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The relationship between living in a foster home and reading achievement among high school students Wolfe, Darge 1973

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c \ THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIVING IN A FOSTER HOME AND READING ACHIEVEMENT AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS: by DARGE WOLE B.A., H^ile S e l l a s s l e I University, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY We accept t h i a thesia as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1973. I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f &Luccx.'t'0o«-f fsydld/oyy The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e fitfrii Z7, 1173 i i ABSTRACT This study investigated the relat i o n s h i p between l i v i n g i n a fos t e r home and reading achievement among high school students. I t involved 71 subjects l i v i n g i n fost e r and non-fo s t e r homes. Nineteen schools i n Vancouver, Richmond and Surrey, B r i t i s h Columbia, were Included i n the study. The f i r s t part of the study was concerned with the relatio n s h i p between Type of Home and reading achievement, I.Q. and reading scores were obtained using the C a l i f o r n i a Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity and the Reading Battery of the C a l i f o r n i a Achievements Tests. Age, Sex, Grade, I.Q. and Type of Home and the interactions between Type of Home and I.Q. and between Type of Home and Sex were used as predictors i n multiple regression analysis of the data obtained. The depend-ent variable was the grade placement of the subjects on the reading t e s t . The re s u l t s suggest that there i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Type of Home and reading achievement. How-ever, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t mean difference i n I.Si. between the f o s t e r and non-foster children. The predictor variables included i n the study accounted f o r about 75% of the variance i n the dependent variable. In the second part of the study, relationship between the reading achievement of the fo s t e r c h i l d r e n and Age of Admission to Foster Care, Length of Foster Care and the Number of Times the Children Changed Homes was investigated. The interactions i i i between Age at F i r s t Admission and Length of Foster Care and between Socioeconomic Status of the fo s t e r parents and the Length of Stay i n the Present Home weiealso considered. Again, multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The r e s u l t s indicated that the number of times the children changed homes was more strongly related to t h e i r reading achievement than eit h e r Age at F i r s t Admission or Length of Foster Care. However, only Grade and I.Q. were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the reading achievement of the children; they accounted f o r about 70% of the variance i n the dependent variable. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t interactions. It was suggested that future studies of the academic achievement of fo s t e r children should include elementary as well as high school students, both i n regular and " s p e c i a l " classes. I t was also pointed out that further research should consider not only the self-concept, school attendance and the natural home background of the fo s t e r children but also teacher expect-ations and the number of schools attended. Studies regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i v i n g i n a f o s t e r home and the devel-opment of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s were also recommended. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am gra t e f u l to, my Faculty Advisor, Dr. J . Conry, f o r her guidance i n t h i s study. I would also l i k e to express my appreciation to Dr. M. Gsapo and Mr. R. Conry f o r t h e i r contributions. F i n a l l y , t h i s study would not have been possible without the cooperation of the Catholic Family and Children's Service and the Vancouver, Richmond and Surrey school boards. CHAPTER CONTENTS I BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY II SURVEY OF: THE LITERATURE:, III THE PROBLEM IV METHODOLOGY Subjects Materials S t a t i s t i c a l Design Procedure V PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE DATA VI ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION Part A Part B VII CONCLUSIONS Summary of the Results Recommendations f o r Future Research REFERENCES' APPENDICESC vi TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Number of Subjects by Tupe of Home, Grade and Sex 33 2 ' Mean Age, I . Q . and Grade Placement of the Subjects 34 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Subjects and Socioeconomic Ranks of the D i s t r i c t s 36 4 Correlation Matrix For A l l Subjects 37 5 Mean Age, Grade and I. Q,. of the Subjects 39 6 Correlation Matrix f o r the Foster Children Only 4 0 CHAPTER I BACKGROUND TO. THE STUDY In the City of Vancouver there are two main welfare agencies whose service includes the placement and supervision of children i n fo s t e r homes. One of these agencies i s the Catholic Family and Children's Service (hereafter referred to as the "Society"). I t was f i r s t established i n 1905 under the name of the "Catholic Children's Aid Society". I t s aim i s to "plan" f o r c h i l d r e n whose parents are not able or w i l l i n g to support them. The children are referred to the Society f o r various reasons including desertion?, mental or physical i l l n e s s of parents and r e j e c t i o n by parents. They are referred by parents, parish p r i e s t s , courts, p o l i c e , school counselors, physicians, lawyers and other concerned members of the community. Some-times the c h i l d himself applies f o r help. The Society accepts children only from the City of Vancouver but these children are placed throughout the Lower Mainland, except the c i t i e s of Mission and Abbotsford. At l e a s t one member of the children's family should be a Roman Catholic but the children need not have been baptized and the f o s t e r parents need not be Roman Catholics. The children can be accepted any time between b i r t h and the nineteenth birthday. When the Society , decides to place the children i n fo s t e r homes, i t takes the matter to Court and, under the provisions of the Protection of Children Act of B r i t i s h Columbia, i t assumes l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y f o r the welfare of the children. In placing the c h i l d i n a fost e r home the Society makes a 2. study of applications by would-be f o s t e r parents. The a p p l i c -a t i o n includes information about t h e i r occupation, income and health. I f the Society f e e l s that the applicants can take proper care of the children, a series of pre-placement v i s i t s are arranged. The children v i s i t the homes they might event-u a l l y go Into and during that period the s o c i a l workers of the Society assess the " s u i t a b i l i t y " of the homes f o r the children. When a c h i l d goes into a f o s t e r home a "Placement Inform-ati o n " sheet which includes information about his educational l e v e l and health Is provided to the fost e r parents (or parent) by the Society. The f o s t e r parents w i l l then receive mainten-ance, clot h i n g and family (or Youth) allowances f o r the c h i l d every month. The amount varies with the age of the c h i l d but generally with an increase In age;?, there i s a corresponding increase i n the amount of the allowances. In some cases the c h i l d may have to be transferred to another home but throughout the period the c h i l d i s under the care of the Society, the Society keeps i n contact with the foster home and schools the c h i l d attends to f i n d out about the progress and problems of the c h i l d . For the purpose of t h i s study the term "foster e h i l d " refers to a c h i l d who does not l i v e with his parents or r e l a t -ives and i s placed i n another family or a group home f o r any length of time between b i r t h and nineteen years of age. A group home i s composed of a maximum of f i v e c h i l d r e n and father and mother figures. As described i n the previous paragraphs, the children who 3 . l i v e i n f o s t e r homes may have, as a group» c e r t a i n common exper-iences which children l i v i n g with t h e i r parents do not have. For example: 1. I t seems that the f o s t e r children do not get s u f f i c i e n t care p r i o r to t h e i r placement i n f o s t e r homes. For example, some of the causes f o r r e f e r r a l were "neglect" or " r e j e c t i o n " by parents. 2. The f o s t e r children change homes. There are cases i n which a c h i l d has been to f i v e or more f o s t e r homes. The change i n fos t e r homes i s sometimes accompanied by a change i n school attended. 3. Throughout t h e i r f o s t e r home l i f e , which may be as long as nineteen years, the fos t e r children, as a group, may be treated i n ways d i f f e r e n t from the way parents gener-a l l y treat t h e i r own children. These general differences between the experiences of fos t e r children and children l i v i n g with t h e i r parents may be r e f l e c t e d i n the reading achievement of the two groups. In fa c t some stud-' ies about the academic achievement of these groups seem to i n d i c -ate that there are some s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the achievements of the two groups. (see "Survey of L i t e r a t u r e " below) Thus, t h i s study Is an attempt to investigate the differences i n reading achievement between the f o s t e r children and children l i v i n g with t h e i r parents. Some of the questions i t seeks to answer are the following: 1. To what extent does the fact that a c h i l d , l i v e s i n a fo s t e r home rather than i n a natural home " a f f e c t " his 4 reading achievement? 2 . In general, f o r both the fo s t e r children and f o r children i n natural homes, what i s the r e l a t i v e inportance of factors (such as sex., and grade) i n the reading achieve-ment of the children? Answers to these questions w i l l be useful to f o s t e r parents, welfare agencies and schools i n helping the c h i l d to achieve the best he can by paying more attention to the factors which have a considerable e f f e c t on his achievement. The res u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l also shed l i g h t on the academic performance of fost e r children. They w i l l provide clues f o r a more thorough study of the educational progress of these children. They w i l l also suggest possible studies about the academic achievement of children i n orphanages and si m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s . 5 CHAPTER II SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE The studies reviewed here have not a l l used fo s t e r c h i l d r e n as subjects. Some of therm are about adopted children and orphans. The fo s t e r c h i l d r e n may change homes while the adopted children are expected to stay with t h e i r adoptive parents permanently. But a l l three groups have one basic s i m i l l a r i t y : they do not l i v e with t h e i r natural parents. Thus the writer f e e l s that studies about the academic achievement of adopted children and orphans may be il l u m i n a t i n g and some of these studies are included i n t h i s survey. Freeman, Holzinger & M i t c h e l l (1928) d i d a study of the eff e c t of "environment" on the academic achievement of fo s t e r children. The subjects were 348 fo s t e r children. Their mean I.Q. was not given but they were from a group of 401 fost e r c h i l d r e n whose mean I.Q. on the Stanford - Blnet was 97.5. Three f i e l d workers made the environmental r a t i n g f o r each c h i l d . Material environment, occupation of foster father, educa-t i o n of f o s t e r mother, s o c i a l a c t i v i t y of f o s t e r parents and evidences of culture (such as newspaper) were each rated on a scale with values 1 * 5 . The grade placement of the fo s t e r c h i l d -ren was recorded, and t h e i r school achievement was "measured" by two ssales (normal age-grade placement scale and class performance scale). The researchers found out that those i n "better" homes ',(with scores 19 - 30 on the environment r a t i n g scale) had a mean score of 4.2, while those In poorer homes had a mean score of 3.4. 6. They found that 69% of the f o s t e r children were i n normal grades while 20% were retarded. Out of the 348 subjects, 234 went into foster homes before they were six years old. I t was found out that 15% of these were i n normal grades and 11% were accelerated. The mean scores of those children who went into foBter homes before the age of two, between two and f i v e and a f t e r f i v e were 4 . 2 , 3 . 9 and 3 . 3 respect-i v e l y . The writers also t r i e d to f i n d out i f there was a difference i n average performance between those who attended urban, suburban and r u r a l schools. The percentage of accelerated and retarded children i n these three environments "did not vary greatly". No significance tests are reported. The researchers concluded that f o s t e r children are l i k e l y to do above average work i f they are placed i n "better" homes early i n t h e i r childhood, the e a r l i e r they are placed the better t h e i r performances are l i k e l y to be. The writers d i d not report the mean I.Q. of the group who went into poorer homes, but the academic achievement of these children was f a r below the average. Also, as pointed out by the writers, the environmental r a t i n g was subjective. On the other hand, the study has t r i e d to investigate the ef f e c t of the educat-io n a l l e v e l of the fo s t e r mother and the occupation of the father on the achievement of the c h i l d . The results of the study suggest that the achievement of children who go into f o s t e r homes a f t e r the age of f i v e w i l l be considerably lower than t h e i r achievement 7 i f they were placed before the age of f i v e . I t i s possible that before they go into f o s t e r homes, the children, as a group, w i l l have faced c e r t a i n common problems (disadvantages) and that the e a r l i e r they are admitted into f o s t e r homes, the l e s s these disadvantages become. Felnberg (1949) t r i e d to f i n d out how foster c h i l d r e n would compare with "maladjusted" childre n on the Stanford Achievement Test. He was also interested In f i n d i n g out how the grade place-ment of the foster children compares with t h e i r scores on the Stanford Test. He administered the t e s t to 100 Jewish f o s t e r children with a mean I.Q. of 104.9 and a mean age of 12, and to 872 maladjusted children whose mean I.Q. was about 85 and whose mean age was 14.25. According th the r e s u l t s of the Test, the f o s t e r children achieved lower than the l e v e l indicated by t h e i r grade placement. Felnberg found out that, on the average, f o s t e r c h i l d r e n were retarded by .3 to about 1.4 school years when he compared t h e i r performance on each subtest with t h e i r actual grade placement. While the mean grade placement of the f o s t e r children was 7.1» t h e i r average achievement was on the 6.2 grade l e v e l . The "maladjusted" were retarded by an average of 1.5 to 2.37 school years. On the reading subtest, the mean achievement of the maladjusted group was 6.1 while f o r the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i t was 6.5. In Literature and Spelling, the f o s t e r children achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the maladjusted group. Felnberg f e l t that the discrepancy between achievement and grade placement 8. might have been due t o problems a r i s i n g from "laek of q u a l i t y o f l o v e and a f f e e t i o n (p. 302)." F e i n b e r g d i d not e x p l a i n w e l l what he meant by "maladjusted". But he p o i n t s out t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n "came from homes o f h i g h e r c u l t u r a l l e v e l , a l e v e l approximately normal (p. 294)." And the maladjusted were l i v i n g i n a home f o r " d e l l n q -e n t s . " We a l s o n o t i c e t h a t t h e r e i s a wide gap between the mean I.Q. of these c h i l d r e n and the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . The study sugge-s t s t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , f o s t e r c h i l d r e n do not achieve as much as they are expected t o or a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r grade,placement on the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t . Even i f t h i s i s t r u e , the evidence i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o say whether i t i s because of t h e i r f o s t e r home experience o r because o f c e r t a i n disadvantages they, as a group, may have p r i o r t o coming i n t o f o s t e r care, or both. Langdale (1951) s t u d i e d f o r t y - t w o c h i l d r e n , ( t w e n t y - f i v e boys and seventeen g i r l s ) who were under the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver. The minimum age o f the s u b j e c t s was 21 y e a r s . The range of t h e i r I.Q's. was 59 - 120. The number o f years they stayed i n f o s t e r homes was 6 - 20. Forty-two per cent of the s u b j e c t s were r e f e r r e d t o the s o c i e t y and were p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes because of the death of one o r b o t h p a r e n t s . The aim o f the study was t o e v a l u a t e the p h y s i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l development and the g e n e r a l "adjustment" of the c h i l d r e n . In e v a l u a t i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s of the s u b j e c t s , the a u t h o r f i r s t found out the grades the c h i l d r e n were a t t e n d i n g when they l e f t s c h o o l and determined the age groups a t t e n d i n g each grade (grades V - X I I i n c l u s i v e . ) Then Langdale made a comparison 9 between the "normal" age range f o r these grades i n Vancouver sch-ools and the corresponding age range of the fo s t e r children who attended these grades just before they l e f t school. According to the author's "Normal age by Grade" scale, 55% of the grade IX and grade X fo s t e r children were age-grade retarded by 1 - 3 years and a l l of the grade VIII f o s t e r children by 1 - 2 years. Some of the grade VII fost e r children were also retarded by 1 - 3 years. The author concluded that the f o s t e r children were too old f o r t h e i r grades and pointed out that the results should not be surprising i f we consider the I.Q. of the children. However, the writer does not indicate i f the sample can be considered representative of the population from which i t was taken. The information about the I.Q. of the subjects i s not s u f f i c i e n t . We do not know the mean or the median I.Q. Nor do we know what i n t e l l i g e n c e test was administered. Also, i t i s possible that p r i o r to t h e i r coming into f o s t e r care the children d i d not spend as much time i n school as the "normal" children. The author has pointed out that the fo s t e r children spent 6 - 2 0 years In f o s t e r homes, but no inv e s t i g a t i o n was made to f i n d out I f the educational progress of the children varied, depending on the length of time they spent i n f o s t e r homes. A consideration of the age of the children when they were admitted into care and the length of time they l i v e d i n foster homes was probably necessary to f i n d out I f the "retardation" was mainly due to pre-foster home experience or fost e r home experience of the 1 0 children. This study i s therefore h e l p f u l i n so f a r as i t suggests possible l i n e s of inquiry. Its findings can hardly be generalized. Feinberg ( 1 9 5 4 ) studied the achievement of 1 3 8 c h i l d r e n ( 7 7 males and 6 1 females) l i v i n g i n three homes i n Detroit. Their average age was 1 2 years. Their mean I.Q. was 1 0 5 . 1 . Most of the children came from Jewish f a m i l i e s . While the majority of these children were orphans, some of them were placed i n these homes by the court because they were "neglected" children. So the term "orphan" i n t h i s study refe r s to both groups. Feinberg administered the Stanford Achievement Test to t h i s group. When he gave the t e s t , Feinberg noted the grades the students were attending. He then recorded t h e i r achievement scores on each subtest (Reading, Arithmetic, etc.) and made a comparison between t h e i r grade placement and t h e i r achievement. He also compared the achievement of the group with the achieve-ment of the f o s t e r children previously studied by the same researcher (Feinberg, 1 9 4 9 ) . The r e s u l t s of the Test showed that the orphans had a mean of 5 . 8 , but t h e i r grade placement was 6 . 6 . Their achievement mean on each subtest ranged from 5 . 3 to 6.9. Thus, on the average the orphans were retarded by .8 of a grade ( 5 . 8 - 6 . 6 ) . Feinberg also found that the correlations among the subtest re s u l t s f o r these children were s u f f i c i e n t l y high to indicate that "whatever the orphan home group reveal they reveal uniformly (p. 2 2 5 ) " . He concluded that, i n general, orphans are placed i n grades higher than t h e i r achievement would indicate. / 1 1 . When the researcher compared the achievement of these children with the achievement of the fost e r children, he found that, on the average, the orphans were more retarded than the foste r children. Although, as the investigator points out, the orphans and the fo s t e r children had "the same average age, I.Q. and grade a l l o c a t i o n " the average achievement of the orphans was lower on each subtest (except i n L i t e r a t u r e ) , than the corresp-onding achievement by the fo s t e r children. While the fo s t e r children achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the orphans on the s p e l l i n g subtest, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two groups on both the Reading and Li t e r a t u r e subtests. In general, the discrepancy between the achievement and the grade placement of the orphans and the f o s t e r children was .8 and .9 grades respectively. Felnberg*s conclusion was that "children i n orphan homes . . . do not achieve as well as those i n f o s t e r homes (p. 225)." Felnberg argued that the difference between the two groups In achievement was due to the difference i n "environment" (between orphan homes and fo s t e r homes). He t r i e d to support his argumennt by pointing out that the average I.Q. of the two groups was the same and that the two groups had the same c u l t u r a l background since a l l of the fost e r children and the majority of the orphans came from Jewish homes. But the researcher d i d not say whether the two groups were o r i g i n a l l y from homes of comparable socio-economic status. Obviously a l l Jewish homes do not provide equal opportunity f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l development. Also the difference i n the length of time the children l i v e d In t h e i r natural homes may 12. contribute (systematically to the difference i n achievement. The researcher d i d not examine t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . The investigator f e l t that the "uniformity" i n achievement among the orphans "suggests i n h i b l t l v e reaction" and the "uneven-ness of performance" i n both groups "suggests gross emotional disturbance (p. 228")." But he did not give any evidence to supp-ort his statements. His only argument was that both orphans and fos t e r children are "emotionally disturbed children, since they are children placed i n an a t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n and away from t h e i r Immediate fam i l i e s (p. 228)." Thus the author's attempt to explain the differences does not seem sati s f a c t o r y . Although t h i s study suggests that, on the average, orphans (who, l i k e foster children, do not l i v e i n t h e i r natural homes) achieve lower than t h e i r grade placement, we s t i l l cannot a t t r i b -ute the r e s u l t s to the fac t that the children l i v e d i n orphanages. The experiences of the orphans before they are placed i n orphan homes should also be considered. The fact that the average I.Q's. of both the orphans and the foster children was about 105 suggests that the main difference between t h i s group and children l i v i n g with t h e i r parents i s not i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . As pointed out above, Feinberg had done some studies regarding the achievement of fo s t e r children, orphans and "malad-justed" children and i n a subsequent study (Feinberg & Moscovitch, 1957 ) the researchers t r i e d to f i n d out i f the r e l a t i v e l y low achievement of these groups was due to some common emotional problems "low achievers" face, regardless of the type of home 13. (foster home or natural home, f o r example) they l i v e i n . Felnberg and Moscovitch studied the achievement of a "normal" home group of 113 children who were l i v i n g i n t h e i r own homes but "who were referred to a family or c h i l d guidance agency because of d i f f i c u l t i e s occurring i n the area of relationships among persons In t h e i r own home (p.67)." Their average age was 13 and they had an average I.Q. of 100.5. The average I.Q. of the fos t e r children, the orphans and the maladjusted group was 104.9, 105.1 and 85 respectively. The average age of each of these three groups was about 12. The researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to the normal home group and found out that the normal home group performed better than the fo s t e r children i n a l l the subtests except "Spelling". According to the re s u l t s of t h i s t e s t , the normal home group were behind t h e i r actual grade placement but the f o s t e r children were even more behind. Ko s i g n i f i c a n t tests are reported, but the discrepancy between achievement and grade placement was .5 for the normal home group and .9 f o r the f o s t e r children. On the Reading subtest the maladjusted children were retarded by 1.6 years, the f o s t e r children by .6 years, the orphans by .3 years and the normal group by .1 years. The mean achievement score of the normal home children was higher than the mean achievement score of the orphans, the fo s t e r children and the "maladjusted" group. Felnberg and Moscovitch concluded that the normal home children d i d not achieve s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the f o s t e r children or the orphans and a l l three groups achieved lower than 14. t h e i r grade placement. The researchers thought that the study suggests that "children placed out of the home w i l l not achieve on the l e v e l with t h e i r grade placement as c l o s e l y as childr e n l i v i n g i n t h e i r own homes, despite the fact that these children ate emotionally disturbed (p.80)." They also f e l t that the "generally low" achievement of these groups may be due to some common emotional problems. But we have no evidence. Also we do not know s p e c i f i c a l l y what emotional problems the normal home group has or the socioeconomic conditions i n t h e i r homes. I t i s possible that the "normal" children had some s i m i l a r i t i e s which affected t h e i r educational progressanegatively. The groups could have achieved low f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. Pringle and Bosslo (1958) studied the language development and reading achievement of three groups of children (8, 11 and 14 years old) l i v i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . Pringle and Bossio point out that they used reading tests as a means of evaluating the children's educational progress because they considered reading to be "the most fundamental s k i l l and the basis of a l l academic learning (p.59)." There were f i f t y 8-year olds, f i f t y 11-year-olds and forty-two 14-year-olds and a l l of the subjects were deprived children. A deprived c h i l d was defined as a c h i l d who "for one reason or another (such as i l l - h e a l t h , death or desert-ion) i s unable to l i v e with his own family but i s being brought up i n an i n s t i t u t i o n (p.65)." The ages 8, 11 and 14 were selected because the researchers f e l t these ages marked important t r a n s i t -i o n a l stages i n the children's school l i f e (elementary to Junior 15. secondary, f o r example). On the WISC ( F u l l Scale) the mean I.Q,. of the whole sample was 89.84. The investigators wanted to t e s t the hypotheses that the effe c t s of deprivation on the language and reading achievement of children w i l l be "more marked". 1. when the f i r s t separation occurs at an "early" age 2. when separation l a s t s f o r a "long" time, and 3. when deprivation has been "severe". Early age or early admission age referred to f i v e years of* l e s s . If a c h i l d has spent less than 1/3 of his l i f e i n the I n s t i t u t i o n the length of time was considered short. Severe deprivation meant " l i t t l e or no contact with f a m i l i e s " . Mild deprivation referred to "receiving l e t t e r s and parcels" and deprivation meant that "the c h i l d was v i s i t e d by parents and r e l a t i v e s " only at the request of the s o c i a l worker. The researchers administered several t e s t s . On the M i l l H i l l Vocabulary Scale, 71% of the t o t a l sample were "backward", ( i . e . , 71% of them had "language Quotients" of l e s s than 85.) The mean for each group was also "below the average range". The 11-yiear-old3 had the highest mean of 79.19. There were s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the early entrants and the l a t e entrants among the 8 and 11-year-old groups and i n the t o t a l sample. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were obtained when the length of the time they stayed i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s was considered alone. However, there were s i g n i f i c a n t inter-actions between Age of Admission and Period of Stay. The early admission - short-stay and early -admission - long -stay groups achieved lower than the l a t e admis-16. sion - short stay and l a t e admission - long-stay groups respect-i v e l y . S i g n i f i c a n t differences'-were also obtained between the achievement of the severely deprived and the deprived and between the severely deprived and the mildly deprived i n the t o t a l sample. The severely deprived had the lowest mean while the mildly deprived had the highest. Almost i d e n t i c a l r e s u l t s were obtained on WISC (Verbal Scale). Using the Watts English Language Scale and Vocabulary Test f o r Young Children ( f o r the 8-year-olds), Pringle and Bossio found out that the re s u l t s were "considerably below the average". Their mean language quotients on the two tests were 82.54 and 75.50 respectively. According to the results on the Schonell S i l e n t Reading Test (Form B), 12% of the 8-year-olds, 42$ of the 11-year-olds, lh% of the 14-year-olds and 62% of the t o t a l sample had quotients of l e s s than 85. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were obtained between the sexes, the age of admission or the period of stay i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, s i g n i f i c a n t differences were obtained regarding the l e v e l s of deprivation. The mildly deprived had the highest mean, the severely deprived had the lowest. The Schonell Graded Reading Vocabulary Test was administered only to the 8 and 11 year olds. The means f o r both groups were found to be "below average". There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the sexes. No further analyses were made. Pringle and Bossio concluded that children l i v i n g i n i n s t i t u -1 7 . tions are backward i n t h e i r language development and i n reading. They stated: " . . . . i t would seem that the Important factors are the time when the mother - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p Is f i r s t severed and the nature of the contact maintained subsequently; may be what matters most i s the opportunity to develop early a close personal rela t i o n s h i p with the mother or mother substitute and f o r t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to continue even though the c h i l d cannot l i v e i n his own home ( p . 1 5 9 ) " . The hypotheses of t h i s study were Interesting in:that the researchers considered not only "deprivation" but the age of admission and the period of stay. The f a c t that the subjects had a low average I.Q,. and that most of them were o r i g i n a l l y from "homes with a c u l t u r a l l y and educationally low l e v e l " suggests possible explanations of t h e i r "backwardness". On the other hand, the fa c t that on two of the language t e s t s , the early entrants achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the l a t e entrants suggests that the age of admission i s an important factor In language development. Although the l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n of these children (who l i v e d i n groups of 30 - 40) i s d i f f e r e n t from the fo s t e r home si t u a t i o n , t h i s study suggests the factors one may consider i n a study about the achievement of fos t e r children. I t also seems to imply that the c h i l d who i s separated from h i s parents may not get s u f f i c i e n t "family stimulation" and t h i s may a f f e c t his achievement negatively. Two Studies (Felnberg, 1 9 4 9 ; Felnberg & Moscovitch, 1 9 5 7 ) reviewed above, have suggested that children who do not l i v e with t h e i r parents but i n fost e r homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s have some 18 common problems which adversely a f f e c t t h e i r academic achievement and t h i s study seems to suggest that poor home background, low I.Q. and "deprivation" may be common to these children. I t would appear that i n a study about the reading achievement of fo s t e r children the age the c h i l d i s admitted into f o s t e r care i s an important f a c t o r to consider because i t gives us some i n d i c a t i o n of the length of time he stayed i n his natural home. Eisenberg's (1962) study involved 140 fo s t e r children who had "pressing p s y c h i a t r i c problems". This i n v e s t i g a t i o n was mainly interested i n f i n d i n g out the emotional problems of the children. The median age of the group was 11. I.Q. scores were available f o r 119 of these children. The average I.Q. was 83 (WISC). Forty percent of the t o t a l group were placed i n fo s t e r homes before they were 4 years o ld and 70% before they were 10. Sixty percent have been to at le a s t three f o s t e r homes. Seventy percent of them were referred mainly because they were said to be "extremely aggressive". Eisenberg points out that 31$ of the t o t a l group as opposed to 19$ of a "normal" home group (who came f o r ps y c h i a t r i c help) had "personality disorder". He also indicates that there was "marked academic retardation" among the fo s t e r children. Only 10% were i n grades f o r t h e i r age, 25% were a grade behind, 20% were two grades behind, 25% were 3 grades behind and 20% were i n spec i a l classes. I t i s possible, as the writer points out, that these children are a s p e c i a l group with low I.Q's. and emotional problems and therefore we cannot make generalizations. The study mentions the 19. number of homes the childr e n have been placed i n but i t does not t e l l us- anything about the fo s t e r homes. So from t h i s study i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say what ef f e c t s the f o s t e r homes had on the educational progress of the children. One might say that the achievement of the children i s what can be expected from a group with a median I.Q. of 83. But 40$ of these children were placed i n f o s t e r homes by age 4 and 70% by age 10 and 60% of them have been to at l e a s t three fo s t e r homes. I t would have been in t e r e s t i n g , therefore, to f i n d out to what extent the f o s t e r homes and the frequent change of f o s t e r homes effected the achieve-ment of the children. In an extensive study (Witmer, et. a l . ,1963, pp. 55 - 63, 85 - 88, 226 - 232) designed to assess the success of adoption homes, one of the areas considered was the academic progress of the children. The subjects were 438 whit© children, 9 - 1 5 years old. They were selected from a group of 684 children who were randomly picked from 1,628 adopted children. The 438 were selected from the 684 on the basis of t h e i r age (9 - 15) and race. Age 9 was chosen as the lower l i m i t so that the subjects were "as old as possible" f o r the evaluation and the upper l i m i t was selected so that the subjects would s t i l l be i n school. Non-white children were excluded from the study because t h e i r number was s© few that any conclusions with regard to race differences could not be generalized. Ninety-one percent of the subjects were placed i n adoption homes by the age of twelve months. Seventy-seven percent of the subjects were 10 - 12 years old. A control group was also selected. Each adopted c h i l d was. 20. matched with another (non-adopted) c h i l d who attended the same class and who was of the same sex and race "and from a home of comparable socioeconomic status". The writers used the occupation of the adoptive fathers as an index of socioeconomic status. Information about I.Q. was available f o r 360 of the experimental group and f o r subjects i n the control group. The average I.Q.'s. f o r the experimental and the control groups were 109 and 109.2 respectively. The tests used by most of the schools were the C a l i f o r n i a Mental Maturity and the Otis Beta Tests. Achievement t e s t scores were avail a b l e i n the schools f o r "nearly a l l " of the subjects. The writers point out that these scores were based on d i f f e r e n t tests and the children were not at the same grade l e v e l when they took the t e s t s . The achievement te s t scores indicated that the percentages of adopted and control groups achieving below, at or above t h e i r grade l e v e l were simi l a r . The greatest difference was between the percentage of children who achieved above t h e i r grade l e v e l . Thirty-three percent of the experimental group as opposed to thir t y - n i n e percent of the control group achieved above t h e i r grade l e v e l . The average achievement of both groups was s l i g h t l y above normal. The experimental group were accelerated 0.56 grades while the control group were accelerated 0.67 grades. However, t h i s difference was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The authors concluded that i n school achievement adopted and non-adopted children are "very much a l i k e . " In a discussion of other aspects of the children's progress, the writers give add i t i o n a l data about the adopted children. 21. T h i s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n about the I.Q,. of the c h i l d r e n might h e l p t o e x p l a i n the r e s u l t s . The median annual income of the adopt i v e parents was w e l l above the median annual income f o r t h a t r e g i o n . At l e a s t 53% of the adoptive f a t h e r s and a t l e a s t 57% of the mothers were graduates from h i g h s c h o o l and had gone to c o l l e g e o r t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s . The f a c t t h a t 91% of the c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d I n ad o p t i o n homes by the age of one year and t h a t 92% of them stayed I n the same home throughout may have prevented some problems t h a t the c h i l d r e n c o u l d have f a c e d I f they had been p l a c e d i n a d o p t i o n homes l a t e r o r i f they had been t o s e v e r a l homes. The matching does not seem to be s a t i s f a c t o r y . For example, " f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n " may not be a s u f f i c i e n t index o f the f a m i l y ' s socioeconomic s t a t u s as the w r i t e r s c l a i m i t to be. The Income of the f o s t e r f a t h e r s i n the same p r o f e s s i o n c o u l d have been w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t . Moreover, the r e s e a r c h e r s have not co n s i d e r e d the o c c u p a t i o n o r the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the mothers. In g e n e r a l , however, i t appears t h a t adopted c h i l d r e n of average i n t e l l i g e n c e who l i v e i n average o r above average homes ( i n terms of income and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the parents), achieve on the same l e v e l as t h e i r grade placement. I t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g t o f i n d out t o what extent t h i s c o n c l u s i o n may h o l d f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n who, l i k e adopted c h i l d r e n , do not l i v e i n t h e i r n a t u r a l homes, but, u n l i k e adopted c h i l d r e n , do not u s u a l l y s t a y In one home. C h r i s t o p h e r (1967) d i d a study i n which he t r i e d t o f i n d out i f a student's performance was a f f e c t e d by the s t r e n g t h o f r e l a t -22 ionship between him and h i s parents, as the student perceived i t . His subjects were 384 grade LO and grade 11 students, both male and female. He used the Otis Intelligence Test (Form B) and the Interpersonal check l i s t . He c o l l e c t e d the cumulative grade point average of his subjects f o r grades 10 and XX at the end of grade I I . But we do not know how the subjects were selected or what t h e i r average age was. Christopher found differences i n achievement among groups of subjects c l a s s i f i e d according to the degree of re l a t i o n s h i p the students perceived between them and t h e i r parents. He tested the differences f o r significance using the analysis of variance. The differences were s i g n i f i c a n t i n the case of the females, but not i n the case of the males. I f t h i s i s true, the fost e r home s i t u a t i o n could also be Investigated to f i n d out i f the degree of rel a t i o n s h i p or closeness a c h i l d f e e l s there i s between him and his fos t e r parents as compared with what he thinks i s the i d e a l relationship (between him and his f o s t e r parents) has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on his academic performance or reading achieve-ment. 23 CHAPTER III THE PROBLEM The findings of Freeman, e t . a l . (1928) and Pringle & Bossio (1958) suggest that, i n general, c h i l d r e n who are placed i n fo s t e r homes early i n t h e i r childhood achieve higher academically than children placed i n fos t e r homes at a l a t e r age. A r e l a t i o n -ship between the academic achievement of foster children and the socioeconomic status of foster parents has also been suggested In the study by Freeman, et. a l . (1928). Pringle & Bossio (1958) found a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between age of admission to c h i l d welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s and length of stay In the i n s t i t u t i o n s . Felnberg (1949), Langdale (1951) and Eisenberg (1962) found marked age-grade retardations among fo s t e r children. Eisenberg (1962) also indicated that 60$ of the foster children Included i n his study had been at l e a s t to three f o s t e r homes. Christopher (1967) found a s i g n i f i c a n t sex difference regarding the rela t i o n s h i p between the subjects' perception of the strength of rela t i o n s h i p between them and t h e i r parents and the subjects' academic achieve-ment. Generally t h i s survey suggests that we do not have s u f f i c i e n t evidence to give a conclusive statement about the academic achieve-ment of f o s t e r children and any in v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s area should include a number of factors such as age, I.Q,., age of the c h i l d when he went into the f o s t e r home, the number of times the c h i l d changed homes and the occupations of f o s t e r parents. The survey also suggests that i t would be useful to investigate the Inter-action between Age of Admission to Foster Care and the Socioecon-24 omic ,statu8 of the f o s t e r parents as well as the i n t e r a c t i o n between len g t h of ' %1ay i n Foster itomes and the Socioeconomic Status of Foster Parents. One of the important areas of academic achievement which was investigated i n many of the studies discussed above was reading. Direct i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the area of reading w i l l give us more evidence about the reading achievement of f o s t e r children and w i l l also contribute to our knowledge of t h e i r academic achievement i n general. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the present study w i l l attempt to answer the following questions: 1. To what extent i s l i v i n g i n a f o s t e r home related to the reading achievement of high school students? 2. What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the' reading achievement of f o s t e r children and (a) t h e i r sex? (b) the age they were f i r s t admitted to care and the length of f o s t e r care? (c) the number of times they change f o s t e r homes? (d) the length of time they stay i n a f o s t e r home and the socioeconomic status of the home? In addition, age, grade and I.Q. w i l l be included i n the study as control variables. 25. CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY:. This section includes descriptions of the samples, the materials used f o r the study, the s t a t i s t i c a l design and the procedures. Subjects The subjects were thirty-two f o s t e r children (14 boys and 18 g i r l s ) under the care of the Catholic Family and Children's Service and thi r t y - n i n e non-foster children (17 boys and 22 g i r l s ) . The non-foster children were randomly selected from the classes the f o s t e r children attended.(§ee "Procedure" below). A l l the subjects were i n grades 8 - 1 2 (inclusive) and they were d i s t r i b -uted among nineteen schools i n Vancouver, Richmond, and Surrey. The foster children constitute about 95% of the t o t a l number of f o s t e r children under the care of the Society who go to high schools i n the three d i s t r i c t s . Foster children attending " s p e c i a l " classes are not included i n the study. Materials Used f o r the Study The C a l i f o r n i a Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity (S-Form, 1963 Revision) Levels 3 and 4 and the Reading Battery of the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Tests, Senior High and Advanced Levels, (Form X, 1957 E d i t i o n with 1963 Norms) were administered. Since the Intent was to obtain an estimate or the difference i n general mental a b i l i t y between the two groups - - rather than i n i n d i v i d u a l diagnosis and since the time allowed by the schools f o r the 26 t e s t i n g was rather short, i t seemed reasonable to use the C a l i f o r n i a Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM-SF). was -ixS.t^ The Reading Battery of the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Tests (CAT) was used mainly because I t seemed a reasonably r e l i a b l e battery and because there i s a considerable rel a t i o n s h i p between reading and other areas of school achievement. In order to get an estimate of socioeconomic status of the parents of the subjects the writer adopted Radford 1s (1963) method i n c l a s s i f y i n g the th i r t y - t h r e e census d i s t r i c t s i n which the subjects l i v e Into socioeconomic categories. As indicated by Radford, s o c i o l o g i s t s regard income, percentage of laborers, percentage of people with elementary education only and "State of House Repair" as bases f o r ranking socioeconomic d i s t r i c t s . In t h i s study "State of House Repair" was not considered because of i n s u f f i c i e n t data. An estimate of the socioeconomic status of the present foster parents was made using B l i s h e n 1 s Occupational Class Scale (Blishen, 1958). The scale was based on the 1951 Canadian Census and the standard scores assigned to the 343 occupations considered were derived from the mean income and years of schooling of each occupational class. The scale was s p e c i a l l y useful f o r the present study because i t gave separate scores f o r males and females and some of the fo s t e r children l i v e only with f o s t e r mothers. S t a t i s t i c a l Design The basic used i n t h i s study i s the multiple regression method. The dependent variable (Y) i s the grade placement of the 2 7 . subjects according to t h e i r reading achievement on the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Tests. Grade placements (corresponding to the reading scores were used instead of the reading scores themselves because while the two l e v e l s of the CAT had to be administered, only one continuous scale was required to measure the dependent variable. I t was necessary to use two l e v e l s of CAT because the grades involved i n the study ranged from 8 - 1 2 . In Part A of the analysis the fo s t e r and the non-foster children are considered together and the following independent variables are included i n the pr e d i c t i o n equation: X i = Type of Home X2 s Chronological Age i n Years (up to the l a s t b i r t h date). X3 s Sex X4 = Grade X 5 = I.Q. Xg - Interaction between Type of Home and I.Q. X7 = Interaction between Type of Home and Sex Y s Grade Placement on the Reading Test To tabulate the q u a l i t a t i v e data, dummy variables were used. Regarding the socioeconomic status of the parents of the two groups, the Mann - Whitney U Test (Slegel, 1 9 5 6 , pp. 116-127) was used to tes t whether the shapes of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the two groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . In order to estimate what independent portion of the variance i n Y was accounted f o r by Type of Homey, the squared multiple c o r r e l a t i o n between the dependent variable as indicated by the reading scores, and the grade placement as predicted by a l l the 28 Independent v a r i a b l e s (R^£ ) was? f i r s t computed. The e q u a t i o n had the f o l l o w i n g form: ?1 » H b ^ + b 2 X 2 f b 3 X 3 + b 4 X 4 + bgXg + bgXg + b ? X 7 Where b° i s a constant and b^, bg, b^, a r e weights'' , J: ~ a t t a c h e d t o the v a r i a b l e s . Then, " Type of Home'5 (X^) was dropped out and the squared c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e a d i n g grade p l a c e -ment and the grade placement as i n d i c a t e d by the r e s t of the v a r i a b l e s (Ry^ ) w a s c a l c u l a t e d . The e q u a t i o n had the form: V . * tVs • VS * ^  * b H X 5 * B 1 2 X 6 * \fr I t was expected t h a t when Type of Homei! was omitted the weights a t t a c h e d t o the remaining v a r i a b l e s would change. Thus i n s t e a d o f b g t / ^ j * •••>h7 » we have, bg, b^» ... »b-^Tj» A comparison between 2 2 ByQ and Ryy w a s then made. In the same way, comparisons were made by o m i t t i n g ; ;Age u and i?Sexl:» Only one v a r i a b l e was dropped a t a time. F o r example, when 'Age" was omitted, the e q u a t i o n had the form: 5 5 = V b 1 4 X l + b15 X3 + b16 X4 + b17 X5 + b'i8 X6 + \fr Then a stepwise r e g r e s s i o n was computed to f i n d out which ones o f the seven p r e d i c t o r s accounted f o r s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n s o f the v a r i a n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e . F i r s t , the most s i g n i f i c a n t independent v a r i a b l e ( o r the v a r i a b l e more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e than any of the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s ) was s e l e c t e d t o be I n c l u d e d i n the equation. The v a r i a b l e s not y e t i n c l u d e d i n the e q u a t i o n were then t e s t e d t o f i n d out which independent v a r i a b l e would make the most s i g n i f i -cant c o n t r i b u t i o n i f i n c l u d e d next i n the equation. ,.v L,; 2 9 . T h i s procedure was repeated u n t i l a l l the s i g n i f i c a n t independent v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d i n the equation. The r e s u l t i n g squared c o r r e l a t i o n ) w a s then compared w i t h the squared c o r r e l a t i o n o b t ained when a l l the v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d (Ry£ ). In P a r t B only the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n are c o n s i d e r e d . For t h i s group, the f o l l o w i n g independent v a r i a b l e s are i n c l u d e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n e quations: A-j_ s Sex A 2 = Grade A j = I.Q. A^ s Socioeconomic Status o f the Present Parents A^ s Number of t r a n s f e r s Ag = Age a t F i r s t Admission t o Care Ay = Length of Stay i n the Present Home Ag = T o t a l Length of Stay i n F o s t e r Care Ay s I n t e r a c t i o n between Age a t F i r s t Admission and T o t a l Length of Stay i n F o s t e r Care A"LQ = I n t e r a c t i o n between Socioeconomic S t a t u s of the Present Parents and Length of Stay i n the Present Home A - Q • Age ( a l i n e a r combination o f A5 and Ag ) The dependent v a r i a b l e (Y) i s the grade placement of the s u b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e a d i n g s c o r e s . As i n P a r t A, q u a l i t a t i v e data were coded u s i n g dummy v a r i a b l e s . To f i n d out the t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e accounted f o r by a l l the independent v a r i a b l e s the f i r s t t e n v a r i a b l e s were en t e r e d i n a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n and the squared c o r r e l a t i o n between a c t u a l achievement and p r e d i c t e d achievement 30. i s computed. Variable A ^ was not included i n the equation because Age was already included i n the equation as a l i n e a r combination of Age at F i r s t Admission to Care and Total Length of Foster Care. The r e l a t i v e importance of Sex, Number of Transfers, Age at F i r s t Admission, Total Length of Foster Care, and the two i n t e r -actions i n the predic t i o n equation was investigated dropping one variable at a time and comparing the r e s u l t i n g squared c o r r e l a t i o n with the squared c o r r e l a t i o n obtained when the f i r s t ten variables were considered together. For example, when Age at F i r s t Admission was l e f t out, the equation had the form: $8 * b0 + b l A l + b 2 A 2 * b 3 A 3 + b 4 A 4 + b 5 A 5 1 b 6 A 7 f b 7 A 8 + ^8*9 +* b9 A10 Where b Q i s a constant and b^, b 2 , b^, ... b ^ Q are weights attached to the variables. When Sex was omitted, Age at F i r s t Admission (Xg) was put back i n the quation. The equation had the form: A 1 Y 9 - b f b 1 0 A 2 + *u.A3 + b12 A4 + b13 A5 * b14 A6 + b15 A7 + b16 A8 t ^ 7 ^ + bl8 A10 Procedure Letters explaining the aims and the usefulness of the study were sent to the Catholic Family and Children's Service. With the cooperation of the S o c i e t y , a preliminary survey was made regarding the number of fos t e r children under the care of the Society, the number and d i s t r i b u t i o n of those who go to high schools, and the types of data about the children and the fos t e r parents that can be co l l e c t e d from the records kept by the Society. The writer also interviewed some of the supervisors f o r more back-31 ground Information (see "Background .to the Study" above). Letters requesting permission to do the study i n the schools were then sent to the Vancouver, Richmond, Surrey, North Vancouver, West Vancouver and Burnaby school boards. The f i r s t three school boards i n the above l i s t agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e . In order to c o l l e c t the necessary data about the p a r t i c i -pants i n Vancouver, Richmond and Surrey schools, t h i s procedure was followed: 1. The names of the f o s t e r children, t h e i r grades (grades 8 - 1 2 inclusive) and the schools they attended were co l l e c t e d from the Society; 2. By contacting the schools, the homeroom (English) classes of the f o s t e r children were i d e n t i f i e d . Prom each class l i s t four other indiv i d u a l s of the same sex as the f o s t e r c h i l d were randomly selected. The number of the randomly selected chil d r e n was greater than the number of f o s t e r children because i t was expected that some of them would have to be dropped f o r reasons described in?.(3) below. 3. The school's l i s t of students was checked to determine whether any of the randomly selected students were fos t e r children. Poster children under the care of the Catholic Family and Children's Service who were attending " s p e c i a l " classes were excluded from the study. There were three such cases. The b i r t h dates and addresses of the selected students were then c o l l e c t e d from the school f i l e s . 4 . According to the instructions from the Vancouver and Richmond School boards, l e t t e r s asking f o r the approval 32 of parents f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e i r children i n the study were sent to the parents of the non-foster children In the two d i s t r i c t s . Foster parents were informed by the Society that a study about school achievement was going to be done i n the schools and that i t could include some of the fo s t e r children. 5 . Over 75% of the parents of the non-foster children expressed t h e i r approval and a f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of the "control" group was randomly done. In the majority of the cases the number of f o s t e r and non^foster children tested from a given class was the same. In some randomly selected classes, however, a f o s t e r c h i l d was .tested with two or three of his non-foster classmates. Thus the t o t a l number of subjects was increased while the proportion of non-foster children i n the t o t a l group remained close to half. 6. Subjects from each class took the Reading Battery of the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Tests and the C a l i f o r n i a Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity i n an unoccupied room i n the school. The tests were given In one session. A l l the subjects were tested within a twenty-day period ( l a t e November to early December, 1972). 33 CHAPTER V PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE DATA In the f i r s t part of the preliminary study both the f o s t e r and non-foster children were considered. Table 1 gives the number of subjects by type of Home, Grade and Sex: TABLE X ' Number of Subjects by Type of Home, Grade and Sex Grade Type Foster of Home Non-Foster Total M F M F M F 8 8 2 12 3 20 5 9 2 7 2 6 4 13 10 4 2 3 6 7 8 11 - 4 - 4 - 8 12 - 3 - 3 - 6 Total 14 18 17 22 31 40 Grand Total 71 I t can be seen from the table that i n the combined group there are more g i r l s than boys i n grades 9, 10, 11 and 12. The reverse i s true f o r grade 8. The method of se l e c t i n g the subjects from each grade has been described i n the "Procedure" (above). Table 2 gives the mean chronological age, I.Q. and grade placement (according to the reading scores on CAT) of the two 34 groups. TABLE 2 Mean Age, I.Q., and Reading Grade Placement of the Subjects Group Age I. Q. Grade Placement Mean S. D. Mean S. D. Mean S.D. Foster 15.20 1.40 84 15.5 8.0 2.30 Non-Foster 14.60 1.35 97 16.2 9,1 2.20 .-'Both 14.90 1.42 91 17.1 8.6 2.22 As Table 2 Indicates there Is a considerable mean difference i n I.Q. between the two groups. A t . i t e s t indicated that t h i s difference was s i g n i f i c a n t atoc- . 0§. The difference i n mean grade placements on the reading t e s t was also s i g n i f i c a n t at <<- .05. However, thfeFe.rwas no s i g n i f i c a n t difference (,;;" - ,•.:.' i n the mean age between the two groups. Regarding the socioeconomic status of the parents of the subjects, a Mann-Whitney U Test (Siegel, 1956, pp. 116-127) was done using socioeconomic ranks of the census d i s t r i c t s where the subjects l i v e d . Thirty-three census d i s t r i c t s (twenty-four i n Vancouver, four In Richmond and f i v e In Surrey) were involved. The 1961 Census data (Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1963) regard-ing the average family income per year, the percent of population with elementary education only and the percent of laborers i n each d i s t r i c t were used. The means and standard deviations f o r 35. percent of population with elementary education only and the percent of laborers were adjusted so that p o s i t i v e standard deviation scores became negative and negative scores became po s i t i v e . For example, d i s t r i c t s with low percentages of laborers got p o s i t i v e scores and d i s t r i c t s with high percen-tages of laborers got negative scores. F i n a l l y , the average of the standard deviation scores f o r income, percent of population with elementary education only, and percent of laborers was calculated f o r each d i s t r i c t (See Appendix A). Table 3 gives the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f o s t e r and non-f o s t e r children i n the 33 census d i s t r i c t s and the ranks of the d i s t r i c t s . The Mann-Whitney U Test with correction f o r t i e s (Siegel, 1956) was used to t e s t the hypothesis that the two groups come from populations with the same socioeconomic d i s t r i b u t i o n . The a l t e r n a t i v e hypothesis was that they do not. The r e s u l t s of the t e s t Indicated that the n u l l hypothesis should be retained. (See Appendix B) A preliminary study of the i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s between the variables (including the dependent variable) was also made. Table 4 gives the i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s when the f o s t e r and non-foster home groups were considered together. 36. TABLE 3 Di s t r i b u t i o n of the Subjects and the Socioeconomic Rank of the D i s t r i c t s Census D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t Rank Subjects Foster Non-Foster 44 1 1 1 18 2 0 1 41 3 5 2 19 4 0 1 21 5 1 0 224 6 3 3 43 7 2 0 223 8 2 0 57 9 1 0 25 10 0 1 27 11 3 1 51 12 1 0 26 13 0 1 46 14 1 1 45 15 2 1 184 16 1 3 56 17 0 2 221 18 0 1 181 19 0 1 31 20 0 1 28 21 0 1 24 22 0 1 222 23 1 2 32 24 1 1 182 25 1 1 47 26 1 3 30 27 2 0 183 28 1 4 29 29 0 2 9 30 1 0 23 31 0 2 186 32 0 1 5 33 1 0 37 TABLE 4 Correlation Matrix f o r A l l Subjects Variable Mean Standard Deviation Correlations a X l x 2 x 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X ? Y X^ (Type of Home) 0.45 0.50 - 30 0 5 -39 83 69 -26 X 2 (Age) 14.80 1.40 - - 5 3 : •81 -54 1 0 15 X 3 (Sex) 0.44 0.50 - --52 -7 -6 69 -41 X 4 (Grade) 9.30 1 . 3 0 - -23 -6 -31 -50 X 5 (I.Q.) 90.80 17.10 - 17 -33 58 Xg (Type of Home x I.Q.) 128.40 42 . 6 0 - 51 6 Xj (Type of Home x Sex) 2.08 1.05 - -48 Y (Reading Grade Placement) 8.60 2.20 -a Rounded to two s i g n i f i c a n t figures and decimals deleted. The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between age, sex, grade and I.Q. f o r the f o s t e r and non-foster home groups were also computed separately (see Appendix C). The table Indicates a s i m i l a r pattern of rela t i o n s h i p among the variables f o r the two groups. The corr-e l a t i o n between Sex and Grade can be explained by r e f e r r i n g to Table 1. The table indicates that the study involved more grade 8 boys than g i r l s . On the other hand, there were more g i r l s than boys among grade 11 and 12 subjects. The c o r r e l a t i o n between Sex and Grade probably contributed to the c o r r e l a t i o n between the 38. fiaading Grade Placement and Sex. As Table 4 indicates there are high i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between some pa i r s of the variables. The c o r r e l a t i o n between age and grade, f o r example, i s .81. The table indicates a negative relat i o n s h i p between Type of Home and I.Q. As pointed out e a r l i e r (see Table 2), on the average, the I.Q. of the f o s t e r children i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the I.Q. of the non-foster children. The negative correlations between age and I.Q. and I.Q. and grade were unexpected. Although the non-foster children were selected randomly from each grade, t h e i r number was r e s t r i c t e d by the number of f o s t e r children i n each grade. Also the Grade 12 group happened to be an unusual group i n the sense that t h e i r achievement on the two tests was rather low (see Appendix D). The negative rela t i o n s h i p between age and I.Q. probably contribu-ted to the negative relationship between grade and I.Q. since the c o r r e l a t i o n between age and grade was .81. Grade and I.Q. had r e l a t i v e l y high correlations (.49 and .58 respectively) with the dependent variable (Grade placement on the reading t e s t ) . This rel a t i o n s h i p was expected. As Table 5 shows the age, sex, grade and I.Q. variances of the f o s t e r and the non-foster childr e n were about the same. Thus i t was not necessary to do homogeneity of variance test before using the F test. In the second part of tfeelprellminary study the f o s t e r children were considered alone. Appendix E gives the data regard-ing A 5, Ag, A 7 , and Ag< 39 TABLE 5 Mean Age, Grade and I.Q. of the Subjects Variable Mean Standard Deviation Foster Non-Foster Foster Non-Foster Age 15.20 14.60 1.40 1.40 Sex 0.44 0.44 0 . 5 0 0 . 5 0 Grade 9.40 9.30 1.30 1.30 I.Q. 84.00 97.00 15 .50 16.20 Table 6 gives the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the variables. The negative correlations between grade and I.Q. and between age and I.Q. are probably due to the large variance In the sampling d i s t r i b u t i o n . However, as would have been expected, high p o s i t i v e correlations were found between age and grade and between grade attended and reading grade placement. TABLE 6 Correlation Matrix For the Foster Children Only Variable Mean Standard Deviation Correlations 8, A^  Ag A^ \ A 5 A 6 A 8 ho Y A1 (Sex) O.Uk 0 . 5 0 - -kl - 2 0 - 3 2 - 6 - 2 6 2 & 21 1 21+ - 2 8 -1+8 A g (Grade) 9.1+0 1 . 3 2 - 8 1 7 - 2 0 21 -21+ - 5 - 1 7 -21+ 7 6 6 2 A^ (I. Q.) 81+.00 1 5 . 5 0 - - 2 - 2 2 11+ - 3 1 - 2 3 9 - 3 3 -1+2 5 0 A^ (Socioeconomic Status) 1+5.20 7 . 0 0 - 1+7 1+8 -1+6 -1+1+ 31+ - 3 9 2 3 - 1 + A^ (Number of Transfers) 0.91+ 1 . 3 0 - 7 - 3 5 - 9 5 2 - 2 9 - 6 7 Ag (Age at First Admission) 5 .93 6 . 5 0 - - 7 7 - 9 8 1+1 - 7 6 1 8 1 2 i> (Length of; Stay in ' Present Home) 6 . 7 9 6 . 2 0 - 7 6 -1+3 9 9 - 1 1 -31+ Ag (Length df Foster Care) 9 - 3 6 6 . 3 0 - -1+1 7 5 3 - 7 A„ (Age at First Admission y X Length of Foster^ Care) 1 7 . 3 0 1 9 . 1 -1+1 2 - 1 5 A 1 Q (SocioeconomicfJStatus X Length of Stay in Present Home) 2 8 8 . 1 0 256.1+7 - 1 1 - 3 7 A n (Age) 1 5 . 2 0 1.1+0 - 2 5 Y (Reading (trade Placement) 8 . 0 0 2 . 2 0 -a Rounded to two significant figures and decimals deleted. 41 CHAPTER VI ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION Part A In t h i s section, the primary i n t e r e s t was to estimate the extent to which Type of Home i s related to reading achievement. In the f i r s t analysis, Type of Home (Xi ) , Age ( X 2 ) , Sex (X3), Grade ( X 4 ) , I.Q. ( X 5 ), the Interaction between Type of Home and I.Q. ( X 5 ) and the Interaction between Type of Home and Sex (X7) were Included i n a regression euation analysis. The following euation was obtained:"1" Y i * -14.08 t 2.5Xi + .02X2 f .36X3 +1.1X4 t - 1 3 X 5 -.02X6 - .32X7 ( 1 ) Since R 2 * was .7572, a l l the variables together accounted f o r 1 75.7$ of the variance i n reading achievement. In order to estimate the proportion of variance i n reading achievement accounted f o r by Type of Home, was l e f t out and the other variables were Included i n an equation. The equation was: Y 2 - - 10.8 + .07X 2 - .I6X3 -f-I.IX4 f J X 5 - . 0 0 2 X 5 + .04X7 ( 2 ) and R 2 A = .7508 x x 2 When Type of Home as well as Interactions between Type of Home and I.Q. and between Type of Home and Sex were omitted the equation became: Y3 = - 10 . 7 +.04X2 - .09X3 - f l . I X 4 +.IX5 v ( 3 ) and R 2 * - .7499 -The summary tables f o r t h i s and a l l subsequent analyses are given i n Appendix F. 42. 2 2 Thus Type of Home accounted only f o r about ,65% -(R YY ** R V4 " 1 i X 2 p 2 % or R A - R%A.) of the variance i n reading achievement. A stepwise regression equation (as described i n " S t a t i s t i c a l Design" above) was then computed. Thus: Y 4 a - 10.65 + 1.14X4+ ,09X5 ( 4 ) In Equation 4 only the s i g n i f i c a n t variables were included and R 2 * was .7495. Thus Grade and I.Q. accounted f o r about 75$ of the variance i n reading achievement. Obviously the two variables are strongly related to reading achievement of high school students. Since R 2 * was only .7572, Type of Home, Age, " 1 Sex and the two interactions contributed very l i t t l e to the pred i c t i o n equation. When Age (Xg) was omitted and a l l the other variables were considered, the following r e s u l t s were obtained: % = - 13.98 * 2.5Xi + . 3 7 X 3 + I .4X4 '•'•13X5 - . 0 2 X 5 - .33Xy ( 5 R 2 A - .7572 5 Thus Age has contributed nothing to the pr e d i c t i o n equation. o p There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between R * and R* * . . YI1 YY 5 Then Sex was omitted and the rest of the variables were considered. The resu l t s were: *6 = " 1 3 * 4 + 2.11XX + .02X2 4- I . I X 4 + .13X5 R"- 02Xg - . l l X y 2 A _ 7Kfi/? O M H V>2 is. — R 2 ^ - .7566 and R 2 ^ £ - R 2 ^ - .0006 ( 6 )) Thus Sex accounted only f o r a very small percentage of the v a r i a -nce i n the reading achievement of the subjects. . -The r e s u l t s of the analyses i n Part A suggest that there l a l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Type of Home and reading achievement. Among the variables considered, only I.Q,. and Grade were found to be strongly related to the reading achievement of the subjects. Part B In t h i s section, only the fo s t e r c h i l d r e n were considered. The intent was to estimate the extent to which the following variables were related to the reading achievement of fo s t e r c h i l d r e n i n high schools: Sex ( A i ) , Grade (A2K I.Q. (A3), Socio-economic Status of the Present Foster Parents (A4), Number of Times the Children Change Homes (A5), Age at F i r s t Admission to Care (Ag), Length of Stay In the Present Home (A7) and Total Length of Foster Care (Ag). The Interactions between Age at F i r s t Admission and Length of Foster Care {kg) and between Socioeconomic Status of the Present Foster Parents and Length of Stay i n the Present Home ( A ] _ Q ) were also considered. The following equation involves a l l the variables. (There was no need to Include A ^ because Age i s a l i n e a r combination of Ag and Ag, which are already i n the equation.) Thus: Y7 = - 1.66 - .57Ai l * 2 ^ + * ° 5 A 3 " , 0 8 A * +" '66x5' .l8Ag-p .42A 7 - .19Ag - .O2A9 - .01A10 ( 7 ) Since R 2 A was .7997t the variables together were able to account f o r about 80$ of the variance i n reading achievement. Only Age at F i r s t Admission (Ag) was f i r s t l e f t out and the following equation was obtained: Y 8 = - 3.05 - 61A X +• 1.1A2 f .06A 5 - .O8A4 f .O62A5 + 35A 7 - . O O 3 A 3 - . 0 2 A 9 - .01A 1 0 ( 8 ) and R 2v£ was .7963. ° o P A Since the difference between R Y V and R Y Y 0 was .0034, Age at - L J L7 8 / f i r s t Admission accounted f o r only about .3$ of the variance In the reading achievement of the children. A s i m i l a r r e s u l t was found when Sex (A^) was omitted. Thus: I 9 : • 4.1 4 1.43^ + .O0A3 - .07A 4 + .71A5 - .22Ag +.52Aj - .24AQ - .02A9 - .01A 1 Q ( 9 ) Since R 2 * was .7899, Sex accounted f o r only.98$ (.7997 - .7899) 9 of the variance i n the dependent vari a b l e . E s s e n t i a l l y the same r e s u l t was found when length of stay i n foster care iAg) was omitted. The equation was: Y 1 0 a - 2.97 - .$2AX + 1.1A2 + .O6A3 - .O8A4 4 59A 5 - .OOSAg + .34A7 - ,02A9 - .01A 1 Q ( 10 ) and R 2 * was .7964. ^ 1 0 2 Since R^v£ - R Vvr w a s only «0033, the contribution of length 1 X 7 X X 1 0 of stay i n f o s t e r care i n the pr e d i c t i o n equation was n e g l i g i b l e . In Equation 11 Humber of transfers (A5) was l e f t out. Thus: $11 s - 2.57 - .75AX -f- .96A2 + .06A5 - .O6A4 - .04Ag - .03A? • .04A8 - .008A9 - .001A 1 0 ( 11 ) R 2 * was .7609. Therefore Number of Transfers accounted f o r " l l about 4$ (.7997 - .7609) of the variance i n reading achievement. p However the F test showed that t h i s drop i n R w a s not s i g n i -f i c a n t . **L1 4§ The contribution of the two Interactions was also considered. When Xg (Interaction between Age at F i r s t Admission and Length of Foster Care) was omitted, the following equation was obtained: $12 = - 2.22 - . 6 3 A X f 1.3*2 + 'G5*3 - .O8A4 t .^5A 5.} -.2IA5 f.32A ? - .13As - .008Aio ( 12 ) Equation 13 does not include X ^ Q (Interaction between Length of Stay i n the Present Home and Socioeconomic Status of the Home). Thus: $13 = - 1.06 - .7lAi + 1.13*2 + .O6A3 - .IOA4 + .47A5 - ,09Ag - .07*7— .07As - .02A9 ( 13 ) The squared correlations f o r equations 12 and 13 were .7805 and .7863 respectively. Thus each variable accounted f o r l e s s than 2% of the variance i n reading achievement. A further analysis was also made to f i n d out which variables were s i g n i f i c a n t . Age at F i r s t Admission (Ag) and Length of Stay i n Foster Care (Ag) have already been considered separately and the r e s u l t s indicated that they accounted for a very small percentage of the variance i n the reading achievement of the group. Therefore, instead of Ag and.A3, a l i n e a r combination of the two ( X ^ = Age) i s considered i n Equation 14. Equation 14 was computed using the stepwise regression method described i n the "Procedure" (above). The equation includes only the s i g n i f i -cant variables. Thus: $14 = - 9.96 + l . l A g t .08A4 ( 14 ) Since R 2 <\ was .6924, grade and I.Q. accounted f o r about 70$ " 1 4 of the variance i n reading achievement. This r e s u l t i s almost 4$. the same as the one found In Part A when both the fo s t e r and non-fos t e r children were considered together. The re s u l t s of the analyses i n Part B indicate that Grade and I.Q. are strongly related to the reading achievement of fos t e r children i n high schools. Also, when compared to Sex ©md Age at F i r s t Admission or Length of Stay i n Foster Care, Number of Transfers aeems an important variable i n the reading achieve-ment of f o s t e r children. The interactions between Age at I F i r s t Admission and Length of Stay i n Foster Care and between Length of Stay i n the Present Home and the Socioeconomic Status of the Home were found to be no more important than the variables considered i n d i v i d u a l l y . CHAPTER VII CONCLUSIONS Summary of the Results The f i r s t part of t h i s study seems to suggest that, among high school students, there i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i v i n g i n a fos t e r home and reading achievement. Only grade and I.Q. were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the reading achievement of the subjects. When the variables included i n the study were considered together they accounted f o r about 7 5 $ of the variance i n reading achievement of the subjects. The contribution of age and sex to the p r e d i c t i o n equation was n e g l i g i b l e . Part B dealt with the r e l a t i v e Importance of a number of variables i n reading achievement of fo s t e r children i n high schools When the variables included i n the study were considered together they accounted f o r about 80$ of the variance i n the reading achievement of the group. Again, Grade and I.Q. were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the reading achievement of the children. When compared to Age at F i r s t Admission, Total Length of Foster Care and Length of Stay i n the Present Home, Number of Transfers was found to be an important variable In the reading achievement of the fost e r children. Although the sample size i n t h i s study i s r e l a t i v e l y small the r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r to the re s u l t s i n some previous studies (Freeman, Holzlnger & M i t e h e l l , 1928, f o r example) i n that the 48, achievement of foster children seems lower than that indicated by t h e i r grade. But t h i s study, as some others before i t (Lang-dale, 1951; Pringle & Bossio, 1958} Eisenberg, 1962) also suggests that the I.Q. of the f o s t e r children i s generally lower than the I.Q. of "normal" children. No evidence was found to support the conclusions of some previous studies (Freeman Holzinger & M i t c h e l l , 1928; Pringle & Bozzio, 1958) that the age the c h i l d i s admitted to fo s t e r care has a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with his school achievement. Pringle and Bozzio (1958) had also suggested that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t Interaction between Age of Admission to 9are and length of Foster 6are. This study does not confirm t h e i r findings. Generally, the r e s u l t s suggest that most of the variance i n the reading achievement of the subjects has been accounted f o r by the variables included i n the study. The f a c t that nineteen schools i n three d i s t r i c t s ! were involved i n the study lends addi t i o n a l support to the conclusions drawn. On the other hand, i t was not possible to get s p e c i f i c data about such p o t e n t i a l l y important factors as the occupation, educ-a t i o n a l l e v e l and income of non-foster parents. Also, a l a r g e r sample would be needed to make more conclusive statements about the r e l a t i v e importance of the various factors i n reading achieve-ment of f o s t e r children. Recommendations f o r Future Research Further studies i n the academic progress of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n 49 should Include more subjects both from the elementary and high school l e v e l s . For example, since the fos t e r c h i l d r e n included In t h i s study are the more successful ones i n the sense that they have been able to reach the high school l e v e l , a s i m i l a r study involving f o s t e r children i n elementary schools should be done to see i f d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s are obtained. More inv e s t i g a t i o n regarding the relat i o n s h i p between the number of times the c h i l d -ren change homes and t h e i r academic achievement seems s p e c i a l l y useful. Moreover, i f a c h i l d changes f o s t e r homes frequently, he may also have to transfer to d i f f e r e n t schools at a s i m i l a r rate. The number of schools attended, e s p e c i a l l y at the elementary school l e v e l (where the children may be expected to develop basic reading s k i l l s ) , may a f f e c t the development of the reading a b i l i t y of the f o s t e r children. Thus, i n future research, a consideration of both the number of times a f o s t e r c h i l d changed homes and the number of schools he attended seems worthwhile. The reading a b i l i t y of f o s t e r children In " s p e c i a l " classes as well as the reading a b i l i t y of fos t e r children who drop out of school may also be useful. A more thorough invest i g a t i o n of the academic progress of fos t e r children would include a study of the natural home back-ground of the fos t e r children. An evaluation of the self-concept of the children may also be useful. The attitude of school teach-ers towards the academic performance of the children and the school attendance of the children also seem worth considering. Furthermore, a study of the relat i o n s h i p between l i v i n g i n a f o s t e r home and the development of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s seems useful. In addition to reading t e s t s , language and arithmetic t e s t s can also be used f o r a more comprehensive evaluation of the academic progress of fos t e r children. 51. REFERENCES Blishen, B. R. Christopher, S. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Eisenberg, L. Felnberg, H. Felnberg, H. Felnberg, H. Felnberg, H. & Moseovitch, E. The construction and use of an occupational class scale. Canadian Journal of Economics  and P o l i t i c a l Science. 1 9 5 8 , 519 - 540. Parental r e l a t i o n s h i p and value o r i e n t a t i o n as factors i n academic achievement, Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1967 , 4 5 , 921 - 9 2 5 . Population and Mousing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by census t r a c t s . Census of Canada, 1 9 6 3 , B u l l e t i n CT-22 - 2 0 - 6 . The sins of fathers: urban decay and s o c i a l pathology. American Journal of Orthopsy- chiatry, 1 9 6 2 , 32 ( 1 ) , 5 -16. Achievement of a group of children In fos t e r homes as revealed by the Stanford Achievement Test. Pedagogical Seminary and Journal of  Genetic Psychology^ 1949, 7 5 , 293 - 3 0 3 . Achievement of a group of s o c i a l l y malad-justed boys as revealed by the Stanford Achievement Test. Journal of Social  Psychology, 1947, 26, 203 - 242. Achievement of children i n orphan homes as revealed by the Stanford Achievement Test. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1954, 8 5 , 217 - 2 2 9 . Achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test of children In d i f f i c u l t own home situations compared with ch i l d r e n out of the home. Journal of Experimental Education, 1 9 5 7 , 26, 67 - 80 Freeman, F., Holzinger, K . , & M i t c h e l l , B. Langdale, A.L. The influence of environment on the i n t e l l i -gence, school achievement, and conduct of fos t e r children. Thirty-Seventh Year Book of  the National Society f o r the Study of Education. 1 9 2 8 , 102 - 2 1 7 . How f o s t e r children turn out, M.S.W. Thesis (U.B.C), 1951. Pringle, M . L . K . , & A study of deprived children. V i t a Humana, Bossio, V. 1958, 1, 65 - 92, 142 - 170. 52. Radford, Denis Y. A c o r r e l a t i o n of socioeconomic group and academic performance, M. A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. Siegel, S. Non-parametric s t a t i s t i c s . New York: McG-raw-H i l l , 1956. Witmer, H.L., Hersog, E., Weinstein, E.A., & Sulli v a n , M.C. Independent adoptions. New York; Russell Sage Foundation, 1963. APPENDICES; 5fc Appendix A Average Family Income Per Year, Percent of Population with Elementary Education Only, Percent of Adult Laborer9,Adjusted Scores and. D i s t r i c t Ranks Census D i s t r i c t Number Income Pop. with Elem. Ed. only (%) Laborers % Score Rank 44 9361 10.0 0.7 _ 1.89 1 18 7185 11.4 1.4 — .88 2 41 7351 14.1 1.6 1.98 3 19 6621 12.1 2.6 1.56 4 21 5354 21.0 3.8 0.79 5 224 5757 17.2 4.9 - 0.92 6 43 5771 22.6 4.1 - 0.39 7 223 5537 25.6 3.9 — 0.01 8 57 5651 27.5 4.5 - 0.14 9 25 4936 29.8 4.9 - 0.10 10 27 4980 32.3 5.0 - 0.37 11 51 4675 25.4 6,3: mm 0.74 12 26 5034 33.2 5.1 - 0.62 13 46 5236 27.8 6.8 - 0.36 14 45 5389 33.6 6.0 0.43 15 184 4954 28.9 6,2 1.90 16 56 5373 28.3 7.3 0.65 17 221 5139 30.5 7.1 2.80 18 181 4881 30.7 6.7 - 0.19 19 31 4895 32.5 6.3 0.16 20 28 4987 34.5 6.1 - 0.53 21 24 5048 36.1 6.0 — 0.13 22 222 4791 29.7 7.1 - 0.22 23 32 4785 32.1 6.6 0.37 24 182 4686 33.4 6.2 - 0.34 25 47 5082 36.3 6.8 - 0.42 26 30 " 4749 35.6 7.0 0.50 27 183 4671 29.7 8.2 0.72 28 29 4776 38.7 7.0 - 0.35 29 9 4836 40.8 7.5 - 0.44 30 23 4378 36.1 7.9 - 0.64 31 186 4615- 33.8 9.5 - 0.20 32 5 3376 56.0 7.4 - 1.03 33 Mean Standard deviation 5299 1048 .29 .09 .09 .02 5 5 . Appendix B The Mann-Whitney U Test f o r the D i s t r i b u t i o n of Socioeconomic Status The following formula was used: U - N X N 2 2 Z a I / ( N i N 2) \ / - N - £ ? \ where s the number of f o s t e r children a 32 N 2 a the number of non-foster children a 39 N a N x + N 2 a 71 U a % N 2 4 N x ( % + 1) - R x s 441 ~2 R-. S the sum of ranks assigned to the foster children - 1335 3 T a t - t (t a the number observations t i e d f o r X2 a given rank). and^T a 7 9 . 5 The obtained Z.value was - .024. The c r i t i c a l value ( c< a .01^ was . 9 8 4 0 . Thus the n u l l hypothesis that the two groups come from populations with the same d i s t r i b u t i o n of socioeconomic status was retained. Appendix B Correlation Matrix Age Sex Grade I.Q. Age \ r .^28 .76 -^ .42 Sex -.40 -.47 -.20 Grade .90 -.56 \ ^ -.08 I.Q. i -.52 .02 -.36 \ Note - The correlations above the diagonal are f o r the f o s t e r children. The correlations below the diagonal are f o r the non-foster children. 5 7 . Appendix D a? M 110 100 90 80 70 60 h- -o Non-foster children -A Foster children 8 9 10 11 12 •Grade FIG.1. Mean I.Q. of the subjects by grade 5B Appendix E Foster Children: Number of Transfers, Age at F i r s t Admission to Care, Length of Stay i n the Present Home and Socioeconomic Score of Parents Number Number of Age at F i r s t Length of Socioeconomic Transfers Admission a Stay a Score 1 40.8 0 0.03 13.97 2 38.9 0 0.07 13.93 3 40.8 0 0.03 14.30 4 62.2 3 14.00 0.75 5 41.2 1 11.00 0.08 6 54.2 5 4.00 7.00 7 38.9 0 4.00 12.00 8 44.4 0 0.04 14.96 9 45.0 1 1 5 . 2 7 0.75 10 46.8 2 0 . 5 0 15.00 11 38.9 0 0.03 12.00 12 38.9 0 0.02 15.00 13 45.9 2 11.00 1.80 14 38,9 1 14.42 0.03 15 40.8 0 2.00 11.00 16 38.9 1 9.00 1.00 17 47.0 0 16.27 0.83 18 41.6 1 9.00 6.00 19 47.2 2 0.09 0.40 20 47.2 2 1.00 2.00 21 57.6 0 17.00 1.00 22 47.2 0 15.00 2.00 23 38.9 0 0.03 13.00 24 38.9 0 ,0.04 13.00 2 5 45.9 0 15.25 0.75 26 38.9 1 0.03 0 . 5 0 27 48.7 2 9.00 3 . 5 0 28 47.2 0 0.09 14.91 29 38.9 1 0.03 13.00 30 45.4 1 0.03 12.00 3 1 57.0 4 8.00 0 . 5 0 32 63.8 0 13 . 5 0 0 . 5 0 In years (rounded to two d^clmSl^plac^sJv;^-:). 59. Appendix FJ' Summary Table of the Regression Analysis f o r Equation 1 Variable C o e f f i c i e n t 8 , Standard Error 9 , P Constant - 14 .08 3.82 Type of Home 2.47 1.91 1.66 Age 0.02 0.22 0.00 Sex 0.36 0.88 0.17 Grade 1.12 0.23 24.40* I.Q. 0.12 0.03 21.40* Type of Home X I.Q. 0.02 0.02 1.64* Type of Home X Seat 0.32 0.56 .33 a Rounded to two deglana'lcplace's. ^res. * P-C .05 6 0 . Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 2 Variable C o e f f i c i e n t * Standard E r r o r a F Constant - 10.70 2.85 Age 0.07 0.22 0.09 Sex - 0.16 0.79 0.04 Grade 1.06 0.22 22.60* I. Q. 0.10 0.02 38.60* Type of Home X I.Q. - 0.01 0.01 0.08 Type of Home X Sex 0.04 0.49 0.01 a Rounded to two de@4mfil:places. * P <: . 05. 61 Summary Table of tfee Regression Analysis For Equation 3 Variable C o e f f i c i e n t Standard E r r o r 8 F Constant - 10.70 2.81 Age 0.04 0.20 0.36 Sex - 0.08 0.32 0.07 Grade 1.00 0.21 25.90* I . Q. 0.10 0.01 82.50* Rounded to two d'ea*ima"lcplaces;; r - . r . * P<C .05. 62. Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 4 Variable O o e f f l c i e n t a Standard E r r o r a F Constant - 10.64 1.37 Grade 1.13 0.11 111.4* I.Q. 0.09 0.01 137.0* Rounded tootwo &$c:ltii&lopl.aG€&.y:-?,z. * p< .05. 63. Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 5 Variable C o e f f i c i e n t * Standard Error* F Constant - 13.97 3.47 Type of Home 2.49 1.87 1.74 Sex 0.37 0.87 0.18 Grade 1.13 0.13 75.40* I. Q. 0.13 0.03 21.80* Type of Home X I.Q. - 0.02 0.02 1.72* Type of Home X Sex - 0.33 0.56 0.34 Rounded to two declmalcplaces^.:: •it- P< .05. 64 Summary of Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 6 Variable C o e f f i e l e n t 8 . Standard Error 8 , F Constant - 13.40 3.43 Type of Home 2.10 1.68 1.56 Age 0.02 0.22 0.08 Grade 1.10 0.22 24.7* I. Q. 0.12 0.03 21.6* Type of Home X I.Q. - 0.02 0.02 1.58* Type of Home X Sex - 0.11 0.21 0.27 Rounded to two decimal iplace's/ir. .. * V<£ .05. 65. Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 7 Variable C o e f f i c i e n t * Standard E r r o r * F Constant - 1.65 4.86 Sex - 0.57 0.56 1.02 Grade 1.27 0.37 11.90* I. Q. 0.05 0.02 8.26* Socioeconomic Status - 0.08 0.05 2.88 Number of Transfers 0.69 0.33 4.06 Age at F i r s t Admission - 0.18 0.30 0.36 Length of Stay i n Present Home 0.42 0.42 1.01 Length of Foster Care - 0.19 0.32 0.34 Age at F i r s t Admission X Length of Foster Care - 0.22 0.02 2.00 Socioeconomic Status of Present Home X Length of Stay i n the Home - 0.02 0.01 1.40 a Rounded to two d^clmal^places.- r- ?. * P< .05. 66. Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 8 Variable Coefficient 8- Standard Error 8- F Constant - 3.05 4.20 Sex 0.61 0.55 1.23 Grade - 1.10 0.23 22.87* I. Q,. 0.06 0.02 13.24* Socioeconomic Status - 0.08 0.05 3.26 Number of Transfers 0.62 0.03 3.84 Length of Stay i n Present Home 0.35 0.40 0.79 Length of Foster Care 0.00 0.07 0.0 Age at F i r s t Admission Length of Foster Care X - 0.02 0.02 2.21 Socioeconomic Status of Present Home X Length of Stay i n the Home - 0.01 0.01 1.16 a Rounded to two degllrial; pike §&&.a .c s. * p< .05. 67. Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 9 Variable C o e f f i c i e n t 8 Standard Error 8 , F Constant - 4.09 4.22 Grade 1.42 0.34 17.69* I. Q. - 0.06 0.02 9.38* Socioeconomic Status 0.07 0.05 2.20 Number of Transfers 0.71 0.32 4.89 Age at F i r s t Admission - 0.22 0.30 0.53 Length of Stay i n Present Home 0.52 0.40 1.67 Length of Foster Care - 0.24 0.32 0.56 Age at F i r s t Admission X Length of Foster Care - 0.02 0.12 2.24 Socioeconomic Status of Present Home X Length of Stay In the Home - 0.01 0.01 2.08 Rounded to two decimal ^ places. >:r-* P< .05. 68 Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 10 Variable C o e f f i c i e n t * Standard Error* F Constant 2.97 4.25 Sex 0.62 0.54 1.29 Grade 1.10 0.21 26.80* I. Q. 0.06 0.02 13.40* Socioeconomic Status 0.08 0.05 3.09 Number of Transfers 0.60 0.30 3.85 Age of Admission 0.01 0.07 0.02 Length of Stay i n the Present Home 0.34 0.38 0.76 Age at F i r s t Admission X Length of Foster Care 0.02 0.02 2.07 Socioeconomic Status of Present Home X Lengtha of Stay i n the Home 0.01 0.01 1.14 Rounded to two decimal:.plac§s_. * -pz. .05. Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation Variable C o e f f i c i e n t 8 Standard Error* F Constant 2.56 5.17 Sex 0.75 0.59 1.62 Grade 0.96 0.36 7.24* I. Q. 0.07 0.02 11.90* Socioeconomic Status 0.06 0.05 1.29 Age at F i r s t Admission - 0.04 0.31 0.02 Length of Stay i n Present Home 0.03 0.37 0.01 Length of Stay In Foster Cage 0.04 0.32 0.01 Age at F i r s t Admission X Length of Foster Care 0.01 0.02 0.30 Socioeconomic Status of Present Home X Length of Stay i n the Home 0.00 0.01 0.05 A Rounded to two decimal opiate's / i" :^ .?s. * p < .05. Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 1? Variable C o e f f i c i e n t * Standard Error*' F Constant - 2 . 2 2 4 . 9 5 Sex - 0.63 0 . 5 7 1 . 2 0 Grade 1.31 0 . 3 8 1 2 . 1 0 * I. Q. 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 2 8 . 8 7 * Socioeconomic Status - 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 5 2.63 Number of Transfers 0 . 4 5 0.30 2 . 2 9 Age at F i r s t Admission 0 i 2 1 0.131 0.48 Length of Stay i n Present Home 0 . 3 2 . 0.42 0 . 6 0 Length of Foster Care 0 . 1 9 0 . 3 3 0 . 3 3 Socioeconomic Status of Present Home X Length of Stay i n the Home - 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 8 8 Rounded to two decimal?places A * P< . 0 5 . Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 13 Variable C o e f f i c i e n t 8 , Standard Error * F: Constant 1.05 4.88 Sex 0.71 0.55 1.67 Grade 1.13 0.35 10. 30* I. Q. ? 0.06 0.02 9.97* Socioeconomic Status 0.10 0.05 4.82 Number of Transfers 0.47 0.29 2.67 Age at F i r s t Admission - 0.09 0.29 0.08 Length of Stay i n Present Home 0.07 0.07 0.82 Length of Foster Care - 0.07 0.31 0.05 Age at F i r s t Admission X Length of Foster Care 0.02 0.02 1.49 a Rounded to two deelmsLlcplac^s..; ]:••:.?.. * P'< .05. Summary Table of the Regression Analysis For Equation 1.4} Variable C o e f f i c i e n t 3 , Standard Error 3 , F. Constant - 9.96 2.17 Grade 1.14 0.18 41.57* I. Q. 0.08 0.02 28.55* a Rounded to two dec;tm.ail qpMcls^u *P*£ .05. 

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