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The Church of the Gesuati in Venice O'Kelly, John Brian 1972

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THE CHURCH OF THE GESUATI IN VENICE by John B r i a n 0 ' K e l l y B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE" OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of FINE ARTS We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandards : THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 197 2 In present ing t h i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make it free1y avai1 able for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying o f th is t h e s i s fo r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f th is thes is f o r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion . Department of E i n e A r t s The Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e J u l y , 1972. ABSTRACT The purpose, o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine i n d e t a i l one e igh teen th -cen tu ry Vene t ian church , S t a . Mar i a d e l R o s a r i o , o r , as i t i s commonly known, the G e s u a t i . The church p rov ides an i d e a l example i n the s t u d y . o f Vene t i an a r t , not o n ly because i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e and decora t ions are e n t i r e l y e igh teen th cen-t u r y , but a l s o because i t r epresen ts the work o f the f i n e s t r a r t i s t s of the t ime . The e n t i r e church was designed by G i o r g i o Massa r i and every f i g u r e and b a s - r e l i e f scene i n the i n t e r i o r was made by Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . _ The pa in t ed d e c o r a t i o n s , t oo , are examples o f the work by the l e a d i n g a r t i s t s i n V e n i c e . A l t a r p i e c e s here are the work o f G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o , Giambat-t i s t a P i a z z e t t a , and Sebast iano R i c c i . Four magni f i cen t f r e s -coes , the work o f T i e p o l o as w e l l , adorn the c e i l i n g . An examinat ion of the Gesua t i o f f e r s an i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of r e l i g i o u s a r t i n V e n i c e . The t r a d i t i o n a l preconcep-t i o n of eighteenths-century Venice i s t ha t i t was a comple te ly decadent, v a i n wor ld of gay c a r n i v a l s , and tha t i t was a t o u r i s t ' s p a r a d i s e , where masks h i d the i d e n t i t y o f the peop le , and impress ions o f the c i t y were to be captured i n views p a i n t -ed by C a n a l e t t o . To a c e r t a i n ex t en t , the mood of t h i s c o l o u r f u l wor ld i s found i n r e l i g i o u s a r t . The l i g h t , P a l l a d i a n church o f the Gesua t i houses e legant b a s - r e l i e f scenes d e p i c t i n g the l i f e o f C h r i s t and s c u l p t u r e s of Old and New Testament f i g u r e s . Many of the p a i n t i n g s "breathe' ' w i t h space and l i g h t . B r i g h t 1 1 colours and p l a y f u l p u t t i create the l i g h t mood of the Rococo. However, there i s , i n one altarpiece by Piazzetta, a com-pl e t e l y d i f f e r e n t mood. In his painting,. Piezzetta depicts his figures i n a r e l i g i o u s mystical experience. This mood i s , to a cer t a i n extent, also conveyed i n Tiepolo's altarpiece. In iconographical terms, the Gesuati decorations are serious. Religion does play an important role in.eighteenth-century Venice. The Gesuati i s a Dominican church, and the Dominicans i n Venice had already, by the eighteenth century, been commissioning r e l i g i o u s paintings and sculptures for many hundreds of years. The paintings i n the Gesuati represent the glory of the Dominican Order and the figures that played an. important part i n i t s long history; the sculptures symbolize the v i c t o r y of f a i t h . TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i Page INTRODUCTION . . , ; , 1 CHAPTER I The S a i n t s Represented i n the G e s u a t i . . 3 CHAPTER I I The A r c h i t e c t u r e of the Gesua t i and Re la ted Churches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 CHAPTER I I I The Pa in t ed Decora t ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 CHAPTER IV The S c u l p t u r a l Programme 65 CONCLUSION i 85 NOTES ; . . . 92 BIBLIOGRAPHY; . 110 ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . 116 • i v LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F igu re Page 1 Giuseppe S a r d i (c. 1621-1699). 116 S. Lazzaro d e i Mend ican t ! . 2 Giuseppe S a r d i . 117 Church of the S c a l z i . 3 Domenico R o s s i (1657-1737). 118 S. S tae . 4 Andrea T i r a l i (1657-1737). 119 S. N i c o l o da, T o l e n t i n o . 5 Andrea T i r a l i . 12° S. V i d a l . 6 Giovann i S c a l f a r o t t o (c. 1690-1764). 121 S. Simeone P i c c o l o . 7 A t t r i b . Gian Antonio Guard i (1699-1760). 122 View of the Z a t t e r e ; B e r l i n - D a h l e m , Museen. 8 View o f the Church of the Dominican Fathers at the Z a t t e r e . Engraving from the 1740 e d i t i o n 123 of the F o r e s t i e r e T l l u m i n a t o (showing a l s o , at the l e f t , S. Gerolamo). 9 G i o r g i o M a s s a r i (1687-1766). 124 Church of the Gesua t i Facade. > 10 Lorenzo B o s c h e t t i ( a c t i v e 1749-1776) .. i 2 5 S. Barnaba. • 11 P l an of the Church and Monastery of the 126 G e s u a t i . 12 G i o r g i o M a s s a r i . 127 Church of the Gesua t i - I n t e r i o r . 13 Sebast iano R i c c i (.1659-1734) . S a i n t s Thomas Aqu inas , P iu s V , and  Pet e r r M a r t y r . G e s u a t i . 128 14 G i a m b a t t i s t a p i a z z e t t a (1683-1754). 1 2 g S a i n t s V i n c e n t F e r r e r , H y a c i n t h , and L o u i s Berbrand. G e s u a t i . G i a m b a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a and-Gian M a r i a M o r l a i t e r (c. 1699-1781). S t . Dominic and The G l o r y o f A n g e l s . G e s u a t i . G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o (1696-1770). S t . Dominic  I n s t i t u t i n g the Rosary . G e s u a t i . Francesco L o r e n z i (1723-1787). Drawing o f , S t . Dominic I n s t i t u t i n g the Rosary , The A r t I n s t i t u t e o f Chicago , Char les Deer ing C o l l . G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o . The V i r g i n Hearing the Prayers o f S t . Dominic . G e s u a t i . G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o . The .G lo ry o f . S t . . D o m i n i c . G e s u a t i . G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o . The Angel Appear ing to D a v i d . G e s u a t i . Francesco L o r e n z i . Drawing of The©Angel Appearing t o . D a v i d . Verona, MusSo : d i C a s t e i v e c c h i o . G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o . Madonna w i t h S a i n t s Rose, Ca the r ine of  S i e n a , and.Agnes of Montepu lc iano . G e s u a t i . A t t r i b . Francesco Zugno (1708 or 1709-1787) . The B i r t h of C h r i s t (centre). . The V i s i t a t i o n ( l e f t ) , The P r e s e n t a t i o n of C h r i s t i n the  Temple ( r i g h t ) . G e s u a t i . A t t r i b . Francesco Zugno. The Scourging of C h r i s t ( c en t r e ) , The Agony i n  the Garden ( l e f t ) . G e s u a t i . A t t r i b . Francesco Zugno. C h r i s t C a r r y i n g the C r o s s . G e s u a t i . G i a m b a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a . The G l o r y o f S t . Dominic . SS. G iovann i e P a o l o . Gaetano F u s a l i . Prudence. G e s u a t i . v i F i g u r e Page 28 Francesco Bonazza ( ac t i ve 1729-1770). 143 J u s t i c e . G e s u a t i . 29 Giuseppe T o r r e t t i . 144 F o r t i t u d e . G e s u a t i . 30 A l v i s e T a g l i a p i e t r a ( a c t i v e 1708 - before 1760). Temperance. G e s u a t i . 14 5 31. Gian M a r i a M o r l a i t e r . Moses. G e s u a t i . 146 32 Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . Aaron . G e s u a t i . 147 33 Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . St.. P a u l . G e s u a t i . 148 34 Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . S t . P e t e r . G e s u a t i . .- 149 35 Gian M a r i a M o r l a i t e r . Me1chi s edec h . G e s u a t i . 150 36 Gian M a r i a M o r l a i t e r . Abraham. G e s u a t i . 151 37 Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . C h r i s t and: the: Magdalene. G e s u a t i . 152 38 Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . C h r i s t and the Samar i tan . G e s u a t i . 153 39 Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . I n c r e d u l i t y of S t . Thomas. G e s u a t i . . 154 40 Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . Bapt ism of . Christ .-• G e s u a t i . ' 155 41 F i a n Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . M i r a c l e of the Hea l ing of the B l i n d Man. 156 G e s u a t i . 42 Gian M a r i a M o r l a i t e r . St.- Pe te r Walking on the Water. G e s u a t i . 43 Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . M i r a c l e of the P a r a l y t i c . Gesua t i 158 44 Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . The Cen tu r ion P l ead ing fo r the Hea l th of h i s .Servant . G e s u a t i . 159 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr . George Knox who suggested the t o p i c of t h i s t h e s i s and whose adv ice throughout the. year helped me g r e a t l y . I would a l s o l i k e to extend s p e c i a l thanks to Dr . Graham Smith who o f f e red me many h e l p f u l sugges t ions regard ing the iconography o f the s c u l p t u r a l programme of the G e s u a t i . INTRODUCTION -The church o f Santa Mar i a d e l R o s a r i o , commonly known as the G e s u a t i / can be used as an example fo r an a n a l y s i s of r e l i g -ious a r t i n e igh teen th -cen tu ry V e n i c e . The church d i s p l a y s work by the l e a d i n g a r t i s t s o f the t ime - G i o r g i o M a s s a r i , the a r c h i -t e c t , Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r , who was r e s p o n s i b l e fo r a l l the s c u l p t u r e i n the i n t e r i o r of the church , and three p a i n t e r s , Sebast iano R i c c i and G i a m b a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a , who pa in ted a l t a r -p i e c e s , and G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o , who, i n a d d i t i o n to p a i n t i n g 1 one a l t a r p i e c e , r e c e i v e d , the commission to decorate the c e i l i n g . R u s k i n , i n h i s f i r s t e d i t i o n of The Stones of V e n i c e , l i s t s the church i n h i s "Venet ian Index", but q u i c k l y d i smis ses i t as 2 being "of no impor tance" . The church , r ega rd l e s s o f R u s k i n 1 s judgment, i s ve ry important because i t i s a complete example o f e igh teen th -cen tu ry Vene t i an a r t , t ha t i s , the a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c u l p t u r e s , and p a i n t i n g s were a l l executed i n one century by 3 the l e a d i n g Vene t i an a r t i s t s . The examinat ion o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r church o f f e r s an i n -s i g h t i n t o the na ture , not on ly of r e l i g i o u s a r t i n g e n e r a l , but a l s o of Dominican a r t and the importance o f the r e l i g i o u s 4 Orders i n V e n i c e . The Dominican Order had had a w e l l - e s t a b -l i s h e d ; h i s t o r y i n Vene t i an a r t i n the church of SS. , G iovann i e P a o l o , which represents a r t i n Venice from the t h i r t e e n t h 5 century up u n t i l the e igh t een th . The Gesua t i o f f e r s comple te ly e igh teen th -cen tu ry example of Dominican iconography and shows 2 The continuing importance of the Dominicans i n Venice at t h i s 6 time. In addition to understanding something about Dominican iconography, we can, from a. study of the Gesuati, observe the nature of late Palladianism i n Venice and Massari's place i n 7 r e l a t i o n to other eighteenth-century ar c h i t e c t s . An examin-ation of the painted decorations allows us to make some evalu-ation of the nature of Venetian Rococo and R i c c i 1 s T i e p o l o 1 s , and Piazzetta's reaction, acceptance,. modification, or r e j e c t i o n 8 of i t . F i n a l l y , the Gesuati offers an insight into the varied Rococo styles of Morlaiter.- In comparing the works of art i n the Gesuati to each other and to related works of the period, we can arrive at a conclusion concerning the nature of art i n Venice i n the eighteenth-century. CHAPTER I THE SAINTS REPRESENTED IN THE GESUATI. The Church o f the Gesua t i con ta ins three a l t a r p i e c e s and th ree c e i l i n g f rescoes which d e p i c t Dominican s a i n t s . In t h i s church are an a l t a r p i e c e by G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o of S a i n t s Ca ther ine of S i e n a , Rose .of L ima , and. Agnes, an a l t a r p i e c e by Sebast iano R i c c i of Sa in t s P iu s V , Thomas, and Pe te r M a r t y r , a n a l t a r p i e c e by G i a m b a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a o f S a i n t s V i n c e n t F e r r e r , H y a c i n t h , and L o u i s B e r t r a n d , and c e i l i n g f rescoes by Giambat-1 t i s t a T i e p o l o of S t . Dominic . There, pa in t ed decora t ions make the Gesua t i i n t o a monument commemorating the g l o r y o f the Dominican Order and the fame of the f i g u r e s who p layed a l e a d i n g 2 r o l e i n i t s h i s t o r y . There fore , i t i s wor thwhi le to b r i e f l y o u t l i n e the l i v e s of the s a i n t s represented i n the p a i n t i n g s . S t . Dominic (c. 1170-1221) was born i n the kingdom of ' 3 C a s t i l e , at Ca la roga i n the d iocese of Osma. Legend t e l l s t ha t when the young Dominic was being b a p t i z e d h i s godmother saw 4 a s t a r come down from heaven and r e s t upon h i s forehead. Th i s s t a r was to become the t r a d i t i o n a l symbol fo r S t . Dominic i n 5 p a i n t i n g s . For seven years he s tud i ed under the a r c h p r i e s t , and,, i n 1184, Domin ic , a l r eady a s e r ious and devoted s tudent , entered the U n i v e r s i t y of P a l e n c i a , where he s t ud i ed fo r t en , 6 yea r s . Dominic was s t i l l a s tudent a t the U n i v e r s i t y when the Bishop o f Osma, Don M a r t i n de Bazan, c a l l e d him to the c a t h e d r a l 4 chap te r . He soon, became s u b - p r i o r and, i n 1201, when Don Diego d 'Azevedo became Bishop of Osm<a, Dominic became p r i o r o f the chap te r . In 1203, the King of C a s t i l e , A l fonso I X , asked Diego to go to France to nego t i a t e a marr iage between P r i n c e Ferd inand , the k i n g ' s , son, and the daughter of the Count de l a Marche. 7 Diego asked Dominic to accompany him on t h i s journey . When they passed through Toulouse , they saw how the preachings o f the A l b i g e n s e s , a h e r e t i c a l group of tha t p e r i o d , 8" had spread throughout the a rea . A lb igense s was the terms used i n southern France to c a t e g o r i z e the C a t h a r i , a group which be-l i e v e d i n two d e i t i e s God and Satan . They professed t ha t God was the Crea tor and Ru le r of the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , w h i l e Satan was the c r ea to r and r u l e r of the m a t e r i a l w o r l d . There were two c l a s s e s of C a t h a r i - the P e r f e c t i , who were o b l i g e d to l ead an extremely a s c e t i c l i f e , and the Credentes , who c o u l d , u n l i k e the P e r f e c t i , m a r r y , . e a t meat, and ho ld p r o p e r t y , but who were o b l i g e d to renounce any l o y a l t y to. the C a t h o l i c Church and to 9 become P e r f e c t i before they d i e d . When Pope Innocent I I I became Pope, he set about d e a l -ing w i t h the spreading heresy , f i r s t by sending preachers i n t o the r e g i o n under the l e a d e r s h i p of the Abbot o f C t t eaux , seve r -a l - p r e l a t e s , and a l e g a t e , Pe ter de Cas t e lnau . The preachers were i n e f f e c t i v e and the l ega te was u n a b l e ' t o persuade the l o r d s of the r e g i o n to become concerned w i t h the i s s u e . The major r u l e r o f the a r ea , the count of Toulouse , Raymond V I , r e -fused to d e a l w i t h the h e r e t i c s . 5 Innocent , by the year 1204, was beginning to cons ide r the use of fo rce aga ins t the h e r e t i c s . Whi le he was t r y i n g to o b t a i n s o l d i e r s , a c r i s i s had a r i s e n . In 1207, the l ega te Pe ter de Cas te lnau excommunicated Raymond and, i n the year 1208, the l ega te was a s sa s s ina t ed by one o f the c o u n t ' s s q u i r e s . Inno-cent I I I confirmed the excommunication and r e l e a s e d Raymond's subjec ts from t h e i r oaths of f e a l t y . A t e r r i b l e "crusade" f o l -lowed, and on J u l y 21 , 1209, the town of B e z i e r s was taken and the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n , C a t h o l i c as w e l l as Catharanv:,- was mas-sacred . Then, under the l e a d e r s h i p of Simon de M o n t f o r t , the conquering o f a l l the county^of Toulouse , w i t h the excep t ion of on ly two towns, was e f f ec t ed by the year 1212. E i g h t years be fore , Diego d 'Azevedo and S t . Dominic had set out f o r Rome where Diego had planned to r e s i g n as Bishop i n order to devote, h i s t ime t r a v e l l i n g f r ee ly , ' c o n v e r t i n g the h e r e t i c s . At t h i s t ime , Innocent thought t ha t Diego and Dominic - 11 should i n s t ead work w i t h the C i s t e r c i a n s i n lianguedoc. In 1206, Dominic had a l r eady e s t a b l i s h e d at P r o u i l l e a 12 conyent fo r women who had been conver ted . Acco rd ing to B u t l e r , Dominic p layed no pa r t i n the m i l i t a r y fo rce used i n suppres-s ing the h e r e t i c s . In s t ead , he i s r epor ted to have s a i d : "The enemies of the f a i t h cannot be overcome l i k e t h a t . . Arm y o u r s e l f w i t h p r aye r , r a t h e r than a sword; wear h u m i l i t y r a t h e r than 13 f i n e c l o t h e s " . In 1214, Dominic went to Toulouse and began, t o o rgan ize h i s f o l l o w e r s , and i n the f o l l o w i n g yea r , Bishop Foulques of 6 Toulouse " e s t a b l i s h e d the community as a r e l i g i o u s congreg-a t i o n of h i s d i o c e s e , whose m i s s i o n was propaga t ion of t rue 14 d o c t r i n e and good mora l s , and the e x t i r p a t i o n of heresy" . I t was a l s o dur ing h i s s tay i n Eanguedoc tha t i t i s s a i d tha t Dominic i n s t i t u t e d the r o s a r y . The r e c i t i n g of prayers by us ing beads had a l ready been i n p r a c t i s e , but i t was Dominic who dev i sed an arrangement of fifteen P a t e r - n o s t e r s and one hundred and f i f t y Ave-Mar ias as a devo t ion to the B le s sed V i r g i n / The ro sa ry was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y accepted by the peop le , and i t i s s a i d tha t Dominic , by p o p u l a r i z i n g the use of the r o s a r y , 15 made a g rea t number of c o n v e r t s . Dominic t r a v e l l e d to Rome i n 1216 and asked the Pope to conf i rm h i s Order , which was known as the Order o f P reachers , and, on December 22 of the same yea r , the B u l l o f c o n f i r m a t i o n 16 was i s s u e d . In 1218, Dominic set out fo r S p a i n , where he e s t a b l i s h e d a monastery o f the Order of P reachers . He then began to t r a v e l e x t e n s i v e l y , e s t a b l i s h i n g foundat ions at B a r c e l o n a , Toulouse , P a r i s , Metz , Reims, Limoges, Or l eans , P o i t i e r s , V i t e r b o , a n d Bologna . By request of the Pope, Dominic and a number o f f o l -lowers then went to Lombardy to begin a preaching crusade where many thousands were conver ted . Dominic d i ed i n Bologna i n 1221 and, t h i r t e e n years l a t e r , was canonized by Pope Gregory 17 I X . The Dominican Order became, even w i t h i n D o m i n i c ' s l i f e -t ime , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s a i n t s d e p i c t e d i n 7 the three a l t a r p i e c e s i l l u s t r a t e the worldwide scope of the Order . By 1225, the Dominicans ' i n f l u e n c e extended i n t o A f r i c a and R u s s i a . By 1510, they were a l r eady a c t i v e i n the New World and by the end of the cen tu ry , they were a l r eady e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Far E a s t . Membership i n the Order of Preachers had reached a peak i n the seventeenth century when there were roughly 30,000 to 40,000 f r i a r s and nuns. In 1720, when the Order was a l ready 500 years o l d , there were 1,200 p r i o r i e s and houses 18 and 200 monas te r ies . S t . Hyac in th represen ts the i n t e r n a t i o n a l scope of the Dominican Order . S t . Hyac in th (before 1200 - 1257) , a P o l i s h Dominican, became a member of the Order when he and Ces laus ( e i t h e r h i s cous in or h i s brother) accompanied t h e i r unc le to Rome to be appointed Bishop of Cracow. In Rome, they are s a i d to have seen S t . Dominic perform a m i r a c l e , r e v i v i n g a man who had been k i l l e d by a f a l l from h i s horse . Both Hyac in th and Ceslaus entered the Order of Preachers i n 1217 or 1218. S t . Hyac in th i s c r e d i t e d w i t h founding many convents , i n c l u d i n g convents i n Cracow and Danz ig . I t i s s a i d of him tha t h i s preaching mis s ions took him to L i t h u a n i a , Bohemia, R u s s i a , 19 Denmark and Greece. However, B u t l e r t e l l s us tha t a l though Hyac in th was a g rea t m i s s i o n a r y , "the p a r t i c u l a r s of a ch i eve -ments commonly a t t r i b u t e d to him un fo r tuna t e ly depend on b i o -graphies tha t are of ve ry l i t t l e h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e " , . a l t h o u g h the f a c t remains tha t du r ing H y a c i n t h ' s l i f e t i m e , the Dominic-ans d i d t r a v e l down to Danzig and towards Russ i a and the B a l -20 kans, 8 Peter o f Verona (1206 - 1252) i s a l s o an important f i g u r e of the Dominican Order i n the t h i r t e e n t h cen tu ry , because he i s i t s mar ty r . He at tended the U n i v e r s i t y of Bologna where he met S t . Dominic and became a member o f the Order of P reache r s . Because of h i s a b i l i t i e s as a preacher and h i s enthusiasm for h i s f a i t h , Gregory IX appointed him Genera l I n q u i s i t o r . He set out to combat heresy by preaching i n Rome, Bologna , Genoa, F l o r e n c e , and Como, where he was s u c c e s s f u l i n making many con-21 v e r s i o n s . The s t o r y goes tha t as he was r e t u r n i n g from Como, he met a group of a s s a s s i n s , h i r e d by two noblemen whom Pe te r had g iven to the s e c u l a r a u t h o r i t i e s to be sentenced to im-prisonment and c o n f i s c a t i o n of p r o p e r t y . One of the a s sa s s in s k i l l e d him by s t r i k i n g him on the head w i t h an axe and s t ab -22 b ing him w i t h a sword. S t . Thomas Aquinas (c . 1225-1274) i s an extremely impor-tan t f i g u r e , not o n ly i n the h i s t o r y o f the Dominican Order , but a l s o i n . t h e h i s t o r y of the whole C a t h o l i c Church, as he i s one o f , i f not "the most important and i n f l u e n t i a l s c h o l a s t i c 23 t h e o l o g i a n and p h i l o s o p h e r " . He was taken i n 1231, at the age of about s i x , to the B e n e d i c t i n e Abbey of Monte C a s s i n o . His parents had wished tha t e v e n t u a l l y he would become abbot of the monastery, bu t , because o f a feud between the Pope and the Emperor, t roops were sent to occupy Monte Cass ino i n 1239. L a t e r i n the same year the abbot sent Thomas to a B e n e d i c t i n e house i n Naples to f i n i s h h i s s t ud i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Nap le s . By about 1243, Thomas had become i n t e r e s t e d i n the 9 Dominican way o f l i f e . He en te red . the p r i o r y of San Domenico i n Naples and r e c e i v e d the h a b i t i n 1244. . In 1248, Thomas went to Cologne where he s t ud i ed under S t . A l b e r t the Grea t . In 1252, A l b e r t recommended Thomas to go to P a r i s to take h i s d o c t o r a t e . At P a r i s , there had been a feud between mendicant and s e c u l a r masters at the u n i v e r s i t y . J e a l -ous o f the p o p u l a r i t y of the mendicants , s e c u l a r master , W i l l i a m of Sa in t -Amour , wrote an a t t ack on the mendicant o r d e r , "De 25 p e r i c u l i s novissimorum temporum".. A g a i n s t t h i s book, Thomas wrote a defense of the r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s , "Contra impugnantes 26 r e l i g i o n e m " . However, Thomas's most famous w r i t i n g s are h i s two sum-mae - the "Summa con t r a g e n t i l e s " , which was a syn thes i s to be used fo r Dominican m i s s i o n a r i e s i n Spain to defend the f a i t h , . and the "Summa theologia .e" , which was a t h e o l o g i c a l s y n t h e s i s which was to r e p l a c e conven t iona l syntheses fo r theo logy s t u -27 dents . H i s Summa was remarkable fo r i t s s c i e n t i f i c approach. Thomas was canonized i n 1323 and, i n 1344, Pope Clement VI p r a i s e d the Dominican Order f o r v p r o d u c i n g S t . Thomas, and, i n 1346, t o l d a Dominican gene ra l chapter t ha t they should a l -28 ways.conform to A q u i n a s ' s d o c t r i n e . S t . Thomas was d e c l a r e d 29 a Doctor of the Church by Pope P ius V • Pope Pau l V p r a i s e d him as "the defender of the C a t h o l i c Church and conqueror o f 30 . h e r e t i c s " , and, i n 1724, Pope Benedic t X I I I dec l a r ed t ha t the 31 d o c t r i n e of Thomas was the "sures t r u l e of C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e " . S t . Agnes ( c 1268-1317), though born l e s s than f i f t y 10 32 years a f t e r Thomas Aqu inas , i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e i n the s e r i e s of s a i n t s represented i n the Gesua t i p a i n t i n g s , because 33 she was canonized i n the e igh teen th cen tu ry . Agnes, the pa t -roness of Montepulc iano , at the age o f n ine j o i n e d the r e -l i g i o u s community of Montepulc iano known as the " S i s t e r s of the Sack". When on ly f i f t e e n , she accompanied a nun to Proceno where a new convent was to be founded. Agnes soon was e l e c t e d abbess of the new convent , but the people of Montepu lc iano , wanting her to come back, o f f e r ed to b u i l d a convent . In 1306, she was appointed p r i o r e s s of t h i s new convent and p laced i t under Dominican patronage. I t i s s a i d o f her tha t she was famous fo r her good a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s and fo r her m i r a c l e s , which 34 she o f ten performed to p rov ide fo r the s i s t e r s . She was can-35 on ized by Pope .Benedic t X I I I on 10 December 1726, so when the T i e p o l o p a i n t i n g was mentioned i n the F o r e s t i e r e I l l u m i n a t o o f 36 1740, Agnes had been a canonized s a i n t fo r on ly four teen yea r s . The next th ree s a i n t s , C a t h e r i n e , V incen t rand P i u s V , are important f i g u r e s i n the h i s t o r y of the Dominican Order be-cause of t h e i r r o l e i n some of the most s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the Church - the Schism, the "Babylonian C a p t i v i t y " and the 37 •. T u r k i s h t h r ea t to the Medi te r ranean . Ca the r ine of S iena (1347-1380) became one of the Domin i -can T e r t i a r i e s i n 1363, but' a few years l a t e r , l e f t her c e l l and entered p u b l i c l i f e i n order to do something about the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n of the t ime . War had broken out between 11 F lo rence and the Holy See. The F l o r e n t i n e s , wanting to'make a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , chose Ca the r ine as an ambassadress and media tor . She l e f t fo r Av ignon , at tha t t ime the res idence o f the Pope, Gregory X I . The Pope gave her the task of d i c t a t i n g the terms 38 of peace w i t h F l o r e n c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the F l o r e n t i n e am-bassadors d i s c l a i m e d her and, because the Pope 's peace terms were too s t e r n , peace was not e s t a b l i s h e d . However,-her journey to Avignon was not u n s u c c e s s f u l . She had b e l i e v e d tha t i t would be i n the best i n t e r e s t s i f the Pope l e f t Avignon and r e -s ided i n Rome, and she had a l r eady sent Gregory l e t t e r s u rg ing h i s depar ture from the French c i t y . , , Gregory decided to go to 39 Rome, and i n September 1376, l e f t Av ignon . I t was not u n t i l January, 1377 t ha t the Pope f i n a l l y reached Rome and he d i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g yea r . F i n a l l y , irt August 1378, du r ing the r e i g n of Grego ry ' s s u c c e s s o r U r b a n V I , peace was e s t a b l i s h e d between the Papacy and F l o r e n c e . I t was a l s o i n the same year t ha t the Great Schism had b r o k e n ' o u t , a t ime when there were two Popes, each w i t h h i s s u p p o r t e r s . ' I t was Ca the r ine who chose to l i v e iwiRome and devote her energy to suppor t ing the 4 0 cause of Urban V I , w r i t i n g l e t t e r s to win him suppor t e r s . S t . V i n c e n t F e r r e r (1350-1419) entered the Dominican O r d e r - i n 1368. In 1379 he was appointed p r i o r of the convent of V a l e n c i a , where he remained u n t i l 1384. V incen t F e r r e r be-came i n v o l v e d w i t h the i s sues o f the Great S c h i s m . . He suppor t -ed the cause of Clement V I I , the Avignonese c la imant to the Papacy, and r i v a l of Urban V I . Al though Ca the r ine of S iena 12 had supported Urban V I , V i n c e n t F e r r e r , du r ing the years 1390-1394, t r i e d to pursuade the c l e r g y , n o b i l i t y , and c i t i z e n s of the I b e r i a n pen in su l a to support Clement because, he b e l i e v e d , because o f the pressures i n v o l v e d , the e l e c t i o n of Urban VI ok 41 should be cons ide red i n v a l i d . When Clement d i e d i n 1394, h i s successor Benedic t XITI c a l l e d V incen t to Av ignon . V incen t had hoped to b r i n g the Schism to an end and had wished tha t Benedic t would arrange w i t h h i s Roman r i v a l fo r a double r e s i g n a t i o n i n order to pe r -42 mi t the e l e c t i o n of an undisputed Pope. However, at t h i s t ime , i t i s s a i d tha t V i n c e n t saw a v i s i o n i n which C h r i s t , accompanied by S t . Dominic and S t . F r a n c i s , t o l d him to t r a v e l around the wor ld p r each ing . V i n c e n t obeyed, "and fo r the next twenty y e a r s , he preached i n Lombardy, nor thern and southern France , the Low C o u n t r i e s , S w i t z e r l a n d , 43 and i n S p a i n , where he i s c r e d i t e d w i t h having conver ted 44 8,000 moors. Al though he s p e n t . h i s l i f e p r each ing , he s t i l l remembered the t r o u b l e s of the Schism. In 1408, and aga in i n 1415, he t r i e d to convince Benedic t t h a t , i n the i n t e r e s t s of u n i t y , he should r e s i g n . V i n c e n t . t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y fo r a t h i r d t ime and then dediced to withdraw h i s support fo r the Avignonese 45 Pope. King Ferdinand o f C a s t i l e and Aragon asked V incen t to g i v e him h i s o p i n i o n on the papacy q u e s t i o n . The s a i n t r e p l i e d t ha t because Benedic t was impeding the union which was neces-sa ry f o r the Church, the people should withdraw t h e i r a l l e g -46 iance to him. 13 Pope P ius V (1504-157 2) was educated by the Dominicans of Voghera and i n 152 8, became a member of the Order . In 1556 Pope Pau l IV appointed him Bishop of S u t r i . He became famous as a f e rven t a t t a ck e r of heresy and was s e l e c t e d as I n q u i s i t o r of the F a i t h i n M i l a n and Lombardy, and i n 1557, he was ap-po in ted I n q u i s i t o r Genera l fo r a l l Christendom as w e l l as be ing appointed a c a r d i n a l . When P i u s IV d i e d , P iu s V succeeded him 47 as Pop;e-• A major task he undertook was the u n i t i n g of the C h r i s t i a n p r i n c e s aga ins t the Turks© In 1570, Solyman I I a t -48 tacked Cyprus . The Medi ter ranean was i n grea t danger of be-coming a T u r k i s h sea . P iu s formed an a l l i a n c e between the Holy See and Venice and Spa in . A f l e e t under the command of Don John o f A u s t r i a met the T u r k i s h f l e e t a t ilepantp on 7 October 1571. A tremendous v i c t o r y was won i n favour of Don John ' s 49 f l e e t . On the day of the b a t t l e he was busy working w i t h the c a r d i n a l s when suddenly he c r i e d ou t : "a t ruce to bus ines s ; our g rea t task a t present i s to thank God for the v i c t o r y which 50 He has j u s t g i v e n the C h r i s t i a n army". He became overcome w i t h emotion when he was t o l d t ha t i n f a c t a grea t v i c t o r y had been won. The Pope a t t r i b u t e d the C h r i s t i a n t r iumph to the i n t e r c e s s i o n o f the B le s sed V i r g i n , - a n d to commemorate the v i c t o r y , he des igna ted the f i r s t Sunday i n October as the Feast 51 of the Rosary . He was canonized by Pope Clement XI i n 1712, so when R i c c i represented him i n the a l t a r p i e c e i n the Gesua t i 52 i n about 1732, he had been a canonized s a i n t f o r on ly twenty y e a r s . S t . L o u i s Ber t r and (1526-1581) a contemporary of P i u s V , 14 was born i n V a l e n c i a , and was b a p t i z e d . a t the same font as S t . V incen t F e r r e r . He was, i n f a c t , r e l a t e d to V i n c e n t on h i s 53 •' f a t h e r ' s s i d e . L o u i s entered the Dominican convent i n V a l e n -c i a i n 1544 . ; He•spent much of h i s l i f e as master of n o v i c e s , h i s f i r s t , p o s i t i o n being i n V a l e n c i a from 1553 to 1555. When the plague h i t V a l e n c i a i n 1557, he devoted h i s t ime to c a r i n g f o r the s i c k . H i s preaching was famous at the t ime , and people . used to crowd i n t o the c a t h e d r a l , and l a t e r , when the numbers 54 i n c r e a s e d , i n t o p u b l i c squares , to hear him speak. From 1562 to 1569, .he served as a m i s s i o n a r y i n Amer ica , working i n New Granada (.which i s a s e c t i o n of Northwestern South A m e r i c a ) . He a l s o preached i n Panama, the Leeward I s l a n d s , S. Thome i n the V i r g i n I s l a n d s , and S. Vincen te i n the Windwards, and because of h i s preaching a b i l i t y , many thousands are s a i d to have.been 55 b a p t i z e d . In 1569, he was appointed p r i o r of the convent of San Onofre i n h i s n a t i v e Spa in , and l a t e r , he became p r i o r and master of nov ices i n the convent o f V a l e n c i a . He-was canonized i n 1671 and, i n 1690, was named pa t ron of the New Kingdom of 56 Granada. S t . Rose of Lima (1586-1617), as a c h i l d had always want-ed to enter a c l o i s t e r , but t h i s wish was den ied , so she remain-ed, at home. A t the age of 20, Rose j o i n e d the Dominican T e r -t i a r i e s , which would a l l o w her to l i v e a t home. There , she conver ted one room i n t o a sma l l i n f i r m a r y , where she took care of d e s t i t u t e c h i l d r e n and i n f i r m e l d e r l y . She became w e l l -known and admired among the r i c h and poor a l i k e i n Lima, who b e l i e v e d tha t she had saved them from p i r a t e s . I t i s s a i d t ha t 15 she p r e d i c t e d e x a c t l y the date of her dea th , and had requested t ha t her body be b u r i e d i n the c l o i s t e r of S t . D o m i n i c ' s Church. When she d i e d , the crowds were so numerous t ha t the f u n e r a l had to be delayed fo r s e v e r a l days . In 1668, Clement IX d e c l a r e d her b e a t i f i c a t i o n , and th ree years^ l a t e r she was canonized by Clement X , who named her pa t ron of P e r u , Amer ica , the I n d i e s , 57 v : and the P h i l i p p i n e s . There fore , Rose, l i k e L o u i s B e r t r a n d , are important f i g u r e s - f r o m the New Wor ld . The s a i n t s represented i n the Gesua t i represent the h i s -t o r y of the Dominican Order from i t s es tab l i shment u n t i l the p resen t . Two are the l e a d i n g Dominican f i g u r e s from the New Wor ld , and one i s from the r e l a t i v e l y d i s t a n t European coun t ry , Po l and , three are the Dominican f i g u r e s who were i n v o l v e d i n extremely s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the h i s t o r y of the church , one i s a mar ty r , another i s a famous t h e o l o g i a n , and two are the Dominicans r e c e n t l y canonized . Thus, i n the words o f F r a n c i s H a s k e l l , "every p a i n t i n g i n the church of the Gesua t i ' c e l e b r a t e s the t r iumph and g l o r y of the Order ; i t s g rea t s a i n t s pa in t ed i n threes by the f i n e s t contemporary a r t i s t s , a l l l e ad up to the c l imax o f the c e i l i n g 58 where S t . Dominic h i m s e l f i s shown i n s t i t u t i n g the Rosary" . 16 • CHAPTER T I THE ARCHITECTURE. OF. THE: GESUATI. AND RELATED CHURCHES. The Church of the G e s u a t i . i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Neo-P a l l a d i a n Tnovem'ent i n /Venice i n the l a t e seventeenth and e a r l y e igh teen th c e n t u r i e s . G i o r g i o M a s s a r i , the a r c h i t e c t , has c rea ted a unique c o m b i n a t i o n . o f , P a l l a d i a n elements to produce h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n a c l a s s i c a l 1 s tyle- . A l a t e seventeenth century pro to type fo r the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e of the Gesua t i i s a work, by Giuseppe S a r d i . With the f a c -ade of the church of S. Lazzaro d e i Mendican t ! ( f i g . 1 ) , a work d a t i n g from 1673, we see S a r d i exper iment ing w i t h a typee of P a l -l a d i a h s t y l e . H i s i n s p i r a t i o n fo r t h i s facade.comes from P a l -l a d i o ' s Church of the Z i t e l l e . The Church of the Z i t e l l e s t r i k e s us , immedia te ly w i t h the f e e l i n g of a u s t e r i t y . I t i s s imply a p l a i n temple f ron t d i v i d e d h o r i z o n t a l l y by a wide , . heavy e n t a b l a t u r e , the whole facade be-ing crowned by a pediment. The r e c t a n g u l a r shape of the temple , f ron t i s framed by p a i r s of C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s . There are two sets of t he se"pa i r s o f p i l a s t e r s , one framing the lower pa r t of the facade and the second framing the upper p a r t , which i s de-f i n e d by the wide entabla,ture below and the pediment above. Be-tween the p i l a s t e r s of the upper zone i s a very l a r g e thermal window, which comple te ly dominates the a rea . Below, we see an arched doorway framed by sma l l p i l a , s t e r s . and surmounted by a 17 t r i a n g u l a r pediment. On each s ide of the doorway are windows. The facade o f S. Lazzaro i s a temple f ron t d i v i d e d h o r i z -o n t a l l y by a very wide e n t a b l a t u r e , the whole facade being top -ped by a s imple pediment. In the upper zone we f i n d a l a r g e thermal window dominat ing the c e n t r e . However, there a r e , a number of d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two facades . S a r d i sub-s t i t u t e s the Z i t e l l e p i l a s t e r s fo r four h a l f columns which r i s e from pedes ta l s and break r i g h t through the c o r n i c e , u n l i k e the d i v i s i o n a l p roper ty o f the Z i t e l l e ' s superimposed se ts of p i l -a s t e r s . Th i s b reak ing o f the c o r n i c e by a s i n g l e order o f columns can a l s o be found i n P a l l a d i o ' s Church of S. G i o r g i o Maggiore . S a r d i has a l s o used h i s i n i t i a t i v e i n the t reatment of the windows. With the Z i t e l l e , the windows were p laced on one s ide of the p i l a s t e r s , but i n S... -Lazzaro, the windows are p laced between the columns thereby caus ing the eye to move from s o l i d column to v o i d window t o . s o l i d column a g a i n . In t h i s r e -spect S a r d i has demonstrated h i s preference fo r the more r y t h -i mic movements of form of S. Giorofo r a the r than the more p lanar q u a l i t i e s of the Z i t e l l e . I n . S . G i o r g i o . scu lp tu res are p l aced between the columns and p i l a s t e r s , but S a r d i , w i t h h i s p l a c e -ment o f windows, has a r r i v e d at an o r i g i n a l approach. Al though there i s movement o f forms i n the facades of S. G i o r g i o and S. L a z z a r o , Palladian:movement i s c e r t a i n l y d i s t i n c t from Longhenesque, or Ba roque .mo t ion ; \ the d i f f e r e n c e can be n o t i c e d by comparing S. Lazzaro w i t h S a r d i ' s facade fo r the Church of the S c a l z i ( F i g . 2) , which dates' from 1672 to 1680. 18 The facade of the S c a l z i g i v e s the eye no r e s t . I t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two zones which are separated h o r i z o n t a l l y by an en tab la tu re which separates twin superimposed columns. Each set of these t w i n columns shares a s i n g l e p e d e s t a l . Between the columns are n iches w i t h s c u l p t u r e s . The pedes ta l s and en- . t a b l a t u r e prot rude i n order to set up a complex rhythm w i t h the n i c h e s . To make the p l a y of . rhythms even more complex, at the ex t remet ies o f the lower pa r t of the facade, a p i l a s t e r i s p l aced bes ide a column, and these are surmounted by pedes ta l s suppor t ing s c u l p t e d f i g u r e s , the e f f e c t being a rhythm crea ted at the ends o f the facade which then changes at the main sec-t i o n . Here, a l a r g e arched doorway i s i m i t a t e d above by a l a r g e arched n i c h e , c o n t a i n i n g a. s c u l p t u r e , and t h i s , i n t u r n , 1 i s crowned by the ' u n c l a s s i c a l 1 m o t i f of a l a r g e s e m i c i r c u l a r pediment con ta ined w i t h i n the main t r i a n g u l a r pediment which surmounts the church . S. ifazzaro and the S c a l z i o f f e r an e x c e l l e n t example o f the c o n f l i c t i n g s t y l e s of a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h i s p e r i o d . W i t -tkower t e l l s us tha t du r ing t h i s t ime a r c h i t e c t s , l i k e S a r d i , v a c i l l a t e d between the " e b u l l i e n t p l a s t i c i t y and c h i a r o s c u r o " 4 of Longhena's s t y l e and the " l i n e a r c l a s s i c i s m " o f Scamozzi (to which we should add the name of P a l l a d i o h imse l f ; ) . The facade o f S. Stae ( F i g . 3 ) , b u i l t i n 1710 by Domenico R o s s i , a l s o f o l l o w s P a l l a d i o to a c e r t a i n ex t en t . In t h i s case , R o s s i ' s church i s model led on S. G i o r g i o Maggiore . L i k e i t s predecessor , S. Lazzaro d e i M e n d i c a n t i , a b a s i c temple f ron t 19 i s used, bu t , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case , a d d i t i o n s are p l aced at the s i d e s . L i k e S. G i o r g i o and S. L a z z a r o , S. Stae has four grea t composite columns, each r i s i n g from h igh p e d e s t a l s , which de f ine the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n , w i t h the doorway, and the e x t r e m i t -i e s of the main pa r t o f the facade I t s e l f . L i k e i t s two p r o t o -types , S. Stae has a c o r n i c e , which d i v i d e s the facade, which i s broken by the four grea t columns. Domenico R o s s i a l s o p l aces three s c u l p t u r e s on pedes ta l s at the three corners o f the pediment of h i s facade, a -dev ice r emin i scen t both o f S. G i o r g i o and S. L a z z a r o . Another s i m i l a r i t y to S. G i o r g i o i s the s u b t l e p l a y of rhythm between the columns on t h e i r pedes-t a l s and the n iches c o n t a i n i n g the s c u l p t u r e s . R o s s i makes the facade r i c h e r by the use of b a s - r e l i e f s c u l p t u r a l scenes above the c o r n i c e sepa ra t ing the n iches below. Al though R o s s i d e r i v e s much i n s p i r a t i o n from the vocabu la ry o f P a l l a d i o , he, l i k e S a r d i , has a l lowed h i m s e l f to indu lge i n a Baroque expres -s i o n of freedom from ' c l a s s i c i s m ' , t h i s being c l e a r l y ev iden t i n the treatment of the doorway. L i k e S a r d i , R o s s i frames h i s arched doorway w i t h a p a i r of columns which are sma l l e r than the four main columns of the facade, which support a broken ped-iment i n the Baroque s t y l e . Th i s Baroque exp re s s ion of freedom has been taken to the extreme, because, u n l i k e the pediment of S. L a z z a r o , R o s s i ' s comple te ly dominates the c e n t r a l pa r t o f the facade. The base o f the pediments run a t the same l e v e l as the c o r n i c e between the main volumns. An impress ion o f g rea t r i c h n e s s of form i s g iven by the a d d i t i o n of three very l a r g e 20 s c u l p t e d f i g u r e s . R o s s i , i n h i s attempt a t a P a l l a d i a n type o f facade, has taken h i s Baroque t a s t e s even fu r the r than S a r d i by the a d d i t i o n of sma l l "wings" a t e i ther , s i de of the .main pa r t of the facade. These "wings" have' not the f u n c t i o n of the s ide pediments which frame the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the facade of S. G i o r g i o . They a r e , i n s t e a d , s imply two d e c o r a t i v e d e v i c e s , each c o n s i s t i n g of an a t tached column of the same he igh t as the smal l doorway columns. Th i s "wing" column supports an en-t a b l a t u r e which i s the same l e v e l as the en tab la tu re broken by the l a r g e columns on the main pa r t of the facade. Above the en t ab l a tu re o f these "wings" are f r ee - s t and ing s c u l p t e d f i g u r e s , i m i t a t i n g those on the main pediment of the facade. Andrea T i r a l i ' s facade fo r the Church of S. N i c o l o da 6 T o l e n t i n o ( F i g . 4 ) , which was cons t ruc t ed from 1706 to 1714, i s a remarkable depar ture from the works of S a r d i and R o s s i . Wit tkower s t a t e s tha t the facade of S. N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o 7 " r e s u s c i t a t e s a V i t r u v i a n p o r t i c o " . G o l z i o compares the 8 facade to the Pantheon, but the comparison seems a l i t t l e s u p e r f i c i a l . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T i r a l i ' s facade are grace and s i m p l i c i t y . He uses a temple p o r t i c o , i n t roduced by s i x s t eps , w i t h s i x e l egan t , f l u t e d C o r i n t h i a n columns, w i t h a wider i n t e r c o l u m n i a t i o n at the c e n t r e , suppor t ing a s imple en-t a b l a t u r e . There fore , the austere Pantheon seems a weak com-p a r i s o n . The s i x column entrance had been proposed by P a l l a d i o 9 i n h i s unexecuted p l a n f o r S. N i c o l d , but the g race fu lness of some o f the C l a s s i c a l temples i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Four Books of 21 A r c h i t e c t u r e may p o s s i b l y have p rov ided some i n s p i r a t i o n . Not -ab le examples are the temple of Cas tor and P o l l u x i n N a p l e s , -10 the temple o f S c i s i , and the Maison Car ree . - However, none of these are e x a c t l y i m i t a t e d by T i r a l i i n h i s d e s i g n . . A l -11 though i t has been desc r ibed as V i t r u v i a n by Wi t tkower , c t h e r e i s an element tha t i s u n - C l a s s i c a l . Th i s i s the d o m i n a t i n g , ' ornamental o v a l ocu lus i n the tympanum, which was c r i t i c i z e d by S e l v a t i c o : La c r i t i c a n e o c l a s s i c a t rovava da o s s e r y a r e , per bocca d e l S e l v a t i c o , che pur i n t an ta purezza v i t r u v i a n a , l ' a r c h i t e t t o barocco doveva u s c i r s e n e f u o r i con qualcheduna d e l l e sue, ed ecco i n f a t t i che t ' apre un barbaro occh io e l l i t t i c o a r i c c i p r o p r i o n e i timpano d e l f r o n t e s p i z i o . 1 12 T i r a l i . ' s facade of S. V i d a l ( F i g . 5 ) , which was executed 13 from about 1734 to 1737, shows an i n s p i r a t i o n from P a l l a d i o ' s 14 facades of S. Francesco d e l l a Vigna and S. G i o r g i o . As e a r l y as 1700, An ton io Gaspar i proposed one o f h i s des igns^forg the facade, but h i s p r o j e c t s were extremely r i c h and e l a b o r a t e , and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t tha t i t was T i r a l i ' s P a l l a d i a n s t y l e t ha t 15 was executed . Both S. Francesco d e l l a Vigna and S. N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o have a main s e c t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d by four l a r g e C o r i n t h i a n c o l -umns, r i s i n g from p e d e s t a l s , crowned by a main pediment, and to t h i s main s e c t i o n two l e s s e r , s i de h a l f pediments . . Gone are the Baroque d e c o r a t i v e "wings" o f S. S tae . Both S. F r a n -cesco d e l l a Vigna and S. V i d a l have pedes ta l s fo r s c u l p t u r e s at the tops of the corners of the pediments and n iches fo r 22 s c u l p t u r e s between the main columns. The doorway o f S. V i d a l d i f f e r s f r o m . i t s p ro to type i n tha t i t i s framed by p i l a s t e r s suppor t ing a t r i a n g u l a r pediment, not a s t r a i g h t e n t a b l a t u r e , l i k e S. Francesco . Th i s m o t i f o f the t r i a n g u l a r pediment over 16 the doorway can be found a l s o i n the church of the Redemtore. Gone i s the f a n c i f u l broken pediment o f S. Lazzaro or S. S tae . L i k e S a r d i and R o s s i , T i r a l i has not s l a v i s h l y i m i t a t e d , i n i t s e n t i r e t y , one p a r t i c u l a r P a l l a d i a n church , but has d e r i v e d much i n s p i r a t i o n from one and has borrowed other P a l l a d i a n mo-t i f s e lsewhere. In S. Francesco d e l l a Vigna there i s a r e -s t r a i n e d movement of forms c rea ted by the f l a t p i l a s t e r sup-p o r t i n g the end o f each s ide pediment, then moving to a sma l l a t tached column, then a v o i d , then moving to a s m a l l a t tached column, then to the l a r g e dominant column of the main pa r t of the facade, then to n i c h e , column a g a i n , t hen : to sma l l column framing the doorway. S. V i d a l , on the other hand, c rea tes a P a l l a d i a n rhythm by beginning a t the e x t r e m i t i e s of the s ide pediments w i t h the p i l a s t e r then moving to a h a l f p i l a s t e r im-media te ly adjacent to i t , then v o i d , then p i l a s t e r a g a i n , a type of rhythmic dev ice used i n the Redentore. The long w i n -dows, though, are d e r i v e d from- the Church of the Z i t e l l e . The two l a r g e , f l a t p i l a s t e r s and Composite columns o f the main p a r t of the Redentore are s u b s t i t u t e d i n S. V i d a l fo r the l a r g e C o r i n t h i a n columns o f S. Francesco della" V i g n a . The spaces between the c a p i t a l s o f the p i l a s t e r s and columns of S. V i d a l are e l e g a n t l y . l i n k e d by swags, a d e v i c e r emin i scen t of 23 the swags j o i n i n g the main columns of the facade o f S. G i o r g i o . The Church o f S. Simeone P i c c o l o ( F i g . 6 ) , b u i l t between 1718 and 1738 by Giovann i S c a l f a r o t t o , was model led on the 18 anc ien t Pantheon. P a l l a d i o , t o o , had b u i l t an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e based on the Pantheon; h i s chapel at Maser. Al though P a l l a d i o had c a r e f u l l y examined the anc ien t s t r u c t u r e , making 19 a p l a n and s e v e r a l drawings and d e t a i l s i n h i s Four Books, a t Maser he designed h i s own pe r sona l v a r i a t i o n . L i k e the Pan-theon, P a l l a d i o ' s chapel i s a rotunda w i t h temple p o r t i c o , but i t s u b s t i t u t e s e igh t ' columns o f the anc ien t b u i l d i n g to two p i l a s t e r s and four columns, and has in t roduced h i s entrance p o r t i c o by a f l i g h t o f s t eps . P a l l a d i o has in t roduced a l s o two prominent b e l l towers which r i s e up as b o l d l y as the long l a n t e r n at the top o f the dome. S c a l f a r o t t o , t o o , has c rea ted h i s own unique v a r i a t i o n of the Pantheon. S. Simeone P i c c o l o , l i k e the chapel a t Maser, i s in t roduced by a f l i g h t of s teps which l ead up to four c o l -umns f l anked by two p i l a s t e r s , but then spacing i s , l i k e S. N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o , unequal , l i k e Maser , the i n t e r c o l u m n a t i o n becoming markedly narrower between the p i l a s t e r and end column. Wittkower has remarked t h a t : "This church which g ree t s every v i s i t o r to Venice on h i s a r r i v a l , i s c l e a r l y based on the Pan-theon. But above the c l a s s i c a l p o r t i c o , to which one ascends over a s t a i r c a s e model led on anc ien t temples , uses a s t i l t e d 20 Byzan t i ne -Vene t i an dome". Th i s dome r i s e s to almost an egg shape, thereby d r a s t i c a l l y changing the rugged, sha l low 24 appearance of Pantheon 's dome. L i k e P a l l a d i o , S c a l f a r o t t o g i v e s h i s dome an added f e e l i n g of ascens ion by the a d d i t i o n o f a l a r g e l a n t e r n , and he even inc reases t h i s f e e l i n g by the use o f r i s i n g , s t r a i g h t long r i b s , "unlike the c u r v i n g r i b s of the 21 l a n t e r n of the chape l at Maser . In t h i s p e r i o d of P a l l a d i a n and C l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l , i s the Church of the Gesua t i ( F i g s . 7 -9 -11-12) . I t i s l o c a t e d i n the z a t t e r e on the Guidecca C a n a l . There fo re , i t has the same type of prominence as P a l l a d i o ' s churches on the oppos i t e s ide of the C a n a l , namely, the Redentore , the Z i t e l l e , and on the I s l a n d , S. G i o r g i o Maggiore , tha t i s , the facade i s seen from the C a n a l , as can be i l l u s t r a t e d by a p a i n t i n g . a t t r i b u t e d to Gian An ton io Guard i ( F i g . 7. ) "Ed ecco l a b e l l a c h i e s a , q u a s i cnopphi n < n 1 1 a r'/rn ci V * - I T - > £ S + - O Y ~ O -i T\ f r\nn rn T ri >"» v Q i 1 C 3 TitC ClS 11 G p i u r i c c h e s o r e l l e a f f a c c i a t e s u l l a l t r a sponda d e l c a n a l e " . An engraving of the Gesua t i i n the F o r e s t i e r e I l l u m i n a t o shows t h a t , i n the e igh teen th c e n t u r y , a cana l r an p a r a l l e l to the east s i d e of the church ( F i g . 8 ) . At the end o f the fou r t een th cen tu ry , the Company o f the poor Gesua t i was formed i n V e n i c e . They were f i r s t l o c a t e d a t Sant Agnese, but then moved to the Z a t t e r e , where they b u i l t an o r a t o r i o ded ica t ed to S. Gerolamo, and a l s o b u i l t a chu rch . T h i s church , S. Gerolamo d e i G e s u a t i , or S t a . Mar i a d e l l a V i s i t a z i o n e , was begun on 13 J u l y 1494 when the P a t r i a r c h Tom-maso Donato b l e s sed the f i r s t s tone , and was consecra ted 21 December 1524. On 7 December 1668, however, a b u l l was i s sued by Pope. Clemente IX o r d e r i n g the suppress ion of the Gesua t i as a wax measure. The Dominicans took possess ion of the Order 's- church and monastery i n the f o l l o w i n g year, ' but dec ided 23 tha t a new church was- needed. The Domin ican ' s new church , S. Maria, d e l R o s a r i o , which is -more commonly- c a l l e d s i m p l y the G e s u a t i , was begun i n 1726, when, as Corner says , the P a t r i a r c h Marco Grodenigo b le s sed the f i r s t stone on May 17. Corner s t a t e s tha t masses were not s a i d 24 i n the church u n t i l 1743, and to these f a c t s , B i a n c h i n i adds tha t the. church was consecra ted by the P a t r i a r c h A l v i s e F o s c a r i 25 on-September 29 of tha t yea r . However, the a r c h i t e c t u r e had-been completed s ince . 1 7 3 6 w h e n , as an i n s c r i p t i o n above the doorway says , the church was b le s sed " i n honorem V i r g i n i s 26 D e i p a r a e . t i t u l o R o s a r i i " . B a s s i t e l l s us what was done w i t h the p r e - e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e of the poor G e s u a t i : Quando i l complesso d e g l i e d i f i c i e ra s t a to concesso a i p a d r i l D o m e n i c a n i , q u e s t i p rovv ide ro prima a l i a c o s t r u z z i o n e d e l l a grande c h i e s a e po i pensarono ad un adeguato convento. I l Massa r i a d i b i l a v e c c h i a c h i e s e t t a , orami i n u t i i i z z a t a , ad a c c o g l i e r e . l a pregevole b i b l i o t e c a (che, n e i 1750, era s t a t a a c c r e s -c i u t a d a l l a cosp icua r a c c o l t a d i Apos to lo Zeno), e disegno per c u s t o d i r e i l i b r i i m o b i l i armadi che n e l l ' O t t o c e n t o , furono a f f i d a t i a l l ' A c c a d e m i a d i b e l l e a r t i . II- vecch io c h i o s t r o era s t a to dimezzato per l a c o s t r u z i o n e d e l l a nuova c h i e s a , ma i l Massa r i penso' d i . d o t a r e ' i l conyento d i a l t r i due c h i o s t r i , c o l l o c a n d p l i uno d i e t r o l ' abs . ide e l ' a l t r o . s u l f i a n c o d e l l a ch i e sa 27 M o s c h i n i g ive s us the d a t i n g of v a r i o u s stages o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the church of the Gesua t i through documents i n 26 The A r c h i v i o d i S ta to i n V e n i c e : . . . n e l 1725 s i s c a r i c a v a g i a l a p i e t r a per l a nouva f a b b r i c a : i l 6 a p r i l e 1726 i p a d r i c h i e d -devano s p e c i a l i c o n c e s s i o n i economiche dovendo por mano a l i a nuova f a b b r i c a e c i 6 ((prima d i cominc ia r una t a i o p e r a ) ) , i l 3 a p r i l e 1729 s i dava i n c a r i c o a B o r t o l o Corbe t to d i f o r n i r e i c a p i t e l l i ,per l a nuova c h i e s a . 1'8 settembre 1732 l o s tesso Corbet to s ' impegnava a f o r n i r e ; i c a p i t e l l i l e a l e t t e e • i p i l a s t r o n i d e l l a f a c -c i a t a ((conforme insegnano l i buoni a u t o r i d 1 a r c h i t e t t u r a a p i a c e r d e l S r . G i o r g i o Massa r i ) ) i l 10 gennaio 1734 l o s c u l t o r e . Giovan Francesco Bonazza s i o b b l i g a v a a f o r n i r e ' l a grande mensola d e l l a f a c c i a t a ( c o l l o c a t a i n a l t o a l -centro) ( ( q u i s t a i l disegno e model lo approvato (da l S r . G i o r g i o M a s s a r i ) ) ; 16 novembre 1735 e da ta t a l a f a t t u r a d i . F r a n c e s c o Chiupan i ((per c o p r i r d i piombo l a cupola granda d e l l a c h i e s a nuova)) 28 H a s k e l l g ive s us an e a r l y d e s c r i p t i o n of the new church from an impress ion g i v e n by a v i s i t o r who was g i v e n a tour of the Gesua t i i n 1742. He says he spent h i s t ime : l o o k i n g a t the f i n e i n t e r i o r of the new church , decorated w i t h b e a u t i f u l p a i n t i n g s and c h i a r o s -c u r i ' on i t s b r i l l i a n t l y l i t v a u l t , w i t h sumptuous a l t a r s of-marble i n i t s seven chape l s , w i t h new seats i n the cho i r , and the f l o o r e n t i r e l y i n marble; of the best a r c h i t e c t u r e and p ropo r t i ons i n the i n t e r i o r and an e q u a l l y f i n e facade. • ' 29 Much o f the i n s p i r a t i o n fo r M a s s a r i ' s new church i s d e r i v e d 30 from S. G i o r g i o Maggiore . The Gesua t i ( F i g . 9) i m i t a t e s the b a s i c main s e c t i o n of S. G i o r g i o , w i t h i t s four grea t Com-p o s i t e columns r i s i n g from p e d e s t a l s . However, there i s here a P a l l a d i a n e c l e c t i c i s m which we have n o t i c e d i n o ther P a l -l a d i a n r e v i v a l de s igns . Th i s i s ev iden t i n the t reatment o f the doorway, which i s , l i k e the Redentore , framed by s m a l l 31 columns suppor t ing an en tab la tu re and pediment, t r i a n g u l a r 27 i n the Redentore and s e m i c i r c u l a r i n the G e s u a t i . S. G i o r g i o has an arch over i t s doorway, but the p i l a s t e r s on e i t h e r s ide r i s e past i t and up to the en tab la tu re which i s c a r r i e d by p i l a s t e r s on the s ide pediments. The Redentore, on the o ther hand, does have i t s doorway "p rope r ly" framed by columns and pediment. L i k e S. G i o r g i o , the Gesua t i has s t a i r s t ha t concea l the inne r corners of the pedes ta l s of the two grea t c e n t r a l columns. L i k e S. G i o r g i o , the Gesua t i con ta ins n iches fo r s cu lp t ed f i g u r e s between the main columns, bu t , u n l i k e S. G i o r g i o , i t has two, not one, p a i r s of n i c h e s ; the second p a i r be ing d i r e c t l y above the lower p a i r , but separated by a s t r i n g course decorated w i t h a type of an t ique meander p a t t e r n . A l -though there i s a b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y between these two churches , one major d i f f e r e n c e i s apparent - the s ide pediments are m i s -s i n g i n the G e s u a t i , an absence a l s o found i n the Z i t e l l e . The grea t depar ture from both the Z i t e l l e and S. G i o r g i o i s Mas-s a r i ' s chythmic movement, c rea ted at the ends of the facade by 32 the use o f a " t u r n i n g " en t ab l a tu re which ruifs above the four grea t columns then j u t s back over the h a l f p i l a s t e r immediate ly adjacent to the end main columns. The en t ab l a tu re then runs a t a d i agona l and then over a p i l a s t e r at the side%of the facade. A cu r ious dev ice i s formed by the space between the p i l a s t e r at the s ide of the facade and the h a l f p i l a s t e r next to the end main column. • In t h i s space a new p i l a s t e r i s c rea ted by the a d d i t i o n of a base and leaves to form a c a p i t a l , but i t shares two v o l u t e s of the p i l a s t e r s next to i t . A precedent f o r a 28 stepped en tab la tu re might .be S. Francesco d e l l a V i g n a , but c e r -t a i n l y Massa r i has taken t h i s dev ice c o n s i d e r a b l y f u r t h e r . The r e s u l t of t h i s dev ice i s tha t the church , a l though wi thou t s ide pediments, does not appear t h i n when viewed from the s i d e . S. G i o r g i o and the Redentore are both set back a good d i s t a n c e , 33 but the Gesua t i i s c o n s i d e r a b l y c l o s e r to the w a t e r ' s edge. . Lorenzo B o s c h e t t i was l a t e r to i m i t a t e t h i s M a s s a r i m o t i f o f 34 the t u r n i n g en tab la tu re i n the church of S. Barnaba ( F i g . 10) . In the pediment of the G e s u a t i , we see a l a rge e l l i p t i c a l oc -c u l u s , decorated w i t h a s h e l l ornament, r emin i scen t o f S. N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o , though not as domina t ing . D i v i s i o n of the space i n the i n t e r i o r ( F i g s . 11-12) i s 35 at l e a s t somewhat s i m i l a r to the Redentore, but perhaps the s i m i l a r i t y should not be s t r e s s e d too much. The Redentore has a nave f l anked by three chapels on e i t h e r s i d e , s e m i - c i r c u l a r t r ansep t s w i t h a h igh dome over the c r o s s i n g , and a sanctuary and c h o i r . The G e s u a t i , t oo , has a long nave f l anked on e i t h e r s ide by three s ide chape l s , but at the chance l Massa r i abandons P a l l a d i o . The s e m i - c i r c u l a r t r ansep t s of the c r o s s i n g of the Redentore are r ep l aced by a square chancel def ined by the p i e r s from which s p r i n g the pendent ives of the dome. Behind t h i s square area i s the c h o i r , o f l o n g , e l l i p t i c a l shape. Some s i m i l a r i t i e s may be n o t i c e d between the i n t e r i o r s of 36 ' the Gesua t i and S t a . Mar i a d e l l a Fava , which was s t a r t e d by Antonio Gaspar i i n 17 05 and was completed by M a s s a r i i n the 37 . . • f i r s t h a l f of the' 1750 ' s . Both churches have a nave f l anked by deep s ide chapels and a narrower a l t a r area which i s i n t r o -29 duced by a chancel a r c h . However, w h i l e the Fava a r t i c u l a t e s i t s chapels by g i a n t p i l a s t e r s . , the G e s u a t i , l i k e the Redentore, 38 employs columns, and thereby c rea tes a more p l a s t i c exper-ience of su r f ace . Looking at the e x t e r i o r , we see tha t Massa r i has p l aced h i s two b e l l towers at e i t h e r s i d e of the c h a n c e l . The p l an of the church shows tha t Massa r i has narrowed t h i s a rea , t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g the b e l l towers ou t s ide to be " b u i l t i n " ; " the e f f e c t being a s t r a i g h t , c o n t i n u a t i o n of the l i n e o f the s ide chapel w a l l s o u t s i d e . A l s o , we see the dome w i t h i t s l a n t e r n . a n d a double b u t t r e s s i n g system remin i scen t of the Redentore. I n s i d e , the v a u l t i n g system i s s i m i l a r to tha t o f S. Georg io , and so there i s , i n M a s s a r i ' s church , tha t marvel lous P a l l a d i a n p l a y of l i g h t and shadow, p l a y between the vo ids and s o l i d s of the v a u l t i n g , and of the d i s s o l v i n g of form of the area surrounding the thermal window. Massa r i has even adopted the sub t l e P a l l a d i a n dev ice of b l i n d i n g the s ide l i g h t s o f some of h i s thermal windows. In the G e s u a t i , the s i d e l i g h t s of the windows o f the nave are b l i n d , opening on ly at the c h a n c e l , thereby adding more l i g h t and consequently, more emphasis to the a l t a r area of the church . However, Massa r i has v a r i e d the P a l -l a d i a n s t y l e of dome w i t h i t s sma l l opening i n . the cen t re and i t s windows around the base. Ins tead/ the dome of the Gesua t i i s much sha l lower than those by P a l l a d i o . I t l a c k s the whi te c o l o u r and s u b s t i t u t e s t h i s fo r brown, and has no o ther windows other than a sma l l ho le a t the t o p . L i g h t from the l a n t e r n i s 30 f u n n e l l e d i n t o a s i n g l e ray which descends from the s i n g l e hole down across the dark i n t e r i o r o f dome. Massa r i a l s o r e v e r t s back to S. G i o r g i o r a the r than the Redentore fo r i n s p i r a t i o n fo r the en tab la tu re c a r r i e d by the columns framing the arches d e f i n i n g the s ide chape l s . The Redentores ' s s t r a i g h t en tab la tu re i s sub-s t i t u t e d fo r a rhythmic motion as the en tab la tu re p r o j e c t s over the columns and recedes across the top o f the a rches , a rhythm which i s more i n keeping w i t h the rhythm c rea ted by the p i l a s -t e r s and columns o f the facade o u t s i d e . The enc losure of space of the nave shows, on the other hand, a depar ture from P a l l a d i o because of i t s b e v e l l e d p ieces of w a l l en t ab la tu re and v a u l t , which p rov ide a. more d e l i c a t e , almost rounded, t r a n s i t i o n from end-wa l l to s i d e , demonstrat ing a Baroque element i n t h i s P a l -39 . l a d i a n i n t e r i o r . M a s s a r i ' s church demonstrates the t a s t e of the e igh teen th century Vene t ian i n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . With predecessors such as S. Lazzaro d e i M e n d i c a n t i , S. Stae> • S. N i c o l o da T o l e n -t i n o , S. V i d a l , and S. Simeone P i c c o l o , a N e o - P a l l a d i a n movement i n Venice had been e s t a b l i s h e d . But t h i s N e o - P a l l a d i a n i s m was not a s l a v i s h i m i t a t i o n of a s i n g l e . P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h , . b u t r a the r an e x e r c i s e i n a k i n d of " P a l l a d i a n e c l e c t i c i s m " , whereby va r ious elements o f the P a l l a d i a n vocabula ry were chosen from P a l l a d i o ' s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l b u i l d i n g s and combined by the l a t e s even teen th -ea r ly -e igh teen th century a r c h i t e c t , to c rea te an i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n . The facade o f a Vene t i an church becomes a very pe r sona l c r e a t i o n , wh ich , by the use o f v a r i o u s P a l l a d i a n elements , generates a unique rhythm and sub t l e p l ay of forms. 31 However, C l a s s i c and P a l l a d i a n r u l e s are broken i n t h i s Neo^-P a l l a d i a n movement, as demonstrated by the broken pediments of S. Lazzaro and S, S t a e . - These broken pediments, a c a r r y - o v e r from the Baroque o f the seventeenth cen tu ry , d isappear i n l a t e r s t r u c t u r e s . Now the a n t i - c l a s s i c i s m i s not i n broken pediments, but i t p e r s i s t s n e v e r t h e l e s s . The wide , o v a l occu lus o f S. N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o , the use of a Byzan t i ne -Vene t i an dome 41 i n S. Simeone P i c c o l o , the wide , o v a l occu lus and unique rhythmic motion of the p i l a s t e r s at the ends of the facade of 42 ' the Gesua t i demonstrate the a r c h i t e c t s ' freedom of pe r sona l express ion even w i t h i n " a P a l l a d i a n mode. CHAPTER ITI THE PAINTED DECORATIONS. The church o f the Gesua t i has f i v e a l t a r p i e c e s by e i g h t -eenth century masters . In the f i r s t chapel on the l e f t i s an a l t a r p i e c e ' pa in ted by Sebast iano R i c c i , i n the f i r s t chape l on the r i g h t i s a work, by G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o , and i n the second and t h i r d chapels on the r i g h t are p a i n t i n g s by G i a m b a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a . The c e i l i n g panels are the masterpieces o f T i e p o l o 1 as w e l l . Thus, these p a i n t i n g s o f the Gesua t i r epresen t the work of three o f . t h e f i n e s t Vene t ian p a i n t e r s o f the e igh teen th cen tu ry . The a l t a r p i e c e s b y . . R i c c i , T i e p o l o , and the. t h i r d chape l a l t a r p i e c e by P i a z z e t t a each d e p i c t three Dominican s a i n t s . R i c c i ' s work depictsfThomas Aquinas,, P i u s V , and Pe te r Mar ty r ( F i g . 13) . I t can be dated 1732-1734, and was the f i r s t a l t a r -2 p iece to be set up i n t h e . c h u r c h . R i c c i was seven ty- th ree years o l d i n 1732, and t h i s p i c t u r e i n the Gesua t i was one of 3 h i s f i n a l works: he d i e d on ly two years l a t e r . . When Sebast iano R i c c i departed from London i n 1716, having f a i l e d to win the tempting commission fo r the d e c o r a t i o n of the dome, o f S t . P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l , he c o u l d look back on four years o f o therwise suc-c e s s f u l a c t i v i t y . He l e f t behind him a q u a n t i t y o f e legant decora t ions and one undoubted masterpiece -the f resco o f The R e s u r r e c t i o n i n the apse o f the chapel of the Roya l H o s p i t a l , Che l sea . He re tu rned to I t a l y v i a P a r i s i n 1717 and es tab-l i s h e d h i m s e l f i n Venice fo r the r e s t o f h i s l i f e , du r ing which t ime he never ceased to p a i n t and i n -deed produced some o f the most impress ive and s i g -n i f i c a n t works . 4 33 R i c c i ' s altarpiece i n the church of the Gesuati i s one. of his major commissions of his l a s t years i n Venice. The three Dominican saints are grouped i n a pyramidal composition. Stand-ing on the l e f t i s the figure of St. Thomas, who looks at the figure of St. Pius V, who i s seated upon a raised throne, which i s elevated above the other two saints. Kneeling on the r i g h t and.looking up at St. Thomas, i s St. Peter Martyr. The saints are linked v i s u a l l y by t h e i r being pressed up close to the p i c -ture plane, then being grouped i n a pyramidal fashion, and by t h e i r looking at one another, and also by Thomas's gesture of extending his hand toward Peter, who i n turn presses his hand to his chest, suggesting a kind of conversation between them.-It has been suggested that the triangular grouping of the saints could have been inspired by the Papal tombs i n St. Peter's 5 i n Rome. It would then follow that the painting would adopt an iconographical si g n i f i c a n c e as well as a method of compos-i t i o n . It would, lifce Bernini's tombs of Urban VIII and Alex-ander VII i n St. Peter's, symbolize the ideals of the Pope 6 " l i v i n g on" even after death. Another source of i n s p i r a t i o n for R i c c i may have been Veronese's painting i n the Pinacoteca d i Brera i n Milan, I Santi Cornelio, Cipriano e Antonio, where the Pope, Cornelius, with his t i a r a and St. Cyprian, with the palm of martyrdom near his feet, are placed on either side of the enthroned Antonio, who 7 wears a mitre and holds a c r o s i e r . Thus, we have, l i k e R i c c i ' s Gesuati altarpiece, one figure raised upon a throne,.a Pope, 34 and a martyr, who stands to the r i g h t of the central figure. In the background i s an arcade, a decorative device reminis-cent of Veronese, for example, his arcade i n the background of The Family of Darius before Alexander. Hovering above the saints are p u t t i . The heads of two p u t t i look down from the clouds, while two p l a y f u l whole-figure p u t t i j o y f u l l y f l y about, one holding a pen, the symbol of St. Thomas Aquinas, the Doctor of the Church, and one holding two keys, the symbol of the Papacy. Beside these p u t t i i s a large angel who hovers above St. Peter Martyr, and who holds the palm of martyrdom. This angel "provides a v i s u a l l i n k between the two zones [the zone with the saints below and the upper zone with the p u t t i set against the blue sky], as well as imparting a f e e l i n g of move-8 ment to an otherwise s t a t i c composition". Hovering beside Pope Pius V i s a p u t t i who holds the papal t i a r a . R i c c i has also added another device to add dynamism to his painting which i s so tremendously stablized by the triangular grouping of the saints. R i c c i has placed the saints upon a platform which abruptly stops, leaving a shadowy gap at the l e f t , lower section of the painting, and has allowed the blade of the knife, the symbol of St. Peter Martyr, to protrude over the edge of the platform. R i c c i i s successful i n holding his composition to-gether, uniting two zones, with saints below and p u t t i above, 9 though adding a f e e l i n g of movement as well. However, one point may be c r i t i c i z e d - the figure of St. Thomas, "whose man-10 nered elongation borders on deformity". But a l l things con-35 s i d e r e d : A study o f R i c c i 1 s l a t e r works i n Venice i s both he a r t e n i n g and rewarding. The p i c t u r e s g i v e the l i e t o the g l i b d e t r a c t o r s who would d i s m i s s him as nothing more than a V e r o n e s i a n p a s t i c h e u r , and the p a i n t e r h i m s e l f comes over t o us as a man of r e s i l i e n c e and r e s o u r c e . O r i g i n a l i t y was admit-t e d l y not h i s s t r o n g e s t p o i n t , which even h i s con-temporaries admitted, but he man aged to c r e a t e a V e n e t i a n Rococo t h a t was e l e g a n t without being f r i v o l o u s and competent without being academic. 11 A much e a r l i e r p i c t u r e , the Madonna and C h i l d w i t h Nine S a i n t s , a l s o demonstrates how R i c c i can e f f e c t i v e l y c r e a t e a coherent composition, borrowing elements, but s t i l l remaining an i n d i v i d u a l . The Madonna and C h i l d w i t h Nine S a i n t s was p a i n t e d i n 1708 f o r the church of S. G i o r g i o Maggiore, and i t i s a work which: n e l l a s c e l t a d e i c o l o r i t a v o l t a complementari, n e l l a m o r f o l o g i a e n e i l a composizione r a p p r e s e n t a i l momento p i u veronesiano d e l stto s t i l e . A l l e i n t o n a z i o n i scure e r o s s a s t r e accentuate d a l c h i a r o s c u r o , che c a r a t t e r i z z a v a n o l a prima a t t i v i t a r i c c e s c a , s i va ora sostinuendo una o r c h e s t r a z i o n e cromatica l i m p i d i s s i m a , t u l l a l u c e , r e a l i z z a t a con una p e n n e l l a t a tremula, nervosa ed e s t r o s a . G l i a n g e l i i n a l t o r i v e l a n o una l e g g e r e z z a de t o c c o , o t t e n u t a con una p e n n e l l a t a piumosa, che f a pensare a l Boucher. 12 In regard to composition, R i c c i ' s p a i n t i n g i s i n f l u e n c e d by Veronese's M y s t i c a l Marriage of S t . C a t h e r i n e i n the Accad-13 emia i n V e n i c e , a debt which must not be overlooked, but which must not be o v e r s t r e s s e d e i t h e r . C e r t a i n l y R i c c i has reworked Veronese's composition to s u i t h i s own a r t i s t i c temperament. Comparing the two p a i n t i n g s , a b a s i c pyramidal form i s used to 36 hold most of the figures together and to accentuate the figures of the V i r g i n and the Child , who form the apex of the t r i a n g l e . Veronese places at the lower l e f t two angels who read from a book. Above and to th e i r l e f t i s the dominating figure of the V i r g i n , seated upon a throne which i s v i s u a l l y hidden, but whose steps are exposed i n order to lead up to the figure of the V i r g i n . On the ri g h t are four figures, including the figure of St. Catherine. The ri g h t side of the t r i a n g l e i s formed by a v i s u a l linkage of heads, our eyes being c a r r i e d from the high-placed figure of the V i r g i n down to the head of the l a s t figure who i s located at the extreme ri g h t of the painting. Behind the V i r g i n are two heavy columns which are pa r t l y covered by drapery. To the r i g h t i s the sky, f i l l e d with some dark clouds, contrasting with other b r i g h t l y - l i t clouds from which emerge several p u t t i . A basic s i m i l a r i t y can be noticed i n R i c c i 1 s painting i n which the tr i a n g l e i s formed by placing the Vi r g i n and Child upon a throne, thereby forming the apex. At the l e f t , i s the crouching figure of St. Peter, who converses with another saint who looks down at him, g e s t i c u l a t i n g with his hand, a device which l i n k s them both v i s u a l l y and i n a con-versant manner, which was the case with the altarpi e c e i n the Gesuati. According to Levey t h i s painting i n S. Giorgio: "announces the use to be made i n the eighteenth century of the casual sacra conversazione, where a group of saints are as-sembled alone or with a presiding figure, usually of the 15 Madonna". Reaching the top of the t r i a n g l e with the figure 37 of the V i r g i n , the r i g h t side of the t r i a n g l e i s completed by the v i s u a l l i n k a g e of the f i g u r e of St. Catherine, whose body i s l eaning forward, and the s a i n t who leans on the base of the V i r g i n ' s throne, whereby our eyes are l e d downward, though not without some s t r a y i n g to a group of four s a i n t s behind the s a i n t whose long, l e a n i n g back provides p a r t of the t r i a n g u l a r composition. This a d d i t i o n of s a i n t s i s not found i n Veronese. I t i s a R i c c i v a r i a t i o n which does not destroy the t r i a n g l e , but only widens i t . Behind the V i r g i n i s a column p a r t i a l l y concealed by drapery, reminiscent of Veronese, but here, i n R i c c i ' s p a i n t i n g the e f f e c t of the heavy, dominating columns of Veronese's work i s subdued g r e a t l y , R i c c i ' s column being hidden to a greater extent. In the sky, a great d i f f e r e n c e from Veronese can be immediately n o t i c e d . Here hover two p l a y -f u l p u t t i , one of whom swings upon the long s t a l k of a f l o w e r , l i k e a l i t t l e c h i l d swinging upon a branch. Above them are the heads of three more p u t t i who look etit from t h e i r d e l i c a t e cloud. Gone are the heavy, dark clouds and s e r i o u s angels of Veronese's work. In R i c c i ' s work, an elegance and l i g h t n e s s i s apparent. The V i r g i n i s set up on a much higher throne than Veronese p a i n t e d , and she reaches more than three-quarters of the height of the p a i n t i n g , thereby e l o n g a t i n g the t r i a n g l e of which she forms the apex. Steer i s c o r r e c t i n h i s observations of the painting;' To a c e r t a i n extent there i s some "note of 'Rococo f r i v o l i t y ' i n the "gambolling p u t t i " and a r a t h e r sen-16 t i m e n t a l expression on the s a i n t s . In the Gesuati a l t a r -p i e c e , too, R i c c i created an a i r of l i g h t n e s s and grace, an 38 elegant slender figure of St. Thomas and a pair of elegant p u t t i f l y i n g against a l i g h t backdrop of sky, though R i c c i ' s Rococo could never be considered completely f r i v o l o u s i n over-17 a l l e f f e c t . Another r e l i g i o u s picture, t h i s one involving a limited number of figures, i s the Holy Family and St. Anne, which i s i n the Molinari P r a d e l l i C o l l e c t i o n i n Bologna. This work, dating 18 about 1709, also has touches of a Veronese s t y l e . Once again a triangular composition i s employed and two columns set i n the background. However, R i c c i , here too, proves himself capable of o r i g i n a l i t y . In t h i s painting, unlike his painting i n S. Giorgio, a l l the figures are pressed up close to the picture plane, and i t therefore becomes a personal and immediate re-lationship between the Holy Family and us, the spectators. R i c c i has e f f e c t i v e l y t i g h t l y grouped the four figures, the V i r g i n and Child, Joseph, and St. Anne, into a pyramidal com-posi t i o n whose base i s formed by a platform running horizontal-l y r i g h t across the picture plane of the painting. The l e f t side of the tr i a n g l e runs along the arm of the seated figure of the V i r g i n , to her head and up to the figure of the stand-ing St. Joseph and completes the r i g h t side by continuing down the head and shoulder of the kneeling figure of St. Anne. R i c c i has perhaps been influenced by a leaning figure at the extreme rig h t of Veronese's Mystical Marriage of St. Catherine for his figure of St. Joseph. R i c c i ' s St. Joseph, l i k e Veronese's figure, leans forward to become an in t e g r a l part of the pyram-i d a l structure. However, R i c c i has made his figure of St. Joseph 39 unique i n tha t the s a i n t extends h i s r i g h t arm d i a g o n a l l y and r e s t s i t on a s t a f f . H i s ge s tu re , l i k e the a d d i t i o n o f the four s a i n t s i n the S. G i o r g i o p a i n t i n g , adds an element of dynamism to h i s bas ic , pyramida l s t r u c t u r e wi thout d i s r u p t i n g a c o n t i n u i t y of d i agona l l i n e , i n t h i s case running from Joseph ' s hand down to S t . Anne 's head and shou lder . To the r i g h t of S t . Joseph i s a wide pa tch of sky w i t h wisps of p ink and whi te c l o u d s , adding a Rococo elegance to the scene. There i s a l s o , l i k e the Gesua t i a l t a r p i e c e , an i n t e r a c t i o n of f i g u r e s , the c h i l d l o o k i n g back at the f i g u r e s of the V i r g i n who gazes at Him w h i l e h o l d i n g Him on her knee. Joseph, t o o , : l o o k s down at the two f i g u r e s , but i t must be c r i t i c i z e d tha t St- Anne 's gaze l a c k s d i r e c t i o n . This i s a c r i t i c i s m which cou ld not be a p p l i c a b l e to the Gesua t i p a i n t i n g , because there each s a i n t looks d i r e c t l y towards an-other . -Two a l t a r p i e c e s of R i c c i ' s l a s t years tha t should be comprjtfftu: ared to the Gesua t i p a i n t i n g are the works commissioned fo r the Church o f S. Rocco i n V e n i c e . These t w o - p a i n t i n g s , d a t i n g , l i k e 19 the Gesua t i a l t a r p i e c e from 1732-1734, devote h a l f of t h e i r compos i t ion to l i g h t - f i l l e d c louds and pa le b lue sky , the S t . Helena F i n d i n g the True Cross being desc r ibed by D a n i e l s as "". .20-"glowing w i t h c o l o u r and l i g h t " . S u r e l y the Gesua t i a l t a r p i e c e w i t h i t s wispy blue sky cou ld be de sc r ibed i n the same words. Gian B a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a i s represented i n the church o f the Gesua t i by two p a i n t i n g s , one of which i s S t s . V incen t F e r -r e r , H y a c i n t h , and Lou i s Ber t r and ( F i g s . 14, 18 ) , a work which 40 22 i s g i v e n the approximate date 1738. Comparing t h i s p a i n t i n g by P i a z z e t t a w i t h S t s . Thomas, P iu s V , and P e t e r Mar ty r by R i c c i the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e are overwhelming. In the con tex t o f Vene t i an e igh teen th century a r t as a whole P i a z z e t t a is . an o u t s i d e r . . . h i s me lancho l i c temperament . . . shows i t s e l f i n . t h e pass ion of h i s r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g s . . . P i a z z e t t a ' s h i s t o r i c a l importance l i e s i n h i s f u s i o n of a Vene t i an f e e l i n g f o r p a i n t w i t h the dramat ic ch i a ro scu ro and t a c t i l e r e a l i s m of the t r a d i t i o n of Caravaggio . . . . The s p i r i t u a l i n t e n s i t y of P i a z z e t t a ' s p a i n t i n g comes from the combinat ion of t h i s p h y s i -c a l r e a l i s m of d e t a i l w i t h the v i s i o n a r y e f f e c t of the whole . 23 Whereas R i c c i ' s s a i n t s communicate w i t h one another In a casua l m a n n e r e a c h o f P i a z z e t t a ' s s a i n t s are i n v o l v e d i n h i s own pe r sona l m y s t i c a l expe r i ence . P i a z z e t t a , neve r the l e s s ,ha s arranged h i s compos i t ion i n a very c o n t r o l l e d manner, j u s t as R i c c i had done. P i a z z e t t a , i n s t e a d of a r rang ing h i s f i g u r e s i n a t r i a n g u l a r grouping l i k e R i c c i , has set out h i s canvas i n a s e r i e s of v e r t i c a l s . S i t t i n g near the bottom of the p i c t u r e i s the f i g u r e of S t . L o u i s B e r t r a n d , above and behind him i s the s l i g h t l y i n c l i n e d f i g u r e of S t . V incen t F e r r e r , and bes ide 24 him i s the k n e e l i n g f i g u r e of S t . H y a c i n t h . At the top o f the p i c t u r e i s an angel whose l a r g e , ho r i zona - l ! wing f a c i n g us adds a h o r i z o n a l a x i s to complete the p i c t u r e as a type o f cap-p ing . Gone i s the P a l l a d i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e of R i c c i ' s p a i n t i n g and i n i t s p l a c e , ' P i a z z e t t a has c rea ted a c e l e s t i a l r ea lm. P i a z e t t a has taken h i s s a i n t s out of the spacetime order o f R i c c i ' s mundane environment wherein the s a i n t s , i n f ron t of a p i ece o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , converse . P i a z z e t t a , i n s t e a d , d e p i c t s 41 S t . Lou i s Ber t rand seated upon what appears to be a r o c k , r e s t -i n g h i s bare foot upon what seems to be a s e c t i o n of ground, but which i s pa in t ed i n s t range , supe rna tu ra l tones o f g rey . Above him, S t , V incen t r e c l i n e s on a throne of c l o u d s . Th i s throne of c louds envelops most of h i s body. The extended arms of the s a i n t are supported by c l o u d , w h i l e h i s bare l e f t foot r e s t s upon a square s e c t i o n o f c loud below which i s a sugges-t i o n of dark b lue sky extending beyond. The f i g u r e of S t . Hya-c i n t h a l s o i s supported by c louds and h i s body i s s i l h o u e t t e d aga ins t another c l o u d , t h i s one extending i n a column up to the top of the p a i n t i n g where the angel emerges from around the back o f t h i s c l o u d . U n l i k e R i c c i , P i a z z e t t a shows h i s s a i n t s i n m e d i t a t i o n . S t . L o u i s Ber t r and gazes down, a humble and contempla t ive expres s ion on h i s f ace , at h i s c h a l i c e w i t h the snake. S t . V incen t l i f t s h i s eyes h i g h , gaz ing i n t e n t l y at something beyond the l i m i t s of the p a i n t i n g , as i f e x p e r i e n c i n g a v i s i o n . S t . Hyac in th a l s o gazes beyond the p i c t u r e ' s l i m i t s , a s - i f p r ay ing w h i l e h i s exper ience i s . b e i n g transformed i n t o a m y s t i c a l , supe rna tu ra l one. The p l a y f u l p u t t i of R i c c i ' s a l t a r -p i ece are absent i n P i a z z e t t a ' s p a i n t i n g , a l though the s i n g l e angel at the top of the compos i t ion h i n t s a t a tendency toward sweetness, which was a q u a l i t y a p p l i c a b l e to the l a r g e angel o f R i c c i ' s p a i n t i n g . P i a z z e t t a ' s angel here p o i n t s a f i n g e r above and beyond the p a i n t i n g , g i v i n g the d i r e c t i o n i n which the two s a i n t s below are l o o k i n g . Here, the o v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i s of P i a z z e t t a ' s d e p i c t i o n o f three s a i n t s i s one o f m e d i t a t i o n and v i s i o n , even though the t i t l e o f the work suggests no th ing of 42 a supernatural experience or appearance. Even when R i c c i does depict a supernatural appearance, such as The Madonna Appearing to St. Hugo and St. Bruno, 25 (Vedana,. Certosa), • often mysticism i s kept to a minimum. In the painting, Sebastiano R i c c i focuses attention within the painting, not, as with Piazzetta, beyond, as indicated by the gazes of S.ts; Vincent Ferrer and Louis Bertrand. R i c c i ' s painting shows the V i r g i n , holding the Christ Child, standing upon the ground with an i n d i c a t i o n of landscape behind her. The v i s i o n takes place on earth, with a n a t u r a l i s t i c setting, and the figures of the V i r g i n and the saint who kneels before her meet eyes. The. communication i s r e a l - the communication in Piazzetta's work belongs to the realm of the imaginary -i t i s our imaginations which must picture the v i s i o n which Sts. Vincent and Louis experience. At the top of R i c c i ' s Madonna Appearing to St. Hugo and. St. Bruno, are the heads of p u t t i which look down toward the earth, thereby focusing attention downward. Unlike Sebastiano R i c c i , Piazzetta i s interested i n creating a 26 chiaroscuro e f f e c t . The dark robes of St. Louis Bertrand i n the Gesuati altarpiece form a marked contrast with the white robes of St. Vincent Ferrer. Light streams from above and from the l e f t , creating a marvellous play of l i g h t and shadow on the fingers, wrist and sleeve of the raised arm of St. Vincent. A shadowy cloud to the l e f t of the saint i s matched on r i g h t by a white one. The dark grey robes of St. Hyacinth complement the White robes of St. Vincent and also contrast with the t a l l 43 column of c loud which emphasizes the o u t l i n e of S t . H y a c i n t h . T h e r e f o r e , . t h e rhythm i s c r e a t e d , s t a r t i n g at the bottom of the p i c t u r e - dark aga ins t l i g h t con t r a s t ed w i t h dark set aga ins t l i g h t . Even the whi te wings of the angel above c o n t r a s t w i t h a deep b lue sky . . v Although P i a z z e t t a i s p reoccupied w i t h ch i a ro scu ro e f f e c t s h i s c o l o u r i s m as t y p i f i e d i n the Gesua t i a l t a r p i e c e a t t h i s s tage , , a t ime "whi l e c o l o u r was b r i g h t e n i n g . . . the rococo p a i n t e r ' s c a n v a s s e s , " P i a z z e t t a was r e s t r i c t i n g h i s p a l e t t e to ches tnut r e d , b l a c k , w h i t e , and grey . . . from t h e i r [the s a i n t s of the Gesua t i p a i n t i n g ] juxtaposed h a b i t s of b l a c k , w h i t e , and g rey , he makes m o r e . e f f e c t i v e c o n t r a s t than would another p a i n -27 t e r w i t h a whole rainbow of c o l o u r s " . However, the Gesua t i a l t a r p i e c e marks a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n P i a z z e t t a ' s c a r ee r : Une franche e t joyeuse lumiere d i v i n e e c l a t e et se repUnd, e x a l t a n t l e s v a l e u r s l o c a l e s : . c ' e s t l a lumiere ( ( e n s o l e i l l ^ e ) ) dont p a r l e Alessandro Longhi (1760) e t q u i c a r a c t e r i s e maintenant l e , gout p i c t u r a l de P i a z z e t t a . Ce d e r n i e r developpe d a n s . l e t ab l eau des Jesuates l e m o t i f de compo-s i t i o n deja. experimente dans l a p e i n t u r e de I ' e ' g l i s e S a n - V i t a l e . Le premier s a i n t a gauche, dans son f roc obscur , donne une r e l i e f pu i s san t au vetement c l a i r de S a i n t Vincenzo F e r r e r i q u i es t p e t r i de l u m i e r e . Les personnages sont p lu s p e t i t s , de p r o p o r t i o n s d i f f e r e n t e s par rappor t a 1'ensemble de l a compos i t ion dont 1'atmosphere es t d'une l u m i n o s i t e e c l a t a n t e . 28 Accord ing to Zampet t i : R i s p e t t o a l i a p a l a d i S. V i d a l - n e l l a quale l e - f i g u r e incombevano i n primo piano senza una v i b r a z i o n e a tmosfe r i ca - i n ques t ' ope ra (the Gesuat i ) i l P i a z z e t t a tenda a d i l a t a r e l a compo-s-izione ad approfondi re l o s p a z i o , ad a l l e g g e r i r e 44 i p r i m i p i a n i per a r t i c o l a r e con maggiore a r i o s i t a l a s t r u t t u r a c o m p o s i t i v a . 29 In the p a i n t i n g i n the. church o f S. V i d a l of The Guardian Angel and S t . Anthony of Padua and S t . L o u i s , a work d a t i n g 30 from the second h a l f of the 1720 ' s , we see the weight of the compos i t ion r e s t i n g a t the bottom of the p a i n t i n g . The two s a i n t s are p laced at the bottom of the l e f t s i de of the compo-s i t i o n , and they are balanced by a sma l l c h i l d a t the bottom of the l e f t s i d e . Between these three f i g u r e s stands the l a r g e dominat ing f i g u r e of the Guardian A n g e l . The compos i t ion i s b u i l t up p r i m a r i l y on a system of v e r t i c a l s , w i t h the two s a i n t s , be ing p laced one above the o t h e r , the l a r g e s tand ing angel to the r i g h t , and f i n a l l y , c o n s t i t u t i n g a t h i r d v e r t i c a l i s the c h i l d s tanding on the r i g h t . Any r i g i d n e s s i s o f f s e t by the d i agona l l i n e s formed by the l e g of the s a i n t s i t t i n g at the lower l e f t of the p i c t u r e and by the s l i g h t l y i n c l i n e d , ou t s t r e t ched arm of the a n g e l . L i k e the Gesua t i a l t a r p i e c e , t h i s p i c t u r e i n S. V i d a l s t r e s se s the m y s t i c a l exper ience of a s a i n t . In the S. V i d a l p a i n t i n g , S t . L o u i s , l i k e S t . V i n c e n t o f the Gesua t i a l t a r p i e c e , gazes up and beyond the l i m i t s of the p i c t u r e f r a m e , . w h i l e l i g h t streams down upon h i s f ace , h i g h -l i g h t i n g pa r t s and c r e a t i n g shadows i n o t h e r s . Reminiscent of the Gesua t i p a i n t i n g a l s o , i s the use of a p l a y between l i g h t and dark , the dark garment o f S t . Anthony c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the whi te garment of S t . Lou i s behind him. Nea r ly h a l f of the space of the p i c t u r e i s occupied by ve ry dark brown c louds 45 wh ich , by t h e i r t o n a l i t y , tend to add v i s u a l weight to the p i c -t u r e , pushing the f i g u r e s c l o s e to the p i c t u r e p l a n e . Bu t , there i s a touch of l i g h t n e s s i n the p a i n t i n g i n the p i n k , w h i t e , b l u e , and b rown i sh -ye l low robes of the a n g e l . L i g h t , descending from a source above and to the l e f t of the p a i n t i n g , p i c k s out d e t a i l s o f the faces o f the heads o f two p u t t i i n the c louds at the top , streams down upon the arm and face of the a n g e l , i l l u m i n a t e s most of the co loured garments of. the angel and the whi te garment of S t . L o u i s , and s e l e c t s h i g h l i g h t s of the face of S t . Anthony and the arm, l e g , . a n d face of the c h i l d a t the r i g h t . The l i g h t source o f the Gesua t i i s the same, coming from the l e f t , but l e s s areas are i n shadow. The l a r g e angel a t the top has h i s f ace , arms, and r i g h t wing i n b r i g h t i l l u m i n a t i o n . The b l u e , r a the r than brown background of the Gesua t i work, tends to recede and ' the placement of the f i g u r e s a l lows g rea te r space and d i s t r i b u t i o n cove r ing the whole sur face 31 of the canvas. Another p a i n t i n g preceding the Gesua t i a l t a r -p i ece which d i s t r i b u t e s the f i g u r e s along the t o t a l . v i s u a l v e r -t i c a l a x i s , which h i g h l i g h t s as many areas by i t s s i n g l e l i g h t source as the S. V i d a l a l t a r p i e c e , i s the Ecs tasy o f S t . F r a n c i s i n the Museo C i v i c o i n V i c e n z a . However, a background much darker i n t o n a l i t y than the Gesua t i work i s used. In the middle chapel on the r i g h t s ide of the church of the G e s u a t i , we f i n d a l a t e r p a i n t i n g by P i a z z e t t a , r e p r e s e n t i n g S t . Dominic ( F i g . 15),. Th i s p a i n t i n g shows the s a i n t i n t h r e e -quar te r length., h o l d i n g h i s symbol ic book and the l i l y . Above h i s head shines an e i g h t - p o i n t e d s t a r . A document s t a t e s tha t 46 32 payment fo r t h i s p o r t r a i t was made i n September, •1743. unfor^ t u n a t e l y , t h i s p o r t r a i t i s conven t iona l and u n i n s p i r i n g : . . . i l e s t evidemment modele avec v i g u e u r , avec ma t r i s e meme, mais a u s s i avec une so r t de re tenue.^ Le S a i n t Dominique des Je'suates marque b i a n l e debut d'une n o u v e l l e per iode de 1' a c t i v i t e ' a r t i s t i q u e de P i a z z e t t a , l a p l u s pauvre et l a p lu s c o n v e n t i o n n e l l e de ces pSriodes. La b e l l e et r i c h e i n s p i r a t i o n q u i a v a i t c a r a c t e r i s e l e s phases precedentes de sa v i e d ' a r t i s t e s ' e t i e n t peu "a peu. I I r e v i e n t brusque-ment, a un c l a i r - o b s c u r p lu s charge', p lu s t h e a t r a l , p lus baroque. Son s t y l e es t encore b i e n d q u i l i b r e et d 'une grande p r e c i s i o n f o r m e l l e , mais l ' o n sent que 1 ' a r t i s t e f a t i g u e s'abandonne aux p lus pauvres conven t ions . . 33 T i e p o l o ' s grea t masterpiece of h i s th ree f rescoes on the c e i l i n g of the Gesua t i ( F i g s . 1 6 , . 1 8 , 19) da te .1739 , and t h i s date i s supported by a r c h i v a l documents which have been p u b l i s h -ed by M o r a s s i . He records t ha t i n May, 1737, the c o n t r a c t was drawn up fo r the c e i l i n g of the church , but tha t the execu t ion of the p a i n t i n g s was de l ayed . In October , 1739, the whole f resco programme of the Gesua t i c e i l i n g was complete . T i e p o l o had s u b m i t t e d . h i s p r o j e c t s i n the Sp r ing o f 1737, i n February o f the fpxb'Iowing year he r e c e i v e d 8370,10 Vene t i an l i r e as h i s f i r s t payment ' for the commission, and when the work was com-p l e t e d , i n October , 1739, he r e c e i v e d an a d d i t i o n a l 4030 l i r e , 34 making the t o t a l payment amounting to 12.4 00,10 l i r e . T i e p o l o ' s Gesua t i c e i l i n g d e p i c t s three separate scenes i n three pane l s . The main cen t re p a n e l , i n the shape o f a r e c -- t angle , w i t h c i r c u l a r a d d i t i o n s a t two ends, represents S t . Domi-n i c I n s t i t u t i n g the Rosary . Two sma l l e r panels oppos i t e the rounded ends o f the c e n t r a l p a n e l , are i n the shape of r e c -47 tangles with the corners cut and rounded and with one long side being straight, the other curving. The panel closest to the entrance represents St. Dominic i n Glory,while the panel closest t o : ' 35 to the a l t a r depicts The V i r g i n Hearing the Prayers of the Saint. The unique shape and arrangement of the three Tiepolo pan-els i n the Gesuati distinguishes them as being something of a new innovation i n church c e i l i n g decoration, although elaborate, but de l i c a t e framing was used i n the Archiespiscopal Palace i n . Udine, while the three-panel format has a precedent i n Venetian c e i l i n g decoration i n T i t i a n ' s paintings i n the sa c r i s t y of Sta. 36 Maria d e l l a Salute. Comparing Tiepolo's solution for the c e i l i n g with some of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c e i l i n g programmes of the seventeenth century, we are immediately confronted with a r a d i c a l difference i n s t y l e s . One Baroque st y l e c e i l i n g i n Venice i s a work i n the church of S. Panfealon, painted by Giovanni Antonio Fumiani between 1684 and 1704. Fumiani, who died i n 1710, was inspired by the Roman Baroque a r t i s t s , Andrea Pozzo, and t h i s s i m i l a r i t y i s evident i n the i l l u s i o n i s -t i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l settings, columns soaring into space, arches silhouetted against the sky and many foreshortened figures and p u t t i f l o a t i n g i n space> which can be seen i n both the c e i l i n g 37 of S. Pantalon and the Roman Church of S. Ignazio. Also preoccupied by a r c h i t e c t u r a l i l l u s i o n i s m are Antonio T o r r i and Pietro R i c c h i , two a r t i s t s who painted the c e i l i n g of the Venetian church of Sant'Alvise i n the t h i r d quarter of the 38 seventeenth century. In-this c e i l i n g f a n t a s t i c twisted 48 columns r i s e up from foreshor tened p e d e s t a l s , soa r ing i n t o the sky . The eye i s l e d up these columns i n t o pendent iyes o f some "domes" whose tops have neem removed, i n the case of most of them, to l ead the eye even fu r t he r i n t o the i l l u s i o n i s t i c sky , and, i n . t h e case of the middle one, t o . r e v e a l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the T r i n i t y . U n l i k e the c e i l i n g d e c o r a t i o n of S a n t ' A d v i s e , Sebast iano R i c c i ' s p a i n t i n g s on the c e i l i n g o f S. M a r z i a l e abandon the t o t a l i l l u s i o n i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e i n favour, of theeeeseparate pane l s , l i k e the c e i l i n g of the G e s u a t i , be ing three separate events i n three sepa ra t e ly framed pane l s . Two round and one o v a l g i l t frames are used to d i s t i n g u i s h the p a i n t i n g s and these c o n t r a s t w i t h the w h i t e , p l a i n c e i l i n g which i s complete-l y framed by a cont inuous g i l d e d p l a s t e r frame. The p a i n t i n g s of S. M a r z i a l e , d a t i n g 1705, d e p i c t The Mi racu lous A r r i v a l ..of the Statue of the V i r g i n by Sea, S. Mar-z j a l e i n G l o r y , and The Angels Ca rv ing the Image of the V i r g i n i n .the Trunk of a Tree . The three canvasses , i n t h e i r e l abora te s e t t i n g of g i l d e d p l a s t e r , are f i l l e d w i t h l i g h t and movement . . . as c e i l i n g d e c o r a t i o n they are the a n t i t h e s i s of the e l abo ra t e and g r im fantasy by Fumian i , the Vene t i an Pozzo , i n S. P a n t a l o n , . w h i c h was being completed at j u s t about t h i s t ime , Seen on ly as p a i n t i n g s , the c e i l i n g of S. M a r z i a l e may seem l i t t l e more than a b r i l l i a n t r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s o f c e i l i n g d e c o r a t i o n of T i t i a n , Veronese and Correggio . . The q u a l i t y which d i s t i n -guishes i t as a work o f the E igh teen th Century i s the c a r e f u l l y cons idered o r g a n i z a t i o n of the scheme asxa d e c o r a t i v e whole. The s o l i d f i g u r e p a i n t i n g of the canvasses matches the heavy convo lu t i ons of the p l a s t e r w o r k , and both are en l ivened by the same 49 dramatic sense o f p a t t e r n and- c h i a r o s c u r o . =In t h i s way the c e i l i n g e s t a b l i s h e s i n the f i r s t years of the new century a v e r y impor tant . p r i n c i p l e of the h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g of the p e r i o d - a new concept of the va lue o f the proper r e l a t i o n s h i p between the work of a r t and i t s s e t t i n g , between a r t and l i f e , between p i c t o r i a l space and r e a l space. 39 Although both T i e p o l o and R i c c i d i v i d e t h e i r c e i l i n g de-c o r a t i o n s i n t o d i v i d e d framed p i c t u r e s , the Gesua t i c e i l i n g compared to the S. M a r z i a l e c e i l i n g seems much l i g h t e r and d e l i -c a t e . The creamy co loured s tucco decora t ions o f M i c h e l Anton io 40 P e l l e b lend p e r f e c t l y w i t h both T iepo lo , ' s p a i n t i n g s and the grey and whi te c o l o u r s of M a s s a r i ' s P a l l a d i a n s t y l e a r c h i t e c -t u r e ; the s tuccos of the Gesua t i abandon the heavy, e l abo ra t e g i l t frames of the c e i l i n g of § . M a r z i a l e . The c e n t r a l f resco panel ( F i g . 16) of the Gesua t i c e i l i n g shows S t . Dominic , the founder of the Dominicans, d i s t r i b u t i n g 41 h i s O r d e r ' s emblem,-the Rosary. S t . Dominic , a s t a r above h i s head, holds a book i n h i s l e f t hand, w h i l e o f f e r i n g a rosa ry to a group of the f a i t h f u l who eage r ly s t r e t c h out t h e i r hands. Dominic i s dep i c t ed s tanding at, the top o f a f l i g h t of s t eps . Behind and above the s a i n t f l i e s an angel who c a r r i e s r o s a r i e s from the V i r g i n and C h i l d who are seen h igh i n the b lue sky , supported by c l o u d s , down, to another angel s tanding behind the 42 ~ s a i n t , h e l p i n g him d i s t r i b u t e the r o s a r i e s . Among the r e -c i p i e n t s o f the rosa ry i s the Doge h i m s e l f , who appears j u s t 43 behind a man who i s k i s s i n g the ground. A t the extreme l e f t , , at the bottom of a f l i g h t of steps which leads to the group o f f a i t h f u l r e c e i v i n g the r o s a r y , i s a whi te hound,, the symbol o f 50 the Dominicans (Domini c a n i s ) . At the r i g h t , below S t . Dominic i s a second group of peop le , one of whom is- the whi te-bearded Pope P ius V , "The Dominican Pope of the Rosary" who i s wearing 44 a g o l d c©pe. At the bottom of the compos i t ion i s a person-45 i f i c a t i o n of the A l b i g e n s i a n heresy f a l l i n g out o f the scene. The i n c l u s i o n o f the Doge i n the f resco probably r e f e r s to V e n i c e ' s a l l i a n c e aga ins t the Turks , an a l l i a n c e formed by 46 Pope P i u s V . The defeat o f the Turks at Lepanto on the f i r s t Sunday i n October , 1571, a date which was to be commemorated by the "Festa of the Rosary" , was a joyous occa s ion f o r C h r i s t i a n 47 c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y V e n i c e . In the sma l l panel d e p i c t i n g The V i r g i n Hear ing the P r a y -48 ers of S t . Dominic , ( F i g . 18) , we see S t . Dominic , a s t a r above h i s head, k n e e l i n g upon a f l i g h t of s t eps . Below are v a r i o u s symbols, the l i l y , the book, and the t o r c h , symbols o f S t . Dominic and the hound (Domini c a n i s ) , the symbol o f the Domin i -49 can Order , which a l s o appeared i n the c e n t r a l f r e s c o . The hound, an a d d i t i o n f r equen t ly seen i n Veronese ' s scenes, now i n t h i s f resco i n the G e s u a t i , takes on an i c o n o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i e s ance. A l s o k n e e l i n g upon the s teps i s a Dominican named Fra Paolo of whom i t i s s a i d "avant grandement cont r ibue ' a l a r e -50 c o n s t r u c t i o n de l ' e g l i s e " . In the c louds above S t . Dominic , stands the V i r g i n h o l d i n g her mantle over a group of s a i n t s . These s a i n t s number n i n e , the number represented i n the three eighteenths-century a l t a r p i e c e s i n the G e s u a t i . One of the s a i n t s represented i n The V i r g i n Hear ing the Prayers o f S t . Dominic wear  a r i c h l y d corated cope. Bes ide him l i e s a 51 c r o s i e r w h i l e a put-to below c a r r i e s a m i t r e . Th i s s a i n t perhaps i s S t . Thomas A q u i n a s - i n h i s r o l e as Doctor of the Church. Be-s i d e him i s a female s a i n t , perhaps Ca ther ine of S i e n a . The other s a i n t s , a l though wi thout a t t r i b u t e s , except a f i g u r e im-med ia t e ly below the V i r g i n ' s l e f t hand who wears the t i a r a and who c a r r i e s the t h r ee -ba r r ed papal c ross who i s probably Pope P ius V , are most l i k e l y S t s . Rose, Agnes o f Montepulc iano , L o u i s Ber t rando , V i n c e n t F e r r e r , Pe ter Mar tyr and H y a c i n t h . Another p o s s i b i l i t y , s i nce S t . Thomas does not have the c r o s i e r as i n t h e , R i c c i p a i n t i n g , i s t ha t t h i s f i g u r e i s . S t . 51 Anton ino , Archbishop o f F l o r e n c e , who was a l s o a Dominican. The ges ture of the V i r g i n h o l d i n g her mantle over the group of s a i n t s symbol izes her o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n to the Domin i -can Order . An a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f resco i s t ha t the e n t i r e group of f i g u r e s are s a i n t s born before, the t ime of Dominic , tha t i s , those a l r eady i n Heaven. The foreground f i g u r e w i t h the c r o s i e r would then be S t . Augus t ine . However, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does 'no t e x p l a i n the presence of F r a P a o l o , nor does i t e x p l a i n why the V i r g i n would be dep i c t ed s h i e l d i n g s a i n t s of another r e l i g i o u s Order . I t must, though, be .admitted tha t the f i g u r e w i t h the c r o s i e r does present a problem. I f we i d e n -t i f y him as S t . An ton ino , why does he not appear i n one of the s ide a l t a r p a i n t i n g s ? The t h i r d T i e p o l o f resco s e c t i o n ( F i g . 19) shows S t . Dom-i n i c , a s t a r above h i s head, r i s i n g i n t o Heaven, being borne by a number o f ange l s . Below i s h i s symbol, the l i l y and bes ide i t 52 i s a globe w i t h a t o r c h ? p r o j e c t i n g from i t . Th i s symbol r e f e r s to a dream D o m i n i c ' s mother i s s a i d to have had j-ust before her son was born . I t i s i n t e r p r e t e d as be ing a symbol fo r S t . Dom-53 i n i c ' s j ou rney ing about the wor ld i l l u m i n a t i n g men's minds. S t y l i s t i c a l l y , the c e n t r a l c e i l i n g f resco of the Gesua t i r e c a l l s the work o f Veronese; we see a "pe r spec t ive s t r o n g l y foreshor tened from below" w i t h v a r i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements on which are d isposed f i g u r e s which convey a f e e l i n g o f . d e p t h . In t h i s f r e s c o , T i e p o l o c rea tes an i l l u s i o n of space by "a 54 p l a y of s u c c e s s i v e l y reced ing p l anes " . A t the bottom of the compos i t ion the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the A l b i g e n s i a n heresy tumbles out o f • the p i c t u r e space. Above i s a c o r n i c e upon which r e s t two men, one of whom tu rns h i s ba re , muscular back to us , a f i g u r e - t y p e found a l s o i n Veronese ' s Apotheos is of  V e n i c e ; the other dressed as a s o l d i e r , l e i s u r e l y r e s t s h i s r i g h t knee over the c o r n i c e . Above them i s a f l i g h t of s teps which leads our eyes up to the f a i t h f u l , then to S t . Dominic h i m s e l f who stands a t the top of a p l a t f o r m which i s a t the top of ye t another f l i g h t of s t eps . To the l e f t i s an i n d i c -a t i o n of a b u i l d i n g whose massive I o n i c columns, seen i n f o r e -s h o r t e n i n g , l ead the eye even fu r t he r up i n t o space. F i n a l l y , h i g h i n the compos i t ion i s the V i r g i n and C h i l d who appear i n the heavens. T i e p o l o ' s compos i t ion emphasizes freedom and spac iousness . The eye i s a l lowed to wander up the s teps l e a d i n g to S t . Domin ic , then beyond to the l i g h t and a i r y sky above. The sky occupies h a l f of the t o t a l compos i t i on , extending above 53 the a r c h i t e c t u r e on the l e f t , behind the f i g u r e of S t . Dominic r i g h t up to the top of the c i r c u l a . r end of the f r e s c o . A d i v -i s i o n i s made by the w h i t e , greyed^brown, and grey c louds where the V i r g i n and angels are p l aced and ' the expanse o f l i g h t b lue sky beyond; Th i s emphasis on l i g h t n e s s , and space found i n T i e p o l o ' s c e i l i n g may be compared to Sebast iano R i c c i ' s a l t a r -p i ece i n the same' church , where h a l f o f the area o f the p a i n t i n g i s g i v e n to the whi te a r c h i t e c t u r e and l i g h t b lue sky f i l l e d w i t h p u t t i . No attempt i s made by T i e p o l o to i m i t a t e the deep . b lue sky c r e a t i n g the supe rna tu ra l rea lm i n P i a z e t t a ' s S t s .  V incen t F e r r e r , Hyac in th .and L o u i s B e r t r a n d . In The G l o r y o f . S t . Dominic , T i e p o l o once aga in composes a p i c t u r e tha t "breathes" w i t h space and l i g h t . S t . Dominic and the angels are g i v e n a background o f whi te c louds and golden expanse of sky . L i k e the c e n t r a l p a n e l , the G l o r y o f S t . Dominic uses a d i agona l d i v i s i o n between sky and c l o u d s . An e a r l i e r " g l o r y " of a s a i n t pa in t ed by T i e p o l o i s h i s G l o r y o f St a,. Teresa , dated about 1720-1725, which was a com-m i s s i o n fo r a f resco fo r the v a u l t of the s ide chapel i n the church of the S c a l z i . Th i s p i c t u r e : p rov ides the key to the unders tanding o f T i e p o l o ' s s ec re t s i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s "heavens", the mechanics as i t were, of h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . S t i l l working w i t h i n the g rea t 'Baroque t r a d i t i o n , the a r t i s t here e s t a b l i s h e s some new p r i n c i p l e s which were to become the r u l e i n the fu r the r development of h i s p e r s p e c t i v e d e c o r a t i o n s . The way i n which the a r t i s t g ive s prominence to the p r i n c i p a l group drawing i t c l e a r of the t a n g i b l e plane of the w a l l , and t y i n g i t , by means of the c l u s t e r s o f mus ic ians i n the second p l ane , to the throng o f angels above the pa in t ed a l l e g o r i c a l s ta tues a t the s i d e s , i s c e r t a i n l y h i s own i n v e n t i o n . In a w h i r l p o o l of 5.4 clouds r i s i n g i n ever narrowing c i r c l e s towards the zenith, Tiepolo places on high, upside down and seen i n the most daring foreshortening from below, the angel who, of f e r i n g the martyr's crown to the Saint, makes the depth of the vortex f u l l y apparent. 55 The Glory of St. Dominic i n the Gesuati perhaps i s not an improvement of the S c a l z i fresco, but rather a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t solution to the problem of projection into space. In both paint-ings Tiepolo places great emphasis on the saint, surrounding his key figure by several angels. In the Gesuati fresco the numerous figures of the second plane i n the S c a l z i painting are omitted, but a large single angel, seen from the rear, located at the extreme r i g h t corner-, suggests a secondary plane which i s closer to our space. Above, Dominic i s a p l a y f u l putto swinging on a l i l y , and i n a c i r c u l a r break i n the clouds at the top of the picture, a device found both i n the S c a l z i picture and also i n the V i r g i n Hearing the Prayers of St. Dominic, are the heads of three p u t t i peering through. Perhaps a.greater sense of drama i s f e l t i n Tiepolo's Glory of St.. Dominic than i n the S c a l z i painting because the former shows the saints head thrust far back, his gaze directed toward the heavens, while St. Theresa looks d i r e c t l y down at the spectator i n the church below the painting. The f i n a l fresco of the Gesuati i s a roundel i n the c e i l i n g 56 of the choir, a painting depicting The Angel Appearing to David CFig. 2 0 ) / • The inclu s i o n of t h i s scene i n a Dominican church probably i s intendedaas a p a r a l l e l between the appearance of an angel to David and the appearance of the V i r g i n to Dominic, as. 55 the V i r g i n i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d to have appeared to Dominic 57 . t e l l i n g him to spread the p r a c t i c e of say ing the r o s a r y . Turning to the s ide chape l s , we see another T i e p o l o p a i n t -ing , the Madonna w i t h S t s , Rose , ;Ca the r ine o f S i e n a , and Agnes  of Montepulciano ( F i g . 22) . Al though the 1740 e d i t i o n of the F o r i e s t i e r e I l l u m i n a t o by A l b r i z z i l i s t s t h i s p a i n t i n g as i n the 58 church a l r e a d y , there i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a document which dates the p a i n t i n g much l a t e r : O.ttobre 174 6: P o s t i i n depos i to per esser con t ad i a l S. r - G i o : B a t t a T i e p o l o P i t t o r , quando consegnera l a Pa lo d e l l e Sante L . 660: Gennaio 1747: P o s t i i n depos i to da c o n t a r s i a l S. r G i o : B a t t a T i e p o l e t t o a conto d e l l a Pa lo d e l l e Sante L . 1240: ' A p r i l e 1748: Fu accordata l a P a l a d e l l e Sante c o l . S. r G i o : Ba t t a T i e p o l e t t o c e c c h i n i cento sono L . 2200 - Ot tobre 1746 sono i n e s i t o L . 660 -Genaio 1746 M.V. s o n o , i n e s i t o L . 1240, summano L . 1900 -De l presente mese i n e s i t o L . 300 (Dico L . 300) Summa e sa ldo conta to L . 2200: a l S, r G i o : - B a t t a T i e p o l e t t o come da r i c e v u t a i n f i l z a Manzie date a q u e l l i i d e l S. r G i o : B a t t a T i e p o l e t t o L . 31 R o s a r i con medaglie d ' a rgen to L . 2 2 -Pranzo per i l s o p r a d i t t o e f f e t t o L . 27: 3-Barche per l o s tesso f i n e L . 3 . 59 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t a f t e r the v i c t o r y at Eepanto i n 1571 and the subsequent i n s t i t u t i o n of the "Fes ta d e l Rosa r io" the subjec t of the Madonna " d e l Rosa r io" became 60 popular i n Dominican churches . Perhaps one of the e a r l i e s t r ep r e sen t a t i ons of the subjec t i s a p a i n t i n g by Giovann i Antonio F a s o l o , an a r t i s t who d i e d i n 1572, on ly a year a f t e r the B a t t l e of Eepanto. Th i s p i c -tu re which i s i n the Museo C i v i c o i n V i c e n z a , i s recorded, as La V e r g i n e d e l Rosa r io con I I Bambino, I SS..Domenico e Rosa, i l 56 61 Pon t e f i c e P i o V , V e s c o v i e Devoti . - , Here we have a p a i n t i n g executed soon a f t e r Lepanto w^ith t h e r as y e t , uncanonized Pope P i u s V . However, the s a i n t t o the r i g h t of the V i r g i n cannot 62 Be Rose s ince she was born o n l y i n 1586; i t must then , be Ca ther ine of S i e n a . A l a t e Seventeenth Century or e a r l y E igh teen th Century r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Madonna d e l Rosar io i s a p a i n t i n g i n the P a r r o c c h i a l e i n Fores to Sparso, a work by 63 Agos t ino L e t t e r i n i . The p a i n t i n g shows the V i r g i n , on a h igh p l a t f o r m „ h o l d i n g the c h i l d who o f f e r s a ro sa ry to S t . Rose of Lima who.stands at the top of a f l i g h t of s teps l e a d i n g up to the • plat^oj-m. At the bottom o f the s t a i r s stands S t . Dominic and'sett ing at the r i g h t i s Ca ther ine o f S i e n a . T i e p o l o ' S a l t a r p i e c e i n the Gesua t i shows three Dominican s a i n t s ; at the l e f t S t . Ca ther ine of Siena h o l d i n g a l a r g e c r u c i f i x , , next i s S t . Rose ' o f Lima h o l d i n g the C h r i s t C h i l d Who holds a rose', and, s i t t i n g - a t the r i g h t i s St. Agnes of ;M,ontepulciano w i t h her a t t r i b u t e , the l i l y , l y i n g i n f ron t of her , Above, s i t t i n g on a c loud i s the V i r g i n who appears to be 64 p r o t e c t i n g the s a i n t s below. Tr ie-composi t ion , however, does not i n c l u d e any r o s a r i e s , a l though , l i k e L e t t e r i n i ' s p a i n t i n g , S t s . Rose and Ca ther ine and ' the V i r g i n are p resen t . In T i e p o l o ' s f resco the C h r i s t C h i l d holds a rosary- and He stands i n f ron t of t h e . V i r g i n i n the clouds?; - A p a i n t i n g o f the same subjec t of 17 4 0 by Jacopo Araigoni i n the Chiesa P a r r o c c h i a l e i n P r a t a d i Pordenone i s 65 the Madonna d e l Rosa r io con I S a n t i Domenjco. e Rosa. 57 Both p a i n t i n g s employ a pyramida l compos i t i on , w i t h the V i r g i n at the top and a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements beh ind . T i e p o l o p l aces a canopy w h i l e Amigoni p l aces two s lender columns be-h ind the V i r g i n and both a r t i s t s use a r ch mo t i f s a t the l e f t of t h e i r p i c t u r e s . Amigoni shows S t , Dominic s tanding a t the l e f t being o f fe red a ro sa ry by the V i r g i n and k n e e l i n g a t the r i g h t . A pose w h i c h - i s accentuated w i t h T i e p o l o " s S t . Agnes, i s S t . Rose wearing a crown, o f thorns and h o l d i n g a c r u c i f i x . A l s o , i t should be noted tha t the ro sa ry m i s s i n g i n T i e p o l o ' s work i s present i n A m i g o n i ' s . There i s a contempla t ive mood to T i e p o l o ' s a l t a r p i e c e -the V i r g i n , m a j e s t i c a l l y seated upon her throne of c l o u d s , i s set above the three s a i n t s below: S t . C a t h e r i n e , a crown of thorns on her head, .appears to have her eyes c l o s e d , as i f med-i t a t i n g , S t . Rose looks upward, not a t the V i r g i n who i s behind her , but beyond the l i m i t s of the p i c t u r e frams as i f engaged i n some t t ype of supe rna tu ra l expe r i ence , and S t . Agnes, k n e e l -i n g , her head bowed, holds a c ross a t tached w i t h a cha in and seems to be comple te ly absorbed i n her thoughts . A mood such as t h i s makes us immediately t h i n k o f P i a z z e t t a " s a l t a r p i e c e which i s i n the same church . Gone are the p u t t i of R i c c i ' s a l t a r p i e c e or even of T i e p o l o ' s own c e i l i n g . However, the heavenly s e t t i n g o f P i a z z e t t a ' s work i s abandoned f o r a p l a t -form, running r i g h t across the lowermost pa r t o f the compo-s i t i o n , forming a k i n d of stage on which the s a i n t s are p l a c e d . L i k e R i c c i , an a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g and sky form the back-ground. T iepo lo ' employs a s t r i c t h o r i z o n t a l - v e r t i c a l a x i s to 58 h i s compos i t i on , p l a c i n g the s a i n t s and the V i r g i n - v e r t i c a l l y ' , . . a ges ture r e i n f o r c e d by a f l u t e d column and the back of the V i r g i n ' s canopy, and p l a c i n g the o n l y h o r i z o n t a l element, the edge of the p l a t f o r m , at the v e r y bottom, g i v i n g a s t a b i l i t y to the work. The dark b lue sky of P i a z z e t t a i s s u b s t i t u t e d by T i e p o l o fo r a l i g h t b lue sky touched w i t h the golden brown c louds seen i n h i s c e i l i n g f r e scoes . Al though sky i s i n c l u d e d , we do not exper ience the l i g h t n e s s of R i c c i , a l though the mood i s l i g h t e n e d w i t h the i n c l u s i o n o f a c h a f f i n c h perched on a bar 66 between an a rch to the s ide of the V i r g i n . T i e p o l o , by p l a c i n g the sky to the l e f t of h i s v e r t i c a l l y - s t r u c t u r e d f i g u r e s has achieved a somewhat l e s s spacious and a i r y q u a l i t y tha t i s e v i d -ent i n R i c c i ' s a l t a r p i e c e . . Surrounding the f resco panels by T i e p o l o are monochrome. 67 p a i n t i n g s d e p i c t i n g scenes o f the mys te r i e s of the Rosary . (F igs - 23-25) . Pa in t ed on the v a u l t , these g r i s a i l l e scenes are represented i n a l t e r n a t i n g o v a l and q u a t r e f o i l frames. A l -though M a s s a r i ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e - i s u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e d from P a l -l a d i o , the a d d i t i o n of these Goth ic q u a t r e f o i l and o v a l g r i s a i l l e scenes and the c o l o u r f u l T i e p o l o c e i l i n g f resco are something a l i e n to a pure . P a l l a d i a n a e s t h e t i c . Surface i n the Gesua t i becomes not on ly a pure , a b s t r a c t exper ience of p l a y of l i g h t and shadow, but a l s o an exper ience i n d e s i g n , and, i n the c e i l -i n g , c o l o u r . The ro sa ry c o n s i s t s o f both v o c a l and mental p r aye r , i n -v o l v i n g the r e c i t a t i o n of Ave Mar ias and Pa te r -Nos te r s and a l s o m e d i t a t i o n known as m y s t e r i e s . There a r e , i n the r o s a r y , f i f t e e n 59 m y s t e r i e s , which "focus a t t e n t i o n on the I n c a r n a t i o n , s u f f e r i n g s and g l o r i f i c a t i o n of C h r i s t , which are a compendium of the l i f e 68 of Jesus and Mary" . The f i f t e e n mys te r i e s are grouped i n t o f i y e s , the f i r s t se t be ing the J o y f u l M y s t e r i e s t h e Annun-c i a t i o n , the V i r g i n ' s v i s i t to E l i z a b e t h , the b i r t h o f C h r i s t , the p r e s e n t a t i o n of C h r i s t i n the Temple,, and the f i n d i n g of C h r i s t i n the Temple,?the second set being the Sor rowful M y s t e r -i e s v the agony i n the Garden, the scourg ing of C h r i s t , the crowning w i t h thorns,., C h r i s t c a r r y i n g the c r o s s , and Christ ' ! ;s c r u c i f i x i o n and dea th , and the l a s t set being the G l o r i o u s M y s t e r i e s - the R e s u r r e c t i o n of C h r i s t , the Ascens ion i n t o heaven, the descent of the Holy S p i r i t , the assumption of the 69 V i r g i n and the. V i r g i n ' s co rona t i on as Queen o f Heaven. The scenes i n the v a u l t of the Gesua t i begin a t the l e f t , near the entrance of the church , and cont inue along the l e f t s i d e w i t h the J o y f u l M y s t e r i e s , then cont inue w i t h the Sor rowfu l M y s t e r i e s , the scene o f the crowning w i t h thorns being d i r e c t l y above the a rch l e a d i n g to the c h a n c e l , f o l l o w i n g w i t h the C a r r y i n g o f the  Cross and-, the C r u c i f i x i o n , - and on the r i g h t , then the G l o r i o u s M y s t e r i e s , f i n i s h i n g w i t h the Corona t ion of the. V i r g i n on the r i g h t , near the en t rance . Bes ides the mys te r i e s o f the Rosary , there are e ther g r i s a i l l e s - a G l o r i f i c a t i o n of the Rosary above the entrance of the church , the four E v a n g e l i s t s i n the penden-t i v e s of the dome, and Prophets surrounding T i e p o l o ' s c e i l i n g r o u n d e l . There have been two major p u b l i c a t i o n s concerning g r i s a i l l e scenes o f the G e s u a t i . The f i r s t i s by Alessandro Vardanega,: who wrote an a r t i c l e i n A r t e C h r i s t i a n a . Accord ing 60 to Vardanega: ' T i e p o l o e l a sua s cuo la hanno cantato n e g l i s p a z i v a r i ed i m p e n s a t i , c r e a t i d a l l e pure sagone a r c h i -t e t t o n i c h e t u t t o i l R o s a r i o , d iv idendo i " m i s t e r i " cur i tmicamente , n e l l e y e l e e n e g l i s p a z i i n t e rmed i c o m p r e s i t r a f i n e s t r a e f i n e s t r a , i n un t u t t o a r -monico che s ' accorda eon. i l CCTrionfo d e l Rosa r io ) ) po r t a to i n g l o r i a sopra l a po r t a d ' i n g r e s s o d a g l i a n g i o l e t t i ! . • 70 Of tfie scene of the Scourging o f C h r i s t , Vardanega says : . . . e* un r i t m c x Q c a r a t t e r i s t i c o t i e p o l e s c o e l a s i c u r e z z a c o m p o s i t i v a , come, l a c o r r e t t e z z a d i d i segno , l o i nd i cano t r a 1 m i g l o r i d i questa stupenda s e r i e . In 1959, Giuseppe Mar i a P i l o p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e i n which he s t a t ed tha t the monochrome.decorations o f the Gesua t i should 72 pa,r t ly be ass igned to Francesco Zugno. Accord ing to P i l o : Mentre non sembrano d e l l o Zugno i l ' tondo con l a ' C r o c i f i s s i o n e 1 n e l l a pare te d i fondo d e l core e. i qua t t ro o v a l i con ' P r o f e t i ' n e l l e v e l e d e l -l a f i n t a cupola q u e s t i . u l t i m i a t t r i b u t i d a l M o l -m e n t i , poco probabi lmente a G . B . T i e p o l o , i c a r a t t e r i e s e c u t i v i d e i medag l ion i d e l l a navata r i p o r t a n o a l l i n g u a g g i o d e l l o Zugno con t a l e evidenza da sembrar quas i i n u t i l e spender p a r o l e per s o t t o - l i n e a r n e g l i e l e m e n t i . S i r i g u a r d i a l i a s t r u t t u r a d i s o s s a t a d e l l e forme composte per p i a n i s l a r g a t i i n movimenti quas i d a n z a n t i ; personaggi e s i l i ed e l e g a n t i , d a l l a p s i c o l o g i a scoper t a ; un po s t o r d i t i i v e c c h i o n i , g r a z i o -samente pudibonde l e donne; t u t t i un po s v a g a t i , come s o r p r e s i da qua lcosa p i u grande d i l o r o i n a t t egg iament i r a c c o l t i e sommessi, i n ' f i g u r e ' a r i tmo c h u i s o . 73 Al though s t y l i s t i c a l l y the p r o b a b i l i t y of Zugno p a i n t i n g t i le g r i s a i l l e s • i s g r e a t , the problem s t i l l , exists- , v- can we be a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n t h a t he i s the T i e p o l o fo l lower - i n v o l v e d ? . Other T i e p o l o f o l l o w e r s , namely G iovann i Rqggi and Francesco 61 L o r e n z i should be cons ide red , 'Pal.ucch.ini i n s i s t s Raggi had c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h T i e p o l o i n the p a i n t i n g of the Gesua t i 74 c e i l i n g and the S a n t ' A l v i s e p a i n t i n g s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t the g r i s a i l l e of the Gesua t i of The Scourging of  C h r i s t ( F i g . 24) bears a great s i m i l a r i t y to the Sant 1 A l v i s e F l a g e l l a t i o n . L o r e n z i too was i n v o l v e d , a l though i n d i r e c t l y , 75 w i t h the Gesua t i c e i l i n g i n h i s drawing of the c e n t r a l p a n e l . Unfo r tuna t e ly the problem of d e c i d i n g , o n s t y l i s t i c grounds, which a r t i s t to choose as p a i n t e r of the mys te r i e s of the r o s a r y , be-cause of t h e i r r e l a t i o n to T i e p o l o , becomes very compl ica ted i n -deed and the ques t ion can on ly be answered d e f i n i t e l y when a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l i s d i s c o v e r e d . In the t h i r d a l t a r o f the l e f t s i de o f the Gesua t i i s a p a i n t i n g by T i n t o r e t t o , The C r u c i f i x i o n , , an a l t a r p i e c e taken 76 from the o l d church of S. Gerolamo d e l G e s u a t i . Th i s work, 79 da t ing from the p e r i o d 1556-1564, p laces the c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t s i l h o u e t t e d aga ins t the sky on the c e n t r a l a x i s , d r a m a t i c a l l y dominat ing the p i c t u r e , ex tending t w o - t h i r d s o f the space. No fewer than seven f i g u r e s f a the r round and support the swooning V i r g i n , each i n a s epa ra t e ly designed a t t i t u d e o f tenderness and s o l i c i t u d e , yet w i t h a s i n g l e rhythm running through the whole c l o s e l y - k n i t group. 78 For a k i n d of sub t l e sugges t ion , and i n the r e t i c e n c e and consummate mastery of the a r t a s se r t ed t h i s f i g u r e [ C h r i s t ] i s . . . a wonderful p iece of work as mere f a i n t i n g . . . 79 I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note t ha t t h i s T i n t o r e t t o p a i n t i n g was r e s t o r e d by p i a z z e t t a and tha t there e x i s t s a document r e c o r d i n g payment fo r the work i n August , 1743. 80 Another work i n the Gesua t i t ha t does not belongcj to the e igh teen th cen tu ry i s a s c u l p t u r e by Antonio Rosa, the Madonna  and C h i l d . This work, which i s i n the second a l t a r on the l e f t f a c i n g P i a z z e t t a ' s S t . Domin ic , i n p l ace i n i t s n iche i n the 81 ' church 1838. In the c h o i r , there i s a seventh a l t a r p i e c e , the V i r g i n and S t . Anne i n G l o r y w i t h S t . Dominic and Other Saints-, a p a i n t i n g by M a t t i a I n g o H i , dated 1630, which was " 82 taken from S. Marco and S. Andrea d i Murano. By examining the a r t o f the G e s u a t i , - some i n d i c a t i o n i s gdven o f the d i r e c t i o n s of p a i n t i n g i n Venice o f the 1730's and a 1740 ' s . On the one hand, there i s Sebas t iho R i c c i , "the key 83 f i g u r e i n the r e v i v a l of Vene t i an a r t " , '. now, by the t ime of the Gesua t i commission seventy- three years o l d , p a i n t i n g i n a 84 Rococo v e i n , but not wi thout some indebtedness to Veronese, which i s apparent i n h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l background i n h i s a l t a r -p iece i n the G e s u a t i . On the o ther hand, i s P i a z z e t t a , whose ch i a roscu ro work even at t h i s t ime , r e c a l l s Baroque drama, and 85 who i s the o u t s i d e r i n t h i s Rococo p e r i o d . F i n a l l y there i s T i e p o l o , i n 1748, f i f t y - t w o years o l d , who u n i t e s the two 86 streams of R i c c i and P i a z z e t t a . There i s i n T i e p o l o ' s c e i l i n g a c e r t a i n element of g a i e t y and d e f i n i t e l i g h t n e s s o f the Rococo though not wi thou t indebtedness to the p e r s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s 87 of Veronese , but i n ' h i s a l t a r p i e c e there i s evidence of the i n t r o v e r t e d q u a l i t i e s of P i a z z e t t a ! s a r t . Bes ides demonstrat ing the s t y l e s of three major e igh teen th century a r t i s t s , the .Gesuati. demonstrates the importance o f Dominican commissions i n Vene t i an a r t . - I have a l r eady mentioned • • ' - ' • • ' 63 88 one o the r , namely Amigonis Madonna d e l R o s a r i o , but there i s . a l s o the important work of the Guardis. This i s a p r o c e s s i o n a l banner (Museum.of F ine A r t s , Budapest! an e legant work d e p i c t i n g the V i r g i n seated amidst c louds o f f e r i n g a ro sa ry to S t . Rose of Lima who i s p l aced at the r i g h t of the compos i t i on . To the l e f t i s S t . Dominic and h i s symbol, the dog with-, the burn ing t o r c h . Th i s banner i s pa in ted on both s i d e s , the. f ron t a t t r i -buted to Gian Anton io and the r e v e r s e , a. copy o f the f r o n t , to Francesco G u a r d i . Accord ing to Fenyo " i t may be assumed tha t the banner was commissioned by a brotherhood of the Dominican 89 Order i n V e n i c e . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t t h i s work can be l i n k e d to a drawing by G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o i n the O r l o f f 90 Album. A p a i n t i n g by T i e p o l o h i m s e l f i s the Madonna .with S t s . Dominic and Hyac in th (Chicago, A r t I n s t i t u t e ) d a t i n g about 1730^-1735, commissioned fo r an unknown church or p r i v a t e 91 c h a p e l . I t shows the V i r g i n seated upon a h igh throne' i n f ron t of which hangs a t a p e s t r y w i t h meda l l ions w i t h the f i f t e e n 92 mys te r i e s of the r o s a r y , grouped i n se ts of f i v e . A work commissioned fo r the Dominican church i n Murano, the church of S t . Pe te r M a r t y r , or S. P i e t r o M a r t i r e , which was c lo sed i n 1808 and depr ived o f i t s a r t t r easures when the Order 93 was suppressed, i s a p a i n t i n g by Francesco G u a r d i . Th i s work the M i f a c o l o d i un Santo Domenicano (Vienna, K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e s Museum, • (FsG^maldegaierie) , dated about 1763, d e p i c t s the m i r a c l e of a Dominican s a i n t , p robab ly S t . H y a c i n t h , wa lk ing on the water to save a number of v i c t i m s who have f a l l e n from a b r idge 94. : Which has- j u s t c o l l a p s e d . 64 In the c i t y o f Ven ice i t s e l f , i n the Dominican Church of SS. G iovann i e Paolo i s the G l o r y of v S t . Dominic ( F i g . 26) 95 dated about 1725. L i k e T i e p o l o ' s: Dominic i n G l o r y i n the G e s u a t i , ..Piazzetta,'• S' s a i n t , arms o u t s t r e t c h e d , i s supported by angels as he ascends to heaven. P i a z z e t t a has c rea ted h i s i l l u s i o n by p l a c i n g some Dominican f i g u r e s on the ;Cornice and by adding ange l s , seen from below, who appear to f l y upward. C e r t a i n l y w i t h the wea l th of Dominican commissions i n e igh teen th century Vene t i an a r t , the Gesua t i stands out a l l the more p l a i n l y as an impress ive c o l l e c t i o n of e igh teen th century p a i n t i n g s . CHAPTER TV THE SCULPTURAL PROGRAMME J u s t as an examinat ion of the p a i n t i n g s o f the Gesua t i p rov ides , an i n s i g h t i n t o the s t y l e s ' - o f the f i n e s t e i g h t e e n t h -century- Vene t ian p a i n t e r s , so . too an examinat ion of the s c u l p -t u r a l decora t ions of the church , which began w i t h the facade, o f f e r s a knowledge o f the n a t u r e . o f Vene t i an s c u l p t u r e . The facade of the Gesua t i con ta ins four n iches fo r s c u l p -tu red f i g u r e s , thereby r e s t r a i n i n g the r o l e s c u l p t u r e p l ays i n r e l a t i o n to the a r c h i t e c t u r e . C o n t r a s t i n g the c h u r c h . o f the S c a l z i ( F i g . .2) w i t h i t s t o t a l of s i x t e e n r e c l i n i n g f i g u r e s r e s t i n g on, the arches of the seven n iches fo r l a rge s c u l p t u r e s and the a rch fo r the doorway, and the G e s u a t i , w i t h i t s four unadorned n iches fo r s c u l p t e d f i g u r e s , we see the d i f f e r e n c e i n what may be termed "Baroque splendour" and " P a l l a d i a n s im-p l i c i t y " . The four f i g u r e s on the facade of the G e s u a t i , and t h e i r arrangement, above and below the meander p a t t e r n s t r i n g course and between the main columns (so p r o v i d i n g four r e c t ang -u l a r zones fo r the n i c h e s ) , g ive s the church a degree o f r e -s t r a i n t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t the facade of S. B a r -1 naba ( F i g . 10 ) , which f o l l o w s the Gesua t i c l o s e l y , con ta ins on ly fcwo niches fo r s cu lp t ed f i g u r e s . The s c u l p t u r e s of the facade o f the Gesua t i represent the four C a r d i n a l V i r t u e s , These were executed by four d i f f e r e n t s c u l p t o r s , Gaetano F u s a l i was r e s p o n s i b l e fo r the f i g u r e of 66 Prudence CFig . 27) , Francesco Bonazza fo r the f i g u r e of, J u s t i c e ( F i g . 28) , Gdiiseppe T o r e t t i fo r the f i g u r e of F o r t i t u d e (Fig .29) and A l v i s e T a g l i a p i e t r a fo r the f i g u r e o f Temperance ( F i g . 30) . There i s a document r e co rd ing payments made i n September 1?36 fo r the f i r s t three of these f i g u r e s and payments made i n 1737 2 ' fo r the f i g u r e o f Temperance. A l l four s c u l p t u r e s can be seen i n t h e i r n iches on the facade of the church i n the engraving o f the Gesua t i i n the 1740 e d i t i o n of A l b r i z z i ' s F o r e s t i e r e . I I -luminato ( F i g . 8 ) . ; 3 Francesco Bonazza Cact iye 1729-1770) was one o f th ree s c u l p t o r sons of Giovann i Bonazza (1654-1736), Who was respon-s i b l e fo r making the s ta tues o f E l i s a b e t t a Q u e r i n i V a l i e r and V i r t u e Crowning M e r i t on the V a l i e r monument i n SS. G iovann i e P a o l o , a monument designed by the a r c h i t e c t T i r a l i . Together w i t h h i s sons Tommaso (c. 1696-1775) and Antonio (1698-1763) he worked on the s e r i e s o f b a s - r e l i e f s , begun i n 1730, i n the C a p p e l l a d e l Rosa r io i n SS. G iovann i e P a o l o . The th ree s c u l p -t o r s are r e s p o n s i v l e fo r the A d o r a t i o n of the Magi i n t h i s r e -l i e f s e r i e s , w h i l e Giovann i and Anton io are c r e d i t e d w i t h the 4 A d o r a t i o n of the Shepherds. F rancesco , i n a d d i t i o n to be ing 5 a s c u l p t o r , was a l s o a p a i n t e r and c u t t e r o f cameos. H i s works i n c l u d e the Angel Appearing i n the,Dream of S t . Joseph i n the Cappe l l a d e l Rosa r io i n SS. Giovanni, e Paolo and four V i r t u e s 6 on the facade o f the church of S"ta. Marghe r i t a i n Padua. A l v i s e Tagihlapie t ra was a l s o commissioned to work i n the C a p p e l l a d e l R o s a r i o , and h i s works a<e.e the V i s i t a t i o n a n d the 67 C i r c u m c i s i o n i n S. Francesco d i Paolo and a b a s - r e l i e f on the p u l p i t of S. Moise . His. b i r t h date i s -unknown, but he had completed the work i n the Cuomo d i Ch iogg ia by- 1708. He-prob^-- 7 ab ly d i e d s h o r t l y before 1760. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t ha t the s c u l p t o r s , Bonazza and T a g l l a p i e t r a were both commissioned to work, fo r the Dominicans i n the church o f S S . , G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , as w e l l as the G e s u a t i . This demonstrates the c o n t i n u i n g a r t i s t i c patronage of the Order i n a church which had been g i v i n g a r t i s t s commissions fo r s e v e r a l 8 cen tu res . S However, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t tha t t h e i r work on the Gesua t i i s conf ined on ly to the facade. For the i n t e r i o r , an-other s c u l p t o r was commissioned. Th i s was Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r , who was probably the f i n e s t s c u l p t o r o f the t ime . He alone was r e s p o n s i b l e fo r a l l the scu lp tu res , i n the i n t e r i o r o f the Ges-u a t i Cwith, o f course , the excep t ion of the n ine teen th century work by Rosa) . There fore , the i n t e r i o r of the church con ta ins a wea l th of m a t e r i a l fo r the study of t h i s s c u l p t o r . M o r l a i t e r was born about 1699 and d i e d i n 17 81. He, t o o , l i k e the BOn-azzas and T a g l i a p i e t r a , worked fo r the Dominicans i n the Cap-p e l l a d e l Rosa r io i n . S S . Giovann i e P a o l o , where he i s respon-s i b l e fo r the Rest on the F l i g h t i n t o Egypt and the Dispute  Among the Doc to r s . The number of commissions i n Venice are ex-t remely i m p r e s s i v e , as he designed works fo r the churches of S. P i e t r o i n C a s t e l l o , S. Rocco, the Z i t e l l e , S t a . Mar i a d e l l a Fava , S t a . Mar i a d e l G i g l i o , the S c a l z i , S t a . Mar i a d e l l a S a l u t e , S. N i c o l o . d a T o l e n t i n o , , t h e P i e t a , Sant' Eufemia, S: 9 Geremia, and S - . M a r c u o l a . M o r l a i t e r was a l s o i n v o l v e d w i t h 68 the Vene t ian Academy. The Academy was founded on 2 0 September 1750, but appointed i t s f i r s t P r e s i d e n t , who was G . B . T i e p o l o , on ly on 15 February 17 56. A s s i s t i n g the P r e s i d e n t , were Mor-l a i t e r and G . B . P i t t o n i , who were a t t h i s t ime appointed Coun-c i l l o r s . M o r l a i t e r ' s f o r e i g n commissions t ook .h im to the Saxon cour t and to the cour t o f Ca ther ine of R u s s i a , where he worked 11 i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h h i s sons, Gregor io and M i c h e l a n g e l o . A t the G e s u a t i , M o r l a i t e r was commissioned to work on the h igh a l t a r and to make the G l o r y o f Angels ( F i g . 15) around the p a i n t i n g o f S t . Dominic by P i a z z e t t a . He i s a l s o respon-s i b l e fo r s i x whole s cu lp t ed f i g u r e s and e i g h t b a s - r e l i e f 12 scenes. . Documents s t a t e that M o r l a i t e r began r e c e i v i n g pay-ments fo r the G l o r y o f Angels i n June, 1738, and tha t these pay-13 ments ended Octoberm 1739. Hi s s c u l p t u r e shows two l a r g e angels at two corners of the frame o f P i a z z e t t a ' s p i c t u r e . These angels ho ld drapery which comple te ly surrounds the p a i n t -i n g . Around t h i s drapery are many sma l l p u t t i . A f t e r t h i s s c u l p t u r e , M o r l a i t e r began work on the h igh a l t a r , i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the a r c h i t e c t , M a s s a r i . Documents s t a t e tha t the work l a s t e d from 1740 to 1742, which e x p l a i n s the time gap between.the. date o f comple t ion of the church i t -s e l f and the date of c o n s e c r a t i o n . M o r l a i t e r r e c e i v e d payment i n February 1740 "a conto d i f a t t u r e d ' i n t a g l i o i n marmo n e l l a cima d e l l ' a l t a r maggior" . He then, r e c e i v e d payment i n J u l y "per sa ldo d i t u t t e l e f a t t u r e fa te n e l l a cima d e l l ' a l t a r mag-g i o r " -and r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l payment i n October of the f o l l o w -69 lowing year "a, conto de f a t t u r a d e l l a cupola d e l Tabe rnaco lo" . Another payment was made i n January; 1742 . . "A conto de s c u l t u r e d e l l a cupola d e l Tabernacolo" T*. he r e c e i v e d payments i n March ' 14 and i n J u l y . A year l a t e r , payments s t a r t e d fo r h i s work on the f i g u r e s 15 and b a s - r e l i e f s . The f i g u r e s occupy n iches between the s ide chape l s . Above these are s i x b a s - r e l i e f s . Two other bas-^ r e l i e f s are l o c a t e d above*the two p u l p i t s . T h e . b a s - r e l i e f s are scenes from the l i f e of C h r i s t . The f i g u r e s are P e t e r , P a u l , Moses, Aaron , Abraham and Melch i sedech . The b a s - r e l i e f s and 16 the f i g u r e s are arranged as f o l l o w s : High A l t a r • Bapt ism of C h r i s t I n c r e d u l i t y of St. .Thomas (above p u l p i t ) (above p u l p i t ) C h r i s t and the Samari tan C h r i s t and the Magdalene (above S t . Peter ) (above S t . Paul) M i r a c l e of the P a r a l y t i c M i r a c l e o f the Hea l ing o f t h e . B l i n d Man (above Moses) (above Aaron) S t . Pe ter Walking on The Cen tu r ion P l e a d i n g fo r the Water ._ the Hea l th o f Hi s Servant (above Melchisedech) (above Abraham) Entrance Documents s t a t e tha t payments were made from 1743 to 1755. There were payments every year from 1743 u n t i l 1751. At t h i s t ime there was a l apse of two y e a r s . Payments resumed i n 1753 and ended two years l a t e r . There fore , M o r l a i t e r ' s work on the 70 b a s - r e l i e f s and f igures ' represents a span of twelve, y e a r s . From the documents, a chronology of the work of the s c u l p t o r can be found. He s t a r t e d w i t h the f i g u r e o f 'St.' Pau l and i t s bas--r e l i e f and f i n i s h e d w i t h the f i g u r e of Melch i sedech and i t s cor^-' responding b a s - r e l i e f . For the f i g u r e o f S t . P a u l , M o r l a i t e r r e c e i v e d payments i n September and December, 1743. He a l s o r e -ce ived four more payments i n January , March, June, and J u l y o f 1744. S i m i l a r l y , fo r the b a s - r e l i e f o f C h r i s t and the Magdalene he was p a i d i n September and December,1743, and i n January , March, June and J u l y o f 1744. F o r ' t h e f i g u r e of S t . Pe ter and i t s b a s - r e l i e f , C h r i s t and the Samar i tan , he r e c e i v e d payments i n August and i n December, 1744> and i n February , J u l y and Sep-tember, 1745. The next to be executed were t h e . b a s - r e l i e f s over the p u l p i t s . For these , payments were made i n February , March May, August and September 174 6, and i n February , 1747, and a l s o i n A p r i l and J u l y of the same yea r . Then came the f i g u r e s and b a s - r e l i e f s between the f i r s t and second s ide c h a p e l s , s t a r t i n g w i t h Moses and the M i r a c l e of the P a r a l y t i c , fo r which payments were made i n February , March, August and September, 1748, and i n J u l y and December, 1749, and a l s o i n January , 1750. M o r l a i t e r r e c e i v e d payments fo r Aaron and the M i r a c l e of the Hea l ing o f  the B l i n d Man i n March, August , September and October , 1750, and i n March and A p r i l , 1751, he r e c e i v e d o ther payments fo r Aaron . Two years l a t e r payments resumed., These payments, made f o r the f i g u r e of Abraham and the b a s - r e l i e f of the Cen tu r ion P l ead ing for the H e a l t h of Hi s Servant , were made i n August and December, 1754, and i n March, 1754. The l a s t works , then , are the f i g u r e 71 of Melch isedech .and the b a s - r e l i e f o f S t . Pe te r Walking on the Water, which are to the l e f t of the f i r s t s i d e chapel on the l e f t . Payments fo r these two works were made i n August and 17 September, 1754, and i n February and March, 1755. I c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y , the s c u l p t u r a l programme i s of two pa r t s - the b a s - r e l i e f s and the whole f i g u r e s . The f i r s t bas -r e l i e f scene, Pe te r Walking on, the Wafer, has i t s l i t e r a r y source i n Matthew X I V : 2 2 - 3 3 , which t e l l s us t h a t C h r i s t walked on the sea to a number of d i s c i p l e s , ..who upon seeing the m i r a c l e , became f r i g h t e n e d . C h r i s t t o l d the people who He was, when S t . Pe te r asked Him to a l l o w him to walk on the water t o o , i n order to prove tha t the person he.was seeing was r e a l l y h i s L o r d . Peter began, to walk on the sea , but he became a f r a i d and began to s ink , .when immediately C h r i s t took ho ld of him and l e d him to His boat . The second scene, from Luke V : 1 8 - 2 5 , des-c r i b e s an event where a man a f f l i c t e d w i t h p a l s y came to C h r i s t . Seeing the f a i t h o f the s i c k man, C h r i s t s a i d tha t He forgave him h i s s i n s , whereupon the s c r i b e s and Phar i sees began to t h i n k C h r i s t was blaspheming. C h r i s t , . t o prove H i s power to these u n b e l i e v e r s , t o l d the s i c k man to stand up and walk . Thus, the theme i m p l i e d by these two r e l i e f scenes i n the Gesua t i i s ev iden t - an a l l u s i o n , through episodes i n the l i f e of C h r i s t , to f a i t h , and imperfec t f a i t h which f i n a l l y becomes s t rengthened. The next b a s - r e l i e f i s the scene of C h r i s t and the Sam-., a r j t a n . C h r i s t v i s i t s a Samaritan woman at a w e l l , and begins 72 to e x p l a i n to Iter tha t a,nyone who d r i n k s the water from a w e l l would exper ience t h i r s t - a g a i n , whereas anyone who " d r i n k s " H i s water would no t , and tha t H i s water would become a foun t a in of e v e r l a s t i n g l i f e i n tha t person . The scene of the I n c r e d u l i t y of S t . Thomas i s from John X X : 2 4 - 2 9 : But Thomas, one of the twe lve , c a l l e d DidymuS/ was/not w i t h them when Jesus came. The o ther d i s c i p l e s t he re fo re s a i d unto h im, We have seen the L o r d . But he s a i d unto them, Except I s h a l l see i n H i s hands the p r i n t of t h e . n a i l s , and put my f i n g e r i n t o the p r i n t ' o f the n a i l s and t h r u s t my hand i n t o His s i d e , . 1 w i l l not b e l i e v e . And a f t e r e i gh t days again His d i s c i p l e s were w i t h i n , and Thomas w i t h them: then came Jesus , the doors be ing shut , and stood i n t h e i r m ids t , and s a i d , Peace be unto you . Then s a i t h He to Thomas, Reach h i t h e r thy f i n g e r and behold my hands; and r e a c h . h i t h e r thy hand and t h r u s t i t i n t o my s i d e ; and be not f r u i t -l e s s but b e l i e v i n g . And Thomas,answered and s a i d unto Him, My Lord and my God. Jesus s a i t h unto h im, Thomas, because thou hast seen me thou hast b e l i e v e d ; b&essed are they tha t have not seen and ye t have b e l i e v e d . The scene o f C h r i s t and the Magdalene (John XX:17) r e -f e r s to the Magdalene 's v i s i t to C h r i s t ' s tomb and her t r y i n g to touch Him to prove His existence; . The scene o f the Hea l i ng  o f the B l i n d Man from Luke X V I I I : 3 5 - 4 3 demonstrates the s t rong f a i t h of a man who, d e s p i t e the condemnation of the crowd around him who t r i e d to s i l e n c e h im, , shou ted out to Jesus i n order tha t he might be hea led . The scene .of the c e n t u r i o n i s 73 taken from Luke V I I : 1 - 1 0 : Now, when He had ended a l l H i s sayings i n the audience of the peop le , He entered i n t o Caper-naum. And a c e r t a i n c e n t u r i o n ' s - s e rvan t , who was dear unto him, was s i c k , and ready to d i e . And when he heard of Je sus , he sent unto Him the e l d e r s o f the Jews, beseeching Him tha t He would come and hea l h i s s e rvan t . And when they came to Je sus , they besought Him i n s t a n t l y , s a y i n g , That Ke was worthy fo r whom he should do t h i s : For he l o v e t h our n a t i o n , and he hath b u i l t us a synagogue. Then Jesus went w i t h them. And when He was now not f a r from the house, the c e n t u r i o n sent f r i e n d s to h im, say ing unto Him, L o r d , t r o u b l e not t h y s e l f ; fo r 1 am not worthy tha t thou Shouldest enter under my r o o f . Wherefore, n e i t h e r thought I mysel f worthy to come unto thee; but say i n a word, and my s e r -vant s h a l l be hea l ed . For I a l s o am a man set under a u t h o r i t y , having under me s o l d i e r s , and I say unto one. Go, and he goeth ; and to another , Come, and he cometh, and to my se rvan t , Do t h i s , and he doeth i t . When Jesus heard these t h i n g s , He marve l l ed at him and turned Him about and s a i d unto the people tha t fo l l owed Him, I say unto you , I have not found so great f a i t h , no, not i n I s r ae l , . And they tha t were sen t , r e t u r n i n g to the house, found the servant whole tha t had been s i c k . From the S c r i p t u r a l r e f e r ences , we can deduce a second l e v e l . o f meaning i n these episodes from the l i f e of C h r i s t . Th i s ' i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t rue i f we bear i n mind tha t the s c u l p -tu res were commissioned fo r a Dominican church , t ha t i s , a church of the Order o f P reachers . The r e l i e f panels are a r -ranged i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y i n p a i r s , StV P e t e r , W a l k i n g on the ' 7 4 Water and the Hea l i ng of the P a r a l y t i c oppos i t e C h r i s t and, the, Cen tu r ion and the Hea l ing o f the B l i n d ' Ma,n, and the p a i r s of C h r i s t and the Samaritan and the Bapt ism of C h r i s t oppos i t e C h r i s t and the Magdalene and the I n c r e d u l i t y o f S t . Thomas. The theme i s tha t of f a i t h and i t s power-, the s t rong f a i t h o f the b l i n d man, and the c e n t u r i o n and t h e ' d o u b t i n g f a i t h of" S t . Pe te r and the S c r i b e s and Phar i sees i n the scene of the Hea l ing of .the P a r a l y t i c , , which becomes- a f i r m b e l i e f and ac -ceptance on ly a f t e r " t a n g i b l e proof" i s o f f e r e d . Aga in i n the I n c r e d u l i t y , of S t . .Thomas and C h r i s t and the Magdalene, Thomas and,the Magdalene show t h e i r doubt by wanting to touch C h r i s t before they w i l l b e l i e v e . However, f a i t h i s f i n a l l y t r iumphant when C h r i s t ' s ex i s t ence i s "proved" . A second , ' bu t r e l a t e d , theme of the programme i s tha t o f .bap t i sm, ,which i s r e f e r r e d to by C h r i s t ' s mention of water to the Samaritan woman by water which would become a " foun ta in" o f " l i f e e v e r l a s t i n g " (John I V : 1 4 ) , and by the scene of the Bapt ism of C h r i s t . Here Bapt ism symbol izes f a i t h , tha t i s , acceptance, i n C h r i s t and His. t e ach ings , and i t i s the winning back of t rue f a i t h which was the grea t concern of the Dominicans and tha t i s the reason why there a r e ' s c u l p t u r a l re fe rences to a doubt ing f a i t h which f i n a l l y becomes f i r m . ' The main set of s c u l p t u r e s , the whole , s i n g l e f i g u r e s , form a s e r i e s which, have another symbol ic r e f e r ence . The four f i g u r e s , - M o s e s , Aaron , M e l c h i s e d e c h , and Abraham, are the Old Testament p recurso r s of C h r i s t , and the two o ther f i g u r e s , Peter and P a u l , a re the immediate successors of C h r i s t . 75 Melch i sedech and Abraham represent the Las t Supper and the H o l y E u c h a r i s t . T h i s i s because M e l c h i s e d e c h / who was a 18 p r i e s t and a k ing , , b rough t , bread and wine to Abraham. Moses 19 and Aaron are - t r a d i t i o n a l r ep r e sen t a t i ons of the p r i e s t h o o d . Pe ter and P a u l , the two New Testament f i g u r e s , represent the 20 church . Therefore , the s i x f i g u r e s represent the Church and the p r i e s t h o o d . Because Melch isedech and Abraham symbol ize the E u c h a r i s t , the s i x f i g u r e s represent the r e g u l a r r e - e n a c t -ment i n the Mass o f C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c e and the Church and the 21 p r i e s t h o o d . To be sure the s i x whole f i g u r e s , l i k e the e i g h t b a s - r e l i e f s are symbo l i c , but t h e i r symbolism does not seem to a l l u d e to the Dominican Order as w e l l as the r e l i e f s . However, perhaps i f we cons ide r the words "p r i e s thood" and "Church" we can a r r i v e at another l e v e l o f meaning. Perhaps the s i x f i g u r e s a l s o a l l u d e to the t each ing and spreading of d o c t r i n e as i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the .Church and the p r i e s t . I f t h i s i s the i n t e n t i o n o f the symbolism, the s i x f i g u r e s would l i n k w i t h the Domicans, who spread t rue t each ing and d o c t r i n e . The f i g u r e s , i n t h i s case , would t h e m e a t i c a l l y l i n k a l s o w i t h the r ep resen-t a t i o n s of the E v a n g e l i s t s i n the pendent ives of the dome and 22 the Major P rophe t s , symbo l i z ing the E v a n g e l i s t s , on the c h o i r c e i l i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t the pa in t ed r ep resen-t a t i o n s of the E v a n g e l i s t s and Prophets a re , l i k e the s i x s c u l p -ted f i g u r e s by M o r l a i t e r from both the Old and the New T e s t a -ment. The i c o n o g r a p h i c a l programme of the Gesua t i has some, but c e r t a i n l y not a l l , precedents i n the Dominican Church of" 76 SS. Giovanni e Paolo. In the Cappella dell'Addolarata i n t h i s church there i s a painting of the Baptism of Christ by Pietro Mera, who was a late follower of Tintoretto. Facing t h i s • • 23 painting i s the Circumcision, also by Mera. Another r e f e r -ence to baptism can be found on the Monument to Doge Giovanni Mocenigo, which was constructed i n the early sixteenth cen-tury. Here there.are two r e l i e f panels, the Baptism of Anan-• 24 l a s and the Baptism of Ch r i s t . A d i r e c t reference to St. Dominic himself-is found i n the r e l i e f s of Giuseppe Mazza i n the Cappella d i S. Domenico. These r e l i e f s are two sets of three scenes depicting miracles by St. Dominic. One.of these i s St. Dominic Baptizing the Heretics. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that these r e l i e f s date from the f i r s t quarter of the eighteenth 25 century. A precedent for the depiction of the Incredulity of Thomas may be found i n a painting by Leandro Bassano, who was a late Renaissance.artist. He also painted i n t h i s church the T r i n i t y and St. Hyacinth and -. a Companion Walk Through the. 26 Dnieper .Dryshod. Scenes from the l i f e of C h rist have a p a r a l l e l i n the r e l i e f scenes of the L i f e of the. V i r g i n , of which Morlaiter himself took a part i n the making. These sculptures are s i g -n i f i c a n t because they were made before those of the Gesuati-. Their arrangement also i s important. These works are i n the Cappella del Rosario, which suffered much damage i n a f i r e i n the nineteenth century. In the chancel of t h i s chapel are six statues', i n niches, of Prophets and Sybi l s, by Alessandro 27 V i t o r i a . O  t  cornice ar  the eighteenth century r e l i e f s : 77 Thus, we have a precedent fo r the placement of r e l i e f s above whole f i g u r e s set i n n i c h e s . The c e i l i n g had p a i n t i n g s of Inc iden t s from the L i f e of C h r i s t and .the V i r g i n by a r t i s t s o f the l a t e s i x t e e n t h cen tu ry . Most no tab le was T i n t o r e t t o ' s C r u c i f i x i o n . • There i s a l s o i n the chape l scenes o f the L i f e of the V i r g i n i n the c a r v i n g of the seat backs . These were executed by Giacomo P i a z z e t t a , but are no t , s t r i c t l y speak ing , pa r t o f the programme of S . S . G iovann i e Paolo' , but were taken 28 from the Scuola d e l l a C a r i t a . A l though the church of SS. G iovann i e Paolo con ta ins many i n t e r e s t i n g examples o f p a i n t -i n g and . s c u l p t u r e which may be compared to the Gesua t i s c u l p -t u r e s , o ther examples should be mentioned. S h o r t l y before M o r l a i t e r executed h i s Moses and Aaron and Abraham and M e l c h i -sedech, G . B . T i e p o l o pa in t ed two huge canvasses (each 10x5 m) of the Gather ing of the Manna and the S a c r i f i c e . o f Melch isedech 29 i n the P a r i s h Church of Vero lanuova . A s i g n i f i c a n t precedent fo r the arrangement o f r e l i e f s and whole f i g u r e s i s found i n the Church o f the Fava . Whereas the C a p p e l l a d e l Rosa r io has 30 f i g u r e s and r e l i e f s set i n a c h a n c e l , the f i g u r e s and r e -l i e f s o f the Fava are arranged, e x a c t l y l i k e those o f the G e s u a t i , t ha t i s , . t h e f i g u r e s , s e t ! i n n i c h e s , are p laced along the long nave, between the s ide chape l s , and the r e l i e f s are set above. The s c u l p t u r e s of the Fava , by Guiseppe B e r n a r d i , are r e l i e f scenes of the L i f e of S. F i l l i p p o N e r i and whole f i g u r e s of the four Doctors o f the Church, and the four 31 - • r " ^~ 32 E v a n g e l i s t s . However, these were completed on ly i n 17 66. 33 T h e - a r c h i t e c t u r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , precedes the G e s u a t i , so 78 we may conclude tha t the n iches were cons t ruc ted at the t ime of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the nave. I t would f o l l o w then t h a t , -a l though the s cu lp tu re s wea?e made a f t e r those of t h e ' G e s u a t i , the idea of the arrangement of s c u l p t u r e s i n the ;Fava precedes the G e s u a t i . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was t h e : G e s u a t i which f i r s t executed t h i s arrangement, and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t ha t the idea of having s c u l p t u r e s i n n iches and b a s - r e l i e f s a long the nave i s a new i n n o v a t i o n i n V e n e t i a n a r t . The s i x f i g u r e s ( F i g s . 31-36) and e i g h t b a s - r e l i e f s ( F i g s . 3 7 - 4 4 ) , o f the Gesua t i form an i n t e g r a l p a r t 1 of- 'the a r -c h i t e c t u r e . The n e u t r a l c o l o u r of these s c u l p t u r e s set i n t h e i r n iches and r e l i e f s below the e n t a b l a t u r e , together w i t h the monochrome g r i s a i l l e s pa in t ed i n the v a u l t c r e a t e - a decor -a t i v e e f f e c t . They e l abora te the P a l l a d i a n s t y l e of M a s s a r i ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e , fo rming , l i k e the grey c o r n i c e , a c o n t r a s t w i t h the whi te i n t e r i o r . They do not c l a s h w i t h the p a i n t e d , d e c o r -a t i o n s , but r a t h e r , by t h e i r n e u t r a l i t y o f co lour^ a l l o w the s ide a l t a r , p a i n t i n g s and the c o l o u r f u l c e i l i n g f rescoes to be h i g h l i g h t e d . There are a number of b o z z e t t i . f o r the s c u l p t e d f i g u r e s i n the G e s u a t i . These are i n the Ca 'Rezzon ico from the Dona d a l l a Rose C o l l e c t i o n , which a l s o i n c l u d e s b@zze t t i fo r the r e l i e f s f o r SS.. G iovann i e P a o l o . The c o l l e c t i o n con ta ins bxazzettj fo r S t . Pau l i n c l a y , S t . Pe te r i n c l a y , and Moses i n t e r r a c o t t a . I t i s cu r ious to compare the bozze t to of. Moses w i t h the executed work, because the t e r r a c o t t a f i g u r e 79 i s d e s c r i b e d by L o r e n z e t t i . a s " d i c o s i g r a n d i o s a e v i g o r o s o concezione da f a r i a q u a s i a p p a r i r e d i c a r a t t e r e c i n q u e s c e n t -35 esco i n d i r e t t a discendenza da Alessandro V i t t o r i o " The ex-ecuted f i g u r e ( F i g . 31) however, has abandoned the cont r a p o s t o pose of the bQzzetto although an e l a b o r a t e pose has been r e -t a i n e d . The powerful, bearded Moses looks down and t w i s t s h i s head to the r i g h t . His l e f t knee i s bent s h a r p l y as he r e s t s h i s l a r g e t a b l e t s o f the Law across the upper p a r t of h i s l e g . In h i s r i g h t hand he grasps h i s s t a f f , which, h e l d d i a g o n a l l y , protrudes s h a r p l y out of the n i c h e . The f i g u r e i s g i v e n g r e a t drama because i n a d d i t i o n to h i s posture, voluminous s w i r l i n g drapery adds to- the motion. Although h i s pose i s dramatic, i t c o u l d not be c l a s s i f i e d as Manne*istic. Although t h e r e i s a c u r r e n t of Mannerism i n Venetian e i g h t e e n t h century s c u l p - • t u r e , which i s t y p i f i e d i n Antonio C o r r a d i n i 1 s a l l e g o r y o f • 36 V i r g i n i t y i n S. Maria d e l Carmine dated 17.21 and perhaps e x e m p l i f i e d i n the Ge s u a t i ' s f i g u r e of Temperance by T a g l i a -p i e t r a , which seems somewhat'similar to i t s mannered pose to 37 C l o r i i n Leningrad. The f i g u r e of Aaron ( F i g . 32) by M o r l a i t e r shows much more r e s t r a i n t i n h a n d l i n g . Once again , l i k e Moses, Aaron's head i s turned down and toward us, the s p e c t a t o r s , below. He-extends h i s arm wit h palm turned upward, r e a c h i n g out of the ni c h e . One knee i s bent, but the handl i n g of drapery i s much d i f f e r e n t from Moses. The drapery i s t i g h t , s t r e t c h i n g a c r o s s the hig h p o i n t s of the bent l e g , while the lower r i g h t s i d e of h i s body i s covered with a m e t a l l i c , smooth and 80 straight f a l l of drapery. Perhaps t h i s "rococo classicism" i s comparable to'his figures of St,v Benedetto and g\ S col as t i c a 38 ' ™ (Fratta Polesine, Arcipretalee)).. However c l a s s i c a l i t ap-pears, the turned head and extended arm of Moses separates Morlaiter's classicism with the "true classicism" of Marchi-. - 39 o r i ' s figures of David and S'. C e c i l i a i n S. Rocco in, Venice where the sculptures turn t h e i r heads to the side but not down and keep t h e i r arms close to t h e i r sides as i f we could draw a verticals-horizontal axis down th e i r bodies. St. Paul (Fig 33) i n the Gesuati points his finger toward heaven by extending his arm out of the niche and bending his arm to 90 degrees. The figure of Paul i s bent, but the draperies are smooth and c l i n g -ing, but s t i l l display enough creases to form ridges of light, as the l i g h t f a l l s upon the high spots., St. Peter (Fig. 34) , too, raises his hand upward. His body i s considerably s t r a i g h t -er than Paul's but his drapery i s creased and billowed much more. Melchisedech (Fig. 35) seems to be experiencing a v i s i o n as he looks up and out of his niche while he extends his arm upward. It i s intere s t i n g to compare the elegant pose and the l i g h t colour of the statue and i t s surroundings with Francesco Guardi paintings, which often depict figures, eleg-antly posed, i n bright surroundings, i n mystical ecstasy. Morlaiter, i n his figure of Melchisedech, has combined a re-li g i o u s f e e l i n g with the elegance of the Rococo. The drapery of Morlaiter's figure f a l l s across his r i g h t leg, c l i n g i n g smoothly, but a l i g h t and shade play i s created at the folding 81 drapery cover ing h i s r a i s e d arm and, on the o ther s i d e , f a l l i n g to the ground to h i s l e f t . The body o f Abraham CFig . 36] i s -t w i s t e d s l i g h t l y as he tu rns h i s head downward to the s ide and crosses h i s body w i t h h i s l e f t hand, h o l d i n g h i s k n i f e a t h i s r i g h t s i d e . The drapery here i s c l i n g i n g at the l e f t knee and a wide r i d g e o f drapery p a r a l l e l to h i s l e f t l eg catches a d i agona l l i n e of l i g h t . Here M o r l a i t e r captures a s e n s i t i v e render ing of l i g h t and smooth t e x t u r e , once again demonstra t ing h i s love of e legance . An examinat ion of these Gesua t i f i g u r e s b r i n g s to mind the statement by Wit tkower made about M o r l a i t e r ' s l a r g e number of v a r i o u s b o z z e t t i - h i s s t y l e : " h i g h l y s e n s i -t i v e , ranges from a l i g h t imag ina t ive touch l i k e German Rococo and from what might be c a l l e d a s c u l p t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 40 T i e p o l o to an e legant c l a s s i c i s m comparable to e a r l y Canova". W i t t k o w e r 1 s statement i s a p p l i c a b l e to the Gesua t i s c u l p t u r e s , because there i s no p r o g r e s s i o n , r ega rd ing both the r e l i e f s and whole f i g u r e s , from Rococo to C l a s s i c i s m . Wittkower. 1 s com-41 p a r i s o n of M o r l a i t e r and T i e p o l o i s t rue i f we compare the bozze t to of the A d o r a t i o n of the Magi (Ca.' Rezzonico) , made 42 fo r a panel i n SS. G iovann i e Paolo which was never executed to the Wurzburg c e i l i n g by T i e p o l o . T i e p o l o ' s A f r i c a i s s i m -i l a r to the e x o t i c mood to M o r l a i t e r 1 s r e l i e f . Both a r t i s t s use many f i g u r e s i n a v a r i e t y of poses , many wearing tu rbans , an ima l s , and f i g u r e s who c a r r y l a r g e p a r a s o l s . However, -Mor-l a i t e r , i n h i s Gesua t i s c u l p t u r e s , can a l s o be compared w i t h .43 G u a r d i , as bo th use r h e t o r i c a l g e s t u r e s , • i n c l u d i n g the upwards-turned gaze, and d rape r i e s which ca t ch the l i g h t i n 82 r i d g e s , which g i v e s a rococo d e l i c a c y to t h e i r f i g u r e s . i The r e l i e f scenes represent a more r e s t r a i n e d approach than used i n the SS. G iovann i e Paolo r e l i e f s , Because of the Gesua t i r e l i e f s ' d e p i c t i o n of two f i g u r e s o n l y , a l though they convey a sense o f drama. Beginn ing w i t h the scene of C h r i s t and the Magdalene ( F i g . 37} , a c l a s s i c a l tendency i s found... C h r i s t i s shown w i t h His body e r e c t , pressed aga ins t the s t r a i g h t edge of the frame of the b a s - r e l i e f . He extends His arm at a r i g i d n i n e t y degrees , to h i s body, w h i l e the Magdalene k n e e l i n g , looks up and s t r e t ches up her hand toward Him. With the scene of C h r i s t and the .Samaritan . ( F i g . 38) , M o r l a i t e r has employed perhaps a more c l a s s i c a l type of compos i t i on . Here the Samaritan, woman s tands , l i k e C h r i s t i n the b a s - r e l i e f op-p o s i t e , w i t h her back f i r m l y p o s i t i o n e d aga ins t the frame, her arm hanging s t r a i g h t down her s i d e , . a n d h e r ' t a l l jug s i t t i n g on the edge of the w e l l , thus i m i t a t i n g the v e r t i c a l i t y of her pose. C h r i s t s i t s convers ing w i t h her , extending H i s arm hor -i z o n t a l l y , i m i t a t i n g the d e l i b e r a t e , s t r a i g h t l i n e o f the ground on which they are p l a c e d . In the I n c r e d u l i t y of S t . Thomas. ( F i g . 39 ) , which i s set over the p u l p i t , we see a Rococo s t y l e of compos i t i on . To the l e f t i s C h r i s t , who has r a i s e d both of Hi s hands upward. Thomas, on the r i g h t , i s p u t t i n g h i s f i n g e r i n t o C h r i s t ' s s i d e . In a r h e t o r i c a l ge s tu re , Thomas extends h i s o ther hand outward, so much tha t i t appears i n the round. The scene may be com-pared to th,ev Rest on- the F l i g h t in to - Egypt i n SS. Giovann i e 83 P a o l o , where Joseph i s seen g e s t i c u l a t i n g w i t h h i s hand, which he extends i n t o the scene. Hi s h e a d , • l i k e Thomas's arm, i s rendered i n the round. T h i s Gesua t i r e l i e f , . p e r h a p s more than any of. the o t h e r s , best b r ings to mind the mood and s t y l e of-Francesco Guardi . , - The ges tu re s , the e legant p o s t u r e s , the s a i n t s l o o k i n g upward, and the f ragmentat ion of the surface o f the drapery a l l may be compared to G u a r d i ' s Rococo p a i n -t i n g s . M o r l a i t e r has shown Thomas's body bent backward. He k n e e l s , one knee bending s h a r p l y . H i s c loak f a l l s i n many creases across h i s shoulder and down to the ground. The Baptism o f C h r i s t ( F i g . 40) , over the other p u l p i t i n the G e s u a t i , once aga in employs a d rama t i c , Rococo s t y l e of com-p o s i t i o n . To the l e f t i s C h r i s t , H i s knees bent , H i s head bowed, and His arms extended and hands c l a s p e d . P u t t i s w i r l down from the upper l e f t corner of the scene as John l i f t s h i s head upward. Remarkable i s the s k i l l f u l r ender ing o f the water , which seems to pour down i n a l o n g , g r a c e f u l cu rve . In the Hea l i ng of the B l i n d Man ( F i g . 41 ) , once aga in there ap-pears a sense o f drama. C h r i s t touches the man's r i g h t eye, and holds H i s hand h igh above the man's head. The b l i n d man, 1 f a c i n g us , bends h i skknees , holds one hand outward, b reak ing out o f the p i c t u r e space, and holds h i s s t a f f a t a sharp angle underneath C h r i s t ' s elbow. The scene o f S t . Pe ter Walking on  the Water ( F i g . 42) , again shows'a sense o f drama. C h r i s t , s tanding e r e c t , though His drapery i s b i l l o w i n g about Him, faces Peter who i s . s i n k i n g i n t o the water . P e t e r , " h i s d rapery , 84 l i k e C h r i s t ' s , s w i r l i n g f looks up at his- Master w h i l e holding-bo t h h i s hands i n f ron t of h i m s e l f . We see him s i n k i n g as- the water i s seen up to the l e v e l of the top of h i s c a l f . There-f o r e , from the examinat ion of the Gesua t i s c u l p t u r e s , M o r l a i t e r has emerged as a v e r s a t i l e a r t i s t . W h o i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s range o f s t y l e . H i s works throughout the years working fo r the Dominicans i n the Gesua t i show no p r o g r e s s i o n from one s t y l e . 44 to another , but demonstrate a love of v a r i e t y . However, a l though he g ive s h i s f i g u r e s e legance , the f ac t remains tha t i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y the message they convey i s s e r ious and r e -l i g i o u s . -CONCLUSION From an examinat ion of one p a r t i c u l a r church i n "Venice, the church o f the G e s u a t i , we may draw some conc lu s ions con-ce rn ing the nature of r e l i g i o u s a r t i n e igh teen th -cen tu ry V e n i c e . The l e a d i n g a r t i s t s are represented i n one b u i l d i n g -Massa r i as a r c h i t e c t , M o r l a i t e r as the s c u l p t o r o f a l l the f i g u r e s and scenes i n the i n t e r i o r , and the p a i n t e r s ; T i e p o l o , who pa in t ed one a l t a r p i e c e and the four c e i l i n g f r e s c o e s , The Angel Appear ing ^ Q D a v i d , The V i r g i n Hear ing the Prayers  of S t . Dominic , The I n s t i t u t i o n of the Rosary , and The G l o r y of S t . Domdinic; P i a z z e t t a , who i s ^responsible fo r two a l t a r -1 p i e c e s , and R i c c i , who p a i n t e d one The a r c h i t e c t u r e represents pa r t of the i n t e r e s t i n P a l -l a d i a n des ign i n Venice i n the e igh teen th cen tu ry , bu t , f a r from being a mere i m i t a t o r of a Cinquecento a r c h i t e c t , Massa r i has proved h i m s e l f to be an i n v e n t i v e a r t i s t , borrowing C l a s -s i c a l m o t i f s , i n v e n t i n g and adapt ing d e v i c e s , and b l end ing h i s 2 own s t y l e i n t o a P a l l a d i a n mode. • In t h i s l i g h t and r e s t r a i n e d P a l l a d i a n s t y l e are housed the l i g h t Rococo works o f , S e b a s t i a n i R i c c i ' s S t s . Thomas, P iu s V , and Peter M a r t y r , and the b r i l -l i a n t f rescoes by G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o , as w e l l as the many 3 elegant s c u l p t u r e s by M o r l a i t e r . Accord ing to P i g n a t t i , . t h e Gesua t i "which owes i t s f a s -c i n a t i o n par t ly - to the f rescoed d e c o r a t i o n . . . the p a i n t i n g s . . . and s ta tues c o n s t i t u t e s "the r i c h e s t and most u n i f i e d 4 Rococo i n t e r i o r i n the c i t y ' 1 . A l though the i n t e r i o r o f the 86 Gesuati i s P a l l a d i a n - i n s p i r e d , un-rClassical elements, such as the b e v e l l e d parts of the w a l l , supporting b e v e l l e d parts of 5 the v a u l t , near the ends of the nave, and the frescoed c e i l -6 i n g , so a l i e n to a P a l l a d i a n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n t e r i o r , 6 t e l l us t h a t t h i s b u i l d i n g belongs to the eighteenth-century. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Rococo a r t , l i g h t n e s s and elegance, are d i s t i n c t i v e of the Gesuati. Although the l i g h t and a i r y q u a l i t i e s of the i n t e r i o r can be a t t r i b u t e d p a r t l y to the nature of the P a l l a d i a n i n s p i r a t i o n , the b e v e l l e d parts of the v a u l t near.the ends of the nave, together w i t h the out-l i n i n g of the e n t i r e v a u l t w i t h stucco and i t s decoration of monochrome f r e s c o e s , lead pur eyes upward t o the three c o l -o u r f u l c e i l i n g f r e s c o e s , as w e l l as adding a r e f i n e d elegance to the a r c h i t e c t u r e . The white v a u l t , d e l i c a t e l y decorated w i t h the grey frescoes and stucco o u t l i n e s , - p r o v i d e s a f i t t i n g prelude to the major f o c a l p o i n t of the de c o r a t i v e scheme -teh Tiepolo c e i l i n g . " A l l the dec o r a t i v e d e t a i l s conspire to give us a t y p i c a l eighteenth-century i n t e r i o r , luminous w i t h 7 i t s i v o r i e s and greys ..." However, i n t h i s l i g h t and d e l i c a t e world of Rococo a r t , one extremely important element must not be overlooked - the nature of r e l i g i o n i n r e l i g i o u s a r t . The Church played an important r o l e i n Venice and i t goes without saying that the number of r e l i g i o u s a r t commissions were overwhelming. In Venice there were, i n the,eighteenth century, more than seventy parishes and n e a r l y twice as many churches, and of course the number of people i n the r e l i g i o u s - p r o f e s s i o n s ran 87 i n the thousands. The r e l i g i o u s Orders were w e l l . r e p r e s e n t e d i n V e n i c e , w i t h the Ca rme l i t e s a t the S c a l z i and-the Scuola d e i C a r m i n i , .the Oratorians^ at the Fava , S, S tae , the Angelo R a f f a e l e , the P i e t a , and the Dominicans at the Gesua t i and SS. 8 .-; Giovann i e P a o l o . Accord ing to H a s k e l l "most o f the r e l -i g i o u s Orders had v e r y r i c h backers and they were consequent ly by f a r the most important pat rons of modern p a i n t i n g and-ar -9 c h i t e c t u r e i n e a r l y e igh teen th century V e n i c e " . In terms of i c o n o l o g y , "the Dominicans and C a r m e l i t e s , " accord ing t o . H a s k e l l , ! ' c o n c e n t r a £ e more on the e x a l t a t i o n o f t h e i r Orders , the Ora to r i ans seem to have encouraged a m y s t i c -a l ecs tasy a n d , : i n T i e p o l o ' s Educa t ion of the V i r g i n , an un-1 0 usua l tenderness" . However, " i n a l l there i s a dominant note of t r i u m p h " . In the church of the Gesua t i "every p a i n t -....... • 1 1 i n g c e l e b r a t e s the t r iumpth and g l o r y of the Order" . Nine of i t s g rea t s a i n t s ( i n c l u d i n g two r e c e n t l y canon ized ) , are represented i n i t s a l t a r p i e c e s and i t s founder, S t . Dominic , i s shown four t imes - i n P i a z z e t t a ' s p o r t r a i t of the s a i n t and i n the three grea t c e i l i n g f rescoes o f which one shows the I n s t i t u t i o n of the Rosary . The symbol of the Order , which i s a l s o represented i n the; f i f t e e n mys te r i e s which surround 1 2 T i e p o l o ' s work. . I would tend to d i sagree w i t h H a s k e l l when he i m p l i e s tha t there i s more c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n Dominican and C a r m e l i t e 1 3 a r t on e x a l t a t i o n o f t h e i r Orders , than i n O r a t o r i a n a r t -Indeed, as he says , there i s " t r iumph" i n a l l , and the f a c t re mains tha t the s c u l p t u r a l programme of the Fava , represen ts 88 scenes from the l i f e of the O r a t o r i a n s ' founder , S t , P h i l i p . 14 N e r i , and the Doc tors o f the Church, and the " E v a n g e l i s t s , who spread C h r i s t ' s t e a c h i n g s . However, the Gesua t i s c u l p t u r a l programme stands apar t Because o f i t s - d e l v i n g - i n t o a deeper meaning concerning a r e l i g i o u s Order By- means of a l l u s i o n to the l i f e of C h r i s t . The s c u l p t u r a l B a s - r e l i e f s convey the message.of the v i r t u e o f f a i t h and the t r iumph of f a i t h which e v e n t u a l l y conquers dou&t. And what cou ld Be more t r iumphant than S t . D o m i n i c ' s spreading the r o s a r y to the people and ex-p e l l i n g heresy , which T i e p o l o shows f a l l i n g out of the scene i n a mood r emin i scen t of B a c i c c i a ' s seventeenth century A d o r a t i o n of the Name of Jesus i n the Roman church o f the Gesu? S t y l i s t i c a l l y , H a s k e l l ' s comment aBout m y s t i c i s m i n O r a t o r i a n a r t i s m i s l ead ing Because we can f i n d m y s t i c i s m i n the Gesua t i as w e l l . In t h i s Dominican church i s an a l t a r p i e c e By P i a z z e t t a which can Be desc r iBed as a "myst ic e c s t a sy" . In the Dominican church of SS. Giovann i e P a o l o , the G l o r y o f S t . Dominic "may w e l l serve as a specimen of postrBaroque ' t r i u m p h a l i s m ' ; i t p re se rves , however, a marked sense of r e l i g i o n , a s c e t i c i s m and d e v o t i o n a l commitment which i s i n the f i n e s t seventeenth-century p i e t i s t i c v e i n " and these 16 q u a l i t i e s can Be observed i n many of P i a z e t t a ' s works . T i e p o l o ' s a l t a r p i e c e i n the Gesua t i shares some of P i a z z e t t a ' s m y s t i c i s m , But there are notes of a l i g h t e r v e i n as w e l l ; f o r example, the l i t t l e c h a f f i n c h which i s perched 89 17 on a bar to the s ide of the V i r g i n . Of course , i t i s impos-s i b l e to deny- the gay, l i g h t q u a l i t i e s of Rococo a r t i n the G e s u a t i . One g lance a t R i c c i ' s a l t a r p i e c e shows the love R i c c i has i n h i s p l a y f u l p u t t i . a n d l i g h t a n d - a i r y atmosphere surrounding the s a i n t s who converse w i t h one another . M o r l a i t e r , t o o , i s e l egan t , both i n h i s pos ing of f i g u r e s and h i s render ing of d rapery , bu t , m y s t i c i s m may be found i n some of h i s f i g u r e s as w e l l ; f o r example, Melch isedech who seems to be expe r i enc ing a v i s i o n . " T r a d i t i o n has equated e igh teen th -cen tu ry Venice w i t h the f r i v o l o u s l i f e of the r i d o t t i , w i t h the c o q u e t r y . o f masks, the 18 excesses o f the gaming-rooms and the rage fo r P a r i s f a s h i o n s " . However-, the f a c t remains tha t r e l i g i o u s commissions are i n t e n -ded f o r r e l i g i o u s b u i l d i n g s , and the Gesua t i represents a church i n a 500-yea r -o ld r e l i g i o u s Order . Th i s Order had been . w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n Venice with the church o f SS. G iovann i e P a o l o , which was begun i n the t h i r t e e n t h cen tu ry . Outs ide Venice proper , t o o , on the nearby i s l a n d of Murano, was the Dominican church o f S. P i e t r o M a r t i r e , begun i n the four teen th cen tu ry . The G e s u a t i , however, made i t s d e c o r a t i v e p r o -gramme up- to-da te w i t h i t s i n c l u s i o n of the two Dominicans canonized i n the e igh teen th cen tu ry , P iu s V and Agnes of-20 Montepulc iano . N e v e r t h e l e s s , there i s t r u t h to the statement t h a t : There i s no doubt tha t when R i c c i sent h i s angels f l y i n g across the v a u l t of San M a r z i a l e i n V e n i c e , the r e s u l t was a f l u t t e r of s i l v e r y wings , a joyous golden-ye l low- spray aga ins t a 90 t u rquo i se sky , a f eas t of pure t r a n s l u c e n t f l e s h ; and a qua r t e r - cen tu ry l a t e r h i s t r iumph was to be repeated i n t he panels at San Rocco, where an e legant ly-rdressed S t . Helena ' d i s c o v e r s ' the Cross w i t h an a n g e l i c corps: de b a l l e t p ranc ing 21 and s i n g i n g round he r " . S t y l i s t i c a l l y , R i c c i ' s a l t a r p i e c e and T i e p o l o ' s c e i l i n g are Rococo, but i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y , the S t r e n g t h ' o f r e l i g i o n and f a i t h has t r iumphed. NOTES INTRODUCTION 1 G i i i l i o L o r e n z e t t i ,- Venice- and l t ' s v Lagoon, . t r ans . by John Gu th r i e (Rome: I n s t i t u t o = P o l i g r a f i c o d e l l o S t a t o , 1961), pp. 531-535. 2 John R u s k i n , The Stones of V e n i c e , V o l . I l l : The F a l l (London; Smith E l d e r and Co. , 1853) p . 300. 3 L o r e n z e t t i , Ven ice and i t s Lagoon, pp. 531-535. 4 T e r i s i o P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and Eigh teen th-Century Vene t i an P a i n t i n g , A p o l l o , XC ( J u l y , 1969). p . 1 2 . 5 L o r e n z e t t i , Venice and i t s Lagoon, pp. 343-356. 6 P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and Eigh teen th-Century Vene t ian P a i n t i n g " , p . 12. 7 Se.'e E lena B a s s i , A r c h i t t e t u r a d e l Sej e Se t tecento a Venez ia ( N a p o l i : E d i z i o n i S c i e n t i f i c h e I t a l i a n e , 1962), Pass im, pp. 185-304. 8 M i c h a e l Levey, P a i n t i n g i n X V I I I Century Venice (London Pha idon .P re s s , 1955) , Pass im, pp. 19-25, 32-39. 162-207. 92 NOTES4-CHAPTER I I S L o r e n z e t t i , Ven ice and i t s Lagoon, pp. 531-535. The name o f the l a s t s a i n t i n P i a z e t t a ' s a l t a r p i e c e Ludovico Bertrando or .Louis B e r t r a n d , no t , as L o r e n z e t t i says , .San . Ludovico and San Ber t r ando . ( I b i d . , p . 535] . The c o r r e c t name can be found i n Guida per l a C i t t a d i ; 1815} p . I I , 320. Giannantonio M o s c h i n i : _ Venezie (2 v o l s . , Venezia 2 F r a n c i s H a s k e l l , Patrons and P a i n t e r s : A Study i n the R e l a t i o n s between I t a l i a n A r t and S o c i e t y i n the Age of the Baroque (London: Chatto & Windus, 1963) p . 272. 3 John B . 0 1 Connor, . "Domin ic" , The C a t h o l i c . E n c y c l o p e d i a , An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Work of Reference on the C o n s t i -t u t i o n , D o c t r i n e , D i s c i p l i n e , and H i s t o r y o f the C a t h o l i c Church , 1907-1912, V , p . 106. 4 Anna B . Jameson, Legends o f the Monast ic Orders as Re-. presented i n the F ine A r t s , c o r . and e n l . e d . , (Boston: Houghton, M i f f l i n and Company, 1891) p .399 . 5 George W. Ferguson, Signs and Symbols i n C h r i s t i a n A r t , (New York : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Pgeess/ 1954) p . 204. 6 O'Connor, "Dominic" , p . 106. 7 I b i d . 8 I b i d . 9 Sidney P a i n t e r , A H i s t o r y of the Midd le Ages 284-1500, (New York : A l f r e d A . Knopf, 1954), p . 305. 10s I b i d . , pp. 310-312. 11 O'Connor, " D o m i n i c " , , p . 106. 12 I b i d . , p . 107. 13 Alb.an B u t l e r , L i v e s o f the Sa in t s , , ed. r e v . and s u p p l . , by Herber t ' Thurston and Donald At twa te r ( 4 v o l s . , Aberdeen: Burns & Gates , 1956) , I I I , p . 260. 14 0 'Connor , "Domin ic" , p . 107. 93 15 Jameson, Legends of the Monastic Orders,-, p . 402, 16 O'Connor, "Domin ic" , p . 108. 17• I b j d . , pp. 108^109, 18 W.A, Hinnebusch, "Dominicans" >" New- C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, I V , pp. 979^980. " 19 M . J . F innegan, "Hyac in th , S t . " New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, V I I , p . 281. 20 B u t l e r , L i v e s o f the" S a i n t s , I I I , pp. 338-339. 21 A . A l l a r i a , "Peter of Verona" , The C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Work of Reference on the C o n s t i -t u t i o n , D o c t r i n e , D i s c i p l i n e , and H i s t o r y of the C a t h o l i c Church, 1907-1912, X I , p . 773. 22 Jameson, Legends of the Monast ic .Orders, p . 411 23 W.A. Wal lace and J . A . W i s h e i p l , "Thomas Aqu inas , S t • " , New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, X I V , p . 102.; 24 I b i d . 2 5 I b i d . > P- 104.. 26 I b i d . ; P- 105. 27 I b i d . r P" 111. 28 I b i d . t p . 109. 29 I b i d . 30 J . J . B e r t h i e r , Ecc le s i a i e (Rome: 1914) , p . 117, c i t e d by Wal lace and W e i s h e i p l , I b i d . , p . 110. 31 B e r t h i e r , I b i d . , p . 147, c i t e d by Wal lace and W e i s h e i p l , I b i d . 32 M . J . F innegan, "Agnes of Montepulc iano , S t . " New Ca th -o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, I , . p . 205. 33 Ludwig, F r e j h e r r von P a s t o r , The H i s t o r y of the Popes, from the Close of the M i d d l e Ages (.4 0 v o l s . , London: J . .Hodges , 1891-1953] XXXIV, p . 165. 34 Finnegan., "Agnes of Montepulc iano , S t . " p . 205. 94 35 Pastox , H i s t o r y of: the' Popes f X X X I V , p . 165. T h i 3 same Pope' a l s o promoted a f u r t h e r devo t ion to S t . C a t h -e r i n e . of Sjiena and S t . V i n c e n t F e r r e r ( I b i d . , p . 167, p . 167 n . 4 ) . 36 Wart A r s l a n , "Gian B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o e. G .M. M o r l a i t e r a i G e s u a t i " / R i v i s t a d i . V e n e z i a (May, 1932), p . 19. 37 E r i c John, ed . The Popes, A Concise B i o g r a p h i c a l H i s t o r y , 1st ed. (London:. Burns & Oates, 1964) pp. 239-244, p . 350. 38 Edmund G, G a r d n e r , . " C a t h e r i n e of S i e n a " , The C a t h o l i c Encyc loped ia , . An i n t e r n a t i o n a l Work of Reference  on the C o n s t i t u t i o n , D o c t r i n e , D i s c i p l i n e , and H i s t o r y of the C a t h o l i c Church, 1907-1912, XXX, p . 447. 39 B u t l e r , L i v e s of the S a i n t s , I I , p . 196. 40 I b i d . , p . 197. 41 J . B . Walker , "Vincen t F e r r e r , S t " . ,. New C a t h o l i c En-c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, X I V , p . 680. 42q I b i d . , p . 681. 43 I b i d . 44 B u t l e r , L i v e s o f the Sa in t s , , I I , p . 33. 45 Walker , V incen t F e r r e r , S t " . , p . 681. 46 B u t l e r , L i v e s o f the S a i n t s , I I , p . 33. 47 T. L a t a s t e , "P ius V " , The C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , An  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Work of Reference on the C o n s t i t u t i o n , D o c t r i n e , D i s c i p l i n e , and H i s t o r y of the C a t h o l i c  Church, 1907-1912, X I I , p . 130. 48 I b i d . , p . 131. 49 John , The Popes, p . 350. The B a t t l e of Lepanto was com-memorated by a p a i n t i n g hf SiapopooTintorel to i n the Doges P a l a c e . Th i s was des t royed by f i r e , and was r ep l aced by the work of Andrea V i c e n t i n o . There are a l s o two p a i n t i n g s by Paolo Veronese (One i n the Accademia and the o ther i n the Doges P a l a c e ) , which.show Sebast iano V e n i e r , the comman-der of the V e n e t i a n f l e e t . A s p e c i a l commemorative chape l - a t SS. Giovann i e Paolo had a p a i n t i n g of 95 49 the b a t t l e of Domenico and Jacopo T i n t o r e t t o , but cont, 'd i t was des t royed i n 18 67. (Pas tor , H i s t o r y of the  Popes, XV.TII, p . 444 and p . 447) . Thus, we may conclude tha t the v i c t o r y was s i g n i f i c a n t not on ly to the Dominican O r d e r , . b u t a l s o to the c i t y of V e n i c e as w e l l . 50 La. t a s t e , "Pius V " , p . 131. 51 John, The Popes, pp. 350-351. 52 L o r e n z e t t i , Ven ice and i t s Lagoon, p . 535. 53 B u t l e r , L i v e s - o f t h e - S a i n t s , I V , p . 72. 54 J , Restrepo Posada, "Ber t r and , L o u i s , S t " . , New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, I I , ' p . 361. 55 B u t l e r , L i v e s o f the S a i n t s , I V , p . 73. 56 Posada, "Ber t r and , L o u i s , S t " . , p . 361. 57 J . M . "Vargas, "Rose o f L ima , S t " . , New, C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 19'67, X I I , p . 674. 58 H a s k e l l , Patrons, and P a i n t e r s , p . 272. 96 NOTES CHAPTER IX 1. .See V i t t o r i o M o s c h i n i , " G i o r g i o M a s s a r i , A r c h i t e t t o Vene to" , Dedalo , X I I CMarch, 1932) , p . 204. 2 B a s s i , A r c h i t t e t u r a , p . 192. Fo r an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the Z i t e l l e , see Rudolf Wi t tkower , " L 1 I n f l uenza d e l P a l l a d i o s u l l o Sv i luppo d e l l ' A r c h i t e t t u r a R e l i g i o s a V e n e z i a n i n e l S e i e Se t t ecen to" , Bo T i e11 ino de1  Ceritro I n t e r n a z i o n a l e d e , S t u d i d i A r c h i t e t t u r a  Andrea Pa l l ad io , ,V,, 1963, p i . 20. 3 B a s s i , A r c h i t t e t u r a , . p. 190 . 4 Rudolf Wi t tkower , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y , 1600 to 1750, 2d. r e v , ed . , (Harmondsworth', England: Penguin Books, (1965), p . 252. 5 B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a , , p . 216. 6 I b i d . , p . 274. 7 Wi t tkower , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y , p . 253. 8 Vincenzo G o l z i o , Se icento e Se t t ecen to , 2nd ed. (2 v o l s . T o r i n o : U n i o n e ' T i p o g r a f i c o E d i t r i c e T o r i n e s e , 1960), I I , p . 978. 9 E lena B a s s i , " L ' A r c h i t e t t u r a d e l l a Prima M e t a ' d e l Se t -tecento a V e n e z i a , " B o l l e t t i n o d e l Centro I n t e r n a z -i o n a l e d i S t u d i d i A r c h i t e t t u r a .Andrea P a l l a d i o , , I V , 1962, p . 119. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of P a l l a d i o ' s p l a n , see James S. Ackerman, P a l l a d i o , (>;EC'H.armonds-wor th , England: Penguin Books, 1966), p i . 78. Andrea P a l l a d i o , The Four Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e (New York : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965), p . 105, p i . 75-77, pp. 106-107, p i . 81-86. Wittkower-, A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y , p . 253. G o l z i o , Se icen to e Se t t ecen to , I I , p . 97 8. B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a , p . 293. I b i d . , . p . 286. .-' . I b i d ., p. 284. B a s s i reproduces th ree o f . G a s p a r i ' s draw ings fo r the church ( J b i d . , p i . 185-rl87) . Wit tkower , " L ' I n f l u e n z a d e l P a l l a d i o " , p . 6 6 . , 10 11 12 13 14. 15 16 97 17 I b i d , 18 G o l z i o , Sejcento e Se t teeen to , IT , p . 982. 19 P a l l a d i o , Four Books, pp. 99^100. Ackerman ( P a l l a d i o , p . 1371 says , '"this- i r r e v e r e n t c h i l d of the Pantheon i s more Rococo than Roman". 20- Wjt tkower, A r t and Arc h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y , p . 253. 21 "The dome r i s e s to a s p e c t a c u l a r , almost r o c k e t - l i k e h e i g h t , and indeed the .whole s t r u c t u r e , w i t h i n as w e l l as w i t h o u t , has a v e r t i c a l soa r ing f e e l i n g C C a r r o l l L . V . Meeks, I t a l i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e . 1750 -1914 [New Haven: Ya l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966] , p . 171) . 22 A c h i l l e B o s i s i o , La Chiesa d i Santa Mar i a d e l Rosa r io o d e l Gesua t i (Venezia : 1943), p . 17 23 I b i d . , pp. 9-14. 24 F l a m i n i o Corner , N o t i z i e St .oriche d e l l a Chiese e Monas-t e r i -d i Venez ia e d j T o r c e l l o T r a t t e da l l r e Chiese Veneziane , e T o r c e l l a n e . . I l l u s t r a t e da F . C . , (Pad-ova: 1758), pp. 443-444. 25 G. B i a n c h i n i , La Ch iesa d i Santa Mar i a d e l R o s a r i o , (Vulgo i G e s u a t i ) X V e n e z i a : 1889), p . 5. 26 B o s i s i o , Santa Mar i a d e l Rosario. , p . 16. 27 B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a , pp. 302-304. 28 M o s c h i n i , " G i o r g i o M a s s a r i " , pp. 228-229, n . 2. 29 H a s k e l l , Pa t rons ,and P a i n t e r s , pp. 270-271; p . 271, n . 1, 30 M , G s c h i n i , " G i o r g i o M a s s a r i " , p . 204. 31 I b i d . 32 I b i d . 33 George Knox i n conve r sa t i on w i t h the Author . 34 B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a , p . 338. 35 I b i d . , p . 300. 36 I b i d . , pp. 3 00-302. / 98 37 I b i d . , pp. 267 and 333. 38 Wit tkower , " L 1 I n f luenza d e l P a l l a d i o " , pp. 69-70. 39 M o s c h i n i , " G i o r g i o M a s s a r i " , pp. 204-206. 40 G o l z i o , Se icen to e ,Se t t e cen to , I I , p . 978." 41 Wittkower-, A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y , p . 253. 42 M o s c h i n i , " G i o r g i o M a s s a r i " , p . 204. 99 N O T E S C H A P T E R T I T 1 L o r r e n z e t t i , ' V e n i c e x t s ^ T a g o o n , pp. 533^535. 2 J e f f e r y D a n i e l s , "Sehast iano R i c c i : The Las t Phase", A p o l l o , XC, ( J u l y , 19691, p . 8. 3 P j e t r o Zampet t j , D a l / R i c c i a l - TiepoTo, X P i t t o r i , d i P i g u r a d e l Se t tecento a V e n e z i a ; V e n e z i a , Pa l azzo Duca le , 7 Guigno - Jg O t t o b r e , T969 (Venezia : A l f i e r i , 19691 , p . 3.. 4 D a n i e l s , "Sebast iano R i c c i " , p . 6.-5 I b i d . , p . 9. 6 George Knox i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the Author . 7. Giuseppe F i o c c o , Paolo Veronese, 1528-1588, (Bologna: Casa E d i t r i c e A p o l l o [ c . 1938] , p i . 34. 8 D a n i e l s , "Sebast iano R i c c i " , p . 9. 9 I b i d . 10 I b i d . 11 I b i d . 12 Rodolfo P a l l u c c h i n i , La P i t t u r a Veneziana d e l Se t tecento (Venez ia : I s t i t u t o per l a C o l l a b o r a z i o r e C u l t u r a l e , 1960), p . 13, p i . 14. 13 John. S t ee r , A Concise H i s t o r y of Vene t i an P a i n t i n g , (London: Thames and Hudson, 1970), p . 176. 14 I b i d . 15 Levey, P a i n t i n g i n XVII I . Century V e n i c e , p . 22. 16 S t ee r , H i s t o r y o f Vene t i an P a i n t i n g , p . 176. 17 D a n i e l s , "Sebast iano R i c c i " , p . 9 . -18 Zampet t i , D a l R i c c i a l T i e p o l o , p . 24, p i , 8. 19 D a n i e l s , "Sebast iano R i c c i " , pp. 10-11, p i . 5 and 6. 20 I b i d . , p . 9, 21 M o s c h i n i , Guida per l a C i t t a d i V e n e z i a , IT , p . 320. 100 Rodolfo P a l l u c c h i n i , " P i a z z e t t a (Mi lano : Aldo M a r t e l l o , 1961), p . 71 , ' . " " \ S t ee r , H i s t o r y o f Vene t i an P a i n t i n g , p . 184. This- l a s t s a i n t was; copied by Francesco Guard i i n a work i n the Museo Naz iona le i n Trento (Zampet t i , D a l R i c c i a l T i e p o l o , p . 260, p i . 116. P a l l u c c h i n i , . L a P i t t u r a Venez iana d e l Se t t ecen to , p . 17. S t ee r , H i s t o r y o f Vene t i an P a i n t i n g , , p . 184. Levey, P a i n t i n g i n X V I I I Century Ven ice , , p . 36. P a l l u c c h i n i , P i a z z e t t a , p . 32. Zampet t i , Da l R i c c i a l T i e p o l o , p . 142. P a l l u c c h i n i , P i a z z e t t a , p . .26, p i . 42. Zampet t i , Da l R i c c i a l T i e p o l o , p . .14 2. P a l l u c c h i n i , P i a z z e t t a , p . 72. I b i d . , p . 39. Anton io M o r a s s i , A Complete Catalogue of the P a i n t i n g s  of G . B . T i e p o l o , I n c l u d i n g P i c t u r e s by h i s P u p i l s and F o l l o w e r s Wrongly A t t r i b u t e d to Him, ; (London:' Phaidon P r e s s , 1962), pp. 232-233. ~ 35 I b i d . , p . 56. 36 Antonio M o r a s s i , G . B . T i e p o l o , H i s L i f e and Work (London: Phaidon P r e s s , 1955), p i . 10. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the three T i t i a n p a i n t i n g s , see F r e d e r i c k H a r t t , H i s t o r y . o f . I t a l i a n Renaissance A r t : - P a i n t i n g , S c u l p -t u r e , A r c h i t e c t u r e .. (New Y o r k : Harry N . Abrams I n c . , 1969), p i . 655-657. 37 C a r l o D o n z e l l i . and Giuseppe Mar i a P i l o , I . P i t t o r i d e l S e r c i e n t o Veneto ( F r i e n z e : E d i z i o n i Remo Sandron, 1967) , pp. 189-190, p i . . 35. E l l i s Waterhouse, I t a l i a n Baroque P a i n t i n g (London: Phaidon P r e s s , 1969), p i . 65. 3 8 George Knox, "Venet ian H i s t o r y P a i n t e r s o f the Se t tecen to" The Connoisseur CXXXy (March, 1955) , pp. 2 9-30, •pi". ' 1 ta) , (b.), and C e l . 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29, 30 31 32 33 34 39 I b i d . , p . 30 . 101 4 0 I&sassj&o,, 'as,. M a r i a ' del'-' Ros'ax&o,. p •,. • 21,• 41 . Pompeo Molmenti T l ^ p o l o y 1 ^ Vle> et s 1'Oeuvre du P e i n t r e , , Trans-. H. L . de~P<§rera, (Par is ' : Hachette et C i e . , 1911), p . 54. There are ' two--sketches fo r t h i s cen-t r a l p a n e l . One i s i n the M. C r e s p i C o l l e c t i o n i n M i l a n . Canvas-,/ 108x51.5 cm. • (Morassi , A Complete  Catalogue of -the P a i n t i n g s of' G . B . T i e p o l o , p . 27, F i g . 8 9 ) . The other canvas i s i n the Gemaldeg a1er ie i n B e r l i n , but was l o s t . d u r i n g the l a s t war. I t was 98x49 cm. (Moras s i , p . 4, f i g . 90) . There i s a l s o an o i l ske tch which has been a t t r i b u t e d , b y U l r i c h M i d d e l d o r f to T i e p o l o , M r . & M r s . A . Ryerson C o l l e c t i o n , A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago , 96 .5x4 '8 cm. C U l r i c h A . M i d d e l d o r f , ''An Unusual Drawing by G i o -vann i B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o " , B u l l e t i n of the A f t I n s t i t -ute of Chicago , XXXIV, ( A p r i l - M a y , 1940), pp. 54 -57, f i g . 1. A l s o i n the A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago i s a drawing ( F i g . 17) a l s o a t t r i b u t e d to T i e p o l o by. M i d d e l d o r f , which i s from the Cha r l e s Deer ing C o l -l e c t i o n . Pen and wash over b l ack cha lk on whi te paper . Composed of seven p ieces of paper pasted t o -ge ther . 94.2x44.5 cm. (Midde ldor f , f i g . 2 ) . However, accord ing to George Knox, both the ske tch and drawing should be a t t r i b u t e d t ° Francesco L o r e n z i s i nce "the a t t r i b u t i o n to Francesco L o r e n z i i s f u l l y supported by a comparison w i t h h i s l a r g e pen and wash drawings a f t e r o ther contemporary works by G i a m b a t t i s t a i n the Museo d a . C a s t e l y e c c h i o i n Verona" (George Knox, T iepo lo : . a B icen tena ry E x h i b i t i o n 1770-1970. Draw- ings M a i n l y from, American C o l l e c t i o n s by G i a m b a t t i s t a  T i e p o l o and the Members of h i s C i r c l e . Fogg A r t Museum, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , March 14-May 3, 1970. [Cambridge, M a s s . , Fogg A r t Museum] 1970, p . 29. F i n a l l y , there i s a drawing o f a, sma l l boy l e an ing on an urn which appears i n the M i l a n s k e t c h . Th i s drawing i n the B e r l i n Sketchbook ( f o l . 22 rec to ) has been a t t r i b u t e d to L o r e n z i . (George Knox i n conver -s a t i o n w i t h the A u t h o r ) . 42 Char les M. Da ley , O .P . "Representa t ions of S a i n t Dominic i n the Uni t ed S t a t e s " , I I I (Th i rd -Four th Quar te r , p 9 3 1 4 1 / I l l t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note some changes i n the executed f resco and i n the ske tches . The M i l a n s k e t c h . i s f a i r l y c l o s e to the Gesua t i c e i l i n g , a l -though there are s l i g h t changes. The B e r l i n s k e t c h , however, omi t s the f l i g h t of steps on which Dominic stands i n the M i l a n s k e t c h , p laces an a r c h i t e c t u r a l background from the l e f t to the r i g h t , shows the s a i n t . s t r e t c h i n g . o u t h i s .arms, and p l aces the l i t t l e angel w i t h the r o s a r i e s i n f ron t of h im. (Midde ldor f , 102 42 "An Unusual Drawing" f p . 56) , There j s a drawing o f ; c o n t ' d : '-. S t . Dominic with,,. Arms .Outstre tched , i n . the P i e rpon t Morgan L i b r a r y , N o / X V , p . H'6d." ' Pen" and brown i n k , brown wash, over b l a c k c h a l k , 20.5x18.5 cm. Upper c o r -ners d i a g o n a l l y cropped. (.Jacob Bean and F e l i c e Stampf le , Drawings from. New York,' .Col lec t ion 's ; i l l , The' E igh teen th  Century i n I t a l y . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t , January 30-March 21, 1971 [New York Graphic S o c i e t y : Greenwich, Conn . , 1971] , . p . 43,. p i . 66. The L o r e n z i drawing i s s i m i l a r to the Mi lan , ske t ch , a l though t h e . f i g u r e a t the bottom of the B e r l i n ske tch has been roughly f o l l o w e d . (Knox, A B icen tena ry E x h i b i t i o n , p . 2 9 ) . 43 Molment i , T i e p o l o , p . 54. 44 Da ley , "Representa t ions of S t . Domin i c " , p . 141 45 A . M o r a s s i , " G . B . T i e p o l o , H i s . .L i fe and Work, (London: Phaidon P r e s s , 1955), p . 17. 46 E r i c John, ed . The Popes , . a Concise B i o g r a p h i c a l H i s t o r y , 1st ed. (London: Burns & Oates , 1964), p . 350. 47 L o r e n z e t t i , Ven ice and i t s Lagoon, p . 54. 4 8 M o r a s s i , (A Complete Catalogue of the P a i n t i n g s o f G . B ,  T i e p o l o , p . 8, f i g . 94) , says that there was a ' m p d e l l o ' o r a contemporary copy o f an unknown o r i g i n a l ske tch fo r t h i s f r e s c o . (Canvas, 38x52 cm). The p i c t u r e was i n the Fogg A r t Museum but the present whereabouts i s unknown. 4 9 Molment i , T i e p o l o , p . 55. 50 I b i d . , pp. 54-55. 51 See Jameson, Legends of the Monas t ic Orders , p . 435. 52 George Knox i n conve r sa t i on w i t h the Author . 53 Da ley , "Representa t ions of S t . Dominic , p . 125. For t h i s f resco there i s a ske tch (38x52 cm), which was i n the Johnson C o l l e c t i o n i n t h e - P h i l a d e l p h i a Museum o f A r t . Present whereabouts unknown. (Morassi> A Complete  Catalogue of the P a i n t i n g s pf G . B . T i e p o l o , p . 44. A l s o there are twp drawings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f r e s c o , S t . Dominic Borne Upward by Three Angels -pen and brown i n k , brown wash, over b l a c k c h a l k , 24.8x22.5 cm. Upper . corners d i a g o n a l l y c u t . p i e r -pont Morgan L i b r a r y , No.. TV, ^ ,-.100* (Bean and Stampfle,. Drawings from "New York C o l l e c t i o n s , I I I , 103 53 p . 43, p i . 55) , and S t . • Dominic,, Hi: s Hand i n P r a y e r , cont 'd ' : Borne Upward - pen and"-brown" ink',."', brown wash, oyer , . b l a c k c h a l k , 33 .4x27 .2 , cm. p ierpont . Morgan L i b r a r y , No. I V , p . 99, . Acco rd ing to George.Knox,. t h i s l a t -t e r drawing shou ld , on s t y l i s t i c grounds,, be dated l a t e r than 1737-1739. (Bean and Stampfle , pp. 43-44, p i . 67) . 54 M o r a s s i , G . B . T i e p o l o , H i s L i f e and Work, pp. 17-18. 55 I b i d . , pp. 9-10 .' 56 There i s a drawing b y Francesco L o r e n z i ( F i g . 21) , which may w e l l be a v a r i a t i o n . a f t e r T i e p o l o ' s f r e s c o . L o r e n z i ' s drawing i s ' i n the Museo d i C a s t e l v e c c h i o . i n Verona . (George Knox i n conve r sa t i on w i t h the A u t h o r ) . -57 W.A. Hinnebusch, "Rosary" , New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, X I I , p . 667. 58 M o r a s s i , G . B . T i e p o l o , .His L i f e and Work, p . 56. There are- three pen and wash drawings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s a l t a r p i e c e tha t should be mentioned. One i s i n the P a r i s i n the former O r l o f f C o l l e c t i o n (260 mmxl50mm) I t i s i d e n t i f i e d as Madonna (?) w i t h Two Female S a i n t s , . (Detlev Baron von Hadeln"^ The Drawings of G.B . . T i epo lo [2 v o l s . , P a r i s : The Pegasus P r e s s , 1929] , I , f i g . 38) , though von Hadeln concedes tha t the f i g u r e s cou ld be S t . Rose w i t h the C h r i s t . C h i l d , S t . Ca ther ine and-St . Agnes ( I b i d . , p . 26) In the Museo C i v i c o d i S t o r i a e A r t e i n T r i e s t e , there are two drawings on both, s ides o f one p i ece o f paper, (white paper 455 mm x 302 mm), ( A l d o . R i z z i , e d . , D i s e g n i d e l T i e p o l o , Udine , Loggia d e l L i o n e l l o , lOOttobre - 14 Novembre, 196 5 [Udine: 1965] , f i g s . 86, p . 101. 59 Wart A r P l a n , "Gian B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o e G .M. M o r l a i t e r a i G e s u a t i " , pp. 19-20. 60 Jameson, Legends o f the Monas t ic Orders , p . 405. 61 Franco B a r b i e r i , e d . , I l Museo C i v i c o d i V i c e n z a , 8, D i p i n t i e S c u l t u r e d a l XVI a l X V I I I Secolo (Vene-z i a : N e r i Pozza E d i t o r e , 1962), p . 68, p i . A55. 62 J . M . Vargas , "Rose of L ima , S t " . , p . 674. 63 D o n z e l l i and p i l o , I P i t t o r i d e l Siejcento yenet o , p i . 244. ~ : ~ : ~~ 64 L o r e n z e t t i ,- Venice and i t s . Lagoon, p . 533 . 104 Zampet t i , Da l R i c c i a l T i e p o l o , p . 94, p i . 41. Hugh. Honour,; The Companion Guide to- Ven ice (New Y o r k : Harper & Row, 1966), p . 151. " ' ' L o r e n z e t t i , Venice and i t s Lagoon, p . 532. W.A. Hinnebusch, "Rosary" , New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, XXX,- p . 667. I b i d . Alessandro Vardanega, " I l Ros a r i o a i Gesua t i d i Venez ia n e i Monocromi 'd i T i e p o l o " , A r t e C h r i s t i a n a (1958), p . 187. : I b i d . , p . 18 6. Giuseppe Mar i a P i l o , "R i t rovamen t i per Francesco Zugno"> Paragone, (March,. 1959) , pp. 33-40. I b i d . , p . 35. P a l l u c c h i n i , La P i t t u r a Veneziana d e l Se t t ecen to , p . 166. Knox, T i e p o l o : A Bicen tena ry E x h i b i t i o n , p . 29. L o r e n z e t t i , Venice and i t s Lagoon, p . 53 5. Acco rd ing to B o s i s i o (S. Mar i a d e l R o s a r i o , p . 13 ) , the church o f ' S ' . Gerolamo-contained works by J a c o b e l l o d e l F i o r e , T i n t o r e t t o , Palma V e c c h i o , T i t i a n , . a n d A l i e n s e . E r i c Newton, T i n t o r e t t o (London: Longman's Green and C o . , 1952), pp. 94-95. I b i d . F r a n c i s P . B . Osmaston, The A r t and Genius o f • T i n t o r e t (2 v o l s . , London: G. B e l l and-Sons, S t d . , 1915) I , pp. 136-137. P a l l u c c h i n i , P i a z z e t t a , p . 72. B i a n c h i n i , S. M a r i a d e l R o s a r i o , .p. 6. B o s i s i o , S. Mar i a d e l R o s a r i o , p . 33 . S t ee r , H i s t o r y of Vene t ian P a i n t i n g , p . 176. I b i d . I b i d . , p . 184. 105 I b i d , Moras-s i . 'GYBY T i e p o ^ 17, Z a m p e t t i D ' a ' l ' R i c c i ' a l ; T i e p o l o , p i . 41. . Ivan Fenyo,--"An Unknown P r o c e s s i o n a l Banner.-By the Guardi Bro the r s " > The- B u r l i n g t o n : Magazine , CX, (February, 1968) , "p . 65 n . 1. George Knox, "T iepo lo - G u a r d i : A New P o i n t of C o n t a c t , . The .Bur l ing ton . Magazine, CX (May, 1968), 2 7 8 , p l . 7 3 . M o r a s s i , A Complete Catalogue of the P a i n t i n g s of G . B . . Tiepolo", p . 8, p i . 96. Guido P iovene , L 'Opera .Completa d i G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o , CMilano: R i z z o l i E d i t o r e , 1968) p i . 105. : L o r e n z e t t i , Venice and i t s Lagoon, p . 816. Zampet t i , Da l R i c c i a l .TlEpolo, p . 265, p i . 119. Rodolfo "CNote d 1 A r c h i v i o su Francesco G u a r d i " , A r t e Veneta , V I I [1953], 156) , has p u b l i s h e d the i nven to ry o f 1807 of p a i n t i n g s found i n the C a p p e l l a d i S. Dpm-. en ico i n the church o f S. P i e t r o M a r t i r e : 31 - " M i r a c o l o d i S. Domenico quando s i rompe i l pon te , " d e l l ' a u t o r e G u a r d i . 32—- Una "S.. t a Domenica". Ovato d i ch i a roscu ro Autore i n c e r t o . 33 - P a l l a de S. Domenico d i Bartolemeo S e t t a r i n i [ s i c ] . 34 - Una "Santa" d i charoscuro , Ovato, autore. i n c e r t o . 35 - " M i r a c o l o d i S. Domenico" d e l l ' a u t o r e G u a r d i . P a l l u c c h i n i , P i a z z e t t a , p . 21 106 CHAPTER I V 1 B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a , p . 338. 2 A r s l a n , "Gian B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o e G.M. M o r l a i t e r a i G e s u a t i " , p . 24. 3 The dates o f the s c u l p t o r s , Francesco G i o v a n n i , Tomasso, and A n t o n i o , are p u b l i s h e d by Carai1lo Semenzato (La  S c u l t u r a Veneta d e l Se icento e d e l Se t t ecen to , F i n a l ed . i V e n e z i a : A l f i e r * , 1966] , pp. 123, 118-119, 122 and .123-124. 4 . Go1z io , Se icento e .Se t t e cen to , I I , pp.1056-1057. 5 Semenzato, La S c u l t u r a Vene ta , p . 53. ^ 6 I b i d . , p . 123. 7 I b i d . . , p . 13 5. The work o f the Gesua t i facade by the other two s c u l p t o r s , T o r r e t t i and F u s a l i , i s not mentioned by Semenzato. 8 :5ee L o r e n z e t t i , Ven ice and i t s Lagoon, pp. 345-356. 9 Semenzato, La S c u l t u r a Veneta , p . 137-10 M o r a s s i , A Complete Catalogue of the P a i n t i n g s o f G . B . T j e p o l o , p . 235. 11 (Gd.ulio L o r e n z e t t i , " M o d e l l i e B o z z e t t i d i T e r r a c o t t a e d Terracruda d i G iovann i Mar i a M o r l a i t e r , " R i v i s t a d i V e n e z i a , XIV (1935), p . 226. . 12 L o r e n z e t t i , Venice and-.i ts Lagoon, p . 532. 13 A r s l a n , "Gian B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o e G.M. M o r l a i t e r a i Gesu-a t i , p . 21. 14 - T b i d . , pp. 21-22. 15 I b i d . . , p . 22. 16 Semenzato, La S c u l t u r a Veneta , p . 137. The arrangement Semenzato g i y e s i s c o r r e c t except f o r the bas-r e l i e f s over the p u l p i t s , which are r eve r sed . 17 I b i d . Semenzato g ive s some d i s c r e p a n c i e s to A r s l a n . A r s l a n says tha t payments were made i n A p r i l and i n 107 17 July-, 1747 (."Gian B a t t i s t a Tiepolo. e G.M. M o r l a i t e r C o n t ' d : a i G e s u a t i " , p . 22 ) , w h i l e Semanzato omits t h i s . A l s o omi t ted by Semenzato are the payments i n March and A p r i l , 1751 fo r Aaron ( A r s l a n , "Gian B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o e G.M, M o r l a i t e r a i G e s u a t i " , p . 22) . Semenzato a l s o says t ha t payments were made i n August and i n December 1753 fo r Abraham and i t s b a s - r e l i e f , w h i l e A r s l a n says 1754 18 F r e d e r i c k Roth Webber,.Church- Symbolism; An E x p l a n a t i o n of the More Important Syjnbolss:o.f' the Qiid and New T e s t a -ment, the P r i m i t i v e ^ 'the Mediaeva l ' and the Modern Church. 2d ed. r e v . (C leve l and : J . H . Jansen, 1938) , pp. 248 and 254. 19 Graham Smith i n conve r sa t i on w i t h the Author . 20- Webber^(Church Symbolism, p . 236) says tha t a sh ip i s used to symbol ize the sh ip of the Church and tha t sometimes Pe ter and Pau l a r e ' d e p i c t e d a t the helm. 21 Graham Smith i n conve r sa t i on w i t h the Author . 22 Webberm Church Symbolism, p . 37; 23 L o r e n z e t t i , Venice and i t s Lagoon, p . 348. For an i l l u s -t r a t i o n of the Bapt ism of C h r i s t , see Franca Zava B o c c a z z i , La B a s i l i c a d e l S a n t i G iovann i e Paolo i n  Venez ia (Venezia : Ferdinando Ongania E d i t o r e , 1965), p i . 191. 24 I b i d . . , p . 139, p i . 74, 76 and 77. 25 I b i d . , p . 297, p i . 194 and 195, p . 363, n . 222. 26 I b i d . . , p i . 187, 186 and 185. 27 L o r e n z e t t i , Venice and i t s Lagoon, p . 354. 28 I b i d . , p . 353. 29 M o r a s s i , A Complete Catalogue of the P a i n t i n g s o f G . B . T i e p o l o , p . 63. 30 - See. B o c c a z z i , S a n t i G iovann i e P a o l o , p i . 115. 31 M o s c h i n i , Guida. per l a C j t t a d i y e n e z i a , 1, p . 218. 32 Semenzato, La Scul tura , Veneta , p . 139. 33 B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a , . p . 267. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the church and t h e s c u l p t u r e s , -..(the. i n t e r i o r 1 , see p i . 193. 108 3 4 L o r e n z e t t i , " M o d e l l i e B o z z e t t i " , pp. 231T232. 35 GluliLo Lo'r.eh'zet't£-, -.-.•''D.'^Uri-••Gtfppp:' di'. Bozzetti- d i Gia,n: ^Maria, M o r l a i t e r " , Dedalo , XI ( J u l y , 1931), p . 1000. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n , see p . 999, 36 Wit tkower , A r t and Archi tec t rure : i n I t a l y , p . 300, p i . 171a. 37 See Semenzato, La Seul tu re Veneta,. p i . 199. 38 I b i d . . , p i . 206 and 207. 39 Wit tkower , A r t and. A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y , p . 300 , P L 171b. 4 0 Ibid... 41 I b i d . 42 Semenzato, La Scu t tu r a Veneta , p . 138. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n see L o r e n z e t t i , "D'Un Guippo d i B o z z e t t i " , pp. 996 and 997. 43 Semenzato (La S c u l t u r a Vene ta , p . 63) , compares him w i t h both Francesco Guard i and P i t t o n i . He has a l s o been compared;to P i a z z e t t a a n d ' B e r n i n i (See B o s i s i o , S.,  Mar i a d e l Ro s a r i o , p . 33) but i t would seem b e t t e r to compare him w i t h on ly one f i g u r e , the bes t be ing G u a r d i , s i nce c e r t a i n Baroque tendencies are c a r r i e d on i n the l a t t e r ' s work. Th i s chapter w i l l p o i n t out s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two a r t i s t s t ha t are most r e l e v a n t . 44 Semenzato, La S c u l t u r a Vene ta , p . 63. 109 ' NOTES • CONCLUSION. 1 L o r e n z e t t i , Venice and' i t s - Lagoon, ,pp. 533-535. 2 M o s c h i n i , " G i o r g i o Massa r i " . , p . 204.. 3 L o r e n z e t t i , Ven ice and 1 1 s : Lagoon, pp. 533-535. 4 T e r l s i o P i g n a t t i , V e n i c e , trans-. By J u d i t h Landry CNew York ! H o l t , R ineha r t and Wins ton , The . , 1 9 7 l ) p . 2 2 4 . ' 5 M o s c h i n i , " G i o r g i o M a s s a r i " , p . 2 04. 6 George Knox i n conve r sa t i on w i t h the Author . 7 P i g n a t t i , V e n i c e , p . 223. 8 P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and - E igh teen th-Century Vene t i an P a i n t i n g " , p . 12. 9 H a s k e l l , Pat rons and P a i n t e r s , p . 268. 10 . I b i d . , p . 273. 11 I b i d . , p . 272. 12 L o r e n z e t t i , Venice and i t s Lagoon, pp. 533-535. 13 H a s k e l l , Patrons and P a i n t e r s , . p . 273. 14 M o s c h i n i , Guida per l a C i t t a d i V e n e z i a , I , p . 218. 15 Waterhouse,- I t a l i a n Baroque P a i n t i n g , p i . 63. 16 P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and Eigh teen th-Century Vene t i an P a i n t i n g " , p . 19. 17 Honour, Guide t o V e n i c e , p . 151. 18. P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and Eigh teen th-Century Vene t i an P a i n t i n g " , p . 12. 19 L o r e n z e t t i , Ven ice a n d ' I t s Lagoon, pp. 343 and 815. 20 John, The Popes, pp. 350-351 and P a s t o r , H i s t o r y o f the Popes, XXXIV, p . 165, 21 P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and EighteenthTCentury V e n e t i a n P a i n t i n g " , p . 16. 110 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackerman, James S. P a l l a d i o , . , Harmondsworth, England; Penguin Books, 1966. 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C h r i s t and the Samari tan . G e s u a t i . 154 156 F i g , 41 . Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . M i r a c l e of the Hea l ing o f the B l i n d Man. G e s u a t i . Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . S t . Pe te r Walking on the Water. G e s u a t i . F i g . 43. Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . M i r a c l e of the P a r a l y t i c . G e s u a t i . Gian Mar i a M o r l a i t e r . The Cen tu r ion P l ead ing f o r the Hea l th o f h i s Servant . G e s u a t i . 

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