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The countryside on the defensive : agricultural Ontario's views of rural depopulation, 1900 - 1914 Young, William Robert 1971

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THE COUNTRYSIDE ON THE DEFENSIVE: AGRICULTURAL ONTARIO'S VIEWS OF RURAL DEPOPULATION, 1900 - 1914-by William Robert Young B.A. (Hon.), York University, 1969. A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in the Department of History We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of British Columbia March, 1971 In presenting th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s f o r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on o f th i s thes i s fo r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of mg+nry The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada March, 1971 A B S T R A C T Rural observers of the acceleration in Ontario's urbanization witnessed, i n the years before the Great War, both the concentration of industry i n urban areas and the spread of communications and techno-log i c a l advances from the towns to the surrounding countryside. A l l sections of rural society } however, recognized that to them, the d r i f t of population from the rural concession lines to the c i t i e s formed urbanization's most important aspect. Debate generated by increasing urban dominance centred around this depopulation of the countryside as the rural inhabitants t r i e d to explain and to solve 'The Problem.' A s p l i t over the issue of depopulation developed in the ranks of the vocal section of the rural opinion-makers. One group, led by W. L. Smith of The Weekly Sun, H. B. Cowan of Farm and Dairy and W. C. Good of the Grange, registered increasing alarm at the continual seepage of the rural population into the towns. To them, depopulation placed a series of challenges before rural society. As migration proceeded, they per-ceived that farmers lost their philosophy of l i f e , Canadian democracy and p o l i t i c a l morality was threatened and rural social l i f e ruined. Blame for the economic uncertainty facing Ontario agriculture could to a great extent be la i d at the feet of the diminished numbers working the farms. A second group, however, comprising the Ontario Department of Agriculture, the staffs of The Canadian Countryman and The Farmer's Magazine, declined to espouse this complete pessimism. In addition to the less beneficial results of depopulation, the latter group viewed the rationalization of land usage, the consolidation of the schools and churches as well as the modernization of rural social attitudes and practices as advantages u l t i m a t e l y accruing to the r u r a l population by reason of t h e i r diminishing numbers. •The Problem* r e s u l t e d i n much heart-searching among these two a f f e c t e d groups who spent much of t h e i r time and energy determining p o s s i b l e o r i g i n s and t h e i r s o l u t i o n s . In t h e i r r e a p p r a i s a l of the. pur-pose of the r u r a l family school, church and newspapers, both groups agreed that these i n s t i t u t i o n s could provide valuable a i d i n stopping the population lead from the countryside. By reforming these basic foundations, t r a d i t i o n a l agrarian values would be reaffirmed and d e f i c i e n c i e s i n urban l i f e h i g h l i g h t e d . Lack of s o c i a l amenities became, i n the eyes of r u r a l observers, a cause of outmigration which could be remedied by b r i n g i n g to the countryside the urban telephones, e l e c t r i c i t y and running water: which exercised such an a t t r a c t i o n f o r r u r a l f o l k . Increasing p r o f i t by improving a g r i c u l t u r a l methods gained popular approval by the farm press as a means of a r r e s t i n g the cityward t r e k . A l l these causes and remedies were gene r a l l y endorsed by the Good-Drury f a c t i o n and the Farmer Ts Magazine-Canadian Countryman group . The former held, contrary to the l a t t e r , that these reasons were not s u f f i c i e n t explanations of a l l f a c t o r s underlying depopulation. This more r a d i c a l group believed that s o l v i n g these issues alone would not stop depopulation. In f a c t , some of the Good-Drury followers pointed out that adoption of many of these urban-developed mechanical devices and cosmo-p o l i t a n s o c i a l outlook would only modify t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l s o c i e t y beyond re c o g n i t i o n . Rural l i f e as a copy of urban l i f e s t y l e could be but a pale and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i m i t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to promoting unique s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r r u r a l areas, the Good-Drury ' r a d i c a l s ' extended t h e i r economic arguments farther' than the more adaptive group were prepared to f o l l o w . Depopulation, the r a d i c a l s averred, r e s u l t e d mainly from economic i n e q u i t i e s perpetrated by the c o n t r o l over the system of d i s t r i b u t i o n exercised by urban bankers, r a i l r o a d e r s , manufacturers and land speculators. These men, by c o n t r o l l i n g the p o l i t i c a l system and i n s t i t u t i n g devices such as the t a r i f f , r a i s e d t h e i r own and lowered the farmers' p r o f i t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the r a d i c a l farmers proposed lowering t a r i f f s and s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l over land-sale p r o f i t s and r a i l r o a d s i n order to check urban e x p l o i t a t i o n of the countryside. They recognized, however, that a general s o l u t i o n could only completely end depopulation and economic serfdom i f r u r a l voters united and captured c o n t r o l of the p o l i t i c a l system. Throughout the years p r i o r to the Great War, both the ' r a d i c a l s ' and the 'adaptors' gained adherents among the r u r a l population i n numbers large enough to maintain an eq u i l i b r i u m . A r u r a l p o l i t i c a l r e v o l t against urban domination d i d not succeed, but a g i t a t i o n to reform the system of d i s t r i b u t i o n continued. Only the pressures of the Great War and the organization of the United Farmers of Ontario f i n a l l y caused depopulation to dethrone the p r o v i n c i a l government i n 1919. Table of Contents CHAPTER I CHAPTER II CHAPTER I I I CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V CHAPTER VI CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION NOTES: BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E Page INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCESS OF URBANIZATION, DEPOPULATION AND GENERAL RURAL REACTION 1 'THE PROBLEM*: THE NATURE AND PERCEPTIONS OF DEPOPULATION 11 " I CAN REMEMBER WHEN ": PERCEPTIONS OF THE LOSS OF THE OLD RURAL POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIFE 23 THE GUARDIANS OF THE RURAL MYTH: DESTROYERS AND BUILDERS 38 "SUPPING WITH THE DEVIL:" IMPROVING RURAL SOCIAL LIFE 67 "SUPPING WITH THE DEVIL:" 'SALVATION' THROUGH PRODUCTION MARKETING AND LABOUR 83 IDENTIFYING THE ENEMY: DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH AND THE MOVEMENT TOWARDS POLITICAL ACTION 98 128 CHAPTER I 134 CHAPTER II 140 CHAPTER I I I 148 CHAPTER IV 155 CHAPTER V 165 CHAPTER VI 173 CHAPTER VIL 186 CONCLUSION 201 202 CIRCULATION OF AGRICULTURAL JOURNALS 223 CIRCULATION OF GOVERNMENT REPORTS 226 ATTENDANCE AT FARMERS' INSTITUTES AND RELATED ORGANIZATIONS 228 MIGRATION FROM RURAL AREAS OF ONTARIO COUNTIES - •, • 229 POPULATION CHANGE IN RURAL AREAS OF ONTARIO COUNTIES . 232 Table of Contents (continued) Page APPENDIX F ONTARIO CITIES - MIGRATION AND POPULATION CHANGE, 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 2 1 2 3 4 APPENDIX G FARMERS' SUBMISSION TO THE GOVERNMENT ON THE TARIFF - 1 9 2 0 2 3 5 APPENDIX H A NOTE ON METHODS AND USE OF SOURCES 2 3 7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis has been completed only with the assistance of many people, especially Professor Margaret Prang who supervised my work and provided encouragement, ideas and criticism for the past two years. Professor J. L. Granatstein was instrumental in the concep-tion of the problem. In his classes at York he promoted my first interest in rural social history, although his interest and aid extended to the present, far beyond his classes. Other friends and critics who read parts of the manuscript and gave needed cheer include Robert McDonald, Patricia Oxley, Virginia Careless and Catherine Davison. Research assistance came from Mrs. Roberta Gilbank, Archivist at the University of Guelph who provided help in collecting the primary material from the Guelph collection of agricultural journals, unmatched in Canada. The financial support of the H. R. Macmillan Foundation and the Ewart Fund of the University of Manitoba provided sustenance for two years. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCESS OF URBANIZATION, DEPOPULATION, AND GENERAL RURAL REACTION During the recent explosion of urban studies, s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i a n s , are analyzing the s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and demographic e f f e c t s of urban growth i n Canada. How-ever, despite the fa c t that u n t i l r e c e n t l y Canada's h i s t o r y was predominantly r u r a l h i s t o r y , the decline of the countryside accompanying the r i s e of the c i t i e s has been a neglected theme. Although r u r a l sociology has been an established f i e l d since the 1920's, Canadian, s o c i o l o g i s t s d i d not organize the f i r s t seminar of the changes i n the 1 Canadian r u r a l environment u n t i l 1965. Historians are s t i l l catching up. The p o l i t i c a l manifestations of the agrarian r e v o l t engendered by 2 growing urban dominance have been exhaustively analyzed, and some 3 biographies of a g r i c u l t u r a l leaders and historj.es of the Ontario and 4 Canadian Departments of Ag r i c u l t u r e are a v a i l a b l e . The s o c i a l roots of the d e c l i n i n g r u r a l c i v i l i z a t i o n , however, and the s o c i a l changes, the foundation of the Dost-1914 Canadian r u r a l p o l i t i c a l movements, have 5 not yet been explored. A study of urbanization must involve analyzing the e f f e c t of t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances on t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y . From 1900 to 1910, technology emanating from the c i t i e s dominated and integrated the Ontario countryside with the province's towns. Today, the technology spreading from the United States threatens to dominate and to integrate the c u l t u r e s as w e l l as the economies of the Western countries, p a r t i c u l a r l y 2 Canada. With regard t o technology, then, a choice s i m i l a r t o that confronting the countrymen of f i f t y years ago faces Canadians today. Adapting t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l o y a l t i e s as best they can, are Canadians to submit to the c u l t u r a l penetration c a r r i e d by the American technology's s e d u c t i v e l y a t t r a c t i v e good l i f e ? Or are they going to t r y t o preserve a d i s t i n c t i v e way of l i f e and to c o n t r o l t h i s c u l t u r a l homogenization? ( i ) By 1910, over f i f t y per cent of the population of Ontario l i v e d i n centres of 1,000 or more people. During these l a s t ten years, reported one well-supported study of population growth, "the increase i n urban population was both r e l a t i v e l y and absolutely the largest i n 6 the Province's h i s t o r y . " The urban population increase of 41.3 per cent profoundly a f f e c t e d the whole province, since the southern r u r a l s e c t i o n 7 underwent as great a transformation as the c i t i e s themselves. While t h i s population growth provides the c l e a r e s t i n d i c a t o r of the increasing degree of urbanization, the process c o n s i s t s of a composite of s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic changes. Under the l a b e l ' c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ' , u r b a n i z a t i o n includes three sub-processes: concentration of industry 8 and technology, c o n s o l i d a t i o n of metropolitan c o n t r o l over d i f f u s i o n 9 of information, and the concentration of population. In i t s broadest sense, urbanization denotes "a process whereby both countrymen and townsmen come t o share an i n c r e a s i n g l y s i m i l a r and mutually interdependent set of l i f e experiences.""^ What sort of interdependence was t h i s ? In e f f e c t i t was "a s i t u a t i o n i n which there are multi-faceted rural-urban contacts that are"urban dominated. The concept does not imply a one-way process.... It merely acknowledges one way (urban) dominance."^ The achievement of urban dominance was not the r e v e r s a l of 3 a rural-urban dichotomy, but was a s h i f t towards the urban end of a continuum. This s h i f t towards the urban end of the scale accelerated from 1900 to 1914. As urban dominance was achieved, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between farming and metropolitan centres completely reversed. During the e a r l y period of settlement i n Ontario a f t e r i t / a g r i c u l t u r e / had broken the shackles of a closed economy, farming formed the basis of a l i v e l y trade, l a r g e l y an export trade. It created an important flow of t r a f f i c , and with the r e s u l t i n g increased p r o s p e r i t y , t h i s formed the main bas i s f o r urban growth. Soon a f t e r 1880, the urban population reached such strength that i t began to mould the a g r i c u l t u r a l land use pattern.... 12 C i t i e s dominated not only the economics, but also the p o l i t i c s and s o c i e t y of r u r a l areas. The t r a n s f e r of the functions of manufacturing from the Ontario countryside t o c e n t r a l i z e d operations i n the c i t i e s commenced about 13 1851 and had been generally completed by 1881. As a l l hamlets and v i l l a g e s , home of the r u r a l non-farm population, were a f f e c t e d , the cobbler was replaced by the shoe f a c t o r y ; the blacksmith by the implement plants; homespun by mass-produced c l o t h from urban t e x t i l e m i l l s ; and l o c a l merchants by mail-order goods from department stores. The i n c r e a s i n g d i v i s i o n of labour a f f e c t e d the a g r i c u l t u r a l population i n other ways. The farmer s p e c i a l i z e d only i n food production to feed neighbouring c i t i e s , by giving up home industry and staple production f o r export. This modern farming formed a basis f o r urban i n d u s t r i a l development which r e f i n e d and processed i t s products. Meat packers, 14 f r u i t and vegetable canners and d a i r i e s set up large establishments. A g r i c u l t u r a l producers became more r e l i a n t upon neighbouring metropolitan centres f o r both market and supplies. In t h e i r eyes they were "almost 15 as dependent upon the c i t y as i s the c i t y on the farmer." The second process of concentration, t y i n g the country t o the c i t y * s l i f e s t y l e , resulted from improved technology and communications. The f i r s t areas a f f e c t e d l a y c l o s e s t to the metropolis as urban c o n t r o l spread l i k e a spider's web along the roads, railways, and other communications connections to the more d i s t a n t areas. The d i f f u s i o n of c i t y conveniences and t i g h t e n i n g of urban c o n t r o l dated from the establishment of both farm and town. From 1900 to 19H, however, the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of urban influence accelerated. Rural free mail d e l i v e r y , improved p r o v i n c i a l road systems, r a d i a l railways, r u r a l telephone and e l e c t r i c i t y , a l l f a c i l i t a t e d the adoption i n r u r a l areas of urban a t t i t u d e s , i n business, s o c i e t y , and education. Needed urban workers had to come from somewhere; hundreds of thousands moved from the farm. The concentration of population and movement to the c i t i e s had ceased to be a new phenomenon and by 1900 was a chronic c o n d i t i o n . In some areas, those bordering c i t i e s and towns d i r e c t l y , depopulation began i n the 1850's. From I860 to 1870, the magnitude of the movement gradually increased, u n t i l by 1881 only the northern and western areas o f the province gained population through 16 migration. The departure from the r u r a l areas of organized counties was so general by 1891 that only Muskoka and Renfrew r e g i s t e r e d migra-t i o n a l gains. Sixteen counties, from 1881 to 1891, r e g i s t e r e d not only a l o s s of population through migration, but an a c t u a l population decline. 1''' Far from abating, t h i s trend increased i n the i n t r a - c e n s a l years 1891 to 1901. Twenty-two counties r e g i s t e r e d absolute population d e c l i n e s . In not one county-in the Province could the r u r a l p o r t i o n show migration l e s s than the f i g u r e of i t s n a t u r a l increase."^ Some towns, those " f a i r l y o l d centres whose p r o s p e r i t y had been based on a g r i c u l t u r a l marketing and d i s t r i b u t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s , " also showed a 19 decreasing population during t h i s decade. Between 1901 and 1911, two-thirds of the counties l o s t more than f i v e per cent of t h e i r popula-t i o n , despite some r u r a l population increases i n those townships adjoining 20 prosperous and expanding urban centres. During these years, two-t h i r d s of the t o t a l timespan covered by t h i s study, s i x counties (Bruce, D u f f e r i n , Haliburton, Huron, Grey and Lambton) l o s t over twenty per cent of t h e i r r u r a l inhabitants, and t\-renty-four counties i n the province 21 r e g i s t e r e d absolute population d e c l i n e s . The t o t a l migration from the southern r u r a l areas amounted to a minimum of 125,741 or a more accurate 22 maximum of 198,088. Movement t o the United States and Western Canada siphoned o f f some of the r u r a l migrants, but at l e a s t one hundred 23 thousand people l e f t the farm to l i v e i n the c i t i e s of the Province. The f i n a l census period from 1911 t o 1921 demonstrates l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n established trends: the exodus from r u r a l areas continued; 2%. the suburban areas increased t h e i r growth. However, the rate of depopulation and outmigration from r u r a l areas d i d slow down. A l l but ten counties showed a lower rate of outmigration from 1911 to 1921 than i n the previous ten years. The t o t a l r u r a l d e c l i n e i s s t i l l impressive; .56,277 country inhabitants l e f t the r u r a l areas, although the t o t a l 25 probably amounted to .154,202. ( i i ) The country-dwellers' reactions to depopulation provide the key t o p i n p o i n t i n g the changes overtaking Ontario s o c i e t y and providing a deeper explanation of the agrarian movement which r e s u l t e d i n the r u r a l p o l i t i c a l r e v o l t of 1919. As they confronted depopulation's various phases, the a g r i c u l t u r a l population s h i f t e d t h e i r responses i n confused 6 and contradictory directions, although two basic reactions to depopula-tion emerge. (See Appendix H "A Note on Methods" for an explanation of the use of the term 'opinion* i n this thesis.) The advocates of one position promoted adaptation to urbanization and depopulation and pointed out the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the population movement i n Ontario's rapidly industrializing society. For the sake of efficiency, they argued, the central urban factories had almost completely taken over functions formerly performed by home and local industry. Despite the inconveniences of tariff-protected industry, central banks, land speculation and monopolies, urban concentration of the major economic and manufacturing functions provided agriculturists with benefits of savings i n both time and money. These adaptors accepted the improved technology and wil l i n g l y applied i t to the farm. They spent l i t t l e time contemplating reversing the decline of the self-sufficient rural communities. As well as maintaining only the necessary population on the land, these communications improve-ments, along with most urban technological inventions, could mean a more comfortable social and economic existence for the members of every farm family. Advocates of this position included the agricultural interests most closely involved with urban institutions. The two publications, The Farmer's Magazine and The Canadian Countryman, both presided over by members of the Toronto financial establishment, adopted this view of urbanization and depopulation. The former, set up i n 1909 hy John Bayne Maclean, shared a place in his publishing empire with The Financial 26 Post. The Canadian Countryman was established when most farm journals, led by The Farmer's Advocate and The Weekly Sun, had been campaigning for a radical revision of the Bank Act. Its executive included Zebulon Lash, Q. C , as President and Sir Edmund Walker as a Director. Both men 7 were f i r m l y entrenched i n the Toronto banking and t r u s t company e l i t e . These two journals of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , while most sympathetic t o a g r i c u l -ture, were among the l e a s t m i l i t a n t i n promoting fundamental reforms. In t h e i r status quo approach to depopulation, they were joined by high o f f i c i a l s of the Ontario Department of A g r i c u l t u r e who perhaps believed that the problems accompanying i n e v i t a b l e paramountcy of the p r o v i n c i a l 27 metropolises could be eased by a conciliators'- approach. Of the other magazines, The Farmer's Advocate and The Farming World f o r several years a f t e r 1900 p a r t i a l l y supported r a t i o n a l i z i n g u rbanization. When The  Farming World l e f t Toronto i n 1908 and was published i n Peterboro as Farm and Dairy under the m i l i t a n t eye of H. B. Cowan, i t moved into a more r a d i c a l group. It was joined a f t e r the General E l e c t i o n of 1911, by the l a r g e s t - c i r c u l a t i o n r u r a l weekly, The Farmer's Advocate which f i n a l l y supported more fundamental attacks on the metropolitan power s t r u c t u r e . The ' r a d i c a l ' s e c t i o n which these two journals joined d i d not gear i t s ideas towards preparing farmers to accept a l l aspects of ur b a n i z a t i o n . I t deplored the d e c l i n i n g farm population along with increased concentration of industry and c o n t r o l which could not be j u s t i -f i e d as i n e v i t a b l e under any circumstances. The ' r a d i c a l s ' even went so f a r as t o express serious reservations about the u t i l i t y of the wholesale adoption of urban t e c h n o l o g i c a l innovations i n stopping r u r a l d e c l i n e . Unwillingness to compromise with concentration i n any of i t s forms r e s u l -ted from t h e i r almost i n s t i n c t i v e perception of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the various aspects of urbanization. They viewed i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n as a cause of depopulation and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l as i t s handmaiden. They, therefore, attempted to halt a l l three. With fundamental economic and l e g i s l a t i v e reform, they believed they could reassert the supremacy 8 of agriculture in Canadian society. They were, in one sense, economic determinists. They believed that the currently-prevalent social and business accommodations to industrialization would prove ineffective by themselves in re-establishing a viable rural society. Suitable business and social systems would naturally follow their more fundamental economic reform. Their dislike of the economic status quo accompanied a desire for freer trade, the single tax on land values, combines restraint legislation, and elimination of subsidies to industry. The aim of these proposed reforms was to change the direction of the growing metropolitan centres in Ontario. The membership of this reform group maintained few ties with urban economic institutions. Among its leaders was Goldwin Smith who lent 28 his journal The Weekly Sun to the agrarian cause. Under the editorial guidance of W. L. Smith, the Sun continued Goldwin Smith's programmes after his death, although i t became even more emphatically rural and less cosmopolitan in emphasis. The remnants of the Patrons of Industry Movement (Jabel Robinson, former M.P. for Elgin; D. D. Rogers, M.P. for Frontenac; C. A. Mallory, leader of the Patrons in the Ontario Legis-lature) were joined as reformers by a younger generation. E. C. Drury, W. C. Good, J. J. Morrison and H. B. Cowan, the editor of Farm and Dairy, took over the leadership of the Dominion Grange and of the Farmers' Association, and established the United Farmers of Ontario. These major public figures led many others, some connected with the various agricul-tural organizations, the rest just ordinary farmers. The 'reformers' can be distinguished easily from the 'adaptors' by studying their respective general underlying assumptions. These differ greatly, particularly on the question of the priority to be accorded to reforming the economic system. These two groups, however, shade into 9 each other on some s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . Both sections, as we w i l l see, j u s t i f i e d r u r a l existence through the accepted agrarian mythology and 29 recommended strengthening t h i s v i s i o n i n the countryside. The •reform' s e c t i o n d i d not hesitate to promote improved t e c h n i c a l methods i n a g r i c u l t u r e . Although some members of t h i s more r a d i c a l s e c t i o n held doubts about the u t i l i t y of unthinking, wholesale r u r a l adoption of a l l urban s o c i a l innovations, even these men gene r a l l y had l i t t l e o b j e c t i o n t o improving r u r a l l i f e with urban conveniences. On the other s i d e , the more conservative opinion-makers sometimes printed unsympathetic comments i n the r u r a l media c r i t i c i z i n g i n creasing concentration and monopolization of industry. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , however, t h e i r f i e r c e d e s i r e t o protect the o l d r u r a l s o c i e t y separated the 'reformers* from those who would adapt t h i s s o c i e t y t o f i t t h e i r new metropolitan existence. Not confined to the years from 1900 to 1914, these two points of view found advocates among the r u r a l opinion-makers since Confederation. In 1878, f o r example, the strength of the adaptive s t r a i n i n r u r a l thought could be seen i n the support the r u r a l population gave t o S i r John A. Macdonald*s National P o l i c y . The r u r a l 'reform* element grew stronger i n the following years as a g r i c u l t u r e discovered and protested e x p l o i t a t i o n by the t a r i f f - p r o t e c t e d urban i n d u s t r i e s . P o l i t i c a l protest of the 1890's against the t a r i f f took form i n both the Patrons of In-dustry's entry i n t o p o l i t i c s and i n the free-trade platform of the f e d e r a l rurally-based L i b e r a l s . A f t e r S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r formed his L i b e r a l government i n 1896, his moderate t a r i f f and r a i l r o a d concessions to the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s defused the immediate danger of an agrarian p o l i t i c a l r e v o l t but preserved the basic economic structure which was making the r u r a l areas f i e f s of the c i t i e s . Rural resentment remained a f t e r 1900, 10 but strong a g r i c u l t u r a l voices counselled acceptance of the L a u r i e r -s t y l e compromise and adaptation to the changing s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . A balance between adaptation and protest existed from the turn of the century to the Great War, although the agrarian a c t i v i s m of 1911 indi c a t e d the precariousness of t h i s e q u i l i b r i u m . The s o c i a l s t r a i n s of the war increased the pressures r e s t i n g upon the a g r i c u l t u r a l population to an i n t o l e r a b l e l e v e l . Obscurred during the war by the p a t r i o t i c smoke-screen of the Union Government, r u r a l concern about depopulation and u r b a n i z a t i o n became the issue which dethroned Ontario's Conservative government of S i r William Hearst i n 1919 and aided i n s e t t i n g up the f e d e r a l Progressives as a threat i n the House of Commons. The years from the turn of the century t o the outbreak of the Great War are c r u c i a l , t herefore, i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the foundation f o r understanding the post-war p o l i t i c a l protest i n Ontario. Growing urban dominance of a g r i c u l t u r e and depopulation created an i n c r e a s i n g l y insup-portable s i t u a t i o n . From 1900 to 1914, the two possible solutions to the problem were considered by the a g r i c u l t u r a l population, but n e i t h e r adaptation nor reform gained overwhelming support among the r u r a l population. The war provided the stimulus to make the growing urbaniza-t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e the basis f o r a p o l i t i c a l r e v o l t i n r u r a l areas. 11 CHAPTER I I 'THE PROBLEM': THE NATURE AND PERCEPTIONS OF DEPOPULATION In the eyes of the a g r i c u l t u r a l population, the departure of the men and women from the countryside to the c i t i e s of Ontario was known as 'The Problem*. In f a c t , there were two separate d i f f i c u l t i e s , a chronic labour shortage as w e l l as a decline of the old r u r a l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . To r u r a l w r i t e r s and speakers, 'The Problem' or r u r a l depopulation meant e i t h e r of these two associated complaints; but not only contemporary observers had d i f f i c u l t y separating these two aspects of depopulation. One economist, i n a d i s c u s s i o n of labour d i f f i c u l t i e s b e s e t t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e , noted i n 1943 that "economic considerations cannot be divorced a r b r i t r a r i l y from the ever-present s o c i a l factors."*"" Confusion i s understandable; both components of depopulation stemmed from s i m i l a r causes (working conditions, s o c i a l disadvantages, t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance, economic i n j u s t i c e s ) . Although some causes contributed more to the labour shortage than to the s o c i a l decline,most 2 causes a f f e c t e d both. Results of and s o l u t i o n s to the s o c i a l and labour aspects were connected: s o c i a l d e cline and labour shortage even r e s u l t e d from each other. In general however, the labour shortage generated noorer farming methods, forced mechanization, higher wages, and a higher cost of l i v i n g . The s o c i a l decline brought about a corresponding drop i n r u r a l self-esteem and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the r u r a l school, church and family. ( i ) Most farmers must have had some personal experience with 'The Problem.' I f they had not, vast numbers came i n t o contact with the 12 p u b l i c i t y generated by the e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r s , government p u b l i c i s t s , leaders of farm organization, teachers and students of a g r i c u l t u r e , women's e d i t o r s , a d v e r t i s e r s and l e t t e r s to the e d i t o r (See Appendices A, B, & C). Farm a c t i v i s t s , s e t t i n g f o r t h lengthy estimates of the movement, began a campaign to d i s p e l r u r a l apathy toward the population drop. Figures, gleaned mainly from the Dominion censuses of 1901 or 1911 and from the Ontario s t a t i s t i c s agency (The Ontario Bureau of I n d u s t r i e s ) , gained i n emphasis what they lacked i n accuracy. They demonstrated an acute awareness of the magnitude of the movement. The front page of The Weekly Sun t o l d farmers of a r u r a l d ecline of 116,852 from 1890 to 1909, combined with an urban increase of 176,000 from 1898 4 to 1907. Another story declared that an estimated 20,000 per year l e f t r u r a l areas following 1890.^ A r t i c l e s a d v e r t i s i n g the same dismal t a l e 6 appeared i n the various r u r a l j o u r n a l s . The Canadian Countryman, The • 7 8 Farmer's Advocate, Farm and Dairy, The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College 9 10 Review, and The Farmer's Magazine a l l contributed s t o r i e s d e t a i l i n g t o the ordinary farmer the extent of the d e c l i n i n g population. No matter what methods the journals used to study the population s t a t i s t i c s , the 11 s t o r y remained the same. Apart from the r u r a l press, other agencies popularized knowledge of the population d e c l i n e . The Canadian Methodist Church conducted a survey of Huron County's r u r a l churches from 1880 to 1914 and published a chart, which showed a t o t a l population d e c l i n e i n that p a r t i c u l a r area of 23,696. The r u r a l sections of the county declined by 35,900. A book by Rev. John Macdougall published under the auspices of the Board of S o c i a l . Service of the Presbyterian Church delved i n t o the f i g u r e s f o r the population change. Macdougall emerged with the h o r r i f y i n g estimate of 13 373,567 who migrated from the r u r a l areas p r i o r to 1914. S t a t i s t i c a l 13 breakdowns of the d e c l i n i n g population indicated the concern of the students ;lpr 15 14 at the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College at Guelph, as the r u r a l 'Problem' became a f a v o u r i t e subject f o r discussion.' Speeches d e l i v e r e d by a g r i c u l t u r a l leaders at public meetings made the masses aware of the 'Froblem's' extent, ' Gordon Waldron, e d i t o r of The Weekly Sun, estimated to The Canadian Club of Toronto that a r u r a l d e c l i n e of 86,000 i n the twenty years before 1900 would increase to 170,000 i f immigration and n a t u r a l increase were taken i n t o a c c o u n t . ^ W. C. Good, the Master of the Dominion Grange, t o l d i t s members i n h i s 1913 p r e s i d e n t i a l address that despite a 17.16 per cent increase i n Canadian r u r a l population from 1901 t o 1911, the Ontario r u r a l population l o s t between 100,000 and 17 375,000 of i t s members. His estimate r e v i s e d E. C. Drury's report i n 1908 p l a c i n g the r u r a l exodus at 6,520 annually compared t o an annual average 18 increase of 8,869 i n towns and 17,457 i n c i t i e s . The Deputy M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r Ontario, C. C. James, t o l d various bodies such as the Dairy-19 men of Ontario 7 that the r u r a l population had dropped from 1,108,874 to 1,047,016 between 1900 t o 1910. Rural people ought to n o t i c e , said James, that the r u r a l population of 1911 constituted only f o r t y per cent of the 20 t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l population compared to s i x t y per cent i n 1900. Rural p u b l i c i t y gained such momentum that p o l i t i c i a n s f e l t they could improve t h e i r l o t i n r u r a l areas by taking up the numbers question. N. W. Rowell, L i b e r a l leader i n Ontario i n 1911, c a l l e d f o r a Royal 21 Commission to i n v e s t i g a t e the d e c l i n e . Party campaign l i t e r a t u r e pointed out to p r o v i n c i a l voters that r u r a l population had dropped by 50,000 i n the 22 preceding decade. F e d e r a l l y , S. S c h e l l , L i b e r a l member of parliament f o r Oxford South, c i t e d a r u r a l d e c l i n e of 62,000 i n the previous ten years 23 to support the L i b e r a l s ' advocacy of r e c i p r o c i t y i n 1911. When the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s again r a i s e d the question of decline i n r u r a l Ontario i n the L e g i s l a t u r e i n 1913, the Conservative M i n i s t e r , W. H. Hearst, defended the government's p o l i c i e s and accused the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l government of r e f u s i n g Ontario's request of 1910 f o r a Royal Commission t o i n v e s t i g a t e 24 r u r a l problems. The r u r a l opinion-makers, i f no other a g r i c u l t u r a l group, had some estimation of the numbers involved i n the f l i g h t from the countryside and t r i e d to awaken general concern. Some f i g u r e s , such as The Sun's estimate of 20,000 per year are remarkably accurate, while others miss the mark. They r e a l i s t i c a l l y perceived the general nature of the problem. The press,• f o r example, pinpointed the beginning of the movement to the 1870's and the 2 5 net population d e c l i n e t o 1881. The Weekly Sun remarked on the widespread 26 nature and unconfined extent of 'the Problem.' One e d i t o r noted that " p r a c t i c a l l y the only cases i n which an increase i s shown i s i n townships ad j o i n i n g the large urban centres where what may properly be classed as urban population has overflowed i n t o the country." The usefulness of land f o r a g r i c u l t u r e d i d not a f f e c t the amount of the r u r a l exodus f o r the best sections "as w e l l as the poorer sections have suffered. Mariposa, i n V i c t o r i a County, one of the best townships i n Ontario i n so f a r as s o i l i s concerned, a township with e x c e l l e n t roads and w i t h i n easy access both of 27 Lindsay and Toronto has dropped from 4,190 to 3,857." The r u r a l press recognized that 'the Problem' was not unique t o Ontario or even Canada, but was t i e d to the d i f f i c u l t i e s confronting a g r i c u l -ture a l l over the world. Naturally, the s i m i l a r i t y of conditions was most obvious with regard to the United States. Some a r t i c l e s i n the Ontario a g r i c u l t u r a l journals went t o great lengths to p u b l i s h s t a t i s t i c a l accounts 28 of the decline i n American r u r a l population." They d i d not, however, l i m i t t h e i r comparisons merely to American p a r a l l e l s , but included most 15 European countries as w e l l . A g r i c u l t u r a l France's loss of 2 5 , 0 0 0 farmers "gr 30 2 9 per year to P a r i s rated a comment i n the Ontario press, as did the "grave trouble ahead" foreseen i n England i f depopulation were not checked.' Similar accounts related to comparable situations i n Germany, Belgium and Australia.^""" ( i i ) S t a t i s t i c s give a good picture of how the contemporary farm journals viewed the extent of the exodus from the countryside. They do not, however, provide an adequate perception of the degree to which these same writers apprehended i t s seriousness. The press and much of the attentive public was w e l l aware of the s o c i a l and economic d i s l o c a t i o n involved i n the de-population c f the countryside. Farm and Dairy went so f a r as to advocate a federal Royal Commission to assess the s i t u a t i o n i n the Province caused 3 2 by depopulation. The most animated discussions i n the columns of the r u r a l newspapers were not "those touching important p r a c t i c a l problems of s o i l culture and stock husbandry, but the ones aroused by disputatious views on matters of s o c i a l and business relationships,...the perennial debates as to 'Why the Boys Leave the Farm', and the occasional exchanges of opinion regarding the p r o f i t s of pork production, embellished with 33 f a i r l y unanimous views about the attitude of the pork packers." The num-ber of e d i t o r i a l s , s t o r i e s , advertisements and l e t t e r s which pointed out the seriousness of depopulation v e r i f i e s the accuracy of t h i s statement. The f i r s t aspect of depopulation, the labour shortage, was generally separated from the s o c i a l decline i n the press discussions. Its serious-ness was made worse by the comparatively abundant labour at.low wages 3 4 available i n the 1890's. Stories stressing the gravity of the labour s i t u a t i o n appeared i n 1900 and continued throughout the period. Few questions of the day, emphasized the editors of the optimistic and 16 progressive Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review, confronted the a g r i c u l -t u r a l employer with the need for such "serious c o n s i d e r a t i o n " as h i r i n g 35 an adequate supply of labour. From t h i s beginning i n 1901, s t o r i e s on the labour shortage provided much g r i s t f o r the r u r a l complaint m i l l s f o r the following years. A farmer from Ontario County remarked that he "almost had to get down on h i s knees to get someone t o d i g a d i t c h . " This s i t u a t i o n occurred not only because "during the busy seasons, when the farmer i s almost hurried to death i t i s impossible to f i n d a man worth h i r i n g , " but a l s o " i f , by chance, a farmer does happen to f i n d a man...he w i l l do very l i t t l e work when alone. His employer needs to work with him a l l the time, and keep pushing him on, as i t were. The average hired man i s f a r more i n t e r e s t e d i n wondering i f i t i s near mealtime and longing f o r 37 pay day to a r r i v e than he i s i n doing work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . " The labour shortage pushed aside other problems i n the a t t e n t i o n i t merited. According to t h i s view, there was "no question as m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t i n g the farmer's welfare, and as a n a t u r a l consequence, the welfare of the whole country. T a r i f f s , cattleguards, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and a l l other 38 subjects dwindle i n t o i n s i g n i f i c a n c e compared to t h i s . " The s i t u a t i o n appeared u n p a r a l l e l l e d f o r "at no time have farmers of Ontario been met with a condition of such v i t a l importance, as that with which they are now con-39 fronted i n the labor problem. P u b l i c i t y given by the press included inch-high headlines such as "Rural Depopulation Creates a C r i s i s i n Ontario." ^ Many farmers were driven to advocate r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with the cond i t i o n since the problem continued f o r such a long time and never seemed 41 42 to improve. Despite occasional lapses i n t o optimism at minor r e l i e f , L.3 the demand f o r farm help continued to o u t s t r i p the supply. Questionnaire r e s u l t s compiled by one a g r i c u l t u r a l j o u r n a l which asked farmers to describe t h e i r greatest problem showed that "almost without exception the answer i s 17 44 found i n the s c a r c i t y and high price of labor." Near the end of the period complaints about the dearth of farm labour were as numerous as during e a r l i e r years. I f there was one thing more than another, reported The Canadian Farm that had "hampered the farmer i n recent years i n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y conducting his business, i t i s the s c a r c i t y cf help.... This s c a r c i t y of help i s not confined to any p a r t i c u l a r area, i t i s general, and there are few farmers i n any part of Canada who do not f e e l i t s effect i n some way." ^ i n support, The  Farmer's Magazine reported that "the hired help question i s one that i s accounting f o r nearly a l l the hardships upon the farm today." ^ Reports of newspaper correspondents scattered throughout the province invariably 47 mentioned the labour shortage i n t h e i r s t o r i e s . Dismay over the lack of help on the farms was not the sole prero-gative c f the farm press. Speaker after speaker brought t h i s question to the notice of the assembled a g r i c u l t u r i s t s at farm gatherings. At l o c a l I rt Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s as early i n the period as 1900, and at the larger 4 9 meeting of the Dominion Grange i n Toronto i n 1903, a g r i c u l t u r i s t s listened to speeches describing the labour shortage. York County Council took the matter to Queen's Park when a deputation v i s i t e d Premier George Ross i n 1903. At some of the conventions of the professional associations such as the dairymen and the corn growers almost every speech would include some reference to the d i f f i c u l t y of obtaining labour to perform a l l the tasks 50 associated with the d i f f e r e n t aspects of farming. Even the f a i r s , events f o r both amusement and i n s t r u c t i o n , often provided an occasion f o r an address on the timely topic of the P r o v i n c i a l labour shortage. The pervasiveness of the labour shortage i n r u r a l l i f e and con-sciousness i s demonstrated by i t s use as an advertising theme i n the r u r a l la j o u r n a l s . The N a t i o n a l Cream Separator Company sold i t s products under advertisements t i t l e d "The question with every farmer i s , 'What S h a l l be 51 Done t o Solve the Farm Labor Froblem?'" One j o u r n a l , The Farming World, opened a promotional campaign under the h a l f - i n c h heading, "Farm Help". The basis of the campaign was the o f f e r of a f r e e book on the 52 subject of obtaining farm labour f o r readers who sent i n new s u b s c r i p t i o n s . Agencies were set up t o d e a l with the r u r a l employers' demands f o r farm 53 labour and t o supply workers f o r r u r a l areas. The S a l v a t i o n Army, the Ontario P r o v i n c i a l Government, and s e v e r a l smaller p r i v a t e o p e r a t i o n s ^ attempted to provide farmers with immigrants r e c r u i t e d to help r e l i e v e the shortage. Their advertisements joined those of the labour-saving machinery i n the r u r a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . The r u r a l opinion-makers, therefore, mobilized the means of communica-t i o n a v a i l a b l e to b r i n g about awareness of the seriousness of the labour shortage. This a c t i o n may not have been necessary; i f the problem of a labour shortage were as widespread as the s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e most r u r a l employers must have had some experience with d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining hired help. Figures on the d e c l i n e , nevertheless, p u b l i c i z e d i n the r u r a l press and at the a g r i c u l t u r a l meetings, along with the comments on the seriousness of the problem, must have helped the average farmer t o gain a more accurate assessment c f the d i f f i c u l t y and t o see the need f o r some f u r t h e r study. The problems engendered by depopulation had another aspect: the d e c l i n e of the old r u r a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . The departure of thousands of r u r a l o f f s p r i n g , many journals and w r i t e r s believed, threatened the way of l i f e of these who regained. Expressions of dismay at the s o c i a l con-sequences of depopulation formed as popular a subject i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l press and conventions as did the complaints at a lack of labour. Perhaps 19 one reason f o r t h i s , an explanation which d i d not make i t s way i n t o very many public statements, was that the farmers' c h i l d r e n formed the major labour r e s e r v o i r f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s . V a r i a t i o n s under the t i t l e "V.rhy the Boys and G i r l s Leave the Farm" or "The Rural S o c i a l Problem," 56 formed a regular t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n i n r u r a l journals .. 'and at a g r i c u l -57 t u r a l meetings. The a r t i c l e s often emphasized that the long duration of the migration from r u r a l areas had meant that the problem was becoming . . 58 a c r i s i s . One metaphor, notable f o r i t s gruesome comparison, r e l a t e d how the onset of r u r a l s o c i a l decay was akin t o that t e r r i b l e disease, consumption. At f i r s t , there i s a s l i g h t cough, a l i t t l e weakness, but no . serious symptoms to cause alarm. Then the cough gets worse, the weakness more noticeable. Spasmodic attempts are made t o check the disease, but neit h e r the patient nor h i s f r i e n d s are s e r i o u s l y alarmed. But i f the disease i s not r e s o l u t e l y taken i n hand at t h i s stage, i t i s almost c e r t a i n to r e s u l t i n s u f f e r i n g l a t e r and perhaps death. 59 Weekly e d i t o r i a l s i n most of the a g r i c u l t u r a l journals served to br i n g the 60 worsening s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n to v the not i c e of the general farm populace. A s e r i e s of conferences discussed the q u a l i t y of r u r a l s o c i a l l i f e and suggested improvements. The Presbyterian Church held a conference at Geneva Park i n 1912, at which Reverend John Kacdougall gave a s e r i e s of le c t u r e s d i s c u s s i n g the r u r a l s o c i a l d e c l i n e . Ke repeated these l e c t u r e s at Knox College i n Toronto. 6 1 At a conference i n Ottawa i n 1914, the S o c i a l Service C o u n c i l of Canada, a body established by the various Protestant churches, spent much time going over solutions t o problems i n Canadian l i f e such as slums, white-slavery, s o c i a l welfare, Lord's Day l e g i s l a t i o n , and temperance. Cne s e c t i o n of t h i s conference dealt with the "Problem of the Country," In t h i s session, E. C. Drury^ 2 and W. C. Good, o f f i c i a l s of the farm organizations, rubbed shoulders with Rev. John 63 64 kacdougall, Rev. W. F. Sharp (Organizer of the Huron Survey), along 20 65 66 with others such as Rev. Hugh Dcbson, Alphonse Desjardins (Organizer 67 of the Caisses Populaires), and Professor Reynolds of O.A.C. The Huron Survey, conducted by the Methodist Church i n 1913, provided an occasion for another series of studies and conferences on r u r a l l i f e . I t gained much notice f o r i t s findings u < 3 0 n r u r a l s o c i a l d i s l o c a t i o n . The organizers of t h i s survey attempted to carry i t s conclusions to the r u r a l populace by organizing discussions of the exodus from the countryside by 69 the remaining population. ( i i i ) The reception and reaction to r u r a l depopulation accented by the r u r a l opinion-makers was not unanimous. While the considerable majority of a r t i c l e s i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l journals showed concern and dismay at the consequences, a few comments designed to calm r u r a l f e e l i n g counselled acceptance of the labour shortage. The basis of t h i s advice l a y i n the conclusion that the labour shortage indicated r u r a l progress. A r t i c l e s i n t h i s vein were generally confined to the journals which viewed most sympathetically the process of urbanization and advocated the quick adap-70 t a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e to urban standards. "A great deal of pother," was the way one w r i t e r viewed concern over the labour shortage since " a l l manner of inferences are being drawn" from the census figures. He remarked that many journals urged that " ' unless something i s done to remedy t h i s state of thing,' the day of disaster i s already at Canadian doors...." An investigation of the 'facts' proved to t h i s j o u r n a l i s t that "things are 71 not as bad as the figure compilers would have us believe." ' Another unsympathetic a r t i c l e t o l d a g r i c u l t u r i s t s to l e t depopulation run i t s course since "any r e s t r i c t i o n put upon t h i s natural proceeding would i n -72 evitably react against the best interests of the country." 21 Occasionally, even some of the u s u a l l y uncompromising defenders of the farmer's r i g h t to labour appeared to advocate acceptance of the permanent labour c o n d i t i o n . The e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n had t o be recognized and "though we may decry t h i s f a c t , and weigh the pros and cons of t h i s tendency, i t nevertheless remains and aggravates the s i t u a t i o n i n the country. The tendency i s too strong to be reverted /.sic/ by i n d i v i d u a l or even combined e f f o r t on the part of the farmer." ^ C.C. James, Deputy M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , urged acceptance of the labour shortage although, he s a i d , there was a day i n t h i s country when farm labor was p l e n t i f u l and cheap, when i t could simply be had f o r the asking. 3ut that day i s gone by and i t w i l l never come back t o us again. V/e need never again expect t o have cheap labor i n the Province of Ontario, and i t i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r the majority of our farmers t o recognize that f a c t and to act accordingly. Year by year, the cry f o r cheap labor, comes up...and i f we are going to c a r r y on our farm work, we have got to work t h i s t h i n g out. So t o work i t out with the labor at our command. 74 In another speech t o the Dairymen, James t o l d h i s audience that "the success of our towns and c i t i e s depends t o a large extent upon t h e i r being r e c r u i t e d by the strong vigorous straightforward young men and women, who come from 75 the farms." i n a l l these comments cou n s e l l i n g r e c o n c i l i a t i o n to r u r a l depopulation, only one aspect c f that two-headed monster was d e a l t with. Those speakers and w r i t e r s who urged the farmers to d e a l with the labour shortage and to adjust t h e i r p r a c t i c e s never condoned the s o c i a l d ecline i n a .similar manner. (iv) Despite the few p u b l i c i s t s who downgraded i t s importance, 'The Problem* remained an element of anxiety to r u r a l opinion-makers. The a g r i c u l t u r i s t , according to most of the a g r i c u l t u r a l press, had good reason t o grow alarmed at the d e c l i n i n g population. To observers l i v i n g i n the 22 period, the r u r a l exodus must have appeared ready t o leave the t h i c k l y -populated countryside completely stripped of i t s hard-working f a m i l i e s who had pioneered Ontario's development. The apprehensions of the opinion-makers d i d not diminish throughout the e n t i r e period from 1900 t o 1914r Their p a r t i c u l a r concerns centred around the major r e s u l t s of the movement from the c o u n t r y — t h e s o c i a l problems and the labour shortage. Each of these two aspects of the problem of depopulation contained i t s own conse-quences, evident t o observers of the time, which gave a more s p e c i f i c form to the foreboding they expressed about the future of r u r a l Ontario. 23 CHAPTER I I I "I CAN REMEMBER WHEN...." : PERCEPTIONS OF THE LOSS OF THE OLD RURAL POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIFE. The rural population's concern over the labour shortage and the decay of i t s social institutions occupied the journals and speeches de-voted to agriculture. Examining the effects as the people of the time perceived them explains the anxiety aroused by these twin problems. According to the view of the agricultural populace, the results threatened their p o l i t i c a l , social and economic situation i n the country. Even very few of the 'adaptors' could see any benefits accruing from the drastic changes induced by depopulation. (i) The worries of the countrymen partly centred around the challenge presented to their whole world view by depopulation. The country dwellers s t i l l wanted to believe, as they had for generations, that "a contented, prosperous, God-fearing, rural population i s the tap-root of national vigour. As the farmer i s , so i s the nation." They s t i l l believed i n the corollary to this assumption to the effect that "any force that tends to deprive rural l i f e of i t s most valuable asset / i t s people/ should be sought out and eradicated as a source cf public danger." Because they held these convictions very strongly, they had many "heartsearchings to determine the cause of the exodus of young men and maidens from the . „1 country. These natural advantages which rural inhabitants believed the country possessed no longer appeared to be sufficient to support their agrarian philosophy. "There i s freedom, fresh a i r , good water, health 24 i n i t s e t e r n a l measure and e t e r n a l joy f o r the lover of nature i n the unlimited outdoor l i f e of a Canadian farm," enumerated The Farmer's Advocate, "but a l l t h i s has existed through the years i n which the sons of the s o i l have been shaking the c l a y of t h e i r fathers' farms o f f t h e i r 2 boots and donning the patent leathers of c i t y pavements." Not only d i d rural-bred young people ignore the advantages of country l i f e , b u t they a l s o would " p e r s i s t i n remaining i n the c i t y and out of employment when comfortable hemes, f a i r wages, good board, and honest, f a i t h f u l , e l e v a t i n g labour awaits them only a few miles d i s t a n t 3 i n the country...." Again, t h i s s i t u a t i o n forced farmers t o consider why, " I f the a t t r a c t i o n s of the farm are so great, do so few people appreciate them?" To the ordinary farmer, the answer to the question •Why should young men stay on the farm?' ought to be as simply and e a s i l y answered as i t had been f o r generations. On second thought, farmers concluded that "judging by the apparent tendency of young men born i n the country and reared on the farm _ t o move t o the c i t i e s / i t may not be so very easy t o solve the problem."^ The suspicion that those who were le a v i n g were the b r i g h t e s t and most a l e r t r u r a l o f f s p r i n g strengthened t h i s uneasiness. Evidence c f decay i n the c a l i b r e of the farming popula-t i o n cropped up i n the number c f ."overly conservative farmers, who have, as a general t h i n g , been slow to adopt the improvements i n methods that 5 would increase the productiveness of the labor they employ." A change i n the composition of both the r u r a l and urban population gave f u r t h e r cause f o r alarm i n the r u r a l j o u r n a l s . The press viewed the abandonment of the countryside and the growth of urban i n d u s t r i a l dominance as a threat to the very foundations of Canadian s o c i e t y and democracy. The m u l t i p l a t i o n of "armies of employees more c r l e s s under c o n t r o l of t h e i r corporations," d i d not bode w e l l f o r Canadian p o l i t i c a l C 25 freedom. Because these urban men were dependent upon t h e i r employers f o r t h e i r economic l i v e l i h o o d , they would not be tempted to assert any p o l i t i c a l independence i f i t threatened t h e i r economic s e c u r i t y . The c i t i e s were growing so large that they could not help but pass under s i n i s t e r i n f l u e n c e s . V/. L. Smith, e d i t o r of The Weekly Sun, voiced r u r a l fears when he noted that ; the most common complaint i s apparent on the face of i t . In a large c i t y , there i s large patronage i n the way of contracts concessions and o f f i c e s . There i s something to give which costs each i n d i v i d u a l member c f the community comparatively l i t t l e but which i s of immense value to the few who r e c e i v e . The n a t u r a l r e s u l t i s f o r the few to organize with a view of c o n t r o l while the great mass, la c k i n g acquaintance with each other and with those who should be community leaders are powerless to r e s i s t . He contrasted t h i s s i t u a t i o n to that of the countryside where "men know each other, they know men f i t t e d f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e , and i t i s much easier t o work out democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s there than i n a great c i t y . " Indeed, he concluded, "great c i t i e s f u r n i s h the n a t u r a l conditions f o r the c r e a t i o n of despotic government, the despotisms of organized s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t s as i n New' York or the personal despotism as i n some European 6 countries." Not only did the development of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the d e c l i n e i n p o l i t i c a l morality which accompanied i t threaten democracy, but the "growing presence of vast colonies of r e c e n t l y imported a l i e n s who do not understand the E n g l i s h language and are s t i l l more ignorant regarding 7 the proper working of our systems c f government" aggravated the problem. Goldwin Smith i n h i s 'Bystander' column remarked that the immigrants, not good farm hands or a r t i s a n s f o r whom Canada had vacancies i n her labour force, were "the scum and refuse of Europe.../whp7 even i f they are good workers, which they appear by no means u n i v e r s a l l y to be, are bad c i t i z e n s . 26 I t i s notorious that the foreign element i n our great c i t i e s i s bought wholesale at e l e c t i o n s . . . . " A large number of immigrants crowding i n t o the c i t i e s would " l a y i n t o the foundation w a l l of t h i s democratic struc t u r e , elements of v i c e and weakness and squalid helplessness," 9 reported the e d i t o r of The Farmer's Advocate. People were reminded that the population of Toronto contained a one-seventh proportion of foreigners, a l l a l i e n s i n language and wholly untrained i n popular government. Large numbers of them"suffer from moral and mental debasement due to having l i v e d f o r centuries under despotic and corrupt and altogether v i c i o u s forms of government. Not even i n the best of newcomers has a sentiment of Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p as yet been developed..." Immigrants joined the di s p l a c e d r u r a l population as t o o l s i n the hands of the great urban corporations which corrupted them" as a means of a t t a i n i n g t h e i r own e n d s s " ^ I f the r u r a l population continued t o depart from the homes i t b u i l t , the descendants of the pioneers of Ontario i n the Methodist and Presbyterian communities of the e a r l y days would disappear. As they gravitated to the c i t i e s , t h e i r place on the land would be taken by the Ce n t r a l Europeans or French Canadians. The r u r a l bastion of Canadian democracy was threatened by depopulation. Peasant farmers " u n f i t t o serve the place i n a democratic government" took over the land of "those t r a i n e d f o r generations i n the p r i n c i p l e s of democracy. We s h a l l be i n danger of l o s i n g the L i n c o l n i d e a l of government, by the people f o r the people. In i t s place we s h a l l be i n danger of having set up government by the corporations which c o n t r o l the avenues of employment i n the c i t y and a down-trodden mass of peasants on the land such as there are now i n parts of c o n t i n e n t a l Europe.""'"1 Such unabashed r a c i a l prejudice abounded i n the r u r a l press which often described immigrants as " h i r s u t e , low-browed, big-faced, with an obviously low mentality, i n every face of whom there 12 i s something wrong." As evidence f o r t h i s view, the press pointed out the 'degradation 1 and degeneration of r u r a l areas i n the United States which had been spreading to the Ontario countryside and i n c r e a s i n g the crime r a t e . The c a l l of the Ontario F a i r s Association f o r a r u r a l p o l i c e force gave f u r t h e r proof of the widespread nature of these s e n t i -ments among the r u r a l opinion-makers."^ 4 . In the eyes of the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , depopulation produced l i t t l e i l l u s i o n as t o i t s immediate p o l i t i c a l consequences. Recognition dawned that " a g r i c u l t u r e i s no longer the paramount industry of Canada, that the value of the output of Canadian f a c t o r i e s i s now about double the value of the output c f Canadian farms." The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s statement was that a g r i c u l t u r e could no longer depend upon i t s overwhelming economic and 15 numerical importance to compel a c t i o n on i t s l e g i s l a t i v e demands. Not only would the profession lose i t s power i n lobbying f o r favourable l e g i s l a t i o n but the d e c l i n e i n population meant that i n a c t u a l voting and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of seats, p r o v i n c i a l l y and f e d e r a l l y , r u r a l areas would lose members. Country dwellers would become p o l i t i c a l l y subservient t o 16 large urban m a j o r i t i e s i n the adjacent towns of t h e i r r i d i n g s . One estimate placed the number of r i d i n g s under urban c o n t r o l i n f e d e r a l 17 contests i n the 1911 e l e c t i o n at one-half the t o t a l . The Weekly Sun . pointed out that the small towns i n both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s c f that year voted almost s o l i d l y T cry while r u r a l areas, divided on party l i n e s , d i d net exercise the determining f a c t o r i n the e l e c t i o n s , swamped as they were by the tovms. Several members, favoured i n the r u r a l areas, were soundly beaten by the huge m a j o r i t i e s against 18 them i n the urban centres. 28 Appeals to r a c i a l prejudice and reminders of the erosion of p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e were not as p a i n f u l l y f e l t by the r u r a l population as the personally-experienced e f f e c t s of depopulation. The f a l l i n numbers meant a corresponding d e c l i n e i n r u r a l s o c i a l l i f e and an increase 1 9 i n r u r a l i s o l a t i o n . Abandoned homes s p r i n k l i n g the countryside provided 20 testimony to the breakdown i n r u r a l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . One country-man reminisced that he could remember when s o c i a l l i f e was abundant and good. I t was before the i n d u s t r i a l boom started i n Canada.... We then had glee clubs, temperance s o c i e t i e s , l i t e r a r y and debating s o c i e t i e s . . . . Now we have none of these; the young people t o a large extent have l e f t f o r the c i t y . S c a r c i t y of labor with a l l the work f a l l i n g on a few shoulders, makes us too t i r e d to want t o run around at night. These conditions meant t o the old timers that "on the whole, the country i s not as a t t r a c t i v e a place t o l i v e i n , i n s p i t e of a l l the improvements 21 we have made, as i t was twenty-five years ago." The l i t t l e hamlets and towns had disappeared, as the "country surrendered t o the c i t y a multitude of occupations which once gave i t s o c i a l wealth.... This l o s s confined the choice of occupations i n the country t o one, that of a g r i c u l t u r e . " I t had reduced s o c i a l groups to the 22 uniformity of a s i n g l e c l a s s . S o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n and s p i r i t died out. A gap had formed i n the l i f e of the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s so that the people 23 were living"more as i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s than as communities." Community s p i r i t sometimes lacked even i n matters d i r e c t l y concerning the a g r i c u l -t u r a l l i v e l i h o o d . Farmers could not maintain i n t e r e s t , attendance or finances f o r t h e i r organizations, as the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s and some l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s r e g i s t e r e d serious d e c l i n e s i n membership, leadership and enthusiasm. 2^ 29 Rural i n s t i t u t i o n s affected by the population migration included the two mainstays of the community, the school and the church. School attendance declined d r a s t i c a l l y . Those buildings which "were f i l l e d with f o r t y children as many years ago /1873V now shiver with a beggarly h a l f -25 dozen," reported W. C. Good to the Dominion Grange i n 19-13. According to a report released by the Ontario Department of Education, the actual drop i n attendance numbered 27,529 from 1903 to 1910. The continuing shrinkage by a further 6,239 i n 1911 indicated l i t t l e change i n the , 26 m . trend. The s i t u a t i o n had worsened to the extent that many r u r a l school sections would have to close fo r lack of pupils. One school reported that not a single student registered i n 1906, while most reported minimal 28 attendance. Rural students were also represented i n low proportion i n 29 the high schools compared to the number of urban students. lacking the stimulation given by teaching to large classes of enthusiastic p u p i l s , country teachers changed positions frequently. They 30 l e f t the remaining children i n t h e i r schools without any stable guidance. F u l l blame could hardly be l a i d on the teachers' shoulders, however, for 31 the majority were underprivileged and underpaid.'' The trustees, skimping on funds, hired cheaper, underqualified teachers when these were 32 av a i l a b l e . Male teachers deserted the teaching occupation i n increasing numbers, leaving the care of the country children to young women. They could scarcely be faulted, for they often earned an average rate of pay less than that of a hired hand. Many of the school buildings presented a sad appearance. They 'suffered a lack of maintenance so that from the exterior they were "desolate-looking places." They were l e f t ''bare and unattractive" with no 34 shrubs or trees. The grounds were too small and lacked play equipment. 30 Sanitation, l i g h t i n g , heating, medical inspection, a l l l e f t much to be 35 desired i n most r u r a l schools. ^ These conditions, one r u r a l school inspector believed, existed mainly because of the paucity cf both pupils 36 and taxpayers. Too much money was lavished cn the ten per cent of the pupils i n the high schools expected to enter the professions. Not enough 37 was spent on the seventy percent who remained i n r u r a l areas. Of the money devoted to r u r a l education, much i n d i r e c t l y subsidized the c i t i e s 38 as r u r a l sections bore the cost of educating many a prospective townsman. Concern over the condition of the country church can be measured par t l y by the interest of denominations i n organizing surveys and pub-l i s h i n g books about t h e i r problems. Sharing the agrarian philosophy, they believed that "the interests of r e l i g i o n are today imperilled by the d i s -integration of the farming population. When men become d i s s a t i s f i e d with the sober and honest l i f e of the farmer...there i s cause for r e l i g i o u s 39 people to be a f r a i d , and today they are a f r a i d . " Rural clergy complained about the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the church organization. The denominations confined t h e i r major e f f o r t s t o towns and c i t i e s , "giving them of t h e i r 40 best t o the neglect of the open country...." Excessive denominationalism and overlapping, another p a r t i a l result of depopulation, l e f t a hamlet with three, four or f i v e churches i n a centre of population able to support one. Rural ministers, forced to look a f t e r several small con-gregations and t o preach at them a l l each Sunday had l i t t l e energy to do a proper job i n extending church work. They expended a l l t h e i r e f f o r t s 42 i n the bare maintenance of each small congregation and i n the upkeep of "poor shabby buildings displeasing to the eye i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l design,... unattractive w i t h i n and without." -1 Ministers also had to cope with a chronic, disheartening decrease i n numbers; a continuing loss of workers 31 44 and young people a f f e c t e d a l l denominations. Attendance showed a 45 p a r t i c u l a r d e c l i n e among the men. Along with church and school, the most important of a l l r u r a l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , the family, suffered under the impact c f the de-c l i n i n g r u r a l population. The s i z e of the r u r a l family shrank because of the exodus to the c i t i e s . As the young deserted the farms, the r u r a l areas were l e f t t o older p e o p l e . ^ The average f a m i l y - s i z e shrank con-47 s i d e r a b l y , and an imbalance i n the sexes r e s u l t e d from the l a r g e r proportion of women leaving the countryside. A male surplus of almost 86,000 developed in' r u r a l areas, while women exceeded men by 11,000 i n 48 the c i t i e s . A female majority i n a r u r a l area prevailed only i n one 49 county (.Grenville). The problem of farmer-bachelors became a bandied-50 about t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n i n the r u r a l press, as r u r a l bachelors had d i f f i c u l t y i n f e r r e t i n g out s u i t a b l e mates.^ (ii) Economic consequences of depopulation were considered almost as disastrous as the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e s u l t s by the r u r a l population. Farmers feared the growing i n s t a b i l i t y c f t h e i r business. A farm leader reported to The Sun that although he "may have made some money out of the bacon hog or d a i r y cow, the farmer i s net sure of staying i n the business, 52 and t h i s unsettled state i s working great harm f o r the future." The sense of economic s e c u r i t y had l e f t the countryside. The uncertainty of the labour supply became a gnawing source of t h i s unease. Rural employers blamed the lack of labour f o r a r e t r o g r e s -sion i n the c u l t i v a t i o n methods. In deciding h i s l i n e . o f a g r i c u l t u r e , a c u l t i v a t o r was governed almost e n t i r e l y by h i s a b i l i t y to get help. Many a farmer was "not d i r e c t i n g h i s energies i n the channels he thinks 32 best or i n those for which his farm and surroundings are best adapted 53 because of t h i s one t h i n g — n o t s u f f i c i e n t help." A g r i c u l t u r i s t s interviewed by the press about the effect of the s c a r c i t y remarked that they were forced to give up p r o f i t a b l e operations because of t h e i r 54 i n a b i l i t y to get hired help. In many areas, buildings were abandoned and homes s t i l l worth hundreds of thousands of d o l l a r s stood with broken windows and slamming doors. Costly barns and equipment l e f t i d l e , r a p i d l y 55 deteriorated. The drive of farm businessmen towards intensive c u l t i v a t i o n appeared i n some respects to have been halted. The press reported that much of the most t i l l a b l e cropland i n Ontario was being 56 converted into pasture. Labour conditions forced farmers to abandon the more labour-consuming branches cf agriculture such as dairying and market gardening where "nothing has yet been devised to successfully take the place of a pair of hands i n the weeding, picking, marketing of 5 7 vegetables and i n the care and milking of c a t t l e . " ' Orchard men had to reconsider t h e i r type of farming as t h e i r trees were attacked by diseases 58 they could net c o n t r o l . An increase i n livestock-keeping accompanied the lessening production of other branches. The land was minimally used and expansion was l i m i t e d j moreover, the lack of outdoor grazing during Ontario winters forced farmers to s e l l surplus c a t t l e they could not afford to feed over 59 the cold season even i f prices were low. According to one estimate, because of the increased grazing, the value of possible output from the 60 land declined by seventy-five per cent. Everywhere farmers planned t h e i r operations with a view to reducing labour to the minimum. "A minimum of labour usually means a minimum of output as w e l l , " commented a disgruntled farmer. The increased ravages of insect pests which 33 accompanied the growing amount c f land devoted to grazing caused part of 6 l the d e c l i n e i n production. C a t t l e ' f i n i s h e d ' on grass alone a l s o had 62 not the q u a l i t y to command top prices on the world's leading markets. For those s t i l l c u l t i v a t i n g t h e i r f i e l d s , the labour shortage meant that the weed nuisance aggravated working condit i o n s . Weeds p r o l i f e r a t e d because farmers could not adequately d e a l with,them. * Only by p u t t i n g h i s land t o pasture could a man c o n t r o l the weeds spreading through h i s f i e l d s , although he had to s a c r i f i c e a year's crops and s u f f e r . . . 64 a drop i n h i s income. In some respects, increased grazing land was the a g r i c u l t u r i s t ' s best a l t e r n a t i v e . The crops he d i d produce suffered from 65 the lack of labour due to i n e f f i c i e n t c u l t i v a t i o n of the s o i l . The s i t u a t i o n was summed up by one c u l t i v a t o r who remarked that "I am ashamed of the weeds on my farm, but I cannot help i t : I can get no help; I am about d i s c o u r a g e d . " ^ The s o c i a l r e s u l t s of the labour shortage r e s u l t i n g from the switch to grazing land deserve a mention. Due to the increase i n pasture-land, bachelor landowners could work t r a c t s otherwise too large f o r them i n d i v i d u a l l y . The land, therefore, supporting only a f r a c t i o n of the 67 population i t could, added l e s s than i t should to the p r o v i n c i a l wealth. Families that attempted to keep t h e i r land i n c u l t i v a t i o n often had t o put the wives, mothers and daughters of the farm to work i n the f i e l d s i n order t o make ends meet. Boys, kept heme from school, worked the land with t h e i r parents. Many d i d not even receive a common school education. These s o c i a l r e s u l t s exercised a detrimental e f f e c t on the strained r u r a l s i t u a t i o n . Although the Jeremiahs foresaw d i r e consequences i f the r u r a l d e c l i n e were not h a l t e d , some observers of change i n farm l i f e noted that 34 the inadequate and c o s t l y labour supply produced b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s f o r farm methods. Wages had r i s e n tremendously and complaints about the 6 9 high pay of farm labourers were common i n the r u r a l j o u r n a l s . This s i t u a t i o n forced farmers t o make the best use of a v a i l a b l e manpower to maintain p r o f i t s . They discovered that one way to do t h i s was by inc r e a s i n g t h e i r use of a v a i l a b l e labour-saving machines. Farmers r e -70 evaluated the comparative cost of labour versus machinery. One farmer forced t o adopt the cream separator remarked t h a t : as long as a hired g i r l could be had f o r f i v e c r s i x d o l l a r s a month, to make butter, lug milk pans up and down s t a i r s , and skim milk out to the barn, we were quite content to do without a separator. Now that we can't get a good g i r l under 515, we f i n d that old way out of the question. We have had a cream separator now for ten years, sending our cream to a butter f a c t o r y , and i t has been a good investment i n more ways than one. In the f i e l d s , the hay-tedder, s e l f - b i n d e r , two furrow ploughs, four-horse 71 harrows, side d e l i v e r y rakes, a l l improved e f f i c i e n c y and cut c o s t s . This equipment, while expensive, s t i l l cost l e s s than i n e f f i c i e n t hired 72 help, or so believed many advocates of mechanization. Labour-saving competitions were held by-the farm newspapers to popularize new methods 73 of a l l e v i a t i n g the shortage i n a l l l i n e s of farm work. "Evidence accumulates," wrote the e d i t o r s of The Farmer's Advocate, that the farm-labor problem of the past decade, while a hardship f o r the time being has, by hastening the adoption of labor-saving p r a c t i c e s , r e s u l t e d i n an immense, permanent u p l i f t t o the industry of a g r i c u l t u r e , an u p l i f t which, though e n t a i l i n g undeniable hardship i n the t r a n s i t i o n state during which i t was being brought about, has g r e a t l y improved the farmer's p o s i t i o n i n the long run, and w i l l yet improve i t s t i l l f u r t h e r . ; A f t e r a l l , i t concluded, "the farm-labor problem has not been such a very severe hardship to the foresighted. It i s c h i e f l y those who r e s i s t progress that are crushed by i t . " 4 35 These sentiments were r e a l i s t i c , i f not widespread. Even the increase i n the use,of machinery had detrimental s o c i a l consequences, believed others. Mechanization placed great f i n a n c i a l pressure upon small farms. Since these operations could not sustain or generate the amount of c a p i t a l required for machinery, horses and b u i l d i n g s , mechaniza-t i o n provided an incentive f o r consolidating farm holdings i n t o higher, revenue-producing u n i t s . I f c a r r i e d too f a r , however, t h i s s i t u a t i o n would r e s u l t i n the c r e a t i o n of a permanent c l a s s of farm labourers or tenants who could be imported P o l i s h , I t a l i a n or Chinese working f o r a landed a r i s t o c r a c y . This r e s o l u t i o n of the labour shortage was e n t i r e l y unpala-t a b l e t o the farm press since the c r e a t i o n of such an a l i e n labouring cla s s would c a r r y severe s o c i a l problems with i t . Tenants, f o r example, would be apathetic t o needed r u r a l improvements since they had no stake i n the country, an da r u r a l p r o l e t a r i a t would corrupt the country and reduce i t t o the l e v e l of the degenerate c i t i e s . Another economic consequence of depopulation included the r i s i n g 76 p r i c e s f c r farm products i n the c i t i e s and towns. Urban dwellers, under the impression that "farmers are r o l l i n g i n wealth, "^o'egan complaining of unconscionable p r o f i t s i n the farm products trade. This accusation s t a r t e d a campaign by the r u r a l p u b l i c i s t s who repeatedly pointed out that t h i s c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t e d from 'The Problem 1, which encouraged the poor methods 7 8 and increased farmers' costs. E d i t o r i a l s t o l d the c i t y dweller that he could blame only himself since h i s support of p o l i c i e s which encouraged 7 9 depopulation resulted i n h i s s u f f e r i n g the consequences. C i t y readers ought to "exert t h e i r influence towards inducing men to engage i n farm work," 80 i f they desired to help i n the campaign to reduce the cost of t h e i r food. The a g r i c u l t u r i s t , h i s journals emphasized, was only a scapegoat. Laying 36 the blame on t h i s "most patient of men, the farmer, when things go wrong i n the community or when attention i s to be diverted from the r e a l c u l p r i t s , the b i g dealers..." was nothing but "...uncalled for and shameful slander 81 ...and i n s u l t beyond endurance." In t h e i r further defence, countrymen declared that " i n spite of working from daylight t o dark and making use of every device possible to cut down expenditure, the average farmer a f t e r allowing himself only a f a i r 82 return for labor i s not making bank interest on his investment...." The high rate of per capital taxation, another res u l t of depopulation, c o n t r i -buted to the r i s i n g r u r a l cost of l i v i n g . Each farmer had to pay more to 83 support remaining r u r a l services such as schools and township roads. Farmers pleaded common cause with the consumer. Exploitation by the profes-s i o n a l landlord who performed no service and made money "simply because he has control of a piece of land God created" resulted i n increased costs f o r both groups. Since the l o c a l m i l l s and services had come into the hands of large corporations, farmers had to pay more for t h e i r raw materials such .' 85 as machinery and seed. Price increases were j u s t i f i e d i n many cases since they were "not a matter of l i f e and death but purely a question of a f a i r return upon investments." 8 6 Sydney Fisher, Minister of Agriculture i n Laurier's cabinet, t o l d a gathering of dairymen that he was "glad that the prices of our a g r i c u l t u r a l products are so high. I am glad for the 87 farmers...they have only come into t h e i r r i g h t s . " These statements did not aid i n restoring good relations among the r u r a l and urban dwellers i n Canada. The r i f t between town and country seemed to widen year by year. ( i i i ) This widening breach between the sympathies of the r u r a l and urban population formed the f i n a l consequence i n a chain of r e s u l t s . The l i n k s i n t h i s chain, as the r u r a l population perceived them, joined together 37 t h e i r range of experiences, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic. Rural s e l f -esteem had declined along with the a g r i c u l t u r a l population. Fears for Canada grew as the farmers projected a future i n which the corporations c o n t r o l l e d the urban masses and both c i t y and country were overwhelmed by a l i e n s . The p o l i t i c a l power of the countryside was i n danger because of the f a l l i n g proportion of r u r a l population. The s o c i a l consequences a f f e c t e d the most important r u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ? f o r school, church, and family a l l suffered under the impact of the d e c l i n i n g population. Economically, methods had to change t o accommodate the labour shortage, often i n the d i r e c t i o n of short-cuts and i n e f f i c i e n c y . These d i r e c t outcomes of depopulation, as the contemporary population viewed them, forced the countrymen, i f not t o attempt remedies, at l e a s t to think about the r e a l challenge which confronted an a g r i c u l t u r a l existence. Some of the r u r a l p u b l i c i s t s , the adaptors, could see i n t h i s threat an i n c e n t i v e to force the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s to adopt up-to-date methods. Most a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , however, were bewildered by the threats a r i s i n g on every sid e . The changes i n s o c i e t y and business seemed, to most, t o sweep away the s t a b i l i t y of the l i f e - s t y l e which had pr e v a i l e d i n the province since i t s settlement. 38 CHAPTER IV .THE GUARDIANS OF THE RURAL MYTH: DESTROYERS AND BUILDERS In the eyes of the population l i v i n g i n the countryside, the exodus t o the c i t i e s brought disastrous consequences. The s i t u a t i o n i n which the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s suffered assault a f t e r assault on t h e i r way of l i f e forced them t o ask themselves, "Why?". In f a c t , the questioning induced by depopulation co n s t i t u t e d i t s most important r e s u l t . Opinion-leaders began a thorough a n a l y s i s ' o f r u r a l l i f e aimed at f i n d i n g the causes and gaining an i n d i c a t i o n of solutions t o h a l t the worsening s i t u a t i o n . Although t h e i r arguments and d i s c u s s i o n were generally f u t i l e i n stopping the exodus, the debate provides i n t e r e s t i n g reading. I t brought t o the fo r e perceptions of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the country to the metropolis, since the search for the true authors of depopulation led to revea l i n g examinations of the rural-urban aspects of 'The Problem. 1 No s o c i a l or economic i n s t i t u t i o n s touching r u r a l l i f e remained immune from t h i s s c r u t i n y . ( i ) The r u r a l opinion-makers placed much of the blame f o r the exodus from the countryside on s o c i a l causes. One of the major s o c i a l o r i g i n s as w e l l as r e s u l t s of depopulation l a y i n the undermining of the r u r a l myth by r u r a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1 This d e c l i n e i n agrarian i d e a l i s m came about p a r t l y through the work of the r u r a l press, the farm family, the country school and the r u r a l church. The boy, one farmer remarked, was exposed to the mischievous e f f e c t of the c l a s s of l i t e r a t u r e that b e l i t t l e s country l i f e . In too many of our papers and books f o r young people, the hero i s represented as one who f i n d s no scope f o r his t a l e n t s amid farm surroundings, and who comes to h i s own only upon l e a v i n g the old home f o r a l i f e of adventure.... 2 The c h i l d r e n of the farmer read about the poor lad who became a b r i l l i a n t f i n a n c i e r , speculator or p o l i t i c i a n ; of the fancy dress b a l l s and g l i t t e r i n g s o c i a l functions of the wealthy. Mot unnaturally, the young concluded, t h i s was t y p i c a l of c i t y l i f e and "they can hardly be blamed, i n the absence of r e a l and true knowledge of many c i t y l i v e s from enter-t a i n i n g the b e l i e f that t h i s apparent success and l i k e pleasures await 3 them as soon as they can j o i n the throng moving cityward." The l i b r a r i e s to a i d the education of the r u r a l youth contained l i t t l e but t h i s 'cheap t r a s h ' which helped only t o further the breakdown of a proper conception of country l i f e . ^ C i t i e s could be excused for publishing newspapers which constantly pointed with pride to the g l o r i e s of t h e i r metropolis; but t h e i r emphasis on t h i s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s served the purpose of honey f o r f l i e s . The farm papers, on the other hand which were "supposed to devote themselves e n t i r e l y t o the i n t e r e s t s of the farmers and t o show the . country boy why he should stay on the farm, are edited i n the c i t i e s and 5 by men who l e f t the country t o do the work." At times, the a g r i c u l -t u r a l journals portrayed the farmers as penurious, cheap, contemptible wretches. Much of the c r i t i c i s m which destroyed r u r a l i d e a l i s m and led t o the depopulation c f the countryside, i n f a c t , o r i g i n a t e d i n the a g r i c u l -t u r a l j o u r n a l s . Farm women p a r t i c u l a r l y , were t o l d that they must avoid being ' l i m i t e d ' by t h e i r country existence and by not knowing what l a y beyond the nearest hamlet.^ One columnist whose w r i t i n g provided a focus f o r much of the debate complained that the ' a g r i c u l t u r a l i d e a l ' which 40 implied the s u p e r i o r i t y of the a g r i c u l t u r a l metier, had not f u l f i l l e d i t s f u n c t i o n . The treatment of the farmers' wives provided an example, since i n no other occupation are we offered so great a contrast between the superior advantages of the male and the acquiescent humility of the female.... K o — for and so poorly paid, so complacently considered as only a c h a t t e l , a mere machine, a possession valuable only according t o her working and c h i l d -bearing capacity. 7 The h a r d - f i s t e d farmer portrayed i n the r u r a l press by n o v e l i s t Jean Blewett could do l i t t l e t o persuade g i r l s t o stay i n r u r a l areas. He seldom had the grace to d i e young and"let his pale, soft-hearted wife wear weeds. Oftener, he wore the wife out and when she was sound asleep under the granite shaft--the r e a l l y handsome granite s h a f t — t o o k another 8 who...proceeded to spend h i s money and make him 'toe the mark1...." Farmers' daughters, according to some w r i t e r s , fared l i t t l e better than t h e i r mothers and a l s o spent t h e i r l i v e s "working, planning monotonously, f a i t h f u l l y , gradually l o s i n g sight of a l l outside the narrow horizon of her duties," since " l i t t l e c f reward or of romance enters her own l i f e . " ^ The farmer showed himself i n the eyes of these w r i t e r s t o be not only a hard-hearted, s e l f i s h man, but a boor who had next t o no regard fo r the s o c i a l graces admired by a l l women. The press repeated a t a l e about the farm wife who had ju s t cleaned her house when her husband 'reeking of the stable' came i n t o the p a r l o r t o transact business. In-stead of going to h i s desk t o wr i t e , he shoved back "the nicely-arranged cover of the t a b l e , " upset a bouquet of flowers, water and a l l , t o r e up sever a l sheets of paper, and ignoring the wastepaper basket, threw them broadcast oyer the floor.""" 0 Another countryman might show h i s uncouth nature by sleep i n g with h i s trousers over h i s head. "Imagine a s e n s i t i v e woman having a nosegay l i k e that i n her bedroom, l e t alone at her very nose J " 41 exclaimed a h o r r i f i e d neighbour. Other men s p i t on the stove fender a f t e r having sat and watched t h e i r wives clean i t , or took seed potatoes out and cut them on-the kitchen t a b l e , c r moved t h e i r egg incubator i n t o the bed-room, or changed t h e i r underwear once a year. Swearing, noted a nurse, appeared "to be the c h i e f accomplishment of a good many so - c a l l e d men." 1 1 Generally, the a g r i c u l t u r i s t f a i l e d completely t o provide the elementary courtesies a l l women enjoyed. Every farmer's daughter "seeing the deferen-t i a l courtesy accorded by the well-bred c i t y man to h i s lady companion, who takes i t so n a t u r a l l y and unconsciously as a matter of course, f e e l s a lump r i s e t o her throat and a mist t o her eyes, that such things are not 12 f o r her." L i t t l e wonder, these a r t i c l e s suggested, fewer ;*omen than men stayed i n the countryside. Most farm journals, proud of the success c f the 'sons of the s o i l ' who had l e f t the farms and made names f o r themselves i n other occupations, published many s t o r i e s about these men. The aim of the a r t i c l e s , t o show how r u r a l childhood gave everyone an advantage, could not but be subverted to give the impression that fortunes were waiting i n the c i t i e s t o be gathered i n by most countryboys. President James M i l l s of O.A.C. asked an audience at the Guelph Winter F a i r "where a l l our leaders i n profes-s i o n a l , i n d u s t r i a l and commercial l i f e come from? Is i t not from the farms of the country? Where then, do the brains come from that lead i n the 13 avenues of trade?" W.E.H. Massey provided an example, remarked upon i n thr r u r a l journals, of a farm boy who 'made i t 1 and who never forgot h i s • • 14 r u r a l o r i g i n s . J . J . H i l l , the U. S. r a i l r o a d magnate was also known t o be the son of an Ontario farm. 1'' These shining examples were complemented i n The Canadian Countryman by a se r i e s of addresses each week by prominent men d i s c u s s i n g the value of the various, urban, occupations. 1^ 42 George C. Creelman of C.A.C., int e r e s t e d i n a s i m i l a r s e r i e s of lectures f o r the students of h i s c o l l e g e , asked J . S. V J i l l i s o n , e d i t o r of the 17 Toronto News f o r help i n securing speakers. The pa pers pointed out that not only businessmen, but a l s o many c u l t u r a l leaders o r i g i n a t e d from concession l i n e s of the Province. In-cluded i n t h i s category were Professor Adam Shortt of Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , and the President of V i c t o r i a U n i v e r s i t y , R. P. Eowles, who " s t i l l a l o y a l 13 son of the s o i l " would have chosen farming as h i s 'second' profession. Rural men dominated p u b l i c l i f e . The cabinets of Wcodrow Wilson, S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r and S i r Robert Borden provided examples f o r r u r a l youth of the great number of farm-bred p o l i t i c i a n s . In the United States, Wilson c a l l e d a l l but one country-born men t o h i s Cabinet. Of the members i n the Canadian Cabinet of 1913, a l l but one had been ra i s e d i n r u r a l s e ctions. Of the P r o v i n c i a l Premiers of the age not one had been born i n a c i t y . These examples pointed to the conclusion that "a childhood spent next t o nature i n c u l c a t e d more of the a t t r i b u t e s that lead t o greatness than do 19 childhood days spent i n the rush and roar of the c i t y . " These s t o r i e s must have proven as e f f e c t i v e i n l u r i n g boys from the farms as the a r t i c l e s about the lack of s o c i a l amenities were i n a t t r a c t i n g g i r l s to the c i t i e s . Not only the newspapers, however, f a i l e d t o maintain the 'r i g h t ' a t t i t u d e to a g r i c u l t u r e ; many farmers a l s o lacked a b e l i e f i n t h e i r occupation. They e i t h e r deserted i t f o r that reason or f a i l e d t o imbue t h e i r o f f s p r i n g with the type of enthusiasm that would encourage the young people t o remain on the farm. Some a g r i c u l t u r i s t s f e l t that " i n some way a g r i c u l t u r e i s degrading", and that the c u l t i v a t o r of the s o i l ought t o defer t o and seek the favour of -the p r o f e s s i o n a l men. He treated t h i s group too much "as l i t t l e gods," tendered them the highest places and grovelled at t h e i r f e e t . Farmers, by not upholding the 'dig n i t y of t h e i r c a l l i n g ' , a l s o created a f e e l i n g of unrest i n the minds of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Farmers' sons constantly heard a g r i c u l t u r e spoken of as "an out-at-the 22 elbows, ambitionless sort of business." Frequently, a countryman s a i d , " I f I had my l i f e t o l i v e over again, I would never be a farmer; I would go t o school and enter one of the professions." Farmers spoke l o n g i n g l y of the day when they could r e t i r e t o the town with enough money t o l i v e 23 comfortably. They thought of a g r i c u l t u r e only as drudgery while the 24 t r a v a i l of the cityman was easy i n comparison. "What," demanded The Farmer's Advocate. are the sons of these men l i k e l y t o t h i n k of t h e i r f a t hers' occupation? Are they l i k e l y , a f t e r having t h i s sentiment i n s t i l l e d i n t o them from the cradle up to a high school age t o show any great respect f o r a g r i c u l t u r e ? . . . . The c h i l d n a t u r a l l y believes the parent i s r i g h t i n h i s or her estimation of the c a l l i n g engaged i n . . . . 25 These young people had "no knowledge of the world, and accept as gold a l l that g l i t t e r s . " Like many other c y n i c a l souls, the farmer stopped b e l i e v i n g i n h i s occupation, convinced that "he alone bore a l l t h i s earth's burdens.... The man behind the plow appeared t o have no f r i e n d s , 26 he was l e f t alone." Few r u r a l homes had exerted a r a t i o n a l influence i n the d i r e c t i o n of a wholesome appreciation of country l i f e because the parents themselves d i d not f e e l i t , except h a l f - h e a r t e d l y . This lack of app r e c i a t i o n of a farm l i f e , believed many r u r a l p u b l i c i s t s , was "the 27 strongest r e p e l l i n g f o r c e i n the r u r a l communities." A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , complained t h i s same group of c r i t i c s , had sold t h e i r i d ealism short by accepting the growing commercial s p i r i t of the age. They became b e l i e v e r s i n the p r e v a i l i n g "gospel of success" which preached that popular acclaim greeted only those who gained "money and 28 the power that goes with the possession of wealth." The means of a c q u i s i t i o n had become unimportant, only the possession of vast riches 44 mattered. The disease had infected the whole urban population, for the working man in the cities pursued material goods with as much vigour as 2 9 the financier. Farmers, also debilitated, had become too money-hungry to esteem their occupation properly. They just drudged "away from morning t i l l night, from day unto day, year unto year, with one aim in 30 view, i.e. to make money...." Infected with this spirit in the rural home, the youth could see that other occupations than farming provided a better opportunity for the rapid acquisition of the money he had been taught to esteem. He preferred to take his chance in the city rather than 31 "follow the slower surer path of agriculture."^ W. C. Good told the Dominion Grange that this unhealthy attitude on the part of the countrymen themselves partially explained depopulation by their contribution to the "unhealthy commercialism of America with its lowering of ideals, its 32 sensation-seeking and its tendencies to luxuriousness and display." Not only were the home and press attacked by those wishing to stop the exodus, but the rural school system also suffered criticism for its adverse influence on the young people's outlook. "It is not exag-gerating very much," believed the editor of The Farmer's Advocate," to say that about a l l that an ill-conceived school system could do to depopulate the rural districts has been done by ours in the older provinces 33 of Canada." Some journals used up their space to emphasize that the "much-lauded" school system possessed lamentable tendencies to draw people away from the land, to f i l l towns and cities at the expense of the rural districts and to overcrowd professional and clerical employments. This result was especially shameful since education was particularly important to country children. Rural l i f e could lead towards a narrow outlook. Because the farmer often had only his own mental resources to rely on he 35 should be trained to use his capacity to appreciate the rural l i f e style. 45 The whole course of the province's school system led i t s students-i n t o higher echelons of study: from public t o high school, t o u n i v e r s i t y ; then, f i n a l l y , i n t o a profession away from a g r i c u l t u r e . This educational ladder, beloved by the t h e o r i s t s i n the Department of Education, had t o stop leading away from a g r i c u l t u r e i f the farm l i f e were t o be preserved 36 from complete d e s t r u c t i o n . Adelaide Hunter Hoodless, the education reformer and Women's I n s t i t u t e pioneer, commented that the public school system had "sapped the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s of many of t h e i r b r i g h t e s t and most valuable members. Just so soon as a boy or g i r l discovers a s p e c i a l a p t i -tude f o r text-book work—and country l i f e rather conducts t o a more r e t e n t i v e memory—finding themselves at the head of an examination l i s t ; they become convinced that t h e i r i n t e l l e c t i s on the genius order and they 37 are destined to shine as bright p r o f e s s i o n a l l i g h t s . " The changes needed t o counteract t h i s c i t y bias i n the p u b l i c school system would be d i f f i c u l t to achieve. The course of study was ou t l i n e d by c i t y men, the text-books prepared by c i t y men, the teacher was 38 t r a i n e d i n a c i t y Normal School by inspectors with c i t y i d e a l s . The whole curriculum, many believed, was too 'bookish' and 'professional.' It e x t o l l e d v i r t u e s antagonistic t o those needed on the farm. I t pro-moted m i l i t a r i s m , f o r example, and a l s o "scholarship and pedantry, then l a t e r . . . p r o f e s s i o n a l employment and f i n a l l y . . . m e r c a n t i l e and i n d u s t r i a l emprise." Dealing as i t d i d with books and bcoklore, i t developed only the mind and never the muscle. It d i s s o c i a t e d the student from manual employ-ment throughout the impressionable years of h i s school days. This led to centring the ambitions on realms of e f f o r t p e c u l i a r to the town and to a preference f o r sedentary occupations.^ Testimonials i n the columns of the farm press confirmed the extent of the b e l i e f i n t h i s accusation among farmer-readers. One farmer's 46 son reported that he went home from school " f i l l e d with a positive loathing for what seemed to me to be the undesirable drudgery of farm work. There was nothing in that course of study, as I remember i t , that inspired me to look with favor on the farm or the farmer, yet that was the impres-sionable time of my l i f e . " ^ When success was achieved by those of rural origin, the press always attributed i t to education. This reinforced the prestige of the city-oriented education system in the eyes of those whose minds i t was directing.^ 1 The individual teacher in the rural school also contributed to the glamourization of city occupations. A teacher brought to her class-roon "an impression that the farm is a good place for a l l the clever children to get away from i f possible. So she encourages the brightest of them to secure an education and become 'something better 1 than a farmer." A survey made of the staff of one of the farm journals discovered that not one of the members could recall ever being encouraged by his teacher to educate himself especially for farm l i f e . Whenever a teacher appealed . to ambition, he aimed at promoting more education and rousing 42 a child to 'do better' than his parents. "Go back readerJ," urged one article ...to the old school. You probably studied under half a dozen different teachers or mere. Did ever one of them uphold farming or manual labor? Did they not incite you to study by holding up the prospect of a job without hard work? Our schools have been saturated with the pernicious idea that education was a means of avoiding physical exertion, a means by which the son might rise above the station of his parents. The father was 'only' a farmer or 'only' a day-labourer, or jonly' a mechanic as the case might be. The son i f he was clever aspired ^3 to something 'better' and was encouraged in this ambition. The teacher, in many cases, could not be expected to do otherwise for she was generally "a young person who has spent a l l her l i f e among brick walls and.sidewalks, dumped a l l at once into a country section." 47 She could not prevent herself from being out of harmony with her new environment. She would be homesick, not like country ways, unable to see anything 'in 1 farming and "in ninety-nine out of one hundred cases doesn't know enough about nature study to be interested even in that." Teachers, many critics believed, showed only their discontent with their jobs. At the f i r s t opportunity, most would apply for positions in town 44 or city schools or else would leave the profession altogether. They had net been trained to work in the rural sections. They a l l learned their teaching methods in the urban environment where the Normal schools had been established; they did not learn such prosaic daily chores as lighting the stoves in the rural schools where there was no caretaker. There was l i t t l e doubt in the mind of ruralists that "the rural-school teacher has much to gain by getting his training under conditions not too remote from those where his work is to be done." To effect any change in attitude on the part of the pupils, there was l i t t l e doubt that reform would have to be founded on a different system of teacher training in the 45 46 public schools, as well as better buildings and larger specialized •, 47 classes. The higher educational systems did l i t t l e to correct this early bias of rural education. High schools were located in the towns and cities. Any country children who went cn to this level had to go into the town at the immature age of 12 cr 13 years and were early weaned away 48 from country ways. Very few returned to the farm, reported the Depart-49 ment of Education. Anti-high school feeling, very pronounced in some articles, led to at least one recommendation that the number of high schools be reduced.^ Disgruntled farmers felt that the high schools and universities pointed the way 48 t o the surgery, to the chemist's laboratory, to the mine, t o the p u l p i t , to the bar or to the l e g i s l a t i v e h a l l , but i n how many cases i s there a serious e f f o r t made to teach the students the wealth of the sun-swept v a l l e y and meadow, and that s a t i s f a c t i o n that comes to mind and heart and fortune by a pursuit of a g r i c u l t u r e , the most ancient as i t remains the most honorable of the arts? 51 Even the most a g r i c u l t u r e - o r i e n t e d of the schools i n Ontario, The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College, was c r i t i c i s e d f o r the tendency of i t s graduates to accept jobs i n posit i o n s other than those associated with f i e l d c u l t i v a t i o n . One joke making the rounds i n the r u r a l press reported the conversation of two farmers, as follows: Hiram: Has your son given up farming? Obadiah: I guess so. He's attendin' one of them a g r i c u l t u r a l 52 colleges i n the c i t y . In t h i s case, however, a s p i r i t e d defence of the a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e was put forward by Professor Reynolds of the College (who l a t e r became i t s president). He admitted that attending O.A.C. 'u n f i t s ' a man fo r farm work, because i t opens h i s eyes to the other modes of l i f e a v a i l a b l e through an a g r i c u l t u r a l education. At the same time, many graduates of O.A.C. d i d better work f o r a g r i c u l t u r e outside the f i e l d s as teachers, leaders and demonstrators. Reynolds pointed out that f o r a graduate, "O.A.C. opens h i s eyes t o the d i s a b i l i t i e s of farming." The blame, therefore, f o r the d i r e c t i o n c f most college t r a i n e d farmers away from the farm l i e s "not i n the education he has received, but i n the 53 conditions of farm l i f e . " Other l e v e l s of the school system gained a measure of defence against c r i t i c i s m of t h e i r place as causes of depopulation. Of a l l the arguments used to search for and explain the causes c f the d e c l i n i n g countryside,.blaming education was "to say the l e a s t , the most ignoble and 49 groundless," declared one rural commentator. "If farming does not allow developed a b i l i t y or permit the mind to be so trained that i t may appreciate and value the accomplishments of high minds in the l i t e r a r y 54 or s c i e n t i f i c world, i t is not to be recommended to the ambitious youth." "Personally," reminisced one r u r a l woman," I do not believe that the teacher is one-half—no, not one tenth as responsible in this matter as the general home atmosphere. Locking back over my own primary school days, spent wholly i n a country school, and with a number of teachers, I cannot remember one sentence nor one impression from that school that could possibly have prejudiced me against the rural l i f e . As children we spent our time on reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, history, and grammar, with a l i t t l e drawing and a few Latin roots thrown i n . I have wished many a time since that the Latin roots had been vastly increased in number. We needed every one of the things taught. The curriculum was none too bread to give the breadth of mind that even children need, and I for one have not the least sympathy with those who wish to oust history and grammar from the public school curriculum. 55 The aim of the schools ought not to be to teach country children to be farmers and urban children to be professionals. This solution would only increase the already existing division between the two populations. The schools ought to be arranged so that a child, no matter where he attended classes, could follow such courses of study that he could enter any profession. The country preacher.was c r i t i c i z e d for his lack of agrarian idealism. The urban-centred nature of the problems which occupied the thoughts of most of the churchmen l e f t the country church outside the major consideration of most denominations. The minister no longer served as an example of dedicated ruralism to those debating whether to remain in the country or to move to the ci t y because he quite often led the 57 parade away from the hamlets. The minority championing rural causes accused the majority of being one-sided in i t s interests. "The men who 50 minister i n our c i t i e s are rated higher than those i n the country, even though men i n the country may have had the highest r a t i n g i n c o l l e g e c l a s s e s , " they complained. Further, the "reports of advances through the Laymen's Missionary Movement are generally w r i t t e n from the standpoint of 58 a c i t y or town church." The church leaders, u s u a l l y c i t y men, saw t h e i r mission from that point of view. The churches' p o l i c i e s were "city-born and c i t y - b r e d . " The country churches, regarded as being merely of secondary importance, were expected to accept the p o l i c y of the c i t y churches and to adopt such p o l i c i e s as best they could. The r u r a l minister, l i k e the teacher, too often took the country charge with' reluctance. His hope was that one day he would be c a l l e d to a b i g c i t y church. His sermons were prepared and preached with a view t o the greater future he f e l t he deserved. He regarded himself only as a sojourner among the country people. The c i t y was h i s home; he busied himself with c i t y problems so that h i s church a c t i v i t i e s aped c i t y church a c t i v i t i e s . In the meantime, he f a i l e d to r e a l i z e the f i n e opportunities for s e r v i c e i n t h e . r u r a l community. Such a preacher scon found himself out of touch with h i s p a r i s h . Often, he would d i r e c t l y express h i s pre-ference f o r c i t y l i f e . A p o s s i b l y apocryphal story recounted the t a l e of the m i n i s t e r who questioned a Sunday-school c l a s s about t h e i r choice cf occupations. He "praised the f i r s t f o r h i s d e s i r e to be a farmer, but t o l d the second h i s d e s i r e t o be a teacher was better and the t h i r d that 5° hi s desire to be a minister v;as best of a l l . " ' The t h e o l o g i c a l colleges hindered any reform i n t h i s a t t i t u d e because i n the t r a i n i n g of new 6o preachers they completely ignored the problems unique t o r u r a l l i f e . One embittered correspondent reported to that press: "I do not think I am f a r wrong when I say that the A g r i c u l t u r a l Colleges, the Farmers I n s t i t u t e s , and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Press, are doing f a r more f o r the 51 s a l v a t i o n of Canada, than a l l the ministers of a l l the churches we have." Churches ought t c be reminded that i f i t were not f o r farmers and t h e i r f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , they would be i n serious t r o u b l e . ^ ~ As much of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f c r the d e c l i n e i n the agrarian self-esteem which r e s u l t e d i n depopulation could be l a i d at the feet of the church as could 62 be a t t r i b u t e d to any other i n s t i t u t i o n . ( i i ) The r u r a l press, school, church and family, a l l suffered condem-nation f o r t h e i r respective r o l e s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the decrease i n r u r a l s e l f - r e s p e c t . This d e c l i n e i n self-esteem led to a f a l l i n occupational pride and increased the l i k e l i h o o d that any farmer accepting t h i s c r i t i -cism would move t c the c i t y . This cause of depopulation, i n the eyes of the a g r i c u l t u r a l opinion-leaders, suggested i t s own remedy. P u b l i c i s t s with'access t o the impersonal channels c f communication shewed through • t h e i r published expressions a thorough awareness of the need t o shore up agrarian mythology. Writers i n t h e i r a r t i c l e s demonstrated t h e i r know-ledge of the need to i n s t i l l f e e l i n g s i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l populace which 63 would make them u n w i l l i n g to leave i t f o r another urban pro f e s s i o n . Their remedy, 'showing the f a c t s as they are' could be accomplished through re a s s e r t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l i f e . The approach, used by the promoters of an agrarian world view, consisted of an unremitting c r i t i c i s m of those who attacked r u r a l l i f e from an urban viewpoint. I f any urban businessman, housewife, or newspaper dared t o comment upon conditions i n the countryside, prompt condemnation echoed from the r u r a l press. The c r i t i c i s m would be roundly condemned as coming from an i n t e r f e r i n g nobody who presumed to give advice from a p o s i t i o n of ignorance, and f a l s e s u p e r i o r i t y . An example of t h i s type of 52 j o u r n a l i s t i c scorn stated that the offending views were "the product of a brain whose store of knowledge...is very l i m i t e d indeed, and might be such as one would acquire by spending a few days with some fourth rate farmer...."^ Farming formed the foundation of a l l wealth and prosperity ? r e i t e r a t e d the speeches, poems, e d i t o r i a l s and a r t i c l e s published by the press. E. C. Drury, for example, t o l d the assembled a g r i c u l t u r i s t s at the Dominion Grange that "we believe that our national well-being demands a steady increase i n the numbers and prosperity of our a g r i c u l t u r a l c l a s s , as the only sure foundation of a l l other forms of prosperity...."^5 Farmers provided by the major market for the world's manufactured goods and much cf the raw materials which kept the c i t y c a p i t a l i s t and workman i n business. P o s i t i v e thinking prevailed, as one r u r a l historiographer explained: "The nineteenth century was the century of the town, but the twentieth century w i l l be the century of the country.... " Farming was the only industry capable of unlimited expansion. A favourite and often-repeated story t o l d how the young immigrant lad who came to Canada to work on the farm saved his money f r u g a l l y f o r a few years so that he could make a down-payment on a few acres of his own. Labouring under the great disadvantage of a huge mortgage, but undeterred by adversity, he cleared himself from debt i n a few years and,expanding hi s operations, b u i l t himself a bigger house and barns. The f i n a l paragraph, accompanied by a picture cf his magnificent acres, t o l d how he had set up his sons with s i m i l a r farms around his own and ended his days the patriarch 68 of a large clan of contented farmers. This c r e a t i v i t y contrasted to the d u l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n manufacturing. This attitude led e a s i l y into the next j u s t i f i c a t i o n included i n the b e l i e f s of the r u r a l population. Agriculture, i n that i t predicated 53 i t s e l f on Divine n a t u r a l law, was unique since i t had. been "set apart by 6 9 the Creator as the f i r s t of a l l c a l l i n g s . " C u l t i v a t o r s became partners with God and nature i n producing food. As a r e s u l t , a g r i c u l t u r e provided the greatest s a t i s f a c t i o n i n l i f e , much greater than any o f f e r e d by trade and commerce. Unnaturalness marked the l i f e of the townsman^ f o r the a r t i f i c i a l conditions of l i f e i n the c i t y forced men to work a l l night and 70 to sleep a l l day "reversing the order of things as nature intended." Unconsciously, c i t y dwellers showed i n t h e i r d e s i r e t o move t o the land 71 that they r e a l i z e d t h e i r l i v e s were d i s t o r t e d . A g r i c u l t u r i s t s became involved i n the surroundings and seasons of nature i n ways undreamed of i n the town. Almost endless d e s c r i p t i o n s of r u r a l surroundings f i l l e d the a g r i c u l t u r a l j o u r n a l s j a r t i c l e s rhapsodized over the country sunsets "where every b i r d puts f o r t h i t s sweetest s t r a i n of music and every breath 72 i s f i l l e d with the scent of new-mown hay...." The contrast with the c i t y 73 forced i t s e l f i n t o each scene. ^ Innumerable other advantages sprang from the pr a c t i c e of such a n a t u r a l p r o f e s s i o n . Economically independent, the countrymen could assert with a degree of pride that they had not "deigned to accept a bounty from the p u b l i c treasury."74 Rural areas maintained a constant standard of 75 l i v i n g more e a s i l y than the c i t i e s with t h e i r boom and bust atmosphere. Reminiscing about the depressions of the 1890's, one old-timer remarked that Canadian farmers f e l t l i t t l e of the depression, the worst i n f o r t y years. "How many a g r i c u l t u r i s t s were pinched f o r the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e ? " he asked-. Without fear of c o n t r a d i c t i o n , I say net one. The farmer sat down every day to h i s usual f a r e , the best that t h i s earth can a f f o r d . . . . Ko one could f e e l by looking at the well-fed, sturdy-looking, s e l f - s a t i s f i e d a g r i c u l t u r i s t that he was at that moment passing through the greatest depression, perhaps, that a g r i c u l t u r e 54 had ever seen.. I t made t h i s d i f f e r e n c e to him, and t h i s only. Kis bank account d i d not increase so r a p i d l y . 7 6 Economic independence formed only one side c f a t r i a n g l e . Freedom of thought and a c t i o n composed another. Farmers could, explained John Dryden, Ontario M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , w h i s t l e when they l i k e ; they run when they l i k e ; they y e l l when the;/ l i k e ; they are not under the c o n t r o l of our c i t y brethren.... I t would very strange t o see me run down Yonge Street on a f u l l run. Everybody would wonder what would happen and I would have a policeman a f t e r me, but you, gentlemen, on your farms are used t o t h i s sort of independence, and you do not l i k e c r i t i c i s m , you resent i t mere than anyone e l s e . 7 7 The greatest independent p o l i t i c a l movement i n Ontario, the Patrons of Industry,was based i n r u r a l areas. Farmers were not always 'hidebound .78 partisans and were a source of Canada's independent p o l i t i c a l t h i n k e r s . Rural l i f e provided a contrast t o the uncertainty of l i f e i n the c i t i e s according t o the agrarian i d e a l . The 'true' p i c t u r e of urban-dwelling would have been enough to scare any.farmer's son i n t o remaining on h i s father's acres. Only an exceptional man succeeded i n the c i t y ( a l b e i t he was born and r a i s e d on a farm), and only a f t e r he had laboured 7 9 long and arduously. Ordinary vrorkers l e d unpleasant l i v e s , \>rorking strenuously but v a i n l y f o r advancement. V u l n e r a b i l i t y to the whims of h i s employer constituted one of the greatest r e a l threats t o a labourer's p o s i t i o n . Farm and Dairy pointed cut that the manufacturers r e a l i z e d t h e i r power and that "a s u c c e s s f u l business must be established i n a town or 80 c i t y where labor i s e a s i l y obtained and can be f i r e d at w i l l . " Repeated v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s theme found t h e i r way i n t o the r u r a l press. One country boy, drawn to the c i t y by the prospect of wealth, died alone i n a h o s p i t a l from overwork. This story proved the moral that " i f boys on the farm could only r e a l i z e the awful struggle f o r a -mere existence i n a 55 great city, they would hesitate about paying the price. If only they 81 knew that eighty per cent of the city workmen become mere machines... 1" Other publicized examples recounted how a townsman after labouring for fifteen years did net make enough even to pay for his house, or told of the l i f e of the urban man pursuing "the deadly routine in blind-alley 82 offices, tied to a treadmill existence and unable to get away from i t . " The girls who left their comfortable rural homes to work in the city did not face an easier time than their brothers. A g i r l depended on her landlady's good graces for many cf the conveniences offered on the 83 farm as a matter of course. ^  Female factory workers degraded themselves and regressed in the social evolution of womanhood. "It is in vain that these women may bedizen themselves with either cheap or costly finery.... Without the stability and refining influence of home life...there can be no real social uplifting...nothing is more hideous and sterile than work 84 which is purely selfish, sordid and unblest." Girls ran the danger of losing their health in the hot summer days at a sewing machine, or in 85 dark, evil smelling, tumbledown shops, or being laid off work in winter. Rot very pleasing pictures made up the rural myth which would discourage those thinking of entering the l i f e of the city or town. Not only the workmen, but also the businessmen, professionals, promoters, and manufacturers lived uncertain lives compared, to that.of the agriculturist, for a l l the men of the town were in competition unknown in agricultural pursuits. Ten or fifteen years of history in towns of over ten thousand people would generally record the failure of at least half the men engaged in business. An exemplary tale in The Farmer's Advocate told of a prosperous farmer who "sold his farm and went to town to set himself up as a storekeeper. He quickly failed because of his lack of s k i l l in buying and his soft-hearted credit policy. A second failure in 56 the l i q u o r - s e l l i n g business followed on the heels of the f i r s t . The former well-to-do man ended up as an occasional labourer. F i n a l l y , he set up a cobbler's trade so that, as he said, "now I am s i t t i n g here on a cobbler's bench d r i v i n g n a i l s day a f t e r day and not s k i l l e d enough at the trade ever to hope to make anything mere than the barest l i v e l i h o o d for my 86 wife and myself." Professional men appeared i n such an abundance i n Canada that i t was beyond the capacity of the population to support them l i b e r a l l y or even adequately. Competition forced men to become status seekers i n e f f o r t s to overcome t h e i r disadvantages. Many remained i n business long a f t e r they had been due to r e t i r e , because they had previously 87 l i v e d beyond t h e i r f i n a n c i a l means. These examples countered those enticements which drew even established a g r i c u l t u r i s t s into towns. The mythology boosted pride i n the morality associated with a g r i c u l -t u r a l l i v i n g . The vices fostered by materialism were "scarcely heard of 88 i n the ' r e a l country' and the moral leper there i s a leper indeed." The i n f l u x of young people from the countryside was the only reason c i t i e s had been preserved from t o t a l d i s s i p a t i o n . Wealth and money played a less 89 important r o l e i n the countryside than m the c i t y so that corruption did not f l o u r i s h to nearly the same extent. The farm, explained one. e d i t o r i a l , i s more generally appreciated as the tendency grows to revolt against the sordid v u l g a r i t y of wealth. The a r t i f i c i a l i t i e s which money alone procures w i l l probably never be enjoyed so largely on the farm as among the privileged few cf the c i t i e s . . . . Let us look on these not envying, but p i t y i n g , the purse- q proud r i c h who think to purchase happiness with gold. The 'fanfare c f commerce' and 'dollars and mammon' held no a t t r a c t i o n for 91 the true son of the s o i l . Many things substituted for money i n r u r a l eyes. "How many men," demanded a r u r a l i s t , "lose t h e i r health i n the rush a f t e r the d o l l a r , where i s they had been s a t i s f i e d to gain a reasonable 92 competence on the farm, they might have been happy and healthy men." The argument that countrymen were not only morally better, but physically sounder than their city relatives formed another round in the battery of the mythology of country l i f e . Physical fitness resulting from farm labour increased the soundness of the physiques of the cultivators of the so i l and their families. One doctor published a pamphlet supporting this theory. It described how the early physiological development most important to youngsters was aided by a l i f e and childhood 93 in the country. The farmer who retired to town usually spent his time lolling in an armchair or hammock and quickly began to "lose ground in 94 physical and mental.powers." Rural wives, kept busy by the farm, frequently v/ere less bothered by mental complaints than women who moved 95 to the cities to live in apartments. The physical setting of the North American metropolitan areas formed another aspect of the rural vision of the city. The mythology of the farm journals presented a very special picture of the urban areas. This view, summed up in one word, was 'the slum.' No matter which city came under discussion, the rural press invariably used up the greatest amount of space in describing the slums. The slums became a symbol not only of "bad houses, or unsanitary conditions or poverty; i t means greed, bitterness, unbrotherliness, the hardening of the heart against a fellow mortal, cf which is born a desire to ignore their distress or even to 96 profit by i t . " Like packing boxes, dwellings seemed "tumbled without calculation or order...with their thin walls and chimneyless roofs, 97 through which crocked pipe ends protruded...." Numberless families inhabited 'rears', squalid houses on back alleys, for which landlords could collect double rent like a "hole shelters rats."^ The inhabitants' view of l i f e was limited to another row of dirty tenements. Slum dwellers, 5a however, d i d not-want t o leave since " . . . i t i s those of broad outlook, sane views, pure minds and noble sentiments who hold country l i f e i n the highest esteem. The habituees of the slums shun the farm as they would a plague, and i f by chance induced to make t h i s experiment /moving to the — 90 country/ q u i c k l y forsake i t f o r t h e i r old haunts and ways." One e d i t o r i a l t i t l e d , " C i t y Heal Thyself," b l u n t l y t o l d urban people to stop using the countryside t o cure t h e i r s o c i a l i l l s and t o quit a t t r a c t i n g the whole populace i n t o the degradation associated with urban l i f e . * ' " 0 0 A metaphorical view of the metropolis portrayed a l l i t s s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l aspects as a "great eddy i n the stream of l i f e ; which " f i r s t a t t r a c t s , then c a r r i e s i t s victims- round and round with the current" t o t h e i r ultimate destruction."'* 0 1 Reassertions of the t r a d i t i o n b e l i e f s i n the i n f e r i o r i t y of urban l i f e reaffirmed the countrymen's creed. Rural people were not 'moss-backs' or 'hay seeds' but the i n h e r i t o r s of a long l i n e of d i g n i f i e d men who l i v e d an open-air independent existence and who d i d not merit any townsman's epithets or scorn. The r u r a l view of the c i t y man, farmers were t o l d , depended e n t i r e l y upon the "viewpoint which we ourselves have adopted.... Let us show i n our bearing that we recognize the d i g n i t y of our c a l l i n g . " ( i i i ) The rejuvenation and r e a s s e r t i o n of r u r a l mythology; promoted by the r u r a l opinion-makers as a means of persuading the a g r i c u l t u r a l popula-t i o n to stop deserting the land,could not be accomplished without the co-operation and reformation of r u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The country school, church, family and newspaper by-changing t h e i r a t t i t u d e and structure could become saviours of the old r u r a l s o c i e t y instead of perpetrators of i t s d e c l i n e . They could a l l play a r o l e i n keeping the c h i l d r e n on the 59 land by convincing them of the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of country l i f e and work. The farm journals, a Halt on County farmer remarked-, should p r i n t a r t i c l e s which proved to r u r a l youths that f o r the vast majority of young men who could not i n h e r i t a fortune, a farm l i f e was the best existence. Papers should i n s t i l l "a higher i d e a l of l i v i n g and s o c i a l 102 l i f e " i n t o r u r a l inhabitants." When journals were w r i t i n g about the farm they should "speak w e l l of i t , " \vrote another correspondent. " I t i s 103 worthy so to be ta l k e d about." Another r u r a l i s t exhorted a g r i c u l -t u r i s t s t o "think c f the farm and i t s home as an end t o be enjoyed and perfected rather than a temporary place i n which to t o i l and exi s t u n t i l 104 we can escape." When he was speaking to h i s c h i l d r e n every farmer ought t o say that a g r i c u l t u r e " i s the best occupation i n the world when a l l things are considered." A r u r a l organization t o i n c u l c a t e agrarian values i n youth was another suggestion to stop the population d r a i n . To be c a l l e d the "Young Canadian Yeomanry," i t should aim at "stimulating 105 the imagination and ambition of the boys and g i r l s . " ^ The proponents of such a change i n outlook believed these schemes would mean that "the trek t o the c i t y would not be so serious and the r i s i n g generation would grow up with a larger percentage remaining on the land."-"^^ The renovators of the a g r i c u l t u r a l mythology saw the schools as a most important f a c t o r i n re-educating r u r a l youth. As President Creelman of the C.A.C. remarked, "we must s t a r t very e a r l y t o i n t e r e s t the boy and 107 g i r l i n the e t h i c s of r u r a l l i v i n g . " The 'get-'em-while-they're-young' approach r e s u l t e d from a b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b i l i t y c f the bene-f i c i a l i nfluence of a c h i l d ' s environment. "As the Twig i s Bent so i s the Tree I n c l i n e d , " was t h e i r motto -and they t r i e d to put i t i n t o e f f e c t through 108 school reform. Their ideas f o r the schools were very s i m i l a r to those 60 they promoted f o r the family: namely, that i f a c h i l d were ind o c t r i n a t e d with the r u r a l stereotype e a r l y enough, he would be loath t o leave the 109 farm. As evidence, they produced the r e s u l t of an experiment i n North Dakota r u r a l schools comparing the future plans of boys before and a f t e r a course i n a g r i c u l t u r e was taught i n the state schools. Before taking the course^most c h i l d r e n aimed at leaving f o r the c i t i e s , while a f t e r the course the majority planned on making the farm t h e i r permanent horae."^ The convention of the Grange resolved that the aim of the r u r a l schools ought t o be t o help imbue "a b e t t e r understanding of, i n t e r e s t i n , and respect and love f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and country l i f e . " " ^ " ' -Children could no longer be taught by teachers unprepared to promote t h i s world view c r the r u r a l exodus would continue. The f i r s t object of the reformers was the r e t r a i n i n g of public and high school' teachers^ summer courses i n Nature Study had been established at Guelph, and the r u r a l press urged teachers t o attend. The d i r e c t o r of the 112 programme, 3. B. KcCready, had written h i s B.S . A . t h e s i s on methods of teaching a g r i c u l t u r e i n schools, and he took on the task of teaching teachers the best methods of i n c u l c a t i n g a love of a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e i r 113 students. This was only a stop-gap measure, f or the most ardent reformers wanted a f u l l - t i m e course i n a g r i c u l t u r a l education established at Guelph's O.A.C., s i m i l a r i n nature t o courses taught i n Household Science. Rural Normal Schools ought to t r a i n those looking forward to careers i n r u r a l areas. A l l these i n s t i t u t i o n s would maintain an experimental farm and a r u r a l model school to give p r a c t i c e under a c t u a l conditions t o the 114 would-be teachers. The curriculum, n a t u r a l l y , formed another sector of attack by those who wanted the merits of an a g r i c u l t u r a l l i f e t o receive s p e c i a l emphasis i n the schools. More a g r i c u l t u r e - o r i e n t e d subjects ought t o be taught, or 61 at l e a s t the old subjects should use a g r i c u l t u r a l examples rather than examples drawn from town l i f e . This would do much t o make language books, readers, and arithmetic more compatible with the aims of the farm. 1 1'' Combined with s u b s t i t u t i o n i n the classroom of the 'mental pablum' such as c l a s s i c s , h i s t o r y , geometry and algebra by more science courses, these reforms would encourage c h i l d r e n t o appreciate a g r i c u l t u r e more. Botany, physics, and chemistry, along with p o l i t i c a l economy, manual t r a i n i n g and domestic science, should be taught, p a r t i c u l a r l y as these applied t o the 116 farm. One teacher who followed t h i s modified curriculum had h i s p u p i l s carry out a cow census i n t h e i r neighbourhood. This exercise showed them how t o perform creamery t e s t i n g , impressed them with the importance of keeping high-producing c a t t l e and increased t h e i r p r a c t i c e of 117 mathematics. Another way the agrarian l i f e could receive a favourable boost from the school system would be by inaugurating nature study i n the classroom. This, from a l l impressions, was the c u r e - a l l f o r the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the curriculum. It would, remarked one observer, "make school l i f e more i n t e r e s t i n g because i t responds t o the a c t i v i t i e s of the c h i l d . I t w i l l give the c h i l d an i n t e r e s t i n h i s environment and make him a b e t t e r c i t i z e n . He w i l l f i n d 'sermons i n stones, books i n the running brooks, and good i n everything. 1 I t w i l l f i t him b e t t e r for h i s l i f e work on l e a v i n g school 118 f o r which i t has a l l along been a preparation." By teaching him t o appreciate h i s surroundings more, t h i s course i n school could recompense 119 the farmer f o r h i s lack of urban excitement. The farmer de a l t i n t i m a t e l y with nature a l l h i s l i f e and i t was only j u s t and proper that h i s education adequately prepare him f o r t h i s " l i f e . Children would l e a r n the value of labour from working i n the school garden. The boy could be taught, f o r example, that digging out weeds was not j u s t a d i r t y , boring job, but that 62 "weeds are ' t h i e v e s ' s t e a l i n g the nourishment which should "go t o the p lant i t s e l f , ' and , n a t u r a l l y , he becomes i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n . " Such a programme of study could do much more t o "counteract the d i s t a s t e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e than any choice o f p a r t i c u l a r subjects o f study i n l a t e r 120 years ." A g r i c u l t u r a l s choo l f a i r s a l s o would he lp i n c o r r e c t i n g the c i tyward b ias of the educa t iona l system. C h i l d r e n were t o l d to b r i n g to t h e i r schools the f r u i t s o f the summer and school - t ime l a b o u r s . Teachers and the l o c a l D i s t r i c t Representat ive o f the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e would judge b a k i n g , manual t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s , the keeping and care o f 121 animals , as w e l l as the crops . Supported by the Deputy M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the f a i r s were endorsed at the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e meetings as a means of i n c r e a s i n g the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of country l i f e i n the eyes o f 122 the c h i l d r e n . The d i s t r i c t representat ives promoted the f a i r idea as a means o f i n t e r e s t i n g c h i l d r e n i n a g r i c u l t u r e by "taking the c h i l d r e n i n t o the f i e l d s , by making them t h i n k i n terms o f the farm, and by teach ing them the value o f l a b o r s k i l f u l l y a p p l i e d . " 1 2 ^ Not a s t r i c t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l work, nature study and schoo l f a i r s were a more subt le sor t o f propaganda. They made the choice o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l occupation ' e a s i e r ' than i t would have been under the p r e v a i l i n g system of educat ion . ^ I f the Department o f Educat ion set up r u r a l h igh schools i n each county to teach a g r i c u l t u r e a long with t h e i r other subjec t s , the exodus o f 125 the young students to at tend schoo l i n the c i t i e s would end. A g r i c u l -t u r a l c lasses i n the high schoo l s , set up by the Whitney a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1907, gained much pra i se from the a g r i c u l t u r a l press as a s tep i n the . • 126 r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . The Department could a l s o set up c o n t i n u a t i o n c l a s s e s , they b e l i e v e d , for those who d e s i r e d fur ther educat ion beyond p u b l i c s c h o o l , but who d i d not want a f u l l h i g h - s c h o o l educat ion , or d e s i r e to go to the c i t i e s . The aim of the cont inuat ion c lasses attached to the 63 e x i s t i n g public schools would be t o provide a rural-centred education f o r those who desired to continue which d i d not d i r e c t p u p i l s towards the professions. As such, i t ought t o aim at convincing the r u r a l youth to remain at home. Change, however, was slow. R u r a l i s t s o ften believed that i t would take a generation before the schools had been reformed s u f f i c i e n t l y t o correct t h e i r cityward b i a s . Two or three generations would pass before Ontario could be peopled by "a race of farmers...who w i l l 128 not only see more i n the farm, but w i l l make more out of i t . " M i n i s t e r s preaching t o country congregations ought t o do t h e i r part along with schools to maintain the agrarian philosophy of t h e i r congrega-t i o n s . The educational reformers a l s o promoted summer courses i n a g r i c u l -t u r e f o r r u r a l preachers t o enable them to understand the needs of t h e i r f l o c k s and t o l e a r n how t o cater t o p a r t i c u l a r l y r u r a l problems. M i n i s t e r s should know something of the p r i n c i p l e s of r u r a l co-operation and be f a m i l i a r with farm l i t e r a t u r e , a g r i c u l t u r a l economics and r u r a l s o c i a l organization. "Why should these things not be?" asked The Farmer's  Advocate. "The congregation of the country preacher and v i l l a g e pastor i s made up of farmers, t h e i r wives, sons and daughters. These are h i s people, h i s a s s o c i a t e s , h i s f r i e n d s , h i s p e c u l i a r charge. U n t i l he can meet them as f r i e n d s , t a l k to them not only on the beauty and character c f C h r i s t but on the beauty and character of t h e i r Clydesdales; u n t i l he can show a mastery of the everyday problems of the farm and of the youth thereon, he cannot expect to command t h e i r respect and confidence when he essays i n t o 129 higher realms." President Creelman of O.A.C. noted that since the church r e a l i z e d i t had been drawn i n t o the current of i n d u s t r i a l , educa-t i o n a l and s o c i a l forces ' r e s u l t i n g i n the abnormal development of the c i t y at the expense of country l i f e and i n t e r e s t s • i t ought to readjust i t s e l f t o provide proper precepts and example. 1^ 0 The church ought to become the 64 centre of the neighbourhood. It should not be content with merely holding s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s gatherings but ought to make i t s e l f i n t o a force " a f f e c t i n g the tone of the e n t i r e community.... The part of church work i s educative and i t should culminate i n g i v i n g to a l l the young people a love 131 f o r the country and an i n t e l l e c t u a l a ppreciation of i t . " ( i v ) The a g r i c u l t u r a l opinion-makers d i d not dispute among themselves the f a c t that the achievement c f a better self-image by the r u r a l population and the r e a s s e r t i o n of the r u r a l mythology was a d e s i r a b l e c o n d i t i o n . The more r a d i c a l s e c t i o n of the farm leaders worked as d i l i g e n t l y as the more moderate group to a t t a i n t h i s end. A measure of debate between these groups began, however, over the question of the u t i l i t y of t h i s achievement i n bringing an end t o the exodus from the countryside. The Weekly Sun, Farm and Dairy, and the more extreme group presented the view that those who believed the rejuvenation of the myths would end depopulation were mistaken. Instead, t h i s group believed i n the economic o r i g i n s c f de-population. The Sun accused the p r o t e c t i o n i s t press of t r y i n g to blame depopulation on education and other s o c i a l malaises i n order to obscure the r e a l , economic cause. This would, therefore, protect the corporations and s h i e l d them from pressure t o shoulder t h e i r share of the blame. F a u l t i n g education could only be r i d i c u l o u s , many argued, f o r who could deny that every Canadian had a r i g h t t o be educated for the sake of gaining knowledge alone. Young r u r a l people d i d not have t o attend educational i n s t i t u t i o n s merely t o become e i t h e r farmers or mechanics. This s o l u t i o n would serve only the ends of the manufacturers and was not n e c e s s a r i l y , as some educationists seemed to b e l i e v e , the best s o l u t i o n for the young 132 people. Farm and Dairy and The Farmer's Advocate both agreed e d i t o r i a l l y 65 that n e i t h e r i d e o l o g i c a l nor s o c i a l reasons could explain the magnitude of the d e c l i n e , p a r t i c u l a r l y since a c t i o n had been taken t o remedy these 133 complaints with r u r a l l i f e . The remedy f o r "The Problem" could net be found i n p a l l i a t i v e s which "only scratched the surface of the question" nor i n education and propaganda campaigns f o r b e t t e r a t t i t u d e s towards the farm, nor i n advanced techniques applied t o farming. "While i n t e n s i v e farming and homiletics f o r the farmer are w e l l enough i n t h e i r own way, the only remedies worth serious consideration are those which w i l l enable the farm t o a t t r a c t labor and c a p i t a l , that i s t o say, which w i l l make the rewards of a g r i c u l t u r e 135 equal to or greater than those of other p u r s u i t s . " (v) A l l sections of the r u r a l media co-operated i n deploring the d e c l i n e i n a g r a r i a n values. They pointed out the r o l e played by the various r u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h i s decay. The a g r i c u l t u r a l press, by i t s p r a i s e of the success of country boys who succeeded i n the towns and by i t s c r i t i c i s m and contrast of r u r a l and urban l i f e , was as g u i l t y as the other elements i n r u r a l s o c i e t y . The farmers themselves drove t h e i r c h i l d r e n to the c i t i e s by t h e i r materialism and by t h e i r c y n i c a l a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r occupation. The country schools and teachers at a l l l e v e l s taught subjects which led i n t o urban professions instead of preparing the youth f o r a l i f e on the farm. The s p i r i t u a l side of l i f e on the concession l i n e s , as exemplified by the ministers of the organized r e l i g i o u s denominations, a l s o pushed the population i n the d i r e c t i o n of the towns. A r u r a l population could be contented on the land only i f i t s members believed i n t h e i r occupation. A campaign t o promote the r u r a l mythology received the b l e s s i n g of most of the a g r i c u l t u r a l press as a method of s o l v i n g the problem of depopulation. C r i t i c i s m of the c i t i e s f o r 66 t h e i r materialism, excessive competition, disregard f o r the needs of the workers and slums ensued. This e f f o r t t r i e d to make the t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l values such as economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l independence, along with a high p h y s i c a l and moral tone appear d e s i r a b l e i n comparison. I f these views could be adopted and promoted through such i n s t i t u t i o n s as the schools, churches, press and family, the r u r a l population had a bett e r opportunity of remaining happily i n t h e i r country existence. Although some r u r a l t h i n k e r s doubted the u t i l i t y of t h i s method of stopping the erosion of the r u r a l population, most of the writ e r s i n the media appeared t o beli e v e that i t could provide a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n . 67 CHAPTER V "SUPPING WITH THE DEVIL:" IMPROVING RURAL SOCIAL LIFE Problems concerning the i n t e r a c t i o n between various members of r u r a l s o c i e t y were as important i n promoting depopulation as a d e c l i n i n g b e l i e f i n agrarian philosophy. These defects arose out of l i f e i n the countryside. The i s o l a t i o n of each family, the generational c o n f l i c t between the farmer and h i s c h i l d r e n , combined with other d i f f i c u l t i e s which hampered s o c i a l l i f e , a l l r e i n f o r c e d the pressure to move cityward. While these problems were i n t e r n a l , the most popular s o l u t i o n s involved bringing the towns more deeply i n t o the r e g u l a t i o n of the r u r a l l i f e s t y l e . The best solutions t o these s i t u a t i o n s , most believed, involved importing i n t o the countryside the s o c i a l amenities and p r a c t i c e s which worked w e l l i n a t t r a c t i n g the r u r a l f o l k t o the metropolises. ( i ) The most widespread complaint of the young people and women re-garding l i f e i n a r u r a l township centred around the i s o l a t i o n i t forced upon them. There were fewer opportunities f o r excitement or an a c t i v e 1 s o c i a l l i f e than i n the c i t i e s . "Man and woman too," recognized the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , " l i k e s t o be i n a crowd. The wild beast and domesticated a l i k e , congregate i n herds and f l o c k s . The native and c i v i l i z e d people a l i k e want t o be together. Why t a l k of the peace and quiet of the country? Man's nature craves excitement.... Man i s a hermit only when disappointed 2 i n love; he wants t o be with the crowd...." One farm woman remarked that her parents and grandparents had more s o c i a l l i f e , since " t h e i r q u i l t i n g p a r t i e s , logging bees, plucking bees, and barn r a i s i n g s , brought them 68 together frequently and they were free to enjoy themselves. Now, i f we wish for any social intercourse, i t is almost necessary to go into the town or village."-^ The type of relaxation offered in the nearest hamlet, however, was not the most desirable kind. A boy could pitch quoits with the gang around the blacksmith shop, or loaf on the corner swapping yarns about the neighbourhood, or listen to some not very clean joke from the mouth of the village story teller. Even this entertainment was infrequent for l i f e on the farm began early in the morning and there was l i t t l e profit in late nights. Once or twice a year, the local community and surroundings had a church social during which the "boys would cut up with the girls while the old folks whispered the latest complaint against the preacher—they didn't like him, yet we couldn't get rid of him to save our lives—and the latest example of his wife's meanness."^ Occasionally a father would take his boy to town to let him wander around "until the old man gets through shopping or a horse trade,...and then he takes the boy home and thinks he has had a holiday. But that does not work with the average boy."'' The other side of this coin included the farm knowledge that urban centres contained many organizations cf a social, literary, religious, musical, and athletic nature to which young people could belong and soon form a circle of friends. If a man in the city desired an evening's entertainment, i t was close and he felt in better shape to work the next morning because of the pleasant recreation. Only farmers near the towns had the fortune to be able to provide the same social advantages as an urban employer. Froof of the importance of their advantage came from the facility with which they could attract labour to their farms compared to the other rural employers. 69 The most widely-advocated methods used t o r e l i e v e the i s o l a t i o n of l i f e i n the country consisted of importing the s o c i a l advantages of the c i t y . Combined with the importation of urban technology i n t o r u r a l areas, these methods were widely acclaimed i n the r u r a l press as being the panacea f o r the s o c i a l i l l s of the countryside. V i l l a g e l i f e was made much more a t t r a c t i v e by modern conveniences, better modes of l i v i n g , and a f r e e r commingling with other r u r a l i n h a bitants. Some opinion-makers claimed that the e f f e c t c f these changes would be to bring back i n t o r u r a l sections many of those who had deserted to the towns.' The telephone received the greatest notice as a means of lessening the i s o l a t i o n of the countryside. With t h i s i n her house, the farm housewife who d i d not often see anyone i n the winter but members of her own household was not denied that opportunity 8 she needed to come i n t o contact with the outside world. The Weekly Sun proclaimed t o i t s readers that "the l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n which used t o be drawbacks of l i f e on the farm need no longer e x i s t . " ^ The farmer with the phone became no more i s o l a t e d than h i s brother i n the c i t y , or even les s so because the c i t y man often d i d not even know h i s next-door neighbour."""0 Medical care was c l o s e at hand."'""'" This p a r t i c u l a r advantage was used t o great e f f e c t by the telephone companies i n t h e i r advertisements. A t e l e -phone broadened the farmer's horizons, brought him i n t o d i r e c t contact with 12 the outside world, and reduced the narrowness of h i s outlook. Like the c i t y man, the farmer who once i n s t a l l e d a phone would never do without i t . I t became part of h i s very l i f e and he would s a c r i f i c e other things before 13 consenting to part with the telephone. The farm p o s i t i o n emphasized that*. There are some things about which there can be no two opinions. One of these i s the r u r a l telephone. I"o sound argument can be adduced against i t . It i s cheap f o r the service rendered.... A community without a r u r a l phone service i s not a v a i l i n g i t s e l f of a l l the p r i v i l e g e s of modern c i v i l i z a t i o n - a s i t should. 14 70 Instructions on the incorporation of rural telephone companies, details of construction and maintenance, and lengthy discussions over the desirability of small companies fi l l e d the pages of the press. The farm community became extremely excited over the prospect of the extension of phone service. Electric railways and trolley systems expanding into the country-side caught the imagination of the rural press. These innovations were expected to end the depopulation by making urban activities accessible to country-dwellers. The inhabitants on a trolley line could send their children to urban schools,"^get a daily newspaper the day i t was published, or board the trolley for an evening's visit to a nearby city to enjoy a 17 concern or attend a meeting. The rural housewife could go to the city and 18 browse through the more attractive products sold in town shops. The extension of the radials, noted some perceptive commentators, moved the city directly into the countryside. Farms along the routes were broken up 19 and sold for suburban housing lots. Economically, the expansion of the roads increased the value of the farm lands along the routes and made formerly depressed areas valuable to farmers as their land became useful to ... 20 the cities. Town-country borders were blurred as the city's conveniences came within easy reach of the farm. The population of the cities could also come to visit the country's parks on Sunday and would, some believed, 21 destroy the traditional, quiet, rural Sunday. Improved communication between country and town was the purpose of the Good Roads Movement. Rural highways had been notorious for their poor condition^ bogs in spring, they became dusty and rutted in summer and impassable with snow in winter. In fact, highways constituted a main dif-22 ficulty hindering social intercourse, or school and church attendance. Sydney Fisher remarked to the Goods Roads Convention that to remove "these 71 d i f f i c u l t i e s , give t o the people of the country something of the same advantages that are found i n the c i t i e s , and you w i l l go a long way towards 23 checking the present d r i f t towards the c i t i e s . . . . " J Accordingly, the countrymen pressed f o r reform of the f i n a n c i n g and maintenance of the p r o v i n c i a l road systems. They strongly advocated appropriating i n c r e a s i n g 24 grants f o r road-building. This widespread movement suffered temporarily under the impact of the farmers' h o s t i l i t y towards the automobile. They f e l t that t h e i r poor roads kept that "menace* out of the countryside. The change i n a t t i t u d e towards the automobile showed the w i l l i n g n e s s of the r u r a l population t o adopt any urban communications improvement which could lessen depopulation. For many years, the vast r u r a l majority believed 25 that autos were among the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e urban, inventions. The country-men fought t o have the hours during which cars were allowed on t h e i r roads 26 27 s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d ; they urged high t a x a t i o n of motor v e h i c l e s ; they lobbied the l e g i s l a t u r e to have car d r i v e r s made l i a b l e f o r i n j u r y t o horses and people frightened by the appearance of the machines i n the countryside.-' Eventually, however, even the much-hated auto changed i t s image. From the toy of the r i c h urbanite, the car became the means f o r a farmer t o achieve the necessary m o b i l i t y f o r a more congenial l i f e . Some of the r u r a l opinion-makers, a f t e r 1910, reconsidered t h e i r opposition to the auto i n r u r a l areas. "The motor v e h i c l e , " wrote one commentator, "comes c l o s e s t t o breaking down the b a r r i e r s of distance and 29 i s o l a t i o n . " Ownership of a car allowed a short afternoon v i s i t t o r e l a t i v e s i n nearby areas instead of a two-day vacation from work. Farmers need no longer s u f f e r t h e i r customary enforced aloofness but could mingle more with the r e s t of the people. "They are made broader men, more i n t e l l i g e n t men and better c i t i z e n s . It /the car/ i s making a new l i f e f o r farmers' wives, the i s o l a t i o n and l o n e l i n e s s of the farm home i s a t h i n g 72 of the past. Picnics at campgrounds, socials, theatres, chautauquas, a l l the impossible things of earlier days are now easily attainable." Car-owning preachers discovered that they could "do more faithful work with an auto than a horse. They find that the general ownership of autos brings more people to church."^ Farmers became the best customers of the car manufacturers, as the auto replaced the electric railroad as the major hope for breaking down rural disadvantages. The auto brought the farm and town together, shortened the distance to market and worked out a social, industrial and educational revolution. Its justification in rural areas came about through its achievement of a position of practical value to the mass of agriculturists. The good roads movement, the expansion of radial railroads, the introduction of the automobile in rural areas, a l l served to enable the rural dwellers to communicate more easily with each other and with the towns. The introduction in a limited way of rural free mail delivery in 1908 further improved this communication. After years of agitation,the 31 farm community received this most desired improvement. By enabling the farmer to get his daily newspaper promptly, this service put him "on an equal standing with his city brother" who had previously had an advantage.' The benefits justified any extra expense. Rural free delivery allowed the mail order s ysteins of urban department stores to expand so that the countrymen could choose their purchases from as large a merchandise 33 selection as their urban relatives. By forcing the governments to take measures to keep the roads open in winter i t removed another cause of -. • J. 34 ' complaint. In fact, reported The Farmer's Advocate, i f rural free delivery were extended throughout the countryside, every phase of country l i f e would be toned up. One item of drudgery on the farm would be wiped out for-ever with one stroke. The conditions in the country 73 would begin to balance more evenly with those in the city. With an attractive landscape and a comfortable fireside and his mail brought to his door, the young man would hesitate before sacrificing these things to enter the city.... 35 Introducing the urban-developed communications devices made the affected rural areas more suburban than truly rural in nature. As suburbs, these areas become more and more functional adjuncts to the town. As the urban centres were carried into the country by the telephone and trolley, "not far behind /came/' the electric light, and other conveniences making l i f e in the rural areas not much different from the urban existence." Not many years before, the farmers seemed to have nothing in common with the commercial .and professional men. There was a pretty clearly-defined line between the people of the towns and the cities and those whose lives \\rere spent upon the farm. This state of things, for the good of a l l concerned has, in large measure, passed away. A l l classes now seem to realize that there is a close association of interests between a l l classes. 37 As a remedy for depopulation, this introduction of urban communications devices appeared to work in some areas. The suburban townships gained in population. One writer reported to the farm readers that "where there 38 has been urban growth there has been suburban progress." (ii) The isolation which had plagued country l i f e was only one of the difficulties involving social interaction on the farm. The farmer had to arrange his social relations with his own family before he could expect both his spouse and his children to be content with their rural lot. Ln patching up these relationships the town again provided the model. The backwardness of the social graces practiced by the agriculturists, i t was 39 alleged, drove boys and girls from the countryside. in vast numbers. 74 Farmers laughed at refinement and had "no time f o r the l i t t l e things that make l i f e p l e a s a n t . " ^ A farmer v i s i t i n g the town became a r u s t i c i n h i s own eyes when he compared h i s o v e r a l l s with those "dainty garments" worn by the townspeople.^" The s o c i a l manners, even of the c l e r k s , who "smiled blandly...behind counters and thanked them f o r small coins l a i d down i n exchange f o r candy, with the a i r of a French count," impressed the r u r a l v i s i t o r s . Gentlemanly-looking businessmen passed t o and f r o from splendid banks. The farmer's boy could not but see v i s i o n s and dream. The young g i r l who dared not shop i n the best stores because of her homespun 43 appearance was the g i r l most l i k e l y t o leave the country f o r the town. Frustrated s o c i a l ambitions provided a prime cause of the r u r a l exodus. The country wife believed she suffered from the lack of m a t e r i a l as w e l l as s o c i a l comforts. The mere f a c t of having to do le s s work drew the 44 eyes of many women to the towns. A survey showed that once t h e i r eyes had been opened to the labor-saving household equipment a v a i l a b l e i n towns, women were content no longer t o endure the p r i m i t i v e , r u r a l way of l i v i n g . Of those wishing t o desert the farm, the women had been f a r more anxious to get away than men. Ninety per cent a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r d i s l i k e of the country to i t s i s o l a t i o n and lack of conveniences. Seventy-five per cent of the women pinpointed the lack of running water i n the house as the 45 most serious f a u l t of the farm. The farmer's wife was too w e l l aware that "even the meanest of c i t y homes" were supplied with conveniences l a c k i n g i n many of the best country homes.^ A c i t y g i r l v i s i t i n g her farm b i r t h p l a c e would meet an old public school classmate, "a t i r e d - l o o k i n g woman, old beyond her years, and three c h i l d r e n . . . . " "This i s what I 47 escaped J" y/as her r e a c t i o n . The farmer, h i s detractors loudly pointed out, spent more time buying f i x t u r e s f o r his c a t t l e and barns than f i x i n g 75 up his house for his wife. It was, commented The Canadian Farm, a l l a question as to how much value the farmer places on his wife. Is she not worth a l l the up-to-date appliances, such as her city cousin enjoys? If her services do not count for any more than a rigid regime of slavery, day after day, why...the farmers of today are a dead lot, thinking more of their stock than of their woman who makes hemes of their houses. 48 The wonder was, exclaimed one editor, "that so many of the women and young 49 folks have remained passive so long." The remedy for this social deprivation again seemed simple. "We should not let the city people have a l l the good things, "urged one editorial-i s t . "We can have them on the farm. There is no valid reason why we should not live in good comfortable houses with lofty rooms and broad verandahs.... The fat of the land is none too good for the man who t i l l s i t . A l l the 50 graces of l i f e are the right of the farmer's wife and daughters." The greatest urban advantages were not peculiar to or inseparable from the towns. While countrymen did not desire rural "life to be an imitation of city l i f e , they did want running water, a modern bath, an up-to-date 51 heating system, and numerous other conveniences. A continuous press 52 campaign urged farmers to modernize, publicized labour-saving conveniences 53 through articles and advertisements, a n d g a V e instructions for instal-54 lation and adaptation to rural homes. Titles such as "City Conveniences on the Farm" promoted the new-fangled inventions cf the age. Refurbishing the home as well as keeping women contented could also keep the boys and girls on the farms. Too many homes, l i t t l e better than pens, were uninviting to boys and girls, who had no space for themselves. This was a defect indeed for the Shorthorns, Yorkshires and Plymouth Rocks, were attended to in every detail that would further their improvement and 55 comfort. Attractive homes surrounded by a garden provided a greater incentive for the children to remain there.^ Stories and advertisements 76 described to the farmer and his wife methods of fixing up their kitchens, bedrooms, dining and living rooms.^7 T h e p 0 p U i a t i o n could live in as "elaborately-furnished and beautifully-arranged" rooms as their city • , 4 . - 5 8 relatives. The city provided the reference point from which the rural people drew their comparisons. Generational conflict was also a threat to rural l i f e and resulted in many sens leaving their father's farm. John Dryden, Ontario Minister of Agriculture, told farmers to try to keep the brightest lads on the farm 59 by treating them oetter. George C. Creelman told of instances where a farmer would "give the boy a colt and he will break i t and drive i t once 60 or twice, and as scon as i t is f i t for work, i t is the boy's no longer...." Boys often were assigned the most monotonous work on the farm. The scarcity of labour in the countryside tended to make the farmer work his sons harder and 61 in turn, this drove them in greater numbers from the farm. Boys given no chance to help in the management of the farm went to the city where they expected greater appreciation of their efforts. Their individuality would 62 not "be wholly merged in another." Under the prevailing conditions, boys, deprived of their needed fun and recreation, lost their spirit. 63 Little wonder, many became moody and dissatisfied. The conflict between parents and children included daughters as well as sons. A g i r l found i t difficult to understand why the daughter who baked, cooked, washed and ironed and looked after chores inside and outside the house was not able to buy a l l her own clcthes and put some money aside for a rainy day. If she worked half as much in the city, she would earn good wages. "I cannot," she remarked, "see why, I say, she should not have a certain sum given her every month regularly so that she may feel a l i t t l e 64 more like other girls who are free to earn...." i f the farmers were 77 forced t o h i r e g i r l s , they would have t o pay out high wages. They would have to stop t r e a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n l i k e slaves i f they wanted them t o work at home. Just as the businessman gave his boy an allowance, the farmer was advised t o dole out pocket money t o h i s c h i l d r e n . Boys l i k e d to be independent so that they could buy t h e i r own entertainment and sports equipment. Taking t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o partnership, farmers could give them some stock of t h e i r own,^ and go to the market together to interview the produce dealers, wholesalers, r e t a i l e r s , f r u i t dealers and horse 67 dealers. Following the businessman's example of paying a s a l a r y to the 68 son who remained with h i s father t o work the land would keep the boy on the farm. "James Smith and Son, Farmers," v/ould be just as common as 69 "William Jones and Son, Drygoods Merchants." In return f o r a p o r t i o n c f the r e c e i p t s , boys could pay a share of the expenses. Entering the boy's c a t t l e , pigs or horses i n the l o c a l f a i r or l i v e s t o c k show v/ould r a i s e h i s 70 pride i n accomplishment. By g i v i n g the boys more i n t e r e s t i n g labour, a 71 farmer could maintain y o u t h f u l enthusiasm f o r the farm and i t s work. Boys should be allowed t o spend t h e i r money as they wished. "I was s t a r t l e d , " reported a farm woman, "by a young f e l l o w whizzing past me on a motorcycle.... Ke was a farmer boy whose parents were not favorably i n c l i n e d to the new-fangled auto, but who d i d not object t o t h e i r son's 72 having the best t o be had.... Ke had earned i t . " Boys should have the s o c i a l independence to decide the course of t h e i r l i f e . The farmer-father ought to remember he could not prevent h i s son from marrying despite the fa c t he may disapprove and he should remember that "there are too many old bachelors.... Surely that / l e t t i n g him marry/ w i l l be better than to 73 lose your honest, industrious boy." 7B ( i i i ) While most cf the rural opinion-makers approved of adopting urban technology to help restore rural social relations, some, anxious to preserve the rural l i f e they were used to, did not receive these proposed innova-tions favourably. Improvements such as rural mail, parcel post, good roads, trolley lines and telephones, a l l permitted country people to trade in larger centres, f i f t y , sixty and one-hundred miles away. This drew the business from the small villages. "Just as a large horse can outdraw a lighter animal," believed. F. E. E l l i s of Farm and Pair:/, "so the town store can undersell the village store," and cause the decline of local institu-tions. By accepting mail order advertising, E l l i s and the other editors 7 of the farm press aided in the lamented destruction of the local merchants. With the economic ruin of the hamlets came the wane of rural social l i f e . Far from making country l i f e more bearable, the final result of these 75 improvements could increase its loneliness, ^ and have a direct bearing on the exodus to the towns. The extension of communications from the city diverted the thoughts of most members of the population in that direction. 76 The trade and population movement soon followed. The large number of farm families situated near towns who had access to urban conveniences and s t i l l moved to live in the city caused the Master of the Grange, Henry Glendenning, to doubt the beneficence of the impact of technology. In his speech to the Grange in 1912, he noted that farmers of his age were much more independent than those of his father'.s. The farm telephone had come to replace personal communication. Further , since rural areas could never keep up completely with the latest social conveniences of the towns, urban technology could perhaps slow down but never ultimately solve the problem of depopulation. The more dedicated 79 r u r a l i s t s believed that "the farm as a mere r e p l i c a of the c i t y , can be but a second rate i m i t a t i o n a f t e r a l l . The r e a l , p o s i t i v e , dominating influences that w i l l hold people to the .land are the d i s t i n c t l y r u r a l and a r g i c u l t u r a l features.... The boys and g i r l s must be in t e r e s t e d not i n the c i t y f a c i l i t i e s transplanted on the country but i n the farm and country 77 i t s e l f . " Only by preventing the decrease i n l o c a l centres and by encouraging d i s t i n c t l y r u r a l organizations could farmers maintain s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which would b o l s t e r country l i f e . No one denied that r u r a l s o c i a l organizations were needed. During the l e i s u r e l y winter evenings, young people were t o l d to "get out c f that narrowing groove. I f there i s a l o c a l book-reading c i r c l e , a r u r a l Canadian Club, a musical s o c i e t y or other organizations of young people f o r mutual improvement i n the l o c a l i t y , by 78 a l l means take advantage of i t s membership and push i t along." Along 79 with the r u r a l youth groups, the Grange could provide an organization 80 which, while p o l i t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d , would stimulate r u r a l s o c i a l l i f e . Reviving the disappearing r u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the singing c l a s s e s would be bett e r than t h i r d - r a t e i m i t a t i o n s of urban concerts and le c t u r e s 81 i n developing l o c a l t a l e n t and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t . Farmers could "spend many evenings enjoyably as w e l l as p r o f i t a b l y . . . a f f o r d i n g some ent e r t a i n -ment other than that t o be found i n public houses where i n t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r s ie 83 82 are kept f o r s a l e . " Teachers i n l o c a l communities could improve ths o c i a l l i f e by encouraging and organizing s o c i e t i e s f o r t h e i r p u p i l s . Nature study meetings i n r u r a l organizations such as the Y.M.C.A. to d i s -cuss subjects such as 'Plant L i f e ' , 'Bird L i f e ' , 'V/eather', 'Bacteria,' would be both p r a c t i c a l and i n t e r e s t i n g f o r countrymen. 4 A g r i c u l t u r i s t s welcomed the Y.M.C.A. because i t secured "earnest and competent l o c a l leaders around whom groups of young men or boys w i l l be formed and 80 everything done that is found possible and practical to develop their I 86 85 interests...." Rural libraries also f i l l e d the void in rural social l i f e by encouraging reading and providing relief from winter-time monotony. Travelling libraries set up by a Farmers' Institute should replace the village's Mechanics Libraries f i l l e d with the trashy material luring country-87 men into the towns. The social pages of the rural journals promoted contests to dis-cover the best method for organizing a rural liberary society, and out-88 lined subjects for discussion in this stay-at-home rural club. Distances were great, roads often poor, time always limited, yet "scattered over our farming districts are many who would appreciate to the f u l l the opportunity to exchange original ideas. The younger men and women who have received educational advantages and have wisely gone back to the farm need some mental 89 polishing to keep the rust spots from the mind's bright surface." In addition to a good library, every farmer's parlour should possess a musical instrument: piano, organ, violin, mouth organ, accordion, zither or 90 mandolin. Boys should be allowed to buy sports equipment and play with 91 their friends at home. A l l home entertainment promoted education, kept the family out of mischief, and developed a love of the farm which kept the 92 boys out of the cities. Socials and picnics provided a means of bringing the neighbourhood farmers together in a social way. "If mere outings 01 this nature could be arranged," remarked the organizer of a picnic in South Renfrew, "the pleasure of living on the farm would be increased and there would be more unity of spirit among farmers in matters in which they have common 93 interests." i n the ivemen's Institutes, wives came into contact and. at the same time learned improved household methods. This gathering would 81 94 r e l i e v e the d i s a f f e c t i o n of many farmers' wives. Farmers who organized a l o c a l winter f a i r r e l i e v e d the monotony of the cold season and provided 95 themselves with an opportunity t o s o c i a l i z e . The school b u i l d i n g was a good l o c a t i o n f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . With l i t t l e e f f o r t , the community could use i t f o r a l i b r a r y , a playhouse, or a meetingplace f o r the l i t e r a r y and debating s o c i e t y , the Christmas entertainments, and Grange meetings. A bas e b a l l diamond, swings, b a s k e t b a l l and tennis courts set up i n the 96 grounds could be used a f t e r school and during the summer. (iv) The proposed remedies for the problems of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n which plagued the country r a i s e d a curious question. The e f f e c t of the whole-s a l e takeover of urban conveniences and pr a c t i c e s by the countryside could only make r u r a l d i s t r i c t s more l i k e the towns i n outlook and l i f e s t y l e . I s o l a t i o n could be minimized by using m a i l orders, telephones, automobiles, r a d i a l s , and better roads, but these 'improvements' rang the death k n e l l of the old r u r a l s o c i e t y . S i m i l a r l y , household conveniences and genera-t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s modelled a f t e r an urban i d e a l diminished the ' r u r a l ' character of the countryside. These r e s u l t s , i n f a c t , d i l u t e d the e f f e c t of the r e v i v a l of the agrarian myth. While the agra r i a n terminology set up c r i t e r i a which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d farmers from townsmen, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of urban conveniences increased the s i m i l a r i t y of the two "Life s t y l e s . Further, when i t adopted urban innovations, the a g r i c u l t u r a l population depended on the towns f o r leadership. Some r u r a l i s t s , however, questioning the beneficence of urban technology i n a r u r a l s e t t i n g recognized i t s homogenizing c a p a b i l i t y and the f a c t that t e c h n i c a l l y , r u r a l l i f e could only approximate but never equal urban l i f e . Once a farmer tasted the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of an urban 82 existence of comparative ease, he would often net be s a t i s f i e d u n t i l he moved to the c i t y to l i v e . A d i s t i n c t i v e r u r a l l i f e - s t y l e was the only preventative f o r t h i s . Moreover, the men who doubted technology often questioned the importance c f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n causing depopulation. Neither d i s l i k e of i s o l a t i o n nor a craving f o r companionship could explain the continuing d e c l i n e , e s p e c i a l l y since technology had removed many 07 causes f o r complaint. 7' Only economic disadvantages could p o s s i b l y explain the c o n t i n u a l wearing away of the r u r a l population. 83 CHAPTER VI "SUPPING WITH THE DEVIL" : 'SALVATION' THROUGH PRODUCTION MARKETING AND LABOUR A l l agricultural opinion-makers agreed that economics played a role i n explaining depopulation. Increasing the returns of the farmers for their labour became, accordingly, an aim of a l l agricultural journals. Some believed that the farmers' adoption of prevalent urban business techniques could most easily increase profits; others, as w i l l be discussed i n another chapter, were convinced that the introduction of these more efficient production methods would l i k e social improvements ultimately end i n f u t i l i t y . They postulated that although they supported technical innovations as temporarily increasing profits, a more fundamental re-organization of the distribution of wealth was necessary to put an end to the exodus from ru r a l areas. 1 (i) Despite the most scrupulous economy and unremitting t o i l , a l l agreed that agriculturists managed only to eke out a bare existence. There was, complained rural labourers, "no harder-earned dollar today than that 2 earned by the farmer." Sydney Fisher, the Federal Minister of Agriculture, bolstered this assertion by t e l l i n g the Ontario Dairymen that people l e f t 3 the countryside because they could make more and easier money in the c i t y . The Ontario Department of Agriculture agreed with i t s counterpart. Its spokesmen reiterated that the future of agriculture would "depend upcn i t s being made profitable, and i f we can keep the profits increasing upon the farms of this country, there w i l l not be any great movement from the 84 4 country to the city." One young farmer reported that his elders advised him not to go West but to "go to the cit y and don't farm; for on the farm 5 there i s lots of hard work and mighty poor pay." Years passed before an agricultural neophyte who started as a hired hand could accumulate enough money for a down payment on land and implements. Many more years of hard 6 work were needed before he could be clear of debt. Series of articles emphasized the theme that the decrease i n agricultural population had 7 resulted from inadequate profits. Professors from the Ontario Agricul-tural College agreed with this assessment. Editorials concluded that "the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of cultivating the s o i l and i t s power to attract capital o and labor must be increased...." i n order to prevent t o t a l rural collapse. Given i t s other advantages, " i f farming were as profitable as other enterprises,...people w i l l flock to the land and display ample s k i l l as well as a love for the f r u i t f u l s o i l . " 1 0 The vaunted advantages of rural l i f e , however, could not compensate for the profits of the city. "People," the realists believed, cannot live on beautiful scenery, fresh a i r leaded /.sic/ with the scent cf apple blossoms and water, be i t ever so.pure. While these, with conveniences not being enjoyed, are factors towards improving conditions, they are not l i f e i t s e l f . They may aid i n throwing agricul-ture into a new light, but they are not destined to be the fundamental cause of the changed conditions which are coming. If the majority of our farm boys are to make farming their occupation, they must see i n i t an attractive l i f e and the greatest incentive to the young man is a f a i r and sure profit on his operations. 11 ( i i ) The phrase "industrial business efficiency" became the hallmark of the agricultural opinion-makers who saw adaptation to industrial society as the best course for agriculture. The farmer increased his chances for 13 a profit i f he became a "speculative," business-style agriculturist. J 85 Manufacturers had carefully developed efficiency i n their factory methods through long years cf t r i a l and error. If these were applicable to the farm, they ought to be used there. A t o t a l change i n outlook marked the 'business' farmer. He regarded his cows and farm animals as machines rather than as "Dolly" and "Bess". Once their efficiency declined, they were replaced. For this group, depopulation was an efficient result of the growing industrialization of farm techniques; they believed that the exodus could be halted at the desired point by a greater application of urban industrial methods to agriculture. Urbanization, for them, both caused and solved the problems associated with depopulation of the countryside. They rational-ized the problems raised by the exodus from the country. Efficiency could not be achieved i f a l l those who had been born and raised on the farms remained i n agriculture for the rest of their li v e s . "A Gladstone should not spend his l i f e behind a plough, nor a Lincoln s p l i t t i n g r a i l s . . . . " they argued. Many farmers marked time i n agriculture when they could have achieved greatness elsewhere."^ This attitude accompanied a Darwinian belief that those who moved to the towns were those most unfitted for a l i f e i n agriculture. "Farming is a man's job.... It i s a business requiring the greatest industry, the keenest intellect and the best training of a l l professions." Those who did 15 not possess the required attributes were better off i n the towns. Since there was not enough land in Ontario for a l l farmers' sons, some of the young-must leave the homestead to carve out new places in town or out West.1^ The increasing division cf labour drove the ru r a l population to the c i t i e s ; no longer did the previously essential labour need to t i l l 17 the f i e l d s , to spin and weave or to bake bread. This logic forced marginal areas as well as marginal people to adopt a rational usage. 86 Areas which ought never to have been cultivated had to be returned to 18 pasture as the s o i l , worn cut, was choked with weeds. In such cases, fewer farmers produced more food. Systematized agriculture meant fewer drones since- the residue remaining on the farms worked at a higher capacity and efficiency. These arguments exuded the progressivist belief that sentimental opposition to depopulation mistakenly attempted to halt processes which ultimately resulted i n the economic betterment of the individual and the best interests of society. The promoters of rationalized agriculture retained the opinion that those necessary for the production of the food required to maintain the population ought to stay on the farms. They feared that depopulation, i f not checked, could lead to a dearth of supplies. Accordingly, they encouraged schemes for rationalizing farm labour. These would end the drudgery of farming and would raise the agricultural occupation i n rural estimation. Diffusing knowledge of the latest farm methods would lead to the adoption of practices which by increasing profits would encourage a stable farm population. Just as urban professionals needed special training to prepare for their occupations, the agriculturists, through the lower 20 21 schools, practical travelling demonstrations, the Ontario Agricultural 22 23 2L College, farm journals and magazines, J a home agricultural library, ^ professional organizations, 2'' experimental farms,^ a n d other extension . . . 27 f a c i l i t i e s could gain more professional knowledge of improved business methods. This group believed that "the day has gone by when the self-made man can make the greatest success in agriculture.... Practical experience counts for more in agriculture than any other profession, but i t w i l l not do everything.... Today, s c i e n t i f i c practice must go hand in hand _ _ 28 /with practical experience/." 87 A g r i c u l t u r a l magazines provided i n overwhelming d e t a i l the p r a c t i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge f o r increasing farm returns. Farmers learned the advantages of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and the d i v i s i o n of labour. Themes of the age, the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s were not excepted from t h e i r e f f e c t s . Most men, as w e l l as most land, was s u i t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r form of farming. A farmer could not thoroughly master a l l branches of a g r i c u l t u r e , although he could sometimes include two complementary a c t i v i t i e s such as d a i r y i n g and f r u i t growing i n his s p e c i a l t y . Along with beekeeping, these s p e c i a l t i e s a l l could make quick p r o f i t s . ^ Extending t h i s argument, • r a t i o n a l i s t s ' concluded that a g r i c u l -t u r i s t s could gain the most money from t h e i r s p e c i a l t y by i n t e n s i v e l y farming t h e i r land. Smaller farms, b e t t e r worked, would bring higher p r o f i t s than p a r t l y c u l t i v a t e d large farms. Large acreages near c i t i e s i f subdivided i n t o smaller holdings and c u l t i v a t e d for market gardening would support the r i g h t d e n s i t y of population f o r increased s o c i a l contact. This type of a g r i c u l t u r e would r e t u r n t o the land those who had not enjoyed 30 town l i f e but who could not a f f o r d a large farm. Intensive farming, i t s promoters b e l i e v e d , was the most p r o f i t a b l e branch of a g r i c u l t u r e . I t would i n e v i t a b l y spread throughout the Eastern Provinces as the growing 31 population put increased pressure on the c u l t i v a b l e land. F r u i t growing provided a good example of a s u c c e s s f u l combination of the p r i n c i p l e s of 32 i n t e n s i v e farming and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Even i n s t o c k - r a i s i n g , by s p e c i a l -i z i n g i n pure-bred stock, a farmer increased returns and encouraged h i s 33 boy's i n t e r e s t i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l experience. The products t h i s system produced set s tandards of q u a l i t y and p r i c e . Higher returns provided 34 greater incentives to remain on the s o i l . In Welland County, these a g r i c u l t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s caused a return to the land, and other increases i n r u r a l population near urban centres suggested t h i s r e s u l t could solve 88 35 'The Problem.' J Copying urban techniques of book-keeping and production records was another form of this 'New Agriculture' rural farm businesses imported from the c i t y . The modernizers believed these could raise profits by 36 showing the farmer where to expend his efforts most profitably. Measures promoting quality control pointed to an urban systematizing and rational-izing influence. These efforts included persuading butter-makers that uniform methods and pasteurization, as well as new tests for tuberculosis 37 i n milk, could only help the agriculturist. Ontario had been divided 38 into various d i s t r i c t s for inspection of cheese factories, and the farmers wanted to have cheese and butter factories licensed to promote 39 better quality. If milk were more closely inspected i n the c i t i e s , agriculturists would be forced, to pay more attention to the improvement of their herds,^ other agitation to regulate poor methods included efforts 41 to have more stringent weed inspection schemes established. Co-operation in buying and selling was among the most attractive of the efforts to systematize agriculture. This innovation occupies a peculiar position compared to the other business principles. By following big business 1 example of competing on one level and co-operating on another, the farmer could assure himself of greater returns. The radicals saw co-operation as a means of farm combination to break the power of the 42 middlemen and manufacturers over the individual farmer. i t was, for them, a part of a general mobilization of agriculture to gain i t s economic rights. Co-operation could also be a purely business enterprise to s e l l when prices were high and buy in quantity when costs were down. The experience of the Grange's co-operative ventures suggested that most farmers supported co-operatives only when they proved to be economically advantageous and that they deserted these enterprises when competing businessmen cut their prices. 89 George Creelman, President of the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College, pointed out t o S i r John W i l l i s o n , E d i t o r of the Toronto News, that co-operation was probably our most pressing need at the present t i m e — not so much as to cut out the middleman and that sort of t h i n g , but that a l l the people might have peaches, while peaches are r o t t i n g i n Niagara...and a l l of our lands might be underdrained i f our farmers would combine t o purchase d i t c h i n g machines. 43 These co-operatives could be organized i n partnership with urban consumers and were not n e c e s s a r i l y a n t i - u r b a n . ^ They ought, believed the moderate group, to confine t h e i r objectives to non-contentious i s s u e s . Intrusion of p o l i t i c a l discussions i n t o t h e i r business operations impaired the usefulness of co-operatives f o r the farm community. Dairy co-ops showed the p o s s i b l e 46 achievements of co-operation i n r a t i o n a l i z i n g production and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Fruit-growing, another branch of farming noted f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of co-operative p r i n c i p l e s , increased farmer p r o f i t . The growers set up a c e n t r a l co-operative body, The F r u i t Growers of Ontario, f o r buying supplies and s e l l i n g t h e i r products. Some fruit-growers had a cold-storage plant at St . Catharines to store and ship t h e i r f r u i t and get s p e c i a l discounts on bulk shipping r a t e s . The head of the F r u i t D i v i s i o n of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e at Ottawa suggested the co-operative system be extended to 48 49 include canning f a c t o r i e s . Proposed co-operatives involved laundries, 50 p o u l t r y co-operatives, r u r a l telephone companies and a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n s , 5 1 a s w e _ i a s general l a r g e - s c a l e buying and s e l l i n g 52 companies. ( i i i ) Business methods and sy-stematiz at ion extended beyond the market-place i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the farmers and t h e i r hired help. High wages d i d net r e s u l t from the labourers' a b i l i t y t o extort money from the 90 employers; but arose from the agriculturists' i n a b i l i t y to make their labour worth i t s cost. Farmers ought to adapt their methods to get maximum 53 returns from the available labour. The farmer's unbusinesslike attitude towards his hired man showed in the poor working conditions.^ Lack of regular work drove the hired men to the towns. The more congenial and steadier conditions of labouring l i f e in the c i t y meant that no hired man would wi l l i n g l y undergo extra uncertainty and hardship to re-55 main on the farm. J The hired man, engaged only for a few months during the busy season, had to remain idle or seek employment i n some other line for the remainder of the year. Seeing nothing i n farm l i f e to induce him to remain he drifted to the c i t y , or took up land for himself i n a new d i s t r i c t . The farmer i n older d i s t r i c t s had d i f f i c u l t y i n getting suf-ficient help during the busy season properly to carry on the work of his 56 farm. i t took a few seasons to train a foreigner unacquainted with Canadian techniques. Wages for the immigrant worker were seldom as high as the immigration agents pictured them, and many dishonest farmers gypped workers out of their pay. The holiday issue, another contentious question, often led to a hired man's discontent. He had l i t t l e time off If he were forced to do chores every day while his boss hitched up and went off to the 57 f a i r or to town and l e f t him a l l the work. ' Once a man moved to the towns, there was l i t t l e an employer could do to get him back cn the farm. Too many farmers engaging a hired man approached the contract by trying to get as many hours of work as possible at the least cost. They could not be persuaded that i t was not the man who put in the longest hours who rendered the best service to his employer. If the "day's service begins with sunrise and ends with sunset, a young man and an old man...will 58 hesitate to make a year or six months' engagement...." Frequently, apart from his farm work, a hired man was expected to put i n four extra hours 91 per day on chores. L i t t l e else proved as annoying t o the majority of men. "One reason why many a young man prefers the c i t y t o the country i s because working hours there are more regular and a f f o r d an hour or two f o r reading cr r e l a x a t i o n i n the evening," believed many observers. Nothing aggravated the labour r e l a t i o n s question more than the i n d e f i n i t e working hours i n vogue on the f a r m s . ^ As the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of the h i r e d man changed, he was no longer quite as acceptable to the family as i n e a r l i e r generations. Previously, the h i r e d man, the son of a neighbour, t r i e d to save up enough money to s t a r t a farm of h i s own. On the same f o o t i n g as h i s employer, he became a member of the family. By 1900, however, the hired man was becoming a member of a c l a s s apart and not s o c i a l l y equal to the family.' The family desi r e d to have t h e i r home to themselves while 'the Man' resented having t o take an i n f e r i o r place although he l i v e d i n the family's house.^* He was forced i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n with h i s employer f o r more than the t e n hours a day which pre v a i l e d i n the towns. He had no separate existence; i n extreme cases he was "cursed and sworn at a l l the time...." He was a labourer .twenty-four hours a day, never an i n d i v i d u a l . The farmer u s u a l l y treated h i s hired man f a i r l y as f a r as the terms of employment were concerned. This made l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e t o many 63 h i r e d men f o r help was so scarce that they had t h e i r choice of bosses. The r u r a l propaganda machine provided many employers with arguments t o sway t h e i r labourers t c stay with them. The strenuous work i n the f a c t o r i e s compared unfavourably to the h e a l t h f u l country l i f e . ^ Farm labourers ought to understand t h a t weather and other f a c t o r s ruled the farmer's work schedule. Besides, the hir e d man was better employed on the farm than i n "lounging around h o t e l s , and i n company that only depraves...." 92 such as the-town mechanics.65 Feelings of inf e r i o r i t y were the man's own fault. A l l these arguments were used to convince the hired men of the importance of the Canadian farming c l a s s . 6 6 Apart from reasserting the agrarian philosophy, the rural employers took measures to remedy the complaints by reducing the informa-l i t y of the hired man's tenure. They formalized the employer-employee relations so that these became very similar to those prevailing i n urban industries. The desire to make the profession more business-like and increase the productivity of labour promoted this outlook. The customs of the previous forty years no longer pertained to the prevailing labour relationship. Farmers ought to introduce a more r i g i d l y defined work schedule. Definite hours gave the hired man a better idea of his free time so that he had no cause to feel overworked. Men were inclined to work extra hours when needed and the position of farmer's helper became more attractive compared to the factories. ' Hiring a man for a f u l l year and spreading the available work over a longer period of time reduced the insecurity of a hired man. More men could be induced to remain in the • 68 country. The agriculturist would profit by having a man available the 6 9 whole time even i f he were f j 4 i e occasionally. ' Better l i v i n g accom-modation for the hired man and his spouse countered the attraction of the privacy they found in c i t y l i f e . Supplemented by a plot of land and a cow, 70 these arrangements made a man's l i f e more contented and secure. They cost the farmer less than the often-scarce equivalent in cash wages. Social relations between the farmer and his hired hand would be on firmer ground for neither could intrude cn the other's privacy. With this separation, formalization of labour relationships could proceed more easily. 71 The outlay necessary was a "good investment." 93 P r a c t i c a l l y and e f f i c i e n t l y , farmers bent t h e i r energies towards incr e a s i n g the supply of farm labour and, therefore, reducing wages to l e v e l s which r u r a l employers believed they could a f f o r d . Using the business p r i n c i p l e of 'supply and demand,1 they t r i e d t o increase the labour supply so that p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e s could be retained. Farm employers proposed that more immigrant farm labourers be allowed i n t o Canada t o work. The journals complained that immigration agencies, f o r g e t t i n g the a g r i c u l -t u r a l workers, had brought only the urban classes from the B r i t i s h I s l e s . Urban immigrants refused the farmers' o f f e r s of work and would take any kind of job j u s t t o remain i n the cities.?5 L a d i n g experience, they were of l i t t l e use to farmers i n any case, or else the farm immigrants to Canada frequently moved t o the West. Farmers believed the p r o v i n c i a l government ought t o set up o f f i c e s i n Great B r i t a i n t o a t t r a c t labourers t o 77 the r u r a l areas and to increase assistance to t h i s d e s i r a b l e group. The hunger of a g r i c u l t u r i s t s f o r labour became so great that they were w i l l i n g to r e l a x the race r e s t r i c t i o n s on prospective Canadian c i t i z e n s . In a scene reminiscent of the C.P.R.'s importation of navvies to b u i l d the r a i l r o a d , The Farming World suggested an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Chinese as farm workers. A s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t followed by migration to Ontario would solve the labour shortage as w e l l as B r i t i s h Columbia's race problems. Instead of a head tax on the Chinese immigrants, the paper urged indentured 78 s e r v i c e f o r each of three t o f i v e years on a Canadian farm. This suggestion created great reader i n t e r e s t , the paper reported l a t e r . The ed i t o r concluded that "the more one thinks ever the matter, the more one i s i n c l i n e d to the view that the Chinaman might help to solve the farm help problem which has reached such an acute stage i n the older parts of 79 80 Canada." This cold-bloodedly economic suggestion was extended to the 94 82 that immigrants could make Ontario "what i t should be" i f thev could be Negroes and the Hindus. Occasionally, c h a r i t a b l e statements remarked Ld : 83 assimilated q u i c k l y . D i f f e r e n t organizations set up schemes t o secure the immigrants desired by the a g r i c u l t u r a l employers. Canadian farmers could h i r e young B r i t i s h e r s and teach them Canadian farm methods. The Ontario Bureau of C o l o n i z a t i o n published advertisements i n the farm journals o f f e r i n g f o r gr h i r e the E n g l i s h labourers i t a s s i s t e d . The S a l v a t i o n Army arranged f o r thousands of a g r i c u l t u r a l labourers to be transported t o Canada, while Cunard Lines opened an immigration department to d e a l with farm labour, and the Boys' Farmer League advertised i t s supply of l a b o u r e r s . ^ The C e n t r a l Emigration Board c f Great B r i t a i n announced i n 1907 that i t would 88 b r i n g B r i t i s h unemployed to work as Canadian farm helpers. The labour 89 shortage, however, outstripped a l l the e f f o r t s to r e l i e v e i t . ( i v ) The prophets of the "New A g r i c u l t u r e " saw a p p l i c a t i o n of urban t e c h n i c a l inventions to farming as a major r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l -t u r a l methods which would r a i s e income. E f f i c i e n t land use r e s u l t e d from greater mechanization of a g r i c u l t u r e as v/ell as from s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and i n t e n s i v e farming. Mechanization could be a s o l u t i o n to "The Problem" instead of a cause. Through extensive use of machines, the hired labour shortage could be made bearable or be overcome, and working l i f e on the farm would be pleasant enough t o overcome the r u r a l family's d e s i r e to 90 move townward. The proponents of mechanization believed that the i n t e r e s t s of every farmer demanded that he buy the machinery which would save him the most labour and cause him l e a s t t r o u b l e i n i n s t a l l a t i o n and maintenance. As e a r l y as 1900, farmers asked, "What i s t o become of the 95 hired man?" Would he soon pass away and become e x t i n c t , or w i l l he s t i l l be found, a curious occasional specimen of a departed genus? The inventors have been t r y i n g to r e t i r e him t o the bench t h i s summer. In swift succession, have appeared i n the pages of the_Patent O f f i c e Gazette, cow-milkers, authcmatic _ s i c / watering troughs, autho-matic feed bins, fence machines, corn huskers, corn pickers, pea and bean harvesters, cotton p i c k e r s , potato diggers and every sort of seed or vegetable p l a n t e r . None of them want to borrow the buggy Sunday or demand p i e . 91 No longer d i d the farmer have t o trudge home from the f i e l d s behind h i s team at the c l o s e of the day and see before him only the prospect of a multitude of small jobs which had to be done. These never-ending jobs around the house, barn and yard took time and labour. Water had t o be pumped, stock fed, stables cleaned, wood sawed, various machines run by 92 hand or by supervised horse-power. E f f i c i e n t new machinery could not but o f f e r a much greater return f o r i n f i n i t e l y l e s s labour. A l l types of machinery were popularized through the r u r a l press i n 93 the years before the Great War. The number of implement advertisements increased g r e a t l y . P r i c e s , i t was f e l t , had decreased proportionately t o value received. ^ The machines f o r use on the farm included the mechanical mi l k i n g d e v i c e s , 9 5 along with f r u i t t r e e s p r a y e r s , 9 6 farm 97 98 buildings of the proper design, binders and assorted f i e l d machines 99 . 1 0 0 101 such as mowers, manure c a r r i e r s , steam powered machinery, and 102 f i e l d drainage equipment and d i t c h e r s , While these a l l aided the a g r i c u l t u r i s t i n more e f f i c i e n t production, the gasoline motor received the greatest p u b l i c i t y as a boon to farmers. It was the newest, cheapest 103 farmer's power. i t could be used to pump v.-ater, run threshing machines or cream separators, saw wood, grind t o o l s , mow g r a i n and, when d r i v i n g the newest form of t r a c t o r , to perform the work of a plough horse. 9 6 In the more i s o l a t e d areas, the gasoline motor could produce through a 105 generator a l l the e l e c t r i c i t y required f o r the house and barn. E l e c t r i c i t y from generators or r u r a l power l i n e s provided another source of power which, when tapped, would bring as many advantages to a g r i c u l t u r e as the e l e c t r i c motor."'"0"*' Increased e f f i c i e n c y of labour and increased p r o f i t s r e s u l t e d not only from t e c h n o l o g i c a l devices invented s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the farm or those used d i r e c t l y f o r work purposes. The imported technology of the c i t i e s which improved r u r a l s o c i a l conditions a l s o aided the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s economically. While good roads, f o r example, improved s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among the farm population, they also increased the farmers' economic returns by allowing e a s i e r and cheaper communication with and transporta-107 108 t i o n to the market centres. The r a d i a l railways, m a i l d e l i v e r y systems, ^ telephones,*'"'''*' and the automobile,"'""'"'" were among the other t e c h n o l o g i c a l devices which saved time, money and labour, thereby i n -creasing the p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r e . (v) These mechanical improvements gave a g r i c u l t u r i s t s a bet t e r oppor-t u n i t y to increase t h e i r p r o f i t s . The economic s i t u a t i o n , as we have seen, could a l s o be improved by farmers copying urban business p r a c t i c e s and . labour r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As a r e s u l t of these devices, the economic reasons f o r the movement townward from the back concession l i n e s could be decreased. The r e s u l t of t h i s f u l l scale adoption of p r i n c i p l e s of urban e f f i c i e n c y and systematization could not but carry with i t an i n t e g r a t i o n of r u r a l and urban l i f e s t y l e s , e s p e c i a l l y because of the impetus i t received from a p a r a l l e l s o c i a l movement. As the farmer became as much a businessman as the hardware merchant or shoe manufacturer, he became less the man of 9 7 nature and more independent of the n a t u r a l forces which had h i t h e r t o r u l e d h i s l i f e . As the farmer l o s t h i s economic independence, he s p e c i a l i z e d h i s production and was integrated i n t o the urban, i n d u s t r i a l economy of the c i t i e s . He produced f o r t h e i r markets and consumed t h e i r products. The s p l i t i n the ranks of the a g r i c u l t u r a l opinion-makers over the ultimate value of t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n widened. Those who supported the increased s o c i a l contacts p o s s i b l e by using urban technology i n r u r a l areas maintained that economically, technology and i n t e g r a t i o n would benefit the countrymen. Those who viewed the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n s k e p t i -c a l l y , doubted these economic improvements could stop depopulation. They i n s i s t e d that production advances would u l t i m a t e l y be f u t i l e i n h a l t i n g depopulation unless they were accompanied by more fundamental d i s t r i b u -t i o n a l reforms."'"'^ 98 CHAPTER VII •EDENTIFYIKG THE ENEMY: DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH AND THE MOVEMENT TOWARDS POLITICAL ACTION Accepting the argument f o r economic causation, a strong group of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e l i t e believed that any reform movement t o put an end to •The Problem' must correct worsening and fundamental i n e q u i t i e s i n the system of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth. H. B. Cowan of Farm and Dairy, W. C. Good, E. C. Drury, and W. L. Smith, e d i t o r of The Weekly Sun, joined forces with the Grange t o assert that both cause and s o l u t i o n to the de-population c f the countryside l a y i n the growth and concentration of industry, and i n the organization of modern economic a c t i v i t i e s . Despite a l l the m a t e r i a l advances.of the age, the gap between the m a t e r i a l p o s i t i o n of the prosperous farm and the urban businessman widened considerably between the 1380's and the decade following the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . 1 While the Grange at the time of i t s organization promoted educational and t e c h n o l o g i c a l reforms, no farm organization of l a t e r date /post 1880/seriously accepted the view that production questions were an appropriate f i e l d of study f o r the organized farmers. Farm spokesmen challenged the a g r i c u l t u r a l organizations sponsored by the p r o v i n c i a l government because they d i v e r t e d the a t t e n t i o n c f farm people to problems of production when the r e a l problems were those cf d i s t r i -bution. It was not knowledge of the laws of the market which was e s s e n t i a l i f farm people were t o get a j u s t r e t u r n f o r t h e i r labour. The most important method of education which farm organizations could undertake would be to f o s t e r an understanding of the functioning of the economy. Once farmers understood how they were being exploited, they 2 would r i s e and demand an equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth. The only f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n to end the e x p l o i t a t i o n involved organizing the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s to force changes i n l e g i s l a t i v e programmes. 99 Once the e x t e r n a l economic i n e q u i t i e s had been resolved, t e c h n i c a l and s o c i a l 3 questions would resolve themselves. A s p e c i a l a r t i c l e by the e d i t o r of Farm and Dairy asked what improvement i n material or s o c i a l conditions i s needed most urgently by the farmers of Canada? The answer i s becoming c l e a r e r every day. It i s a greater c o n t r o l ever those influences o f f the farm which l a r g e l y c o n t r o l conditions cn the farm.... Trans-actions of t h i s character / l o s s of r u r a l power/ are p i l i n g up such burdens on the residents of the farm while concentrating immense i n d u s t r i a l enterprises i n our towns and c i t i e s that there i s l i t t l e need to wonder why r u r a l depopulation proceeds apace. 4 To correct these i n j u s t i c e s wrought upon the farm by outside sources, organized a c t i o n was needed. ( i ) The r a d i c a l s ection of the r u r a l opinion-makers r e j e c t e d r e l i a n c e upon the s e l f - h e l p and make-do philosophy which prompted continuance of the old systems modified by introducing business p r i n c i p l e s to increase returns minimally. In t h e i r eyes, co-operation, i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n , s p e c i a l i z a -t i o n , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance di d l i t t l e t o smooth the farmer's rocky path t o p r o f i t s strewn with the boulders of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n charges, land-l o r d ' s and middleman's p r o f i t s and market r e s t r i c t i o n s . E. C. Drury t o l d a farm audience that farm improvements worsened the labour shortage by 5 i n c r e a s i n g the need f o r manpower. W. C. Good pointed out that farm 6 improvements had not r e s u l t e d m higher production and lower c o s t s . V/. L. Smith remarked that although every invention a v a i l a b l e from 1891 to 1911 should r e s u l t i n an easier l i f e on the farms, those years saw a con-t i n u i n g and disastrous d e c l i n e i n population. The farmer's sense of grievance encompassed most urban groups. "Did i t ever occur to you," inquired The Farmer's Advocate, that 100 the farmer i s the l a s t man i n the row? A f t e r every-body else from the banker, the r a i l r o a d man, the manufacturer, the merchant and the speculator, down to the trade u n i o n i s t has taken what he can get, the farmer takes what's l e f t . Every important c l a s s , except the farmer, has more or le s s to do with naming the p r i c e c f h i s product. The farmer has t o take what i s offered or l e t his produce s p o i l . . . . His chief hope of increased p r o f i t s l i e s i n thinning of his numbers through stress of circumstance.... Eventually, however, enough d r i f t away from i t /farming/ to lessen competition prices for farm produce advance a peg and another f a c t o r among many i s added to the c i t i z e n ' s high cost c f l i v i n g . Where w i l l i t end? 7 Anti-urbanism grew. The seat of the countryside's problems lay i n the metropolis and i t s economic c o n t r o l over the farm. An urban-rural con-f r o n t a t i o n loomed. The c i t i e s , despite t h e i r dependence upon the farm, had taken a united stand against a g r i c u l t u r e , and they s e l f i s h l y promoted 8 p o l i c i e s which redounded to t h e i r immediate economic advantage. Urban s e l f i s h n e s s encompassed both the manufacturer who made inordinate p r o f i t s o out of protection and the urban labourer who supported t h i s p o l i c y . Examples of urban e x p l o i t a t i o n faced the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s on a l l si d e s . The B e l l telephone company t r i e d t o destroy the independent r u r a l telephone systems and increase i t s monopoly at the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s ' expense.' The urban milk dealers u n f a i r l y colluded to pay milk producers le s s than h a l f the r e t a i l cost of m i l k . 1 1 Implement manufacturers 'ruled' the farmer through outrageously high p r i c e s and b u i l t obsolescence i n t o t h e i r 12 machinery. Meat packers secured p r o f i t s from the prosp e r i t y created by the hog r a i s e r s ; farmers fed hogs f o r a l o s s so that meat packers could 13 make over 100 per cent p r o f i t . Peter McArthur pointed out t o the readers of The Farmer's Advocate the great advantages gained by the Canadian chartered banks at the countrymen's expense.1^" Every time farmers adopted new methods and became moderately prosperous, urban f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s 15 decided t o make another squeeze. The r e t a i l e r s , incensed at attempts t o 101 16 e s t a b l i s h r u r a l co-operatives, blocked enabling l e g i s l a t i o n . Middlemen took u n j u s t i f i e d p r o f i t s and l e f t the producer a minimal return f o r h i s labour. 1''' The country d i d not get a square d e a l ; i t was "bled white i n nearly 18 every way by the greedy c i t i e s . " Everyone was "down on the poor farmer"; 19 everyone t r i e d t o "do him i n every way." Preachers, doctors, lawyers and newspapermen, a l l had an i n t e r e s t i n the s p e c i a l advantages enjoyed by those who put the economic squeeze on the a g r i c u l t u r a l population. Towns-people performed services at a r t i f i c i a l l y i n f l a t e d p r i c e s t o keep the over-20 supply of urban pro f e s s i o n a l s supplied with an adequate income. The towns had "united i n ac t i o n " and were "keenly aware of t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . " They t r i e d t o get as much as poss i b l e from the r u r a l areas and give as l i t t l e as they could i n return. Opposed to these, the a g r i c u l t u r a l c l a s s e s , unorganized, seemingly incapable of concerted a c t i o n , had no proper 21 i n f l u e n c e over t h e i r destiny. Such economic reasons abounded f o r the r u r a l exodus. The metropolitan centres i n s i d i o u s l y maintained t h e i r advantages over the countryside. The urban i n t e r e s t s secured c o n t r o l c f the l e g i s -l a t i v e p o l i c i e s of the government t o guarantee t h e i r economic b e n e f i t s . The decrease i n the r u r a l and the increase of the c i v i c population represented, to the r a d i c a l r u r a l i s t s , the f r u i t s of a system of l e g i s l a t i o n which had fo r years disregarded the r i g h t s of the farming community and l a i d heavy f i n a n c i a l burdens upon the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s . W. C. Good emphasized the r e l a t i o n s h i p between depopulation and the l e g i s l a t i v e system which placed the masses at the mercy of the combines which exploited them. *" The c i t i e s maintained t h e i r advantages through the concentration of corporate economic power which gave them p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l to run the country i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and t o disregard the needs of the r u r a l 102 population. The process of urbanization i n v o l v i n g the concentration of industry, t h e r e f o r e , promoted p o l i c i e s which led to the concentration of population. This process of concentration arose, one writer explained, because of a few great c e n t r a l banks with innumerable branches scattered a l l over the country. These branches are mere c o l l e c t i n g agencies by means of v/hich the savings c f the country are poured i n t o the great centres. Industries n a t u r a l l y develop where the c a p i t a l on which they depend i s located. Railways c e n t r a l i z e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and means cf employment at the same points. Governments spend at the same centres i n ornate buildings and i n the employment of an army of c i v i l servants. 23 The dangers of such a concentration were expounded on at length i n the more 2L m i l i t a n t r u r a l j o u r n a l s . Once begun, t h i s process d i d not cease u n t i l the companies of any i n d u s t r i a l sector consolidated i n t o a few giants administered by a handful of men who exercised "supreme power over the fortunes of men and com-munities. These economic giants had not combined t o reduce p r i c e s and aid the a g r i c u l t u r a l and other consumers. They r a i s e d p r i c e s to pay the 26 dividends of o v e r - c a p i t a l i z a t i o n . Eehind the t a r i f f walls they demanded f o r ' p a t r i o t i c ' reasons, they exercised f r e e r e i n over t h e i r competition 2''' and became a major deterrent t o new business. Trusts prevented that spontaneous expression of opinion and freedom of a c t i o n which i s the i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t of every f r e e -born c i t i z e n . It should be possible to do business with the company without f o r f e i t i n g freedom of speech or a c t i o n , but experience shows that at the present time i t i s not so p o s s i b l e . 29 The t r u s t s forced the workers to feed, clothe, and house the i d l e r s i n i n c r e d i b l e luxury. The i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , by c e n t r a l i z i n g industry, enabled the few thus to e x p l o i t the labour of the many. An antiquated p o l i t i c a l system, maintained by these interested i n concealing t h e i r c o n t r o l , allowed l e g i s l a t i v e bodies to become mere t o o l s i n the hands of these 103 •Big Interests' who used t h e i r mastery to gain s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e 30 favours. Rural economic complaints centred s p e c i f i c a l l y around the obvious favours enjoyed by urban i n d u s t r y at r u r a l expense: t a r i f f p r o t e c t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l bounties. R e c i p r o c i t y , f o r the farmers, aroused the greatest 31 p o l i t i c a l debate. According to the Drury-Good f a c t i o n , t a r i f f s c o n t r i -buted the l a r g e s t f a c t o r i n the economics of the d e c l i n i n g r u r a l population. A l l segments of i n d u s t r i a l l i f e had combined to secure t a r i f f l e g i s l a t i o n . They a l l charged the farmer higher prices f o r goods than they could under a system of free competition. This was the.foundation of the Canadian c i t i e s . 3 2 -£m c. Drury c a l c u l a t e d that the t a r i f f d i r e c t l y cost the average Ontario farmer $200 per year plus an i n c a l c u l a b l e i n d i r e c t expense. Farmers paid more f o r c l o t h i n g , t o o l s , v e h i c l e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l implements, stoves, household f u r n i s h i n g s , everything they used except t h e i r food. Manufacturers v a s t l y increased the value c f t h e i r output; they had, according to Adam Shortt, economics professor at Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , expanded t h e i r 33 wealth more r a p i d l y than any element i n the country. Pretending customs t a x a t i o n d i d not press heavily upon the farm, contended the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , was r i d i c u l o u s . The t a r i f f , a tax, placed i t s c h i e f burden on the 'broad shoulders' of the man who dug h i s wealth out of the s o i l . The assumption of the protected i n d u s t r i e s and the pro-t a r i f f urban working c l a s s "must be that without the t a r i f f taxes these /manufactured/ goods would not be made here. This i s another way of saying that i f the consumers of Canada were compelled t o pay more than the world's p r i c e f o r Canadian-made goods, they would be out of employment i n that p a r t i c u l a r industry." The only l o g i c a l conclusion farmers could draw was that manufacturers admitted "they are able to make t h e i r l i v i n g only by the 34 general public being taxed t o maintain t h e i r industry." The t a r i f f 104 could not \\rork i n favour of the Canadian farmer as long as he produced an a g r i c u l t u r a l surplus. This c o n d i t i o n would p r e v a i l i n Canada f a r i n t o the 35 future. Because the home market was not large enough to support the Canadian a g r i c u l t u r i s t he exported farm produce t o keep ahead. The home market would not force higher prices u n t i l the domestic a g r i c u l t u r a l sur-plus disappeared. In s e l l i n g on the fr e e world market, farmers claimed 36 they were completely at the mercy of vagaries i n p r i c e s . Despite Canadian post-1900 p r o s p e r i t y , higher p r i c e s i n the United States meant free trade would benefit Ontario farmers. According t o the r a d i c a l s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the business philosophy of farming, the businessman-farmer would net be content once he found that a change i n the t a r i f f would increase h i s p r o f i t s . 3 7 By c i t i n g the importance of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the Canadian economy, the ag i t a t o r s hoped to marshall arguments t o support reversing the trends. Manufacturers had exaggerated the value of the t a r i f f t o themselves. By reve r s i n g the p o l i c y and ensuring r u r a l prosperity , the foundation f o r Canadian fut u r e well-being could be ensured. Industry, too dependent upon government support, ought t o follow the self-denying example of the a g r i c u l -t u r a l population, Manufacturers would soon forget about the need f o r t a r i f f s i n the rush of incr e a s i n g business following t h e i r a b o l i t i o n . Industry i n Canada had passed the infant stage that the Canadian t a r i f f system had been designed t o protect. Growing economic power and r a p i d l y r i s i n g returns showed that manufacturing no longer needed protection from foreign competition. The claim that e x i s t i n g p r o t e c t i o n was not enough was, to the r a d i c a l s , "the p l a i n e s t p o s s i b l e proof" that these burdens on the Canadian population ought to be t o l e r a t e d no longer. Manufacturers had to be encouraged t o develop a greater s p i r i t of s e l f - r e l i a n c e . A l l arguments, the ag i t a t o r s stressed, were based not on 'mere' the o r i e s , but were founded on 105 3 8 the hard f a c t s of p r a c t i c a l experience with the system of protec t i o n . Only by the a b o l i t i o n of the t a r i f f could the p r o f i t a b i l i t y required to maintain the r u r a l population be secured; Another feature of the economic system a l l i e d to the t a r i f f i n the farmer's mind were the subsidies granted to various i n d u s t r i a l e n terprises. "Being a captain c f industry," remarked one e d i t o r , "must be a pleasant job when the industry c o n s i s t s , i n the main, of working complacent governments 3 9 f o r subsidies." i n the r u r a l view, the major offenders were the r a i l r o a d s , the i r o n and s t e e l manufacturers and the ship b u i l d e r s . The i r o n manufac-40 ture r s i n 1905 received over £1.5 m i l l i o n i n subsidies. F e t i t i o n s flooded 41 i n t o the House of Commons pr o t e s t i n g the amounts. Corrupt p o l i t i c i a n s b enefitted from the money they granted. A g r i c u l t u r i s t s believed that: Railway magnates i n t h e i r palace cars have only to blow the whistle and apply the brakes when approaching Ottawa and the governing powers haven't only time to l i s t e n to t h e i r appeal but t o grant charters and bonuses and m i l l i o n s of acres of land. But l e t the farmers approach Ottawa, hats i n hand to make an appeal and show cause and state f a c t , the ministers are so pressed for time...there i s not time to be wasted i n common stock. 42 Never content with e x i s t i n g bounties, greedy manufacturers kept hounding the government f o r more. A wealthy farmer "would sca r c e l y be seen asking the Government t o pay i n t e r e s t on another farm he proposed buying with borrowed money. And, i f a farmer should so f a r forget himself as to make such a request, he would get an exceedingly short hearing at Ottawa. S t i l l we are t o l d that t h i s Levis-St. John crowd of b i g c a p i t a l i s t s were assured that t h e i r request / f o r a bonus/ would be most c a r e f u l l y and sym-p a t h e t i c a l l y considered by the Government." ° Another b i t t e r commentator on the subject of the Canadian r a i l r o a d s remarked that i t was ent e r t a i n i n g t o those who know the a c t u a l h i s t o r y of the Canadian F a c i f i c Railway, to read or l i s t e n to the cock and b u l l s t o r i e s t o l d and printed about the p a t r i o t i c optimism, the wonderful sagacity, the steely nerve d i s -played and the tremendous r i s k s taken by these o r i g i n a l 106 syndicators. Most of them were pretty clever men, but they ri s k e d l i t t l e c r nothing of t h e i r s . What they d i d r i s k they had back i n t h e i r pockets with a good p r o f i t before the road was even completed and they as a group then held enough'stock to put them i n c o n t r o l c f the property. As a matter c f f a c t , the Canadian P a c i f i c was b u i l t with the cash and c r e d i t provided by the Canadian Government. To any Canadian who knows these things i t i s amusing and perhaps at the same time humiliating to hear at very frequent i n t e r v a l s some 'statesman' or p u b l i c body or newspaper indulging i n some rhapso-d i c a l and subservient eulogium cn one or other of these enormously wealthy men or noblemen who are described as having been 'Makers c f Canada'. The f a c t i s that Canada has made them. 44 Subsidies r a i s e d the p r i c e of consumer goods and added further burdens t o the farmer's already inordinate c o s t s . Why d i d a g r i c u l t u r i s t s claim the "duty business i s what i s sapping the heart out of our farming profession."?^" 6 T a r i f f s enabled the manu-fa c t u r e r to pay wages which could not come within the farm employer's a b i l i t y to pay. Farmers could not compete with railway builders who r e -ceived enough i n subsidies to pay the wages of a l l construction workers, or the i r o n manufacturers who received more than t h e i r t o t a l wage b i l l i n government bounties. The protected i n d u s t r i e s used t h e i r advantages "as 47 a lodestone to draw from the farm the labor needed for t i l l i n g the s o i l . " Farmers, on the other hand, depended " f o r t h e i r wage b i l l s on the p r i c e they r e a l i z e d f o r t h e i r products which were sold i n competition with l i k e I rt products from a l l over the world," * and had to make up a d e f i c i t between 49 t h e i r expenses and t h e i r s a l e s . U n p a t r i o t i c a l l y and a r t i f i c i a l l y , c i t y l i f e was stimulated t o " o f f e r more a l l u r i n g inducements to the young man throughout the country...." Manufacturers could pay the wages which robbed 50 the country of i t s population. The population d e c l i n e i n r u r a l areas provided the manufacturer with a market f o r e x o r b i t a n t l y - p r i c e d labour-saving machinery. The t a r i f f managed to take the p r o f i t out of farming and 107 51 draw c a p i t a l as w e l l as labour from the r u r a l areas, a n d at t r a c t e d the cle v e r e s t of the young r u r a l men to the manufacturing centres. The a r t i f i c i a l conditions aided manufacturing so that "a few brains can make a competence" or even a fortune with much l e s s hard work than a g r i c u l t u r e 52 demanded. The Canadian Council of A g r i c u l t u r e i n the march on Ottawa m 1910, t o l d Premier Laurier they believed "the greatest misfortune which can b e f a l l any country" was to "have i t s people huddled together i n great centres of population." They resolved that since the customs t a r i f f had the tendency to encourage depopulation and " i n view of the constant movement of our people away from the farm, the great problem which presents i t s e l f t o 53 Canadian people today i s the problem of r e t a i n i n g our people on the s o i l . " The moderate section of the a g r i c u l t u r a l opinion-makers p u b l i c i z e d another side of the t a r i f f s tory. As James Duff, Ontario M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , t o l d a farm audience, "we would net de s i r e t h i s to be an a g r i c u l t u r a l country alone. We are proud of our farms, but we are proud 54 too, of the c i t i e s and towns i n which men of our f l e s h have t h e i r abode." Canadian c i t i e s were necessary t o round cut "the commercial, s o c i a l and n a t i o n a l l i f e , p a r t l y f o r the sake of t h e i r r e f l e x influence on the a g r i -c u l t u r a l communities." Whatever t h e i r drawbacks c i t i e s were "galvanic 55 b a t t e r i e s of progress i n thought as w e l l as i n material things." Des-p i t e some manufacturers' s e l f i s h attempts t o have customs tax a t i o n r a i s e d , t a r i f f s , s t i l l a f e a s i b l e means of c o l l e c t i n g necessary revenue, provided some heeded pr o t e c t i o n f o r Canadian manufacturing. The defenders of a t a r i f f system had to admit that they fostered a concemmitant farm labour shortage, but they pointed out that the conservatism of the farmer i n adopting labour-saving methods prevented him from overcoming t h i s handicap as f u l l y as he could. 108 Frequently, they c r i t i c i z e d what they termed "inflaramatory and misleading" p r o - r e c i p r o c i t y a r t i c l e s . They d i d not l i k e a ssertions t o . the e f f e c t that a l l economic i n e q u i t i e s would be forever eradicated i f the t a r i f f s were removed from c e r t a i n a r t i c l e s . The removal of t a r i f f s would not prepare " f o r the consumer a mansion i n h i s Utopia." To argue that t a r i f f s were the sole advantage of the manufacturers and were "the reason / s i c / d'etre of t h e i r affluence i n the community, i s carrying the author away from cold l o g i c and leading him i n t o the channel made use of by so many, namely that of prejudice and sentiment and swaying f e e l i n g s . " The reformer often had to be misunderstood to arouse the passions of the people. The moderates condemned those who claimed that "the t a r i f f i s the sole cause of t h e i r troubles and who seek t o set class against c l a s s to a i d the 56 desired consummation." The farmer who sought to corner a l l the benefits of the i n d u s t r i a l world without paying f o r them was as g u i l t y as the monopolist who sought to accumulate at others' expense. Farmers, at heart, were not free trader, opportunists. Their r a d i c a l leaders, believed the were who moderates,/only prejudiced men/claimed to speak f o r the farmers. They 57 succeeded i n r e i t e r a t i n g old a b s u r d i t i e s against the Canadian manufacturers. In decrying extremism, the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e had the support of The Canadian Countryman. The Farmer's Magazine, and The Farmer's  Advocate. A s p l i t developed, however, i n the p r o - t a r i f f forces of the r u r a l opinion-makers. A f t e r 1911, the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e took p r a c t i c a l steps to stop the p r o - r e c i p r o c i t y group from using the Government-sponsored Farmers' Clubs to vent t h e i r opinion on the issue of customs t a x a t i o n . 58 The Farmer's Advocate changed i t s stand and became much more of an a n t i -t a r i f f j o u r n a l . By the middle of 1912, t h i s paper pointed out that poor r u r a l economic conditions caused by the " t a r i f f s and other di s c r i m i n a t o r y uneconomic l e g i s l a t i o n " m u l t i p l i e d farmers' problems -and c u r t a i l e d 109 59 a g r i c u l t u r a l production." Members of t h i s a n t i - r e c i p r o c i t y group had been placed i n the embarrassing p o s i t i o n of having t o put f o r t h elaborate 60 j u s t i f i c a t i o n s to prove a t r u e i n t e r e s t i n the farm. The most important c o n f l i c t between the pro and a n t i - r e c i p r o c i t y groups took place during the e l e c t i o n of 1911. The defeat of the pro-r e c i p r o c i t y L i b e r a l s showed that the journals which had supported t h i s p o l i c y d i d not represent the true opinion of the vast majority of a g r i c u l -t u r i s t s , proclaimed the a n t i - r e c i p r o c i t y opinion-leaders. For them, the r e s u l t s showed a g r i c u l t u r i s t s ' doubt of securing any new n a t i o n a l markets and a l s o t h e i r d e s i r e to maintain Canada's economic independence from the 6 l United States. The p r o - r e c i p r o c i t y advocates put f o r t h a d i f f e r e n t explanation. The c i t i e s and towns, they believed, were responsible f o r the defeat of r e c i p r o c i t y . Toronto, Hamilton, Forest, Cayuga, Kingston, Dundas, Guelph, Woodstock, Oshawa, Wingham and Collingwood, a few of the urban centres, dragged p r o - r e c i p r o c i t y candidates down t o defeat. The farmers had voted i n a s u b s t a n t i a l majority f o r the L i b e r a l s but the vast a n t i -62 r e c i p r o c i t y vote of the towns masked the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e n t i o n s . The farmer's independent nature made i t d i f f i c u l t to organize him at the p o l l s . These sentiments d i d not make f o r congenial r u r a l a t t i t u d e s towards Ontario c i t i e s and towns. Leading proponents of the economic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of depopulation, p a r t i c u l a r l y H. B. Cowan of Farm and Dairy, c r i t i c i z e d the unjust tax system f o r i t s e f f e c t cn depopulation. Every issue of t h i s paper stressed the need f o r increased taxes on land values. The farmer buying from the c i t i e s increased the urban land values but received none of the money his business created. Anti-urbanism and anti-business f e e l i n g came to the f o r e . Since they r e a l i z e d land values were d i r e c t l y p r oportional to the s i z e of the community, keen metropolitan businessmen gained c o n t r o l of the urban land 110 so that they could appropriate f o r themselves the values which the community 63 at large had created. While urban values increased, the p r i c e of farm lands remained s t a t i o n a r y . As c i t y rents increased, both producers and consumers were v i c t i m i z e d by r i s i n g p r ices f o r manufactured goods, c l o t h i n g , and implements. Rural employers were deprived of the increased p r o f i t s 65 which t h e i r business created. K. W. Rowell, p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l leader, t o l d an audience at Princeton, Oxford County, that the p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment should not tax improvements on buildings but should tax land values. 66 Land t a x a t i o n contributed to the reduction of the r u r a l population. "Why do the Boys Leave the Farm?" asked one a r t i c l e on t h i s theme, then answered i t s own question by pointing to the land tax system. H. B. Cowan, taking h i s crusade to the p r o v i n c i a l government, pointed out the detrimental e f f e c t s of the land t a x a t i o n system to the s e l e c t committee of the Ontario 67 L e g i s l a t u r e . For the reformers, taxing land values was a simple s o l u t i o n t o the problem. Since land gained i t s p r i c e only from the presence of population, those who added to i t s value ought to gain some b e n e f i t from i t . I f occupied or unoccupied land were taxed according t o i t s market p r i c e , the higher taxes paid by speculators would carry more c f the tax burden of the whole province. The benefits to the burdened countryman were obvious. The only group which would be h i t by t h i s measure would be.the land speculators and those who extorted high rents from the working people and businessman. The supply of land would increase, f o r speculators would be forced to r i d themselves of t h e i r vast holdings i n order to pay t h e i r 69 taxes. I f the speculative value of the land was destroyed, the rent that came from the land would flow back i n the form of taxes to those who created i t — t h e farmers. Then would farming "become p r o f i t a b l e and the farmers come into t h e i r own. Then and then only w i l l r u r a l depopulation I l l 70 cease and country l i f e become a t t r a c t i v e . " These measures gained support from some county councils who p e t i t i o n e d the government to exempt farm buildings from taxation and 71 create an i n c e n t i v e f or the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s to improve t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . W. C. Good remarked that "the s i m p l i c i t y of t h i s system of ta x a t i o n i s 72 one of i t s strong features. What can be simpler...." I n t e r e s t i n g l y , some reformers would extend the tax measures to include the i n t r o d u c t i o n of d i r e c t income taxes. Those who could pay the most were those who ought 73 to be charged. The widespread nature c f support f o r these proposals was'.commended by the more conservative Farmer's Magazine which d i d not 74 support such measures i t s e l f . Tax advantages were only one of the benefits which r a i l r o a d s received at the hands of the government. Undertaxation of r a i l r o a d lands was rampant. A g i t a t i o n f or increased l e v i e s on the r a i l r o a d companies continued. 75 throughout the years under study. American states c o l l e c t e d astronomi-c a l l y higher rates of taxes from the Canadian r a i l r o a d s which passed through them. The Canadian provinces with many times the mileage c o l l e c t e d l i t t l e or nothing. The Weekly Sun. The Grange, The Farmers 1 A s s o c i a t i o n , and numerous correspondents i n the r u r a l press pronounced that they thought 77 t h i s s i t u a t i o n ought to be remedied. The County Council of Grey urged a l l other counties to send deputations t o Toronto t o push for higher rates 78 f o r r a i l r o a d s . Unexpected a l l i e s - j o i n e d t h i s r u r a l crusade. The president of the Ontario Municipal Association urged higher ta x a t i o n of r a i l r o a d s at the annual meeting of that body i n 1908.. The Sun remarked that while previously discussions had been confined to farmers' organiza-t i o n s , and although "farmers f i g h t i n g single-handed have accomplished a great d e a l ; united with t h e i r brethren of the towns and c i t i e s , they can 7 9 accomplish v a s t l y more. 112 Complaints about the r a i l r o a d s ' p o s i t i o n stemmed from the roads' monopoly of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The managers seemed to have l i t t l e regard f o r o thers ' r i g h t s . Although the l e v e l . c r o s s i n g claimed many l i v e s , warning s igna l s were seldom i n s t a l l e d v o l u n t a r i l y . Ra i l roads d i d not 80 compensate the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s for damages u n t i l a b i l l the r a i l r o a d s opposed forced them both to pay damages and to erect cat t l eguards a long 81 t h e i r t r a c k s . The Government's r e f u s a l to ensure adoption of the l e g i s -l a t i o n by making i t a par ty measure i r r i t a t e d m i l i t a n t s who were provoked i n t o asking "Why does the Government t r i f l e with the farmers i n t h i s fashion? Why does i t re fuse them j u s t i c e year a f t e r year?" They concluded that whi le the Government was a f r a i d to offend e i ther the r a i l r o a d s or the farmers , the farmers could be f o o l e d , but the r a i l r o a d s could never be 82 t r i c k e d i n t o acqu iesc ing i n the d iminut ion of t h e i r powers. Appor t ion ing the costs of proper drainage across r a i l r o a d t racks provided another conten t ious ' i s sue p i t t i n g farm against r a i l , but t h i s was a minor b a t t l e compared to the acrimonious debate over the j u s t i c e of r a i l 83 charges . The Farmer's A s s o c i a t i o n demanded a government i n v e s t i g a t i o n of ra t e s charged Canadian farmers because these were much higher than com-parable sh ipping charges i n the United S t a t e s . C a t t l e from Chicago could be sent to the seaborad along the Canadian route more cheaply than the 84 shor ter d i s tance from Guelph a long the same t r a c k s . Not only d i d the companies charge e x c e s s i v e l y , but they were re spons ib l e for de lays i n 85 reaching market which r e s u l t e d i n much s p o i l e d Canadian farm produce. Because of t h i s economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , farming i n the United States had 86 d i s t i n c t advantages i n captur ing the export markets i n Europe. Farmers jo ined manufacturing i n t e r e s t s which a l so presented a strong case to prove 87 Canadian ra i lways d i s c r i m i n a t e d i n f r e i g h t r a t e s . 113 The Sun questioned whether Canada"s economic expansion had to be accomplished by private companies. Private ownership was not necessarily progressive, "nor are the terms of a bargain between the state and a 88 private company progressive i f they are disadvantageous to the State." If the Canadian Facific had been built "as i t should have been" by the Canadian Government, no public money would have been lost. The road would have paid for itself and produced revenue for the people. "The princely coalfields and o i l lands would have been saved.... But a l l this is gone, 89 and there is nothing whatever to show for i t . " The railroads were not ordinary private companies. Because cf their monopolistic position, they could fix the prices on the goods they carried. They had been created by Canadian law and their powers under the law including the power of expro-priation were extensive. Since Canadian taxpayers had largely borne the r a i l cost, the roads ought to be more closely controlled. Most of the agricultural press approved of regulating the roads. Farmers ought to get paid for the lowered value cf a farm sliced through 90 the middle by the roads. Farmers demanded that the government regulate the rates charged by the different railroads. Canadian farmers wanted, they believed, no more than their rights. "This appears to be the only satisfactory solution to this problem," commented The Farming WorM. "given fair play in the carrying of his produce to the consumer, we think that the Canadian farmer can hold his own with any producer the world over. But these shackles must be removed and i t is the duty of the government of 91 the day to step in and adjust rates on a fair and equitable basis...." Efforts of the rural agitators focussed on demands that the Government appoint a railway commission to regulate and control rates. The Fruit Growers of the Province joined the Grange, Farmer's Association, Cattle Dealers, Dairymen's Association, Canadian Manufacturers' Association and 124 92 Toronto Board of Trade in this request. In this campaign for control of the railway rates the farm could claim some success. The outside support of the manufacturers may explain the results. Hon. Mr. Blair, Minister of Railways^announced in 1902 the 93 formation of the Railway Commission. Hailed in the agricultural press, this action was "a recognition on the part of the government that the people have a right to control their own highways." They believed that "when this commission is in f u l l working order, freight rates cf a l l kinds will be placed upon a fairer and more equitable basis than they are at the 94 present time." Agriculture was given recognition with the appointment of James Mills to the Commission. Mills had been, until he moved to Ottawa, the president of the Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph, a true son of the soil, publicly identified with Ontario agriculture for over twenty-five years.^5 The agriculturists' struggle with the railroads provides an example of a story with many repetitions. The economic disadvantages inducing the young to depart from rural areas involved other industries as well as the labour unions who took advantage of the countrymen. Rural employers were forced to retain their labour by preventing the passage of measures restricting urban working hours. The first of these, a b i l l introduced in the House of Commons by Alphonse Verville, limited working time on federal contracts to eight hours. Each time the b i l l was introduced the agricul-turists opposed i t . Farmers suspected that the effect of this measure on the farm would be to accentuate the farm shortage of labour for "the farmer's work cannot stop on the blow of a whistle nor can i t be held down 96 to an eight hour basis." Attempts to regulate hours were "a menace to the agricultural interest," and would "demoralize the agricultural industry 97 of this essentially farming country." Restriction on labouring hours 115 would spread from the f e d e r a l to the p r o v i n c i a l to the municipal government and then to a l l pr i v a t e industry. Eventually farmers would be forced to 98 comply against t h e i r w i l l . The farmer generally f e l t l i t t l e sympathy f o r urban labour unions. The union c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l over labour and provided a means of f o r c i n g the farmer to pay money i n wages and higher p r i c e s f o r consumer goods. The r u r a l press opposed union-sponsored, 'class' l e g i s l a t i o n such as workman's compensation because, they argued, "every-body i n the state i s not ensured...it confers on one c l a s s a great benefit which i s withheld from a l l other classes one of which, the farmer c l a s s , 99 bears mainly, i n the end, the expense." A g r i c u l t u r a l journals d i d not support s t r i k e s f o r higher wages and shorter hours. Farmers, stuck i n the middle of the i n d u s t r i a l s t r i f e , showed l i t t l e sympathy f o r e i t h e r labour or management. ( i i ) S olutions to s p e c i f i c economic disadvantages came e a s i l y to mind i n the p u b l i c i s t s ' search for remedies. Yet s p e c i f i c suggestions to l i m i t r a i l r o a d s or other i n d u s t r y and to reduce a g r i c u l t u r e ' s economic disadvan-tage could accomplish nothing unless stronger enforcement measures were taken. Farmers' l i m i t e d success with the r a i l r o a d s and the example of urban economic organizations provided a s o l u t i o n . The a g r i c u l t u r a l journals pointed out that " a r t i s a n s form powerful unions. C a p i t a l i s t s form t r u s t s . Manufacturers have t h e i r aggressive a s s o c i a t i o n s . In f a c t , i n t e l l i g e n t organization f o r the sake of economy and p r o f i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of every industry except the g r e a t e s t — a g r i c u l t u r e . " ^ 0 1 The farmer had to d e a l with these urban organizations on a l l l e v e l s — b u y i n g , s e l l i n g ^ and c r e d i t . He learned the advantages strong organizations could -pry from the government. When manufacturers or men of business i n other c a l l i n g s desired to achieve an end, the countryman perceived that 116 no matter what i t may be, they get together and providing the sinews of war, map.out a campaign. They growl not, neither do they grumble. They go t o work, p o s s i b l y with gumshoes on, but anyway they go to work. A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , on the other hand, provided a great contrast. The farmer who had a complaint "nurtures h i s grouch assiduously. He deals out d i a t r i b e s volubly, so does h i s neighbour, but there the matter ends. They never think of ge t t i n g together and p e r f e c t i n g an organization to go a f t e r 102 what they need or want." Rural opinion-leaders were awakening to the need to bring together those who were f u l l y a l i v e to the i n j u s t i c e of the burdens placed upon a g r i c u l t u r e . In one is s u e , The Weekly Sun published seventeen l e t t e r s 102 from Canadian farmers urging t h e i r peers to organize. j # Lockie Wilson, the Fresident of the Farmers' A s s o c i a t i o n , wrote that " i n union c f our forces alone can the farmers of Canada hope f o r redress." In a c a l l t o b a t t l e , The Weekly Sun t o l d i t s readers that, manufacturers boast that t h e i r organization i s the greatest i n t e r e s t i n Canada today, that t h e i r output exceeds the output of a l l the farms of the Dominion and that they should not go hat i n hand to any M i n i s t e r . . . . Henceforth i t must be a war that w i l l not end u n t i l Customs taxation i s reduced to a l e v e l merely s u f f i c i e n t to provide Government with the necessary.revenue to meet the demands of a public s e r v i c e honestly administered. In order to a t t a i n t h i s end, farmers must organize t h e i r strength. I t i s no s t r u g g l i n g i n f a n t , but a giant made strong at t h e i r expense that has thrown down the gage of b a t t l e . 104 The Farmer's Advocate, a moderate j o u r n a l , joined the r a d i c a l s i n demanding farm u n i t y to combat the organized h i g h - t a r i f f a g i t a t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r e must demand that "the day has more than come when the pursuit of a g r i c u l t u r e s h a l l no longer be the milch cow over which manufacturers s h a l l continue to dance." Industry would stop at nothing to prevent the a g r i c u l t u r a l groups from u n i f y i n g and farmers had to be extremely c a r e f u l not to com-. promise t h e i r u n i t y by accepting c l e v e r device put f o r t h by Boards of Trade 117 such as an import t a r i f f on wool which would a l i e n a t e the wool-producers from the r e s t of the f a r m e r s . 1 0 6 While they a l l agreed on the need f o r greater u n i t y among the farmers, the ' r a d i c a l s ' debated the degree to which c l a s s i n t e r e s t s ought t o p r e v a i l . i n t h e i r movements. W. L. Smith, the e d i t o r of The Weekly Sun, t o l d a meeting of a g r i c u l t u r i s t s that " i t i s true that we are a l l c i t i z e n s of one common country and so have general i n t e r e s t s i n common; but i t i s equally true that each cl a s s has s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s of i t s own apart from those of other c l a s s e s . " A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , therefore, were j u s t i f i e d i n 107 organizing to protect t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . Farm and Dairy agreed that farmers' organizations had too long given the impression that they needed outside f i n a n c i a l support to survive. The f i n a n c i a l support 108 of the urban community was not d e s i r a b l e i n any organized r u r a l group. While W. C. Good promoted the a g r i c u l t u r a l unity, he warned farmers to organize net only i n our own i n t e r e s t s , but i n the i n t e r e s t s of a l l other classes as w e l l , because i t i s detrimental to t he i n t e r e s t s of the whole country that i n j u s t i c e now p r e v a i l i n g should continue to p r e v a i l . . . . I would not l i k e to see t h i s organization take an e x c l u s i v e l y c l a s s form.... There i s always danger of the people c f one cl a s s becoming too o b l i v i o u s of the r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t of people of other c l a s s e s . We must keep c a r e f u l l y i n view the f a c t . t h a t -J_Q9 our organization should be not aggressive but defensive. Remembering the Patrons' downfall, The Farming IvorId blamed i t on a too narrow appeal. "There can," warned the e d i t o r , "be no objection to farmers organizing f o r t h e i r mutual b e n e f i t and i n t e r e s t . In doing so, however, they should not place themselves i n antagonistic r e l a t i o n s to the other i n t e r e s t s i n the country.... There should be more co-operation between the farmers as a c l a s s and the -other s e c t i o n s . c f the community.... More, we think, w i l l be gained by working along t h i s l i n e than by any organization conceived i n an antagonistic s p i r i t to other c l a s s e s . " 118 Despite t h e i r divergence about c l a s s r e s t r i c t i o n s on the farm movement, a l l agreed on the remarkable growth cf farm m i l i t a n c y i n the period from 1900 t o 1914. The accomplishments, c f the aroused farmers from 1900 t o 1907 included the a b i l i t y to d r a i n f r e e l y across r a i l r o a d lands, and a farmer was compensated for any of h i s animals k i l l e d on the r a i l r o a d t r a c k s . The government had set up the r a i l r o a d commission,and r a i l r o a d s in Ontario were now subject to some degree of taxation. These, i n c l u d i n g the most important, the a r r e s t of manufacturers' e f f o r t s to r a i s e customs taxa t i o n , could be a t t r i b u t e d to the increased m i l i t a n c y and organization of the r u r a l population. Organizations put pressure more on t h e i r representatives i n the House of C o m m o n s . T o the m i l i t a n t s the expansion of these r u r a l 'combines' was "one of the most hopeful signs that has 112 occurred i n connection with the public a f f a i r s of Canada i n a generation." Despite some successes, they believed, a g r i c u l t u r i s t s should not r e s t on t h e i r l a u r e l s . I f they d i d not organize f u r t h e r and gain other reforms., t h e i r achievements would be jeopardized. They would have l i t t l e 113 hope of gaining access to f o r e i g n markets under conditions of e q u a l i t y . No one could obtain a square d e a l economically unless he a g i t a t e d . Only through organization, farmers were t o l d , could they obtain an economically j u s t settlement of t h e i r disputes with industry over the t a r i f f ; only such a settlement could increase returns from a g r i c u l t u r e enough to induce the 114 young people to remain on t h e i r parents' farms. Increased a g i t a t i o n provided the sole means of f o r c i n g the transport companies to lower t h e i r charges. One M. P. t o l d r u r a l inhabitants that h i s p o s t - e l e c t i o n m a i l included few l e t t e r s from farmers. Therefore, they had only themselves to 115 blame i f he ignored t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . D i s i l l u s i o n e d farmers s t i l l f e l t that "no matter how they protest against an increase i n the t a r i f f , t h e i r opinions w i l l not be respected." 119 The r u r a l population needed organizations at a l l l e v e l s . The la r g e r organization, Dominion or P r o v i n c i a l i n scope, had i t s place but " i t dees not get down t o the ordinary farmer and reach him as he ought to be reached." The small organization, l o c a l i n i t s nature, though a l l i e d with some l a r g e r 117 movement, accomplished most. ' While the a g r i c u l t u r a l population of each province faced some d i f f e r e n t problems, the s i m i l a r i t i e s outweighed the d i f f e r e n c e s . A n a t i o n a l organization was necessary to balance the 118 n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n of manufacturers. "In union there i s strength," was the motto. Nothing short of a n a t i o n a l organization of farmers " t r u l y representative i n i t s character as w e l l as wide i n i t s membership" would be e f f e c t i v e . Net u n t i l the farmers of the East and West united would a g r i c u l t u r e "have the weight and influence i n the councils c f the nation that our numbers and importance deserve." Expanding the independent a g r i c u l t u r a l structures, believed the newspapers, was the best means of a g i t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to the r u r a l c l a s s e s . The oldest of these associations s t i l l i n operation at the end of the 120 nineteenth century was the Dominion Grange or Patrons cf Husbandry. The 121 journals, accordingly, supported the organization of more branch Granges. Another a s s o c i a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , The Farmers' Association, formed under the aegis of Goldwin Smith and The Weekly Sun i n 1902. I t s handicap stemmed from i t s lack of appeal f o r the less m i l i t a n t members c f the farm community, f o r although i t was supposed to be n o n - p c l i t i c a l , much of the Patron of Industry 'element' backed i t . Many farmers questioned whether 122 i t s fate would d i f f e r from the old organization. The Patrons, a f t e r t h e i r auspicious beginning, suffered a complete and demoralizing l o s s of influence by 1900. Despite d e c l a r a t i o n s of t h e i r abstention from a c t i v e p o l i t i c s , the men involved i n the Patron movement, incl u d i n g C. A. Mallory, former leader c f t h e Patrons i n the Ontario L e g i s l a t u r e , played a large 120 123 role in founding the new organization. • The inaugural meeting reminded the community that agriculturists were "by far the most important element of the community /and/ should have a voice in saying how legislation 12 4 affecting their interests should be directed." E. C. Drury remarked that "though never more than three cr four hundred, its members were prominent farmers and i t had an influence much greater than mere member-125 ship would indicate." The Farmers' Association immediately began an active programme of agitation by sending a delegation to 0tta;\ra as early as 1903 to present 1 2 6 their views to the Government. According to The Weekly 3un, the aims of this movement attracted many rural people and i t spread rapidly across 4.v, • !27 128 the province. Many prominent political figures attended its meetings. Its programme included issues which economically most concerned the farmers (cessation of bonuses, equalization of taxation, fair freight rates and no increase in the t a r i f f ) . Organizational expansion would be useless unless farmers presented a united front to the 'Interests'. Union of the farm groups, accordingly, became a further ideal of the rural p r e s s . 3 ] _ o w _ y until 1914 the farm organizations of Ontario united as the internal squabbling of the preceding years ceased and "young men with education and breadth of mind...allied themselves with men of wider experience in order that Canada's rural population may receive greater consideration at the hands of these in power." ^® community of interest' was developing."^1 The rural community ought, believed the leaders cf The Grange, to free itself from the clutches of the government-sponsored institutions, the Farmers' 132 Institutes and Farmers' Clubs, which stifled freedom of action. As for the various professional organizations, E. C. Drury remarked that 121 t r u e we have breeders organizat ions of var ious s o r t s , f r u i t growers organizat ions and var ious other bodies more or l e s s c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with a g r i c u l t u r e , but these do not i n any sense represent the great a g r i c u l -t u r a l i n t e r e s t s of the prov ince . Indeed sometimes t h e i r i n t e r e s t s may be at var iance with those of the genera l farming community. 133 At t h e i r best they were only p a r t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Th i s s ta te c f a f f a i r s could not be s a t i s f a c t o r y to the more m i l i t a n t group. To them, " i t was unfortunate that so many var ious l o c a l farmers' organizat ions had no bond of u n i o n . The p lan n a t u r a l l y suggested i t s e l f , t h e r e f o r e , of c o n s o l i d a t i n g a l l the var ious l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s by forming 13 L a new c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . " J The Dominion Grange took the lead i n forming t h i s new a s s o c i a t i o n . The United Farmers of O n t a r i o . The founding convention inc luded representat ives from the Farmers' C l u b s , F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n s , P o u l t r y C i r c l e s , Seed-Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n s , D a i r y Companies, Farmers' Market ing Companies, Vegetable Growers, Breeders' Clubs 135 -and Branch Granges. The prospect s , according to an o p t i m i s t i c e d i t o r i a l i n Farm and D a i r y were that "within two t o t h r e e years , 15,000 t o 20,000 136 farmers i n Ontar io w i l l be u n i t e d . . . . " E . C . Drury pointed out that the United Farmers of Ontar io which federated a l l the l o c a l farmers' organizat ions i n t o a r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e body, had a greater in f lu e n c e than 137 the G r a i n Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n s i n the West. U. F . 0. a f f i l i a t i o n with western groups uni ted a l l Canadian farmers i n the Canadian C o u n c i l of A g r i c u l t u r e , which was set up i n 1910. •""-^  The 1910 march on Ottawa s i g n a l l e d to the Canadian a g r i c u l t u r i s t that "the farmers o f Canada are 139 u n i t i n g , we are enter ing upon a new e r a . At l a s t we have come together ." Many b e l i e v e d that t r u l y e f f e c t i v e reform a c t i o n would have to be taken d i r e c t l y i n the p o l i t i c a l arena . They advocated p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o increase e l e c t o r a l representa t ion of the farming c l a s s at the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s of government. As for depopula t ion , one m i l i t a n t wrote that 122 I cannot help t h i n k i n g that the best remedy and the greatest help to the farmer can come through the farmers themselves i n e l e c t i n g more farmers to parliament, and by the farmers who are already there taking a stand l e s s f o r party and more f o r the country's good. It does seem as i f there i s too much b o l s t e r i n g up, and not enough manliness working out our parts i n the nation's growth. 140 Many be l i e v e d depopulation r e s u l t e d from f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ' c o n t r o l over the whole population through the p o l i t i c a l system. Some farmers' organizations aimed at c r e a t i n g an "informed and enlightened public opinion among the farmers which would make i t s e l f f e l t through the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . . . . " 1 ^ 1 Once t h i s opinion had been created, a g r i c u l -t u r i s t s would see that the Members were sent to Parliament to do what 'the people* wanted, instead of lending t h e i r services to the corporations 142 and t o p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s f o r p r o f i t . The movement f o r farm organiza-t i o n , t herefore, aimed at achieving i t s ends by lobbying and by attempting 14^ to wrest c o n t r o l of the p o l i t i c a l system from the present bosses. S t a t i s t i c s t o l d the newspaper readers t h a t , although countrymen made up over s i x t y per cent of the population of Canada, the representatives of the farming profession formed l e s s than f i f t e e n per cent of the Members of P a r l i a m e n t . 1 ^ The farmers had only themselves to blame f o r the existence of t h i s state of a f f a i r s . Few r u r a l r i d i n g s d i d not produce l o c a l men q u a l i f i e d to take on the job of an M.P. They were "unschooled i n pleasing r h e t o r i c and fawning metaphor," and " t h e i r d a i l y a s s o c i a t i o n with nature and t h e i r f i r s t hand information with a l l the d i v i s i o n s of labour crowded i n t o one have not made them good w i r e - p u l l e r s . " On the other hand, "they are more ready to grant the same c h a r i t y of views to a l l men which they possess and perhaps t r u s t too much to others." This tolerance r e s u l t e d i n c i t y lawyers c a r r y i n g a g r i c u l t u r i s t s * views to the centres of l e g i s l a t i o n . This was a 1 2 3 disappointment to those "who look for the upholding of the farm i n t e r e s t s . , 1 4 5 i n Farl iament f o r no man can represent farmers l i k e one of themselves." Because the proport ion o f farmers i n the Senate was even lower than i n the Commons, ( 2 out o f 9 0 members), r u r a l journa l s advocated e i t h e r the 1 4 6 a b o l i t i o n of the Senate or appointment of men other than party s t a l w a r t s . The Senate's c a p a b i l i t y would be v a s t l y increased by the presence of men of judgement and experience who, a c t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d with a g r i c u l t u r e , were 147 q u a l i f i e d to shape l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g i t s i n t e r e s t s . Farmer M . P . ' s and Senators were not members o f the group of p o l i t i c i a n s , Cabinet members and judges who had " l i t t l e h e s i t a t i o n i n accept ing p o s i t i o n s c f emolument on the board of management o f c o r p o r a t i o n s . . . . " """^ 8 Despi te proof that farmers possessed "greater c a p a c i t y f o r honest and economical government than men of other c la s ses ," they d i d not achieve h igh p o l i t i c a l pos i t i ons 149 i f they were d i r e c t l y assoc ia ted with a g r i c u l t u r e . To change t h i s s i t u a t i o n , Parl iamentary p r a c t i c e ought to be taught at the a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s , and farmers should be " d r i l l e d i n conducting meetings and a c t i n g as chairmen and thus posted i n the r u l e s o f o r d e r . " The young farmer thus educated "is enabled to pres ide with d i g n i t y and does not have to s tep as ide f o r members of the learned profess ions on the ground of t h e i r being b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d f o r such work." """50 j o u r n a i a r t i c l e s wi th such t i t l e s as "The Farmer on the Platform" b r i e f e d countrymen on p u b l i c speaking and encouraged them to express t h e i r views on the p l a t f o r m . """5""' The Farmer's Advocate remarked that " i f farmers d e s i r e more Members, they must prepare them and e l e c t t h e m . . . . I t i s the business o f the farmer to get i n t o t h i s p o l i t i c a l game and to p lay i t f a i r , and see that the other 152 f e l l o w does not win wi th a cold" deck o f cards ." The r u r a l opinion-makers agreed on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a greater degree of r u r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s but they reached no accord i n 124 d e c i d i n g whether t h i s extension of a c t i o n should be independent or within e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . One group u n h e s i t a t i n g l y recommended that farmers l i b e r a t e themselves from the p o l i t i c a l system which s t i f l e d e f f o r t s to give them j u s t i c e . Complaints that farmers, t i e d t o the L i b e r a l s and Conservatives, would never obtain favourable l e g i s l a t i o n f i l l e d The Weekly Sun. Some party p o l i t i c i a n s , such as K. J . Fettypiece, a L i b e r a l M.L.A., t o l d farmers they would not achieve t h e i r economic reforms i f they 153 continued to d i v i d e along party l i n e s . ^ T a r i f f reform, numerous a r t i c l e s emphasized, would not be gained while farmers "allov/ed ourselves to be le d around through our slavery to.party p o l i t i c s . " There was no e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r t i e s on basic reform measures. De-c l a r i n g i t s p o l i t i c a l n e u t r a l i t y , The Sun explained that "we can hardly see anything to choose between the two shibboleths. We look i n vai n i n 155 the speeches and manifestoes f o r any r e a l d i f f e r e n c e of p r i n c i p l e . " Instead of looking to the established p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s f o r redress, I56 farmers had t o lea r n t o depend on t h e i r own e f f o r t s . ' Yov the m i l i t a n t s , a b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t of the t a r i f f dispute i n 1911 was i t s d i s r u p t i o n of the established system. They hoped that i t would cause " e l e c t o r s , f o r once to cease adherence to c e r t a i n groups merely because they were born i n t o 157 them..." J l Some of t h i s group hoped t o e s t a b l i s h an independent a g r i c u l -t u r a l party to force the L i b e r a l s and Conservatives to end t h e i r double t a l k . A reader urged The Sun to consider "whether i f i t i s not the most prudent course to declare i t s e l f i n favor of a New People's Farty to save the producers and workers from being f u r t h e r plunged i n t o misery, poverty 158 and crime." The 1911 e l e c t i o n dashed the hopes of The Farmer's Advocate f o r i t seemed to prove a g r i c u l t u r i s t s possessed a " b l i n d unreasoning l o y a l t y " which followed the lead of t h e i r party newspapers instead of heeding the sound advice of independent p u b l i c a t i o n s . Voters were at sea 125 about issues " u n t i l their favourite newspaper has declared i t s stand.... Meanwhile, hope of better government l i e s i n more true independence of thought and action.... Partisans neutralize each others' votes. The genuine incorruptible and independent element i s the one that statesmen 159 have to cater to..." " The papers used the results of the 1911 election as an object lesson to prove that the manufacturers and other combines were not allowing partyism to have any effect on their ballots. "These men are voting as their pocket interests dictate," the journals believed, "Do farmers propose to farm the only class that can be moved by appeals to party prejudice? Do farmers propose to allow themselves to be hoodwinked by partizan appeals into voting against something that w i l l be i n their own interest.?"' The pro-reciprocity group generally supported extending independent agricultural p o l i t i c a l action; those with reservations about t a r i f f reform did not f u l l y endorse the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of agriculture. One letter noted that the Grange "had been allowed to go down" and blamed the organization's p o l i t i c a l stands."'"6''" The second group believed farmers' organizations ought to help the agriculturist progress p o l i t i c a l l y but should stay away from direct p o l i t i c a l action themselves. If farmers stopped allowing the old parties to use them and forgot the impractical schemes to set up a new party, they could organize within the existing p o l i t i c a l framework and 162 take ever control of the older parties. Another rationale for agricul-turists abstaining from p o l i t i c a l action held that "rightly or wrongly, there has grown up under British institutions a system of parliamentary government which involves the establishment of two great p o l i t i c a l parties .... The success...has depended almost absolutely upon the organization and establishment of two great p o l i t i c a l parties.... The principle i s there and the constitution i s based on that principle." 126 ( i i i ) The r a d i c a l s ' push into p o l i t i c s showed how dangerous t o established p a r t i e s a g i t a t i o n over depopulation could become i f t h i s group became the major inf l u e n c e on r u r a l opinion. Concern over d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by the system of d i s t r i b u t i o n accompanied t h e i r resentment of urban economic dominance as the economic d i s l o c a t i o n provided the impetus f o r the r u r a l population's i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e i r economic r e l a t i o n s with urban industry i n e f f o r t s to discover the roots c f 'The Problem.' This questioning led to d i s c o v e r i e s of the extent t o which the concentration of urban economic power allowed t r u s t s unrestrainedly t o siphon o f f the wealth of the a g r i c u l -t u r a l population. Urban control' of the l e g i s l a t i v e system res u l t e d i n t a r i f f s and bounties to industry and handicapped the farmers. Lopsided land taxation gave speculators sway over rents and r a i s e d consumer p r i c e s . Railroad monopolies increased t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs at the producers' expense. Unions' labour monopoly increased urban wages and hampered a g r i c u l t u r a l e f f i c i e n c y . Possessors of a l l these economic b e n e f i t s , i t was not s u r p r i s i n g c i t i e s a t t r a c t e d increasing numbers from the farms. The r a d i c a l s put forward schemes to redress each of these economic complaints. They demanded that labour and industry cease taking advantage of a g r i c u l t u r e . A b o l i t i o n of t a r i f f s , reformed land taxation, r e g u l a t i o n of the r a i l r o a d monopoly, a l l received a t t e n t i o n i n the r a d i c a l press. Some reforms occurred, but d i s c r i m i n a t i o n remained. Rural a c t i v i s t s , t a k i n g urban i n d u s t r i a l organizations as t h e i r models, promoted greater c o n s o l i d a t i o n of r u r a l i n t e r e s t groups. Not u n t i l farmers organized and consolidated would they have the power to remove economic grievances completely. D i r e c t p o l i t i c a l - p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e i t h e r by using e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s to e l e c t more farmers or by c r e a t i n g a new farmers' party, 127 was one facet of the r a d i c a l s ' s o l u t i o n while another was c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the Grange and the other farm organizations. The moderates stressed adapting a g r i c u l t u r e p o l i t i c a l l y , economically, and s o c i a l l y i n e f f o r t s t o manipulate the e x i s t i n g structures to t h e i r advantage, the Drury-Good f a c t i o n proposals f o r reform challenged urban influence d i r e c t l y . 128 CONCLUSION Throughout the i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g areas of the world, concern f o r the fa t e of r u r a l c i v i l i z a t i o n grew as the changing urban-rural r e l a t i o n s h i p placed the countryside on the defensive from 1900 t o 1914. James Robertson, a Canadian Commissioner of A g r i c u l t u r e , could j o i n with S i r Horace Plunkett, an Anglo-Irish c i v i l servant and G i f f o r d Finchot, an American co n s e r v a t i o n i s t , i n d r a f t i n g a memorandum urging an i n t e r n a t i o n a l study of r u r a l conditions. The f i r s t reason f o r the concern of these men •was that " i n the recent economic evo l u t i o n of the English-speaking nations, the i n t e r e s t s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l populations have been subordinated to the manufacturing and commercial i n t e r e s t s of the towns; and t h a t , i n con-sequence l i f e and work upon the land have been gravely prejudiced....""'" In Ontario, domination of a g r i c u l t u r e by the towns assumed three guises: concentration of the economic power of industry, homogenization of l i f e - s t y l e s by techology, and agglomeration of t h e population. Although each of these was equally important, the r u r a l r e a c t i o n t o a l l focussed on the most obvious of the three, depopulation c f the countryside. Nurtured i n a philosophy predicated on the b e l i e f that a nation's true welfare, s o c i a l or economic, depended upon re c o g n i t i o n of the supremacy of a g r i c u l -t u r e , the farmers were forced to face an eroding r u r a l population. Even i n i t i a l dismay about depopulation was not a unanimous sentiment of the r u r a l opinion-makers. Confronting an a g r i c u l t u r a l labour shortage and a collapse of many old r u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , the majority of the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s evinced great concern. The press, church surveys and con-ferences, bocks, p o l i t i c i a n s ' and farmers' speeches, a l l had t h e i r lengthy estimates of the number leaving a g r i c u l t u r e and expressed general anxiety 129 over the unconfined s o c i a l and economic nature of 'The Problem.' A minority of the farm opinion-leaders, however, minimized the need f o r alarm. Farmers, they believed, had to accept that i n the evolution of the country, s o c i a l and labour conditions changed. The depopulation of the r u r a l areas of the province was only a stage i n the country's advancement to which a g r i c u l t u r e must adapt. Proceeding from t h e i r general perception of the problem, the a g r i -c u l t u r a l e l i t e examined i t s s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s . Both 'alarmists' and ' r a t i o n a l i s t s ' reached the same conclusion from studying depopulation's r e s u l t s on the t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Downgrading the agrarian philosophy, threatening Canadian democracy and p o l i t i c a l morality, sapping the strength of the country school, church and family, depopulation posed an unmistakable challenge t o the country l i f e - s t y l e . To most, the uncertainty of the labour s i t u a t i o n was as acute a problem as the s o c i a l d e c l i n e . I t r e s u l t e d i n poorer methods, f a l l i n g production and i n e f f i c i -ency. The r a t i o n a l i s t s , however, maintained t h e i r equanimity on t h i s score. To them, the labour shortage by f o r c i n g mechanization, r a t i o n -a l i z i n g production, and r a i s i n g p r i c e s f o r farm produce, was a b e n e f i c i a l aspect of the f a l l i n g population. The search f o r solutions to depopulation d i d not breach the s p l i t between the a g r i c u l t u r a l opinion-makers. Farmers l e f t the countryside, believed the 'adaptors,' because t h e i r b e l i e f i n r u r a l l i f e had been undermined by family, press, school, and church. Instruments of t h e i r own d e s t r u c t i o n , these i n s t i t u t i o n s had accepted urban norms and structures which they i n s t i l l e d i n the r u r a l population. From h i s youth, a country boy was indoctrinated with a m a t e r i a l i s t i c point of view, which headed him towards the golden metropolis. Showing c i t y l i f e 'as i t r e a l l y was' and r u r a l l i f e as i t could be, the evangelists of agrarianism propagan-dized to correct t h i s pro-urban outlook. Reformed teacher and preacher 130 t r a i n i n g to give the schools and churches a strong r u r a l outlook.would ensure the c h i l d r e n ' s education taught an appreciation of country l i f e . The more r a d i c a l s ection of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e l i t e accepted t h i s a nalysis of the d e c l i n e of the agrarian mythology and struggled to reverse the s i t u a t i o n . They were not convinced, however, that these reforms would u l t i m a t e l y plug the leak from the countryside. The reformers believed that hindering a pleasant r u r a l s o c i a l l i f e need no longer d r i v e countrymen to the towns. Urban technology gave the countryside i t s telephones, good roads, m a i l d e l i v e r y , automobiles, t r o l l e y s , a l l of which brought countrymen the opportunity of increasing s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Technological advances lightened the work load and increased the l e i s u r e time, of a l l members of the farm family. Maintaining urban-style r e l a t i o n s between the generations patched up many a farm family q u a r r e l so that the sons remained on t h e i r father's farm. These solutions a l l found favour with the r a t i o n a l i s t s , while the more s c e p t i c a l members of the r u r a l e l i t e remained unconvinced. The l a t t e r group could not accept the i n t e g r a t i o n with, and takeover by urban l i f e s t y l e s that these processes implied f o r the farm. Rural areas, they believed, must r e t a i n a r u r a l i d e n t i t y by c u l t i v a t i n g the old unique s o c i a l organizations. Many doubted that any s o c i a l s o l u t i o n could reverse depopulation. S o c i a l reasons enticed, but economic drawbacks forced, the country-men to the towns. The moderates thought farmers adapting urban technologi-c a l advances could s u f f i c i e n t l y increase returns to make farming a com-pa r a t i v e l y p r o f i t a b l e 'business' operation. While they supported intensive farming, mechanization and better working conditions f o r hired help, the reform group would not r e l y on these reforms to increase p r o f i t s ade-quately. For them, i d e o l o g i c a l reform and s o c i a l or production adaptation could net correct the fundamental economic and d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u i t i e s 131 which herded the thousands cityward. Only urban e x p l o i t a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e explained depopulation, believed Good, Drury, Smith and Cowan. Hammering on t h i s theme, they t r i e d to convince a g r i c u l t u r i s t s of the i n j u s t i c e s perpetrated, knowingly or not, by the whole urban population. Organized for e x p l o i t a t i o n , the corporations, land speculators and r a i l r o a d s implacably pressed t h e i r monopolistic, t a r i f f and tax advantages to milk the countryman. Despite the moderates' warning that Canada needed prosperous towns and t h e i r i n d u s t r i e s to advance, the reformers e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y promoted t h e i r remedy f o r depopulation. S p e c i f i c reforms to correct economic i n -e q u i t i e s could be most e a s i l y achieved i f endorsed by the f u l l weight of a u n i v e r s a l farmers' organization. Farmers, i n 1914, s t i l l composed more than s i x t y per cent c f the Canadian and a l i t t l e below f i f t y per cent of the Ontario population. Organized p o l i t i c a l l y to elect men pledged to support t h e i r causes, they could wrest c o n t r o l of t h e l e g i s l a t i v e system from i t s corporate bosses. Free trade, the s i n g l e tax and publicly-owned r a i l r o a d s , could be q u i c k l y established. Confrontation, not adaptation, was t h e i r aim. The two outlooks, confrontation and adaptation, cropped up whenever countrymen considered the extending power of metropolitan centres. Evolution i n e i t h e r outlook i s d i f f i c u l t to t r a c e throughout the period. The r a d i c a l i z a t i o n of The Farmer's Advocate hints that a movement i n favour of more d r a s t i c p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n occurred a f t e r the 1911 e l e c t i o n demon-strated the unanimity of urban h o s t i l i t y to r u r a l aims. The strong case of The Canadian Countryman, set up i n 1911, and The Farmer's Magazine i n promoting adaptation as the best means of s o l v i n g the problems of depopulation shows, however, that t h e i r point of viev; retained strong representatives among the r u r a l e l i t e . 132 Searching f o r a way to understand and to cope with t h e i r changing r e l a t i o n s h i p with i n d u s t r i a l urbanism, farm opinion maintained an e q u i l i -brium. Both points of view received the adherence of i n f l u e n t i a l members of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e l i t e and were strongly expounded before the mass of countrymen. The 1911 e l e c t i o n demonstrated the strength of the 'adaptors' but the growth of the Grange and gradual u n i f y i n g of r u r a l organizations had behind i t the f o r c e of the 'reformers.' Few unusual p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l or economic circumstances s e r i o u s l y threatened t h i s balance from 1900 to 1914. The l a t t e r year, however, witnessed two events of great portent which upset the balance between the two points of view and made depopula-t i o n i n t o the prime issue of Ontario p o l i t i c s . The f i r s t of these occur-rences, the formation of the United Farmers of Ontario, depended upon the second, the stresses of war, t o create the s i t u a t i o n i n which the U.F.O, formed the government of the province. Depopulation and the labour shortage had been the great problems confronting pre-war Ontario r u r a l s o c i e t y , but the vast numbers leaving the farms f o r the army and the urban munitions f a c t o r i e s brought the simmering rural-urban c o n f l i c t over t h i s questionto a c r i s i s . The f i n a l d i r e c t challenge to Ontario a g r i c u l t u r e , the i n s t i t u t i o n of c o n s c r i p t i o n i n 1917 and the l a t e r c a n c e l l a t i o n of farmers' exemptions, placed the r a d i c a l Good-Drury-Morrison group as leaders of the opinions of the vast majority of the province's a g r i c u l t u r i s t s . The e l e c t i o n of 1917, fought on the issue of p a t r i o t i s m and the Union Government's promise to exempt farmers from c o n s c r i p t i o n , momentarily blunted farm and U.F.O. p r o t e s t s . Following the e l e c t i o n , however, the c a n c e l l a t i o n of.farmers' exemptions from c o n s c r i p t i o n r a i s e d r u r a l protest to unheard of heights. A monster delegation v i s i t e d Ottawa to complain to Prime M i n i s t e r Borden that a g r i c u l t u r e , c o n s i s t e n t l y short-changed, had 133 l o s t much population that i t could no longer a i d the war e f f o r t and avert a famine. Rural h o s t i l i t y towards urban c r i t i c s of a g r i c u l t u r e reached unexampled b i t t e r n e s s . The United Farmers of Ontario, propelled i n t o p o l i t i c s by the widespread protest, f i n a l l y wen the 1919 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n on a platform s t r e s s i n g the need to stop the continuing d e c l i n e of the countryside, and set the stage f o r e f f o r t s t o gain economic j u s t i c e f o r farmers. CHAPTER I 134 NOTES For the r e s u l t s of t h i s seminar see: M. A. Tremblay and Walton J . Anderson, (eds.), Rural Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n , Ottawa: 1966. In t h i s book, a s e r i e s of monographs, Donald R. Whyte's "Rural Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n , " provides a u s e f u l foundation f o r a knowledge of the contemporary e f f e c t of urbanization on a g r i c u l t u r e . Helen Abell's monograph, "The S o c i a l Consequences of the Modernization of A g r i c u l t u r e , " discusses the impact of technology on a g r i c u l t u r e , 1941-1961. Another study, by the Saskatchewan Government's Royal Commission on Rural L i f e , was prepared i n 1952 i n v e s t i g a t i n g the changing q u a l i t i e s of a country existence i n that province. (Saskatchewan, Royal Commission on Agriculture and Country L i f e , Report, Regina: 1952-1956. See e s p e c i a l l y "Movement of Farm People.") Examples of these studies i n Ontario include: D. A. Bristow, "Agrarian Interest i n the P o l i t i c s of Ontario: A Study with S p e c i a l Reference t o the Period 1919-1949," Unpublished M.A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto: 1950; J . D. Hoffman, "Farmer-Labour Government i n Ontario," Unpublished M.A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto: 1959: R. A. Farquharson, "The Pise and F a l l of the U.F.O.," Saturday Night, (June 21, 1950); H. H. Hannam, P u l l i n g Together f o r  Twenty-five Years: A B r i e f Story of the Events and People i n the  United Farmers' Movement i n Ontario During? the Quarter Century, 1914-1939, Toronto: 1940: Jean MacLeod, "The United Farmer Movement i n Ontario, 1914-1943," Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Queen's U n i v e r s i t y : 1958; R. V/. Trowbridge, "War-Time Discontent and the Rise of the United Farmers of Ontario," Unpublished M.A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo: 1966; L. A. Wood, A History of Farmers' Movements i n Canada, Toronto: 1924; Norman Farrow, " P o l i t i c a l Aspects of the United Farmer Movement i n Ontario," Unpublished M.A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Western Ontario: 1938: M. H. Staples, The Challenge of A g r i c u l t u r e , Toronto: See a l s o : V. C. Fowke, "An Introduction to A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , " The Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, VIII, (1942); L. S. Grossman, "Safe Seats: The Rural-Urban Pattern i n Ontario," I b i d . , XXIX, (1963): B. D. Tennyson, "The Ontario E l e c t i o n of 1919," Journal of Canadian Studies, (1969); Richard Vanhoon, "The P o l i t i c a l Thought o f the United Farmers of Ontario," Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Carleton U n i v e r s i t y : 1965. 135 There i s s t i l l rocm f o r studies of i n d i v i d u a l leaders. Autobiographies a v a i l a b l e include: W. C. Good, Farmer C i t i z e n :  My F i f t y Years i n the Canadian Farmers' Movement, Toronto: 1958; E. C. Drury, Farmer Premier, Toronto: 1968. A Thesis t i t l e d "The Philosophy and Ideas of W. C. Good, 1896-1956" i s at present i n preparation at Carleton U n i v e r s i t y . 4 See G. Elmore Reaman, A Hi s t o r y of A g r i c u l t u r e i n Ontario, Toronto: 1970 (2 v o l s . ) ; Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Canada, A g r i c u l t u r e , The F i r s t Hundred Years, ( H i s t o r i c a l Series #1), Ottawa: 1967. 5The best a n a l y s i s of r u r a l Canadian and Ontario s o c i a l conditions emerged at the time. Written by Rev. John Macdougall, Rural L i f e i n Canada. Toronto: 1913, explores the r e s u l t s , causes and solutions of r u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . In the United States, Richard Hofstadter's The Age c f Reform, New York: 1955, provides an overview of many s o c i a l and philosophic roots of a comparable s o c i a l movement. Unpublished American works on the same theme include: Betty C. C l u t t s . , "Country L i f e Aspects of the Progressive Movement," Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Ohio State University: 1962; Robert G. Comegys, "The Agrarian and Rural T r a d i t i o n as Reflected i n National P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , 1919-1929," Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1958; Orin L. Keener, "The Background of the American Country L i f e Movement," Unpublished.Ph.D. Thesis, Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y , 1956; W i l l i a m E. Weir, "The Homestead-Redlands Area: A Study of A g r i c u l t u r a l -Urban C o n f l i c t , " Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Miami-Ohio U n i v e r s i t y , 1964; Harold F. Wilson, "A Study i n the S o c i a l H i s t o r y of Rural Northern New England," Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1933. 6 I a i n C. Taylor, "Components of Population Change, Ontario, 1850-1940," Unpublished M. A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto: I967, p . 138. Urban growth amounted to 41.9> of the 1901 urban population or an increase of 392,511. See a l s o Appendix D. A census monograph prepared f o r the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s confirms t h i s f a c t , i n d i c a t i n g the rate of growth i n Ontario c i t i e s has been: 1871-1881 40.03 1881-1891 35.7£ 1891-1901 13.3 1901-1911 41.3 1911-1921 30.5 1921-1931 20.8 1931-1941 12.9 1941-1951 17.9 1951-1961 24.6 (These f i g u r e s are c i t e d i n Leroy 0. Stone, Urban Development  i n Canada, Ottawa: 1968, p. 89.) 136 7 John Porter attempts to show the past decade has seen the greatest r u r a l changes i n the century, pointing out that the r u r a l population has dropped from 20% t o 11% of the population of Canada. Rural inhabitants l e f t the countryside i n an average number of 39,000 annually or over 340,000 i n the decade of the 1950's. In the decades from 1900 to 1920, Ontario alone l o s t about 200,000 per decade. (John Porter, "Rural Decline," i n V,7. E. Mann, (ed.), Canada; A S o c i o l o g i c a l P r o f i l e , Toronto: 1968, p. 20.) *%.S.B. Gras, a pioneer i n the study of urbanization, saw the growth of a metropolis p r i m a r i l y as the concentration of economic functions and p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n a n c i a l corporations and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The metropolis was the centre i n which p o l i c i e s were shaped and from which they d i f f u s e d out to smaller c i t i e s and the countryside. (See Donald Kerr, "Metropolitan Dominance i n Canada," W. E. Mann, (ed.),Canada: A S o c i o l o g i c a l P r o f i l e , Toronto: 1968, p. 225. 9 7Hope T. El d r i d g e argues that urbanization can only be defined as a process of population concentration, "since any other d e f i n i t i o n leads to ambiguity and other forms of i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s t r e s s . " Her d e f i n i t i o n , while i t s a t i s f i e s the de s i r e f o r concreteness and p r e c i s i o n i n i s o l a t i n g the p h y s i c a l aspects of urbanization, ignores the other h a l f of the process which i s concerned with the s o c i a l changes involved. Despite the complication brought about by t h e i r use, both these l a t t e r aspects of urbanization are as important i n the process as i s the concentration of population. (See Hope T i s d a l e E l d r i d g e , "The Process of Urbanization," i n J . J . Spengler and 0. D. Duncan, (eds.), Demographic A n a l y s i s . Glencoe: 1942.) """^Donald R. Whyte, Rural Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n , i n Marc-Adelard Tremblay and Walton J . Anderson .(eds.), Rural Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n Ottawa: 1966, p. 3. """""A. L. Bertrand, Rural Sociology: An Analysis of Contemporary  Rural L i f e , Toronto: 1958, p. 415. 12 Jacob S p e l t , The Urban Development of South-Central Ontario, Assen: 1955, p. 142. 13 «J. W. Watson, "Rural Depopulation i n South West Ontario," Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers. XXXVI, (1947), p. 153. •^Jacob S p e l t , p. 142-143. 15 farm and Dairy, J u l y 10, 1913, p. 3. Letter from Amateur Economist. See a l s o The Farmer's Magazine, A p r i l 1911, p. 128. •*" 6Iain Taylor, p. 56. This historical-demographic study proved most u s e f u l i n gaining a reasonably accurate conception of the numbers involved. 137 17 Ibid., p. 102. See also Appendix D for the figures of out-migration for the period from 1881 to 1921 and Appendix E for figures of absolute population declines or increases. A migrational increase or decline is calculated by subtracting the natural increase from the population change. An absolute population change was calculated by subtracting the deaths from the births and adding the migrational totals to the resulting figures. Taylor notes a distinct correlation between the date of settlement and the beginning of migration. The latter follows twenty years after the former. Sons of the original settlers could not a l l find farms in their home townships and had to seek their farms away from these. 18 19 Ibid., p. 102. Ibid.. p. 110. 20-ibid., pp. 264-265. Areas.showing growth were in Brant, Essex, Lincoln, Waterloo, Welland, Wentworth and York (See Appendix D). For urban increase during this period see Appendix F. 21, See Appendix E. 22 This total was obtained by adding up the column of figures as i t stands. If the northern districts, which were newly formed and whose population is not included in the 1881 or 1891 totals, are sub-tracted from the calculations, the total decline rises tc 178,871. Further, when counties experiencing suburban and not rural growth are omitted from the calculations, the population drop again rises this time to 144,958. When we do not include either the north or the suburban counties, the final figure of 198,088. is obtained. (See Appendix D.) • • 23_. figures for migration to the West and the United States are as follows: Net migration of Ontario born from the Province Net migration of Ontario born to rest of Canada Net migration of Ontario born to United States 1881-1891 - 77,000 - 56,300 1891-1901 -105,000 - 54,700 1901-1911 -109,000 -153,300 1911-1921 -131,000 - 33,600 1921-1931 -130,000 + 14,500 1931-1941 - 4,200 + 27,600 (Minus signs indicate losses from Ontario) Source: Iain Taylor, p. 52. - 20,700 - 50,300 + 44,300 - 97,400 -148,000 - 31,800 Note: In this chart, the most important figure of -153,300 gives the number of inhabitants leaving the province in the years 1900-1911. Some 138 of these people must have migrated from r u r a l areas while others l e f t the c i t i e s . There i s no way of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the r u r a l from the urban outmigrants. I f two-thirds or 100,000 c f the outmigrants l e f t the province from r u r a l areas, and since (according to Appendix D) 200,000 moved from r u r a l areas during t h i s decade, we can assume that at l e a s t 100,000 moved from r u r a l areas to the c i t i e s of Ontario. 24 These were Brant, Car l e t c n , Essex, L i n c o l n , Ontario, Peel, Welland, Wentworth and York counties, (See Appendix D). 25 I f we follow the same procedures as i n footnote 17 above, when the North i s excluded the t o t a l r i s e s t o 60,904. When the suburbs are not included the t o t a l d e c l i n e i s 149,575 and when both North and suburbs are omitted, i t i s 154,202, (See Appendix D). 26 Floyd S. Chalmers, A Gentleman of the Press t Toronto: 1969, pp. 180-181. This biography of John B. Maclean gives the story of the founding of The Farmer's Magazine. Colonel Maclean's i n t e r e s t went so fa r as signing e d i t o r i a l s . The jour n a l expanded r a p i d l y f o r the f i r s t few years a f t e r i t s growth but folded up i n 1921, perhaps due to i t s a l i e n a t i o n of the farmers by i t s lack of mi l i t a n c y i n the e x c i t i n g years c f the r u r a l unrest, 1917-1919. 27 It would seem that the Deputy M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e expanded hi s i n t e r e s t s beyond h i s job with the government. He had a vested i n t e r e s t i n i n d u s t r i a l expansion which could predispose him towards the i n t e r e s t s of r a i l r o a d s i n p a r t i c u l a r . (See P.A.C.. George P. Graham Papers, C. C. James to'George Graham, May 13, 1909.) James urged Graham to allow a pr i v a t e power company use c f a f a l l s to supply the Cobcurg, Port Hope and Havelock E l e c t r i c Railroad with power. The expansion of t h i s r a i l r o a d would, he believed, give business to the Cobourg car shops, of which he was a d i r e c t o r . By reason of t h e i r t r a i n i n g other high c i v i l servants i n the Departments c f A g r i c u l t u r e i n both Toronto and Ottawa had l i t t l e n a t u r a l sympathy for a g r i c u l t u r e . James' successor as deputy minister i n Toronto was W. B. Roadhouse, a j o u r n a l i s t , while the Federal deputy was George 0'Kalloran, a lawyer. Both these appointments had been deplored i n the m i l i t a n t r u r a l journals, which wanted r e a l 'sons of the farm' as the c h i e f d i r e c t o r s c f the departments. 28 See E l i z a b e t h Wallace, Goldwin Smith: V i c t o r i a n L i b e r a l , Toronto: 1957, pp. 122-126 for Smith's c o n t r i b u t i o n to The Weekly Sun. Smith perhaps supported the farmers i n the hope that they would r e c i p r o c a t e by pushing h i s more purely i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i n free trade. His weekly c o n t r i b u t i o n to h i s paper i n "The Bystander" columns made l i t t l e d i r e c t reference t o a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s . It was u s u a l l y devoted t o convincing a g r i c u l t u r i s t s of Smith's p o s i t i o n on world or Canadian a f f a i r s . 139 29 For various explanations of the contradictions i n agrarian mythology see R. H. Abbott, "The A g r i c u l t u r a l Press Views The Yeoman," A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y . XL, 1, (January, 1968), p. 3 6 . Abbott argues that "The i n s i s t e n c e with which the farm journals i n the U. 3. A. discussed the myth seemed to be d i r e c t l y p roportional to the degree t o which i t was re j e c t e d by those f o r whom i t was intended." Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s same a t t i t u d e (Margaret L. Woodward, "The North-western Farmer, 1868-1876: A Tale of Paradox," A g r i c u l t u r a l History, XXXVII, 3, (July , 1963), p. 134 f f . ) notes the ambivalent p o s i t i o n of the farmer as he was pictured i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l journals between "legend and f a c t , " " c u l t u r e and r u s t i c i t y , " and " p a s t o r a l v i s i o n s and economic r e a l i t i e s . " These two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s can both be explained by the growing place of the metropolis i n the r u r a l l i f e . As the c i t i e s increased t h e i r c o n t r o l over r u r a l l i f e , the farmers asserted the old agrarian mythology i n order to preserve a remnant of t h e i r old r u r a l i d e n t i t y . The farmer was forced both to adapt (hence the economic realism) and to f i g h t (hence the growing agrarian v i s i o n s ) . CHAPTER I I NOTES George V. Haythcrne, " A g r i c u l t u r a l Manpower," The Canadian  Jo u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, IX, 3, (August, 1943), p. 366. 2 G. V. Haythorne, Labor i n Canadian A g r i c u l t u r e , Cambridge, Mass.: 19°0, p. 43. His c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the fa c t o r s a f f e c t i n g labor i n a g r i c u l t u r e are as follows: C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Demand Supply Demand & Supply Economic: Land Other C a p i t a l Credit S o c i a l : B i r t h rate Longevity Immigration Economic and S o c i a l : Income Wages Att i t u d e toward farming Working conditions Housing S o c i a l s e c u r i t y Education Recreation 3 Tne Weekly Sun. March 29, 1911, p. 1. This f i g u r e came from the Ontario Bureau of Industries Rg-port, 1909. 4 I b i d . , August 16, 1911, p. 1. 5 I b i d . . March 27, 1912, p. 1. See also I b i d . , October 25, 1911, p. 1. f o r another s t a t i s t i c a l comment on the 1911 census. \ l . A. Craik, " I n d u s t r i a l Development: How i t Helps the Farmer," The Canadian Countryman, I I I , 15, ( A p r i l 11, 1914), p. 9. He provides estimates of the various township d e c l i n e s . 141 The Farmer's Advocate, March 26, 1914, p.- 591. The Advocate published a l e t t e r using various bureau of Industries s t a t i s t i c s . ^Farm and Pair?/. October 26, 1911, p. 110. This paper c i t e s a d e c l i n e of from 80,000 to 100,000 i n the previous decade. 9 The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review, XVI, 1 .(October, 1903), p. 23. The ed i t o r s estimate the dec l i n e i n population from 1893 to 1903 at 35,538. 10 V/. L. Smith, "Overcrowding i n the C i t i e s , " The Farmer's  Magazine, December, 1914, p. 44. Using Bureau of Industries' s t a t i s t i c s , he estimates the d e c l i n e at 45,000 from 1900 to 1911 and includes estimates from i n d i v i d u a l townships such as 638 i n Tuckersmith (Huron Co.) and 937 i n I n n i s f i l (Simcoe Co.). 11 The Weekly Sun. March 20, 1912, p. 1. ^M e t h o d i s t Church, (Canada), Department of Temperance and Moral Reform, Report c f a Rural 3 urvey of A g r i c u l t u r a l , Educational, S o c i a l  and Religious L i f e . Toronto: December-January, 1913-1914, p. 7. See a l s o Rev. S. F. Sharp, "The Church and the Rural Froblem," S o c i a l Service Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report of Addresses and Proceedings, Toronto: 1914, p. 143ff. 13 John Macdougall, Rural L i f e i n Canada, Toronto: 1913, p.27. The estimate was computed from a dec l i n e c f 52,184 shown i n the 1911 census. He subtracted the New Ontario (northern) increase thereby in c r e a s i n g the depopulation f i g u r e to 97,124 and then the suburban growth (12,545) again i n c r e a s i n g the f i g u r e to 109,069. To t h i s he added the n a t u r a l increase of 200,183 and an estimated f i g u r e f o r f o r e i g n immigration (121,200) to obtain h i s f i n a l t o t a l . A f u l l page story on h i s f i n d i n g s was published i n Farm and Dairy, October 30, 1913, p. 3 and a summary can be found i n Rev. John Macdougall, "The Rural Problem," S o c i a l Service Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report, p. 147ff. 14 For examples see: R. A. Finn, "A Township Survey Re: A g r i c u l t u r a l Education," unpublished B.S.A. t h e s i s , Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College, Guelph: 1915, p. 9. Ke gives figures showing a. de c l i n e i n the Township of Percy, Northumberland County, i n the years from 1876 to 1912. George Wilson, "An A g r i c u l t u r a l Survey of Halton County," unpublished E.S.A. t h e s i s , Guelph: 1913, p. 40. This t h e s i s gives a d e t a i l e d summary of population figures f o r Halton County. H. R. Hare, " A g r i c u l t u r a l Survey of Mariposa'-Township i n V i c t o r i a County," unpublished B.S.A. t h e s i s , Guelph: 1914, p. 12, notes that emigration has been outward so that the 1914 population of t h i s township was 16% lower than that of 43 years previously. C. E. Linsay, "A Study of Rural Migration i n a T y p i c a l Ontario Township," unpublished B.S.A. t h e s i s , Guelph: 1914. 142 15 3. H. Hopkins, "Rural Depopulation i n Ontario," unpublished B.S.A. Thesis, Guelph: 1914, c i t e s a r u r a l d e c l i n e of 52,184 from 1901 to 1911 compared to urban increase of 392,511. H. A. Cole, "Rural Depopulation i n Ontario," unpublished B.S.A. Thesis, Guelph: 1922. l 6 T h e Weekly Sun. November 23, 1910, p. 1. For s i m i l a r observations on the 1901 census see The Farming World. September 3> 1901, p. 189. 1 7P.A.C, W. C. Good Papers, v o l . 18, f . 12190, December 20, 1913-This was a MSS copy of Good's P r e s i d e n t i a l Address. See also V/. C. Good, Farmer C i t i z e n , Toronto: 1958, p. 95. 18 „ , Report of E. C. Drury to the Dominion Grange 1908, (.The Farmer's Advocate, December 3, 1908, p. 1841). 19 See Appendix B f o r the c i r c u l a t i o n of the various reports. 2 0 T h e Weekly Sun. February 16, 1910, p..12; and also C. C. James, "Address," Tenth Annual Report c f the A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t i e s of Ontario. 1910. p. 51; Farm and Dairy. May 5, 1910, p. 17 where James c i t e s a f i g u r e * o f 63,000. 21 General Reform A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Ontario, Address to the Electors  Issued by Mr. N. W. Rowell. K. C , Toronto: 1911, pp. 4-5. 22 General Reform As s o c i a t i o n f o r Ontario, L i b e r a l Party Handbook, Toronto: 1911, p. 10. This s e c t i o n dealing with a g r i c u l t u r e c i t e s a decline of 638 i n Tuckersmith Township and 1000 i n I n n i s f i l Township i n M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e James Duff's county. 23 M. S. S c h e l l , The Farmer's View, n.p: 1911. "^The Toronto Globe. March 23, 1913, c i t e d i n B. D . Tennyson, "The P o l i t i c a l Career c f Sir' W. H. Hearst," unpublished M. A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto: 1963, p. 69. 25p a r E 1 a n ( j Dairy. February 24, 1914, p. 14. E. C. Drury*s submission to Borden when the farmers v i s i t e d Ottawa i n December, 1913. 2 6 T h e Weekly Sun. March 13, 1912, p. 1. 2 7 I b i d . 143 28 The Weekly Sun. January 23, 1903, p. 7. This contains a story r e p r i n t e d from The World's Work s e t t i n g out d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c s of the r u r a l population decline f o r two decades i n the United States. 7The Farmer's Advocate. Kay 16, 1912, p. 15. See a l s o Farm  and Dairy. August 8, 1912, p. 10, f o r another story on depopulation i n France. 30 The Farming World. August 14, 1900, pp. 1184-1185. Report of a speech made by Rider Haggard on the condition of En g l i s h a g r i c u l t u r e . ^^The Farmer's Advocate. March 26, 1914, p. 591. 32 Farm and Dairy. May 5, 1910,.p. 17. 33 The Farmer's Advocate, November 30, 1911, p. 1933. 34 E C. Drury, Farmer Premier, p. 24. See al s o The Farming World, August 27, 1901, p. 189. 35-^ " W . J . Black,"The Labor Problem," The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l  College Review, XII , 4, (January, 1901), p. 12. 36 The V/eekly Sun, October 11, 1905, p. 6. See also General Reform A s s o c i a t i o n , New Measures and a New Deal, n.p: 1911. This pamphlet backed the demand f o r a Royal Commission. ^ 7The Farmer's Advocate. November 15, 1902, p. 830. This i r a t e comment was made by Mrs. Rodd i n a l e t t e r she sent to the paper. The Weekly Sun, October 8, 1902, p. 4. For s i m i l a r statements see a l s o I b i d . . January 1, 1902, p. 2; The Farming World, December 1, 1903, p. 843. 0 9 -^7The Weekly Sun. February 11, 1903, p. 4, a l e t t e r from Andrew E l l i o t . See al s o The Farming World, March 18, 1902, p. 255. ^°Farm and Dairy, October 30, 1913, p. 3. Weekly Sun. February 11, 1903, p. 4; and al s o The Farming  World, February 2, 1903, p. 4. i 2 F o r e x a m p l e , i n The F a r m i n g W o r l d , M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 0 6 , p . 1 9 7 , t h e e d i t o r s r e m a r k e d t h a t "the s i t u a t i o n t h i s s e a s o n , h o w e v e r , does n o t a p p e a r t o be a s s e r i o u s a s on some f o r m e r o c c a s i o n s . " T h i s was a c c o r d i n g t o t h e O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e n e w s p a p e r , t h e demand b y f a r m e r s f o r i m m i g r a n t l a b o u r may have d e -c r e a s e d due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n Government had s e t up a n a g e n c y t o s u p p l y w o r k e r s w h i c h s u p p l e m e n t e d t h e e f f o r t s c f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government and t h e S a l v a t i o n A r m y . 4 3 I n 1 9 0 7 , t h e O n t a r i o G o v e r n m e n t ' s C o l o n i z a t i o n B u r e a u r e p o r t e d 2 , 9 0 0 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r l a b o u r o f w h i c h 1 , 7 0 0 were u n f i l l e d months l a t e r , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t 2 2 , 0 0 0 i m m i g r a n t s had a r r i v e d . ( T h e Week ly S u n . J u n e 5 , 1 9 0 7 , p . 7 . ) 4 4 T h e W e e k l y S u n . J u n e 1 , 1 9 0 4 , p . 1 . ^ T h e C a n a d i a n F a r m . J a n u a r y 5 , 1 9 1 2 , p . 1 . 4 6 T h e F a r m e r ' s M a g a z i n e I V , 3 , ( J u l y , 1 9 1 2 ) , p . 1 3 . F o r s i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t s see a l s o The F a r m e r ' s A d v o c a t e , J u l y 2 5 , 1 9 1 2 , p . 1 3 1 9 ; and I b i d . . A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 1 2 , p . 7 3 3 , and C . S . M . , "The L a b o r P r o b l e m . " The O . A . C . R e v i e w . X X V , 9 , ( J u n e , 1 9 1 3 ) , p . 4 5 1 . 1 n ^ ' F o r examples see The W e e k l y S u n . May 2 2 , 1 9 1 2 , p . 6 , f o r r e p o r t s f r o m O x f o r d , W a t e r l o o , H a l t o n , S i m c o e , E l g i n , O n t a r i o , D u n d a s , W e l l i n g t o n and P e r t h a l l r e p o r t i n g t h e same d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g l a b o u r . See a l s o I b i d . . May 2 9 , 1 9 1 2 , p . 6 and F a r m and D a i r y , May 2 9 , 1 9 1 3 , p . 7 f o r comments f r o m N o r f o l k , O x f o r d , and Y o r k C o u n t i e s . 48 The F a r m e r ' s A d v o c a t e . J a n u a r y 1 , 1 9 0 0 , p . 1 5 . James M c M i l l a n spoke on t h e l a b o u r s h o r t a g e t o f a r m e r s i n C a r l e t o n C o u n t y . 4 9 • ' , / T h e F a r m i n g W o r l d . F e b r u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 0 3 , p . 3 9 . 50 F o r e x a m p l e , D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e o f the . P r o v i n c e  o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 1 4 , T o r o n t o : 1 9 1 5 . F o r i n d i v i d u a l c o n v e n t i o n s p e e c h e s see The F a r m e r ' s A d v o c a t e . M a r c h 2 0 , 1 9 1 3 , p . 5 1 9 , f o r a s p e e c h o f J . B . R e y n o l d s a t t h e f a r m e r ' s i n s t i t u t e a t G l e n c o e , o r F a r m and D a i r y , A u g u s t 1 4 , 1 9 1 3 , p . 17 f o r R e y n o l d s a t t h e L a n a r k C o u n t y C h e e s e m a k e r s ! m e e t i n g ; o r I b i d . . November 2 1 , 1 9 1 2 , p . 15 f o r t h e r e p o r t o f speeches o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Futnam a n d t h e A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , C . F. B a i l e y a t t h e F a r m e r ' s I n s t i t u t e s C o n v e n t i o n ; o r The W e e k l y S u n , J a n u a r y 7 , 1 9 1 4 , p . 5 f o r E . C . D r u r y ' s s p e e c h a t a m e e t i n g w i t h t h e f a r m e r s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f "Western C a n a d a a t B a r r i e . . 51 The F a r m e r ' s A d v o c a t e , O c t o b e r 1 0 , 1 9 0 7 , p . 145 52 The Farming World. June 1, 1903, p. 432. 53 The Farmer's Advocate, January 10, 1907, p. 69. This contained the Sa l v a t i o n Army Hired Kelp A p p l i c a t i o n form published by B r i g a d i e r Thomas Howell, Secretary f o r Immigration. 54, Advertisements were published i n the r u r a l weeklies a d v e r t i s i n g the a v a i l a b l e help of the Colonization Branch run by Thomas Southworth. The A g r i c u l t u r a l Gazette published as a section i n The  Farming World, by the Livestock Associations included a Farm Help Exchange column as part of i t s features. This continued f o r the f i v e years f o l l o w i n g 1900. See a l s o , the advertisement f o r the "Boys Farmer League," (Farmer's Advocate, March 2 0 , 1913, p. 559), and Curard's Immigration Department ( I b i d . , A p r i l 3, 1913, p. 615). 56,, Examples of a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n on t h i s subject include: Edward D r i e r , "Keeping the Boy on the Farm," The Canadian Countryman, I I I , 16, ( A p r i l , 1914) , p. 13; J.H.S. Johnstone, "Educating the Farmers' Sons," The Canadian Farm, December 3, 1909} E. C. Drury, "The S o c i a l P o s i t i o n of the Farmer," The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College XX, 4 , (January, 1900)} Ronald Macdonald, " S o c i a l L i f e i n Rural D i s t r i c t s , " The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review, XXII, 8 , (May, 1910)-, J . B. Reynolds, "The Rural Problem," The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College  Review. XXV, 10, ( J u l y , 1913) . 57 Examples of speeches made with v a r i a t i o n s cn t h i s t i t l e i n clude: John Campbell, "Why the Young Man Should Stay on the Farm," Report of the Farmer's I n s t i t u t e s of the Province of Ontario, 1909,  Part I, i n Annual Report of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e of the  Province of Ontario, 1909, Toronto: 1910, v o l . I , (This speech a l s o appeared as an a r t i c l e i n The Farmer's Advocate, December 9, 1909, p.. 1927)j Dr. G. C. Creelman, "The Farmer and the Farmer's Son," Third Annual Report of the Ontario Corn Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1910, i n Annual Report of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e of the Province of Ontario, 1910, Toronto: 1911. v o l . I I j Dr. G. C. Creelman, "Some Rural Problems," Annual Reports of the Dairymen's Associations of the Province of Ontario, 1913. i n The Annual Report of the Department c f A g r i c u l t u r e  of the Province of Ontario, 1913, Toronto: 1914, v o l . I5 Hon. J . S. Duff, "Improving Farm L i f e , " Annual Reports c f the Dairy-men1 s Associations of the Province cf Ontario, 190S; Hon. J . 3 . Duff, "Necessity c f C u l t i v a t i n g the S o c i a l Side of L i f e on a Farm" Report of  the Farmer's I n s t i t u t e s of the Province of Ontario, 1902-1903, Part I j Member, North Grey Women's I n s t i t u t e , "Our Boys, How S h a l l we Educate and Influence them so as to Keep them on the.Farm," Report of the  Farmer's I n s t i t u t e s c f the Province of Ontario, 1901, Part I I , Women's I n s t i t u t e s . 146 58 Farm and Dairy. October 30, 1913, p. 3. 5 9 I b i d . 6o Farm and Dairy ran a heavily enclosed black p r i n t i n s e r t f o r s e v e r a l weeks on the f r o n t page asking "Why Young People Leave the Farm - Have You a Remedy to Suggest?" For an example see the issue of J u l y 10, 1913, p. 3. 61 Rev. John Macdougall, Rural L i f e i n Canada. Toronto: 1913, see Preface. 62 E. C. Drury, "The Froblem of the Country," S o c i a l Service Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report of Addresses and Proceedings, Toronto: 1914. (See also Report i n Farm and Dairy, March 12, 1914, p. 3.) Rev. John Macdougall, "The Rural Problem," S o c i a l Service Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report. 64 Rev. S. F. Sharp, "The Church and the Rural Froblem," S o c i a l Service Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report. 65 Rev. Hugh Dobson, "The School and the Rural Problem," S o c i a l Service Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report. 66 Alphonse Desjardins, "Co-operation Among Farmers," The S o c i a l Service Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report. 67 Professor J . B. Reynolds, "The Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , " The S o c i a l Service Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report. 68 • Farm and Dairy, J u l y 23, 1914, p. 3. This contains a f u l l page s t o r y by e d i t o r , F. E. E l l i s , on the subject of the findings of the Huron Survey. 69 Methodist Church, (Canada), Huron Survey Report, p. 24. The t o p i c s included: "what i s the Rural Problem," "'Where have People Gone, Why Do They Leave," and "How to Keep them on the Farm," 70 These s t o r i e s appeared mainly i n The Farmer's Magazine and The Canadian Countryman 71 Tom E. Dobbin, "Finding Their Level," The Farmer's Magazine, June, 1914, p. S. J 147 72 Janes Mark, "Holding Our Own," The Canadian Countryman, I I , 18,(May 3, 1913) p. 17 j for a non-farm expression of the same a t t i t u d e see, 3. A. Cudmore, "Rural Depopulation i n Southern Ontario," Royal Canadian I n s t i t u t e , IX, n.p. 73 The Farmer's Advocate. November 2, 1913, p. 982. Ik The Farmer's Magazine, January, 1912, p. 60. This was James' c o n t r i b u t i o n to a symposium on farm labour comprising short a r t i c l e s from various c i v i l servants and farm leaders. 75 C. C. James, "Address," Annual Reports of the Dairymen's  Associations of the Province of Ontario. 1909, p. 40. 148 CHAPTER I I I NOTES 1 James hark, "Holding Our Own," The Canadian Countryman, I I , 18, (May 3, 1913), p. 17. See al s o The Farmer's Advocate, J u l y 30, 1914, p. 1381j I b i d . . A p r i l 9, 1908, p. 653; The Canadian Farm. December 29, 1911, p. 1; I b i d . . September 24, 1909, p. 1. 2 The Farmer's Advocate. January 22, 1914, p. 129. 3 I b i d . . February 23, 1911, p. 306. 4 John Campbell,•"Why Young Men Should Stay on the Farm," The Farmer's Advocate. December 9, 1909, p. 1922. 5 The Farmer's Advocate. September 5, 1907, p. 1405. See also Rev. John Macdougall, p. 42. 6W. L» Smith, "Overcrowding i n the C i t i e s , " The Farmer's  Magazine, December 1911, p. 44. 7 ' J . Kerr Abbott, " W i l l Democracy Dwindle," The Ontario A g r i c u l -t u r a l College Review. XXVI, 4, (January, 1914), p. 225. The Weekly Sun. November 2, 1904, p. 1. 9 The Farmer's Advocate, June 23, 1910, p. 1018; William Banks J r . , "Millions!" The Farmer's Magazine. August, 1911," p. 80ff. 10 The Weekly Sun. May 3, 1911, p. 1. 11 The Farmer's Magazine, December 1911, p. 47, See also Abbott, The O.A.C. Review, p. 224. 12 The Weekly Sun. February 17, 1909, p. 6. See al s o The Farmer's  Advocate, J u l y 30, 1908, p. 1214*; The Weekly Sun, October 11, 1905, p. 6. The Farmer's Advocate, February 5, 1914, p. 218 } Letter from C. L. Vincent. 13 Farm and Dairy. March .27, 1913, p. IS. See also I b i d . , A p r i l 10, 1913, p. 32, l e t t e r from Mrs. W. J . Root, Bruce Co.; and P.A.C., Good Fapers, v o l . 10, f . 12189, December 20, 1913, speech made to Grange. 149 14 The Weekly Sun. February 17,. 1909, p. 6. Resolution introduced by A. J . R u s s e l l . 1 5 I b i d . , J u l y 17, 1907, p. 1; I b i d . , June 7, 1911; The Canadian Farm, March 1, 1912, p. 1. The. Sun reported that Huron would lose one member and Toronto would gain 1$. l 6 T h e Weekly Sun, A p r i l 22, 1908, p. 1,remarked that Toronto, S t r a t f o r d , Chatham, Brantford, Gait, were examples of c i t i e s that dominated t h e i r contiguous r u r a l r i d i n g s . 1 7 I b i d . , October 25, 1911, p. 1. 1 8 I b i d . . October 18, 1911, p. 1; I b i d . . December 27, 1911, p. 1. 19 Watson, Annals, p. 152. 20 John Macdougall, pp. 37-38. He gives f i g u r e s for various counties; among them Lennox and Addington l o s t 366 houses (-6.16%); East Huron 310, North Lanark 265, G r e n v i l l e 352 (-9.173). Some townships r e g i s t e r e d larger losses; f o r example East Zorra, -13.63; Madoc, -13.73; A s h f i e l d , -153; Glenelg,' -19.83 and B a r r i e , -25.43 or Morris, -25.53. The highest percentage drop was i n Sarawak Twp., Grey County, which l o s t 45.83 of i t s homes. 21 Farm and Dairy, Kay 7, 1914, p. 20. Letter from 'Cousin Frank.' See a l s o E. C. Drury, Farmer Premier, p. 25 for a d e s c r i p t i o n of s o c i a l l i f e around E a r r i e i n the 1880's and 1890's. 22 The S o c i a l Service Council of Canada, Report, p. 148. 23 Cumming, B.S.A. Thesis, Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College, p. 19. 24 Farm and Dairy, November 21, 1912, p. 15. Speech of Superintendent Putnam at the Convention of Farmer's I n s t i t u t e s and Farmer's Clubs at Toronto, See also Cumming p. 33. 25 P.A.C., Good Papers, v o l . 10, f . 12192, December 20, 1913, MSS of P r e s i d e n t i a l Address to the Grange. See also Farmer C i t i z e n and J . B. Reynolds, "The Rural Problem," The O.A.C. Review, XXV, ]_Q ( J u l y , 1913), p. 526. 26„, ihe weekly Sun. A p r i l 3, 1912, p. 1; I b i d . , March 1, 1911, p. 1. 150 27 The Farmer's Advocate, March 15, 1906, p. 405. Let t e r from John Campbell, V i c t o r i a Co. 28 In Percy Twp., Northumberland County, the average r u r a l attendance was 18 compared to the average school capacity of 30. (Finn, B.S.A. Thesis, p. 15). 29 I b i d . . See a l s o The Huron Survey, p. 40, which gives f i g u r e s of r u r a l school attendance of 16,500 i n Huron Co. i n 1881 and only 6,818 i n 1913. This was a 58.7£ decline.. 30 The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 15, 1903, p. 364. J The Huron Survey (p. 40) reported only 6 teachers had f i r s t c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s while 20 had no q u a l i f i c a t i o n s at a l l , out c f a t o t a l teaching s t a f f of 196 i n Huron County. Finn, B.S.A., p. 15 gives an average s a l a r y of $493 f o r Percy Township. p. 40. 32 The Farmer's Magazine, December 1911, p. 15; The Huron Survey, "^The Canadian Countyman. I I , 37, (September 13, 1913), p* 14. ^ F i n n , B.S.A. Thesis, p. 15. 35 The Huron Survey, p. 42ff.. A l b e r t H. Leake, "Consolidation of Rural Schools," The Farming V.'orld and Canadian Farm and Home, January 1, 1903, p. 17. He was inspector of t e c h n i c a l education f o r the Province of Ontario. 37 J . W.. Hotson, "Rural Education," The O.A.C. Review, XVII, 5, (February, 1905), p. 270; Richard Lees, "More Money f o r Rural Schools," Farm and Dairy, January 22, 1914, p.- 3. He quotes figures of 537.48 spent on each p u p i l i n the c i t y and only $17.64 spent i n the r u r a l areas. 38 Rev. J . Macdougall, "Address," S o c i a l Service Council of Canada, Report, p. 148. He notes that the cost c f educating a c h i l d through school was $2000 per head and since 152,000 moved to the c i t i e s i n the preceding decade, the c i t i e s gained $500,000,000 worth of education from the r u r a l areas. 39 Farm and Dairy. J u l y 4, 1912, p. 19. 151 40 Rev. S. F. Sharp, "Address," S o c i a l Service C o u n c i l of Canada, Report, p. 168. ^ F a r m and Dairy. January 16, 1913, R. 19. See al s o The Huron Survey, p. 11. 42 Farm and Dairy. January 16, 1913, p. 19, and The Farmer's  Magazine, A p r i l 1911, p. 11. 43 The Huron Survey, p. 11. ^ I b i d . , pp. 8-9. The de c l i n e i n Huron County was as follows: 1871 1881 1891 Anglicans 12,369 12,472 7,031 Bap t i s t s 1,369 1,954 723 Congregationalists 221 406 52 Lutherans 1,770 1,976 1,853 Methodists 21,810 25,683 18,199 Presbyterians 21,810 25,330 18,373 Roman Cat h o l i c s 6,302 6,708 4,414 45 I b i d . , p. 32. See al s o The Farmer's Advocate, November 25, 1909, p. 1850. ^ 6John Macdougall, (p. 38) describes how Edwardsburg Township l o s t o n e - f i f t h of i t s population but only one-eleventh of i t s f a m i l i e s . 47 Finn, B.S.A. Thesis, p. 11. Hopkins, B.S.A. Thesis, p. 26. ^ 9See John Macdougall, pp. 39-40. See also Finn, f o r the same s i t u a t i o n with regard to Percy Twp. The Farmer's Advocate, May 30, 1912, p. 1003, notes Bruce Co. had 1,875 more men than women; Grey had a surplus of 1,719 and Welland 2,381. Urban North Toronto, on the other hand, could show 7,500 more women than men. 50 , The Farmer's Advocate, October 5, 1905, p. 1396, l e t t e r from J . H. Burns, Ferth Co. See also I b i d . . October 19, 1905, pp. 1468-69 for two more l e t t e r s . 5 1 I b i d . , November 16, 1905, p. I6l4- Letter from "Bachelor." 152 52 The Weekly Sun. A p r i l 4, 1906, p. 2. Report by L. E. Annis of East York. 53 The Farming World. J u l y 15, 1904, p. 515. See al s o The  Weekly Sun, September 6, 1905, p. 2. 54 The Farmer's Advocate, August 4, 1910, p. 1255. Le t t e r from the Secretary of the West Durham Farmer's A s s o c i a t i o n . 55 I b i d . , March 15, 1906, p. 405. 56 The Canadian Farm, June 17, 1910, p. 1; The Weekly Sun, A p r i l 12, 1905, p. 1; I b i d . . A p r i l 4, 1906, p. I j I b i d . . May 11, 1904, p. 1; I b i d . , November 8, 1905, p.. 2; C. F. Hamilton, " A g r i c u l t u r e i n Ontario," The Canadian Countryman, I I , 32, p. 8; P.A.C., Good Papers, v o l . 10, f. 12193, December 20, 1913-57 A. L e i t c h , "The Farm Labor Problem," The O.A.C. Review. XIX, 1, (October, 1906), p. 47. See a l s o C. F. Hamilton, "Ag r i c u l t u r e i n Ontario," p. 8; The Canadian Farm, December 1, 1911, p. 1. 58 The Weekly Sun. March 6, 1912, p. 1. 59 y /The Weekly Sun. February 18, 1903, p. 6. 60 I b i d . . May 11, 1904, p. 1. ' 61 „ • The Canadian Farm. June 17, 1910, p. 1. Lp The Farmer's Advocate, March 15, 1906, p. 405. 6^The Farming World. J u l y 15, 1904, p. .1. See al s o F.A.C., Good Papers, v o l . 10, f. 12193, December 20, 1913. ^ I b i d . . See al s o The Farming World, November 15, 1907, p. 1047. 65 C. Campbell, "Cuts i n Crop Production Costs," The Canadian  Countryman, I I , 22, (May, 1913), p. 12. Quotes Professor G r i s d a l e of O.A.C. 66^  „ lhe farmer's Advocate, August 4, 1910, p. 1255. Letter from the Secretary of the West Durham Farmer's A s s o c i a t i o n , 6 7 I b i d . , March 15, 1906, p. 405. 153 6 8 T h e Weekly Sun. November 29, 1905, p. 8. Speech of Thomas Brooks at the Brantford s i t t i n g c f the T a r i f f Commission. 69 C. F. Hamilton, " A g r i c u l t u r e i n Ontario," p. 8. Wages rose from $5.15 per week t o $7.16 (plus $2.01) i n ten years. See al s o The Farmer's Advocate. J u l y 31, 1913, p. 1326 f o r a c i t a t i o n of a minimum wage of v25.00 per month instead of §12.00. The Weekly Sun. A p r i l 25, 1905, p. 3 gives wages of 5100 plus board per year for an inexperienced man and £200 f o r experience or $300 f o r a married man. The Canadian Farm, February 17, 1911, p. 1 reported wages had r i s e n to £35.15 per month f o r a male and £20.70 f o r a female from £33.69 and £19.08 the year previo u s l y . 70 The Farmer's Advocate. J u l y 31, 1913, p. 1326. 71 I b i d . . January 19, 1911, p. 89. Le t t e r from "Humane", Lambton Co. 72 I b i d . . A p r i l 15, 1903, p. 359; or C. Campbell, "Cuts i n Crop Production Costs," p. 12. 73 The Farmer's Advocate, March 2, 1911, p. 350; I b i d . , January 22, 1914, p. 1 3 6 ; Farm and Dairy, had many such contests. In 1910 farm women were asked to send i n t h e i r best labour-saving techniques and devices were mentioned i n almost every 1911 i s s u e . 74 The Farmer's Advocate, September 19, 1907, p. 1479. 75 • I b i d . . March 26, 1914, p. 591; The Weekly Sun. A p r i l 4, 1906, p. 1; I b i d . , A p r i l 12, 1905, p. 1; Farm ana Dairy, March 20, 1913, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate. September 5, 1907, p. 1405. 76 Hon. James 3. Duff, "Address," Report of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s of the Province of Ontario, 1911-1912 Part I, p. 45 i n Ontario, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Annual Report of the Department  of A g r i c u l t u r e of the Province of Ontario 1912, v o l . 2, Toronto: King's F r i n t e r , 1913. 77 Farm and Dairy, May 16, 1912, p. 14. 78 The Weekly Sun. J u l y 21, 1909, p. 3. The Canadian Farm, December 1, 1911, p. 1; I b i d . , November 17, 1911, p. 1; Farm and Dairy, August 14, 1913, p. 17. (Report c f a Speech by Professor Reynolds of O.A.C. at the Lanark County Cheesemakers). The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 28, 1910, p. 713; The Weekly Sun. March 6, 1912, p. 1. 154 79 The Weekly Sun. March 6, 1917, p. 1. 80 The Canadian Farm, December 11, 1911, p. 1. The Farmer's  Advocate, August 27, 1914, p. 1525, Letter from 'Alpha.' 81 The Farmer's Advocate, August 27, 1914, p. 1525, Lette r from 'Alpha' Middlesex Co. See a l s o Farm and Dairy, May 16, 1912, p. 14. 82 Farm and Dairy, June 19, 1913, p. 10. 83 The Weekly Sun, February 21, 1912, p. 1. 84 Farm and Dairy. June 19, 1913, p. 10. 85 The Weekly Sun, January 21, 1914, p. 1; The Canadian Countryman, I I , 9,(March 1, 1913) P» 17 notes a p r i c e r i s e i n binders from #273 to §300 i n 1878. Further increases of $115-125 i n 1898 and $125-135 i n 1903 .increased the pr i c e s s t i l l f u r t h e r . 8 6 r . , 87 Sydney F i s h e r , ."Back to the Farm," Annual Reports of the  Dairyman's Associations of the Province of Ontario, 1907, p. 35. 155 CHAPTER IV NOTES ^Farm and Dairy, A p r i l 23, 1914, p. 18. L e t t e r from Nephew Jack." 2 The Farmer's Advocate, August 29, 1907, p. 1360. L e t t e r from 0, C«, Went worth Co. o The Farmer's Magazine, December, 1911, p. 46; J . Kerr Abbott, " W i l l Rural Democracy Dwindle," The O.A.C. Review, XXVI, 4, (January, 1914), p. 222; The Weekly Sun. March 24, 1909, p. 1; I b i d . . August 8, 1906, p. 1. ^Farming. February 29, 1900, p. 676, L e t t e r from "Sigma." 5 Farm and Pair?,''. May 25, 1911, p. 18. °The Weekly Sun. June 5, 1907, p. 18. 7 Farm and Dairy. November 14, 1912, p. 18, Lett e r from Mrs. W. E. Hopkins, Russel Co. 8 Jean Blewett, "The Farming Days of Used-to-Be," The Canadian Countryman. March 22, 1913, P« 9 E t h e l M. Chapman, "Be Good t o Mary Ann," The Farmer's Magazine, April,1913, p. 83. """'"'The Farmer's Advocate, June 29, 1905, p. 946, L e t t e r from "Nurse." """*"Ibid., p. 947. See also Farm and Dairy, September 14, 1913, p. 16, and I b i d . , October 9, 1913, p. 15, L e t t e r from L. G. Crummy. 12 The Farmer's Advocate. February 24, 1910, p. 309. 13 James M i l l s , "Address by Dr. James M i l l s , 0AC, Guelph," Annual Reports of the Livestock Associations of the Province of Ontario, 1901, p. 26. 156 14 The Farming World. January 8, 1901, p. 242. See a l s o The Farmer's Advocate. November 1, 1901, p. 707; The Farming World. October 29, 1901, p. 462. 15 The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 11, 1907, pp. 633-634. l 6 T h e Canadian Countryman. I I , 1913. See various issues. 1 7P.A.C, S i r John S. W i l l i s o n Papers, f . 6863, G. C. Creelman to W i l l i s o n , J u l y 29, 1904. 18 x The Farmer's Advocate. November 14, 1907, p. 1786. (Adam S h o r t t ) ; I b i d . . October 30, 1913, p. 1874, (R. P. Bowles). 19 7Farm and Dairy. June 5, 1913, p. 18. Reprinted from The C h r i s t i a n Guardian. 20 Farm and Dairy. May 15, 1913, p. 20. L e t t e r from 'Sunbeam.' See also Anonymous, "The Tcwnward Movement," The O.A.C. Review. XI, 7, (April,1900), p. 9, and Farm and Dairy. September 25, 1913, P« 5. L e t t e r from J . 0. Rutherford. 2 1 T h e Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 24, 1913, p. 770. 2 2 I b i d . . J u l y 24, 1913, a. 1306; and al s o I b i d . . Februarv 23, 1911, p. 306. 23 I b i d . . October 10, 1912, p. 1749; and I b i d . . November 16, 1855. 2 4 I b i d . , J u l y 24, 1913, p. 1306. 25 I b i d . . June 13, 1912, p. 1083. 26 William Johnson, " L i f e on the Farm," Report of the Farmers'  I n s t i t u t e s of the Province of Ontario, 1907 - P a r t . I . p. 108. 27 The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 24, 1913, p. 770. Le t t e r from J . H. Smith, Kent Co. 28 The Weekly Sun, October 17, 1906, p. 1; see als o , Member, North Grey "Women's I n s t i t u t e , "Our Boys Hew S h a l l we'Educate and Influence so as to Keep them on the Farm," Report of the Farmer's I n s t i t u t e s of the  Province of Ontario, 1901 Part I I , Women's I n s t i t u t e s , p. 42. 157 29 J . T. Metcalfe, " A g r i c u l t u r e as a Science and an •Art," Report  of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s of the Province of Ontario, 1904, Part I, p. 107. 3°Farm and Dairy. May 15, 1913, p. 20. ^Anonymous, The O.A.C. Review, X I , T, (April,1900), p. 8. 32 The Weekly Sun, June 5, 1907, Let t e r W. C. Good, see a l s o The Farming World, October 5, 1907, p. 952. 3^ The Farmer's Advocate, September 5, 1907, p. 1405. 3 4 I b i d . . October 17, 1907, p. 1631: I b i d . . November 16, 1911, p. 1855; I b i d . . August 15, 1900, p. 46l; I b i d . . February 20, 1913, p. 316; The Farming Ivor Id. September 1, 1904, p. 6l6; The Weekly Sun, June 5, 1907, p. 5; John Dearness, "Education f o r t h e Farm," The  Farmer's Advocate, December 9, 1909, p. 1916; The Canadian Farm, November 12, 1909, p. 1; J.H.S. Johnstone, "Educating the Farmer's Sons," The Canadian Farm. December 3, 1909, p. 2; The Farmer's  Magazine, January, 1911, p. 13. -^E. C. Drury, "§1000 f o r Country Teachers," The Farmer's  Magazine, January, 1914, p. 15. 36 The Farmer's Advocate. J u l y 25, 1907, p. 1189; The Canadian  Countryman, J u l y 4, 1914, p. 4. - " U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph Archives, Adelaide Hunter Hoodless Papers, Manuscript of Speech, N.D. ' 38 S. B. S i n c l a i r , "The Rural School as a Factor i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l L i f e of the Nation," The Farmer's Advocate, December, 1912, p. 2161; See also Farm and Dairy. May 29, 1913, p. 13, L e t t e r P. A. Moore; The Canadian Farm. November 25, 1910, p. 1. 39 The Farmer's Advocate. August 6, 1908, p. 1341; see a l s o The Canadian Farm. November 25, 1910, p. 1. 40 The Farmer's A d v o c a t e , February 20, 1913, p. 316, Letter W. E. Tunnon, Hastings Co.; See a l s o I b i d . , October 10, 1912, p. 1749; The Weekly Sun, December 11, 1907, p. 7. Resolution passed at the Dominion Grange Toronto, December 1907 The Canadian Farm, November 18, 1910, p. 1. ^ W i l l i a m Johnson, " L i f e on the Farm," Annual Report of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s of the Province of Ontario, Part I, p. 107. 158 •^The Farmer's Advocate, October 10, 1912, p. 1749; see also I b i d . , October"17, 1907, p. 1631. 43 I b i d . , J u l y 25, 1907, p. 1189; I b i d . , October 10, 1912, p. 1749. ^ I b i d . , A p r i l 15, 1903, p. 364: S. B. S i n c l a i r , "The Rural School as a Factor i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l L i f e of a Nation," The Farmer's  Advocate, December 12, 1912, p. 2161. ^ 5 I b i d . , December 9, 1909, D. 916; I b i d . , October 24, 1912, p. 1837. ^S. B. S i n c l a i r , "The Rural School as a Factor i n the A g r i c u l -t u r a l L i f e of a Nation,"; I b i d . , December 12, 1912, p. 2161. The  Canadian Countryman, I I I , 24, (June 13, 1914 ), p. 13. ^ 7The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 15, 1903, p. 364. ^ 8 I b i d . , August 1, 1907, p. 1225. ^ I b i d . . June 25, 1908, p. 1058. Report of Inspector of Continuation Classes, R. H. Cowley. 5°The Weekly Sun, February.26, 1906, p. 2. Farmer's Advocate, September 5, 1907, p. 1405. 5 2 I b i d . , October 15, 1902, p. 743. 5^J. B. Reynolds, "The O.A.C. and Ontario Farming," The O.A.C. Review, XXIV, 7, "(April, 1912), p. 389: see also The Weekly Sun, January 14, 1914, p. 12 for a l e t t e r from an O.A.C. grad. expressing the same views, or J . B. Reynolds, "The Rural Problem," The O.A.C.  Review, XXV, 6, (July, 1913), pp. 526-527. 5 / 4The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 16, 1914, p. 749. 55 Junia, "Education f o r the Farm Laddie," The Farmer's Advocate, Ju l y 24, 1913, p. 1306. 5 6The Farmer's A "a Nottawasaga Farmer," Advocate, October 1, 1908, p. 1513, L e t t e r from 5 7Pev. S. F. Sharp, "The Church and the Rural Problem," S o c i a l Service Congress, Ottawa, 1914, Report, p. 168. 5 B I b i d . , p. 170. 159 59 M. E. Graham, "Missions," The Farming World, August 13, 1901, p. 140. 6°The Farmer ts Ad von at.fi, September 9, 1900, p. 1446. 6 lM. E. Graham, August 13, 1901, p. 140. 62 The Farmer's Magazine, A p r i l 1911, p. 11. -The Farmer's Advocate, February 13, 1910, p. 232: see also I b i d . , November 16, 1903, p. 1033: and Ibid ., October 15, 1908, p. 1580. 6Vhe Farming World. J u l y 15, 1905, p. 523. See also The Farmer's Advocate, March 10, 1910, p. 409: Ibid., March 12, 1914, p. 472; The Canadian Countryman, March 7, 1914, p. 13. 65 The Farmer's Advocate, December 3, 1908, p. 1841. Report of the Annual Parliament of the Dominion Grange. £)£> The Canadian Countryman, March 22, 1913, p. 13; C. C. James, "Address," Thirty-Fourth Annual Report of the Fruit-Growers Association  of Ontario, 1902, p. 48:Farm and Dairy, May 28, 1914, p. 10. O ' ''The Farmer's Advocate, January 20, 1910, p. 12. 6 8 I b i d . , February 20, 1913, r>. 305; The Weekly Sun, June 10, 1903, p. 6" 69 William Johnson, " L i f e on the Farm," Renort of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s of the Province of Ontario, 1906, Part I, Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s , p. 98. 70 W. Wi l f r e d Campbell, "Country L i f e and Culture: Environment," The Farmer's Advocate. August 29, 1907, p. 1375; see a l s o , The Farmer's  Advocate. J u l y 25, 1907, p. 1189. ' xFarm and Dairy, February 26, 1914, p. 16. 7 2 I b i d . , A p r i l 10, 1913, p. 32. L e t t e r from Mrs. W. J . Root, Bruce Co. ^ F o r examples of a r t i c l e s c ontrasting these two types of environments see: Rue, "Why I Love the Country," The Farmer's Advocate, December 12, 1912, p. 2170: The Farmer's Advocate. J u l y 25, 1907, p. 1189; The Farming. World, February 25, 1902, p. 183; The Farmer's Advocate, January 13, 1910, p. 33; I b i d . , January 1, 1900, p. 24. 160 7 A T h e We ekly Sun, February 4, 1903, p. 3. Report of a speech by farm leader L. E. Annis. 7 5 F a r m and Dairy, August 10, 1911, P . 16; The Farmer's Advocate, February 24, 1910, p. 293; I b i d . , March 12* 1908, p. 453; I b i d . , August 7, 1913, p. 1362; Farm and Dairy. March 17, 1911, p. 2. 7 6 W i l l i a m Johnson, " L i f e on the Farm," Report of the Farmers" I n s t i t u t e s , 1906, p. 101. 77 'John Dryden, "Address by Hon. John Dryden," Thirty-Second Annual Report of the F r u i t Growers" Association of Ontario, 1900, p. 52. 7 S T h e Weekly Sun, May 13, 1903, p. 1. 7 9 T h e Farmer's Advocate, March 27, 1913, p. 567. 8 0 I b i d . , March 5, 1914, p. 430. L e t t e r from "Suburbanite." 8 1Farm and P a i n s October 2, 1913, p. 16. 82 I b i d . , August 3, 1911, p. 13, L e t t e r from "Nephew Frank," see also I b i d . , February 26, 1914, p. 16. °^The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 23, 1908, p. 746. 8 " * L a l l y Bernard, "The Woman Who T o i l s , " The Weekly Sun. A p r i l 8, 1903, p. 4. -Tor examples of' such s t o r i e s see: Farm and P a i n . November 30, 1911, p. 15: 'The Country G i r l , ' "A Country G i r l i n a Big C i t y , " The Farmer's Advocate, J u l y 11, 1907, p. 1134: Farm and Pairy, August 12, 1909, p. 14. 86 ' Farm and Dairy, August 7, 1911, p. 16; see a l s o The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 16, 1900, XK 220; Ibid., A p r i l 16, 1900, p. 220. 8 7 I b i d . , A p r i l 16, 1900, o. 220. 8 8 I b i d . , November 24, 1904, p. 1602. 89 For examples of such statements see: Farm and Dairy, May 15, 1913, P. 20; The Farmer's Advocate, January 15, 1903, p. 63." 9 0 I b i d . , February 21, 1907, p. 290. 91 The Canadian Farm, January 5, 1912, p. 1. . 161 9 2 T h e Farmer's Advocate, October 1, 1906, p. 687. ^ D r . George A. Dickinson, The Country Boy, Toronto: 1907, (Public Archives of Ontario, Pamphlet C o l l e c t i o n ) . 7 < 4The Farmer's Advocate, November 11, 1902, p. 893. 9 5 I b i d . , May 4, 1905, p. 657. ^ H e l e n McMurchie, "The Ba t t l e with the Slums," The Canadian  Countryman, May 10, 1913, p. 13. 7 T h e Farmer's Advocate, February 13, 1908, p. 253. 9 8 J . T. S t i r r e t t , "A Tale of Two Fam i l i e s , " The Farmer's  Magazine, March, 1911, p. 49. 99 The Farmer's Advocate, August 6, 1908, p. 1341. 100 I b i d . 1 0 1 F a r m and Dairy, October 2, 1913, p. 16. 1 0 2 I b i d . , March 3, 1910, p. 346, L e t t e r see also The Canadian Countryman, I I , 50,(December 13), 1913, p. 24; Farm and Dairy, February 26, 1914, p. 16. 1 0^The Farmer's Advocate, February 5, 1914, p. 219; and I b i d . , A p r i l 27, 1911, p. 749. 1 0 Z t I b i d . , November 16, 1911, p. 1855. 1 0 5 I b i d . , June 13, 1912, p. 1083. l o 6 I b i d . , A p r i l 24, 1913, p. 771, L e t t e r from J . H. Smith, Kent County. 10^G. C. Creelman, "Some Rural Problems," Annual Reports of the  Dairymen's Associations of the Province of Ontario, 1913, p. 52. 108 "The Farmer's Advocate, January 2, 1909, p. 77: see also The  Weekly Sun, August 7, 1901 Speech of Manning Doherty at Haldimand Co. The Canadian Farm, November 18, 1910, p. 1, and a l s o Ibid., October 14, 1910, p. 1. 162 130 Farm and Dairy, March 27, 1913, p. 29. It showed the following r e s u l t s : Wanted to Leave Wanted to Stay Before - Boys 157 7 G i r l s 163- 11 A f t e r - Boys 12 162 G i r l s 17 161 See examples: The "Weekly Sun, December 11, 1907, p. 7 for the r e s o l u t i o n passed by the annual convention of the Dominion Grange at Toronto i n December 1907: Farm and Dairy, September 8, 1910, p. 3. L e t t e r from W. C. Good i n which he stresses that the purpose of r u r a l education should be to br i n g c h i l d r e n " i n t o c l o s e r and more sympathetic r e l a t i o n s h i p with mother earth,"; see also I b i d . , March 4, 1909, p. 2, report of the find i n g s of the Country L i f e commission set up i n the United States by President Roosevelt: The Canadian Farm, October 14, 1910, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate, January 2, 1909, p. 77. S. B. McCready, An Experiment i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Education: Being  an Attempt to Develop a Proper Method of In s t r u c t i o n i n Elementary  Ag r i c u l t u r e Throughout Ontario, Unpublished B.S.A. Thesis, Guelph: Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College, 1907. Others a l s o were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s aspect of education at the O.A.C. See: W. H. Grant, D i f f i c u l t i e s i n  Teaching A g r i c u l t u r e , Unpublished B.S.A. Thesis, 1921. W. H. H i l l , A g r i c u l t u r a l E x h i b i t s , Unpublished B.S.A. Thesis, 1916: A.F.S. G i l b e r t , T r a i n i n g of Teachers f o r Teaching A g r i c u l t u r e i n Canada, B.S.A. Thesis, 1920: F. W. Forman, P h y s i c a l Education as a Permanent F a c t o r ' i n Rural  S o c i a l Work, B.S.A. Thesis, 1922-1923: J . E. McLarty, Is the Rural School  Being Properly Used to Further the Interests of Rural Ontario B.S.A. Thesis, 1916: E. L. Small, A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n as Found in. the Rural P u b l i c Schools of Ontario, 3 . S. A. Thesis, 1916; P. C-. Sutton," The Peal V a l u e of School F a i r s , B.S.A., 1920; A. F. Hansauld, A g r i c u l t u r a l  Education i n t h e Schools of Ontario, B.S.A. Thesis, 1920; J . Macdonald, Problem of P u r a l Education i n Ontario, B.S.A., 1921. •^^Margaret Moffatt, "Actual Farm L i f e Teaches School Teachers," The Farmer's Magazine, July,1912, p. 66ff; The Farmer's Advocate, September 26, 1907, p. 1520-1521. L e t t e r from Director of Massachusetts A g r i c u l t u r a l College re: course. 1 1 4 S . B. S i n c l a i r . "The Rural School as a Factor i n the L i f e of a Nation," The Farmer's Advocate, December 12, 1912, p. 2161. See also The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 25, 1907, p. 703. John Dearness, "Education f o r the Farm," The Farmer's Advocate, December 9, 1909, p. 1916: William Rennie, Successful Farming, Toronto: 1908, p. 10. 163 The Farmer's Advocate, October 17, 1907, p. 1631; P.A.O., Pamphlet C o l l e c t i o n , C. C. James, The Teaching of Agriculture i n Our  Publi c Schools. Address to the Farmer's National Congress, Boston: 1899, p. 9. 1 1 7 T h e Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 25, 1907, p. 703. l i e i b i d . , A p r i l 15, 1903, p. 364. See also I b i d . , A p r i l 12, 1912, p. 732: I b i d . , June 13, 1912, p. 1083; and C. C. James, The  Teaching of Agri c u l t u r e i n Our Publ i c Schools, p. 11. n 9 T h e Farmer's Advocate, February 20, 1913, p- 316. I b i d . , August 6, 1908, p. 1341: Junia, "Education f o r the Farm Laddie," The Farmer's Advocate, J u l y 24, 1913, p. 1307. The Farmer's Advocate. October 1, 1908, p. 1514. 1 2 0 T h e Farming World. October 5, 1907, p. 952; The Canadian Farm, October 14, 1910, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate, January 21, 1909, p. 77. 1 2 1 J u s t u s M i l l e r , "The Story of Two Medals," The Canadian Country-man, I I , 25, June 21, 1913: Farm and Dairy, October 16, 1913. I b i d . , November 21, 1912, p. 15, Speech of C. F. B a i l e y at the j o i n t Convention of Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s and Farmers" Clubs at Toronto, November 1912. 1 2 2 - I b i d . , January 29, 1914, p. 27, L e t t e r frpm J . E. Smith, B.S.A., Peterboro County: at Cavan there were over 700 ent r i e s and an attendance of 400-500. (I b i d . , October 16, 1913, p. 4.) 1 2 3 I b i d . , October 16, 1913, p. 3. 12hhe Farmer's Advocate, October 1, 1908, p. 1513. 1 2 5 I b i d . , February 20, 1913, pp. 316-317. Ib i d . , J u l y 25, 1907, p. 1189. 127 I b i d . , September 19, 1907, p. 1481. According to Ibid., June 25, 1908, p. 1057, 5000 were en r o l l e d i n 1907. 1 2 8 I b i d . , February.23, 1911, p. 306. 1 2 9 T h e Farmer's Advocate, J u l y 21, 1910, p. 1169. 1 3°Ibid., A p r i l 16, 1914, p. 748: The Canadian Farm, J u l y 7, 1911, p. 1; The Weekly Sun, January 29, 1908, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 30, 1914, o. 859. 164 131 The Weekly Sun, October 20, 1909, p. 4. 132 The Weekly Sun, January 4, 1911, p. 1. 1 3 3 p a r m a n ( j Dairy, October 25, 1911, p. 10; The Farmer's Advocate, September 16, 1913, p. 1625. See also a more s c h o l a r l y approach by S. A. Cudmore, "Rural Depopulation i n Southern Ontario," Royal Canadian I n s t i t u t e , IX, 1912, p. 264. 1 3 /"Farm and Dairy, October 21, 1909, p. 10. 1 3 5 T h e Weekly Sun, December 7, 1910, p. 1. 165 CHAPTER V NOTES """These expressions found t h e i r v/ay i n t o many a r t i c l e s : The Farmer's Advocate, February 5, 1914, p. 219: Ibid., March 3, 1910, p. 346; Farm and Dairy, October 26, 1911, p. 14; L e t t e r from "Hired Man": I b i d . , A p r i l 23, 1914, p. 18, L e t t e r from Nephew Jack; I b i d . , August 14, 1913, P . 17, J . B. Reynolds: The Canadian Countryman, I I , 2, (August 16, 1913), p. U; The Weekly Sun, November 26, 1902, p. 6; Hopkins, B.S.A. Thesis, O.A.C, 1914. •^ The Farmer's Advocate, February 24, 1910, p. 309. 3Farm and Dairy, February 1, 1912, p. 23, L e t t e r Mrs. J . S. Wilson; The Farmer's Advocate, May 30, 1912, p. 1003: The Weekly Sun, November 26, 1902, p. 6. "\james Grant, "Private Papers of a Canadian Farmer," The Canadian Countryman, I I , 10, (October 4, 1913), p. 15. 5G. C. Creelman, "The Farmer and the Farmer's Son," Th i r d Annual Report of the Ontario Corn Growers' Ass o c i a t i o n , 1900, pp. 11-12. 6The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 24, 1913, p. 770; I b i d . , November 2, 1903, p.. 982; Farm and Dairy, March 26, 1914, pp. 26-27-7Farm and Dairy, A p r i l 1, 1909, p. 18; The Weekly Sun, August 23, 1905, p. 1. 8 I b i d . , October 9, 1901, p. 6: The Farmer's Advocate, July 23, 1914. • The Weekly Sun, October 14, 1903, p. 9, r e p r i n t from the New York Sun t e l l i n g of the great usefulness of phones on the farm: I b i d . , June 1,~1901, p". 8; The Farmer's Advocate, May 30, 1912, p. 1003. 9The Canadian Countryman, I I , 15, ( A p r i l 12, 1913), p. 21; see als o The Weekly Sun, J u l y 8, 1908, p. 5; W. L. Smith, "Over-Crowding i n the C i t i e s , " The Farmer's Magazine, December, 1911, p. 47. 1 0 T h e Weekly Sun, J u l y 6, 1910, p. 3. n i b i d . , August 7, 1907,"p. 6. 1 2 T h e Farming World, May 27, 1902, p. 579:Ibid., J u l y 31, 1901, p. 88: The Farmer's Advocate, August 19, 1909, p. 1327; The Canadian  Farm, October 8, 1909, p. 1. 166 •^The Canadian Farm, November 25, 1910, p. 1. • ^ I b i d . , March 3, 1911, p. 1. 15 ^The Farming World, October 23, 1900, p. 223 described a cheap farm phone system as set up i n Indiana. Francis Dagger wrote a s e r i e s f o r The Farmer's Magazine "The Farmer and the Phone," i n which he described the invention of the telephone, the development of the telephone monopoly and contrasted i t with co-operative or government ownership. (The Farmer's Magazine, December, 1911, p. 59; I b i d . , March, 1912, p. 19). The Farmer's Advocate, September 21, 1905, commented on the set up of the phone system. Farm and Dairy, August 7, 1913 gave f i g u r e s on the expansion of the phone system i n Ontario. In 1908 there were l e s s than 2,000 i n the province; i n 1913, there were 50,000 phones operated by 460 co-operative systems plus the B e l l Telephone Co. phones. I b i d . . November 4, 1909, p. 6, d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s on the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a telephone l i n e f o r farmers. The Weekly Sun. March 20, 1909, p. 4. Column by W. L. S. 1 7Ibid.« February 12, 1902, p. 10; I b i d . . March 14, 1906, p. 6. The Farming World. October 1, 1901, p. 361; The Farmer's Advocate. May 1, 1902, p. 333. -1 a •'•The Farming World. October 1, 1901, p. 36I. •^The Weekly Sun. November 4, 1903, p. 10; I b i d . , October 3, 1906, p. 5; I b i d . . September 21, 1910, p. 6. 20 I b i d . , October 6, 1909, p. 6. . 2 1 I b i d . , October 13, 1909, p. 1. 22 The 'Weekly Sun. March 19, 1902, p. 3. The Good Roads A s s o c i a t i o n had been founded i n 1901 and met with Sydney Fis h e r i n 1902 where he made a statement i n support of t h e i r aims. See a l s o Farm and Dairy, May 8, 1903, p. 6, Let t e r John McLaren. 2-^The Weekly Sun. March 19, 1902, p. 3. See a l s o W. J . Black, The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review, XXII, 6, (March, 1901), p. 9. 167 24 For examples of t h i s a g i t a t i o n f o r improved roads see: The Farming World. J u l y 3, 1900, p. 1083; Letter from D.. Mackenzie; The Canadian Farm. January 5, 1912, p. 1; e d i t o r i a l urged f e d e r a l aid f o r road improvement; I b i d . . June 3, 1910, p. 1. This e d i t o r i a l pointed out that statute labour on the roads of Ontario was out of date and not suited to the r u r a l areas. The Farming World. June 10, 1902, p. 631, t o l d of best methods and costs f o r road maintenance. The Canadian Farm. J u l y 15, 1910, p. 1. This e d i t o r i a l advocated c i t y a i d f o r r u r a l roads to a i d both town and country dwellers. The Farmer's  Advocate. A p r i l 23, 1914, p. 799. This e d i t o r i a l demanded a higher tax on automobiles to pay f o r road improvements. 25 The propaganda campaign i n the r u r a l press reached great heights i n the years before 1910 and had not completely subsided by 1914. The farmers hated the automobiles f o r racing down r u r a l roads and d i s t u r b i n g animals or causing bad accidents. (The Weekly Sun, October 26, 1910, p. 1; The Canadian Countryman. I I , 12, (March 22, 1913), p. 25. The  Weekly Sun, June 3, 1908, p. 4; I b i d . . October 9, 1907, p. 5; The Canadian Farm. October 29, 1909, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate, February 20, 1908, p. 289; Farm-and P a i n s June 17, 1909, p. 10. 26 The Weekly Sun. J u l y 6, 1910, p. 1, proposed t o l i m i t by l e g i s -l a t i o n the number or roads on which autos were able to t r a v e l or t o l i m i t the hours of public highways a v a i l a b l e to autos (see a l s o I b i d . , June 24, 1908, p. 1; or I b i d . . A p r i l 1, 1908, p. 6, f o r support of p r i v a t e members' l e g i s l a t i o n which would accomplish t h i s aim.) 27 The Weekly Sun. January 7, 1914, p. 1, supports a s p e c i a l tax on automobiles. ?8 ""The Weekly Sun. August 28, 1907, p. 1. This e d i t o r i a l demanded heavy f i n e s f o r those who owned autos and broke the r u l e s of the road. These people had l o t s of money and low f i n e s would not provide much deterrence, The Sun argued. 29 H a m s L. Adams, "The Farmer and the Auto," The Farmer's Magazine, November, 1912, p. 19; Farm and Dairy. June 5, 1913, p. 5; The Farmer's  Advocate. A p r i l 16, 1908, p. 698. 30 The Farmer's Advocate. November 10, 1910, p. 1769. See a l s o , J . W. Sangster, "The Motorcycle on the Farm," The Canadian Countryman. I l l , 3, (March 28, 1914 ), p. 6. The f i r s t automobile ad i n any Canadian farm p u b l i c a t i o n read was i n The A g r i c u l t u r a l Annual of 1904, p. 167; i t was an advertisement f o r the Fungs Finch Auto Car from the Sintz. Gas Engine Co. of D e t r o i t . The Farmer's Advocate printed i t s f i r s t automobile advertisement i n 1910, (Sept. 8, 1910, p. 1469), f o r a Kennedy, the "farmer's car," manufactured by the Kennedy Motor Car Co. Preston, Ontario. I t cost §840 with windshield and headlights extra. Automobiles were advertised from the commencement of p u b l i c a t i o n i n The Canadian  Countryman, (see Feb. 22, 1913, f o r example). Ford Car ads begin i n 1913. A runabout cost §675. (The Farmer's Advocate, May 1, 1913, p. 807 ) or The Farm and P a i n . A p r i l 3, 1913, p. 9.) 168 31 For examples of the a g i t a t i o n created over t h i s issue see: The Farming World. May 1, 1900, p. 896; The Weekly Sun, August 17, 1904, p. 1; I b i d . , October 21, 1903, p. 1; I b i d . , March 15, 1905, Let t e r A. G. Kay. (Ke remarked that t h i s was the "question above a l l others which should engage the a t t e n t i o n of every man i n the Dominion...") The Farming World. J u l y 24, 1900, p. 1133; I b i d . , January 28, 1900, p. 513. (Resolution of the East Middlesex.Farmer 1s A s s o c i a t i o n ) ; I b i d . , A p r i l 23, 1901, p. 891. The Farmer's Advocate, October 1, 1902, p.. 707; I b i d . , A p r i l 5, 1906, p. 545; I b i d . , January 1, 1903, p. 7; Farm and  Dairy, February 4, 1909, p. 5, (Remarks on the f i r s t r u r a l mail d e l i v e r y i n Canada from Hamilton to Ancaster and claims that i t s campaign r e s u l t e d i n the service being established.) Immediately a f t e r the adoption of t h i s system i n l i m i t e d areas, campaigns were begun urging i t s extension to a l l r u r a l areas i n Ontario and Canada. (Farm and Pair?,'-. J u l y 22, 1909, p. 10.) 3? The Farming World. August 1, 1904, p. 550, L e t t e r from 'Farmer's Son' Peterboro Co. 3 ee a l s o Farm and P a i r y . September 2, 1909, p. 7. 33 The Farmer's Advocate. J u l y 15, 1909, p. 1135, provides an example of t h i s service with i t s f u l l page Eaton's ad e x t o l l i n g the bargains a v a i l a b l e at t h e i r f a l l and winter s a l e . This was one of the f i r s t large scale advertisements by Eaton's i n the r u r a l press. It appeared only a few months a f t e r the inauguration of r u r a l m a i l d e l i v e r y . A s i m i l a r advertisement on behalf of Simpson's appeared i n The Canadian  Countryman, A p r i l 26, 1913, P« 23. Again, no sooner had the s e r v i c e been set up than r u r a l p u b l i c i s t s demanded i t s extension. (The Weekly Sun, J u l y 20, 1910, p. 1, supported the extension of the p a r c e l post system t o allow greater shopping by mail.) •^The Farmer's Advocate, January 16, 1908, p. 76. . 3 5 I b i d . , January 1, 1903, p. 7. 3°The Weekly Sun. October 9, 1901, p. 6. 3 7 T . P. McDonald, "The S o c i a l and I n t e l l e c t u a l Side of Farm L i f e , " The Farming World. June 18, 1901, p. 1085. ^ T h e Farmer's Advocate. November 2, 1903, p. 982; W. A. Craik, " I n d u s t r i a l Development - How i t Helps the Farmer," The Canadian  Countryman. I l l , 15, ( A p r i l 11, 1914,), p. 1 4 . • 30 -^The Farmer's Advocate, February 24, 1910, p. 309. ^Anonymous, "The Townward Movement," The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l  College Review. XI, 7, ( A p r i l , 1900 ), pp. 9-10. ^ W i l l i a m Johnson, " L i f e on the Farm," Report of the Farmers'' I n s t i t u t e s of the Province of Ontario, 1907, Part I, p. 106. 169 I b i d . ^ T h e Farmer's Advocate, February 24, 1910, p. 309, L e t t e r from Mrs. W. E. Hopkins; I b i d . , January 19, 1905, p. 91. ^ F a r m and Pair?,-. February 22, 1912, p. 17; I b i d . . August 7, 1912, p. 7. A story e n t i t l e d "'why We L e f t the Farm," appeared i n s e r i a l i z e d form and described the disadvantages of being a farmer's wife. ( I t f i r s t appeared i n The Saturday Evening Fost.) ^ i p i d . . May 7, 1914, p. 552. See a l s o W. L. Smith, "Overcrowding i n the C i t i e s , " The Farmer's Magazine, December, 1911, p. 46; The  Farming World, Sept ember 15, 1906, p. o53« ^ 6 J . , K e r r Abbott, " W i l l Rural Democracy Dwindle," The Ontario  A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review, XXVI, 4, (January, 1914 ), p. 27; The Farmer's Magazine. A p r i l , 1913, p. 27; Farm and Dairy, October 7, 1909, p. 12. ^^Margaret B e l l , " R e v i s i t i n g a V i l l a g e Church," The Canadian  Countryman. I I , 18, (May 3, 1913 ), p. 18. ^ 8The Canadian Farm. August 11, 1911, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate. January 14, 1907, p. 41; Farm and Dairy, October 7, 1909, p. 12; I b i d . . A p r i l 1, 1909, p. 18; W. Hunt, The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College  Review. XXVI, 6, (March, 1911 ), p. 300. 4 < 7The Farmer's Magazine. V, 6, ( A p r i l , 1913 ), p. 27. 5°Farm and Dairy. May 6, 1909, p. 16. 5 1 I b i d . , June 18, 1911, p. 13. 5 2 i b i d . . June 12, 1913, p. 15, Letter Mrs. Wm. K e l l e y . 53 The Canadian Farm, J u l y 29, 1910, p. 2 ; T Deofol, "Greater Comfort i n the Farm Home," The Canadian Countryman. I l l , 10, (March 7, 1914), p. 22; The Farmer's Advocate, January 14, 1907, p. 41; I b i d . . A p r i l 25, 1907, p. 701; See also almost any issue of The  Canadian Countryman. ^ I b i d . , November 11, 1910, p. 1. 55T'he Farmer's Magazine, January, 1912, pp. 9-10; The Farmer's  Advocate, March 19, 1914, p. 524; and G. C. Creelman, "The Farmer and the Farmer's Son," Third Annual Report of the Ontario Corn Growers' As s o c i a t i o n , 1910, p. 10. 170 56 The Farming World. March 12, 1901, p. 619; C. C. James, "address," Annual Reports of the Dairymen's Associations of the  Province of Ontario, 1909, p. 40; The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 26, 1906, p. 677; The Weekly Sun. August 2, 1905, p. 4. 5 7Farm and Dairy. May 28, 1914, p. 12; The Canadian Countryman, I I , 8, (February 22, 1913 ), p. 22; The Farmer's Advocate, March 26, 1908, p. 557; Cynthia Doering, "A Dainty Room," Farming, March 13, 1900, p. 748. 5 8 I b i d . ; The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 18, 1907, p. 659. 5 9Farm and Dairy. J u l y 17, 1913, p. 16, Lett e r from "the Son," I b i d . . January 30, 1913, p. 12; see a l s o Farming. May 29, 1900, p. 985; The Farmer's Advocate. January 19, 1905, p. 75; Farm and Dairy, October 19, 1911, p. 18; John Dryden, The 'Weekly Sun. J u l y 1, 1903, p. 3; Farm and Dairy. September 4, 1913, p. 14. ""^ G. C. Creelman, "The Farmer and the Farmer's Son," Third Annual  Report of the Ontario Corn Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1910, p. 11; The  Farmer's Advocate. May 15, 1900, p. 293. 6 lFarm and Dairy. May 1, 1913, p. 12. ""•Farming. May 29, 1900, p. 985. 6 3James Mark, "Holding Our Own," The Canadian Countryman, I I , 18, (May 3, 1911 ) , p. 17; The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 26, 1906, p. 69I; The "Weekly Sun, August 19, 1908, p. 6; one advertisement f o r a gun t o l d the farmer that he ought to "make that Boy Kappy with a Stevens" r i f l e , (Farm and Dairy, A p r i l 8, 1909, p. 23). . ^ T h e Farmer's Advocate. December 1, 1900, p. 688; The Weekly Sun, March 27, 1901, p. 10; Robson Black, "Sentiment or Wages," The Canadian  Countryman. I l l , 10, (March 7, 1914), p. 12. 65 The Farmer's Advocate, J u l y 14, 1910, p. 1145; I b i d . , January 25, 1914, p. 138; I b i d . . January 19, 1905, p. 91. 6 6James Mark, "Holding Our Own," The Canadian Countryman. I I , 18, (May 3, 1913), p. 17. °Vne Farmer's Advocate, J u l y 14, 1910, p. 1145, Letter from Sandy Sanderson; Farm and Dairy, October 19, 1911, p. 18, Lett e r from J . Dickinson; Farming. May 29, 1900, p. 985, Lett e r from M. Arthur; The Farmer's Advocate, January 19, 1905, p. 75; The Farming World. June 26, 1900, p. 1061, Lett e r from J . I. Hcbson. 171 ^Farming. Hay 29, 1900, p. 985, Letter from M. Arthur; The  Farmer's Advocate. January 19, 1905, p. 75; I b i d . . A p r i l 20, 1911, p. 700; I b i d . , A p r i l 27, 1911, p. 749, L e t t e r Fred Foyston; The  Canadian Countryman. August 22, 1914, p. 4. 69 xThe Farmer's Advocate. September 2, 1901, p. 567, L e t t e r , W.G.H.; The Canadian Farm. October 14, 1900, p. 1.' 70-Edward D r i e r , "Keeping the Boy on the Farm," The Canadian  Countryman. I l l , 16, ( A p r i l 18, 1914), p. 13; Farming. Kay, 1900, p. 894; The Canadian Countryman, "The Old Home Farm at Xmas," I I , 50, (December 13, 1913), p. 25. 71. '^Andrew KcTaggart, "The M i n i s t r y of the S o i l , " The Farmer's Magazine, June, 1914, pp. 5-6: The Farmer's Advocate. February 5, 1914, p. 219. 72 Florence J . Hadley, "Making the Boy a Froperty Owner," The  Canadian Countryman. J u l y 18, 1914, p. 7. 7 3 T h e Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 27, 1911, p. 749. 7 i fFarm and Dairy. March 7, 1912, p. 4. See a l s o The Farmer's  Advocate. February 19, 1914, p. 318, Let t e r from F a i r Play. 75 Ib i d . , February 19, 1914, P . 319; and Farm and Dairy. March 7, 1912, p. 4. The Farmer's Advocate. January 30, 1913, p. 176,- Report of the Dominion Grange and Farmer's .Association; see also The Farmer's Advocate, February 23, 1911, p. 306; I b i d . . February 13, 1913, p. 253; Farm and  Dairy, January 30, 1913, p. 10. 7 7 T h e Farmer's Advocate. October 15, 1908, p. 1580. 78ibid., December 1, 1910, p. 1882. 7 9 I b i d . , A p r i l 24, 1913, p. 770. 8 0 H a t t i e Robinson, "The Influence of One Grange," The Farmer's  Magazine, J u l y , 1912, p.'I72ff.; The Farmer's Magazine. November, 1912, p. 17. ' 81 The Farmer's Advocate. February 13, 1913, p. 253. 82 The Farmer's Advocate. November 10, 1904, p. 1531; see a l s o I b i d . . January 5, 1905, p. 13. 1 7 2 83 The Farming world, January 15, 1 9 0 6 , p. 64; see also Farm and  Dairy, August 28, 1 9 1 3 , p. 24. 8A ^The Farmer's Advocate, J u l y 28, 1910, p. 1204; I b i d . . February 1 3 , 1913, p. 260; E t h e l Ii. Chapman, "How Mary Jane Made Good, The Farmer's Magazine. March, 1914, p. 52. 85-l b i d . . December 8, 1910, p. 1925-8 6 T h e Weekly Sun. January 30, 1901, p. 1, commends the Ontario Government's Proposal to e s t a b l i s h t r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r i e s . The Farming World. August 12, 1902, p. 1 3 9 . 87 The Farmer's Advocate. October 1 5 , 1901, p. 674. 88 I b i d . , December 30, 1909, pp. 2080-2081; The Farming World. November 1, 1907, p. 1027; Farm and Dairy, May 15, 1912, p. 20. 8 < 7The Farmer's Advocate, January 4, 1906, p. 18. 9°The Canadian Farm. J u l y 21, 1 9 1 1 , p. 1. 91-, Jtii. J . Mountford, "Boys are the Sinews of War," The Farmer's  Magazine. May,1912, p. 61. 9 2 The Farmer's Advocate. February 4, 1909, p. 160. 9 3 T h e Weekly Sun. J u l y 1 5 , 1903, p. 3 ; Farm and Dairy. A p r i l 8, 1 9 0 9 , p. 2 3 . 94 ^The Farmer's Advocate. J u l y 2, 1900, pp. 380-381; E t h e l M. Chapman, "How Mary Jane Made Good," The Farmer's Magazine, March, 1914 p. 5 2 . 95 / >The Canadian Countryman. I I , 52, December 27, 1913, p. 4. 96 7 H. M. C u l t e r , "The Rural College," The Farmer's Magazine, March, 1911, p. 2 3 ; see a l s o E. C. Drury, "31,000 f o r Country Teachers The Farmer's Magazine. January, 1914, p. 1 5 f f . 97 y'Farm and Dairy. October 2 5 , 1 9 1 1 , p. 10; and The Farmer's  Advocate, September 16, 1913, p. 1625. 173 CHAPTER VI NOTES Farm and Pair-/. October 26, 1911, p. 10. I b i d . . November 20, 1913, p. 12; I b i d . . October 21, 1909, P . 10; F.A.C., VI. C. Good Fapers, v o l . 10, f . 11192, December 20, 1913, MSS of Grange Address in which he lays the blame f o r depopulation and r u r a l problems on the doorstep of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . See a l s o Appendix G f o r presentation of farmers at Ottawa i n 1910; The Farmer's Advocate. December 3, 1908; E. C. Drury in The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review. XIV, 7, ( A p r i l 1902), p. 4. Rev. J . Macdougall, "The Rural Froblem," The S o c i a l Service Congress, Report, p. 151. A study conducted by C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y discovered that 155 out of 400 boys were planning to leave the farm. Of the 155, 62 c i t e d inadequate f i n a n c i a l returns f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n (The Farmer's  Advocate, February 3, 1910, p. 162). 2 The Farmer's Advocate. February 27, 1908, p. 337; see a l s o i b i d . , February 5, 1914, p. 230; L e t t e r from J . H. Robinson; Farm and Dairy. October 26, 1911, p. 10, remarked that "The true reason i s an economic one. Farming i s not comparatively p r o f i t a b l e . " ^Hon. Sydney F i s h e r , "Back t o the Farm," Annual Reports of the  Dairymen's A s s o c i a t i c n s of the Province of Ontario, 1907. p. 36. ^C. C. James, "Address," Annual Reports of the Dairymens' Associations of the Province of Ontario, 1909. p. 40. For s i m i l a r comments see a l s o The Farmer's Advocate, February 19, 1914, Lett e r from " F a i r Play,"; I b i d . . January 22, p. 129; I b i d . . February 27, 1908, p. 337; Farm and Dairy, March 7, 1912, p. 4; I b i d . , August 6, 1914, p. 11 (F. E. E l l i s of t h i s j o u r n a l t o l d an audience that annual farm income per farmer in the U.S. was only $318.22). 5The Farmer's Advocate. February 19, 1914, p. 322. Ibi d . , February 5, 1914, p. 230; Lett e r J . H. Robinson, Peel Co. ''"Farm and Dairy. November 30, 1911, December 7, 1911, and December 14, 1911 f o r examples of t h i s s e r i e s . See I b i d . , August 14, 1913, p. 17, Frofessor Reynolds of O.A.C. said that t h i s was one " l o g i c a l conclusion at which we can a r r i v e , " H. H. Dean "Dairying Fast, Fresent and Future," Farm and Dairy, A p r i l 23, 1914, p. 3, remarked that the d a i r y farmer has "not received just rewards f o r c a p i t a l invested." 174 9 The Weekly Sun. October 25, 1911, p. 1.; see also J . Kerr Abbott, " W i l l Rural Democracy Dwindle," The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review. XXVI, 4, (January, 1914), p. 224, "...the c h i e f cause of the movement to the c i t y i s economic..." 1 0 F a r m and Dairy. August 14, 1913, p. 10, re p r i n t e d from The V/eekly  Sun; see also The Farmer's Advocate. September 15, 1913, p. 1625, or I b i d . , A p r i l 18, 1912, p. 732. This j o u r n a l said that "the r e a l under-l y i n g cause i s economic" coupled with a "school system that has made a breach with the farm and a bridge to the occupations of the town." W. C. Good o c c a s i o n a l l y modified h i s purely economic point of view to recognize the influence or propaganda and education i n leading country c h i l d r e n away from the farm, but he emphasized that no permanent cure to the problem could be achieved without economic reform. (W. C. Good "Two Reasons F l a i n , " The Farmer's Magazine, January 1912, p. 6 l . ) n T h e Farmer's Advocate. January 22, 1914, p. 129. 12 For examples of t h i s type of sentiment see: Hon. Nelson Monteith, "Address," Thirty-Seventh Annual Report of the  Fruit-Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n of Ontario, 1905. p. 19. The tendency of a g r i c u l t u r e was t o become more and more a manufacturing industry. Farm and Dairy, J u l y 24, 1913, p. 2, Let t e r from C. Davis urged that farmers l i k e manufacturers should throiv away s t i l l usable machinery i n order to keep up with progress. I b i d . , March 27, 1913, P. 4, Let t e r by G. E. Day of O.A.C. r e i t e r a t e s that farmers are net applying business p r i n c i p l e s as f a r as they should. I b i d . , November 28, 1912, p. 6, a r t i c l e by J . E. Waggoner of the I.H.C. Service Bureau remarked that farming was more and more a purely business operation. I b i d . , August 25, 1910, urges more systematization of the methods used i n a g r i c u l t u r e on the manufacturer's model. I b i d . . September 22, 1910, p. 10, George C. Creelman at the E x h i b i t i o n remarked that farmers were not "speculative enough." The Farmer's Advocate, remarked the man who makes most was the farmer who saw h i s cows as machines. ^ I b i d . . March 12, 1914, p. 477. (Though t h i s l e t t e r was w r i t t e n by an opponent of the above viewpoint, he puts i t s arguments cogently.) I b i d . , A p r i l 26, 1906, p. 691; I b i d . . A p r i l 26, 1906; The Farmer's Magazine, J u l y , 1911, p. 12. ^ T h e Farmer's Advocate. February 22, 1912, p. 307. •^The Canadian Farm. Kay 13, 1910, p. 2; The Fanning World. August 27, 1901, p. 189. (This e d i t o r i a l noted that " . . . i t seems to us that a family i s better o f f when one son has a hundred acre farm, and the other i s earning h i s l i v i n g i n some other occupation...." than when both sons were t r y i n g to run uneconomical f i f t y acre farms.) 1 6 , ' ' Cudmore, Royal Canadian I n s t i t u t e , p. 267. 175 17 Farm and Dairy, November 6, 1913, p. 3- Report on Rev. Macdougall's book. 18 • The Farming World. August 27, 1901, p. 190. •"-93ee C. C. James, The Teaching of Agriculture i n Our Public Schools. (Address t o Farmer's National Congress, Boston, 1899), Ontario Department of Agriculture, Toronto: 1900 (F.A.O. Pamphlet Co l l e c t i o n ) . This gives a f u l l explanation of the need f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l education. J u s t i n M i l l e r , "The Story of Two Medals," The Canadian Countryman. I I , 2 5 , (June 21, 1913), p. 15. The Farmer's Advocate. February 20, 1913, p. 316, Letter from V/. E. Tummon. 20 The Weekly Sun. March 13, 1912, p. 5, promoted a special t r a i n with displays and experts to ins t r u c t farmers. This was endorsed by The Canadian Countryman. I I , 22, (May 3 1 , 1913), p. 4 , and I b i d . , I I , 12, (March 22, 1913), p. 8. see also C-. I. C h r i s t i e , "Equipment and Methods i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension," The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College  Review. XXIII, 2, (November, 1910). 21 Wm. T. Kowscn, "Agriculture as an Occupation," The Farming World, Ju l y 25, 1901, p. 75; The Farmer's Advocate. June 15, 1903, p. 5 5 2 . (This a r t i c l e remarks that with continuing depletion of the s o i l s c i e n t i f i c agriculture had become very important and the best way to learn better methods was at O.A.C.) E. J . Mountford, "Boys are the Sinews of War," The Farmer 1s Magazine, May, 1912, p. 59. 22 R. M. Robinson, "Why I Took to I t , " The Farmer's Magazine, May, 1912, p. 56; J . B. Reynolds, "Reading i n the Farm Heme," Twenty-Eighth Annual Report of the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l and Experimental Union, 1906; Farm and Dairy. January 28, 1909, p. 14; points cut the r o l e of government publications i n promoting improvements; G. LeLecheur, "Reading i n the Farm, Home," The O.A.C*. Review, XX, 8, (May, 1908), p. 4 4 2 ; The Farmer's Advocate, September 1 2 , 1907, says the average journal "has more or less influence i n d i r e c t i n g his /the farmer's/' choice and course i n the operations on the farm i n r e l a t i o n t o stock r a i s i n g , c u l t i v a t i o n of the s o i l , crop rot a t i o n . . . . " 2 3The O.A.C. Review. X I I I , 5, February, 1902, p. 11; Wm. T. Howson, "Agriculture as an Occupation," p. 7 5 . "^Florence J . Hadley, "Making the Boy a Property Owner," The  Canadian Countryman. I l l , 29, (July 18, 1914), p. 7. R. M. Robinson, "Why I Took to I t , " p. 5 6 . C. C. James, The Teaching o f Agriculture i n Cur Public Schools, notes the importance of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s , f r u i t growers, poultry, bee, experimenters, dairymen, and entomologists i n educating the mature population. 25 The Canadian Farm. A p r i l 7, 1911, p. 1, urged model farms scattered over the countrv to show new techniques to farmers. 176 26 G. I. C h r i s t i e , "Equipment and Methods i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension," The O.A.C. Review. XXIII, 2, (November, 1910). 27 The Canadian Farm. November 5, 1909, p. 1. 28 For f u l l d e t a i l s of t h i s argument see: The Farmer's Advocate. February 9, 1911, p. 288; I b i d . , February 25, 1909, p. 281. Mixed farming means nothing known i n depth about any-t h i n g . I t had no system "no head nor t a i l , " The Weekly Sun, December 22, 1909, p. 6. I b i d . . June 2, 1909, p. 8, Le t t e r from A. Fatterson. He emphasized the complementary nature of f r u i t growing and d a i r y i n g , W. J . Brown, ' " A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics," The O.A.C. Review, (March, 1906), XVIII, 6, p. 250. S. E. Todd, " P r i n c i p l e s of Co-operation," The O.A.C. Review. XXIV, 9, (October, 1911), p. 1. ("The day c f the mixed farmer i s passing. The complications a r i s i n g from the endeavour to s u c c e s s f u l l y conduct many branches of farming forced the farmer to recognize that a mastery of two branches was about the l i m i t of the human mind." Andrew McTaggart, "The M i n i s t r y of the S o i l , " The Farmer's  Magazine. June, 1914, p. 5. Nelson Monteith, "Address," T h i r t y - E i g h t h  Annual Report of the F r u i t Growers' Asso c i a t i o n of Ontario. 1906, p. 42. 29 The Canadian Countryman, i l l , 1, January, 1914, p. 9; Otto Herold, "The Small Farm and the High Cost of L i v i n g , " The Canadian Countryman. I l l , 11, (March 14, 1914), p. 9. "Too many farmers have land hunger and b i t e o f f too much land and get work i n d i g e s t i o n . Instead of farming i n t e n s i v e l y and i n a bus i n e s s - l i k e manner, they d i s s i p a t e t h e i r energies and often too meagre c a p i t a l i n running large farms of many acres i n e f f i c i e n t l y and with miserable returns f o r work and c a p i t a l put i n . " S. E. Todd, "Rural Population i n Ontario: One Way t o Solve the Farm Problem," The Farmer's Magazine. December, 1911, p. 52ff. The Canadian  Farm. August 27, 1909, p. 8. K. Harton, " C u l t i v a t e the S o i l , " The O.A.C. Review, XIX, 3, (December, 1906), p. 115; L. A. Moorhouse, "Intensive T he O.A.C. Review. XII, 5, (February, 1900), p. 13; The  Canadian Farm. A p r i l 8, 1910, p. 1. I b i d . , October 21, 1910, p. 1. 3°Barton, The O.A.C. Review. XIX, 3, (December, 1906), p. 115. Moorhouse, I b i d . . XII, 5, (February, 1900), p. 13. ^^The Canadian Farm. November 18, 1910, p. 1. 32 Farm and Dairy. May 27, 1909, p. 12 remarked that "probably no one t h i n g tends to discourage boys cn the farm mere than the q u a l i t y of the stock that i s so l a r g e l y kept. The average farm boy needs to be in t e r e s t e d i n something that i s worthwhile i f he i s to be induced t o stay on the farm." See also The Canadian Countryman, I I , 34, (August 23, 1913), p. 6; Farm  and Dairy, January 19, 1911, p. 12. ^ T h e Canadian Farm. January 21, 1911, p. 1. I b i d . , August 5, 1910, p. 1; I b i d . , January 28, 1909, p . - l ; I b i d . . October 21, 1910, p. 1; Canadian Bee Journal XV, ( J u l y , 1903), p. 269, Speech of G. C. Creelman. 177 3 4 iv. A. Craik, " I n d u s t r i a l Development, How i t Helps the Farmer," The Canadian Countryman, I I I , 15, ( A p r i l 11, 1914), p. 15. See also Ruddick et a l . The Dairy Industry i n Canada, p. 8, f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the impact of urban areas i n promoting expansion of a g r i c u l t u r a l s p e c i a l t i e s . 3 5 In favour of production records see: Farm and Dairy, January 14, 1909, p. 3, Lett e r C. F. Whitely; The Farmer's  Advocate, March 20, 1913, p. 519. A r t i c l e on the r u r a l problem describes the importance of keeping track of production from various d a i r y c a t t l e and therefore knowing exactly how to increase production. The Canadian  Countryman, I I , 8, (February 22, 1913), p. 11. In favour of bookkeeping systems see: Farm and Dairy. February 11, 1909, p. 1 6 . John J . B a r t l e t t , "The Farmer's Book-Keeping," The Farmer's  Magazine, February, 1914, p. 20. "The farmer can't be t o l d too much that he must be as much a businessman as the grocer c r hardware dealer. The O.A.C. Review. XXIII, 1, (October, 1910), p. 10 estimated that l e s s than f i v e per cent of the farmers keep accounts. Again c i t y businessmen •were c i t e d as the examples f o r the farmer to fo l l o w i n keeping accounts. The Weekly Sun, A p r i l , 1908, p. 5, remarked that cost accounting was an e s s e n t i a l to economical production. The Canadian Farm, January 2 7 , 1 9 1 1 , P . ' l , again pointed out to i t s readers that farming was a business and had to have a system c f some s o r t . The Farmer's Advocate, June 1, 1909, p. 365. I b i d . . About once a year the jo u r n a l ran a s e r i e s on how to organize and keep an accounting system of the farms, (see August 6, I914, p. 1421 f o r example.) J . J . Beaumont, "Business Methods i n Farming," The Farming World. June 3, 1902, p. 614. The Farmer's Advocate, January 14, 1909, p. 47. I b i d . , January 28, 1 9 0 9 , p. 1 1 9 and various other issues i n 1900 and 1901. 3 7p.A.C., Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Papers, Dairy Products D i v i s i o n , V o l . 16, f i l e 78064, May 11, 1 9 1 1 , K3S Prepared by J . A. Ruddick, "How the Canadian Governments, Federal and P r o v i n c i a l , Protect and A s s i s t the Dairy Industry." 38 The Farmer's Advocate, January 28, 1909, p. 113. 39 A. Craik, "Guarding the Milk Supply of a Big C i t y , " The  Canadian Countryman. I I , 25, (June 21, 1913, 0, p. 8. ^ T h e Weekly Sun. September 1 5 , 1909, P. 1; The Canadian Farm. October 1 5 , 1909, p. 1. ^ 1The Weekly Sun. March 30, 1910, p. 1; The Canadian Farm. October 7, 1 9 1 0 , p. 1, Letter from A. Macmillan; The Parmer's Advocate, December 4, 1913, p. 2093. 178 42 F.A.C., S i r John Willison Papers, C. G. Creelman to J. S. 'willison, December 2, 1 9 0 9 , P. 6096; see also The Canadian Countryman. II, 2 3 , (June 7, 1 9 1 3 ) , p." 5. ^The Canadian Countryman. II, IS, ("May 3, 1913), p. 4; The Farmer's  Advocate. July 16, 1912, p. 1309. 44 The Canadian Countryman. II, 1, (January 4, 1913), p. 5. 45 H. R. Ross, "Co-operation Among Farmers," The O.A.C. Review. XI, 7, (April, 1900), p. 5; P.A.C., Department of A.griculture Fapers, Dairy Products Division, M53., J. A. Ruddick, "History of Dairying i n Canada," vol. 15, f i l e 58389; C. C. James, "Agriculture in i t s Relation to Manufactures," The O.A.C. Review. XX, 8, (May, 1908), p. 416; The Weekly Sun. A p r i l 27, 1910, p. 1; Ibid., November 28, 1906, p. 1; Farm and Dairy. July 21, 1910, p. 3, cited the Farmer's Dairy company with George S. Henry as president as an organization which embodied some principles of co-operation. ^ 6The Weekly Sun. March 21, 1904, p. 2, describes the meetings which resulted in setting up the co-operatives. Ibid., March 11, 1908, p. 1; Ibid.. March 1 3 , 1912, p. 4; The Farmer's Advocate. January 14, 1909, The Canadian Countryman. II, 3 1 , (August 2, 1913), p. 5, said that co-operative packing would cut down on dishonest f r u i t packers. in ^'P.A.C, Co-operative Union of Canada Fapers, copy of letter from Alex McNeill to P. W. Hodgetts, (Sup't. of Fruit Growers' Association), October 24, 1911. McNeill was the Chief of the Fruit Division of the Department of Agriculture and very friendly to the idea cf co-ops and helped plan their strategy. (CUC Fapers, December 9, 1909, Alex McNeill to George Keen). The Dist r i c t Representatives cf Ontario Department of Agriculture appeared to be greatly interested i n the establishment of co-operative ventures and sent many letters to the Co-op Union between 1912 and 1914 asking about subscriptions to The Canadian Co-operator for information about co-operatives i n agriculture. Feter McArthur also wrote to George Keen and asked about the po s s i b i l i t i e s of co-ops i n agriculture apart from f r u i t growing aspects (CUC Papers, Peter McArthur to George Keen, August 7, 1913). 1 rt ^ The Weekly Sun. July 20, 1902, p. 4, Letter B.B.M.; The Canadian  Countryman. May 16, 1914, III, 20, (May 16, 1914), p. 1 3 , points out the advantages of a co-operative commercial laundry i n lessening the work of the farm housewife. 4 9The Canadian Farm. January 20, 1911, p. 1. 5°The Canadian Farm. October 7, 1910, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 2, 1914, p. 641; Farm and Dairy. May 14, 1914, p. 12. 1 7 9 51 , The Canadian Countryman. I I , 20, (Kay 24, 1913), p. 7 . Story on Co-op buying organized by the Ontario Vegetable Growers; The Weekly Sun, November 28, 1906, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate. December 4, 1913, P. 2093. 52 W. J . Black, "The Labor Problem," The O.A.C. Review, XII, 4 , (January, 1901), p. 12. 5 3 This question according to The Canadian Farm was one of the " l i v e t o p i c s of the day." 5 4 The Farming World. J u l y 1 5 , 1 9 0 2 , o. 5 1 ; The Weekly Sun, June 4 , 1 9 0 2 , p. 4 . 5 5 The Farming World. Kay 21, 1901, p. 982; see also The Canadian  Countryman. I I . 25. (June 21, 1913), p. 5. Farm and Dairy, June 6, 1912, p. 17; I b i d . . A p r i l 1 0 , 1913, p. 4; I b i d . . A p r i l 3, 1913, p. 14; The  Canadian Farm, March 25, 1910, p. 1. 5 6 F a r m and Dairy. August 7 , 1913, p. 17; I b i d . . August 12, 1909, Lett e r Mrs. W. E . Hopkins, R u s s e l l Co. 5 7 T h e Farmer's Advocate. October 12, 1911, p. 1677; see a l s o Farm and Dairy. August 7, 1913, P» 17; L e t t e r 5. Monahan 5 8 The Farming World. March 18, 1 9 0 2 , p. 2 5 5 ; A. L e i t c h , "The Farm Labor Problem," The O.A.C. Review, XIX, 1, (October, 1 9 0 6 ) , p. 4 9 ; The Farming World. March 10, 1 9 0 2 , p. 2 5 5 ; The Farmer's Advocate. August 15, 1901, p. 534. 59 I b i d . See also The Weekly Sun, February 5 , 1908, p. 1, E. C. Drury's speech at Whitby. 60 The Weekly Sun. January 28, 1903, p. 2. 61 The hired man became the scapegoat of the farmer i n many s i t u a t i o n s . On one occasion one man t o l d of how when his employer was caught t r y i n g to-cheat, the m i l l blamed him (The Farmer's Advocate. August 15, 1901, p. 534). L i v i n g i n the farmer's house he was under the eye of the farmer's wife the while time "and she gen e r a l l y manages to make t h e i r l i v e s not worth l i v i n g . They must take o f f t h e i r boots on the doorstep; they must brush a l l the f l i e s off. i n the screen door before they enter...they must net ex-pect anything to drink on a b r o i l i n g summer's day except hot tea . . . . Then the farmer's wife has a temper l i k e a fie n d and vents i t a l l on the hired man when he comes i n f o r his meals. (The Canadian Farm, February 2 , 1 9 1 2 , p. 3). See also I b i d . , January 12, 1 9 1 2 , p. 3, L e t t e r from "Ardent Reader." 180 62 The weekly Sun, June 4, 1902, p. 4. 63 The Canadian Farm. January 26, 1912, p. 4. 64 The Weekly Sun. February 25, 1903, p. 3, Let t e r Robert H a l l ; I b i d . , February 25, 1903, p. 3; I b i d . . February 19, 1908, p. 6; I b i d . . March 11, 1908, p. 9. 65W. C. Good, "The Farm Labor Froblem," The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l  College Review, XVII, 2, (November, 1904), p. 68: The 'Weekly Sun, February 25, 1903, p. 3. 6 6 T h e Farming World. March 18, 1902, p. 255; I b i d . . J u l y 15, 1902, p. 51; The Weekly Sun. February 11, 1903, p. 4; I b i d . , January 28, 1903, p. 2; Farm and Dairy. November 28, 1912, p. 4; I b i d . , November 18, 1909, p. 10; The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 18, 1907, p. 675. 6 7 I b i d . , August 15, 1901, p. 534; I b i d . , March 26, 1914, p. 586; I b i d . , January 11, 1912, p. 43. 6 8 A . L e i t c h , "The Farm Labor Problem," The O.A.C. Review, XIX, 1, (October, 1906), p. 49. 6?The Earner's Advocate. January 11, 1912, p. 43; The Farming World. June 26, 1900, p. 1061; The Weekly Sun, June 4, 1902, p. 4; Farm and  Dairy, October 27, 1910, p. 10; The Canadian Farm, March 25, 1910, p. 1; The Farming World, March 18, 1902, p. 255; I b i d . , March 15, 1905, p. 213; A Campbell, "Making the Hired Man a F i x t u r e , " The Canadian Countryman, I I I , 36, (September 5, 1914), p. 6. 70 ' ' wThe Farmer's Advocate. November 2, 1903, p. 982; The Farming 'World, J u l y 17, 1900, p. 1117; Farm and Dairy. March 26, 1914, p. 26. 7 1 T h e Farming World. A p r i l 15, 1905, p. 294; The Weekly Sun. February 25, 1903, p. 3, L e t t e r from Isaac Puston who said that "for myself I cannot see any way to make i t /farm labour shortage/ any be t t e r except by immigration from the older countries. This p o l i c y gained the support of the ex-minister of labour W. L. Mackenzie King i n 1912 who remarked that immigration was necessary to meet the demand for farm labour (The Farmer's Magazine. January, 1912, p. 59). See also The Weekly Sun, March 4, 1903, L e t t e r from 2C. H. Standing; The Farming World, A p r i l 15, 1903, p. 195 t o l d the farmer that he would not get even inexperienced farm helpers f o r the prices he was o f f e r i n g . Some countrymen, were even opposed-to government-assisted B r i t i s h immigrants who "would be c f "the lower, dr i n k i n g c l a s s , f o r s u r e l y a sober industrious man could get money enough to leave the homeland i f he wished without a i d , (The Weekly Sun, February 11, 1903, p. 4). 181 The Farming World. October 1, 1907, p. 903; I b i d . . Karen 15, 1906, p. 197; The Weekly Sun. February 11, 1903, p. 4, Letter from Andrew E l l i o t ; I b i d . . Kay 22, 1907, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 9, 1914, p. 697; Ib i d . . Karen 2, 1903, p. 199; Farm and Dairy. A p r i l 21, 1910, p. 12; W. J . Black, "The Farm Labour Problem," The O.A.C. Fee view, 73 '"The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 9, 1914, p. 697; The Farming World. J u l y 1, 1907, p. 593. IL. The Farmer's Advocate, January 25, 1912, p. 139; Letter from "Agricola"; The Weekly Sun, February 11, 1903, p. 4. ^The Farmer's Advocate. October 13, 1904, p. 1371; The Weekly Sun. February 11, 1903, p. 4; Letter from A. E l l i o t t . I b i d . , September 9, 1903, p. 2; comments by two farmers at the. C.K.E.; The Canadian Farm, February 17, 1911, p. 1; I b i d . , November 3, 1911, p. 1; The Canadian  Countryman. I I , 49, (December 6, 1913)j p. 5; A. Leitc h , "The F arm Labour Problem," The O.A.C. Review, p. 48. 7 6The Farming World. A p r i l 1, 1903, p. 156. 77 I b i d . , May 1, 1903, p. 247. At the same time the paper remarked on i t s n e u t r a l i t y regarding the race issue. The Chinese were to be allowed into Canada as labourers only. "We have no speci a l love for Chinamen, either as a nation or as in d i v i d u a l s , but i f they can be u t i l i z e d to solve the farm help problem, we say by a l l means give them a chance to do so." See also I b i d . . September 16, 1907, p. 855, and The  Farmer's Advocate. May 11, 1906, p. 698; Max 'Wexford, "The Duty We Owe the Immigrant," The Canadian Countryman, I I I , 18, (May 2, 1914), p. 10. 78 The Canadian Farm. A p r i l 14, 1911, p. 1. I t assured the r u r a l people that only the best would come because most southern peoples could not stand the Canadian winter. I b i d . , January 3, 1912, p. 1; The  Farmer's Advocate did not support bringing i n the various groups as labourers on the farm but did urge a more tolerant attitude towards them and an open door poli c y on the part of the Canadian government (The  Farmer's Advocatel July 23, 1914, p. 1345). 79 '7The Weekly Sun. June 22, 1904, p. 1. 8 0 I b i d . . June 1, 1910, p. 1. 81 Max Wexford, The Canadian Countryman, p. 10. W. J . E l l i o t t , "Our Duty to the Newcomer," The Canadian Countryman. I I , 30, (July 26, I913), p. 10. 82 The Farming 'World. June 1, 1904, p. 419. 182 I b i d . , December 1, 1902, p. 521; I b i d . , February 1, 1904, p. 119; I b i d . . February 1, 1907, p. 115; The Weekly Sun. J u l y 13, 1904, p. 3; I b i d . . A p r i l 26, 1905, p. 3; Farm and Dairy. Kay 9, 1912, p. 15; The  Farmer's Advocate. May 5, 1904. In 1904 they sent i n workers at the rate of f i f t y per day and the Bureau had over 4,000 i n the Sp r i n g (The  Farmer's Advocate, May 5, 1904). 84 In the years before 1904, the S a l v a t i o n Army had arranged f o r 1,000. A f t e r t h i s , i n the second year of operation, the Army imported 4,000 men; then 13,000 i n the t h i r d year and i n the fourth year they expected to b r i n g from 25,000 t o 30,000 t o Canada. ( J . M. M c G i l l i v r a y , "Farm Labor Problem," Annual Reports of the Livestock Associations of  the Province of Ontario, 1906-1907, p. 95)• They worked c l o s e l y with the Ontario Government, t a k i n g charge under government supervision of the new p r o v i n c i a l immigration s h e l t e r , (Farming World, January 15, 1907, P. 47). 85 •The Farmer's Advocate. March 20, 1913, P. 559; I b i d . . A p r i l 3, 1913, p. 615; The Canadian Countryman. I I , 19, (May 17, 1913), p. 22. 8 6 A budget of §1,250,000 aimed at s e t t l i n g 10,000 t o 12,000 i n Ontario that year. This number would be l a r g e l y farm labourers t o be placed by the Farm Labor Bureau of Ontario (The Farming World. January 15, 1907). 87 In 1907, f o r example, 2,900 a p p l i c a t i o n s from farmers were i n the hands c f the Ontario a u t h o r i t i e s and 1,700 remained u n f i l l e d months l a t e r , although 22,000 immigrants entered the province i n the meantime (The  Weekly Sun. June 5, 1907, p. 7 ). 88 The Canadian Farm, June 10, 1910, p. 1. Arch. L e i t c h , The O.A.C.  Review, XIX, 1, (October, 1906), p. 47; W. J . Black, The O.A.C. Review. XII, 4, (January, 1904), p. 13• Ke remarks that while mechanization eased the labour shortage, farmers ought to remember they were "making use of the very weapon which has aided i n bringing about the present condition." The Weekly Sun, February 15, 1 9 H , p. 5, announced S i r Wm. Macdonald would give a pri z e to the man who invented the most e f f i c i e n t milker. The Weekly Sun, January 15, 1908, p. 1, said that machinery bought on the co-op basis was one way to reduce costs and Lmprove e f f i c i e n c y . I b i d . , J u l y 18, 1906, Advertisement f o r the n a t i o n a l cream separator company said t h a t the cream separator was the only way i n which the farm labour problem could be kept under c o n t r o l . Farm and Dairy, June 1, 1914, P. 3, Prof. John Evans, remarked that inventions would solve the labor problem. I b i d . , June 3, 1909, p. 14, remarked that the in t r o d u c t i o n c f labour saving machinery was one way i n which young men could be induced to remain on the farm. I b i d . . June 2, 1910, p. 12; The Farming World. August 1, 1904, p. 548 remarked that as w e l l as in c r e a s i n g h i s market the implement manufacturer was increasing the fa r m e r ' s • e f f i c i e n c y . The  Canadian Farm, J u l y 14, 1911, p. 1 remarked on the help which the machinery gave the farmer. The Canadian Countryman. I I , 44, (November 11, 1913 ), 183 89 ' • The Farming World. September 18, 1900, pp. 126-127. 90 The Weekly Sun. June 8, 1910, p. 5, Letter from James A l l e n , The Farming World. May 29, 1900, p. 973.• 91 Farming. A p r i l 7, 1900, p. 851, a s p e c i a l issue on machinery; see a l s o Farm and Dairy. June 1, 1911, f o r another s p e c i a l i s s u e . 9 2 T h e Farmer's Advocate. May 23, 1907, p. 864. 93 I b i d . , February 1, 1906, p. 163. (No r e a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y device had been developed but various attempts showed promise.) The Canadian  Farm, June 2, 1911, p. 1, a r t i c l e by a prof, at Macdonald College explained hew milkers reduced work load. Farm and Dairy. January 15, 1914, p. 5. 94 . For example see The Canadian Countryman. I I , 8, (February 22, 1913), p. 20. 95 The Farmer's Advocate published many a r t i c l e s throughout 1900 on the subject of the proper design of barns. I b i d . . January 5, 1911, p. 10, L e t t e r John J . Hammond. 96 The Canadian Countryman. I I , 17, ( A p r i l 26, 1913), p. 22. 97 7'The Farming World. December 18, 1900, p. 385. 98 The Canadian Countryman. See various issues f o r ads promoting t h i s device. 99 The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l , 1900, p. 2111, Advertisements f o r steam t r a c t o r s urged farmers to be "up-to-date" i n t h i s age of progress. The Canadian Farm. January 12, 1912, p. 2, Correspondence course conducted by Dr. J . C. Lynde of Macdonald College, explained the p r i n c i p l e s of operation and r e p a i r cf steam machinery. l 0 Q T h e Canadian Farm. February 4, 1910, p. 3; The Canadian Country-man, I I , 1, (January 4, 1913), p. 4. 184 1 0 1 I b i d . , I l l , 9, (February 28, 1 9 1 4 ) , p. 3 - This explained the basic operation and maintenance of such a motor. I b i d . , I I , 28, ( J u l y 1 2 , 1 9 1 3 ) , p. 3 2 , advertisements f o r a Massey-Harris engine. I b i d . , August 9 , 1 9 1 3 , p. 3 , advertisement explained hov: Massey-Harris valves worked on t h e i r engines. The weekly Sun, A p r i l 1 4 , 1 9 0 9 , p. 6 . The e a r l i e s t example of a d e s c r i p t i o n of new power was i n The Farmer's Advocate, March 1, 1 9 0 0 , p. 1 2 7 , i n a l e t t e r d e s c r i b i n g hew A. W. Lecain used a 2 h.p. gas engine to run a cream separator. The Farmer's Advocate, September 1, 1 9 0 0 , p. $21 (an advertisement f o r a gas engine to help pumping water). I b i d . . February 22, 1906, advertisement of In t e r n a t i o n a l Harvester engine. I b i d . , March 15, 1 9 0 6 , p. 402, Lett e r from E.G.H. The Farmer's Advocate, August 2 9 , 1 9 0 7 , p. 1 3 5 9 . i 0 2 I b i d . , August 8 , 1 9 1 2 , p. 1 4 0 4 , t r a c t o r ads reported that the Case t r a c t o r broke records at Winnipeg and offered 4 0 and 60 h.p. t r a c t o r s for s a l e . . The Farm and Pair?.'-. June 4, 1 9 1 4 , p. 5 , the "Hay dr i v e n motor d e l i v e r e d only two pounds of energy f o r every 100 lbs..consumed. I t was the most wasteful c f a l l power. 1 0 3 T h e Farmer's Advocate. March 21, 1912, p. 5 2 8 . "^"Wilson E.S.A. Thesis, Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College, Guelph: 1 9 1 3 , p. 3 7 . He gives a report on the uses of hydro e l e c t r i c power f o r running various pumps, crushers, l i g h t i n g , churning; Farm and Dairy, June 4, 1 9 1 4 , p. 7; The F a r r i e r ' s Magazine. November, 1 9 1 2 , p. 68ff.; The Weekly Sun. January 17, 1 9 0 3 , p. 1; Ib i d . , August 1 0 , 1910, p. 5: I b i d . , February 15, 1911, p. 6; The Canadian Farm. October 21, 1 9 1 0 , p. 1. "^Farm and Dairy. March 13, 1 9 1 3 , p. 16; The Canadian Farm, March 1 0 , 1911, p. 1; I b i d . . J u l y 15, 1 9 1 0 , p. 1; I b i d . , January 1 4 , 1 9 1 0 , p. l'y  The Farming World, November 1 3 , 1 9 0 0 , p. 2 7 6 ; The Canadian Countryman, I I , IS, (May 3 , 1 9 1 3 ) , p. 4 ; The O.A.C. Review, XII, 6, (March, 1 9 0 1 ) , p. 10; The Farmer's Advocate. November 27, 1913, p. 2 0 4 9 ; I b i d . , March 15, 1 9 0 0 , p. 1 4 7 ; I b i d . , January 16, 1 9 1 3 , p. 77; A. Wr. Campbell, "Highway Economics',' The O.A.C. Review. XX, 9, (June, 1 9 0 8 ) , p. 4 7 7 f f . 1 0 6 F a r m and Dairy. March 14, 1 9 1 2 , p. 10; The Weekly Sun, J u l y 3 0 , 1 9 0 2 , p. 1; I b i d . . January 1, 1 9 0 2 , p. 2." 1 0 7 T h e Farmer's Advocate. October 1, 1 9 0 2 , p. 707; The Weekly Sun, January 14, 1 9 0 2 , p. 1; I b i d . , November 1 2 , 1 9 0 2 , p. 3; The Farming World, May l / l 9 0 7 , p. 4 0 3 . 1 0 8 T h e Canadian Farm. November 25, 1 9 1 0 , p. 1; The Farming World, January 1, 1 9 0 4 , p. 2 3 ; W. A. Craik, "The Farmer and the Phone," The  Farmer's Magazine, J u l y , 1 9 1 2 , p. 82ff.; The Weekly Sun, August 21, 1 9 0 7 , p. 4 ; I b i d . , J u l y 6, 1910, p. 3;- The Canadian Countryman, I I , 3 7 , (September.. 1 3 , 1 9 1 3 ) , p. 5; I b i d . , I I I . 2 5 , (June 20. 1 9 1 4 ) . p. 5 . 185 109 The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 16, 1908, p. 698, l e t t e r ; Farm and  Dairy, June 5, 1913, p. 5; The Weekly Sun, November IS, 1903, p. 4; I b i d . , October 7, 1903, p. 3; The Canadian Farm, February 10, 1911, p. 1. " ^ F o r an example of t h i s viewpoint see Farm and Dairy's c r i t i c i s m of Rev. J . Macdougall's book, (November 6, 1913, p. 4), f o r not putting enough emphasis on d i s t r i b u t i o n a l causes cf depopulation. 186 CHAPTER VII NOTES 1 Farm and Pair?/. November 20, 1913, p. 12; The Weekly Sun, September 15, 1909, P. 1; '<'/. C. Good, Farmer C i t i z e n , p. 98; Farm and  Dairy, November 30, 1913, p. 12; The estimated p r i c e of farm land i n Ontario had increased 153 i n the previous ten years (1903-1913) while everything else rose i n value by 30%. ( The Farmer's Advocate, February 26, 1913, p. 369); The Weekly Sun, September 15, 1909, p. 1. 2 Jean McLeod," The United Farmer Movement i n Ontario, 1914-1943;' unpublished M.A. Thesis, Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1958, p. 5. 3 I b i d . , November 20, 1913, p. 12; I b i d . . October 21, 1909, p. 10; W. C. Good Fapers, v o l . 10, f . 19192, December 20, 1913, MS3 of Grange Address i n which he lays the blame f o r depopulation and r u r a l problems on the doorstep of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . See a l s o Appendix F f o r presentation of farmers at Ottawa i n 1910; The Farmer's Advocate, December 3, 1908, p. 1841 f o r E. C. Drury's address to t h e Grange i n 1908; E. C. Drury, The O.A.C. Review. XIV, 7, ( A p r i l , 1902), p. 4. Rev. J . Macdougall, "The Rural Problem," S o c i a l Service Congress Report, p. 151. 4 Farm and Dairy. May 8, 1913, p. 3. 5The Farmer's Advocate. December 3, 1908, p. 1841, Report of E. C. Drury to the Grange; see a l s o "Drury, "The Farmers on the Question of the T a r i f f , " Farm and Dairy. December 29, 1910, p. 3; The 'Weekly Sun. October 12, 1904, p. 10, Letter from a "Canadian." 6Good, Farmer C i t i z e n , p. 96. 7 The Farmer's Advocate. September 4, 1913, p. 1537. g Farm and Dairy, November 20, 1913, p. 12. 9 The Weekly Sun. September 14, 1910, p. 1; I b i d . , September 28, 1908, p. 6. 1 0 I b i d . . September 5, 1906, p. 2; I b i d . . August 22, 1906, p. 7, (Speech of A. F. Wilson to Union of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s ). , i : LFarm and Dairy. J u l y 21, 1900, p. 3. 187 1 2The Farmer's Advocate. J u l y 24, 1913, p. 1289. 13 -The Weekly Sun. Kay 31, 1911, p. 3; I b i d . . January 3 or 10, 1906, f o r a s e r i e s c f l e t t e r s c i r c u l a r i z i n g pork packers; Farm and Dairy, J u l y 21, 1910, p. 10. "^Peter Ryan, "The Canadian Bank Combine and Untaxed Currency." (Submission to the Senate, i n the La u r i e r Fapers, v o l . 759 f . 216659); The Farmer's Magazine. J u l y , 1912, p. 13. ('So l i t t l e sympathy e x i s t s with the big i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the farmer and h i s work that unless the farmer himself goes a f t e r what he wants...he gets l i t t l e s h i f t i n the play of commercial forces." ) The Weekly Sun. December 21, 1910, p. 1, (branch banks tended t o c e n t r a l i z e the wealth of the people and make i t a t o o l o f the head o f f i c e . ) ; I b i d . , October 26, 1910, p. 6; The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 2, 1914, p. 637 (remarked on the f a c t that due to McArthur's campaign against the banks which the j o u r n a l supported, d i s p l a y a d v e r t i s i n g by chartered banks had been withdrawn from t h i s magazine ). For d e t a i l s o f the farmers 1 case against the banks see Farm and Dairy. A p r i l 10, 1913, p. 3, f o r Peter McArthur's presentation to the banking comrrdssion. 15 Farm and Dairy. January 4, 1912, p. 4; I b i d . , May 8, 1913, p. 3, a r t i c l e by H. B. Ccwan. The f e e l i n g i n r u r a l areas can be measured by the number of l e t t e r s published on t h i s i s s u e . One e d i t i o n of The  Farmer's Advocate contained s i x l e t t e r s (May 22, 1913)• One of them declared that "the sooner a Moses a r i s e s to lead us out o f our p r e s e n t bondage, the b e t t e r . I am no leader o f men, but I am ready to ' f a l l i n ' and follow." l 6 T h e Weekly Sun. March 30, 1910, p. 1. This e d i t o r i a l attacked the r e t a i l e r s f o r blocking the l e g i s l a t i o n to set up co-op stores and f o r t h e i r i ncorporation o f the R e t a i l Merchants' Association of Canada. See also The Farmer's Advocate.' February 9, 1912, p. 3* 17 The Weekly Sun. August 25, 1909, p. 1; The Canadian Farm, June 9, 1911, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate, May 14, 1914, p. 949. 18 The Canadian Farm, May 26, 1911, p. 1, Letter J . W. Dow, S p r i n g f i e l d , Ontario; The Weekly Sun, August 16, 1911, p. 1. 19 T h e Weekly Sun. October 12, 1904, p. 10. 20 Ibid., March 7, 1909, p. 1; The Farmer's A d v o c a t e , December 3, 1908, p. 1841. E. C. Drury at the annual Grange meeting remarked that the lawyers of Simcoe County were drawing §80,000 per year from the productive classes when one quarter of the men making the same money or more would be be t t e r f o r a l l concerned. See also Farm and Dairy. August 11, 1910, p. 10, cr Good, Farmer C i t i z e n , p. 98, or E. C. Drury, The O.A.C. Review. XIV, 7, A p r i l , 1902, p. 5. 188 2 1 E . C. Drury, "Canada's F a r a s i t e s , " The O.A.C. Review. XIV, 8, 1911, p. 13. See a l s o The Canadian Farm. February 23, 1912, p. 1, which noted that "there i s , i n t h i s country two general c l a s s e s , so t o speak, one c l a s s whose sympathies are e n t i r e l y urban and another cl a s s who l i v e on the land, whose sympathies are anti-urban. Although these classes may not be n e c e s s a r i l y antagonistic t o each other, yet t h e i r sympathies tend to opposite d i r e c t i o n s . " 22 W. C. Good, "Two Reasons P l a i n , " The Farmer's Magazine. January,1912, p. 6 l . See a l s o v.". C. Good, Farmer C i t i z e n , p. 98. A representative of the Toronto Board of Trade remarked that "to me, hi s /E. C. Drury's/ language at times seems to betray the sympathetic p o s i t i o n i n which he poses towards h i s fellowman, by betraying f e e l i n g s of apparent hatred and envy towards the reputed p r o s p e r i t y of others of h i s countrymen engaged i n other i n d u s t r i a l p u r s u i t s . I submit, Mr. E d i t o r , that the c r e a t i n g of the. f e e l i n g s of i r r i t a b i l i t y i n the minds of one i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s towards those of t h e i r f e l l o w laborers i n the other branches of industry i s v i c i o u s and u n p a t r i o t i c . " (Win. E l l i s i n Farm and Dairy. March 16, 1911, p. 2). 23 J . Kerr Abbott, " W i l l Rural Democracy Dwindle," The Ontario  A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review. XXVI, 4, (January, 1914), p. 224. For an excellent, presentation of t h i s point of view see W. C. Good's speech to the Dominion Grange 1913, (Farmer C i t i z e n , p. 98) of The Weekly Sun, October 25, 1911, p. 1. ^ P e t e r McArthur wrote an excellent s e r i e s i n The Farmer's Advocate, which summarize the major arguments. See Feter McArthur, "Our Real Rulers," The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 24, 1914, p. 649. Feter McArthur, "The Toothpick Trust," I b i d . . February 26, 1914, p. 375; , "The Innocent Investor," I b i d . , A p r i l 18, 1912, o. 733; , "On the Side," I b i d . , A p r i l 11, 1912, p. 680; , "The Cheerful Gover," I b i d . . A p r i l 4, 1912, p. 628. H. B. Cowan wrote a s i m i l a r s e r i e s i n Farm and Dairy, f o r example, see H. B. Cowan, "The Farmer's Interest i n Combines and Mergers," Farm and  Dairy, March 28, 1913, p. 4; The Weekly Sun. A p r i l 13, 1910, p. 1, urged an honest anti-combine measure honestly enforced; I b i d . , A p r i l 13, 1910, p. 1,.W. L. Smith condemns the formation of a f u r n i t u r e combine; W. L. Smith, The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review, XXI, 6, (March, p. 321, describes the type of p r i c e - f i x i n g arrangements; The Canadian  Farm, October 28, 1910, p. 1, remarked how the combine should receive no consideration i n the t a r i f f negotiation: The Weekly Sun, J u l y 19, 1911, p. 1, deplores the formation of a varnish combine: The Canadian Farm, January 21, 1909, p. 1. This e d i t o r i a l remarked on the spread of t r u s t s which ought to be c o n t r o l l e d immediately; The Weekly Sun. J u l y 5, 1911, p. 1, remarks that the bread monopoly ought not to be allowed to c o n t r o l prices.. 2-~The Weekly Sun. May 1, 1912, p. 1. ?6 I b i d . . May 3, 1911, p. 1. N 189 2 7 I b i d . , March 15, 1911, p. 1; see a l s o I b i d . , March 30, 1910, p . l . I b i d . , September 28, 1910, p. 5,. Letter from E. C. Drury. 2 < 7 I b i d . ; The Weekly Sun, May 4, 1910, p. 5, L e t t e r from Francis Dagger. 30W. C.'Gcod Fapers, f. 12194, MSS. of Speech to Grange, 1913. 31 Whether the proposed trade pact was good or bad, remarked The  Canadian Farm, (June 9, 1911, p. 1), i t had focussed a t t e n t i o n to t h e needs of r u r a l areas as no previous p o l i t i c a l question had done. (See a l s o E. C. Drury, " T a r i f f Reduction i n Canada i s a Necessity," The  Farmer's Magazine, November, 1910, p. 59.) 32 The Weekly Sun. Cctober 3, 1906, p. 1; see a l s o se r i e s of columns by Adam Russel (example: I b i d . , October 13, 1909, p. 7) and M. S. S c h e l l , The Farmer's View, n.p. 1911, f o r the standard argument against the t a r i f f . For a good summary of r u r a l complaints against the t a r i f f see E. C. Drury, " T a r i f f Reduction i s a Necessity," The Farmer's Magazine, November, 1910, p. 59ff. 33 The Weekly Sun. Cctober 19, 1910, p. 8, Let t e r from Drury; see a l s o The Farmer's Advocate. November 23, 1905, p. I646, and the W. C. Good Papers, v o l . 14, submission to the t a r i f f commission i n 1905, copied from an a r t i c l e i n The U n i v e r s i t y Magazine. " T a r i f f s , Bounties and the Farmer." For Drury's method of c a l c u l a t i o n of the cost of the t a r i f f see E. C. Drury, "What Pr o t e c t i o n Costs Canada," The Farmer's  Magazine. Kay, 1911, p. 19. Manufacturers increased t h e i r output from $481,000,000 t o $715,000,000 i n the years from 1901 to 1905 ( " T a r i f f s Bounties and the Farmers," Good Fapers. 34 The Weekly Sun. September 23, 1908, p. 6; see also I b i d . , October 3, 1906, p. 1; Farm and Dairy. November 10, 1910, p. 10; and The Farmer's Advocate. J u l y 14, 1910, p. 1138. 35 Canadians exported over 85 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s worth of c e r t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l products i n 1904 and imported just U2,000,000. Imports to Canada would not increase because the prices f or a g r i c u l t u r a l products were higher i n the United States. -^P.A.C, Good Papers, " T a r i f f s , Bounties and the Farmer," (He noted an increase i n a g r i c u l t u r a l experts from $10,000,000 i n 1879 t o $120,000,000 i n 1904.) See also The" Weekly Sun, November 29, 1905, speech of David Wilson, Secretary of the Morpeth Farmer's A s s o c i a t i o n to the T a r i f f Commission at Chatham; Farm and Dairy. October 6, 1910, p. 10. See also speech of W. C. Good to the T a r i f f Commission at Brantford, 1905 i n The Weekly Sun. November 29, 1905, p. 8. 190 -''Farm and Dairy, November 10, 1910, p. 10, L e t t e r from L. , Shaw. -^One submission to the t a r i f f Commission noted that i n Canada a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l invested t o t a l l e d $1,787,000,000 and manufacturing only $447,000,000 while the number employed was 344,000 i n industry and 1,000,000 i n farming. A g r i c u l t u r e therefore was "the pioneering industry and a l l others depended upon i t . " (Thomas McMillan, The Farmer's  Advocate, November 30, 1905, p. 1686.) See The Farmer's Advocate, October 1, 1908, p. 1507; I b i d . , November 23, 1905, p. 1645; I b i d . , December. 19, 1907, p. 2003; The Weekly Sun, January 21, 1914, p. 3; E. C. Drury, " T a r i f f Reduction i s a Necessity," The Farmer's Magazine, November, 1910, p. 59; The Farmer's Advocate, J u l y 14, 1910, p. 1138; Ib i d . , October 6, 1910, p. 1590; The Weekly Sun, A p r i l 1 , 1903, (Thos. Brooks and Farmer's Association at Ottawa); The Farmer's Advocate, J u l y 28, 1910, p. 1203; The Farming World, November 15, 1905, p. 1906; E. C. Drury, "Canada's P a r a s i t e s , " Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review, XIV, 8, 1911, p. 15. 3 9 T h e Weekly Sun, October 16 , 1907, p. 1. ^ I b i d . , November 14, 1906, p. 1. The t o t a l i n 1912 was $20,519,000 f o r i r o n , o i l , binder twine, r a i l r o a d s , e t c . In ten years before 1909, $13,000,000 was paid out i n bounties to the i r o n and s t e e l industry. ^ 1 I b i d . , February 13, 1909, p. 1; Ibid. , January 30, 1907, p. 7. Eight p e t i t i o n s were presented on the 21st of January and more l a t e r that week. 4 I b i d . , October 17, 1906, p. 5; see also Peter McArthur, The  Farmer's Advocate, May 12, 1914, p. 951. ^ T h e Weekly Sun, November 3, 1909, p. 1; see also I b i d . , May 1, 1907, p. 3, protest at the House of Commons' approval of in c r e a s i n g and extending bounties on i r o n and s t e e l ; see W. L. Smith, "Overcrowding i n the C i t i e s , " The Farmer's Magazine, December, 1911, p. 44ff.; The  Weekly Sun, January 21, 1914, p. 3, reported that even the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were t r y i n g t o get i n t o the act and promised to grant tax exemptions to i n d u s t r y as i n c e n t i v e s . ^ h e Weekly Sun, May 4, 1910, p. 1. ^ T h e Canadian Farm, March 18, 1910, p. 1. Farmers appeared to be consistent i n t h e i r opposition to bonuses f o r they even opposed the s u b s i d i z a t i o n of other a g r i c u l t u r i s t s . The Sun opposed the use of p u b l i c money to a i d i n the establishment of the beet sugar industry i n Ontario (January 30, 1901, p. l ) . A lovestock farmer complained that the d a i r y -men of the province had received s p e c i a l treatment. This treatment was as u n j u s t i f i e d as the bonus paid the i r o n manufacturers, (John Campbell, Woodville, The Weekly Sun, February 19, 1908, p. 5 ) . 191 ^ T h e Farmer's Advocate. October 1, 1908, p. 1513, Let t e r from a Nottawasaga Farmer; see also Peter McArthur, "The Question of Hired Help," The Farmer's Advocate. August 8, 1912, p. 1394. ^ T h e Weekly Sun. May 11, 1904, p. 1; I b i d . . March 24, 1909, p. 1; I b i d . . May 29, 1907, p. 1; V/. L. Smith, "Overcrowding i n the C i t i e s , " The Farmer's Magazine. December, 1911, p. 46; The Weekly Sun. November 29, 1905, P. 8 (Speech of Thomas Brooks at Brantford); Farm and Dairy. November 17, 1910, p. 10; E. C. Drury, "The Farmers on the Question of the T a r i f f , " Farm and Dairy. December 29, 1910, p. 3; W. C. Good, "The Farm Labor Froblem," The Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College Review. XXVII, 2, November, 1904, p. 69; The Weekly Sun. October 5, 1910, p. 1, l e t t e r "Retired Farmer." 48 The Weekly Sun. November 14, 1906, p. 1; I b i d . . November 9, 1910, p. 7. 49 ^7W. C. Good t o l d the T a r i f f Commission that the d e f i c i t amounted t o $112,000,000, '(The Weekly Sun. November 29, 1905, p. 8 ). 50 I b i d . ; see a l s o The Canadian Farm. L e t t e r W . B o w m a n v i l l e , October 14, 1910, p. 1, and E. C. Drury, "The Farmers on the Question of the T a r i f f , " Farm and Dairy. December 29, 1910, p. 3. 5 IThe Canadian Farm, February 9, 1911, p. 3, L e t t e r J . R. P h i l i p , Maple Lane; The Farmer's Advocate, August 4, 1910, p. 1255; The Weekly  Sun, November 1, 1905, p. 1; I b i d . , November 29, 1905, p. 6, (David Wilson of Morpeth Farmer's A s s o c i a t i o n at the T a r i f f Commission); I b i d . , December 6, 1905; Farm, and Dairy. November 17, 1910, p. 10; The Weekly  Sun. June 1, 1904, p. 1. 52 • The Farmer's Advocate. October 1, 1908, p. 1513; see a l s o Peter McArthur, "The Question of Hired Helo,-" I b i d . . August 8, 1912, p. 1394. 53 "•E. C. Drury, "Reciprocity," The Farmer's Magazine. August, 1911, p. 20ff.; see a l s o The Farmer's Advocate, December 22, 1910, p. 2048. These sentiments were s i m i l a r to those voiced i n the Toronto Meetings of the Dominion Grange for s e v e r a l years, (The Farmer's Advocate, December 3, 1908, p . " l 8 4 1 f f . ) . 54 The Weekly Sun. February 6, 1911, p. 4, Speech of Hon. J . S. Duff at the Nelson and Burlington A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t i e s . 5 f h e Farmer's Magazine, December, 1911, p. 16; see also I b i d . , September, 1911, pp. 5-6. One farmer t i t l e d his l e t t e r "The S i n i s t e r Scream of Annexation" which heatedly remarked that r e c i p r o c i t y would r u i n both Canadian industry and a g r i c u l t u r e ; (The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 13, 1911, p. 651 ). 192 56 y Lev/is Austin, "The People Should Speak," The Farmer's Magazine, J u l y , 1911, p. 32. 57 -"The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 9, 1908. $ 8 T h e Weekly Sun. February 22, 1911, p. 1. 59 The Farmer's Advocate. A p r i l 18, 1912, p. 732. At the same time, however, the j o u r n a l included education away from the farm as the other major cause of depopulation. 60 Archie L. McCredie, "The Real R e c i p r o c i t y , " The Farmer's  Magazine. September, 1911, p. 29.. "My people are farmers. My l i f e work i s farm journalism. My father was one of the leaders i n the Patrons of Industry. I am a Member of the Grange. My education has been at the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College...." 61 The Farmer's Magazine. Cctober, 1911, p. 8. For another comment see the George F. Graham Papers, Thomas Southworth to G. Graham, September 22, 1911, f . 33388. "For once S i r W i l f r i d and h i s Cabinet misjudged public sentiment. You n a t u r a l l y thought when the farmers o f the country made t h e i r demand f o r r e c i p r o c i t y so i n s i s t e n t l y that they r e a l l y wanted i t , but they d i d not want i t so badly as to be exempt from being stampeded by the usual appeal to sentiment...it does not pay from a party point of view to pay much a t t e n t i o n to the requests of the people, but t o succeed'1 the party needs to stand by the protected i n t e r e s t s of the men with s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s who have the long green." 62 The Weekly Sun, September 27, 1911, P. 1; The Farmer's Advocate, October 26, 1911, p. 1746. (The farmers s p l i t and enabled the manufacturers, t r u s t s and r a i l r o a d s to swing the e l e c t i o n . ) ; Farm and- Pair;/, September 28, 1911, p. 12 (noted that educational work had made a good s t a r t and ought to continue. Farm and Dairy. February 15, 1912, p. 4., Series on Land Taxation a r t i c l e number 10. 6 4Farm and Dairy. November 30, 1911, p. 4; see a l s o " F a i r Flay," i n The Farmer's Advocate, February 19, 1914, pp. 318-319. 6 5 I b i d . , October 21, 1909, p. 10; I b i d . . August 21, 1913, p. 10; I b i d . , November 14, 1912, p. 3. 6 6 I b i d . , November 11, 1909, p. 10; I b i d . . November 14, 1912, p. 3. Major a r t i c l e by H . D. Cowan l a y i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r depopulation at the door of e x p l o i t a t i o n of land values i n the c i t i e s ; I b i d . . October 21, 1909, p. 10; I b i d . . March 7, 1912, p. 4; I b i d . . November 30, 1911, p. 4; The Farmer's Advocate. February 19, 1914, p. 318, ( L e t t e r " F a i r Play"); I b i d . . January 2 3 , 1910, p. 10, Report of N. W. Howell's address at Frinceton, Oxford Co. 193 67 Farm and Dairy. December 12, 1912, p. 3. 6 8 I b i d . , November 30, 1911, p. 4; I b i d . . March 2, 1911, p. 3; Ibi d . , November 11, 1909, p. 10; The Farmer's Advocate. September 9, 1909, p. 1441; The Canadian Farm. A p r i l 8, 1910, p. 1. 69 'Farm and Dairy. August 21, 1913, p. 10. 70 The Farmer's Advocate. February 19, 1914, p. 319. 71 The Weekly Sun. June 30, 1909, p. 1. Over 500 p r o v i n c i a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p e t i t i o n e d the government f o r a change (Farm and Dairy. February 16, 1911, p. 3 ). 72 ' The Farmer's Advocate. September 9, 1909, p. 1441. 73 "The Farmer's Advocate. January 19, 1911, p. 86; The Weekly Sun. J u l y 9, 1902, p. 8. 74 '^The Farmer's Magazine. January, 1911, p. 10. ^ T h e Farmer's Advocate. December 3, 1908, p. 1842, "The Township of Gro i n the county of Simcoe, has 13 miles of railway. This includes 127 acres of land, and bu i l d i n g s assessed at £1750. The t o t a l assess-ment i s §17367 on which the rate c f ta x a t i o n i s the same as on farm property f o r county, township and general land and s p e c i a l school r a t e s . That a railway, running through good country and worth i n a c t u a l costs probably £20,000 per mile, a t o t a l c f £390,000 should pay no more i n taxat i o n than an average 200 acre farm i s absurd." See also The Weekly  Sun. March 13, 1901, p. 1; I b i d . . A p r i l 23, 1902, p. 1-. 76 I b i d . . February 12, 1902, p. 6. A whole page i s given to Pettypiece's arguments f o r higher t a x a t i o n . The Weekly Sun, January 15, 1902, p. 1; I b i d . , February 11, 1903, P« 6, f o r r e p r i n t of Pettypiece's argument; I b i d . . October 15, 1902, f o r speech of L. E. Annis; I b i d . . September 21, 1910, p. 1. See also report of the meeting of the Dominion Grange, 1908, i n which l i n e s operating i n Ontario and al s o the U. S. were compared. The G.T.R. and the C.P.R. and the Michigan C e n t r a l i n the s i x states bordering Ontario had 5120 miles of track. In 1907 the taxes on these l i n e s mounted t o £2,444,000 or £471 per mile. In Ontario the railways had 5320 miles and paid only £85 per male. 77 The Weekly Sun, February 10, 1904, p. 2; I b i d . , September 6, 1903, p. 6. See also report on speech by James McEwing, President of the Farmer's A s s o c i a t i o n (The Weekly Sun, September 5, 1906, p. 6.). ? 8Farm and Dairy. May 15, 1913, p. 14. 79 'The Weekly Sun. September 9, 1908, p. 1. 194 80 I b i d . , Kay 27, 1903, p. 1. The Ontario A s s o c i a t i o n of F a i r s and E x h i b i t i o n s sent a r e s o l u t i o n to the M i n i s t e r of Railways on the subject of stopping the accidents at l e v e l crossings. (F.A.C. Graham Papers, J . Lockie Wilson t o G. P. Graham, February 19, 1909 ). 81 The Weekly Sun. A p r i l 2, 1902, p. 13. The b i l l was introduced by E. A. Lancaster, M.P. f o r L i n c o l n and Niagara. 82 ^The Weekly Sun. A p r i l 1, 1903, p. 1. See al s o L. A. Wood, A Hist o r y of Farmer's Movements i n Canada, p. ISO. so -'The Weekly Sun. Cctober 15, 1902, p. 4, Speech of L. E. Annis of the East York Farmer's A s s o c i a t i o n . Another, a r t i c l e claimed that farmers paid up t o $30 to $25 m i l l i o n more than they should i n excess rates ( I b i d . , December 7, 1910, p. 9). 8^W. L. Smith, The O.A.C. Review. XIV, 4, January, 1904, p. 9. Oc •Tarm and Dairy. January 28, 1909, p. 14. The C.P.R. express company earned *19,185 per year per car, (The 'Weekly Sun, June 9, 1909, p. 1); The Farmer's Advocate. January 28, 1904, p. 120; The Farming  'World. January 8, 1901, p. 441; I b i d . . December 10, 1901, p. 631. 8 6 T h e Weekly Sion. January 28, 1904, p. 8, W. D. Gregory's submission to the Railway Commission f o r a reduction i n r a t e s . 8 7 T h e Farming World. March 1, 1904, p. 174. 88 °The Weekly Sun. Kay 4, 1904, p. 1. 89 I b i d . , W. L. Smith, The O.A.C. Review. XIV, 4, January, 1904, p. 11. 90 The Farmer's Magazine. May, 1911,- p. 7. 91 The Farming World. January 8, 1901, p. 441; see also The  Weekly Sun. January 29, 1902, p. 6. 92 I b i d . . February 11, 1903, p. 2. new r a i l r o a d act introduced i n t o Parliament i n 1902 provided f o r the appointment of an independent r a i l r o a d commission to take the place of the Railway Committee of the P r i v y Council. I t s powers, according to the o r i g i n a l proposal, would cover railway r a t e s , and the supervision of a l l dealings and adjustment of a l l disputes between the railways and t h e i r patrons. . . 195 94 / HThe Farming World. A p r i l 15, 1902, p. 377; The Weekly Sun. A p r i l 16, 1902, p . ' l ; The Farmer's Advocate, January 28, 1904, p. 120. The b i l l became lav/ on October 24, 1903 and came i n t o force i n February, 1904. This b i l l a l s o incorporated the p r i n c i p l e that the animals k i l l e d by t r a i n s on r a i l r o a d property were the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the roads. The farmer could be held responsible, however, i f the roads could prove h i s negligence. It a l s o gave the farmers r i g h t t o d r a i n t h e i r lands across r a i l r o a d t r a c k s . 9 5 T h e Farmer's Advocate. January 28, 1904, p. 120. M i l l s believed that the aim of the commission was to make sure that "ordinary people, r i c h or poor, having dealings with the railway companies could have t h e i r disputes s e t t l e d and get substantive j u s t i c e without the expense of l i t i g a t i o n . " T h i s , M i l l s believed, was thwarted by the "do-nothing" a t t i t u d e of procedure and the encouragement of the commission of people to "go to law even i n the most petty matters." Ke a l s o urged that another farmer be appointed because of the importance of a g r i c u l t u r e i n Canada, (George F. Graham Papers, James M i l l s to Graham, March 9, 1908, f . 22467 ). 96 7 Farm and Dairy. March 25, 1910, p. 14; see a l s o The 'Weekly Sun, December 21, 1910, p. 1; The Farmer's Advocate, March 21, 1907, p. 295; The Weekly Sun, January 25, 1911, p. 1. 9 7 I b i d . . March 13, 1907, p. 61, L e t t e r Charles C. Ford. ^ T h e Farming World. February 15, 1907, p. 148. " T h e Weekly Sun. January 10, 1911, p. 1; Ibid.,• October 15, 1902, 'The Bystander'; I b i d . . May 13, 1903, p. 1, 'The Bystander". 1 Q 0 T h e Farmer's Advocate. January 28, 1910, p. 203; I b i d . . February 21, 1907, p. 395. 1 0 1 T h e Farmer's Advocate, March 16, 1905, p. 374, L e t t e r from Austin L. McCredie; see a l s o speech of J . Lockie 'Wilson,- (The Weekly  Sun, November 5, 1902, p. 3 ). 102 The weekly Sun. J u l y 23, 1902, p. 6; The Canadian Farm, A p r i l 28, 1911, p. 1; I b i d . , September 24, 1909, o. 1; I b i d . . October 7, 1910, p. 1. 103 The Weekly Sun, May 4, 1904, p. 6. See same page f o r statement to the same e f f e c t by C. A. Mallory, and I b i d , f o r l e t t e r from J . J . Morrison. 1 0 / T b i d . . October 2, 1907, p. 1. 196 1 0 5 I b i d . , J u l y 14, 1910, p . 1137. lo6 T h e F a r m e r ' s A d v o c a t e . J u l y 21, 1910, p . 1173, L e t t e r f r o m E . C . D r u r y . 107 The W e e k l y S u n . November 26, 1902,'p. 7} see a l s o F a r m and  D a i r y . November 18, 1909, p . 10. 108 T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ought t o have as few t i e s o u t s i d e t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l community as p o s s i b l e . T h i s c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e f o r m e r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h had l o o k e d o u t s i d e t h e f a r m i n g c l a s s e s f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t a s t h e f a r m e r s went a r o u n d " w i t h t h e i r h a t s i n t h e i r hands t o t h e m e r c h a n t s and o t h e r s o f t h e n e a r b y towns and v i l l a g e s a s k i n g f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s . . . " i t o f t e n happened t h a t t h e f a r m e r s who d i d t h i s l e f t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y were t o o p o o r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r own c a u s e s and t h a t t h e y e x p e c t e d o t h e r s t o h e l p them o u t . T h i s p l a c e d a l l f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a h u m i l i a t i n g p o s i t i o n , ( F a r m and D a i r y . A p r i l 8, 1909, p . 16 ). 109 7 T h e W e e k l y S u n . September 9, 1903, p . 8. R e p o r t o f a s p e e c h made b y Good a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e e t i n g o f t h e S o u t h B r a n t F a r m e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . See a l s o The F a r m i n g W o r l d . September 16, 1902, p . 265 f o r s i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s r e : t h e need f o r f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a v o i d i n g c l a s s p o l i t i c s . ^"^The F a r m i n g W o r l d . September 16, 1902, p . 265. " ^ T h e W e e k l y S u n . September 11, 1907, p . 1. 112 I b i d . , J a n u a r y 9, 1907, p'i 1. ^ F a r m and D a i r y . J a n u a r y 14, 1909, p . 12. 1 1 4 T h e 'Weekly S u n . J a n u a r y 14, 1904, p . 7. R e p o r t o f a s p e e c h by W. L . S m i t h a t a f a r m e r s ' m e e t i n g a t S t a y n e r . See a l s o a l e t t e r by W. F . M a c l e a n , M . F . i n F a r m and D a i r y . September 2, 1909, p . 2. • ^ T h e W e e k l y S u n . June 16, 1909, p . 1. S t a t e m e n t f r o m N e s b i t t , M . F . f o r O x f o r d . 116 I b i d . , November 28, 1906, p . 5, L e t t e r II. J . F o t t s , B r u c e C o . 1 1 7 T h e C a n a d i a n F a r m . A p r i l 28, 1911, p . 1. x x o I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 25, 1910, p . 1. ^ T h e W e e k l y S u n , F e b r u a r y 17, 1909, p . 6; The F a r m i n g W o r l d , September 16, 1902, p . 265. 197 120 o See L. A . Wood f o r the f u l l story of the expansion and the d e c l i n e of the Grange i n Canada or Jean McLeod f o r a summary and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e c f the e a r l i e r farm organizations. 121 The Weekly Sun. February 6, 1911, p. 41; I b i d . . February 22, 1911, f o r s i m i l a r o p t i m i s t i c s t o r i e s c f the expansion of the organization i n Drayton, E r i n , Innerkip, D u f f e r i n , Grey, Oxford, and I b i d . , March 1, 1911, p. 1; The Farm and Dairy. February 9, 1911; The Weekly Sun. March 20, 1912, p. 1, (The Grange i s a power f o r good ). 122 The Farming World. September 16, 1902, p. 265 f o r st o r y of founding of the Farmers' A s s o c i a t i o n . 123 C. A. Maliory chaired the founding meeting of the new group. 124 The Farming World. September 16, 1902, p. 265. 125„ E. C. Drury, Farmer Premier, p. 52. 1 ?£> The Weekly Sun. A p r i l 1, 1903, p. 2. 127 'See s t o r i e s regarding the organization of various branches i n The Sun, November 26, 1903, p. I. ( i t was organized i n Frontenac by the former M.P., D. D. Rogers); Ibid.., January 7, 1903, p. 10; I b i d . , January 21, 1903, p. 4. 128 I b i d . . November 5, 1902, p. 3. The Glengary Co. Ass o c i a t i o n formed i n the presence c f Senator McMullen, J . T. S c h e l l M.P., and G. D. Macleod, M.P.P. 129 'Farm and Dairy. March 19, 1911, p. 14. ^ T h e Farmer's Advocate. December 17, 1908, p. 1949. 131 The Weekly Sun. February 19, 1908, p. 1. 132 I b i d . . March 20, 1912, p. 1; I b i d . . January 11, 1911, p. 1 ; I b i d . . September 15, 1909, p. 1. 133 ^ T h e Weekly Sun. A p r i l 2, 1909, p. 6. J P.A.C., W. C. Good Papers, v o l . 10, Story written f o r the Canadian Countryman.. Christmas, 1919. 135 •> -^See s t o r i e s i n The Farmer's Advocate. March 26, 1914, p. 596, and The Canadian Countryman. I l l , 23, (March 28, 1914 ) , p. 5. 198 Farm and Dairy, March 2 6 , 1 9 1 4 , - p . 3 « 137 The Farmer's Advocate, A p r i l 1 6 , 1 9 1 4 , p. 757; see also Farm and Dairy, March 2 3 , 1 9 1 4 , p. 3. 138 For a b r i e f account of the formation of the Canadian Council of A g r i c u l t u r e see E. C. Drury, Farmer Premier, p. 6 4 f f . and The weekly  Sun, December 1 , 1 9 0 9 , p. 1 . 139 Farm and Dairy. December 2 2 , 1 9 1 0 , p. 1 0 . ^ T h e Canadian Farm. October 14, 1 9 1 0 , p. 1 . Drury, Farmer Premier, p. 5 6 ; see a l s o The Weekly Sun, J u l y 1 , 1 9 0 3 , p. 1 . ^ T h e Farmer's Magazine. J u l y , 1 9 1 2 , p. 9 . •^Farm and Dairy. February 1 , 1 9 1 2 , p. 8; The Canadian Farm, October 2 9 , 1 9 0 9 , p. 1 ; The Weekly Sun. January io, 1 9 0 6 , p. 7; W. V/. Emmerson, "The Farmer i n P o l i t i c s , " The O.A.C. Review. XXII, 1 , (October, 1 9 0 9 ), p. 3 . T i t . •^^Farm and D a i r y 0 January 4 , 1 9 1 2 , p. 1 2 „ The fi g u r e s were: 1 9 1 1 1 9 0 8 Merchants 2 7 3 1 C a p i t a l i s t s 2 7 Lawyers 7 5 7 5 Farmers 3 2 3 1 Doctors 18 2 2 J o u r n a l i s t s 1 0 1 0 Manufacturers 1 3 1 2 Agents 8 8 5 2 Students 1 — Druggists 1 — Surveyors 1 — Labor employees 1 — Contractors 9 7 Notaries 7 4 Lumbermen 1 1 7 ^^The Farmer's Magazine, September, 1 9 1 1 , p. 8 . ^ 6 I b i d . , May, 1 9 1 2 , p. 9 . 199 147 I b i d . , December, 1911, P. 10; see also F.A.C., George P. Graham Papers, G. C. Creelman to Graham, October 17, 1907, urging a Senate seat f o r John Dryden, the P r o v i n c i a l Minister of A g r i c u l t u r e , defeated by the Conservatives; see a l s o The Farmer's Advocate. February 2, 1903, p. 101. 148 , • , The Weekly Sun. September 5, 1906, p. 6, Speech of James . McEwing, a L i b e r a l M.L.A. and a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i s t at the Farmers' A s s o c i a t i o n convention i n Toronto. 1 4 9 I b i d . . March 18, 1903, p. 3. 15°The Farmer's Advocate. November 15, 1901, p. 733; I b i d . . November 21, 1907, p. 1824. 151 George E. Clough, "The Farmer on the Platform," The Farmer's  Magazine. June, 1914, p. 32; W. W. Emmerson, "The Farmer i n P o l i t i c s , " The O.A.C. Review. 1^ 2The Farmer's Advocate. June 11, 1914, p. 1122. 153 The Farmer's Magazine. January, 1911, p. 19, Statement by H. J . Fettypiece. •^Farm and Dairy. September 29, 1910, p. 10. 15 5 ^ T h e 'Weekly Sun. A p r i l 30, 1902, p. 2. 15 6Farm and Dairy..May 8, 1913, p. 3. •^The* Farmer's Advocate. February 23, 1911, p. 305. 1 5 8 I b i d . , October 26, 1911, p. 1746; The Weekly Sun. May 13, 1908, p. 6, Letter J . T. Holmes. 159 The Farmer's Advocate. June 5, 1912, p. 1022. ^ 0 T h e Weekly Sun. September 20, 1911, p. 1; see also Farm and Dairv, September 28, 1911, p. 12. This points out the d i f f i c u l t y involved i n gett i n g a g r i c u l t u r i s t s to act as a clas s a f t e r only a few months of educational work. They ought not to be discouraged by the e l e c t i o n . The Farmer's Advocate. January 14, 1909, p. 42, Letter A. H. Cutten. 2 0 0 1 6 2 The Weekly Sun. Kay 2 7 , 1 9 0 8 , p. 7 ; The Canadian Countryman. I l l , 2 , (March 2 1 , 1 9 1 4 ) , p. 5 . -SJ. G. M i t c h e l l , "Keep P o l i t i c s out of the Farmers' Clubs," The O.A.C. Review. XXIV, 9 , (June, 1 9 1 2 ) . 201 CONCLUSION NOTES The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , James W. Robertson C o l l e c t i o n , box 1, Memorandum enclosed with l e t t e r , S i r Horace Flunkett to James Robertson, May 21, 1910. 202 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. PRIMARY MATERIALS I. 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