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Comparative analysis of the socioeconomic characteristics of foreign and native born farmers in two areas… Rubidge, Nicholas Andrew 1971

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIO-^  ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREIGN AND NATIVE BORN FARMERS IN TWO AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by NICHOLAS A« RUBI.DGE B.Sc Wye College University of London, England: 1968 ( A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n i n the Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of B r i t i s h Columbia September, 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y ,ava i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Agricultural Economics The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada Date September 30, 1971 ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that birthplace influences the socio-economic characteristics or the usage of sources of information i n samples of farmers from two areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. Two areas of divergent farm types namely the Peace River and South Okanagan areas were chosen for analysis from the sixteen areas surveyed by the ARDA Canada Land Inventory Project i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Interview schedules completed i n 1967 and 1968 surveys of these areas were used as the source of data. Excluded were a l l those respondents who sold less than $250 worth of a g r i c u l t u r a l goods pro-duced on the land they occupied. The Peace River sample consisted of 112 farmers of whom 27.7 percent were foreign born while the South Okanagan sample consisted of 61 farmers of whom 50.8 percent were not born i n Canada. The majority of the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n d i s t r i b u t i o n of the socio-economic characteristics and use of i n f o r -mation sources among the groups by birthplace of the Peace River were attributable to the age differences between the groups, due to the areas settlement history. There were very few s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -ficant differences i n d i s t r i b u t i o n noted among the groups of farmers of the South Okanagan. Further there were few differences among the groups by birthplace between the areas studies that could not be attributed to geographic differences between the areas. The results of this study would suggest that place of b i r t h does not strongly influence the socio-economic characteristics or usage of information sources i n the two areas studied. TABLE OF CONTENTS i PAGE LIST OF TABLES •. i v CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION 1 PURPOSE , 2 HYPOTHESES 3 THE SETTING A Selection of Areas 7 PROCEDURE - 9 Sampling . , . 9 Data Collection 9 Data Analysis 9 REVIEW OF LITERATURE , 10 Composition of the Canadian Population... 10 Socio-Economic Characteristics of Ethnic Groups .....11 Effects of Ethnicity on use of Information Sources ..12 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER ONE 14 TWO. CHARACTERISTICS OF PEACE RIVER FARM RESPONDENTS BY PLACE OF BIRTH , 16 RESIDENCE HISTORY 19 THE PEOPLE 21 Children 22 Social Characteristics 23 Attitude to Change 24 Degree of Iso l a t i o n 24 EDUCATION AND TRAINING 26 Wives'Education and Training ....27 Fathers'Education 28 Children's Education 28 OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 29 Commitment to Farming 29 Years Farming . .... 32 Farmland U t i l i z a t i o n .33 A g r i c u l t u r a l Production 35 Farm Labour 36 i i CHAPTER PAGE TWO. Farm Value 38 INCOME 38 Gross Farm Income 40 Net Farm Income , 41 Farming Effic i e n c y 42 INFORMATION SOURCES Personal Contact With The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t 43 SUMMARY 48 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER TWO 50 THREE. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTH OKANAGAN FARM RESPONDENTS BY PLACE OF BIRTH 51 RESIDENCE HISTORY 54 THE PEOPLE 54 Age , 55 Children ; 55 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS 55 Attitude to Change , 56 Degree of Tsolation 57 EDUCATION AND JOB TRAINING , . 57 Wives' Education and Training 58 Fathers' Education and Training ........... 59 Children's Education 59 OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 60 Commitment to Farming 60 Years Farming 61 Farmland U t i l i z a t i o n 61 Ag r i c u l t u r a l Production 62 Farm Labour , 63 Farm Value 63 INCOME 64 Farm Income . 65 Farm Effici e n c y ...,66 INFORMATION SOURCES 67 SUMMARY 71 i i i PAGE CHAPTER FOUR. CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS BY PLACE OF BIRTH IN THE PEACE RIVER AND SOUTH OKANAGAN AREAS .73 FARMERS BORN IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 7 4 Residence History 74 Personal Characteristics ..75 Social Characteristics 75 Educational Characteristics 76 Occupational Characteristics 76 Income 79 Information Sources 80 FARMERS BORN ELSEWHERE IN CANADA 83 Personal Characteristics 83 Social Characteristics 83 Educational Characteristics 85 Occupational Characteristics 85 Income 87 Information Sources 87 FOREIGN BORN FARMERS ' : g 2 Personal Characteristics 2^ Social Characteristics 92 Educational Characteristics 93 Occupational Characteristics 93 Income 97 Information Sources 99 SUMMARY • • 1 0 3 FIVE. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1 0 5 FARMERS IN THE PEACE RIVER .1-06 FARMERS IN THE SOUTH OKANAGAN 109 NATIVE BORN BRITISH COLUMBIAN FARMERS I l l FARMER BORN ELSEWHERE IN CANADA 112 FOREIGN BORN FARMERS I l 4 CONCLUSIONS 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY .' 118 APPENDIX A: PARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR PEACE RIVER 123 APPENDIX B: PARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR SOUTH OKANAGAN 126 APPENDIX C: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE , 129 LIST OF TABLES i v PAGE 1. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers by P r i n c i p a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Product 5 2. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Respondents by Birthplace 6 3. Chi-Square Values For Distributions by Socio-Economic Factors Betx-zeen Native B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Farmers i n the Peace River Area 17 4. Chi-Square Values For Distributions by Farm Factors Between Native Born B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Farmers i n the Peace River Area 18 5. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents by Number of Years Residence i n the Peace River Area 19 6. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents of Peace River by Place of Previous Residence. 20 7. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents Resident i n the Peace River Area ........ 22 8. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents of the Peace River Area by Distance Travelled for Services 25 9. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Farmers of the Peace "River Area by Their Commitment to Farming 30 10. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Farmers i n Peace River with Non Farm Jobs.... 32 11. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Farmers of the Peace River by Years Farming ..33 12. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents by Acres Cultivated i n Peace River34 13. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents Resident i n the Peace River Area by Labour Usage 37 14. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents i n Peace River Area by Farm Value 38 15. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents i n Peace River Area by Total Family Income , 40 16. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents i n Peace. River Area by Gross Farm Income 41 17. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents i n Peace River Area by Amount of Net Farm Income « 42 V PAGE 18. Percentage Di s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents i n Peace River Area by Personal Contact with D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t 46 19. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents i n Peace River Area by Use of Impersonal Sources of A g r i c u l t u r a l Information 47 20. Chi-Square Values for D i s t r i b u t i o n by Socio-Economic Factors Between Native Born B r i t i s h Columbians, Canadian and Foreign Born Farmers i n the South Okanagan Area 52 21. Chi-Square Values for Distributions by Farm Factors Between Native Born Canadian and Foreign Born Farmers i n the South Okanagan Area 53 22. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Farmers of the South Okanagan by Total Family Income 64 23. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Farmers of the South Okanagan by Gross Farm Income 65 24. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Farmers of the South Okanagan by Net Farm Income 66 25. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents i n the South Okanagan by Personal Contact with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t 69 26. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and Foreign Born Respondents i n the South Okanagan Area by Use of Impersonal Sources of A g r i c u l t u r a l Information.... 70 27. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian Farmers by Place of B i r t h . 75 28. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbian Born Farmers by Area of Residence and Farm Size 77 29. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers Born i n B r i t i s h Columbia by Area of Residence and Labour Usage 79 3 0 . Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Born i n B r i t i s h Columbia -82 by Area of Residence and Use of Impersonal Information Sources 31. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers Born Elsewhere i n Canada by Labour Usage 86 32. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers Born Elsewhere i n Canada by Personal Contact with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t 89 33. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers Born Elsewhere i n Canada by Use of Indirect Information Sources 91 34. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Foreign Born Farmers by Area of Residence and Farm Size , . 95 v i PAGE 35. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Foreign Born Farmers by Area of Residence and Labour Usage 96 36. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Foreign-Born Respondents by Area of Residence and Income 98 37. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Foreign Born Farmers by Area of Residence and Personal Contact with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t 100 38. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Foreign Born Farmers by Area of Residence and Use of Impersonal Information Sources 102 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The assimilation of immigrants into r u r a l communities has been an important s o c i a l i s a t i o n process i n the history and contin-uing development of B r i t i s h Columbia. The immigrants have provided the province with a r i c h c u l t u r a l background and a wealth of exper-ience which i s integrated with the values already ex i s t i n g i n Canada. The extent to which the immigrants have adapted to and integrated with Canadian society largely determines the developmental influence they exert upon i t . In r u r a l areas, where communication i s more d i f f i c u l t than in an urban s e t t i n g , the immigrant may not be as affected by the Canadian way of l i f e as those who migrate to the towns with the result that more of the homeland practices may be retained. Thus the extent and nature of the c u l t u r a l adjustment may f a c i l i t a t e or hinder the introduction and acceptance of recommended Canadian farm practices.^ This study investigates and describes the farming population i n two areas of B r i t i s h Columbia to determine the extent to which place of b i r t h i s related to socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s and the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l information sources by farm operators. 1 PURPOSE The economic status of a farming area i s generally related to the socio-economic characteristics of the people i n the area and to the i r a b i l i t y to adopt new techniques so as to maintain or i n -crease production. In B r i t i s h Columbia as i n the rest of Canada, agriculture i s i n a p a r t i a l economic depression, with the costs of production increasing faster than revenues. The extent to which farmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia successfully combat t h i s condition may depend on their a b i l i t y to improve the i r farming practices. Two major factors that have been found to influence the rate of change i n a r u r a l area include the socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population such as educational experience., income, and l e v e l of l i v i n g , as well as the extent to which use i s made of the various 2 sources of a g r i c u l t u r a l information , especially the D i s t r i c t Agricul t u r i s t . B r i t i s h Columbia has received foreign immigrants as a g r i c u l -t u r a l s e t t l e r s throughout i t s history so there are a large number of them now farming i n the province. The purpose of this study i s to analyse the socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of farmers i n two areas of B r i t i s h Columbia to determine to what extent place of b i r t h i s relate to the socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of farmers and the i r use of information sources. 3 HYPOTHESES The following hypotheses stated i n the n u l l form w i l l be tested i n this study: 1 . There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f -erences by place of b i r t h between farmers (in each of two areas) with respect to t h e i r socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s and their use of information sources. 2.. There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f -erences between native born farmers i n the f i r s t area, and native born farmers i n the second area, with respect to thei r socio-economic characteris-t i c s and their use of information sources. 3 . There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f -erences between foreign born farmers i n the f i r s t area and foreign born farmers i n the second area, with respect to their socio-economic characteris-t i c s and use of information sources. 4 THE SETTING Agriculture i n B r i t i s h Columbia varies greatly from region to region. The Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island regions with their moderate coastal climate are suitable for intensive agriculture, with a range of farm products but with the emphasis on livestock production. The Okanagan region experiences greater climatic extremes than the coastal areas. The South Okanagan i s the center of the tree f r u i t industry, while towards the North there i s a gradual increase i n livest o c k farming. The range lands of the Cariboo and East Kootenay are p r i n c i p a l l y devoted to beef ranching, while the Kamloops area has s mixture of beef and sheep ranching. The Prince George and Vanderhoof regions are sim i l a r i n that production i s predominantly dairying and sheep farming, while cereal production i s centred i n the Peace River 3 Area. A series of socio-economic surveys conducted i n the major r u r a l areas of the province investigated the a g r i c u l t u r a l products 4 raised by farmers, and the p r i n c i p a l products reported are shown i n Table 1. The t o t a l population of an area i s dependent on a whole range of such factors as climate, s o i l type, geographic s i t u a t i o n , and the i n d u s t r i a l base. The population d i s t r i b u t i o n by place of b i r t h varies from region to region and this i s probably related to the farm types or product types prevelant i n the area. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of farm respondents by place of b i r t h as found i n the socio-economic surveys i s shown i n Table 2 . TABLE 1 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BY PRINCIPAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT N= co 4-1 CD . U •H cu 03 60 3 r4 UH rH Q. 0) -o 4-1 •r! 4-1 . O > O rH CO 4J rJ CO !-l o 3 W CU a 4J +J rV o O cd U O O 4-1 P-i rH T3 4-1 rH 3 >N U •4H rH •H u a) (]} CJ 0) m o o •n' a) X J= r> 60 4-J QJ •H o u c3 ,e •H 4J -H 60 O PQ n to s O i-5 ta S3 33.3 24.4 14.5 5.6 8.9 4.4 3.3 2.2 3.3 69.4 16.3 2.0 4.1 2.0 6.1 53.0 2.9 38.2 5.9 18.6 65.5 0.9 7.1 2.7 3.5 0.9 0.9 Prince George Special Sales East Kootenay Pemberton Peace River Vanderhoof West Kamloops North Okanagan South Okanagan S. Okanagan Land Irrigated Boundary Area Cariboo Fraser Valley Vancouver Island 90 49 34 113 65 63.1 82 53.7 82 62 62 30 59 171 54 10.8 11.0 17.1 15.9 12.9 8.5 39.0 1.0 76.7 84.7 24.6 35.1 11.1 3.2 80.6 99.0 3.3 1.7 3.1 1.2 3.3 1.7 9.3 18.5 20.7 17.1 6.7 30.4 11.1 1.5 2.4 7.3 3.3 3.4 23.4 9.3 8.5 12.3 11.1 3.1 9,3 6.1 3.2 6.7 9.3 3.7 Source - ARDA Canada Land Inventory Report Project #49009" TABLE 2 DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BY BIRTHPLACE In Area B.C. Canada U.S.A. U.K. Other N % % % % % % Prince George Special Sales Area 90 3.3 14.4 44,5 14.4 6.7 16.7 East Kootenay 49 20.4 4.1 28.6 10.2 12.2 24.5 Pemberton 34 14.7 11.8 23.5 5.9 11.7 32.4 Peace River 113 18.6 1.8 53.1 7.1 4.9 15.0 Vanderhoof West 65 10.8 9.2 36.9 18.5 3.1 21.5 Kamloops •82 •14.6 17.1 35.4 7.3 12.2 13.4 N. Okanagan 82 18.3 12.2 37.8 8.5 6.1 17.1 S. Okanagan Irrigated 62 6.5 8.0 27.4 — 6.5 51.6 Cariboo 59 22.0 27.1 22.0 22.0 1.8 5.1 Boundary 30 13.4 20.0 53.3 6.7 3.3 3.3 Fraser Valley 171 17.5 2.9 36.3 1.8 4.1 37.4 Vancouver Island 54 3.7 25.9 31,5 4.4 16.4 16.7 Source - ARDA Canada Land Inventory Report Project #49009 Selection of Areas Data for the study was obtained from interview schedules from the A.R.D.A. Canada Land Inventory Project #49009 ^ which consisted of a series of socio-economic surveys of several r u r a l areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia, For the purposes of t h i s study, two areas of divergent farm types were chosen so as to provide as wide a range of ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s as possible. The two areas chosen were the Peace River and South Okanagan. The Peace River Area consists of some 4.3 m i l l i o n acres of land i n the northeast corner of B r i t i s h Columbia between the Rocky Mountains and the Alberta border. The p r i n c i p a l settlements are Dawson Creek i n the south and Fort St. John i n the north. Those towns supply the goods and services normally associated with larger urban centers and are provided with good access by. road, r a i l and a i r . Consequently they are the f o c a l points i n the area and most people s e t t l e within 50 miles of one of those towns. The topography of the area varies considerably from west to east. The extreme west i s mountainous and deeply dissected by r i v e r v a l l e y s , with the elevation varying from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. In the eastern portion of the area, the convolutions become less and less extreme u n t i l the land levels into gently undulating p l a i n s , broken only by deep r i v e r v a l l e y s , with elevations varying between 900 and 3,000 feet. C l i m a t i c a l l y the area resembles the P r a i r i e Provinces, wi cold winters and hot summers. The long days i n the peak of the growing season compensate adequately for the short growing season and agriculture i n the area i s p r i n c i p a l l y crop orientated. The South Okanagan i s an area of approximately 2,290 square miles situated i n and around the Okanagan Valley 300 miles east of Vancouver. The valley runs north to south, with the international boundary forming the southern l i m i t . The area extends about 25 miles north of the p r i n c i p a l c i t y i n the area which i s Penticton. Other towns i n the area surveyed include Summerland, Oliver, Osoyoos and Keremeos. The f i r s t s e t t l e r s to the area i n the early nineteenth century were trappers and fur traders. Since then the area's economy has been based on mining, logging, ranching and intensive h o r t i c u l t u r e . The p r i n c i p a l source of revenue for the area at present i s from tree f r u i t s and i t i s the major f r u i t producing area i n the Province. The natural beauty of the v a l l e y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the four small lakes i n the valley bottom, are being exploited and developed as t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s , and tourism i s currently the secondary source of revenue for the area. The topography of the area i s t y p i c a l l y glaciated with wide valleys having f l a t bottom and steep sides. In the areas surveyed, the f l a t bottom land varies i n width from three to eight miles, the sides of the v a l l e y are terraced and r i s e steeply 4,000 feet from the valley bottom to the plateau. The climate of the area i s much less extreme than that of the Peace River Area, with an average temperature i n January of 25 CF, and 70°F i n July with between 140 and 180 f r o s t free days. As the average annual r a i n f a l l for the area i s about 10 inches on the intensively farmed land, i r r i g a t i o n i s a necessity. PROCEDURE Sampling The procedure followed i n the. selection of the sample for the Canada Land Inventory Project #49009 has been f u l l y documented 8 elsewhere, but b r i e f l y i t was as follows: within each d i s t r i c t an area sample was selected at random from a l i s t of the pre-empted l o t s In no area was the sample less than 10 percent of the pre-empted l o t s In Peace River, ten percent of the t o t a l number of l o t s were selected while 22 percent were sampled i n South Okanagan. In the socio-economic survey both farm and non farm respond-ents were included, but this study i s only concerned with the farm respondents. These were, defined as those who reported earning $250 or more of their annual income from the sale of a g r i c u l t u r a l products Data Collection The interviews were conducted during the summer months of q 1967 i n Peace River and 1968 i n South Okanagan. The data collected was coded, edited, and key-punched on IBM data cards for processing at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre. Data Analysis The f i r s t stage of the analysis consisted of cross-tabulation 10 within each area of the respondents born i n B r i t i s h Columbia, elsewhere i n Canada and those.who were foreign born i n r e l a t i o n to socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the use of information sources. Secondly, for each group by birthplace an analysis was conducted to indicate the differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s between the areas with respect to farmers' socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s and use of information sources. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences existed i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s between the groups by birthplace and various socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected i f the c h i -p r o b a b i l i t y was equal to or less than 0.05. Yates correction was •applied where appropriate. Product—moment correl a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were calculated to show the relationships among the variables."^ REVIEW OF LITERATURE I t would appear that few previous studies have been conducted that are pertinent i n the development of the rationale for t h i s study. This section describes the theoretical environment i n which the effect of birthplace was analyzed. Composition of the Canadian Population The ethnic composition of the population of Canada i s pre-11 dominately European. The 1961 census of Canada showed that 43.8 percent of the population as e t h n i c a l l y B r i t i s h and 53.0 percent had their ethnic origins elsewhere i n Europe, therefore only the remaining 3.2 percent had their origins i n other ethnic groups. 12 Data from the same census also indicates that of the t o t a l population of Canada, some 16 percent were born outside Canada. Of these, one t h i r d were born i n B r i t a i n and more than half were born elsewhere i n Europe. The provinces most often named as an immigrant's destination were Quebec, Alberta and B r i t i s h Columbia. The population of B r i t i s h Columbia has been increasing rapidly. Between the 1951 and 1961 censuses, the population increased by 13 over 39 percent. Of the t o t a l population of B r i t i s h Columbia, more than 46 percent had been born i n the province, 27.3 percent were born elsewhere i n Canada, while more than 21 percent were 14 born i n B r i t a i n or Europe. Internal migration between provinces has also been high, and migration ratios would suggest that the impact of i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l migration on population size and comp-o s i t i o n has been highest i n the Western and Maritime Provinces, B r i t i s h Columbia i n fact sustained a net increase i n population by i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l migration between 1951 and 1961. Socio-Economic Characteristics of Ethnic Groups Chapin^ has suggested that socio-economic status i s a complex concept, involving several d i s t i n c t but inter-related factors that j o i n t l y determine the socio-economic status of a family. He defined socio-economic status as; ...the position that a family occupies with reference to the prevailing average standards of. c u l t u r a l possessions, e f f e c t i v e income, material possessions and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the group a c t i v i t i e s of the community. A variety of indices have been used to measure socio-economic status. Education, income and occupation are the most frequently used. ^ ' ^ The census data also shows that immigrants c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y have higher educational and occupational s k i l l s than the population norms for their country of o r i g i n . Thus, i t may be expected that immigrants as a group are more competitive and would be expected to maintain their socio-economic advantage after 19 thei r migration. Whetten and Green conducted a study on the effects of e t h n i c i t y on socio-economic status. They found s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n p r i n c i p a l occupations, s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and l e v e l of l i v i n g among the four ethnic groups. Effects of Ethnicity on use of Information Sources Several studies have investigated the -effects -of et h n i c i t y on 19 the d i f f u s i o n and adoption of farm practices. Van der Ban found s i g n i f i c a n t differences between C a l v i n i s t i c Dutch and Lutheran farmers, regardless of i n d i v i d u a l farm prediction scores based on major socio-economic variables. This led Van del" Ban to conclude that the s o c i a l organisation and culture of l o c a l i t y groups are major factors influencing 20 the adoption of new farm practices. Pederson i n a similar study of Danish and Polish sub-culture i n a region, found evidence that different c u l t u r a l adjustments either f a c i l i t a t e or hinder the introduction of recommended farm practices. The Danish respondents were outgoing and community centered and showed a consistently higher l e v e l of perform-ance for a l l practices considered while the Polish group was family centered. 13 This family orientation was thought to block the flow of information thus lowering t h e i r performance. The relationship between e t h n i c i t y and a g r i c u l t u r a l education was investigated by 21 Straus and Estep, who found that adult education and s o c i a l distance from ethnic groups were p o s i t i v e l y related to propensity to adopt improved farm practices. Thus i t seemed that those who maintained th e i r ethnic t i e s were lim i t e d by the group i n the extent 22 to which they could accept change. Verner and Gubbels however, examined ethnic influence i n three groups i n the Fraser Valley and found no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n adoption scores, and only minor differences i n certain socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In a l a t e r study on a population of strawberry growers i n the same. 23 locale., Alle.yne ..and ..Verner compared respondents c l a s s i f i e d as. Menonite, Japanese and "other". S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences by socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s and use of information sources were found between these groups. FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER ONE H.A. Pederson, "Cultural Difference i n Acceptance of Recommended Practices." Rural Sociology, 16: 37-99. (March, 1951), Everett M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962.) p.290. J.S. A l l i n , "Inventory of Agriculture i n B r i t i s h Columbia." i n 15th National Resources Conference Inventory of  National Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. Coolie Verner, and J.G. Dickinson, et a l , ARDA Canada Land Inventory Project #49009. (Faculty of Education, Univ-e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1967-70). Socio-economic survey reports 1-16. Ibid. Ibid. I b i d , Survey Reports 4 and 10. Coolie Verner, Planning and Conducting a Survey: A Case Study. (Ottawa Rural Development Branch, Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 1967.) The interview schedules appear i n the Appendix C. See correl a t i o n matrix i n Appendices A and B. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada 1961 B u l l e t i n 1.2-•5, Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r , 1963, p . l . Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada 1961 B u l l e t i n 1.2-•7, Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r , 1963, p . l . Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada 1961 B u l l e t i n 1.1-10, Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r , 1963, table 6, p.86. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada 1961 B u l l e t i n  1.2-7, Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r , 1963, table 5.1, p.25. 15 15. F.S. Chapin, "A Qualitative Scale for Rating the Home and Social Environment of Middle Class Families i n Urban Communities; A F i r s t Approximation of the Measurement . of Socio-Economic Status." The Journal of Educational  Psychology, 19:.99-111 (1928). 16. E.S. Bryant, Socio-Economic Status Indexes for M i s s i s s i p p i Counties, (Mississippi State University A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental Stations, B u l l e t i n 724, A p r i l 1966), pp.1-14. 17. H. Ingersoll and L.H, Scott. "A Group Scale for Measurement of S o c i a l , C i l t u r a l and Economic Status of Farm Families of the Middle West." Rural Sociology 9: 349-363. (1944). 18. Eugene A. Wikening, Adoption of Improved Farm Practices as Related to Family Factors, (University of Wisconsin A r g i -c u l t u r a l Experiment Station, B u l l e t i n 183-RS, 1963). 19. A.W. Van der Ban., "Locality Group Differences i n the Adoption of New Farm Practices." Rural Sociology 25: 308-320. 20. Pederson, Loc. c i t . 21. M.A. Straus, and A.J. estep. Education for Technological Change Among Wisconsin Farmers (University of Wisconsin A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental Station, Madison, Aug. 1959). Research B u l l e t i n 214. pp.17-19. 22. Coolie Verner and Peter Gubbels, The Adoption or Rejection of Innovators by Dairy Farm Operators i n th Lower Fraser  Valley (Ottawa A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics Research Council of Canada, 1967). 23. Patrick E. Alleyne and Coolie Verner, The Adoption and Rejection of Innovations by Strawberry Growers i n the Lower Fraser  Valley. (Vancouver Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, University of B r i t i s h Columbia) Rural Sociology Monograph #3, 1969, pp. 18-22. CHAPTER TWO CHARACTERISTICS OF PEACE RIVER FARM RESPONDENTS BY PLACE OF BIRTH The population of the Peace River Area i s reasonably representative of the r u r a l population of B r i t i s h Columiba as described i n the Census of Canada 1961. This chapter w i l l describe the people of t h i s area i n terms of the i r socio-economic and farm c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , so as to i l l u s t r a t e any s i g n i f i c a n t differences between native B r i t i s h Columbians, those born elsewhere i n Canada and the foreign born respondents. The n u l l hypothesis of no s t a t i s t i c a l l y .significant differences i n „the .distributions among the groups by birthplace was rejected i f the ch i - p r o b a b i l i t y was less than 0.05. The l i s t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s studied and the relevant s t a t i s t i c a l tests are summarised i n Tables 3 and 4. TABLE 3 CHI SQUARE VALUES FOR DISTRIBUTIONS BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS BETWEEN NATIVE BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN FARMERS IN THE PEACE RIVER AREA Factor Chi~square Degree of Freedom p Residence Histcu-y Years i n area 7.72 2 < 0.05 Previous Place of Residence 18.32 2 < 0.001 Personal M a r i t a l Status 3.70 4 > 0.05 Father Farming 9.49 2 < 0.01 Age 45.23 6 < 0.001 No. of children 3.94 4 >0.05 No. of children l e f t area 7.5.2 1 < 0.. 01 Social Level of l i v i n g 5.87 6 > 0.05 Social P a r t i c i p a t i o n 6.12 4 > 0.05 Attitude to change 21.72 8 > 0.01 Distance travelled 10.01 4 < 0.05 Education Years Schooling 7.01 4 > 0.05 Job Training 0.61 2 > 0.05 Education Courses 2.05 2 > 0.05 Want further t r a i n i n g 19.28 2 > 0.001 Wives schooling 8.85 4 > 0.05 Wives job train i n g 10.80 2 < 0.005 Father's Education 2.83 4 > 0.05 Father's Training 7.27 4 > 0.05 Children with G.12 4.39 2 * 0.05 TABLE 4 CHI SQUARE VALUES FOR DISTRIBUTIONS BY FARM FACTORS BETWEEN NATIVE BORN BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN, AND FOREIGN BORN FARMERS IN THE PEACE RIVER AREA Factor Chi Square Degree' of Freedom p Occupational C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 11.49 4 <0.03 Perception of occupation 6.08 2 <0.05 % income from farming 6.93 2 <0.04 Years farming 15.04 4 < 0.01 Total Acres 8.86 4 >0.05 Acres Cultivated 14.87 4 < 0.01 Acres Bush 5.41 4 > 0.05" P r i n c i p l e Products 0.63 2 ;" 0.05 No. of Animals 3.16 4 > 0.05 Use of hired labour 5.75 2 > 0.05 Use of family labour 9.49 2 < 0.01 Amount of family labour 1.39 2 > 0.05 Farm value 20.41 6 < 0.01 Income Total family income 10.68 4 < 0.05 Gross farm income 16.53 6 < 0.02 Net farm income 11.56 2 < 0.01 Effi c i e n c y factor 3.19 4 > 0.05 Information sources Named D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t 10.76 2 < 0.01 V i s i t e d D.A. 4.35 2 > 0.05 Phoned D.A. 1.69 2 > 0.05 V i s i t e d by D.A. 1,62 2 > 0.05 F i e l d Trips 4.73 2 > 0.05 Read Circulars 14.27 4 < 0.01 Listen to Radio 3.74 4 > 0.05 Newspaper A r t i c l e s 4.28 4 >0.05 19 RESIDENCE HISTORY The t o t a l sample consisted of 112 farm families with 22 respondents (19.6%) born i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 59 (52.7%) elsewhere i n Canada, and 31 (27.7%) foreign born, the majority from Europe. Over 95 percent of those born i n B r i t i s h Columbia were born and had l i v e d i n the Peace River Area a l l their l i v e s , 42.8 percent of the respondents had l i v e d there for 20 years or more with 18.8 percent r e l a t i v e l y recent s e t t l e r s having l i v e d there for 10 years or less (Table 5). There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference among the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the groups by birthplace and years residence with 71 percent of the foreign born respondents having been resident i n the area for more than 20 years as against 42.4 percent of those born elsewhere i n Canada. This was not unexpected as the Peace River was a settlement area for immigrants a r r i v i n g i n Canada during and after the 1939-1946 war. TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF YEARS RESIDENCE IN THE PEACE RIVER AREA Total Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign B C in Canada Born Years No. % No. % No. % No. % residence 10 or less 21 18. 8 0 0. 0 15 25.4 6 19.4 11 - 20 22 19. 6 0 0. 0 19 32.2 3 9.6 20 or more 48 42. 8 1 4. 5 25 42.4 22 71.0 entire l i f e t i m e 21 18. 8 21 95. 5 0 0.0 0 0.0 Total 112 100. 0 22 100. 0 59 100.0 31 100.0 2 = 7.71, d.f. = 2, p < 0.05 Of those respondents who were not native-born B r i t i s h Columbians, 72.2 percent reported their previous place of residence to be i n other parts of Canada and only 15 percent reported t h e i r previous place of residence to be i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Eleven respondents reported coming d i r e c t l y to the Peace River Area from outside Canada of whom 3 came from the United States of America and the others d i r e c t l y from Europe. As would be expected, s i g n i f i c a n t l y more foreign born respondents (32.3%) had t h e i r previous homes out-side Canada, while more Canadian born respondents (83.1%), as against 51.6 percent of those who were foreign born., l i v e d i n other Canadian Provinces before moving to the area. TABLE 6 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS OF PEACE RIVER BY PLACE OF PREVIOUS RESIDENCE Total Born Elsewhere Foreign Previous residence i n ; No. % No. Canada„ 7o No. Born „ /o B r i t i s h Columbia 14 15.6 9 15.3 5 16. 1 Elsewhere i n Canada 65 72.2 49 83.1 16 51. 6 Not i n Canada 11 12.2 1 1.6 10 32. 3 Total 90 100.0 59 100.0 31 100. 0 x 2 = 18 .322, d.f, = 2, P < 0.001 21 THE PEOPLE 89 (79.5%) of the farmers were married, 22 were single and one was widowed, divorced or separated. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents by place of b i r t h and marital status. The greater majority of the respondents born i n B r i t i s h Columbia (95.5%) and elsewhere i n Canada (88.1%) reported that they came from farming f a m i l i e s , while only 64 percent of the foreign born respondents reported their fathers to be a farmer. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , thus i t would seem that those farmers born i n Canada were influenced i n their decision to farm because their fathers farmed before them, while those who migrated to the area did so with the express purpose of becoming farmers regardless of their previous background. Age The median age of respondents was i n the 35 to 44 years of age group and the ages reported varied from 27 to over 65. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the di s t r i b u t i o n s among the groups by place of b i r t h and age. More older farmers were i n the foreign born group (67.8%) than either the B r i t i s h Columbian (0.0%) or Canadian born groups (22.1%) and more young respondents were born i n B r i t i s h Columbia (40.9%). The pattern observed was as expected since the area was largely settled and opened up by immigrants, many 22 of whom came to the Peace River Area during the 1939-47 war and had l i v e d i n the area for more than 20 years. TABLE 7 AGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS RESIDENT IN THE PEACE RIVER AREA Born . i n Born Elsewhere Foreign B. C. i n Canada Born No. % No. % No. % No. % Up to 34 15 13.3 9 40.9 5 8.4 1 3.2 35 - 44 34 30.4 8 36.3 22 37.3 4 12.9 45 - 54 29 25.9 5 22.8 19 32.2 5 16.1 55+ 34 30.4 0 0.0 13 22.1 21 67.8 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 X 2 = 45.225, d . f . = 6, p < 0 .001 Children The sampl e showed a t o t a l of 344 children with. an average of three per respondent. Of the t o t a l number of children 136 (36.6%) had l e f t high school. Only 4 of these were : children of native B r i t i s h Columbians, since t h i s parental group was younger that the others far fewer children had reached school leaving age. More than 40 percent 23 of the school leavers had moved from the area to l i v e elsewhere. More than half the children of the foreign born farmers against only 29.1 percent of children of Canadian born respondents had l e f t the area. This difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and i s probably due to the difference i n age d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the parental group (r = .32). The foreign born respondents as a group are older, so that their children are probably older and therefore more mobile, although t h i s could not be tested d i r e c t l y . Social Characteristics The l e v e l of l i v i n g was determined using the short form of Sewell's farm family socio-economic status scale."'" The median l e v e l of l i v i n g score was 77.8 and only 6 respondents scored less than 60. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s among the three groups by l e v e l of l i v i n g score which would indicate that a l l the groups are l i v i n g under si m i l a r conditions. The extent of the respondent's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the formal organisations i n the community was measured by using Chapin's s o c i a l 2 p a r t i c i p a t i o n scale. Again there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the groups by p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores, which would indicate that the respondents were equally l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a te i n formal organisations with 52.7 percent reporting that they did not p a r t i c i p a t e i n any organisation, while 25.8 percent participated frequently i n formal organisations and scored more than 11 on the scale. 24 Attitude to Change The attitude to change scale consisted of s i x items, with a maximum score of 7 denoting a favourable attitude to change and a minimum of 1 indicating a.negative attitude. The median score was 4, with 23.2 percent scoring 6 or more and 21.5 percent scoring less than 2. More than 45 percent of the foreign born respondents scored 2 or less as against 9 and 13.5 percent of the B r i t i s h Columbian and Canadian born respondents respectively. This difference was s t a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t indicating that foreign born farmers i n the Peace River Region are more l i k e l y to have an unfavourable attitude toward change than Canadian born farmers. This difference may be accounted for by the age difference between the groups as a s i g n i f -icant negative co r r e l a t i o n (r-= -.48)indicated that the older 3 respondents would be less i n c l i n e d to view changes favourably. Degree of I s o l a t i o n In order to determine the extent of the physical i s o l a t i o n of the respondents they were asked how many miles they t r a v e l l e d for the follwing services: food and clothing purchases, medical care, church, elementary and secondary schools, post o f f i c e and work. The median distance reported was between 11 and 15 miles with more than 80 percent of the respondents t r a v e l l i n g an average of less than 20 miles. S i g n i f -i c a n t l y more respondents born i n Canada outside B r i t i s h Columbia (30.4%) tra v e l l e d an average of more than 20 miles as against 9.1 percent of the native born B r i t i s h Columbians and 6,5 percent of the foreign born respondents (Table 8). This was not unexpected as the Canadian born respondents not native to B r i t i s h Columbia were the most recent s e t t l e r s i n the area, and the usual pattern of settlement i s an outward movement from the population center. TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OE BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS OF THE PEACE RIVER AREA BY DISTANCE TRAVELLED FOR SERVICES Total Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign B.C. i n Canada Born Distance i n miles No. % No. % No. % No. % Less than 10 42 37.5 8 36.4 23 39.0 11 35.5 11 - 15 30 26.8 8 36.4 9 15.3 13 41.9 16 or more 40 35.7 6 27.2 27 45.7 7 22.6 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 X 2 = 10.014, d.f. =4, p < 0.05 26 EDUCATION AND JOB TRAINING The amount of education received by an i n d i v i d u a l i n his pre adult years i s l i k e l y to affect his choice of occupation and consequently his earning p o t e n t i a l . Seventy-three of the respondents i n the sample had between 6 and 11 years schooling, the median was approximately 8 years, 15 respondents had less than 5 years schooling and 6 had attended un i v e r s i t y , 4 of whom were awarded degrees. Approximately two thirds of the Canadian and foreign born respondents had received less than 8 years of school, while only 45.5 percent of those born i n B r i t i s h Columbia reported so l i t t l e schooling. However thi s difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . More than 28 percent had received some job t r a i n i n g , while only 9.8 percent had participated i n any adult education programmes. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the groups by b i r t h place and their post secondary school education or training experience. However, there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference Between the groups and the i r expressed desire for t r a i n i n g . Over 77 percent of those born i n B r i t i s h Columbia stated that they would l i k e more tra i n i n g where as 71 percent of those who were foreign born stated they would not. This may be accounted for by the difference i n the age d i s -tributions of the groups. The native B r i t i s h Columbian group contained proportionally more young respondents and they were more interested i n further t r a i n i n g . Of the 43 respondents who expressed a need for more t r a i n i n g , 85 percent wanted training i n mechanics or welding s k i l l s , but there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the groups and type of train i n g desired. Wives Education and Training The respondents wives levels of education were s l i g h t l y higher than those of the respondents themselves, with median of 9 years of schooling as against the respondents median of 8 years. Some 23.6 percent of the wives had Grade 12 or above and only 7.9 percent had less than Grade 5. Fewer of the wives of respondents born i n B r i t i s h Columbia (6.3%) than those of the other Canadian (46.0%) or foreign born farmers (43.5) had received 8 years or less of formal schooling. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t negative correlation between respondents age and the amount of schooling t h e i r wives had received (r = -.21). Since the respondents born i n B r i t i s h Columbia were younger i t would be expected that their wives would have had more education, however th i s difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was not st a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Only 14 percent of the wives as against 28 percent of the respondents had received any training since leaving school. A s i g n i f -i c a n t l y greater proportion of the wives of respondents born i n B r i t i s h Columbia (43,8%) had some post secondary school t r a i n i n g , as against 8 and 5 percent of the wives of Canadian and foreign born respondents-respectively. The changes i n s o c i e t a l attitudes i n recent years along with the iraporvement i n educational opportunities have made i t increas' ingly easy for women to receive t r a i n i n g . Therefore i t would be expected that the wives of younger respondents would have had more opportunities for job t r a i n i n g , and consequently more would be l i k e l y to have had some form of t r a i n i n g . Fathers Education The data that describes the educational l e v e l of the respondents' fathers are not complete as less than 48 percent of the sample were able to report on t h e i r fathers' education. From the data that are available-i t would seem that the educational l e v e l of the fathers i s less than that of the respondents themselves with 38 percent reporting less that 5 years schooling and only 1 with a university degree. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l ! s i g n i f i c a n t difference among the groups by birthplace and the extent of their fathers' schooling or post secondary school t r a i n i n g . Childrens' Education One hundred and t h i r t y - s i x children were reported to have finished t h e i r high school education and either gone on to higher formal education or to employment. Of that number only one t h i r d had completed Grade 12, but there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference among groups by parental birthplace and the i r childrens' completion of Grade 12 education. Since two thirds of the children lacked a Grade 12 education, they would probably f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to find s a tisfactory employment, thus perpetuating the cycle of low education, low socio-economic status, and low educational l e v e l of the previous generation. 29 OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Commitment to Farming A l l respondents i n t h i s study were c l a s s i f i e d as farmers i n that they reported s e l l i n g more than $250 worth of a g r i c u l t u r a l products raised from the land they occupied i n the previous year. Many respondents c l a s s i f i e d as farmers by t h i s c r i t e r i o n actually spent much more time and earned more money from off farm work than they did from thei r farm. Only 61 respondents C55.3%) earned a l l t h e i r income from farming, 13 respondents were p r i n c i p a l l y farmers with a secondary non-farm job, and 37 earned less than half of the i r income from farming. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the di s t r i b u t i o n s among the groups by birthplace and the extent of thei r commitment to farming as a source of income. Some 72.2 percent of the respondents born i n B r i t i s h Columbia and 80.7 percent of the foreign born respondents perceived themselves as farmers as against 55.9 perecent of the respondents born elsewhere i n Canada, S i m i l a r l y 77.3 percent of the respondents native to B r i t i s h Columbia and 80.7 percent of the foreign born respondents earned more than half of their income from the farm, as against 55.9 percent of those respondents born elsewhere i n Canada. I t would seem that those respondents who had migrated to the Peace River Area from other Provinces r e l i e d much less on agriculture as a primary source of income. A t o t a l of 49 respondents had non-farm jobs, the greatest prop-ortion of whom were Canadian born. Over 57 percent of those born i n Canada but not i n B r i t i s h Columbia, reported they had non-farm jobs, whereas 59.1 percent of those native to B r i t i s h Columbia, and 80.0 percent TABLE 9 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN FARMERS OF THE PEACE RIVER AREA BY THEIR COMMITMENT TO FARMING Occupation as Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign perceived by B.C. i n Canada Born respondent No. % No. % No. % Farmer 16 72.73 33 55.93 25 80 .65 Non Farmer 6 27.27 26 44.07 6 19 .35 Total 22 100.00 59 100.00 31 100 .00 Percentage of income earned from farming More than 50% 17 77.27 33 55.93 25 80 .65 Less than 50% 5 22.73 26 44.07 6 19 .35 Total 22 100.00 59 100.00 31 100 .00 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Farming only 12 54.55 25 43.37 24 77 .42 Farming + non farm job 4 13.18 8 13.56 1 3 .23 Non farm job + farm 6 27.27 26 44.07 6 19 .35 Total 22 100.00 59 100.00 21 100 .00 Respondents s e l f perception 2 X =6. 08 , d.f. = 2, p < 0.046 % income X 2 = 6. 93 , d.f. = 2, p < 0.03 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n X 2 = 11,49, d.f, . = 4, p < 0.021 22. 22% 5 of the foreign born were without non-farm jobs. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n between proportion of time i n off farm work and the number of years farming (r = -.61), also with age and having an off farm job (r = -.30), indicating that the younger, more recent migrants to the area were more l i k e l y to have an off farm job. This observation was anticipated since the younger more recent s e t t l e r s to the area would have less c a p i t a l available to invest i n the i r farms i n order to farm the land intensively. Consequently, although they had similar t o t a l acreages, they were able to c u l t i v a t e fewer acres, hence they would need to supplement any farm income with income from a non-farm source. Of 'the 49 respondents with non farm jobs 26 percent s e l f employed, most of them as tradesmen or contracted farm workers. 4 When non farm jobs were c l a s s i f i e d according to the Blishen scale , 68 percent of the respondents non-farm occupations were i n or below th eighth decile which categorises various manual or unskilled jobs and 20 percent were tradesmen. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s between the groups by the non-farm job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n score. 32 TABLE 1 0 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS IN PEACE RIVER WITH NON FARM JOBS Total Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign B.C. i n Canada Born No. of Respondents . No. % No. % No. % No. % With non-farm jobs 49 43.8 9 40.9 34 57.6 6 19.4 Without non farm jobs 62 55.3 13 59.1 25 42.4 24 77.4 No response 1 0.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 3.2 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 x 2 = 11. '59, d,f,= 2, p< 0.0033 Years Farming The median number of years of farming experience reported was between 16 and 25 years with 31.5 percent reporting less than 15 years and 45.2 percent having farmed for more than 25 years. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference among the groups and the d i s -t r i b u t i o n of the number of years farming with 56.3 percent of the native born B r i t i s h Columbians as against 13.3 and 16 percent of other Canadian and Foreign born respondents reporting less than 15 years farming, and more foreign born respondents (72%) reporting more than 25 years (Table 11). There was a positive c o r r e l a t i o n between number of years farming and age (r = .57) so the older respondents, most of whom were foreign born, had been farming longer. This relationship was expected from the previously noted settlement history of the area. TABLE 11 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS OF THE PEACE RIVER BY YEARS FARMING Years f arming No. % Born i n B.C. No. % Born i n No. Elsewhere Canada % Foreign Born No. % Less 15 23 31.5 9 56.3 10 13.3 4 16.0 16 - 25 17 23.3 5 31.2 9 28.1 3 12.0 25+ 33 45.2 2 12.5 13 40.6 18 72.0 Total 73 100.0 16 100.0 32 100.0 25 100.0 2 X = 15.041, d.f p < 0. 01 Farmland U t i l i s a t i o n The farmers owned or operated a mean of 850 acres with 47.8 percent reporting more than 639 acres, and only one respondent reporting less than 100 acres. Of their t o t a l acreage the respondent reported that between 10 and 100Q acres was unimproved bush with a median of 517 acres. Some .18,6 percent reported more than 640 acres 34 and 4 reported less than 10 acres of unimproved bush. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n among the groups by b i r t h -place and t o t a l farm size and birthplace and the amount of unimproved land owned. The amount of land cultivated varied from less than 9 acres to over 700, with 37.5 percent c u l t i v a t i n g less than 179 acres while 33 percent cultivated more than 400 acres. The difference i n d i s t r i b -ution was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and may be a re s u l t of the h i s t o r i c a l pattern of farm development; those native to the area have been able to clear and reclaim the land they c u l t i v a t e over one or more generations, thus accumulating a large block, while those who have moved to the area had either to purchase cleared land or clear i t them-selves . TABLE 12 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN OR FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS .BY ACRES CULTIVATED IN PEACE RIVER Acres under c u l t i v a t i o n No. % Born i n B.C. No. % Born i n No. Elsewhere Canada % Foreign Born No. 7c Less than 179 42 37,5 3 13.6 29 49.2 10 32. 3 180 - 400 32 28.6 5 22.8 15. 25.4 12 38. 7 400+ 37 33.0 14 64.6 15 25.4 8 25. 8 No response 1 0.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 3. 2 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100. 0 X 2 14.866, d.f. = 4, p < 0 ,01 A g r i c u l t u r a l Production Of the 112 respondents 65.5 percent reported the i r p r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l product i n terms of revenue received to be f i e l d crops, while beef production was the p r i n c i p a l source of revenue for 18.6 pe cent. Nearly half the respondents reported a secondary a g r i c u l t u r a l product, and again the most frequently mentioned products were f i e l d crops and beef c a t t l e . . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f -erence among the groups by a g r i c u l t u r a l products constituting the major source of farm income. The predominance of f i e l d crops as a source of farm revenue was not unexpected, as the Peace River Area i s noted for i t s cereal production. The area i s c l i m a t i c a l l y not very suitable for livestock production since the winters are both long and severe, so the winter feed costs are high. The bad winters with the poor summer grazing, make the cost of maintaining animals very high, so consequently the number of animals reported by respond-ents was low. The number of animals reported was measured i n standard animal units. The t o t a l animal units for each farm was calculated by multiplying the average annual number of each species present, by 5 a constant for that species."' In the year surveyed 33 of the res-pondents (23.6%) did not have any animals, while 31 had less than 10 animal units and only 8 reported more than 70 units. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n by number of animal units maintained among the groups by birthplace. Farm Labour The farms i n the area surveyed employed very few people as permanent year round st a f f outside the immediate family. Only 4 respondents employed f u l l time s t a f f and 37 employed no non-family labour at a l l (Table 13). There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the amount of hired labour used among the groups by birthplace. More than 66 percent of the respond-ents used unpaid family labour, with s i g n i f i c a n t l y more respondents born i n Canada outside B r i t i s h Columbia (66.2%) using family labour, than was the case for those native to B r i t i s h Columbia (50%), or the foreign born respondents (32.3%). This difference i s probably due to the differences i n the numbers of children who had moved out of the area. More children of 'the foreign born respondents had moved, so there would be proportionally less children available to work on the land than those of the Canadian born groups. Further, the native born B r i t i s h Columbians were as a group younger than the others and only 4 children had l e f t school, so again fewer children were available for farm work. TABLE 13 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS RESIDENT IN THE PEACE RIVER AREA BY LABOUR USAGE Total Born i n Born Elsewhere. Foreign B.C. i n Canada Born No. % No. 1 No. % No. % Used hired labour 37 33.0 12 54 .5 16 27.1 9 29. 1 No hired labour 75 67.0 10 45 .5 43 73.9 22 70. 9 Total 112 100.0 22 100 .0 59 100.0 31 100. 0 U se urpaid family labour 60 53.6 11 50 .0 • 39 66.2 10 32. 3 No family labour used 52 46.4 11 50 .0 20 33.8 21 67. 7 Total 112 10.0,. 0 .22 100 ..0 59 100.0 31 100. 0 How much family labour Less 10 days/month 31 51.7 4 36 .3 22 56.4 5 50. 0 More that 10 days/month 29 48.3 7 63 .7 17 43.6 5 50. 0 Total 60 100.0 11 100 .0 39 • 100.0 10 100. 0 2 Hired labour x = 5.749, d.f. = 2, Not s i .gnificant 2 Unpaid family labour X = 9.495, d. f. = P < 0.01 Amount of famil labour X 2 - 1. 393, d.f. = 2, Not si g n i f i c a n t 38 Farm Value Respondents were asked how much they would be prepared to pay for their farm as i t was. The median response was between $20,000 and $49,999 and the mean was $58,224. More than 24 percent reported that they would not pay more than $19,999 for th e i r farms and 15.2% said they were prepared to pay i n excess of $90,000. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n among the respondents by birthplace and the value they placed on their farms, with 22.7 percent native B r i t i s h Columbians w i l l i n g to pay i n 'excess of $90,000, as against 13.6 and 12.9 percent of the other Canadian and foreign born respondents respectively. Further fewer' native born B r i t i s h Columbians (13.6%) valued their farms at less than $19,999. This difference was expected and largely attributable to the difference i n farm size (r = .85). TABLE 14 . PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS IN PEACE RIVER AREA BY FARM VALUE Total Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign B. C. i n Canada Born No. % No. % No. % No. % 19,999 27 24.1 3 13.6 16 27.1 8 25. 8 20,000 - 49,999 36 32.1 1 4.5 21 35.6 14 45. 2 50,000 v 89,999 30 26.8 13 59.2 13. 22.0 4 12. 9 90,000+ 17 15.2 5 22.7 8 13.6 4 12. 9 No response 2 1.8 0 0.0 1 : 1.7 1 3. 2 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100. 0 2 _ X"' 20.41 2, d.f. = 6, P .< 0 .01 39 INCOME The t o t a l family income was the sum of monies received from a l l sources including net farm income, income from non-farm jobs, dependents earnings, welfare, unemployment insurance, benefits and family allowance payments. The median t o t a l income received by farm respondents was i n the $2,000 to $2,999 class but the average was about $4,600 with 24 respondents reporting a t o t a l family income of more than $6,000 (Table 15). There were s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer foreign born respondents (16.12%) reporting a t o t a l family income of more than $6,000, with more than 45 percent of the foreign born respondents reporting a family income of less than $1,999, whilst only 18 percent of native B.C. and Canadian respondents reported t h e i r income to be so low. This finding was expected as the foreign born respondents had a higher average age and age was negatively correlated with income (r •» -.21). Further, those respondents born i n Canada but not i n B r i t i s h Columbia and those who were foreign born, cultivated fewer acres (Table 12), thus lowering the amount that th e i r farm contributed to the i r t o t a l family income, however, those i n the Canadian born group tended to supplement their farm income by taking non-farm jobs. A lower proportion of foreign born respondents had non-farm jobs, with the resultant d i f f e r e n t i a l effect on t o t a l family incomes. 40 TABLE 15 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS IN PEACE RIVER AREA BY TOTAL FAMILY INCOME Total Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign B.i C • in Canada born Amount No. % No. % . No. % No, % Less $1,999 29 25.9 4 18.2 11 18,6 14 45.2 $2,000 - 5,999 46 41.1 11 50.0 28 47.5 7 22.6 $6,000+ 24 21.4 6 27.3 13 22.0 5 16.1 No response 13 11.6 1 4.5 7 11.9 5 16.1 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 X 2 = 10.684, d.f, =4, p < 0,05 Gross Farm Income The gross farm income from sales of a g r i c u l t u r a l products ranged from $250 to over $12,500, the median being between $3,000 and $4,000 (Table 16), 30.4 percent reported a gross farm income of less than $1,999 and 28.6 percent grossed more than $10,000. S i g n i f i c a n t l y more of the native born B r i t i s h Columbians (59.1%) were grossing more than $10,000 while more of the foreign born (32.3%) and those respondents born elsewhere i n Canada (37.3%) grossed less than $1,999, This obser-vation would follow from the observed differences i n the size arid u t i l -i s a t i o n of farm land since gross farm income was s i g n i f i c a n t l y • c o r r e l a t e d 41 with farm size (r = .60) and number of acres under c u l t i v a t i o n (r = .80). Since the native B r i t i s h Columbians had more cultivated land i t would be reasonable to expect a higher gross income from their farms. TABLE 16 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS IN PEACE RIVER AREA BY GROSS FARM INCOME Total Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign B. C. i n Canada Born Amount No. % No. % No. % No. 1 Less $1,999 34 30.9 2 9.0 22 37.3 10 32. 3. $2,000-$5,999 35 31.3 4 i 18.2 19 32.2 12 38. 7 $6,000-$9,999 9 8.0 3 13.7 5 8.5 1 3. 2 $10,000+ 32 28.6 13 59.1 12 20.3 7 22. 6 No response 2 1.7 0 0.0 1 1.7 1 3. 2 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100. 0 x 2 = 16.529, d.f. = 6 p < 0.02, 25% 5 Net Farm Income Net farm income consisted of gross farm income minus cash expenses pertaining to the farm operation. There were 52 respondents reporting a net income of less ; than $1,999 with 19 stating they had nothing l e f t after expenses deducted. Proportionally more native born B r i t i s h Columbians (27.31%) reported earning a net income of over 42 $6,000 whilst only 6.8 percent of those born elsewhere i n Canada, and 3.2 percent of the foreign born respondents reported earning less than $1,999. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and may again be attributed to farm size (r =• .60). TABLE 17 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS IN PEACE RIVER AREA BY AMOUNT OF NET FARM INCOME Total Born i n Born Elsewhere Fore ign B. c. i n Canada Born Amount No. h No. % No. v /o No. % $1,999 or less 52 46.4 4 18.2 33 55.9 15 48.4 $2,000 - $5,999 31 27.7 9 40.9 13 22.0 9 29.1 $6,000 & more 11 9.8 6 27.3 4 6.8 1 3.2 No response ' 18 16.1 3 13.6 9 15.3 6 19.3 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 2 X = 11.556 , d.f. = 2, p < 0.01 Farming Ef f i c i e n c y The r a t i o of net to g ross farm income was computed to measure r e l a t i v e farming e f f i c i e n c y . A low r a t i o indicated a high degree of e f f i c i e n c y . More than 27 percent of respondents reported they had no net farm income after expenses had been deducted from their gross farm income so they were considered to be highly 43 i n e f f i c i e n t . Of the respondents who reported some net farm income, 12.3 percent had net to gross farm r a t i o s of 1:9 or more, while 48.2 percent had r a t i o s of 1:2 or le s s . It would seem that approximately half the farmers i n the area are running quite e f f i c i e n t farms. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n between the groups by birthplace and their net to gross farm income r a t i o s . Thus, the place of b i r t h apparently did not influence e f f i c i e n c y of the farm operator. INFORMATION SOURCES Personal Contact With The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t One of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t ' s p r i n c i p a l functions i s that of .an.information source or educator. He provides current information on products, methods and techniques that w i l l improve the p r o f i t a b i l i t y and management of the i n d i v i d u a l farm business and thus improve the national farm economy. The influence a change agent has with Individuals within his b a i l i w i c k varies considerably as several studies have shown that farmers who have frequent con-tacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t are more innovative.^ The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t x^ as named correctly by only 56.2 percent of the respondents surveyed. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f -erence i n d i s t r i b u t i o n among the groups and by their a b i l i t y to name the i r D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . More respondents born i n B r i t i s h Columbia (86.4%) were able to name the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , while 44 59.2 percent of the respondents born elsewhere i n Canada were not able to name him. More than half the respondents had not v i s i t e d the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t at his o f f i c e i n the previous year, and only 16 percent had v i s i t e d his o f f i c e more than three times. More than 27 percent of "the farmers born i n B r i t i s h Columbia reported that they had v i s i t -ed a D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s o f f i c e three times or more i n the past year, as against 11.9 and 16.1 percent of ther Canadian and foreign born respondents respectively. Further, more of those born else-where i n Canada (57.68) and the foreign born (58.1%) reported no o f f i c e v i s i t s than was the case for native born B r i t i s h Columbians (36.4%). Fewer respondents had contacted the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t by phone with 84 percent of respondents reporting they had no con-tacts by phone i n the previous year. Only one quarter of the native born B r i t i s h Columbians and even fewer of those from elsewhere i n Canada (16.9%)or those who were foreign born (9.7%) reported any phone contacts at a l l . There was also a low proportion of respondents (10.7%) reporting that the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t had v i s i t e d t h e i r 1 T farm i n the previous year. Only 18.2 percent of the native B r i t i s h Columbians and less than 10 percent of farmers i n the other groups reported any v i s i t s from their l o c a l A g r i c u l t u r i s t . There were s t a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t correlations between attitude to change and v i s i t s to the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t ' s Office (r = .22). Since 45 the respondents who were born i n B r i t i s h Columbia viewed change more favourably, i t would be expected that they should contact the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t more frequently that the others. Further, the respondents born elsewhere i n Canada had more non-farm jobs and therefore r e l i e d less on agriculture as a source of income, they were probably less interested i n new techniques that might affect their routine, and would therefore be less l i k e l y to have frequent contacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . These differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s betx^een respondents by place of , b i r t h and dir e c t conact with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I t would seem that the respondents made use of impersonal sources of a g r i c u l t u r a l information, such as mailed c i r c u l a r s , newspaper a r t i c l e s and radio or t e l e v i s i o n broadcasts, more frequently than they do of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l -t u r i s t d i r e c t l y , with between 48.2 and 62.5 percent of the respondents reporting using each "often". The most frequently noted source was newspaper a r t i c l e s by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , with 62.5 percent reading the a r t i c l e s "often" and only 5.4 percent never reading any. More than 55 percent of the respondents reported l i s t e n i n g to farm radio broadcasts frequently, while 6.2 percent never listened to farm radio broadcasts. A l l but one of those who never listened were Canadians born outside B r i t i s h Columbia, but the difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n among the groups was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Fewer respondents read the mailed c i r c u l a r s as" 21.4 percent TABLE 18 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS IN PEACE RIVER AREA BY PERSONAL CONTACT WITH DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST Total Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign B 1«c * i n Canada Born No. % No. °/ No. %. No. % Named D.A. correctly 63 56.3 19 86.4 27 45.8 17 59.8 Could not name D.A. 49 43.7 3 13.6 32 54.2 14 45.2 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 No.of v i s i t to D.A. •-Office i n past year 3+ 18 16.0 6 27.2 .7 11.9 5 16.1 1 - 2 34 30.4 8 36.4 18 30.5 8 25.8 None 60 53.6 8 36.4 34 57.6 18 58.1 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 Phone D.A. 18 16.0 5 22,7 10 16.9 3 9.7 Did not phone D.A. 94 84.0 17 77.3 49 83.1 28 90.3 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 D.A. v i s i t e d farm 12 10.7 4 18,2 5 8.5 3 9.7 No v i s i t s from D.A. 100 89.3 18 81.8 54 91.5 28 90.3 Total 112 100. 0 22 100.0 59 100,0 31 100.0 Attended f i e l d t r i p 39 34.8 12 54.5 17 28.8 10 32.3 No attendence 73 65.2 10 45.5 42 71.2 21 67.7 Total 112 100.0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 Named D.A, = 10. .76, d. c JL 2, P < i 0.01 V i s i t s to D.A, X 2 = 4. .35, d. f * 2, Not s i g n i f i c a n t Phone D.A, * I = • 1. 69, d. f 2, Not sign! ficant V i s i t s -from D.A. X = 1. ,62, d. f • — 2,. Not s i g n i f i c a n t F i e l d t r i p s X " = 4,79, d. f 2, Not sig n i fleant TABLE .19 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS IN PEACE RIVER AREA BY USE OF IMPERSONAL SOURCES OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION Read mail from Total Born B. i n C. Born in Elsewhere Canada Foreign Born D.A. No. % No. % No. % No. % None 24 21. 4 1 4.5 19 32.2 4 12.9 Sometimes 34 30. 4 4 18.2 18 30.5 12 38.7 Often 54 48. 2 17 77.3 22 37.3 15 48.4 Total 112 100. 0 22 100.0 ;59 100.0 31 100.0 D.A. Radio None 7 6. 2 0 0.0 6 10.2 1 3.2 Some 43 38. 4 10 55.5 21 35.6 .12 38.. 7 Often 62 55. 4 12 54.2 * 32 54.2 18 58.1 Total 112 100. 0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 D.A. Newspaper A r t i c l e s None 6 5. 4 0 0.0 5 8.5 1 5.4 Some 36 32. 1 5 22.7 20 33.9 11 32.1 Often 70 62. 5 17 77.3 34 57.6 19 62.5 Total 112 100. ,0 22 100.0 59 100.0 31 100.0 Mailed Circulars X 2 14 .270, d.f. = 4, P < 0.01 Radio X 2 •J .737, d.f. = 4, Not s i j »nific ant Newspapers X 2 t .278, d.f. = 4, Not s i g n i f i c a n t never read any while 48.2 percent read these c i r c u l a r s often. More native B r i t i s h Columbians (77,3%) read them often while one t h i r d of those born i n the rest of Canada never read them. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I t would seem that as fewer of those respondents born elsewhere in Canada r e l i e d e n t i r e l y on farming for their l i v i n g , proportionally more had not farm jobs and they might not have been on the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s mailing l i s t . Also, th e i r farming operation may be limited by work time or c a p i t a l available, so having f system that i s suitable they are not p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n new techniques that' may upset t h e i r routine. SUMMARY It would appear that one of the p r i n c i p a l factors that has contributed to the differences between the groups by birthplace was the way i n which the area was settled. A large proportion of the foreign born farmers came to the area over 25 years ago so the majority of older respondents were foreign born. Age appeared to contribute to many of the differences between the groups by birthplace and especially influenced the attitude to change scale. That the foreign born respondents were the most resistant to change could be largely explained by the negative association between age and attitude to change. The native born B r i t i s h Columbians were l i k e l y to have more acres under c u l t i v a t i o n and also received more income from the farm . There were further differences among the groups by t o t a l family income reported with the foreign born respondents generally having lower incomes. Two factors were probably contributing to th i s difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . Since native B r i t i s h Columbians cultivated more acres they earned more income from their farms. In addition, although the respondents from elsewhere i n Canada had fewer acres under c u l t i v a t i o n than the foreign born respondents, they were more, l i k e l y to supplement thei r farm incomes with income from non farm jobs. The factors notedabove probably affected the extent to which the respondents made use of information sources. The older respondents, being more resistant to change, were iiot so l i k e l y to have contacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , nor were 'those respondents who earned the major portion of their income from off farm work. Those farmers were generally born elsewhere i n Canada. Thus the age factor appeared to underlie many of the differences that were observed with place of b i r t h a secondary influence. 50 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER TWO 1. W.H. Sewell, "A Short Form of the Farm Family Socio-Economic Status Scale", Rural Sociology, 8: 161-170, (June 1943). 2. F.S. Chapin, Social P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale, (Minneapolis; Univer-s i t y of Minnesota Press, 1938). 3. E.M. Rogers, Diffus ions of Innovations, (New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, London: Macmillan New York, .1962) pp. 172^174. 4. Bernard R. Blishen, "A Socio-Economic Index for Occupations i n Canada", The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology. 4: 41-53, (February, .1967). 5. The t o t a l animal units for each farm.was determined by multiplying the average number of each type of animal on the farm i n 1965 by -an •animal unit factor. A f u l l y grown horse or beef cow, for example, had an animal unit factor of 1.0 while a c a l f under one year was rated at .25 and a heifer between 1 and 2 years at .66. 6. E.M. Rogers and H.R. Capener, The Country Extension Agent and  His Constituents, Wooster Ohio: Ohio A g r i c u l t u r a l Exper-imental Station 1960). CHAPTER THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTH OKANAGAN FARM RESPONDENTS BY PLACE OF BIRTH The South Okanagan area i s located about 300 miles east of Vancouver i n south central B r i t i s h Columbia and i s the most densely populated area of the i n t e r i o r of the province. The r u r a l residents seem to be f a i r l y t y p i c a l of the province as described i n the census of Canada 1961. The sample contained more foreign born respondents (50.8%) than there were i n the Peace River Area (27.7%). In this chapter the personal, s o c i a l , educational and economic char a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents i n the South Okanagan are described by place of b i r t h and .the d i s t r i b u t i o n s are tested for significance at the .05 l e v e l . The l i s t of characteristics considered and the relevant s t a t i s t i c a l tests are shown i n Tables 20 and 21. TABLE 20 CHI SQUARE VALUES FOR DISTRIBUTIONS BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS BETWEEN NATIVE BORN BRITISH COLUMBIANS, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN FARMERS IN THE SOUTH OKANAGAN AREA Factor Chi Square Degree of Freedom p Residence History Years i n area Place of previous residence Personal 12.25 33.36 4 4 :0.02 <0.001 Mar i t a l Status Father Farming Age No. Children 0.74 0.05 3.37 6.57 4 2 4 4 >0.05 >0.05 >0.05 >0.05 Social Level of l i v i n g P a r t i c i p a t i o n Attitude to change Distance tr a v e l l e d 6,79 4.49 7.15 8.51 2 4 3 4 <0.05 >0.05 >0.05 ^.05 Education Years Schooling 5.10 Job Trianing 0.52 Adult Education Courses 0.44 Want further t r a i n i n g 6.98 Wives schooling 9.01 Wives job training 3.15 Fathers Education 1.25 Children with G.12 2.49 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ^.05 ^,05 ^.05 ^.05 <0.02 >0.05 >0.05 >0.05 TABLE 2.1 CHI SQUARE VALUES FOR DISTRIBUTIONS BY FARM FACTORS BETWEEN NATIVE BORN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN FARMERS IN THE SOUTH OKANAGAN AREA Factor Chi Square Degree, of Freedom Occupational C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 7.96 Perception of occupation 1,85 % income from farming 2.87 Non farm job 2.60 Years farming 10.06 Total Acres 3.27 Acres Cultivated 1.83 Acres Bush 1.33 P r i n c i p a l Product 1, No. of animals 1. Use of hi r e d labour 0.47 Use of family labour 0,91 Amount of family labour 1.29 Farm value 0.53 89 62 4. 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 05 05 05 05 05 05 0.05 0.05 0.05 > 0.05 >'0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 Income Total family income Gross farm income Net farm income 5.99 6.43 2.14 2 4 4 < 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 Information sources Named D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t V i s i t e d D.A. Phoned D.A. V i s i t e d by D.A. F i e l d Trips Read c i r c u l a r s Listen to radio or watch T.V. Newspaper A r t i c l e s 1.25 2.96 0,17 3.86 1.47 2.86 0.55 2.67 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 ,05 ,05 ,05 ,05 ,05 ,05 0.05 0.05 54 RESIDENCE HISTORY The sample consisted of 62 farmers of whom 26.2 percent were native to B r i t i s h Columbia, 23 percent were born elsewhere i n Canada and the remaining 50.8 percent were foreign born. The majority of the l a t t e r group came from Europe. A l l but one of the native born B r i t i s h Columbians had l i v e d i n the South Okanagan for more than 20 years. Three-quarters of them were born i n the area and had l i v e d there a l l ' t h e i r l i v e s . Similar proportions of those born elsewhere i n Canada (28.6%) and the foreign born (35.5%) had l i v e d i n the area for 10 years or le s s , while 50 and 41.9 percent respectively had been resident, for more than 20 years. Only 32.2 percent of the foreign born respondents reported coming to the. area d i r e c t l y from their home overseas, 48.4 percent had moved to the area from elsewhere i n Canada and 11.4 percent had come from other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia. THE PEOPLE The majority of the respondents were married (90.2%), three were single and three were separated, widowed or divorced. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference among the groups by birthplace or marital status. The majority of the respondents (73.8%) reported thei r fathers to have been farmers. Of those who did not come from farming families 55 more than 66 percent reported that their fathers were tradesmen, s k i l l e d or un s k i l l e d labourers, There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f -icant difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents by birthplace and fathers occupation. Age The median age reported was i n the 45 to 54 range with 28 percent younger than 44 and 32,7 percent over 55. The average age was higher than normally encountered i n a r u r a l area largely due to the number of people, that r e t i r e to t h i s area. Fewer of the farmers born elsewhere i n Canada (21.4%) than the native born B r i t i s h Columbian (37.5%) or foreign born (35.5%) were ovei- 55, however, t h i s difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Children The respondents reported a t o t a l of 179 children at an average of 2.9 per family. Of that number, 86 children had l e f t school and 42 (54.1%) had l e f t the area to l i v e elsewhere. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n among the groups by birthplace and the numbers of children reported or the number who had moved elsewhere, SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS The respondents l e v e l of l i v i n g as measured by the'short form of the Sewell Farm Family Socio-Economic Status Scale was high with a 56 mean score of 88. More than 91 percent of respondents scored more than 81 indicating a generally high l e v e l of l i v i n g i n the area. Considering the respondents born i n B r i t i s h Columbia and elsewhere i n Canada together, 53.4 percent scored over 91 as against only 22.6 percent of the foreign born respondents. Further, proportion-a l l y more foreign born farmers (12.9%) than those i n the combined Canadian groups (3.3%) scored less than 80 on the scale. This d i f f -erence i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and would i n -dicated that foreign born farmers did not have quite as high a l e v e l of l i v i n g as the combined Canadian group, The extent that respondents participated i n formal organ-isations as measured on the Chapin Scale showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n among the groups by b i r t h -place. The median p a r t i c i p a t i o n score was between 6 and 10. More than 36 percent did. not participate i n any formal organisation, while 8.2 percent participated to a high degree scoring over 35 on the scale. Attitude to Change The median score on the attitude to change scale i n the South Okanagan area was 5 which indicates a general tolerance of change i n the area. Less than a quarter of the farmers scored 2 or below i n -dicating that they held attitudes not conducive to the acceptance of change, while more than 34 percent scored over 6, indicating a favourable attitude to change. 'Over 54 percent of the foreign born • respondents as against 25 percent of those from B r i t i s h Columbia and 21 percent of farmers from elsewhere i n Canada scored less than 3, indicating some resistance to change. Thus i t would seem that the foreign born respondents may be s l i g h t l y more resistant to change, however, this difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Degree of Is o l a t i o n As described i n the previous chapter, the degree of i s o l -ation was measured as the number of miles the respondents tra v e l l e d for essential services such as food, medical care, schooling. The mean distance was 6.9 miles. Nearly half the respondents travelled an average of less than 5 miles, and more than 86 percent travelled less than 10. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the groups and distance t r a v e l l e d . The low degree of physical i s o l a t i o n found i n the area compared xi?ith that found i n the Peace Rivere Area was not unexpected since the South Okanagan has had a longer settlement history and i s more densely populated. EDUCATION AND JOB TRAINING A lack of formal education and job t r a i n i n g i s frequently associated with low economic s t a t i s . In the South Okanagan the respondents-median number of years schooling was between 9 and 11. Only 3 respondents reported 5 years or l e s s , while 13.1 percent had 12 or TQore years with 8 attending university, Fewer farmers born i n B r i t i s h Columbia (25.0%) reported receiving 8 or less years of schooling than was the case for the other Canadian (42.0%) or foreign born farmers (54,9%), however, this difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant.: Just under half of the respondents had received some job t r a i n i n g , and less than one quarter had participated i n an adult education program. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses for post-second-ary school training between the groups was very s i m i l a r . S l i g h t l y fewer B r i t i s h Columbians reported receiving job trai n i n g (37.5%) and adult education (18.8%) compared with a mean of 45.6 and 27.7 percent respectively for the other groups combined. As these differences were small and not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i t would appear that birthplace did not influence the extent of a farmers pre- and post-secondary education. Wives Ed-ucat-ion and Training The l e v e l of education of the wives was higher than that for the respondents themselves, with only two reporting 5 years or less of formal education, whilst more than 45 percent reported 12 years or more. S i g n i f i c a n t l y more wives of foreign born respondents (51.7%) had 8 or less years of schooling than was the case for those of B r i t i s h Columbian (0.0%) or other Canadian (7.2%) respondents. The median number of years schooling for the wives of foreign born farmers were 8 years, as against a median of 12 years for the wives of the other respondents. Thus i t would appear that the foreign born farmers' wives have less formal education and t h i s would support the rej e c t i o n of the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference. 59 Just over half the wives had taken some form of job train i n g and more than 20 percent of those who had received trai n i n g had been trained for one of the professions. Proportionally more wives of the farmers born i n B r i t i s h Columbia (71.4%) reported receiving some job tr a i n i n g than was the case for those wives of eitherCanadian (42.9%) or foreign born (7+4.8%) respondents. Thus i t would appear that .the wives of native born respondents were s l i g h t l y more l i k e l y to have had job t r a i n i n g , however, th i s difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Fathers' Education and Training Since more than 49 percent of the respondents did not know the educational background of th e i r father the data are incomplete. From the data available i t would appear that tlie l e v e l s of education of the respondents' fathers i s lower than that of the respondents themselves. The median was i n the 6 to 8 year class xtfith nearly one t h i r d reporting th e i r fathers to be functionally i l l i t e r a t e , with 5 years or less formal schooling. There was so s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f -icant difference between the groups by extent of fathers education. Only 80 percent of the respondents knew whether or not th e i r fathers had any job t r a i n i n g , of those, 42.5 percent had taken some form of post-secondary school job t r a i n i n g , there was no s t a t i s t i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the groups and the extent or type of job tr a i n i n g received. Chiidrens Education More than 55 percent of the 86 children who were reported 60 to have l e f t school had completed Grade 12 as against 52.6 and 56.9 percent of children of native born B r i t i s h Columbians and foreign born respondents respectively, however, th i s difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t indicating that a l l children are equally l i k e l y to complete Grade 12 regardless of their parents place of b i r t h . OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Commitment to farming Although a l l the respondents considered i n t h i s study were c l a s s i f i e d as farmers as they sold more than $250 worth of a g r i c u l -t u r a l produce, more than a quarter of them did not perceive themselves to be farmers. Only 52.5 percent earned a l l their income from farming, 10 respondents Q-6.4) were p r i n c i p a l l y farmers with a secondary non farm source of income and the remainder earned most of thei r income from off farm work. More foreign born respondents (61.3%) were f u l l -time farmers than was the case for those born i n B r i t i s h Columbia (50.0%) or elsewhere i n Canada (35.7%). Of the 23 respondents with non farm jobs who earned more than half th e i r income from their non farm job, 7 (30.4%) perceived themselves to be p r i n c i p a l l y farmers. The d i s t r i b u t i o n s would suggest that there i s a tendency for the foreign born respondents to be more highly commited to farming than the others, however the difference in d i s t r i b u t i o n was not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Years Farming The median number of years of farming experience reported was between 16 and 20 years with more than 31.0 percent reporting less than 10 years farming experience and 27.9 percent reporting that they had been farming for 25 years or more. A higher prop-ortion of the foreign born farmers (41.9%) as against those born in B r i t i s h Columbia C12.5%] and the rest of Canada (28.5%) reported farming for less than 10 years. Although this difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was net s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i t would seem reasonable to expect that even though they had l i v e d i n the area the same length of time, foreign born migrants would take longer to estab l i s h themselves as farmers, than would those who migrated from elsewhere i n Canada. Farmland U t i l i s a t i o n The farmers owned or operated a mean of 246 acres while the median was i n the 10 to 69 acre class. More than 21 percent of the respondents reported a t o t a l of less than 9 acres, while only 14.8 percent reported farms with a t o t a l size of more than 180 acres. Of th e i r t o t a l acreage only 4 respondents reported any unimproved grassland and only one quarter reported owning more than 10 acres of bush. The comparatively small size of the farms was expected since production i n the South Okanagan i s mainly the labour and c a p i t a l intensive tree f r u i t s industry, which l i m i t s the economic size of farm holdings. Further, as the area i s densely populated and land values are high, so farmers tend to use what land they have as 62 e f f i c i e n t l y as possible, and haye : ' few unproductive acres of bush or unimproved grassland as possible. The amount, of acres cultivated varied from 3 to 399 with the median between 10 and 69, the mean being 25 acres cultivated.More than 34 percent of the respondents cultivated less than 10 acres and only 17 percent cultivated i n excess of 69 acres. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n among groups by birthplace and the number of acres owned or cultivated or unimproved. I t would seem that i n the South Okanagan farm size i s not influenced by the farmers place of b i r t h . A g r i c u l t u r a l Production The p r i n c i p a l product i n terms of revenue received was rep-orted by over 80-percent of the farmers to be tree f r u i t s , the next most frequently mentioned enterprise was beef production. Only 4 respondents reported more than one farm enterprise. S l i g h t l y more, of the foreign born farmers (87.1%) were exclusively f r u i t growers than was the case for the B r i t i s h Columbian (75.0%) or Canadian respondents (71.4%), however, these differences i n d i s t r i b u t i o n were not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Very few respondents (26.2%) reported having any livestock. Of those who did only 7 (11.3%) maintained more than 50 animal units. The predominance of f r u i t trees as v i r t u a l l y the only source of a g r i c u l t u r a l revenue i n the area, was expected since the South Okanagan i s noted for i t s f r u i t industry. Farm Labour Most farmers i n the South Okanagan (80.3%) employed hired labour at some occasion during the year. Only 13 percent employed paid labour on a f u l l time basis while the remaining 67 percent employed hirelings during the harvesting period. More use i s made of hired labour i n the South Okanagan than i n the Peace River area since the f r u i t industry i s much more labour intensive than f i e l d crop farming, but there were no differences between the groups i n South Okanagan by birthplace and the amount 'of-hired labour used. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents used unpaid family labour; 27.8 percent used more than 11 man days per month while 16.3 percent used only one man day per month. Again there were no . s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n d i s t r i b u t i o n between the groups and extent to which unpaid family labour was used. Thus, birthplace does not appear to influence the type or amount of labour u t i l i s e d on farms i n the South Okanagan. Farm Value Respondents estimated their farms to be worth from $10,000 to over $200,000, the median value being between $30,000 and $39,000. More than 31 percent reported that they would not pay more than $29,999 to purchase their farms while 11.5 percent were prepared to pay i n excess of $100,000, The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the estimated farm value between the groups was very s i m i l a r , so i t would seem that birthplace i s not l i k e l y to influence the value of the farm acquired. 64 INCOME The t o t a l family income from a l l sources ranged from less than $999 to over $20,000. The median was between $4,000 and $4,999 while the mean was $5,532. More than 18 percent of the respondents reported a t o t a l income of less than $2,999 while more than 11 percent received over $10,000. S i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer foreign born farmers (32.3%) had incomes i n excess of $5,000 as copared with those born i n B r i t i s h Columbia (62.6%) and elsewhere i n Canada (42.9%). Only one quarter of the native born B r i t i s h Columbian respondents reported t o t a l family incomes of below $4,999. This indicates that the foreign born would probably have lower t o t a l family incomes than their Canadian counterparts which may be a r e s u l t of the i r greater commitment to farming as i t appeared that fewer foreign born respondents were supplementing thei r farm incomes with income from a non farm job. TABLE 22 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN FARMERS OF THE SOUTH OKANAGAN BY TOTAL FAMILY INCOME Born . i n Born Elsewhere Foreign Total family income No. % B. No. C. % i n No. Canada % Born No. % $2,999 or less 11 18.0 1 6.2 2 14.3 8 25.8 $3,000 - $4,999 21 34.4 3 18.8 5 35.7 13 41.9 $5,000 - $9,999 19 31.2 7 43.7 4 28.6 8 25.8 $10,000 or more 7 11.5 3 18.8 2 14.3 2 6.5 No response 3 4.9 2 12.5 1 7.1 0 0.0 Total 61 .100.0 16 100.0 14 100.0 31 100.0 X 2 „ 5-99, d.f. = 2, p 0.05 Farm Income The reported gross income from the sale of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce ranged from less than $999 to over $20,000. The median was between $5,000 and $5,999 while the mean was $7,250. Thirteen farmers (21.3%) sold less than $2,000 worth of produce .while 15 (24.5%) earned over $.10,000 from the sale of their produce. For more than 45 percent of the foreign born respondents, receipts exceeded $7,000 while only about one t h i r d of native B r i t i s h Columbian farmers and 14 percent of those born elsewhere received as much. However, the difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s was not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE .23. PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN FARMERS OF THE SOUTH OKANAGAN BY GROSS FARM INCOME Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign Gross Farm Income No. % B No. ,C. % i n No. Canada . % Born No. % $2,999 or less 16 26,2 2 12.5 6 42.9 8 25.8 $3,000 - $6,999 20 32,8 7 43.8 5 35.7 8 25.8 $7,000 or more 21 34.4 5 31.2 2 14.3 14 45.2 No response 4 6.6 2 12.5 1 7.1 1 3.2 Total 61 100.0 16 100,0 14 100.0 31 100.0 The net farm income declared varied from n i l to over $10,000 and the mean was $2,565, , Only 4 respondent s (6, ,4%) obtained a net farm revenue i n excess of $6,000 while over 32 percent reported a net farm income of less than $2,000 and 11 (13.0%) declared that nothing remained of thei r gross income after deduction of expenses. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n d i s t r i b u t i o n between the. groups of respondents by birthplace and their gross or net farm incomes. Therefore, i t seems that place of b i r t h did not influence farm incomes i n the South Okanagan. TABLE 24 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN FARMERS OF THE SOUTH OKANAGAN BY NET FARM INCOME Net Farm Income No. % Bor B No. n i n ,C. % Barn i n No. Elsewhere Canada % Foreign Born No.. 7. N i l 8 13.1 1 6.2 3 21.4 4 12. 9 $1 - $1,999 28 32.8 4 25.0 6 42.8 10 32. 3 $2,000 - $5,999 26 42.6 8 50.0 3 21.4 15 48. 4 $6,000 or more 4 6.6 1 6.3 1 7.2 2 6. 4 No response 3 4.9 2 12.5 1 7.2 0 0. 0 Total 61 100.0 16 100.0 14 100.0 31 100. 0 Farm Ef f i c i e n c y The r a t i o of net to gross farm income was computed i n an attempt to measure the r e l a t i v e farming e f f i c i e n c y of farmers i n the South Okanagan. More than 13 percent of respondents reported they had no net 6.7 farm income and those respondents were considered to be highly i n e f f i c i e n t . Of the respondents who reported some net farm income 9.8 percent had net to gross r a t i o s of 1:9 or more, while 47.5 per-cent had r a t i o s of 1:2 or less. The median r a t i o reported was between 1:3 and 1:4. I t would seem that approximately half the farmers i n the area are running quite e f f i c i e n t farms while about a quarter are highly i n e f f i c i e n t . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g -n i f i c a n t difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n between the groups by birthplace and the i r net to gross farm r a t i o s , so place of b i r t h apparently did not influence the e f f i c i e n c y of the farm operator. INFORMATION SOURCES One of the p r i n c i p a l functions of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t i s the dissemination of a g r i c u l t u r a l information that w i l l improve the p r o f i t a b i l i t y and management of farming. The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t -u r i s t was named correctly by over 80 percent of the respondents. Only 40 percent of the respondents had v i s i t e d the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t Office on any occasion i n the previous year, and 12 (19.7%) of these had v i s i t e d the office.three times-or more. Nearly half the foreign born farmers as against one t h i r d of the remainder had made at least one v i s i t to the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t Office. S l i g h t l y more res-pondents (54.1%) had contacted the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t by phone the previous year, with approximately equal proportions of each group by b i r t h place reporting at least one contact. 68 A higher proportion of farmers from the South Okanagan reported being v i s i t e d by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t than did those resident i n the Peace River, Over half the respondents had at least one v i s i t from him during the year, and 21.3 percent reported v i s i t s on 3 or more occasions. More foreign born farmers (64.6%) reported v i s i t s from the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t than was the case for the B r i t i s h Columbian (42.7%) or other Canadian farmers (35.7%). S i m i l a r l y , more foreign born farmers (62.3%) reported attending f i e l d t r i p s than did B r i t i s h Columbians (50.0%) or other Canadians (42.9%). I t would seem that i n the South Okanagan, the ford-gn born farmers are the most active i n seeking out information by personal contact with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . This may be due to the i r greater .commitment to .agriculture as a source of revenue, but the differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s were not s t a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The farmers i n the South Okanagan seemed to make more frequent use of impersonal sources of a g r i c u l t u r a l information than they did of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t himself. Of the three impersonal sources considered, radio and t e l e v i s i o n broadcasts were the most frequently used channels of communication. Over 96 percent had listened to the farm radio or t e l e v i s i o n on at least one occasion with more than 26 percent l i s t e n i n g regularly. Only 5 respondents reported no use of either media. The newspaper a r t i c l e s written by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t were read on at least one occasion by 69 TABLE 25 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN, CANADIAN ANDFOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS IN THE SOUTH OKANAGAN BY PERSONAL CONTACT WITH THE DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST Total Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign B.C. i n Canada Born Named D. A. . . No. % . No, % No. % . No. .. % Correctly 49 80.3 14 87.5 12 85.7 23 74.2 Incorrectly 12 19.7 2 12.5 2 14.3 8 25.8 Total 61 100.0 16 100.0 14 100.0 31 100.0 Did not v i s i t D.A.'s o f f i c e 36 59.0 9 . 56.3 11 78.6 16 51.6 Vi s i t e d D.A.'s o f f i c e 25 41.0 7 43.7 .3 21.4 15 48.4 T ° t a l 61 100.0 16 100.0 14 100.0 31 100.0 Did not phone D.A. 33 54.1 8 50.0 8 57.1 17 54.8 Phoned D.A. 28 45.9 8 50.0 6 42.9 14 45.2 Total 61 100.0 16 100.0 14 100.0 31 100.0 No farm v i s i t s 29 47.5 9 56.3 9 64.3 11 35.4 D.A. V i s i t e d farm 33 52.5 7 43.7 5 35.7 20 64.6 Total 61 100.0 16 100.0 14 100.0 31 100.0 Did not attend f i e l d t r i p s 28 45.9 8 50.0 8 57.1 12 38.7 Attended f i e l d t r i p s 33. 54.1 8 50.0 6 42.9 19 61.3 61 100.0 16 100.0 14 100.0 31 100.0 70 TABLE 26 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY BRITISH COLUMBIAN 5 CANADIAN AND FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS IN THE SOUTH OKANAGAN BY USE OF IMPERSONAL SOURCES OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION Total Born i n Born Elsewhere Foreign B. .C. i n Canada Born No. % No. ,". . .' . % .'.'.'"No. ,".' % No. . . % Radio or Television None 3 4 .9 1 6.2 0 0.0 2 6.5 Some 42 68 .9 11 68.8 9 64.3 22 71.0 Often 16 26 .2 . 4 25.0 . .5 36.7 .7 22.5 Total 61 100 .0 16 100.0 14 100.0 31 100.0 D.A. Newspaper A r t i c l e s None 6 9 .8 1 6.2 0 0.0 5 16.1 Some 41 67 .2 11 68.8 12 85.8 18 58.1 Often 14 23 .0 4 25.0 2 14.2 8 25.8 Total 61 100 .0 16 100.0 14 100.0 31 100.0 Read mail from D.A. None 23 37 .7 3 18.7 6 42.9 14 45.2 Some 29 47 .5 10 62.6 6 42.9 13 41.9 Often 9 14 .8 3 18.7 2 14.2 4 12.9 Total 61 100 .0 16 100.0 14 100.0 31 100.0 over 92 percent of the respondents, 22 percent read such a r t i c l e s frequently and only 6 respondents had never read any. None of the Canadian born farmers, and only one of those born i n B r i t i s h Columbia as against 16.1 percent of the foreign born farmers reported never reading an a r t i c l e written by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t i n the newspaper. Fewer respondents had received or read mailed c i r u l a r s written by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . More than one-third of the farmers had never read any, while only 14.7 percent read them, frequently. The native born B r i t i s h Columbians reported reading a mailed c i r u l a r . more often than did the other groups, with only 18.7 percent stating they never read any as against 42.9 percent of the other Canadians and 45.2 percent of foreign born farmers. Although these differences i n .distribution were not s i g n i f i c a n t i t would seem that the foreign born respondents make less use of these impersonal sources of information, and r e l y more on direct contact with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , SUMMARY From th i s study i t would appear that there are few differences between the farmers of the South Okanagan by birthplace. Probably the major factor that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the groups was the d i f f e r i n g commitment to agriculture as the p r i n c i p a l source of income. Although th i s was not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i t would at least p a r t i a l l y account for the difference i n t o t a l family income. The Canadian farmers who were less committed to agriculture were more l i k e l y to be supplementing thei r farm income with earnings from an off farm job, consequently they had a higher t o t a l income and a higher l e v e l of l i v i n g . There seemed to be a tendency for the forei; born farmers to have had more dir e c t personal contacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . This trend may be related to the i r greater dependence for their income which resulted i n more active seeking of up to date information d i r e c t l y from.the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , CHAPTER FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS BY PLACE OF BIRTH IN THE PEACE RIVER AND SOUTH OKANAGAN AREAS The Peace River and South Okanagan areas are d i s s i m i l a r with respect to a number of geographic and economic features such as topography, climate, economic base structure, and predominant farm type. Those variations are obvious from a cursory inspection of published data pertaining to the two areas, however, the socio-economic char a c t e r i s t i c s of the residents have not been compared previously. This chapter compares farmers i n the two areas with respect to socio-economic and farm ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s to determine whether or not any differences e x i s t . Previous sections of t h i s study have determined that there are few major differences that are related to place of b i r t h among farmers i n a given area. Such analyses, however, do not reveal whether or not varying types of farmers are attracted to d i f f e r e n t areas when place of b i r t h i s controlled. Consequently, this chapter f i r s t analyses the socio-economic and farm ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of farmers who were born i n B r i t i s h Columbia, followed by those born elsewhere i n Canada and those from other countries. As detailed descriptive, data pertaining to farmers i n the Peace River and South Okanagan areas were presented i n chapters two and three, only those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between respondents i n the two areas are d i s -cussed here. FARMERS BORN IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Of the 45 char a c t e r i s t i c s studied only 8 d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between Peace River and South Okanagan farmers who were born i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s included age, l e v e l of l i v i n g , farm s i z e , labour usage and use of i n d i r e c t i n -formation sources. Residence History A t o t a l of 38 native born B r i t i s h Columbians were interviewed. Of these, 41.1 percent were from the South Okanagan and the remaining 48.9 percent were from the Peace River area. More than 84 percent of the respondents had been born i n the area they were l i v i n g i n , while 15.8 percent had been born i n other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia before moving to the area. A l l had been resident for more than 17 years. More respondents of the Peace River Area (95.5%) had been born i n thei r area of residence while only 68.7 percent of those born i n the South Okanagan had been born i n the South Okanagan area. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and may be explained by the r e l a t i v e a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the areas. Since the Peace River i s geographically and perhaps even c u l t u r a l l y isolated from the rest of the Province, there i s l i k e l y to be less i n t r a -p r o v i n c i a l migration to and from the area. On the other hand the South Okanagan i s ea s i l y accessible, with a less extreme climate and more secondary job opportunities, and consequently may seem more at t r a c t i v e to prospective s e t t l e r s from other parts of the province. 75 TABLE 27 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN FARMERS BY PLACE OF BIRTH Residence Total No. % Peace No. River % South No. Okanagan % Other parts of B.C. 6 15.8 i A. 4.5 5 31.3 Native to the area 32 84.2 21 95.5 11 68.7 Total 38 100.0 22 100.0 16 100.0 X 2 = 4.686, d.f. = 1, P < 0.05 Personal Characteristics The only s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the native born B r i t i s h Columbian farmers i n the two areas, was the d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondent's age. More older farmers were l i v i n g i n the South Okanagan where 37.5 percent were under 34, while no Peace River farmer was over 55 years of age and more than 40 percent were under 34 years of age. This difference may be due to a large number of farmers who may have moved to the South Okanagan to r e t i r e i n the near future. Social Characteristics Scores attained on the Sewell scale ranged from less than 70 to over 90, with the median between 81 and 90. There was a s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference (p .0.1) between the areas by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e v e l of l i v i n g scores for the respondents born i n the two areas. Half the farmers interviewed i n the Peace River area scored 80 or less,, while only one farmer from the South Okanagan was rated that low and half of them attained scores over 90. Thus, the native B r i t i s h Columbian farmers i n the Peace River area had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower l e v e l s of l i v i n g than their counterparts i n the South Okanagan. This may be due to the geographic i s o l a t i o n of the Peace River area, which tends to increase the cost of l i v i n g . The mean distance travelled for essential services was between 6 and 10 miles. More than 23 percent travelled less than 5 miles while 15.8 percent had to t r a v e l over 16 miles. No respondents from the South Okanagan trav e l l e d over 10 miles, and 43.8 percent did not go more than 5. On the other hand, some 27 percent of the respondents i n the Peace River area tra v e l l e d over 16 miles, while only 9.1 did not need to go more than 5 miles for services. This difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t as had been expected since the South Okanagan has been developed for much longer than the Peace River and i s much more densely populated. Educational Characteristics. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n d i s t r i -butions between the areas by the amount of formal schooling and job train i n g received by native born B r i t i s h Columbian farmers, and the i r f a m i l i e s , so i t xrould seem that education i s not a factor d i f f e r e n t i -ating between respondents i n the two areas. Occupational Characteristics. The median t o t a l farm size owned or operated b y . B r i t i s h Columbians was more than 400 acres, with 47.4 percent farming less than 179 acres. A l l but one of those i n the South Okanagan area (93.8%) farmed 179 acres or l e s s , while the majority of the Peace River respondents (86.3%) farmed over 400 acres. The median number of acres under c u l t i v a t i o n was between 70 and 169, with more than 21 percent c u l t i v a t i n g less than 9 acres and 36.8 percent c u l t i v a t i n g more than 400. None of the South Okanagan farmers cultivated more than 69 acres, 43.8 percent cultivated less than 9. On the other hand, only one Peace River farmer cultivated 9 acres or less while 63.6 percent cultivated over 400. These differences i n d i s t r i b u t i o n were s i g n i f i -cant at the 0.001 l e v e l of confidence so the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected. This finding was anticipated because of the difference between the areas i n terms of t h e i r p r i n c i p a l crop, since f r u i t farming i s a much more land intensive operation than f i e l d crop farming. TABLE 28 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN BORN FARMERS BY AREA OF RESIDENCE AND FARM SIZE Total Peace Rivei" South Okanagan Total Acres % % % 179 or less 18 47.4 3 13.7 15 93.8 180 or more 20 52.6 19 86.3 1 6.2 Total 38 100.0 22 100.0 16 100.0 Acres Cultivated 129 or less 19 50.0 3 13.7 16 100.0 130 or more 19 50.0 19 86.3 0 0.0 Total 38 100.0 22 100.0 16 100.0 Total Acres x 2 = 20.74, d.f. = 1, p < 0.001 Cultivated Acres X 2 = 24.28, d.f. = i , p < 0.001 78 Respondents estimated the value of thei r farms to be from less than $10,000 to $124,999 with a median value of between $60,000 and $69,999. More than 39 percent valued thei r farms to be worth less than $49,999 while 26.3 percent estimated i t s value at over $80,000. Only 5 respondents valued t h e i r farms at more than $100,000. Over two-thirds of the farmers i n the South Okanagan valued t h e i r farms at less than $50,000 while only 4 Peace River farmers (18.2%) placed such low values on thei r farms. Furthermore, over 40 percent of the Peace River farmers valued t h e i r farms at more than $80,000, while only one South Okanagan farmer had a farm he thought to be worth that much. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and may be due to the substantial d i f f e r -ence i n farm size between the areas. Hired labour was used on some occasion by the various respondents i n both areas. Over 34 percent of the native born B r i t i s h Columbians reported no use made of hired labour while two (5.3%) used hired labour for both f u l l time and on a seasonal basis for less than one month each year. More respondents i n Peace River (45.4%) than i n South Okanagan (18.7%) did not hire any labour, while some 18 percent of the Peace River farmers as compared with 56 percent of those i n South Okanagan reported extensive use of hired labour. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and can be explained i n part by the exis-tence of the labour intensive, f r u i t industry i n the South Okanagan. Farmers i n both areas appeared to use sim i l a r amounts of unpaid family labour with about half the native born respondents making use of some. 79 TABLE 29 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS. BORN IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BY AREA OF RESIDENCE AND LABOUR USAGE Total Peace River South Okanagan Use of hired labour % % % No hired labour used 13 34.2 10 45.4 3 18.7 Hired labour for less than 1 month per year 12 31.6 8 36.4 4 25.0 Hired labour for more than 1 month per year 13 34.2 4 18.2 9 56.3 Total 38 100.0 22 100.0 16 100.0 Use of family labour None 18 47.4 12 54.6 6 37.5 Some 20 52,6 10 45.4 10 62.5 Total 38 100.0 22 100.0 16 100.0 2 Hired Labour x = 6.230, d.f. = 2, p < 0.05 Family Labour * 2 = 1.08, d.f. = 1, Not s i g n i f i c a n t Income The data suggest that t o t a l gross farm and net farm incomes reported by farmers born i n B r i t i s h Columbia and resident, i n the Peace River area were s l i g h t l y lower than for those i n South Okanagan, however, th i s difference was not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This indicates that i n spite of the greater differences between the areas with respect to farm size the revenues received from their farms are si m i l a r . Information Sources There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the areas i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the farmers born i n B r i t i s h Columbia by frequency of direct personal contacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . The respondents made more use of impersonal sources of a g r i -c u l t u r a l information than from the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t d i r e c t l y , and there were s t a t i s t i c a l l y big differences between the respondents i n the two areas. The most frequently used impersonal information source was newpaper a r t i c l e s written by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t with over 55 percent reporting reading his a r t i c l e s often, and only 26.3 percent reading them r a r e l y , and no respondent reported never reading any at a l l . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between the native born farmers by area of r e s i -dence and the frequency of reading these newspaper a r t i c l e s , with proportionally more respondents i n the Peace River area (77.2%) than i n South Okanagan (25.0%) reading a r t i c l e s often. The second most frequently used impersonal information source was farm t e l e v i s i o n or radio programs. Only one respondent had never seen or heard any farm programs, while over 42 percent had done so often. Again, more Peace River farmers (54.5%-) used this information source often than did respondents i n South Okanagan (25.0%). Mailed c i r c u l a r s were not read by over 10 percent of the farmers, while more than half read them often. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents by frequency of use of mailed c i r c u l a r s as an information source, with proportionally more Peace River residents (77.3%) than those of the South Okanagan (18.8%) reading c i r c u l a r s often. I t appears that the respondents i n Peace River make much more use of in d i r e c t information sources than those of the South Okanagan. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n may be due to the geographic differences between the areas, with the more isolated Peace River residents making more use of the impersonal information sources, since they do not have as great an opportunity for personal contacts with extension workers as i s possible i n South Okanagan. 82 TABLE 30 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF RESPONDENTS BORN IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BY AREA' OF RESIDENCE AND USE OF IMPERSONAL INFORMATION SOURCES Total Peace River South Okanagan Read Mail from D.A. % % % never 4 10.5 1 4.6 3 18.7 rarely 11 29.0 3 13.6 8 50.0 sometimes 3 7.9 1 4.6 2 12.5 often 20 52.6 17 77.2 3 18.8 Total Farm Radio or T.V. never rarely sometimes often Total D.A. Newspaper A r t i c l e s never 1 2.6 0 0.0 1 6.3 rarely 10 26.3 1 4.5 9 56.2 sometimes 5 15.8 4 18.2 2 12,5 often 21 55.3 17 77.3 4 25.0 Total 38 100.0 22 100.0 16 100.0 Mailed Circulars X 2 = 8.766 d.f. =1, p< 0.01 Farm Radio or T.V. X 2 = 14.64, d.f, =1, p< 0.001 Newpaper X 2 = 11.235,d.f. =1, p< 0.001 38 100.0 22 100.0 16 100,0 1 2.6 0 0.0 1 6.3 12 31.6 2 9.1 10 62,5 9 23.7 8 36.4 1 6.2 16 42.1 12 54.5 4 25.0 38 100.0 22 100.0 16 100.00 83 FARMERS BORN ELSEWHERE IN CANADA Of the 45 cha r a c t e r i s t i c s studied, only 12 d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between Peace River and South Okanagan farmers who were born else-where i n Canada. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s included l e v e l of l i v i n g , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , farm size and use of information sources. Personal Characteristics The personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of farmers born elsewhere i n Canada were generally similar i n both areas. The only factor that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the areas was the number of children that had moved out of the area. A t o t a l of 262 children were reported giving an average of approximately 3=6 per respondent. Of the t o t a l number of children, 105 (10.1%) had l e f t school, and more than one th i r d of those who had l e f t school had moved elsewhere. More than half the school leavers from the South Okanagan had moved to another area, while less than one t h i r d of those from Peace River had done so. The difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between the two areas was si g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l of significance, and the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected. This sxiggests that the more isolated r u r a l children x^ere less l i k e l y to leave thei r home area, however, the lower l e v e l of education of the children from the Peace River might have been a further factor r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r mobility. Social Characteristics The scores attained on the l e v e l of l i v i n g index ranged from less than 50 to over 90, and the median was between 71 and 80. None of the respondents x-?ho were resident i n the South Okanagan scored less 84 than 81, as compared with 64.4 percent of those resident i n the Peace River area. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t at the 0.002 l e v e l of significance, thus the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected. This indicates that the Canadian born farmers l i v i n g i n - t h e Peace River area had a lower standard of l i v i n g than did their contemporaries i n the South Okanagan. The difference observed may be due to the geographic i s o l a t i o n of the Peace River area where goods and services are more expensive. The degree of social p a r t i c i p a t i o n as measured by the Chapin scale ranged from n i l to a score of more than 35, and more than 54 percent of the farmers did not pa r t i c i p a t e i n any formal organisation. Fewer of the Peace River farmers born elsewhere i n Canada (39.0%) than those of the South Okanagan (71.4%) reported some p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l so that the n u l l hypotheses of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected. The difference i n s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be a t t r i b u -table to the higher population density and more cosmopolitan c u l t u r a l environment i n the South Okanagan that provide more opportunity for p a r t i c i p a t i o n . More than 45 percent of the farmers reported t r a v e l l i n g an average of 10 miles or less for thei r essential services while the median distance travelled was between 11 and 15 miles. No South Okanagan farmer born elsewhere i n Canada reported t r a v e l l i n g over 25 miles, while more, than 70 percent did not need to t r a v e l an average of more than 10 miles for goods and services. On the other hand, only 38.9 percent of the Peace River farmers travelled less than 10 miles 85 and more than 8 percent averaged over 36 miles. The difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n between the two groups was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l of significance and the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected. The difference observed was expected since Peace River i s a much less densely populated area than South Okanagan. Educational Characteristics The general l e v e l of education reported by the respondents born elsewhere i n Canada was low, however, there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n between the areas by the amount of schooling or trai n i n g reported by the farmers themselves or the i r f a m i l i e s . Educational experience was not therefore a discriminating factor between the areas. Occupational Characteristics As would be expected from the e a r l i e r descriptions of farms i n the two areas, those i n Peace River were s i g n i f i c a n t l y larger than those of South Okanagan. Over 98 percent of the farms i n the Peace River area were more than 130 acres, while only 42.4 percent of those of the South Okanagan were that large. A similar difference was noted between the areas and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the number of acres under c u l t i v a t i o n , with two thirds of the Peace River farmers c u l t i v a t i n g over 130 acres while less than one t h i r d of those i n Okanagan cultivated as much. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n can be attributed almost e n t i r e l y to the di f f e r e n t farm types, with the South Okanagan being p r i n c i p a l l y a land intensive f r u i t production area, whereas the Peace River makes much more extensive use of land with f i e l d crops. Also attributable to the difference i n crops between the area was the difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n of labour usage. Over 72 percent of the farmers i n the Peace River as compared with only 14.2 percent of those i n South Okanagan did not use any hired labour. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was expected since the tree f r u i t s industry i s labour intensive as most of the harvesting must be done by hand. Farmers i n both areas were equally l i k e l y to use unpaid family labour. TABLE 31 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BORN ELSEWHERE IN CANADA BY LABOUR USAGE Peace South Total River Okanagan 'No. % No. No. % . Hired labour ' None 45 61.6 43 72.9 2 14.3 Some 28 38.4 16 27.1 12 85.7 Total 73 100.0 59 100.0 14 100.0 Family Labour None. 47 64.6 39 66.1 8 57.1 Some 26 35.6 20 33.9 6 42.8 Total 73 100.0 59 100.0 14 100.0 Hired Labour % 2 = 14.09, , d. f. = 1, P < 1 0.001 Unpaid family labour x 2 = 0.49, , d. f. = 1, Not s i g n i f i c a n t Income The data indicate that the t o t a l family income as well as gross and net farm incomes reported by farmers born elsewhere i n Canada were s l i g h t l y lower i n the Peace River area than i n South Okanagan, however, the differences i n d i s t r i b u t i o n were not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus i n spite of the v a r i a t i o n between the areas i n farm s i z e , f i n a n c i a l returns per farmer are s i m i l a r , therefore gross revenues per acre would be far higher i n South Okanagan with tree f r u i t s than i n Peace River with f i e l d crops. Information Soxirces The l o c a l D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t was named correctly by over half the respondents, with s i g n i f i c a n t l y more of the South Okanagan farmers (85.7%) than those of the Peace River (45.7%) able to give his correct name. (Table 32) Only one t h i r d of the respondents reported v i s i t i n g the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t ' s o f f i c e . More than 78 percent of the South Okanagan farmers as compared with 57.6% of the Peace River respondents had phoned the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , with less than one quarter reporting any phone contacts i n the previous year. However, there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n between the areas. The phone was more commonly used for personal contacts i n the South Okanagan with more than 57 percent of the farmers making at least one phone contact, as compared with 16.9 percent of the Peace River farmers. The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t v i s i t e d very few of these respondents, with over 86 percent of the respondents reporting no farm v i s i t s at a l l . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n between the areas and the number of farmers who reported being v i s i t e d by the 88 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . More farmers from the South Okanagan (35.7%) than from the Peace River (8.5%) reported being v i s i t e d by the A g r i c u l t u r i s t . Thus i t would seem that the farmers i n the South Okanagan are more l i k e l y to use the information services available to them through the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , by phoning him or by receiving f i e l d v i s i t s . This may be due to the more specialized cropping pattern i n the Okanagan or the higher levels of education, as positive correlations were found i n both areas between education and phone contacts or v i s i t s by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . These data indicate that few of the farmers who were born i n Canada outside B r i t i s h Columbia have any direct personal contact with th e i r l o c a l D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . This may be accounted for p a r t i a l l y by the number of farmers i n t h i s group who held non farm jobs, and earned more than half t h e i r income from off farm sources. Since they would be less dependent on agriculture as the i r source of income they may be less motivated to keep abreast of modern techniques. There was more frequent use made of impersonal information sources than of the various types of personal contact. The least frequently reported i n d i r e c t contact with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t was v i a mailed c i r c u l a r s . Over one t h i r d of the respondents reported that they did not read any while one t h i r d read them frequently. There were similar d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the responses for t h i s method of contact between the areas, so the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was accepted. Farm radio or t e l e v i s i o n broadcasts were a frequently used information source, with only 8.2 percent reporting no use of that media, while over half the farmers watched or listened to the farm TABLE 32 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BORN ELSEWHERE IN CANADA BY PERSONAL CONTACT WITH THE DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST. Named D.A. correctly Did not give correct name V i s i t e d D.A.'s Office Total 39 53.4 34 73 46.6 100.0 Peace River South Okanagan 27 45.8 12 85.7 59 54.2 100.0 14 14.3 100.0 None Some 45 28 53.4 46.6 34 25 45.8 54.2 73 100.0 59 100.0 11 3 14 85.7 14.3 100.0 Phone Contacts with D.A. None Some 55 75.3 49 83.1 6 42.9 18 24.7 10 16.9 S 57.1 Vi s i t e d by D.A. None Some 73 100.0 59 100.0 63 86.3 54 91.5 10 13.7 5 8.5 73 100.0 14 Q 5 59 100.0 14 100.0 64.3 35.7 100.0 Named D.A. Vi s i t e d D.A. x Phoned D.A. v X = 5.74, d.f. =1, p < 0.02 2 1.31, d.f. = 1, Not s i g n i f i c a n t 7.79, d.f. =1, p < 0.01 Vi s i t e d by D.A. x = 4.98, d.f. =1, p < 0.05 programmes "often". Peace River farmers made more frequent use of these media, with over 54 percent using them "often", as compared with 57 percent of the South Okanagan farmers who reported using i t " r a r e l y " . This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l . The most frequently noted i n f o r -mation source was the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t ' s newspaper a r t i c l e s with only f i v e respondents reported never reading any, while half read them often. More Peace River farmers (57.6%) than those from the South Okanagan reported reading the a r t i c l e s "often". This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.001 l e v e l of significance, therefore the farmers i n Peace River tended to make more use of impersonal information sources than did those i n South Okanagan. 91 TABLE 33 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BORN ELSEWHERE IN CANADA BY USE OF INDIRECT INFORMATION SOURCES. Total Peace River South Okanagan Read Mailed Circulars % % % None 25 34.2 19 32.2 6 42.9 Some 24 32.9 18 30.5 6 42.9 Often 24 32.9 22 37.3 2 14.2 Total 73 100.00 59 100.0 14 100.0 Radio or T.V. Rarely or never 18 24.7 10 16.9 8 57.1 Some 18 24.7 17 28.9 1 7.1 Often 37 50.6 32 54.2 5 35.8 Total 73 100.0 59 100.0 14 100.0 Newspaper A r t i c l e s Rarely or never 22 30.1 11 18.7 11 78.6 Some 15 20.6 14 23.7 1 X 7.1 Often 36 49.3 34 57.6 2 14.3 Total 73 100.0 59 100.0 14 100.0 Mailed c i r c u l a r s X 2 = 2.718, d.f. = 2, Not si g n i f i c a n t Radio or T.V. 2 X 7.458, d.f. = 2, p < 0. 01 Newspaper A r t i c l e s 2 "X 16.79, d.f. = 2, P < 0. 001 FOREIGN BORN FARMERS Of the 45 ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s studied 15 d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the Peace River and South Okanagan farmers who were not born i n Canada, Those d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s included age, l e v e l of l i v i n g , farm size income and use of information sources among others. Personal Characteristics The personal ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the foreign born farmers i n the two areas were sim i l a r as the only variable that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the areas was age. More than two thirds of the foreign born Peace River farmers were over 55 years old as compared with one t h i r d i n South Okanagan. S i m i l a r l y , more South Okanagan farmers (29.0%) than Peace River (16.1%) were under 34 years old. This difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was - s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l , so the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected. The difference i n age d i s t r i b u t i o n s may be a result of the settlement history of the two areas. As indicated by the apparent trend of years of residence i n the i r area, most respondents s e t t l i n g i n the Peace River area did so over 20 years ago. Since then, few foreign immigrants have settl e d there, while the South Okanagan has a more even settlement pattern i n terms of the d i s t r i b u t i o n by years of residence and consequently there was a more normal age d i s t r i b u t i o n . Social Characteristics The foreign born respondents" l e v e l of l i v i n g scores ranged from 51 to over 90, and the median score was between 81 and 90. Over half the farmers interviewed who were resident i n the Peace River area scored under 80 on the Sewell scale, 'while only 93 12.9 percent of those from the South Okanagan scored that low. The difference between the d i s t r i b u t i o n s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l of significance so the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected. This may be due i n part to a difference i n the cost of l i v i n g between the areas, as sim i l a r trends were noted with the other groups by birthplace. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the areas with respect to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores attained by the foreign born respondents i n the attitude to change, p a r t i c i p a t i o n and degree of i s o l a t i o n scales, so i t would seem that these factors did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the foreign born farmer resident i n the Peace River and South Okanagan areas. Educational Characteristics The educational cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of foreign born farmers and t h e i r wives i n Peace River and South Okanagan were s i m i l a r . The general l e v e l of formal education reported was low, however, the only variable that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the areas was the number of children reported as having graduated from high school. Of the 104 school leavers over 41 percent had completed Grade 12. More than 73 percent of those from the Peace River as compared with 43.1 per-cent of those from the South Okanagan did not complete Grade 12. This difference was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l of s i g n i -ficance, indicating that the children i n the South Okanagan were more l i k e l y to graduate from high school. Occupational More than 80 percent of the foreign born respondents perceived themselves as farmers p r i n c i p a l l y . Over three quarters of the foreign born respondents earned more than half th e i r income from the farm, and 69 percent were en t i r e l y dependent on the farm as a source of income. The difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of respondents between the areas by the i r commitment to farming was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The median number of years farming experience reported by foreign born farmers was over 20 years and only 22.5 percent had been farming less than 10 years. More farmers i n South Okanagan (54.8%) than Peace River (12.8%) had been farming for less than 16 years. This s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n by years farming experience between the areas i s probably due to the age difference between respondents as i t would be expected that older farmers would have been farming longer. There was a wide range i n the t o t a l number of acres owned or operated by the foreign born farmers. Over 40 percent had farms of less than 69 acres, while 32.3 percent reported t h e i r t o t a l acreage to be 400 or more. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of farm size between the two areas. More than 87 percent of the foreign born farmers resident i n the South Okanagan did not own or operate more than 179 acres, while only 19.9 percent of those from the Peace River farmed so few acres. This difference would be accounted for by the difference between the areas by the i r p r i n c i p a l product, with the predominance of land intensive f r u i t crops i n the Okanagan, and extensive f i e l d cropping i n Peace River. S i m i l a r l y , there was a wide range i n the number of acres cultivated with some 14 percent c u l t i v a t i n g less than 9 acres, while the same percentage reported c u l t i v a t i n g more than 400 acres. None of the foreign born respondents i n South Okanagan reported c u l t i v a t i n g over 240 acres, as compared with over two thirds of those resident i n the Peace River. TABLE 34 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FOREIGN BORN FARMERS BY AREA OF RESIDENCE AND FARM SIZE Total Peace River South Okanagan Total Acres % % % 179 or less 31 50.0 4 19.9 27 87.1 180 or more 3.1 50.0 27 87.1 4 19.9 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 Acres cu l t i v a t e d 69 or less 30 48.4 2 6.5 28 90.3 70-239 16 25.8 13 41.9 3 9.7 240 or more 16 25.8 16 51.6 0 0.0 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 Total acres 2 X = 34.13, d.f. = 1, p < 0 .001 2 Acres cultivated X = 39.95, d.f. = 2, p < 0 .001 Respondents estimated the value of t h e i r farms to be from less than $10,000 to over : $200,000 with the median value between $30,000 and $39,999. Over 41 percent of the respondents valued th e i r farms at less than $ 29,999 while 16.1 percent had farms they valued at more than $70,000. The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of farm values between the areas was s i m i l a r , indicating that even though farms i n the South Okanagan were much smaller i n size than those i n the Peace River, they were worth approximately the same i n both cases. I t would seem that foreign born respondents i n South Okanagan reported c u l t i v a t i n g over 240 acres, as compared with over two thirds of those resident i n the Peace River. TABLE 34 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FOREIGN BORN FARMERS BY AREA OF RESIDENCE AND FARM SIZE Total Peace River South Okanagan Total Acres % % % 179 or less 31 50.0 4 .19.9 27 87.1 180 or more 31 50.0 27 87.1 4 19.9 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 Acres cultivated 69 or less 30 48.4 2 6.5 28 90.3 70-239 16 25.8 13 41.9 3 9.7 240 or more 16 25.8 16 51.6 0 0.0 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 Total acres x 2 _ 34.13, d .f . = 1, p< 0 .001 Acres cultivated x 2 _ 39.95, d . f . = 2, p< 0 . 001 Respondents estimated the value of the i r farms to be from less than $10,000 to over : $200,000 with the median • value between $30,000 and $39,999. Over 41 percent of the respondents valued th e i r farms at less than $29,999 while 16.1 percent had farms they valued at more than $70,000. The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of farm values between the areas was s i m i l a r , indicating that even though farms i n the South Okanagan were much smaller i n size than those i n the Peace River, they were worth approximately the same i n both cases. I t would seem that 97 Income The t o t a l family income reported by foreign born respondents ranged from less than $499 to over $20,000 with a median between $3,000 and $3,999. More than 38 percent reported thei r t o t a l family incomes to be less than $2,999 while 27.5 percent had t o t a l family incomes i n excess of $6,000. A higher proportion of the foreign born farmers l i v i n g i n the.Peace River area (51.7%) than i n South Okanagan (25.8%) had t o t a l family incomes below $3,999. This difference i n d i s t r i -bution was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.02 l e v e l of significance so the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected (Table 36). Similar trends were shown by the respondents' gross and net farm incomes. The median gross farm income reported was between $.5,000 and $5,999, with .more than 40 percent -.of the respondents grossing i n excess of $6,000. More than 45 percent of the foreign born farmers i n the Peace River reported t h e i r gross farm incomes to be less than $2,999, while only 29 percent of those resident i n the South Okanagan had such low gross incomes. Net farm incomes varied from n i l to over $8,000, with the median between $1,000 and $1,999. As was the case for gross farm income, more foreign born farmers i n Peace River (64.5%) than i n South Okanagan (42.0%) reported their net farm incomes to be below $1,999. These differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of gross and net farm incomes were just f a i l e d to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . I t would seem that even though the f r u i t farms i n the South Okanagan are much smaller than the predominantly f i e l d crop farms of the Peace River, the f i n a n c i a l returns per family are higher i n the former area. The difference i n 97 Income The t o t a l family income reported by foreign born respondents ranged from less than $499 to over $20,000 with a median between $3,000 and $3,999. More than 38 percent reported their t o t a l family incomes to be less than $2,999 while 27.5 percent had t o t a l family incomes i n excess of $6,000. A higher proportion of the foreign born farmers l i v i n g i n the Peace River area (51.7%) than i n South Okanagan (25.8%) had t o t a l family incomes below $3,999. This difference i n d i s t r i -bution was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.02 l e v e l of significance so the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected (Table 36). Similar trends were shown by the respondents' gross and net farm incomes. The median gross farm income reported was between $5,000 and $5,999, with-more than 40 percent of the respondents grossing i n excess of $6,000. More than 45 percent of the foreign-born farmers i n the Peace River reported t h e i r gross farm incomes to be less than $2,999, while only 29 percent of those resident i n the South Okanagan had such low gross incomes. Net farm incomes varied from n i l to over $8,000, with the median between $1,000 and $1,999. As was the case for gross farm income, more, foreign born farmers i n Peace River (64.5%) than i n South Okanagan (42.0%) reported thei r net farm incomes to be below $1,999. These differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of gross and net farm incomes were just f a i l e d to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . I t would seem that even though the f r u i t farms i n the South Okanagan are much smaller than the predominantly f i e l d crop farms of the Peace River, the f i n a n c i a l returns per family are higher i n the former area. The difference i n 98 TABLE 36 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FOREIGN BORN RESPONDENTS BY AREA OF RESIDENCE AND INCOME Total Peace River South Okanagan Total family income % % % $2,999 or less 24 38.7 16 51.7 8 25.8 $3,000-$5,999 21 33.8 5 16.1 16 51.7 $6,000 or more 12 19.4 5 16.1 7 22.5 No response 5 8.1 5 16.1 0 0.0 Net, f Total 62 100.0 31 .100.0 31 100.0 > farm income $2,999 or less 21 33.8 13 42.0 8 25.8 $3,000-$5,999 14 22.6 9 29.0 5 16.2 $6,000 or more 25 40.3 8 25.8 17 54.8 No response 2 3.3 1 3.2 1 3.2 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 'arm income $1,999 or less 33 53.3 20 64.5 13 42.0 $2,000 or more 27 43.5 10 32.3 17 54.8 No response 2 3.2 1 3.2 1 3.2 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 Total family income X 2 = 8. 83, d . f . = 2, P< 0.02 Gross farm income X 2 = 5. 46, d .f . = 2, Not s i g n i f i c a n t Net farm income X ~ = 3. •29., d .f . = 1, Not s i g n i f icant 99 t o t a l family income between the areas may be due to the greater employment opportunities for the respondents' dependents l i v i n g i n the South Okanagan, so more of them might be employed i n non-farm occupations. Information Sources Two thirds of the respondents were able to name their l o c a l D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . Over 54 percent had not v i s i t e d t h e i r o f f i c e of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t i n the previous year, while 6.5 percent had v i s i t e d i t "often". There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s between the areas by frequency of v i s i t s to the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . Fewer farmers had contacted the i r l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r i s t by telephone than had contacted him personally although over two thirds reported no telephone contacts i n the previous year. More foreign born farmers from the South Okanagan (54.9%) than those of the Peace River (9.7%) reported any telephone contacts. This difference was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.001 l e v e l of s i g n i -ficance, so the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was rejected. There was also a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n between the areas with respect to the number of farmers who had been v i s i t e d by t h e i r l o c a l D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . Nearly two thirds of those i n South Okanagan as compared with 9.7 percent of those from the Peace Pd.ver had been v i s i t e d at least once by their A g r i c u l t u r i s t i n the previous year. F i e l d t r i p s were attended by more than half the respondents, once again more South Okanagan farmers (62.3%) than those from the Peace River (32.3%) had attended at least one. Thus, the foreign born farmers resident i n the South Okanagan were generally much more active i n seeking information d i r e c t l y from their A g r i c u l t u r i than were those i n Peace River. TABLE 37 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF FOREIGN BORN FARMERS BY AREA OF RESIDENCE AND PERSONAL CONTACE WITH THE DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST Total Peace River South Okanagan /o /o /o Named D.A. correctly 40 64.5 17 54.8 23 74.2 Could not name D.A. 22 35.5 14 45.2 8 25.8 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 V i s i t s to D.A.'s o f f i c e None 34 54.8 18 58.1 16 51.6 Some 28 45.2 13 41.9 15 48.4 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 Phoned D.A. None 42 67.7 28 90.3 14 45.2 Some 20 36.3 3 9.7 17 54.8 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 V i s i t s by D.A. None 39 62.9 28 90.3 11 35.5 Some 23 37.1 3 9.7 20 64.5 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 F i e l d Trips None 33 53.2 21 67.7 12 38.7 Some 29 46.8 10 36.3 19 61.3 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 Named D.A. X 2 = 2.53, d.f. = 1, Not si g n i f i c a n t V i s i t s to D .A.' !s o f f i c e K? = X ~ = 0.26, d.f. = 1, Not s i g n i f i c a n t Phoned D.A. 14.46, d.f. = 1, p < 0.001 V i s i t s by D .A. x 2 = 19.97, d.f. = 1, P < 0.001 F i e l d Trips X 2 = 5.29, d.f.. = 1, < P 0.05 101 The foreign born farmers made more frequent use of impersonal information sources than they did of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t d i r e c t l y . Only 29 percent of the foreign born farmers never read mailed c i r c u l a r s , while 30.6 percent read them "often". Circulars were less frequently read by the farmers from the South Okanagan where only 54.8 percent as compared with 87.1 percent i n Peace River, had read any i n the previous year. This trend was more pronounced with the reported usage of radio or t e l e v i s i o n as an information source. Only 4.8 percent never used these media, while 40.3 percent watched or listened to farm programmes "often". Only one farmer i n the Peace River, as compared with 58.1 percent of those from the South Okanagan rarely or never made use of radio and t e l e v i s i o n for a g r i c u l t u r a l information, More general use was made of newspaper a r t i c l e s written by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . Less than 10 percent of the respon-dents had never read any while more than 43 percent read his a r t i c l e s "often". As before, more South Okanagan farmers (58.1%) than those i n Peace River (9.7%) rarely or never read newspaper a r t i c l e s written by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . The above noted differences i n d i s t r i b u t i o n s between the area of residence by the use the foreign born farmers made of impersonal information sources were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and would indicate that farmers from the Peace River made more frequent use of impersonal information sources. Thus i t would appear that the South Okanagan farmers make more use of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t d i r e c t l y , while farmers resident i n Peace River prefer impersonal information sources. This difference may be related to the apparent v a r i a t i o n between the areas by the attitude of respondents towards change. Those with more personal contact with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t were more l i k e l y to accept change. In addition, i t may be more important for the f r u i t farmers to keep informed on market conditions and with changes i n techniques to maintain t h e i r productivity at a high l e v e l . TABLE 38 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FOREIGN BORN FARMERS BY AREA OF RESIDENCE AND USE OF IMPERSONAL INFORMATION SOURCES Total Peace River "/ S. Okanagan Read Mailed Circulars /o /o None 18 29.0 4 12.9 14 45.2 Some 44 71.0 27 87.1 17 54.8 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 Use Farm Radio or T.V. Rarely or never 19 30.7 1 3.2 18 58.1 Sometimes 18 29.0 12 38.7 6 19.4 Often 25 40.3 18 58.1 7 22.5 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 Read Newspaper A r t i c l e s by D.A. Rarely or never 21 33.8 3 9.7 18 58.1 Sometimes 14 22.6 9 29.0 5 16.1 Often 27 43.6 19 61.3 8 2.5.8 Total 62 100.0 31 100.0 31 100.0 Read Circulars 2 X 7 .82, d.f. = 1, P < 0. 01 Farm Radio or T.V. 2 X 22 .05, d.f. = 1, P K 0. 001 Read Newspaper A r t i c l e s 2 X 16 .33, d.f. = 2, P K 0. 001 103 SUMMARY The majority of ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the Peace River and South Okanagan area were related to differences i n geographic ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the areas rather than d i r e c t l y to char a c t e r i s t i c s of the farmers themselves. There were only minor differences between the areas with respect to the personal character-i s t i c s of the farmers i n each group by birthplace. The differences i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were also l i m i t e d . The l e v e l of l i v i n g scores were consistently lower i n a l l groups for residents of the Peace River, which may be due i n part to differences i n the cost of l i v i n g or to geographic and c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n . In a l l cases there xrere s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n farm size as the f i e l d crop farms of the Peace River were consider-ably larger than the predominantly f r u i t orchards of the South Okanagan. Following from t h i s difference i n product type, the South Okanagan farmers used more hired labour as the labour required to harvest f r u i t i s considerably more costly than that required for f i e l d crops. Farm values, however, d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the areas only when comparing B r i t i s h Columbian born farmers i n the Peace River and South Okanagan. This would indicate that land i n South Okanagan i s far more expensive than i n Peace River, which would be expected as the former area i s more developed and densely populated. Despite this expected difference i n land prices, the values of farms owned by B r i t i s h Columbian farmers i n Peace River were higher than those of the i r counterparts i n the South Okanagan, probably because of the extreme difference i n farm si z e . 104 There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the areas by any of the income cha r a c t e r i s t i c s reported by native B r i t i s h Columbian farms and those born elsewhere i n Canada. Foreign born farmers i n the Peace River reported lower t o t a l family incomes than the i r counterparts i n the South Okanagan but simi l a r farm incomes were reported since fewer of those resident i n Peace River had secondary non a g r i c u l t u r a l jobs. The differences observed i n the use of information sources would also seem to be more dependent on the area of residence than on birthplace of the farmer. In a l l the groups by birthplace, the farmers i n South Okanagan made direct contact with the D i s t r i c t A g r i -c u l t u r i s t more frequently than did the i r counterparts i n Peace River, while the Peace River farmers made more frequent use of impersonal information sources. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The p r i n c i p a l factors that have been found to influence the rate of change i n a r u r a l population include the socio-economic characteristics of the population such as educational experience, income and l e v e l of l i v i n g , as well as the extent to which use i s made of sources of information, p a r t i c u l a r l y the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . B r i t i s h Columbia has received foreign immigrants as a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e r s throughout i t s history so there are now a large number of them farming i n the Province. The purpose of th i s study was to analyse the socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of farmers i n the "Peace River and South Okanagan areas of B r i t i s h Columbia to determine to what extent place of b i r t h was related to the socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of farmers and their use. of information sources. The analysis was implemented i n three stages. F i r s t l y , the socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the fai'mers of the Peace River Area i n groups by place of b i r t h were described and differences were i l l u s t r a t e d between the groups. The second stage consisted of a si m i l a r analysis of the farm respondents who were resident i n the South Okanagan. La s t l y , the groups of farmers by birthplace resident i n the Peace River were compared with the i r counterparts i n the South Okanagan to i l l u s t r a t e any factors that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between respondents i n the two areas. FARMERS IN PEACE RIVER The t o t a l sample i n Peace River consisted of 112 farmers with 22 of them native to B r i t i s h Columbia (19.6%), 59 born elsewhere i n Canada (52.7%). and 31 who were foreign born (27.7%). I t would appear that one of the p r i n c i p a l factors contributing to the differences between the groups by birthplace was the way i n which the area was s e t t l e d . A large proportion of the foreign born farmers came to the area over 25 years ago, so the majority of the older respondents were foreign born. Age appeared to contribute to many of the differences between the groups by birthplace and especially influenced scores on the attitude to change scale. That the foreign born respondents were the most resistant to change could be largely explained by the inverse association between age and attitude to change. More children of foreign born respondents had l e f t home, and again this may have been influenced by the difference i n age d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t would be expected that children of older parents would be older themselves, and therefore l i k e l y to be more mobile. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores on the distance travelled scale, with those farmers who were born elsewhere i n Canada t r a v e l l i n g further. This can be explained by th e i r comparatively short period of res-idence i n the area, and the normal settlement, pattern of an area i s an outward movement from the population center. The l e v e l of formal schooling attained by the respondents and thei r wives i n the Peace River area was generally low, but there was no differences among the groups by birthplace. However, s i g n i f i c a n t l y more native B r i t i s h Columbian farmers expressed a need for more job trai n i n g and more of t h e i r wives reported receiving job tr a i n i n g . These differences again could be largely attributable to differences i n ages between the groups, the younger farmers being more interested i n learning new s k i l l s , while the younger wives bad benefitted from better schooling and greater opportunities and acceptance of job t r a i n i n g for women. More of those farmers who were born elsewhere i n Canada than i n any other group had non farm jobs, and many of them earned more than half t h e i r income from off farm work. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s among ^the groups by t o t a l acreage owned, however, s i g n i f i c a n t l y more acres were cultivated by those who were native born B r i t i s h Columbians. This may be due i n part to the large amount of c a p i t a l required to sta r t farming due to the cost of land. Those who had been born i n the area may have been able to clear land and perhaps accumulate over several generations, large blocks of c u l t -ivated land, while those who have settled recently have not had this advantage. This may account i n part for the large number of those fanners born elsewhere i n Canada with secondary non farm jobs. There were further differences i n the t o t a l family and farm incomes reported. The foreign born fai'mers and those from else-where i n Canada had lower gross and net farm incomes than those who were, born i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but this may largely be accounted for by the difference i n the number of acres culti v a t e d . Since the farm incomes reported by the foreign born and those born elsewhere i n Canada were s i m i l a r , i t may have been expected that thei r t o t a l family incomes would be sim i l a r as w e l l , however, the t o t a l family incomes declared by the foreign born respondents were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than those reported by the farmers born i n B r i t i s h Columbia or elsewhere i n Canada. This may be due to the greater proportion of those born elsewhere i n Canada xcho reported supplementing the i r farm income with income from a non farm job. The factors noted above probably affected the extent to which the respondents made use of information sources. The older respondents, being -more resistant to change, were not so l i k e l y to have contacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , nor were those who earned the major portion of thei r income from off farm work. However, the difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n among the groups by use of information sources were not s u f f i c i e n t , to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y sign-i f i c a n t . The settlement history of the area seems to underlie many of the differences observed with place of b i r t h only a secondary influence. 109 FARMERS IN SOUTH OKANAGAN The sample i n South Okanagan consisted of 62 farmers of whom 26.2 percent were born i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 23 percent were born elsewhere i n Canada and the remaining 50.8 percent were foreign born. There were very few differences among the farmers of the South Okanagan by birthplace and their personal charac-t e r i s t i c s . The foreign born farmers had a lower l e v e l of l i v i n g and displayed greater resistance to change than did farmers i n the other groups. This difference may indicate a lack of assimilation or estrangement from the Canadian society, however, the differences -were not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the groups by the extent of the farmers schooling, but the wives of the foreign born farmers had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower levels of education than did the wives of the other farmers. This would suggest that the educational opportunities for women i n Canada are higher than for those born outside Canada. More foreign born farmers were f u l l time farmers and more of those born elsewhere i n Canada reported having a non farm source of income. This suggests that the foreign born farmers were more commited to agriculture than were the other respondents, however, the differences were not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 110 The farms of the South Okanagan are predominantly f r u i t orchards, which are labour and c a p i t a l intensive so i t was expected that farms i n the area would tend to be small. There were no s t a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the groups and the d i s t r -ibution of the number of acres owned, cul t i v a t e d , or the estimated farm value or labour usage. Thus, i t appeared that place of b i r t h did not influence farm size or management of the f r u i t enterprise. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the groups by birthplace and the reported income from the farm, although the foreign born farmers reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t o t a l family incomes. This may be a result of the i r greater commitment to farming as i t appeared that fewer foreign born respondents supplemented their farm income with income from a non farm source. This may also have contributed to the i r lower l e v e l of l i v i n g as t o t a l family income was found to be correlated with the l e v e l of l i v i n g score. The foreign born farmers tended to have had more direct personal contacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t than did the other groups. This trend may be related to their greater dependence on agriculture as the i r source of income, which resulted i n more active seeking of up to date information d i r e c t l y from the D i s t r i c t A g r i -c u l t u r i s t . Further, the foreign born farmers appeared to make less use of the various i n d i r e c t information sources, but such differences were not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . NATIVE BORN BRITISH COLUMBIAN FARMERS Farmers who were born i n B r i t i s h Columbia and resided i n the Peace River area were s i g n i f i c a n t l y younger than their counterparts from the South Okanagan and s i g n i f i c a n t l y more were born i n their area of residence. Those differences were attributed f i r s t l y to the s u i t a b i l i t y of the South Okanagan as a retirement area which would lead, to more older residents i n the South Okanagan. Secondly, since the Peace River area i s more is o l a t e d , the residents seem to be less mobile and fewer have l e f t the area i n which they were born. The native born farmers resident i n the Peace River area had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower l e v e l of l i v i n g than did those i n South Okanagan. The other personal, s o c i a l , and educational charac-t e r i s t i c s of farmers born i n B r i t i s h Columbia were sim i l a r i n the two areas. As was anticipated by differences i n the areas cropping patterns, f i e l d crop farms i n the Peace River area were s i g n i f -i c a n t l y larger both i n terms of t o t a l acres and number of acres cultivated than were the f r u i t orchards of the South Okanagan. Following from this s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n farm s i z e , the estimated values of farms i n Peace River were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than i n South Okanagan. More labour was employed by farmers i n South Okanagan and most of t h i s was seasonal as considerable labour i s needed to harvest f r u i t . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o t a l family income as well as farm incomes between the two areas was s i m i l a r , which would indicate that i n spite of the great difference i n farm size and value between the areas, incomes earned were si m i l a r . Thus, as expected, the f i n a n c i a l returns per acre of f r u i t trees were far higher than for f i e l d crops. There was no difference between the areas by the use that farmers born i n B r i t i s h Columbia made of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . More use was made of impersonal information sources. The most frequently used source was the newspaper column written by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t and the least frequently mentioned was ci r c u l a r s mailed by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . I t appeared that the Peace River farmers made more frequent use of" i n d i r e c t inform-ation sources than those i n South Okanagan. This may be due i n part to the geographic-isolation of the Peace River area. FARMERS BORN ELSEWHERE IN CANADA H i s t o r i c a l l y 5 the farmers born elsewhere i n Canada resident i n either area had simi l a r backgrounds and similar personal chara-c t e r i s t i c s , excepting that those resident i n the South Okanagan were s i g n i f i c a n t l y older. This was probably due to the previously mentioned s u i t a b i l i t y of the South Okanagan for retirement. The Caiiadian born residents of the Peace River area part-icipated less i n formal organisation and had a lower l e v e l of 113 l i v i n g than those who were resident i n the South Okanagan, which may be due partly to thei r r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n or the greater distance they had to travel to th e i r service centres. As would have been expected from the differences between the areas i n terms of thei r predominant crops, farms i n the Peace River were s i g n i f i c a n t l y larger than those of the South Okanagan, however, the farm values were not. This again suggests that land values i n the South Okanagan were far higher than those of the Peace.River. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the areas by the t o t a l gross and net farm income reported. As noted previously, f i n a n c i a l returns per acre were much higher for an acre of f r u i t than for an acre of f i e l d crops. The farmers of the South Okanagan made s i g n i f i c a n t l y more direct use of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t than did those of the Peace River, but more Peace River farmers made use of the impersonal sources of information. These differences i n the use of informatonn sources between the areas may re s u l t from the different crops i n each area. The farmers i n the South Okanagan with thei r high r i s k , intensive f r u i t crops would be expected to be more active i n keeping up to date with developments i n the f r u i t industry than would those i n the Peace River with less r i s k y f i e l d crops. FOREIGN BORN FARMERS There were h i s t o r i c a l differences between foreign born fanners i n the Peace River and the South Okanagan. Those resident i n the Peace River had l i v e d there s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer than those i n the South Okanagan. Consequently there was an age d i f f -erence between the areas with the older foreign born farmers l i v i n g i n Peace River. The foreign born farmers i n Peace River had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower levels of l i v i n g , which may partly be due to a higher cost of l i v i n g i n the area. Those resident i n the Peace River area scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on the attitude to change scale indicating that they were more resistant to change than those i n the South Okanagan. This may be partly due to the age difference between the areas as age was found to be inversely correleted with attitude to change. The l e v e l of schooling attained by the foreign born farmers and th e i r x^ives was generally low. There were no sta t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the areas by schooling and t r a i n i n g of the foreign*born farmers or their wives. S i g n i f i c a n t l y more children of those resident i n the South Okanagan had graduated from high school, so i t would seem that i n Peace River the cycle of lower education — low socio-economic status low education of the succeeding generation i s being maintained. 115 As was noted previously the f i e l d crop farms of the Peace River were s i g n i f i c a n t l y larger but used less hired labour than the orchards of the South Okanagan, but there was no d i f f -erence between the areas by the estimated value of the farms. The income earned from the farm appeared to be lower i n the Peace River, but the difference was not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the areas by t o t a l family income as the foreign born farmers resident i n the South Okanagan had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher t o t a l family incomes than those resident i n the Peace River area. This may be due partly to the greater employment opportunities i n the South Okanagan so that dependants can more ea s i l y find gain-f u l employment off the farm, and as a result increase t h e i r t o t a l family income, - The foreign born farmers of the South Okanagan made more dire c t use of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t than did those of the Peace River area, while the Peace River farmers made more use of the i n d i r e c t sources of information. These differences i n d i s -t r i b u t i o n were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and as previously suggested may be due to the difference i n predominant crops. Those with the high r i s k , c a p i t a l intensive orchards would be expected to be more active i n seeking information than those with f i e l d crops. CONCLUSIONS In Peace River there were several s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f -icant differences among the groups of farmers by place of b i r t h , by varioris socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s and by use of information sources. The foreign born groups were disadvantaged i n comparison with the other two groups i n terms of income and attitude to change, and they made less use of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . These differences could be largely due to age differences between the groups r e s u l t i n g from the h i s t o r i c a l pattern of settlement, with the result that foreign born farmers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y older than those i n the other groups. This age difference may be the main factor underlying the differences between the groups. There were very few s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the farmers by birthplace i n the South Okanagan. I t would seem that the foreign born farmers were more commited to a g r i -culture as th e i r p r i n c i p a l source of income, while farmers of the other groups were more l i k e l y to have non farm jobs. This may explain the differences observed among l e v e l of l i v i n g scores and t o t a l family incomes, and also may explain the tendency observed for the foreign born farmers to have more frequent direct contacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . I t would seem that ethnic d i f f -erences may be affecting the extent of the farmers commitment to farming, but the findings of t h i s study are not conclusive. The major difference observed between the areas and the socio-economic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the B r i t i s h Columbian, Canadian and foreign born fanners could largely be explained i n terms of the difference i n the crop type, and not to differences i n the types of farmers attracted to each area. The findings of th i s study there-fore seem to indicated that there are few differences among the groups of farmers by birthplace that can be attributable to d i f f -erences i n th e i r ethnic backgrounds, when a l l foreign born farmers are considered as a group. 118 BIBLIOGRAPHY Acton, B.K. Dairy Farming i n North Central B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: Economic Division Canada Department of Agriculture, 1963. Acton, B.K. A Synopsis of the Dairy Enterprise oh '81 Selected  Farms i n North Okanagan Valley. 1960-61, Vancouver: Economic Division Canada Department of Agriculture, 1965. Akinbode, I.A. 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Census of Canada 1961 B u l l e t i n 1. 2-7. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1963. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Census of Canada 1961 B u l l e t i n 1. 1--10. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1963. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Census of Canada 1961 B u l l e t i n 1. 3-11. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1964. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Census of Canada 1961 B u l l e t i n 3. 1-15. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1.964. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Census of Canada 1961 B u l l e t i n 7. 1-7. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1964. Ethnic Groups i n B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia Centennial Committee, 1967. Gel l i n g , Sharon P. "A Regional Study of Social Welfare Measurements." (No. 5 The Okanagan Region) 1951-61. Unpublished M.S.W. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. Glass, G.V. & S.C. Ju l i a n . S t a t i s t i c a l Methods i n Education &  Psychology. Prentice H a l l , 1970. Gubbels, P.M. "The Adoption and Rejection of Innovation by Dairymen i n the Lower Fraser Valley." M.S.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. Hole, W.L. Natural"Resources Conference. Inventory of Natural Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Conference 1964, pp. 41-58. Ing e r s o l l , H. & L.H. Scott. "A Group Scale for Measurement of S o c i a l , Cultural & Economic Status of Farm Families of the Middle West." Rural Sociology. Vol. 9 (1944), pp. 349-363. Luth, D. "Na t u r i s t i c Movements i n Three Cultural Areas." M.A. Thesis, U.B.C, 1964. N a i l , F.C. "Role Expectations: A Cross Cultural Study." Rural Sociology. Vol. 27, No.l. (March, 1962). Nam, C.B. & M.G. Power. "Variations i n Socio-Economic Structure by Race, Residence and L i f e Cycle." American Sociological Review. Volume 30. No. 1, (February 1965), pp. 97-103. 03'ler, M.D. Neighbourhood Standing and Population Changes i n Johnson and Robertson Countries, Kentucky. Lexington, Kentucky, Kentucky A.E.S. B u l l e t i n 523, 1948. Patterson, S. "Immigrants and Employment" P o l i t i c a l Quarterly. Vol. 39 (1968), pp. 54-69, 1968. Pederson, H.A. "Cultural Difference i n Acceptance of Recommended Practices." Rural Sociology. Vol.' 16 (March 1951), pp. 37-49. "Population Trends." B r i t i s h Columbia Bureau of Economics and  S t a t i s t i c s 1969. Raynor, L.C. & L.E. Drayton, E.D. Woodward, K.E. Cann & J.R. Meredith The Dairy Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Agriculture, 1966. Richmond, A.H. "Standard of Living of Post War Immigrant i n Canada. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology. Vol. 2 (1965), pp. '41-51. Rogers, E.M. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962. Rogers, E.M. and H..R. Capener. The Country Extension Agent and His  Constituents. Wooster, Ohio.: Ohio A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental Station, 1960. "Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e . " The Home and Family L i f e i n Rural Saskatchewan. Province of Saskatchewan Report No. 10. Regina: The Queens Printer 1956. Sanders, I.T. The Community. New York: Ronald Press, 1958. 121 "Social M o b i l i t y of Immigrants." Population Studies. Vol. 18 (1964), pp. 53-69. Stone, L.O. Migration i n Canada - Regional Aspects. Census Monograph: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . 1961. Straus, M.A. & Allan J. Estep. Education for Technological Change Among Wisconsin Farmers. University of Wisconsin A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental Station Research B u l l e t i n 214. Madison, August 1959. Studness, CM. "Economic Opportunity and the Westward Migration of Canada." Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science. Vol. 30 (1964), pp.' 570-584. Vallee, F.G., M. Schwartz & F. Darknell. "Ethnic Assimilation and D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n Canada." Canadian Journal of Economics and  P o l i t i c a l Science. Vol. 23. (1957), p.540. Van Der Ban, A.W. "Locality Group Differences i n the Adoption of New Farm Practices." Rural Sociology. Volume 25, September 1960, No.3. Verner, Coolie. Planning and Conducting a Survey: A Case Study. Ottawa: Rural Development Branch, Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 1967. Verner, Coolie and P. Gubbels. The Adoption or Rejection of Innovations by Dairy Farm Operators i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Ottawa: A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics Research Council of Canada, 1967. Verner, Coolie and F. M i l l e r d . Adult Education and the Adoption of  Innovations by Orchardists i n the Okanagan Valley of B.C. Vancouver: Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966. Verner, Coolie, Frank W. M i l l e r d , and Gary Dickinson. A Socio- Economic Survey of the Prince George Special Sales Area. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. (Survey Report No. I ) . Verner, Coolie, Gary Dickinson, and E.P. Alleyne. A Socio-Economic Survey of the East Kootenay Area. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. (Survey Report No.2). Verner, Coolie and Gary Dickinson. A Socio-Economic Survey of the  Pemberton Valley. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia,1968. (Survey Report No.3). Verner, Coolie, Gary Dickinson and Bruce Kloosterman. A Socio-Economic Survey of the Peace River Area. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. (Survey Report No.4). 122 Verner, Coolie and Gary Dickinson. A Socio-Economic Survey of Fort  Nelson. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. (Survey Report No.5). Verner, Coolie and Gary Dickinson. A Socio-Economic Survey of the  West Kootenay Area. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. (Survey Report No.6). Verner, Coolie, Gary Dickinson and D a r r e l l V. Anderson. ' A Socio- Economic Survey of the Vanderhoof West Area. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. (Survey Report No.7). Verner, Coolie and Gary Dickinson. A Socio-Economic Survey of the  Kamloops Area. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. (Survey Report No.8). Verner, Coolie and Gary Dickinson. A Socio-Economic Survey of the North Okanagan Area. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. (Survey Report No.9). Verner, Coolie and Gary Dickinson. A Socio-Economic Survey of the. South Okanagan Area. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. (Survey Report No.10). Verner, Coolie and Gary Dickinson. A Socio-Economic Survey of the S.outh Okanagan Land I r r i g a t i o n . D i s t r i c t . Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. (Survey Report No.11). Verner, Coolie, Gary Dickinson and D a r r e l l V. Anderson. A Socio- Economic Survey of the Boundary Area. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. (Survey Report No.12). Walden, C.C., A.I. Ur.quhart, and J.W. Gouge. Population Trends i n  Canada, B.C., Alberta and Saskatchewan. Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council, 1957. (Reprinted January, 1960). Whetten, N.L. and A.W. Green. "Ethnic Group Relations i n a Rural Area of Connecticut." Storrs A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment Station. B u l l e t i n No. 244, January 1943. University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut. Whyte, D. "Rural Canada i n Transition" i n Rural Canada i n Transition. Edited by W. Anderson and M. Trembly. Ottawa: A g r i c u l t u r a l Economic Research Council, 1966. Wilkening, Eugene A. ' Adoption of Improved'Farm Practices as related  to Family Factors. University of Wisconsin A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment Station B u l l e t i n 183-RS. Madison, 1953. Wilkening, Eugene A. and Eugen L i p r i . "Decision Making i n German and American Farm Families: A Cross-Cultural Comparison." Sociologica  Ru r a l i s . Vol. 5 (1965), pp. 366-385. Appendix A CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR IARM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1. 1.00 2. - .01 1.00 3. -.21 .27 1.00 4. .32 .13 -.33 1.00 5. -.06 .28 .08 .03 1.00 6. ~ . l j .03 .11 -.15 .11 1.00 7. .36 -.08 -.15 .18 .10 - . 2 2 1.00 8. -.00 -.16 .12 -.01 -.20 -.29 -.00 1.00 9. -.13 .30 .53 -.24 .11 -722 -.00 -.37 1.00 10. -.09 .12 .29 -.24 .07 - . 2 2 -.05 -.11 .39 1.00 11. -.4S .14 .15 -.20 .12 ". 18" -.24 -.19 .19 .09 1.00 12. ".57 -.06 -.16 .32 -.00 .13 .33 -.23 -.03 .10 -.15 13. -. 10 .19 .27 -.17 .16 .24 -.00 -.20" .49 .33 .08 14. -.02 .18 .13 -.3 3 -.09 .21 -.21 -.00 .30 .22 -.02 15. .09 .32 .06 -.03 -.04 -.02. -.10 .12 .21 .01 .09 16. .03 .27 .07 -.10 .03 .07 -.08 .16 .21 .26 .00 17 .00 .21 .08 -.10 .00 .20 -.05 -.01 .34 ".18 .04 18. -.02 .20 .04 -.11 .14 .03 -.04 .12 .15 .31 .07 19. .04 .12 -.03 -.07 .02 .07 -.00 .10 .07 .15 -.02 20. .05 .24 .05 -.07 -.00 .14 .00 .01 .29 .21 .03 21 -.10 .22 .27 -.18 .28 .04 .04 -.03 .35 .36 .07 22 -.30 -.05 .03 -.03 -.08 -.14 -.09 .03 .08 -.25 .38 23 .03 -.31 .06 -.35 -.09 .21 -.05 -.05 .03 .13 ' -.06 124 RESPONDENTS IN THE PEACE FIVER AREA 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1.00 -.05 1.00 -.22 .67 1.00 -.23 .42 .66 1.00 -.22 .60 .60 .76 1.00 -.12 .80 .72 .68 .81 1.00 .19 .38 .31 .55"" .75 .51 1.00 -.06 .45 7 39 .63 .75 .56 .57 1.00 -.00 .65 .64 .80 .87 .85 .61 .80 1.00 -.09 .65 .50 ".36 .46 .49 .32 .44 .48 1.00 -.47 .25 -. 33 .17 -.15 -.19 .01 -.04 -.09 -.12 .11 .01 -.01 -.25 .01 -.08 .01 .17 .21 .18 Description 1. Age 2. Schooling 3. Wife's Schooling 4. No. children moved from area 5. Fathers Education 6. Years i n Area 7. Previous Address 8. Distance Travelled 9. Level of l i v i n g 10. P a r t i c i p a t i o n 11. Attitude to Change 12. Years Farming 13. Gross farm income 14. Net farm income 15. Total family income 16. Total Acres 17. Acres cu l t i v a t e d 18. Acres Bush 19. No. of animal units 20. Farm value 21. Hired labour 22. Family labour 23. Off farm work CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR PEACE RIVER FARMERS USE OF INFORMATION SOURCES V i s i t D.A. Phone D.A. Vis i t e d by D.A. F i e l d Trips Read Circulars Farm Broadcasts Newspa] A r t i c l i Age -.13 -.16 -.11 -.03 .01 -.02 -.05 Schooling .45 .33 .18 .14 .30 -.02 -.26 Wife's Schooling .27 .13 .09 .23 .31 .11 .24 No. Children moved -.18 -.05 -.10 -.23 -.17 -.09 -.03 Fathers Education .25 .29 .34 .14 ' .12 .10 .05 Years i n area .15 .08 .04 .18 -.48 .09 .13 Previous address -.17 . .00 .07 -.05 -.07 -.05 .05 Distance tr a v e l l e d -.17 -.13 -.17 -.20 - -.18 -.18 -.18 Level of l i v i n g .42 • .31 • .25 .22 .30 .24 . 37 P a r t i c i p a t i o n .44- .09 .10 .35 .34 .11 .17 Attitude to Change -.01 .23 .14 .16 .08 .09 .11 Years farming -.01 -.30 -.17 .11 .13 .13 -.00 Gross Farm Income .38 .41 .29 .19 .20 .14 .25 Net Farm Income .26 .23 .10 .18 .08 -.06 .12 Total Family Income .35 .49 .01 .00 .09 -.02 .16 Total Acres .42 .51 .08 .06 .10 -.00 .18 Acres Cultivated .30 .41 .04 .02 .08 .04 .20 Acres Bush .35 .47 .06 .02 .13 .02 .14 No. Animal Units .39 .57 .16 .10 .10 .01 .15 Farm Value .41 .53 .08 .05 .13 .03 .18 Hired Labour .40 .33 .50 .19 .18 .10 .21 Family Labour -.00 .14 -.13 -.16 -.05 .04 -.08 Off Farm Work .01 -.25 .04 .00 .13 -.01 .13 V i s i t D.A. 1.00 -.52 .42 .33 .39 .18 .31 Phoned D.A. 1.00 .33 .15 .17 .02 .17 V i s i t e d by D.A. 1.00 .27 .22 .12 .15 F i e l d Trips 1.00 .36 .05 .21 Read Circulars 1.00 .17 .43 Farm Broadcasts 1.00 .41 Appendix B. CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR FARMERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ]. 1.00 2. .07 1.00 3. .08 .47 1.00 •'i. .39 -.06 .05 1.00 5. .00" .58 .39 -.05 1.00 6. .08 .01 .25 .17 -.03 1 .00 7. .08 -.11 -.17 .01 .15 -.29 1.00 8 . .27 -.07 -.05 .14 .14 -.20 .08 1.00 9. -.02 .40 .47 .38 .25 -.30 -.05 -.24 1.00 10. .11 .48 .35 -.09 .48 '.18 .07 .08 .28 1.00 11. -.45 .27 .29 -.09 .18 .09 -.24 -.19 -.22 .15 1.00 12. .38 -.02 .19 .21 .00 .53 .05 .02 .20 .22 - .17 13. .09 .19 .15 -.06 .35 .11 -.00 .07 .14 .35 .08 14. .08 .20 -.19 -.01 .15 .11 -.06 .06 -.06 .13 .03 15. .00 .54 .40 -.06 .53 .16 -.13 -.02 .35 .41 .23 16. -.00 -.10 -.01 -.15 .06 -.24 .00 .39 - .14" .10 -.13 17. .07 -. 14 .09 -. 20 .09 -.19 .06 .51 -.26 .11 -. 10 18, -.01 -.10 -.01 -.15 .06 -.24 .00 .39 -.13 .10 -.12 19. -.12 -.08 .02 — .20 -.16 .04 -.15 .06 -.21 -.14 .00 20. .05 .03 .11 -.16 .26 -.04 .01 .28 -.01 .35 -.00 21. .16 .16 .05 -.04 .25 .09 .01 .17 .12 .25 -.08 22. -.41 .12 .15 -.12 .08 .02 -.10 -.07 .05 .00 .30 23. -.23 -.07 -.21 -.21 -.22 .36 -.00 -.22 -. 32 -.05 -.04 127 IN THE SOUTH OKANAGAN AREA 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1.00 .16 1.00 - .00 .56 1.00 .05 .47 .22 1.00 .16 -.07 -.11 -.04 1.00 .23 .17 -.10 .05 . 76 .15 -.08 -.12 .05 .99 -.01 .17 .09 -.02 .05 .27 .98 .15 .30 .71 • 13 .54 .41 .32 .24 -.17 -.33 -.45 .27 -.07 -.14 -.26 -.25 -.17 -.12 1.00 .75 1.00 .31 .04 1 .00 .72 .70 .09 1 .00 .36 .23 .35 .46 1.00 -.07 -.07 -.04 -.14 -.26 -.08 -.09 -.10 -.18 -.45 Description 1. Age 2. Schooling 3. Wife's Schooling 4. No. children moved from area 5. Fathers education 6. Years i n area 7. Previous Address 8. Distance t r a v e l l e d 9. Level of l i v i n g 10. P a r t i c i p a t i o n 11. Attitude to Change 12. Years farming 13. Gross farm income Net farm income Total family income 16. Total acres 17. Acres c u l t i v a t e d Acres bush No. of animal units 20. Farm value 21. Hired labour 22. Family labour 23. Off farm work 14, 15, 18. 19. CORRELATION COEFFICINENTS FOR SOUTH OKANAGAN FARMERS USE OF INFORMATION SOURCES V i s i t D.A. Phone D.A. ' V i s i t e d F i e l d Read Farm Newspapi by D.A. t r i p s c i r c u l a r s Broadcasts a r t i c l e : Age .24 .25 .25 .09 .27 ,25 .12 Schooling .16 .37 .24 .27 .27 .21 .26 Wife's Schooling .28 .17 .03 .05 .24 .05 .15 No. children moved -.05 -.03 .18 -.00 .19 -.05 -.05 Father's education .16 .14 .27 .29 .17 .06 .26 Years i n Area .00 • -.03 .06 -.06 .21 -.04 -.10 Previous Address .06 -.01 -.01 .13 .00 -.00 -.06 Distance travelled -.22 -.06 -.01 -.05 -.27 -.15 -.18 Level of l i v i n g .15 • .28 .29 .09 .27 .08 .25 P a r t i c i p a t i o n • .22 .31 .37 .27 .09 -.00 -.03 Attitude to Change .01 .00 .03 -.02 .06 -.04 .15 Years farming .12 .04 .02 .01 .19 .19 .10 Gross Farm Income .14 .18 .24 .24 . .00 .10 .14 Net Farm Income -.03 .04 .23 .35 .07 -.04 -.06 Total Family Income .16 . .17 . .17 " .13 .00 .24 Total acres -.12 -.04 -.14 -.14 -.17 -.04 -.02 Acres cultivated -.14 -.12 -.10 -.10 -.34 -.01 -.00 Acres Bush -.12 -.03 -.14 -.13 -.16 -.04 -.02 No. Animal units -.19 -.20 -.17 -.19 -.27 -.01 -.00 Farm Value .05 .09 .08 -.04 -.26 .00 .12 Hired labour -.12 .03 .03 .03 -.05 .04 . .07 Family labour -.11 -.16 -.28 -.32 -.11 -.06 .01 Off Farm work -.00 .06 .05 -.04 -.27 -.02 -.06 V i s i t D.A. 1.00 .47 .17 . .21 .39 .17 .27 Phoned D.A. 1.00 .59 .38 .20 .25 .26 V i s i t e d by D.A. 1.00 .47 .03 .16 .23 F i e l d t r i p s 1.00 .20 .03 .02 Read Circulars 1.00 .28 .31 Farm Broadcasts 1.00 .56 Newspaper a r t i c l e s 1.00 Appendix C. ARDA/U.B. C./69 Respondent's Number School District SOCIO-ECONOMIC INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Respondent's Name Location: (a) Nearest settlement '  (b) District Lot Number Record o f V i sits: Date Time Comments F i rst Second Third Interview and Field Check: Office Coding: Final Check: Respondent's Location on Lot and Land Use (Sketch). 1 IDENTIFICATION DATA Respondent's Number 1,3. Card Number 4. Farm Classification: 5. 1. Non-Farm 2. Less than 25% of total income from agriculture 3. 25 - 49% 4. 50 - 74% 5. 75% or more School District Number 6,7. Socio-Economic Sub-Region 8. Regional District 9. N.T.S. Map Number 10, 14. START INTERVIEW HERE 1. Sex of household head 1. Male 15. 1 2. Female 2 2. What is your marital status ? 1. Single 16. 1 2. Married 2 3. Widowed, divorced or separated 3 3. What is your age? 1. 1 5 - 24 17. 1 2. 2 5 - 3 4 2 3. 35 - 44 3 4. 45 - 54 4 5. 55 - 64 5 6. 65 or over 6 4. How many years of schooling did you complete? 18, 19. 1. 5 or less 20. 1 2. 6 - 8 2 3. 9 - 11 3 4. 12 4 5. 13 - 15 (1-3 years university) 5 6. 16 or more (degree or above) 6 2 5. Did you have any training after you left secondary school? If yes, what were you trained in? 21, 23. 24. 6. How many years of schooling did your wife complete? 25, 26. 1. 5 or less 27. 2 . 6 - 8 3. 9 - 1 1 4. 12 5. 13 - 15 (1-3 years university) 6. 16 or more (degree or above) 7. Did your wife have any other training after she left secondary school? If yes, what was she trained in? 28, 30. 31. 8. Have you taken any adult education courses in the last three years? a. If yes, how many? 32. b. How many were job-related? 33. c. How many were not job-related? 34. 9. How many children do you have? 35. a. How many are not yet of school age? 36. b. How many are attending school? 37. c. How many did not complete Grade 12? 38. d. How many completed Grade 12 and did not continue their education? 39. e. How many completed Grade 12 and then continued their education? 40. Of those children who have left home, f. How many st i l l live in this (survey) area? 41. g. How many have left this (survey) area? 42. 10. What was your father's main occupation? 43,45. 46. 3 11. How many years of school did your father complete? 47, 48. 1. don't know 49. J 2. 5 or less 2 3. 6 - 8 3 4. 9 - 11 4 5. 12 5 6. 13 - 15(1-3 years university) 6 7. 16 or more (degree or above) 7 12. Did your father have any other training after he left secondary school? If yes, what was he trained in? 50,52. 53. 13. Where were you born? 1. This survey district 54. 1 2. British Columbia 2 3. Prairie Provinces 3 4. Ontario or Quebec 4 5. Maritime Provinces 5 6. United States 6 7. United Kingdom 7 8. Other (specify) 8 14. How long have you lived in this area? 1. two years or less 55. 1 2. 3 - 5 years 2 3. 6 - 1 0 years 3 4. 11 - 16 years 4 5. 17 - 20 years 5 6. more than 20 years 6 7. entire lifetime 7 15. Where did you live before coming to this area? 1. Not applicable (lived in area for 56. 1 lifetime) 2. British Columbia 2 3. Prairie Provinces 3 4. Ontario or Quebec 4 5. Maritime Provinces 5 6. United States 6 7. United Kingdom 7 8. Other (specify) 8 4 16. Now I would like to ask you how far you and your family travel, in miles, to receive the following services: 1. food purchases 2. clothing purchases 3. medical care 4. church 5. elementary school 6. secondary school 7. post office 8. work Total Distance = Divided by = Distance Travelled Score: 57, 58. 59,60. 61,62. 63,64. 65,66. 67,68. 69,70. 71,72. 73,74. 1. 0 - 5 miles 75. 1 2. 6 - 10 2 3. 11 - 15 3 4. 16 - 20 4 5. 21 - 25 5 6. 26 - 30 6 7. 31 - 35 7 8. 36 - 40 8 9. 41 or more 9 START DATA CARD 2 Respondent's Number Card Number Farm Classification School District 17. (SEWELL SCALE, SHORT FORM) The next few items are concerned with some of the things that your family owns. ITEMS 1,3. 4. 5. 6,7. a. Construction of house: a. brick, stucco, or painted frame (5) b. unpainted frame or other (3) 5 3 5 b. Room-person ratio: Number of rooms divided by number of persons equals Ratio: a. below 1.00 (3) b. 1.00 - 1.99 (5) c. 2.00 and up (7) c. Lighting facilities: a. electric (8) b. gas, mantle, or pressure (6) c. oil lamps, other or none (3) d. Water piped into house: a. yes (8) b. no (4) e. Power Washer: a. b. yes (6) no (3) f. Refrigeration: a. mechanical (8) b. ice (6) c. other or none (3) g. Radio: h. Telephone: a. b. yes (6) no (3) a. yes (6) b. no (3) i . Automobile (includes pick-up truck): a. yes (6) b. no (3) j. Family takes daily or weekly newspaper: a. yes (6) b. no (3) k. Wife's education: grades completed (See Question #6): a. 0 to 7 (2) b. 8 (4) c. 9-11 (6) d. 12 (7) e. 13 and up (8) 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 3 5 7 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 2 4 6 7 6 1. Husband's Education: grades completed (See Question #4): a. Oto 7 (3) 19. b. 8 (5) c. 9-11 (6) d. 12 (7) e. 13 and up (8) m. Husband attends church or Sunday School at least once a month: a. yes (5) 20. b. no (2) n. Wife attends church or Sunday School at least once a month: a. yes (5) b. no (2) Total Percentage Score % Score Code: 21. 22,23. 3 5 6 7 5 2 5 2 1. Less than 60 24. 1 2. 60 - 64 2 3. 65 - 69 3 4. 70 - 74 4 5. 75 - 79 5 6. 80 - 84 6 7. 85 - 89 7 8. 90 - 94 8 9. 95 or more 9 18. (CHAPIN SCALE) Would you please try to recall the names of all the organizations that you have belonged to in the past year. (Do not include attendance at church). Total Score 25,26. Name of Organization Atten-dance Finan-cial con-tribution Member of Com-mittee Offices Held 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Tota l f x n (X2\ (X3) (X4) (X5) Score 0 I - 5 6-10 II -15 16 -20 21 -25 26 -30 31 -35 Over 35 27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 19. I will now read you five statements concerning how different people might feel about living in a rural area. Please pick the statement that best describes how you feel. a. I am strongly favourable to living in the city. 28. 1 b. I am favourable to living in the city. 2 c. I am neutral toward living in the country or the city. 3 d. I am favourable to living in the rural environment. 4 e. I am strongly favourable to living in the rural environment. 5 20. I will now read you six statements about changes that could occur in your future. Please say whether you agree or disagree with each statement. a. I would not mind leaving here in order to make a substantial advance in my occupation. 29. b. I do not want any new job which involves more responsibility. 30. c. I would not leave this area under any circumstances. 31. d. Learning a new routine would be very difficult for me. 32. e. I would find it very difficult to go to school to learn new skills. 33. f. I have no desire to learn a new trade. 34. Agree Undecided Disagree 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Score Add 1 + 1 Scale Score = 35. 21. Did you receive more than $250 from the sale of agricultural products in 1968 ? 1. No 36. 1 2. yes 2 22. What was your principal occupation in 1968? 37, 39. 40. 8 23. Were you self-employed? 1. Yes 41. 2. No 24. How many years had you been working in this occupation? 1. 2 or less 42. 2. 3 - 5 3. 6-10 4. 11 - 15 5. 16-20 6. 21 - 25 7. 26 and over 25. Are you working in this same job now? 1. No 43. 2. Yes 26. Did you have a secondary occupation or source of income in 1968? If yes, what was your secondary occupation? 44,46. ; 47. 27. Were you self-employed in your secondary occupation? 1. Yes 48. 2. No 28. How many years had you been working in this occupation? 1. 2 or less 49. 2. 3 - 5 3. 6-10 4. 11 - 15 5. 16 - 20 6. 21 - 25 7. 26 and over 29. Did you have a third job in 1968 ? 1. No 50. 2. Yes 30. How many months did you work in 1968? 51. 9 31. How do you like your principal job? a. very satisfied 52. 5 b. satisfied 4 c. neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 3 d. dissatisfied 2 e. very dissatisfied 1 32. If you had a choice would you devote full-time to farming? 1. No 53. 1 2. Undecided 2 3. Yes 3 33. What specific jobs have you had for more than six months: (Record most recent job first). Previous Job 1 54, 56. 57. Previous Job 2 58, 60. 61. Previous Job 3 62, 64. 65. Previous Job 4 66, 68. 69. Previous Job 5 70, 72. 73. 34. Have you been unemployed or out of work during the past 3 years? If yes, for how many months? 1. Less than a month 74. 1 2. 1 - 6 2 3. 7 - 12 3 4. 13-18 4 5. 19-24 5 6. 25 - 30 6 7. 31-36 7 10 35. If you were unemployed, what was the cause or nature of your unemployment? 1. seasonal layoffs 75. 1 2. health disabilities 2 3. No work available 3 4. work available, but insufficient skill to get work 4 5. family reasons 5 6. seeking new position 6 7. other 7 36. a) Would you like to take some kind of further education or training ? 1. No 2. Undecided 3. Yes 76. 1 2 3 b) If yes, what kind (s) of training would you be interested in? 77,79. 80. START DATA CARD 3 Respondent's Number Card Number Farm Classification School District 1,3. 4. 5. 6,7. 37. Did you receive any income from the following sources in 1968? If yes, how much? Source Code a. Gross farm income 8. b. Net farm income 14. c. First non-agriculture job (net) 20. d. Second non-agriculture job (net) 26. e. Third non-agriculture job (net) 32. f. Earnings by dependents (net) 38. _9,13. 15,19. 21,25. _27,31. _33,37. 39,43. Amount 11 Code Amount g. Unemployment Insurance h. Welfare payments i. Family Allowances Pensions (government) Pensions (other) Workmen's Compensation 44. 50. 56. 62. 68. 74. 45, 49. 51, 55. 57,61. 63,67. 69,73. 75,79. START DATA CARD 4 Respondent's Number Card Number Farm Classification School District m. Rent n. Interest or Dividends o. Other Total Income (exclude Item a.) 1,3. 4. 5. 6,7. 9,13. 14. 20. 26. 15, 19. _21,25. 27,31. p. What would you estimate was the value of produce raised on your land and consumed in the household last year ? Milk Butter Eggs Garden Produce Meat gal. x $1.00 lb. x . 50 doz.x .50 Total Code: 1. Less than $50 2. 50 - 99 3. 100 - 199 4. 200 - 299 5. 300 - 399 6. 400 - 499 7. 500 - 599 8. 600 - 699 9. 700 or more 32. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 38. a. How many acres of land do you own and/or operate here? 33, 36. 37. b. How many acres have not been cleared but are grass meadows or natural pastures ? c. How many acres are under cultivation? d. How many acres have been cleared but are not under cultivation ? e. How many acres are in bush or timber? 38,41. 42. 43,46. 47. 48,51. 52. 53, 56. 57. 39. What do you plan to do with the land that is not being used now ? 1. Hold as an investment 2. Clear and Cultivate 3. Use as is for range 4. Pass on to children 5. Other (specify) 58. 40. Do you own this land, own part and rent part, or rent it entirely? 1. 2. 4. 5. 6. own own more than half and rent the remainder rent more than half and own the remainder rent it entirely manager other (specify) 59. 41. Would you please indicate whether you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. Agree a. There's little use writing to public officials because often they aren't really interested in the problems of the average man. 60. b. Nowadays a person has to live pretty much for today and let tomorrow take care of itself. 61. 1 2 3 4 5 3 4 5 6 Other 0 0 c. In spite of what some people say, the lot of the average man is getting worse, not better. 62. 1 0 13 d. It's hardly fair to bring children into the world with the way things look for the future. 63. Agree 1 These days a person doesn't really know whom he can count on. Total Score 64. 65. START DATA CARD 5 Respondent's Number Card Number Farm Classification School District 1,3. 4. 5. 6,7. THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE TO BE ASKED OF FARMERS ONLY 42. a. What is your principal agricultural product sold? (that is, the product from which you obtained the largest gross revenue). 1. Dairy produce 8. 2. Beef 3. Sheep 4. Other Livestock 5. Fruit and Vegetables 6. Field Crops (hay) 7. Mixed 8. Woodlot Products 9. Eggs or Poultry b. What other agricultural products do you sell? (See above code). 9. 10. 43. What was the average number of animals on your farm in 1968? dairy animals Total animal units 11,13. cows Code heifers calves bulls beef animals cows heifers yearlings calves bulls Other 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. no animals 14. 1 2. less than 10 2 3. 10 - 29 3 4. 30 - 49 4 5. 50 - 79 5 6. 80 - 99 6 7. 100 - 119 7 8. 120 - 139 8 9. 140 or more 9 14 Horses Swine Sheep Chickens Others (name) 44. Would you consider 1968 a typical year, or was it better or poorer than average with respect to net farm income ? 1. typical 15. 1 2. better than average 2 3. poorer than average 3 4. not farming previous to 1968 4 45. a. What would you estimate to be the present market value of this farm (everything included)? 16, 21. 22. b. What would you be willing to pay to own and operate this farm as a going concern (everything included)? 23, 28. 29. 46. Do you use hired labour for your farm operation, and if so, on what basis do you hire labour ? 1. no hired labour used 30. 1 2. hired labour used only on a seasonal basis for less than one man-month 2 3. hired labour used only on a seasonal basis for more than one man-month 3 4. hired labour on a year-round basis 4 5. some year-round labour, some seasonal 5 47. Did you work off your farm last year? If yes, how many weeks did you spend working off farm ? 1. no off-farm work 31. 1 .^ less than 4 weeks 2 3. 4 - 9 3 4. 10 - 13 4 5. 14 - 26 5 6. 27 - 39 6 7. 40 - 52 7 15 48. Do you use unpaid family labour in your farm operation? If yes, how much? 1. less than 1 man-day per month 32. 1 2. 1 - 5 2 3. 6 - 10 3 4. 1 1 - 1 5 4 5. more than 15 5 49. Who is your District Agriculturist? 1. right 33. 1 2. wrong 2 3. don't know 3 50. How many contacts of the kinds named below have you had in the previous year with the District Agriculturist, District Horticulturist, or other agricultural extension personnel ? a. Attended meetings or field days 34. x 5 35, 36. b. Farm visits by extension personnel 37. x 4 38,39. c. Office visits to extension personnel 40. x 3 41,42. d. Telephone conversations with extension personnel 43. x 2 44,45. Sub-totals 46. 47,48. e. Listened to radio or television program given by extension personnel s 49. x 2 50,51. f. Read newspaper articles written by extension personnel 52. x 1 53, 54. g- Read mailed circular letters or bulletins sent by extension personnel 55. x 1 56, 57. Sub-totals 58. 59,60. Total Number of Contacts 61,62. 63. Total Weighted Score 64,66. 67. 16 51. Have you ever taken any agriculture courses? If so, where? a. High School 1. 2. No Yes b. Vocational or agriculture school No Yes c. Agricultural College 1. 2. d. University No Yes No Yes e. Adult Education 1. No 2. Yes 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 1 2 52. During the next five years do you have any definite plans to change your farming activities or operations? If yes, what kind of change (s) do you hope to make? 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 

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