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A socio-economic survey of campers in four British Columbia Provincial Parks, 1967 Blackhall, Robert John 1971

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A SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF CAMPERS IN FOUR BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL PARKS-196?  by ROBERT JOHN BLACKHALL B. S. A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1951 A THESSS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION i n the Department of ADULT EDUCATION  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming r e q u i r e d standard  THE  t o the  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1971  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  freely available  I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n  the requirements f o r  Columbia,  I agree  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of  this  that  Study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s  representatives.  of t h i s  thesis  It  for f i n a n c i a l  is  understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  gain s h a l l  w r i t t e n permission.-  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  Q V J L  g  Columbia  1171  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  T h i s d e s c r i p t i v e study o f campers i n Golden E a r s , Kokanee Creek, Monck and Bamberton P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s based upon 14-0 o n - l o c a t i o n p e r s o n a l  inter-  views conducted i n the summer o f 19&7.  The  c l i e n t e l e have been d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f t h e i r  socio-economic  characteristics.  F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the data  o c c u r r e d i n t e s t i n g the hypothesis statistically  t h a t there were no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t the f i v e  percent  l e v e l when the v a r i a b l e s o f age, income, occupation,  education  and d i s t a n c e from .Thome were compared with a v a r i e t y o f camper needs and p r e f e r e n c e s . agencies  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may h e l p v a r i o u s  concerned with the use o f parks t o p l a n e d u c a t i o n a l  programs f o r the park v i s i t o r .  The  study r e v e a l e d t h a t f a m i l i e s were the main users o f  the f o u r P r o v i n c i a l , study parks.  The head o f the f a m i l y  u n i t was g e n e r a l l y a man p o s s e s s i n g some high school  education  and r e c e i v i n g an annual income o f l e s s than $10,000.  Most o f the respondents v i s i t e d a s u c c e s s i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l parks while on t h e i r camping t r i p s .  The t e n t , as  i n e a r l i e r times, remains the most common form o f s h e l t e r used by campers.  The  appeal  of a camping h o l i d a y was  on the change o f l i f e - s t y l e form.  centered  mainly  o f f e r e d by t h i s r e c r e a t i o n a l  However, campers having a n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l work back^-,'  ground a l s o l a i d c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e s s on the h e a l t h and  social  advantages of camping.  The  h i g h r e g a r d o f campers f o r the P r o v i n c i a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n program was centage of campers .who  made e v i d e n t by the h i g h  favoured  on-site  F u r t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n appeared i n the expressed  study parks  per-  i n s t r u c t i o n as a  p r e f e r r e d means of g a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the  some form o f the program should be  parks  outdoors.  wish t h a t  implemented i n a l l of the  currently lacking this f a c i l i t y .  Continuing  e d u c a t i o n courses w i t h camping content h e l d c o n s i d e r a b l e appeal  f o r the respondents,  y e a r s of age  p a r t i c u l a r l y those under 29  with some u n i v e r s i t y  training.  Abstract.  .  L i s t of Tables  i i vii  Acknowledgements  ,ix  CHAPTER 1  I. INTRODUCTION Nature o f the Problem  9  Purpose o f the Study  12  Importance  12  o f the Study  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study.  12  D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms  14  I I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE Canadian S t u d i e s A f t e r i960 o f the Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Campers i n Canadian P r o v i n c i a l Parks  16  16  L i t e r a t u r e on Outdoor E d u c a t i o n for Adults  18  The Need f o r Outdoor E d u c a t i o n  18  Areas o f Outdoor E d u c a t i o n .  21  O b j e c t i v e s o f Outdoor E d u c a t i o n B e n e f i t s o f Outdoor E d u c a t i o n  23 24  CHAPTER III.  PAGE DESIGN OF THE STUDY S e l e c t i o n o f the Study Parks  25-  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Study Parks  25  Golden Ears Kokanee Creek Monck Bamberton The Interview  IV.  28 29 30 31  Schedule  32  S e l e c t i o n o f the Respondents  32  Interview  Techniques  33  T a b u l a t i o n o f Schedule R e s u l t s  34  DATA ANALYSIS AND  RESULTS  36  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondents  36  The Camping T r i p  44  M o t i v a t i o n For Camping  52  Education  55  f o r the Outdoors  S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Selected Variables V.  25  SUMMARY OF THE STUDY.  63 71  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondents  31 it  The Camping T r i p . . . . . . . . . .  72  M o t i v a t i o n For Camping  72  Education  73  For the Outdoors  S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Selected Variables  74  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Study  76  Future Research  80  PAGE '80  REFERENCES  90  APPENDIX A.  B.  An Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y of Some Canadian and American S t u d i e s R e l a t e d to the S o c i o Economie F a c t o r s i n Camping Post i 9 6 0  91  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Information on B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Parks and Attendance F i g u r e s on the Study Parks  95  C.  The  99  D.  Recommendations of Respondents For  E.  Study Parks Definitions  106 109  Tables Showing R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Selected Variables  117  F.  Interview Schedule the  LIST OF TABLES  I. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by  Marital 38  Status I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by I I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by  Occupation...38 Annual  Income  ^2  IV. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Campers by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l .  42 .43  V. D u r a t i o n of Y e a r l y V a c a t i o n . . . .  VI. B i s t a n c e T r a v e l l e d by Campers to Campground.4-3 ...45  V I I . Length o f Stay a t Campsite i n Days V I I I . T o t a l Number o f P r o v i n c i a l Campgrounds V i s i t e d on the Camping T r i p . IX. T o t a l Number o f Camping T r i p s Made During the Year  45 46  X. Accommodation Used by Campers on the T r i p . . . 4 6 XI. Numbers i n the Camping U n i t . . . . . XII.  O b j e c t i o n a b l e Features Encountered Respondent i n B.C.  XIII,  48 by the  P r o v i n c i a l Parks  O v e r a l l Cost o f the Camping T r i p  XIV. Cost of the T r i p Per Person Per Day XV, Camper R e a c t i o n t o the P r o p o s a l That Separate Areas W i t h i n the Campground be J. A l l o t t e d to Tenters and R.V. Owners XVI. Rank Order Placement of 14 Motives For Camping. XVII. Degree o f I n t e r e s t Shown by Campers In a S e l e c t i o n of 15 Outdoor O r i e n t e d A c t i v i t i e s By Rank Order X V I I I . P r e f e r r e d Means of G a i n i n g Information About Outdoor A c t i v i t i e s . Expressed i n Percent ......  48 50 50 51 54 56  .57  XIX, Camper O p i n i o n Regarding the Implementation of a Nature Program i n the Study Parks 61  XX. Camper O p i n i o n Regarding the Proposed P u b l i c a t i o n o f a Book D e s c r i b i n g A l l of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Parks  6l  XXI. Number of Campers With P r e v i o u s Experience i n Continuous L e a r n i n g Courses  62  XXII. Degree o f I n t e r e s t Expressed by Respondents In Future Enrolment i n Camping O r i e n t e d Continuous L e a r n i n g Courses..  62  X X I I I . E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l and Number o f Camping T r i p s Per Year. XXIV. E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l and the F i n a n c i a l Motive For a Camping H o l i d a y XXV.  E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l and P r e v i o u s Attendance In A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Courses kl XXVI. Age and I n t e r e s t Expressed i n A t t e n d i n g Camping O r i e n t e d A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Courses  64 65 .66 67  XXVII. Occupation and the H e a l t h Motive For Camping 69 XXVIII. Occupation and Enjoyment o f Camping S o c i a l L i f e as a Motive For Camping  70  XXIX. Attendance F i g u r e s and D i s t r i b u t i o n Percentages For the Four Study Parks For the Year 1967  98  FIGURE I. II, III,  PAGE L o c a t i o n o f the Four Surveyed Campgrounds  Provincial 26  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Camper Respondents Expressed i n Percent  37  Income o f Camper Respondents Expressed i n Percent,,,,, ,,.,  4-1  ACKNOWLEDGEMEN TS  The w r i t e r expresses h i s thanks to Dr. J . Niemi, chairman o f the t h e s i s committee, his  f o r the w i l l i n g e x t e n s i o n o f  a s s i s t a n c e and time throughout the p r o g r e s s o f t h i s  thesis.  Acknowledgement i s a l s o extended t o the members o f the t h e s i s committee,  Mr. P. D o o l i n g o f the F o r e s t r y  Faculty  and Mr. L . Brown o f the E d u c a t i o n F a c u l t y , f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l comments.  L a s t l y , s p e c i a l thanks i s extended t o Dr. S.S.Lee o f the E d u c a t i o n F a c u l t y f o r h i s competent guidance through some o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a s p e c t s o f the t h e s i s .  Dedication To Bays and out c h i l d r e n , Jan and John  CHAPTER I  Camping i n the P r o v i n c i a l park o f B r i t i s h Columbia, as i n other P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l parks a c r o s s Canada, represents  a l a r g e and growing segment o f the outdoor  r e c r e a t i o n scene. and  Over 7 . 5 m i l l i o n acres  F e d e r a l parkland  camper v i s i t o r s .  a r e a v a i l a b l e t o B r i t i s h Columbia's  Present r a t e s o f i n c r e a s e  dance range between 10 and 16 p e r c e n t parks ( 2 5 : 5 1 ) .  of Provincial  i n park a t t e n -  y e a r l y f o r Canadian  In B r i t i s h Columbia, annual attendance  f i g u r e s f o r camper n i g h t s spent i n the P r o v i n c i a l parks have shown an i n c r e a s e  from 1\ m i l l i o n v i s i t s  m i l l i o n v i s i t s i n 1968(4-7:50).  These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t  the parks program has made an a p p r e c i a b l e the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y o f t h i s p r o v i n c e . o f the t h i r d r a n k i n g tourism  i n 1958 t o 6-|  contribution to  How i n the p o s i t i o n  d o l l a r producer i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  has climbed from a 100 m i l l i o n d o l l a r i n d u s t r y i n  i 9 6 0 t o a 317 m i l l i o n d o l l a r i n d u s t r y i n 1967.  With n e a r l y a l l t a b u l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g park attendance f i g u r e s , camping equipment s a l e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l t r a v e l showing a decided  increase,  i t i s s p e c u l a t i v e as t o when the  appeal o f camping as a r e c r e a t i o n o u t l e t w i l l l e v e l o f f .  &  " p r o j e c t i o n study" o f 16  summertime a c t i v i t i e s conducted  by  the U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n , v i s u a l i z e s a 78  p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n camping a c t i v i t y between the y e a r s  1965  and 1980  (49).  T h i s i n c r e a s e would rank camping as the  second most p o p u l a r summertime a c t i v i t y , behind w a l k i n g h i k i n g , a t the end o f 1 9 8 0 .  and  A f u r t h e r p r o j e c t i o n t o the  y e a r 2000 foresees camping s t i l l entrenched i n the number  two  p o s i t i o n , but w i t h a 238 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n over the 1965  figure.  Both p r e s e n t and p r o j e c t e d demand  s t u d i e s o f l l i e camping scene seem t o o f f e r l i t t l e park a d m i n i s t r a t o r s concerned w i t h a burgeoning  relief for  camping  population.  No simple reason can account f o r the upsurge o f damping as a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y .  Some o f i h e p r i n c i p a l  factors  t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n c r e a s e d camping i n t e r e s t ares  1.  Urbanization By the y e a r 2 0 0 0 ,  over 90 p e r c e n t o f our p o p u l a t i o n i s  expected t o be l i v i n g i n the c i t i e s i z a t i o n o f Canadian  life  (13158).  w i l l undoubtedly  T h i s urban-  c o n t r i b u t e to a  need e x p e r i e n c e d by u r b a n i t e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  experiences  in  i n which they  an environment  t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t to the one  e x i s t from day to day.  S t u d i e s conducted by Clawson and  K n e t s c h show u r b a n i t e s as the main consumers o f p a r k l a n d s ( 1 2 t 9 3 ) .  Rene Dubois of the R o c k e f e l l e r I n s t i t u t e r e f e r s to the world  o f two  e x t e r n a l environments i n h a b i t e d by modern  w i t h the statement t h a t "man nature who The  dual  i s b a s i c a l l y a creature  has l a t e l y become a c r e a t o r of nature"  s o c i a l . s c i e n t i s t i m p l i e s t h a t urban man,  man,  of  (59»8).  having  built  one world w i t h i n and around the n a t u r a l world, s t i l l  seeks  out t h i s n a t u r a l world as a n o u r i s h e r o f h i s e x i s t e n c e .  2.Population  Growth  B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h an estimated 2,002,000 persons as of A p r i l 1,  1968,  population  has r e c o r d e d  of the  h i g h e s t p o p u l a t i o n growth i n Canada s i n c e the year 1960(17«1^)• According  t o a f o r e c a s t o f p o p u l a t i o n growth f o r t h i s  v i n c e , the 1961  pro-  p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e o f 1,629,000 i s expected  to i n c r e a s e by 78.7  percent to 2,912,000 persons by 1 9 8 l ( 7 « 8 ) .  At t h a t time, the Lower Mainland r e g i o n of the p r o v i n c e ,  en-  compassing G r e a t e r KSncouver, D e l t a and  the F r a s e r V a l l e y ,  w i l l probably  community  from t i d e w a t e r  c o n s i s t o f one  continuous  extending  t o C h i l l i w a c k , a d i s t a n c e of 62 m i l e s ( 1 3 i 5 8 ) .  Non-urban parks, p a r t i c u l a r l y those w i t h i n day  or week-end  d r i v i n g range o f the c i t y d w e l l e r , w i l l face mounting p r e s sures not only from an i n c r e a s i n g l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n , but a l s o from an ever-expanding t o u r i s t  trade.  3.Leisure I t seems c e r t a i n t h a t p r e d i c t e d i n c r e a s e s i n l e i s u r e time w i l l r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d camping a c t i v i t y . D e r i v e d from the L a t i n v e r b " l i c e r e " , the word l e i s u r e means " t o be permitted".  By t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , l e i s u r e may  be c o n s i d e r e d  an  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f e x p r e s s i o n , not merely freedom from work ( 1 0 » 3 ) .  W i t h i n l e i s u r e p e r i o d s , the i n d i v i d u a l i s n o t with earning a l i v i n g . and  He  concerned  i s a b l e to c o n t r o l h i s use o f time  i s f r e e to a v a i l h i m s e l f to a broad v a r i e t y o f spontaneous-  ly satisfying  experiences,  A r i s i n g g r o s s n a t i o n a l product,  automation, l o n g e r  v a c a t i o n p e r i o d s , and e a r l i e r r e t i r e m e n t are the main c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o a s o c i e t y which f i n d s i t s e l f endowed w i t h i n c r e a s e d amounts o f l e i s u r e time. The  young man  of  today  w i l l have 22 more y e a r s o f l e i s u r e time i n B i s l i f e t i m e d i d h i s grandfather  (6l»22).  Theobold  p r e s e n t l a b o u r f o r c e c o u l d be reduced  than  has s t a t e d t h a t the 50 p e r c e n t by  197M55»9).  A f u r t h e r p r o j e c t i o n by Masters t o the y e a r 2000A.D. v i s u a l i zed t h a t 98 p e r c e n t o f the North American p o p u l a t i o n would be supported  by the other 2 p e r c e n t .  The p r e c e d i n g y statements  are i n d i c a t i v e o f a t r e n d  t h a t w i l l have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on camping a c t i v i t y .  Clawson  has s a i d t h a t i t i s the l e n g t h of the l e i s u r e p e r i o d s  (week-  ends, p a i d v a c a t i o n s and r e t i r e m e n t )  timing  coupled w i t h the  o f these p e r i o d s , t h a t h o l d the most s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r park use  (6l«21).  4. Disposable  or D i s c r e t i o n a r y Income  In t h a t v e r y few poor people "are a M e type h o l i d a y , any  to enjoy a camping  increase i n a s o c i e t y ' s l e v e l of  disposable  incomes., c o u l d mean higher p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n outdoor recreation.  P e r s o n a l income i n B.C.  between the years i960 and 196?. $4,724,00 per year  has  i n c r e a s e d 76  percent  The average worker earns  (the h i g h e s t p r o v i n c i a l average wage i n  Canada) compared to the Canadian n a t i o n a l average o f $4,166.00 per worker ( 1 7 « 1 9 ) .  As p e r s o n a l income per c a p i t a l r i s e s ,  a  s m a l l e r percentage of the wage i s needed f o r the e s s e n t i a l s o f l i v i n g and a g r e a t e r percentage becomes a v a i l a b l e as  dis-  c r e t i o n a r y income. IThe c o r r e l a t i o n between such income and i n c r e a s e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y has shown up i n a number o f s t u d i e s (30.3)  (39»62)  (38124).  Some segments o f our lower middle c l a s s s o c i e t y have embraced camping because they have v e r y l i t t l e disposable  income.  i n the way  of  S t u d i e s by Gregerson (19«18) D a r l i n g and  E i c h o r n ( 1 5 ) r e v e a l t h a t one  o f the main appeals of the camp-  ground i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s an inexpensive  holiday.  5.  Improved Roads and Increased M o b i l i t y A network o f f i n e roads  i n a p r o v i n c e t h a t exceeds i n  s i z e the combined s t a t e s of Washington, Oregon, and has p r o v i d e d the B.C. camping a r e a s .  camper w i t h a wide ragge o f a c c e s s i b l e  The Department o f Highways a d m i n i s t e r s  27,000 m i l e s o f highways and r i g h t s o f way. v  California  over  lAlmost 3,500  m i l e s of major route c o n s t r u c t i o n ha^ebeen completed w i t h i n the 1954-1969 p e r i o d (6159-60).  A r a t h e r r e c e n t phenomenon, the r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e , or'R.V". (camper t r u c k , t r a i l e r ,  t e n t t r a i l e r , mobile home,  van conversion) has made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p o p u l a r i t y of camping. l O v e r 2 m i l l i o n R.V.'s are c u r r e n t l y i n use  i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , w i t h 1970  production  f i g u r e s s l a t e d a t 663,000 v e h i c l e s , double the 1967 total.  By the year 1980,  7t500,000  there w i l l be an  complex and s o p h i s t i c a t e d R.V.  annual  estimated  u n i t s on the road  (34»20).  Ormes' e x t e n s i v e study of American R.V. them as a g r e g a r i o u s people who of 1.8  5»244 m i l e s per year ( 4 l » 4 & .  owners p o r t r a y e d  drove t h e i r u n i t s an average They supported an average o f  c h i l d r e n per f a m i l y on an average income of $9,290.  F o r t y - f i v e percent o f the f a m i l y Beads had attended c o l l e g e and 90 percent o f them owned t h e i r homes.  The e f f e c t o f the R.V. s i g n i f i c a n t one.  on the camping scene has been a  I t has broadened the camper spectrum to  i n c l u d e the v e r y young, as w e l l as the aged and r e t i r e d . The R.V.  has a l s o c r e a t e d problems o f accommodation and camp-  s i t e d e s i g n w i t h i n e x i s t i n g campgrounds, where the t e n t e r used t o be the p r i n c i p a l occupant.  B l o o m f i e l d has p o i n t e d  out t h a t the R.V.Js have c r e a t e d a need f o r many more p r i v a t e campgrounds  t h a t can p r o v i d e  the r e q u i r e d e l e c t r i c  light,  sewage d i s p o s a l and t e l e v i s i o n f o r t h i s new bread o f bedroom camper ( 9 « 7 ) .  6 . E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n Increased  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has a l s o  been r e l a t e d t o improved e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . Over the l a s t 30 y e a r s , the middle and upper middle c l a s s e s have been the p a c e s e t t e r s i n a more i n f o r m a l l i f e  style.  One  f a c e t o f t h i s i n f o r m a l i t y has been the acceptance o f camping h o l i d a y s by the middle c l a s s . M u e l l e r , G u r i n , ( 3 7 ) and McCurdy  S t u d i e s by R e i d  (49«206)  (311631) have shown t h a t the  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l towards outdoor a c t i v i t i e s i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the amount o f e d u c a t i o n  he p o s s e s s e s .  Vi A e s t h e t i c Reasons Bruce H u t c h i s o n . has d e s c r i b e d man's p a r a d o x i c a l f e e l i n g s about h i s environment i n the f o l l o w i n g manner1  The h i s t o r y o f Canada f o r 300 y e a r s was a s t r u g g l e t o escape from the w i l d e r n e s s . . . . . and f o r the l a s t h a l f c e n t u r y , has been a desp e r a t e attempt t o escape i n t o i t ( 2 1 ) ' .  A q u o t a t i o n such as Hutchisons : i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y i n coming t o our North American  late  c i v i l i z a t i o n f o r i t was not  so v e r y l o n g ago t h a t Nature assumed the r o l e o f an a d v e r s a r y to  be conquered.  Only r e c e n t l y have many r e a l i z e d t h a t the  l a n d must be l i v e d w i t h and n o t s i m p l y o f f . and automated North American  Iii the u r b a n i z e d  w o r l d o f totlay,the r o l e o f n a t u r e  i n the s o c i e t y has changed a p p r e c i a b l y from i t s p o s i t i o n o f f i f t y y e a r s ago.  A t the 1963 White House Conference on  N a t u r a l BeatityyLyndon Johnson  d e s c r i b e d n a t u r a l beauty as  "more than a source o f p l e a s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n . our v a l u e s .  I t molds our a t t i t u d e s .  I t shapes  I t f e e d s our s p i r i t  and i t h e l p s us t o make us the k i n d o f men and women we f i n a l l y become".  T h i s attempt t o "escape" i n t o nature on the p a r t o f growing numbers o f our s o c i e t y may be an attempt e s t a b l i s h more b a s i c t i e s w i t h the n a t u r a l w o r l d .  to reBrooks  has suggested t h a t " n a t u r a l a r e a s are as e s s e n t i a l t o our way  o f l i f e as our l a b o r a t o r i e s , museums, and l i b r a r i e s .  Our need t o understand the w o r l d o f nature s i g n i f i e s i n us, something  deeper than mere c u r i o s i t y 1  i t i s an a e s t h e t i c  e x p e r i e n c e i n the p r o f o u n d e s t sense o f the term (8137)."  A c o n e i s e summary of ihe primary f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a r i t y of damping was presented by Clawson a t the 1968  C a l g a r y Parks Conference.  'The i n c r e a s e i n d i s p o s a b l e income and expanding l e i s u r e time are r a p i d l y g e n e r a t i n g a c u l t u r e t r a n s i t i o n from the v a l u e s of work and p r o d u c t i o n toward those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h consumption and leisure. These f a c t o r s and i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n m o b i l i t y have l e d t o n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n the consumption and demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l experiences. A d d i t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s can be expected as a r e s u l t o f a changing p h i l o s o p h y among s o c i a l groups w i t h r e g a r d to l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n and as p o s i t i v e v a l u e s ; an i n c r e a s i n g percentage of the f a m i l y budget i s a s s i g n e d to r e c r e a t i o n and an i n c r e a s e d d e s i r e f o r d i v e r s i t y i n r e c r e a t i o n a l experiences ( 1 4 « 1 0 ) . !  Nature o f the Problem B r i t i s h Columbia's new  269 P r o v i n c i a l Parks are f a c i n g a  t h r e a t to t h e i r e x i s t e n c e .  S t i l l p r e s e n t are the ex-  t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s f o r n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l park use i n the form o f attempted e x p l o i t a t i o n o f timber and m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , g r a z i n g , water r e s o u r c e development  and the p r o v i s i o n of  u t i l i t i e s and r o a d access w i t h i n park boundaries.  The  new  danger i s i n t e r n a l and appears i n the form o f mounting hordes o f w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d campers and n a t u r a l i s t t h a t are a n n u a l l y s w e l l i n g park usage f i g u r e s .  groups  Some o f the  most d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s of our p a r k l a n d s are b e i n g p l a c e d i n jeopardy as a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e d park usuage by campers.  C u r r e n t park l e g i s l a t i o n s t r e s s e s t h a t parks must be  "maintained and made use o f so as t o l e a v e them unimpaired f o r the enjoyment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s " (40)."  I n order  t h a t t h i s statement might be .made meaningful, park administ r a t o r s a r e c o n s i d e r i n g a number o f approaches.  Currently  under c o n s i d e r a t i o n a r e such measures as use l i m i t s (12i93)» encouragement o f o f f - s e a s o n camping ( I 4 i l 0 ) ,  encouragement  o f more p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n camping development, l a n d r e s e r v a t i o n o f s p e c i f i e d t r a c t s t o form a p r o v i n c i a l l a n d banks t o meet f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d  needs(46i75)•  C o n s p i c u o u s l y absent from the counter measures b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d to meet present and f u t u r e camping demands i s any s i g n i f i c a n t body o f i n f o r m a t i o n adequately d e s c r i b i n g the k i n d o f person who camps i n the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Parks. Reference was made t o t h i s d e f i c i e n c y by P i m l o t t a t the 1968 C a l g a r y Parks  Conference.  Most o f our park e f f o r t s i n the p a s t have been c o n c e n t r a t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y on park r e s o u r c e s i n archeology, ecology, geology,etc But i n the f u t u r e we must t u r n more t o the b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n t i s t f o r a b e t t e r unders t a n d i n g o f the people who i n t e r a c t w i t h these r e s o u r c e s (44i24). Most park p l a n n e r s concur t h a t more r e s e a r c h o f a s o c i o economic nature i s necessary i f e x i s t i n g park areas a r e t o be maintained f o r p o s t e r i t y .  Planners such as Eidsvik,, would  use t h i s type o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h demographic s t u d i e s , as the c r i t e r i a f o r t h e s e l e c t i n g s p e c i f i c p a r c e l s o f l a n d  for  f u t u r e park use (18 i l l ) .  Another problem a r e a occurs i n the l a r g e numbers o f campers p o s s e s s i n g v e r y l i t t l e  knowledge about the n a t u r a l  O f f e r i n g s o f the parks i n which they spend t h e i r h o l i d a y s . I n c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n has produced a person unprepared t o cope w i t h outdoor surroundings. have v e r y l i t t l e  Many o f today's campers  understanding o f the s o i l s , p l a n t s and  animals t h a t make up t h e i r camping a r e a .  As a consequence,  the p o t e n t i a l f o r s a t i s f y i n g experiences i n the outdoors i s considerably lessened.  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose  o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e survey i s t o r e p o r t on  s i g n i f i c a n t economic v a r i a b l e s which r e l a t e t o camping exp e r i e n c e s i n Golden E a r s , Kokanee Creek, Monck and Bamberton P r o v i n c i a l Parks.  A secondary purpose  o f the study i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  some o f the camper needs and p r e f e r e n c e s i n the a r e a o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n .  IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY - At present, very l i t t l e c e r n i n g the socio-economic  Information i s a v a i l a b l e  con-  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f persons who  camp i n B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Parks.  Park p l a n n e r s and adminis-  t r a t o r s r e q u i r e a l a r g e r body o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the k i n d o f people who come t o the parks f o r r e c r e a t i o n .  Most p r e s e n t day campers have an urban background and consequently a r e l e s s i n touch * i t h nature than were t h e i r r u r a l predecessors.  More i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed t o a s s i s t the  urban camper t o p e r c e i v e , comprehend and enjoy the outdoors.  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The o n - l o c a t i o n , s t r u c t u r e d , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w t e c h nique used i n t h i s study may y&$l&  responses o f q u e s t i o n a b l e  v a l i d i t y i n the f o l l o w i n g schedule a r e a s i  a. Length o f S t a y -these responses a r e u s u a l l y b i a s e d upwards because those campers who s t a y f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s stand a g r e a t e r chance o f being i n t e r v i e w e d . - i f a t t i t u d e o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a s s o c i a t e d with l e n g t h o f s t a y a s i m i l i a r upward b i a s occurs(28:912).  •v  -because t h i s b i a s i s a f u n c t i o n o f the l e n g t h o f s t a y i t can be c o r r e c t e d by weighing each i n t e r v i e w by the i n v e r s e o f the l e n g t h o f stay, (not a p p l i e d ) b.  Factual  Information  -responses concerning t r i p c o s t , days spent camping, f u r t h e r d e s t i n a t i o n , e t c . , may be g i v e n i n godd f a i t h only t o be i n v a l i d a t e d l a t e r owing to a v a r i e t y o f reasons such as weather changes, i l l n e s s e t c . , c.  User p r e f e r e n c e s ,  S a t i s f a c t i o n s , and M o t i v a t i o n s .  - p r e f e r e n c e s and m o t i v a t i o n s change as a r e s u l t o f new knowledge and experience. -preference and s a t i s f a c t i o n responses s t a t e d t o an i n t e r v i e w e r may d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y t o those t h a t are a c t u a l l y chosen o r f e l t . -responses may n o t be t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o the camping u n i t i n t h a t they a r e u s u a l l y Expressed by the make member. -although a v a r i e t y o f camping m o t i v a t i o n s a r e o f f e r e d , other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l y i n g beyond the s t r u c t u r e d format may have prompted the camping experience.  DEFINITION OF TERMS The  following d e f i n i t i o n s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  o f those  t h a t a r e s t a r r e d , were compiled from a g l o s s a r y o f terms i n common usage i n the f i e l d o f non-urban parks and r e c r e a t i o n . This l i s t  o f terms was presented a t the E e d e r a l - P r o v i n e i a l  Park Conference i n October A further l i s t  1968.  o f d e f i n i t i o n s can be found i n the  Appendix E . A e s t h e t i c Values values, Scenic  The f i n e r i n t a n g i b l e and c u l t u r a l park  as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from m a t e r i a l and economic beauty, i n s p i r a t i o n a l v a l u e s ,  and a p p r e c i a t e  the o p p o r t u n i t y  nature, are a e s t h e t i c ;  values. t o see  the b e n e f i t s o f  f r e s h a i r , sunshine, and a good p l a c e t o camp a r e more material. ^Camping  The l i v i n g  out-of-doors,  overnight,  s h e l t e r a b e d r o l l , s l e e p i n g bag, t r a i l e r ,  using f o r  t e n t , t r u c k or hut  open one one or morte s i d e s , when the person takes h i s own bedding, cooking equipment and food w i t h him.  Formal camps  such as the Y.M.C.A. a r e excluded. Campsite  A s i n g l e , d l e a r l y designated  gBpe p r o v i d e d  l o c a t i o n i n which  p l a c e and f a c i l i t i e s f o r camping by an i n d i v i d u a l  a f a m i l y , or a p a r t y .  Sny; camping u n i t .  Campground  A grouping o f campsites l a i d  i n organized  fashion, according  Motivation  The i n c l i n a t i o n t o doi b a s i c to employee pro-  ductivity;  out, where p o s s i b l e  t o a designed  capacity.  a l s o b a s i c t o the study o f r e c r e a t o r s .  Park E x p e r i e n c e s  The sum t o t a l o f many t h i n g s a park  v i s i t o r doesj h i s impressions, new a c t i o n s and  concepts,emotional r e -  responses which c o n t r i b u t e  v i s i t to the  to the v a l u e s of a  park.  Park V i s i t o r  A r e c r e a t o r who  enters  o f what the park o f f e r s , or one of a park i n p a s s i n g  Aims to r e v e a l meanings and r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s i n nature through the use f i r s t hand experience and  Recreation  of o r i g i n a l objects,  by  by i l l u s t r a t i v e media r a t h e r  simply to communicate f a c t u a l  fef l e i s u r e time.  enjoys the a t t r a c t i o n s  through i t .  *Park I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  Recreation  who  a park f o r enjoyment  than  information.  In the v o l i t i v e and p l e a s u r a b l e  Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s r e c r e a t i o n  use  occurring  i n an outdoor environment. Recreationist  A p r o f e s s i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l worker i n the  f i e l d of r e c r e a t i o n . Recreator  A participant i n recreation.  V  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  Canadian S t u d i e s A f t e r i960 Socio-Economic  Characteristics  of Campers i n Canadian P r o v i n c i a l Parks  The author found o n l y one d e s c r i p t i v e study of a s o c i o economic nature r e l a t i n g to a B r i t i s h Columbia Park.  The study was  Provincial  conducted i n a p r i m i t i v e a r e a of W ^ l l s  Gray Park by T a y l o r and Edwards i n i960 (55«346).  Because  of the i n a c c e s s i b l e nature of most o f i t s n a t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n s , the type of camping experienced by the Wells Gray campers c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the more f o r m a l i z e d type of camping found i n the f o u r study p a r k s .  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were handed to campers a t the park entrance.  Over 80 percent or 353 of these schedules were r e -  turned.  The u s e r s were mainly c i t y d w e l l e r s w i t h middle  low income groups predominant. c o n s i s t e d of 3.3 persons.  and  The average camping group  About 5^ p e r c e n t o f those t e s t e d  were without c h i l d r e n and stayed an average o f 4 days. F i s h i n g add other nature o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s occupied most o f t h e i r time.  Over 65 p e r c e n t of those t e s t e d had camped b e f o r e .  Keenan's 1964  study o f campers i n 92 O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l  Parks served to d i s t i n g u i s h between s o c i a l and w i l d e r n e s s campers, as w e l l as p r e s e n t i n g g e n e r a l i z e d f i n d i n g s about campers (23).  O n t a r i o park r e c r e a t o r s came mainly from the  upper middle and upper-lower c l a s s e s , w i t h urban r e s i d e n t s showing  the h i g h e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s .  Almost 30 p e r c e n t  of the campers i n O n t a r i o came from o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e . The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f campers were f a m i l i e s , w i t h few  single  respondents encountered i n the study.  A survey o f 2,400 campers, i n New  Brunswick Parks  conducted by E a s l e y i n the summer o f 1966(l6«92).  was  Infor-  mation was p r o v i d e d by the respondents on a t h r e e page q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n i n g m u l t i p l e c h o i c e or c l o s e d answer questions.  Average  camper f a m i l y income was  around $8000. per year.  found t o be  Over 25 p e r c e n t or 600 o f the r e -  c r e a t o r s t e s t e d o b t a i n e d t h i s income from t h e i r labour.  skilled  The camping u n i t averaged 4 persons, g e n e r a l l y  stayed f o r 1 t o 3 days a t the campground, w i t h only 12 p e r cent s t a y i n g f o r a l o g g e r p e r i o d . person per day were common. city origin. young campers. trailers.  The campers were mainly o f  Most o f those u s i n g t e n t s (43 p e r c e n t ) were The remainder used R.V.'s, predominantly  The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f the campers i n New  Brunswick parks was Canadian  E x p e n d i t u r e s o f $3.22 per  average.  12.3  y e a r s , s l i g h t l y M g h e r than the  Mfcst o f the remaining Canadian s t u d i e s o f campers i n P r o v i n c i a l Parks were concerned w i t h attendance counts, a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , o r u s e r p r e f e r e n c e and s a t i s f a c t i o n . An annotated "bibliography o f these s t u d i e s , as w e l l as a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t American camper surveys, i s p r o v i d e d for  the r e a d e r s convenience i n Appendix A.  I t should be s t a t e d a t t h i s p o i n t , t h a t socio-economic s t u d i e s must n o t be c o n s i d e r e d as the o n l y determinants i n f o r e c a s t i n g f u t u r e ty/pes and amounts o f camping t h a t may take p l a c e i n a g i v e n campground.  Consumption-oriented  s t u d i e s o f camper c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by King(24) McCurdy and M i s c h o n ( 9 2 ) Hutchins and Trecher ( 2 1 )  have shown a low c o r -  r e l a t i o n between camping demand and the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f campers.  McCurdy suggests o t h e r v a r i a b l e s  t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d — s u c h as g o a l s and i n t e r e s t s  sought  by the camper, l e i s u r e time p r e f e r e n c e s o f the o t h e r f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s , c h i l d h o o d outdoor e x p e r i e n c e s , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f a c i l i t i e s , weather,  l e n g t h o f time a v a i l a b l e and '  degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n experienced w h i l e camping ( 3 1 1 6 3 1 ) .  LITERATURE ON OUTDOOR EDUCATION FOR ADULTS  1.  The Need f o r Outdoor E d u c a t i o n  A. P r e s e r v a t i o n o f Environment E d u c a t i n g people t o l i v e I n the outdoors i s n o t new.  As  Smith s t a t e s , ' l e a r n i n g from and through nature i s as o l d as  the human r a c e .  The f i r s t classroom was the outdoors  where  man taught h i s o f f s p r i n g some o f the e s s e n t i a l s f o r s u r v i v a l " (52»134)."  Now, s u r v i v a l o f the environment as w e l l as man  i s the i s s u e , as the o l d a t t i t u d e s , f o s t e r e d when nature was a rival,  d i e hard.  U d a l l warns t h a t "we can no l o n g e r waste  the r e s o u r c e s t h a t r e f r e s h man's s p i r i t they can be r e p l a c e d elsewhere.  anywhere-in hope t h a t  lew o f us a r e aware o f the -  it  dverwhelming d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s o f m u l t i p l e c a r e l e s s n e s s " ( 5 7 i 2 6 ) . Environmental  ignorance has reached  the p o i n t where world  I n 1962 the U n i t e d  agencies a r e showing concern.  Nations  s t a t e d t h a t " e d u c a t i o n a c t i o n should be taken i n s c h o o l and out o f s c h o o l w i t h a view t o a r o u s i n g and d e v e l o p i n g p u b l i c r e s p e c t f o r landscape  and p u b l i c i z i n g the r e g u l a t i o n s t o i n -  sure t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n ( 5 8 ) . "  R e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y l o the  outdoor r e c r e a t o r , Boggs says, 'We must be c o n s t a n t l y and i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f the n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i d i n g educ a t i o n i n the use o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and outdoor r e s o u r c e s i n general. I f we a r e t o achieve l o n g range success i n c o n s e r v i n g the unique and i r r e p l a c e a b l e f o r the f u t u r e , then new g e n e r a t i o n s o f u s e r s must be a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the techniques t o e n j o y i n g them or r e n d e r i n g them u s e l e s s . ( 4 i 8 ) . •  B. Enjofrment  o f the Outdoors  Another reason f o r outdoor p l e a s u r e o f outdoor  experiences.  e d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e s the Bennett  cites increasing  u r b a n i z a t i o n as one o f the main o b s t a c l e s encountered c i t y - b r e d r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s i n seeking s a t i s f y i n g  by the  experiences  i n the outdoors ( 3 s 3 ) . A r n o l d and Hopkins have p o i n t e d  out  t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of u r b a n i z a t i o n as a d e t e r r e n t to outdoor p l e a s u r e w i l l i n c r e a s e as more people i n the developed c o u n t r i e s l i v e a l l of t h e i r l i v e s i n the c i t i e s  (2d).  B r a i d i n g f e e l s t h a t the user must understand the f i c a n c e of the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s enjoyment or w e l l - b e i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l agencies  C. Increased  t h a t are c o n t r i b u t i n g to h i s  t h a t i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  to f o s t e r and  of the n a t u r a l environment.  signi-  of  interpret this appreciation  (5)  I n t e l l e c t u a l Demand  A t p r e s e n t most r e c r e a t o r demands upon parks are of a p h y s i c a l nature  i n terms of space, f a c i l i t i e s , e t c .  However,  Schnepf has p r e d i c t e d t h a t because o f man's knowledge he soon p l a c e a mental demand upon the parks, a e s t h e t i c and areas  seeking out  will  the  i n s p i r a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s o f the more p r i m i t i v e  of the parks,  A g r e a t number o f s t u d i e s t h a t have  c l a s s i f i e d users a c c o r d i n g to e d u c a t i o n a l &r  occupational  l e v e l s r e f l e c t the imminence o f t h i s t$pe or demand. camping experience,  t h i s c a l i b r e of i n d i v i d u a l w i l l  With parti-  c i p a t e i n the more demanding and rewarding type of a c t i v i t y such as canoeing,  back packing and t r a i l r i d i n g i n s e a r c h i n g  out h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l needs  (51).  2 . Areas o f Outdoor E d u c a t i o n  A. The  Park  One  obvious a r e a o f e d u c a t i o n a l committment i s the park.  The N a t i o n a l Park A c t - S e c t i o n 4 (1930) decrees t h a t Jthe "parks are hereby d e d i c a t e d to the people o f Canada f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , and enjoyment" (50)."  benefit  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the c l a u s e i s  a v e r y g e n e r a l one and f a i l s to d e f i n e the e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e of the park.  Much more s p e c i f i c i s the N a t i o n a l Park P o l i c y  as o u t l i n e d by L a i n g i n 1 9 6 4 . ( 2 7 ) .  T h i s statement r e f e r s t o  the r o l e o f i n t e r p r e t i v e s e r v i c e s and museums, as w e l l as t o the v a r i o u s a i d s t h a t these s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e .  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , three k f the most important documents p u b l i s h e d on parks and r e c r e a t i o n have a l l endorsed n a t u r a l h i s t o r y work i n parks f o r management and f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n purposes.  Those r e p o r t s a r e i  1.  Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n f o r America  2.  The L e o p o l d Report on W i l d l i f e Management i n N a t i o n a l Parks. (29)  3.  Report from the F i r s t World Conference N a t i o n a l Parks. S e a t t l e 1967 ( 6 0 i 4 7 1 )  (42)  on  R e f e r r i n g to the s u i l a b i l i t y o f parks f o r outdoor educ a t i o n purposes, P i m l o t t has suggested the f o l l o w i n g . ( 4 4 t 7 ) -parks are l i v i n g museums g i v i n g h i s t o r i c a l glimpses o f the f l o r a , fauna, and landscapes of an e a r l i e r time.  -parks p r o v i d e areas where p l a n t and animal communities can be s t u d i e d and where n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n s and processes can be seen as they occur. -parks p r o v i d e a joy o f d i s c o v e r y i n a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f ways and a t v a r i e d comprehension levels, - w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l and l i v i n g makes the v i s i t o r aware o f h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r e x i s t i n g on h i s own r e s o u r c e s .  Although l i m i t e d i n terms o f si£e, the h i g h q u a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n program f i r s t  shaped by R.Y.  Edwards, has  enjoyed continuous success s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n i n B.C. i n 1957.  Nature houses,  parks  walks and t a l k s w i t h park n a t u r a l i s t s  movies, e x h i b i t s and demonstrations served a t l e a s t 2 6 0 , 0 0 0 B.C.  B.  park  o f n a t u r a l phenomena,  park v i s i t o r s i n 1967 ( 4 8 i 3 8 ) .  Adult Education Bennett suggests t h a t agencies i n v o l v e d i n continuous  l e a r n i n g should become more concerned w i t h outdoor e d u c a t i o n ( 3 « $ ) • He v i s u a l i z e d t h i s concern b e i n g d i r e c t e d i n t o t h r e e areas« a)  P r o f e s s i o n a l s - p a r k p e r s o n n e l , r e s i d e n t camp d i r e c t o r s , Rod and Gun c l u b s , p r i v a t e campground and r e s o r t owners, c o u l d be a t t u n e d to the l a t e s t advances i n r e s o u r c e s management, new equipment and techniques and other nature r e l a t e d problems.  b)  R e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s - c o u l d be a d v i s e d i n such areas as purchase, use, and maintenance o f equipment, e t h i c a l and l e g a l a s p e c t s o f l a n d use, a v a i l a b l e areas and t h e i r l o c a l h i s t o r y , methods of m a i n t a i n i n g w i l d e r n e s s , i n s p i t e o f human use, and w i l d e r n e s s s u r v i v a l .  c)  S e n i o r c i t i z e n s - t h e advent o f comfortable appointed R.V.'s has brought a growing number o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s back l o camping. T h i s group w i t h a godd d e a l o f l e i s u r e time, would be an i d e a l c l i e n t e l e f o r nature study.  E x e m p l i f y i n g a c o o r d i n a t e d year round program i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s i s the A l b i o n C o n s e r v a t i o n School i n O n t a r i o ( 1 9 « 4 )  Hills  and the Milwaukee  P u b l i c Schools Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Program i n Milwaukee, Wisconsin ( 3 6 ) .  A study by Morawitz ( 3 ? t l 3 9 )  o f Canadian  U n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n courses i n d i c a t e d t h a t there are many types o f i n s t r u c t i o n a v a i l a b l e th£t would be p r o f i t a b l e to both campers and camp d i r e c t o r s  3.  alike.  O b j e c t i v e s o f Outdoor E d u c a t i o n While a number o f d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s f o r an outdoor  e d u c a t i o n program may be c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r e a b l e , only three c o n s i s t e n t l y o c c u r r i n g ones are mentioned here.JMcLean two such o b j e c t i v e s  1.  cites  (35*31)»  The person must have a knowledge o f the n a t u r a l  f e a t u r e s o f the outdoor environment and o f the n a t u r a l  forces  and events which produce and m a i n t a i n these f e a t u r e s .  2.  The person must beeaware  o f the consequences o f h i s  changing the n a t u r a l environment as he goes about h i s r e creational  activities.  B i m l o t t mentions the t h i r d o b j e c t i v e  3.  To r e l a t e  (44).  i n simple and d i r e c t ways the e n v i r o n -  ment o f the park to the t o t a l environment.  4. B e n e f i t s o f Outdoor E d u c a t i o n B e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from the e d u c a t i o n of campers t o t h e i r outdoor world are shared by both the r e c r e a t o r and the park manager. (3i3)  Reports by H e l l a (20»34) S t i r r e t t  confirm the f a c t t h a t p o l l u t i o n ,  vandalism,  and Bennett  littering,  fires,  compaction and camp o p e r a t i n g c o s t s are a p p r e c i -  a b l y reduced effect.  (53)  i n those areas where e d u c a t i o n programs a r e i n  Walter Hopkins, U.S.Chief  o f F o r e s t Research r e p o r t s  t h a t F r a n k f u r t , Germany was able t o lower the c l e a n up c o s t s i n i t s 4000 acre r e c r e a t i o n area from $30,000 t o $2,250 per year as a r e s u l t o f a more informed c i t i z e n r y . e n t e r t a i n e d 15 m i l l i o n v i s i t s i n 1966  The area  (2il).  An e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t c i t e d by Boggs had d i r e c t  concern  with the d e d i c a t i o n c l a u s e of the Park A c t when he s t a t e d , " I f we are t o achieve l o n g range supess i n c o n s e r v i n g the unique and i r r e p l a c e a b l e f o r the f u t u r e , then new generations o f u s e r s must be a c q u a i n t e d with the techniques o f enj o y i n g and u t i l i z i n g these r e s o u r c e s without d e s t r o y i n g them or r e n d e r i n g them u s e l e s s ( 4 i 8 ) .  1!  B e n e f i t s d e r i v e d by the camper as a r e s u l t o f h i s e n l i g h t e n e d outlook a r e d e s c r i b e d by S t i r r e t t as "more meaningful camping e x p e r i e n c e s , a r e s p e c t f o r nature, and a p r i d e i n Canadians and t h e i r parks  (53)."  CHAPTER I I I  METHODS AND PROCEDURES  S e l e c t i o n o f the Study Parks Four B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l parks were used i n t h i s 1967 d e s c r i p t i v e study.  They were Golden E a r s ,  Kokanee Creek, Monck and Bamberton.  S e l e c t i o n o f the study parks by the author was determined by the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s 1 - E a s t t o West coverage o f campgrounds was c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r a b l e t o North to South sampling, i n order t h a t a g r e a t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f campers be i n c l u d e d i n the survey. -A campground c l o s e t o a major p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e ( G o l d e n E a r s ) and a r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d campground (Monck) combined to make a second major s e l e c t i o n f a c t o r with a view  towards  p o s s i b l e camper p r e f e r e n c e s , m o t i v a t i o n and o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s . -Time was a f i n a l s e l e c t i o n f a c t o r , i n t h a t the data had to be c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n a two-month ( J u l y and August) peak camping p e r i o d .  The l o c a t i o n s o f the study parks a r e found on a map o f B.C.  on the f o l l o w i n g page.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Study Parks Each o f the f o u r sifcudy parks had a C l a s s A r a t i n g (see  FIQUHE  I.  LOCATION  O f T H C FOUR  SUR^CVCO  CAIifOROUHOS  Appendix B Ifor e x p l a n a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l Park  classification  i n B.C.) and p r o v i d e d s i m i l i a r f a c i l i t i e s w i t h r e g a r d to the following  list:  a) C a m p s i t e s - u s u a l l y c o n t a i n e d a sand or g r a v e l f o r tenters -combination p i c n i c t a b l e and bench -garbage can - v e h i c l e spur ©each campground has a number o f double s i t e s ( f o r f a m i l i e s camping together) b) P i c n i c a r e a - i n emergencies these areas were used to accomodate overflow camping. c) Firewood  dumps-these were u s u a l l y l o c a t e d a t s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s a l o n g the access roads (except Monck). No charge f o r t h i s .  d) Water t a p s - a l s o s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d (except Monck where there was one hand pump f o r the camp]t g) P i t t o i l e t s - m e n s ' and womens* o f f s e t a t convenient l o c a t i o n s from the access roads. f ) O r i e n t a t i o n s t a t i o n - unattended g) Park e n t r a n c e - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s i g n and gate  Service Features G r a v e l access roads were o i l e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the camping season and spray programs f o r mosquito c o n t r o l were c a r r i e d out i n the areas a d j a c e n t to Kokanee Creek and Monck Parks.  Routine s e r v i c e s c o n s i s t e d o f garbage pick-up, r e p l e n i s h -  ment o f wood s u p p l i e s as w e l l as g e n e r a l maintenance cont r i b u t i n g to the o r d e r l y appearance o f the campgrounds. S e c u r i t y measures were handled by the l o c a l Royal Mounted P o l i c e detachment.  I r r e g u l a r l y timed c i r c u i t s o f the camp-  grounds were made n i g h t l y by p a t r o l c a r s . l A g a i n , Monck Park, probably because o f i t s i s o l a t i o n , was  the exception* w i t h  only an o c c a s i o n a l check made d u r i n g the week. sponse t o the presence  o f these p a t r o l s was  A f u r t h e r s e c u r i t y measure was  Camper r e -  most f a v o u r a b l e .  the l l i O O p.m.  closure of a  gate a t the s i n g l e park entrance p o r t a l ( e x c e p t i o n Monck). Camper f e e s were c o l l e c t e d a t Kokanee Creek and Bamberton Parks."  A t the time of t h i s survey (July-August 19&7) was  there  no p r o v i s i o n i n any o f the campgrounds i n v o l v e d i n t h i s  study f o r the f o l l o w i n g f a c i l i t i e s i ^ c o n c e s s i o n s s e l l i n g food or camping s u p p l i e s - e l e c t r i c a l or water o u t l e t s or sewage d i s p o s a l dumps of the type used by dependant R.V.'s. -shower, washing or l a u n d r y  A.  facilities  Golden E a r s Park Golden E a r s Park i s s i t u a t e d o n l y 30 m i l e s e a s t o f  Vancouver (410,000 p o p u l a t i o n ) and 7 m i l e s ftorth o f Haney, i n the Maple R i d g e - P i t t Meadows area ( p o p u l a t i o n 21,000) of the Fraser Valley.  E s t a b l i s h e d i n 192?> Golden E a r s was o r i g i n a l l y a p a r t of  618,09? a c r e s of G a r i b a l d i P r o v i n c i a l Park.  extended northward j u s t beyond Squamish.  T h i s park  In 1968, 137,200  a c r e s o f the southern p o r t i o n o f G a r i b a l d i Park was r e c l a s s i f i e d as a separate park and named Golden E a r s Park a f t e r two prominent mountain peaks which tower above the camping a r e a . through the 207  About 3 . 3  m i l e s o f g r a v e l access roads wind  campsites l o c a t e d w i t h i n the campgrounds.  Day v i s i t o r s are p r o v i d e d w i t h 146 p i c n i c s i t e s and a washr o o m - t o i l e t - c h a n g i n g house a t the l a k e f r o n t .  Boat l a u n c h i n g  f a c i l i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e .  The r e c r e a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n s o f t h i s park centre around the  11 m i l e s o f A l o u e t t e Lake which p r o v i d e s swimming, water-  s k i i n g and b o a t i n g .  Stream f i s h i n g and h i k i n g are a l s o  a b l e to the park v i s i t o r .  avail-  A s p e c i a l f e a t u r e o f Golden E a r s  Park i s i t s many m i l e s o f b r i d l e t r a i l s .  The p r o x i m i t y o f  t h i s park to the r e s i d e n t s o f Maple Ridge and Vancouver makes i t a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e day use.  Kokanee Creek Park T h i s park i s s i t u a t e d i n the West Kootenays on the Western p o r t i o n o f Kootenay Lake.  The c l o s e s t c i t y i s  Nelson (pop 9 , 6 0 0 ) which i s only 12 m i l e s away. park, was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1955.  The 237  acre  O r i g i n a l l y , i t s 28 p i c n i c  s i t e s s e r v e d mainly as a day camping a r e a f o r nearby r e s i d e n t s  while i t s 20 campsites were used mainly on an o v e r n i g h t b a s i s by people t r a v e l l i n g through the Kootenays.  More  r e c e n t l y the a r e a has become a p o p u l a r camping a r e a i n i t s own r i g h t making the 20 campsites seem r a t h e r inadequate.  The i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a r i t y o f the Kokanee Creek campground i s r e a d i l y understood.  The swimming area on the white Sandy  beaches o f Kootenay Lake a f f o r d s the r e c r e a t o r a f u l l  range  o f water s p o r t s and the p l e a s u r e s o f f i s h i n g f o r the popular Kokanee t r o u t .  Park v i s i t o r s may a l s o enjoy the o f f e r i n g s  o f a f i n e n a t u r a l a r e a p r o v i d i n g many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the n a t u r a l i s t and the photographer.  The more r i g o r o u s demands  o f h i k i n g may be found i n the p r i m i t i v e areas o f nearby Kokanee G l a c i e r .  Monck Park L o c a t e d on the West s i d e o f N i c o l a Lake, t h i s campground i s about midway between Kamihoops and M e r r i t t i n an area known as the N i c o l a V a l l e y .  The area was t a i n 67 of road.  d e c l a r e d a park i n 1951.  campsites and 27  I t s 216  a c r e s con-  p i c n i c s i t e s , s e r v i c e d by about 1 m i l e  Access t o the park i s gained by about 7 m i l e s o f  g r a v e l r o a d which l i n k s up w i t h the main paved road between Merritt  ( p o p u l a t i o n 4 , 7 0 0 ) and Kamloops ( p o p u l a t i o n 2 4 , 0 0 0 ) .  T h i s f e a t u r e makes the park s l i g h t l y l e s s a c c e s s i b l e  than  the o t h e r three study parks.  One  of the b e t t e r known beef r a n c h i n g areas i n the  P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e s the s e t t i n g f o r t h i s park.  E n t r y to the  park i s gained by t r a v e l l i n g through a p o r t i o n o f the N i c o l a Stock Earm, w h i l e a c r o s s the N i c o l a Lake i s an o p e r a t i o n of the Guichon C a t t l e Company.  About 28 v a r i e t i e s of f i s h  the N i c o l a Lake fisherman, while rockhounds and  await  birdwatchers  experience c o n s i d e r a b l e success i n the pine studded,  rolling  r a n g e l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g t h i s campground.  Bamberton Park Bamberton was  not c l a s s i f i e d as a park u n t i l i 9 6 0 .  It  i s l o c a t e d i n the M i l l Bay area j u s t 20 m i l e s n o r t h o f Victoria  ( p o p u l a t i o n 581700) on Vancouver I s l a n d .  Because  of i t s ' l o c a t i o n and f e a t u r e s , Bamberton has a high i n c i d e n c e o f day v i s i t o r s who  g i v e continuous use to the 41 p i c n i c  sites.  Overnight campers are accomodated i n t h i s 69 acre park w i t h 51 campsites.  One  of the major a t t r a c t i o n s of t h i s park ap-  pears to be i t s good beach and s a l t water swimming i n the Saanich  Inlet.  The I n t e r v i e w Schedule The i n t e r v i e w schedule c o n t a i n e d a t o t a l of 68  items  d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t a r e a s i A.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondent  B.  The Camping T r i p  C.  M o t i v a t i o n f o r Camping  D.  E d u c a t i o n f o r the  Outdoors  Some o f the q u e s t i o n s on the schedule were d i s c a r d e d when the instrument was p r e t e s t e d on campers i n Manning Park, a park not used i n the study group.  The p r e t e s t i n g enabled  the i n t e r v i e w e r to become f a m i l i a r w i t h the i n t e r v i e w t e c h nique and w i t h the instrument.  The need f o r g r e a t e r gram-  m a t i c a l c l a r i t y and r e l e v a n c e i n some o f the q u e s t i o n s became apparent as a r e s u l t of the p r e t e s t .  Further c u l l i n g of  q u e s t i o n s r e s u l t e d when the schedule i n t e r v i e w was average more than 4-0 minutes  i n length.  i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s exceeding 40 minutes  found to  The author f e l t  that  tended t o become an  i m p o s i t i o n on the camper's time.  S e l e c t i o n o f the Respondents T h i r t y - f i v e respondents were i n t e r v i e w e d i n each of the f o u r study campgrounds on the b a s i s o f t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y  and  on the f o l l o w i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ! k  1.  Respondents were over 18 y e a r s o f age  2.  The i n t e r v i e w was conducted w i t h one member o f the camping u n i t , i n v a r i a b l y the head. The u n i t g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f two or more members.  3.  Respondents must have spent a t l e a s t one camper day i n the campground. Day use v i s i t o r s were excluded.  4.  Respondents must have been i n the campground f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes.  An attempt was made by the i n t e r v i e w e r to o b t a i n equal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f respondents from s i t e s l o c a t e d i n v a r y i n g degrees from the centre campground.  to the outermost perimenter o f the  T h i s approach attempted to p r o v i d e  coverage o f  the s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d as w e l l as the independent type o f camper,  Most g r a t i f y i n g to the i n t e r v i e w e r was o f the campers to be i n t e r v i e w e d .  the w i l l i n g n e s s  Only one r e f u s a l was  countered i n the 140 campers approached.  T h i s was  en-  the r e s u l t  o f an advanced s t a t e o f i n e b r i a t i o n on the p a r t o f the r e spondent.  Interview  Technique  Data was view method.  c o l l e c t e d by the ?'<on l o c a t i o n " p e r s o n a l A s t r u c t u r e d Interview  t h i s purpose.  The schedule may  scheduleewassused f o r  be found i n Appendix C.  i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d a minimum of f o r t y minutes. views were conducted each day. l y occurred  inter-  About f i v e  Each inter-  Optimum i n t e r v i e w time normal-  i n camper ' s l a c k ' time, u s u a l l y j u s t a f t e r break-  f a s t or supper.  The i n t e r v e n i n g hours were i n v a r i a b l y used  by the campers i n p u r s u i t o f t h e i r v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s or  a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the h o l i d a y .  T a b u l a t i o n o f Schedule  Responses  Responses o f the respondents  were r e c o r d e d i n t o F o r t r a n  Coding Forms d u r i n g the f i e l d i n t e r v i e w s . I T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was punched onto data cards a t the U.B.C. Computing Centre f o r use i n the IBM 360/67 computer.  Two types o f t a b l e s were produced  from the t a b u l a t i o n :  a5  U n i v a r i a t e Tables These d e s c r i p t i v e t a b l e s d e s c r i b e d both frequency and h o r i z o n t a l percentage r e a d i n g s f o r each o f the f o u r study campgrounds.  b)  B i v a r i a t e Tables The v a r i a b l e s used i n t e s t i n g s p e c i f i c areas o f the schedule were: e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , age. income, o c c u p a t i o n and distence from home.  A n u l l h y p o t h e s i s a t the . 0 5 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h 2 1 degree o f freedom was used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a X t e s t to examine the 2 x 2 b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s , f o r each o f the parks. 2 A pooled X  test  ( I O 1 3 0 O ) was weighted  and used i n t e s t i n g  the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s a s s o c i a t i o n between two v a r i a b l e s over the f o u r campgrounds. %  2  The formula used wast  pooled = E Mi 3 C i 2  fi Mi or  2 o 2 ? Miotl +M XZ +M>3%3 -Vtotftfr M + M + M + M^ 2  x  2  3  concerned  where  & = the sum f o r a l l 4 parks M  i  2  = gf^l^rJSd^^iach  X 1 = X  2  f o r each camp  Number o f campers present d u r i n g the t e s t p e r i o d i n the study parks were: Camp 1 (M ) = 9^7 x  Camp 2 (M ) = 204 2  Camp 3 (M ) = 501 3  Camp 4 (M^) = 421  N e c e s s i t y f o r the weighting  prodedure arose  f a c t t h a t the same number o f i n t e r v i e w s  out o f the  (35) were conducted  i n each camp even though the p o p u l a t i o n s v a r i e d d u r i n g the interview period.  T h i r t y - f i v e was decided upon as the number  o f i n t e r v i e w s f o r each camp because i t r e p r e s e n t e d  the maxi-  mum i n t e r v i e w number c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e f o r one i n v e s t i g a t o r over the two month p e r i o d .  A.  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS In t h i s survey, sex was n o t t r e a t e d as one o f the  v a r i a b l e s i n t h a t 96 p e r c e n t o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g the heads o f camping u n i t s were males.  Age The predominant age category f o r respondents f o u r study parks was 40 t o 49 y e a r s .  from a l l  The 3° "to 49 year range  c o n t a i n e d 65 percent o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a n o t i c e a b l e d e c l i n e evidenced on both s i d e s o f t h i s "middle aged" c a t e gory.  T h i s age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the camper resppndents i s  shown i n F i g u r e I I .  M a r i t a l Status Table I r e v e a l s t h a t camping i s a f a m i l y a f f a i r  with  over 97 p e r c e n t o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s l i s t e d as m a r r i e d .  The  dominance o f married campers was evidenced i n a l l f o u r CampgEiimHdS.  Occupation The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s by o c c u p a t i o n i s shown i n Table I I .  T h i s t a b l e shows t h a t the s k i l l e d workers con-  s t i t u t e the main category w i t h a 28 p e r c e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  % of respondents  50 40  36  30 , 29 • . •  20  .*»•'"••'  *"»*  .  * . '  • * » *  • •  *  • • » . «  • • • » • . * • » • • % • • • » • * •  \  • • • « *t  .  < • • • . ' . *• « «  10  • * »* • .  10  • • « t «« • »  . '  18  . •  * •  *  7  »•* * A *  0 t  30-39  •  » » • • • •  ?• • .'* • • *« .• i • • •  29 or less  • • » » • •  40-49  n ••. 50-59  Age Group o f Respondent i n Years  FIGURE I I AGE DISTRIBUTION OFF RESPONDENTS EXPRESSED IN PERCENT  60 p l u s  DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS Camp  Divorced N  %  100  0  0 0  0  35  33  94  0  0  1  3  35  35  100  0  0  0  0  35  1  3 33  94  1  3 0  0  35  2  1 136  97  1  1 1  1  140  Single N %  Married N  Golden Ears  0  0  35,  Kokanee Creek  1  3  Monck  0  0  Bamberton Total  %  Widowed N  Total  %  TABLE II DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY OCCUPATION  Camp  Professional High and Low Skilled Self Unskilled and semi-professional White Collar Employed N % N % N % N % N %  Golden Ears  10  30  9  25  10  28  4  10  2  7  35  Kokanee Creek 8  23  1  3  16  46  7  20  3  9  35  Monck  4  10  9  27  9  27  5  13  8  23  '35  Bamberton  11  31  6  17  6 19 10  28  2  Total  33  24  25  21  15  15  41  28 26  6* 11  Total  35 140  *In totalling the horizontal percentages, a f i n a l sum of 100 percent i s not always realized owing to a rounding off of decimal places.  A r e c e n t census o f the B r i t i s h Columbia l a b o u r f o r c e showed t h a t the s k i l l e d workers made up the main component o f the B.C. l a b o u r scene ( 1 7 t l 6 ) .  P r o f e s s i o n a l and white c o l l a r  workers were n o t f a r behind the s k i l l e d workers w i t h 24 and 21  percent r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Monck park p a r t i c i p a n t s showed a 23 percent  represen-  t a t i o n i n the u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r category, an u n u s u a l l y h i g h percentage  i n c o n t r a s t t o the other three campgrounds.  Income o f Campers Campers, as a group, have an average f a m i l y income s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than the B.C. average o f $ 4 , 7 2 4  (17»l4).  F i g u r e I I I shows t h a t 37 percent o f the respondents  inter-  viewed were i n the $5000 t o $ 7 » 9 9 9 b r a c k e t , the m a j o r i t y group.  Only 13 percent o f campers had earnings o f l e s s  $5000.  A t the opposite end o f the s c a l e , l e s s than nine  than  percent o f the campers were e a r n i n g more than $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 a y e a r .  Table I I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t Golden E a r s and Bamberton haxis a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f campers e a r n i n g an income i n excess o f $10,000.  than do the campers who f r e q u e n t Monck and Kokanee  Cradk parks where over three q u a r t e r s o f the respondents i n the $ 5 , 0 0 0 t o $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 income b r a c k e t .  were  Education The m a j o r i t y e d u c a t i o n group i n a l l f o u r parks were the campers w i t h some h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n .  T h e i r 35 p e r c e n t r e -  p r e s e n t a t i o n was f o l l o w e d "by the respondents  having h i g h  s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n w i t h 22 percent and some u n i v e r s i t y w i t h percent.  Both e d u c a t i o n a l extremes, the campers w i t h  13  less  than a Grade 8 e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and those w i t h a U n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t i o n , were the m i n o r i t y groups. (Table IV)  Duration of Yearly Vacation Table V Reveals  t h a t the most common v a c a t i o n p e r i o d  i n a l l parks except Monck, was one o f a three week d u r a t i o n . A t Monck park, a one t o two week h o l i d a y was enjoyed by 40 p e r c e n t o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  D i s t a n c e T r a v e l l e d by Campers t o Campground The main category under t h i s heading w i t h a 30 percent r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , was the respondent and 500 m i l e s .  who t r a v e l l e d between 251  Over 85 percent o f the Kokanee Creek and  Monck respondents  had t r a v e l l e d over 100 m i l e s , an under-  standable d i s t a n c e c o n s i d e r i n g the geographic these two parks.  l o c a t i o n of  Golden Ears and Bamberton Parks  showed a  h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f campers w i t h under 50 m i l e s o f d r i v i n g . T h i s would i n d i c a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e l o c a l usage o f these two parks. (Tejble V I )  Of  respondents  50  \  40 •. • • • «•». .  30  .... • < *• 20  10  •*  , 13 . • •. •». • • • •/ ••• « •• • $5000 or less  , • • •t  ••••• /• ••• • • • •! ... • $5001 to $7999  22 , »v •#. * • •. • • •»• •  19 '•»*•« '*»••.  • *• •. r . $8000 to $9999  $10,000 to $14,000  $15,000 ot  more  Income Groups o f the Respondents  FIGURE I I I INCOME OF CAMPER RESPONDENTS EXPRESSED IN PERCENT  DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ANNUAL INCOME  Camp  $5000 or less N %  $5000 to $7999 N %  $8000 to $9999 N  %  $10,000 to $14,999 N %  $15,000 or more N  Total %  Golden Ears  6  17  13  37  5  14  8  23  3  9  35  Kokanee Creek  2  6  14  40  13  37  6  17  0  0  35  Monck  3  9  17  49  10  29  2  6  3  9  35  Bamberton  5  14  7  20  10  29  8  23  5  14  35  16  11  51  36  38  27  24  17  11  8  140  '.total  k TABLE I V DISTRIBUTION OF CAMPERS BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL  Camp  Grade 8 or less N  Some High Some University High School University Graduate School Graduate %N %N %N %N  Post Grad Total Work % N %  Golden Ears  %  11 10  29  8  23 5  14 3  95  14  35  Kokanee Creek  3  9 17  49  7  20 5  14 2  61  3  35  Monck  6  17 12  34 11  31 2  6 3  91  3  35  Bamberton  3  9 10  29  14 6  17 6  175  14  35  16  11 49  35 31  22 18  13 14  1012  Total  5  4 140  DURATION OF YEARLY VACATION  Camp  1 week 1-2 3 4 5-7 2-3 6 or leas weeks weeks veeks weeks months months N % H % N % N % N % N % N %  Total  0  8  23 1 3  27 9  26 1  3 2  6 2  6  35  Kokanee Creek 0  0  7  20 17  49 7  20  0 2  6 2  6  35  Monck  1  3 14  4 0 10  29 5  14 3  9 1  3 1  3  35  Bamberton  0  0  7  20 1 5  43 9  26 0  0 3  9 1  3  35  Total  1  1  36  26 5 5  39 30  21 4  3 8  6 6  4  140  Golden Ears  50  TABLE V i i DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY CAMPERS TO CAMPGROUND 50  Camp  51-100  miles miles nr less N % N  101-250  251-500  501-1000  miles  miles  miles  %N  % N  % N 8 15  15  43 1  3 3  9 1  Kokanee Creek  2  6 3  9 2  6 17  49  Monck  0  0 0  37 22  Bamberton  12  34 6  Total  29  21 10  Golden Ears  .  0 13 17 5  7 23  14 2  16 4 2  1000  miles or more % N  Total  43 0  0  35  8  23 3  9  35  63  0  0 0  0  35  6  0  0 10  29  35  30 2 3  16 1 3  9  140  THE CAMPING TRIP  Length o f s t a y A three to f o u r day v i s i t was  the most common l e n g t h  of v i s i t f o r the respondents i n a l l campgrounds, (Table  T o t a l Number of P r o v i n c i a l Campgrounds V i s i t e d on the  VII)  Trip  As I n d i c a t e d i n Table V I I I most of the respondents stayed a t more than one one  campground d u r i n g the t r i p .  Over  t h i r d of the p a r t i c i p a n t s stayed a t s i x or more camp-  grounds i n a l l of the study parks except Monck,  T o t a l Number o f Camping T r i p s Made D u r i n g the Year Table IX shows t h a t most o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s f a l l one  of two main groups, those who  those who percent  take an annual t r i p  take f o u r or more t r i p s d u r i n g the y e a r .  into or  Over  63  of the Kokanee Creek respondents camped a t l e a s t f o u r  times d u r i n g the  year.  Accomodation Used by Campers on the  Trip  A t the time o f t h i s survey, the t e n t was  still  the main  type of accomodation b e i n g used by 64 percent of the campers questioned. t e n t use  Table X r e v e a l e d t h a t the h i g h e s t i n c i d e n c e o f  o c c u r r e d i n parks c l o s e s t to p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s ,  Bamberton and Golden Ears p a r t i c i p a n t s both r e c o r d e d a 77 cent usage of t e n t s ,  R.V.  usage n o t i c e a b l y i n c r e a s e d In  per the  LENGTH OF STAY AT CAMPSITE IN DAYS 2  Camp  3-4  or less N  N  %  8-14  5-7 %.  N  15  %  N  %  or m>r© N  %  Total  Golden Ears  11  31  13  37  7  20  2  6  2  6  35  Kokanee Creek  11  31  15  43  6  17  2  6  1  3  35  Monck  6  17  12  34  12  •3*-. 5  14  0  0  35  Bamberton  6  17  17  49  12  34  0  0  0  0  35  34  24  57  41  37  26  9  6  3  2  140  Total  TABLE  VIII  TOTAL NUMBER OF PROVINCIAL CAMPGROUNDS VISITED ON THE CAMPING TRIP  Camp  Study Camp only N  2  4  6  5  Total  or more  % N  Golden Ears  6  17  Kokanee Creek  3  9  Monck  2  6  Bamberton  5  14  16  11  Total  3  %  N % N  %  N  % N  Z  7 20 5 1 4  1  3 0  0 16  46  35  2  6 6 17  8  9 5  1 4 16  46  35  13 37 7 20  3  9 8  23  2  6  35  5  14 2  6 12  34  35  9 15 1 1 46  33  140  8 23 3  9  30 2 1 2 1 1 5 1 2  TOTAL NUMBER OF CAMPING TRIPS MADE DURING THE YEAR 1  2  3  Camp  trip N  trips N  trips N  %  trips N  Golden Ears  16  46  7  20  3  9  9  26  35  Kokanee Creek  12  34  0  0  1  3  22  63  35  Monck  16  46  3  9  3  9  13  37  35  Bamberton  15  43  6  17  2  6  12  34  35  Total  59  42  16  11  9  6  56  40  %  %  4  %  Tota]  140  TABLE % ACCOMODATION USED BY CAMPERS ON THE TRIP  Camp  tent N  travel trailor % M  stn. wagon camper camper car, van truck , trailer % N % N % N  %  Total  27  77  8  23  0  0  0  0  0  0  35  Kokanee Creek' 15  43  5  14  2  6  8  23  5  14  35  Monck  20  57  7  20  0  0  4  11  4  11  35  Bamberton  27  5  14  0  0  2  6  1  3  35  Total  89  25  18  2  1 14  10 1 0  7  140  Golden Ears  64  more remote Monck and Kokanee Creek campgrounds but cont i n u e d to l a g behind the t a n t u s e r s .  Number o f Members i n the Camping U n i t In t a b l e XI i t i s shown t h a t the camping u n i t composed of three t o f i v e members c o n s t i t u t e d over 52 p e r c e n t o f the respondents. earlier  T h i s percentage may add some support t o the  statements c o n c e r n i n g the f a m i l y nature o f the camping (Table I showed t h a t 98 p e r c e n t o f respondents were  unit.  married.)  O b j e c t i o n a b l e F e a t u r e s Encountered by Respondents Camping i n B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Parks. O b j e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d byUhe respondents were n o t necess a r i l y d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the study parks but r e f e r r e d t o any of the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l parks where the complaint was encountered.  Table X I I shows t h a t the most o b j e c t i o n a b l e  f e a t u r e , w i t h a 3k p e r c e n t response, was the inadequate number o f campsites a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the campgrounds. f o l l o w e d by 23 p e r c e n t o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s who  T h i s was  complained  about the p i t t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s encountered i n most o f the parks.  A d d i t i o n a l suggestions make by the respondents the  study parks may be found i n Appendix D.  about  NUMBER OF MEMBERS IN THE CAMPING UNIT  1 only N  Camp  %  2 people N  %  3-5 persons N  %  6-10 persons N  %  26  11-20 persons N  %  3  9  35  Total  Golden E a r s  4  11  4  11  15  43  9  Kokanee Creek  1  3  8  23  22  63  3  9  1  3  35  Monck  0  0  9  26  19  54  7  20  0  0  35  Bamberton  2  6  10  29  17  49  6  17  0  0  35  Total  7  5  31  22  73  52  25  18  4  3  140  TABLE XII OBJECTIONABLE FEATURES ENCOUNTERED BY RESPONDENTS CAMPING IN B.C. PROVINCIAL PARKS  Objectionable Features  E x t e n t o f Respondents N  Concerned %  Inadequate number o f campsites  47  34  Pit  32  23  15  11  Lack o f f i r e w o o d  14  10  Vandalism and rowdiness  12  9  Lack o f p r i v a c y i n campsite  8  6  Bothersome i n s e c t s  1  1  Large camping  2  1  L i t t e r e d o r run-down campsites  3  2  Others  6  3  toilet  Motorboats  Total  facilities and t r a i l b i k e s  i n camping a r e a  groups  140  100  O v e r a l l Cost o f the Camping T r i p When equipment c o s t s were i g n o r e d , i t was found t h a t l e s s than $ 2 0 0 . 0 0 was spent on the camping.trip by almost 80 p e r c e n t o f the respondents.  Table X I I I showed Golden E a r s  and Bamberton campers r e p r e s e n t e d a t both e x t r e m i t i e s o f the t r i p c o s t s c a l e , whereas spending by campers a t Kokanee Creek and Monck parks was c o n c e n t r a t e d mainly i n the $ 5 1 . 0 0 to $ 2 0 0 . 0 0 range.  Any f i g u r e s d e a l i n g w i t h t r i p c o s t s t h a t a r e gathered before the t r i p i s completed may be o f q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l u e owing t o unforeseen e v e n t u a l i t i e s t h a t may a l t e r the e s t i mated f i g u r e a p p r e c i a b l y .  In  t a b l e XIV the c o s t o f the camping t r i p on a p e r  person p e r day b a s i s i s g i v e n f o r the f o u r p a r k s .  67 p e r -  cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s spent l e s s than $ 3 . 0 0 p e r person per day.  F e e l i n g s Expressed by Campers Regarding the P r o p o s a l t h a t Separate Camping Areas Be P r o v i d e d f o r Tenters and R.V. Owners W i t h i n the Campground.  _  When q u e s t i o n e d about the p r o v i s i o n o f segregated areas w i t h i n the park f o r t e n t e r s and R.V.owners, almost 28 p e r c e n t of  the campers were opposed w h i l e another 52 p e r c e n t were  i n d i f f e r e n t t o the p r o p o s a l .  (Table XV)  OVERALL COST OF THE CAMPING TRIP $25.00  $26.00  $51.00  or  to  to  Camp  leas  N  $50,00  % 11  $101  $201  to  $100.00  to  $200  %N  %N  $300  %N  $301  $501  to  to  $500  % N  $1000  $1000  or more  Total  %N  %N  %  Golden f-arg  8  23  5  14  5  14  6  17  4  11  5  14 1  3 1  3  35  Kokanee Creek  3  9  5  14  7  20 1 2  34  3  9  5  14 0  0 0  0  35  Monck  5  1A  6  1 7 14  40  8  23  2  6  0  0 0  0 0  0  35  Bamberton  10  29  5  14  6  17  5  14  5  14  2  6 1  3 1  3  35  Total  26  19 2 1  10 12  9 2  1 2  1  140  1 5 32  2 2 14  23 3 1  TABLE X<IV COST OF THE CAMPING TRIP PER PERSOH PER DAY $1.00  $1.01  or  to  Camp  lesa  N  Golden Ears  12  $3.01  $3.00  % N 34  $5.01  to  $5.00  % N  $10.00  to  to  $10.00  % N  Total  $25.00  % N  %  12  34  4  11  6  17  1  3  35  17  49  11  31  3  9  1  3  35  Kokanee Creek  3  Monck  3  23  16  46  9  26  0  0  2  6  35  Bamberton  8  23  20  57  6  17  1  3  0  0  35  31  21  65  46  30  21  10  7  4  3  140  Total  S  TABLE XV CAMPER REACTION TO THE PROPOSAL THAT SEPARATE AREAS WITHIN THE CAMPGROUND BE ALLOTTED TO TENTERS AND R.V. OWNERS Camp  Accept  N  Reject  %  N  %  Total  Indififferent  N  %  10  29  10  29  15  43  35  Kokanee Creek  9  26  11  31  15  43  35  Monck  5  14  5  14  25  71  35  Bamberton  4  11  13  37  18  51  35  28  20  39  28  73  52  140  Golden Ears  Total  Cv MOTIVATION FOR CAMPING Respondents camping  were asked to r a t e f o u r t e e n motives f o r  i n terms o f t h e i r importance. IThese motives have  been p l a c e d i n rank order f o r each of the f o u r parks and are  shown i n Table XVI.  The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t 75  p e r c e n t o f the campers  enjoy the change o f l i f e form o f f e r e d by a camping The motive r a t e d second o v e r a l l w i t h a 7^ #as r e l a x a t i o n .  holiday.  p e r c e n t response  In t h a t most r e c r e a t i o n s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e  t h a t campers are mainly urban based, the f i r s t and second p l a c e d motives may  be c o n s i d e r e d as a d e s i r e to a l t e r the  f o r m a l i t i e s o f urban l i v i n g through a b r i e f s t a y i n the outdoors.  Support f o r t h i s statement i s p r o v i d e d i n the  im=  portance a t t a c h e d by the campers t o the "nature a p p r e c i a t i o n " and "escape from the crowd" motives which were ranked f o u r t h and f i f t h  respectively.  E x p l o r a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e was  the t h i r d ranked motive  and would suggest t h a t campers l i k e to t r a v e l .  Although  f i n a n c i a l reasons are found i n the lower t h i r d o f the t a b l e , camping must be c o n s i d e r e d as one o f the mcsst economical ways of  s a t i s f y i n g the d e s i r e to t r a v e l .  Family togetherness i s e x p e c t e d l y ranked i n the  first  h a l f o f the m o t i v a t i n g reasons, probably as a r e s u l t o f the  f a c t t h a t 98 p e r c e n t o f the respondents were m a r r i e d . q u e n t l y mentioned was  Fre-  the f a c t t h a t i t was a r e c r e a t i o n form  t h a t c o u l d be enjoyed by the whole f a m i l y .  The h e a l t h m o t i v a t i o n s f o r camping are f a i r l y s c a t t e r e d through the order when observed i n the f o u r d i f f e r e n t parks but i s r a t e d seventh i n the o v e r a l l r a t i n g .  The e i g h t h ranked  motive, enjoyment o f pure a i r and water, may  be pushed  up-  ward i n more r e c e n t surveys i n the l i g h t o f an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f the need f o r environmental q u a l i t y .  Experience i n a more p r i m i t i v e form o f l i v i n g ,  practice  of camping s k i l l s and r e l i g i o u s reasons appear t o be the r e j e c t e d motives f o r camping i n o r g a n i z e d campgrounds. f o r t takes precedence  over "roughing i t " , camping s k i l l s are  unnecessary: both as a consequence damping equipment now recreational vehicles.  Com-  o f the s o p h i s t i c a t e d  a v a i l a b l e and the i n c r e a s e d use o f The crowded! c o n d i t i o n o f most camp-  ground would almost c e r t a i n l y l i m i t the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s w h i l e camping.  T h i s motive may  have  more r e l e v a n c e i n a survey o f wildenness camping.  3Bhe evidence o f t h i s survey would i n d i c a t e t h a t those m o t i v a t i o n s r e l a t e d to a change i n the normal  year-round  l i v i n g p a t t e r n p r o v i d e the g r e a t e s t i n c e n t i v e s f o r campigg.  RANK  ORDER PLACEMENT OF 14 MOTIVES FOR CAMPING i  Percent ranking motivation very Important Monck Bamberton Total Golden Ears Cokanee Creek % Rank | % Rank Rank % Rank % % Rank  change of pace  75  1  69  2  80  2  74  1  75  1  relaxation  68  2  71  1  87  1  74 '. 1  74  2  explore the province  54  4.  40  5  66  7  64  2  57  3  nature appreciation  52  5  46  4  72  5  46  3  55  4  escape crowds of people  56  3  40  5  69  6  43  4  54  4  family togetherness  44  6  60  3  73  4  42  5  52  6  healthy holiday  21  10  40  5  79  3  36  6  40  7  enjoy pure a i r and water  31  8  34  6  43  8  31  7  34  8  escape city sounds, smells, sights  22  9  31  7  42  9  22  8  28  9  financial  33  7  11  8  .0 14  14  9  19  10  camp social l i f e  14  11  3  9  8 12  14  9  11 11  experience more primitive l i v i n g  13  12  0  10  14  10  3  10  practice camping s k i l l s  11  13  3  9  10  11  3  10  6  14  0  10  5  13  reasons  religious reasons  10  12  8 13 4  14  D. EDUCATION FOR  THE OUTDOORS.  R e c r e a t i o n a l P r e f e r e n c e s of Campers In order t o determine  the v a r i o u s types of r e c r e a t i o n a l  a c t i v i t i e s favoured by campers, the respondents  were r e -  quested to s t a t e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g 15  outdoor  oriented a c t i v i t i e s .  The responses were l i s t e d i n raftk order  by p e r c e n t and are shown i n Table  In an overview  of responses  XVII,  from a l l f o u r camps the  Bamberton campers showed more i n t e r e s t i n the l i s t e d  outdoor  a c t i v i t i e s than d i d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the other three parks.  The most p o p u l a r a c t i v i t y was  c e n t response  overall.  T h i s was  c l i m b i n g which only commanded 12  f i s h i n g with a 5 9 I p e r -  c o n t r a s t e d by mountain percent of the t o t a l  res-  ponse.  Camper P r e f e r e n c e s For G a i n i n g I n f o r m a t i o n About Outdoor Oriented A c t i v i t i e s . The p r e f e r r e d means of g a i n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h a 30 instruction.  percent t o t a l response, was o n - s i t e  In Table XVIII i t i s shown t h a t campers i n a l l  of the study parks except Monck expressed o n - s i t e i n s t r u c t i o n as t h e i r f i r s t p l a c e c h o i c e .  T h i s may  imply t h a t some phase  of the park i n t e r p r e t a t i o n program c o u l d b e s t serve some of the expressed e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f park v i s i t o r s .  Night  DEGREE OF 15  I N T E R E S T SHOWN B Y  CAMPERS  OUTDOOR O R I E N T E D A C T I V I T I E S .  Activity  Rank  BY  IN  A  ;  survival  i n  the  woods  OF  RANK ORDER  Percent Golden  fishing  SELECTION  of  Ears  Campers Kokanee  Interested Monck  Bamberton  ____ Total  1  65  69  52  51  59  2  41  34  19  58  39  nature  photography  3  37  23  40  44  38  nature  study  4  30  23  33  47  34  5  26  26  31  54  33  hiking  6  31  29  22  36  30  swimming  7  33  11  20  36  28  astronomy  8  18  26  26  49  27  catap  8  26  26  19  40  27  • .9  23  23  13  46  25  10  21  17  16  40  23  11  15  9  22  36  20  12  17  11  28  17  19  13  14  17  12  31  17  1*  6  3  15  29  12  rock  study  &  recognition  cooking  orientation-map woodcraft canoeing,  reading  s k i l l s kyaking,  hunting wilderness mountain  camping climbing  rafting  TABLE XVDII PREFERRED MEANS OF GAINING INFORMATION ABOUT OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES EXPRESSED IN PERCENT Means of Gaining Information  Golden Kokanee Ears Creek  Monck  Bamberton  Total  On-site instruction  31  40  20  29  30  Extension or night school courses  14  14  31  26  21  Books and magazines  23  20  29  11  21  6  9  9  9  Experienced t r i a l and error  11  T.V. or radio  7  11  6  17  11  Camping x/ith experienced campers  3  9  3  0  4  Correspondence courses  0  0  3  6  2  Others  9  0  0  3  3  s c h o o l courses shared an i d e n t i c a l percentage r e a d i n g o f 21 p e r c e n t w i t h books and magazines  as the second most de-  s i r e a b l e means o f l e a r n i n g about the outdoors.  The  least  p o p u l a r approach to l e a r n i n g appeared to be the correspondence course.  Only two p e r c e n t o f the respondents expressed any  interest i n this learning  situation.  Camper O p i n i o n Regarding the Implementation o f a Nature Program i n the Study Parks. The t a b u l a t i o n s shown i n Table XIX r e p e a l t h a t 81 p e r c e n t o f the respondents would favour the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a nature program w i t h i n the i n t e r v i e w park.  Bamberton campers were  most e n t h u s i a s t i c about the program w i t h a 9k p e r c e n t a f f i r mative r e p l y .  The p o s i t i v e response from the campers o f a l l  f o u r parks can only be i n t e r p r e t e d as a vote o f c o n f i d e n c e i n the p r e s e n t B.C.  park i n t e r p r e t a t i o n program  as w e l l as  showing a d e s i r e on the p a r t o f campers t o l e a r n more about t h e i r n a t u r a l surroundings.  Degree o f Camper I n t e r e s t i n a Proposed Book D e s c r i b i n g B.C.  P r o v i n c i a l Parks A t the time o f t h i s survey, the only l i t e r a t u r e  a b l e on B.C.  P r o v i n c i a l Parks was  avail-  i n the form o f maps or f o l d -  out brochures d e s c r i b i n g the l o c a t i o n and o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s o f our p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s .  Campers were asked to ex-  p r e s s an o p i n i o n about the u s e f u l n e s s o f a book c o n t a i n i n g  more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the p a r k s .  In a d d i t i o n t o  such standard i n f o r m a t i o n as l o c a t i o n and number of camps i t e s a v a i l a b l e the book would c o n t a i n d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the parks h i s t o r i c a l , g e o l o g i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . Each park d e s c r i p t i o n would a l s o be accompanied by a  map  showing h i k i n g t r a i l s , b o a t i n g and f i s h i n g areas or o t h e r p o i n t s of p o s s i b l e i n t e r e s t to the camper. (Table  The respondents  endorsed  XX\)  the p r o p o s a l o f such a book  w i t h an a f f i r m a t i v e 86 percent response w i t h Bamberton l e a d i n g w i t h a 97  percent vote of a p p r o v a l .  Number o f Campers w i t h P r e v i o u s Experience i n Continuous Learning  Courses.  Table XXI  shows t h a t 66 percent of the respondents  had  some p r e v i o u s experience w i t h continuous l e a r n i n g c o u r s e s . Campers a t Bamberton had 83 percent of t h e i r number showing e a r l i e r enrolment  i n these c o u r s e s .  Golden E a r s p a r t i c i p a n t s  were the lowest i n terms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h o n l y 5^ cent i n d i c a t i n g any e a r l i e r  per-  experiences.  When p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a p r e v i o u s exposure to  continuous  l e a r n i n g courses were questioned about the content of t h e i r courses, only e i g h t p e r c e n t c o u l d s t a t e t h a t the courses been r e l a t e d t o camping or some outdoor  activity.  had  Degree o f I n t e r e s t Expressed by Respondents i n Future Enrolment i n Camping O r i e n t e d Continuous  When p a r t i c i p a n t s response  L e a r n i n g Courses.  from a l l f o u r camps was  c o n s i d e r e d , over 6 l p e r c e n t expressed an i n t e r e s t i n a t t e n d i n g courses w i t h camping r e l a t e d c o n t e n t .  As shown i n Table XXII  the range o f a f f i r m a t i v e s was f a i r l y c l o s e wllthin a l l f o u r camps v a r y i n g from a h i g h o f 69 p e r c e n t a t Golden E a r s t o a low o f 51 p e r c e n t a t Monck,  {  CAMPER O P I N I O N A  REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION  NATURE PROGRAM I N  Camp  THE STUDY  Affirmative N  %  OP  PARKS  Negative N  Undecided  Total  %  N  %  28  30  4  11  3  9  35  28  80  7  20  0  0  35  Monck  24  69  11  31  0  0  35  Bamberton  33  94  2  6  0  0  35  113  81  24  17  3  2  140  Golden Kokanee  Ears Creek  Total  •  TABLE CAMPER OPINION A  REGARDING THE PROPOSED P U B L I C A T I O N OF  BOOK D E S C R I B I N G A L L O F  Camp  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL  Affirmative N  %  Negative  %  N  PARKS  Undecided H  %  Total  28  80  5  14  2  6  35  33  94  1  3  1  3  35  Monck  25  71  10  29  0  0  35  Bamberton  34  97  1  3  0  0  35  120  86  17  12  3  2  140  Golden Kokanee  Total  Ears Creek  TABLE XXI NUMBER OF CAMPERS WITH PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE IN CONTINUOUS LEARNING COURSES Camp  Experienced N %  No Experience N %  Total  Golden Ears  19  54  16  46  35  Kokanae Creek  21  60  14  40  35  Monck  24  69  11  31  35  Bamberton  29  83  6  17  35  Total  93  66  47  34  140  TABLE VXX'II DEGREE OF INTEREST EXPRESSED BY RESPONDENTS IN FUTURE ENRODte IN CAMPING ORIENTED CONTINUOUS LEARNING COURSES Camp  Affirmative N %  Negative . N %  Total  Golden Ears  24  69  11  31  35  Kokanee Creek  23  66  12  34  35  Monck  18  51  17  49  35  Bamberton  21  60  14  40  35  Total  86  61  54  39  140  SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS  BETWEEN SELECTED  VARIABLES  In t h i s s e c t i o n , the o n l y v a r i a b l e s d i s c u s s e d a r e those t h a t were proven s i g n i f i c a n t by a c h i square t e s t a t the . 0 5 level of significance.  A further l i s t  of b i v a r i a t e s tables of  non s i g n i f i c a n c e may be found i n Appendix F. 1. I n f l u e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l on S e l e c t e d V a r i a b l e s Number o f Camping T r i p s per Year A t Kokanee Creek campground only, i t was shown t h a t respondents  p o s s e s s i n g High School g r a d u a t i o n or l e s s were  more i n c l i n e d to take three t r i p s p e r year while campers w i t h some u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n p r e f e r r e d two t r i p s or l e s s per y e a r .  (TgUe  X.XIII)  F i n a n c i a l Motive F o r A Camping H o l i d a y Table XXIV showed t h a t the economy aspect o f a camping h o l i d a y was c o n s i d e r e d unimportant Craekdpossessing  by campers a t Kokanee  High School g r a d u a t i o n o r l e s s .  P r e v i o u s Attendance In Table XXVJX  i n Adult Education  Courses  i t was shown t h a t campers a t Bamberton w i t h  a U n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g had a h i g h e r attendance  l e v e l i n adult  e d u c a t i o n courses than those w i t h a background o f h i g h s c h o o l education. 2,  I n f l u e n c e o f Age Upon the I n t e r e s t Expressed  Camping O r i e n t e d A d u l t E d u c a t i o n The younger campers (29  i n Attending  Courses.  or l e s s ) a t Bamberton were  more p r e d i s p o s e d t o a t t e n d i n g camping o r i e n t e d courses  than  were the campers o f 30 years o f age or o l d e r . (Table XXVI)  Xxill  TABLE  EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND NUMBER OF CAMPINC TRIPS EACH YEAR Camp  Educational Level  Golden Ears  Some High School or grad 9 1A Some U n i v e r s i t y  26 AO  5 7  3 9  9 26  17 6  Monck  9 10  26 29  9 7  Bamberton  10 11  29 31  3 11  Kokanee Creek  2" TlrlpG or Less N % J  P  3 Trips or More N %  .05  .81  A9 5.83 17  .01  ,03  ,8A  1A 20  26 20  9 1.A7 31  .22  TABLE XXIV EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ANB THE FINANCIAL MOTIVE FOR A CAMPING  HOLIDAY  Camp  Educational  Golden Ears  Some High S c h o o l or grad. 9 Some U n i v e r s i t y or grad. 15  Kokanee Creek Monck Bamberton  Level  Imp or tant Unimportant % K % N Z  26 43  5 6  14 17  2  P  X? 2  .01 • 8 8  8  3  9 17 22 7  49 4.20 .04 20 .44  6 7  17 12 20 10  34 29  .02 .86  5 11  14 8 31 11  23 31  .10 .75  TABLE XXV?  EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND PREVIOUS ATTENDANCE IN ADULT EDUCATION COURSES  Camp  Educational Level  N  N  Some High S c h o o l o r g r . 6 1? Some U n i v e r s i t y o r g r . 13 37  8 8  Kokanee  10 29 11 31  10 4  Monck  12 34 12 34  6 5  Bamberton  8 23 21 60  5 1  Golden Ears  %  X  2  23 . 5 8 23  .45  29 1 . 0 9 . 3 0 11 1.28 17  14  .01 .88  14- 4 , 4 4 . 0 3  3  TABLE XXVI AGE AND INTEREST EXPRESSED IN ATTENDING  CAMPING  ORIENTED ADULT EDUCATION COURSES Camp  Golden Ears Kokanee Creek Monck Bamberton  Age  29 years or l e s s 30 years or more  Yes N  %  No N %  8 16  23 46  3 8  9 23  .00  .95  11 12  31 34  4 8  11 23  .21  .65  26 5 2 6 12  14 34  .80  .37  40 20  9 31  5.19  .02  9 9 14 7  3 11  X  1  P  X 2,  3. I n f l u e n c e of Occupation on S e l e c t e d  Variables  H e a l t h Motive f o r a Camping H o l i d a y The f i g u r e s i n Table XXVIIdepicted t h a t non  professional  workers camped a t Monck Park were more i n c l i n e d t o , s t r e s s the h e a l t h motive f o r camping than were the p r o f e s s i o n a l  workdrs.  S o c i a l L i f e Motive f o r a Camping H o l i d a y Campers a t both Golden E a r s and Monck Parks w i t h nortep r o f e s s i o n a l occupations p l a c e d more emphasis on the s o c i a l advantages occupation.  of camping than those campers w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n a l ( T a b l e XXVIII )  The p o o l e d c h i square t e s t f o r a l l f o u r camps i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between campers w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l and nonp r o f e s s i o n a l occupations and t h e i r views t w a r d a s o c i a l  motive  f o r camping do d i f f e r .  at  Monck Park.  ilk-Xle  T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e  XXIII)  TABLE X X Y J I OCCUPATION AND THE HEALTH MOTIVE FOR Camp  Occuaption  Important N %  CAMPING Unimportant N :% :  X  2  p  1 7  3 20  10 17  29 49  .77  .38  Kokanee Creek  3 11  9 31  4 17  11 49  .07  .78  Monck  1 26  3 74  3 5  9 14  4.02  .04  Bamberton  2 11  6 31  8 14  23 40  .88  .35  Golden Ears  Professional Non p r o f e s s i o n a l  X p 2  1.51  TABLE X X V J I I OCCUPATION AND ENJOYMENT OF CAMPING SOCIAL LIFE AS A MOTIVE FOR CAMPING Camp  Occupation  Important N %  Unimportant N %  Golden Ears  Professional Non p r o f e s s i o n a l  2 8  6 23  18 7  51 5.91 .01 20  0 9  0 26  8 18  23 2.06 .15 51 5  1 15  3 43  13 6  3 7 11.52 .00 17  4 8  11 23  12 11  34 31  Kokanee Creek Monck Bamberton  "X  P  .50 .49  % P  SUMMARY OF THE STUDY T h i s study has o u t l i n e d some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the type o f campers found i n Golden E a r s , Koteanee Creek, Monck and Bamberton P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n the summer o f 1967. v-  S i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s f o l l o w s the summary o f d e s c r i p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  A.  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS F a m i l i e s c o n s t i t u t e d over 97 p e r c e n t o f the camper  c l i e n t e l e encountered  i n the survey.  The age MS the head o f  the u n i t was 30 t o 49 years i n 65 p e r c e n t o f the c a s e s . Y e a r l y e a r n i n g s o f the main income group, w i t h a 37 percent r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , amounted t o $5000. exceeds the average  to $8000.  T h i s category  f a m i l y income f i g u r e f o r B.C.  Almost 75 percent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s earned l e s s  of $4,724. then  $10,000 annually.  The camper w i t h h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n o r l e s s repr e s e n t e d 68 p e r c e n t o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d . I n N  terms o f the occupation o f the head o f the u n i t , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was f a i r l y equal i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s w i t h the figure  lowest  (11 p e r c e n t ) b e l o n g i n g t o the u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r group.  A h o l i d a y p e r i o d o f three weeks o r l e s s was enjoyed by 66 p e r c e n t o f campers.  B. THE CAMPING TRIP While on a camping t r i p , most o f the respondents v i s i t e d a s u c c e s s i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l parks w i t h o n l y 11 percent one park o n l y .  visiting  The most f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d l e n g t h o f stay  was the three to f o u r day v i s i t r e g i s t e r e d by 41 percent  of  the respondents. The t e n t p e r s i s t s as the most common form o f accommddsttioi used by campers w i t h a 64 percent  representation.  T h i s form o f s h e l t e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e a t the campgrounds c l o s e s t to the p o p u l a t i o n  centres.  S u b s t a n t i a t i n g the e a r l i e r f i n d i n g t h a t camping i s mainly a f a m i l y a f f a i r , was the f a c t t h a t the camping u n i t c o n s i s t e d o f three to f i v e members i n over 50 percent  o f the  interviews. The overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s i n our p r o v i n c i a l parks ftas emphasized when 34 percent  o f the campers r e g i s t e r e d a  complaint a g a i n s t the inadequate number o f campsites a v a i l a b l e i n the P r o v i n c i a l campgrounds.  Cost o f the camping t r i p i t s e l f was under $ 2 0 0 . 0 0 f o r 75 percent  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s worked out to l e s s than  $ 3 . 0 0 p e r person per day, f o r over 67 percent  C.  o f the respondents.  M o t i v a t i o n f o r Camping Almost 75 percent  in l i f e  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s r a t e d the change  s t y l e and r e l a x a t i o n , as the s t r o n g e s t motives f o r  a camping type h o l i d a y .  The d e s i r e t o l e a d a l e s s f o r m a l i z e d  l i f e reappeared, i n the f o u r t h and f i f t h p l a c e motives ,which were nature a p p r e c i a t i o n and escape from crowds r e s p e c t i v e l y . P h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the f o u r study parks appeared to be unimportant m o t i v a t i n g i n f l u e n c e s i n l i g h t o f the mateked s i m i l a r i t y o f emphasis encountered i n a l l f o u r parks,  D.  E d u c a t i o n f o r the Outdoors From a l i s t  o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  preferred  by campers, f i s h i n g emerged as the f i r s t c h o i c e f o r almost 60 p e r c e n t o f the respondents.  I n t e r e s t i n other a c t i v i t i e s  v a r i e d considerablylamong v i s i t o r s t o the f o u r p a r k s .  The p r e f e r r e d means o f g a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about activities  outdoor  as l i s t e d by 30 p e r c e n t o f the respondents was  by o n - s i t e - i n s t r u c t i o n .  Another 42 percent o f the campers  d i v i d e d t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s e q u a l l y between continuous l e a r n i n g programs and magazines.  The e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f a camping h o l i d a y were made e v i d e n t by over 80 p e r c e n t o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s who expressed an i n t e r e s t i n s e e i n g some form o f the park i n t e r p r e t a t i o n program implemented  i n the study p a r k s .  Following this  e d u c a t i o n a l l i n e o f thought was the 86 p e r c e n t f a v o u r a b l e response accorded by campers to the proposed p u b l i c a t i o n o f a book d e s c r i b i n g each o f B.C.'s P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n terms of its  h i s t o r y , b i o l o g i c a l and g e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s as w e l l as  the u s u a l brochure  type i n f o r m a t i o n of l o c a t i o n ,  facili-  t i e s and accomodation.  While 66 p e r c e n t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d some prev i o u s experience w i t h continuous l e a r n i n g courses, only 8 percent of the courses taken had any a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the camping scene.  When q u e s t i o n e d on p o s s i b l e f u t u r e enrolment  i n courses r e l a t e d to campigg, 61 p e r c e n t of those viewed gave an a f f i r m a t i v e  inter-  reply.  A summary of the s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s brought  out the  following pointst -camper respondents  with a u n i v e r s i t y background dmbarked  on  2 camping t r i p s or l e s s per year while those w i t h a g i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n were i n c l i n e d to take t h r e e or more . -campers w i t h u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g are more p r e d i s p o s e d to e n r o l l i n g i n c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g courses than are the campers w i t h a h i g h s c h o o l backing. -the camper below 29 years of age  expressed more i n t e r e s t i n  a t t e n d i n g camping o r i e n t e d continuous l e a r n i n g courses  than  the over 30 &goup. - m o t i v a t i o n s f o r a camping h o l i d a y showed up "Mle  following  points > i.  the m a j o r i t y of campers w i t h a h i g h s c h o o l background were not motivated to camp mainly because i t r e p r e sented an "inexpensive h o l i d a y " .  -campers doing a n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l k i n d o f i?ork p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on the h e a l t h y aspects o f a camping h o l i d a y , - s i m i l a r i l y , the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s i d e r e d the s o c i a l advantages of camping more h i g h l y than the camper w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n a l occupation.  IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY  1.  B r i t i s h Columbia  P r o v i n c i a l Parks a r e f a c e d w i t h an  over-crowding problem.  The b a s i s f o r t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n stems  from the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : a.  One o f the most o b j e c t i o n a b l e f e a t u r e s o f camping i n B . C . P r o v i n c i a l Parks, as s t a t e d by the campers, i n v o l v e d the l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e campsites and the subsequent  delay imposed upon the camper while  a w a i t i n g an a v a i l a b l e campsite.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n was  encountered by the i n v e s t i g a t o r d u r i n g the survey i n 3 out o f the 4 study parks.  b.  The two major motives by respondents  f o r going camping expressed  i n the survey, concerned  the change  of pace and r e l a x a t i o n a f f o r d e d the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the camping e x p e r i e n c e .  Increased u r b a n i z a t i o n  can be expected t o i n c r e a s e the value p l a c e d upon m o t i v a t i o n s o f t h i s nature.  c.  The y e a r l y i n c r e a s e i n campground attendance  figures  coupled w i t h f u t u r e usage p r o j e c t i o n s by r e p u t a b l e agencies can only i n c r e a s e the human impact upon an a l r e a d y overloaded park 2.  system.  The park i n t e r p r e t a t i o n program s h o u l d be expanded t o i n -  clude a l a r g e r number o f P r o v i n c i a l parks.  While h e a r t i l y endorsing the e x i s t i n g program, almost  interpretation  80 p e r c e n t of the campers would l i k e to see  the program extended to a g r e a t e r number of the P r o v i n c i a l parkd.  I d e a l l y , each of the r e s o u r c e - o r i e n t e d parks should be \  a b l e to p r o v i d e , aa e d u c a t i o n a l experience  for i t s visitors  w i t h a t t e n t i o n b e i n g d i r e c t e d to the unique q u a l i t i e s t h a t are s p e c i f i c to the p a r t i c u l a r  park.  Nature houses and park n a t u r a l i s t s to i l l u s t r a t e b a s i c  1  e c o l o g i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s  t  should be made a v a i l -  a b l e to the campers i n a l a r g e r number of parks.  Top  p r i o r i t y f o r these f e a t u r e s should be a s s i g n e d to parks proximate to p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s and where v i s i t a t i o n are h i g h e s t . The  figures  s m a l l e r or more remote parks c o u l d make use  o f the more s e l f - d i r e c t i n g , unattended, i n t e r p r e t i v e d e v i c e s .  A book, d e s c r i b i n g i n some d e t a i l the h i s t o r i c a l , geol o g i c a l , and b i o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s of the park and  information  about i t s l o c a t i o n , h i k i n g t r a i l s and f a c i l i t i e s should be a u s e f u l a d j u n c t to the i n t e r p r e t i v e program.  Its publication  was  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported by 86 percent o f the campers.  3.  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n agencies should p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on  t h e i r programming towards e d u c a t i n g the urban a d u l t to the outdoors.  P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n should be d i r e c t e d toward  the campers under 30 years of  age.  Second only to o n - s i t e i n s t r u c t i o n i n camper  preferences  as an e d u c a t i o n a l medium, a d u l t education c o u l d do much to extend the park experience percent  for visitors.  With over 60-  of the respondents e x p r e s s i n g an i n t e r e s t i n nature  r e l a t e d courses  and w i t h  i n e x p e r i e n c e d campers j o i n i n g  the  ranks a n n u a l l y , s u f f i c i e n t cause f o r g r e a t e r commitment does exist.  The  f a c t t h a t o n l y 8 percent  of the respondents  had  taken courses r e l a t e d to the outdoors would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s type of course education  i s not very p r e v a l e n t w i t h i n the a d u l t  curricula.  Continuous l e a r n i n g agencies  c o u l d not only meet the  e d u c a t i o n a l needs of the r e c r e a t o r hut a l s o c o u l d be a usef u l medium f o r s o l v i n g some of the problems f a c i n g park a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p r i v a t e campground o p e r a t o r s , f o r e s t i n d u s t r y and  other bodies  seminars, guest  r e l a t e d to camping.  The use  of  conferences,  speakers and e d u c a t i o n a l techniques  to a i r  common problems c o u l d p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e to prof e s s i o n a l s i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n d u s t r y .  Some o f the agencies study 1.  t h a t may  o b t a i n b e n e f i t from t h i s  are:  P u b l i c Park Planners Pressures  and  Administrators.  on park o f f i c i a l s can only i n c r e a s e .  Infor-  mation about the r e c r e a t o r can be u s e f u l i n determining p o l i c y as w e l l as the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of campers  and  park  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to park l a n d  2.  The F o r e s t Industry The  One  requirements.  demand f o r more e f f i c i e n t l a n d use  is. i n c r e a s i n g .  answer to t h i s problem i s more i n t e g r a t e d use  c u r r e n t l y being used f o r a s i n g l e purpose.  The  of areas  complexities  o f i n t e g r a t e d l a n d use t h a t would s u c c e s s f u l l y accommodate both an e f f i c i e n t l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n and a s a t i s f a c t o r y camping experience  c o u l d pose a number of problems i n management  planning.  Information r e g a r d i n g the s p e c i f i c needs and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of campers c o u l d prove u s e f u l to f o r e s t r y personnel  3.  engaged i n these i n t e g r a t i o n programs,  Water Brands Increased p r e s s u r e s are b e i n g a p p l i e d to these  agencies  to accommodate h i k i n g and camping groups w i t h i n the watershed areas.  Such areas are u s u a l l y In c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the  p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s and consequently reational value.  would be of prime r e c -  With the implementation  o f proper  security  measures, watershed areas c o u l d p r o v i d e s e l e c t forms of outdoor recreation.  A thorough knowledge of the camper would be  pre-  r e q u i s i t e to any program where s e c u r i t y o f the water supply i s a prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  4.  P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e A s s o c i a t e d with Camping Socio-economic i n f o r m a t i o n concerning p o t e n t i a l customers  v  would be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e t o a p r i v a t e campground operator, camping equipment and R.V. manufacturers,  as w e l l as the many  s e r v i c e agencies a s s o c i a t e d w i t h camping.  5. Agencies  Involved i n Outdoor E d u c a t i o n  Some d i r e c t i o n f o r the s t r u c t u r i n g o f programs u s e f u l t o those camping i n the outdoors may be d e r i v e d from study.  T h i s would i n c l u d e agencies such as park  this  interpretation  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , community r e c r e a t i o n and r e s i d e n t camp programmers,  FUTURE RESEARCH  A d i s t u r b i n g aspect o f the authors' review o f the l i t e r a t u r e was a conspicuous  deficiency of research information  r e l a t e d to camping i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  In a p r o v i n c e  such  ds t h i s , w i t h i t s heavy i n f l u x o f summer campers, and i t s f a l l and w i n t e r campers o f the hunting, f i s h i n g and s k i i n g v a r i e t i e s , there e x i s t s a decided l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n about many phases o f t h i s form o f r e c r e a t i o n .  I n l i g h t o f the mounting animal and human p r e s s u r e s on our parks, the i n c r e a s e d demands on r e c r e a t i o n a l areas by i n d u s t r y , the i n c r e a s e d investment requirements,  and a host o f  other problems, the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h p o l i c y o f our government agencies and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , must be strengthened.  NumereaaLss problems r e l a t e d to camping i n B.C. a r e s p e c i f i c to t h i s province  and must be t r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y and n o t on  the b a s i s o f s o l u t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e t o other p r o v i n c e s o r states.  I f the parks are t o continue perience  f o r f u t u r e generations  p r o v i d i n g a q u a l i t y ex-  o f campers and i f the v a r i o u s  a g e n c i e s a s s o c i a t e d with camping a r e t o r e c e i v e guidance and d i r e c t i o n , then a sound program o f b i o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic r e s e a r c h  Areas o f Research R e q u i r i n g 1.  Current  sociological,  i s essential.  Attention  and p r o j e c t e d overcrowding c o n d i t i o n s i n  e x i s t i n g P r o v i n c i a l parks i n d i c a t e t h a t a need e x i s t s f o r use  l i m i t s t h a t a r e more r e s t r i c t i n g than the mere  imposition  o f fees t h a t i s c u r r e n t l y employed i n most parks.  Studies  i n v o l v i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f  the most h e a v i l y used parks would be a n a t u r a l p r e c u r s o r t o the implementation o f most c o n t r o l measures.  (Since the  completion o f t h i s paper, the author has been made aware o f the implementation o f a c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y program a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.)  2,  Heavy summer use has a l s o made necessary the need  f o r s t u d i e s concerned with the p r e s e r v a t i n n o f e x i s t i n g p l a n t  species  and ground c o v e r s , as w e l l as the f i n d i n g o r c u l t u r i n g  o f s u b s t i t u t e members b e t t e r able  t o withstand r e c r e a t i o n a l  abuses,  3.  S t i l l r e l a t e d t o the problem o f overcrowding i s the  p o s s i b i l i t y presented f o r f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s concerned w i t h camping i n watershed a r e a s ,  P r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s and other  government or m u n i c i p a l preserve a r e a s . off-seasonal  k.  Means o f encouraging  use o f parks might a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d .  The comparative r o l e s o f p u b l i c agencies and p r i v a t e  enterprise  i n the p r o v i s i o n o f camping f a c i l i t i e s should a l s o  be  c o n s i d e r e d from an economic s t a n d p o i n t .  Attention  could  be  d i r e c t e d t o those areas o f the p r o v i n c e where t h i s would  be most advantageous.  P r i v a t e campground operators would a l s o b e n e f i t from enterprise valuable  analysis studies.  information  Suchustudies would p r o v i d e  about capjbtal investment, c o s t and  r e t u r n s , management and other f a c t o r s e s s e n t i a l t o profitable  5.  operations.  Socio-economic s t u d i e s  o f a much l a r g e r s c a l e  t h i s one c o u l d provide u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t r a t o r s and p l a n n e r s , e d u c a t i o n a l £nd  other camping o r i e n t e d  bodies.  thai*  f o r park adminis-  and r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies  6, Parks  The Park I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Branch o f the P r o v i n c i a l  c o u l d study the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i r  r e s o u r c e s - o r i e n t e d parks.  The flmdings o f these s t u d i e s  c o u l d then be used i n the c o n c e p t i o n o f an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n program a p p r o p r i a t e t o the unique q u a l i t i e s o f the parks. 7.  Continuous p r e s s u r e s from r e s o u r c e base i n d u s t r i e s  f o r o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n park boundaries  makes e v i d e n t the  immediate need f o r a r e s e a r c h program o f a p o l i t i c a l A suggested  nature.  area o f p o l i t i c a l r e s e a r c h would i n v o l v e a more  p r o t e c t i v e form o f l e g i s l a t i o n f o r park use than the one c u r r e n t l y i n use.  In the l a s t 5 years the P r o v i n c i a l Park  a r e a has been reduced  6j? m i l l i o n a c r e s .  from 8f m i l l i o n a c r e s to approximately  P a r t o f the blame f o r t h i s r e d u c t i o n may  be a t t r i b u t e d t o A r t i c l e 7 o f the 1965 Park A c t .  Any study  o f a p o l i t i c a l nature should c l o s e l y examine t h i s c l a u s e which has the p r o v i s i o n f o r the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l t o c a n c e l o r r e - e s t a b l i s h any park e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s a c t , and may r e v i s e the boundaries decrease  the area o f the park.  o f any such park t o i n c r e a s e or Under t h i s escape c l a u s e any  C l a s s A park may be r e c l a s s i f i e d to C l a s s B s t a t u s o r even completely  e l i m i n a t e d through an expedient  in closed council.  executive a c t i o n  The c l a u s e a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r the a d j u s t -  ment o f l a n d use i n C l a s s A parks, or even the e l i m i n a t i o n o f l a n d use i n C l a s s B parks, by means o f a simple d i r e c t i v e . study o f t h i s area o f park l e g i s l a t i o n should have a h i g h  A  p r i o r i t y i n the l i g h t of c u r r e n t over-crowding problems and the p a s t abuses p e r p e t r a t e d w i t h i n P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n the name of f r e e e n t e r p r i s e .  8.  As the camper i n organized campgrounds gains  confidence  i n h i s a b i l i t y <bd> l o o k a f t e r h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y outdoors there i s a tendency f o r some campers to t u r n to more c h a l l e n g i n g forms of camping.  Numerous f a c t o r s i n d i c a t e t h a t  there w i l l be an a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the number o f people becoming i n v o l v e d i n w i l d e r n e s s future.  At the present  camping w i t h i n the near  time, v e r y l i t t l e  information i s  a v a i l a b l e about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the B r i t i s h Columbia wilderness  camper, h i s equipment or the areas a v a i l a b l e f o r  t h i s form of campigg. wilderness  Much more i n f o r m a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g the  camper i s needed i n view o f the impending c l a s h e s  between the views and needs o f resource based f r e e e n t e r p r i s e and  those r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s who  a t t a c h i n c r e a s e d importance to  the s a f e t y v a l v e v i r t u e s of w i l d e r n e s s and Notei  the urban  man.  During the course of t h i s study and subsequent to i t s completion i t has been brought to the writer's a t t e n t i o n t h a t s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to i t s items one to three i n c l u s i v e and item e i g h t have been undertaken a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  REFERENCES  ee  1.  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Smith, J u l i a n , "Developements i n the F i e l d o f E d u c a t i o n A f f e c t i n g Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources". Study Report No. 22, Outdoor Recreatio-n Resources Review Commission, 1960, p.-134.  53.  S t i r r e t t , G.M. "The R o l e of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the Management o f Parks". 2nd F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s C o n f e r e n c e , Ottawa, November 1963  54.  Spence, J.T. a t a l . Elementary S t a t i s t i c s Ed. 2, A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1968 p. 199  55.  T a y l o r , Gordon D. and Edwards. R. Y o r k s , "A Survey o f Summer V i s i t o r s to W e l l s Gray Park, B r i t i s h Columbia". The F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 36(4) 1960 pp 346-354  56.  T h e o b o l d , R. " L e i s u r e , I t s Meaning and 1964 pp.9-10  57.  U d a l l , Stewart L. " C a l l Them Human L i f e Refuges". r u a r y p. 26  58.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l , S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n . "Recommendations C o n c e r n i n g the S a f e g u a r d i n g of the Beuuty and C h a r a c t e r of Landscape and S i t e s " Geneva Conference 12th S e s s i o n , P a r i s , December 1962  59.  U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r Yearbook. D.C. 20240. 1967 p. 8  60.  " F i r s t World C o n f e r e n c e on N a t i o n a l P a r k s " P r o c e e d i n g s : S e r v i c e , U.S. Department o f the I n t e r i o r 1971  61.  W i l c o x A.T. 1968  Implications".  R e c r e a t i o n LVII January  Audubon 70(1) January - Feb-  "The T h i r d Wave" Washington  Washington N a t i o n a l  Park  "The C h a l l e n g e o f L e i s u r e " Trends i n Parks and R e c r e a t i o n (3) J u l y pp 21-23  APPENDIXES  APPENDIX A A N ANNOTATED B I B L I O G R A P H Y O F SOME CANADIAN AND AMERICAN STUDIES R E L A T E D TO THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC  FACTORS I N  POST 1 9 6 0  CAMPING  A.  Canadian  1. Park,  Studies  Benson,  A.  Canadian W i l d l i f e Benson,  attendance of  Dennis  using  at  a set  campgrounds  grounds  i n  2. Report  i n  3.  devised 1964  An A n a l y s i s  Fundy N a t i o n a l P a r k  University of  camping  34.  Purpose  as  The  estimate  campground for  or  gtcup  remaining  camp-  analysis.  National Park,  Same E l e m e n t s  1964.  Research  i n  the  National  Brunswick.  of  MSc  surveys  Demand  Ag,  for  Ontario  Economics.  1966.  Ontario Provincial Parks.  for designing  H.N.  Prince Albert National Park Service  and  locating parks  Econo-  to  meet  t h e s t u d y was  primitive.  -  -  V i s i t o r Use  Planning Department  Survey  of  -  Indian  1967 Affairs  1968.  i n  to  assess  the r e c r e a t i o n a l Impact  the n o r t h - c e n t r a l area of  campground were i n v o l v e d i n and  i n New  Guelph, Thesis,  a basis  National Parks  of  of  camper demand i n  this water oriented park  serviced  National  needs.  and N o r t h e r n Development  of  to Fundy  Jasper  1965.  estimation base  regression  in  attempted to  c o n d u c t i n g camper use  R.G.  Parks.  Nixon  for  at  future  types  Jasper Park.  the best  study  models were used  in  Campgrounds  and M a r g o l i e s ,  The V i s i t o r  a method  metric  No.  in  determined by  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o  Report  Bury  campgrounds  G o r d o n D.  Rogers,  4.  Attendance at  1965.  a  Provincial  of  t h a t wtfuld p r o v i d e  Taylor,  Taylor Parks,  the methods of  of  Service Unpublished Manuscript.  t h e p a r k was  14,  Study  the study:  fully  of  park  Saskatchewan.  serviced,  visitors Three  partially  5.  Nixon, H.N. Elk. Island National Park - Visitor Use Survey 1967, Report 35,  National Parks Service Planning Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. A survey of recreational use of the Aspen parkland area of Central Alberta. The survey was conducted i n three part; a gate survey of exi; ting v i s i t o r s , data collection on campground use and distribtuion of visitors i n the recreation area.  B.  American Studies 1.  Hutchins, H.C. andE.W. Trecker. The State Park Visitor Technical Bulletin  22 Wisconsin Conservation Dept.  1961.  This study examined the socio-economic background of visitors to Wisconsin state parks for purposes of providing a s t a t i s t i c a l base fer estimates of future space requirements for non urban recreation. 2.  Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission.  Study Report 2 0 . Factors  Affecting Demand Among American Adults. 1 9 6 2 . A major study based on the premise that socio-economic characteristics as well as demographic factors were major determinants i n the amount and kind of outdoor recreation i n which people engage. 3.  Wagar J.A. Relationships Between Visitor Characterisitics and Recreation  Activities i n Tiro Natintwl Forest Areas.  U.S. Forest Service Paper N.E. 7 1963.  Significant differences were noted between users of the Stu<art Recreational Area i n West Virginia and the Twin Lakes Recreation Area i n northwestern Pennsylvania for variables such as age, income, education, marital status, distance from home, reason for v i s i t , etc.  Cushwa,  4. Estimates Forest,  and  Charles  T.,  Predictions  Burd  i n  and W i l d l i f e ,  McGuinnes  the North  V i r g i n i a B u l l e t i n 558,  Forestry  S.  River  and  Thomas H.  A r e a , George  Ripley  Washington  Agricultural Experimental Station,  Virginia Polytechnic  Institute  Forest  Recreation  National  Department  Blacksburg,  Virginia,  of January  1965. Over  160G  socio-economic  5. Porest.  Forest  study  of  was  W.R.  of  camping  7.  Moss.  August  andW.D. was  i n  adult  and  see  types  of  Family  L.S,  19  i f  relationships  use  made  Campers  of  the  Using  September  the  existed  between  area.  Huron-Manistee  National  1965.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as  well  as  their  implica-  design.  Wenger  based  areas  upon  a  Oregon.  of  the  e t c . were  Some Human  study  1962 Kinds  selection of  some  spacings  W.T.  of  Paper  l o c a t i o n aid  upon  families  campsite  and  to  concerned w i t h camper  theWoods  experiences  other,  Research  Report  1967  and  examined  Characteristics  campground  TMs  hood  amounts  U.S.  Burch  and Lake  factors  D.A*  for  6.  were  King  This tions  respondents  of  forest  Aspects  of  740  campers  p e o p l e who activities,  attitudes of considered  of  different  intbe  Camping,  camp, the  i n  theThree  Sisters  influence of economic  usersgroups  child-  position  toward  each  report.  American  Forest  70(8) 24-25,  1964.  This  report  dealt with  University  of  program  teaching  of  conducted by biographic  Georgia  and  graduate  and  and  a study  the  Georgia Forest  research  students  socio-economic  undertaken by  i n  using  outdoor  Research  forms  of  Council  recreation.  2 schedule  Information*  thcSchool  to  Over  Forestry as  the  a beginning  7000  gatjher  of  interviews  user  to  a  were  satisfaction,  APPENDIX CLASSIFICATION  B  AND ATTENDANCE  INFORMATION  ON B R I T I S H COLUMBIA P R O V I N C I A L  PARKS  CLASSIFICATION INFORMATION ON BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL PARKS  Class A Parka Number;  12  Acreage; 1,918,968 These are wilderness areas of 40,000 acres or more* They are Intended to preserve outstanding, natural, scenic, and historic features of the province for public recreation.  Class B Parks Number;  9  Acreage;  1,018  Areas of h i s t o r i c a l , ethnological, or archeological attraction.  Other  resource use i s permitted i n these parks, provided i t does not unduly Impair recreational values.  Lands are reserved from sale.  Class C Parks Number;  3  Acreage; 12,981 These are unique natural areas or tsonuments, often used mainly by local residents.  Multiple resources use i f permitted along with recreation.  Reserved from sale.  Class D Parks Number; 65 Acreage; 4,497,292 This type of park consists of a natural environment recreation area i n excess of 500 acres. Class E Parks Number; 148 Acreage 12,823 A park possessing specialized outdoor recreation areas. I t contains less than 500 acres that are intensively developed. Class F Pakra Number; 4 Acreage; 857 These are parkway and highway parks, including roadside picnicking and campin? areas, of less than 25 acres* Class G Parks Number; 2 Acreage; 15,345 This i s a form of land bank and i s considered as a park and recreational reserve area.  Total number of parks (not including Class G)  —  Total acreage (not including Class G ) — — —  269 6,443,939  The above information applies up to June 30, 1968, and i s compiled annually.  These  figures and classifications were drawn from the Federal Provincial Parks Conference, 1968;  Park Classification System National and Provincial Parks.  Attendance figures and distribution percentages for the Study Parks for the year 1967 as collected by the Department of Recreation and Conservation are expressed i n the following table.  The number of visitors figures include day use visitors as  well as those visitors who have spent at least one night i n the park. The place of residence for the park visitors to the four parks i s expressed as a percentage distribution*  TABLE $£XJX ; ATTENDANCE FIGURES AND DISTRIBUTION PERCENTAGES FOR THE FOUR STUDY PARKS FOR THE YEAR 1967 CAMP  NUMBER OP VISITORS  PERCENT DIST.  TOTAL  Day  Night  Total  B.C.  Golden Ears  331,676  430,996  832,672  83.3  5.8  10.9  100%  Kokanee Cr.  58,984  10,696  69,680  54.0  22.5  23.3  100%  Monck  19,176  26,568  45,744  79.4  5.3  15.3  100%  Bamberton  58,978  18,040  77,018  72.6  13.5  13.9  100%  Canada U.S.A.  APPENDIX C  THE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE  The Questionnaire A.  Characteristics of the Respondent  1.  'what i s your age please? 1. 20 years or less 2. 21-29 years. 3. 3 0 - 3 1 years. 4. 4 0 - 4 9 years. 5. 5 0 - 5 9 years. 6.  60 years or more.  2. Your marital status please. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3. "What kind 1. 2. 3. 4• 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 4.  single married divorced widowed separated of work do you do? free professional salaried professional semi-professional s elf-employed high white collar low white collar skilled wages unskilled wages social work journalism forestry other  Mi at was the f i n a l grade that you completed i n school? 1. grade 8 or less 2. some high school 3. high school graduation 4 . some university 5- university graduation 6. post graduate work at university 7. advanced degreee  5. Please examine this card, then t e l l me the number that corresponds to your family income (hand card to respondent) 1. $5000 or less 2. 5001 to $7,999 3. 8000 to 9,999 4. 10,100 to 14,999 5. 15,000 to 19,000 6. 20,000 or more.  6.  How many members (including children) are i n your party? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  7.  respondent only 2 people 3 - 5 persons 6 - 1 0 persons 1 1 - 2 0 persons  What i s the length of your paid yearly vacation? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  1 week or less 1 - 2 weeks 3 weeks 4 weeks 5 - 7 weeks 2 - 3 months 6 months or more  8. How did you spend your summer vacation last year? 1. camping 2. other outdoor activities 3. travelling 4. v i s i t i n g 5. stayed home 6. other 9.  Are you a member of any forms of outdoor association or club? 1. yes 2. no  10.  What are the total number of camping trips that you have made?  11.  1. 2. 3. 4. About how  1st t r i p 2 - 5 trips 6 - 1 0 trips more than 11 many camping trips do you make during the year?  1. 1 t r i p 2. 2 trips 3. 3 trips 4. 4 trips or more. 12.  What was your age when you took your f i r s t camping trip? 1. 2. 3. 4.  10 11 19 31  years or less - 18 - 30 years or more  13.  Sex of the Respondent. 1. 2.  B.  14.  The Camping  2 days or less 3 - 4 days 5 - 7 days & - 14 days 15 days or more  VJhen you leave this campsite w i l l you be travelling i n to another Provincial Park campground? 1.  2.  3. 16.  Trip  About how long do you plan to stay at this campsite? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  15.  male female  yes no undecided  If yes to the last question how many Provincial Parks w i l l you v i s i t on this trip? 1.  2  3. 4. 5.  4 5 6 or more  2. 3  17.  Which of the following statements best expresses your feelings about the length of time available to you for camping? 1. 2. 3.  more camping time desirable less camping time desireable time spent i s about right  Please read the card. On this card are l i s t e d some of the more common objections to camping. Which of these objections apply to the B.C. Provincial campgrounds that you have visited? IS.  Large parties travelling together  19.  Difficulty i n finding isolation from other campers  20.  Large numbers of insects  21.  Vandalism, theft and rowdyism  22.  L i t t e r e d or run-down campsites.  23.  Too few campsites  24.  Jeeps, motorbikes and motor boats i n the area  25.  Poor t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s  26.  Lack of firewood  27.  Others  28.  What recommendations, i f any, would you suggest f o r t h i s campground? (Answers subjectively recorded.)  29.  Disregarding equipment purchased, what w i l l be the t o t a l cost of this trip? 1.  2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  30.  2. 3. 4. 5.  $1.00  or l e s s  $1.01 to $3.00 $3.01 to $5.00 $5.01 to $10.00 $10.01 or more.  How f a r i s your home from t h i s campgrounds? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  32.  $26 to $50.00 $51 to $100.00 $101 to $200.00 $201 to 300.00 $301 to $500.00 $501 to $1000.00 $1000 or more.  How much i s i t costing you per person per day? 1.  31.  $25 or l e s s  50 miles or l e s s 51 - 100 miles 101 - 250 miles 251 - 500 miles 501 - 1000 miles 1001 plus miles  Type of shelter being used. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  tent travel trailer station wagon, van, car, mobile home camper truck camper t r a i l e r  33.  Would you prefer to see separate accommodation campsites for tent and recreational vehicle campers?  1. yes 2. no 3. C.  makes no difference  Motivation for Camping  As I l i s t some of the reasons given by people for camping, would you please indicate whether you feel the reason to be: 1. 2. 3.  very important f a i r l y important unimportant  34.  to relax—take i t easy  35.  to spend time together as a family  36.  because i t i s a healthy holiday  37.  to provide a change of pace i n the daily l i v i n g routine  38.  to observe and enjoy nature  39.  to enjoy pure air and water  40.  to practice camping s k i l l s  41.  to enjoy the social l i f e of a campground  42.  to get away from crowds  43.  to experience a more primitive form of l i v i n g  44.  to get to know the province better  45.  to escape the sights, sounds and smells of the city  46.  for religious reasons  47.  for financial reasons  D. 48.  Education for the Outdoors Have you attended any form of adult education courses i n your work, community or schools?  1. yes 2. no  49.  I f "yes" t o question 48, were any of these courses related t o camping? 1.  2. 50.  yes no  Would you be interested i n attending adult education courses that dealt with some phase of camping i f i t were offered i n your community? 1.  2.  yes no  Please look at t h i s card. l i k e to know more about?  Which of the l i s t e d a c t i v i t i e s would you  59.  wilderness camping  photography  60.  hunting  53.  hiking (areas, equipment)  61.  woods s u r v i v a l  54.  mountain climbing  62.  swimming  55.  basic rock recognition  63.  amateur astrology  56.  woodcraft and camping s k i l l  64.  map reading and d i r e c t i o n f i n d i n g  57.  amateur nature study  65.  camp cooking  58.  canoeing, kyaking, r a f t i n g .  66.  How would you prefer t o gain t h i s information?  51.  fishing  52.  nature  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 67.  Would you l i k e t o see the B.C. Parks Branch publish a book des c r i b i n g the l o c a t i o n , f a c i l i t i e s , h i s t o r y , natural features, a c t i v i t i e s , etc. a v a i l a b l e i n B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Parks? 1.  2.  3. 68.  books and magazines extension and night school courses T.V. or radio series correspondence courses experience on-site i n s t r u c t i o n apprentic eship  yes no undecided  Would you l i k e to see a nature program i n some form, made a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s park? 1.  2.  3.  yes no undecided  APPENDIX D REC0H-1ENDAT IONS OF RESPONDENTS FOR THE STUDY PARKS  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b y Campers f o r E a c h o f t h e F o u r P a r k s  Visited  The. f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t some o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e replies  given  t o q u e s t i o n 22 o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ;  ommendations, w o u l d you s u g g e s t  Golden a.  rec-  campground?"  Ears  "Kould l i k e  ailable.  for this  "Ivhat  to see a shower house w i t h h o t w a t e r av-  T h e s e c o u l d he o n a m e t e r s y s t e m s l i k e  10c f o r 3  minutes. ' 1  N.B.  A b o u t 1 1 r e q u e s t s w e r e made f o r s h o w e r b.  ''Some c a r s s t i l l  so-called  11.00 p.m.  facility.  seem t o b e r e a r i n g a r o u n d a f t e r  gate c l o s u r e .  Hake s u r e  the  the gate i s closed  b y 1 1 . 0 0 p.m. ' 1  c.  ' I n some o f o i r s t a t e s  s e w a g e dumos f o r t h e i r 2.  the garages near the park  customers.  I t wo \ l d w o r k un  have  here,"  JCokanee C r e e k . a.  "The s w i m m i n g  coloured b.  a r e a s h o u l d be marked o f f w i t h  brightly  f l o a t s . , some m o t o r b o a t s a r e c o m i n g t o o s l o s e . ''"'ore p u l l - o f f  , !  a c c o m m o d a t i o n s n e e d e d i n more o f t h e  campsites.'' c.  " T h i s p l a c e r e a l l y n e e d s more c a m p s i t e s .  much t o o f f e r mendation •in d. e. ching  "I'd.  the v i s i t o r . this like  N.B.  Commonly r e g i s t e r e d  recom-  campsite. t o see a c e n t r a l cook shack."  ' C o u l d y o u make a c a m p s i t e a r e a c l o s e  point?"  I t has so  to the boat  laun-  3 •_ Monck Jjark a.  I'd like to see a mobile van come in here a couple of times  a week for about 2 hours so we could buy food." b.  "They really should have a control gate here that could  he closed at 11.00 p.m.  That would keep out the rowdy element  from Karoloops or Tierritt. ' :  c.  II.B. Mentioned 4 times.  "Mark off that swimming area before somebody gets clipped  with a motorboat." d.  "Can't they get a well closer to the campsite., or more wells  II.B. Mentioned 11 times. e.  "This beach drops off q lite sharply i n places I would like  to see i t levelled out more." f.  ''There should be another beach down the lake for people  coming from Merritt." 4_.  ?> a i]^§. r ^. 0 il  a. 'They should do something about a l l this dust., every time :  a car drives by." N.B.  Mentioned 8 times.  b.  'Some self-guided walks would be nice.'  c.  "Extend driveways on some sites to accommodate trailers, or  1  angle the driveways and have a pull-through. ' 1  d.  'Numbered campsites co ild be listed according to the  road that they are sit uted on, and a large map posted. It's darn hard to find a particular campsite here. l i s t the campsites i t contains.'' N.B.  Each loop should  "lentioned 4 times.  APPENDIX E DEFINITIONS  DEFINITION OF TERMS Aesthetic Values—The finer intangible and cultural park values, a3 distinguished from material and economic values.  Scenic beauty, inspiration values, the op-  portunity to see and appreciate nature, are aesthetic; the benefits of fresh a i r , sunshine, and a; good place to camp are more "material". Camper Day—A s t a t i s t i c a l unit of park use consisting of the passing of one night by one camper i n a park.  The number of v i s i t o r days by one camper Is always one  more than the number of camper days during one stay. Camper T r a i l e r — A canvas, or other folding structure, mounted on wheels and designed for travel, recreation and vacation use. Camper Trucks—Trucks on whose box, deck, or chassis a shelter structure, or after-cabin, has been attached, or separately mounted, to form a single unit for purposes of travel.  The after-cabin usually contains sleeping and cooking f a c i l -  i t i e s , and may, or may not, contain sanitary f a c i l i t i e s . Camping—The living out of dooos, overnight, using for shelter a bedroll, sleeping bag, t r a i l e r , tent, truck or hut open on one or more sides, when the person takes his own bedding, cooking equipment, and food with him.  Formal camps  such as the Y.M.C.A. are excluded. Campsite—A single, clearly designated location i n which i s provided a place and f a c i l i t i e s for camping by an individual, a family or a party.  Sny; camping unit.  Campground—A grouping of campsites l a i d out, where possible, i n organized fashion, according to a designed capacity.  Cashing.Area—A general term for a plot of land which i s used, or intended, as a location for camping, and which may or may not be developed with f a c i l i t i e s for camping. Day Camping—A type of use common i n recreation areas near centers of population, and i n a few parks similarly located.  Families or groups occupy a campsite or  camping f a c i l i t y for the day only, cooking and eating meals i n the camp and using i t as a base for hiking or other recreation.  Day camping i s distinct from  picnicking, though the former generally involves use of a site over a longer period during the day, full-scale cooking of camp meals, etc. Day Use—Visitor entry or activity in.ia park, c r given section of s. park, that does not involve staying overnight. Expenditure—The payment of cash, or where accounting i s on the accrual basis, the incurrence of a l i a b i l i t y for the purpose of acquiring an asset, goods or services, or settling a loss. Facilities—Improvements  and other naterial things provided for the use, accomodation  and convenience of p.ark v i s i t o r s , oa for the use of service personnel i n carrying out their work. Usages are indicated by the following common expressions:  facilities  and services, visitor-use f a c i l i t i e s , service f a c i l i t i e s , concession f a c i l i t i e s , structures and f a c i l i t i e s .  (In this last expression, " f a c i l i t i e s " refers to those  that are non-structural such . & campgrounds, roads, t r a i l s and u t i l i t i e s ) . Motivation—The inclination to do: basic to employee productivity; also basic to study of recreators.  Motor  Home—A p o r t a b l e ,  and v a c a t i o n ,  Multiple  for as  the  to  gical or  areas  uses for  association  they  a  area  which  orienting  or  interpretation; or  tion  or  more  of  a  suited  an  may  refers  t o mean a  to  areao  and  in  a  recreation vehicle.  scheme  within  for  such  of  the  units  use  a multiple  of  land  i d e n t i f i e d and p r e s e r v e d  are  use  mean  The  of  una  scheme.  containing  intact  used  purposes  does not  simultaneously.  tract  mansg^ment  additional  Multiple  place  occur  travel,  self-propelled  optimum use. take  for  for  an  its  ecoloscientific  interest.  attended  station,  rather  commonly,  than  manned that  an unattended  for  of  the  giving  primary general  purpose information  station  equipped  with  the  designed  or  orienta-  devices.  Camping—The  capacity  of  park  or  directing visitors,  Overflow  party  be3t  taken  t o be  Station—Either  of  are  puppoae  is  Is  used  l a n d , whereby  t r a c t should  interpretative-recreational  Orientation  of  their best of  to be  l a n d , m u l t i p l e use  a single  Area—Natural  dwelling  an i n t e g r a l p a r t  to  for which  a l l possible  Natural  respect  conflict with  individual  as  fairly largeeunlts  purposes  do n o t  that  constructed  Use—With  applicable  temporary  usage not  Park—An  a  campground  is  made  regularly  area  administered  Park-Resource  condition which  set by  a  or  of  group  used  for  aside  camping camps, camping  solely  competent  Oriented—A  or  occurs  area is sites are  or  when  (1)  spaces,  utilized for  primarily  (2)  exceeded;  or  individual, (3)  such  for public  other  assigned family  locations  or in  purposes.  outdoor  recreation  and  authority.  Resource  Oriented  Park  is  one w h i c h  has  been  selected  the  on  the bo3is  of  high  eatphasis  i n  development  The  considered  quality natural  appropriate  Selection  of  occurring  attractions.  Park  resource  *ew  values  of  Park  conceptG, a v i s i t  Values—The  sum  to  the  enjoyment  visitors.  V i s i t — A n  primarily  Park or  one who  Parking degree for  one  space,  other  entry  enjoyment  V i s i t o r — A  for parking or  of  space a  many  disturb  be  guided  things and  a park—the  by  one  the park  the  landscape.  tha natural by  a park  the  Uses  atmosphere.  location of  v i s i t o r  responses  scenic,  does;  naturally  his  '-Thich c o n t r i b u t e  inspirational, contribute  p e r s o n whose purpose  offers  and not  enters  a park  for  attractions of  a pork  in  with  defined boundaries,  considerable  turnout,  must  reactions  apark  what  two v e h i c l e s  spur,  of  least  recreational factors—that  into  the  which  alteration of  attractions.  impresto  the  park.  r e c r e a t o r who  enjoys  Area—A  total  qualities of  and  Park  those  emotional  educational, of  on minimal  oriented parks  Experiences—The  sions,  aea  is  attractions, frequently scenic  or  or  for  car  number and  pull-through  of  enjoyment passing  the  is  more  case  the benefit  while  in  and  the park  is  business.  of  what  through  designed  vehicles.  trailer (as  other  to  aesthetic,  and  the park  offers,  i t .  developed  to  Jjome  A place providing  parking  properly  parking  may b e ) ,  termed a  rather  than a  parking  area.  Park the  Interpretation—Aims use  of  original  to  r e v e a l meanings  objects, by  f i r s t hand  and  relationships  experience  and by  in  nature  through  i l l u s t r a t i v e media  rather than simply to communicate factual Information. Picnic Area—A general term for a plot of land which i s used, or intended, as a location for picnicking, and which may or may not be developed with f a c i l i t i e s for picnicking. Primitive Area—An area i n which wilderness conditions prevail but other uses may be allowed under s t r i c t supervision. Recreation—Recreation  Thatarea i s usually less than 100,000 acres.  i s the volitive and pleasurable use of leisure time. Out-  door recreation refers to activities occurring i n an outdoor environment. Recreationist—A professional or technical worker In the f i e l d of recreation. Recreation Surveys—Studies, appraisals, and inventories of recreation resources and a c t i v i t i e s , i n a region, or i n the nation as a whole, for use i n integrating recreational, cultural, and economic needs of the people both present and .future. Recreation Visitor-Day—A visitor-day which has been spent by persona i n any activities except those which are part of or incidental to thepursuit of a gainf u l occupation. Recreator—A participant i n recreation. Trailer-Self-Contained—A  t r a i l e r which can operate indepently of connections to  sewer, water and electric system.  It contains a water-flushed t o i l e t , lavatory,  shower and kitchen sink, a l l of which are connected to water storage end sewage holding tanks located within the t r a i l e r .  Travel T r a i l e r — A vehicular.portable structure built on a chassis, designed as a temporary dwelling for travel, recreation and vacation.  (Park use statistics  w i l l Boubtless c a l l for counts on 'dependent travel t r a i l e r s " or 'self contained travel t r a i l e r s " :  ditto, camper trucks, etc.)  Unattended contact—A s t a t i s t i c a l unit of interpretive service, consisting of information given a v i s i t o r by a museum, exhbiit, or interpretive device unattended by a park employee. Use Area—Section of a park developed and managed to provide access, f a c i l i t i e s , and services for public use, management, and administration, as distinguished from back-country or wilderness sections.  This term may also refer to any place  i n a park, whether developed and managed or not, which receives appreciable human use. V i s i t — T h e entry of any person into a site or an area of land or water, generally recognized as providing outdoor recreation.  V i s i t s may occur either as recreation  v i s i t s or as non-recreation v i s i t 3 . Visitor Center—An installation consisting of a building, or a combination of buildings and f a c i l i t i e s , serving as the main ounter for information, orientation, reception, and ofteu visitor-service and interpretation fi€r visitors to a park or to an .important area of a large park.  Most connconly, the tent "visitor center"  i s used i n place of the terms "museum-administration building) or "public use building", and i n place of park headquarters" when i t i s combined with the :J  superintendent's office*  Visitor Day—Twelve v i s i t o r hour3, which may he aggregated continuously, intermittently, or simultaneoualy by one or more persons.  Visitor-days r:my occur either  as recreation visitor-days or as non-recreation v i s i t o r days. Visitor Use—The presence and activities of visitors within a park. Wilderness—A natural setting which i s preserved by man with a minimum of interference i n natural processes and which provides the opportunity to escape from contact with c i v i l i z a t i o n .  APPENDIX P TABLES SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SELECTED VARIABLES  Occupation .and Previous Attendance i n Adult Education Courses CAMP  Occupation  1  Professional Hon Professional  2  3  Yea  Ho  %  11 8  58 42  9 7  56 44  7 14  88 52  13  48  12 12  86 57  4  2  .06 1.95  9  43  10 23  29 66  P  7?p  .79 .16 .70  1.99  .15  .01  .88  and Interest In Attending Cemping Typ,e Adult Educational Courses CAMP  Occupation  1  Professional Non Professional  2  3  4  Yes:  No  P  10 14  29  m  29  5 18  14 51  10  29  4 14  11 40  17  49  6 15  17 43  4 10  11 29  2.35  .12  .01  .88  2.35  .12  .15  .70  ?C?p  and Length of Vacation Period CAMP  Occupation  1  Professional Non Professional  P  No  Yes 17 43  .88  9  14 26  .01  15  2  5 19  14 54  2 9  6 26  .07  .78  3  3 22  9 63  9  26  7 15  20 43  3 10  9 29  4  6  .06 .18  .67  .03  .84  Occupation and Enjoyment of Camping Social Life Motive CAMP  Occupation  1  Professional Non professional  Important  8  23  18 7  51 20  9  26  8 18  23 51  15  43,  13 6  37 17  11 23  12 11  34 31  2  3  4  Unimportant  4 8  X*  P  "X^p  .01 2.06  .15  .00  .5?  .49  and Esca pe City Motive CAMP  Occupation  1  Professional Non Professional  Important  Unimportant  S  2  P  31 49  .12  20  11 17  2.39  7  20 60  .35  20  7 21  .90  7  U 54  .33  34  4 19  .95  12  29 63  .23  .64  9  10 22  2  3  4 3  *?p  1.46  and Financial Motive P  Important  Unimportant  11  11 20  31 57  .75  4 7 28  20 80  7 28  20 80  .00  3  4 29  11 86  .39  .54  4  10  29 66  01  .88  CAMP  Occupation  1  Professional Non Professional  2  23  X?p  .39  .44  Occupation and Number of Camping Trips Bach Year CAMP  Occupation  X  Professional Non Professional  2  3  4  2 Trips or Less  3 Trips or Mora  6 10  17 29  5 14  14 40  5 7  14 20  21  60  .12  .73  40  2 17  6  14  4 11  11  6 14  17 40  ,03  .84  3 L  7C .12  3.49  2  V  x . 2  .73  .06 .43  and Health Motive for Camping CAMP  Occupation  1  Professional Hon Professional  2  3  29 49  .77  .38  11 49  .07  .78  31  4 17  74  3 5  9 14  31  8 14  23 40  20  3 11  9  11  P  10 17  7  •26  4  Unimportant  Important  1.51  .04 .88  .35  "X?  P  and Enjoyment of Nature Motive for Capping CAMP  Occupation  1  Professional Non Professional  Important  Unimportant  4 14  11 40  7 10  20 29  .71  .40  2  5 11  14 31  2 17  6 49  1.22  .27  3  3 22  9 63  .18  .67  9  26  4 12  11 34  6 13  17 37  .00  .95  4  3C*p  Distance of Home f~on Campground and Occupation CAMP 1  Distance 250 Miles or Less 251 Miles or More  Professional  T C P 3 ? p  6 5  17 14  13 11  37 31  .12  .73  20 60  .35  20  7 21.  ,90  7  11 20  31 57  .00  .95  19 6  54 17  2.66  ,10  2  3 4  Non-Professional  4 6  11 17  and Length of Vacation Period CAMP 1  Distance 250 Miles or Less 2 5 1 Miles or More  2  3  3 Weeks or Less 11 10  31 29  8  23 17  .00  .95  6  3 21  9 60  4 7  11 20  1.40  .23  23 49  5 5  14 14  .37  .55  17  15 7  43 20  3 5  23 14  .00  .95  .00  .95  .08  .77  .22  .64  .00  .95  8  4  4 Weeks or More  Occupation and Length of Stay at Campsite CAMP  Occupation  1  Professional Non Professional  2  .4'T»ays or Less  .S'Tusga or More 4 7  11 20  14 60  7  20  16  46  15  43  7 16  20 46  3 9  9 26  7 17  20 49  5 21  3 4  Distance of Home From Campground and Length of Stay CAMP  Distance  4 Days or Less  5 Days or More  %  P  11 13  31 37  8  23 9  1.25  .26  3  2  5 21  14 60  2 7  6 20  .08  .77  3  7 11  20 31  6 11  17 31  .02  .86  4  15  43 23  8  23 11  .08  .77  4  1  250 M i e s or Less 251 Miles or More  8  and Age CAMP  Distance  :39^Vesr9o!c_tess 40 Years or More X^  P  8 3  23 9  11 13  31 37  1.25  .26  2  3  9 34  4 16  11 46  .18  .67  3  4 10  11 29  9 12  26 34  .25  .62  4  14 3  40 9  9 9  26 26  2.75  .09  1  250 Miles or Less 251 Miles or More  X p 2  and Income CAMP 1  Distance 250 Miles or Less 251 Miles or More  $7,999 or Less  $8,000 or More  13 6  37 17  6 10  17 29  2.21  .13 .56  40  14 40  .35  14  5 14  5 15  14 43  8 7  23 20  1.86  9 3  26 9  14 9  40 26  2 3  X  V  X p  1.54  .21  .17 .65  Income and Financial Motive for Camping CAM?  Income  Important  Unimportant  PC?  P  12 12  34 34  7 4  20 11  .15  .70  2  4 7  11 20  12 12  34 34  .15  .70  3  8 5  23 14  12 10  34 29  .00  .95  4  7 9  20 26  5 14  14 40  .53  .47  1  $7,999 or Leas $8,000 or More  % p 2  and Previous Attendance In Adult Education Courses CAMP  Income  Yes  7?  No  P  1  $7,999 or Less 9 $8,000 or More 10  26 29  10 6  29 17  .31  .58  2  8 13  23 37  8 6  23 17  .58  .45  3  14 10  40 29  6 5  17 14  .02  .86  4  9 20  26 57  3 3  9 9  .18  .67  % p 2  and Interest i n Attending i n Camping Oriented Adult Education Courses CAliP  Income  Yea  No  X?  P  1  $7,999 or Less 10 $8,000 or More 14  29 40  9  26  3.41  .06  2  12 11  34 31  4 8  11 23  .50  .49  3  11 7  31 20  9 8  26 23  .02  .86  4  7 14  20 40  5 9  14 26  .05  .81  ^p  Income and Change of Face Motive for Camping CAMP  Income  Important  Unimportant  X  2  P  1  $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less 1 2 $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More 1 4  34 40  7  20  1,57  .21  2  10 14  29 40  6 5  17 14  .12  .73  3  16 12  46 34  4 3  11 9  .18  .67  4  9 17  26 49  3 6  9 17  .11  .74  Unimportant  X  P  .79  and Enjoyment of Nature Motive CAMP 1  Income $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More  2  3  4  Important  2  10 8  29 23  9 8  26 23  .03  .84  7 9  20 26  9 10  26 29  .02  .86  12 13  34 37  8  23  1.82  .17  17 29  6 13  17 37  .00  .95  Unimportant  "X  P  6  io:  .46  and Entoyment of Social Life of Camping Motive CAMP 1 2  Income $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More  Important  2  &  6  17 11  13 12  37 34  .00  .93  3 6  9 17  13 13  37 37  .23  ,64  8  23 23  12 7  34 20  .19  .67  4  11 23  8 15  23 43  .08  .77  8''  X?P  ,08  Income and Trip Cose Per Day $ 3 . 0 0 or Less  $ 3 . 0 1 or More  X  2  P  14 17  .12  .73  5 10  14 29  .87  .35  46 23  4 7  11 20  1.73  .18  26 54  3 4  9 11  .01  .88  CAKP  Income  1  $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less 1 4 $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More 1 0  40 29  5 6  2  11 9  31 26  3  16 8  4  9 19  X*P  •56  and Relaxation Motive for Camping CAMP  Income  Important  Unimportant  %  2  P  1  $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less 1 1 $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More 1 2  31 34  8 4  23 11  .50  .49  2  13 12  37 34  3 7  9 20  .65  .43  3  17 13  49 37  3  9  .12  .73  4  9 17  26 49  3 6  9 17  ,11  .74  X?P  and Health Reasons for Camping CAMP 1  Income $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less $ 8 , 0 0 0 or Mora  Important  Unimportant  X  2  P  4 4  11 11  15 12  43 34  .02  .86  5 9  14 26  U 10  31 29  .39  154  3  16 11  46 31  4 4  11 11  .00  .95  4  7 6  20 17  5 17  14 49  2.27  .13  2  X*p  .51  Age and Attendance i n Cooping Oriented Adult Education Courses CAMP  Age  1  29 years or Less 30 years or More  2  YES  NO 17 31  5 13  14 37  .01  ,88  8 9  23 26  7 11  20 31  .02  .86  13 20  37 57  .20  .66  15 15  43 43  .00  .95  4 3  CAMP  and Length o f Stay  Income $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More  P  6 11  3  Income  OC*  9  at  s  .84  Campsite  4 Days or Less  5 Days or More 3C 2  P  14 10  40 29  5 6  14 17  .12  .73  2  9 17  26 49  7  20 3 . 4 3  .06  3  8 10  23 29  12 5  34 1 . 4 9 14  .22  4  6 17  17 49  6 6  17 1 . 0 8 17  .30  1  X*p  and Number of Yearly Camping Trips CAMP 1  Income $ 7 , 9 9 9 or Less $ 8 , 0 0 0 or More  2 Trips or Less  3 Trips or More y&  P  14 9  40 26  5 7  14 20  .53  .47  2  7 5  20 14  9 14  26 40  .53  .47  3  11 8  31 23  9 7  26 20  ,06  .79  4  7 14  20 40  5 9  14 26  .05  .81  ^p  Age and Financial Motive for Camping CAMP  Age  1  29 years or Less 30 years or More  IMPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT  V?  V  7 17  20 49  4 7  11 20  .00  .95  2  5 6  14 17  10 14  29 40  .02  .66  3  5 8  14 23  9 13  26 37  .05  .80  4  10  29 17  7 12  20 34  1.38  .24  6  and Interest i n Park Nature Program INTERESTED  UNINTERESTED  9 19  26 54  5  2  12 16  34 46  3 4  3  11 13  31 37  3 8  4  15 18  43 51  CAMP 1  Age 2 9 years or Less 30 years or More  1  Age 2 9 years or Less 30 years or More  .07  .78  9 11  .18  .67  9 23  .45  .51  .59  .45  YES  NO  , .28  *  P  4 15  11 43  7 9  20 25  1.16  .28  2  10 11  29 31  5 9  14 26  .12  .73  3  11 13  31 37  3  9 23  .45  .51  8  13 16  37 46  4  11  .23  .60  4  X*'9  P  14  and Previous Attendance i n M u l t Education Courses CAMP  a  3C*p  #P  .71  Age and Change of Face Motive for Camping CAMP  Age  IMPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT  "51? 1.94  P  X?p  .16  1  29 years or Less 6 30 years or Mora 2 0  17 57  5 4  14 11  2  12 12  34 34  3 8  9 23  .80  .37  3  10 18  29 51  4 3  11 9  .36  .56  4  11 15  31 43  6 3  17 9  .76  .39  and Enjoyment of Nature Motive CAMP  Age  1  29 years or Leas 30 years or More  0?  IMPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT  V  5 13  14 37  6 11  17 31  .01  .88  2  5 11  14 31  10 9  29 26  .87  .35  3  9 16  26 46  5 3  14 14  .15  .70  4  7 9  20 26  10 9  29 26  .03  .84  and Enjoyment of Social Life of Camping Motive CAMP  Age  1  29 yeara or Lees 30 years or More  IMPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT  3?  P  3 7  9 20  8 17  23 49  .08  .77  2  4 5  11 14  11 15  31 43  .08  .77  3  4 12  11 34  10 9  29 26  1.73  .18  7 5  20 14  10 13  29 37  .23  .64  ^p  Age end Trip Cost Fer Day CAMP  Age  $3.00 or Less  $3.01 or More  X?  P  20 4  57 11  6 5  17 14  1.94  .16  2  17 3  49 9  11 4  31 11  .18  .67  3  18 6  51 17  6 5  17 14  .67  .42  4  25 3  71 9  5  14  .36  .56  1  29 years or Less 30 years or More  -  and Relaxation Motive for Camping CAMP  Age  IMPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT  %  2  P  1  29 years or Less 7 30 years or More 16  20 46  4  6  11 23  .04  .82  2  9 16  26 46  6 4  17 11  .84  .36  3  11 19  31 54  3  9  .24  .63  4  12 14  34 40  5 4  14 11  .01  .88  T^P  .16 .16  and Health for Camping CAMP  Age  IMPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT  X  2  P  1 29 years or Less 30 years or More  3 5  9 14  8 19  23 54  .00  .95  2  7 7  20 20  8 13  23 37  .12  .73  3  8 19  23 54  6  17  3.57  .06  4  5 8  14 23  12 10  34 29  .32  .58  7C?p  Educational Level and Occupation CAMP  Educational Level  Professional Non Professional  X  2  P  11 46  10 5  29 14  .01  20  19 8  54 23  .01  7 3  3 11  9 31  15 6  43 17  .01  A  5 11  14 31  8 U  23 31  1 High School Grad. or Less 4 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 16 2  .10  .75  •67  .42  1.12  .29  % p 2  Ago and Length of Stay et Campsite CAMP 1  ^iNfe* 29 years or Leaa 30 year3 or KGre  2  4  4 Says or Lews 6  5 Days or More 5 6  14 17  18  17 51  13 13  37 37  6 12  17 34  23 26  .64  9  13 10  37 29  4 8  11 23  .90  20 8  .65  .35  And Nu&ber of Camping Tripa Each Year CAMP  AGE  2 Trips or Less  3 Tripa or More  %  2  P  1  29 years or Leas 7 30 years or $©re 16  20 46  4 8  11 23  .04  .82  2  3 7  14 20  10 13  29 37  .07  .78  3  7 12  20 34  7 9  20 26  ,00  .95  4  10 U  29 31  7 7  20 20  .04  .82  0C?p  Educational Level and Interest i n Attending Camping Type Adult Education Courses CAMP  Educational Level  YES  NO  %  P  9 15  26 43  5 6  14 17  .01  .88  2  12 11  34 31  8 4  23 11  .21  .65  3  8 10  23 29  10 7  29 20  .26  .62  4  7 14  20 40  6 8  17 23  .05  .81  1  High School Grad. or Less Univ. Grad. or some Univ. t  Aud  Length o f Yearly  CAMP  Vacation  Educational Level  Xp  Period  3 WEEKS or Less  4 WEEKS or More  %  2  P  1 L High School Grad. or Less Univ. Grad. or some Univ.  10 11  29 31  4 10  11 29  .60  .44  2  14 10  40 29  6  17 14  .02  .86  3  3  13 12  37 34  5 5  14 14  .07  .78  4  9 13  26 37  4 9  11 26  .06  .79  ^p  and Income CAMP  1  Educational Level  $7,999 or Less  $8,000 or More  "X?  P  10 9  29 26  4 12  11 34  1.73  .18  2  11 5  31 14  9 10  26 29  .87  .35  3  14 6  40 17  4 11  11 31  4  7 5  20 14  6 17  17 49  High School Grad. or Less Univ. Grad. or some Univ.  .03  2.27  .13  . 7C?P  Educational Level and Enjoyment of Social Life of Camping CAMP  Educational Level  IMPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT  %  P  4 6  11 17  10 15  29 43  .15  .70  2  6 3  17 9  14 12  40 34  .08  .77  3  11 5  31 14  7 12  20 34  2.38  .12  4  6 6  17 17  7 16  20 46  .59  .45  1  High School Grad. or Less Univ. Grad. or some Univ.  %  pooled  X  pooled  and Interest i n a Park Nature Program CAMP  Educational Level  IMPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT  X  2  P  1  High School Grad. or Less 1 1 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 1 7  31 49  3 4  9 11  .07  .78  2  15 13  43 37  5 2  14 6  .18  .67  13 11  37 31  5 6  14 17  .01  .88  12 21  34 60  .13  .72  3 -  4  2  and Attendance i n Camping Oriented Adult Education Courses CAMP 1  2  Educational Level High School Grad. or Less Univ. Grad. or some Univ.  YES  NO  X?  P  10 7  29 20  4 14  11 40  3.47  .59  12 5  34 14  8 10  23 29  1.16  .28  13 15  51 43  .59  .45  12 18  34 51  .13  .72  3  4 4  11  X  2  p  Educational Level and Health Reasons for Camping CAMP  Educational Level  1  High School Grad. or Less Univ. Grad. or sons Univ.  IitPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT  ^?  P  5 3  1A 9  9 18  26 51  1«1A  .29  2  8 6  23 17  12 9  3A 26  .12  .73  3  15 12  A3 3A  3 5  9 1A  .2A  .63  A  6 7  17 20  7 15  20 A3  .24  .63  ^  pooled  Educational Level and Change of Pace Motive for Capping CAMP 1  Educational Level  IMPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT  X  2  P  .75  .39  nigh School Grad. or Less 12 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 1A  3A AO  7  20  2  13 11  37 31  7 A  20 11  .02  .86  3  1A 1A  AO AO  A 3  11 9  .01  .88  A  10 16  29 A6  3 6  9 17  .02  .86  X? pooled  and Enjoyiaent of Nature Motive CAMP  Educational Level  IMPORTANT  UNIMPORTANT 20 29  X  2  .OA  V .82  L  High School Grad. or Less 7 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 11  20 31  7 10  2  7 9  20 26  ir, 6  37 17  1.27  .26  3  11 U4  31 AO  7 3  20 9  1.03  .31  A  6 10  17 29  7 12  20 34  .10  .75  %  2  pooled  Educational Level and Length of Stay at Campsite CAMP  Educational Level  4 Cays or Leae 5 Days or Kore X  P  1  High School Grad. or Less 8 Univ. Crad. or some Univ. 1 6  23 46  6 5  17 14  .67  .42  2  13 13  37 37  7  20  1.12  .29  3  7 11  20 31  11 6  31 17  1.41  .23  4  7 16  20 46  6 6  17 17  .59  .45  %  pooled  and Trips Each Year '  '  CAM?  •  «  •  •  •  '  '  •  • r  1 - "I .  Educational Level  1  "I  III  I  $3.00 or Less  "II  1  mi  $3.01 or More  .  1 1 1 1  •  1 1 1  %  V  1  High School Grad. or Less 12 Univ. Grad, or some Univ. 12  34 34  2 9  6 26  1.99  .15  2  13 7  37 20  7 8  20 23  .55  .46  3  11 13  31 37  7 4  20 11  .38  ,55  4  12 16  34 46  .922  .34  6  %  1 1 i.r .  1 1 •  pooled  17  and Relaxation Motive For Camping Educational Level  1  High School Grad. or Less 8 Univ. Grad. or some Univ. 1 5  23 43  6 6  17 17  .26  .62  2  17 8  49 23  3 7  9 20  2.80  .09  3  17 13  49 37  1.07  .30  4  11  9 17  26 49  4 5  11 14  .02  .86  4  IMPORTANT  X  CAMP  UNIMPORTANT  1  P  %  2  pooled  

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