f a c t o r i e s brought t h e simmering r u r a l - u r b a n c o n f l i c t questionto a c r i s i s .  The  and  the  urban  over t h i s  the l a t e r c a n c e l l a t i o n o f  exemptions, p l a c e d t h e r a d i c a l Good-Drury-Morrison group as  o f t h e o p i n i o n s o f the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f the p r o v i n c e ' s The  rural  f i n a l d i r e c t challenge to Ontario a g r i c u l t u r e ,  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f c o n s c r i p t i o n i n 1917 farmers'  occur-  t o c r e a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e U.F.O,  formed t h e government of the p r o v i n c e . had  The  portent  o f t h e U n i t e d Farmers of O n t a r i o , depended upon t h e  second, t h e s t r e s s e s o f war,  shortage  events o f g r e a t  e l e c t i o n o f 1917,  fought  leaders  agriculturists.  on t h e i s s u e o f p a t r i o t i s m and  the  Union  Government's promise t o exempt farmers from c o n s c r i p t i o n , momentarily b l u n t e d f a r m and  U.F.O. p r o t e s t s .  c a n c e l l a t i o n of.farmers' t o unheard o f h e i g h t s .  F o l l o w i n g t h e e l e c t i o n , however, t h e  exemptions from c o n s c r i p t i o n r a i s e d r u r a l p r o t e s t A monster d e l e g a t i o n v i s i t e d Ottawa t o complain t o  Prime M i n i s t e r Borden t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e , c o n s i s t e n t l y s h o r t - c h a n g e d ,  had  133 l o s t much p o p u l a t i o n t h a t i t c o u l d no l o n g e r a i d the war e f f o r t and a v e r t a famine.  R u r a l h o s t i l i t y towards urban c r i t i c s o f a g r i c u l t u r e r e a c h e d  unexampled b i t t e r n e s s .  The U n i t e d  Farmers o f O n t a r i o , p r o p e l l e d i n t o  p o l i t i c s by the widespread p r o t e s t , f i n a l l y wen t h e 1919  provincial  election  on a p l a t f o r m s t r e s s i n g t h e need t o s t o p t h e c o n t i n u i n g d e c l i n e o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , and s e t t h e s t a g e f o r e f f o r t s t o g a i n economic j u s t i c e f o r farmers.  CHAPTER I  134  NOTES  Walton  J.  For the r e s u l t s o f t h i s seminar see: M. A. Tremblay and Anderson, ( e d s . ) , R u r a l Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n , Ottawa: 1966.  In t h i s book, a s e r i e s o f monographs, Donald R. Whyte's " R u r a l Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n , " p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l f o u n d a t i o n f o r a knowledge o f t h e contemporary e f f e c t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n on a g r i c u l t u r e . H e l e n A b e l l ' s monograph, "The S o c i a l Consequences o f t h e M o d e r n i z a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e , " d i s c u s s e s t h e impact o f t e c h n o l o g y on a g r i c u l t u r e , 1941-1961. Another s t u d y , by t h e Saskatchewan Government's R o y a l Commission on R u r a l L i f e , was p r e p a r e d i n 1952 i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e changing q u a l i t i e s o f a c o u n t r y e x i s t e n c e i n t h a t p r o v i n c e . (Saskatchewan, R o y a l Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e and Country L i f e , R e p o r t , R e g i n a : 1952-1956. See e s p e c i a l l y "Movement o f Farm P e o p l e . " )  Examples o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n O n t a r i o i n c l u d e : D. A. B r i s t o w , " A g r a r i a n I n t e r e s t i n t h e P o l i t i c s o f O n t a r i o : A Study w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o t h e P e r i o d 1919-1949," U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o : 1950; J . D. Hoffman, "FarmerLabour Government i n O n t a r i o , " U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto: 1959: R. A. Farquharson, "The P i s e and F a l l o f the U.F.O.," S a t u r d a y N i g h t , (June 21, 1950); H. H. Hannam, P u l l i n g T o g e t h e r f o r Twenty-five Years: A B r i e f S t o r y o f the Events and People i n t h e U n i t e d Farmers' Movement i n O n t a r i o During? the Q u a r t e r Century, 19141939, T o r o n t o : 1940: Jean MacLeod, "The U n i t e d Farmer Movement i n O n t a r i o , 1914-1943," U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y : 1958; R. V/. Trowbridge, "War-Time D i s c o n t e n t and the R i s e o f t h e U n i t e d Farmers o f O n t a r i o , " U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Waterloo: 1966; L. A. Wood, A H i s t o r y o f Farmers' Movements i n Canada, T o r o n t o : 1924; Norman Farrow, " P o l i t i c a l Aspects o f the U n i t e d Farmer Movement i n O n t a r i o , " Unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o : 1938: M. H. S t a p l e s , The C h a l l e n g e o f A g r i c u l t u r e , T o r o n t o : See a l s o : V. C. Fowke, "An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , " The Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V I I I , (1942); L . S. Grossman, "Safe S e a t s : The Rural-Urban P a t t e r n i n O n t a r i o , " I b i d . , XXIX, (1963): B. D. Tennyson, "The O n t a r i o E l e c t i o n o f 1919," J o u r n a l o f Canadian S t u d i e s , (1969); R i c h a r d Vanhoon, "The P o l i t i c a l Thought o f the U n i t e d Farmers o f O n t a r i o , " U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , Carleton University: 1965.  135  T h e r e i s s t i l l rocm f o r s t u d i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r s . A u t o b i o g r a p h i e s a v a i l a b l e i n c l u d e : W. C. Good, Farmer C i t i z e n : My F i f t y Y e a r s i n t h e Canadian Farmers' Movement, T o r o n t o : 1958; E . C. D r u r y , Farmer P r e m i e r , T o r o n t o : 1968. A T h e s i s t i t l e d "The P h i l o s o p h y and Ideas o f W. C. Good, 1896-1956" i s at present i n preparation at C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y .  4 See G. Elmore Reaman, A H i s t o r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n O n t a r i o , Toronto: 1970 (2 v o l s . ) ; Canada, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Canada, A g r i c u l t u r e , The F i r s t Hundred Y e a r s , ( H i s t o r i c a l S e r i e s #1), Ottawa: 1967. T h e b e s t a n a l y s i s o f r u r a l Canadian and O n t a r i o s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s emerged a t t h e t i m e . W r i t t e n by Rev. John M a c d o u g a l l , R u r a l L i f e i n Canada. T o r o n t o : 1913, e x p l o r e s t h e r e s u l t s , causes and solutions of r u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . In the United S t a t e s , Richard H o f s t a d t e r ' s The Age c f Reform, New Y o r k : 1955, p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w o f many s o c i a l and p h i l o s o p h i c r o o t s o f a comparable s o c i a l movement. U n p u b l i s h e d American works on t h e same theme i n c l u d e : B e t t y C. C l u t t s . , " C o u n t r y L i f e A s p e c t s of t h e P r o g r e s s i v e Movement," U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. T h e s i s , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y : 1962; Robert G. Comegys, "The A g r a r i a n and R u r a l T r a d i t i o n as R e f l e c t e d i n N a t i o n a l P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , 1919-1929," U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. T h e s i s , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1958; O r i n L. Keener, "The Background o f t h e American Country L i f e Movement," Unpublished.Ph.D. T h e s i s , Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y , 1956; W i l l i a m E . W e i r , "The Homestead-Redlands A r e a : A Study o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Urban C o n f l i c t , " U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , Miami-Ohio U n i v e r s i t y , 1964; H a r o l d F. W i l s o n , "A Study i n t h e S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f R u r a l N o r t h e r n New E n g l a n d , " Ph.D. T h e s i s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1933. 5  6 I a i n C. T a y l o r , "Components o f P o p u l a t i o n Change, O n t a r i o , 1850-1940," U n p u b l i s h e d M. A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o : I967, p . 138. Urban growth amounted t o 41.9> o f t h e 1901 urban p o p u l a t i o n o r an i n c r e a s e o f 392,511. See a l s o Appendix D. A census monograph p r e p a r e d f o r t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s c o n f i r m s t h i s f a c t , i n d i c a t i n g t h e r a t e o f growth i n O n t a r i o c i t i e s has been: 1871-1881 1881-1891 1891-1901 1901-1911 1911-1921 1921-1931 1931-1941 1941-1951 1951-1961  40.03 35.7£ 13.3 41.3 30.5 20.8 12.9 17.9  24.6  (These f i g u r e s a r e c i t e d i n L e r o y 0. Stone, Urban Development i n Canada, Ottawa: 1968, p. 89.)  136 7  John P o r t e r attempts t o show t h e p a s t decade has seen t h e g r e a t e s t r u r a l changes i n t h e c e n t u r y , p o i n t i n g out t h a t t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n has dropped from 20% t o 11% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Canada. R u r a l i n h a b i t a n t s l e f t t h e c o u n t r y s i d e i n an average number o f 39,000 a n n u a l l y o r o v e r 340,000 i n t h e decade o f t h e 1950's. I n t h e decades from 1900 t o 1920, O n t a r i o a l o n e l o s t about 200,000 p e r decade. (John P o r t e r , " R u r a l D e c l i n e , " i n V,. E . Mann, ( e d . ) , Canada; A S o c i o l o g i c a l P r o f i l e , T o r o n t o : 1968, p. 20.) 7  *%.S.B. G r a s , a p i o n e e r i n t h e s t u d y o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , saw t h e growth o f a m e t r o p o l i s p r i m a r i l y as t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f economic f u n c t i o n s and p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n a n c i a l c o r p o r a t i o n s and f i n a n c i a l institutions. The m e t r o p o l i s was t h e c e n t r e i n which p o l i c i e s were shaped and from which t h e y d i f f u s e d out t o s m a l l e r c i t i e s and t h e countryside. (See Donald K e r r , " M e t r o p o l i t a n Dominance i n Canada," W. E . Mann, (ed.),Canada: A S o c i o l o g i c a l P r o f i l e , Toronto: 1968, p. 225.  9 Hope T. E l d r i d g e argues t h a t u r b a n i z a t i o n can o n l y be d e f i n e d as a p r o c e s s o f p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n , " s i n c e any o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n l e a d s t o a m b i g u i t y and o t h e r forms o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s t r e s s . " Her d e f i n i t i o n , w h i l e i t s a t i s f i e s t h e d e s i r e f o r c o n c r e t e n e s s and p r e c i s i o n i n i s o l a t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l aspects o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , ignores t h e other h a l f o f t h e p r o c e s s which i s concerned w i t h t h e s o c i a l changes i n v o l v e d . D e s p i t e t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n brought about by t h e i r u s e , both t h e s e l a t t e r a s p e c t s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n a r e a s important i n t h e p r o c e s s as i s t h e concentration o f population. (See Hope T i s d a l e E l d r i d g e , "The P r o c e s s o f U r b a n i z a t i o n , " i n J . J . S p e n g l e r and 0. D. Duncan, ( e d s . ) , Demographic A n a l y s i s . Glencoe: 1942.) 7  """^Donald R. Whyte, R u r a l Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n , i n M a r c - A d e l a r d Tremblay and Walton J . Anderson . ( e d s . ) , R u r a l Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n Ottawa: 1966, p . 3. """""A. L. B e r t r a n d , R u r a l S o c i o l o g y : R u r a l L i f e , Toronto: 1958, p . 415.  An A n a l y s i s o f Contemporary  12 Assen:  Jacob S p e l t , The Urban Development o f S o u t h - C e n t r a l 1955, p . 142.  Ontario,  13 «J. W. Watson, " R u r a l D e p o p u l a t i o n i n South West O n t a r i o , " A n n a l s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers. XXXVI, (1947), p . 153. •^Jacob S p e l t , p. 142-143.  15 farm and D a i r y , J u l y 10, 1913, p. 3. L e t t e r from Amateur E c o n o m i s t . See a l s o The Farmer's Magazine, A p r i l 1911, p. 128. •*" Iain T a y l o r , p . 56. T h i s h i s t o r i c a l - d e m o g r a p h i c study proved most u s e f u l i n g a i n i n g a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e numbers involved. 6  137 17  Ibid., p. 102. See also Appendix D for the figures of outmigration for the period from 1881 to 1921 and Appendix E for figures of absolute population declines or increases. A migrational increase or decline i s calculated by subtracting the natural increase from the population change. An absolute population change was calculated by subtracting the deaths from the births and adding the migrational totals to the resulting figures. Taylor notes a distinct correlation between the date of settlement and the beginning of migration. The latter follows twenty years after the former. Sons of the original settlers could not a l l find farms in their home townships and had to seek their farms away from these. 18 Ibid., p. 102. 19 Ibid.. p. 110.  20ibid., pp. 264-265. Areas.showing growth were in Brant, Essex, Lincoln, Waterloo, Welland, Wentworth and York (See Appendix D). For urban increase during this period see Appendix F.  21,  See Appendix E.  22 This total was obtained by adding up the column of figures as i t stands. If the northern d i s t r i c t s , which were newly formed and whose population i s not included in the 1881 or 1891 totals, are subtracted from the calculations, the total decline rises tc 178,871. Further, when counties experiencing suburban and not rural growth are omitted from the calculations, the population drop again rises this time to 144,958. When we do not include either the north or the suburban counties, the f i n a l figure of 198,088. i s obtained. (See Appendix D.) • •  23_.  figures for migration to the West and the United States are as follows: Net migration of Net migration of Net migration of Ontario born to Ontario born to Ontario born from rest of Canada United States the Province 1881-1891 1891-1901  1901-1911 1911-1921 1921-1931 1931-1941  - 77,000 -105,000  -109,000 -131,000 -130,000 - 4,200  - 56,300 - 54,700  -153,300 - 33,600 + 14,500 + 27,600  - 20,700 - 50,300 + 44,300  - 97,400 -148,000 - 31,800  (Minus signs indicate losses from Ontario) Source:  Iain Taylor, p. 52.  Note: In this chart, the most important figure of -153,300 gives the number of inhabitants leaving the province in the years 1900-1911. Some  138 of t h e s e p e o p l e must have m i g r a t e d from r u r a l a r e a s w h i l e o t h e r s l e f t the c i t i e s . There i s no way o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e r u r a l from t h e urban o u t m i g r a n t s . I f t w o - t h i r d s or 100,000 c f t h e o u t m i g r a n t s l e f t the p r o v i n c e from r u r a l a r e a s , and s i n c e ( a c c o r d i n g t o Appendix D) 200,000 moved from r u r a l a r e a s d u r i n g t h i s decade, we c a n assume t h a t at l e a s t 100,000 moved from r u r a l a r e a s t o t h e c i t i e s o f O n t a r i o .  24 These were B r a n t , C a r l e t c n , Essex, L i n c o l n , O n t a r i o , P e e l , W e l l a n d , Wentworth and York c o u n t i e s , (See Appendix D ) .  25 I f we f o l l o w t h e same p r o c e d u r e s as i n f o o t n o t e 17 above, when t h e N o r t h i s e x c l u d e d t h e t o t a l r i s e s t o 60,904. When t h e suburbs a r e not i n c l u d e d t h e t o t a l d e c l i n e i s 149,575 and when b o t h N o r t h and suburbs a r e o m i t t e d , i t i s 154,202, (See Appendix D ) .  26 F l o y d S. Chalmers, A Gentleman o f t h e P r e s s T o r o n t o : 1969, pp. 180-181. T h i s b i o g r a p h y o f John B. Maclean g i v e s t h e s t o r y o f t h e f o u n d i n g o f The Farmer's Magazine. C o l o n e l Maclean's i n t e r e s t went so f a r as s i g n i n g e d i t o r i a l s . The j o u r n a l expanded r a p i d l y f o r t h e f i r s t few y e a r s a f t e r i t s growth but f o l d e d up i n 1921, perhaps due t o i t s a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e f a r m e r s by i t s l a c k o f m i l i t a n c y i n t h e e x c i t i n g y e a r s c f t h e r u r a l u n r e s t , 1917-1919. t  27 I t would seem t h a t t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e expanded h i s i n t e r e s t s beyond h i s j o b w i t h t h e government. He had a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n which c o u l d p r e d i s p o s e him towards t h e interests of railroads i n particular. (See P.A.C.. George P. Graham Papers, C. C. James to'George Graham, May 13, 1909.) James urged Graham t o a l l o w a p r i v a t e power company use c f a f a l l s t o s u p p l y t h e Cobcurg, P o r t Hope and Havelock E l e c t r i c R a i l r o a d w i t h power. The expansion o f t h i s r a i l r o a d would, he b e l i e v e d , g i v e b u s i n e s s t o t h e Cobourg c a r shops, of which he was a d i r e c t o r . By r e a s o n o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g o t h e r h i g h c i v i l s e r v a n t s i n t h e Departments c f A g r i c u l t u r e i n b o t h Toronto and Ottawa had l i t t l e n a t u r a l sympathy f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . James' s u c c e s s o r as d e p u t y m i n i s t e r i n T o r o n t o was W. B. Roadhouse, a j o u r n a l i s t , w h i l e the F e d e r a l d e p u t y was George 0 ' K a l l o r a n , a lawyer. Both t h e s e appointments had been d e p l o r e d i n t h e m i l i t a n t r u r a l j o u r n a l s , which wanted r e a l 'sons o f t h e farm' as t h e c h i e f d i r e c t o r s c f t h e departments. 28 See E l i z a b e t h W a l l a c e , Goldwin Smith: Victorian Liberal, Toronto: 1957, pp. 122-126 f o r Smith's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o The Weekly Sun. Smith perhaps s u p p o r t e d t h e farmers i n t h e hope t h a t t h e y would r e c i p r o c a t e by p u s h i n g h i s more p u r e l y i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i n f r e e t r a d e . H i s weekly c o n t r i b u t i o n t o h i s paper i n "The Bystander" columns made l i t t l e d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s . I t was u s u a l l y d e v o t e d t o c o n v i n c i n g a g r i c u l t u r i s t s o f Smith's p o s i t i o n on w o r l d o r Canadian a f f a i r s .  139  29  For v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n a g r a r i a n mythology see R. H. A b b o t t , "The A g r i c u l t u r a l P r e s s Views The Yeoman," A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y . XL, 1, (January, 1968), p. 3 6 . Abbott argues t h a t "The i n s i s t e n c e w i t h which t h e farm j o u r n a l s i n t h e U. 3. A. d i s c u s s e d t h e myth seemed t o be d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the degree t o which i t was r e j e c t e d by t h o s e f o r whom i t was i n t e n d e d . " Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s same a t t i t u d e (Margaret L. Woodward, "The N o r t h w e s t e r n Farmer, 1868-1876: A T a l e o f Paradox," A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , XXXVII, 3, ( J u l y , 1963), p. 1 3 4 f f . ) n o t e s t h e ambivalent p o s i t i o n o f the farmer as he was p i c t u r e d i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l j o u r n a l s between " l e g e n d and f a c t , " " c u l t u r e and r u s t i c i t y , " and " p a s t o r a l v i s i o n s and economic r e a l i t i e s . " These two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c a n both be e x p l a i n e d by t h e growing p l a c e o f t h e m e t r o p o l i s i n t h e r u r a l l i f e . As t h e c i t i e s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r c o n t r o l over r u r a l l i f e , t h e farmers a s s e r t e d t h e o l d a g r a r i a n mythology i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e a remnant o f t h e i r o l d rural identity. The farmer was f o r c e d b o t h t o adapt (hence t h e economic r e a l i s m ) and t o f i g h t (hence t h e growing a g r a r i a n v i s i o n s ) .  CHAPTER I I  NOTES  George V. H a y t h c r n e , " A g r i c u l t u r a l Manpower," The Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , I X , 3, (August, 1943), p. 366.  2 G. V. Haythorne, Labor i n Canadian A g r i c u l t u r e , Mass.: 19°0, p. 43. H i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s l a b o r i n a g r i c u l t u r e a r e as f o l l o w s : Classification  Demand  Supply  Cambridge, affecting  Demand & S u p p l y  Income Wages  Economic: Land Other C a p i t a l Credit Social:  A t t i t u d e toward farming Birth rate Longevity Immigration  Economic  and S o c i a l :  Working c o n d i t i o n s Housing Social security Education Recreation  3 the  Tne Weekly Sun. March 29, 1911, p. 1. O n t a r i o Bureau o f I n d u s t r i e s Rg-port, 1909.  T h i s f i g u r e came from  4 I b i d . , August  16, 1911,  p . 1.  I b i d . . March 27, 1912, p. 1. See a l s o I b i d . , O c t o b e r 25, p. 1. f o r a n o t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l comment on t h e 1911 c e n s u s . 5  1911,  \ l . A. C r a i k , " I n d u s t r i a l Development: How i t Helps t h e Farmer," The Canadian Countryman, I I I , 15, ( A p r i l 11, 1914), p . 9. He p r o v i d e s e s t i m a t e s o f t h e v a r i o u s township d e c l i n e s .  141  The Farmer's Advocate, March 26, 1914, p.- 591. The Advocate p u b l i s h e d a l e t t e r u s i n g v a r i o u s bureau o f I n d u s t r i e s s t a t i s t i c s . ^Farm and Pair?/. O c t o b e r 26, 1911, p. 110. T h i s paper c i t e s  a d e c l i n e o f from 80,000 t o 100,000 i n t h e p r e v i o u s decade. 9 p. 23.  The O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e Review, XVI, 1 .(October, 1903), The e d i t o r s e s t i m a t e t h e d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n from 1893 t o  1903 a t 35,538. 10 V/. L. Smith, "Overcrowding i n t h e C i t i e s , " The Farmer's Magazine, December, 1914, p. 44. U s i n g Bureau o f I n d u s t r i e s ' s t a t i s t i c s , he e s t i m a t e s t h e d e c l i n e a t 45,000 from 1900 t o 1911 and i n c l u d e s e s t i m a t e s from i n d i v i d u a l townships such as 638 i n T u c k e r s m i t h (Huron Co.) and 937 i n I n n i s f i l (Simcoe C o . ) . 11  The Weekly Sun. March 20, 1912, p . 1.  ^ M e t h o d i s t Church, (Canada), Department o f Temperance and M o r a l Reform, Report c f a R u r a l 3 u r v e y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l , E d u c a t i o n a l , S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s L i f e . T o r o n t o : December-January, 1913-1914, p. 7. See a l s o Rev. S. F. Sharp, "The Church and t h e R u r a l Froblem," Social S e r v i c e Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report o f Addresses and P r o c e e d i n g s , Toronto: 1914, p . 1 4 3 f f . 13 John M a c d o u g a l l , R u r a l L i f e i n Canada, T o r o n t o : 1913, p.27. The e s t i m a t e was computed from a d e c l i n e c f 52,184 shown i n t h e 1911 c e n s u s . He s u b t r a c t e d t h e New O n t a r i o ( n o r t h e r n ) i n c r e a s e t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g the d e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e t o 97,124 and t h e n t h e suburban growth (12,545) a g a i n i n c r e a s i n g the f i g u r e t o 109,069. To t h i s he added t h e n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e o f 200,183 and an e s t i m a t e d f i g u r e f o r f o r e i g n i m m i g r a t i o n (121,200) t o o b t a i n h i s f i n a l t o t a l . A f u l l page s t o r y on h i s f i n d i n g s was p u b l i s h e d i n Farm and D a i r y , O c t o b e r 30, 1913, p. 3 and a summary c a n be found i n Rev. John M a c d o u g a l l , "The R u r a l Problem," S o c i a l S e r v i c e Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report, p. 1 4 7 f f .  14 For examples see: R. A. F i n n , "A Township Survey Re: A g r i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n , " u n p u b l i s h e d B.S.A. t h e s i s , O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , Guelph: 1915, p. 9. Ke g i v e s f i g u r e s showing a. d e c l i n e i n t h e Township o f P e r c y , Northumberland County, i n t h e y e a r s from 1876 t o 1912. George W i l s o n , "An A g r i c u l t u r a l Survey o f H a l t o n County," u n p u b l i s h e d E.S.A. t h e s i s , Guelph: 1913, p . 40. T h i s t h e s i s g i v e s a d e t a i l e d summary o f p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r H a l t o n County. H. R. Hare, " A g r i c u l t u r a l Survey o f Mariposa'-Township i n V i c t o r i a County," u n p u b l i s h e d B.S.A. t h e s i s , Guelph: 1914, p. 12, n o t e s t h a t e m i g r a t i o n has been outward so t h a t t h e 1914 p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s township was 16% lower t h a n t h a t o f 43 y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . C. E . L i n s a y , "A Study o f R u r a l M i g r a t i o n i n a T y p i c a l O n t a r i o Township," u n p u b l i s h e d B.S.A. t h e s i s , Guelph: 1914.  142 15  3. H. Hopkins, " R u r a l D e p o p u l a t i o n i n O n t a r i o , " u n p u b l i s h e d B.S.A. T h e s i s , Guelph: 1914, c i t e s a r u r a l d e c l i n e o f 52,184 from 1901 t o 1911 compared t o urban i n c r e a s e o f 392,511. H. A. C o l e , " R u r a l D e p o p u l a t i o n i n O n t a r i o , " u n p u b l i s h e d B.S.A. T h e s i s , Guelph: 1922. T h e Weekly Sun. November 23, 1910, p. 1. For s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e 1901 census see The Farming World. September 3> 1901, p. 189. l 6  P . A . C , W. C. Good P a p e r s , v o l . 18, f . 12190, December 20, 1913T h i s was a MSS copy o f Good's P r e s i d e n t i a l A d d r e s s . See a l s o V/. C. Good, Farmer C i t i z e n , T o r o n t o : 1958, p. 95. 1 7  18 Farmer's  „ Report o f E . C. D r u r y t o t h e Dominion Grange 1908, Advocate, December 3, 1908,  p.  , (.The  1841).  19 See Appendix B f o r the c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s r e p o r t s . T h e Weekly Sun. F e b r u a r y 16, 1910, p..12; and a l s o C. C. James, "Address," Tenth A n n u a l Report c f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t i e s o f O n t a r i o . 1910. p. 51; Farm and D a i r y . May 5, 1910, p. 17 where James c i t e s a f i g u r e * o f 63,000. 2 0  21 G e n e r a l Reform A s s o c i a t i o n f o r O n t a r i o , Address t o t h e E l e c t o r s Issued by Mr. N. W. R o w e l l . K. C , T o r o n t o : 1911, pp. 4-5. 22 G e n e r a l Reform A s s o c i a t i o n f o r O n t a r i o , L i b e r a l P a r t y Handbook, Toronto: 1911, p. 10. This section dealing with agriculture c i t e s a d e c l i n e o f 638 i n T u c k e r s m i t h Township and 1000 i n I n n i s f i l Township i n M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e James D u f f ' s county. 23 M. S. S c h e l l , The Farmer's  View, n.p:  1911.  "^The T o r o n t o Globe. March 23, 1913, c i t e d i n B. D . Tennyson, "The P o l i t i c a l C a r e e r c f S i r ' W. H. H e a r s t , " u n p u b l i s h e d M. A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o : 1963, p. 69. 25p j D a i r y . F e b r u a r y 24, 1914, p. 14. E . C. Drury*s s u b m i s s i o n t o Borden when t h e farmers v i s i t e d Ottawa i n December, a r E 1  a  n  (  2 6  T h e Weekly Sun. March 13, 1912,  2 7  Ibid.  p.  1.  1913.  143  28  The Weekly Sun. January 23, 1903, p. 7. T h i s c o n t a i n s a s t o r y r e p r i n t e d from The World's Work s e t t i n g out d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e f o r two decades i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e Farmer's A d v o c a t e . Kay 16, 1912, p. 15. See a l s o Farm and D a i r y . August 8, 1912, p. 10, f o r a n o t h e r s t o r y on d e p o p u l a t i o n i n France. 7  30 The Farming World. August 14, 1900, pp. 1184-1185. Report o f a speech made by R i d e r Haggard on t h e c o n d i t i o n o f E n g l i s h a g r i c u l t u r e . ^^The  Farmer's A d v o c a t e . March 26, 1914, p. 591.  32 Farm and D a i r y . May  5, 1910,.p. 17.  33 The Farmer's Advocate, November 30, 1911,  p . 1933.  34 E C. D r u r y , Farmer P r e m i e r , p. 24. August 27, 1901, p. 189.  See a l s o The Farming World,  35^ " W . J . B l a c k , " T h e Labor Problem," The O n t a r i o C o l l e g e Review, X I I , 4, ( J a n u a r y , 1901), p. 12.  Agricultural  36 The V/eekly Sun, O c t o b e r 11, 1905, p. 6. See a l s o General Reform A s s o c i a t i o n , New Measures and a New D e a l , n.p: 1911. This pamphlet backed t h e demand f o r a R o y a l Commission. ^ T h e Farmer's A d v o c a t e . November 15, 1902, p . 830. T h i s i r a t e comment was made by Mrs. Rodd i n a l e t t e r she sent t o t h e p a p e r . 7  The Weekly Sun, October 8, 1902, p. 4. F o r s i m i l a r statements see a l s o I b i d . . J a n u a r y 1, 1902, p. 2; The Farming World, December 1, 1903, p. 843. 09  -^ The Weekly Sun. F e b r u a r y 11, 1903, p. 4, a l e t t e r from Andrew E l l i o t . See a l s o The Farming World, March 18, 1902, p. 255. 7  ^°Farm and D a i r y , O c t o b e r 30, 1913, Weekly Sun. F e b r u a r y 11, 1903, World, F e b r u a r y 2, 1903, p. 4.  p. 3. p. 4; and a l s o The Farming  i  2  For  the  editors  not  appear  according  to to  newspaper,  be the  the  c r e a s e d due agency to  example,  i n The F a r m i n g W o r l d ,  remarked t h a t  to  serious  situation  as  the  that  workers  Government  for  the  which  and t h e  immigrant  Salvation  p.  197,  however,  does  occasions."  This  According to  the  had set  efforts  cf  was  the  l a b o u r may h a v e  Dominion Government  supplemented  1906,  season,  on some f o r m e r  by farmers  fact  15,  March  this  O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l Government.  demand  supply  Provincial  as  "the  up  dean  the  Army.  43 In 1907, the O n t a r i o Government's C o l o n i z a t i o n Bureau r e p o r t e d 2 , 9 0 0 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r l a b o u r o f which 1,700 were u n f i l l e d months l a t e r , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t 2 2 , 0 0 0 i m m i g r a n t s had a r r i v e d . (The Weekly S u n . June 5, 1907, p . 7.) 4 4  The  ^The  4 6  Ibid.. The  1,  also  25,  IV,  5,  3,  1.  p.  1912,  (July,  The F a r m e r ' s A d v o c a t e ,  1912,  Review.  1904,  January  Farmer's Magazine  see  April  O.A.C.  June  Canadian Farm.  The  statements  Weekly Sun.  p.  7 3 3 ,  XXV, 9,  and C . S . M . ,  (June,  1913),  p.  p.  1.  1912),  July 25,  p.  13.  1912,  "The L a b o r  For p.  similar  1319;  and  Problem."  451.  1 n ^ ' F o r e x a m p l e s s e e T h e W e e k l y S u n . May 2 2 , 1 9 1 2 , p . 6 , f o r r e p o r t s from O x f o r d , W a t e r l o o , H a l t o n , Simcoe, E l g i n , O n t a r i o , Dundas, W e l l i n g t o n a n d P e r t h a l l r e p o r t i n g t h e same d i f f i c u l t i e s i n obtaining labour. S e e a l s o I b i d . . May 2 9 , 1 9 1 2 , p . 6 a n d F a r m a n d D a i r y , May 2 9 , 1 9 1 3 , p . 7 f o r comments f r o m N o r f o l k , O x f o r d , a n d Y o r k C o u n t i e s . 48 spoke  The on t h e  49 /  The  Farmer's Advocate. labour shortage to Farming World.  •  J a n u a r y 1, farmers i n  '  ,  February 16,  1900, p. 15. James Carleton County.  1903, p.  McMillan  39.  50 For example, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e Department of A g r i c u l t u r e o f the. P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , 1914, Toronto: 1915. For i n d i v i d u a l convention speeches see The F a r m e r ' s A d v o c a t e . March 2 0 , 1913, p . 519, f o r a speech o f J . B . R e y n o l d s a t t h e f a r m e r ' s i n s t i t u t e a t G l e n c o e , or Farm and D a i r y , A u g u s t 1 4 , 1 9 1 3 , p . 17 f o r R e y n o l d s a t t h e L a n a r k C o u n t y C h e e s e m a k e r s m e e t i n g ; o r I b i d . . N o v e m b e r 2 1 , 1 9 1 2 , p . 15 f o r t h e r e p o r t o f s p e e c h e s of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Futnam and t h e A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , C . F. B a i l e y a t t h e F a r m e r ' s I n s t i t u t e s C o n v e n t i o n ; o r The W e e k l y S u n , J a n u a r y 7, 1914, p . 5 f o r E . C . D r u r y ' s speech at a meeting w i t h the f a r m e r s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f "Western C a n a d a a t B a r r i e . . !  51  The  Farmer's Advocate, October  10,  1907,  p.  145 52 The Farming W o r l d . June 1, 1903,  p . 432.  53 The Farmer's Advocate, J a n u a r y 10, 1907, p. 69. This c o n t a i n e d t h e S a l v a t i o n Army H i r e d K e l p A p p l i c a t i o n form p u b l i s h e d by B r i g a d i e r Thomas H o w e l l , S e c r e t a r y f o r Immigration.  54, Advertisements were p u b l i s h e d i n t h e r u r a l w e e k l i e s a d v e r t i s i n g t h e a v a i l a b l e h e l p o f t h e C o l o n i z a t i o n Branch r u n by Thomas Southworth. The A g r i c u l t u r a l G a z e t t e p u b l i s h e d as a s e c t i o n i n The Farming World, by t h e L i v e s t o c k A s s o c i a t i o n s i n c l u d e d a Farm H e l p Exchange column a s p a r t o f i t s f e a t u r e s . This continued f o r the f i v e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g 1900. See a l s o , t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r t h e "Boys Farmer League," (Farmer's Advocate, March 2 0 , 1913, p. 559), and Curard's Immigration Department ( I b i d . , A p r i l 3, 1913, p. 615).  56,, Examples o f a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n on t h i s s u b j e c t i n c l u d e : Edward D r i e r , "Keeping t h e Boy on t h e Farm," The Canadian Countryman, I I I , 16, ( A p r i l , 1 9 1 4 ) , p. 1 3 ; J.H.S. Johnstone, " E d u c a t i n g t h e Farmers' Sons," The Canadian Farm, December 3, 1909} E . C. D r u r y , "The S o c i a l P o s i t i o n o f t h e Farmer," The O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e XX, 4 , ( J a n u a r y , 1900)} Ronald Macdonald, " S o c i a l L i f e i n R u r a l Districts," The O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e Review, XXII, 8 , (May, 1910)-, J . B. R e y n o l d s , "The R u r a l Problem," The O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e Review. XXV, 10, ( J u l y , 1 9 1 3 ) .  57 Examples o f speeches made w i t h v a r i a t i o n s cn t h i s t i t l e include: John Campbell, "Why t h e Young Man S h o u l d S t a y on t h e Farm," Report o f t h e Farmer's I n s t i t u t e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 0 9 , P a r t I , i n A n n u a l Report o f t h e Department of A g r i c u l t u r e o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , 1909, T o r o n t o : 1910, v o l . I , ( T h i s speech a l s o appeared as an a r t i c l e i n The Farmer's Advocate, December 9, 1 9 0 9 , p.. 1 9 2 7 ) j D r . G. C. Creelman, "The Farmer and t h e Farmer's Son," T h i r d A n n u a l Report o f t h e O n t a r i o Corn Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1910, i n A n n u a l Report o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , 1910, T o r o n t o : 1911. v o l . I I j Dr. G. C. Creelman, "Some R u r a l Problems," A n n u a l Reports o f t h e Dairymen's A s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , 1 9 1 3 . i n The Annual Report o f t h e Department c f A g r i c u l t u r e o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , 1913, Toronto: 1914, v o l . I5 Hon. J . S. D u f f , "Improving Farm L i f e , " Annual Reports c f t h e D a i r y men s A s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e c f O n t a r i o , 190S; Hon. J . 3 . D u f f , " N e c e s s i t y c f C u l t i v a t i n g t h e S o c i a l S i d e o f L i f e on a Farm" Report o f the Farmer's I n s t i t u t e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 0 2 - 1 9 0 3 , P a r t I j Member, N o r t h Grey Women's I n s t i t u t e , "Our Boys, How S h a l l we Educate and I n f l u e n c e them so as t o Keep them on the.Farm," Report o f t h e Farmer's I n s t i t u t e s c f t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 0 1 , P a r t I I , Women's Institutes. 1  146  58 Farm and D a i r y . October 30, 5 9  1913,  p.  3.  Ibid.  6o Farm and D a i r y r a n a h e a v i l y e n c l o s e d b l a c k p r i n t i n s e r t f o r s e v e r a l weeks on t h e f r o n t page a s k i n g "Why Young P e o p l e Leave t h e Farm - Have You a Remedy t o Suggest?" For an example see t h e i s s u e of J u l y 10, 1913, p. 3.  61 Rev. John M a c d o u g a l l , R u r a l L i f e i n Canada. T o r o n t o : see P r e f a c e .  1913,  62 E . C. D r u r y , "The F r o b l e m o f t h e Country," S o c i a l S e r v i c e Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report o f Addresses and P r o c e e d i n g s , T o r o n t o : 1914. (See a l s o Report i n Farm and D a i r y , March 12, 1914, p. 3.) Rev. John M a c d o u g a l l , "The R u r a l Problem," Congress, Ottawa, 1914, R e p o r t .  Social Service  64 Rev. S. F. Sharp, "The Church and t h e R u r a l Froblem," S o c i a l S e r v i c e Congress, Ottawa, 1914, R e p o r t .  65 Rev. Hugh Dobson, "The S c h o o l and t h e R u r a l Problem," S o c i a l S e r v i c e Congress, Ottawa, 1914, R e p o r t .  66 A l p h o n s e D e s j a r d i n s , " C o - o p e r a t i o n Among Farmers," The S o c i a l S e r v i c e Congress, Ottawa, 1914, R e p o r t .  67 P r o f e s s o r J . B. Reynolds, "The Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , " The S o c i a l S e r v i c e Congress, Ottawa, 1914, R e p o r t .  68 • Farm and D a i r y , J u l y 23, page s t o r y by e d i t o r , F. E . E l l i s , the Huron S u r v e y .  1914, p. 3. This contains a f u l l on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f  69 M e t h o d i s t Church, (Canada), Huron Survey Report, p. 24. The t o p i c s i n c l u d e d : "what i s t h e R u r a l Problem," "'Where have P e o p l e Gone, Why Do They Leave," and "How t o Keep them on t h e Farm,"  70 These s t o r i e s appeared m a i n l y i n The Farmer's Magazine The Canadian Countryman  and  71 Tom E . Dobbin, " F i n d i n g T h e i r L e v e l , " The Farmer's June, 1914, p. S. J  Magazine,  147  72  Janes Mark, " H o l d i n g Our Own," The Canadian Countryman, I I , 18,(May 3, 1913) p. 17 j for a non-farm e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e same a t t i t u d e see, 3. A. Cudmore, " R u r a l D e p o p u l a t i o n i n S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o , " R o y a l Canadian I n s t i t u t e , IX, n.p. 73 The Farmer's A d v o c a t e . November 2,  1913,  p.  982.  Ik The Farmer's Magazine, January, 1912, p. 60. T h i s was James' c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a symposium on farm l a b o u r c o m p r i s i n g s h o r t a r t i c l e s from v a r i o u s c i v i l s e r v a n t s and f a r m l e a d e r s .  75 C. C. James, "Address," A n n u a l Reports o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o . 1909, p. 40.  Dairymen's  148  CHAPTER I I I  NOTES  1 James h a r k , " H o l d i n g Our Own," The Canadian Countryman, I I , 18, (May 3, 1913), p . 17. See a l s o The Farmer's Advocate, J u l y 30, 1914, p. 1381j I b i d . . A p r i l 9, 1908, p. 653; The Canadian Farm. December 29, 1911, p. 1; I b i d . . September 24, 1909, p. 1. 2 The Farmer's Advocate. J a n u a r y 22, 1914, p. 129. I b i d . . F e b r u a r y 23, 1911, p. 306.  3  4 John Campbell,•"Why Young Men Should S t a y on t h e Farm," The Farmer's A d v o c a t e . December 9, 1909, p. 1922. 5 The Farmer's Advocate. September 5, 1907, p. 1405. See a l s o Rev. John M a c d o u g a l l , p. 42. W. L» Smith, "Overcrowding i n t h e C i t i e s , " Magazine, December 1911, p. 44. 6  The Farmer's  7 ' J . K e r r A b b o t t , " W i l l Democracy Dwindle," The O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e Review. XXVI, 4, ( J a n u a r y , 1914), p. 225. The Weekly Sun. November 2, 1904, p. 1.  9 The Farmer's Advocate, June 23, 1910, p. 1018; W i l l i a m Banks J r . , " M i l l i o n s ! " The Farmer's Magazine.