UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The locational needs of the elderly for housing Markoff, Anthony Wayne 1972

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1972_A8 M37.pdf [ 5.2MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093274.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093274-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093274-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093274-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093274-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093274-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093274-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093274-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093274.ris

Full Text

THE LOCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE ELDERLY FOR HOUSING BY ANTHONY WAYNE MARKOFF B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School •of ' Community and .Reg iona l P lann ing We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1972 In present ing th is thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f r ee ly a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying o f th is t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f th is thes is f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion . Department of Community and Reg iona l P l ann ing The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT A major concern of community p l ann ing i s the i n t e -gra ted use of land and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s upon people . This statement leads to the c e n t r a l hypothes is of t h i s t h e s i s : tha t the planned l o c a t i o n of s en io r c i t i z e n s ' housing developments i n the urban area should be based upon adequate knowledge of the needs . and preferences of the e l d e r l y i n regard to the t o t a l community. In an attempt to ga in a t o t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , a survey o f f i v e per cent o f the s e l f conta ined d w e l l i n g u n i t s , spe-c i f i c a l l y designed f o r the e l d e r l y i n the c i t y o f Vancouver, i s under taken. Using m u l t i v a r i a t e con t ingen-cy t a b u l a t i o n s (MVTAB) and the s t a t i s t i c a l package f o r s o c i a l sc iences (SPSS) programs, four p r i n c i p a l v a r i -a b l e s , age, l eng th of r e s idence i n the housing p r o j e c t , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o x i m i t y to f a c i l i t i e s , and f r e -quency of t h e i r use are c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the l o c a t i o n a l importance a t t r i b u t e d to these s e l e c t e d f a c i l i t i e s by the respondents . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e tha t more than one h a l f of the respondents are d i s p l e a s e d w i t h the l o -c a t i o n of t h e i r present l i v i n g .quar te rs . A l s o , d e c i s i o n s i i i n l o c a t i n g res idences f o r the e l d e r l y must be based upon the examinat ion of a number o f f a c i l i t i e s . u s e d by t h i s age group, as opposed to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a s i n g l e f a c i l i t y frequented most r e g u l a r l y . These f i n d -ings may c o n t r i b u t e toward a more, knowledgeable approach i n the fu ture s i t e p l ann ing of housing accommodation f o r the aged. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my thanks to my a d v i s o r , Dr . Robert W. C o l l i e r fo r the b e n e f i t of h i s adv ice and the many hours spent i n e d i t i n g and commenting up-on the m a t e r i a l i n the t h e s i s . My thanks are a l s o ex-tended to Professor Brahm Wiesman who ac ted as my second a d v i s o r , and whose suggest ions i n c l a r i f y i n g pa r t s of t h i s t hes i s , were h e l p f u l . I am a l s o indebted to Dr . G l o r i a Gutman of the Psychology Department f o r her i n v a l u a b l e help i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e and to Miss Robin R u s s e l l of the Computer Science Department f o r her pa t ience i n a s s i s t i n g w i t h the data a n a l y s i s . My g rea tes t indebtedness i s to Miss Vyonne Chernenkoff fo r her encouragement and the coun t l e s s hours spent i n b r i n g i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n t o i t s f i n a l form. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . i v LIST OF TABLES v i i i Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Scope of the Thesis . . . 7 Statement of the Hypothesis 9 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Thes is 10 2. REVIEW OF RELEVANT THEORY AND EMPIRICAL RESEARCH.. . .. . . . . 12 Theor ies on Aging 12 Research Conducted i n Greater Vancouver. 2 0 Research Conducted Outside o f Greater Vancouver 2 9 S tudies Undertaken i n , the United- S t a t e s . 3 2 Summary of- Common F ind ings 3 8 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PRESENTATION OF DATA • 40 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4 0 D i s t r i b u t i o n . o f Ques t ionna i res . . . . 42 C o l l e c t i o n of Ques t ionna i res 44 Ques t ionna i re Design 45 A n a l y s i s of Questions Asked 47 v Chapter Page PRESENTATION OF DATA COLLECTED 4 9 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h L o c a t i o n of L i v i n g Quarters . . . . . . 50 Length of Residence i n Housing Proj ec t . . . . . . . • 51 Former Residences and Reasons f o r Moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Importance of P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s . . . . 53 T r i p s Generated to Se lec ted F a c i l i t i e s • . . 5 5 D i f f i c u l t i e s Exper ienced i n Overcoming Dis tances 56 Advantages and Disadvantages of L i v i n g Quarters 57-F a c i l i t i e s Lack ing P r o x i m i t y to Housing P r o j e c t s S tudied 5 8." A c t u a l Dis tances , to Se lec ted F a c i l i t i e s . . . . . . 58 4. ANALYSIS OF- DATA COLLECTED' .- 61 Age as a v a r i a b l e - 6 2 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h L o c a t i o n of L i v i n g Quarters 64 Length of Residence i n Housing P r o j e c t . 66 Former Residences of the Respondents . •• 6 8 Importance of P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s , . 7 0 D i f f i c u l t i e s Exper ienced i n Overcoming Dis tances . . . . ; 7 5 Advantages and Disadvantages of L i v i n g Quarters . 7 6 F a c i l i t i e s Lack ing P r o x i m i t y to Housing P r o j e c t s S tudied . . . . . . . . 77 v i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s . 50 2. Reason f o r Moving from Former Residence . . 5 2 3. F a c i l i t i e s Regarded as Very Important to L i v e Near . • 5 4 4. F a c i l i t i e s Regarded as the Most Important to L i v e Near • . . 55-5. Average Number of T r i p s to F a c i l i t i e s per Month 5 6 6. Disadvantages of Present L i v i n g Quarters . 57 7. Age vs Importance of P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s 63 8. Length of Residence vs- Importance of P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s ' . • 67 9. S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t y vs Frequency of- Use 7 0 10. Importance of P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t y vs Frequency of Use 71 11 . Most Important F a c i l i t i e s and Frequency of. Use . . . . . . . 73 12. Most Important F a c i l i t y vs Frequency of Use "•• . .v-- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 v i i i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Problem The aging process has-and cont inues to produce some major s o c i a l problems f a c i n g western c u l t u r e s . One of the most c r i t i c a l i s sues concerns the p l ann ing of adequately l oca t ed housing accommodation fo r the aging members of the p o p u l a t i o n . With t o d a y ' s accent upon i n d i v i d u a l achievement and youth cent red a c t i v i -t i e s , the e l d e r l y are f i n d i n g themselves occupying a 'vacuum' i n our s o c i a l system. Consequent ly , age has become l i t t l e more than the l o s s of you th . This has fo rced the aged i n t o a desperate and degrading e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r r e l evance to a s o c i e t y tha t refuse to honor the p e c u l i a r q u a l i t y o f a g e . 1 H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h i s problem may be t r aced back to the beginnings of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n Europe a t which time more and more people switched from s e l f employment to employment f o r entrepeneurs . As a r e su the b a s i c u n i t of p roduc t ion d r a s t i c a l l y changed from the f a m i l y to the i n d i v i d u a l members compr i s ing i t . K e i t h Berwick , "The Senior C i t i z e n i n Americ A Study i n Unplanned Obsolescence" , The G e r o n t o l o g i s t v o l . 7 (September, 1967), p . 259. 2 With i n c r e a s i n g employment demand, women and c h i l d r e n a l s o achieved a degree of economic independence (due to l i m i t e d income) fo r they too became independent wage earners i n the economy. This sudden s h i f t from home to f a c t o r y p roduc t ion produced a permanent impress ion i n the concept of the f a m i l y , fo rmer ly a p roduc t ive u n i t 2 w i t h emphasis upon interdependence and teamwork. The impact of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a l s o had a pronoun-ced e f f e c t upon the m i g r a t i o n of people from r u r a l to urban a reas . This r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l change from a r u -r a l mode of l i f e w i t h i t s a s s o c i a t e d pr imary s o c i a l con-t a c t s , to one of an urban' l i f e s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of secondary and more impersonal s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The development of communication systems ( r a d i o , t e l e -phone, t e legraph) a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d toward a r a p i d l y changing l i f e s t y l e . A major consequence of t h i s i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d was the de-emphasis and weakening of the extended or three genera t ion f a m i l y to a two genera t ion or con juga l f a m i l y . No longer was there the dependence upon a l l members of the f a m i l y u n i t f o r economic s u r v i v a l . A l a r g e r f a m i l y became a burden r a t h e r than an a s s e t , f o r i t was Ernes t W. Burgess , Aging i n Western S o c i e t i e s , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o ' P r e s s , 196 0, p . 3. 3 unworkable i n an urban s e t t i n g . Due to cont inued t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n and au to-mat ion , an i n c r e a s i n g abundance of l e i s u r e time as w e l l as an improved standard of l i v i n g was emerging. Th i s presented both t h rea t as w e l l as promise to the aging worker . Al though an inc rease i n l e i s u r e time and a f -f luence had been ach i eved , i t threatened him w i t h d i s -placement. Consequent ly , compulsory r e t i r emen t became a standard p r a c t i c e among employers , the cut o f f p o i n t fo r a c t i v e employment be ing based upon an a r b i t r a r y c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. Increased innova t ions i n medica l r e sea rch a l s o had a marked e f f e c t upon l i f e expectancy, f o r the l o n g e v i t y of l i f e inc reased markedly. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the aging i n d i v i d u a l had l i t t l e a l t e r n a t i v e but to concede to com-p u l s o r y r e t i r e m e n t . He had nowhere to t u r n but to h i s f a m i l y or a government wel fa re agency f o r s u r v i v a l . Th i s r e s u l t e d i n the p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i a l l y designed low r e n t a l accommodation.for the aged, and the conse-quent problems of adequately planned housing l o c a t i o n . Before proceeding f u r t h e r , i t i s impera t ive not to over look what i s r e a l l y meant by ' the aging p r o c e s s ' , and i t s re levance upon a t t i t u d e s towards the e l d e r l y i n 4 western c u l t u r e s . I t has been suggested by t h e o r i s t s t ha t youth i s the beginning of o l d age, f o r the process of senescence s t a r t s at l e a s t a t b i r t h , i f not be fo re , and o l d age i s the shadow of you th . This d e f i n i t i o n i s i n sharp c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the a t t i t u d e of American s o c i e t y toward the aging as a 'gateway' fo r an i n d i v i -dua l pass ing from an a c t i v e to a pass ive s o c i a l r o l e . Consequent ly , agedness has been d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l ' s - c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. A l l those pe r -sons regarded as being aged are those who q u a l i f y f o r governmenta l ly and p r i v a t e l y sponsored r e t i r emen t pen-s ions and b e n e f i t s , the age today being s i x t y - f i v e yea r s . What has d r a s t i c a l l y been ignored i n the d e f i n i -t i o n of o l d age i s the wide range of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r - ' ences tha t accompany human beings i n the aging p rocess . The p r e v a i l i n g , n o t i o n i n North America has been tha t such problems of aging and the aged are i n e v i t a b l e products of o rgan ic and mental d e t e r i o r a t i o n , b e g i n -n ing i n middle l i f e and p rog re s s ing a t an a c c e l a r a t i n g 4 r a t e . Th i s r a t h e r naive approach .of u s ing one p h y s i c a l 3 , Minna F i e l d , Ag ing -Wi th Honor And D i g n i t y , S p r i n g f i e l d , 1 1 1 . , Char les C. Thomas, 196 8, p . 3. 4 . M i l t o n L . Barron., The Aging Amer ican , New Y o r k , Thomas Y . C r o w e l l C o . , 1961, p . 24. . 5 measure as an i n d i c a t o r of p h y s i o l o g i c a l aging predomi-nates our s o c i e t y ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f agedness and wrong-f u l l y so , f o r not a l l i n d i c a t o r s of age appear w i t h equal s e v e r i t y i n any one, i n d i v i d u a l . In s h o r t , b i o l o -g i c a l , s o c i a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aging does not take p lace s imul taneous ly among i n d i v i d u a l members o f the human r a c e . The i n c r e a s i n g concern over the l o n g e v i t y of human l i f e , has- g iven r i s e to the sc ience c f g e r i a t r i c s or so-c i a l ge ron to logy . The e v o l u t i o n of t h i s sc ience may a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d toward a new ph i losophy of o l d age, tha t the problems of aging and the aged are problems o f human r e l a t i o n s , man made, and the re fo re c u r a b l e . The appearance of the ' s c i e n c e of a g i n g ' has been' regarded 5 by Burgess as a major c r i t e r i o n i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g western c u l t u r e s from those of o ther people . O v e r a l l , the development of s o c i a l geronto logy i s a r e a l i z a t i o n tha t s o c i a l a c t i o n on beha l f of t h e . a g i n g should be based upon ' research , not o n ly on the b i o l o g i c a l l e v e l , but a l s o i n v o l v i n g the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of the aging p rocess . This has a s i g n i f i c a n t bea r ing Burgess , Aging i n Western S o c i e t i e s , p . 3 . Loc . c i t . 6 upon the s i t e p l ann ing of housing p r o j e c t s f o r the e l d e r -l y i n the urban sphere. Due to the o v e r a l l inheren t s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s t o -ward the e l d e r l y as ' h e l p l e s s ' i n d i v i d u a l s , many peop le , among them the aged themselves , have assumed any abnor-mal symptoms o f the aging process to be normal a t t h e i r stage of l i f e . Even though o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y there i s a constant i n t e r e s t i n the aged sec to r of s o c i e t y , w i t h the numerous l o c a l and n a t i o n a l conferences , seminars , r e sea r ch p r o j e c t s , books, a r t i c l e s , and monographs on the sub j ec t , the d i f f i c u l t y remains i n tha t grandparents cannot be a s s i m i l a t e d very e a s i l y i n t o t o d a y ' s urban l i f e s t y l e . No longer are the e l d e r l y a pa r t of the p r o -d u c t i v e f a m i l y u n i t or an economic a s se t ; r a t h e r they are an a d d i t i o n a l burden or expense to what i n many American f a m i l i e s - i s a- t i g h t f a m i l y budget. The f a m i l y i n r e a l i t y has ceased to be the so le source of econo-mic and s o c i a l s u r v i v a l fo r the e l d e r l y . This has r e -s u l t e d i n the i n c r e a s i n g number of p r i v a t e l y , as w e l l as p u b l i c l y , sponsored r e t i r emen t communit ies , s en io r c i t i z e n s ' l odges , and pe r sona l r e s t homes fo r the e l d e r l y i n our s o c i e t y . This has been regarded , by many s o c i -o l o g i s t s , as the most p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n to the problem: 7 ' I n the urban s e t t i n g , i t i s most o f ten more s a t i s f a c t o r y to a l l concerned, to make p r o v i s i o n s f o r independent l i v i n g quar te rs fo r the e l d e r l y on a s o c i a l b a s i s , r a t h e r than g rudg ing ly to crowd the c h i l d r e n i n t o the l i v -i n g room day bed i n order to conform to a f a -m i l i a r but i m p r a c t i c a l concept of s o c i a l o b l i -g a t i o n . ' 7 Scope of the Thes is Al though the argument tha t the e l d e r l y be prov ided w i t h ' s e p a r a t e l i v i n g arrangements from t h e i r a d u l t c h i l d -r en and r e l a t i v e s has been w e l l documented, the problem of housing the aged does not merely cease a t t h i s p o i n t . I t does, however, open an e n t i r e spectrum of problems r ega rd ing the p r o v i s i o n of accommodation fo r the aged; a major one among these concerns the a c t u a l s i t e p l a n -ning of the s en io r c i t i z e n housing development. The, i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s problem i s the c e n t r a l concern o f t h i s t h e s i s . Dec i s ions on l o c a t i n g s en io r c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o j e c t s i n any urban area have s e v e r a l conno ta t i ons . 8 Many t h e o r i s t s , i n c l u d i n g Burgess , c l a i m tha t the p r o -v i s i o n and l o c a t i o n of l i v i n g accommodation f o r the 7 ' / E l i z a b e t h Wickenden, The Needs of Older Peop le , Chicago , American P u b l i c Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n , 19 5 3, p^ 3. Burgess , op', c i t . , p . 5. e l d e r l y i s s imply a r e f l e c t i o n of c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s towards the aging p rocess . Consequent ly , a survey of the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of housing accommodation fo r the e l d e r l y would g ive an i n d i v i d u a l some b a s i s f o r commenting upon the approach taken toward e i t h e r i n t e -g r a t i n g or segrega t ing them from the t o t a l community. The l o c a t i o n a l problems of housing the e l d e r l y are a l s o commented upon by the Fede ra l Task Force on Hous-i n g and Urban Development from i t s v i s i t s across Canada 'There are s t i l l too many county homes b u i l t i n almost i s o l a t e d areas w e l l away from the community a t l a r g e and even t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n to i t and conceived apparen t ly on the n o t i o n tha t once one reaches a c e r t a i n age, he should be n e i t h e r seen nor heard w i t h i n s o c i e t y . ' 9 As a r e s u l t , one of the recommendations of t h i s Task Force was tha t s p e c i a l care be taken i n the s e l e c t i o n of s i t e s f o r projects ; f o r e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s to ensure tha t these people a r e - ab l e to r e t a i n p h y s i c a l con tac t w i t h the r e s t of t h e i r community. Much of the c r i t i c i s m tha t has been vo i ced i n Pau l T. H e l l y e r , Report o f The Task Force on  Housing and Urban Development, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969, p . 59. 10T Loc . c i t . 9 regard to thi s problem of loc a t i o n , i s the f e e l i n g that many sit e s for senior c i t i z e n s ' housing have been selec-ted primarily on the basis of inexpensive land. Due to the emphasis .upon th i s economic constraint,,several major l o c a t i o n a l considerations have been overlooked, among them, proximity to shopping, medical, c u l t u r a l , and recreational f a c i l i t i e s , as well as problems of topography. This problem focuses upon the hypothesis of the thes i s : that the planned location of senior c i t i z e n housing developments i n urban areas should be based upon adequate knowledge of the needs and preferences of the elde r l y i n regard to the t o t a l community. The purpose of the thesis i s that of attempting to i d e n t i f y the basic l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a which may be used i n the evaluation of alte r n a t i v e housing s i t e s for the el d e r l y . This i s done v i a a survey of f i v e per cent of a l l the s e l f contained senior c i t i z e n s ' housing units, both public and private, i n the City of Vancouver Csee Chapter 3 for d e t a i l s of research metho-dology) . In doing so, i t i s f e l t that once the hous-ing needs and preferences of the elde r l y are learned, a more knowledgeable approach may be taken toward the selection of s a t i s f a c t o r i l y located accommodation for senior c i t i z e n s . This may act as a preliminary step 10 i n changing the inheren t nega t ive a t t i t u d e o f our c u l -tu re towards i t s p i o n e e r s . S i g n i f i c a n c e ' o f the Thes is The importance of t h i s study i s two f o l d i n tha t (1) i t may prov ide a b e t t e r unders tanding o f the t o t a l l o c a t i o n a l needs and preferences of the e l d e r l y i n r e -spect to their.-, hous ing , as w e l l as any r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them, (2) i t may s imul t aneous ly produce an i n -d i c a t i o n of the present a t t i t u d e s o f the e l d e r l y toward what housing has been p rov ided f o r them, t h e i r s a t i s -f a c t i o n , as w e l l as d i f f i c u l t i e s due to the l o c a t i o n of t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . -In an o v e r a l l c o n t e x t , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these housing needs i n t o a comprehensive p lann ing approach may do a great d e a l toward i n t e g r a t i n g the e l d e r l y w i t h i n the t o t a l concept of the community, consequent ly r educ ing the g e n e r a t i o n a l r i f t t ha t has r e s u l t e d from the changed r o l e of the f a m i l y . The resea rch c a r r i e d out i n t h i s t h e s i s has f a r r each ing i m p l i c a t i o n s , fo r the p l a c i n g o f s e n i o r c i t i -zens i n a community depends upon the a t t i t u d e of so-c i e t y toward the aging p rocess . The e f f o r t must be made to l e a r n the l o c a t i o n a l needs of the e l d e r l y f o r t h e i r hous ing . Once t h i s has been accompl i shed , an i n t e l l i g e n t approach may be taken toward the e v a l u a t i o n 11 and consequent l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making i n regard to the s i t e p lann ing o f s en io r c i t i z e n s ' housing deve lop-ments . CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELEVANT THEORY AND EMPIRICAL RESEARCH In t h i s chap te r , a rev iew of the r e l e v a n t theory p e r t a i n i n g to the aging process w i l l be made, fo l l owed by a syn thes i s of the e m p i r i c a l r e sea rch tha t has been c a r r i e d out i n regard to the housing needs and p r e f e r -ences of the e l d e r l y . This r esea rch w i l l c o n s i s t o f theses w r i t t e n on the sub j ec t , surveys conducted by com-munity c o u n c i l s and s e r v i c e groups, as w e l l as r e sea rch conducted by noted s o c i a l workers , g e r o n t o l o g i s t s , s o c i -o l o g i s t s , and p l anne r s . F i r s t l y , an attempt w i l l be made to ana lyze s tud ie s c a r r i e d out i n the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n area before moving on to r e sea rch conducted e lsewhere . These r e -s u l t s w i l l serve as background m a t e r i a l f o r the subse-quent chapters of t h i s t h e s i s concerning the e m p i r i c a l r e sea rch and f i n d i n g s i n regard to the l o c a t i o n a l needs of the e l d e r l y f o r hous ing . Theories on Aging Two d i s t i n c t and h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l t h e o r i e s of the aging process have been developed. The f i r s t o f these , regarded as the i m p l i c i t theory of a g i n g , i s w e l l 13 documented by p r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s , so-c i a l workers , g e r o n t o l o g i s t s ) and s ta tes tha t neighbors of d i f f e r e n t ages are ab le to develop v i a b l e s o c i a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p s and mutual suppor t ; such f r i e n d s h i p s w i l l s u s t a i n the morale o f o l d e r people as w e l l as c o n t r i b u t e 1" • to thexr youthfulness and independence. From t h i s t heo ry , the p r o f e s s i o n a l s are unanimous i n t h a t . t h e aged must be l oca t ed i n p r o x i m i t y to a l l genera t ions and thus be w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d - i n t o t h e i r community. There i s no reason tha t the e l d e r l y should conf ine the quan-t i t y and q u a l i t y of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The aging are ab le to make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y and, consequent ly , should not be prevented from doing so by being i s o l a t e d from the a c t i v i t y about them. Segrega-t i o n of the e l d e r l y w i l l o n ly serve to add to the c o n t i -nued b e l i e f tha t the aging are p h y s i c a l l y and men ta l l y incompetent and d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n l i f e about them. The second theory of a g i n g , advanced by Cumming and Henry, i s termed disingagement t heo ry , and i s based upon I r v i n g Rosow, "Housing and L o c a l T ies o f the Aged" , Pa t t e rns o f L i v i n g arid Housing o f Midd le Aged  and Older Peop le , U . S . Dept. o f Hea l th and Wel fa re , 1965, p . 47. 14 the f o l l o w i n g statement: ' a l t hough i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r , the expec t a t i on of death i s u n i v e r s a l and decrement of a b i l -i t y i s p robab le . There fore , a u n i v e r s a l seve-r i n g of t i e s w i l l take p lace between a person and others i n h i s s o c i e t y ' 2 This theory has been developed on a .gene ra l obse rva t ion tha t as people grow o l d e r , they become l e s s i n v o l v e d i n l i f e around them than when they were young. Economic, s o c i a l , and f a m i l y . t i e s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced as d i s -engagement begins to take p l a c e , drawing the ag ing i n d i -v i d u a l f u r t he r away from the r e s t of s o c i e t y . This ' i n e v i t a b l e ' process may be found i n a l l c u l t u r e s known to man, a l though i t may appear i n va r i ous degrees and forms. In t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s where the aged are v a l -ued f o r t h e i r exper iences and wisdom, the i n d i v i d u a l may i n i t i a t e the disengagement p rocess , whereas i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , such wi thdrawal i s most of ten forced upon the i n d i v i d u a l . Al though the o i d e r person does not become a r e c l u s e or an ou tcas t of s o c i e t y , h i s r o l e i s now tha t of an observer as opposed to an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t . The process of wi thdrawal may vary c o n s i d e r a b l y from one i n d i v i d u a l to another due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i o l -ogy, temperament, p e r s o n a l i t y , and l i f e s t y l e . I n d i v i -duals may a l s o withdraw more markedly from some people w h i l e remain ing i n c l o s e con tac t w i t h o t h e r s . Never the-l e s s , Cumming and Henry suggest tha t a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n 2 E l a i n e Cumming and W i l l i a m E . Henry, Growing O l d , New Y o r k , Bas ic Books, 1961, p . 211. 15 of the disengagement process i s an inc reased preoccupa-t i o n w i t h o n e s e l f . C e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the s o c i e t a l s t r u c t u r e , however, may a s s i s t the i n d i v i d u a l i n t h i s inc reased s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n . In western c u l t u r e s , a t y p i c a l example i s t ha t of the es tab l i shment o f r e t i r e -ment a t an a r t i f i c i a l c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. This may have l i t t l e to do w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l s p h y s i o l o g i c a l or mental age, and i t s v a l i d i t y remains q u e s t i o n a b l e . Upon r e t i r e -ment, the e l d e r l y become dependents l i v i n g on a f i x e d income and consequent ly , upon a c o n s t r i c t e d l i f e p a t t e r n due to c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s , as w e l l as economic c o n s t r a i n t s . Al though the f u l l y disengaged c o n d i t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l can be cons idered to e x i s t when on ly those bonds which are necessary to s u s t a i n l i f e remain , death i s regarded . . . 3 as the on ly t o t a l disengagement. In American s o c i e t y , the process o f disengagement may d i f f e r between men and women due to the man's t r a d i -t i o n a l or i n s t rumen ta l r o l e as a, p r o v i d e r , s u s t a i n i n g the f a m i l y i n a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , compared to tha t of the woman whose r o l e i s more s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n en fo rc ing norms f o r the a t ta inment of the f a m i l y ' s g o a l s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s regarded as a f avorab le c o n d i t i o n i n 3 I b i d . , p . 211. 16 t h a t s u c c e s s f u l disengagement i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o s u c -c e s s f u l a g i n g . P e r f e c t disengagement i s a l s o a c o n d i -t i o n advanced by t h e t h e o r i s t s when the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a d i n e s s f o r disengagement c o i n c i d e s a l m o s t e x a c t l y w i t h s o c i e t y ' s r e a d i n e s s t o r e l e a s e him from h i s main commitments.^ An example o f t h i s would be an i n d i v i -d u a l whose i n t e n t i o n s t o l e a v e h i s j o b and r e t i r e p e r -f e c t l y c o i n c i d e w i t h h i s employer's i n t e n t t o r e l e a s e him f o r t h i s v e r y same r e a s o n . The. i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the disengagement t h e o r y a r e t h a t American s o c i e t i e s r e i n f o r c e a c oncept termed age g r a d i n g , d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s who b e l o n g t o a grade t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o o o b s o l e t e . . 5 f o r a d a p t a t i o n t o modern c o n d i t i o n s . As a consequence, r e s i d e n t i a l p r o x i m i t y o f t h e o l d and the young i s not f a v o r e d . The e l d e r l y s h o u l d d e v e l o p f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h i n t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n w i t h persons whom th e y a r e a b l e t o r e -l a t e e x p e r i e n c e s t o , r a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o communicate w i t h younger members o f s o c i e t y who a r e not a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s and f r u s t r a t i o n s . The bare r e q u i r e -ments of f o o d , warmth, and s h e l t e r must be p r o v i d e d f o r 4 I b i d . , p. 214. 5 Rosow, L o c a l T i e s o f The Aged, p. 47. 17 the aged as t h e y proceed toward t o t a l disengagement and d e a t h . The pronouncement of disengagement t h e o r y has s t i -m ulated s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o v e r s y among s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s d e a l i n g w i t h the aged as t o i t s v a l i -d i t y and a p p l i c a b i l i t y . ' A l t h o u g h the p r o c e s s o f d i s e n -gagement o r mutual w i t h d r a w a l appears t o have c o n s i d e r -a b l e m e r i t i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e a g i n g p r o c e s s , no e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have been a b l e t o c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e r e s u l t s t o s u p p o r t i t . Grant Youmans, i n a s t u d y o f r u r a l and u r -ban n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d men, attempted t o i n d i c a t e e v i d e n c e o f disengagement i n t h r e e major a r e a s : economic disengagement, f a m i l y l i f e , and l e i s u r e t ime a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s was done by comparing two age g r o u p s , t h o s e men s i x -t y t o s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s , and t h o s e over s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age. H i s f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t economic d i s e n g a g e -ment was markedly p r e s e n t i n t h a t t h e o l d e r age group had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower income s t a t u s t h a n d i d the younger men, s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e s t a n d a r d age o f s i x t y -f i v e y e a r s i n d i c a t i n g r e t i r e m e n t . However, i n r e g a r d t o f a m i l y l i f e and l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e e l d e r l y c o u l d not be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from t h e younger age group, E. Grant Youmans, O l d e r R u r a l Americans: A  S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , L e x i n g t o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Ken-t u c k y P r e s s , 1967. 18 f o r t h e i r p a t t e r n o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n were al m o s t i d e n t i c a l . Thus, Youmans c o n c l u d e d t h a t changes w i t h advances i n age a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y l i n e a r , f o r disengagement may o c c u r i n d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a p e r -son's l i f e i n v a r y i n g degrees. The p r o c e s s o f d i s e n -gagement has f a r too many e x c e p t i o n s t o be o f s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o any p a r t i c u l a r age group i n s o c i e t y . Gordon S t r e i b , i n a n a l y z i n g disengagement t h e o r y , f i r s t l y emphasizes t h a t the f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s t h e o r y was worked out as the case s t u d i e s p r o g r e s s e d as oppos-ed t o b e i n g c l e a r l y d e v e l o p e d a t the o u t s e t . However, t h i s t h e o r y (based upon common sense o b s e r v a t i o n s ) does have m e r i t toward u n d e r s t a n d i n g the a g i n g p r o c e s s , f o r disengagement may be found i n a l l s o c i e t i e s one may ob-s e r v e . On the o t h e r hand, when i t o c c u r s , t o whom i t o c c u r s , i n what s i t u a t i o n s i t i s f o u n d , how i t i s p e r -c e i v e d , how i t i s r e a c t e d t o and how i t a f f e c t s d i f f e r -ent k i n d s o f p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s i n v a r i o u s s o c i a l s t r u c -7 t u r e s may v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . Thus, disengagement t h e -o r y cannot be o f u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o the aged as a whole, f o r t h e p r o c e s s i s v e r y i n c o n g r u o u s among i n -d i v i d u a l s . Gordon F. S t r e i b , "Disengagement T h e o r i e s i n S o c i o - C u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , v o l . 6 ( J u l y 1968), p. 70. 19 Norval Glenn, i n an analysis'"of cross s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l data, of. t h i r t y . - f ive. American op i n i o n sur-veys, t e s t s the hypothesis, t h a t as people become o l d e r , they become l e s s l i k e l y to hold or express o p i n i o n s , have knowledge of current events, or e x e r c i s e t h e i r v o t -ing power. In a cohort a n a l y s i s , Glenn found n e i t h e r a pronounced increase or decrease i n o p i n i o n and v o t i n g p a t t e r n between three age groups (twenty-one years to t h i r t y - n i n e years, f o r t y years- to f i f t y - n i n e years, and s i x t y years and o v e r ) , although the o l d e s t respondents had markedly more awareness and knowledge of current events than any of the younger groups on the study. These f i n d i n g s show that the aged appear to be very much a part of s o c i e t y about them, even though they may have been r e j e c t e d by the community, the reverse has not tak-en place. Although Glenn's study did- not p o i n t out the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the aged i n t h e i r l o c a l environment, he concluded that the increased a t t e n t i o n to c u r r e n t . events may compensate f o r the l o s s of c l o s e i n t e r p e r s o -n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This f i n d i n g may have i m p l i c a t i o n s i n planning f u t u r e housing p r o j e c t s f o r the e l d e r l y who appear to p r e f e r to be i n contact w i t h a c t i v i t i e s tak-ing place about them. In review, although most t h e o r i s t s , as w e l l as 20 p r o f e s s i o n a l s are i n agreement that disengagement i s u n i v e r s a l i n a l l human c u l t u r e s , i t i s of no consequence a p p l i e d on an o v e r a l l b a s i s to an aging p o p u l a t i o n . No two i n d i v i d u a l s are p e r f e c t l y a l i k e and consequently, disengagement or withdrawal may take place i n var y i n g degrees and at d i s s i m i l a r times. Nevertheless, the iden-t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s process i s of value toward a b e t t e r understanding of the e l d e r l y . Research Conducted i n Greater Vancouver In searching f o r s t u d i e s t h a t have been conducted, p e r t a i n i n g to the housing needs, l i f e s t y l e s , and l i v -ing c o n d i t i o n s of the e l d e r l y , s e v e r a l theses r e l a t i n g to the f i e l d of s o c i a l work may be examined. g Angel and MacKinnon conducted a survey of two groups of pensioners (married couples and s i n g l e women) i n a vari e t y ' of l i v i n g accommodations i n West Vancouver. A most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g was th a t most of the s i n g l e wo-men i n t e r v i e w e d , who l i v e d w i t h married c h i l d r e n , d e r i v -ed l e a s t s a t i s f a c t i o n from t h e i r l i v i n g arrangements, even though the f a c i l i t i e s provided f o r them were Dolina F. MacKinnon and Jerome H. Angel, Hous-ing Needs and' Preferences Among Senior C i t i z e n s (West  Vancouver), Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 195 7. 21 supe r io r to those of marr ied coup le s . They a l s o i n d i -cated tha t they would- be w i l l i n g to make s a c r i f i c e s i n terms o f q u a l i t y o f s h e l t e r and inc reased r en t i n order to ma in ta in t h e i r independence. This i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n support of the argument tha t p r o v i s i o n o f housing f o r the e l d e r l y i s p r e f e r a b l e over tha t of f a m i l y accommodation. The p r i -mary concern o f the respondents was tha t o f p r i v a c y and freedom to c a r r y out t h e i r - ' d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n what-ever f a sh ion they so d e s i r e d . The m a j o r i t y of women f e l t r e s t r i c t e d i n the home of a marr ied c h i l d or r e -l a t i v e and d i d not p re fe r any form of shared accommo-d a t i o n . The r e a c t i o n s of the respondents ( p r e s e n t l y i n r e n t a l accommodation) toward a low r e n t a l s en io r c i t i -zens ' housing p r o j e c t were ext remely f a v o r a b l e , a l -though t h e i r hopes of having the oppo r tun i t y to l i v e i n one of these developments were extremely low due to ' the long w a i t i n g l i s t a t the Vancouver housing r e g i s t r y . 9 . E y v o l l e Cuthbert , m a study o f pensioners r e s i d -i n g i n the s k i d row area of Vancouver, attempted to ga in an unders tanding o f the e l d e r l y and t h e i r a b i l i t y to cope w i t h t h e i r economic and s o c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s v i a i n d i v i d u a l case s t u d i e s . An important f i n d i n g from \ E y v o l l e P e a r l Cuthber t , How Old People L i v e , Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , ' 1961. 22 these case s tud ies was tha t the p r i n c i p a l reason tha t the respondents r e s i d e d i n run-down rooming houses and o l d h o t e l s (next to tha t of low r e n t a l ) , was i t s l o c a -t i o n a l advantages, be ing very near a c t i v i t i e s and shop-ping f a c i l i t i e s . One of the ' respondents i n t e rv i ewed spent a shor t time- i n a boarding house, s i t u a t e d away from the c i t y c e n t r e , but moved back aga in where there was more a c t i v i t y and b e t t e r shopping f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l -a b l e . " ^ Al though most of the respondents were d i s s a t i s -f i e d w i t h the q u a l i t y of t h e i r s h e l t e r and the c o n d i t i o n of the immediate environment, t h i s area d e f i n i t e l y posed a major advantage i n terms o f l o c a t i o n . Many of the r e -spondents commented tha t w i t h a l l the a c t i v i t y t a k i n g p lace about them, they were ab le to b e t t e r occupy t h e i r t ime r a t h e r than gaz ing out of a window onto a p e r f e c t -l y q u i e t and i n a c t i v e s t r e e t . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s suggest tha t the e l d e r l y p re fe r to have a c t i v i t y t a k i n g p lace about them to make them f e e l pa r t of the community, even though i t may be a t the expense of added nuisances to q u i e t l i v i n g . The respondents p re fe r r ed to walk i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r I b i d . , p . 20. 23 shopping and s o c i a l needs, fo r p u b l i c t r a n s i t was too inconven ien t to be made use o f . These f i n d i n g s may have a c o n t r i b u t i o n to make toward an i n t e l l i g e n t approach to the s i t e p l ann ing of fu ture sen io r c i t i z e n s ' housing developments. 11 Hanowski, Hayward, Reed, and Teather , sought to achieve a balanced p i c t u r e of the needs of the aged by examining two groups of persons , those w a i t i n g fo r low r e n t a l accommodation on the Vancouver housing r e g i s t r y , as w e l l as those e l d e r l y people r e s i d i n g i n the Fa l se Creek area of Vancouver. In comparing these two groups, one of which c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y o f home owners ( i n Fa l se Creek ) , the researchers found tha t those persons who were p r e s e n t l y consuming r e n t a l accommodation and were search ing fo r a l t e r n a t i v e housing-, were much more d i s s a t i s f i e d than those owner o c c u p i e r s , even though-the tenants o v e r a l l had b e t t e r q u a l i t y o f s h e l t e r . In a sk ing the t o t a l sample t h e i r l o c a t i o n a l preferences f o r -accommodation, e i g h t y - e i g h t per cent favored housing i n the c i t y , -over one -ha l f of these people (52 per cent) s t a t i n g tha t they would l i k e to l i v e i n the c e n t r a l pa r t Arvey Hanowski, et a l , Housing For The Aged: An E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d y ' o f Needs and Pre fe rences , Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia , 1962. v 24 12 of the c i t y . A very frequent comment made by the r e -spondents was tha t housing p r o j e c t s i n genera l were ' too f a r o u t ' , both i n terms of d i s t ance from necessary f a c i -l i t i e s such as shops, medica l c l i n i c s , and p u b l i c t r a n -13 s i t . The authors noted a f e e l i n g of resentment under-l y i n g these ' r e sponses , f o r the e l d e r l y were b i t t e r w i t h the a t t i t u d e taken toward b u i l d i n g housing p r o j e c t s wi thout c o n s i d e r i n g the l o c a t i o n a l needs of the fu ture occupants . In an attempt to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the importance of c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s compared to o t h e r s , the survey asked the respondents to s t a t e the p lace they cons idered the 14 most important to be near . The r e s u l t s are as f o l l o w s : -• F A C I L I T Y Number o f t imes mentioned Store - grocery 7 6. - o ther 4 Bus 7 3 Hea l th Se rv i ces 25 Church 2 2 Park 14 Community Centre 11 L i b r a r y 6 Movies 2 1 2 T b i d . , p. 106 1 3 L o c . c i t . 1 4 I b l d . , p . 108 25 Accord ing to the above f i n d i n g s , the e l d e r l y appear to be most concerned w i t h p r o x i m i t y to shopping and t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ; h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l f a -c i l i t i e s , and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are very d e f i n i t e l y of secondary importance. A f i n a l f i n d i n g of t h i s survey was tha t the respon- < dents who c la imed to need a l t e r n a t e housing the most (those p r e s e n t l y owning a home and not be ing ab le to ma in ta in i t ) d e c l i n e d i t , f o r they f e l t l i v i n g i n an apartment e n v i r -onment would r e s u l t i n a l o s s o f independence and f r e e -dom. Thus, the e l d e r l y p e o p l e ' s concep t ion of m u l t i p l e u n i t housing developments was- s t i l l tha t of sha r ing a c -commodation w i t h a person comple te ly unknown to the i n -d i v i d u a l . Recent r e sea rch i n - r e g a r d to sen io r c i t i z e n s ' hous-ing conducted i n the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Area may be l i m i t e d to three s t u d i e s , on ly one of which i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f housing developments i n regard to o ther f a c i l i t i e s . The West Vancouver Community C o u n c i l conducted a study i n 1970 a t tempt ing to determine the needs, o p i n i o n s , hopes, and t a l e n t s o f persons over s i x t y - f i v e years of 26 age r e s i d i n g w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Al though t h i s study focused p r i m a r i l y upon the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f the respondents ( m a r i t a l s t a t u s , income, type of accom-modat ion) , one important f i n d i n g i s ev ident r ega rd ing the a t t i t u d e of the e l d e r l y toward shared accommodation. Of the t o t a l number-of sub jec t s sampled, twenty-two per cent had a t one time l i v e d w i t h marr ied c h i l d r e n ; of t h i s group, n i n e t y - f o u r per cent found t h i s arrangement un-16 . s a t i s f a c t o r y . The p r imary reasons g iven f o r t h e i r d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n were l a c k of p r i v a c y , freedom, and indepen-dence; many of the people f e l t ' t ha t they were becoming mere servants i n the homes'of m a r r i e d . c h i l d r e n and r e -l a t i v e s . This s tudy, as others mentioned e a r l i e r , aga in p o i n t s out tha t the aged are o v e r l y concerned w i t h p r e s e r v i n g p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic independence i n the l a t -t e r years of t h e i r l i v e s . Another f i n d i n g o f t h i s ' study was tha t many of the respondents f e l t t ha t one of the major problems of s en io r c i t i z e n s was l o n e l i n e s s , fo r they were being ' shut ou t ' from the community by p o o r l y l o c a t e d housing accommodation. These r e s u l t s may g ive planners more of a bas i s upon which to make d e c i s i o n s i n West Vancouver Community C o u n c i l , Report on the  Concerns and Needs of Sen ior C i t i z e n s i n West Vancouver, January 19 71. "*"^Ibid . , p . 6 . 27 a n a l y z i n g va r ious p o t e n t i a l s i t e s f o r s en io r c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o j e c t s i n the f u t u r e . C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , a t the r e -quest of the Greater Vancouver Reg iona l D i s t r i c t , has a l -so completed a survey of s en io r c i t i z e n s ' housing (Decem-ber 1971) i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r ea . However, the l a t -t e r pa r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , concerning p r o x i m i t y of the housing developments to e x t e r n a l f a c i l i t i e s , has not been analyzed to any degree f o r comment. This survey was m a i l -ed to a l l s o c i e t i e s sponsor ing housing accommodation fo r the e l d e r l y and no con tac t was made w i t h the r e s i d e n t s of these p r o j e c t s . Two students of Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , A l l e n Lefevre and Gordon P r i e s t , conducted a survey o f e leven s en io r c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o j e c t s i n the Greater Vancouver area (1969), p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the s p a t i a l aspects of housing f o r the e l d e r l y . In doing so , they developed a formula f o r a s ses s ing each o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s : ( L + 2 ( s ) + T / 2 ) F = Aggregate P . E . B . where L = number of b locks walked S = number of b locks walked w i t h f i v e degree or g rea te r g rad ien t or o ther s t a ted hazard (where a p p l i c a b l e ) T = number of b locks t r a v e l l e d by p u b l i c t r a n s i t (where a p p l i c a b l e ) F = frequency o f use 17 Aggregate P . E . B . = t o t a l ' p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n ' b locks 17 . • A. Lefevre and Gordon E . P r i e s t , L o c a t i n g The Senior C i t i z e n Housing Development, Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , 1969, p . 11 . 28 The above formula was a p p l i e d i n c a l c u l a t i n g the d i s -tance of a housing p r o j e c t to each of ten s p e c i f i c f a -c i l i t i e s .(supermarket, medica l c l i n i c , bank, corner s t o r e , . d r u g s t o r e , church , l i b r a r y , s o c i a l c e n t r e , bus s top , park) and i n d i c a t e d the cos t s i n v o l v e d i n ove r -coming d i s t a n c e , termed by the authors as s p a t i a l c o s t s . An average s p a t i a l cos t was then c a l c u l a t e d fo r each of the p r o j e c t s s tud ied and compared to the ' c r i t i c a l ' d i s t ances to f a c i l i t i e s (d i s tance beyond which the e l d e r l y ' express d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n making a t r i p ) de r ived by Niebanck i n h i s study of one hun-dred and seventeen sen io r c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o j e c t s 18 i n Pennsy lvan ia (196 5 ).. The formula developed sug-gests tha t a l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between the frequency of use and importance o f a f a c i l i t y , the v a l i d i t y of which may be ques t ioned . I t must be t a k -en i n t o account tha t a l though some t r i p s to a f a c i l i t y may not be made at' ve ry r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , i t s importance Niebanck, The E l d e r l y i n Older Urban A r e a s , p . 64. 29 i s not l e s s c r i t i c a l to the aged. A l s o p r o x i m i t y to a p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t y may generate a number of a d d i t i o n a l t r i p s which might not o therwise be made. Lefevre and P r i e s t a l s o formulate a c r i t i c a l s p a t i a l cos t by m u l t i -p l y i n g c r i t i c a l d i s t ance (obta ined by a sk ing the respon-dents what d is tance ' they p r e f e r r e d to be to each f a c i -l i t y ) by frequency of use . .No attempt i s made to ask the r e s i d e n t s to rank the importance of the f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d above, f o r frequency of use i s used as the i n d i -c a t o r of importance. The f i n d i n g s of the study i n d i c a t e tha t on ly f i v e o f the e leven housing p r o j e c t s . in the sample met the requirements of the c r i t i c a l d i s t ances as suggested by Niebanck i n .his s tudy. .These . r e s u l t s ..also ..point out tha t a more concer ted e f f o r t must be made i n examining the t o t a l s p a t i a l cos t s of a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s f o r s en io r c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o j e c t s to the e l d e r l y before a d e c i -s i o n i s made as to t h e i r l o c a t i o n . Research Conducted Outside of Grea ter Vancouver In a n a l y z i n g s tud ie s tha t have been c a r r i e d out ou t s ide of the Vancouver a r ea , an attempt w i l l be made to d i s c u s s on ly those bear ing re levance upon l o c a t i o n a l needs i n regard to housing l o c a t i o n . 30 In 1968, the C a p i t a l Region P lann ing Board c a r r i e d out a r e t i r emen t study i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area i n order to assess the pa r t p layed by r e t i r e d people i n the 19 economic and s o c i a l l i f e o f the community. One of the r e l e v a n t f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e d tha t over t h r ee -qua r t e r s of the respondents , when asked i f they would p re f e r to l i v e i n a r u r a l a r ea , gave a nega t ive 20 . . r e p l y . The e l d e r l y f e l t tha t the l o c a t i o n of t h e i r accommodation was of pr imary importance i n tha t they p r e f e r r e d to be w i t h i n wa lk ing d i s t ance of shopping f a -c i l i t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . . The m a j o r i t y of the e l d e r l y i n t e r v i e w e d a l s o i n d i -cated a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward r e s i d i n g i n s en io r c i -t i z e n housing p r o j e c t s , fo r s i x t y - t h r e e per cent of the respondents had favored r e s i d i n g i n such accommodations 21 a t the present time or p o s s i b l y a t a fu ture da te . In a s k i n g the aged persons t h e i r s p e c i f i c l i k e s as to t h e i r present l i v i n g accommodation, the most common r e p l y was tha t i t was near shopping f a c i l i t i e s , downtown 19 . . C a p i t a l Region P lann ing Board o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , Retirement Study P r e l i m i n a r y S t a t i s t i c s , p . 1. 2 ^ I b i d . , p . 11. • 21 I b i d . , p . 9 . 31 2 2 or p u b l i c t r a n s i t . This r e s u l t p rov ides a good i n -s i g h t i n t o the l o c a t i o n a l preferences of the e l d e r l y as to t h e i r r es idence i n an urban a r e a . When asked as to t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s i n terms, of improving p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , s i x t y - o n e ' p e r cent ass igned t h e i r preferences toward 2 3 i n c r e a s i n g h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study support the s tud ie s ex-amined e a r l i e r i n tha t (a) the e l d e r l y a t t a c h a grea t dea l of importance toward be ing c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , and Cb) t h e i r a t t i t u d e . i s g e n e r a l l y f avorab le toward the p r o v i s i o n of housing f o r the aged. A l s o , approximate ly s i x out of ten respondents gave h ighes t p r i o r i t y to . h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s , i n d i c a t i n g the importance of med ica l s e r v i c e s to t h i s age group. A Senior Residents Survey was undertaken by the Edmonton C o u n c i l of Community Se rv i ces i n order to p r o -v i d e some f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l concern ing Edmonton's aged 24 p o p u l a t i o n . Al though t h i s study d e a l t w i t h numerous s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of the l i f e pa t t e rns of r e s i d e n t s , no concern was shown f o r a coherent approach toward the 22 Loc . c i t . 2 3 . I b i d . , p . 13. 24 Edmonton Welfare C o u n c i l , Edmonton Senior Residents Survey, Edmonton, 19 6 4 32 needs of the e l d e r l y . Neve r the l e s s , i t i s worthy of mention i n tha t some of the f i n d i n g s may bear some r e l e -vance towards the a t t i t u d e of the respondents towards m u l t i p l e accommodation, but the f i n d i n g s are not of d i r e c t r e l evance to t h i s t h e s i s . S tudies Undertaken i n the Uni t ed States Pau l Niebanck, i n s tudy ing the impact of r e l o c a t i o n programs upon d i s r u p t i o n of e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s from the o l d e r pa r t s o f American c i t i e s , devotes cons ide rab l e a t t e n t i o n toward the l o c a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s o f t h i s age group i n regard to t h e i r housing needs. In h i s survey of one hundred and seventeen housing p r o j e c t s i n P e n n s y l -van ia (1965), Niebanck attempted to d e r i v e ' c r i t i c a l d i s -t ances ' to a l i s t of s p e c i f i e d f a c i l i t i e s from a sen io r c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o j e c t . These c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e s , as mentioned e a r l i e r , are the d i s t ances at which the e l d e r l y would be w i l l i n g to t r a v e l before d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s ex-pressed . He a l s o asked respondents which one of a number of s t a t ed a c t i v i t i e s they regarded as being most impor-tan t i n terms of. r e s i d e n t i a l p r o x i m i t y . The f o l l o w i n g 33 are the r e s u l t s he FACILITY. ( i n rank order ) Grocery Store Bus Stop House of Worship Drug Store C l i n i c or H o s p i t a l Bank S o c i a l Centre L i b r a r y News-Cigar Store Restaurant Movie 'House Bar b t a i n e d : ''-CRITICAL DISTANCE 2 - 3 b locks 1 - 2 b locks 1/4-1/2 m i l e ' 3 b locks 1/4-1/2 m i l e 1/4 m i l e inde te rminab le 1 m i l e 1/4 m i l e 1/4-1/2 m i l e 1 m i l e inde te rminab le PERCENTAGE OF  PROJECTS STUDIED  VIOLATING CRITI -CAL DISTANCES 23 5 31 27 54 49 26 29 15 20 19 Niebanck a l s o noted a r e l a t i o n s h i p between frequency of use o f a f a c i l i t y and i t s ' c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e . The ex-p l a n a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon was as f o l l o w s : ' f a c i l i t i e s tha t r e c e i v e in f requent or i r r e g u -l a r use , such as the l i b r a r y , church , movie house, and the h o s p i t a l , can be a long walk away before d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s expressed . On the other hand, convenience s t o r e s , which are r e g u l a r l y and f r e q u e n t l y used and i n v o l v e the c a r r y i n g of bundles , must be l o c a t e d w i t h i n a b lock or two or the t r i p l eng th becomes d i s -agreeable ' 26" Niebanck, The E l d e r l y i n Older Urban A r e a s , p . 64. 2 ^ I b i d . , p . 63. 34 Consequent ly , Niebanck concludes tha t f a c i l i t i e s genera-t i n g a cons ide rab l e frequency of t r i p s must be l o c a t e d w i t h i n a shor t wa lk ing d i s t ance fo r the e l d e r l y , where-as those p laces not frequented on as r e g u l a r a ba s i s are of secondary l o c a t i o n a l importance. By f a r , the most important f a c i l i t y i s t ha t of p u b l i c t r a n s i t , f o r i t stands i n a category of i t s own; most of ten i t i s the on ly means of movement i n the c i t y . One f i n d i n g worth comment i s tha t medica l f a c i l i t -i e s ranked the h ighes t i n terms of v i o l a t i n g the c r i t i -c a l d i s t ances e s t a b l i s h e d by Niebanck. This i s worthy of emphasis, fo r a f a c i l i t y t ha t may make the d i f f e r e n c e between l i f e and death C p a r t i c u l a r l y to the e l d e r l y who are v u l n e r a b l e to lapses i n hea l th ) was inadequa te ly l o c a t e d i n more than one -ha l f of the housing p r o j e c t s i n v e s t i g a t e d . The r e s u l t s of Niebanck ' s study are very r e l e v a n t to t h i s t h e s i s , which i s undertaken to examine the l o c a -t i o n a l needs and p r i o r i t i e s of s en io r c i t i z e n s p resen t -l y r e n t i n g i n low r e n t a l accommodation i n the c i t y of Vancouver. One p a r t i c u l a r f i n d i n g tha t w i l l be focus -ed upon w i l l be tha t of t e s t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n between the frequency of use of a f a c i l i t y and the importance a t tached to i t by the respondents . 35 The importance of. knowledge i n regard to the l o c a -t i o n a l needs .of the e l d e r l y i s i n v a l u a b l e to p l ann ing i n t h i s a r e a . I t may p rov ide f o r an informed and t h e r e -f o r e , i n t e l l i g e n t approach towards a n a l y z i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s fo r hous ing , r a t h e r than more guesswork or u t i l i -z a t i o n of cheap or o the rwi se , u n a t t r a c t i v e p r o p e r t y . Ashford and Hol loway, i n a t tempt ing to l e a r n the a c t i v i t y pa t te rns of the e l d e r l y , s tud ied the data ga-thered from s i x urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s tud ie s i n Milwaukee and of f i v e major c i t i e s i n Georgia. (Albany , Augus ta , 27 Columbus, Macon, and Savannah). T h e i r f i n d i n g s are of use i n a s se s s ing the m o b i l i t y of t h i s age group. The-f i r s t f i n d i n g was tha t the number of t r i p s to and from the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t i nc reased s i g n i f i c a n t l y by age group fo r work, shopping, and misce l l aneous pu r -poses, r ega rd l e s s of mode. Only twelve per cent of a l l shopping t r i p s were o r i e n t e d to the c e n t r a l bus iness d i s t r i c t fo r a d u l t s between the ages of t w e n t y - f i v e and t h i r t y - f o u r y e a r s , compared to over t w e n t y - f i v e per 2 8 cent fo r e l d e r l y persons (over s i x t y - f i v e years o l d ) . 2 7 N. Ashford and F . M . Hol loway, "T ranspo r t a t i on Pa t te rns of Older People i n S i x Urban Cen t res" , The  G e r o n t o l o g i s t , v o l . 12 (March 197 2 ) . ? 2 8 I b i d . , p . 44. 36 On an o v e r a l l b a s i s , the r a t i o o f C e n t r a l Business D i s -t r i c t o r i e n t e d t r i p s f o r the average urban r e s i d e n t was s l i g h t l y more than h a l f i n comparison to those persons 2 9 aged s i x t y - f i v e years or more (.010 compared to ;018) , In examining the number of t r i p s made between d i f -fe ren t zones i n the c i t y , the researchers were ab le to show tha t the e l d e r l y made almost twice the number of t r i p s as the average auto d r i v e r ( s i x t e e n and one -ha l f 3 0 per cent as opposed to e igh t and one -ha l f per c e n t ) . This f i n d i n g suggests tha t the e l d e r l y are a very mobi le group i n comparison w i t h other segments of the p o p u l a t i o n . In a t tempt ing to separate t r i p s by mode, Ashford and Holloway found a n o t i c e a b l e inc rease i n t r i p s v i a p u b l i c t r a n s i t by the age group s i x t y - f i v e years of age and over (shopping t r i p s of those s i x t y - f i v e years of age and over was 2 2.4% as opposed to 2.6% f o r the t w e n t y - f i v e to t h i r t y -31 four year o l d age group) . These f i n d i n g s add to those of other r e s u l t s d i s -cussed e a r l i e r i n d i c a t i n g the pronounced dependence of 2 9 I b i d . , p . 4 5. 30T Loc. c i t . 31 T Loc . c i t . 37 the e l d e r l y upon p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Without ready access to a t r a n s i t s top , the e l d e r l y must r e l y upon other forms o f t r a n s p o r t Can example, t ha t of a t a x i ) which are of ten beyond t h e i r economic means. Al though the e l d e r l y d i d not make more ' o v e r a l l t r i p s than the mid-d l e aged group, they demonstrated a s i gn i f i c an t . demand 3 2 fo r m o b i l i t y . . Th i s s tudy i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n tha t the e l d e r l y are the e x c l u s i v e age group i n s o c i e t y tha t depends markedly upon p u b l i c t r a n s i t ; t h i s should be borne i n mind i n p lann ing the l o c a t i o n of s en io r c i t i -zens housing p r o j e c t s i n the f u t u r e . Jack Gdldner , i n i n t e r v i e w i n g r e s i d e n t s of s en io r c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o j e c t s i n the Uni t ed States (1960) found tha t what the e l d e r l y wanted the most was people : 'The aged want to be downtown near the b r i g h t l i g h t s and i n the main stream of l i f e . I s o -l a t i o n and l o n e l i n e s s are t h e i r great f e a r s , a housing p r o j e c t f o r them ou t s ide the c i t y can on ly accentuate t h e i r f e a r . Dis tance can on ly produce d e l i b i t a t i n g s o l i t u d e and the de-l i t e r i o u s e f f e c t s grow i n geometric p ropor -t i o n to the d i s t a n c e . ' 3 3 In a sk ing the e l d e r l y as to the importance of t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n , the m a j o r i t y commented tha t a l though i t i s t h e i r 3 2 I b i d . , p . 46. 3 3 J . G o l d n e r , " L o c a t i n g Housing For The Aged" , Canadian Wel fa re , v o l . 36 ( J u l y 1960) , p . 218. 3.8 on ly means of t r a v e l w i t h i n the urban a r ea , neve r the le s s i t i s s t i l l i nconven ien t and hazardous. Many of the aged commented tha t they had d i f f i c u l t y i n ascend ing , as w e l l as descending the steep steps of a bus. Summary of Common F i n d i n g s In an overview of the e m p i r i c a l r e sea rch presented i n t h i s chap te r , c e r t a i n f i n d i n g s are. common to each of the s t u d i e s . F i r s t l y , and perhaps the most obv ious , i s the p e r s i s t e n t d e s i r e of the e l d e r l y to ma in t a in indepen-dent r e s i d e n c e , r e g a r d l e s s o f the economic or f i n a n c i a l hardships tha t might be exper ienced . The e l d e r l y regard t h e i r home as an eminent domain. They do not want to r e s t r i c t j r t h e day to day a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n who may be t r y i n g to ca t e r to t h e i r needs, nor do the aged want to be g iven the r o l e of housemaids and baby s i t t e r s . By f a r the best s o l u t i o n i s t ha t of i n d i v i -dua l l i v i n g accommodation away from f r i e n d s and r e l a -t i v e s , but ye t near enough to be able to c a l l upon them when i n need. A second f i n d i n g common to the m a j o r i t y of the e l -d e r l y i s tha t o f housing accommodation w i t h i n an urban a r ea , p e r f e r a b l y w i t h i n wa lk ing d i s t ance of shopping and 39 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The aged do not want to be housed i n a q u i e t suburban neighborhood, free" of b o i s t e r -ous a c t i v i t y , which appears to make the e l d e r l y f e e l a pa r t of the community. Consequent ly , t h i s segment of our popula t ion•appears to be w i l l i n g to make s a c r i f i c e s i n order to have c e n t r a l l y s i t u a t e d hous ing , whether i t be a t the acceptance of poorer q u a l i t y s h e l t e r , or i n -creased no i se i n the. neighborhood. A t h i r d and f i n a l f i n d i n g common to a l l o f the s t u -d i e s d i s c u s s e d , i s the o v e r a l l f avorab le a t t i t u d e taken toward the p r o v i s i o n of low r e n t a l housing fo r the e l d e r -l y . However, one d i s t i n c t d i s f a v o r was a l s o noted i n tha t the aged are most d i s appo in t ed i n the approach t a -ken toward l o c a t i n g accommodation f o r them i n the urban sphere, f o r t h e i r needs are not be ing cons idered before the c o n s t r u c t i o n of housing p r o j e c t s . An approach must be taken i n a s ses s ing the t o t a l needs of the e l d e r l y i n regard to the l o c a t i o n of t h e i r housing i n the f u t u r e . CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PRESENTATION OF DATA RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . ' In a t tempt ing to a s c e r t a i n the needs and p r e f e r e n -ces of our e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s , a r e sea rch technique i s mandatory. This study i d e n t i f i e s the" p o p u l a t i o n or u n i -verse from which a sample i s to be drawn as the t o t a l number o f s e l f conta ined l i v i n g u n i t s be ing p rov ided f o r the e l d e r l y (def ined as those persons s i x t y - f i v e years or o l d e r ) i n the c i t y o f Vancouver, by p r i v a t e , as w e l l as p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s (Appendix A ) . Those aged persons occupying other forms o f r e n t a l accommo-d a t i o n (persona l care homes, rooming houses, housekeep-ing rooms, and apartments) as w e l l as those l i v i n g i n shared quar te r s w i t h f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s are excluded from the sample. Such persons are of ten g iven a s s i s -tance i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r day to day a c t i v i t i e s , and •consequent ly, t h e i r a c t i v i t y pa t t e rns and needs d i f f e r markedly . Al though the def ined un ive r se does exclude a s i g n i f i c a n t number of aged persons l i v i n g ' i n o ther than reduced r e n t accommodation, i t i s c o n s i s t e n t i n a t tempt ing 41 to l e a r n the needs and preferences of the aged who r e s i d e i n s en io r c i t i z e n housing p r o j e c t s . These persons are be t t e r q u a l i f i e d to comment upon the success or f a i l u r e of the l o c a t i o n of t h e i r present l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . The e l d e r l y may bear the most r e l e v a n t i n fo rma t ion r ega rd ing the s i t e p l ann ing of fu ture housing p r o j e c t s fo r them. In o b t a i n i n g as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a sample from the def ined p o p u l a t i o n as p o s s i b l e , a random c l u s t e r p roce -dure was employed. Each of the sen io r c i t i z e n housing p r o j e c t s i n the c i t y of Vancouver ( r ega rd less o f s i z e ) was i d e n t i f i e d as a c l u s t e r of l i v i n g u n i t s , and a r a n -dom s e l e c t i o n of c l u s t e r s was under taken. However, the number of u n i t s p rov ided by the p r i v a t e sec tor (one thousand seven hundred and f o r t y - s i x ) as opposed to the p u b l i c sec to r (one thousand and n i n e t y - f o u r ) was a l s o taken i n t o account , f o r the ques t i onna i r e s were d i s t r i -buted i n accordance w i t h t h i s p r o p o r t i o n . Consequent ly , of every ten ques t i onna i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d , s i x were handed to persons r e s i d i n g • i n p r i v a t e l y sponsored s e n i o r c i t i -zen housing pro jec t s ' . This c o n t r o l accounts f o r more v a l i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of- those persons r e s i d i n g i n such p r o j e c t s , consequent ly r educ ing any b ia s i n the sample. 4 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n of .Quest ionnaires In o b t a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from a maximum number of housing p r o j e c t s , sys temat ic d i s t r i b u t i o n of survey ques t ionna i r e s was employed. This was c a r r i e d out by l e a v i n g one q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r every seven u n i t s i n a pa r -t i c u l a r housing - p r o j e c t . This procedure a l lowed the sampling o f a t o t a l o f s i x t e e n housing p r o j e c t s i n the c i t y of Vancouver,- e leven of which were p r i v a t e l y manag-ed and sponsored.- A f i v e per cent sample of the popu la -t i o n was o b t a in ed , c o n s i s t i n g o f one hundred and f o r t y -three survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , e i g h t y - e i g h t from p r i v a t e l y sponsored housing p r o j e c t s , and f i f t y - f i v e from p u b l i c l y sponsored ( f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l ) housing p r o j e c t s . The d e c i s i o n to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y sample every seventh u n i t (as opposed to a g rea te r or l e s s e r number) was made upon a p i l o t survey of the ques t i onna i r e a t which time an i n d i -c a t i o n was gained as to the number of r e s i d e n t s absent du r ing c a l l i n g or r e f u s i n g to co-operate ' f o r reasons of p h y s i c a l handicaps ( eyes igh t , h e a r i n g , i l l h e a l t h ) o r m i s t r u s t . of i y Extreme c a u t i o n was e x e r c i s e d i n the the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , f o r i t was r e a l i z e d are most of ten the t a rge t s of magazine d i s t r i b u t i o n tha t the e l d e r -salesmen , 43 p e d l a r s , and other agents . For t h e i r . o w n s a f e t y , they are reminded not to open t h e i r doors to s t rangers a t any t ime . Upon a r r i v i n g a t a s e l e c t e d housing p r o j e c t , the f i r s t step was tha t of approaching the manager and ex-p l a i n i n g the r e sea rch being under taken. A f t e r r e c e i v i n g pe rmiss ion to d i s t r i b u t e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the r e s i d e n t s of every seventh l i v i n g u n i t were approached i n d i v i d u a l l y and exp la ined the purpose and scope of the r e s e a r c h . In doing so , a cover l e t t e r from the School of Community and Reg iona l P l ann ing was r ead , emphasizing the c o n f i d e n t i a -l i t y and i n t e n t of the r e s e a r c h . Those r e s i d e n t s h e s i -t an t upon accep t ing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were reminded tha t t h e i r manager had g iven f u l l pe rmis s ion f o r i t s d i s t r i -b u t i o n . This p rov ided them w i t h assurance o f the honesty of the r e sea rch and r e s u l t e d l a r g e l y i n acceptance of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Emphasis was a l s o p laced upon the pe r sona l c a l l i n g f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . This procedure permi t ted 'on the spo t ' examinat ion of the completed-ques t i onna i r e and consequent ly , the respondent cou ld be approached immediately i f pa r t s of i t had been l e f t un -answered. C o l l e c t i o n of Ques t ionna i res Upon c a l l i n g f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t was examined fo r completeness of response. S imul t aneous ly , the r e s -pondent was asked, as to any pa r t s tha t may have been un-c l e a r or any other comments tha t cou ld p o s s i b l y be o f va lue to the r e s e a r c h being under taken. I n - a l l cases , the respondent was g iven f u l l oppor tun i ty to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e independen t ly , f o r up to f i v e c a l l s were made i n c o l l e c t i n g some of them. This method was favored as opposed to an i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n i n which the respondent o f ten f e e l s o b l i g a t e d to respond q u i c k l y and consequent ly , i s unable to devote adequate thought to the ques t ions being asked. . This procedure a l s o en-sured completeness of response , f o r the resea rcher was ab le to get immediate feedback as to what pa r t s had been l e f t unanswered .and why.' Consequent ly , a l l of the ques-t i o n n a i r e s c o l l e c t e d c o n s i s t e d of almost one hundred per cent response i n a l l of the ques t ions asked. This c l e a r -l y i n d i c a t e s the va lue o f pe r sona l con tac t w i t h the r e s -pondent, both i n encouraging response and n o t i n g a d d i t i o n -a l comments, as w e l l as a s s u r i n g them i n the c o n f i d e n t i -a l i t y of the r e s e a r c h being under taken. Blank ques t i onna i r e s r e tu rned by the respondents were r ep l aced by d i s t r i b u t i n g them among other r e s i d e n t s 45 of the same housing p r o j e c t . The o v e r a l l response to the survey (those accep t ing the ques t i onna i r e a t the outse t and comple t ing i t as i n s t r u c t e d ) was f o r t y - f o u r per cen t , but s ince sampling w i t h replacement was used, a f u l l f i v e per cent sample was obta ined due to the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f immediate feedback from respondents . Ques t ionna i re Design The d i s t r i b u t i o n of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e tha t i s i n t e n -ded to be completed independent ly by the respondent , n e c e s s i t a t e s extreme care i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . This i s pro nounced even more when a d m i n i s t e r i n g a .survey amongst the e l d e r l y , whose p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and pa t i ence i s o f ten much more cons t r a ined than the average a d u l t . Consequent ly , ques t ions must be c l e a r and to the p o i n t . However, the care taken i n e x p l a i n i n g the way i n which the respondent i s to complete the ques t i onna i r e does a great dea l i n reduc ing confus ion and encouraging r e s -ponses to q u e s t i o n s . This a l s o saves cons ide rab l e time and energy i n c o l l e c t i n g the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The advantages a t t r i b u t e d to a s t r u c t u r e d ques t ion n a i r e were favored i n t h i s su rvey , f o r itlrwas f e l t tha t the e l d e r l y would not respond f a v o r a b l y toward lengthy s u b j e c t i v e ques t i ons . By des ign ing a s i g n i f i c a n t l y 46 s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the respondents would not have to 'second guess ' the r e s e a r c h e r , producing i n -accuracy . Consequent ly , most of the ques t ions are of the c lo sed form, p e r m i t t i n g ease of r e p l y , as w e l l as a conf ined set of responses a l l o w i n g more e f f i c i e n c y i n t a b u l a t i o n . Neve r the l e s s , open form ques t ions are a l s o p resen t , encouraging the respondents to comment more s u b j e c t i v e l y upon t h e i r present l i v i n g accommodation or r e l e v a n t i tems tha t may have been excluded i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Questions were grouped acco rd ing to r e l a t e d sub-j e c t matter to permit c o n t i n u i t y o f thought and a t t e n -t i o n was g iven i n a v o i d i n g l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s , f o r the respondent was to be g iven complete independence.as to h i s r e p l i e s . Al though the use of dichotomous ques t ions ( a l l o w i n g yes or no response o n l y ) i s q u i t e e x t e n s i v e , i t r e q u i r e s the respondent to take a s t and , whether i t be i n a p o s i t i v e or nega t ive f a s h i o n . Al though the l eng th of the ques t i onna i r e appeared great upon p r e s e n t a t i o n to the respondents , i t s s t r u c -t u r a l s i m p l i c i t y d i d not make i t a d i f f i c u l t t ask to complete . The m a j o r i t y o f the e l d e r l y f e l t t ha t the e n t i r e range of ques t ions and quer ies had been covered 47 i n a s c e r t a i n i n g a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r present l i v i n g accommodation as w e l l as l o c a t i o n a l preferences f o r t h e i r hous ing . A n a l y s i s of Questions Asked In a n a l y z i n g the arrangement of ques t ions on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the f i r s t th ree are o f a f a c t u a l nature s e r v i n g to assess the pe r sona l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents . They are a l s o of importance i n a n a l y z i n g whether age, sex , or m a r i t a l s t a tus ( i n d i c a t e d by type of l i v i n g qua r t e r s ) may be r e l a t e d to housing p r e f e r e n -ces and d i f f i c u l t i e s exper ienced by the e l d e r l y . The second group of ques t ions (four to e i g h t ) attempt to present a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of the a t t i t u d e s of the e l -d e r l y towards t h e i r present l i v i n g quar te r s as w e l l as the major reasons f o r moving where they d i d . The l eng th of a respondent ' s r e s idence i n a housing p r o j e c t i s a l s o asked i n order to t e s t whether a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between l eng th of s tay and s a t i s f a c t i o n . The r e s -pondents are a l s o asked to i n d i c a t e the s p e c i f i c n e i g h -borhood i n which they had fo rmer ly r e s i d e d i n order to t e s t whether a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the e l d e r l y are m i g r a t i n g from one p a r t i c u l a r area of the c i t y to another 48 where low r e n t a l accommodation i s a v a i l a b l e . Quest ion e i g h t , a sk ing the respondents whether they had any cho ice p r i o r to moving to t h e i r present l i v i n g q u a r t e r s , may produce a c l e a r e r i n d i c a t i o n of the demand fo r a d d i t i o n -a l s en io r c i t i z e n housing i n Vancouver. The next group of ques t ions (nine through twelve) attempts to d e r i v e not on ly the importance of a number of f a c i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e to each o t h e r , but a l s o the num-ber of t r i p s made to these f a c i l i t i e s by the e l d e r l y , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s exper ienced i n overcoming these d i s t a n c e s . The major a n a l y s i s of the survey w i l l be made here , t ha t being whether a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n ex-i s t s between the importance of a p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t y and i t s frequency of use , as suggested by a former study c a r r i e d out i n the Greater Vancouver area i n 196 9."'" The r e s u l t s w i l l serve i n comparing the d i f f i c u l t i e s encoun-te red i n overcoming. these d i s t a n c e s w i t h the a c t u a l d i s -tances to the f a c i l i t i e s , measured i n shor t c i t y b locks (approximate ly two hundred and f i f t y fee t i n l e n g t h ) , a l s o account ing f o r g rad ien t s that .may produce d i f f i c u l -t y i n movement. C o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l be made to examine any r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these v a r i a b l e s and some of A l l e n G. Lefevre and Gordon E . P r i e s t , L o c a t -i n g The Senior C i t i z e n Housing Development, Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , 19 6 9. 49 those mentioned e a r l i e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y age, s a t i s f a c t i o n , and l eng th of r e s i d e n c e . The f i n a l two ques t ions permit the respondents to comment upon any ou ts tand ing advantages or disadvantages of t h e i r l i v i n g quar te r s and what p a r t i c u l a r improvements cou ld be made to make l i f e i n the housing p r o j e c t much more p leasan t and en joyab le . This i s a l s o an oppo r tun i t y fo r the e l d e r l y to respond s u b j e c t i v e l y -although they are fo rced to be b r i e f due to the p r o v i s i o n o f l i m i t e d space f o r t h e i r comments. This i s done i n t e n t i o n a l l y to prevent the respondents from rambl ing on and r epea t -i n g what they have been ab le to i n d i c a t e on the ques-t i o n n a i r e e a r l i e r . PRESENTATION OF DATA COLLECTED Of the one hundred and f o r t y - t h r e e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d , f o r t y - t w o per cent were completed by males and f i f t y - e i g h t per cent by females . No attempt was made i n c o n t r o l l i n g the sex r a t i o , f o r t h i s was regarded as having no bea r ing upon the t o t a l l o c a t i o n a l needs o f the e l d e r l y . The m a j o r i t y of respondents were seventy to e igh ty years of age CM-6.8; per cent) f o l l owed by a s i g n i -f i c a n t percentage of s i x t y to seventy year o ld s 50 (32.1 per c e n t ) , the remainder over e igh ty years of age (15.1 per cent) and l e s s than s i x t y years o l d (4.9 per c e n t ) . E i g h t y - t h r e e of the respondents (58 per cent) r e s i d e d i n s i n g l e rooms or bachelor u n i t s as opposed to one bedroom u n i t s . A l though . these f i g u r e s are i d e n t i c a l to those of the male to female r a t i o , they bear no r e l a -t i o n s h i p to each other i n regard to the method i n which the ques t i onna i r e had been d i s t r i b u t e d . S a t i s f a c t i o n With L o c a t i o n of L i v i n g Quarters The examinat ion of the respondent ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the l o c a t i o n a l p r o x i m i t y of h i s r e s idence to a g i v -en number of f a c i l i t i e s may be c a r r i e d out i n two ways. F i r s t l y , an overview of a l l the respondents may be made, n o t i n g the o v e r a l l contentment of the e l d e r l y i n regard to the l o c a t i o n of t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s : TABLE 1 S a t i s f a c t i o n With P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s Per Cent S a t i s f a c t i o n F r i ends 79.7 R e l a t i v e s 67 . 5 Supermarket 52 . 9 Drug Store 56.3 Bus Stop 86.4 Park 42 . 7 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e 42.1 Church 65.7 Corner Store 74.4 Bank 67.6 L i b r a r y 52.4 Community Centre 48 . 5 Movie Theatre 30.8 51 An ou ts tand ing fea ture i n t h i s macro examinat ion i s t ha t l e s s than one h a l f of the respondents were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to medica l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i -t i e s , w h i l e on ly f i f t y - t w o per cent f e l t tha t a super-market was adequately s i t u a t e d f o r t h e i r use . A l s o , l e s s than f i f t y per cent of the respondents were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to r e c r e a t i o n a l and enter ta inment f a c i l i t i e s (park, community c e n t r e s , and movie t h e a t r e s ) . This t a b l e p rov ides a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the s a t i s f a c -t i o n of the e l d e r l y w i t h the l o c a t i o n a l p r o x i m i t y of t h e i r present l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . In t a k i n g a c l o s e r look a t the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the e l d e r l y i n each housing p r o j e c t i n regard to s e v e r a l f a -c i l i t i e s l i s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Table 1, Appendix C ) , S i t e G i s ou t s tand ing i n tha t l e s s than one h a l f of the r e s i d e n t s sampled are s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to a l l of the t h i r t e e n p laces l i s t e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . On the other hand, S i t e L mer i t s a t t e n t i o n i n tha t a l l of the respondents surveyed were f u l l y content w i t h the l o c a t i o n of t h e i r l i v i n g quar te r s i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r d a i l y needs. Length of Residence i n Housing P r o j e c t Over e i g h t y per cent of the respondents have r e s i d e d 52 i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e housing p r o j e c t s fo r one year or more and consequent ly , should be ab le to make an i n f o r m -ed e v a l u a t i o n of the l o c a t i o n a l p r o x i m i t y of t h e i r r e s i - . dence to f a c i l i t i e s necessary i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r d a i l y needs (Table 2, Appendix C ) . The l eng th of s tay a t a p a r t i c u l a r housing p r o j e c t may a l s o be examined more c l o s e l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f a c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s be t -ween i n c r e a s i n g l eng th of r e s idence and contentment w i t h i t s l o c a t i o n . Former Residences and Reasons For Moving The West End of Vancouver i s by f a r the l a r g e s t s i n g l e area from which the e l d e r l y respondents have moved ( t h i r t y per c e n t ) , three t imes tha t of the next c l o s e s t ne ighborhood. (Table 3, Appendix C ) . I t may be i n t e r e s t -ing to note t h i s f i n d i n g w i t h . t h e r e s u l t s of ques t ion seven concerned w i t h the major reasons g iven f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r former r e s i d e n c e : •TABLE 2 Reason For Moving From Former Residence Percentage of  Respondents Rent too expensive 56.6 Too much work to ma in t a in res idence ' 11.2 P h y s i c a l l y , unable to ma in t a in r e s idence 8.4 Wanted to be near o thers o f own age 7.0 Forced out due to d e m o l i t i o n or sa le 6.0 Wanted a q u i e t e r neighborhood 4.2 L o c a t i o n a l l y inconven ien t 2.1 Wanted a more l i v e l y neighborhood 1.4 53 Over one h a l f of the e l d e r l y changed res idences due to t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to pay i n c r e a s i n g r e n t s , i n d i c a t i n g the f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s imposed upon t h i s age group i n search of l i v i n g accommodation. A most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n t h i s r e sea rch was tha t on ly ten per cent o f the respondents surveyed had any cho ice between l i v i n g accommodations, f o r the major-i t y had been compelled i n • a c c e p t i n g what had become a v a i l -ab le or having t h e i r name removed from the top of the Vancouver housing r e g i s t r y and moved to the bottom of the w a i t i n g l i s t . This may e x p l a i n why two of the e l d e r -l y r e s i d e n t s surveyed had wai ted s i x and e igh t years r e s p e c t i v e l y i n f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e l i v i n g accommodation. Of those persons who d i d have a c h o i c e , however, one t h i r d r e p l i e d tha t t h e i r d e c i s i o n was based upon pe r -sons w i t h whom they had been f a m i l i a r , e i t h e r e t h n i c a l l y or s o c i a l l y (Table 4, Appendix C ) . This suggests the importance of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s amongst the e l d e r l y i n choosing t h e i r l i v i n g accommodation. Importance of P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s The e l d e r l y were a l s o asked to i n d i c a t e the impor-tance they a t t r i b u t e d to a s e l e c t e d number of p laces i n 54 r e l a t i o n to each o the r . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e presents t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s tha t are of great s i g -n i f i c a n c e to l i v e near : F a c i l i t i e s Regarded as Very Important t o L i v e Near These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e tha t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , m e d i c a l , and shopping f a c i l i t i e s command grea t impor tance , w h i l e s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are secondary i n s a t i s f y i n g d a i l y needs. The respondents were a l s o asked which one of the f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d they regarded as the most important TABLE 3 Percentage of  Respondents Bus Stop D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e Supermarket Drug Store Corner Store R e l a t i v e s Church Park Bank Fr i ends Community Centre L i b r a r y Movie Theatre 55 . 9 52 . 4 47 . 5 41 . 3 28.7 27 . 3 23 . 8 23 . 8 18.9 17 . 5 11 . 2 7.7 1.4 55 to r e s i d e near: TABLE 4 F a c i l i t y Regarded As 'The Most Important ' to L i v e Near These f i n d i n g s denote the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n and medica l f a c i l i t i e s to the e l d e r l y . P r o x i m i t y to r e l a t i v e s was a l s o of great impor tance , mentioned more of ten than nearness to shopping f a c i l i t i e s . T r i p s Generated to Se lec ted F a c i l i t i e s The respondents were a l s o asked to i n d i c a t e the number of t r i p s they generated i n t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i -t i e s , and the r e s u l t s were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the average Per Cent Bus Stop D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e R e l a t i v e s Supermarket F r i ends Church Park Corner Store Drug Store Bank 22.1 21.4 19 . 3 17 .1 7 . 9 5.7 2 . 9 2.1 0.7 0.7 56 number of v i s i t s made to any one p lace per month: TABLE 5 Average Numb e r . o f . T r i p s ' to F a c i l i t i e s Per Month Bus 13. 9 Supermarket• • • 8 . 6 Corner Store • 6 . 0 F r i ends 4 . 6 R e l a t i v e s • . 3 . 4 Drug Store 3 . 4 Church 2 . 2 Park 1. 6 Bank • 1. 3 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e 1. 3 Community Centre • ' 1. 2 L i b r a r y 0. 8 Movie Theatre 01 1 The most ou t s tand ing use was made of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n fo l l owed by t r i p s to the supermarket and corner grocery s t o r e s . The number of v i s i t s made to the doc-t o r as w e l l as to r e l a t i v e s i s very s l i g h t compared to t h e i r importance to the e l d e r l y . D i f f i c u l t i e s Exper ienced i n Overcoming Dis tances In a sk ing the e l d e r l y to i n d i c a t e any d i f f i c u l t i e s they exper ience i n overcoming d i s t ances to f a c i l i t i e s , the most ou t s tand ing appear to be those of topography 57 and t r a n s i t s e r v i c e (Tab l e •5 , Appendix C) . These r e s -ponses w i l l be g iven c l o s e r examinat ion l a t e r i n the t h e s i s . Advantages and Disadvantages of L i v i n g Quar t e r s a The most common response as to the main advantage of the housing p r o j e c t s was tha t of inexpens ive r en t s (42.5 per cent) f o l l owed by the i n t e r n a l comfort of the l i v i n g u n i t i t s e l f (Table 6, Appendix C ) . Only 4.6 per cent of the respondents commented on the l o c a t i o n a l ad -vantages of t h e i r present l i v i n g accommodation. In a sk ing the e l d e r l y to l i s t the main disadvantages of t h e i r l i v i n g quarters. , the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were ob-t a i n e d : TABLE 6 Disadvantages of Present L i v i n g Quarters Per Cent of Respondents L o c a t i o n a l l y inconven ien t 3 3.3 Steep h i l l 25.4 T r a f f i c or i n d u s t r i a l no i se 19. 0; Noise from c h i l d r e n 11.1 Too q u i e t 6.3 I s o l a t e d 3.2 Lack of p r i v a c y . 1 . 6 These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e the inconveniences caused by the inadequate s i t e p l ann ing of l i v i n g accommodation f o r 58 the e l d e r l y . 1 F a c i l i t i e s Lack ing P r o x i m i t y To Housing P r o j e c t s Studied In a sk ing the respondents to comment upon what ad-d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s they would p re fe r to have l o c a t e d nearer t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s , the ou ts tand ing r e p l i e s were those of shopping f a c i l i t i e s , f o l l owed by more a c -c e s s i b l e p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (Table 7, Appendix C ) . The l a c k of concern fo r more n e a r l y l o c a t e d medica l f a -c i l i t i e s i s s u r p r i s i n g , f o r l e s s than h a l f of the r e s -pondents were s a t i s f i e d wi th , t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to a doc-t o r ' s o f f i c e and the f a c i l i t y was regarded as one of h ighes t p r i o r i t y by respondents . A c t u a l Dis tances To Se lec ted F a c i l i t i e s In a d d i t i o n to the data c o l l e c t e d v i a the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e , a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was gathered by measuring the a c t u a l d i s t ances from the housing p r o j e c t s surveyed to the va r ious f a c i l i t i e s regarded as be ing of r e l evance to the e l d e r l y (Table 8,' Appendix C) . The measure o f d i s t ance was a shor t c i t y b l o c k , t y p i c a l of the g r i d s t r e e t p a t t e r n i n the c i t y of Vancouver, and e q u i v a l e n t to approximate ly two hundred and f i f t y f ee t i n l e n g t h . 59 These d i s t ances were then t r a n s l a t e d i n t o aggregate d i s -tances by t a k i n g two a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n t o account , these being slope or g rad ien t and a v a i l a b i l i t y of pub-l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Any d i s t ances tha t had to be ove r -come by wa lk ing tha t were i n excess of f i v e per cent grade were m u l t i p l i e d by two, wh i l e any d i s t ances tha t cou ld be t r a v e l l e d v i a p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were d i v i -ded by two. The d e c i s i o n to use the f i v e per cent grade as c r i t i c a l to the movement o f the e l d e r l y was made up-on c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h an a r c h i t e c t w e l l versed i n the de-s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of s en io r c i t i z e n s housing i n the Vancouver a r e a . 1 In u s ing t h i s concept , a s t andard ized o v e r a l l d i s t ance cou ld be envisaged i n comparing the va r ious housing p r o j e c t s s e l e c t e d . An example i n c a l -c u l a t i n g the aggregate d i s t a n c e f o l l o w s : S i t e B T o t a l d i s t ance to bank = 12 shor t b locks Dis tance to p u b l i c t r a n s i t = 2 shor t b locks Dis tance served by p u b l i c = 10 shor t b locks t r a n s i t Dis tance tha t must be walked , w i t h f i v e per cent or g rea t -er g r ad i en t = 2 shor t b locks Aggregate d i s t ance = 10/2 +(2 x 2) =" _9_ shor t b locks This technique i s s i m i l a r to tha t used by P r i e s t and "'"Statement by W i l l i a m W i l d i n g , pe r sona l .conversa-t i o n , February 10, 197 2 60 Lefevre i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f e leven sen io r c i t i z e n hous-i n g p r o j e c t s i n the Greater Vancouver area i n 1969, a l -though t h e i r approach was tha t of a t t a i n i n g a t o t a l aggregate d i s t ance to a l l f a c i l i t i e s from the p r o j e c t s s e l e c t e d . An average aggregate d i s t ance to f a c i l i t i e s has a l s o been prov ided i n order to permit ease of com-p a r i s o n between v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d i n the ques-t i o n n a i r e (Table 9, Appendix C ) . In p re sen t ing the data c o l l e c t e d i n the survey , a conscious attempt was made to avo id comparing the r e s u l t s of the va r ious ques t ions asked. This d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s i s the sub jec t of the nex t - chap t e r . CHAPTER M-ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTED In examining the data ob ta ined i n the survey ques-t i o n n a i r e , i t may be.noted tha t the aggregate r e s u l t s p rov ide a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r -ences of the e l d e r l y toward t h e i r l i v i n g accommodation. Consequent ly , much of the raw data may be d i scus sed i n an attempt to fu r the r knowledge- as to the l o c a t i o n a l needs of the e l d e r l y f o r h o u s i n g , as w e l l as to ga in i n -s i g h t i n t o the successes and f a i l u r e s of accommodation tha t has a l r eady been prov ided f o r them i n the c i t y "of Vancouver. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , the s t a t i s t i c a l package f o r s o c i a l sc iences (SPSS) p rogram. i s employed to produce c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s to . tes t whether any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t among s e v e r a l o f the v a r i a b l e s s t u -d i e d , these being age, l eng th of r e s i d e n c e , importance of p r o x i m i t y to s e l e c t e d f a c i l i t i e s , frequency of t h e i r use , and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n overcoming d i s t a n c e s , as w e l l as the s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h and comments upon the p r i n c i p a l advantages and disadvantages of the respondents ' l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . These f i n d i n g s may add to the knowledge of 62 the needs and preferences of the e l d e r l y i n regard to t h e i r hous ing , w i t h the hope tha t the r e s u l t s w i l l prove b e n e f i c i a l to the future , s i t e a n a l y s i s and p l ann ing o f housing accommodation .for t h i s age group. Each of the v a r i a b l e s noted above w i l l be d i scussed s epa ra t e ly i n order to p rov ide a t o t a l p i c t u r e of the present housing of the e l d e r l y , i n c l u d i n g the l o c a l e o f t h e i r former r e s i d e n c e s , as w e l l a s - t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and preferences i n seeking adequate l i v i n g accommodation. Age as a V a r i a b l e Al though the m a j o r i t y of the e l d e r l y surveyed were i n the seventy to e igh ty year o l d age group, t h i s t e l l s one very l i t t l e of t h e i r needs i n regard to hous ing . . Consequent ly , an attempt i s made to note any v a r i a b l e s tha t may be dependent upon the aging p rocess . F i r s t l y , i n c o r r e l a t i n g respondents ' age and the s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o x i m i t y o f t h e i r l i v i n g quar te r s i n regard to f a c i l i t i e s used r e g u l a r l y (Table 1, Appendix D ) , no s i g n i f i c a n t mutual p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i s e v i d e n t . The f a c i -l i t y producing the h ighes t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , tha t of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o x i m i t y to r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s ( . 3 2 ) , may be exp la ined i n tha t many of the e l d e r l y are p r o v i d -ed w i t h f ree t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to t h e i r chu rch . As a r e s u l t , 63 the p h y s i c a l , d i s t ance to the church i s markedly reduc-ed i n importance, fo r door to door p e r s o n a l i z e d s e r v i c e i s a v a i l a b l e to them. This a l s o has a secondary e f f e c t .that must not be ove r looked , tha t of p rov id ing- t h i s ag-i n g p o p u l a t i o n w i t h more a t t e n t i o n and an o u t l e t fo r i n -creased s o c i a l con tac t s which they regard h i g h l y i n f u l -f i l l i n g t h e i r needs. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of the remaining twelve f a c i l i t i e s are much lower and no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p can be noted worthy o f comment. In r e l a t i n g the age o f respondents w i t h importance of p r o x i m i t y to f a c i l i t i e s , the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s are produced: TABLE 7 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s  Age vs Importance of P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s R e l a t i v e s .39 Fr iends , .31 Movie Theatre .30 Bank .29 Park .22 Bus Stop .21-Community Centre .21 Corner Store .20 L i b r a r y .18 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e .18 Supermarket .17 Drug Store .14 Church .08 64 Al though the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are much lower than those r e q u i r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( . 7 ) 1 , these f i n d i n g s suggest the importance of s o c i a l and pe r -sona l con tac t s (as opposed to the other f a c i l i t i e s t e s -ted) w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. Aging i s a l s o c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the frequency" of t r i p s to t h i r t e e n s e l e c t e d d e s t i n a t i o n s (Table 2, Appendix D ) , but no s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t may be obta ined i n d i c a t i n g the ex i s t ence of a v a l i d r e l a -t i o n s h i p between these two v a r i a b l e s . These r e s u l t s suggest t ha t f a c i l i t i e s do not .demand more frequent use by the e l d e r l y w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. In an overv iew, i t i s s u r p r i s i n g to note t ha t a s t ronger r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not ev iden t i n the importance of med ica l a t t e n t i o n w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age, f o r t h i s would be regarded as a most n a t u r a l and expected r e s u l t . The importance of 'someone to t u rn t o ' i n a t ime of need seems to be unequal led i n importance compared to the r other p laces l i s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , as the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l becomes o l d e r . S a t i s f a c t i o n With' L o c a t i o n o f L i v i n g Quarters In no t i ng the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the respondents i n Hubert M. B l a l o c k . S o c i a l S t a t i s t i c s . New Y o r k , McGraw H i l l , 1960. 65 regard to the l o c a t i o n a l advantages of t h e i r l i v i n g quar-t e r s , an attempt has been made to t e s t f o r any s i g n i f i -cant r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h i s v a r i a b l e w i t h the frequency of use of the s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t i e s mentioned (Table 3 , Appendix D ) . A s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t ( .82) i s ev iden t i n tha t the s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h and the amount of v i s i t s to the church appear r e l a t e d . This may be accounted f o r by the in f requen t use of t h i s f a c i l i t y (average of 2.2 t r i p s per month) as w e l l as the p r o v i s i o n o f p e r s o n a l i z e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and from the church (an average of 5.6 b locks away from a l l housing p r o j e c t s surveyed) . Th i s may be con t ra s t ed to the : almost n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o x i m i t y and frequency of use of a supermarket ( . 0 6 ) . The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s appear to i n d i c a t e more n o t i c e a b l e i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a -t i o n s h i p s among those f a c i l i t i e s used most f r e q u e n t l y ; t h i s suggests tha t the respondents commented more r e a d i -l y and i n a f avorab le f a sh ion to those p laces they v i s i t -ed l e s s o f ten due to t h e i r l a c k o f concern as to the l o c a t i o n of these f a c i l i t i e s . An excep t ion to t h i s may be tha t of the c o e f f i c i e n t r e s u l t i n g from the r e spon-dents'* s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o x i m i t y to r e l a t i v e s ( . 5 0 ) . This may be exp la ined by the f a c t tha t most r e l a t i v e s v i s i t the respondents a t t h e i r r e s idence r a t h e r than 66 v i c e v e r s a , thus a f f e c t i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the a c t u a l d i s t ance sepa ra t ing them from f a m i l y members.. Length of Residence i n Housing P r o j e c t In no t ing the d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses as to the l eng th of r e s idence i n the v a r i o u s housing p r o j e c t s se-l e c t e d , an attempt is .made to i n v e s t i g a t e whether the l e n g t h of s tay may a f f e c t s a t i s f a c t i o n , frequency of use or r e l a t i v e importance to the f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In examining the r e s u l t s o f c o r r e l a -t i n g l eng th of r e s idence and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o x i m i t y to f a c i l i t i e s (Table 4, Appendix D ) , aga in i t i s noted tha t the p laces v i s i t e d l e s s of ten command the l a r g e r c o e f f i c i e n t s wh i l e those used on a d a i l y ba s i s . ( t r a n s i t and shopping f a c i l i t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r ) produce almost a t o t a l l a c k of a r e l a t i o n s h i p . This i n d i c a t e s tha t the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l ' s concept of the d i s t ances tha t must be overcome i n r each ing f a c i l i t i e s used d a i l y does not change w i t h the l eng th of s tay a t a p a r t i c u l a r hous ing p r o j e c t . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are found i n t e s t ing-the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l eng th of s tay and frequency of use of f a c i l i t i e s , f o r the number of t r i p s made to a 67 number of p laces does not appear to i nc rease as a person l i v e s longer i n a neighborhood and becomes more f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s environment (Table 5, Appendix D) . Those f a c i -l i t i e s s e r v i n g a s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l need ( f r i e n d s , r e l a -t i v e s , movie thea t re ) head the l i s t , but even these c o -e f f i c i e n t s are not i n d i c a t i v e of a s t rong t i e between these v a r i a b l e s . A f i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s i s conducted, t e s t i n g the l eng th o f ' r e s i d e n c e w i t h the importance a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d , but a g a i n , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a -t i o n s h i p s may be found: TABLE 8 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Length of Residence vs Importance o f P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s Park Bank Fr i ends R e l a t i v e s Corner Store Movie Theatre D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e L i b r a r y Community Centre Bus Stop Supermarket Church Drug Store .32 .28 . 27 . 27 . 27 . 26 .25 . 23 . 21 . 21 .16 .13 .12 68 Once a g a i n , those f a c i l i t i e s not s e r v i n g immediate p h y s i -c a l needs are atop the l i s t , w h i l e those needed on a day to day bas i s command much lower c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . I t i s c l e a r l y ev ident from the a n a l y s i s conducted tha t the l eng th of the respondent ' s s tay a t a p a r t i c u l a r hous-i n g p r o j e c t d i d not have any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon changing h i s a t t i t u d e s , a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s , or va lues as to the importance o f some f a c i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e to o t h e r s . Former Residences of the Respondents Al though none of the housing p r o j e c t s randomly se-l e c t e d fo r the study were i n the West End of Vancouver, t h i r t y per cent of the respondents i n d i c a t e d tha t they had r e s i d e d i n t h i s neighborhood p r e v i o u s l y (Table 3, Appendix C ) . In comparing t h i s r e s u l t to the major reason g iven f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r former r e s i d e n c e , ( tha t of unbearable r e n t s ) i t i s ev iden t tha t t h i s age group i s o f ten forced out o f deve lop ing areas (such as the West End and K i t s i l a n o ) due to t h e i r l i m i t e d incomes and consequent ly , must accept lower p r i c e d accommodation wherever i t might be a v a i l a b l e . Of t h i s low r e n t a l ac -commodation, on ly ten per cent o f the e l d e r l y surveyed had an oppor tun i ty i n choosing among two or more hous-i n g p r o j e c t s . I f they d i d not accept what was a v a i l a b l e 69 when t h e i r name appeared a t the top o f the Vancouver Housing R e g i s t r y , t h e i r card was moved to the bottom of the w a i t i n g l i s t . Th is i n d i c a t e s the' importance of w e l l l o c a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d housing f o r the e l d e r l y i n any urban a rea . Adequately l o c a t e d accommodation may on ly be achieved by a conscious attempt i n l e a r n i n g the-needs and preferences of t h i s age group. In a sk ing those e l d e r l y persons who d i d have a cho ice i n s e l e c t i n g t h e i r present l i v i n g accommodation as to what they regarded as the major f a c t o r i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n , one t h i r d r e p l i e d tha t i t was the p r o x i m i t y to persons f a m i l i a r to them, e i t h e r e t h n i c a l l y or s o c i -a l l y , w h i l e on ly three o f the f i f t e e n respondents com-mented tha t t h e i r d e c i s i o n was based upon the l o c a t i o n -a l convenience of the housing p r o j e c t . In c o r r e l a t i n g those respondents having a cho ice w i t h t h e i r s a t i s f a c -t i o n to p r o x i m i t y of f a c i l i t i e s (Table 6, Appendix D) i t i s found tha t the respondents were f u l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h s o c i a l contac ts and p r o x i m i t y to t r a n s i t s t ops , a l -though some f a c i l i t i e s demanding frequent use (such as the supermarket and corner s to re ) were s t i l l l o c a t i o n a l -l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . This f i n d i n g f u r t h e r ' i n d i c a t e s the concern shown f o r -personal and s o c i a l con tac t s by the e l d e r l y i n choosing t h e i r l i v i n g accommodation. This 70 may on ly be achieved v i a c a r e f u l p l ann ing of s en io r c i t i -zens housing p r o j e c t s i n a v a r i e t y of neighborhoods i n the urban a rea . Importance o f P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s The r e s u l t s of t h i s survey i n d i c a t e tha t more than one h a l f of the respondents regard r e s i d e n t i a l p rox im-i t y to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and med ica l f a c i l i t i e s of major impor tance , c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by a v a i l a b i l i t y o f supers markets i n s e r v i n g t h e i r d a i l y needs. In a t tempt ing to d i s c o v e r whether s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o x i m i t y of a f a c i l i t y i s dependent upon i t s importance to the e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t , another c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s i s conducted: TABLE 9 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s  S a t i s f a c t i o n With P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s vs Importance L i b r a r y R e l a t i v e s Park Bus Stop D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e Community Centre Supermarket Bank Drug Store Movie Theatre F r i ends Church ' Corner Store .22 . 20 .20 .20 .19 .15 .13 .17 .11 .10 .07 .0.6 .02 71 The r e s u l t s suggest t ha t those f a c i l i t i e s • t h e r e s i d e n t s are s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r o x i m i t y of are not n e c e s s a r i l y those commanding great s i g n i f i c a n c e , fo r the l i b r a r y and the park appear to have amongst the h ighes t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of the f a c i l i t i e s - l i s t e d . In t e s t i n g the v a l i d i t y o f the r e s u l t s i n Table 9, a c o r r e l a t i o n t e s t i s made between those f a c i l i t i e s regarded as the most important to l i v e near and the. respondents ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r p r o x i m i t y (.Table 7 , Appendix D) . The r e s u l -t an t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are so near zero ( l a r g e s t c o e f f i c i e n t of a l l f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d i s .0013) tha t these two v a r i a b l e s may be assumed to be t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d . In c o r r e l a t i n g the importance of f a c i l i t i e s w i th t h e i r frequency of use, somewhat higher: c o e f f i c i e n t s are produced, a l though not s u b s t a n t i a l enough to e s t a b l i s h a s t rong r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s : Importance of P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t y vs Frequency of Use TABLE 10 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Church Community Centre R e l a t i v e s L i b r a r y Drug Store Park •Doctor 's O f f i c e F r iends Corner Store Supermarket Bus Stop Bank Movie Theatre .47 .44 .43 . 37 . 28 . 25 . 24 .17 .16 .12 .11 .10 .05 72 The two f a c i l i t i e s producing the h ighes t r e s u l t s , the church and the community c e n t r e , are used i n f r e q u e n t l y i n comparison to the supermarket and t r a n s i t stop which have much weaker c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . This absence of a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i c a t e s tha t the importance of a f a c i l i t y cannot be assumed by the number o f t imes i t i s pa t ron i zed i n a g iven p e r i o d by the e l d e r l y person . Therefore , i n a n a l y z i n g the t o t a l needs of the e l d e r l y , t h i s f i n d i n g cannot be g iven undue emphasis, fo r one must examine the f a c i l i t i e s regarded as most important independent of the number of t r i p s be ing generated to them. This has been an o v e r s i g h t of many s tud ies con-ducted to date r ega rd ing the needs o f the e l d e r l y , f o r no attempt was made i n a s k i n g them to respond to the f a c i l i t y regarded as most c r i t i c a l l y important to be near . The f i n d i n g s a l s o suggest tha t frequency of use may not be a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f the c r i t i c a l d i s t ance o f a f a c i l i t y ( tha t d i s t ance before d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s ex-pressed) to the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l . Consequent ly , con-cepts such as c r i t i c a l s p a t i a l cos t s (de r ived by m u l t i -p l y i n g c r i t i c a l d i s t ances to f a c i l i t i e s by frequency of use) must be examined w i t h c a u t i o n before assuming t h e i r importance i n l e a r n i n g the t o t a l l o c a t i o n a l needs of the aged i n regard to the planned l o c a t i o n of fu ture housing 73 developments. The comparison o f the frequency o f use of the f a c i -l i t i e s s e l e c t e d i n the survey w i t h the rank order of t h e i r importance (based on the number of t imes f a c i l i -t i e s were mentioned as being most i m p o r t a n t ) , produces the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : TABLE 11 Most Important F a c i l i t i e s and Frequency of Use Importance of f a c i l i t y ( i n rank order ) Bus Stop 13.9 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e 1.3 R e l a t i v e s 3.4 Supermarket 8 .6 F r i ends 4.6 Church 2.2 Park 1.6 Corner Store 6.0 Drug Store 3.4 Bank 1.3 The above t a b l e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s tha t frequency o f use cannot be employed as a major c r i t e r i o n i n assuming the importance of a f a c i l i t y to the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l . A l -though the number o f t r i p s generated to the D o c t o r ' s o f f i c e was the f o u r t h lowest o f the t h i r t e e n f a c i l i t i e s Average frequency o f use  (t imes per month) l i s t e d , , i t was regarded as the second most important to be l oca t ed near , (mentioned on ly .7 per cent l e s s than tha t of the t r a n s i t s t o p ) . In c o n t r a s t , the number of t r i p s made to the corner s t o r e , a l though t h i r d h ighes t i n the above l i s t , ranked e igh th i n terms of importance to the respondents (only mentioned by 2.2 per cent of respondents as be ing the most important f a c i l i t y i n terms of p r o x i m i t y ) . The f i n d i n g s above may be supported i n c o r r e l a t i n g those f a c i l i t i e s regarded as the most important to be l oca t ed near w i t h the frequency of t h e i r use: TABLE 12 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Most Important F a c i l i t y vs Frequency o f Use Community Centre R e l a t i v e s L i b r a r y D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e Supermarket Bank Fr i ends Church Drug Store Corner Store Park Bus Movie .Theat re . 26 . 26 . 24 . 24 .20 .17 .17 .16 .16 .16 .15 .09 .08 75 These r e s u l t s show tha t the t r a n s i t s t op , a l though used a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g rea te r average number of times than o ther f a c i l i t i e s , d i d not produce a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h those respondents who regarded t h i s f a c i l i t y as the most important to l i v e near . These r e s u l t s are i n d i c a t i v e tha t the amount o f patronage a s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t y r e c e i v e s cannot n e c e s s a r i l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s degree of im-portance i n the t o t a l l o c a t i o n a l needs of housing the e l d e r l y . Consequent ly , those f a c i l i t i e s mentioned as being the most important to r e s i d e near must be examined independent ly i n a s se s s ing the l o c a t i o n a l me r i t s of a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s f o r fu ture sen io r c i t i z e n s ' housing proj e c t s . D i f f i c u l t i e s Exper ienced i n Overcoming Dis tances In a sk ing the e l d e r l y i f they exper ienced any d i f -f i c u l t y i n r each ing a s e l e c t e d number o f f a c i l i t i e s (Table 5, Appendix C ) , i t i s noted tha t movement to the supermarket, d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e , ; a n d t r a n s i t stop was most troublesome to a t l e a s t one quar te r of the t o t a l sample. The major reason f o r t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , (as ide from phy-s i c a l d i s t ances to f a c i l i t i e s ) was tha t of n e g o t i a t i n g steep grades . Of the s i x t e e n housing p r o j e c t s s t u d i e d , ten were noted w i t h grades i n excess o f f i v e pe r -cen t 76 between the s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f and the c l o s e s t e x t e r n a l f a c i l i t y used, t ha t be ing a t r a n s i t s top . This f i n d i n g po in t s out tha t the p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the e l d e r l y must not be overshadowed by the s i g n i f i c a n c e of o ther f a c t o r s such as steep s l o p e s , which present major d i f f i c u l t i e s to t h i s segment of the p o p u l a t i o n . This f a c t o r accounts f o r the major burden exper ienced by the respondents i n r each ing f a c i l i t i e s t ha t they use i n t h e i r day to day a c t i v i t i e s . A f i n d i n g , unintended but v a l u a b l e , was the i n d i c a -t i o n of those respondents tha t were car owners. These s i x e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s were equated w i t h t h e i r s a t i s -f a c t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l p r o x i m i t y to f a c i l i t i e s (Table 8, Appendix D) to note any changes due to t h e i r a b i l i t y to move about the neighborhood i n an independent f a s h i o n . However, the r e s u l t s obtained, do not i n d i c a t e any s i g n i -f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , sugges t ing tha t those persons w i t h v e h i c l e s would p r e f e r the f a c i l i t i e s c l o s e to t h e i r r e s i -dence so tha t these d i s t ances might be overcome by f o o t . Advantages and Disadvantages' of L i v i n g Quarters By f a r the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of respondents (42.5 per cent) regarded reduced r en t s as the main advantage 77 of t h e i r l i v i n g accommodation (Table 6, Appendix C ) . This may be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t tha t persons r e s i d -i n g i n these housing p r o j e c t s are on f i x e d incomes ( p r i m a r i l y from o l d age pension or wel fare a l lowances) and t h e r e f o r e , must budget t h e i r funds c a r e f u l l y i n meet-i n g d a i l y needs. Convenient l o c a t i o n was on ly mentioned by 4.6 per cent of the respondents as an advantage i n regard to t h e i r present l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . In c o n t r a s t , one t h i r d o f the e l d e r l y surveyed expressed d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r present l i v i n g a c -commodation, the next most frequent response being the d i f f i c u l t y exper ienced i n overcoming the topography near t h e i r housing p r o j e c t (remarked by 2 5.4 per cent of the sample) . These disadvantages are c l e a r i n d i c a t o r s of the importance of w e l l planned housing accommodation f o r the e l d e r l y . I f the t o t a l needs of the e l d e r l y had been examined at the ou tse t and implemented i n the planned l o c a t i o n of these p r o j e c t s , such d i f f i c u l t i e s would not have occurred as ind ica ted , by. t h i s • r e s e a r c h . F a c i l i t i e s Lack ing . P r o x i m i t y to .Housing P r o j e c t s 'S tudied The most ou t s tand ing response as to the need of ad-d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n p r o x i m i t y to the housing p r o j e c t s s tud ied was tha t of adequate shopping fo r d a i l y needs, 78 p a r t i c u l a r l y f o o d i t e m s ( T a b l e 7,. Appendix C) . T h i s i s a most s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c y i n r e g a r d t o the l o c a t i o n s o f t h e accommodations s t u d i e d , f o r t h e average a g g r e g a t e d i s t a n c e (thus a c c o u n t i n g f o r s t e e p grades and t r a n s i t - s e r v i c e ) t o a supermarket was 6.2 b l o c k s . T h i s problem c o u l d have been e a s i l y a v o i d e d by t a k i n g a comprehensive approach toward the t o t a l h o u s i n g needs o f the e l d e r l y r a t h e r t h a n a v i e w toward p l a c i n g such accommodation where l a n d s are i n e x p e n s i v e and u n a t t r a c t i v e f o r o t h e r uses t h a t produce g r e a t e r revenue. In summary, the d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e e l d e r l y p r e s e n t l y r e s i d i n g i n low r e n t a l accommodation cannot be g l a n c e d over w i t h o u t extreme c o n c e r n . Of t h e t o t a l sample, the o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r l o c a -t i o n a l p r o x i m i t y t o a l l f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d was o n l y 5 8.3 per c e n t , and d i d not v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l y sponsored h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ( T a b l e 1, Appendix C). Only one o f t e n r e s p o n d e n t s s u r v e y e d had any a l t e r n a t i v e i n s e l e c t i n g h i s l i v i n g q u a r t e r s , i n d i -c a t i n g the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l accommodation f o r our a g i n g p o p u l a t i o n . More th a n t w e n t y - f i v e per c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e a c h i n g shop-p i n g , m e d i c a l , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and l o c a -t i o n a l i n c o n v e n i e n c e s were mentioned' most o f t e n as a 79 p r i n c i p a l disadvantage i n t h e i r present l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e the need f o r a more f u l l y concerted e f f o r t i n the planned l o c a t i o n of housing f o r the e l d e r l y i n the urban area. This w i l l be discussed f u r t h e r i n the next chapter. CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A major problem w i t h which the urban planner i s faced i s t ha t of p r o v i d i n g adequately l o c a t e d housing accommodation f o r the e l d e r l y i n the urban sphere. Due to the l i m i t e d incomes of persons compr i s ing t h i s seg-ment of our p o p u l a t i o n , they are unable to occupy r e s i -dences i n areas o f f e r i n g c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to t h e i r t o t a l p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l needs. Therefore , many of the aged are forced to vacate t h e i r c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d l i v i n g quar te r s i n the c i t y i n search of inexpens ive r e n t s . When no vacancies e x i s t i n sub-s i d i z e d r e n t a l s en io r c i t i z e n s housing p r o j e c t s , the e l d e r l y must accept lower q u a l i t y s h e l t e r . Never the-l e s s , some of the e l d e r l y are w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e a supe r io r d w e l l i n g u n i t fo r l o c a t i o n a l p r o x i m i t y to shop-p i n g , m e d i c a l , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , as w e l l as s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s . The movement o f the e l d e r l y from the urban core has a l s o produced severe problems of r e - o r i e n t a t i o n to the neighborhood, f o r the aged regard pe r sona l and s o c i a l con tac t s w i t h great importance. . Al though such 81 movement i s sometimes unavo idab le , the problem may be lessened s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d accom-modation f o r them i n the c i t y . An a d d i t i o n a l problem i n regard to the p r o v i s i o n of w e l l l o c a t e d housing f o r t h i s segment of our popu la -t i o n i s tha t a l though they are l a r g e i n number, they have n e i t h e r the f i n a n c i a l nor a d m i n i s t r a t i v e resources needed to so lve t h e i r problems i n d i v i d u a l l y . In new-l y deve lop ing a reas , the r e - l o c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t s has become of secondary importance to tha t of the re -use 1 of l a n d . Consequent ly , the e l d e r l y are fo rced to move from one area of the c i t y to another , o f ten u n t i l a vacancy has a r i s e n i n a s en io r c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o -j e c t fo r them. Once such accommodation has been found, the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l has l i t t l e choice i f the housing p r o j e c t i s inadequate ly l o c a t e d i n s e r v i n g h i s d a i l y needs, f o r he may wai t two to three years before h i s name appears a t the top of the w a i t i n g l i s t of a p p l i - . cants a g a i n . There fo re , the aged are caught i n a di lemna between tha t of accep t ing lower q u a l i t y but c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d l i v i n g quar te rs as opposed to b e t t e r q u a l i t y but o f ten i n c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d s en io r c i t i z e n s ' accommodation. J . Go ldner , Loca t ing Housing f o r the Aged, Canadian Wel fa re , v o l . 36 (March, 1960), p . 218. 82 The r e s u l t s of the r e sea rch undertaken i n l e a r n i n g about the needs of the aged c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e tha t the e l d e r l y p re fe r to ma in t a in independent l i v i n g a r range-ments , f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between parents and c h i l d -ren need to be based upon a r e c o g n i t i o n tha t each gene-r a t i o n has i t s own l i f e to l e a d . T y p i c a l comments r e c e i v e d from the e l d e r l y not i n favor of l i v i n g w i t h a d u l t c h i l d r e n were tha t the young ought to be by them-s e l v e s , f o r t h e i r views and aims are d i f f e r e n t . A l s o , o l d e r people r e q u i r e a q u i e t e r l i f e and should not have to p l a y the r o l e s of servants or b a b y s i t t e r s f o r t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n . Therefore , there i s no need f o r congregate l i v i n g arrangements, fo r t h i s may produce the enforcement of one ' s va lues upon another r e s u l t i n g i n c o n f l i c t s , d r a s t i c a l l y r educ ing what may have been a s t rong parent - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . Summary of F ind ings In a t tempt ing to assess the t o t a l needs and p r e f e r -ences of the e l d e r l y f o r hous ing , the study undertaken has -po in ted out one c e n t r a l f a c t : t ha t the importance of a p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t y to ' an e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l i s not n e c e s s a r i l y dependent upon i t s frequency o f use. Consequent ly , the a n a l y s i s of p o t e n t i a l housing s i t e s 83 fo r s en io r c i t i z e n s ' accommodation must be based upon an aggregate-approach r a t h e r than bas ing l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s upon the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a f a c i l i t y f r e -quented most r e g u l a r l y . The study d i d not produce any evidence of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l o c a t i o n a l impor-tance of a number of s e l e c t e d f a c i l i t i e s and the age of respondents or l eng th of r e s idence i n t h e i r present l i v -i n g q u a r t e r s . From t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t may be understood tha t the e l d e r l y do not change t h e i r l o c a t i o n a l p r i o r i -t i e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age or l eng th of s tay a t a p a r t i c u -l a r housing p r o j e c t ; t h i s bears r e l evance to future , s i t e p l ann ing of accommodation f o r the aged. An ou t s tand ing c r i t e r i o n i n the l o c a t i o n of accom-modation fo r the e l d e r l y i s t ha t of nearby shopping f a c i l i t i e s , even though the , respondents regarded i t s p r o x i m i t y secondary to those of t r a n s i t s e r v i c e s , med-- i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , and r e l a t i v e s . In a d d i t i o n to i t s i n s t r u m e n t a l - f u n c t i o n , the shopping t r i p i s used by o l d people (as w e l l as o ther age groups) i n s a t i s f y i n g an expres s ive need to keep i n touch w i t h the l o c a l commun-i t y and to conf i rm t h e i r p lace i n s o c i e t y . The p r o x i m i -ty of a neighborhood commercial cent re p rov ides the aged w i t l l an o u t l e t i n occupying t h e i r spare t ime . The know-ledge of i t s p r o x i m i t y i s a grea t reassurance i n o r i e n t i n g 84 themselves to the l o c a l community, f o r a c t i v i t y i s t ak -i n g p lace about them. The news media ( t e l e v i s i o n , r a -d i o , and newspaper) cannot r e p l a c e the va lue of a c t u a l pe r sona l con tac t s o f the e l d e r l y w i t h the people of the neighborhood. P h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n from f a c i l i t i e s , as w e l l as the d i f f i c u l t i e s encoun te red . in n e g o t i a t i n g steep grades were the disadvantages most o f t en expres-sed by the r e s i d e n t s of s en io r c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o -j e c t s i n the c i t y of Vancouver (58.7 per cent of r e s -pondents) . The d i s t ance to the neares t supermarket from e igh t of the s i x t e e n housing p r o j e c t s s tud ied was one quar te r o f a m i l e or g r e a t e r , i n d i c a t i n g the l o c a -t i o n a l inconveniences caused b y . p o o r l y s i t u a t e d accom-modation f o r t h i s segment of our p o p u l a t i o n . Often the e l d e r l y are forced to p lace food orders by telephone and r e l y upon d e l i v e r y . However, they are r e l u c t a n t i n doing t h i s i n fea r of r e c e i v i n g merchandise of i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , as w e l l as having to pay f o r the cos t s of t h i s s e r v i c e . A l s o , one h a l f of the res idences s tud ied d i d not have a d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e nearer than e i g h t b locks away, i n d i c a t i n g why on ly 42.1 per cent of the respondents were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r o x i m i t y to medica l s e r v i c e s . The p r o x i m i t y of the housing p r o j e c t s to t r a n s i t s e r v i c e i s 85 b e n e f i c i a l , a l though some of the respondents e x p e r i -ence d i f f i c u l t y i n boarding and disembarking the v e h i c l e due to the steep s teps . Since they are unable to walk to f a c i l i t i e s due to the great d i s t ances tha t must be overcome, the e l d e r l y have no cho ice but to use a l t e r -n a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (mainly t a x i ) which they are most o f ten unable to a f f o r d . The e l d e r l y a l s o p r e f e r to r e s i d e near a c t i v i t y and are w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e o ther inconveniences (such as no i se and q u a l i t y of s h e l t e r ) fo r convenient l o c a t i o n . Recommendations The f i n d i n g s of the r e sea rch undertaken i n t h i s t h e s i s , r e s u l t i n the f o l l o w i n g recommendations f o r the fu ture s i t e p l ann ing of housing accommodation fo r the e l d e r l y : 1) Steep grades ( i n excess of f i v e per cent) between the s i t e and proximous f a c i l i t i e s be avoided a t a l l c o s t s . 2) S i t e s should be w i t h i n wa lk ing d i s t ances ' of t r a n s i t , m e d i c a l , and shopping f a c i l i -t i e s . 3) High p r i o r i t y be g iven to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s (community c e n t r e s , p a r k s , l i b r a r i e s ) so t ha t the e l -d e r l y may make s o c i a l contac ts w i t h o ther members of the community. 86 An aggregate approach must be taken towards examining the t o t a l l o c a t i o n a l needs o f the e l d e r l y , as opposed to making the l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n upon the i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of a convenien t ly , s i t u a t e d f a c i l i t y (such as a t r a n s i t s t o p ) . Conclus ions In cu r r en t theory r e l a t e d to urban p l a n n i n g , s o c i a l d e c i s i o n s have f r e q u e n t l y ignored the aged as a segment of s o c i e t y . Consequent ly , the l a c k of p r o v i s i o n of hous i n g may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a d e c i s i o n to exclude these persons . Many of the s i t e s chosen fo r s en io r c i t i z e n s ' accommodation are of ten those p r o p e r t i e s tha t are un-a t t r a c t i v e fo r g rea te r revenue producing schemes. The d i f f i c u l t i e s exper ienced by the r e s i d e n t s of these incon v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d housing p r o j e c t s could, be e a s i l y avo id ed i n examining t h e i r t o t a l needs a t the ou tse t of se l ec i n g a s i t e r a t h e r than a f t e r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . Urban p l ann ing cannot c rea te f r i e n d s h i p s nor cure p h y s i c a l handicaps of the e l d e r l y , . b u t i t may make or mar t h e i r oppor tun i ty to conserve independence and main-t a i n s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . When an area i s being comprehen-s i v e l y planned, , as i n major renewal a reas , i t should be 87 mandatory to r e se rve a t t r a c t i v e s i t e s f o r housing p r o - . j e c t s f o r the aged, c l o s e to l o c a l shopping, m e d i c a l , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . Zoning ordinances and a s s o c i a t e d land use c o n t r a c t s must be examined c r i t i c a l l y to see whether they are c r e a t i n g a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n which not on ly i s o l a t e s the e l d e r l y , but a l s o c rea tes neighborhoods s u i t a b l e f o r use by a f a m i l y on ly f o r a l i m i t e d pa r t of t h e i r l i f e c y c l e . Only i n employing a comprehensive approach i n a s se s s ing the t o t a l needs of the v aged can any success be achieved i n p r o v i d i n g adequately l o c a t e d accommodation f o r the e l d e r l y i n the f u t u r e . 88 APPENDIX A . SELF CONTAINED LIVING ACCOMMODATION FOR SENIOR CITIZENS IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER • . TABLE 1 P u b l i c l y Sponsored Senior C i t i z e n s ' Housing P r o j e c t s In The C i t y Of Vancouver (Exc lud ing Pe r sona l Care Accommodation) Name Address Number of U n i t s FP- 1 L i t t l e Mountain •• 125 East 37th Avenue 24 FP- 2 Orchard Park 5796 S t i r l i n g Avenue •36 FP- 3 Maclean Park 7 05 Jackson Avenue 121 FP- 4 Skeena Terrace 2298 C a s s i a r S t r ee t 69 FP- 5 K i l l a r n e y Gardens 6680 E l l i o t S t r ee t 187 FP- 6 Raymur P lace 400 Campbell Avenue 135 FP- 7 Grandview Terrace 1555 Woodland D r i v e 100 FP- 8 Cu l loden Court 6225 Knight S t r ee t 50 FP- 9 MacLean Park Phase I I 350 Keefer S t r ee t 161 FP- •10. N i c h o l s e n Tower 1115 Nelson S t ree t 211 T o t a l 1094 TABLE 2 P r i v a t e l y Sponsored Senior C i t i z e n s ' Housing P r o j e c t s In The C i t y Of Vancouver (Exc lud ing Pe r sona l Care Accommodation) Name of Sponsor Address Number of Beulah Garden Home S o c i e t y 1157 M e l v i l l e S t r ee t 158 B . C . Housing Foundation 2955 Hor ley S t r ee t 74 B . C . Housing Foundation 2948-2980 E u c l i d S t r ee t 19 B . C . Housing Foundation 1451 East 12th Avenue 34 B . C . Housing Foundation 1620 East 6th Avenue 40 B . C . Housing Foundation 2330 Balsam S t r ee t 14 B . C . Housing Foundation 16 3 0 B a r c l a y S t ree t 41 B . C . Housing Foundation 1425 East 12th Avenue 21 B . C . Housing Foundation 1444 East 13th Avenue 25 New Chelsea S o c i e t y 800-1000 East 52nd Avenue 54 New Chelsea Soc i e ty 3 07 5 Nanaimo S t r ee t 49 New Chelsea Soc ie ty Vancouver East L i o n ' s S o c i e t y 1966 East 19th Avenue 50 740 Commercial Dr ive 24 Vancouver East L i o n ' s Soc i e ty 2122 Oxford S t r ee t 42 Coleopy Park Development 41s t -43rd Rupert S t r ee t 36 Soroptomist Club 546 West 13th Avenue 21 F i n n i s h Canadian Rest Home 2130-2180 + 2230 H a r r i s o n Dr ive 93 C a l l i n g Foundation 2740 West 25th Avenue 105 A n g l i c a n Homes 2751 West 25th Avenue 54 Vancouver General H o s p i t a l Alumnae Assoc . 1962 West 1s t Avenue 20 E v a n g e l i s t i c Tabernacle 30 East 10th Avenue 65 B . C . B a p t i s t Foundation 6395 E l l i o t S t r ee t 102 Mount P leasant Housing S o c i e t y 3 25 Eas t 6th Avenue 36 U k r a i n i a n Senior C i t i z e n s ' Housing 70 0 7 Ker r S t r ee t 36 S c o t t i s h Women's A s s o c i a t i o n 7101 Ker r S t r ee t 34 Vancouver Kiwanis Senior C i t i z e n s 87 9 0 South West Marine Dr ive 50 Columbos C h a r i t i e s 5233 Joyce S t r ee t 82 Chau Luen Kon So l S o c i e t y Gore Avenue and Keefer S t r ee t 80 C h r i s t Church of China Gore Avenue and Pender S t r ee t 51 Uni ted Church - Fa i rhaven 2720 East 48th Avenue 91 I . O . O . F . Senior C i t i z e n s ' Home Kingsway Ave . and Boundary Road 42 Clarendon Court 25 50 Waverly S t r ee t 103 1,746 91 This survey i s being- conducted by Tony Markoff, a student of the School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n order to l e a r n the needs and preferences of s e n i o r c i t i z e n s so that w e l l l o c a t e d housing may be b u i l t i n the f u t u r e . The r e s u l t s of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e are f o r research purposes o n l y r f o r a l l respondents w i l l remain unknown i n the survey. Your co-operation w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . page PLEASE INDICATE ALL ANSWERS WITH A CHECK ( \S) 1* Sex 92 1. Male 2, Female 2. Age ( i n years) 1. Under 60 ; 2. 60 to 70 3. 71 to 80 4. 81 and over 3« Type of L i v i n g Quarters 1. S i n g l e (one person) 2. Double (two people) 4, Are you s a t i s f i e d w i t h your present l i v i n g q u a r t e r s i n terms of being near the f o l l o w i n g ! Yes No 1. Friends 2, R e l a t i v e s 3. Supermarket 4. Drug Store 5« Bus Stop 6. Park 7. Doctor's O f f i c e ' 8. Church 9» Corner Store 10. Bank • -11. L i b r a r y • 12. Community Centre 13. Movie Theatre • 14, Any Other 5. How long have you l i v e d i n t h i s housing p r o j e c t ? 1. Less than 1 year _____ 9 3 2. 1 to 3 years . 3 . 3 to 5 years 4. 5 to 7 years 5. More than 7 years 6. In what area of Vancouver d i d you l i v e before moving here ? l r P o i n t Grey -2. Dunbar 3 . K e r r i s d a l e 4. Oakridge ; 5. Shaughnessy 6. Marpole . 7. K i t s i l a n o . 8. West End 9. F a i r v i e w Slopes 10. Mount Pleasant 11. Strathcona 12. Renfrew 13* Grandview _____ * 14. Other (please s t a t e ) 7. Why d i d you move from your former residence ? (Check more than one i f you wish) 1. Too much work to look a f t e r my residence 2. Too expensive to have my own residence 3 . P h y s i c a l l y unable to have my own residence 4. Too f a r away from places I l i k e to be near 5« Wanted to be w i t h others of my own age 6. Wanted to be i n a q u i e t e r . a r e a " 7« Wanted to be i n a more a c t i v e area 8, Any other - 8. Did you have any choice before moving to your present residence? 1. y es 94 2. No If you did have a choice, why did you move here? 9. Please indicate the importance of l i v i n g near EACH of the places li s t e d below in the following wayi Place a ' 0 ' in each box i f of l i t t l e or no importance Place a '1* in each box i f quite important Place a '2* in each box i f very important 1. Friends 2. Relatives 3- Supermarket 4. Drug Store 5. Bus Stop 6. Park 7. Doctor's Office 8. Church 9. Corner Store 10. Bank 11. Library 12. Community Centre 13. Movie Theatre 10. Of the places liste d above, which one do you feel is the most important to live near? " " - -' • •  11. In addition to those liste d above, please state any other places that you v i s i t and their importance to you. 12. Please i n d i c a t e the number of times you go to or v i s i t the f o l l o w i n g p l a c e s i n one week. Number of V i s i t s I n One Week I f Less Than One V i s i t i A Week, How Often Do Not Use At A l l 1. Supermarket 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -2. Friends 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. R e l a t i v e s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Church 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. Doctor's O f f i c e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. Bus Stop 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. Community Centre 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Drug Store 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 _9. Park 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | 10. ,Corner Store . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. L i b r a r y . . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 " ! i 12. Bank . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 13.- Movie Theatre 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 j 14. Other •i . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 i i 13« I f you have d i f f i c u l t y i n going to any of the places l i s t e d below, please i n d i c a t e w i t h a check (i*""7 beside the reason. 9 6 R E A S O N S No Bus Ser-v i c e Nearby Steep H i l l Heavy Car Other T r a f f i c j (Please State) • 1. Friends 2<r R e l a t i v e s -3. Bus Stop 4. Supermarket 5. Doctor's O f f i c e 6. Drug Store 7. Movie Theatre X 1 8. Park 9. Church 10. Community Centre 11. Corner Store 12„ L i b r a r y L . ^ _ . ^ ; 13. Bank 14. Other 1 .1- , 14. Could you name the advantages and disadvantages of your present l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . Advantages Disadvantages ' ' ' .' • ' • 0 • ' • • • . • * 15i What f a c i l i t i e s would you l i k e to see near your l i v i n g q u a r t e r s that are not c l o s e enough r i g h t now? 1. 2. 3. 4. APPENDIX C. UNIVARIATE TABLES TABLE 1 Pe r c e n t a g e o f Respondents S a t i s f i e d With P r o x i m i t y t o F a c i l i t i e s , by Housing P r o j e c t S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e A B C D E • F G H I J K L M N 0 P F r i e n d s 100. 0 80 . 0 85. 7 84. 2 40. 0 8 3 : 3 42. 9 100. 0 90 .0 76. 9 66 . 7 100 . 0 •90 . 0 50 . 0 92 . 3 50 . 0 R e l a t i v e s 85. 7 77 . 8 66 . 7 68 . 7 60 . 0 80. 0 50. 0 80 . 0 50 . 0 50 . 0 33 . 3 100 . 0 80 . 0 100 . 0 8 0 . 0 33 .3 Supermarket 28 . 6 22. 2 85 . 7 42. 1 100 . 0 100 . 0 28 . 6 0 . 0 '38 . 5 83 . 3 0 . 0 100. 0 75 . 0 75 . 0 33 . 3 16 .7 Drug S t o r e 100. 0 22 . 2 78 . 6 88 . 9 40. 0 57. 1 37 . 5 0. 0' .30 .0 83 . 3 100 . 0 100 . 0 . 50. 0 75 . 0 14 .3 3 3 . 3 Bus Stop 100. 0 90 . 0 76 . 9 100 . 0 100 . 0 100. 0 12. 5 100. 0 84 . 6 76 . 9 10 0. 0 100 . 0 100 . 0 50 . 0 9 2 • 9 100 . 0 Park 85 . 7 22. 2 54. 5 43 . 7 25. 0 28 . 6 0. 0 33 . 3 7 .7 45 . 4 10 0 . o. 100. 0 54. 8 10 0. 0 61 . 5 20 .0 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e 2 8.. 6 30. 0 28 . 6 44. 4 40. 0 57 . 1 25. 0 0 . 0 58 .3 69 . 2 0-. o" 100 . 0 .5 0 . 0 50 . 0 5 0 . 0 16 .7 Church 66. 7 33 . 3 80 . 0 100. 0 66 . 7 40. 0 50. 0 0 . 0 •6 0 . 0 66 . 7 ' 0. 0 100 . 0 91. 7 50 . 0 78 . 6 25 . 0 Corner S t o r e • 85. 7 66 . 7 69. 2 94. 7 80 . 0 71. 4- • 0. 0 0 . 0 2 7 .3 •83 . 3 100 . 0 100 . 0 100 . 0 100 . 0 85 .7 100 . 0 Bank 14. 3 80. 0 92. 9 100 . 0 ' 8 0-. 0 100.. 0 42 . 9 0 . 0' 41 .7 84. 6 5 0 . 0 100 . 0 90 . 9 . 75. 0' 21 .4 50 . 0 L i b r a r y 0 . 0 37 . 5 100. 0 64. 3 0. 0 20. 0 20 . 0 0. 0 42 .9 81. 8 100 . 0 100 . 0 71. 4 • 50 . 0 •7 5 .0 20 . 0 Community Ce n t r e 42. 9 37 . 5 50 . 0 50. 0 50 . 0 50 . 0 20. 0 33 . 3 28 .6 70 . 0 100 . 0 100 . 0 ;80 . 0 50 . 0 50 . 0 2 0 .0 Movie T h e a t r e 0. 0 25. 0 33 . 3 43 . 7 0. 0 •33. 3 25. 0 0. 0 16 . 7 28 . 6 100. 0 100. 0 87 . 5 33 . 3 22 .•2 0 . 0 O v e r a l l 56 . 8 48 . 0 69. 4 71'. 1 52 . 4 63 . 1 27 . 2 •26 . 6 44 .3 69. 2 65 . 4 100 . 0 78 . 5 66 . 0 58 . 2 37 . 3 Note: S i t e s A, B, C, D, and E a r e p u b l i c l y sponsored Av.^ O v e r a l l _ 50^3% ' . ( F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l ) h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . S a t i s f a c t i o n .CO 98 TABLE 2 Length of Residence a t  Present Housing P r o j e c t Per Cent Less than one year 18.1 One to. three years 38.5 Three to f i v e years 17.5 F i v e to seven years 10.5 More than seven years 15.4 TABLE 3 Area .of Respondents ' Former Residences Per < Cent West End 30 . 0 K i t s i l a n o • 10 . 5 Grandview-Woodland 10 . 5 Mount P leasan t 8 .4 East Has t ings 7 . 0 Renfrew-Coll ingwood 7 . 0 Out of "Lower Mainland 5 . 6 K e r r i s d a l e 4 . 2 Out of Vancouver C i t y 3 . 5 P o i n t Grey 3 . 5 Marpole 2 . 8 R i l e y Park-Kens ing ton 2 .8 F a i r v i e w 2 .1 K i l l a r n e y 2 .1 TABLE 4 Reasons .For Choosing Present L i v i n g Quarters Percentage of  Respondents With other people who are f a m i l i a r 33.3 Quie ter area 26.7 Convenient l o c a t i o n ' 2 0.0 Larger l i v i n g quar te r s 13.3 In 'home' neighborhood <"' 6.7 Note: Only 10 per cent of t o t a l sample were able to choose t h e i r present r e s i d e n c e s . TABLE 5 Percentage of Respondents Expressing D i f f i c u l t y i n Overcoming Distance, i n Rank Order R E A S 0 N S Percent of Respon- No Bus Ser- Steep Car Too dents Experiencing " • D i f f i c u l t y vice Nearby H i l l T r a f f i c Far Awi Supermarket 31.1 5 . 6 14.0 .7 9 . 8 Doctor's Office 25.2 5 . 6 6 . 3 2 . 8 10 . 5 Bus Stop 2 5.2 7.7 13 . 3 . 2.1 2.1 Drug Store 21. 0 4.9 9.1 . 7 6 . 3 Park 16 . 8 2.1 4.9 .7 9 .1 Friends 15 . 4 4.9 4.2 4.2 2.1 Bank 15.4 4.2 5.6 .7 4.9. Corner Store 12.6 3 . 5 7.7 0 . 0 1.4 Relatives 11. 2 4 . 2 2.1 2.1 2 . 8 Church 10. 5 4.2 2.1 1.4 2.8 Community Centre 9.1 3 . 5 2.1 .7 2.8 Library 7 . 0 2 . 8 1.4 0 . 0 2.8 Movie Theatre 4 . 9 2.1 . 7 .7 1.4 Overall Averages 15.4 4.2 5 . 6 1.3 4.5 (3 TABLE 6 Advantages of Present L i v i n g Quarters Per Cent Low Rent 42.5 I n t e r n a l Comfort 3 2.2 P r i v a c y 12.6 With others of own age 8.0 Convenien t ly l o c a t e d 4 . 6 103 TABLE 7 F a c i l i t i e s That Should be Nearer Housing P r o j e c t Per Cent Supermarket 20 . 8 Shopping Centre• 19. 5 Bus Stop 14.3 Park 9 .1 Community Centre 9.1 Drug Store 6.5 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e 3 . 9 Post O f f i c e 3 . 9 Church 2 . 6 Corner Store 2.6 L i b r a r y 2.6 ' TABLE 8 Dis tances to F a c i l i t i e s From Selec ted Housing Pro jec t s ( i n shor t c i t y b locks ) S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e Aver A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P D i s t Supermarket 8 . 0 23 . 0 3.0 1 3 . 0 5 . 0 4 .5 7 . 0 13 . 0 17 . 0 4 .0 3 . 0 .5.0 5.0 5.0 10 . 0 1 4 . 0 8.7 Drug Store 3.0 23 . 0 3 . 0 3 . 0 4 .0 5.0 6.0 13 . 0 17 . 0 4 .0 3 . 0" 5 . 0 5.0. 7 . 0 18 . 0 8 . 0 8 . 0 Bus Stop 0 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 5 2 .0 1.0 1.0 •5. 0 1.0 1. o" 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 2 . 0 1.0 1.5 1.6 Park 7.0 5.0 4 .0 2 .0 5 . 0 2.0 8.0 ' 9 .0 9.0 6.0 4 .'O 2.0 3 . 0 2 . 0 3 . 5 4 . 0 4 .7 Doc to r ' s O f f i c e 8 . 0 23 . 0 2 .5 4 .0 5 . 0 4 .0 6.0 6 . 5 17 .0 17 .0 • 9.5 5 . 0 5 . 0 8 . 0 18 . 0 15 . 0 9 . 6 Church 2.0 21.0 4 .0 0 . 5 5 . 0 7.0 5.0 1.0 10 .0 3 . 0 8 . 5 9 . 0 0.5 0 .0 4 .0 9 . 0 5 . 6 Corner Store 3.0 4 . 0 2 .5 0 . 5 0.0 4 .5 5.0 13 . 0 7 . 0 4 .0 0 . 5 3 . 0 1.0 3 . 0 3 . 5 1.0 3 . 5 Bank 1 0 . 0 1 2 . 0 2.5 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 8 . 0 13 .0 17 . 0 5.0 5 . 5 5. 0 5.0 5 . 0 18 . 0 3 .0 7 .6 L i b r a r y 1 0 . 0 35 . 0 ' 7,0 34 .0 19 . 0 40 .0 12 . 5 9.0 30.0 9.0 2 5.0 8.0 10 . 0 1 1 . 0 1 9 . 0 1 5 . 0 1 2 . 1 Community Centre 19 . 0 25 . 0 5.0 42 . 0 17 . 0 25.0 9.0 1 1 . 0 34.0 16 . 0 23 . 0 5 . 0 18 . 0 12 . 0 1 9 . 0 15 . 0' 18 .4 Movie 14 . 0 40 . 0 40. 0 1 5 . 0 17 . 0 3 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 8 . 0 ,34.0 1 4 . 0 19 .0 13 . 0 6 . 0 1 2 . 0 20 .0 40 .0 19 . 6 Note: S i t e s A , B, C, D, and E are p u b l i c l y sponsored ( F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l ) housing p r o j e c t s . H o -P TABLE 9 Aggregate Dis tances to F a c i l i t i e s From Selec ted Housing P r o j e c t s ( i n shor t c i t y b locks ) S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e Si te- A v e r . A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P D i s t Supermarket 4. , 0 14 , . 5 3 . 75 7. , 5 3 . , 0 5 . 0 8 . 0 7. 0 9. , 5 4 . 0 3 . , 0 6 .0 4 . . 0 4 . 5 6 . , 0 9 . • o. 6 . 2-Drug Store 4. , 0 14. , 5 3 . 75 3 . , 0 5. , 0 5 . 5 7 . 0 7 . 0 9 . , 5 4 . 0 3 . , 0 3 • o 4-. .0 5 .5 10 . , 0 6 . , 5 6 . 0 Bus Stop 0. , 0 4. , 0 3 . 25 2 . , 0 1. ,0 1. , 5- 6 . 0 1. 0 2 . , 0 1. 0 3 . , 0 1 . 0 1. .0 3 . 0 2, , 0 1. ,5 2 . 1. Park 10. . 0 10 . , 0 8. 0 1, , 0 3 , .0 2 , . 5 2 . 0 5. 0 5 . . 5 6 . 0 5 . .0 2 .0 3 . 0 4 . 0 3 . , 5 6 . . 0 . 5 . 2 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e 4. . 0 14. , 5 3 . 25 4. , 0 3. . 0 - 4. . 5 7 , . 0 3. 7 5 9. , 5 9. 0 8 . . 5 3 . 0 5 . 0 6 . 0 10. . 0 10 . . 0 6 . 6 Church 2 . , 0 13 . , 5 4 . 75 0. , 5 3 . 0 7. . 5 6 , . 0 1. 0 6 . , 0 3. 0 13 , ,5 9. . 0 0 , . 5 0 . 0 4 . , 0 9 . , 0 .5 . 2 Corner Store 4. , 0 6 . , 0 3 . 25 0 . , 5 0. . 0 5. . 0 6 , . o 7. 0 4'. , 5 4. 0 o. , 5 3 .0 1, . 0 5 .0 4 , . 5 2 , 0 3 . 5 Bank 5 . , 0 9. , 0 3. 25 4. , 0 5. .0 4. , 5 7 , . 5 7 . 0 9 . , 5 3. 0 7 . , 5 3 .0 3 . , 5 4 • 5 10 . , 5 4 . , 0 5 . 7 L i b r a r y 5. . 0 20. , 5 4 . 5 18 . , 0 10. , 0 21. , 0 9. .75 5. 0 16 . . 0 5. 0 16 . ,25 4 . 5 6 . ,75 2 . 5 1 1 . , 0 10 . , 0 10 . 7 Community Centre 9 . , 5 15 . , 5 8 . 0 22 . , 0 9 . , 0 13 . , 5 10. . 0 6 . 0 18 . , 0 8 . 5 23 . , 5 5 .0 10 . . 5 8 . 0 1 1 . .0 10 . , 0 11 . 7 Movie 7 . , 0 23 . , 0 22 . 0 8. , 5 9 . , 0 3 . 5 8 . . 5 9. 5 18 . , 0 7 . 5 23 . , 5 7 . 0 4 . ..5 8 . 0 11 . . 5 22 . . 0 12 . 0 Note : S i t e s A , B , C, D, and E are p u b l i c l y sponsored ( F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l ) housing p r o j e c t s . o APPENDIX D. CROSS TABULATIONS OF DATA TABLE 1 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Age vs S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y t o , F a c i l i t i e s Church .32 Bus Stop .20 Community Centre .18 F r i ends .17 Corner Store .16 Drug Store .15 Supermarket .12 R e l a t i v e s .10 Movie Theatre .09 Park .09 Bank .07 L i b r a r y . 06 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e . 06 TABLE 2 C o r r e l a t i o n Co'ef f i c i ent s Age vs .Frequency of Use Bank .47 L i b r a r y . 24 Supermarket . 22 F r i ends . 22 Movie Theatre . 21 Drug Store .12 R e l a t i v e s .11 Church .09 Park .08 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e . 07 Community Centre . 07 Corner Store . 06 Bus Stop . 06 108 TABLE 3 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e r i t s S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y of F a c i l i t y vs Frequency of Use Church .82 L i b r a r y . 61 Community Centre . 54 R e l a t i v e s .50 F r i ends . 38 Park .37 Corner Store .34 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e .33 Bus Stop '; . 24 Drug Store .10 Supermarket .05 Movie Theatre .03 Bank .03 TABLE 4 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Length of Residence vs  S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s Movie Theatre .50 Park .49 Church .37 Community Centre .23 Fr iends .20 Supermarket .17 R e l a t i v e s .17 Drug Store .17 Bus Stop .13 Bank .12 Corner Store .12 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e .12 L i b r a r y . 03 TABLE 5 C o r r e l a t i o n . C o e f f i c i e n t s Length of Residence vs Frequency of Use Movie Theatre .27 Bank .22 Fr iends .22 R e l a t i v e s .15 Church .12 Community Centre .08 Corner Store .04 Bus Stop .04 Drug Store .04 Park .02 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e .02 L i b r a r y .01 Supermarket .01 TABLE 6 C o'rr e l a t i o n C o'e f f i c i e n t s Respondents choosing Housing P r o j e c t vs  S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s F r iends 1. 000 R e l a t i v e s 1. 000 Bus Stop •1. 000 Community Centre 1. 000 Movie Theatre 1. 000 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e . 333 Church 333 Supermarket • 222 Drug Store • 222 Corner •S tore • 222 L i b r a r y • 222 Park 0. 0 Bank 0. 0 112 TABLE 7 C o r r e l a t i o n . C o e f f i c i e n t s Most Important F a c i l i t y vs S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y t o Housing P r o j e c t Fr iends .0013 R e l a t i v e s .0014 Supermarket .0009 Drug Store .0012 Bus Stop .0012 Park .0016 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e .0006 Church .0023 Corner Store .0013 Bank .0009 113 TABLE 8 Cor r e l a t i o n Co e ' f f i c i e n t s Car Owners vs S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s Supermarket .09 Drug Store . 08 Bus Stop . 07 R e l a t i v e s . 04 Bank .03 Movie Theatre . 03 Park .03 Fr iends .02 Corner Store .02 Church . 01 L i b r a r y . 01 Community Centre . 007 D o c t o r ' s O f f i c e .002 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Anthony, Harry A. Housing f o r the E l d e r l y . New Y o r k , New York Sta te Fede ra t ion o f O f f i c i a l P lann ing O r g a n i z a t i o n s , 1964. Bar ron , M i l t o n L . The Aging Amer ican . New Y o r k , Thomas Y . C r o w e l l , C o . , 1961. B i r r e n , James E . Handbook of Aging and the I n d i v i d u a l : P s y c h o l o g i c a l and B i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s . Chicago , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1959. B l a l o c k , Hubert M. S o c i a l S t a t i s t i c s . New Y o r k , McGraw H i l l , 1960. Bond, F l o y d , et a l . Our Needy Aged. New Y o r k , Henry H o l t and C o . , 1954. Burgess , Ernes t W., ed. Aging i n Western S o c i e t i e s . Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1960. Cavan, Ruth S . , et a l . Pe r sona l Adjustment i n Old Age. Chicago, Science Research A s s o c i a t e s ,. 194 9 . C l a r k , Margaret and Anderson, Barbara G. . Cu l tu r e and A g i n g . S p r i n g f i e l d , 1 1 1 . , Char les C. Thomas, 1967. Cumming, E l a i n e and Henry, W i l l i a m E . Growing O l d . New Y o r k , Bas ic Books, 1961. Donahue, Wilma, ed. Housing the A g i n g . Ann A r b o r , M i c h . , U n i v e r s i t y of Mich igan P r e s s , 1954. Drake, Joseph D. The Aged i n American S o c i e t y . New Y o r k , Ronald Press C o . , 1958. Dunbar, F l a n d e r s . Old Age i n the Modern Wor ld . Edinburgh. L i v i n g s t o n and C o . , 1955. Freeman, L i n t o n C. Elementary A p p l i e d S t a t i s t i c s - For  Students i n B e h a v i o r a l Sc i ences . New Y o r k , John Wi ley and Sons, 1965. 115 Friedman, E l i z a b e t h A . and H a v i g h u r s t , Robert J . The Meaning of Work and Ret i rement . Chicago , U n i v e r -s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1954. G e i s t , H a r o l d . The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Aspects of the Aging Process With S o c i o l o g i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s . S t . Louis Warren H. Green, 196 8. Hav ighur s t , Robert J . , et a l . Adjustment to Ret i rement . Assen , Ne the r l ands ; Van Gorcum and C o . , 1969. Hav ighu r s t , Robert J . and A l b r e c h t , Ruth . Older People . . Toron to , Longman, Green and C o . , 196 3. H a z e l l , Kenneth. S o c i a l and M e d i c a l Problems of the E l d e r l y . London, Hutchinson M e d i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965. Hobson, W. Modern Trends i n G e r i a t r i c s . London, B u t t e r -worth and C o . , 19 56. Hyman, Henry H . , e t a l . I n t e r v i e w i n g i n S o c i a l Research. Chicago , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1954. Jones , Wal ter H. A P o s i t i v e P o l i c y Towards A g i n g . Trento A l l i e d P r i n t i n g Trades C o u n c i l , 19 57. Kap l an , Jerome and A l d r i d g e , Gordon J . S o c i a l Welfare of  the A g i n g . New Y o r k , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. K i s h , L e s l i e . Survey Sampling. New Y o r k , John Wi ley and Sons, 1965. McKinney, John C. and DeVyver, Frank T. Aging and S o c i a l  P o l i c y . New Y o r k , Apple ton - Century - C r o f t s , 1966. M a x w e l l , Jean M. Centres fo r Older Peop le , New Y o r k , N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on the A g i n g , 1962. Michener , M . P . and McKenzie , K. Adequate L i v i n g Accommo-d a t i o n f o r the A g i n g . Ottawa, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , 1962. Moss, Ber t rand M. Car ing f o r the Aged. Garden C i t y , N . Y . Doubleday and Co. , 1966.. 116 Niebanck, Pau l N . The E l d e r l y i n Older Urban Areas . I n s t i t u t e f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l ' S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a , .196 5 . Ogburn, W i l l i a m F . and T i b b i t s , C l a r k . The Fami ly and  i t s F u n c t i o n s . New Y o r k , McGraw H i l l , 1933. R i l e y , M a t i l d a W., et a l . Aging and S o c i e t y . New York , Russe l Sage Founda t ion , 1969. R o l l e s t o n , H .D. Some M e d i c a l Aspects of Old Age. London, M a c M i l l a n and C o . , 1962. Rosewarne, W.W. The Problems o f A g i n g . Ottawa, Canadian Department of Labour, 1962. Rosow, I r v i n g . S o c i a l I n t e g r a t i o n o f the Aged. New Y o r k , The Free P r e s s , 1967. Shanas, E t h e l , et a l . Older People i n Three I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t i e s . New York , Atherson P r e s s , 1968. T i b b i t s , C l a r k and Donahue, Wilma. Aging i n Today 's S o c i e t y . Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . , P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . , 196 0. T i b b i t s , C l a r k , ed. Handbook of S o c i a l Geron to logy . Chicago , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 196 0. To wnsend, Pe t e r . The Fami ly L i f e of Old People . Glencoe, 1 1 1 . , The Free P r e s s , 1957. Townsend, P. and Rees, B. The P e r s o n a l , Fami ly and S o c i a l  Circumstances of Old Peop le . London, Department of S o c i a l Sciences - London School o f Economics, 1960 . Weiss , J . D . Be t t e r B u i l d i n g s fo r the Aged. New Y o r k , Hopkinson and B l a k e , 1969. Wickenden, E l i z a b e t h . The Needs of Older Peop le . Chicago, American P u b l i c Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n , 1953. Whyte, W.H. The O r g a n i z a t i o n Man. New Y o r k , Simon and Schus te r , 1956. W i l l i a m s , R ichard H . , et a l . Processes of A g i n g . New Y o r k , A the r ton P r e s s , 196 3. 117 Youmans, Grant E . Older R u r a l Americans . L e x i n g t o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Kentucky P r e s s , 1967. Young, P a u l i n e S. S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Research. Englewood C l i f f s , W. J . , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1966. Reports and Studies American Jewish Committee. A Ten P o i n t Guide f o r S c a t t e r - -S i t e P u b l i c Housing. , 1971. Vancouver Housing Association. B u i l d i n g f o r Senior C i t i z e n s . Vancouver, A p r i l , 1967. Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n . B u i l d i n g f o r the E l d e r l y  i n B. C. Vancouver , March. 1971. C a p i t a l Region P l ann ing Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia . R e t i r e -merit Study P r e l i m i n a r y S t a t i s t i c s . V i c t o r i a , 1969. Edmonton W e l f a r e • C o u n c i l . Edmonton Senior' R e s i d e n t s ' Survey. Edmonton, 196 4. H e l l y e r , Pau l T. Report of the Fede ra l Task Force on Housing  and Urban Development. Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969. K o n i g , R. Changes i n the Western F a m i l y . Report of the 3rd Annual Conference on S o c i o l o g y , Amsterdam, 1961, L e f e v r e , A l l a n and P r i e s t , Gordon E . Loca t ing the Senior  C i t i z e n Housing Development. Vancouver Housing-A s s o c i a t i o n , 196 9. Old Age i n the Modern Wor ld . Report of the 3rd Annual Congress, I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Geron to logy , London, 19 54. Smi th , Wal lace F . Housing f o r the E l d e r l y i n C a l i f o r n i a . Research Repor t , I n s t i t u t e of Bureau of Economic Research, B e r k e l e y , C a l i f . , 1961. West Vancouver Community C o u n c i l . Report on the Concerns  and Needs of Senior C i t i z e n s i n West Vancouver. Vancouver, January , 1971. 118 Un i t ed N a t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l and S o c i a l Importance of  A c t i v i t i e s f o r the E l d e r l y . Seminar Repor t , Geneva, 1959. Unpublished Theses Cuthber t , E y v o l l e P e a r l . How Old People L i v e . Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis"^ U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1961. Hanowski, Arvey , e t • a l . Housing f o r the Aged: An E x p l o r -a to ry Study o f Needs and P re fe rences . Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1962. '•' " MacKinnon, D o l i n a F . and A n g e l , - Jerome H. Housing Needs  and Preferences Among .Senior C i t i z e n s (West Vancouver) . .Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , Univer-s l t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 19 57. P r i e s t , Gordon Edward. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the E l d e r l y  i n the Urban Environment w i t h S p e c i a l Reference  to t h e i r Hous ing . Master of A r t s Thes is (Geography), Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 197 0. P e r i o d i c a l s A n n i s , Edward R. "Care of the Aged: A Respons ib le • Approach ." Today's H e a l t h , v o l . 41 (December, 1963), pp. 88-91. A r n h o f f , F r ank lyn N . and Lorge , I r v i n g . "Stereotypes About Aging and the Aged . " School and S o c i e t y , v o l . 88 (February , 1960) , pp. 70-71. A s h f o r d , N . and Hol loway , F . M. "T ranspo r t a t i on Pa t t e rns of Older People i n S i x Urban C e n t r e s . " The  G e r o n t o l o g l s t , v o l . 12 (March, 1972 ), pp. .-43-47. 119 Bennet, Ruth and Nahemow, L u c i l l e . " I n s t i t u t i o n a l T o t a l i t y and C r i t e r i a of S o c i a l Adjustment, i n Residences f o r the Aged ." J o u r n a l of S o c i a l I s sues , v o l . 21 (October , 1965), pp. 44-78. Bringmann, W. and R i e d e r , G. "Stereotyped A t t i t u d e s Toward the Aged i n West Germany and the Un i t ed S t a t e s . " J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology , v o l . 76 (December, 1968), pp. 267-68. Burns ide , Irene M. "Lone l ines s i n Old A g e . " Mental Hygiene, v o l . 55 ( J u l y , 1971) , pp.- 391-97.. Duncan, K. J . "Modern S o c i e t y ' s A t t i t u d e Towards the A g i n g . " G e r i a t r i c s , v o l . . 18 (August , 1963), pp. 629-35. F r i e d e n , E l a i n e . " S o c i a l D i f f e rences and t h e i r Consequences fo r Housing t h e ' A g e d . " American I n s t i t u t e of  Planners J o u r n a l , v o l . . 26 (May, 1960) , pp. 119-24. Glenn , Norva l D. " A g i n g , Disengagement, and O p i n i o n a t i o n P u b l i c Opin ion Quarterly,' v o l . 33 ( S p r i n g , 1969) , pp. 63-67 . Go ldner , Jack . " L o c a t i n g Housing fo r the Aged . " Canadian  Wel fa re , v o l . 36 (March, 1960), pp. 217-20" G r i e r , G. W. "Housing f o r the E l d e r l y Given Hard Look in . Search of New Approaches ." . J o u r n a l of Hous ing , v o l . 20 (December, 1963 ) , pp. 566-69.. "Growing Old i n A m e r i c a . " Science N e w s l e t t e r , v o l . 140 (May,- 1953 ) , pp. 470-72. Hav ighu r s t , Robert J . "A World Review of Gerontology i n a Survey of European Geron to logy . " J o u r n a l of  Geronto logy , v o l . 13 ( A p r i l , • 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. ' 2 -5 . H a v i g h u r s t , Robert J . " F l e x i b i l i t y and the S o c i a l Roles of the R e t i r e d . " American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 59 (September, .1953) , pp. 309-11. Jacobs , Jane. "Housing f o r the Independent Aged . " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum,, v o l . 10 9 (August , 1958 ) , pp. 86-91. K r a i , V. A . "Disengagement Theory arid P s y c h i a t r y . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , v o l . 6 (March,11968), pp. 227-35. 120 Lawton, Powe l l M. "P lann ing Environments fo r Older People . American I n s t i t u t e of Planners J o u r n a l , v o l . 36 CMarch, 1970), pp. 124-29. Lipman, A l a n . "Old P e o p l e ' s Homes: S i t i n g and Neighbor-hood I n t e g r a t i o n . " The' Socio l o g i c a l Review, v o l . 1.5 (November, 1967 ) , pp. 323-38. Lipman, A r r o n and S te rne , R ichard S. "Aging i n the Uni ted S t a t e s : A s c r i p t i o n of a Terminal S i ck R o l e . " Soc io logy and S o c i a l Research, v o l . 5 3 (January, 1969 ) , pp.. 194-203. Messer , Mark. "Age Groupings and the Family Status of the E l d e r l y . " Soc io logy and S o c i a l Research, v o l . 52 ( A p r i l , 1968) , pp. 91-96. Mumford, Lewis . "For Older People not Segregat ion but I n t e g r a t i o n . " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, v o l . 119 (May, 1955), pp. 191-94. Mumford, Lewis . "Housing f o r Older P e o p l e . " Town and  Country P l a n n i n g , v o l . 26 (November, 1958) pp. 440-46. Neugarten, B. L . "Old and Young i n Modern S o c i e t i e s . " • American B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , v o l . 14 (September, 1970) , pp. 13-25. , "Older People Need to B e l o n g . " ' S o c i a l Se rv i ce Review, v o l . 30 (September, 1956), pp. 236-241. Page, H. G. "Our Older P o p u l a t i o n . " Canadian Wel fa re , v o l . 31 (May, 1955), pp. 2-6. P i n e s , Maya. "A P lace f o r - t h e Aged . " Repor t e r , v o l . 2 6 (May, 1962), pp. 3 5-3 8. " P u b l i c Housing f o r the E l d e r l y . " - J o u r n a l of Hous ing , v o l . 20 (November,- 1963 ) ,• pp. 485-91. Rosow, I r v i n g . "Retirement Housing and S o c i a l I n t e g r a t i o n . The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , v o l : ' 2 (June, 1961), pp. 85-91. Roucek, Joseph S. "Age as a P r e s t i g e F a c t o r . " Soc io logy and S o c i a l Research, v o l . 42 (May, 1958) , pp. 349-5 121 S c h o n f i e l d , D. and Tr imble , - J . . "Advantages of A g i n g . " The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , v o l . 7 (September, 1967) / pp. 270-74. S e l l e r s , A . H. "The Lengthening L i f e Span." Canadian  J o u r n a l of P u b l i c H e a l t h , v o l . 51 (June, 1960), pp. 171-8 6.. - ' Shanas, E . "What's New i n Old Age?" American B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , v o l . 3 1 4 (September, 1970), pp. 5-13. Smith , R . C . F . "The E f f e c t of S o c i a l Problems on the L i v e s of Old Age P e n s i o n e r s . " M e d i c a l O f f i c e r , v o l . 97 (June, .1965 ) , pp. 303-08 . "The Near Forgot ten Aged.".New R e p u b l i c , v o l . 158 (January, 1968 )., pp. 13-14; T u n s t a l l , Jeromy. "Old and A l o n e . " New Statesman, v o l . 66 (December, 1,963 )', pp. 902-04. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093274/manifest

Comment

Related Items