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Costumed for a fateful day : inflight work organization and social relationship on commerical jets Nowakowsky, Mary Ann 1971

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COSTUMED FOR A FATEFUL DAY: INFLIGHT WORK ORGANIZATION AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS ON COMMERCIAL JETS by MARY ANN NOWAKOWSKY B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969 (Hons. Soc.) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1971 In present ing th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Depa rtment The Un ivers i ty o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i A b s t r a c t The p a p e r p r e s e n t s a p a r t i a l e t hnography from t h e work s e t t i n g o f c o m m e r c i a l j e t a i r c r a f t . D a t a was c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h p a r t i -c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e work r o l e o f s t e w a r d e s s , m o s t l y on p r e s t i g e o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s . The f l i g h t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e u n i t o f s t u d y and has been t r e a t e d as a s o c i a l o c c a s i o n f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . P o s t f l i g h t d i a r i e s were w r i t t e n up, a d d i t i o n a l d a t a came fr o m o t h e r a i r l i n e s o u r c e s , i . e . manuals o f p r o c e d u r e s , e t c . The p e r s p e c t i v e i s d i r e c t e d from t h e c a b i n crew as a p e r f o r m a n c e team. The a n a l y s i s i s bas e d on t h e ev e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s r o u t i n e l y p e r f o r m e d as o r d e r l y e v e n t s c o m m o n s e n s i c a l l y produced by t h e p e r s o n s l o c a t e d i n t h e s e t t i n g . The ev e r y d a y work day's d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s i . e . crew impermanency, f l i g h t t i m e and spac e p r e s s u r e s , e x c e s s i v e l y l o n g on-duty p e r i o d s , t e m p o r a l m a r g i n a l i t y o f d u t y p e r i o d s , and s t r e s s norms, a r e d e s c r i b e d as a b a s e f r o m w h i c h t o d i s c u s s team p e r f o r m a n c e s . The r e q u i r e m e n t t o s e t up work u n i t s v e r y q u i c k l y , crew impermanence and team p e r f o r m a n c e s a r e p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e need f o r members t o know something about each o t h e r . S t a t u s dimen-s i o n s and j o b s p e c i f i c p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e t h e r e f o r e a r e l e v a n t p a r t o f each p e r s o n ' s f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y w h i c h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l l y p o s i t i v e l y f u n c t i o n a l as a base f r o m w h i c h coworker s e l e c t i o n i s made. i i i A s e t t i n g o r i e n t a t i o n t o e t h n i c i t y i s an outcome o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m many c u l t u r a l g r o u p s i n t h e p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n . Competency i n t h e enactment o f e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s i s p r o b l e m a t i c and c o m m u n i c a t i o n / i n t e r a c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e as a r e s u l t . The l a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s t o p r o v i d e r e l e v a n t k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s ( r e l e v a n t as d e f i n e d by t h e members o f t h e c a b i n crew) n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t t h e y f o r m c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l maps o f t h e s e t t i n g and p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s i s t y p i c a l t o o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s and s e t t i n g s . O t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c a l l y r e l a t e d p r oblems a r e d i s c u s s e d . Space and f l i g h t t i m e p r e s s u r e s as r e l a t e d t o t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , c o n f l i c t b e h a v i o u r and c o e r c i v e p r a c t i c e s used by t h e crew t o m a i n t a i n t h e s o c i a l o r d e r a r e a n a l y z e d i n terms o f r e g i o n s . An outcome o f a l a c k o f p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s i s t h e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d b a r r i e r s o f a c c e s s to r e g i o n s . S t a n d a r d i z e d p a t t e r n s o f work o r g a n i z a t i o n ; . a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e used t o e f f e c t t h e i r f l u c t u a t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s . (They a r e mapped f o r v i s u a l r e f e r e n c e . ) P r o c e s s e s o f p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i s p r e s e n t e d ; c o n t r a s t i v e l y , i m p e r s o n a l i z e d s e r v i c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l work r e q u i r e m e n t , and a r e s o c i a l l y c r e a t e d by d i s t i n c t i v e c ommunication p a t t e r n s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f g e t t i n g t h e j o b done p r i o r l a n d i n g . L a s t l y , a f l i g h t i s a n a l y z e d as a ' s a f e b u t da n g e r o u s ' f a t e f u l e v e n t , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d , and d r a m a t i z e d iv by the cabin crew. Ritual observance of passage of the take-off and landing stages of the occasion are imposed on a l l participants. Two products of safety management are the policing practices and gallows humor f l i g h t attendants are habituated to perceive as an everyday routine part of their job situation. V in memory of Margaret J. Seyffertitz v i Rock and t r e e s on w h i c h t h e f r o s t i n w i n t e r t i m e s h i n e s b r i g h t Water f l i c k e r i n g p u r p l e i n t h e summer sun. H i g h above t h e b i r d f l i e s easy -and w i t h s t r e n g t h , i t s power a t t e s t s t o man's f a n t a s t i c mind. W i t h i n t h i s s h e l l some l o n e l y and a f r a i d l e a v i n g t h e i r b l o o d and f r i e n d s b e l o w t h e c l o u d . Throughout t h e h o u r s t h e i r needs a r e s u c c o r e d and t h e i r t h o u g h t s made calm by s l i m young a n g e l s w i t h a g e n t l e hand. ft S t . Expury ( s i c ) T h i s poem was w r i t t e n by a p a s s e n g e r i n f l i g h t and p r e s e n t e d t o t h e w r i t e r f o l l o w i n g upon a c o n v e r s a t i o n on l i t e r a t u r e and p o e t s . v i i C o n t e n t s CHAPTER I Page Framework F o r t h e Study o f A.Work S e t t i n g I . The p r o b l e m and s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n ; f o c u s o f s t u d y : methodology I I . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l and s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n on j e t s A. F e a t u r e s o f t h e t y p i c a l work day o f c a b i n crews 11 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c o c k p i t and c a b i n crews: i n s t a b i l i t y of f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : c a b i n crew impermanency: f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t / p a s s e n g e r r a t i o s : t e m p o r a l m a r g i n a l i t y of d u t y p e r i o d s : n o r m a l s c h i z o i d e x p e r i e n c e s , an outcome o f s t r e s s : t h e s p a t i a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s : B. The p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l o c c a s i o n o f a f l i g h t as a n o n g o i n g e v e n t 43 C. The c a b i n crew as a p e r f o r m a n c e team 46 team member a c c o u n t i n g o f h a n d i c a p s , as a r o u t i n e p a r t o f g r e e t i n g c e r e m o n i a l s : t h e f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y : work p o s i t i o n by a s s i g n m e n t o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n f o r m a l ! s e l e c t i o n : t h e a c q u a i n t a n c e p r o c e s s and f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y : coworker s e l e c t i o n : o c c u p a t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y : v i i i CHAPTER I I Page Human R e l a t i o n s D u r i n g The S o c i a l O c c a s i o n Two s e t s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s - p a s s e n g e r s and o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . A. Demographic p e r s p e c t i v e f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n .. . . 87 I n t r o d u c t i o n : o c c u p a t i o n a l c o g n i t i v e maps i n s p e c i f i c work s e t t i n g s : o r i e n t a t i o n t o e t h n i c i t y o f p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s : B. Customer s e r v i c e and i m p r e s s i o n management f u n c t i o n s .. 105 team management of group t e n s i o n : a c c o u n t i n g f o r f a i l u r e s : r o u t i n i z i n g u n e x p e c t e d o c c u r r e n c e s of m e d i c a l c r i s e s : I I . Space p r e s s u r e s c o r r e l a t e d t o c o n f l i c t b e h a v i o u r and c o e r c i v e p r a c t i c e s . A. S p a t i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a s p e c t of power 127 B. The s t r u c t u r e s o f male f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f l i g h t 146 C. O c c u p a t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s 156 p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n o f p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s : a c c o u n t i n g f o r d i s o r g a n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n s and a l i e n a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s : i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : i x CHAPTER I I I Page The D r a m a t i z e d P r o d u c t i o n Of t h e O c c a s i o n As A F a t e f u l E v e n t . I . The ' s a f e b u t dang e r o u s ' s o c i a l o c c a s i o n 173 p o l i c i n g p r a c t i c e s : g a l l o w s humor: d r a m a t i z i n g s u r v i v a l . ' I I . Summary .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 204 B i b l i o g r a p h y .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 210 A p p e n d i x .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 218 A. Notes on o r d e r i n g o f i n t e r a c t i o n d a t a f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s .. .. .. 219 B. N o t a t i o n s y s t e m .. .. .. .. .. 231 X L i s t o f T a b l e s Page T a b l e I Number of p a s s e n g e r k i l o m e t e r s f l o w n f o r t h e y e a r s 1953, 1965, and 1968 f o r s e l e c t e d c o u n t r i e s .. 218 T a b l e I I Range of y e a r s o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t e x p e r i e n c e f o r each crew member: by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h e l d and p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d on a sample of s c h e d u l e d f l i g h t s .• 23 T a b l e I I I Range o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t e x p e r i e n c e f o r each crew member by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h e l d and p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d on a sample o f c h a r t e r s . • 24 T a b l e IV F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t p a s s e n g e r r a t i o by c l a s s o f s e r v i c e and p a s s e n g e r s e a t c a p a c i t y on s c h e d u l e d and c h a r t e r e d f l i g h t s 27 T a b l e V C o r r e l a t i o n o f o n s e t o f d u t y p e r i o d s w i t h g e o g r a p h i c t i m e zone f o r a l l d u t y p e r i o d s worked by t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e s i x month t i m e span 32 T a b l e V I The p r o d u c t i o n o f an o c c a s i o n as an o n g o i n g event 47 x i Page T a b l e V I I A b s o l u t e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f l y i n g t i m e m i n u t e s f o r f o u r s c h e d u l e d d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s o p e r a t e d most f r e q u e n t l y i n a ten-month p e r i o d .. .. 121 T a b l e V I I I A b s o l u t e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f l y i n g t i m e m i n u t e s f o r two o v e r s e a s c h a r t e r f l i g h t s o p e r a t e d most f r e q u e n t l y i n a s i x month p e r i o d .. .. 122 x i i L i s t o f I l l u s t r a t i o n s Page I l l u s t r a t i o n IV; S p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f j e t a i r c r a f t most f r e q u e n t l y f l o w n 41 I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 a) P r e f l i g h t p l a n o f r e f r e s h m e n t s e r v i c e s i n economy c a b i n .. .. .. .. .. 119 b) Refreshment s e r v i c e s as t h e y t r a n s p i r e d .. 119 I l l u s t r a t i o n 3 A i r c r a f t r e g i o n and t e r r i t o r i a l maps .. .. 139-140 x i i i P r e f a c e I n c o n t r a s t t o s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s c a r r i e d o u t by t r a d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c i s t s , t h e p a r t i a l e t h n o g r a p h y o f t h e a i r c r a f t s e t t i n g p r e s e n t e d h e r e e v o l v e d o u t o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e r o l e o f a i r l i n e s t e w a r d e s s . From t h e v a n t a g e p o i n t o f d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e -ment w i t h crews and p a s s e n g e r s , s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t s and e v e n t s were t h o s e c o n s t i t u t e d by e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s and p r a c t i c e s e n a c t e d i n t h e s e t t i n g by t h e p e r s o n s l o c a t e d t h e r e . The s t u d y d i d n o t p r o c e e d f r o m any p r e l i m i n a r y h y p o t h e s i s . I t i s i n t e n d e d t o emphasize some a s p e c t s of how a f l i g h t i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d by t h o s e i n c h a r g e , by t h e v a r i o u s "members o f " c o c k p i t and c a b i n c r e w s . A t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a r e d i s t i n c t i v e t o t h e s e t t i n g , t o e v e r y d a y d e f i n i t i o n a l work o f s i t u a t i o n s and p e r s o n s , t o a c c o u n t i n g f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a i l u r e s , t o e v e r y d a y r o u t i n e s and so on. An a t t e m p t i s made t o p r e s e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and a n a l y s i s w i t h as l i t t l e use o f a i r l i n e j a r g o n as p o s s i b l e . The s t u d y was n o t d e s i g n e d t o s u p p o r t o r r e f u t e p o p u l a r l y h e l d n o t i o n s t h a t p e r s o n s i n o c c u p a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t r a v e l i n d u s t r y l e a d a d v e n t u r o u s , glamorous l i v e s ; o r t h a t p i l o t s a r e j u s t s ky bus d r i v e r s , and s t e w a r d e s s e s a r e j u s t f l y i n g w a i t r e s s e s . A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t a d v e r t i s e d i n media p r o m o t i n g a i r t r a v e l , t o s h a r e i n t h e s h a p i n g o f t h e i r r o u t i n e work day i s t o r e a l i z e t h a t one o f x i v t h e i r p r i m a r y and c o n s t a n t c o n c e r n s i s w i t h s a f e t y . T h i s became one d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a r e a s t o o b s e r v e and d i s c u s s . O t h e r s d e r i v e f r o m r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r e n t problems crews e x p e r i e n c e i n s o c i a l c o n t r o l , i n h a n d l i n g u n e x p e c t e d emergency s i t u a t i o n s and i n a d j u s t i n g t o t h e n o r m a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e i r work day, i . e . c o w o r k e r s who a r e s t r a n g e r s , t h e boredom of h i g h l y r e p e t i t i v e and h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d work p r o c e d u r e s , g e o g r a p h i c d i s p l a c e m e n t and p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s e t c . The w r i t e r t a k e s t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o acknowledge w i t h p l e a s u r e t h e many k i n d n e s s e s , e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l s u p p o r t r e c e i v e d f r o m many f r i e n d s and work a s s o c i a t e s d u r i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t t i m e s o f t h e p a s t y e a r and a h a l f . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o t h e t h e s i s c ommittee members, Dr. D o r o t h y S m i t h , Mr. A d r i a n M a r r i a g e and Dr. Roy T u r n e r f o r p e r m i t t i n g a l a r g e r measure of freedom and i n d e p e n -dence t h a n had been e x p e c t e d . An e s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o D r . S m i t h f o r becoming a l a d y p r o f e s s o r and f o r h e r a d m i r a b l e c o n s t a n c y t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s . Any s h o r t c o m i n g s i n t h e paper a r e w h o l l y a s s i g n a b l e t o i t ' s w r i t e r . CHAPTER I FRAMEWORK FOR THE STUDY OF A WORK SETTING I . The p r o b l e m and s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I n t r o d u c t i o n : The c o m m e r c i a l a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y , d e v e l o p e d between t h e l a t e 1920's and 1930's, has advanced t o a p o s i t i o n o f p r i m e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e mass movement o f p e o p l e . T e c h n o l o g i c p r o g r e s s has d e v e l o p e d j e t a i r c r a f t w h i c h t r a v e l t w i c e as f a s t , have o p t i m a l e n g i n e e f f i c i e n c y a t a l t i t u d e s t h r e e t i m e s as h i g h and w h i c h c a r r y e i g h t t o t e n t i m e s more p a s s e n g e r s a t one t i m e t h a n d i d t h e e a r l y p r o p e l l e r a i r c r a f t . Most l a r g e a i r l i n e s i n t r o d u c e d them t o t h e i r s e r v i c e s i n t h e 1960's. One p a r a m e t e r o f g r o w t h i n t h e i n d u s t r y i s p a s s e n g e r k i l o m e t e r s f l o w n . I n t h e f i f t e e n y e a r span e x t e n d i n g f r o m 1953 t o 1968 t h e most d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e was e x p e r i e n c e d i n J a p a n where p a s s e n g e r volume by 1968 had i n c r e a s e d 67.29 t i m e s what i t was i n 1953. I n t h e same p e r i o d Canada's had i n c r e a s e d by 8.45 t i m e s , t h a t of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s by 6.93 t i m e s and t h a t o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom and F r a n c e by 5.72 and 5.25 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 The m a n i f e s t f u n c t i o n of t h e i n d u s t r y i s t o g e t p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s from one p l a c e t o a n o t h e r . A l a t e n t f u n c t i o n i s t o t r a n s p o r t 1. U n i t e d N a t i o n s S t a t i s t i c a l Y e a rbook, New Y o r k , U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g S e r v i c e , V o l . 21, 1969. Raw d a t a i s t o be f o u n d i n T a b l e 1 l o c a t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . - 2 -2 them i n a c e r t a i n ' s t y l e ' . Economic c o m p e t i t i o n i s r e g u l a t e d by l a w , p a r t i c u l a r l y f a r e s , r o u t e s f l o w n , r e f u e l i n g s t o p s , p a s s e n g e r p i c k u p r i g h t s , d u t y f r e e s a l e s i n f l i g h t and so on. F l i g h t s e r v i c e s w h i c h a r e n o t r e g u l a t e d by l a w a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n f o r b u s i n e s s p u r p o s e s . C o m p e t i t i o n f o r consumers has g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e adv e n t o f j e t a i r c r a f t . A i r l i n e s b u i l d i n p r e s t i g e i n d i f f e r e n t ways: 1) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by name, emblem and c o l o u r scheme of t h e owner p a i n t e d on t h e o u t s i d e o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n a d d i t i o n t o a naming o r numbering s y s t e m so t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i f o n l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l , b e t w e e n f l y i n g on one a i r l i n e ' s 'Empress of Rome' and a n o t h e r ' s a i r c r a f t number 832; 2) manner o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f l i g h t s . F o r example, a l l a i r l i n e s u s e t h e numer a l s y s t e m i n t h e i r t i m e t a b l e s b u t t h e i r p r e s t i g e f l i g h t s a r e i n a d d i t i o n s p e c i a l l y named, as t h e ' E x e c u t i v e J e t ' o r 'Club C a l y p s o ' ; 3) s t r e s s on q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f f o o d and o t h e r r e f r e s h m e n t s p r o v i d e d ; 4) i n c r e a s e i n i n v o l v e m e n t i t e m s l i k e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , games, m o v i e s , s t e r e o m u s i c , d i c t a t i n g m a c h i n e s , e t c . ; 5) h i g h emphasis on u n i f o r m f a s h i o n f o r g round and a i r c r a f t p e r s o n n e l , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y f r e q u e n t changes o f t h o s e worn by s t e w a r d e s s e s . . O t h e r p r e s t i g e d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e . A i r l i n e s o p e r a t i n g on i n t e r n a t i o n a l r o u t e s r e p r e s e n t t h e i r c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n and t h e c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f t h a t c o u n t r y . Thus t o g i v e one example, J a p a n A i r l i n e s have J a p a n e s e s c r i p t and emblem p a i n t e d on t h e o u t s i d e o f 2. R e g u l a t i o n s a p p l y i n g t o c i v i l a v i a t i o n a r e i s s u e d by Department o f T r a n s p o r t (Canada), F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n A u t h o r i t y ( U n i t e d S t a t e s ) , A i r R e g i s t r a t i o n B oard ( U n i t e d Kingdom), I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l A v i a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a l l member n a t i o n s w i t h a i r l i n e s s e r v i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l r o u t e s . - 3 -t h e i r a i r c r a f t and t y p i c a l J a p a n e s e d e c o r i n s i d e . I n f l i g h t , J a p a n e s e c u i s i n e , s a k i , J a p a n e s e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l and movies a r e p r o v i d e d . Announcements a r e made i n J a p a n e s e f i r s t , t h e n i n o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . J a p a n e s e s t e w a r d e s s e s a r e d r e s s e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l kimono and i n f a s h i o n -a b l e n o n u n i f o r m s t y p i c a l o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n a i r l i n e s , e t c . E t h n i c o r i e n t a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t . T h i s m a t t e r w i l l be more f u l l y d e a l t w i t h l a t e r . As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r consumers, t h e s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n has widened i n r a n g e t o i n c l u d e more r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p e r s o n s f r o m l o w e r m i d d l e and l o w e r c l a s s e s (as measured on t h e Warner s c a l e ) . T h i s was a c h i e v e d by t h e i n t r o d u c -t i o n o f f a r e s e c o n o m i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o l o w e r income gro u p s by way of twenty-one day e x c u r s i o n f a r e s , f a m i l y r a t e s , c r e d i t p l a n s , c h a r t e r f l i g h t s , group r a t e s and more r e c e n t l y r e d u c e d r a t e s f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and y o u t h s under twenty-one y e a r s o f age, e t c . The p o p u l a r l y known ' j e t s e t ' s t y l e o f l i v i n g i s promoted i n a d v e r t i s i n g and i s sampled by a s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y t o whom i t was p r e v i o u s l y u n a v a i l a b l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l o n g s t a n d i n g 'Twenty Thousand M i l e ' b u s i n e s s men's c l u b , t h e r e i s t h e new 'Golden C l u b ' f o r p e n s i o n e r s and a 'Swing A i r C l u b ' f o r y o u t h s under twenty-one y e a r s o f age. L a r g e s c a l e economic e n t e r p r i s e s r e q u i r e g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y o f some p o r t i o n o f t h e i r members i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e m s e l v e s , so t h a t a i r t r a v e l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r o u t i n e and r e g u l a r way o f - 4 -c o n d u c t i n g b u s i n e s s . R e g i o n a l d o m e s t i c m i g r a t i o n , a l s o i m m i g r a t i o n / e m i g r a t i o n , i n d e p e n d e n t o f b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n t i e s c a n be c o r r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . R e l a t e d t o t h e s e p r o c e s s e s i s t h e breakdown of t h e e xtended f a m i l y and d i s p e r s i o n o f k i n o v e r w i d e a r e a s . F a m i l i e s a r e r e u n i t e d , k i n s h i p bonds a r e renewed and s t r e n g t h e n e d , f r e q u e n t l y t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s i . e . w e d d i ngs, f u n e r a l s , b i r t h s , g r a d u a t i o n s , p r o m o t i o n s , e t c . A i r t r a v e l i s a means of g e t t i n g t o d e s t i n a t i o n s f o r s u c h p u r p o s e s . T h e r e i s , i n a d d i t i o n , a modern t r e n d t o go away f o r t h e h o l i d a y s . Mass media a d v e r t i s i n g u t i l i z e t h e s e g e n e r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l themes t o promote t h e i n d u s t r y . A s u r v e y of s u c h a d v e r t i s i n g whether by r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , b i l l b o a r d s , newspaper and magazine l a y o u t s and a r t i c l e s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s encouraged t o v i e w t i m e as a 'commodity' t o be saved, i . e . " g e t s y o u t h e r e f a s t e r " . I t i s a commodity t o be consumed i n a s t y l e r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e v i s u a l d i s p l a y s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a i r t r a v e l p r o d u c e s a s p i r a t i o n s f o r a s t y l e of l i v i n g image w i t h s p e c i f i c consequences i . e . "be a p a r t o f t h e a c t i o n " , " t o j o i n t h e j e t s e t " , " t o s u c c e e d " , " t o l e a v e i t a l l b e h i n d " , e t c . P e r s o n s who p a r t i c i p a t e by b e i n g p a s s e n g e r s a r e engaged i n c o n s u m p t i o n 3 of a s y m b o l i c a c t i v i t y i n f e r r i n g s o c i a l c l a s s . Any demographic 3. B. B a r b e r , S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n , a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s  o f s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e s s , New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Co., pp. 130-135. - 5 -e x p l a n a t i o n would u t i l i z e s u c h c a t e g o r i e s as 'business-man', ' t o u r i s t ' , ' i m m i g r a n t ' , e t c . f o r p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s . T h e r e i s t h e r e f o r e , a l s o v i a a d v e r t i z i n g , b u i l t up i n t h e p u b l i c some n o t i o n of what i t i s t o be a p a s s e n g e r . That i s , t h e r e a r e p r o c e d u r e s t o f o l l o w ; one makes a r e s e r v a t i o n , buys a t i c k e t , p r e s e n t s o n e s e l f a t t h e a i r p o r t t e r m i n a l c h e c k - i n c o u n t e r , buys f l i g h t i n s u r a n c e e t c . T h e r e i s some i d e a o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s one w i l l engage i n on a f l i g h t , f o r example, one r e a d s , e a t s , p l a y s games, r e l a x e s i n a c o m f o r t a b l e m i l i e u 4 and i s a t t e n d e d by a t t r a c t i v e w e l l groomed s t e w a r d e s s e s . There i s b u i l t up i n t h e p a s s e n g e r a s e t of e x p e c t a t i o n s as t o how t h e a i r l i n e c o n d u c t s i t s b u s i n e s s ; t h a t i s , one e x p e c t s t o a r r i v e a t one's i n t e n d e d d e s t i n a t i o n , one e x p e c t s t o a r r i v e on t i m e and so on. V a r i o u s economic e n t e r p r i s e s e x i s t as s a t e l l i t e s o f t h e a i r l i n e i n d u s t r y , s u c h as t r a v e l a g e n c i e s , t o u r i s t b u r e a u s , h o t e l s , r e n t - a - c a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . L a r g e a i r l i n e s a r e complex b u r e a u c r a c i e s w i t h f o r m a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y p o s i t i o n s o r d e r e d i n h i e r a r c h i e s t y p i c a l o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e r e i s a f o r m a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , d u t i e s , r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s a r e d e f i n e d and s p e c i f i e d i n manuals, management d i r e c t i v e s , e t c . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r g e n e r a l a r e a s a r e d e l e g a t e d t o s p e c i a l i z e d d e p a r t m e n t s , f o r example, p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , m a r k e t i n g and 4 . The m a l e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t , t h e p u r s e r o r s t e w a r d , i s r a r e l y i n c l u d e d i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a l t h o u g h he p e r f o r m s much t h e same d u t i e s as t h e s t e w a r d e s s . T h i s i n i t s e l f i s an i n t e r e s t i n g s o c i o -l o g i c a l phenomenon. - 6 -s a l e s , m a i n t e n a n c e , c a t e r i n g , who by and l a r g e employ t h e i r own s p e c i a l i s t s . T h i s s t u d y i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o p r e s e n t a c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e of t h e i n d u s t r y ; i t i s o n l y a p a r t i a l e t h n o g r a p h y f r o m t h e s e t t i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y based on t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s t o r e s t r i c t t h e scope o f t h e s t u d y t o manageable p r o p o r t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h e r i c h n e s s o f t h e f i e l d t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s have l a r g e l y i g n o r e d f o r m a l l y s t u d y i n g t h e i n d u s t r y . S p e c i a l a r e a s o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o r a r e 5 6 d i s c u s s e d by s o c i o l o g i s t s , n o t a b l y E. Goffman and R. Sommer. Focus of t h e s t u d y : R e l e v a n t t o s o c i o l o g y i s t h e s t u d y o f common-sense knowledge, and common-sense c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y , o f e v e r y d a y p r a c t i c e s o f members i n s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d s e t t i n g s and s i t u a t i o n s , o f t h e p r o d u c -t i o n o f o n - g o i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h can be o b s e r v e d w h i l e t h e y a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s . 7 8 9 T h i s k i n d o f f o c u s on e v e r y d a y l i f e b y . S c h u t z , G a r f i n k e l , ' 5. E. Goffman, The P r e s e n t a t i o n o f S e l f i n E v e r y d a y L i f e , G arden C i t y , Doubleday & Company I n c . , 1959. 6. R. Sommer, P e r s o n a l Space, Englewood C l i f f s , N i J . , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1969. 7. A. S c h u t z , C o l l e c t e d P a p e r s I , A. B r o d e r s e n , ed. The Hague, M a r t i n u s M i j h o f f , 1967, pp. 314-325. 8. H. G a r f i n k e l , " S t u d i e s i n t h e R o u t i n e Grounds o f E v e r y d a y A c t i v i t i e s " , S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , 1964, V o l . 1 1 ( 3 ) , pp. 225-250. 9. H. G a r f i n k e l , S t u d i e s i n Ethnomethodology, Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1967. - 7 -G o f f m a n 1 ^ ' 1 1 and Sudnow"^ i s d i r e c t e d w i t h a v i e w t o a n a l y z i n g p r a c t i c a l common-sense a c t i o n s f o r t h e i r f o r m a l p r o p e r t i e s and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e f rom t h e v a n t a g e p o i n t o f t h e a c t u a l s e t t i n g s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e l o c a t e d and c o n s t r u c t e d . I t i s w i t h t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e and g u i d e l i n e t h a t t h e body o f d a t a was s e l e c t e d and f r o m w h i c h i t i s d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y z e d h e r e . The o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y i s on t h e management teams ( c o c k p i t and c a b i n crews) c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a f l i g h t as a s p e c i a l k i n d o f o c c a s i o n f o r and w i t h t h e p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e s p a t i a l and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o n b oard j e t a i r c r a f t and some o f t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems r e s u l t i n g f r o m s p a c e p r e s s u r e s , l o o s e l y d e f i n e d r e g i o n s and f l i g h t t i m e p r e s s u r e s . O b s e r v a t i o n s made o f ev e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s t h e c a b i n crew c a r r y o u t i n t h e r o u t i n e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e i r j o b e v o l v e d an i n t e r e s t i n t h e problems of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and o c c u p a t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y . A l s o on i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a t t e r n s o f work o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a r e n o t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y 10. E. Goffman, E n c o u n t e r s , I n d i a n a p o l i s , B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company I n c . , 1961. 11. E. Goffman, The P r e s e n t a t i o n o f S e l f i n Everyday L i f e . 12. D. Sudnow, P a s s i n g On, Englewood C l i f f s , N .J., P r e n t i c e -H a l l I n c . , 1967. - 8 -formalized in rules and regulations or duty charts but which result in programmed or procedural social behavior typically found in organizations providing specific services on a mass basis. For example, the problem of the appearance of nonpersonalized service given to customers. The third basic area i s the examination of the construction of the occasion as a 'safe but dangerous' fateful event and the related problems of anxiety management, policing and accounting practices, etc. The f l i g h t attendants are involved routinely in greeting, monitoring, policing, giving f i r s t - a i d to, doing public relations talk with, restricting inappropriate behavior etc. of passengers and in so doing they, so to speak, 'make a passenger into a proper participant'. Relevant to the activities they perform are such categories as 'passenger counts', 'take-off safety check', 'refreshment services', etc. These are relevant to the enactment of the occasion; they are 'announced', 'programmed', 'organizationally structured' and 'procedurally performed'. As such they represent the members logic-in-use by which means events, occurrences and social actions are made understandable, reportable and explainable for a l l practical purposes to the members who perform them and to others who are involved. As much as possible the study i s restricted to the aircraft setting. M e t h o d o l o g y P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n methods o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was used. 13 The w r i t e r worked i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f s t e w a r d e s s f o r W o r l d A i r w a y s , as a r e g u l a r n o t a supernumary member of t h e c a b i n crew. Former e x p e r i e n c e as a W o r l d A i r w a y s s t e w a r d e s s e n s u r e d a p o s i t i o n o f s e n i o r i t y h i g h enough to o b t a i n p lacement on p r e s t i g e o v e r s e a s s c h e d u l e d and c h a r t e r f l i g h t s and a few d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s w i t h o u t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f s p e c i a l c o n c e s s i o n s f r o m company management o r u n i o n p e r s o n n e l . I t was a l s o b e n e f i c i a l i n t h a t no f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n p e r i o d was mandatory f o r t h e l e a r n i n g o f Company p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s , f o r a c q u i r i n g t e c h n i c a l and s o c i a l competence on t h e j o b and f o r a c q u i r i n g a w o r k i n g knowledge - . , . . 14 of a i r l i n e j a r g o n . An a t t e m p t was made t o work i n b o t h f i r s t c l a s s and economy s e c t i o n s o f t h e a i r c r a f t and i n a l l work p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o a s t e w a r d e s s . O n l y l o n g - r a n g e j e t a i r c r a f t were worked, t h e f i n d i n g s cannot t h e r e f o r e be g e n e r a l i z e d t o a l l t y p e s o f a i r c r a f t . As a c o n t r i -b u t i n g crew member i t was n e c e s s a r y t o p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y and d i r e c t l y 13. The name 'World A i r w a y s ' i s f i c t i t i o u s , any s i m i l a r i t y t o an e x i s t a n t a i r l i n e by t h a t name i s c o i n c i d e n t a l . I t w i l l a l s o be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e 'Company'. Any p e r s o n a l names used i n t h e body of t h e paper i n p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a t a a r e f i c t i t i o u s . 14. T h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y of a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t i s so w e l l i n c o r p o r a t e d t h a t a t o t a l l y u n b i a s e d p e r s p e c t i v e i s u n l i k e l y and somewhat i n f l u e n t i a l t o i n f e r e n c e s made. T h i s d i f f i c u l t y c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h a t o f an o b s e r v e r i n a f i e l d w h i c h i s e n t i r e l y new and s t r a n g e , w h i c h r e s u l t s i n a p o s s i b l e b i a s i n t h e o t h e r d i r e c t i o n . - 10 -i n t h e p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g o u t of work r o u t i n e s , i n e v a l u a t i n g and a n a l y z i n g p a s s e n g e r b e h a v i o r , i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r o l and t h e l i k e . D a t a was r e c o r d e d i n d i a r y f o r m and was c o n t i n u a l f o r a p e r i o d o f s i x months w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l s e l e c t i v e r e c o r d i n g o f s p e c i a l a r eas f o r an a d d i t i o n a l f o u r months. Wherever p o s s i b l e n o t a t i o n was made under s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s t o a s s i s t c r o s s r e f e r e n c i n g d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f a n a l y s i s . F u l l a c c o u n t s o f a f l i g h t were made as soon a s . . p o s s i b l e a t t h e end o f t h e work day w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s . When t h e d u t y p e r i o d exceeded t e n h o u r s some n o t e s were made i n f l i g h t i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t r e c a l l l a t e r . When t h e d u t y p e r i o d exceeded t w e l v e h o u r s and was l o c a t e d towards t h e end o f an awake p e r i o d o f t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s b r i e f n o t e s were made p r i o r r e t i r i n g and a f u l l a c c o u n t was w r i t t e n up a f t e r t h e r e s t p e r i o d . No f o r m a l t e c h n i q u e s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n were u s e d i . e . Company f i l e s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s o r t a p e r e c o r d i n g . The r o l e o f i n v e s t i g a t o r was based on a c t u a l work e x p e r i e n c e , i n f o r m a l p e r s o n a l on and o f f t h e j o b c o n t a c t w i t h c o w o r k e r s , o t h e r a i r l i n e p e r s o n n e l and i n t e r a c t i o n i n f l i g h t w i t h p a s s e n g e r s . I n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o o b t a i n e d from W orld A i r w a y s i n f l i g h t s e r v i c e manuals, i n t e r n a l Company organs and u n i o n m a g a z i n e s , l e t t e r s o f compliment and c o m p l a i n t f r o m p a s s e n g e r s d i r e c t e d t o Wo r l d A i r w a y s , l e t t e r s o f r e p r i m a n d w h i c h a r e p l a c e d on i n d i v i d u a l f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t c a r e e r f i l e s . I n c l u d e d a l s o as a s o u r c e a r e s e v e r a l - 11 -i n t e r - a i r l i n e m a g a z i n e s , a r t i c l e s f r o m newspapers, and p o p u l a r magazines and f r o m works o f f i c t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o f l y i n g . I I . The s t r u c t u r e of t h e s o c i a l and s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n on j e t s . A. F e a t u r e s o f t h e t y p i c a l work day o f c a b i n c r e w s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c o c k p i t and c a b i n crews I t i s f e l t t h a t as t h e r e i s r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s t o a i r c r a f t , t h e y b e i n g p r i v a t e n o t p u b l i c p l a c e s , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e and n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e some b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n about them i n r e s p e c t t o a p l a c e o f work. I t i s h a r d l y m e a n i n g f u l t o d i s c u s s t e r r i t o r i a l a s p e c t s o f power u n l e s s t h e r e i s a c l e a r p i c t u r e i n t h e r e a d e r ' s mind what t h e i n t e r i o r e c o l o g i c a l arrangement i s . L i k e w i s e , as t h e r e i s a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e manner i n w h i c h members of a t o t a l f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t p o p u l a t i o n g e t t o work t o g e t h e r as a crew on a p a r t i c u l a r f l i g h t and t h e i r r e l i a n c e on s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s f o r c o w o r k e r s e l e c t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e n t b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n on i . e . crew impermanency, i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f p e r s o n s , e t c . F o r example, u n l i k e t h e n u r s e who i s h i r e d t o work i n a h o s p i t a l on a p a r t i c u l a r p e d i a t r i c s ward, a s t e w a r d e s s i s n o t h i r e d t o work i n t h e f i r s t c l a s s o r economy s e c t i o n s o f a p a r t i c u l a r a i r c r a f t . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e a t t h e l o w e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e i n f l i g h t s e r v i c e d e p a r t m e n t , t h e y a r e u n i o n i z e d members. T h e r e i s no s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n on c a b i n c rews, b u t i t i s Company p r a c t i c e t o s e l e c t p e r s o n s t o be s u p e r v i s o r s f r o m t h i s body. F l i g h t s e r v i c e - 12 -s u p e r v i s o r s have o f f i c e p o s i t i o n s and a r e non u n i o n i z e d , t h e y a r e a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l management p o s i t i o n s . P e r s o n s demoted f r o m s u p e r v i s o r s r e t u r n t o t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t g r o u p . S u p e r v i s o r s a r e i n a somewhat ambiguous p o s i t i o n i n t h a t t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o work on c a b i n crews when t h e r e i s a s h o r t a g e o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s . They o t h e r w i s e f l y t o 'check o u t ' c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s i . e . p r o b a t i o n a r y members, and a r e r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e p e r f o r m a n c e e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s f o r placement on f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t c a r e e r f i l e s . I n t h e a i r c r a f t s e t t i n g t h e r e a r e two s e p a r a t e teams, c o c k p i t and c a b i n crews. On j e t s t h e c o c k p i t crew i s composed o f t h r e e p i l o t s , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e C a p t a i n , f i r s t o f f i c e r and second o f f i c e r , on d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s . I t i n c l u d e s a n a v i g a t o r on o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s , he i s n o t a p i l o t . C a b i n crews a r e composed of t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s : p u r s e r , a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r , s t e w a r d e s s w i t h no s p e c i a l l a n g u a g e q u a l i f i c a t i o n who i s n o r m a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s s t e w a r d e s s , and s t e w a r d e s s w i t h s p e c i a l l a n g u a g e q u a l i f i c a t i o n who a l s o h o l d s t h e t i t l e o f m u l t i l i n g u a l s t e w a r d e s s and i s n o r m a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as m u l t i l i n g u a l . T h e r e a r e c u r r e n t l y f o u r v e r s i o n s o f t h e l o n g r a n g e j e t a i r c r a f t . The number o f c o c k p i t crew members rema i n s unchanged, b u t t h e number and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s v a r y w i t h each t y p e o f j e t , t h e r e f o r e i t i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o speak o f an a i r c r a f t crew - 13 -complement, or merely refer to a cabin crew as such. Charter flights generally carry one extra cabin crew member according to aircraft complement. In the formal organizational structure the hierarchy of positions and lines of authority would be represented as follows: Captain Navigator Fi r s t Officer Second Officer Purser Stewardess(es) multilingual (on certain flights only) Assistant Purser (on certain flights only) - 14 -The p r o p o r t i o n s o f f e m a l e / m a l e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s f l u c t u a t e somewhat, b u t f e m a l e s make up between 80-84% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y t h e s t e w a r d e s s group a t t h e base"'""' i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o y e a r s o f f l i g h t work e x p e r i e n c e was 15% w i t h t e n y e a r s o r more, 24% between f i v e t o t e n y e a r s and 61% w i t h l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s . I n t h e p u r s e r group t h e y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e median i s s e v e n t e e n y e a r s and f o r a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s i t i s under t h r e e y e a r s . Y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i s a 'rough i n d i c a t o r ' o f s e n i o r i t y w h i c h b e g i n s upon g r a d u a t i n g f r o m f l i g h t s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . The s e n i o r i t y numbers, g i v e n a c c o r d i n g t o y e a r , month and day d a t e s and p o s i t i o n i n t h e g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s , a r e l o c a t e d a l o n g an o r d i n a l s c a l e and t h u s a r e d i s c r e t e and have s t a t u s v a l u e . I t i s t h e s e n i o r i t y number, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and s u b c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n h e l d w h i c h r e g u l a t e a s s i g n m e n t t o a 'monthly' s c h e d u l e o f f l i g h t s c a l l e d a b l o c k . Those w i t h t h e h i g h e s t s e n i o r i t y i n each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and s u b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e a s s i g n e d f i r s t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h each p e r s o n ' s s t a t e m e n t o f p r e f e r e n c e and so on down t h e l i n e u n t i l a l l t h e b l o c k s w i t h f l i g h t s a r e a s s i g n e d . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e a s s i g n e d r e s e r v e b l o c k s w h i c h o n l y i n d i c a t e days o f f and days t h e y a r e 15. W o r l d A i r w a y s i s a l a r g e N o r t h A m e r i c a n a i r l i n e w i t h crews l o c a t e d i n s e v e r a l l a r g e c i t i e s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as b a s e s . The b a s e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y w i l l be m e r e l y r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e b a s e . - 15 -r e q u i r e d t o s t a n d r e s e r v e t o r e p l a c e r e g u l a r crew members as needed. Long r a n g e j e t b l o c k s a r e made up w i t h d e s i g n a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i . e . f o r an o v e r s e a s b l o c k t h e crew complement i s s p e c i f i e d as 1 p u r s e r , 2 s t e w a r d e s s e s , 1 m u l t i l i n g u a l , 1 a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r and on d o m e s t i c may r e a d 1 p u r s e r , 4 s t e w a r d e s s e s , e t c . The f e m a l e s e n i o r i t y s c a l e i s a r r a n g e d f o r m a l l y f r o m h i g h e s t t o l o w e s t on an o r d i n a l s c a l e : I . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ' s t e w a r d e s s ' who q u a l i f y t o o p e r a t e a l l Company a i r c r a f t . a) s u b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ' m u l t i l i n g u a l ' who q u a l i f y f o r m u l t i l i n g u a l c a t e g o r y j e t b l o c k s , p r i m a r i l y used on o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s ; as a subgroup t h e y a r e a r r a n g e d i n an i n f o r m a l r a n k i n g s c a l e based on t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n t h e f o r m a l one i . e . a m u l t i l i n g u a l whose s t e w a r d e s s s e n i o r i t y number i s 400 c o u l d a l s o be i n number 2 p o s i t i o n f o r b i d d i n g m u l t i l i n g u a l b l o c k s . b) s u b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ' a c t i n g p u r s e r ' c u r r e n t l y r e s t r i c t e d t o s h o r t r a n g e j e t s . H o l d d o u b l e r a n k much as m u l t i l i n g u a l s do. M a l e s e n i o r i t y s c a l e i s a r r a n g e d f r o m h i g h e s t t o l o w e s t on an o r d i n a l s c a l e : I . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ' p u r s e r ' r e s t r i c t e d t o j e t a i r c r a f t , g e n e r a l l y o p e r a t e o n l y l o n g r a n g e j e t s . - 16 -a) Subclassification 'assistant purser' restricted to jet aircraft, generally operate only long range jets; are placed i n an informal ranking scale for bidding much as female subclassifications. Pay scales are based on years of work experience in a c l a s s i f i -cation; and include aircraft differentials by rank, so that short range propeller aircraft have lowest pay differentials and long range jets have the highest; category of fli g h t operated, overseas flights pay differentials are higher than domestic flights; language differentials, multilinguals get pay increments for specified languages; subclassifi-cation differential, stewardess acting pursers currently get an aircraft differential only on short range jets. When correlated to seniority and classification held this means that for example, a multilingual stewardess with three years fl i g h t work experience is able to get overseas jet flights and thus has a much higher salary than a stewardess with six years experience whose bidding power gets her only domestic short range jet fl i g h t s , likewise a male assistant purser with less than six months of experience i s able to work on overseas jet flights and able to earn more than a stewardess with three years experience who is s t i l l on the reserve l i s t and has no aircraft bidding power. With the introduction of jet aircraft and subclassifications, stewardesses have experienced consistent organizationally directed downward mobility although they are s t i l l the majority fl i g h t attendant group in total - 17 -numbers. T h i s i s one s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i n g c a u s e o f s o c i a l s t r a i n s among j e t a i r c r a f t crew members. I n s t a b i l i t y o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s The h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l and s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r has l o n g been o f i n t e r e s t t o a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s . Most r e c e n t l y i t has been examined by T i g e r i n h i s t h e o r y on male b o n d i n g . " ^ S e g r e g a t i o n s based on s e x u a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d s t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h e l d and d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r o f c a b i n crews i n f l i g h t v a r y between a i r l i n e s . Some a i r l i n e s do n o t have any male f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a t a l l , o t h e r s do; f o r example, Quantas"^ has an a l l male c a b i n crew on o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one f e m a l e s t e w a r d e s s . When l o n g r a n g e j e t s were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e b a s e s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y on W o r l d A i r w a y s d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s , t h e most s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s on t h e crew p e r f o r m e d what a r e now c a l l e d p u r s e r d u t i e s b u t r e c e i v e d f i f t y c e n t s an hour l e s s t h a n d i d t h e p u r s e r when he p e r f o r m e d them. A f t e r union/management s e t t l e m e n t o f wage p a r i t y , s t e w a r d e s s e s who had t h e s e n i o r i t y t o q u a l i f y f o r j e t b l o c k s and who 16. L. T i g e r , Men I n Groups, B r i s t o l , W e s t e r n P r i n t i n g S e r v i c e s L t d . , 1970 ( c o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 93-115. 17. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . - 18 -v o l u n t e e r e d f o r i t were g i v e n a c o u r s e c a l l e d ' p u r s e r t r a i n i n g ' a f t e r f i n a l a p p r o v a l by Company s u p e r v i s o r s t h a t t h e y had t h e n e c e s s a r y r e q u i s i t e l e a d e r s h i p c a p a b i l i t i e s . They were however, n o t awarded t h e p u r s e r t i t l e , were u n a b l e t h e r e f o r e t o b i d p u r s e r b l o c k s and were used by t h e Company o n l y on a d r a f t b a s i s when males were l a c k i n g . So a l t h o u g h t h e r e was wage p a r i t y t h e r e was no e q u a l i t y o f s t a t u s , t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was on s e x u a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , f e m a l e s who had t a k e n t h e p u r s e r t r a i n i n g a r e r e q u i r e d t o r e t r a i n and r e q u a l i f y f o r any subsequent ' i n c h a r g e p o s i t i o n ' w h i l e males do n o t . F o r example, s t e w a r d e s s e s who d e s i r e t o be i n c h a r g e on s h o r t r a n g e j e t s a r e now g i v e n so c a l l e d ' l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g ' and s u b s e q u e n t l y h o l d t h e t i t l e o f a c t i n g p u r s e r . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s n o t t r a n s f e r a b l e t o o t h e r a i r c r a f t and does n o t r e s t r i c t them f r o m b i d d i n g s t e w a r d e s s p o s i t i o n s . S t e w a r d e s s e s who had p r e v i o u s p u r s e r t r a i n i n g were r e q u i r e d t o r e a p p l y and r e t r a i n i n o r d e r t o h o l d t h a t t i t l e . The p o s i t i o n o f a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r on l o n g range j e t s has undergone a s i m i l a r e v o l u n t i o n a r y change. F o r m e r l y t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was b l o c k e d f o r o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s , i t was h e l d by s t e w a r d e s s e s a l t h o u g h t h e s t a t u s was n o t f o r m a l i z e d . The oc c u p a n t o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e economy g a l l e y p o s i t i o n w h i c h was p r e v i o u s l y - 19 -r o t a t e d among s t e w a r d e s s e s on t h e crew. A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s f o r m a l i z e d and h e l d o n l y by m a l e s , who w i l l be promoted t o p u r s e r s as v a c a n c i e s a r i s e . They a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o w o r k i n g t h e economy g a l l e y p o s i t i o n ; and inasmuch as t h e r e a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s f o r placement on a l l f l i g h t s o p e r a t e d , t h e y a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e w i t h t h e (any) s t e w a r d e s s who works t h a t p o s i t i o n . He i s p a i d a l o n g t h e same s c a l e used f o r s t e w a r d e s s e s u n l e s s he works as p u r s e r . From a h i s t o r i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , male f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s have n e v e r been d e n i e d changes i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s . The p r i v i l e g e t o marry was g i v e n t o s t e w a r d e s s e s o n l y i n 1965 f o l l o w i n g upon government i n t e r v e n t i o n . They were f o r m e r l y a u t o m a t i c a l l y s e v e r e d f r o m t h e i r p o s i t i o n s upon m a r r i a g e a l t h o u g h whenever p o s s i b l e were g i v e n o t h e r ground a i r l i n e p o s i t i o n s . L e aves o f a b s e n c e s d u r i n g p r e g n a n c i e s a r e now a l s o o b t a i n a b l e . A 1970 e s t i m a t e i n d i c a t e s t h a t up t o 25% t o 40% of W o r l d A i r w a y s s t e w a r d e s s e s a r e m a r r i e d , depending on w h i c h base i s measured. W i t h t h e pas s a g e o f t i m e t h e r e a r e now among them t h e s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d and widowed; t h i s i s a n o t a b l e d e p a r t u r e f r o m a f o r m e r l y a l l s p i n s t e r group. 18 C o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r n o t i o n s l o n g e v i t y o f s t e w a r d e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s n o t promoted. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f sex i s e v i d e n t i n r e t i r e m e n t p r a c t i c e s . A male f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t r e t i r e s a t age 60 as 18. A. H a i l e y , A i r p o r t , New Y o r k , Doubleday & Co., I n c . , 1968, p. 121. - 20 -do c o c k p i t c r e ws. Female f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s c u r r e n t l y must r e t i r e a t age 50 p r o v i d i n g t h e y were h i r e d p r i o r 1965, when f o l l o w i n g upon t h e p r i v i l e g e t o m a r r y , t h e Company i n s t i t u t e d a t e n y e a r c o n t r a c t f o r a l l newly h i r e d s t e w a r d e s s e s . The c o n t r a c t i n c l u d e s f i n a n c i a l r e m u n e r a t i o n c a l l e d ' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f u n d s ' s t a r t i n g a t f i v e y e a r s employment w i t h y e a r l y i n c r e a s e s and m a x i m a l l y ($3,000) t h r e e thousand d o l l a r s a f t e r t h e t e n y e a r p e r i o d , i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t t o promote c a r e e r change and m a i n t a i n o n l y a twenty t o t h i r t y - f i v e age group c o h o r t o f f e m a l e s . The h i r i n g o f f e m a l e s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e twenty t o t w e n t y -f i v e y e a r age gr o u p . They have a l s o i n f o r m a l l y l i f t e d t h e ban on d a t i n g male p a s s e n g e r s . A s i m i l a r s h o r t c a r e e r l e n g t h i s p r a c t i s e d i n t h e J a p a n e s e t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y where f e m a l e employment t e r m i n a t e s on m a r r i a g e , and a f e m a l e who has n o t l o c a t e d a spouse and e x i t e d w i t h i n f i v e t o seven y e a r s i s a c t i v e l y a s s i s t e d by t h e employer i n making a 19 s u i t a b l e m a r r i a g e . A b e g g l e n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s a c u l t u r a l norm f o r J a p a n . The same cannot be s a i d f o r N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r a l norms. F u r t h e r changes a r e e x p e c t e d t o e v o l v e i n t h e f u t u r e as a r e s u l t o f r e g u l a t i o n by law and union/management n e g o t i a t i o n . 19. J . C. A b e g g l e n , The J a p a n e s e F a c t o r y , Bombay, A s i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1959, pp. 8-10. - 21 -Among them a r e : 1) e x t e n s i o n o f s t e w a r d e s s r e t i r e m e n t age t o 60 y e a r s -p a r i t y w i t h m a l e s ; 2) i n v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t l y used t e n - y e a r c o n t r a c t s f o r s t e w a r d e s s e s ; 3) e x t e n s i o n o f f o r m a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f p u r s e r and a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s t o f e m a l e s - t o g e t h e r w i t h wage p a r i t y ; 4) as a f i r s t s t e p towards p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n t h e l i c e n s i n g o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s i s i n t h e e a r l y p l a n n i n g s t a g e s . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e r e i s a n e g l i g i b l e amount o f m o b i l i t y of f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s f r o m one a i r l i n e t o a n o t h e r g e n e r a l l y b e c a u s e each has i t s own i n t e r n a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l w h i c h i s o r i e n t e d t o t h e i r own p r a c t i c e s , p o l i c i e s and a i r c r a f t f l o w n . Any m o b i l i t y w h i c h o c c u r s i s g e n e r a l l y f r o m l a r g e a i r l i n e s w i t h i n t e r -n a t i o n a l r o u t e s t o s m a l l a i r l i n e s w i t h o n l y d o m e s t i c r o u t e s . C a b i n crew impermanency Three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e s t a t i c i n t h e a i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n s t h e y may occupy, t h e o t h e r s a r e d e l e g a t e d t o t h e r e m a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s o r s e l f s e l e c t them. The p u r s e r i s r e q u i r e d t o work t h e f i r s t c l a s s c a b i n , t h e m u l t i l i n g u a l i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e economy c a b i n and t h e a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r t o t h e economy g a l l e y . As men t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y b l o c k s change m o n t h l y . J e t b l o c k s a r e made up o f a l l o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s , a l l d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h f o r f u l l o r p a r t i a l crew complements. The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n i s f o r s e p a r a t e b l o c k s f o r m u l t i l i n g u a l s , a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s and l e s s f r e q u e n t l y p u r s e r s . Crew permanency i s t h e r e f o r e e x t r e m e l y low. F o r t h e h i g h e s t - 22 -s t a b i l i t y o f crew u n i t s - t h i s i s p r o v i d e d by r e t a i n i n g t h e same c o h o r t o f c o w o r k e r s t o g e t h e r f o r t h e p e r i o d o f one month - t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n f o r a s i x month span w o u l d number t h i r t y ( s m a l l j e t ) t o t h i r t y s i x ( l a r g e j e t ) d i f f e r e n t f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s , d i s c o u n t i n g a l l p r o b a b i l i t y o f any one of them b e i n g s e l e c t e d more t h a n once. I n t h e w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s e v e n t y f i v e d i f f e r e n t f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s were worked w i t h d u r i n g a s i x month span; of t h e s e t w e l v e were p u r s e r s , t h r e e were a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s and f i f t y were s t e w a r d e s s e s ( m u l t i l i n g u a l s i n c l u d e d ) . No two c o n s e c u t i v e f l i g h t s were worked by t h e same s e t o f p e r s o n s and o n l y t h r e e p e r s o n s were r e p e a t e r s i n t h e s i x months. Crew impermanency a l s o r e s u l t s when b l o c k h o l d e r s book o f f s i c k , a r e t a k e n o f f f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y r e a s o n s o r t o do p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s a s s i g n m e n t s , i n o r d e r t o a t t e n d t o u n i o n b u s i n e s s a f f a i r s , when t h e y a r e d r a f t e d t o work o t h e r f l i g h t s , by e x c h a n g i n g f l i g h t s w i t h a n o t h e r b l o c k h o l d e r o r t a k i n g v a c a t i o n t i m e . T a b l e s I I and I I I i l l u s t r a t e t h e r a n g e o f work e x p e r i e n c e f o r v a r i o u s crew complements from t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n of f l i g h t s . Y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e manual c o n t a i n i n g s e n i o r i t y l i s t s and i s b a s e d on d a t e of h i r i n g . T h i s manual i s k e p t i n t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t l o u n g e i n t h e t e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g and i s a v a i l a b l e t o a l l members. I t i s updated p e r i o d i c a l l y by management t o c o i n c i d e w i t h demographic changes, i e . change o f name due t o changes i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s , t r a n s f e r s i n t o and o u t o f t h e b a s e , a f t e r p r o m o t i o n , d e m o t i o n , d e a t h , r e t i r e m e n t , employment e n t r y o r s e v e r e n c e . Table II Range of years of f l i g h t attendant experience f o r each crew member by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n held and p o s i t i o n occupied on a sample of scheduled f l i g h t s . (Each v e r t i c a l column s e r i e s represents one crew complement) Years of experience as a f l i g h t attendant Series 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n on crew complement by work un i t A i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n occupied a) f i r s t c l a s s - purser 17 17 4 b 8 22 17 17 8 cabin - stewardess 5 5 17 9 9 17 17 9 g a l l e y b) economy - stewardess 9 9 9 - - - 4 - g a l l e y - stewardess 6 9 9 9 10 9 - 9 cabin - stewardess l a l b - 2 C - 9 - cabin - m u l t i l i n g u a l - - 8 - 2 10 3 2 C cabin - a s s i s t a n t purser — — 3 2 1 3 — 2 g a l l e y T o t a l per f l i g h t 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 Series 1-4: domestic scheduled f l i g h t s 5-8: overseas scheduled f l i g h t s Code: a ... supernumary crew member o f f reserve, on her t h i r d f l i g h t b ... from the reserve pool, not a j e t blockholder c ... m u l t i l i n g u a l , from reserve pool Table I I I Range of yea r s of f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t e x p e r i e n c e f o r each crew member by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h e l d and p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d on a sample of c h a r t e r s (Each v e r t i c a l column s e r i e s r e p r e s e n t s one crew complement) Years of e x p e r i e n c e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t as -S e r i e s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n h e l d on crew complement 9. 10 11 12 Cab i n s e c t i o n o r a i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d p u r s e r 17 2 e 4 22 f o r w a r d g a l l e y stewardess 8 10 6 10 f o r w a r d s e c t i o n stewardess 9 9 - - r e a r g a l l e y stewardess 10 8 9 9 r e a r s e c t i o n stewardess 4 d - 4 6 f o r w a r d s e c t i o n stewardess 7 - - r e a r s e c t i o n m u l t i l i n g u a l stewardess a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r -10* 2 1 2 1 r e a r s e c t i o n r e a r g a l l e y T o t a l per f l i g h t 6 6 6 6 Code: d ... v a c a t i o n r e l i e f r e p l a c i n g b l o c k h o l d e r on h o l i d a y s e ... d r a f t e d f o r f l i g h t , no r e s e r v e p u r s e r s a v a i l a b l e f ... worked fo r w a r d s e c t i o n g ... on f l i g h t t o make-up l o s t b l o c k e d f l i g h t time - 25 -I n t h i s paper ' j u n i o r ' w i l l a l w a y s r e f e r t o f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s who a r e n o t a b l e t o h o l d j e t b l o c k s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s and/or i n t h e c a s e o f m u l t i l i n g u a l s and a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s , t h o s e w i t h l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s o f f l i g h t s e r v i c e . ' S e n i o r ' w i l l a p p l y t o t h o s e who a r e a b l e t o h o l d j e t b l o c k s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , b u t e x c l u d e m u l t i l i n g u a l s and a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s w i t h l e s s t h a t f i v e y e a r s o f f l i g h t s e r v i c e . The f i v e y e a r p e r i o d was s e l e c t e d as t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s t e w a r d e s s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as t h e s e p e r s o n s a r e t h e m a j o r i t y group. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e one i n p o p u l a r u s e by t h e group. Some g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s can be made on s e n i o r i t y s t a t u s congruency i n terms of s e n i o r / j u n i o r v a r i a b l e s : 1) l o w s t a t u s congruency i s d i r e c t l y c o r r e -l a t e d t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f r e s e r v e s t e w a r d e s s e s , a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s and l e s s f r e q u e n t l y m u l t i l i n g u a l s on t h e crew; 2) f i r s t c l a s s work u n i t s have a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f h i g h s t a t u s c o n g r u e n c y ; 3) economy work u n i t s have a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f low s t a t u s c o n g r u e n c y . Number o f y e a r s o f d i s p a r i t y between h i g h s t a t u s c ongruency work u n i t s i s n o t g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o r r e l a t e d t o f r e q u e n c y o f c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l t e n s i o n s b u t i t has a d i r e c t b e a r i n g i n work u n i t s w i t h low s t a t u s c o ngruency, i . e . s e r i e s 4, 5 and 8 of T a b l e I I (page 23) economy work u n i t , t h e s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s i n each one would be under most p r e s s u r e . The h i g h i n s t a b i l i t y o f work u n i t s r e q u i r e s c o m p l e t e i n t e r -c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f p e r s o n s i n each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . D e t r i m e n t a l t o such i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y i s t h e d i s c r e p a n c y i n l e v e l s o f e f f i c i e n c y w h i c h i s - 26 -l a r g e l y b u t n o t e n t i r e l y an outcome o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i . e . s e n i o r i t y . I t has been shown t h a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a work system where impermanency of work u n i t s e x i s t s t h e r e a r e f o u n d t o be s o c i a l s t r a i n s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e n s i o n s i n e x c e s s o f t h o s e f o u n d i n more permanent work u n i t s s u c h as 20 t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e f a c t o r y , h o s p i t a l ward o r o f f i c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was d e c i d e d t o e x p l o r e t h e p r o b l e m o f how m e a n i n g f u l work and p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e formed between crew members who must p e r f o r m as a team i n a p u b l i c l y o b s e r v a b l e and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n when the y ' h a v e had no p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n w o r k i n g as a team b u t o n l y i n 'teams of t h i s k i n d ' . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f f o r m a t i o n o f crews r e q u i r e s a c o n t i n u a l a d j u s t m e n t o f c o w o r k e r s t o each o t h e r ' s work h a b i t s and a c o n t i n u a l a c q u a i n t a n c e p r o c e s s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a d j u s t m e n t s r e q u i r e d t o be made t o p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s who a r e l a r g e l y s t r a n g e r s . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t / p a s s e n g e r r a t i o The f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t / p a s s e n g e r r a t i o v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m c l a s s o f s e r v i c e and by p a s s e n g e r volume c a p a c i t y . On t h e b a s i s o f one p a s s e n g e r p e r s e a t a v a i l a b l e t h e f i r s t c l a s s s e c t i o n r a t i o i s 1:8 on b o t h t y p e s o f a i r c r a f t w h i l e i n economy i t i s 1:39 and 1:45.5 on t h e 20. W. B e n n i s , "Beyond B u r e a u c r a c y " , A. E t z i o n i , ed., Rea d i n g s on Modern O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1969, pp. 1-7. - 27 -s m a l l and l a r g e j e t r e s p e c t i v e l y . When a f u l l l o a d i s c a r r i e d t h e s e a r e m i n i m a l r a t i o s , i n a c t u a l f a c t each f l i g h t v a r i e s . R a t i o s a r e s m a l l e r b e c a u s e n o t a l l f l i g h t s c a r r y f u l l c a p a c i t y and g r e a t e r b e c a u s e i n f a n t s and t o d d l e r s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o be c a r r i e d on t h e p a r e n t ' s l a p . A l s o b e c a u s e two c h i l d r e n may occupy one s e a t . T h e r e f o r e , f o r h i g h e s t a c c u r a c y head c o u n t s a r e much more a p p r o p r i a t e . T a b l e IV i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r a t i o v a r i a t i o n s . T a b l e IV F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t / p a s s e n g e r r a t i o s by c l a s s o f s e r v i c e and p a s s e n g e r s e a t c a p a c i t y on s c h e d u l e d and c h a r t e r f l i g h t s . Number of f l i g h t S e c t i o n o f F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t / a t t e n d a n t s a i r c r a f t p a s s e n g e r r a t i o S m a l l j e t Sc h e d u l e d f l i g h t s 2 f i r s t c l a s s l : 8 a 3 economy 1:39 C h a r t e r f l i g h t s 6 a l l economy 1:24.5 s e a t i n g L a r g e j e t S c h e d u l e d f l i g h t s 2 f i r s t c l a s s l : 8 a 4 economy 1:45.5 Comp u t a t i o n s b a s e d on number of s e a t s a v a i l a b l e a - T h i s f i g u r e does n o t i n c l u d e t h e c o c k p i t crew whom th e y a l s o s e r v e . R a t i o changes t o 1:10 when i t i n c l u d e s maximum s i z e o f c o c k p i t crew. - 28 -F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t / p a s s e n g e r r a t i o s a r e m e a n i n g f u l when c o r r e l a t e d t o d u r a t i o n o f a f l i g h t . F o r example, on t h e s h o r t e s t f l i g h t o p e r a t e d t h e number o f m i n u t e s s e r v i c e p e r p a s s e n g e r i n f i r s t c l a s s i s t e n w h i l e i n economy i t i s 2.1, based on r a t i o s shown i n T a b l e IV. On t h e l o n g e s t d u r a t i o n f l i g h t o p e r a t e d t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s e r v i c e m i n u t e s p e r f i r s t c l a s s p a s s e n g e r i s 68 m i n u t e s and per economy p a s s e n g e r 13.8 m i n u t e s . These p r o p o r t i o n s have a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d . They have a d i r e c t consequence on t h e t e n s i o n w i t h w h i c h work i s p e r f o r m e d , f r e q u e n c y of c o n f l i c t s and s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h a r i s e , and d e g r e e o f d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s i n t h e s e t t i n g . Temporal M a r g i n a l i t y o f Duty P e r i o d s An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e b l o c k s worked r e v e a l s no r e g u l a r i t y o f work days t o days o f f s u c h as t h e f i v e day work week f o l l o w e d by two days o f f . Work days b e f o r e a day o f f v a r y f r o m one t o t h r e e o r f o u r days f o l l o w e d by one t o f i v e days o f f . T h i s h i g h i r r e g u l a r i t y i s t h e u s u a l p a t t e r n f o l l o w e d i n b l o c k s c o n s i s t i n g of a l l o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s and i n b l o c k s c o m b i n i n g o v e r s e a s w i t h d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s . As g e o g r a p h i c r e l o c a t i o n i s i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m f l i g h t work i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r some o f t h e dynamics o f t h e i n t e r c h a n g e between a) t i m e o f day a t w h i c h t h e work p e r i o d - u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as d u t y - 29 -p e r i o d b e g i n s , b) d u r a t i o n o f t h e d u t y p e r i o d , and c) number o f g e o g r a p h i c zones c r o s s e d d u r i n g t h e d u t y p e r i o d . The median d u r a t i o n o f d u t y p e r i o d s f o r o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s o c c u r r e d between t h e i n t e r v a l o f t w e l v e t o t w e l v e h o u r s f i f t y n i n e m i n u t e s . T h e r e were none under t e n h o u r s o r i n e x c e s s o f s i x t e e n . A l t h o u g h d u t y p e r i o d s a r e n o t a l l o w e d by u n i o n and management agreement t o be s c h e d u l e d t o exceed f o u r t e e n h o u r s , t h e y d i d i n a c t u a l i t y o c c u r as f r e q u e n t l y as t h e median d u t y p e r i o d when t h e two i n t e r v a l s o f f o u r t e e n h o u r s t o f o u r t e e n h o u r s f i f t y n i n e m i n u t e s and f i f t e e n h o u r s t o f i f t e e n h o u r s f i f t y n i n e m i n u t e s a r e combined. O n l y two d o m e s t i c d u t y p e r i o d s exceeded t h e e i g h t hour work day, one was i n t h e n i n e t o n i n e h o u r s f i f t y n i n e m i n u t e i n t e r v a l , t h e o t h e r was i n t h e t e n t o t e n hour f i f t y n i n e m i n u t e i n t e r v a l . A median o r mean d u r a t i o n o f d u t y p e r i o d f o r d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s i s m e a n i n g l e s s b e c a u s e t h e y v e r y f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d f l y i n g as a p a s s e n g e r f o r a p o r t i o n o f t h e work day. T h i s i s n o t r a t e d a t p a r as i s t i m e s p e n t d o i n g f l i g h t d u t i e s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d among f l i g h t crews t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f t i m e zones c r o s s e d i n a d u t y p e r i o d t h e g r e a t e r a r e t h e 21. Duty p e r i o d s b e g i n one hour p r i o r s c h e d u l e d d e p a r t u r e t i m e , i n c l u d e a l l t i m e s p e n t a t e n r o u t e s t a t i o n s t o p s , d e l a y s , and t e r m i n a t e f i f t e e n m i n u t e s p o s t f l i g h t a r r i v a l a t t h e f i n a l t e r m i n a t i o n p o i n t f o r t h e crew. - 30 -p h y s i o l o g i c a l and m e n t a l s t r e s s e s e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t and as p o s t f l i g h t f a t i g u e . The s t r e s s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c e s s i v e when d u t y p e r i o d s exceed t e n h o u r s and when t h e y b e g i n towards t h e l a t t e r t h i r d o f t h e n o r m a l t w e n t y - f o u r hour day. I t i s a l s o t h e i r g e n e r a l o p i n i o n t h a t t h e d u r a t i o n o f o v e r s e a s l a y o v e r s ( r e s t p e r i o d s p r i o r t h e r e t u r n f l i g h t home) a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t l y l o n g t o p r o v i d e f o r an adequate p h y s i c a l r e a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e change i n c l o c k t i m e . When f l i g h t a t t e n -d a n t s g i v e a c c o u n t s o f how w e l l o r how p o o r l y t h e y r e s t e d i t i s n o t uncommon t o h e a r " . . . t h a t means I've had f o u r h o u r s s l e e p i n t h e l a s t t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s " , o r " . . . s i x h o u r s s l e e p i n f o r t y e i g h t h o u r s on a r r i v i n g home". V e r y o c c a s i o n a l l y one h e a r s " I s l e p t s i x t e e n h o u r s s t r a i g h t " , b u t on t h e w h o l e t h e g e t t i n g o f p r o p e r amounts o f r e s t d u r i n g t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e i s p r o b l e m a t i c . I t i s t h e t w e n t y - f o u r p e r i o d t h a t i s m e a n i n g f u l i n t h e i r a c c o u n t s n o t d a y t i m e and n i g h t - t i m e p e r i o d s . I t i s t h e custom f o r f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s t o h a b i t u a l l y u s e t h e g e o g r a p h i c t i m e zone a t t h e i r home b a s e ( P a c i f i c d a y l i g h t t i m e ) as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t when d i s c u s s i n g p roblems r e l a t e d t o r e s t p e r i o d s , l o c a t i o n o f d u t y p e r i o d s i n t h e twenty f o u r hour day or i n d u r a t i o n o f t i m e s p e n t awake. To g i v e an example o f a t i m e zone p r o b l e m : i n p r a c t i c a l terms t h i s means t h a t a d u t y p e r i o d w h i c h b e g i n s a t 9:00 a.m. f o r a f l i g h t d e p a r t i n g a t 10:00 a.m. G r e e n w i c h Mean t i m e when c o n v e r t e d t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c t i m e zone a t home ba s e means t h e d u t y p e r i o d r e a l l y b e g i n s a t m i d n i g h t f o r a f l i g h t d e p a r t i n g a t 1:00 a.m. a t P a c i f i c D a y l i g h t t i m e . - 31 -The mean d u r a t i o n o f a l a y o v e r p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g a f l i g h t w i t h a n i n e hour t i m e zone change was twenty n i n e h o u r s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of one extreme f i g u r e o f f i f t y two h o u r s . The mean d u r a t i o n o f l a y o v e r was f i f t y h o u r s f o l l o w i n g f l i g h t s i n v o l v i n g a s e v e n t e e n hour t i m e zone change w h i c h i n c l u d e d c r o s s i n g t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l D a t e L i n e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one extreme f i g u r e o f e i g h t y - t w o h o u r s . These means do not t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t d u r a t i o n o f d u t y p e r i o d s . The p a t t e r n o f c o n v e r t i n g t i m e a t l a y o v e r l o c a t i o n s t o home ba s e t i m e was p e r f o r m e d f o r a l l d u t y p e r i o d s o r i g i n a t i n g a t t h o s e l o c a t i o n s as a r e a s o n a b l e p r o c e d u r e i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e t e m p o r a l m a r g i n a l i t y o f t h e sample group measured. The f i g u r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d u t y p e r i o d s w h i c h t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n worked i n t h e s i x month p e r i o d when c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c t i m e zone a t t h e t i m e o f o n s e t of t h e d u t y p e r i o d i n d i c a t e t h a t 65.5% of t h e s e began d u r i n g t h e day s h i f t p e r i o d w h i c h i s s o c i e t y ' s norm and 34.5% o f them o r i g i n a t e d i n t e m p o r a l l y m a r g i n a l p e r i o d s w i t h an a l m o s t e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n between a f t e r n o o n s and n i g h t s as shown i n T a b l e V Column A. However, when t h e t i m e zone v a r i a b l e i s h e l d c o n s t a n t a t t h e home ba s e l o c a t i o n w h i c h i s t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l and m e n t a l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t even away fr o m home, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n changes s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o one o f h i g h e r m a r g i n a l i t y . When t i m e c o n v e r s i o n s a r e done on t h e same sample p o p u l a t i o n 59.2% o f d u t y p e r i o d s o r i g i n a t e d d u r i n g a f t e r n o o n and n i g h t s h i f t s combined, w i t h 44.9% d u r i n g t h e n i g h t s h i f t - 32 -p e r i o d a l o n e as shown i n Column B. N i g h t s h i f t o r i g i n a t i o n s t h e n exceeded t h o s e o f day s h i f t by 4.1%. T a b l e V C o r r e l a t i o n o f o n s e t o f dut y p e r i o d s w i t h g e o g r a p h i c t i m e zone f o r a l l d u t y p e r i o d s worked by t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e s i x month t i m e span. Column A: r e p r e s e n t s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o n s e t s o f d u t y p e r i o d s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t i m e zone o f t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c o r i g i n a t i o n p o i n t . Column B: r e p r e s e n t s t h e same o n s e t s b u t a l l t h e o r i g i n a t i o n t i m e s were c o n v e r t e d t o t h e home bas e g e o g r a p h i c t i m e zone. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f o n s e t s i n p e r c e n t a g e s S h i f t s Column A t i m e zone ' v a r i a b l e ' Column B t i m e zone ' c o n s t a n t P e r c e n t a g e chang e Days 8 a.m. 4 p.m. 65.5 40.8 -24.7 A f t e r n o o n s 4 p.m. Mn 18.1 14.3 - 3.8 N i g h t s Mn 8 a.m. 16.4 44.9 +28.5 T o t a l 100.0% 100.0% - 33 -Normal s c h i z o i d e x p e r i e n c e s , an outcome o f s t r e s s . One o f t h e r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r e n t p roblems f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o a d j u s t t o and p e r c e i v e as t h e r e s u l t o f s t r e s s f u l w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s i s t h e i r s c h i z o i d e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h a r e i n d u c e d by t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s a s : l o n g on-duty p e r i o d s ; awake p e r i o d s o f t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s , more o r l e s s , where t h e d u t y p e r i o d i s l o c a t e d towards t h e l a t t e r p o r t i o n ; d u r i n g n i g h t t i m e h o u r s ; on h i g h t e n s i o n 22 l e v e l f l i g h t s . N o r m a l l y s c h i z o i d e x p e r i e n c e s r e f e r t o a p e r s o n ' s d i s r u p t i o n o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i m s e l f i . e . t h e s t a t e o f b e i n g an automaton, d i s t o r t i o n s o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e , and w i t h t h e w o r l d i . e . h a l l u c i n a t i o n s - d e f i n e d as p e r c e p t i o n s w i t h o u t an o b j e c t . These a r e s o c i a l l y p e r c e i v a b l e i n t h a t f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s i n q u i r e o f each o t h e r an i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f i r m a t i o n whether t h e o t h e r h e a r d a b e l l o r s a i d s o m e t h i n g . They a r e used as e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r d o i n g s o m e t h i n g p h y s i c a l o r s o c i a l . F o r example, d u r i n g a q u i e t p e r i o d when p a s s e n g e r s were s l e e p i n g and crew members were h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y s t a y i n g awake ( t h e y a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d t o s l e e p o r r e s t w i t h eyes c l o s e d d u r i n g a f l i g h t ) one s t e w a r d e s s gave as a r e a s o n f o r h e r v i s i t t o a n o t h e r work u n i t , t h a t " I was s t a r t i n g t o see t h i n g s so I f i g u r e d 22. R. D. L a i n g , The D i v i d e d S e l f , C h i c a g o , Q u a d r a n g l e Books, ( c o p y r i g h t 1965) pp. 38-45, 60-82. - 34 -I'd b e t t e r g e t moving". T h e r e i s t h e common r e l i n q u i s h i n g o f t h e s e l f t o t h a t of an automaton, w h i c h i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e as many o f t h e mass s e r v i c e s can be p e r f o r m e d on a r o t e b a s i s and as t h e y do n o t r e q u i r e i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n . Such p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s a r e a l s o s o c i a l l y p e r c e i v a b l e i n : 1) a n o t h e r ' s change of s p e e c h t o stammering, s t u t t e r i n g and t h e i n a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l t h i n g s w h i c h a r e w e l l known, 2) c o n t a g i o u s n e s s of e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y h y s t e r i c a l f o r m l a u g h t e r t o t h i n g s w h i c h w o u l d o r d i n a r i l y n o t appear t o be f u n n y , 3) i n c o h e r e n t a c t i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y n o t i c e d by t h e i r p r o d u c e r as b e i n g a b e r r a n t , i . e . a s t e w a r d e s s i n t h e g a l l e y e m p t i e d a cup o f c o f f e e onto t h e used meal t r a y i n s t e a d o f i n t o t h e s i n k and d i d n o t n o t i c e o r comment on h e r a c t i o n , n e i t h e r d i d t h e o t h e r s p r e s e n t . I t i s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d by o t h e r s t h a t s u c h s t r a n g e b e h a v i o r i s c a u s e d by t e m p o r a r y s c h i z o i d s t a t e s and t h e r e f o r e need n o t be commented on o r b r o u g h t t o t h e p e r s o n ' s a t t e n t i o n . To do so w o u l d cause u n n e c e s s a r y embarrassment and i n c r e a s e t h e s t r a i n t h e p e r s o n i s e x p e r i e n c i n g . I f n o t i c e d and a c c o u n t e d f o r , t e n s i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y r e l e a s e d t h r o u g h humor. 4) I n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s t o s p a c e p r e s s u r e s r e s u l t i n g i n v e r b a l c o n f l i c t s w i t h p a s s e n g e r s o r i s o l a t i o n i n t h e l a v a t o r y u n t i l e m o t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m i s r e e s t a b l i s h e d , 5) l a c k o f r e c a l l p o s t f l i g h t so t h a t t h e s t r e s s f u l p e r i o d i s v i e w e d as a dream, n i g h t m a r e o r b l a n k t i m e . S c h i z o i d r e a c t i o n s a r e r o u t i n e l y e x p e r i e n c e d , new members a r e - 35 -s o c i a l i z e d t o p e r c e i v e them as n o r m a l and a d j u s t m e n t s t o them a r e l e a r n e d . No fo r m o f pep p i l l s o r wake-up p i l l s a r e used o r seen as 23 w a r r a n t e d . P e r s o n s do a t t i m e s g i v e t h e 'appearance o f b e i n g i n t o x i c a t e d a l t h o u g h a l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n on f l i g h t s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a s m a l l subgroup and i s n o t u s u a l l y t a k e n i n amounts p r o d u c i n g d r u n k e n e s s . Some o f t h e s e r e a c t i o n s a r e t y p i c a l t o t h e ' t i r e d mother syndrome' 24 e x p e r i e n c e d by mothers w i t h young i n f a n t s and/or o t h e r young c h i l d r e n . T h i s would s u g g e s t t h a t v a r i o u s work e n v i r o n m e n t s and o c c u p a t i o n s have t h e i r own modal l e v e l s o f s t r e s s , t h a t s u c h s t r e s s i s p e r c e i v e d t o be n o r m a l and i s h a b i t u a t e d t o by t h o s e engaged i n t h e eve r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s on t h e j o b and t h a t t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f n o r m a l s c h i z o i d 23. O t h e r p h y s i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s r e s u l t i n g from l o n g p e r i o d s a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s a r e : h e m o r r h a g i c eyes p a r t i c u l a r l y a t 39,000 f e e t a l t i t u d e , d u l l c h e s t p a i n o v e r t h e ste r n u m a r e a w i t h s h a r p p a i n on deep i n h a l a t i o n , s w o l l e n a n k l e s sometimes up t h e c a l f t o t h e knee, a b d o m i n a l b l o a t i n g combined w i t h o c c a s i o n a l s e v e r e gas p a i n s , d e h y d r a t e d t h r o a t r e s u l t i n g i n f r e q u e n t u n c o n t r o l l a b l e c o u g h i n g , m e n s t r u a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , p h l e b i t i s and v a r i c o s e v e i n c o n g e s t i o n i n t h e l e g s , a r e t h e more common ones. 24. B. J o n e s , "Dynamics o f M a r r i a g e and Motherhood", R. Morgan, ed., S i s t e r h o o d i s P o w e r f u l , New Y o r k , V i n t a g e Books, 1970, pp. .46-61. - 36 -r e a c t i o n s a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y h e l d by t h e membership. The s p a t i a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s The a i r c r a f t e n v ironment has c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s w h i c h a r e c o n s t r u c t i v e i n d e l i n e a t i n g how t h e o c c a s i o n o f a f l i g h t w i l l p r o c e e d , i n n e c e s s i t a t i n g s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s e s of p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems e n c o u n t e r e d by space and t i m e p r e s s u r e s . Once t h e a i r c r a f t d o o r s a r e c l o s e d , t h i s e n v ironment i s an i s o l a t e i n t h a t a l l p e r s o n s a r e c o n f i n e d and n o t a t l i b e r t y t o t e r m i n a t e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t w i l l a t any t i m e . T h i s r e l i n q u i s h i n g o f freedom i s a n a t u r a l c a u s e o f a p p r e h e n s i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l t e n s i o n s and d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r . I t r e s t r i c t s t h e ra n g e o f a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r s and enhances t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a l l p e r s o n s t o a s s i s t i n t h e ma i n t e n a n c e o f s o c i a l o r d e r and o f a s a f e e n v i r o n m e n t . As a consequence o f f u n c t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s t h e i n t e r i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e s i g n e d t o g e t t h e maximum u t i l i t y o u t o f t h e spac e a v a i l a b l e . A l l work s e t t i n g s have an e c o l o g i c a l arrangement t h a t s e g r e g a t e s p e r s o n s who p e r f o r m d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s , 25. The i n c i d e n c e o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t n e r v o u s breakdowns o c c u r r i n g 'on t h e j o b ' i s e x t r e m e l y l o w , i . e . a t t h e base measured t h e a p p r o x i m a t e r a t i o i s one e v e r y f i v e y e a r s . One was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s t e w a r d e s s ' a t t e m p t t o e x i t f r o m t h e a i r c r a f t i n f l i g h t , t h e o t h e r by a c o m p l e t e m e n t a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n as t o who and where she was. The f r e q u e n c y o f s i c k t i m e t a k e n f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l problems o f a l e s s s e r i o u s n a t u r e i s much h i g h e r b u t s t a t i s t i c s a r e not a v a i l a b l e . - 37 -o r who h o l d d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s , from each o t h e r ; t o g e t h e r w i t h a s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l a r e a i n t o r e g i o n s which may be p e r c e i v e d i n terms of p r i v a t e / p u b l i c o r f r o n t / b a c k s t a g e s w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of b a r r i e r s to p e r c e p t i o n b u i l t i n t o them. The i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a j e t w i l l be found on page 41 of t h i s paper. Workers i n p o s i t i o n s of g r e a t e r p r e s t i g e a r e more f r e q u e n t l y l o c a t e d i n back r e g i o n s b e h i n d p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s . F o r example, p i l o t s a r e l o c a t e d i n a back r e g i o n r e s t r i c t e d to p a s s e n g e r s , e n t r a n c e i s made thr o u g h an unmarked door. T h i s i s t h e t y p i c a l l a b e l i n g p a t t e r n found i n f i r s t c l a s s p u b l i c w a i t i n g rooms, h o t e l l o b b i e s , r e s t a u r a n t s e t c . and i n b u s i n e s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c a t e r i n g to a m i d d l e c l a s s c l i e n t e l e . Thus l a v a t o r i e s a r e l a b e l e d , but g a l l e y s a r e n o t . A c c e s s to t h e c o c k p i t by p a s s e n g e r s i s o n l y w i t h t h e C a p t a i n ' s p e r m i s s i o n o r by h i s i n v i t a t i o n . T h i s p r i v a c y i s r e q u i r e d not o n l y because of t h e c r u c i a l n a t u r e of t h e i r j o b , i t a l s o a s s i s t s them i n i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r o l i n t h e event t h a t problems d e v e l o p o r a r e encountered which would u n n e c e s a r i l y c a u s e a n x i e t y i n t h o s e whose t r u s t they h o l d . The e x c l u s i v e n e s s o f t h e a r e a ensures t h e c o n t i n u a n c e of t h e n o t i o n h e l d by o u t s i d e r s t h a t t h e p i l o t s c o n t i n u a l l y and s e r i o u s l y a t t e n d to t h e i r d u t i e s when i n f a c t they do r e l a x w i t h t h e i r h a t s and j a c k e t s o f f , a t times c h a t and j o k e w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s , t a k e t u r n s to p a r t a k e o f meals and so on. - 38 -Workers a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s o f s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e s e t t i n g a r e more f r e q u e n t l y l o c a t e d b e h i n d v i s u a l b a r r i e r s t o p e r c e p t i o n i . e . c o u n t e r s , e t c . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s have d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p u b l i c , t h e i r work i s p e r f o r m e d i n r e g i o n s w h i c h f l u c t u a t e i n d e f i n i t i o n f r o m back t o f r o n t r e g i o n s . F o r example, g a l l e y s f r o m w h i c h r e f r e s h m e n t s a r e d i s p e n s e d have c u r t a i n s o r d o o r s w i t h w h i c h t h e y c a n be c l o s e d o f f b u t w h i l e meals e t c . a r e b e i n g s e r v e d t h e y must be opened and a r e f r o n t r e g i o n s as anyone w a l k i n g by can see i n . The u n c a r p e t e d f l o o r / and t e c h n i c a l l o o k i n g n a t u r e o f t h e a r e a a r e n o t a s u f f i c i e n t b a r r i e r i n t h e m s e l v e s t o keep p a s s e n g e r s o u t . I f any d e f i n i t i o n of d i s t i n c t r e g i o n s i s r e q u i r e d o r d e s i r a b l e i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h o s e i n c h a r g e t o c r e a t e and impose s o c i a l b a r r i e r s , i . e . e n f o r c e f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l r u l e s on t h e i r use. The v i s u a l b a r r i e r o f v i n y l c o v e r e d f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f a b r i c u p h o l s t e r e d p a s s e n g e r s e a t s i s a l s o i n s u f f i c i e n t t o d e f i n e i t as back r e g i o n r e s t r i c t e d a r e a and s o c i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d b a r r i e r s t o t h e i r use i s m a i n t a i n e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e f l u c t u a t i n g d e f i n i t i o n of r e g i o n s and t h e t e r r i t o r i a l a s p e c t s of power w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r as t h e y a r e some-what p r o b l e m a t i c and c o n s e q u e n t l y promote c o n f l i c t b e h a v i o r . The p a s s e n g e r ( p u b l i c ) r e g i o n s a r e d i s t i n c t a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s o f s e r v i c e , t h e two c l a s s e s of c a b i n s a r e s e p a r a t e d by a c u r t a i n b a r r i e r . The ' l i v i n g room' co n c e p t i s f o u n d i n c a r p e t e d f l o o r s , b l e n d e d c o l o r schemes, subdued and i n d i r e c t l i g h t i n g , f a b r i c c o v e r e d - 39 -s e a t s , c u r t a i n s on t h e windows, c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d h e a t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n systems. M u s i c i s p i p e d i n on t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s system. A l l p a s s e n g e r s e a t s f a c e f o r w a r d and a r e immovable i n t h e i r l o c a t i o n s . T h i s r e s u l t s i n low v i s i b i l i t y o f c a b i n a c t i v i t i e s b e h i n d them. I n t h e f i r s t c l a s s c a b i n s e a t s a r e a r r a n g e d two a b r e a s t on b o t h s i d e s o f a c e n t e r a i s l e and a r e more commodious t h a n a r e t h o s e i n t h e economy s e c t i o n . The s o c i a l s t a t u s of i t s p a s s e n g e r s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e f a r e s , and s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d a r e r e g a r d e d as g e n e r a l l y more e x c l u s i v e , i . e . f i v e t o e i g h t c o u r s e meals w i t h f r e e c o c k t a i l s , w i n e s , champagne, l i q u e u r s , i n c o n t r a s t , t h e economy meal i s s e r v e d a t one t i m e on:one t r a y , n o t i n c o u r s e s , and l i q u o r i s r e q u i r e d t o be p a i d f o r . The c a b i n i s l o c a t e d b e h i n d t h e c o c k p i t and i n f r o n t of t h e w i n g a r e a , t h i s p r o v i d e s them w i t h a smoother q u i e t e r f l i g h t . An a i r c r a f t i n f l i g h t r e q u i r e s c o n t i n u a l k i n e s t h e t i c a d j u s t m e n t s of i t s o c c u p a n t s . Outer e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i . e . t u r b u l e n c e cause i n t e r a c t i o n a l p roblems i . e . f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s sometimes l o s e t h e i r b a l a n c e and f a l l i n t o t h e l a p s o f a i s l e p a s s e n g e r s . T h i s happens much more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e a i r c r a f t . T u r b u l e n c e i s a s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t , as i s t h e i n n e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r o f n o i s e l e v e l . A p a s s e n g e r r e s p o n s e of "Yes" t o a s t e w a r d e s s 1 q u e s t i o n "Would you l i k e v e a l o r s t e a k " , o r "No t h a n k s " t o a s t e w a r d e s s ' "You've g o t some tomato j u i c e on y o u r n o s e " , a r e v e r y f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e s of i n t e r -- 40 -a c t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d due t o i n a d e q u a t e a d j u s t m e n t s t o e n g i n e n o i s e l e v e l . On c h a r t e r f l i g h t s p a s s e n g e r s t a l k , l a u g h , s i n g t o g e t h e r v e r y l o u d l y and i n c r e a s e t h e need f o r v o i c e o v e r - p r o j e c t i o n . F i r s t c l a s s p a s s e n g e r s i n a d d i t i o n a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a l o u n g e a r e a i n w h i c h t h e y may r e l o c a t e t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e ' c o c k t a i l h o u r ' o r when t h e y d e s i r e a change o f s c e n e . Economy p a s s e n g e r s a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e i r s e a t s i n t h e c a b i n t h e r e f o r e more f r e q u e n t l y engage i n d e c e p t i v e p r a c t i c e s t o t e r r i t o r i a l i t y e x t e n s i o n s . Economy s e a t s a r e a r r a n g e d t h r e e a b r e a s t on b o t h s i d e s o f a c e n t e r a i s l e . I n t h e f i r s t c l a s s s e c t i o n each row of s e a t s i s o p p o s i t e a window b u t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l economy rows w h i c h a r e n o t . These two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e t t i n g have d i r e c t consequences t o s e a t s e l e c t i o n b e h a v i o r . The c o n t r o l o f p a s s e n g e r t r a f f i c between t h e two c l a s s e s o f c a b i n i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s . The f o r m a l r u l e 26 th e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o e n f o r c e i s one w h i c h p e r m i t s u n l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o t h e economy c a b i n ( s ) by f i r s t c l a s s p a s s e n g e r s b u t ' r e s t r i c t s e n t i r e l y ' a c c e s s t o t h e f i r s t c l a s s s e c t i o n by p a s s e n g e r s h o l d i n g economy f a r e s . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s have been known t o be d i s c i p l i n e d by management f o r r i g i d a d h e r e n c e t o t h i s r u l e w i t h o u t b e i n g g i v e n p r i o r knowledge t h a t e x c e p t i o n s a r e p e r m i t t e d . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s have l i k e w i s e been d i s c i p l i n e d f o r u s i n g t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e i n p e r m i t t i n g e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e 26. F o r m a l r u l e w i l l a l w a y s mean t h a t i t i s s p e c i f i e d i n a Company manual o f p r o c e d u r e s and i n s t r u c t i o n s . - 41 -Illustration I. Spatial organization of jet aircraft most frequently flown Captain Fi r s t Officer Navigator Second Officer public address speaker public address speaker Cockpit c •H s a •H £i CO a !• o a o o a) Symbols I <3 aircraft door(s) eo f l i g h t attendant seats (exclusive territory with socially structured barriers) — solid line, floor to ceiling wall L lavatory G» galley II curtain (or door at G only) (movable k physical barrier there-fore back or front region). * bar (4o« hUr) QUO storage area J - 42 -r u l e . The c r i t e r i a f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n a p p e ars t o be based on l e t t e r s o f c o m p l a i n t f r o m p a s s e n g e r s on f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t d e c i s i o n s . T h i s d o u b l e b i n d o c c u r s w i t h many o t h e r r u l e a p p l i c a t i o n s and has t h e consequence t h a t some f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s n e v e r make d e c i s i o n s i f t h e y can pass them o f f t o a c o w o r k e r ; so t h a t t h e y come t o be p e r c e i v e d by c o w o r k e r s as i n a d e q u a t e and t r o u b l e s o m e , b u t as exemplary by management be c a u s e t h e y do n o t i n i t i a t e d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s who c o n s i s t e n t l y make d e c i s i o n s on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e a r e r e s p e c t e d and c a r r y a u t h o r i t y i n work u n i t s b u t a r e c o n t r a s t i v e l y p e r c e i v e d by manage-ment as b e i n g troublesome and as r e q u i r i n g s u r v e i l l a n c e . From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s , management d i s c i p l i n a r y p r a c t i c e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y p e r c e i v e d t o be u n w a r r a n t e d and u n r e a s o n a b l e ; t h e r e s u l t i s l ow m o r a l e i n t h e subgroup o f d e c i s i o n makers. The a t t i t u d e t h a t , f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r i s p e r m i s s i b l e p r o v i d i n g one d o e s n ' t g e t c a u g h t o r c o m p l a i n e d about a p p e a r s t o be o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y c r e a t e d by reward/punishment p r a c t i c e s . The s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e s e t t i n g p r o v i d e s no a r e a f o r i s o l a t i n g d e v i a n t p a r t i c i p a n t s and d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o problems o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l . P a s s e n g e r s o c c a s i o n a l l y become m e n t a l l y d e r a n g e d , h y s t e r i c a l , d runk and a b u s i v e , p h y s i c a l l y t h r e a t e n o t h e r s , e t c . F o r example, i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t a p a s s e n g e r on one f l i g h t k n i f e d two o t h e r s . A i r c r a f t h i j a c k i n g i s a n o t h e r example o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r . The most - 43 -f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e o f d e v i a n c e i s t h a t o f i n e b r i a t i o n . Of t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n o f f l i g h t s , f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t c o n c e r n , d i s a g r e e m e n t and c o n f l i c t s o v e r p a s s e n g e r d r i n k i n g b e h a v i o r o c c u r r e d on a l l o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s and on t h e m a j o r i t y o f d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s o v e r two h o u r s i n d u r a t i o n . a. B. The p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l o c c a s i o n o f A f l i g h t a s an o n g o i n g e v e n t : A c c o r d i n g t o Goffman, a s o c i a l o c c a s i o n i s d e f i n e d as h a v i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : 1) I t i s t h e coming t o g e t h e r o f b a s i c a l l y two s e t s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , o n l y one of w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e management o f t h e a f f a i r . 2) They l o c a t e a t a s p e c i f i e d t i m e and p l a c e f o r t h e enactment o f and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c e r t a i n k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e a p p r o p r i a t e and i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s e t t i n g and c l a s s o f o c c a s i o n . 3) Each c l a s s o f o c c a s i o n p r o c e e d s i n an o r d e r l y way a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d program. The h i g h p o i n t o f t h e o c c a s i o n i s d i s t i n c t f r o m o t h e r p h a s e s . T h e r e i s a p r e v a i l i n g e m o t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e d by t h e c l a s s o f o c c a s i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . 4) P a r t i c i p a n t s a r e o b l i g e d t o become i n v o l v e d and t o cond u c t t h e m s e l v e s i n s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways, t h o s e who don't i n c u r s p e c i f i e d n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n s . 27. E. Goffman, B e h a v i o r i n P u b l i c P l a c e s , New Y o r k , The F r e e P r e s s , 1963, pp. 18-20. - 44 -The s o c i a l o c c a s i o n under e x a m i n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o be managed by t h e c o c k p i t and c a b i n c r e w s , t h e p a s s e n g e r s a r e l a r g e l y o b s e r v e r s and r e c e i v e r s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e main i m p r e s s i o n s t o be managed. One i s , i n t h a t f l y i n g i n v o l v e s r i s k , t h e n o t i o n t h a t i t i s a f a t e f u l e v e n t i s r e a l i s t i c , b u t t h a t i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s p r i m a r i l y s a f e as any r i s k t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i s p r e p a r e d f o r and c o m p r i s e s a r o u t i n e o c c u r r e n c e ; t h a t any r i s k t o p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l i v e s i s m i n i m a l and o f an a d v e n t i t i o u s n a t u r e as t h e crews a r e competent t o cope w i t h any c o n t i n g e n c y w h i c h 28 may a r i s e . S e c o n d l y , t h a t t h e i n f l i g h t p e r i o d a l t h o u g h o f a s e r i o u s n a t u r e i s an o c c a s i o n t o be e n j o y e d i n t h e manner o f a s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g somewhat f e s t i v e i n s p i r i t and b u i l t around a h o s t ( e s s ) / g u e s t o r i e n t a -t i o n i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e customer s e r v i c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i r d l y , t h a t t h e crew members o p e r a t e as a team. The e c o l o g i c a l arrangement o f t h e s e t t i n g i n t o r e g i o n s ( t o be d e s c r i b e d l a t e r ) f o r t h e enactment of s p e c i f i c k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s a l s o promotes t h e n o t i o n of s t a g e d 29 30 p e r f o r m a n c e s . ' There i s t h u s heavy emphasis on i m p r e s s i o n management and e l a b o r a t e t e c h n i q u e s t o promote s u c c e s s f u l f u l f i l l m e n t . 28. On f a t e f u l n e s s , E. Goffman, I n t e r a c t i o n R i t u a l , Garden C i t y , N.Y., Doubleday & Company I n c . , 1967, pp. 161-180. 29. Goffman, l o c . c i t . 30. E. Goffman, The P r e s e n t a t i o n o f S e l f , pp. 22-105; 209-237. - 45 -The o r d e r o f p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s can be d e l i n e a t e d i n t o t h r e e b a s i c a r e a s . These a r e b r i e f l y s t a t e d f r o m h i g h e s t t o l e a s t i n s i g n i f i c a n c e a s : 1. The s a f e t y management r o l e . a) To comply w i t h t h e l a w w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l t o s e c u r e t h e s a f e t y o f p a s s e n g e r l i v e s i n t h e event of an a i r c r a f t a c c i d e n t and t o e n s u r e t h e i r s a f e t y i n f l i g h t i . e . t h e use o f s e a t b e l t s and a d h e r e n c e t o 'no smoking' r u l e e t c . b) To p r o v i d e f i r s t - a i d s e r v i c e s t o p e r s o n s r e q u i r i n g them. c) To a s s i s t i n s e c u r i t y measures i . e . m o n i t o r s u s p i c i o u s b e h a v i o r , a p p l y i n f o r m a l s o c i a l c o n t r o l t o d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r , d e t e c t i o n o f dangerous weapons and so on. 2. The h o s t ( e s s ) r o l e . To f u l f i l l t h e h o s t ( e s s ) f u n c t i o n s i n a p r i v a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t t h a t r e q u i r e s o c i a l competence and s p e c i a l s o c i a l s k i l l s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h p e r s o n s f r o m d i v e r s e b a c k g r o u n d s . a) The h a n d l i n g o f g r e e t i n g and p a r t i n g c e r e m o n i a l s . b) The p r o m o t i o n of s o c i a b i l i t y ; t o manage t h e i n c l u s i o n o f anonymous p e r s o n s i n t o a group so t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s t y p i c a l of s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a s o c i a b l e manner, i . e . i n d i n i n g , d r i n k i n g , c o n v e r s i n g e t c . c) To be a l a y d i p l o m a t / p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r . 3. The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r o l e . To p r o v i d e t h e s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d as an e x t e n s i o n o f n o r m a l p a t t e r n s o f l i v i n g w h i c h r e q u i r e t e c h n i c a l competence, knowledge o f work o r g a n i z a t i o n , and p r a c t i c e s and p o l i c i e s . a) To p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d t o f l y i n g i . e . r e s e r v a t i o n s , c o n n e c t i n g f l i g h t s e t c . and promote t h e a i r l i n e t r a v e l i n d u s t r y . - 46 -b) R e g u l a t e h e a t i n g , l i g h t i n g , e n s u r e t h a t a l l equipment i s s e r v i c e a b l e . c) D i s p e n s e i t e m s f o r p h y s i c a l c o m f o r t i . e . p i l l o w s , b l a n k e t s . d) D i s p e n s e i n v o l v e m e n t i t e m s , i . e . newspapers, ma g a z i n e s . e) S e r v e meals and b e v e r a g e s . f ) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c c o u n t i n g and r e p o r t i n g by t h e use o f forms p r o v i d e d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . The main r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g an o c c a s i o n a r e c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t a g e s / t i m e i n t e r v a l s o f a n o r m a l f l i g h t a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I and r e p r e s e n t i t s p r o d u c t i o n as an o n g o i n g event by crew member p a r t i c i p a n t s . The s t a g i n g o f p e r f o r m a n c e s and r i t u a l s o f pas s a g e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c t i o n on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e o c c a s i o n as a f a t e f u l e v e n t . C. The c a b i n crew as a p e r f o r m a n c e team. Team member a c c o u n t i n g o f h a n d i c a p s , a r o u t i n e p a r t o f  g r e e t i n g c e r e m o n i a l s The u n i f o r m i t i e s o f a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t ' s work day d i s c u s s e d t h u s f a r a r e : 1) on-duty p e r i o d s i n e x c e s s o f s o c i e t y ' s e i g h t hour day norm; 2) t e m p o r a l m a r g i n a l i t y o f work p e r i o d s ; 3) f l u c t u a t i n g f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t / p a s s e n g e r r a t i o s and i n f l i g h t t i m e s w h i c h r e q u i r e an a d a p t a b i l i t y t o r e q u i s i t e changes i n work norms. The c r u c i a l f a c t o r Table (6\ \t\ The Production Of An Occasion As An Outgoing Event Categories of Stages time i n t e r v a l s of f l i g h t Stage of Occasion A c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by p a r t i c i p a n t s -45 min. cabin crew preparation for onset crew preparation of s e t t i n g f o r staged performance Boarding -30 min. passengers requiring assistance escorted on -20 min, other passengers Taxi B -3 to 0 min. a i r c r a f t door closed departure from terminal to runway onset of occasion 1) entry of s e t t i n g with greeting ceremonial with check of p a r t i c i p a n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n status 2) get located and s e t t l e d i n seats 3) d i s t r i b u t i o n of involvement items i . e . newspapers, magazines and comfort amenities i . e . pil l o w s , socks, candy  1) passengers r e s t r i c t e d to t h e i r seats 2) departure announcement i . e . d e s t i n a t i o n point, duration, c r u i s i n g a l t i t u d e 3) staged performances - oxygen b r i e f i n g and oxygen mask demonstration - emergency d i t c h i n g b r i e f i n g and demonstration of l i f e jacket on overseas f l i g h t s . 4) emergency evacuation chutes attached at a i r c r a f t doors  C a i r c r a f t becomes Take o f f airborne Cruising D ascent E 7 F descent G a i r c r a f t becomes Landing earth-bound r i t u a l of i n i t i a t i o n main body of occasion r i t u a l passage to closure a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s t r i c t e d to t h e i r seats ( f l i g h t attendants occupy t h e i r emergency take-off po s i t i o n s ) t i l l seat b e l t s i g n turned o f f mood of su p p l i c a t i o n  1) high point of occasion - refreshment s e r v i c e s : bar, beverage, snack, meal on overseas f l i g h t s include - duty free c i g a r e t t e sales - d i s t r i b u t i o n of immigration & customs tortus 2) landing announcement when seat b e l t s i g n turned on  mood of benediction a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s t r i c t e d to t h e i r seats ( f l i g h t attendants occupy t h e i r emergency landing p o s i t i o n s )  H a r r i v a l of a i r c r a f t Taxi I a i r c r a f t door(s) Deplanement opened exi t prepared closure of occasion 1) passengers r e s t r i c t e d to t h e i r seats u n t i l a i r c r a f t stops at the terminal 2) emergency evacuation chutes detached 1) preparation f o r departure from s e t t i n g 2) termination of occasion with f a r e w e l l ceremonial 3) of passengers ;those r e q u i r i n g assistance depart l a s t and are escorted o f f 4) crew departure - 48 -h e r e i s t h a t u n l i k e many ground o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h p e r m i t a w o r k e r t o f i n i s h a j o b a f t e r s h i f t h o u r s i s n o t a v a i l a b l e h e r e . I f n o t done p r i o r l a n d i n g s e r v i c e s n e v e r g e t t o be done. I n f l i g h t work r e q u i r e s an i n c r e a s e d change o f p ace, h e i g h t e n e d t e n s i o n and h i g h l y s y n c h r o n i z e d teamwork f o r a s sembly l i n e t y p e of s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t h e s h o r t e r t h e i n f l i g h t p e r i o d ; 4) t h e h i g h d e g r e e of crew impermanency i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o h i g h l y s y n c h r o n i z e d team p e r f o r m a n c e s , y e t teamwork i s i m p e r a t i v e and an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l . The f o r m a t i o n o f work u n i t s and p r o c e s s e s of coworker s e l e c t i o n have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y o f p e r s o n s , work u n i t s and c rews, t o t h e p r e s s u r e s m e n t i o n e d above. As t h e s e a r e n o t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y s t r u c t u r e d b u t as t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d by t h e s y s t e m , t h e p r o b l e m i s 'by what i n f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a t t e r n s a r e t h e y s t r u c t u r e d " ? I t was m entioned p r e v i o u s l y t h a t one o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n management r o l e s of a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t was t h a t t h e c a b i n crew p e r f o r m as a team. Goffman r e f e r s t o a p e r f o r m a n c e as " . . . . a l l t h e a c t i v i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h o c c u r s d u r i n g a p e r i o d marked by h i s c o n t i n u a l p r e s e n c e b e f o r e a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f o b s e r v e r s and w h i c h has some i n f l u e n c e on t h e o b s e r v e r s " , 31 and f u r t h e r : "A team mate i s someone whose d r a m a t u r g i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n one i s dependent upon i n f o s t e r i n g a g i v e n d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n ; i f s u c h a p e r s o n comes t o be beyond t h e p a l e of i n f o r m a l s a n c t i o n s and i n s i s t s on g i v i n g t h e show away o r f o r c i n g i t t o t a k e a p a r t i c u l a r t u r n , 31. P r e s e n t a t i o n o f S e l f , p. 22. - 49 -he i s none t h e l e s s p a r t o f t h e team". I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t when a c a b i n crew f i r s t meet and engage i n a g r e e t i n g c e r e m o n i a l , t h e "How a r e y o u ? " q u e s t i o n i s n o t a r i t u a l one t o be answered r i t u a l l y by " F i n e , t h a n k s " . I t i s a r e q u e s t w i t h i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l e v a n c e t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e team member i s about t o engage i n a p e r f o r m a n c e d u r i n g a s p e c i a l k i n d o f o c c a s i o n , and what t h e q u e s t i o n a s k s i s "As a team member what k i n d o f p e r f o r m a n c e may we e x p e c t o f you t o d a y ? " F o r example, t h e r e s p o n s e o f a p u r s e r t o a s t e w a r d e s s " F i n e ! F i n e , C y n t h i a . Had a good s l e e p . E x p e c t t o have a good day. Yeh. Yeh. W e l l , l e t ' s s ee ...", i n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t g i v e n by a m u l t i l i n g u a l t o a s t e w a r d e s s as "Oh, I've g o t a b i t o f a c o l d , I t h i n k I must have some k i n d o f f l u o f s o m e t h i n g , I c o u l d n ' t s l e e p l a s t n i g h t . . . . " , i n d i c a t e s t h a t v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e r f o r m a n c e s may be e x p e c t e d . The l a t t e r t y p e o f a c c o u n t i s a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e 'h a n d i c a p ' under w h i c h t h e p e r s o n w i l l be w o r k i n g and i s an advance p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p o s s i b l e team p e r f o r m a n c e f a i l u r e . T h i s t y p e o f a c c o u n t i n g i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o on page 3 0 o f t h i s paper i n t h e s e c t i o n on t e m p o r a l m a r g i n a l i t y o f on-duty p e r i o d s . Coworkers t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t each o t h e r s h a n d i c a p s as a b a s e f r o m w h i c h t o make judgements i n f l i g h t on coworker q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y 32. Goffman, I b i d . , p. 83. - 50 -o f work p e r f o r m a n c e , on a d j u s t i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r e s s u r e s t o conform t o c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s and on p r e v e n t i n g c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s f r o m d e v e l o p i n g . There i s g e n e r a l concensus t o t h e f o l l o w i n g a t t i t u d e summed up by a p u r s e r , "My p h i l o s o p h y i s t h a t no crew member s h o u l d be e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d p r i o r t o o r on a f l i g h t f o r any r e a s o n o r on any m a t t e r w h a t s o e v e r i f i t c a n p o s s i b l y be p o s t p o n e d " . T h i s becomes somewhat p r o b l e m a t i c t o f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s u p e r v i s o r c o n t a c t s as i f s u p e r v i s o r s do not t a k e o p p o r t u n i t y o f s p e a k i n g t o a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t on some m a t t e r b e f o r e f l i g h t d e p a r t u r e no o t h e r t i m e may be a v a i l a b l e . When a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t i s r e q u i r e d t o make a s p e c i a l t r i p t o t h e a i r p o r t t o meet w i t h a s u p e r v i s o r t h e m a t t e r t o be d i s c u s s e d i s o f a s e r i o u s n a t u r e and i s p e r c e i v e d t o be a d i s c i p l i n a r y measure. I t i s commitment t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y j u s t s t a t e d t h a t r e g u l a t e s t h e s t r i c t a v o i d a n c e of i n f l i g h t c o worker c o n f l i c t s ; e x c e p t i o n s do o c c u r . Most f r e q u e n t l y s u c h c o n f l i c t s a r e u n r e s o l v e d and g e n e r a l l y n o t r e f e r r e d t o between t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e a i r e d t o c o w o r k e r s i n t h e same work u n i t o r i n o t h e r work u n i t s . I n t h i s way e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y r e l e a s e d . Most cow o r k e r c o n f l i c t s o c c u r i n t h e economy c a b i n , t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g v a r i a b l e s a r e : l ow s e n i o r i t y s t a t u s c ongruency and r e l a t e d i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s i . e . v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f e f f i c i e n c y ; l ow r a t i o o f m i n u t e s o f s e r v i c e p e r p a s s e n g e r based on f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t / p a s s e n g e r p r o p o r t i o n s , and f l y i n g t i m e d u r a t i o n . The f i r s t c l a s s s t e w a r d e s s i s t h e most f r e q u e n t r e c i p i e n t o f s u c h r e p o r t s and may h o l d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s - 51 -o f t h e c o n f l i c t e v e n t . Her s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n p e r m i t s s u c h a c c o u n t s to be g i v e n i n r e l a t i v e p r i v a c y . She i s n o t a m e d i a t o r o r peacemaker between c o n f l i c t p a r t i c i p a n t s . Her team member, n o t work u n i t c o w o r k e r , r o l e a p p e a r s t o r e q u i r e m e r e l y t h a t she l i s t e n and/or a t t e m p t t o p a c i f y the r e p o r t e r . The f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y As shown i n T a b l e V I t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t team b o a r d t h e i r a i r c r a f t f o r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s p r i o r f l i g h t d e p a r t u r e . The f i r s t f i f t e e n m i n u t e s a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y a l l o t e d f o r p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s t a g e s e t t i n g f o r t h e p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . V a r i o u s d u t i e s a r e p e r f o r m e d on t h e b a s i s o f a i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e as i t i s n o t r e g u l a t e d by f o r m a l i z e d r u l e s t h e f i r s t m a t t e r t o be s e t t l e d i s who w i l l work where and c o i n c i d e n t a l l y w i t h whom. As t h i s i s s e t t l e d u s u a l l y w i t h i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e m i n u t e s a f t e r b o a r d i n g t h e p a t t e r n s a r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . They a r e go v e r n e d by t h e n o r m a t i v e n o t i o n s t h a t work r e l a t i o n s s h o u l d be a m i a b l e and t h a t t h e work day s h o u l d be e n j o y a b l e . These a r e i n h e r e n t demands o f team work and of t h e n a t u r e of t h e s o c i a l o c c a s i o n r e q u i r e d t o be e n a c t e d . I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s between c a b i n crew members a r e b o t h f o r m a l due t o t h e team work r e q u i r e m e n t s and s o c i a l due t o t h e s o c i a l i z i n g i n i t i a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g f r e e t i m e between s e r v i c e s and/ o r meal p e r i o d s . I t i s a l s o a r e q u i r e m e n t of good teamwork t h a t members - 52 -know each o t h e r . B l a u s a y s : one i s an a t t r a c t i v e a s s o c i a t e who i s a b l e t o i m p r e s s o t h e r s w i t h q u a l i t i e s t h a t a r e r e s p e c t e d and a d m i r e d , who has a b a c k g r o u n d o f e x p e r i e n c e s and o p i n i o n s w h i c h can be s h a r e d and a p p r e c i a t e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s i m i l a r o r s l i g h t l y d i s t i n c t i v e , and 33 who e x h i b i t s a w i l l i n g n e s s t o seek i n t h e o t h e r i n s t a n c e s o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Job s p e c i f i c p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l r e f e r t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h e v o l v e o u t o f a c t u a l on t h e j o b enactment o f t h e e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s o f an o c c u p a t i o n a l g roup; t h e y a r e ' p e r c e i v e d by t h e members' t o be i n h e r e n t i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n and a r e p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r any one member, t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s a modicum o f consensus by t h e members as t o what t h e y a r e ; a l t h o u g h any arrangement of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o h i e r a r c h i e s w i l l be p r o b l e m a t i c as t h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e v a l u a t e d . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e n o t a l l h e l d by any one member but a r e d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e g r o u p s . Job s p e c i f i c p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e l a t e d t o and c o m p a t i b l e w i t h s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s b u t n o t c o m p l e t e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o a l l s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s used by t h e members. As t h e y a r e outcomes o f one g r o u p ' s work e x p e r i e n c e t h e y a r e s o c i o l o g i c a l l y r e l e v a n t as e v a l u a t i o n s o f p e r f o r m a n c e s . I t i s a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e r e w i l l be n o n c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between what members o u t s i d e t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l group c o n s i d e r t o be j o b s p e c i f i c p r e f e r r e d 33. P. M. B l a u , Exchange and Power i n S o c i a l L i f e , New Y o r k , J o h n W i l e y and Sons, 1964, pp. 7-58. - 53 -characteristics of the occupation under examination. Divergence is expected to be found within an organization i t s e l f , and may be located for example in hiring practices, categories of qualifications advertised for jobs and c r i t e r i a used for accepting or rejecting applicants. The requirement and use of probationary periods might be examined as an organizational measure of adjustment to the divergence. It i s proposed that: as individual fl i g h t attendants have no 34 control over who their work associates w i l l be on a particular crew because of the seniority and classification system of block assignment — these two are therefore status dimension variables — the regulation of job specific preferred characteristics for a f l i g h t attendant, i.e. high level of technical efficiency, emotional st a b i l i t y under stress, etc. w i l l be reflected by the norms regarding 1) selection of coworkers for the work units required by the social organization of the aircraft and 2) by the processes of placement in the positions available in each work unit. It i s further proposed that: job specific preferred characteristics are normatively controlled by the group as a collective, but that the socialization to group held norms w i l l be i n the direction of senior members to junior members rather than vice versa, and w i l l . 34. Two f l i g h t attendants may elect to bid together, they would state this preference on their bid sheets and would be assigned to a block on the lower seniority held by one of them. This practice is discouraged by management, the persons are viewed as troublesome because any tendency to exclusiveness is contrary to their notion of the interchangeability of persons and the required a b i l i t y to get along with everyone. - 54 -o c c u r d u r i n g a c t u a l on t h e j o b i n t e r a c t i o n s . The h i g h d e g r e e o f impermanency o f c a b i n crews n e c e s s i t a t e s a c o n t i n u a l a c q u a i n t a n c e p r o c e s s d u r i n g o n-duty p e r i o d s . "Group c o h e s i v e n e s s i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t 35 as w e l l as n o r m a t i v e c o n t r o l " ; as a sub-group, s e n i o r s w i l l have more a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and work h a b i t s i n common w i t h each o t h e r t h a n w i t h j u n i o r s , b e c a u s e t h e y f l y w i t h each o t h e r more f r e q u e n t l y . As a sub-group w i t h i n work u n i t s t h e y a r e a b l e t o e x e r t more s o c i a l c o n t r o l i . e . a u t h o r i t y i n s u p e r i o r / s u b o r d i n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , make more d e c i s i o n s , and be a b l e t o c o o r d i n a t e work r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f e w e r d i s r u p t i o n s f o r r e p l a n n i n g . T h e r e i s much more l i k e l i h o o d t h a t s e n i o r members w i l l have an e s t a b l i s h e d f r i e n d s h i p o r a t l e a s t a w o r k i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h each o t h e r w h i c h r e q u i r e o n l y u p d a t i n g o f i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d s between c o n t a c t s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a t t e r n s o f g e t t i n g a c q u a i n t e d and t h e r e f o r e of s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s a r e r e f l e c t e d more f r e q u e n t l y and o b v i o u s l y i n t h e a c q u a i n t a n c e p r o c e s s between u n a c q u a i n t e d and 'unheard o f ' f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s ( t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e and a l o n g a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n a l s o between t h e u n a c q u a i n t e d b u t 'heard o f ' ) t h a n between t h o s e who a r e a l r e a d y f r i e n d s . I n o t h e r words, more so between s e n i o r s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h j u n i o r s t h a n s e n i o r s w i t h s e n i o r s o r j u n i o r s w i t h j u n i o r s . 35. B l a u , op. c i t . , p. 60. - 55 -The a c q u a i n t a n c e p r o c e s s s e t s up a b i o g r a p h y , a r e c o r d o f t h i n g s known about a p e r s o n , even i f i t i s i n i t i a l l y o r , m e r e l y b a s e d on h a v i n g worked t o g e t h e r on one f l i g h t . I n s p e a k i n g on b i o g r a p h i e s 36 and t h e i r ' i n f o r m a t i o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s ' Goffman a s k s , "... g i v e n t h e i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l f a c t s about t h e i n d i v i d u a l , i n what d e g r e e do t h o s e who know some know many?" 37 B i o g r a p h i c a l d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s and l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s among t h e group as a whole i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e impermanency o f work crews. R e l i a n c e on what w i l l h e r e be c a l l e d a ' f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y ' , t h a t i s , b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t w h i c h i s t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m one c a b i n crew t o a n o t h e r a l o n g f r i e n d s h i p and a c q u a i n t a n c e n e t w o r k s , i s a group t e n d e n c y . A f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y c o n t a i n s f a c t s r e l a t i n g t o s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s and j o b s p e c i f i c p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t may t h e r e f o r e be s a i d t h a t : t h e f u r t h e r t h e t e m p o r a l d i s t a n c e between t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f b i o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n a l i t e m s and t h e f u r t h e r removed t h e y become f r o m t h e p e r s o n s who know on a f i r s t hand b a s i s b e c a u s e t h e y were p r e s e n t ( o r were members o f t h e same crew) when t h e event o c c u r r e d , t h e f o l l o w i n g w i l l be t r u e : 36. E. Goffman, S t i g m a : N o t e s on The Management o f S p o i l e d  I d e n t i t y , M i d d l e s e x , P e n g u i n e Books, 1963, pp. 80-128. 37. I b i d . , p. 82 - 56 -1) t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be t h e number o f b i o g r a p h i c a l o t h e r s , o r p e r s o n s who know o f t h e eve n t by h e a r i n g about i t , and s u b s e q u e n t l y 2) t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be t h e d i s t o r t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l i t e m s 3) t h e l e s s t h e p e r s o n a l b i o g r a p h y w i l l be i n c o n t r o l o f i t s o r i g i n a t o r . The r e s u l t i s t h a t b r i e f b i o g r a p h i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e i n a v e r y r e a l way c o n s e q u e n t i a l and s u f f i c i e n t i n t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e o r d e r i n g o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e s e t t i n g . F o r example, w h i l e g o i n g o u t t o b o a r d t h e i r a i r c r a f t a j u n i o r m u l t i -l i n g u a l on b e i n g t o l d by h e r s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s companion t h e name of a n o t h e r s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s on t h e i r crew f o r t h a t f l i g h t remarked, "Hey, I t h i n k I've h e a r d about h e r . She's t h e one who has n e r v o u s breakdowns i s n ' t s h e ? " On t h e s e grounds t h e two summ a r i l y a g r e e d t o work t o g e t h e r and i f a t a l l p o s s i b l e n o t i n a t r i a d work u n i t w i t h t h e s t e w a r d e s s who c a r r i e s t h e s t i g m a . Any announcement l i k e ' I ' v e heard o f y o u ! " o r "You're t h e one!" i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g a s e l f i n t r o d u c t i o n t e n d s t o cause t h e h e a r e r t o f e e l uneasy, c a u s e s t e n s i o n between t h e two w h i c h i s u s u a l l y r e l i e v e d t h r o u g h l a u g h t e r and/or a demand made t h a t t h e announcer e l a b o r a t e o r e x p l a i n what was meant. I n a work o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s c o m p a t i b l e coworker r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n work u n i t s , where s e l f s e l e c t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y a s work u n i t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be s e t up a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n t h e " f i r s t t h r e e m i n u t e s " a f t e r b o a r d i n g t h e a i r c r a f t , f l o a t i n g - 57 -b i o g r a p h i e s have t h e p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n of p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r q u i c k judgment f o r coworker s e l e c t i o n . To be i n p o s s e s s i o n o f b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s a s o u r c e of power, i t p r o v o k e s a w h o l e s e t o f b a c k g r o u n d e x p e c t a n c i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a l l p e r s o n s p r e s e n t , and somewhat i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s t o what t h e e n t i r e f l i g h t w i l l be l i k e . F o r example, when i t i s known by a l l t h a t two p e r s o n s on t h e crew do n o t g e t a l o n g t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t can be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d t h e r e w i l l be an i n f l i g h t c o n f l i c t o c c u r r e n c e , some a d j u s t m e n t i s made t o s e t them i n t o d i f f e r e n t work u n i t s . T h i s k i n d o f s i t u a t i o n i s an e x c e p t i o n t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a t t e r n s o f work p o s i t i o n a s s i g n m e n t o r s e l f s e l e c t i o n ; because i t i s an e x c e p t i o n , accommodation i s n o t g i v e n t o p p r i o r i t y on t h e s e g r o u n d s . The second and more f r e q u e n t l y used means o f m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i a b l e r e l a t i o n s among work u n i t c o w o r k e r s i s a d j u s t m e n t s t o i n d i v i d u a l work h a b i t p e c u l i a r i t i e s . F o r example, to know t h a t t h e s t e w a r d e s s a s s i g n e d t o t h e g a l l e y p o s i t i o n v i e w s i t as owned t e r r i t o r y i s t o know t h a t one c a n n o t i n f r i n g e on h e r t e r r i t o r i a l p r e r o g a t i v e s w i t h o u t p r o v o k i n g a c o n f l i c t . So t h a t a l t h o u g h i t i s v e r y easy and t i m e s a v i n g t o r e a c h i n t o t h e r e f r i g e r a t o r f r o m t h e a i s l e f o r a c a r t o n of m i l k one w o u l d n o t do so a t a l l , o r w o u l d a s k p e r m i s s i o n t o do s o . N e g a t i v e l y , b i o g r a p h i c a l o t h e r s t e n d t o have s t a t i c and s t e r e o t y p e d f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h i e s w h i c h a r e o u t d a t e d . F l o a t i n g - 58 -b i o g r a p h i e s w h i c h a r e b a s i c a l l y n o t f a v o r a b l e t o a good i m p r e s s i o n t e n d t o have consequences of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and a v o i d a n c e i n t h a t p e r s o n s a p p r o a c h each o t h e r w i t h p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s and b i a s e s , w h i c h may o r may n o t be f a c t u a l , so t h a t s a t i s f a c t o r y and s t a b l e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o manage, p a r t i c u l a r l y on s h o r t o r v e r y busy f l i g h t s where t i m e i s consumed i n p a s s e n g e r s e r v i c e w i t h v e r y l i t t l e t o n i l a v a i l a b l e f o r c o r r e c t i n g o r c h a n g i n g m i s i n f o r m a t i o n . As a f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y i s p e r c e i v e d as n e c e s s a r y , t o have a good o r f a v o r a b l e one on o n e s e l f i s o f v a l u e . T h e r e i s a c o n t i n u a l c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t by a l l f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s t o m a i n t a i n a f a v o r a b l e f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y of t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r f r i e n d s , t o c o r r e c t b i o g r a -p h i c a l m i s i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s damaging when t h e y have p e r s o n a l f i r s t hand knowledge t h a t i t i s u n r e l i a b l e . To s o l i c i t b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r -m a t i o n on o t h e r s i s seen as n o t untoward b u t as w a r r a n t e d . The tendency to g o s s i p i s n o t so much a p e r s o n a l m o t i v e as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y b a s e d r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t has p r a g m a t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e i r e v e r y d a y work a f f a i r s . Because i t i s a t h i n g o f v a l u e , i t i s a l s o an element o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l . N e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n s a r e a p p l i e d when i t i s abused by p e r s o n s who d e v i a t e f r o m group norms. T h e r e i s a s e n s e o f a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s as t o amount and k i n d s of i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h may be exchanged, t h o s e who exceed norms a r e l a b e l e d ' g o s s i p s ' o r 'nosey p e r s o n s ' and w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e as a coworker by t h e m a j o r i t y . O t h e r f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d by f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . - 59 -Work p o s i t i o n by assignment o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  i n f o r m a l s e l e c t i o n O u t s i d e o f t h e t h r e e work p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e s t a t i c a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h e l d , t h e p u r s e r has a l w a y s had t h e l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y t o d e l e g a t e work p o s i t i o n s t o a l l s t e w a r d e s s e s ; however, most f r e q u e n t l y he p e r m i t t e d t h e i n f o r m a l s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s t o o p e r a t e . I t w i l l t h e r e f o r e be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t . The most i m p o r t a n t s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n r e g u l a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a t t e r n s o f work p o s i t i o n a s s i g n m e n t o r s e l e c t i o n i s s e n i o r i t y . The f i r s t c l a s s s t e w a r d e s s p o s i t i o n has p r i o r i t y o v e r a l l o t h e r s and i s f i l l e d f i r s t . The s t e w a r d e s s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t s e n i o r i t y o u t r a n k s t h e o t h e r s and has f i r s t o p t i o n f o r t h e p o s i t i o n . I f she r e f u s e s i t , t h e n i t b e l o n g s t o t h e one h o l d i n g n e x t h i g h e s t s e n i o r i t y and so on u n t i l t h e p o s i t i o n i s a c c e p t e d . The most j u n i o r on t h e crew i s f o r c e d t o occupy i t i f t h e o t h e r s have r e f u s e d . I t i s however, most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u p i e d by t h e most s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s . I f t h e e n t i r e crew a r e on t h e same b l o c k f o r t h e e n t i r e month i t i s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d t h a t she w i l l r e m a i n t h e r e f o r a l l f l i g h t s o f t h a t month. The s t a t u s o f s e n i o r i t y as r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t a t i o n o f work a r e a s and d u t i e s i s n o t u n i q u e t o t h i s s e t t i n g . Donovan r e p o r t s t h a t w a i t r e s s e s who a r e more permanent employees of an e s t a b l i s h m e n t t h a n a r e o t h e r s work a t t a b l e s and i n a r e a s w h i c h a r e r o u t i n e l y used by more r e g u l a r c u s t o m e r s ^ w h i l e new employees a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y g i v e n c o u n t e r a r e a s and s e c t i o n n e a r t h e door o r e n t r a n c e t o t h e d i n i n g room - 60 -where customer t u r n o v e r i s h i g h and income f r o m t i p s much l o w e r . ' I n open room b e a u t y shops w h i c h c a t e r t o a l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s c l i e n t e l e s e n i o r h a i r d r e s s e r s a r e l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o t h e r e c e p t i o n d e s k so t h e i r work i s d i s p l a y e d t o more p e r s o n s , t h o s e w i t h l o w e r s t a t u s by s e n i o r i t y a r e 40 l o c a t e d a t t h e b a c k o f t h e room n e x t t o t h e shampoo a r e a . An e s t a b l i s h m e n t t h a t s e r v e s a h i g h e r c l a s s o f c l i e n t e l e s h i e l d s t h e i r c u s t o mers i n c u b i c l e s and s e n i o r h a i r s t y l i s t s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e more s e c l u d e d a r e a s so t h a t t h e i r c u s t omers r e c e i v e p e r s o n a l grooming s e r v i c e s w i t h l e s s p u b l i c e x p o s u r e . I n n u r s i n g , a n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n p r e d o m i n a n t l y f e m a l e , t y p i c a l l y i n non t r a i n i n g h o s p i t a l s t h e more s e n i o r and l o n g e r term r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e s who a r e n o t head o r a s s i s t a n t head n u r s e s w i l l be a s s i g n e d t o m e d i c a t i o n s and t r e a t m e n t s w h i l e j u n i o r n u r s e s a r e 41 a s s i g n e d ward work. I n - t r a i n i n g h o s p i t a l s use t h i s same t y p e of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f d u t i e s f o r s e n i o r and j u n i o r n u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . 38. F. R. Donovan, The Woman Who W a i t s , B o s t o n , The Graham P r e s s , 1920. 39. F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s as a r u l e t u r n down t i p o f f e r s . T h e i r s o c i a l embarrassment i s based on a s e l f - i m a g e and d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i r s t a t u s as b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r t h a n s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s i n w h i c h t i p p i n g i s a norm. I t i s i n f o r m a l Company p o l i c y t h a t t i p s be a c c e p t e d when p a s s e n g e r s a r e i n s i s t e n t so t h a t t h e y a r e n o t embarrassed p u b l i c l y by a r e f u s a l . S i z e a b l e t i p s a r e n o r m a l l y s h a r e d by t h e e n t i r e c a b i n crew, s m a l l e r t i p s a r e i n d i v i d u a l l y r e t a i n e d o r s h a r e d w i t h work u n i t c o w o r k e r s . 40. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m h a i r d r e s s e r s and s e v e r a l b e a u t y shop owners. O b s e r v a t i o n i n Canada, U n i t e d S t a t e s and E n g l a n d . 41. P e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as a n u r s e i n t r a i n i n g i n A l b e r t a and as a r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and C a l i f o r n i a . T o t a l -e i g h t h o s p i t a l s . - 61 -The p o s i t i o n t o be f i l l e d f i r s t i n t h e economy s e c t i o n i s t h a t o f t h e economy g a l l e y . I t i s seen as t h e l e a s t d e s i r a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e much l o w e r r a t e o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p a s s e n g e r s . I t i s a l s o f e l t t o be a d i r t y and m e n i a l j o b as i t i n v o l v e s t h e ' p r e p a r a t i o n ' o f meals and b e v e r a g e s , much 'bending and l i f t i n g o f w e i g h t s ' , w o r k i n g i n c o n f i n e d q u a r t e r s i . e . t h e f l o o r s p a c e i n t h e g a l l e y i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e and a h a l f f e e t by f o u r , f r e q u e n t l y f e e l i n g o v e r h e a t e d due t o t h e poor v e n t i l a t i o n and h e a t s u p p l i e d by t h e ovens used t o warm e n t r e e s and b o i l i n g w a t e r f o r b e v e r a g e s . When t h e b l o c k h o l d e r s e x p e c t t o r e m a i n ' t o g e t h e r ' t h e e n t i r e month t h e s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s , o f t h e ones r e m a i n i n g a f t e r t h e f i r s t c l a s s p o s i t i o n i s f i l l e d , i s o b l i g a t e d t o v o l u n t e e r f o r t h e p o s i t i o n on t h e f i r s t o u t g o i n g f l i g h t o f t h e month, a f t e r w h i c h a r o t a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o d e c r e a s i n g s e n i o r i t y i s i n s t i t u t e d . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f i r s t c l a s s p o s i t i o n t h i s one i s r o t a t e d on o u t g o i n g and i n c o m i n g ( r e t u r n t o home base) s e c t i o n s o f a r e t u r n f l i g h t . When t h e r e m a i n i n g s t e w a r d e s s e s a r e made up o f b l o c k h o l d e r s who w i l l n o t r e m a i n t o g e t h e r a l l month be c a u s e t h e y h o l d d i f f e r e n t b l o c k s , o r bec a u s e o f t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a r e p l a c e m e n t , n e g o t i a t i o n f o r t h e g a l l e y p o s i t i o n i s i n s t i t u t e d and f o l l o w s r o u t i n i z e d p a t t e r n s . W h i l e on h e r f i r s t o u t g o i n g f l i g h t o f t h e month t h e most s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s o f t h e t h r e e i s s t i l l o b l i g e d t o v o l u n t e e r f o r t h e p o s i t i o n b u t i s p e r m i t t e d t o i n i t i a t e a n e g o t i a t i o n r i t u a l o r w a i t f o r one t o be i n i t i a t e d by t h e n e x t most s e n i o r one. T h i s may be t r e a t e d as a - 62 -power p l a y . W hichever one o f t h e two says "where do you want t o work t o d a y ? " o r "Do you want t o work t h e g a l l e y ? " o b l i g a t e s t h e o t h e r t o v o l u n t e e r f o r t h e p o s i t i o n as what t h e message conveys i s " I ' d r a t h e r n o t work t h e g a l l e y t o d a y b u t I w i l l i f you make me". The t h i r d s t e w a r d e s s (most j u n i o r of t h e t h r e e ) may b r e a k i n t o t h i s r i t u a l and v o l u n t e e r t o occupy i t p r o v i d i n g she does i t b e f o r e one o f t h e o t h e r s has a c c e p t e d ? but i f she does n o t , her subsequent e f f o r t i s c o n s i d e r e d h a l f - h e a r t e d and h e r o f f e r i s r e j e c t e d even though t h e a c c e p t i n g s t e w a r d e s s i s unhappy about t h e s e t t l e m e n t . The o b l i g a t i o n i s so p o w e r f u l t h a t f r i e n d s w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y become t e m p o r a r i l y i . e . s e v e r a l days o r weeks, d i s a f f e c t e d f r o m each o t h e r when one o r t h e o t h e r f e e l i t was u n j u s t . Crew impermanency c o n t r i b u t e s t o s u c h o c c u r r e n c e s . I t does o c c a s i o n a l l y happen t h a t an o b l i g a t o r w i l l s u b s e q u e n t l y a t t e m p t t o w i t h d r a w t h e o b l i g a t i o n b u t i t has n e v e r been r e p o r t e d o r o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r t h a t t h e a c c e p t e d o b l i g a t i o n i s r e v e r s e d . P u r s e r s a l s o use t h e "Do you want t o work (mind w o r k i n g ) t h e g a l l e y t o d a y ? " a p p r o a c h i n t h e i r work p o s i t i o n a s s i g n i n g , i t i s p e r c e i v e d t o be o b l i g a t o r y by t h e p e r s o n spoken t o . An a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n r i t u a l j u s t d e s c r i b e d o c c u r s i n t h e l a t t e r t h i r d o f a c a l e n d a r month when t h e two s e n i o r s f e e l t h a t t h e y have been d o i n g more t h a n t h e i r r e a s o n a b l e s h a r e i n t h e g a l l e y , f o r example, due t o b o o k - o f f s , f l i g h t exchanges e t c . ; i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them t o g i v e a c c o u n t s o f how many g a l l e y t u r n s t h e y - 63 -had a l r e a d y t a k e n i n o r d e r t o e q u a l i z e t h e b a l a n c e . Towards t h e end o f t h e month t h e y may r i g h t f u l l y a l s o r e f u s e t o do t h e g a l l e y b u t t h e most j u n i o r b l o c k h o l d e r i s n o t . The economy g a l l e y p o s i t i o n c a r r i e s many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s l a r g e l y one o f c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c a b i n s t e w a r d e s s e s , of s e t t i n g up t h e equipment f o r t h e s e r v i c e s t o be p r o v i d e d i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s e r v i c e w i l l go s m o o t h l y once i t has been s t a r t e d , o f d e l e g a t i n g and c h e c k i n g t h a t s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s l i k e t h e f e e d i n g o f c h i l d r e n a r e done d u r i n g p e r i o d s when t h e y w i l l n o t d i s r u p t o n - g o i n g s y n c h r o n i z e d work p a t t e r n s and so on. I t r e q u i r e s a h i g h l e v e l o f p r o f i c i e n c y and l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s . As i t i s g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t a f l i g h t c a n succeed o r f a i l on t h e b a s i s o f who o c c u p i e s t h e g a l l e y , r e s e r v e s t e w a r d e s s e s a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d t o occupy t h i s p o s i t i o n on o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s . The may ' o c c a s i o n a l l y ' be a l l o w e d t o on d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s o f l o n g e r d u r a t i o n when t h e r e i s a l i g h t p a s s e n g e r l o a d as t h e r e a r e few e r p r e s s u r e s t o p e r f o r m e f f i c i e n t l y . An e x c e p t i o n t o t h e o b l i g a t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n f o r t h e g a l l e y p o s i t i o n i s a l w a y s made i n t h e c a s e when a s t e w a r d e s s r e q u e s t s t h e g a l l e y by way o f an announcement t h a t she i s assuming i t o r by way of a p l e a t o be a l l o w e d t o assume i t , as t h e s e forms o f a p p r o a c h a l w a y s c a r r y w i t h them t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t she i s f o r some r e a s o n n o t f e e l i n g up t o p a r p h y s i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y o r s p i r i t u a l l y and does n o t f e e l she w i l l be a b l e t o put on t h e h i g h l y s o c i a b l e p e r f o r m a n c e r e q u i r e d by a c a b i n s t e w a r d e s s . The p l e a f o r m i s a l w a y s honoured, t h e announcement - 64 -form i s most o f t h e t i m e . U n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t h i s a r e a i s m u t u a l and r e c i p r o c i t y i s extended r e a d i l y a s a l l know t h e y w i l l a t some t i m e r e q u i r e s u c h a f a v o r . Such a c t i o n i s a c o l l e c t i v e p r e v e n t a t i v e measure a g a i n s t f a i l u r e i n i m p r e s s i o n management. W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s who a r e s t a t i c i n t h e g a l l e y p o s i t i o n t h e s t e w a r d e s s e s no l o n g e r have t h i s way o f removing t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e p u b l i c a u d i e n c e and n e c e s s a r i l y a r e p a y i n g a h i g h e r p e r s o n a l c o s t i n e m o t i o n a l and m e n t a l s t r a i n i n t h e a t t e m p t t o p e r f o r m as r e q u i r e d by t h e Company. I n t h e i n f o r m a l s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s t h e method c o n s i s t e n t l y used t o i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e t o occupy a p o s i t i o n t h a t one's s e n i o r i t y does n o t w a r r a n t i s t h r o u g h what may be c o n s i d e r e d as i n v a s i o n and occupancy o f t e r r i t o r y . T h i s a p p l i e s o n l y t o f i r s t c l a s s and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e work p o s i t i o n o f f i r s t c l a s s s t e w a r d e s s ^ I t o c c u r s i n f r e q u e n t l y on s c h e d u l e d o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s b u t q u i t e r e g u l a r l y on s c h e d u l e d d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s and on non s c h e d u l e d c h a r t e r s , t h e r e f o r e i n v o l v e s m u l t i l i n g u a l s a l s o . When t h e more j u n i o r s t e w a r d e s s d e s i r e s o r i n t e n d s t o u s u r p t h e f i r s t c l a s s p o s i t i o n she p r o c e e d s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. 1) She b o a r d s t h e a i r c r a f t i n advance o f t h e r e q u i r e d t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f an hour p r e f l i g h t t i m e and e s t a b l i s h e s h e r s e l f t h e r e by s t o w i n g h e r b e l o n g i n g s t h e r e and p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e d u t i e s t h a t a r e a s s i g n e d t o t h a t p o s i t i o n so t h a t when t h e o t h e r s b o a r d t h e y f i n d h e r a l r e a d y o c c u p y i n g t h e t e r r i t o r y and t h e p o s i t i o n . T h i s method i s used more o f t e n t h a n t h e o t h e r d e s c r i b e d n e x t . The s t r a t e g y i n no way e n s u r e s t h a t she w i l l r e t a i n t h e p o s i t i o n when t h e o t h e r s b o a r d . - 65 -2) When she b o a r d s w i t h t h e o t h e r s and p l a c e s h e r s u i t c a s e and/or b e l o n g i n g s on t h e f i r s t c l a s s l o u n g e t a b l e t h i s i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a d e c l a r a t i o n o f i n t e n t and as an a g g r e s s i v e a c t , as a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e p r i o r i t i e s g i v e n t o s e n i o r i t y and t h e i n f o r m a l system a l t h o u g h i t i s a t t h e same t i m e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d as a l e g i t i m a t e d e s i r e . T h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e b e h a v i o r o f a l l p e r s o n s p r e s e n t when baggage, p u r s e s , e t c . a r e l e f t t h e r e w h i l e g r e e t i n g s and i n t r o d u c t i o n s a r e b e i n g made, as t h e s e t e n d t o be d e p o s i t e d on t h e f l o o r . The o b j e c t s on t h e l o u n g e t a b l e a r e i n e f f e c t t e r r i t o r i a l m a r k e r s and a r e see n as su c h because one o f f o u r t h i n g s happen. F o r one, t h e s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s — and any o t h e r s w i l l i n g t o g e t i n v o l v e d as w i t n e s s e s o r i n s e t t l i n g t h e i s s u e by p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y — c o n f r o n t s t h e s u b o r d i n a t e and s t a t e s h e r i n t e n t i o n o f assuming h e r r i g h t f u l p l a c e a c c o r d e d t o h e r by s e n i o r i t y s t a t u s . When t h i s happens t h e j u n i o r u s u a l l y c o m p l i e s and goes b a c k t o t h e economy c a b i n . T h i s r e s p o n s e i s made t o t h e f i r s t t y p e o f occupancy a l s o . Or s e c o n d l y , t h e s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s p i c k s up t h e cue, t a k e s t h e i n i t i a t i v e and v e r b a l i z e s t h e c h a l l e n g e t h e n r e l i n q u i s h e s h e r p o s i t i o n w i t h good w i l l . I n t h i s way she e x e r c i s e s t h e p r e r o g a t i v e of h e r s e n i o r i t y and i n a d d i t i o n m a i n t a i n s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n and t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d by i n i t i a t i n g t h e s o l u t i o n . By d o i n g t h i s t a c t f u l l y and i n a f r i e n d l y manner she c o n t r i b u t e s p o s i t i v e l y towards group c o h e s i v e n e s s . The s e n i o r o p e r a t e s from a power p o s i t i o n and one o f p e r s o n a l - 66 -i n f l u e n c e b u t she does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a p p r o v a l o r e s t a b l i s h a m i a b l e r e l a t i o n s between them f r o m t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t ; h e r b e h a v i o r 42 does r e i n f o r c e common norms r e g a r d i n g s e l e c t i o n o f work p o s i t i o n s . The j u n i o r s t e w a r d e s s r e m a i n s i n t h e s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n i n h e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s even though she o c c u p i e s b o t h t e r r i t o r y and p o s i t i o n w h i c h goes w i t h i t . She i s a l s o o b l i g a t e d t o t h e s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s and o t h e r s s e n i o r t o h e r s e l f whom she has d i s p l a c e d f o r r e l i n q u i s h i n g t h e i r o p t i o n s . A base i s s e t upon w h i c h t o b e g i n b u i l d i n g m u t u a l t i e s t h r o u g h r e c i p r o c i t y . T h i r d l y , t h e s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s (an o t h e r s ) p i c k up t h e c u e , i g n o r e t h e c h a l l e n g e and t h e . c h a l l e n g e r and a l l p r o c e e d t o t h e economy c a b i n so t h a t i n e f f e c t she g e t s t h e p o s i t i o n a l m o s t by d e f a u l t . She i s n o t a c c o r d e d t h e s t a t u s t h a t n o r m a l l y goes w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n as no one b o t h e r e d t o i n t e r a c t w i t h h e r . M i n i m a l g r e e t i n g s may be made, t h e s e a r e c o n s i d e r e d as r e c o g n i t i o n o f p r e s e n c e . I g n o r i n g t h e c h a l l e n g e o c c u r s when t h e o t h e r s have a low r e g a r d f o r t h e p u r s e r who w i l l be t h e coworker i n t h e f i r s t c l a s s s e c t i o n , when t h e r e i s low r e g a r d f o r t h e s t e w a r d e s s h e r s e l f and t h e group p r e f e r n o t t o have h e r as a member of t h e i r work u n i t , o r when t h e y have no d e s i r e t o occupy t h a t p o s i t i o n on t h a t p a r t i c u l a r f l i g h t . I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e j u n i o r w i l l p r o c e e d out o f p o l i t e n e s s o r as t h e work o r g a n i z a t i o n r e g u l a t e s b u t t h e e x t r i n s i c b e n e f i t s o f a m i a b l e . p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h f r i e n d s and 42. B l a u , Exchange and Power, pp. 200-214. - 67 -c o l l e a g u e s s u c h as a r i s e out of t h e exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e second t y p e o f a p p r o a c h a r e l a r g e l y l a c k i n g . F o u r t h l y , t h e s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s a t t e m p t s t o r e g a i n h e r s t a t u s p r i v i l e g e b u t t h e s u b o r d i n a t e does n o t comply as i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e so t h a t a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n d e v e l o p s . When t h i s happens t h e p u r s e r i s r e q u i r e d t o make t h e d e c i s i o n as t o who w i l l occupy t h e p o s i t i o n . H i s a u t h o r i t y i s l e g i t i m a t e and h i s d e c i s i o n i s b i n d i n g on b o t h . I f f e e l i n g s o f anger and i l l w i l l have been g e n e r a t e d , i t i s t h e j u n i o r one who i s i n a more u n f a v o r a b l e p o s i t i o n i n r e g a r d s t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e o t h e r s , who needs t o work towards b r i n g i n g about a more r e l a x e d e m o t i o n a l atmosphere. S t e w a r d e s s e s who s t a k e out c l a i m s t o t e r r i t o r y and p o s i t i o n s a r e t h o u g h t o f as pushy, r u d e , i g n o r a n t o f r u l e s , immature. The s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s does n o t f a c e t h e same d e r o g a t o r y comment because o f t h e l o n g s t a n d i n g n a t u r e o f s e n i o r i t y p r i v i l e g e s and because most o f them a r e w i l l i n g t o r e l i n q u i s h t h e p o s i t i o n when approached w i t h a r e q u e s t f o r i t so t h a t a t e r r i t o r i a l and p o s i t i o n t a k e o v e r i s u n n e c e s s a r y . T y p i c a l l y , when p u r s e r s d e l e g a t e work p o s i t i o n s t h e f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s a r e o b s e r v e d : a) i f t h e e n t i r e crew a r e on t h e same b l o c k f o r a w h o l e month he a s s i g n s work p o s i t i o n s on t h e f i r s t o u t g o i n g f l i g h t and t h e r e a f t e r a l l o w s t h e i n f o r m a l s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s t o t a k e o v e r ; b) when t h e y a r e impermanent by b l o c k i n g , he s e l e c t s h i s f i r s t c l a s s s t e w a r d e s s coworker and a l l o w s t h e i n f o r m a l s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s - 68 -t o o p e r a t e f o r t h e economy s e c t i o n ; c ) t h e p u r s e r i s r e q u i r e d t o d e l e g a t e t h e f i r s t c l a s s p o s i t i o n when t h o s e he s e l e c t s o r a t t e m p t s t o s e l e c t i n d i c a t e t h e y do n o t d e s i r e i t , he w i l l n o t d e l e g a t e i t t o a l o w e r r a n g e s t e w a r d e s s o f t h e j u n i o r ( n o n b l o c k e d ) subgroup on d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s and woul d i n s i s t on a t l e a s t an upper r a n g e one f o r o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s i f he honours t h e r e f u s a l s o f t h e j e t - b l o c k e d s t e w a r d e s s e s . P u r s e r s who c o n s i s t e n t l y a s s i g n a l l work p o s i t i o n s and d u t i e s on e v e r y t r i p d e v i a t e f r o m t h e norm. They a r e f e l t t o be h a v i n g a p r o b l e m w i t h t h e o f f i c e (meaning s u p e r v i s o r s ) a r e t r y i n g t o p r o v e t h a t t h e y ' r e a man, a r e a c c u s e d o f b e i n g d i c t a t o r i a l o r t o o a u t h o r i t a r i a n o r f e l t t o have a p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m . As t h e r e i s g e n e r a l agreement t h a t s u c h work r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e u n n e c e s s a r y t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y spoken o f i n d e r o g a t o r y terms, and may be c a l l e d ' t i n gods', o r 'peacocks', s i m i l a r t o t h e d e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e m p l o y e e / o f f i c e r r e l a t i o n -43 s h i p s i n t h e bank as d e s c r i b e d by A r g y r i s ? , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t i n t h e management l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . I t i s a n a t u r a l outcome t h a t when i t i s e x e r c i s e d by few and when i t i s 44 n o t r e q u i r e d by t h e system, a u t h o r i t y i s r e s e n t e d . H i s l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y p o s i t i o n e n f o r c e s c o m p l i a n c e b u t l e a d e r s h i p depends on t h e 43. C. A r g y r i s , O r g a n i z a t i o n o f a Bank, New Haven: Labour and Management C e n t e r , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1954, p. 93. 44. G. C. Homans, The Human Group, New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d I n c . , 1950, p. 278. - 69 -s o c i a l a p p r o v a l o f s u b o r d i n a t e s i n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e and t h i s t h e y a r e n o t a b l e t o o b t a i n . E s t a b l i s h e d work norms i n c l u d e t h a t p e r s o n s i n a work u n i t a r r a n g e t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e i r work among t h e m s e l v e s . When t h e p u r s e r s p e c i f i e s t o o many of t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o r i n t e r v e n e s i n o n g o i n g a c t i v i t i e s , he r e d u c e s t h e number and t y p e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c o w o r k e r s i n a work u n i t w h i c h w o u l d n o r m a l l y o c c u r between them i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g and s e t t i n g up; f o u n d a t i o n s on w h i c h s u p e r i o r / s u b o r d i n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e worked o u t a r e d i s o r g a n i z e d , p e r s o n s who a r e n o t t o o w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h each o t h e r a r e under somewhat o f a s t r a i n as t h e b a s i c work o r i e n t e d s t r u c t u r e s o f t a l k have been e l i m i n a t e d o r d i s o r g a n i z e d . A l s o by r e v e r s i n g d e c i s i o n s a l r e a d y a g r e e d upon d e m o c r a t i c a l l y , by c o a l i t i o n s , o r however, he causes h o s t i l i t i e s and f r u s t r a t i o n . I n e i t h e r c a s e t h e s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h p r o d u c e work u n i t c o h e s i v e n e s s a r e d i s r u p t e d . A l t h o u g h l e a d e r s h i p r i g h t f u l l y i n v o l v e s c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e work 46 o f o t h e r s , t h e b a s i c p r o b l e m i s t h a t t h e members of t h e economy work u n i t ( s ) do n o t p e r c e i v e t h e p u r s e r as i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r work u n i t as h i s d u t i e s keep him i n t h e f i r s t c l a s s s e c t i o n most of t h e t i m e , w h i l e t h e y a r e p e r m a n e n t l y l o c a t e d and t h e i r work o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s a permanent l e a d e r . W i t h i n t h e i r work u n i t , i f t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t 45. B l a u , Exchange and Power, p. 201. 46. I b i d . , p. 215. - 70 -w o r k i n g t h e g a l l e y p o s i t i o n does n o t e x e r c i s e a u t h o r i t y , l e a d e r s h i p may be 'assumed and e x p e c t e d t o be assumed' by t h e most s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s who i s a l s o r e s p e c t e d f o r s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s o t h e r t h a n s e n i o r i t y ; a l t h o u g h a s u b o r d i n a t e w i t h a dominant p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l sometimes engage i n a power p l a y f o r l e a d e r s h i p . A p p r o x i m a t e l y midway t h r o u g h t h e s t u d y ' f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t work d i s t r i b u t i o n ' s l i p s were i n t r o d u c e d by t h e Company t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d i r e c t i v e t h a t p u r s e r s were t o use a r o t a t i o n s y s t e m so t h a t " a l l f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s w o u l d have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r a i n and g a i n e x p e r i e n c e i n a l l work p o s i t i o n s " . I t was p r esumably meant t o a p p l y t o s t e w a r d e s s e s o n l y , as a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s who a r e a l s o f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s and who p e r f o r m t h e same d u t i e s as a s t e w a r d e s s who works t h e g a l l e y , were n e v e r i n f a c t r o t a t e d as were t h e s t e w a r d e s s e s , m u l t i l i n g u a l s were a l s o e x c l u d e d on o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p u r s e r s were c o i n c i d e n t a l l y d i r e c t e d t o p r o v i d e " t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e s e r v i c e i n f l i g h t " . These two d i r e c t i v e s a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y . The r o t a t i o n s y s t e m i n p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e d t h e p u r s e r t o do a l o t o f t r a i n i n g as many of t h e more j u n i o r o f t h e s e n i o r b l o c k h o l d e r group o r even j u n i o r h b n b l o c k h o l d e r s had e i t h e r n o t e v e r worked i n f i r s t c l a s s b e f o r e o r had n o t done so f o r some t i m e . As meal s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t e n d t o change i n t h i s c a b i n about t w i c e a y e a r t h e r e i s a r e a l d i f f i c u l t y f o r even a l l o f t h e m i d d l e r a n g e s e n i o r s t o r e m a i n up t o d a t e on t h e p r o c e d u r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p u r s e r was r e q u i r e d t o - 71 -exchange work p o s i t i o n s w i t h one economy c a b i n s t e w a r d e s s d u r i n g a ' p o r t i o n o f t h e economy meal s e r v i c e . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n f i r s t c l a s s p a s s e n g e r s r e c e i v i n g a l o w e r g r a d e o f s e r v i c e u n l e s s t h e p u r s e r r e p l a c e m e n t was a h i g h r a n g e s e n i o r . There was a d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a l l f o r m e r l y e s t a b l i s h e d s t a b l e work p a t t e r n s . B e s i d e s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e p u r s e r t o c o n t i n u a l l y t r a i n someone new as a c o w o r k e r , t h e r e was t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g r o t a t i o n i n a s i t u a t i o n o f h i g h impermanency o f crews,and i m p o s s i b l e f o r o t h e r s t o e x e r c i s e any c o n t r o l on p u r s e r s . A f t e r a few months o f t r i a l most of t h e p u r s e r s r e v e r t e d t o t h e o l d e r w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d s y s t e m s , g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e t o good s e r v i c e r a t h e r t h a n r o t a t i o n . The i n f o r m a l s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s w h i c h has been d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i s based on s e n i o r i t y r i g h t s , w h i c h i s r e g a r d e d as a non e m o t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n . Some of t h e p u r s e r s t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f t h e Company d i r e c t i v e and o f t h e h i g h crew impermanency t o s e l e c t as t h e i r coworker i n f i r s t c l a s s t h e s t e w a r d e s s i n t h e crew who was a ' f a v o r i t e ' , 'the most p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e ' , 'young and a t t r a c t i v e ' , 'one w i t h whom he had a p u b l i c k i s s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ' , 'one t o whom he d e s i r e d t o make s e x u a l O v e r t u r e s t o ' , 'one whom he c o u l d d r i n k l i q u o r i n f r o n t o f , e t c . T h i s c r e a t e d d i s s e n s i o n among t h e f e m a l e group as a wh o l e . The f o r m e r s t r u c t u r e s became c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y d i s o r g a n i z e d and i t i n i t i a t e d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f 'coworker s e l e c t i o n ' c r i t e r i a i n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r p u r s e r ' s f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y . - 72 -Some p u r s e r s and a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s have been known t o c o e r c e s t e w a r d e s s e s who a r e u n w i l l i n g t o engage i n some f o r m o f sex p l a y , t h i s i s o c c a s i o n a l l y p u b l i c l y v o i c e d t o o t h e r crew members. T y p i c a l l y , t h e s e males r e f u s e t o speak t o them u n l e s s t h e y have t o , r e f u s e t o s o c i a l i z e w i t h them and w i l l i s o l a t e them f r o m group a c t i v i t i e s i . e . t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o g u a r d t h e economy c a b i n w h i l e t h e o t h e r s v i s i t w i t h each o t h e r i n t h e f i r s t c l a s s s e c t i o n , d e l e g a t e them to t h e economy g a l l e y p o s i t i o n and e x c l u d e them f r o m t h e f i r s t c l a s s p o s i t i o n , p u b l i c l y r e p r i m a n d them f o r s m a l l d e v i a t i o n s t h a t go u n n o t i c e d on o t h e r s i . e . f o r n o t w e a r i n g r e g u l a t i o n h a i r bows, by s p e a k i n g o f them n e g a t i v e l y b e f o r e s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f and m a x i m a l l y by r e p o r t i n g them t o s u p e r v i s o r s on some u n p r o v a b l e trumped; up c h a r g e t h a t w i l l c a u s e t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o keep t h e s t e w a r d e s s under s u r v e i l l a n c e . T h i s k i n d o f f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l i t e m i s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d o r i s i m p l i e d i n some c o n v e r s a -t i o n a l way between s t e w a r d e s s c o w o r k e r s one of whom does n o t appear t o be aware t h a t she i s b e i n g s e l e c t e d o r e x c l u d e d on t h e s e g r o u n d s . S t e w a r d e s s e s i n q u i r e of each o t h e r t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e m ale, w i l l d e f e n d each o t h e r , good n a t u r e d l y o r s a r c a s t i c a l l y n e g a t i v e l y s a n c t i o n t h e males i n f r o n t o f o t h e r s , o r l e a v e t h e s t e w a r d e s s t o h e r own r e s o u r c e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y management. The knowledge of r e p o r t i n g t o s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f on u n p r o v a b l e c h a r g e s i s g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d between c l o s e f r i e n d s . The s t a t e d a t t i t u d e of one s e n i o r p u r s e r whose f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y i n c l u d e s t h e f a c t t h a t he c o n s i s t e n t l y - 73 -f a i l s t o s u p p o r t h i s c o w o r k e r s b e f o r e s u p e r v i s o r s and a l t e r s h i s a c c o u n t s on them i n o r d e r t o s a v e h i m s e l f f r o m d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n , was g i v e n as " I d i d n ' t used t o t h i n k t h a t one l i t t l e g i r l h e r e o r t h e r e m a t t e r e d " . T h i s remark i n d i c a t e s a l o n g s t a n d i n g p a t t e r n . He i s r e f e r r e d t o as a Don J u a n t y p e , s w i n g e r , p l a y b o y ; t h e s e have s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s on i n d i v i d u a l i n f l i g h t a i r c r a f t c o w o r k e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and on crew c o h e s i v e n e s s . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h a r e o b s e r v e d and e v a l u a t e d by p a s s e n g e r s t o be too o v e r t l y s e x u a l a r e n e g a t i v e l y s a n c t i o n e d by l e t t e r s o f c o m p l a i n t w h i c h t e n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y v i e w s u c h b e h a v i o r as ' o f f e n s i v e ' and ' u n p r o f e s s i o n a l ' . I n f r e q u e n t l y , s t e w a r d e s s e s r e p o r t t o s u p e r v i s o r s a l s o a l t h o u g h t h i s i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as a l a s t r e s o r t . They c o m p l a i n t o each o t h e r much more f r e q u e n t l y . T h i s i s a form of s o c i a l c o n t r o l , i t i s f e l t t h a t s u c h p a i r b e h a v i o r damages t h e image o f t h e s t e w a r d e s s g r o u p . The a c q u a i n t a n c e p r o c e s s and f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y I n g e t t i n g a c q u a i n t e d o r r e a c q u a i n t e d , g r e e t i n g s and i n t r o d u c t i o n s a r e sometimes made i n t h e crew room i n t h e t e r m i n a l b u t most o f t e n a r e made on b o a r d i n g t h e a i r c r a f t . Those who a r e a l r e a d y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h each o t h e r resume t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p and c l o s e t h e i n t e r v e n i n g l a p s e o f t i m e w i t h p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a r e t h e r e f o r e somewhat i n v o l v e d i n f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s a l w a y s - 74 -p r e c e d e s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h any s t r a n g e r i n t h e group. Those who a r e n o t b l o c k h o l d e r s and t h u s a r e u n e x p e c t e d as c o w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o v o l u n t e e r an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r p r e s e n c e on t h e crew. Those who do n o t do so a r e asked f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . Sometimes t h e r e a s o n f o r a r e p l a c e m e n t i s a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e crew r o s t e r a t t h e t i m e one c h e c k s i n f o r a f l i g h t , sometimes i t i s a v a i l a b l e f r o m a n o t h e r crew member; t h e amount o f d e t a i l accompanying t h e r e a s o n v a r i e s w i t h t h e i n f o r m e r . T h i s e f f e c t s a body of knowledge about t h e work and p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s o f b i o g r a p h i c a l o t h e r s on t h e base w h i c h o t h e r w i s e t h e r e i s no a c c e s s t o , m a i n l y because t h e r e i s s u c h a r e s t r i c t e d c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s . I t becomes known who i s o f f s i c k , away on h o l i d a y s , who has exchanged f l i g h t s and why, who i s on a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s a s s i g n m e n t o r away on u n i o n b u s i n e s s . T h e r e i s some a t t e m p t t o p r e p a r e one's b l o c k h o l d i n g c o w o r k e r s i n advance when an a b s e n c e i s e x p e c t e d i . e . f l i g h t exchanges a r e 'announced'. T h i s p a t t e r n i s a work norm. Most c o n c e r n t o know d e t a i l s o c c u r when a r e p l a c e m e n t i s due t o a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t ' s b e i n g grounded o r suspended due t o d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n f o r some misd e e d . I t i s t h e n t h a t many o f t h e r u l e s g o v e r n i n g employment a r e l e a r n e d . I t i s u s u a l l y t h e c a s e t h a t t h e more s e n i o r members a r e more aware o f what t h e r u l e s a r e , how t h e y a r e i n t e r p r e t e d by b o t h u n i o n and management and i n d i s c u s s i n g them t h e r u l e s r e g a r d i n g t h e ways by w h i c h crew members p r o t e c t each o t h e r i n p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s e t c . a r e l e a r n e d . As a b y - p r o d u c t , i t i s c o i n c i d e n t a l l y l e a r n e d i n what s i t u a t i o n s crew members may n o t e x p e c t any p r o t e c t i o n and s u p p o r t f r o m - 75 -each o t h e r . T h i s p o i n t s o u t a n o t h e r p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n o f s o l i c i t i n g and t r a n s f e r e n c e o f b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and of f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h i e s . I t i s t h a t what i s a c h i e v e d i s a ' r o u t i n i z i n g o f o t h e r ' s m i s t a k e s ' . I n t h i s manner r u l e s r e g u l a t i n g d e v i a t i o n s f r o m f o r m a l r u l e s a r e l e a r n e d , by w h i c h group c o h e s i v e n e s s i s b u i l t up and by w h i c h p r o o f i s p r o v i d e d as t o w h i c h f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e t r u s t w o r t h y . These a r e r u l e s o f m u t u a l p r o t e c t i o n . W i t h t h e u n a c q u a i n t e d t h e r e a r e b a s i c a l l y f o u r a r e a s o f a p e r s o n a l b i o g r a p h y t h a t a r e s o l i c i t e d f o r a b a s i c f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y i n an a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y and e v a l u a t e t h e p e r s o n , and as a means o f f i n d i n g t h i n g s i n common on w h i c h t o b a s e o r b e g i n a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and t o a c t u a l i z e an e n j o y a b l e work e x p e r i e n c e . Among t h e f i r s t t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i s how l o n g t h e p e r s o n has been f l y i n g . T h i s l o c a t e s him/her on t h e s e n i o r i t y s c a l e r e l a t i v e t o o n e s e l f and i s an i n d e x o f work e x p e r i e n c e and t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t e d e f f i c i e n c y i n f l i g h t . I t a l s o somewhat o r d e r s r e l a t i o n s h i p s — who may g i v e d i r e c t i o n s and i n s t r u c t whom r e g a r d l e s s o f p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d on t h e a i r c r a f t . Thus i n a work u n i t w i t h h i g h s t a t u s congruency by t h e s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n o f s e n i o r i t y anyone can and does g i v e o r d e r s t o 47. Hughes, Men And T h e i r Work, G l e n c o e , The F r e e P r e s s , 1958, pp. 46-50. - 76 -anyone w h i l e i n a u n i t o f low s t a t u s congruency t h e h i g h s may d i r e c t t h e lows b u t n o t v i c e v e r s a . W i t h b l o c k h o l d e r s , i n a d d i t i o n , any i n d i c a t i o n o f who t h e i r c o w o r k e r s were i n t h e p r e c e d i n g month i s a l s o an i n d e x o f whether t h e y had a 'good' o r a 'bad' month and i s a c l u e t o t h e e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n w i t h w h i c h a new month i s begun. W i t h t h e u n a c q u a i n t e d placement i n some f r i e n d s h i p o r a c q u a i n t a n c e n e t w o r k i s mandatory. Some o f t h i s may be i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e p e r s o n ' s s e n i o r i t y , some f r o m what f l i g h t s were most r e c e n t l y worked and some fr o m w h i c h f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s were worked w i t h . F r i e n d s h i p s a r e made known by t h e i n d i v i d u a l , o r o f c o u r s e t h r o u g h g o s s i p . The o t h e r two a r e a s e x p l o r e d a r e b i o g r a p h i c a l f a c t s w h i c h appear i n c a r e e r f i l e s a l s o : 1) what o c c u p a t i o n t h e p e r s o n engaged i n b e f o r e e n t e r i n g t h i s one, t h i s i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , and 2) where t h e p e r s o n was b o r n , r a i s e d , e d u c a t e d o r h i r e d i n an e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d s . These a r e c r i t e r i a f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e a c h i e v e d and a s c r i b e d s o c i a l s t a t u s of t h e p e r s o n . T h e r e i s a s e n s e o f a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s w i t h r e g a r d t o a ' p r o p e r ' f o r m e r b a c k g r o u n d . F o r example, s t e w a r d e s s e s w i t h no p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i . e . d i r e c t l y o u t o f u n i v e r s i t y o r h i g h s c h o o l a r e a c c o r d i n g t o group a t t i t u d i n a l norms l a c k i n g i n p r o p e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , as e n t r y by y o u t h and p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i s n o t h i g h l y r e g a r d e d . They a r e - 77 -e x c e p t i o n s , as t h e m a j o r i t y a r e h i r e d on t h e b a s i s o f a c h i e v e d s o c i a l s t a t u s , i . e . f o r m e r s e c r e t a r i e s , m o d e l s , t e a c h e r s , n u r s e s , bank c l e r k s , e t c . These become s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s by w h i c h p e r s o n s r a n k each o t h e r . Rank i s somewhat c h a n g e a b l e w i t h each crew as n o t a l l p e r s o n s e v a l u a t e s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s i n t h e same way. L i k e w i s e , p u r s e r s who were f o r m e r l y mechanics o r p o l i c e m e n e t c . a r e n o t r a t e d as h a v i n g a ' p r o p e r ' b a c k g r o u n d . A p r o p e r b a c k g r o u n d i s a s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n r e l e v a n t t o c o w o r k e r s e l e c t i o n and f o r m a t i o n of work u n i t s . T h i s d e f i c i e n c y i s a p p a r e n t l y e v e n t u a l l y much more e a s i l y o v e r l o o k e d i n f e m a l e s t h a n i n males b u t has a t e n d e n c y t o be b r o u g h t o u t d u r i n g o r a f t e r d i s p u t e s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p a s s a g e of t i m e , as a r e s u c h s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s as e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , f r i e n d s h i p e t c . R e c r u i t m e n t o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s i s made f r o m m i d d l e c l a s s s o c i a l s t r a t a and c o i n c i d e s more c l o s e l y t o t h e s o c i a l c l a s s of t h e l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n . Not a l l b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s o b t a i n a b l e i n t h e f i r s t f i f t e e n m i n u t e s , i t g e n e r a l l y b e g i n s t h e n and c o n t i n u e s i n f l i g h t as t i m e p e r m i t s . F l i g h t s on w h i c h t h e r e i s no t i m e f o r any k i n d of s o c i a l i z i n g o r g e t t i n g a c q u a i n t e d work t o g e t done a r e h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s and c o n t r i b u t e t o f e e l i n g s o f s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n w h i c h n o r m a l l y a c c r u e due t o t h e t e m p o r a l m a r g i n a l i t y o f work p e r i o d s and impermanency o f crews. - 78 -Coworker s e l e c t i o n : W i t h m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s , t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f coworker s e l e c t i o n among t h e a c q u a i n t e d b l o c k h o l d e r s subgroup a r e : f r i e n d s h i p c o m p a t i b i l i t y ; f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h each o t h e r s work h a b i t s and co m m u n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s ; h i g h t e c h n i c a l competence; a b i l i t y t o work w e l l under s p a c e , t i m e and i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r e s s u r e s ; s o c i a l competence, good q u a l i t i e s o f a team-w o r k e r i . e . r e c i p r o c i t y , h a r d w o r k i n g , d u r a b i l i t y on l o n g on-duty p e r i o d s , r e l i a b i l i t y , a m i a b i l i t y e t c . , c h a r a c t e r , i n t e l l i g e n c e and a s e n s e o f humor. P h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i s a t t h e bottom o f t h e s c a l e a l t h o u g h a c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d o f good grooming i s seen as mandatory b u t n o t as a p r i m a r y b a s i s f o r coworker s e l e c t i o n . To q u o t e a s e n i o r ' s judgement on a v e r y j u n i o r r e s e r v e r e p l a c e m e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e d u r i n g a r u s h e d meal s e r v i c e " B a t t i n g y o u r e y e l i d s d o e s n ' t g e t t h e t r a y s i n . " Coworker s e l e c t i o n on t h e s e grounds r e f l e c t s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f j o b s p e c i f i c p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s e l e c t i o n s a p p e a r * t o come about q u i t e n a t u r a l l y , and p a i r i n g i s smooth and q u i c k l y a c c o m p l i s h e d . E f f e c t i v e n e s s as a team i s t h e r e f o r e a l s o h i g h e r t h a n when u n a c q u a i n t e d members a r e i n c l u d e d o r e n t i r e l y compose a work u n i t . Coworkers c o n -t i n u a l l y m o n i t o r each o t h e r ' s f a c e s as one way o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m l o c a t i o n . F a c e s w h i c h may be d e s c r i b e d as p l e a s a n t , n o t o v e r l y s e r i o u s , composed, happy, a r e t h e r e q u i s i t e f a c e s o f t h e o c c a s i o n . Changes a r e of s o c i o l o g i c a l r e l e v a n c e . P a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h p a s s e n g e r s a f a c e change t o one of s u r p r i s e , p r o t e s t , annoyance, - 79 -embarrassment, or the putting on of a mask smile indicate that a problem has been encountered. On return to a back region the flig h t attendant w i l l be asked for an account of what happened by the coworker(s). The interaction i s an event to be reviewed. A collective agreement might subsequently be made on 'what to do', on 'how to treat' the passenger on future interactions and i s binding on a l l . If a passenger has been categorized earlier as a troublemaker a coworker i s permitted to come to the assistance of the one having the d i f f i c u l t y . Only persons who have known each other and worked with each other for a period of time are able to recognize a mask smile from a l l the other smiles typical to the person; or, when a twitch of a nose means a difference of opinion, that there i s d i f f i c u l t y in maintaining emotional equilibrium and verbal silence, rather than due to an itch, and so on. As a team member one is then in a position to assist, sympathize, to make oneself ready to communicate a meaningful glance, or to take some preventative action to offset a conflict situation from developing. Priority of coworker selection among the unacquainted are patterned on a minimal number of status dimensions and may be entirely unavailable as frequently what happens is that those who have not been selected by blockholders are so to speak l e f t overs who have no choice of whom they are to work with. The status dimensions when used are: compatibility of seniority, as a combination of high and low extremes cause an immediate psychological strain; a favorable floating biography, and personal appearance. - 80 -P e r s o n s a r e n o t p r e f e r r e d as c o w o r k e r s who a r e l a z y , i n e f f i c i e n t , t a c t l e s s , h a r d t o g e t a l o n g w i t h , a u t h o r i t a r i a n , p r e j u d i c e d , e t c . These f a c t s a r e f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l f a c t s w h i c h e v o l v e o u t o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s on t h e j o b and may be q u i t e s t a t i c f o r some p e r s o n s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a c q u a i n t e d subgroup, grooming, f o r t h e s e p e r s o n s r a t e s h i g h . T h i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t i t i s a j o b s p e c i f i c p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s o f g e t t i n g t h e j o b done; a l t h o u g h a i r l i n e h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s t r e a t i t as one. F o r example, "good appearance i s one o f t h e f i r s t t h i n g s t h e a i r l i n e l o o k s 48 f o r i n a would-be s t e w a r d e s s " . L e t t e r s o f compliment f r o m p a s s e n g e r s p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l concensus t h a t t h e i r commendations a r e g i v e n f o r s u c h t h i n g s as e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e , s o c i a b i l i t y - charm and c o u r t e s y -w i t h p a s s e n g e r s and between c o w o r k e r s , p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s i . e . c a r e o f m e d i c a l c r i s e s , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o f a m i l i e s , s i g h t s e e i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y , b u t n o t s o l e l y f o r b e a u t y , good p h y s i q u e / f i g u r e o r p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . Any m e n t i o n o f po o r grooming i n l e t t e r s o f c o m p l a i n t a l w a y s f o l l o w and a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 48. H. C h r i s t o p h e r , " D e f i n i t i o n o f a S t e w a r d e s s " , E n r o u t e May-June, 1970, pp. 12-16. A i r Canada complementary magazine boarded on a l l f l i g h t s a t each p a s s e n g e r s e a t l o c a t i o n d u r i n g ' t h e c a l e n d a r months i n d i c a t e d . - 81 -an e v a l u a t i o n o f poor s e r v i c e . T h i s c o n c u r s w i t h t h e f o r m e r subgroup p r a c t i c e s r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e u n a c q u a i n t e d subgroup o r Company management of h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s . I n d i r e c t l y , t h e p u b l i c p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o s u p p o r t s e s t a b l i s h e d s e n i o r i t y r i g h t s , permanency o f c a b i n c r e w s , and j o b s p e c i f i c p e r f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . O c c u p a t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l a p p l y m a i n l y t o t h e f e m a l e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : 1) s t e w a r d e s s e s f o r m t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , 2) r e c r u i t m e n t o f s t e w a r d e s s e s i s p u b l i c l y a d v e r t i s e d , 3) a i r l i n e a d v e r t i s i n g emphasize t h e f e m a l e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e male c o u n t e r p a r t . The i n d u s t r y e n s u r e s a s t e w a r d e s s ' a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e r e q u i s i t e s e r v i c e s t a n d a r d s by r e c r u i t i n g p e r s o n s whose p e r s o n a l i t i e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e of a s p e c i f i c t y p e . To q u o t e one a i r l i n e " . . . . t h e p e r f e c t s t e w a r d e s s has p e r s o n a l i t y , s p a r k l e , p i z z a z z . . . . g o o d l o o k s . . . . ( h a s ) t h e f l y i n g bug.... p e o p l e t h a t l o v e p e o p l e , she l o v e s h e r j o b and t h a t e n t h u s i a s m has a way o f coming o u t . . . . h e a l t h y . . . . p h y s i c a l s t a m i n a . . . . she exudes c o n f i d e n c e and you a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e l a x w i t h h e r . . . . s h e has empathy and awareness o f p a s s e n g e r needs....has a warmth you c a n ' t buy." 49 ( ) c o n t e n t w i t h i n t h e b r a c k e t i s i n s e r t e d by t h e w r i t e r . 49. C h r i s t o p h e r , I b i d . - 82 -The f o l l o w i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e e x t r a c t e d f r o m a Company pamphlet used by t h e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s department t o promote c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . "A s u c c e s s f u l s t e w a r d e s s p o s s e s s e s charm, i n t e l l i g e n c e , and e n t h u s i a s m a c a n d i d a t e . . . . s h o u l d s t r i v e t o d e v e l o p p o i s e , t a c t and t h e a b i l i t y t o g e t a l o n g w e l l w i t h p e o p l e . . . . ( e n g a g e i n ) a c t i v i t i e s ( t h a t ) d e v e l o p s e l f e x p r e s s i o n , w h i c h i n t u r n promotes s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , d i s c i p l i n e and p o i s e . . . . a ppearance i s of paramount i m p o r t a n c e . " *0 ( ) c o n t e n t i n b r a c k e t s i s i n i n s e r t e d by t h e w r i t e r f o r p u r p o s e s o f r e a d a b i l i t y . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be t a k e n t o be t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y s t r u c t u r e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y . S o c i a l s k i l l s and competence a r e g i v e n t o p p r i o r i t y second o n l y t o app e a r a n c e . T h i s i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e o r d e r o f j o b s p e c i f i c p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s h e l d by t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l members t h e m s e l v e s as r e f l e c t e d i n c o w o r k e r among t h e a c q u a i n t e d . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e p e r s o n s who work i n a bank a r e s e l e c t e d f o r s t a b i l i t y , t h e y r e f l e c t a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r s e c u r i t y and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n t h e i r l i v e s and p r e f e r t o work i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n . T h e y m a i n t a i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e s e r e n e and b r i e f r a t h e r t h a n e n t h u s i a s t i c and warmly f r i e n d l y as does t h e s t e w a r d e s s . 50. Company pamphlet used i n c a r e e r t a l k s by t h e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s department t o promote c a r e e r e n t r y . 51. A r g y r i s , O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Bank, pp. 59-89. - 83 -I n a d d i t i o n t o s e l e c t i v e r e c r u i t m e n t , t h e s t e w a r d e s s image q u o t e d above i s t h e o n l y one p r e s e n t e d and s t r e s s e d d u r i n g f l i g h t s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e one. What t h e new r e c r u i t l a c k s i n t h e way of p e r s o n a l g r o o m i n g , p o i s e , v o i c e c u l t u r e and e x t r o v e r s i o n she i s e x p e c t e d t o a d o p t . Any subsequent p e r s o n a l i t y change i s enhanced by b e i n g i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f p e r s o n s l i v i n g t h r o u g h t h e same e x p e r i e n c e and f a c i n g t h e same p r o b l e m s . Removal o f t h e new r e c r u i t f r o m h e r f o r m e r g e o g r a p h i c p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e and p l a c e s h e r i n a t o t a l l y new e n vironment where she has no r e a d y made s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s and i s f o r c e d t o r e l a t e t o t h o s e s e l e c t e d t o be h e r r e f e r e n c e g r oup. E n v i r o n m e n t a l changes a r e known t o a i d i n t h e n e c e s s a r y p e r s o n a l i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h a r e demanded i n modern d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , as may be seen i n t r a i n i n g methods used by t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n s and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s b o t h of w h i c h r e q u i r e a u n i f o r m 52 and t y p i c a l p o p u l a t i o n . Once out o f f l i g h t s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t a c t s r e i n f o r c e t h e development o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e d image by p r o v i d i n g models on w h i c h t o b a s e t h e t r a n s i t i o n and make i t seem more n a t u r a l . As s t e w a r d e s s e s f r e q u e n t l y a l s o l i v e t o g e t h e r a more t o t a l l i f e o r g a n i -z a t i o n i s more l i k e l y t o o c c u r . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y s t r u c t u r e d p e r s o n a l i t y does n o t p l a c e a h i g h v a l u e on t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y n o r 52. Hughes, Men Work, pp. 32-44 - 84 -teamwork e f f i c i e n c y * and t h i s n o t i o n i s p e r i o d i c a l l y b r o u g h t o u t t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l group i n f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t m e e t i n g s c o n d u c t e d by management p e r s o n n e l , and a t w h i c h a t t e n d a n c e i s mandatory; t o be a b s e n t a t s u c h a m e e t i n g i s a p u n i s h a b l e o f f e n s e . To e f f e c t i v e l y p e r f o r m t h e s t e r e o t y p e d and d e s i r e d p e r s o n a l i t y i n a n a t u r a l way t a k e s y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e and p r a c t i c e a t t h e d i s c i p l i n e t i l l i t becomes a second s e l f ; i n t h a t s e n s e i t i s n e c e s s a r i l y o r i g i n a l l y 54 somewhat t h e a t r i c a l , i t i s a mask one wears. As s u c h i t b e l i e s t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s as much as t h e u n i f o r m , and t h e non-u n i f o r m , does. E v e n t u a l l y t h e s t e w a r d e s s i s c o n s c i o u s o f w e a r i n g a mask o n l y when v e r y p h y s i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y and m e n t a l l y t i r e d b u t i s r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m some s e r v i c e i n t h e c a b i n , d u r i n g d i s p u t e s o r scenes w i t h p a s s e n g e r s when she i s h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y m a i n t a i n i n g h e r e m o t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m , when e n t e r i n g t h e p a s s e n g e r a r e a o f t h e c a b i n a f t e r an e m o t i o n a l s cene o r game w i t h a n o t h e r f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t i n a back a r e a , and when d i g n i f i e d deportment i s a b s o l u t e l y r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o r e a s s u r e p a s s e n g e r s t h a t a l l i s w e l l b u t w h i c h can be o r a r e c o n t e m p l a t i v e l y f a t e f u l , f o r example a f t e r a b o r t e d t a k e - o f f s o r a b o r t e d l a n d i n g s , a f t e r announcements of a i r c r a f t m e c h a n i c a l s a r e made w h i c h r e q u i r e emergency l a n d i n g s a t t h e n e a r e s t a i r p o r t , a f t e r a p u b l i c 53. P e r s o n a l communication f r o m a Company o f f i c i a l above t h e s u p e r v i s o r y l e v e l . 54. L. Mumford, The Conduct o f L i f e , New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Company, 1951, pp. 97-100. - 85 -a d d r e s s announcement t h a t a bomb s c a r e had been r e c e i v e d on t h e f l i g h t , e t c . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e aware t h a t t h e y put masks on f o r p e r f o r m a n c e s and f r e q u e n t l y a r e h e a r d t o c o m p l a i n among t h e m s e l v e s t h a t " i t i s u n n a t u r a l " , t h a t sometimes t h e y would p r e f e r t o * ' j u s t be m y s e l f , e t c . The s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n a l i t y a p p e a r s to be a r e a l and s e r i o u s e x p e c t a t i o n h e l d by t h e p u b l i c , t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d by p a s s e n g e r l e t t e r s o f c o m p l e m e n t / c o m p l a i n t . The f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t i s t h e r e f o r e c h a n n e l e d t o adopt and m a i n t a i n t h e s t e r e o t y p e ; a l t h o u g h t h e r a n g e o f d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s makes t h i s an i n c o n g r u o u s l y l i m i t e d s t e r e o t y p e . I n t h a t l e t t e r s of r e p r i m a n d a r e p l a c e d on c a r e e r f i l e s f o r d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e s t e r e o t y p e , i . e . f o r r u d e n e s s , a n g e r , p u b l i c s o c i a l embarrassment of p a s s e n g e r , e t c . t h e s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n a l i t y i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y m a i n t a i n e d on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s . The mandatory ' s m i l e ' promotes a "glamourous b u t dumb" e v a l u a t i o n a l s o , and a few a i r l i n e s have r e s p o n d e d by u s i n g a l t e r n a t e image p r o j e c t i o n s i . e . a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a t r e a d " B e h i n d e v e r y s m i l e t h e r e ' s a b r a i n " o r t h e 'mother image'. D i s p a r i t y between t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s o f j o b s p e c i f i c p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r i o r i t i e s h e l d by two s e p a r a t e g r o u p s i s n o t l i m i t e d t o t h e i n d u s t r y under s t u d y . The academic m a r k e t i s a good example of c o n f l i c t i n g c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g , p r o m o t i n g and h i r i n g o f p r o f e s s o r s . ^ C o n t r a c t s a r e made f o r t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e s , p r o m o t i o n s 55. T. Caplow, R. J . McGee, The Academic M a r k e t p l a c e , New Y o r k , B a s i c Books I n c . , 1960. ( c o p y r i g h t 1958) - 86 -on grounds of research contributions and publications, and for a l l practical purposes hiring is frequently based on a personal level i.e. personality factors, having the right kind of wife, hobby, or clothes, personal influence, etc. It is expected that such divergence exists in a l l large scale occupations, organizations and work settings. CHAPTER I I HUMAN RELATIONS DURING THE SOCIAL OCCASION I . Two s e t s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s = p a s s e n g e r s and o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s A. Demographic p e r s p e c t i v e f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n . I n t r o d u c t i o n S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n any s e t t i n g and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n a r e dominated by t h e p r a g m a t i c m o t i v e t o p e r f o r m c o m p e t e n t l y a l l t h e r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . P r a g m a t i c competence i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e i s based on a body o f common-sense knowledge s h a r e d by o r d i n a r y members o f a s o c i e t y . I n an i n c l u s i v e s e n s e s u c h knowledge u t i l i z e s s h a r e d l a n g u a g e and i t s a s s o c i a t e d s t a n d a r d i z e d d e f i n i t i o n s , a s s u m p t i o n s and r e c i p r o c i t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s f o r t h e ' t y p i f i c a t i o n s ' o f s o c i a l a c t o r s and s o c i a l e v e n t s . B y way o f t h e s e t y p i f i c a t i o n s members o f s o c i e t y c a n i n t e r p r e t e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s a s n o r m a l c o u r s e s of a c t i o n and can p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n as n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g e v e n t s . The r o u t i n e s b u i l t up by t h e s e t y p i f i c a t i o n s have f o r t h e i r members an i n h e r e n t common-sense l o g i c . They a r e n e c e s s a r i l y s h a r e d 55. A. S c h u t z , C o l l e c t e d P a p e r s I , pp. 70-76. - 87 -- 88 -by one s o c i e t y , c u l t u r e o r l a n g u a g e group a l t h o u g h some knowledge may a l s o be common t o o r s h a r e d w i t h a n o t h e r group. The a v a i l a b l e s o c i a l s t o c k o f knowledge d i f f e r s f r o m t h e body o f common-sense knowledge i n t h a t i t i s o f a more complex n a t u r e and i s d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y i n s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n s i . e . e n g i n e e r s , l a w y e r s , p i l o t s e t c . , b u t o f whom t h e o r d i n a r y member has some adequate t y p i f i c a t i o n f o r e v e r y d a y und e r s t a n d i n g s. ~* ^  I n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n th e s e t t i n g under q u e s t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y on i n t e r n a t i o n a l f l i g h t s , r o u t i n e p e r f o r m a n c e s a r e n o t l i k e l y t o p r o c e e d i n s t a n d a r d i z e d ways when t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n any one i n t e r a c t i o n come fr o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . They may be, t o use G a r f i n k e l ' s term 'competent' members"*^ o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s o c i e t i e s and s t i l l n o t be a b l e t o e n a c t a r o u t i n e p e r f o r m a n c e i n an u n p r o b l e m a t i c way, as t h e i r g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d e x p e c t a n c i e s , norms and r u l e s o f a c t i o n a r e n o t s h a r e d . D e v i a t i o n s f r o m r o u t i n e s i n i t i a t e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l s , b o t h o f w h i c h work towards t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . 56. P. L. B e r g e r & T. Luchmann, The S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f  R e a l i t y , New Y o r k , Doubleday & Co., I n c . , 1966. pp. 15-48. 57. G a r f i n k e l d e f i n e s a 'comptetent' member as a p e r s o n c a p a b l e o f managing h i s own e v e r y d a y a f f a i r s w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e . H. G a r f i n k e l , " S t u d i e s o f t h e R o u t i n e Grounds on Everyday A c t i v i t i e s " , S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , V o l . I I (3) pp. 245-249. - 89 -O c c u p a t i o n a l c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l maps i n s p e c i f i c work s e t t i n g s A demographic e x p l a n a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i n f l i g h t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and has a l r e a d y been used f o r : 1) t h e f l u c t u a t i n g r a t i o s between f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t / p a s s e n g e r p r o p o r t i o n s , 2) t h o s e p r o p o r t i o n s as c o r r e l a t e d t o m i n u t e s o f s e r v i c e p e r p a s s e n g e r based on d u r a t i o n o f f l y i n g t i m e ; as a b a s e f r o m w h i c h t o d i s c u s s work norms i . e . i n f l i g h t t e n s i o n w i t h w h i c h work i s p e r f o r m e d , c o n f l i c t s between c o w o r k e r s , and so on. P a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s can be d e s c r i b e d u s i n g s u c h v a r i a b l e s as s e x , age, s o c i a l s t a t u s , e t c . ; however, t h e r e i s no f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s e t up t o p r o v i d e r e p o r t s o f demographic c a t e g o r i e s o f a p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n i n advance, i . e . by way o f s p e c i a l f o r m s . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s r e c e i v e m i n i m a l l y a ' v e r b a l e s t i m a t e ' demographic count p r i o r b o a r d i n g t h e i r a i r c r a f t f rom t h e p a s s e n g e r agent i n t h e h o l d room, a t t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . T h i s t a k e s t h e f o r m o f : "10 f i r s t c l a s s and 108 economy", o r , " . . . f u l l l o a d e x p e c t e d . We've g o t s i x s t a n d - b y s " , ( p e r s o n s w i t h no r e s e r v a t i o n s who a r e bo a r d e d a t t h e l a s t m i n u t e when t h e r e a r e s e a t s a v a i l a b l e ) . T h i s i s p u r e l y n u m e r i c a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n w i t h r e l e v a n c e t o number 1) and 2) r a t i o s as m e n t i o n e d above. The e s t i m a t e i s p e r c e i v e d as v a l u a b l e and s i g n i -f i c a n t as a b a s e f r o m w h i c h i n t u i t i v e i n f e r e n c e s a r e made as t o t h e pace a t w h i c h work w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o be p e r f o r m e d , t o how much advance p r e p a r a t i o n w i l l have t o be made p r i o r p a s s e n g e r a r r i v a l e t c . and a r e based on p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i . e . t y p i f i c a t i o n s o f o t h e r - 90 -f l i g h t s . A t t h e same t i m e an a c c o u n t o f t h e s u b c a t e g o r y ' p r e b o a r d s ' i s o b t a i n a b l e and i s r e p o r t e d o u t o f t h e t o t a l p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n e x p e c t e d on t h e f l i g h t a s : one f a m i l y w i t h two c h f s ( c h i l d r e n on h a l f f a r e s ) , one p r i s o n e r w i t h p l a i n c l o t h e s p o l i c e m a n , an e l d e r l y l a d y speaks o n l y H u n g a r i a n ; o r , two V . I . P . ' s (names and p o s i t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o s o c i a l s t a t u s h e l d may o r may n o t be a v a i l a b l e ) , t h r e e w h e e l c h a i r s , one unaccompanied c h f , two d e p o r t e e s , e t c . E x c e p t f o r V . I . P . ' s a l l v a r i a b l e s used t o l a b e l and i d e n t i f y p e r s o n s a r e r e l e v a n t t o competency o f t h e p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t and a r e i n d i c a t o r s f o r p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f a d j u s t m e n t s t h e c a b i n crew w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o make i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t them i n r o u t i n e e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t y p e r f o r m a n c e s i n t h e s e t t i n g . P r e b o a r d i n g as a r o u t i n e a c t i v i t y i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y i n s t i t u t e d as a means o f s e g r e g a t i n g them f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s : a) i n t h a t t h e y have p h y s i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s i . e . b l i n d , d e a f , i n v a l i d , a r m l e s s e t c . , b) i n t h a t t h e y r e q u i r e more t i m e t o be s e t t l e d as i . e . f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , unaccompanied m i n o r s who must be f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h t h e a i r c r a f t i . e . l a v a t o r y , t h e e l d e r l y who a r e s l o w e r , e t c . , c) o r who have no c i v i l i a n l e g a l s t a t u s o r have r e s t r i c t e d freedom s u c h as d e p o r t e e s , p e r s o n s i n t r a n s i t w i t h o u t v i s a s , p r i s o n e r s , d e l i n q u e n t s , e t c . d) i n t h a t t h e y a r e m e d i c a l l y m a r g i n a l i . e . s t r e t c h e r c a s e s , p a r a p l e g i c s , m e n t a l l y c o n f u s e d , e t c . L a r g e groups t r a v e l l i n g t o g e t h e r on s c h e d u l e d f l i g h t s s u c h - 91 -as s p o r t s teams a r e boarded i n advance o f o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s b u t a f t e r p r e b o a r d s , so a l t h o u g h t h e y r e c e i v e s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e i t i s n o t m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t competency s t a t u s . P a s s e n g e r s who w o u l d n o r m a l l y be p r e b o a r d e d sometimes do n o t r e c e i v e t h i s s e r v i c e due t o t h e i r l a t e a r r i v a l a t t h e t e r m i n a l and a r e b o a r d e d w i t h competent p a s s e n g e r s so t h a t some p r o b l e m e x i s t s as t o c o m p l e t e n e s s o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t knowledge o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e and p r e s e n c e . P r e b o a r d i n g p r a c t i c e s a s s i s t t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s i n b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r a s s i s t i n g t h e p a s s e n g e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o c c a s i o n w i t h a minimum o f d i s r u p t i o n t o work o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l embarrassment. Knowledge o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n c a l l s i n t o p l a y r e l e v a n t b a c k g r o u n d e x p e c t a n c i e s of e x t r a s e r v i c e s t o be p r o v i d e d f o r t h a t p e r s o n . F o r example: knowing t h a t t h e p a s s e n g e r i n 16C has o n l y one arm t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t w i l l w i t h o u t b e i n g a s k e d t o do s o , f a s t e n h i s s e a t b e l t o r p r e c u t h i s s t e a k and b u t t e r h i s r o l l i n advance o f g i v i n g him h i s meal t r a y . S p e c i a l p r o c e d u r e s e x i s t f o r t h e r o u t i n e h a n d l i n g o f t h e f o r m a l i m m i g r a t i o n and p a s s p o r t forms and documents of unaccompanied m i n o r s , d e p o r t e e s and p a s s e n g e r s t r a v e l l i n g w i t h o u t a v i s a on i n t e r n a t i o n a l (and c o n n e c t i n g d o m e s t i c ) f l i g h t s . These p e r s o n s and - 92 -t h e i r p a p e r s a r e i n t h e c u s t o d y o f t h e C a p t a i n and t h e c a b i n crew. These p e r s o n s a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d t o d e p l a n e d u r i n g e n r o u t e s t a t i o n s t o p s as a r e o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s . They a r e r e q u i r e d t o be e s c o r t e d o f f a t t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n and handed o v e r t o a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n s . P r i s o n e r s a r e a l w a y s e s c o r t e d handcuffed t o a p o l i c e o f f i c e r , t h e y u s u a l l y r e m a i n h a n d c u f f e d d u r i n g b o a r d i n g u n t i l t h e p l a n e t a k e s o f f , and d u r i n g d e p l a n i n g . However, i f t h e p a s s e n g e r i s c o n s i d e r e d dangerous o r d e s p e r a t e by t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r he remain s h a n d c u f f e d t o him d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e f l i g h t . I t has been o b s e r v e d t h a t b o t h p r i s o n e r and p o l i c e m a n w i l l e n t e r a l a v a t o r y t o g e t h e r w i t h no s p e c i a l c o n c e r n f r o m t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s . T h i s a c c e p t a n c e does n o t e x t e n d t o two c i v i l i a n d r e s s e d males o r male f e m a l e p a i r s who may behave s i m i l a r l y . A l t h o u g h t h e p r e s e n c e o f p e r s o n s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f e x t r a s e r v i c e s a r e a u n i f o r m i t y o f a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t ' s work l i f e i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t m i s t a k e s a r e r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r e n t and m a i n l y r e s u l t f r o m an i n a d e q u a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s ystem o f r e p o r t i n g , i d e n t i f y i n g and l o c a t i n g o f su c h p e r s o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t i m e p r e s s u r e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n f l i g h t . T h e r e i s no s p e c i a l a r e a 58. If lost while in custody a monetary fine i s levied against the Company. Also, on international flights i f the actual passenger head count does not coincide with the number shown on the 'General Declaration' form given to immigration officers the aircraft can be impounded and a fine levied against the company. - 93 -f o r p r e b o a r d s to s i t i n as a gr o u p . They a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c a b i n . Thus a s t e w a r d e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t she was embarrassed and ang r y t o d i s c o v e r a t t h e end o f a f l i g h t t h a t s h e had been e x t r a s o l i c i t o u s i n f l i g h t t o a young p a s s e n g e r whom she t h o u g h t was t h e one who was d y i n g o f c a n c e r , b u t who i n f a c t t u r n e d o u t t o be t h e p r i s o n e r , and t h a t she had been b r i e f and c o o l t o t h e one whose c o n d i t i o n she f e l t w a r r a n t e d s p e c i a l k i n d n e s s e s . As t h e r e i s no e x h a u s t i v e l i s t a v a i l a b l e , no u se of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m a r k e r s as i . e . l a p e l s i g n s f o r p a s s e n g e r s , no p o s t i n g of names, s e a t l o c a t i o n and r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , s u c h m i s t a k e s f r e q u e n t l y happen. As a r e s u l t , one o f t h e t a l e n t s r e q u i r e d t o be d e v e l o p e d by a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t i s t h e s e t t i n g up of a c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l map o f t h e c a b i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y l o c a t i o n s o f s p e c i a l c a t e g o r i e s o f p e r s o n s ; s u c h a map i s made up on e v e r y p a s s e n g e r l o a d o f e v e r y f l i g h t w orked. I t i s sometimes so s t r o n g l y i m p r i n t e d on t h e memory t h a t a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t may n o t see a p a r t i c u l a r p a s s e n g e r f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s b u t on m e e t i n g o r r e c o g n i t i o n w i l l be a b l e t o r e c a l l t h e e x a c t s e a t o r a r e a l o c a t i o n , c o n v e r s a t i o n s h e l d , o r pro b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h t h e p e r s o n . I t i s a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r i d e n t i f y i n g whom c o w o r k e r s a r e a t t e n d i n g t o when t h e y a r e seen i n c e r t a i n a r e a s , a n d c o i n c i d e n t a l l y i n i d e n t i f y i n g what k i n d s o f work i s b e i n g done. I t i s a l s o u s e f u l i n b a s i n g p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r t y p e s o f s e r v i c e r e q u e s t s w h i c h may be e x p e c t e d and s e t t i n g up o f p r i o r i t i e s when a c a l l b u t t o n goes on a t - 94 -a certain row of seats. So that, knowing there i s a spastic child in IOC means that i t is more important to answer that c a l l for service rather than a c a l l from row 20 or 40, especially when i t i s f e l t the latter number request w i l l be for a drink 'too many'. It i s on the basis of such maps that f l i g h t attendants are able to formulate typifications of passenger behaviour to be expected in certain areas i.e. male passengers at the rear of the cabin are generally heavier drinkers, noisier and more demanding than those who s i t towards the front of the cabin. Mapping i s also positively correlated to a fli g h t attendant's categorization of who regular customers are on particular routes, this takes some years to formulate and different f l i g h t attendants w i l l have different passenger l i s t s . Cognitive visual maps of work settings vary with the occupation, and information items that go into making them up are specific to both setting and occupation. Location identification, category of population and classification of occupant are primary facts. For example, when a surgical nurse sees a c a l l light from room 104, i t i s associated with the category of a population of 'patients'; classification of surgery; potential c r i s i s factors for example, number of hours or days post operative, state of v i t a l signs as blood pressure, and possible request correlated to these factors i.e. that the c a l l w i l l be a request for an analgesic. So that in fact - 95 -n u r s e s do p r e p a r e s u c h m e d i c a t i o n s and a r r i v e w i t h them p r i o r r e c e i v i n g a v e r b a l r e q u e s t from t h e p a t i e n t i n advance. A h o t e l t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r ' s c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l map i s based on t h e s w i t c h b o a r d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e h o t e l f l o o r p l a n of g u e s t rooms and when an i n s i d e c a l l l i g h t and b u z z e r go on she can be h e a r d t o announce "There's our t r o u b l e m a k e r " , o r . " M r . S m i t h ' s morning c a l l I ' l l b e t " , ( t h e l a t t e r s e n t e n c e t r a n s l a t e d o u t o f h o t e l j a r g o n means "Mr. S m i t h i s g o i n g t o a s k me t o put h i s name down on t h e wake-up l i s t so t h a t he d o e s n ' t s l e e p i n tomorrow 59 m o r n i n g " ) , and she w i l l be r i g h t b o t h t i m e s . T h e r e i s i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n an a u r a l i d e n t i f i c a t o r y scheme a l s o so t h a t a s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e s t r a n g e r i n f r o n t o f h e r as Mr. J o n e s , o c c u p a n t o f 310 on h e a r i n g h i s v o i c e , by a s s o c i a t i n g i t w i t h h e r c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l map. A f o r m e r l y i n d i r e c t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes a f a c e - t o - f a c e one. U p d a t i n g of maps i n t h i s c a s e i s done each s h i f t o f d u t y by g o i n g o v e r t h e room c a r d e x , f r o m w h i c h i t i s l e a r n e d i . e . l e n g t h o f e x p e c t e d s t a y , s i l e n t r e g i s t e r s on whom she i s n o t p e r m i t t e d t o g i v e o u t any i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . I n c l o s i n g , once on t h e a i r c r a f t t h e demographic c o u n t r e c e i v e d p r i o r b o a r d i n g i s compared t o t h e p a s s e n g e r c o u n t s t a t e d on 59. P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e h o t e l s e t t i n g , l o c a t e d a t t h e f r o n t d e s k i n t h e l o b b y . P a s s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n combined w i t h t h e r o l e o f s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r and f r o n t d e s k c l e r k . \ - 96 -t h e ' f l i g h t s e r v i c e r e p o r t ' f o r m w h i c h l i s t s t h e number of meals b o a r d e d , t h e two c o u n t s do n o t a l w a y s c o i n c i d e and t h e r e f o r e u n l e s s t h e r e i s a f u l l t o c a p a c i t y a i r c r a f t l o a d and a f u l l complement o f mea l s , a p a s s e n g e r c o u n t must be done p r i o r d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e t e r m i n a l i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h whether t h e r e a r e enough meals on b o a r d o r whether d e p a r t u r e w i l l have t o be d e l a y e d f o r t h i s r e a s o n . There i s no way to c o n f i r m t h e r e p o r t e d l i s t of p r e b o a r d s . O r i e n t a t i o n t o e t h n i c i t y o f p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n : R e f e r e n c e was made e a r l i e r t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f a f l i g h t i s . t h a t o f t h e a i r l i n e ' s c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n . P a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s and t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e on d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s w h i c h c o n n e c t w i t h o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s , c o n t a i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m many e t h n i c g r o u p s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p e r s o n s may be competent and ' b o n a - f i d e ' members""'^ of t h e i r own group b u t b e i n g u n k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e , n o t be a b l e t o p e r f o r m c o m p e t e n t l y t h e e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s r o u t i n e l y p e r f o r m e d i n th e s e t t i n g on W o r l d A i r w a y s f l i g h t s . 60. As d e f i n e d by G a r f i n k e l a ' b o n a - f i d e ' member i s a member o f a c o l l e c t i v i t y who " i s e n t i t l e d t o e x e r c i s e t h a t he i s c a p a b l e o f managing h i s e v e r y day a f f a i r s w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e " and t h a t h i s competence c a n be t a k e n g or g r a n t e d . G a r f i n k e l , E thnomethodology, p. 57. - 97 -The f o l l o w i n g examples a r e j u s t two o u t o f many w h i c h c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d . On one o c c a s i o n i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t a sudden h o s t i l i t y w i t h o v e r t o n e s o f r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e e r u p t e d when an A f r i c a n male w e a r i n g d a r k s u n g l a s s e s p a s s e d a t h r e e man o c c i d e n t a l queue l i n e d up b e f o r e t h e washrooms and p r o c e e d e d t o t r y t h e l a v a t o r y d o o r s . The man a t t h e . head o f t h e l i n e a n g r i l y i n f o r m e d t h e d e v i a n t o f t h e queue r u l e and u s i n g an arm g e s t u r e p o i n t e d o u t where t h e end o f t h e l i n e was. The A f r i c a n gave no r e s p o n s e , s t e p p e d a s i d e b u t n o t i n l i n e , and w a i t e d . The f i r s t l a v a t o r y v a c a t e d was t a k e n by t h e head man, t h e second by t h e A f r i c a n , w i t h no r e s t r a i n t by t h e o t h e r two. F o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s t h e A f r i c a n 'appeared' t o be We s t e r n as he wore W e s t e r n c l o t h e s . S i m i l a r l y , j u d g i n g by a p p e a r a n c e s , f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s i t was p o s s i b l y n o t a l t o g e t h e r c l e a r t h a t t h e group i n d e e d were a queue i n t h a t t h e y were l e a n i n g a g a i n s t t h e b u l k h e a d hands i n p o c k e t s , t a l k i n g , and c o u l d e a s i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as g a t h e r e d t h e r e f o r a c h a t . I n t h i s c a s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and r e s p o n s e s were i n i t i a t e d on t h e b a s i s of v i s u a l s t i m u l i . L i k e w i s e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s f r e q u e n t l y make m i s t a k e s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g up and down head nods t o mean 'yes' r a t h e r t h a n a ' p o l i t e bow o f d i s m i s s a l ' f r o m a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n so f r e q u e n t l y used by o r i e n t a l s and Europeans. J u s t as f r e q u e n t l y , f o r example, i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e F r e n c h ' m e r c i ' when i t p r o p e r l y means 'no' r a t h e r t h a n 'yes'/ When t h e m i s t a k e i s made b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t s become somewhat f l u s t e r e d and embarrassed. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an - 98 -a p o l o g y f r o m t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t sometimes accompanied by an e x p l a n a t i o n o f why t h e m i s t a k e o c c u r r e d . The e x p l a n a t i o n i s ' i n s t r u c t i v e ' , i n p a r t i c u l a r i t r e v e a l s t h e l o g i c - i n - u s e by w h i c h t h e a c t i v i t y was b e i n g p e r f o r m e d . A p o l o g i e s a r e an i n t e r p e r s o n a l r i t u a l f o l l o w i n g m i s t a k e s ^ w h e n t h e y a r e p e r f o r m e d by f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s d e f e r e n c e i s p a i d t o t h e p a s s e n g e r . T h i s i s g overned by t h e c l i e n t / s e r v i c e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n t e r a c t a n t s . S o c i a l ease i s t h e r e b y r e e s t a b l i s h e d . O f t e n t h e r e s u l t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n t e n s i o n i s r e l i e v e d t h r o u g h humor. I n f a c e t o f a c e engagements s u c h as t h o s e j u s t d e s c r i b e d , members of a s o c i e t y r e l y h e a v i l y on t h e l i n g u i s t i c c oummunication s y s t e m t o make t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r s t o o d ; however, i n c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s v e r b a l c o n t e n t l o s e s i t s p r i m a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e where n e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t can t r a n s l a t e t h e o t h e r ' s l a n g u a g e . R e l i a n c e on o t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a n n e l s i s t h e n g r e a t e r and o c c u r s o u t o f n e c e s s i t y . I t i n v o l v e s c o m m u n i c a t i o n a t t h e b e h a v i o r a l , k i n e s i c ^ ' ^ and p a r a l i n g u i s i t c ^ s y s t e m s 61. Goffman, I n t e r a c t i o n R i t u a l , pp. 48-62. 62. R. L. B i r d w h i s t e l l , "Some R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between A m e r i c a n K i n e s i c s and Spoken A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h " , Communication and C u l t u r e , ed. A. G. S m i t h , New Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n I n c . , 1966, pp. 182-189. 63. R. L. B i r d w h i s t e l l , " K i n e s i c s and Communication", E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Communication, B o s t o n , Beacon P r e s s , 1960, pp. 54-64. 64. G. L. T r a g e r , " P a r a l a n g u a g e : a f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n " , S t u d i e s i n L i n g u i s t i c s , V o l . X I I I (1958) pp. 1-12. - 99 -l e v e l s . When t h e r e i s a non c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between two l a n g u a g e s t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f r e l i a n c e on g e s t u r e s , pantomime and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g what p e r s o n s s a y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know what e t h n i c groups a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e c a b i n crew. F o r example, an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g s t e w a r d e s s who does n o t u n d e r s t a n d a s l a v i c l a n g u a g e would c a l l on t h e h e l p o f one fr o m a Slavic b a c k g r o u n d t o a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g what l a n g u a g e t h e p a s s e n g e r i s s p e a k i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a U k r a i n i a n s p e a k i n g s t e w a r d e s s t o i n t e r p r e t l a n g u a g e s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i . e . P o l i s h , R u s s i a n , C z e c h o s l o v a k i a n e t c . on t h e b a s i s o f h e r s . Enough a t l e a s t f o r e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s e t t i n g . Most f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h e two p a r t i c i p a n t s can be seen t o c o n t i n u e t o speak t h e i r own l a n g u a g e a l t h o u g h a t a much s l o w e r pace and w i t h e x a g g e r a t e d p a r a l i n g u i s i t c emphasis i . e . v o i c e s t r e s s i n g , even when c o n t e n t i s m e a n i n g l e s s . E f f o r t s a r e most s u c c e s s f u l when r e l a t e d t o f o o d , d r i n k , e l i m i n a t i o n and minor body p a i n s l i k e head and stomach-a c h e s , c l o c k t i m e and g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n s w h i c h can be p o i n t e d o u t on a map. They a r e l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l towards a c h i e v i n g t h e d e s i r e d g o a l when i t i s m e r e l y c o n v e r s a t i o n a l . I n t e r a c t i o n s between two s u c h p a r t i c i p a n t s , f o r example a s t e w a r d e s s and a p a s s e n g e r , become s o c i a l e v e n t s w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s i n t h e immediate s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a when t h e y have become p r o b l e m a t i c and when r e s o l u t i o n i s u n l i k e l y due t o l a n g u a g e - 100 -i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y . I n t e r f e r e n c e by o t h e r s i s seen as w a r r a n t e d and e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o r . O t h e r s f r e q u e n t l y v o l u n t a r i l y a c t as i n t e r p r e t e r s , t h e y o f f e r t h e s t e w a r d e s s t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i v e v e r s i o n s o r s u g g e s t i o n s as t o what c o u r s e of a c t i o n t o t a k e and may even s e t about t o q u e s t i o n t h e p a s s e n g e r d i r e c t l y . I n e i t h e r c a s e , a s m a l l group i s formed, and a l t h o u g h t h e group d i s s o l v e s whether t h e p r o b l e m i s s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s o l v e d o r dropped f r o m f u r t h e r c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t , i t r e a d i l y and n a t u r a l l y r e f o r m s d u r i n g any subsequent i n t e r a c t i o n s of t h e k i n d . I n e f f e c t , o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s a r e f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e a d m i t t e d t o t h e team r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e n d e r i n g s e r v i c e s . P a s s e n g e r s who have been mere o b s e r v e r s t o t h e a c t i o n v i e w s u c h e v e n t s as s o c i a l h a p p e n i n g s t o be 'commented on', ' t a l k e d a b o u t ' , o r 'concerned a b o u t ' and f r e q u e n t l y use them t o i n i t i a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h each o t h e r o r w i t h t h e s t e w a r d e s s as she w a l k s by. F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e h a b i t u a t e d t o v i e w s u c h o c c u r r e n c e s as r o u t i n e e v e n t s i n t h e i r e v e r y d a y l i f e . A p e r s o n o f a n o t h e r c u l t u r e sometimes i n i t i a t e s v e r y s p e c i f i c k i n d s o f a c t i o n by m e r e l y e n t e r i n g t h e a i r c r a f t . F o r example, when an E a s t I n d i a n i s n o t i c e d , t h e message i s r e l a y e d on t o c h e c k whether a v e g e t a r i a n meal i s on b o a r d and a p l a n o f a c t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d i f t h e r e i s n o t . I t i s based on t h e t y p i f i c a t i o n o f I n d i a n c u l t u r a l e a t i n g h a b i t s . L i k e w i s e , when a group of o t h e r n a t i o n a l s b o a r d one crew member mi g h t j o k i n g l y comment t o a n o t h e r t o s p r i n k l e some N i l - O d o r - 101 d i s i n f e c t a n t around as t h e y a r e known t o have a more n o t i c e a b l e body odor and i n a c l o s e d c a b i n o t h e r s ' s e n s i t i v i t i e s become o f f e n d e d . I n t h i s s e t t i n g p e r c e i v a b l e o d o r s a r e s o c i o l o g i c a l e v e n t s . They a r e r e q u i r e d t o be ' i d e n t i f i e d ' and ' i n v e s t i g a t e d ' . When t h e s o u r c e i s l o c a t e d ' d e c i s i o n s ' must be made as t o what t o do about e l i m i n a t i n g them. Whether t h e y a r e due t o a p a s s e n g e r smoking a c i g a r , b u r n i n g i n c e n s e , t a k i n g h i s shoes o f f when he has s m e l l y f e e t o r someone b e i n g a i r s i c k , e t c . , some ' p l a n o f a c t i o n ' r e s u l t s t o e i t h e r i n f o r m t h o s e i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a what t h e odor i s , and/or to a s k t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n as t o whether t h e o f f e n d e r may c o n t i n u e t o smoke e t c . , o r n o t . I n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i o n s a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o group s o c i a l e v e n t s . U s u a l l y s u c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e p e r f o r m e d by t h e crew b u t t h e y a r e a l s o i n i t i a t e d by p a s s e n g e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y when o d o r s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y o r appear t o come f r o m b u r n i n g f a b r i c o r e l e c t r i c a l s o u r c e s . The c o l l e c t i v e s e n s e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a f e a t u r e o f s o c i a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n i n an environment so p r e c a r i o u s t h a t t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a s a f e e n v ironment i s a m a t t e r o f ' a n y ' i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e r n , awareness and m o n i t o r i n g . As a consequence of t h e d a i l y r e q u i r e m e n t t o have s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h members o f o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s , r a c e s , and e t h n i c g r o u p s , s t e r e o t y p e d images o f them a r e d e v e l o p e d by f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s . Such knowledge i s a c c u m u l a t e d o u t of e x p e r i e n c e , s h a r e d a c c o u n t s of p r oblems e n c o u n t e r e d on o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , a r e o f t e n r e t o l d d u r i n g - 102 -pastimes of funny story telling on a f l i g h t . A 'working knowledge' of costumes, accents, attitudes, behavior patterns or other identification means specific to a group is necessary in order not to offend them or embarrass oneself in a social situation. Some notion of the typical kinds of problems they present inf l i g h t enables the crew to see them as 'ordinary' problems that can be prepared for in advance and handled with ease rather than as extraordinary problems that are disruptive to the social order of ongoing a c t i v i t i e s . One of the institutionalized patterns of informing each other of the presence of specific ethnic representatives is done through assuming the passenger's manner of speech and accent when making requests of each other or i n giving explanations of what they are doing. For example, when a cabin stewardess comes up to the galley and asks the galley stewardess for a cup of water in an Irish brogue she implies that the water is not for an unknown (or just any) passenger but especially for an Irish one. As time is a precious commodity, various communication patterns exist which concentrate alot of information into minimally time consuming interactions. It is a functionally logical outcome of working conditions and requirements of the job. The presence of a 'cultural stranger' in the group, that i s , a person who looks' different in some way but whose ethnicity, nationality or group cannot be identified or i s doubtful, is treated - 103 -as c o n s t i t u t i n g a p r o b l e m t o t h e crew i n t h a t no one knows how he s h o u l d o r s h o u l d n o t be t r e a t e d . On t h e b a s i s o f s e l f o r c o w o r k e r s e l e c t i o n an a s s i m i l a t e d f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t , one w i t h l i t t l e o r no e t h n i c p r e j u d i c e s , engages t h e p a s s e n g e r i n c o n v e r s a t i o n and e l i c i t s i n f o r m a -t i o n w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e them t o see him as 'one o f a k i n d about w h i c h something i s known'. The a u t h o r i t y v e s t e d i n a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t ' s p o s i t i o n i . e . u n i f o r m , e n a b l e s any i n t e r v i e w e r t o g e t m i n i m a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a p a s s p o r t ; b u t a s k i l l e d i n t e r v i e w e r w i t h s o c i a l com-p e t e n c e e n a b l e s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t o be g u i d e d t o t h a t o f a s o c i a l v i s i t , i . e . one s m i l e s , a d m i r e s t h e costume o r t h e baby and so on. T h i s a s s u r e s t h e p a s s e n g e r o f f r i e n d l y i n t e n t i o n s and o f h i s welcomed p r e s e n c e . F u r t h e r , i n c l u s i o n i n t o a group may be i n i t i a t e d by t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f n e i g h b o u r i n g p a s s e n g e r s i n t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . The c o n v e r s a t i o n when h e l d becomes one of c u l t u r a l exchange w i t h t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t and o t h e r s p r e s e n t i n g r e l e v a n t f a c t s f r o m t h e i r s o c i e t y . Through t h i s p r o c e s s t h e p a s s e n g e r i s made t o f e e l l e s s of a s t r a n g e r i n t h e p r e d o m i n a t i n g c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e a i r c r a f t . I t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o i m p l y t h a t a l l f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e a s s i m i l a t e d i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s b u t t h a t s k i l l i n s o c i a l competence e n a b l e s even t h o s e w i t h p r e j u d i c e s t o p u t on a p u b l i c p e r f o r m a n c e o f t he.above d e s c r i p t i o n . O n l y o t h e r crew members would know t h e r e a l a t t i t u d e s c o n c e a l e d . O c c a s i o n a l l y , s u c h a c t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d f o l l o w i n g an e n q u i r y - 104 -f r o m a n o t h e r p a s s e n g e r . I t i s n o t t r e a t e d as an untoward r e q u e s t . O r i e n t a t i o n t o e t h n i c i t y i s s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e . I t p r o v i d e s a frame 65 o f r e f e r e n c e f o r a l l by w h i c h t o o r d e r t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and need n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n f e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o r s t e r e o t y p i n g o f a n e g a t i v e k i n d . I t i s s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e f o r a i r l i n e s t o h i r e p e r s o n s t o be f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s whose app e a r a n c e w i l l p e r m i t p a s s e n g e r s f r o m s e v e r a l e t h n i c b a ckgrounds t o i d e n t i f y w i t h as one of t h e i r k i n d . ^ F o r t h i s r e a s o n m i n o r i t y g r o u p s a r e m i n i m a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . The m a j o r i t y w i l l be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e t h n i c groups who c o m p r i s e t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a s s e n g e r s , t h i s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o major r o u t e s f l o w n . One o f t h e outcomes o f a p u b l i c s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n i s t h a t n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as a n c e s t r y , among o t h e r s , i s p u b l i c l y r a t e d making t h i s k i n d o f s e l e c t i o n mandatory. C h a r t e r f l i g h t p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s a r e f r e q u e n t l y e t h n i c a l l y homogenous, t h e r e i s some a t t e m p t by t h e Company t o p l a c e a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t ( s ) o f t h e same e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d on t h e c a b i n crew. I t i s e f f e c t i v e l y a good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l g e s t u r e . On any 65. D. G l a s e r , "Dynamics o f E t h n i c I d e n t i f i c a t i o n " , A m e r i c a n  S o c i a l Review, v o l . X X I I I (1958) pp. 31-40. 66. P e r s o n a l Communication f r o m World A i r w a y s management p e r s o n n e l . 67. T. Caplow, The S o c i o l o g y o f Work, M i n n e a p o l i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1954, pp. 113-114. - 105 -fli g h t , passengers are particularly pleased to be able to relate to a f l i g h t attendant on the basis of shared ethnicity and w i l l frequently engage i n conversations with an ethnic orientation content. Others appear to derive much pleasure in guessing ethnic background, etc.; this i s a typical aircraft game and pastime, and may continue through half a f l i g h t , enlarge to incorporate other crew members and neigh-bouring passengers. They may be used to advantage by a f l i g h t attendant to promote feelings of inclusiveness of strangers and as such are socially creative and constructive to the occasion as a special kind of social gathering. It becomes sociologically relevant when used. B. Customer s e r v i c e and i m p r e s s i o n management f u n c t i o n s Team management of group t e n s i o n The a i r l i n e i n d u s t r y p r o v i d e s a p u b l i c s e r v i c e . The f i n a l p r o d u c t t o be consumed i s t h e f l i g h t i t s e l f and t h o s e whose o c c u p a t i o n i t i s t o p r o v i d e t h e s e r v i c e s and manage t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n f l i g h t a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c , a s a r e o t h e r s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s . O f t e n t h e r e i s a c h r o n i c t e n s i o n between t h e two 68 69 gr o u p s . ' The f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s by and l a r g e f e e l t h e p u b l i c i s 68. E. C. Hughes, Men Work, pp. 50-56. 69. H. S. B e c k e r , O u t s i d e r s , New Y o r k , The F r e e P r e s s , 1963, pp. 82-96, - 106 -i n c o m p e t e n t t o j u d g e t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s , r e s e n t any i n t e r f e r e n c e and f r e q u e n t l y s u p p o r t t h e i r a c t i o n s by e x p l a i n i n g 'why th e y a r e d o i n g ' 'what t h e y a r e 1 ' i n t h e way t h a t t h e y a r e ' . The p u b l i c r e a d i l y c o m p l a i n , c r i t i c i z e and demand s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s d i r e c t l y t o t h e crew i n f l i g h t o r o f f i c i a l l y by l e t t e r s t o t h e Company. I n t h a t s u c h c o m p l a i n t s e t c . a r e s u c c e s s f u l i n c h a n g i n g a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t ' s b e h a v i o u r o r cause d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n t o be t a k e n by t h e Company a g a i n s t t h e crew member(s) t h e p u b l i c occupy a p o s i t i o n o f power. The c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d i s comparable t o t h a t o f an a c t u a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l p o s i t i o n as A r g y r i s p o i n t s o u t i s e x e r c i s e d by t h e p u b l i c u s i n g t h e s e r v i c e s o f a b a n k . ^ The s e r i o u s p o s t f l i g h t consequences o f i n f l i g h t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h p a s s e n g e r s f e e l have been mismanaged c a n r e s u l t i n a Company l e t t e r o f r e p r i m a n d on a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t ' s c a r e e r f i l e , s u s p e n s i o n f r o m f l y i n g w i t h t h e r e s u l t o f a l o s s o f income, o r i n t h r e a t s t o l o s s o f employment; any o f t h e s e may be r e f e r r e d t o t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s u n i o n g r i e v a n c e c o mmittee f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n a s e t t l e m e n t by a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t . P a s s e n g e r r i g h t s t o compliment and c o m p l a i n a r e d i r e c t e d f r o m a market t r a n s a c t i o n frame of r e f e r e n c e . Such a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t 70. C. A r g y r i s , O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Bank, pp. 55-56. - 107 -i n v o l v e s t h e p e r s o n who r e n d e r s t h e s e r v i c e t o : 1) t r e a t t h e customer w i t h e x a g g e r a t e d forms o f d e f e r e n c e r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a t u s e s , 2) w i t h ' n e a r l y a b s o l u t e c o n s i s t e n c y i n manners' t o a l l c u s t o m e r s , 3) w i t h a g r e a t e r show of c o n c e r n f o r t h e c u s t o m e r ' s p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s t h a n t h e customer i s r e q u i r e d t o r e t u r n , and 4) an a t t i t u d e t h a t 'the customer i s a l w a y s r i g h t ' t owards d i f f e r e n c e s of opinion.^"*" The f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s power p o s i t i o n stems f r o m b e i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s s p e c i a l i s t s who a r e r e q u i r e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e o r g a n i -z a t i o n s g o a l s . O v e r t c o n f l i c t s a r e a v o i d e d as a r e p r o l o n g e d exchanges i n d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n , by and l a r g e b o t h g r o u p s a r e p l i a n t and conform t o t h e r u l e s of t h e s e t t i n g . The s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r a i n s i n t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m a r e c a u s e d by s p a c e and t i m e p r e s s u r e s , c o w o r k e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , demographic v a r i a b l e s , u n e x p e c t e d c r i s i s o r emergency o c c u r r e n c e s among o t h e r s . 72 As i n t h e r e s t a u r a n t i n d u s t r y , t h e r o u t i n i z a t i o n o f work, t i m i n g , c o o r d i n a t i o n , and harmonious i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s a r e key f a c t o r s t o s u c c e s s . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e r o u t i n e l y o r i e n t e d t o t i m e l i m i t a t i o n s ; work o r g a n i z a t i o n g o a l s a r e f i t t e d i n t o s t r u c t u r e d t i m e i n t e r v a l s and t h e number and t y p e of p a s s e n g e r s t o be s e r v e d , as t h e 71. Caplow, S o c i o l o g y o f Work, pp. 113-120. 72. W. F. Whyte, Human R e l a t i o n s i n t h e R e s t a u r a n t I n d u s t r y , New Y o r k , McGraw H i l l Book Co., I n c . , 1948, pp. 3-50. - 108 -p r i m a r y f a c t o r s b e a r i n g on how much energy t h e y w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o m o b i l i z e i n o r d e r t o 'pace' t h e i r work so t h a t i t g e t s done. The e x p e r i e n c e d s o c i a l i z e new members i n t o a d o p t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e amount of t e n s i o n r e q u i r e d by any p a r t i c u l a r f l i g h t . A member who c o n s i s t e n t l y a c h i e v e s t h e ' p r o p e r ' amount o f t e n s i o n and manages i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a s s e n g e r s and team members w i t h o u t s t r e s s i s v a l u e d as a c o w o r k e r . I t would appear t h a t t h i s i s one c r i t e r i o n f o r j u d g i n g a member as a ' b o n a - f i d e ' member. So t h a t , a w e l l c o o r d i n a t e d s e n i o r team w i l l be a b l e t o manage t h e same t y p e o f meal s e r v i c e i n t h e same amount o f f l y i n g t i m e i . e . one and one h a l f h o u r s , t o two v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s i . e . f u l l l o a d v e r s u s one t h i r d a i r c r a f t l o a d c a p a c i t y , and j u s t b a r e l y manage t o g e t f i n i s h e d i n t i m e p r i o r l a n d i n g each t i m e . T h i s i s managed by i n t u i t i v e judgement o f t h e r a t e o f speed (pace) w i t h w h i c h t h e work w i l l have t o be p e r f o r m e d . I t b e a r s d i r e c t l y on how p e r s o n a l t h e s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l be and how much p r e s s u r e w i l l have t o be e x e r t e d s o c i a l l y on p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s who a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e a c t i v i t y i . e . meal o r b e v e r a g e s e r v i c e . Communication p a t t e r n s used t o c r e a t e i n t e r a c t i o n a l pace and group t e n s i o n i s o f v i t a l c o n c e r n t o t h e i m p r e s s i o n management team. Such demographic v a r i a b l e s as f i r s t f l i g h t e r v e r s u s r e g u l a r customer o r t o u r i s t v e r s u s e x e c u t i v e c a t e g o r i e s e t c . a r e e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e ease o r f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t team w i l l be a b l e t o f u n c t i o n t o c r e a t e t h e r e q u i r e d group t e n s i o n . These, as - 109 -p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , a r e n o t p r o v i d e d by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s i n advance of a f l i g h t and pose one d i f f i c u l t y f o r smooth enactment o f s e r v i c e s . The o c c a s i o n o f a f l i g h t i s e v a l u a t e d i n terms of b e i n g good o r bad by any and a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . They a r e a l l c o n t r i b u t o r s t o what M i l l s c a l l s group e m o t i o n and o f w h i c h he s a y s : " . . . t h e elements o f group e m o t i o n i n c l u d e (1) t h e needs and d r i v e s w h i c h s e r v e i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e as causes of group f o r m a t i o n ; (2) f e e l i n g s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o r f r u s t r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m a c t u a l group e x p e r i e n c e ; (3) i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t a c h m e n t s and a n i m o s i t i e s ; and (4) f e e l i n g s o f a t t a c h m e n t t o , o r a l i e n a t i o n f r o m , t h e groups as a w h o l e . " 73 H y p o t h e t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , i f t h e t i m e l i m i t t o t h e o c c a s i o n i s one hour twenty m i n u t e s , i t t a k e s p l a c e d u r i n g t h e d i n n e r hour on a F r i d a y e v e n i n g , p a s s e n g e r l o a d i s maximum s e a t c a p a c i t y p l u s c h i l d r e n , t h e r e f r e s h m e n t s e r v i c e s a r e d i n n e r and b a r , t h e r e i s t u r b u l e n c e e n c o u n t e r e d i n f l i g h t , t h e w a t e r s u p p l y s y s t e m i s m a l f u n c t i o n i n g , e t c . then i t i s g o i n g t o be d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from a f l i g h t o f e i g h t h o u r s on a Wednesday morning w i t h h a l f a p a s s e n g e r l o a d and a l l systems f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y . The f o r m e r l y d e s c r i b e d s h o r t f l i g h t w i l l be e v a l u a t e d by a l l as bad, t h e r e w i l l be an o b s e r v a b l e and i n t u i t i v e h i g h group t e n s i o n n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n d u c i v e t o r e l a x e d enjoyment o f r e f r e s h m e n t s . P a s s e n g e r s a r e as a group ' d i r e c t e d ' t o become p a r t o f t h e management team; f o r example, by t h e s t a n d a r d p u b l i c a d d r e s s 73. T. M. M i l l s , The S o c i o l o g y o f S m a l l Groups, Englewood C l i f f s , N .J., P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . , 1967, p. 67. - n o -announcement: " L a d i e s and g e n t l e m e n ; we a r e about t o s e r v e d i n n e r . Due t o t h e s h o r t f l y i n g t i m e t o — you w i l l a s s i s t us by l o w e r i n g y o u r 74 c h a i r t a b l e i f you would l i k e t o have l u n c h . Thank y o u . " The second f l i g h t example w i l l be e v a l u a t e d as good, and t h e s t a n d a r d announcement quoted w o u l d n o t be used a t a l l . I t need be n o t e d t h a t t h e announcement g i v e s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f why t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d ; c o m p l i a n c e i s e x p e c t e d and i s t h e norm. They a r e encouraged o r p r e s s u r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o c o n f o r m t o t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s s e r v i c e i n i t i a t i o n o f f e r s i . e . p a s s e n g e r s who r e q u e s t o r d i c t a t e on a s h o r t f l i g h t t h a t t h e y w i l l have t h e i r meal l a t e r a r e n e g a t i v e l y s a n c t i o n e d , r e f u s e d p o i n t b l a n k , p r e s s u r e d i n a good humored way, b r i e f l y a r g u e d w i t h o r i g n o r e d and f o r g o t t e n . These p a s s e n g e r s a r e t y p i c a l l y e x e c u t i v e m a les who t r a v e l a l o t and who h o l d some n o t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e p r i v i l e g e d p e r s o n s ; a l t h o u g h o c c a s i o n a l l y a r e r e c e i v e d f r o m n a i v e f i r s t f l i g h t e r s , i n w h i c h c a s e t h e y w o u l d be i n f o r m e d of why t h e y ought t o a c c e p t a t t h e t i m e t h e i r t u r n comes. The t i m e c a t e g o r i e s r e l e v a n t t o work o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e d e s c r i p t i v e o f a f l i g h t as an o n g o i n g e v e n t . ( R e f e r t o T a b l e V I , page 47 of t h i s p a p e r . ) The s t a g e s a r e b o a r d i n g , t a x i (away f r o m t h e t e r m i n a l ) , t a k e - o f f , a s c e n t , c r u i s i n g , d e s c e n t , t a x i ( t o t e r m i n a l ) and 74. W o r l d A i r w a y s M a n u a l . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d a l l subsequent d i r e c t i v e s bounded by q u o t a t i o n marks a r e e x t r a c t e d f r o m any of W o r l d A i r w a y s s e r v i c e manuals. - I l l -deplanement. The t i m e i n t e r v a l s f o r each s t a g e a r e 'more o r l e s s ' e x a c t and i n p r a c t i c e t h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y d e f i n e d f o r c a b i n crew p a r t i c i p a n t s and p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n r e s p e c t t o what t h e y may and may n o t do. Thus d u r i n g t a x i p e r i o d s p a s s e n g e r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be s e a t e d as a s a f e t y measure a g a i n s t p e r s o n a l i n j u r y , and any p a s s e n g e r who does n o t comply i s seen as p o s i n g a p r o b l e m about w h i c h something must be done; w h i l e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o c o n t i n u e t o p e r f o r m s e r v i c e s l i k e d i s t r i b u t i n g r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , c a n d i e s o r t h e s t a g i n g o f oxygen d e m o n s t r a t i o n s e t c . There i s e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t members o f t h e c a b i n crew become i d e n t i f i e d a s s u c h i n t h e eyes of t h e p a s s e n g e r s d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l t a x i p e r i o d . M a l e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s wear u n i f o r m s , i n c l u d i n g g o l d b r a i d and w h i t e p i p i n g on t h e s l e e v e j a c k e t and a r e e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e a l t h o u g h sometime m i s i d e n t i f i e d as a p i l o t . Females wear a n o n - u n i f o r m d r e s s and a r e e a s i l y c o n f u s e d as p a s s e n g e r s by n a i v e t r a v e l l e r s , o f t e n t o t h e embarrassment o f b o t h when some Company s e r v i c e s h o r t c o m i n g i s v o i c e d . That i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f crew members f r o m o t h e r s i s n o t easy i s r e c o g n i z e d by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e i r d i r e c t i v e t h a t " d u r i n g an emergency, a l l crew members s h o u l d wear t h e i r c o m p l e t e u n i f o r m , i n c l u d i n g t h e h a t f o r P u r s e r s . . . . " That i s , i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a f a t e f u l and/or t e r m i n a l a c c i d e n t a l c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e ( o r a l l ) o c c a s i o n ( s ) crew members a r e t o be a p p r o p r i a t e l y costumed. T h i s d i r e c t i v e p e r t a i n s t o p r e p a r a t i o n s t o be made f o r emergency l a n d i n g s . - 112 -A c c o u n t i n g f o r f a i l u r e s I n t h i s s e t t i n g , d e l a y s i n s c h e d u l e d d e p a r t u r e and a r r i v a l t i m e s , l a n d i n g a t a l t e r n a t e d e s t i n a t i o n s , i n f l i g h t changes i n a i r c r a f t f u n c t i o n i n g based on e x p e c t a t i o n s o f how an a i r c r a f t s h o u l d 'sound' and 'ascend o r descend', o u t e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i . e . t u r b u l e n c e and wi n d v e l o c i t y a r e s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t s as t h e y d i s r u p t o r a r e p e r c e i v e d as p o t e n t i a l l y d i s r u p t i v e t o t h e o n s e t o f s e r v i c e s o r o r d e r l i n e s s o f t h e o c c a s i o n . They a r e p e r c e i v e d as e v e n t s w h i c h a r e a t t e n d e d t o by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s and as r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l k i n d s o f a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e c o c k p i t crew as th e y a r e i n c h a r g e o f management o f t h e a i r c r a f t . S o c i a l p r e s s u r e s c o n s t r a i n some f l i g h t deck a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e C a p t a i n , b e c a u s e he i s a t t h e t o p o f t h e management team h i e r a r c h y , t o g i v e a ' r e a s o n a b l e a c c o u n t ' w h i c h f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s w i l l be ' u n d e r s t a n d a b l e ' , ' a c c e p t a b l e ' and 'as s u f f i c i e n t a s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s i t u a t i o n on hand'. I n f o r m a t i o n must be o f a k i n d t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l members i . e . p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t be too t e c h n i c a l . I n t h i s r e s p e c t even p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a i l u r e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be s h a r e d by p e r s o n s o u t s i d e t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The n e t w o r k o f i n q u i r y u s u a l l y o r i g i n a t e s w i t h t h e p a s s e n g e r and i s d i r e c t e d t o a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t who i n t u r n i n q u i r e s i n f o r m a t i o n o f the; p u r s e r o r d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e C a p t a i n . I n f o r m a t i o n ' w h i c h i s - 113 -known i n advance by a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t may o r may n o t be g i v e n t o t h e p a s s e n g e r depending on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e pr o b l e m . Announcements f r o m t h e f l i g h t deck a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d and t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ; f o r example, an a c c o u n t o f a d e l a y must p r o c e e d f r o m t h e f l i g h t deck on t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s system w i t h i n f i v e m i n u t e s a f t e r t h e s c h e d u l e d d e p a r t u r e t i m e has e x p i r e d . When n o i s e abatement f l i g h t p r o c e d u r e s a r e used a f t e r t a k e - o f f o v e r p o p u l a t e d r e s i d e n t a l a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a p e r c e i v a b l e c u t b a c k i n a i r c r a f t power, speed and r a t e o f c l i m b , i t i s mandatory t h a t t h i s be f o l l o w e d as soon as p o s s i b l e by t h e s t a n d a r d n o i s e abatement announcement from t h e c o c k p i t t o a s s u r e u n k n o w l e d g e a b l e p a s s e n g e r s t h a t i t i s a n o r m a l , r o u t i n e event and not t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a f a t e f u l t e r m i n a t i o n t o t h e o c c a s i o n . When a p u b l i c a d d r e s s announcement r e l a t e d t o t h e above m e n t i o n e d s i t u a t i o n s i s made t h e s p e a k e r i s u s u a l l y t h e C a p t a i n a l t h o u g h he may d e l e g a t e i t t o t h e f i r s t o f f i c e r , second o f f i c e r o r p u r s e r . The announcer a d d r e s s e s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n t r o d u c e s h i m s e l f by name and t i t l e i f he i s a p i l o t , o r by t i t l e o n l y i f he i s t h e p u r s e r ; i f he i s n o t t h e C a p t a i n , t h e n as s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e C a p t a i n . He 'acknowledges' t h e p r o b l e m e x i s t s , ' a p o l o g i z e s ' , ' i d e n t i f i e s ' t h e t h e p r o b l e m and sometimes g i v e s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f why i t c o n s t i t u t e s a p r o b l e m , g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f ' s p e c i f i c a c t i o n b e i n g t a k e n ' - 114 -t o r e c t i f y i t , ' a s s u r e s ' them t h a t a l l i s under c o n t r o l and i f i t i s a d e l a y i n d e p a r t u r e o r a r r i v a l ' p r o v i d e s an e s t i m a t e ' as t o t h e l e n g t h o f d e l a y and new a r r i v a l / d e p a r t u r e t i m e s . He may o r may n o t i n c l u d e an a v a i l a b i l i t y t o answer any ( f u r t h e r ) q u e s t i o n s . I n c l o s i n g he t h a n k s h i s a u d i e n c e f o r t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . I n f l i g h t , r e c e i v a l o f bomb t h r e a t s and a i r c r a f t m e c h a n i c a l s of a s e r i o u s n a t u r e , a r e t r e a t e d a s one of t h e s p e c i a l i n s t a n c e s t h a t r e q u i r e a d e l a y o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g i n o r d e r t h a t p a s s e n g e r s a r e n o t u n n e c e s s a r i l y s t r e s s e d . When t h e C a p t a i n d e c i d e s t o r e t u r n t o t h e a i r p o r t o f f l i g h t o r i g i n a t i o n , i t must be announced on t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s system as c a b i n p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y s i g h t s e e i n g and any change i n e x p e c t e d o r announced f l i g h t p a t h w o u l d be n o t i c e d . When a f l i g h t i s r e q u i r e d t o be t e r m i n a t e d b e f o r e c r u i s i n g a l t i t u d e i s re a c h e d he p u t s t h e l a n d i n g s i g n s ( ' f a s t e n s e a t b e l t s ' and 'no smoking') on. T h i s a l l o w s t h e c a b i n crew team t o be i n a c c e s s i b l e t o p a s s e n g e r i n q u i r i e s u n t i l a f t e r l a n d i n g a l t h o u g h t h e c a b i n crew u s u a l l y (but n o t a l w a y s ) a r e aware o f o r s u s p e c t t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e pr o b l e m . When t h e d e c i s i o n i s made sometime d u r i n g t h e c r u i s i n g p e r i o d t h e c a b i n crew i s i n f o r m e d f i r s t , a p u b l i c a d d r e s s announcement i s t h e n made t h a t i . e . bomb t h r e a t n e c e s s i t a t e s a r e t u r n t o t h e o r i g i n a t i o n p o i n t o r l a n d i n g a t t h e f i r s t a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t e a i r p o r t and i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g manner o f deplanement and t h e s e c u r i t y p r o c e d u r e s a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be - 115 -r e q u i r e d t o go t h r o u g h a t t h e l a n d i n g p o i n t . The c a b i n crew t e r m i n a t e any r e f r e s h m e n t s e r v i c e as soon as p o s s i b l e u n l e s s t h e a l t e r e d f l i g h t t i m e a l l o w s them t o f i n i s h , and/or t h e n c i r c u l a t e t h r o u g h t h e c a b i n s a s s u r i n g p a s s e n g e r s as b e s t t h e y c an. U n l i k e ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v e h i c l e s , j e t s , o r any l a r g e a i r c r a f t f o r t h a t m a t t e r , cannot l a n d ' j u s t anywhere' when a p r o b l e m d e v e l o p s , so t h a t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e o f d e l a y e d i n f o r m i n g o f p a s s e n g e r s i s more p r a c t i c a l f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f a n x i e t y management. F o r example, on f l i g h t s i n w h i c h t h e C a p t a i n announced t h a t he m i g h t n o t be a b l e t o l a n d a t t h e d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t due t o f o g , o r o t h e r w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s l i k e b l i z z a r d s , t h u n d e r s t o r m s e t c . b e f o r e t h e l a t t e r t h i r d o f t h e f l i g h t d u r a t i o n was r e a c h e d p a s s e n g e r r e q u e s t s d i r e c t e d t o f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t were so f r e q u e n t as t o be e a s i l y c a t e g o r i z e d a s ' h a r a s s m e n t ' . The p r e v a i l i n g group e m o t i o n c o n s e q u e n t l y i s one o f t e n s i o n , e x c e s s i v e e m o t i o n a l i t y i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n x i e t y r e f l e c t e d i n e x c e s s i v e c o n s u m p t i o n o f l i q u o r e t c . I t i s much more p r o b l e m a t i c f o r t h e c a b i n crew t o c o n t r o l . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s who a r e u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a f r o n t and d e p o r t t h e m s e l v e s i n a d i g n i f i e d manner when i n v i e w o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s r e m a i n i n a back r e g i o n where t h e d r o p p i n g o f t h e mask i s i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l f r o m t h e p a s s e n g e r s t a n d p o i n t . Composure, t h e - 116 -a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n e m o t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m i n t h e f a c e o f s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h a r e p o t e n t i a l l y o r c o n t e m p l a t i v e l y f a t e f u l ^ i s an o c c u p a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t . As a j o b s p e c i f i c p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i t i s a c r i t e r i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g a ' b o n a - f i d e ' member. F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s who a r e t o o e a s i l y f r i g h t e n e d by c o n t e m p l a t i v e l y f a t e f u l e v e n t s a r e n o t p e r c e i v e d as d e s i r a b l e c o w o r k e r s . There i s some tend e n c y f o r n e r v o u s t e n s i o n t o s p r e a d f r o m one coworker t o a n o t h e r i n a work u n i t o r c a b i n team, and f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e r e i s a c o n s t r a i n t on e x p r e s s i o n s o f f e a r ; a l t h o u g h , some f e a r i s a l m o s t a l w a y s e x p e r i e n c e d . T h i s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a g a i n i n t h e s e c t i o n on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a f l i g h t as a f a t e f u l e v e n t . A f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t ' s f i r s t a c t u a l e n c o u n t e r w i t h a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i s p o t e n t i a l l y o r c o n t e m p l a t i v e l y f a t e f u l i . e . s e v e r e t u r b u l e n c e , bomb s c a r e , emergency l a n d i n g and emergency e v a c u a t i o n o f p a s s e n g e r s and so on, may be v i e w e d as an on t h e j o b ' r i t e o f p a s s a g e ' t o bona-f i d e membership, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s a f e t y management role* tafc t h e c o m p l e t i o n o r t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n c i d e n t o r eve n t a n announcement i s made t o one's team members t h a t one i s now a member t h a t c a n be t r u s t e d . F o r example, t h e f o l l o w i n g k i n d o f announcement 75. Goffman, I n t e r a c t i o n a l R i t u a l , p. 225. - 117 -i s p r o u d l y d e l i v e r e d and i s t y p i c a l "Boy, now I've l i v e d t h r o u g h t h a t I f e e l I c a n t a k e a n y t h i n g , ( o r , " t a k e a n y t h i n g t h i s p l a n e has t o o f f e r . ) * " T h i s does n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e p e r s o n w i l l n e v e r a g a i n be a f r a i d , b u t t h a t he/she c a n manage t o m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f e m o t i o n a l and m e n t a l e q u i l i b r i u m . N e i t h e r does i t i m p l y t h a t an a d m i r a b l e h e r o i c p e r f o r m a n c e i s a s s u r e d i n t h e event o f an a c t u a l emergency l a n d i n g o r a i r c r a f t a c c i d e n t . Subsequent t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s r i t e o f p a s s a g e t h e s t o r y i s r e t o l d many t i m e s as b e i n g " t h e i n c i d e n t w h i c h p r o v e d beyond d o u b t " t h a t one had t h e composure i t t a k e s t o q u a l i f y as a b o n a - f i d e member.^ As one s e n i o r s t e w a r d e s s c o n v e r s a -t i o n a l l y s a i d t o t h e w r i t e r , a f t e r h e r f l i g h t on w h i c h a bomb t h r e a t had been r e c e i v e d , " I t was t h e o n l y e x c i t i n g t h i n g t h a t happened t o us on t h e whole f l i g h t . " The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t s u c h r i t e s o f p a s s a g e become r o u t i n i z e d w i t h t i m e b u t r e m a i n newsworthy. They a r e r e p o r t a b l e i n any a c c o u n t s g i v e n o f f l i g h t s , i . e . r o u t i n e s s u c h as meal s e r v i c e s a r e h o t p a r t o f such a c c o u n t s b u t a i r c r a f t m e c h a n i c a l s , a b o r t e d t a k e - o f f s , d e s t i n a t i o n b y - p a s s e s , s e v e r e t u r b u l e n c e , e t c . a r e . 76. These a r e r e c o u n t a b l e t o f e l l o w members o n l y . A manual d i r e c t i v e r e a d s " P a s s e n g e r s w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y a s k you about y o u r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e a i r l i n e . When r e p l y i n g , a v o i d t h e t h r i l l i n g and keep t o t h e r o u t i n e e x p e r i e n c e s . " F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s h a b i t u a l l y deny h a v i n g any s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s . I n d o i n g so t h e y compromise t h e i r s a f e t y management r o l e . Ah a l t e r n a t e p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h a t s h o u l d t h e y r e c o u n t s u c h e v e n t s t h e y m i g h t d i r e c t l y c a u s e a n x i e t y i n t h e p a s s e n g e r . T h i s c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s a member of t h e i m p r e s s i o n management team. - 118 -I t was me n t i o n e d e a r l i e r t h a t t u r b u l e n c e and changes i n w i n d v e l o c i t y a t c r u i s i n g a l t i t u d e s a r e o f s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y have t h e consequence of t r a n s f o r m i n g f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s ' r i g h t d e c i s i o n s i n t o wrong ones and a r e t h e r e f o r e p r o b l e m a t i c . R o u t i n e e v e r y d a y d e c i s i o n s do i n f a c t w i t h t h e p a s s a g e of i n t e r v e n i n g t i m e i n t e r v a l s become f a t e f u l d e c i s i o n s w i t h consequences t o t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 v i s u a l i z e s t h e p r e p l a n f o r a meal s e r v i c e on an e x p e c t e d r o u t i n e f l i g h t , i l l u s t r a t i o n 2b v i s u a l i z e s t h e same f l i g h t a s i t a c t u a l l y t r a n s p i r e d ; t h e y a r e s i m p l i f i e d f o r p u r p o s e s of e x p l a n a t i o n . I t i s a t p o i n t (X - X) of t u r b u l e n c e and subsequent r e q u i r e d d e l a y i n meal s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f twenty m i n u t e s t h a t r e s u l t s i n i . e . o verdone s t e a k s and d r i e d up peas w h i c h would have, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e c i s i o n made a t 0:45 m i n u t e s , been r e c e i v e d by p a s s e n g e r s as r a r e t o medium s t e a k s . The r i g h t d e c i s i o n a t p o i n t 0:45 m i n u t e s has t h e a p p e a r a n c e of b e i n g f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s someone's m i s t a k e a t p o i n t 2:20 h o u r s ; a wrong and f a t e f u l d e c i s i o n . T h i s k i n d o f f a t e f u l n e s s i s n o t c o n t r o l l a b l e . I t i n c r e a s e s i n t e r -p e r s o n a l t e n s i o n s and c r e a t e s one o f t h e r e g u l a r i t i e s o f t h e ev e r y d a y l i f e o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s w h i c h i s t h e n e c e s s i t y of c h a n g i n g work norms. T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d e c r e a s e d t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r meal p r e s e n t a t i o n due t o t u r b u l e n c e , a t p o i n t Y on a d d i t i o n a l change o f pace i s r e q u i r e d due t o w i n d f a c t o r s . A h e i g h t e n e d group t e n s i o n - 119 -I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 a) P r e f l i g h t p l a n o f r e f r e s h m e n t s e r v i c e s i n t h e economy c a b i n , meal O I a) F l i g h t h o u rs r b " 1 ! I ovens I I 'on'f l _ w i n e s ^ _L_L a c CO -H CD CCJ b) Refreshment s e r v i c e s as t h e y t r a n s p i r e d o i <u F l i g h t h o u r s b a r ovens w i n e s r meal a o CO 60 1-3 3 / 4 Code: X-X i n t e r v a l o f t u r b u l e n c e , m e a l d e l a y e d Y p o i n t a t w h i c h l a n d i n g t i m e announced as advanced by 15 min. due t o f a v o r a b l e w i n d s . - 120 -i s r e q u i r e d t o be c r e a t e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e same amount of a c t i v i t i e s and work g e t s c o m p l e t e d i n a s h o r t e r t i m e . I t i s one of t h e u n i f o r m i t i e s of s u c h a change of pace, and f a t e f u l n e s s o f r o u t i n e d e c i s i o n s , t h a t f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y ' e x p l a i n i n g why', ' a p o l o g i z i n g f o r ' , 'accommodating' and ' p a c i f y i n g ' f o r e v e n t s t h e y have no c o n t r o l o v e r b u t f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e . The l o g i c o f p r e p l a n n e d s e r -v i c e s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a c c e p t e d by p a s s e n g e r s as s a t i s f a c t o r y , f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s f e e l f r u s t r a t e d i n t h a t p a s s e n g e r s t e n d t o v i e w them as e x c u s e s r a t h e r t h a n r e a s o n a b l e a c c o u n t s . E v e n t s o f t h i s k i n d a l s o c a u s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l t e n s i o n s and c o n f l i c t s between c o w o r k e r s i n d e c i s i o n making as t o c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n t o f o l l o w . The a l t e r n a t i v e s f r e q u e n t l y a r e , 1) whether t o d e l a y t h e meal s e r v i c e and i n c u r p a s s e n g e r h o s t i l i t y , and f o r m a l l e t t e r s o f c o m p l a i n t , o r , 2) whether t o s e r v e d u r i n g t h e t u r b u l e n c e i n o r d e r t o keep t h e p a s s e n g e r s happy, and t h u s c o i n c i d e n t a l l y t o t a k e t h e r i s k o f p e r s o n a l p h y s i c a l i n j u r y . C l a i m s f o r i n j u r i e s c annot be made t o t h e Company when r e c e i v e d w h i l e b e i n g up and about w h i l e t h e s e a t b e l t s i g n i s 'on', so t h e r i s k t a k e n c a n be s e r i o u s l y c o n s e q u e n t i a l and t h u s causes much coworker f r i c t i o n on d e c i s i o n made t o i g n o r e t h e s i g n . I n most i n s t a n c e s work u n i t s a r e d i v i d e d , and most f r e q u e n t l y t h e f e a r o f p a s s e n g e r c o m p l a i n t s i s so s t r o n g t h a t s e r v i c e s c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h a l l b u t m o d e r a t e l y s e v e r e t o s e v e r e t u r b u l e n c e . T a b l e s V I I and V I I I i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a r y i n g d u r a t i o n o f f l i g h t t i m e s t h e c a b i n team a r e r e q u i r e d t o a d j u s t t o on a r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r e n t and r o u t i n e b a s i s . - 121 -T a b l e V I I A b s o l u t e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f l y i n g t i m e m i n u t e s f o r f o u r s c h e d u l e d d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s o p e r a t e d most f r e q u e n t l y i n a ten-month p e r i o d . ( F l y i n g t i m e b e g i n s when a i r c r a f t w h e e l s move f r o m t e r m i n a l a t o r i g i n a t i o n p o i n t and ends when t h e w h e e l s s t o p a t t h e d e s t i n a t i o n t e r m i n a l . ) Non-stop One e n r o u t e s t o p " One 'Two Three F o u r # o f f l i g h t s f l i g h t # o f f l i g h t # o f f l i g h t # o f f l i g h t m i n u t e s f l i g h t s m i n u t e s f l i g h t s m i n u t e s f l i g h t s m i n u t e s 1 233 1 257 1 258 1 265 1 236 1 266 2 262 1 303 1 240 1 288 1 263 0 * 305 1 245 + 0 * 290 1 265 1 311 + 2 275 1 297 1 266 2 323 1 280 1 300 1 267 1 341 1 284 1 302 0 * 270 1 343 1 290 1 303 + 1 271 1 296 1 1 308 312 1 1 1 1 273 274 285 + 295 1) m i n u t e s d i f f e r e n c e f r o m l e a s t t o g r e a t e s t . . . 63 55 33 78 2) 28.9% o f t h e s e f l i g h t s were c l a s s i f i e d as l a t e a r r i v a l s . Code: a ... f l y i n g t i m e i s combined f o r b o t h f l i g h t l e g s * ... f l i g h t t i m e i n m i n u t e s t a k e n f r o m p r i n t e d Company s c h e d u l e s + ... on t i m e a r r i v a l s by Company d e f i n i t i o n meaning w i t h i n f i f t e e n m i n u t e s o f p u b l i s h e d t i m e t a b l e , a l l e n t r i e s beyond t h i s symbol i n d i c a t e f l i g h t s c a t e g o r i z e d as l a t e a r r i v a l s . - 122 -T a b l e V I I I A b s o l u t e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f l y i n g t i m e m i n u t e s f o r two o v e r s e a s c h a r t e r f l i g h t s o p e r a t e d most f r e q u e n t l y i n a s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d . 3 ( F l y i n g t i m e i s d e f i n e d as f o r T a b l e V I I ) One f Two F l i g h t l e g A F l i g h t l e g B F l i g h t l e g A F l i g h t l e g B # o f f l i g h t s f l i g h t m i n u t e s # of f l i g h t f l i g h t s m i n u t e s # o f f l i g h t f l i g h t s m i n u t e s # of f l i g h t f l i g h t s m i n u t e s 1 170 1 178 1 185 1 200 1 426 1 429 1 460 1 464 1 323 1 381 1 388 1 482 1 159 1 232 M i n u t e s d i f f e r e n c e f r o m l e a s t t o g r e a t e s t 30 38 159 73 a T h e r e a r e no Company p r i n t e d t i m e t a b l e s f o r t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r c h a r t e r f l i g h t s t h e r e f o r e t h e s e cannot be compared t o any s p e c i f i e d s c h e d u l e d t i m e . -123 -R o u t i n i z i n g u n e x p e c t e d o c c u r r e n c e s o f medigal c r i s e s : I n t e r r u p t i o n s i n s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a l s o a r i s e due t o un e x p e c t e d m e d i c a l c r i s e s e x p e r i e n c e d by p a s s e n g e r s w h i c h r e q u i r e t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s t o g i v e f i r s t a i d . I n t h i s c a t e g o r y common o c c u r r e n c e s a r e : f a i n t i n g , a i r s i c k n e s s , n o s e b l e e d s , a s t h m a t i c a t t a c k s , h e a r t a t t a c k s , e p i l e p t i c s e i z u r e s , c l a u s t r o p h o b i a a n x i e t y r e a c t i o n s ; ' o c c a s i o n a l l y ' , i n j u r i e s due t o t u r b u l e n c e o r p r e s s u r i z a t i o n f a i l u r e , d e a t h o r s u i c i d e a t t e m p t . T h i s i s n o t an e x h a u s t i v e l i s t i n g . Such i n c i d e n t s may r e q u i r e a work r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r a temporary h a l t i n g o f o n g o i n g s e r v i c e . One f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t may be t e m p o r a r i l y dropped f r o m a work u n i t i n o r d e r t o r e m a i n w i t h t h e p a s s e n g e r p a s t h i s c r i s i s p e r i o d . When p r e s e n t , a s t e w a r d e s s who was f o r m e r l y a r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e i s s e l e c t e d above o t h e r s as she i s p e r c e i v e d by them t o be t h e 'p r o p e r ' p e r s o n t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e . ^ Because o f t h e i r f o r m e r s p e c i a l t y t h e y a r e a l s o r o u t i n e l y d e l e g a t e d by p u r s e r s t o g i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o p a s s e n g e r s i n f l i g h t who a r e known t o have m e d i c a l l y r e l a t e d p roblems i . e . d i a b e t e s , r e c e n t p o s t o p e r a t i v e s , m e n t a l l y i l l p e r s o n s , t h e e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t r e s s e d , e t c . , even though t h e i r s t a t u s i s n o t f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by way o f a s p e c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o r i n c r e a s e d pay d i f f e r e n t i a l s . 77. World A i r w a y s o r i g i n a l l y h i r e d o n l y r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e s as s t e w a r d e s s e s . When t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n was dropped a S t . J o h n Ambulance f i r s t a i d c o u r s e was g i v e n d u r i n g i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g . T h i s t r a i n i n g i s no l o n g e r p r o v i d e d . - 124 -T h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r o t h e r f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s t o e x p e c t h e r t o l o o k a f t e r a l l a i r s i c k p a s s e n g e r s . T h i s i s somewhat r e s e n t e d as i t i s f e l t t o be an abuse of h e r s p e c i a l t y i n t h a t i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t i t does n o t r e q u i r e an o r i e n t a t i o n t o ' a i r s i c k n e s s as a c r i s i s ' , b u t o n l y an ' o r i e n t a t i o n t o a i r s i c k n e s s as a r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g e v e n t ' i n t h e same c a t e g o r y as headaches and s t o m a c h a c h e s / w h i c h a r e seen by any f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t as n o t w a r r a n t i n g t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n of o r d e c i s i o n of a s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n . I t i s however c o n s i d e r e d as one o f t h e d i r t y j o b s and i s a v o i d e d o r d e l e g a t e d t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n f o r t h a t r e a s o n . The o r d i n a r y and m i n o r e v e r y d a y a i l m e n t s , o f t h e k i n d w h i c h anyone m i g h t r e g u l a r l y s u f f e r f r o m i n t h i s s e t t i n g , a r e t h o s e w h i c h a r e t r e a t a b l e f r o m t h e c o n t e n t s of a ' m e d i c i n e k i t ' w h i c h i s k e p t r e a d i l y a t hand. I t s e r v e s much t h e same p u r p o s e s as t h e m e d i c i n e c a b i n e t i n a home. The ' f i r s t a i d k i t ' on t h e o t h e r hand s e r v e s a c l a s s o f e v e n t s w h i c h a r e n o n - o r d i n a r y , i n f r e q u e n t and o f a much more s e r i o u s n a t u r e . T h i s k i t i s i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f emergency equipment, i t i s k e p t s e a l e d , c o n t a i n s s u c h i t e m s as s t e r i l e gauze pads, s u t u r e s , t i n c t u r e o f i o d i n e swabs, p e n i c i l l i n and demerol t a b l e t s e t c . f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t o f , f o r example, b u r n s , p u n c t u r e wounds, f r a c t u r e s and so on. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e m e d i c i n e k i t t h e r e i s a p r o c e d u r e f o r i t s u s e . I t must be r e s e a l e d 7 8 and l o g g e d as used i n t h e a i r c r a f t l o g b o o k l o c a t e d i n t h e c o c k p i t . 78. W o r l d A i r w a y s do n o t c a r r y any o b s t e t r i c a l k i t s . A l l Pan A m e r i c a n o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s do. They a v e r a g e f o u r t o f i v e i n f l i g h t d e l i v e r i e s a y e a r . C i t e d i n S. M u r a t a , "Keeping H e a l t h y a t 30,000 F e e t , " Today's H e a l t h , Amer. M e d i c a l A s s o c . , May 1970, pp. 67-70. - 125 -The f i r s t a i d k i t , b u t n o t t h e m e d i c i n e k i t , i s r e q u i r e d t o be t a k e n o f f t h e a i r c r a f t i n any l a n d o r s e a emergency e v a c u a t i o n f o l l o w i n g a n emergency l a n d i n g . A l l - t r e a t m e n t s a r e r e p o r t a b l e on t h e ' f l i g h t s e r v i c e r e p o r t ' f o r m b u t i n e v e r y d a y p r a c t i c e t h e t r e a t m e n t s o f minor a i l m e n t s do n o t g e t r e p o r t e d e x c e p t o c c a s i o n a l l y and u n l e s s t h e y have been g i v e n t o c h i l d r e n . U s u a l l y t h i s i s due t o t i m e p r e s s u r e s t o p r o v i d e r e f r e s h m e n t o r o t h e r s e r v i c e s . Any o c c u r r e n c e o f un e x p e c t e d m e d i c a l c r i s e s s u c h as t h e l i s t p r o v i d e d on page 123 a r e r e p o r t a b l e on t h e ' f l i g h t s e r v i c e r e p o r t ' f o r m and on t h e ' i n j u r y r e p o r t ' f o r m a l s o . The l a t t e r named f o r m a l s o r e q u i r e s t h e C a p t a i n ' s s i g n a t u r e . I t i s of l e g a l i m p o r t when l a i b i l i t y c l a i m s a r e l a i d a g a i n s t t h e Company. The C a p t a i n i s n o t i f i e d and g i v e n an a c c o u n t o f any c r i s e s w h i c h o c c u r , t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o v i d e d , t h e d e g r e e of s e r i o u s n e s s o r some e v a l u a t i o n o f whether t h e i n c i d e n t i s c r i t i c a l enough t o w a r r a n t an u n s c h e d u l e d l a n d i n g as i n t h e c a s e o f s e v e r e h e a r t a t t a c k s where d e a t h i s a s e r i o u s and r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y , o r whether an ambulance and/or m e d i c a l d o c t o r a r e r e q u i r e d t o be c a l l e d a t t h e s c h e d u l e d d e s t i n a t i o n . M e d i c a l d o c t o r s a r e paged f o r i n f l i g h t when a c r i s i s i s s e v e r e o r u n a c c o u n t a b l e f o r , and u s u a l l y a t t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c a s e s where t h e r e i s no n u r s e among t h e group and t h e r e i s d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g t h e c r i s i s . - 126 -C r i s e s a r e p e r c e i v e d as e v e n t s w h i c h r e q u i r e n o r m a l i z a t i o n by t h e p e r s o n t o whom i t has o c c u r r e d and e s p e c i a l l y by t h e p e r s o n ( s ) i n a t t e n d a n c e . A c c o u n t s a r e v o l u n t e e r e d o r s o l i c i t e d by t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e s t o make t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e " c o m m o n - s e n s i c a l 1 and f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s ' e x p l a i n a b l e ' . That i s , a b i o g r a p h i c a l h i s t o r y o f p r e v i o u s o c c u r r e n c e s o f t h e same k i n d i s s o u g h t , o r b i o g r a p h i c a l f a c t s w h i c h would be r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e c r i s i s a r e s o r t e d o u t and a r r a n g e d t o p r o v i d e a l o g i c a l and c o n s i s t e n t a c c o u n t s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s a t hand. Thus t o a c c o u n t f o r h i s f a i n t i n g e p i s o d e a p a s s e n g e r m i g h t e x p l a i n ( o r i t i s so c o n s t r u c t e d f o r him) t h a t he has been r e c e n t l y e x t r e m e l y o v e r w o r k e d , had n o t s l e p t i n t h e l a s t t h i r t y s i x h o u r s and has i n t h e meantime t r a v e l l e d a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s f r o m one end o f t h e c o n t i n e n t t o t h e o t h e r . T h i s would be a c c e p t e d as a r e a s o n a b l e a c c o u n t , t h e c r i s i s w ould t h e n be p e r c e i v e d t o be a ' n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g e v e n t ' . L i k e w i s e , a p a s s e n g e r s u f f e r i n g an a c u t e a s t h m a t i c a t t a c k w i t h p a l p i -t a t i o n s o f t h e h e a r t , nausea and v o m i t i n g a s s u r e d t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s t h a t she had had s i m i l a r a t t a c k s f o r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s and t h a t i t was f o l l o w i n g a ' t y p i c a l ' p a t t e r n , t h a t she was p r e p a r e d f o r i t s o c c u r r e n c e was c o r r o b o r a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t she had h e r own a t o m i z e r and m e d i c a t i o n . She a l s o produced a l e t t e r f r o m h e r m e d i c a l d o c t o r t o s u p p o r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , and h i s a p p r o v a l f o r h e r t o f l y . A l t h o u g h i t i s a c c o u n t a b l e f o r , t h e c r i s i s i s no l e s s a c r i s i s w h i l e i t i s o c c u r r i n g and a l l a p p r o p r i a t e forms o f a c t i o n a r e t a k e n as m e n t i o n e d . - 127 -I I . Space p r e s s u r e s c o r r e l a t e d t o c o n f l i c t b e h a v i o u r and c o e r c i v e p r a c t i c e s . A. S p a t i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a s p e c t o f power (see i l l u s t r a t i o n 3, pages 139, 140) One of t h e problems w h i c h f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e r o u t i n e l y o r i e n t e d t o i s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t o d e f i n e f o r p a s s e n g e r s , and s o c i a l i z e them i n t o , i s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s of r e g i o n s and t h e use of t h e s p a c e a v a i l a b l e t o them. ( R e f e r t o I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 f o r r e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n o f s e t t i n g . ) I n o r d e r f o r i m p r e s s i o n management t o be e f f e c t i v e and t h e 79 s t a g i n g o f p e r f o r m a n c e s a c t u a l i z e d r e g i o n s must be d i s t i n c t i v e . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t a d i v i s i o n of b a c k r e g i o n s where t h e p r e p a r a t i o n work i s done f r o m f r o n t r e g i o n s be made; however, on t h e a i r c r a f t t h e s e a r e n o t a l w a y s d i s t i n c t and/or permanent. F o r example, d u r i n g t a k e - o f f and l a n d i n g t h e y a c q u i r e d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e c a u s e a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be s e a t e d , b u t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e ' s e a t b e l t s i g n s ' a r e t u r n e d o f f t h e r e g i o n of t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t a r e a becomes b l u r r e d i n t o a v i s u a l f r o n t r e g i o n as i t i s o p p o s i t e t h e l o u n g e o r washrooms, and m a i n l y b e c a u s e i t has no v i s u a l b a r r i e r s . I t i s a l s o t h e r e f o r e somewhat a v a i l a b l e t o m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as a p a s s e n g e r f r o n t r e g i o n . The s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h a c t as b a r r i e r s t o r e g i o n use r e g a r d l e s s of p h y s i c a l and v i s u a l b a r r i e r s w i l l now be d i s c u s s e d . D e f i n i t i o n a l changes o f r e g i o n s a r e mapped i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 3. 79. Goffman, P r e s e n t a t i o n o f S e l f , pp. 106-140, 208-237. - 128 -T h e r e i s a g e n e r a l consensus t h a t i n v a s i o n s o f p r i m a r y and p e r s o n a l s p a c e i n p u b l i c conveyances a r e p r o b l e m a t i c t o t r a v e l l e r s and r e q u i r e i n t e r p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s . P e r s o n a l space r e f e r s t o " t h e a r e a 80 w i t h i n v i s i b l e b o u n d a r i e s s u r r o u n d i n g a p e r s o n ' s body." E x t r a s p a c e i s t h e r e f o r e p e r c e i v e d t o have p o s i t i v e v a l u e . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e r o u t i n e l y o r i e n t e d t o t h e i r power o v e r t h e p a s s e n g e r use o f e x t r a s p a c e as h a v i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f u s e f o r r e w a r d and punishment p u r p o s e s . The 81 t e r r i t o r i a l a s p e c t o f power i n c l u d e s c o e r c i v e t a c t i c s much as does t h e p r o c e s s o f team c r e a t i v i t y o f group t e n s i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f g e t t i n g r e f r e s h m e n t s e r v i c e s c o m p l e t e d i n t i m e . L e g i t i m a t e power f o r r e g u l a t i n g t h e use o f s p a c e by p a s s e n g e r s i s v e s t e d i n t h e i m p r e s s i o n management teams p o s i t i o n as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e s e t t i n g . E n t r y i n t o t h e c o c k p i t a r e a i s an e s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e and r e q u i r e s t h e C a p t a i n ' s i n v i t a t i o n o r p e r m i s s i o n b e f o r e i t becomes a f r o n t r e g i o n by e n t r y o f a p a s s e n g e r , a s i t i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e c o c k p i t crew t o w a r r a n t changes i n t h e i r b e h a v i o u r t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e s p a t i a l , d e f i n i t i o n a l change. P a s s e n g e r s must be e s c o r t e d i n by a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t who i s r e q u i r e d t o r e m a i n w i t h t h e v i s i t o r d u r i n g t h e s t a y , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e r m i n a t i n g i t and e s c o r t i n g t h e p a s s e n g e r 80. Sommer, P e r s o n a l Space, p. 26. 81. A. L. S tinchcombe, C o n s t r u c t i n g S o c i a l T h e o r i e s , New Y o r k , B a s i c Books I n c . , 1960. ( c o p y r i g h t 1 958), pp. 149-292. - 129 -b a c k t o h i s c a b i n . A d u l t r e q u e s t s a r e g e n e r a l l y r e f u s e d on grounds o f F e d e r a l l a w s o r Company p o l i c y . E x c e p t i o n s a r e a l m o s t n e v e r made on o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s s i n c e s k y h i j a c k i n g has become a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s g e n e r a l l y o f f e r a v i e w o f t h e c o c k p i t t o t h o s e d e s i r i n g i t d u r i n g s t a t i o n s t o p s e n r o u t e o r a t t e r m i n a l p o i n t s so as t o r e m a i n w i t h i n t h e r u l e s and d e c r e a s e r i s k s o f any untoward h a p p e n i n g . When t i m e p e r m i t s , , c o c k p i t v i s i t s a r e m a i n l y used as a rew a r d t o c h i l d r e n who have behaved w e l l i n f l i g h t , who a r e engaging as p e r s o n s o r who show a keen i n t e r e s t i n some a s p e c t o f f l y i n g a s a c a r e e r . T h i s a l s o i n d i r e c t l y r e w a r d s t h e p a r e n t / g u a r d i a n f o r a t t e n d i n g t h a t p o l i t e n e s s forms have been used by t h e c h i l d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s and f o r c o o p e r a t i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f a i s l e s p a c e d u r i n g s e r v i c e s . F a m i l i e s r e q u i r e more a s s i s t a n c e t h a n t h e o r d i n a r y p a s s e n g e r , t h o s e t h a t a s s i s t i n b u i l d i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t a r e m u t u a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y by b e i n g c o r d i a l r a t h e r t h a n u s i n g t h e s e r v i c e a p p r o a c h f o r i n t e r a c t i o n s i . e . by way of o r d e r s o r demands, w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d by t h e crew as e x c e p t i o n a l and d e s e r v i n g o f r e w a r d s . P i l o t s a s a r u l e e n j o y male c h i l d r e n and f r e q u e n t l y engage i n i n f o r m a l r e c r u i t m e n t f o r a v i a t i o n c a r e e r e n t r y . When t h e c o c k p i t i s about t o be changed i n t o a f r o n t r e g i o n f o r a v i s i t o r , e n t r y i s t i m e d so t h a t no one t h e r e i s p a r t a k i n g o f a meal and a l l s i g n s o f f o o d s e r v i c e s have been removed. V i s i t s may be - 130 -t i m e d so as t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h c e r t a i n d u t i e s so t h a t t h e v i s i t o r c a n see f o r h i m s e l f t h a t t h e p i l o t s a r e engaged i n h i s w e l f a r e , o r so t h a t t h e y may i g n o r e him w i t h o u t seeming t o do so. One o r s e v e r a l may r e c o g n i z e h i s p r e s e n c e b u t do n o t encourage c o n v e r s a t i o n . Those who a r e so i n c l i n e d t i m e t h e v i s i t so t h a t one o r two o f them a r e f r e e t o engage him i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h i s i s i m p l i e d t o t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t b e f o r e p a s s e n g e r e n t r y . A l l w i l l have checked t h e i r grooming b e f o r e h a n d and depending on t h e age o r s t a t u s o f t h e v i s i t o r may don t h e i r u n i f o r m j a c k e t s and h a t s . T h i s r e q u i r e s t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t t o e s t i m a t e t h i s k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e he/she f i r s t p r e s e n t s t h e p a s s e n g e r ' s r e q u e s t t o t h e C a p t a i n . E x c e p t f o r c h i l d r e n ' s v i s i t s a l l p a s s e n g e r s t a y s a r e o f v e r y s h o r t d u r a t i o n . I n t r o d u c t i o n s a r e made most f r e q u e n t l y when t h e r e i s i n t e n t i o n t o c o n v e r s e and may be h a n d l e d by t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t o r t h e C a p t a i n . A l t h o u g h t h e second o f f i c e r , and n a v i g a t o r on o v e r s e a s f l i g h t s , a r e c l o s e s t t o t h e c o c k p i t e n t r a n c e d o o r , d e f e r e n c e i s g i v e n t o t h e C a p t a i n ' s h i g h s t a t u s f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n s and c o n v e r s a t i o n i n i t i a t i o n s . G a l l e y a r e a s i n w h i c h meal, b a r and b e v e r a g e equipment and p r o d u c t s a r e s t o r e d and fr o m w h i c h t h e y a r e d i s p e n s e d t e n d t o g i v e t h e ap p e a r a n c e o f b e i n g b a c k r e g i o n s b e c a u s e t h e y may be c l o s e d o f f p a r t l y o r e n t i r e l y by c u r t a i n s o r d o o r s , and because t h e y l o o k v e r y t e c h n i c a l and a r e u s u a l l y o c c u p i e d by f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s . When s e r v i c e s a r e i n p r o g r e s s anyone p a s s i n g by can l o o k i n , t h e y a r e t h e n f r o n t r e g i o n s , - 131 -b u t t h e y a r e s t r i c t l y f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t t e r r i t o r y . I n f l i g h t when t h e g a l l e y i s c l o s e d w i t h t h e c u r t a i n s o r d o o r s u n i n f o r m e d p a s s e n g e r s may i n a d v e r t e n t l y b r e a k i n t o t h e b a c k r e g i o n i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r l a v a t o r i e s . The k n o w l e d g e a b l e t r a v e l l e r t a k e s t h i s l i b e r t y when he wants a s e r v i c e p e r f o r m e d o r when he wants t o s o c i a l i z e w i t h a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t who i s p r e s e n t . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e t h e p a s s e n g e r i s t r e a t e d i n such a way as to make i t o b v i o u s t h a t he has b r o k e n a b a r r i e r t h a t s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d e x p e c i a l l y i f t h e p e r s o n ( s ) i n s i d e a r e e a t i n g o r p e r f o r m i n g d u t i e s . I f t h e y a r e n o t so engaged t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d by a i r c r a f t h o s t ( e s s ) e t i q u e t t e and i n f o r m a l r u l e s t o open t h e b a r r i e r s and make t h e a r e a open r e g i o n . By f o r m a l r u l e s s t a t e d i n manuals g a l l e y a r e a s a r e t o be o f f l i m i t s t o p a s s e n g e r s and c l o s e d b a c k r e g i o n s between s e r v i c e s . However, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e economy c a b i n where t h e r e i s no spac e a v a i l a b l e f o r p a s s e n g e r s t o r e l o c a t e t h e m s e l v e s as i . e . f i r s t c l a s s l o u n g e a r e a , i n d i v i d u a l s , p a i r s o r grou p s ' t a k e o v e r ' t h e g a l l e y and use i t as an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y i n t h e c a b i n p r o p e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r them t o do so o n l y when t h e programmed r e f r e s h m e n t s e r v i c e s a r e n o t b e i n g p e r f o r m e d . P a s s e n g e r s i n v o l v e d i n t e r r i t o r i a l t a k e o v e r b e h a v i o u r a r e : 1) t h o s e who a r e a f r a i d o f f l y i n g and have a need t o s o c i a l i z e b u t do n o t f e e l a t l i b e r t y t o b r e a k t h e n o n s o c i a l b a r r i e r m a i n t a i n e d by most n e i g h b o u r s , 2) by p e r s o n s who want t o be more g r e g a r i o u s i n t h e i r c o n d u c t t h a n i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n a c o n f i n e d a r e a where c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r - 132 -t h e p r i v a c y o f one's n e i g h b o u r has t o be p a i d , 3) when p e r s o n s t r a v e l l i n g t o g e t h e r have n o t been a b l e t o g e t s e a t s t o g e t h e r and w i s h t o t a l k b u s i n e s s o r s o c i a l i z e w i t h each o t h e r , 4) and when males w i s h t o smoke c i g a r s o r p i p e s b u t cannot do so i n t h e c a b i n b e c a u s e t h e i r n e i g h b o r s r e f u s e t o g i v e p e r m i s s i o n f o r them t o do so and have so i n s t r u c t e d t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t . S e l e c t p e r s o n s may a l s o be i n v i t e d i n t o t h i s a r e a as a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s g e s t u r e o r as a re w a r d . These a r e g e n e r a l l y f e m a l e s who show an i n t e r e s t i n s e e i n g t h e k i t c h e n a r e a and l e a r n i n g how t h e equipment i s o p e r a t e d and c a t e r i n g done. Female c h i l d r e n a r e a l s o i n v i t e d when t h e y i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t i n a s t e w a r d e s s c a r e e r , so t h a t i n t h e i r t a l k f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s become engaged i n s o l i c i t i n g c a r e e r r e p l a c e m e n t s . O c c a s i o n a l l y a p a s s e n g e r e n t e r s t o use t h e g a l l e y s i n k o r g a r b a g e c a n t o v o m i t i n t o b e c a u s e t h e washrooms a r e f u l l and he does n o t w i s h t o u s e t h e a i r s i c k n e s s bag i n t h e f r o n t r e g i o n a t h i s s e a t , o r when a p a s s e n g e r i s i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f d i s o r i e n t a t i o n p r i o r f a i n t i n g . On a more temporary b a s i s a p a s s e n g e r m i g h t e n t e r i n o r d e r t o use t h e g a l l e y window f o r p i c t u r e t a k i n g , he m i g h t a l s o be i n v i t e d t o u s e i t . When t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t i s p r e s e n t and must r e m a i n because o f d u t i e s i n p r e p a r i n g f o r a s e r v i c e t h i s t e r r i t o r y may be s h a r e d . T h e r e i s a h i g h t o l e r a n c e f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f and i n t e r r u p t i o n s made by p a s s e n g e r s when t h e r e i s no p a r t i c u l a r t e n s i o n due t o f l i g h t t i m e - 133 -limitations although those f l i g h t attendants with definite feelings of ownership to this territory may exclude both passengers and other coworkers from occupying i t when they are responsible for galley duties. Once a service i s about to begin or has begun this area again reverts to s t r i c t l y f l i g h t attendant territory although i t s t i l l remains open region because of visual access. Territory i s established by the request or tactful order that the area is required, and why, or by the moving of equipment and more personnel into the area so that the passenger(s) submits to the authority of the stewardess and leaves voluntarily. As the galley floor space is approximately three feet by four i t doesn't take much pressure to make definitional changes meaningful. Use of this area is not perceived by either group of participants as disputable territory, passengers concede rights to the cabin crew. Aisle space in the cabin does not permit two average adults to pass without turning sideways, related problems are discussed later. The region next to the washrooms is viewed by both groups as disputable territory as there is a lack of indicators making i t fli g h t attendant territory. However, the crew must have the space to set up for their various cabin services, and when they do they establish i t as their territory whenever i t is necessary to do so, in this case the passenger wishing to use the same must make do with whatever space - 134 -i s l e f t . Equipment i s l e f t i n t h e a r e a b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no o t h e r s p a c e f o r i t and a l s o a t t i m e s t o r e t a i n o w n e r s h i p o f same. T h i s a p p l i e s t o meal and b a r t r o l l e y s and t h e c o u n t e r a r e a u s u a l l y used f o r a s t a n d - u p b a r . P a s s e n g e r s use t h e a r e a as an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r c a b i n t e r r i t o r y f o r t h e same r e a s o n s as g i v e n above w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f use o f t h e s i n k and g a r b a g e can u s e r s . On l o n g f l i g h t s any p a s s e n g e r n e e d i n g t o e x e r c i s e f e e l s more f r e e t o do so i n a r e l a t i v e l y b ack r e g i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e f r o n t r e g i o n of t h e c a b i n and t h e r e f o r e uses t h i s a r e a t e m p o r a r i l y . The a t t i t u d e o f t h e crew i s t h a t any p a s s e n g e r who s t a y s i n t h e a r e a o v e r l y l o n g i n some se n s e e s t a b l i s h e s o w n e r s h i p of t h e t e r r i t o r y , he i s d i s c o u r a g e d f r o m d o i n g so as o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s f e e l i n h i b i t e d by s u c h b e h a v i o u r , a r e known t o become j e a l o u s o r h o s t i l e about i t . A u t h o r i t y t o v a c a t e t h e a r e a i s e x e r c i s e d as a l a s t r e s o r t i n extreme s i t u a t i o n s where a number o f c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s a r e p r e s e n t . The d e f i n i t i o n i s t h a t o f an a i r c r a f t t r a f f i c p r o b l e m ; f o r example, when p a s s e n g e r s c o n g r e g a t e i n t h e r e a r f o r s o c i a l i z i n g , t h e washroom l i n e u p i s t w e l v e deep and t h e s t e w a r d e s s e s r e q u i r e t h e a i s l e and a r e a t o b r i n g i n t r a y s and stow them when f i n i s h i n g a meal s e r v i c e . The f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t a r e a i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e c a b i n crew as t h e i r e x c l u s i v e t e r r i t o r y a l t h o u g h i t i s v i s u a l l y a f r o n t r e g i o n , and d e f e n s e of i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e n s e and e m o t i o n a l . P h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s a r e l a c k i n g b u t a r e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d . E x t e n s i o n s - 135 -f o r p a s s e n g e r use a r e by p r i o r p e r m i s s i o n and/or i n v i t a t i o n . Ownership i s n o t d i s p u t a b l e . Temporary p e r m i s s i o n f o r i t s u s e a r e g e n e r a l l y v o l u n t a r i l y g i v e n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f p e r s o n s : mothers who w i s h t o n u r s e t h e i r i n f a n t s o r a r e h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y s e t t l i n g a c h i l d t o s l e e p i n t h e c a b i n , p a s s e n g e r s r e c o v e r i n g f r o m m e d i c a l c r i s e s t h a t have o c c u r r e d t h e r e o r have a p r e f e r e n c e t o be t r e a t e d t h e r e , t h e c l a u s -t r o p h o b i c has e x t e n t e d u s e d u r i n g a s t a t e o f i n c i p i e n t p a n i c b u t t h i s i s a r a r e o c c u r r e n c e as v e r y few o f them w i l l f l y i f t h e y tend t o g e t s e v e r e a t t a c k s , t h e e l d e r l y and i n f i r m a r e o f f e r e d i t as a p l a c e t o r e s t i f t h e l a v a t o r y l i n e - u p n e c e s s i t a t e s a l o n g w a i t . P a s s e n g e r s who a r e d e n i e d use o f t h e s e a t and moved o u t o f i t as soon as p o s s i b l e a r e t h e ones who a r e g i v e n s o c i a l l y n e g a t i v e o r d e v i a n t l a b e l s i . e . i n e b r i a t e d , so c a l l e d loud-mouths and s h o w - o f f s , any p a s s e n g e r who has been r u d e t o o r o v e r l y demanding o f a (any) f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t e s p e c i a l l y i f u n a p p r e c i a t i v e o f e f f o r t s made on h i s b e h a l f . The l a t t e r k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s . a l w a y s s h a r e d among t h e group as i s e x c e p t i o n a l n i c e n e s s . These p e o p l e a r e p o i n t e d o u t by s e a t p o s i t i o n f o r c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l map i n s e r t i o n so t h a t f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h h i s ap p e a r a n c e c a n be made and he c a n be r e c o g n i z e d anywhere i n t h e c a b i n . The p l a y b o y , s w i n g e r , o r o t h e r w i s e bothersome i s moved o u t o f t h e e n t i r e a r e a o r moved o u t o f t h e s e a t and t h e n i g n o r e d . T h i s i s done e s p e c i a l l y i f he s i t s down b e s i d e a s t e w a r d e s s w i t h o u t an i n v i t a t i o n , i f t h e - 136 -s t e w a r d e s s he has s e l e c t e d f o r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n has a s k e d t h e o t h e r s f o r p r o t e c t i v e h e l p i n m a i n t a i n i n g s p a t i a l and i n t e r a c t i o n a l d i s t a n c e f r o m him, o r when none of them i s b o r e d enough, i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e mood o r has n o t d e v e l o p e d t h e t a l e n t t o m a n i p u l a t e a s e x - o r i e n t e d game. When t i m e p e r m i t s f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s f u r t h e r t r e a t t h i s a r e a as owned t e r r i t o r y by i n v i t i n g s e l e c t p a s s e n g e r s t o j o i n them t h e r e f o r more i n t i m a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l h o s t ( e s s ) i n g t h a n f o r m a l r u l e s and p u b l i c f r o n t r e g i o n s p e r m i t . They a r e t h e r e f o r e t r e a t e d as p r i v i l e g e d p e r s o n s . I n v i t e e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y p r e v e l a n t i n t h e economy c a b i n when t h e r e i s a f u l l l o a d and t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t must s t a n d w i t h b e n t back w h i l e g o i n g p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work and where c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p r i v a c y i s n o t p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e of p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y of o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s . I n v i t a t i o n s a r e e xtended by f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s who e n j o y m e e t i n g and g e t t i n g t o know p e o p l e , and b e c a u s e i t i s one o f t h e few r e w a r d s a v a i l a b l e t o them f o r t h e e x c e p t i o n a l p a s s e n g e r . O r d i n a r i l y , t o be seen t a l k i n g t o a 82 s t e w a r d e s s i s p e r c e i v e d by p a s s e n g e r s t o have s t a t u s v a l u e . T h i s g i v e s an added d i m e n s i o n f o r i t s v a l u e as a r e w a r d . R e l a t i o n s h i p s a t t h i s t i m e a r e more i n f o r m a l , t h e p r e d o m i n a n t a t t i t u d e i s one o f m u t u a l r e s p e c t and a d m i r a t i o n , a l l p e r s o n s p r e s e n t may p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c o f f e e 82. W. G o l d i n g , "Body and S o u l " , The Hot G a t e s , London, F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , 1965, pp. 145-151. - 137 -o r smoke b r e a k . Depending on t h e number of p e r s o n s p r e s e n t t h e p a s s e n g e r may be i n v i t e d t o s h a r e t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t . Any f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t who has i n v i t e d someone t o t h e back i s o b l i g a t e d t o i n f o r m t h e o t h e r s , t h e s e p e o p l e a r e e x p e c t e d t o be s h a r e d by t h e group. I n t r o d u c t i o n s may or may n o t be made. I n t h e l i s t o f p o s s i b l e p a s s e n g e r s t o i n v i t e a r e t h o s e who by way of generous r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t d u r i n g enmasse s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w a r r a n t e d placement i n a c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l map. S e l e c t i o n s a r e made o u t o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l i s t . They a r e p a s s e n g e r s who r e s p e c t o f f e r s o f h o s p i t a l i t y as s u c h , who have been f o u n d t o have a c h i e v e m e n t s , i n t e r e s t s , o r i d e a s o f i n t e r e s t o r i m p o r t and who a r e w i l l i n g and happy t o s h a r e them. They a r e eager and s t i m u l a t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s b u t need n o t be e n t e r t a i n i n g , a l t h o u g h sometimes t h e r e i s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e l i g h t - h e a r t e d and comic t o t h e s e r i o u s and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e n t . The e x c e p t i o n a l and t h e r e f o r e p r i v i l e g e d p a s s e n g e r i s more f r e q u e n t l y t h e a v e r a g e man and woman, r a r e l y t h e c e l e b r i t y o r w e l l known p u b l i c p e r s o n . They a r e more f r e q u e n t l y s t r a n g e r s t h a n f r i e n d s o r r e c o g n i z e d r e g u l a r p a s s e n g e r s , and as more males t h a n f e m a l e s f l y more males t h a n f e m a l e s a r e i n v i t e d . M a r i t a l s t a t u s and age a r e i r r e l e v a n t . C o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r b e l i e f t h e e x e c u t i v e male i s n o t p r e f e r r e d above o t h e r s . O t h e r t h a n t h o s e who c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t enjoyment o f t h e work day by way of i n t e r e s t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s a r e t h e e x u b e r a n t f i r s t f l i g h t e r s , t h o s e who a r e a p p r e c i a t i v e o f s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and s e r v i c e s , and t h o s e who a r e - 138 -s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e i r work day p r o b l e m s . I n f a n t s p r o v i d e a d i v e r s i o n o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . They a r e b r o u g h t i n t o t h e a r e a t o be p l a y e d w i t h and l o v e d o r t o be c o m f o r t e d and p u t t o s l e e p when t h e mother ( o r p a r e n t s ) cannot do so o r has l o s t h e r p a t i e n c e , o r has too many o t h e r c h i l d r e n t o l o o k a f t e r . I t i s a l s o done f o r t h e mother who i s u n w e l l . I t i s n o t done f o r t h e mother who demands b a b y - s i t t i n g s e r v i c e s . T h i s a r e a i s common gr o u n d f o r a l l f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s and e t i q u e t t e demands t h a t no f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t t r e a t i t as t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x c l u s i v e t e r r i t o r y . Those who a t t e m p t t o do so a r e f e l t t o d i s p l a y bad f o r m , t h e p a i r o r group a r e most f r e q u e n t l y h a r a s s e d by t h e o t h e r c o w o r k e r s u n t i l t h e y b r e a k up o r eased o u t i n t o t h e a i s l e . P a s s e n g e r s who pass by and a t t e m p t t o j o i n a c o l l e c t i v e group t h a t forms around an i n v i t e d p e r s o n a r e eased out i n o r d e r t h a t t h e se n s e o f e x c l u s i v e n e s s o f p e r s o n s and o f owned o r p r i v a t e t e r r i t o r y i s m a i n t a i n e d . When t h e r e i s a p a s s e n g e r c a l l f r o m t h e c a b i n d u r i n g \ t h i s t i m e t h e c a l l i s answered and t h e s e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d by any f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t e x c e p t t h e one who extended t h e i n v i t a t i o n . The i n v i t o r i s a l s o one who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e r m i n a t i n g t h e v i s i t . - 139 -I l l u s t r a t i o n 3. A i r c r a f t R e g i o n and T e r r i t o r i a l Maps ( R e f e r t o I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 f o r r e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n ) a) R i g i d f r o n t and b a c k (*&0s\ r e g i o n s on t a k e - o f f and l a n d i n g . D u r i n g c r u i s i n g o n l y i f a l l p a s s e n g e r s a r e s e a t e d , i . e . t u r b u l e n c e and t h e s e a t b e l t s i g n s a r e "on". ( f r o n t r e g i o n ( • / v w ) ) . b) P l i a b l e f r o n t r e g i o n s by v i s u a l a c c e s s - d u r i n g c r u i s i n g - 140 -c) Disputed territory - ( C ) - conflicts inflight lit d) Front region by 'invitation' (-§$?•) TJLT to exclusive territory e) Disputable territory during refreshment act i v i t i e s (== E exclusive to x cabin crew - 141 -P a s s e n g e r t e r r i t o r i a l i t y e v i d e n c e d by s e a t s e l e c t i o n b e h a v i o u r and s e a t occupancy p a r a l l e l s t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s t o be f o u n d i n r a i l w a y 83 s t a t i o n s , c a f e t e r i a s and r e a d i n g rooms. Window and w a l l s e a t s a r e p r e f e r r e d and s e l e c t e d f i r s t . B e s i d e s t h e p r i v a c y and b e t t e r v i s u a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d a t windows p e r s o n a l s p a c e can be ex t e n d e d o n t o t h e w a l l and i s u s e f u l i n r e s t i n g and s l e e p i n g a g a i n s t . The n e x t p r e f e r r e d a r e t h e a i s l e s e a t s . These a f f o r d b e t t e r v i s u a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t a k e p l a c e i n t h e a i s l e t h e r e f o r e have ' a c t i o n ' v a l u e , and p e r m i t t h e most leaway f o r space e x t e n s i o n s . Such e x t e n s i o n s c o n s t i t u t e an o c c u p a t i o n a l h a z a r d ; f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s c o n t i n u a l l y s u f f e r body b l o c k s a t t h e h i p l e v e l f r o m p a s s e n g e r s ' s h o u l d e r s , b r u i s i n g on t h e t h i g h s f r o m p a s s e n g e r e l b o w s , c i g a r e t t e b u r n s t o c l o t h i n g and arms, and f r e q u e n t s t u m b l i n g and t r i p p i n g . An a t t e m p t t o a v o i d t h e s e p r e s e n t s a s waying w a l k e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d as e v i d e n c e o f s t e w a r d e s s ' s e x u a l i t y . As a l l p a s s e n g e r s e a t s f a c e f o r w a r d i n t e r e s t e d m a les a r e f r e q u e n t l y l o c a t a b l e by a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s t a n d i n g i n a r e a r b a c k r e g i o n as t h e y w i l l pop t h e i r heads i n t o t h e a i s l e a f t e r a s t e w a r d e s s w a l k s by. F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s w i l l sometimes a l t e r n a t e w a l k s down t h e a i s l e f o r t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t v a l u e d e r i v e d by c o w o r k e r s . 83. D. deJonge, " A p p l i e d H o d o l o g y : L a n d s c a p e , X V I I ( W i n t e r 1967-68) pp. 10-11, c i t e d i n Sommer, P e r s o n a l Space, p. 69. - 142 -C e n t e r s e a t s a r e l e a s t p r e f e r r e d and l a s t t o be t a k e n . T h i s '. l a t t e r p a t t e r n i s p r o b l e m a t i c t o f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s when s e a t s e l e c t i o n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e i n t h e t e r m i n a l p r i o r b o a r d i n g because i t causes c o n g r e g a t i o n a t t h e r e a r o f t h e a i r c r a f t ( o r m i l l i n g i n t h e a i s l e s ) o f p e r s o n s w a i t i n g f o r s e a t i n g a s s i s t a n c e u n n e c e s s a r i l y i . e . t h e y w i l l have pa s s e d by empty s e a t s b u t r e f u s e d them. I t a l s o d e l a y s d e p a r t u r e s as t h e a i r c r a f t door i s n o t c l o s e d and t h e a i r c r a f t does n o t b e g i n t o t a x i u n t i l a l l p a s s e n g e r s a r e s e a t e d o r i t i s c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e r e a r e s e a t s a v a i l a b l e t o them. The r e q u i r e m e n t t o h a n d l e p a s s e n g e r s e a t l o c a t i o n a s q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e as t h e i r p a r t i n team r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t d e p a r t u r e s a r e made on t i m e , f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o r e c o g n i z e as one o f t h e u n i f o r m i t i e s o f t h e i r d a i l y l i f e t h a t p a s s e n g e r s engage i n d e c e p t i v e p r a c t i c e s t o c l a i m e x t r a s p a c e as t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . They a r e t h e r e f o r e r o u t i n e l y r e q u i r e d t o r e c o g n i z e d e c e p t i v e p r a c t i c e s and t a k e a c t i o n on them i f n e c e s s a r y , t o e v a l u a t e t e r r i t o r i a l m a r k e r s as t o t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and t o use d e c i s i o n a l r u l e s r e g a r d i n g t h e h o n o r i n g o f ' o c c u p i e d c a r d s ' w h i c h a r e p r o v i d e d f o r p a s s e n g e r s ' u s e as t e r r i t o r i a l markers.'..' , D u r i n g b o a r d i n g p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g s , i . e . c l o t h e s , p u r s e s , v a l i s e s , r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l e t c . a r e t h e most f r e q u e n t o b j e c t s used as t e r r i t o r i a l m a r k e r s f o r c l a i m s o f e x t r a s p a c e . When t h e y a r e p l a c e d on t h e n e i g h b o r i n g s e a t t h e y a r e e f f e c t i v e c l a i m s t o p a s s e n g e r s l o o k i n g - 143 -f o r s p a c e b u t n o t t o f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s . Such c l a i m s a r e v i e w e d as u n w a r r a n t e d and i f i t i s known t h a t a f u l l l o a d i s e x p e c t e d s u c h a c l a i m i s r e v e r s e d whenever seen by them. Two p e r s o n s t r a v e l l i n g t o g e t h e r who t a k e two a i s l e s e a t s r a t h e r t h a n two s e a t s t o g e t h e r use t h i s s t r a t e g y t o m o n o p o l i z e b o t h c e n t e r s e a t s n e x t t o them and a i s l e s p a c e as t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . A t an e n r o u t e s t a t i o n s t o p p a r t i c u l a r l y , b u t a t o r i g i n a t i o n p o i n t a l s o , i f s u c h p a s s e n g e r s a r e t r o u b l e s o m e o r r u d e t h e y w i l l have t h i s e x t r a s e a t s p a c e t a k e n away on them above o t h e r s b e h a v i n g s i m i l a r l y . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s d i r e c t u n s e a t e d p a s s e n g e r s t o t h e s e f i r s t . T h i s may be p e r c e i v e d as a n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n o r as an abuse o f p o s i t i o n , b u t i s a l s o p e r f o r m e d i n an e f f o r t t o keep d o u b l e s e a t s a v a i l a b l e o u t o f t h e need t o r e l o c a t e p a s s e n g e r s i n an a t t e m p t t o r e d u c e e m o t i o n a l h o s t i l i t y and a n x i e t y i n c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f p a s s e n g e r s , and t h u s promote a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards enjoyment o f t h e o c c a s i o n . R e l o c a t i n g i s a g a i n s t t h e f o r m a l company r u l e s b u t i s p r o v i d e d on t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t t o a s s i s t t h o s e who cannot a f f o r d t o pay f o r a c h a i r f o r i n f a n t s and c h i l d r e n , f o r t h o s e whose f a m i l i e s a r e s p l i t up b e c a u s e t h e y c h e c k e d - i n l a t e e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e c h i l d r e n a r e d i s t u r b e d a t s e p a r a t i o n , f o r e l d e r l y and m a r r i e d c o u p l e s and p a s s e n g e r s t r a v e l l i n g t o g e t h e r who b o a r d l a t e . M a l e p a s s e n g e r s t r a v e l l i n g s i n g l y have been r e p o r t e d by o t h e r s of r e c r u i t i n g a f e m a l e p a s s e n g e r i n t h e t e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g so t h a t t h e y c a n b o a r d as a m a r r i e d c o u p l e and demand s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s . - 144 -Rearrangement i s done as soon as p o s s i b l e as p e o p l e f o r m a p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e i r l o c a t i o n t h e l o n g e r t h e y a r e i n i t . D u r i n g a f l i g h t p a s s e n g e r s n o r m a l l y r e t a i n t h e s e a t s t h e y o r i g i n a l l y c l a i m e d . T e r r i t o r a l i t y i s r e s p e c t e d , t h a t i s , i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r them t o l e a v e a t e r r i t o r i a l marker t o r e s e r v e t h e i r s e a t when f o r example, t h e y make a t r i p t o t h e l a v a t o r y o r go t o t h e magazine r a c k f o r r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . Men w i l l sometimes change t h e i r s e a t s i n o r d e r t o p i c k up women o r f o r f e m a l e company i n f l i g h t a l t h o u g h t h i s i s u s u a l l y done more d i s c r e t e l y d u r i n g o r i g i n a l s e a t s e l e c t i o n . A male who wanders up and down t h e a i s l e ' l o o k i n g a t t h e p a s s e n g e r s ' i s v i e w e d as a p r o b l e m about w h i c h something must be done. I n e b r i a t e d males who a t t e m p t t o p i c k up women p a s s e n g e r s a r e as k e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l s e a t s . P a s s e n g e r s who d e s i r e s e a t r e l o c a t i o n d u r i n g f l i g h t s i . e . b e c a u s e t h e i r n e i g h b o r s a r e o v e r t a l k a t i v e , t o o p e r s o n a l o r p r e s s u r e l i q u o r c o n s u m p t i o n , r e q u e s t t h e s e r v i c e f r o m f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s t o g e t h e r w i t h an a c c o u n t o f why t h e r e q u e s t i s b e i n g p r e s e n t e d . D u r i n g b o a r d i n g a t e n r o u t e s t o p s f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e ' o c c u p i e d s e a t ' marker i s n o t a l w a y s v a l i d , as p a s s e n g e r s g o i n g t h r o u g h u s e them t o ex t e n d t h e i r p e r s o n a l s p a c e . T h i s marker and c l a i m t o t e r r i t o r i a l i t y i s honoured e x c e p t i n t h e t e r m i n a l phase o f t h e b o a r d i n g p e r i o d i . e . t h e l a s t f i v e m i n u t e s . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t t o l i f t t h e ma r k e r , g i v e away t h e s e a t , and f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s t r e a t i t as u n t r u s t w o r t h y even i f a subsequent a t t e m p t - 145 -t o r e c l a i m t h e space i s made. A d e c e p t i v e c l a i m o f t h i s k i n d i s more e f f e c t i v e when . i t ' i s . combined w i t h p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g s and a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t w i l l f r e q u e n t l y be h e a r d t o a s k a n e i g h b o r i n g p a s s e n g e r i f t h e b e l o n g i n g s a r e h i s . T h i s k i n d o f p r a c t i c e c a n be c o n s e q u e n t i a l t o t h e p a s s e n g e r i n t h a t f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o d e p l a n e l u g g a g e w h i c h i s 'presumably f o r g o t t e n ' o r on t h e grounds t h a t t h e p a s s e n g e r has m i s s e d h i s f l i g h t . P a s s e n g e r s t r a v e l l i n g l o n g d i s t a n c e s p a r t i c u l a r l y , b u t any p a s s e n g e r s t r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h s e v e r a l e n r o u t e s t o p s , g e t v e r y d i s t r e s s e d when t h e y r e b o a r d t h e f l i g h t and f i n d t h e i r s e a t o c c u p i e d by someone e l s e even though t h e y l e f t no t e r r i t o r i a l m a r k e r s t o r e s e r v e i t . They r e s i s t p l a c e m e n t i n a n o t h e r s e a t even though i t may be more f a v o r a b l e i n many ways. On f l i g h t s where a l l p a s s e n g e r s must d e p l a n e f o r customs c l e a r a n c e and no b e l o n g i n g s can be l e f t on b o a r d t h e s e p a s s e n g e r s a r e v e r y c o n c e r n e d t o know whether t h e y w i l l be r e b o a r d i n g ' t h e v e r y same a i r c r a f t ' . Even though t h e y a r e a s s u r e d o f o c c u p y i n g t h e v e r y same s e a t p o s i t i o n , and even though each a i r c r a f t i s t h e same as t h e o t h e r , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a f i r m p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e a i r c r a f t t r a v e l l e d on. T h i s s u b j e c t w i l l be t a k e n up a g a i n i n t h e s e c t i o n on o b s e r v a n c e of r i t u a l s of p a s s a g e , as w i l l t h e c o n c e r n f o r knowing ' r i g h t h e r e and now' g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n and ' r i g h t h e r e and now' c l o c k t i m e . - 146 -I n t e r p e r s o n a l p r e s s u r e s a c c r u e and j e o p a r d i z e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and m a i n t e n a n c e o f a f a v o r a b l e group e m o t i o n and s a t i s f a c t o r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e o c c a s i o n . B. The s t r u c t u r e s of male f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f l i g h t The m a l e / f e m a l e d i s t i n c t i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t f o u n d i n f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t d i v i s i o n o f work a r e f o u n d i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , a r e o b s e r v a b l e on a r e c i p r o c a l b a s i s and i s s i m i l a r t o t h e c u l t u r a l male f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f d e f e r e n c e f o u n d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . Newer members a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o r e g a r d each o t h e r i n t h e s e ways. Norms a r e s t a t e d d i r e c t l y i n d i s p u t e s o r r e p r i m a n d s , a r e l e a r n e d by p r e s s u r e s t o conform i . e . s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , o r t h r o u g h t h e use of humor. Humor as an agent o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l and t e n s i o n r e l e a s e ^ ' was p r e f e r r e d o v e r s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and v a r i e d f r o m i n d i v i d u a l t o group 8 6 t e a s i n g , s c a r c a s m , b a n t e r , o r by d r a w i n g i n by h o r s e p l a y t h e member w i t h whom t h e r e was a work r e q u i r e m e n t t o be f r i e n d l y b u t towards whom t h e r e was some need t o c o r r e c t d e v i a n c e f r o m norms. These means were used by f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s f o r example t o s o c i a l i z e new a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s i n t o d o i n g t h e i r s h a r e o f c l e a n i n g up j o b s and t i d y i n g , a n d - t o p e r c e i v e t h e s e as b e i n g p r o p e r f o r m ales t o p e r f o r m r a t h e r t h a n 84. R. L. C o s e r , "Some S o c i a l F u n c t i o n s of L a u g h t e r " , Human R e l a t i o n s , V o l X I I ( 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 40-43. 85. S. F r e u d , J o k e s and T h e i r R e l a t i o n t o t h e U n c o n s c i o u s , New Y o r k , W. W. N o r t o n and Co. I n c . , 1960, pp. 100-106. 86. T. B u r n s , " F r i e n d s Enemies and The P o l i t e F i c t i o n " , Amer. S o c i o l . Rev., V o l X V I I I (1953) pp. 654-662. - 147 -p e r c e i v i n g them as s e x u a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and as p r i m a r i l y women's work. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t and m a i n t e n a n c e o f j o k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s , i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t t e n s i o n s a r e q u i c k l y r e l e a s e d , a more s a t i s f a c t o r y e m o t i o n a l b a s e f r o m w h i c h t o e s t a b l i s h i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a s s e n g e r s and t h u s a more f a v o r a b l e group e m o t i o n i s l i k e l y t o emerge i n a work s e t t i n g t h a t has a l o t o f t e n s i o n p r o d u c i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The j o k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n s w i l l r e f e r t o t h e j o v i a l manner o f g r e e t i n g and r e l a t i n g t o each o t h e r i n t h e work s e t t i n g , m u t u a l t e a s i n g , and w i l l i n c l u d e f u n n y s t o r y and j o k e t e l l i n g . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n was used by Bradney t o r e f e r t o t h e j o k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p e x p r e s s e d between c l e r k s d u r i n g ;-tense 87 s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e department s t o r e s e t t i n g . I n t h i s p a p e r t h a t b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n w i l l a l s o i n c l u d e gaming, h o r s e p l a y , and p r a n k s . An example o f an i n s t a n c e o f humor a f t e r a t e n s e s i t u a t i o n : a male p a s s e n g e r had come up t o t h e g a l l e y where an a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r and s t e w a r d e s s were s t a n d i n g . He had a dazed e x p r e s s i o n , was i n c o h e r e n t i n speech and as he s t a r t e d t o s t u m b l e b o t h r e a l i z e d he was g o i n g t o f a i n t . As t h e p u r s e r was n e a r b y she gra b b e d him by t h e arm and p u l l e d him i n t o t h e g a l l e y t o h e l p . When t h e man had been r e v i v e d and had r e t u r n e d t o h i s s e a t t h e p u r s e r d i d n o t p r a i s e h e r o r anyone f o r f a s t 87. P. Bradney, "The J o k i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p i n I n d u s t r y " , Human R e l a t i o n s , V o l X (1957) pp. 178-184. - 148 -a c t i o n as one might e x p e c t o f a p e r s o n i n t h e l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n , he p r o u d l y d e c l a r e d t h a t he wasn't g o i n g t o wash h i s arm f o r a week. The humor t h a t r e s u l t e d was on t h e grounds of male f e m a l e c o n t a c t r a t h e r t h a n o t h e r c o n t e x t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a v a i l a b l e . A s t e w a r d e s s w i l l f r e q u e n t l y a s k a male t o l i f t b a r u n i t s o r s e t up and d i s b a n d meal t r o l l e y s f o r h e r o u t o f d e f e r e n c e t o h i s m a s c u l i n i t y , and a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o comply t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y f l a t t e r e d t o do s o , and a r e seen t o o f f e r t o do so as a way of c o m p l i m e n t i n g h e r f e m i n i n i t y . When a mal e i s n o t aroun d s t e w a r d e s s e s r e a d i l y p e r f o r m t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s . I n male f e m a l e d i s c u s s i o n s , o r c o i n c i d e n t a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s d u r i n g a s s i s t a n c e , m u t u a l a d m i r a t i o n i s e x p l i c i t and t h e b a s i s o f exchange i s s p e c i f i e d i . e . "...because y o u ' r e a man!", " . . . i t ' s a n i c e t h i n g t o do", " I a g r e e , m u s c l e s b e l o n g t o a man", and so on. I t i s t h e r e c i p r o c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f s e x u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and/or m u t u a l a d m i r a t i o n t h a t r e g u l a t e s much of t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h gender p o s t u r i n g , r e c i p r o c a l grooming and p r e e n i n g a r e p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . C o r r e c t i o n s f o r s h o r t c o m i n g s i n p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e when p l a c e d w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t a r e much more r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d by b o t h g r o u p s . Those between whom a j o k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s f i n d m u l t i p l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o emphasize t h i s c o n t e x t i n t h e r e g u l a r p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e i r d u t i e s . Thus, a male's c o m p l a i n t o f s o r e eyes i s t r a n s f o r m e d by a f e m a l e i n t o - 149 -a n a t u r a l consequence o f o g l i n g and t h e manner i n w h i c h a g e r k i n i s h e l d up t o be s e t on a canape t r a y by a male, c a n i n t i m a t e o b s c e n i t y t o a f e m a l e . When t h e r e a r e many i n f l i g h t p r e s s u r e s i t i s advantageous t o g i v e e v i d e n c e o f a q u i c k s e n s e o f humor and w e l l p l a c e d w i t . When used t o r e l i e v e s t r e s s i t has s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n v a l u e . A p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n i s s e r v e d i n t h a t t h o s e who can r e l a t e i n t h i s f a s h i o n r e m a i n more m e n t a l l y a l e r t d u r i n g r u s h e d f l i g h t s and l o n g on-duty p e r i o d s . Boredom and m e n t a l l e t h a r g y a r e common c o m p l a i n t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e r e q u i r e d a s s e mbly l i n e t y p e o f s e r v i c e o f f e r s t a l k . F o r example, as v a r i a t i o n s a r e n o t i n d e f i n i t e , i n s i m p l i f i e d f o r m ; 60 v o c a l i z a t i o n s o f "Would you l i k e a newspaper", f o l l o w e d by 110 v o c a l i z a t i o n s o f "Would you c a r e f o r a p i l l o w " , f o l l o w e d by 60 v o c a l i z a t i o n s o f "Would you l i k e s o mething f r o m t h e b a r " e t c . f o r t h r e e f l i g h t l o a d s i n one on-duty p e r i o d p r o d u c e s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l need f o r a n o u t l e t . I t i s f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y e x p r e s s e d . A g g r e s s i v e h o r s e p l a y i s spontaneous and f r e e f o r m o r p l a n n e d and c a r e f u l l y s t a g e d . Most f r e q u e n t l y s e v e r a l f e m a l e s w i l l c o n s p i r e a g a i n s t a ma l e who i s known as a good s p o r t . An i n c i d e n t where a mal e i s overpowered t o c a r r y o u t a p r a n k o r who i n n o c e n t l y c o o p e r a t e s and f o r example g e t s h i s t r o u s e r s z i p p e r p a d l o c k e d w i t h t h e b a r l o c k , can s u b s e q u e n t l y be used as a j o k i n g t h r e a t o r c o u n t e r c o e r c i o n by t h e s t e w a r d e s s e s . - 150 -I t i s c u l t u r a l l y based background e x p e c t a n c i e s w h i c h dominate i n a s e n i o r p u r s e r ' s r e p r i m a n d o f an a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r w i t h . l e s s t h a n s i x months e x p e r i e n c e , on p a s s e n g e r s ' u s e o f t h e r e a r f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t d u r i n g a n o v e r s e a s on d u t y p e r i o d o f t w e l v e h o u r s . Note t h a t i n b o t h u t t e r a n c e s t h e p u r s e r ' s u s e o f p r o n o m i n a l s 'we' o r 'our' i s a b s e n t when r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s e a t even though i t i s t h e i r s a l s o . U t t e r a n c e 1 produced i n an a n g r y tone o f v o i c e . " D i d you l e t t h o s e p e o p l e use t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t ? D i d you t e l l them t o l e a v e ? " and u t t e r a n c e 2 i n a s c o l d i n g t o n e " W e l l y ou s h o u l d have, t h a t ' s t h e o n l y p l a c e t h e g i r l s have t o s i t . The p a s s e n g e r s have no r i g h t t o u s e i t . I t o l d them s o ! " He t h e n w a l k e d o f f a b r u p t l y . L i k e w i s e , f e m a l e s a r e encouraged t o and p e r m i t t e d t o e a t f i r s t , a r e a l l o w e d t h e b e t t e r o f f o o d s a v a i l a b l e , and may even be s e r v e d by t h e p u r s e r p a r t i c u l a r l y i f she i s t h e p u r s e r ' s coworker i n the f i r s t c l a s s , has h i g h s e n i o r i t y s t a t u s , o r i s one of h i s f a v o r i t e s . S t e w a r d e s s e s a r e a l s o encouraged t o s i t down and eat l e i s u r e l y when t i m e p e r m i t s w h i l e p u r s e r s w i l l f r e q u e n t l y e a t on t h e r u n o r s t a n d i n g up a t t h e b a r . As e x t r a p a s s e n g e r meals a r e n o t b o a r d e d , and as o c c a s i o n a l l y a c c i d e n t s o c c u r , i . e . a c a s s e r o l e i s dropped d u r i n g t u r b u l e n c e o r when t h e t r o l l e y i s bumped a g a i n s t a s e a t , p a s s e n g e r meals a r e r e p l a c e d w i t h crew m e a l s . When a s h o r t a g e o f crew meals does o c c u r , d e f e r e n c e i s p a i d t o f e m a l e s and males go w i t h o u t . These - 151 -d e f e r e n c e p a t t e r n s a r e a n o r m a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n and when n o t c o m p l i e d w i t h s t e w a r d e s s e s f e e l t h e y have a r i g h t t o c o m p l a i n about poor t r e a t m e n t and i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A s u r v e y of t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s of 'Stewardess and F l i g h t S e r v i c e 88 News' f o r t h e p a s t y e a r i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l o f them f e a t u r e d p h o t o g r a p h s and/or a r t i c l e s on a i r l i n e u n i f o r m changes i n t h e f i r s t two pages, most f r e q u e n t l y on t h e f i r s t page. The t i t l e of one a i r l i n e ' s a d v e r t i s e m e n t l a y o u t r e a d s " P r o b a b l y t h e most v i s u a l p l e a s u r e i s t h e new n o n - u n i f o r m 89 worn by our s t e w a r d e s s e s ; " i t was e s p e c i a l l y d i r e c t e d towards t h e 9 e x e c u t i v e male p a s s e n g e r group. The p u b l i c r e a c t e d by c h a n g i n g a i r l i n e s , t h i s i n c l u d e s e x e c u t i v e m a l e s . A l t h o u g h most a i r l i n e a d v e r t i s i n g i s not q u i t e so d i r e c t t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y t o p l a y up t h e glamour i n t h e s t e w a r d e s s s t e r e o t y p e d image. W o r l d A i r w a y s s t a n d a r d g i r l 88. S t e w a r d e s s e s and F l i g h t S e r v i c e News, A. C. M o r t o n , p u b l i s h e r and managing e d i t o r , M i a m i ( f o r m e r l y known as I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t e w a r d e s s News). 89. C. P. A i r a d v e r t i s e m e n t , Time Canada, J . M. S c o t t , ed., T o r o n t o , H. L u c e I I I . p u b l i s h e r , O c t . 26, 1970, p. 42. 90. W. R. S l e a n , l e t t e r t o t h e w r i t e r , d a t e d 8 J a n u a r y 1971. ( s t a n d a r d f o r m l e t t e r m a i l e d t o a l l r e s p o n d a n t s of a s u r v e y of p u b l i c o p i n i o n on t h e C P . A i r new m i d i n o n - u n i f o r m . C a r r i e d o u t o f f i c i a l l y by C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s . ) - 152 -n e x t d o o r image was a l t e r e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g manual b u l l e t i n : "You a r e now p e r m i t t e d any h a i r s t y l e ( i n c l u d i n g t h e use o f h a i r p i e c e s , f a l l s and w i g s ) , any eye makeup o r c o s m e t i c , f a l s e eyelashes*: f a l s e f i n g e r n a i l s , eye g l a s s e s f o r a e s t h e t i c o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , r i n g s , b r a c e l e t s and e a r r i n g s p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e i r use w i l l p r e s e n t a more glamourous a p p e a r a n c e t o o u r p a s s e n g e r s . " Female c o s t u m i n g and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i s d i r e c t e d towards a r o u s i n g t h e i n t e r e s t o f u n s p e c i f i e d males and as s u c h i s grounds f o r t h e s e x u a l l y -91 o r i e n t e d p o t e n t i a l t y p e of a c t i o n . The n o t i o n t h a t s t e w a r d e s s e s a r e s e x u a l l y a v a i l a b l e p e r s o n s o v e r l a y s many of t h e t e a s i n g and j o k i n g v e r b a l r e f e r e n c e s made by male p a s s e n g e r s t o s t e w a r d e s s e s i n f l i g h t t o t h e " C o f f e e , Tea o r Me" book and i t s e x p l i c i t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s t e w a r d e s s e s 92 as h i g h l y p r o m i s c u o u s . The a c t i o n t r e n d was summarized by an A m e r i c a n male p a s s e n g e r as "The e x e c u t i v e t r e n d i s n o t t o s i t by t h e window s e a t s any more. I t ' s t o s i t on t h e a i s l e s e a t . T h a t ' s where t h e a c t i o n i s . . . s e e t h e s k i r t s goin.'up. A l o t o f l e g showing. G e t t i n g a f e e l , " had t h e e f f e c t o f c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t i n g him f r o m a l l b u t m i n i m a l s e r v i c e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s on t h a t f l i g h t , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e d e v i a n t l a b e l o f ' p e r v e r t ' on h i m s e l f . M e n t i o n o f t h e " C o f f e e , Tea o r Me" book i s p e r c e i v e d as r e q u i r i n g n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n i n g and s t e w a r d e s s e s w i l l f r e q u e n t l y i n t o n e t h a t t h e p a s s e n g e r i s r e a d i n g t r a s h . 91. Goffman, I n t e r a c t i o n R i t u a l , pp. 185-210. 92. T. B a k e r , R. J o n e s , C o f f e e , Tea o r Me, New Y o r k , Bartholomew House, L t d . 1967. - 153 -The Company r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d i n an i n t e r n a l o r g a n , a p i c t u r e o f t h e i r s t e w a r d e s s ' n o n - u n i f o r m d r e s s w i t h a c a p t i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of i t b e i n g " t h e a i s l e - p a s s e n g e r ' s d e l i g h t " . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y and f o r m a l l y v e r i f i e s t h e g e n e r a l male a t t i t u d e q u o t e d above. They have a t t h e same t i m e however, a l s o p r e s e n t e d t o t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t group two b u l l e t i n s r e p r i m a n d i n g heavy d r i n k i n g and crew m i s b e h a v i o u r a t l a y o v e r p o i n t s . The two p e r s p e c t i v e s somewhat c o n f l i c t 93 w i t h each o t h e r . A r t i c l e s o f an expose k i n d i n i t i a t e many i n f l i g h t q u e r i e s f r o m p a s s e n g e r s as t o t h e n a t u r e o f crew r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S t e w a r d e s s e s g e n e r a l l y a r e s o c i a l l y embarrassed by s u c h q u e s t i o n s . I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t : male and f e m a l e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e m u t u a l l y o r i e n t e d t o s e x u a l a v a i l a b i l i t y k i n d s o f a c t i o n and t h a t t h e y r e c i p r o c a l l y a p p l y commonly h e l d d e c i s i o n a l r u l e s t o e n f o r c e an image of s t e w a r d e s s s e x u a l ' u n a v a i l a b i l i t y ' as one o f t h e u n i f o r m i t i e s of t h e i r e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s ; f u r t h e r , t h a t by a d h e r i n g t o group h e l d norms th e y s o c i a l l y s u s t a i n a s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n o f a s t e w a r d e s s as a f e m a l e t o be m o r a l l y r e s p e c t e d and whose f e m i n i n i t y i s t o be p r o t e c t e d and d e f e n d e d . 93. B. K e l l y , "The Day t h e C a p t a i n and t h e F i r s t O f f i c e r P u l l e d Down t h e S t e w a r d e s s ' G i r d l e a t 10,000 F e e t " , The C a n a d i a n  M a g a z i n e i n s e r t of Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , Canada, Oc t . 31, 1970 p. 3-4. - 154 -S e x u a l l y - o r i e n t e d ' a c t i o n ' a p p r o a c h e s r e c e i v e d f r o m male p a s s e n g e r s by s t e w a r d e s s e s w h i c h i n f e r an a t t i t u d e t h a t she i s p e r c e i v e d by them t o be s e x u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o a n y ( a l l ) m a l e s , i n i t i a t e i s o l a t i o n and n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n s o f a p r o c e d u r a l k i n d e n a c t e d by t h e work u n i t . The u n i t c o w o r k e r s a r e i n f o r m e d o f t h e p a s s e n g e r ' s ' s e a t l o c a t i o n ' f o r c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l map p l a c e m e n t . They a r e g i v e n a ' d e s c r i p t i o n ' so t h a t he w i l l be ' r e c o g n i z a b l e ' anywhere i n t h e c a b i n . An 'account i s g i v e n ' of what he s a i d , w i l l i n c l u d e h e r c o u n t e r r e s p o n s e and i s f r e q u e n t l y c l o s e d w i t h a n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s - m o r a l c h a r a c t e r . N e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n s and r u d e n e s s a r e seen as w a r r a n t e d and a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y a p p l i e d . The male i s s a r c a s t i c a l l y t o l d o f f , put-down, i g n o r e d , a v o i d e d , g i v e n s l o w u n f r i e n d l y o r poor s e r v i c e ; ' i n t e r a c t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n ' w i t h t h e s t e w a r d e s s o f h i s c h o i c e w i l l be c o l l e c t i v e l y e n f o r c e d . He i s ' r e p o r t a b l e t o male crew members' i f he p e r s i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f he i s i n e b r i a t e d , r u d e o r c o a r s e . I n t h a t t h e male c a b i n crew ' g i v e a t a l k i n g t o ' , ' t h r e a t e n t o d e p l a n e ' , 'cut o f f l i q u o r s a l e s t o him', and 'deny t h e use o f e x t r a s p a c e ' t o s u c h p a s s e n g e r s i . e . r e a r f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t a r e a , t h e y engage i n d e f e n s i v e p r a c t i c e s s p e c i f i c t o t h e s e t t i n g . M a l e c a b i n crew r e g u l a t e t h e s o c i a l c l a s s and m o r a l c h a r a c t e r of male p a s s e n g e r s who may be seen by o t h e r s t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h s t e w a r d e s s e s d u r i n g p e r i o d s when no s p e c i f i c c a b i n s e r v i c e i s b e i n g p e r f o r m e d i . e . m e a l , b a r . A male whom the y l a b e l 'drunk', ' a l c o h o l i c ' , - 155 -' s l o b ' , 'blowhard', 'hood', who appear t o be s h a b b i l y d r e s s e d and p o o r l y groomed, who use c o a r s e l a n g u a g e t o t e l l d i r t y j o k e s i n f r o n t o f s t e w a r d e s s e s a r e v i e w e d by them as ones who must be p u t down i n a p u b l i c l y o b s e r v a b l e manner so t h a t i t i s c l e a r t o a l l p e r s o n s t h a t a s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n o r m o r a l p r o p r i e t y i s r o u t i n e l y e x p e c t e d . A p u r s e r ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s s h a r p command t o a male who had come up t o t a l k t o t h e s t e w a r d e s s he was s t a n d i n g w i t h was, " I ' v e a s n e a k i n g s u s p i c i o n he's shacked up w i t h t h a t young g i r l he's w i t h . . . " A c e r t a i n amount of e x c l u s i v e n e s s t o males of h i g h e r s t a t u s who a r e p r o p e r l y behaved i . e . n o t d r u n k , i s p e r m i t t e d , w i t h o u t n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n s , t o s t e w a r d e s s e s on an i n d i v i d u a l o r c o l l e c t i v e b a s i s f o r q u a s i - s e x u a l o r i e n t e d gaming p r o v i d i n g i t p r o c e e d s i n s u c h a way t h a t f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s i t i s n o t p e r c e i v a b l e as a game w i t h p o s t -f l i g h t s e x u a l consequences. That i s , t a c t f u l f l i r t i n g i s p e r m i t t e d b u t i s n o t condoned when f o l l o w e d by i n t e n t i o n t o d a t e t h e p a s s e n g e r , and t h e s t e w a r d e s s who does so r i s k s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i n her f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y . When a r e q u e s t f o r a d a t e i s r e c e i v e d out of h e a r i n g o f co w o r k e r s i t i s an 'announceable e v e n t ' t o work u n i t s t e w a r d e s s e s and i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them t o r e q u e s t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o l l o w i n g a s t e w a r d e s s ' p e r i o d o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s c o n v e r s i n g w i t h a male p a s s e n g e r f r o m whom s u c h a r e q u e s t w o u l d be seen as h o n o r a b l e and f a v o r a b l e i f t h e s i t u a t i o n were r i g h t i . e . a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r m a r r i a g e . M a l e f l i g h t - 156 -a t t e n d a n t s w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y a s k f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r f r o m o t h e r s t e w a r d e s s e s . T h e r e i s some s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e y b a s e t h e i r own c o e r c i v e p r a c t i c e s on t h e s e g r o u n d s . C. O c c u p a t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s P e r s o n a l i z a t i o n o f p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s : T h e r e i s some d i s c r e p a n c y between p a s s e n g e r and f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t d e f i n i t i o n o f p r o p e r work, o r s i g n i f i c a n t and i n s i g n i f i c a n t work. W h i l e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s on an enmasse b a s i s i s g e n e r a l l y a g r eed upon by b o t h as c o n s t i t u t i n g work, as i s a l s o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r example t o p e r s o n s s u f f e r i n g f r o m m e d i c a l c r i s e s , t h i s does n o t appear t o a p p l y t o p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work p e r f o r m e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . F o r example, p a s s e n g e r s f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r p r e t a s t e w a r d e s s who i s s t a n d i n g and t a l k i n g t o some p a s s e n g e r i n t h e i r v i s u a l v i c i n i t y as 'not d o i n g a n y t h i n g w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s a d e f i n i t i o n of p r o p e r work;' and f e e l f r e e t o i n t e r r u p t w i t h r e q u e s t s f o r e x t r a s i . e . a n o t h e r d r i n k , matches, e t c . To r e s i s t t h i s k i n d o f i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f t h e i r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s r o l e work, t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s and t o d e c r e a s e t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r s t h e y w i l l h a b i t u a l l y and whenever p o s s i b l e : 1) s i t down n e x t t o t h e p a s s e n g e r t h e y a r e t a l k i n g t o , 2) a v o i d l o o k i n g about a t o t h e r s so t h a t t h e y a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o r e c o g n i z e a n o t h e r ' s d e s i r e t o - 157 -i n t e r a c t i . e . eye c o n t a c t o r s i g n a l , 3) s t a n d w i t h a few magazines o r newspapers i n hand so as t o g i v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a mass s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n , 4) p l a y w i t h o r c a r r y i n f a n t s i n arms, or 5) h a n d l e some o b j e c t b e l o n g i n g t o t h e p a s s e n g e r i . e . camera b o o k , e t c . P a s s e n g e r s a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o v i e w p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work as 'proper and r e q u i r e d ' work. I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t who i s t a l k i n g t o some p a s s e n g e r i n t h e c a b i n t o i g n o r e t h e f a c t t h a t a p a s s e n g e r c a l l b u t t o n has gone on, i t w i l l be answered by a coworker as t h i s i s a team work norm. P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work when p e r f o r m e d o u t s i d e of enmasse s e r v i c e s i . e . a m e n i t i e s , r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , r e f r e s h m e n t s , i s n o t done m e r e l y f o r i t s e n t e r t a i n m e n t v a l u e b u t f o r t h e p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n a l b e n e f i t s t o t h e s o c i a l o r d e r and m e a n i n g f u l n e s s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . When problems a r e r e a d i l y l o c a t a b l e t h e y can be used t o c r e a t e an i n s t a n c e of t h i s k i n d . D e v i a n t b e h a v i o r f r e q u e n t l y t a k e s on t h e added s i g n i f i c a n c e o f b e i n g ' u n d e r s t a n d a b l e ' c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c a u s a l f a c t o r s . I n t h i s r e s p e c t a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t ( s ) m i g h t d e c i d e t h a t a group o f p a s s e n g e r s a r e b e i n g o v e r b o i s t e r o u s , w i l l d i s c o v e r i n t a l k i n g t o them t h a t t h e y a r e on t h e i r way t o a c o n v e n t i o n , f i s h i n g t r i p , e t c . and c a n l e a v e a f t e r d i p l o m a t i c a l l y r e m i n d i n g them o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y n o t t o d i s t u r b t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . E x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g becomes u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , a l t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a c c e p t a b l e , when t h e f l i g h t - 158 -a t t e n d a n t i s aware t h a t t h e p a s s e n g e r i s a f r a i d o f f l y i n g , i s e s c o r t i n g h i s f r i e n d ' s human rema i n s back t o t h e homeland and r e l a t i v e s , o r g o i n g t o s e e someone who i s d y i n g , e t c . i n w h i c h c a s e f r e q u e n t l y c o n v e r s i n g ' s u b s t i t u t e s f o r ' an e x t r a d r i n k . I t i s t h e o c c a s i o n f o r s y m p a t h i z i n g w i t h a p a r e n t whose c h i l d r e n a r e b e i n g d i f f i c u l t t o h a n d l e o r f o r p a c i f y i n g p a s s e n g e r s who f e e l t h e y have been m i s h a n d l e d by ground p e r s o n n e l and so on. B r i e f l y , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s i s t h e h u m a n i z i n g o f p a s s e n g e r s i n t o p e o p l e . A t t h e same t i m e t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t comes to be p e r c e i v e d as someone who c a r e s and u n d e r s t a n d s r a t h e r t h a n a non-p e r s o n who s e r v e s i n d i f f e r e n t l y on a mass b a s i s . I t i s f o r s u c h work a l s o t h a t p a s s e n g e r l e t t e r s o f compliment a r e r e c e i v e d , t h a t j o b o f f e r s a r e e x t e n d e d , f o r w h i c h k i s s e s a r e bestowed on p a r t i n g o r d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e s o l i c i t a t i o n s a r e made by p a s s e n g e r f o r p r a y e r s f o r l o v e d ones who a r e i n need. Some f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s f i n d s u c h p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work s a t i s f y i n g and do a l o t o f i t , o t h e r s do v e r y l i t t l e a t a l l o u t s i d e o f enmasse s e r v i c e s . A c c o u n t i n g f o r d i s o r g a n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n s  and a l i e n a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s Communication p a t t e r n s d u r i n g speed s e r v i c e s have a much h i g h e r c o n t e n t o f co m m u n i c a t i o n by way o f k i n e s i c r e s p o n s e s . The more l e i s u r e l y t h e (any) a c t i v i t y can b e - p e r f o r m e d t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be t h e p e r s o n a l i z e d - 159 -v e r b a l c o n t e n t i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . B r e v i t y o r l a r g e s s o f v e r b a l c o n t e n t and i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t i o n t i m e span a r e p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o f l i g h t t i m e d u r a t i o n , f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t / p a s s e n g e r r a t i o s and number of s e r v i c e s t o be p r o v i d e d . As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s t h e s t e w a r d e s s i s r e q u i r e d f o r example t o a d d r e s s a row o f . t h r e e p a s s e n g e r s as one gr o u p . When she s a y s 'Would you l i k e c o f f e e o r t e a ? " she p o u r s i t f o r t h e f i r s t p e r s o n i n d i c a t i n g he/she wou l d l i k e w h i c h e v e r one she i s h o l d i n g . P o u r i n g i s done m e r e l y a f t e r an up and down head nod, a b e g i n n i n g hand movement toward t h e cup, eye c o n t a c t , t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s m i l e , a s l i g h t l y u p r a i s e d c up, e t c . She w i l l engage i n s o c i a b l e c o n v e r s a t i o n o n l y o f t h e k i n d w h i c h c a n be e a s i l y and q u i c k l y t e r m i n a t e d o r w h i c h can be c a r r i e d as s i d e i n v o l v e m e n t s w h i l e engaged i n p o u r i n g b e v e r a g e s f o r n e i g h b o u r i n g p a s s e n g e r s . T h i s d e p e r s o n a l i z e s t h e i r s e r v i c e . Such s o c i a b l e c o n v e r s a t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y p u b l i c . They a r e d i s o r d e r l y and r e q u i r e d t o be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t and any p a s s e n g e r who a t t e m p t s t o r e t a i n a crew member u n d u l y l o n g w i l l f i n d h i m s e l f i g n o r e d n o t f o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s b u t bec a u s e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t t o g e t t h e t o t a l j o b done. Such s e r v i c e p e r f o r m a n c e s a r e h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o b o t h g r o u p s . I t i s f r o m s u c h f l i g h t s t h a t l e t t e r s o f c o m p l a i n t a r e r e c e i v e d t h a t f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s were c o l d and u n f r i e n d l y . Compounded by management r e p r i m a n d s , c a b i n crews a r e h i g h l y p r e s s u r e d t o l e a r n how to h a n d l e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d so as t o appear f r i e n d l y , b u t n o t so - 160 -f r i e n d l y as t o i n i t i a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s e v e r e n c e w i t h s o c i a l embarrassment o f t h e p a s s e n g e r . P a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s who t r a v e l s h o r t d i s t a n c e s w i l l c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y have an image of a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t as b e i n g a p e r s o n who i s a ' g l a m o u r i z e d ( w a i t e r ) w a i t r e s s ' . O n l y a h i g h l y s y n c h r o n i z e d s e n i o r crew who g e t a l o n g w e l l t o g e t h e r can p e r f o r m as a team i n s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s w i t h o u t becoming f r u s t r a t e d and e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t r e s s e d . E v i d e n c e o f e x c e s s i v e i n f l i g h t s t r e s s r e s u l t s i n v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and/or c r y i n g i n t h e washroom, v e r b a l c o n f l i c t s and/or f o l l o w e d by g r u d g e s , r e f u s a l t o t a k e n o u r i s h m e n t , and c o m p l a i n i n g t o o t h e r work u n i t members. I n extreme s i t u a t i o n s , t h e c o c k p i t crew a r e e n l i s t e d t o s u p p o r t t h e c a b i n team. When problems of c o n t r o l o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r o f t h e o c c a s i o n a r e j e o p a r d i z e d by e x c e s s i v e e m o t i o n a l s t r a i n among t h e c a b i n crew t h e C a p t a i n i s known t o p u t t h e ' s e a t - b e l t s i g n ' on so t h a t a l l p a s s e n g e r s must be s e a t e d . The c a b i n crew a r e t h u s r e l i e v e d of much o f t h e p r e s s u r e . T h i s o c c u r s o n l y v e r y o c c a s i o n a l l y and i s a l a s t r e s o r t t o s o l v i n g t e r r i t o r i a l i t y c o n f l i c t s i . e . t r a f f i c p r oblems and e x c l u s i v e t e r r i t o r y . The l a t t e r example i n p a r t i c u l a r w o u l d be non e x i s t a n t i f p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s t o t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t r e g i o n were p r e s e n t . I n t h a t t h e i r r e s t a r e a i s n o t s e c l u d e d that.way t h e y a r e f o r c e d t o be c o n t i n u a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h t h e p a s s e n g e r s and t o pay m i n i m a l a t t e n t i o n t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs. - 161 -D i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e due to p a s s e n g e r s ' approach to a f l i g h t as a ' s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n ' w h i l e to t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t i t i s a ' r o u t i n e and everyday' k i n d of o c c a s i o n . I t i s not i n c o n s i s t e n t t h e r e f o r e w i t h t h i s frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r p a s s e n g e r s on a c h a r t e r f l i g h t to consume most of t h e l i q u o r boarded d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two hours of a n i n e hour f l i g h t , but t h e consequence i s t h a t t h e crew speak of them i n d e r o g a t o r y terms 94 l i k e " p i g s " , "mental m i d g e t s " e t c . N e i t h e r i s i t i n c o n s i s t e n t from the f i r s t c l a s s passenger v i e w p o i n t t h a t a l a r g e h o t b r e a k f a s t can be consumed one and one h a l f hours a f t e r he/she d i n e d on an e i g h t c o u r s e meal w i t h wines, champagne and l i q u o r w hich was preceded by c o c k t a i l s , canapes and hot h o r s d'oeurves. F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s have a n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e 'proper amounts of r e q u e s t s ' f o r s e r v i c e s , ' a p p r o p r i a t e amounts of f o o d and l i q u o r ' to be consumed and 'proper ways of r e q u e s t i n g ' s e r v i c e s . F o r example, a gentleman a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y y e a r s o l d s t o o d up and approached t h e w r i t e r who was s i t t i n g w i t h a n o t h e r p a s s e n g e r , g o t h e r a t t e n t i o n and chomped h i s t e e t h t w i c e t h e n r e t u r n e d to h i s s e a t . T h i s was supposed to communicate to her t h a t he wished h e r to s e r v e him and h i s f r i e n d a n o t h e r round o f d r i n k s . None of the u n i t coworkers 94. P e r s o n a l communication on a n o t h e r a i r l i n e . Some c h a r t e r f l i g h t s have been r e q u i r e d to r e t u r n to t h e i r o r i g i n a t i o n p o i n t because i m m i g r a t i o n and customs o f f i c i a l s a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o i n t s r e f u s e d t o p r o c e s s t h e p a s s e n g e r s on t h e grounds t h a t they were too i n e b r i a t e d and o f f e n s i v e . To p r e v e n t t h i s , p i l o t s a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y r e q u i r e d t o extend f l y i n g time by c i r c l i n g e t c . w h i l e t h e p a s s e n g e r s sober up. - 162 -were a b l e t o d e c i p h e r h i s c o m m unication code. P a s s e n g e r s who communicate t h e i r r e q u e s t s by s n a p p i n g t h e i r f i n g e r s , f l a g g i n g down, o r p u l l i n g on t h e c l o t h e s o r body of a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t , u n n e c e s s a r i l y a g g r a v a t e h e r ( h i m ) as t h e r e a r e c a l l b u t t o n s a t e v e r y row o f s e a t s f o r t h e p u r p o s e of making r e q u e s t s f o r s e r v i c e s known. A l t h o u g h f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be s o c i a b l e and a r e p a i d t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s , t h e y f e e l them-s e l v e s t o be abused by t h e t y p e s of p a s s e n g e r b e h a v i o u r j u s t d e s c r i b e d . I t i s n o t uncommon f o r t h e crew to be up on t h e i r f e e t and busy f o r f i v e t o s e v e n h o u r s b e f o r e g e t t i n g a c o f f e e b r e a k . When under s t r e s s o f t h i s k i n d p a s s e n g e r / f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e somewhat a g g r e s s i v e and a n t a g o n i s t i c . I t may be s a i d t h a t t h e w h o l e o c c a s i o n i s a f a i l u r e as an e n j o y a b l e s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g b e c a u s e t h e crew a r e p r e s s u r e d i n t o u s i n g n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a semblance of s o c i a l o r d e r and. r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . .• I n t h i s r e s p e c t , c h a r t e r f l i g h t s a r e sometimes e a s i e r t o manage because p a s s e n -g e r s w i l l s a n c t i o n each o t h e r o r t h e head o f t h e group m i g h t impose i . e . a no more d r i n k i n g o r no more smoking r u l e , whereas on r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d f l i g h t s t h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e p a s s e n g e r s a r e l a r g e l y s t r a n g e r s t o each o t h e r . The f i n a l outcome of h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i s p l a y s i t s e l f i n an abandonment o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s h o s t / h o s t e s s r o l e and d u t y t o p e r f o r m t h e r e q u i r e d f a r e w e l l c e r e m o n i a l as p a s s e n g e r s d e p l a n e . P r e l i m i n a r y and l e n g t h y f a r e w e l l s may be g i v e n - 163 -to special or privileged passengers i.e. those who have been polite, kind and responsive, during the descent and taxi after landing periods while others are entirely ignored. The manner of enactment of the ceremonial can be used as a measure for evaluating the success of the occasion. As a l l passengers deplane through the forward exit they are bid farewell by the purser and/or the f i r s t class stewardess at least. It was shown that new and junior f l i g h t attendants must prove themselves worthy of being considered bona-fide members. It would appear that there is a comparable notion that passengers are in some sense required to prove themselves worthy of a fl i g h t attendant's services beyond having paid for the fl i g h t and that they are perceived as obligated to assist in building satisfactory interpersonal relation-ships with the crew. It is the real and serious attachment to the safety management role and the expectation that extrinsic benefits are to be derived from their work that are decisive in a f l i g h t attendant's complaint to another that i v e . "These people aren't worth dying for". It is towards the end of a f l i g h t that attachment or alienation between the two sets of participants is most evidently crucial to a - 164 -95 f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e o c c a s i o n as s u c h . I n t e r a c t i o n s f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Two c a s e examples o f raw d a t a i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e coworker communication p a t t e r n s and d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n f l i g h t . They a r e d u p l i c a t e d as t h e y were c r e a t e d i . e . as o n g o i n g a c t i v i t y e v e n t s . The r e a d e r i s r e q u i r e d t o r e f e r t o t h e n o t a t i v e s y s t e m i n t h e A p p e n d i x f o r e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e symbols used i n d a t a p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n t e r a c t i o n Case I 1) F l i g h t - o v e r s e a s c h a r t e r ; f i r s t f l i g h t l e g o f a two s e c t i o n f l i g h t , t h i s means t h e r e i s one e n r o u t e s t o p . 2) Onset o f d u t y p e r i o d - 2:30 A.M. P a c i f i c D a y l i g h t t i m e 3) Time of o c c u r r e n c e - i n t h e second hour o f f l i g h t o r 5-5:30 A.M., o f an e x p e c t e d f o u r t e e n hour on-duty p e r i o d . 95. P o s t f l i g h t r e a c t i o n s t o e x c e s s i v e i n f l i g h t s t r e s s r e s u l t s i n : e x c e s s i v e c o n s u m p t i o n o f l i q u o r , t h e Company p e r i o d i c a l l y p u t s o u t b u l l e t i n s r e m i n d i n g f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s o f t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o p e r l y d e p o r t t h e m s e l v e s as t h e y a r e c o n t i n u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Company; w i t h d r a w a l f r o m s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s ; e m o t i o n a l c o l l a p s e s i n t o c r y i n g e p i s o d e s , t h i s i n c l u d e s f e m a l e s and m a l e s ; s h o r t p e r i o d s of i s o l a t i o n f o l l o w e d by f e e l i n g s of l o n e l i n e s s and a c o m p u l s i v e need t o be w i t h p e o p l e , t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n m i n g l i n g w i t h crowds' downtown o r i n h o t e l l o b b i e s i n c l u d i n g a t home ba s e . The c o m p u l s i v e n e s s i n p a r t i c u l a r a p p e a r s t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o a v e r y few p e o p l e . T h e r e i s a g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e range o f p o s t f l i g h t r e a c t i o n s , t h e s e p r e s e n t e d a r e b a s e d on c o n v e r s a t i o n s and f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l i t e m s . - 165 -4) Crew: a) work u n i t s r e p r e s e n t e d - 2 b) s e n i o r i t y s t a t u s c ongruency of p a r t i c i p a n t s - h i g h c) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - p u r s e r as B s t e w a r d e s s as S, s t e w a r d e s s as m u l t i l i n g u a l as S d) coworker c o h e s i v e n e s s - h i g h 5) P a s s e n g e r l o a d f a c t o r : f u l l t o c a p a c i t y ; homogenous p o p u l a t i o n o f a d u l t s , no c h i l d r e n ; r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f one l a r g e b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n and s p o u s e s . Most o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s a r e a s l e e p o r r e s t i n g . 6) S i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t - a d i s c u s s i o n on whether to wake up t h e p a s s e n g e r s f o r t h e b r e a k f a s t s n a c k s e r v i c e o r t o w a i t u n t i l t h e d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e e n r o u t e s t o p and s e r v e i t t h e n . 7) E c o l o g i c a l arrangement - p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e l o u n g e a t t h e f r o n t o f t h e a i r c r a f t . I n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r , v i s u a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d s m B t h r e e s e a t s f a c e t a b l e l o u n g e t a b l e two s e a t s f a c e t a b l e 8) M a i n i n v o l v e m e n t S i d e i n v o l v e m e n t s -c o n v e r s a t i o n S^ i s smoking S^ p l a y s c a r d game s o l i t a i r e S has none m B i s f i d d l i n g w i t h a p i e c e o f paper i n h i s hands A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e l e a n i n g w i t h arms on t h e t a b l e - 166 -9) Raw d a t a : u i c P I U2 U3 B was g i v i n g h i s o p i n i o n on t h e sn a c k s e r v i c e and was l o o k i n g a t S m i s an i n t r a u t t e r e n c e pause S p a r a l i n g u i s t i c a l l y m d e f e n s i v e t o n e p a r a l i n g u i s t i c emphasis o f a b r u p t n e s s U l B ". K l S l e f t eyebrow r a i s e d m P I B (pause) U l B You don't a g r e e w i t h me: S Laughs P2 U2 S " I d i d n ' t say a n y t h i n g . " m U3 B 'No, a K3 B hands h e l d t o g e t h e r on t a b l e and moved downward s l i g h t l y b U3 B I know you d i d n ' t , b u t c I saw t h a t l e f t eye-brow go up and K3 B moves t o s t r a i g h t e n b a c k U3 B K3 B U3 B K3 B U3 B K3 B d I know d. . , s i t s u p r i g h t e v + v when y o u do t h a t , e moves t o l e a n a g a i n s t t a b l e a g a i n f y ou don't a g r e e w i t h ™~ " me. p o i n t s b r i e f l y a t S m w i t h r i g h t f o r e f i n g e r P4 S 2 > S m and B l a u g h - 167 -U5^ S a d m i t s she d i s a g r e e s and g i v e s h e r o p i n i o n a U5 S " " m 10) I n t e r a c t i o n c o n c l u s i o n : The i n t e r a c t i o n i s i n d i c a t i v e of c o o p e r a t i v e n e s s and l a c k s i n t e r p e r s o n a l t e n s i o n . The p u r s e r s P l ^ pause shows s e n s i t i v i t y t o k i n e s i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The s t e w a r d e s s e s were a l l f o r p o s t p o n i n g t h e s n a c k s e r v i c e . A l l p e r s o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r o p i n i o n s . T h e r e were no t i m e p r e s s u r e s r e q u i r i n g f a s t d e c i s i o n s and t h e t o p i c was c o n c l u d e d a f t e r j o i n t agreement f o r postponement. C o n v e r s a t i o n t o p i c change f o l l o w e d , S m ' s p r e f l i g h t d i s t r e s s o v e r b e i n g a s s i g n e d by P t o a work u n i t i n c l u d i n g a s t e w a r d e s s p e r c e i v e d as u n d e s i r a b l e was e x p r e s s e d t o him as " I h a t e w o r k i n g w i t h p e o p l e who a r e n ' t i n t e l l i g e n t " . o f f e r e d t o t a k e S^'s p l a c e but P r e f u s e d t o p e r m i t i t . a p o l o g i z e d t o f o r n o t o f f e r i n g t o t a k e h e r p l a c e . The s t e w a r d e s s b e i n g a v o i d e d has a f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h y w i t h h i g h emphasis o f b e i n g 'dumb'. Towards t h e end of t h e on-duty p e r i o d she a n t a g o n i z e d S t o an a i s l e c o n f l i c t ( f r o n t r e g i o n ) by p l a c i n g d i r t y cups m on S^'s s i d e o f t h e t r o l l e y top r a t h e r t h a n h e r own. T e r r i t o r i a l i t y o f t r o l l e y t o p s p a c e , and o w n e r s h i p of same, i s a p o i n t of i s s u e o n l y between a n t a g o n i s t s . - 168 -I n t e r a c t i o n Case I I 1) F l i g h t - o v e r s e a s s c h e d u l e d f l i g h t c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e f l i g h t l e g s -two e n r o u t e s t o p s . 2) Onset of d u t y p e r i o d - 1:30 P.M. P a c i f i c D a y l i g h t t i m e . 3) Time of o c c u r r e n c e - on t h e t h i r d f l i g h t l e g j u s t a f t e r s e a t b e l t s i g n had been t u r n e d o f f a f t e r t a k e - o f f . I n t h e s i x t h h o u r o o f a t h i r t e e n hour on-duty p e r i o d . 4) Crew: a) number o f work u n i t s r e p r e s e n t e d - 1 b) s e n i o r i t y s t a t u s c ongruency - low c) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r as AP s t e w a r d e s s as ( r e s e r v e ) s t e w a r d e s s as d) coworker c o h e s i v e n e s s - low 5) P a s s e n g e r l o a d f a c t o r : f u l l t o c a p a c i t y , h e t e r o g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n . 6) S i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t : a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n o v e r r u l e p r i o r i t i e s . A t t h i s s t a g e of a s c e n t on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f l i g h t l e g t h e work u n i t p r e p a r e s f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e b a r t r o l l e y s e r v i c e t o be f o l l o w e d by w i n e s , t h e n a h o t meal s e r v i c e . C o n f l i c t i n g p r e s s u r e s : a) p a s s e n g e r s who have s k i p p e d t h e i r d i n n e r p r i o r b o a r d i n g a g i t a t e f o r meal s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n as s oon as p o s s i b l e , b) p a s s e n g e r s who snacked p r i o r b o a r d i n g p r e f e r t o have a l e i s u r e l y d r i n k o r 'two' b e f o r e t h e i r d i n n e r , c) f a m i l i e s p r e s s u r e t o g e t t h e c h i l d r e n f e d as soon as p o s s i b l e so t h a t t h e y can be bedded down, d) s e r v i c e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be p r e s e n t e d on an enmasse assembly l i n e i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n a sense of o r d e r , e) t h e two p r e v i o u s f l i g h t l e g s were s h o r t and s e r v i c e s were r u s h e d . I n t e r p e r s o n a l t e n s i o n s between crewmembers had a c c u m u l a t e d somewhat. - 169 -E c o l o g i c a l arrangement - l o c a t i o n a t t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t a r e a i n t h e economy c a b i n . P a r t i c i p a n t s a r e l o c a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r as a i s l e AP f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t t r o l l e y c o u n t e r t o p M a i n i n v o l v e m e n t - was s t a n d i n g and busy s e t t i n g up t h e b a r t r o l l e y - and AP - c o n v e r s a t i o n / c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n S i d e i n v o l v e m e n t - S^ was g e t t i n g some 217's out o f t h e m e d i c a t i o n k i t f o r a p a s s e n g e r who had c o m p l a i n e d o f a headache. AP was r e l a x i n g w i t h a c i g a r e t t e , s i t t i n g on t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t w i t h h i s l e f t f o o t c r o s s e d o v e r h i s r i g h t knee. Raw d a t a : U l S^ a s k s AP i f he had made t h e s e r v i c e announcement. She i s l o o k i n g f o r t h e m e d i c i n e k i t . U3 p a r a l i n g u i s t i c t o n e o f im-p a t i e n c e ; i m p l i e s i t i s an o r d e r U l S " " U2 AP " R e l a x . " (0 pause) U3 S^ " L i s t e n , w o u l d y ou make t h e announcement?" A4 S^ Moves o v e r t o c o u n t e r w i t h k i t - 170 -P6 accompanied by marked i n h a l a t i o n c d U9 ' i n e x a s p e r a t e d t o n e o f U9 spoken t h r o u g h h i s t e e t h subsequent a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n h e r p o s i t i o n was put o f f by AP, by t h i s t i m e she had t h e 217's and s e t about t o d e l i v e r them. K5 AP P6 S K6 S1 K7 AP K7 S± A8 AP U9 AP K9 AP K9 S 1 U9 AP Turns h i s c i g a r e t t e s i d e w a y s and l o o k s a t i t , g t w i r l s i t i n h i s f i n g e r s , moves h i s hand s s ov e r t o t h e a s h - t r a y , w-w "uh / q u i c k l y t o u c h e s A P 1 s hand as i t r e a c h e s a s h - t r a y / s l i g h t f a c i a l g r i m a c e o f annoyance moves h e r hand away s t u b s c i g a r e t t e and s t a n d s up, l o o k s t o "When S.. a s k s f o r something 1 v+ +v b she means r i g h t now ! b eye c o n t a c t w i t h S.. b 1 eye c o n t a c t w i t h AP c,ve-l-ev, d, ve+ +ev Boy! •.; Have I l e a r n e d ' t h a t ! K9 AP t e n s e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , s l i g h t s t i f f s m i l e P10 Sy S 2 AP a l l v . l a u g h A l l AP he t u r n s away t o t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s h a n d s e t . - 171 -10) I n t e r a c t i o n c o n c l u s i o n : p r e s e n t e d h e r r e q u e s t f o r a s e r v i c e s announcement f o r t h e p a s s e n g e r s b e c a u s e as she came t h r o u g h t h e c a b i n she had been s t o p p e d about h a l f a dozen t i m e s by p e r s o n s d e s i r i n g t o know a t what t i m e t h e meal was t o be s e r v e d . Any subsequent t r i p down t h e a i s l e w o u l d have been i n t e r r u p t e d by o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s d e s i r i n g t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s becomes t r o u b l e s o m e , t o p r e s e r v e t i m e and p a t i e n c e , t h e announcement i s made on t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s system, a l l p a s s e n g e r s a r e t h e r e f o r e i n f o r m e d and t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s w o u l d n o t f e e l h a r a s s e d . However, t h e a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r gave p r i o r i t y t o a smoke b r e a k . There i s an i n f o r -mal r u l e w h i c h a l l o w s a s l i g h t r e p r i e v e b e f o r e b a r and meal s e r v i c e s a r e begun, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h i s was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s e v e n hour l o n g f l i g h t ; however, i t i s customary between s t e w a r d e s s e s t o t a k e s u c h a b r e a k a f t e r s u c h an announcement i s made, so as t o p r e v e n t p a s s e n g e r s f r o m p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n c e r t a i n t y about what t h e program of e v e n t s a r e on t h e f l i g h t . The a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r had n o t been s u f f i c i e n t l y s o c i a l i z e d t o s t a n d a r d group norms b i n d i n g how p r i o r i t i e s a r e s e t . He i s annoyed enought t o i n t e r r u p t and a t t h e same t i m e r e j e c t h e r P6 and K6 g e s t u r e s w h i c h i m p l i e d t h a t he d i d n o t need t o s t u b h i s c i g a r e t t e , by a r e s p o n s e a t t h e k i n e s i c l e v e l . U 9 a i s meant f o r t o be i n s e r t e d as a c r u c i a l i t e m f o r s e t t i n g up a b i o g r a p h y o f f a c t s t o c d know about S . S does n o t deny t h a t f a c t . H i s U9 ' i n d i c a t e t h a t - 172 -he has l e a r n e d t h e h a r d way i . e . t h r o u g h o t h e r c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s . The n e x t t h r e e and a h a l f h o u r s were t a k e n up w i t h a pace of work d e s c r i b e a b l e o n l y as ' h e c t i c ' and a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e p r e s s u r e s l i s t e d under t h e s e c t i o n - s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . As me n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , i n a work u n i t o f h i g h s e n i o r i t y s t a t u s c ongruency anyone may g i v e o r d e r s t o anyone and i t i s a c c e p t e d t h a t a n y t h i n g s a i d d u r i n g r u s h e d s e r v i c e s i s acknowledged as b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t . A c t i o n would be t a k e n on m i n i m a l c u e s . F o r example, a s e n i o r f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t w o u l d p e r c e i v e S^'s u t t e r a n c e one to mean "Have you made t h e s e r v i c e s announcement? And i f you hav e n ' t would y ou p l e a s e do s o " , so t h a t i n e f f e c t , t h e p e r s o n w o u l d p r o c e e d t o e x p l a i n w h e t h e r i t had been made o r n o t , o r m i g h t move i m m e d i a t e l y t o make i t . The c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n w o u l d n o t have d e v e l o p e d a t a l l . I t i s due t o crew impermanency t h a t s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o group h e l d communi-c a t i o n norms t a k e a l o n g t i m e t o a c c u m u l a t e and cause u n n e c e s s a r y f r u s t r a t i o n . One o f t h e c r u c i a l s e p a r a t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e t o be s o r t e d out i s i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s f r o m group h e l d i n t e r p r e t a t i v e norms. The f l i g h t c a n be e v a l u a t e d as bad on t h e w h o l e , work u n i t members were not on s p e a k i n g terms w i t h each o t h e r a t t h e end. P a s s e n g e r c o n t r i b u -t i o n s t o t h e crew s t r e s s f a c t o r w i l l n o t be d e a l t w i t h a t t h i s p o i n t . CHAPTER I I I THE DRAMATIZED PRODUCTION OF THE OCCASION AS A FATEFUL EVENT I . The ' s a f e b u t dang e r o u s ' s o c i a l o c c a s i o n . As a n ev e r y d a y a c t i v i t y a f l i g h t i s a " s a f e b u t d a n g e r o u s " f a t e f u l e v e n t . The i n h e r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s p r o b l e m a t i c t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f w h i c h d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n w i l l p r e d o m i n a t e o r i s a c c u r a t e f o r any one i n s t a n c e o r t i m e i n t e r v a l . The management team i n p a r t i c u l a r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e enforcement o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d e f i n i t i o n s . Team members i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e , c o n t r a d i c t o r y r u l e s m i g h t be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a p p r o p r i a t e so t h a t d e c i s i o n making becomes c o n s e q u e n t i a l t o t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . F o r example, t h e r e i s t h e g e n e r a l o v e r a l l r u l e t h a t p a r t i c i -p a n t s ought t o be s e a t e d when t h e s e a t b e l t sign:.,is on d u r i n g t u r b u l e n c e and r e f r e s h m e n t s e r v i c e s must be t e r m i n a t e d . However, t h e c a b i n crew a r e p e r m i t t e d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h a s e r v i c e w i t h t h e C a p t a i n ' s p e r m i s s i o n . The p a s s e n g e r s s e e i n g t h e crew up and about f e e l f r e e t o b r e a k t h e r u l e . The f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o see t h a t t h e y conform. C o n f l i c t s o v e r t h i s r u l e o c c u r f r e q u e n t l y . The o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r i e n t a t i o n t o emergencies as a ' c o n t i n u a l and r e a l ' p o s s i b i l i t y i s acknowledged and has been r o u t i n i z e d t h r o u g h programs o f a c t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t emergencies w i l l be h a n d l e d " c a l m l y and l o g i c a l l y " as " q u i c k t h i n k i n g and q u i c k a c t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l t o - 173 -- 174 -p r e v e n t i n g i n j u r y and l o s s o f l i f e . " I n r e s p e c t t o t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t r o l e o f s a f e t y management, t h e r e i s t h e s o c i a l l y p e r c e i v a b l e r o l e i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h a t w h i l e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e r o l e o f s a v i n g l i v e s i s r o u t i n i z e d and r e g u l a r l y p e r f o r m e d , t h e a c t u a l c a b i n crew enactment o f l i f e s a v i n g by emergency e v a c u a t i o n o f p a s s e n g e r s i s a r a r e o c c u r r e n c e and f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s r e m a i n s o n l y a remote f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t y . I n t h a t t h e y a r e so r a r e l y c a l l e d t o a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e s o f t h i s k i n d t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o g a i n any s o c i a l s t a t u s o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f l e g i t i m a c y on t h e s e g r o u n d s . S o c i e t y ' s r e c o g n i t i o n and g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f l i f e s a v i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s by t h e g i v i n g of awards, g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s o n l y upon a crew member's a c t o f h e r o i s m e n d i n g 97 i n d e a t h . I t i s a m a t t e r o f c o m m i s e r a t i o n between c o w o r k e r s t h a t s m a l l e r a c t s o f h e r o i s m t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e p e r s o n s u r v i v e s a r e n o t ' p r o p e r l y ' r e c o g n i z e d and i n some i n s t a n c e s n o t even i n f o r m a l l y rewarded by t h e Company. 96. Company Emergency P r o c e d u r e s Manual, 97. R. Hamond, " O r d e a l i n Whiskey-Echo", Reader's D i g e s t , R. Hancox ed., T o r o n t o , The Reader's D i g e s t A s s o c i a t i o n (Canada) L t d . , V o l 98 No. 585 ( J a n . 1971) pp. 90-95. - 175 -F a t e f u l n e s s i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r o u t i n i z e d i n : 1) t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f emergency p r o c e d u r e s i n a manual t o be c a r r i e d by ' a l l ' f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s on ' a l l ' f l i g h t s , i . e. ..procedures o f a c t i o n e x i s t f o r t h e event o f " r a p i d d e c o m p r e s s i o n " , " t a k e - o f f o r l a n d i n g e mergencies w i t h l i t t l e o r no w a r n i n g " , " d i t c h i n g d r i l l f o r a l l crew members", e t c . 2) t h e n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f emergency o r i e n t e d d u t i e s as r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s by p l a c i n g them a l o n g s i d e o t h e r d u t i e s , and by t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e word 'emergency' i n d u t y c h a r t s i . e . g r e e t p a s s e n g e r s and check b o a r d i n g p a s s e s . Do a l l p o s s i b l e t o make p a s s e n g e r s c o m f o r t a b l e . . . . Connect c h u t e s a f t e r t h e a i r c r a f t has s t a r t e d t o t a x i . . . . Take p o s i t i o n f o r t a k e - o f f . " 3) p u b l i c s t a g i n g o f s a f e t y o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s r i t u a l l y , meaning p r i o r e v e r y t a k e - o f f . These a r e p e r f o r m e d a l o n g s t a n d a r d i z e d p a t t e r n s , i . e . oxygen mask and l i f e j a c k e t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a r e s y n c h r o n i z e d t o s t a n d a r d p u b l i c a d d r e s s announcements. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n a d r a m a t u r g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f a n a l y s i s i s t h e r e f o r e a p p r o p r i a t e . I t i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l t h a t t h e p a s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s be s o c i a l i z e d t o p e r c e i v e f l y i n g as dangerous, t h a t t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o be aware t h a t s a f e t y i s n o t t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d and t h a t s u r v i v a l r e q u i r e s t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n and - 176 -f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h t h e r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s s p e c i f i c t o t h e s e t t i n g . T a k e - o f f and l a n d i n g t i m e i n t e r v a l s a r e t h e most c r u c i a l s t a g e s of a f l i g h t b e cause t h e y ' i n i t i a t e ' e n v i r o n m e n t a l medium changes; t h a t i s , on t a k e - o f f t h e land-bound craft.^becomes a i r b o r n e and on l a n d i n g v i c e v e r s a . I t s a i r w o r t h i n e s s i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y p r o v e d on i t s a b i l i t y t o f l y , f i n a l p r o o f comes o n l y w i t h a n o r m a l i . e . non-emergency o r non-a c c i d e n t a l , l a n d i n g . W h i l e t h e s e a r e " o r d i n a r i l y h e l d " b a c k g r o u n d e x p e c t a n c i e s t o a r o u t i n e f l i g h t , t h e y a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y p r o t e c t e d and f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d as i n t e r v a l s f o r " r i t u a l o b s e r v a n c e of t h e p e r i o d s of p a s s a g e " i . e . l a n d i n g and t a k e - o f f . The f a t e f u l n e s s i n h e r e n t i n t h i s d r a m a t i z a t i o n i s t h a t of t h e n o t i o n t h a t f l y i n g i s dangerous. I t i s t h e r e f o r e f e l t t h a t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e o c c a s i o n t h e t a k e - o f f p e r i o d c a n a p p r o p r i a t e l y be c a l l e d t h e " r i t u a l p a s s a g e o f i n i t i a t i o n " and t h e l a n d i n g p e r i o d as t h e " r i t u a l p a ssage o f c l o s u r e " o f t h e o c c a s i o n . Three f o r m a l r i t u a l o b s e r v a n c e s d u r i n g t h e p a s s a g e s a r e mandatory f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s : 1) s t r a i g h t e n c h a i r b a c k s and c h a i r t a b l e s t o t h e u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n , 2) f a s t e n s e a t b e l t s , and 3) no smoking. They a r e "announced" on t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s system and " e n f o r c e d " by t h e c a b i n crew i n t a k e - o f f and l a n d i n g s a f e t y c h e c k s . A f t e r t h e announcement i s made, o b s e r v a n c e s a r e not t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . When t h e s t e w a r d e s s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c a b i n s a f e t y check p e r f o r m s t h i s d u t y and - 177 -she a s k s someone t o t i g h t e n h i s s e a t b e l t o r s t r a i g h t e n s h i s c h a i r f o r him she i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of t h e s e r i o u s n e s s of t h e coming r i t u a l p a ssage. I n n o t o b s e r v i n g t h e r u l e s p r o p e r l y she d e f i n e s him as a f a u l t y p a r t i c i p a n t . I n t h a t she rema i n s t o see t h a t he c o r r e c t s h i s o b s e r v a n c e she i n d i c a t e s t h a t she t a k e s h e r s a f e t y manage-ment r o l e s e r i o u s l y a l t h o u g h a t t h e same t i m e i t c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d t h a t once d e v i a n t he i s no l o n g e r t r u s t w o r t h y . M a l e s sometimes t a k e e x c e p t i o n t o t h e r i g i d o n - t h e - s p o t enforcement of t h e s e r u l e s i . e . a p a s s e n g e r was o v e r h e a r d t o remark "You'd t h i n k I was a l i t t l e boy" a f t e r r e c e i v i n g s u c h c o r r e c t i o n a l t h o u g h g e n e r a l l y t h e i r annoyance i s communicated k i n e s i c a l l y . R i t u a l o b s e r v a n c e i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y c r e a t e d . When f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t emergency t a k e - o f f and l a n d i n g p o s i t i o n s i n t h e p a s s e n g e r c a b i n a r e o c c u p i e d due t o a l e s s t h a n f u l l p a s s e n g e r l o a d , f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o occupy them as t h e i r "normal p o s i t i o n s " , o t h e r w i s e t h e y occupy a l l t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s e a t s a t t h e f r o n t and r e a r o f t h e a i r c r a f t . From o b s e r v a t i o n s made when o c c u p y i n g t h e c a b i n p o s i t i o n s and f r o m r e p o r t s o f i n c i d e n t s r e c e i v e d f r o m c o w o r k e r s i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t p a s s e n g e r s t e n d t o o b s e r v e t h e r i t u a l s o f p a s s a g e i n f o r m a l l y i n s o c i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d k i n d s o f ways. I t may p r o p e r l y be s a i d t h a t a mood o f s u p p l i c a t i o n i s sensed t o p r e v a i l on t a k e - o f f and one of b e n e d i c t i o n on l a n d i n g . - 178 -I n f o r m a l o b s e r v a n c e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e t h e c l o s e r t h e a i r c r a f t comes t o l i f t - o f f and touch-down. P a s s e n g e r s who p r e v i o u s l y have been c o n v e r s i n g s t o p o r i n t e r r u p t t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n , o r who have been s i l e n t l y r e a d i n g , t u r n t o l o o k o u t t h e window s i l e n t l y . P a r e n t s s c o l d and hush t h e i r c h i l d r e n q u i c k l y so t h a t t h e y a r e a t l i b e r t y t o s t a r e o u t . U n l i k e t h e m e n t a l l y i l l , t h e p e r s o n i n a r e l i g i o u s t r a n c e , a u t i s t i c o r i . e . e p i l e p t i c "awayness", t h e w i t h d r a w a l awayness w h i c h i s s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e and s o c i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d i n t h i s s e t t i n g i s o f a v e r y temporary and t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e . V i s u a l l y , t h e window as t h e f o c u s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r e s e n t something t o see i . e . as i n f o g . I t i s n o t i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e r e l i g i o u s t o c r o s s t h e m s e l v e s and be seen t o mouth a p r a y e r o r f i n g e r r o s a r i e s ; n o r i s i t i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o t h e r s t o engage i n q u i e t m a g i c a l s u p p l i c a t o r y t a l k i . e . "Come on baby, g e t up t h e r e " , e t c . Such t a l k i s u s u a l l y d i r e c t e d o u t o f t h e window n o t i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y . N e i g h b o r s who a r e s t r a n g e r s and who have n o t p r e v i o u s l y spoken t o each o t h e r f e e l a t l i b e r t y t o remark t h a t "She f e e l s h e a v y " o r "Good l a n d i n g " , e t c . and may t h e r e a f t e r i g n o r e each o t h e r . C o u p l e s a r e seen t o h o l d hands d u r i n g t h e s e p e r i o d s b u t e n a c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a w a y n e s s - i n d i v i d u a l l y . C h i l d r e n do sometimes engage i n s q u e a l i n g and e x c i t e d t a l k w i t h o u t r e p r i m a n d f r o m p a r e n t s , b u t i t i s f e l t i m p r o p e r f o r a d u l t s t o g i v e v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e same k i n d s of i n t e n s e e x c i t e m e n t . - 179 -I t i s o n l y a f t e r l a n d i n g t h a t p a s s e n g e r s c o l l e c t i v e l y engage i n c l a p p i n g , c a l l i n g h u r r a h s and stomping t h e i r f e e t . J o y o u s o b s e r v a n c e s o f t h a n k s g i v i n g , and i t may be s a i d , e x p l o s i v e r e l e a s e of a c c u m u l a t e d t e n s i o n , a r e engaged i n by most o f t h e p a s s e n g e r l o a d e s p e c i a l l y on c h a r t e r f l i g h t s as p a s s e n g e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h each o t h e r . On s c h e d u l e d f l i g h t s a n o n y m i t y somewhat dampens t h e s p i r i t o f b e n e d i c t i o n . I t i s a l s o on c h a r t e r s t h a t a p a s s e n g e r i s p e r m i t t e d t o use t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s s y s t e m p o s t - l a n d i n g f o r p u r p o s e s o f a p r a y e r o f b e n e d i c t i o n , f o r l e a d i n g t h e s i n g i n g of a hymn o r f o r p u b l i c p r a i s e o f t h e t e c h n i c a l competence o f t h e c o c k p i t crew. The c o c k p i t door i s sometimes opened by a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t so t h a t t h e p i l o t s and n a v i g a t o r h e a r t h e c l a p p i n g , c h e e r i n g and p u b l i c a c c l a i m . These a r e n o r m a t i v e p a t t e r n s of making i n v o l v e m e n t i n r i t u a l p a s s a g e s s o c i a l l y p e r c e i v a b l e and a c c e p t a b l e . N o r m a t i v e l e v e l s of i n v o l v e m e n t a r e f e l t t o be b r e a c h e d by e m o t i o n a l o v e r i n v o l v e m e n t i . e . v e r b a l i z e d f e a r of f l y i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h c r y i n g , o r by e x c e s s i v e p h y s i c a l t e n s i o n i . e . c l u t c h i n g t h e c h a i r arms i n f e a r , f a c i a l p a l l o r e t c . Female p a s s e n g e r s a r e more p r o n e t o o v e r i n v o l v e m e n t . N e i g h b o u r i n g p a s s e n g e r s w i l l i n v o l u n t a r i l y , o r a r e engaged t o do so by t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t , h o l d t h e p e r s o n ' s hand and/or engage them i n c o n v e r s a t i o n so as t o n o r m a l i z e t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f r i t u a l p a s s a g e . I n d i v i d u a l f a i l u r e s c o n s t i t u t e a p r o b l e m and r e q u i r e s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n a l i n c l u s i v e n e s s i n t o group p r o c e s s e s . The p a i r may o r may n o t p e r f o r m t h e 'awayness' - 180 -depending on how much r e s t r u c t u r i n g and c o n s o l a t i o n t h e l a y t h e r a p i s t i s r e q u i r e d t o do t o s t a b i l i z e t h e o v e r i n v o l v e d t o conform t o s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e p a t t e r n s . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s o f e m o t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t a r e s o c i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d i n t h i s s e t t i n g as t h e y a r e i n t h e h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g as Sudnow's a n a l y s i s of d e a t h announcements and g r i e v i n g make e v i d e n t . ^ L a n d i n g a t t e m p t s made d u r i n g b l i z z a r d s , f o g e t c . o r l a n d i n g s w h i c h a r e f o r any r e a s o n a b o r t e d a r e c o n s e q u e n t i a l i n t h a t t h e d e s t i n a t i o n i s m i s s e d and p r o b l e m a t i c as t h e r i t u a l p a s s a g e of c l o s u r e becomes n e c e s s a r i l y t r a n s f o r m e d and b l e n d e d i n t o some phase of a r i t u a l p a s s a g e o f i n i t i a t i o n . I h e f o r m a l o b s e r v a n c e s d u r i n g t h e s e p e r i o d s a r e c o n t i n u a l and n o t d i s t u r b e d ; b u t i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a n c e s a r e s p o i l e d i n t h a t t h e p e r i o d f o r t h e i r o b s e r v a n c e i s p r o t r a c t e d , and accompanied by an a c c u m u l a t i o n of e m o t i o n a l , p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c t e n s i o n . P a r t i c i -p a n t s t end t o b r e a k i n t o and o u t o f t h e i r o b s e r v a n c e s i r r e g u l a r l y r a t h e r t h a n m a i n t a i n i n g one peak e x p e r i e n c e as a g r o u p . When t h e y a r e n o t i n t h e p a s s e n g e r c a b i n p o s i t i o n s f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a n c e s g i v e e v i d e n c e o f a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e i r s a f e t y management r o l e . T a k e - o f f s and l a n d i n g p e r i o d s a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e most l i k e l y t i m e t h e y w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o e n a c t t h e emergency e v a c u a t i o n of p a s s e n g e r s . They a r e r e q u i r e d t o o b s e r v e , and new 98. Sudnow, P a s s i n g On, pp. 127-152. - 181 -members a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o r e c o g n i z e , t h a t awareness o f how t h e p a s s a g e i s p r o g r e s s i n g i s o f consequence t o t h e i r ' s t a t e o f r e a d i n e s s ' t o p e r f o r m as a team member. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e based on s e n s a t i o n s and p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , t h e y a r e v o i c e d as a s t r e a m o f comment o r m u t u a l exchange. C o n v e r s a t i o n c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e norms f o r : 1) how t h e a i r c r a f t "sounds" as i t speeds down t h e runway f o r a s h o r t d o m e s t i c f l i g h t , l o n g o v e r s e a s f l i g h t , e t c . , 2) v i s u a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s i . e . how much runway f l a s h e s by p r i o r l i f t - o f f , so t h a t i t i s a s a f e and a c c u r a t e judgment t h a t "...Wow! we a l m o s t d i d n ' t make i t " . 3) a c c u m u l a t i o n o f a c c e l e r a t i o n and d e a c c e l e r a t i o n p r e s s u r e s a r e " f e l t " and a c c u r a t e judgment o f an a b o r t e d t a k e - o f f s and l a n d i n g s a r e made i n advance, 4) k i n e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i . e . how s t r a i g h t t h e p l a n e i s on i t s c o u r s e so t h a t i t i s f e l t a p p r o p r i a t e t o s u p p l i c a t e " S t r a i g h t e n t h o s e w i n g s o u t , C a p t a i n " . I n c r e a s e d body t e n s i o n i s "assumed" d u r i n g l a n d i n g p e r i o d s p a r t i c u l a r l y . F o r example, t h e s e v e r i n g o f an o n g o i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n i s accompanied w i t h c o n c e n t r a t e d f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n d e m o n s t r a t i n g s t r e n u o u s e f f o r t s t o " s e e " and/or " h e a r " ; t h e r e i s some f i d g e t i n g ; f e e t a r e b r a c e d and new members a r e i n s t r u c t e d i n p r o p e r ways t o b r a c e i . e . n o t a g a i n s t s t o r a g e u n i t s b u t a g a i n s t t h e f l o o r i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t p e r s o n a l i n j u r y and t h e r e f o r e be a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o team e v a c u a t i o n ; and male f e m a l e p a i r s t e r m i n a t e f l i r t i n g and c u d d l i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , a few - 182 -seconds p r i o r touch-down what may be c a l l e d a "body f r e e z e " , i s assumed and m ight be i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e a d i n e s s t o s p r i n g t o a c t i o n i f n e c e s s a r y . That i s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e body t e n s i o n and b r a c i n g p o s i t i o n , p o s t u r e and m u s c l e t o n e i s h e l d r i g i d , b r e a t h i n g i s t e m p o r a r i l y h e l d , and eye c o n t a c t i s d i r e c t e d n o t s h i f t e d f r o m w h a t e v e r o b j e c t i t i s f o c u s e d on. The s t r a i n e d moment i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y d i s p l a y e d and e n a c t e d a t t h e r e a r f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t p o s i t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e t a i l o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s s e t down f i r s t , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e p e r s o n s t h e r e a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y g r e a t e r i n r e s p e c t t o t h e r a t i o o f p e r s o n s t h e y must e v a c u a t e and a l s o as t h e r e i s no window f r o m w h i c h v i s u a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o u t s i d e can be m a i n t a i n e d . Body f r e e z e i s r e l e a s e d on t o u c h down. S t e w a r d e s s e s a r e s u b j e c t t o s t a t e s o f a n x i e t y i f t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o occupy t h e r e a r p o s i t i o n a l o n e and n e g a t i v e l y s a n c t i o n p u r s e r s who f a i l t o come ba c k t o t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e . No a c c o u n t o r e x c u s e i s p e r c e i v e d as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s k i n d o f d e v i a n c e i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a team member. F o r m a l and i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a n c e s a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y s p o i l t by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t o f u n c t i o n i n o t h e r r o l e c o n t e x t s . F o r example, a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t m i g h t undo t h e s e a t b e l t and l e a p up d u r i n g l i f t o f f and t o u c h down t o c l o s e a s t o r a g e u n i t w h i c h has come u n l a t c h e d i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t l o s s o f mea l s . On a v e r y b usy f l i g h t p r i o r i t y i s r e q u i r e d t o be g i v e n t o c a b i n s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e consequence t h a t d u r i n g l a n d i n g t h e g a l l e y a r e a f l o o r has t o be c l e a r e d o f movable equipment t o p r e p a r e i t as a u s e a b l e e x i t i n t h e eve n t o f emergency e v a c u a t i o n . The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e r e i s no t i m e t o make a d a s h f o r t h e l a n d i n g s e a t p o s i t i o n . When t h e r e a s o n f o r non o b s e r v a n c e i s n o t s e l f e v i d e n t t o - 183 -others the fl i g h t attendant i s expected to give an account of why the formal r i t u a l was not observed. They are almost never negatively sanctioned. Policing practices: It is one of the uniformities of their everyday l i f e that the cabin crew are required to conscientiously perform policing duties. Mainly this is a consequence of having l i t t l e or no knowledge of the competency of passengers to be proper participants to the occasion. Categories of talk reflect the orientation to the passenger as "suspect", for example, i t is not unnatural to speak of "patrolling the cabin" be-tween services, or "standing guard" while coworkers have their meals, or "checking someone out", and so on. Although i t is known that passengers are normally preselected and/or occasionally precleared i.e. by weapons detection, machine or police and company o f f i c i a l s frisking and carry on luggage clearance checks, these processes are not recognized as being sufficient for a l l practical purposes of competency to enact their participant role. As a result of the increase in frequency of aircraft hijackings in 1969 and 1970 aircraft crews are more aware that an attitude of suspicion i s required and diligence in policing i s routinely expected. The Captain as aircraft commander i s legally empowered as a Peace Officer and may arrest and search without - 184 -w a r r a n t . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s h o l d no s u c h s p e c i a l s t a t u s . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e n o t p r o v i d e d w i t h s p e c i a l s t o r a g e s paces f o r p u r s e s and s u i t c a s e s away f r o m p a s s e n g e r a c c e s s . V a l u a b l e s , r i n g s , money, w a l l e t s , p a s s p o r t s have been s t o l e n i n f l i g h t . As an ev e r y d a y a c t i v i t y p o l i c i n g i s c o n t i n u a l t h r o u g h o u t t h e o c c a s i o n and as a r o u t i n e p e r f o r m a n c e i t i s embedded i n t h e c a r r y i n g o u t of some s o c i a l l y v i s i b l e and a c c e p t a b l e s e r v i c e a c t i v i t y . The w i d e range of h o s t e s s i n g f u n c t i o n s a l l e v i a t e s t h e p r o b l e m of s h i e l d i n g p o l i ' c i n g a c t i v i t i e s f r o m p a s s e n g e r s . These a r e f r e q u e n t l y p e r f o r m e d under t h e u m b r e l l a o f d o i n g h o s t e s s i n g t a l k o r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s t a l k , w h i c h i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s s e t t i n g and t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t r o l e as i t i s s o c i a l l y p e r c e i v e d . I f a s t e w a r d e s s ' s u s p i c i o n i s a r o u s e d by some s t r a n g e s e a t s e l e c t i o n b e h a v i o u r on.; b o a r d i n g , she can l e g i t i m a t e l y o f f e r t o f o l d t h e p a s s e n g e r ' s c o a t o r stow h i s l u g g a g e , meanwhile o b s e r v i n g him more c l o s e l y and enga g i n g him i n h o s t e s s i n g t a l k . R e f u s a l s o f a s s i s t a n c e , p o s s e s s i v e n e s s and c l o s e n e s s o f p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g s a r e r e l e v a n t f a c t s t o be m e n t a l l y r e t a i n e d s h o u l d an a c c o u n t be r e q u i r e d o r v o l u n t e e r e d . E x c e p t i o n s a r e made f o r c o u r i e r s . U n e x p e c t e d and i r r a t i o n a l v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s a r e v i e w e d as w a r r a n t i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n and 99. C. H. Simpson, p r e s i d e n t o f C a n a d i a n A i r l i n e P i l o t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , c i t e d i n a l e t t e r t o f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s o f f i v e C a n a d i a n c o m m e r c i a l a i r l i n e s , d a t e d O c t o b e r 3<j 1970. - 185 -a f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t may s u b s e q u e n t l y l i n g e r by t h e p a s s e n g e r w h i l e d i s t r i b u t i n g i . e . magazines o r p i l l o w s o r p o u r i n g c o f f e e and as a n a t u r a l consequence o f t h a t s e r v i c e p e r f o r m a n c e engage him i n t a l k . T h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f s o c i a l s k i l l i n v o l v e d i n d o i n g i n v e s -t i g a t i o n work o f t h i s k i n d i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e p a s s e n g e r does not become aware he i s b e i n g k e p t under s u r v e i l l a n c e , a l t h o u g h he may s u b s e q u e n t l y r e a l i z e t h a t he was b e i n g p o l i c e d when some r e s t r i c t i v e a c t i o n i s t a k e n a g a i n s t him. F o r example, a p a s s e n g e r whose g l a s s o f g i n g e r a l e i s n e v e r d r a i n e d and c o n t i n u e s t o d a r k e n i n c o l o r w i l l be a s k ed t o r e l i n q u i s h h i s m i c k e y o r b o t t l e and/or i s c u t o f f g i n g e r a l e by t h e e n t i r e work u n i t . G e n e r a l l y a w a r n i n g i s g i v e n f i r s t so t h a t he has no grounds f o r c o m p l a i n t l i k e b e i n g unaware of t h e r u l e s of t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . A common p o l i c i n g p r o c e d u r e i s t h e i n i t i a l p r e t a k e - o f f "Walk ' down" t h r o u g h a c a b i n t o l o o k a t t h e p a s s e n g e r s . T h i s a c t a s s i s t s i n s e t t i n g up a c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l map. A subsequent a n a l y s i s l i k e "There's nobody on", i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e a c t i o n o r i e n t e d f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t who i s i n t e r e s t e d i n f u n and gaming. The f l i g h t m i g h t a c t u a l l y be f i l l e d t o c a p a c i t y b u t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be o f t h e wrong k i n d . A comment r e l e v a n t t o p o l i c i n g i s one l i k e "There's a r e a l w e i r d o i n 6A", and a l l u n i t c o w o r k e r s or a l l crew members w i l l w a l k down t o see f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e - 186 -p a s s e n g e r so t h a t t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o keep him under s u r v e i l l a n c e anywhere i n t h e c a b i n . S e l e c t i o n o f f a c t s f o r a d e s c r i p t i v e a c c o u n t i s made on t h e b a s i s of how a p e r s o n ought t o l o o k and behave f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t of a m i d d l e c l a s s o r i e n t a t i o n t o c o n g r u e n c y between p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e and p u b l i c b e h a v i o u r i n a f i r s t c l a s s p u b l i c e s t a b l i s h m e n t . The w e i r d o was i n i t i a l l y so l a b e l e d b e c a u s e he l o o k e d odd and unkempt and t a l k e d t o h i m s e l f a l o t . A n e i g h b o u r i n g p a s s e n g e r was o b s e r v e d t o change h i s s e a t l o c a t i o n . He managed t h e i n f l i g h t p e r i o d w e l l u n t i l d e s c e n t f o r l a n d i n g when he was h e a r d t o t a l k v e r y l o u d l y and t o s h o u t o b s c e n i t i e s . A s t e w a r d e s s b r o k e h e r f o r m a l o b s e r v a n c e of t h e s e a t b e l t s i g n r u l e , w a l k e d up and t o u c h e d h i s arm a f t e r w h i c h he q u i e t e n e d down. He d i d n o t d e p l a n e w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s and i g n o r e d t h e s t e w a r d e s s ' h i n t t h a t he had a r r i v e d a t h i s d e s t i n a t i o n . As t h e c a b i n crew were f e a r f u l o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e t h e p o l i c e were c a l l e d t o d e p l a n e him and i t was s u b s e q u e n t l y f o u n d out t h a t he had a l o n g c r i m i n a l r e c o r d . The i n c i d e n t was t o u c h e d o f f a p p a r e n t l y when t h e p u r s e r had i n s t r u c t e d him t o s t u b h i s c i g a r e t t e d u r i n g t h e l a n d i n g s a f e t y check. The s t e w a r d e s s was n o t aware o f t h i s when she calmed t h e man, and he was unaware t h a t t h e p a s s e n g e r had c r e a t e d a scene. L a c k of c o m m u n i c a t i o n was a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t i m e p r e s s u r e s imposed by t h e f l i g h t i n t e r v a l and r e s p e c t i v e l y by t h e d u t i e s r e q u i r e d t o be p e r f o r m e d f o l l o w i n g l a n d i n g . I n f a c t , t h e i n c i d e n t was c o h e r e n t l y s t r u c t u r e d as s u c h o n l y i n r e t r o s p e c t . - 187 -U n l i k e o t h e r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v e h i c l e s , p a s s e n g e r s who p r o v e t h e m s e l v e s f a u l t y p a r t i c i p a n t s c a n n o t be d e p l a n e d e n r o u t e as e a s i l y as f r o m a b u s , nor i s t h e r e a spac e d e s i g n a t e d f o r i s o l a t i o n and d e t e n t i o n i . e . l i k e a c e l l o r d r u n k t a n k , nor a means t o r e s t r i c t a p a s s e n g e r i . e . h a n d c u f f s . D e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r must be t o l e r a t e d and c o n t a i n e d as s k i l f u l l y as p o s s i b l e so as n o t t o p r e c i p i t a t e v i o l e n t b e h a v i o u r and/or p h y s i c a l i n j u r y . I t i s t h e most p r o b l e m a t i c a r e a o f m a i n t e n a n c e o f s o c i a l o r d e r i n t h e s e t t i n g and o c c a s i o n . An a c c o u n t o f a " r e a l c r a z y man" was s t r u c t u r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: i n c o n g r u e n c e 1) t h e p a s s e n g e r g a i n e d a t t e n t i o n and i n i t i a t e d p o l i c i n g o n t o h i m s e l f when he " h e l p e d h i m s e l f " t o c h e r r i e s and o l i v e s f r o m t h e b a r t r o l l e y and "put them i n h i s p o c k e t " , i n c o n g r u e n c e 2) w h i l e w a l k i n g down t h e a i s l e he was "seen t o t a k e " a n o t h e r p a s s e n g e r ' s l i g h t e d c i g a r e t t e away f r o m him and "keep" i t . The p a s s e n g e r who had h i s c i g a r e t t e s t o l e n d i d n o t h i n g t o r e t r i e v e i t b u t d i d r e p o r t i t t o a crew member; i n c o n g r u e n c e 3) he s t a y e d i n t h e l a v a t o r y f o r about f i f t e e n m i n u t e s and was "heard t o bang l o u d l y on t h e d o o r " as though demanding h e l p b u t when t h e door was u n l o c k e d f r o m t h e o u t s i d e he was "angry and a b u s i v e " t o t h e crew. He r e l o c k e d h i m s e l f and s t a y e d t h e r e f o r a n o t h e r f i f t e e n m i n u t e s . He was n o t i n t e r f e r r e d w i t h i n any way t h e r e a f t e r b u t would have been r e f u s e d f u r t h e r p a s s a g e had n o t t h e n e x t s t o p been t h e f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n o f h i s f l i g h t . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e o r i e n t e d t o p e r c e i v e p a s s e n g e r s who t a l k - 188 -of t h e i r f e a r o f f l y i n g as a p r o p e r and r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r e n t f e a t u r e o f f l y i n g as a f a t e f u l event w i t h i n two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : n o r m a l c o n c e r n s and r e a s o n a b l e f e a r s , and n o r m a l c o n c e r n s r e s u l t i n g i n un-r e a s o n a b l e f e a t s . The most f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d f e a r s c o n c e r n t i m e and g e o g r a p h i c d i s l o c a t i o n s . That t h e s e c o n c e r n s and f e a r s a r e l e g i t i m a t e i s r e c o g n i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y i n t h a t c o c k p i t crew a r e r e q u i r e d t o r o u t i n e l y g i v e p u b l i c a d d r e s s announcements i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e an anchor f o r t i m e and p l a c e . When r e q u e s t s f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a r e made too f r e q u e n t l y o r r e q u i r e d t o be t o o p r e c i s e t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be t r o u b l e s o m e as f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l maps of g e o g r a p h i c r o u t e s f l o w n a r e n o t o v e r l y d e t a i l e d , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h o s e o f t h e a i r -c r a f t s e t t i n g . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s t r i p s t o t h e c o c k p i t f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n of g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n s and i s t i m e consuming. Thus a p a s s e n g e r who wants t o know t h e " e x a c t h e r e and now t i m e " t o t h e m i n u t e , t o o o f t e n , i . e . e v e r y h a l f h o u r , r a t h e r t h a n t h e t i m e r e l a t i v e t o t h e t i m e a t h i s o r i g i n a t i o n o r d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t i s c o n s i d e r e d u n r e a s o n a b l e as i s t h e p a s s e n g e r who d e s i r e s t o know " p r e c i s e l y h e r e and now g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n " t o be p o i n t e d o u t on a map as a d o t , and w i l l n o t a c c e p t i . e . a r e a l o c a t i o n l i k e 'between two c i t i e s ' o r ' o v e r a p r o v i n c e ' . I t r e q u i r e s o f t h e c a b i n crew t h a t t h e y i n t e r r u p t o n g o i n g s e r v i c e s and make a s p e c i a l t r i p t o t h e c o c k p i t f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , and i s v e r y t i m e consuming. - 189 -E n v i r o n m e n t a l s e c u r i t y i s seen as a p r o p e r i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n i . e . w hether t h e emergency e x i t window can be a c c i d e n t a l l y o r i n a d v e r t e n t l y opened by a r e a l s t r o n g man, b u t i t i s u n r e a s o n a b l e f o r him t o be so co n c e r n e d as t o e x p e c t a t e c h n i c a l answer l i k e (X) number of pounds p r e s s u r e f o r c e w i l l open a window a t (Y) a l t i t u d e w i t h (Z) c a b i n p r e s s u r i z a t i o n l e v e l " . L i k e w i s e , i t i s p r o p e r t o be co n c e r n e d about q u a n t i t i e s o f r a d i a t i o n f a l l o u t i n h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s b u t i m p r o p e r t o become a g i t a t e d when t h e C a p t a i n announces a change i n c r u i s i n g a l t i t u d e s f r o m 32,000 f e e t t o 39,000 f e e t . I t i s p r o p e r t o i n q u i r e how c l o s e t o t h e N o r t h P o l e t h e f l i g h t p a t h i s , b u t t o f e a r t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l be p u l l e d o f f c o u r s e by t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d a t t h e P o l e and t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l somehow g e t l o s t i s an u n r e a s o n a b l e f e a r . These a r e a l l p e c u l i a r l y s p e c i f i c t o t h e s e t t i n g , t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l r i t u a l p a s s a g e o f i n i t i a t i o n i s n o t f i n a l p r o o f t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e l s e c u r e t h a t f a t e f u l e v e n t s w i l l n o t o c c u r . G a l l o w s Humor F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e i r r o l e o f s a f e t y management when p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e n s e , as f o r example d u r i n g o r f o l l o w i n g a c t u a l o c c u r r e n c e o f an event w h i c h i s c o n t e m p l a t i v e l y f a t e f u l as r e c e i v i n g n o t i f i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a bomb on b o a r d o r knowing t h a t one e n g i n e i s o v e r h e a t i n g and may have t o be s h u t o f f o v e r t h e m i d d l e o f t h e - 190 -A t l a n t i c , o r when t h e y a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y f r u s t r a t e d , as f o r example under c e r t a i n demographic v a r i a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s i . e . i f t h e p a s s e n g e r l o a d i s f u l l c a p a c i t y and c o n t a i n s too h i g h a p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y , i n v a l i d , c h i l d r e n , i n e b r i a t e d and s e l f drugged p e r s o n s , t h e e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y r e l e a s e d t h r o u g h g a l l o w s humor between c o w o r k e r s . G a l l o w s humor i s t h a t humor e x p r e s s e d by a v i c t i m on h i s day o f e x e c u t i o n " * " ^ b u t i t i s a l s o more b r o a d l y d e f i n e d as any humor w h i c h i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y p o i n t e d and w h i c h a r i s e s i n a p r e c a r i o u s o r dangerous s i t u a t i o n . " " " ^ A f l i g h t i s sometimes m o r b i d l y r e f e r r e d t o as a " C o f f i n E x p r e s s " when t h e f e e l i n g s o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y a r e e x c e s s i v e . By i t , t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s mean t h e m s e l v e s as v i c t i m s , a l t h o u g h i n t h e c a s e o f t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f p a s s e n g e r l o a d some o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f p a s s e n g e r s m e ntioned above w o u l d be v i c t i m s a l s o and a d i r e c t c a u s e o f f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t d e a t h as t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o be l a s t o f f t h e p l a n e . However, under e i t h e r c l a s s o f c i r c u m s t a n c e , i n d i v i d u a l commitment t o t h e r o l e , t e c h n i c a l competence, composure and p o i s e a r e o b v i a t e d . 100. J . C. F l u g e l , "Humor and L a u g h t e r " , G a r d i n e r L i n d z e d ed., Handbook of S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . Cambridge, A d d i s o n Wesley, V o l . 11, 1954, pp. 717-725. 101. A. J . O b r d l i k , " G a l l o w s Humor - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Phenomenon" A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l XXX X V I I , 1942. pp. 709-710. - 191 -P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g a l l o w s humor p r o v i d e s t e n s i o n r e l e a s e . R o l e d i s t a n c e w h i c h Goffman d e f i n e s as t h a t " ' e f f e c t i v e l y ' e x p r e s s e d p o i n t e d 102 s e p a r a t e n e s s between t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s p u t a t i v e r o l e " p e r m i t s a p e r i o d o f t i m e f o r r o l e abandonment w i t h i m p u n i t y . As O b r d l i k f o u n d 103 t o be t h e c a s e w i t h w a r t i m e humor, . e x p r e s s i o n s of g a l l o w s humor change p e s s i m i s t i c a t t i t u d e s o f f a i l u r e and d e a t h t o o p t i m i s t i c ones. I t h e l p s keep up t h e m o r a l e and c o h e s i v e n e s s o f the,ones who c r e a t e and e x p r e s s i t . R o l e abandonment as a group p r o c e s s i s j o k i n g and l a u g h i n g p o r t r a y a l o f t h e r o l e enactment b e c a u s e f o r example, " L i s t e n . Even a t XXX speed you'd be b u r i e d on i m p a c t ! F o r g e t i t baby, y o u ' r e dead!" o r "There w o u l d n ' t be a n y t h i n g l e f t o f y o u , you'd be b l o w n i n t o s m i t h e r i n e s ! " One w i l l t h e r e f o r e n e v e r be c a l l e d upon, and w i t h d r a m a t i z a t i o n a n x i e t y i s a l l a y e d . S e n i o r s a r e more a c c o m p l i s h e d i n p r o d u c i n g group a n x i e t y management t h a n a r e j u n i o r members. As f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o t r u s t each o t h e r s a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m under s t r e s s as a team, s u c h s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n r o l e d i s t a n c e and a p p r o p r i a t e e m o t i v e management i s p o s i t i v e l y c o n s t r u c t i v e . Such j o k i n g t e s t s and t r a i n s newer members f o r e x p r e s s i o n c o n t r o l and e s t a b l i s h e d whether t h e y would be a b l e t o 102. E. Goffman, E n c o u n t e r s , p. 108. 103. O b r d l i k , op. c i t . , pp. 709-716. - 192 -put on s e r i o u s p e r f o r m a n c e s . F o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s " t r u s t " i s s o c i a l l y p r o v a b l e by d e m o n s t r a t i n g p s y c h i c e q u i l i b r i u m and p o i s e by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g a l l o w s humor and i n immediate s w i t c h e s f r o m group humor o f t h i s k i n d t o p a s s e n g e r h o s t e s s i n g . M a l e f e m a l e p a i r s w i l l sometimes engage i n t h i s k i n d o f humor u n c o n s c i o u s l y as a f o r m of s e x play,"""^"' t h e w i n n e r o f t h i s game i s t h e one who keeps h i s c o o l and f o r c e s t h e o t h e r t o l o s e t h e i r s . The most f u n a p p e a r s t o be d e r v i e d f r o m t h e t o p i c o f h i j a c k i n g and o c c u r s d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s o f c o n s t r u c t i v e p r o c e d u r e s t o f o l l o w i n t h e e v e n t o f an a c t u a l o c c u r r e n c e . Methods o f c o p i n g a r e s e x u a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . M a l e s c o n s i s t e n t l y p r o p o s e r e a l i s t i c a c t i o n s l i k e "no a c t i o n " o r " I don't want t o be a dead h e r o . I'd s a y 'The p l a n e ' s a l l y o u r s " 1 . Out o f t h e c u l t u r a l b a ckground e x p e c t a n c i e s t h a t males a r e s t r o n g , b r a v e and r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e f e n s i v e i . e . w a r r i o r b e h a v i o r , f e m a l e s g r e e t t h e i r comments w i t h humorous r i d i c u l e , s a r c a s m and l a u g h t e r . They draw t h e men i n t o t h e i r gaming p l a n s of a c t i o n by p r o -v i d i n g p r o c e d u r e s of a c t i o n o f t h e k i n d t h a t r e v e r s e t h e p o s i t i o n o f v i c t i m f r o m t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t o n t o t h e h i j a c k e r h i m s e l f . P l a n s of a c t i o n a r e p e c u l i a r l y s u i t a b l e t o t h e equipment 1'ocated i n t h e s e t t i n g . 104. Goffman, P r e s e n t a t i o n o f S e l f , p. 217. 105. S. F r e u d , J o k e s and T h e i r R e l a t i o n t o t h e U n c o n s c i o u s , W. W. N o r t o n and Co., I n c . , 1960. pp. 100-106. - 193 -I n t h e d r a m a t i z e d s t a g i n g o f t h e change of d e f i n i t i o n o f p e r s o n s and s i t u a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y , t h e y j e s t a t h a c k i n g t h e h i j a c k e r w i t h t h e f i r e a x e , f r e e z i n g him w i t h t h e c a r b o n d i o x i d e e x t i n g u i s h e r , b u r n i n g him w i t h s c a l d i n g w a t e r f r o m t h e h o t c u p s o r s e d u c i n g him, e t c . I n t h e a c t i n g o u t , a g g r e s s i o n and t e n s i o n s a r e i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y r e l e a s e d . The p r o d u c t i o n o f a p l a n o f a c t i o n a p p e a r s t o g i v e t h e members a c e r t a i n s e c u r i t y t h a t t h e Company d i r e c t i v e o f "common-sense and good judgment" does n o t seem t o p r o v i d e . Ground p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n o r s e r v i c i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t p r i o r f l i g h t s o r d u r i n g s t a t i o n s t o p s i . e . a i r c r a f t groomers, ramp p e r s o n n e l , e t c . sometimes d i r e c t g a l l o w s t y p e humor a t t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s i n d i r e c t o r i n s i n u a t i n g ways i m p l y i n g e i t h e r t h a t t h e r i s k i s p e c u l i a r t o t h e day i . e . w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , o r as a r e a s o n a b l e e x p e c t a t i o n o f any one'day's p r o b a b i l i t y o f n o t s u r v i v i n g one more t i m e ought t o be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n c e r n i n d i c a t e s t h a t ground p e r s o n n e l who r o u t i n e l y a r e i n v o l v e d i n some a s p e c t o f f l y i n g a r e n o t a t t h e same t i m e a b l e t o p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g a b l e t o a c c e p t t h e dangers of f l y i n g 'on an o r d i n a r y e v e r y d a y b a s i s ' . I n t h a t t h e f l i g h t crews do t h e y a r e p r a i s e d , and g a i n i n esteem. G a l l o w s humor o f t h i s k i n d i s most f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d t o be d i r e c t e d a t t h e s t e w a r d e s s e s by male ground p e r s o n n e l . 106. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e p o r t e d d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a f o r m e r member o f t h a t group: These men h o l d t h e n o t i o n t h a t s t e w a r d e s s e s a r e s e x u a l c o n s o r t s o f t h e C a p t a i n s . A p r o b a b l e , h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d be t h a t t h e i r g a l l o w s humor i s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r s o c i a l s t a t u s i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e h i g h s t a t u s o f C a p t a i n s . They wou l d t h e r e f o r e be seen as n o t a c c e p t a b l e c o m p e t i t o r s f o r s t e w a r d e s s e s as s e x u a l p a r t n e r s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n t h e s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . - 194 -Pa s s e n g e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g a l l o w s t y p e humor w i t h t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t i s n e g a t i v e l y s a n c t i o n e d u n l e s s t h e y have p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d a j o k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. I n s p e a k i n g on t a c t Goffman s a y s t h a t a p e r f o r m e r ' s t a c t f u l p a r a l i n g u i s t i c use of j e s t a l l o w s h im t o l a t e r d i s c l a i m any s e r i o u s i n t e n t i o n t o t h i s u t t e r a n c e . " " " ^ I n t h e a i r c r a f t s e t t i n g , t h e r e i s a c a t e g o r y o f g a l l o w s humor t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o be p e r c e i v e d as t a c t l e s s l y made remarks w h i c h cannot be t a c t f u l l y i g n o r e d even though t h e y appear t o be i n n o c e n t l y made and f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s a r e engaged i n t o t e a s e o r goad t h e s t e w a r d e s s o r show o f f i n f r o n t o f one's f e l l o w m a l e companions. D i r e c t comments o r ones o v e r h e a r d t o be made, w h i c h i n any way c o n n e c t t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a bomb on b o a r d i n i t i a t e s a r e p o r t i n g t h r o u g h crew n e t -works and n o t i f i c a t i o n by t h e C a p t a i n t o Company and p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s t h a t a p a s s e n g e r had made a r e f e r e n c e t h a t t h r e a t e n e d t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e l i v e s o f t h e p e r s o n s on b o a r d . When t h i s s i t u a t i o n d e v e l o p s d u r i n g b o a r d i n g t h e p a s s e n g e r i s d e p l a n e d by one o r b o t h o f f i c i a l s . I n d e n y i n g him p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t u s he i s i n f o r m a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d as d e v i a n t . He may s u b s e q u e n t l y be d e n i e d p a s s a g e on t h e a i r l i n e . P o l i c e i n t e r r o g a t e and s e a r c h t h e s e p e r s o n s and may f o r m a l l y c h a r g e them depending on t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I t i s n o t known whether a i r l i n e s c o o p e r a t e . t o keep a f i l e onHsuch p e r s o n s s i m i l a r 107. Goffman, P r e s e n t a t i o n o f S e l f , p. 234. - 195 -to the 'skip-chain' f i l e which f i r s t - c l a s s hotels keep on persons who 108 leave without paying their b i l l s or who are classed as undesirable. In either setting, those directly connected with the public have procedures and basis by and on which decisions are made to deny p a r t i c i -pants contextual status on the grounds of improper social behavior. One of the concerns with impression management i s with how 109 things appear to other participants. The removal of the deviant established the fact that persons responsible for safety are serious about their duties. In the eyes of those who remain that know of the offense, i s the fact that their own responsibilities to maintain the social order of the occasion i s a serious responsibility and i f violated w i l l be noted and acted upon. Unlike remarks on service or i.e. quality of food, which can be tactfully ignored, gallows humor is to be recognized as consequential. 110 Dramatizing Survival The passenger audience i s created for the dramatization that in the event of an accidental fateful occurrence, survival i s a mutual 108. Participation observation at the front-desk of a f i r s t class hotel, passive observation combined with the role of switchboard operator and front-desk clerk. 109. Goffman, op. c i t . , p. 237. 110. In this section the writer i s highly indebted to Goffman's Presentation of Self. - 196 -r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The p e r f o r m e r s i n t h e f r o n t r e g i o n b e f o r e t h e i r a u d i e n c e d e m o n s t r a t e t h e emergency equipment - oxygen mask, l i f e j a c k e t -and t h e S a f e t y F e a t u r e s C a r d w h i c h o u t l i n e s emergency e v a c u a t i o n r o u t e s , by a s y n c h r o n i z e d pantomime t o t h e announcers v e r b a l p a r t w h i c h i s d e l i v e r e d on t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s system from a b a c k r e g i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r e p a r e d n e s s f o r f a t e f u l t e r m i n a t i o n s t o t h e o c c a s i o n as a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y i s c o i n c i d e n t a l w i t h t h e i r r o u t i n e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f an o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e k i n d t h e y a r e p o i n t i n g o u t i s n o t v e r y h i g h . The r e a l i t y o f t h e danger and r i s k s t a k e n i s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d , n or i s i t framed i n l i f e and d e a t h terms. F o r example, t h e oxygen b r i e f i n g l a c k s any t o n e o f emergency, i t s a y s " I f oxygen i s r e q u i r e d . . . . " I t i s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e knows t h a t t h e oxygen mask i s f o r t h e ev e n t o f a c c i d e n t a l d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s . They a r e n o t i n s t r u c t e d t h a t t h e i r l a c k o f immediate a c t i o n r e s u l t s i n t h e i r l o s s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h a t d e a t h s have o c c u r r e d and a r e a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y , o r t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l be t a k e n i n t o an immediate nose d i v e by t h e p i l o t s and t h e y m i g h t s u f f e r i n j u r i e s . I n t h a t t h e p e r f o r m e r s a r e aware o f t h e s e consequences t h e y a r e f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r r o l e o f s a f e t y management by t h e h i g h d e g r e e of a u d i e n c e i n a t t e n t i o n , b e s i d e s t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s a n o r m a l e x p e c t a t i o n o f an a c t o r t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e w i l l a t t e n d . A r e c e n t s u r v e y - 197 -c a r r i e d o u t by t h e F l i g h t S a f e t y F o u n d a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y 15% of t h e p a s s e n g e r s u n d e r s t o o d t h e oxygen b r i e f i n g , o n l y 25% knew where t h e i r l i f e v e s t was l o c a t e d and l e s s t h a n 10% o f a l l p a s s e n g e r s l o o k e d a t t h e i r emergency i n s t r u c t i o n c a r d s t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h e v a c u a t i o n routes.1"'""'" I t was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o a n a l y z e t h e pr o b l e m s of s t a g i n g and team d r a m a t i z a t i o n p e c u l i a r t o t h e s e t t i n g . The p roblems o f s u s t a i n i n g p r o p e r a u d i e n c e a t t e n t i o n may be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1) T i m i n g The a c t c a n be s t a g e d o n l y a f t e r t h e a i r c r a f t door i s c l o s e d t o p r e v e n t i t b e i n g r u p t u r e d by l a t e e n t r y o f a u d i e n c e . I t i s p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g t h e t a x i p e r i o d and t h e a u d i e n c e i s i n v o l v e d i n competing i n t e r e s t s i . e . w a v i n g a l a s t goodbye, g e t t i n g s e t t l e d more c o m f o r t a b l y , w a t c h i n g a n o t h e r a i r c r a f t l a n d i n g , e t c . 2) P h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y o f p e r f o r m e r and a u d i e n c e : t h e s e a t e d a u d i e n c e and s t a n d i n g p e r f o r m e r a r e on t h e same f l o o r l e v e l w h i c h r e s u l t s i n v i s u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s b e c a u s e some a r e t o o c l o s e and o t h e r s too f a r away t o v i e w t h e a c t comfortably;; To compensate f o r t h o s e f a r away, i f t h e p e r f o r m e r 111. " I s anybody l i s t e n i n g ? No S i r e e . . . . I t ' s y o u r j o b t o see t h a t t h e y do", Stewardess News, Feb. V o l . 4 #3, 1970, p. 15. - 198 -moves down the aisle during the performance he/she turns their back on part of the audience and cuts them off from the act. They must therefore remain stationary. 3 . Interactional unavailability of a pantomime performer: the performer must be in position before the announcer can begin his part. This leaves the performers vulnerable to passenger initiated interactions because of their proximity. Because they do not have a verbal part they can easily carry on side involvement, although the two roles are incongurous and downgrade the serious nature of the primary pantomime act. Out of an attachment to their safety management role a f l i g h t attendant might verbally demand a f i r s t flighter to pay attention but out of a sense of proper kinds of disturbances would leave unanswered a question lik e "When do we get bar?" unt i l released from the act by the announcer. As a means of preventing interference and communicating unavailability some performers turn their backs on the audience u n t i l they are required to perform. Only a semblance of an entry to a stage is available to the performer. The one In the f i r s t class cabin can cope by using the galley for exiting out of and into, and the per-former at the front of the economy cabin can use the curtain dividng the cabins similarly. - 199 -4. A u d i e n c e s p o i l i n g o f p e r f o r m a n c e : c h i l d r e n have a t e n d e n c y t o g r a b a t d e m o n s t r a t i o n a r t i c l e s . T h i s r e s u l t s i n d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e a c t o r a s t r u g g l e f o r p o s s e s s i o n by t h e a c t o r , and may c a u s e t h e w h o l e a c t t o be l o s t o r abandoned. When t h e p e r f o r m e r i s a f e m a l e , s e x u a l l y a g g r e s s i v e and e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c males sometimes d e r i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n and 112 p l e a s u r e by, f o r example, a t t a c h i n g t h e l o o s e end o f t h e oxygen mask t u b i n g t o some p a r t o f t h e i r body o r b l o w i n g i n t o i t w h i l e i t i s on h e r f a c e . A p e r f o r m e r who i s u n s k i l l e d i n s t a g e p r e s e n c e may be embarrassed as b o t h a c t o r and a c t a r e p r o f a n e d . The s e a t e d p a s s e n g e r has t h e a d v a n t a g e i n t h a t he r e m a i n s anonymous w h i l e h e r embarrassment i s p u b l i c and t o most v i e w e r s u n a c c o u n t a b l e f o r . N o r m a l l y t h e i n f l a t i o n t a b s on t h e l i f e v e s t a r e m e r e l y d i s p l a y e d , on t h e r a r e o c c a s i o n a male p a s s e n g e r w i l l j e r k them and a c t i v a t e t h e v e s t . T h i s i s accompanied by a n o i s e l o u d enough t o g a i n t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e a u d i e n c e . 112. S. F r e u d , J o k e s and T h e i r R e l a t i o n t o t h e U n c o n s c i o u s , New Y o r k , W. W. N o r t o n and Co. I n c . , 1960, pp. 100-144. - 200 -S t a g i n g p roblems a l s o r e s u l t f r o m i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e team f a i l u r e s o f t h e p e r f o r m e r s . S t a n d a r d i z e d announcements a r e r e q u i r e d t o be u s e d , t h e y a r e changed p e r i o d i c a l l y w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a l l p e r f o r m e r s have s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s o f t h e a c t i n t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e . F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s , male and f e m a l e , a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e as an n o u n c e r s ; th e f o r m a l r u l e i s t h a t a l l announcements a r e t o be made by t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t who can pro d u c e t h e b e s t r e s u l t s i . e . v o i c e c u l t u r e , d e l i v e r y . , t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y w i t h m icrophone t e l e p h o n e - h a n d s e t , s t a g e p r e s e n c e , e t c . F o r e i g n l a n g u a g e announcements a r e made by t h o s e who speak t h e p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e as t h e i r mother tongue, i t i s i n a d m i s s i b l e t o p r a c t i s e a t a l a n g u a g e . E s p e c i a l l y w i t h s t a g i n g , t h e u s u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r i s t h a t s t e w a r d e s s e s and a s s i s t a n t p u r s e r s do pantomime p a r t s and p u r s e r s a r e an n o u n c e r s . T h e r e a r e b a s i c a l l y f i v e p r o b l e m a r e a s w h i c h a f f e c t d r a m a t u r g i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s : 1) I n i t i a t i o n o f t h e a c t : I t i s common t h a t p e r f o r m e r s a r e l o c a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f t h e a i r c r a f t d o i n g o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t h e t a x i p e r i o d and t h e r e i s a d i f f i c u l t y o f c o o r d i n a t i n g t h o s e r e q u i r e d s e r v i c e s t o t h e s t a g i n g o f t h e a c t . Announcers w i l l sometimes b e g i n t h e i r p a r t w i t h o u t c h e c k i n g whether t h e o t h e r a c t o r s a r e r e a d y t o p e r f o r m . The u s u a l w a r n i n g t h a t he i s about t o b e g i n and t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o be a t t h e i r s t a g e p o s i t i o n s i s made by c l i c k i n g n o i s e s a c r o s s t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s system. - 201 -S y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f p a r t s : Announcers must use a p r o p e r pace. Those who speak too f a s t , l o s e t h e i r pantomime team and t h o s e who speak too s l o w cause t h e pantomime a c t o r t o f e e l l i k e a 'slow m o t i o n ' s t u d y . I n e i t h e r c a s e t h e c a b i n p e r f o r m e r i s p u b l i c l y f r u s t r a t e d as t h e a c t i o n s a r e i n c o h e r e n t . I n c o h e r e n t a c t i o n s a r e a l s o p r o duced by an announcer u s i n g an announcement w h i c h i s n o t c u r r e n t o r i s an ad l i b p r o d u c t i o n . A c t o r i n a t t e n t i o n : T h e r e i s t h e common p r o b l e m o f boredom i n p r o d u c i n g an a c t r i t u a l l y so t h a t m a i n t a i n i n g awareness i s a problem. I t sometimes happens t h a t an announcer 'comes t o ' when he i s d i s t r a c t e d o r g e t s l o s t i n a r o t e d e l i v e r y , and a p e r f o r m e r m i g h t 'come t o ' a f t e r p e r f o r m i n g some i n c o h e r e n t a c t when she r e a l i z e s t h a t an ad l i b v e r s i o n i s used w h i l e she was p e r f o r m i n g a s t a n d a r d v e r s i o n . A p e r f o r m e r w i l l sometimes as a means o f c o p i n g w i t h s p a c e p r e s s u r e s make h i m ( h e r ) s e l f u n a v a i l a b l e t o i n t e r a c t i o n i n i t i a t i o n s by assuming a d i s t r a c t e d a t t i t u d e , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e w i t h d r a w a l i s e x c e s s i v e and t h e p e r f o r m a n c e i s a b s e n t m i n d e d l y and i n c o h e r e n t l y p r e s e n t e d i f t h e announcers p a r t i s n o t s t a n d a r d . M e n t a l w i t h d r a w a l i s sometimes a n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f " p h y s i c a l e x h a u s t i o n . F o r example: a) a d u t y p e r i o d o f f o u r t e e n h o u r s o r i g i n a t i n g a t an o v e r s e a s p o i n t , b) o n s e t o f d u t y p e r i o d i s i n t h e - 202 -early night shift hours of home base geographic time zone, c) there are two enroute stops which means at least three partial passenger load changes, d) one hot meal is boarded for the cabin crew for the f i r s t f l i g h t leg of seven hours while the passengers receive a hot meal 'and' a sandwich snack, e) 'no food hot or cold' i s boarded for the cabin crew in the remaining seven hours of their work day but they are required to serve a hot meal to passengers on each of the two remaining short flight legs. An overlong duty period combined with the requirement for high sociability and fast work performance etc., combined with lack of nourishment, are not conducive to mental efficiency and a high degree of awareness. Lack of dramaturgical discipline: resulting in announcer voice fractures, hesitations, stammering etc. and stage-fright of cabin performers resulting in faces of apprehen-sion, self consciousness, flustered behavior, blushing etc. Training and testing of dramaturgical discipline: coworkers engage in testing and teasing each other while the act is on. A f l i g h t attendant from a back region position mimes or parodies the cabin actor or assumes an exaggerated and humorous audience pose. The performer who succumbs is not - 203 -a bona-fide actor. The announcer in the back region i s razed, f l i r t e d with etc. and may have to cover up his failure to maintain his poise by coughing, throat clearing or apologies, and when he does so he communicates to his coactors in the cabin that a game is on; so that i t also happens that they are required to pretend not to know and to perform as usual. Such testing i s generally seen as a challenge, not to pick i t up means a loss of face. It may be initiated by an actor desiring to show off his/her excellence and sophistication. The entire work unit or performance team might engage in gaming and boisterous horseplay and immediately switch to their actors role and stage the act with superb nonchalance. Unlike the real anger expressed between actors after other kinds of impression management failures, anger in this particular case i s always mock anger. - 204 -B. Summary and c o n c l u d i n g remarks T h e r e was an a t t e m p t i n t h i s p a p e r t o r e p r o d u c e t h e l a y s o c i o l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g p r a c t i s e d by t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t crew i n t h e eve r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e i r work s e t t i n g . A f l i g h t was t h e u n i t o f s t u d y and as much as p o s s i b l e r e s t r i c t i o n s were made t o i n c l u d e o n l y s u c h m a t e r i a l f o r a n a l y s i s as was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s o c i a l o c c a s i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e Company r e f e r s t o t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t o c c u p a t i o n as a p r o f e s s i o n and t h e p u b l i c r e f e r t o i t i n t h o s e terms i n t h e i r l e t t e r s o f c o m p l a i n t , t h e members a r e u n i o n i z e d , have no l e n g t h y t r a i n i n g by w h i c h t h e y c o u l d a c q u i r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s , and have no code o f e t h i c s , as f o r example t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n s do, by w h i c h t h e y c o u l d r i g h t f u l l y c l a i m p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d i n g . As a p u b l i c s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n , t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s t r i p l e r o l e and range o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o n f l i c t w i t h each o t h e r . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t some p e r s o n s a r e more committed t o one r o l e and a r e l a x i n a n o t h e r . Team work p e r f o r m a n c e s and group c o h e s i v e n e s s a r e p r o b l e m a t i c t o e s t a b l i s h when t h e r a n g e o f s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s v a r i e s g r e a t l y between p e r s o n s . F o r example, when a g r a d u a t e f r o m a European f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l i s r e q u i r e d t o work a l o n g s i d e a n o t h e r who does n o t even have a h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n , when t h e fo r m e r model o r b e a u t y c o n t e s t w i n n e r i s p a i r e d w i t h a dowdy - 205 -u n a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n , when t h e f o r m e r s e c r e t a r y , n u r s e o r t e a c h e r w i t h s o c i a l p o i s e and p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e has t o work w i t h t h e immature g i g g l y s t e w a r d e s s w i t h no ..previous o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , s o c i a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l be s t r a i n e d . Any one member's p r e s t i g e i n a work u n i t v a r i e s w i t h t h e s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e c o w o r k e r s i n t h e team. They a f f e c t t h e s t a b i l i t y o f s u p e r i o r / s u b o r d i n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r e q u i r e t h a t a l l members be p l i a b l e t o d e v i a t i o n s i n r a n k i n g w h i c h o c c u r s due t o crew impermanency. Of t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , t h e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t s who have been h i r e d i n Europe, who a r e t h e r e f o r e European b o r n and e d u c a t e d , a r e t h e l a r g e s t subgroup who f e e l t h e m s e l v e s t o be s u p e r i o r t o t h e a v e r a g e f l i g h t a t t e n d a n t . T h e i r manner o f e s t a b l i s h i n g f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s d i f f e r s f r o m N o r t h A m e r i c a n p r a c t i c e s . They c o m p l a i n o f f e e l i n g s o f i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e group and o f estrangement f r o m N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e . T h e r e i s a g e n e r a l tendency t o f o r m e x c l u s i v e f r i e n d s h i p bonds between t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r European b o r n p e o p l e o u t s i d e o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l group. F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s t h e y a r e a l s o somewhat r e s e n t e d and m i s u n d e r s t o o d by t h e i r c o w o r k e r s . P u b l i c l y v i s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l s e r v i c e s t o customers a r e an outcome o f t h e d i f f e r i n g needs of c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f p e r s o n s , s u c h as p r e b o a r d s , t h o s e s u f f e r i n g u n e x p e c t e d m e d i c a l c r i s e s , t h o s e who demand e x t r a s e r v i c e s , members o f o t h e r c u l t u r a l o r e t h n i c g r o u p s - 206 -and so on. The m a r k e t i n g frame o f r e f e r e n c e w i t h i t s i n h e r e n t n o t i o n o f e q u a l s e r v i c e s t o a l l i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s work s e t t i n g . P a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h t h e l o w e s t r a t e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e c a b i n crew a r e t h o s e c a t e g o r i z e d as competent p a r t i c i p a n t s who know t h e r u l e s o f t h e s e t t i n g and o c c a s i o n , and who comply w i t h them. These a r e more so p e r s o n s who f l y r e g u l a r l y o r f r e q u e n t l y . An i n - g r o u p l a b e l f o r a d o m e s t i c f l i g h t has i n t h e p a s t y e a r changed f r o m 'The C a r d i a c S p e c i a l ' t o 'The H i p p i e S p e c i a l ' . T h i s can be t a k e n as an i n d i c a t o r o f p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n change, and c o n s e q u e n t l y o f a d j u s t m e n t s r e q u i r e d t o be made between a l l p a r t i c i -p a n t s t o d i f f e r e n t modes o f p u b l i c b e h a v i o u r . S u p e r v i s o r s a t t h e t e r m i n a l c h e c k - i n c o u n t e r s a t t h e c e n t r a l Company b a s e have as a r e s u l t made a f o r m a l r e q u e s t f o r s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s t o be used f o r 113 r e j e c t i n g t h o s e who a r e n o t p r o p e r l y a t t i r e d and groomed. T h e r e i s an o r i e n t a t i o n t o f l y i n g as a s p e c i a l k i n d o f o c c a s i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g d r e s s d e c r e e t h a t Sunday c l o t h e s r a t h e r t h a n work c l o t h e s be worn. I n a d d i t i o n , t h a t more f o r m a l r a t h e r t h a n i n f o r m a l b e h a v i o u r i s e x p e c t e d . I n t h i s r e s p e c t shoes s h o u l d be worn, p e r s o n s s h o u l d n o t b o a r d an a i r c r a f t b a r e f o o t ; women s h o u l d n o t appear w i t h c u r l e r s i n t h e i r h a i r , male f e m a l e c o u p l e s s h o u l d 113. I n t e r n a l Company o r g a n . - 207 -n o t s l e e p t o g e t h e r on a row o f s e a t s , and so on. I n t h a t s u c h b e h a v i o u r does o c c u r t h e r e a r e i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t r a i n s i n t h e s e t t i n g . The o r g a n i z a t i o n f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i t h r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r a l l k i n d s o f s i t u a t i o n s , o r w i t h p r o p e r k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on p a s s e n g e r p o p u l a t i o n s f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l enactment o f t h e o c c a s i o n , has been accommodated t o by t h e w o r k e r s by i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a t t e r n s o f coworker s e l e c t i o n w h i c h r e l i e s on f l o a t i n g b i o g r a p h i e s , and on t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e members t o f o r m u l a t e c o g n i t i v e v i s u a l maps t o a s s i s t them i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s . The p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l arrangement and o u t e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s b e a r i n g on t h e o c c a s i o n ' s s o c i a l o r d e r p l a c e s a r e q u i r e m e n t on t h e crew t o u t i l i z e t h e i r f o r m a l power p o s i t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n p r o p e r p a r t i c i p a n t b e h a v i o u r , a l s o t o l i m i t a c c e s s t o r e g i o n s and d e f i n e t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . V a r i e d d e grees o f p e r s o n a l i z e d o r i m p e r s o n a l i z e d s e r v i c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e n o t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y o r p u b l i c l y p r e f e r r e d b u t a r e i n e f f e c t a d i r e c t outcome of f l i g h t t i m e r e s t r i c t i o n s and amount o f work t o be p e r f o r m e d . A v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o be added h e r e a l s o i s t h e p a s s e n g e r imposed group p r e s s u r e s w h i c h work t o e f f e c t a t i m e l i m i t a t i o n t o any s e r v i c e a c t i v i t y . F o r example, i f a meal s e r v i c e i n t h e economy c a b i n exceeds one and one h a l f h o u r s o r i f a s n a c k s e r v i c e exceeds h a l f an hour p a s s e n g e r s g e t up and move about i n t h e - 208 -a i s l e s , go t o t h e washrooms o r ba c k r e g i o n s and t h e r e b y d i s r u p t t h e smoothness of on g o i n g s e r v i c e s . E s p e c i a l l y when t h e meal t r o l l e y i s i n t h e a i s l e , c o n f l i c t s o c c u r o v e r a i s l e occupancy as p a s s e n g e r s cannot p a s s i n t h e two i n c h f r e e s p a c e zone and some accommodation t o t h e i r d e s i r e t o pass i s r e q u i r e d . T h i s l e n g t h e n s t h e s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a -t i o n , imposes on t h e crew a need f o r i m p e r s o n a l i z e d s e r v i c e i n t e r a c t i o n s and i t s a t t e n d a n t b r i e f c o m m u nication p a t t e r n s , and r e q u i r e s t e n s i o n management. Such p r a c t i c e s a r e a l o g i c a l outcome of s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d t o r e s u l t f r o m a b u r e a u c r a t i c s y s t e m and th o u g h t t o be f o u n d i n a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . The s o c i a l o c c a s i o n i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y p r o d u c e d as a ' s a f e 114 but dangerous' e v e n t and i s so d r a m a t i z e d by t h e team, e s p e c i a l l y p r i o r r i t u a l s o f pas s a g e o f t h e o c c a s i o n f o r w h i c h f o r m a l r i t u a l o b s e r v a n c e s a r e e x p e c t e d o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . Norms o f a c c e p t a b l e conduct i n t h e s e t t i n g a r e l i m i t e d i n r a n g e , p o l i c i n g p r a c t i c e s a r e r o u t i n e l y p e r f o r m e d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . D e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r t h e r e f o r e has consequences t o any p a r t i c i p a n t ' s f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o c c a s i o n s o f t h e k i n d . 114. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e c a r e e r f i l e s w h i c h h e l p s t o d e f i n e t h e o c c u p a t i o n as a dangerous one i s t h e mandatory ' p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ' f o r m . I t i s used by t h e Company t o i d e n t i f y human r e m a i n s o f c a b i n crew members i n t h e event o f an a i r c r a f t a c c i d e n t t h a t r e s u l t s i n d e a t h . - 209 -The ethnographic areas covered result out of personal choice and in no way represent completely the social organization inflight or in the setting. Many of the problem areas covered were i n i t i a l l y so defined by coworkers during their everyday routine work performances. Although some of the findings are generalizeable to any infl i g h t period, they are particularly relevant to human relations on jet aircraft commercial fl i g h t s . BIBLIOGRAPHY P r i n t e d S o urces I Y e a r b o o k s U.N. 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