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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The locational needs of the elderly for housing Markoff, Anthony Wayne 1972

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THE LOCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE ELDERLY FOR HOUSING BY ANTHONY WAYNE MARKOFF B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the  School •of '  Community a n d . R e g i o n a l  Planning  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May,  1972  the  In  presenting  this  an advanced degree the I  Library  further  for  shall  agree  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  it  partial  freely  his  that permission for  of  this  representatives. thesis  for  It  financial  of  of  Columbia,  British  available  for  extensive  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d  by  fulfilment  by the  shall  not  reference  Head o f  The  of  be a l l o w e d  University  Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g of  B r i t i s h Columbia  Vancouver 8, Canada  I  agree  and this  for  that  study. thesis  my Department  copying or  written permission.  Department  requirements  copying o f  i s u n d e r s t o o d that gain  the  or  publication  w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  A major c o n c e r n o f community p l a n n i n g i s the  inte-  g r a t e d use o f l a n d and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s upon p e o p l e . T h i s statement l e a d s t o the c e n t r a l h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s thesis:  t h a t the planned l o c a t i o n o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g developments i n the urban a r e a s h o u l d be based upon adequate knowledge o f the needs . and p r e f e r e n c e s o f the e l d e r l y i n r e g a r d t o the t o t a l community.  In an attempt t o g a i n a t o t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , a s u r v e y o f f i v e per cent o f the s e l f c o n t a i n e d d w e l l i n g u n i t s , spec i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r the e l d e r l y i n the c i t y o f Vancouver, i s u n d e r t a k e n . cy t a b u l a t i o n s  Using m u l t i v a r i a t e contingen-  (MVTAB) and the s t a t i s t i c a l package f o r  s o c i a l sciences  (SPSS) programs, f o u r p r i n c i p a l  vari-  a b l e s , age, l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o x i m i t y t o f a c i l i t i e s ,  and f r e -  quency o f t h e i r use are c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the l o c a t i o n a l importance a t t r i b u t e d the  to these s e l e c t e d f a c i l i t i e s  by  respondents. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study i n d i c a t e t h a t more than  one h a l f o f the respondents c a t i o n of t h e i r present  are d i s p l e a s e d w i t h the l o -  l i v i n g .quarters. ii  Also,  decisions  i n l o c a t i n g residences  f o r the e l d e r l y must be based  upon the e x a m i n a t i o n o f a number o f f a c i l i t i e s . u s e d by t h i s age g r o u p , as opposed t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a s i n g l e f a c i l i t y frequented  most r e g u l a r l y .  These  i n g s may c o n t r i b u t e toward a more, knowledgeable i n the f u t u r e the  aged.  find-  approach  s i t e p l a n n i n g o f h o u s i n g accommodation f o r  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h t o express my thanks t o my a d v i s o r , Dr.  Robert W. C o l l i e r f o r the b e n e f i t o f h i s a d v i c e  and the many hours spent i n e d i t i n g and commenting upon the m a t e r i a l i n the t h e s i s .  My thanks are a l s o e x -  tended t o P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman who a c t e d as my second a d v i s o r , and whose s u g g e s t i o n s t h i s t h e s i s , were  i n c l a r i f y i n g parts of  helpful.  I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o D r . G l o r i a Gutman o f  the  P s y c h o l o g y Department f o r her i n v a l u a b l e h e l p i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t o Miss Robin R u s s e l l o f the Computer S c i e n c e Department  for  her p a t i e n c e i n a s s i s t i n g w i t h the data a n a l y s i s . My g r e a t e s t i n d e b t e d n e s s  i s to M i s s Vyonne  Chernenkoff f o r her encouragement and the  countless  hours spent i n b r i n g i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n t o i t s f i n a l  iv  form.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  .  LIST OF TABLES  iv viii  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION The Problem  1 . . . . . . .  . . . . . .  .  Scope o f the T h e s i s . . . Statement o f the H y p o t h e s i s S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the T h e s i s 2.  3.  REVIEW OF RELEVANT THEORY AND EMPIRICAL RESEARCH.. . ..  1 7 9 10  . . . .  12  T h e o r i e s on A g i n g Research Conducted i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. Research Conducted O u t s i d e o f G r e a t e r Vancouver S t u d i e s Undertaken i n , the United- S t a t e s . Summary of- Common F i n d i n g s  12 20  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PRESENTATION OF DATA • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY D i s t r i b u t i o n . o f Questionnaires C o l l e c t i o n of Questionnaires  . . . .  29 32 38 40 40 42 44  Questionnaire Design  45  A n a l y s i s o f Questions Asked  47  v  Chapter  Page PRESENTATION OF DATA COLLECTED S a t i s f a c t i o n with Location of L i v i n g Quarters . . . . . . Length o f Residence i n Housing Proj ect . . . . . . . • Former Residences and Reasons f o r Moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importance o f P r o x i m i t y t o Facilities . . . . T r i p s Generated to S e l e c t e d Facilities •. . D i f f i c u l t i e s Experienced i n Overcoming D i s t a n c e s Advantages and Disadvantages o f L i v i n g Quarters F a c i l i t i e s Lacking Proximity to Housing P r o j e c t s S t u d i e d A c t u a l Distances, to Selected Facilities . . . . . .  4.  ANALYSIS OF- DATA COLLECTED' .Age as a v a r i a b l e S a t i s f a c t i o n with Location of L i v i n g Quarters Length o f Residence i n Housing P r o j e c t Former Residences o f the Respondents . Importance o f P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s , D i f f i c u l t i e s Experienced i n Overcoming D i s t a n c e s . . . . ; Advantages and Disadvantages o f L i v i n g Quarters F a c i l i t i e s Lacking Proximity to Housing P r o j e c t s S t u d i e d . . . . . . . .  vi  49 50 51 52 53 55 56 575 8." 58 61 62  . •• .  64 66 68 70 75  .  76 77  LIST OF TABLES Table 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.  Page S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s Reason f o r Moving from Former Residence . F a c i l i t i e s Regarded as Very Important t o L i v e Near . • F a c i l i t i e s Regarded as the Most Important to L i v e Near •. Average Number o f T r i p s t o F a c i l i t i e s per Month D i s a d v a n t a g e s of P r e s e n t L i v i n g Q u a r t e r s Age vs Importance o f P r o x i m i t y t o Facilities Length o f Residence vs- Importance of P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s ' . S a t i s f a c t i o n with Proximity to F a c i l i t y vs Frequency of- Use Importance o f P r o x i m i t y t o F a c i l i t y vs Frequency o f Use Most Important F a c i l i t i e s and Frequency of. Use . . . . . . . Most Important F a c i l i t y vs Frequency o f Use "•• . .v-- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  viii  . .  50 52 54  .  55-  .  56 57 63 •  67 70 71 73 74  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Problem The a g i n g p r o c e s s has-and c o n t i n u e s to some major s o c i a l problems f a c i n g western  produce  cultures.  One o f the most c r i t i c a l i s s u e s concerns the p l a n n i n g of a d e q u a t e l y  l o c a t e d h o u s i n g accommodation f o r  a g i n g members o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  With t o d a y ' s  upon i n d i v i d u a l achievement and youth c e n t r e d ties,  the accent  activi-  the e l d e r l y are f i n d i n g themselves o c c u p y i n g a  'vacuum' i n our s o c i a l system.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , age  become l i t t l e more than the l o s s o f y o u t h .  has  T h i s has  f o r c e d the aged i n t o a d e s p e r a t e and d e g r a d i n g  effort  to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o a s o c i e t y t h a t  refuse  to honor the p e c u l i a r q u a l i t y o f  age.  1  H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h i s problem may be t r a c e d back to the b e g i n n i n g s o f the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n Europe a t which time more and more p e o p l e s w i t c h e d from s e l f employment t o employment f o r e n t r e p e n e u r s .  As a r e s u  the b a s i c u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n d r a s t i c a l l y changed from the f a m i l y t o the i n d i v i d u a l members c o m p r i s i n g i t .  K e i t h B e r w i c k , "The S e n i o r C i t i z e n i n Americ A Study i n Unplanned O b s o l e s c e n c e " , The G e r o n t o l o g i s t v o l . 7 (September, 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 259.  2  W i t h i n c r e a s i n g employment demand, women and c h i l d r e n a l s o a c h i e v e d a degree o f economic independence  (due  l i m i t e d income) f o r they too became independent  wage  e a r n e r s i n the economy.  to  T h i s sudden s h i f t from home to  f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n produced a permanent  impression i n  the concept o f the f a m i l y , f o r m e r l y a p r o d u c t i v e u n i t 2 w i t h emphasis upon interdependence and teamwork. The impact o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a l s o had a pronounced e f f e c t  upon the m i g r a t i o n o f people from r u r a l to  urban a r e a s .  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l change from a r u -  r a l mode o f l i f e w i t h i t s a s s o c i a t e d p r i m a r y s o c i a l c o n t a c t s , t o one o f an urban' l i f e  s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  secondary and more i m p e r s o n a l s o c i a l  relationships.  The development o f communication systems phone, t e l e g r a p h ) changing l i f e  (radio,  tele-  a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d toward a r a p i d l y  style.  A major consequence the de-emphasis  o f t h i s i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d was  and weakening o f the extended or t h r e e  g e n e r a t i o n f a m i l y to a two g e n e r a t i o n or c o n j u g a l No l o n g e r was t h e r e the dependence  family.  upon a l l members o f  the f a m i l y u n i t f o r economic s u r v i v a l .  A larger  family  became a burden r a t h e r than an a s s e t , f o r i t was  E r n e s t W. B u r g e s s , A g i n g i n Western S o c i e t i e s , C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o ' P r e s s , 196 0, p . 3.  3  unworkable i n an urban  setting.  Due to c o n t i n u e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n and a u t o m a t i o n , an i n c r e a s i n g abundance o f l e i s u r e time as w e l l as an improved s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g was emerging. presented worker.  This  both t h r e a t as w e l l as promise to the a g i n g A l t h o u g h an i n c r e a s e i n l e i s u r e time and  af-  f l u e n c e had been a c h i e v e d , i t t h r e a t e n e d him w i t h d i s placement.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , compulsory r e t i r e m e n t  became  a s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e among e m p l o y e r s , the c u t o f f p o i n t f o r a c t i v e employment b e i n g based upon an a r b i t r a r y chronological Increased  age. i n n o v a t i o n s i n m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h a l s o had  a marked e f f e c t upon l i f e of l i f e  e x p e c t a n c y , f o r the l o n g e v i t y  increased markedly.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the a g i n g  i n d i v i d u a l had l i t t l e a l t e r n a t i v e but to concede to compulsory retirement.  He had nowhere to t u r n but to h i s  f a m i l y or a government w e l f a r e agency f o r  survival.  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d low r e n t a l accommodation.for the aged, and the  conse-  quent problems o f a d e q u a t e l y planned h o u s i n g l o c a t i o n . Before p r o c e e d i n g f u r t h e r ,  i t i s i m p e r a t i v e not  o v e r l o o k what i s r e a l l y meant by ' t h e a g i n g  to  process',  and i t s r e l e v a n c e upon a t t i t u d e s towards the e l d e r l y i n  4  western c u l t u r e s .  I t has been suggested  t h a t youth i s the b e g i n n i n g o f o l d age,  by  theorists  f o r the  o f senescence s t a r t s a t l e a s t a t b i r t h , i f not and o l d age i s the shadow o f y o u t h .  process before,  This d e f i n i t i o n  i s i n sharp c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the a t t i t u d e o f American s o c i e t y toward the a g i n g as a 'gateway'  f o r an  indivi-  d u a l p a s s i n g from an a c t i v e t o a p a s s i v e s o c i a l r o l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , agedness has been d i r e c t l y  associated  w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l ' s - c h r o n o l o g i c a l age.  A l l those  per-  sons regarded as b e i n g aged are those who q u a l i f y f o r g o v e r n m e n t a l l y and p r i v a t e l y sponsored r e t i r e m e n t s i o n s and b e n e f i t s ,  pen-  the age today b e i n g s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s .  What has d r a s t i c a l l y been i g n o r e d i n the  defini-  t i o n o f o l d age i s the wide range o f i n d i v i d u a l ences t h a t accompany human beings i n the a g i n g  differ-' process.  The p r e v a i l i n g , n o t i o n i n N o r t h America has been t h a t such problems o f a g i n g and t h e aged are products  inevitable  o f o r g a n i c and mental d e t e r i o r a t i o n ,  begin-  n i n g i n m i d d l e l i f e and p r o g r e s s i n g a t an a c c e l a r a t i n g 4 rate.  T h i s r a t h e r n a i v e a p p r o a c h . o f u s i n g one p h y s i c a l  3 , Minna F i e l d , A g i n g - W i t h Honor And D i g n i t y , S p r i n g f i e l d , 1 1 1 . , C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 196 8, p . 3. 4 . M i l t o n L . Barron., The A g i n g A m e r i c a n , New Y o r k , Thomas Y . C r o w e l l C o . , 1961, p . 24. .  5  measure as an i n d i c a t o r of p h y s i o l o g i c a l a g i n g p r e d o m i n a t e s our s o c i e t y ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f agedness and wrongfully  s o , f o r not a l l i n d i c a t o r s o f age appear w i t h  e q u a l s e v e r i t y i n any one, i n d i v i d u a l . gical,  In s h o r t ,  s o c i a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a g i n g does not  biolotake  p l a c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y among i n d i v i d u a l members o f  the  human r a c e . The i n c r e a s i n g concern over the l o n g e v i t y o f human l i f e , has- g i v e n r i s e t o the s c i e n c e c f g e r i a t r i c s or s o c i a l gerontology.  The e v o l u t i o n o f t h i s s c i e n c e may  a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d  toward a new p h i l o s o p h y o f o l d a g e ,  t h a t the problems o f a g i n g and the aged are problems o f human r e l a t i o n s , man made, and t h e r e f o r e appearance o f the 5 by Burgess  curable.  The  ' s c i e n c e o f a g i n g ' has been' r e g a r d e d  as a major c r i t e r i o n i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  western c u l t u r e s from those o f o t h e r p e o p l e .  Overall,  the development o f s o c i a l g e r o n t o l o g y i s a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t s o c i a l a c t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e . a g i n g s h o u l d be based upon ' r e s e a r c h ,  not o n l y on the b i o l o g i c a l  level,  but a l s o i n v o l v i n g the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of the a g i n g p r o c e s s .  T h i s has a s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g  B u r g e s s , A g i n g i n Western S o c i e t i e s , p . 3 . Loc.  cit.  6  upon the s i t e p l a n n i n g o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s f o r the l y i n the urban  elder-  sphere.  Due t o the o v e r a l l i n h e r e n t s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s ward the e l d e r l y as  to-  ' h e l p l e s s ' i n d i v i d u a l s , many p e o p l e ,  among them the aged t h e m s e l v e s , have assumed any a b n o r mal symptoms o f the a g i n g p r o c e s s t o be normal a t stage o f l i f e .  Even though o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y t h e r e i s  a constant i n t e r e s t  i n the aged s e c t o r o f s o c i e t y , w i t h  the numerous l o c a l and n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s , research projects, the s u b j e c t ,  their  seminars,  books, a r t i c l e s , and monographs on  the d i f f i c u l t y remains i n t h a t  grandparents  cannot be a s s i m i l a t e d v e r y e a s i l y i n t o t o d a y ' s urban lifestyle.  No l o n g e r are the e l d e r l y a p a r t o f the p r o -  d u c t i v e f a m i l y u n i t or an economic a s s e t ; r a t h e r  they  are an a d d i t i o n a l burden o r expense t o what i n many American f a m i l i e s - i s a- t i g h t f a m i l y budget.  The f a m i l y  i n r e a l i t y has ceased t o be the s o l e source o f economic and s o c i a l s u r v i v a l f o r the e l d e r l y .  T h i s has  re-  s u l t e d i n the i n c r e a s i n g number o f p r i v a t e l y , as w e l l as p u b l i c l y , citizens'  sponsored r e t i r e m e n t c o m m u n i t i e s , s e n i o r  l o d g e s , and p e r s o n a l r e s t homes f o r the e l d e r l y  i n our s o c i e t y .  T h i s has been r e g a r d e d , by many s o c i -  o l o g i s t s , as the most p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n t o the p r o b l e m :  7  ' I n the urban s e t t i n g , i t i s most o f t e n more s a t i s f a c t o r y t o a l l c o n c e r n e d , t o make p r o v i s i o n s f o r independent l i v i n g q u a r t e r s f o r the e l d e r l y on a s o c i a l b a s i s , r a t h e r than g r u d g i n g l y t o crowd the c h i l d r e n i n t o the l i v i n g room day bed i n o r d e r t o conform t o a f a m i l i a r but i m p r a c t i c a l concept o f s o c i a l o b l i gation . ' 7  Scope o f the T h e s i s A l t h o u g h the argument t h a t the e l d e r l y be p r o v i d e d with'separate  l i v i n g arrangements from t h e i r a d u l t  child-  r e n and r e l a t i v e s has been w e l l documented, the problem of h o u s i n g the aged does not m e r e l y cease a t t h i s I t d o e s , however, open an e n t i r e  point.  spectrum o f problems  r e g a r d i n g the p r o v i s i o n o f accommodation f o r the  aged;  a major one among t h e s e concerns the a c t u a l s i t e p l a n n i n g o f the s e n i o r c i t i z e n h o u s i n g development.  The,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s problem i s the c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f this  thesis. D e c i s i o n s on l o c a t i n g s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g  projects  i n any urban a r e a have s e v e r a l  connotations.  8  Many t h e o r i s t s ,  i n c l u d i n g Burgess,  c l a i m t h a t the p r o -  v i s i o n and l o c a t i o n o f l i v i n g accommodation f o r 7  the  ' / E l i z a b e t h Wickenden, The Needs o f O l d e r P e o p l e , C h i c a g o , American P u b l i c W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n , 19 5 3, p^ 3. B u r g e s s , op', c i t . , p .  5.  e l d e r l y i s simply a r e f l e c t i o n of c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s towards the a g i n g p r o c e s s .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , a survey o f  the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o u s i n g accommodation f o r t h e e l d e r l y would g i v e an i n d i v i d u a l some b a s i s commenting upon the approach t a k e n toward e i t h e r g r a t i n g or s e g r e g a t i n g  for inte-  them from the t o t a l community.  The l o c a t i o n a l problems o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y  are  a l s o commented upon by the F e d e r a l Task F o r c e on Housi n g and Urban Development from i t s v i s i t s a c r o s s  Canada  'There are s t i l l too many county homes b u i l t i n almost i s o l a t e d a r e a s w e l l away from the community a t l a r g e and even t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o i t and c o n c e i v e d a p p a r e n t l y on the n o t i o n t h a t once one r e a c h e s a c e r t a i n age, he s h o u l d be n e i t h e r seen nor heard w i t h i n society.'9 As a r e s u l t ,  one o f the recommendations  o f t h i s Task  Force was t h a t s p e c i a l c a r e be t a k e n i n the  selection  o f s i t e s f o r p r o j e c t s ; f o r e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s t o ensure t h a t t h e s e people a r e - a b l e t o r e t a i n p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h the r e s t o f t h e i r community. Much o f the c r i t i c i s m t h a t has been v o i c e d i n  P a u l T. H e l l y e r , Report o f The Task Force on Housing and Urban Development, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969, p . 59. 10  T  Loc.  cit.  9  regard t o t h i s problem o f l o c a t i o n , i s the f e e l i n g t h a t many s i t e s f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' housing have been s e l e c ted to  p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of inexpensive l a n d .  Due  the emphasis .upon t h i s economic c o n s t r a i n t , , s e v e r a l  major l o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have been overlooked, among them, p r o x i m i t y t o shopping, m e d i c a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , topography. of  cultural,  as w e l l as problems o f  T h i s problem focuses upon the h y p o t h e s i s  the t h e s i s : t h a t the planned l o c a t i o n o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n housing developments i n urban areas should be based upon adequate knowledge of the needs and p r e f e r e n c e s o f the e l d e r l y i n regard t o the t o t a l community. The purpose o f the t h e s i s i s t h a t of attempting  to  i d e n t i f y the b a s i c l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a which may be  used for  i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e housing the e l d e r l y .  sites  T h i s i s done v i a a survey o f f i v e  per cent of a l l the s e l f contained s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' housing u n i t s , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , i n the C i t y o f Vancouver Csee Chapter dology) . ing  3 f o r d e t a i l s o f r e s e a r c h metho-  In doing so, i t i s f e l t  t h a t once the hous-  needs and p r e f e r e n c e s o f the e l d e r l y a r e l e a r n e d ,  a more knowledgeable approach may be taken toward the s e l e c t i o n of s a t i s f a c t o r i l y l o c a t e d accommodation f o r senior c i t i z e n s .  T h i s may a c t as a p r e l i m i n a r y step  10  i n changing the i n h e r e n t n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e t u r e towards i t s  o f our  cul-  pioneers.  S i g n i f i c a n c e ' o f the T h e s i s The importance o f t h i s study i s two f o l d i n t h a t (1) i t may p r o v i d e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the l o c a t i o n a l needs and p r e f e r e n c e s  total  o f the e l d e r l y i n r e -  s p e c t t o their.-, h o u s i n g , as w e l l as any r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them, (2) i t may s i m u l t a n e o u s l y produce an i n d i c a t i o n o f the p r e s e n t  attitudes  o f the e l d e r l y toward  what h o u s i n g has been p r o v i d e d f o r them, t h e i r faction,  as w e l l as d i f f i c u l t i e s  of t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s .  satis-  due t o the l o c a t i o n  -In an o v e r a l l c o n t e x t ,  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e h o u s i n g needs i n t o a comprehensive p l a n n i n g approach may do a g r e a t d e a l toward i n t e g r a t i n g the e l d e r l y w i t h i n the  total  concept o f the community, c o n s e q u e n t l y r e d u c i n g the generational r i f t r o l e o f the  t h a t has r e s u l t e d from the changed  family.  The r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out i n t h i s t h e s i s has r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s , f o r the p l a c i n g o f s e n i o r zens i n a community depends upon the a t t i t u d e c i e t y toward the a g i n g p r o c e s s .  far citi-  of so-  The e f f o r t must be  made t o l e a r n the l o c a t i o n a l needs o f the e l d e r l y f o r t h e i r housing.  Once t h i s has been a c c o m p l i s h e d , an  i n t e l l i g e n t approach may be t a k e n toward the e v a l u a t i o n  11  and consequent l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making i n r e g a r d the s i t e p l a n n i n g o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g ments .  to  develop-  CHAPTER 2  REVIEW OF RELEVANT THEORY AND EMPIRICAL  RESEARCH  In t h i s c h a p t e r , a r e v i e w o f the r e l e v a n t p e r t a i n i n g t o the a g i n g p r o c e s s w i l l be made,  theory followed  by a s y n t h e s i s o f the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h t h a t has been c a r r i e d out i n r e g a r d t o the h o u s i n g needs and p r e f e r ences o f the e l d e r l y .  This research w i l l c o n s i s t of  t h e s e s w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t ,  s u r v e y s conducted by com-  munity c o u n c i l s and s e r v i c e g r o u p s , as w e l l as  research  conducted by noted s o c i a l w o r k e r s , g e r o n t o l o g i s t s ,  soci-  o l o g i s t s , and p l a n n e r s . F i r s t l y , an attempt w i l l be made t o a n a l y z e s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out i n the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a moving on t o r e s e a r c h conducted e l s e w h e r e .  These r e -  s u l t s w i l l s e r v e as background m a t e r i a l f o r the quent c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g the  before  subse-  empirical  r e s e a r c h and f i n d i n g s i n r e g a r d t o the l o c a t i o n a l needs of the e l d e r l y f o r h o u s i n g .  T h e o r i e s on A g i n g Two d i s t i n c t and h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l t h e o r i e s o f the a g i n g p r o c e s s have been d e v e l o p e d .  The f i r s t o f  t h e s e , r e g a r d e d as the i m p l i c i t t h e o r y o f a g i n g , i s w e l l  13  documented by p r o f e s s i o n a l s  (medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s ,  so-  c i a l w o r k e r s , g e r o n t o l o g i s t s ) and s t a t e s t h a t n e i g h b o r s of d i f f e r e n t ages are a b l e t o develop v i a b l e s o c i a l l a t i o n s h i p s and mutual s u p p o r t ;  such f r i e n d s h i p s  s u s t a i n the morale o f o l d e r p e o p l e as w e l l as 1" t o t h e x r y o u t h f u l n e s s and independence.  re-  will  contribute •  From t h i s  t h e o r y , the p r o f e s s i o n a l s are unanimous i n t h a t . t h e aged must be l o c a t e d i n p r o x i m i t y t o a l l  generations  and thus be w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d - i n t o t h e i r community. is  There  no r e a s o n t h a t the e l d e r l y s h o u l d c o n f i n e the quan-  t i t y and q u a l i t y o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The  a g i n g are a b l e t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i e t y a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , s h o u l d not be p r e v e n t e d from d o i n g so by b e i n g i s o l a t e d from the a c t i v i t y about them.  Segrega-  t i o n o f the e l d e r l y w i l l o n l y s e r v e t o add t o the  conti-  nued b e l i e f t h a t the a g i n g a r e p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y incompetent and d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n l i f e about them. The  second t h e o r y o f a g i n g , advanced by Cumming and  Henry, i s termed disingagement t h e o r y , and i s based upon  I r v i n g Rosow, "Housing and L o c a l T i e s o f the A g e d " , P a t t e r n s o f L i v i n g arid Housing o f M i d d l e Aged and O l d e r P e o p l e , U . S . Dept. o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , 1965, p. 47.  14  the f o l l o w i n g  statement:  ' a l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r , the e x p e c t a t i o n of death i s u n i v e r s a l and decrement o f a b i l i t y i s probable. Therefore, a u n i v e r s a l sever i n g o f t i e s w i l l take p l a c e between a person and o t h e r s i n h i s s o c i e t y ' 2 T h i s t h e o r y has been developed on a . g e n e r a l  observation  t h a t as people grow o l d e r , they become l e s s i n v o l v e d i n l i f e around them than when t h e y were young.  Economic,  s o c i a l , and f a m i l y . t i e s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced as d i s engagement begins t o take p l a c e , drawing the a g i n g i n d i vidual further  away from the r e s t o f s o c i e t y .  This  ' i n e v i t a b l e ' p r o c e s s may be found i n a l l c u l t u r e s known to man, a l t h o u g h i t may appear i n v a r i o u s degrees and forms.  I n t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s where the aged a r e  val-  ued f o r t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and wisdom, the i n d i v i d u a l may i n i t i a t e the disengagement societies, individual.  p r o c e s s , whereas  in primitive  such w i t h d r a w a l i s most o f t e n f o r c e d upon the A l t h o u g h the o i d e r person does not become a  r e c l u s e or an o u t c a s t  o f s o c i e t y , h i s r o l e i s now t h a t  of an o b s e r v e r as opposed t o an a c t i v e  participant.  The p r o c e s s o f w i t h d r a w a l may v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y from one i n d i v i d u a l t o another ogy, temperament,  due to d i f f e r e n c e s  p e r s o n a l i t y , and l i f e  in physiol-  style.  Indivi-  d u a l s may a l s o w i t h d r a w more markedly from some p e o p l e while remaining i n close contact with others.  Neverthe-  l e s s , Cumming and Henry suggest t h a t a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n 2 E l a i n e Cumming and W i l l i a m E . Henry, Growing O l d , New Y o r k , B a s i c Books, 1961, p . 211.  15  o f the disengagement p r o c e s s i s an i n c r e a s e d p r e o c c u p a tion with oneself. structure,  C e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the  societal  however, may a s s i s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h i s  increased self-preoccupation.  In western c u l t u r e s , a  t y p i c a l example i s t h a t o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e t i r e ment a t an a r t i f i c i a l  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age.  T h i s may have  l i t t l e t o do w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l s p h y s i o l o g i c a l o r mental age, and i t s v a l i d i t y remains q u e s t i o n a b l e .  Upon r e t i r e -  ment, the e l d e r l y become dependents l i v i n g on a f i x e d income and c o n s e q u e n t l y , upon a c o n s t r i c t e d l i f e due t o c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s ,  pattern  as w e l l as economic c o n s t r a i n t s .  A l t h o u g h the f u l l y disengaged c o n d i t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l can be c o n s i d e r e d t o e x i s t when o n l y those bonds which are n e c e s s a r y t o s u s t a i n l i f e r e m a i n , death i s as the o n l y t o t a l  ...  disengagement.  3  In American s o c i e t y , the p r o c e s s o f may d i f f e r  regarded  disengagement  between men and women due t o the man's  tradi-  t i o n a l or i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e as a, p r o v i d e r , s u s t a i n i n g the f a m i l y i n a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s s t r u c t u r e ,  compared t o  t h a t o f the woman whose r o l e i s more s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n e n f o r c i n g norms f o r the a t t a i n m e n t  o f the f a m i l y ' s  goals.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s r e g a r d e d as a f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n i n  3  I b i d . , p . 211.  16  t h a t s u c c e s s f u l disengagement i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o c e s s f u l aging.  P e r f e c t disengagement i s a l s o a  t i o n a d v a n c e d by readiness with  the  society's readiness An  to release  almost  him  exactly  from h i s main  e x a m p l e o f t h i s w o u l d be  d u a l whose i n t e n t i o n s t o l e a v e  an  h i s j o b and  indivi-  retire  f e c t l y c o i n c i d e w i t h h i s employer's i n t e n t to him  f o r t h i s very  condi-  t h e o r i s t s when t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  f o r disengagement c o i n c i d e s  commitments.^  suc-  per-  release  same r e a s o n .  The. i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e  disengagement theory  are  t h a t American s o c i e t i e s r e i n f o r c e a concept termed grading, who  discriminating against  elderly individuals  belong to a grade t h a t i s considered  . for  the  adaptation  The  of the  e l d e r l y should  t h e i r generation  w i t h y o u n g e r members o f of t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s  4  I b i d . , p.  5  obsolete  As the  a  consequence,  young i s  develop f r i e n d s h i p s  w i t h p e r s o n s whom t h e y a r e a b l e  late experiences to, rather  ments o f f o o d ,  o l d and  too  5  t o modern c o n d i t i o n s .  residential proximity favored.  .  than t r y i n g to  s o c i e t y who  and  w a r m t h , and  are  frustrations.  A g e d , p.  47.  within to  re-  appreciative  The  214.  not  communicate  not  s h e l t e r must be  Rosow, L o c a l T i e s o f The  age  bare  provided  requirefor  17  t h e aged as t h e y p r o c e e d  toward  t o t a l disengagement  and  death. The mulated and  p r o n o u n c e m e n t o f d i s e n g a g e m e n t t h e o r y has s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o v e r s y among s o c i a l  sti-  theorists  p r o f e s s i o n a l s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e aged as t o i t s v a l i -  d i t y and  a p p l i c a b i l i t y . ' Although  gagement o r m u t u a l w i t h d r a w a l  the process  of d i s e n -  appears t o have c o n s i d e r -  a b l e m e r i t i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e a g i n g p r o c e s s , no e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have been a b l e t o c l e a r l y support ban  it.  Grant  ty  attempted  to  and  done by c o m p a r i n g two  t o s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s , and  l e i s u r e time age  those  groups, over  t h o s e men  ment was  markedly present  y o u n g e r men, f i v e years to  lower  and  group  income s t a t u s t h a n d i d  indicating retirement.  family l i f e  disengage-  i n t h a t t h e o l d e r age  suggestive of the standard  age  of  the  sixty-  However, i n r e g a r d  l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s ,  c o u l d n o t be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  six-  s e v e n t y - f i v e years  H i s f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t economic  a significantly  economic  activities.  o f age.  had  ur-  indicate  of disengagement i n t h r e e major a r e a s :  disengagement, f a m i l y l i f e , T h i s was  to  Youmans, i n a s t u d y o f r u r a l and  n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d men,  evidence  indicate results  the  f r o m t h e y o u n g e r age  elderly group,  E. G r a n t Youmans, O l d e r R u r a l A m e r i c a n s : A S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , L e x i n g t o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Kent u c k y P r e s s , 1967.  18  f o r t h e i r p a t t e r n o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n almost  identical.  T h u s , Youmans c o n c l u d e d  were  t h a t changes  w i t h a d v a n c e s i n age a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l i n e a r , f o r d i s e n g a g e m e n t may o c c u r i n d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a p e r son's l i f e  i n v a r y i n g degrees.  The p r o c e s s o f d i s e n -  gagement h a s f a r t o o many e x c e p t i o n s t o be o f s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o any p a r t i c u l a r age group i n s o c i e t y . Gordon S t r e i b , i n a n a l y z i n g disengagement t h e o r y , firstly  emphasizes t h a t the f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s  was w o r k e d o u t a s t h e c a s e  studies progressed  ed t o b e i n g c l e a r l y d e v e l o p e d t h i s theory  as opposHowever,  ( b a s e d u p o n common s e n s e o b s e r v a t i o n s ) d o e s  have m e r i t toward  understanding  d i s e n g a g e m e n t may be f o u n d serve.  a t the outset.  theory  the aging process, f o r  i n a l l s o c i e t i e s one may o b -  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , when i t o c c u r s , t o whom i t  o c c u r s , i n what s i t u a t i o n s i t i s f o u n d , how i t i s p e r c e i v e d , how i t i s r e a c t e d t o a n d how i t a f f e c t s ent k i n d s o f p e r s o n a l i t y types  i n various social  differstruc-  7  t u r e s may v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . ory cannot  Thus, disengagement  be o f u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y  a whole, f o r the process  the-  t o t h e aged as  i s very incongruous  among i n -  dividuals . G o r d o n F. S t r e i b , " D i s e n g a g e m e n t T h e o r i e s i n Socio-Cultural Perspective", International Journal of P s y c h i a t r y , v o l . 6 ( J u l y 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 70.  19  N o r v a l G l e n n , i n an a n a l y s i s ' " o f c r o s s s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l data, of. t h i r t y . - f ive. American o p i n i o n s u r v e y s , t e s t s the h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t as people become o l d e r , they become l e s s l i k e l y t o h o l d or express  opinions,  have knowledge of c u r r e n t e v e n t s , or e x e r c i s e t h e i r v o t i n g power.  I n a c o h o r t a n a l y s i s , Glenn found n e i t h e r  a pronounced i n c r e a s e or d e c r e a s e i n o p i n i o n and v o t i n g p a t t e r n between t h r e e age groups (twenty-one y e a r s  to  t h i r t y - n i n e y e a r s , f o r t y years- t o f i f t y - n i n e y e a r s ,  and  s i x t y y e a r s and o v e r ) , a l t h o u g h the o l d e s t r e s p o n d e n t s had markedly more awareness and knowledge o f c u r r e n t events than any of the younger groups on the  study.  These f i n d i n g s show t h a t the aged appear t o be v e r y much a p a r t of s o c i e t y about them, even though they may  have  been r e j e c t e d by the community, the r e v e r s e has not  tak-  en p l a c e .  the  Although  Glenn's study did- not p o i n t out  i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the aged i n t h e i r l o c a l environment, he concluded events may  t h a t the i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o c u r r e n t .  compensate f o r the l o s s o f c l o s e i n t e r p e r s o -  nal relationships.  T h i s f i n d i n g may  i n planning f u t u r e housing  have i m p l i c a t i o n s  p r o j e c t s f o r the e l d e r l y  appear t o p r e f e r t o be i n c o n t a c t w i t h a c t i v i t i e s i n g p l a c e about them. I n r e v i e w , a l t h o u g h most t h e o r i s t s , as w e l l as  who  tak-  20  p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e i n agreement t h a t disengagement i s u n i v e r s a l i n a l l human c u l t u r e s , i t i s o f no consequence a p p l i e d on an o v e r a l l b a s i s t o an a g i n g p o p u l a t i o n .  No  two i n d i v i d u a l s a r e p e r f e c t l y a l i k e and c o n s e q u e n t l y , disengagement o r w i t h d r a w a l may t a k e p l a c e i n v a r y i n g degrees and a t d i s s i m i l a r t i m e s .  Nevertheless, the iden-  t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s p r o c e s s i s o f v a l u e toward a b e t t e r understanding of the e l d e r l y . Research In  Conducted i n G r e a t e r Vancouver s e a r c h i n g f o r s t u d i e s t h a t have been  conducted,  p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e h o u s i n g needs, l i f e s t y l e s , and l i v ing to  c o n d i t i o n s of the e l d e r l y , s e v e r a l theses r e l a t i n g t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l work may be examined. g  A n g e l and MacKinnon of  pensioners  conducted  a survey o f two groups  ( m a r r i e d c o u p l e s and s i n g l e women) i n a  v a r i e t y ' o f l i v i n g accommodations i n West Vancouver.  A  most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g was t h a t most o f t h e s i n g l e women i n t e r v i e w e d , who l i v e d w i t h m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n , d e r i v ed l e a s t s a t i s f a c t i o n from t h e i r l i v i n g arrangements, even though t h e f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d f o r them were D o l i n a F. MacKinnon and Jerome H. A n g e l , Housing Needs and' P r e f e r e n c e s Among S e n i o r C i t i z e n s (West V a n c o u v e r ) , Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 195 7.  21  s u p e r i o r to those o f m a r r i e d c o u p l e s .  They a l s o  indi-  c a t e d t h a t they would- be w i l l i n g t o make s a c r i f i c e s i n terms o f q u a l i t y o f s h e l t e r and i n c r e a s e d r e n t i n o r d e r to maintain t h e i r  independence.  T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n support o f  the  argument t h a t p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g f o r the e l d e r l y i s preferable  over t h a t o f f a m i l y accommodation.  The p r i -  mary concern o f the r e s p o n d e n t s was t h a t o f p r i v a c y and freedom to c a r r y out t h e i r - ' d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n whatever f a s h i o n they so d e s i r e d . felt restricted  The m a j o r i t y o f women  i n the home o f a m a r r i e d c h i l d or r e -  l a t i v e and d i d not p r e f e r any form o f shared accommodation.  The r e a c t i o n s  o f the r e s p o n d e n t s ( p r e s e n t l y  r e n t a l accommodation) toward a low r e n t a l s e n i o r  in  citi-  z e n s ' h o u s i n g p r o j e c t were e x t r e m e l y f a v o r a b l e , a l though t h e i r hopes o f h a v i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y t o  live  i n one o f t h e s e developments were e x t r e m e l y low due t o  '  the l o n g w a i t i n g l i s t a t the Vancouver h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y . 9 E y v o l l e Cuthbert  . , m a study o f p e n s i o n e r s  i n g i n the s k i d row a r e a o f V a n c o u v e r , attempted g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the e l d e r l y and t h e i r  residto ability  to cope w i t h t h e i r economic and s o c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s v i a i n d i v i d u a l case s t u d i e s .  An i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g  from  \ E y v o l l e P e a r l C u t h b e r t , How Old People L i v e , Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ' 1961.  22  these case s t u d i e s was t h a t the p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t s r e s i d e d i n run-down rooming houses and old hotels  (next t o t h a t o f low r e n t a l ) , was i t s  t i o n a l advantages, ping f a c i l i t i e s .  loca-  b e i n g v e r y near a c t i v i t i e s and shopOne o f t h e ' r e s p o n d e n t s  interviewed  spent a s h o r t time- i n a b o a r d i n g house, s i t u a t e d away from the c i t y c e n t r e , but moved back a g a i n where t h e r e was more a c t i v i t y and b e t t e r able."^  shopping f a c i l i t i e s  avail-  A l t h o u g h most o f the respondents were d i s s a t i s -  f i e d w i t h the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r s h e l t e r and the c o n d i t i o n o f the immediate e n v i r o n m e n t , t h i s area d e f i n i t e l y posed a major advantage i n terms o f l o c a t i o n .  Many o f the  re-  spondents commented t h a t w i t h a l l the a c t i v i t y t a k i n g p l a c e about them, t h e y were a b l e t o b e t t e r  occupy t h e i r  time r a t h e r than g a z i n g out o f a window onto a p e r f e c t l y q u i e t and i n a c t i v e s t r e e t . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s  suggest t h a t  the  e l d e r l y p r e f e r t o have a c t i v i t y t a k i n g p l a c e about them t o make them f e e l p a r t o f the community, even though i t may be a t the expense of added n u i s a n c e s to q u i e t The respondents  living.  p r e f e r r e d t o walk i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r  I b i d . , p. 20.  23  shopping and s o c i a l needs, f o r p u b l i c t r a n s i t was too i n c o n v e n i e n t t o be made use o f .  These f i n d i n g s may have  a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make toward an i n t e l l i g e n t approach to the s i t e p l a n n i n g o f f u t u r e  senior c i t i z e n s ' housing  developments. 11 Hanowski, Hayward, Reed, and T e a t h e r ,  sought  to  a c h i e v e a b a l a n c e d p i c t u r e o f the needs o f the aged by examining two groups o f p e r s o n s ,  those w a i t i n g f o r low  r e n t a l accommodation on the Vancouver h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y , as w e l l as those e l d e r l y p e o p l e r e s i d i n g i n the Creek a r e a o f Vancouver.  False  I n comparing these two g r o u p s ,  one o f which c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y o f home owners F a l s e C r e e k ) , the r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t those  (in persons  who were p r e s e n t l y consuming r e n t a l accommodation and were s e a r c h i n g f o r a l t e r n a t i v e housing-, were much more dissatisfied  than those owner o c c u p i e r s , even though-  the t e n a n t s o v e r a l l had b e t t e r q u a l i t y o f s h e l t e r . a s k i n g the t o t a l sample t h e i r l o c a t i o n a l  In  preferences  f o r -accommodation, e i g h t y - e i g h t per c e n t f a v o r e d h o u s i n g i n the c i t y , -over o n e - h a l f o f these people  (52 per  s t a t i n g t h a t they would l i k e t o l i v e i n the c e n t r a l  cent) part  Arvey Hanowski, et a l , Housing For The Aged: An E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d y ' o f Needs and P r e f e r e n c e s , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1962.  v  24  o f the c i t y .  12  A very frequent  comment made by the  spondents was t h a t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n g e n e r a l were f a r o u t ' , b o t h i n terms o f d i s t a n c e from n e c e s s a r y lities  re'too faci-  such as shops, m e d i c a l c l i n i c s , and p u b l i c  tran-  The a u t h o r s noted a f e e l i n g o f resentment  under-  13 sit.  lying these'responses,  f o r the e l d e r l y were b i t t e r  with  the a t t i t u d e t a k e n toward b u i l d i n g h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g the l o c a t i o n a l needs o f the  future  occupants. I n an attempt t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the importance o f certain f a c i l i t i e s the respondents  compared t o o t h e r s ,  t o s t a t e the p l a c e they c o n s i d e r e d the  most i m p o r t a n t t o be n e a r . • F A C I L I T Y  The r e s u l t s are as Number o f t i m e s mentioned  Store - grocery - other Bus Health Services  7 6. 4 73 25  Church Park  22 14  Community Centre Library Movies  11 6 2  1 2  Tbid.,  1 3  Loc.  1 4  the survey asked  p.  106  cit.  Ibld.,  p . 108  14 follows:-  25  A c c o r d i n g t o the above f i n d i n g s , the e l d e r l y appear to be most concerned w i t h p r o x i m i t y to shopping and t r a n s portation f a c i l i t i e s ; health services, recreational  fa-  c i l i t i e s , and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are v e r y d e f i n i t e l y o f secondary  importance.  A f i n a l f i n d i n g of t h i s  survey was t h a t the r e s p o n -  dents who c l a i m e d to need a l t e r n a t e h o u s i n g the most  (those  p r e s e n t l y owning a home and not b e i n g a b l e to m a i n t a i n  it)  d e c l i n e d i t , f o r they f e l t l i v i n g i n an apartment e n v i r onment would r e s u l t dom.  i n a l o s s o f independence  Thus, the e l d e r l y p e o p l e ' s  and  free-  conception of m u l t i p l e  u n i t h o u s i n g developments was- s t i l l  that of sharing  ac-  commodation w i t h a p e r s o n c o m p l e t e l y unknown to the i n dividual. Recent r e s e a r c h  i n - r e g a r d to senior c i t i z e n s '  hous-  i n g conducted i n the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a may be l i m i t e d to three s t u d i e s ,  o n l y one o f w h i c h i s p r i m a r i l y  concerned w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f h o u s i n g developments  in  r e g a r d to o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s . The West Vancouver Community C o u n c i l conducted a study i n 1970 a t t e m p t i n g hopes,  <  t o determine the n e e d s , o p i n i o n s ,  and t a l e n t s o f persons over s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s o f  26  age r e s i d i n g w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  Although t h i s  study focused p r i m a r i l y upon the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f the r e s p o n d e n t s ( m a r i t a l s t a t u s , income, type o f accomm o d a t i o n ) , one i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g i s e v i d e n t r e g a r d i n g attitude  o f the e l d e r l y toward shared accommodation.  the t o t a l number-of s u b j e c t s  sampled, twenty-two per  had a t one time l i v e d w i t h m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n ; o f  Of cent  this  g r o u p , n i n e t y - f o u r per cent found t h i s arrangement 16 .satisfactory.  the  un-  The p r i m a r y reasons g i v e n f o r t h e i r  dis-  s a t i s f a c t i o n were l a c k o f p r i v a c y , freedom, and i n d e p e n dence; many o f the people f e l t ' t h a t they were becoming mere s e r v a n t s  i n the homes'of m a r r i e d . c h i l d r e n and r e -  latives. T h i s s t u d y , as o t h e r s mentioned e a r l i e r , a g a i n p o i n t s out t h a t the aged a r e o v e r l y concerned w i t h p r e s e r v i n g physical,  s o c i a l , and economic independence  t e r years of t h e i r l i v e s .  i n the  lat-  Another f i n d i n g o f t h i s ' study  was t h a t many o f the r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h a t one o f  the  major problems o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s was l o n e l i n e s s ,  for  they were b e i n g ' s h u t o u t '  from the community by p o o r l y  l o c a t e d h o u s i n g accommodation.  These r e s u l t s may g i v e  p l a n n e r s more o f a b a s i s upon which to make d e c i s i o n s i n  West Vancouver Community C o u n c i l , Report on the Concerns and Needs o f S e n i o r C i t i z e n s i n West V a n c o u v e r , January 19 71. "*"^Ibid . , p . 6 .  27 analyzing various p o t e n t i a l sites for senior c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o j e c t s  i n the  future.  C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , a t the  re-  quest o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , has a l so completed a survey o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g (December 1971) i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . t e r p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , h o u s i n g developments  lat-  concerning proximity of  t o e x t e r n a l f a c i l i t i e s , has not  a n a l y z e d t o any degree f o r comment. ed t o a l l s o c i e t i e s  However, the  the  been  T h i s survey was m a i l -  s p o n s o r i n g h o u s i n g accommodation f o r  e l d e r l y and no c o n t a c t was made w i t h the r e s i d e n t s  the  of these  projects. Two s t u d e n t s o f Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , A l l e n and Gordon P r i e s t ,  conducted a survey o f e l e v e n  c i t i z e n s ' housing projects  Lefevre  senior  i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a  ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the s p a t i a l a s p e c t s o f h o u s i n g f o r the e l d e r l y . formula f o r a s s e s s i n g  I n d o i n g s o , they developed a  each o f the i n d i v i d u a l  ( L + 2 ( s ) + T / 2 ) F = where  Aggregate  sites: P.E.B.  L = S =  number o f b l o c k s walked number o f b l o c k s walked w i t h f i v e degree or g r e a t e r g r a d i e n t o r o t h e r s t a t e d h a z a r d (where a p p l i c a b l e ) T = number o f b l o c k s t r a v e l l e d by p u b l i c t r a n s i t (where a p p l i c a b l e ) F = frequency o f use 17 Aggregate P . E . B . = t o t a l ' p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n ' b l o c k s 17  . • A. L e f e v r e and Gordon E . P r i e s t , L o c a t i n g The S e n i o r C i t i z e n Housing Development, Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , 1969, p . 1 1 .  28  The above f o r m u l a was a p p l i e d i n c a l c u l a t i n g the  dis-  tance o f a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t t o each o f t e n s p e c i f i c  fa-  c i l i t i e s .(supermarket, m e d i c a l c l i n i c , bank, c o r n e r store,.drug store, church, l i b r a r y ,  social centre,  bus  s t o p , p a r k ) and i n d i c a t e d the c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n o v e r coming d i s t a n c e , termed by the a u t h o r s as s p a t i a l costs.  An average s p a t i a l c o s t was then c a l c u l a t e d  f o r each o f the p r o j e c t s 'critical'  s t u d i e d and compared t o  d i s t a n c e s to f a c i l i t i e s  the  ( d i s t a n c e beyond  which the e l d e r l y ' express d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n making a t r i p ) d e r i v e d by Niebanck i n h i s study o f one hundred and seventeen s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s 18 i n P e n n s y l v a n i a (196 5 )..  The f o r m u l a developed s u g -  g e s t s t h a t a l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between the frequency o f use and importance o f a f a c i l i t y , v a l i d i t y o f w h i c h may be q u e s t i o n e d .  the  I t must be t a k -  en i n t o account t h a t a l t h o u g h some t r i p s t o a may not be made at' v e r y r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , i t s  facility importance  N i e b a n c k , The E l d e r l y i n Older Urban A r e a s , p . 64.  29  i s not l e s s c r i t i c a l t o the aged.  Also proximity to a  p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t y may generate a number o f a d d i t i o n a l t r i p s which might not o t h e r w i s e be made. P r i e s t also formulate a c r i t i c a l plying c r i t i c a l distance  L e f e v r e and  s p a t i a l c o s t by m u l t i -  ( o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g the r e s p o n -  dents what d i s t a n c e ' t h e y p r e f e r r e d t o be t o each lity)  by frequency o f u s e .  the r e s i d e n t s  .No attempt  faci-  i s made t o ask  t o rank the importance o f the  facilities  l i s t e d above, f o r frequency o f use i s used as the  indi-  c a t o r of importance. The f i n d i n g s o f the study i n d i c a t e t h a t o n l y  five  o f the e l e v e n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . i n the sample met the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e s as suggested by Niebanck i n . h i s s t u d y .  .These . r e s u l t s ..also ..point out  t h a t a more c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t must be made i n examining the t o t a l s p a t i a l c o s t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s t o the e l d e r l y b e f o r e a d e c i s i o n i s made as t o t h e i r  location.  Research Conducted O u t s i d e o f G r e a t e r Vancouver I n a n a l y z i n g s t u d i e s t h a t have been c a r r i e d out o u t s i d e o f the Vancouver a r e a , an attempt w i l l be made t o d i s c u s s o n l y those b e a r i n g r e l e v a n c e upon l o c a t i o n a l needs i n r e g a r d t o h o u s i n g l o c a t i o n .  30  In 1968, the C a p i t a l Region P l a n n i n g Board c a r r i e d out a r e t i r e m e n t  study i n the G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a a r e a i n  o r d e r to a s s e s s the p a r t p l a y e d by r e t i r e d people i n the 19 economic and s o c i a l l i f e o f the community. relevant  One o f  the  f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t over  t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the r e s p o n d e n t s , when asked i f they would p r e f e r t o l i v e i n a r u r a l a r e a , gave a n e g a t i v e 20 . . reply. The e l d e r l y f e l t t h a t the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r accommodation was o f p r i m a r y importance i n t h a t preferred cilities  they  to be w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f shopping f a in particular..  The m a j o r i t y o f the e l d e r l y i n t e r v i e w e d a l s o  indi-  c a t e d a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward r e s i d i n g i n s e n i o r c i t i z e n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , f o r s i x t y - t h r e e per c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s had f a v o r e d r e s i d i n g i n such accommodations 21 a t the p r e s e n t time o r p o s s i b l y a t a f u t u r e d a t e . In a s k i n g the aged persons t h e i r s p e c i f i c l i k e s as t o t h e i r p r e s e n t l i v i n g accommodation, the most common r e p l y was t h a t i t was near shopping f a c i l i t i e s , downtown 19  . . C a p i t a l Region P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columb i a , R e t i r e m e n t Study P r e l i m i n a r y S t a t i s t i c s , p . 1. ^ I b i d . , p. 11. • 2  21  I b i d . , p. 9 .  31  or p u b l i c t r a n s i t .  22  T h i s r e s u l t p r o v i d e s a good i n -  s i g h t i n t o the l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f the e l d e r l y as to t h e i r residence  i n an urban a r e a .  When asked as  to  t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s i n terms, o f i m p r o v i n g p u b l i c  services,  sixty-one'per  toward  cent assigned  increasing hospital  t h e i r preferences 23 services.  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s amined e a r l i e r i n t h a t  study support  the s t u d i e s  (a) the e l d e r l y a t t a c h a g r e a t  d e a l o f importance toward b e i n g c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , Cb) t h e i r a t t i t u d e . i s  ex-  generally favorable  p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g f o r the aged.  Also,  s i x out o f t e n r e s p o n d e n t s gave h i g h e s t  toward  and the  approximately  p r i o r i t y to .  h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s , i n d i c a t i n g the importance o f m e d i c a l services  to t h i s age  group.  A Senior Residents  Survey was undertaken  by the  Edmonton C o u n c i l o f Community S e r v i c e s i n o r d e r t o v i d e some f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g Edmonton's  pro-  aged  24 population.  Although t h i s  specific details  study d e a l t w i t h numerous  o f the l i f e p a t t e r n s o f r e s i d e n t s ,  concern was shown f o r a c o h e r e n t approach toward  no  the  22 Loc. c i t . 2 3 . I b i d . , p . 13. 24 Edmonton 19 W6e4l f a r e C o u n c i l , Edmonton S e n i o r S u r v e y , Edmonton,  Residents  32  needs o f the e l d e r l y .  Nevertheless,  i t i s worthy o f  mention i n t h a t some o f the f i n d i n g s may bear some r e l e vance towards the a t t i t u d e o f the r e s p o n d e n t s  towards  m u l t i p l e accommodation, but the f i n d i n g s are not o f d i r e c t relevance to t h i s  thesis.  S t u d i e s Undertaken i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s  P a u l N i e b a n c k , i n s t u d y i n g the impact o f r e l o c a t i o n programs upon d i s r u p t i o n o f e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s o l d e r p a r t s o f American c i t i e s , devotes attention  considerable  toward the l o c a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s o f t h i s  group i n r e g a r d to t h e i r h o u s i n g needs.  In h i s  of one hundred and seventeen h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s vania  from the  ( 1 9 6 5 ) , Niebanck attempted t o d e r i v e  age  survey  i n Pennsyl-  'critical  dis-  t a n c e s ' t o a l i s t o f s p e c i f i e d f a c i l i t i e s from a s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' housing p r o j e c t .  These c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e s ,  mentioned e a r l i e r , are the d i s t a n c e s  a t which the  elderly  would be w i l l i n g to t r a v e l b e f o r e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s pressed.  as  ex-  He a l s o asked r e s p o n d e n t s which one o f a number  o f s t a t e d a c t i v i t i e s they r e g a r d e d as b e i n g most i m p o r t a n t i n terms of. r e s i d e n t i a l p r o x i m i t y .  The f o l l o w i n g  33  are the r e s u l t s  he  FACILITY. ( i n rank o r d e r )  Grocery Store Bus Stop House o f Worship Drug S t o r e C l i n i c or H o s p i t a l Bank S o c i a l Centre Library News-Cigar S t o r e Restaurant Movie'House Bar  b t a i n e d : 'CRITICAL DISTANCE  PERCENTAGE OF PROJECTS STUDIED VIOLATING C R I T I CAL DISTANCES 23 5 31 27 54 49 26 29 15 20 19  2 - 3 blocks 1 - 2 blocks 1/4-1/2 m i l e ' 3 blocks 1/4-1/2 m i l e 1/4 m i l e indeterminable 1 mile 1/4 m i l e 1/4-1/2 m i l e 1 mile indeterminable  Niebanck a l s o noted a r e l a t i o n s h i p between of use o f a f a c i l i t y and i t s ' c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e . p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s phenomenon was as  frequency The e x -  follows:  ' f a c i l i t i e s t h a t r e c e i v e i n f r e q u e n t or i r r e g u l a r u s e , such as the l i b r a r y , c h u r c h , movie house, and the h o s p i t a l , can be a l o n g walk away b e f o r e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d . On the o t h e r hand, convenience s t o r e s , which are r e g u l a r l y and f r e q u e n t l y used and i n v o l v e the c a r r y i n g o f b u n d l e s , must be l o c a t e d w i t h i n a b l o c k or two or the t r i p l e n g t h becomes d i s a g r e e a b l e ' 26"  N i e b a n c k , The E l d e r l y i n O l d e r Urban A r e a s , p.  64. 2  ^ I b i d . , p . 63.  34  C o n s e q u e n t l y , Niebanck c o n c l u d e s t h a t f a c i l i t i e s  genera-  t i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e frequency o f t r i p s must be l o c a t e d w i t h i n a s h o r t w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e f o r the e l d e r l y , whereas those p l a c e s not frequented of  on as r e g u l a r a b a s i s  secondary l o c a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e .  By f a r ,  the most  important f a c i l i t y i s t h a t of p u b l i c t r a n s i t ,  for  it  stands i n a c a t e g o r y o f i t s own; most o f t e n i t i s o n l y means o f movement i n the  are  the  city.  One f i n d i n g worth comment i s t h a t m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s ranked the h i g h e s t i n terms o f v i o l a t i n g the cal  distances  e s t a b l i s h e d by N i e b a n c k .  T h i s i s worthy  of emphasis, f o r a f a c i l i t y t h a t may make the between l i f e and death  criti-  difference  C p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the e l d e r l y who  are v u l n e r a b l e t o l a p s e s i n h e a l t h ) was i n a d e q u a t e l y l o c a t e d i n more than o n e - h a l f o f the h o u s i n g  projects  investigated. The r e s u l t s o f N i e b a n c k ' s study are v e r y r e l e v a n t to t h i s t h e s i s , which i s u n d e r t a k e n t o examine the t i o n a l needs and p r i o r i t i e s o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s  loca-  present-  l y r e n t i n g i n low r e n t a l accommodation i n the c i t y o f Vancouver.  One p a r t i c u l a r f i n d i n g t h a t w i l l be f o c u s -  ed upon w i l l be t h a t o f t e s t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n between the frequency o f use o f a f a c i l i t y and the attached  t o i t by the  respondents.  importance  35  The importance of. knowledge i n r e g a r d t o the  loca-  t i o n a l n e e d s . o f the e l d e r l y i s i n v a l u a b l e t o p l a n n i n g i n this area. fore,  I t may p r o v i d e f o r an informed and t h e r e -  i n t e l l i g e n t approach towards a n a l y z i n g a l t e r n a t i v e  s i t e s f o r h o u s i n g , r a t h e r t h a n more guesswork or z a t i o n o f cheap or o t h e r w i s e , u n a t t r a c t i v e  utili-  property.  A s h f o r d and H o l l o w a y , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o l e a r n the a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s o f the e l d e r l y , s t u d i e d the d a t a g a t h e r e d from s i x urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s i n Milwaukee and o f f i v e major c i t i e s i n Georgia. ( A l b a n y , A u g u s t a , 27 Columbus, Macon, and Savannah).  T h e i r f i n d i n g s are  o f use i n a s s e s s i n g the m o b i l i t y o f t h i s age g r o u p . first  The-  f i n d i n g was t h a t the number o f t r i p s t o and from  the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t i n c r e a s e d  significantly  by age group f o r work, s h o p p i n g , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s p u r p o s e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f mode.  Only t w e l v e per c e n t o f a l l  shopping t r i p s were o r i e n t e d t o the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t f o r a d u l t s between the ages o f t w e n t y - f i v e and t h i r t y - f o u r y e a r s , compared t o over t w e n t y - f i v e per 28 c e n t f o r e l d e r l y persons  (over s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s o l d ) .  27 and F . M . H o l l o w a y , " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n IN.b i A d .s h, f opr.d 44. P a t t e r n s o f Older People i n S i x Urban C e n t r e s " , The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , v o l . 12 (March 197 2 ) . 2 8  ?  36  On an o v e r a l l b a s i s , the r a t i o o f C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t o r i e n t e d t r i p s f o r the average urban r e s i d e n t was s l i g h t l y more than h a l f  i n comparison t o those  persons 29  aged s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s or more (.010 compared t o  ;018),  I n examining the number o f t r i p s made between ferent  zones i n the c i t y , the r e s e a r c h e r s  dif-  were a b l e  to  show t h a t the e l d e r l y made almost t w i c e the number o f t r i p s as the average auto d r i v e r ( s i x t e e n and o n e - h a l f 30 per cent as opposed t o e i g h t and o n e - h a l f per  cent).  T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t the e l d e r l y a r e a v e r y m o b i l e group i n comparison w i t h o t h e r segments o f the p o p u l a t i o n . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o s e p a r a t e t r i p s by mode, A s h f o r d and Holloway found a n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t r i p s v i a p u b l i c t r a n s i t by the age group s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age and over (shopping t r i p s o f those s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age and over was 2 2.4% as opposed t o 2.6% f o r the t w e n t y - f i v e t o t h i r t y 31 f o u r year o l d age g r o u p ) . These f i n d i n g s add t o those o f o t h e r r e s u l t s  dis-  cussed e a r l i e r i n d i c a t i n g the pronounced dependence o f 29 I b i d . , p . 4 5. 30 Loc. c i t . 31 Loc. c i t . T  T  37  the e l d e r l y upon p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . access to a t r a n s i t  Without ready  s t o p , the e l d e r l y must r e l y upon  o t h e r forms o f t r a n s p o r t  Can example, t h a t o f a t a x i )  which are o f t e n beyond t h e i r economic means.  Although  the e l d e r l y d i d not make more ' o v e r a l l t r i p s than the midd l e aged g r o u p , they demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t . d e m a n d 32 for mobility..  This study i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n that  the e l d e r l y are the e x c l u s i v e age group i n s o c i e t y t h a t depends markedly upon p u b l i c t r a n s i t ;  t h i s s h o u l d be  borne i n mind i n p l a n n i n g the l o c a t i o n o f s e n i o r zens h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s  i n the  future.  Jack G d l d n e r , i n i n t e r v i e w i n g r e s i d e n t s citizens'  housing projects  citi-  of senior  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s  (1960)  found t h a t what the e l d e r l y wanted the most was p e o p l e : 'The aged want t o be downtown near the b r i g h t l i g h t s and i n the main stream o f l i f e . Isol a t i o n and l o n e l i n e s s are t h e i r g r e a t f e a r s , a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t f o r them o u t s i d e the c i t y can o n l y a c c e n t u a t e t h e i r f e a r . D i s t a n c e can o n l y produce d e l i b i t a t i n g s o l i t u d e and the del i t e r i o u s e f f e c t s grow i n g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n t o the d i s t a n c e . ' 3 3  In a s k i n g the e l d e r l y as t o the importance o f  transpor-  t a t i o n , the m a j o r i t y commented t h a t a l t h o u g h i t i s  3 2  Ibid.,  their  p . 46.  33 J . G o l d n e r , " L o c a t i n g Housing For The A g e d " , Canadian W e l f a r e , v o l . 36 ( J u l y 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 218.  3.8  o n l y means o f t r a v e l w i t h i n the urban a r e a , it is s t i l l  i n c o n v e n i e n t and h a z a r d o u s .  commented t h a t they had d i f f i c u l t y  nevertheless  Many o f the aged  i n a s c e n d i n g , as w e l l  as d e s c e n d i n g the steep s t e p s o f a b u s .  Summary o f Common F i n d i n g s In an o v e r v i e w o f the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h  presented  i n t h i s c h a p t e r , c e r t a i n f i n d i n g s are. common t o each o f the s t u d i e s . the p e r s i s t e n t  F i r s t l y , and perhaps the most o b v i o u s , i s d e s i r e o f the e l d e r l y t o m a i n t a i n i n d e p e n -  dent r e s i d e n c e , r e g a r d l e s s o f the economic or h a r d s h i p s t h a t might be e x p e r i e n c e d . t h e i r home as an eminent domain.  financial  The e l d e r l y r e g a r d  They do not want t o  r e s t r i c t j r t h e day t o day a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i r  children  who may be t r y i n g t o c a t e r t o t h e i r needs, nor do the aged want t o be g i v e n the r o l e o f housemaids and baby sitters.  By f a r the b e s t s o l u t i o n i s t h a t o f  indivi-  d u a l l i v i n g accommodation away from f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , but y e t near enough t o be a b l e t o c a l l upon them when i n need. A second f i n d i n g common t o the m a j o r i t y o f the e l d e r l y i s t h a t o f h o u s i n g accommodation w i t h i n an urban a r e a , p e r f e r a b l y w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f shopping and  39  transportation  services.  The aged do not want t o be  housed i n a q u i e t suburban n e i g h b o r h o o d , free" o f b o i s t e r ous a c t i v i t y , which appears t o make the e l d e r l y f e e l a p a r t o f the community. our p o p u l a t i o n • a p p e a r s  C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s segment o f t o be w i l l i n g t o make s a c r i f i c e s  i n o r d e r t o have c e n t r a l l y s i t u a t e d h o u s i n g , whether be a t the acceptance o f p o o r e r q u a l i t y s h e l t e r ,  it  or i n -  c r e a s e d n o i s e i n the. n e i g h b o r h o o d . A t h i r d and f i n a l f i n d i n g common t o a l l o f the d i e s d i s c u s s e d , i s the o v e r a l l f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e  taken  toward the p r o v i s i o n o f low r e n t a l h o u s i n g f o r the ly.  stu-  elder-  However, one d i s t i n c t d i s f a v o r was a l s o noted i n  t h a t the aged are most d i s a p p o i n t e d i n the approach  ta-  ken toward l o c a t i n g accommodation f o r them i n the urban sphere,  f o r t h e i r needs are not b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s .  before  An approach must  be t a k e n i n a s s e s s i n g the t o t a l needs o f the e l d e r l y i n r e g a r d t o the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r h o u s i n g i n the  future.  CHAPTER 3  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PRESENTATION OF DATA  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . ' In a t t e m p t i n g t o a s c e r t a i n the needs and p r e f e r e n ces o f our e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s , a r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e mandatory.  T h i s s t u d y i d e n t i f i e s the" p o p u l a t i o n or u n i -  v e r s e from which a sample i s t o be drawn as the number o f s e l f c o n t a i n e d l i v i n g for  is  total  u n i t s being provided  the e l d e r l y ( d e f i n e d as those persons  sixty-five  y e a r s or o l d e r ) i n the c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , by p r i v a t e , as w e l l as p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s  (Appendix A ) .  Those  aged persons o c c u p y i n g o t h e r forms o f r e n t a l accommod a t i o n ( p e r s o n a l c a r e homes, rooming h o u s e s , i n g rooms, and apartments) shared q u a r t e r s from the sample.  housekeep-  as w e l l as those l i v i n g  in  w i t h f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s are e x c l u d e d Such persons are o f t e n g i v e n a s s i s -  tance i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r day t o day a c t i v i t i e s , and • c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s and needs markedly.  differ  A l t h o u g h the d e f i n e d u n i v e r s e does e x c l u d e a  s i g n i f i c a n t number o f aged persons l i v i n g ' i n o t h e r  than  reduced r e n t accommodation, i t i s c o n s i s t e n t i n a t t e m p t i n g  41  t o l e a r n the needs and p r e f e r e n c e s  o f the aged who r e s i d e  i n senior c i t i z e n housing p r o j e c t s .  These persons  are  b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d t o comment upon the success or f a i l u r e o f the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r p r e s e n t l i v i n g q u a r t e r s .  The  e l d e r l y may bear the most r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the s i t e p l a n n i n g o f f u t u r e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s f o r them. In o b t a i n i n g as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a sample from  the  d e f i n e d p o p u l a t i o n as p o s s i b l e , a random c l u s t e r p r o c e dure was employed.  Each o f the s e n i o r c i t i z e n h o u s i n g  p r o j e c t s i n the c i t y o f Vancouver ( r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e ) was i d e n t i f i e d as a c l u s t e r o f l i v i n g u n i t s , and a r a n dom s e l e c t i o n o f c l u s t e r s was u n d e r t a k e n .  However, the  number o f u n i t s p r o v i d e d by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r thousand seven hundred and f o r t y - s i x ) public sector  (one  as opposed t o  the  (one thousand and n i n e t y - f o u r ) was a l s o  t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were buted i n accordance w i t h t h i s p r o p o r t i o n .  distri-  Consequently,  of e v e r y t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d , s i x were handed t o persons r e s i d i n g • i n p r i v a t e l y sponsored s e n i o r zen h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ' .  citi-  T h i s c o n t r o l a c c o u n t s f o r more  v a l i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of- t h o s e persons r e s i d i n g i n such p r o j e c t s , c o n s e q u e n t l y r e d u c i n g any b i a s i n the sample.  42  D i s t r i b u t i o n of . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s In o b t a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ,  from a maximum number  systematic d i s t r i b u t i o n of survey  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was employed.  T h i s was c a r r i e d out by  l e a v i n g one q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r every seven u n i t s i n a p a r t i c u l a r housing - p r o j e c t .  T h i s procedure a l l o w e d the  sampling o f a t o t a l o f s i x t e e n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s  i n the  c i t y o f Vancouver,- e l e v e n o f which were p r i v a t e l y managed and sponsored.-  A f i v e per c e n t sample o f the p o p u l a -  t i o n was o b t a i n e d , c o n s i s t i n g o f one hundred and f o r t y t h r e e survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , sponsored h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ,  e i g h t y - e i g h t from p r i v a t e l y and f i f t y - f i v e  from p u b l i c l y  sponsored ( f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l ) h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s .  The  d e c i s i o n t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y sample e v e r y seventh u n i t  (as  opposed t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r number) was made upon a p i l o t s u r v e y o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t which time an i n d i c a t i o n was gained as t o the number o f r e s i d e n t s  absent  d u r i n g c a l l i n g o r r e f u s i n g t o c o - o p e r a t e ' f o r reasons o f p h y s i c a l handicaps  (eyesight, hearing, i l l health)  or  mistrust. Extreme c a u t i o n was e x e r c i s e d i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , f o r i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t the i y are most o f t e n the t a r g e t s o f magazine salesmen ,  elder-  43  p e d l a r s , and o t h e r a g e n t s .  For t h e i r . o w n s a f e t y ,  they  are reminded not t o open t h e i r doors t o s t r a n g e r s  at  any t i m e . Upon a r r i v i n g a t a s e l e c t e d h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , first  the  s t e p was t h a t o f a p p r o a c h i n g the manager and e x -  p l a i n i n g the r e s e a r c h b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n .  After receiving  p e r m i s s i o n t o d i s t r i b u t e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the of every s e v e n t h l i v i n g u n i t were approached  residents  individually  and e x p l a i n e d the purpose and scope o f the r e s e a r c h .  In  d o i n g s o , a c o v e r l e t t e r from the S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g was r e a d , e m p h a s i z i n g the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and i n t e n t o f the r e s e a r c h .  Those r e s i d e n t s  hesi-  t a n t upon a c c e p t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were reminded t h a t t h e i r manager had g i v e n f u l l p e r m i s s i o n f o r i t s bution.  distri-  T h i s p r o v i d e d them w i t h assurance o f the  honesty  of the r e s e a r c h and r e s u l t e d l a r g e l y i n acceptance o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Emphasis was a l s o p l a c e d upon the  p e r s o n a l c a l l i n g f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . permitted  ' o n the s p o t '  This  procedure  e x a m i n a t i o n o f the completed-  q u e s t i o n n a i r e and c o n s e q u e n t l y , the respondent  c o u l d be  approached i m m e d i a t e l y i f p a r t s o f i t had been l e f t u n answered.  C o l l e c t i o n of Questionnaires Upon c a l l i n g f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t was examined f o r completeness o f r e s p o n s e .  S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , the  res-  pondent was asked, as t o any p a r t s t h a t may have been u n c l e a r o r any o t h e r comments t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y be o f v a l u e t o the r e s e a r c h b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n . the respondent was g i v e n f u l l  In-all  cases,  o p p o r t u n i t y t o complete  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d e p e n d e n t l y , f o r up t o f i v e were made i n c o l l e c t i n g some o f them.  calls  T h i s method was  f a v o r e d as opposed t o an i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n i n which the respondent o f t e n f e e l s o b l i g a t e d t o respond q u i c k l y and c o n s e q u e n t l y , i s unable t o devote adequate thought to the q u e s t i o n s b e i n g a s k e d . . sured completeness o f r e s p o n s e ,  T h i s procedure a l s o e n f o r the r e s e a r c h e r  was  a b l e t o get immediate feedback as t o what p a r t s had been l e f t unanswered .and why.'  C o n s e q u e n t l y , a l l o f the  ques-  t i o n n a i r e s c o l l e c t e d c o n s i s t e d o f almost one hundred per c e n t response i n a l l o f the q u e s t i o n s a s k e d .  This c l e a r -  l y i n d i c a t e s the v a l u e o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h the  res-  pondent, both i n e n c o u r a g i n g response and n o t i n g a d d i t i o n a l comments, as w e l l as a s s u r i n g them i n the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f the r e s e a r c h b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n . Blank q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d by the  respondents  were r e p l a c e d by d i s t r i b u t i n g them among o t h e r  residents  45  of the same h o u s i n g p r o j e c t .  The o v e r a l l response  the s u r v e y (those a c c e p t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t  to  the  o u t s e t and c o m p l e t i n g i t as i n s t r u c t e d ) was f o r t y - f o u r per c e n t , but s i n c e s a m p l i n g w i t h r e p l a c e m e n t was u s e d , a full  f i v e per c e n t sample was o b t a i n e d due t o  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f immediate feedback from  the  respondents.  Questionnaire Design The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t i s ded t o be completed i n d e p e n d e n t l y by the necessitates  inten-  respondent,  extreme c a r e i n c o n s t r u c t i o n .  T h i s i s pro  nounced even more when a d m i n i s t e r i n g a .survey amongst the e l d e r l y , whose p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and p a t i e n c e o f t e n much more c o n s t r a i n e d than the average  is  adult.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , q u e s t i o n s must be c l e a r and t o the p o i n t . However, the c a r e t a k e n i n e x p l a i n i n g the way i n which the respondent  i s t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  does  a g r e a t d e a l i n r e d u c i n g c o n f u s i o n and e n c o u r a g i n g r e s ponses t o q u e s t i o n s .  T h i s a l s o saves c o n s i d e r a b l e time  and energy i n c o l l e c t i n g the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The advantages  a t t r i b u t e d to a structured  question  n a i r e were f a v o r e d i n t h i s s u r v e y , f o r itlrwas f e l t  that  the e l d e r l y would not respond f a v o r a b l y toward l e n g t h y subjective questions.  By d e s i g n i n g a  significantly  46  s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the r e s p o n d e n t s have t o  'second g u e s s '  accuracy.  the r e s e a r c h e r ,  would not  producing i n -  C o n s e q u e n t l y , most o f the q u e s t i o n s a r e o f  the c l o s e d f o r m , p e r m i t t i n g ease o f r e p l y , as w e l l as a c o n f i n e d s e t o f responses a l l o w i n g more e f f i c i e n c y tabulation. present,  in  N e v e r t h e l e s s , open form q u e s t i o n s are a l s o  e n c o u r a g i n g the r e s p o n d e n t s  s u b j e c t i v e l y upon t h e i r p r e s e n t  t o comment more  l i v i n g accommodation  o r r e l e v a n t items t h a t may have been e x c l u d e d i n the questionnaire. Q u e s t i o n s were grouped a c c o r d i n g t o r e l a t e d j e c t m a t t e r t o p e r m i t c o n t i n u i t y o f thought and  subatten-  t i o n was g i v e n i n a v o i d i n g l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s , f o r  the  respondent was t o be g i v e n complete independence.as his replies.  to  A l t h o u g h the use o f dichotomous q u e s t i o n s  ( a l l o w i n g yes or no response o n l y ) i s q u i t e e x t e n s i v e , i t r e q u i r e s the respondent t o take a s t a n d ,  whether  i t be i n a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e f a s h i o n . A l t h o u g h the l e n g t h o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e g r e a t upon p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the r e s p o n d e n t s , t u r a l s i m p l i c i t y d i d not make i t a d i f f i c u l t complete.  appeared  its  struc-  task  The m a j o r i t y o f the e l d e r l y f e l t t h a t  to the  e n t i r e range o f q u e s t i o n s and q u e r i e s had been c o v e r e d  47  in ascertaining attitudes  toward t h e i r p r e s e n t  living  accommodation as w e l l as l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s  for  their  housing.  A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n s Asked In a n a l y z i n g the arrangement  o f q u e s t i o n s on the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the f i r s t t h r e e are o f a f a c t u a l n a t u r e s e r v i n g t o a s s e s s the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the respondents.  They a r e a l s o o f importance i n a n a l y z i n g  whether age,  s e x , or m a r i t a l s t a t u s ( i n d i c a t e d by type  of l i v i n g quarters) ces and d i f f i c u l t i e s  may be r e l a t e d t o h o u s i n g p r e f e r e n e x p e r i e n c e d by the e l d e r l y .  The second group o f q u e s t i o n s to present  (four to e i g h t )  a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f the a t t i t u d e s  d e r l y towards t h e i r p r e s e n t  l i v i n g quarters  attempt  o f the e l -  as w e l l as  the major reasons  f o r moving where they d i d .  The l e n g t h  of a r e s p o n d e n t ' s  residence i n a housing p r o j e c t i s a l s o  asked i n o r d e r t o t e s t whether a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between l e n g t h o f s t a y and s a t i s f a c t i o n .  The r e s -  pondents are a l s o asked t o i n d i c a t e the s p e c i f i c n e i g h borhood i n which they had f o r m e r l y r e s i d e d i n o r d e r  to  t e s t whether a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f the e l d e r l y a r e m i g r a t i n g from one p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f the c i t y t o  another  48  where low r e n t a l accommodation i s a v a i l a b l e . e i g h t , a s k i n g the respondents  Question  whether they had any c h o i c e  p r i o r t o moving t o t h e i r p r e s e n t  l i v i n g quarters,  may  produce a c l e a r e r i n d i c a t i o n o f the demand f o r a d d i t i o n al  s e n i o r c i t i z e n h o u s i n g i n Vancouver. The n e x t group o f q u e s t i o n s  (nine through twelve)  a t t e m p t s t o d e r i v e not o n l y the importance o f a number of f a c i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o each o t h e r , but a l s o the number o f t r i p s made t o t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s and the d i f f i c u l t i e s distances. made h e r e ,  by the e l d e r l y ,  e x p e r i e n c e d i n overcoming t h e s e  The major a n a l y s i s o f the survey w i l l  be  t h a t b e i n g whether a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n e x -  i s t s between the importance o f a p a r t i c u l a r  facility  and i t s frequency o f u s e , as suggested by a former  study  c a r r i e d out i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a i n 196 9."'" results w i l l  serve i n comparing the d i f f i c u l t i e s  The  encoun-  t e r e d i n o v e r c o m i n g . t h e s e d i s t a n c e s w i t h the a c t u a l d i s t a n c e s t o the f a c i l i t i e s ,  measured i n s h o r t c i t y b l o c k s  ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hundred and f i f t y  feet  i n length),  a l s o a c c o u n t i n g f o r g r a d i e n t s t h a t . m a y produce ty  i n movement.  difficul-  C o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l be made t o examine  any r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these v a r i a b l e s and some o f  A l l e n G. L e f e v r e and Gordon E . P r i e s t , L o c a t i n g The S e n i o r C i t i z e n Housing Development, Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , 19 6 9.  49  those mentioned e a r l i e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y a g e , and  satisfaction,  length of r e s i d e n c e . The f i n a l two q u e s t i o n s p e r m i t the r e s p o n d e n t s  comment upon any o u t s t a n d i n g advantages o r of t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s  disadvantages  and what p a r t i c u l a r improvements  c o u l d be made t o make l i f e  i n the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t much  more p l e a s a n t and e n j o y a b l e . for  to  T h i s i s a l s o an o p p o r t u n i t y  the e l d e r l y t o respond s u b j e c t i v e l y -although t h e y  are f o r c e d t o be b r i e f due t o the p r o v i s i o n o f l i m i t e d space f o r t h e i r comments.  T h i s i s done i n t e n t i o n a l l y  t o p r e v e n t the r e s p o n d e n t s  from r a m b l i n g on and r e p e a t -  i n g what t h e y have been a b l e t o i n d i c a t e on the  ques-  tionnaire earlier.  PRESENTATION OF DATA COLLECTED Of the one hundred and f o r t y - t h r e e  questionnaires  d i s t r i b u t e d , f o r t y - t w o per c e n t were completed by males and  f i f t y - e i g h t per c e n t by f e m a l e s .  No a t t e m p t was made  i n c o n t r o l l i n g the sex r a t i o , f o r t h i s was r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g no b e a r i n g upon the t o t a l l o c a t i o n a l needs o f the elderly.  The m a j o r i t y o f respondents were s e v e n t y t o  e i g h t y y e a r s o f age  CM-6.8;  per c e n t ) f o l l o w e d by a  f i c a n t percentage o f s i x t y t o s e v e n t y y e a r o l d s  signi-  50  (32.1 per c e n t ) , the remainder o v e r e i g h t y y e a r s o f age (15.1 per c e n t ) and l e s s than s i x t y y e a r s o l d ( 4 . 9 per cent).  E i g h t y - t h r e e o f the r e s p o n d e n t s  (58 per  cent)  r e s i d e d i n s i n g l e rooms o r b a c h e l o r u n i t s as opposed t o one bedroom u n i t s .  A l t h o u g h . t h e s e f i g u r e s are i d e n t i c a l  t o those o f the male t o female r a t i o , they bear no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o t h e r i n r e g a r d t o the method i n which the q u e s t i o n n a i r e had been d i s t r i b u t e d . S a t i s f a c t i o n With L o c a t i o n o f L i v i n g  Quarters  The e x a m i n a t i o n o f the r e s p o n d e n t ' s  satisfaction  w i t h the l o c a t i o n a l p r o x i m i t y o f h i s r e s i d e n c e t o a g i v en number o f f a c i l i t i e s may be c a r r i e d out i n two ways. F i r s t l y , an o v e r v i e w o f a l l the respondents  may be made,  n o t i n g the o v e r a l l contentment o f the e l d e r l y i n r e g a r d to the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r l i v i n g  quarters:  TABLE 1 S a t i s f a c t i o n With P r o x i m i t y t o  Facilities  Per Cent Satisfaction Friends Relatives Supermarket Drug S t o r e Bus Stop Park Doctor's Office Church Corner S t o r e Bank Library Community Centre Movie Theatre  79.7 67 . 5 52 . 9 56.3 86.4 42 . 7 42.1 65.7 74.4 67.6 52.4 48 . 5 30.8  51  An o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e  i n t h i s macro e x a m i n a t i o n i s t h a t  l e s s t h a n one h a l f o f the r e s p o n d e n t s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o m e d i c a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l t i e s , while only f i f t y - t w o  per cent f e l t t h a t a s u p e r -  market was a d e q u a t e l y s i t u a t e d f o r t h e i r u s e . than f i f t y  Also,  less  per cent o f the respondents were s a t i s f i e d  w i t h t h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o r e c r e a t i o n a l and facilities  facili-  ( p a r k , community c e n t r e s ,  entertainment  and movie  T h i s t a b l e p r o v i d e s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f the  theatres). satisfac-  t i o n o f the e l d e r l y w i t h the l o c a t i o n a l p r o x i m i t y o f t h e i r present  living  quarters.  In t a k i n g a c l o s e r l o o k a t the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the e l d e r l y i n each h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n r e g a r d t o s e v e r a l f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Table 1, Appendix C ) , S i t e G i s o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h a t l e s s than one h a l f o f the residents  sampled a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o  a l l o f the t h i r t e e n p l a c e s l i s t e d on the  questionnaire.  On the o t h e r hand, S i t e L m e r i t s a t t e n t i o n i n t h a t a l l o f the r e s p o n d e n t s  surveyed were f u l l y  l o c a t i o n of t h e i r l i v i n g quarters daily  content w i t h  the  i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r  needs.  Length of Residence i n Housing P r o j e c t Over e i g h t y per c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s have r e s i d e d  52  i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e housing projects more and c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  f o r one year o r  s h o u l d be a b l e t o make an i n f o r m -  ed e v a l u a t i o n o f the l o c a t i o n a l p r o x i m i t y o f t h e i r r e s i - . dence t o f a c i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y i n c a r r y i n g out d a i l y needs (Table 2, Appendix C ) .  their  The l e n g t h o f  stay  a t a p a r t i c u l a r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t may a l s o be examined more c l o s e l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f a c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s  bet-  ween i n c r e a s i n g l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e and contentment  with  its location. Former Residences and Reasons For Moving The West End o f Vancouver i s by f a r the  largest  s i n g l e a r e a from which the e l d e r l y r e s p o n d e n t s have moved ( t h i r t y per c e n t ) ,  t h r e e times t h a t o f the next  n e i g h b o r h o o d . ( T a b l e 3, Appendix C ) .  I t may be  i n g t o note t h i s f i n d i n g w i t h . t h e r e s u l t s  closest interest-  of question  seven concerned w i t h the major r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r former  residence: •TABLE 2  Reason For Moving From Former Residence Percentage o f Respondents Rent too e x p e n s i v e Too much work t o m a i n t a i n r e s i d e n c e ' P h y s i c a l l y , unable t o m a i n t a i n r e s i d e n c e Wanted t o be near o t h e r s o f own age Forced out due t o d e m o l i t i o n or s a l e Wanted a q u i e t e r neighborhood Locationally inconvenient Wanted a more l i v e l y neighborhood  56.6 11.2 8.4 7.0 6.0 4.2 2.1 1.4  53  Over one h a l f  o f the e l d e r l y changed r e s i d e n c e s  t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to pay i n c r e a s i n g r e n t s , the f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s  due t o  indicating  imposed upon t h i s age group  i n s e a r c h o f l i v i n g accommodation. A most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n t h i s r e s e a r c h was t h a t o n l y t e n per cent o f the r e s p o n d e n t s surveyed had any c h o i c e between l i v i n g accommodations, f o r the  major-  i t y had been c o m p e l l e d i n • a c c e p t i n g what had become a v a i l a b l e or h a v i n g t h e i r name removed from the top o f  the  Vancouver h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y and moved t o the bottom o f the w a i t i n g l i s t . ly residents  T h i s may e x p l a i n why two o f the  surveyed had w a i t e d s i x and e i g h t  elder-  years  r e s p e c t i v e l y i n f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e l i v i n g accommodation. Of those persons who d i d have a c h o i c e , however, one t h i r d r e p l i e d t h a t t h e i r d e c i s i o n was based upon p e r sons w i t h whom they had been f a m i l i a r , e i t h e r or s o c i a l l y  (Table 4, Appendix C ) .  ethnically  T h i s suggests  importance o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s amongst the  the  elderly  i n c h o o s i n g t h e i r l i v i n g accommodation.  Importance o f P r o x i m i t y to  Facilities  The e l d e r l y were a l s o asked to i n d i c a t e the i m p o r tance they a t t r i b u t e d  to a s e l e c t e d number o f p l a c e s i n  54  r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r .  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e  t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s n i f i c a n c e to l i v e  presents  t h a t are o f g r e a t  sig-  near:  TABLE 3 F a c i l i t i e s Regarded as Very Important t o L i v e Near Percentage o f Respondents Bus Stop Doctor's Office Supermarket Drug S t o r e Corner S t o r e Relatives Church Park Bank Friends Community Centre Library Movie Theatre  These r e s u l t s  55 . 9 52 . 4 47 . 5 41. 3 28.7 27 . 3 23 . 8 23 . 8 18.9 17 . 5 11 . 2 7.7 1.4  indicate that transportation, medical,  and shopping f a c i l i t i e s  command g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e , w h i l e  s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are secondary i n satisfying daily  needs.  The respondents facilities  were a l s o asked which one o f  l i s t e d they r e g a r d e d as the most i m p o r t a n t  the  55  to r e s i d e  near:  TABLE 4  F a c i l i t y Regarded As 'The Most I m p o r t a n t '  t o L i v e Near  Per Cent 22.1 21.4 19 . 3 17 .1 7. 9 5.7 2. 9 2.1 0.7 0.7  Bus Stop Doctor's Office Relatives Supermarket Friends Church Park Corner S t o r e Drug S t o r e Bank  These f i n d i n g s denote the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t i o n and m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s  transporta-  t o the e l d e r l y .  Proximity  t o r e l a t i v e s was a l s o o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e , mentioned more o f t e n than nearness t o shopping  T r i p s Generated t o S e l e c t e d The respondents  facilities.  Facilities  were a l s o asked t o i n d i c a t e  number o f t r i p s they generated  in their daily  t i e s , and the r e s u l t s were t r a n s l a t e d  i n t o the  the  activiaverage  56  number o f v i s i t s made t o any one p l a c e per month:  TABLE 5  Average Numb e r . o f . T r i p s ' t o F a c i l i t i e s Per Month Bus Supermarket• • • Corner S t o r e • Friends Relatives • . Drug S t o r e Church Park Bank Doctor's Office Community Centre Library Movie Theatre  13. 9 8.6 6.0 4.6 3 .4 3 .4 2.2 1. 6 • 1. 3 1. 3 • ' 1. 2 0. 8 01 1  The most o u t s t a n d i n g use was made o f p u b l i c  transporta-  t i o n f o l l o w e d by t r i p s t o the supermarket and c o r n e r grocery stores.  The number o f v i s i t s made t o the d o c -  t o r as w e l l as t o r e l a t i v e s i s v e r y s l i g h t compared t o t h e i r importance t o the e l d e r l y .  Difficulties  E x p e r i e n c e d i n Overcoming D i s t a n c e s  I n a s k i n g the e l d e r l y t o i n d i c a t e any they e x p e r i e n c e i n overcoming d i s t a n c e s t o  difficulties facilities,  the most o u t s t a n d i n g appear t o be those o f topography  57  and t r a n s i t  s e r v i c e ( T a b l e • 5 , Appendix C) .  These  res-  ponses w i l l be g i v e n c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n l a t e r i n the thesis. Advantages and Disadvantages o f L i v i n g The most common response of the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s  Quarters  a  as t o the main advantage  was t h a t o f i n e x p e n s i v e r e n t s  (42.5 per c e n t ) f o l l o w e d by the i n t e r n a l comfort o f  the  living unit i t s e l f  per  (Table 6, Appendix C ) .  Only 4.6  c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s commented on the l o c a t i o n a l a d vantages o f t h e i r p r e s e n t l i v i n g accommodation. In a s k i n g the e l d e r l y t o l i s t the main of  t h e i r l i v i n g quarters.,  disadvantages  the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s  were o b -  tained: TABLE 6 Disadvantages o f P r e s e n t L i v i n g  Quarters Per Cent of Respondents  Locationally inconvenient Steep h i l l T r a f f i c or i n d u s t r i a l noise Noise from c h i l d r e n Too q u i e t Isolated Lack o f p r i v a c y These r e s u l t s inadequate  3 3.3 25.4 19. 0 11.1 6.3 3.2 . 1 . 6  ;  i n d i c a t e the i n c o n v e n i e n c e s caused by the  s i t e p l a n n i n g o f l i v i n g accommodation f o r  58  the e l d e r l y .  1  F a c i l i t i e s L a c k i n g P r o x i m i t y To Housing P r o j e c t s S t u d i e d I n a s k i n g the respondents ditional facilities  to comment upon what a d -  they would p r e f e r t o have l o c a t e d  nearer t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s ,  the o u t s t a n d i n g r e p l i e s  were those o f shopping f a c i l i t i e s , cessible public transportation  f o l l o w e d by more a c -  (Table 7, Appendix C ) .  The l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r more n e a r l y l o c a t e d m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s i s s u r p r i s i n g , f o r l e s s than h a l f o f the  res-  pondents were s a t i s f i e d w i t h , t h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o a d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e and the f a c i l i t y was r e g a r d e d as one o f h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y by r e s p o n d e n t s .  A c t u a l D i s t a n c e s To S e l e c t e d F a c i l i t i e s In a d d i t i o n t o the data c o l l e c t e d v i a the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was gathered by measuring the a c t u a l d i s t a n c e s from the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s  surveyed  t o the v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s r e g a r d e d as b e i n g o f r e l e v a n c e t o the e l d e r l y (Table 8,' Appendix C) .  The measure o f  d i s t a n c e was a s h o r t c i t y b l o c k , t y p i c a l o f the  grid  s t r e e t p a t t e r n i n the c i t y of Vancouver, and e q u i v a l e n t t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hundred and f i f t y  feet  i n length.  59  These d i s t a n c e s were then t r a n s l a t e d i n t o aggregate d i s t a n c e s by t a k i n g two a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n t o a c c o u n t , t h e s e b e i n g s l o p e or g r a d i e n t and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f publ i c transportation.  Any d i s t a n c e s t h a t had t o be o v e r -  come by w a l k i n g t h a t were i n excess o f f i v e per cent grade were m u l t i p l i e d by two, w h i l e any d i s t a n c e s  that  c o u l d be t r a v e l l e d v i a p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were d i v i ded by two.  The d e c i s i o n t o use the f i v e per c e n t  grade  as c r i t i c a l t o the movement o f the e l d e r l y was made u p on c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h an a r c h i t e c t w e l l v e r s e d i n the d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s h o u s i n g i n the Vancouver a r e a .  1  In using t h i s concept, a standardized  o v e r a l l d i s t a n c e c o u l d be e n v i s a g e d i n comparing the various housing projects s e l e c t e d . c u l a t i n g the aggregate d i s t a n c e  An example i n c a l -  follows:  Site B T o t a l d i s t a n c e t o bank Distance to p u b l i c t r a n s i t D i s t a n c e served by p u b l i c transit D i s t a n c e t h a t must be walked w i t h f i v e per c e n t o r g r e a t er g r a d i e n t Aggregate d i s t a n c e  = 12 s h o r t b l o c k s = 2 short blocks = 10 s h o r t b l o c k s , =  2 short blocks  = 10/2 +(2 x 2) =" _9_ s h o r t b l o c k s  T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t used by P r i e s t and  "'"Statement by W i l l i a m W i l d i n g , p e r s o n a l .conversat i o n , F e b r u a r y 10, 197 2  60  Lefevre i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s of eleven senior c i t i z e n ing projects  hous-  i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a i n 1969, a l -  though t h e i r approach was t h a t o f a t t a i n i n g a t o t a l aggregate d i s t a n c e t o a l l f a c i l i t i e s from the selected.  projects  An average aggregate d i s t a n c e to f a c i l i t i e s  has a l s o been p r o v i d e d i n o r d e r to p e r m i t ease o f comp a r i s o n between v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d i n the tionnaire  ques-  (Table 9, Appendix C ) .  In p r e s e n t i n g the d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n the s u r v e y , a c o n s c i o u s attempt was made to a v o i d comparing the of the v a r i o u s q u e s t i o n s i s the s u b j e c t o f the  asked.  This d e t a i l e d  next-chapter.  results  analysis  CHAPTER M-  ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTED  I n examining the d a t a o b t a i n e d i n the survey q u e s tionnaire,  i t may b e . n o t e d  t h a t the aggregate  results  p r o v i d e a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f the a t t i t u d e s and ences o f the e l d e r l y toward t h e i r l i v i n g  prefer-  accommodation.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , much o f the raw d a t a may be d i s c u s s e d i n an attempt to f u r t h e r  knowledge- as t o the l o c a t i o n a l  needs o f the e l d e r l y f o r h o u s i n g , as w e l l as to g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s o f accommodation t h a t has a l r e a d y been p r o v i d e d f o r them i n the c i t y "of Vancouver. In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , the s t a t i s t i c a l package s o c i a l sciences  (SPSS) p r o g r a m . i s employed t o  correlation coefficients relationships  produce  to . t e s t whether any s i g n i f i c a n t  e x i s t among s e v e r a l o f the v a r i a b l e s  d i e d , these b e i n g age,  for  length of residence,  stu-  importance  o f p r o x i m i t y to s e l e c t e d f a c i l i t i e s , frequency o f  their  u s e , and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n overcoming d i s t a n c e s ,  well  as  as the s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h and comments upon the p r i n c i p a l advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s quarters.  o f the r e s p o n d e n t s '  living  These f i n d i n g s may add t o the knowledge o f  62  the needs and p r e f e r e n c e s  o f the e l d e r l y i n r e g a r d  t h e i r h o u s i n g , w i t h the hope t h a t the r e s u l t s  to  will  prove  b e n e f i c i a l t o the f u t u r e , s i t e a n a l y s i s and p l a n n i n g o f h o u s i n g accommodation .for t h i s age g r o u p .  Each o f  the  v a r i a b l e s noted above w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y  in  o r d e r to p r o v i d e a t o t a l p i c t u r e o f the p r e s e n t h o u s i n g of  the e l d e r l y , i n c l u d i n g the l o c a l e o f t h e i r  residences,  as w e l l a s - t h e i r  i n s e e k i n g adequate l i v i n g  a t t i t u d e s and  former  preferences  accommodation.  Age as a V a r i a b l e A l t h o u g h the m a j o r i t y o f the e l d e r l y surveyed were i n the seventy t o e i g h t y y e a r o l d age g r o u p , t h i s  tells  one v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e i r needs i n r e g a r d t o h o u s i n g . . C o n s e q u e n t l y , an attempt i s made t o note any v a r i a b l e s t h a t may be dependent upon the a g i n g p r o c e s s . i n c o r r e l a t i n g r e s p o n d e n t s ' age and the  Firstly,  satisfaction  w i t h the p r o x i m i t y o f t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s i n r e g a r d to f a c i l i t i e s used r e g u l a r l y (Table 1, Appendix D ) , no s i g n i f i c a n t mutual p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i s e v i d e n t . l i t y p r o d u c i n g the h i g h e s t of  The  correlation coefficient,  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o x i m i t y to r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s  facithat (.32),  may be e x p l a i n e d i n t h a t many o f the e l d e r l y are p r o v i d ed w i t h f r e e  transportation  to t h e i r c h u r c h .  As a  result,  63  the p h y s i c a l , d i s t a n c e t o the c h u r c h i s markedly r e d u c ed i n i m p o r t a n c e , f o r door t o door p e r s o n a l i z e d s e r v i c e i s a v a i l a b l e t o them.  T h i s a l s o has a secondary  effect  .that must not be o v e r l o o k e d , t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g - t h i s a g i n g p o p u l a t i o n w i t h more a t t e n t i o n and an o u t l e t f o r i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t s which they r e g a r d h i g h l y i n filling  t h e i r needs.  ful-  The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f  the r e m a i n i n g t w e l v e f a c i l i t i e s are much l o w e r and no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p can be noted worthy o f comment. In r e l a t i n g the age o f r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h importance of p r o x i m i t y t o f a c i l i t i e s ,  the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s  produced: TABLE 7 Correlation Coefficients Age vs Importance o f P r o x i m i t y t o Relatives Friends, Movie Theatre Bank Park Bus Stop Community Centre Corner S t o r e Library Doctor's Office Supermarket Drug S t o r e Church  Facilities  .39 .31 .30 .29 .22 .21.21 .20 .18 .18 .17 .14 .08  are  64  A l t h o u g h the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are much l o w e r than those r e q u i r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s  (.7) , 1  t h e s e f i n d i n g s suggest the importance o f s o c i a l and p e r sonal contacts  (as opposed t o the o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s  t e d ) w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age.  tes-  Aging i s a l s o c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  the frequency" o f t r i p s t o t h i r t e e n s e l e c t e d  destinations  (Table 2, Appendix D ) , but no s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t may be o b t a i n e d i n d i c a t i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f a v a l i d r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two v a r i a b l e s . suggest t h a t f a c i l i t i e s  These  results  do not .demand more f r e q u e n t  use  by the e l d e r l y w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. I n an o v e r v i e w , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t o note t h a t a s t r o n g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not e v i d e n t i n the  importance  of m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age, f o r t h i s would be r e g a r d e d as a most n a t u r a l and expected r e s u l t . importance o f 'someone t o t u r n t o '  The  i n a time o f need  seems t o be u n e q u a l l e d i n importance compared t o  the  r  o t h e r p l a c e s l i s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , as the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l becomes o l d e r . S a t i s f a c t i o n With' L o c a t i o n o f L i v i n g  Quarters  In n o t i n g the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the r e s p o n d e n t s  Hubert M. B l a l o c k . McGraw H i l l , 1960.  Social Statistics.  in  New Y o r k ,  65  r e g a r d t o the l o c a t i o n a l advantages ters,  of t h e i r l i v i n g  an attempt has been made t o t e s t f o r any  c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h i s v a r i a b l e w i t h the  quar-  signifi-  frequency  of use o f the s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t i e s mentioned (Table 3 , Appendix D ) .  A s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t (.82)  is  evident  i n t h a t the s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h and the amount o f v i s i t s t o the c h u r c h appear r e l a t e d .  T h i s may be accounted f o r  by the i n f r e q u e n t use o f t h i s f a c i l i t y  (average o f 2.2  t r i p s per month) as w e l l as the p r o v i s i o n o f p e r s o n a l i z e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o and from the c h u r c h (an average o f b l o c k s away from a l l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s  surveyed).  5.6  This  may be c o n t r a s t e d t o the a l m o s t n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p :  of the s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o x i m i t y and f r e q u e n c y o f use o f a supermarket  (.06).  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s  analysis  appear t o i n d i c a t e more n o t i c e a b l e i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among those f a c i l i t i e s  used most  t h i s suggests t h a t the respondents  frequently;  commented more r e a d i -  l y and i n a f a v o r a b l e f a s h i o n t o those p l a c e s they ed l e s s o f t e n due t o t h e i r l a c k o f c o n c e r n as t o l o c a t i o n of these f a c i l i t i e s .  visit-  the  An e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s may  be t h a t o f the c o e f f i c i e n t r e s u l t i n g from the r e s p o n dents'* s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o x i m i t y t o r e l a t i v e s  (.50).  T h i s may be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t most r e l a t i v e s v i s i t the respondents  at t h e i r residence rather  than  66  v i c e v e r s a , thus a f f e c t i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g them from f a m i l y  actual  members..  Length o f Residence i n Housing P r o j e c t I n n o t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f responses as to  the  l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n the v a r i o u s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s l e c t e d , an attempt is.made t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether l e n g t h o f s t a y may a f f e c t  sethe  s a t i s f a c t i o n , frequency o f  use or r e l a t i v e importance t o the f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  I n examining the r e s u l t s  of c o r r e l a -  t i n g l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o x i m i t y to f a c i l i t i e s (Table 4, Appendix D ) , a g a i n i t i s t h a t the p l a c e s v i s i t e d l e s s o f t e n command the coefficients  noted  larger  w h i l e those used on a d a i l y b a s i s . ( t r a n s i t  and shopping f a c i l i t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r ) produce a t o t a l l a c k of a r e l a t i o n s h i p .  almost  This i n d i c a t e s that  e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l ' s concept o f the d i s t a n c e s  the  t h a t must  be overcome i n r e a c h i n g f a c i l i t i e s used d a i l y does not change w i t h the l e n g t h o f s t a y a t a p a r t i c u l a r h o u s i n g project. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are found i n t e s t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e n g t h o f s t a y and frequency o f use o f f a c i l i t i e s ,  f o r the number o f t r i p s made t o a  67  number o f p l a c e s does not appear t o i n c r e a s e as a p e r s o n l i v e s l o n g e r i n a neighborhood and becomes more w i t h h i s environment (Table 5, Appendix D ) . lities  familiar  Those  faci-  s e r v i n g a s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l need ( f r i e n d s ,  rela-  t i v e s , movie t h e a t r e ) head the l i s t , efficients  but even t h e s e c o -  are not i n d i c a t i v e o f a s t r o n g t i e  between  these v a r i a b l e s . A f i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s i s conducted, the l e n g t h o f ' r e s i d e n c e w i t h the importance t o the f a c i l i t i e s  testing  attributed  l i s t e d , but a g a i n , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a -  t i o n s h i p s may be f o u n d :  TABLE 8 Correlation Coefficients Length o f Residence vs Importance o f P r o x i m i t y t o Park Bank Friends Relatives Corner S t o r e Movie Theatre Doctor's Office Library Community Centre Bus Stop Supermarket Church Drug S t o r e  .32 .28 . 27 . 27 . 27 . 26 .25 . 23 . 21 . 21 .16 .13 .12  Facilities  68  Once a g a i n , those f a c i l i t i e s  not s e r v i n g immediate p h y s i -  c a l needs are atop the l i s t , w h i l e those needed on a day t o day b a s i s command much lower c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . I t i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t from the a n a l y s i s conducted t h a t the l e n g t h o f the r e s p o n d e n t ' s  stay at a p a r t i c u l a r hous-  i n g p r o j e c t d i d not have any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t changing h i s a t t i t u d e s ,  a c t i v i t y patterns,  upon  or v a l u e s  t o the importance o f some f a c i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o  Former Residences o f the  as  others.  Respondents  A l t h o u g h none o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s randomly s e l e c t e d f o r the study were i n the West End o f V a n c o u v e r , t h i r t y per cent o f the respondents  indicated that  they  had r e s i d e d i n t h i s neighborhood p r e v i o u s l y (Table 3, Appendix C ) .  I n comparing t h i s r e s u l t t o the  major  r e a s o n g i v e n f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r former r e s i d e n c e , of u n b e a r a b l e r e n t s )  (that  i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s age group  i s o f t e n f o r c e d out o f d e v e l o p i n g areas (such as  the  West End and K i t s i l a n o ) due t o t h e i r l i m i t e d incomes and c o n s e q u e n t l y , must a c c e p t l o w e r p r i c e d accommodation wherever i t might be a v a i l a b l e .  Of t h i s low r e n t a l  ac-  commodation, o n l y t e n per c e n t o f the e l d e r l y surveyed had an o p p o r t u n i t y i n c h o o s i n g among two o r more h o u s ing projects.  I f they d i d not a c c e p t what was a v a i l a b l e  69  when t h e i r name appeared a t the top o f the Vancouver Housing R e g i s t r y , t h e i r c a r d was moved t o the bottom o f the w a i t i n g l i s t .  T h i s i n d i c a t e s the' importance o f w e l l  l o c a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d h o u s i n g f o r the e l d e r l y i n any urban a r e a .  A d e q u a t e l y l o c a t e d accommodation may o n l y  be a c h i e v e d by a c o n s c i o u s attempt i n l e a r n i n g the-needs and p r e f e r e n c e s  o f t h i s age g r o u p .  I n a s k i n g those e l d e r l y persons who d i d have a choice i n s e l e c t i n g t h e i r present  l i v i n g accommodation  as t o what they r e g a r d e d as the major f a c t o r i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n , one t h i r d r e p l i e d t h a t i t was the p r o x i m i t y t o persons f a m i l i a r t o them, e i t h e r e t h n i c a l l y or  soci-  a l l y , w h i l e o n l y t h r e e o f the f i f t e e n respondents  com-  mented t h a t t h e i r d e c i s i o n was based upon the l o c a t i o n a l convenience o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . those respondents  In c o r r e l a t i n g  having a choice with t h e i r  t i o n to p r o x i m i t y of f a c i l i t i e s  satisfac-  (Table 6, Appendix D)  i t i s found t h a t the respondents  were f u l l y  satisfied  w i t h s o c i a l c o n t a c t s and p r o x i m i t y t o t r a n s i t  stops,  though some f a c i l i t i e s  (such as  demanding f r e q u e n t use  the supermarket and c o r n e r s t o r e ) ly unsatisfactory.  al-  were s t i l l l o c a t i o n a l -  This f i n d i n g f u r t h e r ' i n d i c a t e s  the  c o n c e r n shown f o r -personal and s o c i a l c o n t a c t s by the e l d e r l y i n c h o o s i n g t h e i r l i v i n g accommodation.  This  70  may o n l y be a c h i e v e d v i a c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g o f s e n i o r  citi-  zens h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n a v a r i e t y o f neighborhoods i n the urban a r e a .  Importance o f P r o x i m i t y t o  Facilities  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s u r v e y i n d i c a t e t h a t more t h a n one h a l f o f the r e s p o n d e n t s r e g a r d r e s i d e n t i a l p r o x i m i t y t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s o f major i m p o r t a n c e , c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by a v a i l a b i l i t y o f markets i n s e r v i n g t h e i r d a i l y needs.  supers  In attempting  to  d i s c o v e r whether s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o x i m i t y o f a facility  i s dependent upon i t s importance t o the e l d e r l y  r e s i d e n t , another c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s i s c o n d u c t e d :  TABLE 9 Correlation  Coefficients  S a t i s f a c t i o n With P r o x i m i t y t o F a c i l i t i e s vs Importance Library Relatives Park Bus Stop Doctor's Office Community Centre Supermarket Bank Drug S t o r e Movie Theatre Friends Church ' Corner S t o r e  .22 . 20 .20 .20 .19 .15 .13 .17 .11 .10 .07 .0.6 .02  71  The r e s u l t s  suggest t h a t those f a c i l i t i e s • t h e  residents  are s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r o x i m i t y o f are not n e c e s s a r i l y those commanding g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r the l i b r a r y and the park appear t o have amongst the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n coefficients  o f the f a c i l i t i e s - l i s t e d .  v a l i d i t y o f the r e s u l t s  In t e s t i n g  the  i n T a b l e 9, a c o r r e l a t i o n t e s t  i s made between those f a c i l i t i e s  regarded as the most  i m p o r t a n t t o l i v e near and the. r e s p o n d e n t s '  satisfaction  w i t h t h e i r p r o x i m i t y (.Table 7 , Appendix D) .  The r e s u l -  t a n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are so near zero coefficient  of a l l f a c i l i t i e s  listed is  (largest  .0013) t h a t these  two v a r i a b l e s may be assumed t o be t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d . I n c o r r e l a t i n g the importance o f f a c i l i t i e s t h e i r frequency o f u s e ,  with  somewhat higher: c o e f f i c i e n t s  p r o d u c e d , a l t h o u g h not s u b s t a n t i a l enough t o  are  establish  a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s : TABLE 10 Correlation Coefficients Importance o f P r o x i m i t y t o F a c i l i t y vs Frequency o f Use Church Community Centre Relatives Library Drug S t o r e Park •Doctor's O f f i c e Friends Corner S t o r e Supermarket Bus Stop Bank Movie Theatre  .47 .44 .43 . 37 . 28 . 25 . 24 .17 .16 .12 .11 .10 .05  72  The two f a c i l i t i e s p r o d u c i n g the h i g h e s t r e s u l t s ,  the  c h u r c h and the community c e n t r e , are used i n f r e q u e n t l y i n comparison to the supermarket and t r a n s i t have much weaker c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s .  stop which This  absence  o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i c a t e s t h a t the importance o f a f a c i l i t y cannot be assumed by the number o f times i t  is  p a t r o n i z e d i n a g i v e n p e r i o d by the e l d e r l y p e r s o n . Therefore,  i n a n a l y z i n g the t o t a l needs o f the e l d e r l y ,  t h i s f i n d i n g cannot be g i v e n undue emphasis, f o r one must examine the f a c i l i t i e s r e g a r d e d as most i m p o r t a n t independent o f the number o f t r i p s b e i n g generated them.  T h i s has been an o v e r s i g h t o f many s t u d i e s  to con-  ducted t o date r e g a r d i n g the needs o f the e l d e r l y , f o r no attempt was made i n a s k i n g them t o respond t o  the  f a c i l i t y r e g a r d e d as most c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o be near.  The f i n d i n g s a l s o suggest t h a t frequency o f use  may not be a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f the c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e o f a facility pressed)  (that distance before d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s ex-  to the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l .  c e p t s such as c r i t i c a l  s p a t i a l costs  plying c r i t i c a l distances  Consequently, con( d e r i v e d by m u l t i -  t o f a c i l i t i e s by frequency o f  use) must be examined w i t h c a u t i o n b e f o r e assuming t h e i r importance i n l e a r n i n g the t o t a l l o c a t i o n a l needs o f the aged i n r e g a r d t o the planned l o c a t i o n o f f u t u r e  housing  73  developments. The comparison o f the frequency o f use o f the lities  faci-  s e l e c t e d i n the survey w i t h the rank o r d e r o f  t h e i r importance (based on the number o f times t i e s were mentioned as b e i n g most i m p o r t a n t ) , the f o l l o w i n g  faciliproduces  results: TABLE 11  Most Important F a c i l i t i e s and Frequency o f Use Importance o f f a c i l i t y ( i n rank o r d e r ) Bus Stop Doctor's Office Relatives Supermarket Friends Church Park Corner S t o r e Drug S t o r e Bank  Average frequency o f use (times per month) 13.9 1.3 3.4 8 .6 4.6 2.2 1.6 6.0 3.4 1.3  The above t a b l e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t frequency o f use cannot be employed as a major c r i t e r i o n i n assuming the importance o f a f a c i l i t y  t o the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l .  Al-  though the number o f t r i p s generated t o the D o c t o r ' s o f f i c e was the f o u r t h l o w e s t o f the t h i r t e e n  facilities  l i s t e d , , i t was r e g a r d e d as the second most i m p o r t a n t t o be l o c a t e d n e a r ,  (mentioned o n l y .7 per cent l e s s  t h a t o f the t r a n s i t s t o p ) .  In c o n t r a s t ,  than  the number o f  t r i p s made t o the c o r n e r s t o r e , a l t h o u g h t h i r d  highest  i n the above l i s t ,  ranked e i g h t h i n terms o f importance  t o the respondents  ( o n l y mentioned by 2.2 p e r c e n t o f  respondents of  as b e i n g the most i m p o r t a n t f a c i l i t y  i n terms  proximity). The f i n d i n g s above may be supported i n c o r r e l a t i n g  those f a c i l i t i e s r e g a r d e d as the most i m p o r t a n t t o be l o c a t e d near w i t h t h e frequency o f t h e i r  use:  TABLE 12 Correlation  Coefficients  Most Important F a c i l i t y vs Frequency o f Use Community Centre Relatives Library Doctor's Office Supermarket Bank Friends Church Drug S t o r e Corner S t o r e Park Bus Movie.Theatre  . 26 . 26 . 24 . 24 .20 .17 .17 .16 .16 .16 .15 .09 .08  75  These r e s u l t s show t h a t the t r a n s i t s t o p , a l t h o u g h used a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r average number o f times than other f a c i l i t i e s ,  d i d not produce a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  those respondents who r e g a r d e d t h i s f a c i l i t y as the most important to l i v e near.  These r e s u l t s are i n d i c a t i v e  t h a t the amount o f patronage a s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t y  receives  cannot n e c e s s a r i l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s degree o f i m p o r t a n c e i n the t o t a l l o c a t i o n a l needs o f h o u s i n g the elderly.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , those f a c i l i t i e s mentioned as  b e i n g the most i m p o r t a n t t o r e s i d e near must be examined i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n a s s e s s i n g the l o c a t i o n a l m e r i t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s for future  senior c i t i z e n s ' housing  proj e c t s .  Difficulties  E x p e r i e n c e d i n Overcoming D i s t a n c e s  I n a s k i n g the e l d e r l y i f they e x p e r i e n c e d any d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a c h i n g a s e l e c t e d number o f  facilities  (Table 5, Appendix C ) , i t i s noted t h a t movement t o  the  supermarket, d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e , ; a n d t r a n s i t stop was most troublesome t o a t l e a s t one q u a r t e r o f the t o t a l sample. The major r e a s o n f o r t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , s i c a l d i s t a n c e s to f a c i l i t i e s ) steep g r a d e s .  ( a s i d e from phy-  was t h a t o f n e g o t i a t i n g  Of the s i x t e e n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s  t e n were noted w i t h grades i n excess o f f i v e  studied,  per-cent  76  between the s t r u c t u r e  itself  and the c l o s e s t  f a c i l i t y used, that being a t r a n s i t  stop.  external  This finding  p o i n t s out t h a t the p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the e l d e r l y must not be overshadowed by the s i g n i f i c a n c e of other f a c t o r s  such as steep  slopes,  which p r e s e n t major d i f f i c u l t i e s t o t h i s segment o f population.  T h i s f a c t o r a c c o u n t s f o r the major  the  burden  e x p e r i e n c e d by the r e s p o n d e n t s i n r e a c h i n g f a c i l i t i e s t h a t they use i n t h e i r day t o day a c t i v i t i e s . A f i n d i n g , u n i n t e n d e d but v a l u a b l e , was the  indica-  t i o n o f those r e s p o n d e n t s t h a t were c a r owners.  These  s i x e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s were equated w i t h t h e i r  satis-  f a c t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o x i m i t y t o f a c i l i t i e s (Table 8, Appendix D) t o note any changes due t o t h e i r a b i l i t y move about the neighborhood i n an independent However, the r e s u l t s  fashion.  obtained, do not i n d i c a t e any  f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t those persons v e h i c l e s would p r e f e r  to  signiwith  the f a c i l i t i e s c l o s e t o t h e i r r e s i -  dence so t h a t t h e s e d i s t a n c e s might be overcome by f o o t .  Advantages and Disadvantages' o f L i v i n g  Quarters  By f a r the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s  (42.5  per c e n t ) r e g a r d e d reduced r e n t s as the main advantage  77  o f t h e i r l i v i n g accommodation (Table 6, Appendix C ) . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d  t o the f a c t t h a t persons  ing i n these housing p r o j e c t s  are on f i x e d  resid-  incomes  ( p r i m a r i l y from o l d age p e n s i o n or w e l f a r e a l l o w a n c e s ) and t h e r e f o r e ,  must budget t h e i r funds c a r e f u l l y i n meet-  i n g d a i l y needs.  Convenient l o c a t i o n was o n l y mentioned  by 4.6 per cent o f the r e s p o n d e n t s as an advantage i n regard to t h e i r present l i v i n g quarters.  In  one t h i r d o f the e l d e r l y surveyed expressed  contrast, dissatis-  f a c t i o n w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r p r e s e n t l i v i n g commodation, the next most f r e q u e n t difficulty  being  the  e x p e r i e n c e d i n overcoming the topography near  t h e i r housing p r o j e c t sample).  response  ac-  (remarked by 2 5.4 per c e n t o f  These d i s a d v a n t a g e s  the  are c l e a r i n d i c a t o r s o f  the importance o f w e l l planned h o u s i n g accommodation f o r the e l d e r l y .  I f the t o t a l needs o f the e l d e r l y had been  examined a t the o u t s e t and implemented i n the l o c a t i o n of these p r o j e c t s ,  planned  such d i f f i c u l t i e s would not  have o c c u r r e d as i n d i c a t e d , by. t h i s • r e s e a r c h .  F a c i l i t i e s L a c k i n g . P r o x i m i t y t o .Housing P r o j e c t s ' S t u d i e d The most o u t s t a n d i n g response as t o the need o f a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n p r o x i m i t y to the h o u s i n g  projects  s t u d i e d was t h a t o f adequate shopping f o r d a i l y needs,  78  p a r t i c u l a r l y food items  ( T a b l e 7,. A p p e n d i x C) .  This i s  a most s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c y i n r e g a r d t o t h e l o c a t i o n s the accommodations s t u d i e d , f o r the average distance  (thus a c c o u n t i n g f o r steep grades  -service)  t o a s u p e r m a r k e t was  c o u l d have been e a s i l y a v o i d e d approach  toward  toward  placing  where l a n d s a r e i n e x p e n s i v e and uses t h a t produce g r e a t e r  total  such  transit  This  problem  comprehensive elderly  unattractive f o r other  revenue. experienced  i n low r e n t a l  by  sample, the o v e r a l l  p e r c e n t , and  Appendix C).  sponsored  O n l y one  Of  satisfaction with their was  d i d not v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y  privately  housing  the  loca-  only between  p r o j e c t s (Table  of ten respondents  alternative i n selecting his living  the  accommodation  be g l a n c e d o v e r w i t h o u t e x t r e m e c o n c e r n .  p u b l i c and  any  and  accommodation  t i o n a l proximity to a l l f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d 5 8.3  aggregate  needs o f the  summary, t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  elderly presently residing cannot  blocks.  by t a k i n g a  the t o t a l housing  r a t h e r than a view  In  6.2  of  surveyed  1,  had  quarters,  indi-  c a t i n g t h e need f o r a d d i t i o n a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r o u r aging population. respondents  More t h a n t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f  experienced  p i n g , m e d i c a l , and  i n reaching  shop-  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and  loca-  t i o n a l inconveniences  difficulties  the  were mentioned' most o f t e n as  a  79  p r i n c i p a l disadvantage The  i n t h e i r present l i v i n g quarters.  f i n d i n g s of t h i s r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e  need f o r a more f u l l y c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t i n the location  of h o u s i n g  f o r the e l d e r l y  the  planned  i n the urban a r e a .  T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n the next  chapter.  CHAPTER 5  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A major problem w i t h which the urban p l a n n e r  is  faced i s t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g a d e q u a t e l y l o c a t e d h o u s i n g accommodation f o r the e l d e r l y i n the urban s p h e r e .  Due  to the l i m i t e d incomes o f persons c o m p r i s i n g t h i s  seg-  ment o f our p o p u l a t i o n , they are unable t o occupy r e s i dences i n areas o f f e r i n g c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e i r physical,  total  s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l needs.  T h e r e f o r e , many o f the aged are f o r c e d t o v a c a t e  their  c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d l i v i n g q u a r t e r s i n the c i t y i n s e a r c h of i n e x p e n s i v e r e n t s .  When no v a c a n c i e s e x i s t i n sub-  s i d i z e d r e n t a l senior c i t i z e n s housing p r o j e c t s , e l d e r l y must a c c e p t l o w e r q u a l i t y s h e l t e r . less,  the  Neverthe-  some o f the e l d e r l y are w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e a  s u p e r i o r d w e l l i n g u n i t for l o c a t i o n a l p r o x i m i t y to p i n g , m e d i c a l , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l  facilities,  shop-  as w e l l  centres.  The movement o f the e l d e r l y from the urban core has a l s o produced severe problems o f r e - o r i e n t a t i o n  to  the n e i g h b o r h o o d , f o r the aged r e g a r d p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . . A l t h o u g h such  81  movement i s sometimes u n a v o i d a b l e , the problem may be lessened  s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d accom-  modation f o r them i n the  city.  An a d d i t i o n a l problem i n r e g a r d t o the p r o v i s i o n of w e l l l o c a t e d h o u s i n g f o r t h i s segment of our p o p u l a t i o n i s t h a t a l t h o u g h they a r e l a r g e i n number, have n e i t h e r  the f i n a n c i a l nor a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  needed to s o l v e t h e i r problems i n d i v i d u a l l y .  they resources  I n new-  l y d e v e l o p i n g a r e a s , the r e - l o c a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t s become o f secondary importance to t h a t o f the 1 of l a n d .  has  re-use  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the e l d e r l y are f o r c e d  to  move from one a r e a o f the c i t y t o a n o t h e r , o f t e n  until  a vacancy has a r i s e n i n a s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g p r o j e c t f o r them.  Once such accommodation has been f o u n d ,  the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l has l i t t l e c h o i c e i f the project  i s inadequately  housing  located i n serving his d a i l y  needs, f o r he may w a i t two t o t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e  his  name appears a t the top o f the w a i t i n g l i s t o f a p p l i - . cants a g a i n .  Therefore,  the aged are caught i n a  d i l e m n a between t h a t o f a c c e p t i n g lower q u a l i t y but c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d l i v i n g q u a r t e r s as opposed t o  better  q u a l i t y but o f t e n i n c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d s e n i o r  citizens'  accommodation. J . G o l d n e r , L o c a t i n g Housing f o r the Aged, Canadian W e l f a r e , v o l . 36 (March, 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 218.  82  The r e s u l t s o f the r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n i n l e a r n i n g about the needs o f the aged c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t e l d e r l y p r e f e r t o m a i n t a i n independent l i v i n g  the  arrange-  ments , f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n need t o be based upon a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t each gener a t i o n has i t s own l i f e  to l e a d .  T y p i c a l comments  r e c e i v e d from the e l d e r l y not i n f a v o r o f l i v i n g  with  a d u l t c h i l d r e n were t h a t the young ought t o be by thems e l v e s , f o r t h e i r views and aims are d i f f e r e n t .  Also,  o l d e r p e o p l e r e q u i r e a q u i e t e r l i f e and s h o u l d not have t o p l a y the r o l e s o f s e r v a n t s or b a b y s i t t e r s their grandchildren.  for  T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s no need f o r  congregate l i v i n g arrangements,  f o r t h i s may produce  the enforcement o f o n e ' s v a l u e s upon a n o t h e r r e s u l t i n g in conflicts,  d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c i n g what may have been  a strong parent - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . Summary o f F i n d i n g s I n a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s e s s the t o t a l needs and p r e f e r ences o f the e l d e r l y f o r h o u s i n g , the study u n d e r t a k e n h a s - p o i n t e d out one c e n t r a l f a c t :  t h a t the importance  o f a p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t y t o ' an e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l  is  not n e c e s s a r i l y dependent upon i t s frequency o f u s e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the a n a l y s i s o f p o t e n t i a l h o u s i n g s i t e s  83  f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' accommodation must be based upon an a g g r e g a t e - a p p r o a c h  r a t h e r than b a s i n g l o c a t i o n a l  d e c i s i o n s upon the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a f a c i l i t y quented most r e g u l a r l y .  fre-  The study d i d not produce any  evidence o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l o c a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e o f a number o f s e l e c t e d  f a c i l i t i e s and the age o f  r e s p o n d e n t s or l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e  i n t h e i r present  ing quarters.  i t may be  From t h i s r e s e a r c h ,  liv-  understood  t h a t the e l d e r l y do not change t h e i r l o c a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age or l e n g t h o f s t a y a t a p a r t i c u l a r housing p r o j e c t ;  t h i s bears r e l e v a n c e to  s i t e p l a n n i n g o f accommodation f o r the An o u t s t a n d i n g  aged.  c r i t e r i o n i n the l o c a t i o n o f accom-  modation f o r the e l d e r l y i s t h a t o f nearby facilities,  future,  shopping  even though t h e , r e s p o n d e n t s r e g a r d e d  p r o x i m i t y secondary t o those o f t r a n s i t - i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , and r e l a t i v e s .  its  s e r v i c e s , med-  I n a d d i t i o n to  its  i n s t r u m e n t a l - f u n c t i o n , the shopping t r i p i s used by o l d people  (as w e l l as o t h e r age groups)  i n s a t i s f y i n g an  e x p r e s s i v e need t o keep i n t o u c h w i t h the l o c a l communi t y and to c o n f i r m t h e i r p l a c e i n s o c i e t y .  The p r o x i m i -  t y o f a neighborhood commercial c e n t r e p r o v i d e s the w i t l l an o u t l e t  i n o c c u p y i n g t h e i r spare t i m e .  aged  The know-  ledge o f i t s p r o x i m i t y i s a g r e a t r e a s s u r a n c e i n o r i e n t i n g  84  themselves t o the l o c a l community, f o r a c t i v i t y i s i n g p l a c e about them.  tak-  The news media ( t e l e v i s i o n , r a -  d i o , and newspaper) cannot r e p l a c e the v a l u e o f a c t u a l p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s o f the e l d e r l y w i t h the people o f the neighborhood. P h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n from f a c i l i t i e s , w e l l as the d i f f i c u l t i e s  as  encountered.in negotiating  steep grades were the d i s a d v a n t a g e s most o f t e n  expres-  sed by the r e s i d e n t s o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n the c i t y o f Vancouver (58.7 p e r cent o f r e s pondents).  The d i s t a n c e t o the n e a r e s t  supermarket  from e i g h t o f the s i x t e e n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s  s t u d i e d was  one q u a r t e r o f a m i l e o r g r e a t e r , i n d i c a t i n g the  loca-  t i o n a l i n c o n v e n i e n c e s caused b y . p o o r l y s i t u a t e d accommodation f o r t h i s segment o f our p o p u l a t i o n .  Often the  e l d e r l y are f o r c e d t o p l a c e food o r d e r s by t e l e p h o n e and r e l y upon d e l i v e r y .  However, they are r e l u c t a n t i n  d o i n g t h i s i n f e a r o f r e c e i v i n g merchandise o f  inferior  q u a l i t y , as w e l l as h a v i n g t o pay f o r the c o s t s o f t h i s service.  A l s o , one h a l f o f the r e s i d e n c e s s t u d i e d d i d  not have a d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e n e a r e r than e i g h t b l o c k s away, i n d i c a t i n g why o n l y 42.1 per cent o f the respondents  were  d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r o x i m i t y t o m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s .  The  p r o x i m i t y o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s t o t r a n s i t s e r v i c e i s  85  beneficial,  a l t h o u g h some o f the respondents  ence d i f f i c u l t y  i n b o a r d i n g and d i s e m b a r k i n g the v e h i c l e  due t o the steep s t e p s . to f a c i l i t i e s  experi-  S i n c e t h e y are unable t o walk  due t o the g r e a t d i s t a n c e s t h a t must be  overcome, the e l d e r l y have no c h o i c e but t o use native transportation  alter-  ( m a i n l y t a x i ) which they are most  o f t e n unable t o a f f o r d .  The e l d e r l y a l s o p r e f e r  to  r e s i d e near a c t i v i t y and are w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e o t h e r i n c o n v e n i e n c e s (such as n o i s e and q u a l i t y o f  shelter)  for convenient l o c a t i o n . Recommendations The f i n d i n g s o f the r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n i n t h i s t h e s i s , r e s u l t i n the f o l l o w i n g recommendations f o r future  s i t e p l a n n i n g o f h o u s i n g accommodation f o r  the the  elderly: 1)  Steep grades ( i n excess o f f i v e per c e n t ) between the s i t e and proximous f a c i l i t i e s be a v o i d e d a t a l l c o s t s .  2)  S i t e s s h o u l d be w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e s ' of t r a n s i t , m e d i c a l , and shopping f a c i l i ties .  3)  High p r i o r i t y be g i v e n t o the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s (community c e n t r e s , p a r k s , l i b r a r i e s ) so t h a t the e l d e r l y may make s o c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r members o f the community.  86  An aggregate approach must be t a k e n towards examining the t o t a l l o c a t i o n a l needs o f the e l d e r l y , as opposed t o making the l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n upon the t i o n of a conveniently, s i t u a t e d f a c i l i t y sit  identifica-  (such as a t r a n  stop).  Conclusions I n c u r r e n t t h e o r y r e l a t e d t o urban p l a n n i n g ,  social  d e c i s i o n s have f r e q u e n t l y i g n o r e d the aged as a segment of s o c i e t y .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the l a c k o f p r o v i s i o n o f hous  i n g may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a d e c i s i o n t o e x c l u d e t h e s e persons.  Many o f the s i t e s chosen f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s '  accommodation are o f t e n those p r o p e r t i e s t h a t are u n a t t r a c t i v e f o r g r e a t e r revenue p r o d u c i n g schemes. difficulties  e x p e r i e n c e d by the r e s i d e n t s  v e n i e n t l y located housing projects  The  o f these i n c o n  could, be e a s i l y a v o i d  ed i n examining t h e i r t o t a l needs a t the o u t s e t o f s e l e c ing a s i t e rather  than a f t e r  their construction.  Urban p l a n n i n g cannot c r e a t e f r i e n d s h i p s nor cure p h y s i c a l handicaps o f the e l d e r l y , . b u t i t may make o r mar t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y t o conserve independence and m a i n tain social contacts.  When an a r e a i s b e i n g comprehen-  s i v e l y p l a n n e d , , as i n major r e n e w a l a r e a s , i t s h o u l d be  87  mandatory t o r e s e r v e a t t r a c t i v e s i t e s f o r h o u s i n g p r o - . j e c t s f o r the a g e d , c l o s e t o l o c a l s h o p p i n g , m e d i c a l , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s .  Zoning  o r d i n a n c e s and a s s o c i a t e d l a n d use c o n t r a c t s must be examined c r i t i c a l l y t o see whether they are c r e a t i n g a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n which not o n l y i s o l a t e s  the  e l d e r l y , but a l s o c r e a t e s neighborhoods s u i t a b l e f o r use by a f a m i l y o n l y f o r a l i m i t e d p a r t o f t h e i r l i f e  cycle.  Only i n employing a comprehensive approach i n a s s e s s i n g the t o t a l needs o f the aged can any success be a c h i e v e d v  i n p r o v i d i n g a d e q u a t e l y l o c a t e d accommodation f o r e l d e r l y i n the  future.  the  88  APPENDIX A .  SELF CONTAINED LIVING ACCOMMODATION FOR SENIOR CITIZENS IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER • .  TABLE 1  P u b l i c l y Sponsored S e n i o r C i t i z e n s ' Housing  Projects  In The C i t y Of Vancouver ( E x c l u d i n g P e r s o n a l Care Accommodation)  Name FP- 1 FP- 2 FP- 3 FP- 4 FP- 5 FP- 6 FP- 7 FP- 8 FP- 9 FP- •10.  L i t t l e Mountain •• Orchard Park Maclean Park Skeena T e r r a c e K i l l a r n e y Gardens Raymur P l a c e Grandview T e r r a c e C u l l o d e n Court MacLean Park Phase I I N i c h o l s e n Tower  Address 125 E a s t 37th Avenue 5796 S t i r l i n g Avenue 7 05 J a c k s o n Avenue 2298 C a s s i a r S t r e e t 6680 E l l i o t S t r e e t 400 Campbell Avenue 1555 Woodland D r i v e 6225 K n i g h t S t r e e t 350 Keefer S t r e e t 1115 N e l s o n S t r e e t Total  Number of U n i t s 24 •36 121 69 187 135 100 50 161 211 1094  TABLE 2 P r i v a t e l y Sponsored S e n i o r C i t i z e n s ' Housing P r o j e c t s  I n The C i t y Of Vancouver  ( E x c l u d i n g P e r s o n a l Care Accommodation) Name o f  Sponsor  Beulah Garden Home S o c i e t y B . C . Housing F o u n d a t i o n B . C . Housing F o u n d a t i o n B . C . Housing F o u n d a t i o n B . C . Housing F o u n d a t i o n B . C . Housing F o u n d a t i o n B . C . Housing F o u n d a t i o n B . C . Housing Foundation B . C . Housing F o u n d a t i o n New Chelsea S o c i e t y New Chelsea S o c i e t y New Chelsea S o c i e t y Vancouver E a s t L i o n ' s S o c i e t y Vancouver E a s t L i o n ' s S o c i e t y Coleopy Park Development Soroptomist Club F i n n i s h Canadian Rest Home C a l l i n g Foundation A n g l i c a n Homes Vancouver G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l Alumnae A s s o c . E v a n g e l i s t i c Tabernacle B.C. B a p t i s t Foundation Mount P l e a s a n t Housing S o c i e t y U k r a i n i a n S e n i o r C i t i z e n s ' Housing S c o t t i s h Women's A s s o c i a t i o n Vancouver K i w a n i s S e n i o r C i t i z e n s Columbos C h a r i t i e s Chau Luen Kon S o l S o c i e t y C h r i s t Church o f China U n i t e d Church - F a i r h a v e n I . O . O . F . S e n i o r C i t i z e n s ' Home Clarendon Court  Address 1157 M e l v i l l e S t r e e t 2955 H o r l e y S t r e e t 2948-2980 E u c l i d S t r e e t 1451 E a s t 12th Avenue 1620 E a s t 6th Avenue 2330 Balsam S t r e e t 16 3 0 B a r c l a y S t r e e t 1425 E a s t 12th Avenue 1444 E a s t 13th Avenue 800-1000 E a s t 52nd Avenue 3 07 5 Nanaimo S t r e e t 1966 E a s t 19th Avenue 740 Commercial D r i v e 2122 Oxford S t r e e t 4 1 s t - 4 3 r d Rupert S t r e e t 546 West 13th Avenue 2130-2180 + 2230 H a r r i s o n D r i v e 2740 West 25th Avenue 2751 West 25th Avenue 1962 West 1 s t Avenue 30 E a s t 10th Avenue 6395 E l l i o t S t r e e t 3 25 E a s t 6th Avenue 70 0 7 K e r r S t r e e t 7101 K e r r S t r e e t 87 9 0 South West Marine D r i v e 5233 Joyce S t r e e t Gore Avenue and Keefer S t r e e t Gore Avenue and Pender S t r e e t 2720 E a s t 48th Avenue Kingsway A v e . and Boundary Road 25 50 Waverly S t r e e t  Number o f 158 74 19 34 40 14 41 21 25 54 49 50 24 42 36 21 93 105 54 20 65 102 36 36 34 50 82 80 51 91 42 103 1,746  91  T h i s s u r v e y i s being- conducted  by Tony M a r k o f f , a  s t u d e n t o f t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n o r d e r t o l e a r n the needs and p r e f e r e n c e s o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s  so t h a t w e l l  l o c a t e d h o u s i n g may be b u i l t i n the f u t u r e .  The r e s u l t s  o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e f o r r e s e a r c h purposes o n l y f o r r  a l l respondents  w i l l r e m a i n unknown i n the s u r v e y .  Your c o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d .  PLEASE 1*  INDICATE  ALL  ANSWERS  WITH  A  CHECK  Sex  ( \S)  page  92  1. Male 2, Female 2.  Age ( i n y e a r s ) 1. Under 60  ;  2. 60 t o 70  3. 71 t o 80 4. 81 and over 3«  Type o f L i v i n g Q u a r t e r s 1. S i n g l e (one person) 2. Double (two p e o p l e )  4,  A r e you s a t i s f i e d w i t h y o u r p r e s e n t l i v i n g q u a r t e r s i n terms o f b e i n g near t h e f o l l o w i n g ! Yes  No  1. F r i e n d s 2, R e l a t i v e s 3.  Supermarket  4. Drug S t o r e 5« Bus Stop 6. P a r k 7. D o c t o r ' s  Office  ' 8. Church 9» C o r n e r S t o r e 10. Bank  •  11. L i b r a r y  •  12. Community C e n t r e 13. Movie Theatre 14, Any Other  •  -  5.  How  l o n g have you l i v e d i n t h i s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t ? 1. Less t h a n 1 y e a r  93  _____  2. 1 t o 3 y e a r s 3.3  .  to 5 years  4. 5 t o 7 y e a r s 5. 6.  More than 7 y e a r s  I n what a r e a o f Vancouver d i d you l i v e b e f o r e moving here ? l r P o i n t Grey  -  2. Dunbar 3.  Kerrisdale  4. Oakridge 5.  ;  Shaughnessy  6. Marpole 7.  .  Kitsilano  .  8. West End 9.  F a i r v i e w Slopes  10. Mount P l e a s a n t 11. S t r a t h c o n a 12. Renfrew 13*  Grandview  _____  *  14. Other ( p l e a s e s t a t e ) 7.  Why  d i d you move from your former r e s i d e n c e ?  (Check  more t h a n one i f you w i s h )  1. Too much work to l o o k a f t e r my r e s i d e n c e 2. Too 3.  expensive  t o have my own  residence  P h y s i c a l l y unable t o have my own  4. Too  residence  f a r away from p l a c e s I l i k e t o be n e a r  5« Wanted t o be w i t h o t h e r s o f my  own  age  6. Wanted t o be i n a q u i e t e r . a r e a " 7« Wanted t o be i n a more a c t i v e a r e a 8, Any  other  -  8.  Did you have any choice before moving to your present 1.  residence?  y s e  94  2. No I f you did have a choice, why did you move here?  9.  Please indicate the importance of l i v i n g near EACH of the places l i s t e d below i n the following wayi Place a ' 0 ' i n each box i f of l i t t l e or no importance Place a '1*  i n each box i f quite important  Place a '2* i n each box i f very important  1. Friends 2. Relatives 3- Supermarket 4. Drug Store 5. Bus Stop 6. Park 7. Doctor's Office 8. Church 9. Corner Store  10. Bank 11.  Library  12. Community Centre 13. Movie Theatre 10.  Of the places l i s t e d above, which one do you f e e l i s the most important to l i v e near?  11.  "  " - -'  • •  In addition to those l i s t e d above, please state any other places that you v i s i t and t h e i r importance to you.  12.  P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h e number o f times you go t o o r v i s i t t h e f o l l o w i n g p l a c e s i n one week. Number o f V i s i t s I n One Week  1.  3 4 5 6 7  2.  Friends  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  3.  Relatives  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  4.  Church  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  5.  Doctor's O f f i c e  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  6.  Bus Stop  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  7.  Community C e n t r e  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  8.  Drug S t o r e  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  Park  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  _9. | 10.  •i  12  Supermarket  ,Corner S t o r e  .  i  I f Less Than One V i s i t A Week, How O f t e n  Do Not Use A t A l l -  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .1  2 3 4 5 67 "  11.  Library.  12.  Bank  .  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  1  13.-  Movie  Theatre  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  j  14.  Other  .1 2 3 4 5 6 7  ! i  1i i  13«  I f you have d i f f i c u l t y i n g o i n g t o any o f t h e p l a c e s l i s t e d below, p l e a s e i n d i c a t e w i t h a check (i*""7 b e s i d e the r e a s o n . 96 R E A S O N S No Bus S e r v i c e Nearby  Steep Hill  Heavy C a r Other T r a f f i c j (Please State)  •  1.  Friends  2<r  Relatives  3.  Bus Stop  4.  -  Supermarket  5.  Doctor's O f f i c e  6.  Drug S t o r e  7.  Movie T h e a t r e  8.  Park  9.  Church  X  1  10.  Community C e n t r e  11.  Corner Store  12„  Library  13.  Bank  14.  Other  L.^_.^;  1  .1-  14.  ,  C o u l d you name t h e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f y o u r present l i v i n g quarters. Disadvantages  Advantages  ' '  .'  '  • '  • 0  •  '  •• •  .  •  15i  What f a c i l i t i e s would you l i k e t o see near y o u r q u a r t e r s t h a t a r e n o t c l o s e enough r i g h t now? 1. 2. 3. 4.  *  living  APPENDIX C.  UNIVARIATE TABLES TABLE 1  Percentage o f Respondents  S a t i s f i e d With P r o x i m i t y t o F a c i l i t i e s , Site Site  by H o u s i n g  Site Site Site  Project  Site  Site  Site  Site  Site  L  M  N  0  P  Site  Site  Site  Site  Site  B  C  D  E  •F  100. 0 80 .0  85. 7  84. 2  40. 0  8 3 :3 42. 9 100. 0 90 .0 76. 9  66 .7 100 .0 •90 . 0  Relatives  85. 7 77 .8  66 .7  68 .7  60 .0  80. 0 50. 0  80 .0 50 . 0 50 .0  33 . 3 100 .0  Supermarket  28 .6 22. 2  85 .7  42. 1 100 .0 100 .0 28 .6  0 .0 '38 . 5 83 . 3  0 .0 100. 0  100. 0 22 .2  78 .6  88 .9  100. 0 90 .0  76 .9 100 .0 100 .0 100. 0 12. 5 100. 0 84 . 6 76 .9 10 0. 0 100 .0 100 .0  Site A Friends  Drug Bus  Store Stop  Park Doctor's  Office  Church Corner  Store  Library Community C e n t r e Movie  Theatre  Overall  57. 1 37 .5  J  K  33 .3  75 .0 33 . 3  16 .7  75 .0 14 .3  3 3. 3  75 .0  7 .7 45 .4 10 0 . o. 100. 0  50 . 0  80 .0 100 .0 8 0. 0  0. 0'.30 .0 83 . 3 100 .0 100 .0 . 50.0  50 .0 9 2 • 9 100 . 0  54. 8 10 0. 0 61 . 5  20 .0  43 . 7  25. 0  28 .6  2 8..6 30. 0  28 .6  44. 4  40. 0  57 .1 25. 0  0 .0 58 .3 69 .2  0-. o" 100 .0  .5 0 .0  50 .0 5 0 . 0 16 .7  66. 7 33 . 3  80 .0 100. 0  66 .7  40. 0 50. 0  0 .0 •6 0 . 0 66 .7  ' 0.0 100 .0  91. 7  50 .0 78 . 6  69. 2  80 .0  71. 4- • 0.0  0 .0 2 7 .3 •83 . 3 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 85 .7 100 . 0  94. 7  92. 9 100 .0 ' 8 0-.0 100.. 0 42 .9  33 . 3  50 .0 92 . 3  54. 5  • 85.7 66 .7  0. 0  I  H  85 .7 22. 2  14. 3 80. 0  Bank  40. 0  G  0 .0' 41 .7 84. 6  5 0 . 0 100 .0  0 .0 37 .5 100. 0  64. 3  0. 0  20. 0 20 .0  0. 0 42 .9 81. 8 100 .0 100 .0  42. 9 37 .5  50 .0  50. 0  50 .0  50 .0 20. 0  33 . 3 28 .6 70 .0 100 .0 100 .0  0. 0 25. 0  33 . 3  43 . 7  0. 0  •33. 3 25. 0  56 .8 48 .0  69. 4  71'. 1  52 .4  63 . 1 27 .2  Note:  25 . 0  90 .9 . 75. 0' 21 .4  50 . 0  7 1 . 4 • 50 .0 •7 5.0  20 . 0  80 . 0  50 .0 50 . 0  0. 0 16 . 7 28 .6 100. 0 100. 0  87 . 5  33 . 3 22 .•2  65 .4 100 .0  78 .5  66 .0 58 . 2 37 . 3  •26 .6 44 .3 69. 2  S i t e s A, B, C, D, and E a r e p u b l i c l y s p o n s o r e d '.(Federal-Provincial) housing projects.  ;  2 0 .0  Av.^ O v e r a l l _ 50^3% Satisfaction  .CO  0. 0  98  TABLE 2  Length o f Residence a t P r e s e n t Housing P r o j e c t  Per Cent Less than one y e a r  18.1  One to. t h r e e y e a r s  38.5  Three t o f i v e y e a r s  17.5  F i v e t o seven y e a r s  10.5  More than seven y e a r s  15.4  TABLE 3  Area .of Respondents' Former  Residences  Per <Cent West End  30 . 0  Kitsilano  • 10 . 5  Grandview-Woodland  10 . 5  Mount P l e a s a n t  8 .4  East  Hastings  7.0  Renfrew-Collingwood  7.0  Out o f "Lower M a i n l a n d  5.6  Kerrisdale  4.2  Out o f Vancouver  City  3. 5  P o i n t Grey  3. 5  Marpole  2. 8  Riley  2 .8  Park-Kensington  Fairview  2 .1  Killarney  2 .1  TABLE 4  Reasons .For Choosing P r e s e n t L i v i n g  Quarters  Percentage o f Respondents With o t h e r people who are f a m i l i a r  33.3  Quieter area  26.7  Convenient l o c a t i o n '  2 0.0  Larger l i v i n g quarters  13.3  I n 'home' neighborhood  Note:  <"'  6.7  Only 10 per cent o f t o t a l sample were a b l e t o choose t h e i r p r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e s .  TABLE 5 Percentage of Respondents E x p r e s s i n g D i f f i c u l t y i n  Overcoming Distance, i n Rank Order  R Percent o f Respondents E x p e r i e n c i n g " • Difficulty  No Bus Serv i c e Nearby  E  A  S  0  Steep Hill  N  S  Car Traffic  Supermarket  31.1  5. 6  Doctor's O f f i c e  25.2  5. 6  Bus Stop  2 5.2  7.7  Drug Store  21. 0  4.9  9.1  .7  6. 3  Park  16 . 8  2.1  4.9  .7  9 .1  Friends  15 . 4  4.9  4.2  4.2  Bank  15.4  4.2  5.6  .7  4.9.  Corner Store  12.6  3. 5  7.7  0. 0  1.4  Relatives  11. 2  4. 2  2.1  2.1  2. 8  Church  10. 5  4.2  2.1  1.4  2.8  14.0 6. 3 13 . 3 .  .7  Too Far Awi  2. 8 2.1  9. 8 10 . 5 2.1  2.1  Community Centre  9.1  3. 5  2.1  .7  2.8  Library  7. 0  2. 8  1.4  0. 0  2.8  Movie Theatre  4. 9  2.1  .7  .7  1.4  4.2  5. 6  1.3  4.5  O v e r a l l Averages  15.4  (3  TABLE 6  Advantages o f P r e s e n t  Living  Quarters  Per Cent Low Rent Internal  42.5 Comfort  Privacy  3 2.2 12.6  W i t h o t h e r s o f own age  8.0  Conveniently located  4. 6  103  TABLE 7  F a c i l i t i e s That Should be Nearer Housing P r o j e c t  Per Cent Supermarket  20 . 8  Shopping Centre•  19. 5  Bus Stop  14.3  Park  9 .1  Community Centre  9.1  Drug S t o r e  6.5  Doctor's  3. 9  Post  Office  Office  2. 6  Church Corner Library  3. 9  Store  2.6 2.6'  TABLE 8 Distances  t o F a c i l i t i e s From S e l e c t e d Housing (in short c i t y blocks)  Projects  S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e S i t e Aver P N 0 Dist K L M B D E F G H I J A C 10 . 0 1 4 . 0  Supermarket  8 . 0 23 . 0  3.0  13.0  5 .0  4.5  7 . 0 13 . 0 17 . 0  4.0  3.0  .5.0  5.0  5.0  Drug  Store  3.0  23 . 0  3.0  3 .0  4.0  5.0  6.0  13 . 0 1 7 . 0  4.0  3 . 0"  5. 0  5.0.  7 . 0 18 . 0  8 .0  8 .0  Bus Stop Park Doctor's Office  0.0  2.0  2.5  2.0  1.0  1.0  •5. 0  1.0  1. o"  1.0  3.0  1.0  1.0  2 .0  1.0  1.5  1.6  7.0  5.0  4.0  2.0  5 .0  2.0  8.0  ' 9 .0  9.0  6.0  4 .'O  2.0  3 .0  2.0  3.5  4.0  4.7  8 . 0 23 . 0  2.5  4.0  5 .0  4.0  6.0  6 . 5 17 .0 17 .0 • 9.5  5.0  5.0  8 . 0 18 . 0 15 . 0  9.6  Church Corner S t o r e Bank  2.0  21.0  4.0  0.5  5 .0  7.0  5.0  1.0  3.0  4.0  2.5  0.5  0.0  4.5  5.0  13 . 0  10.0  12.0  2.5  4.0  4.0  4.0  Library  1 0 . 0 35 . 0 ' 7 , 0 3 4 . 0  Community Centre Movie  1 9 . 0 25 . 0  5.0  Note:  10.0  3 .0  8 .5  9 .0  0.5  0.0  4.0  9 .0  5 .6  7 .0  4.0  0.5  3 .0  1.0  3 .0  3.5  1.0  3 .5  8 . 0 13 .0 17 . 0  5.0  5 .5  5. 0  5.0  5 . 0 18 . 0  3.0  7.6  9.0  2 5.0  8.0  19. 0 40.0  12. 5  4 2 . 0 17 . 0 2 5 . 0  9.0  1 4 . 0 40 . 0 4 0 . 0 1 5 . 0  17 . 0  8.7  9.0  30.0  11. 0 34.0  16 . 0 23 . 0  3 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 8 . 0 ,34.0 1 4 . 0 1 9 . 0  S i t e s A , B , C, D, and E are p u b l i c l y ( F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l ) housing  19.0  15. 0 12.1  5 . 0 18 . 0 12 . 0 1 9 . 0  15 . 0' 18 .4  13 . 0  10. 0 11.0 6 . 0 12.0  20.0  40.0  19 . 6  sponsored  projects.  H  o  -P  TABLE 9 Aggregate D i s t a n c e s to F a c i l i t i e s From S e l e c t e d Housing P r o j e c t s (in short c i t y blocks) Site Site Site Site Site Site Site A  B  C  D  E  F  G  Site Site Site Site H  I  J  K  Site Site L  M  S i t e S i t e Site- A v e r . N  0  P  Dist  9 .• o. 6 . 2-  Supermarket  4., 0 14 ,. 5 3 . 75  7., 5  3 ,. 0  5 .0 .  8. 0  7. 0  9., 5 4 . 0  3 ., 0  6 .0  4 .. 0  4.5  6 ., 0  Drug  4., 0 1 4 . , 5 3 . 75  3 ., 0  5., 0  5 .5  7.0  7.0  9 ., 5 4 . 0  3 ., 0  4-..0  5 .5  10 ., 0  6 ., 5 6 . 0  4., 0 3 . 25  2 ., 0  1. ,0  1. , 5- 6 . 0  1. 0  2 ,. 0 1. 0  3 ., 0  3• o 1.0  1. .0  3.0  2,, 0  1. ,5 2 . 1.  1, , 0  3 .0 ,  2 ., 5  2 .0 .  5. 0  5 .. 5 6 . 0  5 ..0  2 .0  3 .0 .  4.0  3 ., 5  6 .. 0 . 5 . 2  4.. 0 14. , 5 3 . 25  4., 0  3.. 0 - 4.. 5  7 ., 0  3. 7 5  9., 5 9. 0  8 .. 5  3. 0  5 .0  6.0  2 ,. 0 1 3 . , 5 4 . 75  0., 5  3.0  7.. 5  6 ., 0  1. 0  6 ., 0 3. 0  13 ,,5  9. . 0  0 ., 5  0.0  4 ., 0  9 ., 0 .5 . 2  4., 0  6 ., 0 3 . 25  0 ,. 5  0.. 0  5.. 0  6 ., o  7. 0  4'., 5 4 . 0  o., 5  3 .0  1, . 0  5 .0  4 ,. 5  2 , 0 3.5  5 ., 0  9., 0 3. 25  4., 0  5..0  4., 5  7 ., 5  7 .0  9 ,. 5 3. 0  7 ., 5  3 .0  3 ,. 5  4 •5  10 ., 5  4 ., 0 5 . 7  9..75 5. 0  16 .. 0 5. 0  16 .,25 4 . 5  9 ,. 0 13 ., 5 10.. 0  6.0  18 ., 0 8 . 5  23 ., 5  5 .0  10 .. 5  8.0  1 1 . .0 10 ., 0 11 . 7  9 ,. 0  9. 5  18 ., 0 7 . 5  23 ., 5  7.0  4 ...5  8.0  1 1 . . 5 22 .. 0 12 . 0  Store  Bus Stop Park Doctor's Church Corner  0., 0  1 0 . . 0 10 ., 0 8. 0  Office  Store  Bank Library Community Centre Movie  5.. 0 20., 5 4 . 5  18 ., 0 1 0 . , 0 2 1 . , 0  9 ., 5 1 5 . , 5 8 . 0  22 ., 0  7 ., 0 23 ., 0 22 . 0  Note :  8. , 5  3 .5  8 .. 5  6 .,75 2 . 5  1 0 . . 0 10 .. 0 6 . 6  1 1 . , 0 10 ., 0 10 . 7  S i t e s A , B , C, D, and E are p u b l i c l y sponsored ( F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l ) housing  projects. o  APPENDIX D.  CROSS TABULATIONS OF DATA  TABLE 1  Correlation  Age vs S a t i s f a c t i o n  Coefficients  with Proximity  to,Facilities  Church Bus Stop Community Centre Friends  .32 .20  Corner S t o r e Drug S t o r e  .16 .15  Supermarket Relatives  .12 .10  Movie T h e a t r e Park Bank  .09 .09  Library Doctor's  . 06 . 06  Office  .18 .17  .07  TABLE 2  C o r r e l a t i o n Co'ef f i c i ent s Age vs .Frequency o f Use  Bank Library Supermarket Friends Movie Theatre Drug S t o r e Relatives  .47 . 24  Church Park Doctor's Office Community Centre  .09  Corner S t o r e  . 06 . 06  Bus Stop  . 22 . 22 . 21 .12 .11 .08 . 07 . 07  108  TABLE 3 Correlation Satisfaction  Coefficierits  w i t h P r o x i m i t y o f F a c i l i t y vs Frequency o f Use  Church Library Community Centre Relatives Friends Park Corner S t o r e Doctor's Office Bus Stop Drug S t o r e Supermarket  .82 . 61 . 54 .50 . 38 .37 .34 .33 ';  . 24  .10 .05  Movie Theatre  .03  Bank  .03  TABLE 4  Correlation  Coefficients  Length of Residence vs S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s Movie T h e a t r e Park Church  .50 .49 .37  Community Centre Friends  .23 .20 .17  Supermarket Relatives Drug S t o r e  .17 .17  Bus Stop Bank  .13 .12  Corner  .12 .12 . 03  Doctor's Library  Store Office  TABLE 5  Correlation.Coefficients Length o f Residence vs Frequency o f Use Movie T h e a t r e Bank Friends Relatives Church Community Centre Corner S t o r e Bus Stop Drug S t o r e Park Doctor's Office Library Supermarket  .27 .22 .22 .15 .12 .08 .04 .04 .04 .02 .02 .01 .01  TABLE 6  C o'rr e l a t i o n C o'e f f i c i e n t s Respondents c h o o s i n g Housing P r o j e c t vs S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s Friends Relatives Bus Stop Community Centre Movie T h e a t r e Doctor's Office Church  1. 000 1. 000 •1. 000 1. 000 1. 000  . 333 333  Supermarket Drug S t o r e •  • 222  Corner•Store Library  • 222  Park Bank  222 • 222  0. 0 0. 0  112  TABLE 7  Correlation.Coefficients Most Important F a c i l i t y vs S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y t o Housing P r o j e c t Friends Relatives Supermarket Drug S t o r e Bus Stop Park Doctor's Office Church Corner S t o r e Bank  .0013 .0014 .0009 .0012 .0012 .0016 .0006 .0023 .0013 .0009  113  TABLE 8  Cor r e l a t i o n Co e ' f f i c i e n t s Car Owners vs S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o x i m i t y to F a c i l i t i e s Supermarket Drug S t o r e Bus Stop Relatives  .09 . 08 . 07 . 04  Bank Movie T h e a t r e  .03 . 03  Park Friends  .03 .02  Corner  Store  .02  Library Community Centre  . 01 . 01 . 007  Doctor's  .002  Church  Office  114  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Anthony, Harry A . 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