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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The modern northwestern ejido under mexican agrarian reform McAlley, Peter Quentin 1971

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THE  MODERN  NORTHWESTERN  MEXICAN  AGRARIAN  EJIDO  UNDER  REFORM  by PETER QUENTIN M'dALLEY M.A.  Honours, U n i v e r s i t y  o f G l a s g o w , 1969  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  t h e Department of Geography  We a c c e p t t h i s required  THE  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  S e p t e m b e r , 1971  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  that permission  for  the requirements f o r  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  for e x t e n s i v e copying of  this  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s of  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  for financial  is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n gain shall  permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  not be allowed without my  i  ABSTRACT  Mexican initiated  Land R e f o r m , c o n c e i v e d d u r i n g t h e c i v i l war  i n t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y Code o f 1917,  the e x i s t e n c e today of t h r e e d i f f e r e n t are the p a r t i c u l a r e s , peasant is  f a r m e r s , and  the p r i v a t e  with  farming groups.  b e e n r e g a r d e d , and  The  plight  farmers.  modernized  s o c o n s i d e r e d , as  most advanced  The  areas  interests  of the  hypothesis i s tested  i n a l l Mexico,  Land  ejidatarios,  i n one  practices of the  Mexican  holding,  the performance  i s compared w i t h t h a t o f  have  agriculturally  the Rio Fuerte I r r i g a t i o n  Within this District  peasant  statistics.  agricultural  of Northern S i n a l o a . ejido,  the worst o f f .  that c e r t a i n aspects of the Mexican  i n areas where modernized  become t h e n o r m .  group  seems t o be e v e n more a c u t e i n  Reform work a g a i n s t the b e t t e r particularly  study  especially  This last  a r e a s a c c o r d i n g t o S t a t e and n a t i o n a l  i s hypothesized here  the  This  f o r t u n e s o f t h e t h r e e , and  is still  of the e j i d a t a r i o s  These  farmers, the ej i d a t a r i o s ^  the l a r g e s t n u m e r i c a l l y , the e j i d a t a r i o s .  has  It  i s responsible for  the c o l o n o s , the c o l o n i s t  concerned w i t h the r e l a t i v e  and  District of  the  the  p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y farm. The  comparison  activities  i n the D i s t r i c t ,  differences groups  b e g i n s w i t h an  i n performance  (Chapter  111).  the e j i d a t a r i o s  u s e by o b t a i n i n g of the p r i v a t e  designed  to e s t a b l i s h  between the e j i d a l  I t i s found:-  operates i t s cropland less that  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a l l cropping  sector;  and  that  the e j i d a l  resource  superior  the e j i d a t a r i o s  o b t a i n a much  i n the D i s t r i c t ,  (Chapter  IV).  to  those lower  farmers.  a sample o f farms  to t r y to i s o l a t e  sector  sector;  p r i c e s markedly  stage of comparison,  t h e h y p o t h e s i s and  farm  sector  do n o t c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e i r p o o r e r  from the most p r o d u c t i v e s u b - a r e a  hindering  private  than the p r i v a t e  g r o s s income per h e c t a r e t h a n the p r i v a t e  test  and  broad  that the e j i d a l  intensively  c r o p y i e l d s and  I n the second  the  i n order to  the primary The  i s taken  farms  factors selected  ii  c o n s i s t o f t h e e j i d a l p l o t s where wheat i s c u l t i v a t e d main crop  rotation;  and f o r t h e purposes o f comparing n e t incomes,  wheat-growing p r i v a t e and colono is  found  explained hybrid Nor  than i n theoother by p o o r e r  quality  seed o r f e r t i l i z e r ,  c a n i t be e n t i r e l y  yield.  two s e c t o r s .  o r by s h o r t a g e  explained  credit  source,  constraints associated with  c a n n o t be e n t i r e l y -  ineptitude, lack of  of i r r i g a t i o n  water.  b y i t s somewhat p o o r e r  the E j i d a l  overall  because the e j i d a t a r i o s own l a b o u r  resources;  are not permitted  the Banks t o t h e e j i d a t a r i o s inappropriatedhigh-cost i s concluded  i s unnecessarily  e f f i c i e n t use o f t h e i r  their  t h a t overmuch m o d e r n i z a t i o n  l a n d and  i s being  to the ultimate detriment  i s correct:-  income and l i v i n g  these given.,  forced  of their l e v e l s , and a l s o  The A g r a r i a n R e f o r m Laws h a v e  l e d to operational d i f f i c u l t i e s  and c o n s i d e r a b l e  of t h e peasant farmer's n e t income, though the p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m e v o l v e d was a c t u a l l y  high,  and m a c h i n e r y a r e s u p p l i e d by  to c u l t i v a t e  their personal  that the hypothesis  It is  inputs a r e charged w i t h i n the loans  upon t h e p e a s a n t f a r m e r s , farm's v i a b i l i t y ,  loan p o l i c y .  farm operation  h i r e d labour  of the  Banks, and t h e o p e r a t i o n a l  that source's  shown t h a t t h e c o s t o f e j i d a l  indeed  i s much l o w e r i n  This  land resources,  It  R a t h e r i s t h e p r o b l e m f o u n d t o be i n t h e n a t u r e  ejidatarios'  It  farms a r e a l s o sampled.  t h a t t h e mean n e t i n c o m e p e r h e c t a r e  the e j i d a l  i nthe  created  to b e n e f i t him.  depression credit  iii  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  .  .  i  L I S T OF TABLES  v i  L I S T OF FUGURES  x  L I S T OF MAPS  x i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x i  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION  1  The M e x i c a n L a n d R e f o r m a n d t h e V i a b i l i t y o f t h e Modern N o r t h w e s t e r n Ej i d o Land Reform - D e f i n i t i o n s and P r o c e s s 11.  THE FUERTE I R R I G A T I O N D I S T R I C T : REGIONAL  THE  CONTEXT  10  Large Scale A g r o - I r r i g a t i o n i n Northwest Mexico  Development  The D e v e l o p m e n t o f I r r i g a t i o n a n d A g r i c u l t u r e on t h e F u e r t e The  111.  CRF:  O r g a n i z a t i o n and Aims  The A i m s  of the Fuerte Comision  THE FARM CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FUERTE SCHEME  35  Main Tenure Groups, t h e i r D i s t r i b u t i o n and Q u a l i t y Distribution Groups  Land  o f Sown A r e a Among  Tenure  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS -- C o n t i n u e d  Chapter  Page  111.  Tenure Groups' Performance a t 1st a n d 2nd C u l t i v a t i o n s I m b a l a n c e s between Tenure Groups and b e t w e e n U n i t s i n Terms o f C r o p V a l u e s Generated Problems o f E x p l a n a t i o n , Measurement and I s o l a t i o n o f C r u c i a l V a r i a b l e s Some S o l u t i o n s Summary o f D i s t r i c t / U n i t / Z o n e D a t a f o r a l l C r o p s Grown and A s s e s s m e n t of Tenure Groups' Performances  IV.  THE  SAMPLE AREA  -  UNIT 2  58  The C h o i c e o f U n i t 2 and R a t i o n a l e f o r Wheat C u l t i v a t i o n S t u d y Wheat i n U n i t  2 and  the  District  The U n i t 2 T e n u r e G r o u p s Holdings The F a r m S a m p l e : Findings Mexican Agrarian  and  their  The D a t a and  Farm  Basic  Credit  Sources of Tenure Groups' C r e d i t , A p p l i c a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Services Supplied Operational Farming  Influences  of C r e d i t  on  The E f f e c t o f t h e C r e d i t Programme "the E j i d a t a r i o s ' V i a b i l i t y  on  Conclusions V.  CONCLUSIONS AND  SOME SUGGESTIONS  AMELIORATION OF THE SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY  PROBLEM  FOR 105 109  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS --  Continued  Page APPENDIX 1.  2.  THE MEXICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1917 A R T I C L E S 10 & 27 TESTS FOR NORMALITY OF DATA BASED SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS  AND 1  7  ON IIQ  .3.  TESTS FOR THE S I G N I F I C A N C E OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS  4.  L I S T OF BODIES REFERRED TO I N THE AND THEIR ABBREVIATIONS  5.  1  TEXT 122  LORENZ CURVES OF UNIT 2 WHEAT FARMS INCOME (FIGURES 4a-d &. FIGURES 5a-d) 4a-d D I S T R I B U T I O N OF GROSS FARM INCOMES 5a-d D I S T R I B U T I O N OF NET FARM INCOMES . . 1  123  vi  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table t  11  111  IV  V  VI  Vll  Vlll  Page R e c i p i e n t s o f L a n d by P r e s i d e n t i a l T e r m , 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 6 4 , A r e a R e d i s t r i b u t e d , 19161967, &. R e l a t e d P r e s i d e n t i a l P o l i c i e s Irrigation Districts Desert  8  of the Sonoran .  .  .  11  L a n d A r e a B e n e f i t e d by M a j o r F e d e r a l I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s , 1930-58 . . . . . .  14  L a n d B e n e f i t e d by M a j o r F e d e r a l I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s as P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l A r e a C u l t i v a t e d , 1939-59 .  14  Regional 1935-55  14  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Paved  Roads,  Crop P r o d u c t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the N o r t h w e s t I r r i g a t i o n Schemes, M e x i c o , 1967/68  19  A l l o c a t i o n o f L a n d H e l d by M a i n T e n u r e T i y p e s j Number o f F a r m e r s a n d A v e r a g e F a r m S i z e f o r the P r i n c i p a l Sonoran D e s e r t I r r i g a t i o n A r e a s o f M e x i c o , 1967/68 . .  20  A n a l y s i s of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Expansion o f t h e F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , S i n a l o a , 1944/451969/70  24  Dimensions of Fuerte Z o n e s , 1969/70  37  T  1XX  X  XI  Xll  District,  Units  &  D i m e n s i o n s o f F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , U n i t s <£ Zones by T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70 . . . .  37  District 1969/70  40  Farmers Grouped  Property  Size,  A v e r a g e F a r m S i z e , G r o s s ( a ) &. I r r i g a b l e ( b ) i n D i s t r i c t , 1969/70  43  vii  L I S T OF TABLES -- C o n t i n u e d  Table XIII  XIV  XV  XV1  XVII  XVIII  XIX  XX  XXI  XXI1  XXI11  Page D i s t r i c t F a r m e r s Grouped by P r o p e r t y S i z e f o r S u b - D i v i s i o n s , 1979/70 . . . .  42  Crop A c t i v i t i e s 1969/70  43  of D i s t r i c t  Crop A c t i v i t i e s of D i s t r i c t b y T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70  Sub-Divisions,  Sub-Divisions 45  Crop A c t i v i t i e s of D i s t r i c t S u b - D i v i s i o n s a t 1 s t &. 2nd C u l t i v a t i o n P e r i o d s b y T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70  46  Average Gross H a r v e s t V a l u e s per Farmer f o r D i s t r i c t &. S u b - D i v i s i o n s b y T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70  48  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a r m s , A r e a Sown, &. H a r v e s t V a l u e f o r D i s t r i c t ' s S u b - D i v i s i o n s by T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70  50  S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' F a r m s , Sown A r e a , & H a r v e s t V a l u e s by T e n u r e Groups as P e r c e n t a g e s o f D i s t r i c t w i t h D i s t r i c t B r e a k d o w n by T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70  50  I n d i c e s o f L a n d I n t e n s i t y S. I n d i c e s o f Cultivation Efficiency for District & S u b - D i v i s i o n s by T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70  52  .  P r i n c i p a l Crops o f t h e F u e r t e D i s t r i c t by D e s c e n d i n g O r d e r o f V a l u e , 1969/70 . . .  54  E j i d a l C r o p P e r f o r m a n c e Compared t o t h a t of the P r i v a t e S e c t o r f o r the Major D i s t r i c t C r o p s , 1969/70  56  I n d i c e s o f T o t a l Sown A r e a & H a r v e s t V a l u e o f A l l C r o p s & o f Wheat f o r D i s t r i c t 1964/65-1969/70  64  viii  L I S T OF TABLES --  Continued  Table XXIV  XXV  XXVI  XXV11  XXVI11  XIX  XXX  XXXI  XXX11  XXXI11  XXXIV  Page A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n o f D i s t r i c t & S u b - D i v i s i o n s , 1968/69-1969/70 . . .  61  A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n f o r D i s t r i c t s S u b - D i v i s i o n s by T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1 9 6 8 / 6 9 1969/70  63  S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' Wheat A r e a s Sown, P r o d u c t i o n & V a l u e s by T e n u r e Groups as p e r c e n t a g e s o f D i s t r i c t ' s T e n u r e Group T o t a l s , 1968/69-1969/70  64  S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' Wheat A r e a s & H a r v e s t V a l u e s by T e n u r e Groups as p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e D i s t r i c t T o t a l s , 1968/69-1969/70 . . .  66  E j i d a l Wheat C r o p P e r f o r m a n c e f o r D i s t r i c t & S u b - D i v i s i o n s Compared t o t h a t o f t h e P r i v a t e S e c t o r , 1968/69-1969/70 . . . .  66  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the E j i d o s i n Unit 1969/70  70  The Wheat S a m p l e P o p u l a t i o n o f U n i t 1969/70  2,  2,  T e s t s f o r N o r m a l i t y o f U n i t 2 F a r m Sample D a t a B a s e d on S k e w n e s s &. K u r t o s i s . . . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the D i f f e r e n c e s between Means o f U n i t 2 Wheat S a m p l e F a r m s , 1969/70  70  74  767^8  I n d e x e s o f E v e n n e s s f o r G r o s s & N e t Income o f t h e U n i t 2 Wheat S a m p l e F a r m s , 1969/70  78  C o r r e l a t i o n s between Area & Y i e l d ( P r i v a t e Farms o n l y ) , & b e t w e e n D o u b l e C r o p p i n g &. Y i e l d ( A l l F a r m s ) , o f t h e U n i t 2 Wheat S a m p l e F a r m s , 1969/70 .  78  ix  L I S T OF TABLES -- C o n t i n u e d  Table XXXV  XXXVI  XXXVII  Page A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n o n U n i t S a m p l e F a r m s , 1969/70  2 80-81  A n a l y s i s o f F a r m e r s ' Water C o s t s and Scheme C h a r g e s p a i d t o CRF  97  F a m i l y Labour S u p p l y and i t s U t i l i z a t i o n f o r t h e U n i t 2 Wheat G r o w i n g E j i d a t a r i o s , 1969/70  99  X  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure 1  2  3  Page I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e o f CRF a n d L i n k a g e s t o SRH a n d O t h e r A g e n c i e s  26  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e CRF S u b - A r e a s , I n d i c a t i n g M a i n Routes o f Farmer-Scheme Employee Communication .  28  C y c l e o f Demand f o r W a t e r Scheme „  30  i n the  CRF  xi  L I S T OF MAPS  Map  Page  1.  The M a i n I r r i g a t i o n  Schemes o f N.W.  2.  The F u e r t e  3.  E a r m A r e a s S a m p l e d i n U n i t 2, F u e r t e D i s t r i c t , Sinaloa . . . . . . .  Irrigation District,  Mexico  Sinaloa  13 36  .  73  xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s a r e due t o many i n d i v i d u a l s who h e l p e d t o make t h e f i e l d w o r k f o r t h i s  study p o s s i b l e .  t h a n k s m u s t be g i v e n t o I n g . A b e l a r d o Irrigation Districts within i n Mexico C i t y ,  In particular  Amaya B r o n d o , D i r e c t o r o f  t h e S e c r e t a r i a t de R e c u r s o s H i d r a u l i c o s  a n d t o I n g . G u i l l e r m o A. F e r n a n d e z de L a r a o f t h e  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f I n g . Amaya's d i r e c t o r a t e . would s c a r c e l y have m a t e r i a l i z e d w i t h o u t and  p a t i e n c e o f members o f t h e C o m i s i o n  This  study  the cooperation,  kindness  D e l R i o Fuerte i n Los Mochis,  S i n a l o a , among o t h e r s I n g . G u i l l e r m o B l a k e A g u i l a r , D i r e c t o r o f t h e Comision, all,  S r . J u a n de D i o s G u e v a r a , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C h i e f , a n d , a b o v e  Ing. G u i l l e r m o Macias  gave f r e e l y and  H., C h i e f E n g i n e e r  o f h i s and h i s s t a f f ' s  o f t h e D i s t r i c t , who  time, h i s o f f i c e  space,  c a r , a n d who c h e e r f u l l y a n d f r a n k l y a s s i s t e d w i t h s e a r c h f o r  m a t e r i a l s and w i t h argument. S r . Pedro Vega, D i s t r i c t of the Comision  S i n c e r e thanks  p r i v a t e and e j i d a l  a r e a l s o extended  farmer,  a t t h e U n i t 2 O f f i c e , w i t h o u t whose g e n e r o u s  have seen and understood t o whose f a r m e r s  only a f r a c t i o n of the Fuerte  I a l s o owe much.  t h e time, e f f o r t and p a t i e n c e w i t h which  I should  testing  like  I would  scheme,  To M i k e P a t t e r s o n , my o f f i c e m a t e , I owe p a r t i c u l a r  statistical  to  and employee  c h a u f f e u r i n g , h o s p i t a l i t y and fund o f farming e x p e r i e n c e  for  aircraft,  he u n d e r t o o k t h e  o n t h e IBM 360 f o r C h a p t e r  t o e x p r e s s my t h a n k s  thanks  _1V.  Finally  t o my a d v i s e r a n d r e a d e r  D r . A.H. S i e m e n s a n d t o my r e a d e r D r . R.N. N o r t h .  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  The  M e x i c a n L a n d R e f o r m and  Northwestern The Code o f  M e x i c a n Land Reform, b o r n out 1917,  groups.  i s responsible  propietarios,  f o r the  c r e a t i o n of  groups are  the  and  the  has  not  of  free  colonos,  150  become a  him  by  legal  sense.  r e t a i n s h i s land only  furthermore,  main farming -'See  through The  He  a  enunciated groups.  purchase  ejidatario but  can  The but  Under land  the  to h i s  l o n g as he w o r k s i t  speaking,  i s the  property used  colono farmer's holding  the upper l i m i t  i n the A g r a r i a n  of  is  to i t s l e g a l  of  normally size is  Code t h a n f o r t h e  l a n d u n i t s i z e s and  the  as  other  U n d e r t h e R e f o r m C o d e , p r o v i s i o n was  Appendix 1 f o r d e t a i l s  Reform  haciendas,  h a n d down h i s  so  he  cannot s e l l h i s l a n d , mortgage i t , or  strictly  loan.  14 h e c t a r e s  crops  i s the r e c i p i e n t  e j i d a t a r i o ' s l a n d c a n n o t t h e r e f o r e be  security against  clearly  ejidatario  he  i t , since theland, The  holding  the Church l a n d .  eldest  less  farmers.  the n a t i o n under the M e x i c a n Land  e s t a t e s , and  the  farmers,  d e p e n d i n g on w h a t owns l a n d  1917  around 8 to  or ej i d a l  f o r the breakup of n a t i o n a l domain, the  and  farming  pequenas  on h i s  He  C o n s t i t u t i o n of  regularly;  placed  landowner through purchase.  land given  son,  distinctive  colonist  hectares,  of  on h i s h o l d i n g , u s u a l l y 10 h e c t a r e s ,  large pre-revolutionary  nation.  the  o f b e t w e e n 100  a size limit  Revolutionary  ej i d a t a r i o s  a size limit  and  the  three  p r i v a t e f a r m e r has  which c a l l e d  rent  of  the  hence i s a landowner i n a f u l l ,  a l s o has  Modern  p a r t i c u l a r e s or  i s i n the h a b i t of c u l t i v a t i n g .  and  the  f o r the p r e s e n t - d a y p a t t e r n  the p r i v a t e farmers,  peasant farmers,  normally he  and  These three  The  of  Ejido  land holdings  the  the V i a b i l i t y  Article  made 27.  two  2  for  colonos to purchase land  a very  low  c o s t , the  c o l o n i z a t i o n of  the  aim  in a full  ejidatario.  He  frontier  the  c o u l d be  binding  subdivided  small-holdings,  the  1946.  the  I n 1963  i n the  a r e v i s i o n was  reserved  ( H e n d e r s o n 1965, concentration and  312).  expansion of the  Federal  Law  Numerically Reform are  the  increasingly  insistent  ejidatarioSjneed ejidatarios  of  t o be  the  of modern t e c h n o l o g y problems?  Are  Revolution's being  t h e m s e l v e s by this  as  an  few  twentieth  i s so,  i n c a r r y i n g out  t h e n i t c o u l d be  powerful  on h i m  by  farming on  and  and  to  a reform  these  that  introduction  s u c h as  incomes a r e  i n the n a t i o n .  be w o r k e d by n o n - p e a s a n t s  respect  the  them by  to  the  peasant's  the  because  Moreover,  to  Reform? viability  of  supposedly designed  to  promote  evidence of  land  into a  i n M e x i c o ' s most  the Northwest where Why  financial  the e j i d a t a r i o s  the Reform, r e c o n c e n t r a t i o n  areas,  the  i s most b e n e f i c i a l  around  land.  the  questions,  s i t u a t i o n of  i s i n jeopardy  modernized a g r i c u l t u r a l  p e a s a n t s now  study  law.  r e a c t i n g to the  p r i v a t e hands i s t a k i n g p l a c e  the h i g h e s t  the  for instance, are  that  argued  through tenancy of  i n s p i t e of  re-  Have t h e y o p e r a t i o n a l and  independent a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t  that  How,  century  i n farming?  of  Certain  probes i n t o the  constraints placed  livelihood  exists  c e n t r a l to t h i s  investigated:-  to c o l o n i s t s ,  large private  t h e s e p r o b l e m s a t t r i b u t a b l e i n any  constraints placed his  one  Code w h i c h  associated  Reform Laws'or, i n other words, are  hindered  If  late  as  group  t o communal e j i d o s  revoking  campesinos or e j i d a t a r i o s .  colono  granted-  L a n d s p e c u l a t i o n and  d o m i n a n t and  minifundia,  of C o l o n i z a t i o n i n  for distribution  i n d i v i d u a l s , caused t h i s  but  from the p a r t i c u l a r e s .  o f o w n e r s h i p i n t o t h e h a n d s o f a few  influential  the  o p p o r t u n i t i e s of  made t o t h e A g r a r i a n  itssuse strictly  promote  t h a t of a c e n t r a l -  w i t h d r e w a l l f u r t h e r p u b l i c domain from b e i n g and  to  at  a small p r i v a t e farmer,  d i s t i n g u i s h him  impetus given  actively  sense, u n l i k e  limited  case of Northwest Mexico, the  of Mexico  colono farmer, t h e r e f o r e ,  h i s normal o r i g i n ,  f a r m e r , p l a g u e d by  came w i t h  The  t h o u g h t o f as  l o c a t i o n and  regions  government b e i n g  l e g a l and  highlands'  In the  frontier  t h e n empty s t a t e s .  owns h i s l a n d  his  of  i n the  should  agrarian  l a n d h e l d by  i n these l o c a l i t i e s ?  It  the  3  cannot  be  a s s u m e d t h a t a l l t h e c a m p e s i n o s who  to other farmers  do  so b e c a u s e t h e y  lazy.  Do  themselves  farm or are  too  the reasons  r e n t i n g out  l i e i n his preference for a fixed,  h i s d e s i r e to a v o i d f i n a n c i a l levels  from  farming?  by a n e j i d a t a r i o who  and  s e e no  has  In undertaking t h i s  on  fluctuating  income  resort  indebted  to  creditors Furthermore,  i n a modern a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a , i s and  consequently  i t i s hypothesized  farming a c t i v i t i e s  t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f , and  that  certain  especially  the reasons  The  i n a modern  focus  therefore, i s  f o r the e x i s t e n c e of  c e r t a i n o p e r a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e R e f o r m Laws t h a t c a n be  Initially,  a study  farming  1  exist.  i s made o f a l l t h e c r o p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s  This  line  To  e s t a b l i s h whether or not  or  less  intensively  crop y i e l d s  and  than  and  farm  performance  is  undertaken:-  the e j i d a t a r i o s work t h e i r  the p r i v a t e  farmers;  i n gross  particulares.  o f any  Concurrent  the  than  a t t h e same t i m e  those  After t e s t e d by to s i z e ,  this  of  between  investigation,  performance  t o make p o s s i b l e t h e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the most p r o d u c t i v e f a r m i n g groups w i t h i n s e l e c t e d area of  ejidal  such d i f f e r e n c e s  with this i n farm  of  l a n d more  incomes per h e c t a r e  d a t a a r e amassed to measure the v a r i a t i o n s b e t w e e n and w i t h i n g r o u p s and  whether  h i g h e r or lower  and w h e t h e r t h e r e s u l t  is a considerable disparity ejidatarios  of i n v e s t i g a t i o n  p r i c e s are markedly  the p r i v a t e group;  shown  activities.  the main t e n u r e groups to a s c e r t a i n what broad differences  low  s e c t o r i n i t s task of  the Northwest.  to h i n d e r the e j i d a t a r i o s  and  more c o m p l e x ? study  development r e g i o n , here  risking  income  of paying o f f h i s debts?  aspects of the Reform h i n d e r the e j i d a l maintaining viable  and  of h i s poor y i e l d s  r e t u r n s or i s the problem  plots  incompetent, to  steady  become d e e p l y  i n c u r s a debt  i t , on a v e r a g e , t h e r e s u l t  their  f o r the e j i d a t a r i o ' s  difficulties  o t h e r s a f e way  when t h e e j i d a t a r i o  are  Is r e n t i n g out of l a n d a l a s t  adopted can  r e n t out  a  examination. initial  sampling  stage the v a l i d i t y  of the h y p o t h e s i s i s  the a r e a ' s most p r o d u c t i v e farms i n r e l a t i o n  i n c i d e n c e of double  c r o p p i n g , y i e l d s and  p r i c e s of  crops.  4  In  addition,  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the use  fertilizers,  p e s t i c i d e s , water  and  seeds  cost of o p e r a t i o n i n order t h a t net is  expected  t h a t the e j i d a l  On  carried  out.  Furthermore,  to the r e c i p i e n t  on t h e e j i d a l  farms  computations water  of  credit  i s studied, particularly  i s a w a r d e d and  of such f i n a n c i a l a i d .  r e c e i v e d , and  labour  i s a s s e s s e d , u s i n g techniques based  on  Rockefeller's  (1959/60),  while calculations  income o f the farmer  of t h i s  from  are  of costs to  straightforward  the i n d i v i d u a l  the r e l e v a n t c r e d i t  farms,  t o d r a w on  some  i n t h e e c o n o m i c w o r k done by  These, a l o n g w i t h standard  the  statistical  i n t e r p r e t a t i v e methods were the k i n g p i n s i n the measurement farm a c t i v i t i e s , of  possibleirestraining  income, f i e l d into  is clear  the l a s t  such  years.  i s t h e r e any  generated,  area.  be  writings  of Mexico  from (1965),  and S i n a l o a  d e v e l o p m e n t and  Nowhere e l s e  e x t e n s i v e l a n d areas been put  the  H e n d e r s o n ( 1 9 6 5 ) , and census  net  to r e s e a r c h  i n the study  especially  S t a t e s of Sonora  dramatic a g r i c u l t u r a l  twenty  farm sample's  in addition located  of  isolation  c e r t a i n f a c t o r s have to  i n the f o u r t h a g r i c u l t u r a l  t h a t the Northwestern  In the  the e j i d a l  conducted,  E r a s m u s ( 1 9 6 1 ) , D o z i e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) , and  have e x h i b i t e d  nor  i n t e r v i e w i n g was  From the r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e ,  data presented  in  forces affecting  the s e l e c t i o n of t h i s a a r e a ,  considered.  it  operating costs.  farm r e c o r d s i n the r e l e v a n t agencies In  of  i n c o m e s and  the  agencies.  s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , was  the a n a l y t i c a l methods used  Rockefeller Foundation.  The  the  of  r e c o r d s and  approach  operations ise  the c r i t i c a l b u s i n e s s of o b t a i n i n g  of the data gathered  board's The  net  It  use  study of the Yaqui area g i v e the f i n a l  calculated.  c o s t of e j i d a l  f o r the sample farmers  the c o n d i t i o n s under which  the  c o n f i r m a t i o n of that p o i n t ,  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e makeup and  costs  i s amassed t o a s s e s s  i n c o m e s c a n be  further  credit  machinery,  s e c t o r achieves poorer net r e t u r n s per  h e c t a r e than the p r i v a t e group.  agricultural  of labour,  modernization  i n the Mexican  t o use under modern  n a t i o n have agro-technology,  o t h e r r e g i o n w h e r e t h e f a r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n has  over a short p e r i o d , such massive  crop p r o d u c t i o n increases  *See A p p e n d i c e s 2 i 3 f o r o u t l i n e s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l to the d a t a c o l l e c t e d , p r e s e n t e d here i n Chapter IV.  tests  applied  5  measured i n terms of b o t h w e i g h t Dovring  (1969) have p o i n t e d out  and  value.  and  Behind importance  fruit  crops  t h a n any  t o m a t o e s and  g r o w t h and  new  o f t h e N o r t h w e s t i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t by  Government o f s e v e r a l l a r g e i r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s W i t h i n these D i s t r i c t s  ( f a r m i n g t y p e s ) a r e r e p r e s e n t e d and a g r i c u l t u r e has  until  been the s o l e source  thus v e r y e a s i l y  the p h y s i c a l  idle,  d e f i n e d on  Northern  desert  Sinaloan i r r i g a t i o n  therefore., i s chosen f o r examination  very  t h e same p h y s i c a l  being p r i n c i p a l l y l o c a t i o n on and  scheme on  as  farmer  under  agricultural  i t had  a coastal linked  l i n k a g e s f o r o u t s i d e g o o d s and  resident  f o r study  of the d e t a i l e d  socio-economic/land I t was  entirely  export markets.  further attractive  decided  and  Thisomassiveescheme  ( 1 9 7 0 ) s i n c e i t was  railroad  the  export  on i t s and i t s cultivation  appeared  inexplicably  r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t u d i e s o r i n any  tenure  Sonora,  plain  t a k e n up w i t h c r o p  ignored= of  the  studies.  t h a t t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f w h e a t w o u l d be s e l e c t e d  the measurement o f the sample's c e r e a l  ultimate  it,  modernity  t o t h e U.S.A.  urban c e n t r e s of p o p u l a t i o n ;  f a r m p o p u l a t i o n was  f o r n a t i o n a l and  i n any  growing  i t had w i t h i n  the  scheme  t h e schemes i n  t h e G u l f o f B a j a C a l i f o r n i a and was  periphery, quickly  and  Moreover, the F u e r t e  g r a v i t y - f e d by w a t e r ;  t o g e t h e r a c t e d as  A  the R i v e r F u e r t e ,  of the e j i d a l  characteristics  o f t h e scheme's v a l u e d p r o d u c e ;  for  landscape.  t h e r e s t o f t h e M e x i c a n n a t i o n by a m a i n h i g h w a y and  which  study  lands.  l a r g e campesino p o p u l a t i o n .  presented  rapidly  Agricultural  i n f l u e n c e s of the Reform, because of t h a t area's and  indeed,  drawn between e c o n o m i c a l l y - a c t i v e a r e a s  xerophytic scrub-covered The  groups  o f employment f o r the  areas  s i m p l y be  Mexican  very recently  areas.  can  the  a l l tenure  p o p u l a t i o n of the i r r i g a t e d  line  economic  i n what i s e s s e n t i a l l y  expanding are  other  other single a g r i c u l t u r a l region.  the i n d i c a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l  the Sonoran D e s e r t .  and  p r o d u c i n g more o f t h e n a t i o n ' s  export of c o t t o n , wheat, soya,  v e g e t a b l e s and  (1967)  t h a t the N o r t h w e s t i s the most  dynamic a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a of Mexico, output  Hicks  c u l t i v a t i o n and  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the r e s t r a i n i n g e f f e c t s  of the  the Reform  6  Laws.  The  justification  more t h a n a n y hybridized  other i n the Northwest,  for cultivation  r e s e a r c h by  the Mexican  F o u n d a t i o n has use  f o r s i n g l i n g out wheat i s t h a t t h a t crop,  Ministry  a long h i s t o r y  this  grain  o f A g r i c u l t u r e and  of s c i e n t i f i c is virtually  i n the i r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s .  high y i e l d s are assured  area of Northwest  Mexico.  of the e j i d a l  Rockefeller anddthe  In other words,  relatively  i n the areas  growing  aim  regional-economic  i n the modern  agricultural  i s to e s t a b l i s h whether  the  i s a c t u a l l y being threatened  by  t e n u r e s t a t u s under t h e A g r a r i a n R e f o r m Laws.  Since t h i s b X? c c it. i s necessary r e f o r m c a n be required  paper  and  Process  d e a l s w i t h l a n d r e f o r m i n an a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y ,  to d e f i n e the s p e c i a l i z e d  thought  o f as  or tenure r i g h t s .  ments under w h i c h  The  individuals hold rights  l a n d a r e t e r m e d t h e t e n u r e rights .'; the process of ownership  laws  condition  farming gain access  (Dorner pattern,  1969,  3).  i n the p a t t e r n of  to or ownership  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n must  the  tenure  income from  arrangeover  laws o f the  into  country.  l e g a l arrangements whereby  above changes i n the l a n d  l a n d r e f o r m subsumes t h e i d e a o f c r e a t i n g  redistributing  land  involve  t o p r o d u c t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s on  O v e r and  change  Where l a n d r e f o r m i s p u t  changes or m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the e x i s t i n g land tenure  Land  c o n t r a c t u a l or customary  1  effect  terms used.  the process of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  to b r i n g about a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n  ownership  in  the  synonymous w i t h w h e a t  termed a  farmer  The  farmer  Land Reform - D e f i n i t i o n s  The  Cooperative  crop.  examination of a type of peasant  his  and  seed-breeding  to the sample farmers  I n summary, t h e s t u d y c o u l d be  viability  been adapted  i n the r e g i o n ' s environment.  o f the proven h y b r i d seed  agriculture  has  the  people  land  ownership  forces for  f a r m o p e r a t i o n s on a more e q u i t a b l e b a s i s  than before?. In the Mexican Constitution massive  case,  o f 1917  l a n d r e f o r m came i n t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y  which  laid  h a c i e n d a h o l d i n g s and  landed c l a s s .  The  the b a s i s f o r e x p r o p r i a t i n g  hence a l t e r i n g  t h e s t a t u s quo  the of  e x p r o p r i a t e d l a n d s o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y who  the had  7  held  o v e r 80  per  cent of  the  peon s e r v i t u d e , were g i v e n over the  country's  f r e e to the  f o l l o w i n g f i v e decades.  e r r a t i c , : and  was  of  the R e p u b l i c  Under A r t i c l e  27  of  invariably  The  which they worked. individually latter  system, the  i t s members, w h i l s t i n t h e  of e j i d a l  it  The  to the R e v o l u t i o n , land;  been e s t i m a t e d  the heads of r u r a l (Wilkie  1970,  to set  this  to the  rural  no  period  occur,  which  the  The  aim  on  two  land  right right  was to  to work  time of p o l i t i c a l  of p a r t  could not as  i t had given  from the  per  be  c e n t and  condition that  be  and  one  resources  property,, Code  the  was  given  land  member o f a This  On  to the R e v o l u t i o n .  of  of  they worked i t , l e a v i n g  subdivided.  subservience  cent  L a n d was  years with  only  to p r o v i d e  per  the R e v o l u t i o n a r y  sold, reconcentration  served  96.9  agricultural  small-holdings.  prior  same t i m e g a v e h i m  of  distribution  revolution, i t  problem to r i g h t s .  h a n d e d down t o one  subdivided  is straightforward.  e x i s t e d i n the  consecutive  thus could not  l a n d was  unshackled the  the  received  ejidal  the  plot  and i r r e s p e c t i v e  possess the  m e r e l y has  f a m i l i e s were w i t h o u t  proletariat  of m i n i f u n d i a ,  not  by  i n excess of  land  inequalities  politico-economic  the area  ejidal  individual  the  of  d i v i d e d amongst  Most i m p o r t a n t l y ,  thus does n o t  t h a t b e t w e e n 82.4  42).  L a n d c o u l d be and  earn.  r a t i o n a l e behind such a s i t u a t i o n  of ownership of has  out  In  t h e v i l l a g e was  former system the  ejidatario  ejidatarios,  land communally.  income of  could  being  to i t s income.  The Prior  10 h e c t a r e s  e j i d a t a r i o worked h i s v i l l a g e  r e n t or mortgage " h i s l a n d " , but  and  peasant c l a s s , campesinos,  o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e u l t i m a t e owner o f  the n a t i o n . sell,  himself  the  i n t o w h i c h t h e y s e t t l e d and  the v i l l a g e  generated  was  f o l l o w e d M a d e r o ( s e e T a b l e _1).  p e a s a n t s became known as  E i t h e r the  o r he w o r k e d  e x a c t l y w h a t he  who  C o n s t i t u t i o n the  ejido village,  proletariat  e l e c t i o n e e r i n g of  f r e e l a n d , w i t h a maximum o f  the r u l e .  t h e members o f an  the  of  r a t e of r e d i s t r i b u t i o n  to the  several presidents  in a state  landless rural  The  related directly  gradually received  population  family,  prevented  the of  idle.  other  creation  hand,  since  land ownership  The  conditions  the peasant w i t h  and  under  independence,  t h e h a c i e n d a s y s t e m , and  to support h i m s e l f  could  at  dependants.  T a b l e _1  R e c i p i e n t s o f Land by P r e s i d e n t i a l Term, 1915-1964, Area Redistributed, 1916-1967, & R e l a t e d P r e s i d e n t i a l Policies  Year Term Ends  President  Recipients Av. No. Ha.  Cumulative Land Area Presidential No. o f Distributed Policy Recipients (1(000 has) Orientation (A) (Bi» 46 398 1.3 LegalaReform groundwork  1920  Carranza  446^398  "316  1920  De L a H u e r t a  6,330  5.3  52,728  1.5  Provisional 6 months  1924  Obregon  128,468  8.6  181,196  5.1  Began R e f o r m  1928  Calles  297,428  10.6  478,624  13.3  r  10,618.2  S t r o n g l y prolabour  1930  Portes G i l  171,577  10.0  6 5 0 , 2 0 1 17.9  Pro Reform 14 m o n t h s  1932  O r t i z Rubio  64,573  14.6  714,774  19.5  Tried to h a l t Reform  1934  Rodriguez  68,556  11.5  783,330  21.1  Resumed Reform 20,073.0  Strongly Pro Reform  39.6  5,327.9  Moderation of views  9 7 , 3 9 1 49.7  1,849,414 36.4  4,520.3  Weakened Reform  Ruis Cortines  2 3 1 , 8 8 8 21.1  2,081,302 35.5  2,282.0  Less ante Reform  1964  Lopez Mateos  3 0 4 , 4 9 8 37.3  2,385,800  1970  D i a z Ordaz  1940  Cardenas  811,157  22.1  1,594,487 41.6  1946  A v i l a Camacho  157,536  37.7  1,752,023  1952  Aleman  1958  *1963-67 Sources:-  (B)=(A) as a p e r c e n t a g e  35.0  12,500.0  Revived Reform  9,470.0' C o n t i n u e d Reform o f the t o t a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l y employed.  C o l u m n s 1-4, W i l k i e 1 9 7 0 , 194; C o l u m n 5, V e n e z i a n & 1969, 119; C o l u m n 6, N e e d i e r 1 9 7 1 , 2.  Gamble  9  F u r t h e r m o r e , and be  a u g m e n t e d by  that  ideally, the  peasants'  their vast Directly  credit  i t s own  s o u r c e s g r e w up possession  eventually  J u s t as  from the  spontaneously  created  by  d i d not  h a v e b e e n as n e c e s s a r y ,  the  peculiarities  of  the  I n summary, t h e but  sense.  c o l l a p s e severe  latter  hold  The  tenure  legally  141). the  Not  ejidal  exhibited private  "^See  given  on  possess t h e i r  the  land  their  private  f a r m p o p u l a t i o n was l a n d and  purchase a d d i t i o n a l e j i d a l  in  An  land.  by  land  with  s i z e of  p u r c h a s e more l a n d .  nonetheless  favourable  ejidatario Laissez-  p r i v a t e o w n e r s ' a d v a n t a g e by e s t a b l i s h i n g s e c t o r was  not  significant national scale u n t i l  the  in with  The  the E j i d a l  s u r p r i s i n g l y , the  l e v e l of output,  considerably  sector  been f o r  status.  delay  ejidal  Bank i n 1939  i n assuring  f a r m e r s h a s f r e q u e n t l y b e e n c i t e d as  poor e j i d a l  assistance  c r e d i t advances.  i t not  h a c i e n d a s w e r e d i s s o l v e d and  c r e d i t - w i s e on any  government stepped  had  The  to the  private  of a g r a r i a n c r e d i t would  r e c i p i e n t s d i d not  legally  the  c r e d i t agency  p r o l e t a r i a t was  the  legally  groupjis  the  s e c t o r of  agrarian  particulares' credit  ejidal  ceteris paribus,  ejidal  the  Government f o r the  field  c r e d i t banking for agrarian users. served  outputs,  group i s  securities against  landless rural  landed  could  f a i r e operated  asserted  vice versa,  i n response to t h a t  g r o u p s s i n c e t h e y "owned" t h e i r  circumstances could not  The  l i m i t a t i o n s were placed  The  system are  e j i d o s and  the F e d e r a l  not  the R e v o l u t i o n ,  i t k&d  the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y  Such goyernment i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the  the  been  credit institutions.  t h e s e f a r m e r s who  holdings.  since  maximizing their  of mortgageable property.  in a legal  output would  r e l a t e d to the Mexican tenure  institutions.  g r o u p has  agricultural  resources.  quite a different entity  of  labours,  the haciendas were f r e q u e n t l y not  given  was  the n a t i o n ' s  (Dovring  which,  slower  till  the  growth r a t e s  1966  &  Appendix 1 f o r d e t a i l s  of  (Wilkie  1970,  financial aid part-cause  period  of  to the  1950-60,  than those of  the  1969).  land u n i t s i z e s under A r t i c l e  27  (1917).  10  CHAPTER 11  THE FUERTE I R R I G A T I O N D I S T R I C T :  Large  THE REGIONAL  S c a l e A g r o - I r r i g a t i o n Development i n Northwest The  large i r r i g a t i o n  CONTEXT  Mexico  schemes o f S o n o r a a n d S i n a l o a a r e M e x i c o ' s  equivalents of the C a l i f o r n i a n Central V a l l e y or of Arizona's I m p e r i a l and S a l t R i v e r schemes.(See T a b l e  11).  T h e s e two  n o r t h e r n s t a t e s of Mexico c o n t a i n i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l y e t some t h i r t y y y e a r s a g o t h e r e was no c o m m e r c i a l T o a d y ' s boom c i t i e s Mochis were j u s t  o f Guaymas, C i u d a d  small villages whilst  of rudimentary  agriculture.  Obregon, N a v a j o a and Los the o l d h i s t o r i c  of H e r m o s i l l o , Alamos, E l F u e r t e , M o c o r i t o foci  showpieces,  and C u l i a c a n were t h e  s o c i a l and economic a c t i v i t y .  t h e o n l y a l l - w e a t h e r r o u t e was t h e r a i l r o a d  centres  At that  through  time,,  the region,  l i n k i n g w i t h Nogales i n t h e n o r t h and T e p i c , Guadalara  and M e x i c o  City  through  i n the south.  T h e r e was no p a v e d h i g h w a y r i g h t  f r o m t h e U.S.A. b o r d e r , w h i l s t p o r t f a c i l i t i e s w e r e entirely The  concentrated  i n the southern  end o f t h e r e g i o n a t M a z a t l a n .  p o p u l a t i o n s o f S o n o r a a n d S i n a l o a i n 1950 w e r e  510,607 a n d 6 3 5 , 6 8 1 .  almost  respectively  Today t h e e q u i v a l e n t f i g u r e s a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y  1,092,458 a n d 1,273,228 , r e p r e s e n t i n g a g r o w t h o f 114.0 p e r c e n t and  100.2 p e r c e n t o v e r  the North P a c i f i c  two d e c a d e s .  Over t h e p e r i o d  1940-1960,  region, c o n s i s t i n g of Baja C a l i f o r n i a Norte  S u r , N a y a r i t , S o n o r a a n d S i n a l o a , was t h e f a s t e s t e x p a n d i n g p r o d u c t i o n area of Mexico,  quadrupling  i t s output  (Reynolds  y  crop 1970,  110). The  incredible  transformation of this  peripheral region of  M e x i c o i n t h e s p a c e o f a f e w d e c a d e s i s t o t a l l y b o u n d up w i t h massive governmental investment construction, electrical -'Provisional data  i n flood  c o n t r o l , water  reservoir  power g e n e r a t i o n a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f  f r o m t h e 1970 P o p u l a t i o n C e n s u s , J u n e 1970  11  T a b l e ll_  I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s of t h e Sonoran  Desert  (hectares) U.S.A.  Gravity  Imperial Valley Coachella Valley B l y t h e - P a l o Verde F o r t Yuma I n d i a n R e s e r v a t i o n ( C a l . ) Yuma & G i l a P r o j e c t s Colorado River Indian Reservation (Ariz) C i b o l a <£ E h r e n b e r g Salt River Valley Safford-Artesia Duncan Casa Grande San P e d r o V a l l e y / R a i n b o w / G i l a R i v e r / T o n a p a h / M c M u l l e n / C e n t e n n i a l Wash  15,378 151,760 31,566 8,903 28,328 2,832 6,070 10,926 '50,586 12,545 S u p p l e m e n t a l 3,642 73,654 53,419 404 12,140 2,023 20,234 72,035  Sub T o t a l  392,553  250,910  153,783 29,947 3,237  - American  Sector  Pumps  87,009  Mexico Mexicali San L u i s , C o l o r a d o Rio A l t a r Caborca Imuris/Santa Ana/Magdalena/Trincheras C o s t a de H e r m o s i l l o H e r m o s i l l o ( R o d r i g u e z Dam) V a l l e de Guaymas Rio Yaqui R i o Mayo Rio Fuerte Rio S i n a l o a / M o c o f i t o Rio C u l i a c a n E. S o n o r a n ( S i e r r a V a l l e y b o t t o m s )  12,950 809 230,675 83,771 242,816 93,079 110,076 14,528  8,093 2,023 2,023 46,135 2,913 95,507 Supplemental 12,950 Supplemental Supplemental Supplemental Supplemental Supplemental 7,770  Sub T o t a l  978,510  177,418  Source:-  - Mexican  Adapted  Sector  from Dunbier  1970, 213-214.  2,832  12  infrastructure The  s u c h a s p a v e d h i g h w a y s and  c o s t o f t h e i n v e s t m e n t s has  immediate  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and  The  still  investment  a r e t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r  Development (IBRD),  i n this  the  m a i n s o u r c e s o f t h e much  the Agency f o r Development  ( A I D ) , t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t Bank and The  water.  b e e n v e r y l a r g e and b e y o n d  resources of Mexico.  n e e d e d c a p i t a l h a v e b e e n and  piped drinking  the World  r e g i o n , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  Bank.  agrarian  r e f o r m programme, more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e h a s  brought  rapid  Some i n d i c a t i o n s  growth  of crop p r o d u c t i o n a f t e r  t h e i n v e s t m e n t by  t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e n o r t h and  are given i n Tables received period  1940.  111-V, c l e a r l y r e v e a l i n g how  the l a r g e s t b e n e f i t s  from  1940  about  paved highways, investment The  and  accounted  in agriculture  specific  responsible  t h e s e two  t o 1960.  land, over  During  1970,  157  -  eight  schemes  f o r the n o r t h P a c i f i c ' s  the e x c e p t i o n of the Costaade  Colorado D i s t r i c t ,  t h e s e schemes r e l y  that per  newly  private  &il59). i n number  recent r i s e  output''.are shown on Map  regions  80  50 p e r c e n t o f  f o r 67 p e r c e n t o f n e t  (Reynolds  irrigation  national agricultural With  irrigated  of  northwest  t h e n o r t h and n o r t h P a c i f i c a r e a s r e c e i v e d a l m o s t  cent of the F e d e r a l l y  the  to the f o r e i n  1.  H e r m o s i l l o and  f o r t h e i r water  the Rio supplies  on t h e a r t i f i c i a l  l a k e s t h a t a r e c r e a t e d on t h e e d g e o f  the  Sierra's westtand  southwest  f l o w the  seasonally  v a l l e y mouths, out o f w h i c h  flooding rivers.  The  relatively  heavy s o i l s  scheme a r e a s a r e t h e p r o d u c t o f y e a r s o f a l l u v i a l ulations  deposited i n noticeable  periodic  floods.  which  layers marking  the frequency  of  O v e r t h e y e a r s v a r y i n g f r o m 25 t o 5 y e a r s f o r  moisture d e f i c i e n c i e s .  Annual  on t h e C o l o r a d o D i s t r i c t  t o 910.2  registered  p r e c i p i t a t i o n ranges mm  temperature  ranges  around  a t the Colorado D i s t r i c t  f r o m 59  mm  on t h e C u l i a c a n scheme.  The  f r o m n o r t h t o s o u t h , w i t h a J a n u a r y minimum o f  a J u l y maximum o f 33.2°C a t C o l o r a d o District.  the  o u t w a s h accum-  t h e r e are c l i m a t i c r e c o r d s , a l l s t a t i o n s have  12°C  of  The .-frequency o f f r o s t  t o 18.4°C a t C u l i a c a n , t o 33.3QC on t h e  and  Yaqui  i s uncommon s o u t h o f t h e Mayo  MAP 1  THE  MAIN OF  IRRIGATION  N.W.  SCHEMES  MEXICO  '•2  \<S>  U S A  \  „,„„; o •5> SO O  NORA  •5  0*  CHIHUAHUA  -7 8  N  A  Mo Main  i —  S e t t l e m e n t s of N.W.  & Associated Irrigation Schemes 1  Tijuana  2  Ensenada  3  Mexicali - Rfo Colorado  D U R ANGO 1C  •12  4  Nogales  5  H e r m o s i l lo - C o s t a de H e r m o s i l l o -  4  6  Guaymas  7  C d . O b r e g o n - ColoniasYaqui(lndian) & RfoYaqui  8  Navojoa -  9  Los M o c h i s - Rfo  10  La Paz  11  Culiacan-  12  Mazatlan  13  Tepic  V a l l e de G u a y m a s  Rfo  i 5ft ' y,  Mayo Fuerte  RioCuliacan&RioHumaya  0  <  r  & >  50  100  200  K i lometres  400  14  Table  111  Land A r e a B e n e f i t e d by M a j o r F e d e r a l P r o j e c t s , 1930-58  Irrigation  ( '000 h e c t a r e s ) North Gulf North P a c i f i c South P a c i f i c Centre Mexico  T a b l e _1V  1930 2 0 0 0 15  1940 97 0 37 0 123  1950 363 5 402 21 247  1958 560 53 839 24 400  17  257  1,038  1,876  Land B e n e f i t e d by M a j o r F e d e r a l I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s as P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l A r e a C u l t i v a t e d , 1939-59  (7.) 1940 4 0 4 0 3  North Gulf North P a c i f i c South P a c i f i c Centre  3  Mexico  Table V  1950 12 0.3 39 1.4 6 9  North Gulf North P a c i f i c South P a c i f i c Centre  Source:-  14  R e g i o n a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f P a v e d R R o a d s , 1935-55  7o o f T o t a l 7„^ofj C u l t i v a t e d Land A r e a Land  Mexico  1959 15 3 53 1.2 9  41 12 21 12 14 i on 100  27 11 9 14 39 . i (->•-•  100  Building of Paved Roads 1935^40 Km. 7, 1,429 39 7 247 125 3 12 455 39 1,438 3J694  1 •)M 100  Building of Paved Roads 1940-55 Km. 7. 3,897 30 1,489 11 2,578 20 11 1,457 3,543 27 12*964  T a b l e s 111, V I , V r e s p e c t i v e l y from Reynolds & 157.  lob  1970, 156, 156, ,  15  scheme, b u t 5-6  damage t o c r o p s by  t h i s hazard  has  years n o r t h of t h a t a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y  occurred  so on  every  s e c t i o n s near  Mexicali. Land r e d i s t r i b u t i o n d i d n o t until  the extremely  regime i n the  late  start  active reform 1930s.  The  main pressure  for  had  l i v e s t o c k haciendas  p r o c e s s , and  strong ties with  not been touched  landed  initial  N a c i o n a l de  not  possible.  no  With  Irrigacion  the d e l t a i c  commercial crop  zones o p e r a t e d  on  i n u n d a t i o n d u r i n g the f l o o d  whether  area,'  and  activities  A g r i c u l t u r e was  i n M a r c h and  southern t h e r e was  v a s t h y d r a u l i c and  Hence t h e r e g i o n d i d n o t  of r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n found and was  c e n t r a l upland concentrated  then  support  elsewhere  Extreme  cultivation  t o o many  odd  variety  infrastructural the  high  i n t h e more h u m i d  s t a t e s of the n a t i o n . i n a few  depended  April.  f o r e x t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t i n a g r i c u l t u r e o f any  densities  conducted  erratic.  s h o r t , the Northwest's environment presented  the s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t  cane  s i n c e almost a l l  i t s subsequent germination periods  was  there  v a r i a b i l i t y meant t h a t t h e r e w a r d s f r o m c r o p  investment.  the  large scale  the F u e r t e d e l t a ,  output  l i v e s t o c k o p e r a t i o n s were very  hazards for  crop per year  sector.  the S e c r e t a r i a t  l a r g e American sugar  facilities.  s o w i n g one  In  any  1938-42,  t h e i r meagre a g r i c u l t u r a l  by  and  to  l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l y worked areas  the e x c e p t i o n of the  large water storage  rainfall  the e x p r o p r i a t i o n  s t u d i e s w e r e b e g u n by  l a t e r known as  i n t h e Los M o c h i s a r e a on  important  without  extremely  the Northwest's farmer  feasibility  e x t e n s i o n of the then v e r y  was  by  prominent  justification  gone f o r w a r d  de R e c u r s o s H i d r a " u l i c o s ( S R H ) , t o d e t e r m i n e  interests  much  e s t a t e s between  c l a s s made i t s e n t r y i n t o  t h e same t i m e ,  Comision  came f r o m  extent.  the breakup of the  the e j i d a l  Cardenas  1930s s i n c e t h e  hence r e d i s t r i b u t i o n had  significant With  had  Northwest  for reform  c a m p e s i n o s had  d i s c o n t e n t i n the decade of the  large  At  The  the  p e r i o d under the  t h e s m a l l r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h had l e a d e r s of the R e v o l u t i o n .  to a f f e c t  What p o p u l a t i o n  s e t t l e m e n t s and  along  16  s e c t i o n s o f t h e main S i e r r a n r i v e r s Baja C a l i f o r n i a . operated  that s p i l l e d  F o r e s t r y and m i n e r a l  on a s c a l e t o w a r r a n t  their  hindered  inaccessibility  the Gulf of  e x p l o i t a t i o n were n o t  i n - m i g r a t i o n o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e .  O w i n g t o m e a g r e demand, l o c a l u s e o f t h e s e and  into  r e s o u r c e s was  from the country's  principal  minimal, markets  their national use.  B e t w e e n 1945 a n d 1 9 6 0 , h o w e v e r , SRH b u i l t m a j o r dams o n t h e Sonora^. Y a q u i ,  Mayo, F u e r t e ,  S i n a l o a and t h e C u l i a c a n  w h i c h b y 1964 w e r e a l l o p e r a t i n g f u l l y agricultural settlement  purposes, e l e c t r i c a l  and s u p p l i e d w a t e r f o r  generation,  s e r v i c e s to a production area  (2 m i l l i o n a c r e s ) .  rivers  d r i n k i n g and  exceeding  800,000  Paved highways l i n k i n g r a p i d l y  hectares  expanding  ejidal  settlement's were b u i l t , and t h e Nogales and T i j u a n a west  coast  highway t o G u a d a l a j a r a  The r a i l r o a d  connection with rebuilt  t h e U.S.A. h a d h a d i t s t r a c k s a l m o s t  and r e l a i d  only  with  completely  s i n c e t h e work began i n t h e m i d 1950s, w h i l s t  modern d i e s e l - p o w e r e d The  a n d M e x i c o C i t y was c o m p l e t e d .  locomotives  w e r e now r e g u l a r l y  t r a n s - s i e r r a n c r o s s i n g was c o m p l e t e d  operating.  i n t h e e a r l y 1960s  t h e Chihuahua - Los Mochis - Topolobampo r a i l r o a d .  This  l i n k made p o s s i b l e t h e s h i p m e n t o f p r o d u c e t o t h e T e x a n a n d e a s t e r n U.S.A. f r e s h v e g e t a b l e received  considerable export  railroad's  completion,  with drive-off Baja.  markets from which t h i s Mexican regione has  ferry  revenue.  Concomitant w i t h  w h a r f f a c i l i t i e s were up-graded a t Topolobampo  facilities  t o L a P a z on t h e s o u t h e r n  I n v e s t m e n t was a l s o made i n t h e e x p a n s i o n  facilities  this  f o r the shrimping  industry.  t i p of the  of fish  Similar port  packing  developments  w e r e u n d e r t a k e n f u r t h e r n o r t h a t Guaymas, w h e r e o i l s t o r a g e were a l s o b u i l t .  Permanent a i r s t r i p s were b u i l t  Mochis, Navajoa, Ciudad  The  r a p i d i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n of these  To a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , t h e p r e s e n c e o f SRH a n d  i t s need f o r a i r f a c i l i t i e s stimulus  a t C u l i a c a n , Los  Obregon, and H e r m o s i l l o , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  of t h e 1960s, making p o s s i b l e v e r y main towns.  plants  to inspect i t s D i s t r i c t s  acted  as a  t o the development o f a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . main crop  outputs  of the Northwest's  irrigation  schemes a r e  17  c o t t o n , wheat, r i c e , u b i q u i t o u s c o r n and and, for  depending c o r n and  sugar  cane,  beans.  sorghum, tomatoes and  A l l are p r i m a r i l y  for national  on home demand and w o r l d p r i c e s ,  beans,  also frequently  the  they a r e ,  for export.  No  markets  except  single  production region i s a principal producerioffaawide variety  of  crops, but each,  is a  main producer the major  due  commodities.  to  are mutually e x c l u s i v e .  The  two  crops  f a r m e r s must  once the a r e a has begun t o  the i n v e s t m e n t s needed to p l a n t ,  cultivate,  c o n t i n u e t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f the most r e m u n e r a t i v e  1950s h a s  i s borne  harvest  o u t by  the Sonoran D e s e r t .  time.  The  success of c o t t o n r e s t s  farms  f r o m M e x i c a l i and  C u l i a c a n p l a n t e d t h e c r o p , and the s u i t a b i l i t y  of t h e i r  humidities at picking profits  more i m p e t u s Northwest itself."  from t h i s  mid  t h a n any By  time. single  H e r m o s i l l o t o F.uerte  the hazards  As D u n b i e r  (1970,  of h i g h  246)  c r o p d u r i n g a few  and  local  states:  i n the  gave  Mexican  irrigation  1950s t h e S o n o r a n D e s e r t became M e x i c o ' s  50 p e r c e n t by w e i g h t .  i n t h i s area Mexico  Owing t o t h e  became t h e W o r l d ' s  t h e U.S.A., U.S.S.R., C h i n a , and  India.  fifth The  such  irrespective  short years  o t h e r economic f a c t o r a s i d e from  the mid  f o r the  invested i n i t s cultivation  l a n d s and  time  s p i r a l l e d upwards t o  to the development of a g r i c u l t u r e  a c c o u n t i n g f o r over  after  the  at the  c o t t o n p r o d u c i n g a r e a , the output of the S t a t e of Sonora  expansion  crop.  i n large  of h e c t a r e s were coming under i r r i g a t i o n The w o r l d p r i c e f o r t h e f i b r e  an e x t e n t l t h a t  "The  since  t h e c o i n c i d e n t a l o u t b r e a k o f t h e K o r e a n War  when thousands first  the case of c o t t o n , w h i c h  single  d i s p l a c e d wheat as t h e most i m p o r t a n t commodity grown  m e a s u r e on  of  produce  p r o c e s s t h e c r o p a r e so l a r g e t h a t t h e r e g i o n i s c o m p e l l e d  This  in  f i e l d may  of  the most w i d e l y p l a n t e d c r o p s , have  or the o t h e r , because,  specialize, and  A l t h o u g h any  cotton,  seasons which  c h o o s e one  factor,  among t h e i n t r a - d e s e r t r e g i o n s , o f a t l e a s t one  a n n u a l l y , w h e a t and growing  t o some c l i m a t i c o r l o c a t i o n a l  main  alone rapid  largest  profits  producer  then were  18  much h i g h e r was v e r y  than  today.  T h i s was b e c a u s e t h e u s e o f  l o w , due t o t h e f a c t  that v i r g i n  l a n d was b e i n g  w h i c h had s u f f i c i e n t n u t r i e n t s f o r i n i t i a l l y higher yields  obtained  today  fertilizer  are the r e s u l t  cultivated  high yields.  The  of intensiveapplications  o f i n s e c t a n d weed c o n t r o l s p l u s n i t r o g e n o u s  fertilizers.  The  need f o r d i s e a s e c o n t r o l has r i s e n as t h e r e g u l a r h e c t a r e s i n c o t t o n have expanded; have r i s e n  (Dunbier  concomitant  w i t h this, the costs of production  1970, 2 4 6 ) .  A breakdown o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s production i s given i n Table more h u m i d a r e a s  south  V_l.  o f t h e Mayo D i s t r i c t , w h e r e f r o s t  choice of c u l t i v a t i o n .  ability  than  the northern D i s t r i c t s . t h r o u g h  only are there v a r i a t i o n s  Vll).  Clearly  i n the crop p r o d u c t i o n  theeCosta  and t h e a v e r a g e s i z e o f farms de H e r m o s i l l o a r e a  was o p e n e d up b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l m o s t  cotton,  Since this  event  patterns  variations  e x c e p t i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n of land i n p r i v a t e hands.  interests.  their  activities.  t h e t e n u r e makeup o f t h e D i s t r i c t s  (see Table  i n their  t o market p r i c e and  f r o m scheme t o s c h e m e , t h e r e a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e in  i s rare  greater diversity  t o respond  t o m a i n t a i n more v a r i e d c r o p  Not  schemes'  There i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of course, but  schemes h a v e t h e a b i l i t y  demand more r e a d i l y  of the i r r i g a t i o n  I t s h o u l d be n o t i c e d t h a t t h e  and w a t e r s u p p l y more a d e q u a t e , e x h i b i t  these  sown  exclusively  exhibits  This  area  forprivate  c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e boom demand f o r  t h e l a n d t h a t had been p r e v i o u s l y c u l t i v a t e d under wheat  was r a p i d l y e x t e n d e d ,  w i t h p r i v a t e investment  w e l l s , and t h e a r e a ' s  speciality  i n many new d e e p  t h u s became c o t t o n .  In a l l the  major D i s t r i c t s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Fuerte D i s t r i c t , the ejidal sector,  sector holds  size  than  50 p e r c e n t o f t h e a r e a , a n d y e t t h a t  e x c l u d i n g the H e r m o s i l l o area, r e p r e s e n t s over  of the D i s t r i c t s ' It  less  farmer  population.  s h o u l d be o b s e r v e d  i s the o f f i c i a l  50 p e r c e n t  t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n about  farm  v i e w a n d makes no p r o v i s i o n f o r c a l c u l a t i n g  the a c t u a l worked s i z e o f farms or f o r the a c t u a l a c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n where r e n t i n g out o f e j i d a l  land to other  farm  operators  T a b l e VI  Crop P r o d u c t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Northwest I r r i g a t i o n Schemes, M e x i c o , 1967/68  Mexicali  Hermosillo  Yaqui  Mayo  Fuerte  Culiacan  895,432 171,181  550,321 107,204  1,087,695 206,366  4407J151 108,048  820,094 181,373  822,160 96,837  9  9  15  15  18  16  cC.637,289 Wh.153,079 A l . 46,785 s. 21,277 A. 9,816 Br. 9,537 Vr. 7,885 sg. 5,044 G. 4,371 346 Fo.  C.328,073 Wh.200,298 Cf. 6,510 Gr. 5,670 B. 2,330 Sgg, 2,329 Al. 2,232 Cp. 1,650 S. 1,227  C.494,446 Sy.237,260 Wh.227,447 Mz. 55,794 Sg. 20,105 S s . 18,356 Al. 7,711 S. 6,063 Ml. 4,212 F. 2,464  C.129,721 Wh.76,356 Sy.46,361 Sg.38,528 Ss.23,010 S.20,924 Ch.17,933 Mz.13,029 V.10,189 C I . 8,900  C.296,090 Tm.148,649 Sc.112,876 Wh. 54,051 Sy. 44,718 51^,41,246 R^,27,242 B5.21,834 P? 15,836 VV.13,804  Tm.491,418 Sc.104,879 R?..78,455 Cgff.41,870 Sg?., 4 0 , 8 2 2 B?,14,405 VV.13,460 C 1 J . 9,537 F r v •, 5,586 WKV. 4,596  T o t a l Value of Output ('000s p e s o s ) T o t a l Area Harvested (has) No. o f M a i n C r o p s c u l t i v a t e d p e r annum e x c e e d i n g 1 m i l l i o n pesos i n v a l u e 10 P r i n c i p a l C r o p s b y descending order of value  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  —  5  S y m b o l s : - A = A s p a r a g u s . A l = A l f a l f a . B=Beans. C = C o t t o n . Cc=Cucutnber. C l = C h i l e . Ch=Chicares.§Cp=Chickpeas. F r = F r u i t . G = G a r l i c . M l = M e l o n . M z = M a i z e . R = R i c e . P = P o t a t o e s . S c = S u g a r C a n e . Sg=Sorghum. S y = S o y a . T m = T o m a t o e s ( e x p o r t ) . Ss=Sesame. S = S a f f l o w e r . B r = B a r l e y . C f = C i t r i c F r u i t . G r . = G r a p e s . Wh=Wheat. V = V a r i o u s . Source:-  C o m p i l e d f r o m D i r e c c i o n G e n e r a l de D i s t r i t o s de R i e g o . C a r a c t e r i s t i c a s de l o s D i s t r i t o s de R i e g o . Vol.1,. Mexico C i t y : S e c r e t a r i a t de R e c u r s o s H i d r a u l i c o s , 1 9 6 9 .  20  Table V l l  A l l o c a t i o n o f Land H e l d by M a i n Tenure Types, Number o f F a r m e r s a n d A v e r a g e F a r m S i z e f o r t h e P r i n c i p a l Sonoran Desert I r r i g a t i o n Areas o f M e x i c o , 1967/68  FMaybe F E u e r t e a n C u l i a c a n  Mexicali  Hermosillo  Yaqui  Area heId(has) Total  229,927  143,915  205,178  95,924  201,844  95,665  Ejidal Private  109,584 120,343  1,200 142,715  73,285 131,893  45,845 50,079  118,989 82,855  32,278 63,387  Farmers Total  11,881  1,533  7,655  11,906  15,281  6,820  6,636  81  4,238  7,740  13,081  4,813  5,254  1,452  3,417  4,166  2,200  2,007  No. o f Ej i d a t a r i o s No. o f p r i v a t e owners & colonos Average s i z e of h o l d i n g ( h a s ) Total Ej i d a l Private, colonos  Source:-  19244  93.9  26.8  8.1  13.2  14.0  16.5  14.8  17.3  5.9  9.1  6.7  22.9  98.3  38.6  12.0  37.7  31.6  with  S e c r e t a r i a l de R e c u r s o s H i d r a u l i c o s , D i r e c c i o n G e n e r a l de D i s t r i t o s de R i e g o . C a r a c t e r i s t i c a s de l o s D i s t r i t o s de Riego, Vol.1. M e x i c o C i t y : A u t h o r , 1969.  21  takes p l a c e .  Moreover, the average s i z e s of the p r o p e r t i e s  under p r i v a t e ownership true s i t u a t i o n , concealed to  from  are not completely representative of the  s i n c e ownership the authorities  t h e R e f o r m Laws.  o f over  i n t o k e n r e s p e c t f o r and adherence  U n f o r t u n a t e l y systematic data that might  the above s i t u a t i o n a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e a s i n g l e scheme a r e a .  The f a r m  of  dividing  by  t h e number o f a s s u m e d a c t i v e  active  a r e equated  u n c l e a r e d and u n l e v e l l e d  farmers  w i t h those  situated  Rio Fuerte  just  individuals  by s a l t  group;  officially  these f i g u r e s , as  from years  irrigation  of over-irrigation.  scheme, o r t h e V a l l e D e l F u e r t e ,  irrigation  i n this  1 8 8 0 s , when r e c o r d s show  (frijol)  i r r i g a t i o n was c r u d e  The h i s t o r y o f  that  on t h e lower  and sugar  cane.  spilled  over  dates  approximately  delta  zone,  mainly  The t e c h n i q u e o f  and s i m p l e ^ u s i n g m e r e l y  embankments t o d i v e r t a n d r e t a i n  that regularly  on t h e lower  l a r g e c o a s t a l p l a i n below t h e S i e r r a ,  h e c t a r e s were c u l t i v a t e d c o r n , beans  border  of the Gulf of C a l i f o r n i a .  back t o the l a t e 1,300  t o i n t h e SRH f i l e s , i s  south of the Sinaloa-Sonora  eastern shores  and  i na particular  Hence, l a n d t h a t i s as y e t  D i s t r i c t No.75 a s i t i s r e f e r r e d  and  areas  Development o f I r r i g a t i o n and A g r i c u l t u r e on t h e F u e r t e The  for  the result  total holding  i s included within  land that i s contaminated  The  shown a r e m e r e l y  t h e r e s p e c t i v e tenure groups'  farmers  remedy  from any s o u r c e , even f o r  sizes  r e g i s t e r e d as h o l d i n g farmland.  is  100-150 h e c t a r e s i s  earth ditches  the Fuerte's  the delta area.  flood  waters  Permanent  canals  d r a i n s were n o t i n evidence. By  1 8 9 2 , h o w e v e r , a 12 k i l o m e t r e l o n g c a n a l was i n e x i s t e n c e ,  the Canal Taxtes,  a n d b y 1905. t h e c u l t i v a t e d  8,000 h e c t a r e s .  T h i s g r o w t h was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f  t h e A m e r i c a n A l b e r t Owen ( s e e R o b e r t s o n of  his colonists'  the valley's  1964) and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  s e t t l e m e n t o n t h e Bay o f T o p o l o b a m p o .  e a r l y as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s of  a r e a h a d grown t o  potential  c e n t u r y , Owen r e c o g n i z e d  f o r large scale agricultural  As something development,  22  with his proposal C h i h u a h u a and  f o r a main r a i l  t o t h e m a r k e t s o f T e x a s and  Owenss d r e a m i s now but  the nature  their variety  realized,  of the  of output,  after  Sierra  and  years  later,  the  organization,  the markets f o r t h a t output he  to  the American Midwest.  l a n d h o l d i n g s , t h e i r management and  most s i g n i f i c a n t  immediately  the  ( 1 9 7 0 ) some s e v e n t y  c o n s i d e r a b l y removed f r o m t h o s e The  l i n k a g e over  are  envisaged.  engineering  developments took  S e c o n d W o r l d War  and  a r e now  place  outlined  chronologically. The  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the main c a n a l system i n the  was  f i n a n c e d by  was  b r o u g h t t o b e a r by  the  For  example, the Canal  Sicae, inaugurated  at a cost of  the F e d e r a l Government a f t e r  agricultural hectares.  canal's  c y c l e of By  birth  Presidential  the  cultivable  of the  as  1947,  was  measured  the f i r s t  built some  major  distributing  gauged f r o m  land area.  1947/48, the a r e a  land i n the F u e r t e by  an  1951,  35,000  came i n a  (CRF).  The  c a r r y i n g out  Valley, particularly  g r a v i t y a l o n g , two  Comision f o r the F u e r t e ,  t o be like  the Comision  the expansion  i n t e g r a t e d system of canal  enabling e l e c t r i c i t y  Papaloapan Basin  the  the  w h i c h announced  f l o w of the F u e r t e ' s water  t h e w a t e r by  those  a completely  of  areas  irrigation  catchment,  or t h r e e main  canal  generated. t h a t ; f o r the  ill-fated  (see Poleman 1964), i s o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n the  i s a t t h e same t i m e  An  i n c r e a s e d t o 52,000 h e c t a r e s .  t a s k o f p l a n n i n g and  served  In  c u l t i v a t e d was  o f D i s t r i c t No.75, V a l l e D e l F u e r t e ,  u s i n g the c o n t r o l l e d  unit.  cultivated  1951/52 t h i s h a d  the  t h a t c o u l d be  but  i n Sept.  regarded  of the Comision Del Rio F u e r t e  assigned  The  pressure  (collective) society.  i m p o r t a n c e c a n be  decree of June 27th,  was  r o u t e s , and  1940s  s t r u c t u r e i n the v a l l e y ' s h i s t o r y of development.  subsequent expansion  s e t t i n g up  considerable  t h e G o v e r n m e n t and  T h i s w o r k c a n be  i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s  The  ejidal  18 m i l l i o n p e s o s by  72 k i l o m e t r e s . irrigation  local  late  independent planning  C e r t a i n z o n e s o f M e x i c o w e r e s e l e c t d by  the  SRH  development  Federal  23  Government f o r "complete w o u l d be  carried  r e g i o n a l development", development  o u t by a n a u t o n o m o u s F e d e r a l A g e n c y , b a s e d  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t z o n e , and the t a s k s i n hand. ment was  thought  i n i m m e d i a t e and  and  large scale  l e s s advantageous, hence the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t Los M o c h i s ,  B e t w e e n 1951  1956  Sinaloa i n  1951.  were c o n s t r u c t e d the n o w - e x i s t i n g  t h e dam  and  above the o l d r e g i o n a l  capital  of E l F u e r t e , the main l e f t  power s i t e s a t M i g u e l  r i g h t b a n k c a n a l s , t o s e r v e a r e a s n o r t h and t h e m a i n d r a i n s t o t h e Bay  controlled a variety  complete  laterals.  agricultural  c o m p a r e d w i t h 236.07 m i l l i o n t h e a r e a sown h a d  reached  l a n d was  drainage.  statistical  involved within broken  of  size. The  alteration  year  initial  pesos,  1969/70  cent of  system  the  s e t up  sub-areas  fewer  and  more  i n 1956  had  divided  supply into  i n 1964/65 r e d u c e d  eight  t h i s number t o  distribution,  canal  T h i s year a l s o marked the b e g i n n i n g  coverage  by  the Comision  i t s development a r e a .  down i n t o U n i t s ,  the D i s t r i c t ' s its  The  g i v i n g e a s i e r o r g a n i z a t i o n of water  c o n t r o l s and  was  Vlll).  the Miguel H i d a l g o water The  By  management o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s  shaped u n i t s .  separate Units.  sown i n  sown  f o r the f o l l o w i n g y e a r .  i n o p e r a t i o n (see Table  t h e a r e a s e r v e d by  is  year  200,938 h e c t a r e s w i t h a p r o d u c t i o n  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  efficiently  greater  principal  113.29 m i l l i o n  w e r e m o d i f i e d i n 1964/65 t o p r o d u c e l a r g e r , b u t  five,  The  river  c y c l e under  v a l u e o f 1,029.59 m i l l i o n p e s o s , when 85.77 p e r  The  and  the  I n t h e c y c l e o f 1955/56 t h e a r e a  60,307 h e c t a r e s , y i e l d i n g a h a r v e s t v a l u e o f  irrigable  Hidalgo  i r r i g a t i o n , when a n a r e a o f 124,412 h e c t a r e s was of crops.  water  south of the o l d  o f T o p o l o b a m p o , and  r o a d w a y s a l o n g s i d e t h e c a n a l s and  1956/57 m a r k e d t h e f i r s t  invest-  Comisio'h's  d i s t r i b u t i o n networks,  rural  within  permanent c o n t a c t w i t h  A Mexico C i t y base f o r such  t o be  i n a u g u r a t i o n and  course,  that  Z o n e s and  1964/65 c a n be developmental  thought  of the v a r i e d  Administratively  activities  the  Sections i n descending  o f as  of  Valle order  the t u r n i n g p o i n t i n  p r o c e s s , when t h e a r e a e m e r g e d  phase o f c o n s t r u c t i o n andwwater d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  from and  24  Table V l l l  Analysis of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Expansion D i s t r i c t , S i n a l o a , 1944/45-1969/70  Agricultural Cycle 1944/45 1945/46 1946/47 1947/48 1948/49 1949/50 1950/51 1951/52 1952/53 1953/54 1954/55 1955/56 1956/57 1957/58 1958/59 1959/60 1960/61 1961/62 1962/63 1963/64 1964/65 1965/66 1966/67 1967/68 1968/69 1969/70  A r e a Sown (has. ) 28, 723 3 1 , 558 30, 914 35, 355 4 1 , 906 4 7 , 048 46, 003 5 1 , 729 4 7 , 727 54, 615 7 1 , 685 60, 307 124/ 4122 149, 842 110, 698 156, 290 163, 900 157, 038 1 5 1 , 242 162, 896 174, 314, 178, 408 200, 789 2 0 1 , 627 220, 721 200, 938  Produc ; t i o n (tons)  Value (pesos)  414, 385, 457, 533, 569, 567, 533, 496, 537, 511, 414, 402, 536, 827, 957, 1 ,061, 1 ,133, 1 ,076, 1 ,115, 1 ,452 1 ,544 1 ,630 2 ,429 1 ,954, 2 ,285 2 ,130  3 1 , 968, 35, 592, 40, 550, 52, 458, 67, 030, 74, 116, 80, 068, 88, 148, 85, 933, 99, 546, 139, 219, 113, 287, 236, 074, 301, 111, 259, 532, 373, 396, 414, 053, 368, 447, 425, 564, 585, 248, 649, 229, 9 5 1 , 124, 985, 422, 812, 786, 930, 405, 1,029, 587  238 612 713 892 253 505 559 155 105 090 260 151 295 564 993 888 757 404 452 642 813 432 262 867 127 7 34  of the Fuerte  „ of Ar Sown 666 588 390 091 344 094 974 228 556 964 340 860 333 764 945 315 543 912 000 473 390 830 104 058 033 724  --  57.02 68.68 50.73 71.63 75.12 72.93 69.32 74.66 79.89 79.53 89.50 87.88 98.39 85.77  T h i s c o l u m n r e p r e s e n t s t h e a r e a sown a s a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l area susceptible to i r r i g a t i o n . 1 9 5 6 / 5 7 - 6 4 / 6 5 s u s c e p t i b l e a r e a was 218,190 h a s . 1 9 6 5 / 6 6 - 6 9 / 7 0 t h e a r e a h a d r i s e n t o 224,339 h a s . Source:-  Compiledd  from data s u p p l i e d  b y CRF, L o s M o c h i s ,  June 1970.  25  advanced i n t o a phase of increased  efficiency  The  Organization  CRF: As  within  i n a l l aspects  of  water-handling.  i s a semi-autonomous body,  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of the F e d e r a l Agency of of Water Resources  Mochis, Sinaloa.  the M i g u e l  Hidalgo  (SRH)  Although  dam,  i n M e x i c o C i t y , and investments  whose i n i t i a l  i n the  c o s t and  D o m i n g u e z dam engineering  c o s t i n g 227.9 m i l l i o n p e s o s , t h e  o f d i t c h e s and  a r e s u l t of own  control,  seems t o be to  d e p e n d e n c e on  CRF  might s u f f e r . case.  t h e e x p e r t i s e and  earned.- s i n c e t h e f i n a n c i n g was requests SRH  This respect  initial  a n a l y s i s of  can  i n SRH,  de the  I t m i g h t be  i t i s CRF  that  argued that  as  decisions outside  As  i t happens, q u i t e the  be  attributed, at  least  CRF's opposite  i n part,  t h a t the Comision's engineers  concrete  have  1950s when  T o d a y , f o r e x a m p l e , when  CRF  liningoo'fppartoofaan-mainccanal,  p r o v i d i n g t h a t CRF  the probable  presents  them w i t h  c o s t s of s e v e r a l methods  the b e n e f i t s from the  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f CRF  the F i g u r e s (Comision  1,  2, and  3.  and  investment,  i t s area  In Figure  D i r e c t o r ) i s shown t o be  operational tasks.  although  the Vocal  1,  clearing  a  of  s u c h as  City. this  The  coordinator  the of  o f SRH  i s given  i s shown o n l y  and  to i l l u s t r a t e  illustrated  the  in  Executive  o f a l l CRF  the C h i e f Engineer  i s merely a nominal t i t l e  individual  be  A l l main contact w i t h  Secretary,  President  can  the Vocal  the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C h i e f a l l have s i m p l e  but  Josefa Ortiz  growth. The  and  heightening  canal systems,  s a v i n g o f w a t e r t h r o u g h r e d u c t i o n o f s e e p a g e and weed  in  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  c o n s t r u c t i o n phase of the  accedes to the request  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  source  financial  a simpler business.  funds f o r the  detailed  their  f o r such f i n a n c e .  this  the  the  t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme c o s t i n g  m i l l i o n p e s o s have a l l had  makes t h e r e q u e s t s  based  recent  a m o u n t e d t o 361.15 m i l l i o n p e s o s , t h e more r e c e n t  230  with  and /'.itns  s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e CRF  Ministry Los  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n ,  SRH  business  goes t h r o u g h  of  the D i s t r i c t  access  t o SRH  i n Mexico  title  o f CRF  President  i n the F i g u r e  him  (1)  this  the p o i n t t h a t a l l c o n t a c t  and  26  FIGURE 1 INTERNAL TO  President  STRUCTURE  SRH. A N D  OTHER  OF  CRF  AND  LINKAGES  AGENCIES  of S R H  (Engineer) External Agency V o c a l E x e c u t i v e of  V o c a l S e c r e t a r y of C R F  of  Un i t  Chief  Based  Chief  C R F  Statistical Studies  E n g i n e e r s at C R F u n d e r  Unit  & D A A)  District  (Nos.75,_63a E l C a r r i z o )  District  Representatives  CRF  Administrative  (Engineer) E n g i n e e r of  s e c o n d e d to (S A G  (Engineer)  Chief  CRF  &  Economic  Department  | Survey  & Map  Department  Engineer  Adm i n i s t rat i v e  External B o d y in  Personnel  Production  Research  Area  (CIAS)  One Ditch  Rider  Sect  per  ion  PQ M_J  27  CRF h a s w i t h should  SRH i s a t a s e n i o r  representatives ejidal,  Affairs  to the area  (DAA).  Livestock  The  problems, i n v a r i a b l y  and t h e gramtingg o f land  E v e n t h o u g h t h e scheme a r e a  served  by t h e w a t e r s u p p l y ,  or prepared  population  i s physically limitedd  not a l l that  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use.  land  Given that  i sy e t  the area's  i s g r o w i n g a t a b o u t 5 p e r c e n t p e r annum, t h e c o m b i n e d  of the high n a t u r a l increase  annum, a r i d t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e sector  agencies  o f seed use and p l a n t husbandry, and o f p r o s p e c t i v e  documents.  effect  outside  o f t h e s e two a g e n c i e s d e a l w i t h  e j i d a t a r i o s * p e t i t i o n i n g f o r new l a n d s  cleared  Note  namely t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and  and t h e Department o f A g r a r i a n  title  of officialdom.  b e made o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f two i m p o r t a n t  w i t h i n CRF i t s e l f , (SAG)  level  o f upwards o f 3 p e r c e n t p e r  i n - m i g r a t i o n , the magnitude of the peasant  i s e x p a n d i n g a n d demands a s h a r e o f t h e i r r i g a b l e  B e c a u s e o f t h e s q u a t t i n g on t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s w o r k i n g i t where i t i s i d l e ,  land,  sometimes  o r t h e p e t i t i o n i n g f o r new  there  i s constant  n e e d f o r DAA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  Their  p r e s e n c e on l o c a t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y  land.  ownership,  i n the region.  s p e e d s up t h e t r a n s f e r o f  land ownership,,since the q u a n t i t y o f r e d tape i s v a s t l y reduced when t h e r e Mexico  isnno  need t o have a l l t h e d e c i s i o n s c h a n n e l l e d  City.  To some e x t e n t ,  i t c o u l d b e a r g u e d t h a t t h e DAA b a s e d i n L o s  MSchis i s l i a b l e  t o bow t o p r e s s u r e  private  because o f the agency's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s '  farmers,  proximity sector of  the of  b r o u g h t t o b e a r on i t by t h e constant  t o them, a n d t h a t , i n t h e e n d , t h e demands o f t h e e j i d a l  f o r more l a n d m i g h t b e o v e r - r u l e d  i n favour  o f t h e arguments  t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r a g a i n s t more r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d  This  conflict operation  of i n t e r e s t s i s an i n - b u i l t o f t h e R e f o r m Laws.  t h e DAA a g e n t s i s t h a t  sector only  experienced  to f a l l  or s k i l f u l  T h e a r g u m e n t s u p p o r t e d b y many  n o t be s p l i t  This  notion  by  t h e f a c t t h a t CRF n e e d s t h e D i s t r i c t ' s  on  i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r r o u t p u t i n order  under  up a n d d o n a t e d t o t h e  o f f i n productive  hands.  resources.  f e a t u r e b r o u g h t a b o u t by  l a n d , w h i c h i s most p r o d u c t i v e  p r i v a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n , should ejidal  through  c a p a c i t y under i s further  supported  agriculturalists  that quick  less  repayment o f  t o .keep  28  FIGURE  2  ORGANIZATION  OF THE C R F S U B - A R E A S ,  MAIN ROUTES  OF FARMER  -  SCHEME  INDICATING  EMPLOYEE  COMMUNICATION  Chief  District  Engineer  b a s e d at L o s M o c h i s  Unit 1 O f f i c e at Guasave  U n i t 2, Z o n e s 1 3 & 1 4 Office Ruis  at  Cortines  Unit 3  Unit 4  Unit 5  San Bias  O f f i c e at  O f f i c e at  O f f i c e at  O f f i c e at.  C ompuertas  Ahome  H. d e Z a r a g o z a  San Bias  Unit Office Functions:water control, distribution, & management/water  — Unit E n g i n e e r  r e c o r d s of i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r s / farmer production problems  R e c o r d s staff  associated with water usage.  Mapping  staff  Data compilers Unit O f f i c e  Tasks-.-  i n c r e a s e farmer c o n t a c t s through P L A M E P A / i m p r o v e e f f i c i e n c y of w a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n  Ditch  Riders  to f a r m s / i m p r o v e e f f i c a c y of d o u b l e c r o p p i n g by m o r e o r g a n i z e d .contact with  CIAS. F a r m e r s of C R F g - _  External Agencies concerned with farmers' production levels & problems C I A S (experimental station) CONASUPO SAG PLAME PA  I m m i n e n t line of c o m m u n i c a t i o n not y e t  operating PQM—I  29  f o r e i g n a i d be a c h i e v e d . interest  c o s t s and  Quick  a l s o i n c r e a s e s the  loans being immediately  management f o r t h e s u b - a r e a Although  responsible  Unit divisions  to the D i s t r i c t  r a d i o ; s i n c e a l l o f t h e scheme a r e a  M o c h i s and  sites  farmers  headquarters  engineer, but go  i f the farmer  t o M o c h i s and  management and  Rider  (Canalero)  lateral  gates  see  i s not  Mochis between  Dominguez.(Figure  cultivation  first  develop  Canalero  i s i n charge  from  a whole U n i t .  farmer  Chief.  he  These i n d i v i d u a l s  r e q u i r e much e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h  water  regard  i n t h e CRF  in their  with  to h i s section,  vegetable  garden,  the  Each  management  subdivision  scheme do  not competent  record keeping.  D i t c h R i d e r i s g i v e n a C o m i s i o n - b u i l t stone house, u s u a l l y central  to  canal  t h e y a r e a l l l i t e r a t e and  the simple a r i t h m e t i c necessary  can  the D i t c h  i s based.  s e c t i o n , a water  the  l a t t e r he  With  f o r i r r i g a t i o n water  the  to Unit  depth maintenance i n accordance  o f one  and  The  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o p e r a t i o n of the  and w a t e r  3).  also at  cycle.  s a t i s f i e d w i t h the  the D i s t r i c t  requests  by  W a t e r p a y m e n t s a r e made by  s u p p l y programme f o r t h e U n i t w i t h i n w h i c h  at  also exist  subsequently  i n Mochis.  Los  or  i s most s t r o n g l y d e v e l o p e d  aspects of t h e i r  water  of  telephone  i s w i t h i n reach of the  n o r m a l r o u t e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s shown a s  easily  Mochis.  to the U n i t o f f i c e s where they a l s o d i s c u s s t h e i r  s u p p l y p r o b l e m s and  being  communication between e i t h e r by  a t t h e U n i t o f f i c e and may  Comision's  i s shown a s  a t M i g u e l H i d a l g o and  F a r m e r c o n t a c t w i t h CRF foremost  Fuerte  C h i e f a t Los  Such c o m m u n i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  t h e dam  water  of the whole  a l s o under the D i s t r i c t  of the U n i t o f f i c e s ,  transmitters.  further  C h i e f , they o b v i o u s l y work i n c o o p e r a t i o n  There i s p r o v i s i o n f o r instantaneous any  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f CRF's  each separate U n i t engineer  w i t h other engineers  M o c h i s and  likelihood  f o r t h c o m i n g a t g o o d t e r m s when r e q u i r e d .  F i g u r e 2 shows t h e i n t e r n a l  scheme.  r e p a y m e n t means m i n i m i z a t i o n o f  The fairly  the house b e i n g s u p p l i e d w i t h a s m a l l  power, w a t e r  Japanese motor c y c l e which D i t c h R i d e r m u s t be m a r r i e d  and  telephone.  He  a l s o has  a  he b u y s w i t h some a i d f r o m CRF. s i n c e t h e r e must always  t h e t e l e p h o n e ' j a r i n t h e h o u s e when he  i s out,  be  The  someone  i n order to  take  near  30  FIGURE  3  CYCLE IN  OF  DEMAND  THE  C R F  FOR  WATER  SCHEME  Day 2  Day 2  .7 h o u r s  8hours  m x  CD O  Day 1  Day 3  1 7 hours  2-5 hours o  Id  Dayl  Day 3  D)  3 3  16 hours  5-8hours  CD  Day 1 6 - 8 hours via  Hidraulic  Supply  Day 3  Records  Office  7 - 10hours  telephone <?  * Day  1  Ditch  Day 3  Rider  8 - 11hours  T  personal contact Farmer's  R e q u e s t for I r r i g a t i o n  Water  T h e time i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n r e q u e s t a n d r e c e i p t of s c h e m e w a t e r of b e t w e e n 8 0 - 8 3 h o u r s is t h e m a x i m u m t i m e l a p s e n e e d e d for a U n i t lateral to be f i l l e d f r o m d a m - r e l e a s e d w a t e r . m a k e s no p r o v i s i o n for w a t e r being more q u i c k l y a v a i l a b l e f r o m Unit l a t e r a l s a l r e a d y  The figure primed.  PQM  31  messages from t h e U n i t o f f i c e and a l s o from farmers contact him. ications  The w i f e  link.  as b e i n g  an important  found  role  i n t h e commun-  i n U n i t 2, t h e D i t c h  Rider  a n d / o r s m a l l p r i v a t e f a r m e r a t t h e same  e m p l o y e d b y CRF.  communication of farming other  fills  I n some c a s e s ,  was a l s o a n e j i d a t a r i o time  thus  who may t r y t o  T h i s made f o r p a r t i c u l a r l y  problems concerning water supply  aspects, w i t h i h i g h l e v e l s  good  a n d many  i n t h e s c h e m e ' s management.  In  t h e c a s e o f D i t c h R i d e r s who come t o own p i c k u p s , D a t s u n s o r C h e v r o l e t s , t h e CRF a i d s i n v e h i c l e p u r c h a s e b y o b t a i n i n g a n 8 per cent  p r i c e r e d u c t i o n f o r i t s employees.  The t r u c k s a r e t h e n  f i t t e d w i t h s h o r t w a v e s e t s so t h a t t h e o c c u p a n t s c a n be touch w i t h  t h e U n i t o f f i c e when n o t a t home.  Another communication l i n k which a l r e a d y operates is  a b o u t t o w o r k much more e f f e c t i v e l y  (primarily Sinaloa To  but which  i s t h a t between the farmer  t h e e j i d a t a r i o ) and t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e  (CIAS) and t h e P l a n f o r I m p r o v i n g P l o t E f f i c i e n c y  date,  through fact  C I A S h a s made i t s f i n d i n g s known t o t h e f a r m e r farmer demonstration  that s t i l l  more c o n t a c t  days.  Official  i s needed f o r t h e e j i d a l  CIAS d i r e c t  be  This w i l l  linking accomplished  s i n c e d u p l i c a t i o n o f e x t e n s i o n o f f i c i a l s needed f o r t h i s  w o u l d be b o t h w a s t e f u l existing  shortage  scale  i n manpower a n d i m p r a c t i c a l ,  of the required  Aims o f t h e F u e r t e In  task  given the  personnel.  Comision  t h e s p a c e o f some 15 y e a r s  since the inauguration of f u l l  i r r i g a t i o n u n d e r c o n t r o l l e d w a t e r s u p p l i e s f r o m t h e dams,  t h e CRF h a s b r o u g h t a p p r o x i m a t e l y scrub-land use.  2.-  population  t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e PLAMEPA manpower t e a m i n t h e CRF  area,  The  i n Figure  (PLAMEPA).  sector to  line  t o the farmer  of  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  improve i t s p e r f o r m a n c e i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e d o t t e d  with  inneonstant  on t h e c o a s t a l p l a i n  In the l a s t harvest year  total District  output  200,000 h e c t a r e s  into productive  of desert  intensive agricultural  c o m p l e t e d , 1969/70, t h e v a l u e o f  had exceeded t h e 1 thousand m i i l i o n  pesos  m a r k , no s m a l l a c h i e v e m e n t w h e n c o m p a r e d f o r i n s t a n c e w i t h 649,229,390 pesos i n 1964/65.  The Y a q u i  scheme, a l t h o u g h  exceeding  32  that figure prior years  earlier  private  t o 1969/70 s t a r t e d  than the Fuerte  sector.  The  full  scheme, and  irrigation had  some t h r e e  a larger  p o p u l a t i o n s of the m u n i c i p i o s  productive  ( c o u n t i e s ) to  b e n e f i t m o s t f r o m t h e c r e a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v e l a n d r e s o u r c e s , Ahome and  G u a s a v e , grew b e t w e e n 1960 per  and  1970  by  respectively  c e n t and  63.0  cent", considerably exceeding  per  cent  f o r the whole s t a t e of S i n a l o a .  and  d r i n k i n g w a t e r have been brought to the r u r a l  CRF  w i t h the F e d e r a l Commission f o r E l e c t r i c i t y  mention the h o s p i t a l like  Las  V a c a s and  M o c h i s and The has  facilities  Ahome, and  built  c u r r e n t aims of the Comision s i n c e 1951.  c o m m e n c i n g i n 1964,  Furthermore,  CRF  to guarantee  electricity  p o p u l a t i o n by  (CFE), not  a r e as a m b i t i o u s  F i r s t , , over  i s t r y i n g , by  the  to  centres  infrastructural  development i n i t i a t e d  as  the twenty year  encouraging  Los  of s a l t y  those i t  period  the c u l t i v a t i o n  of h a r v e s t s  p r o m p t r e p a y m e n t o f t h e 230  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f 64,000 h e c t a r e s  regime.  50.9  i n the urban nodes of  more v a l u a b l e c r o p s , t o i n c r e a s e t h e v a l u e  for  the r a t e of  i n the main r u r a l  of course  per  Guasave.  fulfilled  so as  84.9  i n the  m i l l i o n pesos l a n d , and  of  District loan  for  d u r i n g the Lopez Mateos  T h e r e i s a l r e a d y a programme o f q u i t e i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g  o f D i t c h R i d e r s and  other Unit-based  management a t a f i e l d - s c a l e  level.  employees i n a s p e c t s  of water  I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t when  such  i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e b e e n e x p o s e d t o i n t e n s i v e l e a r n i n g and d i s c u s s i o n with  t h e h i g h l y t r a i n e d and  the s e n i o r e n g i n e e r s , to  help  is  intended  be much b e t t e r  i n the most e f f e c t i v e use  member f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s  so  t h a t new  passed  on and  r e f r e s h e r courses  d a y s o f e a c h new  annual  study  the f i e l d work c a r r i e d attending just  such  *From P r o v i s i o n a l  o u t by  period.  this author,  a t r a i n i n g programme.  1970  especially equipped  of water.  t h a t t h e a b o v e programme be r u n o n c e a y e a r  d e v e l o p m e n t s c a n be few  scheme p e r s o n n e l ,  the U n i t s t a f f w i l l  the e j i d a t a r i o s  Unit personnel  first  experienced  At  for  It every  technical be  g i v e n i n the  the time  of  the U n i t 2 p e r s o n n e l A l l involved  were  attended  Census Data o f S t a t e P o p u l a t i o n s , June  1970.  33  r e g u l a r l y a n d seemed t o be b e n e f i t i n g  from s t i m u l a t i n g problem  d i s c u s s i o n as w e l l as from t h e l e a r n i n g p p r o c e s s o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n periods. Concurrent  w i t h t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e p a y m e n t scheme a n d t h e  t r a i n i n g programmes o f U n i t employees t o a i d i n t h e g r o w t h o f ejidatarios' (PLHINO).  outputs,  there i s the H y d r a u l i c P l a n f o r the Northwest  The i d e a b e h i n d  PLHINO i s somewhat s i m i l a r  of t r a n s p o r t i n g water t o southern as W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e . in  the middle  of  level usable  Simply  California  from as f a r d i s t a n t  stated,there i s a shortage  land.  In southern  large scale agricultural  calls  S i n a l o a t h e r e i s an o v e r -  develppment.  f o r the d i v e r s i o n of the south's  t h a t w o u l d be g o o d  The PLHINO  mere e x p a n s i o n  of the e x i s t i n g  b e t w e e n demand a n d  for  facilities,  o p e r a t i o n by 1980.  development and  so t i g h t  is. the balance  i n 1965, i s e x p e c t e d  t o be f i n i s h e d  From t h e P i a x t l a R i v e r i n s o u t h e r n  17 r i v e r s '  flows w i l l  finally  generation of e l e c t r i c i t y . pesos which i s s p l i t for flood  facilities.  The e s t i m a t e d  4,520 m i l l i o n  c o n t r o l s a n d 605 m i l l i o n  I t i s planned  date,  there w i l l  million  c o s t s , 315  f o r power  generation  t o d i v e r t w a t e r as f a r n o r t h as  Guaymas, a n d c l e v e r s e l e c t i o n o f dam s i t e s r o u t e s means  harnessed  and f o r t h e  c o s t i s 5,440  for irrigation  and  Sinaloa  be r e g u l a t e d a n d  t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f an a d d i t i o n a l 426,000 h e c t a r e s  million  to the  supply.  The p l a n , i n a u g u r a t e d  northwards,  scheme  surplus water supply  needy n o r t h where i t i s r e q u i r e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l  in  of water  a n d n o r t h e r n S o n o r a n schemes y e t t h e r e i s a n abundance©  a b u n d a n c e o f w a t e r b u t ho s i z e a b l e l e v e l p l a i n for  to the task  and c o n d u c t i o n  be no n e e d f o r p u m p i n g t h e w a t e r .  canal To  t h e a g e n c y i n c h a r g e o f much o f t h e p l a n n i n g a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f t h e r e q u i r e d dams a n d c a n a l s i s CRF. of the proposed continuous  Based r i g h t  expanse o f i r r i g a t e d  land that w i l l  t h e o u t c o m e o f PLHINO, L o s M o c h i s seems a n o b v i o u s coordination of t h i s  be  choice f o r  complex development.  Intimately related PLAMEPA,  i n the centre  t o t h e PLHINO i s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  t h e scheme d i r e c t e d a t i m p r o v i n g  plot efficiency  of particularly  34  w i t h r e s p e c t to the r e c l a m a t i o n of wasted water. also being carried  out  i n shrimp  b r e e d i n g , a l o n g the  c o a s t l i n e of the Fuerte D i s t r i c t . of  years, s e c t i o n s of  artificial  ponds t h e s h r i m p s  c o n d i t i o n s and of  leasing  may  lagoons  Research  In tests  over  lagoon  the  last  augment t h e i r  couple  have been c l o s e d o f f to t i d e s .  In  the  have bred under s e m i - l a b o r a t o r y  have t h r i v e d , p r o t e c t e d from p r e d a t o r s .  lagoon areas  is  to e j i d a t a r i o s  incomes from  i s proposed  A  system  so t h a t  trade with this valued  they  export  commodity. Although assisting  t h e CRF  the e j i d a l  i s now  more i m m e d i a t e l y  s e c t o r than  initially,  concerned  there i s s t i l l a a *  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h i s a g e n c y ' s f i n a n c i a l , and manpower on a q u a - e n g i n e e r i n g t h e r e i s now and area  a more c o m p l e t e  i n M e x i c o as  be  resources  development framework w i t h i n s e r v e d an  the  the Fuerte D i s t r i c t w i t h r e s p e c t to water,  a g r o - i n d u s t r i e s and  instructive  effective  that  to observe  s e r v i c e s and over  the next  years  the newly o r g a n i z e d S i n a l o a n Department of  (DAES) i s i n h e l p i n g t h e e j i d a l usage of the a v a i l a b l e  farming  resources.  power,  research  even c r e d i t . 5-10  area  agricultural  t r a n s p o r t , market c o n t a c t s , e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s ,  facilities,  marked  I t s h o u l d , h o w e v e r , be n o t e d  i t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r t h e r e i s as w e l l  seeds,  will  projects.  with  It how  Agriculture  s e c t o r to improve i t s  35  CHAPTER  THE  111  FARM CHARACTERISTICS OF  THE  FUERTE SCHEME  M a i n T e n u r e G r o u p s , t h e i r L a n d D i s t r i b u t i o n and It and  i s now  the  necessary  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  understand  the  to examine the the  tenure c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Fuerte farmers'  system of p r o d u c t i o n  i n the  land  and  As CRF  private  stated  i n t o f i v e main U n i t s ,  Canal Del  t o r e s p e c t i v e l y as the  villages water are Bias  are  of  the  used.  Unit  are be  be  small 1,  2,  by  areas north  the  and  These s m a l l Zone 14.  District  of  3, w h i c h a r e  areas are  To  the  i s located  Map  1-4,  Zones 13 and  by ?the C a n a l D e l river  delta, i s supplied  and  north  other two  pumped El  while  irrigation  Fuerte-San Unit  the  5,  3.  i n T a b l e _1X.  The  the  the  These d i m e n s i o n s are  for Unit  the  gross  i r r i g a b l e or not,  The  d e t a i l s of  the  The  data presented  Units  and  r e l a t i v e importance of colonos<(see Table  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  the  land  the  private  4  to  area whether  Zones  i n t h i s Table  f u r t h e r b r o k e n down i n t o t h e m a i n t e n u r e g r o u p s t o g i v e  e j i d o s and  on  Canal  ( 1 9 7 0 ) r a n g e f r o m 38,966 h e c t a r e s  for Unit  the  by  referred  e a s t and  one  by  fed  2).  s a l t y or u n l e v e l l e d .  indicated  14,  Fuerte,  i n c l u d i n g a l l l a n d w h e t h e r i t be  i n d i c a t i o n of the  the  sizes  57,225 h e c t a r e s  it  Units  a l l sullied  Cahuinahua (see  figures,  Unit  canal.  the  are  fed w i t h water  same names, w h e r e b o t h g r a v i t y and  of  the  the  l o c a t i o n named E l F u e r t e - S a n B i a s , b e t w e e n t h e  northern side  The  on  Zone 13 and  c e n t r a l area of  irrigated  a l l of w h i c h are  bordering  pumped w a t e r f r o m t h a t  of  to  e x i s t between  D i s t r i c t No.75 i s d i v i d e d by  i n a d d i t i o n there  Fuerte,  and  to  sectors.  previously,  gravity, while  i n order  District,  e s t a b l i s h what broad performance d i f f e r e n c e s ejidal  Quality  can  an  properties,  X). i n the  t e n u r e g r o u p s shown i n  37  T a b l e IX  Dimensions  of Fuerte D i s t r i c t , (hectares)  Area  Irrigable  43,568.81 57,166.33 57,225.95 38,966.88 40,138.32 237,066.29 15,617.63 10,563.85 56,862.04 320,109.81  Gross Unit 1 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Sub T o t a l Zone 13 Zone 14 E l Fuerte/San  Bias  District  U n i t s & Zones,  1969/70  33,502.84 42,957.10 50,188.00 20,944.24 15,322.76 162,914.94 12,800.10 5,819.10 4,603.04  45,376.00  186,137.18  54,498.93  79,970.69  «Unlevelled Table X  Dimensions of Fuerte D i s t r i c t , G r o u p s , 1969/70 (hectares)  Gross Unit  1  P r i v a t e (P) E j i d a l (E) Unit 2 (P) (E) Colono Unit 3 (P) (E) Unit 4 (P) (E) Unit 5 (P) (E) Sub T o t a l ( P ) (E) Zone 13 ( P ) (E)  (c) Zone 14 ( P ) (E) E l Fte/Sn B l . (P) (F) (E) District(P) (E)  (c) Source:-  Compiled  Area  15,721 27,847 25,310 28,558 3,297 14,139 40,086 12,078 25,988 11,263 28,874 79,412 154,355 11,588 3,525 503 160 10,403 1,611 55,250 92,772 223,633 3,800  Annexed  Salty & Unlevelled 6,874.29 3,084.67 2,571.34 16,604.16 11J522.81 40,657.27 1,716.91* 4,744.75 7,380.00  Units &  Irrigable 12,404 21,098 22,475 17,291 3,190 12,634 37,553 8,376 12,567 7,313 8,009 63,204 96,520 10,374 1,925 499 160 5,658 1,611 2,991 75,350 107,094 3,689  f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y  1970.  3,191.68 11,124.56 4,466.61 1,418.48 13,292.74 33,494.07 1,100.62  only.  Zones by T e n u r e  Salty & Unlevelled 2,724 4,131 599 2,467 17 750 3,715 4,237 5,868 3,079 4,049 11,414 19,224 624* 1,092*  4,744-'." 6,883 12,038 31,944 17 *Unlevelled  Annexed 573 2,617 2,234 8,799 90 753 1,817 363 1,054 869 12,422 4,793 28,610 589 507 4  --45,376 5,382 74,493 94 only.  38  T a b l e X c a n be s u m m a r i z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r . the 22.7 and  private properties  per cent o f the D i s t r i c t ' s unlevelled  respectively  the  respect±vely336£9pperceent a n d total  (enmontado) l a n d .  area i n s a l t y  land  (ensalitrado)  The e j i d o s , f o r t h e i r p a r t ,  63.1 p e r c e n t a n d 77.2 p e r c e n t ,  breakdown f o r annexed 85.4  contained  I n June 1970,  while  the respective  ( a n e x i o n e s ) was 14.3 p e r c e n t a n d  p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e p r i v a t e and e j i d a l slight difference  accounted  sectors^  i n t h e combined p e r c e n t a g e t o t a l s i s  f o r by t h e p r e s e n c e M  Uhitc2.1.of:.the:;colono  o f v i r t u a l l y no s i g n i f i c a n c e when t h e w h o l e D i s t r i c t considered.  per  lands are s a l t y , u n l e v e l l e d  cent i s the equivalent  from land  overall,the ejidal of use by h i g h and  f i g u r e f o r the e j i d a l  private 37.4  lands.  the e j i d a l  sector  sector  salinity,  i s worse o f f w i t h land  regard  t o l l a n d out  t i e d up i n a n n e x a t i o n  difficulties,  land unused because i t i s n o t l e v e l l e d .  in  the D i s t r i c t  in  t h e c y c l e o f 1956/57.  took place  The a r e a s f i r s t adjacent  T h i s was p r i m a r i l y due t o t h e r i s e  r a p i d l y and e x t e n s i v e l y irrigation  of the already  were h e l d  Unfortunately  by e j i d a t a r i o s .  high water  time were h i g h  content owing t o o v e r - i r r i g a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t  scrub cover.  i n Units  i n saline  time a f t e r clearance  I n 1 9 6 4 , a l m o s t one t h i r d  of  i n v e s t m e n t was made,  t h r o u g h t h e M e x i c a n b a n k s a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t , who h a d M a s s i v e open d r a i n s ,  10 m e t r e s d e e p , w e r e e x c a v a t e d c r o s s i n g located  primarily i n Units  desert  areas  of the e n t i r e  D i s t r i c t was i n i m m e d i a t e d a n g e r o f g o i n g o u t o f p r o d u c t i o n  f u n d s f r o m A I D a n d IBRD.  table  l a n d , much o f  many o f t h e s e c o a s t a l s t r i p  s a l t a c c u m u l a t i o n s , so a l a r g e  1-5.„  became t r a p p e d n e a r t h e t i d e -  The d r a i n a g e w a t e r s a t t h i s  w h i c h was b e i n g w o r k e d f o r t h e f i r s t  began  a f f e c t e d by s a l t  to the shoreline,  drainage waters from the D i s t r i c t  water areas.  quite  a l m o s t as soon as l a r g e - s c a l e  a c c u m u l a t i o n were l o c a t e d  of  overall  s a l i n i t y more t h a n does t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , a n d ,  S a l i n i z a t i o n of land  as  i s being  and annexed, w h i l e  From t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e i t a p p e a r s t h a t suffers  sector,  I n o t h e r w o r d s , 20.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l  properties'  held  because  financed received  20 m e t r e s w i d e by  the worst h i t areas,  2-4, a n d w i t h i n a s p a c e o f t h r e e  years,  39  80  per  use  cent of  t h e m o s t damaged l a n d was  coming back i n t o  again. Salinity  a f f e c t e d by  p r o b l e m s do,  them a r e now  fewer than areas unlevelled  the  be  described  vegetation  it  been w o r t h the  put  the  while  cover.  u n l e v e l l e d land  i n the  case of  For  i n t o use,  the  be  dispute  d i m i n i s h i n g , and  land  annexed  agencies  put  land,  f o r t u n a t e and represents private  reasons  labour  and  prepare the  expense  their existing  land  not  from  certain operational  to  supplies,  acquired  enough  l a n d , even i f they wanted  their  legal  those areas that are  o w n e r s h i p and  title,  to productive  i n the  18.5  sector  per  yet  ejidal  wasteful,  use,  awarded the  cent of  their  total  per  p r i v a t e , 28,610 h a .  s h a r e o f p o o r o r damaged l a n d  Valley,  Sinaloa.  to w a i t  productive It of  I t should  upwards of land  i s now the  holding  area  of  tenure  d i s t r i b u t i o n of i s given  s e c t o r has  the  the  than Fuerte  e j i d a t a r i o s here potentially  Desert!  examination of  the  holding  to a s c e r t a i n  land.  f a r m e r s by  i n T a b l e XJL.  the  considerable  more  case of  g r o u p s a t a more d e t a i l e d l e v e l their  a  I t appears that  r e c a l l e d t h a t the  opportune to t u r n to the  District  Even i n  cent, which i s s t i l l  Sonoran  been  government  f o r the whole  i s t r u e i n the  the  not  "deeds".  land h o l d i n g .  ejidal).  have  i s e s p e c i a l l y un-  35 y e a r s f o r " o w n e r s h i p " o f  in this  r e s p e c t i v e uses of The  be  that  l a n d has  official  the annexed area  i t r e g i s t e r s 6.0  (4,793 ha.  The  case p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  since  and  under  p r i m a r i l y because the  w e l l - a i r e d a s s e r t i o n t h a t the Mexican e j i d a l  the  t h a t , t o date^has  e j i d a t a r i o s they have not  i n v o l v e d have not  idle  sizes  The  scrubby  given  land c o n s i s t s of  regarding  p r e p a r e d and  had  are  i t s characteristic  been e l a i m e d ^ b y n d n e a t e h u r e r g f o u p i o r another.  area  areas  so. The  This  but  easily distinguished  p r i v a t e farmers'  f i n a n c i a l a i d t o c l e a r and t o do  can  exist,  annexed c a t e g o r i e s .  m e r e l y as  c u l t i v a t e d a r e a s by  xerophytic not  still  u n d e r c o n t r o l and  f o r c u l t i v a t i o n and  surrounding  has  of course,  i n t h e u n l e v e l l e d and  land can  been p r e p a r e d  its  productive  The  tenure data  m e m b e r s h i p and  s i z e of  have been grouped  into  40  Table XI  District  Private 0-5 h e c t a r e s 5.1-10 10.1-20 20.1-30 30.1-40 40.1-50 50.1-100 + 100 Total  Farmers Grouped by P r o p e r t y S i z e ,  Units  1-5  1969/70  Z o n e s 13 <£ 14  E l F t e / S n B]  597 291 242 172 104 230 536 33  6 4 27 11 11 45 89 1  50 16 7 6 7 6 7  2,205  194  99  --  ---  --  Colono 0-5 5.1-10 10.1-20 20.1-30 30.1-40 40.1-50 50.1-100 + 100  3 197 31 7 2 3 6  Total  249  27  0-5 5.1-10 10.1-20 + 20.1  2,220 10,710 745  319 422 70  477 161 18  --  --  Total  13,675  811  657  16,129  1,032  756  --  1 14 11 1  --  --  ----  Ejidal  Total  Overall  Source:- Compiled  --  f r o m GREadata, J u l y 1970.  41  t h r e e s e c t i o n s , U n i t s 1-5, B i a s because i t i s f e l t District  level hides  endowment.  Z o n e s 13 and  g r o u p was  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d  Zone 13. not  For  how  s m a l l the colono  ejidal  the purposes  examined, except  for  f a r m i n g g r o u p was t h e D i s t r i c t was  size,  so  i n the  c a n be  their distribution  cent of the e j i d a l  27  cent of the p r i v a t e  24 p e r  of t h i s  as  c a n be  i s found study,  section  i s concentrated.  farms are  The  of r e n t i n g out of  Otherwise, significance  f r o m any  l a n d by  s o u r c e , and  g i v e a more o p e r a t i o n a l l y c o n c e r n i n g r e n t i n g was  concentrated  Comision,  and was  (see Chapter l a n d was  The  i n the  from  The  individual  farmers  down i n t o g r o s s a r e a and u n l e v e l l e d and  salty  50 p e r  t h e same t i m e  i r r i g a b l e area.  land, which  and  cent of  ejidal  tenure group f o r  the b i g d i f f e r e n c e s the farm The  i s nonetheless  sizes are  registered  the  registered  p r i v a t e and  broken  gross area includes  C l e a r l y U n i t 2 i s o u t s t a n d i n g as  officially  the  Haissman  i n d i v i d u a l ownership. largest,  type  out.  sub-divisions, highlighting At  ejidatarios  only information  no more p r e c i s e t h a n t h a t g i v e n by  farms.  and  t a k e not'd  the o n l y  picture.  g i v e s t h e s i z e o f t h e f a r m s by  between sub-area  middle  i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y not p o s s i b l e to  e s t i m a t e d as b e i n g r e n t e d  the D i s t r i c t ' s  say,  section i s  to other  data are  _1V, 8 6 ) w h e r e b e t w e e n 30 and  Table X l l l  and  That i s to  of course,  ejidatarios  realistic  gleaned  range,  hectare range  data given here,  grouped  For i n s t a n c e ,  of the s m a l l h o l d i n g s s c a l e  to p r i v a t e property operators.  available  the  i n t h e 5.1-10 h e c t a r e  f a r m s i n t h e 0-5  c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t h e b o t t o m end  account  colono  s e e n t h a t when t h e f a r m s a r e  i s predominantly  a l s o a t the top end.  seen  only i n  the  i n U n i t 2.  s c a l e of the v e r y s m a l l h o l d i n g s w h i l e the p r i v a t e  or  sector i s  c e n t o f them i n t h e 50.1-100 h e c t a r e r a n g e .  the e j i d a l  i n land  l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n on out  the  slight.  78 p e r per  and,  ignored since i t s numerical  From T a b l e X l l i i t by  groups,  type of e x p l o i t a t i o n  p r o d u c t i o n aspects of wheat, c a r r i e d this  Fuerte-San  t o o many o f t h e i m p o r t a n t v a r i a t i o n s  from Table X I 1 , the colono 2 and  El  that p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s m a t e r i a l at  c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e p r i v a t e and  Unit  14, and  ejidal  under  having  operations  Table X l l l  District  Unit Private 0-5 h e c t a r e s 511-10 10.1-20 20.1-30 30.1-40 40.1-50 50.1-100 + 100 Total Colono 0-5 5.1-10 10.1-20 20.1-30 30.1-40 40.1-50 50.1-100 + 100 Total Eiidal 0-5 5.1-10 10.1-20 + 20 Total  Source:-  86 63 60 36 34 49 102 3 433 -  -  -  1  197. 147. 137, 8% 77. 117. 237. 0.77. 1007.  -  -  -  -  Farmers Grouped by P r o p e r t y  Unit 2  Unit 3  4- 17. 2 0.57. 100 37. 23- •67i 17 47. 922267. 2013 577. 1 0.27. 350 1007.  95 51 56 29 13 32 92 12 380  3 17. 197 797. 31 127. 7 27. 2 0.87. 3 17. 6 27.  -  -  249  -  1007.  -  -  -  -  728 227. 105 619 57. 2,442 767. 1, 738 947. 3, 478 34 6 0.37. 492 17. - - 3,204 1007.1, 849 1007. 4, 589  C o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a ,  J u l y 1970.  257. 137. 147. 77. 37. 87. 247. 37. 1007.  Unit 4 130 81 73 440 222 35 86 4 471  -  -  -  Size f o r Sub-Divisions,  Unit  5  282 497. 287. 94 177. 177. 43 157. 87. 444 87. 87. 18 57. 37. 22 77. 47. 55 107. 187. 0.87. 13 27. 1007. 571 1007.  -  -  -  -  --  --  --  -  -•  -  -  -  -  -  -  296 137. 472 277. 137. 767. 1, 923 837. 1, 129 667. 92 121 77. 117. 47. 1007.2, 311 1007.1, 722 1007.  Zone 13 3 4 26 11 11 44 88 1 188  27. 27. 147. 67. 67. 237. 467. 0.57. 1007.  - 1 37. 145527. 11 417. 1 37. -  -  -  27 1007.  1969/70  Zone 14 3 507. - 1 177. - - 1 177. 1 177.  -  -  6 1007.  -  - . -- -- - -  - -  -  17,9. 497. 118 327. 69 197.  140 317. 304 687. 1 0.27.  366 1007.  445 1007.  -  -  -  E l Fte Sn.Bk 50 507. 16 167. 7 77. 6 67. 7 77. 6 67. 7 77. 99 1007. 477 161 18 1 657  -  -  --  727. 247. 27. 0.27. 1007.  43  T a b l e X l l Average Farm S i z e , Gross ( a ) & I r r i g a b l e 1969/70 (hectares)  Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Zone 13 Zone 14 E l Fuerte/San District District  Table XIV  28.66 30.16  a  28.886 60.185 65.960 24.765 16.999 14.458 7.427 B i a s 2.040 220.722  13.197. 27.597. 29.197. 11.497. 7.157. 6.127. 3.817. 0.957. 1007.  a  --  8.69 15.45 9.39 11.25 16.77 9.63 23.38 84610  Sub-Divisions,  Area Harvested (fiOOOhas) 28.117 59.377 51.748 19.911 16.617 14.107 7.404 1.933 199.085  Colono, b  12*81  13-; 24  18.52  18.66  --  7.06 11.29 7.07 14.76  36.01 37.14  A r e a s Sown ('OOOhas)  Ejidal  6.59 9.35 8.18 5.44 4.65 5.26 12.72 4.55  Crop A c t i v i t i e s o f D i s t r i c t  Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Zone 13 Zone 14 E l Fuerte/San  Source:-  Bias  ( U n i t s 1-5) Overall  •  District  Private a D 28.65 36.31 64.22 72.32 33.25 37.21 17.78 27.36 12.81 19.73 55.19 61.64 26.79 26.79 16.28 16.28  (b) i n D i s t r i c t ,  Value p e r ha (Ps/ha)  ---  --  --  12.81 13.37  13.24 13.77  1969/70  T o t a l Value of Production ('OOOpesos)  91,494.4 9.787. 3, 167 5, 716 344,041.7 36.917. 3, 886 2 5 6 , 3 5 1 . 6 27.517. 58,413.3 6.267. 2, 359 40,951.4 4.377. 2, 409 6 0 , 4 0 2 . 1 6.467. 4, 178 10, 146 7 5 , 3 5 7 . 3 8.097. 4,717.0 0.577. 2, 312 4, 221 9 3 1 , 7 2 9 . 3  T a b l e s X L L & X I V c o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a ,  J u l y 1970.  1007.  44  of  U n i t s 1-5, a n d t h e d a t a  i n T a b l e X I V a n d XV r e v e a l t h a t U n i t 2  is  o u t s t a n d i n g i n many o t h e r i m p o r t a n t  respects.  F o r example,  U n i t 2 w i t h 27.59 p e r c e n t o f t h e sown a r e a o f t h e D i s t r i c t generates  36.91 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t g r o s s p r o d u c t i o n v a l u e , x w h i l e a t t h e o t h e r estreme a r e U n i t s 1 and 4 ( s e e T a b l e X I V ) . Distribution  o f Sown A r e a Among T e n u r e G r o u p s  T a b l e XV_ g i v e s d e t a i l s output and  of areas  sown, h a r v e s t e d , v a l u e o f  p e r h e c t a r e and t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n v a l u e s .  elsewhere  unless otherwise  For this  specified,measurements  a r e a h a r v e s t e d , and o u t p u t v a l u e a r e a l l a g g r e g a t e s agricultural  production.  i s concerned  activities, within  existing  because they a r e an i n s i g n i f i c a n t Table  done i n o r d e r  best w i t h i n  XV e v e n a t i t s q u i t e h i g h  level  i n U n i t s and Zones.  to understand  cut.  I n t h e case per hectare  they a l s o i n the cases  groups o f farmers  ejidatarios.  of Unit 2 the e j i d a t a r i o s than  o f U n i t s 1, 4 a n d Zone 1 3 .  i n the l i g h t of that area's tenure  p e r h e c t a r e i s around  the normal c u l t i v a t i o n s  course,  produce  t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , as In the remaining  Bias, the value per  i n p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s b e t t e r s those  tomato c u l t i v a t i o n by b o t h  c o t t o n , sugar  are performing  of the  The e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h v a l u e p e r h e c t a r e f o r Zone 14  can be u n d e r s t o o d  generated  This  i s now c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s  o f U n i t s 3, 5, Zone 14 a n d E l F u e r t e - S a n  hectare of crops  aside,  which  The s i t u a t i o n  a higher value of output  areas  data  t o the tenure group l e v e l f o r the U n i t s .  the Units.  s i m p l e and c l e a r  and  agricultural  e l a b o r a t i o n o f T a b l e XV i s g i v e n i n T a b l e X V I , w h e r e  have been reduced  of  Livestock  data a g g r e g a t i o n g i v e s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e a r e a / v a l u e  An  do  for total  f o r e i t h e r meat o r m i l k p r o d u c t i o n , a r e n o t i n c l u d e d  the aggregates  imbalances  is  sown,  a c t i v i t i e s , and as f a r as t h i s  that i s crop c u l t i v a t i o n .  activity, i n the D i s t r i c t . of  of area  That i s , the data represent the sub-area  breakdowns f o r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l District  Table,  cane, soya,  specialization i n  groups, where t h e average  102,000 p e s o s ! o f the other areas  That  their  exception  are i n crops,  sorghum, wheat and r i c e , and t h e s e  command l o w e r y i e l d v a l u e s a n d l o w e r w e i g h t  hence depress  growers'  value  rewards per h e c t a r e .  crops,  yields,  T a b l e XV  Crop A c t i v i t i e s  of D i s t r i c t  A r e a Sown  COOOhas) Unit  1 Private(P) Ejidal(E) Unit 2 (P) (E) U n i t 3 (P) (E) Unit44 (P) . (E) U n i t 5 (P) (E) Zone 1 3 ( P ) (E) Zone 1 4 ( P ) (E) E l Fte/Sn B l (P) (E) District(P) ((E)  Source:-  12.883 16.002 38.736 21.450 17.642 48.317 10.736 14.028 8.991 8.007 12.468 1.989 0.227 7.199 11.545 0.495  44.177o 55.117. 64.247. 35.387. 26.497. 73.517. 43.877. 56.137. 52.157. 47.857. 86.897. 13.117. 3.477. 96.537. 75.467. 24.547.  103.233 46.777. 117.491 53.237.  Compiled  S u b - D i v i s i o n s by T e n u r e Groups,  Area Harvested Barv^OOOHas) 12.12*596 15.521 38.153 21.223 15.626 36.121 8.757 11.154 8.660 7.956 12.157 1.950 0.217 7.187 1.456 0.477 97.484 101.600  Value per hectare (pesos/ha) 3,084 3,324 5,319 6,433 4,135 3,796 2,311 2,396 2,438 2,377 4,154 4,331 20,581 9,819 2,416 1,987 4,123 4,307  1969/70  T o t a l Value of Production ('000s p e s o s ) 39,736.4 43.397. 51,758.0 56.527. 206,049.5 59.317. 137,992.2 40.387. 72,951.8 28. 127. 183,399.8 71.147. 2 4 , 8 0 8 . T 42.277. 33,605.2 57.317. 21,919.0 53.217. 19,032.4 46.197. 51,788.5 85.477. 8,613.6 14.167. 4,671.8 6.157. 70,685.5 93.607. 3,733.4 79.697. 983.6 20.407. 425,658.8 506.070.5  45.637. 54.377.  f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970.  4>  T a b l e XVI  Crop A c t i v i t i e s o f D i s t r i c t by T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70  S u b - D i v i s i o n s a t 1 s t & 2nd C u l t i v a t i o n  1st C u l t i v a t i o n 7o o f V a l u e 7,, o f A r e a U n i t 1 U n i t as 7. o f D i s t r i c t ( U ) 15.01 10.34 Private i n Unit(P) 40.09 38.60 E j i d a l i n U n i t (E) 59.91 61.40 U n i t 2 (u) 37.36 26.09 58.33 56.70 (P) 41.67 43.30 (E) U n i t 3 (u) 31.04 26.04 26.20 25.09 (P) 74.91 (E) 73.80 U n i t 4 (u) 6.17 11.03 42.12 40.30 (P) (E) 57.88 59.70 U n i t 5 (u) 7.01 3.68 51.09 52.80 (P) (E) 48.91 47.20 Zone 13 Zone as % o f D i s t r i c t ( Z ) 6.03 6.77 83.01 84.80 (P) (E) 16.99 15.20 Zone 14 ( Z ) 3.05 9.10 1.29 5.70 (P) (E) 98.71 94.30 E l F t e / S n B l - a s 7« o f D i s t r i c t 1.01 0.51 71.12 75.80 (P) (E) 28.88 24.20 District(P) (E)  Source:-  43.10 56.90  Compiled  f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y  43.10 57.00  1970.  Periods  2nd C u l t i v a t i o n 7. o f A r e a 7- o f V a l u e 7.16 7.20 69.24 78.90 30.76 21.11 29.14 34.68 79.02 81.60 20.98 18.40 25.53 35.04 32.04 34.20 67.96 65.80 11.15 6.75 45.28 52.00 54.72 48.00 9.34 8.00 55.13 56.90 44.87 43.10 7.39 4.98 93.24 93.80 6.76 6.20 3.27 2.19 7.06 9.20 92.94 90.80 0.52 0.47 99.26 98.21 1.79 0.74 56.00 44.00  59.00 40.10  47  Tenure Groups' Performance at In order  to crack  it  i s necessary  The  r e s u l t s of  a l l aspects  At  t h i s are  the U n i t  level  emerge as  more o f  the D i s t r i c t ' s  i n the  at  this  the  is bettered  and  due  The  explained  i n t e n s i v e l y than the  by  Unit  the  3.  Unit  lower values  land.  low v a l u e  At  1st c u l t i v a t i o n ,  g r o u p t h a t more o f t e n  i s superior  c u l t i v a t i o n , however, the  their  fair  be  i n Units5,  e j i d o s by  assuming that At  the  2nd  cultivation  maintains  a  good  i n t h i s period5.it performs  at both c u l t i v a t i o n s  part of  crops at both  although  one  although  to the  equal, that  in  this  small  may  Unit's  times.  group does i t i s the  indeed.  At  more slightly  ejidal  p r i v a t e group, the  degree  the  2nd crops  than i t s a r e a l share  Zone 13 and  E l Fuerte-San  of  Bias.  the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s , whose a v e r a g e s i z e  upwards of rely  three  times,  their  probably  on a v e r a g e r e t u r n s  operational effeciency, while  p r i v a t e farmers i n t e n s i f y  i t does  p r i v a t e group i n a l l cases produces  a g r a r i a n p r a c t i c e s and  than high  specialization.  a l l t h a t can  2 still  the  proportionately greater  1st c u l t i v a t i o n  exceeds the  by  performance c o n s i s t e n c i e s are  of s u p e r i o r i t y of performance i s very  At  and  explained  i t s tomato  Other t h i n g s being  group l e v e l ,  t h o u g h l e s s so  2  respective  C o n s i s t e n t l y throughout, Unit 4  tenure  are  be  i n p u t , but  t h a n a n o t h e r w i t h i n i t s U n i t and  whose v a l u e s  and  others,  from i t s land  cultivating  the  on  crop p r i c e advantages.  significantly  are  distinct.  land  2nd  considerably  than t h e i r  c a s e o f Zone 14 c a n  comments made e a r l i e r  to i t s share of  f a r m e r s who  better  entries  1 s t and  i n terms of p r o d u c i n g  t o u n w i s e s e l e c t i o n o f c r o p s on  At  .  where separate  1st c u l t i v a t i o n value  t o t a l value  poorly, having relation  o f T a b l e XVI  groups f o r the  the p i c t u r e i s l e s a o b v i o u s .  share of  data  s t a g e i s t h a t t h e U n i t p e r f o r m s much more  enjoy s i g n i f i c a n t  period  "production n u t s h e l l " ,  1st c u l t i v a t i o n p e r i o d , U n i t  2, h o w e v e r , c a n n o t y e t be  efficiently  be  tenure  clear leaders  r e f e r r i n g back to the  not  the  shown i n T a b l e X V I 1 ,  area-sown p r o p o r t i o n s .  postulated  Cultivations  periods.  Zone 14  Unit  of  2nd  t o b r e a k down f u r t h e r t h e  have been c a l c u l a t e d f o r the cultivation  1 s t and  cropping  at  the  maintain  to s c a l e  second p e r i o d  p r o c e d u r e s and  rather the  cultivate  48  Table XVI1  Average Gross H a r v e s t V a l u e s p e r Farmer f o r D i s t r i c t S u b - D i v i s i o n s b y T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70 (pesos) Av.Value per farmer  Unit  1 A l l U n i t F a r m e r s (U)5, 252157 Private(P) 91,770 E j i d a l (E) 16,154 Unit 2 (U) 140,540 588,713 (P) 74,631 (E) Unit 3 (U) 51,590 191,978 (P) (E; 39,965 Unit 4 (U> 20,997 52,671 (P) 14,541 (E) Unit 5 (U) 17,859 38,387 (P) (E) ll,o53 Zone 13 A l l Zone F a r m e r s ( Z ) 1 0 3 , 0 6 2 240,877 23,534 (E) Zone 14 (Z) 167,089 778,640 <P) (E) 158,844 E l F t e / S r i B l A l lF a r m e r s 6,239 37,711 (P) 1,497 (E)  Av.Value per ha., 1 s t cultivation  f  3,352 3,352  1,873 1,873  6, 365 7,117  3, 280 2,874  4,430 4,164  3,452 2,885  . 2,460 2,714  1,890 1,433  2,511 3,355  2,292 2,192  5, 321 4,766  1,751 1,687  50,643 12,401  2,922 2,207  2,435 1,992  2, 342 1,350  --  —  District U n i t s 1-5  (D) (P) (E)  49,057 148,926 31,136  4,582 4,331  District A l l Areas  (D) (P) (E)  52,003 153,446 33,419  4,685 4,796  C o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a ,  J u l y 1970.  Source:-  Av.Value per h a . , 2nd cultivation  --  — 3,025 2,531  — 2,854 2,498  &  49  higher value-yielding decline.  crops, w h i l e the standards of the e j i d a t a r i o s  T h i s may w e l l be a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r i v a t e  owners' h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and  fixed  c a p i t a l and t h e i r  two is  seem t o e x p l a i n  groups a t the second  better a v a i l a b i l i t y  of operational  g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s o f m a r k e t demands  their neighbouring ejidatarios. advantages  property  Undoubtedly  i n some c a s e s  than  these  the d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i o n responses  of the  c u l t i v a t i o n p e r i o d , but f o r a l l cases  this  as y e t o n l y a s u r m i s e .  Table XVII w i t h i t s absolute values,  l i k e Table XVI w i t h i t s p r o p o r t i o n a t e v a l u e s , r e v e a l s t h a t the p r i v a t e sector  i n t h e second  ejidal  s e c t o r i n performance.  is  period of c u l t i v a t i o n The e f f e c t  i n v a r i a b l y b e t t e r s the o f farm s c a l e  difference  e v i d e n t i n c o l u m n one o f T a b l e X V I I , w h e r e t h e a v e r a g e  crop generated groups. two  per farmer  The e f f e c t  i s calculated  Nonetheless,  f o r t h e U n i t s and by t e n u r e  of returns to scale  columns where c a l c u l a t i o n s i ti s instructive  i s removed i n t h e o t h e r  a r e measured on a p e r h e c t a r e to note  The d a t a i n c o l u m n one  c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s a v e r y c r u d e m e a s u r e o f g r o s s  b e t w e e n T e n u r e G r o u p s a n d b e t w e e n U n i t s i n Terms o f  Crop Values The  Generated  s a l i e n t p o i n t s p r e s e n t e d a r e now s u m m a r i z e d a n d shown i n  T a b l e s X V I 1 1 and X I X .  held  I n t h e c a s e o f U n i t 2, T a b l e X V I 1 1 shows  14.02 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s  total  p r i v a t e f a r m e r s , U n i t 2's  p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h a t c a t e g o r y , sow 37.06 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r i v a t e l y land i n the D i s t r i c t ,  and from  i t p r o d u c e 48.23 p e r c e n t o f t h e  p r i v a t e harvest crop value of the D i s t r i c t . presented variations  The d a t a a r e t h u s  i n s u c h a f o r m a s t o make p o s s i b l e a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e from U n i t to U n i t o f the r e l a t i v e performance  p r i v a t e and o f t h e e j i d a l both  income o f t h e  types.  Imbalances  that  basis.  i n c o l u m n one t h e m a g n i t u d e  w i t h i n U n i t s o f tenure group d i f f e r e n c e s .  farming  value of  tenure groups appears  tenure groups.  of the  From t h e d a t a , J U n i t 2 f o r  t o p e r f o r m o u t s t a n d i n g l y , w h i l e U n i t s 4,  5 a n d 1 do n o t i c e a b l y much w o r s e f o r b o t h t e n u r e g r o u p s .  The  d r a w b a c k o f T a b l e X V I 1 1 i s , h o w e v e r , t h a t i t d o e s n o t make  possible  an a b s o l u t e assessment o f t h e t e n u r e groups, vis  a vis ejidal.  This d i f f i c u l t y  i . e . of private  i s overcome i n T a b l e X I X .  farms  50  Table XVI11  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a r m s , A r e a Sown, & H a r v e s t V a l u e f o r D i s t r i c t ' s S u b - D i v i s i o n s b y T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70  Unit  1 Private(P) E j i d a l (E')0 Unit 2 (P) (E) Unit 3 (P) (E) Unit 4 (P) (E) Unit 5 (P) (E) Zone 13 (P) (E) Zone 14 (P) (E) E l Fte/Sn B l (P) (E)  Table XIX  7. D i s t r i b u t i o n of farm types  7. D i s t r i b u t i o n ; o f sown a r e a  17.33 21.15 14.02 12.21 15.22 30.32 18.86 15.26 22.86 11.37 7.53 2.22 0.24 2.94 3.96 4.34  12.05 13.07 37.06 18.03 17.01 41.02 10.04 11.11 8.01 6.09 12.01 1.08 0.20 6.02 1.05 0.40  7. D i s t r i b u t i o n of harvest value 9.15 10.12 48.23 27.14 17.77 36.13 5.36 6.34 5.07 3.39 12.84 1.36 1.04 13.97 0.84 0.15  S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' F a r m s , Sown A r e a , & H a r v e s t V a l u e s b y Tenure Groups as P e r c e n t a g e s o f D i s t r i c t w i t h D i s t r i c t B r e a k d o w n b y T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70 >  Unit  1 Private(P) (E) Unit 2 (P) (E) Unit 3 (P) (E) Unit 4 (P) (E) Unit 5 (P) (E) Zone 13 (P) (E) Zone 14 (P) (E) E l Fte/Sn B l (P) (E) District (P) (E) Source:-  7o o f a l l D i s t r i c t farms 2.427. 17.887. 1.957. 10.327. 2.127. 25.617. 2.637. 12.897. 3.197. 9.617. 1.057. 2.047. 0.037. 2.487. 0.557. 3.677. 14.67. 85.847.  7. o f D i s t r i c t sown a r e a 5.847. 7.237. 17.557. 9.727. 7.997. 21.897. 4.867. 6.367. 4.077. 3.637. 5.657. 0.907. 0.10% 3.267. 0.697. 0.227. 46.177. 53.837.  T a b l e s XV111 & X I X c o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y  7. o f D i s t r i c t crop value 4.267. 5.567. 22. 127. 14.817. 7.837. 19.687. 2.667. 3.617. 2.357. 2.047. 5.567. 0.927. 0.507. 7.597. 0.407. 0.117. 45.637. 54.377. 1970.  51  The  principal  imbalances  f u n c t i o n of Table XIX i s to h i g h l i g h t  between t h e tenure groups'  crop v a l u e s produced  from t h e i r  farmer  land areas  2 a g a i n , 1.95 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s  the large  p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e  sown.  farmer  To t a k e U n i t p o p u l a t i o n , repree  s e n t i n g a l l o f t h e U n i t 2's p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s , sow 17.55 p e r c e n t of the D i s t r i c t ' s crop v a l u e .  sown a r e a t o p r o d u c e 22.12 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s  I n sharp  c o n t r a s t i s t h e c a s e o f U n i t 1 w h e r e 17.88  per cent o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s Unit's  ejidatarios,  farmer  population, representing a l l that  sow 7.23 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s  t o p r o d u c e o n l y 5.56 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s If  crop v a l u e !  one c o m b i n e s t h e t e n u r e e n t r i e s w i t h i n a U n i t o r Z o n e , a n  accurate picture For it  total  sown a r e a  i s g i v e n o f t h e U n i t ' s endowments a n d p r o d u c t i o n .  i n s t a n c e , when t h i s i s found  farmers  s i m p l e summation i s a p p l i e d  t h a t t h a t U n i t , w i t h 12.27 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s  a n d 27.27 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s  36.93 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s entries  to Unit 2  total  sown a r e a ,  crop value.  produces  The r e s p e c t i v e  f o r U n i t 1 a r e 20.30 p e r c e n t f o r p o p u l a t i o n , 13.07 p e r  c e n t f o r a r e a sown a n d 9.82 p e r c e n t f o r v a l u e o f c r o p s  produced.  Problems o f E x p l a n a t i o n , Measurement and I s o l a t i o n o f C r u c i a l Variables At  - Some S o l u t i o n s  this  the e f f e c t s machinery  point,  some e x p l a n a t i o n m i g h t be e x p e c t e d  of capital  inputs,  l a n d endowments, l a b o u r i n p u t s a n d  and equipment i n p u t s i n a Cobb-Douglas p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n  or f o r m u l a , i n o o r d e r t o understand  the efficiency  groups o f f a r m s i ( s e e Samuelson 1970,7724). but  i snot essential.  t o a s a m p l e o f f a r m s w i t h i n one U n i t ,  Unit  2.  Nonetheless,  of s u f f i c i e n t  intensity  applied  study's  case,  although i t i s not possible  through  lack  crucial variable(s) affecting  i s or which  a r e t h e most  the data i n Table XVI11,  to look a t the m a t e r i a l  T a b l e XX c l e a r l y  T h i s m i g h t be d e s i r a b l e ,  i n this  data to say exactly which  instructive  of the i n d i v i d u a l  Some o f t h e s e t e s t s m i g h t h a v e b e e n  only  still  t o determine  indicates  i t is  i n T a b l e s XX a n d X X I .  the important v a r i a t i o n s  i n the  o f l a n d use from U n i t t o U n i t and f a r m i n g group t o  farming group.  As w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d  from the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  52  T a b l e XX  I n d i c e s o f Land I n t e n s i t y & I n d i c e s o f C u l t i v a t i o n E f f i c i e n c y f o r D i s t r i c t &. S u b - D i v i s i o n s b y T e n u r e G r o u p s , 1969/70 ( A l l crops)  Intensity at 1st Cultivation 1  Unit  1.04 0.76 1.72 1.24 1.39 1.29 1.28 1.12 1.23 0.99 1.20 1.03 1.42 1.27 0.96 0.17  0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.88 0.74 0.81 0.79 0.96 0.99 0.97 0.98 0.95 0.99 0.94 0.96  (P) (E)  0.98 0.88  1.41 1.12  0.94 0.85  (P) (E)  0.95 0.86  1.37 1.12  0.94 0.85  Private(P) E j i d a l (E) Unit 2 (P) (:E) Unit 3 (P) (E) Unit 4 (P) (E) Unit 5 (P) (E) Zone 13 (P) (E) Zone 14 (P) (E) E l Fte/Sn B l (P) (E)  District A l l Areas  "  ^"Ratio o f h e c t a r a g e p l a n t e d Ratio  of harvested  Source:-  l  Cultivation Efficiency Index  0.80 0.69 1.00 1.00 0.98 0.96 0.95 0.84 0.82 0.69 0.81 0.89 0.52 0.95 0.77 0.16  1  District U n i t s 1-5  Intensity at 2nd Cultivation  area  to hectarage a v a i l a b l e f o r planting.  t o sown  area.  C o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a ,  July  1970.  53  established  i n t h e e a r l i e r T a b l e s , U n i t 2 2 shows up a s t h e t o p  p e r f o r m e r by a c l e a r m a r g i n and  f o r the p r i v a t e sector a t both  a t t h e same t i m e r e g i s t e r s  group.  a good i n d e x l e v e l  f o r both  s h o r t a g e s and m i c r o  interestingly  the tenure groups  t h i s m e a s u r e may w e l l be a f f e c t e d b y e x t r a n e o u s water  f o r the e j i d a l  The m e a s u r e g i v e n o f c u l t i v a t i o n e f f i c i e n c y  shows a n e q u a l i n d e x f i g u r e  i n U n i t 2;  factors  sioil q u a l i t y v a r i a t i o n s  cultivations,  such as  over which the  f a r m e r may n o t h a v e much c o n t r o l , b u t t h e i n d e x d o e s g i v e a u s e f u l comparison. Finally, affecting  i n an attempt  t o measure t h e p r i n c i p a l  the tenure groups'  I t has l i m i t a t i o n s ,  c r o p v a l u e s , T a b l e X X I was c o n s t r u c t e d .  primarily  f a r as t h e U n i t l e v e l ,  t h a t o f n o t showing  data.  n e e d e d was d e s t r o y e d y e a r l y ,  I n a n y c a s e , much o f t h e d a t a  a n d when a s t a r t was made o n c r o p  c o l l e c t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l U n i t s f o r t e n u r e g r o u p s , coverage  a b r e a k down a s  b u t c o n s t r a i n t s o f time and f i n a n c e p r o h i b i t e d  such c o l l e c t i o n o f r e l i a b l e  t h a t adequate  variables  existed  i t was s o o n  data found  f o r o n l y some o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  activities. T a b l e X X I shows, by v a l u e , t h e twenty-one cultivated  i n t h e F u e r t e scheme.  I t also reveals  v a l u e o f each main c r o p , i n d i c a t i n g most a t t r a c t i v e weight  to c u l t i v a t e ,  those which  assuming  the p r i v a t e .  and v a l u e o f t h e e j i d a l  The i m p o r t a n c e  hence t h i s  crop coverage  tenure group's  range  twenty-one group.  main Fuerte The  c r o p s i s 99.57 p e r c e n t a n d  i s completely representative of that  of specializations.  From t h i s T a b l e , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the f i r s t  are p o t e n t i a l l y the  Table XXI1 expresses  f o r the e j i d a l  c u m u l a t i v e v a l u e o f the twenty-one  the per hectare  s e c t o r ' s c r o p s i n terms o f  of the l i s t e d  crops i s t a b u l a t e d a t the r i g h t  crops  t h a t market p r i c e s and y i e l d s ,  p e r h e c t a r e , a r e good a n d r e l i a b l e .  the p r i c e , y i e l d  principal  t e n c r o p s do n o t v a r y g r e a t l y  the e j i d a l  prices f o r  from those o f the p r i v a t e  s e c t o r , w i t h t h e two e x c e p t i o n s o f t o m a t o e s a n d s o r g h u m , t h e f o r m e r b e i n g t h e crop o f h i g h e s t a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l v a l u e i n t h e e n t i r e District! less well.  L o w e r down t h e c o l u m n , h o w e v e r , t h e e j i d o s Regarding y i e l d s ,  seem t o do  t h e e j i d o s have b e t t e r r e s u l t s  than  54  Table XXI  P r i n c i p a l Crops o f the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t O r d e r o f V a l u e , 1969/70  7. o f T o t a l District Value  7. o f C r o p s ' V a l u e by Tenure Groups Ejidal  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  Cotton Tomatoes S u g a r Cane Sorghum Rice Wheat Soya F r i j o l (Beans) Maize (C6rn) Safflower Forrage flowers Potatoes Alfalfa Water Melons Canary seed Fruits Chile Sesame Melon Linseed Pumpkins  Source:-  28.547.547. 15.627o 10.37% 7.627o 7.137. 6.897. 5.897. 5.127. 2.777. 1.677. 1.397. 1.267. 0.987. 0.777. 0.777. 0.727. 0.597. 0.357. 0.327. 0.297. 0.267.  by D e s c e n d i n g  68.547. 44.727. 86.837. 48.717. 46.917. 26.887. 28.067. 51.487. 54.087. 74.897. 0.957. 46.967. 56.767. 74.657. 19.477. 0.42% 46.567. 68.94% 00.647. 73.787. 22.317.  C o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y  Private 31.46% 55.28% 13.177. 51.297. 53.09% 73.127. 71.94% 48.527. 45.927. 25.117. 99.05% 53.04% 43.247. 25.357. 80.837. 99.587. 53.447. 31.067. 99.36% 26.227. 77.69%  1970.  Average Value per hectare harvested (pesos) 5, 986 46, 270 7, 117 2, 739 3, 990 2, 524 2, 832 2, 541 1, 845 3, 266 12, 523 7, 259 5, 406 8, 787 3) 489 12, 071 15, 570 1, 566 7, 758 3, 211 14, 696  55  t h e p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s f o r 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e f i r s t for or  ten crops,  52 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e t w e n t y - o n e m a j o r c r o p s .  Regarding  those of the p r i v a t e  crops, but  farms  f o r 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e f i r s t  f o r a l l twenty-one major crops  superior entries. the e j i d a l  farmers  I t w o u l d be  cent  f o o l h a r d y , however, to conclude  that  are considerably behind  the p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s i n  s e c t o r does n o t match the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n t h e s e b e t w e e n t h e two  groups i s s m a l l .  material already presented the "performance  level  Z o n e s , and  data.  c h a p t e r how  how  respectively whilst  a mere 1.97  than  XXI1.  per cent.  land area.held, the e j i d a l 69.84 p e r c e n t and  Assessment  t h e c o l o n o s h a v e 1.19  per cent.  and  y e t the farmer  a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t i m e s as sector operates  farms  The  ejidal  57.55 p e r c e n t  and  When m e a s u r e d i n t t e r m s p r i v a t e groups  have  The  ejidal  unlevelled  land than  p o p u l a t i o n of the e j i d a l  l a r g e as t h e c o t h e r . that are  less  t h a n one  i s m a r g i n a l l y g r e a t e r f o r the e j i d o s . a t the second  consistently  inferior  cultivation  The  area  sector loses the sector  Furthermore, quarter  sown  margin^though, i s very  the e j i d a l  performance  t o the p r i v a t e g r o u p s i n terms of crop  the  the  s i z e of the p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s y e t the v a l u e per h e c t a r e  s l i m , and  and  28.97 p e r c e n t o f t h e scheme's  p r i v a t e group,  average  exists  l a n d i n t h e F u e r t e scheme, w h i l e  sown a r e a t o s a l t y and  ejidal  the  differences  f o r a l l C r o p s Grown and  more p o t e n t i a l  is  the  be much s m a l l e r  s e c t o r s hold c l a i m to r e s p e c t i v e l y  the c o l o n o s e c t o r has the gross  from  Performances  40.48 p e r c e n t o f t h e c u l t i v a b l e  of  3,  d a t a t h e r e f o r e show t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s .  private  gap  to suppose t h a t i n the  p i c t u r e of Table  Summary o f D i s t r i c t / U n i t / Z o n e D a t a  and  the  much v a r i a n c e  l i k e U n i t 2 and  p e r h e c t a r e may  t h o s e shown i n t h e a g g r e g a t e  The  ejidal  t h e s e v a r i a n c e s a r e masked i n the  I t i s not unreasonable  the tenure g r o u p s ' w a l u e  Tenure Groups'  terms,  I t o u g h t t o be r e c a l l e d  i n this  case of b e t t e r U n i t performers,  of  t h a t the  i n d i c a t o r s " b e t w e e n t h e same t e n u r e g r o u p s f o r  d i f f e r e n t U n i t s and District  ten  t h e y h a v e o n l y 43 p e r  v a l u e of h a r v e s t , s i n c e , a l t h o u g h the data i n d i c a t e  in  value  h a r v e s t per h e c t a r e , the e j i d o s a g a i n have s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s  over  in  and  is value  56  * Table  XXI1  E j i d a l C r o p P e r f o r m a n c e Compared t o t h a t o f t h e P r i v a t e Sector f o r the Major D i s t r i c t Crops, 1969/70  Rural Price 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  Cotton Tomatoes S u g a r Cane Sorghum Rice Wheat Soya Beans Corn Safflower Forrage flowers Potatoes Alfalfa Water Melons C a n a r y Seed Fruits Chile Sesame Melons Linseed Pumpkins  +  2.397. - 39.167.  + 39.867. -  + + -  4.387. 1.007. 2.197. 2.917. =•  -  0.607. = + 10.257. - 5.137. + 16.127. •+ 14.667. - 37. 157. - 25.497. - 7.267. +120.227. - 7.437. - 52.947.  Value of harvest per hectare  Yield  + 2.787. . + 5.317. + 7.177. ' - 34.807. + 12.257. • + 12.267. - 14.037.  + 10.587. -  +  8.907.  -  + 11.367.  +  - 4.597. - 15.947. + 6.357. - 18.577. - 21.847. + 17.837. + 12.037. 20.207. 74.677. + '24.137. + 6.627. - 95.117. + 12.647. - 4.137.  -  -  + -  + + -  + -  20.247. 5.737. 8.017. 13.287. 7.377. 15.947. 6.287. 18.577. 13.347. 11.787. 22.837. 8.507. 84.087. 77 5517. 1.087. 35.837. 4.277. 57.167.  7. o f total harvest value 35.987. 12.857. 16.577. 6.837. 6.167. 3.417. 3.047. 4.847. 2.767. 2.297. 0.027. 1.097. 0.987. 1.067. 0.287. 0.507. 0.417.  1 3 2 44 5 7 8 6 9 10 25 11 13 12 177 28 14 15  0.397. 0.117.  16 20  --  E j i d a l d a t a afe e x p r e s s e d a s p o s i t i v e ( + ) , n e g a t i v e (-) o r e q u a l i n a p e r c e n t i l e form compared t o t h e P r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s d a t a . Crop r a n k i n g by v a l u e Source:-  f o r the e j i d a l  group.  C o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y  1970.  ( = ),  57  per h e c t a r e .  At  the second c u l t i v a t i o n t o o , r t h e ^ p r i v a t e c s e c t o r  increases  i t s p r o p o r t i o n of the D i s t r i c t ' s  c e n t , and  t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e sown a r e a o f t h e e j i d a l  f a r m s becomes r e s p e c t i v e l y is  interesting  t o compare t h e s e  workable D i s t r i c t Finally,  53.23 p e r  imbalances  groups even at the D i s t r i c t area and  sowr^ and XIX).  (see Table  Xlll),  and  The  inferior  aspects  ejidal as w e l l  o r as  and  maintains  capita  the broad  crop v a l u e s , reducing  between the initial  District  two  standards.  investigation,  data but  Given  conclusions.  appear  per  to  the p r i v a t e and  outset.  sector i s  the use  of i t s  i t be  able to  improve  groups.  outlined  The  earlier,  present points  are  verified  i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t many o f tenure  groups are not  the s h o r t time p e r i o d covered  d a t a , c o n s i d e r a b l e c a u t i o n m u s t be drawing  i n t h e i r poor  the e x t e n t of the  main farming  d i f f e r e n c e s measured between the any  agricultural  higher operational efficiency,  its  by  of  the p r i v a t e s e c t o r .  sector intensifies  at the second c u l t i v a t i o n , w i l l  in this  XVI11  capita resources,  particularly  tackled  tenure  t o o many  performance of the e j i d a l  However, o n l y i f the e j i d a l  imbalance  total  population,  c a p i t a v a l u e advantage, r i g h t at the  land resources  i t  cent.  i n t e n s i v e l y as  good enough t o match t h a t o f i t s c o m p e t i t o r ,  value  of  (see Tables  s e c t o r does n o t  a great advantage i n per  summary, t h e y i e l d  weak p e r  cent;  to farmer  sector are magnified  maximize i t s land resources  hence a s u p e r i o r per  private  a r e shown t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e  l e v e l w i t h regard  slightly  capita harvest values.  poorer  40.48 p e r  per  t o o many s m a l l p l o t s o f 5.1-10 h e c t a r e s  the e j i d a l  s e c t o r , w h i c h has  and  shares  i m p l i c a t i o n here i s that there are  d e p e n d e n t on  p e r f o r m a n c e by  In  c e n t and  some 6  46.77 p e r  p r o p o r t i o n of crop value generated The  ejidatarios  c e n t and  figures with their  l a n d o f 57.55 p e r  gross  sown a r e a by  excerised at this  by  the  large the  stage  by available  in  58  CHAPTER I V  THE SAMPLE AREA  -  The C h o i c e o f U n i t 2 and R a t i o n a l e The p r i n c i p a l a i m o f t h i s data  given at D i s t r i c t  f o r Wheat C u l t i v a t i o n  study  i n the Fuerte  d a t a h a s shown t h a t U n i t  performer w i t h respect land use e f f i c i e n c y ,  to values  values As  The  presentation  2 i s outstanding  as the best  generated per hectare  and t h e i n t e n s i t y  per c a p i t a f o r both tenure  stated earlier,  to the e j i d a t a r i o s '  scheme.  indices.  t h i s Unit possesses the l a r g e s t productive crop  the author  o f sown  f a r m s , and t h e h i g h e s t  groups.  intends  to test  this  t h r o u g h a farm sample study  of the D i s t r i c t ' s  productive  and b e s t  hence the c h o i c e  rewarded farmers;  the basis of the Unit's  the p r e v i o u s  chapter.  straightforward.  farming  crucial costs,  crop  The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d  I f , i n a sample e x a m i n a t i o n  activities,  given  with  f a r m e r s e l s e w h e r e i n t h e scheme w i t h financial central  it  of Unit  2  this  decision i s  o f t h e scheme's  best  f a r m e r s make a n e t f i n a n c i a l  the e j i d a t a r i o s '  some j u s t i f i c a t i o n , similar  Uneconomic farm o p e r a t i o n  i n t e r e s t here,  The f o c u s farming  losses.  most  c e r t a i n i n t e r a c t i o n of the  i n p u t v a r i a b l e s t h a t most a f f e c t t h e n i t c a n be s u r m i s e d  paper's  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as r e v e a l e d i n  f a r m e r s i t c a n be shown t h a t t h e e j i d a l l o s s on t h e i r  land,  In addition,  hypothesis  on  Study  i s t o probe deeper than the  l e v e l allow, w i t h regard  agricultural activities of previous  UNIT 2  that  inputs would a l s o  incur  i s therefore a  as a r e t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d  o f a t t e n t i o n i s on t h e e j i d a l  production  such  operations.  sector since this  i s the  p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p t h a t was c r e a t e d b y t h e R e v o l u t i o n , a n d  i s the Revolution, broadly  speaking,  that i s being  looked  at  critically. Where a n e x a m i n a t i o n  of individual  f a r m s i s t o be u n d e r t a k e n ,  59  it  i s necessary to consider  s e l e c t i n g a.'.sample p o p u l a t i o n i n w h i c h  t h e members a l l c u l t i v a t e a t l e a s t one common c r o p . s e l e c t e d here i s wheat, the c e r e a l crop that Mexico 1964 when t h e m a s s i v e o u t p u t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t felt,  a n d when t h e j o i n t  r e s i s t a n t dwarf h y b r i d s b r e d s p e c i a l l y Sonora and S i n a l o a . more r i g o r o u s  valley.  d i s e a s e and drought-  f o r the a r i d  cultivation like  and c r o p g e n e t i c i s t s i n the Northwest,  states of two d e c a d e s ,  than any o t h e r a t  including  the Fuerte  t h e b r e a d - b a s k e t o f Mexico and  b r o u g h t much o f t h e r e g i o n ' s o v e r a l l  socio-economic g a i n from  i n t h e e x p o r t and n a t i o n a l market.  and  i n the case o f the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t ,  and  extension station i s centrally  field  and Guasave.  instructions, spacing, charge  fertilization,  t o any f a r m e r .  2, o f f t h e m a i n  A g r o n o m i s t s and t r a i n e e  Services  the D i s t r i c t ' s  including  planting  t i m i n g s , number o f w a t e r a p p l i c a t i o n s , and f u m i g a t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e Bulletins  c i r c u l a t e d by t h i s F i e l d ejidal  i n Unit  (CIAS) s e r v i n g  the e j i d a t a r i o s .  irrigation  those f o r wheat,  a well-run experimental  located,  a s s i s t a n t s work from t h i s base  farmers, p a r t i c u l a r l y  seed.  c u l t i v a t i o n process, regional  a r e w e l l advanced, e s p e c i a l l y  between Los Mochis  this  quality  c o n t r o l s o v e r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and s a l e o f c e r t i f i e d wheat In order to maximizeethe  their  Concomitant w i t h  c r o p - r e s e a r c h has been t h e f o r m a t i o n o f h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t  extension f a c i l i t i e s  teams  L e r m a R o j o 6 4 , I N I A 6 6 , CIANO F-67 a n d  N o r o e s t e 66 h a v e made t h e N o r t h w e s t  highway  itself  s c i e n t i f i c h y b r i d i z a t i o n by e x t r e m e l y c o m p e t e n t  Varieties  earnings  until  o f CIANO/CIAS a n d  T h i s c r o p has u n d e r g o n e , d u r i n g  of agronomists, b i o l o g i s t s p r e s e n t under  imported  a t l a s t made  r e s e a r c h developments  R o c k e f e l l e r paid o f f i n the h i g h - y i e l d i n g ,  The c r o p  and c u l t i v a t i o n  seed  free of  schedules are  E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n Centre t o the main  s e t t l e m e n t s , and j o i n t p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e l i k e w i s e p u t o u t  by (ECANO w i t h CRF. The  c h o i c e o f wheat f o r farm e x a m i n a t i o n purposes  apposite, given the D i s t r i c t ' s ^ e x t e n s i o n , and c o n t r o l  good a v a i l a b i l i t y  o f seed q u a l i t y .  appears  of research,  C l e a r l y , i n an  investigation  60  of t h i s  type,it  i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e to reduce the  number o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t may farmer's  affect  cultivation activities.  hybrid  seed  and  another  little  p o i n t i n s t u d y i n g t h e two  t h e outcome o f the I f one  farmer  uses a n o n - c e r t i f i e d farmers  seed  p r o d u c t i o n o u t p u t s w o u l d be invalid  attempt  Wheat i n U n i t 2 and Before useful for  d e t a i l as was  are  data  shown i n T a b l e  At  and  They their  certainly  the wheat data  i n U n i t 2,  an  earlier  and  l e v e l o f measurement  for a l l agricultural  XXIV, f o r the  two  activities,  t h e U n i t s and  the  c y c l e s 1968/69 and  cycle given,  producer  Zones  1969/70.  of  the  1 9 6 8 / 6 9 , w i t h 42.12  per  o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s w h e a t - s o w n a r e a , U n i t 2 p r o d u c e d 44.48 p e r of the D i s t r i c t ' s wheat-crop v a l u e .  With  800  U n i t 2,  B i a s w h i c h had  pesos per  ton r u r a l  The  important  cent of  price,  an u n u s u a l l y  average p r i c e e n t r y , r e g i s t e r e d the h i g h e s t v a l u e per sown o f 2,642 p e s o s .  cent  a h i g h average y i e l d  3.303 k i l o - t o n s p e r h e c t a r e and excluding E l Fuerte/San  and  cropping.  f o r the D i s t r i c t ,  the f i r s t  i t is  f o r the D i s t r i c t ,  C l e a r l y U n i t 2 i s t h e m a i n w h e a t g r o w e r and District.  view  observation.  synonymous w i t h  overall  there i s  i n p u t s , hence a comparison of  Zones , g i v i n g a s i m i l a r  presented  which here are  then  District  briefly  t h e U n i t s and  certified  outptt levels.  l o o k i n g a t the sample farmers  to present  The  the  uses a  type,  t o t a l l y meaningless  at c o n t r o l l e d  individual  from the p o i n t of  o f u l t i m a t e l y b e i n g a b l e t o compare t h e i r are u s i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  potential  high  hectare  p o i n t s t o be n o t e d  are  the  s m a l l range i n the y i e l d s a t t a i n e d from U n i t to U n i t , from a minimum o f 2.850 k i l o - t o n s  per h e c t a r e  kilo-tons  the e q u a l l y narrow spread  price  p e r h e c t a r e , and  f r o m 800  pesos per  t o n t o 821  pesos per  the e x c e p t i o n a l case  of E l Fuerte/San  As  two  a result  of these  t o a maximum o f  *See T a b l e XXI11 f o r i n d i c e s o f a r e a s f o r a l l c r o p s and f o r w h e a t .  the v a l u e s  sown and  of the  ton, again  B i a s w i t h 913  small spreads,  3.303 rural  excluding  pesossperrton. generated  values  of  per  harvest  Table  XXIV  A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n o f D i s t r i c t  A r e a Sown (hectares)  Area Harvested  &. S u b - D i v i s i o n s , 1 9 6 8 / 6 9 - 1 9 6 9 / 7 0  Yield(KiloProduction tons per h a . ) ( K i l o - t o n s )  P r i c e per Value per ton(pesof)s)ha.(peso)  68/69  69/70  68/69  69/70  68/69  69/70  68/69  69/70 o f / W  2, 958  3,403  2, 905  2.850  3,067  9,701  8,887 800  7, 594 10,850  7, 484  3.303  Unit  1  3, 521  Unit  2  10, 855  Unit  3  4, 716  3, 220  4,644  3, 193  Unit  4  1, 589  469  1,589  31 3, 341  Unit 5  82  6 8  /  6 9  6 9  /  7 0  Total value ('000s p e s o ) 6  8  /  6  9  6  9  /  7  0  804  2,280  2,465  3.041 3 8 , 8 4 5 22,940 800  800  2,642  2,432 28.676 18.352  2.956  3.335 13,727 10,658 821  815  2,426  2,718 11.284  8.650  469  3.000  2.480  4,769  800  2,403  1,984  3.818  0.992  82  31  2.900  1.000  237  800  850  2,320  850  0.190  0.026  3,565  3, 341  3.152  2.973 11,236 10,034 800  809  2,521  2,405  8.988  8.042  800  2,494  2,800  1.728  1.532  1.645  0.541  1,240 801 31  7.761  7.139  Zone 13  3, 570  Zone 14  693  544  693  544  3.118  3.500  2,160  El  546  179  546  179  3.300  3,519  1,801  913  860  3,012  3,026  25,374 18, 146  3.002  2.865 7 9 , 4 8 0 5 6 , 3 2 1 806  817  2,419  2,340 6 4 . 0 9 2 4 5 . 2 6 9  Fte/Sn Bl  District  Source:-  25, 574 18, 336  C o m p i l e d f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y 1 9 7 0 .  1,094 800 627  62  h e c t a r e by  the sub-areas  of the D i s t r i c t  a r e e q u a l l y bunched  together. In the a g r i c u l t u r a l 28.31 fall  per  cycle  1969/70, the D i s t r i c t  cent drop i n the a r e a  sown t o w h e a t and  i n the v a l u e of wheat produced  year,  1968/69.  lowering  primarily  i t s minimum s u p p o r t  t o n t o 750. of t h i s  T h i s was  In Table  cereal  40.25 p e r  price  X X I V we  can  c r o p , however, s t i l l  a 29.37 p e r  compared t o the due  to the  850  level  producers,  although,as  i n 1968/69, i t k e p t  average.  T h i s downward movement i n U n i t 2's a c c o m p a n i e d by  o f U n i t s 1 and  3 and  i n e x p l i c a b l y has  a d i s a s t r o u s l y bad  41.08  over  the r u r a l entries  XXV  dissects  the farming groups,  The  broad  other District  "performance"  Bias.  indicators  Excluding Unit 5  yield,  t h e r e was  which  a wider  spread  per h e c t a r e to a  ton, l e d to the wider  spread  of  these  and  data  into  t h e two  t i m e p e r i o d s and  thus helps  main tenure  groups  shows t h e v a r i a t i o n s  to i l l u m i n a t e  the  for  general  o f c h a n g e p o r t r a y e d i n T a b l e -XX-Iil- . data are presented  comparable form  comparative  value.  picture,  g i v e n as p e r c e n t a g e s  tenure  g o u p s i n a more  per  cent of the D i s t r i c t ' s  the t o t a l wheat crop  XXV11  also  easily  of D i s t r i c t  t h a t the data  their  share  value.  33.98  a r e a sown i n t h a t c r o p and o f t h e sown a r e a  are  Thus i n 1968/69,  f a r m s t h a t , sowed w h e a t r e p r e s e n t e d total  wheat  gives a proportional  of a l l farms of the D i s t r i c t .  the U n i t 2 p r i v a t e  from  Table  the d i s t i n c t i o n b e i n g  all  farms produced  by  i n T a b l e X X V I , as p e r c e n t a g e s  a r e a , p r o d u c t i o n and and  pesos per  t h e same a g r i c u l t u r a l  picture  the  i n t h e v a l u e p e r h e c t a r e sown c a t e g o r y .  Table for  cent  coupledftwifchttheggEeafeer<'deviationffrom  This factor  p r i c e o f 800  per  ahead o f the  o f e n t r i e s , " r a n g i n g f r o m a l o w o f 2.480 k i l o - t o n s h i g h o f 3.519.  cultivator  producing  a n u p w a r d movement i n t h e  E l Fuerte/San  per  I n 1969/70 U n i t 2 d i d  superior yield  i n d i c a t o r s was  pesos  t h a t the main  cent of the D i s t r i c t ' s wheat v a l u e from  not m a i n t a i n i t s s l i g h t l y  cent  previous  r e m a i n e d U n i t 2,  of the t o t a l wheat area of the D i s t r i c t .  a  government's  f o r wheat from see a l s o  experienced  36.37 p e r  those cent  of  T a b l e XXV  Unit  1  Unit 2 Unit  3  Unit  4  Unit  5  Private(P) E j i d a l (E) (P) (E)  Zone 13 Zone 14 E l Fte/Sn B l  Source:-  (P) (E) (P) (E) (P) (E) (P) (E) (P) (E) (P) (E)  Compiled  A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n f o r D i s t r i c t ' s Tenure Groups, 1968/69-1969/70  A r e a Sown (hectares) 68/69 69/70 2,083 1,187 718 1,771 8,691 6,074 2,164 1,520 1,234 2,164 1,986 2,552 655 319 934 150 58 31 24 3,059 3,337 232 282 693 546  --  544 166 13  Y i e l d per ha. P r i c e per (kilo-tons) ton(pesos) 68/69 69/70 (38/69 69/70 3,021 3.108 800 808 800 800 2.113 3.125 800 800 3.355 3.082 800 800 3,098 3,000 3,0333 3,322 807 830 2,893 3.348 835 800 800 3.000 2.934 800 800 3.000 2.026 801 800 850 2.900 1.000 800 2.900 800 800 3.152 3.009 3.144 2.936 819 800  --  3.118 3.300  --  --  3.500 3.500 3.583  --  --  800 913  --  800 865 855  S u b - D i v i s i o n s by  Value per ha. Value of output (p*i§6s)pesos) ('000s p e s o s ) 69/70 68/69 68/69 69/70 2,416 2,511 6.678 2.976 4.163 1,690 2,420 1.082 2,668 2,465 2 3 . 3 1 1 14.710 5.364 3.641 2,471 2,400 3.399 2,757 5.117 2,447 6.166 5.251 2,415 2,678 0.748 2,320 2,347 1.572 2.246 2,403 1,620 0.243 0.026 0.134 2,320 850 2,320 0.055 2,407 8.404 7.364 2,521 2,404 0.584 0.678 2,515  --  2,494 3,012  2,800 3,027 3,063  --  1.728 1.645  --  1.523 0.502 0.391  f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y 1970.  ON  64  T a b l e XX111  I n d i c e s o f T o t a l Sown A r e a & H a r v e s t V a l u e o f A l l C r o p s &. o f Wheat f o r D i s t r i c t , 1 9 6 4 / 6 5 - 1 9 6 9 / 7 0 ( 1 9 6 6 / 6 7 = 100) All Area  1964/65 1965/66 1966/67 1967/68 1968/69 1969/70  T a b l e XXVI  78 80 100 109 99 100  65 96 100 94 94 104  Wheat Area Value 180 63 100 99 91 65  166 61 100 73 86 61  S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' Wheat A r e a s Sown, P r o d u c t i o n & V a l u e s b y Tenure Groups as p e r c e n t a g e s o f D i s t r i c t ' s T e n u r e Group T o t a l s , 1968/69-1969/70  Unit  1 P r i v a t e only(.P) E j i d a l o n l y (E) Unit 2 (P) (E) Unit 3 (P) (E) Unit 4 (P) (E) Unit 5 (P) (E) Zone 13 (P) (E) Zone 14 (P) (E) E l Fte/Sn B l (P) (E)  Source:-  Crops Value  Compiled  A r e a sown i n Wheat a s 7. o f District total 69/70 68/69 15.697. 9.107. 9.007. 28.177. 47.137. 500047. 29.417. 24.167. 11.167. 10QOG%7.Z 34.647. 31.447. 3.117. 2.087. 12.567. 2.257. 0.307. 0.217. 0.327. 18.577. 2 5 . 0 4 % 3.127. 4.317.  --  9.347. 2.187.  8.43% 1.057. 0.217.  f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y  Production of Wheat a s 7. o f District total 68/69 69/70 9.367. 14.197. 26.167. 6.817. 50.267. 49.297. 31.137. 23.097. 10.527. 11.037. 34.177. 33.167. 3.197. 3.227. 13.057. 1.117. 0.257. 0.087. 0.367. 18.167. 2 4 . 3 4 % 4.057. 3.957.  Value o f Output o f Wheat a s 7. o f District total 68/69 69/70 14.127. 10.007. 6.497. 26.127. 49.357. 49.147. 31.247. 23.077. 10.437. 11.137. 35.147. 33.127. 3.177. 2.157. 13.677. 1.097. 0.247. 0.087. 0.307. 17.447. 2 4 . 2 3 % 3.397. 4.067.  10.39% 3.547.  10.01% 3.247.  --  9.167. 1.217. 0.217.  9.13% 1.217. 0.217.  1970. - T a b l e s X X I 1 1 & X X V I .  65  Finally^ i n Table expressed  positively  XXV111, t h e e j i d a l  or negatively i n r e l a t i o n  of t h e p r i v a t e group i n p r i c e , y i e l d s and  value.  only  I t i s seen t h a t over  two y e a r s  of r e l i a b l e  data,  these  by  a fall  two y e a r s , w h i c h a r e t h e  the e j i d a l  group d i d n o t enjoy any  but with regard  improved t h e i r poorer  t h e gap c o n s i d e r a b l y .  to the performance  (kilo-tons per hectare),  marked p r i c e advantage or d i s a d v a n t a g e , the peasant farmers  s e c t o r ' s performance i s  to yield  performance and c l o s e d  T h i s , o f c o u r s e , was i n some m e a s u r e a i d e d  i n 1969/70 i n t h e l e v e l  of the p r i v a t e group's  shows t h e c a m p e s i n a s a t a  yield.  The  outcome, however, s t i l l  vis  a v i s v a l u e p e r h e c t a r e , b u t , e x c l u d i n g the d i s a s t r o u s l y low  e n t r y f o r U n i t 4, t h e e x t e n t o f t h i s most cases The  disadvantage  decreased i n  by 1969/70.  U n i t 2 Tenure Groups and t h e i r Farm As  disadvantage  Holdings  i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , Unit 2 contains three tenure  private,  e j i d a l and c o l o n o .  This  last  group gained  land i n this  U n i t , as c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e i r h o l d i n g s , o f t e n i n c l u d i n g land,  located i n the Miguel  finished waters  f o r the Fuerte  tenure  group cases,  l a n d on a r r i v a l by has  10 h e c t a r e s  began t o form,  the pent-up  holdings.  of land f o r every  The  100 h e c t a r e s o f  i n the watershed area.  the f i r s t  i n the area.  chapparal  When t h e dam was  scheme f l o o d e d t h e c o l o n o  t h a t they had h e l d and l o s t  other  dam a r e a .  i n 1956 a n d t h e r e s e r v o i r b e h i n d  colonos were g i v e n land  Hidalgo  farmers  Desert  groups,  had t o c l e a r  As i n t h e their  v e g e t a t i o n had been removed  t h e CRF b u t n o o t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s h a d b e e n made.  This  policy  b e e n c h a n g e d f o r t h e new E l C a r r i z o scheme, b u t i t i s n o t c l e a r  whether t h i s only!  i s because i t has been d e s i g n a t e d  I t m u s t be remembered t h a t t h e c o l o n o  land they were g i v e n i n compensation. land given to the e j i d a l  This  for ejidatarios group l e g a l l y  i s distinct  own t h e  from the  s e c t o r , where the land i s n o t l e g a l l y  owned b y t h e r e c i p i e n t s . The having,  p p i v a t e f f a r m i n g group i n t h i s U n i t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by as noted  i n Chapter  111, t h e l a r g e s t  farms i n t h e D i s t r i c t ,  6 6  Table XXV11  S u b - D i v i s i o n s ' Wheat A r e a s & H a r v e s t V a l u e s byTenure Groups as p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e D i s t r i c t T o t a l s , 1 9 6 8 / 6 9 - 1 9 6 9 / 7 0  Wheat  WWheat A A r e a 1 P r i v a t e a s r 7 ^ s o f s a l l o f arms ( P ) E j i d a l as 7o o f a l l f a r m s ( E ) Unit 2 (P) (E) Unit 3 (P) (E) Unit 4 (P) (E) Unit 5 (P) (E) Zone 1 3 (P) (E) Zone 1 4 (P) (E() E l Fte/Sn B l (P) (E) Unit  District  (P) (E)  Table XXVI11  Value  6 8 # 6 9  6 9 / 7 0  6 8 / 6 9  1 0 . 9 6 7 .  6 . 4 7 7 o  1 0 . 4 2 7 ,  6 . 5 7 7 o  2 . 8 1 7 o  9 . 6 6 7 „  1 . 6 9 7 .  9 . 2 0 7 o  3 3 . 9 8 7 o  3 3 . 1 3 7 .  3 6 . 3 7 7 .  3 2 . 5 0 7 ,  8 . 4 6 7 o  8 . 2 9 7 .  8 . 3 7 7 o  8 . 0 4 7 ,  8 . 4 6 7 o  6 . 7 3 7 o  7 . 9 8 7 .  7 . 5 1 7 c  9 . 9 8 7 .  1 0 . 8 3 7 o  9 . 6 2 7 .  1 1 . 6 0 7 c  2 . 5 6 7 .  1 . 7 4 7 o  2 . 4 5 7 .  1 . 6 5 7 c  3 . 6 6 7 o  0 . 8 2 7 o  3 . 5 1 7 ,  0 . 5 4 7 ,  0 . 2 3 7 .  0Q177o  0 . 2 1 7 o  0 . 0 6 7 ,  0 . 0 9 7 >  6 9 / 7 0  0 . 0 9 %  --  1 3 . 0 5 7 o  1 6 . 6 8 %  1 3 . 1 1 7 .  1 6 . 2 7 7 ,  0 . 9 1 7 o  1 . 5 4 7 c  0.917=,  1 . 5 0 7 „  --  --  --  2 . 7 I X  2.971  2 . 7 0 7 .  2 . 1 3 7 o  0 . 9 1 7 ,  2 . 5 7 7 o  --  --  0 . 0 7 7 c  3 . 3 6 7 c 1 . 1 1 7 c 0 . 0 9 7 c  7 1 . 0 7 7 ,  6 5 5 9 7 7 .  7 3 . 0 8 7 ,  6 5 . 8 5 7 c  2 8 . 9 3 7 o  3 4 . 0 3 7 o  2 6 . 9 2 7 ,  3 4 . 1 5 7 c  E j i d a l Wheat C r o p P e r f o r m a n c e f o r D i s t r i c t & SubD i v i s i o n s Compared t o t h a t o f t h e P r i v a t e S e c t o r , 1 9 6 8 / 6 9 - 1 9 6 9 / 7 0  Rural  Price  6 8 / 6 9  Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Zone 1 3 Zone 1 4 E l Fte/Sn B l District  = =  Yield  6 9 / 7 0  =  +  3 . 4 7 7 c  +  0 . 1 3 7 c  6 8 / 6 9  - - - 0 Q 9 9 7 i  = - -  3 . 6 1 7 c  =  +  6 9 / 7 0  -330306%$7 . 6 6 7 , - -  2 . 6 6 7 c  - -  7 . 3 8 7 c - -  2 . 6 6 7 .  4 . 6 2 7 , & +  0 . 7 8 7 c  —  1 . 3 1 7 c - -  2 . 8 7 7 .  - - 3 0 . 9 5 7 ,  = 2 . 3 8 7 »  - -  1 . 1 6 7 ,  6 9 / 7 0 9 5 3 , 6 2 7 .  - -  %  4+  6 8 / 6 9  2.67.%6 7-30T05%*  - -  =  -  Value per ha.  1 . 0 0 7 c  0 . 2 5 7 , - -  2 . 4 7 7 c  +  2 . 3 7 7 »  - 6.857.  4+ 0.137.- r . 3 0 . 9 5 7 . = - -  0 . 2 5 7 . - -  0 . 1 2 7 .  + 1 1 1 1 9 7 . -  5 . 9 2 7 .  —-  E j i d a l d a t a a r e e x p r e s s e d as p d s i t i v e ( + ) , n e g a t i v e ( - ) , o r e q u a l ( = ) , i n a p e r c e n t i l e form compared t o t h e P r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s d a t a . Source:-  Tables XXVI1 & X X V I 1 1 Compiled  f r o m CRF d a t a , J u l y 1 9 7 0 .  67  and, w i t h i n of  t h e i r n u m b e r , c o n t a i n s 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e c r e d i t  Corerepe's  The  members, t o b e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r  p r i v a t e farmers  Northwest,  here  i n this  chapter.  c a n be t e r m e d t h e " n o u v e a u r i c h e " o f t h e  and o f t h e F u e r t e  i n particular.  They s h o u l d n o t be  confused w i t h t h e remnants o f t h e o l d hacendadpo c l a s s . p r i v a t e farmers  have, a t most, been i n a g r i c u l t u r e  f i v e y e a r s , and almost  operation of land p r i o r  of  The  f o r twenty-  c e r t a i n l y 90 p e r c e n t o f them r e s i d e n t i n  t h e a r e a h a d h a d no p r a c t i c a l  Although  Union  contact or experience with the  to the opening  of the Fuerte  District.  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n d a t a f o r t h e r e g i o n a l  these a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s  not unreasonable  from  t h e S t a t e Census m a t e r i a l s , i t i s  or u n r e a l i s t i c  c e n t o f them came f r o m  origins  t o suggest  the c e n t r a l upland  t h a t u p w a r d s o f 75 p e r settlementssof  Mexico,  where they had been businessmen o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and had had considerable experience some k i n d o r o t h e r .  i n management a n d i n v e s t m e n t  The r e m a i n d e r  h a v e come f r o m  Chihuahua o r Durango where they have l e f t ranching business.  A t t h e same t i m e ,  techniques of  neighbouring  the f a i l i n g  these  cattle-  "neo-latifundistas"  r e a l i z e d more t h a n a n y o t h e r s t h a t t h e r e w e r e good p r o s p e c t s o f obtaining h i g h l y remunerative the e a r l y  fairly  hoding  t h e y m u s t s e c u r e a s much a s p o s s i b l e .  during  easy  to circumvent  o r more r e c e n t l y  illustrate  t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f 100 h e c t a r e s p e r  Northwest's  t h i s aspect  o f land development, the case i s  This farmer-to-be  interested  influential  f l e w Texans over t h e  developing i r r i g a t i o n areas  U.S. f a r m e r s w e r e k e e n l y  of the  i n t h e names o f e m p l o y e e s .  t a k e n o f one o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s m o s t s u c c e s s f u l , a n d now private operators.  t o them  I t was a t t h a t  b y r e g i s t e r i n g e x t r a l a n d i n t h e names o f r e l a t i v e s  purchaser, To  i n the Fuerte  1950s, and t h a t s i n c e t h e s u p p l y o f l a n d a v a i l a b l e  was l i m i t e d , time  land resources  i n the early  1950s when  i n o b t a i n i n g l a n d i n Sonora and  S i n a l o a , a l t h o u g h under t h e M e x i c a n C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1917, i t i s illegal  f o r f o r e i g n e r s t o own M e x i c a n l a n d .  was o f f e r e d a 100 h e c t a r e p l o t he  accepted  illegally  When t h e M e x i c a n  pilot  b o u g h t b y one o f t h e T e x a n s ,  i t on c o n d i t i o n t h a t he r e p a i d t h e T e x a n w i t h i n  five  years.  68  This  l a n d was  l o c a t e d on  O b r e g o n i n S o n o r a , and  the Yaqui  on  i t the p i l o t  The  The  q u i c k l y became i n v o l v e d i n n o t  early and  paid'--off w i t h i n t h e a g r e e d  c r e d i t Unions, hut  Ciudad  only  and  time.  the f o r m a t i o n  a l s o i n the development of seed  of  i n U n i t 2.  residences irrigated  T o d a y he  i n Los  M o c h i s and  holdings  5,000 h e c t a r e  i s a Mexican m i l l i o n a i r e ,  on  C h i h u a h u a , and  the F u e r t e  and  Yaqui  the  breeding  f u r t h e r l a n d o p e r a t i o n i n t h e N o r t h w e s t , n a m e l y h e r e on  Fuerte  of  on  c u l t i v a t e d wheat  cotton. pilot  T e x a n was  scheme, c e n t r e d  the  with  i n a d d i t i o n to h i s l a n d s , he  owns a  c a t t l e ranch near E l C a r r i z o , northwest of the  village  Taxtes. In  the main, h i s case i s t y p i c a l  self-advancement t h a t the achieved  d u r i n g the  officially  life  of the F u e r t e  The  second type  averages o f f i c i a l l y the farmers  who  the  t o gauge, but  c e n t r a l and  i n this Unit  tenure  southern  membership of  to him  the b i g Unions.  another  by  of  m a c h i n e r y h e l d by h i m usually  r e q u i r e s him  third  land.  a somewhat h i g h e r  They s o l d  their  land.  l a r g e r members  They of and  assumed h e r e i n t h i s  o w n e r s h i p and  land  at  land i n order  to  has least  upkeep of  l e v e l l e r , harrowers,  Unit  the drillers)  reduce  capitaleequipment. c a n be  f r o m 0-10  been broadened  limit  nation  o w n i n g o n l y 20 h e c t a r e s ,  to work a d d i t i o n a l  p r i v a t e type  s p a n has  The  (tractor,  variety, with, normally, U n i t 2 the  District)  of the  of i r r i g a t e d  I t c a n be  officially  ownership costs of h i s The  (and  others, usually illegality ejidatarios,  20 h e c t a r e s  reasonable  they a s p i r e to f u r t h e r land purchase  that a p r i v a t e operator rented  areas  construction.  bought s m a l l e r shares  g r o u p , and  a  their  T h i s group c o n s i s t s of  operate w i t h i n the c r e d i t advantages of the their  operators  over.  20.1-50 h e c t a r e s .  of the F u e r t e ' s  s m a l l h o l d i n g s and  or  Those  and  have  though u n o f f i c i a l l y  difficult  of p r i v a t e operator  left  when t h e y h e a r d  hectares  of the U n i t  scheme.  hectares,  average farm s i z e s are extremely 200  the degree of p r o g r e s s  large private holders  h o l d u p w a r d s o f 50.1  e s t i m a t e w o u l d be  of  than  describeddas  the  h e c t a r e s , but to cover  minifundia  in this  f r o m 0-20  i s u s u a l l y placed  on  the  case f o r  hectares, term.  69  As  i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter  exist  i n this  carried few  111, o n l y  with  Chronologically,  structure of Unit  the material presented  ejidos  i n the e n t i r e Mexican nation.  settlement,  and i s a p p a r e n t l y  f l a g g i n g beef l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y .  Not  i n Table  groups!  one o f t h e b i g g e s t  This  established  at encouraging the  had m i n i m a l  success,  due t o t h e o v e r s i g h t t t h a t t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t  land  f o r the c a t t l e density  required  s u r p r i s i n g l y , the l i v e s t o c k a c t i v i t i e s were immediately  Vacas, and they a l s o changed t o c r o p c u l t i v a t i o n  identical The  M a r i e , M i g u e l Aleman and R u i s C o r t i n e s Ruis Cortines  who a p p l i e d  of e n l a r g i n g  desired  their  original  dotation  a r e made up o f f a r m e r s  t h a t was i n t h e o r d e r  the e j i d a t a r i o s received  t o be e x p r o p r i a t e d  rather  their  farmers a r e concerned i s that  from the p r i v a t e sector  t o d e c i d e who r e c e i v e d  4.5 h e c t a r e s  land.  10  there  In  was  hectares,  t h e g r o u p members d r e w  The r a t h e r  land  s i z e of the p l o t s .  f o r h a l f c o f t h e members t o r e c e i v e  t h a n make do w i t h  The  h a s n o t become  H o r n o s t h e same s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d , b u t h e r e , s i n c e enough l a n d  o f 4-6  p l o t s e x c e p t f o r E l G a l l o and Los Hornos.  a v a i l a b l e a n d h e n c e t h e p r e s e n t 4.5 h e c t a r e  only  Jesus  o f new ( a d d i t i o n a l ) l a n d , d o i n g s o i n t h e h o p e  problem as f a r as t h e E l G a l l o  Los  Los Hornos,  No.2 a r e somewhat d i f f e r e n t .  No.2, a l l t h e o t h e r s  I n these instances, 10 h e c t a r e  expected  i n 1956 f o r  f o r r e c o g n i t i o n a s members o f new e j i d o s , a n d h e n c e  the possession  hectares.  to those of  reasons. remaining ejidos of E l Gallo, Hidalgo,  Excluding  abandoned  Bachoco, Las  P a r r i t a s and C o r e r e p e were e s t a b l i s h e d on s i m i l a r l i n e s  for  natural  to support the farmers.  when t h e w a t e r scheme s t a r t e d s e r v i c e i n 1 9 5 6 .  Las  in  XXIX.  The e j i d o was  t o i r r i g a t i o n as a government e f f o r t  pasture  tenure  L a s V a c a s ( a l s o known a s J u a n J o s e R i o s ) i s t h e  ejidal  primarily  these  2 c a n b e s t be a p p r e c i a t e d  oldest  prior  work  e n t r i e s w e r e i n f a c t l a n d p u r c h a s e s made b y f o r m e r  ejidal  conjunction  officially  s u b - a r e a , i t was f o u n d t h a t  e j i d a t a r i o s , who w e r e now members o f two l a n d The  even  c a t e g o r y f o r t h e U n i t , and f r o m t h e f i e l d  out f o r t h i s D i s t r i c t  official  16 o p e r a t o r s  lots  o d d s i t u a t i o n now e x i s t s  70  Table  XXIX  Characteristics  Farmer Population  Name  339  Bachoco  Corerepe El Gallo Hidalgo Las P a r r i t a s Los H o r n o s Jesus Maria M i g u e l Aleman Ruiz Cortines  236 46 20 56 14 44 89 No.2 119  Ruiz Cortines  No.3  Las  Vacas  53 662  o f t h e E j i d o s i n U n i t 2,  R e g i o n a l Source of r e s i d e n t farming population 35% 30% 25% 10% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100. 100% 100% 33% 33% 33% 40% 60% 50% 50%  1969/70  Date of Formation  Zacatecas/Guanajuato Los M o c h i s Fuerte Watershed Native Los M o c h i s Guasave Guasave Guasave Guasave Guasave Guasave Chihuahua Sonora Los M o c h i s / G u a s a v e Ahome/Zarragoza Guasave Fuerte Watershed Los M o c h i s / N a t i v e  Av. s i z e of usable holding(ha) 9.5  1950  1954 1956 1956 1952 1956 1960 1960  10.0 4.5 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0  1963 1963  9.0 4.5  1946  9.0  E j i d o s t h a t have not y e t r e c e i v e d o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r permanent e x i s t e n c e , i . e . t h e i r occupancy o f c e r t a i n l a n d a r e a s .  Table  XXX  The  Wheat S a m p l e P o p u l a t i o n o f U n i t 2,  Location  No.  Bachoco Corerepe El Gallo Jesus Maria M i g u e l Aleman Las P a r r i t a s Ruis Cortines Las Vacas  of  No.2  farmers  11 2 2 6 4 11 6 109  1969/70  Av. f a r m s i z e u s a b l e a r e a , ha. .10.0 10.0 4.5 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0  T o t a l E j i d a l Sample T o t a l P r i v a t e Sample T o t a l C o l o n o Sample  151 102 58  T o t a l F a r m s E M t g i b l e f o r samp!L i n g T o t a l F a r m s A c t u a l l y samp l e d  311 305 ( 1 4 8 e j i d a l , 58 c o l o n o )  Source:-  T a b l e s x T I X & XXX" C o m p i l e d J u l y 197:).  f r o m CRF  99  private  &  Unit Office data,JJuly  1970.  71  w h e r e some o f  the  nothing,  i n the  •for t h e This  live  i n d i v i d u a l s who  e j i d a l v i l l a g e and  e j i d a t a r i o s who  has  the  more w i d e l y ,  were unlucky  but  ness i n r a i s i n g  i n p r a c t i c e the living  received  do y e a r l y l a b o u r  w e r e f o r t u n a t e and  e f f e c t of d i s t r i b u t i n g  and  now  possess  standards i s v i r t u a l l y  e j i d a t a r i o s , ( s o m e t i m e s v a g r a n t s q u a t t e r s }• a r e organized  g r o u p t o SAG,  or  i n o u t l y i n g areas} f o r H a n d . ownership,'private c a n be  parcelled  out  "productive"  O f t e n the aspect of  f r e q u e n t l y as  on  somewhere e l s e .  their  lands.  i s being  As  the  to  the R e v o l u t i o n ' s the  highly productive  be  productively  expropriated  and  squatter-  assessment of  the  per  peasant p o p u l a t i o n  cent per  annum, t h e  i n c r e a s e s , and  known f a r m i n g  the  protected  L a w s , and  pressure  private  operators  particularly  i t i s thanks only  has  not  occurred,  t h e y now  the  to  have 9 h e c t a r e s  group d i d not  per  have p r e v i o u s  the of  given  abilities. case of Ruis  f a r m h a n d s on skills.  s u b - a r e a and  effectively  t o be  Cortines  f a c t that these e j i d a t a r i o s , p r i o r  and  of  t h a t more e x p r o p r i a t i o n  distinctive  g r o u p c o n s o l i d a t i o n , w o r k e d as  hand knowledge of  years,  move  t h r e a t of e x p r o p r i a t i o n  area's o f f i c i a l s  gaining u s e f u l experience  the  runs i n t o s e v e r a l  f a r m e r p o p u l a t i o n make-up i s r e g i o n a l l y d i v e r s e , t h i s  a r e f l e c t i o n of  i t  increases,  constant  i s the  in  region's  private holdings  there  CRF  and  Agrarian  t o s q u a t t e r s w i t h no  apply  t h e w o u l d - b e o w n e r s g i v e up  a t 5.6  the  prospective  then^unless  operated  i n question  They a r e l e g a l l y n o t  common s e n s e o f  Its  land  a result,  too aware of  Finally,  entitled  a f f e c t a b l e land,*,  type of a v a i l a b l e land  only  time  they w i s h i s already  time taken over the  the  r a p i d l y , estimated  on any  i t s effective-  substitute,''here  land  i t will  holdings  to the a p p l i c a n t s f o r i t s o w n e r s h i p , the  and  by  land being  the a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r ,  ejidatarios.  are  I f the  shown t h a t t h e p r i v a t e l a n d  throughout  very  i t s local  hectares.„„  nullified.  A p o i n t w o r t h y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t a t any  i n an  10  income from t h o s e  i n c o m e i s s m a l l and  services  local  to  private  Armed w i t h  their  No.2.  being their properties first-  modern i r r i g a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e ,  c a p i t a of usable "ownership" of  land.  land  i n the  This  ejidal  scheme  as  72  d i d m o s t o f t h e members o u t l i n e d T a b l e XXX  It  i s not possible  in  terms  and  ejidal  a l l the p r i v a t e  It  The  for  i n either  Los Mochis  or i n sampled  D a t a and  Basic Findings  of U n i t 2 were s e l e c t e d  f r o m among t h o s e  farms  sample  the t o t a l  t h e 311 305  tenure groups The  Unit p o p u l a t i o n of farmers c u l t i v a t i n g  t h a t f o r 85.47 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e w h e a t at least  this  the second  cereal  year  wheat.  farmers,  t h a t t h e y had  had  crop.  f a r m e r s known t o h a v e c u l t i v a t e d w h e a t i n 1969/70 cases y i e l d e d  the assessment  colonos.  live  f a r m e r p p o p u l a t i o n i s being c o n s i d e r e d , but that  1969/70 was  f o r U n i t 2,  farmers  sample  experience growing Of  the r e s p e c t i v e  In the examination, t h e r e f o r e , a  s h o u l d be n o t e d  the year  c o l o n o group p o p u l a t i o n s  the l o c a t i o n of the wheat p l o t s  g r o w i n g wheat i n 1969/70,  represents  village.  3.  sample farms  o f U n i t 2'.s  t h e p r i v a t e and  the  i s because the m a j o r i t y of the c o l o n o s ,  farmers  Nonetheless  Farm Sample; The  s a m p l e s a r e d e t a i l e d by  l o c a l e s out of which  Quite simply, this  a r e shown on Map The  The  to l o c a t e  of v i l l a g e  Guasave.  cases.  shows t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e s t a k e n o f  three tenure groups.  work.  i n the above f i v e  s u i t a b l e data, d u r i n g the f i e l d  of net crop r e t u r n s .  i s 148  ejidal  The  distribution  f a r m e r s , 99 p r i v a t e  e s t i m a t e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e  58  to  t h e g r o s s and n e t r e t u r n s o f  farmer's  cultivated  ( h e c t a r e s h a r v e s t e d ) , the p r i c e r e c e i v e d (pesos  per  kilo-ton),  the y i e l d  the  s t u d i e d were of the  obtained (kilo-tons  the crop  to the c a l c u l a t i o n s  Records  the  individual  costs of growing  crops.  by  f a r m e r s and  a i m o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e s e d a t a was  work  (cost  i n pesos  p e r h e c t a r e ) , and per h e c t a r e ) .  o f g r o s s f a r m revenue,, i n t e r e s t  possibility  of i d e n t i f y i n g  variables,  e.g.  significant  between y i e l d  and  areas  In  addition  l a y i n the  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  certain  the i n c i d e n c e of double c r o p p i n g .  --Complete d a t a r e g a r d i n g p r e v i o u s s o w i n g p r a c t i c e s w e r e f o r o n l y 234 o f t h e 305 f a r m e r s i n t h e s a m p l e .  available  73  MAP  3  FARM  AREAS  U N IT 2 ,  SAMPLED  FUERTE  IN  DISTRICT  PQM-J  T e s t s f o r N o r m a l i t y o f U n i t 2 Farm Sample D a t a  T a b l e XXXI  Number of p o i n t s Area P r i v a t e Thas)Ejidal Colono Yield (kilo-tons pef h a . ) Double Cropping (incidence) GEOSS Returns p e r Ka.(pesos) Gross Returns p e r farm(pesos) Net Returns p e r nari(ipesos) Net Returns p e r farm(pesos)  99  ;p) IE)  1 4 8  ;c)  "  ;c)  Variance  61.414  9 4 5 . 3 7 2  9 . 6 8 2  1 . 1 7 6  1 0 . 1 0 4  Coef f i'eientt Standard of Skewness Deviate i o n n V a r i a b i 1 i t y 30.747 0 . 5 0 0 7 0 . 0 2 2 1 7 . . . 1 . 0 8 5  0 . 1 1 2 0  1 . 8 4 5  0 . 1 8 2 6  2 . 2 5 4 0 8 . 2  0 . 1 7 0 0  - 0 . 8 5 9 1 * 1  1 4 8  2 . 8 6 6 2  0 . 5 8 6  0 . 7 6 5  0 . 2 6 6 9  - 0 . 7 8 7 7 2 ^  3 . 4 0 6 8 6  5 8  3 . 2 6 8 1  0 . 1 4 8  0 . 3 8 4  0 . 1 1 7 6  - 0 . 5 0 2 9 3 '  3 . 7 4 0 3 3 . , . , .  99  1 . 1 3 1 3  0 . 4 5 7 5  0 . 6 7 6 4  0 . 5 9 7 9  - 0 . 1 6 5 3 9  2 . 1 6 9 0 2 " " '  0 . 5 4 3 1  - 0 . 0 1 6 3 9  0 . 4 8 0 0  - 0 . 0 1 4 5 4 . . .  ,  2 . 7 5 0 1 2 3 . 4 4 0 7 9  0 . 3 4 4 8  0 . 5 8 7 2  Ic)  5 8  1 . 1 8 9 7  0 . 3 2 6 1  0 0 . 5 7 1 1  99 1 4 8 5 8  99  ;p) IE)  1 4 8  ;c)  5 8  ;p) ;E)  1 4 8  0 . 1 7 0 8  - 0 . 8 4 2 0 3 1 ?  2 2 6 0 . 3 8 0  4 0 0 2 1 2 . 0  6 3 2 . 6 2 3 0  0 . 2 7 9 9  - 0 . 6 0 8 0 3 "  9 6 4 0 7 . 0  3 1 0 . 4 9 4 6  0 . 1 1 8 9  - 0 . 4 9 1 7 9  2 6 1 1 . 3 7 1 1 6 9 9 6 9 . 1  3 . 1 7 4 9 7 3 . 6 7 1 5 9 . , . , ,  1 . 8 0 8 3 4 " "  9 1 2 2 2 7 1 0 0 0 . 0  9 9 5 5 4 0 5 5 6  2 1 8 3 7 . 8 4  4 2 6 7 3 9 2 0 . 0  6 5 3 2 . 5 3  0 . 2 9 9 1  - 0 . 5 8 8 4 7 "  2 2 6 3 5 8 9 9 5  2 5 3 6 7 0 4 0 . 0  5 0 3 6 . 5 6 6  0 . 1 9 1 1  - 0 . 4 7 5 4 9 . . . ,  1 5 4 . 0 8 7  2 1 3 2 8 8 . 3  4 6 1 1 8 3 1 3 3  2 . 9 9 7 2  - 0 . 8 4 1 2 6 1 1  - 2 8 9 . 3 4 5  4 0 0 1 7 3 . 4  6 3 2 . 5 9 2 5  - 2 . 1 8 6 3  9 6 3 7 3 . 9  3 1 0 . 4 4 1 4  5 . 0 3 7 3  9 1 3 9 6 5 8 0 0 . 0  30231.87  2 . 2 5 9 7  0 . 2 4 6 6 9 . ,  662-42. 1 7 6 -  2 . 1 9 0 5  - 0 . 6 8 0 6 C  3 . 2 8 4 1 6 . ,  5 . 4 1 5 5  - 0 . 6 9 7 7 . 8 "  3 . 9 9 2 5 8 "  6 1 . 6 2 9  1 4 8  - 2 8 4 9 . 6 0 6  3 8 9 6 4 7 8 0 . 0  'c)  5 8  5 9 7 . 6 9 7  1 1 0 4 7 7 . 2 0 0 . 0  1 3 3 7 8 . 6 0  the 17o l e v e l .  * Significant  3 2 3 6 . 8 5  57. l e v e l . at the  Sample D a t a , August  1970.  0 . 5 6 1 9  0 . 2 1 3 0 3 . . .  3 . 5 0 0 3 6 ' " "  2 . 8 5 0 0 2  4 6 1 . 8 7 1 1  'p) ;E)  from F i e l d  ,  2 1 3 3 2 5 . 0  5 8  99  " 1 7 . 4 2 1 5 8 ^  2 7 0 3 . 8 2 1  99  Computed  1 . 7 0 8 2 4 , . . ,  0 . 5 7 6  1 . 0 8 1 1  ;c)  ,  ^20!. 6118211  3 . 4 0 3  1 4 8  :c)  - 4 . 3 0 3 0 5 ^  Kurtosis  0 . 3 3 2  ;p) 'E) 'p) (E)  on Skewness & K u r t o s i s  3 . 3 8 7 4  5 8  99  'p) ;E)  Significant at Source:-  Mean  Based  2 . 8 9 4 9 5 . , ,  - 0 . 6 0 8 0 3 "  5 . 9 0 0 0 7 3 . 4 2 9 1 9 3 . 1 7 4 3 7  - 0 . 4 8 8 1 0  3 . 6 1 0 7 9 ,  3 . 1 7 3 8 1  ,  75  The  d a t a w e r e i i r i i t i a l l y • c e s f c d d f f o r ;'.normality.itb f a c i l i t a t e s t o  the subsequent  analysis.  As  f r o m t h e s k e w n e s s and k u r t o s i s  c a n be  seen  The  r e s u l t s are presented i n Table  t h e o n l y s e t o f d a t a t h a t c a n be of f u r t h e r double  statistical  testing  c r o p p i n g where both  kurtosis  no  pair  of e n t r i e s  f o r two  results  farms  i n U n i t 2,  different  from  purposes  and  the  In a l l other  o r more t e n u r e g r o u p s w i t h i n  that are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  established  f o r the  c o l o n o skewness  distribution.  the expected v a l u e s i n a normal Having  entries,  i s t h a t f o r the i n c i d e n c e of  e n t r i e s are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  c a t e g o r y has  305  r e g a r d e d as n o r m a l  t h e e j i d a l and  expected v a l u e s f o r a normal  column  XXXI.  cases  a,'data  different  from  distribution.  the nature of the data c o l l e c t e d from  t e s t s were r u n to e s t a b l i s h  the  the  significance  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e means o f t h e t h r e e t e n u r e g r o u p s  for  ***  the seven d a t a s e t s l i s t e d i n T a b l e XXXI. The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e t e s t s a r e shown i n T a b l e X X X I 1 . ... In T a b l e XXXI1. the r e s u l t s i l-vii 1 shown a r e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f w h a t c o u l d h a v e b e e n a d d u c e d inspection.  e.g.  the h i g h l y  mean s i z e s o f t h e p r i v a t e and  the not s i g n i f i c a n t  e j i d a l and  t h e c o l o n o and No was  significance  farms  and  t h e e j i d a l and  Regarding y i e l d s  ejidal,  b u t n o t b e t w e e n t h e p r i v a t e and  the there and  the colono.  i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f means b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e  It is instructive  T a b l e s X X X 1 1 . and  to note  XXX11.. f o r t h i s  found a t the broader  evidence  colono h o l d i n g s ,  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e p r i v a t e and ejidal,  the  i n Table X X X l l ^  found w i t h r e s p e c t to the i n c i d e n c e of double  XXX11...). ni_  was  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e mean s i z e s o f  colono farms.  are s i g n i f i c a n t  from  in relation  U n i t and  to double  groups  c r o p p i n g (see Table  that the r e s u l t s  shown i n  sample a r e r e p l i c a t i o n s of what District  level,  but  that  the  c r o p p i n g of wheat o n l y i n the  - ' K u r t o s i s c a n be t h o u g h t o f a s a m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e " p e a k e d n e s s " o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of data p o i n t s . Skewness i s a measurement o f the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e mean f r o m t h e p e a k - z e r o v a l u e = a p e r f e c t c u r v e . * * S e e A p p e n d i x 2 f o r d e t a i l s o f t h e u s e o f s k e w n e s s and k u r t o s i s a s a test for normality i n data. ***See A p p e n d i x 3 f o r d e t a i l s o f t h e t e s t s used f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e means.  76  T a b l e XXX11  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e s s b e t w e e n Means o f U n i t 2 Wheat S a m p l e F a r m s , 1969/70  Standard Deviation  Number o f Mean Points S i z e o f Farms ( h e c t a r e s ) 99 61.414 Private 148 9.682 Ejidal  Test Statistic  30.7469 1.0845  16:7337 16.5536**  Private Colono  99 58  61.414 10.104  30.7469 1.8448  Colono Ejidal  58 148  10.104 9.682  1.8448 1.0845  1.6311  0.5759 0.7652  6.0970  Crop Y i e l d Private Ejidal  ( K i l o - t o n s per hectare) 99 3.3874 148 2.8662  Private Colono  99 58  3.3874 3.2681  0.5759 0.3843  1.5531  Colono Ejidal  58 148  3.2681 2.8662  0.3843 0.7652  4.9842**  Double Cropping ( I n c i d e n c e ) Private 99 1.1313 Ejidal 148 1.0811  0.6764 0.5872  0.6025  Private Colono  99 58  1.1313 1.1897  0.6764 0.5711  0.5764  Colono Ejidal  58 148  1.1897 1.0811  0.5711 0.5872  1.2175  Gross R e t u r n s per Private Ejidal  hectare (pesos) 99 2703.82 148 2260.38  461.8711 632.6230  6.3616**  Private Colono  99 58  2703.82 2611.37  461.8711 310.4946  1.4946  Colono Ejidal  58 148  2611.37 2260.38  310.4946 632.6230  5.3118**  Gross R e t u r n s per Private Ejidal  Farm ( p e s o s ) 99 16996<11.1 21837.84 148  95510.56 6532.53  15.4076""  Private Colono  99 58  169961.1 26358.95  95510.56 5036.57  14.9253*"  Colono Ejidal  58 148  26358.95 21837.84  5036.57 6532.53  5.3072**  Significant Source:-  a t the 17o l e v e l .  Computed  from F i e l d  Sample D a t a , A u g u s t  1970.  77  sample i s d i v e r g e n t from the p i c t u r e g i v e n p r e v i o u s l y on a b r o a d e r Given indicated and  scale of  i n T a b l e XXX11.., t h e r e s u l t s  significant  entirely  differences  surprising,  groups.  The  r e t u r n s per farm. net r e t u r n s per XXXII  ..). vii  farm s i z e  position  ejidal  and  i s apparent  of the p r i v a t e r  ejidal  groups,  significant.  into account,  t h e gap  .  o f more s i m i l a r  After  s i z e of  From the d a t a used  j.  ejidal  i n T a b l e s XXX11  -v  and  XXX11  .., vi 1  t h e two  spread least  evenness,  Table  Both  Table  groups o f F i g u r e s g i v e measurements o f the  then f o r a l l groups t o g e t h e r w i t h i n  As w o u l d be  i n s i z e of p r i v a t e equality  registering  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of farm r e t u r n s f o r the  f a r m i n g g r o u p s and  taken  return.  X X X I 1 1 and  wheat sample.  been  groups widens group  F i g u r e s 4a-d"and 5a-d"were c o n s t r u c t e d .  or e q u a l i t y  in  i s nonetheless  X X X I I I and  ness  and  the  c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n has  b e t w e e n t h e c o l o n o and  l e v e l of  and and  of d i f f e r e n c e  (see Table X X X l l ^ ^ ) , w i t h the e j i d a l  a much i n f e r i o r  f o r gross  (see T a b l e s XXXI1^  though the d i f f e r e n c e  statistically  considerably  the b a s i s of  i n t h e h i g h e r mean r e t u r n s i n b o t h g r o s s  g r o s s r e t u r n s between the farms  and  s e c t o r ' s much l a r g e r mean  n e t r e t u r n s , w h i l e t h e r e i s a l e s s marked margin  c o l o n o and  returnspper  significant  There are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  effect  no  the colono  i s somewhat c h a n g e d on  farm between a l l the groups  The  IV  s h o w i n g t h e r e t o be  colono groups, w h i l s t  d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e p r i v a t e and  as  XXXI1.  f o r t h e mean g r o s s and mean n e t  h e c t a r e b e t w e e n t h e p r i v a t e and  ejidal  differences  shown i n T a b l e s  11'  are not  111  examination.  the e x i s t e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d  XXXll^  i n Chapter  expected  farms  from  evenindividual  the U n i t 2  the very c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n the sample, t h i s  g r o u p has  the  o f r e t u r n s among i t s members, o r t h e l o w e s t i n d e x o f  W h i l s t the e j i d a l  i n d i c e s of evenness.  and  c o l o n o farms  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income f o r a l l farms  h a v e much h i g h e r  t h a t the e q u a l i t y i n the  c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r i s much  *The L o r e n z C u r v e s , o r c u m u l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y c u r v e s , c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d s i m p l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r . The d i a g o n a l l i n e r e p r e s e n t s p e r f e c t e q u a l i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e t u r n s w h i l e the p l o t t e d l i n e shows t h e a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e f a r m s s t u d i e d . C l e a r l y t h e f u r t h e r t h e p l o t t e d l i n e i s removed from the d i a g o n a l the g r e a t e r i s the l e v e l of i n e q u a l i t y i n the r e t u r n s d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the farms.  78  T a b l e XXX11  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n Means o f U n i t 2 Wheat S a m p l e F a r m s , 1969/70 -- C o n t i n u e d  Number o f Points Mean Net Returns per h e c t a r e (pesos) 99 Private 154.087 148 -289.345 Ejidal Private Colono  Standard Deviation  Test Statistic  461.8313 632.5925  6.3619  **  99 58  154.087 61.629  461.8313 310.4414  1.4967  58 148  61.629 -289.345  310.4414 632.5925  5.3120**  Net R e t u r n s per Farm ( p e s o s ) Private 99 13378.60 Ej i d a l 148 - 2 8 4 9 . 6 1  30231.87 6242.18  5.2664 "  Private Colono  99 13378.60 58 597.69  30231.87 3236.85  4.1659 "  58 597.69 148 - 2 8 4 9 . 6 1  3236.85 6242.18  5.1740**  Colono Ejidal  Colono Ejidal Significant Table XXXI11  a t t h e 17. l e v e l . I n d e x e s o f E v e n n e s s f o r G r o s s & N e t Income o f t h e U n i t 2 Wheat S a m p l e F a r m s , 1969/70 (percent)  Gross R e t u r n s p e r Farm Private Ejidal Colono A l l Farms  T a b l e XXXIV  67.78187. 83.34197. 90.47907. 43.93897.  No. o f p o i n t s  Net R e t u r n s p e r Farm  99 148 558 305  75.30297. 80.25757. 83.17767. 84.43137.  C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n A r e a & Y i e l d ( P r i v a t e Farms o n l y ) , <£ b e t w e e n D o u b l e C r o p p i n g & Y i e l d ( A l l Fa r.ms), o f t h e U n i t 2 Wheat S a m p l e F a r m s , 1969/70 (Dependent v a r i a b l e = Y i e l d ) (  Private Private Ejidal Colono  Variable No. o f p o i n t s Area 99 Double Cropping 99 Double Cropping 148 Double Cropping 58  **v? Where p r o b a b i l i t y * Where p r o b a b i l i t y  «=:.005, c o r r e l a t i o n I>.025, correlation  S o u r c e : - T a b l e s XXX11,  XXX111, XXXIV  Correlation 0.2621 -0.1365 -0.0381 -0.4425  Probability 0.0086** 0.2627* 0.6869* 0.0034**  is significant. is not s i g n i f i c a n t .  Computed  from F i e l d Data,  Aug.  79  higher after illustrated farms,  cost than before  This  attempt  statistical  c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e p r i n c i p a l v a r i a b l e s f o r w h i c h  a significant the y i e l d  colono  on those h o l d i n g s .  o f double  so d o e t h e y i e l d s  throughout,  correlation cropping  u n l i k e the p r i v a t e  c a s e s , no p o i n t i n t e s t i n g  for significance  I t was p o s s i b l e , t h o u g h , t o t e s t i n t t h e s e two c a s e s .  t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r the In the  c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d , as  i . e . as t h e i n c i d e n c e o f double o b t a i n e d on t h e c o l o n o  m a t e r i a l used i n the computation  re-ordered  farm  of the p r i v a t e sector, but the opposite held f o r the  sector,  The  there  S i n c e t h e a r e a o f t h e e j i d a l and  c r o p p i n g on y i e l d s  i t was f o u n d  the case  colono  F o r t h e p r i v a t e group  o b t a i n e d and t h e i n c i d e n c e o f double  t h e r e was i n t h e s e  ejidos,  of the c o r r e l a t i o n  o b t a i n e d , w h i l e t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t  between a r e a and y i e l d .  in  XXXIV.  f a r m s e x a m i n e d was s o u n i f o r m  sector,  effect  The r e s u l t s  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e a r e a o f t h e wheat  between t h e y i e l d practices  Curves f o r a l l  was t h e n made t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e r e w e r e a n y  t e s t r u n a r e shown i n T a b l e  and  well  and n e t r e t u r n s .  d a t a were a v a i l a b l e and r e l i a b l e .  is  i s particularly  i n F i g u r e s 4d a n d 5 d , g i v i n g t h e L o r e n z  f o rgross  An  i t .  cropping  changes  farms. of Tables  XXX11.  .. was  l-Vll  s o t h a t i t was g r o u p e d o n a s e t t l e m e n t a n d / o r s e c t i o n  l o c a t i o n basis (seeTable  XXXV).  T h i s was done t o f a c i l i t a t e  r e f e r e n c e back to e a r l i e r  r e m a r k s made o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e  U n i t 2's e j i d o s a n d t h e r e g i o n a l o r i g i n s As  of their  farmer  c a n be s e e n i n t h e a v e r a g e n e t r e t u r n s p e r h e c t a r e  populations.  column, t h e  e j i d o s o f R u i s C o r t i n e s No.2, Bachoco and p a r t o f t h e L a s Vacas sample have t h e h i g h e s t average n e t r e t u r n s p e r h e c t a r e . R e f e r r i n g back t o Table  XXIX o f t h i s  chapter  i t i s a l s o seen that  the above mentioned e j i d o s a r e those  t h a t have s i g n i f i c a n t  portions of in-migrants w i t h i n their  farmer  in  the detailed  members o f t h e s e consequently i-a  hine  f i e l d work c a r r i e d  makeup.  pro-  I t was  found  o u t t h a t n o t o n l y d i d t h e sample  e j i d o s have t h e h i g h e s t e j i d a l y i e l d s , and  the best n e t r e t u r n s , but these  individuals  also d i d  T a b l e XXXV  Type/ Location Private Las P a r r i t a s  A n a l y s i s o f Wheat P r o d u c t i o n o n U n i t  2 Sample Farms,  1969/70  Number Av. Av. Av. Av. Av. Av. Section o f fPitdfcssFarm Yield Price Gr6ssss Net Net R e t u r n NNumber S amprle d e S i z e ( h a) ( k t / h a ) ( p s / h a ) R e t i i r n s ( p s ) R e t u r n s ( p s ) p e r h a ( p s ) 11 66 800 149,160 -19,120 15 2.825 -289 11 2.009 800 15 10 16,072 - 9,425 -942  Private  16  13  71  3.689  800  209,535  +28,506  +401  Private El Gallo Colono  17 17 17  6 2 19  56 4.5 10  3.758 3.000 3.278  800 800 800  168,358 10,800 26,224  +25,574 673 + 7 37  +456 - 67 + 73  Private  18  12  92  3,450  800  253,920  +19,347  +210  19 19 19  13 6 5  70 10 10  3,789 3.500 3.250  800 800 800  212,184 28,000 26,000  +33,705 + 2,502 + 503  +481 +250 + 50  Colono  20  7  10  3,200  .800  25,600  +  103  + 10  Private Colono  21 21  9 12  69 10  3.400 3,565  800 800  187,680 28,520  +11,750 + 3,023  +170 +302  Private Jesus Maria Corerepe Colono  22 22 22 22  6 6 3 2  67 10 10 13  2,817 2.500 3.100 2 J940  800 800 800 800  150,991 20,000 24,800 23,520  -19,838 - 5,498 698 - 1,977  -296 -549 - 69 -197  Private Colono  23 23  6 1  45 10  3,250 3.200  800 800  117,000 25,600  + 2,263 + 103  + 50 + 10  Private M i g u e l Aleman Las Vacas Colono  24 24 24 24  5 5 1 9  55 10 10 10  3.500 3.125 3.000 3.180  800 800 800 800  154,000 24,100 24,000 25,440  +13,766 - 1,397 - 1,497 57  +250 -139 -149 5  Private R u i s C o r t i n e s No.2 Colono  •  •  Table  XXXV  Type/ Location Private Las V a c a s Bachoco Colono  Continued  Number Section of P l o t s NNumber Sampled 7 25 3 25 25 8 25 2  Av. Av. Av. Farm Yield Price Size(ha)(kt/ha)(ps/ha) 800 58 3.857 3.000 825 10 3.500 800 10 800 10 3.250  Av. Gross Returns(ps) 178,964 24,750 2280000 26,000  Av. Av. Net R e t u r n Net R e t u r n s ( p s ) per ha(ps) +536 +31,082 - 74 747 + 2,503 +250 + 503 + 50  Las Vacas Bachoco  26 26  10 2  10 10  3.500 4.000  800 800  28,000 32,000  + +  2,503 6,503  +250 +650  Las  Vacas  27  12  10  3.516  840  29,534  +  4,037  +403  Private Las Vacas Colono  28 28 28  3 7 1  48 10 15  3.333 2.300 3.000  800 740 800  127,987 17,020 24,000  + 5,601 - 8,477 - 1,497  +116 -847 -149  Las  Vacas  29  44  10  2.620  800  20,960  - 4,537  -453  Private Las Vacas  30 30  8 30  62 10  2.800 2.896  800 740  138,880 21,430  -19,201 - 4,067  -309 -406  Source:-  Computed f r o m F i e l d S a m p l e D a t a , A u g u s t 1 9 7 0 .  82  m a c h i n e w o r k and o t h e r  outside remunerative  p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s o r on e j i d a l being  operated.  present  states,  Chihuahua.  to o p e r a t i n g land i n t h e i r  T h e y a l l came t o t h i s U n i t o f t h e F u e r t e standard  yet a l l these  farmers  their  i n the c e n t r a l  i n t h e n e a r b y m u n i c i p i o o f Ahome, o r i n S o n o r a /  improve t h e i r  f i r s t year  ejidatarios  their  prior  l o c a t i o n s , had a l l farmed b e f o r e , s o u t h  highland  all  either  l a n d where bank s e r v i c e s were n o t  These s u c c e s s f u l e j i d a t a r i o s ,  in  w o r k on  standard  scheme t o  o f w e l l - b e i n g and t h a t o f t h e i r had n o n e t h e l e s s  of farming  families,  sustained financial  on t h e v a l l e y  flats.  Naturally  f r o m n e a r a n d f a r , h a d come t o t h e F u e r t e  the S t a t e and have l e f t when t h e y a r r i v e  i s that those  t h a t have l e f t  homes o u t s i d e  o l d farms have e v e r y t h i n g t o l o s e o r g a i n  i n a new a g r i c u l t u r a l  environment of c l o s e l y  c o n t r o l l e d w a t e r s u p p l y and t h e use o f modern i n p u t s .  to  i n - m i g r a n t h a s no i d e a o f w h a t a l t e r n a t i v e s agriculture  shoMd'uhehhave  to leave that occupation, w h i l e the  much more a w a r e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y the in-migrants  than  the other g r o u p . ? i t i s not too s u r p r i s i n g  had  i n t h e m a i n a r e more d e t e r m i n e d  to  succeed  to f i n d  that i t i s  pesticidesaand other yield-improving techniques.  s i n c e no o t h e r  source  members o f t h i s  e x i s t e d f o r them.  i n their  A l l  initial  g i v e n i n t h e bank c r e d i t  w i t h i o n l y a v e r a g e , s k i l l s a n d two t o f o u r y e a r s  s y s t e m was  of crop  farmer  cultivation  They d i d s t a t e , however, t h a t e l e m e n t s o f t h e c r e d i t  system were most i n s t r u c t i v e  either  s q u a t t e r ) or to an i n - m i g r a n t  inccommercial  years,  Without exception, the  d e t r i m e n t a l to the income l e v e l o f an incoming  experience.  adoption  s u c c e s s f u l groups were of the o p i n i o n t h a t the  of the f a c i l i t i e s  financially  time  Given  t o S i n a l o a t h a t a r e most a g r e s s i v e i n t h e i r  a p p l i e d f o r and r e c e i v e d bank c r e d i t  nature  State c i t i z e n i s  o f n o n - a g r a r i a n work.  that  of crop  Moreover,  t h e r e a r e , i f any,  l o n g e r e s t a b l i s h e d n a t i v e and b e t t e r f a m i l i a r i z e d  t h e newcomers  to improve  o f w e l l - b e i n g , b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n them a n d  the s u c c e s s f u l immigrants  the  lossess  crop  i n t e n t i o n of t h i s  t o an a g r i c u l t u r a l n o v i c e t o t h e a r e a w i t h no  c u l t u r e on i r r i g a t e d  land.  (one-  experience  I t i s not the  author, nor w i t h i n the scope of t h i s  study, to  83  determine nor  motivations or w i l l s  i s i t intended  exactly  the noted  migrants  t o attempt  to succeed  some a r g u m e n t t o e x p l a i n why  differences i n yields  and t h e o t h e r e j i d a t a r i o s .  t h a t 65.5 p e r c e n t o f t h e e j i d a l per  by  i t s worse y i e l d  of negative It  their  that,  from farm  hypothesis  of this  Introduction, of Mexico,  aggravated  the e f f e c t of the i n f e r i o r  record yields?  do n o t h a v e a s c o m p l e t e two t e n u r e  control  groups and losses i s  t h e sample d a t a a t hand and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  i n t e r v i e w s i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t the main p a p e r be c o n s i d e r e d a t some l e n g t h f o r t h e p u r p o s e s That h y p o t h e s i s , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r  i s that the e j i d a t a r i o s  i nthe  i n a modern a g r i c u l t u r a l  area  h e r e t h e F u e r t e , do n o t h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o p e r a t e  their  farms as e f f e c t i v e l y  would  like,  o r r e m u n e r a t i v e l y as they might o r  because they have t o work w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s o f the  A g r a r i a n Laws.  To t h i s  factors  productiveness its  respectively  whether or n o t t h i s  the magnitude o f the e j i d a l  With  of i t s v e r i f i c a t i o n .  important  i s obviously  c o s t s o f o p e r a t i o n as t h e o t h e r  unnecessarily great. gathered  and p r i v a t e group  position  that the e j i d a t a r i o s  due t o t h a t f a c t o r ,  i s the fact  g r o u p make l o s s e s w h i l e o n l y 4 4 . 8  b u t i t m u s t be a s k e d  returns i s entirely  i s suggested  over  The e j i d a l  o c c u r r e d between t h e i n -  More i m p o r t a n t  c e n t a n d 33 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o l o n o  make i n c o m e l o s s e s .  i n the e j i d a l ! f a r m e r s  end, i t i s e s s e n t i a l  i n a l l farming  of land:-  t o examine t h e most  apart from farmer,  the supply  c l i m a t e and  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  credit,  s o u r c e ( s ) and t h e c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h i t i s g r a n t e d and  operated. Mexican Agrarian C r e d i t Without i r r i g a t i o n fertilizer, operate. farmer  pesticides,  experience, not i n i t i a l l y  or an education succeed.  o p e r a t i o n a l requirements  the farmer  i s unable  seed, cannot  facilities  Without  the  previous  i n agrarian techniques, the  A l l the aforementioned  are available  the Fuerte V a l l e y , but the c r u c i a l  credit,  Without  labour and/or machinery, the farmer  cannot maximize r e t u r n s f o r h i s e f f o r t s .  farmer w i l l  in  cannot operate.  W i t h o u t e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s and m a r k e t i n g  agricultural  and  the farmer  inputs  i n varying proportions  item i s c r e d i t .  Without  to purchase h i s p h y s i c a l i n p u t s .  84  Without h i s p h y s i c a l  inputs,  the farmer cannot c u l t i v a t e  o r hope t o  produce. The  q u e s t i o n of a g r a r i a n c r e d i t  and  i t s supply i s a l l important  i n m o d e r n a g r i c u l t u r e and n o w h e r e i s t h e n e e d greater  i n Mexican a g r i c u l t u r e  monetary ship, (1970,  capital  than i n the N o r t h w e s t , where  cost of farming i s h i g h .  the farmer r e q u i r e s  for working  the  I r r e s p e c t i v e o f t e n u r e member-  tangible financial credit.  As  Haissman  177) n e a t l y p u t s i t :  "A  " A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t i s the f u e l which a c t i v a t e s the farm agricultural activities. No f a r m e r u s i n g m o d e r n t e c h n o l o g y can o p e r a t e w i t h o u t a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t . The n e c e s s a r y inputs - seeds, f e r t i l i z e r s , i n s e c t i c i d e s , machinery, labour Hence an e f f i c i e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t s y s t e m , w h i c h assures s u f f i c i e n t c r e d i t to the farmer a t the necessary t i m e s , a n d a c h i e v e s a f u l l r e c u p e r a t i o n o f t h e l o a n s so t h a t t h e y c a n be r e i n v e s t e d , i s a s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s as t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m i t s e l f . " The  f a r m e r cannot pay  for h i s inputs  i n k i n d w i t h beans or  and  the s o u t h e r n farmer from the S t a t e o f Oaxaca,  unused  grain,  to  h a r d c u r r e n c y payments f o r seed o r i m p l e m e n t s , must q u i c k l y the  adopt  a g r a r i a n p r e r e q u i s i t e h e r e - t h e use and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  money;  a s m a l l peasant o p e r a t o r from the not d i s t a n t  Nayarit, his water it. and  making  f o r example,  quickly  comes t o r e a l i z e  State  of  t h a t he c a n n o t  take  f r o m t h e c a n a l o r l a t e r a l a n d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o pay f o r  Obviously, with  the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of w a t e r - f l o w r e g u l a t i o n  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f w a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n n e t s , t h e u s e r s •? t h e  f a r m e r s - m u s t be c h a r g e d f o r t h e w a t e r  t h e y s u b s e q u e n t l y need  and  receive. The n o n - a v a i l a b i l i t y sizeable  f i n a n c i a l burden  f r o m t h e s o u t h e r n and is  frequently  by  the i n d i v i d u a l .  I t was the  of free water  t o any  cultivator  f o r the peasant, e s p e c i a l l y  is a  f o r newcomers  c e n t r a l u p l a n d S t a t e s of M e x i c o , where water  g a t h e r e d i n ponds and The  a l l p a r t o f i;his  stored  temporarily  c o s t t o h i m t h e n was life  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  h i s own  for field t i m e and  cycle, just  as  use  labour.  was  b a r g a i n i n g o v e r h i s p u r c h a s e o f s e e d , " p a i d " f o r by h i s s u r p l u s  beans and  some s a v i n g s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s m o n t h ' s t o m a t o  crop.  When  85  the peasant farmers migrated fbisthis quite  area,  they  Only a f t e r  which u s u a l l y could not had  be  the o p e r a t i o n  of the  rented  8,000 p e s o s p e r  fait with  t h a t system, the  out  adjustment, the  the  peasant credit  Los  and  e x p e r t i s e , or  a t 800  cooking  e a t meat o n c e a week.  could  p l a n t , and after  1-2  likely  pesos per  hectare)  With  utensils, l u c k , he  and  could  i n rent,  radio,  they  could  f i n d a job  d r i v e r and w o r k f o r a p r i v a t e  gain part-time  the household could years  o f r e n t i n g and  income f o r the year  employment i n a  The  of  living  cyclee  peasant's gross  q u i t e unheard of  still,  tomato-packing  c e r t a i n l y a f f o r d a motorized thrift.  in  farmer.  m i g h t a p p r o a c h 1 1 , 0 0 0 - 1 2 , 0 0 0 p e s o s , an  a f f o r d i n g a standard  in his  family  income  native  of Tepic ( N a y a r i t ) . The  g o l d e n dream of  t h e N o r t h w e s t had  p e a s a n t w i t h h i s 10 h e c t a r e s the p r o s p e c t  available  cost, while  to him  at  low  city  the b e n e f i c i a r i e s i n the  t h e p e a s a n t and  retail  outlets,  g r o w t h r a t e , and repayments. operation  the  electricity  enjoyed  the  The  t h e e j i d a t a r i o s who  i l l u s t r a t i o n above of h i s land,  scheme v i a s e c u r e  the E j i d a l  C r e d i t Banks i n  farmer through a drop-off work t h e i r  were  irrigation District via a  i n v e s t o r s i n the  l o s e r s are  costs per  the  could  "want-pattern".  h i s f a m i l y , the operator  probably  the  s e r v i c e s were w i t h i n  s o o n t o become n o r m a l n e e d s i n h i s  Theoretically, simply  land  o f a r e g u l a r minimum y e a r l y i n c o m e w h i c h he D r i n k i n g w a t e r and  grasp,  m a t e r i a l i z e d , and  of i r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t  c o n s i d e r a b l y augment.  city  a  Mochis s e r v i c e o u t l e t , work i n a c o t t o n g i n , o r , b e t t e r  His wife  his  either  W i t h a g u a r a n t e e d income of p o s s i b l y  annum (10 h e c t a r e s  t r a i n e d as a t r a c t o r  area  system.  campesino c u l t i v a t o r  campesino c o u l d a f f o r d h i s f a m i l y shoes, a t r a n s i s t o r  probably  1940s,  finance  on a y e a r l y b a s i s m o s t f r e q u e n t l y t o  a c l o c k , a s e t o f good q u a l i t y  be  au  years,  late  o f h i s p l o t s t o someone e l s e , a y o u n g e r member  private agriculturalistV  a  t h a n 4-5  f a m i l y w i t h more e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e  t h e p l o t was  the  longer  some p e r i o d o f  t o become r e a s o n a b l y  Without i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h left  i n the  encountered a system of a g r i c u l t u r a l  f o r e i g n t o them.  cultivator  i n thousands, s t a r t i n g  l a n d , and  the  the higher  loan higher  i n estimated  of course,  are  clients,  Revolution!  86  Taken to an  extreme stage  o f d e v e l o p m e n t , l a n d becomes  illegally,  i n t h e h a n d s o f a s m a l l e r and  operators,  the average worked s i 2 e of p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s  800-1,000 h e c t a r e s 70  per  to  farming  the  cent  i n s t e a d of the  of the e j i d a l  Outside in  the  a m o u n t i n g i n 1965  the  p e a s a n t , by  existing  Industry  to o n l y 3 per only  of the  cent  c o t t o n g i n s , sugar r e f i n e r i e s , vegetable largely  s m a l l number o f " l a n d e d "  Not  illegally  entrepreneurs  g a i n a much h i g h e r  rented  o b t a i n the  tells  being  us  o u t , may  chance of  be  isrrented  out,  either  50 p e r  total  industrial  - and  pro-  or  or o u t s i d e  cent  commenced i n t h e  agro-credit  system.  but, farm,  t h e g o v e r n m e n t and  E j i d o Bank (Banco N a c i o n a l Bank (Banco N a c i o n a l agrarian activities Nacional  de  addition  to these  de  H a i s s m a n ( 1 9 7 0 , 101  of the F u e r t e or to other  ejidal  and  Noroeste  principal de  credit  the  110)  land  and  on  and  there are  are  over  the Bank of M e x i c o .  outlets for credit,  the  the  (Banco In  the p r i v a t e banks  the F i r s t N a t i o n a l Bank, t h e Bank o f c r e a t i o n o f the Banco A g r o p e c u a r i o  (for ejidal users).  the  Agricultural  o f t h e F o r e i g n Commerce Bank i n 1963  the r e c e n t  <£  ejidatarios.  institutions  Cr£dito E j i d a l ) ,  Comercio E x t e r i o r ) ,  M e x i c o , and  may  1950s, w i t h i n a newly e s t a b l i s h e d  C r e d i t o A g r i c o l a ) , which took  of C r e d i t Sonora-Sinaloa,  he  Supplied  late  The  by.  companies.  of w e l l - b e i n g , h i s  again.  areas  indirectly  L a r g e s c a l e i r r i g a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e N o r t h w e s t , and Fuerte,  is  these  lose h i s independence,  to p r i v a t e farmers  of S e r v i c e s  outside  choice  1  Sources of Tenure Groups' C r e d i t , A p p l i c a t i o n Procedures Characteristics  land,  b a s e d on a g r i c u l t u r e -  c o n f i s c a t e d by  t h a t b e t w e e n 30 and  to  his associates.  canneries  standard  land t i t l e  gains  channelled  r e n t i n g out h i s  controlled directly  o n l y does such a campesino thus  t h o u g h he may  not  the economic  o f the employment i n t h e N N o r t h -  i n d u s t r y i s almost t o t a l l y  of s e c t o r a l growth are  60-  i n the r e g i o n i s i n i t s i n f a n c y ,  cent  13 p e r  approaches  c o m i n g t o r e l y on  l a r g e f a r m e r and  sector.  d u c t i o n i n M e x i c o and  a  o u t , and  a c c e p t i n g and  big  h e c t a r e maximum,  s u c h m i n o r s e r v i c e employment.; t h e e j i d a t a r i o s industrial  west;  The  i n d e p e n d e n t by by  100  e v e n more u n e v e n l y ,  large, private holders.  employment, p r o v i d e d  s m a l l e r number o f  land i s rented  are d i s t r i b u t e d  becomes l e s s  legal  re-concentrated,  A l l of the aforementioned  have  London del  87  s i z e a b l e branches  i n Los  M o c h i s , a l l i n modern  s t r u c t u r e s w i t h m a r b l e f l o o r s and  powerful  O p e r a t i o n a l l y , however, t h e r e are v e r y p r i v a t e banking sector.  The  principal In of  is  serve  the case of the  d i f f e r e n c e s between  to i l l u s t r a t e  the  the  credit  two  l a r g e r p r i v a t e farmers, w i t h over  i s obtained  from Unions.  Unions are  50  hectares  merely  as a c o o p e r a t i v e h o l d i n g f i n a n c e company, w h e r e  i s a w a r d e d o n l y t o members o f t h e U n i o n , i t s s h a r e h o l d e r s . t h e U n i o n c o l l e c t s no  able  to extend  credit  profit  over  private operators The  i n this  tenure  Haissman (1970),  in  of  start  t a s k o f t h e U n i o n was  aggressive  policy  was  s p e n t on a f u l l y  in plant.  A s a v i n g o f 80  operation  then  this  U n i o n de  170  per  the  belong  Corerepe  farmers' and  According to  credit formed  irrigation, Although capital  and  today  the  immediate  for i t s pursued  an  i n p u t c o s t s by i n v e s t i n g 1959,  15 m i l l i o n  a u t o m a t e d g r a i n e l e v a t o r and  c e n t was  smaller  C o r e r e p e was  hectares.  B e t w e e n 1956  pesos  p a c k i n g plan-tst  made i n h a n d l i n g , s t o r a g e , and  bulk  p l a n t c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e n e a r b y g o v e r n m e n t C0NASUP0  (Compania N a c i o n a l  followed a f e r t i l i z e r purification  The  to supply working  of c u t t i n g  resources  by  C r e d i t o A g r i c o l a de  s i n c e i t s i n a u g u r a t i o n , the U n i o n has  its  packing  f o r the  terms  class.  large scale D i s t r i c t  i t s m e m b e r s h f r p I d , on a v e r a g e ,  members, e v e r  source  most l a r g e p r i v a t e f a r m e r s Sinaloa.  at the  above i t s expenses, i t  e x c e p t i o n a l f o r the Northwest.  U n i o n s i n S o n o r a and 1956  credit  e x i s t e n c e o f t h e U n i o n de  based i n Mochis i s not  and  t o i t s members on more a d v a n t a g e o u s  than a n o r m a l c o m m e r c i a l bank, the  to  great  types.  banks o r g a n i z e d  Since  airconditioning.  the n a t i o n a l ( e j i d a l ) a g r a r i a n  f o l l o w i n g cases  land, c r e d i t  credit  s e c t o r and  architectural  mixing  installation.  de  Subsistencias Populates).  u n i t , w i t h an The  Next  there  i n s e c t i c i d e p l a n t and o i l  l a s t mentioned  i t e m was  built  5  ->During t h e s u r v e y w o r k c a r r i e d o u t i n J u n e - A u g u s t 1970, i t was uno f f i c i a l l y e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e 10-12 e x t r e m e l y l a r g e p r i v a t e farms. The l a r g e s t w e r e o f a b o u t 3,000 h e c t a r e s and w e r e l o c a t e d i n U n i t 2. The e x t r a l a n d a c q u i r e d f o r t h e s e m a s s i v e h o l d i n g s was r e g i s t e r e d o f f i c i a l l y u n d e r t h e names o f r e l a t i v e s , and e m p l o y e e s o f the landowners.  88  y e a r s ago when i t was f o u n d t h a t machinery Problems  (combines,  tractors  the maintenance  costs of  e t c ) were u n p r e d i c t a b l y  high.  a r o s e i n t h e c o m b u s t i o n o f t h e f u e l o i l s u p p l i e d by  PEMEX ( P e t r o l e a s M e x i c a n o s ) , s o t h e U n i o n p u r i f i e d r e c e i v e d and t h e n s o l d  i t t o i t s members.  50 p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n i n m a i n t e n a n c e  the supplies i t  T h e r e was a r e s u l t a n t  c o s t s a n d a t t h e same t i m e a  50 p e r c e n t c o s t r e d u c t i o n t o t h e members f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f insecticides. because at  Machinery purchase costs,  the Union can plan to order larger q u a n t i t i e s f o f  equipment  one t i m e f r o m t h e s u p p l i e r s . Interestingly  enough, t h e U n i o n does n o t c a t e r  extension services, but i t w i l l local to  t o o , a r e r e d u c e d f o r members  CIAS s t a t i o n  for agricultural  r e f e r members' p r o b l e m s  to the  ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Research Centre f o r Sinaloa) or  CIANO ( A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e f o r t h e N o r t h w e s t )  outside  Ciudad Obregon i n Sonora. The  U n i o n ' s most r e c e n t development  i s i n supplying  By e n c o u r a g i n g i t s own members t o d e v e l o p l o c a l h y b r i d it  i s possible  skill  f o r the Union to s e l l  seed.  varieties,  i t s members' p r o d u c e a n d  to other farmers of the area.  A t p r e s e n t one o f t h e U n i o n ' s  w e a l t h i e s t a n d m o s t s k i l l e d members i s d e v e l o p i n g a h y b r i d grain rice year  seed f o r the w o r l d market, w h i c h w i l l  (1971).  which  facilities  the e j i d a t a r i o s .  members c a n be s a i d capital. title  i s forecast at 8 kilo-tons  this  per hectare,  e q u i v a l e n t to the p r i v a t e Unions  This i s not surprising to possess l i t t l e  As s t a t e d  earlier,  exist  since the e j i d a l  o r , i n m o s t c a s e s , no  t h e e j i d a t a r i o does n o t have  full  t o h i s l a n d a n d h a s no o t h e r p r o p e r t y w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o  guarantee a loan.  P r i v a t e banks w i l l  not extend c r e d i t  H o w e v e r , no f a r m e r c a n o p e r a t e w i t h o u t c r e d i t , the  be m a r k e t e d  i s a l m o s t d o u b l e t h e maximum o b t a i n a b l e a n y w h e r e a t p r e s e n t . No c r e d i t  for  I t sy i e l d  long-  n e c e s s a r y crop i n p u t s exceeds  annual net p r o f i t , capital  (Haissman  by s e v e r a l  since  to him.  the value of  times the value of the  a n d no f a r m e r h a s s u c h a m o u n t s o f l i q u i d 1970, 1 0 8 ) .  Thus t h e e j i d a t a r i o  i s limited to  89  government b a n k s , t h e Banco E j i d a l and t h e Banco The  details  of loan a p p l i c a t i o n , a c q u i s i t i o n ,  g i v e n below f o ra t y p i c a l  ejidal  case,  experience w i t h i n the Fuerte D i s t r i c t little  o r no e x p e r i e n c e  viability  of both  f u n c t i o n of the tenure  As w i l l  rigidity  i s the  o f any e j i d a t a r i o  with  o r o f one w i t h  s o o n be a p p r e c i a t e d t h e  i n the year  o f t h e system, b a s i c a l l y  a  system.  When t h e e j i d a t a r i o  d e c i d e s w h a t c r o p o r c r o p s he w a n t s t o  (October-  S e p t e m b e r ) he c o n t a c t s h i s b a n k  representativesin the nearest v i l l a g e The  The f o l l o w i n g  t h e bank and t h e a p p l i c a n t a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y  l i m i t e d by t h e n e c e s s a r y  cultivate  and o p e r a t i o n a r e  of the area or farming,  several years' experience.  Agropecuario.  locality  or i n Mochis.  bank then r e v i e w s , w i t h t h e a p p l i c a n t , t h e c u l t i v a t i o n  proposal  i n the l i g h t of expected  water a v a i l a b i l i t y  f o r t h e coming  s e a s o n a s c a l c u l a t e d b y CRF, t h e demands made t o d a t e , supply-demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , local  soil  the l i k e l y  rejects  the ejidatario's  example on t h e b a s i s o f p r o b a b l e an a l t e r n a t i v e crop  local  loan schedule  At this  stage  crop(s) proposal, f o r  o v e r p r o d u c t i o n , and then  cultivation  the go-ahead t o t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s o r i g i n a l a detailed  p r i c e and t h e  conditions of the applicant's area.  the bank e i t h e r  formulates  rural  the market  schedule,  ideas.  or i t gives  In either  i s r e t a i n e d by t h e e j i d a t a r i o ,  case,  primarily  t o be u s e d a s a c u l t i v a t i o n c a l e n d a r , w h i l e t h e b a n k , o f c o u r s e , retains The  copies  fori t s financial  loan i s normally  e x c e p t i o n a l cases year.  d u r a t i o n , and o n l y i n q u i t e  i s i t g i v e n f o rany p e r i o d i n excess  pesticides,  machinery, output  costs  of a year's  records..,  o f one  C a l c u l a t i o n s a r e made o f t h e c o s t s o f l a n d p r e p a r a t i o n ,  fertilizer,  case  and o p e r a t i o n a l - c h e c k  of very badly  i r r i g a t i o n water,  packing  manage t o t r a n s p o r t t h e i r neighbours,  Ninety per cent  every  poor farmers  only i n the do t r a n s p o r t  o f the campesinos  produce themselves,  t o t t h e nearby m i l l s ,  Thus v i r t u a l l y  l a b o u r and •  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a l t h o u g h  l o c a t e d and e x t r e m e l y  loom s i g n i f i c a n t .  harvest  seeds,  easily  or with the a i d of  g i n s , e l e v a t o r s and warehouses.  stage w i t h i n the c y c l e i s costed.  Quite  90  simply, The  the  total  of  the p a r t s equals  c a l c u l a t i o n s are  this  i s the  fact  slim resources, charter, the  sum  of  p r e t t y accurately assessed.  t h a t government banks o p e r a t e and  the  to f u l f i l  ejidatario  One  with  currency  at  the  f o r any  stage  only  immediately  before  i n his c u l t i v a t i o n process.  day  before  he  the  loan's  efficiency,  and  f i e l d - i n s p e c t o r s , who  cycle.  i s due  prevent  he  To  c h e c k on of  land  the use  further  l e v e l l i n g and  t h e e j i d a t a r i o h a n d l e s no  labour  money f o r t h o s e  owns t h e m a c h i n e r y t o be  only  a  safeguard operations-  loan i n the  ploughing  and  The  farmer  dealer  of the  hand  requires  t h e b a n k e m p l o y s a l a r g e number o f  the bank s u p p l i e s b o t h the  bank i n v a r i a b l y  production  are  machinery f o r the  services, since  u s e d and  contracts  job,  the  labour  operate i t . It  should  calendar basis  crop  be  s e t up  pointed  by  out  t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to the  time schedule  the bank a l s o i n s t r u c t s  s o w i n g , w e e d i n g and  harvesting.  i n s t r u c t i o n s he  s e r v i c e has,  at  last,  Federal agencies,  campesinorpopulation  Obviously  unless  The  been r e c o g n i z e d  by  facility.  the p a r t y  the  g u a r a n t e e good  an  techniques  f u n d s and  State  On  t o be  t h e one  and  effectively  (Sinaloan)  hand, crop  forthcoming  through  campesino uses c e r t i f i e d . s e e d .  the  i s that of campesino  insurance  to the  and  enough.  f o r the  i n s u r e d uses c e r t i f i e d  i s not  this  e x t e n s i o n manpower, t o s e r v e  completely  of  inexperienced  importance of  the  In p r a c t i c e , i t i s imperative  o t h e r , bank c r e d i t unless  i s given.  the  D i s t r i c t must a t a l l times  non-bank s e r v i c e open to the e j i d a t a r i o  insurance. this  best  p r i m a r i l y because the banks a r e u n a b l e  l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t  One  will  the a p p l i c a n t i n the  l o a n a p p l i c a n t o r newcomer t o t h e F u e r t e f o l l o w the  cultivation  t h e b a n k f o r t h e a p p l i c a n t t o f o l l o w , on  t h a t adherence to the  yields,  use  their  cycle.  Thus the  t o make h i s p u r c h a s e .  Where o p e r a t i o n s  involved,  To  the p r o d u c t i o n  r e c e i v e s money t o p u r c h a s e s e e d f r o m an a p p o i n t e d  to  relatively  t h e i r r o l e of s e r v i c e w i t h i n  i n i t i a t i o n of  loan.  reason for  f r o m s q u a n d e r i n g h i s l o a n , the bank does n o t  applicant receives currency  and  farmer's  t i g h t monetary i t e m - c o s t i n g i s i m p e r a t i v e .  over hard  it  the  i s not  seed, w h i l e  on  crop to possible the  loan applicant In the  case of wheat,  91  fire  insurance  i s also a wise  danger of crop just  prior  p o l i c y , where t h e r e i s a v e r y  l o s s when r a p i d d r y i n g o c c u r s  during f i n a l ripening  to h a r v e s t i n g .  Where a n  insurance  c l a i m i s made by a c a m p e s i n o , t h e  company on v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c l a i m , d o e s n o t pay h o l d e r d i r e c t l y but actual  fact,  deducting balance too,  goes i n d i r e c t l y  the c r e d i t  through  system safeguards  the v a l u e of the i n s u r a n c e  outstanding at that date.  t h e r e i s a c a t c h , as  event  of crop  damage due  w i n d , t h e amount p a y a b l e  f a r as  the c l a i m .  The  to that date  on  itself  merely  such  as  operated  up  to the time  Farming a d v a n t a g e s emerge f o r  the e j i d a l  are both  sector.  immediately  a t t h e same t i m e a r e c o n c e r n e d  a s s i s t a n c e whenever n e c e s s a r y .  The  basic  profit  c a m p e s i n o s on  members o f s u c h as p o t e n t i a l  has  It is implicit  merits  i n the o f an i n v e s t o r ,  good l i q u i d  in their  credit  system,  techniques  whereby they  can maximize  who  their  at a l l times.  The  groups'  with receiving  share-  clear  concerned  the  t h a t t h e U n i o n members a r e h i g h l y c o m p e t e n t f a r m e r s seek out  of  t h e c o s t s i n c u r r e d up  e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e i r h o l d i n g company f r o m t h e v i e w p o i n t  automatically  the  f l o o d i n g or  s t r u c t u r e o f the c r e d i t U n i o n o f C o r e r e p e has  of course,  In  schedule.  F r o m t h e p r e v i o u s expose" o b v i o u s  and  loan  t h e i n s u r a n c e company i s e q u i v a l e n t o n l y  the bank's p r o d u c t i o n  where the s h a r e h o l d e r s  in  the i n s u r e d i s concerned.  c l a i m i s b a s e d t h e r e f o r e on  group over  by  So  W i t h i n the i n s u r a n c e s t r u c t u r e  O p e r a t i o n a l I n f l u e n c e s o f C r e d i t on  p r i v a t e farming  policy  h i s bank.  to c l i m a t i c hazards by  the  insurance  c l a i m payment f r o m the  to t h a t v a l u e of the p r o d u c t i o n process  holder  high  the o t h e r hand cannot e n v i s a g e  a Union s i n c e they have n o t h i n g t a n g i b l e to i n v e s t  shareholders.  T h i s major d i f f e r e n c e i n the  command o f r e s o u r c e s  considerable financial  t h e o t h e r has  being  neither.  The  s h o u l d n e v e r be  liquidity  overlooked;  two one  group  and/or t a n g i b l e s e c u r i t i e s ,  campesino, educated  or not, p r a c t i s e d  or n o v i c e , d e a l s w i t h a l a r g e government o r g a n i z e d agency w h i c h t h e same t i m e h a s  t o e n f o r c e on  itself  and  while  i t s customers  tight  at  92  restraints The  operational behaviour  p r i v a t e f a r m e r and  a i d he He  on  requires  applies only  for his production f o r w h a t he  cycle,  n e e d s and  f o r the  receives  only  a s s i s t a n c e , and  operation  example, the  his production  year.  of  requires i t . that.  i n 90  the whole  s e r v i c e s and  infrequent  been r e c e n t l y worked b e f o r e ,  q u i t e a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e and r e q u i r e d m a c h i n e r y he  equipment, where he,  cent  of  he  of a  the  f o r weeding land  his  10 h e c t a r e  local  leveller  operator  farm.  tractor  c a m p e s i n o , i s a d e p t , o r he  liking.he could withhold i n the the  payment u n t i l  c a s e o f w o r k done by  the  In f a c t ,  the  affiliated)  come t o g i v e  their  contracted-out  is  his  Thus, i f , a s  done i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e l a b o u r , w h i c h , by  the  The  of  to.  land area  attended  i s frequently  c a m p e s i n o , he  contracted  t h a n w o u l d be, w e r e t h e  service job  done. (bank  Hence l e s s c a r e f a r m e r t o do  b a n k a u t o m a t i c a l l y makes p a y m e n t f o r t h e  he  the  could  operate  case, the  no  i s lodged,  operator  i t has  contractor  the  has  for  r e c i p i e n t ' s crop.  ejidatario-if  time a complaint  another assignment.  peasant's  supplied  i s quite prevalent,  t r a n s f e r r i n g to the  h a v e gone t o t h e  machinery.  to the  s e r v i c e s a t t i m e s most c o n v e n i e n t  p r o f i t s which should own  not.  or c o l l e c t i v e machine c e n t r e  of machinery c o n t r a c t o r s  the f u r t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e of  When  operator's  labour  the  t h e m s e l v e s , n o t when i t i s m o s t d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e W h i l e the use  could  problem i s remedied.  i r r e s p e c t i v e of h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the machinery c o n t r a c t o r  is  might h i r e  w h e r e he  bank, the p e a s a n t a u t o m a t i c a l l y pays f o r the  received,  during  campesino w i t h h i s f a m i l y  maintain  t r a c t o r and  be  occurrence/iassura-irag "the'.tSfid  c o u l d h i r e the  the  complete package of  plots  per  agricultural  I n s u c h a c a s e , i f the h i r e d workman's r e s u l t s a r e n o t  by  The  r e c e i v e , and  labour  E x c e p t where the use  r e q u i r e d , w h i c h i s o n l y an  But  repayment.  entertained,  campesino i n v a r i a b l y w i l l  charged f o r , land p r e p a r a t i o n  the  loan  i r r e s p e c t i v e of h i s a c t u a l needs.  For  he  c y c l e w h e n e v e r he  cases where h i s a p p l i c a t i o n i s f a v o u r a b l y  receives assistance  has  to secure  U n i o n member a p p l i e s f o r w h a t e v e r c r e d i t o r  ejidatario applies for production the  i n order  recall has  i s paid  contracted  on  the  moved on on  i s taken over  i t himself,  work  the  basis  the  since labour.  to  individual  the  93  The  campesino then, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , has  open t o him.  The  first  i s to n o t i f y  c l a i m f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n purposes. another  implement o p e r a t o r to re-do  speed w i t h w h i c h and  this  action  alternatives  the bank w h i c h  inspects his  bank t h e n a r r a n g e s f o r  the work f o r the campesino.  I f the time of c o m p l a i n t i s i n the  or h a r v e s t i n g , where the predominant  are c o t t o n , sugar cane, have h i e problem  or r i c e ,  remedied  within  days.  E i t h e r way,  be  days'  delay i s quite  is unlikely  10-14  the other  days.  At  to  have to w a i t  o r b e f o r e a due  irrigation,  impossible i f yield  failure  crucial  then  i s to  completely avoided. Alternatively,  he  can r e g i s t e r a c o m p l a i n t t o the bank  g a i n the s e r v i c e s o f an independent such a case, the e j i d a t a r i o ,  work performed that  individual  t o w o r k l a n d he  i n an emergency, can v i r t u a l l y  original  individual.  i s a n e j i d a t a r i o h i m s e l f , who  10 h e c t a r e p l o t .  r e n t e d t o him, A tractor  ownership.  can t i l l  To m i n i m i s e h i g h o v e r h e a d  t i m e when i t i s p o s s i b l e  the work r a r e l y pays i n kind.-  a month w i t h w h a t e v e r  liquid  than not, the supply of t h i s  t o do  60-100 h e c t a r e s , i s not  costs,  the  i s s m a l l and I f he  of  does e x t r a work so.  The  a t hand.  recipient  More  i s d e p e n d e n t on  i s one  to  machinery  I n s t e a d he n o r m a l l y p a y s  c a p i t a l he h a s  s a v i n g h a b i t s of the campesino. growing  f o r him  necessary  f o r the p r i v i l e g e  owner h i r e s h i m s e l f and h i s e q u i p m e n t o u t , and a t any  Frequently,  above h i s  h e n c e a n e j i d a t a r i o m u s t do o u t s i d e m a c h i n e w o r k i f he  tractor  the  owns m a c h i n e r y  o v e r and  incur e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h o p e r a t i o n a l charges  In count  2 d a y s and h a v i n g  t o h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n by a l o c a l  owns o r h a s  but  machine or labour agent.  on h i s o b t a i n i n g r e m e d i a l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n  of  crops  however, i f the snag a r i s e s a t a  t i m e when h a r v e s t i s e s s e n t i a l , e v e n 4-5  ejidal  then the peasant  e x t r e m e when c o n d i t i o n s a r e more f a v o u r a b l e , he may o n l y 4-5  The  i s taken v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h machine-  operator-availability.  midst of sowing  o f two  The  one  of a breed  s a v i n g s - b a n k u s e r s , t h e n he p r o b a b l y h a s  little  within often  the of  quickly  problem.  I f he d r i n k s m o s t o f h i s s u r p l u s r e s o u r c e s , t h e n he m u s t go  to  w o r k a t t h e weekends i n t h e town (Los M o c h i s  a  o r G u a s a v e ) as  94  temporary r e t a i l is  s e r v i c e employee.  l i m i t e d , and) as  for  a result,  a c a m p e s i n o who  time n o t i c e s a poor  that  should  be  clear that  work t h e i r  receive  quality  l a n d and  used i n preference prefers  all.  He  receives  event of  y e a r s and  the  paying however,  the  same of  E f f e c t of The  total population,  labour  the  big asset the  but  and  The  them, and  the  s e r v i c e s would always  difficulty  successful  the  Unit  outside  over a period  of  surplus,  the  actionsoof  useful  capital  Ejidatarios' Viability  2 wheat sample. ignored  the  The  campesinos' in  the  ejidatarios'  virtually  zero  own  opportunity  a e a s i l y m a n a g e a b l e 10 h e c t a r e  t o be  done by  e x t r a v a g e n t and afford.  labour  could in  i . e . the  families.have  ill  not  Furthermore,  farming competitors  colono sectors,  o f m a c h i n e r y on  campesino can  campesino  found to a r i s e f o r the e j i d a t a r i o  or advantage over t h e i r  same t i m e v e r y  m a c h i n e r y and  the  c r e d i t programme c o m p l e t e l y  use  the  operations.  Bank c r e d i t i n t h e  their  peasant  bank w i t h o u t h a v i n g i t  c a m p e s i n o t o make any  its  to be  i r r e s p e c t i v e o f w h e t h e r he  C r e d i t Programme on  that of  i s that  a r r a n g e m e n t on h i s own.  s u b s t i t u t e f o r work able and  the  the  to the bank, but  machinery s e r v i c e s whether or  encourage the  p r i v a t e and  and  cost.  latter's  f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n was  n a t u r e of  who  c r e d i t , where problems c o n c e r n i n g  e j i d a t a r i o ' s being  the  receiving Ejidal  labour  the  conscientious  former's s i n c e , n a t u r a l l y , the  investment i n h i s farm or  that  at  this  t h e b a n k was  the  accumulating a sizeable f i n a n c i a l  the bank-do not  one  l a n d by  have p a r t - c r e d i t from the  make a more e f f i c i e n t  area,  i n c o m e and  case of  cent of  The  to the  absolutely requires  one  i n the  per  freedom of choice,  cannot normally  Th  It is rare,  of work a r i s e , they need to t u r n not  independent agent.  The  land.  t h e w o r k done on h i s  a t 60  the  scope f o r  h i s chances of q u i c k l y  drinks his surplus  peasants, estimated  the  the  standard.  It  as  are  t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k done on h i s  to f i n d  he  so  Obviously  Yet,  the  e j i d a t a r i o i s at  an as  plot  uunnecessary stated  to operate i t are  part  luxury  previously, and  parcel  of  95  the  c r e d i t p a c k a g e r e c e i v e d by The  cost of p r o d u c t i o n  a t 2,549.7 p e s o s and  was  Records were obtained Los  M o c h i s , two  supplied of  of  campesino.  1 hectare  determined  from f o u r of  p r i v a t e and  extremely  the  two  i n the the  t h a t they  regarding  w h i c h made up  all  three  tenure  costs obtained  the  back a g a i n s t  on  f o r the p r o d u c t i o n  the a v e r a g e - s i z e d With those  cost of o p e r a t i o n .  and  c o s t s or where the  input purchase r e c e i p t s . statements of  credit  schedules.  highly  c o n f i d e n t i a l and  these  to use  This  was  the data  not  forthcoming.  f r o m o v e r 65  per  from t h i s  cent  a t 2,575 p e s o s p e r outcome of  same as in  the  the E j i d a l  really of  due  their  them.  tenure  hectare  bank  regarded  as  tenure of  for a l l  very near  this  interest  t o a l l i n t e n t s and the o t h e r  two  final  production  a n a l y s i s t h i s was  s t a t u s , a product  to  purposes  farming  argued t h e r e f o r e t h a t the  to gain a f i n a n c i a l In the  modern  found t o have a most  cost of c r e d i t plus  i n c u r r e d by  I t c o u l d be  permitted  were most  of a l l the  B a n k ' s i n s i s t e n c e on  Namely the  the average c o s t s  were not  check  hectare!  o f g r o w i n g w h e a t was  sample.  no  individual  B a n k s was  c u l t i v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s f o r i t s c u s t o m e r s was effect.  farmers  a w e i g h t e d mean c o s t  f i g u r e h e l d by  the E j i d a l  The  N o n e t h e l e s s i t was  farmers.  ejidatario  from  only wayyto  understandably  e s t a b l i s h e d o f 2,549.7 p e s o s p e r  the  field  f a r m e r had  The  p r o d u c t i o n was  unfortunate  at  summarized.  i n d i v i d u a l s , who  i n f o r m a t i o n was  g r o u p members i n t e r v i e w e d , and  The  data  v a r i e d n o t i c e a b l y i n some i n s t a n c e s w h e r e t h e  the  The  farm  Therdata gathered  groups were then concentrated  of  stages  readily quantified monetarily  o f t e n campesinos, would have been to examine t h e i r  possible  insititutions  then c o l l e c t e d i n the  t h a t c o u l d be  d i d not want to r e v e a l t h e i r written record  outlets in  These f o u r  customarily dealt with.  the main items  and  f o l l o w i n g manner.  d e t a i l e d cost accounting  h a n d as a g u i d e l i n e , i n f o r m a t i o n was  assessed  largest credit  ejidal.  the whole c y c l e of wheat p r o d u c t i o n  holding  o f w h e a t was  groups  campesinos  advantage that directly  o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n and  the  was  a function  i t s Reform  96  Laws. by  Moreover, t h e i r  t h e i r poorer  inflated  yield  livelihood  performance.  c o s t s and poorer  gave r i s e  a s f a r m e r s was made more  yields,  The outcome o f t h e i r combined w i t h  artificially  the p r i c e received,  t o t h e poor n e t r e t u r n s as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r  From t h e d a t a  precarious  c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e sample f a r m e r s ,  i n this  chapter.  i t was f o u n d  t h a t a n a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t who s o l d h i s w h e a t a t 800 p e s o s p e r k i l o t o n h a d t o o b t a i n a 3.200 k i l o - t o n y i e l d avoid  incurring a financial  operators or other  had a n e g a t i v e type  loss.  per hectare  At a y i e l d  o f 3.100, t h e  n e t income f o r wheat.  f o r that matter,  i n order to  I f a peasant  farmer,  w e r e t o a t t a i n a 3.100 y i e l d a n d  r e c e i v e 800 p e s o s p e r t o n f o r h i s w h e a t i n t h e c e n t r a l u p l a n d s o f Mexico, i n Queretaro o r Leon, i t i s f a i r be  a very  net  productive  return.  t o s u g g e s t t h a t he w o u l d  farmer and would c e r t a i n l y r e c e i v e a p o s i t i v e  I n s u c h a l o c a t i o n t h e c a m p e s i n o w o u l d be u n l i k e l y t o  have t h e s m a l l though s i g n i f i c a n t a d d i t i o n a l monetary payments f o r the  support  of a growing e j i d a l  electrical  power t o h i s v i l l a g e .  with  levied  those  ejidal  T h e s e p a y m e n t s a r e made  p o p u l a t i o n b y CRF a n d C F E .  t h a t they would  extension  I t should  decided  pay  rural  school  T a b l e XXXV1).  cost w i t h i n t h e i r  irrigation  recipients,  the fact  population  t o go r o u n d s o t h e r e q u i r e d , and t o  cost assessment (see  given  n o t be p a r t l y  paid  f o r by t h e  that Mexico cannot a f f o r d t o upgrade  infrastructure entirely  out of the n a t i o n a l exchequer.  i t i s , t h e c o s t o f t h e campesino's v i t a l w a t e r supply and  a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s amount t o o n l y a l i t t l e per  rapid  Y e t i t c a n n o t j u s t i f i a b l y be a r g u e d t h a t t h e c o s t s services should  As  With very  to h i r e the a d d i t i o n a l teachers  of such " w e l f a r e "  the r u r a l  years  system t h a t had o r i g i n a l l y  t h e r e were j u s t n o t enough t e a c h e r s  fortheir  be p o i n t e d o u t ,  i n d i v i d u a l l y make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d s t h e  of the overtaxed  campesinos voted  along  amongst t h e m s e l v e s f o u r  b e e n s e t up b y t h e S t a t e o f S i n a l o a . increase  system or f o r the p i p i n g of  f o r t h e s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e  thoughj t h a t t h e e j i d a t a r i o s ago  school  hectare  c o s t s o f wheat c u l t i v a t i o n ,  termed i n t h e l e a s t  excessive.  over  10 p e r c e n t  of h i s  a b u r d e n t h a t c o u l d n o t be  97  T a b l e XXXV1  Private  Analysis of^Farmers^„W^ter_Costsand^cheme b a r g e s " p a j d ^ t o " CRF  150 p e s o s p e r h a . 100 p e s o s p e r h a . 2 pesos  252  Ej idos  Properties  per ha.  pesos  The banks.  Water. Rehabilitation of D i s t r i c t . Towards c o s t o f t r a i n i n g o f A g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s by S t a t e . Teachers i n schools. E l e c t r i c power &/or d r i n k i n g water.  150 p e s o s p e r h a . 100 p e s o s p e r h a . 2 pesos p e r ha. 10 p e s o s p e r h a . 25 p e s o s 287  Total  per ha.  per ha.  pesos  per ha.  same c a n n o t b e s a i d f o r c e r t a i n a r r a n g e m e n t s  by t h e l e n d i n g  By d i s s e c t i n g t h e makeup o f t h e e j i d a t a r i o ' s  total  of o p e r a t i o n , e s t i m a t e d  cost  h e r e a t 2,549.7 p e s o s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o  s u b t r a c t t h e sum o f 536 p e s o s , t h e c o s t c h a r g e d f o r t h e s e r v i c e s of o u t s i d e  labour a t sowing, f e r i l t i z a t i o n , d i t c h i n g , land  d e p r e c i a t i o n on t h e m a c h i n e r y u s e d machinery the  f o r these tasks, the cost of  o p e r a t i o n and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e charges a s s o c i a t e d  p r o v i s i o n of these s e r v i c e s .  population  investigated, lacked  No s a m p l e  o v e r 65 p e r c e n t o f t h e e j i d a t a r i o s experience of tractor  which  t h e banks  lacked  t h e i r wheat a c t i v i t i e s instead  1  too!  labour  force.  implement  i n equipment  Furthermore,  work;  maintenance,  I f the campesinos  102 o u t o f t h e t o t a l  a l l that something  c o u l d have o p e r a t e d  sample  h a v e made a n e t p o s i t i v e r e t u r n r a t h e r t h a n o n l y way, w i t h a c o s t r e d u c t i o n o f a b o u t  farm  f o r carrying  a t t h e new f i g u r e o f 2,013.7 p e s o s  o f 2,549.7 p e s o s ,  with  own f a m i l y l a b o u r h a d h a d  d r i y i n g and o t h e r  l a c k e d was t h e t r a i n i n g  of the e j i d a l  i t s own f a r m l a b o u r  out t h e s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d by t h e b a n k s '  they  preparation,  50.  per hectare  o f 148 w o u l d Put another  20 p e r c e n t o v e r t h e e s t i m a t e d  c o s t o b t a i n i n g a t t h e t i m e o f f i e l d w o r k , 100 p e r c e n t more o f t h e peasant  farmers would  be i n t h e b l a c k r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e r e d .  cut-off point w i t h regard adjusted to  t o making  c o s t system, assuming  a n e t p o s i t i v e r e t u r n under the  a p r i c e o f 800 p e s o s  be 2.600 k i l o - t o n s p e r h e c t a r e .  The  p e r t o n , was  Some 68.9 p e r c e n t o f t h e  found  9 8  campesinos a t t a i n e d t h i s the is  individual the  t o w h i c h t h e new  in-migrant  the Fuerte  l e v e l of y i e l d  to the  D i s t r i c t has  overworked areas of the  i t .  Perhaps  c o s t s t r u c t u r e i s o f most  scheme a r e a . served  campesinos, p a r t i c u l a r l y  or b e t t e r e d  as an  to those  As  pointed  out  relevance  earlier,  a t t r a c t i o n p o i n t t o many  from the  minifundia-ridden,  s o u t h e r n - c e n t r a l upland  States of  Mexico.  Q u i c k d i s c o u r a g e m e n t s e t s i n on e v e n t h e m o s t o p t i m i s t i c  and  experienced  losses  their  f a r m e r s new  crop  activities.  t o t h e r e g i o n when t h e y Their acute  and  understandable  m e n t s h a v e b e e n one  of  of e j i d a l  i n some c a s e s e v e n i t s i l l e g a l  l a n d , and  private operators Clearly,  the  practical of The  those  or  costs  i t brings with  f o r whom t h e  the  s e t up  of the banks w i t h r e g a r d  t h e end  local  of h i s f i r s t year  been, t h e y e a r  individual  i n the  prior  on  measured i n the opportunity  inputs}  plot.  to the  The  - an  l a n d s , and  usual  considerable  using  makes f o r s e v e r e  that  increase  in  t h e more  productivity,  the  o f t h e R e f o r m as  so  is  the  e c o n o m i c p r o p o s i t i o n on  still  farmer  successful  low  Thus t h e e f f e c t  far  as  the p r i n c i p l e s  of  strongly voiced  life.  Another consequence of the it  yet  l a r g e amounts o f  i s c o n c e r n e d seems t o be w o r k i n g a g a i n s t  a l l walks of Mexican  i t is  explanation given  credit  in  the  t h a t a farmer i s i n debt  10 h e c t a r e  that are  the  Given  individual,  normal  the R e v o l u t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s  failure.  i s most  f o r machinery i n place of  obtained  family labour  to  place.  in-migrant.  inputs proven f o r t h e i r  good y i e l d s  cost  the  out  interests  first  i t brings  the F u e r t e  performance but very  labour  i n the best  to h i s moving to S i n a l o a ^ a a v e r y  c o s t s of o p e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y traditional  press  i n Morelos or J a l i s c o .  poor y i e l d  selling,  have avoided  i n the  situation  f o r t h e newcomer t o t h e a r e a ,  frequently reported  not  s e r v i c e was and  renting  i t s m e t h o d o f o p e r a t i o n and i t , are not  on  disappoint-  l e a d i n g to the  c a m p e s i n o s who  system at present,  inflexibility  had  to other  problem of f a i l u r e  critical  at  the main f a c t o r s  have net  credit  u n d e r - e m p l o y m e n t on  system's s t r u c t u r e i s t h a t the  farm, even of  the  farmer h i m s e l f , not t o r m e n t i b h e t h e l i o t h e r t p o t e n t i a l l y o p r o d u c t i v e  members o f h i s f a m i l y .  Whilst collecting  the sample c o s t d a t a  and  the crop performance  material,  of the time spent  the  farm's  a c t i v i t i e s were measured.  l a b o u r - u s e e m p l o y e d was and to  details  a l s o A n d r a d e and  system of  subdividing  t o t h a t u s e d by R o c k e f e l l e r ( ; 1 9 6 1 / 6 2 )  F r e e b a i r n (1965).  i n c l u d e the e f f e c t  I t was  modified  slightly  o f t h e o u t s i d e , bank l a b o u r on t h e employment  s c h e d u l e o f the sample's T a b l e XXXV1-1  similar  The  on  campesinos.  ( s e e T a b l e XXXV11 )  F a m i l y Labour S u p p l y and i t s U t i l i z a t i o n f o r t h e U n i t 2 Wheat G r o w i n g E j i d a t a r i o s , 1969/70  (Man Type o f Labour  Potential Labour  Eiidatario Sons Other F a m i l y  1,776 780 178  Total  Labour N o m i n a l l y Devoted t o Farm  A c t u a l Labour on F a r m  940 410 85  2,734  S mma Summary o f a c t u a l  Months)  1,435  use of  family  Off-Farm Labour  592 80 18  350 100 40  690  490  486 270 53 ;  labour supply:  Time n o t p r o d u c t i v e  Man  I d l e t i m e n o m i n a l l y s p e n t on t h e f a r m Not employed  Months  745 809  Per  cent  27.3 29.6  (1.554)  (56.9)  P r o d u c t i v e time A c t u a l l y w o r k e d on t h e O f f - f a r m employment  farm  690 490  25.2 17.9  (1,180) Total  As only  c a n be  25.2  ejidal  (43.1)  2,734  seen,  the e j i d a l  family  100.0  l a b o u r s u p p l y i s engaged f o r  p e r c e n t o f i t s p o t e n t i a l w o r k p e r i o d p e r annum on  farm i t s e l f , w h i l e over h a l f  productively.  The  of the year  e j i d a t a r i o h i m s e l f was  found  i s spent t o be  per cent of h i s y e a r l y  work span.  u n n e c e s s a r y bank  I f t h e t i m e t a k e n by  the  non-  productively  i n v o l v e d on h i s f a r m f o r o n l y 33.3  potential  services  UnEmployed  809  100  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned i n the as w o r k p e r i o d s w o u l d be cent of fact  employed  cost reduction  by  e j i d a t a r i o and  p r o d u c t i v e l y e m p l o y e d on their  p o t e n t i a l time.  that a d d i t i o n a l labour  harvest  the  period,  inputs  the  This  and  t h a t the  contract  local agricultural  his family,  they  f i g u r e takes  the  employed a t  the  f a m i l y would have to have whether f r o m e l s e w h e r e , s u c h as  produce dealers  under a  other  production  are  movements a f o o t w i t h i n g r o u p s o f e j i d a t a r i o s t o b y - p a s s  the  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n t h i s Unit  official  credit institutions  s e r v i c e s they provide  C a m p e s i n o s who contacts  and  the  produce i s s o l d only  to f i n a n c e  the  in preference exporters,  gins with  farm operations  respect  the  both sides  of  in this  the  campesino runs the to the  p r i c e some 4-5  Banks a r e  it  i s not  system:-  not  There are The  produce the  l o s i n g customers  for  and  instance,  dangers, of  crop since h i s  forced  course,  the  ejidal  land  months l a t e r a t h a r v e s t  c a m p e s i n o s a p p e a r t o be  tne.  the  N  market  time. i s growing,  and.  b e n e f i t i n g from i t s o p e r a t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t may  i n d i v i d u a l s c u l t i v a t i n g wheat, p a r t i c u l a r l y i s being  is  to s e l l h i s p o t e n t i a l  f i r m a t a p r i c e much b e l o w w h a t w o u l d be  the precedent of c o t t o n  with  t r a n s f e r a b l e to a p r i v a t e e n t i t y ;  r i s k of being  that  What, i n  f i r m s cannot take  t o o much t o s u g g e s t t h a t a s i m i l a r  t o grow f o r t h e  condition  c a m p e s i n o s a much f r e e r h a n d  G i v e n t h a t such a s y s t e m of bank b y - p a s s i n g b o t h f i r m s and  on  that  government-created c r e d i t o u t l e t s  credit.  i f the p e a s a n t does n o t d o m a i n and  companies  g i v e r of c r e d i t .  Ejidal  of  poor q u a l i t y .  o f t e n A m e r i c a n owned a n d / o r b a s e d , a s ,  t o the use  inflexibility  independent commercial crop t r e a t e r s  give  harvest  the  the  g r o w n c o t t o n h a v e made  cotton  t o them, t h e  A n d e r s o n - C l a y t o n , who  national  the  have used the  to the  frequent  occasions  cotton  i s happening i s that  might otherwise  land  their  v i a t h e m e r c h a n t s and  prepared  for  j u s t because of  h a v e on p r e v i o u s  are  who  per  i n t o account  there  effect,  67  arrangement.  It  the  treated  farm f o r approximately  m a c h i n e r y w o u l d be  they o r i g i n a t e d from the banks or farmers or  c a l c u l a t i o n , were  made known by  both sides  start since  involved'.  101  Conclusions What t h e n a r e t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t f a c e t h e e j i d a t a r i o on Fuerte?  He,  t h e c a m p e s i n o , may  produce a y i e l d  tons per h e c t a r e of wheat, a performance highly  s a t i s f a c t o r y almost  ( w i t h a p r i c e o f 800 that the peasant  any w h e r e ;  second  farmer has  or p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  c a n be r e g a r d e d  yet at that y i e l d  immediately  and  i t i s possible  cycle,  shows  the campesino  However, as o u t l i n e d  i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r f r e e e t o g r o w w h a t he w a n t s n o r  over  that at may  g a i n a good r e t u r n f r o m h i s s o y a ,  h i s tomatoes.  as  level  got h i m s e l f i n t o debt  Certainly,  c u l t i v a t i o n of the year's  o p e r a t e more v i a b l y  kilo-  pesos per k i l o - t o n ) the sample t a k e n  the c u l t i v a t i o n of h i s crop. his  which  o f 3.100  the  sorghum,  earlier,  i s he  free  to  he use  t h e t y p e s o f i n p u t s he w a n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s own  and  labour.  cannot a u t o m a t i c a l l y  I f he n e e d s t o o f f s e t a l o s s  redeem h i s l o s s e s by d e c i d i n g h a l f w a y  t o w h e a t he  his family's  t h r o u g h h i s programme t o  s e l e c t an e s p e c i a l l y r e m u n e r a t i v e  c r o p s u c h a s tomatoes^ e v e n a s s u m i n g  t h a t t h e r e was  to take h i s produce.  he  cannot  to farm  a market a v a i l a b l e  remove h i s debt  the next year.  become one  i n s u c h a manner he may He  t h e n may  ofethehnumerous e j i d a l  a t 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e e j i d a l By agents  contrast, both i n the sense  of t h e i r  creditors.  n o t be  opt out of a c t i v e  renter class,  farmer  Yet i f  farming  currently  p o p u l a t i o n of the  t h e p r i v a t e and  allowed  estimated  District.  colono sectors are  t h a t t h e y a r e more a b l e t o a c t  free  independently  I f they, the p r i v a t e or colono  farmers,  e x p e r i e n c e a wheat-income l o s s ,  then they can  take whatever  t h e y d e c i d e on,  their  of f u r t h e r  from  and  i n any  case  t h e i r b a n k s i s much l e s s  s u c c e s s f u l year possesses  few  l i k e l y merely  than i t i s f o r the e j i d a l  o r no  realisable  From t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s e j i d a t a r i o who  refusal  uses  the c l a s s  as a d i r e c t  f a r m s t u d y i t was  the p r i n c i p a l  result  unthat  securities. found  source of c r e d i t ,  Banks, i s f a c e d w i t h major o p e r a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s system  action  credit  b e c a u s e o f one  class,  and  the  encountered  the  Ejidal  to h i s farming  of h i s c o n t a c t w i t h the s a i d  In other words, the d i f f i c u l t i e s  that  loan agencies.  are a r e s u l t of  the  102  ineffective  o p e r a t i o n o f t h e R e f o r m Laws.  The  c o s t o f o p e r a t i o n t h a t comes w i t h t h e c r e d i t F e d e r a l Government i s c l o a k e d ization. most o f  technology  p r o l e t a r i a t and  The  c o s t of t h i s  i s being  t h e y , who  a g r i c u l t u r e , b e n e f i t from i n s t r u c t i o n practices.  s y s t e m r u n by  the  introduced  to c a r r y out  t h e p e a s a n t s may  acquire  i n t h e new  techniques  and  s e r v i c e , however, i s i n e v i t a b l y  the s e r v i c e . the a b i l i t y  t h e m a c h i n e r y t h a t comes i n t h e labour  to operate  it.  i n s t e a d of around that case,  10  But  the  s i t u a t i o n w o u l d be v e r y  s e r v i c e s year  i n year  to have r e c o g n i z e d ; small holder  like  least  the  out, this  in  although  other  hectares  different.  i n the  In  initial  years,  equipment to work  i n d i v i d u a l would not want the  oversight is especially  seem  critical  cannot  the  same  s o m e t h i n g w h i c h t h e b a n k s do n o t  t h e a v e r a g e e j i d a t a r i o who  high  themselves,  c a m p e s i n o ' s h o l d i n g 50  f a r m e r a c q u i r e d h i s own  there again,  even  p a c k a g e comes w i t h  the need f o r o u t s i d e h e l p , a t  would e x i s t u n t i l land.  Ironically,  t o use m a c h i n e r y  credit  Were t h e the  to  engage i n a c t i v e  because the banks r e q u i r e l a r g e manpowerrresources w h i c h a r e short supply  high  under the h e a d i n g o f f a r m modern-  Modern a g r i c u l t u r a l the r u r a l  unnecessarily  to a  indefinitely  bear the burden of s u r p l u s s e r v i c e s . With regard Ejidal  t o p l a c i n g t h e m a i n w e i g h t o f c r i t i c i s m on  Banks, t h e r e are nonetheless  two  b a n k s a r e b e s e t w i t h s t r u c t u r a l and all  o f t h e i r own  supplyiof resources The  supply  First,  there  to the E j i d a l  forthcoming  is directly  N o r t h w e s t r e p a y 92  was  cent  a r o u n d 50  c r e d i t as a d i r e c t  cent.  per  Banks-by the F e d e r a l related The  d e f a u l t r a t e of 8 per  cent  to the  the  Government.  i n the  loans,  c e n t , when t h e e j i d a t a r i o s  10 p e r  filter  repayment  ejidatarios  of t h e i r  not  Mexican  i . e . the  P r e v i o u s l y the repayment r a t e  government s u b s i d y .  t o c h a r g e more t h a n  i s the problem of  of the v a l u e  d e f a u l t r a t e i s 8 per  much l o w e r ,  law n o t  per  These  operational d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  performance of the banks' customers.  annual  s i d e s to the matter.  m a k i n g , some o f w h i c h h a v e b e e n shown t o  down t o t h e c a m p e s i n o s .  the  cent  The  banks are  i n t e r e s t and  regarded  required  hence w i t h  the bank i s l e f t w i t h 2 per  cent  to  by a  103  c o v e r i t s own  operating  pay  for capital  are  o v e r t l y or c o v e r t l y s u b s i d i z e d  credit loses;  - an  e x p e n s e s and  i s extended thus the  operating  capital  the  untenable s i t u a t i o n .  to the  by  Thus the  the  of  the  Ejidal  Ejido  g o v e r n m e n t , and  p r i v a t e banks' costs  costs  per  user.  o p e r a t e d by  inherent  As  a result,  problem that  number i s n o t direct  the  the R e v o l u t i o n ' s  campesino l e g a l l y  hire  owned h i s  of  p r a c t i c e s and  much case  red,  not  crops to the and of  on  that  official  to  and  bank.  a F e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d agency, can  the  have  to  peasant's  t i m e the banks must the e j i d a t a r i o  proceedscto  The  often only  a  creation  If  of himself;  crop then repays that  e j i d a t a r i o ' s l o a n d i r e c t to the  and their  M o r e o v e r , as  the  has  their  store, instead  k e e p i n g the the  The  Northwest  are h i g h i -  At harvest  to v e r i f y  of  centres  bank w o u l d not  t o c h e c k up  inspectors  the v a l u e  the  Banks:  the  i n the  made d i r e c t t o CONASUPO w h i c h , o w i n g t o i t s h i g h e r as  high,  Ejidal  108).  then the  progress.  i t to a p r i v a t e d e a l e r  store, assessing the  land  inspectors  d e l i v e r s h i s harvested  the  increase  Bank and  i n the  Reform, the banks' c o s t s  s e v e r a l hundred  selling  government  e j i d a t a r i o s ' p e c u l i a r tenure status, a  e m p l o y so many f i e l d production  perpetually  i n c r e a s i n g ( H a i s s m a n 1970,  r e s u l t of  more  t h e i r management  a l l machinery centres  have been economic f a i l u r e s ,  the  Take the  the  t h e i r e q u i p m e n t b e l o n g t o an anonymous E j i d a l  of  are  i n c e n t i v e t o make them o p e r a t e p r o f i t a b l y , s i n c e  managers.  Banks  Banks.  Banks' o p e r a t i o n  s u f f e r from the  must  Ejidal  e j i d a t a r i o s t h e more money t h e  c o l l e c t i v e machinery centres  centres no  than the  interest i t itself  government i s n a t u r a l l y r e l u c t a n t to  Second, the higher  the  part  sale i s usually operating  offer prices  costs, lower  than those of p r i v a t e merchants. H e r e we  have a s i t u a t i o n where F e d e r a l  government-sponsored i r r i g a t i o n who  tries  to work " h i s  bank to work the loss the  i f the  land,  project  l a n d " , but  i s donated  must g a i n  t h a t b a n k h a v i n g no  campesino d e f a u l t s  campesino's resources  f o r any  b e c a u s e he  domain w i t h i n a m a s s i v e to the  c r e d i t from a  peasant government  means o f r e c o u p i n g i t s  reason;  i t cannot  p r o b a b l y has  n o n e , and  confiscate the  104  land  c a n n o t be  s e i z e d because i t i s F e d e r a l l y h e l d .  b e e n shown t h a t of  the  the a c t i o n of  the A g r a r i a n  i t  Because of  that  created  j u s t for that  tenure group's u s u f r u c t o r y  f a r - f r o m - n o r m a l c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n was had  to guard i t s e l f  and  on  the  Federal  the  The from the  other  on  the  from the  one  for use.  characteristics, a  f o r m e d , an  institution  hand from i t s d e f a u l t i n g its  that  customers  operations,  Government. guard a g a i n s t  study undertaken, takes  the  d e f a u l t i n g , i t was  inputs  but  only  restrict  the  they a l s o provide t h a t he  In p r a c t i c e , however,  loan r e c i p i e n t ' s freedom  him  with  necessary  services  viability  i n mbdeririJMexican:-'agriculture-is  result  the  institutions  found  form of employing d e t a i l e d  schedules f o r each customer.  these schedules not  of  tenure group's  r e l u c t a n t f i n a n c i e r of  banks' p r i n c i p a l  operations  has  Reform i n i t s c r e a t i o n  e j i d a t a r i o ' s p e c u l i a r t e n u r e s t a t u s made i t n e c e s s a r y  a c r e d i t o u t l e t t o be  select  Yet  cannot a f f o r d .  p r o d u c e d by  over-costly C l e a r l y the  uncampesinos'  i n j e o p a r d y as  the A g r a r i a n  to  a  R e f o r m Laws.  L05  CHAPTER V  CONCLUSIONS AND SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION OF THE PROBLEM  Through the work c a r r i e d I n t r o d u c t i o n was c o n f i r m e d the f i e l d  study area  investigation one  out, the hypothesis  and v e r i f i e d  i n Northern  i t was c o n f i r m e d  of Mexico's  by t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n  Sinaloa State.  that the e j i d a l  potential  r e t u r n s thus  higher overall yields price for  interaction.  the b e l i e f  From t h e i n i t i a l farming sector of  m o s t m o d e r n a g r o - d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s makes  p r o d u c t i v e u s e o f i t s l a n d endowments t h a n The  s e t out i n the  foregone  the private sector.  a r e n o t compensated f o r i n  o r by a combination Consequently,  less  o f f a v o u r a b l e y i e l d and  t h e d a t a examined gave grounds  that gross p o t e n t i a l  income i m b a l a n c e s  b e t w e e n t h e two f a r m i n g g r o u p s , a l t h o u g h  exist  some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  measured a r e r a t h e r s l i g h t and v a r i a b l e . But more i m p o r t a n t farm  sample study  than  these f i n d i n g s a r e the r e s u l t s  that supported  t h e h y p o t h e s i s and i d e n t i f i e d  the major f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g a g a i n s t the best the e j i d a l  group.  farming  T h a t i s t o s a y , i t was f o u n d  the chances,  of s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of v i a b l e used by t h e banks i s b o t h the r e c i p i e n t the  land.  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l The s y s t e m  of the loan.  In fact,  the schedule  c e r t a i n o t h e r s e r v i c e s he h i m s e l f c o u l d  land  a c t i o n s o f the banks, a product  of credit  encourage e j i d a t a r i o s  structure of  own l a b o u r a n d  furnish. of the Revolution's  to stop t r y i n g  to operate the  t h e y had been g i v e n by t h e n a t i o n f o r t h e s p e c i f i c  of farming.  Ejidatarios  campesino,  i n p u t s o f o u t s i d e l a b o u r and  machines i n s t e a d o f making use o f the farmer's  Constitution,  i n the E j i d a l  t o o i n f l e x i b l e a n d much t o o c o s t l y f o r  loans i s e n f o r c i n g unnecessary  The  interests of  that the o p e r a t i o n a l  a s p e c t s o f t h e A g r a r i a n R e f o r m Laws, as m a n i f e s t e d C r e d i t Banks s e v e r e l y reduce  of the  thus  take  to renting out t h e i r  purpose l a n d , an  106  illegal  a c t i o n but  from the  tenant  and  one  which brings  an  a c t i o n which avoids  considerable  debt to the  If  process of  this  from i t s present the  Fuerte  be  entirely nullified  in  turn w i l l  l a n d r e n t i n g out  the  s i n c e the  fewer of  l a r g e p r i v a t e farmers of  the  G i v e n the ironic and is  and  new  t h e i r predecessors, climate  consciously  i s being s e t out  the  the  situation  Fuerte  to h e l p .  postulated  s e c t o r of The  e n c o u r a g e d by  to discourage  i s being  other  managed t h r o u g h t h e  Ejidal  I t should  approach to e j i d a l ejidos, and  that  be  farming,  fervour  rural  required.  One  that  proletariat  is right  powerful  for  the  economically politically. that of  wealth.  method o f  amelior--  implemented at the E l C a r r i z o  extension  of  (see the  enterprise.  capital  Banks w h i c h a r e  noted as  to model the  H a i s s m a n 1970,  The  c r e d i t arrangements than those at present ejidatario.  the  climate  There i t i s intended  the  powerful  great  such c o n c e n t r a t i o n  shareholders  i t e m s e m p l o y e d on  which  here, i t appears  t h e s e same l a w s  on a n " a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e " b a s i s w h e r e t h e members a r e  the  the hacendados, were s t r o n g  District.  campesinos  i n c o m e and a g r o - i n d u s t r i a l /  t a l k e d of w i t h  the very  Remedial a c t i o n i s urgently ating  will  region.  p r i v a t e o w n e r s t o make t h e m s e l v e s as  This  of  rent  The  land  will  operation  i t i s that Mexican " i n s t i t u t i o n "  p u t t i n g a s t r a n g l e h o l d on i t s u p p o s e d l y s e t out  land r e d i s t r i b u t i o n  c o m p a n i e s o r by  is still  yet  increase  towns, b o t h s e c t o r s of  e x a m i n e d and  the R e v o l u t i o n  almost respect,  that  as  that  situation  of  cent of a l l e j i d a l  area's population.  outside the  to  rewards of resource  become more d e p e n d e n t on  l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by  per  e f f e c t of  s e r v i c e employment i n the D i s t r i c t ' s are  incurrence  continues  o f a r o u n d 30  scheme l a n d s ,  a c c r u e t o f e w e r and  the  income  bank.  proportion  on  a guaranteed y e a r l y  e x t r e m e l y c o s t l y i n terms of  114-121),  equipment amongst  system of c r e d i t i s  d r a w i n g up more typical  f o r the  t h a t Haissman found  distinct  from the  the  flexible individual  this  new  o l d communal  s k i l l e d manpower  the whole o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system of  ejidos  requirements,  enterprises  broke  107  down w h e n e v e r t h e n e e d e d manpower l e v e l s w e r e n o t met Furthermore, there w i l l  at a l l stages.  i t m u s t be b o r n e i n m i n d t h a t f o r a d e c a d e o r more be  an  insufficient  specialists  r e q u i r e d f o r such  implemented  throughout  country, although  this  supply  of the  ejidos,  degree-holding  i f the system were to  the d e v e l o p i n g North  and  s y s t e m i s p r o j e c t e d now  be  Northwest of f o r use  the  i n the  PLHINO p r o j e c t . Short tenure  of b a s i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l  (legal) reform  p o s i t i o n , which would undoubtedly  of c l e v e r p o l i t i c a l  of the  found  manoeuvring i n order  that are outwardly,  i d e o l o g i e s of n a t i o n a l land  Tentatively, by  a specially  i t i s suggested  instruct  year  scheme c o u l d be  partly  o f f s e t by  too c o n t r a d i c t o r y  ownership. t h a t the E j i d a l  of machinery. an e j i d a l  t o t h e s c h o o l payment a t p r e s e n t  t r a i n i n g programme.  Banks,  aided  training  The  cost of  this  c o n t r i b u t i o n operated used  those  (Chapter  TV).  ejidatarios  The  receiving  H a i s s m a n fburid9 -in h i s ' ; . s t u d y , . t h a t t r a i n e e s  c a n become q u i t e p r o f i c i e n t of approximately  ardent  revolution", solutions  a t . l e a s t , not  p a y m e n t w o u l d , h o w e v e r , be made o n l y by the  the  of a loan a p p l i c a n t ' s o p e r a t i o n to  the campesino i n the use  similarly  to p a c i f y  f i n a n c e d F e d e r a l programme, o r g a n i z e  schemes i n t h e f i r s t  ejidal  involve, a lengthy period  f o l l o w e r s of Mexico's " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d h a v e t o be  of the  i n the use  of equipment w i t h i n a p e r i o d  t h r e e months o f n o n - i n t e n s i v e i n s t r u c t i o n .  My  i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t t h e manpower n e e d e d f o r s u c h  instruction is  not  immediate  costly  likelihood  f o r the bank to h i r e , nor  i s t h e r e the  o f a b o t t l e n e c k i n i t s s u p p l y as  of agronomists enterprises".  and  soil  s c i e n t i s t s needed f o r the  In f a c t ,  f o r the F u e r t e D i s t r i c t  an a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f i n s t r u c t o r s a t p r e s e n t services  to other  individuals.  management w o u l d be Given 10 h e c t a r e period  there i s i n the  essential,  case  "agricultural there i s  h i r i n g out  probably  their  A r e v i s e d system of machinery too.  t h e e x i s t e n c e o f u n d e r u t i l i z e d m a c h i n e r y on  several  ejidal  initial  plots,  of the t r a i n i n g  i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t i n the  scheme, t h e f i r s t  2-4  years,  the s u p p l y  of-  108  e q u i p m e n t f o r h i r e f r o m f a r m e r s w o u l d be fulfil  the  demands made by  conjunction with recipient,  the  the  system kept f o r each  operate  instruction  after for  passing  i n equipment use.  c a m p e s i n o had  to  through ejidatario  t h r o u g h h i s t r a i n e e p e r i o d w o u l d r e c e i v e bank  h a v e t o pay  for outside  labour  his excessive  and  w o u l d be  significantly  reduced, at  earlier factor  credit  i n C h a p t e r _1_V. i n any  unmanageable p r e s e n t least  to the  Immediate f e a s i b i l i t y  attempt a t the  s o l u t i o n of  R e f o r m Laws g i v e i n s u f f i c i e n t  implicitly  costs of  hindered,  by  a l l i n v o l v e d , of  capital-hungry, fight  o r s l o w e d , by the p l a c e  scientific  i d e o l o g y w i t h an  t h a t c o u l d be succinctly  realized  operation  level indicated i s an e s s e n t i a l  the problem, owing  to  credit structure.  This  i s e s p e c i a l l y true  case of the Northwest where r a p i d m o d e r n i z a t i o n being  In  thought to the e j i d a t a r i o s  e x p e c t t o o much o f them.  is  he  to work h i s p l o t s .  the p r e s s i n g need f o r r e c t i f i c a t i o n of the e j i d a l  to  been  In other words, the  t h i s way  the  credit  s e r v i c e s o n l y a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t o h i s w o r k n e e d s and  would not  The  In  a l o a n programme more a k i n  t h a t of the p r i v a t e o u t l e t s once the the  would  scheme-trained e j i d a t a r i o s .  loan records  the bank c o u l d  a d e q u a t e , and  and in  of a g r i c u l t u r e  l a c k of adequate  comprehension,  t h a t the R e f o r m has  i n mechanized,  crop  production.  inferior  result  P r a c t i c a l i t y has  had  c o n s i d e r i n g the p o t e n t i a l s  by more r a t i o n a l a c t i o n .  As  Penn  observes:  "Every s e r i o u s p l a n f o r economic development i n L a t i n A m e r i c a t o d a y i n c l u d e s some k i n d o f l a n d r e f o r m . No m a g i c f o r m u l a f o r L a t i n A m e r i c a ' s e c o n o m i c i l l s i s so w i d e l y a c c e p t e d - and n o n e i s so l i t t l e understood."  (1962)  109  SELECT  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Ballesteros Porta, J. Explotacion individual o colectiva? Mexico C i t y : E d i t o r i a l L i b r o s de M e x i c o , S.A., 1964. B a r k i n , D., & K i n g , T. R e g i o n a l Economic Development: The R i v e r B a s i n Approach i n Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. C a s a n o v a , P.G. Democracy i n M e x i c o . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970.  New  York:  Oxford  C h e v a l i e r , F. L a n d and S o c i e t y i n C o l o n i a l M e x i c o - t h e Great Hacienda. Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1963. D o v r i n g , F. 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Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , L a n d T e n u r e C e n t e r , 1966, P a p e r No.28. Rockefeller Foundation. E c o n o m i c S t u d y o f P r i v a t e l y Owned Farms i n the Yaqui V a l l e y , Sonora, Mexico. A g r i c u l t u r a l Science A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 1959-60, 92-95. Rockefeller Foundation. Economic Study the Yaqui V a l l e y , Sonora, Mexico. A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 1960-61, 88-94.  of E j i d a l A g r i c u l t u r e i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Science  Rockefeller Foundation. The E c o n o m i c s o f P r o d u c t i o n i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 1962-63, 53-57. S i e m e n s , A.H. River.  Bajio.  New A g r i c u l t u r a l S e t t l e m e n t A l o n g M e x i c o ' s C a n d e l a r i a I n t e r A m e r i c a n E c o n o m i c A f f a i r s , 1966, V o l . 2 0 , 2 3 - 3 7 .  Silos,  J . S . , &. F r e e b a i r n , D.K. E v a l u e l a A d m i n i s t r a c i o n de s u R a n c h o . M e x i c o C i t y : I n s t i t u t o N a c i o n a l de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s A g r i c o l a s & C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s A g r i c o l a s d e l N o r o e s t e , C i r c u l a r N o . 2 0, 1964.  Silos,  J . S . , <£ F r e e b a i r n , D.K. Economia A g r i c o l a d e l N o r o e s t e : La A g r i c u l t u r a en e l S i s t e m a d e Pequena P r o p i e d a d . Mexico C i t y : I n s t i t u t o N a c i o n a l de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s A g r i c o l a s , F o l l e t o Tecnico,No.48, 1964.  Silos,  J . S . , & F r e e b a i r n , D.K. E l V a l l e Del Y a q u i , Sonora, Mexico; Su D e s a r r o l l o A g r i c o l a , U t i l i z a c i o n de R e c u r s o s y P o t e n c i a l Economico. Ghapingo, Mexico: Graduate School of A g r i c u l t u r e , P a p e r No.7, 1970.  S t a v e n h a g e n , R. S o c i a l Aspects of A g r a r i a n S t r u c t u r e in' Mexico. S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 1966, V o l . 3 3 , 4 6 3 - 4 8 6 . S t a v e n h a g e n , R. Mexicana. 249-275.  M a r g i n a l i d a d y P a r t i c i p a c i o n en l a R e f o r m a A g r a r i a R e v i s t a L a t i n o a m e r i c a n a de S o c i o l o g T a , 1969, V o l . 5 ,  S t e v e n s , R.P. S p a t i a l Aspects of I n t e r n a l M i g r a t i o n i n Mexico, 1950-1960. R e v i s t a G e o g r a f i c a , 1968, V o l . 6 9 , 7 5 - 9 0 . U.S.  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e i g n A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e . Land R e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Mexico. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C:;U.S. G d v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1961 ( M a y ) , N.D. 7455.  115  W h e t t e n , N.L., & B u r n i g h t , R.C. Internal Migration R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , 1956, V o l . 2 1 , 1 4 0 - 1 5 1 . M e x i c a n G o v e r n m e n t &. a s s o c i a t e d  agency  i n Mexico.  publications  C e n t r o de E s t u d i o s P o l i t i c o s , E c o n o m i c o s y S o c i a l e s . Sinaloa E c o n o m i c o S o c i a l '68. Culiacan, Sinaloa: Partido Revolucionario I n s t i t u c i o n a l (PRI), 1968.  -  C e n t r o de E s t u d i o s P o l i t i c a l , E c o n o m i c o s y S o c i a l e s . Journadas de I n f o r m a c i o n y E s t u d i o p a r a l a P r o g r a m a c i o n d e l D e s a r r o l l o de S i n a l o a . Culiacan, Sinaloa: Partido Revolucionario I n s t i t u c i o n a l (PRI), 1968. Comision Del Rio Fuerte. E s t a d i s t i c a s de 1944 a 1969 - I n f o r m a c i o n p o r e l D i s t r i t o de R i e g o N o . 7 5 , V a l l e D e l F u e r t e . Los M o c h i s , Sinaloa: S e c r e t a r i a t de R e c u r s o s H i d r a u l i c o s , 1970. C o m i s i o n N a c i o n a l de l o s S a l a r i o s M i n i m o s . M e m o r i a de l o s T r a b a j o s de 1964 y 1965. Descripciones geograficas, economicas, y s o c i a l e s de l a s z o n a s . Mexico C i t y : Talleres Graficos de la Nacion, 1966. D i r e c c i o n G e n e r a l de D i s t r i t o s de R i e g o . C a r a c t e r i s t i c a s de l o s D i s t r i t o s de R i e g o . V o l . 1 - Z o n a s P a c i f i c o N o r t e , N o r t e Centro y Noreste. Mexico C i t y : S e c r e t a r i a t de R e c u r s o s Hidraulicos, 1969. Secretariat Aug. Unpublished  de R e c u r s o s H i d r a u l i c o s . I n f o r m e de L a b o r e s , S e p t . 1969. Mexico C i t y : T a l l e r e s G r a f i c o s de l a . ; N a c i o n ,  1968 1969.  materials  C o r n e h l s , J.V. M e x i c o ' s R u r a l Road t o P r o g r e s s : an a n a l y s i s o f agrarian reform. U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, A u s t i n , 1965. E c k s t e i n , S. The C o l l e c t i v e E j i d o t h e s i s , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y ,  i n Mexico. 1964.  Unpublished  Ph.D.  Haissman, I. Skilled-Manpower Planning for I r r i g a t i o n Projects i n Developing Countries. U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. thesis, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1970. H e r t f o r d , R. S o u r c e s o f Change i n M e x i c a n A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n , 1940-65. U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o, 1970. H o r t o n , D.E. L a n d R e f o r m and A g r i c u l t u r a l G r o w t h i n M e x i c o . p u b l i s h e d M.Sc. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, M a c i a s , G.H. E v o l u c i o n d e l D i s t r i t o de F u e r t e ) d e s d e su I n i c i a c i o n . Los Del Rio Fuerte, 1970.  Un1967.  R i e g o No.75 ( V a l l e d e l Mochis, Sinaloa: Comision  116  M e n d o z a Von B o r s t e l , F., &. B l a k e A g u i l a r , G. Plan Hidraulico del N o r o e s t e , PLHINO. P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e V l l C o n g r e s s o N a c i o n a l de I n g e n i e r a C i v i l de M e x i c o , G u a d a l a j a r a , 1967.  117  APPENDIX 1  THE MEXICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1917 AND A R T I C L E S 10 & 27  Regarding  Mexico's  l a n d and r e s o u r c e s ,  the C o n s t i t u t i o n states:  "The N a t i o n s h a l l h a v e a t a l l t i m e s t h e r i g h t t o i m p o s e o n p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y s u c h l i m i t a t i o n s a s t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t may demand a s w e l l a s t h e r i g h t t o r e g u l a t e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , w h i c h a r e s u s c e p t i b l e o f a p p r o p r i a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o c o n s e r v e them and e q u i t a b l y to d i s t r i b u t e the p u b l i c wealth. For t h i s purpose n e c e s s a r y m e a s u r e s s h a l l be t a k e n t o d i v i d e l a r g e l a n d e d e s t a t e s ; t o d e v e l o p s m a l l l a n d e d h o l d i n g s ; t o e s t a b l i s h new c e n t e r s o f r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h s u c h l a n d s a n d w a t e r s a s may b e i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o them; t o e n c o u r a g e a g r i c u l t u r e a n d t o p r e v e n t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , a n d t o p r o t e c t p r o p e r t y f r o m damage d e t r i m e n t a l to s o c i e t y . S e t t l e m e n t s , h a m l e t s s i t u a t e d on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and communes w h i c h l a c k l a n d s s o r d w a t e r o r do n o t p o s s e s s them i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s f o r t h e i r n e e d s s h a l l h a v e t h e r i g h t t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h them f r o m t h e a d j o i n i n g p r o p e r t i e s , a l w a y s h a v i n g due r e g a r d f o r s m a l l l a n d e d h o l d i n g s . " Reference:-  The  B r a n c h , H.N. The M e x i c a n C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1917 Compared w i t h t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1 8 5 7 . P h i l a d e l p h i a : A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l <£ S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1 9 1 7 , 16.  l o n g e s t and most i m p o r t a n t  article  i n t h e new C o n s t i t u t i o n ( 1 9 1 7 )  was number 2 7 , w h i c h d e c l a r e d t h a t p r o p e r t y was no l o n g e r a n a t u r a l right but a social Article  27  responsibility.  (Main p o i n t s n o t a l r e a d y s t a t e d above i n broad  statement)  "The o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d s s a n d w a t e r s c o m p r i s e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f the n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y i s v e s t e d o r i g i n a l l y i n the N a t i o n , w h i c h has had and has t h e r i g h t t o t r a n s m i t t i t l e t h e r e o f t o p r i v a t e p e r s o n s , thereby c o n s t i t u t i n g p r i v a t e property. P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y s h a l l n o t be e x p r o p r i a t e d e x c e p t f o r r e a s o n s o f p u b l i c u t i l i t y a n d b y means o f i n d e m n i f i c a t i o n . L e g a l c a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d s and w a t e r s o f t h e N a t i o n s h a l l be g o v e r n e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s : i_ Only M e x i c a n s by b i r t h o r n a t u r a l i z a t i o n and M e x i c a n companies have t h e r i g h t t o a c q u i r e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d s , w a t e r s , and t h e i r appurtenances, or to o b t a i n concessions to develop mines, waters, or m i n e r a l f u e l s i n the R e p u b l i c o f Mexico. ii The N a t i o n may g r a n t t h e same r i g h t t o f o r e i g n e r s , p r o v i d e d t h e y a g r e e b e f o r e t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s t o be c o n s i d e r e d  118  Mexicans i n r e s p e c t t o such p r o p e r t y , and a c c o r d i n g l y n o t t o invoke t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i r G o v e r n m e n t s i n r e s p e c t o f t h e same, u n d e r p e n a l t y , i n case o f breach, o f f o r f e i t u r e to the Nation o f property so a c q u i r e d . i i i W i t h i n a z o n e o f 100 k i l o m e t e r s f r o m t h e f r o n t i e r , a n d o f 50 k i l o m e t e r s f r o m t h e s e a c o a s t , no f o r e i g n e r s h a l l u n d e r a n y c o n d i t i o n s a c q u i r e d i r e c t ownership o f l a n d s and w a t e r s . " Reference:-  Womack, J . The M e x i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , 1 9 1 0 - 4 0 : G e n e s i s o f a Modern S t a t e . I n F.B. P i k e ( E d . ) L a t i n American H i s t o r y : Select Problems. New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , 1969, 316-317.  Article  10 s e t o u t t h e p r i n c i p a l  Article  10  holding  size  limitations  f o r landowners.  "The maximum a r e a o f n a t i o n a l l a n d t h a t c a n b e h e l d b y one person f o r a g r i c u l t u r e or l i v e s t o c k i n i t s various c l a s s e s , i s the f o l l o w i n g : a)  100 h e c t a r e s  b)  200 h e c t a r e s o f s e a s o n a l l y u s a b l e e l a n d susceptible of c u l t i v a t i o n .  c)  150 h e c t a r e s  d)  300 h e c t a r e s when t h e l a n d i s d e s t i n e d f o r t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f bananas, sugar cane, c o f f e e , henequen, r u b b e r , cacao, v i n e s , o l i v e s , cinchona, v a n i l l a or f r u i t t r e e s . "  Reference:-  of irrigated  when t h e l a n d  l a n d o r s u p e r i o r humid  land.  or of pasture  land  i s used f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n  Leyes Mexicanas. Codigo A g r a r i o . Mexico A u t h o r , 1970, 218. ( T r a n s l a t i o n )  of cotton.  City:  119  APPENDIX 2  TESTS FOR NORMALITY OF DATA BASED ON SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS  Method:-  For a given population  N  w h e r e ^ u i s t h e mean, and  ,M  are respectively  s  f o u r t h moments a b o u t t h e mean, a n d <r For  t h e sample e s t i m a t e s  let  U,-_J=XL ; ^ = i * i ! N  =  The  ™ »  B  k , - * M v 2 k ,  o  f  a  n  i s the standard  ;  »- =**L a  = £ ( x t - x ) / ' 3  o f skewness  moment c o e f f i c i e n t  The  sample e s t i m a t e  and  i f t h e s a m p l e comes f r o m  standard  deviation  when n< 150,  \**2±L N  s  % -* <r  The  deviation.  t h e moments a r e :  3  moment c o e f f i c i e n t  3, i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y  ;  N d  third,  of p o p u l a t i o n parameters  N  Then t h e sample e s t i m a t e s  the second,  3  of kurtosis  o f ^ = ^ a JH  normally  ofJ-£- .  a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h a normal  distribution,  d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h a mean o f z e r o a n d Since  the approximation  t a b l e s were used f o r t e s t i n g  i s inadequate  the hypothesis  thatg,=  0.  120  If  t h e sample i s from a normal p o p u l a t i o n , ^  normally J—  .  %  i s approximately  d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h a mean o f z e r o a n d s t a n d a r d Since  the approximation  were used f o r t e s t i n g Reference:-  i s inadequate  the hypothesis  deviation of  when n < 1 ° o o  tables  t h a t g^. - O.  S n e d e c o r , G.W., & C o c h r a n , W.G. Statistical ( 6 t h e d . ) Ames, I o w a : Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1967, 86-88 p l u s A p p e n d i x T a b l e s A6 &A7.  Methods. Press,  121  APPENDIX  3  TESTS FOR THE S I G N I F I C A N C E OF DIFFERENCES  BETWEEN  MEANS  The f o l l o w i n g  three tests  were a l l a p p l i e d t o each o f t h e seven  data groups;  farm area, crop y i e l d ,  i n c i d e n c e o f double  cropping,  gross r e t u r n s p e r h e c t a r e , gross r e t u r n s per farm, n e t r e t u r n s per h e c t a r e , n e t r e t u r n s p e r farm. (i)  The t e s t  s t a t i s t i c t- h a s S t u d e n t ' s  t  distribution  rv, + i \ - 2. d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m u n d e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n  with of  n o r m a l i t y o f d a t a and e q u a l i t y o f v a r i a n c e  t  -  ( * » • * X,)y/n, n \f IX, S* + n  (ii)  This test  s t  i  uses Student's  t  t n.,* n - 2-) z  J ^  t  + ^  distribution  (as above) b u t w i t h  degrees of freedom equal to  assuming data a r e normally (iii)  s t a t i s t i c Z has a p p r o x i m a t e l y normal  The t e s t withn ^n n  z  References;-  distributed.  2  greater than  distribution  3o.  =  ( i ) &. ( i i i ) B r u n k , H.D. A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M a t h e m a t i c a l S t a t i s t i c s . ( 2 n d e d } ) Waltham, Mass: B l a i s d e l l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 6 5 , 259 & 1 8 3 . (ii) S a t t e r t h w a i t e , F.E. An A p p r o x i m a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n of E s t i m a t e s o f V a r i a n c e Components. Biometrics B u l l e t i n , 1946, V o l . 2 , 110-114.  122  APPENDIX k  L I S T OF BODIES REFERRED TO I N THE TEXT AND THEIR ABBREVIATIONS  AID  Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development  CFE  Comision Federal  de E l e c t r i c i d a d  - Federal  Electricity  Commission CIANO  C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s A g r i c o l a s D e l N o r o e s t e A g r i c u l t u r a l Research Centre f o r the Northwest  CIAS  C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s A g r i c o l a s de S i n a l o a A g r i c u l t u r a l Research Centre f o r Sinaloa  CRF  Comision Del R i o Fuerte  - River Fuerte  DAA  D e p a r t a m e n t o de A s u n t o s  Agrarios  Commission  - Department o f A g r a r i a n Affairs  DAES  D e p a r t a m e n t o A g r a r i a D e l E s t a d o de S i n a l o a S i n a l o a n Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e  IBRD  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n  PEMEX  P e t r o l e a s Mexicanos  PLAMEPA  P l a n de M e j o r a m i e n t o  - Mexican  and Development  Fuels  P a r c e l a r i o - Plan f o r Improving P l o t Efficiency  PLHINO  Plan H i d r a u l i c o Del Noroeste  - Hydraulic Plan f o r the Northwest  SAG  S e c r e t a r i a t de A g r i c u l t u r a y G a n a d e r i a - M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and L i v e s t o c k  SRH  S e c r e t a r i a t de R e c u r s o s  H i d r a u l i c o s - M i n i s t r y o f Water Resources  123  APPENDIX 5  LORENZ CURVES OF UNIT 2 WHEAT FARMS INCOME (FIGURES 4 a - d & FIGURES 5 a - d )  4a-d  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF GROSS FARM INCOMES  5a-d  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF NET FARM INCOMES  Figure  4a  DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME, UNIT 2. VflLLE DEL FUERTE, 0  °  0  SINALOA - 1969-1970  (LORENZ CURVE)  TOTAL OF ALL FARMS  Figure  .4b  DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME, UNIT 2, VALLE DEL FUERTE, SINALOA - 1969-1970  (LORENZ CURVE)  PRIVATE FARMS  Figure  4c  DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME, UNIT 2, VALLE DEL FUERTE, SINALOA - 1969-1970 CLORENZ CURVE) EJIDAL FARMS  PER CENT OF FARMS  Figure  4d  DISTRIBUTION OF WHERT INCOME, UNIT 2. VALLE DEL FUERTE. SINALOA - 1969-1970  (LORENZ CURVE)  COLONO FARMS  128  Figure  5a  DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME. UNIT 2. VALLE DEL FUERTE. SINALOA - 1969-1970  (LORENZ CURVE)  TOTAL OF ALL FARMS  PER CENT OF FARMS  129  Figure  5b  DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME. UNIT 2. VALLE DEL FUERTE. SINALOA - 1969-1970 (LORENZ CURVE) PRIVATE FARMS  PER CENT OF FARMS  130  Figure  5c  DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME. UNIT 2. VALLE DEL FUERTE. SINALOA - 1969-1970 (LORENZ CURVE) EJIDAL FARMS  PER CENT OF FARMS  p  131  Figure  5d  DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT INCOME. UNIT 2. VALLE DEL FUERTE. SINALOA - 1969-1970 (LORENZ CURVE) COLONO FARMS  PER CENT OF FARMS  

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