UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

George eliot's versions of the pastoral Harker, Mary J. 1971

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1971_A8 H37.pdf [ 7.37MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093311.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093311-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093311-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093311-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093311-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093311-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093311-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093311-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093311.ris

Full Text

GEORGE ELIOT'S VERSIONS OF THE PASTORAL  by  MARY J . HARKER B. A., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f ENGLISH  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1971  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  advanced degree at  the  Library  I further for  shall  the  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  University  of  make i t f r e e l y  agree tha  permission  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  his  of  this  written  representatives.  available  granted  gain  permission.  English  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  May,  1971  for  for extensive by  the  It i s understood  thesis for financial  Department of  Date  be  British  Columbia  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  that  not  the  that  study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  In an attempt t o e x p l a i n t h e d i s c r e p a n c y i n t e l l e c t u a l and i m a g i n a t i v e  between t h e  elements i n George E l i o t ' s  a r t , h e r v e r s i o n o f t h e p a s t o r a l i n Adam Bede, The M i l l on the F l o s s , and S i l a s Marner i s examined.  Based on t h e  Warwickshire c o u n t r y s i d e  and on t h e  of her childhood  Wordsworthian n o t i o n of c h i l d h o o d , h e r p a s t o r a l i s t h e e n vironmental character  c o r r e l a t i v e t o t h e s p i r i t u a l development of a  a c c o r d i n g t o Ludwig Feuerbach's " R e l i g i o n o f  Humanity."  The p a s t o r a l i s used t o p o r t r a y man's i n i t i a l  happy state*  t h a t i s informed by h i s own egoism and  l i m i t e d viewpoint.  The p a s t o r a l i s a l s o used t o p o r t r a y  a k i n d o f second Eden t h a t i s i n h e r i t e d by those men who have achieved  a wider v i s i o n i n t h e " R e l i g i o n o f Humanity."  A t t h e same time, t h e p a s t o r a l has c e r t a i n unconscious a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r George E l i o t which produce an i m a g i n a t i v e pattern that i s d i f f e r e n t intends.  from t h e one she c o n s c i o u s l y  The appeal o f a sense o f womb-like enclosedness  generated by h e r p a s t o r a l and her apprehension of t h e world of i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional m a t u r i t y  t h a t l i e s beyond the  i n f a n t i l e m i l i e u c r e a t e an i m a g i n a t i v e  p a t t e r n of p s y c h o l o -  gical regression. (who  The c h i e f c h a r a c t e r  may a l s o be the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r  pattern)  within this  pattern  w i t h i n the i n t e n t i o n a l  f i n a l l y " d i e s " i n t h e f a t a l attempt t o remain  w i t h i n the i n f a n t i l e r e a l m .  At t h i s low ebb i n the imagin-  a t i v e p a t t e r n , t h e new c e l e b r a n t Humanity," h a v i n g achieved  i n the "Religion of  an understanding o f t h e n o t - s e l f ,  i s about t o enter h i s new and s h i n i n g second Eden. the enclosed  and narrow p o i n t of view t h a t corresponds  t o the i n i t i a l imaginatively  Thus,  stage i n man's s p i r i t u a l development i s never abandoned.  Adam Bede i s the c h i e f i n h a b i t a n t o f Hayslope which shares h i s l i m i t e d and s e l f - c e n t r e d o u t l o o k .  The malfeasance  of Adam's f i a n c e e , H e t t y S o r r e l , i n i t i a t e s Adam and Hayslope i n t o new awareness.  F i n a l l y , Adam r e t u r n s t o an a p o c a l y p t i c  Hayslope w i t h h i s s u p e r i o r Eve, Dinah M o r r i s . i s the focus o f the i m a g i n a t i v e  i n t e r e s t i n the novel.  Although t h e c h i l d - l i k e H e t t y i n i t i a l l y s e c u r i t y o f the H a l l Farm, she l a t e r return.  Hetty S o r r e l  seeks t o q u i t the  " d i e s " i n t h e attempt t o  Her "death" and Adam's i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e " R e l i g i o n  of Humanity" a r e almost simultaneous.  Through s u f f e r i n g and r e s i g n a t i o n , Maggie T u l l i v e r  learns to imitate C h r i s t according  t o the precepts  Thomas a Kempis (and Ludwig Feuerbach).  Her  of  reward, i n  death, i s a second c h i l d h o o d Eden which i s much s u p e r i o r t o the f i r s t one squabbles.  which was  Imaginatively,  o f t e n shaken with e g o i s t i c Maggie's r e s i g n a t i o n takes on  form of a f a t a l t i m i d i t y towards l i f e and  an  inability  t o q u i t the i n f a n t i l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the circle.  She  " d i e s " at the end  the  family  o f a r e g r e s s i v e journey  into  the s e l f at the same p o i n t where she r e c e i v e s the c r o s s i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f her r e l a t i o n s h i p and duty t o  others.  In S i l a s Marner, the i n t e l l e c t u a l and elements are more c l o s e l y a l i g n e d . c o n c l u s i o n of a r e g r e s s i v e journey  S i l a s " d i e s " at the i n t o the s e l f which  a l s o corresponds t o h i s s o c i a l withdrawl and death.  S i m i l a r l y , he  i s reborn  and  imaginative  spiritual  grows i n t o an awareness  of a b e a u t i f u l p a s t o r a l world as h i s v i s i o n i s widened ft  to i n c l u d e the love and  sympathy of fellow human b e i n g s .  A f t e r S i l a s Marner, George E l i o t seldom t o the p a s t o r a l m a t e r i a l she developed i n the I'int.ellectually her  p a s t o r a l d i d not  returned trilogy.  l e n d i t s e l f t o a more  c r i t i c a l examination of i d e a s and b e l i e f s w h i l e i v e l y , i t had become u l t i m a t e l y uncomfortable  imaginat-  and  unsatisfactory. that  she  was  That  she h a d  outgrown her  unable to r e p l a c e i t with  system h e l p e x p l a i n her eighteen-sixties.  artistic  pastoral  another  sterility  and  imaginative  during  the  Chapter I.  Page  THE PASTORAL OF INTELLECT AND THE PASTORAL OF IMAGINATION . . . .  II. III. IV. V.  1  ADAM BEDE - IN SEARCH OF EDEN THE MILL ON THE FLOSS - THE LOSS OF EDEN SILAS MARNER - EDEN REVISITED BEYOND RAVELOE:  31 . . . .  67 131  THE LIMITS OF GEORGE  ELIOT'S PASTORAL LIST OF REFERENCES  155 164  THE PASTORAL OF INTELLECT AND PASTORAL OF IMAGINATION  THE  Concern over the problems of a r t i s t i c inconsistency i n George E l i o t ' s novels i s not new.  For a long time,  c r i t i c s have complained about an apparent c o n f l i c t between the i n t e l l e c t u a l and imaginative elements i n her novels. Henry James, one of George E l i o t ' s e a r l i e s t and most astute c r i t i c s , notes, under the guise of h i s persona, Constantius: There seems to be two very d i s t i n c t elements i n George E l i o t — a spontaneous one and an a r t i f i c i a l one. There i s what she i s by i n s p i r a t i o n , and what she i s because i t i s expected of h e r . 1  Eighty years l a t e r , David C e c i l e s s e n t i a l l y  recapitulates  James• c r i t i c i s m : The i n t e l l e c t was the engine which started the machinery of the imagination working. But the engine was too powerful for the machine: I t kept i t at a s t r a i n at which i t could not run smoothly and e a s i l y . So that i t never produced a wholly s a t i s f a c t o r y work of a r t . 2  In t h i s study, an attempt w i l l be made to examine more f u l l y the nature of t h i s discrepancy between the i n t e l l e c t u a l  and imaginative elements i n George E l i o t ' s three e a r l y novels:  Adam Bede, The M i l l on the Floss, and S i l a s Marner.  These three novels have been selected for t h i s purpose since they represent George E l i o t ' s adaptation of the pastoral to the f u l l e s t extent.  The pastoral i s e s p e c i a l l y  important for the purposes of t h i s study since i t i s perhaps the one point where the i n t e l l e c t u a l and imaginative elements of George E l i o t ' s novels overlap.  More precisely,  i t w i l l be shown how George E l i o t incorporates her version of the pastoral into the i n t e l l e c t u a l pattern, that i s , the a r t i s t i c pattern which she consciously s t r i v e s to produce, i n the three novels mentioned above.  At the same time, i t  w i l l be shown how the pastoral has c e r t a i n emotional  attrac-  tions for George E l i o t which gives to the rendering of her pastoral an imaginative i n t e n s i t y .  These imaginative aspects  of George E l i o t ' s pastoral, when analyzed further, can be seen to produce a patterning quite d i s t i n c t from the one which George E l i o t intended.  In fact, the imaginative pattern  often contradicts i n varying degrees the i n t e l l e c t u a l pattern. The extent to which George E l i o t h e r s e l f was aware of some of the emotional connotations of her pastoral i s almost impossible to determine.  Certainly, there i s the occasional  place where the author attempts to adjust inconsistencies i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l design that have grown out of c e r t a i n a f f e c t i v e values which she a t t r i b u t e s to the p a s t o r a l . Such inconsistencies w i l l be indicated i n the discussion of the i n d i v i d u a l novels i n which they appear. For the most part, however, the wide differences between the i n t e l l e c t u a l and imaginative designs would seem to suggest that George E l i o t was l a r g e l y unaware of the psychological meanings i m p l i c i t i n her use of the p a s t o r a l .  Therefore,  for the sake  of c l a r i t y i n t h i s study, the i n t e l l e c t u a l pattern w i l l be referred to as the i n t e n t i o n a l pattern and the imaginative pattern w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the unintentional pattern. This chapter w i l l f i r s t outline i n general terms the central i n t e l l e c t u a l pattern of the three novels to be l a t e r discussed i n d e t a i l .  Then, George E l i o t ' s version of the  pastoral w i l l be examined as i t forms an i n t e g r a l part of the i n t e l l e c t u a l pattern.  Following t h i s , a description of  the psychological implications i n George E l i o t ' s use of the pastoral w i l l be given.  F i n a l l y , the o v e r a l l  imaginative  pattern that evolves from the psychological associations of her version of the pastoral w i l l be described.  The outlines  of both the i n t e l l e c t u a l and imaginative patterns are i n  general terms and are intended t o give a framework with which the s p e c i f i c treatment of these patterns within the i n d i v i d u a l novels can be approached. The fundamental impetus behind the formation of the i n t e l l e c t u a l or intentional pattern of Adam Bede, The M i l l on the Floss, and S i l a s Marner can be best summarized by two separate excerpts from U.C. Knoepflmacher*s discussion of George E l i o t i n h i s Religious Humanism and the V i c t o r i a n Novel: The 1850's and the early 1860's had seen the f i n a l consolidation of an empirical s p i r i t which challenged, quite t e n t a t i v e l y at f i r s t and then more d i r e c t l y , the old Mosaic cosmogony, as well as the miraculous element, i n the Scripture . . . . In the 1860's, but above a l l i n the 1870's and 1880*s, there was a prol i f e r a t i o n of imaginative e f f o r t s to reconcile the new findings with the moral v e r i t i e s of the o l d r e l i g i o n . . . . 'The thing,' i n Arnold's words, was 'to recast r e l i g i o n . ' Feuerbach and the 'Higher C r i t i c i s m ' had taught her [George Eliot] that C h r i s t i a n i t y was a fable, a b e a u t i f u l f i c t i o n which contained only a 'Religion of Humanity, teaching the perennial truth of human love and s e l f i s h n e s s . In her own f i c t i o n , . . . she sought to recreate t h i s 'truth' with something of the f i e r c e i n t e n s i t y which marked her evangelical upbringing. 1  3  George E l i o t ' s renovation of the old c a r l y l i a n vestments of r e l i g i o n with new meanings i s not r e s t r i c t e d , however, to a  portrayal of "Peuerbachian stereotypes, earthly 'Madonna' and working-man 'Savior'" as Knoepflmacher maintains (p.  61).  Instead, i t w i l l be shown that she attempts to  use the o l d Mosaic cosmogony as a framework to portray the "Religion of Humanity" just as Milton, her "demigod," had 4  used a Ptolemaic universe to j u s t i f y the ways of God to men.^  Milton had been a f a v o r i t e author of George E l i o t  since her childhood: his  her l e t t e r s abound with reference to  works and towards the end of her l i t e r a r y career she  even wrote a rather i n f e r i o r poem, "Oh May I J o i n the Choir I n v i s i b l e " which i s e s s e n t i a l l y emulatory of Milton's N a t i v i t y Ode."  "The  In view of t h i s strong attachment to Milton,  i t i s not surprising that George E l i o t chose to r e t e l l , ; i n her novels the story of man's fortunate f a l l i n terms of i t s "perennial truth."  The "truth," however, had to be  consistent with the truth George E l i o t acknowledged i n Ludwig Feuerbach's The Essence of C h r i s t i a n i t y . ideas of Feuerbach," she t e l l s her correspondent,  "With the Sarah  Hennell, "I everywhere agree."  The state of man's f i r s t happiness, h i s subsequent f a l l from t h i s state and h i s ultimate attainment of a far better paradise i n h i s heart i s the central myth of  C h r i s t i a n i t y which George E l i o t reshapes according to the man-oriented  "Religion of Humanity."  " A l l the attributes  of the divine Nature are," says Feuerbach, "attributes of 7 the human nature."  Man, therefore,  i n the " r e l i g i o n of  humanity" becomes the instrument of h i s own redemption. In George E l i o t ' s reshaping of the myth of the f o r tunate f a l l according t o the "truth" of Feuerbach's "Religion of Humanity," paradise before The F a l l i s an early, primitive stage i n man's s p i r i t u a l development. E g o i s t i c , unaware of any "other" i n h i s world, man i s l i k e Narcissus and sees only himself i n Nature.  Yet t h i s limited Q  solitude, p r i o r to what Feuerbach c a l l s "consciousness," i s an eminently happy one: To a l i m i t e d being i t s l i m i t e d understanding i s not f e l t to be a l i m i t a t i o n ; on the contrary, i t i s perf e c t l y happy and contented with t h i s understanding, i t regards i t , praises and values i t , as a glorious, divine power; and the l i m i t e d understanding on i t s part, values the l i m i t e d nature whose understanding i t i s (P. 8) . When t h i s narrow nature finds " i t s l i m i t , i t s r e s t r a i n t , i n the a c t i v i t y of another being," however, paradise i s exploded i n an awareness of the world as something d i s t i n c t from i t s e l f :  objective and  "the ego . . . attains to conscious-  ness of the world through consciousness of the thou."  9  Crushed with the new sense of h i s own l i m i t a t i o n s , man, now b a f f l e d and melancholy at the prospect of a hard, cold, i n d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t y , enters the wasteland that l i e s beyond the t i g h t l y circumscribed world of paradise. The conversion of the wasteland into a second Eden, the a l l e v i a t i o n of the hard and i n d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t y , i s to be achieved for Peuerbach's man only through love and s u f f e r ing  for h i s fellow man.  "Love which attests i t s e l f by  suffering," says Peuerbach, f a l l e n man (p. 59).  i s the key to salvation for  Suffering, the supreme affirmation of  Love, i n i t i a t e s him into the "Religion of Humanity:"  "he  who suffers for the others, who lays down h i s l i f e for them, acts divinely, i s a God to men" (p. 60).  The powers  of Love thus widen man's v i s i o n into f u l l consciousness which enables him to contemplate "the perfection, the i n f i n i t u d e of h i s species . . . as an object of f e e l i n g , of conscience or of thinking consciousness" (p. 7): Love i s . . . the p r i n c i p l e of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the perfect and the imperfect, the s i n l e s s and s i n f u l being, the universal and the i n d i v i d u a l . . . . Love makes man God and God man. Love strengthens the weak and weakens the strong, abases the high and r a i s e s the lowly, i d e a l ises matter and materialises s p i r i t . . . . What f a i t h , creed, opinion separates, love unites (p. 48).  Feuerbachian Man can regain a "paradise within . . . happier far" by r e a l i z i n g that "no being i s a limited one to i t s e l f * and that i t " i s i n and by i t s e l f i n f i n i t e — h a s i t s highest conceivable being, i n i t s e l f "  i t s God,  (p. 7). The  former limited sense of unity, happiness and perfection i n paradise can be replaced i n man's Second Eden by an i n f i n i t e sense of these t h i n g s — " t h e r e a l i z a t i o n , "  as Frye,  speaking  of man's recovery of h i s true i d e n t i t y , puts i t , "that there i s only one man, one mind and one world, and that a l l walls of p a r t i t i o n have been broken down f o r e v e r . "  1 0  The s p i r i t u a l progression i m p l i c i t i n George E l i o t ' s r e t e l l i n g of man's fortunate f a l l according to the truths of Feuerbach's "Religion of Humanity" i s substantiated by Feuerbach's concept of the " h i s t o r i c a l progress of r e l i g i o n : " What by an e a r l i e r r e l i g i o n was regarded as objective, i s now recognized as subjective . . . . What was at f i r s t r e l i g i o n becomes at a l a t e r period i d o l a t r y ; man i s seen to have adored h i s own nature . . . every advance i n r e l i g i o n i s therefore a deeper self-knowledge (p. 13) . This notion of "progress" or "advancement" i n r e l i g i o n was important  to George E l i o t as i t was important  Victorians.  to other  I t afforded a way of including the old  evangelical r e l i g i o n (in George E l i o t ' s case) as an important  stage towards "deeper knowledge."  Her adapta-  t i o n of the myth of man's fortunate f a l l was also, therefore, consonant with her "meliorist" views which were based on Comte's P o s i t i v e Philosophy that claimed "to unite past and present into a harmonious whole [by] recognizing 'the fundamental law of continuous human development.'  1 , 1 1  George E l i o t ' s use of the pastoral i n her presentat i o n of man's fortunate f a l l can be p a r t i a l l y explained by the importance she h a b i t u a l l y gave to the depiction of environment as well as to the depiction of character. " I t i s the habit of my imagination," she says, "to s t r i v e after as f u l l a v i s i o n of the medium i n which a character moves as 12  of the character i t s e l f . "  Also, since Milton had used the  p a s t o r a l to help j u s t i f y human existence i n a world that had become meaningless, George E l i o t too could conceivably remold i t for her depiction of the "Religion of Humanity" i n the novel.  Although the English novel has a tenuous l i n k  with the pastoral that goes as far back as Sidney's Arcadia, George E l i o t had a more recent demonstration of t h i s a f f i n i t y i n the novels of S i r Walter Scott whose influence as one of her favorite n o v e l i s t s has already been noticed i n other  aspects of her f i c t i o n .  F i n a l l y , her imagination had  long been fed on a r i c h assortment of pastoral Milton, Cowper, Spenser, Wordsworth and  authors—  Shakespeare—so  that she had substantial material at her disposal from which to fashion her own v e r s i o n . ^ 1  The d i f f i c u l t y  of ascertaining a u n i v e r s a l l y  ac-  cepted d e f i n i t i o n of the pastoral i s summarized by Jeanette Marks when she complains that "out of a score of  definitions  not one can be selected which seems incontrovertible, and the l a s t word to be said upon the s u b j e c t . " for the purposes of t h i s study,  1 5  However,  the d e f i n i t i o n of the  pastoral given by John Lynen i n The Pastoral Art of Robert Frost w i l l be adopted: The pastoral genre can best be defined as a p a r t i c u l a r synthesis of attitudes toward the r u r a l world . . . . Though r u r a l l i f e i s the subject of pastoral, i t i s not seen i n and for i t s e l f : the poet always tends to view i t with reference to the more sophisticated plane of experience upon which he and h i s audience l i v e . * * 1  Walter Greg, i n Pastoral Poetry and Drama,  essentially  agrees with Lynen when he claims "a constant element i n the pastoral [to be] the recognition of a contrast,  i m p l i c i t or  expressed, between pastoral l i f e and some more complex  type o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . "  Greg goes on t o e x p l a i n by way  o f example t h a t "the e a r l i e s t p a s t o r a l poetry with which we a r e acquainted  . . . was i t s e l f d i r e c t l y borne o f the  c o n t r a s t between the r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f a c h i l d h o o d  spent  among the S i c i l i a n uplands and the crowded s o c i a l and I n t e l lecual c i t y l i f e of Alexandria." c o n t r a s t , " continues  Greg, "there a r i s e s an i d e a which  comes ^perhaps as near being — t h e idea  u n i v e r s a l i n p a s t o r a l as any  . . . o f the 'golden age.'"  of a golden or i d e a l way of l i f e in  "As a r e s u l t o f t h i s  (p. 1 5 ) . T h i s  i n the past has been r e f i n e d  some v e r s i o n s o f the p a s t o r a l t o r e p r e s e n t  sarian state i n paradise.  notion  V i r g i l ' s Fourth  or  man's p r e l a p "Messianic"  l E c l o g u e i s one p o i n t where the concepts o f the golden age and  o f a p a r a d i s a l s t a t e come together  i n the p a s t o r a l .  T h i s same ecologue i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t , however, i n t h a t the golden age or s t a t e o f man *s happiness can a l s o occur i n the f u t u r e as w e l l as i n the p a s t . duction  Frank Kermode i n h i s  intro-  t o E n g l i s h P a s t o r a l P o e t r y summarizes the s i g n i f i -  cance o f the eclogue:  I t [the Fourth Eclogue] i s the p o i n t a t which the Golden Age o f Saturn, the r e t u r n o f which the poet f o r e s e e s , mingles with t h e C h r i s t i a n v i s i o n o f man i n a p a r a d i s a l s t a t e b e f o r e Adam's s i n and a f t e r redemption i s complete. (p. 27)  While these more specialized aspects of the pastoral w i l l be shown to be important i n describing George E l i o t ' s version, the romantic notion of the c h i l d as part of the pastoral i s also important.  The romantics, e s p e c i a l l y  Wordsworth, acknowledged childhood as a time when men l i v e d an innocent and blessed l i f e , obeying the good and happy impulses implanted i n them by Mother Nature.  Childhood,  then, came to represent a kind of paradise that man enjoyed prior to h i s growing up and away from h i s early and i d e a l 1 8  a f f i n i t y with nature. George E l i o t employs her version of the pastoral as a kind of environmental c o r r e l a t i v e for the i n i t i a l and f i n a l stages i n the s p i r i t u a l development of the character o r , sometimes, of the whole community, or both.  Since,  according to Feuerbach's theology, man i s i n i t i a l l y l y happy and contented"  "perfect-  (p. 8) within the l i m i t a t i o n s of  h i s egoism, George E l i o t chooses to portray him at t h i s i n i t i a l stage i n a kind of a paradise where he i s supremely s a t i s f i e d with the unity he perceives between himself and the external world.  It i s i n fact one of those paradises  where "Man, the natural world, and God [are] one, an 1 9  i d e n t i t y , rather than one and one and one."  While t h i s unity of man's f i r s t Eden i s undercut by the f a l l a c y of the egoism which informs i t ,  i t i s never-  theless meant to be a pattern for the Second Eden inherited by the celebrant i n the "Religion of Humanity."  When man  no longer views the world solely i n terms of himself but acquires through pain and suffering a sympathetic understanding for others, he becomes part of a greater unity of i n f i n i t e dimensions that yokes together "Religion of Humanity."  a l l mankind i n the  Thus, the f i r s t Eden i s r e a l l y  the t i n y seed of a vast second Eden which w i l l contintually unfold and expand i n men's h e a r t s . The materials George E l i o t uses i n fashioning her pastoral are c h i e f l y drawn from two sources:  the  Warwickshire countryside that she remembered from her c h i l d hood and the Wordsworthian notion of the state of childhood itself.  Like Theocritus who, amidst the i n t e l l e c t u a l  life  of Alexandria, wrote of the S i c i l i a n uplands where he spent h i s childhood, George E l i o t , among the dust and chimney pots of London, turned away from her labours as editor of the Westminster Review to recreate the scenes of her c h i l d hood i n the landscapes and inhabitants of Hayslope, Raveloe and DDrlcote M i l l .  Although her pastoral world embraces a l l  the classes within a r u r a l landscape, her interest focuses on the hard-working r u s t i c s who  are presented according  to the s t r i c t u r e s of what she c a l l e d " n a t u r a l i s t i c i d e a l ism."  In her review of Ruskin's Modern Painters for the  Westminster Review (1856), George E l i o t describes t h i s " n a t u r a l i s t i c idealism" which she was soon to attempt hers e l f as an art which "accepts the weaknesses, f a u l t s , and wrongnesses i n a l l things that i t sees, but so places them 20  that they form a noble whole."  This aesthetic method-  ology i s admirably suited to the depiction of paradise i n the Feuerbachian scheme of regeneration. 'While the pastoral communities and t h e i r inhabitants can be shown to be natura l i s t i c a l l y self-engrossed and imperfect, they can at the same time be made to represent an image of i d e a l harmony and accord between man  and man,  and man  and  God.  George E l i o t also makes use of the Wordsworthian notion of childhood i n shaping her p a s t o r a l .  Childhood can  be combined with the other pastoral materials as i n S i l a s Marner or i t can be employed by i t s e l f as i n The M i l l on the Floss.  Wordsworth, whose poetry George E l i o t admired through-  out her l i f e , interpreted childhood as an i d e a l state i n 21 which man and nature were at one. Since the c h i l d can be  seen to be i n "the r i g h t r e l a t i o n to Nature, not d i v i d ing  ,  what should be u n i f i e d , " George E l i o t can use c h i l d -  hood to depict the i n i t i a l paradise where man  enjoyed  an  22 i d e n t i t y with h i s world.  As t h i s sense of i d e n t i t y i s  also a pattern of that greater unity with a l l men  to be  achieved i n the Second Eden, the c h i l d i s , i n a sense, a t i n y pattern for the man matured into f u l l in the "Religion of Humanity."  Within t h i s context, the  c h i l d thus becomes the "father of the man," piety."  consciousness  "the root of  However, man's i n i t i a l state i s s t i l l one of im-  maturity and egoism and, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , Feuerbach describes t h i s e a r l y time as man's "childhood" (p. 13) .  George  E l i o t , therefore, i s also anxious to reveal the s e l f centredness and even p r i m i t i v e cruelty that belong to t h i s period of s p i r i t u a l infancy.  The scheme of regeneration i n terms of Feuerbach's "Religion of Humanity" i s predicated on a progressive and expansive movement as man moves out of the small c i r c l e of his  own egoism into an ever-widening  a l l humanity.  c i r c l e of sympathy with  In her execution of t h i s scheme of s p i r i t u a l  development i n the three novels to be discussed, however,  George E l i o t renders the i n i t i a l and imperfect paradise with a much greater imaginative c l a r i t y and i n t e n s i t y than she devotes to her portrayal of the struggles i n man's s p i r i t u a l development and to the f i n a l climax of those struggles i n a regenerate Eden.  A number of c r i t i c s have noticed an  imaginative emphasis i n George E l i o t ' s representation of the world of her childhood.  Some attempt to explain the 23  phenomenon by blaming her natural conservativism.  Another  c r i t i c more frankly suggests that she escapes from unpleasant contemporary r e a l i t i e s "into the i d e a l land of her hood and y o u t h . "  24  child-  These ideas are not without merit.  George E l i o t was often beset with doubts, and i n t h i s she was not a t y p i c a l of her time.  Her l e t t e r s are sprinkled  with complaints l i k e the following to C l i f f o r d Albutt i n 1868: For even with the most perfect love to cheer me, there i s s t i l l a past which widens more and more i n the consciousness as a wasted good, and there i s the v i s i b l y narrowing f u t u r e . * 2  I t i s very l i k e l y that many of George E l i o t ' s reservations were r e l i g i o u s , temperamental and i n t e l l e c t u a l at t h e i r basis.  When these reservations strongly a f f e c t the a r t i s t r y  of her novels, however, i t i s also useful to look to the  emotional and a f f e c t i v e r o o t s o f h e r i m a g i n a t i o n .  George  E l i o t o f t e n s t r e s s e s the emotive q u a l i t y o f h e r a r t — " t h e c h o i c e and sequence o f images . . . b e i n g  (determined] by  emotion" or by "such a medium as [ h e r ] own nature [her]."26  Therefore,  gives  an examination o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t l i e s w i t h i n h e r v e r s i o n o f the p a s t o r a l may a l s o h e l p t o e x p l a i n i t s p e c u l i a r i m a g i n a t i v e t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e i n i t i a l and i m p e r f e c t  attrac-  paradise i n  the scheme o f man's s p i r i t u a l development.  In h i s a u t h o r i t a t i v e a r t i c l e ,  "The Oaten F l u t e , "  R. P o g g i o l i d e s c r i b e s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r o o t o f the p a s t o r a l 27 as being  a r e t r e a t i n t o innocence and h a p p i n e s s .  E l i o t ' s imaginative  i n t e r e s t i n h e r p a s t o r a l can a t l e a s t  be p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d , childhood  George  then, by h e r d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o h e r  m i l i e u which she c o n c e i v e s t o have been extremely  happy i n i t s s e c u r i t y and unshaken f a i t h i n a C h r i s t i a n God.  On t h e other hand, t h e i n t e n s e i m a g i n a t i v e  reactiva-  t i o n o f t h e c h i l d h o o d m i l i e u can a l s o be e x p l a i n e d by George E l i o t ' s assiduous a d o p t i o n o f Feuerbach's " r e l i g i o n . " Feuerbach's t h e o l o g y i s based on assumptions which p o t e n t i a l l y c o u l d be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e s i n c e the fundamental i n v e r s i o n t h a t e x a l t s man i n t o God i n Feuerbach's  r e l i g i o n can be seen to be emotionally unsatisfactory. Jung, i n h i s Symbols of Transformation, demonstrates the e s s e n t i a l importance of man's creation of a God-image: Psychic energy of l i b i d o creates the God-image by making use of archetypal patterns, and . . . man i n consequence worships the psychic force active within him as something d i v i n e . 2  This a c t i v i t y ,  says Jung, constantly reminds man of the God  within himself and t h i s awareness i s psychologically beneficial: To carry a God around i n yourself means a great d e a l ; i t i s a guarantee of happiness, of power, and even omnipotence, i n so far as these are attributes of d i v i n i t y . To carry a god within oneself i s p r a c t i c a l l y the same as being God oneself (p. 86). When man c a r r i e s t h i s a step further, however, and a c t u l l y becomes a God, a dangerous psychological phenomenon occurs: Whoever introverts l i b i d o , [that i s j withdraws i t from the external object [in George E l i o t ' s case, her evangelical God] suffers the necessary consequences of i n t r o v e r s i o n : the l i b i d o which i s turned inwards i n t o the subject, reverts to the i n d i v i d u a l past and digs up from the treasure-house of memory those images glimpsed long ago, which bring back the time when the world was a f u l l and rounded whole. F i r s t and foremost are the memories of childhood, among them the images of father and mother. These are  unique and imperishable, and i n a d u l t l i f e n o t many d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e needed t o reawaken those memories and make them a c t i v e . The r e g r e s s i v e r e a c t i v a t i o n o f t h e father-and-mother-images p l a y s an important r o l e i n r e l i g i o n . The b e n e f i t s o f r e l i g i o n a r e e q u i v a l e n t , i n t h e i r e f f e c t s , t o t h e p a r e n t a l care l a v i s h e d upon the c h i l d , and r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g s a r e r o o t e d i n unconscious memories o f c e r t a i n tender emotions i n e a r l y i n f a n c y . . . (pp. 88-89).  A l l t h e energy a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l o v e and omnipotence o f George E l i o t ' s e v a n g e l i c a l God a r e t h e r e f o r e back i n t o a past t h a t h e r i m a g i n a t i o n  channelled  finds i r r e s i s t i b l e .  L i k e h e r a l t e r ego, Theophrastus Such, she f i n d s i t impossible  t o overcome t h i s " i n b o r n beguilement which  c a r r i e s [her]  a f f e c t i o n and r e g r e t c o n t i n u a l l y i n t o an  imagined p a s t . "  2 9  Her landscapes a r e p o p u l a t e d w i t h  p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p a t e r n a l ones, as a l l t h e family r e l a t i o n s h i p s are r e s u s c i t a t e d .  Quite  o f t e n , George  E l i o t i m p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e s w i t h a person whose p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n w i l l be shown t o be t h a t o f a c h i l d around whom t h e e n t i r e p a s t o r a l firmament becomes a k i n d o f womb t h a t arches over and p r o t e c t s t h e a r t i s t - a s - c h i l d f o r whom i t was made and e x i s t s .  Once t h i s p a s t o r a l world w i t h a l l i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d , i t s emotional appeal i s  r e i n f o r c e d by the f a c t  that  i t i n c l u d e s w i t h i n it', an .-imagin-  a t i v e t r i b u t e t o c e r t a i n l o w e r and u n c o n s c i o u s e l e m e n t s o f the  personality.  The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e s e elements s e r v e s t o  make t h e p a s t o r a l a s i t i s i n i t i a l l y  introduced  more  c o m p l e t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a n d h e n c e more a p p e a l i n g ally.  A t times,  image o f p s y c h i c consciously  t h e p a s t o r a l i s even a s s o c i a t e d with totality,  acknowledges b o t h r a t i o n a l  p e r f e c t whole w i t h i n t h e c h i l d h o o d irrational  important the  lower  character  and i r r a t i o n a l  forces a r e u s u a l l y associated with  infantile.  profoundly  consciously  self-centered.  creates,  initially  animality o f these characters Consequently,  immature a n d  with  tends t o equate t h e  a form o f s e l f - i n d u l g e n t  i fthey are t o enter  the chastened  s e c o n d E d e n , t h e r i g h t f u l home o f t h o s e men m a t u r e d full  consciousness,  that  F o r r e a s o n s which l i e beyond t h e  scope o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , George E l i o t  egoism.  Tulliver  S o r r e l are a l s o , w i t h i n the moral context  George E l i o t  an  whose p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , w i t h i n  p a s t o r a l c a n b e shown t o b e e s s e n t i a l l y  Hetty  in a  world of her p a s t o r a l .  T h e s e d a r k and s e n s u o u s f i g u r e s s u c h a s M a g g i e and  an  i n d i c a t i n g that the creator un-  e l e m e n t s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t o be l i n k e d t o g e t h e r  The  emotion-  these characters  into  must l e a r n t o abandon  the promptings o f t h e i r s e l f - i n d u l g e n t lower natures or be left  o u t s i d e t h e new world g i v e n t o a l l c e l e b r a n t s i n  the " R e l i g i o n o f Humanity."  While t h i s second p a r a d i s e  may be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and m o r a l l y b e t t e r i n terms o f Feuerbach's and George E l i o t ' s theology,  i t i s imaginative-  l y much weaker without  of the i r r a t i o n a l  the reinforcement  elements a s c r i b e d t o t h e i n i t i a l and m o r a l l y paradise.  imperfect  And s i n c e t h e second p a r a d i s e i s not founded  on a r e c o g n i t i o n or a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e dark, f o r c e s b u t r a t h e r on a d e n i a l and s u p p r e s s i o n o f them, i t i s h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e t o d e s t r u c t i o n by these lower f o r c e s i n t h e i r i g n o r e d and c h a o t i c form. p a s t o r a l world  George E l i o t ' s  "purified"  i s j u s t as p r e c a r i o u s i n t h i s r e s p e c t  as Hansel and G r e t e l ' s d e l i c a t e gingerbread house t h a t h i d w i t h i n i t a c h i l d - e a t i n g monster.  I n view o f t h e imagin-  a t i v e languor w i t h which t h e second p a r a d i s e i s rendered, then, t h e i m a g i n a t i v e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i n i t i a l  paradise  i n t h e scheme o f man's r e g e n e r a t i o n can a t l e a s t be p a r t i ally  explained.  Another e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i n i t i a l v i g o u r and g r a d ual  weakening o f George E l i o t ' s p a s t o r a l c o u l d l i e i n t h e  way i n which h e r i m a g i n a t i o n seems c i r c u m s c r i b e d by t h e  l i m i t s o f her p a s t o r a l .  For George E l i o t , the  world  beyond the borders of her c h i l d h o o d m i l i e u c o n t a i n s a l l the a d u l t nightmares o f i n s e c u r i t y and doubt.  For  the  i n f a n t i l e psyche w i t h i n the borders o f George E l i o t ' s p a s t o r a l , the o u t s i d e world r e p r e s e n t s a sexual  maturity  and an unhappy f u t u r e which must be avoided i n order  to  preserve the d e l i c i o u s s e c u r i t y and innocence of c h i l d h o o d . There i s a c u r i o u s p a r a l l e l between the p o i n t of view w i t h i n George E l i o t ' s p a s t o r a l and the p e r c e p t i o n s o f Latimer,  the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i n "The  Lifted Veil,"  a  b i z a r r e s h o r t s t o r y she wrote around the same time as three p a s t o r a l novels. f o r e s i g h t , Latimer  the  Endowed with s u p e r n a t u r a l powers of  l i v e s i n p e r p e t u a l h o r r o r and  despair  as he contemplates a world v o i d of a l l love, goodness and happiness. "without  3 0  H i s g r e a t e s t m i s f o r t u n e , however, i s t h a t ,  the poet's v o i c e , " he i s without  v i a t i n g h i s misery.  U n l i k e Latimer,  the means o f a l l e -  George E l i o t , with  the  powers of her i m a g i n a t i o n , can c r e a t e a happy world out o f h e r memories of a c h i l d h o o d past where h o p e f u l l y , she remain s a f e l y "anchored w i t h i n the v e i l . " The  can  31 x  contentment of r e s t i n g secure w i t h i n the  p a s t o r a l world i s not a l t o g e t h e r unmitigated,  cozy  however.  O c c a s i o n a l l y the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n f a n t i l e  personality  w i t h i n t h i s world expresses c e r t a i n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s y e a r n i n g s a f t e r some u n s p e c i f i e d d e s i r e . promptings they may  and  While these  are r a r e l y , and then o n l y p a r t i a l l y ,  a c t e d upon,  r e p r e s e n t an unconscious impulse on the p a r t of  George E l i o t t o e x p l o r e i m a g i n a t i v e l y the unhappy realms of doubt and m a t u r i t y which l i e beyond the " v e i l " o f her pastoral.  Although seemingly unpleasant, t h i s unexplored  realm n e v e r t h e l e s s o f f e r s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a much g r e a t e r happiness than the one enjoyed i n the c h i l d h o o d m i l i e u . Encountering those b e n e f i c i a r i e s which Jung d e s c r i b e s as "the h e a l i n g power o f nature, the deep w e l l s of b e i n g and c o n s c i o u s communion w i t h l i f e i n a l l i t s c o u n t l e s s forms" the e x p l o r e r would have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e s t a b l i s h a 32  mature and i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y .  Instead,, George E l i o t ' s  i m a g i n a t i o n c l i n g s t o the world r e c r e a t e d from her memories of  c h i l d h o o d and t o an i m p l i c i t i d e n t i t y with an  psyche w i t h i n t h a t w o r l d .  She has, t o use  infantile  Campbell's  terms i n The Hero of a Thousand Faces, " r e f u s e d the c a l l " with the r e s u l t t h a t the once p l e a s i n g i n f a n t i l e m i l i e u 33  b e g i n s t o l o s e i t s charms. one who  The "flowering world" of the  r e f u s e s the c a l l says Campbell,  "soon becomes a  wasteland o f d r y stones"  ( p . 6 2 ) . I n other words, George  E l i o t ' s p a s t o r a l world, having  been denied  t h e waters o f  l i f e and renewal t h a t l i e o u t s i d e i t , must i n e v i t a b l y wither  and d i e .  The  p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e p a s t o r a l as  o u t l i n e d above can be shown t o present  an i m a g i n a t i v e  p a t t e r n which i n many p l a c e s undercuts and c o n t r a d i c t s t h e p a t t e r n of man's i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e " R e l i g i o n o f Humanity."  A t t h e o u t s e t , George E l i o t ' s p a s t o r a l i s a r e c r e a t i o n o f h e r c h i l d h o o d m i l i e u which u s u a l l y has q u a l i t i e s o f womb-like and cozy enclosedness f o r i t s c r e a t o r .  George  E l i o t often i m p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e s with a character  within  the p a s t o r a l firmament whose p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t o f a c h i l d w i t h i n a womb-like environment. There i s a l s o a q u a l i t y o f p s y c h i c wholeness about t h i s c h i l d h o o d world which makes i t even more e m o t i o n a l l y a t t r a c tive.  I n many r e s p e c t s the i m a g i n a t i v e  p a t t e r n i n g o f the  p a s t o r a l as i t i s i n i t i a l l y v p r e s e n t e d i s a good emotional reinforcement  f o r the i d e a s o f e g o i s t i c enclosedness and  immaturity a s s o c i a t e d with man's f i r s t p a r a d i s e v a r i o u s stages o f h i s s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n Feuerbach's r e l i g i o n .  i n the  according t o  It  i s at t h a t p o i n t i n the p a t t e r n of man's s p i r i t u a l  development however, where h i s bubble of egoism b u r s t s he  finds himself  the i m a g i n a t i v e  and  i n the c o l d world o f o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y p a t t e r n i n g ceases t o r e i n f o r c e the  o f s p i r i t u a l development.  The  e g o i s t i c character  that  pattern within  the l i t t l e womb-like world never i n f a c t abandons i t i n t o mature.  Instead,  order  she makes every attempt t o remain w i t h i n  it,  s t r i v i n g t o e x o r c i s e the lower and b e s t i a l q u a l i t i e s of  her  nature so t h a t she  is still  able t o f i t i n s i d e the  supposedly innocent  i n f a n t i l e realm.  Pear o f what l i e s , o u t -  s i d e t h i s realm and  the i n t e n s e r e a c t i v a t i o n of a l l the  i n f a n t i l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n i t prevent her unconscious promptings t h a t would l e a d her  from f o l l o w i n g  to a f u l l  rounded mature l i f e o u t s i d e the c h i l d i s h m i l i e u .  and  With  d e n i a l o f the i r r a t i o n a l f o r c e s t h a t l i e without and, l e s s e r extent,  w i t h i n the p a s t o r a l world, i t s beauty  lushness soon t u r n i n t o a d e s o l a t e waste. character  Although  w i t h i n the womb-like environment t h a t has  the to a  and the now  become  a prison-house i s tremendously f r u s t r a t e d , f e a r of the world o u t s i d e prevents her escape. w o r l d continues  Eventually,  as the p a s t o r a l  t o d i s i n t e g r a t e , the c h a r a c t e r  g r a d u a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e s u n t i l both the c h a r a c t e r  within i t also and  her  T h i s low ebb i n t h e i m a g i n a t i v e  pastoral usually  corresponds t o t h e p o i n t a t which the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r , may o r may n o t be t h e c h i e f c h a r a c t e r  who  i n the u n i n t e n t i o n a l  p a s t o r a l , i s about t o enter h i s second Eden, having  learned t o  overcome h i s i n i t i a l egoism through s u f f e r i n g and l o v e on b e h a l f o f some other p e r s o n . her  I n order t o o r c h e s t r a t e h i s or  e n t r y i n t o a f i n a l Eden, George E l i o t r e s o r t s t o an  imaginative  tour de f o r c e , and p o r t r a y s the environment o f the  new c e l e b r a n t i n t h e " R e l i g i o n o f Humanity" as a new and s h i n i n g v e r s i o n o f h i s former Eden.  Y e t s i n c e t h e dark  v i t a l i z i n g powers have been e x p e l l e d from t h i s new world, the second Eden l a c k s t h e emotional appeal and hence the imaginative  a f f i r m a t i o n o f the i n i t i a l unregenerate Eden.  T h i s second Eden i s r e l a t i v e l y p a l l i d , it  q u i e t and l i s t l e s s ;  i s a p a s t o r a l a k i n t o Claude Debussy's m u s i c a l p a s t o r a l .  The Afternoon  o f a Faun.  A t the same time, t h i s unemphatic  p a s t o r a l i s v u l n e r a b l e t o the u n a s s i m i l a t e d lower f o r c e s which i t has w a l l e d o u t .  and c h a o t i c  Precarious i n t h i s  way, the p a s t o r a l i s a t one p o i n t near the end o f The M i l l on t h e F l o s s v i r t u a l l y d e s t r o y e d i t has i g n o r e d .  by t h e f o r c e s o f nature which  While the u n d e r l y i n g movement of t h e scheme of man's s p i r i t u a l development a c c o r d i n g t o the " R e l i g i o n o f Humanity" i s e s s e n t i a l l y an expansive  and p r o g r e s s i v e one, the imagin-  a t i v e movement of t h e t h r e e p a s t o r a l n o v e l s i s , on the other hand, i n t r o v e r t e d and u l t i m a t e l y s t a t i c .  Imaginatively,  Eden i s never abandoned, and the wasteland l i e s a t i t s v e r y heart.  The Eden t h a t i s r a i s e d i n the w i l d e r n e s s i s l i t t l e  more than a w i s t f u l i n t e l l e c t u a l mirage t o which the imagina t i o n has not a s s e n t e d .  Through an examination  of the i n t e l l e c t u a l and imag-  i n a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f George E l i o t ' s v e r s i o n of the p a s t o r a l i n Adam Bede. The M i l l on the F l o s s , and S i l a s Marner i n t h e f o l l o w i n g chapters, an attempt w i l l be made t o o f f e r one e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the c o n f l i c t between i n t e l l e c t and imagi n a t i o n i n these e a r l y n o v e l s .  A t t h i s p o i n t , however,  perhaps the b e s t summary o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the nature o f George E l i o t ' s p a s t o r a l i s one she g i v e s h e r s e l f i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the lamentable  "Mixtus"  of  Theophrastus Such:  An e a r l y deep-seated l o v e t o which we become f a i t h l e s s has i t s u n f a i l i n g Nemesis, i f o n l y i n t h a t d i v i s i o n o f s o u l which narrows a l l newer j o y s by the i n t r u s i o n o f  r e g r e t and the e s t a b l i s h e d presentiment o f change. I r e f e r not merely t o the l o v e of a person, but t o the l o v e of i d e a s , p r a c t i c a l b e l i e f s , and s o c i a l h a b i t s . . , . In t h i s s o r t of l o v e i t i s the f o r s a k e r who has the melancholy l o t ; f o r an abandoned b e l i e f may be more e f f e c t i v e l y v e n g e f u l t h a t Dido . . . . This involuntary renegade has h i s c h a r a c t e r h o p e l e s s l y j a n g l e d and out o f tune. He i s l i k e an organ with i t s stops i n the l a w l e s s c o n d i t i o n of o b t r u d i n g themselves without method, so t h a t h e a r e r s are amazed by the most unexpected t r a n s i t i o n s . . . . * 3/  Henry James, " D a n i e l A t l a n t i c Monthly, XXXVTII A Century o f George E l i o t (Boston: Houghton M i f f l e n  Deronda: A C o n v e r s a t i o n . " (December 1876), 684-694 i n C r i t i c i s m , e d . Gordon S. H a i g h t Co., 1965), p . 106.  David C e c i l , V i c t o r i a n N o v e l i s t s : Essays i n R e v a l u a t i o n (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1958), p. 306. ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965) pp. 5, 53. See a l s o The George E l i o t L e t t e r s , e d . Gordon S. Haight (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , IV, 64-65; I I I , 231 ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as GEL) . 3  4  GEL, V. 238.  ^In a chapter o f h i s most r e c e n t book, George E l i o t ' s E a r l y N o v e l s : t h e L i m i t s : o f R e a l i s m ^ Knoepflmacher has seen some p a r a l l e l s between " P a r a d i s e L o s t " and Adam Bede. (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968), pp. 99104, 109-110. 6  GEL, I I , 153.  T h e Essence o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , t r a n s . George E l i o t (New York: Harper, 1957), p . 14. 7  ^Perhaps on account o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t r a n s l a t i o n , t h i s term i s used r a t h e r l o o s e l y throughout The Essence. Feuerbach s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e s i t as t h a t f u l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e i n f i n i t e nature of one's s p e c i e s ( p . 2) . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s a l s o used t o mean any awareness o f an o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y (pp. 82-83). D i e P h i l o s o p h i e der Zukunst, e d i t e d and annotated by H. Ehrenberg i n Frommanns P h i l o s o p h i s c h e Taschenbucher ( S t u t t g a r t , 1922), p . 28 c i t e d i n K a r l B a r t h , "An I n t r o d u c t o r y Essay", The Essence o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , p . x i i i . Also i n Feuerbach, p . 83. 9  T h e Return of Eden: F i v e Essays on M i l t o n ' s E p i c s (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1965), p. 143. 1 0  B a s i l W i l l e y bases h i s summary on the P h i l o s o p h i e P o s i t i v e , t r a n s , H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u (1875), I I , v i , 9. Nineteenth Century S t u d i e s : From C o l e r i d g e t o Matthew A r n o l d (Penguin, 1964), p. 202. 1 1  1 2  13  G E L IV,  97.  K n o e p f l m a c h e r , George E l i o t ' s E a r l y Novels, pp. 123-25,  14 Gordon S. Haight, George E l i o t : - A Biography Clarendon Press, 1968), pp. 24-29.  (Oxford:  1 5  E n g l i s h P a s t o r a l Drama (London: Methuen, 1908), p.  16  ( N e w Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), p.  19.  9.  (New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1959, p. 4. See a l s o John Kermode i n E n g l i s h P a s t o r a l P o e t r y (London: Harrop & Co., 1952), p. 12: "The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n of p a s t o r a l p o e t r y i s t h a t there should be a sharp d i f f e r e n c e between two ways of l i f e , the r u s t i c and the urban." 17  l ^ C h a r l e s Haney puts the romantic n o t i o n of the c h i l d as symbolic of a p a r a d i s e i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t terms: "To the i n d i v i d u a l man d i s s a t i s f i e d with h i s l o t , the happiness he wants now i s the happiness he had then, the happiness t a s t e d once but l o s t i n the process of growing up. And what c h i l d h o o d i s t o the i n d i v i d u a l man, Eden i s t o man collectively—paradise lost." C h a r l e s W. Haney, The Garden and the C h i l d : A Study of P a s t o r a l T r a n s f o r m a t i o n (Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1965), p. 13. 19 Haney, p.  13.  C i t e d i n Irene Simon, "Innocence i n the Novels of George E l i o t , " E n g l i s h S t u d i e s Today, 2nd s e r i e s , ed. G. A. Bonnard (Berne: Francke, 1961), p. 200. 2 0  See e s p e c i a l l y Ode: I n t i m a t i o n s of Immortality from E a r l y C h i l d h o o d ; The Prelude, I .  W. Empson, Some V e r s i o n s of P a s t o r a l p . 209.  (Penguin, 1935),  93  Thomas Pinney i n "The A u t h o r i t y of the Past i n George E l i o t ' s Novels, "Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n XXI, (September, 1956), 131-147, g i v e s the most thorough assessment o f her conservatism. w . Naumann, "The A r c h i t e c t u r e of George E l i o t ' s Novels," Modern Language Q u a r t e r l y IX, (1948), 37-50. 2  4  25  G E L , IV,  499.  " N o t e s on Form i n A r t " , (from George E l i o t ' s notebook, 1868) i n Essays o f George E l i o t , ed. Thomas Pinney (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1963), p . 434. GEL, I I , 362 . See a l s o Adam Bede, Ch. 17. 2 6  2 7  H a r v a r d L i b r a r y B u l l e t i n , XI  ^ T r a n s . R.F.G. H u l l 1956), p . 86. 2  9  (1957), 147.  (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l ,  Q  "Looking Backward," Blackwood), p . 29.  Theophrastus Such (Edinburgh:  •an  "The L i f t e d V e i l , " The Complete Works of George E l i o t (London: P o s t l e t h w a i t e , Tayor and Knowles, 1908), 374. GEL, I . 30. 31  G E L , V I , 98.  3 2  J u n g , Symbols,  p. 205.  T h e Hero o f a Thousand Faces (New York: Pantheon, p . 62. 3 3  34  T h e o p h r a s t u s Such, pp. 131-32  1961),  CHAPTER I I ADAM BEDE - IN SEARCH OF EDEN  "It  w i l l be a country s t o r y f u l l o f the b r e a t h of  cows and t h e scent o f h a y . "  1  Such was the i n t r o d u c t i o n which  George E l i o t gave t o Adam Bede i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o h e r p u b l i s h e r , John Blackwood.  "A scene t o s i c k e n f o r w i t h a  s o r t o f c a l e n t u r e i n h o t d u s t y s t r e e t s , " M r s . Poyser's d a i r y and t h e e n t i r e world o f Hayslope t h a t surrounds i t i s a p i c t u r e o f l i f e as i t had been s i x t y y e a r s e a r l i e r .  2  It  was a time when "steam engines" and " i n g e n i o u s p h i l o s o p h e r s " had not y e t done away w i t h "Old L e i s u r e " who " l i v e d  chiefly  i n the country, among p l e a s a n t s e a t s and homesteads,  and was  fond o f s a u n t e r i n g by the f r u i t t r e e w a l l , and s c e n t i n g t h e a p r i c o t s when they were warmed by the morning sunshine." "Happy i n h i s i n a b i l i t y t o know t h e causes o f t h i n g s ,  pre-  f e r r i n g the t h i n g s themselves,". t h i s o l d gentleman was "not . . . made squeamish by doubts and qualms"  ( p . 525) . The  wholesome merriment, honesty and s i m p l i c i t y o f t h i s past are  s a l u t e d i n an o l d - f a s h i o n e d c o u n t r y dance which i s  p r e f e r r e d t o the urbane decadence o f contemporary "low  dresses  . . . , scanning  l a n g u i d men  and  i n l a c k e r e d boats s m i l i n g with double  meaning" (p.  Out  glances e x p l o r i n g costumes,  290).  of the unremarkable Warwickshire c o u n t r y s i d e  which Cross d e s c r i b e s as "a monotonous s u c c e s s i o n of green 3  f i e l d s and hedgerows," a c c o r d i n g t o the way  George E l i o t shapes her p a s t o r a l  t h i s landscape  and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s  are "mirrored," however " d e f e c t i v e [ l y ] , " i n her mind (p.  178).  By "showing how  k i n d l y the l i g h t o f heaven  falls"  on t h e everyday t h i n g s she remembers, she i s c o n s c i o u s l y i m i t a t i n g i n f i c t i o n the s c h o o l of Dutch p a i n t e r s she mires (pp. 180-82). presence,  ad-  Without a d i r e c t i n v o c a t i o n t o d i v i n e  George E l i o t f e l t  t h a t these a r t i s t s were able  t o p o r t r a y "a peace more d i v i n e than t h a t o f the d e p i c t e d i n the canvases of o t h e r s . "  4  paradises  By i m i t a t i n g  their  t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n o f d a i l y e x i s t e n c e , George E l i o t t r a n s forms the monotonous Warwickshire c o u n t r y s i d e she  fondly  remembers i n t o man's i n i t i a l p a r a d i s e i n h i s o v e r a l l s p i r i t u a l development a c c o r d i n g t o the p r e c e p t s  of  Feuerbach's r e l i g i o n . Hayslope i n Loamshire i s a l u s h , f a t l a n d .  Its l i f e  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e q u i e t contentment and d i v i n e b e n e f i c e n c e o f t h e Twenty-Third psalm: "'the people l e a d a q u i e t l i f e among t h e green pastures tilling  the ground and t e n d i n g  and the s t i l l  the earth'"  waters,  (p. 92).  George E l i o t p o r t r a y s t h e community l i f e o f Hayslope as being  i d e a l i n t h a t a l l s o c i a l and economic c l a s s e s can  work and r e j o i c e together has  pointed  bility" in  out,  as a whole s o c i e t y .  "the t i e s o f l o y a l t y , duty, [and]  l i n k "labourer,  5  responsi-  farmer, clergyman, and s q u i r e "  "a moral framework t h a t i s seen as strong,  enduring."  As one c r i t i c  good and  The u n i t y t h a t e x i s t s i n Hayslope between man  and man as w e l l as t h e g r e a t e r  u n i t y between man and God i s  demonstrated i n the church-going  (Ch. 18) and symbolized i n  "the moment o f the f i n a l b l e s s i n g , when the f o r e v e r words,  sublime  'the peace o f God, which passeth a l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , '  seemed t o blend with the calm afternoon  sunshine t h a t  on the bowed heads o f t h e congregation"  ( p . 206).  Although t h e community o f Hayslope e v i n c e s  fell  a desir-  a b l e s o c i a l u n i t y , i t i s l i m i t e d and narrow i n i t s o u t l o o k . Geographically,  Loamshire i s e n c l o s e d  masses o f h i l l ,  [which a r e ] l i k e g i a n t mounds intended t o  f o r t i f y t h i s r e g i o n o f corn and grass  by "the huge c o n i c a l  a g a i n s t t h e keen and  and hungry winds o f the n o r t h " ( p . 1 4 ) . "Overlooked" by these " b a r r e n h i l l s "  t h a t form p a r t o f "a green o u t s k i r t  o f S t o n y s h i r e , " Hayslope i s n e v e r t h e l e s s s e l f - c e n t r e d , c a r i n g t o have l i t t l e a s s o c i a t i o n with t h a t s h i r e ( p . 1 4 ) . George e r e e g e r , i n h i s e a r l y study o f Adam Bede, n o t i c e d a p e c u l i a r "hardness" i n some o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f Hayslope who "never h a v i n g known p r i v a t i o n and s u f f e r i n g ,  cannot  . . . understand or sympathize with [the] want, poverty, or even u g l i n e s s " t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e S t o n y s h i r e world t h a t l i e s beyond Hayslope.  C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e such  people i n Hayslope as Reverend  I r w i n , B a r t i e Massey and  Seth Bede who have s u f f e r e d and who a r e t h e r e f o r e t o t h e wants and s u f f e r i n g s o f o t h e r s .  sensitive  But these f i g u r e s  are f o i l s t o t h e hardness which Creager sees i n Mrs. Irwine, S q u i r e Donnithorne, M a r t i n Poyser, H e t t y S o r r e l and Adam Bede.  George E l i o t i s c a r e f u l t o p o i n t out t h i s  unregenerate q u a l i t y o f the p a r a d i s e o f Hayslope by p r e s e n t i n g us with a s t r a n g e l y mingled p i c t u r e near t h e b e g i n ning of the n o v e l .  Adam and Seth a r e c a r r y i n g t o Broxton  t h e c o f f i n which Adam has f i n i s h e d :  I t was a s t r a n g e l y mingled p i c t u r e — t h e f r e s h youth o f the summer morning, with i t s E d e n - l i k e peace and l o v e l i n e s s , t h e s t a l w a r t s t r e n g t h o f t h e two b r o t h e r s  i n t h e i r r u s t y working c l o t h e s , and t h e long c o f f i n on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s , ( p . 50)  The c o f f i n i s n o t o n l y a reminder o f Adam's harshness  towards  h i s father, b u t i t a l s o foreshadows t h e one Adam soon w i l l b u i l d f o r that father. dead—the  A t t h i s moment, T h i a s Bede l i e s  r e s u l t o f h i s attempt t o escape i n a l c o h o l i s m  from a home t h a t l a c k s sympathy and u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  S p i r i t u a l l y , t o o , Hayslope i s i n a d e q u a t e .  While  Parson I r w i n e ' s e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e undoubtedly admirable (Ch. X V I I ) , t h i s k i n d - h e a r t e d preacher l i v e s o u t s i d e Hayslope i n Broxton s i n c e , as Mr. Casson o f Hayslope puts it,  "'the parsonage h e r e ' s a tumble-down p l a c e ' "  (p. 11).  I n view o f t h e enduring hardness of s e v e r a l people i n Hayslope, those p r i n c i p l e s which a r e t h e bases f o r Parson Irwine's v i r t u e s would seem t o be almost as i n e f f e c t u a l as Dinah's p r e a c h i n g on t h e green.  Dinah complains o f a  "strange deadness t o the Word" i n Hayslope, o f the v i l l a g e r s ' i n a b i l i t y t o "see" h e r l i v i n g C h r i s t . n e a t l y puts i t :  As Jerome T h a l e  " C h r i s t i a n i t y i n Hayslope i s bankrupt,  has l o s t a l l i t s dynamism and e x i s t s c h i e f l y as a t r a d i t i o n 7  r a t h e r than a f o r c e f o r shaping people's l i v e s . "  Hayslope  needs t o be a c q u a i n t e d w i t h s u f f e r i n g i n order t o awaken  a sympathetic understanding i n s e v e r a l o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . J u s t as t h a t peace and s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e Twenty-Third Psalm r e p r e s e n t s  o n l y p a r t of the t o t a l v i s i o n o f t h e  Psalms, Hayslope i n a l l i t s summer t r a n q u i l i t y , i s a l s o incomplete.  The c e n t r a l f i g u r e o f the p a r a d i s e Adam Bede.  o f Hayslope i s  "An uncommon c l e v e r s t i d d y f e l l o w , an'  wonderful strong", Adam i s a s u i t a b l e complement t o h i s p a s t o r a l environment (p. 1 3 ) . As t h e c h i e f r u s t i c i n a V i c t o r i a n p a s t o r a l , he i s a l s o ennobled i n h i s s u b s c r i p t i o n t o t h e d o c t r i n e o f work. the n a r r a t o r  He was one o f those men,  t e l l s us, who "make t h e i r way upward . . . as  p a i n s t a k i n g honest men, w i t h t h e s k i l l and c o n s c i e n c e t o do w e l l t h e t a s k s t h a t l i e b e f o r e them"  ( p . 217).  At the  same time, Adam i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s environment i n what Mr. Irwine r e f e r s t o as h i s "excess o f p r i d e "  ( p . 102) .  H i s h a r s h c r i t i c i s m o f h i s f a t h e r i s an aspect o f t h e p r i g g i s h n e s s t h a t Wiry Ben f i n d s so annoying: f i n d i n g f a t w i ' preachers awile o' p r e a c h i n '  yoursen'"  "'Ye war a -  a g o o — y ' a r e fond enough  ( p . 8 ) . The g e n e r a l  opinion of  Adam i s expressed by Mr. Casson o f t h e Donnithorne Arms who f e e l s t h a t Adam i s a f i n e f e l l o w b u t "a l i t t l e  lifted  Adam needs t o l e a r n " p a t i e n c e " and " c h a r i t y " towards h i s f e l l o w s , and t h e "one way" he i s t o achieve t h i s , says George E l i o t ,  i s "by g e t t i n g h i s h e a r t s t r i n g s bound round  t h e weak and e r r i n g , so t h a t he must share not o n l y t h e outward consequences o f t h e i r e r r o r , but t h e i r inward ing"  ( p . 214).  suffer-  L i k e h i s famous namesake, Adam i s d e s t i n e d  t o s u f f e r on account o f h i s Eve, H e t t y S o r r e l , " ' t h e p r e t t i e s t t h i n g God had made [him] — s m i l i n g up a t [him] '" (p. 432).  They c o u r t i n t h e p a r a d i s i a c a l abundance o f t h e  farmhouse garden where "hardy p e r e n n i a l f l o w e r s , unpruned f r u i t - t r e e s , and k i t c h e n v e g e t a b l e s " grow and mingle t o gether  ( p . 222).  To Adam, H e t t y i s " l i k e a b r i g h t - c h e e k e d  apple hanging over the o r c h a r d w a l l "  ( p . 213) and t h e i r  f u t u r e marriage would be "such as they made i n t h e golden age, when t h e men were a l l wise and m a j e s t i c , and t h e women all  l o v e l y and l o v i n g "  ( p . 154).  However, Adam i n h i s l o v e  f o r H e t t y i s " l i k e a c h i l d who p l a y s a t s o l i t a r y  hide-and-  seek; i t i s p l e a s e d with assurances t h a t i t a l l t h e w h i l e disbelieves"  ( p . 118).  E n c l o s e d i n h i s own s e l f - c e n t e r e d  p o i n t o f view, he m i s t a k e n l y sees h i s world as a p a r a d i s e where he and h i s Eve a r e c h i e f a c t o r s ( p . 154) .  Adam i s  i n t o x i c a t e d by Hetty, her s m i l e i s " l i k e wine" t o him  and  he o f t e n f i n d s i t i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h where i l l u s i o n s and dreams i n t e r s e c t with r e a l i t y  (pp. 107-108; 116).  Adam's Eve, Hetty, i s b l a t a n t l y l i n k e d w i t h the p a s t o r a l beauty o f her surroundings " s p r i n g - t i d e beauty"  (pp. 83-84).  Hers i s a  and her y o u t h f u l n e s s and beauty  like  t h a t of a " p e r f e c t Hebe" i s r e p e a t e d l y emphasized (pp. 84, 102).  More o f t e n she i s p o r t r a y e d as a c h i l d  (pp. 84,  and t h i s c h i l d i s h n e s s serves as a metaphor f o r her egoism.  H e t t y ' s " s e l f engrossed l o v e l i n e s s "  l i k e t h a t o f Hayslope narrowness.  102)  profound  (p. 142) i s  i t s e l f , but f a r more extreme i n i t s  I s o l a t e d "by a b a r r i e r of her dreams" (p. 101),  she f a s h i o n s a t i n y world " a l l o f l u x u r i e s " where she i s c l o t h e d i n " b r i l l i a n t costumes, shimmering gauze, s o f t s a t i n and v e l v e t "  (pp. 99, 256).  A t the same time, H e t t y ' s  s e l f - c e n t r e d immaturity has the p o t e n t i a l f o r w i l l f u l u n d i s c i p l i n e d conduct  s i m i l a r t o the c o n s c i o u s naughtiness  o f the "young star-browed (p. 84).  and  c a l f " with which she i s compared  T h i s imperfection i n Hetty's character i s r e f l e c t -  ed i n the w i l d n e s s and exuberance o f the H a l l Farm  garden  where the r o s e s grew " l a r g e and d i s o r d e r l y f o r want o f t r i m ming"  (p. 222) .  Thus, the p a r a d i s e where Adam and H e t t y  p i c k e d c u r r a n t s together r e s t s p r e c a r i o u s l y i n i t s uncontrolled  splendour.  The Satan who tempts H e t t y i s A r t h u r "a d e v i l o f a f e l l o w " ( p . 125) .  Donnithorne,  He t o o i s e g o i s t i c and  l i v e s i n h i s own r e f l e c t i o n as a h e r o i c and k i n d - h e a r t e d g a l l a n t who, as a good-natured h i s t e n a n t r y (pp. 124-25).  l a n d l o r d , would be adored by  What makes him n e c e s s a r i l y  " e v i l , " however, i s h i s l a c k o f s e l f - m a s t e r y , the f a c t t h a t "he c o u l d n ' t q u i t e depend on h i s own r e s o l u t i o n s "  ( p . 140) .  I t i s t h i s absence o f r e s t r a i n t which c a r r i e s him i n t o t h e " b o r d e r l a n d o f s i n " as a " c o u r t i e r o f V i c e " ( p . 126). He cannot  subdue h i s p a s s i o n s and when he t r i e s t o "exor-  c i s e the demon" on R a t t l e r , he s t i l l r i d e s "the d e v i l ' s own pace" ( p . 129) .  Consequently,  t h e former d i s t i n c t i o n which  he makes about h i s own c h a r a c t e r breaks down.  He sees h i s  "agreeable" f a u l t s as b e i n g "impetuous, warm-blooded, l e o n i n e J never crawing,  crafty, r e p t i l i a n "  ( p . 125). Un-  f o r t u n a t e l y , as George E l i o t i n d i c a t e s , i t i s t h e f o o l i s h intemperance  o f the "agreeable" f a u l t s which l e a d t o t h e  d i s a g r e e a b l e ones.  A r t h u r ' s w i l d i m p e t u o s i t y l e a d s him t o  the c l a n d e s t i n e encounters with H e t t y i n t h e " d e l i c i o u s l a b y r i n t i n e wood" ( p . 130) o f the F i r - t r e e Grove where he  c o n c e a l s h i s " e v i l genius"  (p. 139).  On h i s journey t o the scene o f H e t t y ' s  temptation  Q  i n the woods,  A r t h u r becomes ominous and f a i n t l y s a t a n i c  as h i s "shadow f l i t t e d r a t h e r f a s t e r among the s t u r d y oaks of the Chase than might be expected t i r e d man  from the shadow o f a  on a warm a f t e r n o o n " (p. 130) .  ed w i t h the "poisonous  delights"  ( p . 341)  H e t t y i s enchantwhich A r t h u r  offers  9 "  her.  L i k e M i l t o n ' s Eve,  she dreams o f becoming h i g h ,  grand lady, and r i d f i n g ] i n her coach, d i n n e r i n a brocaded  silk"  and d r e s s [ing]  (p. 1 5 3 ) — f a r above Adam  a for  who  c o u l d a t b e s t hope t o supply her w i t h a " s p r i n g - c a r t " (p. 236).  A r t h u r encourages her f a n t a s i e s w i t h the expen- ,  s i v e p r e s e n t s of a l o c k e t and e a r r i n g s , which, l i k e the cheap baubbles adders  o f her l i k e n e s s , Chad's Bess, are " s t i n g i n g  . . . , p o i s o n i n g [herj  soul,  . . . dragging  down i n t o a dark bottomless p i t " (p. 28). l o o s e d and the damage i s done.  The  [her]  Chaos has been  s a t a n i c Arthur  feels  " t h a t h i s horse h a [ s j wheeled from a l e a p , and dared t o d i s p u t e h i s mastery," and he s l i t h e r s away i n s e r p e n t - l i k e f a s h i o n , l o s i n g " h i m s e l f among the narrow openings f e r n , winding  i n the  about without seeking any i s s u e , t i l the  t w i l i g h t deepen[~s] almost t o n i g h t " (p. 139).  The mood of c a r e l e s s l i c e n t i o u s n e s s surrounding the temptation sequence i s e n f o r c e d by an a l l u s i o n t o c l a s s i c a l pastoralia.  A r t h u r "may  aught he knows, he may maiden, he may — i t  be a shepherd i n A r c a d i a f o r  be the f i r s t youth k i s s i n g the  be E r o s h i m s e l f , s i p p i n g the l i p s of Psyche  i s a l l one"  (p. 138).  For Hetty, " i t was  been wooed by a r i v e r - g o d , who his  first  might  i f she had  any time take her t o  wondrous h a l l s below a watery heaven" (p. 137) .  Yet  the apparent freedom t h a t A r t h u r and H e t t y enjoy i n t h e i r A r c a d i a n p a r a d i s e i s undercut by George E l i o t ' s use o f water imagery i n Feuerbach's  i n terms of the s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i t has theology.  "Water," says Feuerbach,  "reminds  us o f our o r i g i n from Nature, an o r i g i n which we have i n common with p l a n t s and animals;" i t i s "the element  of  n a t u r a l e q u a l i t y and freedom, the m i r r o r of the golden As men,  age."  however, we must be " d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the p l a n t s  and animals" and t h e r e f o r e baptism w i t h water " i s imparted only to infants"  (pp. 276-77).  H e t t y had always been d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f f l o w e r s or  animals (pp. 154;  one, (p.  83-84) and her world was  the " b e a u t i f i e d "  "such as the sun l i g h t s up f o r us i n the waters" 100).  Now,  i n an A r c a d i a t h a t i s s u s t a i n e d by  "natural  freedom," she i s , so t o speak, i n h e r element as "queen o f the white f o o t e d nymphs" t h a t a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r " s o f t l i q u i d l a u g h t e r " (pp. 130-31): has passed  "Her c h i l d i s h s o u l  i n t o a w a t e r - l i l y , r e s t i n g on a l i q u i d bed, and  warmed by the midsummer sunbeams" ( p . 132) . While H e t t y may be "queen o f t h e white f o o t e d nymphs," her s o u l i s s t i l l "childish."  Both she and her l o v e r a r e , because o f t h e i r  immature s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e , s t i l l development. lly  a t a p r i m i t i v e stage o f moral  As c h i l d r e n i n t h i s sense,  they must  countenance change as w e l l as consequences.  eventua-  While  A r t h u r and H e t t y convert t h e i r i n c l i n a t i o n s i n t o a c t i o n s "as e a s i l y as two b r o o k l e t s t h a t ask f o r nothing but t o entwine themselves and r i p p l e with e v e r l a s t i n g (p.  curves"  133), t h e i r golden world i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d and u l t i m a t e l y  doomed by t h e c h a o t i c e f f e c t s o f t h e i r egoism:  I t was . . . an a f t e r n o o n i n which d e s t i n y d i s g u i s e s her c o l d awful f a c e behind a hazy r a d i a n t v e i l , e n c l o s e s us i n warm downy wings, and poisons us with violet-scented breath, ( p . 131)  The  s h o r t - l i v e d nature of the E l y s i u m o f the Grove i s empha-  s i z e d j u s t b e f o r e i t i s s h a t t e r e d i n the i n e v i t a b l e w i t h t h e world beyond i t s b o r d e r s :  encounter  The sun was on the p o i n t o f s e t t i n g , and was sending l e v e l crimson r a y s among the g r e a t t r u n k s of the o l d oaks, and t o u c h i n g every bare patch of ground w i t h a t r a n s i e n t g l o r y , t h a t made i t look l i k e a jewel d r o p t upon the g r a s s , (p. 301)  The next moment, Adam s t e p s back from a beech t r e e he been examining  and d i s c o v e r s how  t r e a c h e r o u s l y " of h i s Eve at  (p. 305).  the edge of the Grove was  youth"  (p. 475).  he has been  had  "robbed  For Adam, the beech  "the boundary mark of h i s  A t the same time, "the t a l l  narrow gate"  where he saw A r t h u r and H e t t y s t a n d i n g (pp. 130,  302)  re-  p r e s e n t s f o r them the end of t h e i r moral c h i l d h o o d and their entry into  experience.  A f t e r Eve's temptation i n M i l t o n ' s P a r a d i s e L o s t , "mute s i g n s i n Nature" t h e r e was 204).  presage change and " i n the E a s t "  "Darkness ere Dayes mid course"  Similarly,  (XI, 11.194,  i n Adam Bede, p a r a d i s e i s changing.  Hetty, her watery Eden has l o s t i t s beauty: on h e r l i t t l e  "she  203For  f i s ] alone  i s l a n d of dreams, and a l l around her [is]  the dark unknown water where A r t h u r had gone" (p. 327). Meeting Hetty again i n the Eden of the H a l l Farm Adam w i s t f u l l y meditates how t r e e boughs, the r e d bunches, of  a former  garden,  "the s u n l i g h t through the apple [and] H e t t y ' s sweet b l u s h "  time p a i n f u l l y c o n t r a s t "with the low-hanging  c l o u d s " o f t h e sad evening"  ( p . 327).  I n the wider  sphere  of Hayslope i t s e l f , the summer p a r a d i s e i s now q u i c k l y waning i n t o autumn and u l t i m a t e w i n t e r .  "Clouds" have r e -  p l a c e d sunshine, "yellow l e a v e s " f a l l i n g "from pure supersede t h e " l e a f y , flowery, bushy time" t h e once v i g o r o u s Mrs. Poyser i s a i l i n g  decay"  ( p . 222), and  ( p . 364).  The " f u r d e r change" augured by M i l t o n ' s Adam comes when H e t t y i s f o r c e d t o q u i t Eden and wander through a wasteland o f "sand" and " s c o r c h i n g sun" ( p . 385). Adam, who l i k e h i s M i l t o n i c p r o t o t y p e , had f o r g i v e n H e t t y and planned t o marry h e r must f o l l o w h i s Eve i n t o t h e w i l d e r ness.  E v e n t u a l l y , t h e a n x i e t y o f a l l Hayslope i s d i r e c t e d  beyond i t s own b o r d e r s t o t h e proceedings o f H e t t y ' s at S t o n i t o n ("Stoney Town"). l e v e l o f Loamshire A r t h u r Donnithorne,  trial  A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from every  s o c i e t y must make h i s p i l g r i m a g e t h e r e : t h e new s q u i r e ; Rev. I r w i n e ; B a r t l e  Massey, t h e s c h o o l t e a c h e r ; M a r t i n Poyser, tenant farmer; Adam Bede, tradesman.  Hayslope, Adam and h i s Eve have been  t u r n e d i n t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s so they may redeem a b e t t e r p a r a d i s e than was f o r m e r l y t h e i r s .  Adam's i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e " R e l i g i o n o f Humanity" has a l r e a d y been g i v e n a v a r i e t y o f c r i t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s .  1  For t h e sake o f c o n t i n u i t y , however, a b r i e f o u t l i n e  will  be g i v e n i n terms o f t h e framework e s t a b l i s h e d h e r e .  The  e g o i s t i c world o f dreams and i l l u s i o n s which Adam has i n h a b i t e d i s abandoned a f t e r h i s f r u i t l e s s search f o r H e t t y at  Oakbourne and S n o w f i e l d .  He r e t u r n s home t o f i n d  " f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s . . . f o r e v e r robbed o f t h e i r charm" as he c o n f r o n t s f o r t h e f i r s t able r e a l i t y "  ( p . 407).  q u i s h i n g o f immaturity of  time " r e a l i t y — t h e h a r d  A t Broxton Parsonage t h i s  inevitrelin-  i s m a n i f e s t e d p h y s i c a l l y i n a "look  sudden age" ( p . 419).  I t i s a l s o a t Mr. Irwine's t h a t  Adam, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e scheme o f Feuerbach's c o n v e r s i o n , becomes h i m s e l f C h r i s t , t h e Second Adam.  T h i s i s confirmed  when, d u r i n g the p r e l u d e t o h i s s u f f e r i n g he u t t e r s a c r y of  p r o t e s t a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f C h r i s t i n Gethsemane  —"'O God, i t ' s t o o h a r d t o l a y upon me a week o f watching  ,M  ( p . 419).  After  i n t h e upper room i n S t o n i t o n , Adam  a c q u i r e s "a s o u l f u l l o f new awe and p i t y " :  Deep, unspeakable s u f f e r i n g may w e l l be c a l l e d a baptism, a r e g e n e r a t i o n i n t o a new s t a t e . . . . A l l the i n t e n s e emotions which had f i l l e d the days and n i g h t s o f t h e p a s t week . . . made Adam look back on a l l t h e p r e v i o u s years as i f they had been a dim s l e e p y e x i s t e n c e , and he had o n l y now awaked t o f u l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , ( p . 436)  Now  Adam i s e l i g i b l e t o j o i n with B a r t i e Massey i n a com-  munion o f bread and  wine which, a c c o r d i n g  symbolizes the a d o r a t i o n  o f "the  o f consciousness, o f man" f e l l o w f e e l i n g o f a new Humanity," Adam i s now  supernatural  (p. 277). celebrant  power o f mind,  With the a l t r u i s m  i n the  determined t o "'stand by'"  Meanwhile, H e t t y has  his  undergone a s i m i l a r "awakening"  s h a t t e r i n g of a l l her  l i t t l e dream (p. 340) .  as a r e s u l t , she too becomes v i s i b l y "harder,  less child-like"  (p. 360).  s u f f e r i n g i s a l l f o r her  Eve  440).  world" when she r e c e i v e d A r t h u r ' s f a r e w e l l l e t t e r And,  and  "Religion of  " ' f o r a l l she's been so d e c e i t f u l ' " (p.  t o misery w i t h "the  t o Feuerbach,  Unfortunately,  own  p l i g h t , and  older,  however, her she  f a i l s t o under-  stand the r a m i f i c a t i o n s her deeds have f o r o t h e r s . remains " c h i l d i s h , " e g o c e n t r i c  and  Hetty  unregenerate (p.  377).  I n the p r i s o n c e l l she behaves " l i k e an animal t h a t gazes and  gazes and keeps a l o o f "  (p. 457),  and Mr.  Irwine laments  t h a t "some f a t a l i n f l u e n c e seems t o have shut up her a g a i n s t her  fellow creatures"  (p. 431).  Even her  f e s s i o n comes from a d e s i r e t o assuage her to'*'take away t h a t c r y i n g and Although "'she  the p l a c e  own  heart  final  con-  conscience,  i n the wood'" (p.  i s c o n t r i t e , ' " says Dinah, "'her  poor  soul  465).  i s v e r y dark, and d i s c e r n s l i t t l e beyond the t h i n g s o f t h e flesh"'  (p.467) .  Despite Hetty's t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e r e -  f o r e , she can no longer be t h e worthy mate o f an Adam matured i n t o f u l l  consciousness.  The new Adam now has-a " ' g r e a t e r need g r e a t e r and b e t t e r comfort'"  . . . for a  ( p . 526) which he w i l l share  w i t h Dinah t h e chaste who, i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s o f Snowfield, had in  long ago come t o understand  the n e c e s s i t y o f s u f f e r i n g  order t o l o v e (p. 336). U n l i k e t h e sensuous a n i m a l i t y  of Adam's former Eve, Dinah's i s a "higher" and c o o l e r nature t h a t i s above s a t a n i c temptation  ( p . 163).  As such,  she i s immune t o t h e f l a m i n g sword which keeps M i l t o n ' s s i n f u l Adam and Eve and George E l i o t ' s H e t t y from Eden(P.L. X I I , 11.632-36). down t h e " C l i f f "  I n s t e a d , she can accompany Adam  a t S n o w f i e l d and back i n t o the newly r e g e n -  e r a t e d p a r a d i s e o f Hayslope  ( c f . P.L• X I I , 11.638-643).  Adam and h i s new Eve a r e m a r r i e d i n Hayslope  on a "rimy  morning i n d e p a r t i n g November," t h e date being s u i t a b l e t o a more mature r e l a t i o n s h i p than t h e s p r i n g t i m e one between H e t t y and Adam ( p . 544). For t h e changed Adam however, h i s l o v e f o r Dinah i s r e a l l y t h e f i n a l c u l m i n a t i o n o f h i s e a r l y l o v e f o r H e t t y and a l l t h e concomitant  sorrow?  His f e e l i n g towards Dinah, the hope o f p a s s i n g h i s l i f e with her, had been t h e d i s t a n t unseen p o i n t towards which t h a t h a r d journey from Snowfield e i g h t e e n months ago had been l e a d i n g him. Tender and deep as h i s l o v e f o r H e t t y had b e e n — s o deep t h a t the r o o t s o f i t would never-be t o r n a w a y — h i s l o v e f o r Dinah was b e t t e r and more p r e c i o u s t o him; f o r i t was t h e outgrowth o f t h a t f u l l e r l i f e which had come to him from h i s acquaintance with deep sorrow, (p. 541)  Redeemed by s u f f e r i n g and completed by Dinah's l o v e , Adam e n t e r s a new and b e t t e r p a r a d i s e .  As he walks t o t h e  H a l l Farm, a l l t h e golden landscape o f Hayslope becomes charged with t h e a p o c a l y p t i c b r i l l i a n c e o f an e a r t h l y New Jerusalem:  The low w e s t e r i n g sun shone r i g h t on t h e s h o u l d e r s o f the o l d B i n t o n H i l l s , t u r n i n g t h e unconscious sheep i n t o b r i g h t spots o f l i g h t ; shone on t h e windows o f t h e c o t t a g e too, and made them a-flame w i t h a g l o r y beyond t h a t of amber or amethyst. I t was enough t o make Adam f e e l t h a t he was i n a g r e a t temple, and t h a t the d i s t a n t chant was a s a c r e d song. ( p . 526)  The "sacred song" i s "Harvest Home" sung by t h e l a b o u r e r s coming i n t o t h e Harvest Supper. of  The e a r t h l y c o u n t e r p a r t  t h e " t a b l e of C e l e s t i a l food" which r e f r e s h e s M i l t o n ' s  "Second Adam" a f t e r h i s t r i a l  i n the wilderness, t h i s  tradi-  t i o n a l f e a s t r e p r e s e n t s Adam's refreshment and c e l e b r a t i o n upon r e g a i n i n g t h e p a r a d i s e o f Hayslope a f t e r h i s t r i a l o f agony and sorrow.  Throughout the H a r v e s t Supper, t h e  n a r r a t i v e p o i n t o f view i s n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t towards the lower echelons "bovine"  of the b u c o l i c company.  (p. 530)  Primitive, childish,  and i n t h e i r d r i n k i n g manners more l i k e  "ducks" than "human bipeds"  (p. 527),  they have become con-  s i d e r a b l y l e s s e n v i a b l e than when they were seen around t h e H a l l Farm or at A r t h u r ' s m a j o r i t y c e l e b r a t i o n s . viewpoint  i s now  from the regenerate  The  p a r a d i s e o f Hayslope  t h a t has been a c q u i r e d with the s u f f e r i n g s of Adam and Poysers.  We  are, i n a sense, l o o k i n g down on the o l d  Hayslope, the former and i n f e r i o r p a r a d i s e . is  the  Yet t h i s past  i n c l u d e d i n the present i n the t r a d i t i o n a l d r i n k i n g  ceremony which b r i n g s together man present i n an ever-widening  The  and  servant, past  and  human community o f the f u t u r e .  i m a g i n a t i v e p a t t e r n of Adam Bede which f i r m l y  r e p u d i a t e s t h i s u n d e r l y i n g p r o g r e s s i o n of the  didactic  s t r u c t u r e i s not based on the o s t e n s i b l e r e g e n e r a t i o n of the hero.  Adam's i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the " R e l i g i o n o f Humanity" i s  p r e s e n t e d with a r t i s t i c o b j e c t i v i t y and c o n s i d e r a b l e ness.  We  glib-  are simply t o l d i n the vague a b s t r a c t i o n s o f  phil-  osophic d i s c o u r s e t h a t Adam has come through " i n t o a newer s t a t e " by means o f "deep, unspeakable s u f f e r i n g "  (p. 436),,  and we a r e t o be s a t i s f i e d with h i s unshaven v i s a g e as evidence f o r t h i s .  The i m a g i n a t i v e i n t e n s i t y o f the n o v e l ,  as many c r i t i c s have p o i n t e d o u t ,  1 1  c e n t r e s around George  E l i o t ' s p o r t r a i t of Hetty S o r r e l .  H e t t y ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n has c e r t a i n emotional o v e r tones which make h e r a unique  f i g u r e i n the n o v e l .  George  E l i o t seems f a r l e s s sympathetic and r e l e n t i n g i n p o i n t i n g out H e t t y ' s moral inadequacies than, she i s i n h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e unregenerate A r t h u r Donnithorne, egoism o f any other c h a r a c t e r .  o r indeed, t h e  Then, d u r i n g H e t t y ' s long  journey, the c r i t i c a l v o i c e o f t h e author s o f t e n s as a s t r o n g i n t e r i o r d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f H e t t y ' s dilemma e v o l v e s . "The r e a d e r , " as Joan Bennett e x p l a i n s , now "becomes a p a r t i c i p a t o r i n her misery i n s t e a d o f a s u p e r i o r person, merely measuring inadequacy."  12  and p i t y i n g her moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l One e x p l a n a t i o n o f these two d i f f e r e n t  attit-  udes towards H e t t y on t h e p a r t of George E l i o t l i e s i n a form o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with H e t t y .  Initially,  t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h H e t t y r e s t s on a  kind of s e l f - f l a g e l l a t i o n .  A t l e a s t one c r i t i c has specu-  l a t e d t h a t , i n H e t t y , George E l i o t punishes h e r s e l f f o r t h e " s i n s " she h e r s e l f c o m m i t t e d .  13  Although P r i t c h e t t i s  presumably  r e f e r r i n g t o George E l i o t ' s g u i l t about her  unorthodox  l i a i s o n w i t h George Lewes and her  earlier  a f f a i r with John Chapman, her " s i n s " t h a t she seeks t o punish i n the f i g u r e of H e t t y go v e r y much deeper .  It  was George E l i o t ' s e a r l y p e r s o n a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with her p r o v i n c i a l surroundings t h a t prompted her adoption o f an intellectual l i f e  1 4  which i n t u r n engendered  the unortho-  dox b e l i e f s and a c t i o n s t h a t u l t i m a t e l y e f f e c t e d an e t e r n a l severance from home and f a m i l y .  I n Adam Bede,  H e t t y can be seen t o enjoy an e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l surroundings which she i s n e v e r t h e l e s s anxious to quit.  For t h i s ,  she i s punished.  H e t t y i s t r e a t e d as a daughter by Mr. and  Mrs.  Poyser and she l i v e s w i t h i n the womb-like s e c u r i t y of the H a l l Farm.  F u r i o u s b u l l - d o g s are f o r e v e r on the watch  at the gate and even on the day of A r t h u r ' s b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n , the farmyard i s never without a human s e n t i n e l as w e l l  (p. 257) .  A t the  end of the day, H e t t y r e t i r e s  t o the c o m f o r t i n g sound of "the heavy wooden b o l t s beginning] to r o l l  i n the house doors"  (p. 149) .  Inside  " t h a t wonderful house-place," e v e r y t h i n g has an unworldly c l e a n l i n e s s and p u r i t y which i s o n l y outdone by the  " c o o l n e s s , " " p u r i t y " and "pure water" o f t h e d a i r y (p.  82) where H e t t y p r e s i d e s as d a i r y maid.  at t h e H a l l Farm i s " f a r away from "world actions."  Hetty's l i f e  stirring  I t i s r a t h e r a "monotonous homely e x i s t e n c e "  which George E l i o t p o r t r a y s w i t h a " d e l i c i o u s sympathy" (p.  180) .  While H e t t y remains a c h i l d moral sense, she-matures,  i n the Feuerbachian and  p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , i n  her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A r t h u r Donnithorne. a f f a i r with A r t h u r i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Although h e r  simultaneous with  A r t h u r ' s "coming o f age," H e t t y t o o s u f f e r s from a ""growing the  p a i n ' o f p a s s i o n " ( p . 211).  Psychologically,  a f f a i r between A r t h u r and H e t t y i s o f f e n s i v e t o  George E l i o t f o r two c h i e f r e a s o n s .  In the f i r s t  place,  i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e t r a y a l o f t h e p a t e r n a l Adam Bede by H e t t y as former  'child.'  I t i s no s e c r e t t h a t George 15  E l i o t modelled h e r hero on h e r remembrance o f h e r father, and c e r t a i n l y t h e vague, s u p e r i o r presence which Adam s u f f u s e s throughout t h e book i s l e s s t h a t of an i n c o n s i s t e n t and e r r i n g f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e than o f an a w e - i n s p i r i n g father-figure.  I n t h e second p l a c e , t h e growth o f H e t t y ' s  p a s s i o n a t e nature had made h e r i m p a t i e n t o f h e r womb-like  environment.  "Her s h o r t ; poisonous  delights,"  says  George E l i o t ' s r e t r i b u t i v e v o i c e , "[have] s p o i l e d f o r e v e r a l l the l i t t l e her l i f e . "  j o y s t h a t had once made t h e sweetness o f  Now, "she [ w i l l ] c a r r y about f o r e v e r a hope-  l e s s t h i r s t and l o n g i n g " (pp. 341-42).  Desperate f o r  "some change" ( p . 347), Hetty, by v i r t u e o f A r t h u r ' s  child  w i t h i n her, has p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y become t o o b i g for  her womb-like environment.  She c r i e s because she  "*want[s] t o get r i d o [ h e r home^'" ( p . 345).  For these reasons, George E l i o t c a s t i g a t e s H e t t y f o r h e r newly found womanhood.  I n the famous m i r r o r scene i n  H e t t y ' s bedchamber, H e t t y ' s egoism and moral i n s u f f i c i e n c y are o s t e n s i b l y b e i n g a t t a c k e d .  I n r e a l i t y , however, George  E l i o t i s l a s h i n g out a t Hetty's emotional  awakening.  "The  v a i n e s t woman," says the d i s c i p l i n a r y v o i c e , " i s never t h o r o u g h l y c o n s c i o u s o f h e r own beauty t i l l  she i s l o v e d  by the man who s e t s h e r p a s s i o n v i b r a t i n g i n r e t u r n " (p.  152) .  Yet Hetty, gazing i n her t i n y m i r r o r ,  imagining  "an i n v i s i b l e s p e c t a t o r whose eye r e s t e d on her l i k e morning on the f l o w e r s " ( p . 152), i s r e a l l y Psyche w i t h Persephone's box who wishes t o be b e a u t i f u l f o r the sake o f h e r b e l o v e d . L i k e I d i o n e , h e r c o u n t e r p a r t i n George E l i o t ' s t a l e , "A  L i t t l e Fable w i t h a Great Moral," H e t t y i s a b e a u t i f u l Hamadryad who l o v e s t o contemplate  h e r own r e f l e c t i o n .  T h i s s o r t o f e g o i s t i c contemplation, however, l e a d s t o an awareness o f growing up and aging and f i n a l l y t o an unhappy d e a t h .  While George E l i o t can punish H e t t y i n t h i s way, H e t t y n e v e r t h e l e s s remains a t h r e a t t o t h e womb-like e n v i r onment.  I n h e r s t a t e of awakened p a s s i o n , she has t h e  p o t e n t i a l t o completely d e s t r o y i t s s e c u r i t y and p u r i t y . T h i s i s perhaps one p s y c h o l o g i c a l reason why George E l i o t d e l i b e r a t e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s H e t t y as b e i n g so h a t e f u l o f c h i l d r e n , baby chickens and other young c r e a t u r e s ( p . 1 5 7 ) . On t h e other hand, George E l i o t undoubtedly  i n t e n d s us t o  see H e t t y ' s c a r e l e s s n e s s and d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s as p a r t o f h e r "lower nature," t h a t amoral nature which another  Victorian  17 d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g " r e d i n t o o t h and claw."  Yet the  p o r t r a i t o f t h i s dark and s e n s u a l woman i s more h i g h l y charged than h e r c r e a t o r p o s s i b l y r e a l i z e s .  Associated  with t h e sun, f l o w e r s , v e g e t a t i o n and v a r i o u s animals, H e t t y i s a l s o a symbol o f a l l t h a t i s v i t a l and  life-giving.  Thus, when t h e p a s s i o n o f A r t h u r and H e t t y has been e f f e c t i v e l y e x o r c i s e d by t h e p a t e r n a l Adam and when H e t t y seeks t o  d e s t r o y h e r s e l f , the wasteland b e g i n s t o creep over the f l o w e r i n g world o f Hayslope.  H e t t y ' s beauty and charm have 18  always been analogous  t o her surroundings  and, now, as  she wanders a i m l e s s l y under t h e c o l d , a c c u s i n g r a y s o f the chaste moon, the l a b y r i n t h i n e paths o f the woods o f Arcady g i v e p l a c e t o a maze o f c i t y s t r e e t s .  At f i r s t ,  the waste-  l a n d i s a t i n y corner o f Mr. Poyser's Farm, t h e S c a n t l a n d s (p.  372), b u t soon the sunny meadows o f a l l Hayslope become  a dark, monotonous c o u n t r y s i d e . During H e t t y ' s l o n g journey through the wasteland, George E l i o t ' s a t t i t u d e towards H e t t y changes.  The p u n i t i v e  and a c c u s a t o r y v o i c e d i m i n i s h e s as H e t t y e x p e r i e n c e s f e a r and bewilderment  a t t h e world t h a t l i e s beyond the happy  s e c u r i t y she knew i n Hayslope.  Here, the author's own  f e a r s o f the world she encountered when she "grew up" and her unconscious urge t o r e t u r n t o h e r Warwickshire hood j o i n with H e t t y ' s d e s p a i r and l o n g i n g ,  child-  Essentially  t h e journey i t s e l f i s a k i n d o f b i r t h - t r a u m a i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h r e g r e t f o r the l o s t f l o w e r i n g world t h a t once was w i t h i n the womb.  Beginning i n f e a r and " t e r r o r o f wandering  out i n t o the world," of "moving away from t h e f a m i l i a r t o t h e strange," the i n i t i a l movement i s downwards, towards Windsor.  F i n a l l y , a t an i n n c a l l e d "The Green Man," H e t t y  f a i n t s and becomes a p i c t u r e o f death; she " l o o k f s j a b e a u t i f u l corpse"  like  ( p . 384). However, she does not ' d i e '  as a c h i l d t o be born i n t o t h e r e g e n e r a t i v e experience 19 which the "Green Man" symbolizes.  Instead, she r e v i v e s  and begins moving upward, towards h e r home.  Now, "she  y e a r n f s ] t o be back- i n h e r s a f e home again, c h e r i s h e d and c a r e d f o r as she had always been" where "she had o n l y t r i f l e s t o hide."  George E l i o t ' s own deep y e a r n i n g can  p o s s i b l y be d e t e c t e d i n H e t t y ' s expressed l o n g i n g t o "be the same H e t t y t h a t used t o make up t h e b u t t e r i n t h e d a i r y w i t h the Gueldres r o s e s peeping  i n a t t h e window" ( p . 386).  T h i s l o n g i n g i s o f t e n r e p e a t e d as Hetty, from whom " a l l l o v e and b e l i e f i n l o v e [have] departed"  ( p . 392), moves  a i m l e s s l y around the wasteland. The second movement o f the b i r t h - t r a u m a occurs when Hetty "at l a s t "  f i n d s h e r s e l f "among the f i e l d s she had  been dreaming o f , on a l o n g narrow pathway l e a d i n g towards a wood.  I f t h e r e should be a p o o l i n t h a t wood," she would  then be able t o " l e a p towards death"  ( p . 392). A f t e r a  c o n s i d e r a b l e delay, she comes t o the p o i n t o f e x i t : There, a t the corner o f t h i s pasture,, t h e r e was a break i n the hedges; the land seemed.to d i p down a l i t t l e ,  and two trees leaned towards each other across the opening . . . . I t was as i f the thing were come i n spite of h e r s e l f , instead of being the object of her search, (p. 393) Yet Hetty procrastinates—"there was no need to hurry." After she s a t i s f i e s her hunger, Hetty assumes a dormant fetal position: The soothed sensation that came over her from the s a t i s f a c t i o n of her hunger, and t h i s fixed dreamy attitude, brought on drowsiness, and presently her head sank down on her knees. She was fast asleep, (p. 393) She wakes up i n "deep night" and the "horror" of the "cold" and "darkness" makes her f e e l as i f she were "dead already" (p. 394).  Yet "she [is] a l i v e s t i l l ; she [has] not taken the  dreadful leap" (p. 394).  The desire to hang on to the  s l i g h t p o s s i b i l i t y of s t i l l being a c h i l d i s too powerful: The bright hearth and the warmth and the voices of home, —the secure uprising and l y i n g down,—the familiar f i e l d s , the familiar people, the Sundays and holidays with t h e i r simple joys of dress and f e a s t i n g , — a l l the sweets of her young l i f e rushed before her now, and she seemed to be stretching her arms towards them across a great g u l f . (p. 394) Instead,  she moves around u n t i l she gets h e r s e l f s e t t l e d i n  "a hovel of furze near a sheepfold," and inside i t s warmth and shelter she sheds tears "of h y s t e r i c a l joy that she [has]  s t i l l hold of l i f e "  ( p . 395).  T h i s temporary  retreat  soon  proves i n e f f e c t u a l when "the l i g h t o f e a r l y morning" and a " f a c e l o o k i n g down on her" appear (p.  395) .  "through t h e open door"  Now t h e l i f e w i t h i n t h e womb seems as f u l l y hope-  l e s s as t h a t "death" which l i e s beyond t h e womb:  The p a s s i o n a t e j o y i n l i f e she had f e l t i n t h e n i g h t , a f t e r e s c a p i n g from the b r i n k o f b l a n k c o l d death i n the p o o l , was gone now. L i f e now, w i t h t h e morning l i g h t , w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n o f t h a t man's h a r d wondering look a t h e r , was as f u l l o f dread as death: i t was worse; i t was a dread t o which she f e l t chained, from which she shrank and shrank as she d i d from t h e b l a c k p o o l , and y e t c o u l d f i n d no r e f u g e from i t . ( p . 397)  While H e t t y i s u m b i l i c a l l y "chained" t o a womb she r e f u s e s t o l e a v e , t h a t womb becomes as d e a t h l y as a p r i s o n - h o u s e . f i c a n t l y , t h e next image o f H e t t y i s i n t h e darkened S t o n i t o n , crouched i n a p r e - n a t a l p o s i t i o n ,  child  c e l l at  " s i t t i n g on h e r  straw p a l l e t w i t h h e r f a c e b u r i e d i n her knees"  The d r y death  Signi-  (p. 457).  (because " t h e r e was no water") o f H e t t y ' s  (p. 463) i s a symbolic r e v e r b e r a t i o n o f the death o f  H e t t y - a s - c h i l d w i t h i n t h e deadening e n c l o s u r e o f t h e womb (p.  463).  She i s " h e l d f a s t " t o t h e spot where h e r dead c h i l d  l i e s and she shares with t h e c h i l d the e t e r n i t y o f death: "'It  seemed l i k e as i f I should s t a y t h e r e f o r i v e r , and n o t h i n g  'ud ever change,*" Hetty t e l l s Dinah (pp. 464-5).  Later, at  the t r i a l ,  the p a r e n t a l Adam f e e l s a "mother's y e a r n i n g " f o r  Hetty.  He  sees her as the "corpse"  child",  "the H e t t y who  had  of h i s former " c h e r i s h e d  s m i l e d at him  i n the garden under  t h e a p p l e - t r e e boughs" (p. 441) .  The  death o f H e t t y as c h i l d at the end o f Book F i v e  r e p r e s e n t s the c o n c l u s i o n of an i m a g i n a t i v e sequence p r e s e n t s the d i f f i c u l t y o f a s i x t h book without and i m a g i n a t i v e h e i g h t e n i n g which has t h i s point.  The  emotional  s u s t a i n e d the n o v e l t o  problem i s p a r t i a l l y circumvented  Dinah M o r r i s i n H e t t y ' s Dinah now  the  and  by p u t t i n g  former p o s i t i o n w i t h i n Hayslope.  becomes l i k e a daughter t o the Poysers  assumes H e t t y ' s r o l e as d a i r y m a i d . H e t t y ' s p l a c e as Adam's f i a n c e e .  and she even  U l t i m a t e l y , she w i l l  take  For George E l i o t , Dinah  can  be shown t o be i n some r e s p e c t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s u p e r i o r t o H e t t y i n t h a t Dinah enjoys a c h i l d l i k e happiness and which, a t the same time,  security  she i s c a r e f u l not t o d e s t r o y .  From the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view, Dinah i s a c h i l d t h a t i s e n c l o s e d and p r o t e c t e d by a huge, o v e r - a r c h i n g Her God  i s emphatically p a t e r n a l .  She  prays by c l o s i n g  eyes i n order " t o f e e l h e r s e l f e n c l o s e d by the D i v i n e (p. 159).  She d e s c r i b e s t o Mr.  sky. her  Presence"  Irwine the "wonderful sense of  Divine Love" which she f e e l s at the sight of the "heavens  of her Father's " l i t t l e children" (p. 90).  Like H i e r i a ,  the admirable companion of the less than admirable Hamadryad, Idione, i n the " l i t t l e Fable" mentioned e a r l i e r , Dinah cares only to watch the heavens, with the r e s u l t that she w i l l die "without knowing that she ha [s] become o l d . "  2 0  Considering Dinah's strong attachment to a paternal god, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that t h i s attachment i s sometimes enforced by incestuous e n e r g y .  21  For instance, Dinah's  description of her r e l i g i o u s experience i s charged with sexual overtonesr I trembled  "'I f e l t a great movement i n my soul, and  as i f I was shaken by a strong s p i r i t entering  into my weak body'" (p. 91). Dinah's reluctance t o marry Adam i s the a n t i t h e s i s of Hetty's s i n against Adam i n p a r t i c u l a r and against the wombl i k e environment i n general. "blessedness",  Dinah fears to lose the  "joy" and "peace" that she has had since  childhood, to turn her "back on the l i g h t that has shone oh" her  (pp. 519-20, 522). Her fear was Hetty's greatest sadness soul might hereafter yearn for that early  b l e s s e d n e s s which  [she] had forsaken"  ( p . 522).  The problem  i s r e s o l v e d i n t h a t Adam, not o n l y t o George E l i o t but a l s o t o Dinah, i s a f a t h e r f i g u r e , a " p a t r i a r c h Joseph" ( p . 9 2 ) . A l s o , her r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Adam i s one o f a c h i l d t o i t s f a t h e r : ""my h e a r t w a i t s on your words and l o o k s , almost as a l i t t l e c h i l d w a i t s on t h e h e l p and tenderness o f the s t r o n g on whom i t depends'"  (p. 522). Adam and Dinah a r e f i n a l l y b e t r o t h e d  on a h i l l - t o p under "the g r e a t embracing sky" ( p . 543). As the f i g u r e s o f l o v e r , f a t h e r and God a r e fused i n t o one, Dinah's r e a c t i o n t o Adam i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e l i g i o u s experience:  Dinah's l i p s became p a l e , l i k e h e r cheeks, and she trembled v i o l e n t l y under t h e shock o f p a i n f u l j o y . Her hands were c o l d as death between Adam's. (p. 518)  I n one sense, George E l i o t p o s s i b l y a c h i e v e s some emotiona l s a t i s f a c t i o n from the marriage o f Adam and Dinah.  Having  f l a g e l l a t e d h e r own emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t u r i t y i n the form of Hetty, she can now, i n t h e form o f Dinah, embrace t h e r e s u s c i t a t i o n o f h e r l o s t f a i t h and broken f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the longed f o r s e c u r i t y of a p a s t o r a l r e t r e a t . However, t h e p a l e and l i f e l e s s Dinah, as t h e c h i l d w i t h i n t h e womb-like environment, has a much weaker emotional appeal f o r  George E l i o t than had the elemental v i t a l i t y o f the featured Hetty S o r r e l .  A number of c r i t i c s ,  dark-  i n complaining  the unconvincing r e s o l u t i o n o f Adam Bede and of the  about  marriage  o f Dinah and Adam, have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c h i e f i n t e r e s t i n 22  the n o v e l i s focused around H e t t y S o r r e l .  For George E l i o t ,  Hetty, as i t has been shown here, i s the f o c a l p o i n t of her imagination.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, H e t t y " d i e s " w i t h i n the  i m p r i s o n i n g womb t h a t has become a wasteland. by Dinah,  a " l o v e l y corpse", who  She i s r e p l a c e d  c o u l d be s a i d t o be  e l s e i m a g i n a t i v e l y than the shadowy ghost  little  ( L i s b e t h c a l l s her  a " • s p e r r i t ' " ) of the c h i l d - l i k e f i g u r e t h a t l i v e d w i t h i n the o n c e - f l o w e r i n g world o f  Hayslope.  In any case, H e t t y ' s absence and the absence o f the i m a g i n a t i v e i n t e r e s t a s s o c i a t e d with h e r h e l p s t o e x p l a i n the r e l a t i v e p a l l o r of the c o n c l u s i o n i n which Adam as a c e l e b r a n t i n the " R e l i g i o n of Humanity", e n t e r s h i s Second Eden w i t h h i s s u p e r i o r Eve. i n c r e a s e d narrowing  The i m a g i n a t i v e sequence forms a p a t t e r n o f as H e t t y moves about w i t h i n a womb-like  environment which becomes more and more i n h o s p i t a b l e u n t i l f i n a l l y "dies" within i t .  On the other hand, the  she  intellectual  p a t t e r n of the n o v e l d e l i n e a t e s the expansion o f Adam's i n i t i a l  others.  I t i s t h i s a n t i t h e s i s of imaginative and i n t e l l e c t u a l  patternings, then, that can be offered as one explanation of 23  why Adam Bede i s not a "wholly s a t i s f a c t o r y work of art."  1  GEL,  I I , 387.  Adam Bede, i n t r o . Gordon S. Haight (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1965), p. 82. 2  George E l i o t ' s L i f e as R e l a t e d i n Her L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , e d . J . W. Cross (Edinburgh: Blackwood), p . 3. 3  ^ a r i o Praz, The Hero i n E c l i p s e i n V i c t o r i a n F i c t i o n , t r a n s . Angus Davidson (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1956) , P- 3. A. Foakes, "Adam Bede Reconsidered," E n g l i s h , X I I , (Summer, 1959), 174. "An 222-3. 6  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Adam Bede," ELH, X X I I I , (1956),  Jerome T h a l e , The Novels o f George E l i o t Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961), p . 20. 7  (New York:  o H e t t y ' s temptation a l s o has a s p e c t s o f the c o u r t l y p a s t o u r e l l e i n which a k n i g h t , wandering through a c o u n t r y s i d e , meets a young shepherdess i n a wood. Entranced w i t h the n a t u r a l beauty o f t h e shepherdess, the k n i g h t o f f e r s h e r f i n e g i f t s i n the hope o f winning h e r l o v e . W. P. Jones, The P a s t o u r e l l e : A Study o f t h e O r i g i n s and T r a d i t i o n o f a L y r i c Type (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1931), pp. 4-9. U . C. Knoepflmacher, i n George E l i o t ' s E a r l y N o v e l s : The L i m i t s o f R e a l i s m (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1968), p . 109, has a l s o n o t i c e d t h i s s i m i l a r i t y between H e t t y and M i l t o n ' s E v e . 9  B a r b a r a Hardy, The Novels o f George E l i o t (London: A t h l o n e Press, 1963), pp. 38-45; Knoepflmacher, E a r l y Novels, pp. 110-112; Bernard J . P a r i s , Experiments i n L i f e : George E l i o t ' s Quest f o r V a l u e s ( D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1956), passim. 1 0  •^Joan Bennett, George E l i o t , Her Mind and A r t (London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1962), p. 94; Henry James* "Adam Bede," A Century o f George E l i o t C r i t i c i s m , ed. G.S. Haight (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1965), p . 48. 12  G e o r g e E l i o t , Her Mind and A r t , p. 94.  V . S. P r i t c h e t t , The L i v i n g Novel (New York: Random House, 1957), p. 92. 1 3  1 4  C r o s s , I , 19-40, passim.  15  G E L , I I , 503; I I I , 99; IV, 26.  16 " P o e t r y and Prose from the Notebook of an E c c e n t r i c , " Essays of George E l i o t , ed. Thomas Pinney (London:- Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1963), pp. 21-22. x o  A l f r e d L o r d Tennyson, I n Memoriam, LVI, 1. 15. U. C. Knoepflmacher p o i n t s out t h a t H e t t y i s "made t o stand f o r a l l t h a t i s inhuman i n 'Nature'" and c l a i m s t h a t t h i s i s why George E l i o t makes her c a r e l e s s and d e s t r u c t i v e . George E l i o t ' s E a r l y Novels, p. 22. 1 7  l H e t t y ' s charms are i n i t i a l l y compared t o those of a " b r i g h t s p r i n g day" (p. 83-4), l a t e r she i s d e s c r i b e d as the "queen of the w h i t e - f o o t e d nymphs" t h a t haunt the grove o f beeches and limes and i n the H a l l Farm Garden, t h e sun beams f a i l t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between h e r "round cheeks and neck" and the " t h i c k a p p l e - t r e e boughs" (p. 224) . 8  S e e James G. F r a z e r , The Golden Bough; A Study i n Magic and R e l i g i o n , 3rd ed., V o l . I I , P a r t I : The Magic A r t and the E v o l u t i o n o f Kings (London: Macmillan, 1963), pp. 45-87 f o r v a r i o u s forms of the "Green Man" as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e f o r c e s of growth and v e g e t a t i o n . 1 9  2  ^ P i n n e y , Essays, pp. 21-22.  •'•Freud, i n New I n t r o d u c t o r y L e c t u r e s - on P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , t r a n s . W. J . H. S p r a t t (London: Hogarth P r e s s and I n s t i t u t e o f P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , 1933), Chapter 7, i n d i c a t e s t h a t God, the f a t h e r i n heaven, i s r e a l l y the f a t h e r on e a r t h , c l o t h e d i n the grandeur i n which he once appeared t o the s m a l l c h i l d . 2  G e r a l d B u l l e t , George E l i o t , Her L i f e and Books (London: C o l l i n s , 1947), p. 174; C h a r l e s Cox, "George E l i o t : The C o n s e r v a t i v e Reformer," The F r e e S p i r i t : A Study o f L i b e r a l Humanism i n the Novels of George E l i o t , Henry James, E . M . F o r s t e r , V i r g i n i a Woolf, Angus W i l s o n (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963), p. 20; L e s l i e Stephen, George E l i o t (London: Macmillan, 1919), pp. 73-77. S e e David C e c i l ' s c r i t i c i s m quoted i n Chapter One. 2 J  o f George E l i o t ' s a r t  CHAPTER I I I THE  MILL ON THE  FLOSS - THE  LOSS OF EDEN  "A s o r t of companion p i c t u r e of p r o v i n c i a l  life",  1  The M i l l on the F l o s s p o r t r a y s a s o c i e t y c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r ent from t h a t of the E d e n - l i k e Hayslope. "old,  S t . Ogg's i s an  o l d town" t h a t has become " ' f a m i l i a r w i t h f o r g o t t e n 2  years.'"  The  former a g r a r i a n way  o f l i f e w i t h " t h a t prim-  i t i v e rough s i m p l i c i t y of wants, t h a t h a r d submissive i l l paid t o i l ,  t h a t c h i l d - l i k e s p e l l i n g - o u t o f what nature  w r i t t e n , which g i v e s i t s p o e t r y t o peasant way  l i f e " has  has  given  t o a c r a s s m a t e r i a l i s m — " w o r l d l y n o t i o n s and h a b i t s w i t h -  out i n s t r u c t i o n " — t h a t i s supported by an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y (p.  238).  Having long ago l o s t t h e sense o f h i s t o r i c a l con-  t i n u i t y , the progeny o f Adam d w e l l i n a p r e s e n t t h a t l a c k s the s i g n i f i c a n c e and i l l u m i n a t i o n of a remembered p a s t . The  town i s simply a product of "widely-sundered  which have had  l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one  generations"  another:  S t . Ogg's d i d not look e x t e n s i v e l y b e f o r e or a f t e r . I t i n h e r i t e d a long past without t h i n k i n g o f i t . . . . S i n c e the c e n t u r i e s when S t . Ogg w i t h h i s boat and the V i r g i n Mother a t the prow had been seen i n the wide water, so many memories had been l e f t behind, and had g r a d u a l l y vanished l i k e the r e c e d i n g h i l l - t o p s ' . And the present time was l i k e the l e v e l p l a i n where men 67  l o s e t h e i r b e l i e f i n volcanoes and earthquakes, t h i n k i n g tomorrow w i l l be l i k e yesterday, and the g i a n t f o r c e s t h a t used t o shake the e a r t h are f o r e v e r l a i d t o s l e e p , (p. 106)  S i n c e the townspeople no longer have "eyes f o r the s p i r i t s t h a t walk the s t r e e t s " nor  can be  " g r e a t l y wrought  upon by t h e i r f a i t h , " the a n c i e n t b e l i e f i n S t . Ogg (p. 106).  The  s a i n t f o r whom the town was  named  was  symbolic o f a l i v i n g r e l i g i o n o f l o v e and p i t y , the t i o n of the "heart's a "pagan" creed  need" (p. 105) .  i s evident  "seem t o have no standard A c t i o n has become devoid b l i n d observance of the conduct t h a t no longer The  i n various  Now,  i s dead  recogni-  l i t t l e more than  "moral n o t i o n s "  which  beyond h e r e d i t a r y custom" (p. of meaning i n the mechanical  238).  and  fragmented remnants of a t r a d i t i o n a l corresponds t o f e e l i n g s or b e l i e f .  incongruous bundle of t h i n g s which amounts t o  Dodson a r t i c l e s of f a i t h can o n l y be h e l d together  the by  a  l a r g e q u a n t i t y of s e l f - d e f e n s i v e f a m i l y p r i d e which l i e s " i n the u t t e r f r u s t r a t i o n of a l l d e s i r e t o tax them [the Dodsons] w i t h a breach o f t r a d i t i o n a l duty or p r o p r i e t y " :  A Dodson would not be taxed with the ommission o f anything t h a t was becoming, or t h a t belonged t o t h a t e t e r n a l f i t ness of t h i n g s which was p l a i n l y i n d i c a t e d i n the p r a c t i s e o f the most s u b s t a n t i a l p a r i s h i o n e r s , and i n the f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n s — s u c h as, obedience t o parents,  f a i t h f u l n e s s t o k i n d r e d , i n d u s t r y , r i g i d honesty, t h r i f t , the thorough s c o u r i n g of wooden and copper u t e n s i l s , the h o a r d i n g o f c o i n s l i k e l y t o disappear from the currency, the p r o d u c t i o n of f i r s t - r a t e commodities f o r the market, and the g e n e r a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r whatever was home-made. (pp. 239-240)  D e f i c i e n t i n sympathy, the Dodsons and t h e i r i l k w i l l  not  l e t t h e i r k i n d r e d s t a r v e f o r l a c k of bread "but o n l y r e q u i r e them t o e a t i t with b i t t e r herbs"  (p. 240).  Similarly, a l l  the b u s i n e s s o f the f l o u r i s h i n g economy of S t . Ogg's i s conducted w i t h an unsentimental, m a c h i n e - l i k e t h a t i s unmindful  of human f e e l i n g s .  expediency  Milton's Michael i n  P a r a d i s e L o s t d e s c r i b e s a s o c i e t y l i k e t h a t of S t . Ogg's as one i n which "Fame s h a l l be achieved, renown on E a r t h / And what most m e r i t s fame i n s i l e n c e h i d " (XI, 11.689-99) and p r e d i c t s i t s d e s t r u c t i o n i n a u n i v e r s a l deluge by d i v i n e wrath.  initiated  Although when George E l i o t ' s n o v e l opens,  i t i s " f a r on i n the afternoon" and "the c l o u d s are t h r e a t e n ing"  (p. 7 ) ,  3  the w o r l d l y s o c i e t y of the Dodsons and  T u l l i v e r s i s not as v u l n e r a b l e t o d i v i n e r e t r i b u t i o n as the one which M i c h a e l d e s c r i b e s .  The n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y cosmos  i s not s u p e r n a t u r a l l y r e g u l a t e d but c a p r i c i o u s — " w h a t most m e r i t s fame" (what George E l i o t c a l l s "the obscure  vitality")  can e a s i l y "be swept i n t o the same o b l i v i o n with the t i o n s of ants and beavers"  (p. 238).  genera-  While  the central  the p a s t o r a l t r i l o g y of  the loss  vision  of this  second  i s t h a t o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s , t h e myth  and r e i n s t a t e m e n t  o f paradise i s s t i l l  as t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n f o r man's r e d e m p t i o n . into  the tiny  Eliot  and p r e c a r i o u s w o r l d  carefully  theology  i tinto  o v e r a l l m o r a l framework.  o f c h i l d h o o d , b u t George  a concomitant  Feuerbach's  a p a r a d i s e consonant with t h e  Childhood  p a r t i a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r and  asserted  Eden h a s dwindled  f u s e s W o r d s w o r t h ' s myth w i t h  i n molding  novel i n  f o r Tom a n d M a g g i e i s  close affinity  W o r d s w o r t h i a n awe a n d d e l i g h t  with  Nature  in i t :  The m i l l w i t h i t s b o o m i n g — t h e g r e a t c h e s t n u t t r e e u n d e r w h i c h t h e y p l a y e d a t h o u s e s — t h e i r own l i t t l e r i v e r , t h e R i p p l e , where t h e b a n k s seemed l i k e home, and Tom was a l w a y s s e e i n g t h e w a t e r - r a t s w h i l e M a g g i e g a t h e r e d t h e p u r p l e plumy t o p s o f t h e r e e d s , w h i c h s h e f o r g o t a n d dropped a f t e r w a r d s — a b o v e a l l , t h e g r e a t F l o s s , along w h i c h t h e y wandered w i t h a s e n s e o f t r a v e l , t o s e e t h e r u s h i n g s p r i n g - t i d e , t h e a w f u l E a g r e , come up l i k e a h u n g r y monster, o r t o see t h e G r e a t A s h which h a d once w a i l e d a n d g r o a n e d l i k e a man . . . . ( p . 37)  Their  sense  Childhood  o f home i n N a t u r e i s b a s e d  i s where " t h e o u t e r w o r l d  o n an i d e n t i t y w i t h i t .  seem[s] o n l y an e x t e n s i o n  of  o u r own p e r s o n a l i t y . "  We t h e r e f o r e " a c c e p t f l  it  f N a t u r e a n d t h e o u t e r w o r l d ] a s we a c c e p t o u r own  of  e x i s t e n c e and o u r own l i m b s "  135) o f t h e c h i l d r e n  still  sense  (p. 135). Everything"is  l o v e d b e c a u s e i t i s known" ( p . 37) a n d t h e " v i v i d (p.  and l o v e L J  "trailing  joys"  clouds of glory"  a r e t h e r e f o r e a c e l e b r a t i o n o f a Oneness w i t h N a t u r e t h a t is  supported  are  "still  ness",  by a love of Nature.  The c h i l d r e n  v e r y much l i k e y o u n g a n i m a l s "  unlike adult "restraint"  themselves  and t h e i r  and " d i g n i f i e d  "impulsive-  alienation",  preserves  t h e a f f e c t i o n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between each  and  world  their  ( p . 3 5 ) . The f i s h i n g  momentary c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n  home i n t h e i r whispering reeds  t h a t q u i c k l y mended  s i t together beside  n a t u r a l environment,  and q u i e t l y  and t h e w a t e r  represents a  o f p a r a d i s e f o r Tom and M a g g i e .  U n i t e d by t h e " i m p u l s i v e n e s s " anger, t h e c h i l d r e n  episode  other  listening  yesterday^  t h e Round P o o l .  At  they pass the hours  t o "the willows  and t h e  [ t h a t have] t h e i r happy w h i s p e r i n g s  also"  (P. 3 7 ) .  Despite  such  "happy m o r n i n g s "  ( p . 37), t h e c h i l d r e n  h a v e many d a y s t h a t a r e d a r k e n e d b y q u a r r e l s and v e x a t i o n s that  arise  from t h e i r  i s h n e s s i s apparent half  (pp. 41-2).  Tom's g r e e d  he i n s t i g a t e s This episode  over  pet rabbits.  above a l l r e p r o a c h  and s e l f the best  also reveals  s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s i n Tom w h i c h i s r e v e a l e d  i n h i s determination his  egoism.  i n the haggle  o f t h e jam p u f f  a cruel  childish  earlier  t o p u n i s h Maggie f o r h e r f a i l u r e  t o feed  S i n c e Tom i s i n t h e h a b i t o f s e e i n g h i m s e l f (p. 35), he i s "conscious  of having  acted  very f a i r l y "  i n t h e matter o f t h e jam p u f f  ( p . 42) .  He  t h e r e f o r e leaves Maggie t o endure the m i s e r i e s o f unmerited reproof  f o r h e r supposed g r e e d i n e s s .  While George E l i o t  s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y p o r t r a y s how Maggie's e x c e p t i o n a l gence and a f f e c t i o n a t e nature a r e c o n s t a n t l y being by the c h i l d ' s mediocre surroundings,  intellithwarted  the author a l s o g e n t l y  p o i n t s t o t h e egoism a t the r o o t o f much o f Maggie's unhappiness i n h e r d e s i r e s t o be acclaimed and  as e x c e p t i o n a l l y c l e v e r  t o be l o v e d as much as she wishes.  Maggie wants Mr.  R i l e y t o "have r e s p e c t f o r h e r " (p. 16) and she t r i e s t o impress Luke so t h a t he w i l l " t h i n k w e l l o f h e r understanding"  ( p . 2 7 ) . She goes t o bed i n " r a t h e r low s p i r i t s " when  she t h i n k s t h a t Mr. S t e l l i n g who, she supposed, "admired h e r c l e v e r n e s s " does "not t h i n k much o f her a f t e r a l l " Some o f the i n i t i a l  ( p . 133).  a t t r a c t i o n o f gypsydom f o r Maggie i s  t h a t t h e g y p s i e s would "pay h e r much r e s p e c t on account o f her  s u p e r i o r knowledge" ( p . 2 4 ) . S i m i l a r l y , Maggie wishes  t h a t Tom would l o v e h e r more and a l s o acknowledge her c l e v e r ness.  When Tom goes o f f t o p l a y w i t h Bob J a k i n , Maggie  j e a l o u s l y c a t e g o r i z e s Bob as "wicked" ( p . 43) .  She then  goes about " r e f a s h i o n i n g her l i t t l e world i n t o j u s t what she should  l i k e i t t o be" ( p . 4 4 ) . I n h e r fancy, Maggie e n v i s i o n s  a world where "Tom l o v e d h e r . . . more, even than she l o v e d him,  so t h a t he would always want t o have h e r w i t h him and  be a f r a i d o f vexing h e r ; and [wherej he as w e l l as everyone  4 e l s e , thought h e r v e r y c l e v e r . "  F i n a l l y , when Tom p r e f e r s  Lucy's company t o h i s s i s t e r ' s , Maggie becomes so j e a l o u s l y enraged a t Tom's d i s r e g a r d t h a t she pushes Lucy i n t h e mud. I n t h e minuscule Eden o f t h e c h i l d , however, t h e dynamics o f egoism, those " s m a l l demons" ( p . 84) which take p o s s e s s i o n o f Maggie a t Garurn F i r s , tude"  l a c k t h e " c e r t a i n magni-  (p. 90) which i s p r e s e n t a t t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f p a r a d i s e  i n Hayslope.  At Dorlcote M i l l ,  i t i s time r a t h e r than  c h a r a c t e r t h a t d e s t r o y s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u t u r e "happy mornings"  f o r Tom and Maggie.  Thus, t h e e t e r n i t y which t h e  c h i l d r e n a s c r i b e t o t h e i r happiness by the Round P o o l i s i r o n i c a l l y undercut by t h e i r ignorance o f time: They t r o t t e d along and s a t down t o g e t h e r , with no thought t h a t l i f e would ever change much f o r them: they would o n l y g e t b i g g e r and not go t o s c h o o l , and i t would always be l i k e t h e h o l i d a y s ; they would always l i v e t o g e t h e r and be fond o f each o t h e r . ( p . 37)  The constant companion o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n a l l t h e i r adventures, the F l o s s , l i k e t h e young Wordsworth's Derwent, a f f i r m s i n e v i t a b l e change and f l u x .  5  Flowing " f o r e v e r onward"  ( p . 238), the  the  Floss reflects,  w e a t h e r e d monuments o f t i m e and  "aged, f l u t e d r e d r o o f s (p. 7 ) . t o the the  various  great  feeling"  historical  the broad gables"  the  river  alterations i n point  acts  river"  and  i n Tom's e y e s b y  for Christmas, unresting  s h e e p , and  "the  (p. 43).  of the  E d e n where  When Tom  goes o f f  Tom's"manly  i s a r o u s e d and He  Bob  killing  as  a cat that  when Tom  . . . flow[s]  i t had  i t i s not The  infancy"  a l w a y s b e e n s i n c e Tom "quite  so h a p p y as  quarrels  i n t o the  of  adult  r e p u b l i c of  and  "throw-  moan^s} l i k e still Christmas  always been  joys  himself  a r r i v e s home  (p. 136).  s o c i e t y are  childhood  "beauty"  j[is]  c o u l d remember"  i t had  becomes  distinguishes  s o r r o w " t h r o u g h a l a n d s c a p e where snow limbs of  the  now  E x t o l l i n g the  7  Later,  dark r i v e r  " s o f t e r than the  inroads  of N a t u r e .  gloss  accompany  a f f o r d i n g such naughty p l e a s u r e s  wandering i n c o g n i t o "  ( p . 136) .  o f S t . Ogg's  a kind of  Jakin,  f e r r e t s (p. 45),  stones a f t e r the  "as  w i t h Bob  to rat-catching  destroyer  of "'nasty b i t i n g ' "  lies  change-—the  i d e n t i t y with Nature i s superseded.  a plunderer  ing  ( p . 43)  as  hue,"  of view which  a f f i n i t y with Nature.  with respect  infantile  but  a s o f t purple  c h i l d r e n as t h e y g r a d u a l l y move o u t  "to the  is  and  Always present,  t h e y e n j o y e d an  an  "with  (p.  137),  before"  b e g i n n i n g t o make and  "the  attention  t h a t Tom might have c o n c e n t r a t e d on h i s nuts and wine [ i s 3 d i s t r a c t e d by a sense t h a t  . . . the b u s i n e s s of grown-up  l i f e c o u l d h a r d l y be conducted without a good d e a l o f quarrelling"  (p. 137) .  T h i s q u a r r e l l i n g w i l l soon prematurely complete the g r a d u a l withdrawal from c h i l d h o o d f o r Tom and Maggie when Mr. T u l l i v e r l o s e s h i s law s u i t over the r i g h t s t o water-power. Again, the r i v e r seems a l i g n e d with the f o r c e s o f change, i n t h i s case Mr. P i v a r t ' s i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t .  Somewhat  unorthodoxly, Mr. T u l l i v e r l i n k s the f o r c e s o f change w i t h a demonic c o n s p i r a c y .  "Water", he says, has been "nuts t o  O l d H a r r y and t h e lawyers" (p. 138).  Whether f i e n d i s h or not,  Time and the onward tendency of a l l t h i n g s s h a t t e r s Eden and f o r c e s Tom and Maggie i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s .  A f t e r the c a t a -  strophe, Maggie goes t o f e t c h Tom from s c h o o l and t h e i r dep a r t u r e from Mr. S t e l l i n g ' s i s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t of M i l t o n ' s Adam and Eve s a d l y q u i t t i n g t h e i r former "happie seat" (1.642) i n p a r a d i s e .  Growing " i n d i s t i n c t on the d i s t a n t  road", the c h i l d r e n are "soon l o s t behind the p r o j e c t i n g hedgerow":  They had gone f o r t h t o g e t h e r i n t o t h e i r new l i f e o f sorrow, and they would never more see the sunshine  undimmed b y remembered c a r e s . They had e n t e r e d the t h o r n y w i l d e r n e s s , and t h e g o l d e n g a t e s o f t h e i r c h i l d h o o d h a d f o r e v e r c l o s e d b e h i n d them. (pp. 171)  At  t h i s point,  n e s s o f Tom entered  and  Maggie.  Tom's mind"  a violent  shock"  " t i m e when day  time forces i t s e l f "Anxiety  ( p . 168)  (p. 169).  and h e  in dull  i s "now  awakened  unexpectant  childhood,  however, b o t h f a s h i o n dreams i n an  some " e s c a p e "  he  made up  But  a few  his  prospects, The  painfully  of  Tom  account  feeling  on  and  fails and  is disillusioned  t h a t "the  with  perceives  present  i n the world"  b e l i e v i n g he  and  this  (p.  [ i s ] very has  they 199).  miserable  about  hard"  proved to  be  W i t h "a s i n k i n g t o be  held  of  Different "illusions  i n s p i r e Maggie's s t r u g g l e a f t e r  the d e s e r t of the  In  minutes"  is "likely  (p. 206).  finds  t o " s e e how  outward r e a l i t y .  t h a t he  Tom  t o Guest & Co.  s e l f - c e n t r e d dream w o r l d  self-flattery"  . . .  years"  their  a t t e m p t t o make  self-flattery,"  slow days, hours,  incompatible  o f heart," small  of  h o u r s l a t e r he  ( p . 206) .  p o i n t of view of  supremely v a l u a b l e  " l e a p [ s j over the  w o u l d be  and  with  sameness"  f u t u r e more p a l a t a b l e .  in "illusion  c a n make h i m s e l f way,  of the  never  i s submerged i n  Retaining  reality  egoistic  conscious-  f u t u r e had  (p. 241).  the h a r d  the  about the  Maggie t o o  f o l l o w s day  i n t o the  f u t u r e , i n w h i c h she  a  "mirage  "see[s]  her-  s e l f honoured f o r her s u r p r i s i n g attainments" i n masculine wisdom (p. 251).  She too becomes d i s i l l u s i o n e d on her  " t h i r s t y , t r a c k l e s s , u n c e r t a i n journey" when "the r e l a t i o n between A l d r i c h and t h i s l i v i n g world" seems "extremely remote" (p. 252).  Maggie no longer wants a "dream-world" but  some " e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s hard, r e a l  life":  The unhappy-looking f a t h e r , seated a t the d u l l b r e a k f a s t t a b l e ; the c h i l d i s h , b e w i l d e r e d mother; the l i t t l e s o r d i d t a s k s t h a t f i l l e d the hours, or the more o p p r e s s i v e emptiness of weary, j o y l e s s l e i s u r e ; the need o f some tender, demonstrative l o v e , the c r u e l sense t h a t Tom d i d n ' t mind what she thought or f e l t , and t h a t they were ho longer p l a y f e l l o w s t o g e t h e r ; the p r i v a t i o n of a l l p l e a s a n t t h i n g s t h a t had come t o her more than t o others: she wanted some key t h a t would enable her t o understand, and, i n understanding, endure, the heavy weight t h a t had f a l l e n on her young h e a r t . (p. 251)  The "key" or "explanation" comes t o Maggie when Bob J a k i n r e p l a c e s the books which were the guides t o understanding in  c h i l d h o o d w i t h other volumes, among them The I m i t a t i o n o f  C h r i s t by Thomas a Kempis. of  S i m i l a r t o Feuerbach's  "Religion  Humanity", the d o c t r i n e of a Kempis r e p r e s e n t s a p o t e n t i a l  a n t i d o t e f o r Maggie's e g o i s m .  8  S e l f - d e n i a l and s u f f e r i n g are  p r e - r e q u i s i t e , a c c o r d i n g t o both a Kempis and Feuerbach, i f man  i s t o i m i t a t e the l o v e of C h r i s t :  'Know t h a t the l o v e o f t h y s e l f doth h u r t thee more than anything i n the world . . . . Both above and below, which way soever thou dost t u r n thee, everywhere thou s h a l t f i n d the C r o s s : and everywhere of n e c e s s i t y thou must have p a t i e n c e , i f thou w i l t have inward peace, and enjoy an e v e r l a s t i n g crown . . . . Thou oughtest . . . t o c a l l t o mind the more heavy s u f f e r i n g s of o t h e r s , t h a t thou must the e a s i e r bear thy l i t t l e a d v e r s i t i e s . . . . For sake t h y s e l f , r e s i g n t h y s e l f , and thou s h a l t enjoy much inward peace . . . . Then s h a l l a l l v a i n i m a g i n a t i o n s , e v i l p e r t u r b a t i o n s , and s u p e r f l u o u s c a r e s f l y away; then s h a l l immoderate f e a r l e a v e thee, and i n o r d i n a t e l o v e s h a l l d i e . ' (pp. 253254)  The a s s e r t i o n o f the a Kempis p h i l o s o p h y a t t h i s stage i n the n o v e l r e f l e c t s George E l i o t ' s endorsement of the Wordsworthian n o t i o n of the t r a n s i t i o n from the l o v e of Nature to  the l o v e of Man.  The  "shades of the prison-house" have  a l r e a d y c l o s e d around Maggie, the former " g l o r y " has p a r t e d from Nature.  de-  Her eyes " f i x themselves b l a n k l y on  the out-door sunshine"  (p. 250)  i n search o f something  not  d i s c l o s e d by i t (p. 246):  A l l the f a v o r i t e out-door nooks about home, which seemed t o have done t h e i r p a r t with her p a r e n t s i n n u r t u r i n g and c h e r i s h i n g her, were now mixed up with the homesadness, and gathered no smile from the sunshine, (p. 250)  S i t t i n g by her f a t h e r ' s bedside, e n c l o s e d by the " d u l l w a l l s of  t h i s sad chamber", Maggie longs f o r "something  t h a t would  link  together  life,  the wonderful  impressions  of this  mysterious  a n d g i v e h e r s o u l a s e n s e o f home i n i t " ( p . 2 0 8 ) .  M a g g i e ' s new s e n s e o f l o s s c a n b e a s s u a g e d o n l y b y a sympathetic Ode;  u n i t y w i t h t h e h e a r t s o f men. Intimations of Immortality,  As Wordsworth, i n t h e  explains:  Though n o t h i n g c a n b r i n g b a c k t h e h o u r Of splendour i n t h e g r a s s , o f g l o r y i n t h e f l o w e r , We w i l l g r i e v e n o t , r a t h e r f i n d S t r e n g t h i n what r e m a i n s b e h i n d ; I n t h e p r i m a l sympathy W h i c h h a v i n g b e e n must e v e r b e ; In t h e soothing thoughts t h a t s p r i n g Out o f human s u f f e r i n g . . . . (11.178-185)  I n George E l i o t ' s the world  n o v e l , M a g g i e c a n r e g a i n a s e n s e o f home i n  i fthe self-centred  l o v e which  hood paradise i s r e p l a c e d with sympathy f o r h u m a n i t y . w i t h N a t u r e was, t h e n ,  That  a selfless  early  sustained her c h i l d l o v e and a w i d e r  s e n s e o f harmony a n d u n i t y  a pattern of a higher  h e a r t s o f men t o b e a c h i e v e d  i n maturity.  T h i s new u n i t y w h i c h i s t o b e a c h i e v e d "primal  sympathy"  represents, through  among men i s immune t o t i m e  as Wordsworth says,  death"  union with t h e  through t h e and c h a n g e .  i n h i s Ode, " a f a i t h  ( 1 . 1 8 6 ) . " A l l t h i n g s p a s s away,  that  It looks  . . . beware  thou c l e a v e not unto them, l e s t thou be e n t a n g l e d and p e r i s h , " admonishes a Kempis.  A man  must " l e a v e himself-,-, and  go  w h o l l y out o f h i m s e l f , and r e t a i n n o t h i n g of s e l f - l o v e " i f he i s t o conquer  the temporal world  (p. 254).  In Maggie's  p o s i t i o n where " e v e r y t h i n g i s going away" from her the o n l y s a l v a t i o n from a w o r l d l y egoism  l i e s i n memory, the  r e c e p t a c l e f o r a l l "the l o v e and s a n c t i t i e s o f our (p.  135) .  (p. 212),  life"  As a c o r r e c t i v e t o the s e l f i s h i n c l i n a t i o n s o f the  moment, memory reminds us o f the duty we owe s h i p s and t i e s formed Memory, i n t h i s way,  t o the r e l a t i o n -  i n the p a s t and based on the q u a l i f i e s the u n c o n t r o l l e d  a f t e r something b e t t e r and b e t t e r "  (p. 135)  affections.  "striving  t h a t has b e s e t  t h e amoral and savage world of S t . Ogg's and c o n v e r t s the f l u x i n t o a meaningful and continuous whole.  Significantly,  the key t o Maggie's s a l v a t i o n i s brought by Bob J a k i n , a c h a r a c t e r whose a c t i o n s i n the p r e s e n t are informed by the memory of p a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . the T u l l i v e r s , Bob  When a l l kindness had f o r s a k e n  appeared w i t h an o f f e r of nine guineas  which he would otherwise have used t o equip h i m s e l f f o r the "'lovely l i f e ' "  of a pack man.  c h i l d h o o d a f f e c t i o n f o r Tom  I n s t e a d , he remembers h i s  and o f f e r s him a " ' s l i c e o' [ h i s ]  l u c k ' " f o r " ' o l d 'quinetance sake'"  (p. 213).  Returning l a t e r  with h i s g i f t o f the books f o r Maggie, Bob remarkable because "there had  i s a l l the more  been no abundance o f k i n d  t o e f f a c e the r e c o l l e c t i o n of Bob's g e n e r o s i t y " Symbolically,  (p.  acts  246).  then, i t i s Bob's sympathetic a c t i o n based  on  memory t h a t p o t e n t i a l l y r e s c u e s Maggie.  Although she possesses the key has  o n l y an imperfect  the f i r s t her  own  time she  understanding o f i t s meaning.  [seesj the p o s s i b i l i t y of  "For  . . . looking  at  l i f e as an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f a d i v i n e l y - g u i d e d  whole" (p. 254), t o be  t o s a l v a t i o n , Maggie  "the  but  she  f a l s e l y conceives t h i s  renunciation  entrance i n t o t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n which she had  long been c r a v i n g i n v a i n "  (p.  so  255):  She had not p e r c e i v e d — h o w c o u l d she u n t i l she had l i v e d l o n g e r ? — t h e inmost t r u t h of the o l d monk's o u t pourings, t h a t r e n u n c i a t i o n remains sorrow, though a sorrow borne w i l l i n g l y . (p. 255)  Like Milton's C h r i s t i n Paradise  Regained, Maggie can  achieve through experience, or what M i l t o n c a l l e d (I,  1. 166),  Christ.  She  only  "merit"  the f u l f i l l m e n t of her r o l e as the i m i t a t o r of must be s e v e r e l y tempted i n the w i l d e r n e s s  s e l f - d e n i a l and  s u f f e r i n g become r e a l i t i e s .  For Maggie  i s by her nature so much above "the mental l e v e l o f  the  before who  generation before [her]"  (p. 239), the temptation t o d e s t r o y  a l l the t i e s o f a f f e c t i o n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p which b i n d her t o that generation o f knowledge,  (p. 239) and t o pursue her s e l f i s h  desires  l o v e and beauty (p. 208) i s v e r y s t r o n g :  She r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t her l o t , she f a i n t e d under i t s l o n e l i n e s s , and f i t s even of anger and h a t r e d towards her f a t h e r and mother, who were so u n l i k e what she would have them t o b e — t o w a r d s Tom, who checked her, and met her thought or f e e l i n g always w i t h some thwarti n g d i f f e r e n c e — w o u l d flow over her a f f e c t i o n s and conscience l i k e a l a v a stream, and f r i g h t e n h e r w i t h a sense t h a t i t was not d i f f i c u l t f o r her t o become a demon. Then her b r a i n would be busy w i t h w i l d romances o f a f l i g h t from home i n s e a r c h of something l e s s s o r d i d and d r e a r y : she would go t o some g r e a t man—Walter S c o t t , p e r h a p s — a n d t e l l him how wretched and c l e v e r she was, and he s u r e l y would do something f o r h e r . (p. 252)  y i e l d i n g t o the "inward impulse" t h a t i s i n such s t r o n g conf l i c t with "outward f a c t "  (p. 241)  i s , however, much more  s e r i o u s i n the world o f the a d u l t than i t was world o f the c h i l d .  Now,  i n the t i n y  an impetuous egoism can p o t e n t i a l l y  a n n i h i l a t e a l l v a l u e s and a f f e c t i o n s and c o n v e r t the world i n t o a s a t a n i c dimension where e v e r y t h i n g i s governed by the immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f d e s i r e .  The c o n f l i c t s i n Maggie's  s o u l , "one shadowy army f i g h t i n g another" have t h e r e f o r e assumed e p i c p r o p o r t i o n s (p. 269) as she s t a r t s out on her long a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n the " R e l i g i o n of Humanity."  These c o n f l i c t s between the "inward impulse" and "outward f a c t " can a l s o be seen as the elements  the  of a t r a g i c  s t r u g g l e , a c c o r d i n g t o George E l i o t ' s d e f i n i t i o n of t r a g e d y . I n her "Notes on the  'Spanish Gypsy,'" w r i t t e n i n 1868,  George  E l i o t d e s c r i b e s tragedy as "the i r r e p a r a b l e c o l l i s i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and the g e n e r a l , " the " t e r r i b l e d i f f i c u l t y " the "adjustment  of  of our i n d i v i d u a l needs t o the d i r e n e c e s s i t i e s  9 o f our l o t . " Moral"  In an e a r l i e r essay, "The Antigone and i t s  (1856), George E l i o t e x p l a i n s the t r a g i c nature o f the  Antigone as " t h a t s t r u g g l e between e l e m e n t a l t e n d e n c i e s and e s t a b l i s h e d laws by which the outer l i f e o f man and p a i n f u l l y b e i n g brought needs."  1 0  i s gradually  i n t o harmony with h i s inward  For Maggie T u l l i v e r i n The M i l l on the F l o s s ,  the  " c o n t r a s t between the outward and the inward," between a d e n i a l of s e l f i n a c t i o n based on memory and an egoism i n formed- by the g r a t i f i c a t i o n of the demands of a s u p e r i o r i n t e l l e c t and a p a s s i o n a t e nature, produces (p. 208).  "painful  collisions"  However, "the i m a g i n a t i v e and p a s s i o n a t e nature"  t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a f f l i c t e d w i t h the t r a g i c l o t (p. 241) has a c a p a b i l i t y f o r " l o v i n g , w i l l i n g and f o r h e r o i c Promethean e f f o r t towards h i g h Thus, Maggie, w i t h "one  submission, possibilities."  shadowy army f i g h t i n g another" i n her  1 1  soul  (p. 269)  as she wanders through the w i l d e r n e s s ,  the p o t e n t i a l t o produce a n " i m i t a t i o n  has  of C h r i s t .  Maggie's f i r s t temptation i n the w i l d e r n e s s i s i n tended as a comparatively weak forerunner of "The Temptation" which w i l l a s s a u l t her Stephen Guest.  Great  l a t e r i n the company o f  Although P h i l i p Wakem's s t a t e o f mind i s not  analyzed u n s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y by George E l i o t , h i s c h i e f r o l e i n the  clandestine  (p. 88).  "The  meetings with Maggie i s t h a t of  good f o r c e "  triumph i n P h i l i p yet,  and he  t o snatch an o f f e r e d joy" pleasure,  vanity,  t o l u r e her  not had  time t o  i s b e s e t by a "savage impulse  (p. 289).  Tempting Maggie w i t h poetry, P h i l i p t r i e s  away from the p a s t i n t o an egoism t h a t  he whispers, " ' t h i n k  o n l y of our  moment o f r e s o l u t i o n and  love'"  (p. 293).  Maggie,  (p. 293),  i n the end  but  she puts o f f  Attempting t o j u s t i f y her  weaknesses of others"  and  the deformed P h i l i p i s "not  and the  y i e l d s t o the d e f e a t  t h a t her  of  actions,  persuades h e r s e l f t h a t "the wrong [ l i e s ] a l l i n the and  Maggie,'"  s e c r e t i v e behavior i s wrong  p o s s i b l y " w i l l l e a d to e v i l "  (p. 288).  lives  "'Don't t h i n k of the p a s t now,  p a r t , f e e l s t h a t her  "sophistry"  has  l o v e , knowledge and  from moment t o moment:  on her  (p. 290)  "tempter"  she  faults  affectionate p i t y for  o n l y innocent, but  good" (p.  265).  Yet t h i s p i t y , even i n h e r c h i l d h o o d , was a t b a s i s merely a d i s g u i s e d egoism. for  As a young g i r l , Maggie f e l t "a tenderness  deformed t h i n g s " because "she was e s p e c i a l l y fond o f p e t -  t i n g o b j e c t s t h a t would t h i n k i t very d e l i g h t f u l t o be p e t t e d by her"  (p. 158).  I n h e r encounters  with P h i l i p ,  i t i s her  " i n n a t e d e l i g h t i n admiration and love" ( p . 2 6 2 ) — " t h e t i o n a t e admiring  affec-  looks t h a t would meet her . . . the c e r t a i n t y  t h a t P h i l i p would care t o hear every t h i n g she s a i d , which no one e l s e cared f o r " — t h a t makes h e r r e s o l u t i o n " t o say an a f f e c t i o n a t e f a r e w e l l " ' so i m p o s s i b l e t o keep (pp. 284-285) .  By "the charm o f t h e f a e r y evening", converted of  t h e Red Deeps are  from a scene of c h i l d i s h f e a r s ( p . 260) t o a k i n d  p a r a d i s e — " a green hollow"  almost completely  an amphitheatre o f t h e p a l e pink dog-roses" i s emphatically a r t i f i c i a l ,  e n c l o s e d "by  ( p . 263).  But i t  ' f a e r y - l i k e ' and u n r e a l , l i k e the  u n n a t u r a l Eden with which Satan tempts C h r i s t i n P a r a d i s e Regained.  P h i l i p ' s words o f impatience  and s e l f - p i t y provoke  Maggie's o l d f e e l i n g s o f d i s c o n t e n t so t h a t she complains, "'I  have i m p a t i e n t thoughts a g a i n — I  . . . .'" (p. 293).  g e t weary o f my home  When P h i l i p f i n a l l y succeeds i n e r o d i n g  her r u l e of r e n u n c i a t i o n by undermining her imperfect unders t a n d i n g o f a Kempis, Maggie r e a l i z e s t h a t she i s now thrown  "under the s e d u c t i v e guidance o f i l l i m i t a b l e wants" (p. She has  284).  succumbed t o a present which she knows t o be a con-  t r a d i c t i o n of the past, but b e f o r e the dangerously o f present f e e l i n g  (p. 294)  P h i l i p ' s "base t r e a c h e r y " and "crooked The  l e s s e r temptation  who  a n g r i l y denounces  n o t i o n of honour"  i s over f o r Maggie, but  s a d l y r e a l i z e s t h a t her a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i s going t o be and harder  than she  tides  are allowed t o c a r r y her away,  t h e f r i e n d s h i p i s f o r c i b l y ended by Tom  (p. 302) .  rising  she  longer  imagined:  She used t o t h i n k . . . t h a t she had made g r e a t conquests, and won a l a s t i n g stand on serene h e i g h t s above w o r l d l y temptations and c o n f l i c t . And here she was down again i n the t h i c k of a h o t s t r i f e w i t h her own and o t h e r s ' p a s s i o n s . L i f e was not so s h o r t then, and p e r f e c t r e s t was not so near as she had dreamed when she was two y e a r s younger. There was more s t r u g g l e f o r h e r — p e r h a p s more falling. (p. 305) Two  years l a t e r Maggie e n t e r s the " p a r a d i s e " which w i l l  be the scene of her "Great Temptation".  Far more comprehensive  than the mock Eden o f the Red Deeps, Mr. Deane's drawing room and adjacent garden assume the g i g a n t i c p r o p o r t i o n s of a v i r t u a l p a r a d i s d' a r t i f i c e . corrupt s o c i e t y ,  1 2  A h i g h l y d i s t o r t e d v i s i o n of a  t h i s p a r a d i s d' a r t i f i c e i s an  mirage o f a t r u e p a r a d i s e .  alluring  Not o n l y Stephen Guest's "diamond  r i n g , a t t a r of r o s e s , and a i r of nonchalant  leisure,  at  twelve o ' c l o c k i n t h e day" but a l s o Mr. Deane's " w e l l f u r n i s h e d drawing-room, with the open piano,  and the p l e a s a n t  o u t l o o k down a s l o p i n g garden t o a boat-house by the s i d e ^of the F l o s s " a r e r e s u l t s " o f the l a r g e s t o i l - m i l l and t h e most e x t e n s i v e wharf i n S t . Ogg's" ( p . 316). F a r away from the c h i l d h o o d Eden a t D o r l c o t e M i l l ,  t h i s "paradise" within S t .  Ogg's has been r a i s e d by the unregenerate f o r c e s o f expedi e n t business  and b l a t a n t m a t e r i a l i s m ,  i t s owner, one o f the  c h i e f p r o t a g o n i s t s o f change i n the n o v e l f i g u r e o f t h e k i n d o f success capital,  t h a t i s measured by "'growing  and growing o u t l e t s f o r i t ' "  artificial,  ( p . 345), i s a  ( p . 346). N e c e s s a r i l y  t h i s p a r a d i s d' a r t i f i c e i s t h e r e f o r e endowed  with a l l t h e p a r a p h e r n a l i a o f mock e p i c — t h e s c i s s o r s , l e t s , r a t a f i a s and p o l i t e b a n t e r .  ring-  L i k e Haydn's The C r e a t i o n  which Stephen and Lucy s i n g " ' i n p a r a d i s e ' " ,  " ' i t has a s o r t  of sugared complacency and f l a t t e r i n g make-believe i n i t ' " (p. 320) .  At t h e time o f Maggie's a r r i v a l a t the Deanes', t h e o l d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s show dangerous s i g n s o f reawakening: " a f t e r y e a r s o f contented  r e n u n c i a t i o n , she had s l i p p e d back  i n t o d e s i r e and l o n g i n g :  she found j o y l e s s days o f d i s t a s t e -  f u l o c c u p a t i o n harder  and harder"  ( p . 326). L a i d b e f o r e h e r  i s a p a r a d i s i a c a l v i s i o n which makes her yearnings a l l t h e more i m p o r t u n a t e — " s u n s h i n e  f a l l i n g on the r i c h clumps o f  s p r i n g f l o w e r s , " "the sweet f r e s h garden-scent" birds  . . . busy f l i t t i n g and l i g h t i n g ,  (p. 326) .  and "the  g u r g l i n g and s i n g i n g "  W i t h i n a week, Maggie shows s i g n s o f b e i n g charmed  and m o r a l l y numbed by t h i s p a r a d i s e . the present because l i f e  L i v i n g more and more i n  " j u s t now" was "very p l e a s a n t , "  Maggie has come t o f e e l t h a t she belongs t o t h i s p l a c e as "one of t h e b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s of t h i s  enchanting  spring-time":  The new sense o f l e i s u r e and unchecked enjoyment amidst the s o f t - b r e a t h i n g a i r s and garden-scents o f advancing s p r i n g — a m i d s t t h e new abundance o f music, and l i n g e r i n g s t r o l l s i n the sunshine, and the d e l i c i o u s dreaminess of g l i d i n g on the r i v e r — c o u l d h a r d l y be without some i n t o x i c a t i n g e f f e c t on her, a f t e r years o f p r i v a t i o n . . . . ( p . 350)  She has r e t u r n e d t o "her b r i g h t e r a e r i a l world again" and t h a t time when she had "counted  p r i v a t i o n , when she had thought  a l l l o n g i n g , a l l impatience was subdued" i s " i r r e c o v e r a b l y gone."  Having t a s t e d the dangerous o p i a t e , she can no longer  " s t a y i n the r e c o l l e c t i o n of t h a t bare, l o n e l y past"  ( p . 336).  A l r e a d y overpowered by t h e s p e l l o f t h i s b a s i c a l l y s i n i s t e r Eden, Maggie i s a s s a u l t e d by h e r arch-tempter, Stephen Guest.  Mr.  Stephen i s d r i v e n by a savage " t h i r s t " f a r  stronger  than that of the f e e b l e P h i l i p  t h e c o u r s e o f e v e n t s he ( p . 380)  that  fails  to slay  ( p p . 356,  "'the g i a n t  Python'"  (p. 392).  a t t r a c t i v e powers a r e a l l t h e more  because they are b a s i c a l l y  instinctive  irresistible  and s e n s u a l — e l e m e n t s  w h i c h were a b s e n t i n t h e weaker t e m p t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g Often represented i n d i s t i n c t l y peculiar  s e n s u a l enjoyment" "oppressively" finger-ends,"  towards  (p. 289).  Philip.  Philip's  "some o f t h e woman's  . . . the d e l i b e r a t e p u r s u i t C o n s e q u e n t l y , Maggie  who  of  becomes  c o n s c i o u s o f Stephen's p r e s e n c e , "even t o t h e i s i n t r i g u e d by the n o v e l t y o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e ,  the sense t h a t  soul"  feminine terms,  s e n s i t i v i t y produced i n him  intolerant repulsion  her"  In  g o v e r n s h i s most o d i o u s and c o m p u l s i v e a c t s  and e v e n t u a l l y t u r n s i n t o a "hunted d e v i l " Stephen's  385).  "life  ( p . 352) . ( p . 364)  was  revealing  s o m e t h i n g q u i t e new  Stephen's deep b a s s v o i c e w i t h music  and, M a g g i e ,  to  " p l a y s upon h e r  overcome b y  this  momentary e x c i t e m e n t , i s " b o r n e a l o n g b y a wave t o o s t r o n g f o r her"  (p. 366).  Philip's  plaintive  t e n o r , by c o n t r a s t ,  can  o n l y p r o d u c e " d i s t i n c t memories and t h o u g h t s " a l o n g w i t h a "quiet regret" look at that when L u c y h a d  (p. 365).  Maggie had r i s e n  t o have  a better  t e m p t i n g g a r d e n o u t s i d e t h e d r a w i n g room first  m e n t i o n e d P h i l i p ' s name, b u t i t i s  (p.  327)  Stephen's e n t r e a t y t h a t m a g i c a l l y draws h e r "out a l i t t l e way i n t o the garden" "dim dreamy s t a t e "  where she walks on h i s arm i n a  ( p . 356) .  G U n t i l her walk i n t h e garden with Stephen, Maggie had been t o o absorbed have "any energy  i n "the d i r e c t ,  immediate experience," t o  l e f t f o r t a k i n g account o f i t and r e a s o n i n g  about i t " ( p . 352). Only a f t e r she has r u n away from her evening  s t r o l l w i t h Stephen does she r e c o g n i z e her new ex-  p e r i e n c e s as p a r t o f a d e f i n i t e t e m p t a t i o n — " a n  alluring i n -  f l u e n c e which t h e b e s t p a r t o f h e r s e l f must r e s i s t " Philip,  ( p . 359).  so r e c e n t l y a symbol o f h e r b e t r a y a l o f t h e past, now  becomes "a s o r t of outward conscience" s i n c e h i s appeal does not so much r e s t on the dangerous " e g o i s t i c e x c i t a b i l i t y o f h e r nature"  ( p . 359). To be with P h i l i p "so q u i e t l y i n the  Red Deeps" ( p . 357) now r e p r e s e n t s a s t a t e which i s a comp a r a t i v e good a f t e r her momentary submission t o Stephen's influence. Meanwhile Maggie has been s e t on t h e p i n n a c l e o f S t . Ogg's s o c i e t y and i s tempted with a l l t h e powers with that h e i g h t .  concomitant  Metamorphosed i n t o a C i n d e r e l l a by Lucy,  her f a i r y godmother (p. 360), Maggie i s queen o f the bazaar, her "simple, noble beauty  appear[ing] w i t h marked d i s t i n c t i o n  among t h e more a d o r n e d and (p.  376).  Although  the temptation  charming, Stephen Guest, filled near  with  and  "at her  a l l luxuries,  distant,  c o n v e n t i o n a l women a r o u n d  and  with  with  t o have her  feet,  daily  secret prince  o f f e r i n g her  incense  of  a l l possibilities  a  and  effort,  of c u l t u r e at  o f e a r l y c l a i m s on h e r  o c c a s i o n a l l y prove stronger  (p. 382).  a r e u p p e r m o s t when, a t t i r e d  i n white raiment,  in  temporarily banishing her  draperies, ear.  L a t e r on  however, of  whispers  she  a temptation  a t the b a l l ,  q u i c k l y becomes b e g u i l e d b y  the occasion.  She  feels  that "this  succeeds  or j e l l y "  i s dressed  those  future"  (p. 386).  the  chill  e a t i n g thoughts  i n black  one,  this  of the past  I n t h e n e x t moment, she  flowers look "strange"  lights  among them  in  little  the  (p. 386).  last  "all  p l e a s u r e dome o f t h e  the o l d calm  and  i s with  purposes"  night, present,  the Stephen i n  significantly,  "unreal" with  When S t e p h e n ' s i m p u l s i v e  she m i s t a k e n l y b e l i e v e s t h a t h e r serve  and  lace,  the b r i g h t g a i e t y  " e n c h a n t e d l a n d " o f t h e c o n s e r v a t o r y where,  t h e t r e e s and  i n the i n her  she m i g h t e x p a n d u n r e s t r a i n e d l y i n t h e warmth o f t h e without  pity"  feelings  h a l f hidden  of " f r u i t  when s h e  l o v e and  she  her  early  These l a t t e r  t e m p t e r who,  life  adoration  command" i s v e r y s t r o n g , t h e " l o n g d e e p memories o f discipline  her"  the behavior  conservatory humiliates her,  reactivated pride w i l l  pre-  from f u t u r e a s s a u l t s (p.  388).  But w h i l e v i s i t i n g with her Aunt Moss, t h a t "savage enemy who had f e i g n e d death" suddenly "leap^s} t o l i f e "  (p. 390).  Stephen urges her t o ""break a l l these mistaken t i e s t h a t were made i n b l i n d n e s s ,  and determine t o marry'" him  (p. 393) .  His  s p e c i o u s argument t h a t they should f o l l o w t h e i r p r e s e n t i n c l i n a t i o n s seems t o Maggie l i k e a " c u r r e n t , s o f t and y e t s t r o n g as the summer stream" which she must " s t r u g g l e against"  (p. 393).  When she was  drawing room, Maggie had reminded p r i n c e s s e s who  a c h i l d i n Mr.  Stelling's  P h i l i p o f those legendary  were t u r n e d i n t o animals (p. 158).  Now,  she  seems i n danger of becoming l i k e one of these p r i n c e s s e s . " L i k e a l o v e l y w i l d animal t i m i d and s t r u g g l i n g under ses"  cares-  (p. 393), Maggie pauses an i n s t a n t , but then r e a f f i r m s  her o l d b e l i e f i n the p o s i t i v e v a l u e of " p i t y and  faithful-  ness and memory" (p. 394).  P r i o r t o her f i n a l and g r e a t e s t temptation i n the p a r a d i s d' a r t i f i c e the c o n f l i c t between " c r u e l s e l f i s h n e s s " and " f a i t h and sympathy" i n Maggie's s o u l becomes more fierce—"it  seemed t o her as i f a l l the worst e v i l i n her  had l a i n i n ambush t i l l  now,  and had suddenly s t a r t e d up  f u l l - a r m e d , w i t h hideous, overpowering  strength"  (p. 402).  A l l the e a r l i e r scenes of l e s s e r temptation culminate i n the  moment when Maggie, d e f e r r i n g the d e c i s i o n of r e n u n c i a t i o n , is  " l e d down the garden among the r o s e s " (p. 407)  "Memory [ i s ] excluded"  i n the "haze" (p. 407)  as she i s "borne along by.the  tide."  1 3  urged by her conscience are s k i l l f u l l y self-regard" influence to  (p. 409)  Any  by Stephen.  of the present  remonstrances  "transmuted  i n t o mere  by Stephen's s o p h i s t r y as, with  . . . l u l l [ i n g ] her i n t o acquiescence",  the "present happiness  of being with him"  "every  she  yields  (p. 410).  The  " s p e l l " which had seemed broken a t the b a l l r e a s s e r t s i t s e l f i n the a l l - p e r v a d i n g form of an " o b l i v i o n " which has s o l v e d the t i e s of the past i n an a l l u r i n g y e t  dis-  artificial  kingdom of b l i s s :  Now nothing was d i s t i n c t t o h e r : She was b e i n g l u l l e d to s l e e p with t h a t s o f t stream s t i l l f l o w i n g over her, with those d e l i c i o u s v i s i o n s m e l t i n g and f a d i n g l i k e the wondrous a e r i a l l a n d of the West. (p. 412)  The t u r n i n g p o i n t comes when Maggie wakes up t o the " t e r r i b l e t r u t h " — t h a t "she h a [ s ] r e n t the t i e s t h a t had meaning t o duty, and h a [ s j made h e r s e l f an out-lawed with no guide but the wayward c h o i c e of her own (p.  413).  Having determined  e x p l a i n her motives: can duty l i e ?  We  given  soul,  passion"  t o l e a v e Stephen, she t r i e s t o  " ' I f the p a s t i s not t o b i n d us, where  should have no law but the i n c l i n a t i o n o f the  moment'" ( p . 417).  But Stephen o n l y i n s i s t s on the present  t i e s which render h e r duty, f i r s t  and foremost t o him.  R e a l i z i n g t h a t " l i f e with Stephen c o u l d have no sacredness" (p. 413), and  Maggie obeys "'the  divine voice within'"  ( p . 419)  chooses t h e "'calmer a f f e c t i o n s ' " ( p . 418) t h a t a r e  a s s o c i a t e d with a l l t h a t h e r "'past  l i f e has made dear and  holy'"  (p. 420).  Making h e r way from Mudport and Stephen,  filled  with " l o v e " , "deep p i t y " and "remorseful  anguish", she  i s now face t o face w i t h t h e r e a l meaning o f r e n u n c i a t i o n and sees t h a t t h e "thorns  [ a ^ ] f o r e v e r p r e s s i n g on i t s brow" 1  (p. 413) .  As Maggie walks through t h e s t r e e t s o f S t . Ogg's, bear ing  h e r crown o f thorns,  she i s d e n i e d by former f r i e n d s and  r i d i c u l e d as i f she were a " f r i e n d l y bar-maid" Her  (p. 431).  treatment i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t which C h r i s t r e c e i v e d i n  Jerusalem p r i o r t o h i s c r u c i f i x i o n .  Spurned by h e r b r o t h e r ,  Maggie i s a t t h e mercy o f a community i n which "'the of d i s c i p l i n e and C h r i s t i a n f r a t e r n i t y are e n t i r e l y (p. 432).  ideas relaxed""  Even D r . Kenn cannot p r e v a i l on h i s unregenerate  f l o c k , t h e s o c i a l embodiment of a l l t h e e v i l f o r c e s which Maggie has t r i e d t o r e s i s t i n h e r s e l f :  'I s h o u l d o f t e n l o s e h e a r t a t o b s e r v i n g t h e want o f f e l l o w s h i p and s e n s e o f m u t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y among my f l o c k . A t p r e s e n t e v e r y t h i n g seems t e n d i n g t o w a r d s t h e r e l a x a t i o n o f t i e s — t o w a r d s t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f wayward c h o i c e f o r t h e adherence t o o b l i g a t i o n , which has i t s roots i n the past.' ( p . 433)  In  s u c h a n e n v i r o n m e n t , h e r s u f f e r i n g c a n h a v e no o u t l e t i n  that  larger l i f e  Philip  can write  new l i f e "  by l o v e and sympathy.  a letter  of forgiveness,  assuring her of "the  life  sympathy" w h i c h h a s i n i t i a t e d h i m " i n t o t h a t w h i c h grows a n d grows b y a p p r o p r i a t i n g t h e l i f e  of others",  " c r u e l tongues" keep him a p a r t  friendship,  b a s e d on " s t r o n g  Similarly,  i n this  The  last  world  moment,  and w i t h  t o Maggie,  Their  hidden. furtively  T h e r e i s "no home,  f o r Maggie.  temptation  a s s a u l t s h e r anguish  "the balance  back t o her,  and sympathy.  and most d i f f i c u l t  Stephen's l e t t e r  from Maggie.  sympathy", must b e k e p t  Lucy pays a c l a n d e s t i n e v i s i t  offering her forgiveness no h e l p "  Although  h e h a s f o u n d i n c a r i n g f o r h e r j o y and s o r r o w a n d  of t h e "strong enlarged  informed  trembles"  affection,  the  understanding  she  now " r e c e i v e s t h e C r o s s "  For a [comes]  of self-renouncing  o f f a i t h f u l n e s s and r e s o l v e " of her role  self-doubt.  but then "the long past  i tthe fountains  and  with  comes when  as " I m i t a t o r  (p. 450).  pity  With  o f C h r i s t " complete  w h i c h s h e must b e a r u n t i l  death  (p.  451).  At the p o i n t of her d e c l a r a t i o n of f a i t h , however,  1 4  Maggie's words are overpowered by the storm o u t s i d e .  The  social  f o r c e s o f c r u e l s e l f i s h n e s s and wayward c h o i c e which the storm can be s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t are too powerful f o r Maggie t o p e r form the s a c r e d d u t i e s o f " b l e s s [ i n g ] and comfort[ing] o t h e r s " (p.  451).  A t the same time, Maggie's own  nature c o u l d i n t e r -  vene t o prevent her from performing these s a c r e d d u t i e s . While she can achieve a t r u e understanding of her r o l e as. i m i t a t o r o f C h r i s t now,  t h e r e i s s t i l l the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  her e g o i s t i c nature w i l l r e b e l again i n the f u t u r e . to  "Am  I  s t r u g g l e and f a l l and r e p e n t again?" i s Maggie's anguished  q u e s t i o n (p. 451).  When the f l o o d comes, then, i t i s a  b l e s s e d d e l i v e r a n c e f o r Maggie, a " f i n a l r e s c u e , "  1 6  both  an unregenerate s o c i e t y t h a t would seek t o c r u c i f y her  from  and  from the p o t e n t i a l agony of e n d l e s s y e a r s spent s t r u g g l i n g and f a l l i n g i n the w i l d e r n e s s :  She had suddenly passed away from t h a t l i f e which she had been d r e a d i n g : i t was the t r a n s i t i o n of death, without i t s a g o n y — a n d she was alone i n the darkness w i t h God. (p. 452)  As Maggie paddles on the f l o o d , the r a i n ceases dawn b r e a k s .  S y m b o l i c a l l y i t i s a new  and  c r e a t i o n w i t h the  f i r s t glimmer o f l i g h t and the s e p a r a t i o n o f the  firmament  from the waters ( p . 452). desolation  . . . spread out i n d r e a d f u l c l e a r n e s s "  i s not Maggie's l e g a c y . the  But t h e wasteland of "watery ( p . 256)  The world c u r r e n t l y so d e v a s t a t e d by  f l o o d w i l l r e t u r n t o i t s former s t a t e , r e p a i r e d b u t not  renewed ( p . 456).  Maggie's f u t u r e i s i n the a p o c a l y p t i c  world t h a t l i e s beneath "the golden water" (p. 456). f l o o d , i n removing " a l l the a r t i f i c i a l v e s t u r e  The  of our l i f e "  (p. 453),  has p r e c i p i t a t e d Maggie's r e c o n c i l e m e n t with h e r  brother.  "The deep, u n d e r l y i n g ,  e a r l y union"  unshakable memories o f  ( p . 453) a r e brought i n t o strong r e l i e f as she  rows towards D o r l c o t e M i l l .  Overcome w i t h "awe and h u m i l i -  a t i o n " a t Maggie's "miraculous" e f f o r t , Tom l o s e s h i s former hardness and s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s ation  . . . o f t h e depths o f l i f e  vision" had  as he i s g i v e n "a new r e v e l -  (p. 455).  t h a t had l a i n beyond h i s  To have Tom's a f f e c t i o n and f o r g i v e n e s s  always been f o r Maggie a supreme h a p p i n e s s .  together  Now, bound  i n a " c l o s e embrace" which i s symbolic o f the new  u n i t y they have achieved  i n strong  the c h i l d r e n r e g a i n a p a r a d i s e  sympathy and s e l f l e s s  f a r s u p e r i o r t o t h e e a r l i e r one  t h a t was c o n t i n u a l l y shaken by e g o i s t i c squabbles. "one  love,  During  supreme moment" which a n n i h i l a t e s a l l time i n e t e r n i t y ,  they " c l a s p f J  t h e i r l i t t l e hands i n l o v e , and roamCj  the  d a i s i e d f i e l d s t o g e t h e r " (p. 456), h a v i n g found at l a s t the s t i l l c e n t r e of the " u n r e s t i n g wheel" (p. 8 ) .  In one sense, Maggie's death r e f l e c t s the c a p r i c i o u s ness of the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y cosmos: t h a t the s u p e r i o r Maggie should be swept away with the h e l p l e s s c a t t l e and t h a t an i n f e r i o r and unregenerate world should be l e f t i : n t a c t -7) .  I n another  (pp.  sense, Maggie's death s e a l s the triumph  her martyrdom i n the " R e l i g i o n o f Humanity."  456  of  She i s cut o f f  a t the h i g h e s t p o i n t i n her Promethean s t r u g g l e , h a v i n g s u s t a i n e d her worst temptation and t u r n e d t o the l a r g e r l i f e of l o v e and p i t y f o r her f e l l o w men.  D e l i v e r e d from the p e r s e c -  u t i o n s of a m o r a l l y wayward s o c i e t y and from the p o t e n t i a l weaknesses of her own  nature, Maggie e n t e r s a second Eden, the  home of a l l c e l e b r a n t s i n the " R e l i g i o n of Humanity", i n death. I n the darkness of men's h e a r t s t h a t remains when her  solitary  candle f l i c k e r i n g i n the gloom has been put out, the few remember her, commemorate her " ' l a r g e - s o u l e d ' " nature and "goodness" (p. 449). f o r a l l men,  For these people and  who  (p. 441)  potentially  the u n i v e r s a l emulation of Maggie's s t r u g g l e l e a d s  e v e n t u a l l y i n t o the r e g e n e r a t e world of l i g h t where, under the rainbow, the wayward t i d e of egoism w i l l be subdued f o r e v e r . I n the meantime, however, Maggie, l i k e M i l t o n ' s C h r i s t i n the  w i l d e r n e s s , has " l a y [ e d ] down the rudiments" o f t h e "great warfare"  In t h e s o u l s of a l l mankind and demonstrated, how  "by H u m i l i a t i o n and s t r o n g S u f f e r a n c e , - .  . . weakness s h a l l  o'recome S a t a n i c s t r e n g t h " (11. 157-161).  Apart  from George E l i o t who wept c o p i o u s l y "throughout  the w r i t i n g o f t h e f i n a l chapters,"  few c r i t i c s have f e l t  t h a t Maggie's r e u n i o n with her b r o t h e r i n a r e c o n s t i t u t e d c h i l d h o o d Eden i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c a t h a r t i c and u p l i f t i n g .  1 7  I n f a c t , t h e ending o f The M i l l on t h e F l o s s and Maggie's drowning have been t h e o b j e c t o f much c r i t i c a l I n s t e a d o f the i n s p i r a t i o n generated "suffering  dissatisfaction.  by Maggie's t r a g i c  . . . which belongs t o every h i s t o r i c a l advance  o f mankind" ( p . 239), t h e r e n e v e r t h e l e s s remain c o n t r a d i c t o r y f e e l i n g s o f i n c o m p l e t i o n and even f u t i l i t y .  Admittedly,  George E l i o t p o s s i b l y i n t e n d s us t o f e e l some sense o f f u t ility  and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a t Maggie's i n a b i l i t y t o f i n d  ful-  f i l m e n t f o r h e r s u p e r i o r i n t e l l e c t and p a s s i o n a t e n a t u r e . it  i s Maggie's nobleness  Yet  e v o l v i n g out o f h e r r e s i g n a t i o n  and s u f f e r i n g and not the waste o f h e r v a r i o u s t a l e n t s t h a t 19  George E l i o t i s s t r e s s i n g i n t h e f i n a l scene. *  •  Maggxe i s  l i k e the grand o l d Scotch F i r t r e e s with whom she shares a "Kinship."  J u s t as the "broken ends o f branches," the  " r e c o r d s o f past storms," soar h i g h e r " to  make "the r e d stems [of the t r e e s ]  ( p . 261), d e p r i v a t i o n and s u f f e r i n g a r e intended  i n c r e a s e Maggie's moral s t a t u r e .  One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ending  o f the  n o v e l c o u l d l i e i n t h e v e r y nature o f Maggie's r e n u n c i a t i o n . W i t h i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r i m a g i n a t i v e context which George E l i o t c r e a t e s , the p a t t e r n o f Maggie's r e n u n c i a t i o n can be seen to  be based on Maggie's f a t a l t i m i d i t y toward l i f e and her  r e f u s a l t o quit the family c i r c l e .  Assuming t h a t George  E l i o t d i d not i n t e n d a n e u r o t i c i n a b i l i t y t o come t o terms w i t h l i f e t o be p a r t of Maggie's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , t h i s  imagin-  a t i v e p o r t r a y a l o f Maggie can be seen t o a r i s e from c e r t a i n v a l u e s which George E l i o t u n c o n s c i o u s l y a t t r i b u t e s t o Maggie and t o t h e world o f Maggie's c h i l d h o o d .  There i s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between the author and h e r h e r o i n e which o r i g i n a t e s i n the f i r s t  pages o f t h e n o v e l  where dreamer, n a r r a t o r and c h i l d b l e n d i n t o one. initial  I n the  dream sequence, the movement up the r i v e r F l o s s i s  a l s o a movement backwards i n time t h a t a l l o w s the dreamer-  n a r r a t o r t o become once again a l i t t l e c h i l d i n t h e a r c h e t y p a l experience o f a r e t r e a t t o the womb.  The dreamer t u r n s  away from t h e i n i t i a t i o n i n t o m a t u r i t y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the h i g h l y charged  imagery d e s c r i b i n g the meeting o f r i v e r and  sea:  A wide p l a i n , where the broadening F l o s s h u r r i e s on between i t s green banks t o t h e sea, and the l o v i n g t i d e , r u s h i n g t o meet i t , checks i t s passage w i t h an impetuous embrace, ( p . 7)  R e t r e a t i n g f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r up the r i v e r , the n a r r a t o r dreamer f i n a l l y comes t o r e s t a t D o r l c o t e M i l l , home o f Maggie T u l l i v e r .  the childhood  T h i s l i t t l e world i s not o n l y e n -  c l o s e d and s h e l t e r e d "from t h e world beyond" by "the g r e a t c u r t a i n of sound" (p. 8) produced  by the m i l l , b u t i t i s  soothing, moist, and watery, o f f e r i n g a longed-for balm s i m i l a r to  t h a t o f Mrs Poyser's  dairy:  Even i n t h i s l e a f l e s s time o f d e p a r t i n g February i t i s p l e a s a n t t o look a t — p e r h a p s the c h i l l damp season adds a charm t o t h e t r i m l y - k e p t , comfortable dwelling-house, as o l d as the elms and c h e s t n u t s t h a t s h e l t e r i t from the n o r t h e r n b l a s t . The stream i s b r i m f u l now, and l i e s h i g h i n t h i s l i t t l e withy p l a n t a t i o n , and h a l f drowns the g r a s s y f r i n g e o f t h e house. As I look a t t h e f u l l stream, the v i v i d g r a s s , t h e d e l i c a t e b r i g h t - g r e e n powder s o f t e n i n g the o u t l i n e of t h e g r e a t t r u n k s and branches t h a t gleam from under t h e bare p u r p l e boughs, I am i n l o v e w i t h moistness, and envy t h e white ducks  t h a t a r e d i p p i n g t h e i r heads f a r i n t o the water here among t h e w i t h e s , u n m i n d f u l o f t h e awkward a p p e a r a n c e t h e y make i n t h e d r i e r w o r l d a b o v e , ( p p . 7 - 8 )  One has  basic  appeal which the world  f o r George E l i o t  dark  vitalizing  i s that  o f Maggie's c h i l d h o o d  i t includes within i t certain  powers w h i c h h a v e an a m i a b l e  the opening  lines,  "broadening  F l o s s " h u r r y i n g t o t h e . s e a and  e u l o g i z e s the  diminution.  t h e dreamer q u i c k l y r e t r e a t s  littleness  from  In  the  affectionately  of the t r i b u t a r y R i p p l e :  How l o v e l y t h e l i t t l e r i v e r i s , w i t h i t s d a r k , c h a n g i n g wavelets I I t seems t o me l i k e a l i v i n g c o m p a n i o n w h i l e I wander a l o n g t h e b a n k and l i s t e n t o i t s low p l a c i d v o i c e s as t o t h e v o i c e o f one who i s d e a f and l o v i n g . (p. 7)  Similarly,  M a g g i e as c h i l d  with her  dark,  u n r u l y masses of b l a c k h a i r ,  itself  the R i p p l e ' s "dark,  wavelets,"  harmless or  domestic  changing  little  a " S h e t l a n d pony"  animals  (p. 13).  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Maggie w i l l George E l i o t  these  lower  f o r c e s merely  Maggie i n her  and  curiously reminiscent of i s compared w i t h  as a "skye  L a t e r on,  lose their  when, i n an a g g r a n d i z e d  w i t h M a g g i e a s y o u n g woman.  f l a s h i n g eyes  In their  terrier"  t h e s e lower  unconscious  form,  such  (p. 15), forces  appeal for  they are a s s o c i a t e d  d i m i n u t i v e form,  s e r v e t o make t h e i n i t i a l  however,  scene  of  c h i l d h o o d m i l i e u a l l t h e more a p p e a l i n g i n i t s  psychological inclusiveness.  There i s an e x p l i c i t image o f p s y c h i c wholeness t h a t the author u n c o n s c i o u s l y a t t r i b u t e s t o Maggie's c h i l d h o o d . The  image i s l i n k e d w i t h t h e f i s h i n g t r i p t h a t r e p r e s e n t s ,  i n t h e i n t e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n of the n o v e l , t h e quintessence o f Tom's and Maggie's c h i l d h o o d Eden.  The "wonderful" Round P o o l  (p. 36) i n i t s p e r f e c t c i r c u l a r i t y can be s a i d t o be symbolic o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l completion which the n a r r a t o r unconsciousl y connects with t h e c h i l d h o o d episode:  No one knew how deep i t was; and i t was mysterious, t o o , t h a t i t should be a most p e r f e c t round, framed i n with w i l l o w s and t a l l reeds, so t h a t t h e water was o n l y t o be seen when you got c l o s e t o the b r i n k , ( p . 36)  S i n c e the t i n y p o o l was made by t h e f l o o d s "a long while ago" (p. 36), i t i s a l s o symbolic o f a p s y c h i c t o t a l i t y t h a t was a c h i e v e d f a r back i n the p a s t . dreamer-narrator,  From the p o i n t o f view o f t h e  t h i s image of emotional f u l l n e s s c o u l d w e l l  be the p s y c h o l o g i c a l impetus behind t h e r e g r e s s i v e momentum engendered a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n o v e l .  However, George E l i o t f i n d s i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o a c commodate h e r a d u l t psyche t o t h e s m a l l b u t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y p e r f e c t world t h a t she u n c o n s c i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e s w i t h Maggie's  c h i l d h o o d when she i n i t i a l l y formulates t h a t world i n h e r imagination.  I n Adam Bede, t h e author c o u l d not embrace  the womb-like s e c u r i t y o f the H a l l Farm i n Hayslope  without  p u n i s h i n g h e r own emotional and, t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t u r i t y i n the f i g u r e of H e t t y S o r r e l .  As the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Maggie i s s u s t a i n e d i n The M i l l on the F l o s s , George E l i o t has Maggie T u l l i v e r share t h e dimensions of  h e r own i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional s u p e r i o r i t y t h a t p r e -  vent her, as dreamer-narrator, from i n h a b i t i n g the t i n y wombl i k e world o f c h i l d h o o d .  C e r t a i n l y , the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f  Maggie's f r u s t r a t i o n s i n a much i n f e r i o r world a r e p a r t o f George E l i o t ' s i n t e n t i o n s .  A t the same time, however, these  d e s c r i p t i o n s can be seen t o c o n t r i b u t e t o an i m a g i n a t i v e p a t t e r n i n g which very p o s s i b l y was not p a r t o f the author's intent.  Maggie's problems o f adapting t o the l i t t l e world o f D o r l c o t e M i l l a r e most o f t e n p o r t r a y e d i n terms o f s i z e . r a r e l y i s Maggie j u s t the r i g h t s i z e f o r h e r w o r l d .  Happy  moments l i k e those i n the m i l l ' s i n t e r i o r , a " l i t t l e  world  apart from h e r o u t s i d e everyday l i f e " rare.  Very  (p. 2 7 ) , are r e l a t i v e l y  There, out o f r e a c h o f punishment and dwarfed by t h e  huge m i l l s t o n e s , she takes d e l i g h t i n "the f i n e powder  s o f t e n i n g a l l the s u r f a c e s " and "the sweet pure scent of t h e meal"  ( p . 2 7 ) . F o r t h e most p a r t , however, she i s p a i n f u l l y  cramped by her e n v i r o n s .  F a c i n g H e t t y ' s dilemma on a much  grander s c a l e , Maggie i s t o o b i g f o r the womb t h a t her.  encircles  She i s , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , a v e r i t a b l e  g i a n t who i n v a r i a b l y commits b l u n d e r s t h a t o f f e n d and enrage the dwarfs among whom she l i v e s .  The l i t t l e  g i r l who can  r e a d books " ' b e t t e r nor h a l f the f o l k s as are growed up"" (p. 16) h a u g h t i l y denounces as "nonsense" v e n e r a b l e Mr. R i l e y .  the remarks o f t h e  Exasperated by the p e t t y concerns o f  the Gleggs and P u l l e t s ,  she succeeds a t another time i n  c l u m s i l y o v e r t u r n i n g the neat and p o l i s h e d drawing room a t Garum F i r s with i t s t i n k l i n g m u s i c a l snuff-box and t i n y t e a cakes ( I , i x and x ) .  However, i t i s Maggie h e r s e l f i n a  l a t e r c o n v e r s a t i o n with Lucy who b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e sense o f l i m i t e d dimension t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s so much o f her p o r t r a y a l i n the novel:  ' I t i s with me as I used t o t h i n k i t would be with t h e poor uneasy white bear I saw a t t h e show. I thought he must -have got so s t u p i d w i t h the h a b i t o f t u r n i n g backwards and forwards i n t h a t narrow space, t h a t he would keep doing i t i f they s e t him f r e e . ' (p. 325)  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e c h i e f area o f o f f e n c e and concomitant punishment w i t h i n the womb-like environment  i s the feminine  world.  Maggie c o n s t a n t l y i n c u r s the wrath of her mother  aunts f o r not b e i n g fitting in.  "a l i t t l e  lady"  A r a t h e r unpleasant  t i o n as Maggie perpetuates  her  (p. 13)  and  commodiously  image r e f l e c t s t h i s aggrava-  " F e t i s h " i n the hideous womb  o f the dark, worm-eaten and cobweb i n f e s t e d a t t i c . her d o l l  (her "baby") t o s u f f e r the g r i e v a n c e s  her by v a r i o u s feminine  and  persecutors  Forcing  inflicted  on  ( i n t h i s case, her mother) ,  Maggie sobs v i c a r i o u s l y as she " a l t e r n a t i v e l y g r i n d [ s ]  and  b e a t f s ] the wooden head a g a i n s t the rough b r i c k of the  great  chimneys" (p. 26).  L a t e r , when the "world's wife" of S t .  Ogg's i s b a t t e r e d with s t r o n g s a t i r e  (pp. 428-30), the  dreamer-narrator h e r s e l f adopts t h i s F e t i s h i n a d i f f e r e n t form.  For the most p a r t , though, the dreamer-narrator i s  s a t i s f i e d with the weaker c a s t i g a t i o n of the Dobson m a t r i archy i n p a r t i c u l a r and o f the whole s o c i e t y of "these emmetl i k e Dobsons and T u l l i v e r s " meanness and  general  i n g e n e r a l f o r t h e i r narrowness,  sordidity.  At the same time, punishment can be h e l p f u l s i n c e i t d i s c i p l i n e s the sprawling  g i a n t , making her  f i t better.  There  i s c e r t a i n l y an aspect o f s e l f - m u t i l a t i o n i n a l l the pounding and g r i n d i n g o f the a t t i c F e t i s h , f o r i n s t a n c e . i s somehow necessary,  The  performance  too, b e f o r e more a f f e c t i o n a t e r e l a t i o n s  between Maggie and her d o l l can be resumed. " f u r y " subsides,  we  are t o l d , Maggie c u s t o m a r i l y  b e l i e v e t o p o u l t i c e " her d o l l and From one  A f t e r her  "comfort£sJ  "makefs]  i t " (p.  26).  p o i n t of view, the s e l f - i n d u c e d d i s f i g u r e m e n t  that  Maggie seeks t o achieve through the F e t i s h i s the f a i n t , shadow of the wider and more s u s t a i n e d r i t e s of r e n u n c i a t i o n . tells Philip,  The  g r e a t boon of s e l f - d e n i a l ,  i s a "peace" l i k e t h a t enjoyed by  " c h i l d r e n t h a t someone who (p. 286).  a c t i o n o f Maggie's she  little  i s wiser i s t a k i n g care  of"  D o u b t l e s s George E l i o t c o n s c i o u s l y intends us  to  see a good d e a l o f t r u t h i n P h i l i p ' s c r i t i c i s m of Maggie's "narrow s e l f - d e f e n s i v e f a n a t i c i s m " and The  reproof  i s intended  "stupefaction"  t o l a y bare the shallow  we  286).  conception  o f r e n u n c i a t i o n which Maggie h o l d s at t h i s p o i n t . renunciation,  (p.  True  are t o b e l i e v e , i s born out of the knowledge  o f severe temptation and deep s u f f e r i n g , not out of a b s u r d i t i e s of l i t t l e  the  penances p r a c t i s e d i n one's bed  chamber.  T h i s l a t t e r c l o s e l y resembles Aunt Glegg's p e r i o d i c r e t i r e ment w i t h Baxter's S a i n t ' s Rest and  gruel.  George E l i o t  saw  genuine s e l f - d e n i a l as the source of Maggie's p o t e n t i a l heroism, and  she p o r t e n t o u s l y  Hamadryad b e s i d e  juxtaposes the t a l l  and  queenly  the s t a t e l y Scotch f i r - t r e e s whose "broken  ends o f branches,  . . . the r e c o r d s of past storms,  o n l y made the r e d stems soar h i g h e r " t h e r e i s another  However,  image which d e s c r i b e s Maggie as a t r e e i n  one o f P h i l i p ' s m e d i t a t i o n s . symbolized  (p. 261).  . . .  Here, Maggie i s more a c c u r a t e l y  i n terms of s u f f o c a t e d l i f e - f o r c e s :  she i s l i k e  "a young f o r e s t - t r e e " t h a t i s " w i t h e r i n g i n i t s v e r y youth . . . f o r want o f the l i g h t and  space i t was  formed t o  f l o u r i s h i n " (p. 269) .  The v i s i o n of a l i t t l e g i r l s i t t i n g h a p p i l y b e s i d e her b r o t h e r at the edge of the Round Pool remains l a r g e l y a t a n t a l i z i n g mirage i n the drearner-narrator's i m a g i n a t i o n . Maggie gets b i g g e r and the home i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  As  afflicted  w i t h tragedy, her d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s are i n c r e a s i n g l y aggravated.  The  grown up b r o t h e r has no time f o r her now  they [ a r e ] no longer p l a y f e l l o w s together"  (p. 251),  once "sweet s p r i n g of f a t h e r l y l o v e [ i s ] now bitterness" f a t h e r was  (p. 245).  Although  and  the  mingled with  the r e l a t i o n s h i p with  u s u a l l y more g r a t i f y i n g  c o n s i s t e n t l y k i n d and  "that  her  (perhaps because he  was  l o v i n g ) , the a f f l i c t i o n s o f p e t t y  t r a g e d y tend t o d i m i n i s h Mr. T u l l i v e r  i n relationship to h i s  g i a n t - l i k e daughter u n t i l t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s v i r t u a l l y inverted.  Maggie becomes parent and her f a t h e r c h i l d when  Mr.  Tulliver  "seem[s] t o have a s o r t  i n Maggie's presence, the nurse's  lap"  "as  of i n f a n t i l e  a baby ha[s]  (p. 176).  The  sense  satisfaction"  when i t i s r e t u r n e d t o of emotional d i s c o m f o r t 20  w h i c h becomes s o a c u t e w i t h t h e T u l l i v e r s '  "downfall"  d e s t r o y s M a g g i e as c h i l d w i t h i n h e r e n c i r c l i n g world.  "'It is like The  The  "an  opening  world but  she  opening does not  into  i n the rocky w a l l " l e a d out  another  of her  s u r r o g a t e b r o t h e r i n t h e form later  tended  role  George E l i o t to brush  ( p . 284)  probably sensed  enticing  Deeps  "tempter"  into  the  that  since i t offers  a  Since  force i n the  o f Stephen Guest,  his i n -  i s rather perplexing.  t h e i n c o n g r u i t y when she  i t o f f w i t h a somewhat g l i b  lies  t o r t u o u s womb and  becomes a r e l a t i v e l y b e n e v o l e n t  as M a g g i e ' s l e s s e r  263).  which shuts her i n .  o f P h i l i p Wakem.  face of the greater temptations  (p.  she must a p p a r e n t l y  e n c l o s e d h a v e n i n t h e Red and  pinched  to P h i l i p  i n t h i s r e s i g n e d imprisonment"  seems a l l t h e more b e a u t i f u l  Philip  laments  s o l u t i o n t o t h e dilemma t h a t  "always l i v e through  death'",  and  nearly  tried  gloss:  Her t r a n q u i l , t e n d e r a f f e c t i o n f o r P h i l i p , w i t h i t s r o o t d e e p down i n h e r c h i l d h o o d , and i t s memories o f l o n g q u i e t t a l k c o n f i r m i n g by d i s t i n c t s u c c e s s i v e i m p r e s s i o n s the f i r s t i n s t i n c t i v e b i a s — t h e f a c t t h a t i n him t h e a p p e a l was more s t r o n g l y t o h e r p i t y and womanly d e v o t e d n e s s t h a n t o h e r v a n i t y o r o t h e r ego state e x c i t a b i l i t y of her nature . . . . ( p . 359)  When he i s viewed as an important  p a r t o f Maggie's f a m i l i a l  environment, however, P h i l i p a c q u i r e s c o n s i s t e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e . L i k e her r e a l "home" l a t e r ,  "the sanctuary where the sacred  r e l i c s l a y — w h e r e she would be r e s c u e d from more f a l l i n g " (p. 420),  P h i l i p a l s o p r o v i d e s Maggie with "a s o r t o f s a c r e d  p l a c e , a sanctuary where she c o u l d f i n d r e f u g e "  ( p . 359).  During h e r meetings w i t h P h i l i p Wakem, Maggie r e s u s c i t a t e s " t h a t c h i l d i s h time" and  a t L o r t o n when P h i l i p was h e r "brother  teacher":  "What a dear, good b r o t h e r you would have been P h i l i p , ' s a i d Maggie, s m i l i n g through the haze o f her t e a r s . 'I t h i n k you would have made as much f u s s about me, and been as p l e a s e d f o r me t o l o v e you, as would have s a t i s f i e d even me. You would have l o v e d me w e l l enough t o bear with me, and f o r g i v e me e v e r y t h i n g . That was what I always longed t h a t Tom should do . . . .' ( p . 287) Although  P h i l i p had once f e a r e d t h a t Maggie would never take  n o t i c e o f him when she had "grown up", Maggie "fe[els]j h e r s e l f a c h i l d again" when she encounters Deeps ( p . 262). her behavior  P h i l i p i n the Red  Even d u r i n g the f i n a l "second l o v e  i s emphatically  scene",  childish:  The r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h a t c h i l d i s h time [[at Lorton3 came as a sweet r e l i e f t o Maggie. I t made t h e present moment seem l e s s strange t o h e r . She k i s s e d him almost as simply and q u i e t l y as she had done when she was twelve years o l d .  D e s p i t e the appeal o f t h i s new s i b l i n g  relationship,  Maggie i s h e l d by the powerful g r i p of o r i g i n a l f a m i l y t i e s . She i s c o n s t a n t l y a f r a i d o f "a sudden meeting or Tom when . . . walking with P h i l i p "  w i t h her f a t h e r  (p. 295).  The  s e p a r a t i o n between Maggie and P h i l i p which Tom f o r c e s Maggie t o accept i s symbolic o f the tremendous power those o r i g i n a l f a m i l y t i e s have on h e r .  Walking with her b r o t h e r t o the  f i n a l encounter with P h i l i p , Maggie sees i n h e r i m a g i n a t i o n her " t a l l s t r o n g b r o t h e r g r a s p i n g the f e e b l e P h i l i p b o d i l y , c r u s h i n g him and t r a m p l i n g on him" ( p . 302). s t r a t i o n of the ascendency  of o r i g i n a l family relationships  over s u r r o g a t e ones, she witnesses her f a t h e r Philip's father.  I n a l a t e r demon-  horse-whipping  T h i s scene between Mr. T u l l i v e r and Lawyer  Wakem i s s a i d t o haunt Maggie as a "new b a r r i e r between h e r s e l f and P h i l i p " .  But i t i s a l s o , and more i m p o r t a n t l y , a  s o l i d i f i c a t i o n o f the b a r r i e r between h e r s e l f w i t h i n the f a m i l y c i r c l e and the world o u t s i d e .  S i n c e the quest f o r happiness and s e c u r i t y w i t h i n a c h i l d h o o d Eden i s u s u a l l y an i r r i t a t i n g and unhappy one, both f o r Maggie and f o r George E l i o t ,  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t  George E l i o t sometimes u n c o n s c i o u s l y endorses Maggie's prompti n g s t o b u r s t out o f her s m a l l and f r u s t r a t i n g world with i t s  f e t t e r s of f a m i l y t i e s . , While these promptings  are imagin-  a t i v e l y and e m o t i o n a l l y p o s i t i v e f o r George E l i o t , they are, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and m o r a l l y , n e g a t i v e i n t h a t they correspond to  the demands o f Maggie's egoism.  Any  a c t i o n s based  on  Maggie's s e l f i s h y e a r n i n g s would be c a r e l e s s of the l i v e s  and  needs of o t h e r s and would, i n f a c t , i n c r e a s e the l o t o f human suffering.  Maggie l a t e r r e c i t e s t h i s important l e s s o n on  b e h a l f of George E l i o t when she t e l l s Stephen, cannot,  seek my  "I must not,  own happiness by s a c r i f i c i n g o t h e r s " (p. 394).  S i t t i n g i n s i d e the " d u l l w a l l s " of her a i l i n g  father's  bedroom, Maggie has y e a r n i n g s t o move outwards i n t o a f u l l e r , richer  life:  Cshe]  was a c r e a t u r e f u l l of eager, p a s s i o n a t e l o n g i n g s f o r a l l t h a t was b e a u t i f u l and g l a d ; t h i r s t y f o r a l l knowledge; with an ear s t r a i n i n g a f t e r dreamy music t h a t d i e d away and would not come near h e r ; w i t h a b l i n d , unconscious y e a r n i n g f o r something t h a t would l i n k t o gether the wonderful impressions o f t h i s mysterious life . . . . (p. 208)  Although George E l i o t f r e q u e n t l y uses the symbology of music i n t e n t i o n a l l y , music a l s o had a p r i v a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r her which i s important h e r e .  Once drawn i n s i d e by the music  coming from a church i n Numberg, George E l i o t r e l a t e s i n her j o u r n a l "how  the music  . . . b l e n d s e v e r y t h i n g i n t o harmony,—  which makes one  f e e l p a r t o f one whole, which one  a l i k e , l o s i n g the sense of a separate a f f e c t s Maggie T u l l i v e r to  s e l f ."  i n a s i m i l a r way:  the supreme excitement o f music was  passionate  x  "her  o n l y one  loves a l l  Music sensibility form o f t h a t  s e n s i b i l i t y which belonged t o her whole nature,  and made her f a u l t s and v i r t u e s a l l merge i n each other" (p. 350).  Although i n these  i n s t a n c e s , music has  a positive  value which seems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d e s i r a b l e sense of comp l e t i o n or wholeness, i t i s o f t e n used i n a n e g a t i v e l e c t u a l context.  When Maggie debates whether she should  t i n u e meeting P h i l i p ,  l i k e "sweet music,"  chimes borne onward by a r e c u r r e n t breeze"  her"  c a r r i e s her  "like  (p. 265) .  Again,  "by a wave too  strong  i n t o the c u r r e n t s o f the F l o s s t h a t c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y  take her over the seas t o a f u l l music, f o r George E l i o t ,  life.  Despite  i s unconsciously  moving r e g e n e r a t i v e f o r c e s .  The  i t s context,  l i n k e d with outward  " r e c u r r e n t breeze"  moves with  a p r o g r e s s i o n "onward" t h a t i s i m i t a t i v e of the outward ing  of  the sequel with Stephen Guest, i t i s h i s s i n g i n g which  i n i t i a l l y rouses her and for  con-  f o r example, the argument i n b e h a l f  the c l a n d e s t i n e encounters was  in  intel-  c u r r e n t s of the F l o s s i s s u i n g i n the s e a .  flow-  Maggie h e a r s  t h i s c a l l t h a t beckons t o her, but she never f o l l o w s her  unconscious  promptings t o t h e i r u l t i m a t e c o n c l u s i o n .  One  reason f o r t h i s i s her i n a b i l i t y t o break out of the o r i g i n a l family c i r c l e .  Another,  and one t h a t she  shares  w i t h her c r e a t o r , i s the h o r r o r v a c u i of the world o u t s i d e t h a t i n i t i a l l y f o s t e r e d the p a s t o r a l mood and c o n t i n u e s t o preserve i t .  I f Maggie i s t o l e a v e the i m p r i s o n i n g womb r e t r e a t ,  she  must come t o terms w i t h the p o t e n t i a l o f the dark f o r c e s within herself.  Back i n the worm-eaten a t t i c ,  peered out through the wire l a t t i c e  she had  once  c o v e r i n g the t i n y window.  O u t s i d e , a b e a u t i f u l sunny world e n t r e a t e d her t o come o u t — " i t was  irresistible"  (p. 26).  But when she does go,  t u r n s i n t o a " w h i r l i n g Pythoness",  a momentary r e a l i z a t i o n  of the w i l d a n i m a l i t y t h a t i s ominously nature.  A more d e t a i l e d encounter  she  p a r t of her  own  w i t h the hideous realm  s i d e the s m a l l p a s t o r a l environment i s d e s c r i b e d i n the t o the g y p s i e s .  T h i s time, h a v i n g turned i n t o a  out-  flight  little  "Medusa" and a l r e a d y possessed by " s m a l l demons", Maggie peeps through the b a r s of the gate which l e a d s out o f the unhappy domain of c h i l d h o o d .  Gypsydom i s envisaged as an escape from  the punishment i n f l i c t e d by the Dobson m a t r i a r c h y and as "the o n l y way  of  . . . b e i n g e n t i r e l y i n harmony w i t h  circumstances"  (p.  94).  The  journey t o the l a n d of the g y p s i e s i s a " g r e a t  c r i s i s i n her l i f e " ing  (p. 94), but i t i s a l s o a means of a c h i e v -  psychological fulfillment.  There, Maggie expects to meet  t h a t g y p s y - l i k e " ' h a l f w i l d ' " (p. 94) makes her a d a p t a t i o n t o the l i f e  aspect of h e r s e l f t h a t  of Dor1cote M i l l - s o  and f r u s t r a t i n g .  At f i r s t of  ~  -  ,  Maggie i s v e r y g r a t i f i e d w i t h the m i r r o r image  h e r s e l f which she contemplates  woman.  difficult  i n the f a c e of the gypsy  There i s even a s l i g h t i n d i c a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l p s y c h i c  completion and o f p o t e n t i a l m a t u r i t y i n the image o f the "little  s e m i c i r c u l a r b l a c k t e n t " i n f r o n t o f which stands the  "gypsy-mother" w i t h "a baby on her arm"  (p. 9 6 ) .  But  this  v i s i o n i s completely overshadowed by the f e a r of 'dying' as a c h i l d i n the necessary acceptance  of s e x u a l m a t u r i t y .  Creeping through the gate, she i s t e r r i f i e d by images of "a highwayman w i t h a p i s t o l ,  and a b l i n k i n g dwarf i n yellow, with  a mouth from ear t o ear" (p. 9 6 ) — u n d o u b t e d l y venience o f e a t i n g h e r .  it  (p. 96)  con-  Another p h a l l i c v i s i o n "of a s m a l l  p a i r of bare l e g s s t i c k i n g up, a hillock"  f o r the  f e e t uppermost, by the s i d e o f  u t t e r l y p a r a l y z e s her w i t h the sense t h a t  i s "a d i a b o l i c a l k i n d o f fungus"  (p. 96).  d a t i o n i s r a i s e d by the rough mannered man  Further  trepi-  w i t h "a g r e a t s t i c k "  who  s t e a l s her t h i m b l e .  The  f e a r of death and dismemberment  ("that they meant perhaps t o k i l l her as soon as i t was dark and cut up her body f o r g r a d u a l cooking")  builds to a  crescendo w i t h the approach o f the t w i l i g h t r i d e with gypsy man  who  takes her through  witches and d e v i l s  the  a landscape i n h a b i t e d by  (p. 100).  The journey, however, l e a d s back t o D o r l c o t e M i l l . Maggie's f l i g h t from gypsydom, i t s e l f an image o f p o t e n t i a l m a t u r i t y , i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the way  i n which the drearner-  n a r r a t o r , a t the opening of the n o v e l , t u r n s away from  the  meeting o f r i v e r and sea, c o n n o t a t i v e of an i n i t i a t i o n  into  m a t u r i t y , t o embrace the c h i l d ' s world of D o r l c o t e M i l l . Although Maggie i s s t i l l a c h i l d a t t h i s p o i n t , the  imagin-  a t i v e p a t t e r n of her f l i g h t t o and from gypsydom i s r e p e a t e d l a t e r on when she attempts Stephen Guest. ful  t o run away t o H o l l a n d w i t h  I t i s as i f George E l i o t ,  unconsciously f e a r -  of the world beyond the c h i l d h o o d m i l i e u she has  est-  a b l i s h e d i n her i m a g i n a t i o n , r e f u s e d t o allow Maggie t o q u i t that realm.  Instead, George E l i o t keeps Maggie w i t h i n the  bounds of the f a m i l y c i r c l e . by her f a t h e r , exchanging  Maggie i s t h e r e f o r e "taken  up"  a nightmarish r i d e s i m i l a r to that  of Leonore with her phantom l o v e r f o r the incomparable  happiness  of  r i d i n g home with her  potent  family c i r c l e ,  father.  F e t t e r e d w i t h i n the omni-  and p a r a l y z e d by f e a r of the  world  t h a t l i e s o u t s i d e i t , Maggie w i l l always be powerless t o s h i f t the f a t h e r - a n d brother-images onto a mate.  Her r e p l y  t o Mr. T u l l i v e r ' s p l e a t h a t she "'mustn't t h i n k o' away from f a t h e r ' " r e v e r b e r a t e s with the f a t a l t h a t e v e n t u a l l y s e a l s her doom: "'O father—never'"  (p.  no,  running  negativism  I never w i l l  again,  103).  When t h e t h i r d volume (Book Five) o f the n o v e l opens, the inward and r e g r e s s i v e i m a g i n a t i v e movement t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s much o f the f i r s t two  volumes has become d e f u n c t .  been n e a r l y always awkward and u n s a t i s f y i n g , t h i s ive  sequence e x p i r e s with the t e r m i n a t i o n of the  Having  imaginatsurrogate  r e l a t i o n s h i p with P h i l i p Wakem, i t s e l f an a n t i d o t e t o the "death"  which Maggie f e e l s i n her home at D o r l c o t e M i l l .  The  p l o t unwinds f u r t h e r , though, u n t i l the f l o g g i n g of Mr. Wakem p r e c i p i t a t e s the death of Mr. T u l l i v e r and the f i n a l up of the f a m i l y .  breaking  A l l the i m a g i n a t i v e i n t e r e s t i s now  ed towards Maggie's d e s i r e s t o break out o f her d u l l ment.  directimprison-  C o n t r a r y t o the i m a g i n a t i v e nature of the f i r s t  two  volumes, t h i s s e c t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an expansive  and  p r o g r e s s i v e momentum.  At the same time,  "the image of the  i n t e n s e and v a r i e d l i f e "  t h a t Maggie " y e a r n [ s j f o r , and  d e s p a i r f s ] o f , becoming more and more importunate" i s the s i g n p o s t of a sequence  t h a t has a l y r i c i s m  (p. 326) and  i m a g i s t i c emphasis t h a t i s unique i n the n o v e l .  The e a r l i e r  scene where Maggie s a t i n the dark a t t i c  l o o k i n g out on a beckoning sunny landscape i s now r e t u r n e d t o i n Mr. Deane's drawing room where Maggie s i t s l o o k i n g out t o "the sunshine f a l l i n g on the r i c h clumps o f s p r i n g f l o w e r s " and "beyond" t o "the s i l v e r y b r e a d t h o f the dear old Floss"  (p. 326) .  W i t h i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l  p a t t e r n of the  n o v e l , the Deane garden r e p r e s e n t s a s i n i s t e r temptation f o r Maggie t o break the t i e s of memory and d u t y .  Imaginatively,  however, the garden r e p r e s e n t s an i r r e s i s t i b l e c a l l i n g o f the f o r c e s of l i f e  and growth, both f o r Maggie and her  Perhaps t h i s i s the reason why and r i v e r  i s so c o m p e l l i n g .  creator.  the magical p u l l o f the garden  S u r e l y these i r r e s i s t i b l e  life  f o r c e s are the s e c r e t o f Stephen Guest's mysterious powers as a r c h t e m p t e r .  22  L i k e H e t t y ' s A r t h u r Donnithorne,  i s Maggie's r i v e r g o d who  comes "from the r i v e r "  which " f l o w s f o r e v e r onward" (p. 2 3 8 ) . a l i t t l e way  i n t o the garden'"  Stephen  (p. 354)  He draws Maggie "'out  (p. 356) o f l i f e .  In h i s  presence, Maggie f e e l s t h a t she wants t o "expand u n r e s t r a i n e d -  ly"  ( p . 386)  "like  Maggie's sun of  a budding w i l d f l o w e r . "  t h a t awakens t h e  i t s essential  Something Stephen's towards i flower at  sun-flower  the  He  to the  is really realization  s t r a n g e l y p o w e r f u l t h e r e was i n t h e l i g h t o f l o n g g a z e , f o r i t made M a g g i e ' s f a c e t u r n t and l o o k upward a t i t — s l o w l y , l i k e a the ascending b r i g h t n e s s . ( p . 386)  "waters"  ( p . 411)  "summer woods" where "low Spell-bound  by  further  f u r t h e r out  and  .  vitality:  W i t h Stephen Maggie v i s i t s H e t t y ' s p l a y on  2 3  world  i n the  of  "sun-gleams"  f o r e s t s of  cooing voices f i l l  the  that  Arcady—those a i r " ( p . 386) .  Stephen's magic, Maggie i s g r a d u a l l y l e d i n t o the  g a r d e n and  then  down  the  river .  The its  o u t w a r d and  downward i m a g i n a t i v e movement  c u l m i n a t i o n i n the b e a u t i f u l world  M a g g i e and  S t e p h e n as t h e y  float  t h a t seems t o  down t h e r i v e r  reaches surround  to the  sea:  They g l i d e d r a p i d l y along, Stephen rowing, h e l p e d by the b a c k w a r d - f l o w i n g t i d e , p a s t t h e T o f t o n t r e e s and h o u s e s — o n b e t w e e n t h e s i l e n t s u n n y f i e l d s and p a s t u r e s , w h i c h seemed f i l l e d w i t h a n a t u r a l j o y t h a t h a d no r e p r o a c h for theirs. The b r e a t h o f t h e young, u n w e a r i e d day, the d e l i c i o u s rhythmic d i p of the oars, the fragmentary s o n g o f a p a s s i n g b i r d h e a r d now and t h e n , a s i f i t were o n l y t h e o v e r f l o w i n g o f b r i m - f u l l g l a d n e s s , t h e sweet s o l i t u d e o f a two f o l d c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t was m i n g l e d i n t o one b y t h a t g r a v e u n t i r i n g g a z e w h i c h n e e d n o t be a v e r t e d — . . . . ( p . 407)  Here i s a p a r a d i s e r e m i n i s c e n t of the Wordsworthian Eden shared by Tom  and Maggie b e s i d e the Round P o o l .  Stephen  and Maggie are i n harmony w i t h n a t u r e / i n f a c t , they are a t one with nature i n the u n i t y they themselves have momentarily formed.  I r o n i c a l l y , however, t h i s image of happiness  that  so t a n t a l i z i n g l y echoes the v i s i o n which i n s p i r e d much of the r e g r e s s i v e momentum of the f i r s t two through  volumes, i s achieved  an outward and downward i m a g i n a t i v e movement, away  from a womb-like e n c l o s u r e .  S i n c e i t a l s o shows up one of the more g l a r i n g  philo-  s o p h i c a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the n o v e l , t h i s p i c t u r e of  "brim-  f u l l gladness"  childhood  i s important  i n a d i f f e r e n t way.  p a r a d i s e b e s i d e the Round Pool was  The  composed o f a u n i t y be-  tween b r o t h e r and s i s t e r and between c h i l d r e n and nature t h a t was  supposedly  ness" .  f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e i r own  natural "impulsive-  Thus, the q u a r r e l which separated the c h i l d r e n on the  day p r i o r t o the f i s h i n g t r i p i s q u i c k l y mended and not c a r e f u l l y p r e s e r v e d by a d u l t " d i g n i f i e d a l i e n a t i o n . "  Admittedly,  George E l i o t i n t e n d s t h i s i n s t i n c t u a l behavior to be ambiguous i n the Feuerbachian  slightly  moral framework, but one  of  the c h i e f purposes o f the calamitous f l o o d i s t o remove a l l the " a r t i f i c i a l  v e s t u r e " of l i f e and t o a l l o w f o r the  a f f e c t i o n a t e r e u n i o n of b r o t h e r and s i s t e r .  I n both  child-  hood Edens, the p r i m i t i v e i n s t i n c t s are t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d by George E l i o t t o be s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s compared w i t h the more r e s t r a i n e d modes o f a d u l t b e h a v i o r . of Stephen  In the a d u l t world  and Maggie, however, the p u r s u i t of n a t u r a l  f e e l i n g suddenly becomes a moral t r a n s g r e s s i o n .  This p h i l o -  s o p h i c i n c o n s i s t e n c y can p o s s i b l y be e x p l a i n e d by George E l i o t ' s unconscious a t t i t u d e towards the lower or u a l a s p e c t s of p e r s o n a l i t y i n the n o v e l . c h i l d h o o d world of D o r l c o t e M i l l ,  instinct-  Initially,  the dark  i n the  vitalizing  powers are h a p p i l y embraced i n t h e i r d i m i n u t i v e form by the dreamer-narrator.  I n the l a r g e r world o f the broadening  F l o s s , however, these powers are c o n s i d e r e d more dangerous i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r e c i p i t a t e Maggie i n t o a f e a r f u l m a t u r i t y o u t s i d e the realm of the i n f a n t i l e  psyche.  The outward and p r o g r e s s i v e sequence i n the i m a g i n a t i v e p a t t e r n concludes a t Mudport where the F l o s s rushes i n t o the ocean.  Once again, l i k e the dreamer-narrator a t the n o v e l ' s  opening, Maggie t u r n s her back on the mature experience Stephen o f f e r s h e r — t h e thought o f him haunts her " l i k e a t h r o b b i n g p a i n " — a n d she r e t r e a t s back up the F l o s s t o Dorlcote M i l l .  When she r a n away e a r l i e r t o become queen of  the Gypsies, she r e c o i l e d from g r a p p l i n g with the dark of  her nature and longed t o be "taken up by her  Now  side  father."  Maggie attempts t o elope with Stephen and become h i s  queen, but the f e a r o f her own h e r back home.  On the Dutch r i v e r b o a t t h a t i s n e a r i n g Mudport,  she wakes up t o "her own self  an outlawed  of her own  e v i l nature once more d r i v e s  dread", t h a t she " h a [ s j made h e r -  s o u l , with no guide but the wayward c h o i c e  p a s s i o n " (p. 413).  Both George E l i o t  and Maggie  u n c o n s c i o u s l y f e a r the " u n c e r t a i n i m p u l s e " w i t h i n Maggie t h a t c o u l d d r i v e her i n t o the depths of b e i n g where "she must f o r e v e r s i n k " and wander vaguely childish milieu.  (p. 413) , beyond the secure  George E l i o t t h e r e f o r e has Maggie  against p o t e n t i a l l i f e  argue  and m a t u r i t y through Stephen's l o v e  w i t h " p i t y and f a i t h f u l n e s s and memory" (p. 394):  'I have never consented t o i t ^Stephen's l o v e j w i t h my whole mind. There are memories, and a f f e c t i o n s , and l o n g i n g s a f t e r p e r f e c t goodness, t h a t have such a s t r o n g h o l d on me; they would never q u i t me f o r l o n g ; they would come back and be p a i n t o me—repentance.* (p. 418)  A t the i n n a f t e r she has l e f t Stephen,  Maggie's dream h a r r i e s  her with f e e l i n g s o f deep need and h o p e l e s s l o s s a t the moment of  g r e a t e s t anguish i n her r e a l tragedy:  The l o v e she had renounced came back upon h e r w i t h a c r u e l charm, she f e l t h e r s e l f opening h e r arms t o r e c e i v e i t once more; and then i t seemed t o s l i p away and fade and v a n i s h , l e a v i n g o n l y t h e dying sound o f a deep t h r i l l i n g v o i c e t h a t s a i d , " g o n e — f o r e v e r gone.' (p. 421)  S i n c e George E l i o t  r e f u s e s t o a l l o w Maggie t o be born  i n t o m a t u r i t y , t h e former r e g r e s s i v e and inward-turning i m a g i n a t i v e momentum i s now resumed. "deep-rooted  fear"  With  characteristic  ( p . 423) o f h e r b r o t h e r , Maggie r e t u r n s  home where she can be "rescued from more f a l l i n g " With "her own weakness h a u n t [ i n g ] h e r l i k e hideous  possibilities"  (p. 430),  (p. 420).  a vision of  she "craves"  and "harsh d i s a p p r o v i n g judgement" ( p . 423).  Tom's"severity" She wants p u n i s h -  ment and hardness from him and o t h e r s i n order t o curb h e r own "weakness", i n order t o e x o r c i s e t h a t p a s s i o n a t e  lower  v i t a l i t y i n h e r nature which prompted h e r elopement w i t h Stephen i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e .  The aspect o f s e l f - m u l i l a t i o n  a s s o c i a t e d with t h e o l d F e t i s h reappears for  i n Maggie's d e s i r e  a d i s c i p l i n e t h a t would enable h e r t o f i t back i n t o t h e  "haven"- (p. 420) o f D o r l c o t e M i l l .  When she i s r e f u s e d e n t r y ,  she goes t o S t . Ogg's and t h e r e submits h e r s e l f t o the p e r s e c u t i o n o f t h e "world's w i f e " — b u t  s t i l l t o no a v a i l .  Slowly  w i t h e r i n g i n t h e cramped q u a r t e r s o f t h e dark and o p p r e s s i v e  room i n Bob  J a k i n ' s house where she keeps her  midnight  watches, Maggie i s l o s i n g the e n e r g i z i n g powers of the forces.  Once so i n t e n t on l e a v i n g S t . Ogg's and The  she has  now  l o s t a l l energy, a l l "heart t o begin a  l i f e again" paralyzed,  (p. 434).  Mill, strange  is finally  "without a c t i v e f o r c e enough even f o r the mental  a c t of prayer" s l o w l y dying the  "Unspeakably weary," she  life  (p. 450).  L i k e Hetty  i n Adam Bede, Maggie i s  i n George E l i o t ' s i m a g i n a t i o n .  i n f a n t i l e realm and  Unable t o q u i t  eager t o e x p e l l from t h a t realm a l l  those v i t a l i z i n g dark powers t h a t c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r o y i t , Maggie has become a corpse of her  former s e l f t h a t  once so " d a r k l y r a d i a n t " b e s i d e the s p a r k l i n g waters of tributary Ripple  (p.  the  36).  T h i s low p o i n t i n the i m a g i n a t i v e  p a t t e r n i s at the  same time the climax w i t h i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l p a t t e r n of novel.  was  Having s u s t a i n e d her worst anguish and  the  temptation,  Maggie i s supposedly " l e a r n i n g a s e c r e t of human tenderness and  l o n g - s u f f e r i n g , t h a t the l e s s e r r i n g c o u l d h a r d l y know"  (p. 451).  George E l i o t attempts t o f i l l  this  imaginative  h i a t u s at the p o i n t of Maggie's i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the " R e l i g i o n of Humanity" with another i m a g i n a t i v e e d l y has  r e t r e a t which undoubt-  an emotional i n t e r e s t f o r the a u t h o r .  The  flood  c o n v e n i e n t l y b r i n g s the " t r a n s i t i o n of death, without i t s agony" (p. 452).  Maggie i s i n s t a n t l y removed from the  s t r i c t i n g anguish  i n the l i t t l e room where she was  dying.  "The  con^  slowly  threads o f o r d i n a r y a s s o c i a t i o n [ a r e j broken"  and the a c t i o n becomes "dream-like"  (p. 452).  Retracing  the i m a g i n a t i v e movement of the narrator-dreamer i n the  first  few l i n e s of the n o v e l , Maggie moves upwards and backwards t o Dorlcote M i l l ,  on "the way  home" (p. 453) .  J u s t as  i n i t i a l r e g r e s s i v e movement i n George E l i o t ' s culminates  imagination  i n something " ' l i k e death'" f o r Maggie and  second r e g r e s s i v e movement a l s o concludes dying  the  the  with Maggie's slow  i n her t i n y room, t h i s f i n a l r e t r e a t back t o D o r l c o t e  M i l l ends with Maggie's l i t e r a l d e a t h .  In t h i s l a s t  though, her death i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more f u l f i l l i n g  instance,  f o r Maggie  and her c r e a t o r s i n c e i t b r i n g s with i t the longed-for  re-  union with Maggie's b r o t h e r  and the r e t u r n t o the  "daisied  f i e l d s " o f t h e i r childhood.  While t h i s f a t a l journey t o the  M i l l i s very much a wish f u l f i l m e n t dream which achieves c o n s i d e r a b l e s l i c k n e s s the happiness and c h i l d h o o d t h a t the f i s h i n g episode  apparent p e r f e c t i o n of  represented  and t h a t she pursues e m o t i o n a l l y and  with  f o r George E l i o t  i m a g i n a t i v e l y i n much of  the n o v e l , the r e s u l t of the f a t a l journey  i s not  without  emotional disappointment  f o r the author.  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l  wholeness o f the c h i l d h o o d world of D o r l c o t e M i l l has been lost.  I n s t e a d of a p l a c i d l i t t l e  wavelets, the R i p p l e i s now ing  stream w i t h i t s charming  " s t r a n g e l y a l t e r e d " t o "a r u s h -  muddy c u r r e n t " (p. 454).  Similarly, Dorlcote M i l l ,  e a r l i e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i t s d e l i c i o u s moistness, now "deep . . .  i n the water"  (p. 435).  Once i n c l u d e d i n  George E l i o t ' s i m a g i n a t i v e p a s t o r a l and then excluded it,  these elemental f o r c e s now  t i n y l o p s i d e d Eden. was  lies  take t h e i r revenge  from  on the  The c i r c l e o f p s y c h i c completion  that  a s s o c i a t e d i n George E l i o t ' s i m a g i n a t i o n with the e a r l i e r  Eden b e s i d e the "wonderful" Round Pool has now  shrunk t o an  i n s i g n i f i c a n t " b l a c k speck on the golden water" (p. 456).  Perhaps the absence of i m a g i n a t i v e endorsement i n the scene where Maggie r e c e i v e s the c r o s s and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n c o m p l e t i o n of her second Eden can be s a i d t o o f f e r  one  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the c r i t i c a l f u r o r t h a t rages over the ending  of The M i l l on the F l o s s .  For the author, however, the  f l e e t i n g and anaemic p a s t o r a l v i s i o n i s the s o o t h i n g remnant of  a l a r g e r and b r i g h t e r one.  up l i t t l e  g i r l who  Like Alice,  a somewhat grown-  l o n g i n g l y peered through the keyhole at  Wonderland, George E l i o t d i s c o v e r s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n h a b i t  the seemingly happy and p e r f e c t world heart of a pastoral r e t r e a t .  t h a t l i e s a t the  Once w i t h i n t h a t r e t r e a t ,  the i n i t i a l v i s i o n becomes e l u s i v e and h o p e l e s s v i c t i m , s t i l l h e l d by i t s powerful  spell,  1  and i t s  grows more and more  vulnerable to the f a t a l l y e n t i c i n g e f f e c t s of that v i s i o n . In The M i l l on the F l o s s , the v a p i d p a s t o r a l v i s i o n t h a t i s u l t i m a t e l y r e a l i z e d i s i t s e l f an image o f death. "huge fragments, c l i n g i n g together  i n f a t a l fellowship"  (p. 456) h i d e o u s l y m i r r o r the " c l o s e embrace"  (p. 457) i n  which b r o t h e r and s i s t e r f a c e t h e i r death and r e l i v e childhood  The,  their  together.  W i l l i a m Empson thought t h a t the p a s t o r a l based on c h i l d h o o d was "more open t o n e u r o s i s " than other and t h a t , " l e s s h o p e f u l , " oneself."  2 4  versions  i t was "more of a r e t u r n i n t o  I n The M i l l on the F l o s s , the i m a g i n a t i v e  e x p l o r a t i o n of the c h i l d h o o d world o f Maggie T u l l i v e r i s p r e d i c a t e d on a r e g r e s s i v e withdrawal t o the realm f a n t i l e psyche.  Unfortunately,  t h i s imaginative  o f the i n stance ,  tends t o c o n t r a d i c t the i n t e l l e c t u a l argument o f the n o v e l which i s p r e d i c a t e d on the growth of an understanding n o t - s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o the s e l f . inward-turning  o f the  T h i s c o n f l i c t between an  i m a g i n a t i v e p a t t e r n and an outward-turning  intellectual  pattern  the  insufficiency of the novel.  artistic  The M i l l  c a n be o f f e r e d a s one e x p l a n a t i o n f o r Intellectually,  on t h e F l o s s i s a s t o r y a b o u t t h e h e r o i c  of Maggie T u l l i v e r  who  dies  i n martyrdom  struggles  i n "loving,  willing  25 submission"  t o the needs o f o t h e r s ;  p h r a s e a Kempis,  forsaken  in  f o r others  pity  The M i l l  and l o v e  t h a t ends w i t h  as t h e h e r o i n e , drowns.  has, t o  para-  h e r s e l f and gone o u t o f h e r s e l f (pp. 253-54).  on t h e F l o s s , i s e s s e n t i a l l y  i n t o the s e l f  who  a kind  Imaginatively,  a regressive  of Prufrockian  i n the robes of Christ-Everyman,  journey irony  ignobly  ^GEL  I I I , 41.  George E l i o t , The M i l l on the F l o s s , e d . Gordon S. Haight (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1961), p. 104. I n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the R i v e r s i d e e d i t i o n , Gordon Haight p o i n t s out t h a t t h e f l o o d was not an a f t e r thought t o e x t r i c a t e the author from an i m p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n , but the c o n t r o l l i n g i d e a a t the n o v e l ' s i n c e p t i o n . (p. v) 3  F r o m the manuscript and l a t e r d e l e t e d e d i t i o n , Haight's note 9, p . 44. 4  i n the f i r s t  A t l e a s t two c r i t i c s agree t h a t the F l o s s i s symbolic o f change and p r o g r e s s . Knoepflmacher, E a r l y Novels, p . 168; W i l l i a m R. S t e i n h o f f , "Intent and F u l f i l l m e n t i n the Ending of The M i l l on the F l o s s , " Essays i n C r i t i c i s m ; U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s P u b l i c a t i o n s , E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , XI (1955), 247. 5  ^The h a n d l i n g o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the F l o s s i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o Wordsworth's d e s c r i p t i o n of the R i v e r Derwent which "received/On h i s smooth b r e a s t the shadow o f those towers/That y e t s u r v i v e , a s h a t t e r e d monument/Of f e u d a l sway . . . ." The Prelude, 11. 282-285. A g a i n t h e r e i s a p a r a l l e l with t h e growth o f the young Wordsworth who a l s o adopted the "mean" and " i n g l o r i o u s " p u r s u i t o f "plunder," The Prelude,. 11. 327-330. 7  ®Haight, i n h i s annotation, p o i n t s out t h a t George E l i o t "adopted her q u o t a t i o n s f r e e l y " from the C h a l l o n e r t r a n s l a t i o n o f a Kempis. The M i l l on the F l o s s , p . 253. 9  C r o s s , George E l i o t ' s L i f e ,  p. 425.  lOEssays, e d . Pinney, p . 264. H " N o t e s on the 'Spanish Gypsy,'" p . 427.  " H a n e y , The Garden and the C h i l d , p. 1 3  C h a p t e r heading, VI,  197.  xiii.  M a g g i e " s r e g e n e r a t i o n i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d by B. P a r i s , Experiments i n L i f e , pp. 156-168. "Maggie," he concludes, "has a r r i v e d by a completely n a t u r a l process at the R e l i g i o n of Humanity" (p. 167). 14  H a i g h t , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the R i v e r s i d e e d i t i o n , has p o i n t e d out the s i m i l a r i t y which perhaps George E l i o t i n t e n d s us t o see between the storm i n The M i l l on the F l o s s and the storm i n King Lear, p . x i x . 1 5  l 6  C h a p t e r heading, V I I , v .  17  G E L , I I I , 269.  ISjoan Bennett, George E l i o t , Her Mind and A r t , p. 130; Walter A l l e n , George E l i o t (New York: Macmillan, 1964), p. 116; U. C. Knoepflmacher, The E a r l y Novels o f George E l i o t , p. 220. I n her defence o f contemporary a l l e g a t i o n s as t o Maggie's dubious v i r t u e , George E l i o t emphasizes t h a t Maggie i s "a c r e a t u r e e s s e n t i a l l y noble but l i a b l e t o g r e a t e r r o r . " GEL, I I I , 317. 1 9  20  Heading  f o r Book T h r e e .  G e o r g e E l i o t J o u r n a l , ( A p r i l 14, 1858) c i t e d i n Gordon S. Haight, George E l i o t : A Biography, p. 256. 21  22 The contemporary n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c r i t i c s were o u t raged a t Maggie's conduct with Stephen, so much so t h a t George E l i o t was f o r c e d t o defend i t a r t i s t i c a l l y i n a l e t t e r t o one o f the more r a t i o n a l c r i t i c s , Bulwer-Lytton, GEL I I I , 317-318. F r o m the manuscript and l a t e r d e l e t e d i n the e d i t i o n , H a i g h t ' s note 7, 386. 2 3  2  4some V e r s i o n s of P a s t o r a l , p.  2 5  "Notes  on the  203.  'Spanish Gypsy,'" p.  427.  first  CHAPTER IV SILAS MARNER - EDEN REVISITED  Beginning i n the darkness t h a t remains when Maggie's s o l i t a r y taper i s put out, S i l a s Marner culminates i n an e f f u l g e n c e o f l i g h t generated by the l o v e and sympathy o f human f e l l o w s h i p .  The b r i g h t p a s t o r a l world which i s i n -  h e r i t e d by a l o n e l y weaver i s not o n l y the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l s o c i e t y symbolized by Maggie's candle, b u t i s a l s o t h e f i n a l e of the p a s t o r a l t r i l o g y as a whole. d i s m i s s e d as l i t t l e more than a "charming  Often  minor masterpiece,  S i l a s Marner focuses on a p i c t u r e o f p a r a d i s e r e g a i n e d and, i n so doing, completes  the c e n t r a l v i s i o n o f p a r a d i s e i n  Adam Bede and of p a r a d i s e l o s t i n The M i l l on t h e F l o s s . Taken t o g e t h e r , then, the t h r e e n o v e l s of the t r i l o g y r e p e a t on a l a r g e r s c a l e the p a t t e r n t h a t i s a l s o developed w i t h i n each i n d i v i d u a l n o v e l .  T h i s i s perhaps why George E l i o t was  u n u s u a l l y i n s i s t e n t on Blackwood's p u b l i s h i n g S i l a s Marner d i r e c t l y a f t e r The M i l l on the F l o s s and not a t a l a t e r  date  My c h i e f reason f o r w i s h i n g t o p u b l i s h the s t o r y now, i s , t h a t I l i k e my w r i t i n g s t o appear i n the order i n which they a r e w r i t t e n , because they belong t o s u c c e s s i v e mental phases . . . . 2  131  S i n c e she tended t o be e x a s p e r a t i n g l y s e c r e t i v e about her art,  i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o be c e r t a i n as t o what George E l i o t  meant by " s u c c e s s i v e mental phases."  I n view o f the  emergent p a t t e r n i n g o f the t r i l o g y , however, i t i s very p o s s i b l e she was r e f e r r i n g t o the v a r i o u s phases o f the t r i l o g y ' s o v e r - r i d i n g d e s i g n as they are s u c c e s s i v e l y embodied i n each n o v e l .  While S i l a s Marner n e c e s s a r i l y p o r t r a y s the l o s s o f a s t a t e o f happiness and t h e ensuing d e s p a i r i n the w i l d e r ness,  the f i r s t o f these stages i s o n l y d e a l t with i n a  b r i e f f l a s h b a c k and the second i s e x p l o r e d w i t h i n the conf i n e s o f the f i r s t two chapters o f t h e n o v e l . modelled on t h e B i b l i c a l J o b world when, i n the splendour  3  Silas i s  who laments the l o s s o f a of h i s youth, he was a t one  with God and the u n i v e r s e :  Oh t h a t I were as i n months past, as i n the days when God preserved me; When h i s candle shined upon my head, and when by t h i s l i g h t I walked through darkness: As I was i n the days o f my youth, when the s e c r e t o f God was upon my t a b e r n a c l e . . . 4  L i k e Job who looks back t o the time when "my g l o r y was f r e s h i n me,"5 S i l a s p a i n f u l l y - f e e l s the absence o f the l i g h t o f L a n t e r n Yard where he was p e c u l i a r l y marked f o r " s p e c i a l  dealings".  6  Once " b e l i e v e d t o be a young man  of exemplary  l i f e and ardent f a i t h , " S i l a s enjoyed "God's kingdom upon earth"  (p. 16)  movement, ship"  i n L a n t e r n Yard and l e d a l i f e  . . . mental  (p. 7 ) .  As was  activity,  and  "filled  . . . close  fellow-  the case with Maggie T u l l i v e r  s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t way,  with  in a  youth wanes f o r S i l a s and with i t  the happiness and d e l i g h t bred of the c l o s e a f f i n i t y between man  and nature or between man  and God  in Silas*  case.  Job  l o s e s h i s e a r l y j o y when he encounters Satan's a n t a g o n i z i n g stratagems.  S i m i l a r l y , the e v i l - p l o t t i n g o f W i l l i a m Dane  p r e c i p i t a t e s S i l a s out of the h e a v e n l y - l i t kingdom o f h i s youth and i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s o f darkness and d e s p a i r .  Although the notion- o f a former p a r a d i s e i n f u s e d w i t h egoism i s not developed i n S i l a s Marner, S i l a s c a r r i e s the w i l d e r n e s s the l i m i t e d p o i n t of view, i f not the of  the "narrow r e l i g i o u s s e c t " t h a t i n h a b i t s the  . . . world" o f L a n t e r n Yard  (p. 7 ) .  into  faith,  "little  He can see no  corres-  pondence between the l i f e o f L a n t e r n Yard and t h a t of Raveloe; t h e r e i s "nothing t h a t c a l l [ s } out h i s l o v e and f e l l o w s h i p toward (pp. 17-18). in  the s t r a n g e r s he h a [ s ] come amongst"  Consequently,  he t u r n s inwards t o f i n d s o l a c e  the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s own  immediate wants.  Exiled for  f i f t e e n y e a r s i n s u l l e n s e c l u s i o n , he passes h i s days which, l i k e Job's, are " s w i f t e r than a weavers s h u t t l e and spent without hope."^  H i s i n i t i a l blasphemy r e v e r b e r a t e s  around him i n the darkness.  carets]  f o r him,"  . . .  Convinced " t h e r e i s no Love t h a t  he seeks n e i t h e r Man  nor God  for fellowship.  His  e x i s t e n c e converges on the worship of t h i n g s , such as  his  earthen pot, and e s p e c i a l l y h i s golden g u i n e a s .  Sym-  b o l i c of the obscure and i n e r t l e v e l of h i s p o t e n t i a l humanity, the g o l d " g a t h e r [ s ] h i s power o f l o v i n g t o g e t h e r i n t o a h a r d i s o l a t i o n l i k e i t s own"  (p. 50).  Both S i l a s and h i s b i b l i c a l p r o t o t y p e are at the mercy of  their affects.  Providence i n i t i a l l y  destroys S i l a s '  b e l i e f and happiness, and providence e v e n t u a l l y r e s t o r e s them.  The road t o u l t i m a t e redemption  i s opened f o r the  weaver when providence whisks away h i s hoard, the o b j e c t of  h i s c o l d and i n d i f f e r e n t a l i e n a t i o n .  With the t h e f t ,  S i l a s i s immediately h u r l e d i n t o the a f f a i r s of Raveloe society.  Minutes a f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g h i s l o s s , S i l a s i s s i t -  t i n g i n the midst of the company o f The Rainbow. bow  The  rain-  i n P a r a d i s e L o s t i s d e s c r i b e d by M i c h a e l as "betokening  peace from God,  and Cov'nant new"  (XI, 1. 867).  the scene of S i l a s ' f i r s t meeting w i t h the  Here, as  townspeople,  The Rainbow portends t h e r e t u r n o f S i l a s * h a p p i n e s s .  The  s e n s a t i o n a l robbery and the t e d i o u s a f f a i r o f remanding t h e t h i e f soon draw S i l a s out more and more i n t o the community u n t i l h i s h e a r t , so long shut up a g a i n s t h i s f e l l o w s , gradua l l y opens:  Formerly, h i s h e a r t had been as a l o c k e d casket with i t s t r e a s u r e i n s i d e ; but now t h e casket was empty, and the l o c k was broken. L e f t groping i n darkness, with h i s prop u t t e r l y gone, S i l a s had i n e v i t a b l y a sense, though a d u l l and h a l f - d e s p a i r i n g one, t h a t i f any h e l p came to him, i t must come from without, and t h e r e was a s l i g h t s t i r r i n g of expectation at the sight of h i s fellowmen, a f a i n t consciousness o f dependence on t h e i r good w i l l . . . . ( p . 100)  When D o l l y Winthrop appears b e a r i n g t h e s p e c i a l l a r d - c a k e s , S i l a s "open[sJ the door wide t o admit [ h e r ] " (p. 100).  But  t h e long process o f h i s i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e f e l l o w s h i p o f mankind has o n l y j u s t begun.  Although  the communion t a b l e  i s spread b e f o r e him, he cannot y e t j o i n Aaron i n e a t i n g the cakes with t h e "good meaning" (p. 100) stamped on them.  No longer e n c l o s e d i n the narrow and s e l f i s h sphere o f a miser, S i l a s i s now prepared t o embrace the otherness, the n o t - h i m s e l f , which can p o t e n t i a l l y redeem him from the wasteland.  One n i g h t , while he stands b e s i d e h i s open door,  l o o k i n g out on the "wide t r a c k l e s s snow" with "yearning and  unrest" him  (p. 138), the key t o h i s redemption  i n the t h i r d v i s i t a t i o n o f p r o v i d e n c e .  i s brought t o The c h i l d , as  the b e i n g t h a t w i l l l i n k him with t h e world o f man and God, r e p r e s e n t s d i v i n e power and b e n e f i c i e n c e i n i t s Wordsworthian a f f i n i t y with Nature and God:  That wide-gazing calm which makes us o l d e r human beings, with our inward t u r m o i l , f e e l a c e r t a i n awe i n the presence o f a l i t t l e c h i l d , such as we f e e l b e f o r e some q u i e t majesty or beauty i n the e a r t h or s k y — b e f o r e a steady glowing p l a n e t , or a f u l l - f l o w e r e d e g l a n t i n e , o r the bending t r e e s over a s i l e n t pathway, ( p . 148)  B l e s s e d w i t h Eppie, S i l a s faith.  The c h i l d ' s  s l o w l y begins t o r e g a i n h i s l o s t  enigmatic presence  causes him t o  " t r e m b l [ e j with an emotion mysterious t o h i m s e l f , a t something unknown dawning on h i s l i f e " is  (p. 154). Through Eppie,  a l s o m a g i c a l l y r e u n i t e d with h i s own l o s t  Silas  youth:  There was a v i s i o n o f the o l d home and the o l d s t r e e t s l e a d i n g t o L a n t e r n Y a r d — a n d w i t h i n t h a t v i s i o n another, of the thoughts which had been present w i t h him i n those f a r - o f f scenes . . . a message came t o him from that f a r - o f f l i f e : i t s t i r r e d f i b r e s t h a t had never been moved i n R a v e l o e - - o l d q u i v e r i n g s o f t e n d e r n e s s — o l d impressions of awe a t the presentiment o f some Power p r e s i d i n g over h i s l i f e . . . . ( p . 140)  A t the same time, the c h i l d h o l d s out a " f r e s h . l i f e " f o r S i l a s t h a t extends  ( p . 159)  i n t o the f u t u r e with a p e r p e t u a l sense  of  change and renewal:  Eppie was an o b j e c t compacted of changes and hopes t h a t f o r c e d h i s thoughts onward, and c a r r i e d them away t o the new t h i n g s t h a t would come with the coming years . . . . ( p . 158)  More important, the c h i l d s t i m u l a t e s S i l a s ' growth i n t o the world around him and u l t i m a t e l y i n t o the r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s f u l l humanity:  As t h e c h i l d ' s mind was growing i n t o knowledge, h i s mind was growing i n t o memory: as h e r l i f e unfolded, h i s s o u l , long s t u p e f i e d i n a c o l d narrow p r i s o n , was u n f o l d i n g too, and t r e m b l i n g g r a d u a l l y i n t o f u l l consciousness. ( p . 160)  Eppie, by " s t i r r i n g t h e human kindness i n a l l eyes t h a t lookf ]  on her"  ever-widening  (p. 158), n o t o n l y connects S i l a s with an  c i r c l e o f f e l l o w s h i p , but, i n h e r c h i l d i s h  a f f i n i t y with Nature, of  she p l a c e s S i l a s back i n t h e u n i v e r s e  Man and God:  The l i t t l e c h i l d had come t o l i n k him once more with the-whole w o r l d . There was l o v e between him and t h e c h i l d t h a t b l e n t them i n t o one, and t h e r e was l o v e between the c h i l d and the w o r l d — f r o m men and women w i t h p a r e n t a l l o o k s and tones, t o the r e d l a d y - b i r d s and the round p e b b l e s . ( p . 165)  Having  i n i t i a l l y brought S i l a s t o "share i n t h e observances  h e l d sacred by h i s neighbours"  a t h e r c h r i s t e n i n g , Eppie has  enabled him  t o j o i n i n the communion t h a t c e l e b r a t e s  u n i t y between man  and man,  man  and God,  and man  and  the nature.  I t i s t h i s u n i t y t h a t vouchsafes the r e t u r n of p a r a d i s e Silas.  Led out of the  winged angel"  " c i t y of d e s t r u c t i o n " by the  of a c h i l d  (p. 166),  for  "white-  S i l a s comes t o enjoy  the  "calm and b r i g h t land" of a p a s t o r a l Eden:  And when the sunshine grew strong and l a s t i n g , so t h a t the b u t t e r c u p s were t h i c k i n the meadows, S i l a s might be seen i n the sunny mid-day, or i n the l a t e afternoon when the shadows were lengthening under the hedgerows, s t r o l l i n g out with uncovered head t o c a r r y Eppie beyond the S t o n e - p i t s t o where the f l o w e r s grew . . . . (p. 159)  T h i s luminous p a s t o r a l v i s i o n i s framed by the r u s t i c p e r manence of Raveloe i t s e l f .  The  f e l l o w s h i p and  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h Raveloe s o c i e t y are preserved  conviviality i n an  swerving observance o f t r a d i t i o n which renders the timeless.  The  Christmas, and  great New  Year's Eve  the g a t h e r i n g s  at The  dance at Squire  un-  society Cass',  Rainbow are almost a  r e h e a r s a l o f a l l the a c t i o n s , f e e l i n g s and  conversation  have been p a r t of Raveloe from "time out of mind" (p.  that 108).  A group of these r u s t i c s form the backdrop of w e l l wishers t o E p p i e ' s springtime  wedding.  For S i l a s ,  the event  i s a l s o a c e l e b r a t i o n of the f u l f i l l m e n t of the covenant of  the rainbow.  Eppie has promised she w i l l never f o r s a k e h e r  foster father.  As a symbol o f God's goodness ( p . 206), she  t h e r e f o r e ensures S i l a s ' own f a i t h .  As he c o n f i d e s t o  D o l l y Winthrop:  'Since the time t h e c h i l d was sent t o me and I've come t o l o v e h e r as myself, I've had l i g h t enough-to t r u s t e n by; and now she says s h e ' l l never leave me, I t h i n k I s h a l l t r u s t e n t i l l I d i e . ' ( p . 224)  Having "recovered a consciousness o f u n i t y between h i s past and present" along w i t h "the sense o f p r e s i d i n g goodness and the human t r u s t (p.  which come w i t h a l l pure peace and j o y "  177), S i l a s has been redeemed by what George E l i o t  "the r e m e d i a l i n f l u e n c e s o f pure, Living  n a t u r a l human  called g  relations."  b e s i d e t h e g l a d and s h i n i n g f l o w e r s o f Eppie's  garden  (p. 227), S i l a s has been i n i t i a t e d by t h e c h i l d i n t o h i s f u l l humanity. Under the rainbow, t h e c h i l d i s indeed t h e 9 Father o f the Man.  Henry James i s one o f the many c r i t i c s who have r e marked on t h e unusual p r e c i s i o n o f t h e a r t i s t r y o f S i l a s Marner:  I t has more of t h a t simple, rounded, consummate aspect, t h a t absence of loose ends and gaping i s s u e s , which marks a c l a s s i c w o r k . 10  T h i s aspect of a r t i s t i c u n i t y which James a t t r i b u t e s t o the n o v e l can a l s o be demonstrated i n the way aspects of George E l i o t ' s two  i n which c e r t a i n  p a s t o r a l s , the p a s t o r a l of  i n t e l l e c t and the p a s t o r a l of i m a g i n a t i o n , come together and m u t u a l l y e n f o r c e each other i n the n o v e l . novels, the o v e r a l l inward-turning  In the  earlier  and r e g r e s s i v e experience  d e l i n e a t e d by the i m a g i n a t i v e p a s t o r a l i s seen t o be  con-  t r a d i c t o r y t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l p a t t e r n i n which the hero or h e r o i n e i s presumably moving outwards toward a deeper wider understanding  o f the n o t - s e l f .  Similarly,  and  any  outward or p r o g r e s s i v e momentum t h a t occurs w i t h i n the imagi n a t i v e p a t t e r n i s p l a c e d i n a n e g a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l cont e x t as i n The M i l l on the F l o s s , f o r example, where Maggie's i n c l i n a t i o n s t o move away from D o r l c o t e M i l l are  considered,  f o r the most p a r t , t o be a form of r e p r e h e n s i b l e egoism. S i l a s Marner, the r e g r e s s i v e and e v e n t u a l l y f a t a l i n t o the s e l f i s made t o correspond  journey  t o S i l a s ' withdrawal  from human s o c i e t y and t o the w i t h e r i n g e f f e c t t h i s drawal has  f o r him.  i m p r i s o n i n g and  In  Raveloe, which i s i n i t i a l l y  with-  Silas'  f u t i l e womb-like environment a c c o r d i n g t o the  i m a g i n a t i v e p a t t e r n , i s , a t the same time, a h o p e l e s s wasteland i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l p a t t e r n . i s m a g i c a l l y "reborn" as a c h i l d ,  L a t e r , when S i l a s  an outward and expansive  i m a g i n a t i v e momentum w i l l be seen t o correspond t o h i s i n i t i a t i o n i n t o a wider v i s i o n the i n t e l l e c t u a l  o f humanity.  Raveloe, both i n  and i m a g i n a t i v e p a t t e r n ,  f i n a l l y can be  seen, then, as a s h i n i n g p a s t o r a l world f o r the c h i l d - l i k e Silas  t o enjoy.  W i t h i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l p a t t e r n , S i l a s *  removal t o  Raveloe i s h i s e n t r y i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s and h i s withdrawal from human s o c i e t y . initially  womb-like.  I m a g i n a t i v e l y , however, Raveloe i s A q u i e t and s t a t i c world away from the  growth and change o f an urban i n d u s t r i a l is  " n e s t l e d i n a snug well-wooded hollow"  deep morning q u i e t , the dewy brambles  Raveloe  ( p . 4 ) . "The  and the rank t u f t e d  grass" are l i k e the "blackness o f n i g h t " Silas  society,  (pp. 15, 17) • Y e t  i s very unhappy i n the l a p o f t h e Raveloe.  Perhaps  the memory o f Maggie's severe f r u s t r a t i o n s i s s t i l l t o o s t r o n g i n h i s c r e a t o r ' s mind. of  s i m i l a r i t i e s between S i l a s  in their  t i n y p a s t o r a l worlds:  I n any case, t h e r e i s a number and Maggie.  Both are m i s f i t s  Maggie, by v i r t u e o f h e r  unusual "' cuteness'" and dark beauty,  and S i l a s , by v i r t u e  o f h i s membership i n the " d i s i n h e r i t e d race" of l o o k i n g " weavers (p. 1 ) .  Although S i l a s i s o n l y once  compared t o a G o l i a t h (p. 161), he problem of p s y c h i c b i g n e s s . S i l a s has  "alien-  shares w i t h Maggie the  L i k e the w i l d , Medusa-like  an aura of e v i l about him  t h a t seems p a r t i a l l y  generated by the narrow and cramped environment around For the peasants of Raveloe, "the world d i r e c t experience (p.2).  outside t h e i r  him. own  a r e g i o n of vagueness and mystery"  Consequently, they r e g a r d S i l a s ' mysterious advent  from the "unknown r e g i o n c a l l e d  'North'ard'"  s u s p i c i o n as they view h i s q u e s t i o n a b l e t a i n l y cannot be c a r r i e d out without one."  girl,  Among the peasantry  w i t h as much  v o c a t i o n which c e r -  the a i d o f the  "evil  o f Raveloe and the m a t r i a r c h i e s  of S t . Ogg's, t h e r e i s no t o l e r a n c e f o r any  "cleverness"  (p. 2) g r e a t e r than t h a t of the "'common run'"  (p. 98)  since  "honest f o l k , born and b r e d i n a v i s i b l e manner, were mostly not overwise or c l e v e r " (p. 2 ) .  Not  imperceptibly,  shadow of S t . Ogg's narrow paganism and  the  stupefying m a t e r i a l -  ism l i n g e r s over Raveloe: Orchards l o o k i n g l a z y with n e g l e c t e d p l e n t y ; the l a r g e church i n the wide churchyard, which men gazed at lounging at t h e i r own doors i n s e r v i c e - t i m e ; the p u r p l e - f a c e d farmers j o g g i n g along the lanes or t u r n i n g i n a t the Rainbow; homesteads, where men supped  h e a v i l y and s l e p t i n the l i g h t of the evening h e a r t h , and where women seemed t o be l a y i n g up a stock o f l i n e n f o r the l i f e t o come. (p. 16)  The  focus of S i l a s ' own  e x i s t e n c e i n the w i l d e r n e s s  i s h i s quest f o r more and more g o l d . his  hoard,  I n order t o i n c r e a s e  S i l a s must weave p e r p e t u a l l y i n h i s l o o m — a n  a c t i v i t y which has a q u a l i t y o f Maggie's s e l f - m u t i l a t i o n i n it.  Marner's " f a c e and f i g u r e s h r a n k  i n t o a constant-mechanical (which, The  incidentally,  relation"  and ben[d]  themselves  (p. 22) t o h i s loom  a l s o sounds something l i k e "womb").  i n c e s s a n t weaving f o r c e s S i l a s i n t o a p r e - n a t a l c r o u c h —  "the bent t r e a d - m i l l a t t i t u d e o f the weaver" (p.  3)—which  ensures a p s y c h i c d i m i n u t i o n t h a t Maggie never a t t a i n e d . U n l i k e her, S i l a s ,  i n h i s perverse existence, i s l u l l e d  by  a "sense o f s e c u r i t y ; " he i s h a p p i l y " f r e e from the p r e sentiment  of change" (p. 4 8 ) .  A t the same time,  though,  "the unquestioning a c t i v i t y of a s p i n n i n g i n s e c t "  (p. 17)  i s S i l a s ' doom as he entwines h i m s e l f more and more i n the darkness which e v e n t u a l l y w i l l devour him.  Slowly dying,  h e - i s , along with Maggie, i d e n t i f i e d with d e p l e t i n g l i f e forces.  H i s "withered and shrunken  . . . life"  (p. 93) i s  p a r t i c u l a r i z e d i n the image of a " w i t h e r i n g and yellow" t r e e i n which the "sap of a f f e c t i o n " has been n e a r l y d e s t r o y e d  (p.22).  The m u t i l a t e d l i f e  of S i l a s Marner  "shrunken r i v u l e t "  (p. 106)  the  i s now  little  more than a  " t h a t has sunk f a r down from  g r a s s y f r i n g e o f i t s o l d breadth i n t o a l i t t l e  shivering  t h r e a d , t h a t c u t s a groove f o r i t s e l f i n the b a r r e n sand" (P.  24) .  Maggie's  slow d e t e r i o r a t i o n ends i n c o n g r o u s l y when,  crowned w i t h thorns, she e n t e r s i n t o the wider l i f e and s u f f e r i n g on b e h a l f o f humanity.  of l o v i n g  Her death i s a p r e -  lude t o her reward i n a second p a r a d i s e .  S i l a s , on the other  hand, " d i e s " i g n o b l y i n the form of h i s a l t e r ego, the a v a r i c i o u s Dunsey C a s s .  Dunsey e n t e r s the miser's c o t t a g e  and takes h i s hoard t o a watery death a t the bottom of the Stone-pits.  A t the v e r y moment of Dunsey's demise,  d i s c o v e r s the l o s s o f h i s g o l d . c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "a man  Silas  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , he i s  f a l l i n g i n t o dark waters [whoj  a momentary f o o t i n g even on s l i d i n g stones" (p. 51).  seeks George  E l i o t i s a l s o c a r e f u l t o g i v e s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l macabre t r a p p i n g s t o the t h e f t and "death." to  While S i l a s makes h i s way  The Rainbow i n order t o r e p o r t the b u r g l a r y t o the d i g n i -  t a r i e s o f Raveloe, the c o n v e r s a t i o n at the i n n ranges between the  v i r t u e s of a " l o v e l y c a r k i s s " and the p r o b a b i l i t y o f  g h o s t s . -In the midst o f t h i s company t h a t consumes draughts  of  beer as "a f u n e r e a l duty attended with  sadness" or  embarrassing  ( p . 54), S i l a s appears i n the manner o f a "ghost"  "apparition"  (pp. 66-67).  A few days l a t e r , S i l a s i s  v i s i t e d by D o l l y Winthrop, "a simply grave" woman, " i n c l i n e d to  shake h e r head and s i g h , almost i m p e r c e p t i b l y , l i k e a  f u n e r a l mourner who i s not a r e l a t i o n "  (p. 99).  S i l a s ' deadness i s emphasized a g a i n when the l i t t l e c h i l d m y s t e r i o u s l y comes t o him.  While i n the t h r o e s o f a  c a t a l y p t i c f i t which renders him " s t i f f " a "dead man"  and " r i g i d , "  (p. 5), the c h i l d , the g i f t o f l i f e ,  r e p l a c e t h e death engendered by the hoarded of  like  comes t o  gold: "instead  the hard c o i n with the f a m i l i a r r e s i s t i n g o u t l i n e h i s  f i n g e r s encounter  C 3 s o f t warm c u r l s "  ( p . 139). More  important, S i l a s shares an i d e n t i t y with t h e c h i l d t h a t goes back t o the n o v e l ' s i n c e p t i o n .  George E l i o t c l a i m s the  n o v e l t o have some b a s i s i n her c h i l d h o o d reminiscence of "a linen-weaver with a bag on h i s b a c k . " bag c a r r i e s the "mysterious burden"  1 1  This uterus-like  ( p . 1) which i s the  r e s u l t o f a l l the f a t a l s p i d e r - l i k e weaving and e n t w i n i n g . The  sack i s t h e r e f o r e the membrane t h a t n o u r i s h e s the i n -  c r e a s i n g p i l e o f dead golden guineas, the "unborn c h i l d (p.  21) soon t o be born out o f the darkness.  From o u t o f t h e c o l d d e p t h s o f a w i n t e r ' s n i g h t in  dingy rags t h a t betoken  child  i t s low  enters the "very b r i g h t  bringing  parentage,  place"  i t s u n u t t e r a b l e mystery  the  o f Marner's  t o the "poor  and  divine cottage,  mushed"  weaver:  M a r n e r t o o k h e r on h i s l a p , t r e m b l i n g w i t h an e m o t i o n m y s t e r i o u s t o h i m s e l f , a t s o m e t h i n g unknown d a w n i n g on h i s l i f e . T h o u g h t and f e e l i n g were s o c o n f u s e d w i t h i n him, t h a t i f h e h a d t r i e d to" g i v e them u t t e r ance^,: h e c o u l d o n l y h a v e s a i d t h a t t h e c h i l d was come i n s t e a d o f the gold--and t h a t the g o l d had t u r n e d i n t o the c h i l d . ( p . 154)  P a r t of the c h i l d ' s mystery that of  i t represents.  thought  sterility  and and  Eppie  feeling,  chaos.  the  worlds  unconsciousness, light  and  lies,  of r e s p e c t a b l e admirers"  "dingy"barmaid father,  who  like  a dark b y - s t r e e t ,  behind  Godfrey Cass,  (p. 36).  (p. 143).  and  The  i s d r i v e n by the " d i a b o l i c a l who  l u r e s him  her  cunning"  i n t o a marriage of  C a s s home i t s e l f  the  Her mother i s a  i s d r i v e n b y t h e "demon Opium" and  h i s b r o t h e r Dunstan  passion"  dark-  i s conceived i n darkness i n  g o o d l y ornamented f a c a d e t h a t meets t h e s u n l i g h t  gaze  of  wholeness  the matrix of the  g o o d n e s s and e v i l , She  " t h a t h i d d e n l i f e which  forms  c o n s c i o u s n e s s and  fertility,  n e s s , o r d e r and  i s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  a t the time  E p p i e ' s c o n c e p t i o n i s a scene o f p e r p e t u a l chaos,  "low  of  destitute  of  "any h a l l o w i n g charm" (p. 25) or the " f o u n t a i n s of  wholesome love and f e a r "  (p. 27):  The f a d i n g grey l i g h t f e l l d i m l y on the w a l l s decorated with guns, whips, and f o x e s ' brushes, on coats and h a t s f l u n g on the c h a i r s , on tankards sending f o r t h a scent of f l a t a l e , and a h a l f - c h o k e d f i r e , with p i p e s propped up on the chimney c o r n e r s . . . . (p. 2 8 ) 1 3  When Eppie comes out of the winter darkness world of l i g h t on Marner's h e a r t h , her dark, mother d i e s .  Her  114)  demon-driven  f a t h e r , a l r e a d y r e l e a s e d from Dunstan's  s a t a n i c machinations, (p.  i n t o the  i s now  a b l e t o espouse the  of Nancy Lammenter, h i s "good angel"  Nancy, as Mrs. Cass,  "purity"  (p. 37).  c o n v e r t s the Red House t o " p u r i t y  o r d e r " — t h e r e f l e c t i o n of her own  "delicate purity  and  and  nattiness": Now a l l i s p o l i s h , on which no y e s t e r d a y ' s dust i s ever allowed t o r e s t , from the yard's width o f oaken boards round the c a r p e t , t o the o l d S q u i r e ' s gun and whips and w a l k i n g - s t i c k s , ranged on the stag's a n t l e r s above the m a n t e l p i e c e . A l l other s i g n s of s p o r t i n g and outdoor o c c u p a t i o n Nancy has removed t o another room . . . . The tankdards are on the s i d e - t a b l e s t i l l , but the bossed s i l v e r i s undimmed by h a n d l i n g , and t h e r e are no dregs t o send f o r t h unpleasant s u g g e s t i o n s : the o n l y p r e v a i l i n g scent i s of the lavender and r o s e l e a v e s t h a t f i l l the vases of D e r b y s h i r e s p a r . (p. 188)  Yet Godfrey's  "promised  land" (p. 168)  t h a t Nancy has  brought  him  t o i s dead and s t e r i l e .  little  o t h e r t h a n a museum t h a t h o u s e s t h e a c c e s s o r i e s o f  a more f e r t i l e raucous  life  i n the past.  Instead of the e a r l i e r  g a i e t y , t h e r e i s now o n l y t h e o c c a s i o n a l s o b e r  reunion l i k e (p.  T h e R e d House h a s become  187).  the "quiet  Godfrey,  f a m i l y party" gathered  frustrated  after  church  a n d unhappy l o o k s f o r w a r d t o  a c h i l d l e s s o l d age w h i l e h i s b a r r e n w i f e l o o k s f r o m h e r prim p a r l o u r onto  The pattern  advent  a graveyard  (p. 200).  of the c h i l d w i t h i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l  signals the beginning of S i l a s '  human community. the c h i l d ' s  almost  coming i s t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e i n w a r d - t u r n i n g  momentum t a k e s o v e r .  them i n t o one" ( p . 1 6 5 ) .  fresh  158).  Certainly,  I n any case,  l i n k s between h i s l i f e , and t h e l i v e s shrunk  continually  Throughout t h e v i l l a g e  homesteads, S i l a s questionning"  It is  s t r e s s e s t h e " l o v e between h i m and t h e c h i l d  which he had h i t h e r t o (p.  s t o p s and an a n t i -  as i f S i l a s h a s been r e b o r n as a c h i l d .  George E l i o t  creates  "death"  o u t w a r d and e x p a n s i v e  that blent  into the  I n the imaginative pattern of the novel,  momentum l e a d i n g up t o S i l a s ' thetical  integration  i n narrow  "the c h i l d from isolation"  and i n a l l t h e o u t - l y i n g  i s "now met w i t h open f a c e s and c h e e r f u l  ( p . 158).  E p p i e draws S i l a s  out into the  sunshine and i n t o a world "compacted o f changes and hopes t h a t f o r c e h i s thoughts onward" (p. 158). A t the same time, there i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r George E l i o t i n S i l a s ' a c h i e v i n g t h a t supreme happiness of the p a s t o r a l experience  which H e t t y destroyed  c o u l d never r e c l a i m — a home.  and which Maggie  p e r f e c t accommodation t o t h e p a s t o r a l  "By s h a r i n g the e f f e c t t h a t e v e r y t h i n g  on Eppie,  produced"  S i l a s "himself come[s] t o a p p r o p r i a t e  the forms  of custom and b e l i e f which Ta3re t h e mould o f Raveloe  life"  ( p . 177). T h i s p e r f e c t accommodation t o the p a s t o r a l world which S i l a s enjoys as h i s l i f e and happy l i f e  of a c h i l d  " u n f o l d s " i n t o the " f u l l "  ( p . 160) i s p o s s i b l y why the n a r -  r a t i v e o c c a s i o n a l l y pauses t o n o t i c e E p p i e ' s c h i l d i s h p r a t t l e and a n t i c s .  I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e newfound c h i l d h o o d o f  a man who t o i l e d f o r years  i n a strange  l a n d without  faith  or hope, George E l i o t i s perhaps v i c a r i o u s l y e n j o y i n g h i s happiness.  Although S i l a s shares the p o i n t of view o f the c h i l d , he does not share the p s y c h o l o g i c a l wholeness which t h e c h i l d represents.  Throughout the n o v e l , S i l a s i s the "innocent"  J o b - l i k e s u f f e r e r , incapable e n c i r c l i n g darkness.  o f e v i l even i n t h e midst of t h e  As George E l i o t assures us:  Few men c o u l d be more harmless than poor Marner. In h i s t r u t h f u l simple s o u l , not even the growing greed and worship o f g o l d c o u l d beget any v i c e d i r e c t l y injurious to others. (p. 50)  In view of S i l a s ' ignorance o f the p o t e n t i a l e v i l t h a t  lies  w i t h i n h i m s e l f , h i s reward o f the c h i l d l a c k s a p s y c h o l o gical truthfulness.  Psychologically, S i l a s * true fate i s  t h a t o f Godfrey C a s s . v e r y much a l i k e .  Godfrey and S i l a s are i n t e n d e d t o be  George E l i o t p a i r s them w i t h s i m i l a r dark  b r o t h e r s (Dunsey and W i l l i a m Dane o f the "brethern") and submits them both t o the f i c k l e workings o f f a t e .  I n the  end, George E l i o t i n t e n d s Godfrey t o be c u r s e d because he t u r n e d h i s c h i l d from h i s door and S i l a s t o be b l e s s e d cause he takes the c h i l d i n .  be-  P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , Godfrey's  s t e r i l e " p a r a d i s e " w i t h Nancy Lammeter i s h i s punishment of death f o r r e f u s i n g t o r e c o g n i z e h i s own r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c h i l d .  dark nature  When he b e l a t e d l y c o n f e s s e s h i s  p a t e r n i t y , he i s r e a l l y a k i n d of p e r v e r s e Faustus who h i s soul into l i g h t . hell: world""  sold  The rebuke o f h i s b a r r e n w i f e i s h i s  "'Iwasn't worth d o i n g wrong f o r — n o t h i n g i s i n t h i s (p. 204).  On the other hand, S i l a s ' acceptance of  the c h i l d i s not e q u i v a l e n t to h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the dark and e v i l s i d e of h i s own  personality.  I n t h i s sense, then,  S i l a s ' m a g i c a l redemption l a c k s a c e r t a i n emotional and  i m a g i n a t i v e c o n v i c t i o n i n the n o v e l .  In the f i n a l v i s i o n  of p a r a d i s e under the s i g n of  the Rainbow, George E l i o t r e t u r n s i m a g i n a t i v e l y t o the p r e - l a p s a r i a n world of Hayslope. Eppie secures f o r S i l a s  The b r i g h t world t h a t  and f o r George E l i o t i s s u s t a i n e d  by the p s y c h o l o g i c a l wholeness which the c h i l d r e p r e s e n t s . In b u i l d i n g her new  garden of order and b r i g h t n e s s ,  instinctively realizes  Eppie  the n e c e s s i t y of i n c l u d i n g the  f u r z e bush a g a i n s t which her dark mother was  found, so t h a t  the f l o w e r s w i l l never " ' d i e out, but'11 always get more and more'" (p. 183). tional  For George E l i o t , Eppie has an a d d i -  appeal i n the l a t t e r ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o remain  ever a c h i l d . t o remain  Eppie counterbalances H e t t y ' s s i n i n her  forever a c h i l d .  Eppie t e l l s S i l a s , while just  for-  as we  "'l4hould  wish  " ' I don't want any change'", l i k e t o go on a long, l o n g  are'" (p. 182).  While H e t t y f a i l e d t o ap-  p r e c i a t e the l o v e of the p a t e r n a l Adam, Eppie and are bound together by " p e r f e c t l o v e . "  In f a c t ,  Silas  the p a s t o r a l  n u p t i a l s are more the c e l e b r a t i o n o f an i n c e s t u o u s union between Eppie and her f a t h e r than between Eppie and the "young and s t r o n g " Aaron who  i s merely c o n c e i v e d as a work-  horse t o support f a t h e r and daughter  i n S i l a s ' o l d age.  The  first "'0  and  father  f i n a l words of the new  b r i d e are f o r her  father:  . . . what a p r e t t y home ours i s ' . I t h i n k  nobody c o u l d be h a p p i e r  Despite  than we  are'"  (p.  227).  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l wholeness which s u s t a i n s  S i l a s ' b r i g h t world, i t n e v e r t h e l e s s of a r t i f i c i a l i t y .  The  evinces  process by which the  an element ever-innocent  S i l a s would earn p s y c h o l o g i c a l wholeness i s never d e l i n e a t e d i n the n o v e l and h i s reward of a p a s t o r a l Eden i s t h e r e f o r e l i t t l e e l s e than an a r t i s t i c tour de  force.  However, the  n o v e l as a whole, as Henry James p o i n t s out, has rounded, consummate aspect" pastoral t r i l o g y .  a  "simple,  t h a t makes i t unique i n the  T h i s a r t i s t i c s u p e r i o r i t y c o u l d be  ex-  p l a i n e d at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y by the g r e a t e r degree t o which the i n t e l l e c t u a l  and  imaginative  p a s t o r a l come together  i n the  aspects  novel.  of George E l i o t ' s  FOOTNOTES  F r a n k R. L e a v i s , The Great T r a d i t i o n ; George E l i o t , Henry James, Joseph Conrad (New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p . 46. x  2  GEL, I I I , 382-383.  U . C. Knoepflmacher i n George E l i o t ' s E a r l y Novels has n o t i c e d other p a r a l l e l s between S i l a s and Job, pp. 248-249. 3  4  J o b 29:2-4.  5  J o b 29:20.  George E l i o t , S i l a s Marner: The Weaver o f Raveloe (New York: R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1962), p . 10. 7  J o b 7:6.  George E l i o t , i n a l e t t e r t o John Blackwood, c l a i m s t h a t S i l a s Marner i s "intended t o s e t — i n a strong l i g h t t h e r e m e d i a l i n f l u e n c e s o f pure, n a t u r a l human r e l a t i o n s . " GEL, I I I , 382. 8  I n her use o f the symbolic v a l u e o f t h e rainbow, George E l i o t was a l s o perhaps r e l y i n g on t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i t has with t h e c h i l d i n Wordsworth's s h o r t poem, p a r t of which was l a t e r p r e f a c e d t o the "Ode: I n t i m a t i o n s o f I m m o r t a l i t y " : 9  My h e a r t l e a p s up when I b e h o l d A rainbow i n t h e sky: So was i t when my l i f e began; So i s i t now I am a man; So be i t when I s h a l l grow o l d , Or l e t me die'. The C h i l d i s f a t h e r o f t h e Man; And I c o u l d wish my days t o be Bound each t o each by n a t u r a l . p i e t y . " T h e Novels of George E l i o t " , A t l a n t i c Monthly, XVIII (October 1866), 482 c i t e d i n R i c h a r d Stang, ed., D i s c u s s i o n s o f George E l i o t (Boston: Heath, 1960), p . 8. x u  1 : L  G E L I I I , 382 .  • ^ S i l a s l a t e r c a r r i e s E p p i e on h i s back a l o n g w i t h t h e l i n e n on h i s t r i p s t o t h e v i l l a g e and f a r m h o u s e s , p . 165. l See 3  a l s o p p . 83-84.  CHAPTER V BEYOND RAVELOE:  THE L I M I T S OF  GEORGE E L I O T ' S PASTORAL  As  an i n t e g r a l  o f man's f a l l vision  part  i n h e r a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e myth o f  from p a r a d i s e , George E l i o t ' s _ p a s t o r a l  o f happiness  a n d harmony, o n c e e n j o y e d  and  t o be achieved again i n a b e t t e r  and  e m o t i o n a l l y , however,  future.  i ti s severely  the communities o f Hayslope  and R a v e l o e  t h e w o r l d o f Maggie T u l l i v e r ' s  narrow.  tion  The M i l l  the c h i l d l i k e  faith  i n their  simple-minded  i s a prolonged exploragirl  who,  and e v e r y t h i n g , "  i n "what N a t u r e  that preserved the golden world o f Hayslope. in  While  and, i n t e r m i t t e n t l y ,  i n c u r r e d by a c l e v e r  w i t h t h e knowledge o f "Shakespeare to attain  Intellectually  childhood are ideal  on t h e F l o s s  o f t h e wretchedness  i n the past  limited.  p a r a d i s i a c a l unity, they are exasperatingly and  i sa  1  tries  has w r i t t e n "  2  Consequently,  S i l a s Marner, t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e between  the narrator savoured  and t h e R a v e l o e  and enjoyed  peasantry.  f a r more r e m o t e l y t h a n was t h e v i c a r i o u s  membership i n t h e community o f H a y s l o p e . author r e a l i z e s  that  S i l a s ' happiness i s  any attempt  By now, t h e  t o i d e n t i f y more  closely  w i t h the simple  swains can o n l y b r i n g the profound  m i s e r i e s of Maggie T u l l i v e r . (p. 66)  or compared with  Described  "guinea p i g s "  as " i n s e c t s " (p. 122),  of Raveloe are seen t o l i v e out t h e i r "own i n d u l l "monotony" (pp. 35-36).  of waking thought"  knew o n l y too w e l l .  petty history"  T h e i r "rude minds" (p.  are exempt from i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y , spontaneity  the people  (p. 93)  35)  from t h a t "dangerous that t h e i r  creator  I t i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e , then, t h a t  the n a i v e t e o f D o l l y Winthrop's b l i n d t r u s t and the moral b e l i e f s engendered by Nancy Cass' " s m a l l experience" compatible with the r e s t l e s s and p e r s p i c a c i o u s of George E l i o t .  As Jerome Thale has  are i n -  intellect  s a i d of S i l a s h i m s e l f :  What happens t o the simple-minded S i l a s g i v e s him grounds f o r t r u s t i n g , but i t seems t o o f f e r a c r i t i c a l mind no p a r t i c u l a r grounds f o r t r u s t i n g , b e l i e v i n g , or l o v i n g . 3  Imaginatively, able, a r t i f i c i a l and  the p a s t o r a l has lifeless.  a l s o become i n s u p p o r t -  A l l e v i l i s eventually cast  out of the u l t i m a t e l y pure realm o f Hayslope and Maggie's childhood. i n e s win  Furthermore, George E l i o t ' s heroes and  t h e i r new  hero-  p a r a d i s e without ever g r a p p l i n g with  the  monster o f e v i l t h a t rages o u t s i d e t h e i r narrow p a s t o r a l kingdom.  T h e i r heroism i s as absurd as t h a t of Don  Quixote  who,  a t the end of h i s c a r e e r of imaginary c h i v a l r y ,  f i c a n t l y opted f o r the shepherd's  l i f e , believing  signi-  that  "the p a s t o r a l dream may i n i t s t u r n r e p l a c e the c h i v a l r i c ideal"  (II, l x x i i i ) .  I n George E l i o t ' s t r i l o g y , the  p a s t o r a l dream i s from the o u t s e t the p r e s e r v e of the q u i x o t i c heroisms o f the l a t t e r day s a i n t s o f the " R e l i g i o n of Humanity."  While H e t t y S o r r e l v i s i t s the hideous ex-  t r e m i t i e s of Eden, Adam i s spared h e r v i s i o n Maggie T u l l i v e r ,  o f dread.  on the other hand, encounters the e v i l  world of i n s t i n c t , but she runs away from the " g i a n t i n s t e a d of s l a y i n g i t .  python"  S i l a s Marner i s m a g i c a l l y redeemed  by a c h i l d w h i l e the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y more l o g i c a l and t r u t h ful  machinations o f e v i l are r e s t r i c t e d  t o the s u b p l o t .  The p a s t o r a l , as a v e h i c l e f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l  and  e m o t i o n a l content, g r a d u a l l y d i s i n t e g r a t e s as George E l i o t plumbs i t s depths i n t h e t r i l o g y .  T h i s i s perhaps  why,  when the image appears b r i e f l y i n the next n o v e l , Romola, it  i s considerably altered.  Near the end o f the n o v e l Romola  d r i f t s away i n a boat and i s r e b o r n i n t o a b e a u t i f u l p a s t o r a l world. it  As she contemplates  " t h i s sequestered l u x u r i a n c e , "  seems " t h a t the a f t e r n o o n dreams of her g i r l h o o d had  r e a l l y come back t o h e r . "  4  Unlike e a r l i e r  images of George  E l i o t ' s p a s t o r a l , however, t h i s landscape i s a c t u a l l y r o t t i n g and dying with the p u t r e f a c t i o n of plague and d i s e a s e .  And,  although Romola can remain w i t h i n i t long enough t o r e s t o r e and h e a l i t , she must r e t u r n t o the more and  complicated  troublesome world o u t s i d e r a t h e r than l i v e i n a s t a t e  of happy and Virgil's  ignorant  s i m p l i c i t y among the descendants of  rustics.  Romola, i n more than one i n George E l i o t ' s career  sense, marks a t u r n i n g  as n o v e l i s t .  In terms o f  5  point  this  study, the n o v e l i s important i n t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s  the  demise of the p a s t o r a l .  this  imaginative  And  c e r t a i n l y , the l o s s of  v e h i c l e as w e l l as the m y t h o l o g i c a l  and  l o g i c a l framework which the p a s t o r a l h e l d together, t o do with the p e r s o n a l  despair  ideohad much  t h a t haunted George E l i o t  f o r n e a r l y t e n y e a r s a f t e r she had  completed the  trilogy.  While t h e r e are s e v e r a l t h e o r i e s t h a t attempt t o e x p l a i n her mysterious a f f l i c t i o n i n the personal  'sixties,  6  George E l i o t ' s  c o n f e s s i o n of a " h o r r i b l e s c e p t i c i s m about a l l  t h i n g s — p a r a l y z i n g my  mind,"  7  seems o n l y t o emphasize the  e f f e c t which the l o s s of the p a s t o r a l had treme d i f f i c u l t y of w r i t i n g , the d e s p a i r t o w r i t e again  i s v o i c e d o f t e n i n her  on h e r .  The  of ever being  journal.  exable  "Sticking  i n the mud  c o n t i n u a l l y " and  f l o u n d e r i n g i n "a swamp of  9 miseries,"  she t r i e s her hand at p o e t r y  attempt t o get out of the morass. absence of "a grand m y t h " o f A Spanish  GVPSV  the "Brother and They r e p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l and,  SO  10  Yet  i n a desperate  she  laments the  which would make the w r i t i n g  much e a s i e r .  Of a l l the poetry,  S i s t e r Sonnets" have any  artistic  a momentary r e t u r n t o the e a r l i e r  merit.  pastoral  l i k e t h a t m a t e r i a l , are u n f o r t u n a t e l y  r e s t r i c t i v e f o r the more complex n o t i o n s t h e i r author.  only  too  that i n t e r e s t  Meanwhile, the bare a b s t r a c t s c a f f o l d i n g o f  p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c o u r s e becomes more and more apparent i n Romola, F e l i x H o l t , and D a n i e l D e r o n d a . was  That George E l i o t  11  s a d l y aware of t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n her  F r e d e r i c H a r r i s o n where she  letter  complains of "the  to  severe e f f o r t  of t r y i n g t o make c e r t a i n ideas t h o r o u g h l y i n c a r n a t e ,  as i f  they had r e v e a l e d  and  not i n the The  themselves t o me  spirit."  first  i n the f l e s h  12  p a s t o r a l , i n these l a t e r works, becomes l i t t l e more  than a v e s t i g e of an e a r l i e r  imaginative  system.  I n both  F e l i x H o l t and D a n i e l Deronda, the p a s t o r a l v i s i o n completely disappears,  and  i n Middlemarch the beauty and  goodness of  the l i f e of the Garths under the apple t r e e s i s put t o  one  s i d e as a p r e t t y p i c t u r e but one not as i n t e r e s t i n g as the e v o l u t i o n of Dorothea Brooke.  There i s some i m a g i n a t i v e  i n t e r e s t surrounding the e x p l o r a t i o n of the nature of e v i l , c h i e f l y i n the c h a r a c t e r o f D a n i e l Deronda's Gwendolen H a r l e t h and t o a c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e r extent i n Mrs. Transome of F e l i x H o l t .  But perhaps due  a r t and George E l i o t ' s own  t o the p r e c e p t s o f V i c t o r i a n  A r n o l d i a n code as to the  irres-  p o n s i b i l i t y of the " a r t which l e a v e s the s o u l i n d e s p a i r , " the v i s i o n of e v i l i s never d e v e l o p e d .  13  For the most p a r t ,  the l i m i t s of George E l i o t ' s i m a g i n a t i o n are d e f i n e d w i t h i n t h e boundaries  of the p a s t o r a l .  her i n f a n t i l e past, i t had  As a t a p r o o t going down t o  allowed her to c o n s t r u c t i n Adam  Bede, The M i l l on the F l o s s and S i l a s Marner, a mythology with both i n t e l l e c t u a l and i m a g i n a t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t s t h a t , d e s p i t e wide i n c o n g r u i t i e s , p a r t i a l l y managed to c o a l e s c e . When she outgrew t h i s i n i t i a l however, George E l i o t was  stage o f a r t i s t i c development,  at a l o s s t o c r e a t e a new  imagin-  a t i v e s t r u c t u r e which c o u l d embody the p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f s she wished to p r e s e n t : dramatic  "When one has t o work out  the  a c t i o n f o r one's s e l f under the i n s p i r a t i o n o f an  i d e a , i n s t e a d of having  a grand myth  . . . ready t o one's  hand," she t o l d F r e d e r i c H a r r i s o n , "one  f e e l s anything  but  omnipotent."  14  "The romance of the past,"  says V i r g i n i a  Woolf, was "the o n l y romance t h a t George E l i o t herself." revered  1 5  allowed  Thus, along with Wordsworth, one o f her most  p a s t o r a l w r i t e r s , she t o o s u f f e r s t h e waning o f  imaginative of p a s t o r a l .  powers t h a t l i e almost wholly w i t h i n the bounds L i k e J u b a l who t r a v e l l e d beyond the b o r d e r s  o f h i s homeland o n l y t o l o s e h i s powers o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n , she must a l s o lament:  New v o i c e s come t o me where'er I roam, My h e a r t t o o widens with i t s widening home: But song grows weaker, and the h e a r t must break For l a c k o f v o i c e , o r f i n g e r s t h a t can wake The l y r e ' s f u l l answer; nay, i t s chords were a l l Too few t o meet the growing s p i r i t ' s c a l l . . . . T h i s i s the end: O'er a l l the e a r t h t o where the heavens bend And hem men's t r a v e l , I have breathed my s o u l : I l i e h e r e now the remnant o f t h a t whole, The embers o f a l i f e , a l o n e l y p a i n ; As f a r - o f f r i v e r s t o my t h i r s t were v a i n , So o f my mighty years naught comes t o me a g a i n . 1  2  The M i l l on the F l o s s , p.  291.  T h e M i l l on the F l o s s , p.  238.  3 The Novels of George E l i o t , p. 64. U. C. Knoepflmacher a l s o has noted "the d i s t a n c e observed between the n a r r a t o r and the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r " i n S i l a s Marner. The E a r l y Novels o f George E l i o t , p. 228. 4  ( L o n d o n : Everyman, 1965), LXVIII,  p.  536.  5"The w r i t i n g of 'Romola' ploughed i n t o her more than any of her other books. She t o l d me she c o u l d put her f i n g e r on i t as marking a w e l l - d e f i n e d t r a n s i t i o n i n her life. 'I began i t a young woman,—I f i n i s h e d i t an o l d woman.'" Cross, L i f e and L e t t e r s , p. 361. S e e M. P a r l e t t , "The I n f l u e n c e of Contemporary C r i t i c i s m on George E l i o t , " S t u d i e s i n Philo;log.y/ (January, 1933), 103-132, f o r a summary of the v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s as w e l l as P a r l e t t ' s own c o n j e c t u r e s . 6  G . E . J o u r n a l , 17 J u l y 1864, c i t e d i n G. S. George E l i o t ; A Biography, p. 378. 7  Haight,  S e e Haight, Biography, pp. 382, 350-351 f o r c i t a t i o n s from J o u r n a l r e g a r d i n g the w r i t i n g of Romola (May 1862) and F e l i x H o l t (December 1865). 8  G . E . J o u r n a l , 5 December 1864, Biography, p. 379. 9  L e t t e r to Frederic Harrison, 301.  1 0  IV,  c i t e d i n Haight,  15 August 1866,  GEL,  "^Henry James speaks f o r a number of c r i t i c s when he says t h a t i n Romola "the e q u i l i b r i u m " between the " p e r c e p t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n " t h a t " d i v i d e d George E l i o t ' s g r e a t t a l e n t between them" broke down and " t h a t r e f l e c t i o n began t o weight down the s c a l e . " In R i c h a r d Stang, ed., D i s c u s s i o n s  of George E l i o t (Boston: Heath, 1960), pp. 9-10; Walter A l l e n , George E l i o t , p. 132; L e s l i e Stephen, C o r n h i l l Magazine, 43 (Feb. 1881), 1952-169 i n Haight, ed., A Century of George E l i o t C r i t i c i s m , pp. 145-146. 12  G E L , IV,  300.  G e o r g e E l i o t , "Notes on 'The Spanish Gypsy,'" L i f e and L e t t e r s , p. 427. l3  14  GEL, IV, 301.  " G e o r g e E l i o t , " The Common Reader 1929), p. 213. 15  Cross,  (London: Hogarth,  16 George E l i o t , " T h e Legend o f J u b a l , " The Legend o f J u b a l and Other Poems, (London: Blackwood), pp. 29, 38; c f . Wordsworth's " R e s o l u t i o n and Independence," 11. 48-49. We p o e t s i n o u r y o u t h b e g i n i n g l a d n e s s ; B u t t h e r e o f come i n t h e e n d d e s p o n d e n c y and m a d n e s s .  LIST OF REFERENCES  Primary  E l i o t , George. Adam Bede. Winston, 1965.  Sources  New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and  . E s s a y s o f George E l i o t , e d . Thomas P i n n e y . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1963. . The George E l i o t L e t t e r s , e d . Gordon S. H a i g h t . 7 v o l s . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954. . George E l i o t ' s L i f e as R e l a t e d i n Her L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , e d . J . W. C r o s s . London: W i l l i a m Blackwood and Sons, n. d . . Impressions o f Theophrastus Such. The Works o f George E l i o t , V o l . I X . London: W i l l i a m Blackwood and Sons, N. d . . The Legend o f J u b a l and Other Poems, O l d and New, The Works of George E l i o t , V o l . X. London: W i l l i a m Blackwood and Sons, n . d . . "The L i f t e d V e i l , " The Complete Works o f George E l i o t , V o l . V I . London: P o s t l e t h w a i t e , T a y l o r and Knowles, 1908. . The M i l l on t h e F l o s s , e d . George S. H a i g h t . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1961. . "Notes on 'The Spanish Gypsy,•" George E l i o t ' s L i f e as R e l a t e d i n Her L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , e d . J . W. C r o s s . London: W i l l i a m Blackwood and Sons, n. d., pp. 424-428.  .  Romola.  London: J . M. Dent and Sons, 1965.  . S i l a s Marner. Winston, 1962.  New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and  Secondary Sources  A l l e n , Walter.  George E l i o t .  New York: Macmillan, 1964.  Bennett, Joan. George E l i o t ; Her Mind and Her A r t . London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. B u l l e t t G e r a l d W. George E l i o t ; Her L i f e and Books. London: C o l l i n s , 1947. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero of a Thousand F a c e s . Pantheon Books, 1961.  New York:  C e c i l , D a v i d . V i c t o r i a n N o v e l i s t s ; Essays i n R e v a l u a t i o n . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1958. Cox, C h a r l e s B r i a n . "George E l i o t : The C o n s e r v a t i v e Reformer," The Free S p i r i t : A Study of L i b e r a l Humanism i n the Novels o f George E l i o t . Henry James, E . M. F o r s t e r , V i r g i n i a Wolfe and Angus W i l s o n . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963, pp. 13-37. Creeger, George R. "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Adam Bede." E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y , XXIII (1956), 218-38. Empson, W i l l i a m . Some V e r s i o n s o f P a s t o r a l ; A Study o f t h e P a s t o r a l Form i n L i t e r a t u r e . Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1965. Feuerbach, Ludwig. The Essence o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , t r a n s . George E l i o t ; I n t r o d . by K a r l B a r t h . New York: Harper and Row, 1957. Foakes, R. A. "Adam Bede Reconsidered." E n g l i s h , X I I (Summer, 1959), 173-76.  F r a z e r , James George. The Magic A r t and the E v o l u t i o n o f Kings, V o l . I I ; P t . I of The Golden Bough; A Study i n Magic and R e l i g i o n , 3rd e d i t i o n . London: Macmillan, 1963. Freud, Sigmund. New I n t r o d u c t o r y L e c t u r e s on P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , t r a n s . W. J . H. S p r o t t . London: Hogarth Press and The I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , 1933. Frye, N o r t h r o p . The Return of Eden; F i v e Essays on M i l t o n ' s E p i c s . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1965. Greg, Walter W. P a s t o r a l P o e t r y and Drama; A L i t e r a r y I n q u i r y , w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o the P r e - R e s t o r a t i o n Stage i n England. New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1959. Haight, Gordon S. George E l i o t : A Biography. Clarendon Press, 1968.  Oxford:  Haney, C h a r l e s W i l l i a m . "The Garden and the C h i l d : A Study of P a s t o r a l T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . " D i s s . Y a l e Univ., 1965. Hardy, B a r b a r a . The Novels of George E l i o t : A Study i n Form. London: A t h l o n e P r e s s , 1963. James, Henry. " D a n i e l Deronda: A C o n v e r s a t i o n , " i n A Century o f George E l i o t C r i t i c i s m , ed. George S. H a i g h t . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1965, pp. 97-112. . "The Novels o f George E l i o t , " i n A Century of George E l i o t C r i t i c i s m , ed. Gordon S. H a i g h t . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1965, pp. 43-54. Jones, W i l l i a m P. The P a s t o u r e l l e ; A Study of the O r i g i n s and T r a d i t i o n of a L y r i c Type. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v . Press, 1931. Jung, C a r l Gustav. Symbols o f T r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; An A n a l y s i s of the Prelude t o a Case o f S c h i z o p h r e n i a , t r a n s . R.F.C. H u l l , V o l . V of The C o l l e c t e d Works o f C. G. Jung, ed. S i r Herbert Read e t a l . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956.  Kermode,Frank•. " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " E n g l i s h P a s t o r a l Poetry, ed. John Kermode. London: George and Harrop, 1952, pp. 11-44. Knoepflmacher, U. C. George E l i o t ' s E a r l y N o v e l s ; The L i m i t s of R e a l i s m . B e r k e l e y : U n i v . of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968. . R e l i g i o u s Humanism and the V i c t o r i a n N o v e l : George E l i o t , Walter P a t e r , and Samuel B u t l e r . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1965. L e a v i s , Frank R. The Great T r a d i t i o n ? George E l i o t , Henry James, Joseph Conrad. New York: New York U n i v . P r e s s , 1964. Lynen, John F. "The P a s t o r a l Mode: Symbolism and P e r s p e c t i v e , " The P a s t o r a l A r t o f Robert F r o s t . New Haven, Y a l e U n i v . P r e s s , 1960. Marks, J e a n e t t e . E n g l i s h P a s t o r a l Drama from the R e s t o r a t i o n t o the Date of the P u b l i c a t i o n o f the " L y r i c a l B a l l a d s , " 1660-1798. London: Methuen, 1908. Naumann, W. "The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f George E l i o t ' s Novels." Modern Language Q u a r t e r l y , IX (1948), 37-50. P a r i s , Bernard J . Experiments i n L i f e : George E l i o t ' s Quest f o r V a l u e s . D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v . P r e s s , 1965. P a r l e t t , M. "The I n f l u e n c e of Contemporary C r i t i c i s m on George E l i o t . " S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y , XXVII (1933), 108-32. Pinney, Thomas. "The A u t h o r i t y o f the Past i n George E l i o t ' s Novels." N i n e t e e n t h Century F i c t i o n , XXI (1966), 13147. P o g g i o l i , R. "The Oaten F l u t e . " B u l l e t i n , XI (1957), 147-84.  Harvard L i b r a r y  Praz, M a r i o . The Hero i n E c l i p s e i n V i c t o r i a n F i c t i o n , t r a n s . Angus Davidson. London: Oxford U n i v . P r e s s ,  1956.  P r i t c h e t t , V. S. "George E l i o t , " The L i v i n g Novel and L a t e r A p p r e c i a t i o n s . New York: Random House, 1964, pp. 94109. Simon, I r e n e . "Innocence i n the Novels o f George E l i o t , " E n g l i s h S t u d i e s Today, ed. G. A. Bonnard. E n g l i s h S t u d i e s S e r i e s no. 2. Berne: Francke, 1961, pp. 197215.S t e i n h o f f , W i l l i a m R. " I n t e n t and F u l f i l l m e n t i n the Ending of The M i l l on the F l o s s . " E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , XI (1955), 231-51. Stephen, L e s l i e .  George E l i o t .  London: Macmillan,  1919.  . "George E l i o t , " A Century of George E l i o t C r i t i c i s m , e d . Gordon S. H a i g h t . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1965, pp. 136-149. T h a l e , Jerome. The Novels o f George E l i o t . Columbia U n i v . P r e s s , 1961.  New  York:  Willey, B a s i l . "George E l i o t , " N i n e t e e n t h Century S t u d i e s . Hammondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1964 pp. 214-260. Woolf, V i r g i n i a . The Common Reader. 2nd S e r i e s . London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1929.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093311/manifest

Comment

Related Items