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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The modern northwestern ejido under mexican agrarian reform McAlley, Peter Quentin 1971

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THE MODERN NORTHWESTERN EJIDO UNDER MEXICAN AGRARIAN REFORM by PETER QUENTIN M'dALLEY M.A. Honours, U n i v e r s i t y o f Glasgow, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t he Department o f Geography We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1971 In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th i s thes i s fo r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. The Un ivers i ty o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Depa rtment i ABSTRACT M e x i c a n Land Reform, c o n c e i v e d d u r i n g the c i v i l war and i n i t i a t e d i n the R e v o l u t i o n a r y Code of 1917, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e x i s t e n c e today of t h r e e d i f f e r e n t f a r m i n g g r o u p s . These a r e the p a r t i c u l a r e s , the p r i v a t e f a r m e r s , the e j i d a t a r i o s ^ the p e a s a n t f a r m e r s , and the c o l o n o s , the c o l o n i s t f a r m e r s . T h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the r e l a t i v e f o r t u n e s of the t h r e e , and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the l a r g e s t n u m e r i c a l l y , the e j i d a t a r i o s . T h i s l a s t group has been r e g a r d e d , and i s s t i l l so c o n s i d e r e d , as the w o r s t o f f . The p l i g h t o f the e j i d a t a r i o s seems t o be even more a c u t e i n m o d e r n i z e d a r e a s a c c o r d i n g t o S t a t e and n a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d h e r e t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the M e x i c a n Land Reform work a g a i n s t the b e t t e r i n t e r e s t s of the e j i d a t a r i o s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a r e a s where mo d e r n i z e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s have become the norm. The h y p o t h e s i s i s t e s t e d i n one o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l l y most advanced a r e a s i n a l l M e x i c o , the R i o F u e r t e I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h e r n S i n a l o a . W i t h i n t h i s D i s t r i c t the p e r f o r m ance o f the M e x i c a n e j i d o , p e a s a n t h o l d i n g , i s compared w i t h t h a t o f the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y farm. The c o m p a r i s o n b e g i n s w i t h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a l l c r o p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the D i s t r i c t , d e s i g n e d t o e s t a b l i s h the b r o a d d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e between the e j i d a l and p r i v a t e f a r m groups ( C h a p t e r 111). I t i s f o u n d : - t h a t the e j i d a l s e c t o r o p e r a t e s i t s c r o p l a n d l e s s i n t e n s i v e l y t h a n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r ; t h a t the e j i d a t a r i o s do n o t compensate f o r t h e i r p o o r e r r e s o u r c e use by o b t a i n i n g c r o p y i e l d s and p r i c e s m a r k e d l y s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e of t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r ; and t h a t the e j i d a t a r i o s o b t a i n a much lower g r o s s income per h e c t a r e t h a n the p r i v a t e f a r m e r s . I n the second s t a g e o f c o m p a r i s o n , a sample o f farms i s t a k e n from the most p r o d u c t i v e s u b - a r e a i n the D i s t r i c t , i n o r d e r t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s and t o t r y t o i s o l a t e the p r i m a r y f a c t o r s h i n d e r i n g the e j i d a l s e c t o r ( C h a p t e r IV). The farms s e l e c t e d i i c o n s i s t o f the e j i d a l p l o t s where wheat i s c u l t i v a t e d i n the main c r o p r o t a t i o n ; and f o r the purposes o f comparing n e t incomes, w h e a t - g r o w i n g p r i v a t e and c o l o n o farms a r e a l s o sampled. I t i s found t h a t the mean n e t income per h e c t a r e i s much lower i n the e j i d a l t h a n i n t h e o o t h e r two s e c t o r s . T h i s cannot be e n t i r e l y -e x p l a i n e d by p o o r e r q u a l i t y l a n d r e s o u r c e s , i n e p t i t u d e , l a c k o f h y b r i d seed or f e r t i l i z e r , o r by s h o r t a g e o f i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r . Nor can i t be e n t i r e l y e x p l a i n e d by i t s somewhat p o o r e r o v e r a l l y i e l d . R a t h e r i s the p r o b l e m found t o be i n the n a t u r e o f the e j i d a t a r i o s ' c r e d i t s o u r c e , the E j i d a l Banks, and the o p e r a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t s o u r c e ' s l o a n p o l i c y . I t i s shown t h a t t h e c o s t o f e j i d a l f a r m o p e r a t i o n i s u n n e c e s s a r i l y h i g h , because the e j i d a t a r i o s a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d e f f i c i e n t use o f t h e i r own l a b o u r r e s o u r c e s ; h i r e d l a b o u r and m a c h i n e r y a r e s u p p l i e d by the Banks t o the e j i d a t a r i o s t o c u l t i v a t e t h e i r l a n d and t h e s e i n a p p r o p r i a t e d h i g h - c o s t i n p u t s a r e charged w i t h i n the l o a n s g i v e n . , I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t overmuch m o d e r n i z a t i o n i s b e i n g f o r c e d upon the pea s a n t f a r m e r s , t o the u l t i m a t e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e i r farm's v i a b i l i t y , t h e i r p e r s o n a l income and l i v i n g l e v e l s , and a l s o t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s i s c o r r e c t : - The A g r a r i a n Reform Laws have i n d e e d l e d t o o p e r a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and c o n s i d e r a b l e d e p r e s s i o n o f the pea s a n t f a r m e r ' s n e t income, though the p a r t i c u l a r c r e d i t s y s t e m e v o l v e d was a c t u a l l y c r e a t e d t o b e n e f i t him. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FUGURES x LIST OF MAPS x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i Ch a p t e r 1. INTRODUCTION 1 The M e x i c a n Land Reform and t h e V i a -b i l i t y o f the Modern N o r t h w e s t e r n Ej i d o Land Reform - D e f i n i t i o n s and P r o c e s s 11. THE FUERTE IRRIGATION DISTRICT: THE REGIONAL CONTEXT 10 L a r g e S c a l e A g r o - I r r i g a t i o n Development i n N o r t h w e s t Mexico The Development o f I r r i g a t i o n and A g r i c u l t u r e on t h e F u e r t e The CRF: O r g a n i z a t i o n and Aims The Aims o f the F u e r t e C o m i s i o n 111. THE FARM CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FUERTE SCHEME 35 Main Tenure Groups, t h e i r Land D i s t r i b u t i o n and Q u a l i t y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sown A r e a Among Tenure Groups i v TABLE OF CONTENTS -- C o n t i n u e d C h a p t e r Page 111. Tenure Groups' Performance a t 1 s t and 2nd C u l t i v a t i o n s Imbalances between Tenure Groups and between U n i t s i n Terms o f Crop V a l u e s Gene r a t e d Problems o f E x p l a n a t i o n , Measurement and I s o l a t i o n o f C r u c i a l V a r i a b l e s -Some S o l u t i o n s Summary of D i s t r i c t / U n i t / Z o n e Data f o r a l l Crops Grown and Assessment o f Tenure Groups' P e r f o r m a n c e s IV. THE SAMPLE AREA - UNIT 2 58 The C h o i c e o f U n i t 2 and R a t i o n a l e f o r Wheat C u l t i v a t i o n Study Wheat i n U n i t 2 and the D i s t r i c t The U n i t 2 Tenure Groups and t h e i r Farm H o l d i n g s The Farm Sample: The Data and B a s i c F i n d i n g s M e x i c a n A g r a r i a n C r e d i t S o urces o f Tenure Groups' C r e d i t , A p p l i c a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s and c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f S e r v i c e s S u p p l i e d O p e r a t i o n a l I n f l u e n c e s o f C r e d i t on Farming The E f f e c t o f the C r e d i t Programme on "the E j i d a t a r i o s ' V i a b i l i t y C o n c l u s i o n s V. CONCLUSIONS AND SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION OF THE PROBLEM 105 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 109 V TABLE OF CONTENTS -- C o n t i n u e d Page APPENDIX 1. THE MEXICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1917 AND ARTICLES 10 & 27 1 1 7 2. TESTS FOR NORMALITY OF DATA BASED ON SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS IIQ .3. TESTS FOR THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS 4. LIST OF BODIES REFERRED TO IN THE TEXT AND THEIR ABBREVIATIONS 122 5. LORENZ CURVES OF UNIT 2 WHEAT FARMS 1 INCOME (FIGURES 4a-d &. FIGURES 5a-d) -4a-d DISTRIBUTION OF GROSS FARM INCOMES 5a-d DISTRIBUTION OF NET FARM INCOMES . . 123 v i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page t R e c i p i e n t s of Land by P r e s i d e n t i a l Term, 1915-1964, A r e a R e d i s t r i b u t e d , 1916-1967, &. R e l a t e d P r e s i d e n t i a l P o l i c i e s 8 11 I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s o f the Sonoran D e s e r t . . . 11 111 Land A r e a B e n e f i t e d by Major F e d e r a l I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s , 1930-58 . . . . . . 14 IV Land B e n e f i t e d by M a j o r F e d e r a l I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s as P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l A r e a C u l t i v a t e d , 1939-59 . 14 V R e g i o n a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Paved Roads, 1935-55 14 VI Crop P r o d u c t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the N o r t h w e s t I r r i g a t i o n Schemes, M e x i c o , 1967/68 19 V l l A l l o c a t i o n o f Land H e l d by Main Tenure Tiypesj Number o f Farmers and Average Farm S i z e f o r the P r i n c i p a l Sonoran D e s e r t I r r i g a t i o n A r e a s o f M e x i c o , 1967/68 . . 20 V l l l A n a l y s i s o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p a n s i o n o f t h e F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , S i n a l o a , 1944/45-1969/70 24 T 1XX Dimensions o f F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , U n i t s & Zones, 1969/70 37 X Dimensions o f F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , U n i t s <£ Zones by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 . . . . 37 X I D i s t r i c t Farmers Grouped P r o p e r t y S i z e , 1969/70 40 X l l A v erage Farm S i z e , Gross (a) &. I r r i g a b l e (b) i n D i s t r i c t , 1969/70 43 v i i LIST OF TABLES -- C o n t i n u e d T a b l e Page X I I I D i s t r i c t Farmers Grouped by P r o p e r t y S i z e f o r S u b - D i v i s i o n s , 1979/70 . . . . 42 XIV Crop A c t i v i t i e s o f D i s t r i c t S u b - D i v i s i o n s , 1969/70 43 XV Crop A c t i v i t i e s o f D i s t r i c t S u b - D i v i s i o n s by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 45 XV1 Crop A c t i v i t i e s o f D i s t r i c t S u b - D i v i s i o n s a t 1 s t &. 2nd C u l t i v a t i o n P e r i o d s by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 46 X V I I Average Gross H a r v e s t V a l u e s per Farmer f o r D i s t r i c t &. S u b - D i v i s i o n s by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 48 X V I I I D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Farms, A r e a Sown, &. H a r v e s t V a l u e f o r D i s t r i c t ' s S u b - D i v i s i o n s by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 50 XIX S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' Farms, Sown A r e a , & H a r v e s t V a l u e s by Tenure Groups as P e r c e n t a g e s o f D i s t r i c t w i t h D i s t r i c t Breakdown by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 50 XX I n d i c e s of Land I n t e n s i t y S. I n d i c e s of C u l t i v a t i o n E f f i c i e n c y f o r D i s t r i c t & S u b - D i v i s i o n s by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 . 52 XXI P r i n c i p a l Crops o f the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t by D e s c e n d i n g Order o f V a l u e , 1969/70 . . . 54 XXI1 E j i d a l Crop P e r f o r m a n c e Compared t o t h a t o f the P r i v a t e S e c t o r f o r the M a j o r D i s t r i c t C r o p s , 1969/70 56 XXI11 I n d i c e s o f T o t a l Sown A r e a & H a r v e s t V a l u e o f A l l Crops & o f Wheat f o r D i s t r i c t 1964/65-1969/70 64 v i i i LIST OF TABLES -- C o n t i n u e d T a b l e Page XXIV A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n o f D i s t r i c t & S u b - D i v i s i o n s , 1968/69-1969/70 . . . 61 XXV A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n f o r D i s t r i c t s S u b - D i v i s i o n s by Tenure Groups, 1968/69-1969/70 63 XXVI S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' Wheat A r e a s Sown, P r o d u c t i o n & V a l u e s by Tenure Groups as p e r c e n t a g e s o f D i s t r i c t ' s Tenure Group T o t a l s , 1968/69-1969/70 64 XXV11 S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' Wheat Ar e a s & H a r v e s t V a l u e s by Tenure Groups as p e r c e n t a g e s o f the D i s t r i c t T o t a l s , 1968/69-1969/70 . . . 66 XXVI11 E j i d a l Wheat Crop P e r f o r m a n c e f o r D i s t r i c t & S u b - D i v i s i o n s Compared t o t h a t o f the P r i v a t e S e c t o r , 1968/69-1969/70 . . . . 66 XIX C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the E j i d o s i n U n i t 2, 1969/70 70 XXX The Wheat Sample P o p u l a t i o n o f U n i t 2, 1969/70 70 XXXI T e s t s f o r N o r m a l i t y o f U n i t 2 Farm Sample Data Based on Skewness &. K u r t o s i s . . . 74 XXX11 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the D i f f e r e n c e s between Means o f U n i t 2 Wheat Sample Farms, 1969/70 767^8 XXXI11 Indexes o f Evenness f o r Gross & Net Income o f the U n i t 2 Wheat Sample Farms, 1969/70 78 XXXIV C o r r e l a t i o n s between A r e a & Y i e l d ( P r i v a t e Farms o n l y ) , & between Double C r o p p i n g &. Y i e l d ( A l l F a r m s ) , o f the U n i t 2 Wheat Sample Farms, 1969/70 . 78 i x LIST OF TABLES -- C o n t i n u e d T a b l e Page XXXV A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n on U n i t 2 Sample Farms, 1969/70 80-81 XXXVI A n a l y s i s o f Far m e r s ' Water C o s t s and Scheme Charges p a i d t o CRF 97 XXXVII F a m i l y Labour S u p p l y and i t s U t i l i z a t i o n f o r the U n i t 2 Wheat Growing E j i d a t a r i o s , 1969/70 99 X LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e o f CRF and L i n k a g e s t o SRH and Other A g e n c i e s 26 2 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the CRF Sub-Areas, I n d i c a t i n g M a i n Routes o f Farmer-Scheme Employee Communication . 28 3 C y c l e o f Demand f o r Water i n the CRF Scheme „ 30 xi LIST OF MAPS Map Page 1. The Main I r r i g a t i o n Schemes o f N.W. M e x i c o 13 2. The F u e r t e I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , S i n a l o a 36 3. Earm A r e a s Sampled i n U n i t 2, F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , S i n a l o a . . . . . . . . 73 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Acknowledgements a r e due t o many i n d i v i d u a l s who h e l p e d t o make the f i e l d work f o r t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e . I n p a r t i c u l a r thanks must be g i v e n t o I n g . A b e l a r d o Amaya Brondo, D i r e c t o r o f I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the S e c r e t a r i a t de Re c u r s o s H i d r a u l i c o s i n M exico C i t y , and t o I n g . G u i l l e r m o A. Fernandez de L a r a o f the P l a n n i n g Department o f I n g . Amaya's d i r e c t o r a t e . T h i s s t u d y w o u l d s c a r c e l y have m a t e r i a l i z e d w i t h o u t the c o o p e r a t i o n , k i n d n e s s and p a t i e n c e o f members o f the C o m i s i o n D e l R i o F u e r t e i n Los M o c h i s , S i n a l o a , among o t h e r s I n g . G u i l l e r m o B l a k e A g u i l a r , D i r e c t o r o f the C o m i s i o n , S r . Juan de D i o s Guevara, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C h i e f , and, above a l l , I n g . G u i l l e r m o M a c i a s H., C h i e f E n g i n e e r o f t h e D i s t r i c t , who gave f r e e l y o f h i s and h i s s t a f f ' s t i m e , h i s o f f i c e s p a c e , a i r c r a f t , and c a r , and who c h e e r f u l l y and f r a n k l y a s s i s t e d w i t h s e a r c h f o r m a t e r i a l s and w i t h argument. S i n c e r e thanks a r e a l s o extended t o S r . Pedro Vega, D i s t r i c t p r i v a t e and e j i d a l f a r m e r , and employee o f the C o m i s i o n a t the U n i t 2 O f f i c e , w i t h o u t whose generous c h a u f f e u r i n g , h o s p i t a l i t y and fund o f f a r m i n g e x p e r i e n c e I woul d have seen and u n d e r s t o o d o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f the F u e r t e scheme, t o whose f a r m e r s I a l s o owe much. To Mike P a t t e r s o n , my o f f i c e mate, I owe p a r t i c u l a r thanks f o r the t i m e , e f f o r t and p a t i e n c e w i t h w h i c h he u n d e r t o o k the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g on the IBM 360 f o r C h a p t e r _1V. F i n a l l y I s h o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my thanks t o my a d v i s e r and r e a d e r Dr. A.H. Siemens and t o my r e a d e r Dr. R.N. N o r t h . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The M e x i c a n Land Reform and the V i a b i l i t y o f the Modern  N o r t h w e s t e r n E j i d o The M e x i c a n Land Reform, b o r n out o f the R e v o l u t i o n a r y Code o f 1917, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e s e n t - d a y p a t t e r n o f l a n d h o l d i n g s and f o r the c r e a t i o n o f t h r e e d i s t i n c t i v e f a r m i n g g r o u p s . These t h r e e groups a r e the p a r t i c u l a r e s o r pequenas  p r o p i e t a r i o s , t h e p r i v a t e f a r m e r s , the e j i d a t a r i o s or e j i d a l f a r m e r s , t h e p e a s a n t f a r m e r s , and the c o l o n o s , the c o l o n i s t f a r m e r s . The p r i v a t e f a r m e r has a s i z e l i m i t p l a c e d on h i s h o l d i n g n o r m a l l y o f between 100 and 150 h e c t a r e s , depending on what c r o p s he i s i n t h e h a b i t o f c u l t i v a t i n g . He owns l a n d t h r o u g h p u r c h a s e and hence i s a landowner i n a f u l l , l e g a l s e n s e . The e j i d a t a r i o a l s o has a s i z e l i m i t on h i s h o l d i n g , u s u a l l y 10 h e c t a r e s , but he has n o t become a landowner t h r o u g h p u r c h a s e . He i s the r e c i p i e n t o f f r e e l a n d g i v e n him by the n a t i o n under the M e x i c a n Land Reform w h i c h c a l l e d f o r the breakup o f n a t i o n a l domain, the h a c i e n d a s , l a r g e p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y e s t a t e s , and the Church l a n d . Under the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1917 the e j i d a t a r i o can hand down h i s l a n d t o h i s e l d e s t son, and r e t a i n s h i s l a n d o n l y so l o n g as he works i t r e g u l a r l y ; f u r t h e r m o r e , he cannot s e l l h i s l a n d , mortgage i t , or r e n t i t , s i n c e t h e l a n d , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , i s the p r o p e r t y o f the n a t i o n . The e j i d a t a r i o ' s l a n d cannot t h e r e f o r e be used as s e c u r i t y a g a i n s t a l o a n . The c o l o n o f a r m e r ' s h o l d i n g i s n o r m a l l y around 8 t o 14 h e c t a r e s but the upper l i m i t t o i t s l e g a l s i z e i s l e s s c l e a r l y e n u n c i a t e d i n the A g r a r i a n Code t h a n f o r the o t h e r two main f a r m i n g g r o u p s . Under the Reform Code, p r o v i s i o n was made -'See A p p e n d i x 1 f o r d e t a i l s o f l a n d u n i t s i z e s and A r t i c l e 27. 2 f o r c o l o n o s t o p u r c h a s e l a n d i n the f r o n t i e r r e g i o n s o f M e x i c o a t a v e r y low c o s t , the aim o f the government b e i n g a c t i v e l y t o promote c o l o n i z a t i o n o f the t h e n empty s t a t e s . The c o l o n o farmer, t h e r e f o r e , owns h i s l a n d i n a f u l l l e g a l and b i n d i n g s e n s e , u n l i k e the e j i d a t a r i o . He c o u l d be t h ought of as a s m a l l p r i v a t e f a r m e r , but h i s f r o n t i e r l o c a t i o n and h i s n o r m a l o r i g i n , t h a t of a c e n t r a l -h i g h l a n d s ' f a r m e r , p l a g u e d by the l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s of m i n i f u n d i a , s u b d i v i d e d s m a l l - h o l d i n g s , d i s t i n g u i s h him from the p a r t i c u l a r e s . I n the case of N o r t h w e s t M e x i c o , the e x p a n s i o n of the c o l o n o group came w i t h t h e impetus g i v e n i n the F e d e r a l Law of C o l o n i z a t i o n i n 1946. I n 1963 a r e v i s i o n was made t o the A g r a r i a n Code w h i c h w i t h d r e w a l l f u r t h e r p u b l i c domain from b e i n g g r a n t e d - t o c o l o n i s t s , and r e s e r v e d i t s s u s e s t r i c t l y f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o communal e j i d o s (Henderson 1965, 312). Land s p e c u l a t i o n and a s s o c i a t e d r e -c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o w n e r s h i p i n t o the hands o f a few l a r g e p r i v a t e and i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s , caused t h i s r e v o k i n g o f the law. N u m e r i c a l l y dominant and c e n t r a l t o t h i s s t u d y and t o the Reform a r e the campesinos o r e j i d a t a r i o s . C e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s , i n c r e a s i n g l y i n s i s t e n t as one probes i n t o the s i t u a t i o n o f t h e s e e j i d a t a r i o S j n e e d t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d : - How, f o r i n s t a n c e , a r e the e j i d a t a r i o s o f the l a t e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y r e a c t i n g t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of modern t e c h n o l o g y i n f a r m i n g ? Have they o p e r a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l p roblems? A r e t h e s e problems a t t r i b u t a b l e i n any r e s p e c t t o the R e v o l u t i o n ' s Reform Laws'or, i n o t h e r w ords, a r e the e j i d a t a r i o s b e i n g h i n d e r e d i n c a r r y i n g out f a r m i n g t h a t i s most b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e m s e l v e s by c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d on and around them by t h e Reform? I f t h i s i s s o , t h e n i t c o u l d be argued t h a t the p e a s a n t ' s v i a b i l i t y as an i n d e p e n d e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t i s i n j e o p a r d y because of c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d on him by a r e f o r m s u p p o s e d l y d e s i g n e d to promote h i s l i v e l i h o o d t h r o u g h tenancy of l a n d . Moreover, e v i d e n c e e x i s t s t h a t i n s p i t e o f the Reform, r e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a n d i n t o a few p o w e r f u l p r i v a t e hands i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n M e x i c o ' s most m o d e r n i z e d a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s , such as the N o r t h w e s t where a g r a r i a n incomes a r e the h i g h e s t i n the n a t i o n . Why s h o u l d l a n d h e l d by the p e a s a n t s now be worked by n on-peasants i n t h e s e l o c a l i t i e s ? I t 3 cannot be assumed t h a t a l l the campesinos who r e n t out t h e i r p l o t s t o o t h e r f a r m e r s do so because t h e y t h e m s e l v e s a r e incompetent, t o farm or a r e too l a z y . Do the r e a s o n s f o r the e j i d a t a r i o ' s r i s k i n g r e n t i n g out l i e i n h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r a f i x e d , s t e a d y income and h i s d e s i r e t o a v o i d f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and f l u c t u a t i n g income l e v e l s f r o m f a r m i n g ? I s r e n t i n g out o f l a n d a l a s t r e s o r t a d o p t e d by an e j i d a t a r i o who has become d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o c r e d i t o r s and can see no o t h e r s a f e way o f p a y i n g o f f h i s d e b t s ? F u r t h e r m o r e , when the e j i d a t a r i o i n c u r s a debt i n a modern a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a , i s i t , on average, the r e s u l t of h i s poor y i e l d s and c o n s e q u e n t l y low r e t u r n s or i s the p r o b l e m more complex? I n u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s s t u d y i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the Reform h i n d e r the e j i d a l s e c t o r i n i t s t a s k o f m a i n t a i n i n g v i a b l e f a r m i n g a c t i v i t i e s e s p e c i a l l y i n a modern development r e g i o n , h e r e the N o r t h w e s t . The f o c u s t h e r e f o r e , i s on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f , and the r e a s o n s f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f c e r t a i n o p e r a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of the Reform Laws t h a t can be shown to h i n d e r the e j i d a t a r i o s 1 f a r m i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I n i t i a l l y , a s t u d y i s made o f a l l the c r o p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f the main t e n u r e groups to a s c e r t a i n what b r o a d f a r m performance d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t . T h i s l i n e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s u n d e r t a k e n : -To e s t a b l i s h whether or n o t the e j i d a t a r i o s work t h e i r l a n d more o r l e s s i n t e n s i v e l y t h a n the p r i v a t e f a r m e r s ; whether the e j i d a l c r o p y i e l d s and p r i c e s a r e m a r k e d l y h i g h e r o r lower t h a n t h o s e o f the p r i v a t e group; and whether the r e s u l t of any such d i f f e r e n c e s i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s p a r i t y i n g r o s s incomes per h e c t a r e between e j i d a t a r i o s and p a r t i c u l a r e s . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , d a t a a r e amassed to measure the v a r i a t i o n s i n f a r m p e r f o r m a n c e between and w i t h i n groups and a t the same time t o make p o s s i b l e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the most p r o d u c t i v e f a r m i n g groups w i t h i n a s e l e c t e d a r e a of e x a m i n a t i o n . A f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l s t a g e the v a l i d i t y o f the h y p o t h e s i s i s t e s t e d by s a m p l i n g the a r e a ' s most p r o d u c t i v e farms i n r e l a t i o n t o s i z e , i n c i d e n c e of d o u b l e c r o p p i n g , y i e l d s and p r i c e s o f c r o p s . 4 I n a d d i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f l a b o u r , m a c h i n e r y , f e r t i l i z e r s , p e s t i c i d e s , w a t e r and seeds i s amassed t o a s s e s s the c o s t of o p e r a t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t n e t incomes can be c a l c u l a t e d . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t the e j i d a l s e c t o r a c h i e v e s p o o r e r n e t r e t u r n s per h e c t a r e t h a n t h e p r i v a t e group. On c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h a t p o i n t , f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f the makeup and c o s t of e j i d a l o p e r a t i o n s i s e c a r r i e d o u t . F u r t h e r m o r e , the c r i t i c a l b u s i n e s s of o b t a i n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t f o r the sample f a r m e r s i s s t u d i e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t he c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h c r e d i t i s awarded and r e c e i v e d , and the c o s t s t o t h e r e c i p i e n t o f such f i n a n c i a l a i d . The use o f l a b o u r on t h e e j i d a l farms i s a s s e s s e d , u s i n g t e c h n i q u e s based on R o c k e f e l l e r ' s s t u d y o f the Y a q u i a r e a ( 1 9 5 9 / 6 0 ) , w h i l e c a l c u l a t i o n s o f c o s t s t o g i v e the f i n a l n e t income o f the farmer a r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d c o m p u t a t i o n s o f the d a t a g a t h e r e d from the i n d i v i d u a l f a r m s , the w a t e r b o a r d ' s r e c o r d s and the r e l e v a n t c r e d i t a g e n c i e s . The a p p r o a c h o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , was t o draw on some of the a n a l y t i c a l methods used i n the economic work done by the R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a t i o n . These, a l o n g w i t h s t a n d a r d s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i v e methods were the k i n g p i n s i n the measurement o f f a r m a c t i v i t i e s , incomes and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s . I n the i s o l a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e i r e s t r a i n i n g f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g the e j i d a l f a r m sample's n e t income, f i e l d i n t e r v i e w i n g was c o n d u c t e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o r e s e a r c h i n t o f a r m r e c o r d s i n the r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s l o c a t e d i n the s t u d y a r e a . I n the s e l e c t i o n of t h i s a a r e a , c e r t a i n f a c t o r s have to be c o n s i d e r e d . From the r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y the w r i t i n g s o f Erasmus ( 1 9 6 1 ) , D o z i e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) , and Henderson ( 1 9 6 5 ) , and from d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n the f o u r t h a g r i c u l t u r a l census o f M e x i c o ( 1 9 6 5 ) , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the N o r t h w e s t e r n S t a t e s o f Sonora and S i n a l o a have e x h i b i t e d d r a m a t i c a g r i c u l t u r a l development and m o d e r n i z a t i o n i n the l a s t twenty y e a r s . Nowhere e l s e i n the M e x i c a n n a t i o n have such e x t e n s i v e l a n d a r e a s been put t o use under modern a g r o - t e c h n o l o g y , n o r i s t h e r e any o t h e r r e g i o n where the f a r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n has g e n e r a t e d , o v e r a s h o r t p e r i o d , s u c h m a s s i v e c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e s *See A p p e n d i c e s 2 i 3 f o r o u t l i n e s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s a p p l i e d t o the d a t a c o l l e c t e d , p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n C h a p t e r I V . 5 measured i n terms o f b o t h w e i g h t and v a l u e . H i c k s (1967) and D o v r i n g (1969) have p o i n t e d out t h a t the N o r t h w e s t i s the most dynamic a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a o f M e x i c o , p r o d u c i n g more o f the n a t i o n ' s o u t p u t and e x p o r t of c o t t o n , wheat, s o y a , tomatoes and o t h e r v e g e t a b l e s and f r u i t c r o p s t h a n any o t h e r s i n g l e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n . B e h i n d the i n d i c a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l growth and new economic i m p o r t a n c e o f the N o r t h w e s t i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t by t h e M e x i c a n Government o f s e v e r a l l a r g e i r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s i n what i s e s s e n t i a l l y the Sonoran D e s e r t . W i t h i n t h e s e D i s t r i c t s a l l t e n u r e groups ( f a r m i n g t y p e s ) a r e r e p r e s e n t e d and u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y i n d e e d , a g r i c u l t u r e has been the s o l e s o u r c e of employment f o r the r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n of the i r r i g a t e d a r e a s . A g r i c u l t u r a l s t u d y a r e a s a r e thus v e r y e a s i l y d e f i n e d on the p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e . A l i n e can s i m p l y be drawn between e c o n o m i c a l l y - a c t i v e a r e a s and i d l e , x e r o p h y t i c s c r u b - c o v e r e d d e s e r t l a n d s . The N o r t h e r n S i n a l o a n i r r i g a t i o n scheme on the R i v e r F u e r t e , ther e f o r e . , i s chosen f o r e x a m i n a t i o n o f the e j i d a l f a r m e r under the i n f l u e n c e s o f the Reform, because o f t h a t a r e a ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l m o d e r n i t y and v e r y l a r g e campesino p o p u l a t i o n . Moreover, the F u e r t e scheme p r e s e n t e d the same p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the schemes i n Sonora, b e i n g p r i n c i p a l l y g r a v i t y - f e d by w a t e r ; i t had a c o a s t a l p l a i n l o c a t i o n on the G u l f o f B a j a C a l i f o r n i a and was l i n k e d t o the U.S.A. and the r e s t o f the M e x i c a n n a t i o n by a main highway and r a i l r o a d w h i c h t o g e t h e r a c t e d as l i n k a g e s f o r o u t s i d e goods and the e x p o r t o f the scheme's v a l u e d produce; i t had w i t h i n i t , and on i t s p e r i p h e r y , q u i c k l y g r o w i n g u r b a n c e n t r e s of p o p u l a t i o n ; and i t s r e s i d e n t f a r m p o p u l a t i o n was e n t i r e l y t a k e n up w i t h c r o p c u l t i v a t i o n f o r n a t i o n a l and e x p o r t m a r k e t s . Thisomassiveescheme appeared f u r t h e r a t t r a c t i v e f o r s t u d y (1970) s i n c e i t was i n e x p l i c a b l y i gnored= i n any o f the d e t a i l e d r e g i o n a l development s t u d i e s or i n any of the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c / l a n d t e n u r e s t u d i e s . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t the c u l t i v a t i o n o f wheat would be s e l e c t e d f o r the measurement o f the sample's c e r e a l c u l t i v a t i o n and the u l t i m a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the r e s t r a i n i n g e f f e c t s of the Reform 6 Laws. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s i n g l i n g out wheat i s t h a t t h a t c r o p , more t h a n any o t h e r i n the N o r t h w e s t , has been adap t e d and h y b r i d i z e d f o r c u l t i v a t i o n i n the r e g i o n ' s e n v i r o n m e n t . C o o p e r a t i v e r e s e a r c h by the M e x i c a n M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and the R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a t i o n has a l o n g h i s t o r y of s c i e n t i f i c s e e d - b r e e d i n g anddthe use o f the p r o v e n h y b r i d seed i s v i r t u a l l y synonymous w i t h wheat a g r i c u l t u r e i n the i r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s . I n o t h e r words, r e l a t i v e l y h i g h y i e l d s a r e a s s u r e d t o the sample f a r m e r s i n the a r e a s g r o w i n g t h i s g r a i n c r o p . I n summary, the s t u d y c o u l d be termed a r e g i o n a l - e c o n o m i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f a t y p e o f p e a s a n t f a r m e r i n the modern a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a o f N o r t h w e s t M e x i c o . The aim i s t o e s t a b l i s h whether the v i a b i l i t y o f the e j i d a l f a r m er i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d by h i s t e n u r e s t a t u s under the A g r a r i a n Reform Laws. Land Reform - D e f i n i t i o n s and P r o c e s s S i n c e t h i s paper d e a l s w i t h l a n d r e f o r m i n an a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y , b X ? c c i t . i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e the s p e c i a l i z e d terms us e d . Land  r e f o r m can be thought o f as the p r o c e s s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l change r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g about a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the p a t t e r n o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p or t e n u r e r i g h t s . The c o n t r a c t u a l or customary a r r a n g e -ments under w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d r i g h t s t o or o w n e r s h i p o v e r l a n d a r e termed the t e n u r e rights 1.'; Where l a n d r e f o r m i s put i n t o e f f e c t the p r o c e s s o f o w n e r s h i p r e d i s t r i b u t i o n must i n v o l v e changes or m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the e x i s t i n g t e n u r e laws o f the c o u n t r y . The l a n d t e n u r e laws c o n d i t i o n the l e g a l arrangements whereby p e o p l e i n f a r m i n g g a i n a c c e s s t o p r o d u c t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s on the l a n d (Dorner 1969, 3 ) . Over and above changes i n the l a n d o w n e r s h i p p a t t e r n , l a n d r e f o r m subsumes the i d e a of c r e a t i n g f o r c e s f o r r e d i s t r i b u t i n g income from f a r m o p e r a t i o n s on a more e q u i t a b l e b a s i s t h a n b e f o r e ? . I n the M e x i c a n c a s e , l a n d r e f o r m came i n the R e v o l u t i o n a r y C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1917 w h i c h l a i d the b a s i s f o r e x p r o p r i a t i n g t h e m a s s i v e h a c i e n d a h o l d i n g s and hence a l t e r i n g the s t a t u s quo o f the l a n d e d c l a s s . The e x p r o p r i a t e d l a n d s o f the a r i s t o c r a c y who had 7 h e l d o v e r 80 per c e n t o f the c o u n t r y ' s p o p u l a t i o n i n a s t a t e o f peon s e r v i t u d e , were g i v e n f r e e t o the l a n d l e s s r u r a l p r o l e t a r i a t o v e r the f o l l o w i n g f i v e decades. The r a t e o f r e d i s t r i b u t i o n was e r r a t i c , : and was r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o the e l e c t i o n e e r i n g of the s e v e r a l p r e s i d e n t s o f the R e p u b l i c who f o l l o w e d Madero ( s e e T a b l e _1). Under A r t i c l e 27 o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n the p e a s a n t c l a s s , campesinos, g r a d u a l l y r e c e i v e d f r e e l a n d , w i t h a maximum of 10 h e c t a r e s b e i n g i n v a r i a b l y the r u l e . The p e a s a n t s became known as e j i d a t a r i o s , the members of an e j i d o v i l l a g e , i n t o w h i c h they s e t t l e d and out o f w h i c h they worked. E i t h e r the e j i d a t a r i o worked h i s v i l l a g e p l o t i n d i v i d u a l l y o r he worked the v i l l a g e l a n d communally. I n the l a t t e r system, the g e n e r a t e d income o f the v i l l a g e was d i v i d e d amongst i t s members, w h i l s t i n the former system the i n d i v i d u a l r e c e i v e d e x a c t l y what he h i m s e l f c o u l d e a r n . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , and i r r e s p e c t i v e o f e j i d a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the u l t i m a t e owner o f the e j i d a l l a n d was the n a t i o n . The e j i d a t a r i o thus does n o t p o s s e s s t h e r i g h t t o s e l l , r e n t o r mortgage " h i s l a n d " , b u t m e r e l y has the r i g h t t o work i t and t o i t s income. The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d such a s i t u a t i o n i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . P r i o r t o t h e R e v o l u t i o n , i n e q u a l i t i e s e x i s t e d i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d ; by the time o f p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n , i t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t between 82.4 per c e n t and 96.9 per c e n t of the heads o f r u r a l f a m i l i e s were w i t h o u t a g r i c u l t u r a l property,, ( W i l k i e 1970, 4 2 ) . The aim o f p a r t o f the R e v o l u t i o n a r y Code was to s e t t h i s p o l i t i c o - e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m to r i g h t s . Land was g i v e n t o the r u r a l p r o l e t a r i a t on c o n d i t i o n t h a t they worked i t , l e a v i n g no p e r i o d i n e x c e s s of two c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s w i t h the l a n d i d l e . Land c o u l d be handed down to one and o n l y one member of a f a m i l y , and the a r e a thus c o u l d n o t be s u b d i v i d e d . T h i s p r e v e n t e d c r e a t i o n o f m i n i f u n d i a , s u b d i v i d e d s m a l l - h o l d i n g s . On the o t h e r hand, s i n c e e j i d a l l a n d c o u l d n o t be s o l d , r e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p c o u l d n o t o c c u r , as i t had p r i o r t o the R e v o l u t i o n . The c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h l a n d was g i v e n s e r v e d t o p r o v i d e t h e p e a s a n t w i t h independence, u n s h a c k l e d from the s u b s e r v i e n c e o f the h a c i e n d a system, and a t the same time gave him r e s o u r c e s t o s u p p o r t h i m s e l f and dependants. T a b l e _1 R e c i p i e n t s o f Land by P r e s i d e n t i a l Term, 1915-1964, A r e a R e d i s t r i b u t e d , 1916-1967, & R e l a t e d P r e s i d e n t i a l P o l i c i e s Year P r e s i d e n t Term Ends 1920 C a r r a n z a 1920 De La H u e r t a R e c i p i e n t s C u m u l a t i v e Land A r e a P r e s i d e n t i a l Av. No. o f D i s t r i b u t e d P o l i c y No. Ha. R e c i p i e n t s (1(000 has) O r i e n t a t i o n (A) (Bi»  1924 Obregon 1928 C a l l e s 446^398 "316 6,330 5.3 128,468 8.6 297,428 10.6 1930 P o r t e s G i l 171,577 10.0 1932 O r t i z R u b i o 64,573 14.6 1934 R o d r i g u e z 1940 Cardenas 68,556 11.5 811,157 22.1 1946 A v i l a Camacho 157,536 37.7 1952 Aleman 97,391 49.7 1958 R u i s C o r t i n e s 231,888 21.1 1964 Lopez Mateos 304,498 37.3 1970 D i a z Ordaz 46 r398 1.3 52,728 1.5 181,196 5.1 478,624 13.3 650,201 17.9 714,774 19.5 783,330 21.1 1,594,487 41.6 1,752,023 39.6 1,849,414 36.4 2,081,302 35.5 2,385,800 35.0 10,618.2 20,073.0 5,327.9 4,520.3 2,282.0 12,500.0 9,470.0' L e g a l a R e f o r m groundwork P r o v i s i o n a l 6 months Began Reform S t r o n g l y pro-l a b o u r P r o Reform 14 months T r i e d t o h a l t Reform Resumed Reform S t r o n g l y P ro Reform M o d e r a t i o n o f v i e w s Weakened Reform Less a n t e Reform R e v i v e d Reform C o n t i n u e d Reform *1963-67 (B)=(A) as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l y employed. S o u r c e s : - Columns 1-4, W i l k i e 1970, 194; Column 5, V e n e z i a n & Gamble 1969, 119; Column 6, N e e d i e r 1971, 2. 9 F u r t h e r m o r e , and i d e a l l y , the n a t i o n ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l o u t p u t w o u l d be augmented by the p e a s a n t s ' l a b o u r s , s i n c e i t k&d been a s s e r t e d t h a t the h a c i e n d a s were f r e q u e n t l y n o t m a x i m i z i n g t h e i r o u t p u t s , g i v e n t h e i r v a s t r e s o u r c e s . D i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the M e x i c a n t e n u r e system a r e the a g r a r i a n c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n s . J u s t as the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y group i s l e g a l l y q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t e n t i t y from the e j i d o s and v i c e v e r s a , the p r i v a t e group has i t s own c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n s . The p a r t i c u l a r e s ' c r e d i t s o u r c e s grew up s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n r e s p o n s e to t h a t groupjis p o s s e s s i o n o f m o r t g a g e a b l e p r o p e r t y . The e j i d a l c r e d i t agency was e v e n t u a l l y c r e a t e d by t h e F e d e r a l Government f o r the a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e s e f a r m e r s who d i d n o t h o l d s e c u r i t i e s a g a i n s t c r e d i t a d vances. Such goyernment i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the f i e l d o f a g r a r i a n c r e d i t w o u l d n o t have been as n e c e s s a r y , c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , had i t n o t been f o r the p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f the e j i d a l t e n u r e s t a t u s . I n summary, the l a n d l e s s r u r a l p r o l e t a r i a t was g i v e n l a n d by the R e v o l u t i o n , b u t the r e c i p i e n t s d i d n o t p o s s e s s t h e i r l a n d i n a l e g a l s e n s e . The h a c i e n d a s were d i s s o l v e d and w i t h t h e i r c o l l a p s e s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s were p l a c e d on the s i z e o f p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s . The l a n d e d s e c t o r o f the f a r m p o p u l a t i o n was n o n e t h e l e s s the l a t t e r groups s i n c e t h e y "owned" t h e i r l a n d and i n f a v o u r a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o u l d l e g a l l y p u r c h a s e more l a n d . An e j i d a t a r i o c o u l d n o t l e g a l l y p u r c h a s e a d d i t i o n a l e j i d a l l a n d . L a i s s e z -f a i r e o p e r a t e d to the p r i v a t e owners' advantage by e s t a b l i s h i n g c r e d i t b a n k i n g f o r a g r a r i a n u s e r s . The e j i d a l s e c t o r was n o t s e r v e d c r e d i t - w i s e on any s i g n i f i c a n t n a t i o n a l s c a l e u n t i l the government s t e p p e d i n w i t h the E j i d a l Bank i n 1939 ( W i l k i e 1970, 141). Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the d e l a y i n a s s u r i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d t o t h e e j i d a l f a r m e r s has f r e q u e n t l y been c i t e d as p a r t - c a u s e o f the poor e j i d a l l e v e l o f o u t p u t , w h i c h , t i l l t he p e r i o d 1950-60, e x h i b i t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y s l o w e r growth r a t e s t h a n t h o s e o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r ( D o v r i n g 1966 & 1969). "^See A p p e n d i x 1 f o r d e t a i l s of l a n d u n i t s i z e s under A r t i c l e 27 ( 1 9 1 7 ) . 10 CHAPTER 11 THE FUERTE IRRIGATION DISTRICT: THE REGIONAL CONTEXT Lar g e S c a l e A g r o - I r r i g a t i o n Development i n N o r t h w e s t Mexico The l a r g e i r r i g a t i o n schemes o f Sonora and S i n a l o a a r e M e x i c o ' s e q u i v a l e n t s o f the C a l i f o r n i a n C e n t r a l V a l l e y o r o f A r i z o n a ' s I m p e r i a l and S a l t R i v e r schemes.(See T a b l e 11). These two n o r t h e r n s t a t e s o f Mexico c o n t a i n i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l s h o w p i e c e s , y e t some t h i r t y y y e a r s ago t h e r e was no c o m m e r c i a l a g r i c u l t u r e . Toady's boom c i t i e s o f Guaymas, C i u d a d Obregon, N a v a j o a and Los Mochis were j u s t s m a l l v i l l a g e s w h i l s t t he o l d h i s t o r i c c e n t r e s o f H e r m o s i l l o , Alamos, E l F u e r t e , M o c o r i t o and C u l i a c a n were t h e f o c i o f r u d i m e n t a r y s o c i a l and economic a c t i v i t y . A t t h a t t i m e , , the o n l y a l l - w e a t h e r r o u t e was t h e r a i l r o a d t h r o u g h the r e g i o n , l i n k i n g w i t h N o gales i n the n o r t h and T e p i c , G u a d a l a r a and Mexico C i t y i n the s o u t h . There was no paved highway r i g h t t h r o u g h from the U.S.A. b o r d e r , w h i l s t p o r t f a c i l i t i e s were a l m o s t e n t i r e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the s o u t h e r n end o f the r e g i o n a t M a z a t l a n . The p o p u l a t i o n s o f Sonora and S i n a l o a i n 1950 were r e s p e c t i v e l y 510,607 and 635,681. Today the e q u i v a l e n t f i g u r e s a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y 1,092,458 and 1,273,228 , r e p r e s e n t i n g a growth o f 114.0 p e r c e n t and 100.2 p e r c e n t o v e r two decades. Over the p e r i o d 1940-1960, the N o r t h P a c i f i c r e g i o n , c o n s i s t i n g o f B a j a C a l i f o r n i a N o r t e y Sur, N a y a r i t , Sonora and S i n a l o a , was t h e f a s t e s t e x p a n d i n g c r o p p r o d u c t i o n a r e a o f M e x i c o , q u a d r u p l i n g i t s o u t p u t ( R e y n o l d s 1970, 110). The i n c r e d i b l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s p e r i p h e r a l r e g i o n o f Mexi c o i n t h e space o f a few decades i s t o t a l l y bound up w i t h m a s s i v e g o v e r n m e n t a l i n v e s t m e n t i n f l o o d c o n t r o l , w a t e r r e s e r v o i r c o n s t r u c t i o n , e l e c t r i c a l power g e n e r a t i o n and the p r o v i s i o n o f - ' P r o v i s i o n a l d a t a from t h e 1970 P o p u l a t i o n Census, June 1970 11 T a b l e ll_ I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s o f t h e Sonoran D e s e r t ( h e c t a r e s ) U.S.A. G r a v i t y Pumps I m p e r i a l V a l l e y 151,760 15,378 C o a c h e l l a V a l l e y 31,566 8,903 B l y t h e - P a l o Verde 28,328 2,832 F o r t Yuma I n d i a n R e s e r v a t i o n ( C a l . ) 6,070 Yuma & G i l a P r o j e c t s '50,586 10,926 C o l o r a d o R i v e r I n d i a n R e s e r v a t i o n ( A r i z ) 12,545 S u p p l e m e n t a l C i b o l a <£ E h r e n b e r g 3,642 S a l t R i v e r V a l l e y 73,654 53,419 S a f f o r d - A r t e s i a 12,140 404 Duncan 2,023 Casa Grande 20,234 72,035 San Pedro V a l l e y / R a i n b o w / G i l a R i v e r / T o n a p a h / M c M u l l e n / C e n t e n n i a l Wash 87,009 Sub T o t a l - A m e r i c a n S e c t o r 392,553 250,910 Mexi c o M e x i c a l i 153,783 8,093 San L u i s , C o l o r a d o 29,947 2,023 R i o A l t a r 3,237 2,023 Caborca 46,135 I m u r i s / S a n t a A n a / M a g d a l e n a / T r i n c h e r a s 2,832 2,913 C o s t a de H e r m o s i l l o 95,507 H e r m o s i l l o ( R o d r i g u e z Dam) 12,950 S u p p l e m e n t a l V a l l e de Guaymas 809 12,950 R i o Y a q u i 230,675 S u p p l e m e n t a l R i o Mayo 83,771 S u p p l e m e n t a l R i o F u e r t e 242,816 S u p p l e m e n t a l R i o S i n a l o a / M o c o f i t o 93,079 S u p p l e m e n t a l R i o C u l i a c a n 110,076 S u p p l e m e n t a l E. S o n o r a n ( S i e r r a V a l l e y bottoms) 14,528 7,770 Sub T o t a l - M e x i c a n S e c t o r 978,510 177,418 Sour c e : - Adapted f r o m D u n b i e r 1970, 213-214. 12 i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as paved highways and p i p e d d r i n k i n g w a t e r . The c o s t o f the i n v e s t m e n t s has been v e r y l a r g e and beyond the immediate r e s o u r c e s o f M e x i c o . The main s o u r c e s o f the much needed c a p i t a l have been and s t i l l a r e the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development (IBRD), the Agency f o r Development ( A I D ) , t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank and the World Bank. The i n v e s t m e n t i n t h i s r e g i o n , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a g r a r i a n r e f o r m programme, more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e has b r o u g h t about the r a p i d growth o f c r o p p r o d u c t i o n a f t e r 1940. Some i n d i c a t i o n s o f the i n v e s t m e n t by t h e government i n t h e n o r t h and n o r t h w e s t a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s 111-V, c l e a r l y r e v e a l i n g how t h e s e two r e g i o n s r e c e i v e d t h e l a r g e s t b e n e f i t s from 1940 t o 1960. D u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d t h e n o r t h and n o r t h P a c i f i c a r e a s r e c e i v e d a l m o s t 80 per c e n t of the F e d e r a l l y i r r i g a t e d l a n d , over 50 per c e n t o f newly paved h i g h w a y s , and a c c o u n t e d f o r 67 per c e n t o f n e t p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n a g r i c u l t u r e ( R e y n o l d s 1970, 157 & i l 5 9 ) . The s p e c i f i c i r r i g a t i o n schemes - e i g h t i n number r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the n o r t h P a c i f i c ' s r e c e n t r i s e t o the f o r e i n n a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l output''.are shown on Map 1. W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of the Costaade H e r m o s i l l o and the R i o C o l o r a d o D i s t r i c t , t h e s e schemes r e l y f o r t h e i r w a t e r s u p p l i e s on t h e a r t i f i c i a l l a k e s t h a t a r e c r e a t e d on the edge o f the S i e r r a ' s w e s t t a n d southwest v a l l e y mouths, out o f w h i c h f l o w the s e a s o n a l l y f l o o d i n g r i v e r s . The r e l a t i v e l y heavy s o i l s o f t h e scheme a r e a s a r e the p r o d u c t o f y e a r s o f a l l u v i a l outwash accum-u l a t i o n s d e p o s i t e d i n n o t i c e a b l e l a y e r s m a r k i n g the f r e q u e n c y o f p e r i o d i c f l o o d s . Over the y e a r s v a r y i n g from 25 t o 5 y e a r s f o r w h i c h t h e r e a r e c l i m a t i c r e c o r d s , a l l s t a t i o n s have r e g i s t e r e d m o i s t u r e d e f i c i e n c i e s . A n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n ranges f r o m 59 mm on the C o l o r a d o D i s t r i c t t o 910.2 mm on the C u l i a c a n scheme. The t e m p e r a t u r e ranges from n o r t h t o s o u t h , w i t h a J a n u a r y minimum o f around 12°C a t t h e C o l o r a d o D i s t r i c t t o 18.4°C a t C u l i a c a n , and a J u l y maximum o f 33.2°C a t C o l o r a d o t o 33.3QC on t h e Y a q u i D i s t r i c t . The .-frequency o f f r o s t i s uncommon s o u t h o f the Mayo M A P 1 T H E M A I N I R R I G A T I O N S C H E M E S O F N . W . M E X I C O ' • 2 \<S> o •5> U S A „,„„; \ N A O -7 0* S O N O R A • 5 Mo 8 C H I H U A H U A M a i n S e t t l e m e n t s of N.W. & A s s o c i a t e d I r r i ga t ion S c h e m e s 1C i — D U R A N G O 1 T i j u a n a 2 E n s e n a d a 3 M e x i c a l i - R f o C o l o r a d o 4 N o g a l e s 5 H e r m o s i l lo - C o s t a de H e r m o s i l l o 6 G u a y m a s - V a l l e de G u a y m a s 7 C d . O b r e g o n - C o l o n i a s Y a q u i ( l n d i a n ) & R f o Y a q u i 8 N a v o j o a - R f o M a y o 9 L o s M o c h i s - R f o F u e r t e 10 L a P a z 11 C u l i a c a n - R i o C u l i a c a n & R i o H u m a y a 12 M a z a t l a n 13 T e p i c •12 4 i 5ft ' y, < r & > 0 50 100 200 4 0 0 K i l o m e t r e s 14 T a b l e 111 Land A r e a B e n e f i t e d by M a j o r F e d e r a l I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s , 1930-58 ( '000 1930 h e c t a r e s ) 1940 1950 1958 N o r t h 2 97 363 560 G u l f 0 0 5 53 N o r t h P a c i f i c 0 37 402 839 South P a c i f i c 0 0 21 24 C e n t r e 15 123 247 400 M e x i c o 17 257 1,038 1,876 T a b l e _1V Land B e n e f i t e d by M a j o r F e d e r a l I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s as P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l A r e a C u l t i v a t e d , 1939-59 (7.) 1940 1950 1959 N o r t h 4 12 15 G u l f 0 0.3 3 N o r t h P a c i f i c 4 39 53 South P a c i f i c 0 1.4 1.2 C e n t r e 3 6 9 Mexi c o 3 9 14 T a b l e V R e g i o n a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f PavedRRoads, 1935-55 7o o f T o t a l 7„^ ofj C u l t i v a t e d B u i l d i n g o f B u i l d i n g o f Land A r e a Land Paved Roads Paved Roads 1935^40 1940-55 Km. 7, Km. 7. N o r t h 41 27 1,429 39 3,897 30 G u l f 12 11 247 7 1,489 11 N o r t h P a c i f i c 21 9 125 3 2,578 20 South P a c i f i c 12 14 455 12 1,457 11 C e n t r e 14 39 1,438 39 3,543 27 Mexi c o i on 100 . i (->•-• 100 3J694 1 •)M 100 12*964 lob S o u r c e : - T a b l e s 111, V I , V r e s p e c t i v e l y f r o m R e y n o l d s 1970, 156, 156, & 157. , 15 scheme, but damage t o c r o p s by t h i s h a z a r d has o c c u r r e d e v e r y 5-6 y e a r s n o r t h of t h a t a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y so on s e c t i o n s n e a r M e x i c a l i . Land r e d i s t r i b u t i o n d i d n o t s t a r t t o a f f e c t the N o r t h w e s t u n t i l t h e e x t r e m e l y a c t i v e r e f o r m p e r i o d under the Cardenas regime i n the l a t e 1930s. The main p r e s s u r e f o r r e f o r m came fr o m the s m a l l r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h had had s t r o n g t i e s w i t h p r o m i n e n t l e a d e r s o f the R e v o l u t i o n . The campesinos had much j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r d i s c o n t e n t i n the decade o f t h e 1930s s i n c e t h e e x t r e m e l y l a r g e l i v e s t o c k h a c i e n d a s had n o t been touched by t h e e x p r o p r i a t i o n p r o c e s s , and hence r e d i s t r i b u t i o n had n o t gone f o r w a r d t o any s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . W i t h t h e breakup of the l a n d e d e s t a t e s between 1938-42, th e e j i d a l c l a s s made i t s e n t r y i n t o the N o r t h w e s t ' s farmer s e c t o r . At the same t i m e , i n i t i a l f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s were begun by the C o m i s i o n N a c i o n a l de I r r i g a c i o n l a t e r known as t h e S e c r e t a r i a t de R e c u r s o s H i d r a " u l i c o s (SRH), t o d e t e r m i n e whether l a r g e s c a l e e x t e n s i o n of the t h e n v e r y l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l y worked a r e a s was p o s s i b l e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the l a r g e A m e r i c a n sugar cane i n t e r e s t s i n t h e Los Mochis a r e a on the F u e r t e d e l t a , t h e r e was no i m p o r t a n t c o m m e r c i a l c r o p o u t p u t area,' s i n c e a l m o s t a l l the d e l t a i c zones o p e r a t e d t h e i r meagre a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t l a r g e w a t e r s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s . A g r i c u l t u r e was c o n d u c t e d by sowing one c r o p per y e a r and i t s subsequent g e r m i n a t i o n depended on i n u n d a t i o n d u r i n g the f l o o d p e r i o d s i n March and A p r i l . Extreme r a i n f a l l v a r i a b i l i t y meant t h a t the rewards f r o m c r o p c u l t i v a t i o n and l i v e s t o c k o p e r a t i o n s were v e r y e r r a t i c . I n s h o r t , the N o r t h w e s t ' s environment p r e s e n t e d too many h a z a r d s f o r e x t e n s i v e development i n a g r i c u l t u r e o f any v a r i e t y f o r the s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t v a s t h y d r a u l i c and i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l i n v e s t m e n t . Hence the r e g i o n d i d n o t t h e n s u p p o r t the h i g h d e n s i t i e s o f r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n found e l s e w h e r e i n the more humid s o u t h e r n and c e n t r a l u p l a n d s t a t e s o f the n a t i o n . What p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e was was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a few odd s e t t l e m e n t s and a l o n g 16 s e c t i o n s o f t h e main S i e r r a n r i v e r s t h a t s p i l l e d i n t o t he G u l f o f B a j a C a l i f o r n i a . F o r e s t r y and m i n e r a l e x p l o i t a t i o n were n o t o p e r a t e d on a s c a l e t o w a r r a n t i n - m i g r a t i o n o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e . Owing t o meagre demand, l o c a l use o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s was m i n i m a l , and t h e i r i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y f rom t h e c o u n t r y ' s p r i n c i p a l m a r k ets h i n d e r e d t h e i r n a t i o n a l u s e . Between 1945 and 1960, however, SRH b u i l t major dams on the Sonora^. Y a q u i , Mayo, F u e r t e , S i n a l o a and the C u l i a c a n r i v e r s w h i c h by 1964 were a l l o p e r a t i n g f u l l y and s u p p l i e d w a t e r f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s , e l e c t r i c a l g e n e r a t i o n , d r i n k i n g and s e t t l e m e n t s e r v i c e s t o a p r o d u c t i o n a r e a e x c e e d i n g 800,000 h e c t a r e s (2 m i l l i o n a c r e s ) . Paved highways l i n k i n g r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g e j i d a l settlement's were b u i l t , and the Nogales and T i j u a n a west c o a s t highway t o G u a d a l a j a r a and Mexico C i t y was c o m p l e t e d . The r a i l r o a d c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the U.S.A. had had i t s t r a c k s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y r e b u i l t and r e l a i d s i n c e t h e work began i n the mid 1950s, w h i l s t modern d i e s e l - p o w e r e d l o c o m o t i v e s were now r e g u l a r l y o p e r a t i n g . The o n l y t r a n s - s i e r r a n c r o s s i n g was completed i n the e a r l y 1960s w i t h the Chihuahua - Los Mochis - Topolobampo r a i l r o a d . T h i s l i n k made p o s s i b l e t h e shipment o f produce t o the Texan and e a s t e r n U.S.A. f r e s h v e g e t a b l e m a r kets f r o m w h i c h t h i s M e x i c a n r e g i o n e has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p o r t r e v e n u e . C o n c o m i t a n t w i t h t h i s r a i l r o a d ' s c o m p l e t i o n , w h a r f f a c i l i t i e s were up-graded a t Topolobampo w i t h d r i v e - o f f f e r r y f a c i l i t i e s t o La Paz on the s o u t h e r n t i p o f the B a j a . I n v e stment was a l s o made i n t h e e x p a n s i o n o f f i s h p a c k i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r the s h r i m p i n g i n d u s t r y . S i m i l a r p o r t developments were u n d e r t a k e n f u r t h e r n o r t h a t Guaymas, where o i l s t o r a g e p l a n t s were a l s o b u i l t . Permanent a i r s t r i p s were b u i l t a t C u l i a c a n , Los M o c h i s , N a v a j o a , C i u d a d Obregon, and H e r m o s i l l o , a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h e 1960s, making p o s s i b l e v e r y r a p i d i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e s e main towns. To a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , t h e p r e s e n c e o f SRH and i t s need f o r a i r f a c i l i t i e s t o i n s p e c t i t s D i s t r i c t s a c t e d as a s t i m u l u s t o the development o f a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The main cr o p o u t p u t s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t ' s i r r i g a t i o n schemes a r e 17 c o t t o n , wheat, r i c e , sugar cane, sorghum, tomatoes and t h e u b i q u i t o u s c o r n and beans. A l l a r e p r i m a r i l y f o r n a t i o n a l m a r kets and, d e p e n d i n g on home demand and w o r l d p r i c e s , they a r e , e x c e p t f o r c o r n and beans, a l s o f r e q u e n t l y f o r e x p o r t . No s i n g l e p r o d u c t i o n r e g i o n i s a p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c e r i o f f a a w i d e v a r i e t y o f c r o p s , but each, due t o some c l i m a t i c or l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r , i s a main p r o d u c e r among the i n t r a - d e s e r t r e g i o n s , o f a t l e a s t one o f the major c o m m o d i t i e s . A l t h o u g h any f i e l d may produce two c r o p s a n n u a l l y , wheat and c o t t o n , the most w i d e l y p l a n t e d c r o p s , have g r o w i n g seasons w h i c h a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . The f a r m e r s must choose one o r the o t h e r , because, once the a r e a has begun to s p e c i a l i z e , the i n v e s t m e n t s needed t o p l a n t , c u l t i v a t e , h a r v e s t and p r o c e s s the c r o p a r e so l a r g e t h a t the r e g i o n i s c o m p e l l e d to c o n t i n u e t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f the most r e m u n e r a t i v e s i n g l e c r o p . T h i s i s borne out by the case of c o t t o n , w h i c h s i n c e the mid 1950s has d i s p l a c e d wheat as the most i m p o r t a n t commodity grown i n the Sonoran D e s e r t . The s u c c e s s o f c o t t o n r e s t s i n l a r g e measure on the c o i n c i d e n t a l o u t b r e a k o f the K o r e a n War a t the time when thousands o f h e c t a r e s were coming under i r r i g a t i o n f o r the f i r s t t i m e . The w o r l d p r i c e f o r t h e f i b r e s p i r a l l e d upwards t o such an e x t e n t l t h a t farms from M e x i c a l i and H e r m o s i l l o t o F.uerte and C u l i a c a n p l a n t e d the c r o p , and i n v e s t e d i n i t s c u l t i v a t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e i r l a n d s and the h a z a r d s o f h i g h l o c a l h u m i d i t i e s a t p i c k i n g t i m e . As D u n b i e r (1970, 246) s t a t e s : "The p r o f i t s from t h i s s i n g l e c r o p d u r i n g a few s h o r t y e a r s gave more impetus t o the development o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n the M e x i c a n N o r t h w e s t t h a n any o t h e r economic f a c t o r a s i d e from i r r i g a t i o n i t s e l f . " By the mid 1950s the Sonoran D e s e r t became M e x i c o ' s main c o t t o n p r o d u c i n g a r e a , the o u t p u t o f the S t a t e o f Sonora a l o n e a c c o u n t i n g f o r over 50 p e r c e n t by w e i g h t . Owing t o the r a p i d e x p a n s i o n i n t h i s a r e a M e x i c o became the World's f i f t h l a r g e s t p r o d u c e r a f t e r the U.S.A., U.S.S.R., C h i n a , and I n d i a . The p r o f i t s t h e n were 18 much h i g h e r t h a n t o d a y . T h i s was because the use o f f e r t i l i z e r was v e r y low, due t o the f a c t t h a t v i r g i n l a n d was b e i n g c u l t i v a t e d w h i c h had s u f f i c i e n t n u t r i e n t s f o r i n i t i a l l y h i g h y i e l d s . The h i g h e r y i e l d s o b t a i n e d t o d a y a r e the r e s u l t o f i n t e n s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f i n s e c t and weed c o n t r o l s p l u s n i t r o g e n o u s f e r t i l i z e r s . The need f o r d i s e a s e c o n t r o l has r i s e n as t h e r e g u l a r h e c t a r e s sown i n c o t t o n have expanded; c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h t h i s , t he c o s t s o f p r o d u c t i o n have r i s e n ( D u n b i e r 1970, 2 4 6 ) . A breakdown o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the i r r i g a t i o n schemes' p r o d u c t i o n i s g i v e n i n T a b l e V_l. I t s h o u l d be n o t i c e d t h a t t h e more humid a r e a s s o u t h o f the Mayo D i s t r i c t , where f r o s t i s r a r e and w a t e r s u p p l y more adequate, e x h i b i t g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f c u l t i v a t i o n . There i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f c o u r s e , b u t t h e s e schemes have the a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d t o market p r i c e and demand more r e a d i l y t h a n the n o r t h e r n D i s t r i c t s . t h r o u g h t h e i r a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n more v a r i e d c r o p a c t i v i t i e s . Not o n l y a r e t h e r e v a r i a t i o n s i n the cr o p p r o d u c t i o n p a t t e r n s from scheme t o scheme, t h e r e a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n s i n t he t e n u r e makeup of the D i s t r i c t s and the ave r a g e s i z e o f farms (see T a b l e V l l ) . C l e a r l y t h e e C o s t a de H e r m o s i l l o a r e a e x h i b i t s e x c e p t i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a n d i n p r i v a t e hands. T h i s a r e a was opened up by the government a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y f o r p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . S i n c e t h i s event c o i n c i d e d w i t h the boom demand f o r c o t t o n , t h e l a n d t h a t had been p r e v i o u s l y c u l t i v a t e d under wheat was r a p i d l y e x t e n d e d , w i t h p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n many new deep w e l l s , and the a r e a ' s s p e c i a l i t y thus became c o t t o n . I n a l l the major D i s t r i c t s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , t he e j i d a l s e c t o r h o l d s l e s s t h a n 50 per c e n t o f the a r e a , and y e t t h a t s e c t o r , e x c l u d i n g the H e r m o s i l l o a r e a , r e p r e s e n t s over 50 per c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t s ' f a r m e r p o p u l a t i o n . I t s h o u l d be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n about f a r m s i z e i s t h e o f f i c i a l v i e w and makes no p r o v i s i o n f o r c a l c u l a t i n g the a c t u a l worked s i z e o f farms or f o r the a c t u a l a c t i v e f a r m p o p u l a t i o n where r e n t i n g out of e j i d a l l a n d t o o t h e r o p e r a t o r s T a b l e VI Crop P r o d u c t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the N o r t h w e s t I r r i g a t i o n Schemes, M e x i c o , 1967/68 M e x i c a l i H e r m o s i l l o Y a q u i Mayo F u e r t e C u l i a c a n T o t a l V a l u e of Output ('000s pesos) 895,432 550,321 1,087,695 4407J151 820,094 822,160 T o t a l A r e a H a r v e s t e d (has) 171,181 107,204 206,366 108,048 181,373 96,837 No. o f M a i n Crops c u l t i v a t e d per annum e x c e e d i n g 1 m i l l i o n pesos i n v a l u e 9 9 15 15 18 16 10 P r i n c i p a l Crops by d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f v a l u e 1 cC.637,289 C.328,073 C.494,446 C.129,721 C.296,090 Tm.491,418 2 Wh.153,079 Wh.200,298 Sy.237,260 Wh.76,356 Tm.148,649 Sc.104,879 3 A l . 46,785 C f . 6,510 Wh.227,447 Sy.46,361 Sc.112,876 R?..78,455 4 s. 21,277 Gr. 5,670 Mz. 55,794 Sg.38,528 Wh. 54,051 Cgff.41,870 5 A. 9,816 B. 2,330 Sg. 20,105 Ss.23,010 Sy. 44,718 Sg?., 40,822 6 Br . 9,537 Sgg, 2,329 Ss. 18,356 S.20,924 51^,41,246 B?,14,405 7 V r . 7,885 A l . 2,232 A l . 7,711 Ch.17,933 R^,27,242 VV.13,460 8 sg. 5,044 Cp. 1,650 S. 6,063 Mz.13,029 B5.21,834 C1J. 9,537 9 G. 4,371 S. 1,227 M l . 4,212 V.10,189 P? 515,836 F r v •, 5,586 10 Fo. 346 — F. 2,464 C I . 8,900 VV.13,804 WKV. 4,596 Symbols:- A=Asparagus. A l = A l f a l f a . B=Beans. C=Cotton. Cc=Cucutnber. C l = C h i l e . Ch=Chicares.§Cp=Chickpeas. F r = F r u i t . G = G a r l i c . Ml=Melon. Mz=Maize. R=Rice. P = P o t a t o e s . Sc=Sugar Cane. Sg=Sorghum. Sy=Soya. Tm=Tomatoes(export). Ss=Sesame. S = S a f f l o w e r . B r = B a r l e y . C f = C i t r i c F r u i t . Gr.=Grapes. Wh=Wheat. V=Various. So u r c e: - Compiled from D i r e c c i o n G e n e r a l de D i s t r i t o s de R i e g o . C a r a c t e r i s t i c a s de l o s D i s t r i t o s de R i e g o . V o l . 1 , . Mexico C i t y : S e c r e t a r i a t de R e c u r s o s H i d r a u l i c o s , 1969. 20 T a b l e V l l A l l o c a t i o n o f Land H e l d by Main Tenure Types, Number o f Farmers and Average Farm S i z e f o r the P r i n c i p a l Sonoran D e s e r t I r r i g a t i o n A r e a s o f M e x i c o , 1967/68 M e x i c a l i H e r m o s i l l o Y a q u i FMaybe F E u e r t e a n C u l i a c a n A r e a h e I d ( h a s ) 229,927 143,915 205,178 95,924 201,844 95,665 T o t a l E j i d a l 109,584 1,200 73,285 45,845 118,989 32,278 P r i v a t e 120,343 142,715 131,893 50,079 82,855 63,387 Farmers T o t a l 11,881 1,533 7,655 11,906 15,281 6,820 No. o f E j i d a t a r i o s 6,636 81 4,238 7,740 13,081 4,813 No. o f p r i v a t e owners & c o l o n o s 5,254 1,452 3,417 4,166 2,200 2,007 Average s i z e o f h o l d i n g ( h a s ) T o t a l 19244 93.9 26.8 8.1 13.2 14.0 E j i d a l 16.5 14.8 17.3 5.9 9.1 6.7 P r i v a t e , w i t h c o l o n o s 22.9 98.3 38.6 12.0 37.7 31.6 So u r c e : - S e c r e t a r i a l de R e c u r s o s H i d r a u l i c o s , D i r e c c i o n G e n e r a l de D i s t r i t o s de R i e g o . C a r a c t e r i s t i c a s de l o s D i s t r i t o s de  R i e g o , V o l . 1 . M e x i c o C i t y : A u t h o r , 1969. 21 t a k e s p l a c e . Moreover, the ave r a g e s i z e s o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s under p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t r u e s i t u a t i o n , s i n c e o w n e r s h i p o f o v e r 100-150 h e c t a r e s i s c o n c e a l e d f r o m the a u t h o r i t i e s i n t o k e n r e s p e c t f o r and adherence to t he Reform Laws. U n f o r t u n a t e l y s y s t e m a t i c d a t a t h a t m ight remedy th e above s i t u a t i o n a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e from any s o u r c e , even f o r a s i n g l e scheme a r e a . The f a r m s i z e s shown a r e m e r e l y t h e r e s u l t of d i v i d i n g t h e r e s p e c t i v e t e n u r e g r o u p s ' t o t a l h o l d i n g a r e a s by the number o f assumed a c t i v e f a r m e r s i n a p a r t i c u l a r group; a c t i v e f a r m e r s a r e equated w i t h t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s o f f i c i a l l y r e g i s t e r e d as h o l d i n g f a r m l a n d . Hence, l a n d t h a t i s as y e t u n c l e a r e d and u n l e v e l l e d i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e s e f i g u r e s , as i s l a n d t h a t i s c o n t a m i n a t e d by s a l t from y e a r s o f o v e r - i r r i g a t i o n . The Development o f I r r i g a t i o n and A g r i c u l t u r e on t h e F u e r t e The R i o F u e r t e i r r i g a t i o n scheme, or the V a l l e D e l F u e r t e , D i s t r i c t No.75 as i t i s r e f e r r e d t o i n the SRH f i l e s , i s s i t u a t e d j u s t s o u t h o f the S i n a l o a - S o n o r a b o r d e r on the lower e a s t e r n s h o r e s o f t h e G u l f o f C a l i f o r n i a . The h i s t o r y o f i r r i g a t i o n i n t h i s l a r g e c o a s t a l p l a i n below t h e S i e r r a , d a t e s back t o the l a t e 1880s, when r e c o r d s show t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,300 h e c t a r e s were c u l t i v a t e d on the lower d e l t a zone, m a i n l y f o r c o r n , beans ( f r i j o l ) and sugar cane. The t e c h n i q u e o f i r r i g a t i o n was crude and s i m p l e ^ u s i n g m e r e l y e a r t h d i t c h e s and embankments t o d i v e r t and r e t a i n the F u e r t e ' s f l o o d w a t e r s t h a t r e g u l a r l y s p i l l e d o v e r the d e l t a a r e a . Permanent c a n a l s and d r a i n s were n o t i n e v i d e n c e . By 1892, however, a 12 k i l o m e t r e l o n g c a n a l was i n e x i s t e n c e , the C a n a l T a x t e s , and by 1905. the c u l t i v a t e d a r e a had grown t o 8,000 h e c t a r e s . T h i s growth was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f the A m e r i c a n A l b e r t Owen (see R o b e r t s o n 1964) and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of h i s c o l o n i s t s ' s e t t l e m e n t on the Bay o f Topolobampo. As e a r l y as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c e n t u r y , Owen r e c o g n i z e d something of t he v a l l e y ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r l a r g e s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l development, 22 w i t h h i s p r o p o s a l f o r a main r a i l l i n k a g e over the S i e r r a t o Chihuahua and t o the markets of Texas and the A m e r i c a n Midwest. Owenss dream i s now r e a l i z e d , (1970) some s e v e n t y y e a r s l a t e r , b u t t h e n a t u r e of the l a n d h o l d i n g s , t h e i r management and o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e i r v a r i e t y o f o u t p u t , and the markets f o r t h a t o u t p u t a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y removed from t h o s e he e n v i s a g e d . The most s i g n i f i c a n t e n g i n e e r i n g developments to o k p l a c e i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the Second World War and a r e now o u t l i n e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e main c a n a l system i n the l a t e 1940s was f i n a n c e d by the F e d e r a l Government a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e was b r o u g h t t o b e a r by t h e l o c a l e j i d a l ( c o l l e c t i v e ) s o c i e t y . For example, the C a n a l S i c a e , i n a u g u r a t e d i n Sept. 1947, was b u i l t a t a c o s t o f 18 m i l l i o n pesos by the Government and measured some 72 k i l o m e t r e s . T h i s work can be r e g a r d e d as t h e f i r s t major i r r i g a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i n the v a l l e y ' s h i s t o r y o f development. An i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s c a n a l ' s i m p o r t a n c e can be gauged f r o m t h e subsequent e x p a n s i o n o f the c u l t i v a t e d l a n d a r e a . I n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e o f 1947/48, the a r e a c u l t i v a t e d was 35,000 h e c t a r e s . By 1951/52 t h i s had i n c r e a s e d t o 52,000 h e c t a r e s . The b i r t h o f D i s t r i c t No.75, V a l l e D e l F u e r t e , came i n a P r e s i d e n t i a l d e c r e e o f June 2 7 t h , 1951, w h i c h announced the s e t t i n g up o f the C o m i s i o n D e l R i o F u e r t e (CRF). The C o m i s i o n was a s s i g n e d the t a s k of p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g out the e x p a n s i o n o f the c u l t i v a b l e l a n d i n the F u e r t e V a l l e y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a r e a s t h a t c o u l d be s e r v e d by an i n t e g r a t e d system o f c a n a l i r r i g a t i o n u s i n g the c o n t r o l l e d f l o w o f the F u e r t e ' s w a t e r catchment, d i s t r i b u t i n g the w a t e r by g r a v i t y along, two or t h r e e main c a n a l r o u t e s , and e n a b l i n g e l e c t r i c i t y t o be g e n e r a t e d . The C o m i s i o n f o r the F u e r t e , l i k e t h a t ; f o r the i l l - f a t e d P a p a l o a p a n B a s i n (see Poleman 1964), i s o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n the SRH b u t i s a t t h e same time a c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t p l a n n i n g development u n i t . C e r t a i n zones o f Mexico were s e l e c t d by the F e d e r a l 23 Government f o r "complete r e g i o n a l development", development t h a t w o u l d be c a r r i e d out by an autonomous F e d e r a l Agency, based w i t h i n t h e development zone, and i n immediate and permanent c o n t a c t w i t h the t a s k s i n hand. A M e x i c o C i t y base f o r such l a r g e s c a l e i n v e s t -ment was thought t o be l e s s a d v a n t a g e o u s , hence the Comisio'h's i n a u g u r a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t Los M o c h i s , S i n a l o a i n 1951. Between 1951 and 1956 were c o n s t r u c t e d the n o w - e x i s t i n g w a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n n e t w o r k s , the dam and power s i t e s a t M i g u e l H i d a l g o above the o l d r e g i o n a l c a p i t a l o f E l F u e r t e , the main l e f t and r i g h t bank c a n a l s , t o s e r v e a r e a s n o r t h and s o u t h o f the o l d r i v e r c o u r s e , t h e main d r a i n s t o the Bay o f Topolobampo, and t h e p r i n c i p a l r u r a l roadways a l o n g s i d e the c a n a l s and l a t e r a l s . The y e a r 1956/57 marked the f i r s t c omplete a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e under c o n t r o l l e d i r r i g a t i o n , when an a r e a o f 124,412 h e c t a r e s was sown i n a v a r i e t y o f c r o p s . I n the c y c l e of 1955/56 the a r e a sown was 60,307 h e c t a r e s , y i e l d i n g a h a r v e s t v a l u e o f 113.29 m i l l i o n p e s o s , compared w i t h 236.07 m i l l i o n f o r the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . By 1969/70 th e a r e a sown had r e a c h e d 200,938 h e c t a r e s w i t h a p r o d u c t i o n v a l u e o f 1,029.59 m i l l i o n p e s o s , when 85.77 per c e n t o f the i r r i g a b l e l a n d was i n o p e r a t i o n (see T a b l e V l l l ) . The o r g a n i z a t i o n and management of the D i s t r i c t ' s s u b - a r e a s were m o d i f i e d i n 1964/65 t o produce l a r g e r , b u t fewer and more e f f i c i e n t l y shaped u n i t s . The s y s t e m s e t up i n 1956 had d i v i d e d the a r e a s e r v e d by the M i g u e l H i d a l g o w a t e r s u p p l y i n t o e i g h t s e p a r a t e U n i t s . The a l t e r a t i o n i n 1964/65 r e d u c e d t h i s number to f i v e , g i v i n g e a s i e r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n , c a n a l c o n t r o l s and d r a i n a g e . T h i s y e a r a l s o marked the b e g i n n i n g of g r e a t e r s t a t i s t i c a l c o v e r a g e by the C o m i s i o n o f the v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d w i t h i n i t s development a r e a . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y t h e V a l l e i s b r o k e n down i n t o U n i t s , Zones and S e c t i o n s i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r of s i z e . The y e a r 1964/65 can be thought o f as t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the D i s t r i c t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s , when the a r e a emerged from i t s i n i t i a l phase o f c o n s t r u c t i o n andwwater d i s t r i b u t i o n , and 24 T a b l e V l l l A n a l y s i s o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p a n s i o n o f the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , S i n a l o a , 1944/45-1969/70 A g r i c u l t u r a l A r e a Sown Produc ; t i o n V a l u e „ o f Ar C y c l e ( h a s . ) ( t o n s ) ( p e s o s ) Sown 1944/45 28, 723 414, 238 31, 968, 666 1945/46 31, 558 385, 612 35, 592, 588 1946/47 30, 914 457, 713 40, 550, 390 1947/48 35, 355 533, 892 52, 458, 091 1948/49 41, 906 569, 253 67, 030, 344 1949/50 47, 048 567, 505 74, 116, 094 1950/51 46, 003 533, 559 80, 068, 974 --1951/52 51, 729 496, 155 88, 148, 228 1952/53 47, 727 537, 105 85, 933, 556 1953/54 54, 615 511, 090 99, 546, 964 1954/55 71, 685 414, 260 139, 219, 340 1955/56 60, 307 402, 151 113, 287, 860 1956/57 124/ 4122 536, 295 236, 074, 333 57.02 1957/58 149, 842 827, 564 301, 111, 764 68.68 1958/59 110, 698 957, 993 259, 532, 945 50.73 1959/60 156, 290 1 ,061, 888 373, 396, 315 71.63 1960/61 163, 900 1 ,133, 757 414, 053, 543 75.12 1961/62 157, 038 1 ,076, 404 368, 447, 912 72.93 1962/63 151, 242 1 ,115, 452 425, 564, 000 69.32 1963/64 162, 896 1 ,452 642 585, 248, 473 74.66 1964/65 174, 314, 1 ,544 813 649, 229, 390 79.89 1965/66 178, 408 1 ,630 432 951, 124, 830 79.53 1966/67 200, 789 2 ,429 262 985, 422, 104 89.50 1967/68 201, 627 1 ,954, 867 812, 786, 058 87.88 1968/69 220, 721 2 ,285 127 930, 405, 033 98.39 1969/70 200, 938 2 ,130 7 34 1,029, 587 724 85.77 T h i s column r e p r e s e n t s t h e a r e a sown as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l a r e a s u s c e p t i b l e t o i r r i g a t i o n . 1956/57-64/65 s u s c e p t i b l e a r e a was 218,190 h a s . 1965/66-69/70 the a r e a had r i s e n t o 224,339 h a s. Sourc e : - Compiledd f r o m d a t a s u p p l i e d by CRF, Los M o c h i s , June 1970. 25 advanced i n t o a phase of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y i n a l l a s p e c t s o f w a t e r - h a n d l i n g . The CRF: O r g a n i z a t i o n and /'.itns As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the CRF i s a semi-autonomous body, w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f the F e d e r a l Agency o f t h e M i n i s t r y of Water Re s o u r c e s (SRH) i n Mexico C i t y , and based i n Los M o c h i s , S i n a l o a . A l t h o u g h i n v e s t m e n t s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the M i g u e l H i d a l g o dam, whose i n i t i a l c o s t and r e c e n t h e i g h t e n i n g amounted to 361.15 m i l l i o n p e s o s , the more r e c e n t J o s e f a O r t i z de Dominguez dam c o s t i n g 227.9 m i l l i o n p e s o s , the c a n a l s y s t e m s , the e n g i n e e r i n g o f d i t c h e s and the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme c o s t i n g 230 m i l l i o n pesos have a l l had t h e i r s o u r c e i n SRH, i t i s CRF t h a t makes th e r e q u e s t s f o r such f i n a n c e . I t m i g h t be argued t h a t as a r e s u l t o f t h i s dependence on f i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n s o u t s i d e CRF's own c o n t r o l , CRF m i ght s u f f e r . As i t happens, q u i t e t h e o p p o s i t e seems t o be t h e c a s e . T h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o the e x p e r t i s e and r e s p e c t t h a t t h e C o m i s i o n ' s e n g i n e e r s have earned.- s i n c e the i n i t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n phase o f the 1950s when f i n a n c i n g was a s i m p l e r b u s i n e s s . Today, f o r example, when CRF r e q u e s t s funds f o r the c o n c r e t e l i n i n g o o ' f p p a r t o o f a a n - m a i n c c a n a l , SRH accedes to the r e q u e s t p r o v i d i n g t h a t CRF p r e s e n t s them w i t h a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the p r o b a b l e c o s t s o f s e v e r a l methods o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and the b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e i n v e s t m e n t , such as the s a v i n g o f w a t e r t h r o u g h r e d u c t i o n o f seepage and c l e a r i n g o f weed growth. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f CRF and i t s a r e a can be i l l u s t r a t e d i n the F i g u r e s 1, 2, and 3. I n F i g u r e 1, the V o c a l E x e c u t i v e ( C o m i s i o n D i r e c t o r ) i s shown t o be c o o r d i n a t o r of a l l CRF b u s i n e s s and o p e r a t i o n a l t a s k s . A l l main c o n t a c t w i t h SRH goes t h r o u g h him a l t h o u g h t h e V o c a l S e c r e t a r y , the C h i e f E n g i n e e r o f the D i s t r i c t and the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C h i e f a l l have s i m p l e a c c e s s t o SRH i n M e x i c o C i t y . The P r e s i d e n t o f SRH i s g i v e n the t i t l e o f CRF P r e s i d e n t but t h i s i s m e r e l y a n o m i n a l t i t l e and i n the F i g u r e (1) t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s shown o n l y t o i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t t h a t a l l c o n t a c t 26 F I G U R E 1 I N T E R N A L S T R U C T U R E O F C R F A N D L I N K A G E S T O S R H . A N D O T H E R A G E N C I E S P r e s i d e n t of S R H ( E n g i n e e r ) V o c a l E x e c u t i v e of C R F (Eng inee r ) V o c a l S e c r e t a r y of C R F ( E n g i n e e r ) C h i e f E n g i n e e r of D i s t r i c t (Nos.75,_63a E l C a r r i z o ) E n g i n e e r s at C R F u n d e r | D i s t r i c t C h i e f U n i t B a s e d E n g i n e e r Un i t A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P e r s o n n e l E x t e r n a l A g e n c y R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s e c o n d e d to C R F ( S A G & D A A) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C h i e f o f C R F S t a t i s t i c a l & E c o n o m i c S t u d i e s D e p a r t m e n t S u r v e y & M a p D e p a r t m e n t E x t e r n a l P r o d u c t i o n R e s e a r c h B o d y in A r e a ( C I A S ) O n e D i t c h R i d e r p e r S e c t i o n P Q M _ J 27 CRF has w i t h SRH i s a t a s e n i o r l e v e l o f o f f i c i a l d o m . Note s h o u l d be made o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f two i m p o r t a n t o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s w i t h i n CRF i t s e l f , namely the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and L i v e s t o c k (SAG) and the Department o f A g r a r i a n A f f a i r s (DAA). The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s e two a g e n c i e s d e a l w i t h p r o b l e m s , i n v a r i a b l y e j i d a l , o f seed use and p l a n t h usbandry, and o f p r o s p e c t i v e e j i d a t a r i o s * p e t i t i o n i n g f o r new l a n d s and the g r a m t i n g g o f l a n d t i t l e documents. Even though the scheme a r e a i s p h y s i c a l l y l i m i t e d d t o the a r e a s e r v e d by the w a t e r s u p p l y , n o t a l l t h a t l a n d i s y e t c l e a r e d o r p r e p a r e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e . G i v e n t h a t the a r e a ' s p o p u l a t i o n i s g r o w i n g a t about 5 per c e n t p e r annum, the combined e f f e c t o f the h i g h n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e o f upwards of 3 per c e n t per annum, a r i d t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n - m i g r a t i o n , the magnitude o f the pea s a n t s e c t o r i s e x p a n d i n g and demands a s h a r e o f t h e i r r i g a b l e l a n d . Because o f the s q u a t t i n g on the p r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s l a n d , sometimes w o r k i n g i t where i t i s i d l e , o r t h e p e t i t i o n i n g f o r new o w n e r s h i p , t h e r e i s c o n s t a n t need f o r DAA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the r e g i o n . T h e i r p r e s e n c e on l o c a t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y speeds up t h e t r a n s f e r o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p , , s i n c e the q u a n t i t y o f r e d tape i s v a s t l y r e d u c e d when t h e r e i s n n o need t o have a l l t h e d e c i s i o n s c h a n n e l l e d t h r o u g h M e x i c o C i t y . To some e x t e n t , i t c o u l d be argued t h a t t h e DAA based i n Los MSchis i s l i a b l e t o bow t o p r e s s u r e b r o u g h t t o bear on i t by t h e p r i v a t e f a r m e r s , because o f the agency's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' c o n s t a n t p r o x i m i t y t o them, and t h a t , i n the end, the demands o f t h e e j i d a l s e c t o r f o r more l a n d m i ght be o v e r - r u l e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e arguments o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r a g a i n s t more r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d r e s o u r c e s . T h i s c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s i s an i n - b u i l t f e a t u r e b r o u g h t about by the o p e r a t i o n o f the Reform Laws. The argument s u p p o r t e d by many of the DAA a g e n t s i s t h a t l a n d , w h i c h i s most p r o d u c t i v e under p r i v a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n , s h o u l d n o t be s p l i t up and donated t o the e j i d a l s e c t o r o n l y t o f a l l o f f i n p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y under l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d o r s k i l f u l hands. T h i s n o t i o n i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by the f a c t t h a t CRF needs the D i s t r i c t ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s t o .keep on i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r r o u t p u t i n o r d e r t h a t q u i c k repayment o f 28 F I G U R E 2 O R G A N I Z A T I O N O F T H E C R F S U B - A R E A S , I N D I C A T I N G M A I N R O U T E S O F F A R M E R - S C H E M E E M P L O Y E E C O M M U N I C A T I O N C h i e f D i s t r i c t E n g i n e e r b a s e d at L o s M o c h i s U n i t 1 O f f i c e at G u a s a v e U n i t 2 , Z o n e s 1 3 & 1 4 O f f i c e at R u i s C o r t i n e s U n i t 3 O f f i c e at C o m p u e r t a s U n i t 4 O f f i c e at A h o m e U n i t 5 O f f i c e at H. de Z a r a g o z a S a n B i a s O f f i c e a t . S a n B i a s U n i t O f f i c e F u n c t i o n s : -wa te r con t ro l , d i s t r i b u t i o n , & m a n a g e m e n t / w a t e r r e c o r d s of i nd i v i dua l f a r m e r s / f a rmer p r o d u c t i o n p rob lems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h wa te r usage . Un i t O f f i c e T a s k s - . -i n c r e a s e farmer c o n t a c t s through P L A M E P A / i m p r o v e e f f i c i e n c y of wa te r d i s t r i b u t i o n to f a r m s / improve e f f i c a c y of d o u b l e c ropp ing by more o rgan i zed . con tac t w i th C I A S . E x t e r n a l A g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h fa rmers ' p roduc t i on l e v e l s & p r o b l e m s C I A S ( e x p e r i m e n t a l s ta t i on ) C O N A S U P O S A G P L A M E P A — Un i t E n g i n e e r R e c o r d s s ta f f M a p p i n g s ta f f D a t a c o m p i l e r s D i t c h R i d e r s F a r m e r s of C R F g - _ Imminent l ine of c o m m u n i c a t i o n not ye t ope ra t i ng P Q M — I 29 f o r e i g n a i d be a c h i e v e d . Q u i c k repayment means m i n i m i z a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t c o s t s and a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f f u r t h e r l o a n s b e i n g i m m e d i a t e l y f o r t h c o m i n g a t good terms when r e q u i r e d . F i g u r e 2 shows the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f CRF's w a t e r management f o r the s u b - a r e a U n i t d i v i s i o n s of the w h ole F u e r t e scheme. A l t h o u g h each s e p a r a t e U n i t e n g i n e e r i s shown as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e D i s t r i c t C h i e f , t h e y o b v i o u s l y work i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r e n g i n e e r s a l s o under the D i s t r i c t C h i e f a t Los M o c h i s . There i s p r o v i s i o n f o r i n s t a n t a n e o u s communication between Los Mochis and any o f the U n i t o f f i c e s , e i t h e r by t e l e p h o n e or by r a d i o ; s i n c e a l l o f t h e scheme a r e a i s w i t h i n r e a c h o f t h e Mochis t r a n s m i t t e r s . Such communication f a c i l i t i e s a l s o e x i s t between Mochis and t h e dam s i t e s a t M i g u e l H i d a l g o and D o m i n g u e z . ( F i g u r e 3 ) . Farmer c o n t a c t w i t h CRF i s most s t r o n g l y d e v e l o p e d f i r s t and f o r e m o s t a t t h e U n i t o f f i c e and may s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p a l s o a t t h e C o m i s i o n ' s h e a d q u a r t e r s i n M o c h i s . Water payments a r e made by t h e f a r m e r s t o t h e U n i t o f f i c e s where t h e y a l s o d i s c u s s t h e i r w a t e r s u p p l y problems and a s p e c t s o f t h e i r c u l t i v a t i o n c y c l e . The n o r m a l r o u t e o f communication i s shown as from f a r m e r t o U n i t e n g i n e e r , but i f the f a r m e r i s n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e l a t t e r he can e a s i l y go t o Mochis and see the D i s t r i c t C h i e f . W i t h r e g a r d t o w a t e r management and r e q u e s t s f o r i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r t h e D i t c h  R i d e r ( C a n a l e r o ) i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the c a n a l l a t e r a l g a t e s and w a t e r d e p t h m aintenance i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the s u p p l y programme f o r t h e U n i t w i t h i n w h i c h he i s b a s e d . Each C a n a l e r o i s i n charge o f one s e c t i o n , a w a t e r management s u b d i v i s i o n o f a whole U n i t . These i n d i v i d u a l s i n the CRF scheme do n o t r e q u i r e much e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e a l l l i t e r a t e and competent a t the s i m p l e a r i t h m e t i c n e c e s s a r y i n t h e i r r e c o r d k e e p i n g . The D i t c h R i d e r i s g i v e n a C o m i s i o n - b u i l t s t o n e house, u s u a l l y f a i r l y c e n t r a l t o h i s s e c t i o n , the house b e i n g s u p p l i e d w i t h a s m a l l v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n , power, w a t e r and t e l e p h o n e . He a l s o has a Japanese motor c y c l e w h i c h he buys w i t h some a i d f r o m CRF. The D i t c h R i d e r must be m a r r i e d s i n c e t h e r e must always be someone n e a r the telephone'jar i n t h e house when he i s o u t , i n o r d e r t o t a k e F I G U R E 3 30 C Y C L E O F D E M A N D F O R W A T E R I N T H E C R F S C H E M E Day 2 .7 h o u r s D a y 1 1 7 h o u r s D a y l 1 6 h o u r s D a y 1 6 - 8 h o u r s D a y 1 v i a t e l e p h o n e * D i t c h R i d e r T p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t m x CD O o Id D) 3 3 CD H i d r a u l i c S u p p l y R e c o r d s O f f i c e F a r m e r ' s R e q u e s t for I r r i g a t i o n W a t e r Day 2 8 h o u r s Day 3 2 - 5 hours Day 3 5 - 8 h o u r s Day 3 7 - 10hours <? D a y 3 8 - 11hours T h e t ime in te rva l be tween reques t and rece ip t of s c h e m e w a t e r of b e t w e e n 8 0 - 8 3 hours is the maximum t ime l apse n e e d e d for a Un i t lateral to be f i l l e d f rom d a m - r e l e a s e d wa te r . The f igure makes no prov is ion for water being more quickly ava i l ab le f rom Unit la tera ls a l r e a d y p r i m e d . P Q M 31 messages f r o m t h e U n i t o f f i c e and a l s o from f a r m e r s who may t r y t o c o n t a c t him. The w i f e thus f i l l s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e commun-i c a t i o n s l i n k . I n some c a s e s , found i n U n i t 2, the D i t c h R i d e r was a l s o an e j i d a t a r i o and/or s m a l l p r i v a t e f a r m e r a t t h e same tim e as b e i n g employed by CRF. T h i s made f o r p a r t i c u l a r l y good communication o f f a r m i n g problems c o n c e r n i n g w a t e r s u p p l y and many o t h e r a s p e c t s , w i t h i h i g h l e v e l s i n the scheme's management. I n the c a s e o f D i t c h R i d e r s who come t o own p i c k u p s , Datsuns o r C h e v r o l e t s , the CRF a i d s i n v e h i c l e p u r c h a s e by o b t a i n i n g an 8 per c e n t p r i c e r e d u c t i o n f o r i t s employees. The t r u c k s a r e t h e n f i t t e d w i t h shortwave s e t s so t h a t the o c c u p a n t s can be i n n e o n s t a n t t o u c h w i t h the U n i t o f f i c e when n o t a t home. A n o t h e r communication l i n k w h i c h a l r e a d y o p e r a t e s b u t w h i c h i s about t o work much more e f f e c t i v e l y i s t h a t between the farmer ( p r i m a r i l y t he e j i d a t a r i o ) and the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e o f S i n a l o a (CIAS) and the P l a n f o r I m p r o v i n g P l o t E f f i c i e n c y (PLAMEPA). To d a t e , CIAS has made i t s f i n d i n g s known t o the f a r m e r p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h f a r m e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n d a y s . O f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t s t i l l more c o n t a c t i s needed f o r the e j i d a l s e c t o r t o improve i t s p e r f o r m a n c e i s i n d i c a t e d by the d o t t e d l i n e l i n k i n g CIAS d i r e c t t o the farmer i n F i g u r e 2.- T h i s w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h the c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e PLAMEPA manpower team i n the CRF a r e a , s i n c e d u p l i c a t i o n o f e x t e n s i o n o f f i c i a l s needed f o r t h i s t a s k w o u l d be b o t h w a s t e f u l i n manpower and i m p r a c t i c a l , g i v e n the e x i s t i n g s h o r t a g e o f the r e q u i r e d p e r s o n n e l . The Aims o f the F u e r t e C o m i s i o n I n t h e space o f some 15 y e a r s s i n c e the i n a u g u r a t i o n o f f u l l s c a l e i r r i g a t i o n under c o n t r o l l e d w a t e r s u p p l i e s f r o m the dams, the CRF has br o u g h t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200,000 h e c t a r e s o f d e s e r t s c r u b - l a n d on the c o a s t a l p l a i n i n t o p r o d u c t i v e i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e . I n t h e l a s t h a r v e s t y e a r c o m p l e t e d , 1969/70, the v a l u e o f t o t a l D i s t r i c t o u t p u t had exceeded t h e 1 thousand m i i l i o n pesos mark, no s m a l l achievement when compared f o r i n s t a n c e w i t h 649,229,390 pesos i n 1964/65. The Y a q u i scheme, a l t h o u g h e x c e e d i n g 32 t h a t f i g u r e p r i o r t o 1969/70 s t a r t e d f u l l i r r i g a t i o n some t h r e e y e a r s e a r l i e r t h a n t h e F u e r t e scheme, and had a l a r g e r p r o d u c t i v e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The p o p u l a t i o n s of the m u n i c i p i o s ( c o u n t i e s ) t o b e n e f i t most from the c r e a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v e l a n d r e s o u r c e s , Ahome and Guasave, grew between 1960 and 1970 by r e s p e c t i v e l y 84.9 per c e n t and 63.0 per c e n t " , c o n s i d e r a b l y e x c e e d i n g the r a t e o f 50.9 per c e n t f o r the whole s t a t e o f S i n a l o a . F u r t h e r m o r e , e l e c t r i c i t y and d r i n k i n g w a t e r have been b r o u g h t t o the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n by the CRF w i t h t h e F e d e r a l Commission f o r E l e c t r i c i t y ( C F E ) , n o t t o m e n t i o n the h o s p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s b u i l t i n the main r u r a l c e n t r e s l i k e Las Vacas and Ahome, and o f c o u r s e i n the u r b a n nodes o f Los M ochis and Guasave. The c u r r e n t aims of t h e C o m i s i o n a r e as a m b i t i o u s as t h o s e i t has f u l f i l l e d s i n c e 1951. F i r s t , , o v e r the twenty y e a r p e r i o d commencing i n 1964, CRF i s t r y i n g , by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e c u l t i v a t i o n of more v a l u a b l e c r o p s , t o i n c r e a s e t h e v a l u e of h a r v e s t s i n t h e D i s t r i c t so as t o g u a r a n t e e prompt repayment o f the 230 m i l l i o n pesos l o a n f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f 64,000 h e c t a r e s of s a l t y l a n d , and f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l development i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g t h e Lopez Mateos r e g i m e . There i s a l r e a d y a programme o f q u i t e i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g o f D i t c h R i d e r s and o t h e r U n i t - b a s e d employees i n a s p e c t s o f w a t e r management a t a f i e l d - s c a l e l e v e l . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t when such i n d i v i d u a l s have been exposed t o i n t e n s i v e l e a r n i n g and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the h i g h l y t r a i n e d and e x p e r i e n c e d scheme p e r s o n n e l , e s p e c i a l l y the s e n i o r e n g i n e e r s , t h e U n i t s t a f f w i l l be much b e t t e r e q u i p p e d t o h e l p the e j i d a t a r i o s i n the most e f f e c t i v e use o f w a t e r . I t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t the above programme be r u n once a y e a r f o r e v e r y U n i t p e r s o n n e l member f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s so t h a t new t e c h n i c a l developments can be passed on and r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e s be g i v e n i n the f i r s t few days of each new a n n u a l s t u d y p e r i o d . At the time of the f i e l d work c a r r i e d out by t h i s a u t h o r , the U n i t 2 p e r s o n n e l were a t t e n d i n g j u s t such a t r a i n i n g programme. A l l i n v o l v e d a t t e n d e d *From P r o v i s i o n a l 1970 Census Data o f S t a t e P o p u l a t i o n s , June 1970. 33 r e g u l a r l y and seemed t o be b e n e f i t i n g from s t i m u l a t i n g p r o b l e m d i s c u s s i o n as w e l l as from the l e a r n i n g p p r o c e s s o f the i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d s . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n repayment scheme and the t r a i n i n g programmes o f U n i t employees t o a i d i n the growth o f e j i d a t a r i o s ' o u t p u t s , t h e r e i s the H y d r a u l i c P l a n f o r the N o r t h w e s t (PLHINO). The i d e a b e h i n d PLHINO i s somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h e t a s k of t r a n s p o r t i n g w a t e r t o s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a f r o m as f a r d i s t a n t as W a shington S t a t e . S i m p l y s t a t e d , t h e r e i s a s h o r t a g e o f w a t e r i n t h e m i d d l e and n o r t h e r n Sonoran schemes y e t t h e r e i s an abundance© o f l e v e l u s a b l e l a n d . I n s o u t h e r n S i n a l o a t h e r e i s an o v e r -abundance of w a t e r b u t ho s i z e a b l e l e v e l p l a i n t h a t w o u l d be good f o r l a r g e s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l develppment. The PLHINO scheme c a l l s f o r the d i v e r s i o n o f t h e s o u t h ' s s u r p l u s w a t e r s u p p l y t o t h e needy n o r t h where i t i s r e q u i r e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development and mere e x p a n s i o n o f the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , so t i g h t is. the b a l a n c e between demand and s u p p l y . The p l a n , i n a u g u r a t e d i n 1965, i s e x p e c t e d t o be f i n i s h e d and i n o p e r a t i o n by 1980. From t h e P i a x t l a R i v e r i n s o u t h e r n S i n a l o a n o r t h w a r d s , 17 r i v e r s ' f l o w s w i l l f i n a l l y be r e g u l a t e d and h a r n e s s e d f o r t he c u l t i v a t i o n o f an a d d i t i o n a l 426,000 h e c t a r e s and f o r the g e n e r a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c i t y . The e s t i m a t e d c o s t i s 5,440 m i l l i o n pesos w h i c h i s s p l i t 4,520 m i l l i o n f o r i r r i g a t i o n c o s t s , 315 m i l l i o n f o r f l o o d c o n t r o l s and 605 m i l l i o n f o r power g e n e r a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s p l a n n e d t o d i v e r t w a t e r as f a r n o r t h as Guaymas, and c l e v e r s e l e c t i o n o f dam s i t e s and c o n d u c t i o n c a n a l r o u t e s means t h e r e w i l l be no need f o r pumping the w a t e r . To d a t e , the agency i n charge o f much o f the p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e d dams and c a n a l s i s CRF. Based r i g h t i n the c e n t r e o f the pro p o s e d c o n t i n u o u s expanse o f i r r i g a t e d l a n d t h a t w i l l be the outcome o f PLHINO, Los Mochis seems an o b v i o u s c h o i c e f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h i s complex development. I n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o the PLHINO i s the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f PLAMEPA, the scheme d i r e c t e d a t i m p r o v i n g p l o t e f f i c i e n c y p a r t i c u l a r l y 34 w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f w a s t e d w a t e r . R e s e a r c h i s a l s o b e i n g c a r r i e d out i n shrimp b r e e d i n g , a l o n g the l a g o o n c o a s t l i n e o f t h e F u e r t e D i s t r i c t . I n t e s t s o ver t h e l a s t c o u p l e o f y e a r s , s e c t i o n s o f lagoons have been c l o s e d o f f t o t i d e s . I n the a r t i f i c i a l ponds t h e shrimps have b r e d under s e m i - l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s and have t h r i v e d , p r o t e c t e d from p r e d a t o r s . A s y s t e m of l e a s i n g l a g o o n a r e a s t o e j i d a t a r i o s i s p r o p o s e d so t h a t t h e y may augment t h e i r incomes f r o m t r a d e w i t h t h i s v a l u e d e x p o r t commodity. A l t h o u g h t h e CRF i s now more i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h a s s i s t i n g t h e e j i d a l s e c t o r t h a n i n i t i a l l y , t h e r e i s s t i l l a a * marked c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h i s agency's f i n a n c i a l , and manpower r e s o u r c e s on a q u a - e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t s . I t s h o u l d , however, be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e i s now a more complete development framework w i t h i n the a r e a and i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h e r e i s as w e l l s e r v e d an a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a i n M e x i c o as the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o w a t e r , power, se e d s , t r a n s p o r t , market c o n t a c t s , e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s , a g r o - i n d u s t r i e s and s e r v i c e s and even c r e d i t . I t w i l l be i n s t r u c t i v e t o o b s e r v e over t h e n e x t 5-10 y e a r s how e f f e c t i v e t h e newly o r g a n i z e d S i n a l o a n Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e (DAES) i s i n h e l p i n g the e j i d a l f a r m i n g s e c t o r t o improve i t s usage o f t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . 35 CHAPTER 111 THE FARM CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FUERTE SCHEME Main Tenure Groups, t h e i r Land D i s t r i b u t i o n and Q u a l i t y I t i s now n e c e s s a r y to examine the t e n u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the F u e r t e f a r m e r s ' l a n d i n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d t h e system of p r o d u c t i o n i n the D i s t r i c t , and t o e s t a b l i s h what b r o a d p e r f o r m a n c e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between the e j i d a l and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , D i s t r i c t No.75 i s d i v i d e d by the CRF i n t o f i v e main U n i t s , a l l of w h i c h a r e f e d w i t h w a t e r by g r a v i t y , w h i l e i n a d d i t i o n t h e r e a r e s m a l l a r e a s n o r t h of the C a n a l D e l F u e r t e , b o r d e r i n g on U n i t 1, 2, and 3, w h i c h a r e f e d by pumped w a t e r from t h a t c a n a l . These s m a l l a r e a s a r e r e f e r r e d t o r e s p e c t i v e l y as Zone 13 and Zone 14. To the e a s t and n o r t h o f the c e n t r a l a r e a o f the D i s t r i c t i s l o c a t e d one o t h e r i r r i g a t e d l o c a t i o n named E l F u e r t e - S a n B i a s , between the two v i l l a g e s o f the same names, where b o t h g r a v i t y and pumped i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r a r e u s e d . U n i t s 1-4, Zones 13 and 14, and E l F u e r t e - S a n B i a s a r e a l l s u l l i e d by ?the C a n a l D e l F u e r t e , w h i l e U n i t 5, on the n o r t h e r n s i d e of the r i v e r d e l t a , i s s u p p l i e d by the C a n a l Cahuinahua (see Map 2 ) . The U n i t s i z e s (1970) range from 38,966 h e c t a r e s f o r U n i t 4 t o 57,225 h e c t a r e s f o r U n i t 3. These d i m e n s i o n s a r e the g r o s s a r e a f i g u r e s , i n c l u d i n g a l l l a n d whether i t be i r r i g a b l e or n o t , whether i t be s a l t y or u n l e v e l l e d . The d e t a i l s o f the U n i t s and Zones a r e i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e _1X. The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s T a b l e can be f u r t h e r b r o k e n down i n t o the main t e n u r e groups t o g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s , the e j i d o s and the c o l o n o s < ( s e e T a b l e X ) . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l a n d i n the t e n u r e groups shown i n 37 T a b l e IX Dimensions o f F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , U n i t s & Zones, 1969/70 ( h e c t a r e s ) Gross A r e a I r r i g a b l e S a l t y & Annexed U n i t 1 U n l e v e l l e d U n i t 1 43,568.81 33,502.84 6,874.29 3,191.68 U n i t 2 57,166.33 42,957.10 3,084.67 11,124.56 U n i t 3 57,225.95 50,188.00 2,571.34 4,466.61 U n i t 4 38,966.88 20,944.24 16,604.16 1,418.48 U n i t 5 40,138.32 15,322.76 11J522.81 13,292.74 Sub T o t a l 237,066.29 162,914.94 40,657.27 33,494.07 Zone 13 15,617.63 12,800.10 1,716.91* 1,100.62 Zone 14 10,563.85 5,819.10 4,744.75 E l F u e r t e / S a n B i a s 56,862.04 4,603.04 7,380.00 45,376.00 D i s t r i c t 320,109.81 186,137.18 54,498.93 79,970.69 «Unlevelled o n l y . T a b l e X Dimensions o f F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , U n i t s & Zones by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 ( h e c t a r e s ) Gross A r e a I r r i g a b l e S a l t y & Annexed U n l e v e l l e d U n i t 1 P r i v a t e (P) 15,721 12,404 2,724 573 E j i d a l (E) 27,847 21,098 4,131 2,617 U n i t 2 (P) 25,310 22,475 599 2,234 (E) 28,558 17,291 2,467 8,799 Colono 3,297 3,190 17 90 U n i t 3 (P) 14,139 12,634 750 753 (E) 40,086 37,553 3,715 1,817 U n i t 4 (P) 12,078 8,376 4,237 363 (E) 25,988 12,567 5,868 1,054 U n i t 5 (P) 11,263 7,313 3,079 869 (E) 28,874 8,009 4,049 12,422 Sub T o t a l (P) 79,412 63,204 11,414 4,793 (E) 154,355 96,520 19,224 28,610 Zone 13 (P) 11,588 10,374 624* 589 (E) 3,525 1,925 1,092* 507 (c) 503 499 4 Zone 14 (P) 160 160 --(E) 10,403 5,658 4,744-'." --E l F t e / S n B l . (P) 1,611 1,611 (F) (E) 55,250 2,991 6,883 45,376 D i s t r i c t ( P ) 92,772 75,350 12,038 5,382 (E) 223,633 107,094 31,944 74,493 (c) 3,800 3,689 17 94 Sour c e : - C o m p i l e d from CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. * U n l e v e l l e d o n l y . 38 T a b l e X can be summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. I n June 1970, the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s c o n t a i n e d respect±vely336£9pperceent and 22.7 p er c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s t o t a l a r e a i n s a l t y ( e n s a l i t r a d o ) and u n l e v e l l e d (enmontado) l a n d . The e j i d o s , f o r t h e i r p a r t , h e l d r e s p e c t i v e l y 63.1 per c e n t and 77.2 per c e n t , w h i l e the r e s p e c t i v e breakdown f o r annexed l a n d ( a n e x i o n e s ) was 14.3 per c e n t and 85.4 p er c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the p r i v a t e and e j i d a l s e c t o r s ^ the s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n the combined p e r c e n t a g e t o t a l s i s a c c o u n t e d f o r by the p r e s e n c e M Uhitc2.1.of:.the:;colono s e c t o r , o f v i r t u a l l y no s i g n i f i c a n c e when the whole D i s t r i c t i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . I n o t h e r words, 20.4 per c e n t o f the t o t a l p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s ' l a n d s a r e s a l t y , u n l e v e l l e d and annexed, w h i l e 37.4 per c e n t i s the e q u i v a l e n t f i g u r e f o r the e j i d a l l a n d s . From the d a t a a v a i l a b l e i t appears t h a t the e j i d a l s e c t o r o v e r a l l s u f f e r s from l a n d s a l i n i t y more t h a n does t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , and, o v e r a l l , t h e e j i d a l s e c t o r i s worse o f f w i t h r e g a r d t o l l a n d out of use by h i g h s a l i n i t y , l a n d t i e d up i n a n n e x a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s , and l a n d unused because i t i s n o t l e v e l l e d . S a l i n i z a t i o n o f l a n d t o o k p l a c e q u i t e r a p i d l y and e x t e n s i v e l y i n the D i s t r i c t a l m o s t as soon as l a r g e - s c a l e i r r i g a t i o n began i n t he c y c l e o f 1956/57. The a r e a s f i r s t a f f e c t e d by s a l t a c c u m u l a t i o n were l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o the s h o r e l i n e , i n U n i t s 1-5.„ T h i s was p r i m a r i l y due t o the r i s e o f the a l r e a d y h i g h w a t e r t a b l e as d r a i n a g e w a t e r s from the D i s t r i c t became t r a p p e d n e a r the t i d e -w a t e r a r e a s . The d r a i n a g e w a t e r s a t t h i s time were h i g h i n s a l i n e c o n t e n t owing t o o v e r - i r r i g a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t l a n d , much o f w h i c h was b e i n g worked f o r the f i r s t t ime a f t e r c l e a r a n c e o f d e s e r t s c r u b c o v e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y many o f t h e s e c o a s t a l s t r i p a r e a s were h e l d by e j i d a t a r i o s . I n 1964, a l m o s t one t h i r d o f the e n t i r e D i s t r i c t was i n immediate danger of g o i n g out o f p r o d u c t i o n because o f s a l t a c c u m u l a t i o n s , so a l a r g e i n v e s t m e n t was made, f i n a n c e d t h r o u g h the M e x i c a n banks and the government, who had r e c e i v e d funds f r o m AID and IBRD. M a s s i v e open d r a i n s , 20 metres w i d e by 10 metres d e e p , w e r e e x c a v a t e d c r o s s i n g the w o r s t h i t a r e a s , l o c a t e d p r i m a r i l y i n U n i t s 2-4, and w i t h i n a space o f t h r e e y e a r s , 39 80 per c e n t o f the most damaged l a n d was coming back i n t o p r o d u c t i v e use a g a i n . S a l i n i t y problems do, of c o u r s e , s t i l l e x i s t , b u t a r e a s a f f e c t e d by them a r e now under c o n t r o l and d i m i n i s h i n g , and a r e fewer t h a n a r e a s i n the u n l e v e l l e d and annexed c a t e g o r i e s . The u n l e v e l l e d l a n d can be d e s c r i b e d m e r e l y as l a n d t h a t , t o d a t e ^ h a s n o t been p r e p a r e d f o r c u l t i v a t i o n and can be e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the s u r r o u n d i n g c u l t i v a t e d a r e a s by i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c r u b b y x e r o p h y t i c v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r . For c e r t a i n o p e r a t i o n a l r e a s o n s i t has n o t been w o r t h the p r i v a t e f a r m e r s ' l a b o u r and expense t o put the u n l e v e l l e d l a n d i n t o u s e , g i v e n t h e i r e x i s t i n g l a n d s u p p l i e s , w h i l e i n the case o f the e j i d a t a r i o s t h e y have n o t a c q u i r e d enough f i n a n c i a l a i d t o c l e a r and p r e p a r e t h e l a n d , even i f t h e y wanted t o do so. The annexed l a n d c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e a r e a s t h a t a r e under d i s p u t e r e g a r d i n g t h e i r l e g a l o w n e r s h i p and t i t l e , and t h a t have been e l a i m e d ^ b y n d n e a t e h u r e r g f o u p i o r a n o t h e r . The l a n d has n o t been p r e p a r e d and put t o p r o d u c t i v e u s e , p r i m a r i l y because the government a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d have n o t y e t awarded the o f f i c i a l "deeds". T h i s i d l e l a n d , i n the e j i d a l case p a r t i c u l a r l y , i s e s p e c i a l l y un-f o r t u n a t e and w a s t e f u l , s i n c e the annexed a r e a f o r the whole D i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t s 18.5 per c e n t of t h e i r t o t a l l a n d h o l d i n g . Even i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i t r e g i s t e r s 6.0 per c e n t , w h i c h i s s t i l l a c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a (4,793 ha. p r i v a t e , 28,610 ha. e j i d a l ) . I t appears t h a t the w e l l - a i r e d a s s e r t i o n t h a t the M e x i c a n e j i d a l s e c t o r has more t h a n i t s s h a r e o f poor or damaged l a n d i s t r u e i n the case o f t h e F u e r t e V a l l e y , S i n a l o a . I t s h o u l d be r e c a l l e d t h a t the e j i d a t a r i o s h e r e had t o w a i t upwards o f 35 y e a r s f o r " o w n e r s h i p " o f p o t e n t i a l l y p r o d u c t i v e l a n d i n t h i s a r e a o f the Sonoran D e s e r t ! I t i s now o p portune to t u r n t o the e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e h o l d i n g s i z e s o f the t e n u r e groups a t a more d e t a i l e d l e v e l t o a s c e r t a i n the r e s p e c t i v e uses of t h e i r l a n d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f a r m e r s by t e n u r e membership and s i z e of h o l d i n g i s g i v e n i n T a b l e XJL. The d a t a have been grouped i n t o 40 T a b l e XI D i s t r i c t Farmers Grouped by P r o p e r t y S i z e , 1969/70 P r i v a t e U n i t s 1-5 Zones 13 <£ 14 E l F t e / S n B] 0-5 h e c t a r e s 597 6 50 5.1-10 291 4 16 10.1-20 242 27 7 20.1-30 172 11 6 30.1-40 104 11 7 40.1-50 230 45 6 50.1-100 536 89 7 + 100 33 1 --T o t a l 2,205 194 99 Colono 0-5 3 -- --5.1-10 197 1 --10.1-20 31 14 20.1-30 7 11 --30.1-40 2 --40.1-50 3 1 --50.1-100 6 -- --+ 100 --T o t a l 249 27 E j i d a l 0-5 2,220 319 477 5.1-10 10,710 422 161 10.1-20 745 70 18 + 20.1 -- -- --T o t a l 13,675 811 657 T o t a l O v e r a l l 16,129 1,032 756 Sour c e : - C o m p i l e d f r o m GREadata, J u l y 1970. 41 t h r e e s e c t i o n s , U n i t s 1-5, Zones 13 and 14, and E l F u e r t e - S a n B i a s because i t i s f e l t t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l a t the D i s t r i c t l e v e l h i d e s too many of the i m p o r t a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n l a n d endowment. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d how s m a l l the c o l o n o s e c t o r i s compared w i t h the p r i v a t e and e j i d a l g r o u p s , and, as can be seen f r o m T a b l e X I 1 , the c o l o n o type o f e x p l o i t a t i o n i s found o n l y i n U n i t 2 and Zone 13. For the purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , the c o l o n o group was n o t examined, e x c e p t i n t h e l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n on the p r o d u c t i o n a s p e c t s o f wheat, c a r r i e d out i n U n i t 2. O t h e r w i s e , t h i s f a r m i n g group was i g n o r e d s i n c e i t s n u m e r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t he D i s t r i c t was so s l i g h t . From T a b l e X l l i i t can be seen t h a t when the farms a r e grouped by s i z e , t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , 78 per c e n t o f t h e e j i d a l farms a r e i n the 5.1-10 h e c t a r e r a n g e , 27 per c e n t of the p r i v a t e farms i n the 0-5 h e c t a r e range and 24 p e r c e n t o f them i n the 50.1-100 h e c t a r e r a n g e . That i s t o say, t h e e j i d a l s e c t i o n i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the m i d d l e s c a l e of the v e r y s m a l l h o l d i n g s w h i l e the p r i v a t e s e c t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d a t the bottom end o f t h e s m a l l h o l d i n g s s c a l e and a l s o a t the top end. The d a t a g i v e n h e r e , of c o u r s e , t a k e not'd a c c o u n t o f r e n t i n g out o f l a n d by e j i d a t a r i o s t o o t h e r e j i d a t a r i o s or t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o p e r a t o r s . The d a t a a r e the o n l y t y p e a v a i l a b l e from any s o u r c e , and i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y n o t p o s s i b l e t o g i v e a more o p e r a t i o n a l l y r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e . The o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e n t i n g was g l e a n e d from i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r s and the C o m i s i o n , and was no more p r e c i s e t h a n t h a t g i v e n by Haissman ( s e e C h a p t e r _1V, 86 ) where between 30 and 50 p e r c e n t of e j i d a l l a n d was e s t i m a t e d as b e i n g r e n t e d o u t . T a b l e X l l l g i v e s the s i z e o f the farms by t e n u r e group f o r t h e D i s t r i c t ' s s u b - d i v i s i o n s , h i g h l i g h t i n g the b i g d i f f e r e n c e s between s u b - a r e a f a r m s . At the same time the f a r m s i z e s a r e b r o k e n down i n t o g r o s s a r e a and i r r i g a b l e a r e a . The g r o s s a r e a i n c l u d e s u n l e v e l l e d and s a l t y l a n d , w h i c h i s n o n e t h e l e s s r e g i s t e r e d under i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s h i p . C l e a r l y U n i t 2 i s o u t s t a n d i n g as h a v i n g the l a r g e s t , o f f i c i a l l y r e g i s t e r e d p r i v a t e and e j i d a l o p e r a t i o n s T a b l e X l l l D i s t r i c t Farmers Grouped by P r o p e r t y S i z e f o r S u b - D i v i s i o n s , 1969/70 U n i t 1 U n i t 2 U n i t 3 U n i t 4 U n i t 5 Zone 13 Zone 14 E l F t e P r i v a t e Sn.Bk 0-5 h e c t a r e s 86 197. 4- 17. 95 257. 130 287. 282 497. 3 27. 3 507. 50 507. 511-10 63 147. 2 0.57. 51 137. 81 177. 94 177. 4 27. - - 16 167. 10.1-20 60 137, 100 37. 56 147. 73 157. 43 87. 26 147. 1 177. 7 77. 20.1-30 36 8% 23- •67i 29 77. 440 87. 444 87. 11 67. - - 6 67. 30.1-40 34 77. 17 47. 13 37. 222 57. 18 37. 11 67. - - 7 77. 40.1-50 49 117. 922267. 32 87. 35 77. 22 47. 44 237. 1 177. 6 67. 50.1-100 102 237. 2013 577. 92 247. 86 187. 55 107. 88 467. 1 177. 7 77. + 100 3 0.77. 1 0.27. 12 37. 4 0.87. 13 27. 1 0.57. - - - -T o t a l 433 1007. 350 1007. 380 1007. 471 1007. 571 1007. 188 1007. 6 1007. 99 1007. Colono 0-5 - - 3 17. - - - - - - - - - - - -5.1-10 - - 197 797. - - - - - - 1 37. - - - -10.1-20 - - 31 127. - - - - - - 145527. - - - -20.1-30 - - 7 27. - - - - - - 11 417. --. - - - -30.1-40 - - 2 0.87. - - - - - - - - - - - -40.1-50 - - 3 17. - - - - - - 1 37. - - - -50.1-100 - - 6 27. - - - - - - - - - - - -+ 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -T o t a l - - 249 1007. - - - - • - - 27 1007. - - - -E i i d a l 0-5 728 227. 105 57. 619 137. 296 137. 472 277. 17,9. 497. 140 317. 477 727. 5.1-10 2,442 767. 1, 738 947. 3, 478 767. 1, 923 837. 1, 129 667. 118 327. 304 687. 161 247. 10.1-20 34 17. 6 0.37. 492 117. 92 47. 121 77. 69 197. 1 0.27. 18 27. + 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 0.27. T o t a l 3,204 1007.1, 849 1007. 4, 589 1007.2, 311 1007.1, 722 1007. 366 1007. 445 1007. 657 1007. S o u r c e : - Compiled from CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. 43 T a b l e X l l Average Farm S i z e , Gross (a) & I r r i g a b l e (b) i n D i s t r i c t , 1969/70 ( h e c t a r e s ) P r i v a t e a D a E j i d a l Colono, a b U n i t 1 28.65 36.31 6.59 8.69 --U n i t 2 64.22 72.32 9.35 15.45 12*81 13-; 24 U n i t 3 33.25 37.21 8.18 9.39 -- --U n i t 4 17.78 27.36 5.44 11.25 --U n i t 5 12.81 19.73 4.65 16.77 Zone 13 55.19 61.64 5.26 9.63 18.52 18.66 Zone 14 26.79 26.79 12.72 23.38 E l F u e r t e / S a n B i a s 16.28 16.28 4.55 84610 -- --D i s t r i c t ( U n i t s 1-5) 28.66 36.01 7.06 11.29 12.81 13.24 D i s t r i c t O v e r a l l 30.16 37.14 7.07 14.76 13.37 13.77 T a b l e XIV Crop A c t i v i t i e s o f D i s t r i c t S u b - D i v i s i o n s , 1969/70 • A r e a s Sown A r e a V a l u e T o t a l V a l u e o f ('OOOhas) H a r v e s t e d per ha P r o d u c t i o n (fiOOOhas) (Ps/ha) ('OOOpesos) U n i t 1 28.886 13.197. 28.117 3, 167 91,494.4 9.787. U n i t 2 60.185 27.597. 59.377 5, 716 344,041.7 36.917. U n i t 3 65.960 29.197. 51.748 3, 886 256,351.6 27.517. U n i t 4 24.765 11.497. 19.911 2, 359 58,413.3 6.267. U n i t 5 16.999 7.157. 16.617 2, 409 40,951.4 4.377. Zone 13 14.458 6.127. 14.107 4, 178 60,402.1 6.467. Zone 14 7.427 3.817. 7.404 10, 146 75,357.3 8.097. E l F u e r t e / S a n B i a s 2.040 0.957. 1.933 2, 312 4,717.0 0.577. D i s t r i c t 220.722 1007. 199.085 4, 221 931,729.3 1007. S o u r c e : - T a b l e s XLL & XIV c o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. 44 o f U n i t s 1-5, and the d a t a i n T a b l e XIV and XV r e v e a l t h a t U n i t 2 i s o u t s t a n d i n g i n many o t h e r i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s . F o r example, U n i t 2 w i t h 27.59 per c e n t o f the sown a r e a o f the D i s t r i c t g e n e r a t e s 36.91 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t g r o s s p r o d u c t i o n v a l u e , x w h i l e a t the o t h e r estreme a r e U n i t s 1 and 4 ( s e e T a b l e X I V ) . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sown A r e a Among Tenure Groups T a b l e XV_ g i v e s d e t a i l s o f a r e a s sown, h a r v e s t e d , v a l u e o f o u t p u t p er h e c t a r e and t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n v a l u e s . F o r t h i s T a b l e , and e l s e w h e r e u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d , m e a s u r e m e n t s o f a r e a sown, a r e a h a r v e s t e d , and o u t p u t v a l u e a r e a l l a g g r e g a t e s f o r t o t a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . That i s , the d a t a r e p r e s e n t t h e s u b - a r e a breakdowns f o r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and as f a r as t h i s D i s t r i c t i s con c e r n e d t h a t i s c r o p c u l t i v a t i o n . L i v e s t o c k a c t i v i t i e s , f o r e i t h e r meat or m i l k p r o d u c t i o n , a r e n o t i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t he a g g r e g a t e s because t h e y a r e an i n s i g n i f i c a n t a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y , i n t h e D i s t r i c t . T a b l e XV even a t i t s q u i t e h i g h l e v e l o f d a t a a g g r e g a t i o n g i v e s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the a r e a / v a l u e i m b a l a n c e s e x i s t i n g i n U n i t s and Zones. An e l a b o r a t i o n o f T a b l e XV i s g i v e n i n T a b l e X V I , where d a t a have been re d u c e d t o the t e n u r e group l e v e l f o r the U n i t s . T h i s i s done i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d w h i c h groups o f f a r m e r s a r e p e r f o r m i n g b e s t w i t h i n t h e U n i t s . The s i t u a t i o n i s now c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s s i m p l e and c l e a r c u t . I n t h e case o f U n i t 2 the e j i d a t a r i o s produce a h i g h e r v a l u e o f o u t p u t p er h e c t a r e t h a n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , as do they a l s o i n the cases o f U n i t s 1, 4 and Zone 13. I n t h e r e m a i n i n g a r e a s o f U n i t s 3, 5, Zone 14 and E l F u e r t e - S a n B i a s , the v a l u e p er h e c t a r e o f c r o p s i n p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s b e t t e r s t h o s e o f the e j i d a t a r i o s . The e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h v a l u e p e r h e c t a r e f o r Zone 14 can be u n d e r s t o o d i n the l i g h t o f t h a t a r e a ' s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n tomato c u l t i v a t i o n by b o t h t e n u r e g r o u p s , where the average v a l u e g e n e r a t e d p e r h e c t a r e i s around 102,000 p e s o s ! That e x c e p t i o n a s i d e , the normal c u l t i v a t i o n s o f the o t h e r a r e a s a r e i n c r o p s , c o t t o n , sugar cane, s o y a , sorghum, wheat and r i c e , and t h e s e c r o p s , o f c o u r s e , command lower y i e l d v a l u e s and lower w e i g h t y i e l d s , and hence d e p r e s s t h e i r g r o w e r s ' rewards per h e c t a r e . T a b l e XV Crop A c t i v i t i e s o f D i s t r i c t S u b - D i v i s i o n s by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 A r e a Sown Ar e a H a r v e s t e d V a l u e per h e c t a r e T o t a l V a l u e o f P r o d u c t i o n COOOhas) Barv^OOOHas) (pesos/ha) ('000s pe s o s ) U n i t 1 P r i v a t e ( P ) 12.883 44.177o 12.12*596 3,084 39,736.4 43.397. E j i d a l ( E ) 16.002 55.117. 15.521 3,324 51,758.0 56.527. U n i t 2 (P) 38.736 64.247. 38.153 5,319 206,049.5 59.317. (E) 21.450 35.387. 21.223 6,433 137,992.2 40.387. U n i t 3 (P) 17.642 26.497. 15.626 4,135 72,951.8 28. 127. (E) 48.317 73.517. 36.121 3,796 183,399.8 71.147. U n i t 4 4 (P) 10.736 43.877. 8.757 2,311 24,808.T 42.277. . (E) 14.028 56.137. 11.154 2,396 33,605.2 57.317. U n i t 5 (P) 8.991 52.157. 8.660 2,438 21,919.0 53.217. (E) 8.007 47.857. 7.956 2,377 19,032.4 46.197. Zone 13(P) 12.468 86.897. 12.157 4,154 51,788.5 85.477. (E) 1.989 13.117. 1.950 4,331 8,613.6 14.167. Zone 14(P) 0.227 3.477. 0.217 20,581 4,671.8 6.157. (E) 7.199 96.537. 7.187 9,819 70,685.5 93.607. E l F t e / S n B l (P) 11.545 75.467. 1.456 2,416 3,733.4 79.697. (E) 0.495 24.547. 0.477 1,987 983.6 20.407. D i s t r i c t ( P ) 103.233 46.777. 97.484 4,123 425,658.8 45.637. ( ( E ) 117.491 53.237. 101.600 4,307 506.070.5 54.377. S o u r c e : - Compiled from CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. 4> T a b l e XVI Crop A c t i v i t i e s o f D i s t r i c t S u b - D i v i s i o n s a t 1 s t & 2nd C u l t i v a t i o n P e r i o d s by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 1s t C u l t i v a t i o n 2nd C u l t i v a t i o n 7, , o f A r e a 7o of V a l u e 7. o f A r e a 7- o f V a l u e U n i t 1 U n i t as 7. o f D i s t r i c t ( U ) 15.01 10.34 7.20 7.16 P r i v a t e i n U n i t ( P ) 40.09 38.60 69.24 78.90 E j i d a l i n U n i t (E) 59.91 61.40 30.76 21.11 U n i t 2 (u) 26.09 37.36 29.14 34.68 (P) 58.33 56.70 79.02 81.60 (E) 41.67 43.30 20.98 18.40 U n i t 3 (u) 31.04 26.04 25.53 35.04 (P) 25.09 26.20 32.04 34.20 (E) 74.91 73.80 67.96 65.80 U n i t 4 (u) 11.03 6.17 11.15 6.75 (P) 42.12 40.30 45.28 52.00 (E) 57.88 59.70 54.72 48.00 U n i t 5 (u) 7.01 3.68 9.34 8.00 (P) 51.09 52.80 55.13 56.90 (E) 48.91 47.20 44.87 43.10 Zone 13 Zone as % o f D i s t r i c t ( Z ) 6.03 6.77 7.39 4.98 (P) 83.01 84.80 93.24 93.80 (E) 16.99 15.20 6.76 6.20 Zone 14 (Z) 3.05 9.10 3.27 2.19 (P) 1.29 5.70 7.06 9.20 (E) 98.71 94.30 92.94 90.80 E l F t e / S n B l - as 7« o f D i s t r i c t 1.01 0.51 0.52 0.47 (P) 71.12 75.80 98.21 99.26 (E) 28.88 24.20 1.79 0.74 D i s t r i c t ( P ) 43.10 43.10 56.00 59.00 (E) 56.90 57.00 44.00 40.10 So u r c e : - Compiled from CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. 47 Tenure Groups' Pe r f o r m a n c e a t 1 s t and 2nd C u l t i v a t i o n s I n o r d e r t o c r a c k a l l a s p e c t s o f the " p r o d u c t i o n n u t s h e l l " , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to b r e a k down f u r t h e r the d a t a o f T a b l e XVI . The r e s u l t s of t h i s a r e shown i n T a b l e XVI1, where s e p a r a t e e n t r i e s have been c a l c u l a t e d f o r the t e n u r e groups f o r the 1 s t and 2nd c u l t i v a t i o n p e r i o d s . A t the U n i t l e v e l i n the 1 s t c u l t i v a t i o n p e r i o d , U n i t 2 and Zone 14 emerge as c l e a r l e a d e r s i n terms o f p r o d u c i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y more o f the D i s t r i c t ' s 1 s t c u l t i v a t i o n v a l u e t h a n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e area-sown p r o p o r t i o n s . The case o f Zone 14 can be e x p l a i n e d by r e f e r r i n g back t o the comments made e a r l i e r on i t s tomato s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . U n i t 2, however, cannot y e t be e x p l a i n e d and a l l t h a t can be p o s t u l a t e d a t t h i s s t a g e i s t h a t the U n i t p e r f o r m s much more e f f i c i e n t l y and i n t e n s i v e l y t h a n the o t h e r s , assuming t h a t i t does n o t e n j o y s i g n i f i c a n t c r o p p r i c e a d v a n t a g e s . A t the 2nd c u l t i v a t i o n p e r i o d the p i c t u r e i s l e s a o b v i o u s . U n i t 2 s t i l l m a i n t a i n s a good s h a r e o f the t o t a l v a l u e f r o m i t s l a n d i n p u t , but i n t h i s p e r i o d 5 . i t i s b e t t e r e d by U n i t 3. C o n s i s t e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t , U n i t 4 p e r f o r m s p o o r l y , h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower v a l u e s a t b o t h c u l t i v a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s s h a r e o f l a n d . Other t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , t h i s may be due t o unwise s e l e c t i o n o f c r o p s on the p a r t o f t h a t U n i t ' s f a r m e r s who a r e c u l t i v a t i n g low v a l u e c r o p s a t b o t h t i m e s . At the t e n u r e group l e v e l , p e r f o r m a n c e c o n s i s t e n c i e s a r e more d i s t i n c t . A t the 1 s t c u l t i v a t i o n , a l t h o u g h one group does s l i g h t l y b e t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r w i t h i n i t s U n i t and a l t h o u g h i t i s the e j i d a l group t h a t more o f t e n i s s u p e r i o r t o the p r i v a t e group, the degree o f s u p e r i o r i t y o f p e r f o r m a n c e i s v e r y s m a l l i n d e e d . At the 2nd c u l t i v a t i o n , however, the p r i v a t e group i n a l l c a s e s produces c r o p s whose v a l u e s a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y g r e a t e r t h a n i t s a r e a l s h a r e o f l a n d though l e s s so i n U n i t s 5 , Zone 13 and E l F u e r t e - S a n B i a s . A t t h e i r 1 s t c u l t i v a t i o n the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s , whose a v e r a g e s i z e exceeds the e j i d o s by upwards o f t h r e e t i m e s , p r o b a b l y m a i n t a i n f a i r a g r a r i a n p r a c t i c e s and r e l y on a v e r a g e r e t u r n s t o s c a l e r a t h e r t h a n h i g h o p e r a t i o n a l e f f e c i e n c y , w h i l e a t the second p e r i o d the p r i v a t e f a r m e r s i n t e n s i f y t h e i r c r o p p i n g p r o c e d u r e s and c u l t i v a t e 48 T a b l e XVI1 Average Gross H a r v e s t V a l u e s per Farmer f o r D i s t r i c t & S u b - D i v i s i o n s by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 ( p e s o s ) A v . V a l u e per Av. V a l u e per Av . V a l u e per farmer ha., 1 s t ha., 2nd c u l t i v a t i o n c u l t i v a t i o n U n i t 1 A l l U n i t Farmers (U)5, f 252157 P r i v a t e ( P ) 91,770 3,352 1,873 E j i d a l (E) 16,154 3,352 1,873 U n i t 2 (U) 140,540 (P) 588,713 6, 365 3, 280 (E) 74,631 7,117 2,874 U n i t 3 (U) 51,590 (P) 191,978 4,430 3,452 (E; 39,965 4,164 2,885 U n i t 4 (U> 20,997 --(P) 52,671 . 2,460 1,890 (E) 14,541 2,714 1,433 U n i t 5 (U) 17,859 --(P) 38,387 2,511 2,292 (E) l l , o 5 3 3,355 2,192 Zone 13 A l l Zone Farmers(Z)103,062 240,877 5, 321 1,751 (E) 23,534 4,766 1,687 Zone 14 (Z) 167,089 <P) 778,640 50,643 2,922 (E) 158,844 12,401 2,207 E l F t e / S r i B l A l l Farmers 6,239 (P) 37,711 2,435 2, 342 (E) 1,497 1,992 1,350 D i s t r i c t (D) 49,057 — — U n i t s 1-5 (P) 148,926 4,582 3,025 (E) 31,136 4,331 2,531 D i s t r i c t (D) 52,003 — A l l A r e a s (P) 153,446 4,685 2,854 (E) 33,419 4,796 2,498 So u r c e : - C o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. 49 h i g h e r v a l u e - y i e l d i n g c r o p s , w h i l e t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e e j i d a t a r i o s d e c l i n e . T h i s may w e l l be a f u n c t i o n o f the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owners' h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , b e t t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o p e r a t i o n a l and f i x e d c a p i t a l and t h e i r g r e a t e r awareness o f market demands t h a n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r i n g e j i d a t a r i o s . U n d o u b t e d l y i n some cases t h e s e advantages seem t o e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i o n r e s p o n s e s o f the two groups a t the second c u l t i v a t i o n p e r i o d , b u t f o r a l l c a s e s t h i s i s as y e t o n l y a s u r m i s e . T a b l e X V I I w i t h i t s a b s o l u t e v a l u e s , l i k e T a b l e XVI w i t h i t s p r o p o r t i o n a t e v a l u e s , r e v e a l s t h a t t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n the second p e r i o d o f c u l t i v a t i o n i n v a r i a b l y b e t t e r s the e j i d a l s e c t o r i n p e r f o r m a n c e . The e f f e c t o f fa r m s c a l e d i f f e r e n c e i s e v i d e n t i n column one of T a b l e X V I I , where the aver a g e v a l u e o f c r o p g e n e r a t e d per farmer i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r the U n i t s and by t e n u r e g r o u p s . The e f f e c t o f r e t u r n s t o s c a l e i s removed i n the o t h e r two columns where c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e measured on a per h e c t a r e b a s i s . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o n o t e i n column one the magnitude w i t h i n U n i t s o f t e n u r e group d i f f e r e n c e s . The d a t a i n column one c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a v e r y crude measure o f g r o s s income o f the f a r m i n g t y p e s . Imbalances between Tenure Groups and between U n i t s i n Terms o f  Crop V a l u e s G e n e r a t e d The s a l i e n t p o i n t s p r e s e n t e d a r e now summarized and shown i n T a b l e s XVI11 and XIX. I n the case o f U n i t 2, T a b l e XVI11 shows t h a t 14.02 per c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s p r i v a t e f a r m e r s , U n i t 2's t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h a t c a t e g o r y , sow 37.06 per c e n t o f the p r i v a t e l y h e l d l a n d i n the D i s t r i c t , and fr o m i t produce 48.23 per c e n t o f the p r i v a t e h a r v e s t c r o p v a l u e o f the D i s t r i c t . The d a t a a r e thus p r e s e n t e d i n such a fo r m as t o make p o s s i b l e an assessment o f the v a r i a t i o n s f r o m U n i t t o U n i t o f the r e l a t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e o f the p r i v a t e and o f the e j i d a l t e n u r e g r o u p s . From the d a t a , J U n i t 2 f o r b o t h t e n u r e groups appears t o p e r f o r m o u t s t a n d i n g l y , w h i l e U n i t s 4, 5 and 1 do n o t i c e a b l y much worse f o r b o t h t e n u r e g r o u p s . The drawback o f T a b l e XVI11 i s , however, t h a t i t does n o t make p o s s i b l e an a b s o l u t e assessment of the t e n u r e g r o u p s , i . e . o f p r i v a t e farms v i s a v i s e j i d a l . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s overcome i n T a b l e XIX. 50 T a b l e XVI11 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Farms, A r e a Sown, & H a r v e s t V a l u e f o r D i s t r i c t ' s S u b - D i v i s i o n s by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 7. D i s t r i b u t i o n 7. D i s t r i b u t i o n ; 7. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f f a r m t y p e s o f sown a r e a o f h a r v e s t v a l u e U n i t 1 P r i v a t e ( P ) 17.33 12.05 9.15 E j i d a l (E')0 21.15 13.07 10.12 U n i t 2 (P) 14.02 37.06 48.23 (E) 12.21 18.03 27.14 U n i t 3 (P) 15.22 17.01 17.77 (E) 30.32 41.02 36.13 U n i t 4 (P) 18.86 10.04 5.36 (E) 15.26 11.11 6.34 U n i t 5 (P) 22.86 8.01 5.07 (E) 11.37 6.09 3.39 Zone 13 (P) 7.53 12.01 12.84 (E) 2.22 1.08 1.36 Zone 14 (P) 0.24 0.20 1.04 (E) 2.94 6.02 13.97 E l F t e / S n B l (P) 3.96 1.05 0.84 (E) 4.34 0.40 0.15 T a b l e XIX S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' Farms, Sown A r e a , & H a r v e s t V a l u e s by Tenure Groups as P e r c e n t a g e s o f D i s t r i c t w i t h D i s t r i c t Breakdown by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 > 7o o f a l l D i s t r i c t farms 7. o f D i s t r i c t sown a r e a 7. o f D i s t r i c t c r o p v a l u e U n i t 1 P r i v a t e ( P ) 2.427. 5.847. 4.267. (E) 17.887. 7.237. 5.567. U n i t 2 (P) 1.957. 17.557. 22. 127. (E) 10.327. 9.727. 14.817. U n i t 3 (P) 2.127. 7.997. 7.837. (E) 25.617. 21.897. 19.687. U n i t 4 (P) 2.637. 4.867. 2.667. (E) 12.897. 6.367. 3.617. U n i t 5 (P) 3.197. 4.077. 2.357. (E) 9.617. 3.637. 2.047. Zone 13 (P) 1.057. 5.657. 5.567. (E) 2.047. 0.907. 0.927. Zone 14 (P) 0.037. 0.10% 0.507. (E) 2.487. 3.267. 7.597. E l F t e / S n B l (P) 0.557. 0.697. 0.407. (E) 3.677. 0.227. 0.117. D i s t r i c t (P) 14.67. 46.177. 45.637. (E) 85.847. 53.837. 54.377. S o u r c e : - T a b l e s XV111 & XIX c o m p i l e d from CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. 51 The p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n o f T a b l e XIX i s t o h i g h l i g h t t h e l a r g e i m b a l a n c e s between the t e n u r e g r o u p s ' farmer p o p u l a t i o n s and the cr o p v a l u e s produced from t h e i r l a n d a r e a s sown. To t a k e U n i t 2 a g a i n , 1.95 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s f a r m er p o p u l a t i o n , r e p r e e s e n t i n g a l l o f the U n i t 2's p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s , sow 17.55 p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s sown a r e a t o produce 22.12 per c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s c r o p v a l u e . I n sharp c o n t r a s t i s the case o f U n i t 1 where 17.88 per c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s f a r m er p o p u l a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l t h a t U n i t ' s e j i d a t a r i o s , sow 7.23 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s sown a r e a t o produce o n l y 5.56 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s t o t a l c r o p v a l u e ! I f one combines the t e n u r e e n t r i e s w i t h i n a U n i t o r Zone, an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e i s g i v e n o f the U n i t ' s endowments and p r o d u c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , when t h i s s i m p l e summation i s a p p l i e d t o U n i t 2 i t i s found t h a t t h a t U n i t , w i t h 12.27 per ce n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s f a r m e r s and 27.27 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s sown a r e a , produces 36.93 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s t o t a l c r o p v a l u e . The r e s p e c t i v e e n t r i e s f o r U n i t 1 a r e 20.30 per c e n t f o r p o p u l a t i o n , 13.07 per c e n t f o r a r e a sown and 9.82 per ce n t f o r v a l u e o f c r o p s p r o d u c e d . Problems o f E x p l a n a t i o n , Measurement and I s o l a t i o n o f C r u c i a l  V a r i a b l e s - Some S o l u t i o n s A t t h i s p o i n t , some e x p l a n a t i o n m ight be e x p e c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t s o f c a p i t a l i n p u t s , l a n d endowments, l a b o u r i n p u t s and mac h i n e r y and equipment i n p u t s i n a Cobb-Douglas p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n or f o r m u l a , i n o o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f the i n d i v i d u a l groups o f f a r m s i ( s e e Samuelson 1970,7724). T h i s m ight be d e s i r a b l e , but i s n o t e s s e n t i a l . Some o f t h e s e t e s t s m i g h t have been a p p l i e d o n l y t o a sample o f farms w i t h i n one U n i t , i n t h i s s t u d y ' s c a s e , U n i t 2. N o n e t h e l e s s , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t d a t a t o say e x a c t l y w h i c h i s or w h i c h a r e the most c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e ( s ) a f f e c t i n g t he d a t a i n T a b l e XVI11, i t i s s t i l l i n s t r u c t i v e t o l o o k a t the m a t e r i a l i n T a b l e s XX and X X I . T a b l e XX c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t he i m p o r t a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n the i n t e n s i t y o f l a n d use from U n i t t o U n i t and f a r m i n g group t o f a r m i n g group. As woul d be e x p e c t e d f r o m the r e l a t i o n s h i p s 52 T a b l e XX I n d i c e s o f Land I n t e n s i t y & I n d i c e s o f C u l t i v a t i o n E f f i c i e n c y f o r D i s t r i c t &. S u b - D i v i s i o n s by Tenure Groups, 1969/70 ( A l l c r o p s ) I n t e n s i t y a t 1st 1 C u l t i v a t i o n I n t e n s i t y a t 2nd l C u l t i v a t i o n C u l t i v a t i o n E f f i c i e n c y Index U n i t 1 P r i v a t e ( P ) 0.80 1.04 0.97 E j i d a l (E) 0.69 0.76 0.97 U n i t 2 ( P ) 1.00 1.72 0.98 (:E) " 1.00 1.24 0.98 U n i t 3 ( P ) 0.98 1.39 0.88 (E) 0.96 1.29 0.74 U n i t 4 ( P ) 0.95 1.28 0.81 (E) 0.84 1.12 0.79 U n i t 5 ( P ) 0.82 1.23 0.96 (E) 0.69 0.99 0.99 Zone 13 ( P ) 0.81 1.20 0.97 (E) 0.89 1.03 0.98 Zone 14 ( P ) 0.52 1.42 0.95 (E) 0.95 1.27 0.99 E l F t e / S n B l ( P ) 0.77 0.96 0.94 (E) 0.16 0.17 0.96 D i s t r i c t U n i t s 1-5 ( P ) 0.98 1.41 0.94 (E) 0.88 1.12 0.85 D i s t r i c t A l l A r e a s ( P ) 0.95 1.37 0.94 (E) 0.86 1.12 0.85 ^"Ratio o f h e c t a r a g e p l a n t e d t o h e c t a r a g e a v a i l a b l e f o r p l a n t i n g . R a t i o o f h a r v e s t e d a r e a t o sown a r e a . S o u r c e : - Compiled from CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. 53 e s t a b l i s h e d i n the e a r l i e r T a b l e s , U n i t 2 2 shows up as the t o p p e r f o r m e r by a c l e a r m a r g i n f o r the p r i v a t e s e c t o r a t b o t h c u l t i v a t i o n s , and a t the same time r e g i s t e r s a good i n d e x l e v e l f o r the e j i d a l g roup. The measure g i v e n o f c u l t i v a t i o n e f f i c i e n c y i n t e r e s t i n g l y shows an e q u a l i n d e x f i g u r e f o r b o t h the t e n u r e groups i n U n i t 2; t h i s measure may w e l l be a f f e c t e d by e x t r a n e o u s f a c t o r s such as w a t e r s h o r t a g e s and m i c r o s i o i l q u a l i t y v a r i a t i o n s o v e r w h i c h the farmer may n o t have much c o n t r o l , b u t the i n d e x does g i v e a u s e f u l c o m p a r i s o n . F i n a l l y , i n an a t t e m p t t o measure the p r i n c i p a l v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g t he t e n u r e g r o u p s ' c r o p v a l u e s , T a b l e XXI was c o n s t r u c t e d . I t has l i m i t a t i o n s , p r i m a r i l y t h a t o f n o t showing a b r e a k down as f a r as t h e U n i t l e v e l , b u t c o n s t r a i n t s o f time and f i n a n c e p r o h i b i t e d such c o l l e c t i o n o f r e l i a b l e d a t a . I n any c a s e , much o f the d a t a needed was d e s t r o y e d y e a r l y , and when a s t a r t was made on c r o p d a t a c o l l e c t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l U n i t s f o r t e n u r e g r o u p s , i t was soon found t h a t adequate coverage e x i s t e d f o r o n l y some o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . T a b l e XXI shows, by v a l u e , the twenty-one p r i n c i p a l c r o p s c u l t i v a t e d i n the F u e r t e scheme. I t a l s o r e v e a l s the per h e c t a r e v a l u e o f each main c r o p , i n d i c a t i n g t h o s e w h i c h a r e p o t e n t i a l l y t he most a t t r a c t i v e t o c u l t i v a t e , assuming t h a t market p r i c e s and y i e l d s , w e i g h t per h e c t a r e , a r e good and r e l i a b l e . T a b l e XXI1 e x p r e s s e s the p r i c e , y i e l d and v a l u e o f the e j i d a l s e c t o r ' s c r o p s i n terms o f the p r i v a t e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f the l i s t e d twenty-one main F u e r t e c r o p s i s t a b u l a t e d a t the r i g h t f o r the e j i d a l group. The c u m u l a t i v e v a l u e o f the twenty-one c r o p s i s 99.57 per c e n t and hence t h i s c r o p c o v e r a g e i s c o m p l e t e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h a t t e n u r e group's range o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s . From t h i s T a b l e , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the e j i d a l p r i c e s f o r the f i r s t t e n c r o p s do n o t v a r y g r e a t l y from t h o s e o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , w i t h the two e x c e p t i o n s o f tomatoes and sorghum, the former b e i n g the c r o p o f h i g h e s t a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l v a l u e i n the e n t i r e D i s t r i c t ! Lower down the column, however, the e j i d o s seem t o do l e s s w e l l . R e g a r d i n g y i e l d s , t he e j i d o s have b e t t e r r e s u l t s t h a n 54 T a b l e XXI P r i n c i p a l Crops o f the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t by D e s c e n d i n g Order o f V a l u e , 1969/70 7. o f T o t a l 7. o f C r o p s ' V a l u e Average V a l u e D i s t r i c t by Tenure Groups per h e c t a r e V a l u e h a r v e s t e d E j i d a l P r i v a t e ( p e s o s ) 1 C o t t o n 28.547.547. 68.547. 31.46% 5, 986 2 Tomatoes 15.627o 44.727. 55.28% 46, 270 3 Sugar Cane 10.37% 86.837. 13.177. 7, 117 4 Sorghum 7.627o 48.717. 51.297. 2, 739 5 R i c e 7.137. 46.917. 53.09% 3, 990 6 Wheat 6.897. 26.887. 73.127. 2, 524 7 Soya 5.897. 28.067. 71.94% 2, 832 8 F r i j o l (Beans) 5.127. 51.487. 48.527. 2, 541 9 M a i z e (C6rn) 2.777. 54.087. 45.927. 1, 845 10 S a f f l o w e r 1.677. 74.897. 25.117. 3, 266 11 F o r r a g e f l o w e r s 1.397. 0.957. 99.05% 12, 523 12 P o t a t o e s 1.267. 46.967. 53.04% 7, 259 13 A l f a l f a 0.987. 56.767. 43.247. 5, 406 14 Water Melons 0.777. 74.657. 25.357. 8, 787 15 Canary seed 0.777. 19.477. 80.837. 3) 489 16 F r u i t s 0.727. 0.42% 99.587. 12, 071 17 C h i l e 0.597. 46.567. 53.447. 15, 570 18 Sesame 0.357. 68.94% 31.067. 1, 566 19 Melon 0.327. 00.647. 99.36% 7, 758 20 L i n s e e d 0.297. 73.787. 26.227. 3, 211 21 Pumpkins 0.267. 22.317. 77.69% 14, 696 Sourc e : - C o m p i l e d from CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. 55 the p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s f o r 60 p e r c e n t of the f i r s t t e n c r o p s , and f o r 52 per c e n t o f a l l the twenty-one major c r o p s . R e g a r d i n g v a l u e or h a r v e s t per h e c t a r e , the e j i d o s a g a i n have s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s o v e r t h o s e o f the p r i v a t e farms f o r 60 p e r c e n t o f the f i r s t t e n c r o p s , but f o r a l l twenty-one major c r o p s t h e y have o n l y 43 per c e n t s u p e r i o r e n t r i e s . I t w o u l d be f o o l h a r d y , however, t o c o n c l u d e t h a t the e j i d a l f a r m e r s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y b e h i n d the p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s i n v a l u e o f h a r v e s t , s i n c e , a l t h o u g h the d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e j i d a l s e c t o r does n o t match the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n t h e s e terms, the gap between the two groups i s s m a l l . I t ought to be r e c a l l e d from the m a t e r i a l a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r how much v a r i a n c e e x i s t s i n the "performance i n d i c a t o r s " between the same t e n u r e groups f o r d i f f e r e n t U n i t s and Zones, and how t h e s e v a r i a n c e s a r e masked i n the D i s t r i c t l e v e l d a t a . I t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f b e t t e r U n i t p e r f o r m e r s , l i k e U n i t 2 and 3, the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t e n u r e g r o u p s ' w a l u e per h e c t a r e may be much s m a l l e r t h a n t h o s e shown i n the a g g r e g a t e p i c t u r e o f T a b l e X X I 1 . Summary o f D i s t r i c t / U n i t / Z o n e Data f o r a l l Crops Grown and Assessment  of Tenure Groups' P e r f o r m a n c e s The d a t a t h e r e f o r e show the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s . The e j i d a l and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s h o l d c l a i m t o r e s p e c t i v e l y 57.55 per c e n t and 40.48 per c e n t of the c u l t i v a b l e l a n d i n the F u e r t e scheme, w h i l e the c o l o n o s e c t o r has a mere 1.97 per c e n t . When measured i n t t e r m s o f the g r o s s l a n d area.held, the e j i d a l and p r i v a t e groups have r e s p e c t i v e l y 69.84 per c e n t and 28.97 per c e n t o f the scheme's a r e a w h i l s t the c o l o n o s have 1.19 per c e n t . The e j i d a l s e c t o r l o s e s more p o t e n t i a l sown a r e a t o s a l t y and u n l e v e l l e d l a n d t h a n the p r i v a t e group, and y e t the f a r m e r p o p u l a t i o n o f the e j i d a l s e c t o r i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t i m e s as l a r g e as t h e c o t h e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , the e j i d a l s e c t o r o p e r a t e s farms t h a t a r e l e s s t h a n one q u a r t e r the a v e r a g e s i z e o f the p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s y e t the v a l u e p e r h e c t a r e sown i s m a r g i n a l l y g r e a t e r f o r the e j i d o s . The m a r g i n ^ t h o u g h , i s v e r y s l i m , and a t the second c u l t i v a t i o n the e j i d a l p e r f o r m a n c e i s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n f e r i o r t o the p r i v a t e g r o u p s i n terms o f c r o p v a l u e 56 * T a b l e XXI1 E j i d a l Crop Per f o r m a n c e Compared t o t h a t o f the P r i v a t e S e c t o r f o r the Major D i s t r i c t C r o p s , 1969/70 V a l u e o f 7. o f h a r v e s t t o t a l R u r a l per h a r v e s t P r i c e Y i e l d h e c t a r e v a l u e 1 C o t t o n + 2.397. + 2.787. . + 5.317. 35.987. 1 2 Tomatoes - 39.167. + 7.177. ' - 34.807. 12.857. 3 3 Sugar Cane + 12.257. • + 12.267. 16.577. 2 4 Sorghum + 39.867. - 14.037. 20.247. 6.837. 44 5 R i c e - 4.387. + 10.587. + 5.737. 6.167. 5 6 Wheat + 1.007. - 8.907. - 8.017. 3.417. 7 7 Soya + 2.197. + 11.367. + 13.287. 3.047. 8 8 Beans - 2.917. - 4.597. - 7.377. 4.847. 6 9 Corn =• - 15.947. - 15.947. 2.767. 9 10 S a f f l o w e r - 0.607. + 6.357. + 6.287. 2.297. 10 11 F o r r a g e f l o w e r s = - 18.577. - 18.577. 0.027. 25 12 P o t a t o e s + 10.257. - 21.847. - 13.347. 1.097. 11 13 A l f a l f a - 5.137. + 17.837. + 11.787. 0.987. 13 14 Water Melons + 16.127. + 12.037. + 22.837. 1.067. 12 15 Canary Seed •+ 14.667. 20.207. - 8.507. 0.287. 177 16 F r u i t s - 37. 157. - 74.677. - 84.087. 28 17 C h i l e - 25.497. + '24.137. - 77 5517. 0.507. 14 18 Sesame - 7.267. + 6.627. - 1.087. 0.417. 15 19 Melons +120.227. - 95.117. 35.837. --20 L i n s e e d - 7.437. + 12.647. + 4.277. 0.397. 16 21 Pumpkins - 52.947. - 4.137. - 57.167. 0.117. 20 E j i d a l d a t a afe e x p r e s s e d as p o s i t i v e (+), n e g a t i v e (-) or e q u a l ( = ), i n a p e r c e n t i l e form compared t o t h e P r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s d a t a . Crop r a n k i n g by v a l u e f o r t h e e j i d a l group. S o u r c e : - C o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. 57 per h e c t a r e . At the second c u l t i v a t i o n t o o , r t h e ^ p r i v a t e c s e c t o r i n c r e a s e s i t s p r o p o r t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t ' s sown a r e a by some 6 per c e n t , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sown a r e a o f the e j i d a l and p r i v a t e farms becomes r e s p e c t i v e l y 53.23 per c e n t and 46.77 p e r c e n t ; i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare t h e s e f i g u r e s w i t h t h e i r s h a r e s o f t o t a l w o r k a b l e D i s t r i c t l a n d o f 57.55 per c e n t and 40.48 p e r c e n t . F i n a l l y , g r o s s i m b a l a n c e s a r e shown to e x i s t between t h e t e n u r e groups even a t the D i s t r i c t l e v e l w i t h r e g a r d t o farmer p o p u l a t i o n , a r e a sowr^ and p r o p o r t i o n o f c r o p v a l u e g e n e r a t e d ( s e e T a b l e s XVI11 and X I X ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n h e r e i s t h a t t h e r e a r e too many e j i d a t a r i o s dependent on too many s m a l l p l o t s o f 5.1-10 h e c t a r e s ( s e e T a b l e X l l l ) , and s l i g h t l y i n f e r i o r a s p e c t s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p e r f o r m a n c e by the e j i d a l s e c t o r a r e m a g n i f i e d i n t h e i r poor per c a p i t a h a r v e s t v a l u e s . The e j i d a l s e c t o r does n o t appear to maximize i t s l a n d r e s o u r c e s as w e l l or as i n t e n s i v e l y as the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , w h i c h has a g r e a t advantage i n per c a p i t a r e s o u r c e s , and hence a s u p e r i o r p e r c a p i t a v a l u e a d v a n t a g e , r i g h t a t the o u t s e t . I n summary, the y i e l d p e r f o r m a n c e o f the e j i d a l s e c t o r i s good enough t o match t h a t o f i t s c o m p e t i t o r , the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . However, o n l y i f the e j i d a l s e c t o r i n t e n s i f i e s the use o f i t s p o o r e r l a n d r e s o u r c e s and m a i n t a i n s h i g h e r o p e r a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the second c u l t i v a t i o n , w i l l i t be a b l e t o improve i t s weak p e r c a p i t a c r o p v a l u e s , r e d u c i n g the e x t e n t o f the p r e s e n t v a l u e i m b a l a n c e between the two main f a r m i n g g r o u p s . The p o i n t s t a c k l e d i n t h i s i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , a r e v e r i f i e d by the b r o a d D i s t r i c t d a t a but i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t many o f the d i f f e r e n c e s measured between the t e n u r e groups a r e n o t l a r g e by any s t a n d a r d s . G i v e n the s h o r t time p e r i o d c o v e r e d by t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a , c o n s i d e r a b l e c a u t i o n must be e x c e r i s e d a t t h i s s t a g e i n d r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . 58 CHAPTER IV THE SAMPLE AREA - UNIT 2 The C h o i c e of U n i t 2 and R a t i o n a l e f o r Wheat C u l t i v a t i o n Study The p r i n c i p a l aim o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o probe deeper t h a n the d a t a g i v e n a t D i s t r i c t l e v e l a l l o w , w i t h r e g a r d t o the e j i d a t a r i o s ' a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the F u e r t e scheme. The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s d a t a has shown t h a t U n i t 2 i s o u t s t a n d i n g as t h e b e s t p e r f o r m e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o v a l u e s g e n e r a t e d per h e c t a r e o f sown l a n d , l a n d use e f f i c i e n c y , and the i n t e n s i t y i n d i c e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s U n i t p o s s e s s e s t h e l a r g e s t p r o d u c t i v e f a r m s , and the h i g h e s t c r o p v a l u e s per c a p i t a f o r b o t h t e n u r e g r o u p s . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e a u t h o r i n t e n d s t o t e s t t h i s p a p e r's h y p o t h e s i s t h r o u g h a f a r m sample s t u d y o f the D i s t r i c t ' s most p r o d u c t i v e and b e s t rewarded f a r m e r s ; hence t h e c h o i c e o f U n i t 2 on the b a s i s o f the U n i t ' s f a r m i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as r e v e a l e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h i s d e c i s i o n i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . I f , i n a sample e x a m i n a t i o n o f the scheme's b e s t f a r m e r s i t can be shown t h a t the e j i d a l f a r m e r s make a n e t f i n a n c i a l l o s s on t h e i r c r o p a c t i v i t i e s , g i v e n c e r t a i n i n t e r a c t i o n o f the c r u c i a l i n p u t v a r i a b l e s t h a t most a f f e c t the e j i d a t a r i o s ' p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s , t h e n i t can be s u r m i s e d w i t h some j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t h a t f a r m e r s e l s e w h e r e i n the scheme w i t h s i m i l a r i n p u t s w o u l d a l s o i n c u r f i n a n c i a l l o s s e s . Uneconomic f a r m o p e r a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e a c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t h e r e , as a r e the r e a s o n s b e h i n d such o p e r a t i o n s . The f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i s on the e j i d a l s e c t o r s i n c e t h i s i s the f a r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n group t h a t was c r e a t e d by the R e v o l u t i o n , and i t i s the R e v o l u t i o n , b r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , t h a t i s b e i n g l o o k e d a t c r i t i c a l l y . Where an e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l farms i s t o be u n d e r t a k e n , 59 i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r s e l e c t i n g a.'.sample p o p u l a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e members a l l c u l t i v a t e a t l e a s t one common c r o p . The c r o p s e l e c t e d h e r e i s wheat, the c e r e a l c r o p t h a t M e x i c o i m p o r t e d u n t i l 1964 when the m a s s i v e o u t p u t o f the N o r t h w e s t a t l a s t made i t s e l f f e l t , and when t h e j o i n t r e s e a r c h developments o f CIANO/CIAS and R o c k e f e l l e r p a i d o f f i n the h i g h - y i e l d i n g , d i s e a s e and d r o u g h t -r e s i s t a n t dwarf h y b r i d s b r e d s p e c i a l l y f o r the a r i d s t a t e s o f Sonora and S i n a l o a . T h i s c r o p has u n d e r g o n e , d u r i n g two decades, more r i g o r o u s s c i e n t i f i c h y b r i d i z a t i o n by e x t r e m e l y competent teams o f a g r o n o m i s t s , b i o l o g i s t s and c r o p g e n e t i c i s t s t h a n any o t h e r a t p r e s e n t under c u l t i v a t i o n i n t h e N o r t h w e s t , i n c l u d i n g the F u e r t e v a l l e y . V a r i e t i e s l i k e Lerma Rojo 64, INIA 66, CIANO F-67 and N o r o e s t e 66 have made the N o r t h w e s t the b r e a d - b a s k e t o f Mex i c o and b r o u g h t much o f the r e g i o n ' s o v e r a l l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g a i n from t h e i r e a r n i n g s i n the e x p o r t and n a t i o n a l m a r k e t . Concomitant w i t h t h i s c r o p - r e s e a r c h has been the f o r m a t i o n o f h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t q u a l i t y c o n t r o l s o v e r the d i s t r i b u t i o n and s a l e o f c e r t i f i e d wheat seed. I n o r d e r t o m a x i m i z e e t h e c u l t i v a t i o n p r o c e s s , r e g i o n a l e x t e n s i o n f a c i l i t i e s a r e w e l l advanced, e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e f o r wheat, and i n the case o f the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , a w e l l - r u n e x p e r i m e n t a l and e x t e n s i o n s t a t i o n i s c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , i n U n i t 2, o f f the main highway between Los Mochis and Guasave. A g r o n o m i s t s and t r a i n e e f i e l d a s s i s t a n t s work from t h i s base (CIAS) s e r v i n g t h e D i s t r i c t ' s f a r m e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t he e j i d a t a r i o s . S e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g p l a n t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , i r r i g a t i o n t i m i n g s , number o f w a t e r a p p l i c a t i o n s , seed s p a c i n g , f e r t i l i z a t i o n , and f u m i g a t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e f r e e o f charge t o any f a r m e r . B u l l e t i n s and c u l t i v a t i o n s c h e d u l e s a r e c i r c u l a t e d by t h i s F i e l d E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n C e n t r e t o the main e j i d a l s e t t l e m e n t s , and j o i n t p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e l i k e w i s e put out by (ECANO w i t h CRF. The c h o i c e o f wheat f o r f a r m e x a m i n a t i o n purposes appears a p p o s i t e , g i v e n the D i s t r i c t ' s good a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s e a r c h , ^ e x t e n s i o n , and c o n t r o l o f seed q u a l i t y . C l e a r l y , i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n 60 o f t h i s t y p e , i t i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t o r e d u c e the p o t e n t i a l number o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t may a f f e c t t h e outcome o f the i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r ' s c u l t i v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . I f one farmer uses a c e r t i f i e d h y b r i d seed and a n o t h e r uses a n o n - c e r t i f i e d t y p e , t h e n t h e r e i s l i t t l e p o i n t i n s t u d y i n g the two f a r m e r s from the p o i n t o f v i e w o f u l t i m a t e l y b e i n g a b l e t o compare t h e i r o u t p t t l e v e l s . They a r e u s i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t seed i n p u t s , hence a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n o u t p u t s would be t o t a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s and c e r t a i n l y an i n v a l i d a t t e m p t a t c o n t r o l l e d o b s e r v a t i o n . Wheat i n U n i t 2 and the D i s t r i c t B e f o r e l o o k i n g a t the sample f a r m e r s i n U n i t 2, i t i s u s e f u l t o p r e s e n t b r i e f l y the wheat d a t a f o r the D i s t r i c t , and f o r the U n i t s and Zones , g i v i n g a s i m i l a r l e v e l o f measurement and d e t a i l as was p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r f o r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h h e r e a r e synonymous w i t h c r o p p i n g . The o v e r a l l d a t a f o r the D i s t r i c t , the U n i t s and the Zones a r e shown i n T a b l e XXIV, f o r the two c y c l e s 1968/69 and 1969/70. C l e a r l y U n i t 2 i s the main wheat grower and p r o d u c e r o f t h e D i s t r i c t . A t the f i r s t c y c l e g i v e n , 1968/69, w i t h 42.12 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s wheat-sown a r e a , U n i t 2 produced 44.48 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s w h e a t - c r o p v a l u e . W i t h a h i g h average y i e l d o f 3.303 k i l o - t o n s per h e c t a r e and 800 pesos per t o n r u r a l p r i c e , U n i t 2, e x c l u d i n g E l F u e r t e / S a n B i a s w h i c h had an u n u s u a l l y h i g h a v e r a g e p r i c e e n t r y , r e g i s t e r e d the h i g h e s t v a l u e per h e c t a r e sown o f 2,642 p e s o s . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s t o be n o t e d a r e the s m a l l range i n the y i e l d s a t t a i n e d from U n i t t o U n i t , from a minimum o f 2.850 k i l o - t o n s per h e c t a r e t o a maximum o f 3.303 k i l o - t o n s per h e c t a r e , and the e q u a l l y n a rrow s p r e a d o f the r u r a l p r i c e from 800 pesos per t o n t o 821 pesos per t o n , a g a i n e x c l u d i n g the e x c e p t i o n a l case of E l F u e r t e / S a n B i a s w i t h 913 p e s o s s p e r r t o n . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e two s m a l l s p r e a d s , the v a l u e s g e n e r a t e d per *See T a b l e XXI11 f o r i n d i c e s o f a r e a s sown and v a l u e s of h a r v e s t f o r a l l c r o p s and f o r wheat. T a b l e XXIV A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n o f D i s t r i c t &. S u b - D i v i s i o n s , 1968/69-1969/70 Are a Sown Ar e a Y i e l d ( K i l o - P r o d u c t i o n P r i c e p er V a l u e p e r T o t a l v a l u e ( h e c t a r e s ) Harvested tons per h a . ) ( K i l o - t o n s ) t o n ( p e s o f ) s ) h a . ( p e s o ) ('000s peso) 68/69 69/70 68/69 69/70 68/69 69/70 68/69 69/70 o f / W 6 8 / 6 9 6 9 / 7 0 6 8 / 6 9 6 9 / 7 0 U n i t 1 3, 521 2, 958 3,403 2, 905 2.850 3,067 9,701 8,887 800 804 2,280 2,465 7.761 7.139 U n i t 2 10, 855 7, 594 10,850 7, 484 3.303 3.041 38,845 22,940 800 800 2,642 2,432 28.676 18.352 U n i t 3 4, 716 3, 220 4,644 3, 193 2.956 3.335 13,727 10,658 821 815 2,426 2,718 11.284 8.650 U n i t 4 1, 589 469 1,589 469 3.000 2.480 4,769 1,240 801 800 2,403 1,984 3.818 0.992 U n i t 5 82 31 82 31 2.900 1.000 237 31 800 850 2,320 850 0.190 0.026 Zone 13 3, 570 3, 341 3,565 3, 341 3.152 2.973 11,236 10,034 800 809 2,521 2,405 8.988 8.042 Zone 14 693 544 693 544 3.118 3.500 2,160 1,094 800 800 2,494 2,800 1.728 1.532 E l F t e / S n B l 546 179 546 179 3.300 3,519 1,801 627 913 860 3,012 3,026 1.645 0.541 D i s t r i c t 25, 574 18, 336 25,374 18, 146 3.002 2.865 79,480 56,321 806 817 2,419 2,340 64.092 45.269 So u r c e : - Compiled from CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. 62 h e c t a r e by t h e s u b - a r e a s o f the D i s t r i c t a r e e q u a l l y bunched t o g e t h e r . I n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e 1969/70, the D i s t r i c t e x p e r i e n c e d a 28.31 p e r c e n t drop i n the a r e a sown to wheat and a 29.37 per c e n t f a l l i n the v a l u e of wheat produced compared t o the p r e v i o u s y e a r , 1968/69. T h i s was p r i m a r i l y due t o the government's l o w e r i n g i t s minimum s u p p o r t p r i c e f o r wheat from 850 pesos per t o n t o 750. I n T a b l e XXIV we can see a l s o t h a t the main c u l t i v a t o r o f t h i s c e r e a l c r o p , however, s t i l l remained U n i t 2, p r o d u c i n g 40.25 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s wheat v a l u e from 41.08 per c e n t of the t o t a l wheat a r e a of the D i s t r i c t . I n 1969/70 U n i t 2 d i d n o t m a i n t a i n i t s s l i g h t l y s u p e r i o r y i e l d l e v e l o v e r the o t h e r p r o d u c e r s , a l t h o u g h , a s i n 1968/69, i t k e p t ahead o f the D i s t r i c t a v e r a g e . T h i s downward movement i n U n i t 2's b r o a d " p e r f o r m a n c e " i n d i c a t o r s was accompanied by an upward movement i n the i n d i c a t o r s o f U n i t s 1 and 3 and E l F u e r t e / S a n B i a s . E x c l u d i n g U n i t 5 w h i c h i n e x p l i c a b l y has a d i s a s t r o u s l y bad y i e l d , t h e r e was a w i d e r s p r e a d of e n t r i e s , " r a n g i n g from a low o f 2.480 k i l o - t o n s per h e c t a r e t o a h i g h o f 3.519. T h i s f a c t o r coupledftwifcht t h e g g E e a f e e r<'deviationffrom t h e r u r a l p r i c e o f 800 pesos p e r t o n , l e d t o the w i d e r s p r e a d o f e n t r i e s i n t h e v a l u e per h e c t a r e sown c a t e g o r y . T a b l e XXV d i s s e c t s t h e s e d a t a i n t o the two main t e n u r e groups f o r the same a g r i c u l t u r a l t i m e p e r i o d s and shows t h e v a r i a t i o n s f o r the f a r m i n g g r o u p s , and thus h e l p s t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of change p o r t r a y e d i n T a b l e -XX-Iil- . The d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d by t e n u r e goups i n a more e a s i l y comparable form i n T a b l e XXVI, as p e r c e n t a g e s o f D i s t r i c t wheat a r e a , p r o d u c t i o n and v a l u e . T a b l e XXV11 a l s o g i v e s a p r o p o r t i o n a l and c o m p a r a t i v e p i c t u r e , the d i s t i n c t i o n b e i n g t h a t the d a t a a r e g i v e n as p e r c e n t a g e s of a l l farms o f the D i s t r i c t . Thus i n 1968/69, a l l t h e U n i t 2 p r i v a t e farms t h a t , sowed wheat r e p r e s e n t e d 33.98 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t ' s t o t a l a r e a sown i n t h a t c r o p and t h o s e farms produced from t h e i r s h a r e of t h e sown a r e a 36.37 per c e n t of t h e t o t a l wheat cr o p v a l u e . T a b l e XXV A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n f o r D i s t r i c t ' s S u b - D i v i s i o n s by Tenure Groups, 1968/69-1969/70 A r e a Sown Y i e l d per ha. P r i c e p e r V a l u e per ha. V a l u e o f o u t p u t ( h e c t a r e s ) ( k i l o - t o n s ) t o n ( p e s o s ) (p*i§6s)pesos) ('000s pe s o s ) 68/69 69/70 68/69 69/70 ( 38/69 69/70 68/69 69/70 68/69 69/70 U n i t 1 P r i v a t e ( P ) 2,083 1,187 3,021 3.108 800 808 2,416 2,511 6.678 2.976 E j i d a l (E) 718 1,771 2.113 3.125 800 800 1,690 2,420 1.082 4.163 U n i t 2 (P) 8,691 6,074 3.355 3.082 800 800 2,668 2,465 23.311 14.710 (E) 2,164 1,520 3,098 3,000 800 800 2,471 2,400 5.364 3.641 U n i t 3 (P) 2,164 1,234 3,0333 3,322 807 830 2,447 2,757 5.117 3.399 (E) 2,552 1,986 2,893 3.348 835 800 2,415 2,678 6.166 5.251 U n i t 4 (P) 655 319 3.000 2.934 800 800 2,320 2,347 1.572 0.748 (E) 934 150 3.000 2.026 801 800 2,403 1,620 2.246 0.243 U n i t 5 (P) 58 31 2.900 1.000 800 850 2,320 850 0.134 0.026 (E) 24 2.900 -- 800 -- 2,320 0.055 Zone 13 (P) 3,337 3,059 3.152 3.009 800 800 2,521 2,407 8.404 7.364 (E) 232 282 3.144 2.936 800 819 2,515 2,404 0.584 0.678 Zone 14 (P) -- -- -- -- --(E) 693 544 3.118 3.500 800 800 2,494 2,800 1.728 1.523 E l F t e / S n B l (P) 546 166 3.300 3.500 913 865 3,012 3,027 1.645 0.502 (E) -- 13 -- 3.583 855 3,063 -- 0.391 Sourc e : - Compiled from CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. ON 64 T a b l e XX111 I n d i c e s o f T o t a l Sown A r e a & H a r v e s t V a l u e o f A l l Crops &. o f Wheat f o r D i s t r i c t , 1964/65-1969/70 (1966/67 = 100) A l l Crops Wheat A r e a V a l u e A r e a V a l u e 1964/65 78 65 180 166 1965/66 80 96 63 61 1966/67 100 100 100 100 1967/68 109 94 99 73 1968/69 99 94 91 86 1969/70 100 104 65 61 T a b l e XXVI S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' Wheat A r e a s Sown, P r o d u c t i o n & V a l u e s by Tenure Groups as p e r c e n t a g e s o f D i s t r i c t ' s Tenure Group T o t a l s , 1968/69-1969/70 A r e a sown i n P r o d u c t i o n o f V a l u e o f Output Wheat as 7. o f Wheat as 7. o f o f Wheat as 7. o f D i s t r i c t t o t a l D i s t r i c t t o t a l D i s t r i c t t o t a l 68/69 69/70 68/69 69/70 68/69 69/70 U n i t 1 P r i v a t e only(.P) 15.697. 9.107. 14.197. 9.367. 14.127. 10.007. E j i d a l o n l y (E) 9.007. 28.177. 6.817. 26.167. 6.497. 26.127. U n i t 2 (P) 47.137. 500047. 50.267. 49.297. 49.357. 49.147. (E) 29.417. 24.167. 31.137. 23.097. 31.247. 23.077. U n i t 3 (P) 11.167. 10QOG%7.Z 10.527. 11.037. 10.437. 11.137. (E) 34.647. 31.447. 34.177. 33.167. 35.147. 33.127. U n i t 4 (P) 3.117. 2.087. 3.227. 3.197. 3.177. 2.157. (E) 12.567. 2.257. 13.057. 1.117. 13.677. 1.097. U n i t 5 (P) 0.307. 0.217. 0.257. 0.087. 0.247. 0.087. (E) 0.327. 0.367. 0.307. Zone 13 (P) 18.577. 25.04% 18.167. 24.34% 17.447. 24.23% (E) 3.127. 4.317. 3.957. 4.057. 3.397. 4.067. Zone 14 (P) -- --(E) 9.347. 8.43% 10.39% 9.167. 10.01% 9.13% E l F t e / S n B l (P) 2.187. 1.057. 3.547. 1.217. 3.247. 1.217. (E) 0.217. 0.217. 0.217. So u r c e : - C o m p i l e d from CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970. - T a b l e s XXI11 & XXVI . 65 F i n a l l y ^ i n T a b l e XXV111, the e j i d a l s e c t o r ' s performance i s e x p r e s s e d p o s i t i v e l y o r n e g a t i v e l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the performance o f the p r i v a t e group i n p r i c e , y i e l d s ( k i l o - t o n s p er h e c t a r e ) , and v a l u e . I t i s seen t h a t over t h e s e two y e a r s , w h i c h a r e t h e o n l y two y e a r s o f r e l i a b l e d a t a , the e j i d a l group d i d n o t e n j o y any marked p r i c e advantage or d i s a d v a n t a g e , b u t w i t h r e g a r d t o y i e l d t he p e a s a n t f a r m e r s improved t h e i r p o o r e r p e r f o r m a n c e and c l o s e d the gap c o n s i d e r a b l y . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , was i n some measure a i d e d by a f a l l i n 1969/70 i n the l e v e l o f the p r i v a t e group's y i e l d . The outcome, however, s t i l l shows the campesinas a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e v i s a v i s v a l u e p er h e c t a r e , b u t , e x c l u d i n g the d i s a s t r o u s l y low e n t r y f o r U n i t 4, the e x t e n t o f t h i s d i s a d v a n t a g e d e c r e a s e d i n most c a s e s by 1969/70. The U n i t 2 Tenure Groups and t h e i r Farm H o l d i n g s As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , U n i t 2 c o n t a i n s t h r e e t e n u r e g r o u p s , p r i v a t e , e j i d a l and c o l o n o . T h i s l a s t group g a i n e d l a n d i n t h i s U n i t , as c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e i r h o l d i n g s , o f t e n i n c l u d i n g c h a p p a r a l l a n d , l o c a t e d i n the M i g u e l H i d a l g o dam a r e a . When the dam was f i n i s h e d i n 1956 and the r e s e r v o i r b e h i n d began t o form, the pent-up w a t e r s f o r the F u e r t e scheme f l o o d e d the c o l o n o h o l d i n g s . The c o l o n o s were g i v e n 10 h e c t a r e s o f l a n d f o r e v e r y 100 h e c t a r e s o f l a n d t h a t they had h e l d and l o s t i n the w a t e r s h e d a r e a . As i n the o t h e r t e n u r e group c a s e s , the f i r s t f a r m e r s had t o c l e a r t h e i r l a n d on a r r i v a l i n the a r e a . D e s e r t v e g e t a t i o n had been removed by the CRF b u t no o t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s had been made. T h i s p o l i c y has been changed f o r t h e new E l C a r r i z o scheme, b u t i t i s n o t c l e a r w hether t h i s i s because i t has been d e s i g n a t e d f o r e j i d a t a r i o s o n l y ! I t must be remembered t h a t the c o l o n o group l e g a l l y own the l a n d t h e y were g i v e n i n co m p e n s a t i o n . T h i s i s d i s t i n c t f rom t h e l a n d g i v e n t o the e j i d a l s e c t o r , where the l a n d i s n o t l e g a l l y owned by the r e c i p i e n t s . The p p i v a t e f f a r m i n g group i n t h i s U n i t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by h a v i n g , as n o t e d i n C h a p t e r 111, the l a r g e s t farms i n the D i s t r i c t , 6 6 T a b l e X X V 1 1 S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' Wheat A r e a s & H a r v e s t V a l u e s by-Tenure Groups as p e r c e n t a g e s o f the D i s t r i c t T o t a l s , 1 9 6 8 / 6 9 - 1 9 6 9 / 7 0 WWheat AArea Wheat V a l u e 6 8 # 6 9 6 9 / 7 0 6 8 / 6 9 6 9 / 7 0 U n i t 1 P r i v a t e asr7^sof s a l l o f arms (P) 1 0 . 9 6 7 . 6 . 4 7 7 o 1 0 . 4 2 7 , 6 . 5 7 7 o E j i d a l as 7o o f a l l farms (E) 2 . 8 1 7 o 9 . 6 6 7 „ 1 . 6 9 7 . 9 . 2 0 7 o U n i t 2 (P) 3 3 . 9 8 7 o 3 3 . 1 3 7 . 3 6 . 3 7 7 . 3 2 . 5 0 7 , (E) 8 . 4 6 7 o 8 . 2 9 7 . 8 . 3 7 7 o 8 . 0 4 7 , U n i t 3 (P) 8 . 4 6 7 o 6 . 7 3 7 o 7 . 9 8 7 . 7 . 5 1 7 c (E) 9 . 9 8 7 . 1 0 . 8 3 7 o 9 . 6 2 7 . 1 1 . 6 0 7 c U n i t 4 (P) 2 . 5 6 7 . 1 . 7 4 7 o 2 . 4 5 7 . 1 . 6 5 7 c (E) 3 . 6 6 7 o 0 . 8 2 7 o 3 . 5 1 7 , 0 . 5 4 7 , U n i t 5 (P) 0 . 2 3 7 . 0 Q 1 7 7 o 0 . 2 1 7 o 0 . 0 6 7 , (E) 0 . 0 9 7 > 0 . 0 9 % --Zone 1 3 (P) 1 3 . 0 5 7 o 1 6 . 6 8 % 1 3 . 1 1 7 . 1 6 . 2 7 7 , (E) 0 . 9 1 7 o 1 . 5 4 7 c 0 . 9 1 7 = , 1 . 5 0 7 „ Zone 1 4 (P) - - -- --(E() 2 . 7 I X 2.971 2 . 7 0 7 . 3 . 3 6 7 c E l F t e / S n B l (P) 2 . 1 3 7 o 0 . 9 1 7 , 2 . 5 7 7 o 1 . 1 1 7 c (E) -- 0 . 0 7 7 c -- 0 . 0 9 7 c D i s t r i c t (P) 7 1 . 0 7 7 , 6 5 5 9 7 7 . 7 3 . 0 8 7 , 6 5 . 8 5 7 c (E) 2 8 . 9 3 7 o 3 4 . 0 3 7 o 2 6 . 9 2 7 , 3 4 . 1 5 7 c T a b l e X X V I 1 1 E j i d a l Wheat Crop Perf o r m a n c e f o r D i s t r i c t & Sub-D i v i s i o n s Compared t o t h a t o f the P r i v a t e S e c t o r , 1 9 6 8 / 6 9 - 1 9 6 9 / 7 0 R u r a l P r i c e Y i e l d V a l u e per ha. 6 8 / 6 9 6 9 / 7 0 6 8 / 6 9 6 9 / 7 0 6 8 / 6 9 6 9 / 7 0 U n i t 1 = = - - - 0 Q 9 9 7 i -330306%$- 2.67.%6 7-30T05%* 9 5 3 , 6 2 7 . U n i t 2 = = - - 7 . 6 6 7 , - - 2 . 6 6 7 c - - 7 . 3 8 7 c - - 2 . 6 6 7 . U n i t 3 + 3 . 4 7 7 c - - 3 . 6 1 7 c - - 4 . 6 2 7 , & + 0 . 7 8 7 c — 1 . 3 1 7 c - - 2 . 8 7 7 . U n i t 4 + 0 . 1 3 7 c = % - - 3 0 . 9 5 7 , 4+ 0.137.- r . 3 0 . 9 5 7 . U n i t 5 = = = Zone 1 3 - 4+ 2 . 3 8 7 » 0 . 2 5 7 , - - 2 . 4 7 7 c - - 0 . 2 5 7 . - - 0 . 1 2 7 . Zone 1 4 E l F t e / S n B l - - 1 . 1 6 7 , + 2 . 3 7 7 » + 1 1 1 1 9 7 . D i s t r i c t + 1 . 0 0 7 c - 6.857. - 5 . 9 2 7 . — -E j i d a l d a t a a r e e x p r e s s e d as p d s i t i v e ( + ) , n e g a t i v e ( - ) , o r e q u a l ( = ) , i n a p e r c e n t i l e form compared t o the P r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s d a t a . S o u r c e : - T a b l e s X X V I 1 & X X V I 1 1 C o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y 1 9 7 0 . 67 and, w i t h i n t h e i r number, c o n t a i n s 80 per c e n t o f the c r e d i t U n i o n of C o r e r e p e ' s members, t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The p r i v a t e f a r m e r s h e r e can be termed the "nouveau r i c h e " o f the N o r t h w e s t , and o f the F u e r t e i n p a r t i c u l a r . They s h o u l d n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h the remnants o f t h e o l d hacendadpo c l a s s . The p r i v a t e f a r m e r s have, a t most, been i n a g r i c u l t u r e f o r twenty-f i v e y e a r s , and a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y 90 per c e n t o f them r e s i d e n t i n the a r e a had had no p r a c t i c a l c o n t a c t o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f l a n d p r i o r t o the o p e n i n g o f the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t . A l t h o u g h i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n d a t a f o r the r e g i o n a l o r i g i n s o f t h e s e a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s from the S t a t e Census m a t e r i a l s , i t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e or u n r e a l i s t i c t o s u g g e s t t h a t upwards o f 75 per c e n t o f them came from the c e n t r a l u p l a n d s e t t l e m e n t s s o f M e x i c o , where t h e y had been businessmen or p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and had had c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n management and i n v e s t m e n t t e c h n i q u e s o f some k i n d o r o t h e r . The r e m a i n d e r have come from n e i g h b o u r i n g Chihuahua or Durango where t h e y have l e f t the f a i l i n g c a t t l e -r a n c h i n g b u s i n e s s . A t the same t i m e , t h e s e " n e o - l a t i f u n d i s t a s " r e a l i z e d more t h a n any o t h e r s t h a t t h e r e were good p r o s p e c t s o f o b t a i n i n g h i g h l y r e m u n e r a t i v e l a n d r e s o u r c e s i n the F u e r t e d u r i n g the e a r l y 1950s, and t h a t s i n c e the s u p p l y o f l a n d a v a i l a b l e t o them was l i m i t e d , t h e y must s e c u r e as much as p o s s i b l e . I t was a t t h a t t i m e f a i r l y easy t o c i r c u m v e n t the r e s t r i c t i o n o f 100 h e c t a r e s per h o d i n g by r e g i s t e r i n g e x t r a l a n d i n the names o f r e l a t i v e s o f the p u r c h a s e r , o r more r e c e n t l y i n t h e names o f employees. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s a s p e c t o f l a n d development, the case i s t a k e n o f one o f the D i s t r i c t ' s most s u c c e s s f u l , and now i n f l u e n t i a l p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s . T h i s f a r m e r - t o - b e f l e w Texans o v e r t h e N o r t h w e s t ' s d e v e l o p i n g i r r i g a t i o n a r e a s i n the e a r l y 1950s when U.S. f a r m e r s were k e e n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g l a n d i n Sonora and S i n a l o a , a l t h o u g h under the M e x i c a n C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1917, i t i s i l l e g a l f o r f o r e i g n e r s t o own M e x i c a n l a n d . When t h e M e x i c a n p i l o t was o f f e r e d a 100 h e c t a r e p l o t i l l e g a l l y bought by one o f the Texans, he a c c e p t e d i t on c o n d i t i o n t h a t he r e p a i d the Texan w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s . 68 T h i s l a n d was l o c a t e d on the Y a q u i scheme, c e n t r e d on C i u d a d Obregon i n Sonora, and on i t the p i l o t c u l t i v a t e d wheat and c o t t o n . The Texan was paid'--off w i t h i n the a g r e e d t i m e . The p i l o t q u i c k l y became i n v o l v e d i n n o t o n l y the f o r m a t i o n o f the e a r l y c r e d i t U n i o n s , hut a l s o i n the development o f seed b r e e d i n g and f u r t h e r l a n d o p e r a t i o n i n the N o r t h w e s t , namely h e r e on the F u e r t e i n U n i t 2. Today he i s a M e x i c a n m i l l i o n a i r e , w i t h r e s i d e n c e s i n Los Mochis and Chihuahua, and i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s i r r i g a t e d h o l d i n g s on the F u e r t e and Y a q u i l a n d s , he owns a 5,000 h e c t a r e c a t t l e r a n c h n e a r E l C a r r i z o , n o r t h w e s t o f t h e v i l l a g e o f T a x t e s . I n the main, h i s c a s e i s t y p i c a l o f the degree o f p r o g r e s s and s e l f - a d v a n c e m e n t t h a t t h e l a r g e p r i v a t e h o l d e r s o f the U n i t have a c h i e v e d d u r i n g the l i f e o f the F u e r t e scheme. Those o p e r a t o r s o f f i c i a l l y h o l d upwards o f 50.1 h e c t a r e s , though u n o f f i c i a l l y t h e i r a v e r a g e f a r m s i z e s a r e e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o gauge, b u t a r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e w o u l d be 200 h e c t a r e s or o v e r . The second t y p e of p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r i n t h i s U n i t (and D i s t r i c t ) a v e r a g e s o f f i c i a l l y 20.1-50 h e c t a r e s . T h i s group c o n s i s t s o f the f a r m e r s who l e f t the c e n t r a l and s o u t h e r n a r e a s o f the n a t i o n when th e y h e a r d o f the F u e r t e ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n . They s o l d t h e i r s m a l l h o l d i n g s and bought s m a l l e r s h a r e s of i r r i g a t e d l a n d . They o p e r a t e w i t h i n t h e c r e d i t advantages o f the l a r g e r members o f t h e i r t e n u r e group, and they a s p i r e t o f u r t h e r l a n d p u r c h a s e and membership o f the b i g U n i o n s . I t can be assumed h e r e i n t h i s U n i t t h a t a p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r o f f i c i a l l y owning o n l y 20 h e c t a r e s , has r e n t e d t o him by o t h e r s , u s u a l l y i l l e g a l i t y e j i d a t a r i o s , a t l e a s t a n o t h e r 20 h e c t a r e s o f l a n d . The o w n e r s h i p and upkeep o f the m a c h i n e r y h e l d by him ( t r a c t o r , l a n d l e v e l l e r , h a r r o w e r s , d r i l l e r s ) u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s him t o work a d d i t i o n a l l a n d i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e o w n e r s h i p c o s t s o f h i s c a p i t a l e e q u i p m e n t . The t h i r d p r i v a t e t y p e can be d e s c r i b e d d a s the m i n i f u n d i a v a r i e t y , w i t h , n o r m a l l y , f r o m 0-10 h e c t a r e s , but i n t h i s case f o r U n i t 2 the span has been broadened to c o v e r from 0-20 h e c t a r e s , a somewhat h i g h e r l i m i t t h a n i s u s u a l l y p l a c e d on the term. 69 As i n d i c a t e d i n Cha p t e r 111, o n l y 16 o p e r a t o r s even o f f i c i a l l y e x i s t i n t h i s c a t e g o r y f o r the U n i t , and from the f i e l d work c a r r i e d out f o r t h i s D i s t r i c t s u b - a r e a , i t was found t h a t t h e s e few o f f i c i a l e n t r i e s were i n f a c t l a n d p u r c h a s e s made by former e j i d a t a r i o s , who were now members o f two l a n d t e n u r e g r o u p s ! The e j i d a l s t r u c t u r e o f U n i t 2 can b e s t be a p p r e c i a t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XXIX. C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , Las Vacas ( a l s o known as Juan J o s e R i o s ) i s the o l d e s t e j i d a l s e t t l e m e n t , and i s a p p a r e n t l y one o f t h e b i g g e s t e j i d o s i n the e n t i r e M e x i c a n n a t i o n . The e j i d o was e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o i r r i g a t i o n as a government e f f o r t a t e n c o u r a g i n g t h e f l a g g i n g b e e f l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y . T h i s had m i n i m a l s u c c e s s , p r i m a r i l y due t o the o v e r s i g h t t t h a t t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t n a t u r a l p a s t u r e l a n d f o r the c a t t l e d e n s i t y r e q u i r e d t o s u p p o r t the f a r m e r s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the l i v e s t o c k a c t i v i t i e s were i m m e d i a t e l y abandoned when the w a t e r scheme s t a r t e d s e r v i c e i n 1956. Bachoco, Las P a r r i t a s and C o r e r e p e were e s t a b l i s h e d on s i m i l a r l i n e s t o t h o s e o f Las Vacas, and th e y a l s o changed t o c r o p c u l t i v a t i o n i n 1956 f o r i d e n t i c a l r e a s o n s . The r e m a i n i n g e j i d o s o f E l G a l l o , H i d a l g o , Los Hornos, J e s u s M a r i e , M i g u e l Aleman and R u i s C o r t i n e s No.2 a r e somewhat d i f f e r e n t . E x c l u d i n g R u i s C o r t i n e s No.2, a l l the o t h e r s a r e made up o f f a r m e r s who a p p l i e d f o r r e c o g n i t i o n as members o f new e j i d o s , and hence f o r t he p o s s e s s i o n o f new ( a d d i t i o n a l ) l a n d , d o i n g so i n the hope o f e n l a r g i n g t h e i r o r i g i n a l d o t a t i o n t h a t was i n the o r d e r o f 4-6 h e c t a r e s . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , the e j i d a t a r i o s r e c e i v e d t h e i r d e s i r e d 10 h e c t a r e p l o t s e x c e p t f o r E l G a l l o and Los Hornos. The p r o b l e m as f a r as t h e E l G a l l o f a r m e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d i s t h a t l a n d e x p e c t e d t o be e x p r o p r i a t e d from the p r i v a t e s e c t o r has n o t become a v a i l a b l e and hence the p r e s e n t 4.5 h e c t a r e s i z e o f the p l o t s . I n Los Hornos the same s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d , b u t h e r e , s i n c e t h e r e was o n l y enough l a n d f o r h a l f c o f the members t o r e c e i v e 10 h e c t a r e s , r a t h e r t h a n make do w i t h 4.5 h e c t a r e s the group members drew l o t s t o d e c i d e who r e c e i v e d l a n d . The r a t h e r odd s i t u a t i o n now e x i s t s 70 T a b l e XXIX C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the E j i d o s i n U n i t 2, 1969/70 R e g i o n a l Source Av. s i z e Farmer o f r e s i d e n t Date o f o f u s a b l e Name P o p u l a t i o n f a r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n F o r m a t i o n h o l d i n g ( h a ) Bachoco 339 35% Z a c a t e c a s / G u a n a j u a t o 1950 9.5 30% Los Mochis 25% F u e r t e Watershed 10% N a t i v e C o r e r e p e 236 100% Los Mochis 1954 10.0 E l G a l l o 46 100% Guasave 1956 4.5 H i d a l g o 20 100% Guasave 1956 10.0 Las P a r r i t a s 56 100% Guasave 1952 10.0 Los Hornos 14 100. Guasave 1956 10.0 J e s u s M a r i a 44 100% Guasave 1960 10.0 M i g u e l Aleman 89 100% Guasave 1960 10.0 R u i z C o r t i n e s No.2 119 33% Chihuahua 33% Sonora 33% Los Mochis/Guasave 1963 9.0 R u i z C o r t i n e s No.3 53 40% Ahome/Zarragoza 1963 4.5 60% Guasave Las Vacas 662 50% F u e r t e Watershed 1946 9.0 50% Los M o c h i s / N a t i v e E j i d o s t h a t have n o t y e t r e c e i v e d o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r permanent e x i s t e n c e , i . e . t h e i r occupancy o f c e r t a i n l a n d a r e a s . T a b l e XXX The Wheat Sample P o p u l a t i o n o f U n i t 2, 1969/70 L o c a t i o n No. o f f a r m e r s Av. f a r m s i z e -u s a b l e a r e a , ha. Bachoco 11 .10.0 C o r e r e p e 2 10.0 E l G a l l o 2 4.5 J e s u s M a r i a 6 10.0 M i g u e l Aleman 4 10.0 Las P a r r i t a s 11 10.0 R u i s C o r t i n e s No.2 6 10.0 Las Vacas 109 10.0 T o t a l E j i d a l Sample 151 T o t a l P r i v a t e Sample 102 T o t a l C olono Sample 58 T o t a l Farms E M t g i b l e f o r samp! Li n g 311 T o t a l Farms A c t u a l l y samp l e d 305 (148 e j i d a l , 99 p r i v a t e & 58 c o l o n o ) S o u r c e : - T a b l e s x T I X & XXX" C o m p i l e d from CRF U n i t O f f i c e d a t a , J J u l y 1970. J u l y 197:). 71 where some o f the i n d i v i d u a l s who were u n l u c k y and r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g , l i v e i n the e j i d a l v i l l a g e and do y e a r l y l a b o u r s e r v i c e s •for the e j i d a t a r i o s who were f o r t u n a t e and now p o s s e s s 10 hectares.„„ T h i s has the e f f e c t o f d i s t r i b u t i n g income from t h o s e h o l d i n g s more w i d e l y , but i n p r a c t i c e the income i s s m a l l and i t s e f f e c t i v e -n e ss i n r a i s i n g l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s i s v i r t u a l l y n u l l i f i e d . A p o i n t w o r t h y of c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t a t any t i m e p r o s p e c t i v e e j i d a t a r i o s , (sometimes v a g r a n t s q u a t t e r s }• a r e e n t i t l e d t o a p p l y i n an o r g a n i z e d group t o SAG, or i t s l o c a l s u b s t i t u t e , ' ' h e r e CRF i n o u t l y i n g a r e a s } f o r H a n d . I f the l a n d t h e y w i s h i s a l r e a d y i n o w n e r s h i p , ' p r i v a t e l a n d b e i n g a f f e c t a b l e land,*, t h e n ^ u n l e s s i t can be shown t h a t t h e p r i v a t e l a n d i s b e i n g o p e r a t e d p r o d u c t i v e l y t h r o u g h o u t the a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r , i t w i l l be e x p r o p r i a t e d and p a r c e l l e d out t o the a p p l i c a n t s f o r i t s o w n e r s h i p , the s q u a t t e r -e j i d a t a r i o s . O f t e n the time t a k e n over the assessment o f the " p r o d u c t i v e " a s p e c t o f the l a n d i n q u e s t i o n runs i n t o s e v e r a l y e a r s , and f r e q u e n t l y as a r e s u l t , t h e would-be owners g i v e up and move on somewhere e l s e . As the r e g i o n ' s p e a s a n t p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , v e r y r a p i d l y , e s t i m a t e d a t 5.6 p e r c e n t per annum, the p r e s s u r e on any t y p e o f a v a i l a b l e l a n d i n c r e a s e s , and the p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s a r e o n l y too aware o f the c o n s t a n t t h r e a t o f e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e i r l a n d s . They a r e l e g a l l y n o t p r o t e c t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e l y by the R e v o l u t i o n ' s A g r a r i a n Laws, and i t i s t hanks o n l y t o t h e common sense o f the a r e a ' s o f f i c i a l s t h a t more e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s has n o t o c c u r r e d , t o be g i v e n t o s q u a t t e r s w i t h no known f a r m i n g a b i l i t i e s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s the d i s t i n c t i v e case o f R u i s C o r t i n e s No.2. I t s f a r m er p o p u l a t i o n make-up i s r e g i o n a l l y d i v e r s e , t h i s b e i n g a r e f l e c t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t t h e s e e j i d a t a r i o s , p r i o r t o t h e i r group c o n s o l i d a t i o n , worked as farmhands on l o c a l p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s g a i n i n g u s e f u l e x p e r i e n c e and s k i l l s . Armed w i t h t h e i r f i r s t -hand knowledge o f the s u b - a r e a and modern i r r i g a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e y now have 9 h e c t a r e s per c a p i t a o f u s a b l e l a n d . T h i s e j i d a l group d i d n o t have p r e v i o u s " o w n e r s h i p " o f l a n d i n the scheme as 72 d i d most of the members o u t l i n e d i n the above f i v e c a s e s . T a b l e XXX shows the p o p u l a t i o n o f the samples t a k e n o f the t h r e e t e n u r e g r o u p s . The e j i d a l samples a r e d e t a i l e d by v i l l a g e . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o l o c a t e the p r i v a t e and c o l o n o group p o p u l a t i o n s i n terms o f v i l l a g e l o c a l e s out of w h i c h the r e s p e c t i v e f a r m e r s work. Q u i t e s i m p l y , t h i s i s because the m a j o r i t y o f the c o l o n o s , and a l l the p r i v a t e f a r m e r s l i v e i n e i t h e r Los Mochis o r i n Guasave. N o n e t h e l e s s the l o c a t i o n o f the wheat p l o t s sampled a r e shown on Map 3. The Farm Sample; The Data and B a s i c F i n d i n g s The sample farms o f U n i t 2 were s e l e c t e d f r o m among t h o s e farms g r o w i n g wheat i n 1969/70, I n the e x a m i n a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , a sample of U n i t 2'.s f a r m e r p p o p u l a t i o n i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d , but t h a t sample r e p r e s e n t s the t o t a l U n i t p o p u l a t i o n o f f a r m e r s c u l t i v a t i n g wheat. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t f o r 85.47 per c e n t o f t h e s e wheat f a r m e r s , the y e a r 1969/70 was a t l e a s t the second y e a r t h a t t h e y had had e x p e r i e n c e g r o w i n g t h i s c e r e a l c r o p . Of the 311 f a r m e r s known to have c u l t i v a t e d wheat i n 1969/70 f o r U n i t 2, 305 cases y i e l d e d s u i t a b l e data, d u r i n g the f i e l d work f o r the assessment o f n e t c r o p r e t u r n s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n by t e n u r e groups i s 148 e j i d a l f a r m e r s , 99 p r i v a t e f a r m e r s and 58 c o l o n o s . The a i m of the c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e s e d a t a was t o e s t i m a t e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e the g r o s s and n e t r e t u r n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r ' s c r o p s . Records s t u d i e d were o f the a r e a s c u l t i v a t e d ( h e c t a r e s h a r v e s t e d ) , the p r i c e r e c e i v e d (pesos per k i l o - t o n ) , t h e y i e l d o b t a i n e d ( k i l o - t o n s per h e c t a r e ) , and the c o s t s o f g r o w i n g the c r o p ( c o s t i n pesos p e r h e c t a r e ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o the c a l c u l a t i o n s of g r o s s f a r m revenue,, i n t e r e s t l a y i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i d e n t i f y i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s , e.g. between y i e l d and the i n c i d e n c e o f d o u b l e c r o p p i n g . --Complete d a t a r e g a r d i n g p r e v i o u s sowing p r a c t i c e s were a v a i l a b l e f o r o n l y 234 o f the 305 f a r m e r s i n the sample. 73 M A P 3 F A R M A R E A S S A M P L E D I N U N IT 2 , F U E R T E D I S T R I C T P Q M - J T a b l e XXXI T e s t s f o r N o r m a l i t y o f U n i t 2 Farm Sample Data Based on Skewness & K u r t o s i s Coef f i ' e i e n t t Number S t a n d a r d o f Skewness K u r t o s i s o f p o i n t s Mean V a r i a n c e Deviate i o n n V a r i a b i 1 i t y A r e a P r i v a t e ;p) 99 6 1 . 4 1 4 9 4 5 . 3 7 2 30 . 7 4 7 0 . 5 0 0 7 0 . 0 2 2 1 7 . . . , 1 . 7 0 8 2 4 , . . , T h a s ) E j i d a l IE) 1 4 8 " 9 . 6 8 2 1 . 1 7 6 1 . 0 8 5 0 . 1 1 2 0 - 4 . 3 0 3 0 5 ^ 2^0!. 6118211 C o l o n o ;c) 5 8 1 0 . 1 0 4 3 . 4 0 3 1 . 8 4 5 0 . 1 8 2 6 2 . 2 5 4 0 8 . 2 " 1 7 . 4 2 1 5 8 ^ Y i e l d 'p) 99 3 . 3 8 7 4 0 . 3 3 2 0 . 5 7 6 0 . 1 7 0 0 - 0 . 8 5 9 1 * 1 , 3 . 5 0 0 3 6 ' " " ( k i l o - t o n s ; E ) 1 4 8 2 . 8 6 6 2 0 . 5 8 6 0 . 7 6 5 0 . 2 6 6 9 - 0 . 7 8 7 7 2 ^ 3 . 4 0 6 8 6 pef ha.) ;c) 5 8 3 . 2 6 8 1 0 . 1 4 8 0 . 3 8 4 0 . 1 1 7 6 - 0 . 5 0 2 9 3 ' 3 . 7 4 0 3 3 . , . , . Double ;p) 99 1 . 1 3 1 3 0 . 4 5 7 5 0 . 6 7 6 4 0 . 5 9 7 9 - 0 . 1 6 5 3 9 2 . 1 6 9 0 2 " " ' C r o p p i n g 'E) 1 4 8 1 . 0 8 1 1 0 . 3 4 4 8 0 . 5 8 7 2 0 . 5 4 3 1 - 0 . 0 1 6 3 9 2 . 8 5 0 0 2 ( i n c i d e n c e ) Ic) 5 8 1 . 1 8 9 7 0 . 3 2 6 1 0 0 . 5 7 1 1 0 . 4 8 0 0 - 0 . 0 1 4 5 4 . . . , 2 . 7 5 0 1 2 GEOSS 'p) 99 2 7 0 3 . 8 2 1 2 1 3 3 2 5 . 0 4 6 1 . 8 7 1 1 0 . 1 7 0 8 - 0 . 8 4 2 0 3 1 ? 3 . 4 4 0 7 9 R e t u r n s p e r (E) 1 4 8 2 2 6 0 . 3 8 0 4 0 0 2 1 2 . 0 6 3 2 . 6 2 3 0 0 . 2 7 9 9 - 0 . 6 0 8 0 3 " 3 . 1 7 4 9 7 K a . ( p e s o s ) :c) 5 8 2 6 1 1 . 3 7 1 9 6 4 0 7 . 0 3 1 0 . 4 9 4 6 0 . 1 1 8 9 - 0 . 4 9 1 7 9 3 . 6 7 1 5 9 . , . , Gross ;p) 99 1 6 9 9 6 9 . 1 9 1 2 2 2 7 1 0 0 0 . 0 9 9 5 5 4 0 5 5 6 0 . 5 6 1 9 0 . 2 1 3 0 3 . . . , 1 . 8 0 8 3 4 " " R e t u r n s p e r IE) 1 4 8 2 1 8 3 7 . 8 4 4 2 6 7 3 9 2 0 . 0 6 5 3 2 . 5 3 0 . 2 9 9 1 - 0 . 5 8 8 4 7 " 2 . 8 9 4 9 5 . , , , f a r m ( p e s o s ) ;c) 5 8 2 2 6 3 5 8 9 9 5 2 5 3 6 7 0 4 0 . 0 5 0 3 6 . 5 6 6 0 . 1 9 1 1 - 0 . 4 7 5 4 9 . . . , 5 . 9 0 0 0 7 Net ;p) 99 1 5 4 . 0 8 7 2 1 3 2 8 8 . 3 4 6 1 1 8 3 1 3 3 2 . 9 9 7 2 - 0 . 8 4 1 2 6 1 1 3 . 4 2 9 1 9 R e t u r n s p e r ; E ) 1 4 8 - 2 8 9 . 3 4 5 4 0 0 1 7 3 . 4 6 3 2 . 5 9 2 5 - 2 . 1 8 6 3 - 0 . 6 0 8 0 3 " 3 . 1 7 4 3 7 nari(ipesos) ;c) 5 8 6 1 . 6 2 9 9 6 3 7 3 . 9 3 1 0 . 4 4 1 4 5 . 0 3 7 3 - 0 . 4 8 8 1 0 3 . 6 1 0 7 9 Net 'p) 99 1 3 3 7 8 . 6 0 9 1 3 9 6 5 8 0 0 . 0 3 0 2 3 1 . 8 7 2 . 2 5 9 7 0 . 2 4 6 6 9 . , , 3 . 1 7 3 8 1 R e t u r n s p er ; E ) 1 4 8 - 2 8 4 9 . 6 0 6 3 8 9 6 4 7 8 0 . 0 662-42. 1 7 6 - 2 . 1 9 0 5 - 0 . 6 8 0 6 C 3 . 2 8 4 1 6 . , f a r m ( p e s o s ) 'c) 5 8 5 9 7 . 6 9 7 1 1 0 4 7 7 . 2 0 0 . 0 3 2 3 6 . 8 5 5 . 4 1 5 5 - 0 . 6 9 7 7 . 8 " 3 . 9 9 2 5 8 " S i g n i f i c a n t a t * the 17o l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t a t the 57. l e v e l . S o u r c e : - Computed from F i e l d Sample D a t a , August 1970. 75 The d a t a w e r e i i r i i t i a l l y • c e s f c d d f f o r ;'.normality.itb f a c i l i t a t e s to the subsequent a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XXXI. As can be seen from the skewness and k u r t o s i s column e n t r i e s , t h e o n l y s e t of d a t a t h a t can be r e g a r d e d as normal f o r the purposes o f f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g i s t h a t f o r the i n c i d e n c e of d o u b l e c r o p p i n g where b o t h the e j i d a l and c o l o n o skewness and k u r t o s i s e n t r i e s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m the e x p e c t e d v a l u e s f o r a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n a l l o t h e r c a s e s no p a i r of e n t r i e s f o r two o r more t e n u r e groups w i t h i n a,'data c a t e g o r y has r e s u l t s t h a t a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the e x p e c t e d v a l u e s i n a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d the n a t u r e of the d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m the 305 farms i n U n i t 2, t e s t s were r u n t o e s t a b l i s h the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the means o f the t h r e e t e n u r e groups f o r *** the seven d a t a s e t s l i s t e d i n T a b l e XXXI. The r e s u l t s of t h e s e t e s t s a r e shown i n T a b l e XXXI1. ... I n T a b l e XXXI1. t h e r e s u l t s i l - v i i 1 shown a r e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f what c o u l d have been adduced from i n s p e c t i o n . e.g. the h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean s i z e s o f the p r i v a t e farms and the e j i d a l and c o l o n o h o l d i n g s , and the n o t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean s i z e s o f the e j i d a l and c o l o n o f a r m s . R e g a r d i n g y i e l d s i n T a b l e X X X l l ^ t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r i v a t e and e j i d a l , and the c o l o n o and e j i d a l , b u t n o t between the p r i v a t e and the c o l o n o . No s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the d i f f e r e n c e s o f means between the t h r e e groups was found w i t h r e s p e c t t o the i n c i d e n c e o f d o u b l e c r o p p i n g (see T a b l e XXX11...). I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o n o t e t h a t the r e s u l t s shown i n n i _ T a b l e s XXX11. and XXX11.. f o r t h i s sample a r e r e p l i c a t i o n s o f what was found a t the b r o a d e r U n i t and D i s t r i c t l e v e l , b u t t h a t the e v i d e n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o d o u b l e c r o p p i n g o f wheat o n l y i n the - ' K u r t o s i s can be thought of as a measurement o f the "peakedness" o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a t a p o i n t s . Skewness i s a measurement o f the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f the mean from the peak - z e r o value=a p e r f e c t c u r v e . **See A p p e n d i x 2 f o r d e t a i l s o f the use o f skewness and k u r t o s i s as a t e s t f o r n o r m a l i t y i n d a t a . ***See A p p e n d i x 3 f o r d e t a i l s o f t h e t e s t s used f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s o f the means. 76 T a b l e XXX11 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the D i f f e r e n c e s s b e t w e e n Means o f U n i t 2 Wheat Sample Farms, 1969/70 Number P o i n t s o f Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n T e s t S t a t i s t i c S i z e o f Farms P r i v a t e E j i d a l ( h e c t a r e s ) 99 61.414 148 9.682 30.7469 1.0845 16:7337 P r i v a t e Colono 99 58 61.414 10.104 30.7469 1.8448 16.5536** Colono E j i d a l 58 148 10.104 9.682 1.8448 1.0845 1.6311 Crop Y i e l d ( K i l o - t o n s p er h e c t a r e ) P r i v a t e 99 3.3874 E j i d a l 148 2.8662 0.5759 0.7652 6.0970 P r i v a t e C o lono 99 58 3.3874 3.2681 0.5759 0.3843 1.5531 Colono E j i d a l 58 148 3.2681 2.8662 0.3843 0.7652 4.9842** Double C r o p p i n g ( I n c i d e n c e ) P r i v a t e 99 1.1313 E j i d a l 148 1.0811 0.6764 0.5872 0.6025 P r i v a t e C o lono 99 58 1.1313 1.1897 0.6764 0.5711 0.5764 Colono E j i d a l 58 148 1.1897 1.0811 0.5711 0.5872 1.2175 Gross R e t u r n s per h e c t a r e ( p e s o s ) P r i v a t e E j i d a l 99 148 2703.82 2260.38 461.8711 632.6230 6.3616** P r i v a t e Colono 99 58 2703.82 2611.37 461.8711 310.4946 1.4946 Colono E j i d a l 58 148 2611.37 2260.38 310.4946 632.6230 5.3118** Gross R e t u r n s per Farm ( p e s o s ) P r i v a t e E j i d a l 99 148 16996<11.1 21837.84 95510.56 6532.53 15.4076"" P r i v a t e C o lono 99 58 169961.1 26358.95 95510.56 5036.57 14.9253*" Colono E j i d a l 58 148 26358.95 21837.84 5036.57 6532.53 5.3072** S i g n i f i c a n t a t the 1 7 o l e v e l . S o u r c e: - Computed f r o m F i e l d Sample D a t a , August 1970. 77 sample i s d i v e r g e n t from the p i c t u r e g i v e n p r e v i o u s l y i n C h a p t e r 111 on a b r o a d e r s c a l e o f e x a m i n a t i o n . G i v e n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d d i f f e r e n c e s as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e XXX11.., t h e r e s u l t s shown i n T a b l e s XXXI1. 11' IV and X X X l l ^ a r e n o t e n t i r e l y s u r p r i s i n g , showing t h e r e t o be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the mean g r o s s and mean n e t r e t u r n s p p e r h e c t a r e between the p r i v a t e and c o l o n o g r o u p s , w h i l s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between the p r i v a t e and e j i d a l and the c o l o n o and e j i d a l g r o u p s . The p o s i t i o n i s somewhat changed on the b a s i s of r e t u r n s per farm. There a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r g r o s s and n e t r e t u r n s per f a r m between a l l the groups (see T a b l e s XXXI1^ and XXXII . . ) . The e f f e c t of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s much l a r g e r mean v i i r f a r m s i z e i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e h i g h e r mean r e t u r n s i n b o t h g r o s s and n e t r e t u r n s , w h i l e t h e r e i s a l e s s marked m a r g i n of d i f f e r e n c e i n g r o s s r e t u r n s between the farms o f more s i m i l a r s i z e o f the c o l o n o and e j i d a l g r o u p s , though the d i f f e r e n c e i s n o n e t h e l e s s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A f t e r c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n has been t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , the gap between the c o l o n o and e j i d a l groups w i d e n s c o n s i d e r a b l y ( see T a b l e X X X l l ^ ^ ) , w i t h the e j i d a l group r e g i s t e r i n g a much i n f e r i o r l e v e l o f r e t u r n . From the d a t a used i n T a b l e s XXX11 and XXX11 .., T a b l e . j . -v v i 1 X X X I I I and F i g u r e s 4a-d"and 5a-d"were c o n s t r u c t e d . Both T a b l e XXXI11 and t h e two groups o f F i g u r e s g i v e measurements o f the even-ness or e q u a l i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f a r m r e t u r n s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a r m i n g groups and t h e n f o r a l l groups t o g e t h e r w i t h i n t h e U n i t 2 wheat sample. As w o u l d be e x p e c t e d from the v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e s p r e a d i n s i z e o f p r i v a t e farms i n the sample, t h i s group has the l e a s t e q u a l i t y of r e t u r n s among i t s members, or t h e l o w e s t i n d e x of evenness, W h i l s t the e j i d a l and c o l o n o farms have much h i g h e r i n d i c e s o f e v e n n e s s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the e q u a l i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income f o r a l l farms c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r i s much *The L o r e n z C u r v e s , or c u m u l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y c u r v e s , can be i n t e r -p r e t e d s i m p l y i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. The d i a g o n a l l i n e r e p r e s e n t s p e r f e c t e q u a l i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t u r n s w h i l e the p l o t t e d l i n e shows the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the farms s t u d i e d . C l e a r l y the f u r t h e r t h e p l o t t e d l i n e i s removed from the d i a g o n a l the g r e a t e r i s the l e v e l o f i n e q u a l i t y i n the r e t u r n s d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the f a r m s . 78 T a b l e XXX11 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the D i f f e r e n c e s between Means o f U n i t 2 Wheat Sample Farms, 1969/70 -- C o n t i n u e d Number P o i n t s o f Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n T e s t S t a t i s t i c Net R e t u r n s per h e c t a r e ( p e s o s ) P r i v a t e E j i d a l 99 148 154.087 -289.345 461.8313 632.5925 ** 6.3619 P r i v a t e C o lono 99 58 154.087 61.629 461.8313 310.4414 1.4967 Colono E j i d a l 58 148 61.629 -289.345 310.4414 632.5925 5.3120** Net R e t u r n s per Farm ( p e s o s ) P r i v a t e E j i d a l 99 148 13378.60 -2849.61 30231.87 6242.18 5.2664 " P r i v a t e C o lono 99 58 13378.60 597.69 30231.87 3236.85 4.1659 " Colono E j i d a l 58 148 597.69 -2849.61 3236.85 6242.18 5.1740** S i g n i f i c a n t a t the 17. l e v e l . T a b l e XXXI11 Indexes o f Evenness f o r Gross & Net Income o f the U n i t 2 Wheat Sample Farms, 1969/70 ( p e r c e n t )  Gross R e t u r n s per Farm No. o f p o i n t s Net R e t u r n s per Farm P r i v a t e 67.78187. E j i d a l 83.34197. Colono 90.47907. A l l Farms 43.93897. 99 148 558 305 75.30297. 80.25757. 83.17767. 84.43137. T a b l e XXXIV C o r r e l a t i o n s between A r e a & Y i e l d ( P r i v a t e Farms o n l y ) , <£ between Double C r o p p i n g & Y i e l d ( A l l Fa(r.ms), o f the U n i t 2 Wheat Sample Farms, 1969/70 (Dependent v a r i a b l e = Y i e l d )  V a r i a b l e No. o f p o i n t s C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b i l i t y P r i v a t e A r e a 99 0.2621 0.0086** P r i v a t e Double C r o p p i n g 99 -0.1365 0.2627* E j i d a l D ouble C r o p p i n g 148 -0.0381 0.6869* Colono Double C r o p p i n g 58 -0.4425 0.0034** **v? Where p r o b a b i l i t y «=:.005, c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t . * Where p r o b a b i l i t y I > . 0 2 5 , c o r r e l a t i o n i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . S o u r c e : - T a b l e s XXX11, XXX111, XXXIV Computed f r o m F i e l d D a t a , Aug. 79 h i g h e r a f t e r c o s t t h a n b e f o r e i t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s 4d and 5d, g i v i n g t h e Lo r e n z Curves f o r a l l f a r m s , f o r g r o s s and n e t r e t u r n s . An a t t e m p t was then made t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e r e were any s t a t i s t i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between the p r i n c i p a l v a r i a b l e s f o r w h i c h d a t a were a v a i l a b l e and r e l i a b l e . The r e s u l t s o f the c o r r e l a t i o n t e s t r u n a r e shown i n T a b l e XXXIV. F o r the p r i v a t e group t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the a r e a o f the wheat f a r m and the y i e l d o b t a i n e d , w h i l e t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the y i e l d o b t a i n e d and the i n c i d e n c e o f d o u b l e c r o p p i n g p r a c t i c e s on thos e h o l d i n g s . S i n c e the a r e a o f the e j i d a l and c o l o n o farms examined was so u n i f o r m t h r o u g h o u t , u n l i k e the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , t h e r e was i n t h e s e c a s e s , no p o i n t i n t e s t i n g f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e between a r e a and y i e l d . I t was p o s s i b l e , though, t o t e s t f o r the e f f e c t o f d o u b l e c r o p p i n g on y i e l d s i n t t h e s e two c a s e s . I n the e j i d o s , i t was found t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d , as i n the case o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , b u t the o p p o s i t e h e l d f o r the c o l o n o s e c t o r , i . e . as the i n c i d e n c e o f do u b l e c r o p p i n g changes so doethe y i e l d s o b t a i n e d on the c o l o n o f a r m s . The m a t e r i a l used i n the c o m p u t a t i o n o f T a b l e s XXX11. .. was l - V l l r e - o r d e r e d so t h a t i t was grouped on a s e t t l e m e n t and/or s e c t i o n l o c a t i o n b a s i s ( s e e T a b l e XXXV). T h i s was done t o f a c i l i t a t e r e f e r e n c e back t o e a r l i e r remarks made on t h e development o f t h e U n i t 2's e j i d o s and the r e g i o n a l o r i g i n s o f t h e i r f a r m er p o p u l a t i o n s . As can be seen i n the ave r a g e n e t r e t u r n s p er h e c t a r e column, the e j i d o s o f R u i s C o r t i n e s No.2, Bachoco and p a r t o f the Las Vacas sample have the h i g h e s t a v e r a g e n e t r e t u r n s p er h e c t a r e . R e f e r r i n g back t o T a b l e XXIX o f t h i s c h a p t e r i t i s a l s o seen t h a t the above mentioned e j i d o s a r e t h o s e t h a t have s i g n i f i c a n t p r o -p o r t i o n s o f i n - m i g r a n t s w i t h i n t h e i r f a r m er makeup. I t was found i n t he d e t a i l e d f i e l d work c a r r i e d out t h a t n o t o n l y d i d the sample members o f t h e s e e j i d o s have the h i g h e s t e j i d a l y i e l d s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y the b e s t n e t r e t u r n s , b u t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s a l s o d i d i-a h i n e T a b l e XXXV A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n on U n i t 2 Sample Farms, 1969/70 Type/ L o c a t i o n S e c t i o n NNumber Number Av. of fPitdfcssFarm S amprle d e S i z e (ha Av. Av. Av. Y i e l d P r i c e G r 6 s s s s ) ( k t / h a ) (ps/ha) R e t i i r n s ( p s Av. Net ) R e t u r n s ( p s ) Av. Net R e t u r n per h a ( p s ) P r i v a t e 15 11 66 2.825 800 149,160 -19,120 -289 Las P a r r i t a s 15 11 10 2.009 800 16,072 - 9,425 -942 P r i v a t e 16 13 71 3.689 800 209,535 +28,506 +401 P r i v a t e 17 6 56 3.758 800 168,358 +25,574 +456 E l G a l l o 17 2 4.5 3.000 800 10,800 673 - 67 Colono 17 19 10 3.278 800 26,224 + 7 37 + 73 P r i v a t e 18 12 92 3,450 800 253,920 +19,347 +210 P r i v a t e 19 13 70 3,789 800 212,184 +33,705 +481 R u i s C o r t i n e s No.2 • 19 6 10 3.500 800 28,000 + 2,502 +250 Colono 19 5 10 3.250 800 26,000 + 503 + 50 Colono 20 7 10 3,200 .800 25,600 + 103 + 10 P r i v a t e 21 9 69 3.400 800 187,680 +11,750 +170 Colono 21 12 10 • 3,565 800 28,520 + 3,023 +302 P r i v a t e 22 6 67 2,817 800 150,991 -19,838 -296 J e s u s M a r i a 22 6 10 2.500 800 20,000 - 5,498 -549 Co r e r e p e 22 3 10 3.100 800 24,800 698 - 69 Colono 22 2 13 2 J940 800 23,520 - 1,977 -197 P r i v a t e 23 6 45 3,250 800 117,000 + 2,263 + 50 Colono 23 1 10 3.200 800 25,600 + 103 + 10 P r i v a t e 24 5 55 3.500 800 154,000 +13,766 +250 M i g u e l Aleman 24 5 10 3.125 800 24,100 - 1,397 -139 Las Vacas 24 1 10 3.000 800 24,000 - 1,497 -149 Colono 24 9 10 3.180 800 25,440 57 - 5 T a b l e XXXV C o n t i n u e d Number Av. Av. Av. Av. Av. Av. Type/ S e c t i o n of P l o t s Farm Y i e l d P r i c e Gross Net Net R e t u r n L o c a t i o n NNumber Sampled S i z e ( h a ) ( k t / h a ) ( p s / h a ) R e t u r n s ( p s ) R e t u r n s ( p s ) p e r h a ( p s ) P r i v a t e 25 7 58 3.857 800 178,964 +31,082 +536 Las Vacas 25 3 10 3.000 825 24,750 747 - 74 Bachoco 25 8 10 3.500 800 2280000 + 2,503 +250 Colono 25 2 10 3.250 800 26,000 + 503 + 50 Las Vacas 26 10 10 3.500 800 28,000 + 2,503 +250 Bachoco 26 2 10 4.000 800 32,000 + 6,503 +650 Las Vacas 27 12 10 3.516 840 29,534 + 4,037 +403 P r i v a t e 28 3 48 3.333 800 127,987 + 5,601 +116 Las Vacas 28 7 10 2.300 740 17,020 - 8,477 -847 Colono 28 1 15 3.000 800 24,000 - 1,497 -149 Las Vacas 29 44 10 2.620 800 20,960 - 4,537 -453 P r i v a t e 30 8 62 2.800 800 138,880 -19,201 -309 Las Vacas 30 30 10 2.896 740 21,430 - 4,067 -406 So u r c e : - Computed from F i e l d Sample D a t a , August 1970. 82 machine work and o t h e r o u t s i d e r e m u n e r a t i v e work on e i t h e r p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s o r on e j i d a l l a n d where bank s e r v i c e s were n o t b e i n g o p e r a t e d . These s u c c e s s f u l e j i d a t a r i o s , p r i o r to o p e r a t i n g l a n d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n s , had a l l farmed b e f o r e , s o u t h i n the c e n t r a l h i g h l a n d s t a t e s , i n the n e a r b y m u n i c i p i o o f Ahome, or i n S o n o r a / Chihuahua. They a l l came t o t h i s U n i t o f the F u e r t e scheme t o improve t h e i r s t a n d a r d o f w e l l - b e i n g and t h a t o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s , y e t a l l t h e s e f a r m e r s had n o n e t h e l e s s s u s t a i n e d f i n a n c i a l l o s s e s s i n t h e i r f i r s t y e a r o f f a r m i n g on the v a l l e y f l a t s . N a t u r a l l y a l l e j i d a t a r i o s f r o m n e a r and f a r , had come t o the F u e r t e t o improve t h e i r s t a n d a r d o f w e l l - b e i n g , b u t the d i f f e r e n c e between them and the s u c c e s s f u l i m m i g r a n t s i s t h a t t h o s e t h a t have l e f t homes o u t s i d e the S t a t e and have l e f t o l d farms have e v e r y t h i n g t o l o s e or g a i n when th e y a r r i v e i n a new a g r i c u l t u r a l e n v ironment o f c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d w a t e r s u p p l y and the use o f modern i n p u t s . Moreover, the i n - m i g r a n t has no i d e a o f what a l t e r n a t i v e s t h e r e a r e , i f any, to a g r i c u l t u r e shoMd'uhehhave t o l e a v e t h a t o c c u p a t i o n , w h i l e the l o n g e r e s t a b l i s h e d n a t i v e and b e t t e r f a m i l i a r i z e d S t a t e c i t i z e n i s much more aware o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f n o n - a g r a r i a n work. G i v e n t h a t the i n - m i g r a n t s i n the main a r e more d e t e r m i n e d t o succeed t h a n the o t h e r g r o u p . ? i t i s n o t too s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t i t i s the newcomers t o S i n a l o a t h a t a r e most a g r e s s i v e i n t h e i r a d o p t i o n of c r o p p e s t i c i d e s a a n d o t h e r y i e l d - i m p r o v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A l l had a p p l i e d f o r and r e c e i v e d bank c r e d i t i n t h e i r i n i t i a l y e a r s , s i n c e no o t h e r s o u r c e e x i s t e d f o r them. W i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , the members of t h i s s u c c e s s f u l groups were of the o p i n i o n t h a t the n a t u r e o f the f a c i l i t i e s g i v e n i n t h e bank c r e d i t s y s t e m was f i n a n c i a l l y d e t r i m e n t a l to the income l e v e l o f an i n c o m i n g f a r m e r w i t h i o n l y average, s k i l l s and two t o f o u r y e a r s o f c r o p c u l t i v a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . They d i d s t a t e , however, t h a t elements o f t h e c r e d i t s y stem were most i n s t r u c t i v e e i t h e r t o an a g r i c u l t u r a l n o v i c e (one-time s q u a t t e r ) or t o an i n - m i g r a n t to t h e a r e a w i t h no e x p e r i e n c e i n c c o m m e r c i a l c r o p c u l t u r e on i r r i g a t e d l a n d . I t i s n o t t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s a u t h o r , n o r w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s s t u d y , t o 83 d e t e r m i n e m o t i v a t i o n s o r w i l l s t o succeed i n the e j i d a l ! f a r m e r s nor i s i t i n t e n d e d t o a t t e m p t some argument t o e x p l a i n why e x a c t l y t h e n o t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n y i e l d s o c c u r r e d between the i n -m i g r a n t s and the o t h e r e j i d a t a r i o s . More i m p o r t a n t i s the f a c t t h a t 65.5 per c e n t o f the e j i d a l group make l o s s e s w h i l e o n l y 44.8 per c e n t and 33 per c e n t o f the c o l o n o and p r i v a t e group r e s p e c t i v e l y make income l o s s e s . The e j i d a l p o s i t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y a g g r a v a t e d by i t s worse y i e l d b u t i t must be asked whether or n o t t h i s r e c o r d o f n e g a t i v e r e t u r n s i s e n t i r e l y t he e f f e c t o f the i n f e r i o r y i e l d s ? I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the e j i d a t a r i o s do n o t have as complete c o n t r o l o ver t h e i r c o s t s o f o p e r a t i o n as the o t h e r two t e n u r e groups and t h a t , due t o t h a t f a c t o r , t he magnitude o f the e j i d a l l o s s e s i s u n n e c e s s a r i l y g r e a t . W i t h the sample d a t a a t hand and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d f r o m f a r m i n t e r v i e w s i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t the main h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s paper be c o n s i d e r e d a t some l e n g t h f o r the purposes o f i t s v e r i f i c a t i o n . That h y p o t h e s i s , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , i s t h a t the e j i d a t a r i o s i n a modern a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a o f M e x i c o , h e r e the F u e r t e , do n o t have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o o p e r a t e t h e i r farms as e f f e c t i v e l y o r r e m u n e r a t i v e l y as they m ight o r would l i k e , because t h e y have t o work w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s o f the A g r a r i a n Laws. To t h i s end, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o examine the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n a l l f a r m i n g a p a r t from f a r m e r , c l i m a t e and p r o d u c t i v e n e s s o f l a n d : - the s u p p l y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t , i t s s o u r c e ( s ) and the c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h i t i s g r a n t e d and o p e r a t e d . M e x i c a n A g r a r i a n C r e d i t W i t h o u t i r r i g a t i o n t he farmer cannot o p e r a t e . W i t h o u t seed, f e r t i l i z e r , p e s t i c i d e s , l a b o u r and/or m a c h i n e r y , the farmer cannot o p e r a t e . W i t h o u t e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s and m a r k e t i n g f a c i l i t i e s the far m e r cannot maximize r e t u r n s f o r h i s e f f o r t s . W i t h o u t p r e v i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e , o r an e d u c a t i o n i n a g r a r i a n t e c h n i q u e s , the farmer w i l l n o t i n i t i a l l y s u c c e e d . A l l the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d i n p u t s and o p e r a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s i n the F u e r t e V a l l e y , b u t the c r u c i a l i t e m i s c r e d i t . W i t h o u t c r e d i t , the fa r m e r i s u n a b l e t o p u r c h a s e h i s p h y s i c a l i n p u t s . 84 W i t h o u t h i s p h y s i c a l i n p u t s , t h e farmer cannot c u l t i v a t e or hope t o p r o d u c e . The q u e s t i o n o f a g r a r i a n c r e d i t and i t s s u p p l y i s a l l i m p o r t a n t i n modern a g r i c u l t u r e and nowhere i s the need f o r w o r k i n g c a p i t a l g r e a t e r i n M e x i c a n a g r i c u l t u r e t h a n i n the N o r t h w e s t , where the monetary c o s t of f a r m i n g i s h i g h . I r r e s p e c t i v e o f t e n u r e member-s h i p , the farmer r e q u i r e s t a n g i b l e f i n a n c i a l c r e d i t . As Haissman (1970, 177) n e a t l y p u t s i t : " A " A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t i s the f u e l w h i c h a c t i v a t e s the f a r m a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . No f armer u s i n g modern t e c h n o l o g y can o p e r a t e w i t h o u t a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t . The n e c e s s a r y i n p u t s - s e e d s , f e r t i l i z e r s , i n s e c t i c i d e s , m a c h i n e r y , l a b o u r -Hence an e f f i c i e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t system, w h i c h a s s u r e s s u f f i c i e n t c r e d i t t o the farmer a t the n e c e s s a r y t i m e s , and a c h i e v e s a f u l l r e c u p e r a t i o n o f the l o a n s so t h a t t h e y can be r e i n v e s t e d , i s as i m p o r t a n t f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s as the i r r i g a t i o n s ystem i t s e l f . " The f a rmer cannot pay f o r h i s i n p u t s i n k i n d w i t h beans or g r a i n , and t h e s o u t h e r n farmer from the S t a t e o f Oaxaca, unused t o making h a r d c u r r e n c y payments f o r seed or implements, must q u i c k l y adopt the a g r a r i a n p r e r e q u i s i t e h e r e - the use and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f money; a s m a l l p e a s a n t o p e r a t o r f r o m the n o t d i s t a n t S t a t e o f N a y a r i t , f o r example, q u i c k l y comes t o r e a l i z e t h a t he cannot t a k e h i s w a t e r f r o m the c a n a l or l a t e r a l and n o t be e x p e c t e d t o pay f o r i t . O b v i o u s l y , w i t h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f w a t e r - f l o w r e g u l a t i o n and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f w a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n n e t s , t h e u s e r s •? the f a r m e r s - must be charged f o r the w a t e r t h e y s u b s e q u e n t l y need and r e c e i v e . The n o n - a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f r e e w a t e r t o any c u l t i v a t o r i s a s i z e a b l e f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n f o r the p e a s a n t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r newcomers f r o m the s o u t h e r n and c e n t r a l u p l a n d S t a t e s o f M e x i c o , where w a t e r i s f r e q u e n t l y g a t h e r e d i n ponds and s t o r e d t e m p o r a r i l y f o r f i e l d use by the i n d i v i d u a l . The c o s t t o him t h e n was h i s own time and l a b o u r . I t was a l l p a r t o f i;his l i f e and a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e , j u s t as was the b a r g a i n i n g over h i s p u r c h a s e o f seed, " p a i d " f o r by h i s s u r p l u s beans and some s a v i n g s from the p r e v i o u s month's tomato c r o p . When 85 the p e a s a n t f a r m e r s m i g r a t e d i n t h o u s a n d s , s t a r t i n g i n the l a t e 1940s, f b i s t h i s a r e a , t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d a s y s t e m o f a g r i c u l t u r a l f i n a n c e q u i t e f o r e i g n t o them. Only a f t e r some p e r i o d o f a d j u s t m e n t , w h i c h u s u a l l y c o u l d n o t be l o n g e r t h a n 4-5 y e a r s , the p e a s a n t c u l t i v a t o r had t o become r e a s o n a b l y au f a i t w i t h the c r e d i t system. W i t h o u t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h a t system, the campesino c u l t i v a t o r e i t h e r l e f t the o p e r a t i o n of h i s p l o t s t o someone e l s e , a younger member of the f a m i l y w i t h more e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and e x p e r t i s e , or the p l o t was r e n t e d out on a y e a r l y b a s i s most f r e q u e n t l y t o a p r i v a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t V W i t h a g u a r a n t e e d income o f p o s s i b l y 8,000 pesos per annum (10 h e c t a r e s a t 800 pesos per h e c t a r e ) i n r e n t , the campesino c o u l d a f f o r d h i s f a m i l y shoes, a t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o , a c l o c k , a s e t o f good q u a l i t y c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s , and t h e y c o u l d p r o b a b l y e a t meat once a week. W i t h l u c k , he c o u l d f i n d a j o b i n a Los Mochis s e r v i c e o u t l e t , work i n a c o t t o n g i n , o r , b e t t e r s t i l l , be t r a i n e d as a t r a c t o r d r i v e r and work f o r a p r i v a t e f a r m e r . H i s w i f e c o u l d l i k e l y g a i n p a r t - t i m e employment i n a t o m a t o - p a c k i n g p l a n t , and t h e h o u s e h o l d c o u l d c e r t a i n l y a f f o r d a m o t o r i z e d c y c l e e a f t e r 1-2 y e a r s o f r e n t i n g and t h r i f t . The p e a s a n t ' s g r o s s f a m i l y income f o r the y e a r m i ght a p p r o a c h 11,000-12,000 p e s o s , an income a f f o r d i n g a s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g q u i t e unheard o f i n h i s n a t i v e a r e a o f T e p i c ( N a y a r i t ) . The g o l d e n dream of the N o r t h w e s t had m a t e r i a l i z e d , and the p e a s a n t w i t h h i s 10 h e c t a r e s o f i r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t l a n d e n j o y e d the p r o s p e c t o f a r e g u l a r minimum y e a r l y income w h i c h he c o u l d c o n s i d e r a b l y augment. D r i n k i n g w a t e r and e l e c t r i c i t y were a v a i l a b l e t o him a t low c o s t , w h i l e the c i t y s e r v i c e s were w i t h i n h i s g r a s p , soon to become no r m a l needs i n h i s " w a n t - p a t t e r n " . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the b e n e f i c i a r i e s i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n above a r e s i m p l y the p e a s a n t and h i s f a m i l y , t h e o p e r a t o r o f h i s l a n d , the c i t y r e t a i l o u t l e t s , p r o b a b l y the i r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t v i a a h i g h e r growth r a t e , and the i n v e s t o r s i n t h e scheme v i a s e c u r e l o a n repayments. The l o s e r s a r e the E j i d a l C r e d i t Banks i n h i g h e r o p e r a t i o n c o s t s p e r f a r mer t h r o u g h a d r o p - o f f i n e s t i m a t e d c l i e n t s , t h e e j i d a t a r i o s who work t h e i r l a n d , and o f c o u r s e , t h e R e v o l u t i o n ! 86 Taken to an extreme s t a g e o f development, l a n d becomes r e - c o n c e n t r a t e d , i l l e g a l l y , i n the hands o f a s m a l l e r and s m a l l e r number o f b i g o p e r a t o r s , the a v e r a g e worked s i 2 e o f p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s approaches 800-1,000 h e c t a r e s i n s t e a d o f the l e g a l 100 h e c t a r e maximum, 60-70 per c e n t of the e j i d a l l a n d i s r e n t e d o u t , and the economic g a i n s t o f a r m i n g a r e d i s t r i b u t e d even more u n e v e n l y , b e i n g c h a n n e l l e d t o the l a r g e , p r i v a t e h o l d e r s . The p e a s a n t , by r e n t i n g out h i s l a n d , becomes l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t by a c c e p t i n g and coming to r e l y on o u t s i d e employment, p r o v i d e d by the l a r g e f a r m e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s . O u t s i d e s u c h minor s e r v i c e employment.; the e j i d a t a r i o s 1 c h o i c e i s i n the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r . I n d u s t r y i n t h e r e g i o n i s i n i t s i n f a n c y , amounting i n 1965 t o o n l y 3 per c e n t o f the t o t a l i n d u s t r i a l p r o -d u c t i o n i n M e x i c o and o n l y 13 per c e n t o f the employment i n t h e N N o r t h -w e s t ; e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r y i s a l m o s t t o t a l l y based on a g r i c u l t u r e -c o t t o n g i n s , sugar r e f i n e r i e s , v e g e t a b l e c a n n e r i e s - and t h e s e a r e a s o f s e c t o r a l growth a r e l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y by. a s m a l l number o f " l a n d e d " e n t r e p r e n e u r s o r o u t s i d e companies. Not o n l y does such a campesino thus l o s e h i s independence, b u t , though he may g a i n a much h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f w e l l - b e i n g , h i s farm, i l l e g a l l y r e n t e d o u t , may be c o n f i s c a t e d by the government and he may n o t o b t a i n the chance o f l a n d t i t l e a g a i n . Haissman (1970, 101 <£ 110) t e l l s us t h a t between 30 and 50 p e r c e n t o f the F u e r t e e j i d a l l a n d i s r r e n t e d o u t , e i t h e r t o p r i v a t e f a r m e r s or t o o t h e r e j i d a t a r i o s . S ources o f Tenure Groups' C r e d i t , A p p l i c a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s and  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S e r v i c e s S u p p l i e d L a r g e s c a l e i r r i g a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e N o r t h w e s t , and on the F u e r t e , commenced i n the l a t e 1950s, w i t h i n a newly e s t a b l i s h e d a g r o - c r e d i t system. The p r i n c i p a l c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e the E j i d o Bank (Banco N a c i o n a l de Cr£dito E j i d a l ) , the A g r i c u l t u r a l Bank (Banco N a c i o n a l de C r e d i t o A g r i c o l a ) , w h i c h t o o k o v e r t h e a g r a r i a n a c t i v i t i e s o f the F o r e i g n Commerce Bank i n 1963 (Banco N a c i o n a l de Comercio E x t e r i o r ) , and the Bank of M e x i c o . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e o u t l e t s f o r c r e d i t , t h e r e a r e the p r i v a t e banks o f C r e d i t S o n o r a - S i n a l o a , the F i r s t N a t i o n a l Bank, t h e Bank o f London and M e x i c o , and the r e c e n t c r e a t i o n o f t h e Banco A g r o p e c u a r i o d e l N o r o e s t e ( f o r e j i d a l u s e r s ) . A l l o f the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d have 87 s i z e a b l e b r a n c h e s i n Los M o c h i s , a l l i n modern a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h m a r b l e f l o o r s and p o w e r f u l a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g . O p e r a t i o n a l l y , however, t h e r e a r e v e r y g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r i v a t e b a n k i n g s e c t o r and the n a t i o n a l ( e j i d a l ) a g r a r i a n c r e d i t s e c t o r . The f o l l o w i n g cases s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e two p r i n c i p a l t y p e s . I n t h e case o f the l a r g e r p r i v a t e f a r m e r s , w i t h o v e r 50 h e c t a r e s o f l a n d , c r e d i t i s o b t a i n e d f r o m U n i o n s . U n i o n s a r e m e r e l y banks o r g a n i z e d as a c o o p e r a t i v e h o l d i n g f i n a n c e company, where c r e d i t i s awarded o n l y t o members of the U n i o n , i t s s h a r e h o l d e r s . S i n c e the U n i o n c o l l e c t s no p r o f i t o v e r and above i t s e x p e n s e s , i t i s a b l e t o e x t e n d c r e d i t t o i t s members on more advantageous terms t h a n a n o r m a l c o m m e r c i a l bank, the c r e d i t s o u r c e f o r the s m a l l e r p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s i n t h i s t e n u r e c l a s s . The e x i s t e n c e o f the U n i o n de C r e d i t o A g r i c o l a de C o r e r e p e based i n Mochis i s n o t e x c e p t i o n a l f o r the N o r t h w e s t . A c c o r d i n g t o Haissman ( 1 9 7 0 ) , most l a r g e p r i v a t e f a r m e r s b e l o n g t o c r e d i t U nions i n Sonora and S i n a l o a . The U n i o n de C o r e r e p e was formed i n 1956 a t the s t a r t o f l a r g e s c a l e D i s t r i c t i r r i g a t i o n , and today i t s membershfrpId, on a v e r a g e , 170 h e c t a r e s . A l t h o u g h the immediate t a s k o f the U n i o n was t h e n t o s u p p l y w o r k i n g c a p i t a l f o r i t s members, ev e r s i n c e i t s i n a u g u r a t i o n , the U n i o n has p u r s u e d an a g g r e s s i v e p o l i c y o f c u t t i n g the f a r m e r s ' i n p u t c o s t s by i n v e s t i n g i t s r e s o u r c e s i n p l a n t . Between 1956 and 1959, 15 m i l l i o n pesos was s p e n t on a f u l l y automated g r a i n e l e v a t o r and p a c k i n g plan-tst A s a v i n g o f 80 per c e n t was made i n h a n d l i n g , s t o r a g e , and b u l k p a c k i n g by t h i s p l a n t compared w i t h t h e n e a r b y government C0NASUP0 o p e r a t i o n (Compania N a c i o n a l de S u b s i s t e n c i a s P o p u l a t e s ) . Next t h e r e f o l l o w e d a f e r t i l i z e r m i x i n g u n i t , w i t h an i n s e c t i c i d e p l a n t and o i l p u r i f i c a t i o n i n s t a l l a t i o n . The l a s t m entioned i t e m was b u i l t 5 ->During the s u r v e y work c a r r i e d out i n June-August 1970, i t was un-o f f i c i a l l y e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were 10-12 e x t r e m e l y l a r g e p r i v a t e f a r m s . The l a r g e s t were o f about 3,000 h e c t a r e s and were l o c a t e d i n U n i t 2. The e x t r a l a n d a c q u i r e d f o r t h e s e m a s s i v e h o l d i n g s was r e -g i s t e r e d o f f i c i a l l y under the names o f r e l a t i v e s , and employees o f the l a n d o w n e r s . 88 y e a r s ago when i t was found t h a t the maintenance c o s t s o f ma c h i n e r y (combines, t r a c t o r s e t c ) were u n p r e d i c t a b l y h i g h . Problems a r o s e i n the c o m b u s t i o n o f the f u e l o i l s u p p l i e d by PEMEX ( P e t r o l e a s M e x i c a n o s ) , so t h e U n i o n p u r i f i e d t he s u p p l i e s i t r e c e i v e d and t h e n s o l d i t t o i t s members. There was a r e s u l t a n t 50 per c e n t r e d u c t i o n i n maintenance c o s t s and a t the same time a 50 p e r c e n t c o s t r e d u c t i o n t o the members f o r the p u r c h a s e o f i n s e c t i c i d e s . M a c h i n e r y p u r c h a s e c o s t s , t o o , a r e r e d u c e d f o r members because t h e U n i o n can p l a n t o o r d e r l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s f o f equipment a t one time from the s u p p l i e r s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the U n i o n does n o t c a t e r f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , b u t i t w i l l r e f e r members' problems t o the l o c a l CIAS s t a t i o n ( A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e f o r S i n a l o a ) o r to CIANO ( A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e f o r the N o r t h w e s t ) o u t s i d e C i u d a d Obregon i n Sonora. The Union's most r e c e n t development i s i n s u p p l y i n g seed. By e n c o u r a g i n g i t s own members t o d e v e l o p l o c a l h y b r i d v a r i e t i e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the U n i o n t o s e l l i t s members' produce and s k i l l t o o t h e r f a r m e r s o f the a r e a . A t p r e s e n t one o f the Union's w e a l t h i e s t and most s k i l l e d members i s d e v e l o p i n g a h y b r i d l o n g -g r a i n r i c e seed f o r the w o r l d market, w h i c h w i l l be marketed t h i s y e a r ( 1 9 7 1 ) . I t s y i e l d i s f o r e c a s t a t 8 k i l o - t o n s per h e c t a r e , w h i c h i s a l m o s t d o u b l e the maximum o b t a i n a b l e anywhere a t p r e s e n t . No c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s e q u i v a l e n t t o the p r i v a t e Unions e x i s t f o r t he e j i d a t a r i o s . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e the e j i d a l members can be s a i d t o p o s s e s s l i t t l e o r , i n most c a s e s , no c a p i t a l . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t he e j i d a t a r i o does n o t have f u l l t i t l e t o h i s l a n d and has no o t h e r p r o p e r t y w h i c h can be used t o g u a r a n t e e a l o a n . P r i v a t e banks w i l l n o t e x t e n d c r e d i t t o him. However, no farmer can o p e r a t e w i t h o u t c r e d i t , s i n c e the v a l u e o f the n e c e s s a r y c r o p i n p u t s exceeds by s e v e r a l t i m e s the v a l u e o f the a n n u a l n e t p r o f i t , and no f a r m e r has such amounts o f l i q u i d c a p i t a l (Haissman 1970, 108). Thus the e j i d a t a r i o i s l i m i t e d t o 89 government banks, the Banco E j i d a l and the Banco A g r o p e c u a r i o . The d e t a i l s o f l o a n a p p l i c a t i o n , a c q u i s i t i o n , and o p e r a t i o n a r e g i v e n below f o r a t y p i c a l e j i d a l c a s e , The f o l l o w i n g i s t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t h e F u e r t e D i s t r i c t o f any e j i d a t a r i o w i t h l i t t l e o r no e x p e r i e n c e o f the a r e a o r f a r m i n g , o r o f one w i t h s e v e r a l y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . As w i l l soon be a p p r e c i a t e d t h e v i a b i l i t y o f b o t h the bank and the a p p l i c a n t a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y l i m i t e d by the n e c e s s a r y r i g i d i t y o f t h e system, b a s i c a l l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e t e n u r e system. When the e j i d a t a r i o d e c i d e s what c r o p o r c r o p s he wants t o c u l t i v a t e i n the y e a r ( O c t o b e r - September) he c o n t a c t s h i s bank r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t he n e a r e s t v i l l a g e l o c a l i t y o r i n M o c h i s . The bank t h e n r e v i e w s , w i t h the a p p l i c a n t , the c u l t i v a t i o n p r o p o s a l i n the l i g h t o f e x p e c t e d w a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r t h e coming s e a s o n as c a l c u l a t e d by CRF, the demands made t o d a t e , the market supply-demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t he l i k e l y r u r a l p r i c e and the l o c a l s o i l c o n d i t i o n s o f the a p p l i c a n t ' s a r e a . A t t h i s s t a g e the bank e i t h e r r e j e c t s t h e e j i d a t a r i o ' s c r o p ( s ) p r o p o s a l , f o r example on the b a s i s o f p r o b a b l e l o c a l o v e r p r o d u c t i o n , and then f o r m u l a t e s an a l t e r n a t i v e c r o p c u l t i v a t i o n s c h e d u l e , o r i t g i v e s the go-ahead t o the a p p l i c a n t ' s o r i g i n a l i d e a s . I n e i t h e r c a s e , a d e t a i l e d l o a n s c h e d u l e i s r e t a i n e d by the e j i d a t a r i o , p r i m a r i l y t o be used as a c u l t i v a t i o n c a l e n d a r , w h i l e the bank, of c o u r s e , r e t a i n s c o p i e s f o r i t s f i n a n c i a l and o p e r a t i o n a l - c h e c k r e c o r d s . . , The l o a n i s n o r m a l l y o f a y e a r ' s d u r a t i o n , and o n l y i n q u i t e e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e s i s i t g i v e n f o r any p e r i o d i n e x c e s s o f one y e a r . C a l c u l a t i o n s a r e made of the c o s t s o f l a n d p r e p a r a t i o n , s e e d s , f e r t i l i z e r , p e s t i c i d e s , i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r , h a r v e s t l a b o u r and • m a c h i n e r y , o u t p u t p a c k i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a l t h o u g h o n l y i n the case o f v e r y b a d l y l o c a t e d and e x t r e m e l y poor f a r m e r s do t r a n s p o r t c o s t s loom s i g n i f i c a n t . N i n e t y p er c e n t o f the campesinos e a s i l y manage t o t r a n s p o r t t h e i r produce t h e m s e l v e s , o r w i t h t h e a i d o f n e i g h b o u r s , t o t t h e n e a r b y m i l l s , g i n s , e l e v a t o r s and warehouses. Thus v i r t u a l l y e v e r y s t a g e w i t h i n t h e c y c l e i s c o s t e d . Q u i t e 90 s i m p l y , the t o t a l o f the p a r t s e q u a l s the sum of the f a r m e r ' s l o a n . The c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e p r e t t y a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s e d . One r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s the f a c t t h a t government banks o p e r a t e w i t h r e l a t i v e l y s l i m r e s o u r c e s , and t o f u l f i l t h e i r r o l e of s e r v i c e w i t h i n t h e i r c h a r t e r , t i g h t monetary i t e m - c o s t i n g i s i m p e r a t i v e . To p r e v e n t the e j i d a t a r i o from s q u a n d e r i n g h i s l o a n , the bank does n o t hand o v e r h a r d c u r r e n c y a t the i n i t i a t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i o n c y c l e . The a p p l i c a n t r e c e i v e s c u r r e n c y o n l y i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e he r e q u i r e s i t f o r any s t a g e i n h i s c u l t i v a t i o n p r o c e s s . Thus the f a r m e r r e c e i v e s money to p u r c h a s e seed from an a p p o i n t e d d e a l e r o n l y a day b e f o r e he i s due t o make h i s p u r c h a s e . To f u r t h e r s a f e g u a r d the l o a n ' s e f f i c i e n c y , the bank employs a l a r g e number o f o p e r a t i o n s -and f i e l d - i n s p e c t o r s , who check on the use o f the l o a n i n the p r o d u c t i o n c y c l e . Where o p e r a t i o n s o f l a n d l e v e l l i n g and p l o u g h i n g a r e i n v o l v e d , the bank s u p p l i e s b o t h the l a b o u r and m a c h i n e r y f o r the j o b , and the e j i d a t a r i o h a n d l e s no money f o r t h o s e s e r v i c e s , s i n c e the bank i n v a r i a b l y owns the m a c h i n e r y t o be used and c o n t r a c t s l a b o u r to o p e r a t e i t . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o the c u l t i v a t i o n c a l e n d a r s e t up by the bank f o r the a p p l i c a n t t o f o l l o w , on the b a s i s t h a t adherence t o the time s c h e d u l e w i l l b e s t g u a r a n t e e good y i e l d s , the bank a l s o i n s t r u c t s the a p p l i c a n t i n the t e c h n i q u e s o f c r o p s o wing, weeding and h a r v e s t i n g . O b v i o u s l y an i n e x p e r i e n c e d l o a n a p p l i c a n t or newcomer t o the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t must a t a l l t i m e s f o l l o w the i n s t r u c t i o n s he i s g i v e n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s s e r v i c e has, a t l a s t , been r e c o g n i z e d by the S t a t e ( S i n a l o a n ) and F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , p r i m a r i l y because the banks a r e u n a b l e t h r o u g h l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t funds and e x t e n s i o n manpower, t o s e r v e t h e c a m p e s i n o r p o p u l a t i o n c o m p l e t e l y and e f f e c t i v e l y enough. One non-bank s e r v i c e open t o the e j i d a t a r i o i s t h a t o f c r o p i n s u r a n c e . I n p r a c t i c e , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r the campesino to use t h i s f a c i l i t y . On the one hand, c r o p i n s u r a n c e i s n o t p o s s i b l e u n l e s s the p a r t y t o be i n s u r e d uses c e r t i f i e d s e ed, w h i l e on the o t h e r , bank c r e d i t i s n o t f o r t h c o m i n g t o the l o a n a p p l i c a n t u n l e s s the campesino uses c e r t i f i e d . s e e d . I n the case o f wheat, 91 f i r e i n s u r a n c e i s a l s o a w i s e p o l i c y , where t h e r e i s a v e r y h i g h danger o f c r o p l o s s when r a p i d d r y i n g o c c u r s d u r i n g f i n a l r i p e n i n g j u s t p r i o r t o h a r v e s t i n g . Where an i n s u r a n c e c l a i m i s made by a campesino, the i n s u r a n c e company on v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the c l a i m , does n o t pay the p o l i c y h o l d e r d i r e c t l y b u t goes i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h h i s bank. So i n a c t u a l f a c t , the c r e d i t s ystem s a f e g u a r d s i t s e l f by m e r e l y d e d u c t i n g the v a l u e of the i n s u r a n c e c l a i m payment f r o m the l o a n b a l a n c e o u t s t a n d i n g a t t h a t d a t e . W i t h i n the i n s u r a n c e s t r u c t u r e t o o , t h e r e i s a c a t c h , as f a r as the i n s u r e d i s c o n c e r n e d . I n the event o f c r o p damage due t o c l i m a t i c h a z a r d s such as f l o o d i n g or w i n d , the amount p a y a b l e by the i n s u r a n c e company i s e q u i v a l e n t o n l y to t h a t v a l u e of the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s o p e r a t e d up t o the t i m e o f the c l a i m . The c l a i m i s based t h e r e f o r e on the c o s t s i n c u r r e d up t o t h a t d a t e on the bank's p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e . O p e r a t i o n a l I n f l u e n c e s of C r e d i t on F a r m i n g From the p r e v i o u s expose" o b v i o u s advantages emerge f o r the p r i v a t e f a r m i n g group over the e j i d a l s e c t o r . The b a s i c s h a r e -h o l d e r s t r u c t u r e o f the c r e d i t U n i o n o f C o r e r e p e has c l e a r m e r i t s where the s h a r e h o l d e r s a r e b o t h i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c e r n e d i n the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e i r h o l d i n g company from the v i e w p o i n t o f an i n v e s t o r , and a t the same time a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e c e i v i n g good l i q u i d c r e d i t a s s i s t a n c e whenever n e c e s s a r y . I t i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r system, o f c o u r s e , t h a t the U n i o n members a r e h i g h l y competent f a r m e r s who a u t o m a t i c a l l y seek out t e c h n i q u e s whereby t h e y can maximize t h e i r p r o f i t a t a l l t i m e s . The campesinos on the o t h e r hand cannot e n v i s a g e b e i n g members o f such a U n i o n s i n c e t h e y have n o t h i n g t a n g i b l e t o i n v e s t as p o t e n t i a l s h a r e h o l d e r s . T h i s major d i f f e r e n c e i n the two g r o u p s ' command o f r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d n e v e r be o v e r l o o k e d ; one group has c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l l i q u i d i t y and/or t a n g i b l e s e c u r i t i e s , w h i l e t h e o t h e r has n e i t h e r . The campesino, e d u c a t e d o r n o t , p r a c t i s e d o r n o v i c e , d e a l s w i t h a l a r g e government o r g a n i z e d agency w h i c h a t the same ti m e has t o e n f o r c e on i t s e l f and i t s customers t i g h t 92 r e s t r a i n t s on o p e r a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e l o a n repayment. The p r i v a t e f a r m e r and U n i o n member a p p l i e s f o r w h a t e v e r c r e d i t or a i d he r e q u i r e s f o r h i s p r o d u c t i o n c y c l e whenever he r e q u i r e s i t . He a p p l i e s o n l y f o r what he needs and r e c e i v e s o n l y t h a t . The e j i d a t a r i o a p p l i e s f o r p r o d u c t i o n a s s i s t a n c e , and i n 90 per c e n t o f the c a s e s where h i s a p p l i c a t i o n i s f a v o u r a b l y e n t e r t a i n e d , he r e c e i v e s a s s i s t a n c e f o r the o p e r a t i o n of the whole a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f h i s a c t u a l needs. Fo r example, the campesino i n v a r i a b l y w i l l r e c e i v e , and be c h arged f o r , l a n d p r e p a r a t i o n s e r v i c e s and l a b o u r f o r w e e d i n g d u r i n g h i s p r o d u c t i o n y e a r . E x c e p t where the use o f a l a n d l e v e l l e r i s r e q u i r e d , w h i c h i s o n l y an i n f r e q u e n t occurrence/iassura-irag "the'.tSfid has been r e c e n t l y worked b e f o r e , the campesino w i t h h i s f a m i l y c o u l d q u i t e a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e and m a i n t a i n h i s 10 h e c t a r e f a r m . When he r e q u i r e d m a c h i n e r y he c o u l d h i r e the l o c a l t r a c t o r o p e r a t o r ' s equipment, where he, the campesino, i s a d e p t , or he m i ght h i r e the c o m p lete package o f t r a c t o r and o p e r a t o r where he i s n o t . I n such a c a s e , i f the h i r e d workman's r e s u l t s a r e n o t t o the p e a s a n t ' s l i k i n g . h e c o u l d w i t h h o l d payment u n t i l the p r o b l e m i s r e m e d i e d . But i n the case of work done by the c o n t r a c t e d - o u t l a b o u r s u p p l i e d by the bank, the p e a s a n t a u t o m a t i c a l l y pays f o r the s e r v i c e r e c e i v e d , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the j o b done. I n f a c t , the m a c h i n e r y c o n t r a c t o r or c o l l e c t i v e machine c e n t r e (bank a f f i l i a t e d ) come t o g i v e t h e i r s e r v i c e s a t t i m e s most c o n v e n i e n t f o r t h e m s e l v e s , n o t when i t i s most d e s i r a b l e f o r the r e c i p i e n t ' s c r o p . W h i l e the use of m a c h i n e r y c o n t r a c t o r s i s q u i t e p r e v a l e n t , i t has the f u r t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e of t r a n s f e r r i n g t o the c o n t r a c t o r the p r o f i t s w h i c h s h o u l d have gone t o the e j i d a t a r i o - i f he c o u l d o p e r a t e h i s own m a c h i n e r y . Thus, i f , a s i s f r e q u e n t l y the c a s e , the work done i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the campesino, he has no r e c a l l on the l a b o u r , w h i c h , by the time a c o m p l a i n t i s l o d g e d , has moved on to a n o t h e r a s s i g n m e n t . The c o n t r a c t e d o p e r a t o r i s p a i d on the b a s i s o f l a n d a r e a a t t e n d e d t o . Hence l e s s c a r e i s t a k e n over the i n d i v i d u a l p l o t s t h a n w o u l d be, were the f a r mer t o do i t h i m s e l f , s i n c e the bank a u t o m a t i c a l l y makes payment f o r the c o n t r a c t e d l a b o u r . 93 The campesino then, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , has one o f two a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o him. The f i r s t i s t o n o t i f y the bank w h i c h i n s p e c t s h i s c l a i m f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s . The bank t h e n a r r a n g e s f o r a n o t h e r implement o p e r a t o r t o re-do the work f o r the campesino. The speed w i t h w h i c h t h i s a c t i o n i s t a k e n v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h machine-and o p e r a t o r - a v a i l a b i l i t y . I f the t i m e o f c o m p l a i n t i s i n the m i d s t o f sowing or h a r v e s t i n g , where the predominant e j i d a l c r o p s a r e c o t t o n , sugar cane, or r i c e , t h e n the p e a s a n t i s u n l i k e l y t o have h i e p r o b l e m remedied w i t h i n 10-14 days. A t the o t h e r extreme when c o n d i t i o n s a r e more f a v o u r a b l e , he may have t o w a i t o n l y 4-5 days. E i t h e r way, however, i f the snag a r i s e s a t a c r u c i a l t ime when h a r v e s t i s e s s e n t i a l , o r b e f o r e a due i r r i g a t i o n , t h e n even 4-5 days' d e l a y i s q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e i f y i e l d f a i l u r e i s t o be c o m p l e t e l y a v o i d e d . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , he can r e g i s t e r a c o m p l a i n t t o the bank but g a i n the s e r v i c e s o f an i n d e p e n d e n t machine or l a b o u r a g e n t . I n s u c h a c a s e , the e j i d a t a r i o , i n an emergency, can v i r t u a l l y count on h i s o b t a i n i n g r e m e d i a l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n 2 days and h a v i n g the work performed t o h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n by a l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l . F r e q u e n t l y , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i s an e j i d a t a r i o h i m s e l f , who owns m a c h i n e r y n e c e s s a r y t o work l a n d he owns or has r e n t e d t o him, over and above h i s o r i g i n a l 10 h e c t a r e p l o t . A t r a c t o r can t i l l 60-100 h e c t a r e s , hence an e j i d a t a r i o must do o u t s i d e machine work i f he i s n o t t o i n c u r e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h o p e r a t i o n a l c h a r g e s f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t r a c t o r o w n e r s h i p . To m i n i m i s e h i g h overhead c o s t s , the m a c h i n e r y owner h i r e s h i m s e l f and h i s equipment o u t , and does e x t r a work a t any t i m e when i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r him t o do so. The r e c i p i e n t o f the work r a r e l y pays i n k i n d . - I n s t e a d he n o r m a l l y pays w i t h i n a month w i t h w h a t e v e r l i q u i d c a p i t a l he has a t hand. More o f t e n t h a n n o t , the s u p p l y o f t h i s i s s m a l l and i s dependent on the s a v i n g h a b i t s o f the campesino. I f he i s one o f a b r e e d o f q u i c k l y g r o w i n g s a v i n g s - b a n k u s e r s , t h e n he p r o b a b l y has l i t t l e p r o b l e m . I f he d r i n k s most o f h i s s u r p l u s r e s o u r c e s , t h e n he must go to work a t the weekends i n the town (Los Mochis or Guasave) as a 94 t emporary r e t a i l s e r v i c e employee. O b v i o u s l y the scope f o r t h i s i s l i m i t e d , and) as a r e s u l t , so a r e h i s chances of q u i c k l y p a y i n g f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l work done on h i s l a n d . I t i s r a r e , however, to f i n d a campesino who d r i n k s h i s s u r p l u s income and a t the same time n o t i c e s t h a t the work done on h i s l a n d by the bank was o f a poor s t a n d a r d . I t s h o u l d be c l e a r t h a t i n the case o f the c o n s c i e n t i o u s p e a s a n t s , e s t i m a t e d a t 60 per c e n t o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , who work t h e i r l a n d and r e c e i v e c r e d i t , where problems c o n c e r n i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f work a r i s e , t h e y need t o t u r n n o t t o the bank, but t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t a g e n t . The l a t t e r ' s s e r v i c e s w o u l d a l w a y s be used i n p r e f e r e n c e t o the f o r m e r ' s s i n c e , n a t u r a l l y , the p e a s a n t p r e f e r s freedom o f c h o i c e , but the d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t the campesino cannot n o r m a l l y have p a r t - c r e d i t from t h e bank w i t h o u t h a v i n g i t a l l . He r e c e i v e s l a b o u r and m a c h i n e r y s e r v i c e s whether or n o t he a b s o l u t e l y r e q u i r e s them, and i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether he c o u l d make a more e f f i c i e n t arrangement on h i s own. F u r t h e r m o r e , i n the event o f the e j i d a t a r i o ' s b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s and a c c u m u l a t i n g a s i z e a b l e f i n a n c i a l s u r p l u s , the a c t i o n s o o f the bank-do no t encourage the campesino t o make any u s e f u l c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i n h i s f a r m or i t s o p e r a t i o n s . The E f f e c t o f the C r e d i t Programme on the E j i d a t a r i o s ' V i a b i l i t y Th The f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n was found t o a r i s e f o r the e j i d a t a r i o r e c e i v i n g E j i d a l Bank c r e d i t i n the U n i t 2 wheat sample. The n a t u r e of the c r e d i t programme c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d the campesinos' one b i g a s s e t or advantage over t h e i r f a r m i n g c o m p e t i t o r s i n the a r e a , the p r i v a t e and c o l o n o s e c t o r s , i . e . the e j i d a t a r i o s ' own l a b o u r and t h a t o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s . h a v e v i r t u a l l y z e r o o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t . The use of m a c h i n e r y on a e a s i l y manageable 10 h e c t a r e p l o t as s u b s t i t u t e f o r work a b l e t o be done by t h e e j i d a t a r i o i s a t one and t h e same time v e r y e x t r a v a g e n t and an u u n n e c e s s a r y l u x u r y t h a t the campesino can i l l a f f o r d . Y e t , as s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , m a c h i n e r y and o u t s i d e l a b o u r t o o p e r a t e i t a r e p a r t and p a r c e l o f 95 the c r e d i t package r e c e i v e d by t h e campesino. The c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n o f 1 h e c t a r e o f wheat was a s s e s s e d a t 2,549.7 pesos and was d e t e r m i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. Re c o r d s were o b t a i n e d from f o u r of the l a r g e s t c r e d i t o u t l e t s i n Los M o c h i s , two p r i v a t e and two e j i d a l . These f o u r i n s i t i t u t i o n s s u p p l i e d e x t r e m e l y d e t a i l e d c o s t a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n s t a g e s of the whole c y c l e o f wheat p r o d u c t i o n on the a v e r a g e - s i z e d f a r m h o l d i n g t h a t they c u s t o m a r i l y d e a l t w i t h . W i t h t h o s e d a t a a t hand as a g u i d e l i n e , i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e n c o l l e c t e d i n the f i e l d r e g a r d i n g the main ite m s t h a t c o u l d be r e a d i l y q u a n t i f i e d m o n e t a r i l y and w h i c h made up the c o s t o f o p e r a t i o n . T h e r d a t a g a t h e r e d from a l l t h r e e t e n u r e groups were t h e n c o n c e n t r a t e d and summarized. The c o s t s o b t a i n e d v a r i e d n o t i c e a b l y i n some i n s t a n c e s where the f a r m e r s d i d n o t want t o r e v e a l t h e i r c o s t s o r where t h e f a r mer had no w r i t t e n r e c o r d of i n p u t p u r c h a s e r e c e i p t s . The o n l y wayyto check back a g a i n s t the s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s , who were most o f t e n campesinos, w o u l d have been to examine t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l bank c r e d i t s c h e d u l e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was u n d e r s t a n d a b l y r e g a r d e d as h i g h l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and was n o t f o r t h c o m i n g . N o n e t h e l e s s i t was p o s s i b l e t o use the d a t a f r o m o v e r 65 per c e n t of a l l the t e n u r e group members i n t e r v i e w e d , and from t h i s a w e i g h t e d mean c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d o f 2,549.7 pesos per h e c t a r e f o r a l l f a r m e r s . The f i g u r e h e l d by t h e E j i d a l Banks was v e r y near t h i s a t 2,575 pesos per h e c t a r e ! The outcome of the E j i d a l Bank's i n s i s t e n c e on modern c u l t i v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s f o r i t s customers was found t o have a most u n f o r t u n a t e e f f e c t . Namely the c o s t o f c r e d i t p l u s i n t e r e s t t o the e j i d a t a r i o o f g r o w i n g wheat was t o a l l i n t e n t s and p urposes the same as the a v e r a g e c o s t s i n c u r r e d by the o t h e r two f a r m i n g groups i n the sample. I t c o u l d be argued t h e r e f o r e t h a t the campesinos were n o t p e r m i t t e d t o g a i n a f i n a n c i a l p r o d u c t i o n advantage t h a t was r e a l l y due them. I n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s t h i s was d i r e c t l y a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r t e n u r e s t a t u s , a p r o d u c t o f the R e v o l u t i o n and i t s Reform 96 Laws. Moreover, t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d as f a r m e r s was made more p r e c a r i o u s by t h e i r p o o r e r y i e l d p e r f o r m a n c e . The outcome o f t h e i r a r t i f i c i a l l y i n f l a t e d c o s t s and p o o r e r y i e l d s , combined w i t h the p r i c e r e c e i v e d , gave r i s e t o t h e poor n e t r e t u r n s as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . From t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r the sample f a r m e r s , i t was found t h a t an a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t who s o l d h i s wheat a t 800 pesos per k i l o -t o n had t o o b t a i n a 3.200 k i l o - t o n y i e l d p er h e c t a r e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d i n c u r r i n g a f i n a n c i a l l o s s . A t a y i e l d o f 3.100, the o p e r a t o r s had a n e g a t i v e n e t income f o r wheat. I f a p e a s a n t f a r m e r , or o t h e r t y p e f o r t h a t m a t t e r , were t o a t t a i n a 3.100 y i e l d and r e c e i v e 800 pesos per t o n f o r h i s wheat i n the c e n t r a l u p l a n d s o f M e x i c o , i n Q u e r e t a r o or Leon, i t i s f a i r t o su g g e s t t h a t he w o u l d be a v e r y p r o d u c t i v e f a r mer and woul d c e r t a i n l y r e c e i v e a p o s i t i v e n e t r e t u r n . I n such a l o c a t i o n the campesino w o u l d be u n l i k e l y t o have t h e s m a l l though s i g n i f i c a n t a d d i t i o n a l monetary payments f o r the s u p p o r t o f a g r o w i n g e j i d a l s c h o o l s y s t e m o r f o r the p i p i n g o f e l e c t r i c a l power t o h i s v i l l a g e . These payments a r e made a l o n g w i t h t h o s e l e v i e d f o r the s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s made a v a i l a b l e t o the e j i d a l p o p u l a t i o n by CRF and CFE. I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , thoughj t h a t the e j i d a t a r i o s d e c i d e d amongst t h e m s e l v e s f o u r y e a r s ago t h a t t h e y w o u l d i n d i v i d u a l l y make a c o n t r i b u t i o n towards t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e o v e r t a x e d r u r a l s c h o o l system t h a t had o r i g i n a l l y been s e t up by the S t a t e o f S i n a l o a . W i t h v e r y r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e t h e r e were j u s t n o t enough t e a c h e r s t o go round so the campesinos v o t e d t o h i r e t h e a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e d , and t o pay f o r t h e i r c o s t w i t h i n t h e i r i r r i g a t i o n c o s t assessment ( s ee T a b l e XXXV1). Y e t i t cannot j u s t i f i a b l y be argued t h a t the c o s t s of such " w e l f a r e " s e r v i c e s s h o u l d n o t be p a r t l y p a i d f o r by the r e c i p i e n t s , g i v e n the f a c t t h a t M e x i c o cannot a f f o r d t o upgrade th e r u r a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e e n t i r e l y o ut of the n a t i o n a l exchequer. As i t i s , the c o s t o f the campesino's v i t a l w a t e r s u p p l y and a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s amount t o o n l y a l i t t l e o v e r 10 per c e n t o f h i s per h e c t a r e c o s t s o f wheat c u l t i v a t i o n , a burden t h a t c o u l d n o t be termed i n t h e l e a s t e x c e s s i v e . 97 T a b l e XXXV1 A n a l y s i s of^Farmers^„W^ter_Costsand^cheme b a r g e s " p a j d ^ t o " CRF P r i v a t e P r o p e r t i e s 150 pesos per ha. 100 pesos p e r ha. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f D i s t r i c t . Towards c o s t o f t r a i n i n g o f A g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s by S t a t e . T e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l s . E l e c t r i c power &/or d r i n k i n g w a t e r . Water. E j i d o s 150 pesos per ha. 100 pesos per ha. 2 pesos per ha. 2 pesos p e r ha. 10 pesos per ha. 252 pesos per ha. T o t a l 25 pesos per ha. 287 pesos per ha. The same cannot be s a i d f o r c e r t a i n arrangements by t h e l e n d i n g banks. By d i s s e c t i n g the makeup o f the e j i d a t a r i o ' s t o t a l c o s t of o p e r a t i o n , e s t i m a t e d h e r e a t 2,549.7 p e s o s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o s u b t r a c t the sum o f 536 p e s o s , the c o s t c harged f o r the s e r v i c e s o f o u t s i d e l a b o u r a t sowing, f e r i l t i z a t i o n , d i t c h i n g , l a n d p r e p a r a t i o n , d e p r e c i a t i o n on the m a c h i n e r y used f o r t h e s e t a s k s , the c o s t o f m a c h i n e r y o p e r a t i o n and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a r g e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s . No sample o f the e j i d a l f a r m p o p u l a t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d , l a c k e d i t s own fa r m l a b o u r f o r c a r r y i n g out the s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d by the banks' l a b o u r f o r c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , over 65 per c e n t o f the e j i d a t a r i o s 1 own f a m i l y l a b o u r had had e x p e r i e n c e o f t r a c t o r d r i y i n g and o t h e r implement work; a l l t h a t they l a c k e d was the t r a i n i n g i n equipment m a i n t e n a n c e , something w h i c h the banks l a c k e d t o o ! I f the campesinos c o u l d have o p e r a t e d t h e i r wheat a c t i v i t i e s a t the new f i g u r e o f 2,013.7 pesos per h e c t a r e i n s t e a d o f 2,549.7 p e s o s , 102 out o f the t o t a l sample o f 148 woul d have made a n e t p o s i t i v e r e t u r n r a t h e r t h a n o n l y 50. Put a n o t h e r way, w i t h a c o s t r e d u c t i o n o f about 20 per c e n t o v e r t h e e s t i m a t e d c o s t o b t a i n i n g a t the time o f f i e l d work, 100 per c e n t more o f the pe a s a n t f a r m e r s w o u l d be i n the b l a c k r a t h e r t h a n i n the r e d . The c u t - o f f p o i n t w i t h r e g a r d t o making a n e t p o s i t i v e r e t u r n under the a d j u s t e d c o s t system, assuming a p r i c e o f 800 pesos per ton, was found t o be 2.600 k i l o - t o n s p er h e c t a r e . Some 68.9 p e r c e n t o f the 9 8 campesinos a t t a i n e d t h i s l e v e l o f y i e l d o r b e t t e r e d i t . Perhaps the i n d i v i d u a l t o w h i c h the new c o s t s t r u c t u r e i s o f most r e l e v a n c e i s t h e i n - m i g r a n t t o the scheme a r e a . As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , t h e F u e r t e D i s t r i c t has s e r v e d as an a t t r a c t i o n p o i n t t o many campesinos, p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h o s e from the m i n i f u n d i a - r i d d e n , overworked a r e a s o f the s o u t h e r n - c e n t r a l u p l a n d S t a t e s o f M e x i c o . Q u i c k d i s c o u r a g e m e n t s e t s i n on even t h e most o p t i m i s t i c and e x p e r i e n c e d f a r m e r s new t o the r e g i o n when th e y have n e t l o s s e s on t h e i r c r o p a c t i v i t i e s . T h e i r a c u t e and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e d i s a p p o i n t -ments have been one o f the main f a c t o r s l e a d i n g t o the r e n t i n g out o f e j i d a l l a n d , and i n some c a s e s even i t s i l l e g a l s e l l i n g , t o p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s or t o o t h e r campesinos who have a v o i d e d f a i l u r e . C l e a r l y , the s y s t e m a t p r e s e n t , i t s method o f o p e r a t i o n and the p r a c t i c a l c o s t s i t b r i n g s w i t h i t , a r e n o t i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h o s e f o r whom the s e r v i c e was s e t up i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The p r o b l e m o f f a i l u r e and the s i t u a t i o n i t b r i n g s i s most c r i t i c a l f o r the newcomer t o the a r e a , the i n - m i g r a n t . G i v e n the i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e banks w i t h r e g a r d t o the i n d i v i d u a l , i t i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d i n the l o c a l p r e s s t h a t a f a r m e r i s i n debt a t the end o f h i s f i r s t y e a r on the F u e r t e l a n d s , and y e t t h a t f a r m e r had been, t h e y e a r p r i o r t o h i s moving t o S i n a l o a ^ a a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l i n M o r e l o s or J a l i s c o . The u s u a l e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n i s n o t poor y i e l d p e r f o r m a n c e but v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the c o s t s of o p e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y f o r m a c h i n e r y i n p l a c e o f the more t r a d i t i o n a l l a b o u r i n p u t s } i n p u t s p r o v e n f o r t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y , measured i n the good y i e l d s o b t a i n e d u s i n g l a r g e amounts o f low o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t f a m i l y l a b o u r - an economic p r o p o s i t i o n on the n o r m a l 10 h e c t a r e p l o t . Thus the e f f e c t o f the Reform as f a r as c r e d i t i s c o n c e r n e d seems t o be w o r k i n g a g a i n s t the p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a r e s t i l l so s t r o n g l y v o i c e d i n a l l w a l k s o f M e x i c a n l i f e . A n o t h e r consequence o f t h e c r e d i t system's s t r u c t u r e i s t h a t i t makes f o r s e v e r e under-employment on t h e f a r m , even of the f a r m er h i m s e l f , n o t t o r m e n t i b h e t h e l i o t h e r t p o t e n t i a l l y o p r o d u c t i v e members of h i s f a m i l y . W h i l s t c o l l e c t i n g t h e sample c o s t d a t a and t h e c r o p performance m a t e r i a l , d e t a i l s o f the t i m e s p e n t on the farm's a c t i v i t i e s were measured. The s y s t e m o f s u b d i v i d i n g l a b o u r - u s e employed was s i m i l a r t o t h a t used by R o c k e f e l l e r ( ; 1961/62) and a l s o Andrade and F r e e b a i r n ( 1 9 6 5 ) . I t was m o d i f i e d s l i g h t l y t o i n c l u d e the e f f e c t o f the o u t s i d e , bank l a b o u r on t h e employment s c h e d u l e o f the sample's campesinos. (see T a b l e XXXV11) T a b l e XXXV1-1 F a m i l y Labour S u p p l y and i t s U t i l i z a t i o n f o r the U n i t 2 Wheat Growing E j i d a t a r i o s , 1969/70 (Man Months) Type o f Labour P o t e n t i a l Labour Labour N o m i n a l l y A c t u a l Labour Devoted t o Farm on Farm O f f - F a r m Labour Un-Employed E i i d a t a r i o Sons Other F a m i l y 1,776 780 178 940 592 410 80 85 18 350 100 40 486 270 53 T o t a l 2,734 1,435 690 490 ; 809 S mma Summary o f a c t u a l use o f f a m i l y l a b o u r s u p p l y : Time n o t p r o d u c t i v e Man Months P e r c e n t I d l e time n o m i n a l l y Not employed s p e n t on the f a r m 745 809 27.3 29.6 (1.554) (56.9) P r o d u c t i v e t i m e A c t u a l l y worked on O f f - f a r m employment the f a r m 690 490 25.2 17.9 (1,180) (43.1) T o t a l 2,734 100.0 As can be seen, the e j i d a l f a m i l y l a b o u r s u p p l y i s engaged f o r o n l y 25.2 per c e n t o f i t s p o t e n t i a l work p e r i o d per annum on the e j i d a l f a r m i t s e l f , w h i l e over h a l f of the y e a r i s s p e n t non-p r o d u c t i v e l y . The e j i d a t a r i o h i m s e l f was found t o be p r o d u c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d on h i s f a r m f o r o n l y 33.3 per c e n t o f h i s y e a r l y p o t e n t i a l work span. I f the t i m e t a k e n by u n n e c e s s a r y bank s e r v i c e s 100 p r e v i o u s l y m entioned i n the c o s t r e d u c t i o n c a l c u l a t i o n , were t r e a t e d as work p e r i o d s employed by the e j i d a t a r i o and h i s f a m i l y , t h e y w o u l d be p r o d u c t i v e l y employed on the f a r m f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 67 per c e n t o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t i m e . T h i s f i g u r e t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t the f a c t t h a t a d d i t i o n a l l a b o u r and m a c h i n e r y w o u l d be employed a t the h a r v e s t p e r i o d , i n p u t s t h a t the f a m i l y w o u l d have to have whether t h e y o r i g i n a t e d from the banks o r f r o m e l s e w h e r e , such as o t h e r f a r m e r s or l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l produce d e a l e r s under a p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r a c t arrangement. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i n t h i s U n i t t h e r e a r e movements a f o o t w i t h i n groups o f e j i d a t a r i o s t o by-pass the o f f i c i a l c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n s j u s t because o f the i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f the s e r v i c e s t h e y p r o v i d e and t h e i r f r e q u e n t poor q u a l i t y . Campesinos who have on p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n s grown c o t t o n have made c o n t a c t s v i a the merchants and t h e c o t t o n g i n s w i t h companies t h a t a r e p r e p a r e d t o f i n a n c e the c o t t o n f a r m o p e r a t i o n s on c o n d i t i o n t h a t the produce i s s o l d o n l y t o them, the g i v e r o f c r e d i t . What, i n e f f e c t , i s h a p p e n i n g i s t h a t the E j i d a l Banks a r e l o s i n g customers who m i ght o t h e r w i s e have used the g o v e r n m e n t - c r e a t e d c r e d i t o u t l e t s i n p r e f e r e n c e t o the i n d e p e n d e n t c o m m e r c i a l c r o p t r e a t e r s and e x p o r t e r s , o f t e n A m e r i c a n owned and/or based, a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , A n d e r s o n - C l a y t o n , who g i v e the campesinos a much f r e e r hand w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e use o f the c r e d i t . There a r e d a n g e r s , o f c o u r s e , f o r b o t h s i d e s i n t h i s system:- The f i r m s cannot t a k e t h e e j i d a l l a n d i f the p e a s a n t does n o t produce t h e c r o p s i n c e h i s l a n d i s n a t i o n a l domain and n o t t r a n s f e r a b l e t o a p r i v a t e e n t i t y ; tne. N campesino runs the r i s k o f b e i n g f o r c e d t o s e l l h i s p o t e n t i a l h a r v e s t t o the f i r m a t a p r i c e much below what w o u l d be the market p r i c e some 4-5 months l a t e r a t h a r v e s t t i m e . G i v e n t h a t such a s y s t e m o f bank b y - p a s s i n g i s g r o w i n g , and. b o t h f i r m s and campesinos appear t o be b e n e f i t i n g f r o m i t s o p e r a t i o n , i t i s n o t too much t o s u g g e s t t h a t a s i m i l a r development may s t a r t t o grow f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c u l t i v a t i n g wheat, p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e p r e c e d e n t o f c o t t o n i s b e i n g made known by b o t h s i d e s i n v o l v e d ' . 101 C o n c l u s i o n s What t h e n a r e the problems t h a t f a c e the e j i d a t a r i o on the F u e r t e ? He, t h e campesino, may produce a y i e l d o f 3.100 k i l o -t o n s per h e c t a r e o f wheat, a performance w h i c h can be r e g a r d e d as h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y a l m o s t any where; y e t a t t h a t y i e l d l e v e l ( w i t h a p r i c e o f 800 pesos per k i l o - t o n ) the sample t a k e n shows t h a t t h e p e a s a n t farmer has i m m e d i a t e l y got h i m s e l f i n t o debt over the c u l t i v a t i o n o f h i s c r o p . C e r t a i n l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a t h i s second c u l t i v a t i o n o f the y e a r ' s c y c l e , the campesino may o p e r a t e more v i a b l y and g a i n a good r e t u r n from h i s s o y a , sorghum, or p a r t i c u l a r l y , h i s tomatoes. However, as o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , he i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r f r e e e t o grow what he wants nor i s he f r e e t o use the t y p e s o f i n p u t s he w ants, p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s own and h i s f a m i l y ' s l a b o u r . I f he needs t o o f f s e t a l o s s t o wheat he cannot a u t o m a t i c a l l y redeem h i s l o s s e s by d e c i d i n g h a l f w a y t h r o u g h h i s programme to s e l e c t an e s p e c i a l l y r e m u n e r a t i v e c r o p s u c h as tomatoes^ even assuming t h a t t h e r e was a market a v a i l a b l e t o t a k e h i s p r o d u c e . Y e t i f he cannot remove h i s debt i n such a manner he may n o t be a l l o w e d to f a r m t h e n e x t y e a r . He t h e n may opt out o f a c t i v e f a r m i n g and become one ofethehnumerous e j i d a l r e n t e r c l a s s , c u r r e n t l y e s t i m a t e d a t 30 per c e n t o f the e j i d a l f a r m e r p o p u l a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t . By c o n t r a s t , b o t h the p r i v a t e and c o l o n o s e c t o r s a r e f r e e a g e n t s i n the sense t h a t they a r e more a b l e t o a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e i r c r e d i t o r s . I f t h e y , t h e p r i v a t e o r c o l o n o f a r m e r s , e x p e r i e n c e a wheat-income l o s s , then t h e y can t a k e w h a t e v e r a c t i o n t h e y d e c i d e on, and i n any case t h e i r r e f u s a l of f u r t h e r c r e d i t f r o m t h e i r banks i s much l e s s l i k e l y m e r e l y because of one un-s u c c e s s f u l y e a r t h a n i t i s f o r the e j i d a l c l a s s , the c l a s s t h a t p o s s e s s e s few or no r e a l i s a b l e s e c u r i t i e s . From the f i n d i n g s of t h i s f a r m s t u d y i t was found t h a t the e j i d a t a r i o who uses the p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e o f c r e d i t , the E j i d a l Banks, i s f a c e d w i t h major o p e r a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o h i s f a r m i n g s y s t e m as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of h i s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s a i d l o a n a g e n c i e s . I n o t h e r words, the d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d a r e a r e s u l t o f t h e 102 i n e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n o f the Reform Laws. The u n n e c e s s a r i l y h i g h c o s t o f o p e r a t i o n t h a t comes w i t h the c r e d i t s y s t e m r u n by the F e d e r a l Government i s c l o a k e d under the h e a d i n g o f f a r m modern-i z a t i o n . Modern a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n o l o g y i s b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d t o most o f the r u r a l p r o l e t a r i a t and t h e y , who engage i n a c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r e , b e n e f i t from i n s t r u c t i o n i n the new t e c h n i q u e s and p r a c t i c e s . The c o s t of t h i s s e r v i c e , however, i s i n e v i t a b l y h i g h because the banks r e q u i r e l a r g e manpowerrresources w h i c h a r e i n s h o r t s u p p l y t o c a r r y out the s e r v i c e . I r o n i c a l l y , even a l t h o u g h t h e p e a s a n t s may a c q u i r e the a b i l i t y t o use m a c h i n e r y t h e m s e l v e s , the m a c h i n e r y t h a t comes i n the c r e d i t package comes w i t h o t h e r l a b o u r t o o p e r a t e i t . Were the campesino's h o l d i n g 50 h e c t a r e s i n s t e a d o f around 10 the s i t u a t i o n w o u l d be v e r y d i f f e r e n t . I n t h a t c a s e , the need f o r o u t s i d e h e l p , a t l e a s t i n the i n i t i a l y e a r s , w o u l d e x i s t u n t i l the farmer a c q u i r e d h i s own equipment to work the l a n d . But t h e r e a g a i n , the i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d n o t want t h e same s e r v i c e s y e a r i n y e a r o u t , something w h i c h the banks do n o t seem t o have r e c o g n i z e d ; t h i s o v e r s i g h t i s e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l t o a s m a l l h o l d e r l i k e the average e j i d a t a r i o who cannot i n d e f i n i t e l y b e a r the burden o f s u r p l u s s e r v i c e s . W i t h r e g a r d t o p l a c i n g the main w e i g h t o f c r i t i c i s m on the E j i d a l Banks, t h e r e a r e n o n e t h e l e s s two s i d e s t o the m a t t e r . These banks a r e b e s e t w i t h s t r u c t u r a l and o p e r a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , n o t a l l o f t h e i r own making, some o f w h i c h have been shown t o f i l t e r down to the campesinos. F i r s t , t h e r e i s the p r o b l e m o f t h e s u p p l y i o f r e s o u r c e s t o the E j i d a l Banks-by the F e d e r a l Government. The s u p p l y f o r t h c o m i n g i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the repayment performance o f the banks' c u s t o m e r s . The e j i d a t a r i o s i n the M e x i c a n N o r t h w e s t r e p a y 92 per c e n t o f the v a l u e of t h e i r l o a n s , i . e . the a n n u a l d e f a u l t r a t e i s 8 per c e n t . P r e v i o u s l y the repayment r a t e was much l o w e r , around 50 per c e n t , when the e j i d a t a r i o s r e g a r d e d c r e d i t as a d i r e c t government s u b s i d y . The banks a r e r e q u i r e d by law n o t t o charge more tha n 10 per c e n t i n t e r e s t and hence w i t h a d e f a u l t r a t e o f 8 per c e n t the bank i s l e f t w i t h 2 per c e n t t o 103 c o v e r i t s own o p e r a t i n g expenses and the i n t e r e s t i t i t s e l f must pay f o r c a p i t a l - an u n t e n a b l e s i t u a t i o n . Thus the E j i d a l Banks a r e o v e r t l y o r c o v e r t l y s u b s i d i z e d by the government, and the more c r e d i t i s extended to the e j i d a t a r i o s the more money the government l o s e s ; thus the government i s n a t u r a l l y r e l u c t a n t t o i n c r e a s e the o p e r a t i n g c a p i t a l o f the E j i d o Banks. Second, the E j i d a l Banks' o p e r a t i o n c o s t s a r e h i g h , much h i g h e r t h a n the p r i v a t e banks' c o s t s per u s e r . Take the case o f the c o l l e c t i v e m a c h i n e r y c e n t r e s o p e r a t e d by the E j i d a l Banks: The c e n t r e s s u f f e r from the i n h e r e n t p r o b l e m t h a t t h e i r management has no i n c e n t i v e t o make them o p e r a t e p r o f i t a b l y , s i n c e the c e n t r e s and t h e i r equipment b e l o n g to an anonymous E j i d a l Bank and n o t t o t h e i r managers. As a r e s u l t , a l l m a c h i n e r y c e n t r e s i n the N o r t h w e s t have been economic f a i l u r e s , p e r p e t u a l l y i n the r e d , and t h e i r number i s n o t i n c r e a s i n g (Haissman 1970, 108). Moreover, as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the e j i d a t a r i o s ' p e c u l i a r t e n u r e s t a t u s , a c r e a t i o n o f the R e v o l u t i o n ' s Reform, the banks' c o s t s a r e h i g h i - I f the campesino l e g a l l y owned h i s l a n d t h e n the bank wou l d n o t have to employ so many f i e l d i n s p e c t o r s t o check up on the p e a s a n t ' s p r o d u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s and p r o g r e s s . A t h a r v e s t t i m e the banks must h i r e s e v e r a l hundred i n s p e c t o r s t o v e r i f y t h a t the e j i d a t a r i o d e l i v e r s h i s h a r v e s t e d c r o p s to the o f f i c i a l s t o r e , i n s t e a d o f s e l l i n g i t t o a p r i v a t e d e a l e r and k e e p i n g the p r o c e e d s c t o h i m s e l f ; the s t o r e , a s s e s s i n g the v a l u e o f the c r o p t h e n r e p a y s t h a t p a r t o f the e j i d a t a r i o ' s l o a n d i r e c t t o the bank. The s a l e i s u s u a l l y made d i r e c t t o CONASUPO w h i c h , owing t o i t s h i g h e r o p e r a t i n g c o s t s , as a F e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d agency, can o f t e n o n l y o f f e r p r i c e s lower t h a n t h o s e o f p r i v a t e m e r c h a n t s . Here we have a s i t u a t i o n where F e d e r a l domain w i t h i n a m a s s i v e government-sponsored i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t i s donated to the p e a s a n t who t r i e s t o work " h i s l a n d " , but must g a i n c r e d i t f r o m a government bank t o work the l a n d , t h a t bank h a v i n g no means o f r e c o u p i n g i t s l o s s i f the campesino d e f a u l t s f o r any r e a s o n ; i t cannot c o n f i s c a t e the campesino's r e s o u r c e s because he p r o b a b l y has none, and the 104 l a n d cannot be s e i z e d because i t i s F e d e r a l l y h e l d . Y e t i t has been shown t h a t the a c t i o n of the A g r a r i a n Reform i n i t s c r e a t i o n o f the e j i d a t a r i o ' s p e c u l i a r t e n u r e s t a t u s made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r a c r e d i t o u t l e t t o be c r e a t e d j u s t f o r t h a t t e n u r e group's u s e . Because o f t h a t t e n u r e group's u s u f r u c t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a f a r - f r o m - n o r m a l c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n was formed, an i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t had t o guard i t s e l f on the one hand from i t s d e f a u l t i n g customers and on the o t h e r from the r e l u c t a n t f i n a n c i e r o f i t s o p e r a t i o n s , the F e d e r a l Government. The banks' p r i n c i p a l guard a g a i n s t d e f a u l t i n g , i t was found f r o m the s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n , t a k e s the form o f e m p l o y i n g d e t a i l e d o p e r a t i o n s s c h e d u l e s f o r each customer. I n p r a c t i c e , however, t h e s e s c h e d u l e s n o t o n l y r e s t r i c t the l o a n r e c i p i e n t ' s freedom t o s e l e c t i n p u t s but they a l s o p r o v i d e him w i t h o v e r - c o s t l y un-n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s t h a t he cannot a f f o r d . C l e a r l y the campesinos' v i a b i l i t y i n m b d e r i r i J M e x i c a n : - ' a g r i c u l t u r e - i s i n j e o p a r d y as a r e s u l t of the i n s t i t u t i o n s produced by the A g r a r i a n Reform Laws. L05 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION OF THE PROBLEM Through the work c a r r i e d o u t , the h y p o t h e s i s s e t out i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n was c o n f i r m e d and v e r i f i e d by the d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n the f i e l d s t u d y a r e a i n N o r t h e r n S i n a l o a S t a t e . From the i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was c o n f i r m e d t h a t the e j i d a l f a r m i n g s e c t o r o f one o f M e x i c o ' s most modern agro-development a r e a s makes l e s s p r o d u c t i v e use o f i t s l a n d endowments tha n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The p o t e n t i a l r e t u r n s thus f o r e g o n e a r e n o t compensated f o r i n h i g h e r o v e r a l l y i e l d s o r by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a v o u r a b l e y i e l d and p r i c e i n t e r a c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the d a t a examined gave grounds f o r t he b e l i e f t h a t g r o s s p o t e n t i a l income i m b a l a n c e s e x i s t between the two f a r m i n g groups, a l t h o u g h some o f the d i f f e r e n c e s measured a r e r a t h e r s l i g h t and v a r i a b l e . But more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e the r e s u l t s o f the fa r m sample s t u d y t h a t s u p p o r t e d the h y p o t h e s i s and i d e n t i f i e d t he major f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g a g a i n s t the b e s t f a r m i n g i n t e r e s t s o f the e j i d a l group. That i s t o s a y , i t was found t h a t the o p e r a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f the A g r a r i a n Reform Laws, as m a n i f e s t e d i n the E j i d a l C r e d i t Banks s e v e r e l y r e d u c e the chances, by the i n d i v i d u a l campesino, o f s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f v i a b l e l a n d . The system o f c r e d i t used by the banks i s b o t h too i n f l e x i b l e and much too c o s t l y f o r the r e c i p i e n t o f the l o a n . I n f a c t , t he s c h e d u l e s t r u c t u r e o f the l o a n s i s e n f o r c i n g u n n e c e s s a r y i n p u t s o f o u t s i d e l a b o u r and machines i n s t e a d o f making use o f the f a r m e r ' s own l a b o u r and c e r t a i n o t h e r s e r v i c e s he h i m s e l f c o u l d f u r n i s h . The a c t i o n s o f the banks, a p r o d u c t o f the R e v o l u t i o n ' s C o n s t i t u t i o n , encourage e j i d a t a r i o s t o s t o p t r y i n g t o o p e r a t e the l a n d they had been g i v e n by the n a t i o n f o r the s p e c i f i c purpose o f f a r m i n g . E j i d a t a r i o s thus t a k e t o r e n t i n g out t h e i r l a n d , an 106 i l l e g a l a c t i o n but one w h i c h b r i n g s a g u a r a n t e e d y e a r l y income f r o m the t e n a n t and an a c t i o n w h i c h a v o i d s the i n c u r r e n c e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e debt to the bank. I f t h i s p r o c e s s o f l a n d r e n t i n g out c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e f rom i t s p r e s e n t p r o p o r t i o n of around 30 per c e n t of a l l e j i d a l l a n d on the F u e r t e scheme l a n d s , the e f f e c t o f l a n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l be e n t i r e l y n u l l i f i e d s i n c e the rewards o f r e s o u r c e o p e r a t i o n w i l l a c c r u e t o fewer and fewer o f the a r e a ' s p o p u l a t i o n . The campesinos i n t u r n w i l l become more dependent on r e n t income and a g r o - i n d u s t r i a l / s e r v i c e employment i n the D i s t r i c t ' s towns, b o t h s e c t o r s o f w h i c h a r e l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by o u t s i d e companies o r by the p o w e r f u l l a r g e p r i v a t e f a r m e r s of the r e g i o n . G i v e n the s i t u a t i o n examined and p o s t u l a t e d h e r e , i t appears i r o n i c t h a t the R e v o l u t i o n i s s t i l l t a l k e d o f w i t h g r e a t f e r v o u r and a l m o s t r e s p e c t , and y e t i t i s t h a t M e x i c a n " i n s t i t u t i o n " t h a t i s p u t t i n g a s t r a n g l e h o l d on the v e r y s e c t o r o f the r u r a l p r o l e t a r i a t t h a t i t s u p p o s e d l y s e t out t o h e l p . The c l i m a t e i s r i g h t f o r the new p r i v a t e owners to make the m s e l v e s as p o w e r f u l e c o n o m i c a l l y as t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , the hacendados, were s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l l y . T h i s c l i m a t e i s b e i n g encouraged by t h e s e same laws t h a t c o n s c i o u s l y s e t out t o d i s c o u r a g e such c o n c e n t r a t i o n of w e a l t h . R e m e d i a l a c t i o n i s u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d . One method o f a m e l i o r - -a t i n g the s i t u a t i o n i s b e i n g implemented a t t h e E l C a r r i z o e x t e n s i o n o f the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t . There i t i s i n t e n d e d t o model the e j i d o s on a n " a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e " b a s i s (see Haissman 1970, 114-121), where the members a r e s h a r e h o l d e r s o f the c a p i t a l equipment amongst o t h e r i t e m s employed on the e n t e r p r i s e . The system of c r e d i t i s managed t h r o u g h the E j i d a l Banks w h i c h a r e d r a w i n g up more f l e x i b l e c r e d i t arrangements t h a n t h o s e a t p r e s e n t t y p i c a l f o r the i n d i v i d u a l e j i d a t a r i o . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t Haissman found t h i s new a p p r o a c h t o e j i d a l f a r m i n g , as d i s t i n c t f rom the o l d communal e j i d o s , e x t r e m e l y c o s t l y i n terms o f s k i l l e d manpower r e q u i r e m e n t s , and t h a t the whole o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system o f the e n t e r p r i s e s b roke 107 down whenever the needed manpower l e v e l s were n o t met a t a l l s t a g e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t must be borne i n mind t h a t f o r a decade or more t h e r e w i l l be an i n s u f f i c i e n t s u p p l y of the d e g r e e - h o l d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s r e q u i r e d f o r such e j i d o s , i f the s y s t e m were to be implemented t h r o u g h o u t the d e v e l o p i n g N o r t h and N o r t h w e s t o f t h e c o u n t r y , a l t h o u g h t h i s s ystem i s p r o j e c t e d now f o r use i n t h e PLHINO p r o j e c t . S h o r t o f b a s i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l ( l e g a l ) r e f o r m of t h e e j i d a l t e n u r e p o s i t i o n , w h i c h w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y i n v o l v e , a l e n g t h y p e r i o d o f c l e v e r p o l i t i c a l m anoeuvring i n o r d e r t o p a c i f y the a r d e n t f o l l o w e r s o f M e x i c o ' s " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r e v o l u t i o n " , s o l u t i o n s have to be found t h a t a r e o u t w a r d l y , a t . l e a s t , n o t too c o n t r a d i c t o r y o f the i d e o l o g i e s o f n a t i o n a l l a n d o w n e r s h i p . T e n t a t i v e l y , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the E j i d a l Banks, a i d e d by a s p e c i a l l y f i n a n c e d F e d e r a l programme, o r g a n i z e t r a i n i n g schemes i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f a l o a n a p p l i c a n t ' s o p e r a t i o n t o i n s t r u c t the campesino i n the use o f m a c h i n e r y . The c o s t o f t h i s scheme c o u l d be p a r t l y o f f s e t by an e j i d a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o p e r a t e d s i m i l a r l y t o the s c h o o l payment a t p r e s e n t used ( C h a p t e r TV). The payment w o u l d , however, be made o n l y by t h o s e e j i d a t a r i o s r e c e i v i n g t h e t r a i n i n g programme. Haissman fburid9 -in his';.study,.that t r a i n e e s can become q u i t e p r o f i c i e n t i n the use o f equipment w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e months o f n o n - i n t e n s i v e i n s t r u c t i o n . My i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t the manpower needed f o r such i n s t r u c t i o n i s n o t c o s t l y f o r the bank to h i r e , n o r i s t h e r e the immediate l i k e l i h o o d o f a b o t t l e n e c k i n i t s s u p p l y as t h e r e i s i n t h e case of a g r o n o m i s t s and s o i l s c i e n t i s t s needed f o r t h e " a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s " . I n f a c t , f o r the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y an adequate s u p p l y o f i n s t r u c t o r s a t p r e s e n t h i r i n g out t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s . A r e v i s e d system o f m a c h i n e r y management woul d be e s s e n t i a l , t o o . G i v e n the e x i s t e n c e o f u n d e r u t i l i z e d m a c h i n e r y on s e v e r a l 10 h e c t a r e e j i d a l p l o t s , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t i n the i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f the t r a i n i n g scheme, the f i r s t 2-4 y e a r s , the s u p p l y o f -108 equipment f o r h i r e f r o m f a r m e r s w o u l d be a dequate, and w o u l d f u l f i l t he demands made by the s c h e m e - t r a i n e d e j i d a t a r i o s . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the l o a n r e c o r d s system k e p t f o r each c r e d i t r e c i p i e n t , the bank c o u l d o p e r a t e a l o a n programme more a k i n t o t h a t o f the p r i v a t e o u t l e t s once the campesino had been t h r o u g h the i n s t r u c t i o n i n equipment u s e . I n o t h e r words, the e j i d a t a r i o a f t e r p a s s i n g t h r o u g h h i s t r a i n e e p e r i o d w o u l d r e c e i v e bank c r e d i t f o r s e r v i c e s o n l y a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t o h i s work needs and he would n o t have to pay f o r o u t s i d e l a b o u r t o work h i s p l o t s . I n t h i s way h i s e x c e s s i v e and unmanageable p r e s e n t c o s t s o f o p e r a t i o n w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d , a t l e a s t t o the l e v e l i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n C h a p t e r _1_V. Immediate f e a s i b i l i t y i s an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n any a t t e m p t a t the s o l u t i o n o f the p r o b l e m , owing to the p r e s s i n g need f o r r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f the e j i d a l c r e d i t s t r u c t u r e . The Reform Laws g i v e i n s u f f i c i e n t t h o ught t o the e j i d a t a r i o s and i m p l i c i t l y e x p e c t too much o f them. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n the case o f the N o r t h w e s t where r a p i d m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e i s b e i n g h i n d e r e d , or s l o w e d , by l a c k o f adequate comprehension, by a l l i n v o l v e d , of the p l a c e t h a t the Reform has i n m e chanized, c a p i t a l - h u n g r y , s c i e n t i f i c c r o p p r o d u c t i o n . P r a c t i c a l i t y has had to f i g h t i d e o l o g y w i t h an i n f e r i o r r e s u l t c o n s i d e r i n g the p o t e n t i a l s t h a t c o u l d be r e a l i z e d by more r a t i o n a l a c t i o n . As Penn (1962) s u c c i n c t l y o b s e r v e s : " E v e r y s e r i o u s p l a n f o r economic development i n L a t i n A m e r i c a today i n c l u d e s some k i n d o f l a n d r e f o r m . No magic f o r m u l a f o r L a t i n A m e r i c a ' s economic i l l s i s so w i d e l y a c c e p t e d - and none i s so l i t t l e u n d e r s t o o d . 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S o urces o f Change i n M e x i c a n A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n , 1940-65. U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o , 1970. H o r t o n , D.E. Land Reform and A g r i c u l t u r a l Growth i n M e x i c o . Un- p u b l i s h e d M.Sc. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1967. M a c i a s , G.H. E v o l u c i o n d e l D i s t r i t o de R i e g o No.75 ( V a l l e d e l F u e r t e ) desde su I n i c i a c i o n . Los M o c h i s , S i n a l o a : C o m i s i o n  D e l R i o F u e r t e , 1970. 116 Mendoza Von B o r s t e l , F., &. B l a k e A g u i l a r , G. P l a n H i d r a u l i c o d e l N o r o e s t e , PLHINO. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the V l l Congresso  N a c i o n a l de I n g e n i e r a C i v i l de M e x i c o , G u a d a l a j a r a , 1967. 117 APPENDIX 1 THE MEXICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1917 AND ARTICLES 10 & 27 R e g a r d i n g M e x i c o ' s l a n d and r e s o u r c e s , the C o n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e s : "The N a t i o n s h a l l have a t a l l t i m e s t h e r i g h t t o impose on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y such l i m i t a t i o n s as the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t may demand as w e l l as the r i g h t t o r e g u l a t e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , w h i c h a r e s u s c e p t i b l e o f a p p r o p r i a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o c o n s e r v e them and e q u i t a b l y t o d i s t r i b u t e the p u b l i c w e a l t h . F o r t h i s p urpose n e c e s s a r y measures s h a l l be t a k e n t o d i v i d e l a r g e l a n d e d e s t a t e s ; t o d e v e l o p s m a l l l a n d e d h o l d i n g s ; t o e s t a b l i s h new c e n t e r s o f r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h such l a n d s and w a t e r s as may be i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o them; t o encourage a g r i c u l t u r e and t o p r e v e n t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and t o p r o t e c t p r o p e r t y from damage d e t r i m e n t a l t o s o c i e t y . S e t t l e m e n t s , h a m l e t s s i t u a t e d on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and communes w h i c h l a c k l a n d s s o r d w a t e r o r do n o t p o s s e s s them i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s f o r t h e i r needs s h a l l have the r i g h t t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h them f r o m the a d j o i n i n g p r o p e r t i e s , a l w a y s h a v i n g due r e g a r d f o r s m a l l l a n d e d h o l d i n g s . " R e f e r e n c e : - B r a n c h , H.N. The M e x i c a n C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1917 Compared w i t h t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1857. P h i l a d e l p h i a : A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l <£ S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1917, 16. The l o n g e s t and most i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e i n the new C o n s t i t u t i o n (1917) was number 27, w h i c h d e c l a r e d t h a t p r o p e r t y was no l o n g e r a n a t u r a l r i g h t b u t a s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A r t i c l e 27 (Ma i n p o i n t s n o t a l r e a d y s t a t e d above i n b r o a d s t a t e m e n t ) "The o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d s s a n d w a t e r s c o m p r i s e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f the n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y i s v e s t e d o r i g i n a l l y i n the N a t i o n , w h i c h has had and has the r i g h t t o t r a n s m i t t i t l e t h e r e o f t o p r i v a t e p e r s o n s , t h e r e b y c o n s t i t u t i n g p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y s h a l l n o t be e x p r o p r i a t e d e x c e p t f o r r e a s o n s of p u b l i c u t i l i t y and by means o f i n d e m n i f i c a t i o n . L e g a l c a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d s and w a t e r s o f the N a t i o n s h a l l be governed by t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s : -i _ O nly Mexicans by b i r t h o r n a t u r a l i z a t i o n and M e x i c a n companies have the r i g h t t o a c q u i r e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d s , w a t e r s , and t h e i r a p p u r t e n a n c e s , o r t o o b t a i n c o n c e s s i o n s t o d e v e l o p m i n e s , w a t e r s , or m i n e r a l f u e l s i n the R e p u b l i c o f M e x i c o . i i The N a t i o n may g r a n t t h e same r i g h t t o f o r e i g n e r s , p r o v i d e d t h e y a g r e e b e f o r e the M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s t o be c o n s i d e r e d 118 M e xicans i n r e s p e c t t o such p r o p e r t y , and a c c o r d i n g l y n o t t o i n v o k e the p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i r Governments i n r e s p e c t o f t h e same, under p e n a l t y , i n case o f b r e a c h , o f f o r f e i t u r e t o the N a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y so a c q u i r e d . i i i W i t h i n a zone o f 100 k i l o m e t e r s f r o m the f r o n t i e r , and o f 50 k i l o m e t e r s from the s e a c o a s t , no f o r e i g n e r s h a l l under any c o n d i t i o n s a c q u i r e d i r e c t o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d s and w a t e r s . " R e f e r e n c e : - Womack, J . The M e x i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , 1910-40:  G e n e s i s o f a Modern S t a t e . I n F.B. P i k e (Ed.) L a t i n A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y : S e l e c t P r o b l e m s . New Yor k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , 1969, 316-317. A r t i c l e 10 s e t out the p r i n c i p a l h o l d i n g s i z e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r l a n d o w n e r s . A r t i c l e 10 "The maximum a r e a o f n a t i o n a l l a n d t h a t can be h e l d by one p e r s o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r e o r l i v e s t o c k i n i t s v a r i o u s c l a s s e s , i s the f o l l o w i n g : -a) 100 h e c t a r e s o f i r r i g a t e d l a n d o r s u p e r i o r humid l a n d . b) 200 h e c t a r e s o f s e a s o n a l l y u s a b l e e l a n d o r of p a s t u r e l a n d s u s c e p t i b l e o f c u l t i v a t i o n . c) 150 h e c t a r e s when the l a n d i s used f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n o f c o t t o n . d) 300 h e c t a r e s when the l a n d i s d e s t i n e d f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n o f bananas, sugar cane, c o f f e e , henequen, r u b b e r , c a c a o , v i n e s , o l i v e s , c i n c h o n a , v a n i l l a o r f r u i t t r e e s . " R e f e r e n c e : - Leyes M e x i c a n a s . Codigo A g r a r i o . M e x i c o C i t y : A u t h o r , 1970, 218. ( T r a n s l a t i o n ) 119 APPENDIX 2 TESTS FOR NORMALITY OF DATA BASED ON SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS Method:- For a g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n N where^u i s the mean, , M s a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y t he second, t h i r d , and f o u r t h moments about the mean, and <r i s the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . F o r the sample e s t i m a t e s o f p o p u l a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s l e t U,-_J=XL ; ^ = i * i ! ; » - a = * * L ; \**2±L N N N N Then the sample e s t i m a t e s o f a n d the moments a r e : = ™ » B k , - * M v 2 k , 3 = £ ( x t - x ) 3 / ' s The moment c o e f f i c i e n t o f skewness The moment c o e f f i c i e n t o f k u r t o s i s % - * < r 3 The sample e s t i m a t e o f ^ = ^  a JH and i f the sample comes from a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h a no r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , 3, i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h a mean o f z e r o and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ofJ-£- . S i n c e the a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s i n a d e q u a t e when n< 150, t a b l e s were used f o r t e s t i n g t he h y p o t h e s i s t h a t g , = 0. 120 I f t he sample i s from a normal p o p u l a t i o n , ^ % i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h a mean o f z e r o and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f J — . S i n c e the a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s i n a d e q u a t e when n<1 °oo t a b l e s were used f o r t e s t i n g t he h y p o t h e s i s t h a t g^ . - O. R e f e r e n c e : - Snedecor, G.W., & Cochran, W.G. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods. ( 6 t h ed.) Ames, Iowa: Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967, 86-88 p l u s A p p e n d i x T a b l e s A6 &A7. 121 APPENDIX 3 TESTS FOR THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e t e s t s were a l l a p p l i e d t o each o f the seven d a t a g r o u p s ; f a r m a r e a , c r o p y i e l d , i n c i d e n c e o f do u b l e c r o p p i n g , g r o s s r e t u r n s p er h e c t a r e , g r o s s r e t u r n s per farm, n e t r e t u r n s per h e c t a r e , n e t r e t u r n s p er farm. ( i ) The t e s t s t a t i s t i c t- has S t u d e n t ' s t d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h rv, + i \ - 2. degrees o f freedom under the a s s u m p t i o n o f n o r m a l i t y o f d a t a and e q u a l i t y o f v a r i a n c e t - ( * » • * X , ) y /n, n t t n.,* n z - 2-) \f IX, S* + n t s i J ^ + ^ ( i i ) T h i s t e s t uses S t u d e n t ' s t d i s t r i b u t i o n (as above) b u t w i t h degrees o f freedom e q u a l t o assuming d a t a a r e n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d . ( i i i ) The t e s t s t a t i s t i c Z has a p p r o x i m a t e l y n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h n n ^ n 2 g r e a t e r t h a n 3 o . z = R e f e r e n c e s ; - ( i ) &. ( i i i ) Brunk, H.D. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M a t h e m a t i c a l  S t a t i s t i c s . ( 2 n d ed}) Waltham, Mass: B l a i s d e l l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1965, 259 & 183. ( i i ) S a t t e r t h w a i t e , F.E. An Ap p r o x i m a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E s t i m a t e s o f V a r i a n c e Components. B i o m e t r i c s  B u l l e t i n , 1946, V o l . 2 , 110-114. 122 APPENDIX k LIST OF BODIES REFERRED TO IN THE TEXT AND THEIR ABBREVIATIONS AID Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development CFE C o m i s i o n F e d e r a l de E l e c t r i c i d a d - F e d e r a l E l e c t r i c i t y Commission CIANO C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s A g r i c o l a s D e l N o r o e s t e -A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e f o r the Nor t h w e s t CIAS C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s A g r i c o l a s de S i n a l o a -A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e f o r S i n a l o a CRF C o m i s i o n D e l R i o F u e r t e - R i v e r F u e r t e Commission DAA Departamento de Asunt o s A g r a r i o s - Department o f A g r a r i a n A f f a i r s DAES Departamento A g r a r i a D e l E s t a d o de S i n a l o a -S i n a l o a n Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e IBRD I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development PEMEX P e t r o l e a s Mexicanos - M e x i c a n F u e l s PLAMEPA P l a n de M e j o r a m i e n t o P a r c e l a r i o - P l a n f o r I m p r o v i n g P l o t E f f i c i e n c y PLHINO P l a n H i d r a u l i c o D e l N o r o e s t e - H y d r a u l i c P l a n f o r the No r t h w e s t SAG S e c r e t a r i a t de A g r i c u l t u r a y G a n a d e r i a - M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and L i v e s t o c k SRH S e c r e t a r i a t de R e c u r s o s H i d r a u l i c o s - M i n i s t r y o f Water R e s o u r c e s APPENDIX 5 LORENZ CURVES OF UNIT 2 WHEAT FARMS INCOME (FIGURES 4a-d & FIGURES 5a-d ) 4a-d DISTRIBUTION OF GROSS FARM INCOMES 5a-d DISTRIBUTION OF NET FARM INCOMES 123 F i g u r e 4a DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME, UNIT 2. VflLLE DEL FUERTE, 0 ° 0 SINALOA - 1969-1970 (LORENZ CURVE) TOTAL OF ALL FARMS F i g u r e .4b DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME, UNIT 2, VALLE DEL FUERTE, SINALOA - 1969-1970 (LORENZ CURVE) PRIVATE FARMS F i g u r e 4c DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME, UNIT 2, VALLE DEL FUERTE, SINALOA - 1969-1970 CLORENZ CURVE) EJIDAL FARMS PER CENT OF FARMS F i g u r e 4d DISTRIBUTION OF WHERT INCOME, UNIT 2. VALLE DEL FUERTE. SINALOA - 1969-1970 (LORENZ CURVE) COLONO FARMS 128 F i g u r e 5a DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME. UNIT 2. VALLE DEL FUERTE. SINALOA - 1969-1970 (LORENZ CURVE) TOTAL OF ALL FARMS PER CENT OF FARMS 129 F i g u r e 5b DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME. UNIT 2. VALLE DEL FUERTE. SINALOA - 1969-1970 (LORENZ CURVE) PRIVATE FARMS PER CENT OF FARMS 130 F i g u r e 5c DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME. UNIT 2. VALLE DEL FUERTE. SINALOA - 1969-1970 (LORENZ CURVE) p EJIDAL FARMS PER CENT OF FARMS 131 F i g u r e 5d DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME. UNIT 2. VALLE DEL FUERTE. SINALOA - 1969-1970 (LORENZ CURVE) COLONO FARMS PER CENT OF FARMS 

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