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A socio-economic survey of campers in four British Columbia Provincial Parks, 1967 Blackhall, Robert John 1971

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A SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF CAMPERS IN FOUR BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL PARKS-196? by ROBERT JOHN BLACKHALL B. S. A. University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1951 A THESSS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION i n the Department of ADULT EDUCATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1971 In present ing th i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and Study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for s cho l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th is thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission.-Department of The Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date Q V J L g 1171 ABSTRACT This descriptive study of campers i n Golden Ears, Kokanee Creek, Monck and Bamberton P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s based upon 14-0 on-location personal i n t e r -views conducted i n the summer of 19&7. The c l i e n t e l e have been described i n terms of t h e i r socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Further analysis of the data occurred i n tes t i n g the hypothesis that there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the f i v e percent l e v e l when the variables of age, income, occupation, education and distance from .Thome were compared with a va r i e t y of camper needs and preferences. This information may help various agencies concerned with the use of parks to plan educational programs for the park v i s i t o r . The study revealed that families were the main users of the four Provincial, study parks. The head of the family unit was generally a man possessing some high school education and receiving an annual income of l e s s than $10,000. Most of the respondents v i s i t e d a succession of Pr o v i n c i a l parks while on t h e i r camping t r i p s . The tent, as in e a r l i e r times, remains the most common form of shelter used by campers. The appeal of a camping holiday was centered mainly on the change of l i f e - s t y l e offered by t h i s r e c r e a t i o n a l form. However, campers having a non-professional work back^-,' ground also l a i d considerable stress on the health and s o c i a l advantages of camping. The high regard of campers fo r the P r o v i n c i a l parks i n t e r p r e t a t i o n program was made evident by the high per-centage of campers .who favoured on-site i n s t r u c t i o n as a preferred means of gaining information about the outdoors. Further confirmation appeared i n the expressed wish that some form of the program should be implemented i n a l l of the study parks currently lacking t h i s f a c i l i t y . Continuing education courses with camping content held considerable appeal f o r the respondents, p a r t i c u l a r l y those under 29 years of age with some u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . Abstract. . i i L i s t of Tables v i i Acknowledgements ,ix CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 Nature of the Problem 9 Purpose of the Study 12 Importance of the Study 12 Limitations of the Study. 12 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms 14 I I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 16 Canadian Studies After i960 of the Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Campers i n Canadian P r o v i n c i a l Parks 16 Literature on Outdoor Education for Adults 18 The Need f o r Outdoor Education 18 Areas of Outdoor Education. 21 Objectives of Outdoor Education 23 Benefits of Outdoor Education 24 CHAPTER PAGE II I . DESIGN OF THE STUDY 25 Selection of the Study Parks 25-Description of the Study Parks 25 Golden Ears 28 Kokanee Creek 29 Monck 30 Bamberton 31 The Interview Schedule 32 Selection of the Respondents 32 Interview Techniques 33 Tabulation of Schedule Results 34 IV. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 36 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondents 36 The Camping Trip 44 Motivation For Camping 52 Education for the Outdoors 55 S i g n i f i c a n t Relationships Between Selected Variables 63 V. SUMMARY OF THE STUDY. 71 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondents 31 it The Camping T r i p . . . . . . . . . . 72 Motivation For Camping 72 Education For the Outdoors 73 S i g n i f i c a n t Relationships Between Selected Variables 74 Implications of the Study 76 Future Research 80 PAGE REFERENCES '80 APPENDIX 90 A. An Annotated Bibliography of Some Canadian and American Studies Related to the Socio-Economie Factors i n Camping Post i 9 6 0 91 B. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Information on B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Parks and Attendance Figures on the Study Parks 95 C. The Interview Schedule 99 D. Recommendations of Respondents For the Study Parks 106 E. De f i n i t i o n s 109 F. Tables Showing Relationships Between Selected Variables 117 LIST OF TABLES I. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Marital Status 38 I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Occupation...38 I I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Annual Income ^2 IV. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Campers by Education Level. 42 V. Duration of Yearly Vacation.... .43 VI. Bistance Travelled by Campers to Campground.4-3 VII. Length of Stay at Campsite i n Days . . . 4 5 VIII. Total Number of P r o v i n c i a l Campgrounds V i s i t e d on the Camping T r i p . 45 IX. Total Number of Camping Trips Made During the Year 46 X. Accommodation Used by Campers on the Trip...46 XI. Numbers i n the Camping Unit..... 48 XII. Objectionable Features Encountered by the Respondent i n B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Parks 48 XIII, Overall Cost of the Camping Trip 50 XIV. Cost of the T r i p Per Person Per Day 50 XV, Camper Reaction to the Proposal That Separate Areas Within the Campground be J. A l l o t t e d to Tenters and R.V. Owners 51 XVI. Rank Order Placement of 14 Motives For Camping. 54 XVII. Degree of Interest Shown by Campers In a Selection of 15 Outdoor Oriented A c t i v i t i e s By Rank Order 56 XVIII. Preferred Means of Gaining Information About Outdoor A c t i v i t i e s . Expressed i n Percent ...... .57 XIX, Camper Opinion Regarding the Implementation of a Nature Program i n the Study Parks 61 XX. Camper Opinion Regarding the Proposed Publication of a Book Describing A l l of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Parks 6 l XXI. Number of Campers With Previous Experience i n Continuous Learning Courses 62 XXII. Degree of Interest Expressed by Respondents In Future Enrolment i n Camping Oriented Continuous Learning Courses.. 62 XXIII. Educational Level and Number of Camping Trips Per Year. 64 XXIV. Educational Level and the F i n a n c i a l Motive For a Camping Holiday 65 XXV. Educational Level and Previous Attendance In Adult Education Courses .66 k l XXVI. Age and Interest Expressed i n Attending Camping Oriented Adult Education Courses 67 XXVII. Occupation and the Health Motive For Camping 69 XXVIII. Occupation and Enjoyment of Camping S o c i a l L i f e as a Motive For Camping 70 XXIX. Attendance Figures and D i s t r i b u t i o n Percentages For the Four Study Parks For the Year 1967 98 FIGURE PAGE I. Location of the Four Surveyed P r o v i n c i a l Campgrounds 26 II, Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of Camper Respondents Expressed i n Percent 37 I I I , Income of Camper Respondents Expressed i n Percent,,,,, ,,., 4-1 ACKNOWLEDGEMEN TS The writer expresses his thanks to Dr. J . Niemi, chairman of the thesis committee, for the w i l l i n g extension of his assistance and time throughout the progress of t h i s thesis. Acknowledgement i s also extended to the members of the thesis committee, Mr. P. Dooling of the Forestry Faculty and Mr. L. Brown of the Education Faculty, for t h e i r h e l p f u l comments. La s t l y , special thanks i s extended to Dr. S.S.Lee of the Education Faculty for his competent guidance through some of the s t a t i s t i c a l aspects of the thesis. Dedication To Bays and out children, Jan and John CHAPTER I Camping i n the P r o v i n c i a l park of B r i t i s h Columbia, as i n other P r o v i n c i a l and Federal parks across Canada, represents a large and growing segment of the outdoor recreation scene. Over 7 . 5 m i l l i o n acres of P r o v i n c i a l and Federal parkland are available to B r i t i s h Columbia's camper v i s i t o r s . Present rates of increase i n park atten-dance range between 10 and 16 percent yearly f o r Canadian parks ( 2 5 : 5 1 ) . In B r i t i s h Columbia, annual attendance figures f o r camper nights spent i n the P r o v i n c i a l parks have shown an increase from 1\ m i l l i o n v i s i t s i n 1958 to 6-| m i l l i o n v i s i t s i n 1968(4-7:50). These figures indicate that the parks program has made an appreciable contribution to the t o u r i s t industry of t h i s province. How i n the p o s i t i o n of the t h i r d ranking d o l l a r producer i n B r i t i s h Columbia, tourism has climbed from a 100 m i l l i o n d o l l a r industry i n i 9 6 0 to a 317 m i l l i o n d o l l a r industry i n 1967. With nearly a l l tabulations involving park attendance figures, camping equipment sales and recreational t r a v e l showing a decided increase, i t i s speculative as to when the appeal of camping as a recreation outlet w i l l l e v e l o f f . & "projection study" of 16 summertime a c t i v i t i e s conducted by the United States Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, v i s u a l i z e s a 78 percent increase i n camping a c t i v i t y between the years 1 9 6 5 and 1 9 8 0 ( 4 9 ) . This increase would rank camping as the second most popular summertime a c t i v i t y , behind walking and hiking, at the end of 1 9 8 0 . A further p r o j e c t i o n to the year 2 0 0 0 foresees camping s t i l l entrenched i n the number two p o s i t i o n , but with a 2 3 8 percent increase i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n over the 1 9 6 5 figure. Both present and projected demand studies of llie camping scene seem to o f f e r l i t t l e r e l i e f f o r park administrators concerned with a burgeoning camping population. No simple reason can account f o r the upsurge of damping as a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . Some of ihe p r i n c i p a l factors that have contributed to increased camping i n t e r e s t ares 1 . Urbanization By the year 2 0 0 0 , over 9 0 percent of our population i s expected to be l i v i n g i n the c i t i e s ( 1 3 1 5 8 ) . This urban-i z a t i o n of Canadian l i f e w i l l undoubtedly contribute to a need experienced by urbanites f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l experiences i n an environment that i s d i f f e r e n t to the one i n which they e x i s t from day to day. Studies conducted by Clawson and Knetsch show urbanites as the main consumers of parklands ( 1 2 t 9 3 ) . Rene Dubois of the Rockefeller In s t i t u t e refers to the dual world of two external environments inhabited by modern man, with the statement that "man i s b a s i c a l l y a creature of nature who has l a t e l y become a creator of nature" (59»8). The s o c i a l . s c i e n t i s t implies that urban man, having b u i l t one world within and around the natural world, s t i l l seeks out t h i s natural world as a nourisher of his existence. 2 .Population Growth B r i t i s h Columbia, with an estimated population of 2,002,000 persons as of A p r i l 1, 1968, has recorded the highest population growth i n Canada since the year 1960(17«1^)• According to a forecast of population growth fo r t h i s pro-vince, the 1961 population figure of 1,629,000 i s expected to increase by 78.7 percent to 2,912,000 persons by 198l(7«8). At that time, the Lower Mainland region of the province, en-compassing Greater KSncouver, Delta and the Fraser Valley, w i l l probably consist of one continuous community extending from tidewater to Chilliwack, a distance of 62 miles ( 1 3 i 5 8 ) . Non-urban parks, p a r t i c u l a r l y those within day or week-end dr i v i n g range of the c i t y dweller, w i l l face mounting pres-sures not only from an increasing l o c a l population, but also from an ever-expanding t o u r i s t trade. 3.Leisure I t seems c e r t a i n that predicted increases i n l e i s u r e time w i l l r e s u l t i n increased camping a c t i v i t y . Derived from the L a t i n verb " l i c e r e " , the word l e i s u r e means "to be permitted". By t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , l e i s u r e may be considered an opportunity f o r s e l f expression, not merely freedom from work (10»3). Within l e i s u r e periods, the i n d i v i d u a l i s not concerned with earning a l i v i n g . He i s able to control h i s use of time and i s free to a v a i l himself to a broad v a r i e t y of spontaneous-l y s a t i s f y i n g experiences, A r i s i n g gross national product, automation, longer vacation periods, and e a r l i e r retirement are the main c o n t r i -buting factors to a society which finds i t s e l f endowed with increased amounts of l e i s u r e time. The young man of today w i l l have 22 more years of l e i s u r e time i n Bis l i f e t i m e than did his grandfather ( 6 l»22). Theobold has stated that the present labour force could be reduced 50 percent by 197M55»9). A further p r o j e c t i o n by Masters to the year 2000A.D. v i s u a l i -zed that 98 percent of the North American population would be supported by the other 2 percent. The preceding y statements are i n d i c a t i v e of a trend that w i l l have a d i r e c t bearing on camping a c t i v i t y . Clawson has said that i t i s the length of the l e i s u r e periods (week-ends, paid vacations and retirement) coupled with the timing of these periods, that hold the most significance for park use ( 6 l « 2 1 ) . 4. Disposable or Discretionary Income In that very few poor people "are aMe to enjoy a camping type holiday, any increase i n a society's l e v e l of disposable incomes., could mean higher p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates i n outdoor recreation. Personal income i n B.C. has increased 76 percent between the years i960 and 196?. The average worker earns $4,724,00 per year (the highest p r o v i n c i a l average wage i n Canada) compared to the Canadian national average of $4,166.00 per worker (17«19). As personal income per c a p i t a l r i s e s , a smaller percentage of the wage i s needed for the essentials of l i v i n g and a greater percentage becomes available as d i s -cretionary income. IThe c o r r e l a t i o n between such income and increased recreational a c t i v i t y has shown up i n a number of studies (30.3) (39»62) (38124). Some segments of our lower middle class society have embraced camping because they have very l i t t l e i n the way of disposable income. Studies by Gregerson (19«18) Darling and Eichorn ( 1 5 ) reveal that one of the main appeals of the camp-ground i n that i t provides an inexpensive holiday. 5. Improved Roads and Increased Mobility A network of fine roads i n a province that exceeds i n size the combined states of Washington, Oregon, and C a l i f o r n i a has provided the B.C. camper with a wide ragge of accessible camping areas. The Department of Highways administers over 27,000 miles of highways and r i g h t s of way. lAlmost 3,500 v miles of major route construction ha^ebeen completed within the 1954-1969 period (6159-60). A rather recent phenomenon, the recreational v e h i c l e , or'R.V". (camper truck, t r a i l e r , tent t r a i l e r , mobile home, van conversion) has made a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to the popularity of camping. lOver 2 m i l l i o n R.V.'s are currently i n use i n Canada and the United States, with 1970 production figures slated at 663,000 vehicles, double the 1967 annual t o t a l . By the year 1980, there w i l l be an estimated 7t500,000 complex and sophisticated R.V. units on the road (34»20). Ormes' extensive study of American R.V. owners portrayed them as a gregarious people who drove t h e i r units an average of 5»244 miles per year (4l»4&. They supported an average of 1.8 children per family on an average income of $9,290. Forty-five percent of the family Beads had attended college and 90 percent of them owned t h e i r homes. The e f f e c t of the R.V. on the camping scene has been a s i g n i f i c a n t one. I t has broadened the camper spectrum to include the very young, as well as the aged and r e t i r e d . The R.V. has also created problems of accommodation and camp-s i t e design within e x i s t i n g campgrounds, where the tenter used to be the p r i n c i p a l occupant. Bloomfield has pointed out that the R.V.Js have created a need f o r many more private campgrounds that can provide the required e l e c t r i c l i g h t , sewage disposal and t e l e v i s i o n f o r t h i s new bread of bedroom camper (9«7). 6 .Education and Occupation Increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n outdoor recr e a t i o n has also been r e l a t e d to improved educational and occupational status. Over the l a s t 30 years, the middle and upper middle classes have been the pacesetters i n a more informal l i f e s t y l e . One facet of t h i s i n f o r m a l i t y has been the acceptance of camping holidays by the middle c l a s s . Studies by Reid (49«206) Mueller, Gurin , ( 3 7 ) and McCurdy (311631) have shown that the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l towards outdoor a c t i v i t i e s i s proportional to the amount of education he possesses. Vi Aesthetic Reasons Bruce Hutchison . has described man's paradoxical f e e l i n g s about his environment i n the following manner1 The h i s t o r y of Canada f o r 300 years was a struggle to escape from the wilderness..... and f o r the l a s t h a l f century, has been a des-perate attempt to escape into i t ( 2 1 ) ' . A quotation such as Hutchisons : i s understandably l a t e i n coming to our North American c i v i l i z a t i o n f o r i t was not so very long ago that Nature assumed the r o l e of an adversary to be conquered. Only recently have many r e a l i z e d that the land must be l i v e d with and not simply o f f . Iii the urbanized and automated North American world of totlay,the r o l e of nature i n the society has changed appreciably from i t s p o s i t i o n of f i f t y years ago. At the 1963 White House Conference on Natural BeatityyLyndon Johnson described natural beauty as "more than a source of pleasure and re c r e a t i o n . I t shapes our values. I t molds our a t t i t u d e s . I t feeds our s p i r i t and i t helps us to make us the kind of men and women we f i n a l l y become". This attempt to "escape" in t o nature on the part of growing numbers of our society may be an attempt to re -e s t a b l i s h more basic t i e s with the natural world. Brooks has suggested that "natural areas are as es s e n t i a l to our way of l i f e as our la b o r a t o r i e s , museums, and l i b r a r i e s . Our need to understand the world of nature s i g n i f i e s i n us, something deeper than mere curiosity 1 i t i s an aesthetic experience i n the profoundest sense of the term (8137)." A coneise summary of ihe primary factors contributing to the increased popularity of damping was presented by Clawson at the 1968 Calgary Parks Conference. 'The increase i n disposable income and expanding l e i s u r e time are rapid l y generating a culture t r a n s i t i o n from the values of work and production toward those associated with consumption and l e i s u r e . These factors and increasing population mobility have l e d to noticeable increases i n the consumption and demand fo r outdoor recreational experiences. Additional pressures can be expected as a r e s u l t of a changing philosophy among s o c i a l groups with regard to l e i s u r e and recreation and as posi t i v e values; an increasing percentage of the family budget i s assigned to recreation and an increased desire for d i v e r s i t y i n recreational experiences (14 « 1 0 ) . ! Nature of the Problem B r i t i s h Columbia's 269 P r o v i n c i a l Parks are facing a new threat to t h e i r existence. S t i l l present are the ex-tern a l pressures for non-recreational park use i n the form of attempted e x p l o i t a t i o n of timber and mineral resources, grazing, water resource development and the provision of u t i l i t i e s and road access within park boundaries. The new danger i s i n t e r n a l and appears i n the form of mounting hordes of well-intentioned campers and n a t u r a l i s t groups that are annually swelling park usage figures. Some of the most desirable q u a l i t i e s of our parklands are being placed i n jeopardy as a r e s u l t of increased park usuage by campers. Current park l e g i s l a t i o n stresses that parks must be "maintained and made use of so as to leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations" (40)." In order that t h i s statement might be .made meaningful, park adminis-trators are considering a number of approaches. Currently under consideration are such measures as use l i m i t s (12i93)» encouragement of off-season camping ( I 4 i l 0 ) , encouragement of more private enterprise i n camping development, land reservation of s p e c i f i e d tracts to form a p r o v i n c i a l land banks to meet future recreational land needs(46i75)• Conspicuously absent from the counter measures being considered to meet present and future camping demands i s any s i g n i f i c a n t body of information adequately describing the kind of person who camps i n the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Parks. Reference was made to t h i s deficiency by Pimlott at the 1968 Calgary Parks Conference. Most of our park e f f o r t s i n the past have been concentrated almost exclusively on park resources i n archeology, ecology, geology,etc But i n the future we must turn more to the behavioural s c i e n t i s t f or a better under-standing of the people who interac t with these resources (44i24). Most park planners concur that more research of a socio-economic nature i s necessary i f e x i s t i n g park areas are to be maintained for pos t e r i t y . Planners such as Eidsvik,, would use t h i s type of information, along with demographic studies, as the c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i n g s p e c i f i c parcels of land for future park use (18 i l l ) . Another problem area occurs i n the large numbers of campers possessing very l i t t l e knowledge about the natural Offerings of the parks i n which they spend t h e i r holidays. Increased urbanization has produced a person unprepared to cope with outdoor surroundings. Many of today's campers have very l i t t l e understanding of the s o i l s , plants and animals that make up t h e i r camping area. As a consequence, the pote n t i a l for s a t i s f y i n g experiences i n the outdoors i s considerably lessened. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s descriptive survey i s to report on s i g n i f i c a n t economic variables which r e l a t e to camping ex-periences i n Golden Ears, Kokanee Creek, Monck and Bamberton P r o v i n c i a l Parks. A secondary purpose of the study i s a consideration of some of the camper needs and preferences i n the area of outdoor education. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY - At present, very l i t t l e Information i s available con-cerning the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of persons who camp i n B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Parks. Park planners and adminis-trators require a larger body of information about the kind of people who come to the parks f o r recreation. Most present day campers have an urban background and consequently are l e s s i n touch * i t h nature than were t h e i r r u r a l predecessors. More information i s needed to a s s i s t the urban camper to perceive, comprehend and enjoy the outdoors. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The on-location, structured, personal interview tech-nique used i n t h i s study may y&$l& responses of questionable v a l i d i t y i n the following schedule areasi a. Length of Stay -these responses are usually biased upwards because those campers who stay f o r longer periods stand a greater chance of being interviewed. - i f attitude or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are associated with •v length of stay a s i m i l i a r upward bias occurs(28:912). -because t h i s bias i s a function of the length of stay i t can be corrected by weighing each interview by the inverse of the length of stay, (not applied) b. Factual Information -responses concerning t r i p cost, days spent camping, further destination, etc., may be given i n godd f a i t h only to be invalidated l a t e r owing to a v a r i e t y of reasons such as weather changes, i l l n e s s etc., c. User preferences, S a t i s f a c t i o n s , and Motivations. -preferences and motivations change as a r e s u l t of new knowledge and experience. -preference and s a t i s f a c t i o n responses stated to an interviewer may d i f f e r considerably to those that are a c t u a l l y chosen or f e l t . -responses may not be t r u l y representative to the camping u n i t i n that they are usually Expressed by the make member. -although a v a r i e t y of camping motivations are offered, other considerations l y i n g beyond the structured format may have prompted the camping experience. DEFINITION OF TERMS The following d e f i n i t i o n s , with the exception of those that are starred, were compiled from a glossary of terms i n common usage i n the f i e l d of non-urban parks and recreation. This l i s t of terms was presented at the Eederal-Provineial Park Conference i n October 1968. A further l i s t of d e f i n i t i o n s can be found i n the Appendix E. Aesthetic Values The f i n e r intangible and c u l t u r a l park values, as distinguished from material and economic values. Scenic beauty, i n s p i r a t i o n a l values, the opportunity to see and appreciate nature, are aesthetic; the benefits of fresh a i r , sunshine, and a good place to camp are more material. ^Camping The l i v i n g out-of-doors, overnight, using f o r shelter a b e d r o l l , sleeping bag, t r a i l e r , tent, truck or hut open one one or morte sides, when the person takes his own bedding, cooking equipment and food with him. Formal camps such as the Y.M.C.A. are excluded. Campsite A single, d l e a r l y designated l o c a t i o n i n which gBpe provided place and f a c i l i t i e s f o r camping by an i n d i v i d u a l a family, or a party. Sny; camping u n i t . Campground A grouping of campsites l a i d out, where possible i n organized fashion, according to a designed capacity. Motivation The i n c l i n a t i o n to doi basic to employee pro-d u c t i v i t y ; also basic to the study of recreators. Park Experiences The sum t o t a l of many things a park v i s i t o r doesj his impressions, new concepts,emotional re-actions and responses which contribute to the values of a v i s i t to the park. Park V i s i t o r A recreator who enters a park for enjoyment of what the park o f f e r s , or one who enjoys the a t t r a c t i o n s of a park i n passing through i t . *Park Interpretation Aims to reveal meanings and r e l a t i o n -ships i n nature through the use of o r i g i n a l objects, by f i r s t hand experience and by i l l u s t r a t i v e media rather than simply to communicate f a c t u a l information. Recreation Recreation In the v o l i t i v e and pleasurable use fef l e i s u r e time. Outdoor recreation i s recreation occurring i n an outdoor environment. Recreationist A professional or technical worker i n the V f i e l d of recreation. Recreator A participant i n recreation. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Canadian Studies A f t e r i960 Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Campers i n Canadian P r o v i n c i a l Parks The author found only one descriptive study of a socio-economic nature r e l a t i n g to a B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Park. The study was conducted i n a primitive area of W^lls Gray Park by Taylor and Edwards i n i960 (55«346). Because of the inaccessible nature of most of i t s natural a t t r a c t i o n s , the type of camping experienced by the Wells Gray campers could not be considered as being representative of the more formalized type of camping found i n the four study parks. Questionnaires were handed to campers at the park en-trance. Over 80 percent or 353 of these schedules were re-turned. The users were mainly c i t y dwellers with middle and low income groups predominant. The average camping group consisted of 3.3 persons. About 5^ percent of those tested were without children and stayed an average of 4 days. Fishing add other nature oriented a c t i v i t i e s occupied most of t h e i r time. Over 65 percent of those tested had camped before. Keenan's 1964 study of campers i n 92 Ontario P r o v i n c i a l Parks served to distinguish between s o c i a l and wilderness campers, as well as presenting generalized findings about campers (23). Ontario park recreators came mainly from the upper middle and upper-lower classes, with urban residents showing the highest p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates. Almost 30 percent of the campers i n Ontario came from outside the province. The vast majority of campers were families,with few single respondents encountered i n the study. A survey of 2,400 campers, i n New Brunswick Parks was conducted by Easley i n the summer of 1966(l6«92). Infor-mation was provided by the respondents on a three page questionnaire containing multiple choice or closed answer questions. Average camper family income was found to be around $8000. per year. Over 25 percent or 600 of the re-creators tested obtained t h i s income from t h e i r s k i l l e d labour. The camping unit averaged 4 persons, generally stayed for 1 to 3 days at the campground, with only 12 per-cent staying f o r a logger period. Expenditures of $3.22 per person per day were common. The campers were mainly of c i t y o r i g i n . Most of those using tents (43 percent) were young campers. The remainder used R.V.'s, predominantly t r a i l e r s . The educational l e v e l of the campers i n New Brunswick parks was 12.3 years, s l i g h t l y Mgher than the Canadian average. Mfcst of the remaining Canadian studies of campers i n Pr o v i n c i a l Parks were concerned with attendance counts, a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , or user preference and s a t i s f a c t i o n . An annotated "bibliography of these studies, as well as a number of s i g n i f i c a n t American camper surveys, i s provided for the readers convenience i n Appendix A. I t should be stated at t h i s point, that socio-economic studies must not be considered as the only determinants i n forecasting future ty/pes and amounts of camping that may take place i n a given campground. Consumption-oriented studies of camper c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by King(24) McCurdy and Mischon ( 9 2 ) Hutchins and Trecher ( 2 1 ) have shown a low cor-r e l a t i o n between camping demand and the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of campers. McCurdy suggests other variables that must be considered—such as goals and inte r e s t s sought by the camper, l e i s u r e time preferences of the other family members and friends, childhood outdoor experiences, a v a i l -a b i l i t y of f a c i l i t i e s , weather, length of time available and ' degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n experienced while camping ( 3 1 1 6 3 1 ) . LITERATURE ON OUTDOOR EDUCATION FOR ADULTS 1 . The Need for Outdoor Education A. Preservation of Environment Educating people to l i v e In the outdoors i s not new. As Smith states, 'learning from and through nature i s as old as the human race. The f i r s t classroom was the outdoors where man taught his off s p r i n g some of the essentials for s u r v i v a l " ( 5 2 » 1 3 4 ) . " Now, su r v i v a l of the environment as well as man i s the issue, as the old attitudes, fostered when nature was a r i v a l , die hard. Udall warns that "we can no longer waste the resources that refresh man's s p i r i t anywhere-in hope that they can be replaced elsewhere. lew of us are aware of the - it dverwhelming destructiveness of multiple carelessness" ( 5 7i26). Environmental ignorance has reached the point where world agencies are showing concern. In 1962 the United Nations stated that "education action should be taken i n school and out of school with a view to arousing and developing public respect f o r landscape and p u b l i c i z i n g the regulations to i n -sure t h e i r protection (58)." Referring s p e c i f i c a l l y l o the outdoor recreator, Boggs says, 'We must be constantly and increasingly aware of the necessity of providing edu-cation i n the use of outdoor recreation f a c i l i t i e s and outdoor resources i n general. I f we are to achieve long range success i n conserving the unique and i r -replaceable for the future, then new generations of users must be acquainted with the techniques to enjoying them or rendering them us e l e s s . ( 4 i 8 ) . • B. Enjofrment of the Outdoors Another reason for outdoor education involves the pleasure of outdoor experiences. Bennett c i t e s increasing urbanization as one of the main obstacles encountered by the city-bred r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s i n seeking s a t i s f y i n g experiences i n the outdoors ( 3 s 3 ) . Arnold and Hopkins have pointed out that the influence of urbanization as a deterrent to outdoor pleasure w i l l increase as more people i n the developed countries l i v e a l l of t h e i r l i v e s i n the c i t i e s ( 2 d ) . Braiding f e e l s that the user must understand the s i g n i -ficance of the natural resources that are contributing to his enjoyment or well-being and that i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of educational agencies to foster and interpret t h i s appreciation of the natural environment. (5) C. Increased I n t e l l e c t u a l Demand At present most recreator demands upon parks are of a physical nature i n terms of space, f a c i l i t i e s , e t c . However, Schnepf has predicted that because of man's knowledge he w i l l soon place a mental demand upon the parks, seeking out the aesthetic and i n s p i r a t i o n a l offerings of the more primitive areas of the parks, A great number of studies that have c l a s s i f i e d users according to educational &r occupational l e v e l s r e f l e c t the imminence of t h i s t$pe or demand. With camping experience, t h i s c a l i b r e of i n d i v i d u a l w i l l p a r t i -cipate i n the more demanding and rewarding type of a c t i v i t y such as canoeing, back packing and t r a i l r i d i n g i n searching out his i n t e l l e c t u a l needs ( 5 1 ) . 2. Areas of Outdoor Education A. The Park One obvious area of educational committment i s the park. The National Park Act-Section 4 (1930) decrees that Jthe "parks are hereby dedicated to the people of Canada f o r t h e i r benefit education, and enjoyment" (50)." Unfortunately, the clause i s a very general one and f a i l s to define the educational r o l e of the park. Much more s p e c i f i c i s the National Park P o l i c y as outlined by Laing i n 1 9 6 4 . ( 2 7 ) . This statement r e f e r s to the r o l e of in t e r p r e t i v e services and museums, as well as to the various aids that these services require. In the United States, three k f the most important docu-ments published on parks and recreation have a l l endorsed natural history work i n parks for management and for conser-vation purposes. Those reports arei 1. Outdoor Recreation for America (42) 2. The Leopold Report on W i l d l i f e Management i n National Parks. (29) 3. Report from the F i r s t World Conference on National Parks. Seattle 1967 ( 6 0 i 4 7 1 ) Referring to the s u i l a b i l i t y of parks for outdoor edu-cation purposes, Pimlott has suggested the following. ( 4 4 t 7 ) -parks are l i v i n g museums giving h i s t o r i c a l glimpses of the f l o r a , fauna, and landscapes of an e a r l i e r time. -parks provide areas where plant and animal communities can be studied and where natural functions and processes can be seen as they occur. -parks provide a joy of discovery i n a great v a r i e t y of ways and at varied comprehension l e v e l s , -wilderness t r a v e l and l i v i n g makes the v i s i t o r aware of his c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r e x i s t i n g on his own resources. Although l i m i t e d i n terms of si£e, the high qu a l i t y park interpretation program f i r s t shaped by R.Y. Edwards, has enjoyed continuous success since i t s inception i n B.C. parks i n 1957. Nature houses, walks and t a l k s with park n a t u r a l i s t s movies, exhibits and demonstrations of natural phenomena, served at l e a s t 2 6 0 , 0 0 0 B.C. park v i s i t o r s i n 1967 ( 4 8 i 3 8 ) . B. Adult Education Bennett suggests that agencies involved i n continuous learning should become more concerned with outdoor education( 3 « $ ) • He v i s u a l i z e d t h i s concern being directed into three areas« a) Professionals-park personnel, resident camp direc t o r s , Rod and Gun clubs, private campground and resort owners, could be attuned to the l a t e s t advances i n resources management, new equipment and techniques and other nature r e l a t e d problems. b) Recreationalists-could be advised i n such areas as pur-chase, use, and maintenance of equipment, e t h i c a l and l e g a l aspects of land use, available areas and t h e i r l o c a l history, methods of maintaining wilderness, i n spite of human use, and wilderness s u r v i v a l . c) Senior citizens-the advent of comfortable appointed R.V.'s has brought a growing number of senior c i t i z e n s back l o camping. This group with a godd deal of l e i s u r e time, would be an i d e a l c l i e n t e l e f o r nature study. Exemplifying a coordinated year round program i n out-door education f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s i s the Albion H i l l s Conservation School i n Ontario ( 1 9 « 4 ) and the Milwaukee Public Schools Outdoor Education Program i n Milwaukee, Wisconsin ( 3 6 ) . A study by Morawitz ( 3 ? t l 3 9 ) of Canadian University extension courses indicated that there are many types of i n s t r u c t i o n available th£t would be p r o f i t a b l e to both campers and camp directors a l i k e . 3 . Objectives of Outdoor Education While a number of d i f f e r e n t objectives f o r an outdoor education program may be considered desireable, only three consistently occurring ones are mentioned here.JMcLean c i t e s two such objectives ( 3 5 * 3 1 ) » 1 . The person must have a knowledge of the natural features of the outdoor environment and of the natural forces and events which produce and maintain these features. 2 . The person must beeaware of the consequences of his changing the natural environment as he goes about his re-creational a c t i v i t i e s . Bimlott mentions the t h i r d objective ( 4 4 ) . 3 . To relate i n simple and d i r e c t ways the environ-ment of the park to the t o t a l environment. 4. Benefits of Outdoor Education Benefits derived from the education of campers to t h e i r outdoor world are shared by both the recreator and the park manager. Reports by Hella (20» 3 4 ) S t i r r e t t (53) and Bennett ( 3i3 ) confirm the fact that p o l l u t i o n , l i t t e r i n g , f i r e s , vandalism, compaction and camp operating costs are appreci-ably reduced i n those areas where education programs are i n e f f e c t . Walter Hopkins, U.S.Chief of Forest Research reports that Frankfurt, Germany was able to lower the clean up costs i n i t s 4000 acre recreation area from $30,000 to $2 , 2 5 0 per year as a r e s u l t of a more informed c i t i z e n r y . The area entertained 15 m i l l i o n v i s i t s i n 1966 ( 2 i l ) . An educational benefit c i t e d by Boggs had di r e c t concern with the dedication clause of the Park Act when he stated, " I f we are to achieve long range supess i n conserving the unique and irreplaceable f o r the future, then new generations of users must be acquainted with the techniques of en-joying and u t i l i z i n g these resources without destroying them or rendering them useless (4i8). 1 ! Benefits derived by the camper as a r e s u l t of his enlightened outlook are described by S t i r r e t t as "more meaningful camping experiences, a respect for nature, and a pride i n Canadians and t h e i r parks (53)." CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES Selection of the Study Parks Four B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l parks were used i n th i s 1967 descriptive study. They were Golden Ears, Kokanee Creek, Monck and Bamberton. Selection of the study parks by the author was determined by the following factors 1 -East to West coverage of campgrounds was considered preferable to North to South sampling, i n order that a greater representation of campers be included i n the survey. -A campground close to a major population centre(Golden Ears) and a r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d campground (Monck) combined to make a second major s e l e c t i o n f a c t o r with a view towards possible camper preferences, motivation and other differences. -Time was a f i n a l s e l e c t i o n factor, i n that the data had to be co l l e c t e d within a two-month (July and August) peak camping period. The locations of the study parks are found on a map of B.C. on the following page. Description of the Study Parks Each of the four sifcudy parks had a Class A r a t i n g (see FIQUHE I. L O C A T I O N Of THC FOUR SUR^CVCO CAI i fOROUHOS Appendix B Ifor explanation of P r o v i n c i a l Park c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n B.C.) and provided s i m i l i a r f a c i l i t i e s with regard to the following l i s t : a) Campsites-usually contained a sand or gravel f o r tenters -combination p i c n i c table and bench -garbage can -vehicle spur ©each campground has a number of double s i t e s (for families camping together) b) Picnic area-in emergencies these areas were used to accomodate overflow camping. c) Firewood dumps-these were usually located at strategic points along the access roads (except Monck). No charge for t h i s . d) Water taps-also s t r a t e g i c a l l y located (except Monck where there was one hand pump for the camp]t g) P i t toilets-mens' and womens* o f f s e t at convenient locations from the access roads. f) Orientation s t a t i o n - unattended g) Park entr a n c e - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n sign and gate Service Features Gravel access roads were o i l e d at the beginning of the camping season and spray programs for mosquito control were ca r r i e d out i n the areas adjacent to Kokanee Creek and Monck Parks. Routine services consisted of garbage pick-up, replenish-ment of wood supplies as well as general maintenance con-t r i b u t i n g to the orderly appearance of the campgrounds. Security measures were handled by the l o c a l Royal Mounted Police detachment. Ir r e g u l a r l y timed c i r c u i t s of the camp-grounds were made nightly by p a t r o l cars. lAgain, Monck Park, probably because of i t s i s o l a t i o n , was the exception* with only an occasional check made during the week. Camper re-sponse to the presence of these patrols was most favourable. A further security measure was the l l i O O p.m. closure of a gate at the single park entrance p o r t a l (exception Monck). Camper fees were c o l l e c t e d at Kokanee Creek and Bamberton Parks." At the time of t h i s survey (July-August 19&7) there was no provision i n any of the campgrounds involved i n t h i s study f o r the following f a c i l i t i e s i ^concessions s e l l i n g food or camping supplies - e l e c t r i c a l or water outlets or sewage disposal dumps of the type used by dependant R.V.'s. -shower, washing or laundry f a c i l i t i e s A. Golden Ears Park Golden Ears Park i s situated only 30 miles east of Vancouver (410,000 population) and 7 miles ftorth of Haney, i n the Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows area (population 21,000) of the Fraser Valley. Established i n 192?> Golden Ears was o r i g i n a l l y a part of 618 , 0 9 ? acres of Gari b a l d i P r o v i n c i a l Park. This park extended northward just beyond Squamish. In 1968, 137,200 acres of the southern portion of Garibaldi Park was re-c l a s s i f i e d as a separate park and named Golden Ears Park a f t e r two prominent mountain peaks which tower above the camping area. About 3 . 3 miles of gravel access roads wind through the 207 campsites located within the campgrounds. Day v i s i t o r s are provided with 146 p i c n i c s i t e s and a wash-room-toilet-changing house at the lakefront. Boat launching f a c i l i t i e s are av a i l a b l e . The recr e a t i o n a l attractions of t h i s park centre around the 11 miles of Alouette Lake which provides swimming, water-s k i i n g and boating. Stream f i s h i n g and hiking are also a v a i l -able to the park v i s i t o r . A special feature of Golden Ears Park i s i t s many miles of b r i d l e t r a i l s . The proximity of t h i s park to the residents of Maple Ridge and Vancouver makes i t available for considerable day use. Kokanee Creek Park This park i s situated i n the West Kootenays on the Western portion of Kootenay Lake. The closest c i t y i s Nelson (pop 9 , 6 0 0 ) which i s only 12 miles away. The 237 acre park, was established i n 1955. O r i g i n a l l y , i t s 28 p i c n i c s i t e s served mainly as a day camping area f o r nearby residents while i t s 20 campsites were used mainly on an overnight basis by people t r a v e l l i n g through the Kootenays. More recently the area has become a popular camping area i n i t s own r i g h t making the 20 campsites seem rather inadequate. The increased popularity of the Kokanee Creek campground i s r e a d i l y understood. The swimming area on the white Sandy beaches of Kootenay Lake affords the recreator a f u l l range of water sports and the pleasures of f i s h i n g f o r the popular Kokanee trout. Park v i s i t o r s may also enjoy the offerings of a fine natural area providing many opportunities for the n a t u r a l i s t and the photographer. The more rigorous demands of hiking may be found i n the primitive areas of nearby Kokanee Glacie r . Monck Park Located on the West side of Nicola Lake, t h i s campground i s about midway between Kamihoops and M e r r i t t i n an area known as the Nicola Valley. The area was declared a park i n 1951. Its 216 acres con-t a i n 67 campsites and 27 p i c n i c s i t e s , serviced by about 1 mile of road. Access to the park i s gained by about 7 miles of gravel road which l i n k s up with the main paved road between Me r r i t t (population 4 , 7 0 0 ) and Kamloops (population 24 , 0 0 0 ) . This feature makes the park s l i g h t l y l e s s accessible than the other three study parks. One of the better known beef ranching areas i n the Province provides the s e t t i n g for t h i s park. Entry to the park i s gained by t r a v e l l i n g through a portion of the Nicola Stock Earm, while across the Nicola Lake i s an operation of the Guichon Ca t t l e Company. About 28 v a r i e t i e s of f i s h await the Nicola Lake fisherman, while rockhounds and birdwatchers experience considerable success i n the pine studded, r o l l i n g rangeland surrounding t h i s campground. Bamberton Park Bamberton was not c l a s s i f i e d as a park u n t i l i 9 6 0 . I t i s located i n the M i l l Bay area just 20 miles north of V i c t o r i a (population 581700) on Vancouver Island. Because of i t s ' l o c a t i o n and features, Bamberton has a high incidence of day v i s i t o r s who give continuous use to the 41 p i c n i c s i t e s . Overnight campers are accomodated i n t h i s 69 acre park with 51 campsites. One of the major at t r a c t i o n s of t h i s park ap-pears to be i t s good beach and s a l t water swimming i n the Saanich In l e t . The Interview Schedule The interview schedule contained a t o t a l of 68 items divided into the following subject areasi A. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondent B. The Camping Tri p C. Motivation f o r Camping D. Education f o r the Outdoors Some of the questions on the schedule were discarded when the instrument was pretested on campers i n Manning Park, a park not used i n the study group. The pretesting enabled the interviewer to become f a m i l i a r with the interview tech-nique and with the instrument. The need for greater gram-matical c l a r i t y and relevance i n some of the questions became apparent as a r e s u l t of the pretest. Further c u l l i n g of questions resulted when the schedule interview was found to average more than 4-0 minutes i n length. The author f e l t that interview sessions exceeding 40 minutes tended to become an imposition on the camper's time. Selection of the Respondents T h i r t y - f i v e respondents were interviewed i n each of the four study campgrounds on the basis of t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y and on the following q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ! k 1. Respondents were over 18 years of age 2 . The interview was conducted with one member of the camping unit, invariably the head. The unit generally consisted of two or more members. 3. Respondents must have spent at l e a s t one camper day i n the campground. Day use v i s i t o r s were excluded. 4. Respondents must have been i n the campground for recreational purposes. An attempt was made by the interviewer to obtain equal representation of respondents from s i t e s located i n varying degrees from the centre to the outermost perimenter of the campground. This approach attempted to provide coverage of the s o c i a l l y oriented as well as the independent type of camper, Most g r a t i f y i n g to the interviewer was the willingness of the campers to be interviewed. Only one r e f u s a l was en-countered i n the 140 campers approached. This was the r e s u l t of an advanced state of i n e b r i a t i o n on the part of the re-spondent. Interview Technique Data was c o l l e c t e d by the ?'<on lo c a t i o n " personal i n t e r -view method. A structured Interview scheduleewassused for t h i s purpose. The schedule may be found i n Appendix C. Each interview lasted a minimum of f o r t y minutes. About f i v e i n t e r -views were conducted each day. Optimum interview time normal-l y occurred i n camper 'slack' time, usually just a f t e r break-fa s t or supper. The intervening hours were invariably used by the campers i n pursuit of t h e i r various interests or a c t i v i t i e s associated with the holiday. Tabulation of Schedule Responses Responses of the respondents were recorded into Fortran Coding Forms during the f i e l d interviews. IThis information was punched onto data cards at the U.B.C. Computing Centre for use i n the IBM 360/67 computer. Two types of tables were produced from the tabulation: a5 Univariate Tables These descriptive tables described both frequency and horizontal percentage readings for each of the four study campgrounds. b) Bivariate Tables The variables used i n tes t i n g s p e c i f i c areas of the schedule were: educational l e v e l , age. income, occupation and distence from home. A n u l l hypothesis at the . 0 5 l e v e l of significance with 2 1 degree of freedom was used i n conjunction with a X t e s t to examine the 2 x 2 bivariate tables, f o r each of the parks. 2 A pooled X t e s t (IO130O) was weighted and used i n t e s t i n g the n u l l hypothesis association between two variables concerned over the four campgrounds. The formula used wast % 2 pooled = E Mi 3 C 2i where & = the sum for a l l 4 parks fi Mi M i = g f ^ l ^ r J S d ^ ^ i a c h 2 2 2 o 2 ? X 1 = X f o r each camp or Miotl +M2XZ +M>3%3 -Vtotftfr Mx + M 2 + M 3 + M^ Number of campers present during the test period i n the study parks were: Camp 1 (Mx) = 9^7 Camp 2 (M2) = 204 Camp 3 (M3) = 501 Camp 4 (M^) = 421 Necessity for the weighting prodedure arose out of the fac t that the same number of interviews (35) were conducted i n each camp even though the populations varied during the interview period. T h i r t y - f i v e was decided upon as the number of interviews for each camp because i t represented the maxi-mum interview number considered possible for one investigator over the two month period. A. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS In t h i s survey, sex was not treated as one of the variables i n that 96 percent of the participants representing the heads of camping units were males. Age The predominant age category for respondents from a l l four study parks was 40 to 49 years. The 3° "to 49 year range contained 65 percent of a l l participants with a noticeable decline evidenced on both sides of t h i s "middle aged" cate-gory. This age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the camper resppndents i s shown i n Figure I I . Marital Status Table I reveals that camping i s a family a f f a i r with over 97 percent of the participants l i s t e d as married. The dominance of married campers was evidenced i n a l l four Camp-g E i i m H d S . Occupation The d i s t r i b u t i o n of participants by occupation i s shown i n Table I I . This table shows that the s k i l l e d workers con-s t i t u t e the main category with a 28 percent representation. % of respondents 50 40 30 , -20 10 0 t 10 »•* * A 29 or le s s 36 29 • • * • • . * » • ' " • • ' . • • » . « • • • • » • * " » * * . ' * . * • » • • » % • • • \ * » • * • . . • • • « *t < • • • . ' . 18 * • « • * » * « • . • • « t «« • . * » • • . ' * * • • 7 » » • • • » » • • • • n • • . ? • • . ' * • • * « . • i • • • 30-39 40-49 50-59 60 plus Age Group of Respondent i n Years FIGURE II AGE DISTRIBUTION OFF RESPONDENTS EXPRESSED IN PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS Camp Single Married Divorced Widowed N % N % N % N % Total Golden Ears 0 0 35, 100 0 0 0 0 35 Kokanee Creek 1 3 33 94 0 0 1 3 35 Monck 0 0 35 100 0 0 0 0 35 Bamberton 1 3 33 94 1 3 0 0 35 Total 2 1 136 97 1 1 1 1 140 TABLE II DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY OCCUPATION Professional High and Low Skilled Self Unskilled Camp and semi-professional White Collar Employed Total N % N % N % N % N % Golden Ears 10 30 9 25 10 28 4 10 2 7 35 Kokanee Creek 8 23 1 3 16 46 7 20 3 9 35 Monck 4 10 9 27 9 27 5 13 8 23 '35 Bamberton 11 31 6 17 6 19 10 28 2 6* 35 Total 33 24 25 21 41 28 26 15 15 11 140 *In totalling the horizontal percentages, a final sum of 100 percent is not always realized owing to a rounding off of decimal places. A recent census of the B r i t i s h Columbia labour force showed that the s k i l l e d workers made up the main component of the B.C. labour scene ( 1 7 t l 6 ) . Professional and white c o l l a r workers were not far behind the s k i l l e d workers with 24 and 21 percent representations respectively. Monck park participants showed a 23 percent represen-t a t i o n i n the u n s k i l l e d labour category, an unusually high percentage i n contrast to the other three campgrounds. Income of Campers Campers, as a group, have an average family income s l i g h t l y higher than the B.C. average of $ 4 , 7 2 4 ( 1 7 » l 4 ) . Figure III shows that 37 percent of the respondents i n t e r -viewed were i n the $5000 to $ 7 » 9 9 9 bracket, the majority group. Only 13 percent of campers had earnings of les s than $5000. At the opposite end of the scale, less than nine percent of the campers were earning more than $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 a year. Table III indicates that Golden Ears and Bamberton haxis a higher incidence of campers earning an income i n excess of $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 . than do the campers who frequent Monck and Kokanee Cradk parks where over three quarters of the respondents were i n the $ 5 , 0 0 0 to $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 income bracket. Education The majority education group i n a l l four parks were the campers with some high school education. Their 35 percent re-presentation was followed "by the respondents having high school graduation with 22 percent and some uni v e r s i t y with 13 percent. Both educational extremes, the campers with l e s s than a Grade 8 educational l e v e l and those with a University graduation, were the minority groups. (Table IV) Duration of Yearly Vacation Table V Reveals that the most common vacation period i n a l l parks except Monck, was one of a three week duration. At Monck park, a one to two week holiday was enjoyed by 40 percent of the par t i c i p a n t s . Distance Travelled by Campers to Campground The main category under t h i s heading with a 30 percent representation, was the respondent who t r a v e l l e d between 251 and 500 miles. Over 85 percent of the Kokanee Creek and Monck respondents had t r a v e l l e d over 100 miles, an under-standable distance considering the geographic l o c a t i o n of these two parks. Golden Ears and Bamberton Parks showed a high incidence of campers with under 50 miles of d r i v i n g . This would indicate considerable l o c a l usage of these two parks. (Tejble VI ) O f respondents 50 \ 40 30 20 -10 •. • • • «•». . .... • < *• 22 , »v •#. * • •. • • * , 13 . • •. , • • • t ••••• /• • •»• • •». • • • •/ • • • • • *• • . • • • « • • • • • •! r . ... • $5000 $5001 $8000 or to to le s s $7999 $9999 19 '•»*•« '*»••. $10,000 to $14,000 $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 ot more Income Groups of the Respondents FIGURE III INCOME OF CAMPER RESPONDENTS EXPRESSED IN PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ANNUAL INCOME Camp $5000 or less N % $5000 to $7999 N % $8000 to $9999 N % $10,000 to $14,999 N % $15,000 or more N % Total Golden Ears 6 17 13 37 5 14 8 23 3 9 35 Kokanee Creek 2 6 14 40 13 37 6 17 0 0 35 Monck 3 9 17 49 10 29 2 6 3 9 35 Bamberton 5 14 7 20 10 29 8 23 5 14 35 '.total 16 11 51 36 38 27 24 17 11 8 140 k TABLE IV DISTRIBUTION OF CAMPERS BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL Grade 8 Some High Some University Post Camp or less High School University Graduate Grad Total School Graduate Work N % N %N % N % N % N % Golden Ears % 11 10 29 8 23 5 14 3 9 5 14 35 Kokanee Creek 3 9 17 49 7 20 5 14 2 6 1 3 35 Monck 6 17 12 34 11 31 2 6 3 9 1 3 35 Bamberton 3 9 10 29 5 14 6 17 6 175 14 35 Total 16 11 49 35 31 22 18 13 14 1012 4 140 DURATION OF YEARLY VACATION 1 week 1 - 2 3 4 5 - 7 2 - 3 6 Camp or leas weeks weeks veeks weeks months months Total N % H % N % N % N % N % N % Golden Ears 50 0 8 2 3 1 3 27 9 26 1 3 2 6 2 6 35 Kokanee Creek 0 0 7 2 0 1 7 49 7 20 0 2 6 2 6 3 5 Monck 1 3 1 4 4 0 1 0 2 9 5 1 4 3 9 1 3 1 3 35 Bamberton 0 0 7 20 1 5 4 3 9 26 0 0 3 9 1 3 35 Total 1 1 36 26 5 5 39 30 2 1 4 3 8 6 6 4 140 TABLE Vii DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY CAMPERS TO CAMPGROUND 5 0 5 1 - 1 0 0 1 0 1 - 2 5 0 2 5 1 - 5 0 0 5 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 1000 Camp miles miles miles miles miles miles Total nr less or more N % N % N % N % N % N Golden Ears 1 5 43 1 3 3 9 1 8 1 5 4 3 0 0 35 Kokanee Creek 2 6 3 9 2 6 1 7 49 8 2 3 3 9 35 Monck 0 0 0 . 0 1 3 37 22 6 3 0 0 0 0 35 Bamberton 12 34 6 1 7 5 1 4 2 6 0 0 10 29 35 Total 29 2 1 1 0 7 2 3 16 4 2 30 2 3 1 6 1 3 9 140 THE CAMPING TRIP Length of stay A three to four day v i s i t was the most common length of v i s i t f o r the respondents i n a l l campgrounds, (Table VII) Total Number of P r o v i n c i a l Campgrounds V i s i t e d on the T r i p As Indicated i n Table VIII most of the respondents stayed at more than one campground during the t r i p . Over one t h i r d of the participants stayed at six or more camp-grounds i n a l l of the study parks except Monck, Total Number of Camping Trips Made During the Year Table IX shows that most of the participants f a l l into one of two main groups, those who take an annual t r i p or those who take four or more t r i p s during the year. Over 63 percent of the Kokanee Creek respondents camped at l e a s t four times during the year. Accomodation Used by Campers on the T r i p At the time of t h i s survey, the tent was s t i l l the main type of accomodation being used by 64 percent of the campers questioned. Table X revealed that the highest incidence of tent use occurred i n parks closest to population centres, Bamberton and Golden Ears participants both recorded a 77 per cent usage of tents, R.V. usage noticeably increased In the LENGTH OF STAY AT CAMPSITE IN DAYS Camp 2 or less N % 3 - 4 N %. 5 - 7 N % 8 - 1 4 N % 1 5 or m>r© N % Total Golden Ears 1 1 3 1 1 3 37 7 2 0 2 6 2 6 35 Kokanee Creek 1 1 3 1 15 4 3 6 1 7 2 6 1 3 35 Monck 6 1 7 1 2 3 4 1 2 •3*-. 5 1 4 0 0 35 Bamberton 6 1 7 1 7 49 1 2 3 4 0 0 0 0 35 Total 34 24 5 7 4 1 3 7 26 9 6 3 2 1 4 0 TABLE VIII TOTAL NUMBER OF PROVINCIAL CAMPGROUNDS VISITED ON THE CAMPING TRIP Camp Study Camp only 2 3 4 5 6 or more Total N % N % N % N % N % N Z Golden Ears 6 1 7 7 20 5 1 4 1 3 0 0 1 6 46 35 Kokanee Creek 3 9 2 6 6 1 7 8 9 5 1 4 1 6 46 35 Monck 2 6 13 37 7 20 3 9 8 2 3 2 6 35 Bamberton 5 14 8 2 3 3 9 5 14 2 6 1 2 34 35 Total 1 6 1 1 30 2 1 2 1 1 5 1 2 9 1 5 1 1 46 3 3 140 TOTAL NUMBER OF CAMPING TRIPS MADE DURING THE YEAR Camp 1 trip N % 2 trips N % 3 trips N % 4 trips N % Tota] Golden Ears 1 6 46 7 2 0 3 9 9 26 35 Kokanee Creek 1 2 34 0 0 1 3 2 2 6 3 35 Monck 1 6 46 3 9 3 9 1 3 3 7 35 Bamberton 1 5 4 3 6 1 7 2 6 1 2 3 4 35 Total 5 9 42 1 6 1 1 9 6 5 6 40 1 4 0 TABLE % ACCOMODATION USED BY CAMPERS ON THE TRIP tent travel stn. wagon camper camper Camp trailor car, van truck , trailer Total N % M % N % N % N % Golden Ears 27 77 8 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 Kokanee Creek' 1 5 4 3 5 1 4 2 6 8 2 3 5 1 4 35 Monck 2 0 5 7 7 20 0 0 4 1 1 4 1 1 35 Bamberton 2 7 5 14 0 0 2 6 1 3 35 Total 89 6 4 2 5 1 8 2 1 1 4 10 1 0 7 140 more remote Monck and Kokanee Creek campgrounds but con-tinued to l a g behind the tant users. Number of Members i n the Camping Unit In table XI i t i s shown that the camping unit composed of three to f i v e members constituted over 52 percent of the respondents. This percentage may add some support to the e a r l i e r statements concerning the family nature of the camping unit. (Table I showed that 98 percent of respondents were married.) Objectionable Features Encountered by Respondents Camping i n  B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Parks. Objections indicated byUhe respondents were not neces-s a r i l y directed against the study parks but referred to any of the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l parks where the complaint was en-countered. Table XII shows that the most objectionable feature, with a 3k percent response, was the inadequate num-ber of campsites available within the campgrounds. This was followed by 23 percent of the participants who complained about the p i t t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s encountered i n most of the parks. Additional suggestions make by the respondents about the study parks may be found i n Appendix D. NUMBER OF MEMBERS IN THE CAMPING UNIT 1 2 3-5 6-10 11-20 Camp only people persons persons persons T o t a l N % N % N % N % N % Golden Ears 4 11 4 11 15 43 9 26 3 9 35 Kokanee Creek 1 3 8 23 22 63 3 9 1 3 35 Monck 0 0 9 26 19 54 7 20 0 0 35 Bamberton 2 6 10 29 17 49 6 17 0 0 35 T o t a l 7 5 31 22 73 52 25 18 4 3 140 TABLE XII OBJECTIONABLE FEATURES ENCOUNTERED BY RESPONDENTS CAMPING IN B.C. PROVINCIAL PARKS Objectionable Features Extent of Respondents Concerned N % Inadequate number of campsites 47 34 P i t t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s 32 23 Motorboats and t r a i l b i k e s i n camping area 15 11 Lack of firewood 14 10 Vandalism and rowdiness 12 9 Lack of privacy i n campsite 8 6 Bothersome i n s e c t s 1 1 Large camping groups 2 1 L i t t e r e d or run-down campsites 3 2 Others 6 3 To t a l 140 100 Overall Cost of the Camping Tri p When equipment costs were ignored, i t was found that less than $ 2 0 0 . 0 0 was spent on the camping.trip by almost 80 percent of the respondents. Table XIII showed Golden Ears and Bamberton campers represented at both extremities of the t r i p cost scale, whereas spending by campers at Kokanee Creek and Monck parks was concentrated mainly i n the $ 5 1 . 0 0 to $ 2 0 0 . 0 0 range. Any figures dealing with t r i p costs that are gathered before the t r i p i s completed may be of questionable value owing to unforeseen eventualities that may a l t e r the e s t i -mated figure appreciably. In table XIV the cost of the camping t r i p on a per person per day basis i s given for the four parks. 67 per-cent of the participants spent less than $ 3 . 0 0 per person per day. Feelings Expressed by Campers Regarding the Proposal that  Separate Camping Areas Be Provided f o r Tenters and R.V. Owners Within the Campground. _ When questioned about the provision of segregated areas within the park for tenters and R.V.owners, almost 28 percent of the campers were opposed while another 52 percent were i n d i f f e r e n t to the proposal. (Table XV) OVERALL COST OF THE CAMPING TRIP $ 2 5 . 0 0 $ 2 6 . 0 0 $ 5 1 . 0 0 $ 1 0 1 $ 2 0 1 $ 3 0 1 $ 5 0 1 $1000 Camp or to to to to to to or Total leas $ 5 0 , 0 0 $ 1 0 0 . 0 0 $200 $300 $500 $ 1 0 0 0 more N % 11 % N % N % N % N % N % N % Golden f-arg 8 2 3 5 1 4 5 1 4 6 1 7 4 1 1 5 1 4 1 3 1 3 35 Kokanee Creek 3 9 5 1 4 7 2 0 1 2 3 4 3 9 5 1 4 0 0 0 0 3 5 Monck 5 1A 6 1 7 14 4 0 8 2 3 2 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 Bamberton 1 0 2 9 5 1 4 6 1 7 5 1 4 5 1 4 2 6 1 3 1 3 35 Total 2 6 1 9 2 1 1 5 3 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 14 1 0 1 2 9 2 1 2 1 140 TABLE X<IV COST OF THE CAMPING TRIP PER PERSOH PER DAY $ 1 . 0 0 $ 1 . 0 1 $ 3 . 0 1 $ 5 . 0 1 $ 1 0 . 0 0 Camp or to to to to Total lesa $ 3 . 0 0 $ 5 . 0 0 $ 1 0 . 0 0 $ 2 5 . 0 0 N % N % N % N % N % Golden Ears 1 2 34 1 2 34 4 1 1 6 1 7 1 3 35 Kokanee Creek 3 S 1 7 49 1 1 3 1 3 9 1 3 35 Monck 3 2 3 16 4 6 9 2 6 0 0 2 6 35 Bamberton 8 2 3 2 0 5 7 6 1 7 1 3 0 0 35 Total 3 1 2 1 6 5 46 3 0 2 1 1 0 7 4 3 140 TABLE XV CAMPER REACTION TO THE PROPOSAL THAT SEPARATE AREAS WITHIN THE CAMPGROUND BE ALLOTTED TO TENTERS AND R.V. OWNERS Camp Accept Reject N % N % Indififferent N % Total Golden Ears 1 0 29 1 0 29 1 5 4 3 35 Kokanee Creek 9 26 1 1 3 1 1 5 4 3 35 Monck 5 14 5 1 4 2 5 71 35 Bamberton 4 1 1 1 3 3 7 1 8 5 1 35 Total 2 8 2 0 39 2 8 7 3 5 2 1 4 0 Cv MOTIVATION FOR CAMPING Respondents were asked to rate fourteen motives for camping i n terms of t h e i r importance. IThese motives have been placed i n rank order for each of the four parks and are shown i n Table XVI. The table indicates that 75 percent of the campers enjoy the change of l i f e form offered by a camping holiday. The motive rated second o v e r a l l with a 7^ percent response #as relaxation. In that most recreation studies indicate that campers are mainly urban based, the f i r s t and second placed motives may be considered as a desire to a l t e r the fo r m a l i t i e s of urban l i v i n g through a b r i e f stay i n the out-doors. Support for t h i s statement i s provided i n the im= portance attached by the campers to the "nature appreciation" and "escape from the crowd" motives which were ranked fourth and f i f t h r espectively. Exploration of the province was the t h i r d ranked motive and would suggest that campers l i k e to t r a v e l . Although f i n a n c i a l reasons are found i n the lower t h i r d of the table, camping must be considered as one of the mcsst economical ways of s a t i s f y i n g the desire to t r a v e l . Family togetherness i s expectedly ranked i n the f i r s t h a l f of the motivating reasons, probably as a r e s u l t of the f a c t that 98 percent of the respondents were married. Fre-quently mentioned was the fa c t that i t was a recreation form that could be enjoyed by the whole family. The health motivations for camping are f a i r l y scattered through the order when observed i n the four d i f f e r e n t parks but i s rated seventh i n the o v e r a l l r a t i n g . The eighth ranked motive, enjoyment of pure a i r and water, may be pushed up-ward i n more recent surveys i n the l i g h t of an increased awareness of the need f o r environmental q u a l i t y . Experience i n a more primitive form of l i v i n g , practice of camping s k i l l s and r e l i g i o u s reasons appear to be the rejected motives for camping i n organized campgrounds. Com-f o r t takes precedence over "roughing i t " , camping s k i l l s are unnecessary: both as a consequence of the sophisticated damping equipment now available and the increased use of recreational v e h i c l e s . The crowded! condition of most camp-ground would almost c e r t a i n l y l i m i t the opportunities f o r r e l i g i o u s experiences while camping. This motive may have more relevance i n a survey of wildenness camping. 3Bhe evidence of t h i s survey would indicate that those motivations related to a change i n the normal year-round l i v i n g pattern provide the greatest incentives for campigg. RANK ORDER PLACEMENT OF 14 MOTIVES FOR CAMPING i Percent ranking motivation very Important Golden Ears | % Rank Cokanee % Creek Rank Monck % Rank Bamberton % Rank Total % Rank change of pace 75 1 69 2 80 2 74 1 75 1 relaxation 68 2 71 1 87 1 74 '. 1 74 2 explore the province 54 4. 40 5 66 7 64 2 57 3 nature appreciation 52 5 46 4 72 5 46 3 55 4 escape crowds of people 56 3 40 5 69 6 43 4 54 4 family togetherness 44 6 60 3 73 4 42 5 52 6 healthy holiday 21 10 40 5 79 3 36 6 40 7 enjoy pure air and water 31 8 34 6 43 8 31 7 34 8 escape city sounds, smells, sights 22 9 31 7 42 9 22 8 28 9 financial reasons 33 7 11 8 .0 14 14 9 19 10 camp social l i f e 14 11 3 9 8 12 14 9 11 11 experience more primitive living 13 12 0 10 14 10 3 10 10 12 practice camping skills 11 13 3 9 10 11 3 10 8 13 religious reasons 6 14 0 10 5 13 4 14 D. EDUCATION FOR THE OUTDOORS. Recreational Preferences of Campers In order to determine the various types of recreational a c t i v i t i e s favoured by campers, the respondents were re-quested to state t h e i r preferences regarding 15 outdoor oriented a c t i v i t i e s . The responses were l i s t e d i n raftk order by percent and are shown i n Table XVII, In an overview of responses from a l l four camps the Bamberton campers showed more in t e r e s t i n the l i s t e d outdoor a c t i v i t i e s than did t h e i r counterparts i n the other three parks. The most popular a c t i v i t y was f i s h i n g with a 5 9 I p e r -cent response o v e r a l l . This was contrasted by mountain climbing which only commanded 12 percent of the t o t a l res-ponse. Camper Preferences For Gaining Information About Outdoor  Oriented A c t i v i t i e s . The preferred means of gaining i n s t r u c t i o n i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s , with a 30 percent t o t a l response, was on-site i n s t r u c t i o n . In Table XVIII i t i s shown that campers i n a l l of the study parks except Monck expressed on-site i n s t r u c t i o n as t h e i r f i r s t place choice. This may imply that some phase of the park int e r p r e t a t i o n program could best serve some of the expressed educational needs of park v i s i t o r s . Night DEGREE O F I N T E R E S T SHOWN B Y CAMPERS I N A S E L E C T I O N O F 15 OUTDOOR O R I E N T E D A C T I V I T I E S . BY RANK ORDER A c t i v i t y R a n k P e r c e n t o f C a m p e r s I n t e r e s t e d _ _ _ _ G o l d e n E a r s K o k a n e e M o n c k B a m b e r t o n T o t a l f i s h i n g ; 1 65 69 52 51 59 s u r v i v a l i n t h e w o o d s 2 41 34 19 58 39 n a t u r e p h o t o g r a p h y 3 37 23 40 44 38 n a t u r e s t u d y 4 30 23 33 47 34 r o c k s t u d y & r e c o g n i t i o n 5 26 26 31 54 33 h i k i n g 6 31 29 22 36 30 s w i m m i n g 7 33 11 20 36 28 a s t r o n o m y 8 18 26 26 49 27 catap c o o k i n g 8 26 26 19 40 27 o r i e n t a t i o n - m a p r e a d i n g • .9 23 23 13 46 25 w o o d c r a f t s k i l l s 10 21 17 16 40 23 c a n o e i n g , k y a k i n g , r a f t i n g 11 15 9 22 36 20 h u n t i n g 12 17 11 28 17 19 w i l d e r n e s s c a m p i n g 1 3 14 17 12 31 17 m o u n t a i n c l i m b i n g 1 * 6 3 15 29 12 TABLE XVDII PREFERRED MEANS OF GAINING INFORMATION ABOUT OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES EXPRESSED IN PERCENT Means of Gaining Information Golden Kokanee Monck Bamberton Total Ears Creek On-site instruction 31 40 20 29 30 Extension or night school courses 14 14 31 26 21 Books and magazines 23 20 29 11 21 Experienced t r i a l and error 11 6 9 9 9 T.V. or radio 7 11 6 17 11 Camping x/ith experienced campers 3 9 3 0 4 Correspondence courses 0 0 3 6 2 Others 9 0 0 3 3 school courses shared an i d e n t i c a l percentage reading of 21 percent with books and magazines as the second most de-sireable means of learning about the outdoors. The l e a s t popular approach to learning appeared to be the correspondence course. Only two percent of the respondents expressed any i n t e r e s t i n t h i s learning s i t u a t i o n . Camper Opinion Regarding the Implementation of a Nature  Program i n the Study Parks. The tabulations shown i n Table XIX repeal that 81 percent of the respondents would favour the establishment of a nature program within the interview park. Bamberton campers were most enthusiastic about the program with a 9k percent a f f i r -mative reply. The posi t i v e response from the campers of a l l four parks can only be interpreted as a vote of confidence i n the present B.C. park inte r p r e t a t i o n program as well as showing a desire on the part of campers to learn more about t h e i r natural surroundings. Degree of Camper Interest i n a Proposed Book Describing  B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Parks At the time of t h i s survey, the only l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l -able on B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Parks was i n the form of maps or f o l d -out brochures describing the l o c a t i o n and outstanding features of our p r o v i n c i a l parks. Campers were asked to ex-press an opinion about the usefulness of a book containing more detailed information about the parks. In addition to such standard information as l o c a t i o n and number of camp-s i t e s available the book would contain detailed descriptions of the parks h i s t o r i c a l , geological and b i o l o g i c a l features. Each park description would also be accompanied by a map showing hiking t r a i l s , boating and f i s h i n g areas or other points of possible i n t e r e s t to the camper. (Table XX\) The respondents endorsed the proposal of such a book with an affirmative 86 percent response with Bamberton leading with a 97 percent vote of approval. Number of Campers with Previous Experience i n Continuous  Learning Courses. Table XXI shows that 66 percent of the respondents had some previous experience with continuous learning courses. Campers at Bamberton had 83 percent of t h e i r number showing e a r l i e r enrolment i n these courses. Golden Ears participants were the lowest i n terms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n with only 5^ per-cent i n d i c a t i n g any e a r l i e r experiences. When participants with a previous exposure to continuous learning courses were questioned about the content of t h e i r courses, only eight percent could state that the courses had been related to camping or some outdoor a c t i v i t y . Degree of Interest Expressed by Respondents i n Future  Enrolment i n Camping Oriented Continuous Learning Courses. When participants response from a l l four camps was considered, over 6 l percent expressed an in t e r e s t i n attending courses with camping rel a t e d content. As shown i n Table XXII the range of affirmatives was f a i r l y close wllthin a l l four camps varying from a high of 69 percent at Golden Ears to a low of 51 percent at Monck, { CAMPER O P I N I O N R E G A R D I N G T H E I M P L E M E N T A T I O N O P A NATURE PROGRAM I N THE STUDY P A R K S Camp A f f i r m a t i v e N e g a t i v e U n d e c i d e d T o t a l N % N % N % G o l d e n E a r s 28 30 4 11 3 9 35 K o k a n e e C r e e k 28 80 7 20 0 0 35 M o n c k 24 69 11 31 0 0 35 B a m b e r t o n 33 94 2 6 0 0 35 T o t a l 113 81 24 17 3 2 140 T A B L E • CAMPER O P I N I O N R E G A R D I N G T H E PROPOSED P U B L I C A T I O N O F A BOOK D E S C R I B I N G A L L O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P R O V I N C I A L P A R K S Camp A f f i r m a t i v e N e g a t i v e U n d e c i d e d T o t a l N % N % H % G o l d e n E a r s 28 80 5 14 2 6 35 K o k a n e e C r e e k 33 94 1 3 1 3 35 M o n c k 25 71 10 29 0 0 35 B a m b e r t o n 34 97 1 3 0 0 35 T o t a l 120 86 17 12 3 2 140 TABLE XXI NUMBER OF CAMPERS WITH PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE IN CONTINUOUS LEARNING COURSES Camp Experienced No Experience Total N % N % Golden Ears 1 9 5 4 1 6 46 35 Kokanae Creek 2 1 6 0 1 4 4 0 35 Monck 2 4 6 9 1 1 3 1 35 Bamberton 2 9 8 3 6 1 7 3 5 Total 9 3 66 4 7 3 4 1 4 0 TABLE VXX'II DEGREE OF INTEREST EXPRESSED BY RESPONDENTS IN FUTURE ENRODte IN CAMPING ORIENTED CONTINUOUS LEARNING COURSES Camp Affirmative Negative Total N % . N % Golden Ears 2 4 6 9 1 1 3 1 3 5 Kokanee Creek 2 3 66 1 2 34 35 Monck 1 8 5 1 1 7 49 3 5 Bamberton 2 1 6 0 1 4 40 35 Total 86 6 1 5 4 39 140 SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SELECTED VARIABLES In t h i s section, the only variables discussed are those that were proven s i g n i f i c a n t by a c h i square t e s t at the . 0 5 l e v e l of si g n i f i c a n c e . A further l i s t of bi v a r i a t e s tables of non significance may be found i n Appendix F. 1. Influence of Educational Level on Selected Variables Number of Camping Trips per Year At Kokanee Creek campground only, i t was shown that respondents possessing High School graduation or l e s s were more i n c l i n e d to take three t r i p s per year while campers with some un i v e r s i t y education preferred two t r i p s or le s s per year. ( T g U e X.XIII) F i n a n c i a l Motive For A Camping Holiday Table XXIV showed that the economy aspect of a camping holiday was considered unimportant by campers at Kokanee Craekdpossessing High School graduation or l e s s . Previous Attendance i n Adult Education Courses In Table XXVJX i t was shown that campers at Bamberton with a University t r a i n i n g had a higher attendance l e v e l i n adult education courses than those with a background of high school education. 2 , Influence of Age Upon the Interest Expressed i n Attending Camping Oriented Adult Education Courses. The younger campers (29 or less) at Bamberton were more predisposed to attending camping oriented courses than were the campers of 30 years of age or older. (Table XXVI) TABLE Xxill EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND NUMBER OF CAMPINC TRIPS EACH YEAR Camp Educational Level 2"JTlrlpG or Less N % 3 Trips or More N % P Golden Some High School or grad 9 26 5 1A .05 .81 Ears Some University 1A AO 7 20 Kokanee 3 9 17 A9 5.83 .01 Creek 9 26 6 17 Monck 9 26 9 26 ,03 ,8A 10 29 7 20 Bamberton 10 29 3 9 1.A7 .22 11 31 11 31 TABLE XXIV EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ANB THE FINANCIAL MOTIVE FOR A CAMPING HOLIDAY Camp Educational Level Imp or K tant % Unimportant % 2 P N Z X2? Golden Some High School or grad. 9 26 5 14 .01 • 8 8 Ears Some University or grad. 15 43 6 17 Kokanee 3 9 17 49 4.20 .04 Creek 8 22 7 20 .44 Monck 6 17 12 34 .02 .86 7 20 10 29 Bamberton 5 14 8 23 .10 .75 11 31 11 31 TABLE XXV? EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND PREVIOUS ATTENDANCE IN ADULT EDUCATION COURSES Camp Educational Level N N % X2 Golden Some High School or g r . 6 1? 8 23 . 5 8 . 4 5 Ears Some University or gr. 13 37 8 23 Kokanee 10 29 10 29 1 . 0 9 . 3 0 11 31 4 11 1.28 Monck 12 34 6 17 . 0 1 . 8 8 12 34 5 14 Bamberton 8 23 5 14- 4 , 4 4 . 0 3 21 60 1 3 TABLE XXVI AGE AND INTEREST EXPRESSED IN ATTENDING CAMPING ORIENTED ADULT EDUCATION COURSES Camp Age Yes No X1 P X N % N % 2, Golden 29 years or less 8 23 3 9 .00 .95 Ears 30 years or more 16 4 6 8 23 Kokanee 11 31 4 11 .21 .65 Creek 12 34 8 23 Monck 9 26 5 14 .80 .37 9 2 6 12 34 Bamberton 14 40 3 9 5.19 .02 7 20 11 31 3. Influence of Occupation on Selected Variables Health Motive f o r a Camping Holiday The figures i n Table XXVIIdepicted that non professional workers camped at Monck Park were more i n c l i n e d to,stress the health motive for camping than were the professional workdrs. S o c i a l L i f e Motive for a Camping Holiday Campers at both Golden Ears and Monck Parks with norte-professional occupations placed more emphasis on the s o c i a l advantages of camping than those campers with a professional occupation. (Table XXVIII ) The pooled chi square test f o r a l l four camps indicated that differences between campers with professional and non-professional occupations and t h e i r views t w a r d a s o c i a l motive for camping do d i f f e r . This was p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable at Monck Park. ilk-Xle X X I I I ) TABLE X X Y J I OCCUPATION AND THE HEALTH MOTIVE FOR CAMPING Camp Occuaption Important N % Unimportant N ::- % X 2 p X 2p Golden Professional 1 3 10 29 .77 .38 Ears Non professional 7 20 17 49 Kokanee 3 9 4 11 .07 .78 Creek 11 31 17 49 1.51 Monck 1 3 3 9 4.02 .04 26 74 5 14 Bamberton 2 6 8 23 .88 .35 11 31 14 40 TABLE X X V J I I OCCUPATION AND ENJOYMENT OF CAMPING SOCIAL LIFE AS A MOTIVE FOR CAMPING Camp Occupation Important Unimportant "X P % P N % N % Golden Professional 2 6 18 51 5.91 .01 Ears Non professional 8 23 7 20 Kokanee 0 0 8 23 2.06 .15 Creek 9 26 18 51 5 Monck 1 3 13 3 7 11.52 .00 15 43 6 17 Bamberton 4 11 12 34 .50 .49 8 23 11 31 SUMMARY OF THE STUDY This study has outlined some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the type of campers found i n Golden Ears, Koteanee Creek, Monck and Bamberton P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n the summer of 1967. v- S i g n i f i c a n t relationships between selected variables follows the summary of descriptive observations i n t h i s chapter. A. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS Families constituted over 97 percent of the camper c l i e n t e l e encountered i n the survey. The age MS the head of the unit was 30 to 49 years i n 65 percent of the cases. Yearly earnings of the main income group, with a 37 percent representation, amounted to $ 5 0 0 0 . to $ 8 0 0 0 . This category exceeds the average family income figure for B.C. of $ 4 , 7 2 4 . Almost 75 percent of the participants earned l e s s then $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 annually. The camper with high school graduation or le s s rep-resented 68 percent of the parti c i p a n t s N interviewed. In terms of the occupation of the head of the unit, repre-sentation was f a i r l y equal i n a l l categories with the lowest figure (11 percent) belonging to the un s k i l l e d labour group. A holiday period of three weeks or less was enjoyed by 66 percent of campers. B. THE CAMPING TRIP While on a camping t r i p , most of the respondents v i s i t e d a succession of P r o v i n c i a l parks with only 11 percent v i s i t i n g one park only. The most frequently stated length of stay was the three to four day v i s i t registered by 41 percent of the respondents. The tent p e r s i s t s as the most common form of accommddsttioi used by campers with a 64 percent representation. This form of shelter was p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable at the camp-grounds closest to the population centres. Substantiating the e a r l i e r f i n d i n g that camping i s mainly a family a f f a i r , was the f a c t that the camping unit consisted of three to f i v e members i n over 50 percent of the interviews. The overcrowded conditions i n our p r o v i n c i a l parks ftas emphasized when 34 percent of the campers registered a complaint against the inadequate number of campsites a v a i l -able i n the P r o v i n c i a l campgrounds. Cost of the camping t r i p i t s e l f was under $ 2 0 0 . 0 0 for 75 percent of the par t i c i p a n t s . This worked out to le s s than $3 . 0 0 per person per day, for over 67 percent of the respondents. C. Motivation for Camping Almost 75 percent of the participants rated the change i n l i f e style and relaxation, as the strongest motives for a camping type holiday. The desire to lead a less formalized l i f e reappeared, i n the fourth and f i f t h place motives ,which were nature appreciation and escape from crowds respectively. Physical differences i n the four study parks appeared to be unimportant motivating influences i n l i g h t of the mateked simi-l a r i t y of emphasis encountered i n a l l four parks, D. Education for the Outdoors From a l i s t of outdoor recreational a c t i v i t i e s preferred by campers, f i s h i n g emerged as the f i r s t choice f o r almost 60 percent of the respondents. Interest i n other a c t i v i t i e s v aried considerablylamong v i s i t o r s to the four parks. The preferred means of gaining information about outdoor a c t i v i t i e s as l i s t e d by 30 percent of the respondents was by on - s i t e - i n s t r u c t i o n . Another 42 percent of the campers divided t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l preferences equally between continuous learning programs and magazines. The educational aspects of a camping holiday were made evident by over 80 percent of the participants who expressed an i n t e r e s t i n seeing some form of the park in t e r p r e t a t i o n program implemented i n the study parks. Following t h i s educational l i n e of thought was the 86 percent favourable response accorded by campers to the proposed publication of a book describing each of B.C.'s P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n terms of i t s history, b i o l o g i c a l and geological features as well as the usual brochure type information of location, f a c i l i -t i e s and accomodation. While 66 percent of the participants indicated some pre-vious experience with continuous learning courses, only 8 percent of the courses taken had any association with the camping scene. When questioned on possible future enrolment i n courses r e l a t e d to campigg, 61 percent of those i n t e r -viewed gave an affirmative reply. A summary of the s i g n i f i c a n t variables brought out the following pointst -camper respondents with a u n i v e r s i t y background dmbarked on 2 camping t r i p s or less per year while those with a gigh school education were i n c l i n e d to take three or more . -campers with u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g are more predisposed to e n r o l l i n g i n continuing learning courses than are the campers with a high school backing. -the camper below 29 years of age expressed more int e r e s t i n attending camping oriented continuous learning courses than the over 30 &goup. -motivations f o r a camping holiday showed up "Mle following points > i . the majority of campers with a high school background were not motivated to camp mainly because i t repre-sented an "inexpensive holiday". -campers doing a non-professional kind of i?ork placed considerable emphasis on the healthy aspects of a camping holiday, - s i m i l a r i l y , the non-professional considered the s o c i a l advantages of camping more highly than the camper with a professional occupation. IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Parks are faced with an over-crowding problem. The basis f o r t h i s implication stems from the following conditions: a. One of the most objectionable features of camping i n B.C.Provincial Parks, as stated by the campers, i n -volved the lack of available campsites and the subsequent delay imposed upon the camper while awaiting an available campsite. This s i t u a t i o n was encountered by the investigator during the survey i n 3 out of the 4 study parks. b. The two major motives for going camping expressed by respondents i n the survey, concerned the change of pace and relaxation afforded the participants i n the camping experience. Increased urbanization can be expected to increase the value placed upon motivations of t h i s nature. c. The yearly increase i n campground attendance figures coupled with future usage projections by reputable agencies can only increase the human impact upon an already overloaded park system. 2. The park interpretation program should be expanded to i n -clude a larger number of P r o v i n c i a l parks. While h e a r t i l y endorsing the e x i s t i n g interpretation program, almost 80 percent of the campers would l i k e to see the program extended to a greater number of the P r o v i n c i a l parkd. Ideally, each of the resource-oriented parks should be \ able to provide, aa educational experience for i t s v i s i t o r s with attention being directed to the unique q u a l i t i e s that are s p e c i f i c to the p a r t i c u l a r park. 1 Nature houses and park n a t u r a l i s t s to i l l u s t r a t e basic eco l o g i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s t should be made a v a i l -able to the campers i n a larger number of parks. Top p r i o r i t y f o r these features should be assigned to parks proximate to population centres and where v i s i t a t i o n figures are highest. The smaller or more remote parks could make use of the more s e l f - d i r e c t i n g , unattended, interpretive devices. A book, describing i n some d e t a i l the h i s t o r i c a l , geo-l o g i c a l , and b i o l o g i c a l features of the park and information about i t s location, hiking t r a i l s and f a c i l i t i e s should be a useful adjunct to the interpretive program. Its publication was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported by 86 percent of the campers. 3 . Adult education agencies should place greater emphasis on t h e i r programming towards educating the urban adult to the outdoors. P a r t i c u l a r attention should be directed toward the campers under 30 years of age. Second only to on-site i n s t r u c t i o n i n camper preferences as an educational medium, adult education could do much to extend the park experience for v i s i t o r s . With over 60-percent of the respondents expressing an i n t e r e s t i n nature r e l a t e d courses and with inexperienced campers joining the ranks annually, s u f f i c i e n t cause f o r greater commitment does e x i s t . The f a c t that only 8 percent of the respondents had taken courses r e l a t e d to the outdoors would indicate that t h i s type of course i s not very prevalent within the adult education c u r r i c u l a . Continuous learning agencies could not only meet the educational needs of the recreator hut also could be a use-f u l medium for solving some of the problems facing park administrators, private campground operators, forest industry and other bodies related to camping. The use of conferences, seminars, guest speakers and educational techniques to a i r common problems could provide a valuable service to pro-fessionals i n the recreational industry. Some of the agencies that may obtain benefit from t h i s study are: 1. Public Park Planners and Administrators. Pressures on park o f f i c i a l s can only increase. Infor-mation about the recreator can be useful i n determining park p o l i c y as well as the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of campers and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to park land requirements. 2. The Forest Industry The demand fo r more e f f i c i e n t land use is. increasing. One answer to t h i s problem i s more integrated use of areas currently being used for a single purpose. The complexities of integrated land use that would successfully accommodate both an e f f i c i e n t logging operation and a s a t i s f a c t o r y camping experience could pose a number of problems i n management planning. Information regarding the s p e c i f i c needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of campers could prove useful to forestry personnel engaged i n these integration programs, 3. Water Brands Increased pressures are being applied to these agencies to accommodate hiking and camping groups within the watershed areas. Such areas are usually In close proximity to the population centres and consequently would be of prime rec-r e a t i o n a l value. With the implementation of proper security measures, watershed areas could provide select forms of outdoor recreation. A thorough knowledge of the camper would be pre-r e q u i s i t e to any program where security of the water supply i s a prime consideration. 4. Private Enterprise Associated with Camping Socio-economic information concerning pot e n t i a l customers v would be of considerable value to a private campground operator, camping equipment and R.V. manufacturers, as well as the many service agencies associated with camping. 5. Agencies Involved i n Outdoor Education Some d i r e c t i o n for the structuring of programs useful to those camping i n the outdoors may be derived from t h i s study. This would include agencies such as park i n t e r p r e t a t i o n adult education, community recreation and resident camp programmers, FUTURE RESEARCH A disturbing aspect of the authors' review of the l i t e r a -ture was a conspicuous deficiency of research information r e l a t e d to camping i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In a province such ds t h i s , with i t s heavy i n f l u x of summer campers, and i t s f a l l and winter campers of the hunting, f i s h i n g and s k i i n g v a r i e t i e s , there exists a decided lack of information about many phases of t h i s form of recreation. In l i g h t of the mounting animal and human pressures on our parks, the increased demands on recreational areas by industry, the increased investment requirements, and a host of other problems, the current research p o l i c y of our government agencies and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , must be strengthened. NumereaaLss problems re l a t e d to camping i n B.C. are s p e c i f i c to t h i s province and must be treated accordingly and not on the basis of solutions applicable to other provinces or states. I f the parks are to continue providing a qu a l i t y ex-perience for future generations of campers and i f the various agencies associated with camping are to receive guidance and di r e c t i o n , then a sound program of b i o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic research i s e s s e n t i a l . Areas of Research Requiring Attention 1. Current and projected overcrowding conditions i n ex i s t i n g P r o v i n c i a l parks indicate that a need exists for use l i m i t s that are more r e s t r i c t i n g than the mere imposition of fees that i s currently employed i n most parks. Studies involving the recreational carrying capacity of the most heavily used parks would be a natural precursor to the implementation of most control measures. (Since the completion of t h i s paper, the author has been made aware of the implementation of a carrying capacity program at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.) 2 , Heavy summer use has also made necessary the need for studies concerned with the preservatinn of ex i s t i n g plant species and ground covers, as well as the finding or cul t u r i n g of substitute members better able to withstand recreational abuses, 3. S t i l l r e l a t e d to the problem of overcrowding i s the p o s s i b i l i t y presented for f e a s i b i l i t y studies concerned with camping i n watershed areas, P r o v i n c i a l forests and other government or municipal preserve areas. Means of encouraging off-seasonal use of parks might also be considered. k. The comparative roles of public agencies and private enterprise i n the provision of camping f a c i l i t i e s should also be considered from an economic standpoint. Attention could be directed to those areas of the province where t h i s would be most advantageous. Private campground operators would also benefit from enterprise analysis studies. Suchustudies would provide valuable information about capjbtal investment, cost and returns, management and other factors e s s e n t i a l to pro-f i t a b l e operations. 5. Socio-economic studies of a much larger scale thai* t h i s one could provide useful information for park adminis-trators and planners, educational and recreational agencies £nd other camping oriented bodies. 6 , The Park Interpretation Branch of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks could study the spe c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r resources-oriented parks. The flmdings of these studies could then be used i n the conception of an inter p r e t a t i o n program appropriate to the unique q u a l i t i e s of the parks. 7. Continuous pressures from resource base industries for operation within park boundaries makes evident the immediate need for a research program of a p o l i t i c a l nature. A suggested area of p o l i t i c a l research would involve a more protective form of l e g i s l a t i o n for park use than the one currently i n use. In the l a s t 5 years the P r o v i n c i a l Park area has been reduced from 8 f m i l l i o n acres to approximately 6j? m i l l i o n acres. Part of the blame f o r t h i s reduction may be a t t r i b u t e d to A r t i c l e 7 of the 1965 Park Act. Any study of a p o l i t i c a l nature should c l o s e l y examine t h i s clause which has the provision f o r the Lieutenant Governor i n Council to cancel or re- e s t a b l i s h any park established under t h i s act, and may revise the boundaries of any such park to increase or decrease the area of the park. Under t h i s escape clause any Class A park may be r e c l a s s i f i e d to Class B status or even completely eliminated through an expedient executive action i n closed council. The clause also provides for the adjust-ment of land use i n Class A parks, or even the elimination of land use i n Class B parks, by means of a simple d i r e c t i v e . A study of t h i s area of park l e g i s l a t i o n should have a high p r i o r i t y i n the l i g h t of current over-crowding problems and the past abuses perpetrated within P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n the name of free enterprise. 8. As the camper i n organized campgrounds gains confidence i n his a b i l i t y <bd> look a f t e r himself and his family outdoors there i s a tendency f o r some campers to turn to more chal-lenging forms of camping. Numerous factors indicate that there w i l l be an appreciable increase i n the number of people becoming involved i n wilderness camping within the near future. At the present time, very l i t t l e information i s available about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the B r i t i s h Columbia wilderness camper, his equipment or the areas available for t h i s form of campigg. Much more information describing the wilderness camper i s needed i n view of the impending clashes between the views and needs of resource based free enterprise and those r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s who attach increased importance to the safety valve virtues of wilderness and the urban man. Notei During the course of t h i s study and subsequent to i t s completion i t has been brought to the writer's attention that studies related to i t s items one to three in c l u s i v e and item eight have been undertaken at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. REFERENCES ee 1. A d e , G. "Camp-oman ia - F e r m e n t and F u s s " . T r e n d s i n P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n 4 ( 4 ) O c t . 1967 p p . 5 -11 2 . A r n o l d , R.K. and H o p k i n s , W.S. " S c A p e o f R e c r e a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h " . I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i o n o f F o r e s t r y R e s e a r c h O r g a n i z a t i o n P a p e r s . 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"Considerations Related to the Selection of Parkland". 2nd Federal -Provincial Parks Conference Ottawa, 1963 pp. 11-16 19. Gregerson, H.M. "Campurbia" American Forests-71(7) July 1965 pp. 18-20 20. Hella, V.W. "Managein Human Use of Natural Parks", Parks and Recreation 2(1) Jan. 1967 pp. 34-35 21. Hutchins, Clifton, H. and Trecker, Edgar, W. "The State Park V i s i t o r " , Technical Bulletin No. 22. Wisconsin Conservation Department. 1961 22. Hutchinson, Bruce 23. Keenan, J.W. "The Ontario Park User Survey" 5th Federal-Provincial Parks Conference, Technical Session, Winnipeg, Manitoba. September 19 - 23. 1966. 24. King, D. A. Office Report, U.S. Forest Service, Lake States Forest Experimental Station. St. Paul Minnesota. 1964 25. Knetsch, Jack L. "Economic Aspects of Outdoor Recreation"/ A Conference on Parks and Outdoor Recreation. The Conservation Council of Ontario - 1967 p. 51 26. Klugh, H.Ei". Statistics; The Essentials of Research. John..Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 1970 p. 159 27. Laing, S. "A Sttatement on National Parks Policy", National Parks Policy - Hansard, September 8, 1964 28. Lucas, R.S. "Bias i n Estimating Recreationalists Length of Stay from Sample Inter-views". Journal of Forestry, 61(12) December 1963 pp. 912-914 29. "Leopold Coramitteec.Report on Wildlife Management i n the National Parks". American Forests (69) April 1963 pp. 32-35 30. Masters, H.B. "The New Leisure and Its Implications", Proceedings, National Workshop on Cooperative Extensions Role i n Outdoor Recreation Centre for Continuing Education. The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. January 30 - February 2, 1967. p. 3 31. McCurdy, D.R. "A Second Look at Camping Demand Predictions", Journal of Forestry 64(9) p. 631 32. McCurdy, D.R. and Mischon R.A. "A Look at the Private Campground User". U.S. Forest Service, Central States, Forest Experimental Station, Colombus, Ohio, Research Paper. C.S. 18 33. McCurdy, D.R. "A Second Look at Camping Demand Production: Journal of Forestry 64(9) September 1966, p. 631 34. McDougal, Harry and Charlotte. "Look What's Happening to Camping". B.C. Outdoors 25(4) August 1969 pp. 20-26 35. McLean, M.T. "Keeping the Outdoors for the Future" Parks and Recreation 3(1) January 1968 pp. 31-32, 54 36. Milwaukee Public Schools. Reports, handbooks, brochures, from the Department of Recreation and Adult Education of the Milwaukee Public Schools, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1967 37. Morawetz, Bruno, "Camping and the University". Canadian Camping 19(4) June 1967 pp. 139-140 38. Moss, W.T. "Some Human Aspects of Camping" American Forests 70(8) 1964, pp. 24-25 39. Mueller, Eva and Garin, Gerald, "Participation i n Outdoor Recreation" Study Report 20, Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Washington D.C. 1962 40. National Parks Act - Dedication Clause, Section 4, 1930 "Legislation Relating to Outdoor Education". 7th Federal-Provincial Parks Conference, Algonquin Park, Ontario, 1968 41. Ormes, M.D. "Skyrocketing Recreational Vehical Sales Spur Need for Parking Areas". Trends i n Parks and Recreation. 3(2) Ap r i l 1966 pp. 4-7 42. "Outdoor Recreation for America". Report to the President and to Congress. January, 1962 pp. 246 43. Pendergast, J. "What People Want for Recreation" Recreation 56;7-8, January 1963 44. Pimlott, Douglas H. "Educational Value of National Parks". (Canadian National Parks, Today and Tomorrow) Vol.1. Calgary Parks Conference 1969, p. 4 45. Parks Conference, Federal Provincial 6th Conference, Sydney, Nova Scotia 1967 46. Provincial Parks Branch. Department of Recreation and Conservation. Province of British Columbia. Annual Report for Year Ended December 31, 1968. p. 50 48. Recreation Department. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and Research. The Department of Recreation and Conservation Annual Report f o r 1967. Queens P r i n t e r V i c t o r i a B.C. p. 38 49. Recreation, "Outdoor Recreation Trends" Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Department of the I n t e r i o r , Washington, D.C. 20240, A p r i l 1967 50. Reid, L e s l i e M. " U t i l i z i n g User Preferences i n P r e d i c t i n g Outdoor Recreation Demand" Recreation Research, U n i v e r s i t y Park, Pa.-1966 51. Schnepf, G.F. Park Systems Planning and the Need for a Coordinating Body. 6th F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Parks Conference Sydney, Nova S c o t i a , 1967. 52. Smith, J u l i a n , "Developements i n the F i e l d of Education A f f e c t i n g Outdoor Recreation Resources". Study Report No. 22, Outdoor Recreatio-n Resources Review  Commission, 1960, p.-134. 53. S t i r r e t t , G.M. "The Role of Natural H i s t o r y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the Management of Parks". 2nd F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Parks Conference, Ottawa, November 1963 54. Spence, J.T. at a l . Elementary S t a t i s t i c s Ed. 2, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968 p. 199 55. Taylor, Gordon D. and Edwards. R. Yorks, "A Survey of Summer V i s i t o r s to Wells Gray Park, B r i t i s h Columbia". The Forestry Chronicle 36(4) 1960 pp 346-354 56. Theobold, R. "Leisure, I t s Meaning and Implications". Recreation LVII January 1964 pp.9-10 57. U d a l l , Stewart L. " C a l l Them Human L i f e Refuges". Audubon 70(1) January - Feb-ruary p. 26 58. United Nations Educational, S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l Organization. "Recommendations Concerning the Safeguarding of the Beuuty and Character of Landscape and S i t e s " Geneva Conference 12th Session, P a r i s , December 1962 59. United States Department of the I n t e r i o r Yearbook. "The Third Wave" Washington D.C. 20240. 1967 p. 8 60. " F i r s t World Conference on National Parks" Proceedings: Washington National Park Service, U.S. Department of the I n t e r i o r 1971 61. Wilcox A.T. "The Challenge of L e i s u r e " Trends i n Parks and Recreation (3) July 1968 pp 21-23 APPENDIXES APPENDIX A AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOME CANADIAN AND AMERICAN STUDIES RELATED TO THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS I N CAMPING POST 1960 A . C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s 1 . B e n s o n , D e n n i s A . S t u d y o f A t t e n d a n c e a t C a m p g r o u n d s i n J a s p e r N a t i o n a l P a r k , C a n a d i a n W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e U n p u b l i s h e d M a n u s c r i p t . 1 965 . B e n s o n , u s i n g t h e m e t h o d s o f B u r y a n d M a r g o l i e s , a t t e m p t e d t o e s t i m a t e a t t e n d a n c e a t a s e t o f c a m p g r o u n d s i n J a s p e r P a r k . T h e c a m p g r o u n d o r g t c u p o f c a m p g r o u n d s t h a t w t f u l d p r o v i d e t h e b e s t e s t i m a t i o n b a s e f o r r e m a i n i n g c a m p -g r o u n d s i n t h e p a r k w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . 2 . T a y l o r , G o r d o n D . T h e V i s i t o r t o F u n d y N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1 9 6 4 . R e s e a r c h R e p o r t 1 4 , 1 9 6 5 . T a y l o r d e v i s e d a m e t h o d f o r c o n d u c t i n g c a m p e r u s e s u r v e y s i n t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s , i n a 1964 s t u d y a t F u n d y N a t i o n a l P a r k i n New B r u n s w i c k . 3 . R o g e r s , R . G . A n A n a l y s i s o f Same E l e m e n t s o f D e m a n d f o r O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s . U n i v e r s i t y o f G u e l p h , T h e s i s , M S c A g , E c o n o m i c s . 1 966 . A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o c a m p e r d e m a n d i n O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s . E c o n o -m e t r i c m o d e l s w e r e u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r d e s i g n i n g a n d l o c a t i n g p a r k s t o m e e t f u t u r e c a m p i n g n e e d s . 4 . N i x o n H . N . P r i n c e A l b e r t N a t i o n a l P a r k - V i s i t o r U s e S u r v e y - 1967 R e p o r t N o . 3 4 . N a t i o n a l P a r k s S e r v i c e - P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t 1 9 6 8 . P u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y w a s t o a s s e s s t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l I m p a c t o f p a r k v i s i t o r s i n t h i s w a t e r o r i e n t e d p a r k i n t h e n o r t h - c e n t r a l a r e a o f S a s k a t c h e w a n . T h r e e t y p e s o f c a m p g r o u n d w e r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y : f u l l y s e r v i c e d , p a r t i a l l y s e r v i c e d a n d p r i m i t i v e . 5. Nixon, H.N. Elk. Island National Park - Visitor Use Survey 1967, Report 35, National Parks Service Planning Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Develop-ment. A survey of recreational use of the Aspen parkland area of Central Alberta. The survey was conducted in three part; a gate survey of exi; ting visitors, data collection on campground use and distribtuion of visitors i n the recreation area. B. American Studies 1. Hutchins, H.C. andE.W. Trecker. The State Park Visitor Technical Bulletin 22 Wisconsin Conservation Dept. 1 9 6 1 . This study examined the socio-economic background of visitors to Wisconsin state parks for purposes of providing a statistical base fer estimates of future space requirements for non urban recreation. 2 . Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Study Report 2 0 . Factors Affecting Demand Among American Adults. 1 9 6 2 . A major study based on the premise that socio-economic characteristics as well as demographic factors were major determinants in the amount and kind of outdoor recreation in which people engage. 3. Wagar J.A. Relationships Between Visitor Characterisitics and Recreation Activities in Tiro Natintwl Forest Areas. U.S. Forest Service Paper N.E. 7 1963. Significant differences were noted between users of the Stu<art Recreational Area in West Virginia and the Twin Lakes Recreation Area in northwestern Pennsylvania for variables such as age, income, education, marital status, distance from home, reason for v i s i t , etc. 4. C u s h w a , C h a r l e s T . , B u r d S . M c G u i n n e s a n d T h o m a s H . R i p l e y F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n E s t i m a t e s a n d P r e d i c t i o n s i n t h e N o r t h R i v e r A r e a , G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n N a t i o n a l F o r e s t , V i r g i n i a B u l l e t i n 558, A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e s t r y a n d W i l d l i f e , V i r g i n i a P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e B l a c k s b u r g , V i r g i n i a , J a n u a r y 1965. O v e r 160G r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e e x a m i n e d t o s e e i f r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s a n d a m o u n t s a n d t y p e s o f u s e m a d e o f t h e a r e a . 5. K i n g D . A * C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f F a m i l y C a m p e r s U s i n g t h e H u r o n - M a n i s t e e N a t i o n a l P o r e s t . U . S . F o r e s t R e s e a r c h P a p e r L . S , 19 S e p t e m b e r 1965. T h i s s t u d y w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h c a m p e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s w e l l a s t h e i r i m p l i c a -t i o n s f o r c a m p g r o u n d l o c a t i o n a i d d e s i g n . 6 . B u r c h W . R . a n d W . D . W e n g e r T M s 1967 R e p o r t w a s b a s e d u p o n a 1962 s t u d y o f 740 c a m p e r s i n t h e T h r e e S i s t e r s a n d L a k e o f t h e W o o d s a r e a s i n O r e g o n . K i n d s o f p e o p l e w h o c a m p , i n f l u e n c e o f c h i l d -h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s u p o n a d u l t s e l e c t i o n o f f o r e s t a c t i v i t i e s , t h e e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n o f c a m p i n g f a m i l i e s a n d s ome o f t h e a t t i t u d e s o f d i f f e r e n t u s e r s g r o u p s t o w a r d e a c h o t h e r , c a m p s i t e s p a c i n g s e t c . w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t b e r e p o r t . 7. M o s s . W . T . Some Human A s p e c t s o f C a m p i n g , A m e r i c a n F o r e s t 70(8) 24-25, A u g u s t 1964. T h i s r e p o r t d e a l t w i t h a s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n b y t h c S c h o o l o f F o r e s t r y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a a n d t h e G e o r g i a F o r e s t R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l a s a b e g i n n i n g t o a p r o g r a m o f t e a c h i n g a n d r e s e a r c h i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . O v e r 7000 i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d b y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s u s i n g 2 s c h e d u l e f o r m s t o g a t j h e r u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , b i o g r a p h i c a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c I n f o r m a t i o n * A P P E N D I X B C L A S S I F I C A T I O N AND A T T E N D A N C E I N F O R M A T I O N ON B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P R O V I N C I A L P A R K S CLASSIFICATION INFORMATION ON BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL PARKS Class A Parka Number; 12 Acreage; 1,918,968 These are wilderness areas of 40,000 acres or more* They are Intended to preserve outstanding, natural, scenic, and historic features of the province for public recreation. Class B Parks Number; 9 Acreage; 1,018 Areas of historical, ethnological, or archeological attraction. Other resource use is permitted in these parks, provided i t does not unduly Impair recreational values. Lands are reserved from sale. Class C Parks Number; 3 Acreage; 12,981 These are unique natural areas or tsonuments, often used mainly by local residents. Multiple resources use i f permitted along with recreation. Reserved from sale. Class D Parks Number; 65 Acreage; 4,497,292 This type of park consists of a natural environment recreation area in excess of 500 acres. Class E Parks Number; 148 Acreage 12,823 A park possessing specialized outdoor recreation areas. It contains less than 500 acres that are intensively developed. Class F Pakra Number; 4 Acreage; 857 These are parkway and highway parks, including roadside picnicking and campin? areas, of less than 25 acres* Class G Parks Number; 2 Acreage; 15,345 This is a form of land bank and is considered as a park and recreational reserve area. Total number of parks (not including Class G) — 269 Total acreage (not including Class G)——— 6,443,939 The above information applies up to June 30, 1968, and is compiled annually. These figures and classifications were drawn from the Federal Provincial Parks Conference, 1968; Park Classification System National and Provincial Parks. Attendance figures and distribution percentages for the Study Parks for the year 1967 as collected by the Department of Recreation and Conservation are expressed in the following table. The number of visitors figures include day use visitors as well as those visitors who have spent at least one night i n the park. The place of residence for the park visitors to the four parks is expressed as a percentage distribution* TABLE $£XJX ; ATTENDANCE FIGURES AND DISTRIBUTION PERCENTAGES FOR THE FOUR STUDY PARKS FOR THE YEAR 1967 CAMP NUMBER OP VISITORS PERCENT DIST. TOTAL Day Night Total B.C. Canada U.S.A. Golden Ears 331,676 430,996 832,672 83.3 5.8 10.9 100% Kokanee Cr. 58,984 10,696 69,680 54.0 22.5 23.3 100% Monck 19,176 26,568 45,744 79.4 5.3 15.3 100% Bamberton 58,978 18,040 77,018 72.6 13.5 13.9 100% APPENDIX C THE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE The Questionnaire A. Characteristics of the Respondent 1. 'what is your age please? 1. 20 years or less 2. 21-29 years. 3. 30-31 years. 4. 40-49 years. 5. 50-59 years. 6. 60 years or more. 2. Your marital status please. 1. single 2. married 3. divorced 4. widowed 5. separated 3. "What kind of work do you do? 1. free professional 2. salaried professional 3. semi-professional 4• s elf-employed 5. high white collar 6. low white collar 7. skilled wages 8. unskilled wages 9. social work 10. journalism 11. forestry 12. other 4. Mi at was the final grade that you completed in school? 1. grade 8 or less 2. some high school 3. high school graduation 4 . some university 5- university graduation 6. post graduate work at university 7. advanced degreee 5. Please examine this card, then t e l l me the number that corresponds to your family income (hand card to respondent) 1. $5000 or less 2. 5001 to $7,999 3. 8000 to 9,999 4. 10,100 to 14,999 5. 15,000 to 19,000 6. 20,000 or more. 6. How many members (including children) are in your party? 1. respondent only 2. 2 people 3. 3 - 5 persons 4. 6-10 persons 5. 11-20 persons 7. What is the length of your paid yearly vacation? 1. 1 week or less 2. 1 - 2 weeks 3. 3 weeks 4. 4 weeks 5. 5 - 7 weeks 6. 2 - 3 months 7. 6 months or more 8. How did you spend your summer vacation last year? 1. camping 2. other outdoor activities 3. travelling 4. visiting 5. stayed home 6. other 9. Are you a member of any forms of outdoor association or club? 1. yes 2. no 10. What are the total number of camping trips that you have made? 1. 1st trip 2. 2 - 5 trips 3. 6-10 trips 4. more than 11 11. About how many camping trips do you make during the year? 1. 1 trip 2. 2 trips 3. 3 trips 4. 4 trips or more. 12. What was your age when you took your first camping trip? 1. 10 years or less 2. 11 - 18 3. 19 - 30 4. 31 years or more 13. Sex of the Respondent. 1. male 2. female B. The Camping T r i p 14. About how long do you plan to stay at this campsite? 1. 2 days or less 2. 3 - 4 days 3. 5-7 days 4. & - 14 days 5. 15 days or more 15. VJhen you leave this campsite will you be travelling in to another Provincial Park campground? 1. yes 2. no 3. undecided 16. If yes to the last question how many Provincial Parks will you visit on this trip? 1. 2 2. 3 3. 4 4. 5 5. 6 or more 17. Which of the following statements best expresses your feelings about the length of time available to you for camping? 1. more camping time desirable 2. less camping time desireable 3. time spent is about right Please read the card. On this card are listed some of the more common objections to camping. Which of these objections apply to the B.C. Provincial campgrounds that you have visited? IS. Large parties travelling together 19. Difficulty in finding isolation from other campers 20. Large numbers of insects 21. Vandalism, theft and rowdyism 22. Littered or run-down campsites. 23. Too few campsites 24. Jeeps, motorbikes and motor boats i n the area 25. Poor t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s 26. Lack of firewood 27. Others 28. What recommendations, i f any, would you suggest for this camp-ground? (Answers subjectively recorded.) 29. Disregarding equipment purchased, what w i l l be the t o t a l cost of this t r i p ? 1. $25 or less 2. $26 to $50.00 3. $51 to $100.00 4. $101 to $200.00 5. $201 to 300.00 6. $301 to $500.00 7. $501 to $1000.00 8. $1000 or more. 30. How much i s i t costing you per person per day? 1. $1.00 or less 2. $1.01 to $3.00 3. $3.01 to $5.00 4. $5.01 to $10.00 5. $10.01 or more. 31. How far i s your home from this campgrounds? 1. 50 miles or less 2. 51 - 100 miles 3. 101 - 250 miles 4. 251 - 500 miles 5. 501 - 1000 miles 6. 1001 plus miles 32. Type of shelter being used. 1. tent 2. travel t r a i l e r 3. station wagon, van, car, mobile home 4. camper truck 5. camper t r a i l e r 33. Would you prefer to see separate accommodation campsites for tent and recreational vehicle campers? 1. yes 2. no 3. makes no difference C. Motivation for Camping As I l i s t some of the reasons given by people for camping, would you please indicate whether you feel the reason to be: 1. very important 2. fairly important 3. unimportant 34. to relax—take i t easy 35. to spend time together as a family 36. because i t is a healthy holiday 37. to provide a change of pace in the daily living routine 38. to observe and enjoy nature 39. to enjoy pure air and water 40. to practice camping skills 41. to enjoy the social l i f e of a campground 42. to get away from crowds 43. to experience a more primitive form of living 44. to get to know the province better 45. to escape the sights, sounds and smells of the city 46. for religious reasons 47. for financial reasons D. Education for the Outdoors 48. Have you attended any form of adult education courses in your work, community or schools? 1. yes 2. no 49. If "yes" to question 48, were any of these courses related to camping? 1. yes 2. no 50. Would you be interested i n attending adult education courses that dealt with some phase of camping i f i t were offered i n your com-munity? 1. yes 2. no Please look at this card. Which of the l i s t e d a c t i v i t i e s would you l i k e to know more about? 51. fishing 59. wilderness camping 52. nature photography 60. hunting 53. hiking (areas, equipment) 61. woods survival 54. mountain climbing 62. swimming 55. basic rock recognition 63. amateur astrology 56. woodcraft and camping s k i l l 64. map reading and direction finding 57. amateur nature study 65. camp cooking 58. canoeing, kyaking, rafting. 66. How would you prefer to gain this information? 1. books and magazines 2. extension and night school courses 3. T.V. or radio series 4. correspondence courses 5. experience 6. on-site instruction 7. apprentic eship 67. Would you l i k e to see the B.C. Parks Branch publish a book de-scribing the location, f a c i l i t i e s , history, natural features, a c t i v i t i e s , etc. available i n B.C. Provincial Parks? 1. yes 2. no 3. undecided 68. Would you l i k e to see a nature program i n some form, made available i n this park? 1. yes 2. no 3. undecided APPENDIX D REC0H-1ENDAT IONS OF RESPONDENTS FOR THE STUDY PARKS Recommendations by Campers f o r Each o f t h e F o u r P a r k s V i s i t e d The. f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t some o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e r e p l i e s g i v e n t o q u e s t i o n 22 on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; "Ivhat r e c -ommendations, w o u l d you s u g g e s t f o r t h i s campground?" G o l d e n E a r s a. " K o u l d l i k e t o see a shower house w i t h h o t w a t e r av-a i l a b l e . These c o u l d he on a meter systems l i k e 10c f o r 3 m i n u t e s . 1 ' N . B . About 11 r e q u e s t s were made f o r shower f a c i l i t y . b. ''Some c a r s s t i l l seem t o be r e a r i n g a r o u n d a f t e r the s o - c a l l e d 11.00 p.m. g a t e c l o s u r e . Hake s u r e t h e g a t e i s c l o s e d by 11.00 p.m.1' c. ' I n some o f o i r s t a t e s t h e garages n e a r t h e p a r k have sewage dumos f o r t h e i r c u s t o m e r s . I t wo \ l d work un h e r e , " 2 . JCokanee Creek. a. "The swimming a r e a s h o u l d be marked o f f w i t h b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d f l o a t s . , some motor b o a t s a r e coming t o o s l o s e . , ! b. ''"'ore p u l l - o f f accommodations needed i n more o f t h e campsites.'' c. " T h i s p l a c e r e a l l y needs more c a m p s i t e s . I t has so much t o o f f e r t h e v i s i t o r . N.B. Commonly r e g i s t e r e d recom-m e n d a t i o n • i n t h i s c a m p s i t e . d. "I'd. l i k e t o s e e a c e n t r a l cook s h a c k . " e. 'Could y o u make a c a m p s i t e a r e a c l o s e t o t h e b o a t l a u n -c h i n g p o i n t ? " 3 •_ Monck Jjark a. I'd like to see a mobile van come in here a couple of times a week for about 2 hours so we could buy food." b. "They really should have a control gate here that could he closed at 11.00 p.m. That would keep out the rowdy element from Karoloops or Tierritt. :' II.B. Mentioned 4 times. c. "Mark off that swimming area before somebody gets clipped with a motorboat." d. "Can't they get a well closer to the campsite., or more wells II.B. Mentioned 11 times. e. "This beach drops off q lite sharply in places I would like to see i t levelled out more." f. ''There should be another beach down the lake for people coming from Merritt." 4_. ?> a i]^§. r ^. 0 il a. :'They should do something about a l l this dust., every time a car drives by." N.B. Mentioned 8 times. b. 'Some self-guided walks would be nice.'1 c. "Extend driveways on some sites to accommodate trailers, or angle the driveways and have a pull-through.1' d. 'Numbered campsites co ild be listed according to the road that they are sit uted on, and a large map posted. It's darn hard to find a particular campsite here. Each loop should li s t the campsites i t contains.'' N.B. "lentioned 4 times. APPENDIX E DEFINITIONS DEFINITION OF TERMS Aesthetic Values—The finer intangible and cultural park values, a3 distinguished from material and economic values. Scenic beauty, inspiration values, the op-portunity to see and appreciate nature, are aesthetic; the benefits of fresh air, sunshine, and a; good place to camp are more "material". Camper Day—A statistical unit of park use consisting of the passing of one night by one camper in a park. The number of visitor days by one camper Is always one more than the number of camper days during one stay. Camper Trailer—A canvas, or other folding structure, mounted on wheels and de-signed for travel, recreation and vacation use. Camper Trucks—Trucks on whose box, deck, or chassis a shelter structure, or after-cabin, has been attached, or separately mounted, to form a single unit for purposes of travel. The after-cabin usually contains sleeping and cooking f a c i l -i t i e s , and may, or may not, contain sanitary fac i l i t i e s . Camping—The living out of dooos, overnight, using for shelter a bedroll, sleep-ing bag, trailer, tent, truck or hut open on one or more sides, when the person takes his own bedding, cooking equipment, and food with him. Formal camps such as the Y.M.C.A. are excluded. Campsite—A single, clearly designated location in which is provided a place and facilities for camping by an individual, a family or a party. Sny; camping unit. Campground—A grouping of campsites laid out, where possible, in organized fashion, according to a designed capacity. Cashing.Area—A general term for a plot of land which is used, or intended, as a location for camping, and which may or may not be developed with facilities for camping. Day Camping—A type of use common in recreation areas near centers of population, and in a few parks similarly located. Families or groups occupy a campsite or camping facility for the day only, cooking and eating meals in the camp and using i t as a base for hiking or other recreation. Day camping i s distinct from picnicking, though the former generally involves use of a site over a longer period during the day, full-scale cooking of camp meals, etc. Day Use—Visitor entry or activity in.ia park, cr given section of s. park, that does not involve staying overnight. Expenditure—The payment of cash, or where accounting is on the accrual basis, the incurrence of a l i a b i l i t y for the purpose of acquiring an asset, goods or services, or settling a loss. Facilities—Improvements and other naterial things provided for the use, accomodation and convenience of p.ark visitors, oa for the use of service personnel in carrying out their work. Usages are indicated by the following common expressions: facilities and services, visitor-use fa c i l i t i e s , service f a c i l i t i e s , concession fa c i l i t i e s , structures and facil i t i e s . (In this last expression, "f a c i l i t i e s " refers to those that are non-structural such . & campgrounds, roads, trails and ut i l i t i e s ) . Motivation—The inclination to do: basic to employee productivity; also basic to study of recreators. M o t o r Home—A p o r t a b l e , t e m p o r a r y d w e l l i n g t o b e u s e d f o r t r a v e l , r e c r e a t i o n a n d v a c a t i o n , c o n s t r u c t e d a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a s e l f - p r o p e l l e d v e h i c l e . M u l t i p l e U s e — W i t h r e s p e c t t o l a n d , m u l t i p l e u s e r e f e r s t o a s c h e m e o f m a n s g ^ m e n t a p p l i c a b l e t o f a i r l y l a r g e e u n l t s o f l a n d , w h e r e b y a r e a o w i t h i n t h e u n i t s a r e u s e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e b e 3 t s u i t e d a n d f o r s u c h a d d i t i o n a l p u r p o s e s a s d o n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r b e s t o r o p t i m u m u s e . M u l t i p l e u s e d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t a l l p o s s i b l e u s e s o f a t r a c t s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h e una o f i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s f o r a s i n g l e p u p p o a e may o c c u r i n a m u l t i p l e u s e s c h e m e . N a t u r a l A r e a — N a t u r a l a r e a i s t a k e n t o m e a n a t r a c t o f l a n d c o n t a i n i n g a n e c o l o -g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h I s t o b e i d e n t i f i e d a n d p r e s e r v e d i n t a c t f o r i t s s c i e n t i f i c o r i n t e r p r e t a t i v e - r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . O r i e n t a t i o n S t a t i o n — E i t h e r a n a t t e n d e d s t a t i o n , m a n n e d f o r t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f o r i e n t i n g o r d i r e c t i n g v i s i t o r s , r a t h e r t h a n t h a t o f g i v i n g g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; o r m o r e c o m m o n l y , a n u n a t t e n d e d s t a t i o n e q u i p p e d w i t h o r i e n t a -t i o n d e v i c e s . O v e r f l o w C a m p i n g — T h e c o n d i t i o n w h i c h o c c u r s w h e n (1) t h e d e s i g n e d o r a s s i g n e d c a p a c i t y o f a c a m p g r o u n d o r c a m p i n g a r e a i s e x c e e d e d ; (2) i n d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y o r p a r t y u s a g e i s made o f g r o u p c a m p s , s i t e s o r s p a c e s , o r (3) o t h e r l o c a t i o n s i n t h e p a r k n o t r e g u l a r l y u s e d f o r c a m p i n g a r e u t i l i z e d f o r s u c h p u r p o s e s . P a r k — A n a r e a s e t a s i d e s o l e l y o r p r i m a r i l y f o r p u b l i c o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a c o m p e t e n t a u t h o r i t y . P a r k - R e s o u r c e O r i e n t e d — A R e s o u r c e O r i e n t e d P a r k i s o n e w h i c h h a s b e e n s e l e c t e d o n t h e b o 3 i s o f h i g h q u a l i t y n a t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n s , f r e q u e n t l y s c e n i c a t t r a c t i o n s . T h e e a t p h a s i s i n d e v e l o p m e n t i s o n m i n i m a l a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p e . U s e s c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e a e a t h o s e w h i c h l e a s t d i s t u r b t h a n a t u r a l a t m o s p h e r e . S e l e c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e o r i e n t e d p a r k s m u s t b e g u i d e d b y t h e l o c a t i o n o f n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g a t t r a c t i o n s . P a r k E x p e r i e n c e s — T h e sum t o t a l o f m a n y t h i n g s a p a r k v i s i t o r d o e s ; h i s i m p r e s -s i o n s , * e w c o n c e p t G , e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s a n d r e s p o n s e s ' - T h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e v a l u e s o f a v i s i t t o t h e p a r k . P a r k V a l u e s — T h e q u a l i t i e s o f a p a r k — t h e s c e n i c , i n s p i r a t i o n a l , a e s t h e t i c , e d u c a t i o n a l , a n d o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c t o r s — t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e b e n e f i t a n d e n j o y m e n t o f v i s i t o r s . P a r k V i s i t — A n e n t r y i n t o a p a r k b y o n e p e r s o n w h o s e p u r p o s e w h i l e i n t h e p a r k i s p r i m a r i l y e n j o y m e n t o f w h a t t h e p a r k o f f e r s a n d n o t o t h e r b u s i n e s s . P a r k V i s i t o r — A r e c r e a t o r w h o e n t e r s a p a r k f o r e n j o y m e n t o f w h a t t h e p a r k o f f e r s , o r o n e w h o e n j o y s t h e a t t r a c t i o n s o f a p o r k i n p a s s i n g t h r o u g h i t . P a r k i n g A r e a — A s p a c e w i t h d e f i n e d b o u n d a r i e s , d e s i g n e d a n d d e v e l o p e d t o Jjome d e g r e e f o r p a r k i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r o f v e h i c l e s . A p l a c e p r o v i d i n g p a r k i n g f o r o n e o r t w o v e h i c l e s o r f o r c a r a n d t r a i l e r i s m o r e p r o p e r l y t e r m e d a p a r k i n g s p a c e , s p u r , t u r n o u t , o r p u l l - t h r o u g h ( a s t h e c a s e m a y b e ) , r a t h e r t h a n a p a r k i n g a r e a . P a r k I n t e r p r e t a t i o n — A i m s t o r e v e a l m e a n i n g s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n n a t u r e t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f o r i g i n a l o b j e c t s , b y f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e a n d b y i l l u s t r a t i v e m e d i a rather than simply to communicate factual Information. Picnic Area—A general term for a plot of land which is used, or intended, as a location for picnicking, and which may or may not be developed with facilities for picnicking. Primitive Area—An area in which wilderness conditions prevail but other uses may be allowed under strict supervision. Thatarea is usually less than 100,000 acres. Recreation—Recreation is the volitive and pleasurable use of leisure time. Out-door recreation refers to activities occurring in an outdoor environment. Recreationist—A professional or technical worker In the field of recreation. Recreation Surveys—Studies, appraisals, and inventories of recreation resources and activities, in a region, or in the nation as a whole, for use in integrating recreational, cultural, and economic needs of the people both present and .future. Recreation Visitor-Day—A visitor-day which has been spent by persona i n any activities except those which are part of or incidental to thepursuit of a gain-ful occupation. Recreator—A participant in recreation. Trailer-Self-Contained—A trailer which can operate indepently of connections to sewer, water and electric system. It contains a water-flushed toilet, lavatory, shower and kitchen sink, a l l of which are connected to water storage end sewage holding tanks located within the trailer. Travel Trailer—A vehicular.portable structure built on a chassis, designed as a temporary dwelling for travel, recreation and vacation. (Park use statistics w i l l Boubtless call for counts on 'dependent travel trailers" or 'self contained travel trailers": ditto, camper trucks, etc.) Unattended contact—A statistical unit of interpretive service, consisting of information given a visitor by a museum, exhbiit, or interpretive device unat-tended by a park employee. Use Area—Section of a park developed and managed to provide access, facil i t i e s , and services for public use, management, and administration, as distinguished from back-country or wilderness sections. This term may also refer to any place in a park, whether developed and managed or not, which receives appreciable human use. Visit—The entry of any person into a site or an area of land or water, generally recognized as providing outdoor recreation. Visits may occur either as recreation visits or as non-recreation visit3. Visitor Center—An installation consisting of a building, or a combination of buildings and facilities, serving as the main ounter for information, orientation, reception, and ofteu visitor-service and interpretation fi€r visitors to a park or to an .important area of a large park. Most connconly, the tent "visitor center" is used in place of the terms "museum-administration building) or "public use building", and in place of :Jpark headquarters" when i t is combined with the superintendent's office* Visitor Day—Twelve visitor hour3, which may he aggregated continuously, intermit-tently, or simultaneoualy by one or more persons. Visitor-days r:my occur either as recreation visitor-days or as non-recreation visitor days. Visitor Use—The presence and activities of visitors within a park. Wilderness—A natural setting which is preserved by man with a minimum of inter-ference in natural processes and which provides the opportunity to escape from contact with civilization. APPENDIX P TABLES SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SELECTED VARIABLES Occupation .and Previous Attendance in Adult Education Courses CAMP Occupation Yea Ho % 2 P 7?p 1 Professional 1 1 5 8 9 5 6 . 0 6 . 7 9 Hon Professional 8 4 2 7 4 4 2 7 8 8 1 . 9 5 . 1 6 1 4 5 2 1 3 4 8 . 7 0 3 1 2 86 1 . 9 9 . 1 5 1 2 5 7 9 4 3 4 1 0 2 9 . 0 1 . 8 8 2 3 6 6 and Interest In Attending Cemping Typ,e Adult Educational Courses CAMP Occupation Yes: No P ?C?p 1 Professional 1 0 2 9 2 . 3 5 . 1 2 Non Professional 1 4 m 2 9 2 5 1 4 . 0 1 . 8 8 1 8 5 1 1 0 2 9 3 4 1 1 2 . 3 5 . 1 2 1 4 4 0 1 7 4 9 4 6 1 7 4 1 1 . 1 5 . 7 0 1 5 4 3 1 0 2 9 and Length of Vacation Period CAMP Occupation Yes No P 1 Professional Non Professional 6 1 5 1 7 4 3 9 1 4 2 6 . 0 1 . 8 8 2 5 1 9 1 4 5 4 2 9 6 2 6 . 0 7 . 7 8 . 0 6 3 3 2 2 9 6 3 9 26 . 1 8 . 6 7 4 7 1 5 2 0 4 3 3 1 0 9 2 9 . 0 3 . 8 4 Occupation and Enjoyment of Camping Social Life Motive CAMP Occupation Important Unimportant X* P "X^ p 1 Professional 1 8 5 1 . 0 1 Non professional 8 2 3 7 2 0 2 8 2 3 2 . 0 6 . 1 5 9 26 1 8 5 1 3 1 3 3 7 . 0 0 1 5 4 3 , 6 1 7 4 4 1 1 1 2 34 . 5 ? . 4 9 8 2 3 1 1 3 1 and Esca pe City Motive CAMP Occupation Important Unimportant S 2 P *?p 1 Professional Non Professional 7 2 0 1 1 1 7 3 1 49 2 . 3 9 . 1 2 2 7 2 0 7 2 1 2 0 6 0 . 9 0 . 3 5 1 . 4 6 3 1 2 34 4 1 9 U 5 4 . 9 5 . 3 3 4 3 9 1 0 2 2 2 9 6 3 . 2 3 . 6 4 and Financial Motive CAMP Occupation Important Unimportant P X?p 1 Professional Non Professional 4 1 1 1 1 20 3 1 5 7 . 7 5 . 3 9 2 7 2 8 2 0 8 0 7 2 8 2 0 8 0 . 0 0 . 4 4 3 4 2 9 1 1 86 . 3 9 . 5 4 4 1 0 23 2 9 66 0 1 . 8 8 Occupation and Number of Camping Trips Bach Year CAMP Occupation 2 Trips or Less 3 Trips or Mora 7C 2 V X Professional 6 Non Professional 10 2 3 4 5 7 1 4 4 1 1 1 7 2 9 1 4 2 0 4 0 1 1 3 L 5 1 4 2 1 2 1 7 6 1 4 x 2. 1 4 . 1 2 . 7 3 4 0 3 . 4 9 . 0 6 6 0 . 4 3 6 . 1 2 . 7 3 1 7 , 0 3 . 8 4 4 0 and Health Motive for Camping CAMP Occupation Important Unimportant P 1 Professional Hon Professional 7 2 3 4 3 1 1 •26 1 1 2 0 9 3 1 74 3 1 1 0 1 7 4 1 7 3 5 8 1 4 2 9 4 9 1 1 4 9 9 1 4 2 3 4 0 . 7 7 . 0 7 . 8 8 . 3 8 . 7 8 . 0 4 . 3 5 1 . 5 1 and Enjoyment of Nature Motive for Capping CAMP Occupation Important Unimportant "X? P 3C*p 1 Professional 4 1 1 7 2 0 . 7 1 . 4 0 Non Professional 1 4 4 0 1 0 2 9 2 5 1 4 2 6 1 . 2 2 . 2 7 1 1 3 1 1 7 4 9 3 3 9 . 1 8 . 6 7 2 2 6 3 9 2 6 4 4 1 1 6 1 7 . 0 0 . 9 5 12 34 1 3 37 Distance of Home f~on Campground and Occupation CAMP Distance Professional Non-Professional T C P 3 ? p 1 2 5 0 Miles or Less 6 1 7 1 3 3 7 . 1 2 . 7 3 2 5 1 Miles or More 5 14 1 1 3 1 2 7 2 0 , 9 0 . 3 5 7 2 0 21. 6 0 3 1 1 3 1 . 0 0 . 9 5 2 0 5 7 4 4 1 1 1 9 5 4 2 . 6 6 , 1 0 6 1 7 6 1 7 and Length of Vacation Period CAMP Distance 3 Weeks or Less 4 Weeks or More 1 2 5 0 Miles or Less 1 1 3 1 8 2 3 . 0 0 . 9 5 2 5 1 Miles or More 1 0 2 9 6 1 7 2 3 9 4 1 1 1 . 4 0 . 2 3 2 1 6 0 7 2 0 3 8 2 3 5 1 4 . 3 7 . 5 5 1 7 4 9 5 1 4 4 1 5 4 3 3 2 3 . 0 0 . 9 5 7 2 0 5 1 4 Occupation and Length of Stay at Campsite CAMP Occupation .4'T»ays or Less .S'Tusga or More 1 Professional 7 2 0 4 1 1 . 0 0 . 9 5 Non Professional 1 7 4 9 7 2 0 2 5 1 4 . 0 8 . 7 7 2 1 6 0 7 2 0 3 . 2 2 . 6 4 1 6 4 6 1 5 4 3 4 7 2 0 3 9 . 0 0 . 9 5 16 46 9 2 6 Distance of Home From Campground and Length of Stay CAMP Distance 4 Days or Less 5 Days or More % P 1 250 Mies or Less 11 31 8 23 1.25 .26 251 Miles or More 13 37 3 9 2 5 14 2 6 .08 .77 21 60 7 20 3 7 20 6 17 .02 .86 11 31 11 31 4 15 43 8 23 .08 .77 8 23 4 11 and Age CAMP Distance :39^Vesr9o!c_tess 40 Years or More X^ P X 2p 1 250 Miles or Less 8 23 11 31 1.25 .26 251 Miles or More 3 9 13 37 2 3 9 4 11 .18 .67 34 16 46 3 4 11 9 26 .25 .62 10 29 12 34 4 14 40 9 26 2.75 .09 3 9 9 26 and Income CAMP Distance $7,999 or Less $8,000 or More X V X p 1 250 Miles or Less 13 37 6 17 2.21 .13 251 Miles or More 6 17 10 29 2 5 14 .35 .56 14 40 14 40 3 5 14 8 23 1.86 .17 15 43 7 20 1.54 9 26 14 40 .21 .65 3 9 9 26 Income and Financial Motive for Camping CAM? Income Important Unimportant PC? P % 2p 1 $7,999 or Leas 12 34 7 20 .15 .70 $8,000 or More 12 34 4 11 2 4 11 12 34 .15 .70 7 20 12 34 3 8 23 12 34 .00 .95 5 14 10 29 4 7 20 5 14 .53 .47 9 26 14 40 and Previous Attendance In Adult Education Courses CAMP Income Yes No 7? P % 2p 1 $7,999 or Less 9 26 10 29 .31 .58 $8,000 or More 10 29 6 17 2 8 23 8 23 .58 .45 13 37 6 17 3 14 40 6 17 .02 .86 10 29 5 14 4 9 26 3 9 .18 .67 20 57 3 9 and Interest in Attending in Camping Oriented Adult Education Courses CAliP Income Yea No X? P ^ p 1 $7,999 or Less 10 29 9 26 3.41 .06 $8,000 or More 14 40 2 12 34 4 11 .50 .49 11 31 8 23 3 11 31 9 26 .02 .86 7 20 8 23 4 7 20 5 14 .05 .81 14 40 9 26 Income and Change of Face Motive for Camping CAMP Income Important Unimportant X 2 P 1 $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More 1 2 1 4 34 4 0 7 2 0 1 , 5 7 . 2 1 2 1 0 1 4 29 4 0 6 5 17 1 4 . 1 2 . 7 3 . 7 9 3 1 6 1 2 4 6 34 4 3 1 1 9 . 1 8 . 6 7 4 9 1 7 2 6 4 9 3 6 9 1 7 . 1 1 . 7 4 and Enjoyment of Nature Motive CAMP Income Important Unimportant X2 P 1 $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More 1 0 8 2 9 2 3 9 8 2 6 2 3 . 0 3 . 8 4 2 7 9 2 0 2 6 9 1 0 2 6 2 9 . 0 2 . 8 6 . 4 6 3 1 2 1 3 34 3 7 8 2 3 1 . 8 2 . 1 7 4 6 io: 1 7 2 9 6 1 3 1 7 3 7 . 0 0 . 9 5 and Entoyment of Social Life of Camping Motive CAMP Income Important Unimportant "X2 P X?P 1 $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less 6 1 7 1 3 3 7 . 0 0 . 9 3 $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More & 1 1 1 2 3 4 2 3 9 1 3 37 . 2 3 , 6 4 6 1 7 1 3 3 7 , 0 8 8 2 3 2 3 1 2 7 3 4 . 1 9 . 6 7 2 0 4 8'' 1 1 2 3 8 1 5 2 3 . 0 8 . 7 7 4 3 Income and Trip Cose Per Day CAKP Income $ 3 . 0 0 or Less $ 3 . 0 1 or More X2 P X*P 1 $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less 1 4 4 0 5 1 4 . 1 2 . 7 3 $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More 1 0 2 9 6 17 2 1 1 3 1 5 1 4 . 8 7 . 3 5 9 2 6 1 0 2 9 •56 3 1 6 4 6 4 1 1 1 . 7 3 . 1 8 8 2 3 7 2 0 4 9 2 6 3 9 . 0 1 . 8 8 1 9 5 4 4 1 1 and Relaxation Motive for Camping CAMP Income Important Unimportant % 2 P X?P 1 $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less 1 1 3 1 8 2 3 . 5 0 . 4 9 $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More 1 2 3 4 4 1 1 2 1 3 37 3 9 . 6 5 . 4 3 1 2 34 7 2 0 3 17 4 9 3 9 . 1 2 . 7 3 1 3 37 4 9 2 6 3 9 , 1 1 . 7 4 1 7 4 9 6 1 7 and Health Reasons for Camping CAMP Income Important Unimportant X2 P X*p 1 $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less 4 1 1 1 5 4 3 . 0 2 . 8 6 $ 8 , 0 0 0 or Mora 4 1 1 1 2 3 4 2 5 1 4 U 3 1 . 3 9 154 9 2 6 1 0 2 9 . 5 1 3 1 6 4 6 4 1 1 . 0 0 . 9 5 1 1 3 1 4 1 1 4 7 2 0 5 1 4 2 . 2 7 . 1 3 6 1 7 17 4 9 Age and Attendance in Cooping Oriented Adult Education Courses CAMP Age YES NO OC* P X*p 1 29 years or Less 6 1 7 5 1 4 . 0 1 , 8 8 3 0 years or More 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 7 2 8 2 3 7 2 0 . 0 2 . 8 6 s 9 2 6 1 1 3 1 . 8 4 3 1 3 37 . 2 0 . 6 6 2 0 5 7 4 1 5 4 3 . 0 0 . 9 5 3 9 1 5 4 3 I n c o m e a n d L e n g t h o f S t a y a t C a m p s i t e CAMP Income 4 Days or Less 5 Days or More 3C2 P 1 $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less 1 4 4 0 5 1 4 . 1 2 . 7 3 $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More 1 0 2 9 6 1 7 2 9 2 6 7 2 0 3 . 4 3 . 0 6 1 7 49 3 8 2 3 1 2 34 1 . 4 9 . 2 2 1 0 2 9 5 1 4 4 6 1 7 6 1 7 1 . 0 8 . 3 0 1 7 4 9 6 1 7 and Number of Yearly Camping Trips CAMP Income 2 Trips or Less 3 Trips or More y& P ^ p 1 $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less 1 4 4 0 5 1 4 . 5 3 . 4 7 $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More 9 2 6 7 2 0 2 7 20 9 2 6 . 5 3 . 4 7 5 1 4 1 4 4 0 3 1 1 3 1 9 26 , 0 6 . 7 9 8 2 3 7 2 0 4 7 2 0 5 1 4 . 0 5 . 8 1 1 4 40 9 2 6 Age and Financial Motive for Camping CAMP Age IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT V? V 3C*p 1 2 9 years or Less 7 20 4 1 1 . 0 0 . 9 5 3 0 years or More 17 49 7 2 0 2 5 1 4 1 0 2 9 . 0 2 . 6 6 6 1 7 1 4 40 3 5 1 4 9 26 . 0 5 . 8 0 8 2 3 1 3 3 7 4 1 0 2 9 7 2 0 1 . 3 8 . 2 4 6 1 7 1 2 3 4 and Interest in Park Nature Program CAMP Age INTERESTED UNINTERESTED a P X*'9 1 29 years or Less 3 0 years or More 9 1 9 2 6 5 4 5 1 4 . 0 7 . 7 8 2 1 2 1 6 3 4 46 3 4 9 1 1 . 1 8 . 6 7 , . 2 8 3 1 1 1 3 3 1 3 7 3 8 9 2 3 . 4 5 . 5 1 4 1 5 1 8 4 3 5 1 . 5 9 . 4 5 and Previous Attendance in Mult Education Courses CAMP Age YES NO * P # P 1 2 9 years or Less 3 0 years or More 4 15 1 1 4 3 7 9 2 0 2 5 1 . 1 6 . 2 8 2 1 0 1 1 2 9 3 1 5 9 14 2 6 . 1 2 . 7 3 . 7 1 3 1 1 1 3 3 1 3 7 3 8 9 2 3 . 4 5 . 5 1 4 1 3 16 3 7 4 6 4 1 1 . 2 3 . 6 0 Age and Change of Face Motive for Camping CAMP Age IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT "51? P X?p 1 29 years or Less 6 1 7 5 14 1 . 9 4 . 1 6 3 0 years or Mora 2 0 5 7 4 1 1 2 1 2 34 3 9 . 8 0 . 3 7 12 34 8 2 3 3 1 0 2 9 4 1 1 . 3 6 . 5 6 1 8 5 1 3 9 4 1 1 3 1 6 1 7 . 7 6 . 3 9 1 5 4 3 3 9 and Enjoyment of Nature Motive CAMP Age IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT 0? V 1 2 9 years or Leas 5 1 4 6 1 7 . 0 1 . 8 8 3 0 years or More 1 3 37 1 1 3 1 2 5 1 4 1 0 29 . 8 7 . 3 5 1 1 3 1 9 2 6 3 9 2 6 5 1 4 . 1 5 . 7 0 1 6 46 3 1 4 4 7 2 0 1 0 2 9 . 0 3 . 8 4 9 2 6 9 2 6 and Enjoyment of Social Life of Camping Motive CAMP Age IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT 3? P ^ p 1 29 yeara or Lees 3 9 8 2 3 . 0 8 . 7 7 3 0 years or More 7 2 0 1 7 49 2 4 1 1 1 1 3 1 . 0 8 . 7 7 5 1 4 1 5 4 3 3 4 1 1 1 0 29 1 . 7 3 . 1 8 1 2 34 9 2 6 7 2 0 1 0 2 9 . 2 3 . 6 4 5 1 4 1 3 3 7 Age end Trip Cost Fer Day CAMP Age $3.00 or Less $3.01 or More X? P 1 29 years or Less 20 57 6 17 1.94 .16 30 years or More 4 11 5 14 2 17 49 11 31 .18 .67 3 9 4 11 3 18 51 6 17 .67 .42 6 17 5 14 4 25 71 5 14 .36 .56 3 9 -and Relaxation Motive for Camping CAMP Age IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT % 2 P T^P 1 29 years or Less 7 20 4 11 .04 .82 30 years or More 16 46 6 23 2 9 26 6 17 .84 .36 .16 16 46 4 11 .16 3 11 31 3 9 .24 .63 19 54 4 12 34 5 14 .01 .88 14 40 4 11 and Health for Camping CAMP Age IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT X2 P 7C?p 1 29 years or Less 3 9 8 23 .00 .95 30 years or More 5 14 19 54 2 7 20 8 23 .12 .73 7 20 13 37 3 8 23 6 17 3.57 .06 19 54 4 5 14 12 34 .32 .58 8 23 10 29 Educational Level and Occupation CAMP Educational Level Professional Non Professional X 2 P % 2p 1 High School Grad. or Less 4 11 10 29 .01 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 16 46 5 14 2 19 54 .01 7 20 8 23 3 3 9 15 43 .01 11 31 6 17 A 5 14 8 23 .10 .75 11 31 U 31 Ago and Length of Stay et Campsite CAMP ^iNfe* 4 Says or Lews 5 Days or More 1 29 years or Leaa 6 30 year3 or KGre 18 2 13 13 17 51 37 37 5 6 14 17 20 •67 .42 1.12 .29 .65 4 6 12 13 10 17 34 37 29 8 9 4 8 23 26 11 23 .64 .90 .35 And Nu&ber of Camping Tripa Each Year CAMP AGE 2 Trips or Less 3 Tripa or More % 2 P 0C?p 1 29 years or Leas 7 20 4 11 .04 .82 30 years or $©re 16 46 8 23 2 3 14 10 29 .07 .78 7 20 13 37 3 7 20 7 20 ,00 .95 12 34 9 26 4 10 29 7 20 .04 .82 U 31 7 20 Educational Level and Interest in Attending Camping Type Adult Education Courses CAMP Educational Level YES NO % P X p 1 High School Grad. or Less 9 26 5 1 4 . 0 1 . 8 8 Univ. Grad.t or some Univ. 1 5 4 3 6 1 7 2 1 2 34 8 2 3 . 2 1 . 6 5 1 1 3 1 4 1 1 3 8 2 3 1 0 2 9 . 2 6 . 6 2 1 0 2 9 7 2 0 4 7 2 0 6 1 7 . 0 5 . 8 1 1 4 4 0 8 2 3 Aud L e n g t h o f Y e a r l y V a c a t i o n P e r i o d CAMP Educational Level 3 WEEKS 4 WEEKS % 2 P ^ p or Less or More 1 L High School Grad. or Less 1 0 2 9 4 1 1 . 6 0 . 4 4 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 1 1 3 1 1 0 2 9 2 1 4 4 0 6 1 7 . 0 2 . 8 6 1 0 2 9 3 1 4 3 1 3 3 7 5 1 4 . 0 7 . 7 8 1 2 34 5 1 4 4 9 2 6 4 1 1 . 0 6 . 7 9 1 3 3 7 9 26 and Income CAMP Educational Level $ 7 , 9 9 9 $ 8 , 0 0 0 "X? P . 7C?P or Less or More 1 High School Grad. or Less 1 0 2 9 4 1 1 1 . 7 3 . 1 8 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 9 2 6 12 34 2 1 1 3 1 9 2 6 . 8 7 . 3 5 5 1 4 1 0 2 9 3 1 4 4 0 4 1 1 . 0 3 6 1 7 1 1 3 1 4 7 2 0 6 1 7 2 . 2 7 . 1 3 5 14 1 7 49 Educational Level and Enjoyment of Social Life of Camping CAMP Educational Level IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT % P % pooled 1 High School Grad. or Less 4 1 1 1 0 29 . 1 5 . 7 0 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 6 1 7 1 5 4 3 2 6 1 7 1 4 4 0 . 0 8 . 7 7 3 9 1 2 34 3 1 1 3 1 7 2 0 2 . 3 8 . 1 2 5 1 4 1 2 34 4 6 1 7 7 2 0 . 5 9 . 4 5 6 1 7 16 4 6 and Interest in a Park Nature Program CAMP Educational Level IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT X2 P X2 pooled 1 High School Grad. or Less 1 1 3 1 3 9 . 0 7 . 7 8 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 1 7 49 4 1 1 2 1 5 4 3 5 1 4 . 1 8 . 6 7 1 3 37 2 6 3 1 3 3 7 5 1 4 . 0 1 . 8 8 - 1 1 3 1 6 1 7 4 1 2 34 . 1 3 . 7 2 2 1 6 0 and Attendance in Camping Oriented Adult Education Courses CAMP Educational Level YES NO X? P X2 p 1 High School Grad. or Less 1 0 2 9 4 1 1 3 . 4 7 . 5 9 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 7 20 14 4 0 2 1 2 34 8 2 3 1 . 1 6 . 2 8 5 1 4 1 0 29 3 1 3 5 1 . 5 9 . 4 5 1 5 4 3 4 1 2 34 . 1 3 . 7 2 4 1 1 1 8 5 1 Educational Level and Health Reasons for Camping CAMP Educational Level IitPORTANT UNIMPORTANT ^? P ^ pooled 1 High School Grad. or Less 5 1A 9 26 1«1A .29 Univ. Grad. or sons Univ. 3 9 18 51 2 8 23 12 3A .12 .73 6 17 9 26 3 15 A3 3 9 .2A .63 12 3A 5 1A A 6 17 7 20 .24 .63 7 20 15 A3 Educational Level and Change of Pace Motive for Capping CAMP Educational Level IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT X 2 P X? pooled 1 nigh School Grad. or Less 12 3A .75 .39 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 1A AO 7 20 2 13 37 7 20 .02 .86 11 31 A 11 3 1A AO A 11 .01 .88 1A AO 3 9 A 10 29 3 9 .02 .86 16 A6 6 17 and Enjoyiaent of Nature Motive CAMP Educational Level IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT X 2 V % 2 pooled L High School Grad. or Less 7 20 7 20 .OA .82 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 11 31 10 29 2 7 20 i r , 37 1.27 .26 9 26 6 17 3 11 31 7 20 1.03 .31 U4 AO 3 9 A 6 17 7 20 .10 .75 10 29 12 34 Educational Level and Length of Stay at Campsite CAMP Educational Level 4 Cays or Leae 5 Days or Kore X P % pooled 1 High School Grad. or Less 8 2 3 6 1 7 . 6 7 . 4 2 Univ. Crad. or some Univ. 1 6 4 6 5 1 4 2 1 3 37 7 2 0 1 . 1 2 . 2 9 1 3 37 3 7 2 0 1 1 3 1 1 . 4 1 . 2 3 1 1 3 1 6 17 4 7 2 0 6 17 . 5 9 . 4 5 1 6 4 6 6 1 7 and Trips Each Year ' ' • « • • • ' ' • • r 1 - "I . 1 "I I I I I " I I 1 m i . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 • 1 1 i.r . 1 1 • CAM? Educational Level $3.00 or Less $3.01 or More % V % pooled 1 High School Grad. or Less 1 2 3 4 2 6 1 . 9 9 . 1 5 Univ. Grad, or some Univ. 1 2 3 4 9 2 6 2 1 3 3 7 7 2 0 . 5 5 . 4 6 7 2 0 8 2 3 3 1 1 3 1 7 20 . 3 8 , 5 5 1 3 37 4 1 1 4 1 2 34 . 9 2 2 . 3 4 1 6 4 6 6 1 7 and Relaxation Motive For Camping CAMP Educational Level IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT X1 P % 2 pooled 1 High School Grad. or Less 8 2 3 6 17 . 2 6 . 6 2 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 1 5 4 3 6 1 7 2 17 4 9 3 9 2 . 8 0 . 0 9 8 2 3 7 2 0 3 17 4 9 1 . 0 7 . 3 0 1 3 37 4 1 1 4 9 2 6 4 1 1 . 0 2 . 8 6 1 7 4 9 5 1 4 

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