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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Lenin and the Ukrainian question, 1912-1924. Wodinsky, Marvin Stephen 1970

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LENIN AND THE UKRAINIAN QUESTION, 1912-1924 BY MARVIN STEPHEN WODINSKY B.A., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 19&5 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF SLAVONIC STUDIES WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED STANDARD THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA NOVEMBER, 1970 In p re sen t i ng t h i s t he s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re ference and Study. I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion f o r ex ten s i ve copying of t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i : r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t he s i s fo r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n pe rmi s s i on . Department of SLAVONIC STUDIES The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date MARCH 30, 1971 i i ABSTRACT This thesis i s an attempt to describe and analyze Lenin's t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l approaches to the Ukrainian question i n p a r t i c u l a r and the n a t i o n a l i t y question i n general. I t seeks to ascertain the r o l e and importance of the Ukraine, Ukrainian i n s t i t u t i o n s and, to some extent, Ukrainian p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i n Lenin's<published work both before and a f t e r the revolution. Furthermore, t h i s thesis attempts to discover the r o l e of the n a t i o n a l and Ukrainian questions i n r e l a t i o n to Lenin's other concerns of expediting the p r o l e t a r i a n revolution and of maintaining organizational and governmental unity. Several conclusions of a general and p a r t i c u l a r nature have been reached. The na t i o n a l question i n Lenin's works i s a part of the general question of the s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n , however, i t i s d e f i n i t e l y a subordinate one: s o c i a l i s t concerns i n e v i t a b l y predominate over n a t i o n a l i s t ones. I t i s also evident that Lenin stressed unity and centralism above any other organizational a t t r i b u t e . The highest degree of unity was mandatory i f the revolution was to be made and consumated. Nationalism, however, was p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c and by i t s very nature contra-dictory to Lenin's c e n t r a l i s t views. Lenin was aware of Ukrainian p e c u l i a r i t i e s but he preferred to ignore them i n most instances u n t i l he f e l t that to continue s » i i i doing would retard the revolution. I t i s f o r t h i s reason that h i s a t t i t u d e on the Ukrainian question seemed ambivalent. Lenin was w i l l i n g to make concessions of form rather than substance: he advocated the r i g h t to n a t i o n a l self-determination while ensuring that this r i g h t could never be exercised, he established f e d e r a l r e l a t i o n s with the Ukrainian government while arrogating a l l r e a l power i n the center, and he promoted U k r a i n i z a t i o n i n a l l Ukrainian organizations and i n s t i t u t i o n s with the exception of the party. The ultimate goal of a l l these concessions was i n v a r i a b l y unity and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . This thesis argues that, i n order to be f u l l y understood, Lenin's n a t i o n a l i t y theory and h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of i t to the Ukraine must be conceptualized at two l e v e l s . At one l e v e l Lenin was concerned with the r e a l i t y of making a re v o l u t i o n and t h i s required a l l i e s from the n a t i o n a l i t i e s . For t h i s reason he conducted a propaganda campaign calculated to appeal to the n a t i o n a l i t i e s and e s p e c i a l l y the Ukrainians. At the same time, while he was ostensibly demonstrating the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the aims of the Bolsheviks and the n a t i o n a l i t i e s , Lenin never l o s t s i g h t of the concrete h i s t o r i c a l conditions of that period. His a t t i t u d e to the n a t i o n a l i t i e s and Ukrainians was a function of the pro-gress of the revolutionary movement. At t h i s l e v e l Lenin's nationality-theory and p r a c t i c e was h i s t o r i c a l l y - r e l a t i v e and In h£& work he iv allowed f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y that h i s views would change as the h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n changed, Lenin saw nationalism as an ephemeral phenomenon and e s s e n t i a l l y negative concept. The n a t i o n a l movement i n general and the Ukrainian one i n p a r t i c u l a r was viewed i n instrumental terms. Lenin hoped that he could use t h i s movement as a means to more quickly achieve the goals of unity and a s s i m i l a t i o n i n the most expeditious manner. V T A B L E OF CONTENTS A B S T R A C T P« I I ACKNOWLEDGMENT P . V I C H A P T E R I: I N T R O D U C T I O N ! L E N I N A ND T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N P. 1 C H A P T E R ll> P E R C E P T I O N S or T H E U K R A I N E AND U K R A I N I A N S P. 10 C H A P T E R Ills THE U K R A I N I A N Q U E S T I O N ! S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N P . *f1 CHAPTER I V : THE U K R A I N I A N Q U E S T I O N : AUTONOMY AND F E D E R A L I S M P . 75 CHAPTER V: THE U K R A I N I A N Q U E S T I O N : N A T I O N A L E Q U A L I T Y , P« 98 A S S I M I L A T I O N , A N N E X A T I O N S , ANO D E F E N C E O F THE F A T H E R L A N D CHAPTER VI: R E L A T I O N S W I T H U K R A I N I A N M A R X I S T S P. 118 C H A P T E R VII: THE U K R A I N I A N N A T I O N A L GOVERNMENTS P. 128 C H A P T E R VIII: THE CP(B)U ANO T H E U K R A I N I A N 38R p. 162 CHAPTER IX: C O N C L U S I O N P o 215 B I B L I O G R A P H Y P o 238 G L O S S A R Y P 0 2^9 ACKNOWLEDGMENT THE SEVERAL, CHAPTERS or THIS THESIS WERE OISOUSSEO WITH MANY PEOPLE WHO PROVIDED BOTH FRESH INSIGHTS AND ORIT 10ISM OP ITS C0NTENT8. I WOULD LIKE TO THANK FIRST OP ALL9 MV 8UPBRVI60R PROFESSOR BOGOAN CZAVKOWSKI FOR HI8 INTEREST AND ASS 18TAN0E IN THIS UNOERTAKINQ. DATA FOR THIS STUDV WERE OOLLEOTED AT THE LIBRARIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, THE UNIVERSITY OF WASH INSTON AND THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA. PROFESSOR VALERIAN REVUTSKV PROVIDED ME WITH ACCESS TO THE LIBRARY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON AND PROVIDED 8EVERAL SIGNIFICANT BIBLIOORAPHIOAL SUGGESTIONS. MANY 0I80U88I0N8 WITH PR0FE8S0R BOHDAN R. BOOIURKIW ABOUT THE UKRAINIAN QUESTION IN GENERAL 8ERVE0 TO OLARIFY MY THOUGHTS ON OERTAIN ASPE0T8 OF THE TOPIC. FINALLY, I WISH TO THANK MY WIFE MARILYN, WHO WITH VARYING DEGREES OF PAT IEN0E ANO HUMOR, TYPED AN0 PROOF-READ THE MANUSORIPT. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTIONS LENIN AND THE NATIONAL QUESTION LENIN'S UNDERSTANDING OF NATIONALISM AND THE NATIONAL QUE8TI ON WAS RATHER 3IMPLI8TIC LIKE MARX, LENIN SAW NATIONALISM AS A SIGNIFICANT FORCE ONLY IN THE EARLY BOURGEO18 ERA UNOER A CAP ITAL18 T 8Y8TEM—-IT WA8 VIEWEO A8 THE PRODUCT OF A CERTAIN 8TAGE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND AS 8UCH WA8 TEMP-ORALLY LIMITED TO THAT 8TAGEA HOWEVER, THIS ECONOMICALLY DETERMINED INTER" PRETATI ON OF NATIONALISM PAYS INSUFFICIENT ATTENTION TO VARIOUS OTHER OIMEN-SLONS OF THE CONOEPT 8UCH AS THE H I 8 TOR I CAI., POLITICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, CULT-URAL ANO OTHERS. LENIN*8 RELIANCE ON ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS TO THE EXCLU8I ON OF THE8E OTHER8 IN DEALING WITH THE PROBLEM PROVIDES SIGNIFICANT EVIDENCE THAT TO A LARGE EXTENT HE FAILED TO COMPREHEND THE E88ENCE OF THE PHENOMENON OF NATIONALISM, ALTHOUGH IT MUST BE NOTED THAT TH18 QUE8TI0N WA8 ONLY OF SECONDARY IMPORTANCE TO HIM. LENIN WA8 MORE INTERESTED IN U8ING NATIONALISM TO FURTHER HI8 GOALS THAN IN ATTEMPTING TO UNDERSTAND I T O CONSEQUENTLY, HIS APPROACH TO THE NATIONAL QUESTION CAN ONLY BE UNDER-STOOD IF IT 18 VIEWED WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF HI8 PRIMARY GOAL—=THE SEIZURE OF POWER BY THE PROLETARIAT AND I T8 COROLLARY J, THE CREATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF THE 80CIALI8T STATE, THUS FROM THE LENINIST PERSPECTIVE THE NATIONAL QUE8TION WA8 NOTHING MORE NOR LE88 THAN AN OBSTACLE WHI OH HAD TO BE OVERCOME ON THE ROAD TO THE CREATION OF THE PROLETARIAN 8 TATE, AND IF P0881BLE, USED AS A TOOL TO FACILITATE ATTAINMENT OF TH18 STATEO IT WA8 NOT UNTIL 1912, HOWEVER, THAT LENIN DECIDED TO USE THE NATIONAL PROBLEM IN THE RU88IAN EMPI RE TO PROMOTE BOLSHEVIK A8PI RAT I0N8 ANO IT WA8 AT THIS TIME THAT HE BEGAN EXPOUNDING HI8 RAPIDLY DEVELOPING THE0RIE8 ON THE RIGHT OF NAT 10N8 TO SELF-DETERMINATION. ALTHOUGH HI8 THE0RIE8 ON NATIONAL-2 ISM REMAINED PERVAOED BY AM8IGUITY ANO AMBI VALENCES HE ELEVATED THEM TO THE LEVEL OF A TACTICAL IMPERATIVE TO BE SUPPORTED IN THE FACE OF ALL OP-POSITION, NATIONAL REPRESSION WAS POLITICALLY REPREHENSIBLE--IT FOCUSSEO ATTENTION ON WHAT WAS FOR L.EN 8 N A BOURGEO18 PROBLEM, THUS LEAVING THE QUES-TION OF THE CLASS 8TRUGGLE IN THE BACKGROUND , A SITUATION DETRIMENTAL TO THE FUTURE REVOLUTION. LENIN VIEWED THE NATIONAL QUESTI ON A8 ONLY ONE PART OF THE GENERAL QUESTI ON OF S0CIALT8T REVOLUTIOW—- "?HE SETTLEMENT OF THE NATIONAL QUESTION IN RU88I A 18 INSEPARABLE FROM THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE GAINS OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION ON A NATIONAL SCALE," ASSERTEO A RESOLUTION OF THE ALL-RU88IAN C0NGRE8S OF S0VIET8 OF WORKERS0 ANO SOLOIER80 DEPUTIE8 8E88I0N OF JUNE 2 0 , 1917*^ FOUR YEAR8 EARLIER LENIN STATED THAT T8ARI8M COULO BE OVERTHROWN "ONLY BY THE UN ITEO PROLETARIAT OF ALL THE NATI0N8 OF 2 RU88IA." LENIN'8 8UPP0RT OF NATIONAL M0VEMENT8, AND THUS NATIONALISM, WA8 CON-DITIONAL, SO LONG A8 THI8 8UPPORT SERVED TO UNDERMINE THE EXISTING 8OCIAL ANO POLITICAL ORDER IN THE PRE-REVOLUTIONARY ERA IT WAS TO BE SUPPORTED, RE-GARDLE88 OF THE FACT THAT THE8E MOVEMENT8 WERE OF A BOURGEO18 CHARACTERO NATIONALISM, WHEN AN ALLY OF THE PROLETARIAT, WAS TO BE PROMOTED SINCE IT WAS THEN A DEMOCRATIC DEMAND. "THE PROLETARIAT," L g w i w NOTED, "CANNOT BE VICTORIOUS EXCEPT THROUGH DEMOCRACY...."3 LENIN'8 APPROACH TO NATIONALISM WA8 BA8ED UPON MARX°8 VIEW OF THE PHEN-OMENON. LIKE MARX, LENIN ASSUMED THAT NATIONALISM WAS MERELY A TEMPORARY MANIFESTATION RESTRICTED TO THE CAP ITAL18T STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT AND, 8 INCE IT 8 ORIGIN ANO EXI8TENCE WAS PREDICATED UPON THE EXISTENCE OF CAP ITAL18M, THE C0LLAP8E OF TH18 8Y8TEM WOULO PERMANENTLY DESTROY THE R00T8 OF NAT I ON— ALI8M0 THI8 PROVED TO BE AN EXTREMELY NAIVE VIEWo NEVERTHELESS, IT 8EEM8 3 THAT THI8 VIEW PREVAILED IN LENIN'S MI NO UNTIL SHORTLY AFTER THE REVOLUTION,, IF NATIONALISM WA8 RE8TRICTEO TO THE CAPITALIST STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT9 IT COULD SE 8UPP0RTE0 ANO, A8 A 'CREATIVE' MARXIST, LENIN SOUGHT NOT MERELY TO 8UPP0RT THI8 PHENOMENON BUT TO CHANNEL AND DIRECT IT IN THE INTERE8TS OF SOCIALISM. THE QUESTION OF NATIONALISM WA8 ANCILLARY TO THE QUESTION OF SOCIALISM. IT WA8 TO SE U8ED PRIMARILY TO ACCELERATE THE SOCIAL ANO POL I T— ICAL DISMEMBERMENT OF BOURGEO18 SOCIETY BY ALLAYING THE FEAR8 ANO 8U8P1C1ON8 OF OPPRES8EO NATIONAL MINORITIES. UNDER THE BENEFITS OF SOCIALIST EDUCATION ANO ECONOMIC PLANNING NATIONALISM WA8 SUPP08EO TO 'WITHER' AWAY AND OI 8AP-PEAR IN THE RESULTANT INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY.^ LENIN OIO NOT APPRECIATE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NATIONAL QUESTION UN-TIL HIS SOJOURN IN GALICIA IN 1912-1913* IN HIS "DRAFT AND EXPLANATION OF A PROGRAMME FOR THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY," WRITTEN OURING 1895=1896, THE 6 T NATIONALITIES ARE NOT EVEN MENTIONED. TWO YEAR8 LATER, HOWEVER, HE MEN= TIONEO THAT HE DID NOT PRECLUDE THE APPEARANCE OF CERTAIN NATIONAL QUESTIONS ON THE POLITICAL STAGE ANO BY 1903 THE PLATFORM OF THE R S D L P PERTAINING TO THE NATIONALITIES GRANTED THEM VARIOU8 C0NCE88I0N8, INCLUOING THE RIGHT TO 7 NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION. RENEWED T8ARI8T 0PPRE88I ON HAD, BY 1907, UN-DERLINED THE NATIONALITIES' 8UB8ERVIENT 8TATU8 IN THE EMPIRE AND RE8ULTE0 IN THE GROWTH ANO ARTICULATION OF PART ICULARI ST 0EMAN08. IT WAS AT TH18 POINT THAT LENIN BEGAN TO VIEW THE WORKERS OF THE NATIONALITIES AS SOURCES OF REVOLUTIONARY RECRUITMENT AND BY 1912-1913 LSNIN0S LITERARY ACTIVITY WA8 Q CONCERNED MAINLY WITH THE NATIONAL QUE8TI ON. " I T WOULD BE UN8EEMLV FOR U89 HE 088ERVE0 IN DECEMBER 191^» "REPRESENTATIVES OF A DOMINANT NATION000TO FORGET THE 8 IGNIFICANCE OF THE NATIONAL QUEST I ON—E8PEC I ALLY IN A COUNTRY WHICH HA8 BEEN RIGHTLY CALLEO THE 'PRI80N OF THE PEOPLE8'0000"^ 4 LENIN'S INTEREST IN THE NATIONALITIES SPRANG FROM HIS DESIRE TO MAIN-TAIN THE UNITY OF THE PARTY. WlTH THIS NEED FOR UNITY UPPERMOST IN MIND, HE NOTED THAT WA DIFFICULTY IS TO 80ME EXTENT CREATED BY THE FACT THAT IN RU88IA THE PROLETARIAT OF BOTH THE 0PPRE8SE0 ANO 0PPRE880R NATIONS ARE FIGH-TING, AND MU8T. FIGHT, 8I0E BY S I D E . " HE WENT ON TO MAKE HI8 POINT VERY CLEARLYt THE TA8K IS TO PRESERVE THE UNITY OF THE PROLETARIAT'S OLA88 8TRUGGLE FOR SOCIALISM, ANO TO RE8IST ALL BOURGEO18 ANO BLACK HUNOREO NATIONAL-IST INFLUENCES. WHERE THE 0PPRE88ED NATI0N8 ARE CONCERNED, THE SEPAR-ATE ORGANIZATION OF THE PROLETARIAT AS AN INOEPENOENT PARTY LEAD8 TO 8UCH A BITTER STRUGGLE AGAINST LOCAL NATIONALISM THAT THE PERSPECTIVE BECOMES 0I8T0RTE0 ANO THE NATIONALISM OF THTOPPRESSOR NATION 18 L08T 8 IGHT OF.'" THUS UNITY AND CENTRALIZATION IN THE WORKER'S PARTY AND STATE WERE MANDA-TORY ANO IT WAS ONLY THE CAP ITAL18T8 ANO LANDOWNERS WHO WISHED TO KEEP THE 1 1 W0RKER8 OF DIFFERENT NAT I0N8 APART. BY IMPLICATION, THEREFORE, A NATION-ALLY CON8CIOU8 WORKER COULD NOT BE A TRULY 8001 ALLY AND POLITICALLY C0N8— ClOUS ONE. BUT THI8 CONCLUSION CREATED A LOGICAL 0 IFFICULTY=—ONE WHICH LENIN TEND-ED TO IGNORE FOR HE PROPOUNDED A THEORY OF DUAL 18M IN NATIONAL CULTUREO THI8 THEORY PURPORTEO TO 8H0W THAT EACH NATION HAO A DOMINANT BOURGEO18 CULTURE ANO THAT IT WA8 WJTH THIS CULTURE THAT THE GENERAL CONCEPT OF NATION WA8 IDENTIFIEDO BUT, 81NCE EVERY NATION CONTAINED TOILING ANO EXPLOITED MA88E8 WH08E MODE OF LIFE NATURALLY GAVE R«8E TO A 80CIAL AND DEMOCRATIC IDEOLOGY, THERE WA8 IN FACT A 'PROLETARIAN0 CULTURE AS WELL. IT WA8 ONLY THI8 CULTURE WITH IT8 DEMOCRATIC ANO 80CIALI ST ELEMENTS THAT WA8 TO BE SUP-PORTED BY MARXI8T8. IN HI 8 E88AY CRITICAL REMARK8 ON THE NAT IONAL QUE8TI ON LENIN NOTED THAT M...WE TAKE FROM EACH NATIONAL CULTURE ONLY ITS DEMOCRATIC AND 80CIALI8T ELEMENT8 J WE TAKE THEM ONLY AND ABSOLUTELY IN OPPOSITION TO 5 THE BOURGEO13 CULTURE ANO BOURGEO18 NATIONALISM OF EACH NAT I ON. " LENIN HAD THI8 IN Ml NO WHEN HE 0B8ERVE0 THAT THE MARXIST FULLV RECOGNIZES THE HISTORIOAL LEGITIMACY OF NATIONAL MOVE-MENTS. BUT TO PREVENT THI8 RECOGNITION FROM BECOMING AN APOLOGIA OF NATIONALISM, IT MU8T BE 8TRICTLV LIMITED TO WHAT 18 PROGRESSIVE IN 8UCH M0VEMENT8, IN ORDER THAT TH18 RECOGNITION MAY NOT LEAD TO BOURGEOIS IDEOLOGY OBSCURING PROLETARIAN C0N80I0USNE88.^ LENIN'S APPROACH TO THE NATS>NAL QUESTION CAN ONLY BE UNDERSTOOD IF IT 18 REMEMBERED THAT HE UNCONDITIONALLY SUBORDINATED TH18 QUESTION, AS HE DID ALL "THE BASIC DEMAN08 OF POLITICAL OEMOCRACY OIRECTLV TO THE REVOLUTIONARY MAS8 STRUGGLE FOR THE OVERTHROW OF THE BOURGEOIS GOVERNMENTS AND FOR THE 14 ACHIEVEMENT OF SOCIALISM." CRIT 101 ZED BY THE LEFT COMMUNISTS FOR MAKING A FETI8H OUT OF THE NATIONALITIES ISSUE, LENIN ADMITTED THAT "MARX HAD NO DOUBT A8 TO THE SUBORDINATE P081TI ON OF THE NATIONAL QUESTION AS COMPAREO WITH THE 'LABOR QUE8TION9." BUT, HE ADOED, MARX°8 "THEORY IS A8 FAR FROM REMOVING NATIONAL M0VEMENT8 A8 HEAVEN 18 FROM EARTH."15 THE CORRECT MARX 18T NATIONALITIES PROGRAM, IN LENIN9S INTERPRETATION, 80UGHT "COMPLETE EQUALITY OF RIGHT8 FOR ALL NATIONS; THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SELF-DETERMINATION? /AND/ 1 ft THE UNITY OF T H E W0RKER3 OF ALL NAT I0N8. HE AL80 UNCEA8INGLY 8TRE88ED THAT NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION 18 THE 8AME A8 THE STRUGGLE FOR COMPLETE NATIONAL LIBERATION, FOR COMPLETE INDEPENDENCE, AGAIN8T ANNEXATIONS, ANO SOCIAL I8T8 CANNOT—WI THOUT CEA8ING TO BE 80CIALISTS-^REJECT 8UCH A STRUGGLE IN WHATEVER FORM, RIGHT DOWN TO AN UPR181NG OR WAR.^ 7 LENIN WAS ADAMANT ON ONE EXTREMELY IMPORTANT POINT. "ONE THING ALONE IS CERTAIN," H E DECLARED, QUOTING ENG E L S LETTER OF SEPTEMBER 12 , 1882 TO KAUT8KY, " THE VICTOR I0U8 PROLETARIAT CAN FORCE NO BLE881NG8 OF ANY KIND  UPON ANY FOREIGN NATION WITHOUT UNDERMINING ITS OWN VICTORY BY 80 D O I N G o " ^ ^  I T 18 SIGNIFICANT THAT LENIN'8 WRITING8 DO NOT CONTAIN A DEFINITION OF NAT IONALI TV , NOR DO THEY CONTAIN A D|8CU8S|0N OR DESCRIPTION OF ITS ESSENCE OR CHARACTER. THE CLOSEST 50LSHEVIK DEFINITION OF NATIONALITY IS CONTAINED IN STALIN'S MARXISM AND THE NATIONAL QUESTION WRITTEN IN 1913° 'N IT HE DE-FINED A NATIONALITY AS AN HISTORICALLY EVOLVEO ©ROUP WITH A COMMON LANGUAGE ANO CULTURE, COMMON PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAIT89 A TERRITORIAL BASE ANO BOUNO TO-GETHER BY ECONOMIC TIES. THERE WAS NOTHING ORIGINAL IN TH18 DEFINITION BUT, SINCE IT WAS COMPOSEO UNDER L£NIN'8 GUIDANCE, IT MAY BE A88UMED THAT HIS POSITION WAS QUITE SIMILAR TO STALIN'S. LENIN WA8 INTERESTED PRIMARILY IN THE TACTICAL ANO STRATEGIC A8PECT8 OF THE PROBLEM RATHER THAN WITH THE ABSTRACT AND THEORETICAL. HE WA8 INTERESTED, FIRST AND FOREMOST, WITH THE IMMEDIATE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF ALLYING THE F0RCE8 OF NATIONALISM WITH TH08E OF THE PROLETARIAT., MOST IMPORTANT, HOWEVER, LENIN'S WORK ON THE NATIONAL QUESTION SUFFERED EITHER FROM H18 INABILITY OR REFU8AL TO UN0ER8TAMD HUMAN NATURE ANO HI8 BELIEF IN THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS. FLRST, HE SEEMED UNABLE TO UNDERSTAND THAT PEOPLE WERE 0PPRES8E0 BY ANYTHING BUT THE CAPITALIST ORDER, ANO SECOND, IT 8EEME0 HE COULD NOT COMPREHEND THE FACT (UNTIL IT WAS TOO LATE) THAT A RUSSIAN WORKER COULD BE JUST AS INTOLERANT OF THE NATIONALITIES A8 COULD ANY MEMBER OF THE "EXPLOITING CLASSES.W HE FIRMLY BELIEVED THAT A PEACEFUL "FRATERNAL UN I ONW OF THE NATIONALITIES WA8 P088IBLE IF ENOUGH PROPAGANDA WA8 CONDUCTEO IN ITS FAVOR. THUS LENIN'8 APPROACH TO THE NATIONAL QUESTION IN BOTH ITS THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL A8PECT8 WAS OFTEN CHARACTERIZED BY A BEWILDERING MIXTURE OF REALISM A N D I D E A L l S M o LENIN VIEWEO THE NATIONAL QUESTION IN TERMS OF SEVERAL CONCEPTS; SELF-DETERMINATION, AUTONOMY, FEDERATION, NATIONAL EQUALITY, ASSIMILATION, ANNEXATION, AND DEFENCE OF THE FATHERLAND. THE CONCEPT OF THE RIGHT OF 7 NATION8 TO 8ELF-0ETERMINATION 18 PROBABLY THE SINGLE M08T IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN HIS NATIONALITY THEORY, FOLLOWEO BY THE INTER-RELATED CONCEPTS OF AUTON-OMY ANO FEDERALISM, ANO THEN BY THE REMAINDER. THE8E CONCEPTS WILL BE ANAL-YZED BOTH IN GENERAL TERM8 AND IN TERM8 OF THEIR RELATION TO THE UKRAINE IN CHAPTERS I I I , I V , AND V . CHAPTER V I WILL DISCUSS LENIN'S RELATIONS WITH NON-BOLSHEVIK UKRAINIAN MARXIST8 OF THE PRE-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. HLS RELATI0N8 WITH UKRAINIAN MARXISTS BOTH BOLSHEVIK ANO NON-BOLSHEVIK WILL BE INCORPORATED INTO CHAP-TERS V I I ANO V I I I . CHAPTER V I I DEALS WITH LENIN'S APPROACH TO THE VARIOUS UKRAINIAN NATIONALIST GOVERNMENTS IN BOTH THE PRE-OCTQBER ANO POST-OCTOBER PERIODS. CHAPTER V I I I is CONCERNED WITH LENIN'S THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL VIEWS ON 8EVERAL ASPECTS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE C P ( B ) U AND THE UKRAINIAN SSR. FIR8T, HOWEVER, LENIN'8 PERCEPTIONS OF THE UKRAINE AND UKRAINIANS WILL BE D18CU88ED IN CHAPTER I I . TH18 18 DEEMED FRUITFUL BECAUSE IT SERVES TO ILLUMINATE SOME OF HI8 A88UMPT10N8—MANY IMPLICIT, 80ME EXPL IC I T—ABOUT THE UKRAINE AS A GEOGRAPHIC ENTITIY AND OF THE UKRAINIANS AS AN ETHNIC GROUP. 8 CHAPTER I ; FOOTNOTES 1„ R. P. BROWDER AND A . F . KSRENSKV, EDS. THE RUSSIAN PROVISIONAL  GOVERNMENT. 1917. OOCUMENTS (STANFOROJ STANFORO UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1961), p.318. 2. LENIN, XIX, P.245. (THE EOITION OF LENIN'S WORKS USED THROUGH-OUT THI8 8TUDY 18 V. I. LEM4W, COLLECTED W0RK8. 40 V0L8. MOSCOW I FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHING HOUSE/ PROGRESS PUBLISHERS, 1960-19680) 3. IBID., XXI, p.408. LENIN CONTINUED THIS OBSERVATION BY SAVING THAT MIT IS ABSURD TO C0NTRAP08E THE 80CIALI8T REVOLUTION AND THE REVOLU-TIONARY 8TRUQGLE AGAIN8T CAP ITAL18M TO A SINGLE PROBLEM OF OEMOCRACY, IN THIS CA8E THE NATIONAL QUESTION. WE MUST COMBINE THE REVOLUTIONARY STRUG-GLE AGAINST CAP ITALI8M WITH A REVOLUTIONARY PROGRAMME ANO TACT IC8 ON ALL DEMOCRATIC OEMAN08.o.." S E E A . D. LOW, LENIN ON THE QUESTION OF NATION- AL 1TY (NEW YORK? BOOKMAN ASSOCIATES, 1958), PP.50-515 R ° S . SULLIVANT, SOVIET POLITICS IN THE UKRAINE. 1917-195? (NEW YORK: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1962), P.10. 4 . R. PIPES, THE FORMATION OF THE SOVIET UNIONS COMMUNISM AND NA- TIONALISM. 1917-1923 (REV. EO.; CAMBRIDGE! HARVARO UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1964), PP. 41-42; R. PIPES, THE GENESIS OF SOVIET NATIONALITY POLICY (UNPUBLISHED PH.O DISSERTATION, HARVARO UNIVERSITY, 1950), P.?1 ? <J« S . ROUCEK, "SOVIET RUSSIA'8 BRAND OF NATIONALISM," UKRAINIAN QUARTERLY. XX (SPRING, 1964), 47; H. KOHN, NATIONALISM IN THE SOVIET UNION (ROUTLEDGE, 1933)9 PP<>47=>48; LOW, P.28. 5. FOR A MORE EXTENDED DISCUSSION SEE PIPES, THE GENES IS.... PP.71~ 73; KOHN, PP.43-44; SULLIVANT; PP.8-9; J . TOWSTER, POLITICAL POWER IN THE U . S . S . R . , 1917-1947 (NEW YORK! OXFORO UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1948), P.50; 0. J . JANOWSKY, NATIONALITIES ANO NATIONAL MINORITIES (NEW YORKS MACMILLAN, 1945)» P.79. 6. LENIN, I I , PP.95-121. 7. PIPES, THE GENESIS..., P.54, NOTES THAT MOST SOCIAL DEMOCRATS EVEN IN 1903 VIEWED NATIONALISM A8 REACTIONARY ANO THAT THEIR RESPONSE TO M08T NATIONAL ASPIRATIONS OIFFEREO IN8I6NIFICANTLY FROM PARTIES OF THE RIGHTC 8. SEE ESPECIALLY I BIO., pp,5k~55i S. SHAHEEN, THE COMMUNIST THEORY  OF SELF-DETERMINATION (THE HAGUE: W. VAN HOEVE, 1956), P.36; J . BORVSQ THE  RU83IAN COMMUNIsT PARTY AND THE SOVIETIZATION OF UKRAINE (STOCKHOLM, 1960), p.28. 9. LENIN, XXI, PP.102-03. 1°. IBID., XX, pp.451. 9 11o See To B , CIUCIURA, "LeNiN's IOEA OF A MULTINATIONAL COMMON-WEALTH," THE ANNALS OF THE UKRAINIAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES IN THE U . S .o X (1962-1963)» 13» FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TH18 P O l N T o AL80 8EE BORYS, P.31o 12. LENIN, X X , p.2k, 13« IB ID.A X I X , P.3^. IN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH LENIN EXPANDS HIS STATEMENT; "THE AWAKENING OF THE MASSES FROM THEIR FEUDAL LETHARGY, AND THEIR 8TRUGGLE AGAIN8T ALL NATIONAL 0PPRE88I0N, FOR THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE PEOPLE, OF THE NATION, ARE PR0GRE88IVE. HENCE IT 18 THE MARXISTS9 BOUNDEN DUTY TO 8TAND FOR THE M08T RESOLUTE AND CONSISTENT DEMOCRATISM ON ALL AS-PECTS OF THE NATIONAL QUE8TI ON. THIS TA8K 18 LARGELY A NEGATIVE ONE. BuT THI8 18 WHERE THE PROLETARIAT CAN GO TO IN SUPPORTING NATIONALISM, FOR BE-YOND THAT BEGIN8 THE ° P O S l T I V E ° ACTIVITY OF THE BOURGEOISIE STRIVING TO FORTIFY NATIONALISM." IBID.. PP.3^-35« 1^. IBID.. X X I I , p.156. SEE N. BUKHARIN ANO E . PREOBRAZHENSKY, THE A B C OF COMMUNI8M. TRANS. BY EDEN AND CEDAR PAUL (LONDONS COMMUN18T PARTY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 1927), PP.198-211, FOR A SHORT AND SIMPLE EXPO-SITION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMUNISM AND THE NATIONALITY PROBLEM WRITTEN IN 1919» POR A CONTRASTING, BUT EQUALLY 8 IMPL18 TIC DESCRIPTION AND INTERPRETATION OF SOVIET NATIONALITY POLICY, SEE COMMITTEE OF UN=AMER|CAN ACTIVITIES, THE SOVIET UNION FROM LENIN TO KHRUSHCHEV. FACTS ON COMMUNISM, VOL. I I (U . S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1961), PP.1 08 -160 FOR TROTSKY'S INTERPRETATION OF LENIN'S NATIONALITY POLICY, SEE L . TROTSKY, THE REAL  SITUATION IN RUSSIA, TRANS, BY MAX EASTMAN (NEW YORK; HARCOURT, BRACE AND COMPANY, 1 9 2 8 ) , PP.107-10. 15. LENIN, X X , p.436. 16. , IBIO.. S . ^ . 17„ IBIQQ. X X I I I , p.34. 1 8 . IBID.. X X I I , p. 3 2 8 . LENIN ITALICIZED THIS SENTENCE. SEE THE ORIGINAL LETTER IN K. MARX AND F . ENGELS, SELECTED CORRESPONDENCE« TRANS. BY I . LA8KER, EO. BY S. RYAZAN0V8KAYA (M08C0WS PR0GRE88 PuBL l8HER8, 1965), P . 3 5 1 . 10 CHAPTER I I : PERCEPTIONS OF THE UKRAINE AND UKRAINIANS. THERE CAN BE LITTLE DOUBT THAT LENIN WAS CONSCIOUS OF UKRAINIAN PECULIARITIES LONG BEFORE TW8 AWARENE88 MANIFESTED IT8ELF IN HIS NUMEROUS ARTICLES ANO BEFORE HE OPENLY ATTEMPTED TO COME TO TERMS WITH THE IMPLI-CAT IONS OF THI8 DI ST INCTNESS. WHEN HE FINALLY DID, HOWEVER, IT WAS WITH THE HOPE THAT THE8E DIFFERENCES COULO BE PROFITABLY EXPLOITED BY HI 8 PARTY. MEASURED BY VOLUME, LENIN'S PUBLISHED WORK ON THE UKRAINE IS MOST IMPRESSIVE ALTHOUGH A CAREFUL PERU8AL OF TH18 WORK I NOI CATE8 80ME DISCREPANCY BETWEEN QUANTITY AND A REASONABLY EXPECTED QUALITY. THERE 18, OF COURSE, AN EXCEL-LENT REASON FOR THIS AT LEA8T IN LENINIST TERM8. FOR SOMEONE WHO FAVORED THE EVENTUAL ASSIMILATION OF NATIONALITIES, UKRAINIAN DISTINCTNESS COULD HAROLY BE VIEWED A8 A P08ITIVE ATTRIBUTE. THU8 LENIN NEVER EVEN BOTHERED TO DEFINE WHAT HE MEANT BY THE TERM "UKRAINE" IN EITHER A GEOGRAPHIC, POL-ITICAL, SOCIAL, OR ECONOMIC SENSE. NATIONAL PECULIARITIES, EXCEPT A8 THEY RELATED TO AND COULD BE USED TO FACILITATE SOCIALIST OBJECTIVES, WERE TREAT-ED WITH INDIFFERENCE. IN 1913 LENIN STATED THAT "ALL AREAS OF THE STATE THAT ARE DISTIN-GUISHED BY SOCIAL PECULIARITIES OR BY THE NATIONAL COMPOSITION OF THE POP-ULATION" WERE TO ENJOY EXTEN8IVE SELF-GOVERNMENT ANO AUTONOMYJ THIS CHAP-TER WILL 0EM0N8TRATE HOW LENIN PERCEIVED AND UNDERSTOOD UKRAINIAN SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL PECULIARITIES WHILE THE SUCCEEDING CHAPTERS WILL FOCUS ON HIS ATTEMPT TO COME TO TERM8 WITH THESE OIFFERENCE80 IT SHOULD BE NOTED AT THE OUTSET THAT LENIN NEVER V18 I TED THE UKRAINE AND CONSEQUENTLY HAD NO FIRST-HAND KNOWLEDGE OF THAT PART OF THE RuSSI AN 11 EMPIRE. UNTIL 1911 HE NEVER SPOKE OR WROTE OF THE UKRAINE IN ANY BUT PURELY ECONOMIC TERMS AND OFTEN USED THE PEJORATIVE EPITHET OF "LITTLE RUSSIANS.''^ MANIFESTATIONS OF WHAT HE CONSIDERED ETHNOCENTRISM WERE CONSISTENTLY CON-DEMNED BY HIM AND HE TREATEO THE UKRAINIAN NATIONAL AREA (WHICH ROUGHLY COR-RESPONDS TO THE PRE8ENT TERRITORY OF THE REPUBLIC WITH THE EXCEPTION OF TER-RITORY ACQUIREO IN 1939) NOT A8 AN ENTITY, BUT A8 A COMPOSITE OF CITIES AND 3 PROVINCE8. UNTIL THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION LENIN HAD ALMOST TOTALLY IGNORED THE PEASANT QUESTION IN THE UKRAINE. THERE ARE PROBABLY TWO REASONS FOR TH18 O ON THE ONE HAND, HE MAY HAVE BEEN UNAWARE OF THE PARTICULAR 80CIAL-AGRI CUL-TURAL STRUCTURE OF THE AREA WITH IT8 ACCENTUATED URBAN-RURAL POLARITY, THIS POLARITY WA8 MAINTAINED TO A LARGE DEGREE BY THE NON-UKRAINI AN BOURGEO18 IE, BUREAUCRACY AND ARISTOCRACY ON THE ONE 8 IDE, AND THE PROVINCIAL UKRAINIAN PEA8ANT, WH08E EMBRYONIC POLITICAL C0N8CI0U8NE88 PRECLUDED THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 8EN8E OF NATIONALISM BEFORE 19C"5> ON THE OTHER. ON THE OTHER HAND, LENIN MAY HAVE BEEN AWARE OF THE SITUATION BUT PREFERRED NOT TO COMMIT HIM-SELF SPECIFICALLY TO A DEFINITE 8TAND AND COURSE OF ACTION. TH18 LATTER EX-PLANATION MAY BE CORRECT BECAUSE THE PEASANT PROBLEM, ALTHOUGH 8ELD0M MEN-TIONED EXPLICITLY, 18 IMPLICIT IN ALL HIS WORK ON THE NATIONAL QUE8 TI ON (AND, IT MAY BE ARGUED, IN THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS PREVAILING IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IT COULD HARDLY HAVE BEEN OTHERWISE). IT IS PROBABLY DUE BASICALLY TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF ETHNIC UKRAINIANS (90 PERCENT RURAL AND TEN PERCENT U R B A N ) THAT THE ESSENTIALLY 80CIO-ECONOMIC ANTAGONI8M BETWEEN THE URBAN RUSSIANS AND JEWS ANO THE RURAL UKRAINIANS BE-GAN TO ASSUME NATIONALISTIC OVERTONES. ALTHOUGH UKRAINIANS FORMED BY FAR THE LARGE8T ETHNIC GROUP IN M08T PROVINCES, THEY CONSTITUTED ONLY 3& PERCENT 12 OF THE URBAN POPULATION TO THE RU88IAN8 KK PERCENT. BY 1911» HOWEVER, LENIN MUST HAVE BECOME AWARE OF THE DISTINCTNESS OF THE UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY FOR IN THIS YEAR THERE WERE, ACCORDING TO SOVIET SOURCES, OVER 2,000 MANIFESTATIONS OF PEASANT DISCONTENT IN THE UKRAINE. BUT IT WAS NOT UNTIL JANUARY 1917 IN A LETTER TO INESSA ARMANO THAT HE DIS-CUSSED T H E UKRAINIAN PEASANT! Y E T E V E N AT THIS TIME IT WAS MERELY I N AN ANEC DOTAL MANNER ABOUT A SINGLE PEASANT WHO H A D VISITED HI MO SIGNIFICANTLY L E N I N DID N O T R E F E R TO H I S NATIONALITY B U T SIMPLY TO H I S GEOGRAPHIC ORIGIN. ACCORDING TO L E N I N , T H E M A N WAS "A VORONEZH PEASANT, A M A N OF T H E SOIL, FROM AN OLD BELIEVERS* FAMILY. A BREATH FROM T H E BLACK EARTH. IT WAS EX-TREMELY INTERESTING TO WATCH H I M A N O L I 8 T E N . " LENIN THEN WENT ON TO NOTE T H A T T H E PEASANT H A D SPENT A YEAR IN A GERMAN PRISON CAMP...WITH 27»000 UKRAINIANS. THE GERMANS BUILD UP THEIR CAMPS ACCORDING TO NATIONS A N D DO THEIR UTMOST TO BREAK THEM AWAY FROM RUSSIA; F O R T H E UKRAINIANS THEY SEND IN SKILL-F U L L LECTURERS FROM GALICIA. THE R E 8 U L T 8 ? ONLY 2,000, ACCORDING TO HIM, W E R E F O R "s ELF—RULE" (INOEPENOENCE IN T H E S E N S E MORE OF AUTONOMY THAN OF SEPARATION) AFTER MONTHS OF EFFORT BY T H E AG I T A T O R 8 { I T H E RE-MAINDER, HE SAYS, WERE F U R I 0 U 8 AT T H E THOUGHT OF SEPARATION FROM RuSSIA AND GOING OVER TO THE GERMANS OR AuSTRIAN8. A NOTABLE FACT! ONE CANNOT BUT BELIEVE HIM. 279000 18 A BIG NUM-BER. A YEAR IS AMPLE TIME. THE CONDITIONS FOR THE GAL ICI AN PROPA-GANDA WERE EXCEPTIONALLY FAVOURABLE. AND YET CLOSENE8S TO THE GREAT RU88IAN8 GOT THE UPPER HAND T O V E R J O Y E D W I T H THIS NEWS, L E N I N CONCLUDEO THAT THIS WAS THE RESULT OF BOL-SHEVIK PROPAGANDA IN SUPPORT OF "FREEDOM OF SEPARATION" ANO THOUGHT THAT A 8 A CONSEQUENCE R U S 8 I A MIGHT BE FREED NFOM THE ' A U 8 T R I AN TYPE' OF DEVELOPMENT. IT IS INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT HE WA8 8 0 WILLING TO GIVE CREDENCE TO THE PEASANT'S TALE ANO ONE SU8PECT8 THAT LENIN 0E8PERATELY HOPED THE MAN WAS TELLING THE TRUTH. LITTLE M O R E TIME WAS SPENT ON T H E UKRAINIAN QUESTION UNTIL AFTER OENIKIN'S R O U T OF THE BOLSHEVIKS; A F T E R THIS EPISODE LENIN DECIDED TO R E — 1 3 EXAMINE CERTAIN UKRAINIAN PECULIARITIES SUCH AS THE UNIQUE 8ITUATION AND ROLE OF THE PEASANTRY. HE BEGAN TO REALIZE THAT THE PEASANTRY WOULD NEVER WILLINGLY SUPPORT THE 30LSHEVIKS—EVEN IF THEY, AS A CLASS, DID SUPPORT THEM IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST DEN IKIN--UNLE8S A MOO IFI ED, BUT NEVERTHELESS BOLSHEVIK, APPROACH WAS TAKEN WHICH WOULD CONSIDER AT LEAST SOME ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM.^ LENIN COULD NOT UNDERSTAND WHY THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT WOULD NOT AP-PROPRIATE LAND FOR HIMSELF AND REPROACHED HIM FOR THIS C0N8ERVATI8M. SPEAK-ING ABOUT THE UKRAINE ON APRIL 3» 1 9 1 9 HE NOTED THAT "THE PEASANTS HAVE BEEN SO INTIMIDATED BY THE GERMANS THAT ALTHOUGH THEY KNOW WHAT THE PO-SITION OF THE SOVIET POWER IS HERE, THEY STILL HESITATE TO SEIZE THE LANDED ESTATES."^ A FEW WEEK8 LATER HE AGAIN 8TATED THAT "THE PEASANTS, INTIMI-DATED 8Y THE BRUTAL RULE OF THE GERMANS, ARE AFRAID TO 8EIZE THE LANDED ESTATES."1° IN BOTH THE8E STATEMENTS HE MANAGED, PERHAPS UNWITTINGLY, TO PROVIDE THE CLUE TO TH18 SEEMINGLY INCOMPREHENSIBLE PHENOMENON BY MENTIONING THAT "PARTISAN WARFARE IS 8TILL RAGING T H E R E . H L 8 PERPLEXITY ABOUT THIS LATENT UKRAINIAN PEASANT CONSERVATISM WAS SOON REPLACED BY ANXIETY OVER THE FACT THAT DENIKIN WAS RAPIDLY ADVANCING NORTHWARD WITH MINIMUM PEA8ANT RE-SISTANCE. MOST IMPORTANT IN POLITICAL TERMS, IT SEEMED THAT THE PEASANT WAS ACTUALLY HOSTILE TO BOTH THE REDS ANO THE WHITESO^ BY NOW LENIN HAD LEARNED TO "READ" THE POLITICAL SITUATION IN THE UKRAINE. HE CORRECTLY REASONEO THAT DENIKIN'S METHODS WOULO ULTIM,ATE>LY MEET WITH INSURMOUNTABLE PEASANT RESISTENCE JUST AS HAD KOLCHAK^S. SPEAKING TO A JOINT MEETING OF THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND NUMEROUS SOVIET ORGANIZATIONS ON JULY 4, 1 9 1 9 AT THE HEIGHT OF THE DENIKIN OFFENSIVE HE DE-CLARED PERSPICACIOUSLY THAT 1*4-UNIVERSAL MOBILISATION WILL BE THE RUIN OF DEN IKIN AS IT WAS OF KOLCHAK; A8 LONG AS HE HAD A CLASS ARMY OF V0LUNTEER8 WHO HATED SOCIALISM IT WAS STRONG AND SOUND, BUT WHEN HE BEGAN UNIVERSAL RECRUITMENT HE DID, OF COURSE, GET AN ARMY TOGETHER MORE QUICKLY, BUT THE ARMY BECAME THE WEAKER, AND ITS CLASS CHARACTER LESS PRONOUNCED. PEASANTS RECRUITED INTO DENiKIN'S ARMY WILL OO THE SAME IN THAT ARMY AS THE SIBERIAN PEASANTS DID IN KOLCHAK'S ARMY—THEY BROUGHT COMPLETE DISINTEGRATION INTO THE ARMY.13 BOLSHEVIK MOBILIZATION AGAINST DENIKIN WAS THUS TO BE OF THE SAME CHARACTER AS THAT USED TO RAISE THE FORCES TO DESTROY KOLCHAK. MOBILIZATION WOULD BE RESTRICTED TO NON-AGRICULTURAL, INDUSTRIAL REG I0N8 AND WOULD BE CONCEIVED IN SUCH A WAY AS TO INSURE BOTH MILITARY AND POLITICAL GOALS. MOBILLZ= ATION WOULD HAVE TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT NOT ONLY "THE INTERE8T8 OF THE WAR, BUT ALSO...THE INTERESTS OF AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SUPPLIE8• PEOPLE WERE /JO BE_7 TRANSFERRED FROM THE 8TARVING GU8ERNIA8 TO THE GRA IN-PROOUC I NG REG ION8. IN ORDER TO INSURE THE FIGHTING QUALITY OF THE8E TROOPS LENIN DECLARED THAT "ALL MOBILISED MEN WOULD BE ALLOWED TO SEND THEIR FAMILIE8 AT HOME TWO FOOD PARCELS A MONTH, AND IN THIS WAY THE WORKING POPULATION WOULD BE ABLE TO OBTAIN BREAD FROM THEIR REI.AT IVE8 AT THE FRONT. 5 NOT ONLY WOULD THI8 REINFORCE THE SOLDIERS' WILL TO FIGHT BUT IT WOULD HAVE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF INTERMINGLING WHAT WAS ES8ENTI ALLY A "FOREIGN CAM-PAIGN" (I.E., RUSSIAN SOLDIERS WERE USED TO INVADE AND CONQUER THE UKRAINE) WITH THE FUNDAMENTAL QUESTION OF FOOO. THE RU8SI AN SOLD IER MAY NOT HAVE BEEN SO ANXI0U8 TO FIGHT IF HIS SUCCESSES WERE NOT REWARDED BY FOOD 8ENT TO HIS STARVING FAMILY IN THE NORTHERN CITIE8. LENIN, AS IT LATER BECAME EVIDENT, WAS WELL AWARE OF THE FACT THAT PEASANT SUPPORT OF THE BOLSHEVIKS DID NOT IMPLY APPROVAL OF THE BOLSHEVIK PROGRAM; THEIR SUPPORT WAS OF A PURELY TACTICAL NATURE DESIGNED TO DESTROY A FORCE WHICH THEY HATED ONLY SLIGHTLY MORE THAN THE COMMUNISTSO "WHEN KOLCHAK AND DENIKIN WERE ADVANCING FROM SIBERIA AND THE SOUTH," HE OB-15 SERVED IN THE AUTUMN OF 1920, THE PEASANT8 WERE ON THEIR SIDES. THEY DID NOT LIKE BOL8HEVISM BECAUSE THE BOLSHEVIKS TOOK THEIR GRAIN AT A FIXEO PRICE. BUT WHEN THE PEASANTS IN SIBERIA AND THE UKRAINE EXPERIENCED THE RULE OF KOLCHAK ANO OENIKIN, THEY REALISED THAT THEY HAD ONLY ONE ALTERNATIVE: EITHER TO GO TO THE CAPITALISTS, WHO WOULD AT ONCE HAND THEM OVER TO 8LAVERY UNDER THE LAND-OWNERS I OR TO FOLLOW THE WORKERS.... 1 A YEAR EARLIER, IN THE LIGHT OF DENIKIN'8 SUCCESSES, LENIN HAD CON-CLUDED THAT "UNDER THE PRE8ENT CIRCUMSTANCE8 THE PEA8ANT8 COULD NOT BE WON OVER BY ENTHUSIASM ALONE—8UCH A METHOD 18 NOT RELI A BLEO? FINALLY AWARE THAT THE DIFFERENCES OF THE UKRAINIAN PEA8ANTRY REQUIRED A CERTAIN DEGREE OF BOLSHEVIK ADAPTABILITY, LENIN WARNED THE UKRAINIAN COMRADES A THOUSAND TIME8 THAT WHEN IT IS A MAT-TER OF THE MOVEMENT OF MILLION-STRONG MA88ES WOR08 ARE NOT ENOUGH £ THEY MUST HAVE THEIR OWN DAY TO DAY EXPERIENCE 80 THAT PEOPLE CAN VERIFY IN-STRUCTIONS THEMSELVE8, 80 THAT THEY BELIEVE IN THEIR OWN EXPER IENCE„ 1 ^  PERHAPS THE GREATEST CONTRAST BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN AND UKRAINIAN PEA-SANT WAS THE LATTER'S WILL AND ABILITY TO FIGHT. THE UKRAINIAN PEA8ANT WA8 NOT HANDICAPPED BY A LACK OF ARM8 AND, UNLIKE THE RU88LAN PEASANT, HE WA8 NOT FIGHTING MERELY A CLASS WAR BUT IN SOME WAY8 A NATIONAL ONE AS WELL. TROTSKY, IN A CANDID MOMENT IN THE SUMMER OF 1919* OBSERVED THAT EVERYONE IN THE UKRAINE EXCEPT THE SOLDIERS POSSESSES RIFLE8 ANO AM— MUNITLION. THE STATE OF THE SOLDIER 18 THE STATE IN WHICH THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT FINDS HIM8ELF UNTIL SUCH TIMES A8 HE RECEIVES A RIFLE WITH WHICH TO RETURN BACK TO HIS OWN VILLAGE....^ THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT PRESENTED LENIN WITH A VERY PERPLEXING PUZZLE. HE MUSED THAT IN TWO YEARS THE BOLSHEVIK8 HAVE WON THE FULL SYMPATHY ANO 8UPP0RT OF THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF THE WORKERS AND LABOURING PEA8ANTS OF GREAT RU88 IA, INCLUDING THE URALS AND SIBERIA, BUT AS YET WE HAVE NOT WON THE FULL SUPPORT AND SYMPATHY OF THE WORKING PEASANT8 (AS DISTINCT FROM THE PEASANT EXPLOITERS) OF THE UKRAINE.20 THUS FROM THE SUMMER OF 1919 ONWARD LENIN TOOK A GREAT INTEREST IN ATTEMPTING TO SOLVE THE UKRAINIAN PEA8ANT ENIGMA ANO THIS INTEREST BORE 16 FRUIT AT THE DECEMBER 1919 CONFERENCE OF THE PARTY, WHERE UNOER HI8 GUIOANCE, A NEW LAND LAW FOR UKRAINE WAS ORAFTEO. BUT EVEN TH18 WA8 EXECUTED IN A CHARACTERISTICALLY LENINI8T MANNER. IT WA8 DONE IN MOSCOW AND THE LEADER OF THE BOLSHEVIKS EXPRESSED NO DESIRE TO OBSERVE THE EXISTING SITUATION IN 21 UKRAINE. RAKOVSKY NOTED, HOWEVER, THAT AT THIS TIME LENIN CAUTIONED HIM 2? TO PAY CONSIDERABLE ATTENTION TO THE PEA8ANT PSYCHOLOGY. IN THE END LENIN SEEMS TO HAVE DECIDED THAT THE UKRAINIAN (AND OTHER NON-RuSSlAN PEASANTS) WERE OF AN INDIVIDUALISTIC ORIENTATION BECAUSE THEY HAD NEVER EXPERIENCED THE PRIVATIONS OF THE RU88IAN PEASANT. SOMEWHAT ENVIOUSLY HE NOTED THAT THEIR PRESENT ANO PAST GRAIN SURPLU8E8 HAVE NEVER BEEN MATCHED IN CEN-TRAL RUSSIA, NOR HAVE THEY EVER EXPERIENCED SUCH A PLIGHT. THE PEASANTS OF THE UKRAINE, SIBERIA AND NORTHERN CAUCASUS HAVE NEVER KNOWN SUCH DES-TITUTION AND HUNGER AS THE PEA8ANT8 OF MOSCOW ANO PETROGRAD GUBERNI AS (WHO RECEIVED FAR LE8S THAN THE UKRAINIAN PEA8ANT8) HAVE ENDURED FOR THREE YEARS. *> PERHAPS A MORE OBJECTIVE OBSERVER WOULD ALSO HAVE TAKEN ACCOUNT OF THE UNIQUE HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF THE UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY.^ LENIN0S OBJEC-TIVITY WAS, HOWEVER, BOUNDED BY THE MARXIST FRAMEWORK\ CONSEQUENTLY HE TEND-ED TO FOCUS HIS ATTENTION ON THE EX IS TING ECONOMIC CONDITIONS RATHER THAN THEIR DERIVATIVES. LENIN WAS BENT ON DESTROYING THE KULAK BECAUSE HE THOUGHT THIS PAR-TICULAR LAYER OF THE PEASANTRY TO BE THE MOST DANGEROUS FOR THE BOLSHEVIK REGIME. "THERE MUST BE NO LET-UP IN THE FIGHT WITH THE KULAKS," HE EM-PHASIZED, "AND NO DEALS MU8T BE MADE WITH THEM."25 IN THE UKRAINE THIS ST-RAIGHTFORWARD APPROACH BODED ILL FOR LENIN BECAU8E THE KULAKS COMPRI8ED A VERY LARGE SECTION OF THE PEA8ANTRY. BY HI8 OWN A0MI88I0N MIDDLE PEASANT8 IN PARTS OF THE UKRAINE WERE LIKE KULAKS.^ BuT HI8 INABILITY TO UNDERSTAND THE PEASANT MENTALITY OR, EQUALLY LIKELY, HIS REFUSAL TO DO SO, COMPELLED HIM TO ARRIVE AT SOME RATHER NAIVE CONCLUSIONS. "OVER THERE / j N THE UKRAINE^ THEY HAVE HAD 120 GOVERNMENTS," HE NOTED WITH A TRACE OF CONTEMPT, 17 AND THE RICH PEASANTS HAVE BEEN CORRUPTED. THEY CANNOT UNDERSTAND THAT THERE IS A W0RKER8' ANO PEA8ANT8 ' GOVERNMENT AND THAT, IF IT CONFISCATES GRAIN, IT D0E8 SO IN ORDER TO EASE THE P08ITI ON OF THE WORKERS AND PEAS-ANTS. UNTIL WE ARE ABLE TO ACHIEVE FULL CLARITY ON ALL THESE QUESTIONS IN THAT AREA WE 8HALL CONTINUE TO RECEIVE NEWS OF DISTURBANCES, BANDITRY AND REVOLTS. THIS IS INEVITABLE BECAUSE WE HAVE INHERITED FROM CAPITAL-ISM A PEASANT WHO IS ISOLATED AND CANNOT HELP BEING IGNORANT ANO FULL OF RESENTMENT, AND IT WILL TAKE US YEARS TO RE—EOUCATE HIM.^7 THREE YEARS BEFORE LENIN MADE THIS STATEMENT HE HAD EXHIBITED A GREATER DE-GREE OF REALISM. THEN, IN NOVEMBER 1918, HE NOTED THAT EVEN THE MIDDLE PEASANTS WERE UNLIKELY TO BECOME ENAMOURED OF SOCIALIST AGRICULTURE "BUT EXPERIENCE WILL TEACH THEM THE ADVANTAGES OF SOCIALISED FARMING AND THE MA-JORITY OF THEM WILL NOT RES 18 T«"28 BA8ICALLY LENIN COULD ONLY INTERPRET THE PEASANTS' RELUCTANCE TO PART WITH THEIR PRODUCE WITHOUT BEING RE—IMBURSED AS DUE TO THE LACK OF POLITICAL EDUCATION. HE REALLY DID NOT C0N8I0ER THE FACT —AT LEAST IN HI8 PUBLIC UTTERANCES THAT THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT WA8 NOT IN-TERESTED IF HIS RUSSIAN CITY COUSIN WAS STARVING AND THAT "POLITICAL EDUCA-TION" WOULD PROVIDE RESULTS ONLY IF FORCE WA8 PART OF THE "EDUCATIONAL" PROGRAM. BY THE TIME OF THE EIGHTH CONGRESS OF THE RCP(B) IN MARCH 1919, IT WAS EVIDENT THAT A MODIFIED APPROACH TO THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT WAS IMPERATIVE. LENIN CORRECTLY NOTED THAT IN GENERAL THE BOLSHEVIKS, WHEN IN THE PROCESS OF ASSUMING POWER, HAD THE SUPPORT OF THE MAJORITY OF THE PEASANTRY BECAUSE THE AIM OF THE PEASANT WAS TO DESTROY THE LANDOWNER. HE THEN IMPLIED, INCORREC-TLY IT MAY BE ARGUED, THAT THE PEASANT WAS MERELY PREJUDICED AGAIN8T LARGE— 29 SCALE FARMING RATHER THAN THE SOVIET COLLECTIVE FARM A8 SUCH. AT ANY RATE HE CONCLUDED THAT THE MIDDLE PEASANT COULD BECOME A PILLAR OF SOVIET POWER IF PROPERLY GROOMEO. FOR THIS REASON HE CAUTIONED AGAIN8T USE OF FORCE. THE BOURGEOISIE HAD TO BE CRUSHED BY FORCE BUT IF WE WERE TO ACT IN THE 8AME WAY T0WARD8 THE MIODLE PEASANT IT WOULD BE 8UCH IDIOCY, 8UCH 8TUP ID ITY, IT WOULD BC 80 RUIN0U8 TO OUR CAUSE, THAT ONLY PR0VACATEUR8 COULO DELIBERATELY ACT IN 8UCH A WAY.... YOU CANNOT CREATE ANYTHING HERE BY COERCION. COEROION APPLIED TO THE MIDDLE PE&8-» ANTS WOULD 0AU8E UNTOLD HARM. THI8 SECTION 18 A NUMER0U8 ONE, IT CON"" 8I8TS OF MILLI0N8 OF INDIVIDUALS.™ LENIN THEN PROCEEDED TO EXPLAIN THAT THE URBAN UPPER LAYER OF CAPITALISTS HAD NO PARALLEL IN THE VILLAGE (ALTHOUGH ONE 18 PROMPTED TO ASK WHAT HAO HAPPENED TO THE KULAK IN THE OURRENT LENINI8T APPROACH). AGAIN HE 8TRE88E0 THAT "HERE COERCION WOULD RUIN THE WHOLE CAUSE. PROLONGED EDUCATIONAL WORK 18 REQUIRED. WE HAVE TO GIVE THE PEA8ANT.•.OOMORETS EXAMPLES TO PROVE THAT E COMMUN I A ' 18 THE BE8T P0S8 IBLE THING. "-^ SUDDENLY LENIN HAO OECIOED THAT THE BOLSHEVIKS HAD MUOH TO LEARN ABOUT, ANO INDEED, FROM; THE PEA8ANTRV. COMMUNES WERE STILL TO BE ENCOUR-AGED WBUT THEY MU8T BE 80 ORGAN 18E0 AS TO GAIN THE CONFIDENCE OF THE PEAS- ANTS. AND UNTIL THEN WE ARE PUPILS OF THE PEASANTS ANO NOT THEIR TEACHERS," 32 HE WROTE. PARTY WORKERS WERE URGED TO OBSERVE THE SPECIFIO CONDITIONS IN WHICH THE PEASANT LIVED AND N T 0 LEARN FROM HIM METH008 OF TRANSITION TO A BETTER SY8TEM, ANO NOT TO OARE GIVE ORDERS I"33 A RESOLUTION ON THE ATTITUDE TO THE MIODLE PEA8ANT8 WA8 PRESENTED BY LENIN TO THE ELGHTH C0NGRE88 WHICH COMPELLED THE PARTY BUREAUORACY TO DISTINGUISH OAREFULLY BETWEEN THE MIOOLE PEASANT AND THE KULAK AND WHIOH REOOGNIZEO THAT THE MIOOLE PEASANT WOULD EX— IST IN THE SOVIET SYSTEM FOR A LONG TIME TO COME AND THUS INSISTED ON COOPER-ATION WITH HIM. THE RESOLUTION FURTHER 8TATED THAT THE MIDDLE PEASANTS DO NOT PROFIT BY THE LABOR OF OTHERS, THAT NO DIREOT OR INOIRECT COMPULSION WOULD BE PERMITTED IN BRINGING THEM TO THE OOMMUNE, THAT RULES OF REQUIS-ITIONING WOULD BE STRICTLY OBSERVED AND THAT PARTY WORKER8 WOULD HAVE TO BE LENIENT TO THI8 8TRATA OF THE PEASANTRY WHEN OOLLECTING TAXE8 EVEN IF IT RE-DUCED THE TOTAL REVENUES.^ IN UKRAINE EVEN THE LOWEST STRATA OF THE PEASANTRY PROVIDED SOME 19 PROBLEMS FOR L.ENIN WHO OECLARED IN THE WINTER OF 1919 THAT ONE OF THE TASKS OF SOVIET POWER WAS TO WIN THE CONFIDENCE OF THE POOR PEASANTS WHO WERE EX-TREMELY DISORGANIZED AT TH18 TIME. APPARENTLY THE POOR PEASANT8 WERE SUS-PICIOUS OF THE SOVIET ADMINISTRATION AND LENIN URGED THAT PARTY OFFICIALS MAKE SPECIAL EFFORTS TO INCLUDE THEM, AS WELL AS MIDOLE PEASANTS, IN THE WORK OF THE GOVERNMENT, IN ORDER TO INSTIL SOME REVOLUTIONARY FERVOR INTO THE POOR PEASANTRY"^ LENIN HAD DECIDED TO TRANSFER THE LARGEST POSSIBLE NUMBER OF PEOPLE FROM THE STARVING CITIES TO AGRICULTURAL WORK IN THE RURAL 0I8TRICTS--TO VEGETABLE GAR-DENS, TO THE UKRAINE, TO THE DON REGION, AND SO FORTH, SO AS TO IN-CREASE THE OUTPUT OF GRAIN AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE.^? SINCE RURAL UKRAINE SUFFERED FROM AGRICULTURAL OVER-POPULATION-^ THE SA-GACITY OF LENIN'S ACTION IS QUESTIONABLE UNLESS IT IS VIEWED IN POLITICAL-MILITARY TERMS. IF THE PARTY WAS TO LEARN ABOUT AGRICULTURE FROM THE PEAS-ANTRY IT MAY BE REASONABLY ASKED WHAT HELP A MEMBER OF THE PETROGRAD PROLE-TARIAT COULD BE ON A FARM. WHY THESE RUSSIAN WORKERS WERE SENT TO THE UKRAINE IS EXPLAINED RATHER ESOTERLCALLY BY LENIN WHO COMPLAINED THAT NOT ONLY WERE THE PEASANTS ANTIPATHETIC TO THE 80LSHEVIKS BUT THAT THEY WERE BECOMING SUSPICIOUS THAT THEIR CONFISCATED GRAIN WAS NOT STAYING IN THE UKRAINE BUT WAS GOING TO RUSSIA. HE NOTED LACONICALLY THAT "IT IS ESSENTIAL TO EXPOSE TO THE UKRAIN-IAN PEASANTRY THE COUNTER-REVOLUTIONARY OEMOGOGY THAT TRIE8 TO IMPRESS ON THEM THAT THE PURPOSE OF SOVIET RU8SIA IS TO CHANNEL GRAIN AND OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS FROM THE UKRAINE INTO RU8SLA."39 COUNTER-REVOLUTIONARY THIS PROPA-GANDA MAY HAVE BEEN BUT BY L_ENIN*8 OWN NUMEROUS ADMISSIONS IT WAS IN FACT QUITE ACCURATE.^ MOST PERPLEXING WAS THE DIFFICULTY IN ORGANIZING THE POOREST PEAS-ANTRY. IN RUSSIA, THE COMMITTEES OF POOR PEASANTS WERE SUCCESSFUL BUT IN 20 THE UKRAINE, DUE TO ITS LARGE NUMBER OF MIDDLE AND HIGHER PEASANTRY AND DUE c • TO THE QUESTIONABLE AIMS ANO MOTIVES OF THE'BOLSHEVIKS THESE COMMITTEES HAD ONLY A LIMITED SUCCESS.^ ADAMS SUGGESTS WHAT WAS PERHAP8 THE BASIC REASON FOR THE BOLSHEVIK LACK OF SUCCESS WITH THE POOR PEASANT IN UKRAINE. DISCUS-SING THE CIVIL WAR HE CONCLUDES THAT CONTRARY TO A POPULAR BOLSHEVIK MYTH, THIS TWENTIETH-CENTURY HAIOAMAK-AND-COSSACK RISING WAS NOT PROVOKED PRIMARILY BY WELL-TO-DO COSSACKS, NOR BY THE LUST OF THE RICH PEASANT, THE KULAK. FOR MORE LAND. PEAS-ANTS WHO HAD ALWAY8 BEEN LANDLE8S DREAMED NOW OF OBTAINING 80ME LANO % PEASANTS WHO OWNED A I. I TTLE DREAMED OF GETTING MORE.^ 2 LENIN ATTRIBUTED THIS FUNDAMENTAL PEASANT DESIRE TO OWN LANO TO THE INFLUENCE OF THE BOURGEOI 8 IE. IN SIBERIA AND IN THE UKRAINE THE COUNTER-REVOLUTION WAS ABLE TO GAIN A TEMPORARY VICTORY BECAUSE THERE THE BOURGEOI 8 IE HAO THE PEAS-ANTRY ON ITS SIDE, BECAU8E THE PEA8ANTS WERE AGAINST US. THE PEASANT8 FREQUENTLY SAID, "WE ARE BOI.SHEV I STS BUT NOT COMMUN18 T8. WE ARE FOR FOR THE BOLSHEVIKS BECAUSE THEY DROVE OUT THE LANDOWNERS; BUT WE ARE NOT FOR THE COMMUNISTS BECAUSE THEY ARE OPPOSED TO INDIVIDUAL FARMING."^3 IT SEEMS THAT THIS IS ALL THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT WANTED, I.E., HIS OWN PLOT OF LAND. BUKHARIN WAS AWARE OF THIS INCLINATION ANO LABELLED IT "AGRARIAN PEASANT SOCIALISM." ACCORDING TO HIM, AGRARIAN PEA8ANT SOCIALISM ...ASSUME8 VARIOUS FORMS AND AT ALL TIMES RESEMBLES PEA8ANT ANARCHISM, ITS MOST DISTINCTIVE FEATURE IS THE WAY IN WHICH IT HABITUALLY FAIL8 TO LOOK UPON SOCIALISM A8 A 8Y8TEM OF LARGE—8CALE PRODUCTION, AND THE WAY IN WHICH IT INCLINES TOWARDS 0 I VIDING UP AND TOWARDS EQUALISATION. ITS MAIN DISTINCTION FROM ANARCHISM IS THAT IT DEMANDS THE CREATION OF A 8TR0NG CENTRAL AUTHORITY WHICH SHALL PROTECT IT, ON THE ONE HAND FROM THE LANDLORDS AND ON THE OTHER FROM THE PROLETARIAT. IN TH18 FORM OF 80CIALI8M WE HAVE THE 'SOCIALISATION OF THE LAND° AOVOCATEO BY THE SO-CIAL REVOLUTIONISTS, WHO DE8IRE TO ESTABLISH SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION IN PERPETUITY, WHO DREAD THE PROLETARIAT, AND WHO OPPOSE THE FORMATION OF A GREAT AND UNITED CO-OPERATIVE COMMONWEALTH.^ THIS IS PROBABLY VERY CLOSE TO WHAT THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT REALLY WANTED. LENIN HAD DECIDED IN 1919 THAT AN "ALLIANCE" WITH THE PEASANTRY WAS A PRECONDITION TO THE SUCCESS OF THE REVOLUTION AND |N 1921 AT THE THIRD CONGRESS OF THE COMINTERN HE SPELLED OUT THE AIM OF THE ALLIANCE. THIS 21 ALLIANCE WAS TO BE INTERPRETED IN THE FOLLOWING WAY I "THE PROLETARIAT EMAN-CIPATES THE PEASANTRY FROM THE EXPLOITATION OF THE BOURGEOISIE, FROM ITS LEADERSHIP AND INFLUENCE, AND WINS IT OVER TO IT8 OWN SIDE IN ORDER TO J O I N T -LY OEFEAT THE EXPLOITERS."^ THE FIRST STEP IN "EMANCIPATING" THE PEASANTRY WAS, OF COURSE, THE LIQUIDATION OF THE K U L A K o BUT THIS WAS TO BE DONE UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT, THE URBAN CLASS, WHICH, AS CHAMBERLIN NOTES, WAS NOWHERE HATED A8 MUCH AS IN THE UKRAINE.^ | N OTHER WORDS WHAT LENIN GAVE THE PEASANT WITH ONE HAND HE TOOK AWAY WITH THE OTHER. FURTHER COMPLICATING THE UKRAINIAN PREOICAMENT, FROM A SOCIALIST STANDPOINT, WAS THE C0N8PICU0U8 LACK OF AN INDIGENOUS PROLETARIAT. THE OVER-WHELMING MAJORITY OF PROLETARIAT IN THE UKRAINE, A8 HA8 ALREAOY BEEN NOTED, WAS OF RUS8IAN ORIGIN.TH18 CLA88 WAS BUT A TINY MINORITY IN A SEA OF PEASANTRY AND EVEN THOUGH LENIN COULD SAY THAT "THE WORKERS LIVING IN THE TOWNS...ASS I ML LATE OUR IDEAS...,"^ HE HAD TO CONCLUDE THAT IN THE UKRAINE THERE EXISTED A "L.OW LEVEL OF PROLETARIAN CLASS-CONSCIOUSNESS.'^ BUT THIS WAS NOT THE ONLY VEXATIOUS PR08LEM FOR HE AL80 OBSERVED THAT "WHAT PROLETAR-IAT THERE IS, HA8 SEEN CORRUPTED BY PETTY-BOURGEOIS HABITS."50 TH18 PRO-BABLY MEANT THAT THE MAJORITY OF WHATEVER PROLETARIAT EXISTED IN THE UKRAINE WAS PRO—MEN8HEVIK RATHER THAN BOLSHEVIK IN POLITICAL ORIENTATION. CIRCUM8TANCIAL EVIDENCE FOR THIS ASSUMPTION IS PROVIDED BY A CURRENT SOVIET SOURCE WHICH SHOWS THAT BEFORE AND DURING THE WAR A VIABLE WORKER'S MOVEMENT IN THE UKRAINE MANIFESTED ITSELF IN NUMEROUS STRIKES AND PROTESTS.51 GURZHII AND LESHCHENKO, PERHAPS INADVERTENTLY, PROVIDE FURTHER EVIDENCE OF THE EXISTENCE OF A DYNAMIC WORKERS MOVEMENT IN THE UKRAINE. IN ENUMERATING CITIES IN WHICH STRIKES OCCURRED, MOSCOW ANO PETROGRAD ARE USUALLY THE ONLY RUSSIAN CITIES MENTIONED WHILE CITIES IN THE UKRAINE CONSISTENTLY REFERREO TO INCLUDE KIEV, KHARKOV, NIKOLAEV, KHERSON, EKATERINOSLAV AND ODESSA.-^ 22 FURTHERMORE, PRAVOA PUBLISHED TWO SPECIAL EDITIONS (THE MINER'S LEAFLET) FOR THE DONETS WORKERS BETWEEN 1912-191^-53 NEVERTHELESS, THERE WAS A DEFINITE NEED FOR MORE AND MORE PRO-BOL-SHEVIK PROLETARIAT IN THE UKRAINE AND LENIN INTENDED TO 8UPPLV IT. "FROM ALL PARTS OF THE UKRAINE WE HEAR THE CRY 'SEND US W0RKER8!'" HE INFORMED A GATHERING IN PETROGRAD IN MARCH 1919«^ A FEW OAYS LATER HE NOTED THAT THE UKRAINIAN COMRAOES ARE COMPLAINING BITTERLY ABOUT THE LACK OF PEOPLE, LACK OF FORCES WITH WHICH TO BUILD UP THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT. THEY HAVE NO MACHINERY OF ADMINISTRATION, THEY HAVE NO PROLETARIAN CENTRE LIKE PETROGRAD OR MOSCOW, FOR THE UKRAINIAN PROLETARIAN CENTRES ARE OCCUPIED BY THE ENEMY. KIEV IS NOT A PROLETARIAN CENTRE.55 HE THEN PROCEEDEO TO FULFILL THEIR REQUESTS WITH BUDDING PARTY APPERATCHIKS. NOT ONLY WAS THE PROLETARIAT IN THE UKRAINE EXCEPTIONALLY SMALL, HE INFORMED THE NINTH CONGRESS OF THE R C P ( B ) IN THE SPRING OF 1920, BUT THERE CAN BE NO QUE8TI ON ...THAT THE PROLETARIAN ELEMENT IN THE UKRAINE DIFFERS FROM THE PROLETARIAN ELEMENT IN PETROGRAD, M08C0W AND IVANOVO-VOZNESENSK—NOT BECAUSE IT 18 NO GOOD, BUT FOR PURELY HIS TOR ICAL REASONS. THEY DID NOT HAVE OCCASION TO BECOME SO STEELED BY HUNGER, COLD AND STRIFE AS THE PROLETARIANS OF MOSCOW ANO PETROGRAD.56 THIS STATEMENT WAS MADE NOT BECAUSE LENIN WAS IGNORANT OF THE DEVASTATION IN THE UKRAINE, RATHER IT WAS A BLATANT FALSIFICATION FOR POLITICAL PURPOSES. AFTER ALL, ONE YEAR EARLIER HE HAD STATED THAT THE RUSSIANS MUST COME TO THE AID OF THE UKRAINIAN COMRADES BECAUSE THEY FACED THE TASK OF CREATING A SOVIET ADMINISTRATION "ON A SITE THAT WAS CLEAREO AND LAID WASTE BY SUFFERING AS NO OTHER PLACE HAS B E E N t A N D SIX MONTHS AFTER THE NINTH CONGRESS HE AGAIN SPOKE OF THE "uNPARALLELEO SUFFERINGS" IN THE UKRAINE.58 | T WOULD APPEAR THAT LENIN COULD DO AS HE WI8HED WITH THE "UKRAINI AN" PROLETARI AT AND HE HAD LITTLE RE8PECT FOR IT. LENIN'S WORK ON THE UKRAINE INCLUDES NOTHING OF SIGNIFICANCE WITH REGARD TO A UKRAINIAN INTELLIGENTSIA OR EVEN A UKRAINIAN BOURGEOISIE. IF THE BOURGEO18 IE WAS DISCUSSED IT WAS NEVER DONE 80 A8 AN END IN ITSELF. 23 FOR EXAMPLE, LENIN DECLARED THAT IT WAS THE PARTY'S TASK MTO PREVENT SOVIET INSTITUTIONS FROM BEING FLOODEO WITH UKRAINIAN URBAN PETTY BOURGEOISIE, WHO HAVE NO CONCEPTION OF THE LIVING CONDITIONS OF THE PEA8ANT MASSES AND WHO FREQUENTLY MASQUERADE AS COMMUNISTS,"59 BUT EVEN HERE THE TERM "UKRAINIAN1' IS PROBABLY BEING USED AS A REGIONAL DESIGNATION OF URBAN RU88IANS AND JEWS SINCE IT IS QUESTIONABLE THAT ENOUGH URBANIZED ETHNIC UKRAINIANS EXISTED TO FLOOD THE SOVIET APPARATUS. TO FURTHER COMPLICATE THE ISSUE, LENIN BEGAN REFERRING TO THE PEA8ANTRY AS PETTY BOURGEO18 IE. "IT 18 THE PETTY BOUR-GEOISIE," HE AFFIRMED IN MARCH 1921, "THE 8MALL PROPRIETORS, WHICH IN RUSSI A CONSTITUTE THE OVER-WHELMING MAJORITY OF THE POPULATI ON——THE PEA8ANTRY. THEY ARE MAINLY SMALL PROPRIETORS ANO SMALL FARMERS."^O IN HIS PRE-REVOLUTIONARY WRITINGS LENIN NEVER DEALT SPECIFICALLY WITH THE UNIQUENESS OF UKRAINIAN CULTURE OR THE POLITICAL AND CULTURAL ORIEN-TATIONS OF ITS INTELLIGENTSIA OTHER THAN A8 A POLITICAL M.UB WITH WHICH TO SUB-DUE HIS OPPONENTS. FOR EXAMPLE, HE TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE TSARIST GOVERN— MENT% BAN OF THE S H E V C H E N K O DAY CELEBRATIONS IN THE U K R A I N E O HE WROTE A SPEECH FOR THE DUMA DEPUTY, H. PETROV8KY, WHICH CONDEMNED THE GOVERNMENT 9S fit ACTION IN STRONG TERMS O THERE IS NO INDICATION, HOWEVER, THAT HE WAS FA-MILIAR WITH SHEVCHENKO'S WORK^ 2 AND HE MADE IT PLAIN THAT HE DISAPPROVED OF THE GOVERNMENT% ACTION PRIMARILY BECAUSE IT PROVIDED NEW IMPETU8 FOR THE UKRAINIAN SEPARATISTS.^ IN FACT THE ONLY UKRAINIAN LITERARY WORK THAT LENIN MENTIONED WAS A BOOK BY VFNNICHENKO WHICH HE READ IN 191^» H|S COMMENTS WERE HARDLY FLAT-TER I NG : THERE'S BALDERDASH AND STUPIDITY. TO COMBINE TOGETHER AS MUCH AS POS-SIBLE OF EVERY KIND OF "HORROR", TO COLLECT IN ONE STORY "VICE" AND "SYPHILIS" AND ROMANTIC C R l M E l . . . B u T THI8 PRE TENT 10U8, CRA88 IDIOT VlNNICHENKO, IN SELF-ADMIRATION, HAS FROM 8UCH THINGS COMPILED A COL-LECTION THAT IS NOTHING BUT H O R R O R 8 A KIND OF "TWOPENNY OREAOFUL". BRRR.... MUCK, NONSENSE, PITY I SPENT SO MUCH TIME REAO I NG IT.^1-24 GuRZHI AND LESHCHENKO, HOWEVER, STATE THAT LENIN "UNDERSTOOD THE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE WELL /ANC/ HAD READ THE CLASSICS OF UKRAINIAN LITERATUREo"^5 A C -CORD iNG TO THEM, LENIN STATED THAT HE HAD READ THE WORKS OF SHEVCHENKO, FRANKO AND OTHER UKRAINIAN WRITERS AND THAT HE TOLD A DELEGATION OF UKRAIN-IAN POOR PEASANTS THAT HE UNDERSTOOD AND LOVED THE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE.^* NO EVIDENCE EXISTS TO CORROBORATE THE8E 8TATEMENT8 ANO IT WOULD NOT BE UN-REASONABLE TO DI8REGARD THEM. LENIN*8 WRITINGS ARE OEVOLD OF REFERENCES TO UKRAINIAN AUTHORS OTHER THAN THE TWO OISCUSSED. IN THE LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION ISSUES LENIN SHOWED NO SPECIAL IN-TEREST IN THE UKRAINE. HE CONSTANTLY STATED THAT IT WAS NOT FOR THE PROLE-TARIAT TO ENCOURAGE THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL CULTURE BUT, ON THE OTHER HAND, THEY WOULD NOT RETARD IT EITHER. H E CONTINUALLY STRESSED THAT MTHE WORKERS OF ALL NAT ION8 HAVE BUT ONE EDUCATIONAL POLICY? FREEDOM FOR THE NA"? TIVE LANGUAGE, AND DEMOCRATIC AND SECULAR EDUCATION."^ NEVERTHELESS, ONCE THE BOLSHEVIK8 AS8UME0 POWER AND LENIN WAS CA8TING ABOUT FOR WAYS TO CONSO-LIDATE IT, HE QUICKLY DECIDED TO F08TER UKRAINIAN CULTURE, EVEN THOUGH HIS VIEWS ON UKRAINIAN NATIONALISM AND CULTURE WERE UNDOUBTEDLY SIMILAR TO ROSA LUXEMBURG'S. SHE SUMMED UP UKRAINIAN NATIONALISM AND CULTURE THUS: UKRAINIAN NATIONALISM IN RUSSIA WAS SOMETHING QUITE DIFFERENT FROM, LET US SAY, CZECHISH, POLISH OR FINNISH NATIONALISM IN THAT THE FARMER WAS A MERE WHIM, A FOLLY OF A FEW DOZEN PETTY—BOURGEO18 INTELLECTUALS WITH-OUT THE 8LIGHTES T ROOTS IN THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL RE-LATIONSHIPS OF THE COUNTRY; IT WAS WITHOUT HISTORICAL TRADITIONS, SINCE THE UKRAINE NEVER FORMED A NATION OR GOVERNMENT, WAS WITHOUT ANY NATIONAL CULTURE, EXCEPT FOR THE REACTIONARY-ROMANTIC P0EM8 OF SHEVCHENKO.^8 LENIN, HOWEVER, WAS NOT GOING TO LET HIS NEGATIVE VIEWS ON NATION-ALISM IN GENERAL AND UKRAINIAN NATIONALISM IN PARTICULAR IMPEDE HIS PRACTI-CAL EFFORTS TO AMELIORATE THE UKRAINIAN POPULATION. H E WAS AWARE OF THE DIF-FERENCES BETWEEN RUS8IA AND THE UKRAINE. "...IF YOU RECALL OUR TWO YEARS OF STRUGGLE," HE REMINDED A SE88I ON OF VARIOUS SOVIET ORGANIZATIONS IN 1 9 1 9 9 25 YOU WILL 8EE THAT IN THE UKRAINE TOO, AND EVEN IN 80ME PART8 OF RU83LA PROPER, WHERE THE POPULATION WA8 OF A SPECIFIC COMPOSITION ...THE MOVE-MENT TO VICTORY WAS NOT 80 RAPID AND DID NOT FOLLOW THE SAME ROAD A3 IN PETROGRAD AND IN MOSCOW, IN THE HEART OF RUS8LA.°9 CHAMBERLIN SAID MUCH THE SAME THING BUT WITHOUT LENINIST EUPHEMISMS. HE CONCLUDEO THAT "THE UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY SHOWED ITSELF FAR MORE CONSCIOUS OF ITS INTERESTS, FAR MORE READY TO FIGHT FOR THEM EFFECTIVELY THAN DID THE PEASANT8 OF RUSSIA. THERE WAS PERHAPS 80METHING OF A NATIONALIST TEMPER HERE. ... THERE CAN BE NO DOUBT THAT LENIN WAS AWARE OF THE GREATER POL-ITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT A8 COMPARED TO HIS GREAT RUS-SIAN COUNTERPART. IMPLICIT IN ALL HI8 WORK WITH THE NATIONAL QUESTION IS LENIN'S RECOGNITION THAT THE REVOLUTION AMONG THE NATIONALITIES WOULD NOT BE SIMPLY OF A CLASS CHARACTER BUT WOULD ASSUME A MARKED NATIONALIST COL-ORATION AS WELL. IN ECONOMIC TERMS, LENIN TENDEO TO VIEW THE UKRAINE AS PART OF RUSSIA AND IT WAS NOT UNTIL AFTER THE REVOLUTION THAT HE WROTE ANYTHING OF A SPECIFIC ECONOMIC NATURE ABOUT THE AREA AS A WHOLE. SOME OF HIS POST-REV-OLUTIONARY STATEMENTS, HOWEVER, REFLECTED CERTAIN PRECONCEIVEO NOTIONS FORM-ED WELL BEFORE OCTOBER 1917» LENIN FIRST NOTED THE EXISTENCE OF A "UKRAINIAN GROUP" IN THE SECOND DUMA IN THE LAST TWO MONTHS OF 1907. THIS GROUP HAD WANTED TO ESTABLISH A NUMBER OF SEPARATE UKRAINIAN INSTITUTIONS SUCH AS A UKRAINIAN SCHOOL SYSTEM AND A SEPARATE UKRAINIAN NATIONAL LANO FUND. AT THE SAME TIME, THE GROUP CHARGED THAT THE UKRAINE WAS BEING EXPLOITED SY RUSSIA.^ LENIN CONCERNED HIMSELF ONLY WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE LAND FUND. HE PRAISED THE SPEECH OF A POLTAVA DEPUTY TO THE FIRST DUMA, WHO, ALTHOUGH "AN ARDENT ADVOCATE OF UKRAINIAN AUTONOMY" ANO ONE WHO WANTED THE AGRARIAN QUESTION TO BE SETTLED 26 BY UKRAINIANS, NEVERTHELESS RECOGNIZED THE ULTIMATE AUTHORITY OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.. DELIGHTED, HE QUOTED THE DEPUTY TO THE EFFECT THAT ...PART OF THE STATE LANDS SHOULO BE AT THE DISPOSAL OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.... THE SENSE OF ESTABLISHING A STATE STOCK OF DISTRIBUT-ABLE LAND, AND THE SENSE OF CALLING IT SUCH, IS THISS ALTHOUGH THE LOCAL BODIES WILL BE FREE TO OISPOSE OF THAT LAND IN THEIR RESPECTIVE AREAS, THEY WILL BE ABLE TO OO SO ONLY WITHIN CERTAIN LIMIT3.72 THIS, OF COURSE, CAME FAIRLY CLOSE TO AN AGRARIAN APPLICATION OF LENIN'S NASCENT THEORY OF POLITICAL AUTONOMY AND HE ADDED THAT "THIS PETTY—BOUR-GEO I 8 AUTONOMIST UNDERSTANDS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STATE POWER IN A SOCIETY CENTRALISED BY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FAR BETTER THAN OUR MEN8HEVIK SOCIAL— DEMOCRATS."?3 EVEN AT THIS EARLY DATE LENIN WAS AWARE THAT THE AGRICULTURAL QUES-TION IN THE UKRAINE HAD ACQUIRED A NATIONAL FORM AND THAT THE UKRAINIAN PEAS-ANTS "ESPECIALLY THE RURAL MIDDLE CLASS, FOUND IT ADVANTAGEOUS... IN VIEW OF THE SUPERIORITY OF THE SOIL IN THEIR PROVINCES, TO SOLVE THE LAND QUESTION INDEPENDENTLY OF RUSSIA PROPER."?^ THUS LENIN DECLARED THAT THE CONCLUSION TO 8E DRAWN FROM OUR REVIEW OF THE DUMA SPEECHES ON THE AGRARIAN QUESTION DELIVERED BY THE "NATIONALS1' I 3 OBVIOUS. THOSE SPEECHES FULLY CONFIRM WHAT I SAID IN OPPOSITION TO M«SLOV ... ON THE QUE8TI ON OF THE RELATION BETWEEN MUNICI PAL I 8TATI ON ANO THE RIGHT8 OF THE NATIONALITIES, NAMELY, THAT IT IS A POLITICAL QUESTION. WHICH IS FULLY  DEALT WITH IN THE POLITICAL SECTION OF OUR PROGRAMME..75 THI8 PERHAPS EXPLAINS THE PAUCITY OF LENIN'8 WORK ON THE AGRARIAN QUESTION IN THE UKRAINE; HE CONSIDERED IT TO BE MORE A PURELY POLITICAL PROBLEM RATHER THAN AN ECONOMIC ONE AND AS 8UCH ONLY DEALT WITH IT IMPLICITLY A8 PART OF A MUCH LARGER ISSUE. EVEN AFTER THE REVOLUTION THERE WAS LITTLE INTEREST ON LENIN'S PART IN THE UNIQUE AGRICULTURAL SITUATION EXISTING IN THE UKRAINE APART FROM HIS PRACTICAL CONCERN WITH HOW TO BEST USE THE UKRAINIAN MIDDLE PEASANT TO PRO-DUCE GRAIN FOR SOVIET RUSSIA. HIS REFERENCES TO THE "RICH UKRAINE" ARE MAN-2 ? I FOLD AND HE OFTEN NOTED THAT IT WAS ONE OF THE MAIN GRAIN-GROWING REGIONS.'^ HOWEVER HE WAS NOT INTERESTED IN THE AREA IN ANY BUT THE MOST PRAGMATIC TERMS, I.E., HOW IT COULD BE USED TO STRENGTHEN THE SOCIALIST 8 TATE . TH18 BECAME APPARENT IN AuGUST 1921 WHEN, SPEAKING OF "THE VOLGA AREA ANO SOUTH UKRAINE" HE NOTED THAT "SEVERAL GUBERNIAS IN RU8SIA HAVE BEEN HIT BY A FAMINE WHOSE PROPORTIONS ARE APPARENTLY ONLY SLIGHTLY LESS THAN TH08E OF THE 1 8 9 1 CALAM— ITY."?? AT THE SAME TIME, IN HIS "APPEAL TO THE PEASANTS OF THE UKRAINE," HE OBSERVED THAT THE UKRAINE WEST OF THE DNIEPER HAD AN EXCELLENT HARVEST AND THAT "THE WORKERS AND PEASANTS IN THE FAM INE-STRICKEN VOLGA-AREA... LOOK TO THE UKRAINIAN FARMERS FOR HELP. HELP MUST COME QUICKLY. HELP MUST BE ABUNDANT. NO FARMER MUST REFRAIN FROM 8HARING HIS 8URPI.U8 WITH THE STARVING VOLGA PEASANTS...."?® THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT WAS TO GIVE HIS GRAIN TO THE STARVING VOLGA PEASANT BUT, BY IMPLICATION, NOT TO THE STARVING SOUTH UKRAIN-IAN WHICH LENIN HAD STATED WAS IN AN EQUALLY OIRE NEED OF GRAIN. OF COURSE, IT WAS ALSO THE DUTY OF THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT TO SUPPLY THE HUNGARY NORTH. I N DI8CUSSING THE ALLIANCE BETWEEN THE PROLETARIAT AND PEASANTRY LENIN REMARKED THAT "THE PEASANTS RECEIVED FROM THE WORKERS' STATE ALL THE LAND AND WERE GIVEN PROTECTION AGAINST THE LANDOWNERS AND THE KULAKS; THE WORKERS HAVE BEEN RECEIVING FROM THE PEASANTS LOANS OF FOOD SUPPLIES UNTIL LARGE SCALE INDUSTRY IS RESTORED."79 | n SUMMING UP HIS THESIS, HOWEVER, THERE APPEARED A SUBTLE CHANGE IN THE PEASANTS' ROLE IN THIS ALLIANCE. LENIN CONCLUDEO THAT "THE BASIS OF OUR ECONOMIC ALLIANCE WITH THE PEASANTRY WAS, OF COURSE, VERY SIMPLE, ANO EVEN CRUDE. THE PEASANT OBTAINEO FROM US ALL THE LAND ANO SUPPORT AGAINST THE BIG LANDOWNERS. IN RETURN FOR THIS, WE WERE TO OBTAIN F00D." 8 U THERE WAS NOW NO QUESTION OF THE PEASANT LOANING OR 8ELL ING HIS FOOD. HE WAS TO GIVE IT TO THE SOLSHEV I KS IN RETURN FOR LAND 28 WHICH, LENIN ALLEGED, ONLY THE BOLSHEVIKS MADE AVAILABLE TO HIM. BUT THIS "CRUDE" ALLIANCE SOON HAD TO BE REDRAWN BECAUSE THE PEASANT WAS WELL AWARE THAT THIS "PARTNERSHIP" WAS MOST DISADVANTAGEOUS FOR HIM AND THIS WAS ONE OF THE REASONS THAT FORCED LENIN TO LAY PLANS FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY. LENIN DID NOT PERCEIVE UKRAINIAN INDUSTRY AS A DISTINCT ENTITY BUT INSTEAD REGARDED IT AS PART OF THE GREAT RUSSIAN COMPLEX. THERE WERE TWO REASONS FOR THIS. FLRST, THE UKRAINE, ESPECIALLY AFTER THE SECESSION OF POLAND, FINLAND AND THE BALTIC STATES, WAS THE ONLY INDUSTRIAL REGION LEFT IN RUSSIA OUTSIDE MOSCOW AND PETROGRAD. EVEN BEFORE THE REVOLUTION IT WAS 81 c A MAJOR AND INDISPENS 18LE SOURCE OF COAL ANO IRON. FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT THEN, LENIN WAS STRONGLY COMPELLEO TO INCLUDE THE UKRAINE IN ANY NEW, POST-REVOLUTIONARY RUSSIA. SECONDLY, NOT ONLY DIO LENIN INSIST ON THE UNITY OF THE PROLETARIAT OF ALL NATIONS, BUT HE CATEGORICALLY DEMANDED THE COMPLETE INTEGRALITY OF ALL RUSSIAN W0RKER8 AND THE PROLETARIAT IN THE UKRAINE 82 WAS PRIMARILY OF RUSSI AN ORIGIN. THUS, FROM THE POLITICAL STANDPOINT AS WELL, UKRAINIAN INDUSTRY HAD TO BE VIEWED BY LENIN AS ONE WITH THE RUSSIAN. LENIN TREATED ANY MANIFESTATION OF DISTINCTLY UKRAINIAN POLITICAL ACTIVITY WITH SILENCE. HE PREFERRED TO IGNORE THE UKRAINIAN POLITICAL SCENE AND HIS COMMENTS SELDOM WENT BEYOND A PERFUNCTORY, PROGRAMMATIC STATEMENT ON THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SELF-DETERMINATION WHEN HE FELT COMPELLED TO SPEAK OUT. THIS APPROACH WAS PART OF LENINIST POLICY, FOR, AS IT BECAME EVIDENT SOME YEARS LATER WHEN THE BOROT'BISTY WERE TO JOIN THE C P ( B ) U , HE CONSTANTLY INSISTED ON MINIMIZING ANY DIFFERENCES WITH NATIONAL GROUPS OF A SOCIALIST ORIENTATION (UNTIL, OF COURSE, H E WAS IN A POSITION TO LIQUIDATE THEM). LENIN WAS CERTAINLY AWARE OF A GENUINELY UKRAINIAN POLITICAL MOVEMENT SOON 2 9 AFTER THE SECOND CONGRESS OF THE RSDLP AND HAD MET A FUTURE MEMBER OF AN AUSTROPHIL UKRAINIAN PARTY IN 1 9 0 6 . ^ THE THREE MAJOR UKRAINIAN PARTIES—SOCIAL REVOLUTIONARIES, SOCIAL DEMOCRATS AND SOCIAL FEDERALISTS—WERE ALL ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM.0^ LENIN WAS WILLING TO USE THE NATIONAL MOVEMENT TO SUIT HIS PUR-POSES AS IS EVIDENCED BY HI8 ATTACK ON S0BRIN8KY AND PuRESKEVlCH, TWO RUS-SIAN NATIONALISTS OF THE EXTREME RIGHT, IN THE DUMA SPEECH HE WROTE FOR PETROVSKY. j BY 1 9 1 6 IT HAO BECOME LENIN'S POLICY TO USE MOVEMENTS WITHOUT FORMING ALLIANCES WITH THEM. HE EMPHASIZED THAT THE GENERAL STAFFS IN THE CURRENT WAR ARE DOING THEIR UTMOST TO UTILISE ANY NATIONAL AND REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT IN THE ENEMY CAMPS THE GERMANS UTILISE THE IRISH REBELLION, THE FRENCH—THE CZECH MOVEMENT, ETC. THEY ARE ACTING QUITE CORRECTLY FROM THEIR OWN POINT OF VIEW.... WE WOULD BE VERY POOR REVOLUTIONARIES IF... WE DID NOT KNOW HOW TO UTI-LISE EVERY POPULAR MOVEMENT AGAINST EVERY 8 INGLE OlSASTER IMPERIALISM BRINGS IN ORDER TO INTEN8I FY AND EXTEND THE CR|8|8. " IT IS SIGNIFICANT THAT LENIN IGNORED THE UKRAINE FOR HE WAS AWARE THAT THE GERMANS AND AUSTRIANS WERE TRYING TO UTILIZE ITS NATIONAL MOVEMENT.^ THIS CAN PERHAPS BE EXPLAINED BY THE FACT THAT LENIN PLANNED TO USE THIS MOVEMENT HIMSELF AND DID NOT WISH TO HAVE IT ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTRO-GERMAN IMPERIALISM. LENIN GENERALLY LOOKED AT THE NATIONAL UKRAINIAN POLITICAL MOVEMENT AS INFERIOR TO THE RU S8 I A N BECAUSE IT LACKED THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND NEEDED TO UNITE ALL REAL PARTIES AND BECAUSE IT WA8, BY DEFINITION, SU8CEPTIBLE TO BOURGEOIS AND IMPERIALIST INFLUENCE. DURING THE CIVIL WAR HE CONTINUALLY EMPHASIZED THAT RUSSIA WAS MORE POLITICALLY ADVANCED. IN THE UKRAINE, FOR INSTANCE, HE IMPLIED THAT THE MASSES HAD NOT YET GONE THROUGH THE PHASE OF COOPERATING WITH THE BOURGEOISIE AND THAT THIS WA8 PRIMARILY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE WAR. FURTHERMORE, HE NOTED THAT EVEN THE UKRAINIAN 30LSHEVIKS WERE INSUFFICIENTLY MATURE POLITI-CALLY WHEN HE SPOKE ABOUT THE LACK OF AN ADMINISTRATIVE APPARATU8 IN THE 30 U K R A I N E . T H E " C O M R A D E S I N T H E U K R A I N E " W E R E S T I L L I N T H E S T A G E O F G U E R I L L A W A R , H E O B S E R V E D , A N D T H E R E WAS N O A P P A R A T U S B E C A U S E T H E V H A D M N O T V E T P A S -S E D O U T O F T H E P H A S E O F P A R T I S A N W A R F A R E A N D S P O N T A N E O U S I N S U R R E C T I O N I N T O T H E R E G U L A R A R M Y P H A S E , W H I C H I S A L W A Y S C H A R A C T E R I S T I C O F T H E C O N S O L O D A T E D P O W E R O F E V E R Y C L A S S , I N C L U D I N G T H E P R O L E T A R I A T . " ^ A L T H O U G H H E F U R T H E R S T A T E D T H A T T H E R U S S I A N B O L S H E V I K S C R E A T E D T H E I R A P P A R A T U S A F T E R M A N Y D I F -F I C U L T M O N T H S , T H E R E B Y I M P L Y I N G T H A T T H E U K R A I N I A N B O I . S H E V I K S O U G H T T O D O T H E S A M E I N A S H O R T T I M E , H E F A I L E D T O C A U 8 A L L Y C O N N E C T T H E F A C T T H A T I N R U S S I A T H E P R O V I N C I A L G O V E R N M E N T ' S A P P A R A T U S WAS I N H E R I T E O B Y T H E B O L S H E -V I K S W H I L E I N T H E U K R A I N E T H E O L D M A C H I N E R Y H A D B E E N C O M P L E T E L Y D E S T R O Y E D . ^ 0 L E N I N ' S I M P A T I E N C E W I T H T H E U K R A I N I A N B O L S H E V I K S WAS P R O M P T E D B Y T H E F A C T T H A T , W I T H O U T T H E N E C E S S A R Y P A R T Y A N D G O V E R N M E N T M A C H I N E R Y , T H E Y C O U L D N O T E X P O R T S U F F I C I E N T F O O D T O R U S S I A . H E WAS N O T I N T E R E S T E D I N T H E E S T A B -L I S H M E N T O F T H E U K R A I N I A N B O L S H E V I K S A S A N E N D I N I T S E L F . " I T 18 O B V I O U S T H A T U N D E R P R E V A I L I N G C O N D I T I O N S , " H E N O T E D I N M 0 8 C 0 W A T T H E E N D O F J U L Y 1919, W H E N T H E R A I L W A Y S A R E W O R K I N G B A D L Y , W H E N T Y P I C A L O F T H E C H I E F G R A I N -G R O W I N G D I S T R I C T S 18 W H A T 18 H A P P E N I N G I N T H E U K R A I N E , W H E R E WE H A V E N O T S U C C E E D E D I N G E T T I N G A N A P P A R A T U 8 G O I N G , W H E R E T H E R E M N A N T 8 O F G U E R I L L A M E T H O D S P R E V E N T A N Y P O S S I B I L I T Y O F O R G A N I S A T I O N A L W O R K , W H E R E T H E P O P U L A T I O N H A S N O T Y E T B E E N A B L E T O A B A N O O N G U E R I L L A M E T H O D S — O B -V I O U S L Y A L L T H I S . . . M A K E S I T M O R E D I F F I C U L T F O R U S T O M A K E U S E O F T H E R I C H G R A I N M A R K E T S W H E R E T H E R E A R E S T O C K S O F G R A I N T H A T C O U L D E A S I L Y G E T U S O U T O F O U R D I F F I C U L T I E S . 9 1 T H U S T H E U K R A I N I A N B O L S H E V I K S W E R E S O O N T O B E C O M E T H E E X E C U T O R S O F B O L S H E V I K P O L I C Y F O R M E D I N M O S C O W . L E N I N WAS D I S P L E A S E D W I T H T H E U K R A I N I A N B O L S H E V I K S F O R A N U M B E R O F R E A S O N S . F I R S T , T H E Y C O N T I N U A L L Y F O U G H T A M O N G T H E M S E L V E S — E S P E C I A L L Y T H E K I E V A N O K H A R K O V G R O U P S . S E C O N D , T H E I R O R G A N I Z A T I O N A N D P R O P A G A N D A W E R E N O T so A P P E A L I N G T O T H E U K R A I N I A N S A S WAS T H A T O F T H E M E N S H E V I K S . 9 2 T H I R D , T H E Y WERE LETTING PURELY UKRAINIAN ORGANIZATIONS APPROPRIATE SECTIONS OF THE BOLSHEVIK PROGRAM.93 FOURTH, ANO MOST IMPORTANT FROM LENIN'S VIEWPOINT, THE REGIONAL DISPUTE WA8 FURTHER OOMPLI OATEC BY A POL ITIOAL OI8AGRE5MSNT. HE OEOLAREO THAT AMONG THE BOLSHEVIKS THERE ARE AOVOOATES OF OOMPLETE INOEPENOENOE FOR THE UKRAINE, AOVOOATES OF A MORE OR LESS OLOSE FEOERAL TIE, ANO AOVO-OATES OF THE COMPLETE AMALGAMATION OF THE UKRAINE WITH RUSSIA. THERE MUST SE NO OIFFERENOCS OVER THESE QUEST IONS.9* THE THOUGHT THAT A BOLSEVIK WOULD OONSIOER THE SECESSION OF THE UKRAINE MUST HAVE DEEPLY DISTURBED LENIN* LENIN HAO DELIBERATELY ANO CONSISTENTLY QLOSSEO OVER ANY REAL D IF-l FERENCE8 BETWEEN THE 8001AL, E00N0MI0-AN0 POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF UKRAINE ANO RU88IA PRIMARILY BE0AU8E HE 010 NOT BELIEVE THEY WOULD OUTLIVE THE RE-VOLUTION. HE INSISTED ON MAINTAINING HIS UKRAINIAN VERSUS RUSSI AN DIALOGUE AT THE THEORETICAL LEVEL OF AB8TRA0T PRINCIPLES AS LONG AS POSSIBLE. IT WA8 NOT UNTIL AFTER THE DEFEAT OF DENIKIN IN OEOEMBER 1919 THAT LENIN CARE-FULLY NOTEO THE SUBSTANTIAL DISSIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. AT THIS TIME LENIN HAO CAREFULLY ANALYZEO THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY ELECT 10N8 OF NOVEMBER 1917 ANO BS0AME ACQUAINTED WITH THE ROLE ANO i IMPORTANCE OF PEASANT NATIONAL FEELING IN THE UKRAINE. HE REMARKED THAT AT THE LAST CONFERENCES ON THE UKRAINIAN QUESTION SOME 00MRA0E8 ACCUSED THE WRITER OF THESE LINES OF GIVING TOO MUOH "PROMINENCE** TO THE NATIONAL QUESTION IN THE UKRAINE. THE RETURNS OF THE CONSTITUENT A88EM8LY ELEC-TIONS SHOW THAT IN THE UKRAINE, AS EARLY AS NOVEMBER 1917» THE UKRAINIAN SOOIAL18T-REVOLUTIONARIES POLLSO A MAJORITY (3*4 MILLION VOTES-+ 0*5 • 3«9 MILLION AGAINST 1.9 MILLION POLLED BY THE RUSSIAN SOOIALIST-RSVO-LOTIONARIES, OUT OF A TOTAL POLL IN THE WHOLE OF THE UKRAINE OF 7*5 MILLI ON VOTES)95 I L.E88 THAN 10 PERCENT (75^(000) OF THE UKRAINIAN VOTE WENT TO THE B0L8HSVIK896 ANO LENIN OECIOEO THAT THE OONTINUEO NEGLECT OF WHAT HAO NOW BECOME A CRITI-CAL POL I T l O A L QUEST ION OOULD BE D I S A S T R O U S FOR THE B O L S H E V I K S . IT WOULD BE, 32 HE CONCLUDED, A GREAT ANO DANGEROUS MISTAKE. THE OIV 18 I ON BETWEEN THE RUS8I AN AND UKRAINIAN SOCIALIST-REVOLUTIONARIES COULD NOT HAVE BEEN ACCIDENTAL.... IT IS OUR DUTY, PRECISELY ON THE NATIONAL QUESTION, WHICH IS A RELA-TIVELY MINOR ONE (FOR AN INTERNATIONALIST THE QUE8 TI ON OF STATE FRON-TIERS IS A SECONDARY, IF NOT A TENTH-RATE QUE8TI0N), TO MAKE C0NCE88I0N8 AWARE NOW OF THE MANIFEST DIFFERENCES OF THE UKRAINE FROM RUSSIA, LENIN WAS NOW READY TO EXPLOIT THEM IN AN EFFORT TO ENHANCE PROLETARIAN POWER. His GOAL HAD ALWAYS BEEN, AND STILL REMAINED, THE CREATION OF A VAST MONOLITHIC STATE BUT DUE TO THE OBVIOUS DISAPPROVAL OF HIS AIM BY A LARGE SECTION OF THE UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY HE WAS FLEXIBLE ENOUGH TO MAKE TEM-PORARY AND CONDITIONAL CONCESSIONS WITH THE VIEW OF PERSUADING THE UKRAINE VOLUNTARILY TO RE-JOIN R u S 8 I A AND THE NEW SOVIET 8TATE SOMETIME IN THE NEAR FUTURE. THUS HIS PERCEPTION AND RECOGNITION OF NATIONAL HETEROGENEITY IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE RESULTED IN LITTLE MORE THAN A SHIFT OF EMPHASIS AND A CHANGE OF TACTICS. THE GOAL OF UNITY AND EVENTUAL ASSIMILATION REMAINED. 33 CHAPTER I 1t FOOTNOTES 1 . LENIN, X I X , P.246 . 2 . J . S . RESHETAR, "LENIN ON THE UKRAINE," THE ANNALS OF THE UKRAIN- IAN ACADEMY OF ARTS ANO SCIENCES IN THE U . S . . I X (1961), 3« 3. IBID. . P.3. SEE FOR EXAMPLE E . HILL AND D „ MUDIE, EDS. AND TRANS., THE LETTERS OF LENIN (LONDON: CHAPMAN AND HALL, 1937)9 PP. 1 4 8 - 1 4 9 . 4. AT LEAST ONE SCHOLAR HAS ARGUED THAT IT WAS A DELIBERATE TSARIST POLICY TO PERPETUATE A GULF BETWEEN THE UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY AND THE UKRAINIAN INTELLECTUALS. THI8 POLICY, HE 8UGGESTS, WAS QUITE SUCCESSFUL UNTIL THE RE-VOLUTION OF 1905 AT WHICH TIME THE PEASANTRY BEGAN TO DEVELOP A MODERN POLI-TICAL CONSCIOUSNESS LE88 LOCAL AND MORE NATIONAL. I. L. RUONYTSKY, "THE INTELLECTUAL ORIGINS OF MODERN UKRAINE," THE ANNALS OF THE UKRAINIAN ACADEMY  OF ARTS AND SCIENCES IN THE U . S . , V ! (1957), 1397. THIS WAS PROBABLY OUE TO THE FACT, AS MAYNARD POINTED OUT, THAT "THE UKRAINIAN-8PEAKING POPULATION 18 ONE OF PEA8ANT8, ANO MEA8URE8 WHICH CAU8E0 DISCONTENT AMONG PEA8ANT8 IN GENERAL WERE PARTICULARLY RE8ENTEO BY NATIONAL SENTIMENT IN UKRAINE." J . MAYNARD, THE Ru88lAN PEASANT AND OTHER STUD I E8 (LONOON: VICTOR GOLLANCZ, 1943)» P.398« SEE M . SHAPOVAL, ZASAOY UKRAINS'KQI  VYZVOL'NOI PROGRAMY (PRAGUE: VYL'NA SPILKA, 1927). SHAPOVAL ALSO PERCEIVES THE CLASS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UKRAINIAN AND RUS81 AN TO BE OF THE GREATE8T IMPORTANCE. ALSO SEE J . S . RESHETAR, THE UKRAINIAN REVOLUTION^ 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 2 0 (PRINCETON: PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1952), PP.324-25, FOR A DISCUSSION OF SHAPOVAL°S VIEWS. TO SOME EXTENT THE UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY WAS UNIQUE BECAUSE IT WAS THE ONLY UKRAINIAN CLASS WITH A LONG HISTORICAL TRADITION AND PART OF THIS TRA-0 IT ION WAS A DISLIKE OR HATRED FOR POLES, JEWS AND RUSSIANS. CARR NOTES THAT THE PRIMARY TARGETS OF PEASANT HATRED WERE P0LE8 AND JEWS O E „ H . CARR, THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION, 1917 -1923, VOL.1 (LONDON: MACMILLAN, 1950), PP.289-9 0 . SEE H . P . VOWLES, UKRAINE AND ITS PEOPLE (LONDON: W. AND R. CHAMBERS, 1939)» P.164, FOR AN EXPLANATION OF WHY UKRAINIANS 0I8LIKE0 P 0 L E 8 . ALSO SEE LENIN, X X I I , P.348. ALTHOUGH LENIN SAYS THAT THE POLISH LANDED PROPRIETOR OPPRESSES THE UKRAINIAN PEA8ANT, HE SAY8 NOTHING OF THE RU88IAN PROPRIETOR. AT ANY RATE, IT IS POSSIBLE TO UNDERSTAND WHY MAJSTRENKO CONCLUDES THAT BEFORE THE 1917 REVOLUTION "THE C0NCEPT3 OF "UKRAINE9 AND 'UKRAINIAN11 TENDED TO BE TREATED A8 SYNONYMOUS WITH 0 PEA8ANT8." I . MAJSTRENKO, BORQT'-BISM: A CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF UKRAINIAN COMMUNISM (NEW YORK: RESEARCH PROGRAM ON THE U . S . S . R., 1954), PP.7-10. IN THIS RESPECT ALSO SEE 3. DMYTRY8HYN, MOSCOW AND THE UKRAINE. 1918-1953 (NEW YORK| BOOKMAN, 1956), PP.59-60. FIGURES ON THE RURAL-URBAN DICHOTOMY ARE PROVIDED BY SULLIVANT, P . 2 4 , ANO B0RY8, P.271. IN SOME INDUSTRIAL CENTERS THE RU88IANS COMPRI8ED BETWEEN 70 TO 8 0 PERCENT OF THE URBAN ETHNIC GROUP. 5. 1..0. GuRZHI I AND M . N. LE8HCHENK0, LENIN I REVOLI UTS I I NY I RUKH NA UKRAINI (KIEV: TOVARYSTVO "ZNANNIA" UKRAINS'KOI R S R , I966), p . 2 7 . 34 6. LENIN, X X X V , P.279. SEE GURZHII AND LESHCHENKO, P.35. 7. LENIN, X X X V , PP.279-80. 8. SEE SULLIVANT, PP.23-24; DMYTRYSHYN, P.44. 9. LENIN, X X I X , p.259. 10. IBIP...p.317. 11. IBID. . P.317; IBID., PP.259-60. PERHAPS ANOTHER REASON WAS THE THE FACT THAT A STATE GRAIN MONOPOLY WA8 E8 TABL18HED IN 80L8HEVIK HELD TER-RITORY AND THIS GAVE LITTLE INCENTIVE TO THE PEA8ANT. HE WOULD RATHER FIGHT FOR THE FREEDOM TO TRADE IN GRAIN. SEE ESPECIALLY 18 IO. „ P.570. 12. SEE IBID., P.460. LENIN'S EUPHEMISM FOR THE EXPANSION OF THIS PEASANT XENOPH08IA WAS "THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUERILLA METHODS." 13* IBID., P.460. 14. IBID., P.321. LENIN ALSO BELIEVED THAT THIS MOBILIZATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL AREAS WOULD RELIEVE SOME OF THE FOOD SHORTAGE 8 INCE THE MEN WERE BEING TRANSFERRED TO AGRICULTURAL REGI0N8. 15« IBID., P. 321. 16. IBID.. XXXI, p.296. ALSO SEE CARR, P.303 AND DMYTRYSHYN, P.192. 17. LENIN, XXIX, p . 4 6 1 . 18. Is 10., p . 461 . LENIN ADDED THAT TROTSKY "WHO HIMSELF SAW THE IN-CREDIBLE L08SES SUFFERED THERE, STATED DEFINITELY THAT THE EXPERIENCE OF THE UKRAINIANS CANNOT PASS WITHOUT LEAVING A TRACE ...." 19. M. ME 1JER, ED•p THE TROTSKY PAPERS. 1917-1919. VOL .1 . (THE HAGUE: MOUTON, 1964), p . 6 5 1 . TROTSKY WROTE THIS ON AUGUST 11, 1919. NINE DAYS EALIER HE HAD PUBLISHED A DECREE CALLING FOR THE SURRENDER OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION IN THE HANDS OF THE UKRAINIAN PEA8ANT. SEE IBID., P.654. EVI-DENTLY THIS ORDER WENT UNHEEOEO. A L S O 8EE LENIN, XXX, P.16^. 20. IBID., P.60. THE LATTER PART OF THIS APPRAISAL IS INTERESTING FOR LENIN IMPLIES THAT THE BOLSHEVIKS MAY HAVE RECEIVED SUPPORT FROM CERTAIN ELEMENTS OF THE PEASANTRY (PERHAPS THE KULAKS ?) BUT NOT FROM THE POOR OR WORKING PEASANT. THERE SEEMS TO BE NO OTHER WAY TO INTERPRET THE REMARK THAT THE 80L8HEVIK8 HAD MNOT WON THE FULL SUPPORT AND SYMPATHY OF THE MA-JORITY OF THE WORKING PEASANTS (AS DISTINCT FORM THE PEA8ANT EXPLOITERS) OF THE UKRAINE." AS WILL BE SEEN LATER, THIS STATEMENT COULD NOT HAVE APPLIED TO THE MIOOLE PEA8ANT. 21. KH. RAKOVSKII. "IL'ICH I UKRAINA." LETOPIS REVOLIUT8I I <, 11(1920), 9-10. RAKOVSKY STATED THAT "HERE IN M08COW, UNDER THE DIRECT LEADERSHIP AND GUIDANCE OF LENIN, WAS COMPOSED THE NEW LAND LAW FOR THE UKR. S S R . " IBID., P.10. 22. IBID., P.10. 23. LENIN, X X X M , PP. 154-55. 35 24. FOR A SHORT ACCOUNT SEE W. E . 0. ALLEN, THE UKRAINE; A HISTORY (RUSSELL AND RUSSELL, 1963) , PP«345-57» 2 5 . LENIN, X X V I I I , P. 17?. SEE IBID.. X X V I I , P.394. 2 6 . IBID.. X X I X , P.492. SEE ALLEN, P.351» WE I-.UER, PP .651-53. NEVERTHELESS THE KULAK WAS TO BE LIQUIDATED AS A CLASS. TROTSKY, IN AUGUST, 1919» STATED RATHER POINTEDLY THAT "THE DISARMING OF THE KULAK IS A PRE-REQUISITE FOR GETTING ANY SORT OF WORK WHATSOEVER DONE IN THE UKRAINE, WHETHER ON THE MILITARY SIDE OR ON THE SIDE OF THE SOVIET APPARATUS." IB ID. . P.653. 27° LENIN, XXX I I e PP.156-57. 28. IBID. . X X V I I I , p.177. 29o IBID.. X X I X , p.210. , 3 0 . IBID., P.210. 31 • IBID., P .211. 3 2 . IB1 p. . P .211. THIS IS AN UNCHARACTERISTIC STATEMENT FOR LENIN BECAUSE HE WA8 ACTUALLY SAYING THAT THE PARTY WAS NOT THE LEADER OF THE PEASANT MA8SES. ITS VANGUARD ROLE WAS TO BE SET ASIDE FOR EDUCATIONAL PUR-POSES, HE HAO, IN FACT, ADMITTED THAT THE PARTY HAD RUN OUT OF AN8WERS ON THIS PROBLEM. 33* IBID., P .211. WHEN LENIN DECIDED THAT SOMETHING COULD BE LEARNED FROM THE PEASANT HE DID NOT STOP WITH HALF-WAY MEASURES. THUS HE FURTHER NOTEO THAT "NOTHING 18 MORE STUPID THAN PEOPLE WHO KNOW NOTHING ABOUT FARMING ANO ITS SPECIFIC FEATURES, RU8HING TO THE VILLAGE ONLY BE-CAUSE THEY HAVE HEARD OF THE ADVANTAGES OF SOCIALISED FARMING, ARE TIRED OF URBAN LIFE AND DESIRE TO WORK IN RURAL DISTRICTS—IT IS M08T STUPID FOR SUCH PEOPLE TO REGARD THEMSELVES AS TEACHER8 OF THE PEA8ANTS IN EVERY RESPECT. NOTHING IS MORE STUPID THAN THE VERY IDEA OF APPLYING COERCION IN ECONOMIC  RELATIONS WITH THE ML POLE PEASANT." IB ID.. P .211. THUS SPOKE LENIN IN MARCH 1919. 3^. IBID., PP.21 7-19» THE TENOR OF THE RESOLUTION WAS BEST RE-FLECTED IN THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH WHICH 8TATED, IN PART, THAT "THE EIGHTH CONGRESS RECOGNISES THAT AT THE PRESENT TIME IT IS PARTICULARLY IM-PORTANT TO ADHERE MORE 8TRICTLY TO THE LINE OF THE PARTY IN RESPECT OF THE MIDDLE PEASANTS, TO DISPLAY A MORE C0N8I DERATE ATTITUDE TOWARO THEIR NEEDS, AND ARBITRARY ACTION ON THE PART OF THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES, ANO MAKE AN EFFORT TOWARDS AGREEMENT WITH THEM." IBID. . X X I X , P.217o A L S O SEE IBID. . X X X , p.164; IBID. . XX X I I , P.295; BORYS, PP.272-73. 3 5 . LENIN, X X X , PP.164-65. 3 6 . SEE ERIC HOFFER, THE TRUE BELIEVER (NEW YORK; HARPER AND ROW, 1966), PP.17-20 FOR A DISCUSSION OF THE CONSERVATISM OF THE VERY POOR. 3 7 . LENIN, X X I X , P.273. 3 8 . ESPECIALLY SEE ALLEN, PP.351-52. HE STATES THAT DUE TO AGRICUL-TURAL OVER-POPULATION 1 , 6 l 0 , 0 0 0 PEASANTS LEFT THE AREA OF THE UKRAINIAN GOV-ERNMENTS BETWEEN 1906 AND 1914. 39. LENIN, X X X , P.l64. 40. BETWEEN 1918 ANO 1921, LENIN SCAROELY EVER MENTIONEO THE UKRAINE WITHOUT PAVING PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO THE AREA 9 8 GRAIN 8UPPLIE8 ANO OTHER RAW MATERIALS. HE CONTINUALLY STRESSED THAT SOVIET RU88IA COULO NOT EXI8T WITHOUT THESE 8UPPLIE8. S E E IBID.. X X V I I-XXXI J , FOR JUST TWO 8PECIFIC EX-AMPLES SEE IBID.. X X I X , PP.156-57; IBID.. X X X I I , P.317» FOR A MORE SUBTLE APPROACH 8EE IBID.. X X I X , PP.50-51• 41. IN OCTOBER 1920 COMMITTEES OF THE POOR PEASANTS WERE STILL REL-ATIVELY 8CARCE AND 0 180RQANIZEO• S E E LENIN, X X X I , PP.314-15; B0RY8, PP.269— 72. 42. A. E . A0AM8, BOLSHEVIKS IN THE UKRAINE! THE SECOND CAMPAIGN. 1918-1919. (NEW HAVENI YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1963), P.91»SEE BORYS, P. 26B. 43. LENIN, X X X I I , p.486. DMYTRYSHYN, P.44. CHAMBERLIN STATES THAT "THE UKRAINIAN PEASANTS DISLIKEO BOTH REDS AND WHITES. THEY DISLIKED THE RE08 BECAUSE OF THEIR INSULTS TO RELIGION, THEIR HABIT OF REQUISITIONING FOOD WITHOUT PAYING FOR IT, THEIR ATTEMPTS, IN SOME OASES, TO IMPOSE COMMUNES ON THE PEA8ANT8. THEY DISLIKED THE WHITES BE0AU8E THEY TRIED TO BRING BACK THE OLD REGIME, WITH ITS EXPLOITATION OF THE PEA8ANT8 BY THE LARGE LANDED PROPRIETORS. THEY DI8LIKED BOTH AS PREDOMINANTLY RUSSIAN ANO ALI EN TO THE UKRAINE." W. H. CHAMBERLIN, THE UKRAINE: A SUBMERGED NATION (NEW YORK! MAC-MILLAN, 1 9W, p.47. 44. BUKHARIN, P.79. 45. LENIN, X X X I I , p. 485. SPEAKING ABOUT THE PEASANTRY IN 1921 LENIN SAID THAT THE PARTY "MUST NOW FIND A PRACTICAL SOLUTION FOR THE PRO-BLEM OF THE RELATION8 THE PROLETARIAT 8H0UL0 ESTABL18H WITH TH18 LAST CAPI-TALIST CLA88 IN RU88IA. ALL MARXISTS HAVE A OORREOT AND READY 80LUTI0N FOR THIS PROBLEM IN THEORY. BUT THEORY AND PRACTICE ASE TWO OIFFERENT THING8..•. FROM THE INTERNATIONAL STANDPOINT, IT IS A SIGN OF GREAT PROGRESS THAT WE ARE NOW TRYING TO OETERMINE THE ATTITUDE THE PROLETARIAT IN POWER 8H0UL0 ADOPT TOWARDS THE LAST CAP I TAL 18 T CLASS— THE ROCK-BOTTOM OF CAP I TAL I 8M—8MALL PRI-VATE PROPERTY, THE SMALL PROOUCER." IBIO.. PP.48K-85« 46. CHAMBERLIN STATED THAT "AMONG THE NUMEROUS HATREDS WHICH CAME TO THE SURFACE DURING THE REVOLUTION, THERE GREW UP AMONG THE PEASANTS A BIT-TER HATRED OF THE T0WN8, IN WHICH THEY SAW THE 80URCE OF OPPRESSION AND EX-PLOITATION. NOWHERE WAS THIS PEASANT HATRED OF THE TOWNS SO GREAT AS IN UKRAINA, NOWHERE 0 10 IT ASSUME 8U0H 8ANGUI NARY FORMS, NOWHERE WA8 PEA8ANT ANARCH 18M DURING 1919 AND 1920 80 MUCH IN THE A80ENDANT." W. H. CHAMBERLIN. THE RussIAN REVOLUTION! 1917-1921. VOL.M. (NEW YORK! MACMILLAN. 1957)» PP.221-22. ALSO SEE RESHETAR, THE UKRAINIAN REVOLUTION, P.258. 47. SEE CAR*, P.290* W» OUSHNVCK. "RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINIAN NATIONAL EVOLUTION.* UKRAINIAN QUARTERLY,. U (WINTER, 19^5)* 368-69* CHERNOV, CON-TINUALLY P0INT8 OUT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PEA8ANT8 ON THE QUESTION OF AUTONOMY ANO INOEPENOENCE ANO THAT OF THE "URBAN DEMOCRACY" WHICH HAO A "GREAT RUSSIAN ORIENTATION." V. CHERNOV, THE GREAT RUSSIAN REVOLUTION-TRAN8. ANO ABRIDGED BY P.E. MOSELY (NEW YORK! Ru88ELL AND R U S S E L L , 1966), PP.264-84. VINNICHENKO, AOOOROING TO PIOHAINY, ALSO EMPHASIZEO THAT THE I 37 4-7. (CONT.) UKRAINIANS DID NOT HAVE ANV CLASSES WITH WHICH THEIR DEMOCRACY COULD COOPERATE AND STATED THAT THE BOURGEO18 IE IN UKRAINE WAS "NOT OURS" BUT RATHER WAS "SOUTH RU88LAN." "0. S. PLDHALNY, THE FORMATION  OF THE UKRAINIAN REPUBLIC (TORONTO: NEW REVIEW BOOKS, 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 3 7 . 4 8 . LENIN, X X I X , P.492. 49. IBID.. P.460. ONE IS AT A LOSS TO EXPLAIN THIS "L@W LEVEL OF PROLETARIAN CLASS-CONSCI0USNE88" SINCE IT 18 CLAIMED THAT BETWEEN 1912—191^ PRAVDA RECEIVED AT LEAST 1,500 LETTERS FROM THE UKRAINE. GURZHI I AND LESH-CHENKO, P.29. 50. LENIN, X X X , p . 4 6 1 . 51 o GuRZHl l AND LESHCHENKO, PP. 26-37" ACCORDING TO TH18 SOURCE THERE WERE 5 ^ W0RKER8' STRIKES IN 1911 (COMPARED, INCIDENTLY, TO OVER 2 , 0 0 0 MANIFESTATIONS OF PEASANT DISCONTENT), IN 1912 THERE WERE 350 STRIKES AND IN 1913 THERE WERE OVER 300 STRIKE8 INVOLVING ALMOST 100,000 WORKERS. THE FIRST YEAR OF WAR SAW FEW LABOR DISTURBANCES, BUT IN 1915 THERE WERE 113 STRIKES WITH 48,000 W0RKER8. 52. IBID., PP.26-29. ROSA LUXEMBURG, WRITING OF THE PERIOO BEFORE 1905, SERVES TO AT LEAST PARTIALLY CORROBORATE THIS. SHE WR|TE8 THAT BEFORE 1905 "THE UKRAINE WAS THE STRONGHOLD OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT. FROM THERE, FROM ROSTOV, FROM ODESSA, THE DONETS REGION FLOWED OUT THE FIRST LAVA STREAM8 OF THE REVOLUTION (A8 EARLY A8 1902-04) WHICH KINOLED ALL SOUTH RUSSIA INTO A SEA OF FLAME, THEREBY PREPARING THE UPRISING OF 1905«" R. LUXEMBURG, THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND LENINISM OR MARXISM? (UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS, 1961), P.52. 53. IBID., PP.26-29. 5 4 . LENIN, X X I X , p.51. 55» IBID., P.84, 56. IB10». X X X , p . 4 7 8 . SEE IBID., PP.522-23 POR AN ELABORATION OF THIS STATEMENT. 57. IBID.. X X I X , p.84. 58. IBID.. X X X I , p.314. 59« IBID.. X X X , PP.164-65. LENIN ONCE REFERRED IN PASSING TO THE UKRAINIAN PETTY BOURGEOIS AND ARTISANS. IBID.. X X , P.237« 60. IBID.. X X X I I , p.276. SEE IBID. A PP.276-79. 61• IB 10.. X X , PP.21 8-20. SEE OMYTRYSHYN, PP.19=20, 62. SEE RESHETAR, "LENIN ON THE UKRAINE," PP.6=7° 63. LENIN, X X , P.220. FOR A SOVIET INTERPRETATION OF PETROVSKY'S SPEECH, SEE GURZHM AND LESHCHENKO, PP. 32-33° 6 4 . LENIN, X X X V , PP.144-45. 65. GURZHI1 AND LESHCHENKO, P.47. 38 66. IBIO.. p.47. 6?. LENIN, X X , p.224. SEE IBID.. P.35« ALSO BEE THE ARTICLE "HOW 0OE8 BI8HOP NIKON DEFEND THE UKRAINIANS." IBIO.. X I X , PP.379=81. 68. LUXEMBURG, P.54. 69. LENIN, X X X , P.137* 70. CHAMBERLIN, THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION, VOL.11, P.222. ALSO SEE BORVS, PP.268-72. 71. LENIN, X I I I , PP.409-10; RESHETAR, "LENIN ON THE UKRAINE", PP.3-4. 72. LENIN, X I I I , p.410. 73. IBID., P.410. 74. PIPES, THE FORMAT 1 ON...T P.51. THIS IS SUBSTANTIATED BY PIO-HA1 NY. IN JUNE 1917 A GROUP OF 170 DELEGATES ARRIVED FROM KIEV TO TAKE PART IN THE FIRST ALL RUSSIAN CONGRESS OF SOVIETS HELD IN JUNE 1917. PIOHAINY STATE8 THAT "LTS ONE ACHIEVEMENT WA8 TO FORCE THE CONGRE88 TO AOO THE AMEND-MENT 'FEDERATION' A8 PART OF THE 8L0QAN OF THE RU881 AN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC. M08T OTHER 0EMAN08 WERE TOTALLY IGNORED} EVENTUALLY, THE ALL—RU881 AN COUNCIL (INITIATED BY THE CONGRE88) DECIOEO ON ONE SOIL FUND TO BE CENTRALLY CON-TROLLED, WITH AN EXPECTEO 8MALLER SHARE OF THE 801L WHERE HE WAS 8ETTLEO TO THE UKRAINIAN PEASANT, SINCE IMMIGRANTS FROM THE MORE LAND HUNGARY RUSSIA WERE TO BE BROUGHT INTO THE UKRAINE TO BE 8ETTLE0. THIS I88UE BROUGHT THE BREAK...! NO OTHER DELEGATE8 WERE EVER 8ENT BY THE PEASANT8 TO RUS8IA." PIOHAINY, THE FORMATION OF THE UKRAINIAN REPUBLIC P.75» 75> LENIN, X I I I , P.41?. 76. SEE FOR EXAMPLE IBIO.. X X V I I , PP.462, 537; IBID.. X X V I I I , P.439; IBID.. X X I X , p.568. 77. IBIO.. X X X I I , PP.502, 566. 78. IBID., P.503. 79. IBID.. PP./456-57; 80. IBIO.. P.486. 81. SEE CARR, P.373* THE VIEWS OF BOLSHEVIKS ON THE STATE OF UKRAIN-IAN INDUSTRY ARE BOTH INTERESTING AND OONTRAOIOTORY. TROTSKY SPEAKS OF THE "INDUSTRIALLY BACKWARD UKRAINE" IN L . TROTSKY, THE HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN  REVOLUTION. VOL.111. TRANS, BY MAX EASTMAN (LONDON. GALLANCY, 1933), P.8. STALIN, AS QUOTED BY TOWSTER. P.78, STATED THAT THE UKRAINE HAD "... IN A MORE OR LE88 DEGREE... PAS8E0 THROUGH THE PERIOO OF INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM P08TY8HEV 18 80MEWHERE IN BETWEEN S T A L I N ANO TROTSKY. H E DECLARED THAT AT THE TIME OF THE REVOLUTION "...THE UKRAINE WA8, COMPARATIVELY 8PEAK— ING, AN INDUSTRIAL COUNTRY." P . P . P08TY8HEV ANO S . V . K088I0R, SOVIET UKRAINE  TODAY (MOSCOW ANO LENINGRAD: CO-OPERATIVE PUBLISHING SOCIETY OF FORE IN WORKERS IN THE U. S. S. R., 1934). P.36. ALSO SEE BORVS PP.55-60, WHO DISCUSSES THE 8TATE OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE UKRAINE. 82. SEE SHAHEEN, PP.87-89. SEE RUDNYTSKY, P.1399, FOR AN INTEREST-ING COMMENT ON THE GROWTH OF ECONOMIC REGIONALISM IN THE UKRAINE. 83. LENIN, X X V , p.284. ALSO SEE IBID., PP.155-59. 39 84. SEE RESHETAR, THE UKRAINIAN REVOLUTION, PP.3-44, 51; RUDNYTSKY, PP.1397-1403. THE UKRAINIAN MARXIST PARTIES TRIED TO ADAPT MARXISM TO UKRAINIAN CONDITIONS BUT TH18 WAS A MOST DIFFICULT TASK SINCE A UKRAINIAN PROLETARIAT WAS ALMOST NON-EXISTENT. I-ENIN, OF COURSE, REFUSED TO RECOGNIZE THE EXISTENCE OF ANOTHER WREAL N MARXIST PARTY ON WHAT HE CONSIDERED TO BE RUSSI AN TERR I TORY. 85. LENIN, X X , PP.219-20. 86. IBID.. X X I I , P.357« 87. SEE IBID. , X X V , PP.1 55-59 , 283-84; AND ESPECIALLY IBID. . X X X V , PP.279-81 , WHERE HE DISCUSSES THE INDOCTRINATION OF UKRAINIAN PR I80NERS— OF-WAR BY PRO-AUSTRIAN GALICIANS. 88. Is ID 89. IBID 90. IBID 91. IBID 92. SEE P.292. IBID., P.222C P.222. RESPUBLIKA V UKRAINI ( S C R A N T O N S UKRAINIAN F R E E SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 1956), P.179. 93*"- MAJSTRENKO, PP.44-48. 94. LENIN, XXX, p.295. 95. IBID. . P.270. 96. IBID.. PP„255% 267; CIUCIURA, P.43. 97. IBID., P.270. 98. Two ENGLISH SOURCES, BOTH OF WHOM DO NOT QUALIFY AS UKRAINO-PHLLES, ATTEST TO THE EXISTENCE OF UKRAINIAN PECULIARITIES IN T8ARIST RU8SLA. WRITING BEFORE THE TURN OF THE CENTURY MACKENZIE WALLACE OBSERVED: "THE CITY (KIEV) AND THE SURROUNOING COUNTRY ARE, IN FACT, LITTLE RUSSIAN RATHER THAN GREAT RUSSIAN, AND BETWEEN THESE TWO SECTIONS OF THE POPULATION THERE ARE PROFOUND DIFFERENCES DIFFERENCES OF LANGUAGES, CUSTOM8, TRAD ITI0N8, POPULAR 8ONG8, PROVERBS, FOLK-LORE, DOMESTIC ARRANGEMENTS, MOOE OF LIFE, AND THE COM-MUNAL ORGANIZATION. IN THESE AND OTHER RE8PECTS, THE LITTLE RUSSIANS... DIFFER FROM THE GREAT RUS8IAN8 OF THE NORTH.... INDEED, IF I OIO NOT FEAR TO RUFFLE UNNECE88ARILY THE PATRIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITIES O F MY GREAT RuS8lAN FRIENDS WHO HAVE A PET THEORY ON THE 8UBUECT, I 8HOULO SAY THAT WE HAVE HERE TWO DISTINCT NATIONALITIES, FURTHER APART FROM EACH OTHER THAN THE ENGLISH AND SCOTCH. THE DIFFERENCES ARE DUE, I BELIEVE, PARTLY TO ETHNOGRAPHIC PE-CULIARITIES AND PARTLY TO HISTORIC CONDITIONS." D.M. WALLACE. Ru8SI A. (NEW YORK. HENRY HOLT, 1905J, P.347. WRITING ABOUT THE UKRAINIANS IN 1915» TOYNBEE SAYS: "THIS WIDE FLUNG RIBBON OF POPULATION HA8 A 8TR0NG NATIONAL FEELING OF ITS OWN. THE 'GREAT 40 98. (CONT.) RU8SIAN' CAN CLAIM THAT I T WA8 HE WHO FREED THE RACE FROM THE MOSLEM YOKE, AND THAT THE LIVING RUSSIA OF THE PRESENT, WITH ITS GLORIES OF ARMS AND OF LETTER8, 18 SOLELY HIS CREATION; BUT THE "LLTTLE RU88LAN* LOOKS BACK TO THE DAY BEFORE THE MONGOL APPEARED IN THE LAND, WHEN THE DNIEPER, NOT THE VOLGA, WAS THE HOLY RIVER OF RUSSIA, AND KIEFF....HER HOLY CITY, THE MEETING PLACE OF THE 'STRONG-GOVERNMENT5 ANO THE WORLD RELIGION THAT CAME UP TO HER FROM OPPOSITE QUARTERS, OUT OF THE BALTIC AND THE B|.ACK SEA. HE REGARDS HIMSELF AS THE TRUE HEIR TO THIS PRIMITIVE TRADITION, AND HIS LOYALTY TO IT 18 ALL THE KEENER BECAU8E 80 MANY CENTURIE8 LIE BETWEEN THE GOLDEN AGE AND HIS PRESENT OBSCURITY." A. J . TOYNBEE. NATIONALITY AND  THE WAR. (LONDON AND TORONTOS DENT, 1915)> p °310. ALSO SEE RESHETAR, THE  UKRAINIAN REVOLUTION. P.5» 41 CHAPTER I I I J THE UKRAINIAN QUESTION: SELF-DETERMINATION ALTHOUGH LENIN, I N HIS PUBLISHED MATERIAL LARGELY IGNORED THE NATION-AL QUE8TI ON UNTIL TWO YEARS PRIOR TO THE WAR, HE WAS AWARE OF THE PROBLEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE REVOLUTION. H E SAW THE PROBLEM PRIMARILY IN TERMS OF THE RIGHT OF NATIONAL GR0UP8 TO SECEDE AND FORM INDEPENDENT STATES AND THIS VIEW WAS SUMMED UP IN THE PHRA8E "THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SELF-DE-TERMINATION." A S EARLY A8 1902-1903 HE SHOWED THAT SELF-DETERMINATION, A BOURGEOIS-DEMOCRATIC DEMAND, COULD, IF 8KILFULLY MANIPULATED, BE USED A8 A 1 CATALY8T TO PROMOTE THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BOURGEOI8-0EM0CRATIC SY8TEM.1 THUS THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SELF-DETERMINATION WAS ADVOCATED BY THE R S D L P BUT THIS RIGHT WA8 DEFINITELY SUBORDINATED TO THE INTERE8T8 OF THE CLASS 8 TRUGGLE. "IN INCLUOING I N ITS PROGRAMME RECOGNITION OF THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SELF-DETERMINATION," LENIN EMPHASIZEO THAT /RUSSIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRACY/ TAKES INTO ACCOUNT ALL POSSIBLE, AND EVEN ALL CONCEIVABLE. COMBINATIONS.... THE PROGRAMME MERELY DEMANDS THAT A GEN-UINE 8OCIALI8T 8HALL NOT CORRUPT—PROLETARIAN CLAS8—CONSCIOUSNESS, OR SLUR OVER THE CLAS8 STRUGGLE, OR LURE /THE/ WORKING CLA8S WITH BOURGEO18-OEMOCRATIC PHRASE3, OR BREAK THE UNITY OF THE PROLETARIATS' PRESENT-DAY POLITICAL STRUGGLE. TH18 RESERVATION IS THE CRUX OF THE MATTER, FOR ONLY WITH THI8 RESERVATION DO WE RECOGNIZE 8ELF-DETERMINATI ON.2 LENIN, OF COURSE, KEPT THIS RESERVATION UPPERMOST IN HIS MIND FOR IT WAS, INDEEO, THE "CRUX OF THE MATTER." ENCOURAGEMENT OF NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION HAD FOUR MAJOR GOALS. FIRST, IT WAS DESIGNED TO PALLIATE THE SUSPICIONS OF THE NATIONALITIES W I T H REGARD TO THE B0L8HEVIK PARTY; SECOND, I T WA8 INTENDED TO UNDERMINE THE F O U N -DATIONS OF PART ICULARI ST BOURGEOIS MOVEMENTS AMONG THE NATIONALITIES AND ENTICE NATIONALIST INTELLECTUALS TO THE PAR TY\ THIRD, BY ENCOURAGING SECES-SION IT AIMED AT HASTENING DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE; AND FOURTH, AND MOST 42 IMPORTANT, IT WAS TO PROVIDE FOR THE REUNION OF ALL THE8E NATIONALITIES AFTER COMPLETION OF THE REVOLUTION."^ UBVI0U8LV TH18 FOUR-POINT FORMULA WAS DE-SIGNED PRIMARILY FOR NATIONS WHICH HAD NOT YET COMPLETED THE B O U R G E O 1 8 -4 DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION. To THIS DEGREE THE DEMAND FOR SELF-DETERMINATION CAN BE VIEWED IN ITS LARGER CONTEXT WHICH 18 THAT SELF-DETERMINATION 18 BUT ONE OF THE OEMAND8 OF POLITICAL DEMOCRACY.^ AN ALLIANCE OF THE PROLETARIAT WITH BOURGEOIS-DEMOCRATIC, AND THEREFORE NATIONALIST, ELEMENT8 WAS VIEWED AS A STEP THAT WOULD HASTEN THE BOURGEOIS-DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION. IT IS MOST IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER THAT THE PROLETARIAT WA8 CONCEIVED A8 THE LEADING MEMBER OF TH18 ALLIANCE AND TH18 WOULD, OF COURSE, CREATE THE PRECONDITIONS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PROLETARIAN 8 TA TE O UNDER 80CIALI8M THE NATIONAL QUESTION WOULD BE 80LVEO.^ THUS THE PARTY'S NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION PROGRAM WAS LINKEO WITH THE PROLETARIAN REVOLUTION ANO IN FACT HAD BEEN DEVELOPED ONLY TO ACCELERATE AND FACILITATE THIS REVOLUTION.? BUT WHAT EXACTLY DID THE SLOGAN OF THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SELF-DETERMINATION MEAN? LENIN CLEARLY 8PELLE0 OUT ITS MEANING IN H18 THE8E3 ON THE NATIONAL QUE8TLON WRITTEN DURING JUNE 1913° IN IT HE EMPHATICALLY STATED IN THE OPENING SENTENCE THAT WTHE ARTICLE OF OUR PROGRAMME (ON THE SELF-DETERMINATION OF NATIONS) CANNOT BE INTERPRETED TO MEAN ANYTHING BUT POLITICAL SELF-DETERMINATION, I.E., THE RIGHT TO SECEDE AND FORM A SEPARATE S T A T E . T H R E E YEAR8 LATER HE REPEATED AND EXPANDED THE PREVIOUS STATEMENT: THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SELF-DETERMINATION IMPLIES EXCLUSIVELY THE RIGHT TO INDEPENDENCE IN THE POLITICAL 8EN8E, THE RIGHT TO FREE POLITI-CAL 8EPARATI ON FROM THE 0PPRE880R NATION. SPECIFICALLY, TH18 DEMAND FOR POLITICAL DEMOCRACY IMPLIE8 COMPLETE FREEDOM TO AGITATE FOR 8ECE38I0N BY THE SECEDING NATION. THI8 DEMANO, THEREFORE, IS NOT THE EQUIVALENT OF A DEMANO FOR 8EPARATI ON, FRAGMENTATI ON ANO THE FORMATION OF SMALL STATE8. IT IMPLIES ONLY A CONSISTENT EXPRE88I ON OF STRUGGLE AGAINST ALL NATIONAL 0PPRE8SI ON.^  «3 THE CLUE TO LENIN'S STAND ON SELF-DETERMINATION, WHICH IN FACT MEANT 8E0E88I0N, WAS THAT IF THE NATION IS GIVEN THIS RIGHT, ITS DSSI RE TO SEPARATE WOULD BE NEUTRALIZED. THE CLOSER A OEMOORATIO STATE SYSTEM 18 TO COMPLETE FREEDOM TO 8EOEOE THE LESS FREQUENT AND LESS AROBNT WILL THE DESIRE FOR SEPARATION BE IN PRAOTICE, BECAUSE 810 STATES AFFORD INDISPUTABLE ADVANTAGES, BOTH FROM THE STANDPOINT OF EOONOMIO PROGRESS ANO FROM THAT OF THE INTERESTS OF THE MA88E8....10 LENIN, BASING HIS OONOEPT OF 'NATION* ON A MARXIST FOUNDATION, SEEMED COM-PLETELY UNAWARE OF THE PSYCHOL0010AL ROOTS OF NATIONALISM. Hg BELIEVED THAT A NATION, GIVEN THE RIGHT TO SEOEOE, WOULD NOT EXEROLSE THE RIGHT SOLELY BECAUSE IT WOULD NOT BE TO ITS EOONOMIO ADVANTAGE TO DO 80. THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION WAS, LENIN STRESSEO, "AN EXPERT ION TO OUR GENERAL PREMISE OF CENTRAL ISATI ON* THIS EXCEPTION IS ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL IN VIEW OF REACTIONARY GREAT RUSSIAN NATIONALISM..•. "11 SLNCE THIS NON—MARXIST OONOEPT WAS NECESSITATED ONLY BY GREAT-RUSSIAN NATIONALISM, IT 18 NOT OIFF I CULT TO SEE THAT ONCE THIS NATIONALISM WA8 LIQUIDATED BY THE PROLETARIAN REVOLUTION THERE WOULD BC NO REASON TO MAINTAIN SUCH A POLITICALLY EXPLOSIVE EXCEPT I ON. FURTHERMORE, HC WARNED THAT "EX0EPTI0N8 MUST NOT BE TOO BROADLY INTERPRETED. IN THIS 0A8C THERE IS NOT. ANO MUST NOT BE ANYTHING MORE THAN THE RIGHT TO SEOEOE."^ THE OONOEPT OF SELF-DETERMINATION WAS SOMEWHAT VAGUE ANO COULD BE INTERPRETED IN SEVERAL WAYS (FOR EXAMPLE, A8 PERMITTING VARI0U8 QRAOATI0N8 OF CENTRALIZATION 8U0H A8 FEDERATION) BUT SECESSION MEANT ONLY COMPLETE POLITIOAL INOEPENOENOE, AND THUS TO LENIN'S WAY "OF'THINKING WAS MORE MANIPULA8LE• IN 1919 THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION WA8>BCLETCD FROM THE PARTY PROGRAM ANO WA8 REPLACED BY THE RIGHT TO secEssipN. j v * f f >MULTIFARIOUS C0N0ITI0N8 WERE ATTAOHEO TO THE ACTUAL EXEROlSE OF THE j :,-."«.• V ' RIGHT OF SECESSION BUT ON ONE POINT, LENIN WAS ADAMANT. ALTHOUGH THE PROLE-44 TAR IAT AND ITS PARTY WERE TO WORK AGAINST SECE8SI ON OF NATIONAL TERRITORIES, THEY MUST NEVER U8E FORCE TO RETAIN THEM THEY MU8T WBE UNCONDITIONALLV^ 5 HOSTILE TO THE USE OF FORCE IN ANY FORM WHATSOEVER BY THE DOMINANT NATION..,, IN RESPECT OF A NATION THAT WI8HE8 TO 8ECE0E POLITICALLY...."^ LENIN CATE-GORICALLY PROSCRIBED THE U8E OF FORCE IN 80LVING THE NATIONAL QUE8TI ON. IN ANSWER TO CRITICS OF HIS STAND ON THE NATIONAL QUESTION, WHO IN-CLUDED THE LEADING SOCIAL—DEMOCRAT IC THE0RI8T8 (F0REM08T AMONG WHOM WERE ROSA LUXEMBURG,1? BUKHARIN, RADEK ANO PIATAKOV), LENIN, IN ONE SENTENCE PRO-VIDEO THE REA80N FOR HIS UN-MARXIST APPROACH. "IN RU88|A", HE 0B8ERVE0, WHERE THE 0PPRE8SED NATIONS ACCOUNT FOR NO LESS THAN 57 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION..., WHERE THEY OCCUPY MOSTLY THE BORDER REG ION8, WHERE THE POLITICAL SY8TEM IS ESPECIALLY BARBAROUS ANO MEDIEVAL, WHERE THE BOUR-GEOIS-DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION HAS NOT BEEN CONSUMMATED —THERE, IN RU88LA, RECOGNITION OF THE RIGHT OF NAT ION8 0PPRE88ED BY TSARI8M TO FREE SECES-SION FROM RUS8IA IS ABSOLUTELY OBLIGATORY FOR SOCIAL—OEMCOCRAT8, FOR THE FURTHERANCE OF THEIR DEMOCRATIC AND SOCIALIST AI MS.^ ^ IF HI8 CRITIC8 THOUGHT, HOWEVER, THAT LENIN WA8 ADVOCATING THE DIS-INTEGRATION OF THE RU8SIAN EMPIRE THEY COULD NOT HAVE BEEN MORE WRONG. IN HIS "REVISION OF THE PARTY PROGRAMME" WRITTEN JUST BEFORE THE REVOLUTION, HE STATED HIS OBJECTIVE IN THE MOST LUCID TERM8S WE DESIRE PROLETARIAN REVOLUTIONARY UNITY, UNIFICATION, ANO NOT SECES-SION. WE DESIRE REVOLUTIONARY UNIFICATION.... WE WANT FREE UNIFICATION; THAT IS WHY WE MUST RECOGNIZE THE RIGHT TO SECEDE (WITHOUT FREEDOM TO 8ECE0E, UNIFICATION CANNOT BE CALLEO FREE),... BUT WE WANT UNIFICATION AND THIS MU8T BE 8TATED, IT IS SO IMPORTANT TO STATE IT IN THE PROGRAMME OF A PARTY OF A HETEROGENOUS 8 TA TE THAT IT IS NECESSARY TO ABANDON CU8TOM ANO TO INCORPORATE A DECLARATION.^ EVEN STALIN COULD NOT HAVE PUT THIS STATEMENT IN MORE SIMPLE AND BLUNT TERMS. UNIFICATION IS MANDATORY; FREE UNIFICATION IS PREFERABLE. THIS CAN ONLY IMPLY THAT FORCE MAY BE USED IF IT IS USEO IN THE 'INTERESTS' OF THE PROLE-TARIAT. AND YET, LENIN NEVER TIRED OF REPEATING MARX'S APHORISM THAT "NO NATION CAN BE FREE IF IT OPPRESSES OTHER NAT 10N8. 45 WHEN LENIN ADVOCATEO THE RIGHT TO NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION HE NEVER CLEARLY DEFINED WHO WA8 TO EXERCI8E THIS PREROGATIVE,, IT IS HERE THAT ONE FINOS LENINIST DIALECTICS OPERATING AT THEIR FINEST LEVEL OP SOPHISTICA-TION. A8 EARLY A8 1903 HE STATED VERY PRECISELY THAT THE RIGHT MUST BE SUB-ORDINATED TO THE INTERE8T8 OF THE PROLETARIAN STRUGGLE AND THAT , UNLIKE SOME SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTIES WHICH PERCEIVED NATIONAL DISTINCT IONS, THE RUSSIAN SOOIAL OEMOCRATS CAVE "FIRST PLACE TO THE CONTRAST—0 WE 0 , THE PRO-LETARIAT, AND "THEY* THE BOURGEOISIE.^ MORE THAW TEN YEARS LATER, IN 1 9 1 4 , HE STILL MAINTAINED THIS POSITION. M lw THE QUE8TI0N OF THE 8ELF~0ET£«BH W~ ATION OF NAT 10N8, AS IN EVERY OTHER QUESTION,® HE ASSERTED, "talE ARE INTER-ESTED, FIR8T AND F0REM08T, IN THE SELF-DETERMINATION OF THE PROLETARIAT WITH-IN A GIVEN NAT I ON."22 JHU8 AT THE THIRD ALL-Ru83I AN C0NQRE88 OF SOVIETS IN JANUARY, 1 9 1 8 » STALIN EXPRESSED WHAT HE KNEW TO BE LENIN'S REAL VIEW WHEN HE DECLARED THAT THE PRINCIPLE OF SELF—OBTCRMI NAT IOM MU8T BE INTERPRETED AS THE "RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION NOT OF THE BOURGEOISIE, BUT OF THE LABOURING MA83E8 OF THE GIVEN NAT I ON."23 BUKHARIN HAO ALWAYS INTERPRETED THE QUESTION IN TH|8 MANNER ANO IN 1 9 1 9 WROTC THAT "THE PROLETARIAT MUST BE READY TO GRANT COMPLETE NATIONAL SELF—DETERMINAT I ON, MUST BE READY, THAT 18, TO CONCEDE TO ALL WORKER8 WHO FORM THE MAJORITY IN ANY NATION THE FULL RIGHT TO DECIDE THE QUESTION^..."2^ IN THE PRC—REVOLUTIONARV ERA LENIN HAO BITTERLY OPPOSED THE VIEW8 OF BUKHARIN ANO THE 8TANO WHICH STALIN HAD TAKEN IN 1 9 1 8 BUT NOW HE EXPRE88ED NO IMMEDIATE OVERT DISAPPROVAL UNTIL THE ELGHTH C0WGRE88 OF THE RCP(B) IM THE SPRING OF 1 9 1 9 ° HERE, IN A DEBATE WITH BUKHARIM HE STATED THAT TO REJECT THE SELF-DETERMINATION OF NATIONS AND IN8ERT THE SELF-DETER-MINATION OF THE WORKING PEOPLE WOULD BE ABSOLUTELY WRONG, 8ECAU8E THI8 MANNER OF 8ETTLING THE QUE8TI ON 00E8 NOT REOKOW WITH THE DIFFICULTIES, WITH THE ZIGZAG COURSE TAKEN BY DIFEREWTIATION BETWEEN NATI0M8. OUR PROGRAMME MU8T NOT 8PEAK OF THE 8ELF-0ETERKM NATI ON OF THE WORK-46 IWG PEOPLE J BECAUSE THAT WOULD BE WRONGO SLNCE NAT I0N8 ARE AT OLFFERENT 8TAGE8 ON THE ROAO FROM MEDIEVALISM TO 80URGE0I8 DEMOCRACY ANO FROM BOUR-GEOIS DEMOCRACY TO PROLETARIAN DEMOCRACY, THIS THE818 OF OUR PROGRAMME IS ABSOLUTELY C0RRE0T.25 IT 18 0BVI0U8 THAT LENIN DID NOT HAVE IN MI NO THE INTERNAL 81TUATI ON OF RUS8IA AT THI8 TIME, BUT RATHER WA8 THINKING AHEAD TO THE WORLD REVOLUTION AND HOW TO EXPEDITE IT. AFTER ALL, THE THEORY EXPRESSED BY BUKHARIN WHICH LENIN HAO TACITLY APPROVEO BY ACTUALLY USING IT, HAD SERVED ITS PURPOSE IN MAINTAINING THE UNITY OF Ru88lA. BY CONCEDING THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION ONLY TO THE PROLETARIAT, LENIN IN FACT CONCEDED NOTHING BECAUSE IN THE LENINIST THEORETICAL SCHEMA THE PROLETARIAT INEVITABLY GRAVITATED TOWARO THE LARGE, CENTRALIZED 8TATE. IF, HOWEVER, THE WORKING CLA88 EVER EXERCISED ITS RIGHT TO SECESSION IT COULD ONLY MEAN THAT IT WA8 STILL UNOER BOURGEO18 INFLUENCE ANO THU8 IT WOULD NOT BE A TRULY PROLETARIAN OEOI8ION. IT WOULD BE REACTIONARY AND DT COULD BE DEALT WITH ACCORDINGLY. LENIN, LIKE MARX AND ENGELS, RECOGNIZED THE "HISTORICALLY CONDITIONED IMPORTANCE* OF THE NATIONAL QUEST I ON.26 THU8 EVERY SOCIAL OR POLITICAL PRO-BLEM, IF IT WA8 TO BE SOLVED IN A MARXIST MANNER, HAO TO BE PLACED WITHIN ITS 8PECIFIC HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK.^ THE COKLFCSUWLST PARTY, LENIN CANDIDLY OBSERVED, WMU8T BASE ITS POLICY, IN THE NATIONAL QUE8TI ON..., NOT ON AB8TRACT ANO FORMAL PRINCIPLES BUT, FIR8T, ON A PRECISE APPRAISAL OF THE SPECIFIC HIS-TORICAL 8 I TUAT I ON AND, PRIMARILY OF ECONOMIC COMDLTLONS.OOO^ PLACING THE 80LUTI0N OF THE NATIONAL QUE8TI ON WITHIN THE "SPECIFIC HISTORICAL 81TUATI ON™ WA8 OF THE GREATEST IMPORTANCE BECAUSE, ACCOKIOI NG TO LENIN, ONLY THE PARTY COULO ACCURATELY PERCEIVE THE 8LTUAT|ONO IN 1913 HE NOTED THAT JUST BECAUSE THE RSDLP RECOGNIZED THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION IT 0 ID NOT MEAN THAT SOCIAL DEMOCRATS REJECT WAN INDEPENDENT APPRAISAL OF THE ADVISABILITY OF THE 4? STATE 8ECE88I0M OF ANY MAT I ON IN EACH SEPARATE CASEOw29 THE RIQHT OF NATI0N8 TO SELF-DETERMINATION, HE CONTINUED IN ANOTHER ARTICLE, "FTSUST UNDER NO CIR-CUMSTANCES BE C0NFU8ED WITH THE EXPEOLENCY OF A GIVEN NATIONS 8ECOE88 I ONOA THE PARTY WAS TO DECIDE THIS QUESTION "EXCLUSIVELY OW IT8 MERITS IN EACH PAR-TICULAR 0A8E IN CONFORMITY SM TH THE INTERE8T8 OFOO080CIALISMO r3° THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION OF A NATION DAS FURTHER QUALIFIED OURING THE WAR YEAR8 WHEN HE STATED THAT THE INTERESTS OF NATIONS ®ERE ALWAYS TO BE 8U80R0INATE0 TO THOBE OF 800IALI8M* AT THIS TIME HE WROTE THAT WTHE SEVERAL DEMANDS OF DEMOCRACY, INCLUDING SELF-DETERMINATION ARE NOT AN ABSO-LUTE, BUT ONLY A 8MALL PART OF THE GENERAL DEMOORATIOoo. KfORLD MOVEMENT. IN INDIVIDUAL CONCRETE CA8E8, THE PART MAY CONTRADICT THE WHOLES IF 80, IT MUST BE REJECTEDO"31 |P THERE EVER WERE ANY DOUBTS AS TO WHO HAD THE NECESSARY QUALIFICATIONS TO DECIDE WHEN IN THE "CONORETE H18 TOR I CAL SITUATION85 THE "PART MAY CONTRADICT THE WHOLE" AND WHEN IT MAY NOT, THEY WERE SOON OI SPELLED O QUITE CLEARLY IT WAS ONLY THE HIGHLY CENTRALIZED PARTY THAT ©AS DEEMED COMPE-TENT FOR THIS TASK. AT THE APRIL CONFERENCE OF 1917 LENIN SAID: THE RIGHT OF NATIONS FREELY TO SECEDE MUST NOT BE CONFUSED WITH THE AD-VISABILITY OF 8ECE8SI ON BY A GIVEN NATION AT A GIVEN MOMENT. THE PARTY OF THE PROLETARIAT MUST DECIDE THE LATTER QUESTION QUITE INDEPENDENTLY IN EACH PARTICULAR CASE, HAVING REGARD TO THE INTERESTS OF SOCIAL DE-VELOPMENT A8 A WHOLE ANO THE INTERE8T8 OF THE 0LA88 STRUGGLE OF THE PRO~ LETARI AT FOR SOCIALISM.32 THIS IS THE MOST CANOID EXPOSITION OF LENIN'S THOUGHT ON THE QUESTION OF SELF-DETERMINATION. IT HAD NOW ONLY TO BC TRANSFORMED FROM THE REALM OF THEORY TO THAT OF PRACTICE. Two SUBSIDIARY QUESTIONS STILL EXIST (IN THE THEORETICAL SPHERE AT ANY RATE)S HOW 18 THE RIGHT TO SECESSION TO BE EXERCISED ANO HOW WERE THE BORDERS OF THE H Y P O T H E T I C A L L V SECEOING AREA TO BE DETERSI WED? BEFORE ANS-WER ING THE8E QUEST 10N8 IT 18 NECE88ARY TO EMPHASIZE THAT, ACCORDING TO LEWlW°8 OICTUM, THE SOOIAL-DEMOCRATIC PARTY WAS "DUTY BOUNO NOT °T0 VOTE FOR SECE©— 48 8LON°, ... BUT TO VOTE FOR THE RIGHT OF THE SECEDING REGION TO DECIDE THE QUE8TI ON I T8ELF. "33 THE RIGHT TO 8ECE88I0N WAS TO BE EXERCI8E0 BY A VOTE OF THE PEOPLE WHO WISHED TO WITHDRAW FROM THE EMPIRE. LENIN WAS EMPHATIC ON THIS POINT, "THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION... J," HE EXPLAINED, "DOES NOT IMPLY THE SO-LUTION OF THE PROBLEM BY A CENTRAL PARLIAMENT, BUT BY A PARLIAMENT, A OIET, OR A REFERENDUM OF THE SECEDING ML NOR I TV."34 | W H ( 8 THESES ON THE NATIONAL  QUESTION HE AGAIN STRESSED THAT THE QUESTION OF SEOESSION COULD ONLY BE SET-TLED ON "THE BA8I8 OF A UN IVER8AL, OIRECT AND EQUAL VOTE OF THE POPULATION OF THE GIVEN TERRITORY BY SECRET BALLOT...."35 BUT AS HAS BEEN SHOWN ABOVE, THI8 RIGHT HAO IN FACT BEEN EFFECTIVELY REOUOSO ANO LIMITED 80 THAT IN THE TERRITORIES OF THE FORMER Ru881 AN EMPI RE IT OOULO ONLY APPLY TO THE PROLE-TARIAT. EVEN AFTER THE REVOLUTION, HOWEVER, LENIN CONTINUED TO MAINTAIN THAT "THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION 8HALL BE REAL 0 8ED THROUGH A REFERENDUM OF THE WHOLE POPULATION OF THE TERRITORY SEEKING 8ELF-0ETERMI MAT I ON.OO."3^ HOWEVER, BY ENSURING THE PRIMACY OF THE PARTY HE HAD EFFECTIVELY BLOOKED DEVELOPMENT OF THE P088IBILITY HE HAO ADVOCATEO IN THEORY, I , THAT THE RIGHT TO SECESSION COULD BE EXERCISED BY ANY REGIONAL-NATIONAL 8ECTI0N.37 SUPERFICIALLY, THE DELIMITATION OF FRONTIERS OF THE SECEDING NATION P08ED NO PROBLEM FOR LENIN. IN A POLEMIC AIMED AT THE EC0W0K)L8T8 WHO ARGUED THAT FRONTIERS BE ESTABLISHED ACCORDING TO THE OICTATE8 OF PRODUCTION, HE ASSERTEO THAT THE 8E0E0IWG AREAV8 ^FRONTIERS WILL BE DELINEATED DEMOCRATIC-ALLY, I.E., IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE WILL ANO 'SYMPATHIES0 OF THE POPULATI ON.w38 IN FACT, OF COURSE, POPULAR FRONTIER DELIMITATION WAS EFFECTIVELY CIRCUM-SCRIBED BECAU8E IT WAS ALWAY8 A FUNCTION OF THE INTERE8T8 OF SOCIAL DEVEL-OPMENT ANO THE CLA88 STRUGGLEO THE PROLETARIAT OF BOTH THE OPPRESSED AND OPPRESSOR NATIONS HAD, AC-CORDING TO LENIN, ONLY ONE GOAL—THE OOMPLSTC UNITY OF ALL SOCIALIST FORCES. 49 TO A C H I E V E T H I S U N I T V T H E P R O L E T A R I A T M U 8 T , H O W E V E R 5 E M P L O Y T A C T I C 8 T H A T A T F I R S T 8 E E M D I A M E T R I C A L L Y 0 P P 0 8 E 0 . I T W A S T H E T A S K O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T O F T H E 0 P P R E 8 8 0 R M A T I O N T O S T R U G G L E A G A I N S T T H E E N F O R C E O R E T E N T I O N O F 0 P P R E 8 8 E 0 W A T I O N S CM T H I N T H E B O U N D S O F T H E G I V E N 8 T A T E , W H I C H M E A N S T H A T T H E Y M U S T D E M A N D F R E E D O M O F P O L I T I C A L S E P A R A T I O N F O R T H E C O L O N I E S A N D N A T I O N S 0 P P R E 8 8 E 0 B Y W T H E I R O W N " N A T I O N . O T H E R W I S E , T H E I N T E R N A T I O N A L I S M O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T W O U L D B E N O T H I N G B U T E M P T Y W 0 R 0 8 J N E I T H E R C O N F I O E N O E O R C L A S S S O L I D A R I T Y W O U L D B C P O S S I B L E B E T W E E N T H E W O R K E R S O F T H E 0 P P R E 8 8 E 0 A N D T H E O P P R E S S O R N A T I 0 N 8 o . . o 39 B Y A O V O C A T I N G F R E E O O M O F S E C E S S I O N F O R T H E 0 P P R E S 8 E 0 N A T I O N S 9 T H E P R O L E -T A R I AT O F T H E 0 P P R E 8 8 0 R N A T I O N , W O U L O , A C C O R O I NG T O T H E L E N I N I S T 8 C H E M E , A L L A Y T H E S U S P I C I O N S O F T H E P E O P L E I N T H E 0 P P R £ 8 S E 0 N A T I O N W H O C J O U L D T H E M B E A B L E T O V I E W T H E P O T E N T I A L E C O N O M I C B E N E F I T S O F U M I T A R V S T A T E W I T H T H E O B J E C T I V I T Y T H E Y A L L E G E D L Y D E 8 E R V E 0 . O N T H E O T H E R H A N D , T H E T A S K O F T H E P R O -L E T A R I AT O F T H E 0 P P R E 8 8 E D N A T 1 0 N 8 W A S T O D E F E N D A N O I M P L E M E N T T H E U N C O N D I T I O N A L U N I T Y , I N C L U D I N G O R G A N I S A T I O N A L U N I T Y , O F T H E W O R K E R S O F T H E 0 P P R E 8 8 E 0 N A T I O N A N D T H O S E O F T H E O P P R E S S O R N A T 1 O N o W I T H O U T T H I S I T I S I M P O S S I B L E T O D E F E N D T H E I N D E P E N D E N T P O L I C Y O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T A N O T H E I R C L A 8 8 S O L I D A R I T Y W I T H T H E P R O L E T A R I A T O F O T H E R C O U N T R I E 8 I N F A C E O F A L L M A N N E R O F I N T R I G U E S ; , T R E A C H E R Y A N D T R I C K -E R Y O N T H E P A R T O F T H E B O U R G E O I 8 I E . ^ 0 S U C H W E R E T H E T A S K S O F " N A T I O N A L P R O L E T A R I A T S . W I T W O U L D S E E M , H O W -E V E R , T H A T T H E G R E A T R U S 8 1 A N P R O L E T A R I A T N E E D E D C O N S T A N T A G I T A T I O N I F I T W A 8 T O L I V E U P T O I T S P A R T O F T H E B A R G A I N A N O T O T M 1 8 E N D L E M I N , I N T H E 8 P R I N G O F 1916, S P E C I F I C A L L Y C H A R G E D T H A T " R U S S I A N 8 0 C I A L I 8 T 8 W H O D O N O T D E -M A N O F R E E O O M T O S E P A R A T E F O R F I N L A N D , P O L A N D , T H E U K R A I N E , E T C O O O O A C T A S C H A U V I N I S T S A N D L A C K E Y 8 O F 000 F I L T H Y I M P E R I A L I S T M O N A R C H I E S A N D T H E I M P E R I -«41 A L I 8 T B O U R G E O I S I E . " ^ A O V O O A C Y O F T H E R I G H T O F N A T I O N S T O S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N W A 8 T O P E R F O R M T H E M A G I C T H A T W O U L O R E S U L T I N T H E U L T I M A T E I N T E G R A L I T Y O F T H E F U T U R E S O V I E T R U S S I A . W H E N T H I S H A D M A N I F E S T L Y F A I L E D , L E N I N W A R N E D P A R T Y M E M B E R S T H A T T H E Q U E 8 T I O N W A S B E I N G E X A G G E R A T E D A N O T H A T I T O A S " O F L E S 8 T H A N 8 E C 0 N D A R Y I M P O R ° 50 TANCE . . o IN THE 8UM TOTAL OF PROGRAMME DEMANDS,, B Y DECEMBER 1 921 s> L E N I N 8 8 P O S I T I O N HAO CHANGEO E V E N MORE R A D I C A L L Y A8 EV IDENOED BY A S P E E C H WHICH BEGAN WITH H I S STANDARD ARGUMENT IN FAVOR OF THE R IGHT TO 8 E C E 8 S I O N o B U T TH18 T IME HE ADDED THAT W A 8 LONG AS N O N A T I O N A L I T I E S ENGAGE IN I N T R I G U E 8 A G A I N S T U8 WHICH B IND THEM TO THE I M P E R I A L I S T O P P R E S S I O N , A8 LONG A8 THEY OO NOT H E L P TO ORU8H U S , W E 8 H A L L NOT B E DETERRED BY FORMAL I T I E S o ^ 3 T H I S WA8 A W A R N I N G I N A E S O P I A N T E R M S T H A T S E C E S S I O N W O U L O N O T B E T O L E R A T E D B E C A U S E , I N L E N I N I S T E S O T E R I C J A R G O N , A N A T I O N W A S " B O U N D T O I M P E R I A L I S T O P P R E S S I O N " T H E M O M E N T I T B E C A M E I N D E P E N D E N T A N O , A 8 A T O O L O F T H E I M P E R I A L I S T S , I T W O U L D B E F O R C E D T O A I D I N T H E C R U S H I N G O F S O V I E T R U 8 8 I A . T H E P A R T Y " S R O L E , A C C O R D I N G T O L E N I N , W A S T H A T O F T H E V A N G U A R O O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T A N O A S 8 U C H I T W A 8 T O L E A D T H E M A 8 8 E 3 I N A L L T H E I R S O C I A L , E C O N -O M I C A N D P O L I T I C A L E N D E A V O R S » S L N C E H E F I R M L Y B E L I E V E D T H A T A G E N U I N E S O C I A L -D E M O C R A T I C C O N S C I O U S N E S S C O U L D N O T S P O N T A N E O U S L Y A R I S E A M O N G T H E M A S S E S , H E CONCLUDED THAT " l T WOULO H A V E TO BE BROUGHT TO THEM FROM B J I T H O U T . ^ T H 18 FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPT ION PROVIDED THE R A T I O N A L E FOR THE B 0 L 8 H E V I K 8 TO ENTER INTO POLEM ICS O N THE NAT IONAL QUEST ION AND THE IR SUBSEQUENT ATTEMPT TO LEAD THE N A T I O N A L I T I E S BOTH BEFORE AND A F T E R THE REVOLUT IONo IT HA8 B E E N SHOWN IN THE P R E C E D I N G CHAPTER THAT L E N I N WAS COGN IZANT OF THE N A T I O N A L I T I E S A N O NAT IONAL F E E L IN@8 E V E N B E F O R E THE 1905 R EVOLUT ION AND C E R T A I N L Y TH18 AWARENE88 MUST HAVE B E E N RE INFORCED AND A M P L I F I E D BY THE EVENT8 OF THAT Y E A R . IT WAS NOT , HOWEVER, U N T I L OCTOBER 1913 THAT HE D E F I -N I T E L Y DEC IDED ON A C0UR8E OF A C T I O N , BUT ONCE TH I S DEC 181 ON WAS MADE , THE QUE8T I ON WAS G I V E N PROMINENCE IN H I S WORK. A T TH18 T IME H E WROTE THAT I T 18 O B V I O U S T H A T T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N H A 8 N O W B E C O M E P R O M I N E N T A M O N G T H E P R 0 B L E M 8 O F R U S S I A N P U B L I C L I F E , T H E A G Q R E 8 I V E N A T I O N A L I S M O F T H E R E A C T I O N A R I E S , T H E T R A N S I T I O N O F C O U N T E R — R E V O L U T I O N A R V B B O U R -G E O I S L I B E R A L I S M T O N A T I O N A L I S M ( P A R T I C U L A R L Y G R E A T R U S 8 L A N , B U T A L S O P O L I S H , J E W I S H , U K R A I N I A N , E T C . ) A N D L A S T L Y T H E I N C R E A S E O F N A T I O N A L I S T 51 V A C I 1 . L A T I 0 N 8 A M O N G T H E D I F F E R E N T ' N A T I O N A L 8 ( I 0 E 0 , N O N - G R E A T - R U S 8 I A N ) S O C I A L - D E M O C R A T S , W H O H A V E G O N E T O T H E L E N G T H O F V I O L A T I N G T H E P A R T Y P R O G R A M M E — A L L T H E S E M A K E I T I N C U M B E N T O N U S T O G I V E M O R E A T T E N T I O N T O T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E 8 T I 0 N T H A N W E H A V E D O N E 8 0 F A R O * L E N I N T H E N B E G A N H I S A T T E M P T T O G A I N T H E S Y M P A T H Y A N O C O N F I D E N C E O F T H E U K R A I N I A N M A S S E S . I N O N E O F H I S F R E Q U E N T P O L E M I C S W I T H T H E C A 0 E T 8 O N T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E 8 T I O N L E N I N R A T H E R C A N D I D L Y N O T E D T H A T " T H E A D V O C A C Y O F T H E R I G H T T O S E L F -D E T E R M I N A T I O N 1 8 V E R Y I M P O R T A N T I N T H E F l G H T A G A I N S T T H E A B 8 0 E 8 8 O F N A T I O N -A L I S M I N A L L I T 8 F O R M S . " ^ L E N I N B E L I E V E D T H A T T H E U K R A I N I A N M A S S E S W E R E U N W I T T I N G L Y B E C O M I N G V I C T I M S O F W H A T H E C O N S I D E R E D A G R O S S D E V I A T I O N — N A T I O N ALI8M0 A8 E A R L Y A S 1903 H E H A D F O R M U L A T E D T H E G E N E R A L O U T L I N E O F T H E P O L I C V T H A T W A 8 T O A P P L Y T O T H E U K R A I N E W H E N H E P 0 8 E 0 A Q U E S T I O N , T H E A N S W E R T O W H I C H B E C A M E T H E F U N D A M E N T A L T E N E T O F B 0 L 8 H E V I K N A T I O N A L P O L I C Y . ...is S O C I A L - D E M O C R A C Y I N D U T Y B O U N D T O O E M A N D N A T I O N A L I N D E P E N D E N C E A L W A Y 8 A N O U N R E S E R V E D L Y , O R O N L Y U N D E R C E R T A I N C I R C U M 8 T A N C E 8 ? ..o I T 1 8 T O T H E I N T E R E 8 T 8 O F . . . / j H E CLA8s7 S T R U G G L E T H A T W E M U 8 T S U B O R D I N A T E T H E D E M A N D F O R 8 E L F — D E T E R M I N A T I O N . N O T O N L Y W A S T H E R I G H T O F S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N T O B E S U B O R D I N A T E D T O T H E C L A 8 8 8 T R U G G L C B U T A C C O R O I N G T O L E N I N T H E P A R T Y W A 8 O B L I G E D T O U N D E R T A K E A N " I N D E -P E N D E N T A P P R A I 8 A L O F T H E A D V I 8 A B I L I T Y O F T H E 8 T A T E 8 E C E 8 8 I 0 N O F A N Y N A T I O N J4.8 I N E A C H 8 E P A R A T E C A 8 E o W TH I 8 P A R T Y A P P R A I 8 A L W A 8 M A N D A T O R Y B E C A U S E T H E C A P I T A L 1 8 T 8 A N O L A N D L O R D S W A N T A T A L L C 0 8 T 8 , T O K E E P T H E CT0RKER8 O F D I F F E R E N T N A T I O N S A P A R T W H I L E T H E P O W E R S T H A T B E L I V E S P L E N D I D L Y T O -G E T H E R A S S H A R E H O L D E R S I N P R O F I T A B L E C O N C E R N S . . . * , O R T H O D O X C H R I S T I A N S , A N O J E W S , R U S S I A N S A N O G E R M A N S , P O L E S A N D U K R A I N I A N S , E V E R Y O N E W H O P O S -S E S S E S C A P I T A L , E X P L O I T T H E W O R K E R S O F A L L N A T I O N S I N C O M P A N Y . ^ 9 T H U S T H E U K R A I N I A N S © H O , A S A N E T H N I C G R O U P , W E R E O P P R E S S E D B Y T H E T S A R I S T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N , W E R E A L S O 0 P P R E 8 8 E 0 B Y T H E I R O W N B O U R G E O 1 8 1 E O ^ IN A C C 0 R = » D A N C E W I T H T H I 8 R E A 8 0 N I N G , T H E U K R A I N I A N P R O L E T A R I A T A M D P E A S A N T R Y S U F F E R E D 52 F R O M B O T H A N A T I O N A L A N O A C L A 8 8 O P P R E 8 8 I O N A L T H O U G H L E N I N H O P E D T H A T T H E Y C O U L D B E " E O U C A T E O " A N D C O N V I N C E D T O I G N O R E T H E F O R M E R A N D 8 T R E 8 8 T H E L A T T E R , I T W A S F O R T H I 8 R E A 8 0 N T H A T L E N I N I N S I S T E D O N A C E N T R A L I Z E D P A R T Y , A N A T I O N A L S O C I A L I S T P A R T Y W O U L D I N E V I T A B L Y E M P H A 8 I Z E T H E N A T I O N A L I 8 8 U E T O T H E D E T R I M E N T O F T H E C L A 8 8 I S S U E A N O T H I S C O U L D O N L Y R E 8 U L T I N T H E G E N E R A L I M P A I R M E N T A N O D E C L I N E O F T H E S O C I A L I S T M O V E M E N T I N T H E R U S S I A N E|WP|RE.51 L E N I N W A S K E E N L Y A W A R E O F T H E G R O W T H O F U K R A I N I A N N A T I O N A L I S T F E E L I N G A M O N G T H E I N T E L L E Q E N T 3 I A A N O T H E M I N I 8 C U L E I N D I G E N 0 U 8 B O U R G E O I 8 I E B E C A U S E T H E Y O C C A S I O N A L L Y M A N A G E D T O R A I 8 E T H E U K R A I N I A N Q U E 8 T I O N I N T H E O U M A . ^ 2 T H I S C O G N I Z A N C E O F T H E D E V E L O P I N G U K R A I N I A N N A T I O N A L T E M P E R M E N T M U S T H A V E B E E N O N E O F T H E M A J O R F A C T O R 8 W H I C H P E R S U A D E D L E W I N T O A T T E M P T T O D I 8 C 0 V E R A S O L U T I O N T O T H E P R O B L E M . H E R A P I D L Y D E T E R M I N E D T H A T R E P R E S S I V E T 8 A R I 8 T M E A 8 U R E 3 8 E R V E 0 T O P R O M O T E T H E G R O W T H O F N A T I O N A L I S M A N O T H A T T H E 8 E M E A S U R E S C O U L D O N L Y B E C O U N T E R A C T E D B Y O U T R I G H T O P P O S I T I O N . I T 1 8 B Y P E R S E C U T I N G T H E U K R A I N I A N S A N O 0 T H E R 8 F O R T H E I R " 8 E P A R A T I O N W , F O R T H E I R 8 E C E 8 S I O N I 8 T S T R I V I N G S . / T H A T / T H E N A T I O N A L I S T S A R E U P H O L D I N G T H E P R I V I L E G E O F T H E G R E A T — R U 8 8 I A N L A N D L O R D S A N D T H E G R E A T - R U 8 8 I A N B O U R -G E O I S I E T O H A V E " T H E I R O W N * S T A T E . T H E W O R K I N G C L A 8 8 I S 0 P P 0 8 E 0 T O AJY^ P R I V I L E G E 8 1 T H A T 1 8 W H Y I T U P H O L D S T H E R I G H T O F N A T I O N S T O S E L F - D E T E R -M I N A T I O N . " I F T H E F A C T T H A T L E N I N S T R E S S E D T H E " R I G H T 6 " T O T H E O E T R I M E N T O F " S E L F - D E T E R -M I N A T I O N " I T S E L F DlO N O T M A K E H I 8 P 0 8 I T I 0 N A P P A R E N T , I T 8 H 0 U L 0 H A V E B E C O M E Q U I T E L U C I D B Y H I 8 A D D I T I O N O F T H E P R O V I S O T H A T ^ C L A S S — C 0 N 8 C I 0 U 8 W O R K E R S D O N O T A D V O C A T E 8 E C E 8 8 1 ON."54 T H U 8 , A 8 E A R L Y A 8 1913-1914 L E N I N H A D OEClOEO T H A T I F A U K R A I N I A N W O R K E R A D V O C A T E D S E C E S S I O N F O R T H E U K R A I N E H E W A S M E R E L Y A T O O L O F T H E B O U R G E O I S I E , I . E . , H E S U F F E R E D F R O M A N I N S U F F I C I E N T L Y O E V E L O P E D C L A S S C O N S C I O U S N E S S . L E N I N C L E A R L Y D I S T I N G U I S H E D B E T W E E N T H E R I G H T O F S E C E S S I O N F O R U K R A I N -I A N S A N D T H E E X E R C I S E O F T H 1 8 R I G H T . W H E T H E R T H E U K R A I N E , F O R E X A M P L E , I S D E S T I N E D T O F O R M A N I N D E P E N D E N T 8 T A T E I S A M A T T E R T H A T W I L L B E D E T E R M I N E D 8 V A T H 0 U 8 A M 0 U N P R E D I C T A B L E 53 FACTORS. WITHOUT ATTEMPTING IDLE "GUESSES", WE FIRMLY UPHOLD SOMETHING THAT IS BEYOND OOUBTJ THE RIGHT OF THE UKRAINE TO FORM SUOH A 8TATE« WE RE8PECT THIS R l G H T J WE OO NOT UPHOLO THE PRIVILEGES OF GREAT RU88IAN8 W I T H REGARO TO UKRAINIANS; WE EDUCATE THE MA88E8 IN THE SPIRIT OF THE RECOGNITION OF THAT RIQHT....55 THE MA88EB WERE TO BE COUCATED IN THE "SPIRIT OF THE RECOGNITION OF THAT RIGHT" BUT ONLY OF THE "RIGHT" AND NOTHING MORE. IN ORDER TO MAKE HIM8ELF MORE EASILY UNDERSTOOD LENIN COMPARED THE CONCEPT OF SELF-DETERMINATION TO THAT OF DIVORCE. HE ARGUED THAT WTO ACCU8E TH08E WHO 8UPP0RT FREEOOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION, I.E., FREEOOM TO 8ECEDE, OF ENCOURAGING SEPARATION, 18 A8 F00LI8H ANO HYPOCRITICAL AS ACCUSING THOSE WHO AOVOCATE FREEOOM OF DI-VORCE OF ENCOURAGING THE DESTRUCTION OF FAMILY TIES."56 FURTHERMORE LENIN THOUGHT IT WAS RATHER FOOL 18H TO FEAR THAT ADVOCAOY OF THE RIGHT OF SECES-SION WOULD HAVE ANY 80RT OF EMOTIONAL IMPACT ON THE PEOPLE OF THE NATIONALI-TIES BECAUSE FROM THEIR DAILY EXPERIENCE THE MA88E8 KNOW PERFECTLY WELL THE VALUE OF GEOGRAPHICAL ANO ECONOMIC TIES AND THE ADVANTAGES OF A BIG MARKET ANO A BIG 8TATE. THEY WILL, THEREFORE, RE80RT TO 8ECE681 ON ONLY WHEN NATIONAL OPPRESSION AND NATIONAL FRICTION MAKE JOINT LIFE ABSOLUTELY INTOLERABLE ANO HINDER ANY ANO ALL ECONOMIC INTERCOUR8E.57 LENIN AOOEO THAT "IN THIS CASE, THE INTERESTS OF CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT AND OF THE FREEOOM OF THE CLASS 8TRUGGLE WILL BE BEST SERVED BY 8ECE381 ON.ra58 THU8, WHILE NOT SAYING 30 DIRECTLY, LENIN EFFECTIVELY LIMITED THE APPLICA-TION OF HIS SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY TO THE PERIOD BEFORE THE SOCIALIST REVOLUTION, 81NCE IT COULO ONLY BE IN THE PREREVOLUTIONARV ERA THAT THE BOL-SHEVIKS WOULD HAVE BEEN INTERE8TE0 IN THE ACCELERATED DEVELOPMENT OF CAPIT-ALISM IN Ru88lA. LENIN BELIEVED THAT THE POLYGLOT RUSSIAN EMPIRE IMPEOEO THE DEVELOP-*-MENT OF CAP ITAL18M ANO AT THE 8AME TIME RE INFORCEO HOSTILITY BETWEEN IT8 COM-POSITE NATIONAL GROUPS. "IN NO COUNTRY IN THE WORLD ARE THE MAJORITY OF T«S POPULATION 0PPRE88E0 80 MUCH A3 IN RUS8LA," HE 0B8ERVE0 IN THE 8UMMER OF 1915.^ IMPERIAL DISMEMBERMENT WAS PREFERABLE TO IMPERIAL OPPRESSION OF THE 5k UKRAINIANS, POLES AND OTHER PEOPLES OF RUSSIA^O BECAUSE IT WOULD DECREASE THE HATRED WHICH THE NATIONALITIES HAD FOR THE GREAT—RU88IAN8 AND THUS BRING THE ULTIMATE RE-1NTEGRATI ON CLOSER TO FRUITION. WTHE INTERESTS OF THE UNI TV OF THE PROLETARIANS, THE INTERESTS OF THEIR CLASS SOL IOAR I TV CALL FOR RECOG-NITION OF THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SECEDE...," LENIN EMPHASIZED, ADDING THAT WTHE ABANDONMENT OF THI8 POINT, NO MATTER FOR WHAT MOT IVE8, 18 ACTUALLY A 'SHAMEFUL' CONCESSION TO GREAT—RussiAN NATIONALISM."61 THIS WAS LENIN'S IN-CESSANT THEME DURING THE WAR YEARS AND WA8 HIS MAIN ARGUMENT AGAINST R 0 8 A LUXEMBURG ANO THE POLISH SOCIAL DEMOCRATS.^ 2 He FIRMLY BELIEVEO THAT ALL THOSE WHO OO NOT WANT TO BACK THE FREEDOM OF NATIONS, THE RIGHT OF NATI0N8 TO SELF-DETERMINATION, HYPOCRITICALLV....BUT WANT TO DO THIS 8 INCERELY« MUST OPPOSE THE WAR OVER THE OPPRESSION OF POLAND J THEY MU8T 8TAND FOR THE RIGHT OF THE NATIONS RUS8I A 18 NOW OPPRESSING, NAMELY, THE UKRAINE, FINLANO, ETC., TO SECEOE FROM RUSSIA.63 UNLIKE THE POLISH SOOIAL-DEMOCRATS HE BELIEVED THAT SECESSION UNDER CAPITAL-ISM WA8 P O 8 S I B L E AND HE CONSTANTLY USED THE EXAMPLE OF NORWAY S8 SECESSION FROM SWEDEN TO PROVE HIS POINT.^ LENIN PERCEIVED THE UKRAINE AS A COLONY OF RUSSIA BUT IT WAS NOT AN ORDINARY COLONY BE0AU8E CAP ITALISM WAS "UNOOUBTEOLV DEVELOPING THE PRODUCTION FORCES MORE VIGOROUSLY, RAPIDLY AND INDEPENDENTLY IN POLAND, FINLAND, THE UKRAINE AND ALSACE THAN IN INDIA, TURKESTAN, EGYPT ANO OTHER STRAIGHTFORWARD C O L O N l E 8 . w 6 5 IN LENINI8T TERM8, THEREFORE, BEING A COLONY OF R u 8 8 I A WA8 OBJECTIVELY POSITIVE FOR THE UKRAINE BECAU8E I T8 PRODUCTIVE FORCES WERE BE-ING DEVELOPED. BUT 8ECAU8E THE METHODS USED IN DEVELOPING PRODUCTION FOS-TERED NATIONAL HATRED, HE WA8 WILLING TO ADVOCATE THE RIGHT OF SECE8SI ON FOR THI8 TERRITORY. IT MUST BE REMEMBERED, HOWEVER, THAT HE 8UPP0RTE0 TH18 RIGHT FOR UKRAINIANS ONLY BECAUSE HE BELIEVED IT WOULD HASTEN AND ENSURE FU-TURE UNITY ANO AMALGAMATION. IN HIS POLEMIC WITH P l A T A K O V HE 8TATED TH18 QUITE H0NE8TLY * WE DEMAND FROM OUR GOVERNMENTS THAT THEY QUIT THE COLON IE8, OR, TO PUT IT IN PRECISE POLITICAL TERM8... THAT THEY GRANT THE COLON IES FULL FREEDOM OF SECESSION, THE GENUINE RIGHT TO 8ELF-OETERMINAT I ON„ ANO WE 55 OURSELVES ARE SURE TO IMPLEMENT T H I S R I G H T , ANO GRANT T H I S FREEOOM A8 SOON A8 WE CAPTURE POWER.°° WE OEMANO T H I S FROM E X I S T I N G GOVERNMENTS, AND W I L L OO T H I S WHEN WE ARE THE GOVERNMENT, NOT I N O R D G R TO NRECOR£ML.'<IU:' 8 E C E 3 8 1 0 N , BUT, ON THE CONTRARY, I N ORDER TO F A C I L I T A T E AND ACCELERATE THE DEMOCRATIC A 8 8 0 O I A T I 0 N AND MERGING OP NATLON8«^7 HE FURTHER LECTURED PLATAKOV TO CONSIDER OAREFULLY A L L THE NUANCE8 OF B O L S H E V I K N A T I O N A L I T Y THEORY ANO WARNED H I M THAT HE HAD " G I V E N NO THOUGHT TO THE FACT THAT A ' 8 0 0 I A L I 8 T S O C I E T Y * W I L L WISH TO *GCT OUT OF THE C O L O N I E S * ONLY I N THE SENSE OF GRANTING THEM THE R I G H T TO 8 E 0 E 0 E , BUT D E F I N I T E L Y NOT I N THE SENSE OF REOOMMENOING S E 0 E 8 B I ON."68 |P PLATAKOV OOULO NOT UNDER-STAND L E N I N I S T S U B T L E T I E S I T I S NOT S U R P R I S I N G THAT THE P O L I T I C A L L Y U N S O P H I S T I C A T E D U K R A I N I A N PEASANT OR WORKER WOULD AOOEPT THEM AT FACE V A L U E . HOWEVER, L E N I N WAS ALSO FOND OF S I M P L I S T I C , P O L I T I C A L L Y V O L A T I L E STATEMENTS A 0 0 R E 8 8 E 0 D I R E C T L Y TO THE NAT IONALI TI E S — E 8 P S C I A L L Y THE U K R A I N I A N S . STATEMENTS SUCH AS " T S A R I S M I S WAGING WAR TO S E I Z E G A L I O I A AND F I N A L L Y CRUSH THE L I B E R T I E S OF U K R A I N I A N S . . . " 6 9 MUST HAVE A P P E A L E D TO THE U K R A I N I A N MASSES TO 80ME EXTENT ANO MAY HAVE HAO THE EFFEOT OF H E I G H T E N I N G A N T I — T 8 A R I 8 T F E E L ING8 WHILE AT THE SAME TIME C R E A T I N G SOME OEGRCE OF 8YMPATHV FOR THE B O L S H E V I K S . THIS WAS, OF COURSE, ONE OF L E N I N ' S P R I M S O B J E C T I V E S . HE T R I E D VERY HARD TO E F F E O T THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE T S A R I S T EMPIRE BECAUSE HE THOUGHT THAT BY OOING 8 0 ANO 8 Y A S S U R I N G THAT THE U K R A I N I A N S AND OTHER N A T I O N A L I T I E S IDENT I F I E O T H I S PROPAGANDA WITH THE B O L S H E V I K S ANO THE PROLE-T A R I A T , HE OOULO OREATE THE R E Q U I S I T E PRE-COMOITIONS FOR EVENTUAL VOLUNTARY REI N T E G R A T I O N ANO P E A C E F U L A S S I M I L A T I O N INTO THE P R 0 8 P E 0 T I V E S O V I E T R U S S I A . SOON A F T E R THE FEBRUARY REVOLUTION L E N I N WAS EXHORTING THE R U S S I A N MA88E8 AGAINST THE NATIONAL P 0 L I 0 I C 8 OF THE P R O V I S I O N A L GOVERNMENT* HG URGED A L L R U S S I A N S NOT TO BE INFLUENOSP BY THE ANNEXATION!** P 0 L I 0 Y OF THE R U S S I A N 0 A P I T A L I S T S . . . ANO THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT TOWARDS F I N L A N D , KURLAMO, U K R A I N E , E T C I 56 OO NOT FEAR TO RECOGNISE THE RIGHT OF ALL THESE NATIONS TO SECEDE 8 NATIONS MUST SE WON OVER TO THE IDEA OF AN ALLIANOE WITH THE GREAT RUS-SIANS NOT BY FORCE, BUT BY A REALLY VOLUNTARY ANO REALLY FREE AGREEMENT, WHICH 18 IMPOSSIBLE WITHOUT THE RIGHT OF SECESSION.70 AT THE APRIL CONFERENCE OF THE PARTY LENIN BECAME THE MOST ARDENT ADVOCATE OF UKRAINIAN SECESSION,. AT THE CONFERENCE HE EVEN DROPPED THE WORD "RIGHT™ (ALBEIT ONLY ONCE) IN HIS SUPPORT OF UKRAINIAN SELF-DETERMINATION. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE HAD ALWAYS CAREFULLY DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN THE ""RIGHT TO SECESSION" AND THE ACTUAL REALIZATION OF THIS "RIGHT". OUR ATTITUDE TO THE SEPARATIST MOVEMENT IS INDIFFERENT, NEUTRAL. IF FINLAND, POLAND OR UKRAINE SECEDE FROM RUSSIA, THERE IS NOTHING BAO IN THAT. WHAT IS WRONG WITH IT? ANYONE WHO SAYS THAT IS A CHAUVINIST. ONE MUST BE MAD TO CONTINUE TSAR NICHOLAS'S POLICY.71 LENIN BITTERLY ASSAILED THE VIEWS OF PIATAKOV, BUKHARIN AND OZIERZHINSKY AT THE CONFERENCE BECAU8E THEY WERE TACTICALLY SUICIDAL TO THE PARTY. THEY, OF COURSE, FAILED TO COMPREHEND THE NECE881 TV OF THI8 TEMPOR-ARY COMPROMISE WITH THE NATIONALISTS AND THEY FAILED TO SEE THAT THEIR POL-ICY OF INDIFFERENCE TO THE NATIONAL M0VEMENT8 (TH|8 WA8 ESPECIALLY SO IN THE CA8E OF PlATAKOv)72 WOULD BE INTERPRETED AS MERELY ANOTHER MANIFESTA-TION OF GREAT RUSSIAN OHAUVINISM BY A GREAT RUSSIAN PARTY.73 FOR THIS REA-SON LENIN EMPHATICALLY INSISTED ON THE INCLUSION OF THE RIGHT TO SEPARATION IN THE PARTY PROGRAM ANO ADOED THAT ANYONE WHO 00E8 NOT ACCEPT TH18 POINT OF VIEW 18 AN ANNEXATIONIST AND A CHAUVINIST. WE ARE FOR A FRATERNAL UNION OF ALL NAT 10N8. IF THERE is A UKRAINIAN REPUBLIC AND A RUSSIAN REPUBLIC, THERE WILL BE CLOSER CONTACT AND A GREATER TRUST BETWEEN THE TWO. IF THE UKRAINIANS SEE THAJ WE- HAVE A SOVIET REPUBLIC THEY WILL NOT SECEDE, BUT IF WE HAVE AI^TLVUKOV REPUBLIC. THEY WILL.74 LENIN HAD, OF COURSE, BANKED HIS ENTIRE NATIONALITY POLICY ON THE BELIEF THAT THE UKRAINIANS WOULD NOT SECEDE IF A SOVIET REPUBLIC WAS ESTABLISHED. IT IS INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT AT THE APRIL CONFERENCE IT WAS STALIN RATHER THAN LENIN WHO WAS THE MAIN SPEAKER ON THE NATIONALITY QUESTION AND 57 A T L E A 8 T O N E AUTHOR N 0 T E 8 T H A T T H I S W A S UNUSUAL.?5 S I N C E S T A L I N * 8 8 P E E 0 H W A S A M E R E R E C l - T A T . I ' O N OF L E N I N * 8 I O E A S I T WOULD S E E M T H A T L E N I N , W H O W A S I S O L A T E D O N T H I S I 8 8 U E F R O M M 0 8 T L E A D I N G P A R T Y M E M B E R S , S O U G H T 8 0 M E 0 N E O F R E L A T I V E L Y M A J O R S T A T U R E I N T H E P A R T Y T O P R E S E N T H 1 8 V I E W 8 A N D T H U 8 8 H 0 W H I S C R I T I C S T H A T H E W A 8 N O T C O M P L E T E L Y R E M O V E D F R O M T H E M A I N S T R E A M O F B O L -SHEVIK T H I N K I N G O N T H I S I M P O R T A N T Q U E 8 T I O N o S T A L I N H A O A L S O O P P O S E D L E N I N ° 8 V I E W S O N T H I S P R O B L E M B U T W I T H L E 8 S VEHEMENOE T H A N P lATAKOV, BuKHARlN A N O O Z I E R Z H I N 8 K V A N D H E P R O B A B L Y JUMPED A T T H E O P P O R T U N I T Y T O I N G R A T I A T E H I M -S E L F W I T H L E N I N . A T A N Y R A T E S T A L I N D I D M A N A G E T O P R E S E N T L E N I N ' S V I E W S I N T H E I R L E A S T S O P H I S T I G A T E D F O R M A N O H E S U R E L Y O O U L D N O T H A V E B E E N M I S U N D E R -S T O O D ? I T W O U L D B E I M P E R M I S S I B L E T O C 0 N F U 8 E T H E Q U E S T I O N O F T H E R I G H T O F N A T 1 0 N 8 F R E E L Y T O 8 E C E D E W I T H T H E Q U E 8 T I O N O F W H E T H E R A N A T I O N M U 8 T N E 0 E 8 8 A R I L Y S E C E D E A T A N Y G I V E N M O M E N T . T H 1 8 L A T T E R Q U E S T I O N M U 8 T B E 8 E T T L E O Q U I T E S E P A R A T E L Y B Y T H E P A R T Y O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T I N E A C H P A R -T I C U L A R O A 8 E , A C C O R D I N G T O T H E C I R C U M 8 T A N C E 8 . W H E N W E R E C O G N I S E T H E R I G H T O F 0 P P R E 8 8 E 0 P E 0 P L E 8 T O 8 E C E 0 E , T H E R I G H T T O D E C I D E T H E I R P O L I -T I C A L D E 8 T I N Y , W E O O N O T T H E R E B Y S E T T L E T H E Q U E S T I O N W H E T H E R P A R T I C U L A R N A T 1 0 N 8 8 H 0 U L 0 8 E 0 E D E F R O M T H E R U S 8 T A N S T A T E A T A G I V E N M O M E N T . . . . A P E O P L E H A 8 T H E R I G H T T O S E O E O E , B U T I T M A Y O R M A Y N O T E X E R C I S E T H A T R I G H T , A C C O R O I N G T O T H E C I R C U M 8 T A N C E 8 . . . H E N C E T H E Q U E S T I O N O F S E C E S -S I O N M U 8 T B E D E T E R M I N E D I N E A C H P A R T I C U L A R C A S E I N D E P E N D E N T L Y , I N A C -C O R D A N C E W I T H T H E E X I 8 T I N G 8 1 T U A T I O N . . 7 © T H I 8 E F F E C T I V E L Y C I R C U M 8 C R I B E O , I F I T O L O N O T C O M P L E T E L Y N E G A T E , T H E E X E R C 1 8 E O F T H E R I G H T T O 8 E 0 E 8 8 1 O N A N D I F P L A T A K O V , B U K H A R L N A N O O Z I E R Z H I N S K Y 8 T I L L O I 8 A Q R E E O W I T H T H I 8 F O R M U L A T I O N I T W A S N O T B E C A U S E T H E Y O L O N O T U N D E R -S T A N D IT?7 B U T B E C A U 8 E T H E Y D E N I E D I T 8 V A L I D I T Y A N O U 8 E F U L N E 8 8 F O R T H E P A R T Y O A L T H O U G H T H E E X E R C I S E O F T H E R I G H T T O S E C E S S I O N W A S N O W P R A O T I C A L L Y N E G A T E D , L E N I N S O U G H T T O T A K E S O M E O F T H E S T I N G O U T O F I T F O R T H E B E N E F I T O F T H E N A -T I O N A L I T I E S ' B Y A D M O N I S H I N G P A R T Y M E M 8 E R 8 T H A T W A N Y Ru881 A N 8 0 C I A L I 8 T W H O 0 0 E 8 N O T R E C O G N18E F l N L A N O * 8 A N D U K R A I N E ' 8 R I G H T T O F R E E O O M W I L L D E G E N E R A T E I N T O A C H A U V I N I 8 T . A N O N O 8 0 P H I 8 M 8 O R R E F E R E N C E S T O H I 8 'METHOD 0 W I L L E V E R H E L P H I M T O J U 8 T I F Y H I M 8 E L F . " 7 8 58 T H E 8 E V E R B A L . P R O P H Y L A C T I C 8 W E R E T O B E O F S M A L L C O M F O R T T O T H E U K R A I N E A F T E R O C T O B E R 1917 B U T B E F O R E T H I S T I M E T H E V M A Y H A V E H A D S O M E P O S I T I V E E F -F E C T O N T H E U K R A I N I A N M A S S E S . A F T E R A L L T H E B O L S H E V I K S W E R E T H E O N L Y G R O U P W H O O P E N L Y A N O C 0 N 8 I 8 T E N T L Y S U P P O R T E D A M A J O R I T Y O F U K R A I N I A N 0 E M A N D 8 . C H E R -N O V G I V E S A R E V E A L I N G P I C T U R E O F T H E A T T I T U D E O F T H E R U S S I A N N O N — B O L S H E V I K 3 0 C I A L I 8 T 8 I N T H E A L L - R U 8 3 I A N C O N G R E 8 8 O F S O V I E T S O F J U N E 1917* I N T H E S O V I E T E A C H S I O E H E A P E D A C C U S A T I O N S O N T H E O T H E R . T H E R U S S I A N S O C I A L I S T R E V O L U T I O N A R I E S A N D M E N S H E V I K S A C C U S E D T H E U K R A I N I A N S O C I A L I S T S O F A B A N D O N I N G S O O I A L I 8 M F O R N A T I O N A L I S M A M D J O I N I N G T H E C H A U V I N I S T B O U R -G E O 1 8 1 E . t T H E U K R A I N I A N S O C I A L I S T S H U R L E D B A C K T H E S A M E A C C U S A T I O N : T H E C O A L I T I O N W I T H T H E R U 8 8 l A N B O U R G E O I 8 I E I N T H E P R O V I 8 I O N A L G O V E R N M E N T H A O I N F E C T E D T H E Ru88I A N S O C I A L I S T S W I T H T H E S P I R I T O F B O U R G E O 1 8 C E N T R A L I Z A -T I O N A N O G R E A T R U S S I A N N A T I O N A L I S M . 7 9 B O T H T H E B O L S H E V I K S A N D U K R A I N I A N S W I T H D R E W F R O M T H E S O V I E T W H E N T H E Y W E R E L E F T I N T H E M I N O R I T Y O N N U M E R 0 U 8 M A J O R I 8 8 U E 8 . S O O N T H E R E A F T E R , L E N I N , S E N -S I N G T H E U R G E N C Y O F T H E P O L I T I C A L 8 I T U A T I O N , I N 8 I 8 T E 0 T H A T R U 8 8 I A N B O U R G E O I 8 D E M O C R A C Y W M U 8 T I M M E D I A T E L Y 8 A T I 8 F Y T H E O E M A N D 8 O F T H E U K R A I N I A N S A N D T H E F L N N 8 / A N D / E N 8 U R C T H E M . . . F U L L F R E E D O M , I N C L U D I N G F R E E O O M O F 8 E O E 8 8 1 O N " 8 0 * « • « A G A I N , O N O C T O B E R 1, L E N I N S T R E S S E D T H E N E C E S S I T Y O F T H E " I M M E D I A T E R E S T I T U T I O N O F F U L L F R E E O O M F O R F I N L A N D , T H E U K R A I N E , B Y E L O R U S S I A , F O R T H E M O S L E M S A N D 30 O N . B 8 ' H E H A O O N C E M O R E D R O P P E D T H E L E N I N I S T Q U A L I F I E R " R I G H T " F R O M H I 8 C O N C E P T O F S E C E 8 8 I O N B U T T H 1 8 0 1 0 N O T M E A N T H A T H E H A D C H A N G E D H I 8 M I N O A B O U T S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N F O R T H E U K R A I N E . L C N I N ' S I N T R A C -T A B L E 8 T A N C E O N S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N W A S A G A I N U N D E R L I N E D I N H I S A R T I C L E O N T H E " R E V I S I O N O F T H E P A R T Y P R O G R A M M E " , W R I T T E N D U R I N G O C T O B E R 6-8, 1917, W H E N H E R E I N T R O D U C E D H I 8 O R I G I N A L T H E O R E T I C A L D I S T I N C T I O N B E T W E E N T H E " R I G H T " A N D T H E A P P L I C A T I O N O F T H 1 8 R I G H T . " A F T E R S I X M 0 N T H 8 O F T H E 1917 R E V O L U T I O N " , H E R E M A R K E D , I T I S H A R D L Y P 0 S 8 I B L E T O D I S P U T E T H A T T H E P A R T Y O F T H E R E V O L U T I O N A R Y P R O L E T A R I A T O F R U 8 8 I A , T H E P A R T Y W H I C H U S E S T H E G R E A T R U 8 8 1 A N L A N G U A G E , 59 1 3 O B L I G E D T O R E C O G N I S E T H E R l O H T T O S E C E D E . WHEN W E W I N P O W E R , W E S M A L L I M M E D I A T E L Y A N O U N C O N D I T I O N A L L Y R E O O G N I 8 K T H E R I G H T F O R F I N L A N O , T H E U K R A I N E , A R M E N I A A N D A N Y O T H E R N A T I O N A L I T Y O P P R E S S E D B V T B A R I S M . . . . ON T H E O T H E R H A N D , W E O O N O T A T A L L F A V O U R S E C E S S I O N . 9 2 W I T H I N A F E W W E E K S L E N I N ' S N A T I O N A L I T Y T H E O R Y W A S T O B E T E S T E D I N A R E A L P O L I T I C A L S I T U A T I O N . S O O N A F T E R T H E A S S U M P T I O N O F P O L I T I C A L P O W E R B Y T H E B O L S H E V I K S A D E C R E E O N T H E " R L G H T S O F T H E P E O P L E 8 O F R U S S I A T O S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N * * W A S P U B L I S H E D . T H E F O U R P O I N T S O F T H E O E O R E E P R O C L A I M E D T H E E Q U A L I T Y O F T H E P E O P L E S O F R U S S I A , A B O L I T I O N O F A L L P R I V I L E G E S F O U N O E O O N N A T I O N A L I T Y O R R E L I G I O N , F R E E D E V E L O P M E N T O F N A T I O N A L I T I E S W I T H I N R U S S L A A N D W T H E R I G H T T O F R E E S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F P E 0 P L E 8 E V E N T O T H E P O I N T O P " S E P A R A T I N G A N O F O R M -I N G I N D E P E N D E N T 8TATE8."83 | T W A S S I G N E D B Y L E N I N A N O S T A L I W . T M I 8 D E C L A R A T I O N , A 8 I T S O O N B E C A M E 0 B V I 0 U 8 , W A S N O T T O A P P L Y T O T H E U K R A I N E . S K R V P N I K R E M A R K E D T H A T " F O R T H E M A J O R I T Y O F O U R P A R T Y M E M B E R S T H E U K R A I N E A S A N A T I O N A L U N I T D I D N O T E X I S T . T H E R E W A S / P N L V / L I T T L E R U S S I A , A M I N 8 E P E R A B L E P A R T O F O N E U N B R E A K A B L E R U S S L A . . » , " ^ H E C O N T I N U E D , A N D L E N I N I M M E D I A T E L Y S E T O U T T O 8 U 8 8 T A N T I A T E T H 1 8 O B S E R V A T I O N . A D I A L E C T I C A L T R A N S -F O R M A T I O N H A O O C C U R E O I N L E N I N ' S A P P R O A C H T O T H E U K R A I N I A N Q U E 8 T I O N , U N D E C E M B E R 5» 1917 H E D E C L A R E D T H A T T H E P A R T Y W A S C O G N I Z A N T O F A N A T I O N A L M O V E M E N T I N T H E U K R A I N E A N D T H A T T H E P A R T Y S T O O D " U N C O N D I T I O N A L L Y F O R T H E U K R A I N I A N P E O P L E ' S O O M P L E T E A N D U N L I M I T E D F R E E D O M . " ^ 5 B U T H E T H E N A P P E N D E D T H E C O N D I T I O N S W H I C H W O U L D P R E C L U D E T H E P E A C E F U L F O R M A T I O N O F A N I N D E P E N D E N T U K R A I N I A N S T A T E A N D W H I C H W O U L D J U S T I F Y B O L S H E V I K A N D R U S S I A N M I L I T A R Y I M T C R -V E N T I O N I N U K R A I N I A N A F F A I R S ? WE A R E G O I N G T O T E L L T H E U K R A I N I A N S T H A T A S U K R A I N I A N S , T H E Y C A N G O A H E A D A N O A R R A N G E T H E I R L I F E A 8 T H E Y S E E F T T O B U T W E A R E G O I N G T O S T R E -T C H O U T A F R A T E R N A L H A N D T O T H E U K R A I N I A N W O R K E R S A N D T E L L T H E M T H A T 10-60 G E T H E R W I T H T H E M W E A R E G O I N G T O T I G H T A G A I N 8 T T H E I R B O U R G E O I 8 1 E A N D O U R 8 0 O N L Y A S O C I A L I S T A L L I A N C E O F T H E W O R K I N G P E O P L E O F A L L C O U N T R I E S C A N R E -M O V E A L L G R O U N D F O R N A T I O N A L P E R S E C U T I O N A N O S T R I F E . 8 6 T H U S L E N I N W A S S U B T L Y R E S T R I C T I N G T H E R I G H T O F S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N T O T H E U K R A I N I A N W O R K E R S W H O , B Y D E F I N I T I O N , C O U L D N O T B U T W I S H F O R A C L O S E R U N I T Y W I T H R U 8 8 L A . I T B E C A M E M A N I F E 8 T T H A T T H E 8 E C E 8 8 I O N O F T H E U K R A I N E W O U L O N O T B E T O L E R A T E D 9 L E N I N , H O W E V E R , L E F T T H E T A S K O F E X P L I C I T L Y C I R C U M S C R I B I N G T H E M E A N -I N G O F T H E R I G H T T O S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N T O S T A L I N . T H I S W A S A T A S K F O R W H I C H T H E C 0 M M I 8 8 A R O F N A T I O N A L I T I E 8 W A 8 W E L L — S U I T E D « I N A 8 P E E C H A T T H E T H I R D A L L - R U S 8 I A N C 0 N G R E 8 8 O F S 0 V I E T 8 O N J A N U A R Y 1 5 S 1 9 1 8 S T A L I N D E M O N S T R A T E D H O W T H E P R I N C I P L E O F S E L F — O E T E R M I N A T I O N W A S B E I N G E X P L O I T E D A N O P E R V E R T E D 8 Y T H E U K R A I N I A N R A O A A N D T H E " B O U R G E O I S C H A U V I N I S T " E L E M E N T S I N T H E U K R A I N E 0 ^ 7 B E -C A U S E O F T H I S , H E S A I O , I T W A 8 N E C E 8 S A R Y T O I N T E R P R E T " T H E P R I N C I P L E O F S E L F -D E T E R M I N A T I O N A S T H E R I G H T T O S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N N O T O F T H E B O U R G E O I S I E , B U T O F THE L A B O U R I N G M A 8 8 E 8 O F T H E G I V E N N A T I O N . " 8 8 TH18 NEW F O R M U L A O F S T A L I N 8 8 H A D F I R S T B E E N P R O P O U N D E D O N D E C E M B E R 12, 1 9 1 7 I N C O N N E C T I O N W I T H T H E U K R A I N -I A N Q U E 8 T I 0 N A N O P L P E S 8 T A T E 8 O U T R I G H T T H A T b 8 U 0 H A N I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F T H E P R I N C I P L E O F N A T I O N A L - D E T E R M I N A T I O N H A D N O T H I N G I N C O M M O N H I T H L E N I N ' S V I E W S . " 8 9 T H I 8 S T A T E M E N T , H O W E V E R , C A N B E D I S P U T E D . W H I L E I T I S T R U E T H A T L E N I N W A S A D A M A N T T H A T T H E P A R T Y P R O G R A M " M U S T N O T 8 P E A K O F T H E S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F T H E W O R K I N G P E O P L E , " H E W A 8 E Q U A L L Y A O A M A N T T H A T T H E P R O G R A M W M U 8 T 8 P E A K O F W H A T A C T U A L L Y E X L S T S O " ^ 0 H E H A D A L ° W A Y 8 I N S 1 8 T E D , A N O H E R E P E A T E D I T I N H I S D R A F T P R O G R A M F O R T H E E L G H T H C O N G -R E S S O F T H E R. C. P. (B^, T H A T O N T H E Q U E 8 T I O N O F W H O E X P R E 8 8 E 8 T H E W I L L O F T H E N A T I O N O N T H E M A T -T E R O F 8 E C E 8 8 I 0 N , T H E R. C. P. U P H O L D 8 T H E H I S T O R I C A L C L A S S V I E W A N O T A K E 8 I N T O C O N S I D E R A T I O N T H E L E V E L O F H I S T O R I C A L D E V E L O P M E N T O F T H E N A -T I O N C O N C E R N E D — O N T H E W A Y F R O M T H E M L D O L E A G E 8 T O B O U R G E O 1 8 D E M O C R A C Y , O R F R O M B O U R G E O I S T O S O V I E T O R P R O L E T A R I A N D E M O C R A C Y , E T C . 9 1 I N H I 8 P O L E M I C W I T H P L A T A K O V I N 1 9 1 6 L E N I N 8 T R E S 8 E 0 T H A T W I T 1 8 N O T E V E R Y 61 S T R U G G L E A G A I N S T I M P E R I A L I S M T H A T W E S H O U L D S U P P O R T © WE W I L L N O T S U P P O R T A S T R U G G L E O P T H E R E A C T I O N A R Y C L A 8 8 E 8 A G A I N S T I M P E R I A L I S M ; W E W I L L N O T S U P P O R T A N U P R I S I N G O P T H E R E A C T I O N A R Y C L A 3 S E 8 A G A I N S T I M P E R I A L I S M A N O C A P I T A L 1 8 M . " 9 2 S I N C E L E N I N H A D D E C L A R E D T H A T T H E U K R A I N E W A S I N T H E C A P I T A L I S T P E -R I O D O F D E V E L O P M E N T A N D S I N C E H E H A O L I M I T E D T H E S U P P O R T 8 0 C I A L I S T 8 C O U L D G I V E T O " R E A C T I O N A R Y " C L A S S E S I N T H E I R S T R U G G L E S W I T H I M P E R I A L I S M A N D C A P I -T A L I S M , T O S A Y N O T H I N G O F S O C I A L I S M , I T 18 E V I D E N T T H A T H E H A O I M P L I C I T L Y C R E A T E D A T H E O R Y T O P R O V I D E S U P P O R T O N L Y F O R T H E P R O L E T A R I A T . . W L T H R E G A R O T O T H E U K R A I N E , H O W E V E R , T H I S B E O O M E S C L E A R E R B E C A U S E O F L E N I N ' S D E F I N I T I O N O F " W H A T A C T U A L L Y E X I 8 T 8 " . A C C O R D I N G T O T M 1 8 " H I S T O R I C A L 0 L A 8 8 V I E W " T H E R I G H T T O S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N H A O T O B E L I M I T E O T O T H E P R O L E T A R I A T B E C A U 8 E I T W A 8 C L A I M E D T H A T T H E U K R A I N E H A O E X P E R I E N C E D C A P I T A L 1 8 M A N O B O U R G E O I S D E -M O C R A C Y A N O T H E R E F O R E A L L O T H E R C L A 8 8 E 8 W E R E R E A C T I O N A R Y , , H O W E V E R , T H I S A T -T E M P T T O P R O V E T H A T L E N I N H A O E F F E C T I V E L Y L I M I T E D T H E E X E R C I 8 E O F T H E R I G H T T O S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N T O T H E W O R K I N G C L A S S I N G E N E R A L A N D T H E U K R A I N E I N P A R -T I C U L A R I S H A R D L Y N E C E 8 S A R Y 8 I N C E H E H A O W R I T T E N A 8 E A R L Y A S 1903 T H A T " W E . . . C O N C E R N 0 U R 8 E L V E 8 W I T H T H E 8 E L F — O E T E R M I N A T I O N O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T I N E A C H N A T I O N A L I T Y R A T H E R T H A N W I T H S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F P E 0 P L E 8 O R N A T I O N S . " 9 3 T H U S , S T A L I N ' S P R O N O U N C E M E N T S C O U L D N O T H A V E B E E N F U N D A M E N T A L L Y D I F F E R E N T F R O M T H E V I E W S T O W H I C H L E N I N A C T U A L L Y S U B S C R I B E D , A L T H O U G H T A C T I O A L L Y T H E T W O W E R E A T V A R I A N O E . L E N I N , F O R P R O P A G A N D A P U R P 0 8 E 8 , P R E F E R R E D T O R E T A I N T H E S L O G A N O F T H E R I G H T T O S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F N A T I O N S W I T H A 8 F E W E X P L I C I T Q U A L I F I C A T I O N S A S W A 8 P R A C T I C A B L E . H O W E V E R , I T S H O U L D N O T B E F O R G O T T E N T H A T H E R E 8 0 L U T E L Y 8 E L I E V E D T H A T " F O R T H E C L A S 8 — C 0 N 8 0 I 0 U 8 W O R K E R S E V E R Y D E M O C R A T I C D E M A N D ( I N C L U D I N G S E L F — D E T E R M I N A T I O N ) I S S U B O R D I N A T E D T O T H E 8 U P R E M E I N T E R -E S T S O F S O C I A L I S M * ^ A N D W I T H R E S P E C T T O T H E U K R A I N E H E N O T E D T H A T T H E R E 18 N O T A S I N G L E M A R X I 8 T W H O W H I L E A O H E R I N G T O T H E F O U N D A T I O N S O F M A R X 1 8 M A N D 8 0 C I A L I 8 M , W O U L D N O T 8 A Y T H A T T H E I N T E R E 8 T 8 O F 8 0 C I A L I 8 M A R E 62 A B O V E T H E R I G H T O F N A T I O N S T O S E L F - O E T E R M I N A T I O N „ O U R S O C I A L I S T RE-P U B L I C H A 8 O O N E A N O 1 8 D O I N G E V E R Y T H I N G P 0 8 8 I B L E T O G I V E R E A L S E L F -D E T E R M I N A T I O N T O F | N L A N O , T H E U K R A I N E , E T C O " 9 5 B Y J A N U A R Y 1 9 1 8 L E N I N H A D D E F I N I T E L Y D E C I D E D T H A T S E L F - D E T E R M I N A -T I O N W A S P 0 S 8 I B L E O N L Y F O R T H E P R O L E T A R I A T . H E M A D E T H I S Q U I T E E V I O E N T B Y P R O C L A I M I N G T H A T T H E P A R T Y W H A O N O T P L A N N E D T O A T T R A C T O T H E R N A T 1 0 N 8 — T H E U K R A I N E O R F I N L A N D — B Y F O R C E O R I M P O S I T I O N B U T B Y A L L O W I N G T H E M T O S E T U P T H E I R O W N S O C I A L I S T 8 Y 8 T E M , T H E I R O W N S O V I E T R E P U B L I C 8 O w96 J \ J 0 0 N Z B U T T H E P R O L E T A R I A T C O U L O E S T A B L I S H A S O V I E T R E P U B L I C A N O S O C I A L I S T S Y S T E M . O N C E L E N I N H A D R E S O L V E D T H I S P R O B L E M H E B E C A M E M O R E G E N E R O U S A S T O T H E F O R M S A F U T U R E U K R A I N I A N S T A T E M I G H T T A K E A N D O F I T S R E L A T I O N S W I T H S O V I E T R U S S I A . H E 0 B 8 E R V E 0 T H A T T H E Q U E 8 T I O N O F W H E T H E R T H E U K R A I N E W O U L O B E A S E P A R A T E 8 T A T E W A S O F R E L A T I V E L Y L I T T L E I M P O R T A N C E A N O N O T E D T H A T T H E B O L S H E V I K S M U S T N O T B E I N T H E L C A 8 T S U R P R I S E D , , O R F R I G H T E N E D , E V E N B Y T H E P R O S -P E C T O F T H E U K R A I N I A N W O R K E R S A N D P E A S A N T S T R Y I N G O U T D I F F E R E N T S Y S T E M S , A N O I N T H E C O U R S E O F , S A Y , S E V E R A L Y E A R S , T E S T I N G B Y P R A C T I S E U N I O N W I T H T H E R . S . F . S . R . , O R S E C E D I N G F R O M T H E L A T T E R A N D F O R M I N G AN I N D E -P E N D E N T U K R A I N I A N S . S . R . , O R V A R I O U S F O R M S O F T H E I R O L O S E A L L I A N C E , A N D 8 0 O N , A N O 8 0 F O R T H . 9 7 A P P A R E N T L Y T H E O N L Y R E A S O N F O R T H E P O S S I B I L I T Y O F T H I S V A C I L L A T I O N O F T H E F U T U R E U K R A I N I A N S S R O U T L I N E D B Y L E N I N W A S T H E F A O T T H A T I T H A D A N O V E R -W H E L M I N G M A J O R I T Y O F WNON«-PROLETARI A N W O R K I N G P E O P L E " , IOEO 9 P C A 8 A N T 8 , A N O H E C A U T I O N E D T H A T T H E P R O L E T A R I A T M U 8 T B E T O L E R A N T O F T H 1 8 U K R A I N I A N I N O E -C I 8 I V E N E 8 S . 9 8 A F T E R T H E D E F E A T O F O E N I K I N , L E N I N N E V E R S E R I O U S L Y D I S C U S S E D T H E P O S 8 I B I L I T Y O F T H E U K R A L N E 9 8 8 E C E 8 8 I O N F R O M T H E N E W R U S S I A . T H E U K R A I N I A N P E A 8 A N T R Y H A D B E C O M E M O R E O R L E S S N E U T R A L I Z E D A N O W E R E N O L O N G E R A S W I L L I N G T O F I G H T T H E B 0 L 8 H E V I K 8 , W H I L E T H E R U 8 8 L A N L Z E O T 0 W 9 S P R E F E R R E O T H E B O L S H E V I K 8 T O T H E U K R A I N I A N N A T I O N A L I S T S . M A Z E P A N O T E S T H A T T H E R U S S I A N S O C I A L I S T R E V -O L U T I O N A R I E S A N O T H E R U S S I A N S O C I A L D E M O C R A T S ( M E N S H E V I K S ) I N T H E U K R A I N E W O U L D R A T H E R A L L Y T H E M S E L V E S W I T H T H E B 0 L 8 H E V I K 8 O R E V E N T H E R E A C T I O N A R Y 63 WHITES THAN THE UKRAINIAN SEPARATISTS.99 LENIN WAS UNDOUBTEDLY AWARE OF THIS. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE RSFSR ANO THE UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT ALSO UNDER-WENT FUNDAMENTAL POLITICAL CHANGES. RAK0V8KY 8TATEO IN 1920 THAT THE BOR-DERS BETWEEN THE TWO 80CIALIST REPUBLICS WERE NO LONGER OF A POLITICAL CHAR-ACTER BUT HAD BEEN TRANSFORMED INTO 8IMPLE ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES.^ 00 Z lNOV lEV ALSO SPOKE OF THE RELATI0N8 BETWEEN THE RSFSR ANO THE REPUBLIC8. RU88IANS WERE NO LONGER EXPLOITING THE PE0PLE8 OF THE FORMER Ru88I AN EMPIRE, HE SAID, "BUT WE CAN NOT OO WITHOUT THE PETROLEUM OF AZERBAIJAN OR THE COT-TON OF TURKESTAN. WE TAKE THESE PRODUCTS WHIOH ARE NECESSARY FOR US, NOT A8 THE FORMER EXPLOITERS BUT A8 OLDER BROTHERS 8EARING THE TORCH OF C I V I L l Z -ATiON."101 ALTHOUGH THE UKRAINIAN SSR WAS NOT EXPLICITLY INCLUDED IN THIS KlPLINSESQUE STATEMENT, PERHAP8 BECAUSE IT MAY HAVE OFFENDEO THE MORE POLITI-CALLY DEVELOPED UKRAINIANS, IT NEVERTHELESS APPLIED TO THE UKRAINE AS WELL. LENIN NOW TENDED TO VIEW THE UKRAINE AS A REGION OF RUSSIA IN WHICH THE PR0GRE88 OF THE REVOLUTION WA8 NOT FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT FROM THAT OF CENTRAL RUSSIA. IN MARCH 1921 HE REMARKED THAT "EVENTS RAN THE SAME COURSE, WITH SOME MODIFICATIONS, IN THE UKRAINE, THE DON AND THE KUBAN REGIONS, AND THE RESULT WAS EXACTLY THE SAME."102 HE NEGLECTED TO MENTION AT TH18 TIME, HOWEVER, THAT THE PROLETARIAN REVOLUTION WAS BROUGHT TO THE UKRAINE 8Y RUS-SIAN 80LOIER8, ALTHOUGH HE HAD AOMITTEO TH18 PREVIOUSLY. IN FACT IT WAS THIS BRINGING OF THE RU881 AN REVOLUTION TO THC UKRAINIANS AND OTHER NATIONALITIES BY THE RU88IAN ARMY WHICH WA8 AT FIR8T A TACTICAL NECE8SI TV FROM THE BOLSHE-VIK POINT OF VIEW THAT WAS NOW RAI8EO TO THE LEVEL OF PARTY POLICY. LENIN, IN THE SUMMER OF 1920, BEGAN TO ARGUE THAT IT IS UNQUESTIONABLE THAT THE PROLETARIAT OF THE ADVANCED COUNTRIE8 CAN ANO 8HOULO GIVE HELP TO THE WORKING MA88E8 OF THE BACKWARD COUNTRIES, ANO THAT THE 8ACKWAR0 COUNTRIES CAN EMERGE FROM THEIR PRESENT STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT WHEN THE VICTORIOUS PROLETARIAT OF THE SOVIET REPUBLIC8 EX-TENDS A HELPING HAND TO THE8E MA8SE8 AND 18 IN A P081TI ON TO GIVE THEM SUPPORT.103 64 WITH SOVIET AOO I T WOULD "BE M I S T A K E N TO ASSUME THAT THE BACKWARD PEOPLES MUST I N E V I T A B L Y 6 0 THROUGH THE C A P I T A L I S T STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT," L E N I N ANNOUNCED.104 T H J 8 ARGUMENT AOROITLV 8 I L E N O E O ORIT108 WHO MA INTAINED THAT THE UKRAINE WAS NOT VET READV FOR P R O L E T A R I A N R U L E . WITH B O L S H E V I K H E L P THE UKRAINE wouLO NOT HAVE TO GO THROUGH THE NORMAL PERIOD OF P A P I T A L I S T DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD HAVE INCLUDED THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL 8TATEO ALTHOUGH L E N I N HAD CLACMED THE UKRAINE WAS I N THE C A P I T A L I S T STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT, H I S NEW FORMULATION E F F E C T I V E L Y PARRIED THE 0HARGS OF SOME C R I T I 0 8 THAT T H I S WA8 M A N I F E S T L Y NOT 8 0 . AOOOROING TO T H I S NOVEL FORMU-L A T I O N HE WAS RIGHT I N E I T H E R OASSO THUS THE QUESTION OF THE R I G H T OF S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N FOR THE UKRAINE LOST PROMINENCE BECAUSE ANY N A T I O N A L I S T M A N I F E S T A T I O N BY DBF I N I T I ON OOULO ONLY BC REACTIONARY AND THE RESULT OF BOURGEOIS ANO I M P E R I A L I S T MACHINAT10N8» TH18 HAD NOT ALWAY8 BEEN 8 0 . "THE F A C T THAT THE STRUGGLE FOR NATIONAL L I B E R A T I O N A 0 A I N 8 T ONE I M P E R I A L I S T POWER MAY, UNDER OCRTAIN O O N OITI0N8,* L C N I N 0 B 8 E R V E 0 IN 19l6 9 BC U T I L I S E D SY ANOTHER " G R E A T W POWER FOR ITS OWN, EQUALLY I M P E R I A L I S T A I M S , I S J U S T A8 U N L I K E L Y TO MAKE THE SOOIAL-DEMOCRATS REFU8E TO RECOGNISE THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO 8ELF-OETCRMI NATI ON AS THE NUMERQU8 CA8C8 OF BOURGEOIS U T I L I S A T I O N OF R E P U B L I C A N SLOGANS FOR THE PURPOSE OF P O L I T I C A L OEOEPTION ANO F I N A N O I A L PLUNDER.•.ARE U N L I K E L Y TO MAKE THE SOCIAL-DSMOORATS REJEOT T H E I R REPUBLICANISM*'"5 T H I 8 8TATEMENT HAD B E E N CONVENIENTLY FORGOTTEN AFTER OCTOBER 1917* L E N I N ' S THEORIES ANO PROPAGANDA ON THE RIGHT TO S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N PROVED UNWORKABLE I N P R A C T I C E AND ROSA LUXEMBURG TRIUMPHANTLY, BUT PERHAPS WITH A NOTE OP SADNESS, OBSERVED THAT THE BOLSHEVIKS WERE TO BE TAUGHT TO T H E I R OWN GREAT HURT AND THAT OF THE REVOLUTION, THAT UNDER THE RULE OF C A P I T A L I 8 M THERE 98 NO S E L F - D E T E R M I N -A T I O N OF P E O P L E S , THAT I N A C L A S S S O C I E T Y EACH 0 L A 8 8 OF THE NATION S T R I V E 8 TO "DETERMINE I T S E L F * I N A O I F F E R B N T F A S H I O N , AND THAT, FOR THE BOURGEO18 C L A 8 8 C 8 , THE STANDPOINT OF NATIONAL FREEOOM I 8 F U L L Y SUBORDINATED TO THAT OF C L A 8 8 RULE* THE F I N N I S H B O U R G E O I S I E , L I K E THE U K R A I N I A N B O U R G E O I S I E , WERE UWANIM0U8 I N P R E F E R R I N G THE V I O L E N T RULE OF GERMANY TO NATIONAL FREEOOM, I F THE LATTCR SHOULD B E BOUNO UP WITH BOLSHEVI8M.106 65 A MORE O B J E C T I V E 0 8 8 E R V E R WOULD HAVE NOTED THAT S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N WAS ALSO J I M P O S S I B L E UNDER BOLSHEVISM AND FOR THE VERY SAME REASONS THAT WERE ADVANCED FOR ITS I M P R A C T I C A B I L I T Y UNDER OAPLTALLSMO AND, OF C O U R S E 9 ONE WONDERS JUST WHAT LUXEMBURG MEANT BY "NATIONAL FREEDOM*' UNDER BOLSHEVISM FOR AT T H I S TIME THERE COULD HARDLY HAVE B E E N MUCH D I F F E R E N C E BETWEEN THE UNWELCOME I M P E R I A L -I S T OR S O C I A L I S T OCCUPANTS OF U K R A I N I A N TERRITORY. THS U K R A I N I A N PEASANT Q U I T E UNMISTAKABLY O I 8 L I K E O BOTH. IF THERE S T I L L REMAINEO ANY DOUBT ABOUT THE FUTURE R E L A T I O N S OF THE BORDERLANDS WITH THE R S F S R I T WAS O E R T A I N L Y D I S P E L L E D BY S T A L I N I N H I S ART IOLE ON THE " P O L I C Y OF THE S O V I E T GOVERNMENT ON THE NATIONAL QUESTION IN R U S S I A " WHICH WAS PUBLISHCO I N OCTOBER 1920. C E N T R A L I Z A T I O N WAS NOW THE ORDER OF THE DAYS THE DEMAND FOR THE 8S0E88I0N OF THE BORDER REGIONS FROM R U S S I A AS THE FORM OF R E L A T I O N S BETWEEN THE CENTRE ANO THE BOROER R E G I O N S M U S T BE RE J E C T E D NOT ONLY BECAUSE I T RUNS COUNTER TO THE VERY FORMULATION OF THE QUESTION OF E S T A B L I S H I NO A UNION BETWEEN THE CENTRE ANO THE BOROER REGIONS .OO. THE 8E0E88I0N OF THE BORDER REGIONS WOULO UNOSRMINE THE REVOLUTIONARY MIGHT OF CENTRAL RU88IA.•..10? L E N I N Q U I T E O B V O U S L V AGREED WITH T H I S FORMULATION ANO A 8EAR0H WAS I N I T I -ATED TO F I N D NEW FORMS OF STATE UNION I N ORDER TO L E G I T I M I Z E AND R A T I O N A L I Z E THE F O R C I B L E RETENTION OF THE U K R A I N E AND OTHER R E P U B L I C S W I T H I N S O V I E T RU881A0 CHAPTER I I I . FOOTNOTES 1. I M A N A R T 8 O L E WRITTEN I M OOTOBER 1902 L E N I N ARQUSO THAT FINLAND H A D B EEN TURNCO INTO A R U S S I A N PROS'I NOB C THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL WAS G I V S N I M -MENSE POWER WHICH CONVERTED F I N L A N D "•••INTO OWE OF THOSE MUMSROUS RU881 A N P ROVINCES WHICH CN J O V NO RIGHTS AMD ARE ABUSED*" L E N I N , V I , PO25**« IN T H I S STATEMENT I S THE I M P L I C A T I O N THAT L E N I N RBOOQNIZEO OTHER N A T I O N A L I T I E 8 I N THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE* THAT L E N I N WAS INTERS©TED I N THE NATIONAL QUESTION B E -FORE THE 8E00ND 00NGRE88 OF THE P A R T V 16 EVIOSNOEO BY A QUESTIONNAIRE W H I OH HE ( J S A S A8KED TO PREPARE. T M S Q B QUESTIONS MERE TO BE ANSWERED I N THE REPORTS OF COMMITTEES AT THE CONGRESS« THERE WERE E I G H T MAJOR D I V I S I O N S I N T H E QUES-TIONNAIRE ANO THE F I F T H D I V I S I O N WAS S N T I T L Z O "ATTITU06 TOWARDS REVOLUTIONARY ( E S P E C I A L L Y SOCIAL-DEMOCRAT 10) GROUPS OF OTHER RAOSS AND N A T I O N A L I T i e s . 6 5 H i s Q U E 8 T I 0 N 8 WERE AS FOLLOWS* "ARE THERE ANY WORKERS OF OTHER NATI©MALI T I E S AND R A C E S ? WORK AMONG T H E S E ? ORGANISED OR S P O R A D I C ? IN WHAT LANGUAGES? A T T I -TUDE TOWARD SOCIAL-DCftSQORATlO GROUPS WORKINO I N SAME LOOALI TV ANO US I N G SOME OTHER LANGUAGE? A P R E C I S E AND D E T A I L E D AOOOUNT OF THESE R E L A T I O N S ARE OB-S I RABLEo ARB THERE O I F P S R E N 0 E 8 OF O P I N I O N ? Ow QUESTION OF P R I N C I P L E AS TO THE NATIONAL PROGRAMME? ON T A O T I P S ? O N O R G A N I S A T I O N ? R E L A T I O N S 0 E 8 I R A B L E FOR J O I N T WORK. P O S S I B I L I T Y OF A S I H G L E PARTY ORGAN? I S F E D E R A T I O N D E S I R -A B L E , ANO OF WHAT T Y P E ? " LENIM, V I , P.2°7» NOT ONLY WAS THE NATIONAL QUES-T I O N RECOQN I ZED SY L E N I N B U T HE WAS W I L L I N G TO S E E K O P I N I O N S ON F E D E R A T I O N T0WAR08 WHICH H E OAS STRONGLY A N T I P A T H S T I O . 2o I B I O * . V I . P.460o 3* V . V . A S P A T U R I A N , "THE THEORY AND PRAOTIOE OF S O V I S T FEDERAL t s a s 3 " JOURNAL OF P O L i T I P S X l l (FEB., 195P), 22; S E E TOWSTBR, PP.57-66, FOBI AMP» LlFlCATIOM OF THESE P O I N T S * 4. SMAHEEN, P*123I L E N I N , X X I I, PP.15?"52* L E N I N O I V I D E O COUNTRIES I N -TO THREE MAIN TYPES* FiRST THERE WERE THE ADVANCED C A P I T A L I S T COUNTRIES OF WESTERN EUROPE ANO THE UNITED STATES I N WHIOH THE PROGRESSIVE BOURGEOIS MOVEMENTS HAO B E E N COMPLETSO ANO O P P R E S S I O N OF OTHER NATIONS WAS BEGUN. E A S -TERN EUROPE ( R U S S I A I N P A R T I C U L A R ) PROVIDBO MOST MEMBERS FOR THE SBOOND T Y P E . HERE THE BOURGBOIS-OEMOORATIO MOVEMENTS WERE I N T E N S I F Y I N G THE NATIONAL STRUG-GLE A N D THE TASKS OF T H E P R O L E T A R I A T I N THESE COUNTRIES, ©HICM © E R E T H E COM" P L E T I O N OF BOURGEOI8—DEMOCRATI0 REFORMS ANO THE RENDERING OF A D D TO T H E SOC-I A L I S T REVOLUTION I N OTHER C O U N T R I E S , OOULO NOT BE P R O P E R L Y S X S O U T S 0 W I T H -OUT CHAMPIONING THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SELF-DETERS*I N A T i O N * S S M I - O O L O N I I A L COUNTRIES COMPOSED THE THIRD T Y P E * HERE THE BOURGEOIS-DEMOCRAT10 REVOLUTION HAO ONLY BEGUN AND THE TASK OF 8 0 0 1 A L I S T S WAS TO DEMANO THE IMMEDIATE L I B E R A -T I O N OF THESE P O L O N I E S WITHOUT COMPENSATION AND TO SUPPORT THE *%!)ORE RBVOLU°> TIONARV E L E M E N T S " I N THE BOURGEOIS DEMOCRAT 10 MOVEMENTS FOR NATIONAL L I ISCR™ A T I O N , I . E . , NATIONAL S E L F — O B T B R M I N A T I ON* 5* Lbwj PP*39«40J L E H I M , X X I X , P*248J |aip.. XXI I. p8r^6, - • •' 6V SEE Low, PP.35-43O • 7* S E E THE 01 souse sow >M J j p j g , * , PP*MJ-46, 79» - ^ 67 8» L E N I N , X I X , P.243. HE THEN STATEO THAT " T H I S A R T I C L E IN THE SOCIAL-DEMOCRATIC PROGRAMME IS ABSOLUTELY E S S E N T I A L TO THE S O C I A L DEMOCRATS OF R U S S I A . " 9. I B I O . . X X M , P.146J ALSO S E E I B I D . . X I X P P . 243-44.T 542s I B I D . . XX, p. 451. 10. IBIQO. X X I I , p. 146. FOR ELABORATION S E E E S P E C I A L L Y IBIO.« X X I I , p. 339. . 1.1. JLfjD.., X I X , P. 501. 12. I B I D . . X I X . P. SOI. 13c OUR iNG AP R I L - M A Y , 1917 L E N I N , I N H I S A R T I C L E 'MATERIALS R E L A T I N G TO THE R E V I S I O N OF THE PARTY PROGRAMME", DROPPED "TMS RIGHT O F ' S E L F -OETERMINATION FOR A L L MEMBER N A T I 0 N 8 OF THE S T A T E * (PARAGRAPH 9,) FROM THE PROGRAMME AND REPLACED IT WITH "THE RIGHT OF A L L MEMBER NATIONS OF THE STATE TO F R E E L Y SECEDE ANO FORM INDEPENDENT S T A T E S . " I B I D . . X X I V , P . 472. A L S O 8 E E ROUCEK, P P . 45-58 AND COMMITTEE ON UN-AMCRIOAN A C T I V I T I E S , FAOT8 ON COMMUNISM, P. 110. IT I S I N T E R E S T I N G TO NOTE, HOWEVER, THAT L E N I N IN A SPEECH TO THE SECOND CONGRESS OF S O V I E T S ON THE VERY DAY OF THE COUP D'ETAT SPOKE OF "THE GENUINE RIGHT TO SELF—OETERMI NATI ON" RATHER THAN THE R4GHT TO S E C E S S I O N . L E N I N , X X V I , P. 247. SgE I B I D . . X X V I . P P . 175**76• 14. SEE L E N I N , XX, p. 4-52. 15. Mv EMPHASIS.-16. L E N I N , X I X , P. 244; SEE Y. BOVKO, "RUSSIAN H I S T O R I O T R A D I T I O N S I N THE B O L S H E V I S T SOLUTIONS OF THE N A T I O N A L I T Y PROBLEM", I N Y. BOYKO, E T . A L , Eos.. RUSSIAN BOLSHEVISM (MUNICH: BONG, N . O . ) , P P . 91-92. L E N I N HAO FORMU-LATED T H I S VIEW BEFORE THE SECOND CONGRESS OF THE R.S.D.L.P. WHEN HE WROTE THAT "THE DEMAND FOR RECOGNITLON OF EVERY N A T I O N A L I T Y ' S RIGHT TO S E L F — DETERMINATION S I M P L Y I M P L I E S THAT WE, THE PARTY OF THE P R O L E T A R I A T , MUST ALWAYS ANO UNCONDITIONALLY OPPOSE ANY ATTEMPT TO INFLUENCE NATIONAL S E L F — DETERMINATION FROM WITHOUT BY V I O L E N C E OR I N J U 8 T I O E . " L C N I N , V I , P. 329. 7 A L S O S E E I B I D . . P. 454. 17. ROSA LUXEMBURG WAS AN E S P E C I A L L Y HARSH C R I T I O OF L E N I N ' S APPROACH TO THE N A T I O N A L I T Y PROBLEM. SHE WROTE THAT "THE FORMULA OF THE RIGHT OF V A R I 0 U 8 N A T I O N A L I T I E S OF THE R U S S I A N EMPI RE TO DETERMINE THEIR F A T E INDEPENDENTLY 'EVEN TO THE P O I N T OF THE RIGHT OF GOVERNMENTAL S E P A R A T I O N FROM R U S S I A , * WAS PROCLAIMEO A G A I N WITH DOCTRINAIRE OBSTINACY AS A S P E C I A L B A T T L E ORY OF L E N I N ' S . . . . " R. LUXEMBURG, P. 47. 18. L E N I N , XXI I , P. 154. 1'9o I B I D . . XXVI« p. 176 C F . , I B I D . , X X I I , p, 150. SEE THE FOLLOWING FOR D I 8 C U 8 8 I 0 N OF L E N I N ' S REBUTTAL TO THE CHARGE THAT H I S SLOGAN THREATENED THE 0I8MEMBERMENT OF THE R U S S I A N E M P I R E S P lPES, THE FORMATION.... PP.43-45? SHAHEEN, P P . 104-05} Low, P P . 84-86. 20. FOR SEVERAL EXAMPLES OF L E N I N ' S USE OF T H I S STATEMENT, S E E L E N I N , XX, P. 440? laj&., X X I , P. 104; I B I D . . X X I I , P P . 149, 341, 3**3. 21. I B I D . , V I , P P . 461-62. He CONTINUED! "'WE' THE P R O L E T A R I A T , HAVE S E E N D0ZEN8 OF TIMES HOW THE B 0 U R G E 0 I 8 I E BETRAYS THE INTERESTS OF F R E E -DOM, MOTHERLAND 9 LANGUAGE, AND N A T I O N , WHEN I T 18 CONFRONTED WITH THE REVOLU— 68 TIONARY PROLETARIAT," IN H|8 ART I OLE ON THE *T^AN|FE8T0 OF THE ARMENIAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRATS" LENIN STATEO IN NO UNCERTAIN TERMS THAT "WE ON OUR PART CONCERN 0UR8ELVE8 WITH THE SELF-DETERMINATION OF THE PROLETARIAT IN EACH NATIONALITY RATHER THAN WITH SELF-DETERMINATION OF PEOPLES OR NAT I0N8," I 8 IO a , V I , P. 329. . 22. IBID.. XX, p..428. 23. J , V. STALIN, COLLECTED WORKS, VOL. IV (Mosoow: FOREIGN LANG-UAGES PUBLISHING HOUSE, 1953)* P.33. SEE LOW, PP. 131-32. 24. BUKHARIN AND PREOBRAZHENSKY, P. 204. FOR THE BUKHARIN-PIATA-KOV THE8I3 ON THE RIGHT OF NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION 8EE O.H. GANKIN AND H.H. FISHER, THE BOLSHEVIKS AND THE WORLD WAR. THE HOOVER LIBRARY ON WAR, REVOLUTION, AND PEACE. PUBLICATION NO. 15 (STANFORD: STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRES8, 1940), PP. 219-21. AL80 8EE V. DOMANYOKYJ. "THE NATIONAL PROBLEM ANO WORLO WAR I , " UKRAINIAN QUARTERLY. X I I (DEC,, 1956), 310. 25. LENIN, X X I X , PP. 173-74. 26. SEE IBID.. XX, p. 435. 27. FOR A DISCUSSION OF THIS QUESTION SEE A . G . MEYER, LENINISM (NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 1962), PP. 151-52? Low, p. 104; PIPES, THE FORMATION.... PP. 110-11? CIUCIURA, PP. 30-31. 28. LENIN, X X X I , P. 145; SEE SULLIVANT, PP. 13-14 FOR STALIN'S AP-PROACH TO THI8 QUESTION. 29. IBID. X I X , p. 244. 30. IBID. . X I X , p. 429. THIS APPROACH OF LENIN'S WAS BEING FORMU-LATED AS EARLY A8 1903* SEE IBID.. V I , P. 455» 31« IB IP.. X X I I , P."341; 8EE TOWSTER, PP. 60-61 FOR H|8 INTERPRETA-TION OF TH18 QUALIFICATION; ALSO SEE LENIN, X X I I , PP. 349-50, WHERE HE USES POLAND AS AN EXAMPLE. 32. IBIO.. XXIV, PP. 302-03. 33. IBID.. X I X , p. 543. 34. IBIO.. X I X , P. 542, FOR A DISCUSSION OF THIS POINT SEE LOW, PP. 96-97* AND CIUCIURA, P. 38. 35« LENIN, X I X , P. 244. 36. IBIO.. X X V I , P. 349. 37- SEE LOW, PP. 100-01. 38. LENIN, X X I I , p. 324. 39. IBID.. X X I I , PP. 147-48. 40. IBID.. XXI I , p. 154. LENIN HAD EXPRESSED AN IDENTICAL VIEW ONE YEAR EARLIER. THEN HE WROTE THAT "THE 80CIALI8T8 OF THE 0PPRE88ED NATIONS MUST UNFAILINGLY FIGHT FOR COMPLETE UNITY OF THE W0RKER8 OF THE 0PPRE88E0 AND 0PPRE880R NATIONALITIES (THIS INCLUDING ORGANISATIONAL UNITY)." IBID. . X X I , p. 316. ALSO SEE IBID.. X X I I , PP. 155-56; MEYER, PP. 152-54; LOW, PP. 16-19. 69 41. IBIO.. XX I I, P. 15^ > LENIN WAS PRECISE IN ENUMERATING THE NA-TIONS OPPRESSED BV RUSSIA IN 1916. "ALL THOSE WHO DO NOT WANT TO BACK THE FREEDOM OF NATIONS, THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SELF-DETERMINATION, HYPQQRITI —  PALLY . . . , " HE AOMON18HE0, WMU8T OPPOSE THE WAR OVER THE OPPRESSION OF PO-LAND J THEY MUST STAND FOR THE RIGHT OF THE NATIONS RUSSLA IS NOW OPPRESSING, NAMELY, THE UKRAINE, FINLAND, ETC., TO SEOEOE FROM RUSSIA.M IBIO.. XXI I, p.140. 42. IBIO.« XXIX, p. 193. LENIN WAS SPEAKING AT THE EIGHTH CONGRESS OF THE R . C . P . ( B ) . 43. IBIO.. XXXIII, p. 149. 44. IBIO.. V, p. 375* LENIN HAD REACHED THIS CONCLUSION BY 1901-02. AT THAT TIME IN WHAT IS TO BE DONE? HE WROTE THAT "THE HISTORY OF ALL COUN-TRIES 8H0W8 THAT THE WORKING CLA88, EXCLUSIVELY BY IT8 OWN EFFORT, 18 ABLE TO OEVELOP ONLY TRAOE—UN I ON C0N8C10U8NE88 IBID.. P. 375» 45. IBID.. XX, P. 19. 46. IBID.. XIX, p. 527. 47. IBID.. VI, PP. 455-56. 48. IBIO.. XIX, p. 244. 49. IBID., P. 92. 50. LENIN THOUGHT THIS TO BE ONE OF THE MOST SALIENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE WORKERS OF THE OPPRE88OR NATION AND TH08E OF THE 0PPRE8SEDI "18 THE ACTUAL CONDITION OF THE WORKER8 IN THE 0PPRE880R ANO THE OP-PRESSED NATIONS THE 8AME, FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE NATIONAL QUEST I ON7 NO, IT 18 NOT THE SAME. (1) ECONOMICALLY, THE DIFFERENCE IS THAT SECTIONS OF THE WORKING CLA8S IN THE 0PPRE880R NATIONS REOEIVE CRUMB8 FROM THE 8UPERPR0FIT8 THE BOURGEO181E OF THE8E NAT 10N8 OBTAIN BY EXTRA EXPLOITATION OF THE WORKERS OF THE 0PRE3SE0 NAT 10N8. 8S8|0E8, ECONOMIC 8TATI8TIC8 SHOW THAT HERE A LARGER PERCENTAGE OF THE WORKERS BECOME °8TRAW BOSSES* THAN IS THE CASE IN THE OP-PRESSED NATIONS, A LARGER PERCENTAGE RISE TO THE LABOUR AR18 TOCRACY. THAT 18 A FACT. TO A CERTAIN DEGREE THE W0RKER8 OF THE OPPRE880R NAT I0N8 ARE PARTNER8 OF THEIR OWN BOURGEO18 IE IN PLUNDERING THE W0RKER8 (ANO THE MAS3 OF THE POPULATION) OF THE 0PPRE8SED NAT I0N8• (2) POLITIPALLY. THE DIFFERENCE IS THAT, COMPARED WITH THE WORKERS OF THE 0PPRE88ED NATIONS, THEY OCOUPY A PRIVILEGED POSITION IN MANY 8PHERE8 OF POL ITICAL LIFE. (3) LOEOLOGICALLV. OR SPIRITUALLY, THE DIFFERENCE 18 THAT THEY ARE TAUGHT, AT 8CH00L ANO IN LIFE, DISDAIN AND CONTEMPT FOR THE WORKERS OF THE 0PPRE88ED NATIONS." LENIN, XXIII , PP. 55~56. THUS LENIN ADMITTED THAT THE RUSSIAN MASSES WERE IN A SUPERIOR PO-SITION ECONOMICALLY, POLITICALLY AND IDEOLOGICALLY VIS-A-V18 THE UKRAINIAN MAS8E8. WHY THEY SHOULO OR WOULD WILLINGLY 8URRENOER THIS DOMINANCE 18 NOT SATISFACTORILY EXPLAINED BY LENIN OTHER THAN WITHIN THE MARXI8T ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK. 51. SEE CIUCIURA, P. 12. 70 5 2 . SEE ESPECIALLY BORYS, PP. 8 2 - 8 3 . HE NOTES THAT THERE WERE 44 0EPUTIE8 IN THE F lRST OAMA ELECTEO BY THE RuS8IAN-UKRAINI AN JEWISH 8L0C ANO THAT DURING THE DttMA SE88I0N8 OF 1914 AT LEA8T 25 DEPUTIES TOOK PART IN THE 0E8ATE ON THE UKRAINIAN QUESTION. ALSO 8EE RE8HETAR, "LENIN ON THE UKRAINE," pp. 4 - 7 ; DMYTRVSHYN, PP. 1 9 - 2 0 . 53» LENIN, X I X , P. 110 . SEE RESHETAR, "LENIN ON THE UKRAINE," PP. 9 - 1 0 . 5 4 . IBID., P. 110. 5 5 « IBID.. XX, P. 4 1 3 . SEE M. STAKHIW*. ZVIDKY VZIALASIA SOVETS'KA  VLADA v UKRAINI (NEW YORK, DETROIT, SCRANTONS NARODNOI VOLI, 1955 ) * P.84. 5 6 . LENIN, XX, P. 4 2 2 . ALSO SEE IBIO.. X X I 1 1 , p. 7 2 . 5 7 . IBID.. XX, P. 4 2 3 . EMPHASIS SUPPLIED. 5 8 . IBID.. P. 4 2 3 . 59* LENIN, X X I , p. 3 0 6 . LENIN ADDED THAT "GREAT RUSSIANS CONSTI-TUTE ONLY 43 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION, I.E., LESS THAN HALF; THE N0N-RU8-SIAN8 ARE DEN I ED ALL RIGHTS. OF THE 1?0 MILLION INHABITANTS OF RUSSIA, ABOUT  100 MILLI ON ARE 0PPRE88E0 AND DENIED THEIR RIGHTS." IB ID.. P O 3 0 6 . 60. LENIN STRESSED THAT IT WAS "THE FIRST AND FOREMOST TASK OF RUS-SIAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRATS TO WAGE A RUTHLESS AND ALL OUT STRUGGLE AGAINST GREAT-RUSSIAN AND T8AR18T—MONARCH 18T CHAUVINISM.... FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF THE WORKING CLA88 ANO THE TOILING MA88E8 OF ALL PEOPLES OF RUSBIA, THE 0EFEAT8 OF THE TSARIST MONARCHY ANO IT8 ARMY, WHICH OPPRE88E8 POLAND, THE UKRAINE, ANO MANY OTHER PEOPLES OF RUSSIA, AND FOMENT8 HATRED AMONG THE PROPLE8 80 A8 TO INCREA8E GREAT-RUSSI AN OPPRESSION OF THE OTHER NATIONALITIES, ANO CON-SOLIDATE THE REACTIONARY AND BARBAR0U8 GOVERNMENT OF THE T8AR'S MONARCHY, WOULD BE THE LESSER EVIL BY FAR." IB IP.. P. 18. LENIN COGENTLY ARGUEO THAT THE CHAMPIONING OF THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION WA8 THE QUICKEST WAY TO ACHIEVE BOLSHEVIK GOALS ANO THAT "FAR FROM ENCOURAGING THE FORMATION OF 8TATE8, LEAD8, ON THE CONTRARY' , TO THE FREER, FEARLESS ANO THEREFORE WIDER AND MORE UNIVER8AL FORMATION OF LARGE STATE8 AND FEDERATIONS OF STATES WHICH ARE MORE TO THE AO VANTAGE OF THE MA88E8 AND-ARE'IN KEEPING WITH ECONOMIC DEV-ELOPMENT." IBID., P. 316« 6 1 . IBID.. XX, P. 4 4 3 . 6 2 . LENIN, ALTHOUGH FUNDAMENTALLY AGREEING WITH ROSA LUXEMBURG'S 8TANO ON THE NATIONAL QUE8TI ON, TOOK VIOLENT EXCEPTION TO HER TACTICS. SHE ANO THE POLISH SOCIAL DEMOCRATS DENIED THE VALIDITY AND USEFULNESS OF THE 8L0GAN OF THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION. IN 1916 LENIN WROTE THAT "THE INTRODUCTION INTO THE INTERNATIONAL OF THE VIEWPOINT OF CERTAIN 8MALL NATIONS, ESPECIALLY THAT OF THE POL 18H SOCIAL DEMOCRATS, WHO HAVE 8EEN LEO BY THEIR STRUGGLE AGAINST THE POLISH BOURGEOISIE, WHICH DECS IVE8 THE PEOPLE WITH ITS NATIONALIST SLOGANS, TO THE INCORRECT DENIAL OF SELF-DETERMINATION, WOULD BE A THEORETICAL MI8TAKE, A SUBSTITUTION OF PROUHO0NI8M FOR MARXISM IMPLYING IN PRACTICE INVOLUNTARY 8UPPORT FOR THE M08T 0ANGER0U8 CHAUVINI8M AND OPPORTUN-ISM OF THE GREAT-POWER NATIONS." LENIN, X X I I , p. 156 . SEE IBID., P. 3 4 1 . LUXEMBURG ANO A FEW OTHER EUROPEAN SOCIALISTS ALSO ARGUED THAT THE NATIONAL QUEST I ON COULD NOT BE 80LVED UNDER IMPERIALISM 8ECAU8E SELF—DETER-71 ML NATIOW FOR SMALL NATIONS WAS I M P O S S I B L E OUR INQ THE O A P I T A L I S T ERA* FURTHER" MORE THEV ARGUED THAT 8 0 0 I A L 1 S T R ECOGNITION AND SUPPORT OP TWS8 R I G H T WAS D I -RECTLY A I D I N G THE BOURGEOIS N A T I O N A L I S T ® OF THE OPPRESSED NATIONS, SEE '3 TOWSTER, P. 93« L E N I N ANSWEREO THUS: "ALL OSMOORATIC OEMANOS ARE UNACHIEVABLE UNDER I M P E R I A L I S M I N THE 8SM8E THAT P O L I T I C A L L Y THEY ARE HARD TO A 0 H I E V S OR TOTAL-L Y UNACHIEVABLE WITHOUT A S E R I E S OP REVOLUTIONS. IT I S FUNDAMENTALLY WRONG B MOWCVEN, TO M A I N T A I N THAT S E L F - D E T E R M I N -AT I O N 18 UN A C H I E V A B L E I N THE EOONOMIO 6EN8E-. THAT HAS B E E N OUR CONTENTION* IT I S THE P I V O T A L P O I N T OF OUR THEO-R E T I C A L D I F F E R E N C E S .*.." L C N I N , XX1119 p, 4 0 * SEE I B I D . , P* 44; I B I D * . X X I V , P P . 297-300* FOR A HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUESTION OF THE RIGHT TO SE L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N I N THE P O L I S H 8001AL-DEMOORAT10 PARTY, S E E GANKIN AND F I S H E R , P P . 500-06. FOR A STATEMENT ON T H I S TOPIO BY THE O F F I O I A L ORGAN OF PO L I S H AND L I T H U A N I A N SOOIAL-DEMOCRACY, ses I B I D * , P P . 507-14. 63. L E N I N , XXI I , P. 140. 64. FOR AN EXAMPLE OF L E N I N ' S ARGUMENT ABOUT THE P R A C T I C A B I L I T Y OF SE L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N UNDER O A P I T A L I 8 M AND THE USE OF NORWAY AS A MODEL S E E I B I D . , X X I 1 1 , P P . 48-56. SEE I B I D . . P P . 28-76, FOR LE N I N ' S ATTAOK ON P. K L E V 8 K Y R 8 ( P L A T A K O V ) STAND ON THE RI G H T TO S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N . PLATAKOV, WHO L A T E R PLAYED A L E A D I N G ROLE I N THE ESTABLISHMENT OF SOVI E T RULE I N THE UK R A I N E , HAO VIEWS S I M I L A R TO THOSE OF ROSA LUXEMBURG. ALSO S E E LOW, P P . 45-46. 65. I B I D . . X X I I . P. 338* EMPHASIS ADDED. 66. S T A K H I V 00MMENT8 B I T T E R L Y ON T H I 8 POI NTJ "PRAVO MOZHE 8 0 8 1 BUTI PRAVOM, A L E BEZ REAL IZAT8I I .••." S T A K H I V , ZviOKY V Z I ALAS IA SOVETS'KA VLAOA ««»» P. 84. 67. L E N I N , X X I 1 1 , p. 67* 6 8 . I B I D . . P. 66. L E N I N OONTINUEDI " I F we GRANT FREEDOM OF S E C E S -S I O N FOR THE MONGOLIANS, P E R S I A N S , E G Y P T I A N S AND A L L OTHER OPPRESSED AND UN-EQUAL NATIONS WITHOUT E X C E P T I O N , WE DO SO NOT BECAUSE WE FAVOUR S E C E S S I O N . BUT ONLY BECAU8B WE STAND FOR FREE,. VOLUNTARY A 8 8 0 0 I A T I 0 N AND MERGING A8 DI8TIN0T FROM F O R C I B L E A S S O C I A T I O N . THAT I S THE ONLY REASON." J B I D . . P. 67. SEE BORV8, P P . 33-3^ • 69* L E N I N , X X I , P. 306. FOR ANOTHER EXAMPLE see I B I O . . X X I 1 , p. 154. ALSO S E E RSSHETAR 9 " L E N I N ON THE U K R A I N E , " P« 8; C U I C I U R A , P* 35« 70. L E N I N , XXIV, p. 338* 7 1 . I B I D . , P. 300. 72. THE K I E V ORGANIZATION OF THE PARTY UNDER THE L E A D E R S H I P OF P I A -TAKOV HAO FOR A LONG TIME REJEOTED L E N I N ' S FORMULA OF NATIONAL S E L F - D E T E R M I N -A T I O N . SEE BORYS, P P . 128-30; C I U O I U R A , P. 4 0 ; P iATAKOV ATTACKED S T A L I N ' S REPORT ON THE NATIONAL QUESTION AT THE A P R I L CONFERENCE. 73. SEE RESHETAR, A CONCISE HISTORY OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THB^ SOV I E T UNION. (NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 19©0), P.121$ BORYS, PP.42-44; C I U O I U R A , P P . 4 0 - 4 1 . ? 2 7 4 „ L E N I N , X X I V , P. 301o E M P H A S I S S U P P L I E D * W I T H R E S P E C T TO F I N -L A N D LEW IN NOTED THAT W A L L T H E F lMWS WANT MOW 08 AUTONOMYo -WE F O R F I N -L A N D R E C E I V I N G C O M P L E T E F R E E D O M , B E C A U S E T H E R E © I L L B E G R E A T E R T R U S T I N R U S -S I A D E M O C R A C Y AND T H E F|NN8. W I L L NOT 8BPARAYE0 W I B I D * . , PO300Q L E N I N WAS A L 8 0 AWARE T H A T T H E U K R A I N I A N S WERE ( I N A P R I L 1917') S E E K I N G AUTONOMY W I T H I N T H E B O R D E R S O F R U S S I A B U T T H E F A C T T H A T T H I S DSBSAND WAS B E I N G R A I S E D E V E N B Y T H E U K R A I N I A N S O C I A L D E M O C R A T I C P A R T Y M U S T H A V E G I V E N H I M C A U S E F O R OOWCERN A B O U T T H E A T T ! T U O E S O F T H E MORE N A T I O N A L I S T S G R O U P S ANO P A R T ISSO S E E "FROM T H E R E S O L U T I O N ON T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N or• WOE C O N F E R E N C E OF T H E U K R A I N I A N S O C I A L D E M O C R A T I C P A R T Y , A P R I L 1917® «w BROWDER AND K E R E M S K V , P P 3 7 1 - 7 2 « A L -S O S E E 8 H A H E E N , P P * 1 3 7 ~ 3 9 l 8 U L L I V A N T , P P * 1 6 - 1 7 ? 8 » M« Q I B S A W S H T E I N , " C T A P V R A S O T Y L E N I N A PO N A T © IONAL 0WOBflU V 0 P R 0 8 U V D O O K Y I A 0 R O 8 K 8 I P E R I OD a W R E V O L I U T - S U A I N A T 8 I OWAL^NQST M o V I (QOTo o 1 9 3 0 ) n 11? • 7 5 * B O R V S , P* 4 2 * ?6o S T A L O M , WORKS* V O L * I I I , P* 55° S E E B O R V S , P* 44§ S T A K H I M 0 ZYIPHX V Z I A L A ^ A , ; ^ 84-85* 77" R E S H E T A R , A C O W O I S E H I S T O R Y . » » . P* 121 A A S S E R T S T H A T T H E Y HAD F O R G O T T E N T H A T L E W I N R E G A R D E D T H E R I 6 M T TO 8BLP-0ETBRSWI NAT I OH A S M E R E L Y A' T A C T I C A L C 0 N C E 8 8 lONo HOWEVER , I T IS QU I T E ^ L A I N THAT T H E Y . R E J E C T E D I T E V E N A S AN E P H E M E R A L COftHPROafllSE* 7 8 o L E N I N , X X I V , P . 3 0 1 O 7 9 * C H E R N O V , P. 2 7 8 * 8 0 . L E N I N , X X V I , . P* 62* 8 1 * "iBIp .ea Pe 9 ? o C H E R N O V , .OOMMBNT,! NG OW B O L S H E V I K T A C T I C S A F T E R J U N E 1917, N O T E S THAT : w r rWASI'WOW D I S C O V E R E D ; U N S H P S O T S D L Y ' T H A T ' T H E ^ B O L S H E V I K S WERE T R Y I N G TO S W I F T T H E J R STAWDO I N S T E A D ® F A 9 B I T T B R S T R U G G L E 9 A G A I N S T S E P A R A T I O N ^ T H E Y D E C O D E D TO " S U P P O R T T H E D I R E O T A C T J O N PROOLA183BD B Y T H E U K R A I N I A N S ON T H E R E V O L U T I O N 9 * T H E Y WERE F I E R O S R E V E N T H A N T H E U K R A I N I A N S I N A T T A 0 K 8 W G T H E B A N ON T H E ^ U K S S ^ S M A N J ARBaV C O N G R E S S , AND T H E ' I M P E R I A L I S T P O L I C Y O F THE C E N T R A L G O V E R N M E N T * 9 T H S Y U R G E D THE U K R A I N I A N S TO B R E A K W I T H T H E I R NAT IONAL B O U R G E O I S I E AND TO d O I N T H E B O L S H E V 6 KS I N F I G H T I N G F O R POWER*" C H E R N O V , P* 2 7 9 * L S N I W S U P P O R T E D T H E U K R A I N I A N S B E C A U S E A T T H I S P O I N T T H E I R I N T E R E S T S AND T H O S E O F T H E B O L S H E V I K @ CO9NOQDSD* S S B ' L © © , P* 7 3 * 8 2 . L E N I N , X X V I 0 p P o 1 7 5 r a 7 6 o 8 3 . J . BUNVAW A N D H * H o F I S H E R , T H E B O L S H E V I K - REVOLUT|ON,, t 9 T [ 7 ° 1 9 1 8 , « . DOCUMENTS AND M A T E R I A L S ( S T A N F O R D S S T A N F O R D U N I V E R S I T Y PRESS," 1 9 6 1 ) , p * 2 8 3 o F O R T H E T E K T O F T H E E N T I R E O B O R E E S E E J j j j g , * , PP* 2 8 2 « 8 3 o F O R A O I souse I O N 8 B E C l U C l U R A j PP* 4 2 F F « ? S U L L I V A N T , PO 20| 0MVTRV@i»VM E P P . 2-J-25* 8 4 * i B i O o f t P P * 2 4 - 2 5 * ' 8 5 o ' L E N I N ^ X X V I , p. 3 4 4 * L E N I N A L S O ADDED T H A T T H E B O L S H E V I K S WERE O B L I G A T E D "TO W I P E OUT T H A T OLO B L O O O S T A I N E O ANO D I R T Y P A S T WHEN T H E R U S S I A O F " T H E C A P I T A L I S T " O P P R E S S O R S A C T E D . A S T H E G H S O U T I O N B R O F O T H E R P E O P L E S * / WB A R E D E T E R M I N E D TO W I P E OUT T H A T P A S T A N D L S A V S NO T R A O E O F I T O " : I J H P P A > . 73 8 6 . IBIO.. P. 3 4 4 . IT IS MOST INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT LENIN USED THI8 SAME RATIONALE TO JUSTIFY B0L8HEVIK INTERFERENCE IN FINLAND. HE STATEO RATHER BLUNTLY THAT "TF THE FINNISH BOURGEOISIE ARE BUYING ARMS FROM THE GERMAN8 IN ORDER TO USE THEM AGAIN8T THEIR WORKERS, WE OFFER THE LATTER AN ALLIANCE WITH THE RUSSIAN WORKING PEOPLE"• IB ID., P. 3 ^ 4 « 8 7 . STALIN, WORKS. IV, p. 3 2 . 8 8 . IBIO.. P. 3 3 « STALIN LOST NO LOVE OVER THE UKRAINE OR UKRAIN-IANS. IN B. 0. WOLF. KHRUSHCHEV ANO STALIN'S GHOST (NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 1957), P. 1 9 0 , KHRU8HCHEV STATE8 THAT IF THERE WERE NOT 80 MANY UKRAINIANS AND IF THERE WAS 80MEWHERE TO PUT THEM, S T A L I N WOULD HAVE HAO THEM ALL DEPORTED. THAT STALIN EITHER COMPLETELY IGNORED THE UKRAINIANS OR TREATED THEM AS L IT-TLE RU8SIAN8 IS BORNE OUT IN A. RY8AK0FF, THE NATIONAL POLICY OF THE SOVIET UNION (NEW YORK: INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS, N.D.), 71 P. THIS BOOK WAS PUB-LI8HED SOMETIME AFTER 1931 (PROBABLY 1932 OR 1933) AND 18 REMARKABLE ONLY FOR ITS ADHERENCE TO THE 8TRIOT PARTY LINE OF S T A L I N . M08T SIGNIFICANT 18 THE FACT THAT THE UKRAINE 18 TOTALLY IGNORED (THREE REFERENCES WITH REGARD TO LITERACY AND ONE WITH REGARD TO OPERA) WHILE OTHER REPUBLIC8, 8UCH A8 BEL0RU881A, HAVE 8EVEN PAGES DEVOTED ENTIRELY TO THEIR DEVELOPMENT UNDER SOVIET RULE AS WELL AS NUMEROUS REFERENCES THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE BOOK. OF FURTHER SIGNIFICANCE 18 THE FACT THAT NOT ONLY THE UKRAINIAN REPUBLIC 18 IG-NORED BUT AL80 THE TRAN8CAUCA8I AN REPUBL108. 89. PlPE8, THE FORMATION . . . . P. 109. 9 0 . LENIN, X X I X , P. 174. 91. IBIO..P. 128. 92. IBID.. X X I l l , P. 6 3 . 93. IBID., V 1, P. 329. ALSO SEE IBID., PP. 4 6 1 - 6 2 ; 94. IBID.. X X M 1, p. 5 7 . 428. 95« BUNYAN ANO FISHER, P. 5 0 5 . COMPARE WITH LENIN, X X V I , p. 449 SEE 0MYTRY8HYN, PP. 162-63. 9 6 . IBID., P. 495. SEE BATSELL, PP. 114 - 1 6 . 97. LENIN, XXX, p. 271. 98. WITH RESPECT TO THE UKRAINE LENIN WROTE THAT "TO ATTEMPT TO SET-TLE THI8 QUESTION [OF THE FORM OF VNIONJ IN ADVANCE, ONCE AND FOR ALL, *FIRM-LY • ANO 'IRREVOCABLY*, WOULD BE NARROW-MINDEDNESS OR SHEER STUPIDITY, FOR THE VACILLATION OF THE NON-PROLETARIAN WORKING PEOPLE ON 8UCH A QUESTION 18 QUITE NATURAL, EVEN INEVITABLE, BUT NOT IN THE LEAST FRIGHTFUL FOR THE PRO-LETARIAT, IT 18 THE OUTY OF THE PROLETARIAN WHO 18 REALLY CAPABLE OF BEING AN INTERNATIONALIST TO TREAT SUCH VACILLATION WITH THE GREATE8T CAUTION AND TOLERANCE, IT IS HIS OUTY TO LEAVE IT TO THE NON-PROLETARIAN MA8SE8 THEM- SELVES TO GET RIO OF TH18 VACILLATION A8 A RESULT OF THEIR OWN EXPERIENCE". IBID., P. 271. LENIN BELIEVED, OF OOURSE, THAT THE UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY HAO BEEN TAUGHT AN APPROPRIATE LESSON BY THE OENIKIN OCCUPATION AND WOULD NOW BE MORE FAVORABLE TOWARDS SOVIET RUS81A AND THE B0L8HEVIK8. SEE D M Y T R Y 8 H Y N , PP. 46-47; W. R. BATSELL, SOVIET RULE IN RUSSIA (NEW YORK: MACMILLAN, N.D.), P. 117. 74 99» M A 2 E P A , B O L 9 3 H E V V Z M I 0 K U P A T 8 I I A U K R A I N Y ( L v i V A N D K I E V : M. G A N K E V Y C H , 1922), P . ?2o C H E R N O V R E M A R K S T H A T " T H E R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S O F T H E I M M I G R A N T N A T I O N A L I T I E S , P R E O O M I N E N T I N T H E C I T I E S , F O U N D I T D I F F I C U L T , W I T H T H E I R R U S S I A N O R I E N T A T I O N , T O C E A S E C O N S I D E R I N G T H E M S E L V E S M A S T E R S O F T H E S I T U A T I O N , A N D T O A C C E P T T H E P O S I T I O N O F N A T I O N A L M I N O R I T I E S C O N T E N T W I T H T H E U 8 U A L G U A R A N T E E S O F M I N O R I T Y R I G H T S . " C H E R N O V , P . 276. 100. K H . R A K O V S K I I , " R O S S I I A 1 U K R A I N A . " K O M M U N I S T I O H E S K I I I N T E R - N A T B I O N A L . X I I (1920), 2199. 101. Q U O T E D I N B A T S E L L , P . 117. 102. L E N I N , X X X I , P P . 278. 103. I B I O . . X X X I , P P . 243-44. 104. I B I D . , P . 244. 105. I B I O . . X X I I , p. 148. 106. L U X E M B U R G , P P . 50-51• 107. S T A L I N , W O R K S . IV, P . 364. F U R T H E R I N H I S A R T I C L E S T A L I N B E -G A N T O 8 0 U N 0 V E R Y M U C H L I K E H I 8 M E N T O R O N T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E 8 T I O N I N D R A W I N G T H E P R O P E R L E N I N I 8 T D I S T I N C T I O N B E T W E E N T H E " R I G H T " A N D T H E E X E R C I 8 E O F THI8 " R I G H T " . "OF C 0 U R 8 E , " H E S A G E L Y N O T E D , " T H E B O R D E R R E G I O N S O F RU881A, T H E N A T I O N S A N D R A C E 8 W H I C H I N H A B I T T H E S E R E G I O N S , P 0 8 8 E 8 8 , A 8 A L L O T H E R N A T I O N S O O , T H E I N A L I E N A 8 L E R I G H T T O 3 E C E O E F R O M R U 8 8 I A , A 8 W A 8 T H E C A 8 E W I T H F I N L A N D I N 1917, R U S S I A , P R E S U M A B L Y , W O U L D B E O B L I G E O T O T A K E N O T E O F T H E F A C T A N D S A N C T I O N T H E S E C E S S I O N . B U T T H E Q U E 8 T I O N H E R E 1 8 N O T A B O U T T H E R I G H T S O F N A T I O N S , W H I C H A R E U N Q U E S T I O N A B L E , B U T A B O U T T H E I N T E R E 8 T S O F T H E M A 8 8 O F T H E P E O P L E B O T H I N T H E C E N T R E A N O I N T H E B O R D E R R E G 1 0 N 8 . . . . A N D T H E I N T E R -E S T S O F T H E M A 3 8 E S R E N D E R T H E D E M A N D F O R 8 E C E 8 8 I 0 N O F T H E B O R D E R R E G I O N S A T T H E P R E S E N T S T A G E O F T H E R E V O L U T I O N A P R O F O U N D L Y C O U N T E R - R E V O L U T I O N A R Y O N E . " I B | Q . . P P . 365-66. E M P H A 8 I S 8 U P P L I E 0 . 75 CHAPTER IV: THE UKRAINIAN QUESTIONS AUTONOMY ANO F E D E R A T I O N . THE CONCEPTS OP AUTONOMY AND F E D E R A L I S M , L I K E THAT OP S E L P = DETERMINATION, WERE POR L E N I N B A S I O A L L Y N E G A T I V E ONES. NEVERTHELESS HE SOUGHT TO SHAPE AND USE T H I S A S P E C T OP THE NATIONAL QUESTION POR THE B E N E F I T OP THE PARTY ANO FOR THE H A S T E N I N G OF THE P R O L E T A R I A N REVOLUTION. L E N I N ALWAYS VIEWED F E D E R A L I S M WITH S U S P I C I O N BECAUSE OF ITS A N T I -C E N T R A L I S T B I A S AND BEFORE THE REVOLUTION EVEN OULTURAL NATIONAL AUTONOMY WAS R E J E C T E D BV THE RSOLP B E 8 A U 8 E I T WAS ARQUEO THAT NATIONAL CULTURE WAS CONTRARY TO THE INTERNATIONAL CULTURE SOUGHT ©ST THE PROLETARIAT.* F I R S T R A I S E D BY THE JEWISH BUNO, THE OEMAND FOR CULTURAL NATIONAL AUTONOMY OLO NOT F I N D S I G N I F I C A N T SUPPORT I N THE R80LP.2 L E N I N IN FEBRUARY 1 9 0 3 CONCLUOEO THAT THE JEWISH P R O L E T A R I A T 0 1 0 NOT NEED AN INDEPENDENT P O L I T I C A L PARTY B E C A U S E , AOOOROING TO THE PARTY RULES ADOPTED I N 1 8 9 8 , THE J E W I S H WORKING C L A S S MOVEMENT WAS G I V E N S U F F I C I E N T AUTONOMY. THIS AUTONOMY, NOTED L E N I N , PROVIDED THE JEWISH WORKING OLASS MOVEMENT WITH THE RIGHT TO U8E YLOOLSH I N A G I T A T I O N ANO PROPAGANDA, TO P U B L I S H ITS OWN L I T E R A T U R E , TO CONVENE ITS OWN CONGRESSES, TO S A T I S F Y LOCAL NEEDS ANO REQUIREMENTS A R I 8 I N G OUT OF THE 8 P E C I A L FEATURE8 OF JEWISH L I F E AND, I T PROVIDED OF COURSE, N T H E RIGHT TO ADVANCE SEPARATE OEMANO8 TO SUPPLEMENT A 8»NQLB GENERAL S O O I A L -DEMOCRATIC PROGRAMMEO...^ L E N I N THEN ADDED THE B O L S H E V I K CANON WHICH WOULD ADMIT NO COMPROMISE: ...WE MUST ACT AS A S I N G L E ANO C E N T R A L I S E D M I L I T A N T ORGANISATION^ £ANO7 HAVE BEHIND US THE WHOLE OF THE P R O L E T A R I A T , WITHOUT D I S T I N C T I O N OF LANGUAGE OR N A T I O N A L I T Y , A PROLETARI AT WHOSE UN ITY I S CEMEWTED BY THE CONTINUAL J O I N T SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND P R A C T I C E , OF T A 0 T I 0 8 ANO ORGANISATIONS WE MUST NOT SET UP ORGANISATIONS THAT WOULD MARCH S E P A R A T E L Y , EACH ALONG ITS OWN TRACKS WE MUST NOT WEAKEN THE FORCE OF QUI O F F E N S I V E BY B R E A K I N G UP INTO NUMEROUS INDEPENDENT f OL,l T ^ A ^ PARTIES....' THERE WAS TO BE ONLY ONE, UNITARY OOMMUNIST PARTY IN THE R U S S I A N 76 E M P I R E . A L L OTHER NATIONAL "COMMUNIST 1' GROUPS WERE NOTHING BUT DUPES OF THE B O U R G E O I S I E , WROTE LENIN.5 IN A POLEMIO WITH RUSSI AN L I B E R A L S AND DEMOCRAT8 HE EMPHA8I ZED THI 8 POINT: WORKING—CLASS DEMOCRACY COUNTERPOSES TO THE N A T I O N A L I S T WRANGLING OF THE VARIOUS BOURGEOIS PART I E 8 OVER Q U E 8 T I 0 N 8 OF LANGUAGE, E T C . , THE DEMAND FOR THE UNCONDITIONAL UN I TV AND COMPLETE S O L I D A R I T Y OF WORKERS OF A L L N A T I O N A L I T I E S I N A L L WORK ING-CLA88 ORGAN I 8 A T I 0 N 8 — T R A O E UNION, COOPER-A T I V E , CONSUMERS*, EDUCATIONAL AND A L L 0 T H E R 8 — I N CONTRADISTINCTION TO ANY KINO OF BOURGEOIS NAT IONALI8M.6 AND A SHORT TIME L A T E R , AT THE AUQU8T CONFERENCE OF 1913* HE I N S I S T E D ONCE MORE THAT THE INTERE8T8 OF THE PROLETARIAT N E C E S S I T A T E THE "AMALGAMATI ON OF THE W0RKER8 OF A L L THE N A T I O N A L I T I E S IN A G I V E N 8TATE IN UNITED PROLETARIAN O R G A N I S A T I O N S — P O L I T I C A L , TRADE UNION, C O - O P E R A T I V E , COUCATlONAL, ETC."7 IN THIS MANNER L E N I N 0 I 8 M I 8 8 E 0 THE BUNO'S DEMANO8 AND, BY I M P L I C A T I O N , A L L PO-T E N T I A L 0EMAN08 OF 8 I M I L A R NATURE FROM OTHER NATIONAL GR0UP8. HE FIRMLY B E -L I E V E D THAT THE OONOEPT OF AUTONOMY, ANO IT8 ORGANIC D E R I V A T I V E , CULTURAL NATIONAL AUTONOMY, WERE PART OF A CON8C1OU8, S O P H I S T I C A T E D BOURGEO18 PLOT TO OE8TROV THE RSDLP. THE IOEA, HOWEVER, REFUSED TO O I 8 A P P E A R ANO F I N A L L Y L E N I N OECIOEO TO ATTEMPT TO COME TO TERMS WITH I T . Aa L A T E AS NOVEMBER 1913* L E N I N WROTE THAT "A C L E A R GRASP OF THE E S -SENCE OF THE 'CULTURAL-NATIONAL' PROGRAMME 18 S U F F I C I E N T TO E N A B L E ONE TO REPLY WITHOUT HE8I TAT I O N — I T 18 ABSOLUTELY IMPERM188 I B L E . " ^ THE W E S 8 E N C E " TO WHICH L E N I N REFERRED WAS THE E S T A B L I S H M E N T OF SEPARATE SCHOOLS FOR EACH N A T I O N A L I T Y . HE PROTESTED THAT "THE 0 I V I 8 I 0 N OF THE EDUCATIONAL A F F A I R S OF A S I N G L E STATE ACCOROING TO N A T I O N A L I T I E S I S UNDOUBTEDLY HARMFUL FROM THE STANDPOINT OF OEMOCRACY I N GENERAL, ANO OF THE INTEREST8 OF THE PROLETARIAN C L A S S 8TRUGGLE I N PARTICULAR."9 CULTURAL NATIONAL AUTONOMY WAS ABHORRED BY L E N I N B E C A U S E , HE NOTED, IT " I M P L I E S P R E C I S E L Y THE MOST R E F I N E D AND, THERE-FORE THE MOST HARMFUL N A T I O N A L I S M , I T I M P L I E 8 THE CORRUPTION OF THE W0RKER8 BY MEAN8 OF THE 8LOGAN OF NATIONAL CULTURE ANO THE PROPAGANDA OF THE PRO-FOUNDLY HARMFUL ANO EVEN ANT I—DEMOCRAT IC SEGREGATING OF SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO 7 7 NAT I ONALIT Y o " * 9 ; PREVIOUS D E F I N I T I O N S OF THE E S S E N C E OF NATIONAL CULTURAL AUTONOMY AS B E I N G ONLY THE 0 I V I 8 I 0 N OF EDUCATIONAL A F F A I R S NOTWITHSTANDING, L E N I N 8 0 0 N BROADENED H|8 D E S C R I P T I O N OF TH18 PHENOMENONO "THE G I 8 Y OF TH18 PROGRAMME," HE REMARKED, "L8 THAT EVERY C I T I Z E N REG 18TER8 A8 BELONGING TO A P A R T I C U L A R N A T I O N , AND EVERY NATION CONSTITUTES A L E G A L E N T I T Y WITH THE RIGHT TO IMPOSE C0MPUL80RY TAXATION ON I T S MEMBERS, WITH NATIONAL P A R L I A M E N T S . . . AND NATIONAL 8 E C R E T A R I E 8 OF STATE...."H NOT ONLY b i o ADVOCACY OF NATIONAL OULTURAL AUTONOMY D I R E C T L Y S T I M U -L A T E THE M08T PERNIO|0U8 N A T I O N A L I S M BUT I T COMPLETELY IGNORED THE EOONOMIO FORCE8 OPERATING I N THE MULTINATIONAL S T A T E . S l N O E THE NATIONS L I V I N G I N THE R u 8 8 iAN EMPIRE WERE SOUND BY ECONOMIC T I E S "ANY ATTEMPT TO D I V I D E THEM PERMANENTLY I N 'CULTURAL* ANO P A R T I C U L A R L Y EOUOATIONAL MATTERS WOULD BE AB8URO AND REACTIONARY."12 EDUCATIONAL D I V I S I O N WOULD A L 8 0 BE REACTIONARY BECAUSE ALONG WITH THE DEMOCRATIC AND 8 0 0 1 A L I S T ELEMENTS TO B E FOUND I N EVERY NATIONAL CULTURE (BEOAUSE T O I L I N G MA88E8 E X I S T I N EVERY N A T I O N ) , THERE 18 ALSO A BOURGEO18 CULTURE. T H I S BOURGEOI8 0ULTURE 18 THE OOMINANT GENERAL NATIONAL CULTURE ANO I F SDUOATION WERE SEGREGATED T H I S A N T I - P R O L E T A R I AN CULTURE WOULD 8 E I N S T I L L E D I N THE MAS8E8 OF THE N A T I O N A L I T I E S . ^ THE A I M OF THE PARTY ANO "THE A I M OF 8 0 0 I A L I S M I S NOT ONLY TO END THE D I V I S I O N OF MAN-KINO INTO T I N Y S T A T E S . . . , I T I S NOT ONLY TO B R I N G THE NATIONS 0 L 0 8 E R TOGETHER BUT TO INTEGRATE THEM," WROTE LENIN.*** CULTURAL NATIONAL AUTONOMY, WHICH L E N I N , I N DECEMBER 1 9 1 3 J A N U A R Y 1914,15 BEGAN TO I D E N T I F Y AS EXTRA-T E R R I T O R I A L AUTONOMY WOULD HAVE AN E X A 0 T L V O P P O S I T E E F F E C T . IT SOON BEOAME OLE A R , HOWEVER, THAT L E N I N WAS ONLY AGAIN8T THE IDEA OF EXTRA-TERR I TORIAL OR INOIVIOUAL—PERSONAL AUTONOMY F I R S T INTRODUCED BY THE AUSTRIAN M A R X I S T S . ^ IN THE A R T I C L E "ON THE QUESTION OF NATIONAL P O L I C Y " WRITTEN IN THE 8UMMER OF 1914, L E N I N CATEGORIOALLY STATED THAT 78 A D E M O C R A T I C S T A T E M U S T G R A N T A U T O N O M Y T O I T S V A R I O U S R E G I O N S , E S P E C I A L -L Y T O R E G I O N S W I T H M I X E D P O P U L A T I O N S . T H I S F O R M O F A U T O N O M Y I N N O W A Y C O N T R A D I C T S D E M O C R A T I C C E N T R A L I S M ; O N T H E C O N T R A R Y , I T 1 8 O N L Y T H R O U G H R E G I O N A L A U T O N O M Y T H A T G E N U I N E D E M O C R A T I C C E N T R A L I S M I S P O S 8 I B L E I N A L A R G E S T A T E W I T H A M I X E D P O P U L A T I O N . 1 7 R E G I O N A L A U T O N O M Y I S C O M P A T I B L E W I T H D E M O C R A T I C C E N T R A L I S M B E C A U S E T H E C E N -T R A L G O V E R N M E N T R E T A I N 8 U L T I M A T E C O N T R O L . F E D E R A L I S M , O N T H E O T H E R H A N D , 18 N O T C O M P A T I B L E W I T H D E M O C R A T I C C E N T R A L I 8 M B E C A U S E C E N T R A L 0 0 N T R 0 L 8 A R E I N -A D E Q U A T E . ^ A L T H O U G H T H E L O C A L N A T I O N A L P O P U L A T I O N W I L L H A V E T H E R I G H T T O I N D I -C A T E T H E B O U N D A R I E S O F A U T O N O M O U S R E G I O N S A N D A R E A S ( S U B J E C T , O F C O U R S E , T O C E N T R A L A P P R O V A L ) E C O N O M I C A N D S O C I A L C O N D I T I O N S M U S T B E P L A C E O O N P A R W I T H T H E N A T I O N A L F A C T O R . T H U 8 L E N I N F U R T H E R C I R C U M 8 C R I B E D T H E P 0 8 8 I B I L I T Y O F A G E N U I N E N A T I O N A L A U T O N O M Y . I N H I 8 " C R I T I O A L R E M A R K S O N T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N * H E R E A 8 0 N E D T H A T " T O C U T T H E T 0 W N 8 O F F F R O M T H E V I L L A G E 8 A N D A R E A 8 T H A T E C O N -O M I C A L L Y G R A V I T A T E T O W A R O T H E M F O R T H E 8 A K E O F T H E ' N A T I O N A L 9 F A C T O R , W O U L D B E A B S U R D A N D I M P 0 8 8 I 8 L E . " T H E B O L S H E V I K S O L U T I O N O F T H E P R O B L E M I S " F A R M O R E C O R R E C T * ' T H A N T H E A U 8 T R I A N , 0 P I N E 8 L E N I N , B E 0 A U 8 E W T H E N A T I O N A L C O M P O -S I T I O N O F T H E P O P U L A T I O N 1 3 P L A C E O O N T H E 8 A M E L E V E L A S T H E O T H E R C O N D I T I O N S ( E C O N O M I C F I R S T , T H E N S O C I A L , E T C . ) W H I C H M U 8 T 8 E R V E A 3 A B A 8 1 8 F O R D E T E R -M I N I N G T H E N E W 8 0 U N D A R I E 8 T H A T W I L L M E E T T H E N E E D 8 O F M O D E R N C A P I T A L 1 8 M , N O T O F 8 U R E A C R A C Y A N D A S I A T I C B A R B A R 1 8 M . ^ 2 0 E C O N O M I C F A C T 0 R 8 W E R E T H E M 0 8 T I M -P O R T A N T C O N S I D E R A T I O N I N T H E G R A N T I N G O F A U T O N O M Y , A L T H O U G H T W O Y E A R S A F T E R T H E R E V O L U T I O N W H E N F I N L A N D H A O S E C E D E D I N 8 P I T E O F T H E B 0 L 8 H E V I K * 8 B E 8 T E F -F O R T S T O P R E V E N T I T , L E N I N , A L W A Y S T H E P R A C T I C A L P O L I T I C I A N , A L L O W E D T H A T " I N O C A L I N G W I T H T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N O N E C A N N O T A R G U E T H A T E C O N O M I C U N I T Y 8 H 0 U L 0 B E E F F E C T E O I N A L L C I R C U M 8 T A N C E 8 . " 2 1 T H E L A N G U A G E I S S U E H A D A L W A Y S B E E N I N I T I M A T E L Y C O N N E C T E D W I T H T H E Q U E 8 T I O N O F A U T O N O M Y A N O H E R E T O O L E N I N ' 8 C E N T R A L I S T C 0 N C E P T 8 P R E V A I L E D . H E W A 8 M O R E C A R E F U L W I T H T H 1 8 P R O B L E M , H O W E V E R , A N O V E H E M E N T L Y A R G U E D A G A I N 8 T 79 I M P O S I T I O N O F A S I N G L E 8 T A T E L A N G U A G E B E C A U S E H E B E L I E V E D T H A T T H E P O W E R O F E C O N O M 1 0 8 W O U L D D E T E R M I N E T H E L A N G U A G E W I T H N O P O L I T I C A L O R L E G A L C O M P U L S I O N W H A T S O E V E R . I N H I S L E T T E R T O S H A U M I A N H E E X P R C 8 8 E 0 W H A T W E R E P R O B A B L Y H | 8 R E A L 8 E N T I M E N T 8 S " T H E Ru88I A N L A N G U A G E H A 8 U N D O U B T E D L Y B E E N O F P R 0 G R E 8 8 I V E I M P O R T A N C E F O R T H E N U M E R 0 U 8 S M A L L A N D B A C K W A R D N A T I 0 N 8 . B U T 8 U R E L Y Y O U M U 8 T R E A L I S E T H A T I T W O U L D H A V E B E E N O F M U C H G R E A T E R P R O G R E S S I V E I M P O R T A N C E H A D T H E R E B E E N N O C O M P U L S I O N . " ^ I N A N A T T A C K O N T H E L I B E R A L S * A N D R E A C T I O N A R -I E S * S T A N D O N T H E L A N G U A G E Q U E S T I O N L E N I N C L A I M E D T H A T A L T H O U G H T H E B 0 L 8 H E — V I K 8 W A N T E D O N E 8 T A T E L A N G U A G E , W H A T T H E Y D I O N O T W A N T 1 8 W T H E E L E M E N T O F C O E R C I O N . WE D O N O T W A N T T O H A V E P E O P L E O R I V E N I N T O P A R A O I 8 E W I T H A C U D G E L . . . . ~* As U S U A L L E N I N P R E F E R E O A S O P H I S T I C A T E D , P E R S U A S I V E A P P R O A C H I N T H E S O L U T I O N O F P O L I T I C A L L Y V O L A T I L E Q U E 8 T I 0 N 8 . TQ T H I S E N D , I N H I S * T V L A T E R L A L 8 R E L A T I N G T O T H E R E V I S I O N O F T H E P A R T Y P R O G R A M M E " W R I T T E N A F T E R T H E F E B R U A R Y R E V O L U T I O N , H E P R O P O S E D T H E F O L L O W I N G A S P O I N T 8 O F T H E P R O G R A M : T H E R I G H T O F T H E P O P U L A T I O N T O R E C E I V E I N S T R U C T I O N I N T H E I R N A T I V E T O N G U E I N 8 C H 0 0 L 8 T O B E E S T A B L I S H E D F O R T H E P U R P O S E A T T H E E X P E N S E O F T H E S T A T E A N O L O C A L O R G A N S O F S E L F - G O V E R N M E N T \ T H E R I G H T O F E V E R Y C I T I -Z E N T O U S E H I S N A T I V E L A N G U A G E A T M E E T I N G 8 \ T H E N A T I V E L A N G U A G E T O B E U 8 E D I N A L L L O C A L P U B L I C A N D S T A T E I N S T I T U T I O N S ; T H E O B L I G A T O R Y O F F I C I A L  L A N G U A G E T O B E A B O L I S H E D . ^ L E N I N W A S C O G N I Z A N T O F T H E F A C T T H A T T S A R I S T L I N G U I S T I C R E P R E S S I O N C O U L D N O T E L I M I N A T E T H E L A N G U A G E 8 O F T H E N A T I O N A L I T I E S A N D T H A T O T H E R , M O R E 8 U B T L E M E -T H O D S W O U L D B E R E Q U I R E D . A L L T H E P E R P L E X I N G Q U E S T I O N S O F N A T I O N A L I T Y W E R E V I E W E O W I T H I N A R E L -A T I V E H I S T O R I C A L F R A M E W O R K A S P E R C E I V E D B Y L E N I N . T H E P R O L E T A R I A T H A O A S P E -C I A L T A S K W I T H I N T H I S S P E C I F I C F R A M E W O R K , W H I C H W A 8 B E S T S U M M A R I Z E D W H E N H E S A I D T H A T T O T H R O W O F F T H E F E U D A L Y O K E , A L L N A T I O N A L O P P R E S S I O N , A N O A L L P R I -V I L E G E S E N J O Y E D B Y A N Y P A R T I C U L A R N A T I O N O R L A N G U A G E , 1 8 T H E I M P E R A T I V E O U T Y O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T A 3 A D E M O C R A T I C F O R C E , A N D 1 8 C E R T A I N L Y I N T H E 80 INTERE8T8V0F THE PROLETARIAN 0LA8S STRUGGLE, WHICH 18 OBSCURED ANO RE-TARDED BY BICKERING ON THE NATIONAL QUESTION* BUT TO CO BEYONO THESE STRICTLY L I M l TED ANO DEFI MITE HI8T0RIOAL LIMITS IN HELPING BOURGEOIS NA-TIONAL 18M MEAN8 BETRAYING THE PROLETARIAT AND SIDING WITH THE BOURGEO181 Ee THERE 18 A BORDER-LINE HERE, WHICH 18 OFTEN VERY SLIGHT AND WHICH THE BUNO 1 8 T 8 AND UKRAINIAN NATIONALIST-SOCIALISTS COMPLETELY LOSE SIGHT OF025 THEN THE CRUX OF THE LENINIST APPROAOH TO THE QUESTION OF AUTONOMY WAS BLUN-TLY STATEDs "COMBAT A L L NATIONAL OPPRESSION? Yes, OF COURSE* FIGHT FOR ANY KIND OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, FOB. 'NATIONAL CULTURE 9 IN GENERAL? —OF C0UR8E NOT***^ LENIN WAS AWARE THAT THE OONOEPT OF AUTONOMY APPEALED TO MANY UKRAIN-IAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATS AND TO MANY MEMBERS OF THE RAPIDLY DEVELOPING UKRAINIAN NATIONALIST ELITEO ALTHOUGH THIS GROUP WAS SMALL, IT WAS VOOIFEROUS AND WAS BEGINNING TO CHALLENGE THE RUDIMENTARY NATIONAL 00N8CIOU8NE88 OF LITERATE UKRAINIANS INTO OVERT POLITICAL AOTIVSTY*27 BEFORE THE REVOLUTION LENIN WAS IRREVOCABLY OPPOSEO TO NATIONAL CUL-TURAL AUTONOMY AS ADVOCATED 8V THE AUSTRIAN 8 0 0 I A L DEMOCRATS BE0AU8E NUNOER THE 8L0GAN OF "NATIONAL CULTURE' THE BOURGEOISIE OF ALJU NAT 10N8 « BOTH IN AU8TRIA AND IN RU88LA, ARE IN FAOT PUR8UINQ THE POL IOY OF SPLIT T I N G THE WORK-ERS , EMA8CULATINGDEMOCRACY, AND HAGGLING WITH THE 8ERF°QWNER8 OVER THE SALE OF THE PEOPLE'S R1GHT8 ANO THE PEOPLES LIBERTY*"28 RU88!AN SOCIAL DEMOCRACY WA8 INTERNATIONALIST IN ORIENTATION, LENIN. MAINTAINED, AND WHILE IT FAVORED NATIONAL EQUALITY IT WA8 DEFINITELY AGAINST NATIONAL CULTURE* THE BOLSHE-V I K S , HOWEVER, DID 8UPP0RT INTERNATIONAL OULTURE WHICH INOLUOEO "ONLY PART OF EACH NATIONAL CULTURE—ONLY THE CONSISTENTLY DEMOCRATIC AND SOCIALIST CONTENT OF EACH NATIONAL CULTURE*"*^ LSNIN EMPHA81 ZED THAT THE 8L0GAN OF SOCIAL DEMOCRACY MUST BE "THE UNITY OF WORKERS OF ALL NATIONALITIES COUPLED WITH THE FULLEST EQUALITY FOR THE NATIONALITIES AND THE MOST C0N8I8TENTLY OEMOCRATIC STATE 8Y8TEM* * * *"30 ON THIS POINT LENIN AT NO TIME ALLOWED ANY 81 D O C T R I N A L C O M P R O M I S E , A L T H O U G H I T M U 8 T 8 E U N D E R S T O O D W I T H I N A B O L S H E V I K C O N -T E X T . T H E S L O G A N O F N A T I O N A L C U L T U R E W A 8 N O T H I N G B U T A C L E R I C A L A N O B O U R -G E O I S D E C E P T I O N A S F A R A S L E N I N W A S C O N C E R N E D A N O I T M A T T E R E D L I T T L E W H E T H E R I T C O N C E R N E D T H E G R E A T R U S S L A N , U K R A I N I A N , J E W I S H O R A N Y O T H E R C U L T U R E . H E N E V E R T I R E D O F R E P E A T I N G T H A T " O N L Y T H E U N I T Y A N O S O L I D A R I T Y O F W O R K E R S O F A L L N A T I 0 N 8 I N A L L W O R K I N G C L A 8 S O R G A N 1 8 A T I O N S I N T H E 8 T R U G G L E A G A I N S T C A -P I T A L W I L L L E A D T O ' T H E S O L U T I O N O F T H E N A T I O N A L P R O B L E M * . " 3 1 T H U S T H E P A R -T Y W A S T O R E M A I N C E N T R A L I Z E D B E C A U S E T H I S W A S T H E O N L Y W A Y T H E H I G H L Y U N I -F I E D I N T E R N A T I O N A L I S T B O U R G E O 1 8 I E C O U L D B E E F F E C T I V E L Y C O M B A T E O . " L O O K A T T H E C A P I T A L I S T S ' " H E C R I E O . T H E Y T R Y T O I N F L A M E N A T I O N A L S T R I F E A M O N G T H E ' C O M M O N P E O P L E ' , W H I L E T H E Y T H E M S E L V E S M A N A G E T H E I R B U S I N E S 8 A F F A I R S R E M A R K A B L Y W E L L — R U 8 -8 I A N 8 , U K R A I N I A N S , P O L E S , J E W S A N D G E R M A N S T O G E T H E R I N O N E A N D T H E 8 A M E C O R P O R A T I O N . A G A I N 8 T T H E W 0 R K E R 8 T H E C A P I T A L 1 8 T 8 O F A L L N A T I O N S A N D R E L I G I O N S A R E U N I T E D , B U T T H E Y S T R I V E T O D I V I D E A N D W E A K E N T H E W O R K -E R S B Y N A T I O N A L 8 T R I F E L 3 2 W H I L E L E N I N W O U L D A D M I T N O P A R T I C U L A R I S T G R O U P I N G I N T H E P A R T Y O R A N Y O T H E R W O R K I N G C L A 8 8 O R G A N I Z A T I O N , H E P E R M I T T E D , I N T H E O R Y A T L E A S T , A C E R T A I N D E G R E E O F D E C E N T R A L I Z A T I O N W I T H I N T H E 8 T A T E A P P A R A T U S . I N H I S L E T -T E R T O S H A U M I A N H E C A M E O U T 8 T R O N G L Y I N F A V O R O F 8 0 M E F O R M O F R E G I O N A L A U -T O N O M Y . 3 3 I N H I S T H E S E S O N T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N P U B L I S H E D I N 1913 L E N I N D E C L A R E D T H A T W A L L A R E A S O F T H E S T A T E T H A T A R E D I S T I N G U I S H E D B Y 8 0 C I A L P E -C U L I A R I T I E S O R B Y N A T I O N A L C O M P O S I T I O N O F T H E P O P U L A T I O N , M U S T E N J O Y W I D E S E L F - G O V E R N M E N T A N O A U T O N O M Y . . . " A N D I N 8 I S T E O T H A T A L L I N S T I T U T I O N S I N T H E 8 E A U T O N O M O U S A R E A S B E D E M O C R A T I C A L L Y O R G A N I Z E D . ^ L E N I N W A 8 A W A R E T H A T T H E U K R A I N E W A S J U S T S U C H A N A R E A F O R I T D I F F E R E D F R O M G R E A T R U S S I A B O T H I N S O -C I A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S A N O E T H N I C C O M P O S I T I O N . I N A C R I T I Q U E O F A P A P E R P R E S E N T E D B Y T H E D U M A D E P U T Y , S A V E N K O , L E N I N L A U G H E D A T T H E L A T T E R ' S S U G G E S T I O N T H A T T H E I N T E G R I T Y O F R U S S I A W A S 82 E N D A N G E R E D B Y U K R A I N I A N A U T O N O M Y . I N 8 T E A D , L E N I N 8 U G G E 8 T E D T H A T A N E X A C T L Y O P P O S I T E R E 8 U L T W O U L D O C C U R B Y A S K I N G I F I T W A S N O T P 0 8 8 I B L E M T O C E M E N T T H E I N T E G R I T Y O F R U 8 S I A B Y G R A N T I N G A U T O N O M Y T O T H E U K R A I N E •.O•"35 A S W I T H T H E C O N C E P T O F S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N . 8 0 W I T H T H E O O N C E P T O F A U T O N O M Y ; L E N I N B E L I E V E O T H A T I F A U T O N O M Y W A S G R A N T E O T H E U K R A I N E I M M E D I A T E L Y U P O N T H E U K -R A I N I A N P E O P L E ; E X P R E S S E D O E S I R E F O R I T , T H E Y W O U L D A S K F O R N O M O R E . T H E Y W O U L O B E S A T I S F I E D W I T H L I M I T E O A U T O N O M Y A N D N O T 8 E E K T H E N E X T 8 T E P — P O L I T I -C A L S E C E S S I O N A N O T H E C R E A T I O N O F A 8 E P A R A T E 8 T A T E , . T H U S T H E R I G H T O F A U -T O N O M Y W A S A O V A N C E O B Y L E N I N A S A N E G A T I V E S L O G A N . H E 8 U P P 0 R T E D I T B E C A U S E H E B E L I E V E O I T W A S N E C E S S A R Y T O 0 0 8 0 I N O R D E R T O R E T A I N T H E N A T I O N A L I T I E S O F T H E E M P I R E I N A C E N T R A L I Z E D S T A T E A F T E R T H E R E V O L U T I O N . A L T H O U G H T H E D E M A N D F O R C O M P L E T E N A T I O N A L I N D E P E N D E N C E W A S R A I S E D I M M E D I A T E L Y A F T E R T H E F E B R U A R Y R E V O L U T I O N O N L Y I N P O L A N D A N O F I N L A N D , W A R N -I N G S T H A T T H E U K R A I N E W A S S O O N T O F O L L O W T H E I R L E A D W E R E B E C O M I N G P R E V A L -E N T . 36 B Y A P R I L 1917, U K R A I N I A N P A R T I C U L A R I S M W A S B E C O M I N G E V E R M O R E E V I -D E N T . 3 7 L E N I N M U S T H A V E B E E N E X T R E M E L Y A N G E R E D B Y T H E R E S O L U T I O N O N U K R A I N -I A N A U T O N O M Y PA8SED B Y T H E U K R A I N I A N S O C I A L D E M O C R A T I C P A R T Y F O R , A L T H O U G H I T O F F I C I A L L Y R E Q U E S T E D O N L Y A U T O N O M Y , I T O E C I O E D W T 0 P E R M I T T H E C 0 M R A 0 E 8 O F T H E P A R T Y T O S U P P O R T T H E P R I N C I P L E O F A F E D E R A T E D O R G A N I Z A T I O N O F T H E R U S 8 1 A N D E M O C R A T I C R E P U B L I C . . . . **38 L . E N I N D E C I D E D T O P R E V E N T T H E 8 P R E A D O F T H I 8 I D E A B Y S T R E S S I N G T H E B O L S H E V I K ' 8 P R O G R A M O F R E G I O N A L A U T O N O M Y A T T H E A P R I L C O N F E R E N C E O F T H E RSDLP. S T A L I N D E L I V E R E D T H E R E P O R T O N T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N . "I B E L I E V E T H A T N O W , A F T E R T H E O V E R T H R O W O F T S A R I S M , " H E B E G A N , N I N E - T E N T H S O F T H E N A T I O N A L I T I E S W I L L N O T D E S I R E T O S E C E D E . T H E P A R T Y T H E R E F O R E P R O P O S E S T O I N 8 T I T U T E R E G I O N A L A U T O N O M Y F O R R E G I O N S W H I C H 0 0 N O T O E S I R E T O S E C E D E A N D W H I C H A R E D I S T I N G U I S H E D B Y P E C U L I A R I T I E S O F C U 8 T 0 M 8 A N D L A N G U A G E , A S , F O R I N S T A N C E , T R A N S C A U C A S I A , T U R K E 8 T A N A N D T H E U K R A I N E . T H E G E O G R A P H I C A L B O U N D A R I E S O F T H E S E A U T O N O M O U S R E G I O N S M U 8 T B E D E T E R M I N E D B Y T H E P O P U L A T I O N S T H E M 8 E L V E 8 W I T H D U E R E G A R D F O R E C O N O M I C C O N D I T I O N S , C U S T O M S , E T C . 3 9 83 A Y E A R L A T E R S T A L I N N O T E D T H A T T H E B 0 L 8 H E V I K S C O U L D 8 U P P 0 R T O N L Y 8 U C H A U T O -N O M Y I N WHICH P O W E R B E L O N G E D E X C L U S I V E L Y T O T H E W O R K E R S A N D P E A S A N T S A N O I N W H I C H T H E B O U R G E O I S W E R E " O E B A R R E O N O T O N L Y F R O M P O W E R , B U T E V E N F R O M P A R -T I C I P A T I O N I N T H E E L E C T I O N O F G O V E R N M E N T B O O l E S . " ^ T H U S E V E N A U T O N O M Y , L I K E S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N , W A 8 T O B E M A D E I N O P E R A T I V E W I T H O U T T H E P A R T Y ' 8 S A N C T I O N . I T I S I N T E R E S T I N G T O N O T E T H A T , W I T H R E 8 P E C T T O T H E U K R A I N E , L E N I N N E V E R S P E C I F I C A L L Y D I 8 C U S 8 E D T H E C U L T U R A L A S P E C T O F A U T O N O M Y . A G A I N T H I S W A S S O M E T H I N G H E L E F T U N T I L I T B E C A M E A B S O L U T E L Y N E C E S S A R Y T O D E A L W I T H I T . H E 8 U P P 0 R T E 0 T H E U 8 E O F T H E U K R A I N I A N L A N G U A Q E B U T B E L I E V E O T H A T T H E R E Q U I -R E M E N T S O F E C O N O M I C S W O U L D E X E R T S U F F I C I E N T P R E 8 8 U R E F O R T H E U L T I M A T E ' V I C -T O R Y * O F R U S S I A N . ^ A T T H E E I G H T H P A R T Y C O N G R E S S , H O W E V E R , H E N O T E D R A T H E R C Y N I O A L L V T H A T * * A 8 R E G A R D S T H E L A N G U A G E I T 1 8 N O T C L E A R " . . . W H E T H E R T H E U K R A I N I A N L A N G U A G E T O D A Y I S T H E L A N G U A G E O F T H E C O M M O N P E O P L E O R N O T . " ^ 2 I F U K R A I N I A N W A S N O T T H E L A N G U A G E O F T H E U K R A I N I A N P E O P L E , W H A T W A S ? L E N I N D I D N O T 8 A Y . I N T H E F I E L D O F E D U C A T I O N L E N I N W A S V E H E M E N T L Y 8 E T A G A I N 8 T I T 8 D I -V I S I O N A M O N G T H E N A T I O N A L I T I E S B E C A U S E " T H E 8 C H 0 0 L M U S T B E T H E V E H I C L E , N O T M E R E L Y O F T H E G E N E R A L P R I N C I P L E 8 O F C O M M U N I 8 M B U T A L S O O F T H E I D E O L O G I C A L , O R G A N I S A T I O N A L A N O E D U C A T I O N A L I N F L U E N C E O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T O N T H E 8 E M I -P R O L E T A R I A N A N D N O N - P R O L E T A R I A N S E C T I 0 N 8 O F T H E W O R K I N G P E O P L E , I N O R D E R T O T R A I N A G E N E R A T I O N T H A T 1 8 F U L L Y C A P A B L E O F B U I L D I N G COMMUN18M."^3 I N 191 4 L E N I N H A D D E C I D E D T H A T " T H E W O R K E R S O F A L L N A T I O N S H A V E B U T O N E E D U C A T I O N A L P O L I C Y : F R E E D O M F O R T H E N A T I V E L A N G U A G E , A N D D E M O C R A T I C A N D S E C U L A R E D U C A -T I O N . "W B U T A F T E R T H E L E 8 8 0 N 8 O F T H E U K R A I N E , AFTER T H E D E F E A T O F D E N l K I N A N O T H E Y E A R O F A N A R C H Y , L E N I N W A S W I L L I N G T O MOO I F Y H I 8 P 0 8 I T I O N O N R E — G I O N A L A U T O N O M Y . W I T W T H E I N C E P T I O N O F U K R A I N I Z A T I O N ( T O B E O I S C U S 8 E 0 I N 84 A L A T E R C H A P T E R ) I T H A O 8 E 0 0 M E 0 B V I 0 U 8 T H A T L E N I N H A D T U R N E D F U L L C I R C L E A N D H A O N O W B E C O M E A N A O V O O A T E O F T H E F O R M E R L Y M U C H D E 8 P I S E 0 C U L T U R A L A U -T O N O M Y . W H I L E A U T O N O M Y I N A L I M I T E O F O R M W A S A C C E P T A B L E , F E D E R A L I S M W A S F O R L E N I N A N E S S E N T I A L L Y N E G A T I V E C O N C E P T A S I T W A S I N C O M P A T I B L E W I T H T H E C E N T -R A L I S T G O A L O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T . I T W A S P R I M A R I L Y I N O R D E R T O C O U N T E R A C T F E D E R A L I S T T E N D E N C I E S T H A T L E N I N W A 8 F O R C E D T O I N T R O D U C E T H E P R O P H Y L A C T I C C O N C E P T O F S E L F — O E T E R M I N A T I O N . A F T E R T H E R E V O L U T I O N , H O W E V E R , L E N I N D E E M E D I T W I 8 E T O I N T R O D U C E H I S 8 H A R P L Y C I R O U M 8 C R I B E D V E R 8 I O N O F F E D E R A L I 8 M A 8 A P A L L I A T I V E T O T H O S E N A T I O N S W H O H A D O C C A S I O N T O 0 I 8 C 0 V E R T H E T R U E M E A N I N G O F T H E B O L S H E V I K T H E O R Y O F S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N ( S E C E S S I O N ) . P R I O R T O T H E R E V O L U T I O N L E N I N B E L I E V E D T H A T T H E F E D E R A L I D E A W A S A N T I - H I S T O R I C A L B E C A U S E I T S E R V E D T O O 1 8 M A N T L E T H E U N I T A R Y M U L T I N A T I O N A L S T A T E . L O N G B E F O R E T H E S E C O N D C O N G R E S S O F T H E RSDLP H E W A R N E D T H E A R M E N I A N S o c 1 A L — D E M O C R A T S T H A T I T W A S " N O T T H E B U S I N E S S O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T T O P R E A C H F E D E R A L I S M A N O A U T O N O M Y } / B E C A U S E T H E 8 E D E M A N O 8 ^ . . . I N E V I T A B L Y A M O U N T T O A D E M A N D F O R T H E E S T A B L I S H M E N T O F A N A U T 0 N 0 M 0 U 8 C L A S S S T A T E . **^6 L E N I N W A S A B S O L U T E L Y F A I T H F U L T O T H E B E L I E F T H A T T H E T A S K O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T W A S S O L E -L Y M T O R A L L Y T H E G R E A T E 8 T P 0 S 8 I B L E M A S 8 E 8 O F W O R K E R S O F E A C H A N O E V E R Y N A -T I O N A L I T Y M O R E 0 L 0 8 E L V ...."^ 7 A T T H E S E C O N D C 0 N G R E 8 S , S P E A K I N G P R I M A R I L Y W I T H R E G A R D T O T H E P A R T Y B U T I N C L U D I N G T H E S T A T E F O R M S O F F E D E R A L I S M A S W E L L , H E W A R N E D T H A T . . . F E D E R A T I O N I S H A R M F U L A N D R U N S C O U N T E R T O T H E P R I N C I P L E S O F S O C I A L -O E M O C R A C Y A S A P P L I E D T O E X 1 8 T I N G R U S S I A N C 0 N 0 I T I 0 N 8 . F E O E R A T I O N 1 8 H A R M F U L B E C A U 8 E I T 8 A N C T I 0 N 8 S E G R E G A T I O N A N O A L I E N A T I O N , E L E V A T E S T H E M T O A P R I N C I P L E , T O A L A W . C O M P L E T E A L I E N A T I O N D 0 E 8 I N D E E D P R E V A I L A -M O N G U S , A N O W E O U G H T N O T T O S A N C T I O N I T , O R C O V E R I T W I T H A F I G — L E A F B U T C O M B A T I T A N D R E S O L U T E L Y A C K N O W L E D G E A N D P R O C L A I M T H E N E C E 8 8 I T Y O F F I R M L Y A N D U N S W E R V I N G L Y A D V A N C I N G T O W A R D S T H E C L 0 8 E 8 T U N I T Y . 4 9 I T S H O U L D B E N O T E D , H O W E V E R , T H A T I N T H I S S P E E C H L E N I N W A S C A R E F U L T O S T A T E 85 T H A T F E D E R A L I S M W A 8 I N C O N C E I V A B L E W A 8 A P P L I E D T O T H E E X I S T I N G RuSSI A N C O N -D I T I O N S . " T H I S W A S T O B E C O M E A N I M P O R T A N T Q U A L I F I C A T I O N . T E N V E A R 8 L A T E R , I N H I S T H E 8 E S O N T H E N A T I O N A L Q . U E 8 T I 0 N , L E N I N S H O W -E D T H A T H E W A S S T I L L U N A L T E R A B L Y 0 P P 0 8 E 0 T O F E D E R A L I S M . A N O V E R A L L V I E W O F R U S S I A N E C O N O M I C A N D P O L I T I C A L C O N D I T I O N S , H E D E C L A R E D , D E M A N D 8 T H A T S O C I A L — D E M O C R A C Y S H O U L D U N I T E U N C O N D I T I O N A L L Y W O R K E R S O F A L L N A T I O N A L I T I E S I N A L L P R O L E T A R I A N O R G A N 1 8 A T 1 0 N 8 W I T H O U T E X C E P T I O N ( P O L I T I C A L , T R A D E U N I O N , C O - O P E R A T I V E , E O U C A T I O N A L , E T C . , E T C . ) . T H E P A R T Y S H O U L D N O T B E F E D E R A T I V E I N S T R U C T U R E A N D S H O U L O N O T F O R M N A T I O N -A L S O C I A L - D E M O C R A T I C G R O U P S B U T S H O U L D U N I T E T H E P R O L E T A R I A N S O F A L L N A T I O N 8 I N T H E G I V E N L O C A L I T Y , C O N D U C T P R O P A G A N D A A N O A G I T A T I O N I N A L L L A N G U A G E S O F T H E L O C A L P R O L E T A R I A T , P R O M O T E T H E C O M M O N S T R U G G L E O F T H E W O R K E R S O F A L L N A T I O N S A G A I N 8 T E V E R Y K I N O O F N A T I O N A L P R I V I L E G E A N O S H O U L D R E C O Q N I 8 E T H E A U T O N O M Y O F L O C A L A N O R E G I O N A L P A R T Y O R G A N I S A -T I O N S . 50 I N T H E L E T T E R T O S H A U M I A N , L E N I N E M P H A S I Z E D T H A T T H E P A R T Y W A S O P P O S E O T O F E D E R A T I O N I N P R I N C I P L E B E C A U S E I T L 0 0 8 E N E D E C O N O M I C B O N O S A N O T H E R E F O R E W A 8 U N A C C E P T A B L E F O R A U N I T A R Y 8 T A T E . N E V E R T H E L E S S , T H E E X I S T I N G C O N D I T I O N S I N T H E R U S S I A N E M P I R E C O M P E L -L E D L E N I N T O A D O P T A M O R E C O N C I L I A T O R Y A T T I T U D E T O W A R D F E D E R A L I S M A N D I N T H E 8 U M M E R O F 1914 H E N O T E D T H A T M A R X H A O A D V O C A T E D T H E S E P A R A T I O N O F I R E -L A N D F R O M E N G L A N D E V E N T H O U G H F E D E R A T I O N M I G H T C O M E A F T E R T H I S D I V I S I O N . M A R X ' S T H E O R E T I C A L B A S I S F O R T H I S C O N C L U S I O N W A S H I S A N A L Y S I S O F T H E C O N -C R E T E H I S T O R I C A L C O N D I T I O N S P R E V A I L I N G I N B O T H E N G L A N D A N D I R E L A N D . 52 L E N -I N , R A T H E R 8 U R P R 1 8 I N G L Y , H A 8 T E N E D T O A P P L Y T H 1 8 M A R X I A N C O N C E P T I O N T O T H E R U S S I A N E M P I R E A N D A N N O U N C E D T H A T T H E E C O N O M I C T I E S B E T W E E N I R E L A N D A N D E N G L A N D I N T H E 1 8 6 0 * 8 W E R E , O F C O U R S E , E V E N C L 0 8 E R T H A N R U 8 8 L A ' 8 P R E 8 E N T T I E 8 W I T H P O L A N D , T H E UK-R A I N E , E T C . . . . T H O U G H , I N P R I N C I P L E , A N E N E M Y O F F E D E R A L I S M , M A R X I N T H I S I N S T A N C E G R A N T E O T H E P O S S I B I L I T Y O F F E D E R A T I O N , A 8 W E L L , I F O N L Y T H E E M A N C I P A T I O N O F I R E L A N O W E R E A C H I E V E D I N A R E V O L U T I O N A R Y , N O T R E -F O R M l 8 T W A Y , T H R O U G H A M O V E M E N T O F T H E M A S S O F T H E P E O P L E O F I R E L A N D S U P P O R T E D B Y T H E W O R K I N G C L A 8 8 O F E N G L A N D . T H E R E C A N B E N O D O U B T T H A T O N L Y S U C H A S O L U T I O N O F T H E H I S T O R I C A L P R O B L E M W O U L O H A V E B E E N I N T H E B E 8 T I N T E R E 8 T 8 O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T A N O M 0 8 T C O N D U C I V E T O R A P 1 0 8 0 C I A L P R 0 G R E 8 S . 53 86 SuPERFICI A L L Y T H I 8 S T A T E M E N T S E E M S T O B E A S I G N I F I C A N T C Q N O S 8 8 I ON T O F E D E R -A L I S M . IF, H O W E V E R , I T I S F » E A O I N T H E L E N I N I S T C O N T E X T , I T D E N O T E S ONLY T H E 8 L I G H T E 8 T 8 H I F T I N H I S F O R M E R A N T I - F E D E R A L S T A N C E . T H E E S S E N C E OF T H E A B O V E S T A T E M E N T I S T H A T F E O E R A T 5 O N I S P O S S I B L E O NLY I F E M A W C I P A T 3 ON 1 3 A -C H I E V E D I N A R E V O L U T I O N A R Y W A V . 8-UT I F I T 1 8 A C H I E V E D I N A " R E V O L U T I O N A R Y W A Y " T H E N T H E R E W O U L O B C N O N E E D F O R S E 0 E 8 S I O N AND T H E C O N S E Q U E N T F E D E R A L -ISM B E C A U S E , B Y L E N I N ' S O W N A D M I S S I O N , O N L Y T H E P R O L E T A R I A T C O U L D D O T H I S I N A R E V O L U T I O N A R Y , N O N - R E F O R M I S T M A N N E R A N O , S Y O E F I N I T T O N , T H E TOOLSTARI A T C O U L D N E V E R W I S H T O S E O E D C . W I T H T H E A D V E N T O F T H E W A R , L E N « N ° 0 A T T I T U O E TOWARD F E D E R A L I S M B S > C A M E S L I G H T L Y M O R E F A V O R A B L E . " N E V E R IM F A V O R O F .PETTY S T A T E S , OR T H E S P -L I T T I N G U P O F S T A T E S I N G E N E R A L , O R T H E P R S W C 0 P L E OF ' F E O E R A T I O N , W L E M I N NO-T E D T H A T " M A R X C O N S I D E R E D T H E S E P A R A T I O N O F . A N O P P R E S S E D N A T I O N TO B E A S T E P T O W A R O S F E O E R A T I O N , A N D C O N S E Q U E N T L Y , NOT. TOWARDS. A S T P L S T , B U T T O W A R D S C O N -C E N T R A T I O N , B O T H P O L I T I C A L A N D E O O N O M I O , B U T C O N O E N T R A T I O N O N T H E B A S I S O F O E M O O R A C Y . " 5 ^ L E N I N A L S O I N V O K E D T H E A I D O F ' E N G C L S OW T H E F E D E R A L Q U E S T I O N . I N T H E S T A T E A N O R E V O L U T I O N , P U B L I S H E O I N T H E L A T E SUMMER O F 1917, L E N I N R E -M A R K E D T H A T * * . . . E N G E L 8 R E C K O N E D W I T H T H E P L A I N F A O T T H A T TME N A T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N / E V E N I N B R I T A I N / W A S N O T V E T A T H I N G O F T H E P A S T S A N D R E C O G N I S E D IW C O N -S E Q U E N C E T H A T T H E E S T A B L I S H M E N T OF A F E D E R A L R E P U B L I C W O U L D B E A " S T E P F O R -W A R D " . " 5 5 A F T E R T H E R E V O L U T I O N , T H E O O N O E P T O F F E D E R A L I S M UIAQ I N C L U D E D I N T H E P A R T Y P R O G R A M . H O W E V E R , T H E P A R T Y B 8 G O A L W A S N O T F E D E R A L I S M OUT C E N T R A L I S M . A T T H E E X T R A O R D I N A R Y S E V E N T H C O N G R E S S O F T H E RCP(B) I N MARCH 1 9 1 8 L E N I N P E R -C E I V E D F E D E R A L I S M " A S A T R A N S I T I O N T O A O O N S C I O U S AM© C L O S E R U N I T Y O F T H E W O R K I N G P E O P L E , W H E N T H E Y H A V S L E A R N T VFIUIOTABFEV- TO • - R I F S E ' A B O V E N A T I O N A L O I S.« 8 E N S I 0 N . ..."56 A S A R E 8 U L T F E D E R A L I S M W A ® A D O P T S © SV, T H E P A R T Y . \ W A S . A T R A N — 87 S I T I O N A L S T E P T O W A R D S C O M P L E T E U N I O N " A T T H E E L G H T H C O N G R E S S . ^ | N P R E P A R _ I N G A D R A F T T H E 8 E S O N T H E N A T I O N A L A N D C O L O N I A L Q U E 8 T I O N F O R T H E S E C O N D C O N -G R E S S O F T H E C O M M U N I 8 T I N T E R N A T I O N A L , L E N I N I N P O I N T S E V E N O F T H E D R A F T S T A T E D T H A T F E D E R A T I O N I S A T R A N S I T I O N T O T H E C O M P L E T E U N I T Y O F T H E W O R K I N G P E O -P L E O F D I F F E R E N T N A T I O N 8 . T H E F E A S I 8 I L I T V O F F E D E R A T I O N H A 8 A L R E A D Y B E E N D E M O N S T R A T E D I N P R A C T I C E B O T H S Y T H E R E L A T I O N S B E T W E E N T H E R.3, F.S. R, A N D O T H E R S O V I E T R E P U B L I C S ( T H E H U N G A R I A N , F I N N I S H A N O L A T V I A N I N T H E P A S T , A N D T H E A Z E R B A I J A N A N D U K R A I N I A N A T P R E S E N T ) . . . . 5 8 I N T H I 8 M A N N E R F E D E R A L 1 8 M N O T O N L Y B E C A M E A C C E P T A B L E T O L E N I N B U T W A S T O B E C O M E T H E I N S T R U M E N T T H R O U G H W H I C H T H E U N I T A R I A N 8 T A T E W A S T O B E A C H I E V E D . A F T E R T H E D I S R U P T I O N O F T H E E M P I R E T H E O O N C E P T O F F E D E R A L I S M W A S D I A L E C T I C A L L Y T R A N 8 F 0 R M E 0 F R O M A D I S I N T E G R A T I N G T O A U N I F Y I N G F O R C E A N D L E N I N , A L W A Y S C O G N I Z A N T O F A N E W T A C T I C A L W E A P O N , W A S W I L L I N G T O U T I L I Z E I T I N T H E Q U E 8 T O F H I S U L T I M A T E G O A L . A 3 A 8 T U D E N T O F S O V I E T F E D E R A L I S M H A S P O I N T E D O U T , T H E R E W E R E N O R E A L C 0 N C E 8 S I 0 N 8 T O T H E R E P U B L I C 8 A N D " F E D -E R A L I 8 M , A S A N I D E A , W A S A B L E T O 8 U R V I V E B E C A U 8 E I T W A 8 M E R E L Y A F O R M A L I N -8 T I T U T I 0 N . . . . " 5 9 F E D E R A L I S M , W A S , F O R L E N I N A N D T H E B O L S H E V I K S , A N E S S E N T I A L L Y U N -F R U I T F U L C O N C E P T . A T T H E S E C O N D C O N G R E S S I T H A S B E E N N O T E D T H A T L E N I N A R -G U E D T H A T F E D E R A L I S M W A S H A R M F U L B E C A U 8 E I T R A N " C O U N T E R T O T H E P R I N C I P L E S O F S O C I A L O E M P C R A C Y A S A P P L I E D T O E X I S T I N G R U S S I A N C O N D I T I O N S . . . [kuoj B E -C A U S E I T 8 A N C T I O N S S E G R E G A T I O N A N D A L I E N A T I O N , E L E V A T E 8 T H E M T O A P R I N C I P L E , A L A W . " 6 ° B U T L E N I N W A S N O T T O B E T R A P P E D I N T O M A K I N G A N U N C O N D I T I O N A L S T A -T E M E N T : I T S H O U L D B E S T R E 8 8 E D T H A T H E S A I D F E D E R A L I S M W A S H A R M F U L " A S A P -P L I E D T O E X I S T I N G R U 8 8 I A N C O N D I T I O N S . " T E N Y E A R S L A T E R , I N 1913» T H E S E " C O N D I T I O N S " M U S T N O T H A V E S I G N I F I -C A N T L Y C H A N G E D B E C A U S E L E N I N , I N H I 8 L E T T E R T O S H A U M I A N , W H I L E E X P R E S S I N G A P P R O V A L O F T H E C O N C E P T O F A U T O N O M Y , D E C L A R E D T H A T T H E B 0 L 8 H E V I K 8 W E R E " ( N 88 F A V O U R OF DEMOCRAT I 0 ' C E N T R A L 1 8 M W ANO WERE THEREFORE "OPPOOBO' . TP .'FSDERA- . •. T«6MO c*^1 : I N T H I a LETTER I T B E O A M E C L E A R T H A T L E N I N ' A P P R O V E D • AUTONOMY AWD OPPOSED FEDERAL I B M O E C A U S E THE O E N T R A L P A R L I A M E N T DETERMINED THE LIMITS O F AUTONOMY WHILE,, BY I M P L I O A T I O N , ' I T . D ID NOT HAVES A N Y . 8 / I M I L A R C O N T R O L W I T H RESPECT;' TO PEQSRAL'-ISMo. THU8 L E N I N " R E t J S O T S Q F E D E R A L I S M S S 0 A U 8 E , U N L I K E A U -TONOMY j I T WAS I N C O M P A T 1 8 L E WITH. THE DESPISE @F C E N T R A L I S M HE B E L I E V E D &*A8 R E Q U I R E O F O R T H E ' S O C I A L I S T ' STATS ' * T H E RlQHT. TO F S O E R A L I S f t r 1 8 8 IMPLY M E A N -I N G L E S S ' , " A 8 3 E R T E O L E N I N I N H I Q P O L E M I C S W I T H ROOA LuKSK l SURG , . % I N O E F E O E R -A T I ON I M P L I E S ' A B I L A T E R A L C O N T R A C T * I T GOES W I T H O U T S A Y I NG THAT MARXISTS CANNOT I N O L U O S T H E O E F E N O E O F F E D E R A L 1EM J^SSBJ&fSQL •« THE I R.' PROGRAMME* *62 A G A I N L E N I N HAD. Q U A L I F I E D H I 8 ; 8 T A T G M £ N T ' i w, ORBSR THAT ME M I G H T M E E T E K O B P - " T I O N A L C I RO'UMO T A N C B 8 I N THE &108T EXPEDIENT RSANejgjR W I T H O U T B B ! NG - U N N E 0 E 8 -8 A R I L Y R E S T R I C T E D . ' BY. P A S T THBORKT I O A L 'PROvljOUNOEMSNTO* ' .THERE C A N B E WO DO U B T THAT L E N I N WAO OPPOSEO' 'to F E D E R A L I S M A T A L L T I M E S B U T H E A L 8 Q T R I E D TO U S E THE CONCEPT WHEN ME SAW W A T NO O T H E R A L T E R — N A T I V E - W A S A V A I L A B L E * A G A I N , I T SMOULO B E { E M P H A S I Z E D THAT L E N I N N E V E R CON-8 I 0 B R E 0 FEDERAL I S M F O R THE PARTY OR OT H E R W O R K I N O ' 0 L A 8 8 O R G A N I E A T 1 0 W 8 - O U T A0MIT1S0' YO.«B COND CT80NAL U S E F U L N E S S ONLV W 6 TH REGARD TO THE. 8 T A T B * A L T H O U G H I T t'e T R U E , A S CH E R N O V OBats&vss, THAT ONLY, T H E S O C I A L I S T . R E V O L U T I O N A R I E S O F A L L T H E G R E A T R U S S I A N P A R T I E S P R O O R A I M A T I O A L L V ' A D O P T E D , T H E ' F E D E R A L F O R M O F S T A T E . S T R U C T U R E , I F 'SHOULD;. O S NOTEO.- THAT- A L R E A D Y I M 1914.LENIH RA! 8 ED T H E QUESTION, ALBEIT RATHER 'HALT IMGLV B. O F T H E P O S S I B I L I T Y OF T H E U K R A I N E ' S F E D E R A T I O N W I T H P O S T - K S V O L U T I O N A R V R U S S I A * ^ I N H I S ' A T — • T A C K ON SFTVENKO H E NOTED THAT F E D E R A L 18M WFT 8 W N O O B S T A C L E TO T H E . I N T E G -R I T Y * * OF T H B U N I T E D S T A T E S AND S W I T Z E R L A N D AND I M P L I E D T H A T ' I T M I G H T ACT' A S A CENTRI P E T A L F O R C E I M F U T U R E Ut<RA I NI A N - R u S - S M M R E L A T I O N S * ^ ' S OON A F T E R H I 8 ASSAULT ON. SAVENKO, L E N I N O B S E R V E D T H A T MARK HAD A D M i . T T E D T H E P 0 8 8 I B I L " 8 9 ITY OF FEDERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN ENGLAND ANO IRELAND AND ADDED THAT ECONO-MIC T I E S BETWEEN. THEM IN THE 1 8 6 0 * 8 WERE "EVEN CLOSER THAN R U 8 8 I A ' S PRE-SENT T I E S WITH POLAND, THE U K R A I N E , ETC. .».."^5 L A T E R IN H I S A R T I C L E ON " S O C I A L I S M AND THE WAR" HE ALSO I M P L I E D THAT F E D E R A L I S M WAS P E R M I S S I B L E IN C E R T A I N CIRCUMSTANCES ALTHOUGH HE DIO I N 8 I 8 T THAT IT BE M A C H I E V E O IN A RE-VOLUTIONARY, NOT REFORM 18T WAY...."66 THE S T I P U L A T I O N THAT F E D E R A L I S M BE ACHIEVEO I N A "REVOLUTIONARY" WAV WAS NOT I N 8 I G N I F I C A N T . A F T E R THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION THE B O L S H E V I K S WERE FACED WITH THE PRO-BLEM OF A R A P I D L Y D I S I N T E G R A T I N G E M P I R E . THE ADVOCACY OF F E D E R A L I S M WAS 8UPP08ED TO NOT ONLY 8TEM THE S E C E S S I O N I S T TIDE BUT ACTUALLY REVER8E IT.6? F E D E R A L I S M WAS THUS ADOPTED BY THE PARTY FOR PURELY T A C T I C A L REASONS AND I N B 0 L 8 H E V I K THEORY IT REMAINED A8 A MORE OR L E S S EPHEMERAL CONCEPT. AT THE THIRD A L L - R U S S I A N CONGRESS OF S O V I E T S OF JANUARY 1 9 1 8 L E N I N DECLARED THAT "THE NEW 8Y8TEM OF THE 8OCIALI8T S O V I E T R E P U B L I C , AS A F E D E R A T I O N OF F R E E R E P U B L I C S OF THE D I F F E R E N T NATIONS I N H A B I T I N G R U 8 8 L A , HAS B E E N F I N A L L Y ACCEPTED I N T H I 8 COUNTRY IN THE 8PHERE OF DOMESTIC POL I T I C 8 . " 6 8 | N H | 8 DRAFT THE8E8 FOR THE SECOND C0NGRE88 OF THE COMINTERN, HOWEVER, L E N I N CAN-D I D L Y ANNOUNCED WHAT FEDERAL 18M MEANT FOR H I M WITH RE8PECT TO THE U K R A I N E : IT WAS NOTHING BUT A TRAN8ITIONAL FORM ON THE WAV TO COMPLETE UNITY.69 ON DECEMBER 30, 1917 L E N I N PROCLAIMED THAT THE COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S COMMISSARS RECOGNIZED "THE NATIONAL DEMANDS OF THE U K R A I N I A N S , THE INDEPEN-DENCE OF T H E I R PEOPLE'8 R E P U B L I C , ANO ITS RIGHT TO FEOERATE ...."^^ BUT 8 I N C E HE 8TATEO "PEOPLE *8 R E P U B L I C " IT WOULD SEEM THAT HE WAS NOT R E F E R R I N G TO THE RECOGNITION OF ANY OEMANO OF TH18 NATURE BY THE CENTRAL RAOA BECAU8E T H I S WAS, IN L E N I N ' S VIEW, A BOURGEOIS DEMOCRATIC I N S T I T U T I O N . E V E N AT T H I S EARLY OATE HE 0 I ST INGU18HE0 8ETWEEN THE A C O E P T A B I L I T Y OF F E D E R A L I S M FOR A BOURGEO18 R E P U B L I C AND A P E 0 P L E ° 8 ( S O V I E T ) R E P U B L I C . BY DECEMBER 1919 T H I S 9 0 D I S T I N C T I O N BECAME P A R T O F THE P A R T Y PROQRAM W H E N THE £ i OHTH PARTY CONGRESS ADOPTED A R E 8 0 L U T I 0 N ON FEDERATION. IT S I M P L Y STATED THAT "AS ONE OF THE TRANSITORY STAGES ON THE ROAD TO COMPLETE U N I T Y , THE PARTY P R 0 P 0 8 E 8 A F E D -ERAL COMMONWEALTH OF STATES ORGANIZED ON THE S O V I E T T Y P E • " 7 1 A8 E A R L Y A8 JANUARY 1 9 1 8 L E N I N ALLEGED THAT B 0 L 8 H E V I K THEORY OF F E -DERAL I8M HAO WON THE SUPPORT OF THE U K R A I N I A N MA88E8 ANO RESULTED I N THE AWAKENING OF T H E I R CLASS—COW8CI0U8NE88 ANO OF MOULDING THEM INTO A 8 O L I O A L -L I A N C E (PRESUMABLY WITH R U 8 S I A ) . ? 2 AT THE E lGHTH CONGRESS, WHICH AOOPTEO F E D E R A L I S M A8 PARTY P O L I C Y , IT WA8 MADE CLEAR WHO WAS TO G I V E E F F E C T TO THE F E D E R A L IDEA. SOON AFTER THE CONGRESS, L E N I N , I N A L E T T E R TO THE U K R A I N I A N P E O P L E , INFORMED THEM THAT THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE U K R A I N E HA8 S E E N RECOGNISED BOTH B Y THE A L L -R U S S I A CENTRAL E X E C U T I V E COMMITTEE OF THE R . S . F . S . R . ... AND BY THE R U S S I A N COMMUNIST PARTY ( B O L S H E V I K S ) . IT I S THEREFORE S E L F - E V I D E N T ANO GENERALLY RECOGNISED THAT ONLY THE U K R A I N I A N WORKERS ANO PEA8ANT8 THEM8ELVE8 CAN AND W I L L OECTOE AT T H E I R A L L - U K R A I N E C0NGRE88 OF S O V I E T 8 WHETHER THE U K R A I N E S H A L L AMALGAMATE WITH R U S S I A , OR WHETHER SHE SHALL REMAIN A SEPARATE ANO INDEPENDENT R E P U B L I C , ANO I N THE L A T T E R C A 8 E , WHAT FEDERAL T I E 8 S H A L L BE E 8 T A B L I 8 H E D BETWEEN THAT R E P U 8 L I C AND RUS-S I A . 7 3 L E N I N HAO ALREADY DETERMINED THE R E L A T I O N S H I P THAT WAS TO E X I S T B E -TWEEN THE TWO R E P U B L I C 8 ANO HE HAO A L 8 0 OETERMINEO THE TYPE OF GOVERNMENT THE U K R A I N E WOULD HAVE. THE FOLLOWING QUOTATION SHOWS THAT L E N I N DID NOT D I S T I N G U I S H I N FACT BETWEEN THE EXTERNAL FORMS OF R E L A T I O N S BETWEEN THE RE-P U B L I C S BECAUSE THE FORM MATTERED L I T T L E ! S O V I E T POWER I N THE U K R A I N E HAS ITS OWN S P E C I A L T A S K S . ONE OF THESE S P E C I A L TASKS DE8ERVE8 THE GREATE8T ATTENTION AT THE PRE8ENT MOMENT, IT I S THE NATIONAL QUESTION, ... THE QUESTION OF WHETHER THE U K R A I N E 18 TO BE A 8EPARATE ANO INDEPENDENT U K R A I N I A N S O V I E T S 0 C I A L I 8 T REPUB-L I C BOUND IN A L L I A N C E ( F E O E R A T I O N ) WITH THE R U S S I A N S 0 C I A L I 8 T FEDERA-T I V E S O V I E T R E P U B L I C , QR WHETHER THE UKRAINE I S TO AMALGAMATE WITH RUS-S I A TO FORM A S I N G L E S O V I E T R E P U B L I C . 7 4 THERE I S NO DOUBT THAT L E N I N WOULD HAVE PREFERRED THE L A T T E R A L T E R N A T I V E BUT, S I N C E THE RE8ULT WAS E S S E N T I A L L Y THE SAME I N E I T H E R C A S E , IT WA8 NOT AN IMPORTANT D I S T I N C T I O N . F E D E R A T I O N WOULD ONLY RESULT IN THE CREATION OF 9\ F O R M A L A D M I N I S T R A T I V E M A C H I N E R Y T O D E A L W I T H T H E U K R A I N E A N O T H E C R E A T I O N O F A U K R A I N I A N G O V E R N M E N T W H I C H W O U L D B E C E N T R A L L Y D I R E C T E D , . I N H I S A D D R E S S T O T H E U K R A I N I A N P E O P L E L E N I N A L S O R E S T A T E D H I S T H E O -R E T I C A L C A N O N T H A T T H E B 0 L 8 H E V I K S W A N T E D W A V O L U N T A R Y U N I O N O F N A T I O N S — A U N I O N W H I C H P R E C L U D E S A N Y O O E R C I O N O F O N E N A T I O N B Y A N O T H E R 0 • • B U T I N T H E V E R Y N E X T P A R A G R A P H , A P P A R E N T L Y I N 0 I 8 R E G A R 0 O F T H E A B O V E S T A T E M E N T A N O H I S N U M E R O U S 8 T R I C T U R E 8 O N C O E R C I O N , H E R E C O M M E N D E D T H E U S E O F V I O L E N C E A -G A I N 8 T A N Y M A N I F E S T A T I O N O F U K R A I N I A N N A T I O N A L I S M . " W E M U 8 T , M H E L E C T U R E D , * ' . . . 8 T R I V E P E R 8 1 8 T E N T L Y F O R T H E U N I T Y O F N A T I O N S A N O R U T H L E 8 8 L Y 8 U P P R E 8 8 E V E R Y T H I N G T H A T T E N 0 8 T O D I V I D E T H E M , A N D I N D O I N G 8 0 W E M U S T B E V E R Y P A -T I E N T , A N D M A K E C 0 N C E 8 8 I 0 N 8 T O T H E S U R V I V A L O F N A T I O N A L 0 | 8 T R U 8 T . W ? 6 T H E M E A N I N G O F T H I 8 S T A T E M E N T P R O B A B L Y W A S W A T A N Y P O L I T I C A L M A N I F E S T A T I O N O F I N D E P E N D E N C E W O U L D B E 0 E 8 T R 0 Y E 0 W H I L E P A R T I C U L A R I S T I C C U L T U R A L M A N I F E S T A -T I O N S W O U L D B E T O L E R A T E D I N O R D E R T O G A I N T H E C O N F I D E N C E O F T H E U K R A I N I A N M A 3 3 E 8 . B E F O R E T H E B O L S H E V I K R E V O L U T I O N L E N I N W A S G E N E R A L L Y O P P O S E D T O F E D -E R A L I S M . S I N C E I T W O U L D L E A D T O T H E D I S I N T E G R A T I O N O F T H E R U S S I A N E M P I R E A N D T H E F O R M A T I O N O F S M A L L S T A T E S A N D S M A L L E O O N O M I C U N I T 8 I T W A S V I E W E D A S A R E A C T I O N A R Y C O N C E P T . B U T A F T E R O O T O B E R , W H E N T H E U K R A I N E H A O P R O C L A I M E D I T S I N D E P E N D E N C E , T H E C O N C E P T O F F E D E R A L I S M W A 8 D I A L E C T I C A L L Y T R A N S F O R M E D I N T O A R E V O L U T I O N A R Y F O R C E B E C A U S E I T B E C A M E A T R A N S I T I O N A L 8 T A G E O N T H E R O A D T O T H E C O M P L E T E U N I T Y O F T H E U K R A I N E A N O R U S S I A . F E D E R A L I S M W A S N O T P E R M I T T E D F O R T H E P A R T Y , H O W E V E R , A N D T H E CP(B)U R E M A I N E D O N L V A R E G I O N A L B R A N C H O F T H E P A R T Y . T H U S L E N I N ' S C O U N T E N A N C E O F F E D E R A T I O N OlO N O T M A R K A C H A N G E I N H I 8 P O L I T I C A L B E L E I F 8 B U T W A S M E R E L Y T H E R E F L E C T I O N O F A C H A N G -E D P O L I T I C A L S I T U A T I O N . 92 CHAPTER I V ? FOOTNOTES 1. S E E L E N I N ' S A R T I C L E "HOW DOES B I S H O P NIKON DEFEND THE U K R A I N -I A N S ? " I N L E N I N X I X , P P . 379-81. 2. S E E SHAHEEN, P P . 37-38, 81-83; KOHN, P. 80. 3. L E N I N , V I , p. 334. E M P H A S I S ADDED. S E E I B I D . . V I I , P.97, WHERE L E N I N S T A T E S THAT "NOT ONLY I N "SOME 9 QUESTIONS OF THE PROGRAMME, BUT I N A L L WITHOUT E X C E P T I O N VOU ARE ALLOWED INDEPENDENCE, 'GENTLEMEN, BUT ONLY AS FAR AS CONCERNS T H E I R A P P L I C A T I O N TO THE S P E C I F I C FEATURES OF THE JEWISH P R O L E T A R I A T . **• I B I D . . V I , P. 335 -5« S E E leaJL., X I X P P . 248-50; I B J J L . , X X , P P . 38, 100. ALSO S E E BO R Y 8 , P. 50; B.D. WOLFE, THREE WHO MAOE A REVOLUTION. (BOSTON* BEACON, 1959), R. 579. 6. I B I O . . X I X , p. 357J S E E I B I D . . X I X , > P . 116 . . 7« I B I O . . P. 429. EMPHA 8 1 8 AODEO. 8. I B I D . . P. 503* 9. I B I D . , P. 428. 10. I B I D . , P. 542. I N I B I D . , P. 505, L E N I N BAYS THAT CULTURAL NA-TIONAL AUTONOMY I S "THE ABSOLUTELY PURE AND CONSISTENT SEGREGATING OF EDU-C A T I O N AOCOROING TO N A T I O N A L I T Y . . . . " A L S O S E E I B I D . . X X , P. 43. 11. I B I O . . P P . 33-34. 12. I B I D . . X I X , p. 504. S E E I B I D . . X X , P. 36-39, A N D E S P E C I A L L Y THE A R T I C L E E N T I T L E D "THE N A T I O N A L I T Y OF P U P I L S IN R U S S I A N SCHOOLS" OF D E -CEMBER 14, 1913, IN I B I D . . X I X , P P . 531-33* P ° R FURTHER D I S C U S S I O N S E E SHAHEEN, P P . 84-86; BORYS, P. 315 C I U O I U R A , P P . 24-25» 13« L E N I N , X X , P P . 24-26. FOR A CURRENT S O V I E T INTERPRETATION OF L E N I N ' S "LAW OF THE TWO TENDENCIES I N THE NATIONAL Q U E S T I O N " AS EXPRESSEO IN H I S A R T I C L E " C R I T I C A L REMARKS ON THE NATIONAL Q U E S T I O N , " S E E T. I U . B u R M I 8 T R 0 V A , R A Z R A B O T K A V. I . LENINYM PROGRAMMY B O L ' 8 H E V I S T K O I PARTI I PO  N A T 8 1 O N A L ' N O M Y V A P R Q B U ( 1 9 1 0 - 1 9 1 4 ) ( M O S C O W : G 0 8 U O A R 8 T V E N N O E I Z D A T E L * STVO " V Y S S H A I A SHKOLA". 1962), P P . 42-44. ALSO S E E LOW, P. 53. 14. L E N I N , X X I I , p. 146. 15. I B I D . . X X , p. 3 7 . 1 6 . S E E THE FOLLOWING FOR A D I S C U S S I O N OF T H I S POINT: WOLFE, P P . 580-81; P I P E S , THE G E N E S I S . . . . P. 77% Low, P P . 55-59, U . S . RESHETAR, A CON- C I S E HISTORY OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE S O V I E T UNION (NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 1964), P P . 1 0 1 - 0 3 . A 8 CLUCLURA, P. 18, P 0 I N T 8 OUT, HOWEVER, L E N I N D I D I N FACT ACCEPT THE FUNDAMENTALS OF R E N N E R 8 8 AND B A U E R 9 8 THEORY WHICH WA8 W T H E D I V I S I O N OF A MULTINATIONAL EMPIRE INTO A NUMBER OF 'NATIONAL*, L I N G U I 8 T I -93 CAt.LV HOMOGENOUS T E R R I T O R I E S WITH A C E R T A I N DEGREE OF SELF-GOVERN-MENT." IT WAS ONLY E X T R A T E R R I T O R I A L OR PERSONAL AUTONOMY THAT WA8 UNOON-O I T I O N A L L V REJEOTEO. IN T H I S RE8PECT S E E L E N I N , XIX, P. 247 • A L 8 0 8 E E SHAHEEN, P P . 54* 67-68, 79-84; BORYS, P P . 29-31* FOR A S T A L I N I S T INTER-P RETATION S E E 01MAN8HTEIN, P P . 114-15. FOR L E N I N ' S P E R C E P T I O N OF THE AUS-T R I A N PROGRAM 8 E E "A CONTRIBUTION TO THE H 1 8 T O R Y OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAMME IN A U S T R I A AND I N R U S S I A , " I N L E N I N , XX, P P . 99-101. 17. L E N I N , XX, p . 224. IN MAY 1914, I N A L E T T E R TO SHAUMIAN, L E N -IN'S REASONS FOR FAVORING REGIONAL AUTONOMY ARE RATHER OANDIOLY AOVANCEO. THE G I S T OF THE L E T T E R STATES THAT B 0 L 3 H E V I K SUPPORT OF REGIONAL AUTONOMY, E 8 P E C I A L L Y I N THE OUMA, WI L L N E U T R A L I Z E "THE S T U P I O I T Y OF CULTURAL-NATIONAL AUTONOMY, ANO K I L L THE SUPPORTER8 OF THI S 8TUP101 TY FOR GOOD." IS|D.« XXXV, P P . 142-43. 18. I B I D . . XIX, p . 500; I B I D . . XXXV, P P . 142-43. Low STATES COR-RECTLY THAT "THE E X P L A N A T I O N FOR LENIN'8 R E J E O T I O N OF F E D E R A L I S M ANO A P -PROVAL OF AUTONOMY L I E S I N THE B O L S H E V I K CONCEPT OF 'DEMOCRATIC C E N T R A L I S M * /J3ECAU8E7 T H I S CONCEPT A P P L I E D NOT MERELY TO THE 8TRUOTURE OF THE PARTY, BUT A L 8 0 TO THAT OF THE STATE AFTER THE 'PROLETARIAN* REVOLUTION." LOW, p . 109. FOR AN IN T E R E S T I N G A P P R A I S A L OF THE L E N I N I S T OONCEPT OF REGIONAL ( T E R R I T O R I A L ) AUTONOMY, S E E C I U O I U R A , P P . 19-23* 19* L E N I N , XX, P. 50. 20. I B I O . . P P . 50-51. SEE I B I D . . X I X , p p . 427-28. COMPARE L E N I N ' S CONCEPT OF AUTONOMY WITH THE 8 T I L L B 0 R N PROPOSAL OF THE PROV I S I O N A L GOVERN-MENT A8 8TATE0 I N "A DRAFT PROJECT FOR THE A R T I C L E 8 OF THE NEW FUNDAMENTAL LAWS CONCERNING AUTONOMY AND FEDERATION," BROWOCR ANO KERENSKY; P P . 319-20. ALSO S E E SHAHEEN, P P . 77-79* 21. L E N I N , X X I X , P. 195. S T A L I N ALSO AOOPTEO T H I S PRAGMATIC A P -PROACH. IN A MA8TERLY UNDERSTATEMENT OF MAY 10, 1918 HE WRYLY NOTED THAT "OF A L L THE REGIONS, FINLAND AND THE U K R A I N E , I THINK , ARE THE ONLY ONES THAT HAVE DECLARED THEM8ELVES D E F I N I T E L Y . THEY HAVE OECLARED IN FAVOR OF INDEPENDENCE." ACCORDING TO S T A L I N , THE8E COUNTRIES WERE GRANTED INDEPEN-DENCE BY THE BOLSHEVIK GOVERNMENT. HE EMPHASIZED THAT "WHEN THE COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S COMMISSARS BECAME CONVINCED THAT NOT ONLY THE B O U R G E O I S I E , BUT A L -SO THE PROLETARIAN ELEMENT8 OF THESE COUNTRIE8 WERE 8 T R I V I N G FOR INDEPEN-DENCE, THE8E COUNTRIES R E C E I V E D WHAT THEY DEMANDED WITHOUT ANY HINORANCE." S T A L I N , WORKS. IV, P. 88. 22. IB I D . . XIX, p . 499. 23• I B I D . . XX, P.72. SEE L E N I N ' S A R T I C L E " I S A COMPULSORY O F F I C I A L LANGUAGE NEEOEO?" OF JANUARY 1914. I B I D . , P P . 71-73* ALSO S E E C I U C I U R A , P P . 23-24. 24. IB t o . , XXIV, P. 472. COMPARE T H I S WITH L E N I N ' S STATEMENT ON THE B A S H K I R S , I N I B I D . . XXIX, p . 516. IT IS IN T E R E S T I N G TO MOTE THAT THE OLD PARTY PROGRAM INCLUDED THE O F F I C I A L 8TATE LANGUAGE BUT GAVE THE N A T I V E LANGUAGE EQUALITY I N THE NATIONAL AREA. IB ID.« XXIV, P. 472. FOR MORE ON THE LANGUAGE QUESTION S E E P L P E S , T~HE FORMATION.... P P . 45-46; SHAHEEN, P P . 109-10; KOHN, P. 80. 94 2 5 . L E N I N , XX, p. 35« 2 6 . I B I O . . p. 3 5 . ALSO S E E I B I D . . P . 42. 2 7 . FOR A HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF T H I S U K R A I N I A N NATIONAL C 0 N 8 C I 0 U 8 N E 8 8 8 E E RUONYT8KY, P P . 1381-14-05. 28. L E N I N , XIX, p. 3 5 6 . 29. JiLLB..9 P . 116. L E N I N CONTINUED. "WE ARE AGAINST NATIONAL CUL-TURE AS ONE OF THE SLOGANS OF BOURGEO18 N A T I O N A L I S M . WE ARE IN FAVOUR OF THE INTERNATIONAL CULTURE OF A F U L L Y DEMOCRATIC AND S O C I A L I S T P R O L E T A R I A T . " I B I D . , P. 1 1 6 . SEE RESHETAR, %ENJJ^,JDI^TJ^.UJCR^!JME, W P.5 . 3 0 . L E N I N , XIX, p. 116. 3 1 . I B I O . . P . 381. 32. I B I D . , P . 308. SEE I B I D . . XX, p. 2 3 « 3 3 » I B I D . . XIX, P. 5 0 0 . >4. I B I D . , P . 245. 3 5 « I B I D . , XX, p. 1 1 0 . SEE C I U C I U R A , P . 19* 3 6 . SEE CARR, P P . 286-89. RESHETAR STATES THAT VINNICHENKO C R I T I -C I Z E D THO8C WHO DREW ANALOG I E 8 WITH THE F I N N I S H INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT ANO ARGUED THAT THE F|NN8 WERE AT A MORE ADVANCED 8TAGE OF P O L I T I C A L DEVELOP-MENT THAN WERE THE U K R A I N I A N S . RESHETAR, THE U K R A I N I A N REVOLUTION. P P . 7 0 -75* RuONYT8KY ARGUES THAT T S A R I S T R U 8 8 I A APPEARED ALMOST OMNIPOTENT TO THE YOUNG ADVOCATE8 OF THE U K R A I N I A N lOEA AND THAT THEY "CONTENTED THEM8ELVE8 WITH THE TRADITIONAL C A L L FOR AN AUTONOMOU8 U K R A I N E I N A DECENTRALIZED ANO F E D E R A T I V E Ru88lA." RuONYTSKY, P. 1402. ExPANOlNG ON T H I S P O I N T , RuDNYT-8 K Y , ALLEGED-THAT AT THE 8TART OF THE WORLD WAR THE U K R A I N I A N MOVEMENT PRE-SENTED A REAL POWER FACTOR BUT S T I L L RETAINED THE C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF A 'MOVEMENT*. IT HAO NOT YET APPROACHED THE L E V E L OF DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL C0N8CIOUSNE88 A8 HAO THE P O L E S , CZECHS ANO FLWNS AND IT WAS ONLY DURING THE REVOLUTION THAT T H I S OCCURRED. I B I D . , P . 1404. EVEN T H I S , HOWEVER, I S A MOOT POI N T . 37 • PALEOLOGUE WROTE ON MARCH 3 0 , 1917 THAT "THE MOST DANGEROUS GERM INVOLVED I N THE REVOLUTION HA8 B E E N D E V E L O P I N G DURING THE L A 8 T FEW OAY8 WITH THE M08T ALARMING R A P I D I T Y . " TH18 "GERM* WAS THE DEMAND BY THE N A T I O N A L I T I E S , INOLUDING THE U K R A I N E , FOR "INOEPENOENCE, OR, F A I L I N G THAT, COMPLETE AUTONOMY." WHAT 18 M08T I N T E R E S T I N G I S PALEOLOGUE 98 INTERPRETA-TI O N OF T H I S PHENOMENON:" ... THE PRESENT MOVEMENT I S S E P A R A T I S T MUCH MORE THAN PART I C U L A R 1 S T , 8 E C E 8 8 I 0 N I 8 T RATHER THAN F E D E R A L I 8 T J IT TENDS. TO NOTH-ING L E S S THAN NATIONAL D I S I N T E G R A T I O N . M. P A L I O L O G U E , AN AMBASSADOR*S MEMOIRS. VOL. Ill, TRANSLATED BY F.A. HOLT . (NEW YORK: GEORGE H. OORAN, N. O . ) , P P . 276-77. 3 8 . BROWOER AND KEREN8KY, P. 3 7 2 . 39* S T A L I N , WORKS. VOL. Ml, P.5 . 40. I B I O . . IV, P . 89. 41. SEE L E N I N , XIX, P P . 3 5 4 - 5 6 . 42. I B I O . . XXIX. p. 194 . 43. I B I D . , P. 1 1 1 . FOR AN E A R L I E R STATEMENT S E E I B I D . , XX, P.224. 4 4 . I B I D . , P . 224. SEE BORYS, P . 31 i C I U C I U R A , P P . 24 -25. 95 4 5 . SEE TOWSTER, P P . 80-81. CHAMBERLIN S T A T E S THAT "SOVIET S E L F -DETERM I NAT I ON F I N08 E X P R E 8 8 I ON MAINLY IN THE F I ELO OF CULTURAL-AUTONOMY"'. W. CHAMBERLIN, "SOVIET RACE AND NATIONALITY P O L I C I E S . " RUSSIAN REVIEW. V (AUTUMN, 1 9 4 5 ) , 8. 4 6 . I B I O . . V I , P. 328. 4?. I B I O . 48. L E N I N WAS FOND OF R E F E R I N G TO FEDERATION AS A " F I G - L E A F " . See I B I D . , P. 463. ^ 9 . I B I D . , P. 4 8 6 . 50. I B I D . . X I X , p . 249. L C N I N , I N THE NEXT PARAGRAPH, NOTED THAT AT THE DECEMBER 1908 CONFERENCE OF THE RSDLP A S P E C I A L RESOLUTION WAS ADOP-TED "CONFIRMING THE DEMAND FOR THE UNITY OF W0RKER8 OF A L L ... N A T I O N A L I T I E S , ON A P R I N C I P L E OTHER THAN F E O E R A T I O N " ANO THAT T H I S WA8 S T I L L I N E F F E C T IN 1913- I B I D . , P. 2 4 9 . 5 1 . I B I D . , P. 500. FOR A D I S C U S S I O N OF THE FOREGOING, S E E WOLFE, P P . 589-90; SHAHEEN, 76-77; Low, P P . 89-90, 105-10; TOWSTER, P P . 61-63-52. L E N I N , XX, p . 4 4 0 . 53. I B I O . . P. 4 4 1 . 54. I B I D . . X X I , p . 4 1 0 . 55« I B I O . . XXV, P. 4 4 7 . L E N I N ALSO ADDED THAT " I T I S EXTREMELY IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT E N G E L S , ARMEO WITH F A C T 8 , DISPROVED BY A M08T P R E -C I S E EXAMPLE THE P R E J U D I C E WHICH IS VERY WIDESPREAD, P A R T I C U L A R L Y AMONG P E T -TY BOURGEOIS DEMOCRATS, THAT A FEDERAL R E P U B L I C N E C E 8 8 A R I L Y MEAN8 A GREATER AMOUNT OF FREEDOM THAN A CENTRAL 18EO R E P U B L I C THI 8 18 WRONG." I B I O . . p . 4 4 8 . SEE C I U C I U R A , P P . 26-27; BORYS, P P . 33-34» 56. L E N I N , X X V I I , P. 155* L A T E R , S P E A K I N G ON "INTERNATIONAL P O L I -C Y , " L E N I N S A I D THAT FEDERATION WAS "A T R A N S I T I O N TO VOLUNTARY F U S I O N . " I B I D . , P. 158. 57« BUKHARIN, P. 39^» COMPARE WITH J.H. M E I S E L ANO E.S. KOZERA, EDS., MATERIALS FOR THE STUDY OF THE SOVIET SYSTEM. (ANN ARBORS GEORGE WAHR, 1 9 5 3 ) , P. 108. 58. L E N I N , X X X I , P P . 146-47. 59» A S P A T U R I A N , P. 29. FOR A FURTHER D I S C U S S I O N OF SOVIET FEDER-A L I S M S E E C I U C I U R A , P P . 3-64; A S P A T U R I A N , P P . 20 -51; Low, P P . 110-111; L. S C H A P I R O . THE; COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION (LONDON: METHUEN, 1963), PP.221 - 2 2 ; S.V. UTECHIN* RUSSIAN P O L I T I C A L THOUGHT: A CONCISE HISTORY. (NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 1964), P. 2 2 5 . FOR S T A L I N ' S CONCEPT OF F E D E R A L I S M , S E E R. H. MCNEAL, "S T A L I N ' S CONCEPTION OF SoviEt F E D E R A L I S M (1918 - 1 9 2 3 ) . " THE, ANNALS OF THE U K R A I N I A N ACADEMY OF ARTS AND S C I E N C E S IN THE U.S.. IX (1961 ), 12-25. MCNEAL'8 T H E S I S I S THAT THE New SOVIET F E D E R A L I S M , AS S T A L I N PER-ceiveo I T , WAS S I M P L Y H I S FORMER C E N T R A L I S T PROPOSAL OF REGIONAL AUTONOMY TRANSPLANTED FROM C A P I T A L I S M AND RELABELED 'FEDERALISM'. I B I D . , P.23. I N -DEED S T A L I N OFTEN D I D NOT BOTHER TO D I S T I N G U I S H BETWEEN F E D E R A L I S M AND AU-96 TONOMY. IN H I S A R T I C L E , "THE P O L I C Y OF THE S O V I E T GOVERNMENT ON THE NA-TIONAL QUESTION I N RUSSIA,** P U B L I S H E D I N OCTOBER 1920, HE STATED THAT "SO-V I E T AUTONOMY 18 NOT A R I G I D THING F I X E D ONCE AND FOR A L L TIMES IT PERMITS OF THE MOST VARIED F0RM8 ANO DEGREES OF DEVELOPMENT. IT P A 8 8 E 8 FROM NAR-ROW A D M I N I S T R A T I V E AUTONOMY ( T H E VOLGA GERMAN8, THE CHUVA8HE8, THE KARE-L I A N S ) TO A WIDER, P O L I T I C A L AUTONOMY ( T H E B A S H K I R S , THE VOLGA TARTARS, THE K I R G H I Z ) ; FROM WIOE P O L I T I C A L AUTONOMY TO A S T I L L WIDER FORM OF IT ( T H E U K R A I N E , T U R K E S T A N ) ; ANO L A S T L Y , FROM THE U K R A I N I A N TYPE OF AUTONOMY TO THE HIGHEST FORM OF AUTONOMY—TO CONTRACTUAL RE L A T I O N S ( A Z E R B A I J A N ) . " S T A L I N , WORKS . IV, P. 367. L E N I N , OF COURSE, STRONGLY DISAPPOVED OF T H I S P O L I T I C A L CRUDENE88 AND OFTEN REPROACHED S T A L I N FOR H|8 REFUSAL TO O I 8 T I N G U I 8 H BETWEEN AUTONOMY ANO F E D E R A L I S M . PIPE8, THE FORMATION.... P P . 111-12, I M P L I E 8 THAT S T A L I N WAS MERELY L E N I N ' S MOUTHPIECE ON MANY ASPECTS OF THE NATIONAL QUES-TION. 60. L E N I N , VI, P. 486. 61. I B I D . . XIX, p. 500. 62. I B I D . . XX, p. 441. E M P H A S I S S U P P L I E D . 63. S E E CHERNOV, P P . 264-65. CHERNOV POINTS OUT THAT THE FEDERAL IDEA GRAOUALLY PENETRATED R U S 8 ( A N S O C I A L DEMOCRAT IC T H I N K I N G — B O T H BOLSHE-V I K ANO M E N 8 H E V I K . 64. L E N I N , XX, PP.109-10. C I U C I U R A , P P . 18-19. 65. L E N I N , XX, P. 441. 66. I B I D . , P. 441. S E E I B I D . XXI, p. 316; C I U C I U R A , PP.26-27; BORYS, p. 34. 67. S E E A 8 P 0 T U R I A N , P P . 25-26. 68. L E N I N , XXVI, P. 479. 69. I B I O . . XXXI, pp. 146-47. S E E E S P E C I A L L Y M C N E A L , P P . 13-25. R A K 0 V 8 K I I , " R O 8 8 I I A 1 U K R A I N A , " P P . 2199-2200. 70. L E N I N , XXVI, P. 419. 71. B A T S E L L , P. 116. 72. L E N I N , XXI, P P . 480-81. 73. I B I D . . XXX, p. 292. 74. I B I O . , P. 292. S E E L . S C H A P I R O , THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE  S O V I E T UNION (LONDONJ METHUEN, 1963), PP« 221-22; BORYS. P. 328. IN 1914 IN H I 8 A R T I C L E E N T I T L E D "ON THE Q U E 8 T I 0 N OF NATIONAL P O L I O Y " L E N I N DECLAR-ED * "WE SOC IAL-0EMOORATS ARE OPPOSED TO AJgL. N A T I O N A L I S M ANO ADVOCATE DEMO- CRAT I C C E N T R A L I S M . We ARE OPP08ED TO P A R T I C U L A R I S M , ANO ARE CONVINCED THAT, A L L OTHER THINGS B E I N G EQUAL« B I G STATES O A N SOLVE THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMIO PROGRESS ANA. O F THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE PROLETARIAT AND THE BOUR-G E O I S I E FAR MORE E F F E C T I V E L Y THAN SMALL STATES CAN. BUT WE VALUE ONLY VOL-UNTARY T I E S , NEVER COMPULSORY T I E S . IfllD.. XX, P P . 222-23. 75. I B I D . , XXX, p. 293* E M P H A S I S S U P P L I E D . 76. A N E D I T O R I A L I N THE J U N E 16, 8 E 0 A VIEW S I M I L A R TO THAT HELO BY L E N I N . 1917 E D I T I O N E X P L I C I T L Y , 0 F I Z V E S T I A E X P R E S -THE E D I T O R I A L DEALT 97 W I T H A U T O N O M Y B U T I T W A S E Q U A L L Y A P P L I C A B L E T O F E D E R A L I S M 8 1 N C E I T O B V I O U S -L Y P E R C E I V E D T H E T W O C O N C E P T S A S B E I N G A L M 0 8 T I O E N T I C A L A T T H I S P A R T I C U L A R T I M E A N D I N T H I 8 8 I T U A T I O N . T H E E O I T O R I A L A T T A C K E D T H E P R O V I 8 I O N S O F T H E F I R S T U N I V E R S A L W H I C H W A S I S S U E D B Y T H E R A D A . I N P A R T I T S T A T E D . " . . . T O D E M A N D T H E I M M E D I A T E R E A L I Z A T I O N O F A L L T H E P O I N T S O F T H E N A T I O N A L P R O G R A M I N D I C A T E S T H E I N A B I L I T Y T O M A K E I N T E L L I G E N T U 8 E O F T H E . . . R E V O L U T I O N . . . . I N S U C H A T R A N S I T I O N A L P E R I O D , O N E 8 H 0 U L 0 F E A R M O R E T H A N A N Y T H I N G E L 8 E A S P L I T T I N G U P O F T H E R E V O L U T I O N A R Y F O R C E S . T H A T I S W H Y T H E P R O V I S I O N A L G O V E R N M E N T W A S R I G H T W H E N I T I N S I S T E D O N P O S T P O N I N G T H E 0 E C I 8 I 0 N O N T H E 8 C 0 P E A N D F O R M O F U K R A I N I A N A U T O N O M Y U N -T I L T H E N A T I O N A L C O N S T I T U E N T A S S E M B L Y , A T W H I O H T I M E T H E R E V O L U T I O N A R Y G A I N S W I L L B E F I R M L Y S E C U R E D A N D I T W I L L B E P O S S I B L E T O T A K E I N T O A O O O U N T T H E A C -T U A L W I L L O F T H E U K R A I N I A N M A 8 8 E 8 . T H E U K R A I N I A N W O R K E R S A N D P E A S A N T S W I L L , O F C O U R S E , U N D E R S T A N D A N O W I L L P L A C E T H E C O M M O N I N T E R E 8 T 8 O F T H E R E V O L U T I O N A B O V E E V E R Y T H I N G E L 8 E . T H E Y W I L L G O A R M I N A R M W I T H T H E E N T I R E R E V O L U T I O N A R Y D E M O C R A C Y O F R U S S I A . . . . " B R O W D E R A N D K . E R E N 8 K Y , P P . 388-89. 98 C H A P T E R V : T H E U K R A I N I A N Q U E S T I O N : N A T I O N A L E Q U A L I T Y , A S S I M I L A T I O N , A N N E X A T I O N , A N O D E F E N C E O F T H E F A T H E R L A N D . T H E C O N C E P T S O F N A T I O N A L E Q U A L I T Y , A S S I M I L A T I O N , A N N E X A T I O N , A N D D E F E N C E O F T H E F A T H E R L A N D A R E T O A G R E A T E R O R L E S S E R D E G R E E C O N -N E C T E D W I T H T H A T O F S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N . W H E N L E N I N W R O T E O N T H E 8 E S U B -J E C T S H E O L O 3 0 W I T H A N A W A R E N E S S O F T H E I R I M P O R T A N C E F O R , A N O T H E I R A F -F E C T O N , H I S A D V O C A C Y O F T H E R I G H T O F N A T I O N S T O S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N . T H E Y D E V E L O P E D O U T O F H I S C O N C E R N W I T H S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N I N T H E S E N S E T H A T H I S I N T E R E S T I N T H E M B E C A M E I N C R E A S I N G L Y E V I D E N T A S H E A T T E M P T E D T O C R E A T E A P R O G R A M A C C E P T A B L E T O B O T H T H E B 0 L 8 H E V I K 8 A N D T H E N A T I O N A L I -T I E S T H R O U G H T H E E X P L I C A T I O N O F T H E C 0 N 0 E P T O F S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N . L E N I N H A O A L W A Y S B E E N A N A D V O C A T E O F N A T I O N A L E Q U A L I T Y . H E H A O O F T E N D E C L A R E D T H A T I N T H E P R O L E T A R I A N S T A T E T H E R E C O U L D B E " A B S O L U T E L Y N O P R I V I L E G E S F O R A N Y O N E N A T I O N O R A N Y O N E L A N G U A G E •.•"V A N D T H A T " G U A R A N T E E I N G T H E R I G H T S O F A N A T I O N A L M I N O R I T Y /WA?7 I N 8 E P E R A B L Y L I N K -E D W I T H T H E P R I N C I P L E O F C O M P L E T E E Q U A L I T Y . " 2 HE N E V E R T I R E D O F P O I N T -I N G O U T T H A T T H E L O T O F T H E N A T I O N A L I T I E S W A 8 E V E N W 0 R 8 E T H A N T H A T O F T H E R U S S I A N S ^ A N D , O F C 0 U R 8 E , T R I E O T O G A I N P O L I T I C A L A D V A N T A G E T H R O U G H E X P L O I T A T I O N O F T H 1 8 U N F O R T U N A T E F A C T . T H E T 8 A R I 8 T P O L I C Y O F N A T I O N A L O P P R E 8 8 1 O N 8 E R V E 0 T O 0 1 V I D E N A T 1 0 N 8 A N D C O R R U P T T H E P E O P L E * 8 M I N 0 8 A N O W A 8 T H U S I N C O M P A T I B L E W I T H 8 0 C I A L I 8 M . " T H E W O R K I N G C L A 8 8 N E E D 8 U N I T V % N O T O I V I 8 I O N . " S T R E S S E D L E N I N , ^ A N O W I T H T H E H O P E O F A C H I E V I N G T H 1 8 U N I T Y W I T H I N T H E B O L S H E V I K P A R T Y , A 8 W E L L A 8 A T T R A C T I N G N E W M E M B E R S , H E S A W T H A T T H E RSDLP G R O U P I N T H E D U M A I N T R O D U C E D A N A T I O N A L E Q U A L I T Y B I L L A I M E D P R I M A R I L Y A G A I N S T T S A R I S T P E R S E C U T I O N O F T H E J E W S B U T I N C L U -D I N G A L L N 0 N - R U S 8 I A N N A T I O N A L I T I E S W I T H I N I T 8 T E R M 8 . 5 " T H E P R O L E T A R I A N 99 REVOLUTION CALLS FOR A PROLONGED BQUQATiOftr '«J> fW ^JORUKRS IN THE S P l R l T OF THE" Bli»kl£Olt.'NAT I OWAL EQUALITY .AND QR@TOS»}@@© 9^ ©SOLARS© LEMIN*6 .-'\.--. NATIONAL' INSQUAL I TY 8© PgftP8TU&Y£$ B Y TUB LANDOWNERS9 O A P IT At," ' I8T8 ANO 'BOURGEOISIE I N ORDER TO PTOKW^Tl QLAil® PR IVI LEGE© AND CREATE o i S U N i TV AMOKS T H E WORKERS mo rnu®v N O T E S L E W J N B "twg R E A L - M E A N I N G OF. THE DEMAND FOR 'EQUALITY 0 ©M©lST8 BN IY8 SSifeS' A ©1KAN0 FOR THE A B O L I * TION OF CLASSES*^ I T WAS t?J I f W T H I 8 TfciOUQHY W mt& THAT L E N 1N COMPOSED POINT SEVEN OF THE DRAFT R E V I S I O N OP THE WMtTV PR08RAM'IN SUCH A WAV AS . TO LUMP CLASS AND NATIONAL' INSQUALI TV TO@g?MS®o l? ©IfSSPLV RBQUI RED THE ' "ABOL IT ION Of THE 800 I A L ESTATES $ EQUAL Rl€>M*8 P@68. A L L ©I TO SEN© IRRE8-P E C T IVE OP' 8 ' * * 9 CREED 9, RAGE, OR WATI ©MALITV*^® •' TuffiRE CAN BE WO QOU8T THAT L G N I & . $&'@ |M PAVOR .OT N A T I O N A L EQUAL-I TV OWLV BECAUSE HE THOUGHT. THAT TH 18 9A8 TM8 iUI©Mg©T AR@ 8 ' l M P L t O T METH-OD.. BV. W IQb l : TO ERADICATE NATIONALISM* UNL I KB 'AtoftK*, ' ' L K t t f M' ' WA8 A O O N -VINCEO COSMOPOLITE WHO CONSTANTLY FROPOUND&e TOJE .ItWRVRISiO-ttOOONESS O P AMALGAMATION ANO .AOS IM ILAV I ON* 9 LSWIIW UNd8ASlM8.LV .BAfeflJiS «&R *\tm.TV, BjW THE RANKS OF' THE .'WORKERS OF ALL •NATIONS ' IN Ru©@OA, ©8&V ®«©W'«M.*T.V. OAN GUARANTEE .THE EQUALITY O F NATIONS AMD'POPULAR LI©SRY8g©9 J A W ©AFffi-QUARD THE INTERESTS OF 800 IAL IBMo "l-O ACCORDING. TO LEMtM W S BOLOMSVI.KS ••IN8 IS TED THAT . T H E R E BE ••%£ PRIVILEGES POR Atf?. :-OiMK NATION,'OOttPLETE EQUALITY OF' 'NAT IONS. AND THE UWITV, .AMALGAMATION O P , THE _.W0Rt«R8, .Of* ' ALL : NJjJj.Sag.o w11 , HE-. ALSO BELIEVEO' THAT HIS ''NATIONAL EQUAL I TV,-B' ,1 LL'." OP, .1914 WAS W THE BEST' MEAW8 OP. CONSOLIDATING COMPLETE UNI TVp AMAL8AM1AT.I NO ALL. THE WORKEKS OF' RUSSIA, IRRESPECTIVE OP NAT IOWAL I T V * I N M T M E D18CU8-SI ON ON" S E L P - O S T S R I H I NAT I ON SUMMEO 1>P W COMPOSED IN T H E 8UH*MER OP 1 9 1 6 V LENIN AGAIN INSISTED THAT THE OOfcttflOM GOAL OP ' THE.. BOLSHSV I. MS WAS. "COM-PLEtE EQUALITY, THE CLOSEST ASSOCIATION AND THE EVENTUAL Af8A&>@AMAT I ON 100 O F A L L N A T I O N S . . . . " 1 ^ L E N I N I N S I S T E D T H A T A M A L G A M A T I O N M U S T B E V O L U N T A R Y B U T , B E C A U S E I T N E G A T E D N A T I O N A L I S M , H E L E F T N O O O U B T T H E A 8 8 I M I L A T I 0 N W A 8 H I S G O A L , I N " C R I T I C A L R E M A R K S O N T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N " H E M A I N T A I N E D T H A T " T H E P R O L E T A R I A T C A N N O T S U P P O R T A N Y C O N 8 E C R A T I O N O F N A T I O N A L I S M ? O N T H E C O N -T R A R Y , I T S U P P O R T S E V E R Y T H I N G T H A T H E L P 8 T O O B L I T E R A T E N A T I O N A L D I S T I N C -T I O N S A N D R E M O V E N A T I O N A L B A R R I E R S ? I T S U P P O R T S E V E R Y T H I N G T H A T M A K E S T H E T I E S B E T W E E N N A T I O N A L I T I E S C L O S E R A N O C L O S E R , O R T E N D S T O M E R G E N A — T L O N S . " 1 ^ BY T H E 8 P R I N G O F 1920, H O W E V E R , L E N I N R E C O G N I Z E D T H A T T H E M E R E R E C O G N I T I O N A N O P R O C L A M A T I O N O F A F R A T E R N A L U N I O N O F T H E W O R K I N G P E O P L E W O U L D H A V E T O B E 8 U P P L A N T E 0 B Y 8 0 M E T H I N G M O R E P 0 8 I T I V E , H E T H U 8 U R G E D T H A T W A P O L I C Y B E P U R 8 U E O T H A T W I L L A C H I E V E T H E C L 0 8 E 8 T A L L I A N C E , W I T H S O V I E T R U S S I A , O F A L L T H E N A T I O N A L A N O C O L O N I A L L I B E R A T I O N M O V E -M E N T S , " ^ 5 T H E R E C A N B E N O D O U B T T H A T T H E A S S I M I L A T I O N O F N A T I O N S W A S O N E O F L E N I N * 8 P R I M A R Y O B J E C T I V E S . L E N I N H A D A L W A Y S A N D C O N S I S T E N T L Y P R O P O U N D E D T H E N E C E S S I T Y O F N A T I O N A L E Q U A L I T Y . T H I S M E A N T T H A T I N P R A C T I S E T H E R E W E R E T O B E N O N A -T I O N A L P R I V I L E G E S A N D H E D E C L A R E D T H A T H I S 8 L 0 G A N O F T H E R I G H T O F N A -T I O N S T O P O L I T I C A L S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N W A 8 I N F A C T T H E U L T I M A T E I N N A -T I O N A L E Q U A L I T Y S " T O I N S I S T U P O N , T O A D V O C A T E , A N O T O R E C O G N I S E T H 1 8 R I G H T / T O S E C E 8 S | 0 N 7 1 8 T O I N 8 I 8 T O N T H E E Q U A L I T V O F N A T 1 0 N 8 , T O R E F U 8 E T O R E C 0 G N I 8 E C 0 M P U L 8 0 R V T I E S , T O O P P O S E A L L S T A T E P R I V I L E G E S F O R A N Y N A T I O N W H A T S O E V E R , A N O T O C U L T I V A T E A 8 P I R I T O F C O M P L E T E C L A S S S O L I D A R -I T Y I N T H E W 0 R K E R 8 O F T H E D I F F E R E N T N A T I O N S . " ^ L E N I N P U T C O N S I D E R A B L E F A I T H I N T H E C E N T R I P E T A L E F F E C T S W H I C H W O U L D B E C R E A T E D B Y H I S A D V O C A C Y O F E Q U A L I T Y . " T H E M A S S E S O F W O R K I N G P E O P L E , A S T H E Y L I B E R A T E T H E M S E L V E S F R O M T H E B O U R G E O 1 8 Y O K E " , H E P R O -101 P H E 8 I ZED , WILL. G R A V I T A T E IRRE8 I 8 T I B L V TOWAROS UNION ANO INTEGRAT ION WITH THE GREAT j, ADVANCED 8 0 C I A L I 8 T N A T I O N 8 . . . , PROVIOEO VE8TERDAV8 O P P R E S -S O R S DO NOT INFR INGE ON THE LONG—0PPRE88ED NAT 1 0 N 8 9 H I G H L Y D E V E L O P -ED DEMOCRAT IC F E E L I N G OF S E L F - R E S P E C T , ANO PROVIOEO THEY ARE G R A N -TED E Q U A L I T Y IN E V E R Y T H I N G , INCLUD ING . . . E X P E R I E N C E IN ORGAN I S ING T H E I R OWN" 8TATE . 1 ? BUT, AS U S U A L , L E N I N ADDED A PROVISO TO H I S IDEA OF NATIONAL EQUALITY WHICH BECAME OF GREAT IMPORTANCE FOR THE U K R A I N E . HE CONTENDED THAT THE "DEMOCRATIC I N T E R E S T 8 OF ONE COUNTRY MU8T BE SUBORDINATED TO THE DEMOCRA-T I C I N T E R E 8 T 8 OF 8 E V E R A L AND A L L C O U N T R I E S * ^ 8 ANO AFTER THE REVOLUTION, HE MADE IT VERY CLEAR THAT THE UK R A I N E WOULD HAVE TO MAKE C E R T A I N NA-TIONAL 8 A 0 R I F I C E 8 I N OROER TO M A I N T A I N THE INTEGRITY OF THE WORLD 98 F 1 R 8 T P R O L E T A R I A N S T A T E . IT WA8 NOT THE S O C I A L I S T 8TATE THAT MADE THE8E SAC-R I F I C E S NECESSARY BUT THE TYRRANI OAL DEMANDS OF CAP I TAL 1 8 M , HE I N S I S T E D . ^ S P E A K I N G FOR THE PARTY, L E N I N DECLARED THAT THE BOLSHEVIKS WERE "OPPOSED TO GREAT RUSSIAN P R I V I L E G E S " , AND ASSERTED THAT T H I S GUIDED THE I R E N T I R E PROPAGANDA AND AG I TAT I ON.20 | T W A 8 F O R T H I S R E A 8 0 N THAT HE B I T T E R L Y ATTACKED B L 8 H 0 P NLKON WHO HAD A 8 K E O THE T S A R I S T GOVERNMENT TO GRANT P R I V I L E G E S TO U K R A I N I A N S BECAUSE THEY WERE FELLOW SLAVS WHILE THE JEWS WERE FOREIGNERS: WHAT BISHOP NIKON REFUSES TO UNDERSTAND I S THAT THE U K R A I N I A N S CANNOT BE PROTECTED FROM O P P R E S S I O N , UNLESS THE CONCEPT 'PEOPLE OF FORE I G N E X T R A C T I O N 9 1 8 COMPLETELY EXPUNGED FROM THE L I F E OF THE 8 T A T E , U N L E 8 8 THE COMPLETE EQUALITY OF RIGHT8 OF A L L NAT I O N A L I T I E S I S UPHELO.21 IT WA8 O S T E N S I B L Y FOR T H I S REASON THAT HE A 8 S A I L E 0 THE R U 8 S I AN N A T I O N A L I S T S WHO WERE AGAINST THE 8 E C E 8 S I ON OF THE U K R A I N E . "BY PERS E -CUTING THE UK R A I N I A N S ANO OTHERS FOR THEIR "SEPARATIONS", FOR THEIR S E -C E S S I O N I S T S T R I V I N G S " , HE WROTE, "THE NAT I O N A L 1 8 T8 ARE UPHOLDING THE P R I - V I L E G E OF THE GREAT—RussIAN LANDLORDS AND THE GREAT-RUSSIAN BO U R G E O I S I E TO HAVE 9 T H E IR OWN 9 STATE. "22 102 A L T H O U G H L E N I N W A S A G A I N S T A N Y N A T I O N A L P R I V I L E G E S , T H E I R E L I M I N A T I O N W A S N O T H I S R E A L G O A L . HE B E L I E V E D T H A T I T W A 8 O N L Y T H R O U G H A C T U A L N A -T I O N A L E Q U A L I T Y T H A T R E A L S T A T E C E N R A L 1 2 A T I O N C O U L D C O M E T O P A S 8 W I T H O U T R E S O R T I N G T O F O R C E . A W A R E O F T H E " N A T I O N A L D I S T R U S T A M O N G T H E B R O A D M A S -S E S O F P E A S A N T 8 A N O 8 M A L L O W N E R S " I N T H E U K R A I N E O F T H E R U 8 8 I A N L E V I A -T H A N , H E W A R N E D T H A T A N Y E V I D E N C E O F R A C I A L I N E Q U A L I T Y W O U L D " J E 0 P A R 0 I 8 E T H E C A U 8 E O F C O M P L E T E A N O U L T I M A T E U N I TV."23 I T S H O U L D A L S O B E N O T E D T H A T L E N I N W A S S T R A N G E L Y S I L E N T O N N A -T I O N A L E Q U A L I T Y W I T H I N T H E P A R T Y . H E N E V E R D E A L T W I T H T H 1 8 1 8 8 U E O I R E C — T L V B U T W I T H I N T H E L A R G E R C O N T E X T O F C L A S S A N D C L A 8 8 P A R T I E 8 . S lNCE O N L Y T H E C L A 8 3 C O N S C I O U S W O R K E R W O U L D J O I N T H E B O L S H E V I K S , T H E N A T I O N A L P R O B L E M C O U L O N O T B E A V I A B L E I 8 8 U E W I T H H I M . I F T H E W O R K E R W A 8 C O N S -C I O U S O F H I 8 N A T I O N A L I T Y H E U 8 U A L L Y G R A V I T A T E D T O W A R D N A T I O N A L S O C I A L 1 8 T G R O U P S A N O W A 8 , A 8 F A R A S L E N I N W A 8 C O N C E R N E D , A O U P E O F T H E B O U R G E O I S I E . I T I S N O T S U R P R I S I N G T H E R E F O R E T H A T W H E N H E D E C I D E D T O " D E C L A R E W A R T O T H E D E A T H O N D O M I N A N T N A T I O N C H A U V I N I 8 M " I T W A S O N L Y T H E G O V E R N M E N T W I T H W H I C H H E W A 8 S E R I 0 U 8 L Y C O N C E R N E D ! I T M U 8 T B E A B S O L U T E L Y I N S I 8 T E 0 T H A T T H E U N I O N C E N T R A L E X E C U T I V E C O M M I T T E E W H O U L D B E P R E S I D E D O V E R I N T U R N B Y A R U 8 8 I A N , U K R A I N I A N , G E O R G I A N , E T C . A B S O L U T E L Y | 2 4 T H E P A R T Y W A S N E V E R T R E A T E D I N T H I S C A V A L I E R M A N N E R . L E N I N N E V E R I N S I S -T E D T H A T P A R T Y L E A D E R S H I P B E R O T A T E D O N A N E T H N I C B A S I 8 B E C A U S E H E B E -L I E V E D T H A T I T H A D A L R E A D Y A C H I E V E D T H A T " C O M P L E T E A N D U L T I M A T E U N I T Y " F O R W H I C H T H E V A R I O U S R E P U B L I C 8 W E R E N O W A L L E G E D L Y S T R U G G L I N G . L E N I N C O N S T A N T L Y I D E N T I F I E D N A T I O N A L E Q U A L I T Y W I T H A S S I M I L A -T I O N . 25 U N I T Y , A S H E C O N C E I V E O I T , W A S A L S O I D E N T I F I E D W I T H A S S I M I L A -T I O N A N D F O R T H I 8 R E A 8 0 N L E N I N I N S I S T E D T H A T " C L A S 8 — C 0 N 8 C I 0 U 8 W 0 R K E R 8 S T A N O F O R F U L L U N I T Y A M O N G T H E W 0 R K E R 8 O F A L L N A T I 0 N 8 I N E V E R Y E O U C A -103 «26 T I O N A L , T R A D E U N I O N , P O L I T I O A L , E T C . , W O R K E R S O R G A N I Z A T I O N O O » ™~ A N D 8 P E C I F I C A L L Y E M P H A 8 I Z E D T H A T " T H E G R E A T - R U 8 8 I A N A N D U K R A I N I A N W O R K E R S M U S T W O R K T O G E T H E R . . . . **27 | N F A C T T H E P R O P E N S I T Y O F C A P I T A L I S M T O 0 E 8 -T R O Y N A T I O N A L P E C U L I A R I T I E S A N D T H U S C R E A T E T H E P R E - C O N O I T I 0 N 8 F O R A S -S I M I L A T I O N W A S P E R H A P 8 T H E G R E A T E S T 8 E R V I C E I T R E N O E R E O S O C I A L I S M . L E N -I N F O N D L Y 8 P O K E O F " C A P I T A L I 8 M ' 8 W O R L D - H I S T O R I C A L T E N O E N C Y T O B R E A K D O W N N A T I O N A L B A R R I E R S , O B L I T E R A T E N A T I O N A L O 1 8 T I N O T I O N 8 , A N O T O A 8 8 I M I L A T E N A T I 0 N 8 — A T E N D E N C Y W H I C H M A N I F E S T S I T 8 E L F M O R E A N D M O R E P O W E R F U L L Y W I T H E V E R Y P A 8 S I N G D E C A D E , A N O 1 8 O N E O F T H E G R E A T E 8 T F O R C E S T R A N S F O R M I N G C A -P I T A L I S M T O S 0 0 I A L I 8 M . w 2 8 S I N C E C A P I T A L I S M W A S O B J E C T I V E L Y A I D I N G S O C I A L I S M B Y A S S I M I L A T -I N G N A T I O N 8 , A N D C O N S E Q U E N T L Y C O N S O L I D A T I N G U N I T Y , " l T W O U L D B E A O O W N -R I G H T B E T R A Y A L O F 8 0 0 I A L I 3 M A N O A S I L L Y P O L I C Y E V E N F R O M T H E S T A N D P O I N T O F T H E B O U R G E O 1 8 " N A T I O N A L A I M S " O F T H E U K R A I N I A N S T O W E A K E N T H E T I E S A N O T H E A L L I A N C E B E T W E E N T H E U K R A I N I A N A N O G R E A T — R U 8 8 1 A N P R O L E T A R I A T T H A T N O W E X I S T W I T H I N T H E C 0 N F I N E 8 O F A S I N G L E S T A T E . " 2 9 I N H I S C R I T I Q U E O F P L A T A K O V ' 8 V I E W S O N T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N L E N I N D E C L A R E D W I T H R E G A R D T O N A T I O N S T H A T T H E B O L S H E V I K S " F A V O U R T H E I R M E R G E R " , A L T H O U G H T H I 8 M E R G E R W A 8 N O T T O B E I N F L U E N C E D B Y F O R C E . 3 0 T H 1 8 M E R G E R W A 8 T O B E A D V O C A T E D B Y T H E W O R K E R 8 O F T H E N A T I O N A L I T I E S W H I L E T H E G R E A T - R U 8 8 I A N P R O L E T A R I A T A G I T A T E D F O R T H E F R E E O O M O F 8 E 0 E 8 8 I O N . T H A T A C O N T R A D I C I T O N O F 8 O R T 8 E X I S T E D I N T H I 8 D U A L O T I C P R O P O S A L W A 8 R E C O G -N I Z E D B Y P L A T A K O V A N D H E A S T T E D , " W H A T 1 8 A W O R K E R T O T H I N K W H E N H E A 8 K 8 A P R O P A G A N D I S T H O W T H E P R O L E T A R I A T S H O U L D R E G A R O 8 A M O S T I I N 0 8 T ^ P O L I T I C A L I N D E P E N D E N C E F O R T H E U K R A I N E / , A N O G E T 8 T H I 8 A N S W E R S ; 8 0 C I A L I S T 8 A R E W O R -K I N G F O R T H E R I G H T T O 8 E C E 0 E , B U T T H E I R P R O P A G A N D A I S A Q A I N 8 T 8 E 0 E 8 -S I O N ? " 3 1 L E N I N H A U G H T I L Y D I S M I S S E D T H E Q U E S T I O N B Y D E C L A R I N G T H A T " E V E R Y 8 E N 8 I 8 L C W O R K E R W I L L T H I N K T H A T K I E V 8 K Y / P L A T A K O V / I S N O T C A P A B L E O F 104 T H I N K I N G . " 3 2 | N F A C T P L A T A K O V 8 T R U C K A W E A K P O I N T I N L E N I N ' S N A T I O N A L -I T Y T H E O R Y B U T H E C O U L D N O T * F O R T A C T I C A L R E A S 0 N 8 , S E E K A M O R E D I R E C T A P P R O A C H T O W A R O S T H E M E R G I N G O F N A T I O N S . A N Y O T H E R A P P R O A C H W O U L D H A V E M A D E T H E U K R A I N I A N S E V E N M O R E D I S T R U S T F U L O F R U S S I A N S — O R S O L E N I N B E -L I E V E D A T A N Y R A T E . A 8 H E T O L D PlATAKOV* T H E B O L S H E V I K S , A S C O N S I S T E N T S O C I A L I S T S A N D 0 E M 0 C R A T 8 * M U S T A D V O C A T E T H E R I G H T T O 8 E C E 8 8 I O N B E C A U S E W I T H O U T I T " T H E R E I S N O P A T H T O C O M P L E T E V O L U N T A R Y R A P P R O C H E M E N T A N O M E R G I N G O F N A T I O N 8 . " 3 3 A3 A R E 8 U L T L E N I N M A I N T A I N E D T H I S A P P R O A C H W I T H O U T C H A N G E I N H I S Q U E S T O F A M A L G A M A T I O N A N O A 8 8 I M I L A T I O N . H E W A S F I R M L Y C O N V I N C E D T H A T N A T I O N A L O I 8 T R U 8 T B E T W E E N RU88IAN A N D U K R A I N I A N C O U L D O N L Y B E C O M -B A T E D S U C C E 8 F U L L Y I N T H I 8 M A N N E R . I N 1920 H E A N N O U N C E D T H A T " i F A G R E A T -Ru881 A N C O M M U N I S T I N S I S T S U P O N T H E A M A L G A M A T I O N O F T H E U K R A I N E W I T H R U S -S I A * U K R A I N I A N S M I G H T E A S I L Y S U S P E C T H I M O F A D V O C A T I N G T H I S P O L I C Y N O T F R O M T H E M O T I V E O F U N I T I N G T H E P R O L E T A R I A N S I N T H E F I G H T A G A I N S T C A P I T A L * B U T B E C A U 8 E O F T H E P R E J U D I C E S O F T H E O L D G R E A T — R U 8 8 1 A N N A T I O N A L 1 8 M , O F I M P E R I A L I S M . " 3 ^ O N T H E O T H E R H A N O H E D E C L A R E D T H A T " i F A U K R A I N I A N C O M — M U N I 8 T I N 8 I 8 T S U P O N T H E U N C O N D I T I O N A L 8 T A T E I N D E P E N D E N C E O F T H E U K R A I N E , H E L A Y 8 H I M S E L F O P E N T O T H E 8 U 8 P I C I O N T H A T H E 1 8 S U P P O R T I N G T H 1 8 P O L I C Y N O T B E C A U 8 E O F T H E T E M P O R A R Y I N T E R E S T S O F T H E U K R A I N I A N W 0 R K E R 8 A N D P E A -S A N T S I N T H E I R S T R U G G L E A G A I N 8 T T H E Y O K E O F C A P I T A L , B U T O N A C C O U N T O F T H E P E T T Y - B O U R G E O I S P R E J U O I C E 8 O F T H E S M A L L O W N E R . " 3 5 A F T E R T H E R E V O L U -T I O N L E N I N M A I N T A I N E D T H A T U N I T Y W A S E S S E N T I A L F O R T H E P R E S E R V A T I O N O F V I C T O R Y A N D W A R N E O T H A T W H E W H O U N D E R M I N E 8 T H E U N I T V ' A N O C L O S E S T A L L I -A N C E B E T W E E N T H E GREAT—Ru881 A N A N D U K R A I N I A N W O R K E R S A N D P E A 8 A N T S I S H E L P I N G . . . T H E C A P I T A L I S T B A N D I T S O F A L L C O U N T R I £ 8 • "3°" A 8 8 I M I L A T I O N W A 8 O N E O F L E N I N * 8 M A J O R O B J E C T I V E S B O T H B E F O R E A N D A F T E R T H E R E V O L U T I O N . I N H I 8 D R A F T P R O G R A M F O R T H E E I G H T H P A R T Y 105 C 0 N G R E 8 8 H E 8 T A T E D T H A T T H E P O L I C Y O F T H E RCP(B) O N T H E N A T I O N A L Q U E S -T I O N " | 8 T H A T O F 8 T E A 0 I L Y O R A W I N O T O G E T H E R A N O M E R G I N G T H E P R O L E T A R I A N S A N O T H E W O R K I N G M A 8 8 E S O F A L L N A T I O N S " 3 7 A N D A T T H E C 0 N G R E 8 8 I T S E L F H E R E M A R K E D T H A T " C O M R A D E P Y A T A K O V 18 A T H O U S A N D T I M E 8 R I G H T W H E N H E 8 A Y S T H A T W E N E E D U N I T Y . " 3 8 ^ T T H E 8 A M E T I M E , L E N I N W A R N E O O F T H E N E C E 8 8 I T Y " T O E X E R C I S E S P E C I A L C A U T I O N I N R E 8 P E 0 T O F N A T I O N A L F E E L I N G S A N O T O E N -S U R E T H E P U R S U A N C E O F A P O L I C Y O F A C T U A L E Q U A L I T Y A N D F R E E O O M T O S E C E D E S O A 8 T O R E M O V E T H E G R O U N D S F O R T H 1 8 M I 8 T R U 8 T A N O A C H I E V E T H E C L 0 8 E V O L -U N T A R Y U N I O N O F T H E S O V I E T R E P U B L I O S O F A L L N A T I O N S . " 3 9 A L M O S T I N T H E 8 A M E B R E A T H , H O W E V E R , H E M A O E I T C L E A R T H A T N O O T H E R O H O I C E B U T U N I O N W A 8 A V A I L A B L E F O R T H E U K R A I N I A N S . " I N T H I S L O N G A N O H A R D F I G H T W E G R E A T -R U 8 8 I A N A N D U K R A I N I A N W 0 R K E R 8 M U 8 T M A I N T A I N T H E C L 0 8 E 8 T A L L I A N C E , " H E L E C T U R E D T H R E A T E N I N G L Y , " F O R 8 E P E R A T E L Y W E 8 H A L L M 0 8 T D E F I N I T E L Y 8 E U N -A B L E T O C O P E W I T H T H E T A S K S . " ^ T H E U K R A I N E W A 8 8 0 U N O T O L 0 8 E M O R E T H A N I T G A I N E O I N T H I 8 A L L I A N C E F O R , A 8 C A R R 0 B 8 E R V E 8 , " C E N T R A L I Z A T I O N M E A N T S T A N D A R D I Z A T I O N ; A N D T H E S T A N D A R D S A D O P T E D W E R E N A T U R A L L Y G R E A T R U S S I A N 3 T A N D A R D 8 . " 4 1 O F A L L R E 6 U 8 L I 0 8 T H E U K R A I N E H A O L E A S T T O G A I N F R O M T H I S U N I T Y 8 I N C E 8 H E W A 8 R E L A T I V E L Y O E V E L O P E O I N D U S T R I A L L Y A N D H A O A L E V E L O F C U L T U R E A P P R O A C H I N G T H A T O F T H E R u 8 8 l A N S . ^ 2 |p T H E L E N I N I S T T H E O R Y O F E Q U A L I T Y A N O A S S I M I L A T I O N 1 8 C A R R I E D T O I T 8 L O G I C A L C O N C L U S I O N , T H E U K -R A I N E , B E C A U 8 E I T W A 8 M 0 8 T O E V E L O P E O , 8 H O U L O F O R T H I S R E A 3 0 N H A V E B E E N T H E E A S I E S T T O A S S I M I L A T E . T H 1 8 W A 8 N O T 8 0 . I N T H E P R E R E V O L U T I O N A R Y E R A L E N I N H A D C O N S I S T E N T L Y M A I N T A I N E D T H A T A S T R U G G L E A G A I N S T A N N E X A T I O N S W A S O F F U N D A M E N T A L C O N O E R N T O T H E T R U E S O C I A L I S T . A N Y 8 0 C I A L I 8 T O F A N 0 P P R E 8 8 0 R N A T I O N W H O D I D N O T C O N -D U C T U N R E L E N T I N G P R O P A G A N D A B O T H I N P E A C E T I M E A N D W A R T I M E A G A I N S T R E T E N -T I O N O F O P P R E S S E D N A T I O N A L I T I E S W A S C L A S S E D A 8 A 8 0 C I A L C H A U V I N I S T . ^ 106 T H E L E N I N I S T C O N C E P T or A N N E X A T I O N I N C L U D E D T H R E E M A I N P O I N T S : "(1) T H E C O N C E P T O F F O R C E ( J O I N I N G B Y M E A N 8 O F F O R C E ) } (2) T H E C O N C E P T O F 0 P P R E 8 8 I 0 N B Y A N O T H E R N A T I O N ( T H E J O I N I N G O F " A L I E N " R E G I 0 N 8 , E T C . ) , A N O , 8 0 M E T I M E 8 (3) T H E O O N O E P T O F V I O L A T I O N O F T H E 8 T A T U S Q U O . " ^ 4 A C C O R -D I N G L Y , S A I O L E N I N , " T O B E A G A I N S T A N N E X A T I O N S M E A N S T O B E I N F A V O R O F T H E R I G H T T O S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N " A N O H E A L 8 0 O E C L A R E O T H A T " A N N E X A T I O N 18 V I O L A T I O N O F T H E S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F A N A T I O N , I T 1 8 T H E E S T A B L I S H -M E N T O F 8 T A T E F R O N T I E R 8 C O N T R A R Y T O T H E W I L L O F T H E P O P U L A T I O N . " ^ P E R -H A P S L E N I N M A D E H I S M O S T C A T E G O R I C A L S T A T E M E N T O N A N N E X A T I O N S W H E N H E O E C L A R E O T H A T " I F A 8 0 C I A L I 8 T P A R T Y 0 E C L A R E 8 T H A T I T I S ' A G A I N S T T H E F O R -C I B L E R E T E N T I O N O F A N O P P R E S S E D N A T I O N W I T H I N T H E F R O N T I E R S O F A N A N -N E X I N G S T A T E ^ - I T 1 8 T H E R E B Y C O M M I T T E D T O R E N O U N C E R E T E N T I O N B Y F O R C E W H E N I T C O M E 8 T O P O W E R . " 4 6 F U R T H E R M O R E , N O T E D L E N I N , T H I S M E A N T T H A T A L L R E V O L T S O F T H E A N N E X E O R E G I O N S A G A I N 8 T T H E B O U R G E O 1 8 I E M U 8 T B E S U P -P O R T E D B Y 8 0 C I A L I 8 T S P R O V I O E O , O F C O U R S E , I T 1 8 N O T T H E R E V O L T O F A R E -A C T I O N A R Y C L A S S . ^ 7 B Y W I T H H O L D I N G T H 1 8 8 U P P 0 R T S O C I A L 1 8 T 8 W O U L D O B J E C -T I V E L Y B E C O M E A N N E X A T I O N I 8 T 8 , H E I N S I S T E D . A S O N T H E S U B J E C T O F S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N , L E N I N D I S T I N G U I S H E D T H E T A 8 K 8 O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T O F T H E 0 P P R E 8 8 E 0 A N D 0 P P R E 8 8 0 R N A T I 0 N 8 . W O R K E R S O F T H E O P P R E S S O R C O U N T R I E S W E R E T O A D V O C A T E F R E E D O M F O R T H E O P -P R E S S E D N A T I O N S T O S E C E D E . T H E Y W E R E F O R C E O T O P R O P A G A T E F R E E O O M F O R T H E N A T I O N A L I T I E S B E C A U S E , L E N I N D E C L A R E D , " W I T H O U T T H I 8 T H E R E C A N B E N O I N T E R N A T I O N A L I S M . I T 1 8 O U R R I G H T A N D D U T Y T O T R E A T E V E R Y S O C I A L — D E M O -C R A T O F A N 0 P P R E 8 8 0 R N A T I O N W H O F A I L S T O C O N D U C T S U C H P R O P A G A N D A A 8 A S C O U N D R E L A N D A N I M P E R I A L I S T . " ' ' ' 8 I T W A 8 T H E P A R T Y * 8 D U T Y T O T E A C H W O R K -E R S T O B E " I N D I F F E R E N T " T O N A T I O N A L D I S T I N C T I O N S B U T N O T I N T H E S E N S E T H A T A N N E X A T I O N I S T S W E R E I N D I F F E R E N T . L E N I N E X P L A I N E D : A M E M B E R O F A N 0 P P R E S 8 0 R N A T I O N M U 8 T B E " l N O I F F E R E N T " T O W H E T H E R 10? S M A L L N A T I O N S B E L O N G T O H I S S T A T E O R T O A N E I G H B O U R I N G 8 T A T E . O R T O T H E M S E L V E S , A C C O R O I N G T O W H E R E T H E I R 8 Y M P A T H I E 8 L I E * W I T H O U T S U C H " I N D I F F E R E N C E " H E I S N O T A S O C I A L - D E M O C R A T . TO B E A N I N T E R N A T I O N A -L I S T S o o i A L - D E M O C R A T O N E M U S T N O T T H I N K O N L Y O F O N E ' S O W N N A T I O N , B U T P L A C E A B O V E I T T H E I N T E R E 8 T S O F A L L N A T I O N S , T H E I R C O M M O N L I -B E R T Y A N D E Q U A L I T Y . 4 9 T H E T A S K O F T H E S O C I A L - D E M O C R A T O F T H E O P P R E S S E D N A T I O N , O N T H E O T H E R H A N O , W A 8 T O E M P H A S I Z E T H E A D V A N T A G E S A N O N E C E 8 S I T V O F T H E " . . . ' V O L U N T A R Y I N T E G R A T I O N ' O F N A T I O N S . . . . H E M U S T F I G H T A G A I N S T S M A L L -N A T I O N N A R R O W — M I N D E D N E 8 8 , S E C L U S I O N A N D I S O L A T I O N , C O N S I D E R A L L T H E W H O L E A N D T H E G E N E R A L , S U B O R D I N A T E T H E P A R T I C U L A R T O T H E G E N E R A L I N T E R E 8 T . " 5 0 I N T H E G I V E N S I T U A T I O N , S A I D L E N I N , T H I S A P P A R E N T L Y C O N T R A D I C T O R Y A P -P R O A C H W A 8 T H E O N L Y P 0 8 8 I B L E P A T H T O W A R D " I N T E R N A T I O N A L I S M A N D T H E A M A L -G A M A T I O N O F N A T I 0 N 8 ...."51 A F T E R T H E F E B R U A R Y R E V O L U T I O N , L E N I N S T A T E D V E R Y C L E A R L Y T H A T T H E B O L S H E V I K S W E R E I N F A V O R " . . . O F C O M P L E T E F R E E D O M O F S E C E S S I O N F R O M R U S S I A F O R A L L T H E N A T I O N S A N D P E O P L E S W H O W E R E O P P R E S S E D B Y T S A R I S M , O R W H O W E R E F O R C I B L Y J O I N E D T O , O R F 0 » O F 8 L Y K E P T W I T H I N T H E B O U N D A R I E S O F T H E S T A T E , I . E . , A N N E X E D • " 5 2 A N D , 10 T H E " D E C R E E O N P E A C E " P U B L I S H E D I M M E D I A T E L Y A F T E R T H E B O L S H E V I K A 8 8 U M P T I O N O F P O W E R , T H E N E W G O V E R N M E N T 8 T A T E 0 T H A T I T I N T E R P R E T E D A N N E X A T I O N ( O R S E I Z U R E ) A 8 " M E A N I N G T H E I N C O R -P O R A T I O N I N T O A L A R G E A N D P O W E R F U L S T A T E O F A S M A L L O R F E E B L E N A T I O N W I T H O U T T H E D E F I N I T E L Y , C L E A R L Y A N O V O L U N T A R I L Y E X P R E 8 8 E 0 C O N S E N T A N D W I 8 H O F T H A T N A T I O N , I R R E S P E C T I V E O F T H E T I M E 8 U C H F O R C I B L E I N C O R P O R A -T I O N T O O K P L A C E , I R R E S P E C T I V E O P T H E D E G R E E O F D E V E L O P M E N T O R B A C K W A R D -N E S S O F T H E N A T I O N F O R C I B L Y A N N E X E O ...."53 T H E D E C R E E E V E N S T A T E D T H A T A N Y M A N I F E S T A T I O N O F N A T I O N A L 0 I 8 8 E N T 8 H 0 U L 0 B E T E S T E D B Y A D E M O C R A T I C V O T E W I T H O U T A N Y P R E 8 8 U R E B E I N G B R O U G H T U P O N T H E L O C A L I N H A B I T A N T S . A N Y P R E S S U R E W H A T S O E V E R W O U L O B E E Q U I V A L E N T T O T H E 8 E I Z U R E A N D C O E R C I O N T H E O -R E T I C A L L Y P R O S C R I B E D B Y L E N I N . 5 4 108 L E N I N BECAME S E R I O U S L Y CONCERNED WITH THE QUESTION OF ANNEXATION IN 1915 AND MAINTAINED INTEREST IN THE PROBLEM U N T I L 8H0RTLY AFTER THE REVOLUTION. HE ASSIDUOUSLY EMPHASIZED THAT "THERE CAN BE NO OORRECT DE-F I N I T I O N OF THE CONCEPT OF 'ANNEXATION* UNLE88 IT 18 S E E N IN CONTEXT WITH 8 E L F - 0 E T E R M I NAT I ON"55 AND DECLARED ON A NUMBER OF OCCASIONS THAT ... "TO BE AGAINST THE RIGHT OF S E C E 8 S I ON 18 TO BE FOR ANNEXATI0N8. "5& L E N I N THEN CONVENIENTLY PROVIDED A D E F I N I T I O N OF THE CONCEPTS "ANNEXATION MEANS K E E P I N G AN A L I E N PEOPLE BY FORCE W I T H I N THE 80UN08 OF A G I V E N STATE. "57 A L I E N P E O P L E , HE DECLARED, WERE THOSE WHO HAO PRESERVED T H E I R D I S T I N C -T I V E FEATURES ANO WHO D E S I R E D INDEPENDENCE FROM THE OCCUPYING POWER.58 IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE REVOLUTION I N THE "OEOREE ON P E A C E " L E N I N D E F I N E D ANNEXATION A8 HE HAO DONE PREVIOUSLY BUT ALSO 8 T R E 8 8 E 0 THAT THE B 0 L S H E V I K 8 CONSIDERED FORCED S E I Z U R E OF ANY F O R E I G N LANO TO BE ANNEXA-TIO N " I R R E S P E C T I V E OF THE TIME 8UCH F O R C I B L E INCORPORATION TOOK P L A C E . ..."59 A FEW WEEK8 L A T E R , ON NOVEMBER 27, 1917, L E N I N A G A I N NOTED THE " N O N - A C C E P T I B I L I T Y OF THE D E F I N I T I O N OF ANNEXATION AS LARD INTEGRATED AFTER THE PROCLAMATION OF THE PRE8ENT WAR."6° HE FURTHER E X P L A I N E D THAT ANY TERRITORY 8 H A L L BE DEEMED TO BE ANNEXED WHOSE POPULATION OVER THE L A S T FEW DECADES ( S I N C E THE 8 E C 0 N 0 HALF OF THE 1 9 t h C E N T U R Y ) , HA8 E X P R E 8 8 E D D 1 8 8 A T I S F A C T I ON WITH THE INTEGRATION OF T H E I R T E R R I -TORY INTO ANOTHER 8 T A T E , OR IT8 8 T A T U S IN THE 8 T A T E , REGAROLES8 OF ... /HOW/ SUCH D I S S A T I S F A C T I O N HAS BEEN' EXPRE88ED . . . . ^ l THE U K R A I N I A N QUESTION, AS P E R O E I V E O BY L E N I N , WAS INTIMATELY CONNECTED WITH THE OONOEPT OF ANNEXATIONS. A F T E R THE REVOLUTION R U S S I A WOULO NOT F O R C I B L Y KEEP THE U K R A I N E W I T H I N THE NEW 8 T A T E , S A I D L E N I N , AND URGED THAT RU88LAN 8 0 C I A L I 8 T 8 MU8T AOVANOE THE DEMAND THAT T 8 A R I 8 T R U 8 8 1 A GET OUT OF THE U K R A I N E . ^ IN FACT HE ATTACKEO THE R U 8 8 I A N S O C I A -L I S T REVOLUTIONARIES ANO MENSHEVIKS AS B E I N G I N FAVOR OF ANNEXATIONS B E -CAUSE THEY TREATED F I N L A N D ANO THE U K R A I N E W A 8 I F THEY WERE ANNEXED NA-TIONS AND NOT R E A L L Y F R E E , R E A L L Y EQUAL N A T I 0 N 8 HAVING AN I N D I S P U T A B L E 109 RlSHT B O T H TO A U T O N O M Y A N D TO 8 E C E 8 8 1 O N . w^3 -THE P H R A 8 E Q U O T E D A B O V E F R O M THE " D E C R E E ON P E A C E " W H I C H D E A L T W I T H A N N E X A T I O N S A N O S T A T E D T H A T 80L8HEVIKS W O U L D C 0 N 8 I 0 E R L A N 0 8 T O B E A N N E X E O " I R R E S P E C T I V E O F THE T I M E 8 U C H F O R C I B L E I N C O R P O R A T I O N TOOK P L A C E " W A 8 P A R T I C U L A R L Y A P P L I C A B L E TO THE U K R A I N E . L E N I N W A 8 A W A R E OF T H I S F A C T A N O U 8 E O I T I N H I 8 P O L E M I C 8 W I T H O T H E R R U 8 8 I A N P A R T I E 8 . HE T A U N T E D THE C A D E T 8 A N D S O C I A L I S T - R E V O L U T I O N A R I E 8 O N T H E I R V I E W 8 O F T H E U K R A I N E A N O A N N E X A T I O N . C H A R G I N G T H A T T H E A N N E X A T I O N O F T H E U K R A I N E W A 8 T H E S A M E A 8 T H E B R I T i 8 H A N N E X A T I O N O F I R E L A N D A N D T H E F R E N C H A N N E X A T I O N O F A L G E R I A . 6 4 I T 1 8 Q U I T E O B V I O U S , H O W E V E R , T H A T T H E C O N C E P T O F A N N E X A T I O N S W I T H R E S P E C T T O T H E U K R A I N E W A 8 U 8 E 0 P R I M A R I L Y A 8 A P O L I T I C A L C L U B W I T H W H I C H T O B E A T F I R 8 T T H E T S A R I S T 8 U R E A C R A C Y A N O L A T E R T H E P R O V I S I O N A L GO-V E R N M E N T . L E N I N W A S N O T I N T E R E S T E D I N T H E U K R A I N E P E R S E B U T U S E D I T S P R E D I C A M E N T A 8 A T A C T I C A L I N S T R U M E N T I N H I S L A R G E R A N O M O R E I M P O R T A N T C O N C E R N O F E X P E D I T I N G T H E 8 0 C I A L I S T R E V O L U T I O N . T H E C O N C E P T O F " T H E O E F E N C E O F T H E F A T H E R L A N D " H A D A N H I S T O R I C A L M E A N I N G A N O F O R A P R O P E R U N D E R S T A N D I N G O F T H I 8 N O T I O N I T M U S T B E V I E W E D W I T H I N I T 8 C O N C R E T E H I S T O R I C A L F R A M E W O R K . D E F E N C E O F T H E F A T H E R L A N O , I N T H E O O N T E X T O F W O R L D W A R I , W A S R E A C T I O N A R Y B E C A U 8 E I T " C A L L S T H E T H R O T -T L I N G O F P O L A N D A N D T H E U K R A I N E , E T C . , A ' D E F E N C E O F T H E F A T H E R L A N D * O F T H E G R E A T R U S S I A N S . . . " ^ A N D L E N I N D E C L A R E D T H A T T H E A O V O C A C Y O F T H I S I D E A O U R I N G T H E C O U R 8 E O F T H 1 8 W A R W A 8 P U R E S O C I A L C H A U V I N I S M . ^ L E N I N H A D S O M E T R O U B L E E X P L A I N I N G T H A T T H E D E F E N C E O F T H E F A T H E R -L A N D W A S A H I S T O R I C A L C O N C E P T A N D W A 8 T O B E U N D E R 8 T 0 0 0 A S 8 U C H . M A N Y B O L S H E V I K S H A D A C C E P T E D M A R X ' S S T A T E M E N T T H A T T H E W O R K I N G M A N H A D N O C O U N T R Y A T F A C E V A L U E B U T L E N I N 8 A W I T A 8 M U C H M O R E T H A N T H A T . I N A L E T T E R T O I N E S 8 A A R M A N D , H E A G R E E D W I T H M A R X ' S 8 T A T E M E N T B U T A D D E D T H A T 110 N O T O N L Y T H I 8 1 8 S T A T E D T H E R E • I T 1 8 8 T A T E D T H E R E A L S O T H A T W H E N N A T I O N A L 8 T A T E 8 A R E B E I N G F O R M E D T H E R O L E O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T I S S O M E W H A T S P E C I A L . To T A K E T H E F I R S T P R O P O S I T I O N ( T H E W O R K I N G M E N H A V E N O C O U N T R Y ) A N D F O R G E T I T S C O N N E C T I O N W I T H T H E 8 E C O N O ( T H E W O R K E R S A R E C O N S T I T U T E D A 8 A C L A S S N A T I O N A L L Y , T H O U G H N O T I N T H E 8 A M E 8 E N 8 E A S T H E B O U R G E O 1 8 I E ) W I L L B E E X C E P T I O N A L L Y I N C O R R E C T . & 7 HE A L S O R E M I N D E D H E R T H A T T H E W H O L E S P I R I T A N O S Y S T E M O F M A R X I S M D E M A N D E D T H A T E A C H P R O B L E M B E C O N S I D E R E D " ( A ) O N L Y H I S T O R I C A L L Y , ( B ) O N L Y I N C O N -N E C T I O N W I T H O T H E R S , ( C ) O N L Y I N C O N N E C T I O N W I T H T H E C O N C R E T E E X P E R I E N C E O F H I S T O R Y . " 6 8 T H U S L E N I N W A S A G A I N S T D E F E N D I S M U N T I L T H E O C T O B E R R E V O L U -T I O N . F R O M O C T O B E R 25 O N W A R D , L E N I N B E G A N T O R E P E A T O V E R A N D O V E R T & & ? T H E R U S S I A N P R O L E T A R I A T A R E O E F E N C I S T S . H E N O W D E C L A R E D T H A T T H E P R O L E -T A R I A T W E R E " A L L F O R T H E D E F E N C E O F T H E F A T H E R L A N O " AND I F T H E G E R M A N I M -P E R I A L I S T S I N I T I A T E A N A G G R E 8 8 I V E W A R A G A I N S T S O V I E T R U 8 8 L A , " T H E N T H E M A J O R I T Y O F S O V I E T S W I L L M O S T C E R T A I N L Y B E I N F A V O U R O F W A R . " ^ 9 T H E R U S -S I A N W 0 R K E R 8 W E R E N O W 0 E F E N C I 8 T 8 B E C A U 8 E " . . . / T H E Y / H A V E S H O W N S Y D E E D S T H A T . . . [JHZFL H A V E B R O K E N A W A Y F R O M I M P E R I A L I 8 M , " 7 0 A N O N O T E O L E N I N , " N O W O U R D E F E N C I 8 M I 8 H O N O U R A B L E . " 7 1 W H A T L E N I N W A S T R Y I N G T O S A Y , Q U I T E S I M P L Y , W A S T H A T T H E P R O -L E T A R I A T N O W H A D A " F A T H E R L A N O " A N O , S I N C E T H E Y H A O R E N O U N C E D A L L F O R M S O F I M P E R I A L I S M A N D N A T I O N A L O P P R E S S I O N , I T W A S H O N O R A B L E F O R T H E M T O D E -F E N D T H E I R N A T I O N A G A I N 8 T I M P E R I A L I S T A G G R E 8 8 0 R 8 . BuKHARIN 8 U M M E O T H 1 8 U P W E L L S . . . U N D E R C A P I T A L I S M T H E W 0 R K E R 8 H A V E N O P O W E R ; . . . U N D E R C A P I T A L 1 8 M E V E R Y T H I N G I S I N T H E H A N 0 8 O F T H E B O U R G E O I 8 I E J . . . U N D E R C A P I T A L I 8 M T H E S T A T E I S M E R E L Y A N I N S T R U M E N T F O R T H E S U P P R E S S I O N A N D O P P R E S S I O N O F T H E W O R K I N G C L A S S . W E H A V E A L R E A D Y 8 E E N T H A T T H E T A S K O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T 1 8 T O D E S T R O Y T H E B O U R G E O 1 8 S T A T E , N O T T O O E F E N O I T . T H E N O N L Y W I L L T H E P R O L E T A R I A T H A V E A C O U N T R Y . T H E N A N D O N L Y T H E N W I L L I T B E T H E D U T Y O F T H E P R O L E T A R I A T T O D E F E N D I T S F A T H S R L A N D \ F O R T H E N I T W I L L B E O E F E N O I N G I T 8 O W N A U T H O R I T Y A N D I T 8 O W N C A U S E 72 • 0 0 O ' D E F E N C E O F T H E F A T H E R L A N D W A S A H I S T O R I C A L , C O N C E P T , I N S I S T E D 111 L E N I N , AND OOULD BE CORRECTLY UNOERSTOOO ONLY IF IT WAS CONSIDERED WITH-IN A HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK. WHAT LENIN ALSO MEANT HOWEVER WAS THAT OE-FENCE OF THE FATHERLANO WAS A CLAS8 CONCEPT—AT LEA8T HI8 D E F I N I T I O N OF I T ~ A N O THAT PROPER COMPREHENSION OF IT WAS P088IBLE ONLY IF IT WAS VIEW— EO WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE CLA88 ISSUE. FOR THI8 REA80N LENIN WA8 VIRU-LENTLY 0PP08ED TO THE "IMPERIALIST WAR" WHICH HE 8AIO 8TEM8 FROM THE GENERAL CONDITIONS OF THE IMPERIALIST ERA AND 18 NOT ACCIDENTAL, NOT AN EXCEPTION, NOT A OEVLATION FROM THE GENERAL ANO TYPICAL. TALK OF DEFENCE OF THE FATHERLANO IS THEREFORE A DECEP-TION OF THE PEOPLE, FOR TH13 WAR 18 NOT A NATIONAL WAR. IN A GENU- INELY NATIONAL WAR THE W0R08 "DEFENCE OF THE FATHERLANO" ARE NOT A DECEPTION AND WE ARE NOT OPPOSED TO IT.73 IN THE CURRENT WAR, HE NOTED, DEFENCE OF THE FATHERLAND WAS ACTUALLY NO-THING MORE THAN THE "THROTTLING OF POLAND ANO THE UKRAI NE. "7**" A 8 0 C I A L I 8 T COULD REGARD WARS FOR THE OEFENCE OF THE FATHERLANO AS LEGITIMATE AND PROGRESSIVE IF THEY WERE FOUGHT WITH THE AIM OF OVER-THROWING ALIEN 0PPRE88I0N 81NCE "ALL NATIONAL 0PPRE88I0N CALLS FORTH THE RESISTANCE OF THE BROAO MA88E8 OF THE PEOPLE; AND THE RE8I STANCE OF A NA-TIONALLY 0PPRE88E0 POPULATION ALWAYS TENDS TO NATIONAL REVOLT."75 IT OOULO NOT BE 0THERWI8E, OECLAREO LENIN, "SINCE EVERY 'NAT I ON IN REVOLT * "0EFEW08* IT8ELF, IT8 LANGUAGE, IT8 TERRITORY, IT8 FATHERLANO, AGAINST THE 0PPRE880R NATIONS."76 TH18 THEORY COULO EA8ILY BE APPLIED TO THE UKRAINIAN SITUATION AND ACTUALLY WAS BY LENIN. IT WOULD BE "ABSURD NOT TO RECOGNIZE THE LEGITIMACY OF WAR8 OF 0PPRE88E0 NAT 10N8 AGAINST THEIR OPPRESSORS, WAR8 THAT MIGHT BREAK OUT TOOAV—RESELL I ON OF THE IRI8H AGAINST ENGLAND, FOR INSTANCE, REBELLION OF MORAOCO AGAINST FRANCE, OR THE UKRAINE AGAINST RUSSIA, ETC....77 OF GREATEST SIGNIFICANCE HERE IS THE FACT THAT LENIN, IN THE PRE-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, CONSIDERED THE UKRAINE TO BE AN OPPRESSEO NATION AND THEREFORE SANCTIONED A NATIONAL RE-BELLION BY UKRAINIANS. WHEN THE REBELLION ACTUALLY OCCURRED, HOWEVER, HE IGNORED THE NATIONAL I88UE, AND CONCEIVED IT ALMOST PURELY IN CLA88 112 TERM8. LENIN HAD THOUGHTFUL.LV PROVIDED THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR HIS POST-REVOLUTIONARY P08ITION ON THE REACTIONARY NATURE OF UKRAINIAN AT-TEMPTS TO 8ECE0E FROM WHAT HE HIMSELF TERMED THE ALIEN ANO OPPRESSING RUSSIANS. A CORRECT MARXIST APPROACH TO THE DEFENCE OF THE FATHERLAND QUESTION PRESCRIBED THE DEFINITION OF THE POLITICAL CONTENT IN EACH IN-DIVIDUAL WAR.? 8 THI8 'SUBSTANCE 9 OF A WAR WAS, ACCORDING TO LENIN, EAS-ILY DETERMINED* WAR IS THE CONTINUATION OF POLICY. CONSEQUENTLY, WE MUST EXAMINE THE POLIOY PURSUED PRIOR TO THE WAR, THE POLICY THAT LED TO AND BROUGHT ABOUT THE WAR. IF IT WAS AN IMPERIALIST POL ICY...THEN THE WAR 8TEMMING FROM THAT POLICY IS IMPERIALIST. IF IT WA8 A NATIONAL LIBERATION POL ICV•».THEN THE WAR 8TEMMING FROM THAT POLICY I S A WAR OF NATIONAL LIBERATI ON.79 AFTER THE REVOLUTION ANY NATIONAL WAR BY THE UKRAINE ANO UKRAINIANS WOULD HAVE TO BE REACTIONARY, ACCORDING TO THIS 8CHEME, BECAUSE THE RE— f . . . VOLUTION ITSELF WOULO HAVE LIBERATED THE NAT IONALITIE8 OF THE EMPIRE. BEFORE THE REVOLUTION LENIN NOTED THAT THE NATIONAL MOVEMENT HAD NOT BEEN CONSUMMATED IN THE UKRAINE ANO THAT THE MA88E8 WERE JUST BE-COMING AWARE OF THE POTENTIAL OF THEIR LANGUAGE ANO LITERATURE. DEVELOP-MENT OF NATIONAL OON8CI0U8NE88 M...|8 S T I L L GOING ON THERE. THE 'FATHER-LAND ' 18 HISTORICALLY NOT YET QUITE A DEAD LETTER THERE. THERE THE 'DE-FENCE OF THE FATHERLANO' CAN 8 T I L L BE OEFENCE OF OEMOCRACY, OF ONE*3 NATIVE LANGUAGE, OF POLITICAL LIBERTY AGAIN8T 0PPRE880R NATIONS, AGAIN8T MEOIEVALI8M...."80 BUT AFTER THE REVOLUTIONS OF FEBRUARY AND OCTOBER, THE UKRAINE, BY DEFINITION BECAME A FREE NATION AND THUS, ACCORDING TO LENINIST THEORY, THE NATIONAL MOVEMENT HAO BEEN CONSUMMATED. ANY STRUG-GLE BY THE UKRAINE AGAINST THE SOCIALIST STATE WOULD BE OBJECTIVELY IM-PERIALIST AND THEREFORE REACTIONARY. AFTER ALL, ONLY A BOURGEO18 STATE WOULO STRUGGLE WITH A 8 0 C I A L I 8 T ONE ANO 8 INCE THE PROLETARIAT NOW HAO A FATHERLAND IT WOULO BE OBLIGED TO OEFENO IT. LENIN EXPLAINED THAT A 113 8 0 C I A L I 8 T 8 T A T E COULD H A V E NO I M P E R I A L I S T O B J E C T I V E S ; A N Y WAR I T F O U G H T WOULO B E D E F E N 8 I V E ANO 8 1 N C E T H E U K R A I N E T H R E A T E N E D T H E 8 0 0 I A L I 8 T S T A T E I T WOULO B E A D E F E N C E OF T H E F A T H E R L A N O TO D E 8 T R 0 V A B O U R G E O 1 8 D E M O C R A T I C UKRAINE . 8 1 114 CHAPTER V: FOOTNOTES. 1. LENIN, X I X , P. 356. 2. IBIO., XX, p . 42. 3. SEE ESPECIALLY THE ARTICLE "NATIONAL EQUALITY", I B I P . , PP. 237-38. ALSO SEE SHAHEEN, PP. 100-106. 4. LENIN, XX, p . 237. 5. IB 10.« PP. 172-73* IT IS MOST INTERESTING THAT LENIN, IN POLEMIC 18ING WITH THE JEW8 ANO THE BUNO FOR TEN YEAR8, HAO ALWAYS IN318' TEO THAT THE JEWS WERE NOT A NATIONALITY BUT A CASTE. IN HIS EXPLANA-TION OF THE "NATIONAL EQUALITY B I L L " , HOWEVER, HE STATES THAT "NO NA-TIONALITY IN RU88IA 18 SO 0PPRE88E0 AND PERSECUTED A8 THE JEWI8H." IB ID. . P. 172. IN THE 8AME ARTICLE HE URGEO THAT MARXI8T8 DEVOTE MORE TIME TO THE JEW 18H QUESTION. 6. IBID.. X X I , P. 105. 7. IBID.. X X X I , p . 145. ALSO SEE IBIO.. X X I V , p . 302. 8. IBID.. X X I V , P. 472. 9. P I P E 8 , THE GENES I S . . . . PP. 71-73» AND LOW, PP. 16, 30-31, 127-28, O 1 8 O U S 8 THIS POINT. AL80 SEE B0RY8, P. 41; RE8HETAR, "LENIN ON THE UKRAINE," P. 5« W.R. BATSELL, SOVIET RULE IN RUSSIA. (NEW YORK: MACMILLAN, ND.) PP. 636-37. 10. LENIN, XX, p . 223. 11« IB ID., P. 223. 12. IBID., P. 238. 13. IBID.. XX11. p . 346. 14. IBIO.. XX, p . 35» SEE LENIN'S LETTER TO SHAUMIAN. IBID.. X I X , PP. 499-502; Low, PP. 88-89, 115; BORVS, PP. 32-33. 15« LENIN, X X X I , p . 146. SEE SHAHEEN, PP. 86-87. 16. LENIN, XX, P. 223. SEE SHAHEEN, PP. 103-04. 17. LENIN, X X I I , P. 339. 18. I B I D . , P. 345. 19* LENIN REASONED THAT "...MARXISTS KNOW THAT DEMOCRACY DOES NOT AB0LI8H CLASS 0PPRE8SI ON. IT ONLY MAKE8 THE CLA88 8TRUGGLE MORE O l R E C T , WIDER, MORE OPEN ANO PRONOUNCEO. ...THE FULLER NAT IONAL EQUAL-ITY. . . , THE CLEARER WILL THE W0RKER8 OF THE OPPRE88EO NATIONS 8EE THAT THE CAUSE OF THEIR OPPRESSION 18 CAP I T A L 1 8 M , NOT LACK OF RIGHT8, ETC." IBID.. XX I 11, P.73-20. IBIO.. XX, p . 4 l 4 . 21. IBID.. X I X , p . 380. 22. IBID.. XX, P.,110. 115 2 3 « I B I D . , X X X , p . 2 9 4 . IN P R A C T I C E , CARP, REMARKS THAT "EQUAL-ITY BETWEEN NAT 10N8 MEANT BREAK INQ DOWN THE L I N E OF OEMARCATI ON BETWEEN IND 3 T R I A L ANO AGRICULTURAL NATIONS." COMMENTING ON THE S O V I E T ATTEMPTS AT E Q U A L I Z A T I O N , HE 8TATE8 THAT THE ACTUAL E Q U A L I Z I N G PR0CE88 FACED MANY D I F F I C U L T I E S AND 0B8ERVE8 THAT WHILE "INTENT 10N8 WERE S I N C E R E , ANO ACHIEVEMENTS REAL? ...PR0GRE88 COULO ONLY BE GRADUAL* E X I S T I N G I N E Q U A L I T I E S ALWAYS HAVE A NATURAL TENOENCY TO P E R P E -TUATE THEMSELVES AND TO R E S I S T EVERY EFFORT TO OVERCOME THEM." C A R R , P P . 3 6 5 - 6 7 . CARR SPEAKS P R I M A R I L Y OF ECONOMIC AND P O L I T I C A L I N E Q U A L I T I E S BUT L E N I N ALSO STRESSED THE N E C E S S I T Y OF E R A D I C A T I N G CULTURAL I N E Q U A L I T Y . 24. L E N I N X X X I I I , p . 3 7 2 . 2 5 . L E N I N DEFINED A S S I M I L A T I O N AS "THE SHEDDING OF NATIONAL F E A T U R E 8 , ANO AB80RPTI ON BY ANOTHER NATION...." IB LO. . XX, P. 2 7 . 2 6 . I B I D . , X I X , p . 9 2 . 2 7 . I B I O . . XX, p . 3 3 . S E E I B I D . , P. 3 5 . 28. I B I D . , P. 2 8 . 2 9 . I B I D . , P. 3 0 . SEE SHAHEEN, P P . 88-89? Low, P P . 60-64? RESHETAR, " L E N I N ON THE U K R A I N E , " P. 6. BORYS I N S I S T S THAT L E N I N NEVER OPENLY ADVOCATED A 8 8 I M L L A T I ON OF U K R A I N I A N S • SEE B 0 R Y 8 , P P . 85-86. T H I S MAY BE TRUE, BUT AS THE TWO PROCEOINQ QUOTATIONS DEMONSTRATE, HE WA8 NOT OVERLY CIRCUMLOCUTORY I N TH18 DEMAND E I T H E R . 3 0 . L E N I N , X X I 11 , p . 64. 3 1 . I B I D . , P. 66. 3 2 . I B I D . , P. 66. SEE MEYER, P P . 152-53? BORYS, P. 4 1 . 33« L E N I N , X X I I I ' , P. 7 5 . SEE I B I O . . X X , p . 222 FOR THE EXAMPLE OF NORWAY A N D S W E D E N . ALSO S E E WOLFE, P P . 579-80. 3 4 . L E N I N , X X X , p . 2 9 5 . 35« I B I D . 3 6 . I B I D . , P. 2 9 6 . S E E DMYTRYSHYN, P P . 48-4 9 . 37. L E N I N , X X I X , p . 110. S E E I B I D . . X X V I I I , P. 112. 38. I B I D . . X X I X , P. 1 9 5 . S E E BORYS, P P . 5 0-51. 3 9 . L E N I N , X X I X , p . 110. 4 0 . I B I D . . X X X . p . 2 9 7 . 4 1 . CARR, P. 3 6 7 . 4 2 . I B I D * , P P . 3 6 7 - 6 8 . 4 3 . SEE L E N I N , X X I , P. 4 1 2 . 44. I B I D . . X X M , P. 328. ^5« I B I D . , P. 3 2 8 . IN FACT L E N I N COMPLETELY I D E N T I F I E D THE CONCEPT OF 8ELF—OETERMI NAT I ON WITH THAT OF ANNEXATION. IN THE "0 I 8 C U 8 -S I O N ON S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N SUMMED U P " HE STATED THAT " I F T H E R E IS A PARTY THAT 8AY3 I N IT8 PROGRAMME...THAT IT 18 A G A I N 8 T ANNEXATIONS, AGAIN8T THE F O R C I B L E RETENTION OF 0PPRE88B0 NAT ION8 WITHIN THE FRONT IER8 0 F 1 T 8 S T A T E , WE DECLARE OUR COMPLETE AGREEMENT I N P R I N C I P L E WITH THAT 116 P A R T Y . I T WOULO B E A B S U R D TO I N S I S T ON T H E WORD * 8 E L F - 0 E T E R M I NAT ION *." IB I Q . . P . 329. A L S O B E E I B I D . , P P . 3 3 5 - 4 ? . 4 6 . I B I D . , P . 3 2 9 . S E E I B I D . . XXIV, P . 4 3 3 . 4 7 . I B I D . . X X I I , P . 3 3 3 . 4 8 . I B I D . , P . 3 4 6 . 49. I B I D . , P.347. 5 0 . I B I O . . P . 347. 5 1 . I B I D . , P . 347» L E N I N A G R E E O THAT T H E S I T U A T I O N WAS B E -W I L D E R I N G B U T U S I N G POLAND A S A N E X A M P L E H E I N S I S T E D T H E R E WAS "A WAY OUT I N W H I C H A L L R*»RT1CIPANT8 WOULO R E M A I N I N T E R N A T I O N A L I S T S * T H E RU 8SLAN AND GERMAN S O C I A L - D E M O C R A T S RY D E M A N D I N G F O R POLANO U N C O N D I T I O N A L ' F R E E -DOM TO 8 E C E D E ' I T H E P O L 18H S o C I A L - D E M 0 C R A T 8 BY W O R K I N G F O R T H E U N I T Y OF THE P R O L E T A R I A N S T R U G G L E I N BOTH S M A L L AND B I G C O U N T R I E 8 W I T H O U T P U T T I N G FORWARD T H E 8 L O G A N O F P O L 18H I N D E P E N D E N C E F O R T H E G I V E N E P O C H OR T H E G I V E N P E R I O D . " I B 1 0 . . P. 351 -52. I B I D . . X X I V, P . 7 3 . A L S O S E E I B I D . , P P . 302, 4 3 4 . 53. M E I S E L , P P . 15-16. 54. I B I O . . P. 16. AT T H I S T I M E L E N I N S T A T E D THAT " I F A N Y NA-T I O N W H A T S O E V E R , 18 F O R C I B L Y R E T A I N E D W I T H I N T H E B 0 R 0 E R 8 OF A G I V E N S T A T E , I F , I N S P I T E O F I T S E X P R E S S E D 0 E 8 I R E . . . I T 18 NOT A C C O R D E D T H E R I G H T TO D E C I D E T H E FORMS O F I T S S T A T E E X 1 8 T E N C E B Y A F R E E V O T E , T A K E N A F T E R T H E C O M P L E T E E V A C U A T I O N OF T H E T R 0 0 P 8 OF T H E I N C O R P O R A T I N G OR, G E N E R A L L Y OF T H E S T R O N G E R N A T I O N ANO W I T H O U T T H E L E A S T P R E 8 8 U R E B E I N G BROUGHT TO BEAR, 8 U C H I N C O R P O R A T I O N 18 A N N E X A T I O N , b E . , 8 E I Z U R E ANO V I O L E N C E • " L E N I N , X X V I , P . 250. S E E E S P E C I A L L Y , I B I D . , P . 349. 55. L E N I N , XXI11, p . 70. S E E I B I D . . XXIV, p . 302 AND E S P E C I A L L Y I B I D . . XXI I , P P . 147-48. 56. I B I D . . X X I V, P . 337. 57. I B I D . , P. 4 3 3 . 58. I B I D . , P. 4 3 4 . 59. M E I S E L , P . 16. 60. L E N I N , X X V I , P. 349* L E N I N E X P L A I N E D THAT " T H E D E F I N I T I O N OF A N N E X A T I O N U N D E R W H I C H ONLY L A N O S I N T E G R A T E D A F T E R T H E P R O C L A M A T I O N OF T H E WAR A R E R E G A R D E D A 8 A N N E X E D I 8 R E J E C T E D . " I B I D . . P. 3 4 9 • 61. I B I D . , P. 349. 62. I B I O . . X X I I , p p . 147-48, 337; I B I O . . X X I V , P . 3 5 5 ; C I U C I U R A , P P . 33-34. 63. L E N I N , XXV, p . 106. S E E C A R R , P. 2 8 9 , P O R A N A P P R A I S A L OF T H E C O M P A R I S O N OF T H E U K R A I N E W I T H F I N L A N D ANO P O L A N D O F WHlOH L E N I N MADE G R E A T U 8 E . 64. L E N I N R E M A R K E D T H A T I T WOULD B E I N T E R E S T I N G TO H E A R T H E V I E W S OF K E R E N S K Y , T S E R E T E L I , CHERNOV AND OTHERS ON S E L F - D E T E R M I N A T I O N F O R T H E U K R A I N E A N D OTHER N A T I O N A L G R O U P S I N T H E E M P I R E . HE T H E N TURNEO TO T H E Q U E S T I O N OF A N N E X A T I O N S B Y N O T I N G T HAT I R E L A N D AND A L G E R I A WERE A N N E X E D C E N T U R I E 8 B E F O R E T H E O U T B R E A K O F WORLD WAR I. T H E N H E A 8 K E D S 117 "WHAT ARE YOU, KERENSKY, TSERETELI, CHERNOV, SKOBELEV, IF NOT 'TAMED SOCIALISTS*? DLO YOU RAISE THE QUEST I ON OF THE RU8SI AN IRELAND ANO THE RUSSIAN ALGERIA, I.E., OF TURKESTAN, ARMENIA, UKRAINE, FINLAND, ETC., BEFORE THE GOVERNMENT OF THE *RUS8LAN BOURGEO181E NOW IN POWER * ? WHEN DID YOU RAISE THIS QUESTION? WHY OON*T YOU TELL THE RUSSIAN •PEOPLE* ABOUT IT? WHY DON'T YOU QUALIFY AS 'SLEIGHT OF HAND' THE RU88I AN NARODNIKS' AND MEN8HEVIK8' BLETHER ABOUT 'PEACE WITHOUT ANNEX" AT IONS* IN THE SOVIET, IN THE GOVERNMENT AND BEFORE THE PEOPLE, W|THOUT  RAI8ING. CLEARLY ANO UNAMBIGUOUSLY, THE QUE8TI ON OF ALL RU88I AN ANNEX-ATIONS OF THE SAME TYPE A8 IRELAND AND ALGERIA?" LENIN, XXIV, P. 5^6. 65. IBID.. X X I , P. 104. 66. SEE IBIO.. PP. 306-07* SHAHEEN, P. 129. 67. LENIN, XXXV, P. 251. LENIN ALSO POINTED OUT THAT MARX NATIONAL WAR ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS. IB ID.. ALSO 8EE TWO OTHER TO INE88A ARMAND ON THIS QUE8TI0N IN IB ID.. PP. 264-65 , 272-74. 68. 69. 70. 72. 74. pp. 7-8. 75. 76. 77. "OUR PARTY IS NOT AFRAID TO OECLARE PUBLICLY THAT IT WILL SYMPATHIZE WITH WAR8 OR UPRI8ING8 WHICH IRELAND MIGHT START AGAIN8T ENGLAND \ MOROCCO, ALGERIA AND TUSISIA AGAINST FRANCE; TRIPOLI AGAINST ITALY; THE UKRAINE, PERSIA, CHINA AGAINST RUSSIA, ETC." 78. IBID. 79. IBID., P. 33. SEE IBIO.. P. 196; IBID.. XXXV, PP. 244-45. 80. IBID.. XXI I I , P. 39. 81. SEE IBID., x x v i l , PP. 64, 191-92, 467, 478-79; IBIO.. XXV I I I , P. 26. FAVORED LETTER8 IBID., P. 250. SEE IBIO.. X X V I I , PP. 64, 332, 378. IBID.. X X V I I , P. 59. SEE LOW, PP. 74-75. LENIN, X X V I I , P. 64. 71. IBIO.. P. 191. BUKHARIN, PP. 147-48. 73- LENIN, X X I I I , P. 31. IBID., P. 196. SEE RESHETAR, "LENIN ON THE UKRAINE," LENIN, X X I I I , p. 61. SEE IBID., P. 31; MEYER, PP. 151-52. LENIN, XX I I I , p. 66. IBID., P. I96. LENIN REPEATED THIS WITHIN A FEW PAGES: 118 C H A P T E R V I : R E L A T I O N S W I T H U K R A I N I A N M A R X I S T S . L E N I N N E V E R R E C O G N I Z E D T H E N O N - B O L S H E V I K U K R A I N I A N S O C I A L I S T S A S B O N A F I D E M A R X I S T 8 AND P O L E M I C I Z E D W I T H TWO OF T H E M , DMYTRO D 0 N T 8 0 V ANO L E V Y U R K E V I C H , AT SOME L E N G T H . E T H N I C U K R A I N I A N B O L S H E V I K S , L E N I N D I S C O V E R E D TO H I 8 D I S M A Y , WERE V I R T U A L L Y NON—EX I 8 T E N T I N T H E U K R A I N E — AT L E A S T I N T H E PRE-WAR Y E A R 8 . D U R I N G THE E A R L Y Y E A R S OF T H E WAR TH E R E S E E M E O TO B E L I T T L E I M P R O V E M E N T I N T H I S R E 8 P E C T F R O M T H E B O L S H E V I K S T A N D -P O