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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The St. Lawrence Seaway : Canadian ultimatum and American participation Xavier, Michael Robert 1973

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THE ST . LAWRENCE SEAWAY: CANADIAN ULTIMATUM AND AMERICAN PARTICIPATION by MICHAEL ROBERT XAVIER B . A . , L o y o l a U n i v e r s i t y o f L o s A n g e l e s , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H ISTORY. We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA M a y , 1973 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p urposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f History The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date / May. 1973 i i A b s t r a c t S i n c e t h e dawn o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada had been n e g o t i a t i n g f o r t h e j o i n t d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e s y s t e m t o a l l o w o c e a n v e s s e l s to s a i l up t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r f r o m t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean t o t h e G r e a t L a k e s . A t f i r s t t h e C a n a d i a n s we re r e l u c t a n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n s u c h a p r o j e c t . I t w a s , h o w e v e r , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s w h i c h p r o v e d t o be t h e m a j o r s t u m b l i n g b l o c k f o r t h e seaway p r o j e c t . Long a f t e r t h e C a n a d i a n s h a d been won o v e r t o t h e p l a n , t h e A m e r i c a n C o n g r e s s c o n t i n u e d t o d e l a y i t s a p p r o v a l . F o r o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s , W a s h i n g t o n ' s p o w e r f u l a n t i -seaway l o b b y , composed c h i e f l y o f r a i l r o a d and c o a l i n t e r e s t s , t h e E a s t and G u l f C o a s t p o r t s , and A m e r i c a n m a r i t i m e i n t e r e s t s , w e r e s u c c e s s f u l i n s t a l l i n g t h e p r o j e c t . H o w e v e r , t h e s i t u a t i o n b e g a n t o change a f t e r t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War . The e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h i s wa r and t h e C o l d War w h i c h f o l l o w e d , had d rawn t h e two c o u n t r i e s c l o s e r t o g e t h e r b o t h m i l i t a r i l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y . M o r e o v e r , t h e u n p a r a l l e l e d e x p a n s i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n economy made i t i m p e r a t i v e f o r t h a t c o u n t r y t o d e v e l o p t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l and power p o t e n t i a l o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e . B e c a u s e o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g d e p l e t i o n o f v i t a l r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i r o n o r e , t he U n i t e d S t a t e s h a d grown more and more dependen t on Canada f o r s u c h e s s e n t i a l m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d by A m e r i c a n consumer and d e f e n s e i n d u s t r i e s . The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway w o u l d a s s u r e t h e M i d w e s t e r n i n d u s t r i e s o f a c o n s t a n t cheap s u p p l y o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . i i i T h i s p a p e r i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e p o s t - w a r y e a r s a f f e c t e d t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s on t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway p r o j e c t . D r a w i n g h e a v i l y f r om the C o n g r e s s i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and d e b a t e s , i t t r i e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s i t u a t i o n i n C o n g r e s s , and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e S e n a t e , t h e m a i n b a t t l e g r o u n d i n t h e d e b a t e o v e r t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . I t t r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m , and o f t h e a rgumen ts o f n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e and s e c u r i t y , i n c h a n g i n g t h e C o n g r e s s ' a t t i t u d e on t h e p r o j e c t . M o r e o v e r , i t l o o k s a t t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e 1954 v o t e on t h e s e a w a y . 1952 p r o v e d t o be t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t . E l e c t i o n s h e l d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t y e a r b r o u g h t a new R e p u b l i c a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t o W a s h i n g t o n t o g e t h e r w i t h a R e p u b l i c a n m a j o r i t y i n C o n g r e s s . I n Canada p a t i e n c e had w o r n t h i n , and t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r i s s u e d an u l t i m a t u m t o t h e A m e r i c a n s - e i t h e r t h e y j o i n i n t h e p r o j e c t s h o r t l y , o r t h e C a n a d i a n s w o u l d b u i l d i t on t h e i r own. The i m p a c t o f t h i s u l t i m a t u m had a l l t h e more f o r c e b e c a u s e t h e p o s t - w a r e c o n o m i c boom i n Canada had made t h a t c o u n t r y c o n f i d e n t and c a p a b l e o f t a k i n g on t h e p r o j e c t a l o n e . T r u m a n ' s r e a d y c o o p e r a t i o n h a d , as w e l l , h e l p e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e power p r o j e c t , a p r e - r e q u i s i t e o f t h e " a l l - C a n a d i a n " s e a w a y . T h i s u l t i m a t u m a c t e d as a c a t a l y s t i n a c h i e v i n g C o n g r e s s i o n a l a p p r o v a l o f A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . By m a k i n g t h e o l d e c o n o m i c a rgumen ts i r r e l e v a n t , i t a l l o w e d t h e d e b a t e t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d on t he i s s u e o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e " C o l d War " m e n t a l i t y p r e v a l e n t i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s a t t h e t i m e , i t c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e new p r e s i d e n t , Dw igh t D. E i s e n h o w e r , - i v -c o u l d u s e h i s enormous i n f l u e n c e as p r e s i d e n t , and h i s p r e s t i g e as a m i l i t a r y h e r o , t o t h e i r f u l l e s t a d v a n t a g e i n i n f l u e n c i n g C o n g r e s s . F a c e d w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m and t h e need t o h a v e a v o i c e i n t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e i m p o r t a n t wa te rway w h i c h w o u l d t r a n s p o r t i r o n o r e and o t h e r v i t a l m a t e r i a l s t o A m e r i c a n M i d w e s t e r n i n d u s t r i e s , t h e C o n g r e s s ove rcame i t s i n e r t i a and a p p r o v e d a l i m i t e d seaway r o l e f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The c o o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada i n c r e a s e d t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s and h e l p e d i n t e g r a t e t h e c o n t i n e n t more c l o s e l y , b o t h e c o n o m i c a l l y and m i l i t a r i l y . I t drew C a n a d a more d e e p l y i n t o t h e r o l e o f " s u p p l i e r o f r e s o u r c e s " t o t h e A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r i a l m a c h i n e . The way i n w h i c h c o o p e r a t i o n was a c h i e v e d , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t s t h a t e c o n o m i c n a t i o n a l i s m was no t dead i n e i t h e r c o u n t r y and c o u l d s t i l l p l a y i n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e i r f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s . V Table of Contents Abstract i i Introduction 1 I. Background and Overall Perspective 4 A. Physical Description 4 B. Early History and Improvements 8 C. Attempts at International Cooperation . 14 II. National Interest and National Seaways 21 A. National Interest and the All-Canadian Seaway . . . . . . 22 B. National Interest and the Ail-American Seaway 27 III. Changing Views of the National Interest 35 A. The Transformation of the Canadian Outlook 35 B. Changing Circumstances in the United States 40 1. National Defense 40 2. Dwindling Resources and National Security 46 IV. The "All-Canadian" Seaway Ultimatum 53 V. American Reaction 65 A. Changed Circumstances 68 B. National Security: 1954 72 1. National Defense 76 2. National Security and an Assured Resources Supply . . 80 vi C. Other Factors Encouraging American Action 86 1. Presidential Influence 89 2. The Wiley-Dondero B i l l 93 D. Canada's Disappointed Acceptance 99 VI. Conclusions 104 Footnotes 107 Selected Bibliography . . . 130 Appendix 137 - v i i -L i s t o f F i g u r e s and I l l u s t r a t i o n s 1 . Map o f G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e R e g i o n 7 2 . W a t e r L e v e l P r o f i l e : G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e S y s t e m 7 3 . E d i t o r i a l C a r t o o n by H e r b l o c k , " 0 1 1 Man C o n g r e s s , He J e s ' K e e p s R o l l i n * A l o n g " 63 4 . S e n a t e V o t e on t h e G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway T r e a t y , 1934 141 5 . S e n a t e V o t e on t h e W i l e y B i l l 141 6 . 1948 S e n a t e V o t e S e n d i n g t he S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway B i l l B a c k t o t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Commi t tee 142 - v i i i -Acknowledgements It is with deep gratitude that I acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. A.N. MacDonald who first suggested the topic, and Dr. A.C.L. Smith under whose careful guidance the present work was undertaken and completed. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to my sister, Anita, who helped me acquire many sources from the University of Chicago to which I would otherwise not have had easy access. Members of the library staffs of the Main Library of the University of British Columbia and the Graduate Library of the University of California at Los Angeles were uniformly helpful and courteous. Thanks to Mrs. Carole Szabo who did the typing of the final draft. I would also express my most sincere gratitude and appreciation to my mother for her encouragement and patience and both my parents who gave me the opportunity for graduate study at the University of British Columbia. - 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The dream o f a n a v i g a b l e wa te rway e x t e n d i n g f rom t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean and p e n e t r a t i n g deep i n t o t h e h e a r t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a was an i d e a a l m o s t as o l d as w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . I t p r e - d a t e d t h e b i r t h o f b o t h n a t i o n s w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y s h a r e d i t - t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a . I n d i v i d u a l s h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e improvemen t o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e s y s t e m f o r c e n t u r i e s . Bu t t h e m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t came o n l y i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h i s c e n t u r y . Though t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s had t a k e n s t e p s t o w a r d o p e n i n g up t h e v a s t i n l a n d s e a o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s t o o c e a n - g o i n g v e s s e l s b e f o r e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , i t was t o t a k e more t h a n f i f t y l o n g y e a r s b e f o r e t h e f i r s t s p a d e f u l o f s o d was t u r n e d . F o r h a l f a c e n t u r y t h e seaway was t h e t o p i c o f h e a t e d d e b a t e s on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r y . A l l t h r o u g h t h a t p e r i o d t h e m a j o r s t u m b l i n g b l o c k i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o v e d t o be t h e C o n g r e s s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e S e n a t e . F o r t w e n t y a r d u o u s y e a r s a f t e r t h e S e n a t e ' s i n i t i a l r e j e c t i o n o f t h e s e a w a y , e a c h y e a r C o n g r e s s w o u l d d r a g ou t a b i l l and i n some y e a r s , s e v e r a l b i l l s , p r o v i d i n g f o r a d e e p - w a t e r w a y and power p r o j e c t f r o m i t s p i g e o n h o l e , b l o w t h e d u s t o f f , and e x p o s e i t t o t h e p u b l i c . The r e a c t i o n f r om W a s h i n g t o n ' s p o w e r f u l a n t i - s e a w a y l o b b y w o u l d t h e n s e n d t h e b i l l b a c k t o i t s c u b b y h o l e f o r a n o t h e r y e a r . H o w e v e r , r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e seaway f i n a l l y c o l l a p s e d q u i t e d r a m a t i c a l l y i n 1 9 5 4 , and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s became a p a r t n e r w i t h Canada i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . - 2 What were t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h l e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s t o abandon i t s t r a d i t i o n a l i n e r t i a on t h e seaway p r o j e c t ? What r o l e d i d C a n a d i a n p r e s s u r e s p l a y ? How d i d n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y f i t i n t o t h e p i c t u r e ? T h e s e a r e a l l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h i s p a p e r hopes t o a n s w e r . The g e n e r a l f o c u s o f t h e p a p e r i s l i m i t e d t o t h e y e a r s f rom 1934 t o 1 9 5 4 , f r o m t h e t i m e when t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway was f i r s t r e j e c t e d by t h e S e n a t e t o t h e t i m e when i t was f i n a l l y a p p r o v e d by b o t h H o u s e s o f C o n g r e s s . H o w e v e r , t h e s p e c i a l f o c u s w i l l be c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e c h a n g i n g a rgumen ts and c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e f i r s t f o u r y e a r s o f t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s . S i n c e t h e S e n a t e v o t e on t h e seaway i n 1954 was t h e d r a m a t i c c l i m a x o f t h e b a t t l e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e p a p e r d raws h e a v i l y f r o m t h e d e b a t e w h i c h p r e c e d e d i t . The o n l y o t h e r t i m e t h a t C o n g r e s s was a l l o w e d t o v o t e s t r i c t l y t o a p p r o v e o r r e j e c t A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e seaway p r o j e c t h a d been i n 1934 when t h e S e n a t e f a i l e d t o g i v e t h e t w o - t h i r d s v o t e n e c e s s a r y f o r a p p r o v a l o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway T r e a t y o f 1 9 3 2 . S i n c e t h e C o n g r e s s , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e S e n a t e , was t h e m a i n b a t t l e f i e l d be tween p r o and a n t i - s e a w a y f o r c e s , t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e c o r d and t h e v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l c o m m i t t e e s i n v o l v e d a r e t h e m a i n s o u r c e s f o r t h e p a p e r . The D e b a t e s o f t h e House o f Commons we re u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s o f C a n a d a ' s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s . V a r i o u s n e w s p a p e r s and p o p u l a r p e r i o d i c a l s o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s f u r n i s h e d an i d e a o f t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t i e s , as w e l l as o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c o f e a c h n a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e p a p e r was n o t meant t o be a - 3 -d i p l o m a t i c h i s t o r y o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o i n t r o d u c e t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n t he two c o u n t r i e s , w h i c h we re f o u n d i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e . - 4 I. B a c k g r o u n d and O v e r a l l P e r s p e c t i v e . A . P h y s i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n . One o f t h e w o r l d ' s g r e a t r i v e r s y s t e m s , t h e S t . L a w r e n c e c o n s i s t s o f two m a i n p a r t s , a l l f i v e o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s - S u p e r i o r , M i c h i g a n , H u r o n , E r i e and O n t a r i o - t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . " * " The t o t a l l a n d and w a t e r a r e a o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s -S t . L a w r e n c e B a s i n c o v e r s 6 7 8 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s . ^ T h i s s y s t e m , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e G u l f o f S t . L a w r e n c e , p r o v i d e s a c o n t i n u o u s w a t e r w a y e x t e n d i n g 2 , 3 4 7 m i l e s f r o m the A t l a n t i c Ocean i n t o t h e h e a r t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t . I n t h i s f a c t l i e s i t s i m p o r t a n c e b o t h h i s t o r i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y . R u n n i n g t h r o u g h a r e g i o n o f g r e a t a b u n d a n c e , good f a r m l a n d , v a s t r e g i o n s o f p r i m e v a l f o r e s t w i t h c o u n t l e s s f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s , t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r n o t o n l y a l l o w e d t h e w h i t e man t o p e n e t r a t e i n l a n d q u i c k l y and e a s i l y ; i t p r o v i d e d h im w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t i e s on w h i c h t o b a s e h i s p r o s p e r i t y once s e t t l e d , and f u n c t i o n e d as a h i g h w a y f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t o f h i s goods b a c k and f o r t h b e t w e e n h i s towns and t h e m a r k e t s o f t h e w o r l d . No f o r m i d a b l e b a r r i e r h i n d e r s t he f l o w o f t h i s r i v e r t o t h e open s e a . I t s t h o u s a n d - m i l e c o u r s e r e g u l a t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y by t h e c o n t i n u o u s , u n w a v e r i n g p r e s s u r e o f i t s s o u r c e } t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r i s n o t g i v e n t o t h e t e r r i f y i n g c o n v u l s i o n s o f f l o o d and s u b s i d e n c e common t o o t h e r g r e a t r i v e r s . T h e r e a r e , l i n f a c t , u s u a l l y no more t h a n s e v e n f e e t be tween i t s h i g h e s t and l o w e s t l e v e l s . ^ - 5 -The G r e a t L a k e s c o m p r i s e a v e r i t a b l e i n l a n d s e a . They a r e t h e l a r g e s t body o f f r e s h w a t e r i n t h e w o r l d , and c o n t a i n more t h a n h a l f o f i t s s u p p l y . ^ The s i z e o f t h e s e l a k e s a r e no more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e i r s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n i n t he h e a r t o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t l y i n g i n t h e t e m p e r a t e z o n e . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n and t he f a i r l y m i l d , b u t i n v i g o r a t i n g c l i m a t e , t h e G r e a t L a k e s and S t . L a w r e n c e E l v e r e n j o y a h i n t e r l a n d r i c h i n f o r e s t , a g r i c u l t u r a l , m i n e r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and human r e s o u r c e s . The e c o n o m i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e l a k e s and t h e r i v e r h a s been t r emendous f o r t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d economy o f t h e c o n t i n e n t . The 9 5 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s o f w a t e r encompassed by t h e G r e a t L a k e s h a v e s u p p l i e d huge q u a n t i t i e s o f f r e s h w a t e r f o r t h e numerous i n d u s t r i e s and l a r g e c i t i e s w h i c h have mushroomed on o r n e a r t h e i r 8 , 3 0 0 m i l e s o f s h o r e l i n e . The G r e a t L a k e s and S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r have p r o v i d e d t h e i n d u s t r i a l h e a r t l a n d o f t h e c o n t i n e n t w i t h a l a r g e s y s t e m o f n a v i g a b l e w a t e r w a y s w h i c h h a v e become an e s s e n t i a l p o r t i o n o f t h e d o m e s t i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s o f b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a . They n o t o n l y d i r e c t l y s e r v e t h e m a j o r i n d u s t r i a l m a r k e t a r e a s o f t h e two n a t i o n s ; b u t a l s o s e r v e a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . 5 The s y s t e m , t h e n , i s a f a b u l o u s g i f t o f n a t u r e . Y e t i t h a s a l s o p o s e d t r o u b l e s o m e and c o s t l y p r o b l e m s f o r n a v i g a t i o n . A l t h o u g h i t s f l o w i s c o m p l e t e and u n b r o k e n f rom t h e head o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s t o t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean , t h e S t . L a w r e n c e s y s t e m has n o t a l w a y s been n a v i g a b l e f o r i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h . The m a j o r n a v i g a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s s p r a n g f r om t h e f a c t t h a t much o f t he l a k e s y s t e m i s e l e v a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y above s e a l e v e l . - 6 The w a t e r c o u r s e does n o t f o l l o w a g e n t l e , s t e a d y d e s c e n t l i k e t h a t o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r , b u t l o s e s h e i g h t i n a s e r i e s o f a b r u p t d r o p s , t h e most o b v i o u s and d r a m a t i c one b e i n g t he 326 f o o t d r o p o f t h e N i a g a r a F a l l s . B e s i d e s t h e s e f a l l s , t h e r e a r e t h r e e o t h e r m a j o r p o i n t s o f a b r u p t d e s c e n t w h i c h a r e o f i n t e r e s t i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s y s t e m as a n a v i g a b l e w a t e r w a y : 1) t h e S t . M a r y ' s R i v e r be tween L a k e s S u p e r i o r and M i c h i g a n , mos t o f t h e d e s c e n t o c c u r r i n g a t t h e i m p o s s i b l e r a p i d s o f t h e S t . M a r y ' s F a l l s ; 2) t h e S t . C l a i r and D e t r o i t R i v e r s be tween L a k e s H u r o n and E r i e ; and 3) t h e u p p e r S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r f rom L a k e O n t a r i o t o M o n t r e a l . T h e r e a r e , as w e l l , a s u c c e s s i o n o f t r e a c h e r o u s c u r r e n t s and r a p i d s o c c u r r i n g b e l o w t h e T h o u s a n d I s l a n d s s e c t i o n - t h e L a c h i n e , C a s c a d e s , C e d a r s , C o t e a u , and L o n g S a u l t R a p i d s . ^ A l l t h e s e o b s t a c l e s a r e a t t h e same t i m e b o t h a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s t o man . As m a j o r p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c e n e r g y t h e y c a n be h a r n e s s e d f o r p o w e r , b u t as o b s t a c l e s t o n a v i g a t i o n t h e y must be e i t h e r e l i m i n a t e d o r c i r c u m v e n t e d by c a n a l s and l o c k s i f t h e r i v e r i s t o be o f r e a l v a l u e as a c o m m e r c i a l w a t e r w a y . - 7 -F i g u r e i . WATER LEVEL f k o R u E St. uwJRe i^ce. Figure 2. - 8 B. E a r l y H i s t o r y and I m p r o v e m e n t s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r has had an enormous s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h i s " t h u m b p r i n t o f t h e a n c i e n t g l a c i e r s " 7 was a p a t h t o t h e h e a r t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t used by I n d i a n s l o n g b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e w h i t e man . I t became a r o u t e f o l l o w e d by E u r o p e a n e x p l o r e r s , f u r t r a d e r s , and m i s s i o n a r i e s . I n l a t e r y e a r s i t became a h i g h w a y f o r E u r o p e a n i m m i g r a n t s and f u n c t i o n e d as an a r t e r y f o r m i d c o n t i n e n t c e n t e r s o f p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r y . I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f E u r o p e a n e x p l o r a t i o n , t h i s r i v e r e n c o u r a g e d t h e h o p e s o f many e x p l o r e r s f o r f i n d i n g a N o r t h w e s t P a s s a g e t o t h e O r i e n t . When t h e s e h o p e s e v e n t u a l l y f a d e d , t h e y w e r e o n l y g i v i n g way t o g r e a t e r dreams - dreams o f a N o r t h A m e r i c a n e m p i r e . The S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r became a v i t a l l i n k i n t h e F r e n c h and t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l e m p i r e s i n t h e New W o r l d . L a t e r , i t s e a s t - w e s t o r i e n t a t i o n was o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Canada as a n a t i o n , s t r e n g t h e n i n g C a n a d i a n u n i t y and p r e s e r v i n g e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l t i e s w i t h t h e n a t i o n ' s two m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , B r i t a i n and F r a n c e . ^ P r o v i d i n g t h e most d i r e c t r o u t e p a s t t h e b a r r i e r o f t h e A p p a l a c h i a n s i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r , t h e S t . L a w r e n c e r o u t e was f o l l o w e d by a s t e a d y s t r e a m o f e x p l o r e r s , m i s s i o n a r i e s , t r a d e r s , t r a p p e r s , and s e t t l e r s . E v e n t h e r a i l r o a d s and h i g h w a y s f o l l o w e d i t s c o u r s e . A b e n e v o l e n t r i v e r t o man , i t o f f e r e d l i f e and s u s t e n a n c e t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g i t s b a n k s w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y b l o s s o m e d i n t o m a g n i f i c e n t c i t i e s , and p r o v i d e d them w i t h an e a s y way t o i m p o r t and e x p o r t g o o d s . " T o b u i l d a l o n g i t s b a n k s , " w r o t e L o w e l l Thomas , " h a s a l w a y s been an i n v e s t m e n t r a t h e r t h a n a g a m b l e . " 9 - 9 -The g r e a t c i t i e s - C h i c a g o , M i l w a u k e e , D e t r o i t , M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , C l e v e l a n d - w h i c h s p r a n g up a l o n g t h e s h o r e s o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s and t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r , were p r o v i d e d by n a t u r e w i t h a s u p e r b s y s t e m o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f t h e v a s t n e t w o r k o f l a k e s and r i v e r s e x t e n d i n g f r o m t h e open s e a t o t h e h e a r t l a n d o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . Bu t t h e work o f n a t u r e was n o t c o m p l e t e d and a number o f o b s t a c l e s t o n a v i g a t i o n had t o be e i t h e r e l i m i n a t e d o r c i r c u m n a v i g a t e d b e f o r e t h e s y s t e m c o u l d be o f r e a l v a l u e t o t h e g r o w i n g commerce and i n d u s t r y o f t h e a r e a . T h i s p r o v i d e d t h e l o g i c and i m p e t u s b e h i n d t h e dreams o f i n s i g h t f u l men who l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o a c o m p l e t e l y n a v i g a b l e w a t e r w a y f r om t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean t o t h e h e a d o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s . T h e s e dreams w e r e t o h a v e t h e i r f i n a l c u l m i n a t i o n i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . The t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c a n n o t , o f c o u r s e , l a y c l a i m t o o r i g i n a t i n g t h e i d e a o f p r o v i d i n g a n a v i g a b l e l a k e s - t o - o c e a n w a t e r w a y . T h i s i d e a has e x i s t e d f o r c e n t u r i e s . I n 1 5 3 5 , J a c q u e s C a r t i e r d i s c o v e r e d t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r and s a i l e d 1 , 0 0 0 m i l e s up r i v e r as f a r as t h e L a c h i n e R a p i d s w h i c h b a r r e d h i s f u r t h e r p a s s a g e . S i n c e t h a t t i m e men h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y d reamed o f d i g g i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y c h a n n e l s t o b y - p a s s t h e o b s t a c l e s r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r p a s s a g e . " ^ N a t u r a l l y , t h e e a r l i e s t a t t e m p t s t o i m p r o v e t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r were humb le i n d e e d . I n 1 6 8 0 , D o l l i e r de C a s s o n , t h e S u p e r i o r o f t h e S u l p i c i a n s e m i n a r y i n M o n t r e a l , c o n c e i v e d t h e i d e a o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a t h r e e -f o o t deep c a n a l t o c o n n e c t L a k e S t . L o u i s w i t h M o n t r e a l , b y - p a s s i n g t h e h a z a r d o u s L a c h i n e R a p i d s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s f i r s t p l a n t o i m p r o v e t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r w a s , l i k e i t s t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c o u n t e r p a r t , a comb ined - 10 -n a v i g a t i o n a l and power p r o j e c t . I t was hoped t h a t t he S t . P e t e r R i v e r w o u l d a c q u i r e enough w a t e r t o r u n a m i l l . I t s d e s i g n e r , h o w e v e r , d i e d b e f o r e i t was c o m p l e t e d and the p r o j e c t was n e v e r f i n i s h e d . H A f t e r t he B r i t i s h won e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s -S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r s y s t e m , i n f l u e n t i a l E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g m e r c h a n t s demanded t h a t t h e I m p e r i a l Government i m p r o v e t he w a t e r w a y and t a k e o t h e r a c t i o n t o p romo te t r a d e . By t h e t i m e o f t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , t r a f f i c had i n c r e a s e d t o a p o i n t w h e r e i t p u t an a l m o s t i n t o l e r a b l e s t r a i n on t h e w e a k e r l i n k s o f t h e r o u t e . I n 1 7 7 9 , C o l o n e l F r e d e r i c k H a l i m a n d , G o v e r n o r o f Q u e b e c , had t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s b e g i n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f s m a l l l o c k s b e t w e e n M o n t r e a l and L a k e S t . F r a n c i s w h i c h , when c o m p l e t e d , became t h e f i r s t l o c k c a n a l i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . 1 2 A s i d e f r o m a c e r t a i n amount o f d r e d g i n g and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a few l i g h t h o u s e s and o t h e r n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s , t h e r e we re few o t h e r a t t e m p t s t o ove rcome t h e o b s t a c l e s o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e s y s t e m . These we re p i e c e m e a l a f f a i r s done more f o r s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s t h a n as p a r t o f a g r e a t c o m p r e h e n s i v e and c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o f u l f i l l t h e v i s i o n o f an u n i n t e r r u p t e d w a t e r r o u t e f a r i n t o the i n t e r i o r o f t h e c o n t i n e n t . S t i l l , t he i d e a o f an i m p r o v e d w a t e r w a y n e v e r d i e d . D u r i n g t he f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e War o f 1 8 1 2 , c h a n g i n g modes o f r i v e r c r a f t , a n c j t h e e c o n o m i c r e v o l u t i o n a l o n g t h e l o w e r l a k e s and S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r V a l l e y w h i c h f o l l o w e d upon t h e g r o w t h o f s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h a t a r e a , c a u s e d s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a t o be g i v e n t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an i m p r o v e d c a n a l n e t w o r k t h r o u g h o u t t h e G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e s y s t e m . Remember ing t he l i m i t a t i o n s - 11 -o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e d u r i n g t h e w a r , t h e m i l i t a r y w a n t e d b e t t e r l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and s u p p l y , and t h e s e t t l e r s and m e r c h a n t s w e r e a n x i o u s t o overcome t h e h a n d i c a p s o f t h e r i v e r i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e e a s i e r and c h e a p e r means by w h i c h t o e x p o r t t h e i r p r o d u c t s and b r i n g i n new s u p p l i e s and s e t t l e r s . A t t h e same t i m e , c a n a l f e v e r was s p r e a d i n g t o Canada f r om s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r . E n c o u r a g e d by t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e E r i e C a n a l w h i c h demon-s t r a t e d t h e c o m m e r c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f a c a n a l be tween t h e s e a b o a r d and t h e G r e a t L a k e s , b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada embarked on a p rog ram o f c a n a l b u i l d i n g and i m p r o v e m e n t s on t h e G r e a t L a k e s and S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r w h i c h c o n t i n u e d o f f and on t h r o u g h o u t t h e n i n e t e e n t h cen tu ry . - * - ^ Canada was e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d and a c t i v e i n t h e s e i m p r o v e m e n t s b e c a u s e t h e D o m i n i o n was a t t e m p t i n g t o r e g a i n t he l u c r a t i v e t r a d e o f t h e West l o s t t o t h e E r i e C a n a l r o u t e . ^ The t r u s t t h e C a n a d i a n s had i n t h e i r p r o j e c t was r o o t e d i n t he g e o g r a p h i c a l f a c t t h a t t h e s a i l i n g d i s t a n c e t o E u r o p e o v e r t he S t . L a w r e n c e r o u t e was much s h o r t e r t h a n t h e c i r c u i t o u s p a s s a g e t h r o u g h t h e E r i e C a n a l and down the Hudson R i v e r t o New Y o r k . " ^ Canada c o m p l e t e d t h e L a c h i n e C a n a l i n 1825 and i n 1 8 3 2 , a f t e r numerous d e l a y s , p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s i n C a n a d a , l e d by t h e v i s i o n o f W i l l i a m H a m i l t o n M e r r i t t , opened a s h a l l o w , s e v e n f o o t W e l l a n d C a n a l a r o u n d N i a g a r a F a l l s . I n 1841 Uppe r and Lower Canada w e r e u n i t e d and f i n a l l y , t h e f u l l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e two Canadas were pu t b e h i n d t h e c a n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e . I n 1847 an e n t i r e c h a i n o f cana ls " ' " ' 7 was c o m p l e t e d i n t h e 182 m i l e s t r e t c h b e t w e e n M o n t r e a l and L a k e O n t a r i o - an embryo s e a w a y . By 1853 t h e g o v e r n m e n t had t a k e n o v e r t h e W e l l a n d C a n a l and deepened i t t o t e n f e e t . - 12 -I n 1855 t he s t a t e o f M i c h i g a n c o m p l e t e d a c a n a l a r o u n d t h e S t . M a r y ' s F a l l s , f i n a l l y c o n n e c t i n g L a k e S u p e r i o r t o t h e r e s t o f t h e s y s t e m . I n s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s gove rnmen t made i m p r o v e m e n t s and a d d i t i o n s t o i t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e r a p i d l y g r o w i n g t r a f f i c o f g r a i n and i r o n o r e . By 1 8 9 5 , Canada had c o m p l e t e d a c a n a l o f h e r own a r o u n d t h e S t . M a r y ' s F a l l s . The D o m i n i o n c o n t i n u e d t o d e e p e n and i m p r o v e t h e W e l l a n d C a n a l . Soon a f t e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n i t embarked on an e x t e n s i v e t h i r t y - y e a r p r o g r a m , c o s t i n g $50 m i l l i o n , t o b u i l d a new t w e l v e f o o t c a n a l and l o c k 1 8 s y s t e m on t h e u p p e r S t . L a w r e n c e b e t w e e n M o n t r e a l and L a k e O n t a r i o . D u r i n g t he same p e r i o d t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t c l e a r e d p a r t s o f t he D e t r o i t and S t . C l a i r R i v e r s w h i c h j o i n L a k e s E r i e and H u r o n . I n 1 8 7 6 , t he A m e r i c a n gove rnmen t c o n t i n u e d t h e w o r k , b r o a d e n i n g and d e e p e n i n g the c h a n n e l s t o t w e n t y f e e t , d r e d g i n g a new c h a n n e l a t S t . C l a i r F l a t s , and d e e p e n i n g t h e c h a n n e l j u s t b e l o w t h e S t . M a r y ' s R i v e r . I n 1896 i t opened t he t w e n t y - o n e f o o t deep Poe L o c k a t S t . M a r y ' s F a l l s . By t h e s t a r t o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t he wo rk o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s had made a t h r o u g h wa te rway f r om t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean t o t h e G r e a t L a k e s a v a i l a b l e t o s h i p s w i t h a d r a f t o f up t o f o u r t e e n f e e t . Y e t , f o r a l l t h e e f f o r t t h a t had b e e n p u t f o r t h , t h e r e s u l t s w e r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . The r a p i d a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n Canada e x p e r i e n c e d a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c a u s e d an i n c r e a s i n g vo lume o f g r a i n and o r e t o move v i a t h e S t . L a w r e n c e c a n a l s , b u t t h e s y s t e m n e v e r s u c c e e d e d i n d i v e r t i n g any s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n M i d w e s t e r n g r a i n t r a f f i c f r om t h e E r i e C a n a l . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s l o w - m o v i n g w a t e r w a y f a c e d i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n f rom t h e . s p e e d i e r r a i l r o a d s w h i c h - 13 -e v e n t u a l l y commanded t he l i o n ' s s h a r e o f t h e e a s t - w e s t t r a f f i c . I n s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s f u r t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t s we re made on t h e G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r s y s t e m . A d d i t i o n a l l o c k s w i t h g r e a t e r d e p t h we re b u i l t a t S t . M a r y ' s i n 1914 and 1919 and i n 1932 Canada e n l a r g e d and deepened t h e W e l l a n d C a n a l t o t w e n t y - f i v e f e e t . 1942 saw t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s open t he M a c A r t h u r l o c k , t h e l a r g e s t o f t h e w h o l e s y s t e m . Bu t t r a f f i c was s t i l l l i m i t e d by t h e n a r r o w e s t and s h a l l o w e s t p a r t s o f t h e s y s t e m w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y became t r a f f i c b o t t l e n e c k s . The S t . L a w r e n c e C a n a l s y s t e m w h i c h had e v o l v e d had two m a j o r s h o r t c o m i n g s . O n l y s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d " c a n a l l e r s " ^ ^ and a v e r y few o f t h e s m a l l e s t t y p e s o f o c e a n - g o i n g v e s s e l s we re a b l e t o make use o f i t . I n a d d i t i o n , b e c a u s e o f t h e n a r r o w n e s s o r s m a l l n e s s o f c e r t a i n c a n a l s and l o c k s , p a s s a g e t h r o u g h t h e s y s t e m was e x t r e m e l y s l o w w i t h b o t t l e n e c k c o n g e s t i o n a t p l a c e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e m a j o r h a n d i c a p s and o t h e r m i n o r i n a d e q u a c i e s , t h e i d e a o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an i n t e g r a t e d c o m b i n a t i o n o f c a n a l s and l o c k s w h i c h w o u l d accomoda te t h e l a r g e r s h i p s o f t h e m e r c h a n t m a r i n e had grown more i n s i s t e n t among C a n a d i a n l e a d e r s as w e l l as some A m e r i c a n ones w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e . T h i s i s t h e i d e a w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y became known as t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway p r o j e c t . - 14 -C . A t t e m p t s a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n . The g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e m i d -c o n t i n e n t r e g i o n and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g g r o w t h o f t r a f f i c on t h e G r e a t L a k e s and S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r h e l p e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e i d e a o f a G r e a t L a k e s -S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway a r o u n d t h e c l o s e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The s u c c e s s o f t h e Suez C a n a l a n d , l a t e r , t h e Panama C a n a l a t once pu t t he m i d w e s t e r n f a r m e r s , i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , and s h i p p e r s a t a d e c i d e d d i s a d v a n t a g e and r e v i v e d t h e i r f a i t h i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . What t h e N a t i o n c a l l e d " c a n a l m a n i a " 2 0 swept t h r o u g h N o r t h A m e r i c a a g a i n . W e s t e r n c r u s a d e r s p r o p o s e d a number o f p l a n s f o r a w a t e r o u t l e t f o r t h e i r p r o d u c t s and f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e r e was a m a j o r e f f o r t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r an i m p r o v e d S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y . E a r l y A m e r i c a n a g i t a t i o n f o r a S t . L a w r e n c e Deep W a t e r w a y , a imed c h i e f l y a t o b t a i n i n g cheap g r a i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o E u r o p e , stemmed f r o m f a r m e r s t r y i n g t o e s c a p e t h e s t r a n g e h o l d w h i c h r a i l r o a d s h e l d on d o m e s t i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . They w e r e s u p p o r t e d by G r e a t L a k e s c i t i e s w h i c h dreamed o f g r o w i n g r i c h as w o r l d p o r t s on an " A m e r i c a n M e d i t e r r a n e a n , " by s h i p p i n g W e s t e r n g r a i n , m e a t , o r e s , s t e e l , and m a n u f a c t u r e d p r o d u c t s t h r o u g h d e e p - w a t e r c h a n n e l s t o t h e E a s t C o a s t and E u r o p e . The c r e a t i o n o f t h e L a k e s - t o - G u l f Deep Waterway A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1906 gave s u c h a p r o j e c t i t s f i r s t r e a l i m p e t u s i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n 1 8 9 2 , J o h n L i n d i n i t i a t e d o v e r s i x t y y e a r s o f r e p e a t e d d e b a t e and a g i t a t i o n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway i n t h e h a l l s o f C o n g r e s s by i n t r o d u c i n g t h e f i r s t S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway b i l l - 15 -i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . He c a l l e d f o r a j o i n t A m e r i c a n - C a n a d i a n s t u d y . . . t o p romo te t h e imp rovemen t o f t he w a t e r w a y f r om t h e h e a d o f L a k e S u p e r i o r , by way o f t he W e l l a n d and S t . L a w r e n c e C a n a l s and S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r t o t h e s e a . ^ T h i s b i l l was a p p r o v e d by t h e Commi t tee on I n t e r s t a t e and F o r e i g n Commerce, b u t l i k e s o many o f t h e seaway b i l l s y e t t o come, i t was d e l a y e d t o o l o n g and was n e v e r b r o u g h t t o a v o t e . I n t he same y e a r a p l a n t o e n l a r g e t h e c a n a l s t o t w e n t y f e e t was s u g g e s t e d by F r e d r i c k D e n i s o n o f 23 West T o r o n t o i n t h e C a n a d i a n House o f Commons. P a r a l l e l a c t i o n by b o t h g o v e r n m e n t s i n f o l l o w i n g y e a r s l e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a Deep Wate rways C o m m i s s i o n i n 1 8 9 5 . 2 4 T h i s was t h e f i r s t o f f i c i a l j o i n t a c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e wa te rway and t h e r e p o r t o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ^ was t h e f i r s t i n a l o n g s e r i e s o f f a v o r a b l e ones on s u c h a p r o j e c t . I n 1 9 0 9 , t he B o u n d a r y W a t e r s T r e a t y p r o v i d e d f o r t he f r e e n a v i g a t i o n o f a l l n a v i g a b l e b o u n d a r y w a t e r s by b o t h n a t i o n s and e s t a b l i s h e d an I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n t o r e v i e w a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s t h a t i n v o l v e d t h e U n i t e d 2 6 S t a t e s - C a n a d a i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r y . A n o t h e r agency w i t h some r e l e v a n c e f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a seaway had t h u s come i n t o b e i n g . Y e t , a l t h o u g h b o t h c o u n t r i e s f a c e d t h e n e e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , n e i t h e r was r e a l l y p r e p a r e d t o c o o p e r a t e on t h e s e a w a y . The o r d e r f o r an i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n d u c t e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Army t o e s t i m a t e t h e c o s t o f a c a n a l w h o l l y w i t h i n A m e r i c a n t e r r i t o r y ^ was s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e u n s e t t l e d s t a t e o f C a n a d i a n - A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s a t t h i s t i m e . The U n i t e d S t a t e s o p t e d f o r t h i s a i l - A m e r i c a n r o u t e and p r o c e e d e d w i t h t h e New Y o r k S t a t e B a r g e C a n a l w h i l e Canada hoped t o r e l i e v e t h e p r e s s u r e on i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m by b u i l d i n g a r a i l r o a d t o - 16 -t h e Hudson B a y . I n J u l y , 1 9 1 3 , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t e u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d a r e s o l u t i o n by S e n a t o r C h a r l e s E . Townsend o f M i c h i g a n u r g i n g T h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t be . . . r e q u e s t e d t o e n t e r upon n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n o r t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada w i t h a v i e w t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l ag reement f o r t h e c o n -c u r r e n t o r c o o p e r a t i v e improvement o f n a v i g a t i o n i n w a t e r -ways u s e d , o r w h i c h can be u s e d , i n common f o r t h e commerce o f Canada and t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . 2 8 The W i l s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n hoped t o be a b l e t o imp lemen t i t , b u t W o r l d War I f o r c e d a t e m p o r a r y pos tponemen t o f a l l n e g o t i a t i o n s . I n O c t o b e r 1918 t h e B o r d e n gove rnmen t f o r m a l l y i n v i t e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o j o i n Canada i n on b u i l d i n g a d e e p - w a t e r S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . N o t h i n g came o f t h i s i n v i t a t i o n , b u t i n t he f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s T i d e w a t e r A s s o c i a t i o n b r o u g h t a p o w e r f u l o r g a n f o r s t a t e p r o p a g a n d a i n f a v o r o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e w a t e r w a y t o be d i s s e m i n a t e d . The o r g a n i z a t i o n soon i n c l u d e d t he o r i g i n a l c h a r t e r s t a t e s - M i n n e s o t a , W i s c o n s i n , and M i c h i g a n - p l u s t h e s t a t e s o f C a l i f o r n i a , M o n t a n a , N e b r a s k a , N o r t h D a k o t a , O h i o , C o l o r a d o , I d a h o , I n d i a n a , I o w a , K a n s a s , K e n t u c k y , O r e g o n , S o u t h D a k o t a , U t a h , W a s h i n g t o n , West V i r g i n i a , and Wyoming. The phenomena l i n c r e a s e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and t r a d e e x p a n s i o n i n c e n t r a l Canada and m i d w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s as a r e s p o n s e t o t h e n e e d s o f W o r l d War I, h a d c a u s e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r a i n on A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n r a i l r o a d s , w h i c h t h e r e t u r n t o peace h a d n o t e a s e d i m m e d i a t e l y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p o s t - w a r e c o n o m i c boom h a d f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d t h e a l r e a d y i n c r e a s e d demands f o r power i n b o t h n a t i o n s . T o g e t h e r , t h e s e s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e demand f o r a comb ined seaway and power p r o j e c t i n o t h e r s t a t e s b e s i d e s t h o s e o f t h e M i d w e s t . P e t i t i o n s and m e m o r i a l s f rom t h e l e g i s l a t u r e s o f t he s t a t e s - 17 -e n r o l l e d i n t h e G r e a t L a k e s T i d e w a t e r A s s o c i a t i o n and f r o m v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s u r g i n g c o o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e d e l u g e d r 30 C o n g r e s s . B o t h c o u n t r i e s we re a n x i o u s t o d e v e l o p t h e h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power p o t e n t i a l o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r s y s t e m and r e a l i z e d t h a t a comb ined power and n a v i g a t i o n p r o g r a m p r o m i s e d t o c u t t h e s e p a r a t e c o s t o f e a c h p r o j e c t . Thus i t was t h a t f r o m 1919 o n , s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t and e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s we re c o n d u c t e d by a g e n c i e s o f t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s as w e l l as by p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t . I n 1 9 2 1 , a f t e r an e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n and t h e J o i n t B o a r d o f E n g i n e e r s s u b m i t t e d r e p o r t s recommend ing t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada c o o p e r a t e i n d e v e l o p i n g a d e e p - w a t e r n a v i g a t i o n 31 r o u t e a l o n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e . H o w e v e r , t h e new L i b e r a l gove rnmen t o f P r i m e M i n i s t e r M a c k e n z i e K i n g was r e l u c t a n t and s e n t a c a u t i o u s r e p l y t o an A m e r i c a n p r o p o s a l f o r t h e o p e n i n g o f n e g o t i a t i o n s t o w a r d a t r e a t y . W i t h o n l y 117 o f t h e 235 s e a t s i n t h e C a n a d i a n House o f Commons, P r i m e M i n i s t e r K i n g c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o l o s e t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e s i x t y - f i v e L i b e r a l members f r o m Q u e b e c , a l m o s t a l l o f whom f e l t t h a t t h e seaway w o u l d t h r e a t e n t h e i r p r o v i n c e . The S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t a l s o met w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f l o n g s m o l d e r i n g o p p o s i t i o n w h i c h f i n a l l y f l a r e d up t o c o u n t e r t he new e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e wa te rway i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S t i l l , P r e s i d e n t C o o l i d g e a p p o i n t e d a U n i t e d S t a t e s S t . L a w r e n c e C o m m i s s i o n headed by t h e S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce, H e r b e r t H o o v e r , t o make a s t u d y f o r h i m . W i t h C a n a d a ' s ag reement t o p a r t i c i -p a t e he s e l e c t e d t h e A m e r i c a n members t o a J o i n t B o a r d o f E n g i n e e r s i n 1924 . - 18 -B o t h g r o u p s s u b m i t t e d f a v o r a b l e r e p o r t s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s s t r e s s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e w a t e r w a y as a r e l i e f t o t h e m i d c o n t i n e n t r e g i o n f r o m h i g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and f rom t h e a d v e r s e c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e Panama C a n a l had p l a c e d t h i s a r e a . 3 3 i n J a n u a r y 1 9 2 8 , t h e N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y Commi t tee s u b m i t t e d i t s r e p o r t t o t h e C a n a d i a n P r i m e M i n i s t e r s t a t i n g t h a t t h e p r o j e c t was f e a s i b l e . H o w e v e r , i t c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o a f a c t o b s e r v e d by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t o f 1921 t h a t The b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d f r o m t h e o p e n i n g o f a w a t e r r o u t e t o t h e s e a w i l l . . . a c c r u e i n much l a r g e r m e a s u r e t o A m e r i c a n r a t h e r t h a n C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t s , t h o u g h i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t e v e n t u a l l y t h e a d v a n t a g e may be more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d . 3 5 A l t h o u g h t h e D o m i n i o n gove rnmen t s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d them a b i t p r e m a t u r e , i t bowed t o A m e r i c a n p r e s s u r e s and r e l u c t a n t l y e n t e r e d i n t o e x t e n s i v e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The G r e a t L a k e s -S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway T r e a t y w h i c h c a l l e d f o r a c o m b i n e d s e a w a y - p o w e r p r o j e c t was f i n a l l y s i g n e d i n 1 9 3 2 . The t r e a t y was t a k e n up i n t h e 37 S e n a t e on J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1 9 3 4 , and d e b a t e d i n t e r m i t t e n t l y f o r two m o n t h s . A l t h o u g h t h e Commi t t ee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s had r e p o r t e d t h e t r e a t y f a v o r a b l y t o t h e S e n a t e , t h e u p p e r h o u s e f a i l e d t o g i v e i t t h e n e c e s s a r y t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y needed f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n . T w e n t y - t w o o f t h e f i f t y - o n e D e m o c r a t i c s e n a t o r s d a r e d t o o p p o s e t h e measu re s p o n s o r e d by F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O n l y f o u r t e e n o f t h e t h i r t y - f i v e R e p u b l i c a n s s u p p o r t e d r a t i f i c a t i o n . U n q u e s t i o n a b l y , t h e m a j o r r e a s o n f o r t h e t r e a t y ' s r e j e c t i o n was t h e b e l i e f o f many s e n a t o r s t h a t t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d r e s u l t i n h a r d s h i p s - 19 -t o t h e p e o p l e and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r s t a t e o r r e g i o n . T h u s , f e a r t h a t t h e w a t e r w a y w o u l d d i v e r t t r a f f i c f rom r a i l w a y s and p o r t s o f t h e E a s t r e s u l t e d i n t w e n t y - f i v e n e g a t i v e v o t e s f r om s t a t e s b o r d e r i n g on t he A t l a n t i c s e a b o a r d . S i m i l a r l y , f e a r t h a t t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d i n j u r e t h e c o a l - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e s was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e n a t o r s f rom West V i r g i n i a and P e n n s y l v a n i a ; w h i l e t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway w o u l d h a n d i c a p t h e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e L a k e s - t o - G u l f o f M e x i c o w a t e r w a y a p p e a r s t o h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e s e n a t o r s f r o m I l l i n o i s , M i s s o u r i , and L o u i s i a n a as w e l l as some f r o m o t h e r M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y s t a t e s . I n h i s p o s t - m o r t e m , P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t a g r e e d t h a t t h e o b s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t r e a t y was. due t o " f e a r s o f e c o n o m i c harm t o s p e c i a l l o c a l i t i e s o r t o s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . " ^ 9 Bu t t h e f a c t t h a t more t h a n one t h i r d o f t h e D e m o c r a t i c members d a r e d t o o p p o s e a m e a s u r e w h i c h he a d v o c a t e d w a s , no d o u b t , p a r t i a l l y due t o h i s f a i l u r e t o c o n v i n c e them t h a t t h e p r o j e c t was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f h i s p r o g r a m . E v i d e n t l y a f r a i d t h a t more p r e s s i n g m e a s u r e s l i k e t h e r e c i p r o c a l t a r i f f b i l l w o u l d s u f f e r i f he p u s h e d t o o h a r d f o r t h e Seaway , R o o s e v e l t had n o t made t h e t r e a t y v o t e a t e s t o f l o y a l t y t o h i m s e l f . ^ The day b e f o r e t h e v o t e t h e New Y o r k T imes r e p o r t e d t h a t p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e P r e s i d e n t had n o t b e e n f o r t h -coming and t h a t t h e t r e a t y p r o p o n e n t s e x p e c t e d d e f e a t . ^ U n d e t e r r e d by t h e r e b u f f , P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t c o n t i n u e d n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h Canada and e a r l y i n 1 9 3 6 , he announced a new a p p r o a c h t o C a n a d i a n - A m e r i c a n c o o p e r a t i o n . " T o e x p e d i t e a c t i o n , " he s t a t e d i t i s n e c e s s a r y and d e s i r a b l e t o a d a p t e x i s t i n g p l a n s f o r t h e improvemen t o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e B a s i n t o t h e m u t u a l i n t e r e s t s and r e s p e c t i v e needs o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s . T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e d i f we a r e t o s e c u r e p rompt r a t i f i c a t i o n by b o t h n a t i o n s . ^ - 20 -I n 1941 he t r i e d t o g e t the seaway a p p r o v e d by means o f a c o n t r o v e r s i a l e x e c u t i v e a g r e e m e n t ^ w h i c h w o u l d r e q u i r e t h e a p p r o v a l o f a s i m p l e m a j o r i t y o f b o t h h o u s e s o f C o n g r e s s . The b i l l t o a p p r o v e t h e M a r c h 1 9 , 1 9 4 1 , G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e Agreement was f a v o r a b l y r e p o r t e d by t h e Commi t tee on R i v e r s and H a r b o r s i n N o v e m b e r , b u t a n o t h e r wa r i n t e r f e r e d and t h e s c a r c i t i e s o f r e s o u r c e s and l a b o r w h i c h i t c a u s e d , p r e v e n t e d f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e seaway p r o p o s a l . A f t e r t h e w a r , P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t ' s p l a n was c o n s i d e r e d as a p o s t - w a r p u b l i c w o r k s p r o j e c t a imed a t e a s i n g t h e s h o c k o f t r a n s i t i o n b a c k t o a p e a c e t i m e economy, b u t f o r a number o f y e a r s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e p r o p o s a l s i n C o n g r e s s c o n s i s t e d o f a n e v e r - e n d i n g s e r i e s o f h e a r i n g s , r e p o r t s , d e l a y s , and d e f e a t s . S t i l l , t h e demand f o r w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v i a t h e S t . L a w r e n c e c o n t i n u e d t o i n c r e a s e . And t h e need f o r more e l e c t r i c power became so d e s p e r a t e t h a t a f t e r a n o t h e r seaway d e f e a t i n 1 9 4 8 , New Y o r k and O n t a r i o h o p e d t o d i v o r c e t h e power p r o j e c t f rom t h e seaway i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o d e v e l o p t h e S t . L a w r e n c e power as s o o n as 44 p o s s i b l e and t h u s a l l e v i a t e t h e a c u t e p o s t - w a r power s h o r t a g e . I n e v e r y s e s s i o n o f C o n g r e s s f o r t e n y e a r s , f r o m 1944 t o 1 9 5 4 , a t l e a s t one new seaway b i l l i n s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d fo rm i n s i s t i n g on an e a r l y c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e comb ined p r o j e c t as o u t l i n e d by t h e 1941 A g r e e m e n t , was i n t r o d u c e d . N o n e , h o w e v e r , was a d o p t e d u n t i l t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l won a p p r o v a l o f b o t h h o u s e s o f C o n g r e s s i n 1 9 5 4 . - 21 -I I . N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t and N a t i o n a l S e a w a y s . The h i s t o r y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e s y s t e m i s one i n w h i c h t h e i n i t i a t i v e changed hands f r o m one s i d e o f t h e f o r t y - n i n t h p a r a l l e l t o t h e o t h e r , d e p e n d i n g on w h i c h c o u n t r y c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r o j e c t i n i t s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a t a g i v e n t i m e . N a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , w h i c h some t imes e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n t h e e x t r e m e f o r m o f n a t i o n a l i s m , has a l w a y s p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e s t o r y o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e . I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s i t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l " a l l - C a n a d i a n " and " a l l - A m e r i c a n " wa te rway p o l i c i e s f o l l o w e d by t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s . I t was b e c a u s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway was n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h a t f i r s t t h e C a n a d i a n s and t h e n t h e A m e r i c a n s h e s i t a t e d t o make t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n t o become i n v o l v e d i n s u c h a p r o j e c t . I t was i n t h e name o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h a t t h e seaway was a d v o c a t e d by some and b l o c k e d by o t h e r s . B e c a u s e o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h e C a n a d i a n s , ou t o f d e s p e r a t i o n a t t h e many l o n g y e a r s o f A m e r i c a n d e l a y , r e s o r t e d t o t h e o l d i d e a o f an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " s e a w a y , t h e t h r e a t o f w h i c h f i n a l l y p r e s s u r e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t o j o i n i n g w i t h Canada i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway p r o j e c t . And i t was b e c a u s e o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h a t t h e y d i d s o . Bu t b e f o r e e x a m i n i n g how n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t c o n c e r n i n g t h e seaway w o r k e d f o r Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d how i t a f f e c t e d t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway i n t h e p a s t . - 22 -A . N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t and t he A l l - C a n a d i a n Seaway . The n o t i o n o f an a l l - C a n a d i a n wa te rway was n o t a new one when t h e e x a s p e r a t e d C a n a d i a n s r e s o r t e d t o i t i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s . N a t i o n a l i s t s had g i v e n b i r t h t o t h e i d e a more t h a n a c e n t u r y b e f o r e . I n f a c t , t h e v e r y c o n c e p t i o n o f a S t . L a w r e n c e c a n a l s y s t e m had i t s o r i g i n s i n C a n a d i a n f e a r s o f c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m i m p r o v e m e n t s w h i c h we re b e i n g made t o t h e Mohawk-Hudson r o u t e s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r . ^ " I f t h a t g r e a t . . . u n d e r t a k i n g s h o u l d s u c c e e d , " wa rned t h e Quebec G a z e t t e s o l e m n l y i n 1 8 1 1 , w i t h o u t c o r r e s p o n d i n g e x e r t i o n s on o u r p a r t , t h e p r o s p e c t s o f p r o s p e r i t y and g r a n d e u r t r a c e d ou t by n a t u r e f o r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e n a v i g a b l e p a r t s o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e w i l l v a n i s h , p e r h a p s f o r e v e r . ^ F o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e E r i e C a n a l , C a n a d i a n m e r c h a n t s , f u l l o f b i t t e r c o m p l a i n t s and u n f a v o r a b l e c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a c c o m o d a t i o n s r o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e w i t h t h o s e p r o v i d e d by t h e i m p r o v e d A m e r i c a n r o u t e , s t r o v e t o r e s t o r e what t h e C a n a d i a n h i s t o r i a n , D o n a l d C r e i g h t o n , has d e s c r i b e d as t h e " c o m m e r c i a l e m p i r e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e ."3 The t h r e a t w h i c h t h e E r i e C a n a l p o s e d was t h e p r i n c i p l e argument t h e y u s e d t o s o l i c i t f u n d s f o r C a n a d i a n c a n a l s on t h e S t . L a w r e n c e r o u t e . One C a n a d i a n n a t i o n -a l i s t s a i d To a l l e v i a t e t h e many i m p e n d i n g e v i l s , w h i c h e v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t m ind must e a s i l y s e e a r e abou t t o r i s e b o t h t o t h e r e v e n u e and t o t h e c o u n t r y , i t becomes o u r d u t y and s h o u l d be o u r s o l e a i m t o e n d e a v o r t o d raw t h e w h o l e t r a d e f r om t h e W e s t e r n D i s t r i c t and keep i t w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s , by means o f c a n a l s and o t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t s . ^ The b u i l d i n g o f t h e W e l l a n d C a n a l and l a t e r n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e S t . L a w r e n c e wa te rway we re a l s o i n i t i a t e d as an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " r e p l y t o the s u c c e s s o f t h e r i v a l A m e r i c a n r o u t e and i n - 23 -c o m p e t i t i o n V7ith i t f o r t h e e a s t - w e s t N o r t h A m e r i c a n commerce w h i c h t h e A m e r i c a n r o u t e had u s u r p e d f r o m the C a n a d i a n s . ^ I n 1 8 6 4 , an a l l - C a n a d i a n w a t e r w a y f r om G e o r g i a n Bay t o M o n t r e a l v i a t h e o l d f u r - t r a d e r o u t e o f t he O t t a w a and F r e n c h R i v e r s and L a k e N i p i s s i n g was u r g e d by many d e l e g a t e s t o t h e Quebec C o n f e r e n c e as a more p r e s s i n g n e e d t h a n i m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e " p a r t l y A m e r i c a n " S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r r o u t e . ^ E v e n a f t e r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada had t a k e n t h e f i r s t s t e p s t o w a r d c o o p e r a t i o n on t h e S t . L a w r e n c e r o u t e , l e a d i n g members o f t h e C a n a d i a n government i n d i c a t e d a " s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o j e c t s t o l e s s e n C a n a d i a n dependence on r o u t e s l y i n g p a r t l y i n A m e r i c a n t e r r i t o r y } n a m e l y , t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r s y s t e m . Thus i n 1901 S i r C l i f f o r d S i f t o n bemoaned t h e f a c t t h a t n o t h i n g had b e e n done d u r i n g h i s s i x y e a r s as M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r t o d e v e l o p a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m t h a t w o u l d e n a b l e t h e p r o d u c t s o f w e s t e r n a g r i c u l t u r i s t s t o be c a r r i e d t o t h e s e a b o a r d t h r o u g h e x c l u s i v e l y C a n a d i a n c h a n n e l s . ^ L a u r i e r h i m s e l f was c o n v i n c e d t h a t " t h e b e s t and most e f f e c t i v e way t o m a i n t a i n f r i e n d s h i p w i t h o u r A m e r i c a n n e i g h b o r s i s t o be a b s o l u t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e m . " ^ He c o m m i t t e d h i s government t o a s e c o n d c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y w i t h s e a b o a r d s on b o t h c o a s t s , as a n o t h e r " a l l - C a n a d i a n " t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e w h i c h was i m p e r a t i v e as a " n a t i o n a l as w e l l as c o m m e r c i a l n e c e s s i t y . " - ^ E v e n members o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y u r g e d i m p r o v e m e n t s t o C a n a d i a n l a n d and w a t e r r o u t e s i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p C a n a d i a n t r a d e and p r e v e n t i t s d i v e r s i o n t o A m e r i c a n r o u t e s . When, t h e r e f o r e , t h e A m e r i c a n s f i r s t s e r i o u s l y a p p r o a c h e d Canada on t he j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t he S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r a f t e r W o r l d War I, i t was o n l y n a t u r a l f o r P r i m e M i n i s t e r K i n g ' s gove rnmen t t o shy away and p o s t p o n e a c t i o n on t he o f f e r f o r r e a s o n s o f 12 n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . - 24 -D u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s and e a r l y 1 9 3 0 ' s t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f o p p o s i t i o n i n Canada t o t he j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e 1 3 W a t e r w a y . The f o r c e o f t h i s o p p o s i t i o n was made even g r e a t e r by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o w e r f u l c o u n t e r v a i l i n g p r e s s u r e i n f a v o r o f a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t w i t h t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . ^ N a t i o n a l i s m m i x e d w i t h f e a r o f t h e l o s s o f t h e n a t i o n ' s s o v e r e i g n t y p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n C a n a d i a n o p p o s i t i o n t o j o i n t c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o a rgumen ts b a s e d on d e f e n s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ^ p a t r i o t i c n a t i o n a l i s t s s t r e s s e d t h e i r f e a r t h a t by j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t , c o n t r o l , and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada m i g h t e v e n t u a l l y l o s e a p a r t o f , i f n o t a l l o f h e r s o v e r e i g n t y as an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n . " I f t h e p r e s e n t t e n d e n c y o f some members c o n t i n u e s , " w a r n e d P a u l M e r c i e r o f W e s t m o u n t - S t . H e n r i d u r i n g one o f t h e d e b a t e s i n t h e House o f Commons, "we s h a l l l i k e l y s e e i n t h e f u t u r e , t he U n i t e d S t a t e s f l a g f l y i n g o v e r t h e c h a n n e l s b e t w e e n M o n t r e a l and L a k e S u p e r i o r . " - ' - ' ' I t was C a n a d a ' s d u t y t o s e e t h a t t h i s d i d n o t h a p p e n . F o r r e a s o n s o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , t h e n , many a r d e n t n a t i o n a l i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t w o u l d be f a r b e t t e r f o r a w a t e r w a y , s u c h as t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r G e o r g i a n Bay r o u t e , t o be b u i l t and c o n t r o l l e d b y C a n a d i a n s , e n t i r e l y t h r o u g h C a n a d i a n t e r r i t o r y , and d e v e l o p e d f o r t he b e n e f i t o f C a n a d i a n s . E x p r e s s i n g t h e f e a r s and m i s g i v i n g s o f many r e s i d e n t s n o r t h o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e a t t h e t i m e , R e v . F . G . S c o t t , t h e h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d f o r m e r c h a p l a i n o f t h e C a n a d i a n f o r c e s i n F r a n c e , d e c l a r e d t h a t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e t h e S t . L a w r e n c e w a t e r w a y w o u l d be t h e e q u i v a l e n t t o m o v i n g the U n i t e d S t a t e s b o u n d a r y l i n e n o r t h t o the S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r , and Canada m i g h t f i n d h e r s e l f i n a h o p e l e s s n a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n a t any t i m e . The S t . L a w r e n c e i s a g r e a t C a n a d i a n a s s e t ; i t i s a l s o an I m p e r i a l a s s e t , and must be w h o l l y unde r ( C a n a d i a n ) c o n t r o l . . . Our - 25 -g r e a t r i v e r must be o u r s and o u r s a l o n e . C a n a d i a n s must f a c e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e j o i n t s t o c k management o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e w o u l d be t h e f i r s t s t e p o f a n n e x a t i o n . ! ^ " N e v e r f o r g e t , " t h e H o n o r a b l e S e n a t o r W a l t e r M i t c h e l l o f W e l l i n g t o n , r e m i n d e d h i s " f e l l o w c o u n t r y m e n t a t a b a n q u e t t h a t t h i s g r e a t w a t e r w a y i s t h e j u g u l a r v e i n o f Canada and must r e m a i n u n d e r t h e f u l l and c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o f t he C a n a d i a n p e o p l e . 1 9 T h e s e s e n t i m e n t s w e r e echoed i n t h e House o f Commons' chamber r e p e a t e d l y . One F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n Member o f P a r l i a m e n t , J o s e p h A r c h a m b a u l t , r e p r e s e n t i n g Chambly and V e r c h e r e s , w a r n e d h i s c o l l e a g u e s t h a t We must p r o t e c t ou r S t . L a w r e n c e . . . we must s a f e g u a r d i t as a s a c r e d t r u s t b e q u e a t h e d by o u r a n c e s t o r s , and r e s i s t w i t h a l l o u r s t r e n g t h t h a t i t may n o t become an i n t e r -n a t i o n a l r i v e r . The p r o p a g a n d a emana ted f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t i s n o t a s t o n i s h i n g t h a t t h e y l a r g e l y c o v e t t h e most i m p o r t a n t and b e a u t i f u l a s s e t o f o u r c o u n t r y . ^ u E v e n as l a t e as 1 9 2 7 , t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s had an " a l l -C a n a d i a n " seaway p l a n k i n t h e i r p l a t f o r m . The r e s o l u t i o n s t a t e d t h a t Whereas t h e improvement o f t h e W e l l a n d C a n a l s y s t e m by t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e i s n e a r i n g c o m p l e t i o n , t h i s c o n v e n t i o n i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e S t . L a w r e n c e c a n a l s y s t e m as an a l l - C a n a d i a n p r o j e c t s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d i n t he n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , as and when c o n d i t i o n s w a r r a n t . ^ 1 And i n 1932 t h e Quebec A s s e m b l y v o t e d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y i n s u p p o r t o f P r e m i e r T a s c h e r e a u ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e j o i n t p r o j e c t . I n s t e a d o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l w a t e r w a y , i t s r e s o l u t i o n a r g u e d , i t w o u l d be " p r e f e r a b l e t o i m p r o v e t h a t w h i c h i s p u r e l y C a n a d i a n . " I n t h i s p e r i o d Canada was i n an e x c e l l e n t p o s i t i o n t o use t h e t h r e a t o f an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " w a t e r w a y as a b a r g a i n i n g t o o l , f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s government was mos t a n x i o u s t o p r o c e e d w i t h a j o i n t A m e r i c a n -C a n a d i a n d e v e l o p m e n t o f a S t . L a w r e n c e seaway and power p r o j e c t . S i n c e , - 26 -h o w e v e r , f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e d n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , t h e D o m i n i o n was r e l u c t a n t t o e n t e r i n t o any s u c h ag reemen t w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t a l l o w e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a s s . N o t u n t i l 1952 w o u l d t h e C a n a d i a n s u s e s u c h a t h r e a t . The A m e r i c a n s , h o w e v e r , s p u r r e d on by n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , moved much e a r l i e r . - 27 -B . N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t and t h e A i l - A m e r i c a n Seaway . Up u n t i l t h e w a n i n g y e a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t was n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o h e l p d e v e l o p t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r . By t h e t r e a t y o f 1783 w h i c h ended t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , A m e r i c a n s c o u l d n a v i g a t e t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e n o t by " n a t u r a l r i g h t , " b u t o n l y as a p r i v i l e g e g r a n t e d by t he C a n a d i a n s . T h i s p e r m i s s i o n c o u l d be r e v o k e d a t any t i m e . So i n t h e d e c a d e s f o l l o w i n g t h i s s e t t l e m e n t t h e S t . L a w r e n c e was o f no s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S i n c e r e l a t i o n s be tween t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n r e m a i n e d p o o r and a l l q u e s t i o n s o f an e c o n o m i c o r p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e we re v i e w e d l a r g e l y i n t e rms o f d e f e n s e o r m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y , A m e r i c a n l e a d e r s p r e f e r r e d t o c h a n n e l a l l i m p o r t s and e x p o r t s a c r o s s A m e r i c a n t e r r i t o r y f o r r e a s o n s o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , as l o n g as wa r w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n was s t i l l a p o s s i b i l i t y t h e r e w e r e d e f i n i t e d e f e n s e a d v a n t a g e s f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n l e a v i n g t h e w a t e r w a y u n i m p r o v e d , t h u s p r e v e n t i n g B r i t i s h w a r s h i p s e a s y a c c e s s t o t h e G r e a t L a k e s . F o r many y e a r s , t h e A m e r i c a n s r e m a i n e d p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " a l l - A m e r i c a n " w a t e r r o u t e s , s u c h as t h e E r i e C a n a l o r t h e I l l i n o i s - M i c h i g a n C a n a l w h i c h when c o m p l e t e d i n 1 8 4 8 , c o n n e c t e d t h e G r e a t L a k e s w i t h t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r . J o i n i n g i n t h e improvement o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e wa te rway had n o t s e r i o u s l y e n t e r e d t h e m i n d s o f most A m e r i c a n s . I n d e e d , any i m p r o v e m e n t s made on t h e S t . L a w r e n c e r o u t e we re v i e w e d by A m e r i c a n s w i t h c o n c e r n and even a l a r m . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e o r i g i n a l a g i t a t i o n f o r t h e E r i e C a n a l had f i x e d t h e t r a d i t i o n t h a t A m e r i c a n s s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o keep c o n t r o l o f the t r a d e f r om the G r e a t L a k e s a r e a . The c a n a l - 28 -had d o m i n a t e d t h i s c o n t i n e n t a l e a s t - w e s t t r a d e s i n c e i t was c o m p l e t e d i n 1825 and any e x t e n s i v e use o f an i m p r o v e d S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r w o u l d c a u s e s e r i o u s damage t o t h e Mohawk-Hudson r o u t e and s e r i o u s m o n e t a r y l o s s e s t o t h o s e who depended on i t f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , any t h o u g h t s o f i m p r o v i n g t h e f l o w o f t h i s e a s t - w e s t t r a d e were i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on i m p r o v i n g t h e E r i e C a n a l r o u t e . C a n a l s and l o c k s i n t h e G r e a t L a k e s w e r e a l s o b u i l t u n i l a t e r a l l y by A m e r i c a n s f o r s i m i l a r r e a s o n o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . E v e n a f t e r t h e T r e a t y o f W a s h i n g t o n g u a r a n t e e d t h a t " T h e n a v i g a t i o n o f t h e r i v e r S t . L a w r e n c e . . . s h a l l f o r e v e r r e m a i n f r e e and open f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f commerce t o t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " ^ ^ and A m e r i c a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e g rew a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h e r e r e m a i n e d a s t r o n g c o n t i n g e n t o f Cong ressmen and p r o m i n e n t p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s s u c h as Cong ressman W a l l a c e Dempsey , c h a i r m a n o f t h e House Commi t t ee on R i v e r s and H a r b o r s , and G o v e r n o r . A l f r e d E . S m i t h o f New Y o r k , who f a v o r e d an " a l l - A m e r i c a n " r o u t e o v e r t h e j o i n t A m e r i c a n - C a n a d i a n S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t . Many made t h e i r a p p e a l s w i t h v i g o r o u s " f l a g - w a v i n g " n a t i o n a l i s t i c and p a t r i o t i c a r g u m e n t s . " T h i s i s s u p p o s e d t o b e , " s a i d Cong ressman S t e v e n s o n o f S o u t h C a r o l i n a i n 1 9 2 1 , " a n e r a o f A m e r i c a n i s m , w i t h A m e r i c a f o r A m e r i c a n s , an e r a i n w h i c h we a r e s u p p o s e d t o h a v e an a v o i d a n c e o f e n t a n g l e m e n t s e l s e w h e r e t h a n i n A m e r i c a , and f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r y . F o r t h e s e n a t i o n a l i s t s , A m e r i c a n p o l i c y " s h o u l d be A m e r i c a n money f o r A m e r i c a n w a t e r w a y s w i t h i n t h e 25 ' t e r r i t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . and unde r U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n t r o l . " They a r g u e d t h a t e v e r y c o u n t r y s h o u l d h a v e a b s o l u t e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s f o r t h e s a k e o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . ^ 6 i t w o u l d be - 29 -n a t i o n a l f o l l y f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o have s u c h an i m p o r t a n t wa te rway r u n n i n g a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y t h r o u g h C a n a d i a n t e r r i t o r y f o r o v e r 1 ,000 7 7 m i l e s . J o i n t o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l o f s u c h an i m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t w o u l d n o t be c o n d u c i v e t o t h e c o n t i n u i n g o f h a r m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n s . They b e l i e v e d t h a t i f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s we re t o d e v e l o p t h e S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y , i t s h o u l d own and c o n t r o l t h e s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d , as was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e Panama C a n a l . I n t h e 1921 S e n a t e d e b a t e s on t h e m a t t e r , S e n a t o r C a l d e r o f New Y o r k t y p i f i e d t h i s k i n d o f t h i n k i n g when he a r g u e d : The f l a g h a s f o l l o w e d o u r i n v e s t m e n t s . Somehow I f e e l t h a t when we f i n a n c e a scheme we s h o u l d a l s o c o n t r o l i t a b s o l u t e l y . . . I b e l i e v e I am e c h o i n g t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f e v e r y p a t r i o t i c c i t i z e n when I s a y t h a t whe re we b u i l d w i t h t h e N a t i o n ' s f u n d s , t h e r e o u r f l a g s h o u l d f l o a t as a s y m b o l and t o k e n no t o n l y o f o u r o w n e r s h i p b u t o f o u r c o n t r o l . 2 8 I n s t e a d o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Deep W a t e r w a y , t h e s e n a t i o n -a l i s t s p r o p o s e d s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t e " a l l - A m e r i c a n " w a t e r w a y s , t he two mos t i m p o r t a n t b e i n g t h e Oswego-Hudson R i v e r r o u t e f r o m t h e G r e a t L a k e s , t h r o u g h New Y o r k t o t h e A t l a n t i c O c e a n , 3 0 and t h e G r e a t L a k e s - t o - G u l f 31 o f M e x i c o r o u t e by way o f t h e I l l i n o i s and M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r s . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e n a t i o n a l i s t s was s t r o n g enough i n t h e C o n g r e s s t h a t t h e R i v e r s and H a r b o r s A c t o f M a r c h 1 9 1 9 , w h i c h r e q u e s t e d t h e r e f e r e n c e o f t h e p r o p o s e d improvemen t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n , a l s o d i r e c t e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Army E n g i n e e r s t o r e p o r t on s u c h A m e r i c a n w a t e r r o u t e s f rom t h e G r e a t L a k e s t o t h e Ocean as m i g h t be 32 s u i t a b l e f o r o c e a n g o i n g v e s s e l s . I n t h e same y e a r C o n g r e s s m a n Reed o f New Y o r k i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l t o c r e a t e a s h i p c a n a l by way o f t h e Mohawk and Hudson R i v e r s . i n M a r c h 1925 t h e f r i e n d s o f t h e " a l l - A m e r i c a n " r o u t e were s t i l l p o w e r f u l enough t o p e r s u a d e C o n g r e s s t o a p p r o p r i a t e money t o - 30 -c a r r y o u t a s t u d y by a b o a r d o f e n g i n e e r s o f a deep w a t e r w a y f r om t h e G r e a t L a k e s t o t h e Hudson R i v e r e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e p o r t o f t h e Army E n g i n e e r s was u n f a v o r a b l e . 4 The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e N a v y , C u r t i s D. W i l b u r , and S e c r e t a r y o f W a r , D w i g h t D. D a v i s , b o l s t e r e d t h e s a g g i n g e f f o r t f o r an " a l l - A m e r i c a n " w a t e r r o u t e a y e a r l a t e r when t h e y e m p h a s i z e d t h a t f rom t h e d e f e n s e s t a n d p o i n t i t was e s s e n t i a l t h a t w a t e r w a y s c o n n e c t i n g t h e G r e a t L a k e s w i t h t he A t l a n t i c be e n t i r e l y w i t h i n A m e r i c a n t e r r i t o r y . "I am o f t h e o p i n i o n , " w r o t e t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Navy t o R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Dempsey o f New Y o r k , t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d " a l l - A m e r i c a n d e e p e r w a t e r w a y " c o n n e c t i n g t h e Hudson R i v e r w i t h t h e G r e a t L a k e s , w o u l d be a v e r y i m p o r t a n t a d d i t i o n t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m o f t h e c o u n t r y and w o u l d b e , t h e r e f o r e , an i m p o r t a n t a s s e t f o r n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . 3 6 E v e n t h o u g h s u c h men as Congressman W a l l a c e Dempsey and G o v e r n o r A l f r e d E . S m i t h c o n t i n u e d t o c a m p a i g n v i g o r o u s l y f o r an " a l l -oy A m e r i c a n " w a t e r w a y , W o r l d War I had f o c u s s e d A m e r i c a n a t t e n t i o n on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway f o r power as w e l l as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The U n i t e d S t a t e s gove rnmen t t r i e d h a r d t o i n t e r e s t Canada i n t h e j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e comb ined p r o j e c t . The C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t , h o w e v e r , was r e l u c t a n t . A m e r i c a n r e q u e s t s and o f f e r s , t h o u g h n e v e r o u t r i g h t l y r e j e c t e d , we re c o n t i n u a l l y a n s w e r e d w i t h n o n - c o m m i t t a l r e p l i e s o r w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t w o u l d f u r t h e r d e l a y n e g o t i a t i o n s . I n answer t o s u c h a r e q u e s t i n 1 9 2 2 , t h e C a n a d i a n gove rnmen t gave an u n e n t h u s i a s t i c r e p l y s t a t i n g t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n c a b i n e t had n o t been a b l e t o g i v e t h e comb ined p r o j e c t s t h e " c a r e f u l c o n s i d -e r a t i o n w h i c h t h e i r m a g n i t u d e m e r i t s " M o r e o v e r , " h a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e p r o j e c t and t h e l a r g e o u t l a y o f p u b l i c money i n v o l v e d , " t h e y w e r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i t was n o t " e x p e d i e n t t o d e a l w i t h t h i s m a t t e r a t - 3 1 -t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . ' Y e a r s l a t e r when p r e s s e d a g a i n , t h e C a n a d i a n m i n i s t e r i n W a s h i n g t o n a d v i s e d t h e A m e r i c a n a u t h o r i t i e s on J a n u a r y 3 1 , 1928 t h a t h i s gove rnmen t was o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e depended on t h e s u c c e s s f u l s o l u t i o n o f " a number o f f i n a n c i a l and e c o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s " and upon f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c e r t a i n e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s . He a l s o o b s e r v e d " t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n Canada has no t s o c l e a r l y c r y s t a l l i z e d i n f a v o r o f t h e w a t e r w a y as a p p e a r s t o be t h e c a s e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " ^ 9 I t was o f l e s s i m m e d i a t e c o n c e r n t o C a n a d i a n s t h a n t o A m e r i c a n s b e c a u s e a l l s e c t i o n s o f Canada w e r e r e a s o n a b l y w e l l s e r v e d by r a i l w a y s . M a c k e n z i e K i n g r e f u s e d t o be h u r r i e d and on A p r i l 1 1 , 1 9 2 7 , he i n f o r m e d t h e House o f Commons t h a t h i s g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway h a d b e e n t o p r o c e e d " w i t h t he u tmos t c a u t i o n , " a v o i d i n g any a c t i o n t h a t m i g h t " g i v e r i s e t o d o u b t s o r f e a r i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e p e o p l e o f Canada as t o t h e w isdom o f t h e c o u r s e t o be t a k e n . B e c a u s e o f t h i s r e l u c t a n t a t t i t u d e d i s p l a y e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t , t h e i d e a o f an a l l - A m e r i c a n w a t e r w a y i n c r e a s e d i n p o p u l a r i t y i n W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . Many Cong ressmen came t o t h e same c o n c l u s i o n as R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Dempsey , who s a i d , . . . i t i s a m a t t e r o f common k n o w l e d g e t h a t Canada w i l l n o t c o n s e n t now, and t h e r e i s e v e r y r e a s o n t o e x p e c t she w i l l n e v e r c o n s e n t i n t h e f u t u r e t o t h e d e e p e n i n g o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e . So t h e a l l - A m e r i c a n ( r o u t e ) i s n o t a l o n e f a r t h e more u s e f u l r o u t e , b u t i t i s a l s o t h e o n l y r o u t e t h a t can be h a d . ^ l S e n a t o r V a n d e n b e r g o f M i c h i g a n , a s t a u n c h s u p p o r t e r o f i m p r o v i n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e w a t e r r o u t e , e m p h a s i z e d t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s i n a s p e e c h r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o ones made i n t h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t t w e n t y y e a r s - 32 -l a t e r . " I f C a n a d a , " he a s s e r t e d , c l e a r l y becomes i m p o s s i b l e . . . we must t a k e up i n dead e a r n e s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e New Y o r k r o u t e . . . I want u n h i n d e r e d A m e r i c a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u r s u e t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t w i t h Canada . . . b u t ou r needs a r e s u c h t h a t we c a n n o t w a i t f o r t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l ag reement f o r e v e r . ^ O t h e r s , s u c h as R e p r e s e n t a t i v e M a n s f i e l d o f T e x a s , e x p r e s s e d t h e hope t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d p r e s s u r e Canada i n t o a c t i o n by u s i n g t h e t h r e a t o f an " a l l - A m e r i c a n " s e a w a y . A t a k e o v e r o f t h e p r o j e c t by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , he s u g g e s t e d , w o u l d have t h e e f f e c t o f h a s t e n i n g an ag reemen t f o r t h e improvement o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e . . . I f C o n g r e s s p r o v i d e s a w a t e r w a y f r om t h e L a k e s t o t h e Hudson o f e q u a l c a p a c i t y o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e , t h e n ag reemen t w i l l be r e a c h e d . 4 3 The a l l - A m e r i c a n w a t e r w a y movement o f t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s r e c e i v e d i t s m a j o r i m p e t u s f rom a r e p o r t cf t h e Army E n g i n e e r s s u b m i t t e d t o C o n g r e s s i n A p r i l 1 9 3 0 , recommend ing t h a t t h e f e d e r a l gove rnmen t t a k e o v e r t h e New Y o r k B a r g e and Oswego C a n a l s and c o n v e r t them i n t o a n a v i g a b l e deep w a t e r w a y . W i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e i n f a v o r o f an " a l l - A m e r i c a n " r o u t e and t h e use o f v e i l e d t h r e a t s w a r n i n g Canada t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o r e s o r t t o b u i l d i n g one i f t h e C a n a d i a n gove rnmen t c o n t i n u e d t o d e l a y , ^ p r o - s e a w a y f o r c e s hoped t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n s w o u l d f i n a l l y be c o n v i n c e d t o j o i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e p r o j e c t b e f o r e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d be f o r c e d t o t a k e s u c h a c t i o n . They knew t h a t t h e g r o w i n g need f o r a c o m b i n e d power and n a v i g a t i o n p r o j e c t w o u l d s o o n f o r c e t he U n i t e d S t a t e s t o t a k e some a c t i o n i n t h e name o f A m e r i c a n n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t many C a n a d i a n s we re aware o f t h e g r o w i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f an a i l - A m e r i c a n r o u t e and t h e t h r e a t s u c h a r o u t e - 3 3 -w o u l d p r e s e n t t o C a n a d a ' s own n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . C E . D r u r y , a f o r m e r p r e m i e r o f O n t a r i o , warned t h a t an a l l - A m e r i c a n w a t e r w a y m i g h t d i v e r t C a n a d i a n commerce t o New Y o r k and b r i n g abou t " t h e a l m o s t c o m p l e t e e x t i n c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n l a k e m a r i n e . I n F e b r u a r y 1 9 3 1 , A c h i l l e B e r g e r i n , a f o r m e r Member o f P a r l i a m e n t f r om B e a u h a r n o i s , a l s o w a r n e d o f t h e d a n g e r p r e s e n t e d by an i m p r o v e d New Y o r k r o u t e . ^ Bu t o p p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t i n Canada p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t h r e a t . I n t h e 1 9 3 0 s e s s i o n o f P a r l i a m e n t , M r . D e s l a u r i e r s , f r o m t h e r i d i n g o f S t . M a r y , r e m i n d e d t h e o t h e r members t h a t t h e New Y o r k S t a t e B a r g e C a n a l had n o t been a s u c c e s s f u l v e n t u r e and he d i s c o u n t e d any t h r e a t t o Canada f rom an A m e r i c a n w a t e r r o u t e t h r o u g h New Y o r k . ^ O t h e r s w a r n e d o f t h e p i t f a l l s o f j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t he S t . L a w r e n c e . I n an a r t i c l e i n t h e Q u e e n ' s  Q u a r t e r l y , J . A l e x a n d e r A i k e n w a r n e d a g a i n s t s u c h i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment f o r " a p a r t n e r s h i p o f t e n i n c u r s much more t h a n i s w r i t t e n o r i m p l i e d i n t h e d o c u m e n t s . A s a r e s u l t , M a c k e n z i e K i n g c o n t i n u e d t o s t a l l . H o w e v e r , a n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n i n t e r v e n e d and b r o u g h t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s and P r i m e M i n i s t e r R . B . Boc4ea t o p o w e r . The T o r y p l a t f o r m had a c l a u s e e n d o r s i n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway and t h e new p r i m e m i n i s t e r , who was an a d v o c a t e o f t h e p r o j e c t , b e c a m e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r m u l a t i n g t he C a n a d i a n seaway p o l i c y . B e i n g a c o n v i n c e d s u p p o r t e r o f t h e p r o j e c t , he was a u t o m a t i c a l l y more s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e t h r e a t o f an a l l - A m e r i c a n w a t e r w a y t o C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t s . He e x p r e s s e d h i s f e a r s i n P a r l i a m e n t s a y i n g , A l l y o u have t o do i s l o o k a t t h e map and s e e y o u r c o m p l e t e d W e l l a n d C a n a l and y o u r t w e n t y - s e v e n f o o t wa te rway t o A l b a n y , and t h e n y o u know why t h e C a n a d i a n gove rnmen t i s c o n c e r n e d abou t t h e m a t t e r . . . The r e a s o n why t h i s gove rnmen t i s now c a r r y i n g on n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h a t wa te rway . . . t h e d e v e l o p m e n t we h a v e r e a c h e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o u r own c a n a l and t h e c a n a l s y s t e m s o f ou r g r e a t n e i g h b o u r t o t h e - 34 -s o u t h makes i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t now,- and a t no o t h e r t i m e , we s h o u l d c o n s i d e r i t . ^ F o r m a l n e g o t i a t i o n s g o t unde r way i n O c t o b e r 1931 and on J u l y 1 8 , 1932 t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s a f f i x e d t h e i r s i g n a t u r e s t o t h e l o n g - d e l a y e d S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway T r e a t y . B e n n e t t ' s g o v e r n m e n t , h o w e v e r , made no a t t e m p t t o s e c u r e a d e f i n i t e and s p e c i f i c a p p r o v a l o f h i s seaway p o l i c y f r o m P a r l i a m e n t . The House o f Commons was t o l d t h a t t h e gove rnmen t w o u l d n o t s u b m i t i t s p o l i c y f o r P a r l i a m e n t ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n u n t i l t h e t r e a t y had b e e n r a t i f i e d by t h e A m e r i c a n C o n g r e s s . S i n c e i t was d e f e a t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t e , t h e t r e a t y n e v e r was d e b a t e d by t h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t . The P a r l i a m e n t n e v e r g o t a c h a n c e t o v o i c e i t s a p p r o v a l o r d i s a p p r o v a l o f B e n n e t t ' s a c t i o n s . I t w i l l n e v e r be known w h e t h e r t h e P a r l i a m e n t a g r e e d w i t h M r . B e n n e t t ' s v i e w s o f what was i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , w h e t h e r t h e y t oo w e r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e t h r e a t o f an " a l l - A m e r i c a n " w a t e r w a y . I n t h e A m e r i c a n S e n a t e d e b a t e s o v e r t h e t r e a t y b o t h s i d e s f e l t t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . Those i n f a v o r o f r a t i f y i n g t h e t r e a t y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s w h i c h t h e seaway and t h e power p r o j e c t s w o u l d b r i n g w o u l d f a r o u t w e i g h t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s . T h o s e who o p p o s e d t h e comb ined p r o j e c t f e l t t h a t w h a t e v e r b e n e f i t s w o u l d a c c r u e w o u l d n e v e r be a b l e t o c a n c e l t h e damage t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d do t o t h e c o u n t r y . I t seems t h a t a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t i m e a seaway w h i c h w o u l d be u s e d c h i e f l y t o e x p o r t w e s t e r n g r a i n s w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t upbound t r a f f i c was a b i t p r e m a t u r e so t h e S e n a t e handed t h e t r e a t y a d e f e a t . - 35 -I I I . C h a n g i n g V i e w s o f t h e N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t . I n p r e v i o u s y e a r s o p p o n e n t s i n b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada we re a b l e t o u s e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and s e c u r i t y a s e f f e c t i v e a n t i - s e a w a y a r g u m e n t s . H o w e v e r , e v e n t s s temming f r o m t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s i n t h e Second W o r l d War made s u c h a s t a n d a g a i n s t t he j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e d u a l p r o j e c t more and more d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y f rom t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . T h i s t u r n a b o u t o c c u r r e d s o o n e r i n Canada t h a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b u t i t was n o t as d r a m a t i c as t h e showdown w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s b e c a u s e , u n l i k e t h e A m e r i c a n C o n g r e s s , t h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t had n e v e r r e a l l y had a c h a n c e t o c o n t i n u a l l y and c o n s t a n t l y r e j e c t p r o p o s a l s t o i n v o l v e t h e c o u n t r y i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e seaway and power p r o j e c t . A . The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n O u t l o o k . When t h e U n i o n N a t i o n a l e p a r t y swept i n t o power i n Quebec i n 1 9 3 6 , t h e new i n d e p e n d e n t - m i n d e d p r e m i e r , M a u r i c e D u p l e s s i s , d i s p l a y e d h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e seaway by d e c l a r i n g h i m s e l f e n t i r e l y i n ag reement w i t h t h e s t a u n c h a n t i - s e a w a y p o s i t i o n o f O n t a r i o ' s P r e m i e r H e p b u r n who a g a i n e m p h a s i z e d h i s d e f i a n t o p p o s i t i o n when he p u b l i c l y commented i n 1 9 3 8 , T h e r e c a n be no d e v e l o p m e n t o f power on t he S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t s c o n c e r n e d . T h e r e w i l l be no c o n s e n t f rom t h i s gove rnmen t ( O n t a r i o ) . - 36 -H e p b u r n opposed t h e p r o j e c t as an u n n e c e s s a r y f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n on t he c o u n t r y w h i c h w o u l d t h r e a t e n t h e n a t i o n ' s r a i l w a y s y s t e m . D u p l e s s i s a g r e e d t h a t i t was n e i t h e r j u s t i f i a b l e n o r e c o n o m i c a l l y sound and b e l i e v e d t h a t i t w o u l d h u r t t h e t r a n s s h i p m e n t p o r t o f M o n t r e a l as w e l l as t h e r a i l w a y s . Thus t h e two most i m p o r t a n t p r o v i n c e s o f t h e D o m i n i o n w h i c h were a l s o t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t t o t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway had g o v e r n m e n t s s t r o n g l y opposed t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r i v e r . H o w e v e r , t h i s a l l i a n c e o f O n t a r i o and Quebec i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e seaway and power p r o j e c t was t o be s h o r t - l i v e d . The D o m i n i o n ' s e n t r y i n t o W o r l d War I I g r a v e l y weakened t h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t . V i e w i n g t he w a r as an e x c e l l e n t c a m p a i g n i s s u e , P r e m i e r D u p l e s s i s , w i t h two y e a r s r e m a i n i n g i n h i s t e r m o f o f f i c e , r i s k e d h i s o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l y and s u f f e r e d a h u m i l i a t i n g d e f e a t i n a g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n h e l d on O c t o b e r 2 5 , 1 9 3 9 . The n e w l y - e l e c t e d L i b e r a l gove rnmen t o f Quebec was w i l l i n g t o work more h a r m o n i o u s l y w i t h t h e K i n g government i n O t t a w a . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e o u t b r e a k o f h o s t i l i t i e s c a u s e d a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f P r e m i e r H e p b u r n who came t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i f h i s p r o v i n c e we re t o u n d e r g o t h e s t e a d y i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n n e c e s s a r y t o meet C a n a d a ' s war n e e d s , O n t a r i o w o u l d r e q u i r e much more power t h a n was a v a i l a b l e a t t h e t i m e . N o t w i s h i n g t o hamper t h e war e f f o r t w h i c h h i s v e r y p r o - B r i t i s h p r o v i n c e was e n e r g e t i c a l l y s u p p o r t i n g , he a g r e e d t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h t h e f e d e r a l gove rnmen t c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e comb ined seaway and power p r o j e c t . On M a r c h 1 9 , 1 9 4 1 , t h e same day t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n gove rnmen t s i g n e d c o s t - a l l o c a t i o n a c c o r d s w i t h O n t a r i o , Canada s i g n e d an agreement w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f n a v i g a t i o n and power i n the G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e B a s i n . A few months l a t e r t h e K i n g government a l s o r e a c h e d an a c c o r d w i t h t h e Quebec - 37 -g o v e r n m e n t . The way had f i n a l l y been c l e a r e d f o r t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n -ment t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t . The war and p o s t - w a r y e a r s had b r o u g h t abou t a r a d i c a l s h i f t i n o v e r a l l C a n a d i a n o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t . E v e n t h e t h r e e most a r d e n t o p p o n e n t s o f t he s e a w a y , t h e c i t y o f M o n t r e a l and t h e two C a n a d i a n r a i l w a y s y s t e m s had f i n a l l y a r r i v e d a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t what was good f o r C a n a d i a n d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d a l s o be good f o r them and d r o p p e d t h e i r a c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n . I n a s p e e c h d e l i v e r e d b e f o r e t h e W a s h i n g t o n S o c i e t y o f E n g i n e e r s i n W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , on November 2 8 , 1 9 5 1 , C D . Howe, t h e C a n a d i a n M i n i s t e r o f T r a d e and Commerce and a l s o D e f e n s e P r o d u c t i o n , a p t l y s u m m a r i z e d how t h e p h e n o m e n a l l y r a p i d g r o w t h o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r y had c a u s e d an u n p r e c e d e n t e d demand f o r t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power w h i c h t h e S t . L a w r e n c e w o u l d p r o v i d e . ^ S i n c e t h e w a r , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Canada had g i v e n r i s e t o an u n p r e c e d e n t e d demand f o r e l e c t r i c i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n O n t a r i o and Q u e b e c . I n 1950 a l o n e , t h e K o r e a n War had p r o d u c e d an i n c r e a s e d demand f o r power o f more t h a n t w e n t y p e r c e n t j u s t i n O n t a r i o i t s e l f . 5 A c c o r d i n g t o M r . Howe, C a n a d i a n demands f o r h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power w e r e i n c r e a s i n g a t a r a t e t h a t u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n power r e s o u r c e s t h a t w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e a w a y . We i n Canada f e e l t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e seaway and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e power c a n n o t be l o n g e r d e f e r r e d . The S t . L a w r e n c e seaway and a l l t h a t goes w i t h i t i n t e rms o f added h y d r o e l e c t r i c power and i m p r o v e d n a v i g a t i o n h a s become s o m e t h i n g w e , t h e p e o p l e o f C a n a d a , can no l o n g e r a f f o r d t o do w i t h o u t . ^ - 38 -The demand f o r c h e a p e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n had grown w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e r a i l r o a d s c o u l d no l o n g e r cope w i t h t h e r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g commerce o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s r e g i o n . The p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y , b e l i e v e d t h a t an i m p r o v e d S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway w o u l d mean g r e a t l y r e d u c e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s f o r t h e s h i p m e n t o f C a n a d i a n wheat t o E u r o p e . " C a n a d a , " s a i d M r . Howe, now f i n d s t h a t t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t c a n a l s y s t e m a r e h i n d e r i n g t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n economy t o an e x t e n t t h a t i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n seems n e c e s s a r y . . . The p r e s e n t n a v i g a t i o n a l c h a n n e l s a r e no l o n g e r a b l e t o s u p p o r t t h e demands t h a t a r e now b e i n g p l a c e d upon t h e m , and a r e s t i l l l e s s a d e q u a t e t o meet g r o w i n g demands t o h a n d l e new t r a f f i c . . . As I s e e i t , and as I t h i n k t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f C a n a d i a n s s e e i t , f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s -S t . L a w r e n c e n a v i g a t i o n s y s t e m , f a r f r om b e i n g a v i s i o n a r y s c h e m e , i s a s i m p l e n e c e s s i t y . F o r o t h e r C a n a d i a n s , i t meant c h e a p e r i m p o r t e d goods and more c o m p e t i t i v e e x p o r t s o r a way t o s h i p N o v a S c o t i a n c o a l and w e s t e r n o i l t o m a r k e t s i n o c e n t r a l Canada and m i d w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , i t w o u l d make p o s s i b l e t h e p r o f i t a b l e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e n e w l y - d i s c o v e r e d L a b r a d o r - Q u e b e c i r o n o r e d e p o s i t s and t h e i r cheap e x p o r t a t i o n t o s t e e l i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e G r e a t L a k e s r e g i o n , b e n e f i t i n g t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y by h e l p i n g Canada t o overcome h e r d o l l a r d e f i c i t and u n f a v o r a b l e b a l a n c e o f t r a d e w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , by p r o v i d i n g e m p l o y m e n t , and by c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t he o N o r t h A m e r i c a n d e f e n s e . T h i s new f a c t o r h e l p e d t o t u r n Quebec i n t o a seaway a d v o c a t e b e c a u s e i t meant d e v e l o p m e n t o f Q u e b e c ' s n o r t h and gave O n t a r i o an a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n t o b o o s t t he seaway s i n c e C a n a d a ' s s t e e l i n d u s t r i e s we re c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e s o u t h o f t h a t p r o v i n c e d i r e c t l y on t h e seaway r o u t e . C . D . Howe r e v e a l e d t h e way t h e gove rnmen t f e l t abou t t h i s new - 39 -development saying: A new f a c t o r to be considered at t h i s time i s the develop-ment of a great i r o n ore project on the Quebec-Labrador border, which w i l l have i t s outlet to deep water on the Gulf of St. Lawrence . . . Quebec-Labrador i r o n ore i s the best possible answer to the supply problems of s t e e l i n d u s t r i e s located on the Great Lakes . . . which account f o r about 75 or 80 per cent of the s t e e l produced i n the United States . . . I t i s obvious that Canada i s concerned with the best and l a r g e s t markets f o r her i r o n ore . . . i t i s also . . . concerned that the i n t e r i o r s t e e l d i s t r i c t s have access to the best and cheapest sources of ore.10 An a d d i t i o n a l , though somewhat in t a n g i b l e f a c t o r i n the changing a t t i t u d e toward the seaway was the growth of Canadian n a t i o n a l self-confidence and pride due i n a large part to the country's rapid economic development. This new confidence made the Canadian people more eager and w i l l i n g to tackle the task of developing the St. Lawrence Seaway. They saw i t as another way to express t h e i r confidence i n t h e i r own nation as w e l l as another important step i n Canada's n a t i o n a l develop-ment. H This new s e l f - r e l i a n c e was soon to lead the Canadian government in t o d e l i v e r i n g an ultimatum to t h e i r southern neighbor to j o i n i n the construction of the j o i n t project or watch Canada do i t on her own. - 40 -B . C h a n g i n g C i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n t h e y e a r s p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f t h e Second W o r l d War A m e r i c a n p r o p o n e n t s and o p p o n e n t s o f t h e seaway and power p r o j e c t u s e d much t h e same a rgumen ts as h a d been u s e d i n e a r l i e r y e a r s . Seaway a d v o c a t e s c o n t i n u e d t o u n d e r l i n e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o j e c t t o t h e M i d w e s t and t h e G r e a t L a k e s p o r t s . They a l s o s t r e s s e d t h e g r o w i n g n e e d i n t h e E a s t f o r t h e e l e c t r i c i t y w h i c h t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d y i e l d . T h e i r o p p o n e n t s d e n i e d t h e a d v a n t a g e s c l a i m e d b y seaway b a c k e r s and e m p h a s i z e d t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d h a v e a c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t on t h e E a s t e r n and G u l f p o r t s , t h e A m e r i c a n c o a l i n t e r e s t s , and t h e E a s t e r n r a i l r o a d s . H o w e v e r , a t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e seaway was e v a p o r a t i n g i n C a n a d a , new a rgumen ts w e r e b e g i n n i n g t o t a k e t h e i r t o l l on seaway o p p o n e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . W i t h t h e o u t b r e a k o f w a r i n E u r o p e and t h e g r o w i n g p o s s i b i l i t y o f A m e r i c a n i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e g r o u n d s o f c o n t e n t i o n s w i t c h e d f r o m the t r a d i t i o n a l a rgumen ts b a s e d on i t s e c o n o m i c and s e c t i o n a l m e r i t s o r d r a w b a c k s t o ones c e n t e r e d on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o j e c t t o t h e n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e and s e c u r i t y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 1 . N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e . The i s s u e o f n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e had come f u l l c i r c l e s i n c e t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway was f i r s t d e b a t e d i n t h e S e n a t e i n t he 1 9 2 0 ' s . A t t h a t t i m e , t h o s e who f a v o r e d t h e seaway d i d so on g r o u n d s o t h e r t h a n n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . No t one a d v o c a t e t o u c h e d on t h i s p o i n t e x c e p t i n r e b u t t a l . N a t i o n a l d e f e n s e was t he o p p o s i t i o n ' s a r g u m e n t . Opponen ts o f t h e seaway - 41 -used " f l a g - w a v i n g " n a t i o n a l i s t i c and p a t r i o t i c arguments t o b o l s t e r t h e i r p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e c o o p e r a t i v e development o f a waterway r u n n i n g a l m o s t e n t i r e l y t h r o u g h a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y w o u l d be i n j u r i o u s t o n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e and s e c u r i t y . I t w o u l d be n a t i o n a l f o l l y . The U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d have a b s o l u t e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r a l l o f i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s ; no v i t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s u p p l y r o u t e s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o r u n a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y t h r o u g h C a n a d i a n t e r r i t o r y . I t w o u l d , m o r e o v e r , be v e r y h a r d , opponents o f t h e seaway a r g u e d , f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o m a i n t a i n i t s n e u t r a l i t y i n any war i n w h i c h B r i t a i n o r Canada were i n v o l v e d . T h e i r i n s i s t e n c e on t h e r i g h t t o use the S t . Lawrence r o u t e w o u l d compromise t h a t n e u t r a l i t y f r o m the o n s e t . A m e r i c a , t o o , w o u l d f i n d i t s e l f p r o h i b i t e d from u s i n g t h e r o u t e t o send f o o d and s u p p l i e s t o t h e i r enemies. F i n a l l y , i n c a s e o f any t r o u b l e w i t h e i t h e r B r i t a i n o r Canada, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d be p r e v e n t e d f r o m s e n d i n g w a r s h i p s i n t o t h e G r e a t L a k e s ; s u p p l i e s t o t h e M i d w e s t w o u l d be choked o f f ; and much v i t a l l y needed e l e c t r i c i t y from t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d be c u t o f f . Even i f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were a l l i e s i n a war, Canada m i g h t s t i l l c u t power e x p o r t s s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r i n o r d e r t o meet h e r own n e e d s , as she had done i n W o r l d War I . P r e s i d e n t F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t f i r s t r a i s e d n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e as a pro-seaway argument i n December, 1940, when he t o l d a seaway c o n f e r e n c e t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n - C a n a d i a n combined n a v i g a t i o n and power p r o j e c t had c e a s e d t o be m e r e l y "an o p p o r t u n i t y , " but had become a " v i t a l n e c e s s i t y " f o r t h e c o u n t r y ' s d e f e n s e . "The U n i t e d S t a t e s , " s a i d t h e p r e s i d e n t , needs the S t . Lawrence Seaway f o r d e f e n s e . The U n i t e d S t a t e s needs t h i s g r e a t l a n d l o c k e d s e a ( t h e G r e a t L a k e s ) as a s e c u r e haven i n w h i c h i t w i l l a l ways be a b l e t o b u i l d s h i p s and more s h i p s i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t our t r a d e and o u r s h o r e s . - 42 -The United States needs, tremendously needs, the power project which w i l l form a l i n k i n the Seaway i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Rapids Section of the St. Lawrence River to produce aluminum and more aluminum for the airplane program which w i l l assure the command of the a i r . . . Shipyards on the Great Lakes, with access to the ocean, yet close to the sources of supply of labor, raw and f i n i s h e d m a t e r i a l s , further removed from possible attack, may be a v i t a l f actor i n successful defense of thi s continent.-*--^ One month l a t e r , the Canadian Temporary Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin Committee and the American St. Lawrence Advisory Committee submitted a j o i n t report s t a t i n g that they were c o n t i n u a l l y impressed with the defense aspect of the project . . . as a part of a long range program f o r use of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin by both peoples to strengthen the defenses of the North American continent. The power which the project would provide i s urgently needed f o r expansion of e s s e n t i a l defense production on both sides of the border. A deep waterway w i l l a f f o r d an unexampled opportunity f o r the expansion of ship-b u i l d i n g . . . i n n a t u r a l l y protected w a t e r s . ^ Within two months the United States and Canada had signed an agreement for the j o i n t completion of the dual purpose St. Lawrence pr o j e c t . In the hearings of the House P u b l i c Works Committee that year, seaway proponents, while t e s t i f y i n g to the peacetime uses of the combined p r o j e c t , placed major emphasis on the advantages i t would make a v a i l a b l e to co n t i n e n t a l as well as n a t i o n a l defense, i n the face of the threat from German conquest i n Europe."*"^ But opponents rejected a l l the defense arguments brought f o r t h . The defense needs of the nation were, they claimed, immediate. The project could never be completed i n time to meet them or influence the outcome of the war. They were convinced that the president was camouflaging the project with n a t i o n a l defense as an excuse - 43 -to get i t approved. I t was, n e v e r t h e l e s s , approved by a vo te of 17 to 8^ 7 w i t h the m a j o r i t y n o t i n g the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l e l e c t r i c power, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and s h i p b u i l d i n g f a c i l i t i e s , as the main reasons f o r t h e i r endorsement. The p r o j e c t then found i t s e l f i n c l u d e d i n the omnibus R i v e r s and Harbors B i l l pending be fo re Congress . With the Japanese a t t a c k on P e a r l Harbor and Amer i ca ' s en t ry i n t o the war , the n a t i o n ' s power and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs became c r u c i a l . A g a i n , P r e s i d e n t Rooseve l t recommended to Congress tha t i t approve -i o the p r o j e c t as a war measure to ensure n a t i o n a l de fense . But Congress l e t the mat te r d r i f t and re fused to ac t on i t . Other war c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were f e l t to be more u rgen t . Wi th r e l u c t a n c e , the P r e s i d e n t admi t ted i n October tha t he no longer had any hope of immediate c o n s t r u c t i o n of the seaway because of the growing shor tages of s t e e l and manpower . ^ F o l l o w i n g the c o n c l u s i o n of the war , seaway advocates p e r s i s t e d i n us ing defense c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as arguments f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t . They c la imed tha t the exper iences of World War I I and the pos t -war p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n had taught the Un i ted S ta tes to v iew Canada as a v i t a l l i n k i n i t s own defense network. Dur ing the war the two c o u n t r i e s had e s t a b l i s h e d a Permanent J o i n t Board of Defense to p rov ide f o r the mutual p r o t e c t i o n of Nor th Amer ica by c o o r d i n a t i n g the defense e f f o r t s of the Un i ted S ta tes and Canada. A f t e r the war t h i s defense r e l a t i o n s h i p cont inued and expanded as the two c o u n t r i e s approached an almost i n d i s s o l u b l e i n t e g r a t i o n 20 i n c o n t i n e n t a l defense arrangements. The Americans had a l s o come to c o n s i d e r the economies and d e s t i n i e s of the two c o u n t r i e s to be " i n s e p a r a b l y l i n k e d t oge the r " and that a " v i go rous and prosperous Canada" was e s s e n t i a l to the - 44 -w e l f a r e and s a f e t y o f t h e i r own c o u n t r y . P r e s i d e n t Truman had t a k e n n o t i c e o f t h i s f a c t i n a message t o t h e S e n a t e u r g i n g t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway on O c t o b e r 3 , 1 9 4 5 , The c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e seaway w i l l b r i n g many b e n e f i t s t o o u r g r e a t n e i g h b o r and a l l y on t h e n o r t h . The e x -p e r i e n c e o f t h e two w o r l d w a r s and o f many y e a r s o f p e a c e h a s shown b e y o n d q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e p r o s p e r i t y and d e f e n s e o f Canada and o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o g e t h e r . 2 2 F i v e y e a r s l a t e r i n a s t a t e m e n t made b e f o r e t h e House Commi t tee on P u b l i c W o r k s , T r u m a n ' s S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , Dean A c h e s o n , t o l d t h e members t h a t t h o s e m e a s u r e s w h i c h make Canada more p r o s p e r o u s and b e t t e r a b l e t o d e f e n d i t s e l f add a l s o t o t h e p r o s p e r i t y and s e c u r i t y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , s o t h e p r o p o s a l ( t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t ) now u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n becomes d o u b l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The e x t e n t o f t h e m u t u a l dependence i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p a r t n e r s h i p i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t U n i t e d S t a t e s e x p o r t s t o Canada a r e v a l u e d a t abou t 1.8 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y . . . Our t r a d e w i t h C a n a d a , b o t h i m p o r t s and e x p o r t s , composed abou t e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t o f o u r t o t a l f o r e i g n t r a d e l a s t y e a r ; I n m a t t e r s o f d e f e n s e and s e c u r i t y t h e A m e r i c a n s w e r e , i n d e e d , a p p r o a c h i n g t h e i d e a o f " c o n t i n e n t a l i s m " and t h e two c o u n t r i e s we re b o t h m o v i n g i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n i n t h e name o f " N o r t h A m e r i c a n s e c u r i t y . " Seaway a d v o c a t e s a l s o c l a i m e d t h a t t h e war had p r o v e n t he v a l u e o f an i n t e g r a t e d , w e l l - b a l a n c e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m w h i c h i n c l u d e d a deep w a t e r w a y t o t r a n s p o r t b u l k y p r o d u c t s and t h u s f r e e t h e r a i l r o a d s t o 24 e f f i c i e n t l y h a n d l e l i g h t e r c a r g o . They c l a i m e d t h a t t h e " l e s s o n s o f w a r " h a d t a u g h t t h a t c h e a p , abundan t h y d r o - e l e c t r i c e n e r g y c o u l d v e r y w e l l mean 25 t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n v i c t o r y and d e f e a t . The demands o f wa r had e x p o s e d t h e s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s i m p o s e d on t h e s h i p b u i l d i n g f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e G r e a t - 45 -L a k e s w h i c h c o u l d no t b u i l d o c e a n v e s s e l s b e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d be t o o l a r g e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y n a v i g a t e t h r o u g h t h e e x i s t i n g S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y . An i m p r e s s i v e number o f e x p e r t s and p e r s o n s h i g h i n m i l i t a r y c i r c l e s t e s t i f i e d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d be o f immense v a l u e t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and t h e d e f e n s e p r o g r a m . S e c r e t a r y o f War R o b e r t P a t t e r s o n w r o t e on F e b r u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 4 6 , t o S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e M a r s h a l l : I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f W o r l d War I I , i n w h i c h t o t a l m o b i l i z a t i o n became a n e a r a c t u a l i t y , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t he p r o s p e c t i v e i n c r e a s e i n ou r war p o t e n t i a l t h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n t r i b u t e d by t h e p r o j e c t s (seaway and power ) had t h e y b e e n c o m p l e t e d , w o u l d have been o f m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n p r o s e c u t i n g t h e w a r . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t a t t a i n m e n t o f s u c c e s s i n any f u t u r e w o r l d c o n f l i c t w o u l d r e q u i r e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e u l t i m a t e p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and p o s s i b l y C a n a d a . The J o i n t C h i e f s o f S t a f f c o n s i d e r t h a t i t w o u l d be i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y t o c o m p l e t e p r o j e c t s , s u c h as t h e s e , w h i c h w o u l d h a v e d i s t i n c t m i l i t a r y a d v a n t a g e s and w o u l d m a t e r i a l l y i n c r e a s e t h e i n d u s t r i a l and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The o n s e t o f t h e C o l d War g a v e p a r t i c u l a r f o r c e t o a rgumen ts t h a t t he S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t w o u l d g r e a t l y s t r e n g t h e n t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e e n t i r e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t by m a k i n g new s o u r c e s o f e l e c t r i c i t y , v i t a l l y n e e d e d by d e f e n s e i n d u s t r i e s , and an i m p r o v e d w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e 2 8 a v a i l a b l e t o b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a . I n 1 9 5 0 , S e c r e t a r y A c h e s o n r e m i n d e d Cong ressmen t h a t t h e Pe rmanen t J o i n t B o a r d on D e f e n s e had c o n s i d e r e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway p r o j e c t f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e j o i n t d e f e n s e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a deep w a t e r n a v i g a t i o n r o u t e f r om t h e s e a t o t h e h e a r t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t w o u l d p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e movement o f s h i p s and e s s e n t i a l s u p p l i e s i n w a r t i m e and w o u l d a l s o make p o s s i b l e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f o c e a n - g o i n g v e s s e l s i n i n l a n d a r e a s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e new s o u r c e o f power made a v a i l a b l e by t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t w o u l d g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e t h e d e f e n s e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s . . . t h e e a r l y c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s l o n g - d e l a y e d e n t e r p r i s e on a c o o p e r a t i v e b a s i s . . . w o u l d d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t . - 46 -On A p r i l 24 o f t h e same y e a r t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y R e s o u r c e s B o a r d a l s o c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e " c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s e d S t . L a w r e n c e seaway and power p r o j e c t i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . Seaway a d v o c a t e s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t was e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e d e f e n s e and m i l i t a r y s e c u r i t y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a b e c a u s e i t w o u l d p r o v i d e a s a f e and cheap w a t e r r o u t e t o t h e s h e l t e r e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s . S i n c e t h e i n v e n t i o n o f " f l y i n g bombs" c a p a b l e o f r e a c h i n g t h e A t l a n t i c C o a s t , c o a s t a l a r e a s w e r e now e x t r e m e l y v u l n e r a b l e t o b o t h n a v a l as w e l l as l o n g r a n g e a i r a t t a c k s . The m i d - c o n t i n e n t , w h i c h a l r e a d y had t h e g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s t e e l m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n t h e w o r l d , had become t h e s a f e s t r e g i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e r e f o r e was t h e b e s t p l a c e t o l o c a t e v i t a l i n d u s t r i e s , t o s t o c k p i l e s t r a t e g i c r e s o u r c e s , and t o e s t a b l i s h s h i p y a r d s . The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway w o u l d h e l p f a c i l i t a t e t h i s by p r o v i d i n g a s h e l t e r e d avenue i n t o t h e h e a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y . I t w o u l d a l s o be an a d d i t i o n a l l i n e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; a r e s e r v e r o u t e w h i c h w o u l d r e n d e r r e l i e f t o and e a s e t h e s t r a i n on r a i l r o a d s and c e r t a i n p o r t s d u r i n g e m e r g e n c i e s o r peak p e r i o d s o f t r a f f i c ; and a much s a f e r r o u t e t o E u r o p e , p r o t e c t e d f r o m e x p o s u r e t o t h e t h r e a t o f s u b m a r i n e a t t a c k s f o r o v e r a t h i r d o f t h e w a y . J 2 . D w i n d l i n g R e s o u r c e s and N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y . A n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n w h i c h was soon t o g row i n i m p o r t a n c e and become a c o m p e l l i n g argument f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway was t h e r a p i d l y d i m i n i s h i n g s u p p l i e s o f v i t a l r e s o u r c e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t he - 47 -t e r r i t o r i a l l i m i t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A s e a r l y as 1 9 4 5 , seaway p r o p o n e n t s had t a k e n n o t i c e o f t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e and had begun t o e m p h a s i z e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c o n s e r v i n g t h e s e e x h a u s t i b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s as w e l l as b e g i n s t o c k p i l i n g t hem. They s t r e s s e d t h a t s u c h r e s o u r c e s as i r o n o r e , p e t r o l e u m , m a n g a n e s e , c o p p e r , l e a d , b a u x i t e , c h r o m e , t i t a n i u m , n i c k e l , and u r a n i u m , as w e l l as o t h e r s t r a t e g i c m a t e r i a l s , s h o u l d be i m p o r t e d f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y C a n a d a , i n o r d e r t o h e l p p r e s e r v e A m e r i c a n r e s e r v e s i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . T h e s e 32 c o u l d be b r o u g h t t o M i d w e s t e r n i n d u s t r i e s v i a t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . I n t h e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d , t h e m a j o r r e s o u r c e t h a t c o n c e r n e d A m e r i c a n s was i r o n o r e . I r o n o r e was e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s t e e l and was t h e r e f o r e a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f t h e n a t i o n ' s m a j o r i n d u s t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y d e f e n s e - r e l a t e d o n e s . I t f o l l o w e d t h a t a c o n t i n u i n g and c o n s t a n t s u p p l y o f i r o n o r e was e s s e n t i a l t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . " C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t he s e a w a y , " s a i d S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce W i l l i a m A . H a r r i m a n i n 1 9 4 7 , s e r v e s as a s o r t o f n a t i o n a l i n s u r a n c e by m a k i n g i t p o s s i b l e t o b r i n g i n t o t h e L a k e s r e g i o n g r e a t amounts o f f o r e i g n o r e . The h i g h - g r a d e o r e s o f L a b r a d o r a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f rom t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . ^ 3 The M e s a b i Range i n M i n n e s o t a had a l w a y s been t h e c h i e f s o u r c e o f i n e x p e n s i v e h i g h - g r a d e i r o n o r e t o A m e r i c a n s t e e l m i l l s . B u t t h e demands o f W o r l d War I I had so d e p l e t e d t he h i g h - g r a d e o r e r e s e r v e s o f t h i s r a n g e t h a t i n t h e l a t e 1 9 4 0 ' s and e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was f o r c e d t o l o o k e l s e w h e r e f o r a s e c u r e s u p p l y o f t h i s v i t a l r e s o u r c e . I t was o n l y g r a d u a l l y t h a t t h e G r e a t L a k e s i r o n and s t e e l i n t e r e s t s had come t o r e a l i z e - 48 -t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e d e p l e t i o n o f t h i s m a j o r s o u r c e . As e a r l y as t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s , some A m e r i c a n s t e e l c o m p a n i e s had s e n t g e o l o g i s t s a b r o a d i n s e a r c h o f h i g h - g r a d e o r e f i e l d s t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e d w i n d l i n g L a k e S u p e r i o r o r e s . D u r i n g t h e Second W o r l d War t h e H o l l i n g e r m i n i n g i n t e r e s t s o f Canada had begun t o e x p l o r e t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f s i t e s i n L a b r a d o r and Q u e b e c . They we re s o o n j o i n e d by t h e M . A . Hanna Company o f C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , one o f t h e l a r g e s t h o l d e r s o f L a k e S u p e r i o r o r e f i e l d s , and l a t e r , by f i v e o t h e r A m e r i c a n s t e e l c o m p a n i e s . T o g e t h e r t h e y comb ined t o f o r m t h e I r o n Ore Company o f C a n a d a . I n 1 9 4 5 , seaway c o n g r e s s m e n w a r n e d t h a t t h e h i g h - g r a d e i r o n o r e r e s e r v e s o f t h e M e s a b i Range we re n e a r d e p l e t i o n and t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d h a v e t o i m p o r t i r o n o r e f r om f i e l d s i n L a b r a d o r , C h i l e , C u b a , o r B r a z i l . They s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d seaway w o u l d h e l p f a c i l i t a t e t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f t h e s e i m p o r t s t o t h e G r e a t L a k e s s t e e l m i l l s . I n t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and d e b a t e s w h i c h f o l l o w e d i n 1946 and of: 1 9 4 7 , t h e s e two a rgumen ts we re e m p h a s i z e d o v e r and o v e r a g a i n . They d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , c a r r y much w e i g h t b e c a u s e t h e e x t e n t o f t h e d e p o s i t s i n L a b r a d o r and o t h e r a r e a s had n o t b e e n d e f i n i t e l y d e t e r m i n e d . S t e e l i n d u s t r y s p o k e s m e n , m o r e o v e r , we re v i r t u a l l y unan imous i n t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e L a k e S u p e r i o r - M e s a b i o r e s w o u l d meet a l l f o r e s e e a b l e A m e r i c a n n e e d s . B u t b y 1950 t h i s c o n v i c t i o n had c h a n g e d . On A p r i l 2 4 , 1950 t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y R e s o u r c e s B o a r d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e S t . L a w r e n c e seaway and power p r o j e c t was o f e x t r e m e i m p o r t a n c e t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y b e c a u s e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s had t o be a s s u r e d o f a h i g h - g r a d e , r a p i d l y e x p a n s i b l e i r o n o r e s u p p l y f r o m n e a r b y f o r e i g n s o u r c e s - o r e w h i c h i n an emergency c o u l d be moved t o - 49 -e x i s t i n g c o n s u m i n g c e n t e r s o v e r r o u t e s i n s i d e t h e c o n t i n e n t . . . T h e seaway w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e most e c o n o m i c a l r o u t e f o r t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f L a b r a d o r o r e s , r e c o g n i z e d as t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t new s o u r c e now a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t . T h i s o r e i s n e e d e d t o s u p p l e m e n t and c o n s e r v e o u r d w i n d l i n g L a k e S u p e r i o r o r e s u p p l i e s . ^ 7 I n t h e same y e a r F o r t u n e m a g a z i n e r a n a m a j o r f e a t u r e a r t i c l e w h i c h h e l d t h a t t h e f i f t y y e a r f i g h t f o r t h e seaway was p r o b a b l y i n i t s f i n a l p h a s e b e c a u s e t h e " d e f e n s e " argument c o n c e r n i n g t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f L a b r a d o r o r e was b e c o m i n g h a r d e r and h a r d e r t o a n s w e r . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e w r i t e r , F r e e m a n L i n c o l n , i f i t w e r e n o t f o r t h i s new a r g u m e n t , " n o p r u d e n t o b s e r v e r w o u l d b e t o n i t ' s ( t h e s e a w a y ' s ) e a r l y a p p r o v a l . " ^ 8 g u t w i t h t h e d e p l e t i o n o f t h e M e s a b i o r e s u p p l i e s , t h e seaway h a d become e s s e n t i a l t o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e A m e r i c a n s t e e l i n d u s t r y . I n t h e 1950 seaway h e a r i n g s o f t h e H o u s e C o m m i t t e e on P u b l i c Works t h e c e n t r a l t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n h a d become t h e p o s s i b l e i m p o r t a t i o n and u s e o f i r o n o r e from t h e n o r t h e r n Q u e b e c - L a b r a d o r f i e l d s as a s u p p l e m e n t t o t h e r a p i d l y d w i n d l i n g r e s e r v e s o f t h e L a k e S u p e r i o r r e g i o n . I n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f 1949 e n o u g h o r e h a d b e e n d r i l l - p r o v e d t o a s s u r e a l l c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e L a b r a d o r f i n d had b e e n a f a b u l o u s s t r i k e w i t h g r e a t amounts o f h i g h -g r a d e o r e e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e t o o p e n - p i t m i n i n g . A l s o , by t h i s t i m e most o f t h e s t e e l company r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e h i g h - g r a d e o r e r e s e r v e s o f t h e M e s a b i Range w e r e r a p i d l y a p p r o a c h i n g t h e p o i n t o f e x h a u s t i o n and t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d be f o r c e d t o i m p o r t l a r g e s u p p l i e s o f i r o n o r e t o meet t h e r i s i n g demands o f i t s i n d u s t r i e s . T h e f i v e a l l i e d s t e e l c o m p a n i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e L a b r a d o r e x p l o r a t i o n s , who w e r e s a i d t o p r o d u c e o v e r o n e - q u a r t e r o f a l l A m e r i c a n s t e e l , h a d d e f i n i t e l y and d r a m a t i c a l l y moved f r o m y e a r s o f s t u b b o r n o p p o s i t i o n t o become t h e p r o p o s e d S t . L a w r e n c e - 50 -Seaway p r o j e c t ' s s t a u n c h e s t s u p p o r t e r s . T h e i r s p o k e s m a n , G e o r g e A . Humphrey , who used t o c a l l t h e p r o j e c t a " s o c i a l i s t d i t c h , " was t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e M . A . Hanna Company and o f t h e n e w l y - c r e a t e d I r o n Ore Company o f Canada w h i c h was o r g a n i z e d t o e x p l o r e f o r and d e v e l o p t h e i r o n o r e o f t h e L a b r a d o r - Q u e b e c r e g i o n . D u r i n g t h e h e a r i n g s he t e s t i f i e d t h a t t h e M e s a b i h i g h - g r a d e o r e r e s e r v e s c o u l d n o t l a s t , more t h a n f i f t e e n y e a r s a t t h e e x i s t i n g r a t e s o f c o n s u m p t i o n and t h a t o t h e r n e a r b y o r e r e s e r v e s w e r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o meet t h e needs o f t h e A m e r i c a n s t e e l i n d u s t r i e s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s mus t c o n s i d e r i m p o r t i n g o r e s f r o m d e p o s i t s i n C h i l e , V e n e z u e l a , B r a z i l , and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s o u t s i d e N o r t h A m e r i c a . W i t h i n t h e c o n t i n e n t , h o w e v e r , t h e r e was one v e r y r i c h r e s e r v e i n t h e L a b r a d o r - Q u e b e c r e g i o n w h i c h c o u l d be e x p l o i t e d e a s i l y . I t s o r e s c o u l d be s h i p p e d t o t h e G r e a t L a k e s a r e a c h e a p l y i f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway w e r e b u i l t . M o r e o v e r , u n l i k e o t h e r f o r e i g n a l t e r n a t i v e s , L a b r a d o r o r e m o v i n g up t h e seaway w o u l d make t h e u p h e a v a l and r e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y t o t h e e a s t e r n s e a b o a r d u n n e c e s s a r y . I n a d d i t i o n , i n t i m e s o f n a t i o n a l e m e r g e n c y , t h e L a b r a d o r - Q u e b e c f i e l d s w o u l d be t h e o n l y f o r e i g n s o u r c e w h i c h c o u l d be c o u n t e d on t o p r o v i d e as much o r e as was n e e d e d . ^ The S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce, C h a r l e s S a w y e r , t o l d t h e c o m m i t t e e t h a t t he government was i n ag reement w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y R e s o u r c e s B o a r d . The S t . L a w r e n c e was t he o n l y e c o n o m i c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e t o t h e s t e e l c e n t e r s o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s . O t h e r g o v e r n -ment w i t n e s s e s e m p h a s i z e d t he i m p o r t a n c e t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y o f c o n s e r v i n g t h e r e m a i n i n g d o m e s t i c s u p p l y o f o r e . T h e r e w a s , t h e y w a r n e d , d a n g e r t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y i f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e l i e d t o o h e a v i l y on n o n - N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o u r c e s . ^ 1 - 51 -S i m i l a r a rgumen ts w e r e p r e s e n t e d by o t h e r gove rnmen t spokesmen as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l seaway s u p p o r t e r s b e f o r e s u b s e q u e n t c o n g r e s s i o n a l h e a r i n g s . T h e i r a p p e a r a n c e i n c o n g r e s s i o n a l d e b a t e s as w e l l as newspape r and m a g a z i n e a r t i c l e s g u a r a n t e e d them a w i d e h e a r i n g . ^ g u t i r o n o r e was n o t t h e o n l y r e s o u r c e w h i c h w o u l d come up t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . The p r o j e c t ' s a d v o c a t e s a l s o c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e i m p r o v e d w a t e r w a y w o u l d a l s o a i d i n t he t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f s u c h o t h e r v i t a l m a t e r i a l s f rom C a n a d a as t i t a n i u m , mo lybdenum, u r a n i u m , n i c k e l , z i n c , and a s b e s t o s , as w e l l as r e s o u r c e s f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . A l l o f w h i c h w o u l d be n e e d e d t o f e e d t h e h u n g r y i n d u s t r i e s o f t h e M i d w e s t . B e c a u s e o f t h e a l r e a d y c l o s e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a , t h e A m e r i c a n s had p r a c t i c a l l y come t o c o n s i d e r C a n a d i a n r e s o u r c e s as " d o m e s t i c " r e s o u r c e s w h i c h c o u l d be c o u n t e d on i n any e m e r g e n c y . The U n i t e d S t a t e s was f a s t a p p r o a c h i n g t h e i d e a o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l i z a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s as a n o t h e r f a c e t o f c o n t i n e n t a l d e f e n s e . S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e Dean A c h e s o n , t e s t i f y i n g b e f o r e t h e House P u b l i c Works Commi t tee on F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 5 1 , f o r c e f u l l y p o r t r a y e d t h i s g r o w i n g m u t u a l r e l i a n c e o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s as b e i n g n o t o n l y i n t h e f i e l d s o f p o l i t i c s and m i l i t a r y d e f e n s e , b u t i n e c o n o m i c s as w e l l : . . . we depend upon Canada f o r many e s s e n t i a l m a t e r i a l s s u c h as n i c k e l , n e w s p r i n t , a s b e s t o s , and z i n c , i n a d d i t i o n t o u r a n i u m . The C a n a d i a n s , i n t u r n , r e l y on t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r a v a s t r a n g e o f i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . The i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s i s shown by t h e u n p a r a l l e l e d vo lume o f t r a d e b e t w e e n them . . . t h e l a r g e s t c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r c h a n g e t h a t has e v e r o c c u r r e d be tween two n a t i o n s . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h a r e v i t a l t o us i n t i m e o f c r i s i s , c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h Canada i s i m p e r a t i v e . 4 3 T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e a r g u m e n t s , t h e n e e d f o r t h e S t . L a w r e n c e to t r a n s p o r t v i t a l l y needed raw m a t e r i a l s t o t he M i d w e s t - 52 -Great Lakes i n d u s t r i e s proved to be very potent j u s t i f i c a t i o n s for the b u i l d i n g of the S t . Lawrence seaway and power p r o j e c t s . Yet the Congress remained unmoved. These arguments had f a i l e d to impress the n a t i o n ' s lawmakers enough for them to be stampeded i n t o vo t ing for American p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t . Seaway b i l l s continued to be pigeon-holed year a f t e r year . I t would not be u n t i l the Canadians o f fered the United States an ultimatum to j o i n i n the dual-purpose p r o j e c t or watch Canada b u i l d and operate i t on i t s own that the arguments for n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y would take h o l d . - 53 -IV. The " A l l - C a n a d i a n " Seaway U l t i m a t u m . A f t e r t h e U n i t e d - S t a t e s r e j e c t e d t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway t r e a t y i n M a r c h 1 9 3 4 , t h e two n a t i o n s , Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , c o n t i n u e d t o w o r k f o r t h e j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s w a t e r w a y . F o r t w e n t y l o n g y e a r s p r o - s e a w a y and a n t i - s e a w a y f o r c e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b a t t l e d e a c h o t h e r , f i l l i n g t h o u s a n d s o f p a g e s i n t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e c o r d and t h e S e n a t e and House r e p o r t s , n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s , n e w s p a p e r and m a g a z i n e a r t i c l e s , and r a d i o p rog rams w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t . Y e t f o r a l l t h e i r y e a r s o f e f f o r t seaway a d v o c a t e s had v e r y l i t t l e t o show. The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway r e m a i n e d a mere dream w h i c h seemed as f a r away f r o m b e i n g t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o r e a l i t y i n 1952 as i t had b e e n i n 1 9 3 2 . The s t o r y , h o w e v e r , was c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t i n C a n a d a . T h e r e , C a n a d a ' s phenomena l p o s t - w a r e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , p a c e d by t h e d i s c o v e r y o f v a s t n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , had i n c r e a s e d h e r n e e d f o r t h e s e a w a y . B e s i d e s b r i n g i n g abou t a r a d i c a l s h i f t i n C a n a d i a n o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e n e e d t o d e v e l o p t h e d u a l p r o j e c t ^ C a n a d a ' s e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n a l s o made t h e D o m i n i o n r i c h enough t o b u i l d i t a l o n e . I n f a c t t h e C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t had a s u r p l u s b u d g e t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y $800 m i l l i o n i n 1 9 5 2 . ^ D u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s t h e r e was d e v e l o p i n g i n Canada a new f e e l i n g o f n a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and p r i d e w h i c h made t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e e a g e r , w i l l i n g and a b l e t o t a c k l e t h e t a s k o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway p r o j e c t and i m p a t i e n t a t A m e r i c a n d e l a y s . C a n a d i a n s w e r e d i s p l a y i n g a new s e n s e o f C a n a d a ' s d e s t i n y and t h e y now saw t h e m s e l v e s " a s a n a t i o n whose p e o p l e a r e n o t a f r a i d t o a c c e p t t h e c h a l l e n g e o f t h e f u t u r e . " 2 - 54 -T h i s was a t i m e when C a n a d a ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y l o o k e d o u t w a r d and t h e n a t i o n became i n v o l v e d more d e e p l y i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s on h e r own. She was one o f the f o u n d i n g members and l e a d i n g s u p p o r t e r s o f t he U n i t e d N a t i o n s and C a n a d i a n s we re i n v o l v e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h k e e p i n g t h e p e a c e i n e v e r y p a r t o f t h e g l o b e . T h r o u g h N . A . T . O . , Canada was i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e f e n s e o f E u r o p e , and i n A s i a t h e D o m i n i o n was p l a y i n g a new and expanded r o l e as p a r t o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and as a member o f t h e Co lombo P l a n . C a n a d i a n s had g r e a t hopes i n t h e p a r t C a n a d a , as a " m i d d l e p o w e r " l a c k i n g an i m p e r i a l p a s t , c o u l d p l a y as a m e d i a t o r and p e a c e - k e e p e r n o t o n l y w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e B r i t i s h Commonwea l th , b u t i n t h e w o r l d a t l a r g e . A t home, t h e p e n t - u p w a r t i m e s a v i n g s h a d c r e a t e d demands f o r consumer goods w h i c h g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f expanded war. i n d u s t r i e s t o a p e a c e t i m e b a s i s . The r e c o v e r y n e e d s o f w e s t e r n E u r o p e p r o v i d e d m a r k e t s f o r C a n a d i a n g o o d s . E x p a n d i n g C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i e s we re b e i n g f e d by a s t e a d y s t r e a m o f i m m i g r a t i o n and an immense i n f l o w o f d i r e c t c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . A l l t h i s b r o u g h t abou t a heady p r o s p e r i t y w h i c h b o l s t e r e d C a n a d a ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r s e l f . P r o d u c t i o n boomed , c i t i e s and i n d u s t r i e s mushroomed , and deep i n r o a d s w e r e made i n t o C a n a d a ' s as y e t u n t a p p e d r e s o u r c e f r o n t i e r s . - ^ O i l and gas p i p e l i n e s c r o s s e d t h e c o u n t r y f r om t h e P a c i f i c Ocean t o t he S t . L a w r e n c e V a l l e y . N e a r K i t i m a t , B . C . , t h e A luminum Company o f Canada embarked on one o f C a n a d a ' s l a r g e s t and b o l d e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s e v e r . N o r was t h e gove rnmen t o f Canada i n a c t i v e . I t u n d e r t o o k a m a j o r c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t - t h e a w e - i n s p i r i n g 4 , 8 0 0 m i l e T r a n s -Canada H i g h w a y , l o n g e s t i n t h e w o r l d . Beyond t h i s i t was now s h o w i n g a g e n u i n e w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a c k l e t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway on i t s own. - 55 -D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f Canada b u i l d i n g t h e seaway on h e r own r e f l e c t e d t h i s new f e e l i n g o f n a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . " C a n a d a , " t h e F i n a n c i a l P o s t n o t e d by f o r m a l l y d e c l a r i n g i t w o u l d , i f n e c e s s a r y , u n d e r t a k e t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t a l o n e , had t a k e n a s o b e r l o o k a t t h e r e a l i t i e s o f h e r own p r e s e n t s t r e n g t h and a t h e r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r tomor row . . . H e r e was a d r a m a t i c y e t s o l i d commitment i n n a t i o n a l d e s t i n y . . . ( I t ) has s t a r t l e d A m e r i c a n s a c c u s t o m e d as t h e y a r e t o t h i n k i n g t h e y h a v e a m o n o p o l y on b o l d , i m a g i n a t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g s . ^ I n a p p r o v i n g C a n a d a ' s d e c i s i o n t o " g o i t a l o n e " i f n e c e s s a r y , M r . G o r d o n G r a y d o n , a Member o f P a r l i a m e n t f r o m P e e l , s a i d i n t h e Commons t h a t T h e r e i s a b r o a d i n Canada t o d a y an o p t i m i s m and e n t h u s i a s m t h a t t h i s c o u n t r y i s a b l e t o do g r e a t t h i n g s by i t s e l f . I b e l i e v e t h a t we have n e v e r f a c e d a t i m e when we had more p r i d e i n what we can d o , more p r i d e i n o u r a c h i e v e m e n t s , t h a n we h a v e t o d a y . I b e l i e v e t h a t one o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t w i l l be o f i m p o r t a n c e i n t he S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway i s t h a t t he p e o p l e o f Canada w i l l f e e l t h a t a t l a s t Canada i s t a c k l i n g t h e j o b a l o n e , she c a n do t h e j o b a l o n e , and i t w i l l be i n h e r e c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t , as w e l l as i n h e r i n t e r e s t g e n e r a l l y t h a t she do s o . ^ J . H . B l a c k m o r e o f L e t h b r i d g e s i m i l a r l y c a p t u r e d t h i s e x p a n s i v e and c o n f i d e n t mood. " C a n a d a , " he t o l d t h e House o f Commons, i s s u f f i c i e n t l y grown up now t h a t she does n o t need t o h a v e t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f any n e i g h b o u r s i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f a g r e a t p r o j e c t o f t h i s k i n d . ^ W i t h Canada e n j o y i n g t h i s new s e l f - a s s u r e d d i s p o s i t i o n , t h e r e c e n t l y - e l e c t e d L i b e r a l p r i m e m i n i s t e r , L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t , f i r s t e x p r e s s e d i n P a r l i a m e n t t h e i m p a t i e n c e o f t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e a t A m e r i c a n d e l a y s on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e seaway and power p r o j e c t . I f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s d i d n o t soon a p p r o v e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e 1941 A g r e e m e n t , he a s s e r t e d i n 1 9 4 9 , t he C a n a d i a n gove rnmen t w o u l d have - 56 -" t o g i v e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o g o i n g ahead and d e v e l o p i n g i t on t he power s i d e a l o n e . H e b a c k e d up h i s v e i l e d t h r e a t w i t h a c t i o n , t r a v e l l i n g t o W a s h i n g t o n f o r a m e e t i n g w i t h T r u m a n . I n o r d e r t o g e t more c o o p e r a t i o n f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t , S t . L a u r e n t t o l d h i s M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t , L i o n e l C h e v r i e r , i n t h e summer o f 1 9 5 0 , t h a t Canada s h o u l d a l s o c a r r y ou t t h e needed n a v i g a t i o n i m p r o v e m e n t s . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t C h e v r i e r t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e p a r i n g A m e r i c a n o p i n i o n f o r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " s e a w a y . ^ I n 1950 t h i s t h r e a t o f an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway h a d g a i n e d a new v a l i d i t y . B e c a u s e o f t h e d e s p e r a t e n e e d f o r power i n b o t h New Y o r k and O n t a r i o , t h e s e t b a c k s w h i c h t h e comb ined p r o j e c t h a d r e c e i v e d i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s l e d G o v e r n o r Dewey o f New Y o r k t o i n i t i a t e a p l a n t o h a v e t h e New Y o r k Power A u t h o r i t y and t h e O n t a r i o H y d r o - e l e c t r i c C o m m i s s i o n d e v e l o p t h e Long S a u l t power s e p a r a t e f r om t h e s e a w a y . I f p e r m i s s i o n w e r e e v e r g r a n t e d t o New Y o r k t o embark on t h e p r o j e c t , t h a t s t a t e ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o do s o i m m e d i a t e l y w o u l d make i t p o s s i b l e f o r Canada t o c o m p l e t e a M o n t r e a l t o L a k e E r i e seaway w i t h o u t any f u r t h e r A m e r i c a n p e r m i s s i o n , b u i l d i n g t h e c h a n n e l s c o m p l e t e l y i n C a n a d i a n t e r r i t o r y . M o r e -o v e r , i n t h e i r m e e t i n g Truman had t o l d S t . L a u r e n t t h a t he w o u l d n e v e r be w i l l i n g t o a p p r o v e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Long S a u l t power w i t h o u t a s e a w a y , b u t he c o u l d a p p r o v e o f t h e b u i l d i n g o f an a l l - C a n a d i a n seaway i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e power p r o j e c t . ^ On Sep tember 1 4 , 1 9 5 0 , i n h i s hometown o f C o r n w a l l - b y - t h e -S t . L a w r e n c e , C h e v r i e r announced t h a t Canada s h o u l d " e x p l o r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a deep w a t e r w a y on t h e C a n a d i a n s i d e o f t h e boundary."- ' - - ' - I t was hoped t h a t i f Canada made a move t o go ahead a l o n e , t he U n i t e d S t a t e s - 57 -m i g h t be s t i r r e d i n t o a c t i o n . 1 Z H o w e v e r , C o n g r e s s c o n t i n u e d t o s t a l l . By t h e n e x t y e a r C a n a d a ' s f o r b e a r a n c e h a d wo rn t h i n . C a n a d i a n s were no 13 l o n g e r c o n t e n t t o w a i t p a t i e n t l y f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o a c t . Government a u t h o r i t i e s had become i n c r e a s i n g l y c r i t i c a l o f A m e r i c a n d e l a y s . 1 4 C a n a d i a n s , M P ' s t o l d t h e House t i m e and a g a i n , u r g e n t l y needed t h e S t . L a w r e n c e seaway and power p r o j e c t . Immed ia te a c t i o n was n e c e s s a r y . 1 ^ I f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n t i n u e d t o be d e l a y e d , a r g u e d L e o n a r d S t i c k , t h e Member o f P a r l i a m e n t r e p r e s e n t i n g T r i n i t y - C o n c e p t i o n , Canada s h o u l d t a k e a c t i o n on h e r own: The t i m e h a s come when we must a c t and i f n e c e s s a r y do so a l o n e . I am c o n v i n c e d i t i s w i t h i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h i s c o u n t r y t o c a r r y ou t t h a t p r o j e c t , i f n e c e s s a r y , a l o n e . I am f u r t h e r c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e t i m e t o b e g i n i t i s now. We w i l l we lcome o u r f r i e n d s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i f t h e y come i n w i t h us b u t I s a y d e f i n i t e l y we c a n n o t w a i t l o n g e r t h a n 1951 and t h a t we must be r e a d y t o b e g i n i n 1952 even i f a l o n e . A n o t h e r Member o f P a r l i a m e n t , Go rdon G r a y d o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g t he r i d i n g o f P e e l , e x p r e s s e d t h i s i m p a t i e n c e t o g e t on w i t h t h e p r o j e c t i n t h e s e w o r d s : We as a n a t i o n s h o u l d n o t d e l a y any l o n g e r i n s a y i n g t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s government t h a t Canada now p r o p o s e s t o p r o c e e d on h e r own. The c o n c e n s u s o f C a n a d i a n o p i n i o n , as r e p o r t e d by t h e F i n a n c i a l T i m e s , was t h a t b e c a u s e o f h e r d e s p e r a t e n e e d f o r e l e c t r i c power Canada s h o u l d go ahead w i t h t he p r o j e c t a l o n e and t h a t an announcement t o t h a t e f f e c t w o u l d 1 o p r o b a b l y damage t h e c a s e o f seaway o p p o n e n t s i n W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . L a t e i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 1 , a f t e r t h e House P u b l i c Works C o m m i t t e e v o t e d t o t a b l e t h e seaway b i l l a g a i n , t h e C a n a d i a n p r i m e m i n i s t e r made a s e c o n d , more p r o f i t a b l e j o u r n e y t o W a s h i n g t o n . He f o r m a l l y i n f o r m e d P r e s i d e n t Truman t h a t t he C a n a d i a n gove rnmen t w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o c o n s t r u c t - 58 -t h e seaway as a C a n a d i a n p r o j e c t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e power p r o j e c t , i f i t were n o t p o s s i b l e t o have i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e n t i r e d u a l p r o j e c t a l o n g t h e l i n e s l a i d ou t i n t h e 1941 A g r e e m e n t . A l t h o u g h P r e s i d e n t Truman e x p r e s s e d h i s s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t , P r e m i e r S t . L a u r e n t was a b l e t o c o n v i n c e h i m t o a g r e e t h a t " h e w o u l d s u p p o r t C a n a d i a n a c t i o n as s e c o n d b e s t i f an e a r l y commencement on t h e j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t does n o t p r o v e p o s s i b l e . " - ^ Canada was now f r e e t o move f o r w a r d w i t h h e r own p l a n s . I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h i s i m p o r t a n t m e e t i n g , t h e S t . L a u r e n t gove rnmen t i n t r o d u c e d l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g f o r an agency t o d e a l w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . I t was "empowered t o p r o c e e d e i t h e r w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n s h a r e o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n d e r t a k i n g , o r s o l e l y C a n a d i a n d e v e l o p m e n t . " ^ A t l o n g l a s t Canada had r e v e r s e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s w h i c h t h e two n a t i o n s p l a y e d s i n c e 1919 and had f i n a l l y t a k e n b a c k t h e i n i t i a t i v e on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e r o u t e . By O c t o b e r t h e House o f Commons began f o r m a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway p r o j e c t i n t h e f o r m o f two m e a s u r e s . One c a l l e d f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway A u t h o r i t y t o c o n s t r u c t and o p e r a t e an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway o r t o c o o p e r a t e i n d e v e l o p i n g a j o i n t seaway p r o j e c t . The o t h e r r a t i f i e d a C a n a d a - O n t a r i o ag reemen t a u t h o r i z i n g t he p r o v i n c e t o u n d e r t a k e , i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h " a n a p p r o p r i a t e b o d y " i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e power i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a p i d s S e c t i o n . x G o v e r n -ment spokesmen e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h o u g h t h e y w e r e s t i l l h o p e f u l t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s w o u l d a p p r o v e t h e 1941 A g r e e m e n t , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n was b e i n g a d v o c a t e d i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e - 59 -i n t h e seaway p r o j e c t . The p r o j e c t was so e s s e n t i a l f o r t he n a t i o n ' s e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e c o n t i n e n t ' s d e f e n s e t h a t t h e gove rnmen t was p r e p a r e d t o u n d e r t a k e t h e seaway a l o n e , a s k i n g o n l y f o r A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n t h e power d e v e l o p m e n t p h a s e o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e . I f , h o w e v e r , C o n g r e s s d i d a p p r o v e j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t b e f o r e a l l t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " w a t e r w a y had been c o m p l e t e d , Canada w o u l d abandon t h e s e 22 p l a n s and j o i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e p r o p o s a l s i n P a r l i a m e n t . A l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , e v e r y member who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e d e b a t e e x p r e s s e d e i t h e r f u l l o r q u a l i f i e d a p p r o v a l o f t h e b i l l s . The i d e a o f an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway h a d caugh t t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n and a p p e a l e d t o t h e i r new f o u n d n a t i o n a l p r i d e . The o n l y n e g a t i v e comments came f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e M a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s . E v e n t h e y , h o w e v e r , a d m i t t e d t h a t w h i l e t h e seaway w o u l d do them l i t t l e o r no g o o d , i t w o u l d b e n e f i t t h e r e s t o f C a n a d a , and p r o b a b l y t h e c o u n t r y as a w h o l e . T h e i r ^ s w a s , i n f a c t , n o t o u t r i g h t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r o j e c t , b u t a me thod o f d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m s and needs o f t h e i r own a r e a . I t o f f e r e d a way t o b a r g a i n f o r 23 c o n c e s s i o n s , s u c h as t h e Passamaquoddy p r o j e c t , w h i c h w o u l d b e n e f i t t hem. M o s t members , i n c l u d i n g G e o r g e D r e w , l e a d e r o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n , a g r e e d w i t h t h e gove rnmen t i n i t s hope t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d s t i l l j o i n w i t h C a n a d a , b u t t h a t i f i t we re n e c e s s a r y , Canada w o u l d t a c k l e t h e j o b a l o n e . 24 M o s t gave t h e i r h e a r t y a p p r o v a l t o t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . The f e e l i n g was t h a t t h e n e e d f o r t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t was so g r e a t and so i m m e d i a t e t h a t i f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d n o t make a d e c i s i o n s o o n , Canada w o u l d have no c h o i c e b u t t o go ahead w i t h h e r own p l a n s . Some Members o f P a r l i a m e n t c l e a r l y hoped t h a t i f Canada showed she meant b u s i n e s s , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d a c t . - 60 -The S o c i a l C r e d i t l e a d e r , S o l o n L o w , summed up t h i s t y p e o f t h i n k i n g : I m y s e l f f e e l t h a t i f Canada p r e s s e s f o r w a r d w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e d i s p a t c h i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h i s seav?ay t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l s o o n overcome . . . t h o s e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s t h a t a r e now p r e v e n t i n g t h e d e c i s i o n by t he o f f i c i a l s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o j o i n w i t h u s ; and I hope we s h a l l e v e n t u a l l y s e e t h a t t h e y w i l l j o i n t h e i r f o r c e s w i t h o u r s and t h a t t h e seaway and t h e power d e v e l o p -ment w i l l be b u i l t i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h u s . ^ O t h e r members a r g u e d t h a t i t m i g h t be t o C a n a d a ' s g r e a t e s t a d v a n t a g e t o b u i l d t h e wa te rway c o m p l e t e l y w i t h o u t A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . ^ The m e a s u r e s p a s s e d t h e Commons w i t h o u t d i v i s i o n on December 1 2 , 1 9 5 1 . The S e n a t e a p p r o v e d them on December 1 7 , 1 9 5 1 , and f o u r d a y s l a t e r , t h e 2 8 G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l gave them h i s a s s e n t . I n an e x c h a n g e o f n o t e s w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n gove rnmen t on J a n u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 5 2 , t h e Truman a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a g r e e d t h a t i f C o n g r e s s d i d n o t a p p r o v e j o i n t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e d u a l p r o j e c t a t an e a r l y d a t e , t h e A m e r i c a n government w o u l d c o o p e r a t e w i t h C a n a d i a n a u t h o r i t i e s i n h a v i n g h y d r o - p o w e r d e v e l o p e d by O n t a r i o and an A m e r i c a n e n t i t y w h i l e t h e seaway 29 was b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e D o m i n i o n a l o n e . S t i l l h o p i n g f o r A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t he c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s e a w a y , t h e p r e s i d e n t opened a b a r r a g e o f a p p e a l s t o C o n g r e s s as w e l l as p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t s u r g i n g t h e 30 a p p r o v a l o f t h e j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . I n a s t r o n g l y w o r d e d a p p e a l t o C o n g r e s s on J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 5 2 , P r e s i d e n t Truman s t r u c k on a theme w h i c h w o u l d be e c h o e d o v e r and o v e r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s . I n recommend ing A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t , he c a l l e d t he a t t e n t i o n o f t h e C o n g r e s s t o " t h e i m m e d i a t e u r g e n c y o f a c t i o n . " " T h e q u e s t i o n b e f o r e C o n g r e s s , " he s t r e s s e d , no l o n g e r i s w h e t h e r t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway s h o u l d be b u i l t . The q u e s t i o n b e f o r e C o n g r e s s now i s w h e t h e r t he U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t h e n m a i n t a i n - 61 -j o i n t o p e r a t i o n and c o n t r o l o v e r t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h i s so i m p o r t a n t t o ou r s e c u r i t y and o u r e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s . . . 1 s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e t h a t t he U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d j o i n as a f u l l p a r t n e r w i t h Canada i n b u i l d i n g t h e s e a w a y , f i r s t , b e c a u s e i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o o u r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . . . I b e l i e v e most s t r o n g l y t h a t i t i s i n ou r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t o p a r t i c i p a t e on an e q u a l b a s i s w i t h Canada i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n , management , and c o n t r o l o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t . 3 1 He went on t o e m p h a s i z e t h e n e e d f o r i r o n o r e f r om t h e L a b r a d o r - Q u e b e c f i e l d s b e c a u s e o f t h e e x h a u s t i o n o f A m e r i c a ' s h i g h - g r a d e o r e s u p p l y . M o r e o v e r , he s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t no g r e a t n a t i o n has e v e r d e l i b e r a t e l y abandoned i t s i n t e r e s t i n any o f t h e v i t a l w a t e r w a y s o f t h e w o r l d . I n d e e d , t h e r e c o r d has b e e n t h e o p p o s i t e - n a t i o n s h a v e v i e d f u r i o u s l y and h a v e o f t e n f o u g h t o v e r c o n t r o l o f k e y w a t e r g a t e w a y s . . . 32 H o w e v e r , t h e p r e s i d e n t ' s a p p e a l s a c h i e v e d no v i s i b l e r e s u l t s . The seaway r e s o l u t i o n s r e m a i n e d b o t t l e d up i n t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Commi t t ee and t h e House P u b l i c Works C o m m i t t e e . C o n g r e s s w o u l d n o t be s tampeded i n t o any p r e c i p i t a t e a c t i o n . A t t h i s t i m e some seaway a d v o c a t e s , s u c h as P a u l H u t c h i n s o n o f t h e C h r i s t i a n C e n t u r y , gave up hope o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e v e r b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t . " W h i l e we r e g r e t , " w r o t e M r . H u t c h i n s o n i n a J a n u a r y e d i t o r i a l , t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has n o t j o i n e d i n t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g , i t w i l l be a f i n e t h i n g f o r Canada t o h a n d l e i t a l o n e . Canada s h o u l d be one o f t h e w o r l d ' s g r e a t e s t n a t i o n s . S u c c e s s i n a v e n t u r e on t h i s s c a l e w i l l g i v e i t a s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e w h i c h w o u l d do more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e c o u l d t o make p o s s i b l e t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h a t d e s t i n y . 3 On A p r i l 1 4 , 1 9 5 2 , f o l l o w i n g a c o n f e r e n c e o f h i g h l e v e l C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n o f f i c i a l s i n W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , L e s t e r B . P e a r s o n , t h e C a n a d i a n M i n i s t e r f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , announced t h a t P r e s i d e n t Truman - 62 -had a g r e e d t o A m e r i c a n s u b m i s s i o n , w i t h C a n a d a , o f an a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n f o r a p e r m i t t o d e v e l o p t h e power 34 i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a p i d s S e c t i o n . H o p i n g t h a t t h i s m i g h t p r o d C o n g r e s s i n t o a c t i o n , Truman s e n t o f f i d e n t i c a l l e t t e r s t o S e n a t o r C o n n a l l y and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e B u c k l e y , c h a i r m e n o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o m m i t t e e s i n C o n g r e s s u r g i n g s p e e d y a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f t h e d u a l p u r p o s e p r o j e c t . " I t w o u l d be e x t r e m e l y u n w i s e and u n r e a l i s t i c , " he n o t e d , f o r C o n g r e s s v o l u n t a r i l y t o abandon t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o j o i n t l y c o n t r o l a w a t e r w a y s o v i t a l t o ou r s e c u r i t y , o u r commerce and i n d u s t r y , and ou r r e l a t i o n s w i t h ou r C a n a d i a n n e i g h b o r s . H o w e v e r , a f t e r l o n g d e b a t e on t h e m e r i t s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e p r o j e c t , t h e S e n a t e handed t he seaway a n o t h e r d e f e a t by c o n t i n u i n g i t s t w e n t y y e a r t r a d i t i o n o f d e l a y t a c t i c s . I n a c l o s e v o t e o f f o r t y - t h r e e t o f o r t y , i t r e c o m m i t t e d t h e b i l l t o t h e Commi t t ee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . 3 6 The day f o l l o w i n g t h i s s e n a t e a c t i o n , P r e s i d e n t Truman a d v i s e d newsmen t h a t h i s gove rnmen t w o u l d s u p p o r t C a n a d a ' s p l a n f o r b u i l d i n g 37 t h e seaway on i t s own. On J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 5 2 , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e j o i n e d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s i n s u b m i t t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e 38 I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n . S e i z i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t h i s p r e s e n t e d , 39 Truman made an " e l e v e n t h h o u r " a p p e a l t o C o n g r e s s . Once a g a i n h i s p l e a went u n h e e d e d . D e e p l y d i s a p p o i n t e d , he and o t h e r A m e r i c a n seaway a d v o c a t e s t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o g e t t i n g t h e C a n a d i a n p r o p o s a l u n d e r w a y . He gave t he C a n a d i a n s h i s f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n . E a g e r t o p r o c e e d i m m e d i a t e l y , t h e C a n a d i a n gove rnmen t d e c i d e d on November 4 , 1 9 5 2 , t h a t i t was t i m e t o l e t t h e A m e r i c a n gove rnmen t know t h a t - 63 -Figure 3. - 64 -t he D o m i n i o n was a n x i o u s t o b e g i n u n d e r t h e te rms o f t h e ag reemen t r e a c h e d on J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 5 2 . The C a n a d i a n ambassador a d v i s e d t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e t h a t Canada c o n s i d e r e d t h e 1941 Agreement t o be c a n c e l l e d . ^ W i t h t h e Truman a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s b l e s s i n g , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n a p p r o v e d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada on November 1 9 , 1 9 5 2 , a n d by J u l y 1 5 , 1 9 5 3 , t h e F e d e r a l Power C o m m i s s i o n r u l e d t h a t New Y o r k s h o u l d be g r a n t e d a l i c e n c e t o d e v e l o p t h e A m e r i c a n s h a r e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p o w e r . M e a n w h i l e t h e C a n a d i a n t h r e a t t o b u i l d an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway c o u p l e d w i t h T r u m a n ' s c o o p e r a t i o n t o h e l p f a c i l i t a t e s u c h an a c c o m p l i s h m e n t f i n a l l y b e g a n t o h a v e an e f f e c t on t h e l awmake rs o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . - 6 5 -V. A m e r i c a n R e a c t i o n . C a n a d a ' s u l t i m a t u m , w a r n i n g t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n w o u l d b u i l d t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway by h e r s e l f i f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d i d n o t a c t q u i c k l y , had an e f f e c t s i m i l a r t o a c a t a l y s t i n a c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n . I t a l t e r e d t h e w h o l e s i t u a t i o n f a c i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b u t as i n many r e a c t i o n s , some t i m e p a s s e d b e f o r e i t s e f f e c t s w e r e n o t i c e a b l e . I n t h i s c a s e a n o t h e r c o u p l e o f y e a r s w e r e needed b e f o r e t h e t h r e a t was p o t e n t enough t o c a u s e a d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n . I n r e a l i t y , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has a l w a y s b e e n f a c e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y , s i n c e Canada h a s a l w a y s been p h y s i c a l l y , i f n o t f i n a n c i a l l y , c a p a b l e o f b u i l d i n g c a n a l s and c h a n n e l s w h o l l y w i t h i n h e r own t e r r i t o r y . I n a s p e c i a l message t o t he S e n a t e , P r e s i d e n t F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t r e m i n d e d t h e u p p e r chamber o f t h i s f a c t d u r i n g i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s on t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway T r e a t y b a c k i n J a n u a r y o f 1 9 3 4 . He a l s o wa rned t h a t f o r Canada t o do so w o u l d be a s e t b a c k t o A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s s i n c e i t w o u l d be " a r e v e r s a l o f t h e p o l i c y o f c o o p e r a t i o n w h i c h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a have c o n t i n u o u s l y m a i n t a i n e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . " S u r e l y , C o n g r e s s w o u l d a g r e e w i t h h i m t h a t " i t i s b e t t e r i n e v e r y way t h a t we s h o u l d m a i n t a i n t h e h i s t o r i c p r i n c i p l e o f a c c o r d w i t h Canada i n t h e m u t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e two N a t i o n s . " I Bu t u n t i l t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , no Cong ressman e v e r s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e D o m i n i o n n o r t h o f t h e b o r d e r t o be c a p a b l e o f s u c h an enormous p r o j e c t . E v e n as l a t e as 1951 w h e n , d u r i n g t h e h e a r i n g s o f t h e House P u b l i c Works C o m m i t t e e , t he s p e c t r e o f an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway was r e v i v e d - 66 -by O s c a r Chapman, S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r , many c o m m i t t e e members seemed t o be u n i m p r e s s e d . The s t a t e m e n t by P r o f e s s o r J.L. M c D o u g a l l o f Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y , t h e o n l y C a n a d i a n w i t n e s s , t h a t r e p o r t s o f C a n a d a ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o " g o i t a l o n e " we re n o t h i n g more t h a n t a l k , seemed to c o n v i n c e many o f t h e Congressmen on t he p a n e l t h a t Canada was s t i l l o n l y b l u f f i n g . - ^ A l m o s t u n t i l i t was t o o l a t e some Cong ressmen c o n t i n u e d t o b e l i e v e as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n R a i l r o a d s , G r e g o r y P r i n c e , d i d , t h a t Canada was n o t s e r i o u s . ^ S e n a t o r Tom C o n n a l l y o f T e x a s , c h a i r m a n o f t h e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e and l o n g t i m e seaway o p p o n e n t , c o n t i n u e d t o keep t h e seaway r e s o l u t i o n b o t t l e d up i n c o m m i t t e e . I n t h e l o w e r h o u s e , t h e P u b l i c Works Commi t tee was d e a d l o c k e d on t h e i s s u e . ^ As l o n g as i t was t h o u g h t t h a t Canada was b l u f f i n g i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e was no n e c e s s i t y t o do a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The a n t i - s e a w a y l o b b y i n b o t h h o u s e s o f C o n g r e s s seemed t o b e as p o w e r f u l as e v e r . H o w e v e r , c r a c k s w e r e b e g i n n i n g t o f o r m i n t h e b a r r i e r w h i c h seaway o p p o n e n t s had e r e c t e d t o b l o c k A m e r i c a n c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e comb ined p r o j e c t . I n n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s , m a g a z i n e s , and r a d i o p r o g r a m s , as w e l l as i n s p e e c h e s i n C o n g r e s s , seaway a d v o c a t e s k e p t hammer ing away a t t h e g r o w i n g f e a r , compounded by T r u m a n ' s w i l l i n g c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n a u t h o r i t i e s , t h a t Canada was n o t b l u f f i n g . ^ The u n d e r l y i n g theme o f most p r o - s e a w a y s p e e c h e s i n C o n g r e s s d u r i n g t h e l a s t mon ths o f t h e Truman a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t h a t t h i s was t h e l a s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e as an e q u a l p a r t n e r i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and c o n t r o l o f t h e s e a w a y . I f t h e seaway b i l l we re n o t p a s s e d , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d , i n e f f e c t , be v o l u n t a r i l y s u r r e n d e r i n g t o a n o t h e r n a t i o n c o n t r o l o v e r one o f t h e g r e a t e s t and most s t r a t e g i c w a t e r w a y s o f t h e w o r l d , s o m e t h i n g n e v e r - 67 -w i l l i n g l y done by any o t h e r c o u n t r y . The U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d have, no v o i c e i n t h e c o n t r o l o r o p e r a t i o n o f t h e seaway and w o u l d have r e p u d i a t e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y o f c o o p e r a t i o n be tween t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada on a l l m a t t e r s o f common i n t e r e s t t o t h e p e o p l e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . ^ I n 1 9 5 3 , t h e d e l a y s c a u s e d by t h e F e d e r a l Power C o m m i s s i o n i n d e c i d i n g on New Y o r k ' s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a l i c e n c e t o d e v e l o p t h e S t . L a w r e n c e power g a v e t h e new E i s e n h o w e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the n e w l y -e l e c t e d C o n g r e s s t i m e t o c o n s i d e r A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e seaway and power p r o j e c t one l a s t t i m e . H o p i n g t h a t t h e t h r e a t o f C a n a d a ' s u l t i m a t u m had f i n a l l y t a k e n e f f e c t , S e n a t o r W i l e y o f W i s c o n s i n and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e G e o r g e Dondero o f M i c h i g a n w a s t e d no t i m e i n i n t r o d u c i n g s i m i l a r b i l l s t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e chambers i n a f i n a l d e s p e r a t e a t t e m p t t o i n v o l v e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e n a v i g a t i o n and power o f a c i l i t i e s . - 68 -A . Changed C i r c u m s t a n c e s . A l t h o u g h t h e C a n a d i a n d e c i s i o n t o " g o i t a l o n e " had f u n d a m e n t a l l y a l t e r e d t h e s i t u a t i o n f a c i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , some C o n g r e s s -men c o n t i n u e d t o d e b a t e t h e i s s u e as t h o u g h n o t h i n g had c h a n g e d . A rgumen ts w h i c h had become t i m e - h o n o r e d and f a m i l i a r t o a l l c o n c e r n e d , c o n t i n u e d t o be used by b o t h s i d e s . E v e n a f t e r t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l had b e e n i n t r o -duced i n t o C o n g r e s s i n a f i n a l d e s p e r a t e a t t e m p t t o g e t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y , some p r o - s e a w a y and a n t i - s e a w a y men c o n t i n u e d t o a r g u e t h e e c o n o m i c m e r i t s o r d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e p r o j e c t i n t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f 1953 and t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l d e b a t e s o f 1 9 5 4 . T h o s e who f a v o r e d A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o s t r e s s t h e v a l u e o f i m p r o v i n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e w a t e r w a y . They e m p h a s i z e d i t s w o r t h as a b u s i n e s s i n v e s t m e n t w h i c h w o u l d b e n e f i t t h e A m e r i c a n G r e a t L a k e s p o r t s , w o u l d i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y , and w o u l d y i e l d t r emendous e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s , s u c h as f u l l employment and p r o s p e r i t y , t o t h e M i d w e s t as w e l l as t h e w h o l e o f t h e c o u n t r y . T h e s e a rgumen ts we re s u p p o r t e d w i t h i m p r e s s i v e s t a t i s t i c s p r e -d i c t i n g t h a t c l o s e t o 85% o f t h e enor.nous amount o f t r a f f i c e x p e c t e d t o use t h e new seaway w o u l d e i t h e r o r i g i n a t e f r om o r be d e s t i n e d f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 9 The s e a w a y ' s o p p o n e n t s c o n t i n u e d t o deny t h e p r o j e c t e d b e n e f i t s o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway and enumera ted t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s t h a t t h e p r o j e c t wou ld c a u s e . They p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e seaway w o u l d h u r t t he - 69 -E a s t and G u l f C o a s t p o r t s and E a s t e r n r a i l r o a d s by d i v e r t i n g t h e i r t r a f f i c and w o u l d e x p o s e A m e r i c a n c o a l and m i n i n g i n t e r e s t s t o c o m p e t i t i o n f r om cheap f o r e i g n s u p p l i e s . M o r e o v e r , t h e y a r g u e d t h a t t h e s h a l l o w n e s s o f t h e p r o p o s e d seaway w o u l d h u r t t h e A m e r i c a n m e r c h a n t m a r i n e w h i l e a l l o w i n g an i n v a s i o n o f f o r e i g n s h i p p i n g and cheap f o r e i g n g o o d s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e seaway was an o b s o l e t e " c o l o s s a l b o o n d o g g l e " t o t h e a l r e a d y h e a v i l y b u r d e n e d A m e r i c a n t a x p a y e r and a p r o j e c t i n w h i c h t h e C a n a d i a n s no l o n g e r w a n t e d t h e A m e r i c a n s t o become i n v o l v e d , a n y w a y , " ^ T h e s e a r g u m e n t s , p r o and c o n , had been u s e d b e f o r e i n t h e p o s t - w a r d e b a t e s on t h e S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y , " ^ b u t i n t e rms o f t h e new s i t u a t i o n f a c i n g C o n g r e s s i n 1953 and 1 9 5 4 , t h e y h a d l o s t t h e i r p o t e n c y f o r b o t h s i d e s . T h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and r e l e v a n c e one way o r t h e o t h e r had e v a p o r a t e d . The C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m had s e e n t o t h a t . I t had changed t h e w h o l e f o c u s o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The f a c t t h a t t h e seaway was g o i n g t o be b u i l t r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p a r t i c i p a t e d , p r e c l u d e d a l l a rgumen ts on i t s m e r i t s o r f a u l t s . The q u e s t i o n was no l o n g e r w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e seaway s h o u l d be b u i l t , b u t w h e t h e r i t was i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , m a i n t e n a n c e , and c o n t r o l . The n a t i o n ' s l awmake rs d i d n o t d e l u d e t h e m s e l v e s on t h i s p o i n t and b o t h s i d e s , t hough t h e y h e l d d i f f e r e n t v i e w s , r e g u l a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d 12 t h e i r c o g n i z a n c e o f t he new s i t u a t i o n . I n a l e t t e r r e a d d u r i n g t h e 1954 d e b a t e s , S e n a t o r W i l e y v o c a l i z e d t h e t h o u g h t s o f many seaway a d v o c a t e s on t h i s new c o n d i t i o n , . N o t o n l y a r e t h e a rgumen ts o f t h e r a i l r o a d s and c o a l i n t e r e s t s i n v a l i d b u t , more i m p o r t a n t , t h e y a r e c o m p l e t e l y - 7 0 -i r r e l e v a n t and b e s i d e t h e p o i n t . T h i s as y o u know , i s b e c a u s e Canada i s r e a d y and w i l l i n g t o b u i l d t h e seaway a l o n e , w h e t h e r we p a r t i c i p a t e o r n o t . 1 3 J u s t b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e S e n a t e d e b a t e s on t h e W i l e y b i l l , S e n a t o r H u b e r t Humphrey o f M i n n e s o t a t o o k t i m e t o r e m i n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s b e f o r e t h e y v o t e d t h a t t h e d e b a t e t h i s y e a r i s i n one s e n s e d i f f e r e n t f r om t h e d e b a t e s o f p r e v i o u s y e a r s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e S t . L a w r e n c e w i l l be b u i l t w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e C o n g r e s s a u t h o r i z e s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c o n -s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t . . . The o p p o n e n t s o f t h e s e a w a y , t h e r e f o r e , l o s t t h e i r most c r u c i a l b a t t l e . 1 4 On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e S e n a t o r f r om A r k a n s a s , J . W . F u l b r i g h t , e x p r e s s e d t h e way s t a u n c h seaway o p p o n e n t s v i e w e d t h e new s i t u a t i o n . " T h e n e w s , " he s t a t e d , t h a t C a n a d a i s f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d t o go ahead w i t h t h i s p r o j e c t s h o u l d , i n my o p i n i o n , have b e e n g r e e t e d w i t h a s i g h o f r e l i e f by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e C o n g r e s s , and t h e p u b l i c o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 1-* The c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n f a c i n g t h e C o n g r e s s had become w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway p r o j e c t . The k e y t o u n l o c k t h e answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , a l r e a d y n a r r o w e d down t o t h e i s s u e o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , was f u r t h e r f o c u s s e d t o t h e i s s u e o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . I n a s t a t e m e n t made b e f o r e t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Commi t tee on May 2 0 , 1 9 5 3 , L i v i n g s ! . o n T . M e r c h a n t , t h e A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y f o r E u r o p e a n A f f a i r s , c o g e n t l y p h r a s e d t h e d i l e m m a f a c i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n a s i m p l e q u e s t i o n : W i l l t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s j o i n w i t h Canada i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . . . o r w i l l i t abandon b y d e f a u l t any c o n t r o l o v e r t h i s g r e a t n a t u r a l wa te rway s o i m p o r t a n t t o N o r t h A m e r i c a ' s s e c u r i t y and e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s ? - ^ He answered h i s own q u e s t i o n s a y i n g t h a t U n i t e d S t a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was - 71 -h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e i n o r d e r t o i n s u r e a d e q u a t e p r o t e c t i o n f o r i t s l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s . The d e b a t e on t h e i s s u e o f A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n C o n g r e s s and i n t h e c o u n t r y a t l a r g e , now r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h i s c r u c i a l p o i n t . H o w e v e r , t h i s v i t a l i s s u e became somewhat o b s c u r e d by t h e t e n d e n c y o f b o t h p r o - s e a w a y f o r c e s and t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s t o e q u a t e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y w i t h t h e o l d , f a m i l i a r n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e a r g u m e n t . Though t h e t h r e e w e r e somewhat r e l a t e d and t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s seemed q u i t e s u b t l e , t h e y w e r e n o t e x a c t l y t h e same t h i n g . - 72 -B. N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y : 1 9 5 4 . N a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y was a v e r y b r o a d and e n c o m p a s s i n g c o n c e p t i o n w h i c h p r o v i d e d f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s o v e r a l l w e l l - b e i n g , i n p e a c e as i n w a r . I t i n c l u d e d t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f r o m any t h r e a t t o t h i s w e l l - b e i n g f r om any s o u r c e , w h e t h e r f rom m i l i t a r y t h r e a t s o r e c o n o m i c p i t f a l l s . I t was f o r r e a s o n s o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f i n a l l y a c c e p t e d a r o l e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . Two c o m p l e m e n t a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e g r e a t c o n c e r n f o r n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e i n t h e f a c e o f t h e C o l d War s i t u a t i o n and t h e g r o w i n g n e e d t o i m p o r t v i t a l r e s o u r c e s f o r A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r i e s , comb ined t o g i v e t h e c a s e f o r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y i t s g r e a t p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s . C a n a d a ' s u l t i m a t u m t o b u i l d and o p e r a t e t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway on h e r own b r o u g h t t h i n g s t o a h e a d and s i m p l i f i e d t h e c h o i c e f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : e i t h e r a l l o w Canada t o c o n s t r u c t and c o n t r o l t h i s v i t a l wa te rway a l o n e , o r come i n on t h e p r o j e c t and e n s u r e f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s some c o n t r o l o v e r i t s o p e r a t i o n and s e c u r i t y . W i t h t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n W a s h i n g t o n i n 1953 came a new and f i n a l a s s a u l t on t h e " b a s t i o n o f i n e r t i a , " C o n g r e s s . The e v e n t s o f t h e y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m , p r o v i d e d t h e seaway f o r c e s w i t h new a m m u n i t i o n t o add t o t h e i r a r s e n a l . P r e s i d e n t T r u m a n ' s d e c i s i o n t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h C a n a d i a n a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o imp lemen t t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t ' s p l a n f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an a l l - C a n a d i a n seaway had a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l t e r i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n f a c i n g t h e new C o n g r e s s . By t h e t i m e Dw igh t E i s e n h o w e r t o o k o f f i c e , a l l t h a t was s t a n d i n g i n t h e way o f t h e commencement o f a C a n a d i a n - 73 -S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway was t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f an A m e r i c a n e n t i t y t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h O n t a r i o i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f power i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a p i d s S e c t i o n o f t he S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r . H o p i n g t o p r o v o k e a r e a c t i o n i n C o n g r e s s , t h e p r o - s e a w a y f o r c e s mounted an a t t a c k on t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n u s i n g t he new, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e o l d , a m m u n i t i o n i n s u p p o r t o f a f a m i l i a r a rgument - n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . They hoped t h a t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s a rgument t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i s s u e o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y r a i s e d by t h e t h r e a t o f an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e w i n n i n g c o m b i n a t i o n t h e y needed i n t h e i r f i n a l d e s p e r a t e e f f o r t t o g e t t he U n i t e d S t a t e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t . I n t h i s a t t e m p t t h e y r e c e i v e d t h e f u l l s u p p o r t o f t h e E i s e n h o w e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A t f i r s t , a f t e r E i s e n h o w e r t o o k o f f i c e , t h e r e was some doub t as t o w h e t h e r he w o u l d c o n t i n u e t h e t r a d i t i o n o f p r e s i d e n t i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e S t . L a w r e n c e p r o j e c t i n i t i a t e d by W i l l i a m Howard T a f t , e v e n t h o u g h a t a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e d u r i n g t h e campa ign he had s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i n c e Canada was g o i n g on w i t h t h e s e a w a y , he w o u l d p r e f e r t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s n o t be exc l uded . " * " ^ B e f o r e h i s i n a u g u r a t i o n i t was g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t E i s e n h o w e r f a v o r e d the s e a w a y , b u t when t h e v e t e r a n seaway p r o m o t e r , S e n a t o r W i l e y o f W i s c o n s i n , i n t r o d u c e d a new seaway b i l l i n J a n u a r y 1 9 5 3 , t he o n l y commitment t h e .new p r e s i d e n t w o u l d g i v e was a p r o m i s e t o g i v e i t " e a r l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " A t a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e i n F e b r u a r y he h e d g e d a g a i n . The New Y o r k T imes r e p o r t e d t h a t he w o u l d o n l y s t a t e t h a t t h e " i s s u e was c o n t r o v e r s i a l , a f f e c t e d by g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and he w i s h e d t o s t u d y i t f u r t h e r b e f o r e a s s u m i n g a p o s i t i o n on i t . M o r e o v e r , i n a c a b i n e t m e e t i n g i n M a r c h , he s a i d he had no o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n on t h e seaway and had - 74 -n e v e r been e n t h u s i a s t i c f o r i t b e c a u s e o f t h e c o s t . u So i n t h e same month t h e S e n a t e M a j o r i t y L e a d e r , R o b e r t T a f t , a f t e r d i s c u s s i n g t h e m a t t e r w i t h t h e p r e s i d e n t , r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e S e n a t e h e a r i n g s on the W i l e y b i l l w o u l d have t o go ahead w i t h o u t any r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f r om the W h i t e House . 2 - * -The f e a r s o f A m e r i c a n seaway b a c k e r s we re i n c r e a s e d even more when t h e P r e s i d e n t i n v i t e d seaway o p p o n e n t s t o a p r i v a t e s u p p e r p a r t y a t t h e W h i t e H o u s e . 2 2 But a t a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e a few days l a t e r , on A p r i l 2 4 , 1 9 5 3 , and i n l e t t e r s t o S e n a t o r W i l e y , c h a i r m a n o f t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e , and Thomas Buchanan o f t he F e d e r a l Power C o m m i s s i o n , P r e s i d e n t E i s e n h o w e r f i n a l l y announced t h a t , upon t h e a d v i c e o f h i s N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y 23 C o u n c i l , he was recommend ing t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y . 2 ^ A c o u p l e o f weeks l a t e r , on May 8 , a W h i t e House p r e s s r e l e a s e r e p o r t e d t h a t E i s e n h o w e r and h i s e n t i r e c a b i n e t w e r e unan imous i n t h e i r a p p r o v a l o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s l i m i t i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o t h e improvement o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a p i d s S e c t i o n and l e t Canada c o m p l e t e t h e r e s t o f t h e M o n t r e a l t o L a k e E r i e s e a w a y . The m a i n l i n e s o f t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l had been e n d o r s e d and f r o m t h e n on t he E i s e n h o w e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h rew t h e f u l l w e i g h t o f i t s s u p p o r t b e h i n d t h e b i l l , s t r e s s i n g t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e as t he c h i e f r e a s o n s f o r i t s p a s s a g e . I n h i s S t a t e o f t h e U n i o n message b e f o r e a j o i n t s e s s i o n o f t h e C o n g r e s s on J a n u a r y 6 , 1 9 5 4 , P r e s i d e n t E i s e n h o w e r i n c l u d e d t he seaway p r o j e c t as one o f t he s i x m a j o r p o i n t s i n h i s n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e p r o g r a m : A n o t h e r p a r t o f t h i s f o u n d a t i o n (o f a sound d e f e n s e p rog ram) i s , o f c o u r s e , o u r c o n t i n e n t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m . Some o f o u r v i t a l heavy m a t e r i a l s come i n c r e a s i n g l y f rom C a n a d a . - 75 -I n d e e d , o u r r e l a t i o n s w i t h C a n a d a , h a p p i l y a l w a y s c l o s e , i n v o l v e more and more t h e u n b r e a k a b l e t i e s o f s t r a t e g i c i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . B o t h n a t i o n s now n e e d t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway f o r s e c u r i t y as w e l l as e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s . I u r g e t h i s C o n g r e s s p r o m p t l y t o a p p r o v e o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . 2 ° O t h e r h i g h o f f i c i a l s o f t h e " d e f e n s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , " i n c l u d i n g t he S e c r e t a r i e s o f D e f e n s e , Commerce, and S t a t e , and members o f t h e J o i n t C h i e f s o f S t a f f , t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , and t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y R e s o u r c e s B o a r d , c i t e d n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and d e f e n s e as t h e m a i n r e a s o n s 27 f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o h a v e a seaway r o l e . - 76 -1. N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e . The p r o m i n e n c e g i v e n t o t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y c a s e was n a t u r a l l y e x t e n d e d by seaway a d v o c a t e s t o t h e i r o l d n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e a rgumen ts s t r e s s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway i n p r o t e c t i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f r o m m i l i t a r y t h r e a t s t o i t s t e r r i t o r y . H o w e v e r , i t d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t a l l t he n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e p r o p o s i t i o n s w e r e e f f e c t i v e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y a rgumen ts as w e l l , w h i c h many a d v o c a t e s seemed t o t h i n k . I n t h e 1953 h e a r i n g s o f t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Commi t tee and t h e House P u b l i c Works Commi t t ee and i n t h e 1954 c o n g r e s s i o n a l d e b a t e s , seaway a d v o c a t e s endowed t h e o l d n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e a rgumen ts w i t h a new e m p h a s i s and s e n s e o f u r g e n c y . Bu t t h e n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e a rgumen ts had n o t n e c e s s a r i l y become any more p o t e n t o r any more c o n v i n c i n g as a r e s u l t o f t h e C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m t h a n t h e y had been i n t h e p a s t . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , t h e new d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t he f i e l d o f w a r f a r e o v e r t h e y e a r s had made c e r t a i n n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e a rgumen ts w e a k e r t h a n e v e r b e f o r e . B a s i n g t h e i r a rgumen ts on t h e W o r l d War I I method o f w a r f a r e w h i c h had s i n c e become o u t m o d e d , and c o n s t a n t l y r e l y i n g on q u o t e s by h i g h o f f i c i a l s and m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , t h e S e a w a y ' s s u p p o r t e r s a g a i n and a g a i n d r o v e home t h e p o i n t t h a t t h o s e most c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e n a t i o n ' s d e f e n s e 2 8 s u p p o r t e d A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . E m p l o y i n g t h e 29 a rgumen ts t h a t had been u s e d i n t h e l a t e 1940 s , t h e y a g a i n t r i e d t o c o n v i n c e t h e i r o p p o n e n t s t h a t t he S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway was a v i t a l p a r t o f t h e n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e n e t w o r k and w o u l d be o f i n c a l c u l a b l e v a l u e s h o u l d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e v e r be a t t a c k e d . M i l i t a r i l y , i t w o u l d be o f g r e a t s t r a t e g i c v a l u e b e c a u s e i t w o u l d p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e l y s u b m a r i n e f r e e w a t e r r o u t e f o r n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e way t o E u r o p e . I t w o u l d s u p p l y power t o d e f e n s e i n d u s t r i e s and o f f e r an a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n r o u t e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e Seaway w o u l d a l l o w s h i p - b u i l d i n g and r e p a i r on t h e G r e a t L a k e s . 3 ^ i n h i s t e s t i m o n y b e f o r e t h e House Commi t tee on P u b l i c Works on J u n e 1 1 , 1 9 5 3 , F r a n k N a s h , t h e A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e , a p t l y s u m m a r i z e d the c a s e f o r n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e i n t h e s e w o r d s : The p r i n c i p l e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e seaway f r om t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e l i e s i n t h e a d d i t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s t h a t i t w i l l p r o v i d e . I t w i l l n o t o n l y p r o v i d e an avenue t o t h e i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t h e G r e a t L a k e s , b u t w i l l a l s o r e d u c e by abou t 1 ,000 m i l e s t h e o p e n - s e a r o u t e t o t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s and t o E u r o p e , w h i c h w i l l o b v i o u s l y be an i m p o r t a n t a d v a n t a g e i n t i m e o f wa r . . . t h e S t . L a w r e n c e seaway w i l l make t h e i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l s o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s a r e a more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o meet t h e n e e d s o f n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e s h i p - b u i l d i n g and s h i p r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s i n t h a t a r e a . ^ A n t i - s e a w a y f o r c e s , no l o n g e r a b l e t o c l a i m , as t h e y h a d i n t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s , t h a t A m e r i c a n d e f e n s e and s e c u r i t y demanded t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s n o t c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n s , we re l i m i t e d t o d e n y i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e seaway t o t h e s e c u r i t y and d e f e n s e o f t h e n a t i o n . The t a s k t h e y s e t t h e m s e l v e s t o i n 1953 and 1954 was t o p r o v e t h a t t he a rgumen ts b a s e d on n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e w e r e , i n t he wo rds o f S e n a t o r F u l b r i g h t , " c o m p l e t e n o n s e n s e . " They w a s t e d no e f f o r t i n s t r i k i n g a t t h e weak p o i n t s o f t h e n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e argument and s u c c e e d e d i n t e a r i n g a p a r t many o f i t s p r e m i s e s . "One b o m b , " n o t e d S e n a t o r B u t l e r o f M a r y l a n d , " c o u l d b o t t l e 33 up t h e w h o l e p r o j e c t , " and t h u s n u l l i f y a l l i t s s u p p o s e d b e n e f i t s . M o r e t h a n t h a t , t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t he a t o m i c bomb, j e t a i r c r a f t , n u c l e a r w e a p o n s , - 78 -and i n t e r - c o n t i n e n t a l b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e s had r a d i c a l l y changed t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e w a r s o f t h e f u t u r e w o u l d be f o u g h t . I n s t a n t m a s s i v e 34 r e t a l i a t i o n w o u l d n o t a l l o w enough t i m e f o r t h e S t . L a w r e n c e t o c a r r y ou t i t s c l a i m e d d e f e n s e f u n c t i o n s . S e n a t o r F l a n d e r s o f Vermont r e f l e c t e d t h i s t y p e o f t h i n k i n g when he p o i n t e d ou t t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e " a t o m i c a g e " s u c h n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e a d v a n t a g e s t h e seaway a d v o c a t e s w e r e c l a i m i n g f o r t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway seemed " i n t h e l i g h t o f common s e n s e , t o be b a s e d on 35 w a r f a r e t h a t i s o u t m o d e d . " W i t h bombers and m i s s i l e s c a p a b l e o f i n t e r -c o n t i n e n t a l t r a v e l and t he p o l a r r o u t e a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , t h e M i d w e s t was no l o n g e r t h e s a f e s t a r e a o f t h e c o u n t r y , b u t a c t u a l l y one o f t h e most e x p o s e d . The seaway w o u l d be c o m p l e t e l y i n d e f e n s i b l e . Any a t t e m p t t o p r o t e c t i t w o u l d m e r e l y d i v e r t b a d l y n e e d e d manpower and equ ipmen t i n a f u t i l e e f f o r t . B e c a u s e o f t h i s i t was a c t u a l l y a d e f e n s e l i a b i l i t y t h a t c o u l d n e v e r be depended on i n any war e m e r g e n c y . E v e n i f a c o n v e n t i o n a l w a r w e r e f o u g h t on t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t , a c c o r d i n g t o i t s o p p o n e n t s , t h e seaway c o u l d n o t be c o u n t e d on t o f u n c t i o n i n i t s d e f e n s e . S i n c e i t was t o be a l o n g c h a i n o f i n d i v i d u a l l o c k s and c a n a l s , i t c o u l d n e v e r be a d e q u a t e l y g u a r d e d a g a i n s t s a b o t a g e o r a t t a c k . The d e s t r u c t i o n o f one l o c k w o u l d p u t i t ou t o f c o m m i s s i o n f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h i s w o u l d mean n o t o n l y t h a t s u p p l i e s c o u l d n o t be t r a n s p o r t e d , b u t t h a t t h e s h i p b u i l d i n g and r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s h a r b o r s w o u l d be r e n d e r e d u s e l e s s . A l s o , s i n c e t h e seaway w o u l d be f r o z e n f o u r t o f i v e months a y e a r , w h a t e v e r d e f e n s e v a l u e i t d i d p o s s e s s w o u l d be n o n - e x i s t e n t f o r n e a r l y h a l f a y e a r , e v e r y y e a r . Thus i t w o u l d n o t r e l i e v e t h e b u r d e n on t h e r a i l r o a d s b u t add o n e , m a k i n g i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e r a i l r o a d s t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s a t f u l l s t r e n g t h a l l y e a r r o u n d t o h a n d l e t he e x t r a l o a d t h e y w o u l d r e c e i v e d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r . A n e t w o r k - 79 -o f r a i l r o a d s w o u l d be b e t t e r f o r n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e s i n c e t h e y w e r e f a s t e r , w o u l d be c a p a b l e o f f u n c t i o n i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , c o u l d be much more q u i c k l y and e a s i l y r e p a i r e d , and c o u l d o f f e r s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t e r o u t e s s h o u l d one s e c t i o n be p u t ou t o f c o m m i s s i o n . I t w a s , m o r e o v e r , an i l l u s i o n t o t h i n k t h a t t h e seaway w o u l d be s a f e f r om s u b m a r i n e s . I n W o r l d War I I , t h i r t e e n s h i p s h a d been sunk i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r by s u b m a r i n e s w h i c h w e r e n e v e r c a p t u r e d o r d e s t r o y e d and t he l a s t w o r l d wa r had p r o v e n t h a t t h e G u l f o f S t . L a w r e n c e was a s u c c e s s f u l enough h u n t i n g g r o u n d f o r enemy s u b m a r i n e s . T h e n , t o o , s l o w m o v i n g s h i p s i n t h e c o n f i n e d c h a n n e l s o f t h e seaway w o u l d be " s h o o t i n g t a r g e t s " f o r enemy a i r c r a f t . Seaway o p p o n e n t s a t t e m p t e d , f i n a l l y , t o t u r n t he C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m t o t h e i r a d v a n t a g e by a r g u i n g t h a t w h a t e v e r l i m i t e d b e n e f i t s t h e seaway m i g h t o f f e r t o c o n t i n e n t a l d e f e n s e w o u l d a c c r u e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n any c a s e , s i n c e Canada was g o i n g t o b u i l d t h e seaway w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p a r t i c i p a t e d . 3 6 The p r o - s e a w a y a rgumen ts s t r e s s i n g i t s n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e d e f e n s e o f N o r t h A m e r i c a had been e f f e c t i v e l y d i s c o u n t e d . Seaway a d v o c a t e s c o u l d n o t deny t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f t h e seaway s y s t e m . S i n c e t h e power p r o j e c t was no l o n g e r d e p e n d e n t on A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e s e a w a y , o p p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t seemed t o have p r o v e d t h a t t h e seaway p r o j e c t was n o t e s s e n t i a l f o r n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . The most t h a t c o u l d be s a i d f o r i t was what T r u m a n ' s S e c r e t a r y o f W a r , K e n n e t h C. R o y a l l , had s a i d a few y e a r s e a r l i e r , t h a t t h e seaway was " n o t v i t a l , b u t w o u l d be h e l p f u l t o d e f e n s e . " 3 7 - 80 -2 . N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y and an A s s u r e d R e s o u r c e s S u p p l y . The argument o f t h e s e a w a y ' s o p p o n e n t s d i s p e l l i n g t h e d e f e n s e my th was c o m p e l l i n g , b u t i n t h e end t h e c a s e t h e p r o j e c t ' s a d v o c a t e s we re a b l e t o b u i l d on t h e g r o u n d s o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y c o u l d n o t be r e s i s t e d . T i e d i n w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y was t h e p r o b l e m o f a s s u r i n g t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f an a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f v i t a l r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e A m e r i c a n c o n s u m e r , as w e l l as d e f e n s e i n d u s t r i e s . To r e m a i n a m a j o r m i l i t a r y , i n d u s t r i a l and e c o n o m i c p o w e r , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s had t o e n s u r e i t s e l f o f a c o n t i n u e d s u p p l y o f raw m a t e r i a l s f o r i t s f a c t o r i e s . N a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t demanded t h a t t h e c o u n t r y s u s t a i n , e v e n e x p a n d , i t s h i g h i n d u s t r i a l o u t p u t . Bu t b e c a u s e o f t h e demands o f two w o r l d w a r s , A m e r i c a l s u p p l i e s o f c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l raw m a t e r i a l s had d w i n d l e d and w o u l d n o t be a b l e t o k e e p p a c e w i t h t h e demand much l o n g e r . T h i s p o s e d a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m f o r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . The U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d have t o s t o c k p i l e t h e s e v i t a l m a t e r i a l s i n o r d e r t o a s s u r e i t s e l f o f a d o m e s t i c r e s e r v e i n t h e e v e n t o f a f u t u r e n a t i o n a l e m e r g e n c y . T h i s , i n t u r n , c a l l e d f o r t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f d o m e s t i c s o u r c e s and t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n o n e s . T h a t was whe re t h e S t . L a w r e n c e f i t t e d i n t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y p l a n s . Canada was c l o s e and i t was f r i e n d l y . I t s d e f e n s e was a l r e a d y l i n k e d t o t h a t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; i t s economy was t i e d t o t h e A m e r i c a n economy; a n d , i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , i t was e x p e r i e n c i n g i t s g r e a t e s t p e r i o d o f r e s o u r c e d i s c o v e r y and e x p l o i t a t i o n . No b e t t e r c o u n t r y e x i s t e d f rom w h i c h t o draw v i t a l l y needed raw m a t e r i a l s . T h e r e was heavy A m e r i c a n i n v e s t m e n t and c o n t r o l i n C a n a d a ' s r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s . I n f a c t , many - 81 -A m e r i c a n s had come t o c o n s i d e r C a n a d i a n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s as p a r t o f t h e i r own c o n t i n e n t a l r e s e r v e s . And what b e t t e r way t o t r a n s p o r t s u c h b u l k c a r g o e s t o t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e M i d w e s t t h a n by t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway? As had a l r e a d y been n o t e d many y e a r s b e f o r e , t h e seaway w o u l d p r o v i d e an i n e x p e n s i v e r o u t e f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l h e a r t l a n d o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The S t . L a w r e n c e seaway w o u l d be c r i t i c a l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e " c o n t i n e n t a l i z a t i o n " o f v i t a l r e s o u r c e s , by m o v i n g C a n a d i a n raw m a t e r i a l s t o A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r i e s as c h e a p l y as p o s s i b l e . A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e F r a n k N a s h t e s t i f i e d t o t h i s e f f e c t b e f o r e t h e House P u b l i c Works Commi t tee i n 1 9 5 3 . " T h e seaway w i l l be i m p o r t a n t as a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t y , " he a s s e r t e d , b e c a u s e i t w i l l s e r v e an a r e a t h a t i s a l r e a d y h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l . . . i t w i l l g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f l a r g e d e p o s i t s o f raw m a t e r i a l s , p r i n c i p a l l y i r o n o r e , t h a t a r e e s s e n t i a l t o any modern d e f e n s e e f f o r t . Our r e s e r v e s o f o p e n - p i t i r o n o r e i n t h e L a k e S u p e r i o r r e g i o n a r e d w i n d l i n g and must be s u p p l e m e n t e d f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s . . . t h e L a b r a d o r - Q u e b e c a r e a c o n t a i n s e x t e n s i v e d e p o s i t s o f h i g h - g r a d e o p e n - p i t o r e w h i c h a r e e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e f r o m t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r . T h i s o r e w i l l be made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o U n i t e d S t a t e s i n d u s t r y a t a l o w - c o s t by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e seaway i n t h i s r e g a r d c a n be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d when we r e a l i z e t h a t f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e s m e l t i n g c a p a c i t y i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s i s l o c a t e d ( i n ) . . . an a r e a t h a t w i l l be d i r e c t l y s e r v e d by t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . A l s o , t i t a n i u m and manganese have b e e n f o u n d i n t h e a r e a a r o u n d t h e mouth o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r , and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t d e p o s i t s o f o t h e r m i n e r a l s t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t t o any d e f e n s e e f f o r t s w i l l a l s o be d i s c o v e r e d i n t h a t a r e a . . . The i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g f rom t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway w i l l p r o v i d e an i m p e t u s t o t h e m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h a t a r e a . demanded w a s , The most e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e w h i c h A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r i e s o f c o u r s e , i r o n o r e . W i t h o u t i t s t e e l c o u l d no t be p r o d u c e d , - 82 -and w i t h o u t s t e e l , most d e f e n s e and consumer i n d u s t r i e s w o u l d c e a s e t o f u n c t i o n . M a j o r G e n e r a l B e r n a r d L . R o b i n s o n s p e l l e d ou t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s f a c t i n 1 9 5 4 . " S t e e l , " he w r o t e , i s an e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t o f wa r and ou r a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e s t e e l has been an i m p o r t a n t measu re o f o u r m i l i t a r y s u p e r i o r i t y . No t o n l y o u r a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e i t e c o n o m i -c a l l y , b u t o u r a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s o f i t r a p i d l y i n t i m e s o f emergency i s e s s e n t i a l t o m i l i t a r y v i c t o r y . To a c h i e v e t h i s a d v a n t a g e o f r a p i d e x p a n s i b i l i t y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t we have h i g h - g r a d e , o p e n - p i t i r o n o r e s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . . . The l a r g e s t s i n g l e s o u r c e o f r e m a i n i n g h i g h - g r a d e o p e n - p i t i r o n o r e on t h i s c o n t i n e n t i s t h a t r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e L a b r a d o r - Q u e b e c a r e a . ^ 9 By 1 9 5 4 , i t was g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t t h e h i g h - g r a d e i r o n o r e s u p p l y o f t h e M e s a b i Range was f a s t a p p r o a c h i n g e x h a u s t i o n and t h a t i t w o u l d be s u p p l e m e n t e d by o r e f r om t h e L a b r a d o r - Q u e b e c f i e l d s . ^ The I r o n Ore Company o f Canada had a l r e a d y begun c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a i l -way t o l i n k i t s o r e r e s e r v e s w i t h Seven I s l a n d s , a p o r t on t h e S t . L a w r e n c e . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t i r o n o r e f r o m t h e L a b r a d o r - Q u e b e c r e g i o n w o u l d be t h e m a j o r and mos t e s s e n t i a l commod i t y t o u s e t h e new s e a w a y . I n f a c t , i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t c l o s e t o h a l f o f a l l f u t u r e t o n n a g e t r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h t h e S t . L a w r e n c e c a n a l s w o u l d be i r o n o r e . A s u r v e y done by t h e C a n a d i a n D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a d e and Commerce, c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e , p r e d i c t e d t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e t w e n t y m i l l i o n t o n s o f t h e 2 6 , 4 3 1 , 0 0 0 t o n s o f upbound S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway t r a f f i c and t h e 4 4 , 5 3 2 , 0 0 0 t o t a l seaway t o n n a g e w o u l d be i r o n o r e . ^ An e a r l i e r e s t i m a t e by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Depa r tmen t o f Commerce was even more o p t i m i s t i c , p r e d i c t i n g t h a t t h e minimum t o n n a g e t o be h a n d l e d by t h e seaway i n f u t u r e w o u l d be 5 7 , 7 7 8 , 0 0 0 t o n s , o f w h i c h t h i r t y m i l l i o n w o u l d be i r o n o r e . 4 2 I n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t A m e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s u s i n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e - 83 -Seaway and i n o r d e r t o have some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e t o l l s t o be c h a r g e d and t h e p r i o r i t i e s g i v e n , seaway a d v o c a t e s a r g u e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o j e c t . O n l y by j o i n i n g i n t h e S e a w a y ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s be a s s u r e d t h a t i t s i n d u s t r i e s w o u l d r e c e i v e a t a l l t i m e s t he cheap and c o n t i n u i n g s u p p l y o f t h e v i t a l r e s o u r c e s t h e y r e q u i r e d . The C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m h a d b r o u g h t t h i n g s t o a head and was now m a k i n g an i m m e d i a t e d e c i s i o n i m p e r a t i v e . F a c e d w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t y t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r i t w a s , i n t he w o r d s o f S e n a t o r J o h n F . K e n n e d y , t h e young new D e m o c r a t i c s e n a t o r f r om M a s s a c h u s e t t s , " i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n , o p e r a t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s e a w a y , " 4 3 w h i c h was now t o become a r e a l i t y , many Cong ressmen a g r e e d w i t h h im t h a t i t w a s . " I t seems t o m e , " n o t e d S e n a t o r Lehman o f New Y o r k , p e r f e c t l y o b v i o u s t h a t u n l e s s we j o i n Canada i n b u i l d i n g t h e seaway we w i l l have a b s o l u t e l y no v o i c e w h a t s o e v e r w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e seaway and t h e l o c k s , and n o - a u t h o r i t y i n t h e f i x i n g o f t o l l s . . . 44 S e n a t o r F e r g u s o n , a R e p u b l i c a n f r o m M i c h i g a n , wa rned h i s c o l l e a g u e s t h a t I f C a n a d a b u i l t t h e seaway a l o n e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d h a v e no v o i c e i n d e f e n s e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r i t and no v o i c e i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r i o r i t i e s i n e m e r g e n c i e s . S e n a t o r W i l e y e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t he E i s e n h o w e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a d v o c a t e d A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e seaway p r o j e c t and q u o t e d t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r , D o u g l a s M c K a y , who s a i d : C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t by f a r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e s h i p m e n t s t h r o u g h t h i s w a t e r w a y w i l l be f o r o u r i n d u s t r i e s . . . I t w o u l d be h i g h l y u n d e s i r a b l e t o l e a v e any p a r t o f t h e w e l f a r e o f g r e a t i n d u s t r i e s t o t h e s o l e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a f o r e i g n p o w e r , no m a t t e r how f r i e n d l y o u r r e l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n , a r e , and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o b e . S p e a k i n g f o r h i m s e l f , S e n a t o r W i l e y n o t e d t h a t " t h i s i s o u r l a s t c h a n c e t o i n s u r e t h a t ou r i n t e r e s t s w i l l be p r o t e c t e d . " 47 - 84 -F o r many A m e r i c a n l awmakers and l e a d e r s , t h e o n l y r e a s o n a b l e s o l u t i o n w o u l d be f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o j o i n i n t h e seaway p r o j e c t i n o r d e r t o g a i n and m a i n t a i n a v o i c e i n t h e c o n t r o l , management , and d e f e n s e o f t h e w a t e r w a y , t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e c o u n t r y w o u l d r e c e i v e much o f i t s i m p o r t a n t e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s . ^ 8 Such a v o i c e i n t h e c o n t r o l and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e seaway w o u l d be e s p e c i a l l y v i t a l i n t h e e v e n t t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w e r e i n v o l v e d i n a n o t h e r l i m i t e d w a r o r " p o l i c e a c t i o n , " s u c h as t h e K o r e a n War had b e e n , i n w h i c h t h e r e was no a c t u a l m i l i t a r y t h r e a t t o t h e c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s . The u n t h r e a t e n e d seaway w o u l d be a b l e t o l i v e up t o i t s f u l l n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y p o t e n t i a l , s u p p l y i n g t h e A m e r i c a n wa r i n d u s t r i e s w i t h t h e v i t a l m a t e r i a l s t h e y r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e t h e w a r s u p p l i e s n e e d e d by t h e A m e r i c a n armed f o r c e s . And b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e b u i l d i n g and c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o j e c t , t h e A m e r i c a n s w o u l d be a b l e t o make s u r e t h a t t h e s u p p l i e s t h e n a t i o n n e e d e d f o r t h e war w o u l d be g i v e n t o p p r i o r i t y when t r a v e r s i n g t h e seaway and w o u l d n o t be d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by h i g h t o l l s . A l t h o u g h t h e memory o f t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f t h e K o r e a n War was s t i l l t o o f r e s h t o m e n t i o n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n o t h e r s u c h i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e r e c a n be no d o u b t t h a t t h i s was one o f t h e m a j o r u n d e r l y i n g themes o f t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y c a s e . Seaway o p p o n e n t s we re t o n g u e - t i e d i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . A l l t h e y c o u l d do was t o deny t h a t A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d g i v e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a more e f f e c t i v e v o i c e i n t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e s e a w a y , and t o s t r e s s t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n s had a l w a y s t r e a t e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f a i r l y i n t h e p a s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e use o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e c a n a l s and w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o do s o , 49 e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e y w o u l d p r o f i t f rom t h e e x p o r t o f t h e i r raw m a t e r i a l s . T h i s , h o w e v e r , was n o t e n o u g h . I t had become o b v i o u s t o many C o n g r e s s m e n - 85 -t h a t n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y demanded t h a t t he U n i t e d S t a t e s be a s s u r e d o f some c o n t r o l o v e r s u c h a v i t a l w a t e r w a y . I n o r d e r t o g e t t h a t c o n t r o l , t h e n a t i o n w o u l d have t o end i t s t w e n t y y e a r s o f s t a l l i n g and e n t e r i n t o t h e j o i n t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . The C o n g r e s s f i n a l l y a c t e d on t h e seaway w i t h r e l a t i v e s w i f t n e s s . On J a n u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 5 4 , t h e W i l e y b i l l p a s s e d t h e S e n a t e w i t h a v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e m a r g i n o f f i f t y one v o t e s i n f a v o r and t h i r t y - t h r e e 50 o p p o s e d . An e q u a l number o f R e p u b l i c a n s and D e m o c r a t s w i t h one I n d e p e n d e n t v o t e d i n f a v o r o f A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w h i l e e i g h t e e n D e m o c r a t s and f i f t e e n R e p u b l i c a n s c h o s e t o o p p o s e t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n -s p o n s o r e d m e a s u r e . The r e l a t i v e l y s o l i d o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e E a s t e r n s e a b o a r d , t h e G u l f s t a t e s , and t h e M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y had b e e n c r a c k e d . " ' ' ' " T h r e e weeks l a t e r , i n a l e s s d r a m a t i c d e c i s i o n , t h e House c o n c u r r e d w i t h t h e 52 S e n a t e , p a s s i n g t h e Dondero b i l l 241 t o 1 5 8 . I n a W h i t e House ceremony on May 1 3 , 1 9 5 4 , P r e s i d e n t E i s e n h o w e r s i g n e d t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l i n t o P u b l i c Law 3 5 8 , e n d i n g o v e r t h i r t y y e a r s o f v i g o r o u s and h e a t e d d e b a t e i n t h e A m e r i c a n C o n g r e s s and i n t h e c o u n t r y a t l a r g e . The U n i t e d S t a t e s had f i n a l l y a c c e p t e d a r o l e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . - 86 -C . O t h e r F a c t o r s E n c o u r a g i n g A m e r i c a n A c t i o n . B e s i d e s t h e p r e s s u r e a p p l i e d by t h e C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m w h i c h f o r c e d t h e C o n g r e s s i n a c t i o n , and t h e p e r s u a s i v e n e s s o f t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y a rgument w h i c h c o n v i n c e d i t s members t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o have a seaway r o l e , t h e r e were a number o f o t h e r f a c t o r s and c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d o r h e l p e d f a c i l i t a t e t h e C o n g r e s s t o v o t e i n f a v o r o f t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o B i l l . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m , 1952 saw a R e p u b l i c a n v i c t o r y i n t h e n a t i o n a l p r e s i d e n t i a l and c o n g r e s s i o n a l e l e c t i o n s h e l d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i c h b r o u g h t abou t k e y changes i n t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . A f t e r t h e 1952 e l e c t i o n s n i n e s t a u n c h seaway o p p o n e n t s , s u c h as Tom C o n n a l l y , who h e a d e d t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e , and t h e i n f l u e n t i a l H e n r y Cabo t Lodge o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s , d i d n o t r e t u r n t o t h e S e n a t e . F i v e o f them were r e p l a c e d by new and p r e v i o u s l y u n c o m m i t t e d s e n a t o r s , l i k e S t u a r t S y m i n g t o n o f M i s s o u r i , and J o h n F . Kennedy o f M a s s a -c h u s e t t s , who a l t e r e d t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s ' s t a n d by v o t i n g i n f a v o r o f A m e r i c a n 5 3 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n b u i l d i n g t h e s e a w a y . I n a d r a m a t i c s p e e c h , p r o b a b l y t h e h i g h p o i n t o f t h e 1954 S e n a t e seaway d e b a t e s , S e n a t o r Kennedy b r o k e M a s s a c h u -s e t t s ' l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f v o t i n g s o l i d l y a g a i n s t t h e seaway i n C o n g r e s s . F o r a p e r i o d o f o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s no M a s s a c h u s e t t s s e n a t o r o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e had e v e r v o t e d i n f a v o r o f t he s e a w a y . Bu t t he n e w l y - e l e c t e d S e n a t o r Kennedy f e l t t h a t U n i t e d S t a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was now i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and t h a t no s e n a t o r , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f New E n g l a n d , s h o u l d oppose A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n m e r e l y b e c a u s e i t was t h e M i d w e s t w h i c h w o u l d g a i n t h e most d i r e c t b e n e f i t s . " I t h a s b e e n , " he b o l d l y a s s e r t e d , - 87 -t h i s a r b i t r a r y r e f u s a l o f many New E n g l a n d e r s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e l e g i t i m a t e needs and a s p i r a t i o n s o f o t h e r s e c t i o n s w h i c h has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e n e g l e c t o f , and e v e n o p p o s i t i o n t o , t h e needs o f o u r own r e g i o n by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f o t h e r a r e a s . We c a n n o t c o n t i n u e s o n a r r o w and d e s t r u c t i v e a p o s i t i o n . 4 I n a d d i t i o n t o c h a n g i n g t h e make-up o f C o n g r e s s , t h e R e p u b l i c a n v i c t o r y b r o u g h t abou t k e y c h a n g e s i n c o n g r e s s i o n a l c o m m i t t e e s . The D e m o c r a t i c seaway o p p o n e n t s who had s u c c e e d e d i n s t a l l i n g o r k i l l i n g p a s t seaway b i l l s i n c o m m i t t e e w e r e o u s t e d f r om t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p s o f t h e two c o m m i t t e e s w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e S t . L a w r e n c e seaway p r o j e c t , t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e and t h e House Commi t t ee on P u b l i c W o r k s . I n t u r n , t h e y w e r e r e p l a c e d by t he two mos t a r d e n t R e p u b l i c a n seaway a d v o -c a t e s , and t he e v e n t u a l c o - s p o n s o r s o f a s u c c e s s f u l seaway b i l l . S e n a t o r W i l e y became t h e new head o f t h e S e n a t e c o m m i t t e e and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e D o n d e r o t o o k o v e r t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f t h e House P u b l i c Works C o m m i t t e e . F r o m t h e i r p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y t h e y w e r e a b l e t o s p e e d t h e i r b i l l t h r o u g h t h e i r c o m m i t t e e s w i t h f a v o r a b l e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and e x e r t o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s on t h e i r f e l l o w c o n g r e s s m e n . W i t h t h e h e l p o f a n o t h e r seaway s u p p o r t e r , S e n a t o r W i l l i a m F . K n o w l a n d , t h e R e p u b l i c a n f l o o r l e a d e r , seaway f o r c e s c o u l d be a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i r b i l l w o u l d be g i v e n t o p p r i o r i t y . I n t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h o f g o v e r n m e n t , two o f t h e most p r o m i n e n t and i n f l u e n t i a l members o f t h e E i s e n h o w e r C a b i n e t w e r e c o n v i n c e d seaway a d v o c a t e s who w e r e a b l e t o p e r s u a d e t h e new p r e s i d e n t t o become one t o o . The dom inan t c a b i n e t f i g u r e i n d o m e s t i c p o l i c i e s , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y , G e o r g e Humphrey , h a d b e e n p r e s i d e n t o f t h e M . A . Hanna Company w h i c h had m a j o r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e L a b r a d o r o r e f i e l d s , as w e l l as b e i n g t he P r e s i d e n t o f t h e I r o n Ore Company o f C a n a d a , w h i c h had t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f - 88 -e x p l o r i n g f o r and d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r o n o r e r e s e r v e s i n t h e L a b r a d o r -Quebec r e g i o n . On b e c o m i n g S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y , he had g r a c i o u s l y g i v e n up more t h a n $ 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 a y e a r i n b o n u s e s and s a l a r i e s f rom h i s i r o n and s t e e l c o m p a n i e s , b u t he had n o t g i v e n up h i s s t o c k i n t hem. On b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d abou t t h i s a t t h e t i m e o f h i s c o n f i r m a t i o n f o r o f f i c e , he t e s t i f i e d t h a t he w o u l d n o t a t t e m p t t o a p p l y p r e s s u r e on C o n g r e s s f o r t h e s e a w a y , b u t he s a i d n o t h i n g abou t i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p r e s i d e n t and h i s c a b i n e t , r e s e r v i n g t h e r i g h t t o s t a t e h i s v i e w s and o p i n i o n s h o n e s t l y i n c a b i n e t m e e t i n g s . " ' ' 7 And he d i d j u s t t h a t . I n c a b i n e t m e e t i n g s , a c c o r d i n g t o an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a i d e who has w r i t t e n an i n t i m a t e a c c o u n t o f t h e m , no one was more i n f l u e n t i a l on t h e seaway m a t t e r t h a n he w a s . ^ I m m e d i a t e l y u n d e r h i m i n i n f l u e n c e i n t h e c a b i n e t was C h a r l e s E . W i l s o n , S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e , a p a s t p r e s i d e n t o f t h e G e n e r a l M o t o r s C o r p o r a t i o n w h i c h had an i m p o r t a n t s t a k e i n e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e M i d w e s t e r n s t e e l c o m p a n i e s r e c e i v e d a c o n t i n u o u s cheap and p l e n t i f u l s u p p l y o f i r o n o r e t o p r o d u c e t h e s t e e l w h i c h t h e a u t o -59 m o b i l e i n d u s t r y n e e d e d i n g r e a t s u p p l y . T o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r a d v i s o r s t h e s e two h e l p e d t o c o n v i n c e a h e s i t a t i n g P r e s i d e n t E i s e n h o w e r t o g i v e t h e seaway h i s f u l l s u p p o r t . ^ Though t h e v o t e on t he seaway i n t h e S e n a t e c a n n o t be s a i d t o have b e e n a p a r t i s a n v o t e , s i n c e t w e n t y - f i v e members o f b o t h m a j o r p a r t i e s v o t e d f o r t h e seaway b i l l , and o n l y t h r e e more D e m o c r a t s t h a n R e p u b l i c a n s o p p o s e d i t , t h e R e p u b l i c a n s d i d have a c l o s i n g o f t h e r a n k s b e h i n d t h e new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . S i x R e p u b l i c a n s who had b e e n o p p o n e n t s o f t h e seaway s w i t c h e d t h e i r v o t e s . A n o t h e r f o r m e r R e p u b l i c a n opponen t p a i r e d h i s v o t e w i t h a l e a d i n g a n t i - s e a w a y s e n a t o r . T h r e e o t h e r R e p u b l i c a n o p p o n e n t s f a i l e d t o v o t e b u t 61 d i d no t b o t h e r t o p a i r t h e i r v o t e s w i t h seaway s u p p o r t e r s . - 89 -W i t h o u t a d o u b t t h e e x t e n s i v e and v i r t u a l l y open l o g r o l l i n g w h i c h p r e c e d e d t he S e n a t e showdown, a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e o u t c o m e . A few weeks b e f o r e t h e v o t e , D o u g l a s M c K a y , S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r , recommended t o t h e p r e s i d e n t t h a t a $ 5 9 7 , 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 b e g i n n i n g be made on t h e Uppe r C o l o r a d o Pviver R e c l a m a t i o n P r o j e c t , w h i c h w o u l d b e n e f i t C o l o r a d o , Wyoming , U t a h , A r i z o n a , and New M e x i c o . Of t h e t e n s e n a t o r s 62 f r om t h o s e f i v e s t a t e s , o n l y two v o t e d a g a i n s t t he s e a w a y . N e i t h e r o f them was a R e p u b l i c a n . The two o t h e r s e n a t o r s f r o m t h e s e two s t a t e s w e r e R e p u b l i c a n s who v o t e d w i t h t h e E i s e n h o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A f t e r l y i n g dormant f o r m o n t h s , a p r o p o s a l f o r a t h r e e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s u r v e y o f t h e Passamaquoddy Bay b e t w e e n M a i n e and Canada was r e p o r t e d by t he f u l l S e n a t e F o r i e g n R e l a t i o n s Commi t tee j u s t t h r e e days a f t e r a s u b c o m m i t t e e had a c t e d i n an u n u s u a l S a t u r d a y s e s s i o n , and j u s t one day b e f o r e t he seaway b i l l was due t o be v o t e d on i n t he S e n a t e . B o t h o f M a i n e ' s R e p u b l i c a n s e a n t o r s , f o r m e r l y o p p o n e n t s o f t h e s e a w a y , v o t e d i n f a v o r o f i t on J a n u a r y 21, 1954 . A l l t h e s e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e u n e x p e c t e d l y s t r o n g seaway v i c t o r y i n t h e S e n a t e , b u t two o t h e r f a c t o r s s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d . These a r e t h e i n f l u e n c e and p r e s t i g e o f P r e s i d e n t Dw igh t D. E i s e n h o w e r , and t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l i t s e l f . 1. P r e s i d e n t i a l I n f l u e n c e . I n v a s t c o n t r a s t t o P r e s i d e n t T r u m a n ' s f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n C o n g r e s s ' a p p r o v a l o f A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway p r o j e c t d e s p i t e h i s t remendous e f f o r t s , P r e s i d e n t E i s e n h o w e r ' s i n f l u e n c e - 90 -was e f f e c t i v e i n d e e d . A f t e r Canada had s u g g e s t e d t h a t she w o u l d " g o i t a l o n e , " P r e s i d e n t Truman h a d t r i e d d e s p e r a t e l y t o p r o d C o n g r e s s i n t o a c t i n g f a v o r a b l y on t h e seaway p r o j e c t . As E i s e n h o w e r was l a t e r t o d o , Truman pu t a g r e a t d e a l o f e m p h a s i s on t he s e a w a y ' s i m p o r t a n c e t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y i n h i s many a p p e a l s t o C o n g r e s s . ^ I n t he Truman a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , as i n E i s e n h o w e r ' s , l e a d i n g d e f e n s e men, i n c l u d i n g G e o r g e C. M a r s h a l l , James F o r r e s t a l , C h a r l e s E . W i l s o n , and Dean A c h e s o n , had p l e a d e d f o r t h e seaway as an u r g e n t d e f e n s e n e e d . Bu t i n 1 9 5 2 , Truman was on h i s way ou t o f o f f i c e . H i s p r e s t i g e and p o p u l a r i t y had been g r e a t l y h u r t by t h e b e w i l d e r i n g and f r u s t r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e K o r e a n W a r , s n e e r i n g l y c a l l e d , " T r u m a n ' s War"^- " i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f a c t t h a t he h a d c o m m i t t e d t h e c o u n t r y t o i t w i t h o u t f o r m a l C o n g r e s s i o n a l a u t h o r i t y . H i s r e m o v a l o f G e n e r a l M a c A r t h u r f r om command i n K o r e a had c a u s e d s u c h a f i e r c e and w i d e s p r e a d o p p o s i t i o n t o h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t h i s recommendat ions f o r t h e seaway c a r r i e d v e r y l i t t l e w e i g h t . They m i g h t e v e n have h u r t t h e s e a w a y ' s c h a n c e s . B e f o r e t h e M a c A r t h u r i n c i d e n t p o l i t i c a l o b s e r v e r s gave t h e seaway p r o j e c t a f i f t y - f i f t y c h a n c e o f a p p r o v a l i n C o n g r e s s , b u t t h e f i r i n g i n c i d e n t c a u s e d s u c h a f u r o r t h a t t h e h e a r i n g s o f t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e , c h a i r e d b y t h e l i f e l o n g seaway o p p o n e n t , S e n a t o r Tom C o n n a l l y , w e r e d e l a y e d f o r q u i t e some t i m e . When t h e y r e s u m e d , o u t r a g e a g a i n s t the p r e s i d e n t was s t i l l s e r i o u s enough t o c a u s e p o l i t i c a l o b s e r v e r s t o e s t i m a t e t h e s e a w a y ' s c h a n c e s o f s u c c e s s t o be " t w o o r t h r e e t o one a g a i n s t . " ^ 6 T r u m a n ' s l o s s o f p r e s t i g e was s h a r p l y r e f l e c t e d i n t he S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway c o n t r o v e r s y i n o t h e r w a y s . He had v e r y f o r c e f u l l y - 91 -d e m o n s t r a t e d h i s a d v o c a c y o f A m e r i c a n c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e p r o j e c t a l l t h r o u g h 1952 i n f i v e p u b l i c news c o n f e r e n c e s and f i v e messages t o C o n g r e s s , o f w h i c h t h r e e w e r e e x c l u s i v e l y d e v o t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y . ^ He had made i t p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t o t h e n a t i o n ' s l e g i s l a t o r s t h a t he s t r o n g l y e n d o r s e d t h e j o i n t v e n t u r e . The U n i t e d S t a t e s , he e m p h a s i z e d , " s h o u l d j o i n i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the s e a w a y , f i r s t , b e c a u s e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o . o u r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . " ^ ^ Y e t , e v e n seaway a d v o c a t e s f a i l e d t o make use o f h i s s u p p o r t . I t w o u l d t a k e a v e r y c l o s e and c a r e f u l s e a r c h o f t h e 1952 S e n a t e seaway d e b a t e s t o f i n d h i s name c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p r o j e c t . I n d e e d , i t seems as i f seaway a d v o c a t e s d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d e d m e n t i o n i n g h i s name i n t h e i r s p e e c h e s . I n a r g u i n g f o r t h e p r o j e c t ' s i m p o r t a n c e as a n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y m e a s u r e , seaway p r o p o n e n t s m e n t i o n e d a l m o s t e v e r y i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n who had e v e r u s e d t h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g f r om C a l v i n C o o l i d g e t o t h e A c t i n g S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e , b u t l i t t l e m e n t i o n was made o f P r e s i d e n t T r u m a n ' s e m p h a t i c e n d o r s e m e n t s o f t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y a r g u m e n t . 6 9 A l t h o u g h P r e s i d e n t E i s e n h o w e r ' s s u p p o r t was r e a l l y no s t r o n g e r t h a n T r u m a n ' s , t h i s s i t u a t i o n was c o m p l e t e l y r e v e r s e d i n 1 9 5 4 , P r e s i d e n t E i s e n h o w e r was r i d i n g t he c r e s t o f h i s enormous p o p u l a r i t y as t h e v i c t o r i o u s A l l i e d c o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f i n W o r l d War I I and as t h e o r g a n i z e r o f t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c T r e a t y O r g a i n z a t i o n f o r c e s . He had won t he 1952 P r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n by an o v e r w h e l m i n g p o p u l a r v o t e , r u n n i n g f i f t e e n p e r c e n t ahead o f h i s p a r t y ' s v o t e f o r C o n g r e s s , b r i n g i n g a R e p u b l i c a n m a j o r i t y i n b o t h h o u s e s o f C o n g r e s s i n w i t h h i m , and d e c i s i v e l y b r e a k i n g i n t o t h e s o l i d S o u t h f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s i n c e 1 9 2 8 . As an e x t r e m e l y r e s p e c t e d m i l i t a r y h e r o and e x p e r t , one o f A m e r i c a ' s g r e a t e s t , h i s d e c i s i o n s on m i l i t a r y and d e f e n s e - 92 -m a t t e r s w e r e u n q u e s t i o n a b l y r e s p e c t e d by t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f A m e r i c a n s . A l l t h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e 1953 c o n g r e s s i o n a l h e a r i n g s and t h e 1954 c o n g r e s s i o n a l d e b a t e s . Seaway a d v o c a t e s n e v e r l o s t a c h a n c e t o l i n k h i s r e p u t a t i o n and p r e s t i g e t o t h e i r a rgumen ts s t r e s s i n g n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y o r t o q u o t e h i s p r o n o u n c e m e n t s on t h e s u b j e c t , even t h o u g h h i s p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t s on t he s u b j e c t w e r e q u i t e b r i e f . 7 ^ The P r e s i d e n t ' s i n f l u e n c e i n c h a n g i n g t h e m inds o f some o p p o n e n t s was a p t l y r e f l e c t e d by S e n a t o r S m i t h o f New J e r s e y and S e n a t o r D i r k s e n o f I l l i n o i s , b o t h l o n g - t i m e a n t i - s e a w a y s e n a t o r s . S e n a t o r D i r k s e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e o p p o s i t i o n had c o n t i n u e d u n t i l j u s t t e n days b e f o r e t h e S e n a t e v o t e . A t t h a t t i m e , he b r e a k f a s t e d a l o n e w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t f o r two h o u r s . 7 1 Soon a f t e r , he announced h i s s u p p o r t f o r t he p r o j e c t s A l t h o u g h he a d m i t t e d t h a t he had n o t been c o m p l e t e l y c o n v i n c e d o f i t s m e r i t s , he n o n e t h e l e s s s t a t e d : The P r e s i d e n t i s a m i l i t a r y man . . . I w o u l d n o t f o r a moment , e x c e p t u n d e r t h e mos t e x t r a o r d i n a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s , s e e k t o s e t up my j udgmen t a g a i n s t one whose j udgmen t i s p r e d i c a t e d upon l o n g e x p e r i e n c e . . . 7 2 S e n a t o r S m i t h , t o o , a d m i t t e d t h a t he s t i l l had s t r o n g r e s e r v a t i o n s on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaway p r o j e c t , b u t t h a t he h a d abandoned h i s o p p o s i t i o n b e c a u s e t h e P r e s i d e n t a d v o c a t e d c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n s . "My o v e r -r i d i n g r e a s o n , " s a i d S m i t h , f o r s u p p o r t i n g S e n a t e b i l l 2150 ( t h e W i l e y b i l l ) i s t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n by t h e P r e s i d e n t t h a t C o n g r e s s adop t t h i s m e a s u r e i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n t h i s m a t t e r I am g i v i n g h im my f u l l v o t e o f c o n f i d e n c e . 7 3 2 . The W i l e y - D o r t d e r o B i l l . When P r e s i d e n t Dw igh t D. E i s e n h o w e r s i g n e d t he W i l e y -Dondero b i l l i n t o l a w on May 1 3 , 1 9 5 4 , t h e p r o j e c t t o w h i c h he was c o m m i t -t i n g t h e n a t i o n was f a r d i f f e r e n t f r om the one w h i c h had b e e n so c o n t r o -v e r s i a l i n t h e p r e v i o u s q u a r t e r - c e n t u r y . The p r o j e c t w h i c h t h e W i l e y -Dondero A c t c a l l e d f o r had gone t h r o u g h q u i t e a d r a s t i c m e t a m o r p h o s i s w h i c h was made p o s s i b l e when t he C a n a d i a n s t e r m i n a t e d t he 1941 A g r e e m e n t . The p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e t r e a t y r e a c h e d b y t h e two c o u n t r i e s i n 1932 r e f l e c t e d t h e f a c t t h a t i t was t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , n o t C a n a d a , who h a d p r e s s e d f o r i t . The G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway T r e a t y c a l l e d f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w h o l e G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e s y s t e m s t i p u l a t i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t w e n t y - s e v e n f o o t w a t e r w a y 7 ^ f r om t h e head o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s t o M o n t r e a l . The U n i t e d S t a t e s was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g ou t i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e G r e a t L a k e s and t h e i r c o n n e c t i n g c h a n n e l s above L a k e E r i e w h i l e Canada c a r r i e d ou t imp rovemen ts i n t h e a r e a s where t h e w a t e r w a y r a n e x c l u s i v e l y t h r o u g h C a n a d i a n t e r r i t o r y . I n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a p i d s S e c t i o n , e a c h c o u n t r y was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c a n a l s , l o c k s and v a r i o u s imp rovemen ts on i t s own s i d e w h i l e t h e r i v e r w o r k s w e r e t o be c a r r i e d ou t by a s p e c i a l j o i n t c o m m i s s i o n whose f u n d s we re t o be p r o v i d e d s o l e l y b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Though n e a r l y a l l t h e c o s t s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c t i o n w e r e t o be p a i d f o r by t h e A m e r i c a n s , t h e t r e a t y s p e c i f i e d t h a t as f a r as p o s s i b l e , wo rk done i n C a n a d i a n t e r r i t o r y o r an e q u i v a l e n t amount o f t h e w h o l e d e v e l o p m e n t , be e x e c u t e d by C a n a d i a n e n g i n e e r s and workmen u s i n g C a n a d i a n m a t e r i a l i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e unemployment i n t h e D o m i n i o n . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e j o i n t p r o j e c t , each c o u n t r y was t o m a i n t a i n - 94 -and o p e r a t e t h e x^orks i n i t s t e r r i t o r y and e i t h e r c o u n t r y m i g h t a t any t i m e c o n s t r u c t a l t e r n a t i v e c a n a l and c h a n n e l f a c i l i t i e s f o r n a v i g a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c t i o n o r c o n n e c t i n g c h a n n e l s o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s . ^ As a d v o c a t e d by C a n a d a , t h e r e was t o be a t w o - s t a g e p l a n f o r power p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h w o u l d have a t o t a l p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y o f 2 , 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 h o r s e p o w e r . The power was t o be g e n e r a t e d by p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , p r o b a b l y t h e O n t a r i o H y d r o C o m m i s s i o n f o r Canada and t h e New Y o r k Power A u t h o r i t y f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t w o u l d be e v e n l y d i v i d e d be tween t h e two c o u n t r i e s , w i t h e a c h f r e e t o d e a l w i t h d o m e s t i c q u e s t i o n s on power d i s t r i b u t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n . T h i s p o i n t became a d i f f i c u l t one i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The e s t i m a t e d c o s t f o r t h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t , i n c l u d i n g f u n d s a l r e a d y s p e n t o r a p p r o p r i a t e d , was $ 5 4 3 , 4 2 9 , 0 0 0 . Though t h i s sum was f a i r l y e v e n l y d i v i d e d w i t h C a n a d a ' s s h a r e s e t a t $ 2 7 0 , 9 7 6 , 0 0 0 and A m e r i c a ' s s h a r e a t $ 2 7 2 , 4 5 3 , 0 0 0 f o r t h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t , Canada was g i v e n $ 1 2 8 , 7 7 2 , 0 0 0 c r e d i t f o r w o r k a l r e a d y d o n e , s u c h as t h e W e l l a n d C a n a l . Thus t h e D o m i n i o n n e e d e d t o a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y a n o t h e r $ 1 4 2 , 2 0 4 , 0 0 0 , w h i l e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s had t o c o n t r i b u t e $ 2 5 7 , 9 9 2 , 0 0 0 i n new f u n d s . Many C o n g r e s s m e n f o u n d t h i s o b j e c t i o n a b l e a l s o . The M a r c h 1 9 , 1941 Agreement c o n t a i n e d mos t o f t h e p r i n c i p a l p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e 1938 t r e a t y m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , e x c e p t t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a o n e - s t a g e i n s t e a d o f a t w o - s t a g e p l a n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o w e r . H o w e v e r , i t had added p r o v i s i o n s t h a t o b l i g e d t he U n i t e d S t a t e s t o b e a r a l l e x p e n s e s f o r powerhouse s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s , s i d e c a n a l s , and l o c k s on t h e C a n a d i a n s i d e o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a p i d s S e c t i o n e x c e p t f o r m a c h i n e r y , equ ipmen t and - 95 -r e h a b i l i t a t i o n on t h e C a n a d i a n s i d e . A l s o i n c l u d e d was an e s c a p e c l a u s e w h i c h a l l o w e d t he D o m i n i o n , i f wa r c o n d i t i o n s o r d e f e n s e r e q u i r e m e n t s made i t n e c e s s a r y , t o d e f e r t he c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n l i n k s i n t h e Seaway b e y o n d December 3 1 , 1 9 4 8 . 7 7 A l l seaway b i l l s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o C o n g r e s s f r o m 1941 u n t i l t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l i n 1953 v a r i e d o n l y s l i g h t l y f r o m t h i s e x e c u t i v e ag reement w h i c h t h e s e m e a s u r e s we re p r o p o s i n g C o n g r e s s a p p r o v e . These i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t s and t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l b i l l s w h i c h f o l l o w e d r e f l e c t e d t h e f a c t t h a t i t was t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s who had b e e n t h e s u i t o r , and C a n a d a , t h e r e l u c t a n t o b j e c t o f h i s a t t e n t i o n . B u t a f t e r t h e w a r , t h o u g h c o n g r e s s i o n a l b i l l s s t i l l r e f l e c t e d t h i s a t t i t u d e , i t was no l o n g e r v a l i d . Canada had become t h e one s e e k i n g t h e m a r r i a g e o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e seaway p r o j e c t . When s h e f o r m a l l y announced t h a t she c o n s i d e r e d t h e 1941 Ag reemen t t o be t e r m i n a t e d , Canada had u n w i t t i n g l y opened t h e d o o r f o r A m e r i c a n seaway a d v o c a t e s t o g a i n a f o o t h o l d i n t h e p r o j e c t on t e rms more t o t h e l i k i n g o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C a n a d i a n c r i t i c s we re n o t f a r f r o m t h e mark when t h e y c l a i m e d t h a t t h e new A m e r i c a n p r o p o s a l was j u s t a way t o g e t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t o t h e p r o j e c t a t a " b a r g a i n p r i c e . " 7 8 T h i s i s j u s t wha t t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o A c t a t t e m p t e d t o d o . I t t r i e d t o a c h i e v e t h e most p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a t t h e l e a s t p o s s i b l e c o s t t o t he n a t i o n . The W i l e y - D o n d e r o A c t was n e i t h e r a t r e a t y n o r a f o r m a l ag reement w i t h C a n a d a . I n t h e summer o f 1952 Canada h a d w i t h d r a w n t h e 1941 Agreement w h i c h had been p e n d i n g f o r o v e r a d e c a d e , so t h e r e was no l o n g e r any ag reemen t f o r t h e C o n g r e s s t o a p p r o v e . I n p o i n t o f f a c t , t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o - 96 -A c t was a u n i l a t e r a l d e c l a r a t i o n by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t i t w o u l d s h a r e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e m a j o r seaway w o r k s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c t i o n o f t he S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r . I n t h i s way t h e s p o n s o r s o f t h e b i l l we re a b l e t o s i l e n c e t h e d e b a t e o v e r t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f t h e e x e c u t i v e ag reement c o n c l u d e d by F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t i n 1941 w h i c h had p l a g u e d t he seaway c a u s e s i n c e t h e n . M o r e o v e r , i t a v o i d e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t a l l t r e a t i e s be a p p r o v e d by a t w o - t h i r d s v o t e o f t h e S e n a t e w h i c h had d e f e a t e d t h e o r i g i n a l A m e r i c a n a t t e m p t t o b u i l d a S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . The new law t e m p o r a r i l y abandoned p l a n s f o r d e e p e n i n g t h e G r e a t L a k e s c o n n e c t i n g c h a n n e l s w h i c h w o u l d b r i n g o c e a n s h i p p i n g b e y o n d T o l e d o . Gone w e r e t h e g r a n d i o s e schemes o f p r e v i o u s seaway b i l l s t o c o n s t r u c t a seaway p e n e t r a t i n g 2 , 3 0 0 m i l e s f r om t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean deep i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t t o t h e h e a d o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s . Gone w e r e t h e v i s i o n s o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s p o r t s , l i k e C h i c a g o , b e c o m i n g booming w o r l d s e a p o r t s on t h e " M e d i t e r r a n e a n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , " as a r e s u l t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . T h a t w o u l d have t o come l a t e r , f o r t h e W i l e y -Dondero A c t d i d n o t p r o v i d e f o r t h e improvemen t o f any o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s , any o f t h e i r c o n n e c t i n g c h a n n e l s , h a r b o r s , o r h a r b o r a p p r o a c h e s , w h i c h by t r a d i t i o n w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e c h i e f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f e d e r a l government i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e deep w a t e r w a y . The W i l e y - D o n d e r o Law c o n c e n t r a t e d o n l y on t h e s h o r t 110 m i l e s s t r e t c h o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a p i d s and T h o u s a n d I s l a n d s s e c t i o n s , a s m a l l s l i c e o f t h e o l d seaway v i s i o n . Thus t h e new S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y , as p r o v i d e d by t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o A c t , w o u l d a l l o w an o c e a n v e s s e l t o t r a v e l o n l y as f a r as t h e w e s t e r n end o f L a k e E r i e . T h e r e was no l o n g e r any p r o v i s i o n a l l o w i n g t h e C a n a d i a n s - 97 -c r e d i t f o r work t h e y had a l r e a d y done t o t h e wa te rway s y s t e m and no l o n g e r w o u l d A m e r i c a n s be a s k e d t o pay f o r w o r k p e r f o r m e d by C a n a d i a n l a b o r o r wo rk done on t h e C a n a d i a n s i d e o f t h e r i v e r . A l s o e l i m i n a t e d w e r e n e a r l y a l l t he c o s t s o f f e a t u r e s common t o b o t h t h e power and n a v i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c t i o n , f o r when Canada embarked on t h e " a l l - C a n a d i a n " p l a n , she had O n t a r i o and New Y o r k a g r e e t h a t t h e power p h a s e w h i c h t h e y w o u l d f i n a n c e w o u l d a c c e p t t h e s e c o s t s . T h i s was done b e c a u s e C a n a d a was a n x i o u s t o make t h e n a v i g a t i o n c o s t s as l ow as p o s s i b l e t o e n a b l e h e r t o c o m p l e t e t h e n a v i g a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t a l o n e and t h i s p l a n h a d been a c c e p t e d by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n . ' ' ^ As a r e s u l t , i t was e s t i m a t e d by Army E n g i n e e r s t h a t t h e c o s t o f A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d be a modes t $ 8 8 , 0 7 4 , 0 0 0 . 8 0 The W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l a s k e d f o r a g u a r a n t e e b f o n l y $105 m i l l i o n t o c o m p l e t e t h e p r o j e c t , as compared t o t h e e s t i m a t e s o f $ 3 9 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 w h i c h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Government 81 w o u l d have t o pay u n d e r t h e 1941 A g r e e m e n t . What made t h i s even more a t t r a c t i v e was t h e c o n c e p t o f t o l l s w h i c h t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l p r o m i s e d w o u l d make t h e p r o j e c t s e l f - l i q u i d a t i n g . The b i l l ' s s p o n s o r s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e money t h e government i n v e s t e d i n t h e seaway w o u l d be a m o r t i z e d w i t h i n f i f t y y e a r s . I n t h e p a s t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w a t e r w a y was h i n d e r e d by t h e c o n t r o v e r s y w h i c h r a g e d o v e r t h e p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f S t . L a w r e n c e p o w e r . P r i v a t e u t i l i t i e s we re o u t r a g e d a t t h e t h o u g h t o f h a v i n g t o compete w i t h cheap g o v e r n m e n t - g e n e r a t e d h y d r o - e l e c t r i c e n e r g y , and t h e y 83 p r o v e d t o be p o w e r f u l o p p o n e n t s o f t h e comb ined p r o j e c t . Bu t unde r t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o A c t t h i s f e a t u r e c o u l d no l o n g e r hamper t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e seaway b e c a u s e t h e two p r o j e c t s we re s e p a r a t e . Though t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f - 98 -t h e seaway depended oh t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e power w o r k s , t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f S t . L a w r e n c e power was t o be d e a l t w i t h on t h e p r o v i n c i a l and s t a t e l e v e l s . The New Y o r k - O n t a r i o p l a n had a l r e a d y been a p p r o v e d ' s e p a r a t e l y . The new a r r a n g e m e n t was a l l t h e more a c c e p t a b l e t o p r i v a t e power a u t h o r i t i e s , n o t o n l y b e c a u s e t h e New Y o r k Power A u t h o r i t y had i n d i c a t e d i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e power p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h p r i v a t e u t i l i t i e s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e t h e d e c i s i o n t o a l l o c a t e a g r e a t e r s h a r e o f t h e c o s t s o f t he e n t i r e p r o j e c t t o t h e power p h a s e made c o m p e t i t i o n f rom cheap p u b l i c power a remo te p o s s i b i l i t y . P o w e r , t h e r e f o r e , had been e l i m i n a t e d as a b a r r i e r t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e a w a y . A l l t h e s e f e a t u r e s h e l p e d t o make t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l more a c c e p t a b l e t o seaway o p p o n e n t s and more a t t r a c t i v e t o t h o s e who w e r e u n d e c i d e d . I n t h i s i t was s u c c e s s f u l , f o r t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l p a s s e d w i t h v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e m a r g i n s i n b o t h h o u s e s and was s i g n e d i n t o l aw b e f o r e t h e C a n a d i a n s had become i r r e c o n c i l a b l y c o m m i t t e d t o t h e i r own " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway p r o j e c t . - 99 -D. .Canada's D i s a p p o i n t e d A c c e p t a n c e . When the Ca n a d i a n government s e n t i t s u l t i m a t u m t o W a s h i n g t o n , D.C, i t s t i l l h e l d t h e hope t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the S t . Lawrence seaway p r o j e c t . 8 ^ But by t h e ti m e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress g o t around t o d e l i b e r a t i n g t h e m e r i t s o f A m e r i c a n i n v o l v e m e n t i n the p r o j e c t under t h e new W i l e y - D o n d e r o b i l l , t h e Canadians had been caught up i n a k i n d o f " S t . Lawrence Seaway f e v e r , " c o n f i d e n t i n Canada's a b i l i t y t o c a r r y i t out and p r o u d t h a t she was g o i n g t o b u i l d i t on h e r own. A c c o r d i n g t o Mr. W h i t e , t h e Member of P a r l i a m e n t from M i d d l e s e x E a s t , Canadians g e n e r a l l y welcome an o p p o r t u n i t y t o de m o n s t r a t e to t h e w o r l d , i n g e n e r a l , and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h a t we can g r o c e e d w i t h t h e S t . Lawrence development on our own. 8 The l a t e s t A m e r i c a n seaway b i l l was c o n s i d e r e d by many Canadians t o be a "new U n i t e d S t a t e s a t t e m p t t o g e t i n on t h e seaway a t c u t - r a t e p r i c e s . " 8 7 Many Canadians r e s e n t e d t h e i d e a t h a t though t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d have " t h e c h e a p e s t and e a s i e s t p a r t o f t h e seaway t o b u i l d , t h e y w o u l d be a s s u r e d of a f u l l v o i c e i n t h e management of the c o m p l e t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e a w a y . " 8 8 E a r l y i n 1954, r e v i s e d government c o s t e s t i m a t e s added new impetus t o t h e d e s i r e o f Canadians f o r an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway. These f i g u r e s showed t h a t t h i s r o u t e w o u l d c o s t no more and p r o b a b l y l e s s t h a n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l scheme, som e t h i n g w h i c h had n e v e r even been c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e . 8 More t h a n e v e r , Canadians hoped t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d s t a y out o f t h e p r o j e c t . I n a speech a t t h e New Y o r k Town H a l l , C D . Howe, M i n i s t e r o f Trade and Commerce and a l s o o f Defense P r o d u c t i o n , echoed t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f many of - 100 -h i s countrymen i n throwing "overboard the pretense that Canada s t i l l wants a j o i n t seaway p r o j e c t w i t h the United S t a t e s . " He b l u n t l y informed h i s American audience that the " S t . Lawrence Seaway i s and always has been a Canadian seaway" and that proposals that the United States b u i l d the new canals i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Rapids S e c t i o n could "only complicate the present s i t u a t i o n . " "Ownership," he continued, by the United States of a short s e c t i o n of a very long seaway would not only add to the o v e r a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t , but would complicate problems of maintenance and o p e r a t i o n . Continued ownership by one n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y of the e n t i r e seaway represents the most e f f i c i e n t procedure.^0 The most l o g i c a l and v a l u a b l e r o l e f o r the United States would be, he argued, to deepen the Upper Lakes channels to conform to an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway. The wide acceptance of the i d e a of an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway produced a d i s t i n c t i v e l y c o o l Canadian r e a c t i o n to the passage of the American b i l l . The Secretary of State f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , L e s t e r B. Pearson, summed up the s i t u a t i o n i n Canada s a y i n g , "Many Canadians don't t h i n k too h i g h l y of t h i s l a s t minute p a r t i c i p a t i o n - e i t h e r of i t s t i m i n g or i t s 91 nature." According to an e d i t o r i a l i n the Ottawa C i t i z e n , "Canada's own plans f o r an independent e n t e r p r i s e are so f a r advanced that t h i s tardy measure i s more an embarrassment than a source of s a t i s f a c t i o n . " Canadian cabinet o p i n i o n i t s e l f was s a i d to be d i v i d e d on whether to accept American 93 p a r t i c i p a t i o n at a l l . In P a r l i a m e n t , s e v e r a l members expressed a r e l u c t a n t acceptance of i t , Clarence G i l l i s of Cape Breton South spoke f o r many of them when he s a i d , As f a r as I am concerned the matter i s s e t t l e d . I have sense enough to know there i s no use c o n t i n u i n g to f i g h t . . . (I) would have been more pleased i f Canada had decided - 101 -to b u i l d the seaway alone. I t would have been an i n d i c a t i o n that we were grown up, that we no longer found i t necessary to get help from our grandmother . . . (we) could have done t h i s job ourselves . . . It would have been an i n d i c a t i o n that we were getting a l i t t l e independent and capable of standing on our own two feet. ^ George Drew, the Leader of the Opposition, was one of the few MPs to welcome the news with any enthusiasm. In addition to being a f r u s t r a t i o n to Canadian hopes of an "all-Canadian" seaway the Wiley-Dondero law had seve r a l other features which disturbed residents north of the border. Canadians resented the idea of the United States gaining an equal voice with Canada i n the con t r o l and operation of the waterway by paying only about one t h i r d the cost. The new law did not give Canada any monetary c r e d i t f o r what i t had already spent on improvements to the St. Lawrence route such as the Welland Canal. It contained, moreover, a clause that the United States had the r i g h t to f i x t o l l s f o r canals under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n i f the two countries could not agree. F i n a l l y , despite the fact that Canadian government experts had estimated that canals and locks i n the In t e r n a t i o n a l s e c t i o n would be cheaper to construct on the Canadian side of the boundary, the law required a l l navigation works 95 paid f o r by the United States to be constructed i n American t e r r i t o r y . I f Canada's i n s i s t e n c e on an "all-Canadian" seaway i n the event that a j o i n t one could not be b u i l t had pressured her neighbor i n t o a shot-gun wedding, Canada was no longer the anxious bride. The Canadian government was, i n f a c t , caught i n a dilemma. Whether by design or j u s t as a courteous gesture, i t had l e f t the door open f o r American p a r t i c i p a t i o n . On being advised that the Eisenhower Administration planned to introduce one l a s t seaway - 102 -b i l l , P e a r s o n r e l e a s e d a s t a t e m e n t t o t h e p r e s s on J a n u a r y 9, 1953, an n o u n c i n g t h e C a n a d i a n government's w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n s i d e r any s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l f o r A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e seaway once an A m e r i c a n e n t i t y had been d e s i g n a t e d t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h O n t a r i o i n the development o f power i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a p i d s S e c t i o n , as l o n g as t h i s d i d n o t d e l a y t h e development o f power or cause "any s e r i o u s d e l a y i n the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e whole s e a w a y . I n a j o i n t communique i s s u e d a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n s i n W a s h i n g t o n , D.C, between P r e s i d e n t E i s e n h o w e r and t h e Ca n a d i a n P r i m e M i n i s t e r and L e s t e r B. P e a r s o n , t h e Ca n a d i a n S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , t h e Canadians a g a i n r e p e a t e d t h e i r p l e d g e . 9 ? When the W i l e y - D o n d e r o A c t was p a s s e d and s i g n e d i n t o l a w , th e A m e r i c a n s h e l d t h e i r n o r t h e r n n e i g h b o r s t o t h e i r p l e d g e . S i n c e t h e S t . Lawrence i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r , t h e Canadians r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the Am e r i c a n s had a r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e development and c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o p o s e d i m p r o v e d waterway and so i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f h e m i s p h e r i c harmony and l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p t h e y c o n s e n t e d t o A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 9 ^ C a n a d i a n n e g o t i a t o r s r e a l i z e d t h a t A m e r i c a n c o o p e r a t i o n was s t i l l e s s e n t i a l t o t h e whole scheme. The U n i t e d S t a t e s p o s s e s s e d an u n e x e r c i s e d v e t o power and c o u l d k i l l t h e scheme s i m p l y by c a n c e l l i n g t h e F e d e r a l Power Commission's l i c e n c e t o the New Y o r k S t a t e Power A u t h o r i t y , i f i t f o u n d t h e Canadians 99 i n t r a n s i g e n t . C a n a d i a n n e g o t i a t o r s i n s i s t e d , however, on Canada's r i g h t t o b u i l d h e r own s e t o f c a n a l s and l o c k s s h o u l d she deem such a d u p l i c a t i o n o f seaway f e a t u r e s n e c e s s a r y a t some f u t u r e d a t e . ^ ^ They a l s o i n s i s t e d on i m m e d i a t e l y i m p l e m e n t i n g Canada's o b l i g a t i o n t o c o n s t r u c t a c a n a l and l o c k - 103 -on the Canadian s ide of the r i v e r to by-pass the Iroquois Dam whether or not the Americans were going to b u i l d the same f a c i l i t i e s on the American s ide as provided i n the Wiley-Dondero A c t . ^ ^ They be l i eved that these two points would be conclus ive proof to Canadians, as w e l l as to Americans, that the government of Canada had not surrendered any of the Dominion's r i g h t s to b u i l d nav iga t ion works anywhere w i t h i n i t s own boundaries . The United States agreed to both these points and i n so doing kept a l i v e the p o s s i b i l i t y of an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " St . Lawrence seaway in? sometime i n the f u t u r e . i U The way was f i n a l l y c l e a r e d , a f t er over h a l f a century , for the United States and Canada to cooperate i n the cons truc t ion of a projec t which has been charac ter i zed as "one of the most i n c r e d i b l e engineering and cons truc t ion jobs . . . ever attempted. - 104 -V I . C o n c l u s i o n s . 1952 was t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway p r o j e c t . T h i s was t he y e a r t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n s d e l i v e r e d t h e i r u l t i m a t u m t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 1952 was t h e y e a r i n w h i c h t h e A m e r i c a n s e l e c t e d a new P r e s i d e n t and a new C o n g r e s s . And i n 1 9 5 2 , t h e o u t - g o i n g Truman a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o r e n d e r i t s u tmos t c o o p e r a t i o n i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway w h i c h t he C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m demanded. T h e s e e v e n t s , comb ined w i t h t h e g r o w i n g c o n c e r n o v e r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y i n t h e f a c e o f wha t h a s b e e n t e r m e d t h e " C o l d W a r , " c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n w h i c h D w i g h t D. E i s e n h o w e r c o u l d u s e h i s enormous i n f l u e n c e as P r e s i d e n t , and p r e s t i g e as a m i l i t a r y h e r o , t o t h e i r f u l l e s t e x t e n t and a c h i e v e what no o t h e r p r e s i d e n t had b e e n a b l e t o o b t a i n - c o n g r e s s i o n a l a p p r o v a l o f A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . C a n a d a ' s enormous p o s t - w a r e c o n o m i c g r o w t h had i n c r e a s e d t h e c o u n t r y ' s n e e d f o r t h e seaway and power p r o j e c t and had made h e r e a g e r and r i c h enough t o b u i l d t h e seaway a l o n e . B e c a u s e o f t h i s , when C a n a d a , w e a r y o f A m e r i c a n d e l a y s , p r e s e n t e d h e r n e i g h b o r w i t h an u l t i m a t u m t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o j e c t o r a l l o w t h e D o m i n i o n t o b u i l d i t on i t s own , t he t h r e a t had more e f f e c t on t h e C o n g r e s s t h a n a l l t h e e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l a rgumen ts t h a t had e v e r b e e n m a r s h a l l e d i n s u p p o r t o f t h e s e a w a y . I t weakened t he a rgumen ts o f t h e r a i l r o a d s , c o a l i n t e r e s t s , and A t l a n t i c and G u l f p o r t s , f o r w h a t e v e r damages i t w o u l d c a u s e w o u l d now happen anyway . T h i s a l l o w e d t h e d e b a t e t o r e v o l v e a round t h e i s s u e o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . - 105 -The d i s c o v e r y o f i r o n o r e , as w e l l as o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i m p o r t a n t t o consumer and d e f e n s e i n d u s t r i e s , i n a r e a s o f Canada w h i c h c o u l d be s e r v e d by t h e S t . L a w r e n c e , j u s t a t t h e t i m e when i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t A m e r i c a n r e s e r v e s w e r e b e i n g d e p l e t e d , h e l p e d t o f i n a l l y t i p t h e s c a l e s . F a c e d w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n u l t i m a t u m and t h e n e e d t o be a s s u r e d o f an i n e x p e n s i v e and p r o t e c t e d r o u t e f o r a c o n t i n u o u s and g r o w i n g s u p p l y o f i m p o r t e d v i t a l m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y h i g h - g r a d e i r o n o r e f r o m t h e L a b r a d o r - Q u e b e c r e g i o n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a c c e p t e d a seaway r o l e . The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway w o u l d be a m a j o r a r t e r y f o r t h e s e e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s . I n t h e i n t e r e s t o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , i t was pa ramoun t t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a v e a d i r e c t hand i n t h e c o n t r o l and p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e s e a w a y . The U n i t e d S t a t e s n e e d e d a v o i c e i n i t s o p e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e l e v y i n g o f t o l l s and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s . O n l y i n t h i s way c o u l d i t be a s s u r e d t h a t i t s i n t e r e s t s w o u l d be p r o t e c t e d . No p a r t o f t h e n a t i o n ' s f a t e c o u l d be l e f t t o t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a n o t h e r c o u n t r y . From a p u r e l y e c o n o m i c p o i n t o f v i e w , e a r l y a t t e m p t s t o p romo te t h e seaway we re r a t h e r d a r i n g and p r o b a b l y p r e m a t u r e . P r i o r t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f i r o n o r e i n L a b r a d o r , t h e c h i e f f u n c t i o n o f t h e seaway w o u l d be t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e e x p o r t o f w e s t e r n g r a i n s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t w o u l d be b u i l t t o s e r v e an a g r i c u l t u r a l economy w i t h a l i m i t e d amount o f t r a f f i c and w i t h l i t t l e p r o s p e c t f o r much more g r o w t h . The m o u n t i n g needs o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r o f t h e economy, h o w e v e r , made t h e i n v e s t m e n t more u r g e n t and t h e enormous amount o f a d d i t i o n a l t r a f f i c t o be g e n e r a t e d made i t a more r e w a r d i n g v e n t u r e . M o r e o v e r , t h e d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s s h a r e o f t h e c o s t s and t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r s e l f - l i q u i d a t i o n h e l p e d t o e a s e t h e r i s k i n v o l v e d . - 106 -The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway s t a n d s as a r e m i n d e r t o a l l t h e w o r l d o f t h e g r e a t a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s w h i c h c a n be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h c o o p e r a t i o n among n a t i o n s . At t h e same t i m e i t must be remembered t h a t t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway w a s , i n t h e w o r d s o f C a r l t o n M a b e e , a " v i c t o r y o f r e l u c t a n t p a r t n e r s . T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e n t e r e d i n t o t h e p r o j e c t p r i m a r i l y t o p r o t e c t i t s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and s e c u r i t y a n d o n l y a f t e r C a n a d a s e n t i t an u l t i m a t u m w h i c h f o r c e d t h e c o u n t r y t o a c t . C a n a d a a l l o w e d A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , n o t p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e i t was a n x i o u s t o p r o v i d e a " s h i n i n g e x a m p l e " t o t h e w o r l d , b u t b e c a u s e i t h a d v e r y l i t t l e c h o i c e . T h e j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway h e l p e d t o f u r t h e r t h e c o n t i n e n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a , b o t h m i l i t a r i l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y . I t drew t h e d e f e n s e s o f t h e two n a t i o n s e v e n c l o s e r and made them more i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . T h o u g h t h e p r o j e c t was deemed n e c e s s a r y b y C a n a d i a n s i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p t h e i r own c o u n t r y ' s i n d u s t r i a l growth^ t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway drew C a n a d a more d e e p l y i n t o a s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e o f s u p p l i e r o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . M o r e o v e r , i t h e l p e d t o b r i n g t h e c o n t i n e n t a l i z a t i o n o f v i t a l r e s o u r c e s one s t e p c l o s e r t o r e a l i t y . T houg h t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway f o s t e r e d c l o s e r c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d n o t a l l o w C a n a d a t o go a h e a d w i t h a seaway on h e r own, c o u p l e d w i t h t h e r e f u s a l o f t h e C a n a d i a n s t o a b a n d o n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an " a l l - C a n a d i a n " seaway i n s u b s e q u e n t n e g o t i a t i o n s , s u g g e s t s t h a t e c o n o m i c n a t i o n a l i s m was f a r f r o m d e a d i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s . E v e n a f t e r t h e y e a r s o f c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n and f r i e n d s h i p d u r i n g w h i c h t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway was b u i l t , i t may s t i l l h a v e an e f f e c t i n t h e f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e two n a t i o n s . - 107 -F o o t n o t e s . I. B a c k g r o u n d . 1 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e , Commi t tee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway M a n u a l : A C o m p i l a t i o n o f Documents on the G r e a t  L a k e s Seaway P r o j e c t and C o r r e l a t e d Power D e v e l o p m e n t s , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , S . D o c . 165 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 1 9 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Seaway M a n u a l . ) 2 J o s e p h R. H a r t l e y , The E f f e c t s o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway on G r a i n M o v e m e n t s , I n d i a n a B u s i n e s s R e p o r t N o . 24 ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s R e s e a r c h , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 4 2 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as G r a i n M o v e m e n t s . ) 3 L o w e l l Thomas , The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway S t o r y ( B u f f a l o : H e n r y S t e w a r t I n c . , 1 9 5 7 ) , p p . 2 - 3 ; ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Seaway  S t o r y ) ; J a n e M a r y H o w a r d , Some E c o n o m i c A s p e c t s o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e P r o j e c t , t h e C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a : S t u d i e s i n E c o n o m i c s , v o l . 25 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a P r e s s , 1 9 4 9 ) , p . 2 7 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as E c o n o m i c A s p e c t s . ) ^ F r e d e r i c k L o u i s W h i t l a r k , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e L a k e s : An  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e G r e a t L a k e s and S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway , 1 s t e d . (New Y o r k : G r e e n w i c h Book P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 151 ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as I n t r o d u c t i o n . ) ; W i l l i a m Wood, A l l A f l o a t : • A C h r o n i c l e o f C r a f t  and Wate rways ( T o r o n t o : G l a s g o w , B r o o k and C o . , 1 9 1 4 ) , p . l ; W i l l i a m R. W i l l o u g h b y , The S t . L a w r e n c e Wa te rway : A S t u d y i n P o l i t i c s and D i p l o m a c y ( M a d i s o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , v i i ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as S_t. L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y . ) ; Geo rge E . D e l u r y , e d . , The 1973 W o r l d  A l m a n a c and Book o f F a c t s (New Y o r k : Newspape r E n t e r p r i s e - A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 7 6 1 . Of t h e t h i r t y - t h r e e most p o p u l o u s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1 9 5 0 , n e a r l y h a l f w e r e e i t h e r d i r e c t l y on o r c l o s e to t he G r e a t L a k e s . I n C a n a d a , the p e r c e n t a g e was e v e r h i g h e r . Of t h e s e v e n l a r g e s t C a n a d i a n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , f o u r - M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , Quebec C i t y , and H a m i l t o n - we re p o r t s r i g h t on t h e G r e a t L a k e s o r S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r , and two - W i n n i p e g and O t t a w a - were w i t h i n t h e n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e i m m e d i a t e h i n t e r l a n d s o f p o r t s a l o n g t he s y s t e m . See H a r o l d M e y e r , The P o r t o f  C h i c a g o and t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 3 0 . 6 S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 2 2 - 2 3 ; H a r t l e y , G r a i n M o v e m e n t s , p p . 4 4 - 4 5 ; W i l l o u g h b y , S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y , p . 3 ; H o w a r d , E c o n o m i c  A s p e c t s , p p . 2 5 - 6 . 7 W h i t l a r k , I n t r o d u c t i o n , p r e f a c e . - 108 -o F o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n be tween t h e c o m m e r c i a l s y s t e m o f t he S t . L a w r e n c e and t h e p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d a , s e e D o n a l d C r e i g h t o n , The E m p i r e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n C o . o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1 9 5 6 ) . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as E m p i r e . ) 9 Thomas , Seaway S t o r y , p . 3 . 1^ F o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c h r o n o l o g y o f t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f n a v i g a t i o n and p o w e r , s e e S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , A p p e n d i x A , p p . 1 7 5 - 2 0 0 . H T . L . H i l l s , The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway ( L o n d o n , Me thuen and C o . , L t d . , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 3 2 , ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as S e a w a y . ) ; L i o n e l C h e v r i e r , The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway S t o r y ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1959) p p . 1 4 - 1 6 , ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Seaway S t o r y . ) ; C a r l t o n M a b e e , The Seaway S t o r y , (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n C o . , 1 9 6 1 . ) p . 9 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Seaway  S t o r y . ) ; n . g . , S t . Lawrence Seaway and Power P r o j e c t s ( M o n t r e a l : R e i d and B o u l t o n P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 3 5 , ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Seaway  and P o w e r ) ; W i l l o u g h b y , S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y , p . 4 . 12 H i l l s , S e a w a y , p p . 3 2 - 3 3 ; W i l l o u g h b y , S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y , p . 5 ; n . g . , Seaway arid P o w e r , p . 3 6 . 1 3 The s t u r d y , b u t r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f i c i e n t b a t e a u w h i c h h a d l o n g m o n o p o l i z e d t r a f f i c on t h e G r e a t L a k e s and S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r h a d b e e n r e p l a c e d by t h e Durham b o a t , a l o n g , s h a l l o w , n e a r l y f l a t - b o t t o m e d b a r g e h o l d i n g f r o m f i v e t o t e n t i m e s t h e c a r g o o f t h e b a t e a u . T h e s e t o o , w e r e b e g i n n i n g t o g i v e way t o s t e a m b o a t s . 14 F o r more d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s o f e a r l y i m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e G r e a t L a k e s and S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r , s e e C r e i g h t o n , E m p i r e ; M a b e e , Seaway  S t o r y , p p . 1 1 - 5 8 ; W i l l o u g h b y , S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y , p p . 3 - 6 8 ; C l a r a I ng ram J u d s o n , S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway ( C h i c a g o : F o l l e t t P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 5 9 ) , p p . 4 1 - 9 5 . ^ The U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n c e n t r a t e d on i m p r o v i n g t h e G r e a t L a k e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r . The A m e r i c a n s we re n o t y e t u s i n g t h e r i v e r a s a " n a t u r a l r i g h t , " b u t as a " p r i v i l e g e " w h i c h c o u l d be r e v o k e d a t any t i m e . F o r r e a s o n s o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t A m e r i c a n l e a d e r s p r e f e r r e d imp rovemen ts t o h e l p c h a n n e l a l l i m p o r t s and e x p o r t s a c r o s s A m e r i c a n t e r r i -t o r y . E x t e n s i v e u s e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r m i g h t h u r t t h e A m e r i c a n Mohawk-Hudson r o u t e . I n any c a s e , t h e r e was n o t y e t any r e a l need by A m e r i c a n s e t t l e r s f o r b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s on t h e r i v e r as l o n g as h o s t i l i t i e s w i t h B r i t a i n (and Canada) w e r e p o s s i b l e . I t w o u l d be more a d v a n t a g e o u s t o l e a v e t h e S t . L a w r e n c e u n i m p r o v e d . 16 H a r t l e y , G r a i n M o v e m e n t s , p . 49 , 17 They i n c l u d e d t h e C o r n w a l l C a n a l a r o u n d t h e L o n g S a u l t R a p i d s , t h e B e a u h a r n o i s C a n a l a r o u n d t h e S o u l a n g e s R a p i d s , t h e W i l l i a m s b u r g C a n a l , t he w i d e n i n g o f t h e L a c h i n e C a n a l , and t h e d e e p e n i n g o f t h e W e l l a n d C a n a l . - 109 -18 The L a c h i n e C a n a l was deepened and w i d e n e d i n 1 8 8 4 , t he W e l l a n d i n 1881 and a g a i n i n 1 8 8 6 , t he S o u l a n g e s i n 1 8 9 9 , the C o r n w a l l i n 1 9 0 0 , and t h e W i l l i a m s b u r g C a n a l i n 1 9 0 3 . 1^ C a n a l l e r s we re d e s i g n e d w i t h a f l a t k e e l and s p e c i a l s t r u c t u r e t o n a v i g a t e t h e f o u r t e e n f o o t c a n a l s and c a r r y a maximum tonnage o f b u l k c a r g o . 2 0 The N a t i o n , S e p t e m b e r 1 2 , 1 8 9 5 , p . 1 8 0 . 21 Among t h e p l a n s p r o p o s e d w e r e a s h i p w a y f r o m L a k e M i c h i g a n t o t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o by way o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r , a G e o r g i a n Bay t o M o n t r e a l Sh ipway by way o f t h e O t t a w a R i v e r , a L a k e O n t a r i o t o New Y o r k Sh ipway by way o f t h e Oswego and Hudson R i v e r s , and a L a k e O n t a r i o t o M o n t r e a l Sh ipway f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r . 22 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e c o r d , 52d C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 1 3 2 , 9 2 9 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as C o n g . R e c . ) 23 C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons D e b a t e s , 1892 s e s s . , p p . 1 3 8 - 1 5 1 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as D e b a t e s . ) 24 U . S . , P u b l i c Document n o . 1 2 2 , 5 3 d . C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 8 9 7 ) , p . 4 4 . 25 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , H o u s e , R e p o r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s -Deep  Wate rways C o m m i s s i o n , N o . 1 9 2 , 5 4 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 8 9 7 ) . 26 F o r a t e x t o f t h e B o u n d a r y W a t e r s T r e a t y , s e e S e n a t e Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 0 4 - 1 1 2 ; R . R . B a x t e r , e d . , Documents on t h e S t . L a w r e n c e  Seaway : A S e l e c t i o n o f D o c u m e n t s , B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l and C o m p a r a t i v e Law ( L o n d o n : S t e v e n s and S o n s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p p . 7 - 1 1 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as D o c u m e n t s . ) 27 U . S . , War D e p a r t m e n t , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e War Depa r tmen t  f o r t h e F i s c a l Y e a r Ended J u n e 3 0 , 1 8 9 7 , R e p o r t o f t h e C h i e f o f E n g i n e e r s , P a r t 4 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 8 9 7 ) , p p . 3 1 2 8 - 3 2 6 5 . 28 C o n g . R e c . , 6 3 d . C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p . 1 3 1 . 29 C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Documents R e l a t i n g  t o t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r Power Company, L I V , 1 9 1 9 , n o . 2 3 0 . 30 F o r examp le s e e Cong . R e c . , 6 7 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 7 8 1 , 9 7 9 , 1 1 6 4 , 1 8 9 6 , 2 3 0 5 ; and 6 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 7 4 6 , 2 8 5 0 , 3 3 2 0 , 3 5 8 1 , 3 6 2 4 , 4 1 0 6 , 4 8 8 8 , 4 9 7 2 . - 110 -31 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e , S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y : R e p o r t  o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n C o n c e r n i n g Improvement o f t h e  S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r be tween M o n t r e a l and L a k e O n t a r i o f o r N a v i g a t i o n  and P o w e r , 6 7 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , S . D o c . 114 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Governmen t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1922) ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as R e p o r t o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n . ) ; a n d , U . S . , C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e , S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y : R e p o r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s  and C a n a d i a n Government E n g i n e e r s on t h e Improvement o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e  R i v e r f r om M o n t r e a l t o L a k e O n t a r i o Made t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t  C o m m i s s i o n , 6 7 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , S . D o c , 179 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 2 ) . 32 U . S . , D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , P a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o t h e F o r e i g n  R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1 9 2 2 , v o l . 1 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 6 7 9 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . ) 33 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e , S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway P r o j e c t :  R e p o r t o f t he S t . L a w r e n c e C o m m i s s i o n o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , 6 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , S . D o c . 183 ( W a s h i n g t o n D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 7 ) ; a n d , U . S . , C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e , S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway P r o j e c t : R e p o r t o f t h e J o i n t B o a r d o f E n g i n e e r s , 6 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , S . D o c . 183 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Governmen t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 7 ) . 34 C a n a d a , N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e , S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway  P r o j e c t ( O t t a w a : F . A . A c l a n d , 1 9 2 8 ) . 35 S e n a t e , R e p o r t o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n , 1 9 2 2 , p . 1 7 6 . 36 U . S . , D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e Deep  Waterway T r e a t y , D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e P u b l i c a t i o n N o . 347 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s Gove rnemtn P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 2 ) . 37 F o r t h e S e n a t e d e b a t e s , s e e C o n g . R e c . , 73d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 9 8 , 5 3 0 - 4 7 , 6 2 7 - 8 , 6 7 1 - 2 , 7 1 4 - 6 , 7 8 9 - 8 1 4 , 9 1 5 - 3 4 , 1 1 5 4 - 6 9 , 1 6 5 4 - 8 4 , 1 7 3 9 - 7 2 , 1 8 2 1 - 4 3 , 2 0 8 9 - 9 2 , 2 4 1 0 - 2 3 . 38 C o n g . R e c , 73d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . 4 4 7 5 . 39 Samue l I. Roseman , e d . , The P u b l i c P a p e r s and A d d r e s s e s o f  F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t , V o l . 5 , (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 3 8 - ) , p p . 1 1 9 - 2 0 ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as P u b l i c P a p e r s : F r a n k l i n v D . R o o s e v e l t . ) . 4 0 New Y o r k T i m e s , M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 3 4 , p . 1 . 4 1 New Y o r k T i m e s , M a r c h 1 4 , 1 9 3 4 , p . 9 . P u b l i c P a p e r s : F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t , V o l . 5 , p . 1 1 9 . 43 F o r t h e t e x t o f t h e 1941 A g r e e m e n t , s e e B a x t e r , D o c u m e n t s , p p . 1 1 - 1 7 . - I l l -44 New York Times, May 1, 1948, p. 1; July 17, 1948, p. 1. [ - 112 -I I . N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t and N a t i o n a l Seaways . 1 C r e i g h t o n , E m p i r e , p p . 1 4 1 - 4 2 . 2 Q u o t e d i n G . P . de G l a z e b r o o k , A H i s t o r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n  C a n a d a , (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 9 0 . ^ F o r e x a m p l e , s e e t he M o n t r e a l G a z e t t e , J u n e 2 5 , 1831 c i t e d i n H . A . I n n i s and A . R . M . L o w e r , e d ' s . , S e l e c t Documents i n C a n a d i a n  E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y , 1783 -1885 ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 1 0 6 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as S e l e c t D o c u m e n t s . ) ^ C i t e d i n E . A . C r u i k s h a n k , " T h e I n c e p t i o n o f t h e W e l l a n d C a n a l , " O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , P a p e r s and R e c o r d s , X X I I , 1 9 2 5 , p . 7 1 . 5 M o n t r e a l G a z e t t e , M a r c h 2 9 , 1 8 3 1 , c i t e d i n I n n i s and L o w e r , S e l e c t D o c u m e n t s , p p . 1 7 1 - 7 5 . 6 W i l l o u g h b y , S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y , p . 4 2 . 7 The C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1 9 0 7 , p . 1 4 9 . 8 J o h n W. D a f o e , C l i f f o r d S i f t o n i n R e l a t i o n t o H i s T imes ( T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n C o . o f Canada L t d . , 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 2 6 6 . 9 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1903 s e s s i o n , p . 1 4 9 . 1 0 I b i d . , p . 7 6 5 9 . 1 1 I b i d , p p . 7 7 1 2 , 8 5 2 7 , 8 5 4 6 . F o r h i s r e p l y , s e e D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 2 2 , v o l . 1 , p . 6 7 7 - 9 . 13 M o n t r e a l , f e a r i n g t h a t i t w o u l d l o s e i t s a d v a n t a g e s as an i n l a n d t r a n s - s h i p m e n t p o r t , p r o v e d adamant i n i t s o p p o s i t i o n . Q u e b e c , whose b l o c i n P a r l i a m e n t was v i t a l t o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f P r i m e M i n i s t e r K i n g ' s g o v e r n m e n t , and h e r p o w e r f u l p r e m i e r , L . A . T a s c h e r e a u , w e r e c o m p l e t e l y o p p o s e d t o c o o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . E v e n P r e m i e r F e r g u s o n o f O n t a r i o who had b e e n a seaway a d v o c a t e , o p p o s e d i t a f t e r 1 9 2 3 . See M a n i t o b a F r e e P r e s s , O c t o b e r 2 5 , 1 9 2 7 , p . 1 5 . The C a n a d i a n gove rnmen t had i n c u r r e d a p u b l i c d e b t o f a l m o s t $ 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 as a r e s u l t o f t h e F i r s t W o r l d War . The d e p r e s s i o n soon came and C a n a d i a n s demanded a p o l i c y o f economy and r e t r e n c h m e n t . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d Canada d i d n o t y e t have a g r e a t need f o r t h e a d d i t i o n a l power o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The M a r i t i m e s we re a t mos t i n d i f f e r e n t . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and A l b e r t a had t h e i r eyes i n t e n t l y f i x e d on t h e P a c i f i c whe re p o r t s w e r e open a l l y e a r r o u n d w h i l e M a n i t o b a and S a s k a t c h e w a n l o o k e d - 113 -t o t h e Hudson Bay as an o u t l e t f o r t h e i r w h e a t . The C a n a d i a n gove rnmen t was c o m m i t t e d t o t h e n a t i o n a l r a i l w a y s w h i c h m i g h t be t h r e a t e n e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . 1-* I f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w e r e a t wa r w i t h a n o t h e r c o u n t r y , Canada w o u l d have a h a r d t i m e p r e s e r v i n g h e r r i g h t as a n e u t r a l and i f e v e r t h e r e w e r e wa r be tween Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , C a n a d a ' s d e f e n s e w o u l d be much more d i f f i c u l t . 16 P o i n t i n g t o t h e p a s t when C a n a d a ' s s o v e r e i g n t y s u f f e r e d a t t h e hands o f t h e A m e r i c a n s , t h e y s t r e s s e d t h a t j o i n t c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c a n a l w o u l d l e a d t o i n n u m e r a b l e c o n f l i c t s w h i c h w o u l d e n d a n g e r C a n a d a ' s s o v e r e i g n t y . U s i n g t h e Panama C a n a l and r e c e n t s t a t e -ments made i n C o n g r e s s as e x a m p l e s , t h e y s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d n e v e r be s a t i s f i e d u n t i l she had f u l l c o n t r o l o f t h e w a t e r w a y . The C h i c a g o D i v e r s i o n c o n t r o v e r s y p r o v i d e d more a m m u n i t i o n f o r seaway o p p o n e n t s who p o i n t e d ou t how t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i g n o r e d t h e r i g h t s o f C a n a d a . T h e s e men a l s o p o i n t e d t o " c r e e p i n g A m e r i c a n i s m " i n C a n a d a . The r i s e o f A m e r i c a n i n v e s t m e n t t o t h e p o i n t o f v i r t u a l c o n t r o l o f c e r t a i n C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i e s and r e s o u r c e s amd t h e i n f l u e n c e o f A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e on t h a t o f Canada w e r e s i n g l e d o u t as e x a m p l e s o f C a n a d a ' s a l r e a d y f a l t e r i n g c o n t r o l o f h e r own s o v e r e i g n t y . F o r t h e s e n a t i o n a l i s t s , t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway was j u s t a n o t h e r scheme p r o m o t e d by A m e r i c a n c a p i t a l i s t s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e x p l o i t i n g C a n a d a ' s r e s o u r c e s . See Commons, D e b a t e s , 1921 s e s s . , p p . 6 7 9 , 6 8 0 , 6 8 8 , 6 8 9 , 7 4 5 , 7 5 5 , 3 6 7 8 ; 1922 s e s s . , p p . 1 1 9 6 - 1 2 0 0 , 1 2 0 9 , 1 3 1 4 - 1 3 3 4 ; 1924 s e s s . , p p , 5 9 5 - 5 9 9 , 6 0 5 - 6 0 9 ; 1926 s e s s . , p p . 1 8 5 7 - 7 9 ; 1928 s e s s . , p p . 1 9 2 6 - 4 6 ; 1929 s e s s . , p . 1 3 4 7 ; 1930 s e s s . , p . 2 0 7 3 . 1^ Commons, D e b a t e s , 1922 s e s s i o n , p . 1 3 3 4 . 1 8 T o r o n t o G l o b e , J u l y 1 9 , 1 9 2 1 , p . 5 . 19 Quo ted i n C o n g . R e c . , 6 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . 3 3 0 7 . Commons, D e b a t e s , 1924 s e s s i o n , p . 5 9 9 . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1 9 2 7 - 2 8 , p . 1 6 1 . 2 2 New Y o r k T i m e s , J a n u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 3 2 , p . 1 9 . 23 D e p t . o f S t a t e , F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , 1 8 7 1 , p p . 5 1 7 - 3 1 . 24 C o n g . R e c . , 6 7 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . 6 2 . 20 21 25 I b i d . , p . 7602 . 26 They a r g u e d t h a t i t w o u l d be v e r y h a r d f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o m a i n t a i n i t s n e u t r a l i t y i n any war i n w h i c h B r i t a i n was i n v o l v e d and i n c a s e o f any t r o u b l e w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n ( o r Canada) t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d be p r e v e n t e d f r o m s e n d i n g w a r s h i p s i n t o t h e G r e a t L a k e s ; s u p p l i e s - 114 -t o t h e M i d w e s t w o u l d be choked o f f ; and C a n a d a ' s p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e e l e c t r i c i t y p r o d u c e d w h i c h she e x p o r t e d t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d be c u t o f f . E v e n i f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were a l l i e s i n a w a r , Canada s t i l l m i g h t c u t power t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n o r d e r t o meet h e r own n e e d s , as she had done i n W o r l d War I. F o r e x a m p l e , s e e I b i d . , p p . 6 2 - 3 , 7 5 9 8 - 6 0 7 . 2 7 . D b i d . , p p . 7 5 9 8 - 6 0 5 . 2 8 I b i d . , p . 5 6 6 2 . ? T h i s r o u t e i n c l u d e d t h e E r i e C a n a l and was l a t e r u s e d by t h e New Y o r k S t a t e B a r g e C a n a l . 30 S u p p o r t e r s o f t h i s r o u t e i n c l u d e d t h e p a r t i s a n b a c k i n g o f New Y o r k ' s S e n a t o r s and C o n g r e s s m e n , t h e New Y o r k L e g i s l a t u r e and m a r i t i m e i n t e r e s t s , New Y o r k ' s g o v e r n o r s , s u c h as t h e n a t i o n a l l y p o p u l a r F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t and A l f r e d E . S m i t h , and t h e t r emendous i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p o w e r f u l H e a r s t n e w s p a p e r c h a i n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e S e c r e t a r i e s o f t h e Navy and War l e n t t h e i r s u p p o r t i n 1 9 2 6 . F o r e x a m p l e , s e e New Y o r k T i m e s , Sep tember 2 9 , 1 9 2 8 , p . 3 ; November 2 3 , 1 9 2 8 , p . 3 ; O c t o b e r 1 9 , 1 9 2 9 , p . 2 0 ; M a r c h 9 , 1 9 2 6 , p . 4 ; M a r c h 1 1 , 1 9 2 6 , p . 1 3 ; and M a r c h 1 2 , 1 9 2 6 , p . 4 . 31 T h i s r o u t e was p o p u l a r i n t h e M i d w e s t , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s t a t e s a l o n g t h e M i s s i s s i p p i , M i s s o u r i , and O h i o R i v e r s . I t was a d o p t e d i n 1925 when C o n g r e s s p a s s e d a l a w a u t h o r i z i n g t he " d e e p e n i n g o f t h e c h a n n e l s o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r f r o m S t . P a u l t o t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o , t h e O h i o f r o m P i t t s b u r g t o t h e M i s s i s s i p p i , and t h e M i s s o u r i f r o m K a n s a s C i t y t o t h e M i s s i s s i p p i . " See C o n g . R e c . , 6 8 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . 5 3 5 3 . 32 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Laws o f t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e Improvement o f R i v e r s and H a r b o r s f r o m J u n e 2 3 , 1 9 1 3 - M a r c h 4 , 1 9 2 5 , 6 7 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , H . D o c , 347 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Governmen t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 6 ) , p . 1 7 1 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as H . D o c . 3 4 7 . ) C o n g . R e c . , 6 7 t h C o n g . 2d s e s s . , p . 1 7 9 6 . 34 They r e p o r t e d t h a t i t was e n t i r e l y f e a s i b l e f r o m an e n g i n e e r i n g s t a n d p o i n t , b u t t h e r e s u l t i n g e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s d i d n o t j u s t i f y t h e l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e . S e e , H . D o c . 3 4 7 , p . 2 9 4 ; a n d , New Y o r k T i m e s , M a r c h 5 , 1 9 2 6 , p . 1 1 . 3 5 New Y o r k T i m e s , M a r c h 8 , 1 9 2 6 , p . 1 ; M a r c h 9 , 1 9 2 6 , p . 4 . 3 6 New Y o r k T i m e s , M a r c h 9 , 1 9 2 6 , p . 4 . 37 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e G o v e r n o r S m i t h ' s l e t t e r t o C o n g r e s s r e p r i n t e d i n t h e New Y o r k T i m e s , M a r c h 1 6 , 1 9 2 6 , p . 2 7 ; a l s o s e e , New Y o r k T i m e s , M a r c h 8 , , 1 9 2 6 , p . 1 , and M a r c h 9 , 1 9 2 6 , p . 1 . - 115 -38 39 AO 41 42 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 2 2 , v o l . 1 , p . 6 7 7 . F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 2 8 , v o l . 2 , p p . 64-5. Commons, D e b a t e s , 1928 s e s s i o n , p . 1946. C o n g . R e c . , 6 9 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p . 6047. C o n g . R e c . , 7 1 s t C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . 1 0 , 886 . 43 i b i d . , p p . 7783-84. p . 5 . 44 45 The r e p o r t i s s u m m a r i z e d i n New Y o r k T i m e s , A p r i l 6 , 1 9 3 0 , I n a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n m i n i s t e r t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s S e c r e t a r y K e l l o g g w a r n e d t h a t Canada b e t t e r e n t e r i n t o a t r e a t y w h i l e he was s t i l l i n o f f i c e b e c a u s e some p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n m i g h t a r i s e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t i n an a l l ' A m e r i c a n r o u t e . 4^ D r u r y ' s o p i n i o n s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n a r t i c l e s i n M a c l e a n ' s  M a g a z i n e f r o m F e b r u a r y 1 t o A p r i l 1 , 1 9 2 9 . 4 7 T o r o n t o G l o b e , F e b r u a r y 7 , 1 9 3 1 , p . 4. 48 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1930 s e s s . , p p . 1 0 5 7 , 2 0 7 1 . ^ J . A l e x a n d e r A i k e n , " T h e S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway P r o j e c t , " Q u e e n ' s Q u a r t e r l y , X X X I X , 1 9 3 2 , p . 1 1 8 . 50 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1928 s e s s . , p . 1 2 0 9 . 51 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1932 s e s s . , p . 5 8 . 5 2 I b i d . - 116 -I I I . C h a n g i n g V i e w s o f t he N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t . 1 New Y o r k T i m e s , A u g u s t 1 9 , 1 9 3 8 , p . 2 . 2 H i s p a r t y h e l d s e v e n t y - f i v e o f t h e n i n e t y s e a t s i n t h e Quebec A s s e m b l y . 3 F o r a t e x t o f t h e a g r e e m e n t , s e e B a x t e r , D o c u m e n t s , p p . 1 1 - 1 7 . ^ C . D . Howe, " D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway : The C a n a d i a n V i e w p o i n t , " V i t a l S p e e c h e s o f t h e D a y , X V I I I , N o . 9 , p p . 2 8 4 - 8 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as " D e v e l o p m e n t " . ) 5 F i n a n c i a l P o s t , December 1 6 , 1 9 5 0 , p . 1 7 . 6 C . D . Howe, " D e v e l o p m e n t , " p . 2 8 4 . 7 I b i d . 8 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1950 s e s s . , p . 2 9 6 ; 1951 s e s s . , p . 2 0 0 0 ; 1 9 5 2 - 3 s e s s . , p . 4 0 9 8 . 9 C h e v r i e r , Seaway S t o r y , p . 4 7 , a l s o , Commons, D e b a t e s , 1 9 5 0 s e s s . , p . 4 3 2 6 ; F i n a n c i a l P o s t , J a n u a r y 2 2 , 1 9 4 9 , p . 7 ; December 1 6 , 1 9 5 0 , p p . 1 , 1 7 ; M a r c h 3 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 7 ; L . G . R o g e r s , " T h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway P r o j e c t i s V i t a l t o C a n a d a ' s P r o g r e s s , " S a t u r d a y N i g h t , Sep tembe r 2 7 , 1 9 4 9 , p . 3 0 ; C o c h r a n e , " C o u l d We B u i l d t h e Seaway A l o n e ? " C a n a d i a n B u s i n e s s , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 5 0 , p p . 3 2 - 4 ; "Seaway Now?" B u s i n e s s Week, S e p t e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 5 0 , p . 1 2 6 . 10 C . D . Howe, " D e v e l o p m e n t , " p p . 2 8 6 - 7 . 11 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1951 s e s s . , p p . 2 3 8 3 , 4 1 4 1 ; 1 9 5 1 , 2d s e s s . , p . 2 6 0 ; F i n a n c i a l P o s t , May 1 2 , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 8 - 9 , O c t o b e r 6 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 1 ; "Seaway S h e l v e d A g a i n , " T i m e , A u g u s t 6 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 3 0 . 1 2 See C o n g . R e c . , 6 7 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 6 2 - 3 , 5 6 6 2 , 7 5 9 8 -6 0 7 ; 6 9 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 6 0 9 8 - 1 0 0 , 7 5 9 8 . 1 3 P u b l i c P a p e r s : F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t , V o l . 9 , p p . 5 9 9 - 6 0 2 . 1^  U . S . , C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e , S u b c o m m i t t e e o f t h e Commi t tee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e B a s i n , H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , 7 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Governmen t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 6 ) , p . 1 8 ; and U . S . , D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , U n i t e d S t a t e s  Depa r tmen t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , I V , n o . 9 1 , M a r c h 2 2 , 1 9 4 1 , p p . 3 1 6 - 1 8 . 15 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , H o u s e , Commi t tee on R i v e r s and H a r b o r s , G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e B a s i n , H e a r i n g s on t he S u b j e c t o f Improvement o f  t h e G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway and Power P r o j e c t , 7 7 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p t . 1 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 1 ) , p p . 5 9 - 6 0 , 6 8 . 3 2 1 , 3 2 4 , 3 6 3 - 5 . - 117 -1 6 I b i d . , p p . 3 8 3 , 1 9 8 8 , 2 0 8 6 . 1 7 New Y o r k T i m e s , A u g u s t 9 , 1 9 4 1 , p . 1 . 18 C o n g . R e c . , 7 7 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . A494. 19 P u b l i c P a p e r s : F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t , v o l . 1 1 , p . 4 1 5 . 20 By a s e r i e s o f a g r e e m e n t s t h e y p r o v i d e d f o r j o i n t c o n -s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f a v a s t n o r t h e r n r a d a r w a r n i n g n e t w o r k and f o r c o n t i n u o u s c o n s u l t a t i o n on m i l i t a r y e q u i p m e n t and s t r a t e g y . A d e f e n s e p r o d u c t i o n - s h a r i n g ag reemen t p r o v i d e d f o r e x t e n s i v e r e c i p r o c a l p u r c h a s i n g o f d e f e n s e g o o d s . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n A i r D e f e n s e Agreement p l a c e d t h e a i r f o r c e s o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s u n d e r a u n i f i e d N o r t h A m e r i c a n A i r D e f e n s e Command (NORAD). 21 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e , C o n g . R e c . , 7 9 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p . 9 2 9 4 ; 7 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . 1 7 9 9 ; 8 0 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 4 8 5 7 , 6 7 6 1 , 6 9 3 0 , A 3 0 8 4 ; 8 0 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 5 3 2 , 1 1 0 7 , 1 1 1 3 , 1 1 7 7 ; 8 1 s t C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 1 6 , 4 0 5 , A 3 0 5 8 . 22 C o n g . R e c . , 7 9 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p . 9 2 9 4 . 2 3 D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X I I , n o . 5 6 7 , May 1 5 , 1 9 5 0 , p p . 7 6 5 - 8 . F o r e x a m p l e , s e e U . S . , C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e , S u b c o m m i t t e e o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e B a s i n , H e a r i n g s on  S . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , 7 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 6 ) , p p . 8 2 , 2 5 7 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . 1 0 4 . ) 25 I b i d > > p > 3 6 > 26 I b i d . , p p . 8 3 - 4 , 97 . 27 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e , S u b c o m m i t t e e o f t h e Commi t t ee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway P r o j e c t , H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . I l l , 8 0 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 7 ) , p . 1 4 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . 1 1 1 . ) 28 I b i d . , p p . 1 5 , 2 0 - 5 , 2 7 - 9 , 4 2 . 7 6 8 . 2 9 D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X I I , n o . 5 6 7 , May 1 5 , 1 9 5 0 , 30 S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p . 4 7 ; f o r f u l l t e x t , p p . 4 7 - 5 9 . 31 M o s t o f t h e s e d e f e n s e a rgumen ts can be f o u n d i n C o n g . R e c . , 7 9 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 5 4 7 2 , A 2 0 7 , A 3 3 5 , A 3 3 6 , A 4 7 5 7 , A 2 6 6 ; 7 9 t h C o n g . , - 118 -2d s e s s . , p p . 2 1 4 5 , A 7 8 4 , A 8 7 9 , A 9 8 9 , A 1 0 1 6 , A 1 1 1 0 , A 1 3 5 4 , A 1 5 7 8 , A 1 5 7 9 , A 1 6 9 8 , A 1 7 0 0 , A 1 8 9 6 , A 2 0 7 9 , A 2 0 8 0 , A 2 8 3 8 , A 3 4 0 3 ; 8 0 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 1 1 9 6 , 6 7 6 1 , 6 9 2 3 , 6 9 3 0 , 7 1 4 0 , A 2 9 3 9 , A 3 1 7 8 , A 3 7 7 2 ; 8 0 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 5 2 0 , 5 2 6 , 1 0 5 7 - 5 8 , 1 1 1 2 , 1 1 8 4 , 1 3 1 4 , 1 4 9 4 , 1 5 0 0 , 1 8 1 7 , A 2 4 3 , A 4 9 7 ; 8 1 s t C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 1 2 3 6 , 6 0 7 8 ; 8 1 s t C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . A 3 8 6 8 , A 5 2 5 5 , A 6 8 2 6 , A 6 8 2 7 ; a l s o s e e Depa r tmen t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X I V , n o . 6 1 0 , M a r c h 1 2 , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 4 3 2 - 4 . 3 2 C o n g . R e c , 7 9 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . A 2 0 7 , A 9 9 7 , A 2 5 7 1 , A 2 7 5 6 , A 4 7 5 7 . 33 S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . I l l , p . 4 0 2 . 34 They we re N a t i o n a l S t e e l , R e p u b l i c S t e e l , Y o u n g s t o w n S h e e t and T u b e , W h e e l i n g S t e e l , and Armco S t e e l c o m p a n i e s . 35 C o n g . R e c , 7 9 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . A 2 0 7 , A 9 9 7 , A 2 5 7 1 , A 2 7 5 6 , A 4 7 5 7 . 36 F o r C o n g r e s s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s p r o b l e m i n t h e p o s t - w a r y e a r s s e e : C o n g . R e c , 7 9 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . A 2 0 7 , A 9 9 7 , A 2 5 7 1 , A 2 7 5 6 , A 4 7 5 7 ; 7 9 t h C o n g . , 2~d s e s s . , p p . A 7 8 5 , A 8 7 9 - 8 0 , A 9 6 1 - 2 , A 1 3 5 4 , A 1 5 4 4 , A 1 5 7 8 - 9 , A 1 6 9 8 , A 2 0 8 0 , A 2 8 3 9 ; 8 0 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 1 1 9 5 - 6 , 6 7 6 1 , 6 9 2 3 , 6 9 3 0 , 8 2 0 4 , 1 0 , 6 6 7 , A 5 9 2 , A 2 4 1 4 , A 3 7 7 2 , A 3 8 0 9 , A 3 8 1 0 ; 8 0 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 5 1 5 , 5 1 7 - 2 1 , 5 2 4 - 7 , 9 5 1 , 9 5 8 , 1 0 4 7 - 9 . 1 1 1 2 - 4 , 1 1 8 9 , 1 4 1 8 , 1 6 6 3 - 7 , A 4 9 7 ; 8 1 s t C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 1 2 3 5 , 1 2 3 6 , 6 7 0 2 , A 9 6 7 , A 1 1 9 6 , A 1 2 7 4 , A 1 5 3 2 , A 1 6 4 0 , A 6 2 4 4 - 5 ; 8 1 s t C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 5 8 5 9 , 1 5 , 5 1 8 , 1 5 , 9 1 8 , 1 6 , 4 0 4 , 1 6 , 5 5 1 , A 1 9 5 4 - 5 , A 3 0 5 8 , A 3 0 5 9 , A 3 3 5 0 , A 3 7 2 7 - 9 , A 3 8 6 8 , A 4 8 2 2 , A 4 8 2 4 , A 4 9 1 3 , A 5 2 5 5 , A 6 0 3 7 , A 6 5 6 7 , A 6 5 6 8 , A 6 8 2 6 , A 6 8 2 9 , A 7 0 1 1 , A 7 6 9 9 , A 7 7 8 3 , A 7 7 8 4 ; s e e a l s o , S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , p p . 2 7 2 , 3 1 3 , 353-4, 9 9 2 , 1 1 2 1 - 3 , 1 1 5 7 - 6 1 , 1 3 6 1 - 4 ; S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . I l l , p p . 8 9 , 1 4 2 , 1 8 1 , 1 8 9 , 1 9 1 , 1 9 4 , 4 0 2 . 37 S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 4 7 - 8 . 38 F reeman L i n c o l n , " B a t t l e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e , " F o r t u n e M a g a z i n e , December 1 9 5 0 , p . 8 4 . 3 9 K e i t h H u t c h i s o n , " T h e S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y , " P a r t I, The  N a t i o n , M a r c h 1 7 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 2 5 3 . 40 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , H o u s e , Commi t tee on P u b l i c W o r k s , G r e a t  L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e B a s i n , H e a r i n g s on H . J . R e s . 2 7 1 , 8 1 s t C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 0 ) , p p . 233 - 6 4 . 41 I b i d . , p p . 2 6 , 1 1 5 , 1 5 6 . 4 2 H o u s e , H e a r i n g s on H . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , p p . 1 4 - 8 , 2 9 , 3 1 , 5 9 - 6 0 , 7 4 , 7 9 ; S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . 5 8 9 , S. 1 0 6 5 , and S . J . R e s . 4 5 , p p . 2 2 , 2 5 - 7 , - 119 -1 2 4 - 3 0 , 1 3 9 - 4 1 , 1 6 5 , 1 7 4 - 9 , 1 8 0 - 2 , 2 1 4 , 4 6 7 - 7 4 , 4 9 5 - 9 , 5 2 9 ; C o n g . R e c . , 83d C o n g . 2d s e s s . , p p . 1 0 3 , 2 1 0 , 3 3 2 , 3 3 6 , 3 4 2 - 4 , 4 2 4 , 5 0 2 , 1 0 7 7 ; Depa r tmen t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X I V , n o . 6 1 0 , M a r c h 1 2 , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 4 3 2 - 4 ; F o r e x a m p l e s o f wha t t he m e d i a t h o u g h t , s e e a r t i c l e s i n T i m e , J u n e 1 8 , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 4 0 , 4 3 ; A u g u s t 6 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 3 0 ; May 1 8 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 2 3 ; F e b r u a r y 1 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1 1 ; Newsweek, May 7 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 4 4 ; F e b r u a r y 1 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1 7 ; A u g u s t 2 , 1 9 5 4 , p p . 5 7 - 8 , 6 1 ; U . S . News and W o r l d R e p o r t , O c t o b e r 1 2 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 1 6 ; F e b r u a r y 5 , 1 9 5 4 , p p . 5 4 - 6 ; N a t i o n , M a r c h 1 7 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 2 5 3 ; May 1 7 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 4 7 0 ; and B u s i n e s s Week, S e p t e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 5 0 , p . 1 2 6 ; F e b r u a r y 1 7 , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 9 8 , 1 0 1 ; A p r i l 7 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 1 5 6 ; A u g u s t 4 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 5 2 ; and A u g u s t 1 1 , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 1 4 8 - 9 . 43 D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X I V , n o . 6 1 0 , p . 4 3 4 . - 120 -I V . The " A l l - C a n a d i a n " Seaway U l t i m a t u m . 1 " A Seaway by 1 9 5 9 : Canada Means B u s i n e s s , " U . S . News and  W o r l d R e p o r t , M a r c h 1 4 , 1 9 5 2 , p p . 3 6 - 9 . 2 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1 9 5 1 , 2d s e s s . , p . 1 1 3 8 . 3 Canada was i n t h e m i d s t o f i t s g r e a t e s t m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n e x p a n s i o n and d i s c o v e r i e s o f o i l , n a t u r a l g a s , i r o n o r e , n i c k e l , l e a d , z i n c , a s b e s t o s , p o t a s h , t i t a n i u m , b i s m u t h , mo l ybdenum, and u r a n i u m , j u s t e n c o u r a g e d more e x p l o r a t i o n and f u r t h e r d i s c o v e r i e s . ^ F i n a n c i a l P o s t , O c t o b e r 6 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 1. 5 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1 9 5 1 , 2d s e s s . , p . 2 6 0 . 6 I b i d . , p . 1 5 8 9 . 7 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1949 s e s s . , p . 6 6 . 8 T o r o n t o G l o b e , F e b r u a r y 1 4 , 1 9 4 9 , p . 1 . 9 C h e v r i e r , S e a w a y , p p . 4 2 - 3 . 1 0 T o r o n t o G l o b e , F e b r u a r y 1 4 , 1 9 4 9 , p . 1. 11 New Y o r k T i m e s , S e p t e m b e r 1 5 , 1 9 5 0 , p . 5 0 . -i o ^ C h e v r i e r , S e a w a y , p . 4 3 . 13 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e T o r o n t o G l o b e and M a i l , May 7 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 6 ; a l s o F i n a n c i a l P o s t , M a r c h 3 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 7 , and May 1 2 , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 8 - 9 . F o r e x a m p l e , s e e t h e r e m a r k s o f Ambassado r Hume W r o n g , c i t e d i n C o n g . R e c . , 82d C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . A 4 9 0 1 - 2 . 1 5 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1951 s e s s . , p p . 2 2 6 , 2 8 6 5 . 16 I b i d . , p . 2 8 5 . 17 I b i d . , p . 4 1 4 1 . 18 F o r a summary o f t h e o p i n i o n s o f n o t e d C a n a d i a n s o f v a r i o u s b a c k g r o u n d s , s e e F i n a n c i a l P o s t , May 1 2 , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 8 - 9 . 19 D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V , n o . 6 4 1 , O c t o b e r 8 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 5 8 1 ; a l s o , S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 1 2 - 3 . - 121 -20 Commons, D e b a t e s , 1 9 5 1 , 2d s e s s . , p . 2 . 2 1 I b i d . , p p . 1 5 5 7 , 1 5 5 9 . 2 2 I b i d . , p p . 2 4 8 , 1 5 0 3 , 1 5 5 7 , 1 5 5 9 , 1 5 7 9 - 8 1 . 2 3 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e , I b i d . , p p . 8 0 - 1 , 2 0 5 - 8 , 5 8 9 , 1 5 9 0 , 1 6 4 0 - 5 , 1 6 5 1 - 8 , 1 7 7 3 - 5 . 2 4 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e , I b i d . , p p . 2 0 8 , 2 6 0 , 2 6 9 , 3 4 8 , 5 8 1 , 7 1 7 , 7 3 0 , 9 3 2 , 1 1 3 7 , 1 5 8 2 , 1 5 8 6 , 1 6 4 1 , 1 6 4 6 - 9 . 1 6 8 5 , 1 7 6 9 . 2 5 I b i d . , p . 2 6 9 . 2 ^ T h i s was t h e v i e w o f s u c h men as M . J . C o l d w e l l , L e a d e r o f t h e C . C . F . , J . B . B l a c k m o r e , L e a d e r o f t h e S o c i a X C r e d i t 9 and J . W . N o s e w o r t h y , Member f r o m Y o r k S o u t h . See I b i d . , p . 2 6 0 , 5 8 1 , 1 5 8 7 - 9 . 1 6 4 9 . 2 7 I b i d . , p p . 1 8 3 4 - 6 . 2 8 C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , S e n a t e , D e b a t e s o f t h e S e n a t e , 1 9 5 1 , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 6 4 , 3 2 4 ; a f u l l t e x t o f t h e l a w c a n a l s o be f o u n d i n S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 1 - 1 6 , and B a x t e r , D o c u m e n t s , p p . 1 9 - 2 4 . 2 9 D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V I , n o . 671 ( F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 2 3 2 - 3 5 ; S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 1 3 - 5 . 30 T h e s e i n c l u d e d t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s News C o n f e r e n c e s o f J a n u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 5 2 , and F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 5 2 ; t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s News C o n f e r e n c e on t he B u d g e t , J a n u a r y 1 9 , 1 9 5 2 ; t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s E c o n o m i c R e p o r t , J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 5 2 ; t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s A n n u a l B u d g e t Message t o C o n g r e s s , J a n u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 5 2 ; and h i s S p e c i a l M e s s a g e t o C o n g r e s s u r g i n g A c t i o n on t he S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway , J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 5 2 ; S e e , P u b l i c P a p e r s o f t he P r e s i d e n t s : H a r r y S . T r u m a n , 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 4 5 , 5 1 , 6 1 - 2 , 8 8 , 1 2 1 , 1 2 5 - 1 2 8 , 1 6 6 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Truman  P u b l i c P a p e r s . ) 3 1 D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V I I I , n o . 659 ( F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 2 3 2 - 5 . 3 2 I b i d . 33 " C a n a d a L e g i s l a t e s t o B u i l d S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y , " C h r i s t i a n  C e n t u r y , J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 6 1 . 34 New Y o r k T i m e s , A p r i l 1 5 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 1 . 3 5 D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V I , n o . 671 (May 5 , 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 7 1 9 - 2 0 ; Truman P u b l i c P a p e r s , 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 , p p . 2 8 2 - 8 3 . C o n g . R e c , 82d C o n g . . , 2d s e s s . , p . 7 4 6 6 . - 122 -3 7 New Y o r k T i m e s , J u n e 2 0 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 1 1 . 38 F o r t e x t s o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s , s e e Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 2 0 - 3 5 ; a l s o , Depa r tmen t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V I I , n o . 6 8 1 , p p . 6 5 - 6 7 . 39 D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V I I I , n o . 681 ( J u l y 1 4 , 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 6 5 - 7 ; Truman P u b l i c P a p e r s , 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 , p p . 4 5 1 - 2 . 40 F o r a t e x t o f t h e n o t e , s e e Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 3 5 - 6 . 41 F o r a t e x t o f t h e a p p r o v a l , see Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 3 7 - 4 7 ; a l s o Depa r tmen t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V I I , n o . 7 0 5 , (December 2 9 , 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 1 0 1 9 - 2 4 . 42 F o r a t e x t o f t h e a p p r o v a l , s e e Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 5 0 - 6 , - 123 -V. A m e r i c a n R e a c t i o n 1 F o r f u l l t e x t s e e , P u b l i c P a p e r s : F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t , v o l . 3 , p p . 2 9 - 3 1 . 2 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e " C a n a d a Wants A c t i o n , " Newsweek, May 7 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 4 ; " S o l o S e a w a y , " T i m e , O c t o b e r 8 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 4 6 . 3 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , H o u s e , P u b l i c Works C o m m i t t e e , S t . L a w r e n c e  S e a w a y , H e a r i n g s on H . J . R . ' s 2 , 3 , 4 , 1 5 , 1 0 2 , 1 2 2 , and 1 5 9 , and H . R . 2 5 3 6 , P a r t s 1 and 2 , 82d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 9 0 8 . 4 I b i d . , p p . 6 8 9 - 9 0 . C o n g . R e c . , 82d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 5 1 0 - 1 ; The House Commi t tee was t i e d up a t 13 t o 13 w i t h one v a c a n c y i n t he m e m b e r s h i p . 6 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e , " C a n a d a Wants A c t i o n , " Newsweek, May 7 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 4 4 ; " S t r a n d e d S e a w a y , " B u s i n e s s Week, A u g u s t 4 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 5 2 ; " S e a w a y : W i t h o r W i t h o u t U . S . ? " B u s i n e s s Week, A u g u s t 1 1 , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 1 4 8 - 9 ; " S o l o S e a w a y , " T i m e , O c t o b e r 8 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 4 6 ; " S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y : I s Huge S h i p p i n g , Power P r o j e c t Now t o be C o m p l e t e d ? " U . S . News and W 0 r l d R e p o r t , O c t o b e r 1 2 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 1 6 ; " S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway and Power P r o j e c t , " R o t a r i a n , J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 2 , p p . 2 6 - 8 , 5 1 - 6 ; " C a n a d a L e g i s l a t e s t o B u i l t t h e S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y , " C h r i s t i a n C e n t u r y , J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 6 1 ; "How Goes t h e St« L a w r e n c e S e a w a y ? " B u s i n e s s Week, F e b r u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 1 1 6 ; " A Seaway by 1 9 5 9 : Canada Means B u s i n e s s , " U . S . News and W o r l d R e p o r t , M a r c h 1 4 , 1 9 5 2 , p p . 36 - 9 ; " S i d e s t e p p i n g C o n g r e s s , " Newsweek , A p r i l 2 8 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 4 5 ; Rod Van E v e r y , " 2 , 4 0 0 M i l e s t o P r o s p e r i t y , " N a t i o n , May 1 7 , 1 9 5 2 , p p . 4 6 8 - 7 1 ; a n d , " S e n a t e S h e l v e s S e a w a y , New Y o r k May H e l p , " B u s i n e s s Week, J u n e 2 8 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 3 1 . 7 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e C o n g . R e c . , 8 2 d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 7 1 2 8 , 7 1 8 1 , 7 2 4 0 - 1 , 7 3 4 7 , 7 4 5 8 , 7 4 6 4 - 6 6 . 8 C o n g . R e c . , 83d C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 3 1 8 , 5 1 3 . 9 U . S . , C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e , S u b c o m m i t t e e o f t h e Commi t t ee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y , H e a r i n g s on S . 589 and amendments t h e r e t o , S . 1065 and S . J . R e s . 4 5 , 83d C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 3 ) , p p . 2 2 - 5 7 , 8 6 - 2 2 2 , 4 6 1 - 5 3 1 . ( H e r e -a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as H e a r i n g s on S . 5 8 9 , S . 1065 and S . J . R e s . 4 5 . ) ; U . S . , C o n g r e s s , H o u s e , House Commi t tee on P u b l i c W o r k s ; S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y ,  H e a r i n g s on H . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , 83d C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 3 ) , p p . 9 - 1 3 6 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as H e a r i n g s on H . J . R e s . 1 0 4 . ) ; C o n g . R e c . , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 0 4 - 1 5 , 2 3 9 , 3 1 2 , 3 3 2 - 4 4 , 4 4 0 , 4 9 7 - 5 0 6 . - 124 -1 0 S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . 5 8 9 , S . 1065 and S . J . R e s . 4 5 , p p . 2 2 2 - 4 6 1 ; H o u s e , H e a r i n g s on H . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , p p . 2 2 6 - 4 8 3 ; C o n g . R e c . , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 0 7 - 1 6 , 2 3 5 - 8 , 2 5 3 - 4 , 2 8 7 - 8 , 2 9 6 - 3 0 3 , 3 0 8 - 1 9 , 3 3 3 - 5 , 3 5 5 - 6 6 , 4 2 4 , 4 3 1 - 9 , 4 4 7 - 5 0 , 4 7 6 . H F o r an examp le o f p r e v i o u s p o s t - W o r l d War I I C o n g r e s s i o n a l d e b a t e s , s e e C o n g . R e c . , 8 0 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 5 1 1 - 3 2 , 6 2 4 - 5 0 , 7 5 8 - 7 7 , 8 6 2 - 8 , 9 5 0 - 6 2 , 1 0 4 7 - 6 3 , 1 1 0 7 - 8 , 1 1 1 2 - 1 1 1 6 , 1 1 4 5 , 1 1 7 6 - 8 3 , 1 1 8 7 - 9 2 , 1 2 7 2 , 1 3 0 5 - 1 4 , 1 4 1 7 - 1 8 , 1 4 8 8 - 9 8 , 1 5 0 0 - 2 8 , 1 5 7 1 - 2 , 1 6 6 3 - 8 , 1 7 3 3 , 1 7 4 7 - 5 1 , 1 8 1 7 - 2 0 , 1 8 2 7 - 8 , 1 8 3 5 - 4 0 . 1 2 C o n g . R e c , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 0 4 - 8 , 2 3 8 - 4 0 , 2 5 3 , 3 0 9 , 3 3 1 - 2 , 3 3 6 , 3 4 4 , 3 5 5 , 3 5 7 , 4 2 5 , 4 3 0 , 4 3 3 , 4 3 6 , 4 4 6 - 8 . 1 3 I b i d . , p . 2 0 4 . 1 4 I b i d . , p p . 5 0 3 - 4 . 1 5 I b i d . , p . 4 3 1 . 16 F o r h i s f u l l s t a t e m e n t , s e e Depa r tmen t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V I I I , n o . 7 2 8 , p p . 8 2 4 - 6 . 1 7 New Y o r k T i m e s , J u n e 1 3 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 1 1 . 1 8 New Y o r k T i m e s , J a n u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 1 6 . 1 9 New Y o r k T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 6 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 1 4 . OA R o b e r t D o n o v a n , E i s e n h o w e r : The I n s i d e S t o r y , 1 s t e d . (New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 7 6 . 2 1 New Y o r k T i m e s , M a r c h 3 1 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 2 3 . 2 2 " W a t e r P r e s s u r e s , " New R e p u b l i c , A p r i l 2 0 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 7 . o o The N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l was composed o f t he P r e s i d e n t , t h e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , t h e S e c r e t a r i e s o f S t a t e , D e f e n s e , Commerce, and t h e I n t e r i o r , p l u s t h e D i r e c t o r o f M u t u a l S e c u r i t y . 2 4 Depa r tmen t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V I I , n o . 725 (May 1 1 , 1 9 5 3 ) , p p . 6 9 8 - 9 ; S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 5 9 - 6 0 . 2 5 D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V I I , n o . 726 (May 2 5 , 1 9 5 3 ) , p p . 7 5 3 - 4 ; S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 4 9 - 5 0 . 2 6 P u b l i c P a p e r s o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : Dw igh t D. E i s e n h o w e r ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 0 ) , p p . 1 1 - 1 2 ; S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p . 4 7 . 2 7 F o r t h e i r t e s t i m o n y , s e e S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . 5 8 9 , S . 1065  and S . J . R e s . 4 5 , p p . 2 7 - 4 8 , 4 6 4 - 8 2 , 4 8 4 - 5 0 0 , 5 2 8 - 4 1 ; H o u s e , H e a r i n g s on  H . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , p p . 9 - 8 2 . - 125 -2 8 C o n g . R e c , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 0 6 , 2 0 9 - 1 3 , 2 1 7 , 2 3 8 , 2 9 7 , 3 3 5 - 8 , 3 4 5 , 4 2 4 - 5 , 4 3 7 - 8 , 4 4 3 - 5 , 4 6 7 , 4 7 7 , 5 0 4 , 5 2 5 . 2 9 F o r d e f e n s e a rgumen ts o f p r i o r p o s t W o r l d War I I y e a r s s e e p p . 4 3 - 4 6 G f t h i s p a p e r . 30 F o r an e x a m p l e o f t h i s l i n e o f a rgument i n t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l d e b a t e s , s e e C o n g . R e c . , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 0 6 - 2 1 7 , 2 3 8 , 2 9 7 , 3 3 5 - 8 , 3 4 5 , 4 2 4 - 5 , 4 3 7 - 8 , 4 4 3 - 5 , 4 6 7 , 4 7 7 , 5 0 4 , 5 2 5 . p p . 5 8 - 7 4 . 31 F o r h i s f u l l t e s t i m o n y s e e , H o u s e , H e a r i n g s on H . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , 32 C o n g . R e c . , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . 4 3 2 . 3 3 i b i d . , p . 2 9 2 ; s e e a l s o p . 2 1 1 . 34 i n a p u b l i c a d d r e s s on J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1 9 5 4 , S e c r e t a r y D u l l e s s e t f o r t h t h e d e c i s i o n t o depend p r i m a r i l y upon a g r e a t c a p a c i t y t o r e t a l i a t e , i n s t a n t l y , and by any means a t any p l a c e . C h a r l e s E . W i l s o n , h e a d o f t h e d e f e n s e d e p a r t m e n t , s a i d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o f i g h t l i m i t e d w a r s b u t o n l y a b i g o n e . 35 C o n g . R e c . , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . 5 1 5 . 3 6 S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . 5 8 9 , S . 1065 and S . J . R e s . 4 5 , p p . 3 2 0 , 3 2 5 , 3 5 9 , 3 6 1 , 3 7 5 , 4 1 9 , 4 4 1 , 4 5 1 ; H o u s e , H e a r i n g s on H . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , p p . 2 3 5 , 3 1 9 , 3 2 7 , 3 6 3 , 4 7 9 ; C o n g . R e c , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 1 1 , 2 3 5 - 8 , 2 5 3 , 2 8 9 - 9 3 , 3 5 6 , 4 3 2 - 4 , 4 7 6 , 5 1 5 . 37 S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . I l l , p . 1 5 4 . 38 H o u s e , H e a r i n g s on H . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , p p . 5 8 - 7 4 . 39 F rom an a r t i c l e i n t h e M i l i t a r y E n g i n e e r , J u l y - A u g u s t , 1 9 5 4 , c i t e d i n Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 6 7 - 8 . ^0 See t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y R e s o u r c e s B o a r d c i t e d i n Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 4 7 - 5 9 . 4 ! S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . 5 8 9 , S . 1065 and S . J . R e s . 4 5 , p . 9 6 . 4 2 U . S . , D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D i v i s i o n , P o t e n t i a l T r a f f i c on t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 2 5 . ^ C o n g . R e c . , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . 2 3 8 . 44 I b i d . , p . 2 1 5 . 4 5 I b i d . , P . 2 3 1 . 46 i b i d . , p . 4 3 0 . - 126 -4 7 I b i d . , p . 2 1 7 . 4 8 I b i d . , p p . 2 0 4 - 1 6 , 2 3 8 - 9 , 3 3 2 , 3 3 8 - 9 , 3 4 4 , 3 5 5 , 4 2 8 - 4 3 0 ; H o u s e , H e a r i n g s on H . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , p p . 1 2 - 1 6 , 6 2 - 3 , 7 9 ; S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s  on S . 5 8 9 , S . 1065 and S . J . R e s . 4 5 , p p . 2 6 - 7 , 5 6 - 7 , 8 6 , 8 9 - 9 0 , 1 2 0 - 1 , 1 3 2 , 1 5 9 - 6 0 , 1 8 0 - 2 . 49 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e C o n g . R e c . , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 1 6 , 2 5 4 , 2 9 0 , 3 1 5 , 4 3 1 - 3 , 4 3 5 . 5 0 I b i d . , p . 5 2 5 . 51 F o r a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e v o t e , s e e A p p e n d i x . 52 C o n g . R e c . , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 6 1 5 9 - 6 0 . 53 F o r a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s , s e e A p p e n d i x . 54 C o n g . R e c , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . 2 4 0 . 55 O f f i c i a l C o n g r e s s i o n a l D i r e c t o r y : 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 4 ) , p p . 2 4 1 , 2 5 1 . C a r l N . D e g l e r , A f f l u e n c e and A n x i e t y : 1 9 4 5 - P r e s e n t ( G l e n v i e w , I l l i n o i s : S c o t t , F o r e s m a n and Company, 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 8 6 - 7 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as A f f l u e n c e . ) 5 7 N a t h a n i e l R. H o w a r d , e d . , The B a s i c P a p e r s o f George M . Humphrey  as S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y , 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 7 ( C l e v e l a n d : The W e s t e r n R e s e r v e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 1 7 - 2 3 . 5 8 D o n o v a n , I n s i d e S t o r y , p p . 7 6 - 8 . 59 D e g l e r , A f f l u e n c e , p . 8 7 . 60 D u r i n g t h e campa ign E i s e n h o w e r had r e f u s e d t o commit h i m s e l f on t h e seaway and a f t e r h i s i n a u g u r a t i o n , he made no m e n t i o n o f i t i n h i s S t a t e o f t h e U n i o n M e s s a g e . See p p . 73-4 i n t h i s p a p e r . 61 C o n g . R e c , 83d C o n g . , . 2d s e s s . , p . 5 2 5 ; a l s o s e e A p p e n d i x o f t h i s p a p e r . 62 S e e , New Y o r k T i m e s , J a n u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1 ; " S e a w a y ' s B i g C h a n c e , " Newsweek, F e b r u a r y 1 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1 7 ; " A V i c t o r y f o r P r o g r e s s , " T i m e , F e b r u a r y 1 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1 1 ; F i n a n c i a l P o s t , F e b r u a r y 8 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 8 . 63 I b i d . 64 p o r e x a m p l e , s e e h i s l e t t e r t o t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e S e n a t e and to t h e S p e a k e r o f t h e House r e g a r d i n g t he S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway and Power P r o e j c t ( J u l y 1 , 1 9 5 2 ) , and h i s S p e c i a l M e s s a g e t o C o n g r e s s u r g i n g A c t i o n on t he S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway ( J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 5 2 ) , i n P u b l i c P a p e r s : T ruman , 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 5 3 , p p . 1 2 5 - 8 , 4 5 1 - 2 . - 127 -65 D e g l e r , A f f l u e n c e , p . 5 6 . 6 6 F i n a n c i a l P o s t , May 5 , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 1 , 3 . 6 7 I n Truman P u b l i c P a p e r s , 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 5 3 , p p . 4 5 , 5 1 , 6 1 - 2 , 8 8 , 1 2 1 , 1 2 5 - 8 , 1 6 6 , 2 7 5 , 2 8 2 - 3 , 4 3 3 , 4 5 1 - 2 . 6 8 I b i d . , p . 1 2 6 . 69 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e t h e s p e e c h e s o f S e n a t o r s Lehman , A i k e n and Humphrey , C o n g . R e c . , 82d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 7 2 4 4 - 5 , 7 3 5 2 - 5 . 7 0 C o n g . R e c , 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 2 0 5 - 1 2 , 2 3 8 , 2 9 7 , 3 3 1 - 8 , 3 4 5 , 4 2 4 - 9 , 4 3 7 - 8 , 4 4 3 , 4 7 7 , 4 9 8 , 5 0 6 , 5 2 5 . 7 1 New Y o r k T i m e s , J a n u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1 7 ; J a n u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 5 4 , p p . 1 , 1 4 ; J a n u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 5 4 , I V , p . 2 . 72 73 74 Cong. Rec., 83d Cong., 2d sess., p. 443. Ibid., p. 345. The United States wanted a twenty-five foot deep channel. 75 T h i s l a s t s t i p u l a t i o n f a v o r e d Canada s i n c e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r t he U n i t e d S t a t e s t o b u i l d a S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway e n t i r e l y t h r o u g h i t s own t e r r i t o r y , b u t Canada c o u l d . I t g r a n t e d Canada t h e r i g h t t o p r o c e e d a t any t i m e w i t h h e r own seaway w i t h o u t p r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . P r i o r t o t h e t r e a t y t h i s had n o t b e e n p o s s i b l e s i n c e t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e B o u n d a r y W a t e r s T r e a t y o f 1909 r e q u i r e d t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e I n t e r -n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n f o r any s t r u c t u r e o f d i v e r s i o n w h i c h w o u l d a f f e c t t he l e v e l s o f t h e b o u n d a r y w a t e r s . 7 6 Of t h e C a n a d i a n s h a r e , O n t a r i o was e x p e c t e d t o p a y $104 m i l l i o n , l e a v i n g t h e C a n a d i a n gove rnmen t w i t h a c o s t o f o n l y $ 3 8 , 2 0 4 , 0 0 0 w h i c h c o u l d be f u r t h e r r e d u c e d i f Quebec a g r e e d t o pay f o r t h e power t o be d e v e l o p e d i n t he S o u l a n g e s s e c t i o n . New Y o r k was t o pay a s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n c o s t s b u t t h e s t a t e ' s c a p i t a l o u t l a y h a d n o t y e t been a g r e e d u p o n . 7 7 F o r a t e x t o f t h e 1941 A g r e e m e n t , s e e B a x t e r , D o c u m e n t s , p p . 1 1 - 1 7 . / 0 S e e , F i n a n c i a l P o s t , J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 1. 79 F o r t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n , s e e B a x t e r , D o c u m e n t s , p p . 3 6 - 4 4 ; S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 3 7 - 4 7 . 80 S e e , S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 3 1 - 2 . - 128 -° F o r a c o m p l e t e t e x t o f t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o A c t , s e e I b i d . , p p . 5 - 1 0 ; and f o r e s t i m a t e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' s h a r e u n d e r t h e 1941 A g r e e m e n t , w h i c h v a r i e d , s e e C o n g . R e c . , 7 9 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p p . 5 4 7 2 , A 2 0 7 ; 8 0 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , p . A 3 7 7 1 ; 8 0 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 5 1 2 - 3 , 5 2 6 , 6 3 0 ; 8 1 s t C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p . A 7 7 8 3 ; and S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . J .  R e s . 1 0 4 , p p . 2 0 , 2 8 . 8 2 A l t h o u g h t h e i d e a o f s e l f - l i q u i d a t i o n was an a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e o f t h e b i l l , i t was n o t one t h a t c o n v i n c e d o p p o s i t i o n s e n a t o r s t o v o t e f o r t h e b i l l . R a t h e r , i t s e r v e d as a d e v i s e t o make t h e s p e n d i n g o f $105 m i l l i o n on t h e seaway l e s s u n a t t r a c t i v e t o t h o s e who we re c o n v e r t e d by t he n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y a r g u m e n t . A f t e r a l l , t h e i d e a o f s e l f - l i q u i d -a t i n g t o l l s had b e e n i n c l u d e d i n most seaway b i l l s s i n c e t h e y we re f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d b y S e n a t o r V a n d e n b e r g i n 1 9 4 7 . 8 3 F o r e x a m p l e , s e e , C o n g . R e c . , 7 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . , p p . 1 7 9 9 , A 7 8 5 , A 8 8 0 , A 1 5 7 8 ; S e n a t e , H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . 1 0 4 , p p . 1 6 2 - 3 , 1 7 0 , 3 8 7 - 9 9 , 5 3 7 ; "Seaway A g a i n , " B u s i n e s s Week , J a n u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 2 6 ; " O l d D r e a m , New H o p e , " T i m e , May 8 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 2 3 . 8 4 See s t a t e m e n t o f P r i m e M i n i s t e r S t . L a u r e n t b e f o r e t h e House o f Commons, i n Commons, D e b a t e s , 1952 s e s s i o n , p . 4 0 3 2 . 8 ^ F o r e x a m p l e , s e e S t a t e m e n t o f A . J . B r o o k s , t h e Member o f P a r l i a m e n t r e p r e s e n t i n g R o y a l i n Commons, D e b a t e s , 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 5 3 s e s s i o n , p . 2 9 4 ; and F i n a n c i a l P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 1 . 8 ^ Commons, D e b a t e s , 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 5 3 s e s s i o n , p . 9 2 . 8 7 F i n a n c i a l P o s t , J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 1 ; See a l s o , "Few C h e e r s N o r t h , " Newsweek, May 2 4 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 4 8 . 88 F i n a n c i a l P o s t , J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 1 . 8 9 F i n a n c i a l P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1 ; New Y o r k T i m e s , May 8 , 1954, p . 1 8 . 90 p p . 5 - 1 1 . 91 92 93 94 95 96 F i n a n c i a l P o s t , A p i r i l 1 1 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 3 2 . New Y o r k T i m e s , Sep tember 3 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 2 7 . C i t e d i n t h e New Y o r k T i m e s , May 8 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1 8 . New Y o r k T i m e s , J a n u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 2 8 ; May 1 4 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1 6 . Commons, D e b a t e s , 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 4 s e s s i o n , p . 4 7 0 8 . F o r a c o m p l e t e t e x t o f t h e W i l e y - D o n d e r o A c t , s e e Seaway M a n u a l , F o r a c o m p l e t e t e x t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t , s e e D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X V I I I , n o . 7 2 8 , J u n e 8 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 8 2 5 . - 129 -97 See S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 4 7 - 9 . 9 8 S e n a t e , Seaway M a n u a l , p . 2 0 3 . QQ " B l a i r F r a s e r , "Was t h e r e a Seaway S e l l o u t ? " M a c l e a n ' s , O c t o b e r 1 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 6 . ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as " S e l l o u t ? " ) - 1 - 0 0 C h e v r i e r , S e a w a y , p p . 6 1 - 2 ; F i n a n c i a l P o s t , A u g u s t 2 1 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1. 1 0 1 I b i d . , a l s o F r a s e r , " S e l l o u t ? " M a c l e a n ' s , O c t o b e r 1 , 1 9 5 4 , p . 6 . D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , X X X I , n o . 7 9 2 , p p . 2 9 9 - 3 0 1 ; Seaway M a n u a l , p p . 1 7 1 - 4 . 103 Andrew H . B r o w n , "New S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway Opens t h e G r e a t L a k e s t o t h e W o r l d , " The N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c M a g a z i n e , CXV , M a r c h 1 9 5 9 , p . 2 9 9 . V I . C o n c l u s i o n . 1 M a b e e , Seaway S t o r y , p . 1 5 5 . - 130 -S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y . U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P u b l i c a t i o n s . U . S . C o n g r e s s . C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e c o r d . U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e . P a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o t h e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Depa r tmen t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n . U . S . C o n g r e s s . H o u s e . R e p o r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Deep Wate rways C o m m i s s i o n , N o . 1 9 2 . 5 4 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 8 9 7 . Laws o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s R e l a t i n g t o t h e Improvements o f  R i v e r s and H a r b o r s f r om J u n e 2 3 , 1 9 1 3 - M a r c h 4 , 1 9 2 5 . 6 7 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . H . D o c . 3 4 7 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s ' Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 6 . Commi t t ee on R i v e r s and H a r b o r s . G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e  B a s i n , H e a r i n g s on t h e S u b j e c t o f Improvements o f t h e  G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway and Power P r o j e c t . 7 7 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Gove rnmen t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 1 . Commi t t ee on P u b l i c W o r k s . G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e B a s i n , H e a r i n g s on H . J . R e s . 2 7 1 . 8 1 s t C o n g . , 2d s e s s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C O f f i c e , 1 9 5 0 . U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g Commi t tee on P u b l i c W o r k s . S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y , H e a r i n g s  on H . J . R . ' s 2 , 3 , 4 , 1 5 , 1 0 2 , 1 2 2 , arid 1 5 9 , and H . R . 2 5 3 6 . 82d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 1 . U n i t e d S t a t e s Commi t tee on P u b l i c W o r k s . S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y , H e a r i n g s  on H . J . R e s . 1 0 4 . 83d C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . W a s h i n g t o n D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 3 . Commi t tee on P u b l i c W o r k s . The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway , R e p o r t  o f t h e Commi t tee on P u b l i c Works on S . 2 1 5 0 . 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . II. R e p o r t N o . 1 2 1 5 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 4 . - 131 -U . S . C o n g r e s s . S e n a t e . S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y : R e p o r t o f t h e I n t e r - n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n C o n c e r n i n g t h e Improvement  o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r Be tween M o n t r e a l and L a k e  O n t a r i o f o r N a v i g a t i o n and P o w e r . 6 7 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . S . D o c . 1 1 4 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C ; U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n -ment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 2 . . S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y : R e p o r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d i a n Government E n g i n e e r s on t h e Improvement o f t h e  S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r f r o m M o n t r e a l t o L a k e O n t a r i o made  t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n . 6 7 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . S . D o c . 1 7 9 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 2 . ' S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway P r o j e c t : R e p o r t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e C o m m i s s i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 6 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . S . D o c . 1 8 3 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 7 . . S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway P r o j e c t : R e p o r t o f t h e J o i n t B o a r d o f E n g i n e e r s . 6 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . S . D o c . 1 8 3 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 7 . ' S u b c o m m i t t e e o f t h e Commi t t ee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e B a s i n , H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . 104 . 7 9 t h C o n g . , 2d s e s s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Gove rnmen t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 6 . ' . S u b c o m m i t t e e o f t h e Commi t t ee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway P r o j e c t , H e a r i n g s on S . J . R e s . 1 1 1 . 8 0 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . W a s h i n g t o n , D , C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Gove rnmen t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 7 . . S u b c o m m i t t e e o f t h e Commi t t ee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y , H e a r i n g s on S . 589 and Amendments  t h e r e t o , S . 1065 and S . J . R e s . 4 5 . 83d C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 3 . . Commi t tee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway M a n u a l : A C o m p i l a t i o n o f Documents on t h e G r e a t L a k e s Seaway  P r o j e c t and C o r r e l a t e d Power D e v e l o p m e n t . 83d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . S . D o c . 1 6 5 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Governmen t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 5 . . S p e c i a l S u b c o m m i t t e e on Commerce. G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S t u d y . 8 8 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 4 . - 132 -U . S . C o n g r e s s . O f f i c i a l C o n g r e s s i o n a l D i r e c t o r y : 83d C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 4 . U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D i v i s i o n . P o t e n t i a l T r a f f i c on t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Governmen t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 8 . U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e . G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway T r e a t y . Depa r tmen t o f S t a t e P u b l i c a t i o n N o . 3 4 7 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 2 . U . S . P u b l i c Document N o . 1 2 2 . 53d C o n g . , 2d s e s s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Governmen t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 8 9 7 . U . S . War D e p a r t m e n t . A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e War D e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e F i s c a l Y e a r Ended J u n e 3 0 , ~ 1 8 9 7 : R e p o r t o f t h e C h i e f o f  E n g i n e e r s , P a r t 4 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 8 9 7 . E i s e n h o w e r , Dw igh t D. P u b l i c P a p e r s o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : D w i g h t D. E i s e n h o x j e r . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 0 . T r u m a n , H a r r y S . P u b l i c P a p e r s o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : H a r r y S . T r u m a n , 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 5 3 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 6 . C a n a d i a n Government P u b l i c a t i o n s . C a n a d a . P a r l i a m e n t . D e b a t e s o f t h e S e n a t e . House o f Commons D e b a t e s . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s . Documents R e l a t i n g t o t h e S t . L a w r e n c e  R i v e r Power Company. L I V . 1 9 1 9 . n o . 2 3 0 . C a n a d a . N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e . S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway P r o j e c t . O t t a w a : F . A . A c l a n d , 1 9 2 8 . - 133 -Books B a x t e r , R . R . , e d . Documents on t he S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway : A S e l e c t i o n o f D o c u m e n t s . B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l and C o m p a r a t i v e Law. L o n d o n : S t e v e n s and S o n s , L t d . , 1 9 6 0 . C h e v r i e r , L i o n e l . The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 5 9 . C r e i g h t o n , D o n a l d . The E m p i r e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n C o . o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1 9 5 6 . D a f o e , J o h n W. C l i f f o r d S i f t o n i n R e l a t i o n t o H i s T i m e s . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n C o . o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1 9 3 1 . D e g l e r , C a r l N . A f f l u e n c e and A n x i e t y : 1 9 4 5 - P r e s e n t . G l e n v i e w , I l l i n o i s : S c o t t , Fo resman and Company, 1 9 6 8 . D e l u r y , G e o r g e . , e d . The 1973 W o r l d A l m a n a c and Books o f F a c t s . New Y o r k : Newspape r E n t e r p r i s e A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 7 3 . D o n o v a n , R o b e r t . E i s e n h o w e r : The I n s i d e S t o r y . 1 s t e d . New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1 9 5 6 . G l a z e b r o o k , G . P . de T . A H i s t o r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C a n a d a . New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 . H a r t l e y , J o s e p h R. The E f f e c t s o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway on G r a i n Mo v em en ts . I n d i a n a B u s i n e s s R e p o r t N o . 2 4 . B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s R e s e a r c h , 1 9 5 7 . H i l l s , T . L . The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . L o n d o n : Me thuen and C o . , L t d , 1 9 5 9 . H o w a r d , J a n e M a r y . Some E c o n o m i c A s p e c t s o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e P r o j e c t . The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a : S t u d i e s i n E c o n o m i c s , v o l . 2 5 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a P r e s s , 1 9 4 9 . H o w a r d , N a t h a n i e l R . , e d . The B a s i c P a p e r s o f Geo r ge M. Humphrey as S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y , 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 7 . C l e v e l a n d : The W e s t e r n R e s e r v e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1 9 6 5 . I n n i s , H . A . , and L o w e r , A . R . M . , e d s . S e l e c t Documents i n C a n a d i a n E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y , 1 7 8 3 - 1 8 8 5 . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 . I n n i s , M a r y Q. An E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y o f C a n a d a . P r e s s , 1954 . 2d e d . T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n - 134 -I r e l a n d , Tom. G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e Deep Waterway t o t h e S e a . New Y o r k : G . P . P u t n a m ' s S o n s , 1934 . J o h n s e n , J u l i a E . , e d . S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r S h i p C a n a l . New Y o r k : H.W. W i l s o n C o . , 192b". J u d s o n , C l a r a I n g r a m . S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . C h i c a g o : F o l l e t t P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 5 9 . M a b e e , C a r l t o n . The Seaway S t o r y . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 6 1 . M a c k a y , R . A . , e d . C a n a d i a n F o r e i g n P o l i c y , 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 5 4 : S e l e c t e d S p e e c h e s and D o c u m e n t s . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , L t d . , 1 9 7 1 . M e y e r , H a r o l d . The P o r t o f C h i c a g o and t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 . n . g . S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway and Power P r o j e c t s . M o n t r e a l : R e i d and B o u l t o n P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 5 9 . n . g . Seaway M a r i t i m e D i r e c t o r y : 1 9 7 1 . 1 2 t h e d . S t . C l a i r S h o r e s , M i c h i g a n : The F o u r t h S e a c o a s t P u b l i s h i n g C o . , I n c . , 1 9 7 1 . n . g . The Impac t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway on t h e M o n t r e a l A r e a . M o n t r e a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l . M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , S c h o o l o f Commerce, 1 9 5 7 . Roseman , S a m u e l I., e d . The P u b l i c P a p e r s and A d d r e s s e s o f F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t . New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 3 8 - . R u s s e l l , J o s e p h A . ; F e l l m a n n , Je rome D . ; and R o e p k e , Howard G . The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway : I t s Impac t by 1965 upon I n d u s t r y  o f M e t r o p o l i t a n C h i c a g o and I l l i n o i s . C h i c a g o : C h i c a g o A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commerce and I n d u s t r y , 1 9 5 9 . S c h w i e t e r t , A r t h u r H e n r y . The G r e a t L a k e s - S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway and Power P r o j e c t : A n a l y s i s o f t he T e s t i m o n y b e f o r e t h e Commi t tee on  P u b l i c Works o f t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . C h i c a g o : C h i c a g o A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commerce and I n d u s t r y , 1 9 5 1 . Thomas , L o w e l l . The S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway S t o r y . B u f f a l o : H e n r y S t e w a r t , I n c . , 1957 . T o r o , C a r l o s . E . , and Dowd, L a w r e n c e P . The S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y : P r a c t i c a l A s p e c t s f o r M i c h i g a n I n d u s t r y . M i c h i g a n B u s i n e s s R e p o r t s N o . 3 7 . Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s , 1 9 6 1 . W e l c h , Thomas P . , e d . G r e a t L a k e s F o r e i g n Commerce: 1 9 5 7 . Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : G r e a t L a k e s C o m m i s s i o n , 1 9 5 7 . - 135 -Wh i t l a r k , F r e d e r i c k L o u i s . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t he L a k e s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t he G r e a t L a k e s and S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway . 1 s t e d . New Y o r k : G r e e n w i c h Book P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 5 9 . W i l l o u g h b y , W i l l i a m R. The S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y : A S t u d y i n P o l i t i c s and D i p l o m a c y . M a d i s o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 . Wood, W i l l i a m . A l l A f l o a t : A C h r o n i c l e o f C r a f t and W a t e r w a y s . T o r o n t o : G l a s g o w , B r o o k and C o . , 1914 . W r i g h t , C P . The S t . Lawrence Deep W a t e r w a y : A C a n a d i a n A p p r a i s a l . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 3 5 . Newspape rs and M a g a z i n e s . B u s i n e s s Week C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s  F i n a n c i a l P o s t  M a c l e a n ' s M a n i t o b a F r e e P r e s s N a t i o n Newsweek New Y o r k T imes T ime T o r o n t o G l o b e and M a i l  U . S . News and W o r l d R e p o r t A i k e n , J . A l e x a n d e r . " T h e S t . L a w r e n c e Waterway P r o j e c t . " Queen's Q u a r t e r l y X X X I X ( 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 1 1 - 1 2 9 . - 136 -B o n b r i g h t , James C . " P o w e r A s p e c t s o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y . " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c s and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e V I I I ( 1 9 4 2 ) : 1 7 6 - 1 8 5 . B r o w n , Andrew H . "New S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway Opens t h e G r e a t L a k e s t o t h e W o r l d . " The N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c M a g a z i n e , M a r c h 1 9 5 9 , p p . 2 9 9 - 3 3 9 . " C a n a d a L e g i s l a t e s t o B u i l d S t . L a w r e n c e W a t e r w a y . " C h r i s t i a n C e n t u r y , J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 5 2 , p . 1 . C r u i k s h a n k , E . A . " T h e I n c e p t i o n o f t h e W e l l a n d C a n a l . " O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , P a p e r s and R e c o r d s X X I I ( 1 9 2 5 ) : 6 0 - 8 8 . G r e e n i n g , W . E . " S t . L a w r e n c e Power and S e a w a y . " F o r t n i g h t l y . J a n u a r y 1 9 5 3 , p p . 1 6 - 2 1 . Howe, C . D . " D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e S e a w a y : The C a n a d i a n V i e w -p o i n t . " V i t a l S p e e c h e s o f t h e Day X V I I I , n o . 9 ( F e b r u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 5 2 ) : 2 8 4 - 8 8 . L i n c o l n , F r e e m a n . " B a t t l e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e . " F o r t u n e , December 1 9 5 0 , p p . 8 4 - 9 0 , 1 8 4 - 1 8 9 . R o g e r s , L . G . " T h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway P r o j e c t i s V i t a l t o C a n a d a ' s P r o g r e s s . " S a t u r d a y N i g h t , S e p t e m b e r 2 7 , 1 9 4 9 , p p . 3 0 , 3 4 . " S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway and Power P r o j e c t . " R o t a r i a n , J a n u a r y 1 9 5 2 , p p . 2 6 - 8 , 5 1 - 6 . " W a t e r P r e s s u r e s . " New R e p u b l i c , A p r i l 2 0 , 1 9 5 3 , p . 7 . - 137 -A p p e n d i x 1954 S e n a t e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway V o t e ( W i l e y B i l l ) * New S e n a t o r s * * Term o f S e r v i c e End i n 1955 A y e s A i k e n ( R , V t . ) * * A n d e r s o n . ( D , N . M . ) * B a r r e t t ( R , W y o . ) B e n n e t t ( R , U t a h ) * B u r k e ( D . O h i o ) C a r l s o n ( R , K a n s . ) Case ( R . S . D . ) Chavez ( D . N . M . ) C l e m e n t s ( D , K y . ) * * C o o p e r ( R . K y . ) * * C o r d o n ( R , 0 r e . ) D i r k s e n ( R , I 1 1 . ) * * D o u g l a s ( D , I 1 1 . ) * * E a s t l a n d ( D , M i s s . ) * * F e r g u s o n ( R , M i c h . ) * * G i l l e t t e (D . I owa ) * G o l d w a t e r ( R . A r i z . ) * G o r e ( D , T e n n . ) * * G r e e n ( D , R . I . ) Hayden ( D , A r i z . ) H e n n i n g s ( D , M o . ) H i c k e n l o o p e r , (R , Iowa) H i l l ( D . A l a . ) H o l l a n d ( D . F l a . ) * *Humphrey ( D , M i n n . ) * J a c k s o n ( D . W a s h . ) * * K e f a u v e r ( D , T e n n . ) ^Kennedy ( D , M a s s . ) K n o w l a n d ( R , C a . ) * K u c h e l ( R , C a . ) L a n g e r ( R , N . D . ) Lehman ( D , N . Y . ) Magnuson ( D , W a s h . ) M i l l i k a n ( R . C o l o . ) Monroney ( D , 0 k l a . ) M o r s e ( l n d . , 0 r e . ) * * M u n d t ( R , S . . D . ) * * M u r r a y ( D . M o n t . ) P a s t o r e ( D . R . I . ) * P a y n e ( R , M a i n e ) * P o t t e r ( R . M i c h . ) * * S c h o e p p e l ( R , K a n . ) Sma the rs ( D , F l a . ) * * S m i t h ( R . M a i n e ) S m i t h ( R , N . J . ) * * S p a r k m a n ( D , A l a . ) ^ S y m i n g t o n ( D , M o . ) Thye ( R . M i n n . ) * U p t o n ( R , N . H . ) W i l e y ( R . W i s c . ) Young ( R , N . D . ) - 1 3 8 -Nays * B e a l l ( R , M d . ) B r i c k e r ( R . O h i o ) * B u s h ( R . C o n n . ) B u t l e r ( R , M d . ) B u t l e r ( R , N e b r . ) B y r d ( D . V a . ) * D a n i e l ( D , T e x a s ) * * D w o r s h a k ( R , I d a h o ) * * E l l e n d e r ( D . L a . ) F l a n d e r s ( R , V t . ) * * F r e a r ( D . D e l . ) F u l b r i g h t ( D , A r k . ) Hoey ( D , N . C . ) * * H u n t (D .Wyo . ) I v e s ( R , N . Y . ) J e n n e r ( R . I n d . ) * * J o h n s o n ( D . C o l o . ) * * J o h n s o n ( D . T e x a s ) J o h n s o n ( D . S . C . ) K i l g o r e ( D . W . V a . ) * * * L e n n o n ( D . N . C . ) L o n g ( D . L a . ) M a l o n e ( R . N e v . ) M a r t i n ( R . P e n n . ) M c C a r r a n ( D . N e v . ) * * M c C l e l l a n ( D . A r k . ) * * N e e l y ( D . W . V a . ) * P u r t e l l ( R . C o n n . ) * * R o b e r t s o n ( D . V a . ) * * S a l t o n s t a l l ( R . M a s s . ) S t e n n i s ( D . M i s s . ) W e l k e r ( R . I d a h o ) W i l l i a m s ( R . D e l . ) No t V o t i n g * * B r i d g e s ( R . N . H . ) C a p e h a r t ( R . I n d . ) D u f f ( R . P e n n . ) George ( D . G a . ) * * G r i s w o l d ( R . N e b r . ) * * H e n d r i c k s o n ( R . N . J . ) * * K e r r ( D . O k l a . ) * M a n s f i e l d ( D . M o n t . ) * * M a y b a n k ( D . S . C . ) M c C a r t h y ( R . W i s c . ) * * R u s s e l l ( D . G a . ) W a t k i n s ( R . U t a h ) - 139 -1. The six traditional opponents of the seaway who switched and voted in favour of the Wiley b i l l were a l l Republicans. They were: Bennett (R,Utah), Dirksen (R,I11.), Millikin (R,Colo.), Schoeppel (R,Kan.), Smith (R.Maine), and Smith (R.N.J.). 2. Of the eight Republicans up for re-election in the following year, only two chose to oppose the Eisenhower administration. Both came from states which had a tradition of strong opposition to the seaway, Massachusetts and Idaho. With the exception of Margaret Chase Smith of Maine, the others came from states which had a strong tradition in favor of the seaway or ones which had wavered on the issue. These threw their fortunes with the administration. 3. Of the eighteen Democrats up for re-election in the following year, the nine who represented states with a strong tradition of opposition to the seaway, remained opposed. The other nine came from states without such a strong tradition. A . Of the nine new Republican senators, three opposed the Wiley b i l l . A l l three came from states with strong traditions of opposition to seaway b i l l s , Maryland and Connecticut. Of the other six who voted for the seaway, three were replacing opposition senators. Barrett of Wyoming replaced O'Mahoney (D); Payne of Maine replaced Brewster (R); and Cooper of Kentucky replaced Underwood (D). 5. Five new Democratic senators voted in favor of the seaway. Kennedy of Massachusetts reversed the traditional opposition of Senator Lodge; - 140 -and Symington reversed the opposition of Senator Kern. Both were Republicans. 6. Of the twelve senators whose states would be involved in the Passamaquoddy and Colorado River projects, only two opposed the St. Lawrence Seaway project. Both were Democrats. Six of the seven Republicans voted in favor of the project and the seventh one paired himself off with an opponent. Three years earlier eight of the twelve senators from these states had voted to recommit the seaway to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The maps on the following pages represent the two times the Senate voted directly in the St. Lawrence Seaway, 1934 and 1954. The third map indicates the height of Senate delay on the seaway in 1948 when the St. Lawrence Seaway was sent back to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee for further study by a vote of 57-30. - 1 4 1 -Senate Vote on the Great Lakes-Lawr( Waterway J§§j§-0ne opposed C^N;t4 rtw*. P n v n r a d ££&iOne Fa o eNeither one voted • :h Senators Favored One favored - 142 -1 J 1 8 Senate Vola- Sending tha St. Lawrence Seav/ay B i l l Back to the Senate Foreign. Relations Figure 6. Both Senators i n f~'\M Favor of Recommittal a One f o r One f o r , One against Both Senators Opposed t o Recotniaittal One against Wo Ither Senator Voted 

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