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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Church of the Gesuati in Venice O'Kelly, John Brian 1972

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THE CHURCH OF THE GESUATI IN VENICE by John B r i a n B.A.,  0'Kelly  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE" OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f FINE ARTS  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standards:  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 197 2  In  presenting  this  an advanced degree the I  Library  further  for  shall  agree  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  of  at  University  of  Columbia,  the  make  it  free1y  avai1 a b l e  that permission for  his  of  this  representatives. thesis  for  It  financial  of  Eine  gain  Arts  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Da  te  July,  1972.  by  the  shall  not  requirements  reference copying o f  Head o f  i s u n d e r s t o o d that  written permission.  Department  for  extensive  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d  by  British  the  I  agree  and this  be a l l o w e d  that  study. thesis  my Department  copying or  for  or  publication  w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT The purpose, o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine i n d e t a i l  one  eighteenth-century Venetian church, Sta. Maria d e l Rosario, as i t i s commonly known, the G e s u a t i .  The c h u r c h p r o v i d e s  i d e a l example i n the s t u d y . o f V e n e t i a n a r t , i t s architecture  and d e c o r a t i o n s  or, an  not o n l y because  are e n t i r e l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n -  t u r y , but a l s o because i t r e p r e s e n t s the work o f the  finest  r  a r t i s t s o f the t i m e .  The e n t i r e c h u r c h was d e s i g n e d by G i o r g i o  M a s s a r i and e v e r y f i g u r e and b a s - r e l i e f  scene i n the  interior  was made by G i a n M a r i a M o r l a i t e r . _ The p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n s ,  too,  are examples o f the work by the l e a d i n g a r t i s t s i n V e n i c e . A l t a r p i e c e s here are the work o f G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o , Giambattista Piazzetta, coes,  and S e b a s t i a n o  Ricci.  Four m a g n i f i c e n t  the work o f T i e p o l o as w e l l , adorn the An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the G e s u a t i o f f e r s  nature of r e l i g i o u s a r t  i n Venice.  fres-  ceiling.  an i n s i g h t i n t o  The t r a d i t i o n a l  the  preconcep-  t i o n o f e i g h t e e n t h s - c e n t u r y V e n i c e i s t h a t i t was a c o m p l e t e l y d e c a d e n t , v a i n w o r l d o f gay c a r n i v a l s , and t h a t i t was a tourist's  paradise,  where masks h i d the i d e n t i t y o f the  and i m p r e s s i o n s o f the c i t y were t o be c a p t u r e d  i n views  people, paint-  ed by C a n a l e t t o . To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , the mood o f t h i s c o l o u r f u l w o r l d i s found i n r e l i g i o u s a r t .  The l i g h t , P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h o f  G e s u a t i houses e l e g a n t b a s - r e l i e f C h r i s t and s c u l p t u r e s of the p a i n t i n g s  the  scenes d e p i c t i n g the l i f e o f  of O l d and New Testament f i g u r e s .  "breathe'' w i t h space and l i g h t .  Bright  Many  1 1  c o l o u r s and p l a y f u l p u t t i c r e a t e the l i g h t mood of the Rococo. However, there i s , i n one a l t a r p i e c e by P i a z z e t t a , a comp l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t mood.  In h i s p a i n t i n g , . P i e z z e t t a d e p i c t s h i s  f i g u r e s i n a r e l i g i o u s m y s t i c a l experience. c e r t a i n extent,  a l s o conveyed i n T i e p o l o ' s a l t a r p i e c e .  In i c o n o g r a p h i c a l terms, the G e s u a t i serious.  T h i s mood i s , t o a  d e c o r a t i o n s are  R e l i g i o n does p l a y an important r o l e  century Venice.  The Gesuati  in.eighteenth-  i s a Dominican church, and the  Dominicans i n Venice had a l r e a d y , by the e i g h t e e n t h  century,  been commissioning r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g s and s c u l p t u r e s f o r many hundreds o f y e a r s .  The p a i n t i n g s i n the G e s u a t i  r e p r e s e n t the  g l o r y o f t h e Dominican Order and the f i g u r e s t h a t played an. important p a r t i n i t s long h i s t o r y ; the v i c t o r y of f a i t h .  the s c u l p t u r e s  symbolize  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION  ..,;,  1  CHAPTER I  The S a i n t s R e p r e s e n t e d i n the G e s u a t i . .  3  CHAPTER I I  The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f the G e s u a t i and R e l a t e d Churches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16  CHAPTER I I I  The P a i n t e d D e c o r a t i o n s  32  CHAPTER IV  The S c u l p t u r a l Programme  65  i  CONCLUSION NOTES  85 ;...  BIBLIOGRAPHY; ILLUSTRATIONS  ...............  92 .  ........  110 116 •  iv  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure  Page  1  Giuseppe S a r d i ( c . 1621-1699). S. L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t ! .  116  2  Giuseppe S a r d i . Church o f the S c a l z i .  117  3  Domenico R o s s i S. S t a e .  118  4  Andrea T i r a l i (1657-1737). S. N i c o l o da, T o l e n t i n o .  119  5  Andrea T i r a l i . S. V i d a l .  12°  6  Giovanni S c a l f a r o t t o S. Simeone P i c c o l o .  7  A t t r i b . G i a n A n t o n i o G u a r d i (1699-1760). View o f t h e Z a t t e r e ; B e r l i n - D a h l e m , Museen.  8  View o f the Church o f the Dominican F a t h e r s a t the Z a t t e r e . E n g r a v i n g from the 1740 e d i t i o n o f the F o r e s t i e r e T l l u m i n a t o (showing a l s o , a t t h e l e f t , S. G e r o l a m o ) .  9  G i o r g i o M a s s a r i (1687-1766). Church o f the G e s u a t i Facade.  (1657-1737).  (c. 1690-1764).  121 122  123  124  >  10  L o r e n z o B o s c h e t t i ( a c t i v e 1749-1776) .. S. B a r n a b a . •  i  11  P l a n o f the Church and Monastery o f the Gesuati.  126  12  Giorgio Massari. Church o f the G e s u a t i -  127  13  S e b a s t i a n o R i c c i (.1659-1734) . S a i n t s Thomas A q u i n a s , P i u s V , and Pet e r r M a r t y r . Gesuati.  14  G i a m b a t t i s t a p i a z z e t t a (1683-1754). S a i n t s V i n c e n t F e r r e r , H y a c i n t h , and Louis Berbrand. Gesuati.  Interior.  2  5  128  1 2  g  G i a m b a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a and-Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r (c. 1699-1781). S t . Dominic and The G l o r y o f A n g e l s . G e s u a t i . G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o (1696-1770). I n s t i t u t i n g the R o s a r y . Gesuati.  S t . Dominic  F r a n c e s c o L o r e n z i (1723-1787). Drawing o f , S t . Dominic I n s t i t u t i n g the R o s a r y , The A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o , C h a r l e s D e e r i n g Coll. Giambattista Tiepolo. The V i r g i n H e a r i n g the P r a y e r s o f S t . Dominic. Gesuati. Giambattista Tiepolo. The.Glory o f . S t . . D o m i n i c .  Gesuati.  Giambattista Tiepolo. The A n g e l A p p e a r i n g t o D a v i d .  Gesuati.  Francesco L o r e n z i . Drawing o f The©Angel A p p e a r i n g t o . D a v i d . V e r o n a , MusSo d i C a s t e i v e c c h i o . Giambattista Tiepolo. Madonna w i t h S a i n t s Rose, C a t h e r i n e o f S i e n a , and.Agnes o f M o n t e p u l c i a n o . Gesuati. :  A t t r i b . F r a n c e s c o Zugno (1708 or 1709-1787) . The B i r t h o f C h r i s t (centre).. The V i s i t a t i o n ( l e f t ) , The P r e s e n t a t i o n o f C h r i s t i n the Temple ( r i g h t ) . Gesuati. A t t r i b . F r a n c e s c o Zugno. The S c o u r g i n g o f C h r i s t ( c e n t r e ) , The Agony i n the Garden ( l e f t ) . Gesuati. A t t r i b . F r a n c e s c o Zugno. C h r i s t C a r r y i n g the C r o s s . Giambattista Piazzetta. The G l o r y o f S t . D o m i n i c . SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o . Gaetano F u s a l i . Prudence. Gesuati.  Gesuati.  vi Figure  Page  28  F r a n c e s c o Bonazza ( a c t i v e 1729-1770). Justice. Gesuati.  143  29  Giuseppe T o r r e t t i . Fortitude. Gesuati.  144  30  Alvise Tagliapietra ( a c t i v e 1708 - b e f o r e Temperance. Gesuati.  31.  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . Moses. Gesuati.  146  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . Aaron. Gesuati.  147  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . St.. P a u l . G e s u a t i .  148  32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . St. Peter. Gesuati.  .-  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . Me1chi s edec h . G e s u a t i .  150  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . Abraham. G e s u a t i .  151  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . C h r i s t and: the: Magdalene.  Gesuati.  152  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . C h r i s t and the S a m a r i t a n .  Gesuati.  153  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . I n c r e d u l i t y o f S t . Thomas.  Gesuati..  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . B a p t i s m o f . Christ.-• G e s u a t i .  42  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . St.- P e t e r W a l k i n g on the Water. Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . M i r a c l e o f the P a r a l y t i c .  154 '  Fian Maria M o r l a i t e r . M i r a c l e o f the H e a l i n g o f the B l i n d Man. Gesuati.  44  14 5  149  41  43  1760).  155 156  Gesuati.  Gesuati  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . The C e n t u r i o n P l e a d i n g f o r the H e a l t h o f h i s .Servant. Gesuati.  158 159  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I would l i k e t o acknowledge my i n d e b t e d n e s s D r . George Knox who suggested  to  the t o p i c o f t h i s t h e s i s  and  whose a d v i c e t h r o u g h o u t the. y e a r h e l p e d me g r e a t l y . I would a l s o l i k e t o extend s p e c i a l thanks Dr. Graham Smith who o f f e r e d me many h e l p f u l  to  suggestions  r e g a r d i n g the i c o n o g r a p h y o f the s c u l p t u r a l programme o f the G e s u a t i .  INTRODUCTION The c h u r c h o f Santa M a r i a d e l R o s a r i o , commonly known as the G e s u a t i / can be used as an example f o r an a n a l y s i s o f ious art  i n eighteenth-century Venice.  The c h u r c h d i s p l a y s work  by the l e a d i n g a r t i s t s o f the t i m e - G i o r g i o M a s s a r i , the t e c t , G i a n M a r i a M o r l a i t e r , who was r e s p o n s i b l e sculpture  pieces,  for a l l  i n the i n t e r i o r o f the c h u r c h , and t h r e e  Sebastiano  relig-  archi-  the  painters,  R i c c i and G i a m b a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a , who p a i n t e d  and G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o , who, i n a d d i t i o n t o  altar-  painting 1  one a l t a r p i e c e ,  r e c e i v e d , the commission t o d e c o r a t e the  R u s k i n , i n h i s f i r s t e d i t i o n o f The Stones o f V e n i c e , the c h u r c h i n h i s " V e n e t i a n I n d e x " ,  ceiling. lists  but q u i c k l y d i s m i s s e s  it  as  2  b e i n g " o f no i m p o r t a n c e " . judgment,  The c h u r c h , r e g a r d l e s s o f R u s k i n s 1  i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t because i t i s a complete example o f  eighteenth-century Venetian art, sculptures,  t h a t i s , the  and p a i n t i n g s were a l l executed  architecture,  i n one c e n t u r y by  3  the l e a d i n g V e n e t i a n  artists.  The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c h u r c h o f f e r s s i g h t i n t o the n a t u r e , not o n l y o f r e l i g i o u s a r t  an i n -  i n general,  but a l s o o f Dominican a r t and the importance o f the  religious  4  Orders i n V e n i c e .  The Dominican Order had had a w e l l - e s t a b -  lished; h i s t o r y i n Venetian art Paolo, which represents a r t  i n the c h u r c h o f S S . , G i o v a n n i e  i n V e n i c e from the  thirteenth  5  c e n t u r y up u n t i l the e i g h t e e n t h .  The G e s u a t i o f f e r s  completely  e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y example o f Dominican i c o n o g r a p h y and shows  2 The c o n t i n u i n g importance 6 time.  of the Dominicans i n Venice a t t h i s  In a d d i t i o n t o understanding iconography,  something about Dominican  we can, from a. study o f the G e s u a t i , observe the  nature o f l a t e P a l l a d i a n i s m i n Venice and Massari's p l a c e i n 7  r e l a t i o n t o other e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a r c h i t e c t s .  An examin-  a t i o n o f the p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n s allows us t o make some e v a l u a t i o n o f the nature of Venetian Rococo and R i c c i s T i e p o l o s , and P i a z z e t t a ' s r e a c t i o n , acceptance,. m o d i f i c a t i o n , or r e j e c t i o n 1  1  8  of i t .  F i n a l l y , the G e s u a t i o f f e r s an i n s i g h t i n t o the v a r i e d  Rococo s t y l e s o f M o r l a i t e r . -  In comparing the works o f a r t i n  the G e s u a t i t o each other and t o r e l a t e d works of the p e r i o d , we can a r r i v e a t a c o n c l u s i o n concerning the nature of a r t i n Venice i n the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y .  CHAPTER I THE SAINTS REPRESENTED IN THE GESUATI. The Church o f the G e s u a t i c o n t a i n s t h r e e and t h r e e c e i l i n g f r e s c o e s  altarpieces  which d e p i c t Dominican s a i n t s .  t h i s c h u r c h are an a l t a r p i e c e  by G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o o f  Catherine of Siena, Rose.of Lima,  In Saints  and. Agnes, an a l t a r p i e c e  by  S e b a s t i a n o R i c c i o f S a i n t s P i u s V , Thomas, and P e t e r M a r t y r , a n a l t a r p i e c e by G i a m b a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a o f S a i n t s V i n c e n t F e r r e r , H y a c i n t h , and L o u i s B e r t r a n d , and c e i l i n g f r e s c o e s 1 t i s t a Tiepolo of S t . Dominic.  by Giambat-  There, painted decorations  the G e s u a t i i n t o a monument commemorating the g l o r y o f  make  the  Dominican Order and the fame o f the f i g u r e s who p l a y e d a l e a d i n g 2 role i n i t s history.  Therefore,  i t i s worthwhile to b r i e f l y  o u t l i n e the l i v e s o f the s a i n t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the S t . Dominic ( c . 1170-1221)  paintings.  was born i n the kingdom o f '  3  C a s t i l e , at C a l a r o g a i n the d i o c e s e o f Osma. Legend t e l l s t h a t when the young Dominic was b e i n g b a p t i z e d h i s godmother saw 4 a s t a r come down from heaven and r e s t upon h i s f o r e h e a d . This s t a r was t o become t h e t r a d i t i o n a l symbol f o r S t . Dominic i n 5 paintings. F o r seven y e a r s he s t u d i e d under the a r c h p r i e s t , and,, i n 1184, D o m i n i c , a l r e a d y a s e r i o u s and devoted s t u d e n t , e n t e r e d the U n i v e r s i t y o f P a l e n c i a , where he s t u d i e d f o r 6 years. Dominic was s t i l l  ten,  a s t u d e n t a t the U n i v e r s i t y when the  B i s h o p o f Osma, Don M a r t i n de B a z a n , c a l l e d him t o the  cathedral  4  chapter.  He soon, became s u b - p r i o r and, i n 1201, when Don Diego  d'Azevedo became B i s h o p o f Osm<a, Dominic became p r i o r o f chapter.  the  I n 1203, the King o f C a s t i l e , A l f o n s o I X , asked Diego  t o go t o F r a n c e t o n e g o t i a t e a m a r r i a g e between P r i n c e F e r d i n a n d , the k i n g ' s , s o n , and the daughter o f the Count de l a Marche. 7  Diego asked Dominic t o accompany him on t h i s  journey.  When t h e y passed t h r o u g h T o u l o u s e , they saw how the p r e a c h i n g s o f the A l b i g e n s e s , a h e r e t i c a l group o f t h a t p e r i o d , 8"  had  spread t h r o u g h o u t the a r e a .  A l b i g e n s e s was the terms used  i n s o u t h e r n F r a n c e t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e C a t h a r i , a group which b e l i e v e d i n two d e i t i e s  God and S a t a n .  They p r o f e s s e d t h a t God  was the C r e a t o r and R u l e r o f the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , w h i l e Satan was the c r e a t o r and r u l e r o f the m a t e r i a l w o r l d . two c l a s s e s o f C a t h a r i - the P e r f e c t i , an e x t r e m e l y a s c e t i c l i f e ,  There were  who were o b l i g e d t o l e a d  and the C r e d e n t e s , who c o u l d ,  unlike  the P e r f e c t i , m a r r y , . e a t meat, and h o l d p r o p e r t y , but who were o b l i g e d t o renounce any l o y a l t y to. the C a t h o l i c Church and t o 9  become P e r f e c t i b e f o r e t h e y d i e d . When Pope Innocent I I I became Pope, he s e t about d e a l i n g w i t h the s p r e a d i n g h e r e s y , f i r s t by s e n d i n g p r e a c h e r s  into  the r e g i o n under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e Abbot o f C t t e a u x ,  sever-  al-prelates,  and a l e g a t e ,  P e t e r de C a s t e l n a u .  The p r e a c h e r s  were i n e f f e c t i v e and the l e g a t e was u n a b l e ' t o persuade l o r d s o f the r e g i o n t o become concerned w i t h the i s s u e .  the The  major r u l e r o f the a r e a , the count o f T o u l o u s e , Raymond V I , r e fused t o d e a l w i t h the  heretics.  5  Innocent,  by the y e a r 1204, was b e g i n n i n g t o c o n s i d e r  the use o f f o r c e a g a i n s t the h e r e t i c s . o b t a i n s o l d i e r s , a c r i s i s had a r i s e n .  W h i l e he was t r y i n g t o In 1207, the l e g a t e  de C a s t e l n a u excommunicated Raymond a n d , i n the year 1208, l e g a t e was a s s a s s i n a t e d  by one o f the c o u n t ' s s q u i r e s .  Peter the  Inno-  cent I I I c o n f i r m e d the excommunication and r e l e a s e d Raymond's subjects  from t h e i r o a t h s o f f e a l t y .  A t e r r i b l e "crusade"  fol-  lowed, and on J u l y 2 1 , 1209, the town o f B e z i e r s was t a k e n and the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n , C a t h o l i c as w e l l as Catharanv:,- was massacred.  Then, under the l e a d e r s h i p o f Simon de M o n t f o r t , the  c o n q u e r i n g o f a l l the c o u n t y ^ o f T o u l o u s e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f o n l y two towns, was e f f e c t e d by the y e a r 1212. E i g h t y e a r s b e f o r e , D i e g o d ' A z e v e d o and S t . Dominic had set out f o r Rome where Diego had p l a n n e d t o r e s i g n as B i s h o p i n o r d e r t o devote, h i s time t r a v e l l i n g f r e e l y , ' c o n v e r t i n g the heretics.  A t t h i s t i m e , Innocent thought t h a t Diego and Dominic 11 s h o u l d i n s t e a d work w i t h the C i s t e r c i a n s i n lianguedoc. I n 1206, Dominic had a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a t P r o u i l l e a 12 conyent f o r women who had been c o n v e r t e d .  According to B u t l e r ,  Dominic p l a y e d no p a r t i n the m i l i t a r y f o r c e used i n s i n g the h e r e t i c s .  Instead,  he i s r e p o r t e d t o have s a i d : "The  enemies o f the f a i t h cannot be overcome l i k e t h a t . . w i t h p r a y e r , r a t h e r t h a n a sword; 13 fine  suppres-  Arm y o u r s e l f  wear h u m i l i t y r a t h e r  than  clothes". I n 1214, Dominic went t o Toulouse and began, t o o r g a n i z e  h i s f o l l o w e r s , and i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , B i s h o p F o u l q u e s o f  6 Toulouse " e s t a b l i s h e d the community as a r e l i g i o u s c o n g r e g a t i o n o f h i s d i o c e s e , whose m i s s i o n was p r o p a g a t i o n o f t r u e 14 d o c t r i n e and good m o r a l s , and the e x t i r p a t i o n o f  heresy".  I t was a l s o d u r i n g h i s s t a y i n Eanguedoc t h a t i t s a i d t h a t Dominic i n s t i t u t e d the r o s a r y .  The r e c i t i n g o f  by u s i n g beads had a l r e a d y been i n p r a c t i s e , who d e v i s e d an arrangement  is prayers  but i t was Dominic  o f fifteen P a t e r - n o s t e r s  and one  hundred and f i f t y A v e - M a r i a s as a d e v o t i o n t o t h e B l e s s e d V i r g i n / The r o s a r y was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a c c e p t e d by the p e o p l e , and i s s a i d t h a t D o m i n i c , by p o p u l a r i z i n g the use of the 15 made a g r e a t number o f  it  rosary,  converts.  Dominic t r a v e l l e d t o Rome i n 1216 and asked the Pope t o c o n f i r m h i s O r d e r , which was known as the Order o f P r e a c h e r s , and, on December 22 o f the same y e a r , t h e B u l l o f c o n f i r m a t i o n 16 was i s s u e d . In 1218, Dominic s e t out f o r S p a i n , where he a monastery o f the Order o f P r e a c h e r s . e x t e n s i v e l y , e s t a b l i s h i n g foundations  established  He then began t o t r a v e l at B a r c e l o n a , Toulouse,  P a r i s , M e t z , Reims, L i m o g e s , O r l e a n s , P o i t i e r s , V i t e r b o , a n d Bologna.  By r e q u e s t o f the Pope, Dominic and a number o f  l o w e r s t h e n went t o Lombardy t o b e g i n a p r e a c h i n g crusade many thousands were c o n v e r t e d . 1221 and, t h i r t e e n y e a r s l a t e r , 17 IX.  folwhere  Dominic d i e d i n Bologna i n was c a n o n i z e d by Pope Gregory  The Dominican Order became, even w i t h i n D o m i n i c ' s l i f e t i m e , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The s a i n t s d e p i c t e d i n  7 the t h r e e a l t a r p i e c e s Order.  i l l u s t r a t e the w o r l d w i d e scope o f  the  By 1225, the D o m i n i c a n s ' i n f l u e n c e extended i n t o  and R u s s i a .  Africa  By 1510, they were a l r e a d y a c t i v e i n the New World  and by the end o f the c e n t u r y , they were a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d the F a r E a s t .  in  Membership i n the Order o f P r e a c h e r s had reached  a peak i n the s e v e n t e e n t h  c e n t u r y when t h e r e were r o u g h l y  30,000 t o 40,000 f r i a r s and nuns.  In 1720, when the Order was  a l r e a d y 500 y e a r s o l d , t h e r e were 1,200 p r i o r i e s and houses 18 and 200 m o n a s t e r i e s . S t . H y a c i n t h r e p r e s e n t s the i n t e r n a t i o n a l scope o f Dominican O r d e r .  S t . H y a c i n t h (before  the  1200 - 1257) , a P o l i s h  D o m i n i c a n , became a member o f the Order when he and C e s l a u s ( e i t h e r h i s cousin or h i s brother)  accompanied t h e i r u n c l e t o  Rome t o be a p p o i n t e d B i s h o p o f Cracow.  I n Rome, they are  said  t o have seen S t . Dominic perform a m i r a c l e , r e v i v i n g a man who had been k i l l e d by a f a l l  from h i s h o r s e .  Both H y a c i n t h and  C e s l a u s e n t e r e d the Order o f P r e a c h e r s i n 1217 o r 1218.  St.  H y a c i n t h i s c r e d i t e d w i t h f o u n d i n g many c o n v e n t s , i n c l u d i n g convents i n Cracow and D a n z i g .  I t i s s a i d o f him t h a t h i s  p r e a c h i n g m i s s i o n s took him t o L i t h u a n i a , Bohemia, R u s s i a , 19 Denmark and G r e e c e .  However, B u t l e r t e l l s us t h a t a l t h o u g h  H y a c i n t h was a g r e a t m i s s i o n a r y , "the p a r t i c u l a r s o f a c h i e v e ments commonly a t t r i b u t e d  t o him u n f o r t u n a t e l y depend on b i o -  graphies t h a t are of very l i t t l e h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e " , . a l t h o u g h the f a c t remains t h a t d u r i n g H y a c i n t h ' s l i f e t i m e , the  Dominic-  ans d i d t r a v e l down t o D a n z i g and towards R u s s i a and the B a l 20 kans,  8  P e t e r o f Verona (1206 - 1252) i s a l s o an i m p o r t a n t  figure  of the Dominican Order i n the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , because he i s i t s martyr.  He a t t e n d e d  the U n i v e r s i t y o f Bologna where he  met S t . Dominic and became a member o f the Order o f P r e a c h e r s . Because of h i s a b i l i t i e s as a p r e a c h e r and h i s enthusiasm f o r h i s f a i t h , Gregory IX a p p o i n t e d him G e n e r a l I n q u i s i t o r .  He  set out t o combat h e r e s y by p r e a c h i n g i n Rome, B o l o g n a , Genoa, F l o r e n c e , and Como, where he was s u c c e s s f u l i n making many c o n 21 versions.  The s t o r y goes t h a t as he was r e t u r n i n g from Como,  he met a group o f a s s a s s i n s ,  h i r e d by two noblemen whom P e t e r  had g i v e n t o the s e c u l a r a u t h o r i t i e s t o be sentenced t o i m prisonment and c o n f i s c a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y .  One o f t h e  assassins  k i l l e d him by s t r i k i n g him on the head w i t h an axe and 22  stab-  b i n g him w i t h a sword. S t . Thomas A q u i n a s ( c . 1225-1274) i s an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e , not o n l y i n the h i s t o r y o f the Dominican O r d e r , but a l s o i n . t h e h i s t o r y o f the whole C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , as he i s one o f ,  i f not "the most i m p o r t a n t and i n f l u e n t i a l 23  t h e o l o g i a n and p h i l o s o p h e r " .  scholastic  He was t a k e n i n 1231, a t  the  age o f about s i x , t o the B e n e d i c t i n e Abbey o f Monte C a s s i n o . H i s p a r e n t s had wished t h a t e v e n t u a l l y he would become abbot of the monastery, b u t , because o f a feud between the Pope and the Emperor, t r o o p s were sent t o occupy Monte C a s s i n o i n 1239. L a t e r i n the same y e a r the abbot s e n t Thomas t o a B e n e d i c t i n e house i n N a p l e s t o f i n i s h h i s s t u d i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Naples.  By about 1243, Thomas had become i n t e r e s t e d  i n the  9 Dominican way o f l i f e .  He e n t e r e d . t h e p r i o r y o f San Domenico  i n Naples and r e c e i v e d the h a b i t i n 1244. . In 1248, Thomas went t o Cologne where he s t u d i e d under A l b e r t the G r e a t .  St.  In 1252, A l b e r t recommended Thomas t o go t o  P a r i s to take h i s d o c t o r a t e .  A t P a r i s , t h e r e had been a feud  between mendicant and s e c u l a r m a s t e r s a t the u n i v e r s i t y . ous o f the p o p u l a r i t y o f the m e n d i c a n t s ,  Jeal-  secular master, W i l l i a m  o f S a i n t - A m o u r , wrote an a t t a c k on the mendicant o r d e r , "De 25 p e r i c u l i s novissimorum temporum".. A g a i n s t t h i s book, Thomas wrote a defense o f the r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s , " C o n t r a impugnantes 26 religionem". However, Thomas's most famous w r i t i n g s are h i s two summae - the  "Summa c o n t r a g e n t i l e s " , which was a s y n t h e s i s t o be  used f o r D o m i n i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s i n S p a i n t o defend the and the  "Summa t h e o l o g i a . e " , which was a t h e o l o g i c a l  faith,.  synthesis  which was t o r e p l a c e c o n v e n t i o n a l s y n t h e s e s f o r t h e o l o g y  stu27  dents.  H i s Summa was remarkable f o r i t s s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h . Thomas was c a n o n i z e d i n 1323 and, i n 1344, Pope Clement  VI p r a i s e d the Dominican Order f o r p r o d u c i n g S t . Thomas, and, v  i n 1346, t o l d a Dominican g e n e r a l c h a p t e r t h a t they s h o u l d a l 28 ways.conform t o A q u i n a s ' s d o c t r i n e . S t . Thomas was d e c l a r e d 29 a D o c t o r o f the Church by Pope P i u s V • Pope P a u l V p r a i s e d him as "the defender of the C a t h o l i c Church and conqueror o f 30 . heretics", and, i n 1724, Pope B e n e d i c t X I I I d e c l a r e d t h a t the 31 d o c t r i n e o f Thomas was the " s u r e s t r u l e o f C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e " . S t . Agnes ( c  1268-1317), though born l e s s than  fifty  10 years after  Thomas A q u i n a s ,  series of saints  32  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  f i g u r e i n the  r e p r e s e n t e d i n the G e s u a t i p a i n t i n g s , 33  she was c a n o n i z e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h  century.  because  A g n e s , the  r o n e s s o f M o n t e p u l c i a n o , a t the age o f n i n e j o i n e d the  pat-  re-  l i g i o u s community o f M o n t e p u l c i a n o known as the " S i s t e r s o f the S a c k " .  When o n l y f i f t e e n ,  she accompanied a nun t o Proceno  where a new convent was t o be founded.  Agnes soon was  elected  abbess o f the new c o n v e n t , but the people o f M o n t e p u l c i a n o , w a n t i n g her t o come b a c k , o f f e r e d t o b u i l d a c o n v e n t .  In 1306,  she was a p p o i n t e d p r i o r e s s o f t h i s new convent and p l a c e d i t Dominican p a t r o n a g e .  I t i s s a i d o f her t h a t she was famous  under for  her good a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s and f o r her m i r a c l e s , which 34 she o f t e n performed t o p r o v i d e f o r the s i s t e r s . She was c a n 35 o n i z e d by P o p e . B e n e d i c t X I I I on 10 December 1726, so when the T i e p o l o p a i n t i n g was mentioned i n the F o r e s t i e r e I l l u m i n a t o o f 36 1740,  Agnes had been a c a n o n i z e d s a i n t f o r o n l y  fourteen  years. The next t h r e e s a i n t s ,  C a t h e r i n e , V i n c e n t rand P i u s V , a r e  i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e s i n the h i s t o r y o f the Dominican Order b e cause o f t h e i r r o l e i n some o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the Church - the S c h i s m , the T u r k i s h t h r e a t t o the  " B a b y l o n i a n C a p t i v i t y " and 37 •.  the  Mediterranean.  C a t h e r i n e of S i e n a (1347-1380)  became one o f the D o m i n i -  can T e r t i a r i e s i n 1363, but' a few y e a r s l a t e r , and e n t e r e d p u b l i c l i f e  l e f t her  i n o r d e r t o do something about  p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f the t i m e .  War had broken out  cell the  between  11 F l o r e n c e and the Holy See.  The F l o r e n t i n e s , w a n t i n g to'make a  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , chose C a t h e r i n e as an ambassadress and m e d i a t o r . She l e f t f o r A v i g n o n , a t t h a t time the r e s i d e n c e o f the Pope, Gregory X I .  The Pope gave her the t a s k o f d i c t a t i n g the terms 38  of peace w i t h F l o r e n c e .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the F l o r e n t i n e am-  bassadors d i s c l a i m e d her and, because the P o p e ' s peace terms were too s t e r n ,  peace was not e s t a b l i s h e d .  to A v i g n o n was not u n s u c c e s s f u l . would be i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s  However,-her journey  She had b e l i e v e d t h a t  it  i f the Pope l e f t A v i g n o n and r e -  s i d e d i n Rome, and she had a l r e a d y sent Gregory l e t t e r s u r g i n g h i s d e p a r t u r e from the F r e n c h c i t y . , , Gregory d e c i d e d t o go t o 39 Rome, and i n September 1376, l e f t A v i g n o n . January,  I t was not  until  1377 t h a t the Pope f i n a l l y reached Rome and he d i e d  i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r .  Finally,  irt August 1378, d u r i n g the  r e i g n o f G r e g o r y ' s s u c c e s s o r U r b a n V I , peace was e s t a b l i s h e d between the Papacy and F l o r e n c e .  I t was a l s o i n the same year  t h a t the G r e a t Schism had b r o k e n ' o u t ,  a time when t h e r e were  two Popes, each w i t h h i s s u p p o r t e r s . '  I t was C a t h e r i n e who  chose t o l i v e iwiRome and devote her energy t o s u p p o r t i n g  the 40  cause o f Urban V I , w r i t i n g l e t t e r s t o w i n him s u p p o r t e r s . St. Vincent Ferrer O r d e r - i n 1368.  (1350-1419)  e n t e r e d the Dominican  I n 1379 he was a p p o i n t e d p r i o r o f the  o f V a l e n c i a , where he remained u n t i l 1384.  convent  Vincent Ferrer  be-  came i n v o l v e d w i t h the i s s u e s o f the G r e a t S c h i s m . . He s u p p o r t ed the cause o f Clement V I I , the Avignonese c l a i m a n t t o Papacy, and r i v a l o f Urban V I .  the  Although Catherine of Siena  12 had supported  Urban V I , V i n c e n t F e r r e r ,  d u r i n g the y e a r s 1390-  1394, t r i e d t o pursuade the c l e r g y , n o b i l i t y , and c i t i z e n s o f the I b e r i a n p e n i n s u l a t o s u p p o r t Clement because, he b e l i e v e d , because o f the p r e s s u r e s i n v o l v e d , the e l e c t i o n o f Urban V I ok 41 s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  invalid.  When Clement d i e d i n 1394, h i s s u c c e s s o r B e n e d i c t X I T I c a l l e d Vincent to Avignon.  V i n c e n t had hoped t o b r i n g  the  Schism to an end and had wished t h a t B e n e d i c t would a r r a n g e w i t h h i s Roman r i v a l f o r a double r e s i g n a t i o n 42 m i t the e l e c t i o n o f an u n d i s p u t e d However, at t h i s t i m e ,  i n order  to  per-  Pope.  i t i s s a i d t h a t V i n c e n t saw a  v i s i o n i n w h i c h C h r i s t , accompanied by S t . Dominic and  St.  F r a n c i s , t o l d him t o t r a v e l around the w o r l d p r e a c h i n g .  Vincent  obeyed, "and f o r the n e x t twenty y e a r s , he preached i n Lombardy, n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n F r a n c e , the Low C o u n t r i e s , S w i t z e r l a n d , 43 and i n S p a i n , where he i s c r e d i t e d w i t h h a v i n g c o n v e r t e d 44 8,000 moors. A l t h o u g h he s p e n t . h i s l i f e p r e a c h i n g , the t r o u b l e s o f the S c h i s m .  he s t i l l  remembered  In 1408, and a g a i n i n 1415,  t r i e d t o c o n v i n c e B e n e d i c t t h a t , i n the  he  i n t e r e s t s of u n i t y ,  he  should r e s i g n . V i n c e n t . t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r a t h i r d time and t h e n d e d i c e d t o withdraw h i s s u p p o r t f o r the Avignonese 45 Pope.  K i n g F e r d i n a n d o f C a s t i l e and Aragon asked V i n c e n t t o  g i v e him h i s o p i n i o n on the papacy q u e s t i o n .  The s a i n t  replied  t h a t because B e n e d i c t was impeding the u n i o n w h i c h was n e c e s s a r y f o r the C h u r c h , the people s h o u l d withdraw t h e i r 46 iance to him.  alleg-  13 Pope P i u s V (1504-157 2) was educated by the Dominicans o f Voghera and i n 152 8, became a member o f the O r d e r . Pope P a u l IV a p p o i n t e d him B i s h o p o f S u t r i .  I n 1556  He became famous  as a f e r v e n t a t t a c k e r o f h e r e s y and was s e l e c t e d as I n q u i s i t o r o f t h e F a i t h i n M i l a n and Lombardy, and i n 1557, he was app o i n t e d I n q u i s i t o r G e n e r a l f o r a l l C h r i s t e n d o m as w e l l as b e i n g a p p o i n t e d a c a r d i n a l . When P i u s IV d i e d , P i u s V succeeded him 47 as Pop;e-• A major t a s k he undertook was the u n i t i n g o f the C h r i s t i a n p r i n c e s a g a i n s t the Turks© 48 tacked Cyprus.  In 1570, Solyman I I  at-  The M e d i t e r r a n e a n was i n g r e a t danger o f b e -  coming a T u r k i s h s e a .  P i u s formed an a l l i a n c e between the Holy  See and V e n i c e and S p a i n .  A f l e e t under the command o f Don  John o f A u s t r i a met the T u r k i s h f l e e t a t ilepantp on 7 October 1571. A tremendous v i c t o r y was won i n f a v o u r o f Don J o h n ' s 49 fleet. On the day o f the b a t t l e he was busy w o r k i n g w i t h the c a r d i n a l s when suddenly he c r i e d o u t :  "a t r u c e t o  business;  our g r e a t t a s k a t p r e s e n t  i s t o thank God f o r the v i c t o r y w h i c h 50 He has j u s t g i v e n the C h r i s t i a n army". He became overcome  w i t h emotion when he was t o l d t h a t i n f a c t a g r e a t v i c t o r y had been won.  The Pope a t t r i b u t e d the C h r i s t i a n t r i u m p h t o  i n t e r c e s s i o n o f the B l e s s e d V i r g i n , - a n d t o commemorate  the the  v i c t o r y , he d e s i g n a t e d the f i r s t Sunday i n October as the of the R o s a r y .  Feast 51 He was c a n o n i z e d by Pope Clement X I i n 1712,  so when R i c c i r e p r e s e n t e d 52 i n about 1732,  him i n the a l t a r p i e c e i n the G e s u a t i  he had been a c a n o n i z e d s a i n t f o r o n l y twenty  years. S t . L o u i s B e r t r a n d (1526-1581) a contemporary o f P i u s V ,  14 was born i n V a l e n c i a , and was b a p t i z e d . a t Vincent Ferrer.  He was, i n f a c t , 53  father's side. c i a i n 1544.  ;  t h e same f o n t as  St.  r e l a t e d t o V i n c e n t on h i s •'  L o u i s e n t e r e d the Dominican convent i n V a l e n He•spent much o f h i s l i f e as master o f n o v i c e s ,  h i s f i r s t , p o s i t i o n b e i n g i n V a l e n c i a from 1553 t o 1555.  When  the plague h i t V a l e n c i a i n 1557, he devoted h i s time t o c a r i n g f o r the s i c k . H i s p r e a c h i n g was famous at the t i m e , and p e o p l e . used to crowd i n t o the c a t h e d r a l , and l a t e r , when t h e numbers 54 i n c r e a s e d , i n t o p u b l i c s q u a r e s , t o hear him speak. From 1562 t o 1 5 6 9 , . h e s e r v e d as a m i s s i o n a r y i n A m e r i c a , w o r k i n g i n New Granada  (.which i s a s e c t i o n o f N o r t h w e s t e r n South A m e r i c a ) .  a l s o preached i n Panama, the Leeward I s l a n d s , Virgin Islands,  He  S. Thome i n the  and S. V i n c e n t e i n the Windwards, and because  of h i s p r e a c h i n g a b i l i t y , many thousands are s a i d t o have.been 55 baptized. I n 1569, he was a p p o i n t e d p r i o r o f the convent o f San Onofre i n h i s n a t i v e S p a i n , and l a t e r ,  he became p r i o r and  master o f n o v i c e s i n the convent o f V a l e n c i a .  He-was c a n o n i z e d  i n 1671 and, i n 1690, was named p a t r o n o f the New Kingdom o f 56 Granada. S t . Rose o f Lima  (1586-1617),  as a c h i l d had always want-  ed t o e n t e r a c l o i s t e r , but t h i s w i s h was d e n i e d , so she r e m a i n ed, a t home.  A t the age o f 20, Rose j o i n e d the Dominican T e r -  t i a r i e s , w h i c h would a l l o w her t o l i v e a t home.  There,  she  c o n v e r t e d one room i n t o a s m a l l i n f i r m a r y , where she took c a r e o f d e s t i t u t e c h i l d r e n and i n f i r m e l d e r l y .  She became w e l l -  known and admired among the r i c h and poor a l i k e i n L i m a , who b e l i e v e d t h a t she had saved them from p i r a t e s .  It  i s said that  15 she p r e d i c t e d e x a c t l y the date o f her d e a t h , and had r e q u e s t e d t h a t her body be b u r i e d i n the c l o i s t e r o f S t . D o m i n i c ' s C h u r c h . When she d i e d , the crowds were so numerous t h a t the f u n e r a l t o be d e l a y e d f o r s e v e r a l d a y s . her b e a t i f i c a t i o n ,  had  I n 1668, Clement IX d e c l a r e d  and t h r e e y e a r s ^  later  she was c a n o n i z e d by  Clement X , who named her p a t r o n o f P e r u , A m e r i c a , the I n d i e s , 57 and the P h i l i p p i n e s . T h e r e f o r e , Rose, l i k e L o u i s B e r t r a n d , v  are i m p o r t a n t  :  f i g u r e s - f r o m the New W o r l d .  The s a i n t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the G e s u a t i r e p r e s e n t the t o r y of the Dominican Order from i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t present.  Two are the l e a d i n g Dominican f i g u r e s  until  histhe  from the New  W o r l d , and one i s from the r e l a t i v e l y d i s t a n t European  country,  P o l a n d , t h r e e are the Dominican f i g u r e s who were i n v o l v e d i n e x t r e m e l y s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the h i s t o r y o f the c h u r c h , i s a martyr,  another i s a famous t h e o l o g i a n ,  Dominicans r e c e n t l y  i n the c h u r c h o f the G e s u a t i  contemporary  "every  painting  ' c e l e b r a t e s the t r i u m p h and g l o r y  i t s g r e a t s a i n t s p a i n t e d i n t h r e e s by the artists,  the  canonized.  Thus, i n the words o f F r a n c i s H a s k e l l ,  o f the O r d e r ;  and two are  one  finest  a l l l e a d up t o the c l i m a x o f the c e i l i n g 58 where S t . Dominic h i m s e l f i s shown i n s t i t u t i n g the R o s a r y " .  16 • CHAPTER T I THE ARCHITECTURE. OF. THE: GESUATI. AND RELATED CHURCHES. The Church of the G e s u a t i . i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f the Neo-  P a l l a d i a n Tnovem'ent i n / V e n i c e i n the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h eighteenth centuries.  and e a r l y  G i o r g i o M a s s a r i , the a r c h i t e c t ,  has  c r e a t e d a u n i q u e c o m b i n a t i o n . o f , P a l l a d i a n elements t o produce his  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e 1  in a classical  style-. A l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r o t o t y p e f o r the s t y l e of t h e G e s u a t i i s a work, by Giuseppe S a r d i .  architectural W i t h the  fac-  ade o f the c h u r c h o f S. L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t ! ( f i g . 1 ) , a work d a t i n g from 1673, we see S a r d i e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h a t y p e e o f P a l ladiah style.  H i s i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h i s facade.comes  l a d i o ' s Church o f the  from P a l -  Zitelle.  The Church o f the Z i t e l l e s t r i k e s u s , i m m e d i a t e l y w i t h f e e l i n g of a u s t e r i t y .  It  i s s i m p l y a p l a i n temple f r o n t  h o r i z o n t a l l y by a w i d e , . heavy e n t a b l a t u r e , ing  crowned by a pediment.  front  divided  the whole facade  The r e c t a n g u l a r  shape o f the  i s framed by p a i r s o f C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s .  s e t s of t h e s e " p a i r s  the  be-  temple,  There are two  o f p i l a s t e r s , one framing the lower p a r t o f  the facade and the second framing the upper p a r t , f i n e d by the wide entabla,ture  which i s de-  below and the pediment above.  Be-  tween the p i l a s t e r s o f the upper zone i s a v e r y l a r g e t h e r m a l window, w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y dominates the a r e a .  B e l o w , we see an  arched doorway framed by s m a l l p i l a , s t e r s . and surmounted by a  17 t r i a n g u l a r pediment.  On each s i d e o f the doorway are windows.  The facade o f S. L a z z a r o i s a temple f r o n t d i v i d e d h o r i z o n t a l l y by a v e r y wide e n t a b l a t u r e , ped by a s i m p l e pediment.  the whole facade b e i n g t o p -  In the upper zone we f i n d a l a r g e  t h e r m a l window d o m i n a t i n g the c e n t r e .  However, t h e r e  number o f d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two f a c a d e s . s t i t u t e s the Z i t e l l e p i l a s t e r s from p e d e s t a l s  are,a  S a r d i sub-  f o r f o u r h a l f columns which r i s e  and break r i g h t t h r o u g h the c o r n i c e , u n l i k e the  d i v i s i o n a l p r o p e r t y o f the Z i t e l l e ' s superimposed s e t s o f asters.  pil-  T h i s b r e a k i n g o f the c o r n i c e by a s i n g l e o r d e r o f  columns can a l s o be found i n P a l l a d i o ' s Church o f S. G i o r g i o Maggiore.  S a r d i has a l s o used h i s i n i t i a t i v e i n the t r e a t m e n t  o f the windows.  W i t h the Z i t e l l e ,  one s i d e o f the p i l a s t e r s ,  the windows were p l a c e d on  but i n S... -Lazzaro, the windows are  p l a c e d between the columns t h e r e b y c a u s i n g the eye t o move from s o l i d column t o v o i d window t o . s o l i d column a g a i n . spect S a r d i has demonstrated  h i s preference i  In t h i s  re-  f o r the more r y t h -  mic movements o f form o f S. Giorofo r a t h e r than t h e more p l a n a r q u a l i t i e s o f the Z i t e l l e .  I n . S . G i o r g i o . s c u l p t u r e s are p l a c e d  between the columns and p i l a s t e r s ,  but S a r d i , w i t h h i s p l a c e -  ment o f windows, has a r r i v e d at an o r i g i n a l  approach.  A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s movement o f forms i n the facades  o f S.  G i o r g i o and S. L a z z a r o , P a l l a d i a n : m o v e m e n t i s c e r t a i n l y d i s t i n c t from Longhenesque, o r B a r o q u e . m o t i o n ; \ the d i f f e r e n c e can be n o t i c e d by comparing S. L a z z a r o w i t h S a r d i ' s facade f o r Church o f the S c a l z i  the  ( F i g . 2) , which dates' from 1672 to 1680.  18 The facade o f the S c a l z i g i v e s the eye no r e s t .  It  is  d i v i d e d i n t o two zones w h i c h are s e p a r a t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y by an e n t a b l a t u r e which s e p a r a t e s t w i n superimposed columns. s e t o f t h e s e t w i n columns shares a s i n g l e p e d e s t a l . the columns are n i c h e s w i t h s c u l p t u r e s . t a b l a t u r e protrude the n i c h e s .  Each  Between  The p e d e s t a l s and e n - .  i n o r d e r t o s e t up a complex rhythm w i t h  To make the p l a y o f . r h y t h m s even more complex,  the e x t r e m e t i e s  o f the lower p a r t o f the f a c a d e ,  at  a pilaster  is  p l a c e d b e s i d e a column, and t h e s e a r e surmounted by p e d e s t a l s supporting sculpted figures,  the e f f e c t  b e i n g a rhythm  created  at the ends o f the facade w h i c h then changes a t the main s e c tion.  H e r e , a l a r g e arched doorway i s i m i t a t e d above by a  l a r g e a r c h e d n i c h e , c o n t a i n i n g a. s c u l p t u r e , i s crowned by the  'unclassical  1  and t h i s ,  in turn,  1  motif of a l a r g e s e m i c i r c u l a r  pediment c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e main t r i a n g u l a r pediment w h i c h surmounts t h e  church.  S. ifazzaro and the S c a l z i o f f e r an e x c e l l e n t example o f the c o n f l i c t i n g s t y l e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e  of t h i s period.  tkower t e l l s us t h a t d u r i n g t h i s t i m e a r c h i t e c t s , v a c i l l a t e d between the  Wit-  like Sardi,  " e b u l l i e n t p l a s t i c i t y and c h i a r o s c u r o " 4  o f Longhena's s t y l e and the  " l i n e a r c l a s s i c i s m " o f Scamozzi  (to w h i c h we s h o u l d add the name o f P a l l a d i o h i m s e l f ; ) . The facade o f S. Stae ( F i g . 3 ) , b u i l t i n 1710 by Domenico R o s s i , also follows P a l l a d i o to a c e r t a i n extent. R o s s i ' s c h u r c h i s m o d e l l e d on S. G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e . predecessor,  In t h i s Like  S. L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t i , a b a s i c temple  case, its  front  19 i s used, but, the s i d e s .  i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case,  a d d i t i o n s are p l a c e d a t  L i k e S. G i o r g i o and S. L a z z a r o , S. Stae has  four  g r e a t composite columns, each r i s i n g from h i g h p e d e s t a l s , d e f i n e the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n , w i t h the doorway, and the i e s o f the main p a r t o f the facade I t s e l f . types,  extremit-  L i k e i t s two p r o t o -  S. Stae has a c o r n i c e , which d i v i d e s the f a c a d e ,  i s broken by the f o u r g r e a t columns. p l a c e s t h r e e s c u l p t u r e s on p e d e s t a l s the pediment o f h i s f a c a d e , G i o r g i o and S. L a z z a r o .  which  which  Domenico R o s s i a l s o a t the t h r e e c o r n e r s o f  a - d e v i c e r e m i n i s c e n t b o t h o f S.  Another s i m i l a r i t y t o S. G i o r g i o  is  the s u b t l e p l a y of rhythm between the columns on t h e i r p e d e s t a l s and the n i c h e s c o n t a i n i n g the s c u l p t u r e s .  R o s s i makes  the facade r i c h e r by the use o f b a s - r e l i e f s c u l p t u r a l scenes above the c o r n i c e s e p a r a t i n g  the n i c h e s b e l o w .  Although Rossi  d e r i v e s much i n s p i r a t i o n from the v o c a b u l a r y o f P a l l a d i o ,  he,  l i k e S a r d i , has a l l o w e d h i m s e l f t o i n d u l g e i n a Baroque e x p r e s s i o n o f freedom from ' c l a s s i c i s m ' , t h i s b e i n g c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n the t r e a t m e n t o f the doorway.  L i k e S a r d i , R o s s i frames  his  arched doorway w i t h a p a i r o f columns which are s m a l l e r than the f o u r main columns o f the f a c a d e , iment i n the Baroque s t y l e .  which s u p p o r t a broken ped-  T h i s Baroque e x p r e s s i o n o f  has been t a k e n t o the extreme,  because,  freedom  u n l i k e the pediment o f  S. L a z z a r o , R o s s i ' s c o m p l e t e l y dominates the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the f a c a d e .  The base o f the pediments r u n a t the same l e v e l  the c o r n i c e between the main volumns.  An i m p r e s s i o n o f g r e a t  r i c h n e s s o f form i s g i v e n by the a d d i t i o n o f t h r e e v e r y l a r g e  as  20 sculpted figures. facade,  R o s s i , i n h i s attempt a t a P a l l a d i a n t y p e o f  has t a k e n h i s Baroque t a s t e s even f u r t h e r  than S a r d i by  the a d d i t i o n o f s m a l l "wings" a t e i t h e r , s i d e o f t h e . m a i n o f the f a c a d e .  part  These "wings" have' not the f u n c t i o n o f the  side  pediments which frame the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the facade o f S. Giorgio.  They a r e ,  instead,  s i m p l y two d e c o r a t i v e d e v i c e s ,  each c o n s i s t i n g o f an a t t a c h e d column o f the same h e i g h t the s m a l l doorway columns.  T h i s "wing" column s u p p o r t s an e n -  t a b l a t u r e which i s the same l e v e l as the e n t a b l a t u r e the l a r g e columns on the main p a r t o f the f a c a d e . entablature  as  o f t h e s e "wings" are f r e e - s t a n d i n g  i m i t a t i n g those on the main pediment o f the  broken by  Above the  sculpted figures,  facade.  Andrea T i r a l i ' s facade f o r the Church o f S. N i c o l o da 6 Tolentino  ( F i g . 4 ) , which was c o n s t r u c t e d from 1706 t o 1714,  i s a remarkable d e p a r t u r e  from the works o f S a r d i and R o s s i .  W i t t k o w e r s t a t e s t h a t the facade o f S. N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o 7 " r e s u s c i t a t e s a V i t r u v i a n p o r t i c o " . G o l z i o compares the 8  facade t o the Pantheon, superficial.  f l u t e d C o r i n t h i a n columns, w i t h a  w i d e r i n t e r c o l u m n i a t i o n a t the c e n t r e ,  parison.  grace  He uses a temple p o r t i c o , i n t r o d u c e d by s i x  with s i x elegant,  tablature.  little  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T i r a l i ' s facade are  and s i m p l i c i t y . steps,  but the comparison seems a  supporting a simple en-  T h e r e f o r e , the a u s t e r e Pantheon seems a weak comThe s i x column e n t r a n c e had been proposed by P a l l a d i o 9  i n h i s unexecuted p l a n f o r S. N i c o l d ,  but the g r a c e f u l n e s s o f  some o f the C l a s s i c a l temples i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Four Books o f  21 A r c h i t e c t u r e may p o s s i b l y have p r o v i d e d some i n s p i r a t i o n .  Not-  a b l e examples are the temple o f C a s t o r and P o l l u x i n N a p l e s , 10 the temple o f S c i s i , and the Maison C a r r e e . However, none o f t h e s e are e x a c t l y i m i t a t e d by T i r a l i i n h i s d e s i g n . . A l 11 though i t has been d e s c r i b e d as V i t r u v i a n by W i t t k o w e r , t h e r e c  i s an element t h a t i s u n - C l a s s i c a l .  This i s the d o m i n a t i n g , '  ornamental o v a l o c u l u s i n the tympanum, which was c r i t i c i z e d by S e l v a t i c o : La c r i t i c a n e o c l a s s i c a t r o v a v a da o s s e r y a r e , per bocca d e l S e l v a t i c o , che pur i n t a n t a p u r e z z a v i t r u v i a n a , l ' a r c h i t e t t o b a r o c c o doveva u s c i r s e n e f u o r i con qualcheduna d e l l e sue, ed ecco i n f a t t i che t ' apre un barbaro o c c h i o e l l i t t i c o a r i c c i p r o p r i o n e i timpano d e l f r o n t e s p i z i o . 12 1  T i r a l i . ' s facade o f S. V i d a l ( F i g . 5 ) , which was executed 13 from about 1734 t o 1737, shows an i n s p i r a t i o n from P a l l a d i o ' s 14 facades o f S. F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a and S. G i o r g i o . As e a r l y as 1700, A n t o n i o G a s p a r i proposed one o f h i s  designs^forgthe  f a c a d e , but h i s p r o j e c t s were e x t r e m e l y r i c h and  elaborate,  and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i t was T i r a l i ' s P a l l a d i a n s t y l e t h a t 15 was e x e c u t e d . Both S. F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a and S. N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o have a main s e c t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d by f o u r l a r g e C o r i n t h i a n c o l umns, r i s i n g from p e d e s t a l s ,  crowned by a main pediment,  t o t h i s main s e c t i o n two l e s s e r ,  side h a l f pediments..  are the Baroque d e c o r a t i v e "wings" o f S. S t a e . cesco d e l l a V i g n a and S. V i d a l have p e d e s t a l s  and  Gone  B o t h S. F r a n for  sculptures  a t the t o p s o f the c o r n e r s o f the pediments and n i c h e s f o r  22  s c u l p t u r e s between the main columns. differs  The doorway o f S. V i d a l  f r o m . i t s p r o t o t y p e i n t h a t i t i s framed by p i l a s t e r s  s u p p o r t i n g a t r i a n g u l a r pediment, not a s t r a i g h t l i k e S. F r a n c e s c o .  entablature,  T h i s m o t i f o f the t r i a n g u l a r pediment o v e r 16  the doorway can be found a l s o i n the c h u r c h o f the Redemtore. Gone i s the f a n c i f u l  broken pediment o f S. L a z z a r o o r S. S t a e .  L i k e S a r d i and R o s s i , T i r a l i has not s l a v i s h l y i m i t a t e d , i n i t s e n t i r e t y , one p a r t i c u l a r P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h , but has d e r i v e d much i n s p i r a t i o n from one and has borrowed o t h e r P a l l a d i a n motifs  elsewhere.  I n S. F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a t h e r e i s a r e -  s t r a i n e d movement o f forms c r e a t e d by the f l a t p i l a s t e r s u p p o r t i n g the end o f each s i d e pediment, then moving t o a s m a l l a t t a c h e d column, t h e n a v o i d , t h e n moving t o a s m a l l  attached  column, then t o the l a r g e dominant column o f the main p a r t o f the f a c a d e ,  t h e n t o n i c h e , column a g a i n , t h e n : t o s m a l l column  framing the doorway.  S. V i d a l , on the o t h e r hand, c r e a t e s a  P a l l a d i a n rhythm by b e g i n n i n g a t the e x t r e m i t i e s o f the  side  pediments w i t h the p i l a s t e r t h e n moving t o a h a l f p i l a s t e r i m mediately adjacent  t o i t , t h e n v o i d , then p i l a s t e r a g a i n , a  t y p e o f r h y t h m i c d e v i c e used i n t h e R e d e n t o r e . dows, t h o u g h , are d e r i v e d from- the Church o f the  The l o n g w i n Zitelle.  The two l a r g e , f l a t p i l a s t e r s and Composite columns o f the main p a r t o f the Redentore are s u b s t i t u t e d i n S. V i d a l f o r l a r g e C o r i n t h i a n columns o f S. F r a n c e s c o della" V i g n a .  the  The  spaces between the c a p i t a l s o f the p i l a s t e r s and columns o f S. V i d a l a r e e l e g a n t l y . l i n k e d by swags, a d e v i c e r e m i n i s c e n t o f  23 the swags j o i n i n g the main columns of the facade o f S. G i o r g i o . The Church o f S. Simeone P i c c o l o  ( F i g . 6 ) , b u i l t between  1718 and 1738 by G i o v a n n i S c a l f a r o t t o , was m o d e l l e d on the 18 a n c i e n t Pantheon. P a l l a d i o , t o o , had b u i l t an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l structure  based on the Pantheon;  h i s chapel at Maser.  P a l l a d i o had c a r e f u l l y examined the a n c i e n t s t r u c t u r e ,  Although making 19  a p l a n and s e v e r a l drawings and d e t a i l s i n h i s Four Books , a t Maser he d e s i g n e d h i s own p e r s o n a l v a r i a t i o n .  L i k e the P a n -  t h e o n , P a l l a d i o ' s c h a p e l i s a r o t u n d a w i t h temple p o r t i c o , i t substitutes pilasters  but  e i g h t ' columns o f the a n c i e n t b u i l d i n g t o two  and f o u r columns, and has i n t r o d u c e d h i s e n t r a n c e  p o r t i c o by a f l i g h t o f s t e p s .  P a l l a d i o has i n t r o d u c e d a l s o  two prominent b e l l towers which r i s e up as b o l d l y as the l o n g l a n t e r n a t the t o p o f the dome. Scalfarotto, o f the Pantheon.  t o o , has c r e a t e d h i s own unique v a r i a t i o n S. Simeone P i c c o l o ,  l i k e the c h a p e l a t M a s e r ,  i s i n t r o d u c e d by a f l i g h t o f s t e p s which l e a d up t o f o u r umns f l a n k e d by two p i l a s t e r s ,  col-  but then s p a c i n g i s , l i k e S.  N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o , u n e q u a l , l i k e M a s e r , the  intercolumnation  becoming markedly narrower between the p i l a s t e r and end column. Wittkower has remarked t h a t :  " T h i s c h u r c h which g r e e t s e v e r y  v i s i t o r t o V e n i c e on h i s a r r i v a l , theon.  i s c l e a r l y based on the Pan-  But above the c l a s s i c a l p o r t i c o , t o w h i c h one ascends  over a s t a i r c a s e m o d e l l e d on a n c i e n t t e m p l e s , uses a s t i l t e d 20 B y z a n t i n e - V e n e t i a n dome". shape,  T h i s dome r i s e s t o almost an egg  t h e r e b y d r a s t i c a l l y changing the rugged,  shallow  24 appearance o f P a n t h e o n ' s  dome.  Like Palladio,  Scalfarotto  g i v e s h i s dome an added f e e l i n g o f a s c e n s i o n by the a d d i t i o n o f a large lantern, of r i s i n g ,  and he even i n c r e a s e s  straight  t h i s f e e l i n g by the  l o n g r i b s , "unlike the c u r v i n g r i b s o f 21  use the  l a n t e r n o f the c h a p e l a t M a s e r . I n t h i s p e r i o d o f P a l l a d i a n and C l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l , the Church o f the G e s u a t i the  (Figs. 7-9-11-12).  z a t t e r e on the G u i d e c c a C a n a l .  is  It i s located i n  Therefore,  i t has t h e same  t y p e o f prominence as P a l l a d i o ' s churches on the o p p o s i t e o f t h e C a n a l , namely, the R e d e n t o r e ,  the Z i t e l l e ,  side  and on t h e  I s l a n d , S. G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e , t h a t i s , the facade  i s seen from  the C a n a l , as can be i l l u s t r a t e d by a p a i n t i n g . a t t r i b u t e d G i a n A n t o n i o G u a r d i ( F i g . 7. ) "Ed ecco l a b e l l a c h i e s a , cnopphi n  < n 1  1  a r'/rn  ci  V*-IT->£S+-OY~O  piu ricche sorelle affacciate  -i  T\  f r\nn  rn  T  r i >"» v  Q  i  1  C  s u l l a l t r a sponda d e l  3  TitC  to  quasi ClS 11 G  canale".  An e n g r a v i n g o f t h e G e s u a t i i n the F o r e s t i e r e I l l u m i n a t o shows t h a t , i n the e i g h t e e n t h  century,  a canal ran p a r a l l e l to  the  e a s t s i d e o f the c h u r c h ( F i g . 8 ) . A t t h e end o f the f o u r t e e n t h poor G e s u a t i was formed i n V e n i c e .  century,  the Company o f  They were f i r s t l o c a t e d  Sant Agnese, but then moved t o the Z a t t e r e ,  the at  where they b u i l t an  o r a t o r i o d e d i c a t e d t o S. Gerolamo, and a l s o b u i l t a c h u r c h . T h i s c h u r c h , S. Gerolamo d e i G e s u a t i , o r S t a . M a r i a d e l l a V i s i t a z i o n e , was begun on 13 J u l y 1494 when the P a t r i a r c h Tommaso Donato b l e s s e d the f i r s t s t o n e , and was c o n s e c r a t e d December 1524.  21  On 7 December 1668, however, a b u l l was i s s u e d  by Pope. Clemente IX o r d e r i n g the s u p p r e s s i o n o f the G e s u a t i as a wax measure.  The Dominicans t o o k p o s s e s s i o n o f  the  Order's- c h u r c h and m o n a s t e r y i n the f o l l o w i n g year,' but d e c i d e d 23 t h a t a new c h u r c h was- needed. The D o m i n i c a n ' s new c h u r c h , S. Maria, d e l R o s a r i o , w h i c h i s - m o r e commonly- c a l l e d s i m p l y the G e s u a t i , was begun i n 1726, when, as Corner s a y s , first  the P a t r i a r c h Marco Grodenigo b l e s s e d  the  stone on May 17.  Corner s t a t e s t h a t masses were not s a i d 24 i n the c h u r c h u n t i l 1743, and t o t h e s e f a c t s , B i a n c h i n i adds t h a t the. c h u r c h was c o n s e c r a t e d by the P a t r i a r c h A l v i s e F o s c a r i 25 on-September 29 o f t h a t y e a r . However, the a r c h i t e c t u r e hadbeen completed s i n c e . 1 7 3 6 w h e n , as an i n s c r i p t i o n above the doorway s a y s , the c h u r c h was b l e s s e d 26 Deiparae.titulo Rosarii".  " i n honorem V i r g i n i s  B a s s i t e l l s us what was done w i t h the  pre-existing  s t r u c t u r e o f the poor G e s u a t i : Quando i l complesso d e g l i e d i f i c i e r a s t a t o concesso a i p a d r i l D o m e n i c a n i , q u e s t i provvidero prima a l i a c o s t r u z z i o n e d e l l a grande c h i e s a e p o i pensarono ad un adeguato c o n v e n t o . I l Massari a d i b i l a vecchia c h i e s e t t a , orami i n u t i i i z z a t a , ad a c c o g l i e r e . l a p r e g e v o l e b i b l i o t e c a (che, n e i 1750, e r a s t a t a a c c r e s c i u t a d a l l a cospicua r a c c o l t a d i Apostolo Zeno), e d i s e g n o per c u s t o d i r e i l i b r i i m o b i l i armadi che n e l l ' O t t o c e n t o , furono a f f i d a t i a l l ' A c c a d e m i a d i belle a r t i . II- v e c c h i o c h i o s t r o e r a s t a t o d i m e z z a t o per l a c o s t r u z i o n e d e l l a nuova c h i e s a , ma i l M a s s a r i penso' d i . d o t a r e ' i l conyento d i a l t r i due c h i o s t r i , c o l l o c a n d p l i uno d i e t r o l ' a b s . i d e e l ' a l t r o . s u l fianco d e l l a chiesa 27 M o s c h i n i g i v e s us the d a t i n g o f v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the c h u r c h o f the G e s u a t i t h r o u g h documents  in  26 The A r c h i v i o d i S t a t o i n V e n i c e : . . . n e l 1725 s i s c a r i c a v a g i a l a p i e t r a per l a nouva f a b b r i c a : i l 6 a p r i l e 1726 i p a d r i c h i e d devano s p e c i a l i c o n c e s s i o n i economiche dovendo por mano a l i a nuova f a b b r i c a e c i 6 ((prima d i c o m i n c i a r una t a i o p e r a ) ) , i l 3 a p r i l e 1729 s i dava i n c a r i c o a B o r t o l o C o r b e t t o d i f o r n i r e i c a p i t e l l i ,per l a nuova c h i e s a . 1'8 settembre 1732 l o s t e s s o C o r b e t t o s'impegnava a f o r n i r e ; i c a p i t e l l i le alette e • i p i l a s t r o n i della facc i a t a ((conforme insegnano l i b u o n i a u t o r i d a r c h i t e t t u r a a piacer del Sr. Giorgio Massari)) i l 10 gennaio 1734 l o s c u l t o r e . G i o v a n F r a n c e s c o Bonazza s i o b b l i g a v a a f o r n i r e ' l a grande mensola d e l l a f a c c i a t a ( c o l l o c a t a i n a l t o a l -centro) ( ( q u i s t a i l d i s e g n o e m o d e l l o approvato ( d a l Sr. Giorgio Massari)); 16 novembre 1735 e d a t a t a l a f a t t u r a d i . F r a n c e s c o C h i u p a n i ((per c o p r i r d i piombo l a c u p o l a granda d e l l a c h i e s a nuova)) 28 1  H a s k e l l g i v e s us an e a r l y d e s c r i p t i o n o f the new c h u r c h from an i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n by a v i s i t o r who was g i v e n a t o u r o f the G e s u a t i i n 1742.  He says he spent h i s  time:  l o o k i n g a t the f i n e i n t e r i o r o f the new c h u r c h , d e c o r a t e d w i t h b e a u t i f u l p a i n t i n g s and c h i a r o s c u r i ' on i t s b r i l l i a n t l y l i t v a u l t , w i t h sumptuous a l t a r s o f - m a r b l e i n i t s seven c h a p e l s , w i t h new s e a t s i n the c h o i r , and the f l o o r e n t i r e l y i n marble; o f the b e s t a r c h i t e c t u r e and p r o p o r t i o n s i n the i n t e r i o r and an e q u a l l y f i n e f a c a d e . • ' 29 Much o f the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r M a s s a r i ' s new c h u r c h i s d e r i v e d 30 from S. G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e .  The G e s u a t i  ( F i g . 9)  imitates  the b a s i c main s e c t i o n of S. G i o r g i o , w i t h i t s f o u r g r e a t Comp o s i t e columns r i s i n g from p e d e s t a l s .  However, t h e r e i s here  a P a l l a d i a n e c l e c t i c i s m w h i c h we have n o t i c e d i n o t h e r P a l ladian r e v i v a l designs.  This i s evident  i n the t r e a t m e n t o f  the doorway, w h i c h i s , l i k e the R e d e n t o r e ,  framed by s m a l l 31 columns s u p p o r t i n g an e n t a b l a t u r e and pediment, triangular  27  i n the Redentore and s e m i c i r c u l a r i n the G e s u a t i .  S. G i o r g i o  has an a r c h over i t s doorway, but the p i l a s t e r s on e i t h e r r i s e p a s t i t and up t o the e n t a b l a t u r e p i l a s t e r s on the s i d e pediments.  side  which i s c a r r i e d by  The R e d e n t o r e , on the  other  hand, does have i t s doorway " p r o p e r l y " framed by columns and pediment.  L i k e S. G i o r g i o , the G e s u a t i has s t a i r s t h a t c o n c e a l  the i n n e r c o r n e r s o f the p e d e s t a l s columns.  o f the two g r e a t  central  L i k e S. G i o r g i o , the G e s u a t i c o n t a i n s n i c h e s  for  s c u l p t e d f i g u r e s between the main columns, b u t , u n l i k e S. G i o r g i o , i t has two, not one, p a i r s o f n i c h e s ;  the second p a i r  b e i n g d i r e c t l y above the lower p a i r , but s e p a r a t e d  by a s t r i n g  course d e c o r a t e d w i t h a t y p e o f a n t i q u e meander p a t t e r n .  Al-  though t h e r e i s a b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y between t h e s e two c h u r c h e s , one major d i f f e r e n c e  i s apparent - the s i d e pediments are m i s -  s i n g i n the G e s u a t i , an absence a l s o found i n the Z i t e l l e .  The  g r e a t d e p a r t u r e from b o t h the Z i t e l l e and S. G i o r g i o i s Mass a r i ' s chythmic movement, c r e a t e d a t the ends o f the facade by 32  the use o f a " t u r n i n g " e n t a b l a t u r e  which ruifs above the  four  g r e a t columns t h e n j u t s back over the h a l f p i l a s t e r i m m e d i a t e l y adjacent  t o the end main columns.  The e n t a b l a t u r e  t h e n runs  a d i a g o n a l and then over a p i l a s t e r at the side%of the  at  facade.  A c u r i o u s d e v i c e i s formed by the space between the p i l a s t e r  at  the s i d e o f the facade and the h a l f p i l a s t e r next t o the end main column. • In t h i s space a new p i l a s t e r i s c r e a t e d by the a d d i t i o n o f a base and l e a v e s t o form a c a p i t a l , but i t two v o l u t e s o f the p i l a s t e r s next t o i t .  A precedent  shares  for a  28 stepped e n t a b l a t u r e  m i g h t . b e S. F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a , but  cer-  t a i n l y M a s s a r i has t a k e n t h i s d e v i c e c o n s i d e r a b l y f u r t h e r .  The  r e s u l t o f t h i s d e v i c e i s t h a t the c h u r c h , a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t s i d e pediments, does not appear t h i n when viewed from the s i d e .  S.  G i o r g i o and the Redentore are b o t h s e t back a good d i s t a n c e , 33 but the G e s u a t i i s c o n s i d e r a b l y c l o s e r t o the w a t e r ' s  edge. .  Lorenzo B o s c h e t t i was l a t e r t o i m i t a t e t h i s M a s s a r i m o t i f o f 34 the t u r n i n g e n t a b l a t u r e  i n the c h u r c h o f S. Barnaba ( F i g . 1 0 ) .  In the pediment o f the G e s u a t i , we see a l a r g e e l l i p t i c a l  oc-  c u l u s , d e c o r a t e d w i t h a s h e l l ornament, r e m i n i s c e n t o f S. N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o , though not as d o m i n a t i n g . D i v i s i o n o f the space i n the i n t e r i o r  ( F i g s . 11-12) 35  is  at l e a s t somewhat s i m i l a r t o the R e d e n t o r e ,  but perhaps  the  s i m i l a r i t y s h o u l d not be s t r e s s e d too much.  The Redentore  has  a nave f l a n k e d by t h r e e c h a p e l s on e i t h e r s i d e , s e m i - c i r c u l a r t r a n s e p t s w i t h a h i g h dome o v e r the c r o s s i n g , and a s a n c t u a r y and c h o i r .  The G e s u a t i , t o o , has a l o n g nave f l a n k e d on e i t h e r  s i d e by t h r e e s i d e c h a p e l s , but a t the c h a n c e l M a s s a r i Palladio.  abandons  The s e m i - c i r c u l a r t r a n s e p t s o f the c r o s s i n g o f  Redentore are r e p l a c e d by a square c h a n c e l d e f i n e d by the from which s p r i n g the p e n d e n t i v e s o f the dome.  Behind  the piers  this  square area i s the c h o i r , o f l o n g , e l l i p t i c a l shape. Some s i m i l a r i t i e s may be n o t i c e d between t h e i n t e r i o r s o f 36 ' the G e s u a t i and S t a . M a r i a d e l l a F a v a , which was s t a r t e d by A n t o n i o G a s p a r i i n 17 05 and was completed by M a s s a r i i n the 37 . . • f i r s t h a l f o f the' 1 7 5 0 ' s . Both churches have a nave f l a n k e d by deep s i d e c h a p e l s and a narrower a l t a r a r e a which i s i n t r o -  29  duced by a c h a n c e l a r c h .  However, w h i l e the Fava  articulates  i t s c h a p e l s by g i a n t p i l a s t e r s . , the G e s u a t i , l i k e the  Redentore,  38  employs columns, ience of  and t h e r e b y c r e a t e s a more p l a s t i c  exper-  surface.  L o o k i n g at the e x t e r i o r , we see t h a t M a s s a r i has p l a c e d h i s two b e l l towers a t e i t h e r  s i d e o f the c h a n c e l .  The p l a n o f  the c h u r c h shows t h a t M a s s a r i has narrowed t h i s a r e a ,  thereby  a l l o w i n g the b e l l towers o u t s i d e t o be " b u i l t i n " ; " the  effect  b e i n g a s t r a i g h t , c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the l i n e o f the s i d e c h a p e l walls outside.  A l s o , we see the dome w i t h i t s l a n t e r n . a n d a  double b u t t r e s s i n g  system r e m i n i s c e n t o f the  Redentore.  I n s i d e , the v a u l t i n g system i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f S. G e o r g i o , and so t h e r e i s , i n M a s s a r i ' s c h u r c h , t h a t m a r v e l l o u s P a l l a d i a n p l a y o f l i g h t and shadow, p l a y between the v o i d s and s o l i d s o f the v a u l t i n g , and o f the d i s s o l v i n g o f form o f area s u r r o u n d i n g the t h e r m a l window.  the  M a s s a r i has even adopted  the s u b t l e P a l l a d i a n d e v i c e o f b l i n d i n g the s i d e l i g h t s o f some o f h i s t h e r m a l windows.  I n the G e s u a t i , the s i d e l i g h t s o f  the  windows o f the nave are b l i n d , opening o n l y a t the c h a n c e l , t h e r e b y adding more l i g h t and c o n s e q u e n t l y , more emphasis t o a l t a r area o f the c h u r c h .  However, M a s s a r i has v a r i e d the  l a d i a n s t y l e o f dome w i t h i t s s m a l l opening i n . the c e n t r e i t s windows around the b a s e .  Instead/  Paland  the dome o f the G e s u a t i  i s much s h a l l o w e r than those by P a l l a d i o . c o l o u r and s u b s t i t u t e s  the  I t l a c k s the w h i t e  t h i s f o r brown, and has no o t h e r windows  o t h e r than a s m a l l h o l e a t the t o p .  L i g h t from t h e l a n t e r n  is  30  f u n n e l l e d i n t o a s i n g l e r a y w h i c h descends from the s i n g l e h o l e down a c r o s s the dark i n t e r i o r o f dome. t o S. G i o r g i o r a t h e r entablature  Massari also reverts  than the Redentore f o r i n s p i r a t i o n f o r  back the  c a r r i e d by the columns framing the a r c h e s d e f i n i n g  the s i d e c h a p e l s .  The R e d e n t o r e s ' s  straight entablature  s t i t u t e d f o r a r h y t h m i c m o t i o n as the e n t a b l a t u r e  i s sub-  projects  the columns and recedes a c r o s s the top o f the a r c h e s ,  over  a rhythm  which i s more i n k e e p i n g w i t h the rhythm c r e a t e d by the p i l a s t e r s and columns o f the facade o u t s i d e .  The e n c l o s u r e o f  of the nave shows, on the o t h e r hand, a d e p a r t u r e  space  from P a l l a d i o  because o f i t s b e v e l l e d p i e c e s o f w a l l e n t a b l a t u r e  and v a u l t ,  which p r o v i d e a. more d e l i c a t e , almost rounded, t r a n s i t i o n from e n d - w a l l t o s i d e , d e m o n s t r a t i n g a Baroque element i n t h i s P a l 39 .  ladian i n t e r i o r . M a s s a r i ' s c h u r c h demonstrates  the t a s t e o f the  century Venetian i n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e .  With  eighteenth predecessors  such as S. L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t i , S. Stae> • S. N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o , S. V i d a l ,  and S. Simeone P i c c o l o , a N e o - P a l l a d i a n movement  i n V e n i c e had been e s t a b l i s h e d .  But t h i s N e o - P a l l a d i a n i s m was  not a s l a v i s h i m i t a t i o n o f a s i n g l e . P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h , . b u t  rather  an e x e r c i s e i n a k i n d o f " P a l l a d i a n e c l e c t i c i s m " , whereby v a r i o u s elements o f the P a l l a d i a n v o c a b u l a r y were chosen from P a l l a d i o ' s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l b u i l d i n g s and combined by the seventeenth-early-eighteenth individual expression.  century a r c h i t e c t ,  late  t o c r e a t e an  The facade o f a V e n e t i a n c h u r c h becomes  a v e r y p e r s o n a l c r e a t i o n , w h i c h , by the use o f v a r i o u s P a l l a d i a n e l e m e n t s , g e n e r a t e s a unique rhythm and s u b t l e p l a y o f forms.  31 However, C l a s s i c and P a l l a d i a n r u l e s are broken i n t h i s Neo^P a l l a d i a n movement, as demonstrated by the broken pediments o f S. L a z z a r o and S, S t a e . - These broken p e d i m e n t s , a c a r r y - o v e r from the Baroque o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , d i s a p p e a r i n l a t e r structures.  Now the a n t i - c l a s s i c i s m i s not i n broken p e d i m e n t s ,  but i t p e r s i s t s n e v e r t h e l e s s .  The w i d e , o v a l o c c u l u s o f S.  N i c o l o da T o l e n t i n o ,  the use of a B y z a n t i n e - V e n e t i a n dome 41 i n S. Simeone P i c c o l o , the w i d e , o v a l o c c u l u s and unique r h y t h m i c m o t i o n o f the p i l a s t e r s a t the ends o f the facade o f 42 ' the G e s u a t i demonstrate the a r c h i t e c t s ' freedom o f p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n even w i t h i n " a P a l l a d i a n mode.  CHAPTER I T I THE PAINTED DECORATIONS. The c h u r c h o f the G e s u a t i has f i v e a l t a r p i e c e s by e i g h t eenth c e n t u r y m a s t e r s .  In the f i r s t c h a p e l on the l e f t i s an  a l t a r p i e c e ' p a i n t e d by S e b a s t i a n o R i c c i , i n the f i r s t c h a p e l on the r i g h t i s a work, by G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o , and i n the second and t h i r d c h a p e l s on the r i g h t are p a i n t i n g s by G i a m b a t t i s t a Piazzetta. 1 as w e l l .  The c e i l i n g p a n e l s are the m a s t e r p i e c e s  of Tiepolo  Thus, t h e s e p a i n t i n g s o f the G e s u a t i r e p r e s e n t  work o f t h r e e o f . t h e f i n e s t V e n e t i a n p a i n t e r s o f t h e  the  eighteenth  century. The a l t a r p i e c e s b y . . R i c c i ,  T i e p o l o , and the. t h i r d c h a p e l  a l t a r p i e c e by P i a z z e t t a each d e p i c t t h r e e Dominican  saints.  R i c c i ' s work depictsfThomas Aquinas,, P i u s V , and P e t e r M a r t y r (Fig.  13).  I t can be dated 1732-1734, and was the f i r s t a l t a r 2 p i e c e t o be s e t up i n t h e . c h u r c h . R i c c i was s e v e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s o l d i n 1732, and t h i s p i c t u r e i n the G e s u a t i was one o f 3 h i s f i n a l w o r k s : he d i e d o n l y two y e a r s l a t e r . . When S e b a s t i a n o R i c c i d e p a r t e d from London i n 1716, h a v i n g f a i l e d t o w i n the t e m p t i n g commission f o r the d e c o r a t i o n o f the dome, o f S t . P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l , he c o u l d l o o k back on f o u r y e a r s o f o t h e r w i s e s u c c e s s f u l a c t i v i t y . He l e f t b e h i n d him a q u a n t i t y o f e l e g a n t d e c o r a t i o n s and one undoubted m a s t e r p i e c e the f r e s c o o f The R e s u r r e c t i o n i n the apse o f the c h a p e l o f the R o y a l H o s p i t a l , C h e l s e a . He r e t u r n e d t o I t a l y v i a P a r i s i n 1717 and e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f i n V e n i c e f o r the r e s t o f h i s l i f e , d u r i n g w h i c h time he never ceased t o p a i n t and i n deed produced some o f the most i m p r e s s i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t works. 4  33  R i c c i ' s a l t a r p i e c e i n the church of the G e s u a t i i s one. of his  major commissions of h i s l a s t years i n V e n i c e .  The  three  Dominican s a i n t s are grouped i n a pyramidal composition. ing  on the l e f t  i s the f i g u r e of S t . Thomas, who  f i g u r e of S t . Pius V, who  Stand-  looks a t the  i s seated upon a r a i s e d throne, which  i s e l e v a t e d above the other two  saints.  K n e e l i n g on the r i g h t  and.looking up a t S t . Thomas, i s St. Peter Martyr.  The  saints  are l i n k e d v i s u a l l y by t h e i r being pressed up c l o s e to the p i c t u r e plane, then being grouped i n a pyramidal f a s h i o n , and t h e i r l o o k i n g a t one  another, and a l s o by Thomas's g e s t u r e o f  extending h i s hand toward P e t e r , who to  by  i n t u r n presses h i s hand  h i s c h e s t , suggesting a k i n d of c o n v e r s a t i o n between them.-  I t has been suggested  t h a t the t r i a n g u l a r grouping of the  s a i n t s c o u l d have been i n s p i r e d by the Papal tombs i n St. P e t e r ' s 5  i n Rome.  I t would then f o l l o w t h a t the p a i n t i n g would  adopt  an i c o n o g r a p h i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as w e l l as a method of composition.  I t would, lifce B e r n i n i ' s tombs of Urban V I I I and A l e x -  ander VII i n St. P e t e r ' s , symbolize  the i d e a l s of the Pope  6  " l i v i n g on" even a f t e r  death.  Another source of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r R i c c i may  have been  Veronese's p a i n t i n g i n the P i n a c o t e c a d i B r e r a i n M i l a n , I S a n t i C o r n e l i o , C i p r i a n o e Antonio, where the Pope, C o r n e l i u s , with his  t i a r a and S t . C y p r i a n , w i t h the palm of martyrdom near h i s  f e e t , are p l a c e d on e i t h e r s i d e of the enthroned Antonio,  who  7  wears a m i t r e and holds a c r o s i e r . G e s u a t i a l t a r p i e c e , one  Thus, we  have, l i k e  Ricci's  f i g u r e r a i s e d upon a throne,.a Pope,  34 and a martyr, who  stands t o the r i g h t of the c e n t r a l  figure.  In the background i s an arcade, a d e c o r a t i v e d e v i c e r e m i n i s cent o f Veronese, f o r example, h i s arcade i n the background of The Family of D a r i u s b e f o r e Alexander. s a i n t s are p u t t i .  Hovering  above the  The heads of two p u t t i look down from  the  c l o u d s , while two p l a y f u l w h o l e - f i g u r e p u t t i j o y f u l l y f l y about, one h o l d i n g a pen, the symbol of S t . Thomas Aquinas, of the Church, and one h o l d i n g two Papacy.  Doctor  keys, the symbol o f the  Beside these p u t t i i s a l a r g e angel who  St. Peter Martyr, and who  the  hovers  holds the palm of martyrdom.  angel "provides a v i s u a l l i n k between the two  above This  zones [the zone  w i t h the s a i n t s below and the upper zone with the p u t t i s e t a g a i n s t the blue s k y ] , as w e l l as imparting a f e e l i n g of move-  8 ment t o an otherwise s t a t i c composition". Pope Pius V i s a p u t t i who  Hovering  holds the papal t i a r a .  beside  Ricci  has  a l s o added another d e v i c e t o add dynamism t o h i s p a i n t i n g which i s so tremendously saints.  s t a b l i z e d by the t r i a n g u l a r grouping of the  R i c c i has p l a c e d the s a i n t s upon a p l a t f o r m which  a b r u p t l y stops, l e a v i n g a shadowy gap a t the l e f t ,  lower  of the p a i n t i n g , and has allowed the blade o f the k n i f e ,  section the  symbol of S t . Peter Martyr, t o protrude over the edge of the platform.  R i c c i i s s u c c e s s f u l i n h o l d i n g h i s composition t o -  gether, u n i t i n g two  zones, w i t h s a i n t s below and p u t t i above, 9 though adding a f e e l i n g of movement as w e l l . However, one p o i n t may be c r i t i c i z e d - the f i g u r e of S t . Thomas, "whose man-  nered e l o n g a t i o n borders on d e f o r m i t y " .  10  But a l l t h i n g s con-  35 sidered:  A s t u d y o f R i c c i s l a t e r works i n V e n i c e i s b o t h h e a r t e n i n g and r e w a r d i n g . The p i c t u r e s g i v e t h e l i e t o t h e g l i b d e t r a c t o r s who w o u l d d i s m i s s him as n o t h i n g more t h a n a V e r o n e s i a n p a s t i c h e u r , and t h e p a i n t e r h i m s e l f comes o v e r t o us as a man o f r e s i l i e n c e and r e s o u r c e . O r i g i n a l i t y was admitt e d l y not h i s s t r o n g e s t p o i n t , which even h i s cont e m p o r a r i e s a d m i t t e d , b u t he man aged t o c r e a t e a V e n e t i a n R o c o c o t h a t was e l e g a n t w i t h o u t b e i n g f r i v o l o u s and c o m p e t e n t w i t h o u t b e i n g a c a d e m i c . 11 1  A much e a r l i e r Saints, coherent an  a l s o demonstrates composition,  individual.  painted  picture,  The  i n 1708  t h e Madonna and  how  Ricci  borrowing  can  effectively  elements,  Madonna and  Child with  but  still  C h i l d w i t h Nine  Nine  create a remaining  Saints  was  f o r t h e c h u r c h o f S. G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e ,  and  i t is  a work w h i c h : nella scelta dei colori tavolta complementari, n e l l a m o r f o l o g i a e n e i l a composizione rappresenta i l momento p i u v e r o n e s i a n o d e l stto s t i l e . Alle i n t o n a z i o n i scure e r o s s a s t r e accentuate d a l c h i a r o s c u r o , che c a r a t t e r i z z a v a n o l a p r i m a a t t i v i t a r i c c e s c a , s i v a o r a s o s t i n u e n d o una o r c h e s t r a z i o n e c r o m a t i c a l i m p i d i s s i m a , t u l l a l u c e , r e a l i z z a t a con una p e n n e l l a t a t r e m u l a , n e r v o s a e d e s t r o s a . Gli a n g e l i i n a l t o r i v e l a n o una l e g g e r e z z a de t o c c o , o t t e n u t a c o n una p e n n e l l a t a p i u m o s a , c h e f a pensare a l Boucher. 12 In r e g a r d t o c o m p o s i t i o n , by V e r o n e s e ' s  Mystical 13  emia i n V e n i c e ,  Ricci's  Marriage  Accad-  a d e b t w h i c h must n o t be o v e r l o o k e d , b u t  composition  Comparing t h e two  i s influenced  of St. Catherine i n the  must n o t be o v e r s t r e s s e d e i t h e r . Veronese's  painting  to s u i t  paintings,  Certainly Ricci  h i s own  artistic  a basic pyramidal  has  which  reworked  temperament. form  i s used  to  36 h o l d most of the f i g u r e s together and t o accentuate t h e f i g u r e s of  t h e V i r g i n and the C h i l d , who form t h e apex o f the t r i a n g l e .  Veronese p l a c e s a t the lower l e f t book.  Above and to t h e i r l e f t  two angels who read from a  i s the dominating  f i g u r e o f the  V i r g i n , seated upon a throne which i s v i s u a l l y hidden, but whose steps a r e exposed i n order t o l e a d up t o the f i g u r e o f the V i r g i n . of  On the r i g h t a r e f o u r f i g u r e s , i n c l u d i n g the f i g u r e  St. Catherine.  The r i g h t s i d e o f t h e t r i a n g l e i s formed by  a v i s u a l l i n k a g e o f heads, our eyes being c a r r i e d from the h i g h p l a c e d f i g u r e o f the V i r g i n down t o t h e head o f t h e l a s t who i s l o c a t e d a t the extreme r i g h t o f the p a i n t i n g .  figure  Behind  the V i r g i n are two heavy columns which are p a r t l y covered by drapery.  To the r i g h t i s the sky, f i l l e d w i t h some dark  c l o u d s , c o n t r a s t i n g with other b r i g h t l y - l i t clouds from which emerge s e v e r a l p u t t i .  A b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y can be n o t i c e d i n  R i c c i s p a i n t i n g i n which the t r i a n g l e i s formed by p l a c i n g the 1  V i r g i n and C h i l d upon a throne, thereby forming the apex. the l e f t ,  i s the crouching f i g u r e o f S t . P e t e r , who  w i t h another his  At  converses  s a i n t who looks down a t him, g e s t i c u l a t i n g w i t h  hand, a d e v i c e which l i n k s them both v i s u a l l y and i n a con-  v e r s a n t manner, which was the case w i t h the a l t a r p i e c e i n the Gesuati.  According t o Levey t h i s p a i n t i n g i n S. G i o r g i o :  "announces the use t o be made i n the e i g h t e e n t h century o f the c a s u a l s a c r a conversazione, where a group o f s a i n t s are a s sembled alone o r w i t h a p r e s i d i n g f i g u r e , u s u a l l y o f the 15 Madonna".  Reaching  the top o f the t r i a n g l e w i t h the f i g u r e  37  o f the V i r g i n , the r i g h t s i d e of the t r i a n g l e i s completed by the v i s u a l l i n k a g e o f the f i g u r e o f S t . C a t h e r i n e , whose body i s l e a n i n g f o r w a r d , and t h e s a i n t who  l e a n s on the base o f the  V i r g i n ' s t h r o n e , whereby our eyes are l e d downward, though not w i t h o u t some s t r a y i n g t o a group o f f o u r s a i n t s b e h i n d s a i n t whose l o n g , l e a n i n g back p r o v i d e s p a r t o f t h e composition.  the  triangular  T h i s a d d i t i o n o f s a i n t s i s not found i n Veronese.  I t i s a R i c c i v a r i a t i o n which does not d e s t r o y the but o n l y widens i t .  Behind  triangle,  the V i r g i n i s a column p a r t i a l l y  c o n c e a l e d by d r a p e r y , r e m i n i s c e n t o f Veronese, but h e r e , i n R i c c i ' s p a i n t i n g t h e e f f e c t o f the heavy, d o m i n a t i n g  columns  o f Veronese's work i s subdued g r e a t l y , R i c c i ' s column b e i n g hidden t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t .  In the sky, a great d i f f e r e n c e  from Veronese can be immediately  noticed.  Here hover two  play-  f u l p u t t i , one of whom swings upon the l o n g s t a l k o f a f l o w e r , l i k e a l i t t l e c h i l d s w i n g i n g upon a branch. the heads o f t h r e e more p u t t i who cloud.  Above them are  l o o k etit from t h e i r  delicate  Gone a r e the heavy, dark c l o u d s and s e r i o u s a n g e l s  Veronese's work. i s apparent.  I n R i c c i ' s work, an elegance  of  and l i g h t n e s s  The V i r g i n i s s e t up on a much h i g h e r t h r o n e  than  Veronese p a i n t e d , and she r e a c h e s more than t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the h e i g h t o f the p a i n t i n g , t h e r e b y e l o n g a t i n g the t r i a n g l e o f which she forms the apex.  Steer i s c o r r e c t i n h i s observations  o f the p a i n t i n g ; ' To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h e r e i s some "note o f 'Rococo f r i v o l i t y '  i n the " g a m b o l l i n g p u t t i " and a r a t h e r sen16  t i m e n t a l e x p r e s s i o n on the s a i n t s .  I n the G e s u a t i  altar-  p i e c e , t o o , R i c c i c r e a t e d an a i r o f l i g h t n e s s and g r a c e ,  an  38 elegant s l e n d e r f i g u r e o f S t . Thomas and a p a i r o f e l e g a n t p u t t i f l y i n g a g a i n s t a l i g h t backdrop o f sky, though R i c c i ' s Rococo could never be c o n s i d e r e d completely f r i v o l o u s i n over17 a l l effect. Another r e l i g i o u s p i c t u r e ,  t h i s one i n v o l v i n g  a limited  number of f i g u r e s , i s the Holy Family and S t . Anne, which i s i n the M o l i n a r i  P r a d e l l i C o l l e c t i o n i n Bologna.  T h i s work, d a t i n g 18  about 1709, a l s o has touches o f a Veronese s t y l e .  Once again  a triangular  composition i s employed and two columns s e t i n the  background.  However, R i c c i , here t o o , proves h i m s e l f capable  of o r i g i n a l i t y . Giorgio,  In t h i s p a i n t i n g ,  a l l the f i g u r e s  unlike  h i s painting  are pressed up c l o s e  i n S.  t o the p i c t u r e  plane, and i t t h e r e f o r e becomes a p e r s o n a l and immediate r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Holy Family and us, the  spectators.  R i c c i has e f f e c t i v e l y t i g h t l y grouped the four  f i g u r e s , the  V i r g i n and C h i l d , Joseph, and S t . Anne, i n t o a pyramidal comp o s i t i o n whose base i s formed by a p l a t f o r m running  horizontal-  l y r i g h t a c r o s s the p i c t u r e plane o f the p a i n t i n g .  The l e f t  s i d e o f the t r i a n g l e runs along the arm o f the seated  figure  of the V i r g i n , t o her head and up t o the f i g u r e o f the standing S t . Joseph and completes the r i g h t s i d e by c o n t i n u i n g down the  head and shoulder of the k n e e l i n g f i g u r e o f S t . Anne.  has  perhaps been i n f l u e n c e d  r i g h t o f Veronese's M y s t i c a l f i g u r e of S t . Joseph.  by a l e a n i n g  f i g u r e a t the extreme  Marriage o f S t . C a t h e r i n e f o r h i s  R i c c i ' s S t . Joseph, l i k e Veronese's  f i g u r e , leans forward t o become an i n t e g r a l p a r t i d a l structure.  Ricci  o f the pyram-  However, R i c c i has made h i s f i g u r e o f S t . Joseph  39 unique i n t h a t the s a i n t extends h i s r i g h t arm d i a g o n a l l y and r e s t s i t on a s t a f f .  H i s g e s t u r e , l i k e the a d d i t i o n o f the  four  s a i n t s i n the S. G i o r g i o p a i n t i n g , adds an element o f dynamism to h i s basic, pyramidal s t r u c t u r e without d i s r u p t i n g a c o n t i n u i t y of d i a g o n a l l i n e , i n t h i s case r u n n i n g from J o s e p h ' s hand down t o S t . A n n e ' s head and s h o u l d e r .  To the r i g h t o f S t . Joseph  is  a wide p a t c h o f sky w i t h w i s p s o f p i n k and w h i t e c l o u d s ,  adding  a Rococo e l e g a n c e t o the s c e n e .  Gesuati  altarpiece,  There i s a l s o ,  an i n t e r a c t i o n o f f i g u r e s ,  l i k e the  the c h i l d l o o k i n g back  at the f i g u r e s o f the V i r g i n who gazes at Him w h i l e h o l d i n g Him on her knee.  Joseph,  t o o , l o o k s down at the two f i g u r e s ,  but  :  i t must be c r i t i c i z e d t h a t S t - A n n e ' s gaze l a c k s d i r e c t i o n . T h i s i s a c r i t i c i s m which c o u l d not be a p p l i c a b l e t o the p a i n t i n g , because t h e r e each s a i n t other .  Gesuati  l o o k s d i r e c t l y towards  an-  Two a l t a r p i e c e s  o f R i c c i ' s l a s t y e a r s t h a t s h o u l d be  comprjtfftu:  ared t o the G e s u a t i p a i n t i n g are the works commissioned f o r  the  Church o f S. Rocco i n V e n i c e .  like  the G e s u a t i a l t a r p i e c e  These t w o - p a i n t i n g s , 19  from 1732-1734,  composition to l i g h t - f i l l e d  dating,  devote h a l f o f  their  c l o u d s and p a l e b l u e s k y , the  St.  Helena F i n d i n g the True C r o s s b e i n g d e s c r i b e d by D a n i e l s as "". .20" g l o w i n g w i t h c o l o u r and l i g h t " .  S u r e l y the G e s u a t i  altarpiece  w i t h i t s w i s p y b l u e sky c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d i n the same words. G i a n B a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c h u r c h o f the G e s u a t i by two p a i n t i n g s ,  one o f w h i c h i s S t s . V i n c e n t F e r -  r e r , H y a c i n t h , and L o u i s B e r t r a n d  ( F i g s . 14, 1 8 ) , a work which  40 i s g i v e n the approximate date 1738.  22  Comparing t h i s p a i n t i n g  by P i a z z e t t a w i t h S t s . Thomas, P i u s V , and P e t e r M a r t y r by R i c c i the d i f f e r e n c e s  i n s t y l e are o v e r w h e l m i n g .  In the c o n t e x t o f V e n e t i a n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r t as a whole P i a z z e t t a i s . an o u t s i d e r . . . h i s m e l a n c h o l i c temperament . . . shows i t s e l f i n . t h e passion of h i s r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g s . . . P i a z z e t t a ' s h i s t o r i c a l importance l i e s i n h i s f u s i o n o f a V e n e t i a n f e e l i n g f o r p a i n t w i t h the d r a m a t i c c h i a r o s c u r o and t a c t i l e r e a l i s m o f the t r a d i t i o n of Caravaggio. . . . The s p i r i t u a l i n t e n s i t y o f P i a z z e t t a ' s p a i n t i n g comes from the c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h i s p h y s i c a l r e a l i s m o f d e t a i l w i t h the v i s i o n a r y e f f e c t o f the w h o l e . 23 Whereas R i c c i ' s s a i n t s communicate w i t h one another I n a c a s u a l m a n n e r e a c h o f P i a z z e t t a ' s s a i n t s are i n v o l v e d i n h i s own p e r s o n a l m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e .  Piazzetta,  nevertheless,has  arranged h i s c o m p o s i t i o n i n a v e r y c o n t r o l l e d manner, R i c c i had done.  P i a z z e t t a , i n s t e a d of arranging h i s  just  as  figures  i n a t r i a n g u l a r g r o u p i n g l i k e R i c c i , has s e t out h i s canvas i n a series of v e r t i c a l s .  S i t t i n g near the bottom o f the  picture  i s the f i g u r e o f S t . L o u i s B e r t r a n d , above and b e h i n d him i s the s l i g h t l y i n c l i n e d f i g u r e o f S t . V i n c e n t F e r r e r , and b e s i d e 24 him i s the k n e e l i n g f i g u r e o f S t . H y a c i n t h .  A t the top o f  the p i c t u r e i s an a n g e l whose l a r g e , h o r i z o n a - l ! wing f a c i n g us adds a h o r i z o n a l a x i s t o complete the p i c t u r e as a t y p e o f c a p ping .  Gone i s the P a l l a d i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e o f R i c c i ' s p a i n t i n g  and i n i t s p l a c e , ' P i a z z e t t a has c r e a t e d a c e l e s t i a l r e a l m . P i a z e t t a has t a k e n h i s s a i n t s out o f the spacetime o r d e r o f R i c c i ' s mundane environment w h e r e i n the s a i n t s , piece of architecture,  converse.  i n front of a  Piazzetta, instead,  depicts  41 S t . L o u i s B e r t r a n d s e a t e d upon what appears to be a r o c k ,  rest-  i n g h i s bare f o o t upon what seems to be a s e c t i o n o f g r o u n d , but w h i c h i s p a i n t e d i n s t r a n g e ,  supernatural  tones o f g r e y .  Above h i m , S t , V i n c e n t r e c l i n e s on a t h r o n e o f c l o u d s . throne o f c l o u d s envelops most o f h i s body.  This  The extended  arms  of t h e s a i n t are supported by c l o u d , w h i l e h i s bare l e f t  foot  r e s t s upon a square s e c t i o n o f c l o u d below which i s a suggest i o n o f dark b l u e sky e x t e n d i n g beyond.  The f i g u r e o f S t .  c i n t h a l s o i s supported by c l o u d s and h i s body i s a g a i n s t another  silhouetted  c l o u d , t h i s one e x t e n d i n g i n a column up t o  top o f the p a i n t i n g where the a n g e l emerges from around back o f t h i s c l o u d . in meditation.  Unlike R i c c i ,  P i a z z e t t a shows h i s  the  the saints  S t . L o u i s B e r t r a n d gazes down, a humble and  c o n t e m p l a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n on h i s f a c e , snake.  Hya-  St. Vincent l i f t s  at h i s c h a l i c e w i t h  h i s eyes h i g h , g a z i n g i n t e n t l y  the at  something beyond the l i m i t s o f the p a i n t i n g , as i f e x p e r i e n c i n g a vision.  S t . H y a c i n t h a l s o gazes beyond the p i c t u r e ' s  limits,  a s - i f praying w h i l e h i s experience i s . b e i n g transformed i n t o a m y s t i c a l , supernatural piece  one.  The p l a y f u l p u t t i o f R i c c i ' s  are absent i n P i a z z e t t a ' s p a i n t i n g , a l t h o u g h the  altar-  single  a n g e l a t the t o p o f the c o m p o s i t i o n h i n t s a t a tendency toward sweetness,  w h i c h was a q u a l i t y a p p l i c a b l e t o the l a r g e a n g e l o f  Ricci's painting.  P i a z z e t t a ' s a n g e l here p o i n t s a f i n g e r  above  and beyond the p a i n t i n g , g i v i n g the d i r e c t i o n i n which the two s a i n t s below are l o o k i n g .  H e r e , the o v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i s o f  P i a z z e t t a ' s depiction of three saints vision,  i s one o f m e d i t a t i o n and  even though the t i t l e o f the work suggests n o t h i n g o f  42 a s u p e r n a t u r a l experience or appearance. Even when R i c c i does d e p i c t a s u p e r n a t u r a l appearance, such as The Madonna Appearing 25 (Vedana,. C e r t o s a ) , •  to St. Hugo and St. Bruno,  o f t e n mysticism i s kept t o a minimum.  In  the p a i n t i n g , Sebastiano R i c c i focuses a t t e n t i o n w i t h i n the p a i n t i n g , not, as w i t h P i a z z e t t a , beyond, as i n d i c a t e d by the gazes of S.ts; V i n c e n t F e r r e r and L o u i s B e r t r a n d .  Ricci's  p a i n t i n g shows the V i r g i n , h o l d i n g the C h r i s t C h i l d , standing upon the ground w i t h an i n d i c a t i o n of landscape behind The v i s i o n takes p l a c e on e a r t h , with a n a t u r a l i s t i c and the f i g u r e s of the V i r g i n and the s a i n t who her meet eyes.  setting,  kneels b e f o r e  The. communication i s r e a l - the communication  i n P i a z z e t t a ' s work belongs it  her.  to the realm of the imaginary  -  i s our i m a g i n a t i o n s which must p i c t u r e the v i s i o n which S t s .  V i n c e n t and L o u i s experience. Appearing  to S t . Hugo and. St.  At the top of R i c c i ' s Madonna Bruno, are the heads of p u t t i which  look down toward the e a r t h , thereby f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n downward. U n l i k e Sebastiano R i c c i , P i a z z e t t a i s i n t e r e s t e d i n c r e a t i n g a 26 chiaroscuro e f f e c t .  The dark robes o f S t . L o u i s B e r t r a n d i n  the G e s u a t i a l t a r p i e c e form a marked c o n t r a s t w i t h the robes of S t . V i n c e n t F e r r e r . the l e f t ,  L i g h t streams from above and  c r e a t i n g a marvellous p l a y of l i g h t and  f i n g e r s , w r i s t and  white from  shadow on the  s l e e v e of the r a i s e d arm of S t . V i n c e n t .  A  shadowy c l o u d t o the l e f t of the s a i n t i s matched on r i g h t by a white one.  The dark grey robes of S t . Hyacinth complement the  White robes of St. V i n c e n t and a l s o c o n t r a s t w i t h the  tall  43  column o f c l o u d w h i c h emphasizes the o u t l i n e o f S t . H y a c i n t h . Therefore,.the  rhythm i s c r e a t e d ,  p i c t u r e - dark a g a i n s t light.  s t a r t i n g a t the bottom o f  l i g h t c o n t r a s t e d w i t h dark s e t  against  Even the w h i t e wings o f the a n g e l above c o n t r a s t  a deep b l u e s k y .  .  with  v  Although P i a z z e t t a i s preoccupied with chiaroscuro h i s c o l o u r i s m as t y p i f i e d i n the G e s u a t i a l t a r p i e c e a t stage,,  effects  this  a time " w h i l e c o l o u r was b r i g h t e n i n g . . . the r o c o c o  painter's chestnut  the  c a n v a s s e s , " P i a z z e t t a was r e s t r i c t i n g h i s p a l e t t e r e d , b l a c k , w h i t e , and g r e y . . . from t h e i r  o f the G e s u a t i p a i n t i n g ]  [the  to  saints  j u x t a p o s e d h a b i t s o f b l a c k , w h i t e , and  g r e y , he makes m o r e . e f f e c t i v e  contrast  than would another 27  pain-  t e r w i t h a whole rainbow o f c o l o u r s " . However, the G e s u a t i a l t a r p i e c e marks a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n Piazzetta's  career: Une franche e t joyeuse l u m i e r e d i v i n e e c l a t e e t se repUnd, e x a l t a n t l e s v a l e u r s l o c a l e s : . c ' e s t l a l u m i e r e ( ( e n s o l e i l l ^ e ) ) dont p a r l e A l e s s a n d r o L o n g h i (1760) e t q u i c a r a c t e r i s e maintenant l e , gout p i c t u r a l de P i a z z e t t a . Ce d e r n i e r developpe d a n s . l e t a b l e a u des J e s u a t e s l e m o t i f de compos i t i o n deja. experimente dans l a p e i n t u r e de I ' e ' g l i s e S a n - V i t a l e . Le p r e m i e r s a i n t a gauche, dans son f r o c o b s c u r , donne une r e l i e f p u i s s a n t au vetement c l a i r de S a i n t V i n c e n z o F e r r e r i q u i e s t p e t r i de l u m i e r e . Les personnages sont p l u s p e t i t s , de p r o p o r t i o n s d i f f e r e n t e s par r a p p o r t a 1'ensemble de l a c o m p o s i t i o n dont 1'atmosphere e s t d'une l u m i n o s i t e e c l a t a n t e . 28  According to Zampetti: R i s p e t t o a l i a p a l a d i S. V i d a l - n e l l a q u a l e l e - f i g u r e incombevano i n primo p i a n o senza una vibrazione atmosferica - i n quest'opera (the G e s u a t i ) i l P i a z z e t t a tenda a d i l a t a r e l a compos-izione ad a p p r o f o n d i r e l o s p a z i o , ad a l l e g g e r i r e  44  i p r i m i p i a n i per a r t i c o l a r e con maggiore la struttura compositiva.  ariosita  29 In the p a i n t i n g i n the. c h u r c h o f S. V i d a l o f The G u a r d i a n A n g e l and S t . Anthony o f Padua and S t . L o u i s , a work d a t i n g 30 from the second h a l f o f the 1 7 2 0 ' s ,  we see the w e i g h t o f  c o m p o s i t i o n r e s t i n g a t the bottom o f the p a i n t i n g . s a i n t s are p l a c e d at the bottom o f the l e f t  The two  s i d e o f the  s i t i o n , and they are b a l a n c e d by a s m a l l c h i l d a t the o f the l e f t  side.  Between t h e s e t h r e e f i g u r e s  d o m i n a t i n g f i g u r e o f the G u a r d i a n A n g e l .  stands the  and f i n a l l y ,  constituting  i s the c h i l d s t a n d i n g on the r i g h t .  large  The c o m p o s i t i o n i s  b e i n g p l a c e d one above the o t h e r , the l a r g e  a n g e l t o the r i g h t ,  compo-  bottom  b u i l t up p r i m a r i l y on a system o f v e r t i c a l s , w i t h the saints,  the  two standing  a third vertical  Any r i g i d n e s s  is  by the d i a g o n a l l i n e s formed by the l e g o f the s a i n t  offset sitting  at  the lower l e f t o f the p i c t u r e and by the s l i g h t l y i n c l i n e d , o u t s t r e t c h e d arm o f the a n g e l .  L i k e the G e s u a t i  altarpiece,  t h i s p i c t u r e i n S. V i d a l s t r e s s e s the m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e saint.  In the S. V i d a l p a i n t i n g , S t . L o u i s ,  o f the G e s u a t i a l t a r p i e c e , the p i c t u r e f r a m e , . w h i l e  l i k e St. Vincent  gazes up and beyond the l i m i t s o f  l i g h t streams down upon h i s f a c e ,  l i g h t i n g p a r t s and c r e a t i n g the G e s u a t i p a i n t i n g a l s o , and d a r k ,  of a  shadows i n o t h e r s .  Reminiscent of  i s the use o f a p l a y between  the dark garment o f S t . Anthony c o n t r a s t i n g  w h i t e garment o f S t . L o u i s b e h i n d h i m .  high-  Nearly h a l f of  light  w i t h the the  space o f the p i c t u r e i s o c c u p i e d by v e r y dark brown c l o u d s  45 w h i c h , by t h e i r t o n a l i t y , tend t o add v i s u a l w e i g h t t o the t u r e , p u s h i n g the f i g u r e s c l o s e t o the p i c t u r e p l a n e . there i s a touch of l i g h t n e s s  pic-  But,  i n the p a i n t i n g i n the p i n k ,  w h i t e , b l u e , and b r o w n i s h - y e l l o w robes o f the a n g e l .  Light,  descending from a source above and t o the l e f t o f the  painting,  p i c k s out d e t a i l s o f the faces o f the heads o f two p u t t i i n the c l o u d s a t the t o p ,  streams down upon the arm and face o f  the  a n g e l , i l l u m i n a t e s most o f the c o l o u r e d garments of. the and the w h i t e garment o f S t . L o u i s , and s e l e c t s  angel  h i g h l i g h t s of  the face o f S t . Anthony and the arm, l e g , . a n d face o f the a t the r i g h t .  The l i g h t source o f the G e s u a t i i s the  coming from the l e f t ,  but l e s s areas are i n shadow.  a n g e l a t the t o p has h i s f a c e , illumination.  child  same, The l a r g e  arms, and r i g h t wing i n b r i g h t  The b l u e , r a t h e r than brown background o f  G e s u a t i work, tends t o recede a n d ' t h e placement o f the  the  figures  a l l o w s g r e a t e r space and d i s t r i b u t i o n c o v e r i n g the whole 31  surface  of the c a n v a s .  altar-  Another p a i n t i n g p r e c e d i n g the G e s u a t i  p i e c e which d i s t r i b u t e s  the f i g u r e s a l o n g the t o t a l . v i s u a l v e r -  t i c a l a x i s , which h i g h l i g h t s as many a r e a s by i t s s i n g l e l i g h t source as t h e S. V i d a l a l t a r p i e c e , i n the Museo C i v i c o i n V i c e n z a .  i s the E c s t a s y o f S t .  Francis  However, a background much  d a r k e r i n t o n a l i t y than the G e s u a t i work i s  used.  In the m i d d l e c h a p e l on the r i g h t s i d e o f the c h u r c h o f the G e s u a t i , we f i n d a l a t e r p a i n t i n g by P i a z z e t t a , S t . Dominic ( F i g . 15),.  representing  T h i s p a i n t i n g shows the s a i n t i n t h r e e -  q u a r t e r length., h o l d i n g h i s s y m b o l i c book and the l i l y . h i s head s h i n e s an e i g h t - p o i n t e d  star.  Above  A document s t a t e s t h a t  46  payment f o r t h i s p o r t r a i t was made i n September, •1743. tunately,  this portrait  32  unfor^  i s c o n v e n t i o n a l and u n i n s p i r i n g :  . . . i l e s t evidemment modele avec v i g u e u r , avec m a t r i s e meme, mais a u s s i avec une s o r t de r e t e n u e . ^ Le S a i n t Dominique des Je'suates marque b i a n l e debut d'une n o u v e l l e p e r i o d e de 1' a c t i v i t e ' a r t i s t i q u e de P i a z z e t t a , l a p l u s pauvre et l a p l u s c o n v e n t i o n n e l l e de ces pSriodes. La b e l l e et r i c h e i n s p i r a t i o n q u i a v a i t c a r a c t e r i s e l e s phases p r e c e d e n t e s de sa v i e d ' a r t i s t e s ' e t i e n t peu "a p e u . I I r e v i e n t brusquement, a un c l a i r - o b s c u r p l u s charge', p l u s t h e a t r a l , p l u s baroque. Son s t y l e e s t encore b i e n d q u i l i b r e et d ' u n e grande p r e c i s i o n f o r m e l l e , mais l ' o n sent que 1 ' a r t i s t e f a t i g u e s'abandonne aux p l u s pauvres conventions.. 33  T i e p o l o ' s great masterpiece c e i l i n g o f the G e s u a t i  of h i s three frescoes  ( F i g s . 1 6 , . 1 8 , 19) d a t e . 1 7 3 9 ,  on the  and  this  date i s supported by a r c h i v a l documents which have been p u b l i s h ed by M o r a s s i .  He r e c o r d s t h a t i n May, 1737, the c o n t r a c t  drawn up f o r the c e i l i n g o f the c h u r c h , but t h a t the of t h e p a i n t i n g s was d e l a y e d .  execution  I n O c t o b e r , 1739, the whole  f r e s c o programme o f the G e s u a t i c e i l i n g was c o m p l e t e . had s u b m i t t e d . h i s  projects  was  Tiepolo  i n the S p r i n g o f 1737, i n F e b r u a r y  o f the fpxb'Iowing y e a r he r e c e i v e d 8370,10 V e n e t i a n l i r e as first  payment'for  pleted,  his  the c o m m i s s i o n , and when the work was com-  i n O c t o b e r , 1739, he r e c e i v e d an a d d i t i o n a l 4030 34  making the t o t a l payment amounting t o 12.4 00,10  lire,  lire.  T i e p o l o ' s G e s u a t i c e i l i n g d e p i c t s t h r e e s e p a r a t e scenes i n three panels.  The main c e n t r e p a n e l , i n the shape o f a r e c -  - t a n g l e , w i t h c i r c u l a r a d d i t i o n s a t two ends, r e p r e s e n t s S t . Domin i c I n s t i t u t i n g the R o s a r y .  Two s m a l l e r p a n e l s o p p o s i t e  rounded ends o f the c e n t r a l p a n e l , are i n the shape o f  the  rec-  47 t a n g l e s w i t h the corners c u t and rounded and w i t h one long s i d e being s t r a i g h t , the other c u r v i n g .  The panel c l o s e s t t o the  entrance r e p r e s e n t s S t . Dominic i n G l o r y , w h i l e the panel c l o s e s t t o  :  '  35  to the a l t a r d e p i c t s The V i r g i n Hearing the Prayers o f the S a i n t . The unique  shape and arrangement of the t h r e e T i e p o l o pan-  e l s i n the G e s u a t i d i s t i n g u i s h e s them as being something o f a new i n n o v a t i o n i n church c e i l i n g d e c o r a t i o n , although e l a b o r a t e , but d e l i c a t e framing was used  i n the A r c h i e s p i s c o p a l Palace i n .  Udine, w h i l e the t h r e e - p a n e l format has a precedent  i n Venetian  c e i l i n g d e c o r a t i o n i n T i t i a n ' s p a i n t i n g s i n the s a c r i s t y o f S t a .  36 Maria d e l l a S a l u t e .  Comparing T i e p o l o ' s s o l u t i o n f o r the  c e i l i n g w i t h some o f the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c e i l i n g programmes o f the seventeenth  century, we are immediately  radical difference i n styles.  c o n f r o n t e d with a  One Baroque s t y l e c e i l i n g i n  Venice i s a work i n the church o f S. Panfealon, p a i n t e d by Giovanni Antonio Fumiani  between 1684 and 1704.  Fumiani, who  d i e d i n 1710, was i n s p i r e d by the Roman Baroque a r t i s t s , Andrea Pozzo, and t h i s s i m i l a r i t y i s e v i d e n t i n t h e i l l u s i o n i s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g s , columns s o a r i n g i n t o space,  arches  s i l h o u e t t e d a g a i n s t the sky and many f o r e s h o r t e n e d f i g u r e s and putti floating  i n space> which can be seen i n both the c e i l i n g  37 of S. Pantalon and the Roman Church o f S. I g n a z i o . A l s o preoccupied by a r c h i t e c t u r a l i l l u s i o n i s m a r e Antonio T o r r i and P i e t r o R i c c h i , two a r t i s t s who p a i n t e d the c e i l i n g o f the V e n e t i a n church of S a n t ' A l v i s e i n the t h i r d q u a r t e r o f the 38 seventeenth century. In-this c e i l i n g fantastic twisted  48  columns r i s e up from f o r e s h o r t e n e d sky.  pedestals,  soaring into  The eye i s l e d up t h e s e columns i n t o p e n d e n t i y e s  the  o f some  "domes" whose t o p s have neem removed, i n the case o f most o f them, t o l e a d the eye even f u r t h e r  i n t o the i l l u s i o n i s t i c  and, i n . t h e case o f the m i d d l e one, t o . r e v e a l a o f the  sky,  representation  Trinity. U n l i k e the c e i l i n g d e c o r a t i o n o f S a n t ' A d v i s e ,  Sebastiano  R i c c i ' s p a i n t i n g s on the c e i l i n g o f S. M a r z i a l e abandon t o t a l i l l u s i o n i s t i c perspective panels,  the  i n favour, o f t h e e e e s e p a r a t e  l i k e the c e i l i n g o f the G e s u a t i , b e i n g t h r e e s e p a r a t e  events i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e l y o v a l g i l t frames these contrast  framed p a n e l s .  Two round and one  are used t o d i s t i n g u i s h the p a i n t i n g s  w i t h the w h i t e , p l a i n c e i l i n g w h i c h i s  l y framed by a c o n t i n u o u s g i l d e d p l a s t e r  and complete-  frame.  The p a i n t i n g s o f S. M a r z i a l e , d a t i n g 1705, d e p i c t The M i r a c u l o u s A r r i v a l ..of the S t a t u e o f the V i r g i n by S e a , S. M a r z j a l e i n G l o r y , and The A n g e l s C a r v i n g the Image o f the  Virgin  i n .the Trunk o f a T r e e . The t h r e e c a n v a s s e s , i n t h e i r e l a b o r a t e s e t t i n g o f g i l d e d p l a s t e r , are f i l l e d w i t h l i g h t and movement . . . as c e i l i n g d e c o r a t i o n they are the a n t i t h e s i s of the e l a b o r a t e and g r i m f a n t a s y by F u m i a n i , the V e n e t i a n P o z z o , i n S. P a n t a l o n , . w h i c h was b e i n g completed a t j u s t about t h i s t i m e , Seen o n l y as p a i n t i n g s , the c e i l i n g o f S. M a r z i a l e may seem l i t t l e more than a b r i l l i a n t r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f c e i l i n g d e c o r a t i o n o f T i t i a n , Veronese and C o r r e g g i o . . The q u a l i t y w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t as a work o f the E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y i s t h e c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n of the scheme asxa d e c o r a t i v e w h o l e . The s o l i d f i g u r e p a i n t i n g o f the canvasses matches the heavy c o n v o l u t i o n s o f the p l a s t e r w o r k , and b o t h are e n l i v e n e d by the same  49 d r a m a t i c sense o f p a t t e r n and- c h i a r o s c u r o . =In t h i s way the c e i l i n g e s t a b l i s h e s i n the f i r s t y e a r s o f the new c e n t u r y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t . p r i n c i p l e o f the h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g o f the p e r i o d - a new concept o f the v a l u e o f the p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the work o f a r t and i t s s e t t i n g , between a r t and l i f e , between p i c t o r i a l space and r e a l space. 39  A l t h o u g h b o t h T i e p o l o and R i c c i d i v i d e t h e i r c e i l i n g c o r a t i o n s i n t o d i v i d e d framed p i c t u r e s ,  de-  the G e s u a t i c e i l i n g  compared t o the S. M a r z i a l e c e i l i n g seems much l i g h t e r and d e l i cate.  The creamy c o l o u r e d s t u c c o d e c o r a t i o n s o f M i c h e l A n t o n i o 40  Pelle  b l e n d p e r f e c t l y w i t h b o t h T i e p o l o , ' s p a i n t i n g s and the  g r e y and w h i t e c o l o u r s o f M a s s a r i ' s P a l l a d i a n s t y l e ture;  architec-  the s t u c c o s o f the G e s u a t i abandon t h e heavy,  elaborate  g i l t frames o f the c e i l i n g o f § . M a r z i a l e . The c e n t r a l f r e s c o p a n e l  ( F i g . 16) o f the G e s u a t i c e i l i n g  shows S t . D o m i n i c , the founder o f the D o m i n i c a n s , d i s t r i b u t i n g 41 h i s O r d e r ' s emblem,-the R o s a r y .  S t . D o m i n i c , a s t a r above h i s  head, h o l d s a book i n h i s l e f t hand, w h i l e o f f e r i n g a r o s a r y a group o f the f a i t h f u l who e a g e r l y s t r e t c h out t h e i r  hands.  Dominic i s d e p i c t e d s t a n d i n g at, the top o f a f l i g h t o f Behind and above the s a i n t f l i e s an a n g e l who c a r r i e s  to  steps. rosaries  from the V i r g i n and C h i l d who are seen h i g h i n the b l u e s k y , supported by c l o u d s , down, t o another saint,  angel standing behind 42 ~  h e l p i n g him d i s t r i b u t e the r o s a r i e s .  Among the  c i p i e n t s o f the r o s a r y i s the Doge h i m s e l f , who appears 43 b e h i n d a man who i s k i s s i n g the g r o u n d .  the  rejust  A t the extreme  left,,  at the bottom o f a f l i g h t of s t e p s w h i c h l e a d s t o the group o f faithful  r e c e i v i n g the r o s a r y ,  i s a w h i t e hound,, the symbol o f  50 the Dominicans (Domini c a n i s ) .  A t the r i g h t , below S t . Dominic  i s a second group o f p e o p l e , one o f whom is- t h e  white-bearded  Pope P i u s V , "The Dominican Pope o f the R o s a r y " who i s w e a r i n g 44 a g o l d c©pe. A t the bottom o f the c o m p o s i t i o n i s a p e r s o n 45 i f i c a t i o n o f the A l b i g e n s i a n h e r e s y f a l l i n g out o f the scene. The i n c l u s i o n o f the Doge i n the f r e s c o p r o b a b l y r e f e r s  to  V e n i c e ' s a l l i a n c e a g a i n s t the T u r k s , an a l l i a n c e formed by 46 Pope P i u s V . The d e f e a t o f the Turks a t Lepanto on the f i r s t Sunday i n O c t o b e r , 1571, a d a t e w h i c h was t o be commemorated by the  " F e s t a o f the R o s a r y " , was a joyous o c c a s i o n f o r C h r i s t i a n 47 countries, e s p e c i a l l y Venice. In t h e s m a l l p a n e l d e p i c t i n g The V i r g i n H e a r i n g the P r a y 48 e r s o f S t . D o m i n i c , ( F i g . 1 8 ) , we see S t . D o m i n i c , a s t a r above h i s head, k n e e l i n g upon a f l i g h t o f s t e p s . symbols, the l i l y ,  Below are  various  the book, and the t o r c h , symbols o f S t .  Dominic and the hound (Domini c a n i s ) , the symbol o f the D o m i n i 49 can O r d e r , which a l s o appeared hound, an a d d i t i o n f r e q u e n t l y t h i s fresco ance.  i n the c e n t r a l f r e s c o .  The  seen i n V e r o n e s e ' s s c e n e s , now i n  i n the G e s u a t i , t a k e s on an i c o n o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i e s  A l s o k n e e l i n g upon the s t e p s i s a Dominican named F r a  P a o l o o f whom i t i s s a i d "avant grandement c o n t r i b u e ' a l a r e 50 c o n s t r u c t i o n de l ' e g l i s e " .  In the c l o u d s above S t .  stands the V i r g i n h o l d i n g her mantle over a group o f  Dominic, saints.  These s a i n t s number n i n e , the number r e p r e s e n t e d i n the eighteenths-century  altarpieces  i n the G e s u a t i .  One o f  three the  s a i n t s r ewears p r e s e na t er di c hi n e a r i n g Bthe y e r sl i eo sf aS t . Dominic l y The d e cV o ri ar tgeidn H cope. e s i d eP r ahim  51 c r o s i e r w h i l e a put-to below c a r r i e s  a mitre.  This saint  perhaps  i s S t . Thomas A q u i n a s - i n h i s r o l e as D o c t o r o f the C h u r c h . s i d e him i s a female s a i n t , other s a i n t s ,  perhaps C a t h e r i n e o f S i e n a .  Be-  The  a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t a t t r i b u t e s , except a f i g u r e i m -  m e d i a t e l y below the V i r g i n ' s l e f t hand who wears the t i a r a who c a r r i e s  and  the t h r e e - b a r r e d p a p a l c r o s s who i s p r o b a b l y Pope  P i u s V , are most l i k e l y S t s . R o s e , Agnes o f M o n t e p u l c i a n o , L o u i s Bertrando, Vincent Ferrer,  P e t e r M a r t y r and H y a c i n t h .  Another p o s s i b i l i t y , s i n c e S t . Thomas does not have the c r o s i e r as i n t h e , R i c c i p a i n t i n g ,  i s that this figure  is.St. 51  A n t o n i n o , A r c h b i s h o p o f F l o r e n c e , who was a l s o a D o m i n i c a n . The g e s t u r e o f the V i r g i n h o l d i n g her mantle over the group o f s a i n t s s y m b o l i z e s her o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n t o the  Domini-  can O r d e r .  that  An a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  the e n t i r e group o f f i g u r e s  o f the f r e s c o  are s a i n t s born before, the time o f  D o m i n i c , t h a t i s , t h o s e a l r e a d y i n Heaven.  The f o r e g r o u n d  w i t h the c r o s i e r would then be S t . A u g u s t i n e . interpretation  is  However,  figure this  d o e s ' n o t e x p l a i n the presence o f F r a P a o l o , nor  does i t e x p l a i n why the V i r g i n would be d e p i c t e d s h i e l d i n g s a i n t s o f another r e l i g i o u s O r d e r .  I t must, though, be .admitted  the f i g u r e w i t h the c r o s i e r does p r e s e n t a p r o b l e m .  I f we i d e n -  t i f y him as S t . A n t o n i n o , why does he not appear i n one o f side a l t a r  the  paintings?  The t h i r d T i e p o l o f r e s c o inic,  that  section  ( F i g . 19)  shows S t . Dom-  a s t a r above h i s head, r i s i n g i n t o Heaven, b e i n g borne by  a number o f a n g e l s .  Below i s h i s s y m b o l , the l i l y and b e s i d e  it  52  i s a globe w i t h a t o r c h p r o j e c t i n g ?  from i t .  T h i s symbol  refers  t o a dream D o m i n i c ' s mother i s s a i d t o have had j-ust b e f o r e son was b o r n .  It i s interpreted  her  as b e i n g a symbol f o r S t . Dom53  i n i c ' s j o u r n e y i n g about the w o r l d i l l u m i n a t i n g men's m i n d s . Stylistically,  the c e n t r a l c e i l i n g f r e s c o o f the G e s u a t i  r e c a l l s the work o f V e r o n e s e ; foreshortened  we see a " p e r s p e c t i v e  strongly  from below" w i t h v a r i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r a l  elements  on w h i c h are d i s p o s e d f i g u r e s w h i c h convey a f e e l i n g In t h i s f r e s c o ,  of.depth.  T i e p o l o c r e a t e s an i l l u s i o n o f space by "a 54  p l a y of s u c c e s s i v e l y r e c e d i n g p l a n e s " .  A t the bottom o f  the  c o m p o s i t i o n the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the A l b i g e n s i a n h e r e s y tumbles out o f • t h e  p i c t u r e space.  Above i s a c o r n i c e upon  w h i c h r e s t two men, one o f whom t u r n s h i s b a r e , muscular back to us, a f i g u r e - t y p e  found a l s o i n V e r o n e s e ' s A p o t h e o s i s o f  V e n i c e ; the o t h e r d r e s s e d as a s o l d i e r , l e i s u r e l y r e s t s r i g h t knee over the c o r n i c e .  his  Above them i s a f l i g h t o f s t e p s  w h i c h l e a d s our eyes up t o the f a i t h f u l , then to S t . Dominic h i m s e l f who stands a t the t o p o f a p l a t f o r m w h i c h i s a t t o p of y e t another f l i g h t o f s t e p s .  To the l e f t  the  i s an i n d i c -  a t i o n o f a b u i l d i n g whose massive I o n i c columns, seen i n f o r e shortening,  l e a d the eye even f u r t h e r  up i n t o space.  Finally,  h i g h i n the c o m p o s i t i o n i s the V i r g i n and C h i l d who appear i n the heavens. spaciousness.  T i e p o l o ' s c o m p o s i t i o n emphasizes  freedom and  The eye i s a l l o w e d to wander up the s t e p s l e a d i n g  t o S t . D o m i n i c , t h e n beyond t o the l i g h t and a i r y sky above. The sky o c c u p i e s h a l f o f the t o t a l c o m p o s i t i o n , e x t e n d i n g  above  53 the a r c h i t e c t u r e  on the l e f t ,  b e h i n d the f i g u r e o f S t . Dominic  r i g h t up to the t o p o f the c i r c u l a . r end of the f r e s c o .  A div-  i s i o n i s made by the w h i t e , greyed^brown, and g r e y c l o u d s where the V i r g i n and a n g e l s are p l a c e d a n d ' t h e expanse o f l i g h t b l u e sky beyond;  T h i s emphasis on l i g h t n e s s , and space found i n  T i e p o l o ' s c e i l i n g may be compared t o S e b a s t i a n o R i c c i ' s  altar-  p i e c e i n the same' c h u r c h , where h a l f o f the a r e a o f the p a i n t i n g i s g i v e n t o the w h i t e a r c h i t e c t u r e with p u t t i .  and l i g h t b l u e sky  filled  No attempt i s made by T i e p o l o t o i m i t a t e the deep .  b l u e sky c r e a t i n g the s u p e r n a t u r a l  realm i n P i a z e t t a ' s  Vincent Ferrer, Hyacinth.and Louis Bertrand.  I n The G l o r y o f .  S t . D o m i n i c , T i e p o l o once a g a i n composes a p i c t u r e t h a t w i t h space and l i g h t .  Sts.  "breathes"  S t . Dominic and the a n g e l s are g i v e n a  background o f w h i t e c l o u d s and g o l d e n expanse o f s k y .  Like  the  c e n t r a l p a n e l , the G l o r y o f S t . Dominic uses a d i a g o n a l d i v i s i o n between sky and c l o u d s . An e a r l i e r " g l o r y " o f a s a i n t p a i n t e d by T i e p o l o i s h i s G l o r y o f S t a,. T e r e s a ,  dated about 1720-1725, which was a com-  m i s s i o n f o r a f r e s c o f o r the v a u l t o f the s i d e c h a p e l i n the c h u r c h o f the S c a l z i .  This p i c t u r e :  p r o v i d e s the key t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f T i e p o l o ' s s e c r e t s i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s "heavens", the mechanics as i t were, o f h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . Still w o r k i n g w i t h i n the g r e a t ' B a r o q u e t r a d i t i o n , the a r t i s t here e s t a b l i s h e s some new p r i n c i p l e s which were t o become the r u l e i n the f u r t h e r development of h i s p e r s p e c t i v e d e c o r a t i o n s . The way i n w h i c h the a r t i s t g i v e s prominence t o the p r i n c i p a l group drawing i t c l e a r o f the t a n g i b l e p l a n e o f the w a l l , and t y i n g i t , by means o f the c l u s t e r s o f m u s i c i a n s i n the second p l a n e , t o the t h r o n g o f a n g e l s above the p a i n t e d a l l e g o r i c a l s t a t u e s a t the s i d e s , i s c e r t a i n l y h i s own i n v e n t i o n . I n a w h i r l p o o l o f  5.4 clouds r i s i n g i n ever narrowing c i r c l e s towards the z e n i t h , T i e p o l o p l a c e s on h i g h , u p s i d e down and seen i n the most d a r i n g f o r e s h o r t e n i n g from below, the angel who, o f f e r i n g the martyr's crown t o the S a i n t , makes the depth of the v o r t e x f u l l y apparent. 55 The G l o r y o f S t . Dominic i n the G e s u a t i perhaps i s not an improvement of the S c a l z i f r e s c o , but r a t h e r a s l i g h t l y s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f p r o j e c t i o n i n t o space.  different  In both p a i n t -  ings T i e p o l o p l a c e s g r e a t emphasis on the s a i n t , surrounding h i s key f i g u r e by s e v e r a l angels.  In the G e s u a t i f r e s c o the numerous  f i g u r e s o f the second plane i n the S c a l z i p a i n t i n g are omitted, but a l a r g e s i n g l e a n g e l , seen from the r e a r , l o c a t e d at the extreme r i g h t corner-, suggests a secondary to our space. lily,  plane which i s c l o s e r  Above, Dominic i s a p l a y f u l putto swinging on a  and i n a c i r c u l a r break i n the clouds a t the top of the  p i c t u r e , a d e v i c e found both i n t h e S c a l z i p i c t u r e and a l s o i n the V i r g i n Hearing the Prayers o f S t . Dominic, are the heads o f three p u t t i p e e r i n g  through.  Perhaps a.greater sense o f drama  i s f e l t i n T i e p o l o ' s G l o r y o f St.. Dominic than i n the S c a l z i p a i n t i n g because the former  shows the s a i n t s head t h r u s t f a r  back, h i s gaze d i r e c t e d toward the heavens, w h i l e S t . Theresa looks d i r e c t l y down a t the s p e c t a t o r i n the church below the painting. The  f i n a l f r e s c o o f the G e s u a t i i s a roundel i n the c e i l i n g 56  of the c h o i r , a p a i n t i n g d e p i c t i n g The Angel Appearing  t o David  CFig. 2 0 ) / • The i n c l u s i o n of t h i s scene i n a Dominican  church  probably i s intendedaas  a p a r a l l e l between the appearance o f an  angel t o David and the appearance of the V i r g i n t o Dominic, as.  55 the V i r g i n i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d t o have appeared t o Dominic 57 . t e l l i n g him t o spread the p r a c t i c e o f s a y i n g the T u r n i n g t o the s i d e c h a p e l s , i n g , the Madonna w i t h S t s , of M o n t e p u l c i a n o ( F i g . 2 2 ) . Foriestiere  rosary.  we see a n o t h e r T i e p o l o  Rose,;Catherine  paint-  o f S i e n a , and Agnes  A l t h o u g h the 1740 e d i t i o n o f  the  I l l u m i n a t o by A l b r i z z i l i s t s t h i s p a i n t i n g as i n 58  church already,  the  t h e r e i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a document w h i c h d a t e s  the p a i n t i n g much l a t e r : O.ttobre 174 6: P o s t i i n d e p o s i t o per e s s e r c o n t a d i a l S. r - G i o : B a t t a T i e p o l o P i t t o r , quando consegnera l a P a l o d e l l e Sante L . 660: Gennaio 1747: P o s t i i n d e p o s i t o da c o n t a r s i a l S. r G i o : B a t t a T i e p o l e t t o a conto d e l l a P a l o d e l l e Sante L . 1240:' A p r i l e 1748: Fu a c c o r d a t a l a P a l a d e l l e Sante c o l . S. r G i o : B a t t a T i e p o l e t t o c e c c h i n i c e n t o sono L . 2200 - O t t o b r e 1746 sono i n e s i t o L . 660 Genaio 1746 M . V . s o n o , i n e s i t o L . 1240, summano L . 1900 D e l p r e s e n t e mese i n e s i t o L . 300 (Dico L . 300) Summa e s a l d o c o n t a t o L . 2200: a l S, r G i o : - B a t t a T i e p o l e t t o come da r i c e v u t a in filza Manzie d a t e a q u e l l i i d e l S. r G i o : B a t t a T i e p o l e t t o L . 31 R o s a r i con m e d a g l i e d ' a r g e n t o L . 2 2 Pranzo per i l s o p r a d i t t o e f f e t t o L . 27: 3-Barche per lo stesso fine L . 3 . 59 It is interesting  t o note t h a t a f t e r the v i c t o r y at  i n 1571 and the subsequent i n s t i t u t i o n o f the  "Festa  Eepanto del  R o s a r i o " the s u b j e c t o f the Madonna " d e l R o s a r i o " became 60 popular  i n Dominican  churches.  Perhaps one o f the e a r l i e s t  representations of  the  s u b j e c t i s a p a i n t i n g by G i o v a n n i A n t o n i o F a s o l o , an a r t i s t who d i e d i n 1572, o n l y a year a f t e r the B a t t l e o f E e p a n t o .  This p i c -  t u r e w h i c h i s i n the Museo C i v i c o i n V i c e n z a , i s recorded, as L a V e r g i n e d e l R o s a r i o con I I Bambino, I SS..Domenico e R o s a , i l  56 P o n t e f i c e P i o V , Vescovi e Devoti.-, executed soon a f t e r  61  Lepanto w^ith t h e  r  Here we have a p a i n t i n g as y e t , uncanonized Pope  Pius V .  However, the s a i n t t o t h e r i g h t o f the V i r g i n cannot 62 Be Rose s i n c e she was born o n l y i n 1586; i t must t h e n , be Catherine of Siena.  A l a t e Seventeenth  Eighteenth Century r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  Century or e a r l y  o f the Madonna d e l R o s a r i o  i s a p a i n t i n g i n t h e P a r r o c c h i a l e i n F o r e s t o S p a r s o , a work by 63 Agostino L e t t e r i n i . platform„  The p a i n t i n g shows t h e V i r g i n , on a h i g h  h o l d i n g t h e c h i l d who o f f e r s  Lima who.stands the • plat^oj-m.  a r o s a r y t o S t . Rose o f  a t t h e t o p o f a f l i g h t o f s t e p s l e a d i n g up t o A t t h e bottom o f t h e s t a i r s  stands S t . Dominic  and'setting at the r i g h t i s Catherine o f S i e n a . Tiepolo'S altarpiece saints;  i n the G e s u a t i shows t h r e e Dominican  at the l e f t S t . Catherine of Siena holding a large  c r u c i f i x , , next i s S t . R o s e ' o f Lima h o l d i n g t h e C h r i s t C h i l d Who h o l d s a rose', a n d , s i t t i n g - a t  t h e r i g h t i s St. Agnes o f  ;M,ontepulciano w i t h her a t t r i b u t e ,  the l i l y ,  her,  l y i n g i n front of  Above, s i t t i n g on a c l o u d i s t h e V i r g i n who appears t o be 64  p r o t e c t i n g the s a i n t s  below.  T r i e - c o m p o s i t i o n , however, does not i n c l u d e any r o s a r i e s , although,  l i k e L e t t e r i n i ' s p a i n t i n g , S t s . Rose and C a t h e r i n e  a n d ' t h e V i r g i n are p r e s e n t .  In T i e p o l o ' s fresco the C h r i s t  C h i l d h o l d s a rosary- and He stands i n f r o n t o f t h e . V i r g i n i n t h e clouds?; - A p a i n t i n g o f t h e same s u b j e c t  o f 17 4 0 by Jacopo  Araigoni i n t h e C h i e s a P a r r o c c h i a l e i n P r a t a d i Pordenone i s 65 the Madonna d e l R o s a r i o con I S a n t i Domenjco. e Rosa.  57  Both p a i n t i n g s  employ a p y r a m i d a l c o m p o s i t i o n , w i t h the  V i r g i n at the top and a r c h i t e c t u r a l  elements b e h i n d .  p l a c e s a canopy w h i l e Amigoni p l a c e s two s l e n d e r  Tiepolo  columns  be-  h i n d the V i r g i n and b o t h a r t i s t s u s e a r c h m o t i f s a t the l e f t o f their pictures. being offered  Amigoni shows S t , Dominic s t a n d i n g a t the  a r o s a r y by the V i r g i n and k n e e l i n g a t the  right.  A pose w h i c h - i s a c c e n t u a t e d w i t h T i e p o l o " s S t . Agnes, i s Rose w e a r i n g a crown, o f t h o r n s and h o l d i n g a c r u c i f i x . it  left  St. Also,  s h o u l d be noted t h a t the r o s a r y m i s s i n g i n T i e p o l o ' s work  i s present i n A m i g o n i ' s . There i s a c o n t e m p l a t i v e mood t o T i e p o l o ' s a l t a r p i e c e the V i r g i n , m a j e s t i c a l l y s e a t e d upon her t h r o n e o f c l o u d s , s e t above the t h r e e s a i n t s b e l o w :  St. Catherine,  is  a crown o f  t h o r n s on her h e a d , . a p p e a r s t o have her eyes c l o s e d , as i f medi t a t i n g , S t . Rose l o o k s upward, not a t the V i r g i n who i s b e h i n d her,  but beyond the l i m i t s o f the p i c t u r e frams as i f engaged  i n some t t y p e o f s u p e r n a t u r a l ing,  experience,  and S t . Agnes, k n e e l -  her head bowed, h o l d s a c r o s s a t t a c h e d w i t h a c h a i n and  seems t o be c o m p l e t e l y absorbed  i n her t h o u g h t s .  A mood such  as t h i s makes us i m m e d i a t e l y t h i n k o f P i a z z e t t a " s which i s i n the same c h u r c h . altarpiece  altarpiece  Gone are the p u t t i o f  or even o f T i e p o l o ' s own c e i l i n g .  heavenly s e t t i n g o f P i a z z e t t a ' s  Ricci's  However,  work i s abandoned  for a p l a t -  form, r u n n i n g r i g h t a c r o s s the lowermost p a r t o f the sition,  compo-  forming a k i n d o f s t a g e on w h i c h the s a i n t s are  L i k e R i c c i , an a r c h i t e c t u r a l ground.  the  setting  and sky form the  placed.  back-  Tiepolo'employs a s t r i c t h o r i z o n t a l - v e r t i c a l axis  to  58 h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , p l a c i n g the s a i n t s and the V i r g i n - v e r t i c a l l y ' , . . a g e s t u r e r e i n f o r c e d by a f l u t e d column and the back o f  the  V i r g i n ' s canopy, and p l a c i n g the o n l y h o r i z o n t a l element, edge o f the p l a t f o r m , the work.  the  at the v e r y bottom, g i v i n g a s t a b i l i t y  The dark b l u e sky o f P i a z z e t t a i s s u b s t i t u t e d  to  by  T i e p o l o f o r a l i g h t b l u e s k y touched w i t h the g o l d e n brown c l o u d s seen i n h i s c e i l i n g f r e s c o e s . we do not e x p e r i e n c e  A l t h o u g h sky i s i n c l u d e d ,  the l i g h t n e s s o f R i c c i ,  a l t h o u g h the mood  i s l i g h t e n e d w i t h the i n c l u s i o n o f a c h a f f i n c h perched on a bar 66  between an a r c h t o the s i d e o f the V i r g i n .  T i e p o l o , by p l a c i n g  the sky t o the l e f t  of h i s v e r t i c a l l y - s t r u c t u r e d  figures  a c h i e v e d a somewhat  l e s s s p a c i o u s and a i r y q u a l i t y t h a t i s e v i d -  ent i n R i c c i ' s a l t a r p i e c e .  has  .  S u r r o u n d i n g the f r e s c o p a n e l s by T i e p o l o are  monochrome. 67  p a i n t i n g s d e p i c t i n g scenes o f the m y s t e r i e s (Figs- 23-25).  P a i n t e d on the v a u l t ,  are r e p r e s e n t e d i n a l t e r n a t i n g  o f the  Rosary.  t h e s e g r i s a i l l e scenes  o v a l and q u a t r e f o i l frames.  Al-  though M a s s a r i ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e - i s u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e d from P a l l a d i o , the a d d i t i o n o f t h e s e G o t h i c q u a t r e f o i l and o v a l g r i s a i l l e scenes and the c o l o u r f u l T i e p o l o c e i l i n g f r e s c o a l i e n t o a pure . P a l l a d i a n a e s t h e t i c . becomes not o n l y a p u r e ,  something  S u r f a c e i n the  Gesuati  abstract experience of play of  and shadow, but a l s o an e x p e r i e n c e ing,  are  light  i n d e s i g n , and, i n the  ceil-  colour. The r o s a r y c o n s i s t s o f b o t h v o c a l and mental p r a y e r ,  v o l v i n g the r e c i t a t i o n o f Ave M a r i a s and P a t e r - N o s t e r s m e d i t a t i o n known as m y s t e r i e s .  There a r e ,  in-  and a l s o  i n the r o s a r y ,  fifteen  59  mysteries,  w h i c h "focus a t t e n t i o n  on the I n c a r n a t i o n ,  sufferings  and g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f C h r i s t , w h i c h are a compendium o f the  life  68  o f Jesus and M a r y " . fiyes,  the f i r s t  The f i f t e e n m y s t e r i e s  are grouped  into  s e t b e i n g the J o y f u l M y s t e r i e s t h e Annun-  c i a t i o n , the V i r g i n ' s v i s i t t o E l i z a b e t h , the b i r t h o f C h r i s t , the p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f C h r i s t i n the Temple,, and the f i n d i n g o f  C h r i s t i n the Temple,?the  second s e t b e i n g the S o r r o w f u l M y s t e r -  i e s v the agony i n the Garden, the s c o u r g i n g o f C h r i s t , crowning w i t h thorns,., C h r i s t c a r r y i n g the c r o s s , c r u c i f i x i o n and d e a t h , and the l a s t  the  and Christ'!;s  s e t b e i n g the G l o r i o u s  M y s t e r i e s - the R e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t , the A s c e n s i o n i n t o heaven,  the descent o f the Holy S p i r i t , the assumption o f  the  69  V i r g i n and the. V i r g i n ' s c o r o n a t i o n as Queen o f Heaven. scenes i n the v a u l t o f the G e s u a t i b e g i n a t the l e f t , e n t r a n c e o f the c h u r c h , and c o n t i n u e a l o n g the l e f t  The near  the  side with  the J o y f u l M y s t e r i e s , then c o n t i n u e w i t h the S o r r o w f u l M y s t e r i e s , the scene o f the crowning w i t h t h o r n s b e i n g d i r e c t l y above  the  a r c h l e a d i n g t o the c h a n c e l , f o l l o w i n g w i t h the C a r r y i n g o f C r o s s and-, the C r u c i f i x i o n , - and on the r i g h t ,  the  t h e n the G l o r i o u s  M y s t e r i e s , f i n i s h i n g w i t h the C o r o n a t i o n o f the. V i r g i n on the right,  near the e n t r a n c e .  B e s i d e s the m y s t e r i e s  o f the  Rosary,  t h e r e are e t h e r g r i s a i l l e s - a G l o r i f i c a t i o n o f the Rosary above the e n t r a n c e o f the c h u r c h , the f o u r E v a n g e l i s t s i n the t i v e s o f the dome, and P r o p h e t s roundel.  surrounding T i e p o l o ' s c e i l i n g  There have been two major p u b l i c a t i o n s  g r i s a i l l e scenes o f the G e s u a t i .  penden-  The f i r s t  concerning  i s by A l e s s a n d r o  Vardanega,: who wrote an a r t i c l e i n A r t e C h r i s t i a n a .  According  60  to  Vardanega:' T i e p o l o e l a sua s c u o l a hanno c a n t a t o n e g l i s p a z i v a r i ed i m p e n s a t i , c r e a t i d a l l e pure sagone a r c h i tettoniche t u t t o i l Rosario, dividendo i " m i s t e r i " curitmicamente, n e l l e yele e n e g l i spazi intermedi c o m p r e s i t r a f i n e s t r a e f i n e s t r a , i n un t u t t o a r monico che s ' a c c o r d a eon. i l CCTrionfo d e l R o s a r i o ) ) p o r t a t o i n g l o r i a sopra l a p o r t a d ' i n g r e s s o d a g l i angioletti!. • 70  Of  tfie scene o f the S c o u r g i n g o f C h r i s t , Vardanega  says:  . . . e* un r i t m c x Q c a r a t t e r i s t i c o t i e p o l e s c o e l a s i c u r e z z a c o m p o s i t i v a , come, l a c o r r e t t e z z a d i disegno, l o indicano t r a 1 m i g l o r i d i questa stupenda s e r i e . In 1959, Giuseppe M a r i a P i l o p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e he s t a t e d t h a t the monochrome.decorations p a , r t l y be a s s i g n e d  to Francesco  Zugno.  72  i n which  o f the G e s u a t i According to  should  Pilo:  Mentre non sembrano d e l l o Zugno i l ' tondo con l a ' C r o c i f i s s i o n e n e l l a p a r e t e d i fondo d e l c o r e e. i q u a t t r o o v a l i con ' P r o f e t i ' n e l l e v e l e d e l la f i n t a cupola q u e s t i . u l t i m i a t t r i b u t i d a l M o l m e n t i , poco p r o b a b i l m e n t e a G . B . T i e p o l o , i c a r a t t e r i e s e c u t i v i d e i m e d a g l i o n i d e l l a navata r i p o r t a n o a l l i n g u a g g i o d e l l o Zugno con t a l e e v i d e n z a da sembrar q u a s i i n u t i l e spender p a r o l e per s o t t o - l i n e a r n e g l i e l e m e n t i . Si riguardi a l i a s t r u t t u r a d i s o s s a t a d e l l e forme composte per p i a n i s l a r g a t i i n movimenti q u a s i d a n z a n t i ; p e r s o n a g g i e s i l i ed e l e g a n t i , d a l l a p s i c o l o g i a scoperta; un po s t o r d i t i i v e c c h i o n i , g r a z i o samente pudibonde l e donne; t u t t i un po s v a g a t i , come s o r p r e s i da q u a l c o s a p i u grande d i l o r o i n a t t e g g i a m e n t i r a c c o l t i e sommessi, i n ' f i g u r e ' a ritmo chuiso. 1  73  Although s t y l i s t i c a l l y  the p r o b a b i l i t y o f Zugno p a i n t i n g  t i l e g r i s a i l l e s • i s g r e a t , the problem s t i l l , exists-, v- can we be absolutely  c e r t a i n t h a t he i s the T i e p o l o f o l l o w e r - i n v o l v e d ? .  Other T i e p o l o f o l l o w e r s , namely G i o v a n n i Rqggi and  Francesco  61 L o r e n z i s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d ,  'Pal.ucch.ini i n s i s t s R a g g i had  c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h T i e p o l o i n the p a i n t i n g o f 74 c e i l i n g and the S a n t ' A l v i s e p a i n t i n g s .  the  Gesuati  It is interesting  to  note t h a t the g r i s a i l l e of the G e s u a t i o f The S c o u r g i n g o f Christ  ( F i g . 24) b e a r s a g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y t o the Sant  Flagellation.  L o r e n z i too was i n v o l v e d , a l t h o u g h  1  Alvise  indirectly, 75  w i t h the G e s u a t i c e i l i n g i n h i s drawing o f the c e n t r a l  panel.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y the problem of d e c i d i n g , o n s t y l i s t i c g r o u n d s , w h i c h artist  t o choose as p a i n t e r  o f the m y s t e r i e s o f the r o s a r y ,  be-  cause o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o T i e p o l o , becomes v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d i n deed and the q u e s t i o n can o n l y be answered d e f i n i t e l y when archival material is  discovered.  I n the t h i r d a l t a r o f the l e f t p a i n t i n g by T i n t o r e t t o , from the o l d c h u r c h o f d a t i n g from the p e r i o d s i l h o u e t t e d a g a i n s t the d o m i n a t i n g the p i c t u r e ,  s i d e o f the G e s u a t i i s a  The C r u c i f i x i o n , , an a l t a r p i e c e t a k e n 76 S. Gerolamo d e l G e s u a t i . T h i s work, 79 1556-1564, p l a c e s the c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t sky on the c e n t r a l a x i s , d r a m a t i c a l l y e x t e n d i n g t w o - t h i r d s o f the s p a c e .  No fewer than seven f i g u r e s f a t h e r round and support the swooning V i r g i n , each i n a s e p a r a t e l y d e s i g n e d a t t i t u d e o f t e n d e r n e s s and s o l i c i t u d e , y e t w i t h a s i n g l e rhythm r u n n i n g through the whole c l o s e l y - k n i t group. 78 F o r a k i n d o f s u b t l e s u g g e s t i o n , and i n the r e t i c e n c e and consummate mastery o f the a r t a s s e r t e d t h i s f i g u r e [ C h r i s t ] i s . . . a w o n d e r f u l p i e c e o f work as mere f a i n t i n g . . . 79 I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t t h i s T i n t o r e t t o p a i n t i n g was r e s t o r e d by p i a z z e t t a and t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a document r e c o r d i n g payment f o r the work i n A u g u s t , 1743. 80  Another work i n the G e s u a t i t h a t does not belongcj t o  the  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s a s c u l p t u r e by A n t o n i o R o s a , the Madonna and C h i l d .  T h i s work, w h i c h i s i n the second a l t a r on the  left  f a c i n g P i a z z e t t a ' s S t . D o m i n i c , i n p l a c e i n i t s n i c h e i n the 81 ' c h u r c h 1838. In the c h o i r , t h e r e i s a s e v e n t h a l t a r p i e c e , the V i r g i n and S t . Anne i n G l o r y w i t h S t . Dominic and Other Saints-, a p a i n t i n g by M a t t i a I n g o H i , dated 1630, which was " 82 t a k e n from S. Marco and S. Andrea d i Murano. By examining the a r t o f the G e s u a t i , - some i n d i c a t i o n i s gdven o f the d i r e c t i o n s o f p a i n t i n g i n V e n i c e o f the 1 7 3 0 ' s and  a  1740's.  On the one hand, t h e r e i s S e b a s t i h o R i c c i , "the key 83 f i g u r e i n the r e v i v a l o f V e n e t i a n a r t " , '. now, by t h e time o f the G e s u a t i commission s e v e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s o l d , p a i n t i n g i n a 84 Rococo v e i n , but not w i t h o u t some i n d e b t e d n e s s which i s apparent  to Veronese,  i n h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l background i n h i s  p i e c e i n the G e s u a t i .  altar-  On the o t h e r hand, i s P i a z z e t t a , whose  c h i a r o s c u r o work even a t t h i s t i m e , r e c a l l s Baroque drama, and 85 who i s the o u t s i d e r i n t h i s Rococo p e r i o d . F i n a l l y there i s T i e p o l o , i n 1748, f i f t y - t w o y e a r s o l d , who u n i t e s the two 86 streams o f R i c c i and P i a z z e t t a . There i s i n T i e p o l o ' s c e i l i n g a c e r t a i n element o f g a i e t y and d e f i n i t e l i g h t n e s s o f the Rococo though not w i t h o u t i n d e b t e d n e s s 87 of V e r o n e s e ,  t o the p e r s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s  but i n ' h i s a l t a r p i e c e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f  i n t r o v e r t e d q u a l i t i e s of P i a z z e t t a s !  art.  B e s i d e s d e m o n s t r a t i n g the s t y l e s o f t h r e e major century a r t i s t s ,  the  the .Gesuati. demonstrates  Dominican commissions i n V e n e t i a n a r t . -  eighteenth  the importance o f  I have a l r e a d y mentioned  • •  '  -' • • '  63 88  one o t h e r , namely Amigonis Madonna d e l R o s a r i o , a l s o the i m p o r t a n t work of the G u a r d i s . banner (Museum.of F i n e A r t s , Budapest!  but t h e r e i s .  This i s a processional an e l e g a n t work d e p i c t i n g  the V i r g i n s e a t e d amidst c l o u d s o f f e r i n g a r o s a r y t o S t . o f Lima who i s p l a c e d at the r i g h t o f the c o m p o s i t i o n . left  i s S t . Dominic and h i s symbol, the dog with-, the  torch.  T h i s banner i s p a i n t e d on b o t h s i d e s ,  buted t o G i a n A n t o n i o and the r e v e r s e , Francesco G u a r d i .  Rose To the  burning  the. f r o n t  attri-  a. copy o f the f r o n t ,  A c c o r d i n g t o Fenyo " i t may be assumed  to  that  the banner was commissioned by a b r o t h e r h o o d o f the Dominican 89 Order i n V e n i c e . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h i s work can be l i n k e d t o a drawing by G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o i n the O r l o f f 90 Album. A p a i n t i n g by T i e p o l o h i m s e l f i s the Madonna .with S t s . Dominic and H y a c i n t h ( C h i c a g o , A r t I n s t i t u t e )  dating  about  1730^-1735, commissioned f o r an unknown church or p r i v a t e 91 chapel. I t shows the V i r g i n s e a t e d upon a h i g h throne' i n f r o n t o f w h i c h hangs a t a p e s t r y w i t h m e d a l l i o n s w i t h the 92 m y s t e r i e s o f t h e r o s a r y , grouped i n s e t s o f f i v e .  fifteen  A work commissioned f o r the Dominican c h u r c h i n Murano, the c h u r c h o f S t . P e t e r M a r t y r , or S. P i e t r o M a r t i r e , w h i c h was c l o s e d i n 1808 and d e p r i v e d o f i t s a r t 93 was s u p p r e s s e d ,  t r e a s u r e s when the  i s a p a i n t i n g by F r a n c e s c o G u a r d i .  the M i f a c o l o d i un Santo Domenicano ( V i e n n a ,  T h i s work  Kunsthistorisches  Museum, • (FsG^maldegaierie) , dated about 1763, d e p i c t s the o f a Dominican s a i n t ,  Order  miracle  p r o b a b l y S t . H y a c i n t h , w a l k i n g on the  water t o save a number o f v i c t i m s who have f a l l e n from a b r i d g e 94. : Which has- j u s t c o l l a p s e d .  64 I n the c i t y o f V e n i c e i t s e l f , i n the Dominican Church o f SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o i s the G l o r y o f S t . Dominic ( F i g . 26) 95 dated about 1725. L i k e T i e p o l o ' s Dominic i n G l o r y i n t h e v  :  G e s u a t i , ..Piazzetta,'• S' s a i n t , arms o u t s t r e t c h e d , a n g e l s as he ascends t o heaven.  i s s u p p o r t e d by  P i a z z e t t a has c r e a t e d h i s  i l l u s i o n by p l a c i n g some Dominican f i g u r e s on the ;Cornice and by adding a n g e l s , seen from below, who appear t o f l y upward. C e r t a i n l y w i t h the w e a l t h o f Dominican commissions i n eighteenth century Venetian a r t ,  the G e s u a t i stands out a l l  the more p l a i n l y as an i m p r e s s i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f e i g h t e e n t h century p a i n t i n g s .  CHAPTER TV THE SCULPTURAL PROGRAMME J u s t as an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the p a i n t i n g s o f the p r o v i d e s , an i n s i g h t i n t o the s t y l e s ' - o f the f i n e s t century- V e n e t i a n p a i n t e r s , t u r a l decorations offers  o f the c h u r c h , w h i c h began w i t h the Venetian  The facade o f the G e s u a t i c o n t a i n s  sculpfacade,  sculpture.  four niches for  sculp-  t h e r e b y r e s t r a i n i n g the r o l e s c u l p t u r e p l a y s i n  r e l a t i o n t o the a r c h i t e c t u r e . Scalzi  eighteenth-  s o . t o o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the  a knowledge o f the n a t u r e . o f  tured figures,  Gesuati  C o n t r a s t i n g the c h u r c h . o f  the  ( F i g . . 2 ) w i t h i t s t o t a l of s i x t e e n r e c l i n i n g f i g u r e s  r e s t i n g on, the a r c h e s o f the seven n i c h e s f o r l a r g e  sculptures  and the a r c h f o r the doorway, and the G e s u a t i , w i t h i t s unadorned n i c h e s f o r s c u l p t e d f i g u r e s , we see the i n what may be termed plicity".  four  difference  "Baroque s p l e n d o u r " and " P a l l a d i a n s i m -  The f o u r f i g u r e s on the facade o f the G e s u a t i , and  t h e i r arrangement, above and below the meander p a t t e r n  string  c o u r s e and between the main columns  rectang-  (so p r o v i d i n g f o u r  u l a r zones f o r the n i c h e s ) , g i v e s the c h u r c h a degree o f straint. naba  It is interesting  t o note t h a t the facade o f S. B a r 1  ( F i g . 1 0 ) , w h i c h f o l l o w s the G e s u a t i c l o s e l y ,  o n l y fcwo n i c h e s f o r s c u l p t e d The s c u l p t u r e s  contains  figures.  o f the facade o f the G e s u a t i r e p r e s e n t  four C a r d i n a l V i r t u e s , sculptors,  re-  These were executed by f o u r  the  different  Gaetano F u s a l i was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f i g u r e o f  66 Prudence  C F i g . 27) , F r a n c e s c o Bonazza f o r the f i g u r e of, J u s t i c e  ( F i g . 28) , Gdiiseppe T o r e t t i f o r the f i g u r e o f F o r t i t u d e and A l v i s e T a g l i a p i e t r a f o r the f i g u r e o f Temperance  (Fig.29)  ( F i g . 30).  There i s a document r e c o r d i n g payments made i n September  1?36  f o r the f i r s t t h r e e o f t h e s e f i g u r e s and payments made i n 1737 2 '  f o r the f i g u r e o f Temperance.  A l l four sculptures  can be  seen  i n t h e i r n i c h e s on the facade o f the c h u r c h i n the e n g r a v i n g o f the G e s u a t i i n the 1740 e d i t i o n o f A l b r i z z i ' s luminato  Forestiere.II-  (Fig. 8).; 3  F r a n c e s c o Bonazza C a c t i y e 1729-1770)  was one o f t h r e e  s c u l p t o r sons o f G i o v a n n i Bonazza (1654-1736), Who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making the s t a t u e s o f E l i s a b e t t a Q u e r i n i V a l i e r and V i r t u e Crowning M e r i t on the V a l i e r monument i n SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , a monument d e s i g n e d by the a r c h i t e c t w i t h h i s sons Tommaso ( c . 1696-1775)  Tirali.  and A n t o n i o  he worked on the s e r i e s o f b a s - r e l i e f s ,  Together  (1698-1763)  begun i n 1730, i n the  Cappella d e l R o s a r i o i n SS. Giovanni e P a o l o .  The t h r e e s c u l p -  t o r s are r e s p o n s i v l e f o r the A d o r a t i o n o f the Magi i n t h i s lief  re-  series,  w h i l e G i o v a n n i and A n t o n i o are c r e d i t e d w i t h the 4 A d o r a t i o n o f the Shepherds. F r a n c e s c o , i n a d d i t i o n to b e i n g 5 a s c u l p t o r , was a l s o a p a i n t e r and c u t t e r o f cameos. H i s works i n c l u d e the A n g e l A p p e a r i n g i n the,Dream o f S t . Joseph i n the C a p p e l l a d e l R o s a r i o i n S S . Giovanni, e P a o l o and f o u r V i r t u e s 6 on the facade o f the c h u r c h o f S"ta. M a r g h e r i t a i n Padua. A l v i s e T a g i h l a p i e t r a was a l s o commissioned t o work i n the C a p p e l l a d e l R o s a r i o , and h i s works  a<e.e  the V i s i t a t i o n  a n  d  the  67 C i r c u m c i s i o n i n S. F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l o and a b a s - r e l i e f p u l p i t o f S. M o i s e .  on the  His. b i r t h date i s -unknown, but he had  completed the work i n the Cuomo d i C h i o g g i a by- 1708.  He-prob^-  -7  ably died s h o r t l y before It is interesting  1760. t o note t h a t the s c u l p t o r s ,  Bonazza and  T a g l l a p i e t r a were b o t h commissioned t o work, f o r the  Dominicans  i n the c h u r c h o f S S . , G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , as w e l l as the  Gesuati.  T h i s demonstrates the c o n t i n u i n g a r t i s t i c patronage o f the Order i n a c h u r c h w h i c h had been g i v i n g a r t i s t s commissions f o r s e v e r a l 8 c e n t u r e s . S However, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e i r work on the G e s u a t i i s c o n f i n e d o n l y t o the f a c a d e . o t h e r s c u l p t o r was commissioned. who was p r o b a b l y the f i n e s t responsible uati  For the i n t e r i o r ,  T h i s was G i a n M a r i a M o r l a i t e r ,  s c u l p t o r o f the t i m e .  He a l o n e was  f o r a l l the s c u l p t u r e s , i n the i n t e r i o r o f the  Cwith, o f c o u r s e ,  work by R o s a ) .  the e x c e p t i o n o f the n i n e t e e n t h  Therefore,  a wealth of m a t e r i a l  an-  the i n t e r i o r o f the c h u r c h  f o r the study o f t h i s  was b o r n about 1699 and d i e d i n 17 81.  sculptor.  He, t o o ,  Ges-  century contains Morlaiter  l i k e the BOn-  azzas and T a g l i a p i e t r a , worked f o r the Dominicans i n the Capp e l l a d e l R o s a r i o i n . S S . G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , where he i s s i b l e f o r the R e s t on the F l i g h t i n t o Egypt and the  respon-  Dispute  Among the D o c t o r s .  The number o f commissions i n V e n i c e a r e  tremely impressive,  as he d e s i g n e d works f o r the churches o f  ex-  S. P i e t r o i n C a s t e l l o , S. R o c c o , the Z i t e l l e , S t a . M a r i a d e l l a F a v a , S t a . M a r i a d e l G i g l i o , the S c a l z i , Salute,  Sta. Maria d e l l a  S. N i c o l o . d a T o l e n t i n o , , t h e P i e t a , Sant' E u f e m i a , S: 9 Geremia, and S - . M a r c u o l a . M o r l a i t e r was a l s o i n v o l v e d w i t h  68 the V e n e t i a n Academy.  The Academy was founded on 2 0 September  1750, but a p p o i n t e d i t s f i r s t P r e s i d e n t , who was G . B . T i e p o l o , o n l y on 15 F e b r u a r y 17 56.  A s s i s t i n g the P r e s i d e n t , were Mor-  l a i t e r and G . B . P i t t o n i , who were a t t h i s time a p p o i n t e d Councillors.  M o r l a i t e r ' s f o r e i g n commissions t o o k . h i m t o the Saxon  c o u r t and t o the c o u r t o f C a t h e r i n e o f R u s s i a , where he worked 11 i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h h i s s o n s , G r e g o r i o and M i c h e l a n g e l o . A t the G e s u a t i , M o r l a i t e r was commissioned t o work on the h i g h a l t a r and t o make the G l o r y o f A n g e l s the p a i n t i n g o f S t . Dominic by P i a z z e t t a .  ( F i g . 15) around  He i s a l s o r e s p o n -  s i b l e f o r s i x whole s c u l p t e d f i g u r e s and e i g h t b a s - r e l i e f 12 scenes.  . Documents s t a t e that M o r l a i t e r began r e c e i v i n g p a y -  ments f o r the G l o r y o f A n g e l s i n J u n e , 1738, and t h a t t h e s e p a y 13 ments ended Octoberm 1739.  H i s s c u l p t u r e shows two l a r g e  a n g e l s a t two c o r n e r s o f the frame o f P i a z z e t t a ' s  picture.  These a n g e l s h o l d d r a p e r y which c o m p l e t e l y surrounds t h e ing.  paint-  Around t h i s d r a p e r y are many s m a l l p u t t i . A f t e r t h i s s c u l p t u r e , M o r l a i t e r began work on t h e h i g h  altar,  i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the a r c h i t e c t , M a s s a r i .  Documents  s t a t e t h a t the work l a s t e d from 1740 t o 1742, which e x p l a i n s t h e time gap between.the. date o f c o m p l e t i o n o f the c h u r c h i t self  and the date o f c o n s e c r a t i o n .  i n F e b r u a r y 1740 "a conto d i f a t t u r e cima d e l l ' a l t a r m a g g i o r " .  M o r l a i t e r r e c e i v e d payment d ' i n t a g l i o i n marmo n e l l a  He then, r e c e i v e d payment i n J u l y  "per s a l d o d i t u t t e l e f a t t u r e  f a t e n e l l a cima d e l l ' a l t a r mag-  g i o r " -and r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l payment i n October o f t h e  follow-  69 l o w i n g year "a, conto de f a t t u r a d e l l a c u p o l a d e l T a b e r n a c o l o " . Another payment was made i n J a n u a r y ; 1 7 4 2 . . " A conto de s c u l t u r e d e l l a c u p o l a d e l T a b e r n a c o l o " T*. he r e c e i v e d payments i n M a r c h ' 14 and i n J u l y . A y e a r l a t e r , payments s t a r t e d f o r h i s work on the f i g u r e s 15 and b a s - r e l i e f s . The f i g u r e s occupy n i c h e s between the s i d e chapels.  Above t h e s e are s i x b a s - r e l i e f s .  r e l i e f s are l o c a t e d above*the two p u l p i t s . scenes from the l i f e o f C h r i s t .  The.bas-reliefs  The f i g u r e s are P e t e r ,  Moses, A a r o n , Abraham and M e l c h i s e d e c h . 16 the f i g u r e s are arranged as  Two o t h e r bas-^ are  Paul,  The b a s - r e l i e f s and  follows:  High A l t a r • Baptism of C h r i s t  I n c r e d u l i t y o f St..Thomas  (above p u l p i t )  (above p u l p i t )  C h r i s t and the S a m a r i t a n  C h r i s t and the Magdalene  (above S t . P e t e r ) M i r a c l e o f the P a r a l y t i c (above Moses)  (above S t . P a u l ) M i r a c l e o f the H e a l i n g o f t h e . B l i n d Man (above Aaron)  S t . P e t e r W a l k i n g on the Water ._  The C e n t u r i o n P l e a d i n g f o r the H e a l t h o f H i s S e r v a n t  (above M e l c h i s e d e c h )  (above Abraham)  Entrance Documents s t a t e t h a t payments were made from 1743 t o 1755. There were payments e v e r y year from 1743 u n t i l 1751. time t h e r e was a l a p s e o f two y e a r s . and ended two y e a r s l a t e r .  At t h i s  Payments resumed i n 1753  T h e r e f o r e , M o r l a i t e r ' s work on the  70 b a s - r e l i e f s and f i g u r e s ' r e p r e s e n t s a span o f twelve, y e a r s .  From  the documents, a c h r o n o l o g y o f the work o f the s c u l p t o r can be found.  He s t a r t e d w i t h the f i g u r e o f 'St.' P a u l and i t s bas--  relief  and f i n i s h e d w i t h the f i g u r e o f M e l c h i s e d e c h and i t s cor^-'  responding b a s - r e l i e f .  F o r the f i g u r e o f S t . P a u l ,  r e c e i v e d payments i n September and December, 1743.  Morlaiter He a l s o  re-  c e i v e d f o u r more payments i n J a n u a r y , M a r c h , J u n e , and J u l y o f 1744.  Similarly,  f o r the b a s - r e l i e f o f C h r i s t and t h e Magdalene  he was p a i d i n September and December,1743, and i n J a n u a r y , M a r c h , June and J u l y o f 1744.  F o r ' t h e f i g u r e o f S t . P e t e r and  i t s b a s - r e l i e f , C h r i s t and the S a m a r i t a n , he r e c e i v e d payments i n August and i n December, 1744> and i n F e b r u a r y , J u l y and September,  1745.  the p u l p i t s .  The n e x t t o be executed were t h e . b a s - r e l i e f s  over  F o r t h e s e , payments were made i n F e b r u a r y , March  May, August and September  174 6, and i n F e b r u a r y , 1747, and a l s o  i n A p r i l and J u l y o f the same y e a r .  Then came the f i g u r e s and  b a s - r e l i e f s between the f i r s t and second s i d e c h a p e l s ,  starting  w i t h Moses and the M i r a c l e o f the P a r a l y t i c , f o r w h i c h payments were made i n F e b r u a r y , M a r c h , August and September, J u l y and December, 1749, and a l s o i n J a n u a r y ,  1750.  1748, and i n Morlaiter  r e c e i v e d payments f o r Aaron and the M i r a c l e o f the H e a l i n g o f the B l i n d Man i n M a r c h , A u g u s t , September and O c t o b e r , 1750, and i n March and A p r i l ,  1751, he r e c e i v e d o t h e r payments f o r A a r o n .  Two y e a r s l a t e r payments resumed.,  These payments, made f o r  the  f i g u r e o f Abraham and the b a s - r e l i e f o f the C e n t u r i o n P l e a d i n g for 1754,  the H e a l t h o f H i s S e r v a n t , were made i n August and December, and i n M a r c h , 1754.  The l a s t w o r k s , t h e n , are the  figure  71 o f M e l c h i s e d e c h . a n d the b a s - r e l i e f o f S t . P e t e r W a l k i n g on the Water, w h i c h are t o the l e f t o f the f i r s t s i d e c h a p e l on the left.  Payments f o r t h e s e two works were made i n August and 17  September,  1754, and i n F e b r u a r y and M a r c h , 1755.  I c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y , the s c u l p t u r a l programme i s o f two p a r t s - the b a s - r e l i e f s relief  and the whole f i g u r e s .  The f i r s t  s c e n e , P e t e r W a l k i n g o n , t h e Wafer, has i t s  bas-  literary  source i n Matthew X I V : 2 2 - 3 3 , w h i c h t e l l s us t h a t C h r i s t walked on the sea t o a number o f d i s c i p l e s , ..who upon s e e i n g m i r a c l e , became f r i g h t e n e d .  the  C h r i s t t o l d the p e o p l e who He was,  when S t . P e t e r asked Him to a l l o w him to walk on the water  too,  i n o r d e r t o prove t h a t the p e r s o n he.was s e e i n g was r e a l l y h i s Lord.  P e t e r b e g a n , t o walk on the s e a , but he became a f r a i d and  began t o s i n k , . w h e n i m m e d i a t e l y C h r i s t took h o l d o f him and l e d him t o H i s b o a t .  The second s c e n e ,  from Luke V : 1 8 - 2 5 ,  des-  c r i b e s an event where a man a f f l i c t e d w i t h p a l s y came t o C h r i s t . Seeing the f a i t h o f the s i c k man, C h r i s t s a i d t h a t He f o r g a v e him h i s s i n s , whereupon the s c r i b e s and P h a r i s e e s began t h i n k C h r i s t was b l a s p h e m i n g .  to  C h r i s t , . t o prove H i s power t o  t h e s e u n b e l i e v e r s , t o l d the s i c k man t o stand up and w a l k . Thus, the theme i m p l i e d by t h e s e two r e l i e f  scenes i n the  G e s u a t i i s e v i d e n t - an a l l u s i o n , t h r o u g h e p i s o d e s i n the o f C h r i s t , t o f a i t h , and i m p e r f e c t f a i t h w h i c h f i n a l l y  life  becomes  strengthened. The next b a s - r e l i e f i s the scene o f C h r i s t and the Sam-., arjtan.  C h r i s t v i s i t s a S a m a r i t a n woman a t a w e l l ,  and b e g i n s  72 t o e x p l a i n t o Iter t h a t a,nyone who d r i n k s the water from a w e l l would e x p e r i e n c e t h i r s t - a g a i n , whereas anyone who " d r i n k s " H i s water would n o t , and t h a t H i s water would become a f o u n t a i n o f everlasting l i f e  i n that person.  The scene o f the  Incredulity  o f S t . Thomas i s from John X X : 2 4 - 2 9 : But Thomas, one o f the t w e l v e , c a l l e d DidymuS/ was/not w i t h them when J e s u s came. The o t h e r d i s c i p l e s t h e r e f o r e s a i d unto h i m , We have seen the L o r d . But he s a i d unto them, Except I s h a l l see i n H i s hands the p r i n t o f t h e . n a i l s , and put my f i n g e r i n t o the p r i n t ' o f the n a i l s and t h r u s t my hand i n t o H i s s i d e , . 1 w i l l not b e l i e v e . And a f t e r e i g h t days a g a i n H i s d i s c i p l e s were w i t h i n , and Thomas w i t h them: then came J e s u s , the doors b e i n g s h u t , and s t o o d i n t h e i r m i d s t , and s a i d , Peace be unto y o u . Then s a i t h He t o Thomas, Reach h i t h e r t h y f i n g e r and b e h o l d my hands; and r e a c h . h i t h e r t h y hand and t h r u s t i t i n t o my s i d e ; and be not f r u i t l e s s but b e l i e v i n g . And Thomas,answered and s a i d unto Him, My L o r d and my God. J e s u s s a i t h unto h i m , Thomas, because thou h a s t seen me thou h a s t b e l i e v e d ; b&essed are they t h a t have not seen and y e t have b e l i e v e d . The scene o f C h r i s t and the Magdalene (John XX:17)  re-  f e r s t o the M a g d a l e n e ' s v i s i t t o C h r i s t ' s tomb and her t r y i n g t o t o u c h Him t o prove H i s e x i s t e n c e ; .  The scene o f the H e a l i n g  o f the B l i n d Man from Luke X V I I I : 3 5 - 4 3 demonstrates the  strong  f a i t h o f a man who, d e s p i t e the condemnation o f the crowd around him who t r i e d t o s i l e n c e h i m , , s h o u t e d out t o J e s u s i n o r d e r t h a t he might be h e a l e d .  The s c e n e . o f the c e n t u r i o n  is  73  t a k e n from Luke V I I : 1 - 1 0 : Now, when He had ended a l l H i s s a y i n g s i n t h e audience o f the p e o p l e , He e n t e r e d i n t o C a p e r naum. And a c e r t a i n c e n t u r i o n ' s - s e r v a n t , who was dear unto h i m , was s i c k , and ready t o d i e . And when he heard o f J e s u s , he sent u n t o Him the e l d e r s o f the Jews, b e s e e c h i n g Him t h a t He would come and h e a l h i s s e r v a n t . And when they came t o J e s u s , they besought Him i n s t a n t l y , s a y i n g , That Ke was worthy f o r whom he s h o u l d do t h i s : F o r he l o v e t h our n a t i o n , and he h a t h b u i l t us a synagogue. Then Jesus went w i t h them. And when He was now not f a r from the house, the c e n t u r i o n sent f r i e n d s t o h i m , s a y i n g unto Him, L o r d , t r o u b l e not t h y s e l f ; f o r 1 am not worthy t h a t thou S h o u l d e s t e n t e r under my r o o f . Wherefore, n e i t h e r thought I m y s e l f worthy t o come unto t h e e ; but say i n a word, and my s e r v a n t s h a l l be h e a l e d . For I a l s o am a man s e t under a u t h o r i t y , h a v i n g under me s o l d i e r s , and I say unto one. Go, and he g o e t h ; and t o a n o t h e r , Come, and he cometh, and t o my s e r v a n t , Do t h i s , and he doeth i t . When J e s u s heard t h e s e t h i n g s , He m a r v e l l e d a t him and t u r n e d Him about and s a i d unto the p e o p l e t h a t f o l l o w e d Him, I say unto y o u , I have not found so g r e a t f a i t h , no, not i n Israel,. And they t h a t were s e n t , r e t u r n i n g t o t h e house, found the s e r v a n t whole t h a t had been s i c k . From the S c r i p t u r a l r e f e r e n c e s ,  we can deduce a second  l e v e l . o f meaning i n t h e s e e p i s o d e s from the l i f e o f C h r i s t . T h i s ' i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i f we bear i n mind t h a t the s c u l p t u r e s were commissioned f o r a Dominican c h u r c h , t h a t i s , a c h u r c h o f the Order o f P r e a c h e r s .  The r e l i e f p a n e l s are  ar-  ranged i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y i n p a i r s , StV P e t e r , W a l k i n g on the  '  74 Water and the H e a l i n g o f the P a r a l y t i c o p p o s i t e C h r i s t a n d , t h e , C e n t u r i o n and the H e a l i n g o f the B l i n d ' Ma,n,  and the p a i r s o f  C h r i s t and the Samaritan and the B a p t i s m o f C h r i s t  opposite  C h r i s t and the Magdalene and the I n c r e d u l i t y o f S t .  Thomas.  The theme i s t h a t o f f a i t h and i t s power-, the s t r o n g f a i t h o f the b l i n d man, and the c e n t u r i o n and t h e ' d o u b t i n g P e t e r and the S c r i b e s and P h a r i s e e s  f a i t h of" S t .  i n the scene o f  the  H e a l i n g o f .the P a r a l y t i c , , w h i c h becomes- a f i r m b e l i e f and a c ceptance o n l y a f t e r  "tangible proof"  is offered.  A g a i n i n the  I n c r e d u l i t y , o f S t . .Thomas and C h r i s t and the Magdalene, Thomas a n d , t h e Magdalene show t h e i r doubt by w a n t i n g t o t o u c h C h r i s t b e f o r e they w i l l b e l i e v e . when C h r i s t ' s e x i s t e n c e  However, f a i t h i s f i n a l l y  i s "proved".  triumphant  A second,'but  related,  theme o f the programme i s t h a t o f . b a p t i s m , , w h i c h i s  referred  t o by C h r i s t ' s mention o f water t o the Samaritan woman by water which would become a " f o u n t a i n " o f " l i f e  everlasting"  (John I V : 1 4 ) , and by the scene o f the B a p t i s m o f C h r i s t .  Here  B a p t i s m s y m b o l i z e s f a i t h , t h a t i s , a c c e p t a n c e , i n C h r i s t and His. t e a c h i n g s ,  and i t i s the w i n n i n g back o f t r u e f a i t h which  was the g r e a t c o n c e r n o f the Dominicans and t h a t i s the why t h e r e a r e ' s c u l p t u r a l  reason  references to a doubting f a i t h which  f i n a l l y becomes f i r m . ' The main s e t o f s c u l p t u r e s ,  the w h o l e , s i n g l e  form a s e r i e s w h i c h , have another s y m b o l i c r e f e r e n c e .  figures, The f o u r  f i g u r e s , - M o s e s , A a r o n , M e l c h i s e d e c h , and Abraham, are the O l d Testament p r e c u r s o r s  o f C h r i s t , and the two o t h e r  figures,  P e t e r and P a u l , a r e the i m m e d i a t e s u c c e s s o r s o f C h r i s t .  75  M e l c h i s e d e c h and Abraham r e p r e s e n t the L a s t Supper and t h e Holy Eucharist.  T h i s i s because M e l c h i s e d e c h / who was a 18 p r i e s t and a k i n g , , b r o u g h t , bread and wine t o Abraham. Moses 19 and Aaron a r e - t r a d i t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the p r i e s t h o o d . P e t e r and P a u l , the two New Testament 20 church.  Therefore,  the p r i e s t h o o d .  figures,  represent  the  the s i x f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t the Church and  Because M e l c h i s e d e c h and Abraham s y m b o l i z e  the E u c h a r i s t , the s i x f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t the r e g u l a r  re-enact-  ment i n the Mass o f C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c e and the Church and the 21 priesthood. bas-reliefs  To be sure the s i x whole f i g u r e s ,  l i k e the  eight  are s y m b o l i c , but t h e i r symbolism does not seem t o  a l l u d e t o the Dominican Order as w e l l as the r e l i e f s .  However,  perhaps i f we c o n s i d e r the words " p r i e s t h o o d " and "Church" we can a r r i v e a t a n o t h e r l e v e l o f meaning.  Perhaps the s i x  figures  a l s o a l l u d e t o the t e a c h i n g and s p r e a d i n g o f d o c t r i n e as i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e . C h u r c h and the p r i e s t .  If this is  the  the  i n t e n t i o n o f the symbolism, the s i x f i g u r e s would l i n k w i t h the Domicans, who spread t r u e t e a c h i n g and d o c t r i n e .  The f i g u r e s ,  i n t h i s c a s e , would t h e m e a t i c a l l y l i n k a l s o w i t h the tations  o f the E v a n g e l i s t s i n the p e n d e n t i v e s  the Major P r o p h e t s , ceiling. tations  o f the dome and 22  s y m b o l i z i n g the E v a n g e l i s t s ,  It i s interesting  on the  t o note t h a t the p a i n t e d  o f the E v a n g e l i s t s and P r o p h e t s  are,  represen-  choir  represen-  l i k e the s i x s c u l p -  t e d f i g u r e s by M o r l a i t e r from b o t h the O l d and the New T e s t a ment. The i c o n o g r a p h i c a l programme o f the G e s u a t i has  some,  but c e r t a i n l y not a l l , p r e c e d e n t s i n the Dominican Church of"  76 SS. Giovanni  e Paolo.  In the C a p p e l l a d e l l ' A d d o l a r a t a i n t h i s  church there i s a p a i n t i n g of the Baptism of C h r i s t by P i e t r o Mera, who  was  a l a t e f o l l o w e r of T i n t o r e t t o . F a c i n g •• 23  p a i n t i n g i s the C i r c u m c i s i o n , a l s o by Mera.  this  Another r e f e r -  ence to baptism can be found on the Monument to Doge Giovanni Mocenigo, which was tury. las  constructed  Here t h e r e . a r e •  two  i n the e a r l y s i x t e e n t h cen-  r e l i e f panels, 24  and the Baptism of C h r i s t .  the Baptism of Anan-  A d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to S t .  Dominic h i m s e l f - i s found i n the r e l i e f s of Giuseppe Mazza i n the C a p p e l l a d i S. Domenico.  These r e l i e f s are two  three scenes d e p i c t i n g m i r a c l e s by S t . Dominic.  sets o f  One.of  these  i s S t . Dominic B a p t i z i n g the H e r e t i c s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t these r e l i e f s date from the f i r s t q u a r t e r of the e i g h t e e n t h 25 century. A precedent f o r the d e p i c t i o n of the I n c r e d u l i t y of Thomas may was  be found i n a p a i n t i n g by Leandro Bassano,  a late Renaissance.artist.  the T r i n i t y and  St. Hyacinth 26  who  He a l s o p a i n t e d i n t h i s church  and -. a Companion Walk Through the.  Dnieper .Dryshod. Scenes from the l i f e of C h r i s t have a p a r a l l e l i n the r e l i e f scenes of the L i f e of the. V i r g i n , of which M o r l a i t e r h i m s e l f took a p a r t i n the making.  These s c u l p t u r e s are  sig-  n i f i c a n t because they were made b e f o r e those of the Gesuati-. T h e i r arrangement a l s o i s important.  These works are i n the  C a p p e l l a d e l R o s a r i o , which s u f f e r e d much damage i n a f i r e i n the n i n e t e e n t h century.  In the chancel of t h i s chapel are s i x 27 Vstatues', i t t o r i a . i n Onn i cthe h e s ,c o of rnic Prophets e are theande i gS hy tb ei el ns t, h byc e nAlessandro tury r e l i e f s :  77 Thus, we have a p r e c e d e n t f o r the placement of r e l i e f s whole f i g u r e s  set  i n niches.  above  The c e i l i n g had p a i n t i n g s  of  I n c i d e n t s from the L i f e o f C h r i s t and .the V i r g i n by a r t i s t s o f the l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  Most n o t a b l e was  Tintoretto's  C r u c i f i x i o n . • There i s a l s o i n the c h a p e l scenes o f the o f the V i r g i n i n the c a r v i n g o f the s e a t b a c k s . executed by Giacomo P i a z z e t t a ,  but are n o t ,  Life  These were  strictly  speaking,  p a r t o f the programme o f S . S . G i o v a n n i e Paolo', but were t a k e n 28 from the S c u o l a d e l l a C a r i t a .  A l t h o u g h the c h u r c h o f SS.  G i o v a n n i e P a o l o c o n t a i n s many i n t e r e s t i n g i n g and . s c u l p t u r e  examples o f  paint-  w h i c h may be compared t o the G e s u a t i  sculp-  t u r e s , o t h e r examples  s h o u l d be mentioned.  Shortly  before  M o r l a i t e r executed h i s Moses and Aaron and Abraham and M e l c h i sedech, G . B . T i e p o l o p a i n t e d two huge canvasses (each 10x5 m) of the G a t h e r i n g o f the Manna and the S a c r i f i c e . o f M e l c h i s e d e c h 29 i n the P a r i s h Church o f V e r o l a n u o v a . f o r the arrangement o f r e l i e f s the Church o f the F a v a . figures  and r e l i e f s  set  A significant  and whole f i g u r e s  precedent  i s found i n  Whereas the C a p p e l l a d e l R o s a r i o 30 i n a chancel,  the f i g u r e s  and  l i e f s o f the Fava are arranged, e x a c t l y l i k e t h o s e o f  the  Gesuati, that i s , . t h e figures,  s e t i n niches, !  the l o n g nave, between the s i d e c h a p e l s , s e t above.  are p l a c e d  and the r e l i e f s  has re-  along are  The s c u l p t u r e s o f the F a v a , by Guiseppe B e r n a r d i ,  are r e l i e f scenes o f the L i f e o f S. F i l l i p p o N e r i and whole figures  o f the f o u r D o c t o r s o f the C h u r c h , and the f o u r 31 • " ^~ 32 Evangelists. However, t h e s e were completed o n l y i n 17 66. 33 T h e - a r c h i t e c t u r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , precedes the G e s u a t i , so r  78 we may c o n c l u d e t h a t the n i c h e s were c o n s t r u c t e d a t the o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the nave.  time  I t would f o l l o w t h e n t h a t , -  a l t h o u g h the s c u l p t u r e s wea?e made a f t e r  those o f t h e ' G e s u a t i ,  the i d e a o f the arrangement  o f s c u l p t u r e s i n the ;Fava p r e c e d e s  the G e s u a t i .  i t was t h e : G e s u a t i w h i c h  Nevertheless,  executed t h i s arrangement, of having s c u l p t u r e s  and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the  i n n i c h e s and b a s - r e l i e f s a l o n g the  i s a new i n n o v a t i o n i n V e n e t i a n The s i x f i g u r e s  first idea nave  art.  ( F i g s . 31-36) and e i g h t  bas-reliefs  ( F i g s . 3 7 - 4 4 ) , o f the G e s u a t i form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of-'the  ar-  1  chitecture.  The n e u t r a l c o l o u r o f t h e s e s c u l p t u r e s  t h e i r n i c h e s and r e l i e f s below the e n t a b l a t u r e ,  set  in  together with  the monochrome g r i s a i l l e s p a i n t e d i n the v a u l t c r e a t e - a ative effect. architecture,  They e l a b o r a t e  decor-  the P a l l a d i a n s t y l e o f M a s s a r i ' s  f o r m i n g , l i k e the g r e y c o r n i c e , a c o n t r a s t  the w h i t e i n t e r i o r .  They do not c l a s h w i t h the  with  painted,decor-  a t i o n s , but r a t h e r , by t h e i r n e u t r a l i t y o f c o l o u r ^ a l l o w  the  side a l t a r ,  to  p a i n t i n g s and the c o l o u r f u l c e i l i n g f r e s c o e s  be h i g h l i g h t e d . There are a number o f b o z z e t t i . f o r the s c u l p t e d i n the G e s u a t i .  figures  These are i n the C a ' R e z z o n i c o from the Dona  d a l l a Rose C o l l e c t i o n , which a l s o i n c l u d e s b @ z z e t t i f o r r e l i e f s f o r SS.. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o .  the  The c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n s  bxazzettj f o r S t . P a u l i n c l a y , S t . P e t e r i n c l a y , and Moses in terracotta.  I t i s c u r i o u s t o compare the b o z z e t t o of.  Moses w i t h the executed work, because the t e r r a c o t t a  figure  79 is  d e s c r i b e d by L o r e n z e t t i . a s " d i c o s i g r a n d i o s a  concezione esco  da f a r i a  i n diretta  ecuted  figure  quasi  discendenza  although  The p o w e r f u l ,  head t o t h e r i g h t . his  large tablets  In h i s r i g h t protrudes  da A l e s s a n d r o  Vittorio"  it  The e x -  an e l a b o r a t e p o s e has b e e n r e -  b e a r d e d Moses l o o k s down and t w i s t s h i s  His l e f t  knee i s b e n t  o f t h e Law a c r o s s  hand he g r a s p s  s h a r p l y a s he r e s t s  the upper p a r t o f h i s l e g .  his staff,  sharply out o f the niche.  which, h e l d d i a g o n a l l y ,  The f i g u r e  drama b e c a u s e i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s p o s t u r e , drapery  cinquescent35  ( F i g . 31) however, h a s abandoned t h e c o n t r a p o s t o  pose o f t h e bQzzetto tained.  apparire d i carattere  e vigoroso  adds to- t h e m o t i o n .  c o u l d n o t be c l a s s i f i e d  a c u r r e n t o f Mannerism  Although  voluminous  great  swirling  h i s pose i s d r a m a t i c ,  as M a n n e * i s t i c .  i n Venetian  i s given  Although  eighteenth  t u r e , which i s t y p i f i e d  there i s  century  sculp- •  i n Antonio C o r r a d i n i s a l l e g o r y o f • 36 V i r g i n i t y i n S. M a r i a d e l C a r m i n e d a t e d 17.21 and p e r h a p s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e G e s u a t i ' s f i g u r e o f Temperance by T a g l i a pietra, Clori  1  w h i c h seems s o m e w h a t ' s i m i l a r t o i t s mannered 37  pose t o  i n Leningrad. The  f i g u r e o f Aaron  ( F i g . 32) by M o r l a i t e r shows much  more r e s t r a i n t  i n handling.  Once a g a i n ,  head i s t u r n e d  down and t o w a r d u s , t h e s p e c t a t o r s , b e l o w . He-  e x t e n d s h i s arm w i t h p a l m t u r n e d niche.  One knee i s b e n t ,  different  f r o m Moses.  upward, r e a c h i n g o u t o f t h e  but the handling  The d r a p e r y  a c r o s s t h e h i g h p o i n t s o f t h e bent right  l i k e Moses, A a r o n ' s  s i d e o f h i s body i s c o v e r e d  of drapery  i s tight, leg, while with  i s much  stretching t h e lower  a metallic,  smooth and  80 s t r a i g h t f a l l of drapery.  Perhaps t h i s  "rococo c l a s s i c i s m " i s  comparable t o ' h i s f i g u r e s o f St, Benedetto and g\ S c o l as t i c a 38 ' ™ v  ( F r a t t a P o l e s i n e , Arcipretalee))..  However c l a s s i c a l i t ap-  pears, the turned head and extended  arm o f Moses separates  M o r l a i t e r ' s c l a s s i c i s m w i t h the "true c l a s s i c i s m " o f M a r c h i -  .  -  39  o r i ' s f i g u r e s of David and S'. C e c i l i a i n S. Rocco in, Venice where the s c u l p t u r e s t u r n t h e i r heads to the s i d e but not down and keep t h e i r arms c l o s e t o t h e i r s i d e s as i f we c o u l d draw a v e r t i c a l s - h o r i z o n t a l a x i s down t h e i r b o d i e s .  S t . Paul  ( F i g 33)  i n the G e s u a t i p o i n t s h i s f i n g e r toward heaven by extending h i s arm out o f the niche and bending  h i s arm t o 90 degrees.  The  f i g u r e of Paul i s bent, but the d r a p e r i e s a r e smooth and c l i n g i n g , but s t i l l d i s p l a y enough creases t o form r i d g e s o f l i g h t , (Fig. 34),  as the l i g h t f a l l s upon the h i g h spots., S t . Peter too, r a i s e s h i s hand upward.  H i s body i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s t r a i g h t -  er than Paul's but h i s drapery i s creased and b i l l o w e d much more.  Melchisedech  ( F i g . 35)  seems to be e x p e r i e n c i n g a v i s i o n  as he looks up and out of h i s n i c h e while he extends upward.  h i s arm  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare the e l e g a n t pose and  the l i g h t c o l o u r o f the s t a t u e and i t s surroundings  with  Francesco Guardi p a i n t i n g s , which o f t e n d e p i c t f i g u r e s , e l e g a n t l y posed, i n b r i g h t surroundings, i n m y s t i c a l e c s t a s y . M o r l a i t e r , i n h i s f i g u r e of Melchisedech,  has combined a r e -  l i g i o u s f e e l i n g w i t h the elegance of the Rococo. of M o r l a i t e r ' s f i g u r e f a l l s  The drapery  across his right leg, clinging  smoothly, but a l i g h t and shade p l a y i s c r e a t e d a t t h e f o l d i n g  81 d r a p e r y c o v e r i n g h i s r a i s e d arm and, on the o t h e r s i d e , to the ground t o h i s l e f t .  falling  The body o f Abraham C F i g . 36]  is-  t w i s t e d s l i g h t l y as he t u r n s h i s head downward t o the s i d e and c r o s s e s h i s body w i t h h i s l e f t hand, h o l d i n g h i s k n i f e a t right side.  his  The d r a p e r y here i s c l i n g i n g at the l e f t knee and  a wide r i d g e o f d r a p e r y p a r a l l e l to h i s l e f t diagonal l i n e of l i g h t .  leg catches a  Here M o r l a i t e r c a p t u r e s a  r e n d e r i n g o f l i g h t and smooth t e x t u r e , once a g a i n h i s love of elegance.  sensitive demonstrating  An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e G e s u a t i  figures  b r i n g s t o mind the statement by W i t t k o w e r made about M o r l a i t e r ' s l a r g e number o f v a r i o u s b o z z e t t i - h i s s t y l e : tive,  "highly sensi-  ranges from a l i g h t i m a g i n a t i v e t o u c h l i k e German Rococo  and from what might be c a l l e d a s c u l p t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of 40  T i e p o l o t o an e l e g a n t c l a s s i c i s m comparable t o e a r l y Canova". W i t t k o w e r s statement i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the G e s u a t i 1  because t h e r e i s no p r o g r e s s i o n , and whole f i g u r e s ,  sculptures,  r e g a r d i n g b o t h the  from Rococo t o C l a s s i c i s m . 41  p a r i s o n o f M o r l a i t e r and T i e p o l o  reliefs  Wittkower. s com1  i s t r u e i f we compare  b o z z e t t o o f the A d o r a t i o n o f the Magi  the  (Ca.' R e z z o n i c o ) , made 42  f o r a p a n e l i n SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o which was never t o the Wurzburg c e i l i n g by T i e p o l o .  Tiepolo's Africa  i l a r t o the e x o t i c mood t o M o r l a i t e r s r e l i e f . 1  use many f i g u r e s  i s sim-  Both a r t i s t s  i n a v a r i e t y o f p o s e s , many w e a r i n g t u r b a n s ,  a n i m a l s , and f i g u r e s who c a r r y l a r g e p a r a s o l s . laiter,  executed  i n his Gesuati sculptures,  However, -Mor-  can a l s o be compared w i t h  .43 Guardi,  as b o t h u s e r h e t o r i c a l g e s t u r e s , • i n c l u d i n g  upwards-turned  gaze,  the  and d r a p e r i e s w h i c h c a t c h the l i g h t i n  82 r i d g e s , which g i v e s a rococo d e l i c a c y to t h e i r f i g u r e s . The r e l i e f  scenes r e p r e s e n t a more r e s t r a i n e d  i  approach  than used i n the S S . G i o v a n n i e P a o l o r e l i e f s , Because o f G e s u a t i r e l i e f s ' d e p i c t i o n o f two f i g u r e s o n l y , a l t h o u g h convey a sense o f drama.  the they  B e g i n n i n g w i t h the scene o f C h r i s t  and the Magdalene ( F i g . 37} , a c l a s s i c a l tendency i s found... C h r i s t i s shown w i t h H i s body e r e c t , p r e s s e d a g a i n s t straight  edge o f the frame o f the b a s - r e l i e f .  the  He extends H i s  arm a t a r i g i d n i n e t y d e g r e e s , t o h i s body, w h i l e the Magdalene k n e e l i n g , l o o k s up and s t r e t c h e s up her hand toward Him.  With  the scene o f C h r i s t and the .Samaritan . ( F i g . 3 8 ) , M o r l a i t e r has employed perhaps a more c l a s s i c a l type o f c o m p o s i t i o n .  Here  the Samaritan, woman s t a n d s , l i k e C h r i s t i n the b a s - r e l i e f p o s i t e , w i t h her back f i r m l y p o s i t i o n e d a g a i n s t arm hanging s t r a i g h t  thus i m i t a t i n g the v e r t i c a l i t y o f her  C h r i s t s i t s conversing with her,  izontally,  her  down her s i d e , . a n d h e r ' t a l l j u g s i t t i n g  on the edge o f the w e l l , pose.  the frame,  op-  i m i t a t i n g the d e l i b e r a t e ,  ground on w h i c h they are  e x t e n d i n g H i s arm h o r -  straight  l i n e of  the  placed.  In the I n c r e d u l i t y o f S t . Thomas. ( F i g . 3 9 ) , w h i c h i s s e t over the p u l p i t , we see a Rococo s t y l e o f c o m p o s i t i o n . the l e f t  To  i s C h r i s t , who has r a i s e d b o t h o f H i s hands upward.  Thomas, on the r i g h t ,  i s putting his finger into C h r i s t ' s  side.  I n a r h e t o r i c a l g e s t u r e , Thomas extends h i s o t h e r hand o u t w a r d , so much t h a t i t appears i n the r o u n d .  The scene may be com-  pared t o th,e R e s t on- the F l i g h t i n t o - Egypt i n S S . G i o v a n n i e v  83  P a o l o , where J o s e p h i s seen g e s t i c u l a t i n g w i t h h i s hand, w h i c h he extends i n t o the scene. rendered i n the r o u n d . any of. the o t h e r s ,  H i s h e a d , • l i k e Thomas's arm,  T h i s G e s u a t i r e l i e f , . p e r h a p s more than  b e s t b r i n g s t o mind the mood and s t y l e of-  F r a n c e s c o G u a r d i . , - The g e s t u r e s , the e l e g a n t p o s t u r e s , saints  is  l o o k i n g upward, and the f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f the  the  surface  o f the d r a p e r y a l l may be compared t o G u a r d i ' s Rococo p a i n t i n g s . M o r l a i t e r has shown Thomas's body bent backward. k n e e l s , one knee bending s h a r p l y .  His cloak f a l l s  He  i n many  c r e a s e s a c r o s s h i s s h o u l d e r and down t o the g r o u n d .  The  B a p t i s m o f C h r i s t ( F i g . 4 0 ) , over the o t h e r p u l p i t i n the G e s u a t i , once a g a i n employs a d r a m a t i c , Rococo s t y l e o f composition.  To the l e f t i s C h r i s t , H i s knees b e n t , H i s head  bowed, and H i s arms extended and hands c l a s p e d .  Putti  swirl  down from the upper l e f t c o r n e r o f the scene as John l i f t s head upward.  Remarkable i s the s k i l l f u l  rendering of  his  the  w a t e r , which seems t o pour down i n a l o n g , g r a c e f u l c u r v e .  In  the H e a l i n g o f the B l i n d Man ( F i g . 4 1 ) , once a g a i n t h e r e appears a sense o f drama.  C h r i s t touches the man's r i g h t  and h o l d s H i s hand h i g h above the man's  head.  eye,  The b l i n d man,  1  f a c i n g u s , bends h i s k k n e e s , h o l d s one hand o u t w a r d , b r e a k i n g out o f t h e p i c t u r e s p a c e , underneath C h r i s t ' s elbow. the Water  and h o l d s h i s s t a f f  a t a sharp  angle  The scene o f S t . P e t e r W a l k i n g on  ( F i g . 4 2 ) , a g a i n shows'a sense o f drama.  Christ,  s t a n d i n g e r e c t , though H i s d r a p e r y i s b i l l o w i n g about Him, faces P e t e r who i s . s i n k i n g i n t o the w a t e r .  Peter,"his  drapery,  84 like Christ's, swirling bo t h h i s hands i n f r o n t  f  l o o k s up at his- M a s t e r w h i l e holdingof h i m s e l f .  We see him s i n k i n g as- the  water i s seen up t o the l e v e l o f the top o f h i s c a l f . fore,  from the e x a m i n a t i o n o f the G e s u a t i s c u l p t u r e s ,  ThereMorlaiter  has emerged as a v e r s a t i l e a r t i s t . W h o i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s range o f s t y l e .  H i s works t h r o u g h o u t the y e a r s w o r k i n g f o r  Dominicans i n the G e s u a t i show no p r o g r e s s i o n from one 44 to another,  but demonstrate a l o v e o f v a r i e t y .  a l t h o u g h he g i v e s h i s f i g u r e s  elegance,  the f a c t  -  style.  However, remains  i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y the message t h e y convey i s s e r i o u s ligious .  the  and  that re-  CONCLUSION From an e x a m i n a t i o n o f one p a r t i c u l a r c h u r c h i n "Venice, the c h u r c h o f the G e s u a t i , we may draw some c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e o f r e l i g i o u s a r t Venice.  in  eighteenth-century  The l e a d i n g a r t i s t s are r e p r e s e n t e d i n one b u i l d i n g -  M a s s a r i as a r c h i t e c t ,  M o r l a i t e r as the s c u l p t o r o f a l l the  f i g u r e s and scenes i n the i n t e r i o r , and the p a i n t e r s ; who p a i n t e d one a l t a r p i e c e The A n g e l A p p e a r i n g ^  Q  and the f o u r c e i l i n g  Tiepolo,  frescoes,  D a v i d , The V i r g i n H e a r i n g the  Prayers  of S t . D o m i n i c , The I n s t i t u t i o n o f the R o s a r y , and The G l o r y o f S t . Domdinic; pieces,  P i a z z e t t a , who i s ^ r e s p o n s i b l e f o r two 1  and R i c c i , who p a i n t e d  The a r c h i t e c t u r e  altar-  one  r e p r e s e n t s p a r t o f the i n t e r e s t  l a d i a n d e s i g n i n V e n i c e i n the e i g h t e e n t h  century,  in Pal-  but,  from b e i n g a mere i m i t a t o r o f a Cinquecento a r c h i t e c t , has proved h i m s e l f t o be an i n v e n t i v e a r t i s t ,  far Massari  borrowing C l a s -  s i c a l m o t i f s , i n v e n t i n g and a d a p t i n g d e v i c e s , and b l e n d i n g h i s 2  own s t y l e i n t o a P a l l a d i a n mode. • In t h i s l i g h t and  restrained  P a l l a d i a n s t y l e are housed the l i g h t Rococo works o f , S e b a s t i a n i R i c c i ' s S t s . Thomas, P i u s V , and P e t e r M a r t y r , l i a n t frescoes  and the  bril-  by G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o , as w e l l as the many 3  elegant  s c u l p t u r e s by M o r l a i t e r .  According to P i g n a t t i , . t h e  G e s u a t i "which owes i t s  c i n a t i o n partly- to the frescoed d e c o r a t i o n and s t a t u e s  constitutes  . . . the  fas-  paintings...  "the r i c h e s t and most u n i f i e d 4  Rococo i n t e r i o r i n the c i t y ' . 1  A l t h o u g h the i n t e r i o r o f  the  86  G e s u a t i i s P a l l a d i a n - i n s p i r e d , u n - r C l a s s i c a l elements,  such as  the b e v e l l e d p a r t s o f t h e w a l l , s u p p o r t i n g b e v e l l e d p a r t s o f the v a u l t , near t h e ends o f the nave,  5  and t h e f r e s c o e d  ceil-  6  i n g , so a l i e n t o a P a l l a d i a n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n t e r i o r , 6 t e l l us t h a t t h i s b u i l d i n g belongs  t o the eighteenth-century.  The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Rococo a r t , l i g h t n e s s and e l e g a n c e , a r e d i s t i n c t i v e of the Gesuati.  Although  t h e l i g h t and a i r y  q u a l i t i e s o f t h e i n t e r i o r can be a t t r i b u t e d p a r t l y t o t h e nature of the P a l l a d i a n i n s p i r a t i o n , the b e v e l l e d p a r t s of the v a u l t n e a r . t h e  ends o f t h e nave, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e o u t -  l i n i n g o f t h e e n t i r e v a u l t w i t h s t u c c o and i t s d e c o r a t i o n o f monochrome f r e s c o e s , l e a d p u r eyes upward t o t h e t h r e e o u r f u l c e i l i n g f r e s c o e s , as w e l l as adding a r e f i n e d t o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e . The w h i t e v a u l t , d e l i c a t e l y  col-  elegance  decorated  w i t h t h e grey f r e s c o e s and s t u c c o o u t l i n e s , - p r o v i d e s a f i t t i n g p r e l u d e t o t h e major f o c a l p o i n t of t h e d e c o r a t i v e scheme teh Tiepolo c e i l i n g .  " A l l the decorative d e t a i l s conspire to  g i v e us a t y p i c a l e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  i n t e r i o r , luminous w i t h  7  i t s i v o r i e s and g r e y s  ..."  However, i n t h i s l i g h t and d e l i c a t e w o r l d o f Rococo a r t , one e x t r e m e l y  i m p o r t a n t element must n o t be o v e r l o o k e d - t h e  n a t u r e of r e l i g i o n i n r e l i g i o u s a r t .  The Church p l a y e d an  i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n V e n i c e and i t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g that t h e number o f r e l i g i o u s a r t commissions were overwhelming.  In  V e n i c e t h e r e were, i n t h e , e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , more than seventy p a r i s h e s and n e a r l y t w i c e as many c h u r c h e s , course t h e number o f people  and o f  i n the r e l i g i o u s - professions ran  87  i n the t h o u s a n d s .  The r e l i g i o u s O r d e r s were w e l l . r e p r e s e n t e d  i n V e n i c e , w i t h the C a r m e l i t e s a t t h e S c a l z i and-the S c u o l a d e i C a r m i n i , .the Oratorians^ a t the F a v a , S, S t a e , the Angelo Raffaele,  the P i e t a , and the Dominicans a t the G e s u a t i and S S . 8  Giovanni e Paolo.  .-;  A c c o r d i n g t o H a s k e l l "most o f the  rel-  i g i o u s Orders had v e r y r i c h b a c k e r s and they were c o n s e q u e n t l y by f a r the most i m p o r t a n t p a t r o n s o f modern p a i n t i n g  and-ar-  9  c h i t e c t u r e i n e a r l y eighteenth century Venice". I n terms o f i c o n o l o g y , "the Dominicans and C a r m e l i t e s , " according t o . H a s k e l l ,  !  ' c o n c e n t r a £ e more on the e x a l t a t i o n o f  t h e i r O r d e r s , the O r a t o r i a n s seem t o have encouraged a m y s t i c a l e c s t a s y a n d , : i n T i e p o l o ' s E d u c a t i o n o f the V i r g i n , an u n -  10 usual tenderness". note o f t r i u m p h " . ing celebrates  .......  •  1 1  the t r i u m p t h and g l o r y o f the O r d e r " .  of i t s g r e a t s a i n t s represented  However, " i n a l l t h e r e i s a dominant In the c h u r c h o f the G e s u a t i "every p a i n t -  ( i n c l u d i n g two r e c e n t l y c a n o n i z e d ) ,  i n i t s a l t a r p i e c e s and i t s f o u n d e r ,  St.  i s shown f o u r t i m e s - i n P i a z z e t t a ' s p o r t r a i t of the  Nine are  Dominic, saint  and i n the t h r e e g r e a t c e i l i n g f r e s c o e s o f which one shows the I n s t i t u t i o n o f the R o s a r y . i s also represented  The symbol o f the O r d e r , which  i n the; f i f t e e n m y s t e r i e s which s u r r o u n d  12 T i e p o l o ' s work. . I would tend t o d i s a g r e e w i t h H a s k e l l when he i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e i s more c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n Dominican and C a r m e l i t e  13 a r t on e x a l t a t i o n o f t h e i r O r d e r s , than i n O r a t o r i a n  art-  Indeed, as he s a y s , t h e r e i s " t r i u m p h " i n a l l , and the f a c t mains t h a t the s c u l p t u r a l programme o f the F a v a ,  represents  re  88  scenes from the l i f e o f the O r a t o r i a n s '  founder,  St,  Philip . 14  N e r i , and the D o c t o r s o f the Church, and the " E v a n g e l i s t s , spread C h r i s t ' s t e a c h i n g s .  However, the G e s u a t i  who  sculptural  programme stands a p a r t Because o f i t s - d e l v i n g - i n t o a deeper meaning c o n c e r n i n g a r e l i g i o u s Order By- means o f a l l u s i o n t o the l i f e o f C h r i s t . message.of  The s c u l p t u r a l B a s - r e l i e f s convey  the  the v i r t u e o f f a i t h and the t r i u m p h o f f a i t h w h i c h  e v e n t u a l l y conquers dou&t.  And what c o u l d Be more  triumphant  than S t . D o m i n i c ' s s p r e a d i n g the r o s a r y t o the p e o p l e and e x p e l l i n g h e r e s y , w h i c h T i e p o l o shows f a l l i n g out o f the i n a mood r e m i n i s c e n t o f B a c i c c i a ' s s e v e n t e e n t h  scene  century  A d o r a t i o n o f the Name o f J e s u s i n the Roman c h u r c h o f  the  Gesu? Stylistically, Oratorian art  H a s k e l l ' s comment aBout m y s t i c i s m i n  i s m i s l e a d i n g Because we can f i n d m y s t i c i s m i n  the G e s u a t i as w e l l .  In t h i s Dominican c h u r c h i s an  altarpiece  By P i a z z e t t a w h i c h can Be d e s c r i B e d as a " m y s t i c e c s t a s y " . In the Dominican c h u r c h o f SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , the G l o r y o f S t . Dominic "may w e l l s e r v e as a specimen o f 'triumphalism';  postrBaroque  i t p r e s e r v e s , however, a marked sense o f  religion,  a s c e t i c i s m and d e v o t i o n a l commitment w h i c h i s i n  the f i n e s t  s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p i e t i s t i c v e i n " and t h e s e 16  q u a l i t i e s can Be observed i n many o f P i a z e t t a ' s Tiepolo's altarpiece Piazzetta's as w e l l ;  works.  i n the G e s u a t i shares some o f  m y s t i c i s m , But t h e r e are n o t e s of a l i g h t e r v e i n  f o r example, the l i t t l e c h a f f i n c h w h i c h i s  perched  89  17  on a bar t o the s i d e o f t h e V i r g i n .  Of c o u r s e ,  i t is  impos-  s i b l e t o deny- the g a y , l i g h t q u a l i t i e s o f Rococo a r t  i n the  Gesuati.  love  One g l a n c e a t R i c c i ' s a l t a r p i e c e  R i c c i has i n h i s p l a y f u l p u t t i . a n d  shows the  l i g h t and-airy  atmosphere  s u r r o u n d i n g the s a i n t s who converse w i t h one a n o t h e r . M o r l a i t e r , too,  i s e l e g a n t , both i n h i s posing of  f i g u r e s and h i s r e n d e r i n g o f d r a p e r y , found i n some o f h i s f i g u r e s  b u t , m y s t i c i s m may be  as w e l l ;  f o r example, M e l c h i s e d e c h  who seems t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g a v i s i o n . " T r a d i t i o n has equated e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y V e n i c e w i t h the frivolous  l i f e o f the r i d o t t i , w i t h the c o q u e t r y . o f masks,  e x c e s s e s o f the gaming-rooms and the rage f o r P a r i s  the 18  fashions".  However-, the f a c t remains t h a t r e l i g i o u s commissions are  inten-  ded f o r r e l i g i o u s b u i l d i n g s , and the G e s u a t i r e p r e s e n t s a church i n a 500-year-old r e l i g i o u s Order.  T h i s Order had been  w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n V e n i c e with the church o f S S . G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , w h i c h was begun i n the t h i r t e e n t h Venice proper,  century.  Outside  t o o , on the nearby i s l a n d o f Murano, was  Dominican c h u r c h o f S. P i e t r o M a r t i r e , begun i n the century.  the  fourteenth  The G e s u a t i , however, made i t s d e c o r a t i v e  pro-  gramme u p - t o - d a t e w i t h i t s i n c l u s i o n o f the two Dominicans c a n o n i z e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , 20  P i u s V and Agnes of-  Montepulciano. Nevertheless,  t h e r e i s t r u t h t o the  statement t h a t :  There i s no doubt t h a t when R i c c i sent h i s a n g e l s f l y i n g the v a u l t o f San M a r z i a l e i n V e n i c e , the r e s u l t was a  across  flutter  o f s i l v e r y w i n g s , a joyous g o l d e n - y e l l o w - spray a g a i n s t a  .  90  turquoise  s k y , a f e a s t o f pure t r a n s l u c e n t  quarter-century  flesh;  and a  l a t e r h i s t r i u m p h was t o be r e p e a t e d i n  p a n e l s a t San R o c c o , where an e l e g a n t l y - r d r e s s e d  S t . Helena  ' d i s c o v e r s ' the C r o s s w i t h an a n g e l i c corps: de b a l l e t 21 and s i n g i n g round h e r " .  the  Stylistically, Ricci's  prancing  altarpiece  and T i e p o l o ' s c e i l i n g are R o c o c o , but i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y , the Strength'of  r e l i g i o n and f a i t h has  triumphed.  NOTES INTRODUCTION 1  G i i i l i o L o r e n z e t t i ,- V e n i c e - and l t ' s L a g o o n , . t r a n s . by John G u t h r i e (Rome: I n s t i t u t o = P o l i g r a f i c o d e l l o S t a t o , 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 531-535.  2  John R u s k i n , The Stones o f V e n i c e , V o l . I l l :  v  (London;  The F a l l  Smith E l d e r and Co. , 1853) p . 300.  3  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, pp.  531-535.  4  T e r i s i o P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y V e n e t i a n P a i n t i n g , A p o l l o , XC ( J u l y , 1 9 6 9 ) .  p.12.  5  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, pp.  6  P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y V e n e t i a n P a i n t i n g " , p . 12. Se.'e E l e n a B a s s i , A r c h i t t e t u r a d e l S e j e S e t t e c e n t o a Venezia (Napoli: E d i z i o n i S c i e n t i f i c h e I t a l i a n e , 1962), P a s s i m , pp. 185-304. M i c h a e l L e v e y , P a i n t i n g i n X V I I I Century V e n i c e (London P h a i d o n . P r e s s , 1955) , P a s s i m , pp. 1 9 - 2 5 , 32-39. 162-207.  7 8  343-356.  92  NOTES 4  CHAPTER I L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, pp. 531-535. The name o f the l a s t s a i n t i n P i a z e t t a ' s a l t a r p i e c e I S L u d o v i c o B e r t r a n d o o r . L o u i s B e r t r a n d , n o t , as L o r e n z e t t i s a y s , . S a n . L u d o v i c o and San B e r t r a n d o . ( I b i d . , p. 535]. The c o r r e c t name can be found i n G i a n n a n t o n i o M o s c h i n i : Guida _ per l a C i t t a d i ; V e n e z i e (2 v o l s . , V e n e z i a 1815} p . I I , 320. 2  F r a n c i s H a s k e l l , P a t r o n s and P a i n t e r s : A Study i n the R e l a t i o n s between I t a l i a n A r t and S o c i e t y i n the Age of the Baroque (London: C h a t t o & Windus, 1963) p . 272.  3  John B . 0 Connor,. " D o m i n i c " , The C a t h o l i c . E n c y c l o p e d i a , An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Work of Reference on the C o n s t i t u t i o n , D o c t r i n e , D i s c i p l i n e , and H i s t o r y o f the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , 1907-1912, V , p . 106.  4  Anna B . Jameson, Legends o f the M o n a s t i c Orders as Re-. p r e s e n t e d i n the F i n e A r t s , c o r . and e n l . e d . , (Boston: Houghton, M i f f l i n and Company, 1891) p.399.  5  George W. F e r g u s o n , S i g n s and Symbols i n C h r i s t i a n A r t ,  1  (New Y o r k :  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Pgeess/ 1954)  "Dominic", p.  p.  204.  6  O'Connor,  7  Ibid.  8  Ibid.  9  Sidney P a i n t e r , A H i s t o r y o f the M i d d l e Ages 284-1500, (New Y o r k :  106.  A l f r e d A . Knopf, 1954), p .  305.  10s  I b i d . , pp.  11  O'Connor,  12 13  I b i d . , p . 107. Alb.an B u t l e r , L i v e s o f the S a i n t s , , ed. r e v . and s u p p l . , by H e r b e r t ' T h u r s t o n and Donald A t t w a t e r (4vols., Aberdeen: Burns & G a t e s , 1956) , I I I , p . 260. 0 ' C o n n o r , " D o m i n i c " , p . 107.  14  310-312. "Dominic",,p.  106.  93 15  Jameson, Legends o f the M o n a s t i c Orders,-, p .  16  O'Connor,  17•  Ibjd.,  18  W.A, Hinnebusch, "Dominicans" >" New- C a t h o l i c 1967, I V , pp. 979^980.  Encyclopedia, "  19  M . J . F i n n e g a n , " H y a c i n t h , S t . " New C a t h o l i c 1967, V I I , p . 281.  Encyclopedia,  20  B u t l e r , L i v e s o f the" S a i n t s ,  21  A . A l l a r i a , "Peter of An I n t e r n a t i o n a l tution, Doctrine, C a t h o l i c Church,  22  Jameson, Legends of the M o n a s t i c .Orders,  23  W.A. W a l l a c e and J . A . W i s h e i p l , "Thomas A q u i n a s , S t • " , New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, X I V , p . 102.;  24  Ibid.  25  I b i d . > P- 104..  26  I b i d . ; P- 105.  27  Ibid.  r  P" 111.  28  Ibid.  t  p . 109.  29  Ibid.  30  J . J . Berthier, E c c l e s i a i e (Rome: 1914) , p . 117, c i t e d by W a l l a c e and W e i s h e i p l , I b i d . , p . 110.  31  B e r t h i e r , I b i d . , p . 147, c i t e d by W a l l a c e and W e i s h e i p l , Ibid.  32  M . J . F i n n e g a n , "Agnes of M o n t e p u l c i a n o , S t . " New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, I , . p . 205.  33  L u d w i g , F r e j h e r r von P a s t o r , The H i s t o r y of the Popes, from the C l o s e o f the M i d d l e Ages (.4 0 v o l s . , London: J . . H o d g e s , 1891-1953] XXXIV, p . 165.  34  Finnegan.,  pp.  "Dominic", p.  402,  108.  108^109,  III,  pp.  338-339.  V e r o n a " , The C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , Work of Reference on t h e C o n s t i D i s c i p l i n e , and H i s t o r y o f the 1907-1912, X I , p . 773.  "Agnes o f M o n t e p u l c i a n o ,  p.  St. " p.  411  205.  94 35  Pastox , H i s t o r y of: the' Popes X X X I V , p . 165. T h i 3 same Pope' a l s o promoted a f u r t h e r d e v o t i o n t o S t . C a t h e r i n e . o f Sjiena and S t . V i n c e n t F e r r e r ( I b i d . , p . 167, p . 167 n . 4 ) .  36  Wart A r s l a n , " G i a n B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o e. G . M . M o r l a i t e r a i G e s u a t i " / R i v i s t a d i . V e n e z i a (May, 1932), p . 19.  37  E r i c J o h n , e d . The Popes, A C o n c i s e B i o g r a p h i c a l H i s t o r y , 1 s t ed. (London:. Burns & O a t e s , 1964) pp. 239244, p . 350.  38  Edmund G, G a r d n e r , . " C a t h e r i n e o f S i e n a " , The C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , . An i n t e r n a t i o n a l Work o f Reference on the C o n s t i t u t i o n , D o c t r i n e , D i s c i p l i n e , and H i s t o r y o f the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , 1907-1912, XXX, p . 447.  39  B u t l e r , L i v e s o f the S a i n t s ,  40  I b i d . , p.  41  J . B . Walker, "Vincent F e r r e r ,  f  I I , p.  196.  197.  c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, X I V , p .  S t " . ,. New C a t h o l i c E n 680.  42q  I b i d . , p.  681.  43  Ibid.  44  B u t l e r , L i v e s o f the S a i n t s , , I I , p .  45  Walker, Vincent F e r r e r ,  46 47  B u t l e r , L i v e s o f the S a i n t s , I I , p . 33. T. L a t a s t e , " P i u s V " , The C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Work o f Reference on the C o n s t i t u t i o n , D o c t r i n e , D i s c i p l i n e , and H i s t o r y of the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , 1907-1912, X I I , p . 130.  48  I b i d . , p.  49  John , The Popes, p . 350. The B a t t l e of Lepanto was commemorated by a p a i n t i n g hf S i a p o p o o T i n t o r e l t o i n the Doges P a l a c e . T h i s was d e s t r o y e d by f i r e , and was r e p l a c e d by the work o f Andrea V i c e n t i n o . There are a l s o two p a i n t i n g s by P a o l o Veronese (One i n the Accademia and the o t h e r i n the Doges P a l a c e ) , which.show S e b a s t i a n o V e n i e r , the commander of the V e n e t i a n f l e e t . A s p e c i a l commemorative c h a p e l - a t SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o had a p a i n t i n g o f  St".,  p.  33.  681.  131.  95 49 cont,'d  the b a t t l e o f Domenico and Jacopo T i n t o r e t t o , but i t was d e s t r o y e d i n 18 67. ( P a s t o r , H i s t o r y o f the Popes, XV.TII, p . 444 and p . 4 4 7 ) . Thus, we may c o n c l u d e t h a t the v i c t o r y was s i g n i f i c a n t not o n l y t o the Dominican O r d e r , . b u t a l s o t o the c i t y o f V e n i c e as w e l l .  50  La. t a s t e ,  " P i u s V " , p . 131.  51  John,  52  Lorenzetti,  53  Butler,  54  J , Restrepo Posada,  The Popes, p p . 3 5 0 - 3 5 1 . V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon,  Lives-of the-Saints,  p . 535.  I V , p . 72.  "Bertrand, Louis, S t " . ,  Catholic Encyclopedia,  1967,  I I , ' p . 361.  55  Butler,  L i v e s o f the S a i n t s ,  56  Posada,  "Bertrand, Louis, S t " . ,  57  J . M . "Vargas, "Rose o f L i m a , S t " . , New, C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 19'67, X I I , p . 674. Haskell, P a t r o n s , and P a i n t e r s , p . 272.  58  IV,  New  p. 73. p . 361.  96 NOTES CHAPTER IX 1.  .See V i t t o r i o M o s c h i n i , " G i o r g i o M a s s a r i , A r c h i t e t t o V e n e t o " , D e d a l o , X I I CMarch, 1932) , p . 204.  2  B a s s i , A r c h i t t e t u r a , p . 192. F o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the Z i t e l l e , see R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , " L I n f l u e n z a d e l P a l l a d i o s u l l o Sviluppo d e l l ' A r c h i t e t t u r a R e l i g i o s a V e n e z i a n i n e l S e i e S e t t e c e n t o " , BoT i e 1 1 i n o de1 Ceritro I n t e r n a z i o n a l e d e , S t u d i d i A r c h i t e t t u r a Andrea P a l l a d i o , , V , , 1963, p i . 20.  3  B a s s i , A r c h i t t e t u r a , . p. 190 .  4  R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y , 1600 t o 1750, 2 d . r e v , e d . , (Harmondsworth', E n g l a n d : Penguin B o o k s , (1965), p . 252.  5  Bassi, Architettura,,  6  I b i d . , p.  7  W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e  8  V i n c e n z o G o l z i o , S e i c e n t o e S e t t e c e n t o , 2nd e d . (2 v o l s . Torino: Unione'Tipografico E d i t r i c e Torinese, 1 9 6 0 ) , I I , p . 978.  9  E l e n a B a s s i , " L ' A r c h i t e t t u r a d e l l a Prima M e t a ' d e l S e t tecento a V e n e z i a , " B o l l e t t i n o d e l Centro I n t e r n a z i o n a l e d i S t u d i d i A r c h i t e t t u r a .Andrea P a l l a d i o , , I V , 1962, p . 119. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f P a l l a d i o ' s p l a n , see James S. Ackerman, P a l l a d i o , (>;EC'H.armondsworth, England: Penguin B o o k s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p i . 78.  10  Andrea P a l l a d i o , The Four Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e (New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 105, p i . 7 5 - 7 7 , pp. 106-107, p i . 81-86.  11  Wittkower-, A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e  12  Golzio,  13  Bassi, Architettura,  14.  I b i d . ,. p.  15  I b i d . , p. 284. B a s s i r e p r o d u c e s t h r e e o f . G a s p a r i ' s i n g s f o r the c h u r c h ( J b i d . , p i . 185-rl87) .  16  Wittkower,  1  p.  216.  274.  Seicento  286.  in Italy,  in Italy,  e Settecento, I I , p.  p.  p.  p.  253.  253.  97 8.  293. .-' .  "L'Influenza del P a l l a d i o " , p.  66.,  draw  97 17  Ibid,  18  G o l z i o , Sejcento e Setteeento, IT, p.  19  P a l l a d i o , Four B o o k s , pp. 99^100. Ackerman ( P a l l a d i o , p . 1371 s a y s , '"this- i r r e v e r e n t c h i l d o f the Pantheon i s more Rococo than Roman".  20-  Wjttkower,  21  982.  A r t and Arc h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y ,  p.  253.  "The dome r i s e s t o a s p e c t a c u l a r , a l m o s t r o c k e t - l i k e h e i g h t , and indeed t h e . w h o l e s t r u c t u r e , w i t h i n as w e l l as w i t h o u t , has a v e r t i c a l s o a r i n g f e e l i n g C C a r r o l l L . V . Meeks, I t a l i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e . 1750 1914 [New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ] , p. 171).  22  A c h i l l e B o s i s i o , La C h i e s a d i Santa M a r i a d e l R o s a r i o o d e l Gesuati (Venezia: 1943), p . 17  23  I b i d . , pp.  24  F l a m i n i o C o r n e r , N o t i z i e St.oriche d e l l a C h i e s e e Monast e r i -di Venezia e dj T o r c e l l o T r a t t e dall e Chiese Veneziane , e T o r c e l l a n e . . I l l u s t r a t e da F . C . , (Padova: 1758), pp. 443-444.  9-14. r  25  G. B i a n c h i n i , La C h i e s a d i Santa M a r i a d e l (Vulgo i G e s u a t i ) X V e n e z i a :  1889),  26  B o s i s i o , Santa M a r i a d e l Rosario., p .  27  Bassi, Architettura,  28  M o s c h i n i , " G i o r g i o M a s s a r i " , pp.  29  H a s k e l l , P a t r o n s , a n d P a i n t e r s , pp.  30  M, schini, "Giorgio Massari", p.  31  Ibid.  32  Ibid.  33  George Knox i n c o n v e r s a t i o n  34  Bassi, Architettura,  35  I b i d . , p.  36  I b i d . , pp. 3 00-302.  pp.  300.  /  p.  5.  16.  302-304.  G  p.  Rosario,  338.  228-229,  n.  270-271;  204.  w i t h the  Author.  2. p . 271, n .  1,  98 37  Ibid.,  p p . 267 and 333.  38  Wittkower,  "L Influenza del P a l l a d i o " ,  39  Moschini,  "Giorgio Massari",  40  Golzio,  41  Wittkower-, A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e  42  Moschini,  1  Seicento e,Settecento,  pp. 69-70.  p p . 204-206. I I , p . 978." i n I t a l y , p . 253.  " G i o r g i o M a s s a r i " , p . 204.  99 NOTES CHAPTER  TIT  1  Lorrenzetti,' V e n i c e x t s ^ T a g o o n ,  2  J e f f e r y D a n i e l s , "Sehastiano R i c c i : The L a s t P h a s e " , Apollo, X C , ( J u l y , 19691, p . 8.  3  P j e t r o Zampettj, D a l / R i c c i a l - TiepoTo, X P i t t o r i , d i Pigura del Settecento a Venezia; Venezia, Palazzo D u c a l e , 7 Guigno - Jg O t t o b r e , T969 ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 19691 , p . 3..  4  D a n i e l s , "Sebastiano R i c c i " , p.  5  Ibid.,  6  George Knox i n c o n v e r s a t i o n  7.  Giuseppe F i o c c o , P a o l o V e r o n e s e , 1528-1588, Casa E d i t r i c e A p o l l o [ c . 1 9 3 8 ] , p i . 34.  8  Daniels,  9  Ibid.  10  Ibid.  11  Ibid.  12  R o d o l f o P a l l u c c h i n i , La P i t t u r a V e n e z i a n a d e l S e t t e c e n t o (Venezia: I s t i t u t o per l a C o l l a b o r a z i o r e C u l t u r a l e , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 13, p i . 14.  13  John. S t e e r ,  p.  pp.  533^535.  6.-  9. w i t h the  "Sebastiano R i c c i " ,  p.  Author.  9.  A C o n c i s e H i s t o r y of V e n e t i a n  (London: 14  Ibid.  15  Levey,  P a i n t i n g i n X V I I I . Century V e n i c e ,  16  Steer,  History of Venetian P a i n t i n g ,  17  Daniels,  18  Zampetti,  19  Daniels,  20  Ibid.,  21  Moschini,  p.  Dal R i c c i a l Tiepolo, "Sebastiano R i c c i " ,  p.  Painting,  Thames and Hudson, 1970), p .  "Sebastiano R i c c i " ,  (Bologna:  p.  176.  p.  22.  176.  9.p . 24,  pi,  8.  pp. 1 0 - 1 1 , p i . 5 and  6.  9, Guida per l a C i t t a d i V e n e z i a , I T , p .  320.  100 22  Rodolfo P a l l u c c h i n i , " P i a z z e t t a 1961), p . 7 1 , ' . "" \  (Milano:  Aldo M a r t e l l o ,  23  Steer, History of Venetian P a i n t i n g , p.  24  This- l a s t s a i n t was c o p i e d by F r a n c e s c o G u a r d i i n a work i n the Museo N a z i o n a l e i n Trento ( Z a m p e t t i , D a l R i c c i a l T i e p o l o , p . 260, p i . 116.  25  P a l l u c c h i n i , . L a P i t t u r a Veneziana d e l Settecento, p.  26  Steer, History of Venetian P a i n t i n g , , p .  27  L e v e y , P a i n t i n g i n X V I I I Century V e n i c e , , p .  28  Pallucchini, Piazzetta,  29,  Zampetti, Dal R i c c i a l T i e p o l o , p.  30  Pallucchini, Piazzetta,  31  Z a m p e t t i , D a l R i c c i a l T i e p o l o , p . .14 2.  32  Pallucchini, Piazzetta,  33  I b i d . , p.  34  A n t o n i o M o r a s s i , A Complete C a t a l o g u e of the P a i n t i n g s of G . B . T i e p o l o , I n c l u d i n g P i c t u r e s by h i s P u p i l s and F o l l o w e r s Wrongly A t t r i b u t e d to Him, (London:' Phaidon P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 232-233. ~  184.  ;  p.  17.  184. 36.  32. 142.  p . .26, p i . 42.  p.  72.  39.  ;  35  I b i d . , p.  56.  36  A n t o n i o M o r a s s i , G . B . T i e p o l o , H i s L i f e and Work (London: Phaidon P r e s s , 1955), p i . 10. F o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the t h r e e T i t i a n p a i n t i n g s , see F r e d e r i c k H a r t t , H i s t o r y . o f . I t a l i a n Renaissance A r t : - P a i n t i n g , S c u l p t u r e , A r c h i t e c t u r e .. (New Y o r k : H a r r y N . Abrams I n c . , 1 9 6 9 ) , p i . 655-657.  37  C a r l o D o n z e l l i . and Giuseppe M a r i a P i l o , I . P i t t o r i d e l S e r c i e n t o Veneto ( F r i e n z e : E d i z i o n i Remo Sandron, 1967) , pp. 189-190, p i . . 35. E l l i s Waterhouse, I t a l i a n Baroque P a i n t i n g (London: P h a i d o n P r e s s , 1969), p i . 65.  38  George Knox, " V e n e t i a n H i s t o r y P a i n t e r s o f the S e t t e c e n t o " The C o n n o i s s e u r CXXXy (March, 1955) , pp. 2 9-30, •pi".' 1 ta) , (b.), and C e l .  39  I b i d . , p.  30.  101 40 41  42  I&sassj&o,, 'as,. M a r i a ' del'-' Ros'ax&o,. p •,. • 21,• . Pompeo Molmenti T l ^ p o l o y 1 ^ Vle> et 1'Oeuvre du P e i n t r e , , Trans-. H. L . de~P<§rera, ( P a r i s ' : H a c h e t t e et C i e . , 1 9 1 1 ) , p . 54. There a r e ' t w o - - s k e t c h e s f o r t h i s c e n t r a l p a n e l . One i s i n the M. C r e s p i C o l l e c t i o n i n Milan. Canvas-,/ 108x51.5 cm. • ( M o r a s s i , A Complete C a t a l o g u e o f -the P a i n t i n g s of' G . B . T i e p o l o , p . 27, F i g . 8 9 ) . The o t h e r canvas i s i n the Gemaldeg a 1 e r i e i n B e r l i n , but was l o s t . d u r i n g the l a s t war. It was 98x49 cm. ( M o r a s s i , p . 4, f i g . 9 0 ) . There i s a l s o an o i l s k e t c h w h i c h has been a t t r i b u t e d , b y U l r i c h M i d d e l d o r f t o T i e p o l o , M r . & M r s . A . Ryerson C o l l e c t i o n , A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o , 9 6 . 5 x 4 ' 8 cm. C U l r i c h A . M i d d e l d o r f , ''An Unusual Drawing by G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o " , B u l l e t i n o f the A f t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o , XXXIV, ( A p r i l - M a y , 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 54 57, f i g . 1. A l s o i n the A r t I n s t i t u t e o f Chicago i s a drawing ( F i g . 17) a l s o a t t r i b u t e d to T i e p o l o by. M i d d e l d o r f , w h i c h i s from the C h a r l e s D e e r i n g C o l lection. Pen and wash over b l a c k c h a l k on w h i t e p a p e r . Composed o f seven p i e c e s o f paper p a s t e d t o g e t h e r . 9 4 . 2 x 4 4 . 5 cm. ( M i d d e l d o r f , f i g . 2 ) . However, a c c o r d i n g t o George Knox, b o t h the s k e t c h and drawing s h o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t ° F r a n c e s c o L o r e n z i s i n c e "the a t t r i b u t i o n t o F r a n c e s c o L o r e n z i i s f u l l y supported by a comparison w i t h h i s l a r g e pen and wash drawings a f t e r o t h e r contemporary works by G i a m b a t t i s t a i n the Museo d a . C a s t e l y e c c h i o i n V e r o n a " (George Knox, T i e p o l o : . a B i c e n t e n a r y E x h i b i t i o n 1770-1970. Drawi n g s M a i n l y from, American C o l l e c t i o n s by G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o and the Members o f h i s C i r c l e . Fogg A r t Museum, H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , March 14-May 3, 1970. [Cambridge, M a s s . , Fogg A r t Museum] 1970, p . 29. F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a drawing o f a, s m a l l boy l e a n i n g on an u r n which appears i n the M i l a n s k e t c h . This drawing i n the B e r l i n Sketchbook ( f o l . 22 r e c t o ) has been a t t r i b u t e d t o L o r e n z i . (George Knox i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the A u t h o r ) . s  C h a r l e s M. D a l e y , O . P . " R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f S a i n t Dominic i n the United S t a t e s " , I I I ( T h i r d - F o u r t h Quarter, p 9 3 1 4 1 / I l l t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note some changes i n the executed f r e s c o and i n the s k e t c h e s . The M i l a n s k e t c h . i s f a i r l y c l o s e to the G e s u a t i c e i l i n g , a l though t h e r e are s l i g h t changes. The B e r l i n s k e t c h , however, o m i t s the f l i g h t o f s t e p s on w h i c h Dominic stands i n the M i l a n s k e t c h , p l a c e s an a r c h i t e c t u r a l background from the l e f t to the r i g h t , shows the s a i n t . s t r e t c h i n g . o u t h i s .arms, and p l a c e s the l i t t l e a n g e l w i t h the r o s a r i e s i n f r o n t o f h i m . (Middeldorf,  102 42 "An Unusual D r a w i n g " p . 5 6 ) , There j s a drawing o f cont'd: '-. S t . Dominic with,,. Arms . O u t s t r e t c h e d , i n . the P i e r p o n t Morgan L i b r a r y , N o / X V , p . H'6d." ' Pen" and brown i n k , brown wash, over b l a c k c h a l k , 2 0 . 5 x 1 8 . 5 cm. Upper c o r n e r s d i a g o n a l l y c r o p p e d . (.Jacob Bean and F e l i c e S t a m p f l e , Drawings from. New York,' . C o l l e c t i o n ' s ; i l l , The' E i g h t e e n t h Century i n I t a l y . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , J a n u a r y 30-March 2 1 , 1971 [New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y : G r e e n w i c h , C o n n . , 1 9 7 1 ] , . p . 43,. p i . 66. The L o r e n z i drawing i s s i m i l a r t o the M i l a n , s k e t c h , a l t h o u g h t h e . f i g u r e a t the bottom o f the B e r l i n s k e t c h has been roughly followed. (Knox, A B i c e n t e n a r y E x h i b i t i o n , p . 2 9 ) . f  ;  43  Molmenti, Tiepolo, p.  54.  44  Daley, "Representations  45  A . M o r a s s i , " G . B . T i e p o l o , H i s . . L i f e and Work, (London: Phaidon P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 17.  46  E r i c J o h n , e d . The P o p e s , . a C o n c i s e B i o g r a p h i c a l H i s t o r y , 1 s t e d . (London: Burns & O a t e s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 350.  47  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, p .  48  M o r a s s i , (A Complete C a t a l o g u e o f the P a i n t i n g s o f G . B , T i e p o l o , p . 8, f i g . 9 4 ) , says that t h e r e was a ' m p d e l l o ' o r a contemporary copy o f an unknown o r i g i n a l s k e t c h f o r t h i s f r e s c o . (Canvas, 38x52 cm). The p i c t u r e was i n the Fogg A r t Museum but the p r e s e n t whereabouts i s unknown.  49  Molmenti, Tiepolo, p.  50  I b i d . , pp.  51  See Jameson, Legends o f the M o n a s t i c O r d e r s , p .  52  George Knox i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the A u t h o r .  53  D a l e y , " R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f S t . D o m i n i c , p . 125. F o r t h i s f r e s c o t h e r e i s a s k e t c h (38x52 cm), w h i c h was i n the Johnson C o l l e c t i o n i n t h e - P h i l a d e l p h i a Museum o f A r t . P r e s e n t whereabouts unknown. (Morassi> A Complete C a t a l o g u e o f the P a i n t i n g s p f G . B . T i e p o l o , p . 44. A l s o t h e r e are twp drawings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f r e s c o , S t . Dominic Borne Upward by Three A n g e l s pen and brown i n k , brown wash, over b l a c k c h a l k , 2 4 . 8 x 2 2 . 5 cm. U p p e r . c o r n e r s d i a g o n a l l y c u t . pierpont Morgan L i b r a r y , No.. TV, ^ ,-.100* (Bean and Stampfle,. Drawings from "New York C o l l e c t i o n s , I I I ,  of St. Dominic", p.  141  54.  55.  54-55. 435.  103 53 cont'd':  p . 4 3 , p i . 5 5 ) , and S t . • Dominic,, Hi: s Hand i n P r a y e r , Borne Upward - pen and"-brown" ink',."', brown wash, o y e r , . b l a c k c h a l k , 3 3 . 4 x 2 7 . 2 , c m . p i e r p o n t . Morgan L i b r a r y , No. I V , p . 99, . A c c o r d i n g to George.Knox,. t h i s l a t t e r drawing s h o u l d , on s t y l i s t i c grounds,, be dated l a t e r than 1737-1739. (Bean and S t a m p f l e , pp. 4 3 44, p i . 6 7 ) .  54  M o r a s s i , G . B . T i e p o l o , H i s L i f e and Work, pp.  17-18.  55  I b i d . , pp. 9-10 .'  56  There i s a drawing b y F r a n c e s c o L o r e n z i ( F i g . 2 1 ) , w h i c h may w e l l be a v a r i a t i o n . a f t e r T i e p o l o ' s f r e s c o . L o r e n z i ' s drawing i s ' i n the Museo d i C a s t e l v e c c h i o . i n Verona. (George Knox i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the Author). -  57  W.A. H i n n e b u s c h , " R o s a r y " , New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, X I I , p . 667.  58  M o r a s s i , G . B . T i e p o l o , .His L i f e and Work, p . 56. There are- t h r e e pen and wash drawings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s a l t a r p i e c e t h a t s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d . One i s i n the P a r i s i n the former O r l o f f C o l l e c t i o n (260 mmxl50mm) I t i s i d e n t i f i e d as Madonna (?) w i t h Two Female S a i n t s , . ( D e t l e v Baron von Hadeln"^ The Drawings o f G . B . . T i e p o l o [2 v o l s . , P a r i s : The Pegasus P r e s s , 1 9 2 9 ] , I , f i g . 3 8 ) , though v o n Hadeln concedes t h a t the f i g u r e s c o u l d be S t . Rose w i t h the C h r i s t . C h i l d , S t . C a t h e r i n e a n d - S t . Agnes ( I b i d . , p . 26) In the Museo C i v i c o d i S t o r i a e A r t e i n T r i e s t e , t h e r e are two drawings on both, s i d e s o f one p i e c e o f p a p e r , (white paper 455 mm x 302 mm), ( A l d o . R i z z i , e d . , Disegni del Tiepolo, Udine, Loggia d e l L i o n e l l o , l O O t t o b r e - 14 Novembre, 196 5 [Udine: 1 9 6 5 ] , f i g s . 86, p . 101.  59  Wart A r P l a n , "Gian B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o e G . M . M o r l a i t e r a i G e s u a t i " , pp. 1 9 - 2 0 .  60  Jameson,  61  Franco B a r b i e r i , e d . , I l Museo C i v i c o d i V i c e n z a , 8, D i p i n t i e S c u l t u r e d a l XVI a l X V I I I S e c o l o (Venezia: N e r i Pozza E d i t o r e , 1962), p . 68, p i . A 5 5 .  62  J . M . Vargas,  63  D o n z e l l i and p i l o , I P i t t o r i d e l Siejcento y e n e t o , p i . 244. ~ : ~ : ~~  64  L o r e n z e t t i ,- V e n i c e and i t s . Lagoon, p . 533 .  Legends o f the M o n a s t i c O r d e r s ,  "Rose o f L i m a , S t " . , p .  p.  405.  674.  104 Z a m p e t t i , D a l R i c c i a l T i e p o l o , p . 94, p i . 41. Hugh. Honour,; The Companion Guide to- V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Harper & Row, 1966), p . 151. "' ' L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, p .  532.  W.A. Hinnebusch, " R o s a r y " , New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967, XXX,- p . 667. Ibid. A l e s s a n d r o Vardanega, " I l R o s a r i o a i G e s u a t i d i V e n e z i a nei Monocromi'di T i e p o l o " , Arte C h r i s t i a n a (1958), p . 187. :  I b i d . , p . 18 6. Giuseppe M a r i a P i l o , " R i t r o v a m e n t i per F r a n c e s c o Paragone, (March,. 1959) , pp. 3 3 - 4 0 . I b i d . , p.  Zugno">  35.  P a l l u c c h i n i , La P i t t u r a Veneziana d e l Settecento , p . Knox, T i e p o l o :  A Bicentenary E x h i b i t i o n , p.  166.  29.  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, p . 53 5. A c c o r d i n g t o B o s i s i o (S. M a r i a d e l R o s a r i o , p . 1 3 ) , the c h u r c h o f ' S ' . G e r o l a m o - c o n t a i n e d works by J a c o b e l l o d e l F i o r e , T i n t o r e t t o , Palma V e c c h i o , T i t i a n , . a n d Aliense. E r i c Newton, T i n t o r e t t o (London: C o . , 1952), pp. 9 4 - 9 5 .  Longman's Green and  Ibid. F r a n c i s P . B . Osmaston, The A r t and Genius o f • T i n t o r e t (2 v o l s . , London: G . B e l l a n d - S o n s , S t d . , 1915) I , pp. 136-137. Pallucchini, Piazzetta,  p.  72.  B i a n c h i n i , S. M a r i a d e l R o s a r i o , .p. B o s i s i o , S. M a r i a d e l R o s a r i o , p .  6.  33.  S t e e r , H i s t o r y of V e n e t i a n P a i n t i n g , p . Ibid. I b i d . , p.  184.  176.  105 Ibid, Moras-si.'GYBY T i e p o ^  17,  Z a m p e t t i D ' a ' l ' R i c c i ' a l ; T i e p o l o , p i . 41. . Ivan Fenyo,--"An Unknown P r o c e s s i o n a l Banner.-By the G u a r d i B r o t h e r s " > The- B u r l i n g t o n : Magazine , C X , ( F e b r u a r y , 1968) , " p . 65 n . 1. George Knox, " T i e p o l o - G u a r d i : A New P o i n t of C o n t a c t , . The . B u r l i n g t o n . M a g a z i n e , CX (May, 1968), 2 7 8 , p l . 7 3 . M o r a s s i , A Complete C a t a l o g u e o f the P a i n t i n g s o f G . B . . Tiepolo", p . 8, p i . 96. Guido P i o v e n e , L ' O p e r a .Completa d i G i a m b a t t i s t a CMilano: R i z z o l i E d i t o r e , 1968) p i . 105. L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, p .  Tiepolo, :  816.  Z a m p e t t i , D a l R i c c i a l . T l E p o l o , p . 265, p i . 119. Rodolfo "CNote d A r c h i v i o su F r a n c e s c o G u a r d i " , A r t e V e n e t a , V I I [1953], 1 5 6 ) , has p u b l i s h e d the i n v e n t o r y o f 1807 of p a i n t i n g s found i n the C a p p e l l a d i S. Dpm-. e n i c o i n the church o f S. P i e t r o M a r t i r e : 31 - " M i r a c o l o d i S. Domenico quando s i rompe i l p o n t e , " dell'autore Guardi. 32—- Una "S.. t a Domenica". Ovato d i c h i a r o s c u r o A u t o r e incerto. 33 - P a l l a de S. Domenico d i Bartolemeo S e t t a r i n i [ s i c ] . 34 - Una "Santa" d i c h a r o s c u r o , O v a t o , a u t o r e . i n c e r t o . 35 - " M i r a c o l o d i S. Domenico" d e l l ' a u t o r e G u a r d i . 1  Pallucchini, Piazzetta,  p.  21  106  CHAPTER I V 1  B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a , p. 338.  2  A r s l a n , "Gian B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o e G.M. M o r l a i t e r G e s u a t i " , p . 24.  3  The d a t e s o f the s c u l p t o r s , F r a n c e s c o G i o v a n n i , Tomasso, and A n t o n i o , are p u b l i s h e d by Carai1lo Semenzato (La S c u l t u r a Veneta d e l S e i c e n t o e d e l S e t t e c e n t o , F i n a l e d . i V e n e z i a : A l f i e r * , 1 9 6 6 ] , pp. 123, 118119, 122 and .123-124.  4 . Go1zio, Seicento e.Settecento, I I ,  ai  pp.1056-1057.  5  Semenzato, L a S c u l t u r a V e n e t a , p . 53.  6  I b i d . , p . 123.  7  I b i d . . , p . 13 5. The work o f the G e s u a t i facade by the o t h e r two s c u l p t o r s , T o r r e t t i and F u s a l i , i s not mentioned by Semenzato.  8  :5ee L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, pp.  9  Semenzato, La S c u l t u r a V e n e t a , p . 137-  10  M o r a s s i , A Complete C a t a l o g u e o f the P a i n t i n g s o f G . B . T j e p o l o , p . 235.  11  (Gd.ulio L o r e n z e t t i , " M o d e l l i e B o z z e t t i d i T e r r a c o t t a e d Terracruda d i Giovanni Maria M o r l a i t e r , " R i v i s t a d i V e n e z i a , XIV (1935), p . 226. .  12  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and-.its Lagoon, p . 532.  13  A r s l a n , "Gian B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o e G.M. M o r l a i t e r a i Gesua t i , p. 21.  14 - T b i d . , pp.  ^  345-356.  21-22.  15  I b i d . . , p . 22.  16  Semenzato, La S c u l t u r a V e n e t a , p . 137. The arrangement Semenzato g i y e s i s c o r r e c t e x c e p t f o r the b a s r e l i e f s over the p u l p i t s , w h i c h are r e v e r s e d .  17  Ibid.  Semenzato g i v e s some d i s c r e p a n c i e s t o A r s l a n . A r s l a n says t h a t payments were made i n A p r i l and i n  107 17 July-, 1747 (."Gian B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o . e G . M . M o r l a i t e r Cont'd: a i G e s u a t i " , p . 2 2 ) , w h i l e Semanzato omits t h i s . A l s o o m i t t e d b y Semenzato are the payments i n M a r c h and A p r i l , 1751 f o r Aaron ( A r s l a n , " G i a n B a t t i s t a T i e p o l o e G.M, M o r l a i t e r a i G e s u a t i " , p. 22). Semenzato a l s o says t h a t payments were made i n August and i n December 1753 f o r Abraham and i t s b a s - r e l i e f , w h i l e A r s l a n says 1754 18  F r e d e r i c k Roth Webber,.Church- Symbolism; An E x p l a n a t i o n o f the More Important Syjnbolss:o.f' the Qiid and New T e s t a ment, the P r i m i t i v e ^ 'the M e d i a e v a l ' and the Modern C h u r c h . 2d e d . r e v . ( C l e v e l a n d : J . H . J a n s e n , 1938) , pp. 248 and 254.  19  Graham Smith i n c o n v e r s a t i o n  w i t h the  Author.  20- Webber^(Church Symbolism, p . 236) says t h a t a s h i p i s used t o s y m b o l i z e the s h i p of the Church and t h a t sometimes P e t e r and P a u l a r e ' d e p i c t e d a t the helm. 21  Graham Smith i n c o n v e r s a t i o n  w i t h the  22  Webberm Church Symbolism, p .  37;  23  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, p . 348. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the B a p t i s m o f C h r i s t , see F r a n c a Zava B o c c a z z i , La B a s i l i c a d e l S a n t i G i o v a n n i e P a o l o i n Venezia (Venezia: Ferdinando Ongania E d i t o r e , 1965), p i . 191.  24  Ibid.., p.  25  I b i d . , p . 297, p i . 194 and 195, p . 363, n .  26  I b i d . . , p i . 187, 186 and  27  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, p .  28  I b i d . , p.  29  M o r a s s i , A Complete C a t a l o g u e  139, p i . 74, 76 and  Author.  77. 222.  185. 354.  353.  Tiepolo, p.  o f the P a i n t i n g s  of G.B.  63.  30 - See. B o c c a z z i , S a n t i G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , p i .  115. 1, p .  31 32  M o s c h i n i , Guida. per l a C j t t a d i y e n e z i a , Semenzato, La S c u l t u r a , V e n e t a , p . 139.  218.  33  B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a , . p . 267. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the c h u r c h and t h e s c u l p t u r e s , -..(the. i n t e r i o r 1 , see p i . 1 9 3 .  108 34  Lorenzetti,  " M o d e l l i e B o z z e t t i " , pp.  231T232.  35 GluliLo Lo'r.eh'zet't£-, -.-.•''D.'^Uri-••Gtfppp:' di'. Bozzetti- d i Gia,n: ^Maria, M o r l a i t e r " , D e d a l o , X I ( J u l y , 1931), p . 1000. F o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n , see p . 999, 36  Wittkower,  37  See Semenzato, La S e u l t u r e Veneta,. p i .  38  Ibid.., p i .  206 and  39  Wittkower,  A r t and. A r c h i t e c t u r e  A r t and A r c h i t e c t r u r e : i n I t a l y ,  p . 300, p i .  171a.  199.  207. in Italy,  p . 300 , P L  171b.  40  Ibid...  41  Ibid.  42  Semenzato, L a S c u t t u r a V e n e t a , p . 138. F o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n see L o r e n z e t t i , "D'Un Guippo d i B o z z e t t i " , pp. 996 and 997.  43  Semenzato (La S c u l t u r a V e n e t a , p . 6 3 ) , compares him w i t h b o t h F r a n c e s c o G u a r d i and P i t t o n i . He has a l s o been compared;to P i a z z e t t a a n d ' B e r n i n i (See B o s i s i o , S., Mar i a d e l Ro s a r i o , p . 33) but i t would seem b e t t e r t o compare him w i t h o n l y one f i g u r e , the b e s t b e i n g G u a r d i , s i n c e c e r t a i n Baroque t e n d e n c i e s are c a r r i e d on i n the l a t t e r ' s work. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p o i n t out s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two a r t i s t s t h a t a r e most relevant.  44  Semenzato, La S c u l t u r a V e n e t a ,  p.  63.  109 ' NOTES  •  CONCLUSION. 1  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and' i t s - Lagoon, ,pp.  2  Moschini, "Giorgio Massari"., p.  3  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and 1 1 s Lagoon, pp.  4  T e r l s i o P i g n a t t i , V e n i c e , trans-. By J u d i t h Landry CNew  ' 5  204..  :  York!  H o l t , Rinehart  533-535.  533-535.  and W i n s t o n , T h e . ,  197l)p.224.  M o s c h i n i , " G i o r g i o M a s s a r i " , p . 2 04.  6  George Knox i n c o n v e r s a t i o n  7  P i g n a t t i , Venice, p.  8  Pignatti,  w i t h the  Author.  223.  " R e l i g i o n and - E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  P a i n t i n g " , p.  Venetian  12.  9  H a s k e l l , P a t r o n s and P a i n t e r s , p .  10  . I b i d . , p.  273.  11  I b i d . , p.  272.  12  Lorenzetti,  13  H a s k e l l , P a t r o n s and P a i n t e r s , . p .  14  M o s c h i n i , Guida per l a C i t t a d i V e n e z i a , I , p .  15  Waterhouse,- I t a l i a n Baroque P a i n t i n g , p i .  16  P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y P a i n t i n g " , p . 19. Honour, Guide t o V e n i c e , p . 151. P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y P a i n t i n g " , p . 12.  17 18.  268.  V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon, pp.  533-535.  273. 218.  63. Venetian Venetian  19  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e a n d ' I t s Lagoon, pp. 343 and  815.  20  J o h n , The Popes, pp. 350-351 and P a s t o r , H i s t o r y o f Popes, XXXIV, p . 165,  21  P i g n a t t i , " R e l i g i o n and E i g h t e e n t h T C e n t u r y P a i n t i n g " , p . 16.  Venetian  the  110 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackerman, James S. Books, 1966.  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A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e 1750, 2d. r e v . e d . , Harmondsworth, Books, 1965. ,  in Italy, England:  1600 t o Penguin  • " L ' I n f l u e n z a d e l P a l l a d i o s u l l o Sviluppo d e l l ' A r c h i t e t t u r a R e l i g i o s a Veneziana n e l S e i e S e t t e c e n t o " . B o l l e t t i n o d e l Centro I n t e r n a z i o n a l e d i S t u d i d i A r c h i t e t t u r a Andrea P a l l a d i o , V , . (1963), pp. 61-72.  Zampetti, P i e t r p , Dal Ricci. a l Tiepolo, I P i t t o r i d i Figura del Settecento a Venezia. Venezia, Palazzo Ducale, 7 Qitigno - 15 O t t o b r e , 1969 . V e n e z i a : Alfieri, E d i z i o n i d ' A r t e , 1969. :  : Mostra d e l G u a r d i . Venezia, Palazzo G r a s s i , 5 <Glfigno - 10 O t t o b r e , 196 5. V e n e z i a : Edizioni A l f i e r i , 1965.  Fig.  1.  Giuseppe S a r d i ( c . 1621-1699) S. L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t i .  117  F i g . 2.  Giuseppe S a r d i , Church of the S c a l z i .  Fig.  3.  Domenico R o s s i S. S t a e .  (1657-1737).  F i g . 4.  5.  Andrea T i r a l i . S, V i d a l .  121  Fig,  6.  Giovanni S c a l f a r o t t o S. Simeone P i c c o l o .  (c.  1690-1764)  Fig.  7.  A t t r i b . G i a n A n t o n i o G u a r d i (1699-1760) View o f the Z a t t e r e : B e r l i n - D a h l e m , Museen.  Fig.  8.  View o f the Church o f t h e Dominican F a t h e r s a t the Z a t t e r e . E n g r a v i n g from the 1740 e d i t i o n of the F o r e s t i e r e I l l u m i n a t o (showing a l s o , a t the l e f t , S, G e r o l a m o ) .  £  124  125  Fig.  10.  Lorenzo B o s c h e t t i S. B a r n a b a .  (active  1749-1776).  126  Fig.  11.  P l a n o f the Church and Monastery o f the G e s u a t i .  127  128  129  Fig,  14.  G i a m b a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a (1683-1754). Saints Vincent Ferrer, Hyacinth, and L o u i s B e r t r a n d . Gesuati.  G i a m b a t t i s t a P i a z z e t t a and G i a n M a r i a M o r l a i t e r ( c 1699-1781). S t . Dominic and The G l o r y o f A n g e l s . Gesuati.  131  F i g . 16.  G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o (1696-1770). S t . Dominic I n s t i t u t i n g the R o s a r y . Gesuati.  F r a n c e s c o L o r e n z i (1723-1787). Drawing o f S t . Dominic I n s t i t u t i n g the R o s a r y . The A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o , C h a r l e s Deering C o l l .  133  Fig.  18.  G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o . The V i r g i n H e a r i n g the P r a y e r s o f S t . D o m i n i c . Gesuati.  134  Fig.  19.  G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o . The G l o r y o f St. Dominic. Gesuati.  135  Fig, 20.  Giambattista Tiepolo. Appearing to David.  The Angel Gesuati.  136  Fig.  22.  Giambattista Tiepolo. Madonna w i t h S a i n t s Rose, C a t h e r i n e S i e n a , and Agnes o f M o n t e p u l c i a n o . Gesuati.  of  138  Fig.  23,  A t t r i b . F r a n c e s c o Zugno (1708 or 17091787) . The B i r t h o f C h r i s t ( c e n t r e ) . The V i s i t a t i o n ( l e f t ) , The P r e s e n t a t i o n o f C h r i s t i n the Temple ( r i g h t ) . G e s u a t i .  A t t r i b . F r a n c e s c o Zugno. The S c o u r g i n g of C h r i s t ( c e n t r e ) . The Agony i n the Garden, ( l e f t ) . Gesuati.  140  Fig.  25.  A t t r i b . F r a n c e s c o Zugno. C h r i s t C a r r y i n g the C r o s s .  Gesuati.  141  F i g , 26.  Giambattista Piazzetta. The G l o r y of S t . Dominic. SS. Giovanni e Paolo.  Fig.  27  Gaetano F u s a l i Prudence. Gesuati.  143  Fig.  28.  F r a n c e s c o Bonazza ( a c t i v e Justice, Gesuati.  1729-1770)  144  Fig.  29.  Giuseppe T o r r e t t i . Fortitude. Gesuati.  A l v i s e T a g l i a p i e t r a ( a c t i v e 1708 b e f o r e 1 7 6 0 ) . Temperance. G e s u a t i  Fig.  32.  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r , Aaron. Gesuati.  148  T U "H  Q)m -P  +J  •H  3  nJ cn  rH  M  0 S  < D O  rd  U  r  g  ctf  fC -K -PI  o oil  Fig.  34.  Gian Maria St. Peter.  Morlaiter Gesuati,  Fig.  35.  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . Melchisedech. Gesuati  Fig.  36.  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r Abraham. Gesuati.  152  Fig.  37.  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . C h r i s t and the Magdalene.  Gesuati.  153  Fig.  38.  G i a n Maria, M o r l a i t e r . C h r i s t and the S a m a r i t a n .  Gesuati.  154  156  Fig,  41.  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . M i r a c l e o f the H e a l i n g o f the Gesuati.  B l i n d Man.  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . S t . P e t e r Walking on the Water.  Gesuati.  Fig.  43.  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . M i r a c l e o f the P a r a l y t i c .  Gesuati.  Gian Maria M o r l a i t e r . The C e n t u r i o n P l e a d i n g f o r the of h i s Servant. Gesuati.  Health  

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