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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Frontier movement and economic development in northeastern Ontario, 1850-1914 Watson, Denis McLean 1971

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FRONTIER MOVEMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO, 1850-1914 by DENIS McLEAN WATSON B.A.', U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f Geography We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1971 In p r e sen t i n g t h i s t he s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re fe rence and Study. I f u r t h e r agree that permis s ion f o r e x t en s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thes.is f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed w i thout my w r i t t e n pe rm i s s i on . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT T h i s study i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f f r o n t i e r movement and economic development i n a p o r t i o n o f the Canadian S h i e l d - - N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o - -i n the p e r i o d from 1850 to 1914. The p r o c e s s o f f r o n t i e r advance i s examined w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o f i v e key e l e m e n t s : (1) the n a t u r e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s ; (2) e x t e r n a l economic and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s ; (3) t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, w i t h emphasis on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n developments; (4) p u b l i c p o l i c y ; and (5) e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of th e s e f a c t o r s a r e a n a l y s e d t o e x p l a i n the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t and f r o n t i e r - c o r e i n t e r a c t i o n i n the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands, the Algoma-Sudbury d i s t r i c t , and the Timiskaming a r e a . S i g n i f i c a n t changes o c c u r r e d i n b o t h t h e p r o c e s s and p a t t e r n o f f r o n t i e r advance. The d i r e c t i o n o f movement i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was foreshadowed by the e a r l i e r f u r t r a d e , which was f o l l o w e d i n some a r e a s by l o g g i n g and s u b s i d i a r y a g r i c u l t u r e . Inward movements o f p e o p l e and f r o n t i e r - c o r e i n t e r a c t i o n were o r i e n t e d toward M o n t r e a l v i a the Ottawa V a l l e y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k a g e s . I n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , northward e x t e n s i o n o f the r a i l w a y system from s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o gave r i s e t o a dynamic m i n i n g f r o n t i e r . A s t r o n g n o r t h - s o u t h i n t e r a c t i o n emerged, c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the e a r l i e r e a s t - w e s t p a t t e r n . N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , a t f i r s t almost w h o l l y w i t h i n the sphere o f i n f l u e n c e o f M o n t r e a l , had become p a r t o f the economic and c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d o f To r o n t o by 1914. By 1914 t h e r e was e s t a b l i s h e d a p a t t e r n o f l a n d occupance which i i i s s t i l l s trongly i n evidence at present . It was charac ter i zed by a h igh degree of n u c l e a t i o n and a l i n e a r o r i e n t a t i o n of settlement along t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of populat ion and the l o c a t i o n of economic a c t i v i t y were u s u a l l y inf luenced by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources , ease of access , and the presence or absence of government s t imulus , en trepreneur ia l s k i l l , and c a p i t a l . Economic development was (and s t i l l i s ) based predominantly on the e x t r a c t i o n and process ing of n a t u r a l resources for consumption outs ide the r e g i o n . F r o n t i e r - c o r e i n t e r a c t i o n was charac ter i zed by outbound movements of commodities such as f u r s , minera l s , and wood, e i t h e r unprocessed or i n var ious stages of manufacture. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of resource-process ing i n d u s t r i e s depended on whether there was less cost to the external consuming a r e a , and to some extent on pub l i c p o l i c y . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i ACKNOWLEDGMENT v i i i C h apter I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES: PERCEPTION AND REALITY 40 I I I . EARLY APPROACHES TO NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO: THE NIPISSING LOWLANDS 87 IV. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE ALGOMA DISTRICT, 1846-1902 115 V. THE ROLE OF SHE TRANSPORTATION IN THE SETTLE-MENT OF THE LITTLE CLAY BELT, 1881-1901 . . 169 V I . THE TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, 1903-1914 . . . . 197 V I I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 BIBLIOGRAPHY 277 APPENDIX I . . 314 APPENDIX I I 333 i v LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. E t h n i c D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n N i p i s s i n g Lowlands, 1901 107 2. Copper and N i c k e l P r o d u c t i o n a t Sudbury, 1886-1907 152 3. Growth o f S e t t l e m e n t i n Temiscamingue, 1875-1887 176 4. F r e i g h t Movements on t h e Lake Temiscamingue C o l o n i -z a t i o n R a i l w a y , 1889-1896 180 5. Ore Shipment from t h e C o b a l t D i s t r i c t f o r the Ye a r s 1904-1914 210 6. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C o b a l t Ore Shipments, 1907-1911 212 7. Ore Shipments by Camps, 1904-1914 225 8. S i l v e r Shipments by Camps, 1904-1914 226 9. P o r c u p i n e G o l d P r o d u c t i o n , 1910-1914 236 10. G o l d P r o d u c t i o n i n O n t a r i o 238 11. F r e i g h t Movements, Temiskaming and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o R a i l w a y , 1913 242 12. R u r a l - U r b a n D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n , 1921 . . 272 v LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e Page 1. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : R e f e r e n c e Map/; . 3 2. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : Communities and R a i l w a y s . . 4 3. Rates of Railway C o n s t r u c t i o n i n Canada, 1855-1930 19 4. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : G e n e r a l i z e d Geology 42 5. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : Copper and N i c k e l O c c u r r e n c e s 45 6. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : Gold and S i l v e r O c c u r r e n c e s 49 7. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : I r o n and N o n - M e t a l l i c M i n e r a l O c c u r r e n c e s 53 8. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : Known O c c u r r e n c e s , 1900 . . 57 9. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : P h y s i o g r a p h i c D i s t r i c t s . . 60 10. Mean D a i l y Temperature f o r t h e Year 74 11. Mean D a i l y Temperature f o r J a n u a r y 74 12. Mean D a i l y Temperature f o r J u l y 74 13. Mean Annual Minimum Temperature . . . 74 14. Mean An n u a l L e n g t h o f the Growing Season 75 15. Mean Annual L e n g t h o f F r o s t - F r e e P e r i o d 75 16. Mean Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n 75 17. Mean Annual S n o w f a l l 75 18. N i p i s s i n g Lowlands: D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n , 1881 . . . . • 89 19. N i p i s s i n g Lowlands: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n , 1901 108 20. Western Algoma D i s t r i c t : S e t t l e m e n t and R a i l w a y s , 1901 126 v i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS—(Continued) F i g u r e Page 21. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Mines and P r o s p e c t s i n the Sudbury B a s i n , 1900 143 22. Timiskaming D i s t r i c t : A c c e s s and S e t t l e m e n t , 1897. . . 177 23. Timiskaming D i s t r i c t : D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t , 1901 185 24. C o b a l t A r e a : . Geology and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i l v e r D e p o s i t s 206 25. C o b a l t A r e a : G e o l o g i c a l C r o s s S e c t i o n 207 26. P o r c u p i n e A r e a : D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Mines 230 27. K i r k l a n d Lake A r e a : D i s t r i b u t i o n of Mines and M i n e r a l O c c u r r e n c e s 231 28. Timiskaming D i s t r i c t : The M i n i n g F r o n t i e r , 1924. . . . 240 29. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : P o p u l a t i o n Growth, 1871-1966 . . 261 30. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y L i n k a g e s : Inward Movements 267 31. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : T w e n t i e t h - C e n t u r y L i n k a g e s : Inward Movements 269 32. N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n , 1911 271 33. Key Map: Algoma D i s t r i c t 335 34. Key Map: S u d b u r y - N i p i s s i n g 342 35. Key Map: Timiskaming-Cochrane 352 v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am i n d e b t e d t o many p e o p l e f o r t h e i r h e l p i n the p r e p a r a -t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . My i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t i n the f r o n t i e r p e r i o d of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o stems from h a v i n g been a n a t i v e of t h e r e g i o n and from l e a r n i n g from t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d f i r s t h a n d i n i t s open-i n g up and development. My u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e r e g i o n ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the geography of Canada was enhanced g r e a t l y under P r o f e s s o r J . Lewis Robinson o f the Department o f Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I thank him, as w e l l as Dr. Robert N o r t h o f the Department of Geography, f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and c o n s t r u c t i v e comments d u r i n g the l e n g t h y p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g t h i s s t u d y . I am v e r y g r a t e f u l t o M i s s V e r o n i q u e M o r i n f o r h e r e f f o r t s i n t y p i n g the f i n a l d r a f t . I a p p r e c i a t e a l s o the work of Mrs. B e v e r l y H e i n z , M i s s C h r i s t i n e D a n i e l s , M i s s J o y c e Bova, and Mrs. J o s e p h i n e C a r v i l l i n t y p i n g t h e i n i t i a l d r a f t s . I thank the Rev. Donald B e l l f o r r e a d i n g the i n i t i a l d r a f t and f o r h i s h e l p i n c l a r i f y i n g my o f t e n o b s c u r e w r i t i n g s t y l e . Mr. Robert Pepper h e l p e d i n p r e p a r i n g some o f the maps. F i n a l l y , I am g r a t e f u l f o r t h e encouragement g i v e n me by my w i f e , C y n t h i a , throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . D e n i s M. Watson T o r o n t o , August, 1971. v i i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Problem Between C o n f e d e r a t i o n and the o u t b r e a k o f the F i r s t World War, the economy o f Canada underwent p r o f o u n d a l t e r a t i o n , b o t h i n i t s s e c t o r a l composition-'- and i n i t s s p a t i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . I n O n t a r i o a heavy r e l i a n c e on a g r i c u l t u r e and timber e x t r a c t i o n was d i m i n i s h e d by the r i s e o f m i n i n g and m a n u f a c t u r i n g , the l a t t e r i n c l u d i n g such i n d u s t r i e s as p u l p and paper, i r o n and s t e e l , n o n - f e r r o u s m e t a l s and p e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t s . S e c t o r a l changes were accompanied by t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances: i n p a r t i c u l a r the r emarkable e x p a n s i o n o f the r a i l w a y system and the advent o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power. 2 I n a d d i t i o n , the r u r a l - t o -u r b a n s h i f t i n p o p u l a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d , and t h e c i t y , n o t a b l y T o r o n t o , became a major economic and c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e on the c o u n t r y s i d e . The g e o g r a p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s economic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n were e q u a l l y n o t a b l e . Whereas a t m i d - c e n t u r y most o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f Upper Canada was c o n f i n e d to the P a l a e o z o i c Lowlands s o u t h of the C a n a d i a n S h i e l d , by 1914 the f r o n t i e r s o f s e t t l e m e n t had p e n e t r a t e d d e e p l y i n t o the r o c k y w i l d e r n e s s o f the "New O n t a r i o " - - a movement not as s p e c t a c u l a r as the occupance of the p r a i r i e s d u r i n g the same p e r i o d b u t e q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o the c o u n t r y ' s economic development. L i t t l e i n the way of n a t i o n a l economic growth c o u l d have o c c u r r e d w i t h o u t t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e s o f the C a n a d i a n S h i e l d . 3 The 2 " c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n " ^ of the Canadian Shield has meant more than geo-graphical l o c a t i o n ; at f i r s t regarded as a wasteland and a formidable b a r r i e r to f r o n t i e r advance or, at most, a preserve of the fur trader and timber-man, the Shield had become recognized by 1914 as a great national asset. This study i s an h i s t o r i c a l enquiry into s p a t i a l and s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the f r o n t i e r s of settlement and of economic development i n one portion of the Canadian Shield, that i s , Northeastern Ontario, from about 1850 to 1914. The Northeastern Ontario region was among the e a r l i e s t parts of the Shield to be s e t t l e d , the period of greatest change being from 1885 to 1914. One contention of t h i s thesis i s that the process of change observed i n Northeastern Ontario was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l a t e r settlement and development i n other parts of the Shield. This i s , therefore, a case study of f r o n t i e r movement and the i n i t i a t i o n of economic growth i n the Shield region. Theoretical Constructs This study concerns changes i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of people and economic a c t i v i t y as they occurred on the " f r o n t i e r " of settlement i n Northeastern O n t a r i o . I t also examines the changing patterns of i n t e r -a c t i o n of people and goods between the f r o n t i e r and older "core" areas. During the period i n question there occurred many h i s t o r i c a l events which on the surface appear to be unrelated to and a t y p i c a l of the usual conception of a u n i f i e d f r o n t i e r advance. However, an attempt has been made i n t h i s study to analyse f r o n t i e r advance i n Northeastern Ontario i n terms of a process comprised of several i n t e r r e l a t e d 3 A 5 components. The n a t u r e o f t h e s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s was not u n i q u e t o the r e g i o n and may be r e l e v a n t t o the p r o c e s s o f economic development i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the S h i e l d . F o r the purpose o f t h i s a n a l y s i s f i v e f a c t o r s have been i s o l a t e d as h a v i n g been most i n f l u e n t i a l i n f r o n t i e r advance and economic d e v e l o p -ment : (1) the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and a s s o c i a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ; ^ (2) the e f f e c t s o f e x t e r n a l economic and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s , w i t h a t t e n t i o n to m e t r o p o l i t a n r i v a l r y ; (3) the impact o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l change and i n n o v a t i o n , w i t h emphasis upon the development o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p a t t e r n s ; (4) the e f f e c t s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y ; and (5) e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p : the a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e and t o e x p l o i t market o p p o r t u n i t i e s . R e sources and E x t e r n a l Demand.--A predominant theme i n C a n a d i a n economic h i s t o r y has been the c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f exogenous demands f o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t t y p i c a l l y have had l i m i t e d o c c u r r e n c e w i t h i n c l o s e range o f markets. The i n t e n s i t y and o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e demands have v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o contemporary p e r c e p t i o n s o f what c o n s t i t u t e d a " r e s o u r c e . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s o u r c e s and the p u l l o f markets have g i v e n r i s e t o t h e s t a p l e t h e o r y o f economic growth, which i s p r i m a r i l y a C a n a d i a n i n n o v a t i o n and, i n d e e d , one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h i s c o u n t r y to economic h i s t o r y . H a r o l d A. I n n i s p i o n e e r e d the s t a p l e t h e o r y w i t h h i s works on the cod f i s h e r i e s , the f u r t r a d e , and the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , ^ and Lower's treatment o f the r o l e o f f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s i n E a s t e r n Canada's economic development f o l l o w s t h e same s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t . ^ Simply p u t , the s t a p l e t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t s t a p l e e x p o r t s a r e 6 t h e l e a d i n g s e c t o r of the economy, s e t t i n g the pace f o r economic growth. The p r o c e s s was common i n an "empty" r e g i o n advanced upon by European c i v i l i z a t i o n , w h e r e i n t h e r e was a f a v o u r a b l e man/land r a t i o and an absence of i n h i b i t i n g t r a d i t i o n s . ^ The t h e o r y a l l o w s f o r the d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r o f p a r t i c u l a r s t a p l e s and f o r the impact o f the r e s o u r c e base of the new r e g i o n on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market. I n a f r o n t i e r r e g i o n the i n i t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e s o u r c e s c a n v a r y , and these c o n d i t i o n s c a n change over time as a r e s u l t o f new demands o u t s i d e o f the r e g i o n , t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, and p u b l i c a c t i o n s . I n N o r t h -e a s t e r n O n t a r i o t h i s p r o c e s s was e x e m p l i f i e d i n the c a s e of the Sudbury B a s i n : s i g n i f i c a n t m i n e r a l i z a t i o n was f i r s t n o t e d i n 1855; the d e p o s i t s d i d not become v a l u a b l e , however, u n t i l a f t e r the r a i l -way had p r o v i d e d a c c e s s and u n t i l a s u c c e s s f u l method o f s e p a r a t i n g n i c k e l and copper had been d e v i s e d . The c h a r a c t e r o f the r e s o u r c e base of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o was fundamental to the r i s e o f a s u c c e s s f u l s t a p l e economy i n the r e g i o n . D u r i n g the p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n the r e s o u r c e base was a l t e r e d t h r o u g h the d i s c o v e r y o f e x p l o i t a b l e m i n e r a l s ; p r e v i o u s p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e s o u r c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , were m o d i f i e d and new p r i o r i t i e s drawn. Because one o f the main burdens o f t h i s study i s to e x p l a i n the emergence of p a t t e r n s o f economic a c t i v i t y and s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e base d e s e r v e s d e s c r i p t i o n , b u t from the v i e w p o i n t o f how i t was e v a l u a t e d over the study p e r i o d (see C h a p t e r I I ) . M i n e r a l , f o r e s t , a g r i c u l t u r a l , and water r e s o u r c e s have 7 a f i n i t e and uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n was i m p e r f e c t l y known p r i o r t o 1900, but i n i t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n f l u e n c e d r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n and p u b l i c p o l i c y . R e finements i n the knowledge o f the r e s o u r c e base tended t o m o d i f y the f r o n t i e r and the c o n s t r a i n t s and f o r c e s g o v e r n i n g i t . What i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t i s p o s i t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h r e s p e c t to m arkets. C o n s i d e r a b l e h e t e r o g e n e i t y w i t h i n the r e g i o n was c o u p l e d w i t h wide v a r i a n c e i n t h e degree o f a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s . E a r l y a c c e s -s i b i l i t y was o n l y by way o f n a v i g a b l e l a k e s and r i v e r s . By the 1870's rough c o l o n i z a t i o n r o a ds had been pushed i n t o the s o u t h e r n p e r i p h e r y of the r e g i o n , and by 1885, and a g a i n i n the p e r i o d o f 1903-15, r a i l -ways had been d r i v e n through N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o to e f f e c t a degree of a c c e s s which d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t advance and the i n t e r p l a y between r e s o u r c e s and market a r e a s . M e t r o p o l i t a n R i v a l r y . — T h e p r o c e s s of f r o n t i e r advance i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o was a f f e c t e d by economic, c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s emanating from the competing m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s o f T o r o n t o and M o n t r e a l . The c o n c e p t o f " m e t r o p o l i t a n i s m " i s w e l l documented i n C a n adian h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , H and i t s t a n d s i n c o n t r a s t t o the t e n e t s o f the " f r o n t i e r h y p o t h e s i s " of F r e d e r i c k J a c k s o n T u r n e r , whose work so g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d f r o n t i e r s t u d i e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . ^ A c c o r d i n g t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n i s m t h e o r y , the r i v a l r y among u r b a n c e n t r e s f o r an expanding commercial h i n t e r l a n d was the d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d f r o n t i e r movement. T h i s theme was c l o s e l y a p p l i e d by D.C. M a s t e r s i n The R i s e  o f T o r o n t o , 1850-1890,^ i n which he examined the emergence of t h a t 8 c i t y t o a p o s i t i o n o f dominance over the s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e and over o t h e r c i t i e s and t h e i r h i n t e r l a n d s . Through e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a -t i o n o f communications, t r a d e and f i n a n c e , T o r o n t o became the f o c u s o f a n economic and s o c i a l u n i t w hich competed a c t i v e l y w i t h M o n t r e a l f o r commercial c o n t r o l over an e v e r - w i d e n i n g a r e a . A t the same time, the two c i t i e s were i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i e s o f New York and London.14 The r i v a l r y between M o n t r e a l and T o r o n t o p r i o r t o 1880 a f f e c t e d p r i m a r i l y the Gre a t L a k e s - S t . Lawrence Lowlands r e g i o n . One o f the major i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n was t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , w i t h the commercial i n t e r e s t s o f M o n t r e a l s t r i v i n g t o overcome the n a t u r a l b a r r i e r s o f the Upper S t . Lawrence: f i r s t , t h rough c a n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and, l a t e r , t h r o u g h such r a i l w a y developments as the Grand Trunk, d e s i g n e d t o f u n n e l t r a f f i c from upper Canada and the Mid-west th r o u g h t h e p o r t o f M o n t r e a l . M o n t r e a l e s s e n t i a l l y f a i l e d i n i t s quest because o f d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f l o c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o New York which, by means o f the E r i e C a n a l and r a i l w a y s , e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d t h e Upper G r e a t Lakes r e g i o n , i n c l u d i n g much o f Upper Canada. Commercial e n t e r p r i s e s i n T o r o n t o took advantage o f such developments to the d e t r i m e n t o f M o n t r e a l , s t r e n g t h e n i n g T o r o n t o ' s p o s i t i o n through con-s t r u c t i o n o f n o r t h - s o u t h r a i l w a y s t o s h o r t - c u t t r a f f i c from Lake Huron and G e o r g i a n Bay thr o u g h i t s p o r t . l ^ The c o m p l e t i o n o f the Ca n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y i n 1885 and the o p e n i n g o f the p r a i r i e s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d M o n t r e a l ' s dominance over e a s t - w e s t commercial i n t e r a c t i o n , and i n so d o i n g the r i v a l r y between 9 that c i t y and Toronto began to a f f e c t Northeastern O n t a r i o . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of two a d d i t i o n a l t ranscont inenta l ra i lways and of two major north-south l i n e s through the reg ion were manifestat ions of the s truggle between the two c i t i e s for e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of a northern and western h i n t e r l a n d . As w i l l be seen, Toronto emerged as the dominant organ iz ing force behind the expanding mining f r o n t i e r , thus i n f l u e n c i n g cons iderably the pace and d i s t r i b u t i o n of development i n Northeastern Ontar io as w e l l as pub l i c p o l i c y concerning the r e g i o n . Techno log ica l Change and Innovat ion . - -As Ackerman has pointed o u t , l ^ t echno log ica l change, which involves the development of resource-convert ing techniques and of space-adjust ing techniques ( t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) , i s one of the fundamental geographic processes . Economic development i n Northeastern Ontar io was a f fec ted by a number of resource-convert ing innovat ions , both w i t h i n the reg ion and out-s ide i t . The development of new minera l treatment processes , of pu lp -and-paper-making techniques, of h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power, and the invent ion of n i c k e l s t e e l , are examples of t echno log ica l advances which inf luenced the l o c a t i o n and character of economic a c t i v i t y i n Northeastern O n t a r i o . The prime t echno log ica l innovat ion was the r a i l w a y , which allowed the f i r s t s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u x of people in to Northeastern Ontario and, equa l ly important, the l a r g e - s c a l e movement of s taple commodities to n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l markets, whereas p r i o r to the r a i l w a y , e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s were dependent on water access , the advent of the Canadian P a c i f i c , Temiskaming and Northern O n t a r i o ,1 7 10 Canadian Northern, National Transcontinental, Algoma Central, and other l i n e s provided a degree of a c c e s s i b i l i t y which a l t e r e d the d i s t r i b u t i o n of industry and of people, s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and the s e c t o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the regional economy. Public Policy.--An important consideration i n t h i s study i s the r o l e of the state i n the expansion of settlement and economic development.IS In comparative f r o n t i e r studies contrasts are often drawn between the rapid i n t r u s i o n of people into the American west and the more "orderly" process of f r o n t i e r advance i n Canada.19 While the f r o n t i e r experience i n the United States was u s u a l l y more dominated by the private sector than by government (although the l a t t e r was never t o t a l l y l a c k i n g ) , i n Canada the state was i n most cases the i n i t i a t o r of settlement expansion: witness the p r a c t i c e of exploration and p r i o r survey, and the government-instigated construc-t i o n of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, well i n advance of actual settlement. The e f f e c t s of public p o l i c y i n Northeastern Ontario are examined at two l e v e l s - - n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l . In one sense the "National P o l i c y " ^ a r t i c u l a t e d by S i r John A. Macdonald i n 1878 offered l i t t l e promise for the development of Ontario's h i n t e r l a n d . The c e n t r a l features of the National P o l i c y , which was designed to f o s t e r p o l i t i c a l and economic unity i n B r i t i s h North America, were protective t a r i f f s , the construction of the P a c i f i c railway, and the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of the p r a i r i e s . As the controversy surrounding the route of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway indicated, the 11 C a n a d i a n S h i e l d was r e g a r d e d as an o b s t a c l e to these aims. Neverthe-l e s s , the r a i l w a y , when completed, had a c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o a f t e r 1885, the most c o n s p i c u o u s development b e i n g i n the Sudbury B a s i n . A l t h o u g h the e f f e c t s o f the C a nadian P a c i f i c i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o were i n c i d e n t a l to the main purpose o f the l i n e , subsequent f e d e r a l l y sponsored r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n ( t h e N a t i o n a l T r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l ) f o l l o w e d a r o u t e c h o s e n s p e c i f i c a l l y t o open the G r e a t C l a y B e l t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t . The p o l i c y o f the Government o f O n t a r i o was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , inasmuch as b o t h stemmed from p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n i s s u e s . A f t e r 1867, however, p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e "New O n t a r i o " was d i r e c t e d toward op e n i n g the r e g i o n f o r s e t t l e m e n t . Most o f the P r o v i n c e ' s a c t i o n s i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y stemmed from a growing c o n c e r n , b e g i n n i n g about 1855, f o r t h e d i m i n i s h i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . I t had become c l e a r t h a t most o f the b e s t l a n d i n " O l d O n t a r i o " had been a l i e n a t e d and t h a t the P r o v i n c e was s u f f e r i n g from i n c r e a s i n g o u t - m i g r a t i o n . Canada found i t s e l f u n a b l e to h o l d t h e l a r g e stream o f immigrants who were b e g i n -n i n g to pass through the P r o v i n c e f o r the more l u c r a t i v e l a n d s o f the newly-opened American M i d w e s t . 2 ^ The i m p o r t a n t f a c t . . . now s t r o n g l y p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t h a t , i n the g r e a t w e s t e r n P e n i n s u l a o f Upper Canada, which has h i t h e r t o been the c h i e f r e c e p t a c l e o f i m m i g r a t i o n to t h i s P r o v i n c e , the s u p p l y o f Crown Lands f o r s e t t l e m e n t i s now exhausted, and as the number o f C l e r g y l o t s i n t e r s p e r s e d through i t i s compara-t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , f i e l d s f o r the e x t e n s i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t must be sought i n o t h e r p a r t s o f C a n a d a . 2 2 12 A f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the 1856 Report of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, e f f o r t s were begun by the c o l o n i a l government, and continued by the Ontario Government a f t e r 1867, to explore, survey, and open for settlement the nearer portions of the S h i e l d . What i s important at t h i s juncture i s that the " o f f i c i a l " notions of the Canadian Shield changed: optimism grew regarding the extent of arable land a v a i l a b l e f or settlement. The Huron-Ottawa t r a c t alone was thought to be capable of sustaining eight m i l l i o n people,^3 a b e l i e f that was based more on wishful thinking and p o l i t i c a l expediency than on sound geographical knowledge, of which there was precious l i t t l e i n the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, for over f i f t y years, public p o l i c y was dir e c t e d toward developing a g r i c u l t u r e i n Northeastern Ontario, and the means of implementation (exploration, township surveying, road and r a i l construction, land tenure regulations, etc.) did much to influence f r o n t i e r advance. In other areas of the economy, such as mining and the f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , the p r o v i n c i a l government exercised p o l i c i e s which were varyingly incentive-oriented and regulatory. Although l a i s s e z - f a i r e was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both i n d u s t r i e s , public p o l i c y was often i n s t r u -mental i n t h e i r eventual success i n Northeastern Ontario. Some examples of such p o l i c y are the imposition of an embargo on the export of wood cut from Crown Lands, the r e g u l a t i o n of stumpage and bonus fees, the provisions surrounding mining claims, and incentives for the processing of mineral resources w i t h i n the province. Not a l l p o l i c y was w e l l conceived and executed, however, f o r c o n f l i c t s o ften arose, 13 examples b e i n g between the s e t t l e r and the lumberman, ^ or between l a r g e companies and i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l r i g h t s . ^ 5 An i m p o r t a n t a r e a of s t a t e i n i t i a t i v e was i n g e o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n and mapping. The G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada was a c t i v e i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o as e a r l y as 1847, and the O n t a r i o Bureau o f Mines was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1892 " t o a i d i n p romoting the m i n i n g i n t e r e s t s o f the P r o v i n c e . " 2 6 While i t cannot be d e n i e d t h a t most m i n e r a l d i s -c o v e r i e s were made by i n d i v i d u a l s — e i t h e r a c c i d e n t a l l y (as a t Sudbury and C o b a l t ) , o r p u r p o s e f u l l y (South L o r r a i n , Gowganda, P o r c u p i n e and K i r k l a n d L a k e ) - - p r o s p e c t i n g and m i n i n g development were f a c i l i t a t e d by the c a r e f u l l y r e c o r d e d r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s o r contemporaneous geo-l o g i c a l s u r v e y s . ' The most a c t i v e p e r i o d o f government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f r o n t i e r p r o c e s s was from 1900 to 1913. F o l l o w i n g the Survey and E x p l o r a t i o n o f N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o i n 1900,^8 w i t h the aims of systema-t i c a l l y e v a l u a t i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l , f o r e s t , and m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s of the e n t i r e r e g i o n , the Government o f O n t a r i o proceeded t o c o n s t r u c t t h e p u b l i c l y owned Temiskaming and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o R a i l w a y (1902-1913)--an event w h i c h , more t h a n any o t h e r , produced a d r a m a t i c change i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o and the r i s e i n the r e g i o n ' s economic development. A s a l i e n t f a c t o r p e r v a d i n g p u b l i c p o l i c y , a t b o t h the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s , was an i n t e n s e optimism, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r 1885, i n the f u t u r e o f Canada's n o r t h . The s p i r i t o f n a t i o n a l s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e f o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n o f the C a nadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y 14 spawned innumerable railway proposals and other speculative schemes to open the north. Factors contributing to t h i s were the Klondike gold rush, mineral discoveries i n Northern Ontario, and the dramatic r i s e of the wheat economy of the p r a i r i e s . Many railway proposals r e f l e c t e d the p r e v a i l i n g desire to e s t a b l i s h a seaport on Hudson Bay or James Bay, Ontario's only saltwater coasts. The f a i t h that Canada's future lay i n her north i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n one of the eloquent speeches of S i r W i l f r e d Laurier : S i r , I hope that I s h a l l l i v e to see a c i t y at the terminus of Hudson's bay railway. . . . It i s not enough for us to confine our views to the Canada that i s now s e t t l e d , we must look ahead, we must push northward as far as c o l o n i z a t i o n can go. I have great confidence that before many years are passed we s h a l l see towns and v i l l a g e s on the shores of Hudson's Bay, as we see on the shores of Norway, where people w i l l be prosperously engaged i n the lumbering business, the pulp industry, the f i s h i n g industry, the mining industry, and others. This i s what I hope Canadians w i l l see ere l o n g . 2 9 Entrepreneurship.--Entrepreneurship, the a b i l i t y to perceive and e x p l o i t market opportunities, was a key factor i n the economic development of Northeastern Ontario, as well as elsewhere i n Canada. A consideration of t h i s element i n f r o n t i e r advance i s important i n order to explain the l o c a t i o n and performance of c e r t a i n forms of economic a c t i v i t y which may not n e c e s s a r i l y have followed a course predictable from an examination of broader s o c i a l and economic forces alone. A p e c u l i a r case i n point was the r i s e of an i n d u s t r i a l complex at Sault Ste. Marie. The factors of resource a v a i l a b i l i t y , market demand, transportation development, technological innovation, 15 and p u b l i c p o l i c y were a l l p r e s e n t , but the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s o f one i n d i v i d u a l , F r a n c i s H. C l e r g u e , p r o v i d e d the n e c e s s a r y c a t a l y s t t o make i n d u s t r i a l development p o s s i b l e . I n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e was a l s o d e c i s i v e i n a number o f o t h e r f r o n t i e r developments i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . Many m i n e r a l d i s -c o v e r i e s were made as a r e s u l t o f a determined e f f o r t on the p a r t o f p r o s p e c t o r s . Subsequent development o f o r e b o d i e s r e s t e d upon the i m p o r t a t i o n o f e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l t a l e n t and c a p i t a l , much o f which came from o u t s i d e Canada.30 A l t h o u g h the p a r t i c u l a r r o l e o f the e n t r e p r e n e u r i n economic development i s o f major i n t e r e s t t o s t u d e n t s o f economics and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , 3 1 the emphasis h e r e i n i s on the e n t r e p r e n e u r ' s i n f l u e n c e i n the l o c a t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t y ; i n many i n s t a n c e s , t h i s i n f l u e n c e was c o n s i d e r a b l e . Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e The r e l i a n c e o f the w r i t e r upon the "Toronto S c h o o l " o f economic h i s t o r y - ^ f o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t i s o b v i o u s i n the l i g h t o f l i t e r a t u r e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d . Economists and economic h i s t o r i a n s appear t o have made the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the t h e o r y o f the mechanism o f economic development. "Any e x a m i n a t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e o f r e c e n t y e a r s r e v e a l s an a p p a r e n t and remarkable l a c k o f i n t e r e s t among geographers i n the s t u d y o f the phenomenon o f 'economic development' . . . ."33 R # C . H a r r i s i n a r e v i e w a r t i c l e on the s t a t u s o f h i s t o r i c a l geography i n Canada,34 acknowledges t h a t H.A. I n n i s and the " L a u r e n t i a n " h i s t o r i a n s have 16 dominated s c h o l a r s h i p i n the h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Canada's development. They had, says H a r r i s , a fundamental i n t e r e s t i n the l a n d , but geographers have done l i t t l e r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d . He a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t a g e o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r i s e o f the s t a p l e t r a d e s o f f e r s a f r u i t f u l a r e a o f r e s e a r c h : I n Canada we have a common p i c t u r e o f a canoe r o u t e , a r a i l w a y , o r a r o a d l e a d i n g from a c i t y t hrough a w i l d e r n e s s to a t r a d i n g p o s t , a l o g g i n g camp, a g o l d r u s h town, or a mine. Y e t we have n o t l o o k e d c l o s e l y a t many o f the r o u t e s o r a t the s e t t l e m e n t s , many o f which were d i s t i n c t c r e a t i o n s o f the New World, a t t h e i r w i l d e r n e s s ends. The e l a b o r a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks d e v e l o p e d by the s t a p l e t r a d e s t o t r a n s p o r t s l i g h t l y p r o c e s s e d commodities, su g g e s t themselves as e x c e l l e n t c ase s t u d i e s o f the g e o g r a p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f changes i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . 3 5 As t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the theme o f t h i s s t u d y , i t d e r i v e s much o f i t s methodology from s t u d i e s i n C a n a d i a n economic h i s t o r y , a t l e a s t t h o se c o n c e r n i n g the s t a p l e t h e o r y . A r e l a t e d body o f l i t e r a t u r e w h ich i s a l s o u s e f u l i s t h a t c o n c e r n i n g economic development i n g e n e r a l . L i t e r a t u r e on Economic Development T h e o r i e s o f the p r o c e s s o f economic development a r e i m p o r t a n t to t h i s t h e s i s o n l y i n s o f a r as they p e r t a i n t o f r o n t i e r advance. K e e b l e ' s a r t i c l e , "Models o f Economic Development," c o n t a i n s a u s e f u l r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e , c l a s s i f y i n g i t i n t o "geography models and economic development," " n o n - s p a t i a l models o f economic development," and "models o f s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f economic development." W i t h i n the l a s t c a t e g o r y a r e c o n t a i n e d the " e x p o r t - b a s e models," most o f which have been promulgated by economists c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e g i o n a l economic h i s t o r y and growth i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada.36 17 Duesenberry hypothesized the mechanism of economic development as contingent on the close r e l a t i o n s h i p of a newly-settled, exporting region with older, already developed regions.37 According to t h i s model, f r o n t i e r regions grew i n response to the demands of the "east" f o r raw materials; at the same time eastern economic growth was stimulated by the demands of the f r o n t i e r for more sophisticated products. The resemblance of t h i s hypothesis to the staple theory i s obvious; although the staple theory as t r a d i t i o n a l l y argued has been subject to much c r i t i c i s m i n Canada recently,38 the theme has been used as a conceptual framework i n the works of North,39 Tiebout,40 P e r l o f f and Wingo,^! Baldwin,42 Meier,43 p f i s t e r , 4 4 a n d others. With some v a r i a t i o n s i n emphasis, the substance of such studies i s that production i n a region w i l l be at f i r s t p r i m a r i l y for export, and the income thus generated may be reinvested i n the region, leading to further growth. Urbanization takes place and l o c a l markets develop; i n d u s t r i e s d i v e r s i f y ; and the service i n f r a s t r u c t u r e matures, u n t i l eventually a threshold i s reached whereby regional economic growth i s sustained and cumulative. The theory i s contingent upon comparative advantage i n l o c a t i o n , resource endowment, regional exports, and the development of linkages and m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s . While the export base models are successful i n explaining the o r i g i n s of economic growth, the evidence of many regions which had such a s t a r t shows that the process i s often halted long before the economy matures. Many problems, such as lack of i n d u s t r i a l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , resource exhaustion, changes i n demand, technological change, and intervening opportunity, 18 are c u r r e n t l y a f f l i c t i n g the economic health of the Canadian Shield, Northeastern Ontario included. Reference should be made to Rostow's stages of economic growth,4-5 a theory which has stimulated considerable c o n t r o v e r s y P o s t u l a t e d to describe the sequential process of national economic development, the Rostow model o f f e r s l i t t l e to explain regional growth and has even less reference to the function of a f r o n t i e r . It serves, however, to put Northeastern Ontario into a broader perspective. Rostow i d e n t i f i e s the period from 1896 to 1914 as the "take-off" stage i n Canada's economic development, during which three conditions emerged: (1) a r i s e i n the rate of productive investment r e l a t i v e to national income; (2) the development of one or more leading manufacturing sectors, with a high rate of growth, and (3) the existence or quick emergence of a p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework which e x p l o i t s the impulse to expand and which leads to sustained growth.47 There i s i n th i s considerable emphasis on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l and i t s rate of investment, on the r o l e of public p o l i c y and entrepreneurship, and on the importance of technological advance i n the development of leading sectors. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of railways i s seen to have had three major kinds of impact as an i n i t i a t o r of "take-off": (1) i t lowered i n t e r n a l transport costs, brought new areas and products into commercial markets, and i n general widened the market; (2) i t was a pr e r e q u i s i t e to the development of a new and r a p i d l y enlarging export sector which i n turn generated c a p i t a l for i n t e r n a l development; and (3) the development of railways led to the development of modern c o a l , i r o n , 19 F I G U R E 3 20 and engineering industries.48 xhe 1896-1914 period indeed saw p r o l i f i c railway construction i n Canada (see F i g . 2), far out of proportion to the country's population. Modifications to the Rostovian model must be drawn, however, i f i t i s to be r e l a t e d to the staples i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of national and regional growth i n Canada. In the f i r s t place, the influence of the staple i n d u s t r i e s preceded 1896, the date selected by Rostow for the beginning of "take-off." Second, the "leading sectors" i n Canada were not confined to manufacturing. In 1896-1914 the a c t i v i t y which f u l -f i l l e d most adequately the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a leading s e c t o r — r a p i d growth, linkages and income e f f e c t s — w a s western wheat. In a d d i t i o n , other e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s , such as pulp and paper, and mining i n Northeastern Ontario, B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon, led i n the growth process; manufacturing was l a r g e l y confined to southern Ontario and Quebec and derived much of i t s growth from the expansion of the primary sector. Third, the export connexion i n the staple theory i s funda-mental, while i n the leading sector concept, although i t i s acknowledged, i t i s given l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e . jC' A large body of l i t e r a t u r e concerning the r o l e of transporta-t i o n i n the development of regions includes works by economists such as F o g e l ^ a n ( j F i s h i O W j 5 0 h a v e analysed the transformation of the nineteenth-century American economy as e f f e c t e d by railways. Geographers who have focussed on regional transportation developments have been interes t e d i n t h e i r morphological aspects (for example, Meinig,51 Appleton,-^ Kansky,53 a n d 0'Dell^4) a n d i n changing patterns 21 of i n t e r a c t i o n . ^ ^ In Canada, the development of r a i l w a y s and t h e i r e f f e c t s seem to have been e x p l o r e d more f u l l y by h i s t o r i a n s and economic h i s t o r i a n s than by economists and g e o g r a p h e r s . The p r o l i f i c w r i t i n g s o f Innis"*^ and those of G l a z e b r o o k , W i l g u s , " ^ C u r r i e , 60 61 62 63 64 S t e v e n s , Thompson, B l a d e n , McLean, B r e i t h a u p t , and o t h e r s i n 65 a p o p u l a r v e i n , a t t e s t t o t h i s i n t e r e s t i n r a i l w a y s . L i t e r a t u r e on F r o n t i e r H i s t o r y Inasmuch as t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n s a s p e c t s of g e o g r a p h i c a l change i n a p o r t i o n of t h e Canadian f r o n t i e r , i t can draw f o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t on a l a r g e body of l i t e r a t u r e on f r o n t i e r movements and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o l d e r c o r e a r e a s . Much has been w r i t t e n , i n p r a i s e or i n c r i t i c i s m , ^ o f T u r n e r ' s f r o n t i e r h y p o t h e s i s . V e r y b r i e f l y , T u r n e r p o s t u l a t e d s u c c e s s i v e advances of h u n t e r s and e x p l o r e r s , merchants and e n t r e p r e n e u r s , c a t t l e m e n and f a r m e r s , and f i n a l l y i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n , a c r o s s a g i v e n p i e c e of t e r r i t o r y . T u r n e r d e s c r i b e d the f r o n t i e r as a " s a f e t y - v a l v e , " which r e l i e v e d p r e s s u r e and p o v e r t y i n t h e E a s t and f o s t e r e d democracy and e q u a l i t y on the f r o n t i e r i t s e l f . He v i s u a l i z e d the f r o n t i e r environment as a major de t e r m i n a n t i n the development of t r u l y American i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s and i n s i s t e d t h a t f r o n t i e r l i f e meant a " p e r e n n i a l r e b i r t h " of s o c i e t y f o l l o w e d by s t e a d y growth a l o n g p r e d e t e r m i n e d l i n e s . The T u r n e r t h e s i s g a i n e d a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g among American h i s t o r i a n s , and, a l t h o u g h i t has been s t r o n g l y c ^ t i c i z e d on the b a s i s .that i t v i o l a t e s " the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l c a u s a t i o n as the unique 67 i n t e r a c t i o n of m u l t i p l e c a u s e s , " i t s t i l l p r o v i d e s , w i t h some 22 68 m o d i f i c a t i o n s , the c o n c e p t u a l framework of such h i s t o r i a n s as Webb 69 and B i l l i n g t o n . A l t h o u g h W.N. S a g e ^ and Hansen and B r e b n e r ^ have attempted to f i n d u n i t y i n the whole Anglo-American movement of p e o p l e , the T u r n e r t h e s i s , even i f d i v e s t e d of i t s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t assumptions, i s g e n e r a l l y not a p p l i c a b l e to the s h o r t e r and more o r d e r l y f r o n t i e r 72 e x p e r i e n c e i n Canada. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Canadian S h i e l d s u c c e s s i v e waves of d i f f e r e n t forms of economic a c t i v i t y were not everywhere o b s e r v e d , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n developments ( r a i l w a y s ) u s u a l l y preceded the advance of s e t t l e m e n t . Canadian h i s t o r i a n s were ever m i n d f u l of the European o r i g i n of our s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , but i n the 1920's they d e v e l o p e d a p e c u l i a r l y Canadian e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t 73 74 v i e w p o i n t . Lower and C r e i g h t o n a r t i c u l a t e d most f o r c i b l y t h e " L a u r e n t i a n S c h o o l " of Canadian h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , i n which the c e n t r a l theme was th e attempt of the S t . Lawrence m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a t o r e a c h out f o r e v e r w i d e n i n g economic h i n t e r l a n d s . T h i s theme i s p r e v a l e n t i n M a s t e r ' s work, The R i s e of T o r o n t o , 1850-1890. The g e o g r a p h i c a l elements i n such w r i t i n g s , as w e l l as i n the T u r n e r s c h o o l , a r e i m p l i c i t : the s p a t i a l l i n k a g e s between the f r o n t i e r and the c i t y , the one f e e d i n g t h e o t h e r w i t h men, m a t e r i a l s and c a p i t a l , and r e c e i v i n g i n r e t u r n a f l o w of p r o d u c t s ; the a r e a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n or q u a l i t a t i v e c o n t r a s t between the c o r e and the f r o n t i e r ; the c u l t u r a l s u c c e s s i o n i n s p a c e — t h e s e r i e s of p r o c e s s e s which t r a n s f o r m e d the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of the f r o n t i e r , and s p a t i a l movement, i n the sense of the c o n t i n u o u s advance of the f r o n t i e r i n t o u n s e t t l e d t e r r i t o r y . ^ 23 These works c o u p l e d n i c e l y w i t h t h e s t a p l e s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Canada's economic h i s t o r y , whose m a i n p r o p o n e n t s , I n n i s and M a c k i n t o s h , ^ a r g u e d t h a t t h e s t a p l e t r a d e s were o r g a n i z e d t h r o u g h c o s t l y and e x t e n s i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems c o n t r o l l e d i n the l a r g e c i t i e s o f t h e e a s t . Thus t h e c o n c e p t o f " m e t r o p o l i t a n i s m " i n C a n a d i a n h i s t o r i c a l t h o u g h t i s drawn f r o m b o t h h i s t o r y and e c o n o m i c s ; i t h a s , moreover, c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l e v a n c e t o a g e o g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e C a n a d i a n f r o n t i e r . G e o g r a p h i c a l L i t e r a t u r e on t h e F r o n t i e r "Man's r o l e i n c h a n g i n g t h e f a c e o f t h e e a r t h " ^ i s a theme w h i c h has s t i m u l a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e g e o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h , much o f i t e manating f r o m t h e B e r k e l e y s c h o o l o f h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h y . I t h a s , however, r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n Canada b e c a u s e , H a r r i s s u g g e s t s , "most o f t h e C a n a d i a n l a n d has been r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e changed by man, o r because much o f t h e r e s t has been a b r u p t l y a l t e r e d by l o g g i n g , 79 b u r n i n g o r p l o u g h i n g . . . ." C l a r k ' s major s t u d i e s o f P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and New Z e a l a n d , 8 0 a n d Dawson's theme o f t h e " l i f e c y c l e o f a Q 1 p i o n e e r r e g i o n " ( t h e Peace R i v e r C o u n t r y ) , a r e e x c e l l e n t examples of g e o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h i n the c o l o n i z a t i o n o f new l a n d s . M e i n i g ' s work on t h e South A u s t r a l i a n wheat f r o n t i e r ^ 2 examines t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e m a r g i n between two c o m p e t i n g forms o f l a n d u s e i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and p r o v i d e s a methodology w h i c h i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r newly s e t t l e d r e g i o n s . W h i l e s t u d i e s i n t h e "sequent o c c u p a n c e " o f C a n a d i a n r e g i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y few, c e r t a i n g e o g r a p h e r s have g i v e n some a t t e n t i o n t o 24 the ecumene--land where man has made h i s permanent home, or work areas which are occupied and u t i l i z e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l or other economic purposes. Such studies by G a j d a , ^ Hamelin,84 a n<j Ehlers^S tend to be taxonomic i n t h e i r emphasis, although Ehlers was interested i n process or geographical change of the ecumene through time. Isaiah Bowman, i n h i s e a r l i e r , more general, studies of the "pioneer f r i n g e , " concentrated on the edge of the ecumene and i t s movements.86 McDermott has dealt with the advances and retreats of the settlement f r o n t i e r i n the Great Clay Belt,**? but he analysed morphological changes rather than genetic processes. Like economists concerned with the t o t a l process of economic development, geographers working with that theme r e l a t e the f r o n t i e r to the uni t y of a s p a t i a l system, whether i t be national or reg i o n a l . Wolfe's paper on Canada's economic development r e l i e s strongly on the staple theory and emphasizes the importance of physical geography and resources, public p o l i c y , transportation, and the i n t e r a c t i o n of producing and marketing areas.88 j n concert with the "metropolitanism" approach to Canadian h i s t o r y , Kerr and Spelt^^ focus on the r o l e of the c i t y i n the process of Ontario's economic development, emphasizing e s p e c i a l l y the influence of Toronto on the mining f r o n t i e r . M e r r i l l ^ O examines environmental influences on Canadian economic development and regionalism, suggesting that the f r o n t i e r - - b e i n g responsive to changes i n technology, new crops, new methods of transportation, new resources and new stages of economic development--"deserves the at t e n t i o n of the present generation of scholars." Robinson^l r e l a t e s 25 the d i s t r i b u t i o n and character of resources i n the Canadian Shield to the evolution of settlement patterns over time. Gregory^ 2 uses the same approach i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the Ontario-Quebec mining f r o n t i e r . Regional Studies of Northeastern Ontario Geographic studies of Northeastern Ontario have been l a r g e l y confined to the d e s c r i p t i o n of settlement patterns i n c e r t a i n physio-graphic s u b r e g i o n s , ^ o r to the analysis of functional r e l a t i o n s h i p s which have contributed to the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of single economic a c t i v i t i e s i n the region: pulp and paper,94 agriculture,95 a n c j mining.^6 As the c i t e d l i t e r a t u r e a t t e s t s , the settlement of the Great Clay Belt has most interested geographers, who have for the most part examined i t from a s t a t i c , or formal, point of view. A very large body of l i t e r a t u r e , most of i t t e c h n i c a l , surrounds the mining industry i n Northeastern Ontario. Non-technical works are mostly h i s t o r i c a l accounts of i n d i v i d u a l mines or mining camps; Gregory's analysis i s the only study which attempts to give geographic unity to the mining f r o n t i e r , but that u n i t y r e l i e s on a regional boundary defined on geological terms (the anomalous b e l t of Archaean-Proterozoic rocks, or "greenstone b e l t , " within the Canadian Shield) rather than on geographical process. Innis's (1936) study of the mining f r o n t i e r remains the most seminal work on Northeastern Ontario's mining f r o n t i e r . H i s t o r i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c a l studies of the r o l e of transportation i n the regional development of Northeastern Ontario are lacking. Gregory frequently alludes to the importance of railways i n the It development o f the m i n i n g f r o n t i e r b u t r e g a r d s them as g i v e n e n t i t i e s , w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g the economic and g e o g r a p h i c f o r c e s which produced them. A g a i n , I n n i s o f f e r s the most e x h a u s t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the f a c t o r o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s i n the development of the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y . In a s h o r t a r t i c l e i n 1929 H.S. P a t t o n examined the g e o g r a p h i c a l importance o f Hudson Bay i n Canada's economic development and i t s r o l e i n drawing r a i l w a y s northward i n M a n i t o b a , O n t a r i o , and Q u e b e c . A l t h o u g h a s i z e a b l e body o f l i t e r a t u r e s u r r o u n d s the economic and p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the o r i g i n s and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Hudson Bay R a i l w a y ( M a n i t o b a ) , ° l i t t l e has been w r i t t e n , o t h e r t h a n i n the p o p u l a r v e i n , o f analogous p r o p o s a l s i n O n t a r i o which c u l m i n a t e d i n the r e a l i t y of the Temiskaming and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o R a i l w a y . R e g i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l h i s t o r i e s a r e u s u a l l y i n t e n d e d t o r e a c h a wide r e a d i n g p u b l i c , b u t they a r e o f t e n i n v a l u a b l e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( h a v i n g been w r i t t e n , u s u a l l y , from f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e ) and p r o v i d e a sense o f " r e g i o n a l c o l o u r " w h i c h i s o f t e n l a c k i n g i n the academic l i t e r a t u r e . Examples o f t h i s genre a r e books by P a i n , W i l l i a m s o n , L e B o u r d a i s , Marwick, Hoffman, and B a y l i s s . ^ ^ A g r e a t many a r t i c l e s w hich appear i n the Canadian M i n i n g J o u r n a l and i n the Ca n a d i a n G e o g r a p h i c a l Journal^-O^ a r e i n the same v e i n . T h i s t h e s i s may s e r v e to f i l l i n some of the e x i s t i n g gaps i n the g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the o r i g i n and ch a n g i n g f u n c t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e s o u r c e development. I n so d o i n g , i t does not p u r p o r t 21 t o d e s c r i b e and t o a n a l y s e the whole complex of i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , but emphasizes "the d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o c e s s through which s e l e c t e d elements of r e g i o n a l c o n t e n t t h a t a r e b e l i e v e d t o have c o n t r i b u t e d 1 rj9 l a r g e l y t o r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , have changed through t i m e . i U * Sources o f P r i m a r y Data The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f p r i m a r y d a t a u s e d i n t h i s study have been t a k e n from r e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d by t h e Canadian and O n t a r i o govern-ments. The p u b l i c a t i o n s o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada p r o v i d e the b e s t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on e x p l o r a t i o n and on the contemporary e v a l u a t i o n s o f r e s o u r c e s . R e p o r t s o f the O n t a r i o Bureau of Mines a r e s i m i l a r l y v a l u a b l e and f o c u s more on m i n i n g developments. Much of the s u r v e y i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n o f N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o was c a r r i e d out by ( the p r o v i n c i a l Department o f Crown Lands; i t s r e p o r t s d e s c r i b e i n g r e a t d e t a i l the a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s as they were p e r c e i v e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d , and they a l s o g i v e a c c o u n t s o f the p r o g r e s s of s e t t l e m e n t and r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n . V a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , b o t h q u a l i t a t i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l , i s found i n the Annual R e p o r t s o f the Temiskaming and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o R a i l w a y Commission. Data on the t y p e s and volumes o f commodities c a r r i e d on t h a t l i n e a r e p r o v i d e d ; the d i r e c t i o n o f commodity f l o w must, however, be i n t e r p o l a t e d . I n c l u d e d i n those r e p o r t s (which, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l government p u b l i c a t i o n s , a r e found i n the S e s s i o n a l Papers of O n t a r i o ) a r e a p p e n d i c e s c o n c e r n i n g the development o f the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y i n the t e r r i t o r y t r i b u t a r y t o the Temiskaming 28 and Northern Ontario Railway. Production data are also found i n the s t a t i s t i c a l summaries of the Bureau of Mines. The nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were a period during which a p r o l i f i c number of pamphlets of a promotional nature was published. A sizeable c o l l e c t i o n of these i s kept i n the Public Archives of Ontario. Many were prospectuses issued by railway companies, which give a good insi g h t into the asp i r a t i o n s and percep-tions of the course of regional development; some cannot be taken too se r i o u s l y , as they were pr i m a r i l y promotional devices, but they do i l l u s t r a t e the contemporary mood of optimism i n railways and t h e i r r o l e i n economic development, a mood which swayed not only private enterprise, but a l l l e v e l s of government and the public at large as w e l l . Contemporary newspapers provide some of the best sources of h i s t o r i c a l data. Many of the e d i t o r i a l s appearing i n the Toronto d a i l y newspapers r e f l e c t e d the desire of the commercial community of that c i t y to extend i t s hinterland into new areas i n competition with Montreal. Newspapers also gave d e t a i l e d accounts of debates i n the Le g i s l a t u r e , which did not, at the time, publish a "Hansard." Maps published by the various government agencies are us e f u l i n showing the changes i n patterns of settlement, communications, and "resources," as they were then known. Comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n s of such maps are maintained i n the Public Archives of Ontario and i n the Toronto Reference L i b r a r y . 29 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I See Gordon W. Bertram, "Economic Growth and Canadian I n d u s t r y , 1870-1915: The S t a p l e Model and the T a k e - o f f H y p o t h e s i s , " Canadian  J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . XXIX, No. 2 (May, 1963), pp. 162-84; o r idem., "Economic Growth i n Canadian I n d u s t r y , 1870-1915: The S t a p l e M o d e l , " i n W.T. E a s t e r b r o o k and M.H. Watkins ( e d s . ) , Approaches  to Canadian Economic H i s t o r y ("The C a r l e t o n L i b r a r y , " No. 31; T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1967, pp. 74-98.) 2 F o r a f u l l e x a m i n a t i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the t r a n s i t i o n of the Canadian economy from i t s " t r a d i t i o n a l " s t a g e to the " o l d i n d u s t r i a l i s m " and to the "new i n d u s t r i a l i s m , " see W.T. E a s t e r b r o o k and Hugh C.J . A i t k e n , Canadian Economic H i s t o r y ( 1 s t ed. r e v . ; T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1965), pp. 515-57. 3 F o r a g e n e r a l account of the r e s o u r c e development and the e v o l u t i o n of s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s on the S h i e l d , "see J . Lewis Robinson, Resources of the Canadian S h i e l d ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1969). 4 "We a r e o n l y b e g i n n i n g to r e a l i z e the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n o f the Canadian S h i e l d , " wrote H a r o l d A. I n n i s i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n s t o The F u r  Trade i n Canada: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Canadian Economic H i s t o r y (Rev. ed. [ 1 s t ed. 1930]; T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1956, p. 392. "*In t h i s s t u d y , the word " f r o n t i e r " i s used i n two s e n s e s : (1) as a m i g r a t i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a a d j a c e n t to the u n s e t t l e d p o r t i o n s of the l a n d , t h a t i s , the m a r g i n of the ecumene; (2) as the s p a t i a l system of d i s c r e t e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s which advanced i n t o a r e a s which p r e -v i o u s l y l a c k e d such developments. Examples of the l a t t e r c o n c ept a r e the " f u r - t r a d i n g f r o n t i e r , " the "lumberman's f r o n t i e r , " the " a g r i c u l t u r a l f r o n t i e r , " and the "mining f r o n t i e r . " In N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , as e l s e -where i n the S h i e l d , the f r o n t i e r was not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n t i g u o u s , and was o f t e n n u c l e a t e d . F u r t h e r , by t h e second meaning s u g g e s t e d , the v a r i o u s economic f r o n t i e r s o f t e n c o i n c i d e d i n time as w e l l as i n space; i n many i n s t a n c e s , however, they were w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y as w e l l as i n t ime. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the v a r i o u s c o n c e p t s of the " f r o n t i e r , " see Ray A l l e n B i l l i n g t o n , The American F r o n t i e r ( S e r v i c e C e n t e r f o r T e a c h e r s of H i s t o r y , P u b l i c a t i o n Number 8; Washington: American H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1958), p. 9. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the a b s t r a c t concept of a " r e s o u r c e , " i m p l y i n g the f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f human demands, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , and " n e u t r a l s t u f f , " see E r i c h W. Zimmermann, World Resources  and I n d u s t r i e s : A F u n c t i o n a l A p p r a i s a l o f the A v a i l a b i l i t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l  and I n d u s t r i a l M a t e r i a l s (Rev. ed.; New Y o r k : Harper and Row, 1951), pp. 3-17 30 F o r an e l a b o r a t i o n of the theme of p e r c e p t i o n i n h i s t o r i c a l geography, see J . Wreford Watson, "The R o l e o f I l l u s i o n i n N o r t h American Geography: A Note on the Geography of N o r t h American S e t t l e m e n t , " The  Canadian Geographer, V o l . X I I I , 1 ( S p r i n g , 1969), pp. 10-27. g H.A. I n n i s , The Cod F i s h e r i e s : The H i s t o r y of an I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Economy ("The R e l a t i o n s of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s " ; T o r o n t o : Ryerson P r e s s ; New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1940); The F u r Trade i n Canada, op. c i t . ; S e t t l e m e n t and the M i n i n g F r o n t i e r , V o l . IX, P t . I I of Canadian F r o n t i e r s of S e t t l e m e n t , ed. W.A. M a c k i n t o s h and W.L.G. J o e r g (9 v o l s . ; T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada, a t S t . M a r t i n ' s House, 1936). 9 A.R.M. Lower, S e t t l e m e n t and the F o r e s t F r o n t i e r i n E a s t e r n  Canada, V o l . IX, P t . I of M a c k i n t o s h and J o e r g ( e d s . ) , op. c i t . ; The N o r t h  American A s s a u l t on the Canadian F o r e s t : A H i s t o r y of the Lumber Trade  •between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s ("The R e l a t i o n s o f Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s " ; T o r o n t o : The Ryerson P r e s s ; New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938); "The Trade i n Square Timber," U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o S t u d i e s , H i s t o r y and Economics, C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Canadian Economics, V o l . V I ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Tor o n t o P r e s s , 1933), pp. 40-61, r e p r i n t e d i n E a s t e r b r o o k and Watkins, Approaches to Canadian E c o n o m i c ; H i s t o r y , A p p . 28-48. "^See r e v i e w a r t i c l e by M.H. Watkins, "A S t a p l e Theory of Economic Growth," Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . XXIX, No. 2 (May, 1963), pp. 141-158; r e p r i n t e d i n E a s t e r b r o o k and Watkins, Approaches t o Canadian Economic H i s t o r y , pp. 49-73. 11 * J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , " F r o n t ^ r i s m , M e t r o p o l i t a n i s m , and Canadian H i s t o r y , " Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XXXV, No. 1 (March, 1954), pp. 1-21. 12 "The S i g n i f i c a n c e of the F r o n t i e r i n American H i s t o r y , " Annual  Report of the American H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r 1893 (Washington, D.C., 1894), pp. 199-227. 13 D.C. M a s t e r s , The R i s e of T o r o n t o , 1850-1890 ( T o r o n t o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1947). 14 C a r e l e s s , op. c i t . , p. 10. "'""'For an e x h a u s t i v e treatment o f t h i s theme, see G.P. de T. Gl a z e b r o o k , A H i s t o r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Canada ("The R e l a t i o n s o f Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s " ; T o r o n t o : The Ryerson P r e s s , 1938); a l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s a r e to the C a r l e t o n L i b r a r y E d i t i o n (2 v o l s . : V o l . I : C o n t i n e n t a l S t r a t e g y t o 1867; V o l . I I : N a t i o n a l Economy, 1867-1936; " C a r l e t o n L i b r a r y S e r i e s , " No. 12; T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1964). See a l s o the w r i t i n g s of H.A. I n n i s on t h i s s u b j e c t : " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n as a F a c t o r i n Canadian Economic H i s t o r y , " P r o c e e d i n g s  of the Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n (1931), pp. 166-184; "An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Economic H i s t o r y of O n t a r i o from Outpost t o Empire," Papers and Records of the O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , V o l . XXX (1934), pp. 111-123; "Unused C a p a c i t y as a F a c t o r i n Canadian Economic H i s t o r y , " 31 Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . I I (1936), pp. 1-15; " S i g n i f i c a n t F a c t o r s i n Canadian Economic Development," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . X V I I I (December, 1937), pp. 374-384; " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the Canadian Economy," i n G l a z e b r o o k , op. c i t . , pp. v i i - x v i ; a l l of the above by I n n i s r e p r i n t e d i n H a r o l d A. I n n i s , E s s a y s i n Canadian  Economic H i s t o r y , ed. Mary Q. I n n i s ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1956). 16 * i Edward A. Ackerman, Geography as a Fundamental R e s e a r c h  D i s c i p l i n e ( " U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , Department of Geography Research P a p e r s , " No. 53; C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1958), p. 26. "^The r e a d e r w i l l note v a r i a t i o n s i n the s p e l l i n g o f "Temiskaming" throughout t h i s s t u d y . The o f f i c i a l s p e l l i n g i s "Timiskaming," a l t h o u g h "Temiskaming" i s p r e f e r r e d l o c a l l y . The o f f i c i a l s p e l l i n g i s used i n r e f e r e n c e t o the d i s t r i c t and l a k e ; o t h e r v e r s i o n s a r e used where a p p r o p r i a t e . The same o b s e r v a t i o n a p p l i e s to o t h e r place-names of I n d i a n o r i g i n : A b i t i b i , Timagami, W a n a p i t e i , Kippawa, e t c . 18 See H.G.L. A i t k e n , " D e f e n s i v e E x p a n s i o n i s m : The S t a t e and Economic Growth i n Canada," from Hugh G.J. A i t k e n ( e d . ) , The S t a t e and  Economic Growth (New Y o r k : S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , 1959), pp. 79-114; r e p r i n t e d i n E a s t e r b r o o k and Watkins, Approaches to Canadian  Economic H i s t o r y , pp. 183-221. 19 See Review A r t i c l e by M a r v i n W. M i k e s e l l , "Comparative S t u d i e s i n F r o n t i e r H i s t o r y , " A n n a l s of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . L, No. 1 (March, 1960), pp. 62-74. 20 V.G. Fowke, "The N a t i o n a l P o l i c y — O l d and New," Canadian  J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . X V I I I , No. 3 (August, 1952), pp. 271-286; r e p r i n t e d i n E a s t e r b r o o k and Watkins, Approaches to  Canadian Economic H i s t o r y , pp. 237-258. 21 Lower, S e t t l e m e n t and the F o r e s t F r o n t i e r . . . , p. 50. 22 "Report o f the Commissioner of Crown Lands of Canada f o r the Year 1856," 20 V i c t o r i a e J o u r n a l s of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the  P r o v i n c e o f Canada, V o l . XV (1857), Appendix No. 25. 23 "Annual R e p o r t of the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1856," i b i d . , Appendix No. 54. 24 Lower, l o c . c i t . , Ch. V I , p. 5 8 f f . 25 See O.W. Main, The Canadian N i c k e l I n d u s t r y : A Study i n Market  C o n t r o l and P u b l i c P o l i c y ("Canadian S t u d i e s i n Economics," No. 4; T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1955). 26 O n t a r i o Department of M i n e s , Twenty-Five Y e a r s of O n t a r i o ' s  M i n i n g H i s t o r y : A Review of O u t s t a n d i n g Developments i n the L a s t Q u a r t e r  of a C e n t u r y , B u l l e t i n No. 83 ( T o r o n t o : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1932), p. 6. 27 See Don W. Thomson, Men and M e r i d i a n s : The H i s t o r y o f S u r v e y i n g  and Mapping i n Canada (3 v o l s . ; Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1966-70), V o l . I : P r i o r to 1867, pp. 290-300; V o l . I I : 1867 to 1917, pp. 287-304. 32 28 O n t a r i o , Department o f Crown Lan d s , R e p o r t o f t h e Survey and  E x p l o r a t i o n o f 1900 ( T o r o n t o : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 0 1 ) . 29 O f f i c i a l R e p o r t o f t h e Debates o f t h e House o f Commons o f the Dominion o f Canada, V o l . LXXIV, A p r i l 3, 1906. 30 See E.S. Moore, A m e r i c a n I n f l u e n c e i n Ca n a d i a n M i n i n g ( " P o l i t i c a l Economy S e r i e s , " No. 9; T o r o n t o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1941). Foreword by H.A. I n n i s . See a l s o W a t k i n s , "A S t a p l e Theory o f Economic Growth," p. 57. 31 See t h e f o l l o w i n g p a p e r s i n The A m e r i c a n Economic Review, V o l . L V I I I , No. 2 (May, 1 9 6 8 ) , {Papers and P r o c e e d i n g s o f the E i g h t i e t h A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n Economic A s s o c i a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., December 28-30, 1 9 6 7 ) : A r t h u r H. C o l e , "The E n t r e p r e n e u r : I n t r o d u c t o r y Remarks," pp. 60-63; W i l l i a m J . Baumol, " E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i n Economic T h e o r y , " pp. 64-71; Harvey L e i b e n s t e i n , " E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and Development," pp. 72-83; James H. S o l t o w , "The E n t r e p r e n e u r i n Economic H i s t o r y , " pp. 84-92; and " D i s c u s s i o n , " pp. 93-98. 32 C. R. F a y , "The T o r o n t o S c h o o l o f Economic H i s t o r y , " Economic  H i s t o r y , V o l . I l l ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 4 ) , pp. 168-171. 33 D. E. K e e b l e , "Models i n Economic Development," i n Richard J . C h o r l e y and P e t e r H aggett ( e d s . ) , S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Models i n Geography (London: Methuen U n i v e r s i t y P a p e r b a c k s , 1968)', pp. 243-302. R e f . t o p. 243. 34 R. C o l e b r o o k H a r r i s , " H i s t o r i c a l Geography i n Canada," The  Ca n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , V o l . X I , 4 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 235-250. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 239. 36 K e e b l e , o p . c i t . , p. 267. 37 J.S. D u e s e n b e r r y , "Some A s p e c t s o f the Theory o f Economic Development," E x p l o r a t i o n s i n E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l H i s t o r y , V o l . I l l , No. 2 (1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 63-102. 38 W a t k i n s , "A S t a p l e Theory o f Economic Growth," pp. 50-51; W.T. E a s t e r b r o o k , "Recent C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Economic H i s t o r y : Canada," J o u r n a l  of Economic H i s t o r y , V o l . X I X , No. 1 (March, 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 76-102; r e p r i n t e d i n E a s t e r b r o o k and W a t k i n s , Approaches t o Ca n a d i a n Economic H i s t o r y , pp. 259-292. R e f . t o t h e l a t t e r , p. 262. 39 D o u g l a s s C. N o r t h , " L o c a t i o n Theory and R e g i o n a l Economic Growth," J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l Economy, V o l . L X I I I , No. 3 ( J u n e , 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 243-258. 40 C h a r l e s M. T i e b o u t , " E x p o r t s and R e g i o n a l Economic Growth," J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l Economy, V o l . L X I V , No. 2 ( A p r i l , 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 160-169. 33 41 Harvey P e r l o f f and Lowden Wingo, " N a t u r a l Resource Endowment and R e g i o n a l Economic Growth," i n Joseph J . Spengler ( e d . ) , N a t u r a l  R esources and Economic Growth (Washington, D.C.: Resources f o r the F u t u r e , I n c . , 1961), pp. 191-212. See a l s o Harvey S. P e r l o f f , Edgar S. Dunn J r . , E r i c E. Lampard, and R i c h a r d F. Muth, R e g i o n s , R e s o u r c e s , and  Economic Growth , ( B a l t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1960). 42 Robert E. B a l d w i n , " P a t t e r n s of Development i n Newly S e t t l e d R e g i o n s , " Manchester S c h o o l of Economics and S o c i a l S t u d i e s , V o l . XXIV, No. 2 (May, 1956), pp. 161-179. 43 G.M. M e i e r , "Economic Development and the T r a n s f e r Mechanism: Canada, 1895-1913," Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . XIX, No. 1 ( F e b r u a r y , 1953), pp. 1-19. 44 R i c h a r d L. P f i s t e r , " E x t e r n a l Trade and R e g i o n a l Growth," Economic Development and C u l t u r a l Change, V o l . X I , No. 2 ( J a n u a r y , 1963), P t . I , pp. 134-151. 45 W.W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist  M a n i f e s t o (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963). 46 K e e b l e , op. c i t . , pp. 249-254. 47 Rostow, op. c i t . , p. 39. 4 8 T , . , __ I b i d . , p. 55. 49 Robert W i l l i a m F o g e l , R a i l r o a d s and American Economic Growth: E s s a y s i n E c o n o m e t r i c H i s t o r y ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1964). " ^ A l b e r t F i s h l o w , American R a i l r o a d s and the T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of  the A n t e - B e l l u m Economy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). 51 l " A Comparative H i s t o r i c a l Geography of Two R a i l N e t s : Columbia B a s i n and South A u s t r a l i a , " A n n a l s of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . L I I , No. 4 (December, 1962), pp. 394-413. 52 J.H. A p p l e t o n , A M o r p h o l o g i c a l Approach to the Geography of  T r a n s p o r t ( " O c c a s i o n a l Papers i n Geography," No. 31; Y o r k s h i r e : U n i v e r s i t y of H u l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965). 53 K.J. Kansky, S t r u c t u r e o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Networks ( " U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , Department of Geography, R e s e a r c h P a p e r s , " No. 84; C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1963). 54 Andrew C. O ' D e l l , R a i l w a y s and Geography (London: H u t c h i n s o n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956). 34 See, f o r example, Edward L. U l l m a n , "The R o l e of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the Bases f o r I n t e r a c t i o n , " i n W i l l i a m L. Thomas, J r . ( e d . ) , Man's Ro l e  i n Changing the Face of the E a r t h ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1956), pp. 862-880; and idem, American Commodity Flow: A G e o g r a p h i c a l  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f R a i l and Water T r a f f i c Based on P r i n c i p l e s of S p a t i a l  I n t e r c h a n g e ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , 1957). ~*^See the l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d i n n o t e 15, above, and H.A. I n n i s ( e d . ) , E ssays i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Honour of W.T. Jackman ( " P o l i t i c a l Economy S e r i e s , " No. 11; T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1941). " ^ G l a z e b r o o k , A H i s t o r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Canada. 58 W i l l i a m J , W i l g u s , The Railway I n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s  and Canada ("The R e l a t i o n s o f Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s " ; New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937). 59 A.W. C u r r i e , The Grand Trunk R a i l w a y of Canada ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1957). 60 G.R. S t e v e n s , Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s , V o l . I : S i x t y Y e a r s of  T r i a l and E r r o r (1836-1896); V o l . I I : Towards the I n e v i t a b l e , 1896-1922 ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k , I r w i n & Company L i m i t e d , 1960, 1962). ^Norman Thompson, Canadian R a i l w a y Development from the E a r l i e s t  Times ( T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company of Canada, L t d . , 1933). ^Sl.L. B l a d e n , " C o n s t r u c t i o n of R a i l w a y s i n Canada to the Year 1885" ( P a r t I ) , C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Canadian Economics, V o l . V (1932), pp. 43-60; " C o n s t r u c t i o n o f R a i l w a y s i n Canada from 1885 to 1931" ( P a r t I I ) , i b i d . , V o l . V I I (1934), pp. 61-107. 63 Simon James McLean, "Some Phases of E a r l y Canadian Railway Development," Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n Papers and P r o c e e d i n g s V o l . IV (1932), pp. 102-122. 64 W.H. B r e i t h a u p t , "The R a i l w a y s of O n t a r i o , " O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l  S o c i e t y Papers and Records, V o l . XXV (1929), pp. 12-25. 65 F o r example, Oscar Douglas S k e l t o n , The R a i l w a y B u i l d e r s : A C h r o n i c l e of O v e r l a n d Highways ( T o r o n t o : Glasgow, Brook and Co., 1921); R e v e l l e W i l s o n Brown, R a i l s and I d e a l s , i n the U.S.A. and Canada (New York: Newcomen S o c i e t y , 1949); Edward W. B e a t t y , "Mistaken E n t h u s i a s m " and Where  i t has Landed Us ( M o n t r e a l , 1935); D.B. Hanna, T r a i n s of R e c o l l e c t i o n , drawn  from F i f t y Y e a r s of R a i l w a y S e r v i c e i n S c o t l a n d and Canada, and t o l d to  A r t h u r Hawkes ( T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company of Canada, L t d . , 1924). 35 66 See M i k e s e l l , op. c i t . , B i l l i n g t o n , op. c i t . , and Walker K. Dyman and K l i f t o n B. Kroeber ( e d s . ) , The F r o n t i e r i n P e r s p e c t i v e (Madison: U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1957). 6 7 James C. M a l i n , "Space and H i s t o r y : R e f l e c t i o n s on the C l o s e d -Space D o c t r i n e s of T u r n e r and Mackinder and the C h a l l e n g e of Those Ideas by the A i r Age," A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , V o l . X V I I I ( A p r i l and J u l y , 1944), pp. 65-74, 107-126, r e f . to p. 65. 1952), 68 W a l t e r P r e s c o t t Webb, The G r e a t F r o n t i e r ( B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n , 69 Ray A l l e n B i l l i n g t o n , The F a r Western F r o n t i e r , 1830-1860 ("The New American N a t i o n S e r i e s , " ed. Hentry S t e e l e Commager and R i c h a r d B. M o r r i s ; New Y o r k : Harper & Row, 1956; Harper Torchbook ed., 1962); idem., Westward  E x p a n s i o n : A H i s t o r y of the American F r o n t i e r (2nd ed.; New York: The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1960). ^W.N. Sage, "Some A s p e c t s of the F r o n t i e r i n Canadian H i s t o r y , " Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Report of 1928, pp. 62-72. ^"Sl.L. Hansen and J.B. B r e b n e r , The M i n g l i n g of the Canadian and  American P e o p l e s ("The R e l a t i o n s of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s " ; T o r o n t o : Ryerson P r e s s ; New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1940). ^ ^ M o r r i s Zaslow, "The F r o n t i e r H y p o t h e s i s i n Recent H i s t o r i o g r a p h y , " The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XXIX, No. 2 (June, 1948), pp. 153-167. See a l s o P a u l F. Sharp, "Three F r o n t i e r s : Some Comparative S t u d i e s o f Canadian, American and A u s t r a l i a n S e t t l e m e n t , " P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XXIV (November, 1955), pp. 369-77; and D i e t r i c h G e r h a r d , "The F r o n t i e r i n Comparative View," Comparative S t u d i e s i n S o c i e t y and H i s t o r y , V o l . I (March, 1955), pp. 205-229. 73 A.R.M. Lower, " G e o g r a p h i c a l D e t e r m i n a n t s i n Canadian H i s t o r y , " E s s a y s i n Canadian H i s t o r y P r e s e n t e d to G.M. Wrong ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1939) pp. 229-252, and works p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d . 74 Donald G. C r e i g h t o n , The Commercial Empire of the S t . Lawrence, 1760-1850 ("The R e l a t i o n s of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s " ; T o r o n t o : Ryerson P r e s s ; New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937). ^ T h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e examined i n the Commentary of D.W. M e i n i g to W a l t e r P r e s c o t t Webb's " G e o g r a p h i c a l - H i s t o r i c a l Concepts i n American H i s t o r y , " A n n a l s of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . L, No. 2 (June, 1960), pp. 95-96. 76 See the voluminous l i t e r a t u r e of I n n i s , op. c i t . , and W.A. M a c k i n t o s h , "The L a u r e n t i a n P l a t e a u i n Canadian Economic Development," Economic Geographer, V o l . I I , No. 4 ( O c t o b e r , 1926), pp. 537-549. ^ S e e the volume by t h a t t i t l e by W i l l i a m L. Thomas (ed.) ( C h i c a g o : 36 U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1956). 78 See Andrew H. C l a r k , " H i s t o r i c a l Geography," i n P r e s t o n E. James and C l a r e n c e F. Jones ( e d s . ) , American Geography: I n v e n t o r y and P r o s p e c t ( S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954), pp. 71-105. 79 H a r r i s , op. c i t . , p. 236. 80 Andrew H. C l a r k , Three C e n t u r i e s and the I s l a n d : An H i s t o r i c a l  Geography of S e t t l e m e n t and A g r i c u l t u r e i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1959); The I n v a s i o n o f New Z e a l a n d by P e o p l e ,  P l a n t s and A n i m a l s : The South I s l a n d ("Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n Geography," No. 1; New Brunswick, 1949). 81 C A . Dawson, a s s i s t e d by R.W. M u r c h i e , The S e t t l e m e n t of the  Peace R i v e r C o u n t r y , V o l . V I of M a c k i n t o s h and J o e r g , Canadian F r o n t i e r s  of S e t t l e m e n t , op. c i t . ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1934). 82 D.W. M e i n i g , On the M a r g i n s of t h e Good E a r t h : The South  A u s t r a l i a n Wheat F r o n t i e r , 1869-1884 ( " A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers Monograph S e r i e s , " No. 2; C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y & Company, 1962). 83 Roman T. Gajda, "The Canadian E c u m e n e — I n h a b i t e d and U n i n h a b i t e d A r e a s , " G e o g r a p h i c a l B u l l e t i n , No. 15 (1960), pp. 5-18; r e p r i n t e d i n R. L o u i s G e n t i l c o r e ( e d . ) , Canada's Changing Geography (Scarborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l of Canada, L t d . , 1967), pp. 8-13. 84 Louis-Edmond Hamelin, "Types of Canadian Ecumene," i n Readings  i n Canadian Geography, ed. Robert M. I r v i n g ( T o r o n t o , M o n t r e a l : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston of Canada, L i m i t e d , 1968), pp. 20-30. 85 E c k a r t E h l e r s , "The E x p a n s i o n of S e t t l e m e n t i n Canada: A C o n t r i b u t i o n to the D i s c u s s i o n of the American F r o n t i e r , " G eographische  Rundschau, V o l . X V I I I , No. 9 (1966), pp. 327-337; r e p r i n t e d i n I r v i n g , op. c i t . , pp. 30-40. 86 I s a i a h Bowman, The P i o n e e r F r i n g e ("American G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , " No. 13; New York, 1931). 87 George L. McDermott, " F r o n t i e r s of S e t t l e m e n t i n the G r e a t C l a y B e l t , O n t a r i o and Quebec," A n n a l s of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . L I ; No. 3 (September, 1961), pp. 2-3-274; r e p r i n t e d i n I r v i n g , op. c i t . , pp. 41-55. 88 Roy I . W o l f e , "Economic Development," i n John W a r k e n t i n ( e d . ) , Canada: A G e o g r a p h i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, f o r the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f Geographers, 1967), pp. 187-228. 37 89 D o n a l d K e r r and Jacob S p e l t , The Changing Face o f T o r o n t o , Department o f Mi n e s and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , G e o g r a p h i c a l B r a n c h , Memoir No. 11 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 5 ) ; K e r r , " M e t r o p o l i t a n Dominance i n Canada," i n Canada: A G e o g r a p h i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , op. c i t . , pp. 531-55; S p e l t , " S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o , " i b i d . , pp. 334-395." 90 Gordon M e r r i l l , " R e g i o n a l i s m and N a t i o n a l i s m , " i b i d . , pp. 556-568. 91 R o b i n s o n , R e s o u r c e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n S h i e l d , op. c i t . 92 J o s e p h F. G r e g o r y , "A G e o g r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s o f the O n t a r i o -Quebec M e t a l s R e g i o n , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , Department o f Geography, P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1959). 93 A. H i l l s , " R u r a l S e t t l e m e n t i n t h e G r e a t C l a y B e l t o f N o r t h -e a s t e r n O n t a r i o " ( a b s t r a c t ) , A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n  G e o g r a p h e r s , V o l . X X X V I I I , No. 1 (March, 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 61; J.R. R a n d a l l , " S e t t l e m e n t o f t h e G r e a t C l a y B e l t o f N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o and Quebec," B u l l e t i n o f t h e G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , V o l . XXXV, Nos. 3, 4 ( 1 9 3 7 ) , pp. 53-66; idem., " S e t t l e m e n t o f t h e G r e a t C l a y B e l t of N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o and Quebec" ( a b s t r a c t ) , A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f  A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s , V o l . X X V I I , No. 2 (J u n e , 1 9 3 7 ) , pp. 117-118; J.Q. Adams, " C o n t r a s t i n g Types o f S e t t l e m e n t on t h e James Bay P l a i n ' , " 1  S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l M a g a z i n e , V o l . LV, No. 4 ( J u l y , 1 9 3 9 ) , pp. 212-217; D.B. Coombs, "The Hudson Bay Lo w l a n d : A G e o g r a p h i c a l S t u d y " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , Department o f Geography, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 2 ) ; W.G. Dean, "Human Geography o f t h e Lower A l b a n y R i v e r B a s i n , N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , " G e o g r a p h i c a l B u l l e t i n , No. 10 ( 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 54-75; H.G. R i c h a r d s , "James Bay, 'Canada's Land o f Tomorrow'," B u l l e t i n o f t h e G e o g r a p h i c a l  S o c i e t y of P h i l a d e l p h i a , V o l . XXXIV, No. 2 ( A p r i l , 1 9 36), pp. 27-32; F r a n k G. I n n e s , "The Land Use and S e t t l e m e n t o f t h e Quebec C l a y B e l t s " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 0 ) ; R a o u l B l a n c h a r d , " L ' A b i t i b i - T e m i s c a m i n g u e , " Revue de G e o g r a p h i c A l p i n e , V o l . X XXVII ( 1 9 4 9 ) ; R. Rumney, " S e t t l e m e n t o f t h e N i p i s s i n g Passageway," T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n I n s t i t u t e , V o l . X X V I I I , P t . I , No. 58 ( O c t o b e r , 1949); pp. 65-120. 94 James M. G i l m o u r , "The Economic Geography o f t h e P u l p and Paper I n d u s t r y i n O n t a r i o " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , Department o f Geography, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1964). 95 J o n K e n t , " A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e C l a y B e l t o f N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , " The C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r, V o l . X, 2 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 117-126; Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n , Weather o f t h e Growing Season i n t h e  C l a y B e l t o f Western Quebec and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , by P. Dermine, E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm, K a p u s k a s i n g , O n t a r i o ( P u b l i c a t i o n 1234; Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 5 ) ; A. G o s s e l i n and G.P. Boucher, "Some A s p e c t s o f Land S e t t l e m e n t i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , " The Economic A n n a l i s t , V o l . I X , No. 2 ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 9 ) , pp. 24-29; and 38 V o l . IX, No. 3 (June, 1939), pp. 35-37; idem., Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S e t t l e m e n t Problems i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o and Northwestern  Quebec ( P u b l i c a t i o n No. 758; " T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n " No. 49; Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1944); G.A. H i l l s , "An Approach to Land S e t t l e m e n t Problems i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , " S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , V o l . X X I I , No. 4 (December, 1944), pp. 212-216; McDermott, op. c i t . , and idem., "Advancing and R e t r e a t i n g F r o n t i e r s of A g r i c u l t u r a l S e t t l e m e n t i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o and N o r t h w e s t e r n Quebec" ( u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , 1959); John R. R a n d a l l , " A g r i c u l t u r e i n the G r e a t C l a y B e l t o f Canada," S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l Magazine, V o l . L V I , No. 1 (January, 1940), pp. 12-28; R.M. Smith, " N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o : ' L i m i t s of Land S e t t l e m e n t f o r the Good C i t i z e n ' , " Canadian G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . X X I I I , No. 4 (October, 1941), pp. 183-211. 96 I n n i s , M i n i n g and the S e t t l e m e n t F r o n t i e r , op. c i t . ; G r egory, op. c i t . ; E. W i l l a r d M i l l e r , " M i n e r a l R e g i o n a l i s m on the Canadian S h i e l d , " The Canadian Geographer, No. 13 (1959), pp. 17-30; L. Garson Brown, " C o b a l t , the Town w i t h a S i l v e - L i n i n g , " Canadian G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . L X V I I , No. 1 ( J u l y , 1963), pp. 2-13; idem., " K i r k l a n d L a k e — 5 0 G o l d e n Y e a r s , " i b i d . , V o l . LXXIV, No. 1 (January, 1967); idem., " C o b a l t Blooms A g a i n , " i b i d . , V o l . X L V I I , No. 1 ( J u l y , 1953), pp. 24-35; B.J. McGuire and H.E. Freeman, "Gold M i n i n g i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , " i b i d . , V o l . XLIV, No. 6 (June, 1952), pp. 252-265; idem., "Wealth from the Canadian S h i e l d , " i b i d . , V o l . XXXVIII, No. 5 (May, 1949), pp. 198-227; R.S. Sommerville, "The M i n i n g I n d u s t r y i n R e l a t i o n t o Development i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o d u r i n g the P e r i o d 1911-1918" ( u n p u b l i s h e d B a c h e l o r ' s t h e s i s , Department of Commerce and F i n a n c e , U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , 1933). 97 H a r o l d S. P a t t o n , "Canada's Advance t o Hudson Bay," Economic  Geography, V o l . V. No. 3 ( J u l y , 1929), pp. 215-235. 98 See, f o r example, H.A. I n n i s , "Hudson Bay R a i l w a y , " G e o g r a p h i c a l  Review, V o l . XVII (Ja n u a r y , 1930); Howard A. F l e m i n g , Canada's A r c t i c  O u t l e t : A H i s t o r y of the Hudson Bay R a i l w a y ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1957). 99 S.A. P a i n , The Way N o r t h ( T o r o n t o : Ryerson P r e s s , 1964); idem., Three M i l e s of G o l d ( h i s t o r y o f K i r k l a n d Lake) ( T o r o n t o : Ryerson P r e s s , 1959); O.T.G. W i l l i a m s o n , The N o r t h l a n d , O n t a r i o ( T o r o n t o : Ryerson, 1946); D.M. L e B o u r d a i s , Sudbury B a s i n : The S t o r y of N i c k e l ( T o r o n t o : Ryerson, 1953); idem., M e t a l s and Men: The S t o r y of Canadian M i n i n g ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L t d . , 1957); A l i c e Marwick, N o r t h l a n d P o s t : The S t o r y of the Town  of Cochrane (Oshawa: M a r a c l e P r i n t i n g Co., 1950); Joseph E. and E s t e l l e L. B a y l i s s , R i v e r o f D e s t i n y : The S a i n t Marys ( D e t r o i t : Wayne University P r e s s , 1955); A r n o l d Hoffman, F r e e G o l d : The S t o r y of Canadian M i n i n g (New York; R i n e h a r t and Company, 1946). "'"^See, f o r example, H. Hansen, "Reminiscences of E a r l y Days a t P o r c u p i n e , " Canadian M i n i n g J o u r n a l , V o l . L X I I ( A p r i l , 1941), pp. 226-232; J.G. M c M i l l a n , " E a r l y Development of O n t a r i o M i n i n g , " i b i d . , LXIV (September, 1943), 561-564; H.J. C a r n e g i e W i l l i a m s , "The Bruce M i n e s , O n t a r i o , 1846-1906," 39 i b i d . , V o l . I , No. 2 (New S e r i e s ) ( A p r i l , 1907), pp. 47-51; J.A. McRae, "Review of the K i r k l a n d Lake G o l d F i e l d , " i b i d . , V o l . L (May.24, 1929), p. 476; and many o t h e r s . "'•^See l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d i n no t e 96, s u p r a . Andrew H. C l a r k , " G e o g r a p h i c a l Change: A Them6 f o r Economic Geography," J o u r n a l o f Economic H i s t o r y , V o l . XX, No. 4 (December, 1960), pp. 607-616; r e f . to p. 611. CHAPTER II PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES: PERCEPTION AND REALITY Patterns and processes of settlement and economic development i n Northeastern Ontario were conditioned as much by perceptions as by the r e a l i t i e s of the physical structure and resource base. Before 1900 the a g r i c u l t u r a l resources of the region were widely believed to be one of i t s greatest assets; coal and i r o n were thought to e x i s t ( i n the James Bay Lowland) i n s u f f i c i e n t l y large quantities to i n d u s t r i a l i z e the whole province; and many people confidently believed that the development of a seaport on James Bay could open new v i s t a s f or Ontario's i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade. The contrast between these expectations and the a c t u a l course of subsequent development i s obvious to anyone f a m i l i a r with the region; yet i t was with such p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s that public p o l i c y was dir e c t e d and private and public investment mobilized. The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to compare the perceptions of the ph y s i c a l structure and resource base of Northeastern Ontario with t h e i r r e a l i t y and to introduce the s a l i e n t features of those phenomena which influenced the movement of the f r o n t i e r s of settlement and economic a c t i v i t y . Geological Background Before 1850 the geological structure of Northeastern Ontario was almost e n t i r e l y unknown, as were i t s mineral resources. The 41 r e g i o n s t r a d d l e s p o r t i o n s o f two major g e o l o g i c a l (and p h y s i o g r a p h i c ) r e g i o n s - - t h e C a n a d i a n S h i e l d and the Hudson Bay Lowlands-*- (see F i g . 4 ) . G e o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f the s o u t h e r n p e r i p h e r y o f the S h i e l d began soon a f t e r the f o u n d i n g o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada (1842), but work i n the Hudson Bay Lowlands d i d not commence u n t i l the 1870's. The C a n a d i a n S h i e l d S t r u e t u r e . - - T h e p o r t i o n o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o l y i n g s o u t h o f the Hudson Bay Lowlands o c c u p i e s p a r t s of two o f the s t r u c t u r a l - g e n e t i c p r o v i n c e s o f the C a n a d i a n S h i e l d : the G r e n v i l l e and the S u p e r i o r . The G r e n v i l l e S e r i e s , a complex o f a n c i e n t , g r a n i t i z e d s e d i m e n t a r y g n e i s s e s , c h a r a c t e r i z e s the s o u t h e r n e x t r e m i t i e s o f the S h i e l d t h a t extend i n t o s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o and Quebec; r o c k s o f t h a t s e r i e s u n d e r l i e o n l y a s m a l l a r e a of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n c o r n e r . A wide v a r i e t y o f economic m i n e r a l s o c c u r s i n the G r e n v i l l e r o c k s . I r o n d e p o s i t s were worked as e a r l y as 1800 i n Leeds County, and g o l d was d i s c o v e r e d i n 1866 i n H a s t i n g s County, S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o . Most o f the d e p o s i t s were of e r r a t i c grade and e x t e n t — f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d to the g e n e r a l b e l i e f d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t the S h i e l d l a c k e d s i g n i f i c a n t m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l . The G r e n v i l l e P r o v i n c e i s s e p a r a t e d from the S u p e r i o r forma-t i o n s by a g r e a t f a u l t zone e x t e n d i n g from the n o r t h shore o f Lake Huron f o r s e v e r a l hundred m i l e s to the v i c i n i t y of Lake M i s t a s s i n i , Quebec. The f a u l t zone i s r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l e d by a b r o a d b e l t o f A r c h a e a n and P r o t e r o z o i c s e d i m e n t a r y and v o l c a n i c r o c k s . Those 65 84 82 81 1 JAMES BAY NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO GENERALIZED GEOLOGY L E G E N D MESOZOIC Cretaceous PALAEOZOIC Z|Zll Devonian 3 F I G U R E 4 Silurian Ordovician Cambrian PRECAMBRIAN I'Vj^fl Proterozoic Evft?-&1 Archaean \>\'-'-\<\ Undivided Grenville Front 25 so miles. L. Abitibi Nipissing \j'\^">)'--North 85 ( Chan n ehn ^T^^^^Kt^^^r- i7- 'VA^tS 7 ' 'Na^-^V - 'Vi C;>;v-,':'"' / ' -V"^' *; 8 4 83 43 f o r m a t i o n s were r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e e a r l y g e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e as the " H u r o n i a n , " b u t t h e y have been more r e c e n t l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h e Keweenawan and H u r o n i a n Systems ( P r o t e r o z o i c ) , and t h e T i m i s k a m i n g and K e e w a t i n Systems ( A r c h a e a n ) . The A r c h a e a n - P r o t e r o z o i c b e l t ( o r " g r e e n s t o n e b e l t " ) i s one o f t h e most n o t e w o r t h y o f Canada's m i n e r a l r e g i o n s . The n o r t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e b e l t i s c o m p r i s e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y o f K e e w a t i n l a v a s and s m a l l e r a r e a s o f T i m i s k a m i n g s e d i m e n t s . L o c a t e d i n t h o s e assemblages a r e t h e r i c h p r e c i o u s - m e t a l s and b a s e - m e t a l s d e p o s i t s o f t h e P o r c u p i n e , K i r k l a n d - L a r d e r L a k e , Noranda, M a l a r t i c , V a l d'Or, M a t t a g a m i , and Chibougamau m i n i n g camps. The P r o t e r o z o i c f o r m a t i o n s , e x t e n d i n g f r o m Lake T i m i s k a m i n g s o u t h w e s t e r l y t o the n o r t h s h o r e o f Lake Huron, a r e d i v i d e d f r o m t h e basement A r c h a e a n complex by a p r o f o u n d u n c o n f o r m i t y . The e a r l i e s t r o c k s o f t h e P r o t e r o z o i c System a r e the f l a t - l y i n g s e d i -ments o f t h e B r u c e S e r i e s ; l a t e r , the C o b a l t S e r i e s was d e p o s i t e d . Unique assemblages and d e p o s i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the P r o t e r o z o i c r e s u l t e d i n t h e s i l v e r d e p o s i t s o f C o b a l t , S o u t h L o r r a i n and Gowganda, t h e n i c k e l - c o p p e r - p l a t i n u m o r e o f t h e Sudbury B a s i n , and t h e u r a n i u m and copper d e p o s i t s o f t h e s o u t h e r n Algoma a r e a . Much o f t h e r e m a i n d e r o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , t h a t i s , the c e n t r a l and N o r t h w e s t e r n a r e a s , i s u n d e r l a i n by i n t r u s i v e r o c k s o f A r c h a e a n and/or P r o t e r o z o i c a g e - - g r a n i t e , g r a n o d i o r i t e , q u a r t z d i o r i t e , and g r a n i t e g n e i s s . No s i g n i f i c a n t economic m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s o c c u r i n t h o s e r o c k s . An o u t l i e r o f A r c h a e a n v o l c a n i c s e x t e n d s e a s t w a r d s f r o m M i c h i p i c o t e n H a r b o u r , Lake S u p e r i o r ; h e r e i n a r e l o c a t e d t h e i r o n 44 d e p o s i t s of the M i c h i p i c o t e n r ange. N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y E v a l u a t i o n s . — A s might be e x p e c t e d , the a r e a s of the Canadian S h i e l d t h a t a t t r a c t e d the e a r l y a t t e n t i o n o f g e o l o g i s t s were those t h a t were most r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e by water. In 1845, W.E. Logan, the f i r s t D i r e c t o r of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, 3 was a c t i v e i n the Upper Ottawa R i v e r c o u n t r y and, from 1847 to 1858, h i s a s s i s t a n t , A l e x a n d e r Murray, mapped much of the t e r r i t o r y b o r d e r i n g 4 the n o r t h shore of the Lake Huron. The p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d to t h o s e a r e a s by the G e o l o g i c a l Survey stemmed l a r g e l y from d i s c o v e r i e s of copper i n t h e Upper P e n i n s u l a of M i c h i g a n i n the e a r l y 1840's, f o l l o w e d by t h e d i s c o v e r y of coppejF d e p o s i t s a t Bruce Mines, D i s t r i c t of Algoma, a f t e r 1847 (see Chapter I V ) . The c o n t r a s t between the " H u r o n i a n " ( P r o t e r o z o i c ) r o c k s noted a l o n g the n o r t h shore of Lake Huron and the g r a n i t e s and g n e i s s e s of the e a s t e r n p a r t of the p r o v i n c e was o b v i o u s to Logan and Murray; so a l s o was t h e apparent m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l of the former assemblage. Logan was s u f f i c i e n t l y impressed w i t h t h e p r o s p e c t s of copper m i n i n g i n the d i s t r i c t t o a s s e r t t h a t " i t would appear s i n g u l a r i f a r e g i o n a e x t e n d i n g over a space of between one and two thousand square m i l e s , and so marked by i n d i c a t i o n s , d i d not y i e l d i n the c o u r s e of time many v a l u a b l e r e s u l t s . " j The d i s t r i -b u t i o n of p r e s e n t l y known copper and n i c k e l o c c u r r e n c e s i s shown i n F i g u r e 5. At the time t h a t Logan made h i s p r e s c i e n t o b s e r v a t i o n , none of the major m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o was known. Copper had been o b s e r v e d — a n d b e g i n n i n g s had been made a t m i n i n g — a t 46 Bruce Mines, at Point Mamainse, at Batchewana Bay, and on Michipicoten Island, Lake Superior. A minor occurrence of n i c k e l had been located i n 1846 at the "Wallace Mine," on the north shore of Lake Huron. These i n d i c a t i o n s prompted one observer i n 1853 to write, with reference to a proposed transcontinental railway, that "by e n c i r c l i n g the mighty banks of Lake Superior, the whole of the Great Copper Region, as well as the treasures which h i t h e r t o untrodden forests and unfathomed mines contain, would be brought to the feet of commerce and of c i v i l i z a t i o n . Although t h i r t y years were to pass before t h i s hope was r e a l i z e d i n the construction of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and i n the discovery of the great orebodies of the Sudbury Basin, strong i n d i c a t i o n s of minerals were noticed there i n 1856. A.P. S a l t e r , a P r o v i n c i a l Land Surveyor who was then l a y i n g out townships i n the north shore area, observed severe l o c a l a t t r a c t i o n of the compass needle north of White-f i s h Lake and noted the occurrence of i r o n formation.7 S a l t e r reported h i s observations to Murray who, a f t e r examining the area i n d e t a i l , found that samples "consisted of magnetic i r o n ore, with a l i t t l e t i t a n i f e r o u s i r o n ore, and magnetic i r o n p y r i t e s containing traces of nickel."8 The p a r t i c u l a r gossan-stained ridge which had in t e r e s t e d Salter and Murray i n 1856 t h i r t y years l a t e r became the Creighton Mine, one of the largest and r i c h e s t copper-nickel bodies i n the Sudbury Basin. Although the reports of both Salter and Murray were a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c , they were u n l i k e l y to r a i s e hopes of large p r o f i t s and quick returns from mineral deposits that were t h i r t y miles from the 47 n a v i g a b l e w a t e r s of Lake Huron, and i n a rough c o u n t r y e n t i r e l y d e v o i d o f e f f e c t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Moreover, the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y demand f o r n i c k e l was v e r y s l i g h t and remained so u n t i l e x t e n s i v e u s es f o r the m e t a l were found toward the end o f the c e n t u r y . The e x p l o r a t i o n s o f Logan and Murray were c o n f i n e d d u r i n g the 1850's t o the c o a s t a l a r e a s o f Lake Huron. I n the 1870's o f f i c e r s o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey u n d e r t o o k the f i r s t t r a v e r s e s o f the i n t e r i o r o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . R o b e r t B e l l made r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s u r v e y s between Lake S u p e r i o r and Hudson Bay d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1870-78. 9 I n 1873 W a l t e r McOuat made the f i r s t g e o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n s n o r t h of Lake Timiskaming t o Lake A b i t i b i ; i t was he who f i r s t s u ggested the f u l l e x t e n t o f the "Hur o n i a n " m i n e r a l b e l t , and h i s r e p o r t s p r o v i d e the e a r l i e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f e x t e n s i v e " c l a y p l a i n s " i n the Timiskaming-A b i t i b i a r e a . ^ ^ McOuat r e p o r t e d minor o c c u r r e n c e s o f i r o n and copper on the p o r t a g e r o u t e between the two l a k e s . C o p p e r - n i c k e l o r e s were d i s c o v e r e d d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the Sudbury B a s i n i n 1883. T h e i r importance was not f u l l y r e a l i z e d u n t i l much l a t e r , b u t the d i s c o v e r i e s d i d s t i m u l a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o s p e c t i n g and g e o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n over a c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . By 1890 the c o n c l u s i o n c o u l d be r e a c h e d t h a t i n f o l l o w i n g the g e n e r a l s t r i k e o f the r o c k s n o r t h e a s t w a r d from the W a l l a c e mine, o r e s o f copper have been found near the west end o f l a k e Panache, i n the townships o f Drury, Denison, Graham, Waters, S n i d e r , McKim and B l e z a r d , on the west s i d e o f Wahnapitae l a k e , near the n o r t h end o f Lady E v e l y n l a k e , on the M o n t r e a l r i v e r , on the B l a n c h e r i v e r , a t a p l a c e near the h e i g h t of l a n d not f a r e a s t o f the c a n o e - r o u t e from l a k e Temiscaming t o A b i t t i b i 48 lake, and f i n a l l y near the south end of lake M i s t a s s i n i . This w i l l probably prove to be a copper-producing region of vast importance i n the future, of which the present discoveries are only the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n . H The evaluations by the nineteenth-century geologists of North-eastern Ontario's "Huronian" b e l t were s u r p r i s i n g l y accurate, given the d i f f i c u l t i e s of mapping such rugged t e r r a i n . It was, however, generally regarded to be a p o t e n t i a l base-metals region only. In the l i g h t of past f a i l u r e s i n the mining of precious metals i n the Lake of the Woods and Seine River areas of Northwestern Ontario, and i n Hastings County, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of f i n d i n g s u bstantial deposits of gold and s i l v e r i n the Canadian Shi e l d were thought to be s l i g h t . Auriferous m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of the lode, or v e i n , type (as opposed to placer occurrence) has a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Canadian Shi e l d , and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y common i n the greenstone b e l t ' (see Fig. 6 ) . Geologists accompanying the survey p a r t i e s c u t t i n g the Nipissing-Algoma boundary (1896-98) reported the frequent occurrence of promising showings of gold and base metals ;12 indeed, W.A. Parks i n 1898 traversed i n d e t a i l the region between the Mattagami River and Nighthawk Lake, l a t e r to become the scene of the f r e n e t i c Porcupine rush, and wrote that the area displayed d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n s of the presence of gold.13 However at that time, when i n t e r e s t i n gold i n Ontario was focussed on the Lake of the Woods d i s t r i c t , 1 4 the comparatively i n a c c e s s i b l e Porcupine area a t t r a c t e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . The same geologist i n 1904 pointed to the p o t e n t i a l of the Larder Lake d i s t r i c t for gold mines, and described an i n t e r e s t i n g showing of copper sulphides j u s t north of the surveyed township of Catherine.15 50 A minor r u s h f o r g o l d f o l l o w e d the d i s c o v e r y o f s e v e r a l showings near Lake W a n a p i t e i i n 1 8 9 7 , 1 6 and f o r a b r i e f time the C r y s t a l mine was worked. I n the same p e r i o d a few s m a l l g o l d d e p o s i t s were opened i n the M i c h i p i c o t e n d i s t r i c t , b u t those a c t i v i t i e s were soon abandoned i n f a v o u r o f the more p r o f i t a b l e p o s s i b i l i t i e s which the M i c h i p i c o t e n i r o n ranges o f f e r e d . The Lake Timagami d i s t r i c t was c a r e f u l l y e x p l o r e d by g e o l o g i s t s o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey d u r i n g the 1890's, and s e v e r a l p r e c i o u s and base m e t a l showings were r e p o r t e d . 1 7 The most im p o r t a n t of these were the Cockburn l o c a t i o n on s e v e r a l s m a l l i s l a n d s i n C r o s s Lake ( g o l d and s i l v e r ) , the showing o f c o p p e r - i r o n s u l p h i d e s on Temagami I s l a n d (mined a t the p r e s e n t time by C o p p e r f i e l d s M i n i n g C o r p . ) , and f o u r ranges of s i l i c e o u s m a g n e t i t e near the N o r t h e a s t Arm of Lake Timagami (the p r e s e n t - d a y Sherman M i n e ) . The i r o n d e p o s i t s drew a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of a t t e n t i o n u n t i l the d i s c o v e r y o f s i l v e r a t C o b a l t (1903), and they i n f l u e n c e d the r o u t e t a k e n by th e Temiskaming and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o R a i l w a y , which passed c l o s e to the o r e b o d i e s i n the e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . ^ A s i d e from the r a p i d developments i n the Sudbury B a s i n , however, l i t t l e or no a c t u a l m i n i n g was t a k i n g p l a c e i n the Precambrian p o r t i o n o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The one d e p o s i t which d i d draw some a t t e n t i o n was the W r i g h t Mine, a s i l v e r - l e a d p r o s p e c t on the Quebec shor e o f Lake Timiskaming, about f i v e m i l e s n o r t h o f B a i e des P e r e s . The e x i s t e n c e of t h i s o c c u r r e n c e had been known s i n c e the days o f the F r e n c h regime i n Canada, but the f i r s t development work took p l a c e i n 51 1887 under E.V. Wright of Ottawa. One hundred feet of shaft were sunk during 1880, but, although assays were good,19 the d i f f i c u l t i e s of shipping ore and concentrates hampered mining operations. Upon taking over the property i n 1890, the Mattawa Mining and Smelting Co. of New York erected a m i l l and continued d r i f t i n g and shaft-sinking for about a year, when the mine again closed. The completion of the Kippewa Branch of the Canadian P a c i f i c enabled further development i n 1896, and for a short time concentrates were sent to Wales for smelting. The high shipping costs and the narrowness of the ore-bearing formation forced complete closure i n 1898. In contrast with the Precambrian rocks that predominate i n the Shield, the minor o u t l i e r s of Palaeozoics are not noted for m e t a l l i c mineral occurrences. Non-metallic mineral occurrences, however, were ea r l y recognized. S i l u r i a n limestones (Niagara Series) bounding the northern extremity of Lake Timiskaming and extending a few miles northwards provided the p o s s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g lime-stone-quarrying and cement i n d u s t r i e s i n the region once a railway was b u i l t . Also considered important i n the same area were slates and flagging stones, lit h o g r a p h i c stone, feldspar (for the manufacture of p o r c e l a i n ) , s h e l l marl (for f e r t i l i z e r ) , and bri c k c l a y . ^ 0 The Hudson Bay Lowlands Structure.--The p o r t i o n of the Hudson Bay Lowlands that i s situated i n Northeastern Ontario i s underlain by sedimentary rocks of Devonian and S i l u r i a n age. Small areas of Mesozoic (Lower Cretaceous 52 o r Upper J u r a s s i c ) d e p o s i t s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t on the s o u t h e r n b o r d e r o f t h e L o w l a n d s ; t h e s e c o n s i s t o f f i r e c l a y s w i t h w h i t e q u a r t z sand and k a o l i n , and l i g n i t e . 2 ^ E x p l o r a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n s . - - The g e o l o g i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e Lowlands r e g i o n was l a r g e l y unknown b e f o r e R o b e r t B e l l u n d e r t o o k h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s u r v e y s between 1871 and 1 8 8 5 . 2 2 B e l l ' s e x p l o r a t i o n s were f o l l o w e d by t h o s e o f E.B. B o r r o n , a m i n i n g man and S t i p e n d i a r y M a g i s t r a t e f o r t h e D i s t r i c t o f N i p i s s i n g . B o r r o n ' s work stemmed f r o m t h e l e n g t h y d i s p u t e between t h e Dominion Government and t h e Government o f O n t a r i o o v e r the s t a t u s o f the n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . 2 3 Between 1879 and 1885 he t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y t h r o u g h t h e " D i s p u t e d T e r r i t o r y , " w h i c h e x t e n d e d f r o m t h e h e i g h t o f l a n d n o r t h t o t h e A l b a n y R i v e r and f r o m t h e Quebec boundary w e s t t o L ake N i p i g o n and Thunder Bay. B o r r o n r e p o r t e d h i s f i n d i n g s i n d e t a i l t o t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A ssembly o f O n t a r i o , ^ d e s c r i b i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y and i t s r e s o u r c e s , and s t r e s s i n g t h e u r g e n t need f o r t h e p r o v i n c e t o e s t a b l i s h i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r the D i s p u t e d T e r r i t o r y b e f o r e any e x p e n d i t u r e o f money o r l a b o u r c o u l d be r i s k e d t o open t h e c o u n t r y f o r development. B e l l and B o r r o n were the f i r s t t o r e p o r t t h e o c c u r r e n c e on n o n - m e t a l l i c and m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e P a l a e o z o i c and M e s o z o i c systems o f t h e L o w l a n d s . These r e s o u r c e s c o m p r i s e d gypsum, l i g n i t e , c h i n a c l a y ( k a o l i n ) , q u a r t z , s a n d , o c h r e , and bog i r o n f o r m a t i o n (see F i g . 7 ) . B e l l r e p o r t e d l i g n i t e i n 1872 a l o n g t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e A l b a n y R i v e r and, i n h i s 1875 f i e l d work, he 54 discovered more extensive beds along the M i s s i n a i b i River, as w e l l as i r o n formation on the Mattagami and gypsum on the Moose River. B e l l found a piece of bituminous coal i n a stream some distance inland; he was a l s o shown pieces of what appeared to be a n t h r a c i t e , reported to have come from the east coast of Hudson Bay and from the Ungava i n t e r i o r . Although B e l l was assured by the Hudson's Bay Company that no coal had ever been brought into the region, he was unable to explain these i n d i c a t i o n s , but on t h e i r presence alone a great deal of erroneous speculation arose. The presence of supposedly commercial quantities and grades of i r o n ore and l i g n i t e (and coal?) w i t h i n close proximity aroused hopes that a domestic i r o n industry might be established w i t h i n Ontario f o r , at the time, most of Canada's i r o n requirements had to be met by imports. I t was p r i m a r i l y t h i s sentiment that prompted a spate of speculative proposals i n the l a t e nineteenth century for railways to James Bay and for the establishment of a deep-sea port at Moose Factory.25 Despite h i s reservations concerning the actual existence of Carboniferous sediments or coal measures, B e l l was s u f f i c i e n t l y impressed with the prospects of development to aver that "around James' Bay and up to the eastern side of Hudson's Bay l i e great deposits of i r o n and coal so close together that by the cheap water f r e i g h t s which the region may a f f o r d , the d i s t r i c t along James' Bay may yet become another Pennsylvania."26 Borron, always noted for h i s conservative and objective views, was s a t i s f i e d "that any quantity of t h i s ore can be obtained at a very low r a t e , " and that 55 "associated as i t i s with l i g n i t e and peat for f u e l i t w i l l un-questionably be mined and smelted on the spot at no very d i s t a n t day."^ The v i s i o n , however, f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e , even when the deposits were made accessible by the extension of the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway to James Bay i n 1932. Far from markets, the region could never compete with the long-established m i l l s of southern Ontario i n the manufacture of s t e e l ; moreover, although of good grade, the Moose River i r o n deposits were too small to be economic for extensive mining. The widespread l i g n i t e deposits of the lower M i s s i n a i b i and A b i t i b i Rivers i n t r i g u e d both government and entrepreneurial i n t e r e s t during the l a t e nineteenth and e a r l y twentieth centuries, because a l l thermal energy requirements i n Ontario, both i n d u s t r i a l and domestic, had to be s a t i s f i e d by importing coal from the United States. If the l i g n i t e of Northeastern Ontario should prove to be of good q u a l i t y and i n economic q u a n t i t i e s , i t would be to the advantage of the province to render the deposits a c c e s s i b l e by r a i l . Borron d r i l l e d a few bore-holes to test the q u a l i t y and thick-ness of the l i g n i t e beds^S and, i n 1904, James Mackintosh B e l l conducted an extensive examination of the deposits. B e l l determined that although the l i g n i t e had a widespread occurrence i t v a r i e d considerably i n q u a l i t y (the beds on the A b i t i b i River being the best) 9 q and that i n most places the l i g n i t e was confined to t h i n seams. 3 Both Borron and J.M. B e l l concluded that the Moose River l i g n i t e would never be able to compete with United States or Maritime c o a l , not only 56 because of i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , but because i t was extremely f r i a b l e , making i t impossible to transport over long distances without crushing. They added, however, that the l i g n i t e would be valuable as a l o c a l f u e l f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e r s ; Borron speculated also that i t could possibly f i n d some use i n the treatment of sewage.30 At the point where the Ontario Northland Railway now crosses the Moose River, spectacular beds of gypsum were discovered by Robert B e l l i n 1875. These and other occurrences ("Gypsum Mountain," discovered by Parks i n 1898,31 on the Nipissing-Algoma l i n e , and a small occurrence near the mouth of the Harricanaw River) stimulated i n t e r e s t i n southern Ontario and gave added incentive to b u i l d a railway to James Bay. Borron wrote, "This bed of gypsum [on the Moose River] can be e a s i l y and cheaply worked, and i t w i l l no doubt become valuable as a f e r t i l i z e r and for other purposes when the country i s opened up and settled."32 The gypsum deposits were regarded then, as now, as of e x c e l l e n t quality,33 but, even when they were made acc e s s i b l e by the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, the gypsum resources of the Hudson Bay Lowlands were s t i l l too d i s t a n t from markets to warrant development.34 It i s a measure of the p r e c i s i o n with which nineteenth-century geologists worked, u s u a l l y under severe hardship, that the general geological nature of Northeastern Ontario was f a i r l y accurately known by 1900. Although none of the major mineral deposits, except those of the Sudbury Basin, had yet been discovered, i t was well surmised i n 85 84 83 82 80 \, 79 JAMES BAY -^KAOLIN ' KAOLIN A IRC ' IRON/ a? F I G U R E 8 ^NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO A IGNITE ^ GYPSUM ' KNOWN OCCURRENCES, 1900 COPPER * NICKEL O GOLD IRON * NON-METALLIC MINERALS & Source BUREAU OF MINES REPORTS miles 25 M B 10 5 0 25 50 miles a \ L . Abitibi L> FIGURE 8 85 58 1896 t h a t t h e b e s t hopes f o r the New O n t a r i o a r e no doubt b u i l t upon i t s m i n e r a l w e a l t h , the e x t e n t and v a l u e o f which we a r e o n l y b e g i n n i n g to r e a l i z e . The r o c k s o f the H u r o n i a n and Cambrian [ s i c ] systems a r e found to be m i n e r a l - b e a r i n g o v e r a wide e x t e n t ; and from the number of d i s c o v e r i e s made ev e r y y e a r i n new and u n e x p e c t e d l o c a l i t i e s , we have an a s s u r a n c e t h a t as y e t o n l y a l i t t l e o f t h i s h i d d e n t r e a s u r e has come to be k n o w n . ^ F i g u r e 8 i l l u s t r a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s as known i n 1900. Landforms F r o n t i e r movements and l a n d occupance i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o tended t o be i n f l u e n c e d by the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l a n d (or by p e r c e p t i o n s o f them), e s p e c i a l l y when a g r i c u l t u r e was the dominant m o t i v a t i o n f o r s e t t l e m e n t . The p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h d i s c o v e r i n g new a r e a s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d caused contemporary r e p o r t s t o d i f f e r e n -t i a t e l a n d f o r m a r e a s m a i n l y on the b a s i s o f s o i l and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t on topography and bedrock g e o l o g y . T h i s b i a s , combined w i t h i n a d e q u a t e the. knowledge o f r e l i e f and c l i m a t e , l e d to w b e l i e f t h a t N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o c o n t a i n e d p o t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s which c o u l d r i v a l the p r a i r i e s as a n a t i o n a l a s s e t . The p h y s i c a l and economic problems o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o became e v i d e n t a f t e r 1930, as w i d e s p r e a d farm abandonment, e s p e c i a l l y i n the G r e a t C l a y B e l t , became a common trend.36 P h y s i o g r a p h i c S u b d i v i s i o n s On the b a s i s of b e d r o c k c o n d i t i o n s and s u r f a c e d e p o s i t s , the modern g e o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e d i v i d e s N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o i n t o e i g h t 59 p h y s i o g r a p h i c a r e a s , the b o u n d a r i e s o f w h i c h a r e l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l i e f and the e x t e n t of former g l a c i a l l a k e s and s e a s . T h e s e l a n d f o r m a r e a s a r e as f o l l o w s : (1) the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands; (2) the Sudbury B a s i n ; (3) M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d ; (4) the C a nadian S h i e l d w h i c h , i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , i s dominated by the Gogama ( E a s t e r n ) Sandy U p l a n d s , b u t which c o n t a i n s c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a s o f the Long Lake Uplands and the Lake S u p e r i o r Uplands p h y s i o g r a p h i c sub-d i v i s i o n s ; (5) the L i t t l e C l a y B e l t (Timiskaming C l a y P l a i n ) ; (6) the C e n t r a l D r i f t P l a i n s , c o m p r i s i n g the G r e a t C l a y B e l t (Cochrane C l a y P l a i n ) and the e a s t e r n e x t r e m i t y o f the C e n t r a l P a t r i c i a P l a i n s ; (7) the Kesagami P l a i n , and (8) the Hudson Bay Lowlands, c o m p r i s i n g the James Bay C o a s t a l P l a i n and a p o r t i o n of the Border Lowland (see F i g . 9 ) . Most of the a r e a s of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o t h a t have w i t n e s s e d e x t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t were i n u n d a t e d by p r o - g l a c i a l l a k e s d u r i n g the r e c e s s i o n o f the l a s t c o n t i n e n t a l i c e - s h e e t . The N i p i s s i n g Lowlands, the Sudbury B a s i n , and the narrow s t r i p a l o n g the n o r t h s h o r e o f Lake Huron a r e d o w n - f a u l t e d a r e a s of the C a n a d i a n S h i e l d and were thus submerged by g l a c i a l Lake A l g o n q u i n . M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d , u n d e r l a i n by S i l u r i a n and O r d o v i c i a n r o c k s s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n to those o f s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o , was s i m i l a r l y a f f e c t e d and i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a l i m e s t o n e p l a i n w i t h a r e a s of g l a c i a l t i l l and l a c u s t r i n e c l a y s t h a t have escaped wave a c t i o n . 85 83 51 \ 82 81 80 V ^ 79 JAMES BAY '4 ACME'S1 :-BJi,Y' ^ 6 A S T A L B O R 0 £ R I.O*UN0S( FIGURE 9 81 tit V / 50— L0N< LAKE* NTRA?L | PATR1CI y ^ S ^ PLAjfN S/ E A T NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO PHYSIOGRAPHIC. DISTRICTS L E G E N D GENERALIZED BOUNDARIES HUDSON BAY LOWLANDS James Bay Coastal Rain r! j Border Lowlonds CENTRAL DRIFT PLAINS frfoxj Great Clay Belt . fe-ggSl LITTLE CLAY BELT K i i Central Patricia PlainsMBH SUDBURY BASIN CANADIAN SHIELD NIPISSING LOWLANDS E l p l L o n q Lake Uplands MANITOULIN ISLANDS f:".'l j Lake Superior Uplands U°?°JGogama Sandy Uplands ' Source •  Economic • . Survey of N£ Ont |_ J Algonquin Park Uplands 50 ON o C/t AY miles 25 20 15 10 5 o 50 mit«« _ J49 c o 0 O * ^ L. Abitibi E L, GO i \ 48 LAKE LITTLE LAKE ' CLAY BELT Timiskaming SUPERIOR 47, 47 A: A MICHIGAN 46— Not s-— ff * irv IT? ^ J G U R E v ^ 85 L. Nipissinc NIPISSING LOWLANDS 46 MANITOULIN ALGONQUIN PARK UP 84 83 82 81 79 61 The N i p i s s i n g Lowlands The system o f waterways c o m p r i s i n g the Mattawa R i v e r , Lake N i p i s s i n g , and the F r e n c h R i v e r formed p a r t o f the t r a d i t i o n a l canoe r o u t e between the lower S t . Lawrence v a l l e y and the upper G r e a t L a k e s ; t h e r e f o r e the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands became one o f the e a r l i e s t -known p a r t s o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The r e l a t i v e l y lower e l e v a t i o n o f the d i s t r i c t a l l o w e d the d e p o s i t i o n o f l a c u s t r i n e c l a y s and sands i n a n c i e n t Lake A l g o n q u i n and i t s lower s u c c e s s o r , g l a c i a l Lake N i p i s s i n g . The e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e Lowlands i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by sandy s p i l l w a y d e p o s i t s from the o l d N i p i s s i n g - M a t t a w a o v e r f l o w c h a n n e l . Those p o c k e t s a r e m a r g i n a l l y a r a b l e b ut were t a k e n up by a number o f F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n and I r i s h s e t t l e r s who accompanied the Ottawa v a l l e y lumber t r a d e i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . South o f Lake N i p i s s i n g , heavy c l a y loams, f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h r o c k y r i d g e s , extend from R e s t o u l e Lake e a s t to Powassan, B o n f i e l d , and Eau C l a i r e . A g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e -ment i n t h a t a r e a began i n the 1870's i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l u m b e r i n g , w i t h e v e n t u a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n d a i r y i n g and c a t t l e r a i s i n g f o r the u r b a n market o f N o r t h Bay. A v a r v e d - c l a y t e r r a c e extends northwestwards from Lake N i p i s s i n g t o near Hagar, and f i n e sand and s i l t d e p o s i t s a r e found i n the lower S t u r g e o n R i v e r v a l l e y . Those a r e a s became s e t t l e d , f o r the most p a r t by F r e n c h Canadians, f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . The w e s t e r n p a r t o f the Lowlands, the F r e n c h R i v e r c o u n t r y , was found to be g e n e r a l l y r o c k y and d e s o l a t e , ^ 8 e x c e p t f o r a 62 l a r g e p o c k e t o f l a c u s t r i n e c l a y s around N o e l v i l l e which became s e t t l e d by F r e n c h Canadians a f t e r the F r e n c h R i v e r l o g d r i v e s began i n the 1880's. The e a r l y r e c o g n i t i o n o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l o f the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands and the r e l a t i v e ease o f a c c e s s t o the a r e a r e s u l t e d i n t h e d i s p a t c h o f p r o v i n c i a l s u r v e y o r s t o the a r e a about 1855, a l t h o u g h t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were more c o n c e r t e d d u r i n g the l a t e 1860's and 1870's. Knowledge g a i n e d o f the a r e a d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , combined w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the Huron-Ottawa t r a c t f u r t h e r t o the so u t h was g e n e r a l l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , l e d to the d e c l a r a t i o n o f town-s h i p s i n the Lowlands as " f r e e - g r a n t l a n d s " ^ ^ and to c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o m o t i o n o f the a r e a by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government: When i t was a s s e r t e d , y e a r s ago, t h a t the good l a n d s o f Canada were m o s t l y s o l d , s e t t l e m e n t had about r e a c h e d the r o c k y r i d g e w h i c h runs a l o n g the n o r t h o f these townships [ t h e s o u t h e r n edge o f the S h i e l d ] . Roads made i n t h i s r e g i o n showed i t s u n i n v i t i n g c h a r a c t e r . But s e t t l e m e n t was meantime t u r n i n g the f l a n k s o f the r i d g e . F i r s t , from the west, from near Lake Simcoe, p e o p l e found the Muskoka and the P a r r y Sound d i s t r i c t s not u n i n v i t i n g . Then, from the e a s t , the men o f L a n a r k and o f Renfrew moved up the Madawaska and the Petawawa r i v e r s . Then the Crown Land S u r v e y o r s , and, b e t t e r s t i l l , the employees o f the lumberers, went f u r t h e r back. 'It was t h e n d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i n s i d e the r o c k y b a r r i e r , b e s t approached by the N o r t h e r n R a i l r o a d and Lake Simcoe on the one hand, and from the Upper Ottawa r i v e r on the o t h e r , t h e r e i s , i n the b a s i n o f Lake N i p i s s i n g and the wat e r s h e d o f the Ottawa . . . a most e x t e n s i v e t r a c t o f e x c e l l e n t l a n d , n e a r l y as l a r g e as the p e n i n s u l a o f O n t a r i o , much o f i t d e e p - s o i l e d as the b a s i n o f the S t . Lawrence, timb e r e d w i t h a heavy growth o f mixed w h i t e p i n e and hardwood", much o f i t as l e v e l as the S t . Lawrence v a l l e y , and some as even as p r a i r i e . I t l i e s . . . near waters w h i c h e i t h e r a r e o r ca n e a s i l y be made n a v i g a b l e . A market f o r i t s farm p r o d u c t s e x i s t s a l r e a d y i n the lumbe r e r s ' camps, which a r e even now b r e a k i n g i t s s o l i t u d e s , and but few y e a r s w i l l e l a p s e b e f o r e i t s f o r e s t s r i n g w i t h the s e t t l e r ' s axe, b e f o r e the sho r e s o f Lake N i p i s s i n g echo t o the w h i s t l e o f the steamboat, or even b e f o r e a r a i l w a y r u n s a c r o s s i t by the s h o r t e s t r o u t e from M o n t r e a l towards Chicago.40 63 The above q u o t a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the p r e - s e t t l e m e n t p e r c e p t i o n of the n a t u r e o f t h e N i p i s s i n g Lowlands and the sanguine e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d , e s p e c i a l l y by the p r o v i n c i a l government, f o r the a r e a . As the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l d e s c r i b e , the programme met w i t h modest s u c c e s s ; by the time o f the a r r i v a l o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y (1881-82), a l l o f the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f the D i s t r i c t of N i p i s s i n g had been sub-d i v i d e d i n t o townships, and s e v e r a l hundred s e t t l e r s had t a k e n up l a n d i n the e a s t e r n and s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n s of the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands. The Sudbury B a s i n and N o r t h Shore o f Lake Huron^-*-S t r a t i f i e d c l a y s , sands and g r a v e l s were d e p o s i t e d i n the i n t e r i o r o f the Sudbury B a s i n and a l o n g the n o r t h s h o r e of Lake A l g o n q u i n . The s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the B a s i n i s c o v e r e d f o r the most p a r t by g l a c i a l t i l l , b u t l a c u s t r i n e c l a y s o c c u r i n the v a l l e y o f the V e r m i l i o n R i v e r and around the c i t y o f Sudbury. Because i t was r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e , the n o r t h shore o f Lake Huron r e c e i v e d the e a r l y a t t e n t i o n o f s u r v e y o r s i n s e a r c h of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B e g i n n i n g w i t h the s u r v e y s o f S a l t e r i n 1855, the p r o v i n c i a l government expended c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t d u r i n g the remainder of the c e n t u r y i n s u r v e y i n g s e v e r a l t i e r s o f townships n o r t h of the l a n d and i n p u b l i c i z i n g the a r e a f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t . S a l t e r , i n h i s 1856 r e p o r t , s t a t e d t h a t good a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d would occupy about s i x t y townships and t h a t the r e g i o n was s t r a t e g i c a l l y p l a c e d w i t h r e s p e c t to the l a r g e C h i c a g o market f o r b o t h a g r i c u l t u r a l produce and t i m b e r . I n 1878 64 Kirkwood and Murphy w r o t e , "The c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h i s p a r t o f O n t a r i o f o r the growth o f hemp and f l a x a r e v e r y g r e a t . The growth o f hemp may assume a p o s i t i o n o f g r e a t n a t i o n a l importance. I f our own Dominion c a n s u p p l y hemp f o r the B r i t i s h m a n u f a c t u r e r , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g so dependent on R u s s i a f o r t h e i r s u p p l y , the change would be a t t e n d e d w i t h s i g n a l advantages t o b o t h c o u n t r i e s . " ^ Except f o r the c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n by S a l t e r i n 1855, the Sudbury B a s i n was l a r g e l y u n e x p l o r e d and u n s e t t l e d u n t i l a f t e r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y (1883). I t was not r e c o g n i z e d as a n a r e a p a r t i c u l a r l y advantageous f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t u n t i l a f t e r 1890, when farms were e s t a b l i s h e d i n re s p o n s e t o l u m b e r i n g and m i n i n g i n the a r e a . In the " n a t u r a l " s t a t e , the n o r t h r i m o f the B a s i n was r o c k y and s p a r s e l y v e g e t a t e d , a r e s u l t , p r o b a b l y , o f numerous f i r e s w h i c h swept the a r e a i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 4 3 There was, however, c o n s i d e r a b l e p i n e timber s t a n d i n g i n the remainder o f the B a s i n a t the time o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Ca n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . A f t e r 1885 the f o r e s t was r a p i d l y removed as a r e s u l t o f l o g g i n g , numerous f i r e s , and o p e n - a i r r o a s t i n g o f n i c k e l - c o p p e r o r e s , so t h a t by 1914 t h e n i c k e l ranges p r e s e n t e d a f o r b i d d i n g l a n d s c a p e , b a r r e n o f s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n . The Gogama Sandy Uplands o f the Ca n a d i a n S h i e l d The N i p i s s i n g Lowlands and the Sudbury B a s i n c o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h the r o c k y u p l a n d s which bound them on a l l s i d e s . The Gogama 65 Sandy Uplands a r e c o v e r e d by a t h i n mantle of s i l t y and sandy t i l l , a l o n g w i t h numerous outwash d e p o s i t s , m o r a i n e s , e s k e r s and drumlins.44 The r e g i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v e r y l a r g e number o f l a k e s and i s d r a i n e d by s e v e r a l l a r g e r i v e r s o f the S t . Lawrence w a t e r s h e d . These c o n d i t i o n s were c o n d u c i v e to the growth of e x t e n s i v e s t a n d s o f r e d and w h i t e p i n e , so t h a t i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s l u m b e r i n g was the dominant form of economic a c t i v i t y wherever a c c e s s was g a i n e d by r i v e r or r a i l w a y . D e s p i t e a p p a r e n t e f f o r t s t o a p p r a i s e r e a l i s t i c a l l y the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l of the s o u t h e r n a r e a s of the S h i e l d , s u r v e y o r s , government a g e n c i e s , and o t h e r s who had i n t e r e s t s i n t h e a r e a were prone t o e x a g g e r a t e the e x t e n t and q u a l i t y o f s u p p o s e d l y a r a b l e l a n d and to d i m i n i s h c l i m a t i c c o n s t r a i n t s . A l t h o u g h the L a u r e n t i a n and H u r o n i a n P l a t e a u [the C a n a d i a n S h i e l d ] between the g r e a t l a k e s and James' Bay may be s t y l e d a r o c k y c o u n t r y , s t i l l , the p r o p o r t i o n of i t s whole a r e a i n w hich the b a r e r o c k s a r e exposed i s much l e s s t h a n i s commonly supposed. . . . In t h i s s o r t o f c o u n t r y , i n the D i s t r i c t o f Algoma and elsewhere, the q u a n t i t y o f c u l t i v a t a b l e l a n d on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s e t t l e m e n t , always proves to be much g r e a t e r t h a n i t appeared w h i l e i n a s t a t e o f nature.45 The f o r e g o i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s t y p i c a l o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e p o r t s , the p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n of which was to l u r e s e t t l e r s i n t o the n o r t h e r n p a r t of O n t a r i o . L i t t l e attempt was made to d i f f e r e n t i a t e s o i l c a p a b i l i t y and o t h e r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n and among the p h y s i o g r a p h i c s u b d i v i s i o n s . There was, however, a growing awareness o f the need to e v a l u a t e more a c c u r a t e l y l a n d c a p a b i l i t y and t o put i t to i t s b e s t u s e : 66 T h e r e a r e many p a r t s o f the n o r t h so rough and r o c k y as not t o p o s s e s s any p r o s p e c t i v e v a l u e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , b u t s u i t -a b l e enough t o f o r e s t growth. What b e t t e r p o l i c y c a n be chosen as r e g a r d s such t r a c t s t h a n t o s e t them a p a r t i n p e r p e t u i t y as Crown f o r e s t s ? 4 6 Even as l a t e as 1912, however, t h e r e p e r s i s t e d a s e r i o u s m i s c o n c e p t i o n o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the Uplands r e g i o n : Speakers i n the d e p u t a t i o n to To r o n t o . . . a s s e r t e d t h a t the c o u n t r y between Sudbury and S a u l t S t e . M a r i e t h r o u g h t o the N a t i o n a l T r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l would a s t o n i s h the r e s t o f the P r o v i n c e f o r i t s m i n e r a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l w e a l t h . The C l a y B e l t s The L i t t l e and Great C l a y B e l t s o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o and N o r t h w e s t e r n Quebec were formed d u r i n g the r e c e s s i o n o f the La b r a d o r i c e s h e e t . Lake Barlow-Ojibway was dammed by the r e t r e a t i n g i c e to the n o r t h and by the h i g h e r t i l l d e p o s i t s to the s o u t h . The Timiskaming o u t l e t was dammed by the l a r g e end moraine a t the south end o f p r e s e n t Lake Ti m i s k a m i n g . L a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d the d o w n f a u l t e d Timiskaming graben (which i s u n d e r l a i n by o u t l i e r s o f S i l u r i a n and Devonian r o c k s ) ; f i n e l y s t r a t i f i e d f l a t - l y i n g c l a y sediments extend northward almost t o the h e i g h t o f l a n d , where they grade i n t o sandy and g r a v e l l y t i l l . 4 8 I s o s t a t i c a d j u s t m e n t s p r o d u c i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l u p l i f t o f the S h i e l d d i v i d e d the g l a c i a l l a k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y a l o n g the p r e s e n t h e i g h t o f l a n d , and outwash and beach d e p o s i t s were formed a t p r o g r e s s i v e l y lower l e v e l s i n what i s now the Great C l a y B e l t . The Cochrane re-advance o f the i c e t h e n o v e r r a n the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the Gre a t C l a y B e l t , so t h a t t h e r e r e s u l t e d a complex m i x t u r e o f 67 c l a y e y t i l l , ground and end m o r a i n e s , d r u m l i n s , outwash d e p o s i t s , and l a c u s t r i n e c l a y s and s i l t s . 4 9 The L i t t l e C l a y B e l t i s more d o m i n a n t l y w a t e r l a i d c l a y t h a n i s the G r e a t C l a y B e l t , h a v i n g escaped the Cochrane r e - a d v a n c e . The s o i l s c o n s i s t of sandy loam, b l a c k muck, and f e r t i l e c l a y s , a l l o f w h i c h a r e more or l e s s a r a b l e depending upon d r a i n a g e c o n d i t i o n s .^0 The p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the Gogama Sandy Uplands and the c l a y b e l t s had a s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g upon the r o u t e s o f r a i l w a y s and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . The c l a y b e l t s have c o m p a r a t i v e l y few r o c k o u t c r o p s and p o s s e s s low r e l i e f , b e i n g f o r t h e most p a r t n e a r l y f l a t or g e n t l y s l o p i n g . There a r e few l a k e s and, a l t h o u g h c r o s s e d by s e v e r a l s i z e a b l e r i v e r s , the l a n d i s p o o r l y d r a i n e d . I n the Great C l a y B e l t topography and s u r f a c e d e p o s i t s have produced e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f i n t r a z o n a l s o i l s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a y e r o f p e a t v a r y i n g t h i c k n e s s o v e r l y i n g the g l e i s u b s o i l . Where the peat l a y e r i s not of e x c e s s i v e t h i c k n e s s - -t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s b e s t met near the l a r g e streams where t h e r e i s good d r a i n a g e - - s o i l c o n d i t i o n s a r e amenable to a g r i c u l t u r e . ^ 1 The a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l of the L i t t l e C l a y B e l t was r e c o g n i z e d by McOuat d u r i n g h i s s u r v e y o f 1871: The whole r e g i o n . . . e x t e n d i n g northward from the mouth of the M o n t r e a l R i v e r . . . may be p r e t t y c o r r e c t l y d e s c r i b e d as a l e v e l c l a y p l a i n , w i t h a g r e a t number of r o c k y h i l l s and r i d g e s p r o t r u d i n g t h r o u g h i t . There i s a marked d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s r e g i o n and the c o u n t r y t o the s o u t h . The u n y i e l d i n g L a u r e n t i a n r o c k s o f the l a t t e r m a i n t a i n a u n i f o r m l y h i g h s u r f a c e , c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n the l a n d a t w h i c h the c l a y i s f o u nd; w h i l e the s o f t e r s l a t e s and s c h i s t s w h i c h occupy so l a r g e a p o r t i o n o f the c o u n t r y f u r t h e r n o r t h have been 68 l a r g e l y removed by d e n u d a t i o n l e a v i n g o n l y the h a r d e r r o c k s . . . to form more or l e s s i s o l a t e d h i l l s , s urrounded by a r a b l e c l a y l a n d . ^ Kirkwood and Murphy s t a t e d ( e r r o n e o u s l y ) t h a t the B l a n c h e R i v e r was n a v i g a b l e f o r s i x t y m i l e s above Lake T i m i s k a m i n g , and d e s c r i b e d the L i t t l e C l a y B e l t as "a f e r t i l e v a l l e y , w i t h a n a v i g a b l e r i v e r f l o w i n g t h r o u g h i t , and i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to a l a r g e l a k e which must become the c e n t r e of a c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a d e i n t i m b e r . " - ^ Other r e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d between 1884 and 1896"^ d e s c r i b e the timber growing on the L i t t l e C l a y B e l t as s m a l l second growth, the r e s u l t o f a f o r e s t f i r e , e n a b l i n g the l a n d to be e a s i l y c l e a r e d . A r c h i b a l d B l u e i n 1895 e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y w r o te, "For the growth o f peas and o a t s , t i m o t h y and c l o v e r , and r o o t c r o p s of a l l k i n d s , t h e r e i s no more s u i t a b l e l a n d anywhere than i n t h o s e d i s t r i c t s [ T i m i s k a m i n g , n o r t h and west of Lake N i p i s s i n g , and the V e r m i l i o n R i v e r v a l l e y ] ; and they a r e e q u a l l y w e l l a d a p t e d f o r the d a i r y i n d u s t r y and the p r o d u c t i o n o f b e e f and mutton, as the p a s t u r e s a r e n o u r i s h i n g and water abounds everywhere."^' About the same time (1894), G i b s o n wrote o f the Timiskaming a r e a : . . . i t i s thought t h a t a c u l t i v a t a b l e a r e a o f a t l e a s t h a l f a m i l l i o n a c r e s , and p r o b a b l y more, i s t o be found h e r e i n one c o n t i n u o u s b l o c k . Over a s u b - s o i l of r i c h c a l c a r e o u s c l a y a c o v e r i n g o f v e g e t a b l e mould many i n c h e s deep has accumulated, the whole b e i n g o f e x c e p t i o n a l f e r t i l i t y . ^ B e i n g l e s s a c c e s s i b l e , the G r e a t C l a y B e l t was l e s s well-known t h a n the L i t t l e C l a y B e l t i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Both were thought to be t h e same g e n e r a l a r e a u n t i l j u s t a f t e r the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y ; ^ a r a b l e c l a y s o i l s were b e l i e v e d to e x t e n d unbroken from 69 Lake Timiskaming n o r t h to James Bay. Robert B e l l i n 1875 e s t a b l i s h e d the e x i s t e n c e of a l e v e l c l a y a r e a about 100 m i l e s i n w i d t h n o r t h of the h e i g h t of l a n d and drew the c o n t r a s t between i t and t h e r o c k y u p l a n d s t o the s o u t h . S u r v e y o r s e x p l o r i n g a number of p o t e n t i a l r o u t e s f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y i n the e a r l y 1880's ranged as f a r n o r t h as the G r e a t C l a y B e l t . They pronounced t h a t f u l l y s e v e n t y p e r c c e n t of the t r a c t between the Moose and the " K a p a s k a s i " [Kapuskasing] R i v e r s was f i r s t - c l a s s l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and noted t h a t good c r o p s of g r a i n and r o o t s were b e i n g c u l t i v a t e d a t the Hudson's Bay Company p o s t s a t New Brunswick House 58 and Groundhog Lake. B o r r o n , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e a r e a as an " i n t e r m e d i a t e b e l t , " r e v i s e d downward the o v e r l y generous assessment of good l a n d , but he m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i t would "be s e t t l e d upon as soon as the c o u n t r y i s 59 opened up and markets r e n d e r e d a c c e s s i b l e . " He recommended the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of e x p e r i m e n t a l farms to determine what c r o p s c o u l d be grown s u c c e s s f u l l y on a commercial s c a l e and suggested t h a t the r e g i o n would p r o b a b l y be most v a l u a b l e f o r c a t t l e r a i s i n g and d a i r y husbandry. The Survey and E x p l o r a t i o n of 1900 c o n c l u d e d t h a t "the g r e a t c l a y b e l t i n O n t a r i o . . . comprises an a r e a of a t l e a s t 24,500 square m i l e s , or 15,680,000 a c r e s , n e a r l y a l l of which i s w e l l adapted 61 f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . " C o n c u r r i n g w i t h p r e v i o u s r e p o r t s , the s u r v e y o r s s t a t e d t h a t "the c o n s t r u c t i o n of r a i l w a y s and wagon r o a d s t h r o u g h 62 e v e r y p a r t of i t would be a c o m p a r a t i v e l y easy m a t t e r . " Surveys of the G r e a t C l a y B e l t c o n t i n u e d a f t e r the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . One comprehensive r e p o r t on the A b i t i b i r e g i o n , w r i t t e n 70 i n 1903, s tated f l a t l y that the "chief resource of the reg ion i s i t s s o i l " ; an appendix to the same report contained a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the c l a y s o i l and i t s extent , emphasizing that many areas " w i l l make sp lendid a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t s . " 6 4 A l l e a r l y reports on the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of the c l a y b e l t s placed a heavy emphasis on the nature of the s o i l but u s u a l l y underestimated severa l major disadvantages that would be learned by experience a f t e r 1915. One such disadvantage was the d i f f i c u l t y and cost of adequate drainage , e s p e c i a l l y i n areas at some dis tance from r i v e r s . A second drawback to a g r i c u l t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the Great Clay B e l t , was the nature of the c l i m a t e , which placed rather narrow l i m i t a t i o n s on the types of crops that can r e l i a b l y r i p e n during the short f r o s t - f r e e season and that can be marketed commercial ly . As w i l l be descr ibed i n a fo l lowing s e c t i o n , the temperature ranges of the reg ion were f a i r l y w e l l known, even i n the nineteenth century , but e a r l y observers f a i l e d to apprec iate the e f fec t s of the p r e c i p i -t a t i o n regime, which adversely a f f ec ted the harvest season. T h i r d , no one s e r i o u s l y evaluated the market for a g r i c u l t u r a l produce to be grown i n the c l a y b e l t s . Noting the spectacular growth of wheat farming on the p r a i r i e s , most p e o p l e — s e t t l e r s , commercial promoters, and p o l i t i c i a n s a l i k e - - assumed that ex terna l markets would be s i m i l a r l y a v a i l a b l e to the a g r i c u l t u r a l industry of the c l a y b e l t s . Clay b e l t farmers, however, never had more than a l i m i t e d l o c a l market for t h e i r produce, and these markets developed only because of the growth of the mining and pulp and paper i n d u s t r i e s . Indeed, pulpwood was the 71 main c a s h crop f o r most s e t t l e r s i n the Great C l a y B e l t . 66 The James Bay C o a s t a l P l a i n (Hudson Bay Lowlands) The James Bay C o a s t a l P l a i n , a s u b d i v i s i o n of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, has been s l o w l y emerging from i t s p o s t - g l a c i a l marine i n u n d a t i o n , and a complex s e r i e s of r a i s e d beaches marks s u c c e s s i v e s h o r e l i n e s . G e n e r a l l y l e s s than 500 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n , the p l a i n i s a lmost l e v e l , and d r a i n a g e of the heavy c l a y s o i l s , which a r e everywhere o v e r l a i n w i t h p e a t , i s e x c e e d i n g l y poor. The deep bog s o i l s of the P l a i n s e v e r e l y l i m i t the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a g r i c u l t u r e . Yet Robert B e l l , who was r e g a r d e d as an " e x p e r t " on the r e g i o n , wrote: The c o u n t r y i mmediately s u r r o u n d i n g Hudson Bay cannot be s a i d t o be an a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n , but t o the southward of James Bay . . . and to the southwestward, t h e r e i s a l o n g t r a c t of l a n d which sooner or l a t e r w i l l be, I b e l i e v e , of v a l u e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s es. I t extends f o r a d i s t a n c e of n e a r l y 200 m i l e s The immediate shore of James Bay, toward the s o u t h end, and the c o u n t r y f o r some d i s t a n c e back, i s c o v e r e d w i t h sphagnum moss, but t h i s does not e x i s t f a r i n l a n d . The g r e a t e s t e x t e n t i s between the lower p a r t s of the A l b a n y and Moose r i v e r s , but beyond t h a t t h e r e i s a l e v e l t r a c t of e x c e l l e n t l a n d , w e l l wooded, and s o u t h -ward and southwestward of t h a t a g a i n the c o u n t r y r i s e s p r e t t y r a p i d l y f o r a s h o r t d i s t a n c e and we come upon a p l a t e a u [the G r e a t C l a y B e l t ] which extends i n l a n d f o r a n o t h e r l l O O m i l e s , and over the g r e a t e r p a r t of t h a t the l a n d i s e x c e l l e n t . . . .67 B e l l went on to say t h a t a good v a r i e t y of v e g e t a b l e s were b e i n g grownn s u c c e s s f u l l y a t Moose F a c t o r y , where t h e r e were some e i g h t y head of c a t t l e , and t h a t the c l i m a t e became more f a v o u r a b l e as one p r o g r e s s e d northward, owing to the warming i n f l u e n c e of the Bay. '.lo B o r r o n , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e i n h i s assessment of r e s o u r c e s , warned: 7 2 The t r a v e l l e r , . . . s e e i n g so much o n l y of the c o u n t r y . . . from h i s s e a t i n a canoe, i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n to form too f a v o u r a b l e an o p i n i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r and r e s o u r c e s of the t e r r i t o r y n o r t h o f the h e i g h t o f l a n d . The f e r t i l i t y o f the s o i l , the s i z e and h e a l t h i n e s s o f the t i m b e r , and t h e l u x u r i a n c e of the n a t i v e g r a s s e s , as s e en i n many p l a c e s on the banks o f the r i v e r s , i n e v i t a b l y t e n d to the b e l i e f t h a t t h i s i s the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r of a t l e a s t the a d j a c e n t l a n d . A more thorough e x a m i n a t i o n of the r e g i o n thus t r a v e l l e d t hrough has c o n v i n c e d me t h a t the q u a n t i t y of a r a b l e l a n d f i t f o r s e t t l e m e n t i s not n e a r l y so g r e a t as I had supposed i t t o b e . 6 8 N e v e r t h e l e s s , B o r r o n judged about a t h i r d o f the C o a s t a l P l a i n as f i t f o r hay and p a s t u r e , and f o r growing r o o t c r o p s . The c o n t r a s t between the h i g h e r S h i e l d and the C o a s t a l P l a i n p r oduces a f a l l - l i n e on the r i v e r s f l o w i n g northward i n t o James Bay. The economic importance of the r e g i o n t h e r e f o r e l i e s i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power a t the p o i n t s where the A b i t i b i and Mattagami R i v e r s descend to the Lowlands. A l t h o u g h the h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l of the f a l l - l i n e was r e c o g n i z e d j u s t a f t e r the t u r n of the c e n t u r y , ^ 9 no development of i t took p l a c e u n t i l the 1 9 2 0 ' s . 7 0 J u s t as the economic importance o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l and m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s o f the Hudson Bay Lowlands was u s u a l l y e x a g g e r a t e d , so too were the " a s s e t s " o f Hudson Bay i t s e l f . Voluminous r e p o r t s appeared i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x t o l l i n g the ease o f n a v i g a t i o n on the Bay, i t s w h a l e s , 7 1 f i s h e r i e s , and o t h e r w i l d l i f e , and b o u n t i f u l m i n e r a l w e a l t h . a l o n g i t s s h o r e s . 7 2 These were w r i t t e n f o r the purpose of p romoting a r a i l w a y l i n k between James or Hudson Bay and the s o u t h e r n p a r t of O n t a r i o and f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a deep-sea p o r t w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e . 7 3 A number o f s u r v e y s were c a r r i e d out i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s t o determine i f James Bay 73 o f f e r e d a s u i t a b l e s i t e f o r a h a r b o u r , but i t was soon e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e extreme s h a l l o w n e s s of the Bay and of the r i v e r s debouching i n t o i t p r e c l u d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of a major t i d e w a t e r p o r t w i t h i n O n t a r i o . N e v e r t h e l e s s , m i s p l a c e d optimism c o n c e r n i n g the Hudson and James Bay r e g i o n had an im p o r t a n t b e a r i n g upon e v e n t u a l r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The e x t e n s i o n of the Tamiskaming and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o R a i l w a y to Moosonee ( 1 9 3 2 ) ^ f u l f i l l e d few of the e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n f i d e n t l y e x p e c t e d of i t . C l i m a t e ^ The c l i m a t e of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o i s humid c o n t i n e n t a l , c o o l summer, no d r y season (Koppen Dfb) i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t of the r e g i o n and s u b a r c t i c (Dfc) i n the n o r t h . The average d a i l y J u l y temperature ranges from about 67°F i n the s o u t h t o about 60°F near James Bay. In Ja n u a r y the average d a i l y temperature i s about 14°F near G e o r g i a n Bay and about -4°F to -10°F i n the James Bay a r e a ; the 0°F i s o t h e r m c o r r e l a t e s c l o s e l y w i t h the h e i g h t of l a n d (see F i g s . 10, 11, 12 and 13). Of s i g n i f i c a n c e to a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t i s the f r o s t - f r e e season. The N i p i s s i n g Lowlands and M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d a r e f r e e of f r o s t f o r an average 125 days; the L i t t l e C l a y B e l t has a f r o s t - f r e e season o f about 100 days; w h i l e a t K a p u s k a s i n g , i n the G r e a t C l a y B e l t , i t i s 89 d a y s . ^ I n the u p l a n d a r e a n o r t h e a s t of Lake S u p e r i o r the f r o s t - f r e e season d i m i n i s h e s t o about 40 days, w h i l e i n the Hudson Bay Lowlands i t v a r i e s from 75 to 80 days. The mean a n n u a l growing season (mean d a i l y temperature above 42°F) v a r i e s from 180 days i n the 74 SOURCE ' CHAPMAN a THOMA8 (I9tf8) 75 SOURCE• CHAPMAN 8 THOMAS (1908) 76 N i p i s s i n g Lowlands to 150 days i n the Great C l a y B e l t (see F i g s . 14 and 15). P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s abundant i n a l l p a r t s o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . A t K a p u s k a s i n g i t i s about 30 i n c h e s a n n u a l l y and a t No r t h Bay about 34 i n c h e s (see F i g . 16). The p r e c i p i t a t i o n regime a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s a g r i c u l t u r e , however, as the most abundant r a i n f a l l o c c u r s i n l a t e summer and e a r l y f a l l . T h i s f a c t o r , combined w i t h the s h o r t n e s s o f the growing s e a s o n and c e r t a i n s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p l a c e s s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s on the range o f c r o p s t h a t c a n be grown on a commercial s c a l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the G r e a t C l a y B e l t . Because o f the s t r o n g d e s i r e to promote a g r i c u l t u r e i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o and because o f l i m i t a t i o n s on r e l i a b l e c l i m a t i c d a t a , m i s l e a d i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were f r e q u e n t l y drawn i n the n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . On the b a s i s o f s n o w f a l l and w i n t e r temperature a l o n e , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the c l i m a t e o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Ottawa and s o u t h e r n Quebec and much l e s s s e v e r e t h a n i n the p r a i r i e s . I n 1895 i t was c o n f i d e n t l y s t a t e d , " I t cannot be d e n i e d t h a t the w i n t e r i s s e v e r e and l o n g , measured by the s t a n d a r d o f T o r o n t o . But wherever s e t t l e m e n t has t a k e n p l a c e t h e r e i s found t o be ample time i n the s p r i n g , summer and autumn months f o r the growth and r i p e n i n g o f c r o p s , and no c o m p l a i n t i s made t h a t f a r m i n g o p e r a t i o n s a r e m a t e r i a l l y r e t a r d e d by c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . 1 Even by 1912 i t c o u l d be s t a t e d o n l y t h a t "the summer i s hot and the w i n t e r v e r y c o l d , " o r , "the c l i m a t e on the whole i s p e r f e c t ; sometimes c o l d , but always d r y i n w i n t e r , and l o n g , b r i g h t , s u n s h i n y days i n 77 summer, v e r y warm and p l e n t y o f r a i n . . . . " / y On a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l the above g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f the c l i m a t e a r e a c c u r a t e enough, b u t t h i s p e r c e p t i o n soon proved t o be an i n a d e -quate b a s i s upon which t o r e s t a w i d e s p r e a d programme o f a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o . Other forms o f economic a c t i v i t y were not u n d u l y hampered by the c l i m a t e , e x c e p t , perhaps, o p e n - p i t m i n i n g i n w i n t e r . Indeed, f o r e s t r y was a i d e d by a h a r d f r e e z e and s u f f i c i e n t snow t o make w i n t e r r o a d s . F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s South o f the h e i g h t o f l a n d N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o i s c o v e r e d w i t h a mixed f o r e s t o f c o n i f e r s and hardwoods--a p o r t i o n o f the Gre a t L a k e s - S t . Lawrence Mixed F o r e s t R e g i o n . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s a r e r e d and w h i t e p i n e , e a s t e r n hemlock, and y e l l o w b i r c h . There i s a l s o a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f sugar and r e d maple, w h i t e b i r c h , t r e m b l i n g aspen, b l a c k and w h i t e s p r u c e , w h i t e c e d a r , balsam f i r , and j a c k p i n e . 8 ' N o r t h o f the h e i g h t o f l a n d i s b o r e a l f o r e s t , w i t h b l a c k and w h i t e spruce predominant. Balsam f i r , t r e m b l i n g aspen, j a c k p i n e , and w h i t e b i r c h a l s o have a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n the Hudson Bay Lowlands the b o r e a l f o r e s t i s t r a n s i t i o n a l i n c h a r a c t e r . T h e r e , because o f the f l a t topography, poor d r a i n a g e , and i n c r e a s i n g l y u n f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , the t r e e s p e c i e s a r e red u c e d i n number, s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Good t r e e growth i s r e s t r i c t e d t o r i v e r banks and o l d r a i s e d beaches, where w h i t e s p r u c e , aspen, b i r c h and balsam f i r predominate. The v a s t bogs back from the 78 r i v e r s s u p p o r t d i s c o n t i n u o u s s t a n d s o f b l a c k spruce and l a r c h ( t a m a r a c k ) , g r e a t l y r e d u c e d i n growth. The f i n e p i n e timber o f the mixed f o r e s t zone was the prime m o t i v a t i o n b e h i n d e a r l y economic development i n the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands and a l o n g the n o r t h shore o f Lake Huron. I n the 1890's spruce from those a r e a s and f a r t h e r n o r t h began t o be used f o r the manufacture o f p u l p . E a r l y e x p l o r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d the f a c t t h a t commercial stands o f r e d o r w h i t e p i n e do not o c c u r n o r t h o f the h e i g h t o f l a n d , b u t t h a t the Gogama Sandy Uplands e a s t o f Lake Timagami and southward t o the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c l i n e c o n t a i n e d v a l u a b l e s t a n d s o f p i n e . The p r o s p e c t u s o f the N i p i s s i n g & James'Bay R a i l w a y , i s s u e d i n 1884,81 s t a t e d t h a t t h i s timber c o u l d s u p p o r t t r a f f i c on the proposed l i n e f o r seve n t y y e a r s . The Survey and E x p l o r a t i o n o f 1900 e s t i m a t e d t h a t the D i s t r i c t o f N i p i s s i n g a l o n e c o n t a i n e d t h r e e b i l l i o n b o a r d f e e t o f p i n e . The e x t e n s i v e spruce f o r e s t s o f the Great C l a y B e l t were c o m m e r c i a l l y v a l u e l e s s u n t i l the r e g i o n was opened by the Temiskaming and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o R a i l w a y and the N a t i o n a l T r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l R a i l w a y (1908-1915). T h e r e a f t e r , the p u l p and paper i n d u s t r y became the predominant i n d u s t r y i n the a r e a , w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l development s u b s i d i a r y to i t . A l t h o u g h the f o r e s t was e x t e n s i v e l y burned, timber e s t i m a t o r s accompanying the Survey and E x p l o r a t i o n o f 1900 a s s e s s e d the pulpwood r e s o u r c e s o f the n o r t h e r n p a r t s o f the D i s t r i c t s o f N i p i s s i n g and Algoma a t 120 m i l l i o n c o r d s . Summary By 1900 a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f the g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l 79 nature of Northeastern Ontario had been formed. Deta i l ed knowledge of the extent and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o i l regions was, however, gross ly inadequate. The mood of optimism p r e v a i l i n g i n Canada r e s u l t e d i n a cons iderable over -es t imat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l resources and of the p o t e n t i a l for a g r i c u l t u r a l development. Converse ly , the mineral resources of Northeastern Ontario were imperfect ly known and, although there were expectat ions for the development of some mining , subsequent development surpassed even the most sanguine hopes. Physiography and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of apparent resources exerted a considerable inf luence on the development of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, as subsequent chapters w i l l show. 80 FOOT-NOTES TO CHAPTER I I "Canadian S h i e l d " and Hudson Bay Lowlands" were not commonly used terms i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The former was u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e " L a u r e n t i a n P l a t e a u " o r "Archaean a r e a " ; the l a t t e r as the " P a l a e o z o i c and t e r t i a r y b a s i n o f Hudson Bay." 2 F o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the S h i e l d , see Canada, Department of Mines and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Geology and Economic M i n e r a l s of Canada, ed. C H . S t o c k w e l l (4t h ed.; "Economic Geology S e r i e s , " No. 1; Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957), pp. 24-45. A s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t t e r m i n o l o g y and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the p r o v i n c e s of the S h i e l d a r e used by P e t e r B. C l i b b o n and L o u i s -Edmond Hamelin i n "Landforms," Canada: A G e o g r a p h i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , ed. John Warkentin, and p r e p a r e d under the a u s p i c e s of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Geographers ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1968), pp. 57-77. See pp. 66-69. The term "Kenoran" r e p l a c e s " S u p e r i o r . " 3 W.E. Logan, "Report on the Geology of the Ottawa R i v e r and some of i t s T r i b u t a r i e s , " G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Report of P r o g r e s s f o r  1845-46 ( M o n t r e a l : Dawson B r o s . , 1847). 4 See the v a r i o u s r e p o r t s of A l e x a n d e r Murray i n the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Report of P r o g r e s s f o r 1847-48, Report of P r o g r e s s f o r  1848-49, Report of P r o g r e s s f o r the y e a r s 1853-54-55-56, Report f o f  P r o g r e s s f o r 1857, Report o f P r o g r e s s f o r 1858. In 1865 the G e o l o g i c a l Survey, under Logan, p u b l i s h e d the Geology of Canada, 1863: Report of  €he G e o l o g i c a l Survey from i t s commencement t o 1863 ( M o n t r e a l : Dawson B r o s . , 1865), 983 pp. I t was accompanied by An A t l a s o f Maps and S e c t i o n s  to Accompany the Geology of Canada, 1863 ( M o n t r e a l , 1865). T h i s work was an enormous c o n t r i b u t i o n to the g e o l o g i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l knowledge of Canada a t t h a t t i m e . ^ G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Report of P r o g r e s s f o r 1848-49 ( T o r o n t o : L o v e l l and G i b s o n , 1850), p. 63. Railway Times, May 7, 1853. ^ A l b e r t P e l l e w S a l t e r , "Report Made to the Crown Lands Department . . . upon the C o u n t r y b o r d e r i n g upon the N o r t h Shore of Lake Huron . . . 31 s t March, 1856," 19 V i c t o r i a e J o u r n a l s o f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of Canada, 1856, IV, Appendix 37. g A l e x a n d e r Murray, "Report f o r 1856" [On the Geology and Topography of the Sturgeon, F r e n c h and W a n a p i t e i R i v e r s ] , R e p o r t of P r o g r e s s f o r the y e a r s 1853-54-55-56 ( T o r o n t o , 1857), pp. 180-189. 81 9 Robert B e l l , "Report on the C o u n t r y between Lake S u p e r i o r and the A l b a n y R i v e r , " G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada, Report of P r o g r e s s f o r 1871-72 ( M o n t r e a l : Dawson B r o s . , 1872), pp. 101-14; "Report on an E x p l o r a t i o n i n 1875 between James' Bay and Lakes S u p e r i o r and Huron," Report o f P r o g r e s s f o r 1875-76 ( M o n t r e a l , 1877), pp. 294-342; "Report on G e o l o g i c a l Researches N o r t h o f Lake Huron and E a s t of Lake S u p e r i o r , " Report of P r o g r e s s f o r 1876-77 ( M o n t r e a l , 1878). "^Walter McOuat, "Report o f an E x a m i n a t i o n of the C o u n t r y between Lakes Temiscamang and A b b i t i b b e , " G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada, Report of  P r o g r e s s f o r 1872-73 ( M o n t r e a l : Dawson B r o s . , 1873), pp. 112-135. ^ R e p o r t of the R o y a l Commission on th e M i n e r a l Resources of  O n t a r i o and Measures f o r t h e i r Development ( T o r o n t o : Warwick & Sons, 1890), p. 24. 12 Edward M. Burwash, "Geology of the N i p i s s i n g - A l g o m a L i n e , " S i x t h R e p o r t of the Bureau of Mines, 1896, V o l . VI (1897), pp. 167-184. 13 W.A. P a r k s , "The N i p i s s i n g - A l g o m a Boundary," Report of the  Bureau of Mines, 1899, V o l . V I I I , P t . I I (1899), pp. 175-196. 14 E.L. Bruce, Gold D e p o s i t s o f Kenora and R a i n y R i v e r D i s t r i c t s , O n t a r i o Department of M i n e s , B u l l e t i n r N o . 85 (1932), 45'^pp. See a l s o R e p o r t s of the Bureau of Mines, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897. "^^ W.A. P a r k s , "The Geology of a D i s t r i c t from Lake Timiskaming Northward," G e o l . Sur. Can. Annual R e p o r t (New S e r i e s ) , V o l . XVI (1904), pp. 198-225A. 1 6 R e p o r t o f the Bureau of Mines, 1898 [ s i c , 1897], V o l . V I I , P t . I, p. 86; P t . I I , pp. 138-139. " ^ A l f r e d E r n e s t Barlow, "Report on the Geology and N a t u r a l Resources o f the A r e a i n c l u d e d by the N i p i s s i n g and Temiscaming Map-S h e e t s , c o m p r i s i n g p o r t i o n s o f the D i s t r i c t o f N i p i s s i n g , O n t a r i o and of the County o f P o n t i a c , Quebec," G e o l . Sur. Can. A n n u a l R e p o r t (N.S.), Vpl.X, Report I (1897) (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1899), 287 pp., maps. 18 A.E. Barlow, "The Temagami D i s t r i c t , " G e o l . Sur. Can. Annual  Report (N.S.), V o l . XV (1902-03), pp. 120-133A. 19 Barlow (1897) r e p o r t e d a s s a y s o f 18 to 24 oz. s i l v e r p e r ton (gange-separated o r e ) , 52% l e a d , and t r a c e of g o l d . 2 0 I b i d . , pp. 153-8. 21 Geology and Economic M i n e r a l s of Canada, pp. 234-37. 22 B e l l , op. c i t . , and "Report on an E x p l o r a t i o n on the E a s t Coast of Hudson's Bay i n 1877," G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada, Report of P r o g r e s s f o r 1877-78, Sec. C.V. "Report on Hudson's Bay and some of the Lakes and R i v e r s L y i n g to the West of i t , " Report of P r o g r e s s f o r 1879-80, Sec. C.V. 82 " R e p o r t on t h e Geology o f t h e B a s i n of Moose R i v e r , " R e p o r t o f P r o g r e s s  f o r 1880-81-82, Sec. C.VI; "Report on an E x p l o r a t i o n of P o r t i o n s of t h e A t t a w a p i s k a t and A l b a n y R i v e r s , " G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, A n n u a l R e p o r t (New R e p o r t (New S e r i e s ) , V o l . I I , R e p o r t G ( 1 8 8 6 ) . 23 See Canada, Department of M i n e s and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , G e o g r a p h i c a l B r a n c h , The B o u n d a r i e s of Canada, I t s P r o v i n c e s and  T e r r i t o r i e s , by Norman L. N i c h o l s o n (Memoir 2; Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 60-64. O n t a r i o had endorsed t h e award of 1878, b u t t h e r e g i o n remained i n d i s p u t e u n t i l 1889, when t h e Dominion Government f i n a l l y a s s e n t e d t o t h e Canada ( O n t a r i o Boundary) a c t . 24 E.B. B o r r o n , R e p o r t s of t h e S t i p e n d i a r y M a g i s t r a t e s w i t h r e s p e c t  t o t h e N o r t h e r l y and W e s t e r l y P a r t s of t h e P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o ^ S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s o f O n t a r i o , V o l . X I I I , P t . I V , No. 22 ( 1 8 8 0 ) ; R e p o r t s . . ., S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , V o l . X I V , P t . I V , No. 44 ( 1 8 8 1 ) ; R e p o r t . . . on t h a t  p a r t o f t h e B a s i n of Hudson's Bay B e l o n g i n g t o t h e P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , V o l . X V I , P t . V I , No. 39 ( 1 8 8 3 ) ; R e p o r t . . ., S e s s i o n a l  P a p e r s , V o l . X V I I I , P t . I , No. 1 ( 1 8 8 5 ) ; R e p o r t on t h e B a s i n of Moose  R i v e r and A d j a c e n t C o u n t r y B e l o n g i n g t o t h e P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , S e s s i o n a l  P a p e r s , V o l . X X I I I , No. 87 ( 1 8 9 0 ) . 25 Thomas W. G i b s o n , "The H i n t e r l a n d of O n t a r i o , " F o u r t h R e p o r t of  t h e Bureau of M i n e s , 1894, V o l . I V , S e c t i o n I I I ( 1 8 9 5 ) , pp. 101-138; r e f . t o p. 126. 26 R o b e r t B e l l , "On t h e Commercial Importance of Hudson's Bay, w i t h Remarks on Recent S u r v e y s and I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , " P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e  R o y a l G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , V o l . I l l , No. 10 ( O c t o b e r , 1 8 8 1 ) , pp. 557-640. 27 C i t e d i n G i b s o n , op. c i t . , p. 127. 28 B o r r o n ( 1 8 9 0 ) , op. c i t . , p. 64. 29 James M a c k i n t o s h B e l l , "Economic R e s o u r c e s o f Moose R i v e r B a s i n , " R e p o r t o f t h e Bureau o f M i n e s , 1904, V o l . X I I I , P t . I ( T o r o n t o : .King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 0 4 ) , pp. 135-97. B o r r o n , l o c . c i t . 31 P a r k s , op. c i t . , p. 176. 32 B o r r o n ( 1 8 9 0 ) , op. c i t . , p. 62 33 Geology and Economic M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s of Canada, p. 244. 34 The gypsum d e p o s i t s o f t h e Grand R i v e r V a l l e y i n s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o have a g r e a t e r c o m p a r a t i v e advantage o v e r t h o s e of t h e Moose R i v e r B a s i n , b e i n g c l o s e r t o m a r k e t s . See i b i d . , p. 243. 35 A r c h i b a l d B l u e , "The New O n t a r i o , " F i f t h R e p o r t of t h e Bureau  o f M i n e s , 1895, V o l . V, S e c t i o n V ( 1 8 9 6 ) , pp. 191-211. R e f . t o p. 208. 83 36 See Lower, S e t t l e m e n t and the F o r e s t F r o n t i e r , p. 130 f f . ; McDermott, op. c i t . , G o s s e l i n and Boucher, op. c i t . (See note 95, Ch. I , p. 38). 37 See Donald F. Putnam ( e d . ) , Canadian R e g i o n s : A Geography of  Canada ( 6 t h ed. ; T o r o n t o : J.M. Dent & Sons, 1963), pp. 296S298. See a l s o O n t a r i o Department o f Economics and Development, A p p l i e d Economics Branch, Economic Survey o f the N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o Region (1966), pp. 1-8. 38 The n a t u r a l s t a t e of the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands was d e s c r i b e d by A l e x a n d e r Murray of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey. See Report of P r o g r e s s f o r the Y e a r s 1853-54-55-56, pp. 111-190. 39 In 1871, the " f r e e - g r a n t l a n d s " comprised 53 townships, some f i f t y thousand a c r e s , i n s e l e c t e d a r e a s of the Huron-Ottawa t r a c t , the D i s t r i c t o f N i p i s s i n g , and the D i s t r i c t o f Algoma. In those townships, the head of a f a m i l y c o u l d a c q u i r e , f r e e , up t o 200 a c r e s p l u s 100 a d d i t i o n a l a c r e s f o r e v e r y c h i l d over 18 y e a r s of age, on c o n d i t i o n t h a t the s e t t l e r meet c l e a r i n g and c u l t i v a t i n g s t a n d a r d s and m a i n t a i n r e s i d e n c e f o r a t l e a s t s i x months of the y e a r . See O n t a r i o Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and P u b l i c Works, E m i g r a t i o n to Canada: The P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o ; I t s S o i l , C l i m a t e , R e s o u r c e s , I n s t i t u t i o n s , F r e e Grant Lands, &c, &c.: F o r  the I n f o r m a t i o n of I n t e n d i n g Emigrants ( T o r o n t o : Hunter, Rose, & Co., 1871), p. 10. 4 ° I b i d . , p. 8 41 The N i p i s s i n g Lowlands i n c l u d e t h e Sudbury B a s i n and gxtend a l o n g the n o r t h shore o f Lake Huron t o S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , i n Putnam, op. c i t . , p. 296. The N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o R e g i o n : Economic Survey (1966) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands and the Sudbury B a s i n , but i n c l u d e s the n o r t h s h o r e a r e a w i t h the Gogama Sandy U p l a n d s . 42 A. Kirkwood and J . J . Murphy, The Undeveloped Lands i n N o r t h e r n  & Western O n t a r i o ( T o r o n t o : Hunter, Rose & Co., 1878), p. 9. 43 F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s of f i r e s p r i o r t o the a r r i v a l o f s e t t l e r s i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , see B l u e , op. c i t . , pp. 205-206. 44 See A.N. Boiss o n n e a u , " G l a c i a l H i s t o r y o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o : I. the Cochrane-Hearst A r e a , " Canadian J o u r n a l of E a r t h S c i e n c e s , V o l . I l l (1966), pp. 559-578. 45 O n t a r i o Department of Crown Lands, The Algoma D i s t r i c t , and  t h a t p a r t o f the N i p i s s i n g D i s t r i c t N o r t h of the Mattawan R i v e r , Lake  N i p i s s i n g and the F r e n c h R i v e r , T h e i r R e s o u r c e s , A g r i c u l t u r a l and M i n i n g  C a p a b i l i t i e s ( T o r o n t o : " G r i p " P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1884), p. 36. 46 B l u e , op. c i t . , p. 206. 47 O n t a r i o , Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , Canada: Magnitude, C l i m a t e , R e s o u r c e s , P r o g r e s s and Advantages ( T o r o n t o : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1912), p. 55. 84 48 A.P. Coleman, "Lake Ojibway: L a s t of the G r e a t G l a c i a l L a k e s , " E i g h t e e n t h Annual Report of the Bureau of M i n e s , 1909, V o l . X V I I I , P t . I ( T o r o n t o : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1909), pp. 284-293. 49 B o i s s o n n e a u , op. c i t . , pp. 560-567. ~^G.A. H i l l s , "Pedology, 'the D i r t S c i e n c e ' and A g r i c u l t u r a l S e t t l e m e n t i n O n t a r i o , " Canadian G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . XXIX, No. 3 (September, 1944), pp. 106-127. "'"'"Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , and O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , E x p e r i m e n t a l Farms S e r v i c e , S o i l Survey of New L i s k e a r d - E n g l e h a r t A r e a , Timiskaming D i s t r i c t , Ontario,Sby. D.W. Hoffman, R.E. Wicklund and N.R. R i c h a r d s , Report No. 21 of the O n t a r i o S o i l Survey (Guelph, 1956$). 52 McOuat, op. c i t . , p. 133. 53 Kirkwood and Murphy, op. c i t . , p. 12. 54 See v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s of the O n t a r i o Department of Crown Lands, e.g.: The Algoma D i s t r i c t , and t h a t p a r t of the N i p i s s i n g D i s t r i c t  N o r t h o f t h e Mattawan R i v e r , Lake N i p i s s i n g and the F r e n c h R i v e r ; T h e i r  R e s o u r c e s , A g r i c u l t u r a l and M i n i n g C a p a b i l i t i e s ( T o r o n t o : " G r i p " P r i n t i n g , 1884); Our N o r t h e r n D i s t r i c t s : E a s t e r n Algoma, N o r t h N i p i s s i n g , R ainy  R i v e r and the Temiscaming S e t t l e m e n t , e t c . e t c . ( T o r o n t o : Warwick Bro's & R u t t e r , 1894); N o r t h e r n D i s t r i c t s of O n t a r i o , Canada: N i p i s s i n g , Algoma, Temiscaming, Wabigoon and R a i n y R i v e r , e t c . ( T o r o n t o : Warwick Bro's & R u t t e r , 1897). See a l s o the P r o s p e c t u s of the N i p i s s i n g and Jamess Bay  R a i l w a y ( T o r o n t o : Copp, C l a r k & Co., 1884), and C.C. F a r r , The Lake  Temiscamingue D i s t r i c t , P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , Canada ( T o r o n t o : Warwick Bro's & R u t t e r , 1893). "'"'Blue, op. c i t . , p. 207. 56 G i b s o n , op. c i t . , p. 118. 5 7 S e e W i l l e t G. M i l l e r , "Lake Temiscaming to the H e i g h t of Land," Report of the Bureau o f Mines, V o l . XI (1902), pp. 214-230; L.L. B o l t o n , "Round Lake to A b i t i b i R i v e r , " Report of the Bureau of Mines, V o l . X I I (1903), pp. 173-190; W.J. W i l s o n , "Western P a r t of the A b i t i b i R e g i o n , " G e o l . Sur. Can. A n n u a l Report (New S e r i e s ) , V o l . XIV (1901), pp. 117-130A. 58 Dominion of Canada, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1880-81, V o l . XIV, No. 23, p. 12. 59 B o r r o n (1890), op. c i t . , p. 11. 60 B o r r o n (1880), op. c i t . , pp. 20-25. 61 O n t a r i o Department of Crown Lands, Report of the Survey and  E x p l o r a t i o n of N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , 1990 ( T o r o n t o : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1901), p. x v i . 85 ^ I b i d . , p. x v i i . 63 George F. Kay, "The A b i t i b i R e g i o n , " Report of the Bureau of  Mines, 1904, V o l X I I I , P a r t I , pp. 104-134 64 Tennyson D. J a r v i s , " A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t i e s o f A b i t i b i , " a ppendix to Kay, op. c i t . , pp. 121-134. See a l s o A r c h i b a l d Henderson, " A g r i c u l t u r a l R esources of the A b i t i b i , " Report of the Bureau of Mines, 1905, V o l . XIV, P t . I (1905), pp. 213-247. ^ L o w e r , S e t t l e m e n t and the F o r e s t F r o n t i e r , pp. 130-146. 66 See D.B. Coombs, "The P h y s i o g r a p h i c S u b d i v i s i o n s of the Hudson Bay Lowlands South of 60°N.," Geographic B u l l e t i n , No. 6 (1954). 6 7 B e l l (1875), op. c i t . , p. 340. 68 B o r r o n (1890), op. c i t . , pp. 8-9. ^ N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , Canada . . . . (1912), op. c i t . , pp. 24-26/ See a l s o L.V. Rorke, "Water Powers on our N o r t h e r n S l o p e to James Bay, P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , " Annual Report and P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  of O n t a r i o Land S u r v e y o r s , No. 25 (1910), pp. 139-147. 7^T.H. Hogg, "Power Development i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , " The  E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , V o l . XX, No. 3 (March, 1937), pp. 124-130. 7"^See W. G i l l i e s Ross, "American Whaling i n Hudson Bay: The Voyage of the B l a c k E a g l e , 1866-1867," Canadian Geographic J o u r n a l , V o l . LXXV, No. 6 (December, 1967), pp. 198-205. 72 C h a r l e s N. B e l l , Our N o r t h e r n Waters; a r e p o r t p r e s e n t e d to  the Winnipeg Board of Trade r e g a r d i n g Hudson's Bay and S t r a i t . . . . (Winnipeg: J a s . E. Steen, 1884); Robert B e l l , "On the Commercial Importance of Hudson's Bay . . .," op. c i t . ; A.H. Markham, "Hudson's Bay and S t r a i t , " R o y a l G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y Supplementary P a p e r s , V o l . I I (1889), pp. 617-60; idem., "Hudson's Bay and Hudson's S t r a i t as a N a v i g a b l e C h a n n e l , " P r o c e e d i n g s of the R o y a l G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , V o l . X (1888), pp. 549-67; J.W. T y r r e l l , "Coast and Harbour Surveys i n Hudson Bay and S t r a i t , " P r o c e e d i n g s of the A s s o c i a t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l Land  S u r v e y o r s of O n t a r i o , No. 13 (1898), pp. 108-18; idem., "Hudson Bay a N a t i o n a l A s s e t , " A n n u a l Report and P r o c e e d i n g s of the A s s o c i a t i o n of  O n t a r i o Land S u r v e y o r s , No. 24 (1909), pp. 108-22. 73 See, f o r example, p r o s p e c t u s N i p i s s i n g & James' Bay R a i l w a y (1884). 7 4 A . P . Low, "Report on E x p l o r a t i o n s i n James Bay and C o u n t r y E a s t of Hudson Bay, d r a i n e d by the B i g , G r e a t Whale and C l e a r w a t e r R i v e r s , " G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Annual Report (New S e r i e s ) , V o l . I l l , P t . J (1887-88); E.A.E. S u l l i v a n , " E n g i n e e r ' s Report of E x p l o r a t i o n Survey t o James Bay," F o u r t h Annual Report of the Temiskaming and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o  R a i l w a y Commission t o December 31, 1905, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , V o l . XXXVIII, 86 P t . X, No. 48 (1906), pp. 54-57; Sydney C. E l l s , "James Bay S u r v e y s : E x p l o r a t i o n T r i p , Cochrane t o James Bay, June 9th to Sept. 12th, 1971," T e n t h A n n u a l R e p o r t of t h e Temiskaming and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o Commission . .  1911, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , V o l . XLIV, P t . V I I , P t . V I I , No. 46 (1912); J.G. M c M i l l a n , " I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t James Bay D u r i n g 1912," and W.R. Maher, "Reconnaissance f o r E x t e n s i o n , " E l e v e n t h Annual Report of the Temiskaming  and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o R a i l w a y Commission, 1912, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , V o l . XLV, P t . X I I I , No. 71 (1913). ^ L e s l i e R o b e r t s , " T i e s A c r o s s the Tundra," Canadian Magazine, No. 9 (September, 1932), pp. 39-41; "Temiskaming and N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o R a i l w a y E x t e n s i o n to James Bay Opened," Canadian R a i l w a y and M a r i n e World, August, 1932, pp. 399-401; George W. Lee, "Southern O n t a r i o L i n k e d w i t h James Bay by R a i l , " Monetary Times, J a n u a r y 13, 1933, p. 52; A r t h u r A. C o l e , " O n t a r i o ' s Route to th e Sea," Canadian G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , September, 1932, pp. 131-153. 76 See L . J . Chapman, "The C l i m a t e of N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , " Canadian  J o u r n a l of A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e , V o l . X X X I I I , No. 1 ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1953), pp. 41-73; Canada, Department of T r a n s p o r t , M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch, The C l i m a t e of N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , by L . J . Chapman and M.K. Thomas ( " C l i m a t o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s , " No. 6; T o r o n t o , 1968); Canada, Department of Mines and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , G e o g r a p h i c a l Branch, A t l a s of Canada (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957), P l a t e s 20-29. 7 7 D e r m i n e , op. c i t . ; and Canada, Department of T r a n s p o r t , M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch, Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n T a b l e s f o r O n t a r i o , V o l . IV ( T o r o n t o , 1967). 78 G i b s o n , op. c i t . , p. 107. 79 N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , Canada . . . . (1912), p. 4. 80 O n t a r i o Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , Timber Branch, The  F o r e s t Resources of O n t a r i o , 1963, by R.M. Dixon ( T o r o n t o , 1963), p. 16. 81 N i p i s s i n g & James' Bay R a i l w a y , op. c i t . , p. 52. CHAPTER I I I EARLY APPROACHES TO NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO: THE NIPISSING LOWLANDS The s e t t l e m e n t p r o c e s s i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o g a i n e d impetus from the r a p i d l y expanding demand f o r lumber i n the l a s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the square timber and lumbering i n d u s t r i e s i n t o the s o u t h e r n Canadian S h i e l d was contempo-raneous w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y , a f t e r 1855, o f e n c o u r a g i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t i n the Huron-Ottawa t r a c t , ! i n the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands, and i n the Algoma d i s t r i c t ( n o r t h shore o f Lake Huron). The movement o f the f r o n t i e r was accompanied i n v a r i a b l y by some form o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvement t o f a c i l i t a t e the i n c r e a s i n g f l o w o f goods between the o l d e r - s e t t l e d a r e a s and the newly opened r e g i o n s . C o l o n i z a t i o n roads were b u i l t and steam n a v i g a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d on those r i v e r s and l a k e s s u i t e d t o i t . I n the e a r l y 1880's r a i l w a y s made t h e i r appearance, o f t e n s u p e r s e d i n g o l d e r modes of t r a n s p o r t and e f f e c t i n g s h i f t s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and economic a c t i v i t y . The dominant p a t h o f i n t e r a c t i o n was the Ottawa V a l l e y , f i r s t by the r i v e r i t s e l f and l a t e r by the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . The Ottawa V a l l e y was a n a t u r a l l i n e o f movement d a t i n g from the e a r l i e s t days o f the f u r t r a d e , and was an i m p o r t a n t element i n the commercial s t r e n g t h o f M o n t r e a l . The second approach was from the s o u t h through the Muskoka and P a r r y Sound r e g i o n s ; t h a t p a t h 88 became f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y a f t e r the N o r t h e r n and P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n R a i l w a y c o n n e c t e d the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c to the e x i s t i n g O n t a r i o r a i l system i n 1886. The Ottawa V a l l e y R e g i o n a l Bond The N i p i s s i n g Lowlands underwent s e v e r a l s u c c e s s i v e forms of economic a c t i v i t y : the f u r t r a d e , t h e lumber t r a d e w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t m a r g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r e , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r a i l w a y s , the p u l p and paper i n d u s t r y , and the growth o f urban-based secondary i n d u s t r y o r i e n t e d toward the r a i l w a y , a g r i c u l t u r e , m i n i n g , and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s not i n t e n d e d h e r e to t r a c e the d e t a i l s o f each o f these s t a g e s o f economic growth i n the N i p i s s i n g d i s t r i c t . ^ R a t h e r , i t w i l l be demonstrated how t r a n s p o r t a t i o n developments and o t h e r f a c t o r s m o d i f i e d f r o n t i e r s e t t l e m e n t , inasmuch as the " t r a d i t i o n a l " Ottawa V a l l e y l i n k a g e was a t f i r s t s t r e n g t h e n e d and t h e n r i v a l l e d t hrough the advent of a n a l t e r n a t i v e system. The Legacy o f the Fur T r a d e , 1780-1855 As p a r t o f the t r a d i t i o n a l canoe r o u t e to the West, the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands of" Passageway was w e l l known to f u r t r a d e r s s i n c e the e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A l t h o u g h the Mattawa R i v e r - L a k e N i p i s s i n g - F r e n c h R i v e r r o u t e had been w e l l t r a v e l l e d d u r i n g the F r e n c h regime, no s e t t l e m e n t had d e v e l o p e d w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f two s m a l l f o r t s - - F o r t Mattawa on the Ottawa R i v e r , and the o t h e r a t the west end of the main p o r t a g e , where L a Vase Creek empties i n t o Lake N i p i s s i n g (see F i g . 18)3 with the f a l l o f the F r e n c h i n 1763, t h e s e 90 f o r t s were abandoned, and t r a f f i c t h r o u g h the N i p i s s i n g Passageway-cease d u n t i l the N o r t h West Company r e v i v e d the f u r t r a d e i n Canada i n the e a r l y 1770's.^ That Company, based a t M o n t r e a l , r e - e s t a b l i s h e d d i r e c t t r a d i n g i n the N i p i s s i n g a r e a . S t u r g e o n R i v e r House was b u i l t i n 1784, and F o r t l a Ronde, a t La Vase Creek, was r e v i v e d as a minor r e p a i r s t a t i o n . 5 The t r a d e r s and the few s e t t l e r s who adhered t o those p o s t s depended upon M o n t r e a l f o r t h e i r s u p p l i e s and f o r a market f o r f u r s . F o l l o w i n g the amalgamation o f the N o r t h West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1821, M o n t r e a l d e c l i n e d r a p i d l y as a c e n t r e f o r the f u r t r a d e ; a f t e r 1825, t r a f f i c from the S t . Lawrence to the North-West dw i n d l e d as York F a c t o r y became the pre-eminent f o c u s of the f u r t r a d e . T r a d i n g i n the a r e a d i r e c t l y t r i b u t a r y t o Lake N i p i s s i n g was always m a r g i n a l among the p r i o r i t i e s o f b o t h the N o r t h West and Hudson's Bay Companies; the l a t t e r , however, c o n t i n u e d to m a i n t a i n Mattawa and S t u r g e o n R i v e r Houses as p o s t s s u b s i d i a r y to F o r t Temiskaming u n t i l about 1855. I n the p e r i o d 1825-55 f u r s moved n o r t h to Moose F a c t o r y o v e r the arduous Quinze R i v e r - A b i t i b i R i v e r r o u t e . Some s u p p l i e s and m a i l f o r the Temiskaming and N i p i s s i n g a r e a p o s t s were brought up the Ottawa R i v e r from M o n t r e a l . The f u r t r a d e l e f t l i t t l e permanent i m p r i n t on the s e t t l e m e n t of the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands. I t was s i g n i f i c a n t inasmuch as i t e s t a b l i s h e d Mattawa as a t r a d i n g c e n t r e s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to b o t h the Upper Ottawa V a l l e y and the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands. Mattawa became a f o c u s o f the Upper Ottawa timber t r a d e , which a r o s e 91 a t about the time t h a t the f u r t r a d e i n the a r e a ended. Lumbering and th e S e t t l e m e n t F r o n t i e r , 1855-81 The Logger and Farmer.--The Ottawa R i v e r s q u a r e - t i m b e r t r a d e had extended as f a r u p - r i v e r as Mattawa by 1835, but the f i r s t lumber camp was not e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e u n t i l 1855.6 L o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s q u i c k l y s p r e a d through the l i m i t e d a r e a o f the Mattawa R i v e r b a s i n ; l o g s were d r i v e n down the Kaibuskong and Mattawa R i v e r s to the Ottawa and t h e n t o m i l l s a t Pembroke, Ottawa, H u l l and M o n t r e a l . Lumber was not manu-f a c t u r e d above Pembroke because o f the absence o f r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t . Most o f the lumber made i n the d o w n - r i v e r c e n t r e s was d e s t i n e d f o r Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The lumber camps t h a t p r o l i f e r a t e d i n t h e Upper Ottawa V a l l e y c r e a t e d a l a r g e demand f o r f o o d and f o d d e r : The f a r t h e r they [ t h e lumbermenl] went, the more d i f f i c u l t the problem o f s u p p l i e s became. H i g h p r i c e s a t the camps had t h e i r n a t u r a l r e s u l t s and the s e t t l e r moved up c l o s e r to the a c t u a l scene o f o p e r a t i o n s . A s o r t o f r a c e took p l a c e between two w i t h t h e lumberman always a l i t t l e ahead, and never b e i n g f u r n i s h e d w i t h enough produce by the man on the s p o t . S e t t l e r s q u i c k l y got up as f a r as Pembroke on b o t h s i d e s o f the r i v e r b u t as the a c t i v i t i e s o f the lumbermen i n c r e a s e d and the amount o f produce i t was p o s s i b l e t o r a i s e l o c a l l y d e c r e a s e d as the r i v e r was ascended, the s e t t l e r s f a r t h e r down d i d n o t l o s e t h e i r good market. Thus the p i o n e e r s o f C a r l e t o n County a f t e r h a v i n g s e r v e d the lumbermen a t t h e i r v e r y doors f o r many y e a r s , a f t e r w a r d s teamed t h e i r hay and o a t s , pork, and b u t t e r up t o the camps on the Madawaska and Bonnechere.7 I n r e s p o n s e t o the market f o r f r e s h food and f o d d e r , a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e r s took up l a n d wherever t h e r e were a r a b l e p o c k e t s . As was the c a s e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the S h i e l d , many men who worked i n the camps d u r i n g the w i n t e r attempted f a r m i n g i n the summer, a p r a c t i c e which 92 was e s p e c i a l l y common among the F r e n c h Canadians who moved i n t o the a r e a . Most s e t t l e m e n t p r i o r to the r a i l w a y o c c u r r e d i n the Mattawa R i v e r b a s i n . The l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p e o p l e was found i n the v i c i n i t y o f Mattawa; i n 1871 Mattawan Township had a p o p u l a t i o n o f 400.^ O t h e r s e t t l e r s l o c a t e d l a n d a l o n g the L'Amable du Fond R i v e r and around Lake Nosbonsing. As e a r l y as 1865 a few s e t t l e r s had moved ahead of l u m b e r i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n t o the lower v a l l e y of the South R i v e r , which d r a i n s i n t o Lake N i p i s s i n g (see F i g . 1 8 , page 89 ) . There N i p i s s i n g V i l l a g e was e s t a b l i s h e d , w h i c h by 1874 c o n s i s t e d o f o n l y n i n e f a m i l i e s . 9 P u b l i c P o l i c y and S e t t l e m e n t . - - T h e lumber i n d u s t r y p r o v i d e d the i n i t i a l s t i m u l u s f o r the advance o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t i n t o N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The p i o n e e r farmer was, however, b e s e t w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s . The governments of b o t h O n t a r i o and Quebec, and the Roman C a t h o l i c Church i n the l a t t e r p r o v i n c e , encouraged the s e t t l e r t o occupy Crown l a n d i n the S h i e l d , even where i t was u n f i t f o r a n y t h i n g but growing t r e e s . Government p o l i c y was f o r m u l a t e d t o a c h i e v e the g o a l o f e x t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t . The l a n d s u r v e y s o f S a l t e r i n 1 8 5 5 , ^ the d e c l a r a t i o n o f f r e e - g r a n t l a n d s i n the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands and Algoma, and an a m b i t i o u s programme o f c o l o n i -z a t i o n r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n were m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c p o l i c y i n O n t a r i o . The b e l i e f t h a t l u m b e r i n g was a t r a n s i e n t phase t h a t would always g i v e way to a g r i c u l t u r e r e s u l t e d i n an absence o f measures t h a t would have ensured w i s e l a n d use i n those p a r t s of t h e S h i e l d t h a t were u n f i t f o r a n y t h i n g b u t f o r e s t r y . The lumbermen of the l a t e 93 n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y became i n c r e a s i n g l y alarmed a t the waste o f v a l u a b l e p i n e b e i n g c u t and burned by s e t t l e r s i n a r e a s o f d o u b t f u l a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l . The r e s u l t was a r u t h l e s s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the f o r e s t i n an e f f o r t t o get out the b e s t p i n e b e f o r e i t was d e s t r o y e d by the s e t t l e r . Lumbering and a s s o c i a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t i n the Ottawa V a l l e y were not w h o l l y c o m p a t i b l e , even though t h e r e was mutual dependence: the lumberman depended on the s e t t l e r f o r h i s produce and f o r h i s teams i n the w i n t e r c u t t i n g season, w h i l e the s e t t l e r found h i s markets and o f f - s e a s o n employment i n the lumber camps.H T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Improvements: C o l o n i z a t i o n Roads.--Apart from n a v i g a b l e s t r e t c h e s o f the Ottawa R i v e r , t r a v e l between the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands f r o n t i e r and o l d e r a r e a s was e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t and, a t c e r t a i n times of the y e a r , i m p o s s i b l e . Downstream t r a f f i c on the Ottawa c o n s i s t e d m o s t l y o f l o g s and upstream came f o o d and f o d d e r , u s u a l l y i n w i n t e r . B e f o r e the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the C a nadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , steamship t r a n s p o r t became f a i r l y w e l l d e v e l o p e d on the Ottawa i n r e s p o n s e to the lumber i n d u s t r y . 1 2 Government-financed c o l o n i z a t i o n roads were u s u a l l y b u i l t i n t o a r e a s where some s e t t l e m e n t had a l r e a d y t a k e n p l a c e . In 1871 Mattawa was l i n k e d w i t h Deux R i v i e r e s f a r t h e r down the Ottawa, a weekly coach s e r v i c e was i n a u g u r a t e d , and the r o a d was extended to Pembroke i n 1 8 7 4 . 1 3 The Muskoka Road and the Rosseau and N i p i s s i n g Road p r o v i d e d the f i r s t a c c e s s t o the s o u t h e r n p a r t s of t h e N i p i s s i n g Lowlands from s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o . The r o a d r e a c h e d N i p i s s i n g V i l l a g e i n 1875 and was 94 extended to Lake N i p i s s i n g about 1880 (see F i g . 1 8 ) . N i p i s s i n g V i l l a g e f o r a p e r i o d o f about t e n y e a r s was a n u c l e u s whereby s e t t l e r s b ranched out west and e a s t to R e s t o u l e Lake and Powassan, and n o r t h e a s t t o C a l l a n d e r . 1 4 There i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t South R i v e r a r e a s e t t l e m e n t s and the Mattawa R i v e r s e t t l e m e n t s i n t e r a c t e d t o any g r e a t e x t e n t . The N i p i s s i n g Road and the Mattawa Road were a p p a r e n t l y not c o n n e c t e d b e f o r e the advent o f the r a i l w a y , a l t h o u g h p r o b a b l y w i n t e r l o g g i n g roads e x i s t e d between C a l l a n d e r and B o n f i e l d . The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n . - - T h e improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y e f f e c t e d by t h e Mattawa Road and the N i p i s s i n g Road, combined w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f l u m b e r i n g o p e r a t i o n s , i n f l u e n c e d the d i s t r i b u t i o n and e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of the s e t t l e m e n t f r o n t i e r . U n t i l about 1880 l o g g i n g was l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to the Mattawa R i v e r b a s i n . I r i s h and F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s e t t l e r s from the lower Ottawa V a l l e y and Quebec who were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h lumbering s e t t l e d around Mattawa, Eau C l a i r e , R u t h e r g l e n and Lake N o s b o n s i n g l ^ (see F i g . 1 8 ) . South o f Lake N i p i s s i n g the s e t t l e m e n t s o f N i p i s s i n g V i l l a g e , Commanda, Powassan and R e s t o u l e e v i d e n c e d a more d i v e r s e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n ; the Germans, I r i s h , S c o t t i s h and E n g l i s h comprised the l a r g e s t groups.1^ Powassan was a "prosperous s e t t l e m e n t , l a r g e l y German,"17 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e South R i v e r V a l l e y was p r o b a b l y much l e s s m a r g i n a l t h a n i n the e a s t e r n p a r t of the Lowlands. P o p u l a t i o n growth i n b o t h a r e a s d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1871-81 was u n d r a m a t i c , a t t e s t i n g the l i m i t e d a t t r a c t i o n which the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands h e l d f o r s e t t l e r s . From a h a n d f u l of p e o p l e i n 1871, the 95 South R i v e r s e t t l e m e n t s had grown to 955 by 1881. Mattawan Township i n c r e a s e d from 400 to 647 p e o p l e d u r i n g the same p e r i o d , w h i l e an a d d i t i o n a l 205 had t a k e n up l a n d i n Papineau Township and 360 i n the Townships o f B o n f i e l d , C h i s h olm, F e r r i s , C a l v i n , B o u l t e r and Lauder. Two g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s emerge c o n c e r n i n g f r o n t i e r developments b e f o r e the coming o f the r a i l w a y : (1) the lumber t r a d e s t i m u l a t e d the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t s e t t l e m e n t i n the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands, but the n a t u r e o f the l a n d and d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a c c e s s p l a c e d s e v e r e c o n s t r a i n t s upon the movement o f p e o p l e ; (2) the Ottawa V a l l e y l i n k a g e was dominant compared w i t h the l i n k a g e t o s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o . E t h n i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o c c u r r e d on the f r o n t i e r caused, i n p a r t , by the c o n t r a s t i n g n a t u r e of the two l i n e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n . The G e o r g i a n Bay Lumber Trade i n the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands, 1878-1885 M e t r o p o l i t a n I n f l u e n c e s . - - T h e major market f o r the Ottawa V a l l e y lumber i n d u s t r y was the u r b a n i z i n g e a s t e r n s e aboard of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the c i t y o f New York. Competing a c t i v e l y f o r C a n a d i a n lumber was the c i t y o f C h i c a g o , which drew i t s s u p p l i e s from the Lake Huron and G e o r g i a n Bay a r e a s i n a d d i t i o n t o M i c h i g a n , W i s c o n s i n , and Minnesota.19 Because n a t u r a l d r a i n a g e b a s i n s l i m i t e d the a r e a l e x t e n t o f f o r e s t e x t r a c t i o n b e f o r e the coming o f r a i l w a y s , the h e i g h t o f l a n d between the Mattawa R i v e r and Lake N i p i s s i n g marked a zone o f convergence between the s u p p l y r e g i o n s o f the New York and Chicago markets. P i n e i n the Lake N i p i s s i n g and F r e n c h R i v e r w a t e r s h e d s , as w e l l as t h a t on the n o r t h shore o f Lake Huron ( D i s t r i c t o f Algoma), remained u n c u t 96 u n t i l a f t e r 1878, when the f i r s t o f the G e o r g i a n Bay lumbermen moved i n . L o g g i n g O p e r a t i o n s . - - L o g s d r i v e n down the F r e n c h R i v e r and t h o s e c u t on the n o r t h shore o f Lake Huron were e i t h e r towed a c r o s s the l a k e to the A m erican s i d e or were m i l l e d a t many towns on the s o u t h e r n shore of G e o r g i a n Bay. U n t i l the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y was b u i l t v e r y l i t t l e lumber c o u l d be sawn i n the c u t t i n g r e g i o n s . L o g g i n g camps--such as F r e n c h R i v e r V i l l a g e , C o l l i n s I n l e t , K i l l a r n e y , S p a n i s h , Spragge, M i s s i s s a u g a , and Thessalon--were e s t a b l i s h e d a l o n g the n o r t h s h o r e . Some o f those p l a c e s ( f o r example, T h e s s a l o n , S p a n i s h , B l i n d R i v e r , and Spragge) became i m p o r t a n t s a w m i l l i n g c e n t r e s a f t e r the r a i l w a y was b u i l t . O t h e r s d e c l i n e d once l o c a l s u p p l i e s of p i n e timber were ex h a u s t e d . Some lumber was c u t f o r l o c a l consumption i n a r e a s where a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t was advanced, as on M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d . A g r i c u l t u r a l S e t t l e m e n t . - - A g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the G e o r g i a n Bay lumber t r a d e i n the Lake N i p i s s i n g and F r e n c h R i v e r a r e a s was not as common as i n the e a s t e r n p a r t o f the Lowlands. The main r e a s o n s f o r the r e l a t i v e l a c k of development were the s c a r c i t y o f a r a b l e l a n d and the d i f f i c u l t y o f a c c e s s . By 1879 a few s e t t l e r s had moved i n t o S p r i n g e r and C a l d w e l l Townships,2° l o c a t e d i n the l a c u s t r i n e c l a y t e r r a c e n o r t h and west o f Lake N i p i s s i n g . The l a n d was s u i t a b l e f o r f a r m i n g , but i t was e x t e n s i v e l y burned o v e r . ^ l Lack o f t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and t h e d i s t a n c e from l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s p r e c l u d e d e x t e n s i v e s e t t l e m e n t u n t i l a f t e r the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y passed t h r o u g h the a r e a i n 1883. By 1886 F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s e t t l e r s a s s o c i a t e d 97 w i t h the F r e n c h R i v e r d r i v e s had t a k e n up l a n d i n the c l a y p o c k e t s west o f Lake N i p i s s i n g , where s m a l l v i l l a g e s such as M o n e t v i l l e and N o e l v i l l e became e s t a b l i s h e d . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Improvements.--Prior to the r a i l w a y the move-ment o f s e t t l e r s from the Mattawa R i v e r westward t o Lake N i p i s s i n g was h i n d e r e d ; p i o n e e r s moved w i t h d i f f i c u l t y over the poor bush roads l e f t by the lumbermen.22 D u r i n g the lumbering p e r i o d s e r i o u s p r o p o s a l s were made to c a n a l i z e the F r e n c h and Mattawa R i v e r systems, t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g d i r e c t n a v i g a t i o n between the Ottawa R i v e r and the Upper Lakes.23 The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y p r e c l u d e d the scheme. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n was improved i n 1881 by the i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a steamboat s e r v i c e on Lake N i p i s s i n g . T h i s s e r v e d the growing s e t t l e m e n t s of C a l l a n d e r , S t u r g e o n F a l l s , and N i p i s s i n g V i l l a g e , as w e l l as the c o n s t r u c t i o n crews o f the C a nadian P a c i f i c . 2 4 The e x t e n s i o n o f the Ottawa V a l l e y lumber i n d u s t r y west o f t h a t r i v e r system was i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t the r a i l w a y . I n 1884 J.R. Booth b u i l t a 5.5-mile r a i l w a y between Lake Nosbosing and Lake N i p i s s i n g to move l o g s from the l a t t e r t o the Ottawa w a t e r s h e d . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y had a much more d r a m a t i c e f f e c t on s e t t l e m e n t and economic development i n the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands, s t r e n g t h e n i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y the Ottawa V a l l e y l i n k a g e . The E f f e c t s o f the C a nadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1882-1900 Inasmuch as the C a nadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y was p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d t o l i n k M o n t r e a l w i t h the P a c i f i c c o a s t and to open the west f o r 98 s e t t l e m e n t , i t s e f f e c t s i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o were i n c i d e n t a l . 3 The augmented i n f l u x o f p e o p l e i n t o the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands and the d i s c o v e r y and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s i n the Sudbury B a s i n were the two most im p o r t a n t e f f e c t s o f the r a i l w a y . A p a r t from those a r e a s , the C a nadian P a c i f i c i n d u c e d v e r y l i t t l e s e t t l e m e n t i n t o the S h i e l d and, a s i d e from l u m b e r i n g , g e n e r a t e d l i t t l e i n t e r n a l t r a f f i c t h e r e . But the e x p a n s i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t i n t o the Sudbury and N i p i s s i n g d i s t r i c t s and the c o n c o m i t a n t e x t e n s i o n o f the commercial h i n t e r l a n d of M o n t r e a l had an i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g on the e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r l a t e r r a i l w a y s p r o j e c t e d i n t o N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The Canada C e n t r a l R a i l w a y r e a c h e d Mattawa from Pembroke i n 1881, r e - e m p h a s i z i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l bond of the Ottawa V a l l e y . The Canada C e n t r a l was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the C a nadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y 9 fi Company on June 9, 1881, the c h a r t e r o f the l a t t e r had d e s i g n a t e d C a l l a n d e r ( B o n f i e l d ) as the l e g a l b e g i n n i n g p o i n t o f the r a i l w a y , to w h i c h independent r a i l w a y companies would, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , b u i l d l i n k s from T o r o n t o t o M o n t r e a l . The a l r e a d y - b u i l t Canada C e n t r a l , i n becoming p a r t of the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c system, gave M o n t r e a l a d i s t i n c t advantage over T o r o n t o f o r the c o n t r o l o f w e s t e r n t r a d e . 2 7 The N i p i s s i n g Lowlands p r e s e n t e d a n a t u r a l r o u t e f o r the r a i l w a y . I n a d d i t i o n to low e l e v a t i o n s and easy g r a d e s , t h a t r o u t e had the advantage o f fewer r o c k - c u t s and l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f timber and b a l l a s t . 2 8 E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t was the good s u p p l y o f l a b o u r from the e s t a b l i s h e d s e t t l e m e n t s i n the a r e a ; t h e s e s e t t l e m e n t s c o u l d a l s o s u p p l y food and f o d d e r , t i m b e r , and teams f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n 99 work. The r a i l w a y r e a c h e d the s i t e o f N o r t h Bay i n 1882, where t h e r e was no p r i o r s e t t l e m e n t ; here t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company d e c i d e d to e s t a b l i s h a major d i v i s i o n a l p o i n t and soon e s t a b l i s h e d a round house, c o a l depot, r e p a i r s t a t i o n , and o t h e r s e r v i c e i n s t a l l a t i o n s 29 f o r the r a i l w a y . As a r e s u l t of the r a i l w a y f a c i l i t i e s (the Grand Trunk added t h e i r s as w e l l when i t was completed to N o r t h Bay i n 1886), N o r t h Bay grew r a p i d l y ; the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d from 1,850 i n 1891 to 2,530 i n 1901, and t o 7,737 i n 1911. By the t u r n of the c e n t u r y N o r t h Bay had emerged as the dominant urban c e n t r e f o r the whole of the 30 N i p i s s i n g d i s t r i c t ; i t s l o c a t i o n near the j u n c t i o n of two major r a i l w a y s and on Lake N i p i s s i n g e n a b l e d the town to s e r v e much of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , i n c l u d i n g the Sudbury and Timiskaming d i s t r i c t s . As t h e r a i l w a y proceeded westward, s e t t l e r s f o l l o w e d i n t o the c l a y l a n d s west of Sturgeon F a l l s and i n t o t h e v a l l e y of t h e Veuve R i v e r . The s t a t i o n s of Warren, V e r n e r , and Hagar became n u c l e i i f o r waggon roads b r a n c h i n g out i n t o the s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y , and a t t a i n e d , i n t i m e , the s t a t u r e of minor s e r v i c e c e n t r e s f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t which f o l l o w e d . The p i o n e e r f a r m e r s who came a f t e r the r a i l w a y were l e s s dependent upon the lumber camps than were those d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d . More permanent f o o d demand was i n c r e a s i n g i n the new and growing towns of N o r t h Bay, Sturgeon F a l l s , and Cache Bay. A f t e r the coming of the r a i l w a y , lumbering o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e N i p i s s i n g D i s t r i c t changed i n l o c a t i o n , i n the magnitude of p r o d u c t i o n , and i n the p r o c e s s of m anufacture. The b e s t of t h e r e d and w h i t e p i n e 100 had been n e a r l y a l l c u t by 1883; what timber was l e f t was soon d e s t r o y e d by w i d e s p r e a d f o r e s t f i r e s , a v e r y common event f o l l o w i n g f i r s t s e t t l e m e n t i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o . The scene o f l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s s h i f t e d t o the west a l o n g the r a i l w a y and to the n o r t h as f a r as streams such as the S t u r g e o n and the Veuve p e r m i t t e d . Wherever the r a i l w a y c r o s s e d a d r i v e a b l e stream, a s m a l l m i l l was s e t up, and when the a c c e s s i b l e timber was exhausted the m i l l c o u l d be d i s m a n t l e d and r e l o c a t e d i n a 31 new a r e a . x More permanent m i l l s were e s t a b l i s h e d a t N o r t h Bay, S t u r g e o n F a l l s , Cache Bay, and C a l l a n d e r , where o p e r a t i o n s c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d by v i r t u e o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n s on b o t h the r a i l w a y s and on the l a r g e r r i v e r and l a k e systems, e n s u r i n g a c o n t i n u i n g s u p p l y o f l o g s from the remoter p a r t s o f the r e g i o n . Logs from the s o u t h e r n Timagami r e g i o n were b e i n g d r i v e n down the St u r g e o n R i v e r t o Lake N i p i s s i n g d u r i n g the 1880's and ' 9 0 ' s . 3 2 The d e c l i n e o f l o g d r i v e s from the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands down the Ottawa and F r e n c h R i v e r s and the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f m i l l s near the s o u r c e o f l u m b e r i n g o p e r a t i o n s were a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i -b i l i t y and v e r s a t i l i t y o f the r a i l w a y . Sawn lumber c o u l d be f r e i g h t e d d i r e c t l y t o w h o l e s a l e markets i n Ottawa, M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o o r New York. A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f a c h a n g i n g t e c h n o l o g y i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the St u r g e o n F a l l s P u l p and Paper Company i n 1898. I t was a c c e s s i b l e t o l a r g e stands of second-growth sp r u c e which c o u l d be d r i v e n down the Sturgeon R i v e r o r brought i n by r a i l . Other i m p o r t a n t l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s were t h e power p o t e n t i a l o f S t u r g e o n F a l l s , the r a i l w a y f a c i l i t i e s t o s h i p the manufactured p r o d u c t 101 t o s o u t h e r n markets, and the growing numbers o f F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s e t t l e r s who c o u l d c u t pulpwood e i t h e r i n the camps or from t h e i r own l o t s The Ottawa V a l l e y L i n k a g e D u r i n g the e a r l y p e r i o d o f s e t t l e m e n t i n the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands, the Ottawa V a l l e y p r o v i d e d the s t r o n g e s t l i n k w i t h o l d e r r e g i o n s . T h i s was e v i d e n c e d i n the f u r t r a d e , the lumber t r a d e , and r a i l w a y d e v e l o p -ments. The c o m p a r a t i v e l y easy a c c e s s v i a the Ottawa V a l l e y r e s u l t e d i n the major o r i e n t a t i o n o f human i n t e r a c t i o n toward the Lower S t . Lawrence. I t extended the commercial h i n t e r l a n d of M o n t r e a l , w h i c h had a w e l l -d e v e l o p e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f f i n a n c e , i n d u s t r y , and e x p o r t i n g t i e s . L a r g e numbers o f F r e n c h Canadians and I r i s h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Ottawa V a l l e y lumber i n d u s t r y s e t t l e d i n the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands, h e l p i n g to s t r e n g t h e n the bond w i t h the lower S t . Lawrence r e g i o n s . The G e o r g i a n Bay lumber t r a d e was d i s t i n c t from the Ottawa V a l l e y t r a d e u n t i l the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y made i t s appearance. A f t e r 1882 the Ottawa V a l l e y l i n k a g e was extended westward, accompanied by the r i s e o f s econdary p r o c e s s i n g i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . L i n k a g e s w i t h s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o were weak. There was some i n t e r -a c t i o n between the s e t t l e r s o f the South R i v e r v a l l e y and s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o , but p o p u l a t i o n g a i n s i n t h a t a r e a o f the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands were modest u n t i l a f t e r the O n t a r i o r a i l w a y system was extended northward. R a i l w a y L i n k a g e w i t h S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o Urban I n f l u e n c e s : T o r o n t o I n the l a t t e r h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the c i t y o f T o r o n t o 102 emerged as the p r i m a t e c e n t r e i n s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o . I t s growth has been d e s c r i b e d as p a s s i n g through f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t a g e s ( i ) the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the m a r k e t i n g system f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a - -the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f w h o l e s a l i n g , s t o r a g e , and exchange f a c i l i t i e s ; (2) the growth o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n and around the c i t y ; (3) the e x p a n s i o n o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i n t o a w i d e n i n g commercial h i n t e r l a n d ; and (4) the m a t u r i n g o f the f i n a n c i a l i n f r a -s t r u c t u r e — b a n k s , investment houses, i n s u r a n c e companies, and the Stock E x c h a n g e — t o m o b i l i z e c a p i t a l f o r the d e v e l o p i n g p a r t s o f the h i n t e r l a n d . The growth of the O n t a r i o r a i l w a y system 3-* was i n l a r g e measure a r e s u l t o f the d e s i r e o f T o r o n t o ' s commercial i n t e r e s t s t o expand and c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n the O n t a r i o P e n i n s u l a and to r i v a l M o n t r e a l more e f f e c t i v e l y f o r the t r a d e o f the p r o v i n c e . T h i s growth began w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f such v i t a l l i n e s as the N o r t h e r n , the M i d l a n d , and the T o r o n t o and N i p i s s i n g R a i l w a y s , a l l o f which opened the r e g i o n n o r t h o f T o r o n t o f o r s e t t l e m e n t and made i t s r i c h f o r e s t s a c c e s s i b l e f o r the American lumber m a r k e t s . 3 ^ The N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y , which r e a c h e d C o l l i n g w o o d from T o r o n t o i n 1853, was e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , opening a more d i r e c t r o u t e to the Upper Lakes and to the North-West and d i v e r t i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f l a k e t r a f f i c t h r o u g h G e o r g i a n Bay to T o r o n t o . That r a i l w a y was p e r i o d i c a l l y extended, r e a c h i n g G r a v e n h u r s t i n 1875 and making a c c e s s i b l e the Muskoka p i n e f o r e s t s . The e x t e n s i o n o f r a i l w a y s r a d i a l l y from T o r o n t o and the 103 s t r e n g t h e n i n g l i n k a g e o f t h a t c i t y w i t h New Y o r k 3 ? v i a Oswego and the E r i e C a n a l t h r e a t e n e d the commercial supremacy o f M o n t r e a l and t h e S t . Lawrence r o u t e . The G a z e t t e warned M o n t r e a l businessmen to beware o f the a m b i t i o n s o f T o r o n t o and H a m i l t o n " p u s h i n g out t h e i r arms toward 38 the nor t h , " J O and argued t h a t t r a d e s h o u l d be d i v e r t e d from T o r o n t o t o M o n t r e a l v i a P o r t Hope and by the e x p a n s i o n o f the Grand Trunk. The C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y and the Toronto-Lake N i p i s s i n g  L i nkage.--The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the r a i l w a y from T o r o n t o to Lake N i p i s s i n g i n 1886 was the l a s t o f a s e r i e s o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y e x t e n s i o n s n o r t h -ward of the O n t a r i o r a i l n e t . T h i s was a r e s u l t o f two complementary f o r c e s : the d e s i r e o f T o r o n t o businessmen to expand t h e i r h i n t e r l a n d i n O n t a r i o ; and t h e n e c e s s i t y t o compete w i t h M o n t r e a l f o r the w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n t r a d e w h i c h was e x p e c t e d a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . As e a r l y as 1857, the Globe had s t r e s s e d the importance o f a d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n of T o r o n t o w i t h the Red R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t . 3 y As l o n g as communications w i t h the West were by way o f the G r e a t Lakes and C h i c a g o , T o r o n t o had some advantages over M o n t r e a l . But the c h a r t e r i n g o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y through a l l - C a n a d i a n t e r r i t o r y , t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o n t r o v e r s i a l s e l e c t i o n o f M o n t r e a l as the e a s t e r n t e r m i n u s , c o m p e l l e d O n t a r i o e n t r e p r e n e u r s t o p l a n immediately f o r a l i n k w i t h the Canadian P a c i f i c a t Lake N i p i s s i n g as soon as p o s s i b l e . The T o r o n t o Board o f Trade, on J u l y 3, 1874, d e c l a r e d t h a t i t i s o f immense importance to the commercial i n t e r e s t s o f the P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , and to T o r o n t o i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t communication s h o u l d be had by R a i l w a y between the proposed E a s t e r n t e r m i n u s o f the Canada P a c i f i c R a i l w a y and the 104 r a i l w a y system o f O n t a r i o . That i n o r d e r to e n a b l e Western O n t a r i o to e n t e r i n t o c o m p e t i t i o n upon a n y t h i n g l i k e e q u a l terms w i t h the P r o v i n c e o f Quebec f o r the t r a d e p a s s i n g over the proposed F r e n c h R i v e r Branch R a i l w a y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to make the c o n n e c t i o n a t a n e a r l y date.40 The v a r i o u s companies formed to c o n s t r u c t the " P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n " r a i l w a y ^ were e m b r o i l e d i n an i n v o l v e d s e r i e s o f p o l i t i c a l manoeuvres a t b o t h the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l . I t s u f f i c e s t o say t h a t , a f t e r a t e n - y e a r p e r i o d o f b i t t e r r i v a l r y , the N o r t h e r n and P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n R a i l w a y Company was awarded a generous f e d e r a l s u b s i d y o f $12,000 per m i l e to b u i l d the 115-mile l i n e between G r a v e n h u r s t and N o r t h Bay;42 the r o a d was opened f o r t r a f f i c on January 27, 1886.43 The c o m p l e t i o n o f the N o r t h e r n and P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n R a i l w a y had two e f f e c t s : i t p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l e d the d e s i r e o f T o r o n t o to share i n the t r a d e to the West; and i t made a c c e s s i b l e a g r e a t d e a l o f p i n e timber i n the n o r t h e r n Muskoka d i s t r i c t and p r o v i d e d b e t t e r i n g r e s s to the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands f o r s e t t l e r s from S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o . The N o r t h Bay I n t e r c h a n g e The f e d e r a l government had s t i p u l a t e d , when i t g r a n t e d the s u b s i d y t o the N o r t h e r n and P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n , t h a t t h e r e be s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r c h a n g e a t N o r t h Bay between t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c and the N. & P.J. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t N o r t h Bay o f m a r s h a l l i n g y a r d s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s by b o t h companies added s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the economic base and growth o f t h a t town. However, i t soon became app a r e n t t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e eastward-bound t r a f f i c f o r t h c o m i n g on the Canadian P a c i f i c , e x c e p t f o r lumber; t h i s f a c t f o r c e d the Canadian P a c i f i c t o expand i t s system i n t o 105 Southern Ontario and Quebec thereby becoming a strong r i v a l to the Grand Trunk. An agreement between the two companies provided that the Grand Trunk (which absorbed the Northern and i t s s u b s i d i a r i e s i n 1892) carry f r e i g h t from Toronto to North Bay for transfer to the West, but the Grand Trunk complained that i t was getting l i t t l e t r a f f i c i n return.44 Precise data are lacking, but most north-bound t r a f f i c on the Grand Trunk consisted of c o a l , manufactures and merchandise; southbound f r e i g h t consisted mostly of lumber cut i n the northern Muskoka d i s t r i c t , through which the N. & P.J. Railway passed.45 E f f e c t of the Toronto-Lake N i p i s s i n g Linkage on the Settlement of the  N i p i s s i n g Lowlands The coming of the railway made obsolete the Rosseau and N i p i s s i n g waggon road; N i p i s s i n g V i l l a g e , which had been i t s northern terminus, declined as a d i s t r i b u t i o n a l centre f o r the surrounding a g r i c u l t u r a l settlements.46 The o r i g i n a l v i l l a g e of Powassan, located on the South River, experienced a s h i f t to a point on the railway, two miles east, and became an a g r i c u l t u r a l service centre for the South River v a l l e y and for the new farmland opening up to the east of the railway. Callander, on Lake N i p i s s i n g 1 s East Bay, had previously been a minor c o l l e c t i o n of shacks; the railway favoured i t s l o c a t i o n f o r the establishment of a number of sawmills, drawing logs from across the lake and from the south by r a i l . The most substantial e f f e c t of the railway was the increase i n urban growth of North Bay. The l i n k i n g of the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands with Southern Ontario tended to d i f f e r e n t i a t e further the d i s t r i b u t i o n of population, both 106 s p a t i a l l y and e t h n i c a l l y . J u s t as F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s e t t l e r s had f o l l o w e d the advance of the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c i n t o newly-opened a r a b l e a r e a s n o r t h and west of Lake N i p i s s i n g , the N o r t h e r n and P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n drew s e t t l e r s from S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o i n t o the s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands. T a b l e 1 shows t h a t t h a t a r e a was more e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s i f i e d i n comparison w i t h the e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n s e c t i o n s o f the Lowlands. F i g u r e 19 i l l u s t r a t e s the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n 1901. The e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n p o r t i o n s were o r i e n t e d toward the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , and the dominant F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e a t t e s t s t o the i n f l u x o f p e o p l e from Quebec and from the lower Ottawa V a l l e y . The s o u t h e r n s e c t i o n e v i n c e s the i n f l u e n c e o f i n -m i g r a t i o n from S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o , f i r s t by c o l o n i z a t i o n r o a d and l a t e r by the N o r t h e r n and P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n (Grand Trunk) R a i l w a y . There was a f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s between r u r a l a r e a s and "urban" p l a c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n s e c t i o n s o f the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands. The F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n p e o p l e , w i t h t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y t o work i n f o r e s t - b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s and t o farm m a r g i n a l l a n d , tended t o be d i s t r i b u t e d most h e a v i l y i n the r u r a l a r e a s . F o r example, the upper S t u r g e o n R i v e r v a l l e y was s e t t l e d a l m o s t t o t a l l y by F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s ; S t u r g e o n F a l l s , the major u r b a n c e n t r e f o r the a r e a , had a l e s s e r p r o p o r t i o n o f F r e n c h w i t h 42 per c e n t . The E n g l i s h , I r i s h , and S c o t s tended t o l o c a t e i n the towns and v i l l a g e s , b e i n g more i n c l i n e d t o work a t such secondary and t e r t i a r y s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s as m i l l i n g and r e t a i l i n g . The town o f 107 TABLE 1 ETHNIC DIFFERENTIATION IN NIPISSING LOWLANDS, 1901 E t h n i c O r i g i n Southern E a s t e r n Western S e c t i o n 3 S e c t i o n 1 3 S e c t i o n c E n g l i s h % 25.8 % 13.6 % 9.9 I r i s h 32.8 21.6 14.6 S c o t t i s h 18.2 10.7 10.0 F r e n c h 2.5 45.6 62.3 German 16.2 2.7 1.1 Other 4.5 5.8 2.1 P o p u l a t i o n 6,702 10,049 6,616 Townships of N o r t h and South Himsworth, N i p i s s i n g , Gurd, P r i n g l e , P a t t e r s o n , Lount, Machar, J o l y , and Strong ( D i s t r i c t of Muskoka and P a r r y Sound). ^Townships of Mattawan, Papineau, C h i s h o l m , B o u l t e r , C a l v i n , B o n f i e l d , L a uder, F e r r i s , W i d d i f i e l d , and town of N o r t h Bay ( D i s t r i c t o f N i p i s s i n g ) . c Townships of S p r i n g e r , C a l d w e l l , G r a n t , F i e l d , Bastedo, Gibbons, Badgerow, C r e r a r , Hugel, K i r k p a t r i c k , MacPherson, M a r t l a n d , C a s i m i r , ( N i p i s s i n g ) ; Mowat and B l a i r (Muskoka and P a r r y Sound). Source: Census of Canada, 1901, V o l . I , PP. 332-5. NIPISSING LOWLANDS DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION 1901 CACHE .BAY; sSTURGEON FALLS NORTH. BAY/ N O R T H B A Y , 2,030 M A T T A W A , 1,400 B O N P I E L D , 4 0 3 MATTAWA/ -;\V Lake Nipissing '2=r MILES 8 BONFIELD I DOT « 10 P E R S O N S — RAILWAY S O U R C E : CENSUS OP CANADA, 1901 109 N o r t h Bay ( p o p u l a t i o n i n 1901: 2,530) had the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n s o f p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n ; 19.6 per c e n t were F r e n c h Canadian. Summary The n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y f r o n t i e r o f s e t t l e m e n t approached N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o p r i m a r i l y from the s o u t h e a s t and r e p r e s e n t e d an e x t e n s i o n o f the Ottawa V a l l e y r e g i o n a l bond i n t o the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands. The movement o f p e o p l e i n t o the r e g i o n and t h e f l o w o f goods out was f a c i l i t a t e d f i r s t by developments o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on the Ottawa R i v e r and l a t e r by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . The p a t t e r n o f i n t e r a c t i o n was a l t e r e d by the emergence o f a second l i n k a g e from S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o to the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands; t h i s l i n k a g e was a t f i r s t weaker i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the Ottawa V a l l e y r o u t e , b e i n g o n l y a p r i m i t i v e waggon r o a d . I t was g r e a t l y s t r e n g t h e n e d by the e x t e n s i o n o f the O n t a r i o r a i l w a y system northward, p e r m i t t i n g an augmented f l o w o f p e o p l e from the s o u t h and an i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c i n goods i n a n o r t h - s o u t h d i r e c t i o n . E x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s p l a y e d a l a r g e p a r t i n the development of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and the movement o f the f r o n t i e r s of s e t t l e m e n t toward N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The competing p r e s s u r e s o f commercial i n t e r e s t s i n l a r g e c i t i e s , namely T o r o n t o and M o n t r e a l , r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f two major r a i l r o a d s through N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The l a r g e demands p l a c e d upon the f o r e s t s by u r b a n markets ensured t h a t , from the o u t s e t , the r e g i o n was a 110 v i a b l e component i n Canada's s taple economy i n the nineteenth century . The economic development of the f r o n t i e r at no time evinced a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , subsistence phase, as d i d parts of the American f r o n t i e r . Economic growth of the Northeastern Ontario f r o n t i e r was a func t ion of how w e l l the reg ion was l i n k e d to c i t i e s i n o lder parts of Canada. I l l FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I I I The o f f i c i a l d e c i s i o n by the government t o open the Huron-Ottawa t r a c t f o r s e t t l e m e n t was made i n e a r l y 1859. P r i o r to t h i s time, a number o f e x p l o r a t o r y s u r v e y s had been c a r r i e d o u t , the e a r l i e s t b e i n g i n 1819, and roads had been pushed i n t o the H a l i b u r t o n and.Muskoka d i s t r i c t s 1857-8. See Don ff. Thomson, Men and M e r i d i a n s : A H i s t o r y o f  S u r v e y i n g and Mapping i n Canada (3 v o l s . ; Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1966-70), V o l . I : " P r i o r t o 1867," pp. 246-247. 2 T h i s development i s d e s c r i b e d i n George R. Rumney, " S e t t l e m e n t o f the N i p i s s i n g Passageway," T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the R o y a l C a nadian  I n s t i t u t e , V o l . X XVIII, P a r t I , No. 58 (Octo b e r , 1949), pp. 65-120. 3 I b i d . , p. 84, c i t i n g E. V o o r h i s , H i s t o r i c a l F o r t s and T r a d i n g  P o s t s o f the F r e n c h Regime (Ottawa, 1930). 4-See I n n i s , The F u r Trade i n Canada, pp. 188-191. ^Rumney, op. c i t . , pp. 85-6. 6 I b i d . , p. 89. ^Lower, S e t t l e m e n t and the F o r e s t F r o n t i e r , p. 45. ^Census o f Canada, 1871. yRumney, op. c i t . , p. 91. The Census o f Canada, 1871, d i d not r e p o r t any p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n the n o r t h e r n P a r r y Sound d i s t r i c t . l ^ a t t a w a n Township was s u b d i v i d e d i n 1864, but s u r v e y i n g o f most o f the townships n o r t h and west o f Lake N i p i s s i n g was not begun u n t i l about 1880. F o r s u r v e y o r s ' r e p o r t s , see O n t a r i o , Commissioner o f Crown Lands, " R e p o r t ( s ) . . ., " S e s s i o n a l Papers, V o l s . X I I I - X V I (1881-84). H T h e s e i s s u e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Lower, op. c i t . , p. 4 8 f f . l ^ S e e H.R. Morgan, "Steam N a v i g a t i o n on the Ottawa R i v e r , " Papers and Records o f the O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , V o l . X X I I I (1926), pp. 370-83. l 3Rumney, op. c i t . , p. 91, H E •^"Report o f the Commissioner o f Crown Lands f o r the P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o f o r the Year 1882," S e s s i o n a l Papers, Vol.XV, P t . I l l , No. 4 (1882-83), p. 53. l^The s e t t l e m e n t a t the e a s t end of Lake Nosbonsing was c a l l e d C a l l a n d e r ; i t s name was l a t e r changed t o B o n f i e l d t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n w i t h the " C a l l a n d e r " on the E a s t Bay o f Lake N i p i s s i n g . 1^0f the 955 p e o p l e enumerated i n 1881 i n the Townships o f Gurd, P r i n g l e , Himsworth and N i p i s s i n g , e t h n i c p e r c e n t a g e s were: I r i s h 29.6; German, 24.0; S c o t t i s h , 20.5; E n g l i s h , 15.7; F r e n c h , 6.2; o t h e r , 4.0. These townships were enumerated i n the D i s t r i c t o f Muskoka. S i m i l a r d a t a a r e not a v a i l a b l e f o r the Mattawa R i v e r b a s i n s e t t l e m e n t s i n the D i s t r i c t o f N i p i s s i n g . 1 7 S e s s i o n a l Paper No. 4 (1882-83), p. 53. •*-8The Census o f Canada, 1881, d i d not g i v e f i g u r e s f o r the D i s t r i c t o f N i p i s s i n g , b u t h i s t o r i c a l d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e i n the Census  o f Canada, 1951: V o l . I , " P o p u l a t i o n , " T a b l e 6, pp. 6-46 and 6-47. l^Lower, N o r t h American A s s a u l t on the Ca n a d i a n F o r e s t , pp.178-9. 2°Rumney, op. c i t . , p. 92. 21-According t o many s u r v e y o r s ' r e p o r t s o f 1880-84, f i r e had d e s t r o y e d a g r e a t d e a l o f p i n e n o r t h o f the F r e n c h R i v e r and west from Lake N i p i s s i n g . S e s s i o n a l Papers, R e p o r t s o f the Commissioner o f Crown Lands, 1880-84. 22( ) n t a r i o , Commissioner o f Crown Lands, "Report. . . f o r the Year 1880," S e s s i o n a l Papers, V o l . X I I I , P t . I I , No. 4 (1881), Appendices 27 and 28. 2 3 S e e S a n d f o r d F l e m i n g , R e p o r t and Documents i n R e f e r e n c e to the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y (Ottawa: M a c l e a n , Roger & Co., 1880), Appendix 17: "Report on Survey o f F r e n c h R i v e r d u r i n g 1879," by E.P. Bender, pp. 286-89. See a l s o Kirkwood and Murphy, op. c i t . 2 4 s e s s i o n a l Papers, No. 4 (1881), Appendix 25. 25xhe Ca n a d i a n S h i e l d was l o n g r e g a r d e d as a b a r r i e r t o the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y . C o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y a r o s e over whether a r o u t e t h r o u g h N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o was p r a c t i c a l , and l e d to p r o t r a c t e d n e g o t i a t i o n s between the Dominion government and the Grand Trunk R a i l w a y Company, who.refused t o c o n s t r u c t a l i n e n o r t h o f Lake S u p e r i o r . See Gl a z e b r o o k , op. c i t . , I I , pp. 29-50. 113 •^Canada, Department of Transport, A Statutory History of the  Steam and E l e c t r i c Railways of Canada, 1836-1937, comp. Robert Dorman (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1938), p. 80. Subsequent references to t h i s work are to Dorman. 2?Masters, op. c i t . , pp. 109, 112. ^ F l e m i n g , op. c i t . , Appendix #18: "Reports on Examinations Made North and West of Lake N i p i s s i n g , i n Connection with the Projected Railway Extension to the Eastern End of Lake Superior" (1879), by W.A. Austin, pp. 290-295. 2%.umney, op. c i t . , p. 100. 30xhe Grand Trunk a c t u a l l y joined the Canadian P a c i f i c at N i p i s s i n g Junction, about three miles southeast of North Bay. Both railways had t h e i r marshalling yards i n North Bay. 3-*-Lower, North American Assault on the Canadian Forest, p. 180. 32it i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the proposal and chartering of the Timagami Railway Co. i n 1898 (Dom. Statute 61 V i c , Chap. 87). The l i n e , promoted by Sturgeon F a l l s men, was to have run from Verner to Lake Timagami and would tap a d d i t i o n a l lumber supplies for the Lake Nip i s s i n g m i l l s . The name of the company was changed to the Ontario Northern and Timagami Railway Co. i n 1905; the charter remained a l i v e u n t i l 1914. 3 3Lower, Settlement and the Forest F r o n t i e r , p. 120. •^Masters, op. c i t . , p. v i i i . 3 5 S e e W.H. Breithaupt, "The Railways of Ontario," Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society, Papers and Records, V o l . XXV (1929), pp. 12-25. 3 ^ u n t i l 1883, Toronto was a major lumber exporting port for the New York market. In that year t o l l s were removed from the E r i e Canal, whereas they were kept on the Welland. Lumber thus moved d i r e c t l y to Buffalo by barge and r a i l , and the Toronto-Oswego flow ceased. Lower, Assault on the Canadian Forest, p. 179. •^Masters, op. c i t . , p.14. 3 % o n t r e a l Gazette, Nov. 11, 1869. Cited i n Masters, op. c i t . , P. 58. 3 9 T o r o n t o Globe, Jan. 22 and May 18, 1857, 114 4 uAnon, O n t a r i o and P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n R a i l w a y , i n pamphlet c o l -l e c t i o n o f the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f O n t a r i o (1875). 4lBetween 1867 and 1881, s e v e r a l l i n e s were p r o j e c t e d from T o r o n t o to Lake N i p i s s i n g , to S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , o r b o t h . The e a r l i e s t was the To r o n t o and N i p i s s i n g R a i l w a y (Ont. 31 V i c , Chap. 41, 1867-8); t h i s l i n e was i n t e n d e d m a i n l y f o r the development o f the c o u n t r y n o r t h o f Tor o n t o and was b u i l t o n l y t o Coboconk, e a s t o f Lake Simcoe. I n 1874 the N e u t r a l L i n k Ry. and the O n t a r i o and P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n Ry. were c h a r t e r e d (Dom. 31 V i c , Chaps. 76, 74, 1874) to b u i l d the l i n k to the proposed C.P.R. The l a t t e r , promoted by J.D. Edgar, got the b a c k i n g o f the Globe and o f the T o r o n t o Board o f Trade but was u n f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d i n Ottawa. Edgar r e - i n c o r p o r a t e d h i s scheme i n 1881 as t h e O n t a r i o S a u l t S t e . M a r i e Ry. Co. (Ont. 44 V i c , Chap. 68) w i t h power t o b u i l d d i r e c t l y t o S a u l t S t e . M a r i e w i t h branches t o Lakes N i p i s s i n g and Timiskaming; t h i s l i n e was backed by the Grand Trunk, which was g e n e r a l l y u n p o p u l a r i n O n t a r i o . A r i v a l company was formed by F r e d Cumberland o f the N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y - -the N o r t h e r n , N o r t h Western and S a u l t S t e . M a r i e Ry. Co. (Dom. 44 V i c , Chap. 45, 1881); t h i s became known as the N o r t h e r n and P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n Ry. a f t e r 1883, and i t won the su p p o r t o f bo t h the O n t a r i o and Dominion governments. See R o b e r t M. Stamp, "J.D. Edgar and the P a c i f i c J u n c t i o n R a i l w a y , " O n t a r i o H i s t o r y , V o l . LV, No. 3 (September, 1963), pp. 119-130. ^ T h i s s u b s i d y was much h i g h e r t h a n u s u a l as a r e s u l t o f t h r e e f a c t o r s : the p r e s s u r e o f T o r o n t o , H a m i l t o n , and O n t a r i o g e n e r a l l y f o r a r i v a l l i n e to the C.P.R.; the p r i o r g e n e r o s i t y o f the Dominion toward the C.P.R., and the c o s t o f b u i l d i n g the l i n e t h r o u g h rough and un-p r o d u c t i v e t e r r i t o r y . A.W. C u r r i e , Grand Trunk R a i l w a y o f Canada ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Tor o n t o P r e s s , 1957), p. 278. B l a d e n , " C o n s t r u c t i o n o f R a i l w a y s i n Canada from 1885 to 1931," C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Canadian Economics, V o l . V I I (1934), pp. 61-103. R e f . to p. 68. 4 4 T h i s arrangement worked w e l l enough u n t i l the Grand Trunk a s p i r e d t o expand i n t o the West a f t e r 1903. The C.P.R. was the n f o r c e d to b u i l d i t s Toronto-Sudbury l i n k i n o r d e r to compete. C u r r i e , op. c i t . , pp. 318, 412. ^^Lower, A s s a u l t on the C a n a d i a n F o r e s t , p. 179. 46Rumney, op. c i t . , p. 103. CHAPTER IV DEVELOPMENTS IN THE ALGOMA DISTRICT, 1846-1902 F r o n t i e r p r o c e s s e s and p a t t e r n s i n t h e Algoma d i s t r i c t s h a r e d some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h o s e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e N i p i s s i n g Lowlands. The advent of r a i l w a y s hastened change, but o t h e r f a c t o r s , n o t a b l y the l o c a t i o n o f m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , and e x t e r n a l market c o n d i t i o n s , were s i g n i f i c a n t . P r i o r to t h e a r r i v a l o f r a i l w a y s , lumbering and a s s o c i a t e d a g r i -c u l t u r e a r o s e i n a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s t h a t were p h y s i c a l l y s u i t e d t o those a c t i v i t i e s . P r e - r a i l w a y developments were c o n f i n e d to M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d and to the N o r t h Shore of Lake Huron. The f o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n was s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n the N i p i s s i n g Lowlands; t h e r e was, however, l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n between the two a r e a s . F o l l o w i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , the p r o c e s s o f s e t t l e m e n t was a l t e r e d by the emergence of m i n i n g , m e t a l -p r o c e s s i n g , and m a n u f a c t u r i n g . M i n i n g began i n the p r e - r a i l w a y p e r i o d , a t Bruce Mines, but m i n e r a l e x t r a c t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g a t t a i n e d i n t e n s i v e s p a t i a l e x p r e s s i o n i n the Sudbury B a s i n a f t e r 1890. In a d d i t i o n , i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e became an anomalous f e a t u r e on t h e s e t t l e m e n t f r o n t i e r of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . D i s t a n c e from markets and the t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e x t e r n a l demand f a v o u r e d t h e e s t a b -l i s h m e n t of r e s o u r c e - p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s on the f r o n t i e r i t s e l f . 116 B e s i d e s b e i n g c o n t i n g e n t upon improvements i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, m i n i n g and m a n u f a c t u r i n g developments i n the Algoma d i s t r i c t r e q u i r e d an e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n j e c t i o n of c a p i t a l and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l t a l e n t . The P r e - R a i l w a y P e r i o d , 1846-1883 The Lumbering and A g r i c u l t u r e F r o n t i e r M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d . — A l t h o u g h over wide a r e a s the s o i l s of 2 M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d a r e t h i n l y d e v e l o p e d or n o n - e x i s t e n t , a g r i c u l t u r e was the dominant motive f o r s e t t l e m e n t t h e r e between 1862 and the F i r s t World War. I n d i a n r i g h t s t o most of the i s l a n d were e x t i n g u i s h e d i n a 3 t r e a t y s i g n e d i n 1862, and township s u r v e y s were begun i n 1863. A con-s i d e r a b l e i n f l u x o f s e t t l e r s from "Old O n t a r i o " s t a r t e d t h e r e a f t e r ; by 1871 the p o p u l a t i o n of M a n i t o u l i n numbered over 2,200. A g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t on M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d was s t i m u l a t e d by t the G e o r g i a n Bay lumber t r a d e , which began t o draw upon the n o r t h e r n Lake Huron p i n e r i e s i n the l a t e 1860's. The b e s t p i n e timber on t h e i s l a n d was q u i c k l y removed, but a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e r s found markets f o r t h e i r hay, o a t s , pork and o t h e r g e n e r a l produce i n the lumber camps of 4 m a i n l a n d . By 1881 the p o p u l a t i o n of the i s l a n d had r i s e n t o 8,460, and L i t t l e C u r r e n t had become e s t a b l i s h e d as a s m a l l but i m p o r t a n t p o r t f o r the lumber i n d u s t r y of the n o r t h e r n Lake Huron area."* N o r t h Shore of Lake H u r o n . — L o g g i n g i n the a r e a b o r d e r i n g t h e N o r t h Channel a c c e l e r a t e d d u r i n g t h e 1870's.^ Southward-flowing r i v e r s such as the S p a n i s h , the T h e s s a l o n , and the M i s s i s s a g i a l l o w e d p e n e t r a t i o n H Z of t h e i n t e r i o r o f the Gogama Sandy Uplands, the p i n e r e s o u r c e s o f which were c o n s i d e r a b l e . A t f i r s t l o g s were towed a c r o s s t h e l a k e t o t h e American s i d e o r t o s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o p o r t s , but b e f o r e l o n g s a w m i l l s were e s t a b l i s h e d a t the mouths of s t r e a m s . 7 Lumber was s h i p p e d by boat from Sp a n i s h , B l i n d R i v e r , M i s s i s s a u g a R i v e r , T h e s s a l o n , P o r t F i n d l a y , and S a u l t S t e . M a r i e . P r i o r t o t h e a r r i v a l o f the r a i l w a y i n 1886, the Algoma d i s t r i c t was a c c e s s i b l e o n l y by water d u r i n g t h e n a v i g a t i o n season. The l o n g p e r i o d o f w i n t e r i s o l a t i o n was an o b v i o u s c o n s t r a i n t to s e t t l e m e n t . Never-t h e l e s s , by 1881 some 3,800 p e o p l e were l i v i n g on the N o r t h Shore e a s t of S a u l t S t e . M a r i e . The m a j o r i t y were l o c a t e d on t h e l o w - l y i n g s t r i p o f l a n d west of T h e s s a l o n , i n c l u d i n g S t . Joseph's I s l a n d , where a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d was a v a i l a b l e . E a r l y Attempts a t Copper M i n i n g Copper, i n b o t h i t s n a t i v e and s u l p h i d e v a r i e t i e s , has a wide g d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the g r e e n s t o n e r o c k s of the Algoma d i s t r i c t (see F i g . 4, page 4 2 ) • In the e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s s e v e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s c l o s e to the s h o r e s o f Lakes Huron and S u p e r i o r sparked s p o r a d i c i n t e r e s t i n m i n i n g . I n d i a n s had mined s m a l l amounts of n a t i v e copper on M i c h i p i c o t e n I s l a n d and a t Mamainse P o i n t , Lake S u p e r i o r , s i n c e v e r y e a r l y t i m e s . A l t h o u g h such a c t i v i t i e s had been r e p o r t e d by J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r i e s , they a r o u s e d l i t t l e e n t h u s i a s m i n a p e r i o d when f u r was a more v a l u e d and 9 e a s i l y e x p l o i t e d r e s o u r c e . A l e x a n d e r Henry of the Hudson's Bay Company o r g a n i z e d a group of E n g l i s h c a p i t a l i s t s t o p r o s p e c t and d e v e l o p copper 118 and s i l v e r d e p o s i t s a l o n g t h e s o u t h e r n and n o r t h e a s t e r n s h o r e s of Lake S u p e r i o r . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r of 1772-73, a t h i r t y - f o o t s h a f t was sunk on M i c h i p i c o t e n I s l a n d . The v e n t u r e f a i l e d because of t h e d i f f i c u l t y of m i n i n g the h a r d r o c k and because of the s h a l l o w n e s s of the d e p o s i t . Ap-p a r e n t l y the e x p e c t a t i o n of m i n i n g s i l v e r had m o t i v a t e d Henry's work, f o r he r e a l i z e d t h a t the c o s t o f moving copper o r e to the sea was p r o h i b i t i v e . I n 1850 the Quebec Land and M i n i n g Company, backed e n t i r e l y w i t h Canadian c a p i t a l , opened mines on M i c h i p i c o t e n I s l a n d and a t Mamainse P o i n t . The company p r e p a r e d f o r e x t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n s by e r e c t i n g , a t c o n s i d e r a b l e c o s t , two c o n c e n t r a t i n g p l a n t s . D i m i n i s h i n g grades of ore a t depth and t h e o v e r - e x p e n d i t u r e on c a p i t a l equipment f o r c e d the abandon-ment of the m i n i n g v e n t u r e s . The p r o p e r t i e s were a g a i n worked by the Lake S u p e r i o r Company i n 1882, which sank s h a f t s to a depth of 400 f e e t . F i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s caused the company to shut down o p e r a t i o n s b e f o r e any pre was s h i p p e d . Other companies made s p o r a d i c a f f e m p t s a t copper m i n i n g i n the e a s t e r n Lake S u p e r i o r a r e a ; a l l failed."'""'" Bruce Mines, 1846-1876 The Copper Boom and D i s c o v e r y . — T h e v a r i o u s attempts to mine copper i n the Algoma d i s t r i c t d u r i n g the l a s t h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were m o t i v a t e d by the r i s i n g demand f o r the m e t a l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Europe and B r i t a i n , and by the movement of the copper m i n i n g 12 i n d u s t r y i n t o t h e Upper P e n i n s u l a of M i c h i g a n i n 1841. In the e a r l y 1840's s e v e r a l mines were opened up i n the Keewenaw d i s t r i c t o f M i c h i g a n to e x p l o i t r i c h d e p o s i t s of n a t i v e copper. Developments t h e r e were hampered by the r a p i d s on the S t . Marys R i v e r . C o n s t r u c t i o n of the S a u l t S t e . M a r i e C a n a l (1853-1855) on the American s i d e of the r i v e r 119 f a c i l i t a t e d t h e movement o f machinery, pre,.and s e t t l e r s between the 13 Upper and Lower l a k e s . The known o c c u r r e n c e s of copper on th e Canadian shore of Lake S u p e r i o r l e d to s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t d e p o s i t s of the magnitude of t h o s e i n M i c h i g a n might be d i s c o v e r e d and worked a t a p r o f i t . In 1846 the M o n t r e a l M i n i n g Company was o r g a n i z e d and f i n a n c e d w i t h B r i t i s h c a p i t a l t o e x p l o r e the n o r t h shore of Lake S u p e r i o r f o r e x p l o i t a b l e m i n e r a l s . The company 14 purchased from the Crown s e v e r a l m i n e r a l l o c a t i o n s t o t a l l i n g 180 square m i l e s , but the promoters f a i l e d t o f i n d on them any d e p o s i t s worth deve-loping."'"^ T u r n i n g i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e n o r t h shore of Lake Huron, the M o n t r e a l M i n i n g Company i n 1848 purchased f o r $200,000 the Bruce Mines 16 l o c a t i o n , which had been d i s c o v e r e d i n 1842 by another company. E a r l y Developments a t Bruce M i n e s . — T h e M o n t r e a l M i n i n g Company wasted l i t t l e time i n p u t t i n g i t s p r o p e r t y i n t o p r o d u c t i o n . W i l l i a m E. Logan o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada r e p o r t e d " ^ t h a t up,, to J u l y 1848 about 1,475 tons of copper o r e had been r a i s e d from the w o r k i n g s , a v e r a g i n g 8.01 per c e n t copper ( u n c o n c e n t r a t e d ) . Three b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s combined to p e r m i t the Bruce Mines to come i n t o p r o d u c t i o n i n such a remote and u n s e t t l e d a r e a . One was the n a t u r e of the orebody (ma i n l y c h a l c o p y r i t e and b o r n i t e ) , which was s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h - g r a d e and i n l a r g e enough q u a n t i t i e s to bear h i g h c o s t s of t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n a f t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n . The second c o n d u c i v e f a c t o r was t h e l o c a t i o n o f the mine v i r t u a l l y on the s h o r e of Lake Huron, t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g the b u l k movement by s h i p of ore and c o n c e n t r a t e s outward and of heavy machinery inward. I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t , i f the d e p o s i t s had been l o c a t e d even a few m i l e s i n l a n d , they would have been develo p e d b e f o r e the advent of 120. railways. The t h i r d f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n was the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r ; 18 copper i n w o r l d markets and concomi t a n t r i s i n g p r i c e s . D e s p i t e t h e s e f a v o u r a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o p e r a t i o n s a t the Bruce Mines were b e s e t w i t h many d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n i t s optimism the M o n t r e a l M i n i n g Company had i n s t a l l e d e l a b o r a t e s u r f a c e f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g a s m e l t e r and a r e f i n e r y . The p r o c e s s , which was an i m i t a t i o n o f Welsh p r a c t i c e s , proved u n s u i t a b l e t o t r e a t i n g Bruce Mines o r e , and the company was f o r c e d t o s h i p c o n c e n t r a t e s i n s t e a d of m e t a l . Even w i t h the i n i t i a l h i g h - g r a d e o r e the p r o c e s s f a i l e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e t o the r e q u i r e d s h i p p i n g grade o f 20 per cent w i t h o u t the l o s s o f up to o n e - t h i r d o f the m e t a l 19 c o n t e n t . T h i s was a s e r i o u s problem because the g r e a t d i s t a n c e s from market a r e a s ( m a i n l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ) r a i s e d the c o s t s o f t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n t o c r i t i c a l l e v e l s i n comparison w i t h those of p r o d u c e r s more c l o s e l y s i t u a t e d t o markets. Other d e t r i m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d endemic l a b o u r problems, poor management, a d e b i l i t a t i n g epidemic o f c h o l e r a i n 1849, a h a r s h w i n t e r 20 c l i m a t e , and complete i s o l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e l o n g w i n t e r months. These d i f f i c u l t i e s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , the company managed t o main-t a i n p r o d u c t i o n of about 10,000 to 15,000 tons o f ore a n n u a l l y a f t e r 1850. A f t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n the ore was packed i n b a r r e l s f o r shipment t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . H i g h copper p r i c e s i n t h e mid-1850's enable d the company to d e c l a r e i t s f i r s t d i v i d e n d s i n 1853 and 1854 and prompted i t to attempt e x p a n s i o n t o more m a r g i n a l o r e s on n e i g h b o u r i n g p r o p e r t i e s . C o n t i n u i n g l a b o u r problems and t h e s i n k i n g o f the company's steamer i n Lake Huron, w i t h the l o s s o f v a l u a b l e machinery, caused a h a l t i n p r o d u c t i o n i n 1855. T h e r e a f t e r t h e mines were worked on a l i m i t e d s c a l e u n t i l 1864, i n which 121 y e a r t h e t h r e e p r o p e r t i e s c o m p r i s i n g the Bruce Mines l o c a t i o n (Bruce Mines, W e l l i n g t o n , and Huron Bay) were s o l d t o the West Canada M i n i n g Company. Up to 1857 the Bruce Mines produced 3,239 tons of copper con-c e n t r a t e s a v e r a g i n g 18 per c e n t copper, y i e l d i n g 583 t o n s of copper m e t a l a t the r e f i n e r y . From 1858 t o 1864 p r o d u c t i o n amounted t o 18,231 tons of 21 c o n c e n t r a t e s , a v e r a g i n g from 19.6 to 21.9 per cent copper c o n t e n t . The p e r i o d from 1861 to 1868 was one of r e l a t i v e p r o s p e r i t y f o r the Bruce Mines, a l t h o u g h the l o s s e s i n i n i t i a l p r o c e s s i n g c o n t i n u e d to be s e v e r e . These were o f f s e t o n l y by the h i g h grade of the ore and t h e h i g h p r i c e s f o r c opper. D e s p i t e a more e f f i c i e n t and s m a l l e r s c a l e of o p e r a t i o n under the West Canada M i n i n g Company, the f o r t u n e s of the Bruce Mines d e c l i n e d a f t e r 1868 because of d i m i n i s h i n g ore grades and the c l o s i n g of the U n i t e d S t a t e s market by the i m p o s i t i o n of a duty of f i v e c e n t s a pound on Canadian copper. The company was f o r c e d to seek markets i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , but the c o s t s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o v e r so g r e a t a d i s t a n c e were p r o h i b i t i v e . T h i s f a c t o r l e d d i r e c t l y t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s m e l t e r a t Bruce Mines i n 1870-71. The i n p u t s to the s m e l t e r , b e s i d e s o r e , i n c l u d e d s c r a p , s a l t , and c o a l , a l l of which had to be brought i n by steamer at h i g h c o s t . The p l a n t saw l i m i t e d o p e r a t i o n i n 1872 and 1873, and was t h e r e a f t e r abandoned. A d e c l i n e i n p r i c e s f i n a l l y ended p r o d u c t i o n i n 1876. In the p e r i o d 1869-22 1876, 47,593 tons of c o n c e n t r a t e s were s h i p p e d , worth about $3,300,000. The t h i r t y - y e a r experiment a t m i n i n g a t Bruce Mines i l l u s t r a t e d the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n the f r o n t i e r p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h the r e s o u r c e was, f o r the most p a r t , of adequate grade and s i z e , and w h i l e a c c e s s was good, e x t e r n a l demand was h i g h l y i n c o n s i s t e n t . More-122 o v e r , the t e c h n o l o g y of e x t r a c t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g was i m p e r f e c t , p l a c i n g a severe c o n s t r a i n t on the a b i l i t y of t h e commodity t o move t o d i s t a n t markets a t c o m p e t i t i v e p r i c e s . The p o s i t i v e importance of Bruce Mines was t h a t the development p r o v i d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t - p o o l of t e c h n i c a l exper-i e n c e i n copper m i n i n g i n a f r o n t i e r r e g i o n — e x p e r i e n c e t h a t was used t o good advantage l a t e r i n the Sudbury B a s i n . In a d d i t i o n , i n the words of a contemporary o b s e r v e r , "they [Bruce Mines] employed d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y a l a r g e number of p e o p l e , and were the cause of d i r e c t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n to the d i s t r i c t , and of f o r m i n g q u i t e a s e t t l e -ment around, and to t h i s day [1887] a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e p r e s e n t i n h a b i t a n t s now engaged i n f a r m i n g , e t c . , a r e o l d Bruce Mines employees, 23 or t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s . " S a u l t . S t e . M a r i e B e f o r e the R a i l w a y The S a u l t S t e . M a r i e C a n a J i s . — A s has been d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y , the r a p i d s on the S t . Marys R i v e r p r e s e n t e d a f o r m i d a b l e b a r r i e r t o f r e e a c c e s s t o Lake S u p e r i o r and the w e s t e r n t r a d e , n e c e s s i t a t i n g the c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f s h i p s above the o b s t r u c t i o n . The N o r t h West Company i n 1797-98 dug a h a l f - m i l e - l o n g c a n a l on the B r i t i s h s i d e , p e r m i t t i n g the passage of bateaux drawing two f e e t o f water. The c a n a l had a s i n g l e l o c k , measuring 38 f e e t l o n g by 8 f e e t 9 i n c h e s wide, i n which v e s s e l s c o u l d be r a i s e d or lowered n i n e f e e t . A towpath a l o n g s i d e t h e c a n a l e n a b l e d oxen to tow t h e b o a t s . (The f a l l o f water t h r o u g h the l o c k p r o v i d e d 24 power to r u n a s a w m i l l which, i n 1802, employed f o u r t e e n men. ) The c a n a l was d e s t r o y e d i n 1814 by American f o r c e s i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r support g i v e n by the N o r t h West Company to the B r i t i s h i n the War of 1812; i t was not r e b u i l t . 123 A f t e r 1821 t h e f u r t r a d e through the Upper Lakes t o M o n t r e a l p r a c t i c a l l y c eased. In the 1830's and 1840's, a p e r i o d of r a p i d e x p a n s i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e was i n c r e a s i n g t r a d e i n t o the Lake S u p e r i o r c o u n t r y . P r o p o s a l s i n 1837 f o r a c a n a l on the American s i d e of the S t . 25 Marys were thwarted by Congres s , but by 1850, w i t h the opening o f the i r o n and copper r e g i o n s o f Upper M i c h i g a n , the demands f o r a c a n a l were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i n s i s t e n t . E x t r a o r d i n a r y de-lays and expense were i n c u r r e d i n the l a b o r i o u s p r o c e s s o f u n l o a d i n g , p o r t a g i n g and r e l o a d i n g o f goods a t e i t h e r end o f t h e r a p i d s . One company e s t i m a t e d the e x t r a 26 expense a t about $75,000 a n n u a l l y . D e s p i t e the r e s i s t a n c e o f the r e s i d e n t s o f S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , M i c h i g a n , where the major i n d u s t r y was the p o r t a g i n g b u s i n e s s , c a n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n began on the American s i d e i n 1853. W i t h i n two y e a r s two 27 l o c k s measuring 350 f e e t by 70 f e e t by 12 f e e t deep had been completed. The e f f e c t s of the c a n a l on t h e development of Upper M i c h i g a n , n o r t h e r n W i s c o n s i n , and M i n n e s o t a were c o n s i d e r a b l e . The de v e l o p e d a r e a s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s a l s o b e n e f i t t e d from improved a c c e s s t o Lake S u p e r i o r : i r o n and copper were b e i n g s h i p p e d i n e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s t o the bur g e o n i n g i n d u s t r i e s of P e n n s y l v a n i a , Ohio and I l l i n o i s . C o n s t a n t improvement i n the S t . Marys R i v e r c h a n n e l and the i n c r e a s i n g s i z e of l a k e b o a t s made the M i c h i g a n S t a t e l o c k s o b s o l e t e w i t h i n a decade o f t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n . A second l o c k , measuring 515 f e e t l o n g and ha v i n g a l i f t o f 18 f e e t , was b u i l t between 1876 and 1881. The o r i g i n a l l o c k s o f 1855 were d e s t r o y e d i n 1888 to make way f o r the Poe Lock, then the l a r g e s t i n t h e w o r l d a t 704 f e e t l o n g by 100 f e e t wide by 21 f e e t deep N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the e f f e c t of t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvements i n 124 s p u r r i n g the economic development of the American M i d d l e West, the s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t s of S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , on b o t h s i d e s of t h e b o r d e r , s h a r e d l i t t l e i n t h e b e n e f i t s . Passage t h r o u g h the c a n a l s was made f r e e of charge and, a s i d e from g i v i n g temporary employment d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and p r o v i d i n g power f o r s a w m i l l i n g , the c a n a l s had a m i n i m a l e f f e c t on the immediate a r e a of S a u l t S t e . M a r i e . In 1871 t h e p o p u l a t i o n of S a u l t S t e . 29 M a r i e , O n t a r i o , was 879; by 1881 i t had d e c l i n e d to 780. The E f f e c t s of R a i l w a y s , 1883-1903 The Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Important changes o c c u r r e d on the Algoma f r o n t i e r f o l l o w i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y ' s main l i n e and Soo Branch (1883-1887). S e t t l e m e n t had p r e v i o u s l y been c o n f i n e d t o the narrow c o a s t a l s t r i p a l o n g the N o r t h Channel and to M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d . The r a i l w a y p e r m i t t e d a l a r g e - s c a l e i n f l u x o f p e o p l e i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r (the Sudbury B a s i n ) , produced moderate r e j u v e n a t i o n a l o n g the N o r t h Shore, i n s t i g a t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of o t h e r r a i l w a y s , and was an i m p o r t a n t element i n the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of S a u l t S t e . M a r i e . The r o u t e chosen f o r the main l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c , t h a t i s , n o r t h of Lake S u p e r i o r t h r o u g h u n i n h a b i t e d c o u n t r y , was a p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t from an economic v i e w p o i n t was the d e c i s i o n to b u i l d t h e b r a n c h l i n e from Sudbury t o S a u l t S t e . M a r i e to connect a t the 30 l a t t e r p o i n t w i t h the American r a i l w a y system. The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the S a u l t ? S t e . M a r i e c a n a l s was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c ' s Soo Branch, t h a t i s , t o c a p t u r e a p r o p o r t i o n of the i n c r e a s i n g s h i p p i n g t r a d e on Lake S u p e r i o r and to g a i n e a c c e s s ..tblithe 125 n o r t h e r n Midwest, The Soo Branch was completed t o S a u l t S t e . ' M a r i e on October 30, 1887. The Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company b u i l t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l b r i d g e a c r o s s the S t . Marys R i v e r to l i n k the Soo Branch w i t h the S a u l t S t e . M a r i e (Michigan) t e r m i n u s e s of the D u l u t h , South Shore & A t l a n t i c R a i l w a y and the M i n n e a p o l i s , S t . P a u l & S a u l t S t e . M a r i e Railway. The f l o u r m i l l e r s o f S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a , had been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the l a t t e r l i n e , but t h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d o n l y w i t h Canadian P a c i f i c a s s i s t a n c e . Both of the American r a i l w a y s became 31 s u b s i d i a r i e s o f the Canadian P a c i f i c i n 1890, and they c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o t h e company's e a r n i n g s u n t i l g e n e r a l d e p r e s s i o n s e t i n a f t e r 1 8 9 3 . 3 2 The Soo Branch, t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s American c o n n e c t i o n s , c o n s o l i -d a ted t h e commercial c o n t r o l of M o n t r e a l over w e s t e r n economic d e v e l o p -33 ment, much to the dismay of T o r o n t o i n t e r e s t s . M o n t r e a l g a i n e d a d i s t i n c t advantage over T o r o n t o i n the t r a d e a r i s i n g from the s e t t l e m e n t and economic development o f the Algoma d i s t r i c t , f o r the l a t t e r c i t y had to contend w i t h a l o n g e r r a i l h a u l and the cumbersome i n t e r c h a n g e a t N o r t h Bay. The opening of t h e s o u t h e r n Algoma d i s t r i c t by r a i l p r o v i d e d , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , y e a r - r o u n d a c c e s s and s t i m u l a t e d a r e s u r g e n c e of i n t e r e s t i n m i n i n g i n the a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l i g h t o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f copper and n i c k e l i n the Sudbury B a s i n . I n t e n s i v e p r o s p e c t i n g i n the 1890's c o n f i r m e d t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a t dozens of l o c a t i o n s i n the g r e e n s t o n e b e l t between Sudbury and S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , and s e v e r a l o f t h e s e became minor p r o d u c e r s (the Massey mine, the Rock 34 Lake mine, and the Copper Queen mine, f o r example). The o l d Bruce Mines 12? were re-opened i n 1898 and worked u n t i l 1904, but a t a l o s s . A g a i n i n 1906 some $36,000 worth of ore was produced f o r t r e a t m e n t a t S a u l t S t e . 35 M a r i e . The Bruce Mines e n t e r e d t h e i r l a s t p e r i o d of p r o d u c t i o n i n 1915 under the Mond N i c k e l Company; between 1915 and 1921 about 160,000 tons o f c u p r i f e r o u s q u a r t z were s h i p p e d t o t h e Mond s m e l t e r a t C o n i s t o n f o r use as a f l u x . 3 ^ D u r i n g t h e 1890's the N o r t h Shore a r e a saw s t r o n g growth of the lumber i n d u s t r y w i t h l a r g e m i l l s e s t a b l i s h e d a t the i n t e r c e p t s of major r i v e r s and t h e r a i l w a y ; Massey, Webbwood, S p a n i s h , B l i n d R i v e r and T h e s s a l o n became i m p o r t a n t lumbering c e n t r e s , w i t h p i n e b e i n g drawn from the n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r . A g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t was a l s o i n t e n s i f i e d a f t e r t h e coming o f the r a i l w a y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the w e s t e r n end of the N o r t h Shore a r e a . In 1891 t h e p o p u l a t i o n a l o n g the N o r t h Shore, e x c l u d i n g S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , numbered about 9,700; by 1901 i t had i n c r e a s e d to some 14,500 (see Appendix I I f o r l o c a t i o n d e t a i l s ) . The Bruce Mines & Algoma R a i l w a y . — T h e re-emergence of the m i n i n g f r o n t i e r i n s o u t h e r n Algoma, as w e l l as the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of S a u l t S t e . M a r i e and the growth of l u m b e r i n g and a g r i c u l t u r e , l e d t o an i n c r e a s -i n g c o n c e r n i n s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o t h a t , i f immediate s t e p s were not t a k e n i n the development of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , "New O n t a r i o " would become the 37 " G r e a t e r Quebec." That s e n t i m e n t l e d to the p r o p o s a l i n 1898 of the Bruce Mines & Algoma R a i l w a y , which was p r o j e c t e d "from the town of Bruce Mines on Lake Huron, n o r t h - e a s t e r l y t o Hudson Bay, a d i s t a n c e of 400 38 m i l e s . " I t was i n t e n d e d to open up the new copper p r o s p e c t s n o r t h of Bruce Mines, as w e l l as to p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o v i r g i n p i n e s t a n d s and p o c k e t s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The promoters o f the l i n e , a c c o r d i n g to t h e u s u a l 128 p r a c t i c e , c a s t t h e i r optimism f a r t h e r a f i e l d , d e c l a r i n g t h a t " f o r a d i s t a n c e o f 125 m i l e s the l i n e would pass through the 15,000,000 a c r e wheat b e l t [the G r e a t C l a y B e l t ] , i n the Moose V a l l e y , 3,000,000 a c r e s 39 of which would be w i t h i n 25 m i l e s of the proposed l i n e of r a i l w a y . " The grand v i s i o n was not to be r e a l i z e d , however, f o r the Algoma C e n t r a l and Hudson Bay R a i l w a y pre-empted the i n t e n t i o n s of the B.M. & A.R. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the l i n e was completed from Bruce Mines t o th e Rock Lake copper mine, a d i s t a n c e o f s e v e n t e e n m i l e s ; i t connected w i t h the Soo Branch of t h e Canadian P a c i f i c f o u r m i l e s n o r t h of Bruce Mines. In 1905 the o r i g i n a l company was r e c h a r t e r e d as the Lake Huron & N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o R ailway Company; i t s t i l l had d e s i g n s on r e a c h i n g Hudson Bay, but no f u r t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n took p l a c e . The completed p o r t i o n from Bruce Mines to Rock Lake was abandoned i n 1921. I n d u s t r i a l Developments a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and the L o c a t i o n o f I n d u s t r y . — T h e c o m p l e t i o n of the t h r e e r a i l w a y s to S a u l t S t e . M a r i e c r e a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s of i n d u s -t r i a l development on b o t h s i d e s o f the S t . Marys: Then began a p e r i o d of temporary e x a l t a t i o n f o r the c i t i z e n s . The Canadian P a c i f i c R a i lway had j u s t come to them, they them-s e l v e s would b u i l d a power c a n a l , and m a n u f a c t u r e r s would be a t t r a c t e d by the s c o r e . The work was v i g o r o u s l y p r o s e c u t e d , and t t h e l i t t l e town [ S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , O n t a r i o ] had a bonded debt of $265,000 b e f o r e i t was f i n i s h e d . And no m a n u f a c t u r e r s came. Taxes s o a r e d , and the p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d . In the w i n t e r o f 1894 one of t h e c a n a l banks gave way, and a $6,000 s i n k i n g fund which had accumulated a g a i n s t the debentures^was used to r e p a i r the b r e a c h — t h e l a s t straw had been l a i d on. F o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e d i s i l l u s i o n e d c i t i z e n s o f S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , t h a t was t h e y e a r F r a n c i s Henry C l e r g u e a r r i v e d . The c o m b i n a t i o n of good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , the p o t e n t i a l f o r h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power development, and an abundance of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s was moulded by th e 129 e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s of C l e r g u e i n t o an i n d u s t r i a l complex which i s s t i l l the b a s i s of the economy of S a u l t S t e . M a r i e . A f t e r assuming the bonded debt of t h e abandoned power c a n a l p r o j e c t , C l e r g u e expanded the u t i l i t y t o a c a p a c i t y of 20,000 h o r s e -power. In o r d e r to u t i l i z e the e x c e s s power, as w e l l as the c o n s i d e r a b l e pulpwood r e s o u r c e s of the a r e a , C l e r g u e persuaded h i s American b a c k e r s to form the S a u l t S t e . M a r i e P u l p and Paper Company, which began o p e r a t i o n s 41 i n 1896 as one of t h e l a r g e s t p u l p m i l l s i n the w o r l d . The m i l l p r o -duced groundwood p u l p a t a r a t e of 150 tons a day, and the p r o d u c t was s h i p p e d w i t h o u t f u r t h e r manufacture to papermakers i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The p u l p , however, c o n t a i n e d from f i f t y t o f i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t water, which was not p a i d f o r by the buyer. Moreover, the c o m p e t i t o r s of t h e new e n t e r p r i s e lowered t h e i r p r i c e of p u l p by t w e n t y - f i v e per c e n t , and the h i g h c o s t of moving p u l p t o the market soon became p r o h i b i t i v e . C l e r g u e met t h i s c h a l l e n g e i n t y p i c a l f a s h i o n by b u i l d i n g a d r y i n g machine which would not o n l y improve h i s p r o d u c t but a l s o e f f e c t a s a v i n g o f t w e n t y - f i v e per c e n t on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . Here C l e r g u e a c t e d as b o t h i n v e n t o r and e n t r e p r e n e u r , and the r e s u l t a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a machine shop and f o u n d r y , b o t h i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the p u l p m i l l . C l e r g u e next proceeded t o improve the p u l p by c o n v e r t i n g t o a s u l p h i t e p r o c e s s . T h i s demanded q u a n t i t i e s of s u l p h u r , which he o b t a i n e d from the Sudbury B a s i n . In t h a t p e r i o d , tons of s u l p h u r were e s c a p i n g d a i l y i n t o the atmosphere d u r i n g r o a s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s , but t h e Canadian Copper Company, the major i n t e r e s t i n the Sudbury B a s i n , was u n i n t e r e s t e d 43 i n s e l l i n g the waste p r o d u c t . T h i s r e f u s a l f o r c e d C l e r g u e t o e n t e r 130 m i n i n g i n the Sudbury B a s i n w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n of the G e r t r u d e and 44 E l s i e mines, which began p r o d u c t i o n i n 1899. The G e r t r u d e o r e , which was l a r g e l y p y r r h o t i t e ( i r o n s u l p h i d e ) w i t h some n i c k e l c o n t e n t , was i n i t i a l l y s h i p p e d d i r e c t l y t o S a u l t S t e . M a r i e f o r r e d u c t i o n to 45. s u l p h u r o u s a c i d and s u l p h u r d i o x i d e . T h i s r e q u i r e d the e r e c t i o n of a f e r r o - n i c k e l r e d u c t i o n works and c h e m i c a l l a b o r a t o r i e s c l o s e to the s i t e o f the new s u l p h i t e p u l p m i l l . The e x p a n s i o n o f the C o n s o l i d a t e d Lake S u p e r i o r Company (under which the v a r i o u s C l e r g u e e n t e r p r i s e s had now become i n c o r p o r a t e d ) i n t o t h e f i e l d of m i n i n g and m e t a l l u r g y brought i t i n t o d i r e c t c ompeti-t i o n w i t h the Canadian Copper Company and o t h e r c o n c e r n s i n the Sudbury d i s t r i c t . C l e r g u e succeeded i n c o n c l u d i n g an agreement w i t h Krupp of 46 Germany to s u p p l y n i c k e l s t e e l from h i s S a u l t S t e . M a r i e works. The r e s i d u e of the p y r r h o t i t e r e d u c t i o n had a h i g h n i c k e l c o n t e n t which, on combining w i t h a v a i l a b l e s u p p l i e s of i r o n , y i e l d e d a n i c k e l s t e e l w i t h seven per c e n t n i c k e l . The Krupp c o n t r a c t c a l l e d f o r o n l y t h r e e -a n d - a - h a l f per c e n t , so C l e r g u e was o b l i g e d t o seek a d d i t i o n a l s u p p l i e s of i r o n i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n and to maximize the use of h i s n i c k e l i n v e n t o r i e s . Ben Boyer had d i s c o v e r e d e x t e n s i v e f o r m a t i o n s o f h e m a t i t e and s i d e r i t e ( i r o n c a r b o n a t e ) i n the Wawa a r e a , e a s t o f M i c h i p i c o t e n 47 Harbour, a t the time of a minor g o l d r u s h (1897). The Algoma Commercial Company, w i t h E r n e s t V. C l e r g u e i n c o n t r o l , a c q u i r e d t h e p r o p e r t i e s from Boyer and brought i n t o p r o d u c t i o n the H e l e n and J o s e p h i n e mines i n 1899 and 1900. The e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h e s e r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d a r a i l w a y (the Algoma C e n t r a l R a i l w a y , d i s c u s s e d i n more 131 d e t a i l below) to move the ore to M i c h i p i c o t e n Harbour, where e l a b o r a t e d o c k i n g and l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s were c o n s t r u c t e d . The f i r s t shipment of i r o n o r e was made over the newly-constructed.Algoma C e n t r a l i n 1900. At t h a t time the H e l e n and J o s e p h i n e mines were the o n l y i r o n p r o d u c e r s i n O n t a r i o , and the output was from 900 to 1,000 tons a day d u r i n g 48 the s h i p p i n g season. Ore was s h i p p e d by l a k e b o a t t o S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , M i d l a n d , H a m i l t o n , and Lake E r i e p o r t s . In 1901 one hundred 49 and t w e n t y - t h r e e c a r g o e s t o t a l l i n g 231,032 tons were s h i p p e d . F r a n c i s C l e r g u e by t h i s time had i n c o r p o r a t e d t h r e e more companies a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e which were independent o f h i s C o n s o l i d a t e d Lake S u p e r i o r Company but n e v e r t h e l e s s p h y s i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d : the Algoma S t e e l Company L i m i t e d , t h e Algoma Tube Works L i m i t e d , and the Canadian E l e c t r o - C h e m i c a l Company L i m i t e d . The l o c a t i o n of the i r o n and s t e e l p l a n t and m e t a l f a b r i c a t i o n works a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e was a r e s u l t o f f a v o u r a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c t o r s and the maximum i n t e g r a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s near the m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s . The Algoma S t e e l Company was a b l e to take advantage of back h a u l from Lake E r i e p o r t s f o r i t s i n p u t s of c o a l . Limestone f l u x was o b t a i n e d from P e t o s k y , M i c h i g a n . In the i n i t i a l phases of s t e e l p r o d u c t i o n c h a r c o a l was the dominant f u e l , u t i l i z i n g the abundant hardwood r e s o u r c e s of s o u t h e r n Algoma. A c h a r c o a l p l a n t was b u i l t a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e i n which two f u r n a c e s burned 600 c o r d s a day."^ By 1902 C l e r g u e ' s i n d u s t r i a l empire i n c l u d e d the power and l i g h t companies,"'"'" the p u l p and paper m i l l , machine shops and f o u n d r y , the s t e e l p l a n t , f e r r o - n i c k e l r e d u c t i o n works, the tube p l a n t , an a l k a l i p l a n t ( u s i n g s a l t from Windsor and G o d e r i c h ) , a s u l p h u r i c a c i d 132 p l a n t , an a c e t a t e of l i m e p l a n t , a wood a l c o h o l p l a n t , the Algoma C e n t r a l R a i l w a y ( i n c l u d i n g s t e a m s h i p s ) , the M a n i t o u l i n and N o r t h Shore R a i l w a y , c a r shops, a s a w m i l l and a veneer m i l l , two s t r e e t r a i l w a y s , 52 a f e r r y b o a t , and a b r i c k p l a n t . I n t o a l l of t h i s C l e r g u e ' s Boston 53 b a c k e r s had i n v e s t e d an e s t i m a t e d t h i r t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . Not a l l components of the complex were p r o f i t a b l e ; the m e t a l l u r g i c a l p l a n t s were soon i n p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y because of the u n s u i t a b i l i t y o f the e l e c t r o l y t i c r e f i n i n g p r o c e s s . C l e r g u e had b o a s t e d t h a t he c o u l d s u p p l y n i c k e l s t e e l a t $30 a t o n i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g p r i c e of $400 a t o n i n 1900, but h e i s o o n r e a l i z e d t h a t he was h a r d - p r e s s e d to f u l f i l h i s e x i s t i n g c o n t r a c t s . In 1900 the Dominion government had c o n t r a c t e d w i t h the Algoma S t e e l Company f o r 125,000 f i r s t - q u a l i t y s t e e l r a i l s , 25,000 to be taken a n n u a l l y f o r f i v e y e a r s . In o r d e r to a s s i s t Canadian s t e e l makers i n meeting s t i f f American c o m p e t i t i o n the government g r a n t e d a bounty of t h r e e d o l l a r s a t o n on d e l i v e r e d p i g i r o n and s t e e l . The Algoma S t e e l Company was never i n a p o s i t i o n t o c o l l e c t owing to p r o d u c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . The whole complex was f o r c e d t o shut down i n 1903, throwing 3,500 men out of work and c r e a t i n g 54 a good d e a l of s t r i f e and h a r d s h i p a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e . The main weakness i n the i n d u s t r i a l complex was C l e r g u e ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n s i d e of h i s empire and h i s l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n s e l l i n g h i s p r o d u c t t o e x t e r n a l markets. The extreme i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of i n d u s t r i e s a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , each f e e d i n g on one a n o t h e r , r e s u l t e d i n t h e consumption of enormous amounts of c a p i t a l f o r p l a n t . When the s u p p l y of money dwindled t h e income from the s a l e of p r o d u c t s was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n p r o d u c t i o n . The c o l l a p s e of 1903 was f o l l o w e d 133 by a l o n g and d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d of a d a p t a t i o n to a much reduced s c a l e of o p e r a t i o n s under the r e o r g a n i z e d Lake S u p e r i o r C o r p o r a t i o n (from which C l e r g u e was f o r c e d to r e s i g n ) . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f o r e g o i n g was t h a t the element of e n t e r p r e n e u r s h i p — F r a n c i s C l e r g u e ' s a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e and e x p l o i t o p p o r t u n i t y — w a s the c a t a l y s t n e c e s s a r y to i n i t i a t e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e . And, inasmuch as h i s p e r s o n a l i n i t i a t i v e t r a n s -formed the c h a r a c t e r of t h a t p o r t i o n of t h e N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o f r o n t i e r , h i s l i m i t a t i o n s of judgement e v e n t u a l l y l e d to d i f f i c u l t i e s i n k e e p i n g the system i n m o t i o n . R a i l w a y C o n s t r u c t i o n The S a u l t S t e . M a r i e and Hudson Bay R a i l w a y . — T h e e s t a b l i s h -ment of r e s o u r c e - b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e was c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o raw m a t e r i a l s — p u l p w o o d , sawlogs, i r o n o r e , n i c k e l - c o p p e r o r e , l i m e s t o n e , coke, s a l t , and o t h e r s . The e a s t -west o r i e n t a t i o n of r a i l w a y s p r i o r to 1900 was not e s p e c i a l l y f a v o u r a b l e to the development of i n d u s t r y a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e . C l e r g u e complained t h a t the main l i n e of t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , i n f o l l o w i n g a r o u t e c l o s e to the h e i g h t of l a n d , tapped a minimum of m a r k e t a b l e timber a l o n g the way, and he argued f o r t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a r a i l w a y e x t e n d i n g northward from S a u l t S t e . M a r i e . The i d e a of a n o r t h - s o u t h r a i l w a y s t a r t i n g from S a u l t S t e . M a r i e a r e a d i d not o r i g i n a t e w i t h F r a n c i s C l e r g u e . As e a r l y as 1882, 56 the Lake S u p e r i o r and James' Bay R a i l w a y was c h a r t e r e d to b u i l d a l i n e northward from M i c h i p i c o t e n Harbour to Moose F a c t o r y , and a s i m i l a r p r o p o s a l i n 1890 by t h e S a u l t S t e . M a r i e and Hudson's Bay 134 R a i l w a y Company p r o j e c t e d a l i n e from the S a u l t tooMoose F a c t o r y . A g a i n i n 1900 a n o t h e r proposed l i n e , the Lake S u p e r i o r and Hudson's Bay R a i l w a y , was drawn between Batchawana Bay, Lake S u p e r i o r , and James Bay.~^ T h i s w e l t e r of p r o p o s a l s was spawned i n a p e r i o d of i n t e n s e optimism i n Canada, when i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t r a i l w a y s were the u l t i m a t e t o o l i n economic development. C o n c e r n i n g the S a u l t S t e . M a r i e and Hudson's Bay p r o p o s a l , one w r i t e r s a i d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y : What would t h i s r a i l w a y do f o r O n t a r i o ? I t would open up a grand f a r m i n g c o u n t r y — e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e — c l o s e to good markets, c l o s e to l a k e n a v i g a t i o n , w i t h no " m a g n i f i c e n t d i s t a n c e s " of which e v e r y m i l e means so much l e s s i n p r o f i t t o the s e t t l e r . I t would d e v e l o p the m i n e r a l c o u n t r y l y i n g n o r t h of S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , as the Canadian P a c i