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Meaning in life among adolescent leaders, non-leaders, and deviants Piquette, Edmond Andre Albert 1971

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MEANING IN LIFE AMONG ADOLESCENT LEADERS, NON-LEADERS, AND DEVIANTS . by EDMOND ANDRE ALBERT PIQUETTE B.Ph. University of Ottawa, 1961 L.Th. Laval University, 1965 B.Ed. U n i v e r s i t y of Alberta, 1967 A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of Arts i n the Department of Counselling We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1971 In presenting th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i ABSTRACT MEANING IN LIFE AMONG ADOLESCENT LEADERS, NON-LEADERS, AND DEVIANTS This study compares meaning i n l i f e scores of leader, non-leader, and deviant adolescents. Two thousand nine hundred and forty-nine secondary school students took the Purpose In L i f e Test. The students were divided into groups according to t h e i r behavior, t h e i r l e v e l of academic achievement, t h e i r sex, and grade l e v e l . Results: The leader group had the highest meaning i n l i f e score, the non-leader group had the second highest meaning i n l i f e score, and the deviant group had the lowest meaning i n l i f e score. The higher achieving group did not have higher meaning i n l i f e score than d i d the lower achieving group. Male and female students d i d not have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t meaning In l i f e scores. Grade eight and nine students had higher meaning i n l i f e scores than d i d grade ten, eleven, and twelve students. These findings provide empirical evidence i n support of several inferences based on Frankl's theory of meaning i n l i f e . F i r s t , a higher l e v e l of s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c involvement i s associated with high meaning i n l i f e and a sense of usefulness and i d e n t i t y . Secondly, e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum underlies deviant behavior of stu-dents who i s o l a t e themselves by v i o l a t i n g the rules and sanctions of the school. T h i r d l y , academic success or subject matter mastery was not r e l a t e d to high meaning i n l i f e . Fourthly, questioning the meaning of l i f e i s most apt to occur during the l a t e r stages of adolescent development, namely, during grades ten, eleven, and twelve. R e p l i c a t i o n of t h i s study would 11 determine whether or not these findings and inferences are true of adolescents in general. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS 0 . Acknowledgments 1. Index of Tables 2. Abstract 3. Chapter I Introduction Page 1 4. Chapter II Frankl's Theory of Logotherapy Page 6 - Logotherapy and Existentialism - Self-Transcendence - Freedom - Spiritual Nature of Man - Freedom and Responsibility - Will to Meaning - Meaning in Life - Perception of Meanings - Integration of Perceptions - Meanings are Objective and Unique - Creative, Experiential, and Attitudinal Values or Meanings - Existential Frustration - Existential Vacuum - Summary 5. Chapter III Relevant Research Page 2 1 - Existential Vacuum, A Contemporary Psychological Condition - Noogenic Neurosis and Traditional Diagnostic Categories - Meaning in Life and Mental Health - Meaning in Life and Social Participation - Meaning in Life and Academic Achievement - Meaning in Life, Sex Differences, and Grade Levels - Summary - Hypotheses 6. Chapter IV Design of the Investigation page 2 9 - Criteria and Procedures Used to Establish the Groups - Placement into Group 1 (Leadership Group) - Placement into Group 2 (Non-Leader Group) - Placement into Group 3 (Deviant Group) - Instrument - Test Administration - Sta t i s t i c a l Procedures - Summary i v 7. Chapter V F i n d i n g s Page 39 - Hypothesis I - Hypothesis II - Hypothesis I I I - Hypothesis IV 8. Chapter VI C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s Page 44 - C o n c l u s i o n s - Inferences and I m p l i c a t i o n s - L e a d e r s h i p , S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n , and Meaning i n L i f e - Deviancy, S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n , and Meaning i n L i f e - Academic Success and Meaning i n L i f e - Grade L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s and Meaning i n L i f e - Sex D i f f e r e n c e s and Meaning i n L i f e - I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 9. Chapter VII References Page 51 10. Appendices i O r i g i n a l Instrument: Purpose i n L i f e Test i i M o d i f i e d Purpose i n L i f e Test i i i A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n s i v I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Codes v Leader Q u e s t i o n n a i r e v i A n a l y s i s of Variance Tables I. Behavior groups, sex, grade l e v e l s and s c h o o l . I I . Leader-Achievement. I I I . Deviant-Achievement. v i i PIL Item Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n v i i i PIL Item C o r r e l a t i o n C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s f o r T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n i x PIL Item C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x x PIL Item Means, S.D.'s, Skewness and K u r t o s i s x i F i g u r e 1. Index of R e l a t i o n Between Group Member-s h i p and Scores on the Purpose i n L i f e Test F i g u r e 2. PIL Scores of Leader, Normal and Deviant Students F i g u r e 3. PIL Scores f o r Student Leaders, High and Low Achievers F i g u r e 4. PIL Scores f o r Deviant Students with P a s s i n g and F a i l i n g Achievement x i i Computer Program BMDX64 V INDEX OP TABLES T a b l e I : PIL Means, S.D.'s, and P s c o r e s f o r Leader, Normal, and D e v i a n t Students. page 39 T a b l e I I : PIL Means, S.D.*s, and P scor e f o r High and Low Achievement among Le a d e r s . page 40 T a b l e I I I : PIL Means, S.D.'s, and F score f o r High and Low Achievement i n the D e v i a n t Group. page 41 T a b l e IV: PIL Means, S.D. 's, and P scor e of Male and Female Students of T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n . page 41 T a b l e V: PIL Means, S.D.*s, and F s c o r e of Students f o r Each Grade L e v e l . page 42 T a b l e V I : P R a t i o s of D i f f e r e n c e s between Student PIL Score s In Grades 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. page 42 v i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The a u t h o r i s i n d e b t e d t o Dr s . John P r i e s e n , Stephen Marks, and Peggy Koopman of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r guidance and a s s i s t a n c e ; t o V e s t Vancouver S c h o o l D i s -t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s , and s t u d e n t s f o r t h e i r time and c o - o p e r a t i o n ; t o Bob Anderson, a cl a s s m a t e and r e s o u r c e f u l f e l l o w r e s e a r c h e r ; and t o L o u i s e f o r her p a t i e n c e and encouragement. - 1 -CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A v a r i e t y of contemporary s c h o l a r s have p o i n t e d out t h a t man i n the middle decades of the t w e n t i e t h century i s con-f r o n t e d by a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n known v a r i o u s l y as empti-ness (May 1953), value i l l n e s s (Maslow 1968), hopelessness and boredom (Fromm 1955, 1968), purposelessness ( A l l p o r t 1968), and e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum ( F r a n k l 1955, 1963, 1967, 1969). T h i s con-d i t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t from that of the previous decades. At the b e g i n n i n g of the t w e n t i e t h century, the most common cause of a n x i e t y as May (1953) has p o i n t e d out, was the person's d i f f i c u l t y of a c c e p t i n g the i n s t i n c t u a l s i d e of l i f e and the r e s u l t i n g c o n f l i c t between sexual impulses and s o c i a l taboos. In the 1920*s Otto Rank wrote t h a t the u n d e r l y i n g roots of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems of h i s g e n e r a t i o n were f e e l i n g s of i n f e -r i o r i t y , inadequacy, and g u i l t . The focus of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t s h i f t e d again i n the 1930's. Karen Horney (1937) wrote of the h o s t i l i t y between i n d i v i d u a l s and groups, o f t e n connected w i t h competitive f e e l i n g s . With the 1940's a concern over the problem of g e n e r a l i z e d a n x i e t y appeared. May ^1950; c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d a n x i e t y as a g e n e r a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r s t a t e i n many p a t i e n t s . The theme of "Anxiety" f o r the 1949 annual convention of the American Psy-c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o expressed t h i s concern. Beginning i n the 1950's, a d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i -t i o n was d e s c r i b e d . May (1953), E r i k s o n (1950), and A l a n Wheebs (1958) spoke of emptiness, powerlessness, and - 2 -feelinglessness. People no longer knew how they f e l t about themselves and others. They no longer knew what they believed in and f e l t swayed and uncertain about t h e i r own values and b e l i e f s . This uncertainty about values and b e l i e f s , Maslow (1968) ca l l e d valuelessness. Adults are uncertain about th e i r values; young people are more severely affected and defenses against the r e s u l t i n g anxiety emerged i n the form of anomie, apathy, hopelessness, and cynicism. Gordon A l l p o r t (1968) believed that uncertainty, which can at least be p a r t i a l l y attributed to the collapse of the t r a d i -t i o n a l s o c i a l s t a b i l i z e r s , accounts for the present-day anx-i e t i e s and e x i s t e n t i a l despair e s p e c i a l l y among the youth. Young people are forced into the position of having to deter-mine and choose their own values and goals i n order to f i n d d i r e c t i o n to t h e i r l i v e s . E rich Fromm i.1955, 1968) argued that people who l i v e a materially comfortable l i f e are more susceptible to feelings of intense boredom. He maintained that boredom and apathy result from man's passiveness and these psychological ailments are signs that man no longer relates a c t i v e l y to his environment. He is l i k e a cog in a production machine; he i s l e f t with l i t t l e sense of accomplishment and s e l f - i d e n t i t y ; he feels pow-erless, lonely, and anxious. His passivity engenders in him a f e e l i n g of hopelessness, the i n a b i l i t y to act or plan for l i f e . V ictor Frankl (1967) stated that approximately one-half of the general population i s affected by a psychological condition - 3 -which he c a l l s e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum, e x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n , or noogenic n e u r o s i s . He d e s c r i b e d t h i s c o n d i t i o n as a f e e l i n g of emptiness, p u r p o s e l e s s n e s s , and meaninglessness which i s the product of the machine age and i t s attendant l o s s of i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e . What t h r e a t e n s many i n d i v i d u a l s i s t h a t l i f e no longer has any meaning: there i s no reason f o r l i v i n g ; l i f e i s vacuous, empty. The m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h i s e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum are boredom and apathy; boredom being the i n c a p a c i t y to take an i n t e r e s t i n something and apathy the i n c a p a c i t y to take i n i t i a -t i v e . The consensus t h a t has emerged from the w r i t i n g s of a num-ber of contemporary authors i s t h a t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n of the l a s t two decades i s d i f f e r e n t from the p r e v i o u s decades. I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the d u l l and empty f e e l i n g s of boredom, apathy, hopelessness, powerlessness, and meaninglessness. These f e e l i n g s r e s u l t from an absence of chosen v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , g o a l s , and meaning i n l i f e . The r e s u l t i n g behavior i s a i m l e s s , p l a n l e s s , d i s o r g a n i z e d , p a s s i v e , impersonal, and spo-r a d i c . A s i m i l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n may be i d e n t i f i a b l e i n secondary s c h o o l s . As Gordon A l l p o r t (1968) observed, we should not overlook the f a s h i o n a b l e f l a v o r of e x i s t e n t i a l d e s p a i r , boredom, and apathy among youth. Modern-day c o u n s e l l -ors must take s e r i o u s l y the present-day a n x i e t i e s of the younger g e n e r a t i o n . School a u t h o r i t i e s have become alarmed by the i n c r e a s i n g use of drugs. Research has been commissioned to study the causes of student unrest and student dropouts. - 4 -Campaigns have been mounted t o convince secondary s t u d e n t s t o remain i n s c h o o l . D e s p i t e these e f f o r t s drugs a r e In use, some stu d e n t s q u i t s c h o o l , and o t h e r s remain i n s c h o o l but e f f e c -t i v e l y "drop out" o r withdraw from o r g a n i z e d academic and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s t h e s i s has endeavoured t o r e l a t e V i c t o r F r a n k l ' s t h e -o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s e x p l a i n i n g the present-day p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n of meanlnglessness t o accounts of obs e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r i n s c h o o l . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o t e s t whether F r a n k l ' s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t of meaning i n l i f e as measured by the Purpose i n L i f e T e s t i s r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , achievement, sex, and grade l e v e l . The Purpose i n L i f e T e s t (PIL) i s a v a l i d a t e d r a t i n g s c a l e based on the con-c e p t s of F r a n k l * s l o g o t h e r a p y and developed by Crumbaugh and Maholik (1964, 1968) t o measure the degree of meaning i n l i f e e x p e r i e n c e d by an i n d i v i d u a l . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e and reviewed i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s . The primary and u n d e r l y i n g p r o p o s i t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s was the f o l l o w i n g : Meaning i n l i f e , o r i t s converse meanlnglessness i s a r e l e v a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t i f i t can be r e l a t e d t o obse r v a b l e b e h a v i o r s and academic performance i n s c h o o l . In o r d e r t o t e s t t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n a summary of F r a n k l * s concept of man and t h e o r y of meaning i n l i f e as they r e l a t e t o contemporary human l i v i n g and human m o t i v a t i o n was nec e s s a r y . T h i s summary p e r m i t t e d an examination of the Purpose i n L i f e T e s t t o determine whether i t s u n d e r l y i n g assumptions were s i m i l a r t o logo t h e r a p y * s d e s c r i p t i o n of man and m o t i v a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n . Three b e h a v i o r - 5 -p a t t e r n s and two achievement l e v e l s were s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o d e s i g n a s i t u a t i o n where F r a n k l ' s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t of meaning i n l i f e c o u l d be measured and e v a l u a t e d i n a s c h o o l environment. PIL s c o r e s of students e x h i b i t i n g d e v i a n t behav-i o r were compared t o s t u d e n t s who e x h i b i t e d l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o r and s t u d e n t s who e x h i b i t e d normal and a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r . I f b e h a v i o r i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the degree t h a t meaning i n l i f e i s e x p e r i e n c e d t h e n t h e r e s h o u l d have been a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -f e r e n c e between the s c o r e s of these student groups. From F r a n k l ' s v i e w p o i n t , as d e s c r i b e d l a t e r , i t seemed l o g i c a l t h a t s t u d e n t s who a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d have h i g h e r meaning i n l i f e s c o r e s than students who withdrew from i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and success should be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h meaning i n l i f e , whereas, e x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n s h o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h withdrawing b e h a v i o r . S i m i l a r l y , h i g h e r a c h i e v i n g students should have h i g h e r meaning i n l i f e s c o r e s than s t u d e n t s w i t h lower academic achievement. Academic achievement i n d i c a t e s the degree of suc-cess i n student t a s k s . Mastery of l i f e t a s k s b r i n g f u l f i l l m e n t and meaning i n l i f e . F i n a l l y , the study compared student PIL s c o r e s a c c o r d i n g t o the students'grade l e v e l and sex i n o r d e r to t e s t whether o r not there was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r age and t h e i r sex and the degree t h a t they e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h e r or lower meaning i n l i f e . - 6 -CHAPTER I I FRANKL'S THEORY OF LOGOTHERAPY The t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n g i v i n g major d i r e c t i o n to the development of both the re s e a r c h instrument and the hypotheses of t h i s t h e s i s i s V i c t o r F r a n k l ' s theory of logotherapy. A summary of h i s theory i s provided as a b a s i s f o r the formula-t i o n of hypotheses. I t should a l s o be c l e a r t h a t the measuring instrument used i n t h i s t h e s i s i s based upon F r a n k l * s notions of man and h i s s o c i e t y . Logotherapy and E x i s t e n t i a l i s m V i c t o r F r a n k l i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known p s y c h i a t r i s t who has addressed h i m s e l f t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n of contem-p o r a r y man. As a p r o f e s s o r of p s y c h i a t r y and neurology at the U n i v e r s i t y of Vienna, he now leads what has become known as the T h i r d Viennese School of Psychotherapy. His w r i t i n g s and l e c -t u r e s p l a c e him i n the camp of e x i s t e n t i a l t h e r a p i e s and e x i s -t e n t i a l p s y c h o l o g i e s . Theories of t h i s group A l l p o r t (1968) has s a i d , d e a l with the person's o r i e n t a t i o n t o h i s f u t u r e . Man p a r t i c i p a t e s i n h i s own d e s t i n y . He i s f r e e t o choose h i s own path. The e x i s t e n t i a l movement ac c o r d i n g to Maslow (1968) has two main emphases: F i r s t , i t i s a r a d i c a l s t r e s s on the concept of i d e n t i t y and the experience of i d e n t i t y as a sine qua non of human nature and of any philosophy or scie n c e of human nature. Secondly, i t l a y s great s t r e s s on s t a r t i n g from e x p e r i e n -t i a l knowledge r a t h e r than from systems of concepts or a b s t r a c t c a t e g o r i e s or a p r i o r i s . E x i s t e n t i a l i s m r e s t s on phenomenology, i . e . , i t uses p e r s o n a l , s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i -ence as the f o u n d a t i o n upon which a b s t r a c t knowledge i s b u i l t . (p. 9) E x i s t e n t i a l i s t w r i t e r s , says Maslow (1968), s t r e s s the u l t i m a t e aloneness of the i n d i v i d u a l . The concepts of d e c i s i o n , respon-s i b i l i t y , c h o i c e , s e l f - c r e a t i o n , autonomy, and i d e n t i t y r e c e i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n from e x i s t e n t i a l w r i t e r s . Sahakian (1969) adds t h a t another e x i s t e n t i a l concern i s the dimension of s e r i -ousness and p r o f u n d i t y of l i v i n g , or perhaps a " t r a g i c sense of l i f e " , c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the shallow and s u p e r f i c i a l l i f e . Man i s viewed as Dassein, a s p e c i a l q u a l i t y of e x i s t e n c e p e c u l i a r t o man a l o n e . Hence, the human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of man are of paramount importance. The a n a l y s i s of Dassein r e v e a l s him to be an e x i s t e n t i a l b eing, c o n s t a n t l y i n a s t a t e of p rocess. Through freedom and choice man c r e a t e s h i s own l i f e . Accord-i n g l y , each i n d i v i d u a l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y which he has decided to become. Through choice and the awareness of a c c e p t i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s d e c i s i o n s , a person t r a n -scends h i m s e l f , chooses t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y which he wants to become and gains a u t h e n t i c s e l f h o o d . The i n d i v i d u a l who has l o s t l i f e ' s meaning f o r h i m s e l f i s a v i c t i m of e x i s t e n t i a l neu-r o s i s . As a student of e x i s t e n t i a l thought P r a n k l had ample op-p o r t u n i t y to t e s t the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s of e x i s t e n t i a l -ism i n the N a z i c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps. He emerged from the con-c e n t r a t i o n camp with the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t freedom s t i l l e x i s t s even when man i s p h y s i c a l l y enslaved; the freedom to choose a t t i t u d e s toward f a t e , a t t i t u d e s t h a t i n many cases determined personal s u r v i v a l . L i f e i s meaningful even i n s u f f e r i n g and i n death. P r a n k l named h i s system "Logotherapy". Logotherapy, - 8 -s a i d ungersma (1966): i s both a n a l y s i s where t h i s form of treatment i s a p p r o p r i -ate and a l s o psychotherapy f o r the treatment of neuroses but a l s o concerned with the whole gamut of d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t the average p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t of whatever o r i e n t a t i o n i s c a l l e d upon to f a c e ... . E x i s t e n t i a l logotherapy aims at h e l p i n g people who are t r o u b l e d with doubts, d e s p a i r s , the meaning of l i f e , and s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s . They may a l s o be people with no i l l n e s s of body or mind, but s t i l l s u f f e r - from what i s c a l l e d i n logotherapy, e x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n - d e s p a i r over a meaningless l i f e , and a l a c k of knowledge of what makes l i f e worth l i v i n g , (p. 18) Self-Transcendence F r a n k l (1969) b e l i e v e s t h a t to be human, l i f e must be l i v e d t r a n s c e n d e n t a l l y . I t means l i v i n g i n the p o l a r f i e l d of t e n s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d between r e a l i t y and i d e a l s to m a t e r i a l i z e . Man l i v e s by i d e a l s and v a l u e s . Human e x i s t e n c e i s not a u t h e n t i c u n l e s s i t i s l i v e d i n terms of s e l f - t r a n s c e n d e n c e , (p. 52) Man i s a s e l f - t r a n s c e n d e n t being; h i s f u l f i l l m e n t comes through d i r e c t i n g h i s energies o u t s i d e of h i m s e l f . Values, i d e a l s , and goals form the menu of h i s s t r i v i n g s . They are " o u t - t h e r e " and the i n d i v i d u a l reaches out of h i m s e l f to a t t a i n them. A person i s not a c l o s e d system; but r a t h e r , i s open to and i n f l u e n c e d by the world o u t s i d e . F r a n k l 1 s b e l i e f i n man's s e l f - t r a n s c e n d e n c e i s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r h i s concept of man. Man's freedom, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and attainment of meaning i n l i f e are c o r o l l a r i e s to s e l f - t r a n s c e n d e n c e . F r a n k l (1969) sug-gested t h a t logotherapy i s based on three s p e c i f i c f o r m u l a t i o n s of the s e l f - t r a n s c e n d i n g nature of man: Logotherapy*s concept of man i s based on three p i l l a r s , the freedom of the w i l l , the w i l l to meaning, and the meaning of l i f e . (p. 16) - 9 -Freedom The f i r s t p i l l a r of logotherapy i s the b e l i e f t h a t man i s f r e e . T h i s freedom does not mean freedom from the everyday c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e such as hunger, c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , or the demands of o t h e r s . Man i s l i m i t e d by the s i t u a t i o n s and c i r -cumstances of h i s environment. He i s a f i n i t e b e i n g . However, man i s f r e e to take a stand on whatever c o n d i t i o n s might con-f r o n t him. To take a stand, s a i d F r a n k l (1969), i s the human c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - t r a n s c e n d e n c e and self-detachment: By v i r t u e of t h i s c a p a c i t y man i s capable of detaching h i m s e l f not onl y from a s i t u a t i o n but a l s o from h i m s e l f . He i s capable of choosing h i s a t t i t u d e toward h i m s e l f . By so doing he r e a l l y takes a stand toward h i s own somatic and p s y c h i c c o n d i t i o n s and determiners. F o r seen i n t h i s l i g h t , a person i s f r e e to shape h i s own c h a r a c t e r , and man i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what he may have made out of him-s e l f , (p. 17) S p i r i t u a l Nature of Man Thi s a b i l i t y i n man to decide on an a t t i t u d e toward h i s own c h a r a c t e r , d r i v e s , and i n s t i n c t s i m p l i e s a type of ps y c h i c a c t i v i t y which i s d i f f e r e n t from the somatic and ps y c h i c dimen-s i o n s . T h i s i s the n o e t i c or n o o l o g i c a l dimension. F r a n k l (1963) d e f i n e s the n o o l o g i c a l dimension as the s p i r i t u a l dimen-s i o n of man: I t must be noted t h a t w i t h i n the framework of logotherapy, " s p i r i t u a l 1 " does not have a p r i m a r i l y r e l i g i o u s connota-t i o n but r e f e r s to the s p e c i f i c a l l y human dimension ... . In f a c t , " l ogos" i n Greek means not only "meaning 1 1 but a l s o " s p i r i t " . S p i r i t u a l i s s u e s such as man's a s p i r a t i o n s f o r a meaningful e x i s t e n c e , as w e l l as the f r u s t r a t i o n of t h i s a s p i r a t i o n , are d e a l t with by logotherapy i n s p i r i t u -a l terms. (p. 160) S p i r i t u a l i s a broad a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l terra. S p i r i t u a l or n o e t i c , a c c o r d i n g to Ungersma (1963, p.22) r e f e r s to t h a t c l a s s of - 10 -p s y c h i c a c t i v i t y , s p e c i f i c a l l y human, which i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n moral d e c i s i o n s ; groping f o r meaning, o p t i o n or c h o i c e , respon-s i b i l i t y ; the a b i l i t y to o b j e c t i f y o n e s e l f or oppose o n s e l f ; the a b i l i t y to c o n c e p t u a l i z e the world; the c a p a c i t y of not be i n g completely dependent upon i n s t i n c t u a l d r i v e s , but the a b i l i t y to sublimate them; the e x e r c i s e of f r e e w i l l ; and the r e c o g n i z i n g o f , and the d e c i d i n g upon v a l u e s . The s p i r i t u a l l i f e of man i s a l s o deeply rooted i n the p r e r a t i o n a l emotional sphere. Freedom and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Freedom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o l l o w l o g i c a l l y from the n o e t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . Man has freedom; he i s capable of making d e c i -s i o n s . The two are always a s s o c i a t e d i n F r a n k l ' s mind. Each person i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a t t a i n i n g the utmost meaning t h a t can be f u l f i l l e d i n h i s l i f e , through the course of which he i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e a l i z i n g s p e c i f i c v a l u e s . T h e r e f o r e , the s p i r i t u a l or n o e t i c dimension i s the t y p i c a l l y human dimension of man which u n d e r l i e s h i s c a p a c i t y f o r self-detachment, f r e e -dom, decision-making, and r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n . W i l l t o Meaning The second p i l l a r of Logotherapy, the " w i l l t o meaning", i s another s p e c i f i c f o r m u l a t i o n of the s e l f - t r a n s c e n d i n g nature of man. The w i l l t o meaning i s an inborne, i n n a t e , deeply r o o t e d s e a r c h i n g f o r a meaning i n l i f e . I t i s the primary m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e i n man. I t i s a constant t e n s i o n , p u l l i n g man out s i d e of h i m s e l f . F r a n k l (1967) uses the analogy of the magnetic f i e l d to d e s c r i b e t h i s m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e : - 11 -L i k e i r o n f i l i n g s i n a magnetic f i e l d , man's l i f e i s put i n order through h i s o r i e n t a t i o n toward meaning. Thereby a f i e l d of t e n s i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d between what man i s and what he ought to do. By t h i s dynamic man i s p u l l e d r a t h e r than pushed; i n s t e a d of being determined by meaning, he d e c i d e s whether h i s l i f e i s to be s t r u c t u r e d by the demand q u a l i t y of meaning to h i s e x i s t e n c e . (p. 22) A c c o r d i n g t o F r a n k l (1969) t h i s f i e l d of t e n s i o n i s necessary and not something to a v o i d u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y . The r e s u l t i n g f i e l d of t e n s i o n of meaning to f u l f i l l i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r mental w e l l - b e i n g . A s t r o n g meaning o r i e n t a t i o n i s h e a l t h - p r o -moting and l i f e - p r o l o n g i n g , i f not a l i f e - p r e s e r v i n g agent. A meaning o r i e n t a t i o n s e t s the pace of l i f e . E x i s t e n c e f a l t e r s u n l e s s i t i s l i v e d i n terras of transcendence towards something beyond i t s e l f . F r a n k l (1967) b e l i e v e s t h a t meanings can be c h a l l e n g e d or confronted by other meanings or by other people: Once meaning o r i e n t a t i o n turns i n t o meaning c o n f r o n t a t i o n , t h a t stage of maturation and development i s reached i n which freedom - t h a t concept so much emphasized by e x i s -t e n t i a l i s t p h i losophy - becomes r e s p o n s i b l e n e s s . Man i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of s p e c i f i c meaning of h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e . But he i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e before some-t h i n g , or to something, be i t s o c i e t y , or humanity, or mankind, or h i s own conscience, or someone. (p. 12) Meaning i n L i f e The t h i r d p i l l a r of F r a n k l ' s concept of man i s c a l l e d meaning i n l i f e . Maslow (1968) has r e c o g n i z e d a s i m i l a r con-s t r u c t which he c a l l s the " c o g n i t i v e need to understand": The s t a t e of being without a system of values i s psycho-pathogenic. The human being needs a framework of v a l u e s , a p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e , a r e l i g i o n - s u r r o g a t e to l i v e by and understand by, i n about the same way t h a t he needs sun-l i g h t , calcium, or love . . . . We need a v a l i d a t e d , usable system of human value s that we can b e l i e v e i n and devote o u r s e l v e s to and w i l l i n g to d i e f o r ... . T h i s I have c a l l e d the " c o g n i t i v e need to understand". (p. 50) A l l p o r t (1968) speaks of a guide, a generic a t t i t u d e , a c e n t r a l - 12 -motive s t a t e and a c o n s t r u c t i v e world view which w i l l serve ... as a gate or general schema to s e l e c t our responses to l i f e , to people, and to s i t u a t i o n s . ' ' (p. 129) An i n d i v i d u a l , s a i d A l l p o r t (1968), has a c o n s t r u c t i v e world view when he p e r c e i v e s and chooses meanings and v a l u e s : Values, as i use the term, are simply meanings p e r c e i v e d as r e l a t e d to s e l f ... he experiences value whenever he knows t h a t a meaning i s warm and c e n t r a l t o h i m s e l f . V a l -ues, to borrow Whitehead's term, are "matters of impor-tance" as d i s t i n c t from mere matters of f a c t . l p . 164) Chosen v a l u e s may be t e n t a t i v e but they enable the i n d i v i d u a l t o commit h i m s e l f to g r e a t causes with courage even though he l a c k s c e r t a i n t y . Commitment then, presupposes an a c q u i r e d s y s -tem of m o t i v a t i o n . Commitment to v a l u e s leads to f u n c t i o n a l autonomy where t e n s i o n s and r i s k s are no longer overpowering but growth-producing. P e r c e p t i o n of Meanings Crumbaugh and Maholick (1963) p o i n t e d out t h a t f i n d i n g meaning i s a k i n to G e s t a l t p e r c e p t i o n . I t i s a w i l l to per-c e i v e , to read meaning i n t o the environment, to i n t e r p r e t , to organize s t i m u l i i n t o meaningful wholes. T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l tendency i s an innate p r o p e r t y of the mind which has s u r v i v a l v a l u e . Man has a g r e a t e r chance of adaptive manipulations i f he can comprehend and i n t e r r e l a t e a g r e a t e r range of s t i m u l i . The G e s t a l t laws of o r g a n i z a t i o n are subsumed under the g r e a t e r law of "pragnanz" or f i l l e d n e s s . ( K o f f k a 1935, Kohler 1947) T h i s g r e a t e r law r e p r e s e n t s an unlearned s t r i v i n g to c o n s t r u c t meaningful, u n i f i e d " G e s t a l t e n " from a l l the elements of expe-r i e n c e . I t f o l l o w s t h a t i f innate tendencies toward p e r c e p t u a l - 13 -o r g a n i z a t i o n e x i s t , i t may be claimed t h a t they manifest a s t r i v i n g toward o r g a n i z a t i o n of experience i n t o o n t o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n s . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a s t r i v i n g to f i n d pur-pose i n one's own e x i s t e n c e , to f i n d a cause or sense of mis-s i o n t h a t i s u n i q u e l y one's own and t h a t g i v e s d i r e c t i o n to l i f e and makes i t understandable. I n t e g r a t i o n of P e r c e p t i o n s P e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which g i v e s d i r e c t i o n to l i f e i s s i m i l a r to what R o l l o May (1953) c a l l e d i n t e g r a t i o n : The human being not only can make choices of values and g o a l s , but he i s the animal who must do so i f he i s to a t t a i n i n t e g r a t i o n . For the value - the goal he moves toward - serves him as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c e n t e r , a k i n d of core of i n t e g r a t i o n which draws together h i s powers as the core of the magnet draws the magnet's l i n e s of f o r c e together ... . The mark of a mature man i s t h a t h i s l i v i n g i s i n t e g r a t e d around s e l f - c h o s e n g o a l s : he knows what he wants, no longer simply as the c h i l d wants i c e cream but as the grown person plans and works toward a c r e a t i v e love r e l a t i o n s h i p or toward business achievement or what not. (p. 175) Man's inn a t e , p e r c e p t u a l c a p a c i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n and h i s seeking of i n t e g r a t i o n around s e l f - c h o s e n goals are l i k e F r a n k l ' s concept of meaning i n l i f e . Meaning i n l i f e i s the product of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l tendency of man to read, i n t e r -p r e t , and organize s t i m u l i i n t o o n t o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a t -t e r n s and meaningful wholes. S t i m u l i are outside the s u b j e c t and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are s u b j e c t i v e l y organized from a per-sonal p e r s p e c t i v e . F r a n k l (1969) p r e f e r s the term "trans-sub-j e c t i v e " . T h i s t r a n s - s u b j e c t i v e n e s s has r e a l l y been presupposed a l l along whenever we spoke of s e I f - t r a n s c e n d e n c e . Human beings are t r a n s c e n d i n g themselves toward meanings which are more than mere expressions of t h e i r s e l v e s , more than - 14 -mere p r o j e c t i o n s of these s e l v e s . Meanings are d i s c o v e r e d but not invented. (p. 60) Meanings are O b j e c t i v e and Unique F r a n k l ' s (1967) understanding of meanings i s that they are not mere s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n s , nor are they invented, they are obj e c t i v e : T h i s i m p l i e s a c e r t a i n degree of o b j e c t i v e n e s s , and w i t h -out a minimum amount of o b j e c t i v e n e s s , meanings would be never worth f u l f i l l i n g . We do not j u s t a t t a c h and a t t r i b -ute meanings to t h i n g s , but r a t h e r f i n d them; we do not i n v e n t them, we d e t e c t them. (p. 16) In a sense meanings are a l s o s u b j e c t i v e because they are unique f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . Each man i s unique i n t h a t no one can repeat t h a t man's l i f e . Each s i t u a t i o n i s unique f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . Each moment i s unique. One must concede, however, t h a t s i t u a t i o n s have something i n common and t h e r e f o r e some meanings are shared by human beings across the s o c i e t y . These shared meanings are c a l l e d v a l u e s . And s i n c e v a l u e s may con-f l i c t or r a t h e r , they may have to be ranked and chosen a c c o r d -i n g to a h i e r a r c h y of v a l u e s , the i n d i v i d u a l i s not spared d e cision-making. He i s f r e e to accept or r e j e c t a value i n any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . T h i s means t h a t v a l u e s or meanings must be chosen r e s p o n s i b l y . The uniqueness of meaning, s a i d F r a n k l (1969), i s r e l e v a n t to our contemporary s o c i e t y of crumbling t r a d i t i o n s and v a l u e s : Even i f a l l u n i v e r s a l values disappeared, l i f e would remain meaningful, since the unique meanings remain untouched by the l o s s of t r a d i t i o n s . To be sure, i f man i s t o f i n d meanings even i n an era without v a l u e s , he has to be equipped with the f u l l c a p a c i t y of conscience ... . The foremost task of education, i n s t e a d of being s a t i s f i e d w i t h t r a n s m i t t i n g t r a d i t i o n s and knowledge, i s to r e f i n e the c a p a c i t y which allows man to f i n d unique meanings ... - 15 -the a b i l i t y to make independent, a u t h e n t i c d e c i s i o n s , (p. 64) C r e a t i v e , E x p e r i e n t i a l , and A t t i t u d i n a l Values or Meanings T h i s v a l u i n g p r o c e s s , or t h i s search f o r meaning, a c c o r d -i n g to F r a n k l (1969), occurs i n the contexts of t h r e e l i f e s i t -u a t i o n s common to a l l i n d i v i d u a l s : The f i r s t i s what he gives to the world i n terms of h i s c r e a t i o n s ; the second i s what he takes from the world i n terms of encounters and experiences; and the t h i r d i s the stand he takes to h i s predicament i n case he must f a c e a f a t e he cannot change. T h i s i s why l i f e never ceases to h o l d meaning, f o r even a person who i s d e p r i v e d of both c r e a t i v e and e x p e r i e n t i a l values i s s t i l l c h a l l e n g e d by a meaning t o f u l f i l l , t h a t i s , by the meaning inh e r e n t i n the r i g h t , i n an u p r i g h t way of s u f f e r i n g . (p. 70) The d i s c o v e r e d meanings become c r e a t i v e , e x p e r i e n t i a l , and a t t i t u d i n a l v a l u e s . C r e a t i v e values are a c t u a l i z e d i n the form of accomplish-ments t h a t bear on the community. C r e a t i v e values are i n the f o r e f r o n t of the l i f e t a s k s and t h e i r a c t u a l i z a t i o n u s u a l l y c o i n c i d e s with a person's work. Work u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the ar e a i n which the i n d i v i d u a l ' s uniqueness stands i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i e t y and a c q u i r e s meaning and va l u e as a c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y . In r e t u r n the community c o n f e r s e x i s t e n t i a l meaning upon persons by r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i r uniqueness and s i n g u l a r i t y . Thus, the meaning of the human person as a p e r s o n a l i t y p o i n t s beyond i t s own l i m i t s , toward community; i n be i n g d i r e c t e d toward community the meaning of the i n d i v i d u a l transcends i t s e l f . In a d d i t i o n to c r e a t i v e v a l u e s there are va l u e s which are r e a l i z e d i n experience. E x p e r i e n t i a l values are r e a l i z e d i n - 16 -the a t t i t u d e of r e c e p t i v i t y toward the world - f o r example, i n a d i s c o v e r y of the beauty of nature or a r t . A s i n g l e moment of knowledge or e x h i l a r a t i o n can decide the meaningfulness of a l i f e . L i f e i s worth l i v i n g i f only to experience that e c s t a t i c moment. E x p e r i e n c i n g i n love or f r i e n d s h i p the uniqueness of another person adds to e x i s t e n t i a l meaning. To be loved by another i s to become i n d i s p e n s a b l e and i r r e p l a c e a b l e . In l o v -i n g and i n being loved, s a i d r'rankl (1955), there i s enchant-ment and a d i s c o v e r y of v a l u e s : Thus i n h i s surrender to the thou, the l o v e r experiences an inner enrichment which goes beyond; f o r him the whole cosmos broadens and deepens i n worth, glows i n the r a d i -ance of those values which only the l o v e r sees, for i t i s well-known t h a t love does not make one b l i n d but seeing -able to see v a l u e s . (p. 107) A t h i r d category of values encompass a man's a t t i t u d e toward the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s upon h i s l i f e . F r a n k l (1955) expressed h i s b e l i e f t h a t a t t i t u d i n a l values are present when-ever a person f i n d s h i m s e l f confronted by a d e s t i n y or by r e s t r a i n t s upon h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s toward which he can act onl y by acceptance: The way i n which he accepts, the way i n which he bears h i s c r o s s , what courage he manifests i n s u f f e r i n g , what d i g n i -t y he d i s p l a y s i n storm or d i s a s t e r , i s the measure of h i s human f u l f i l l m e n t . (p. 36) The a d d i t i o n of a t t i t u d i n a l v a l u e s to the l i s t of l i f e ' s r e a l i z a b l e values makes i t evident t h a t human e x i s t e n c e can never be i n t r i n s i c a l l y meaningless. No matter how sparse the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e a l i z i n g values may be, the i n d i v i d u a l can always have the recourse to a t t i t u d i n a l v a l u e s . - 17 -E x i s t e n t i a l F r u s t r a t i o n The p r e c e d i n g summary of Logotherapy 1s "concept of man can h e l p us understand F r a n k l ' s (1963) d e s c r i p t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s p i r i t u a l a i l m e n t s : e x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n , noogenic n e u r o s i s , and e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum. Man's w i l l to meaning can a l s o be f r u s t r a t e d , i n which case Logotherapy speaks of " e x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n " : The term " e x i s t e n t i a l " may be used i n t h r e e ways: to r e f e r t o e x i s t e n c e i t s e l f , i . e . , the s p e c i f i c a l l y human mode of being; the meaning of e x i s t e n c e ; and the s t r i v i n g to f i n d a concrete meaning i n per s o n a l e x i s t e n c e , t h a t i s to say, the w i l l to meaning. (p. 159) E x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n can a l s o r e s u l t i n n e u r o s i s c a l l e d "noogenic n e u r o s i s " , i n c o n t r a s t t o n e u r o s i s i n the usual sense of the word, i . e . , psychogenic n e u r o s i s . F r a n k l (1967) b e l i e v e s t h a t noogenic n e u r o s i s has i t s o r i g i n not i n the psy-c h o l o g i c a l but r a t h e r the n o o l o g i c a l or meaning dimension of human l i f e . I t emerges from c o n f l i c t s between v a r i o u s v a l u e s , i n other words, from moral c o n f l i c t s or s p i r i t u a l problems, and n o t from c o n f l i c t s between d r i v e s and i n s t i n c t s , or such psy-c h i c components as the i d , ego, and superego: They are r a t h e r r o o t e d i n c o l l i s i o n s between d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , or i n the unrewarded l o n g i n g and groping of man f o r t h a t h i e r a r c h i c a l l y h i g h e s t value - an u l t i m a t e mean-in g to h i s l i f e . To put i t simply, we are d e a l i n g with the f r u s t r a t i o n of the w i l l t o meaning. (p. 43) E x i s t e n t i a l Vacuum F r u s t r a t i o n of the w i l l to meaning through c o n f l i c t s of valu e s r e s u l t s i n e x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h " e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum" which does not r e s u l t from c o n f l i c t s but r a t h e r from an inner v o i d , an absence of meaning i n l i f e . The - 18 -e t i o l o g y of the e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum i s a consequence of man's s i t u a t i o n . F r a n k l (1969) s a i d t h a t d r i v e s and i n s t i n c t s do not t e l l man e v e r y t h i n g t h a t he must do. In c o n t r a s t t o former times, i n contemporary s o c i e t y there are no conventions, t r a d i -t i o n s , and v a l u e s which t e l l man what he should do; and o f t e n he does not even know what he b a s i c a l l y wishes to do. T h i s b r i n g s about an i n n e r s t a t e of emptiness and a sense of mean-i n g l e s s n e s s , a l o s s of f e e l i n g t h a t l i f e i s meaningful. I t i s an absence of matters of importance, of p e r c e i v e d meanings r e l a t e d to the s e l f and of experiences warm w i t h meaning t h a t are c e n t r a l to the i n d i v i d u a l . There i s no purpose i n l i f e or a m i s s i o n t h a t i s u n i q u e l y one's own g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n or making l i f e understandable. The main m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum are boredom and apathy. Boredom i s the i n c a p a c i t y to take i n t e r e s t i n something. Apathy i s the i n c a p a c i t y of t a k i n g the i n i t i a t i v e . T h i s p a r a l y s i s of f e e l i n g and i n i t i a t i v e i s evident amongst the youth, among workers who are f a c i n g i n c r e a s i n g l e i s u r e , among the pensioners and the aging, and even among a p p a r e n t l y s u c c e s s f u l businessmen. ( F r a n k l 1963) E x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n and e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum may eventu-a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e i n t o noogenic n e u r o s i s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of neuroses i n logotherapy i s as f o l l o w s : F i r s t l y , there are psy-chogenic neuroses a r i s i n g from p s y c h i c c o n f l i c t s . Here l o g o -therapy o f t e n operates on the same l e v e l as c o n v e n t i o n a l psy-chotherapy. Secondly, t h e r e are somatogenic neuroses a r i s i n g from endocrine d i s o r d e r s , i . e . , endogenous d e p r e s s i o n . Here drugs are i n d i c a t e d i n combination with e x i s t e n t i a l a n a l y s i s . - 19 -T h i r d l y , there are noogenic neuroses which r e s u l t from s p i r i t u -a l problems and moral c o n f l i c t s . The proper p l a c e to begin treatment i s i n the sphere of the n o e t i c where the s i c k n e s s o r i g i n a t e s . And f o u r t h , there i s e x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n which i s a c o n d i t i o n of s p i r i t u a l d i s t r e s s and not a p s y c h i c i l l n e s s . The e x i s t e n c e of such a c o n d i t i o n i s not p a t h o l o g i c a l or symp-tomatic of mental d i s e a s e . But i t may e v e n t u a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e i n t o noogenic n e u r o s i s and t h e r e f o r e must be t r e a t e d . (Prankl 1967, p. 76) Summary The u n d e r l y i n g t h e o r y of Logothera|)y which i n c l u d e s a the-ory of the nature of man has been d e s c r i b e d . Man i s a s e l f -t ranscendent being d i r e c t e d toward g o a l s , i d e a l s , and meanings to f u l f i l l . T h i s concept of man i s based on three p i l l a r s : freedom of the w i l l , the w i l l to meaning, and the meaning of l i f e . Man i s f r e e to take a stand toward whatever c o n d i t i o n s might c o n f r o n t him; he i s capable of choosing an a t t i t u d e toward h i m s e l f , toward h i s environment, and toward any l i m i t i n g s i t u a t i o n s of l i f e . W i t h i n each man there i s an inborn, i n -na.te, arid deeply rooted s e a r c h i n g f o r meaning i n l i f e ; t h i s i s the primary m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e i n man. r i n d i n g meaning i n l i f e i s r eading meaning i n t o the environment; i n t e r p r e t i n g and orga-n i z i n g s t i m u l i i n t o meaningful wholes, r i n d i n g meaning i n l i f e i s i n t e g r a t i n g one's l i f e around per c e i v e d and s e l f - c h o s e n goals and v a l u e s t h a t are unique to each person. Values which give meaning and d i r e c t i o n to one's l i f e are e i t h e r c r e a t i v e , e x p e r i e n t i a l , or a t t i t u d i n a l v a l u e s . C r e a t i v e v a l u e s are l i v e d - 20 -i n the form of accomplishments t h a t bear on the community and through which persons are r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e i r uniqueness and s i n g u l a r i t y . E x p e r i e n c i n g l o v e and f r i e n d s h i p b r i n g s i n n e r enrichment or an i n n e r glow i n the l i g h t of which the whole cosmos deepends i n worth. Beauty and knowledge become e x h i l a -r a t i n g . F i n a l l y , acceptance of one's l i m i t s , s u f f e r i n g , and d e a t h can enhance meaning t o l i f e . When man's w i l l t o meaning i s f r u s t r a t e d , t h a t i s , when c o n f l i c t s between v a r i o u s v a l u e s a r e not r e s o l v e d , he s u f f e r s from e x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n . When c r e a t i v e , e x p e r i e n t i a l , or a t t i t u d i n a l v a l u e s a r e not d i s c o v e r e d , when t h e r e i s a l o s s of f e e l i n g t h a t l i f e i s m eaningful; t h e r e i s a r e s u l t i n g i n n e r v o i d and emptiness. As a r e s u l t , man i s the v i c t i m of an e x i s -t e n t i a l vacuum of which the main m a n i f e s t a t i o n s a r e boredom and apathy. F i n a l l y , e x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n and vacuum can d e t e -r i o r a t e . U n r e s o l v e d c o n f l i c t s between v a l u e s and a prolonged f e e l i n g of meaninglessness i n one's l i f e can become the under-l y i n g dynamics of a n e u r o s i s , the noogenic n e u r o s i s . - 21 -CHAPTER I I I RELEVANT RESEARCH The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r summarized the main t h e o r e t i c a l con-s t r u c t s of Logotherapy. T h i s c h a p t e r has f o u r o b j e c t i v e s . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i s t o e s t a b l i s h whether or not t h e r e i s e m p i r i -c a l evidence t o support F r a n k l * s t h e s i s . The second o b j e c t i v e i s t o determine whether or not the c o n s t r u c t known as meaning In l i f e i s r e l a t e d t o mental h e a l t h . Another t a s k i s t o review the l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between meaning i n l i f e and s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , academic achievement, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , and sex. The f o u r t h o b j e c t i v e i s t o f o r m u l a t e and s t a t e hypotheses. E x i s t e n t i a l Vacuum, A Contemporary P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n d i t i o n . F r a n k l (1969) has s t a t e d t h a t the e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum i s i n c r e a s i n g and t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f of the g e n e r a l pop-u l a t i o n i s a f f e c t e d by t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n . A survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e conducted by F r a n k l (I969) among stu d e n t s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of V i e n n a showed t h a t f o r t y p e r c e n t of the A u s t r i a n , West German, and Swiss s t u d e n t s knew the e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum i n t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e w h i l e among American s t u d e n t s the r e p o r t e d l e v e l was e i g h t y p e r c e n t . K r a t o c h v i l (I961, 1966) r e p o r t e d t h a t the e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum was making i t s e l f f e l t i n Communist c o u n t r i e s and t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty p e r c e n t of the neuroses he en-countered i n h i s c o l l e g e mental h e a l t h c l i n i c were noogenic i n nature Werner (I96I) i n London and Longen and V o l h a r d (1953) i n Germany had p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r p r e v a l e n c e of noogenic neuroses i n the: mental h e a l t h c l i n i c s . In America, Eddy (1959) a r r i v e d a t the - 22 -c o n c l u s i o n t h a t on almost every campus from C a l i f o r n i a to New England, student apathy and boredom was the main t o p i c of con-v e r s a t i o n . I t was the one su b j e c t mentioned most o f t e n i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n s with both f a c u l t y members and st u d e n t s . Noogenic Neurosis and T r a d i t i o n a l D i a g n o s t i c C a t e g o r i e s There i s a l s o some evidence to support F r a n k l ' s b e l i e f t h a t noogenic n e u r o s i s i s d i f f e r e n t from the t r a d i t i o n a l d i a g -n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s . James C. Crumbaugh and Leonard T. Maholik (1964, 1968, 1969) developed a twenty-item r a t i n g s c a l e to mea-sure the degree of meaning i n l i f e experienced by i n d i v i d u a l s . The Purpose i n L i f e Test (PIL) and the Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (MMPI) were administered to one hundred p s y c h i a t r i c o u t p a t i e n t s and n i n e t y - t h r e e c o l l e g e undergraduate n o n - p a t i e n t s . Crumbaugh (1968) r e p o r t e d t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the PIL scores and the MMPI s c a l e scores f o r f i f t y out-p a t i e n t s r e v e a l e d only two s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s : There were moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s between PIL scores and the MMPI s c a l e s Psychasthenia and Depression. In a s i m i l a r sample of f i f t y o u t p a t i e n t s i n Crumbaugh and Maholik's e a r l i e r study, however, only the Depression and the K-scales showed s i g n i f i -cant r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the PIL s c o r e s . Thus on l y Depression had maintained a c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . When the D scores of the n i n e t y - t h r e e c o l l e g e undergraduate non-patients were com-bined with the scores of the f i f t y o u t p a t i e n t s the negative c o r r e l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d from -.44 to -.65, showing a c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t of adding the f u l l range of scores from "normal" to psy-c h i a t r i c . Nyholm (1966) repo r t e d a s i m i l a r n e g a t i v e - 23 -r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h i r t y - f o u r mental p a t i e n t s and t h i r t y - f o u r n o n - p a t i e n t s on the same f a c t o r s . On the b a s i s of these r e s u l t s Crumbaugh (1968) concluded t h a t what the PIL measured was not d i r e c t l y i d e n t i f i a b l e with any co n v e n t i o n a l mental syn-drome, except perhaps d e p r e s s i o n . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p of PIL scores to D s c a l e scores on the MMPI l e n t some support to F r a n k l ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a h i g h l y depressed s t a t e of mind can be the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a l o s s of meaning i n l i f e . In other words, on the b a s i s of the low r e l a t i o n s h i p between the PIL and MMPI scores there i s some evidence to support the exis t e n c e of e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t apart from the t r a d i t i o n a l d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s . Meaning i n L i f e and Mental Health While there are as y e t no d e f i n i t i v e answers, some beg i n -nings have been made. Kotchen (I960) developed a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which purported to measure meaning or purpose i n l i f e . He found t h a t i t d i s c r i m i n a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between f i v e groups of s u b j e c t s i n the same order i n t o which they f e l l on the b a s i s of commonly accepted pragmatic c r i t e r i a of degree of mental h e a l t h , such as being a p a t i e n t i n a lock-ward, being a par o l e p a t i e n t and so f o r t h . Crumbaugh and Maholik (1964) extended Kotchen's r e s e a r c h by d e v e l o p i n g a suramated r a t i n g s c a l e , the Purpose i n L i f e Test ( P I L ) . The r e s u l t s from 225 su b j e c t s confirmed the p r e d i c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between c l i n i c a l and "normal" p o p u l a t i o n s . Crumbaugh (1968) r e p o r t e d the r e s u l t s of a second v a l i d a t i o n study among 1,151 s u b j e c t s . The order of mean PIL scores - 24 -corresponded p e r f e c t l y to the p r e d i c t i o n made about f o u r "nor-mal" p o p u l a t i o n s i n descending order from s u c c e s s f u l and moti-v a t e d business and p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel, to a c t i v e P r o t e s t a n t p a r i s h i o n e r s , to c o l l e g e undergraduates, and to i n d i g e n t h o s p i -t a l p a t i e n t s not m e n t a l l y i l l . The order of PIL means a l s o corresponded to the p r e d i c t i o n made about f o u r groups of psy-c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s i n descending order from o u t p a t i e n t n e u r o t i c s , to h o s p i t a l i z e d n e u r o t i c s , to h o s p i t a l i z e d a l c o h o l i c s , and to h o s p i t a l i z e d p s y c h o t i c s . The "normal" su b j e c t s scored h i g h e r than the mental p a t i e n t s . Meaning i n L i f e and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Crumbaugh (1968) r e p o r t e d higher PIL scores among the l e a d i n g business and p r o f e s s i o n a l men i n the community who were a l l members of the Kiwanis Club, E l k s , R o t a r i a n s , and Chamber of Commerce and the l e a d i n g men and women of P r o t e s t a n t congre-g a t i o n s . Lower PIL scores were re p o r t e d among h o s p i t a l i z e d i n d i g e n t s and a l c o h o l i c s . The f a c t t h at the higher PIL scores were r e p o r t e d among groups of people i n v o l v e d i n l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n the church and community, and the f a c t t h a t lower PIL s c o r e s were r e p o r t e d among the more s o c i a l l y withdrawn, the s o c i a l c a s u a l t i e s of the community, seemed to lend some support t o the theory that s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p behav-i o r s were r e l a t e d to a sense of meaning and purpose i n l i f e and t h a t s o c i a l withdrawal was a s s o c i a t e d with e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum. Th i s a s s o c i a t i o n of a sense of meaning i n l i f e with a h i g h e r l e v e l of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n agrees with F r a n k l 1 s (1955) suggestion t h a t persons who f i n d meaning i n l i f e are - 25 -i n v o l v e d i n community o r i e n t e d t a s k s . Persons i n v o l v e d i n com-munity a f f a i r s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s and youth who are a c t i v e i n c l u b s and who take p a r t i n community a t h l e t i c s know how to l e n d i n t e r e s t to l i f e and o b t a i n meaning from i t . D o e r r i e s ' (1970) study examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n campus and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a sense of purpose and meaning i n l i f e among c o l l e g e students. He hypothesized t h a t PIL scores would be r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal o r g a n i z a -t i o n s . As p r e d i c t e d , c o l l e g e students who were a c t i v e i n two or more o r g a n i z a t i o n s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores than s t u -dents i n one or l e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D o e r r i e s concluded t h a t a sense of meaning i n l i f e was r e l a t e d to higher l e v e l of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , whereas, s o c i a l withdrawal was a s s o c i a t e d with e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum. Meaning i n L i f e and Academic Achievement F r a n k l (1955) has suggested t h a t a person who becomes d i s -couraged i n a task w i l l f a i l to d i s c o v e r meaning i n i t . On the b a s i s of t h i s i t might be assumed t h a t success and achievement i n one's work or study i s r e l a t e d to a sense of meaning i n l i f e . Thus, students who achieve w e l l i n s c h o o l should f i n d g r e a t e r meaning i n t h e i r s t u d i e s than a c a d e m i c a l l y u n s u c c e s s f u l s t u -dents. The r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e does not r e p o r t s t u d i e s which might shed l i g h t on t h i s hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p . Meaning i n L i f e , Sex D i f f e r e n c e s , and Grade L e v e l s A survey of r e s e a r c h does not r e p o r t c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between grade l e v e l , sex, and PIL s c o r e s . Crumbaugh and Maholik (1964) d i d not r e p o r t any - 26 -s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between PIL scores of males and females. Crumbaugh (1968) repo r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores among males but he e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was probably due to the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of males among the hig h e r purpose group of s u c c e s s f u l businessmen and p r o f e s s i o n a l s . C o l l e g e undergraduate women i n D o e r r i e s ' study scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than c o l l e g e undergraduate males. Nyholm (1966) and Crumbaugh (1968) both r e p o r t e d very low c o r r e l a t i o n s between e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and PIL s c o r e s . Snavely (1963), however, r e p o r t e d t h a t among a sample of f o r t y c o l l e g e students the freshmen had scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the PIL than s e n i o r s . Summary In r e v i e w i n g the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to meaning i n l i f e as d e f i n e d by F r a n k l one i s s t r u c k by the small number of s t u d i e s and the larg e gaps t h a t remain. Only one rese a r c h i n s t r -ment has been v a l i d a t e d . Most of the e m p i r i c a l evidence pre-sented i n t h i s chapter i s r e l a t e d to PIL v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s conducted by Crumbaugh and Maholik and a few graduate students seeking to r e p l i c a t e previous r e s u l t s . C o l l e g e students and mental p a t i e n t s have been the s u b j e c t s i n most of the s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d . The l i t e r a t u r e does not r e p o r t s t u d i e s conducted at the secondary school l e v e l . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n probably i s the f i r s t to consi d e r a high school p o p u l a t i o n . While keeping i n mind the l i m i t a t i o n s expressed above, i t can be assumed on the b a s i s of x>revious r e s e a r c h t h a t ( l ) the s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d suggest that F r a n k l ' s concepts can be e m p i r i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d ; (2) there i s some re s e a r c h evidence to support F r a n k l ' s t h e s i s t h a t the e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum and noogenic n e u r o s i s are p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s d i f f e r e n t from the t r a d i t i o n a l d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s , except perhaps depres-s i o n and anomie; (3) on the b a s i s of higher PIL scores among "normal" p o p u l a t i o n s and the lower PIL scores among the p s y c h i -a t r i c p o p u l a t i o n s i t i s reasonable to conclude t h a t a sense of meaning and purpose i n l i f e i s r e l a t e d to mental h e a l t h ; (4) s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p are p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to a sense of meaning and purpose i n l i f e , whereas, s o c i a l w i t h -drawal i s n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to a sense of meaning i n l i f e ; (5) the r e should be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between academic success and h i g h e r meaning i n l i f e ; and t h a t (6) the number of years of educat i o n and the sex d i f f e r e n c e s among the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e were not r e l a t e d to s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t PIL s c o r e s . Hypothe ses The above assumptions can be s t a t e d i n hypothesis form as f o l l o w s : I Students i n Group 1 (Leadership group), i n Group 2 (Normal group), and i n Group 3 (Deviant group) w i l l score s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t on the Purpose i n L i f e T e s t . a) Group 1 students w i l l score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than e i t h e r Group 2 or Group 3 students. b) Group 2 students w i l l score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than Group 3 students. I I Students with higher l e v e l s of achievement w i l l score - 28 -s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the Purpose i n L i f e Test than s t u -dents w i t h lower l e v e l s of achievement. a) Students w i t h i n Group 1 (Leadership group) who achieve C+ or b e t t e r w i l l score s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the Purpose i n L i f e Test than l e a d e r s h i p students who achieve below C+. b) Students w i t h i n Group 3 (Deviant group) who achieve h i g h e r than D w i l l score s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the Purpose i n L i f e Test than Deviant students who achieve D or l e s s . I I I Male and female students w i l l not have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f -f e r e n t scores on the PIL. IV Students i n grade l e v e l s 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 w i l l not have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s cores on the PIL. - 29 -CHAPTER IV DESIGN OF THE INVESTIGATION The f i r s t chapter i s a review of the l i t e r a t u r e concerned w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n d e s c r i b e d by F r a n k l as e x i s -t e n t i a l vacuum. V a r i o u s contemporary w r i t e r s have addressed themselves to t h i s c o n d i t i o n which seems to c h a r a c t e r i z e l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of s o c i e t y . In order to i n v e s t i g a t e the v a l i d i t y of these concerns i t was decided to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t might e x i s t between meaning i n l i f e s c ores of groups of secon-dary s c h o o l students and t h e i r b e h a v i o r . Chapter I I and I I I summarize the theory and the r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h meaning i n l i f e . T h i s chapter presents the design of the study. The f i r s t s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s the c r i t e r i a and the method employed to s e l e c t s u b j e c t s f o r the experimental groups. The second s e c -t i o n d e s c r i b e s the r e s e a r c h instrument used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a -t i o n . The t h i r d s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the procedures of t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . And the f o u r t h s e c t i o n d e l i n e a t e s the s t a t i s -t i c a l p rocedures. C r i t e r i a and Procedures Used to E s t a b l i s h the Groups The study was conducted by t e s t i n g a l l the students i n the West Vancouver Secondary School System, grades 8 to 12. The t o t a l number of students t e s t e d was 2949. The groups were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: Group 1 ( a ) : Student l e a d e r s who had C-f or b e t t e r i n f i f t y percent or more of t h e i r courses. Group 1 ( b ) : Student l e a d e r s who had C or l e s s i n f i f t y p e r-cent or more of t h e i r c o u r s e s . Group 2: Non-leaders who d i d not e x h i b i t l e a d e r s h i p or d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r s . Group 3 ( c ) : Deviant students with h i g h e r than D i n f i f t y p e r -cent or more of t h e i r courses ( p a s s i n g g r a d e s ) . Group 3 ( d ) : Deviant students w i t h D or l e s s i n f i f t y percent or more of t h e i r courses ( f a i l i n g g r a d e s ) . 1) Placement i n t o Group 1 (Leadership Group) The assumption u n d e r l y i n g the s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s f o r the l e a d e r s h i p group was based on F r a n k l ' s (1969) suggestion t h a t a h i g h l e v e l of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h meaning i n l i f e . That i s to say, people who are i n v o l v e d i n community o r i e n t e d t a s k s have h i g h meaning i n l i f e . Young people who are a c t i v e i n youth c l u b s , a t h l e t i c s , and student o r g a n i z a t i o n s are d i s c o v e r i n g meaning i n l i f e . To be p l a c e d i n Group 1, the students had to h o l d an exec-u t i v e p o s i t i o n i n a c l u b , team, o r g a n i z a t i o n , or student c o u n c i l w i t h i n the s c h o o l . T h i s placement was determined by having each student answer a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix v ) . The ques-t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the teachers d u r i n g a homeroom p e r i o d and presented as i f i t was a r e g u l a r s c h o o l matter. The r e s e a r c h e r then went through the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i d e n t i f i e d the students who q u a l i f i e d as l e a d e r s . Twelve student ques-t i o n n a i r e s were r e j e c t e d a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g s t a f f members on some of the q u e s t i o n a b l e responses. A f t e r the l e a d e r group (Group 1) was e s t a b l i s h e d , the - 31 -a d m i n i s t r a t i o n made a v a i l a b l e the marks of each student i n the l e a d e r group. The marks s u p p l i e d were p r o v i d e d on the b a s i s of r e c o r d e d achievement f o r the p e r i o d from September 1969 to the end of January 1970. Students w i t h C+ or b e t t e r i n f i f t y p e r -cent or more of t h e i r courses were p l a c e d i n Group 1 (a) and those students who had l e s s than t h i s average were p l a c e d i n Group 1 ( b ) . 2) Placement i n t o Group 2 (Non-Leader Group) The s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s f o r the non-leader group r e s t s on the assumption t h a t t h i s group r e p r e s e n t s an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l of s o c i a l i n t e r r a c t i o n . Leaders were c o n s i d e r e d to be i n v o l v e d a t a high l e v e l of s o c i a l i n t e r r a c t i o n . Deviants were co n s i d e r e d to be i n v o l v e d at a low l e v e l of s o c i a l i n t e r r a c t i o n . Non-leaders have demonstrated t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r coping suc-c e s s f u l l y i n the school environment and y e t they have not d i s -t i n g u i s h e d themselves among other students e i t h e r as l e a d e r s or as d e v i a n t s . In order to q u a l i f y f o r placement i n t o Group 2 students had to be judged as behaving s a t i s f a c t o r i l y by s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s . They could not h o l d e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n s c h o o l c l u b s , organ-i z a t i o n s , and student c o u n c i l s . 3) Placement i n t o Group 3 (Deviant Group) Deviant students were c o n s i d e r e d to be i n v o l v e d a t the lowest l e v e l of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A d e v i a n t i s u s u a l l y d e f i n e d as an i n d i v i d u a l who c o n s i s t e n t l y breaks the r u l e s of s o c i e t y . These r u l e s r e f l e c t the s o c i a l s a n c t i o n s which govern the s o c i e t y . An i n d i v i d u a l who c o n s i s t e n t l y d e f i e s these r u l e s - 32 -and s a n c t i o n s demonstrates by h i s a c t i o n s t h a t he r e j e c t s them and i n so d o i n g he I s o l a t e s h i m s e l f . In the s c h o o l community, the r e a r e r u l e s and s a n c t i o n s which, i f not f o l l o w e d by the s t u d e n t , r e s u l t i n a l i e n a t i o n from the s c h o o l system. I n t h i s s t u d y d e v i a n t s t u d e n t s have been d e f i n e d as those s t u d e n t s who d i s o b e y s c h o o l r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s i n a manner and f r e q u e n c y t h a t a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e t o the s c h o o l community. The most important, common v i o l a t i o n s among d e v i a n t s t u -dents were i n the a r e a of a t t e n d a n c e : s k i p p i n g s c h o o l or c l a s s e s , t a r d i n e s s , and u n j u s t i f i e d absenteeism. The second a r e a of v i o l a t i o n was concerned w i t h g e n e r a l a c t i n g out behav-i o r . That i s t o say, students were c o n s i d e r e d d e v i a n t when they d i s r u p t e d normal s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and c l a s s r o o m p r o c e -dures t o the e x t e n t t h a t they were r e f e r r e d t o the v i c e - p r i n -c i p a l ' s o f f i c e when the t e a c h e r no l o n g e r f e l t a b l e t o cope w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . Both types of v i o l a t i o n s , attendance v i o -l a t i o n s and a c t i n g out b e h a v i o r s , were judged t o be the most prominent types of d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r s . I n s h o r t , the c r i t e r i a employed were the f o l l o w i n g : 1. R e f e r r a l s t o the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l f o r b e h a v i o r problems ( a c t i n g out b e h a v i o r ) from a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t s t a f f mem-bers o r o t h e r s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l , between the b e g i n n i n g of Sep-tember I969 t o the end of December I 9 6 9 . Two r e f e r r a l s from d i f f e r e n t s t a f f members were r e q u i r e d because of v a r i a t i o n among s t a f f members. 2. E i g h t o r more l a t e s between the b e g i n n i n g of September I969 t o the end of December I969. - 33 -3. Two i n s t a n c e s of truancy from c l a s s or s c h o o l between the b e g i n n i n g of September 1969 to the end of December 1969. 4. More than ten days absences except with bona f i d e s i c k n e s s or l e g i t i m a t e h o l i d a y p e r m i s s i o n between the b e g i n n i n g of September 1969 and the end of December 1969. The Deviant group thus e s t a b l i s h e d was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o two sub-groups: Group 3 (c) i n c l u d e d those students who had r e c e i v e d a higher mark than D i n f i f t y p e r c e n t or more of t h e i r courses and Group 3 (d) which i n c l u d e d those students who r e c e i v e d a lower mark than D i n f i f t y percent or more of t h e i r c o u r s e s . As i n the l e a d e r group, the marks were s u p p l i e d f o r the p e r i o d from September 1969 to the end of January 1970. I t should be noted, however, t h a t whenever a student q u a l i -f i e d f o r both the Group 1 and Group 3 c r i t e r i a he was assigned to Group 3. F i f t e e n students were i n v o l v e d . In such cases i t was found t h a t those f i f t e e n students only m i n i m a l l y q u a l i f i e d f o r Group 1, t h a t i s , they l i s t e d o n l y minor p o s i t i o n s such as c o - c a p t a i n i n s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s , or a s s i s t a n t c l a s s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e i n the student c o u n c i l . Instrument The Purpose i n L i f e Test i s a twenty-item s c a l e designed to evoke responses which r e l a t e the degree of purpose i n l i f e expe-r i e n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s . Each item i s r a t e d on a seven-point s c a l e from one extreme f e e l i n g to another. The s c a l e measures a t t i t u d e s i n d i r e c t l y by having the sub-j e c t respond t o statements about h i s l i f e . The technique i s s i m i l a r t o the L i k e r t method except t h a t the q u a n t i t a t i v e - 34 -extremes of each item a r e s e t by d e s c r i p t i v e phrases. The score i s si m p l y the sum of I n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s a s s i g n e d t o each item. A c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y of the twenty items r e v e a l s the l o g o -t h e r a p e u t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . Items 13, 14, 17, and 18 (See appendix i ) a r e r e f l e c t i o n s of e x i s t e n t i a l i s m ' s emphasis on freedom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Items 1, 2, 5? 9» and 19 attempt t o measure the g e n e r a l tone of f e e l i n g ; whether the person e x p e r i e n c e s the excitement of l i v i n g o r t h boredom and apathy of a p u r p o s e l e s s l i f e . Items 7, 8, 10, 17, and 19 a r e based on the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t man d i s c o v e r s meaning i n l i f e through the achievement of s e l f - c h o s e n g o a l s and c r e a t i v e endeavors t h a t have a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the community. Whether the i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s v a l u e s , meaningful l i f e p a t t e r n s , and a sense of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i s a s s e s s e d by items 3» 4, 12, and 20. The f i n a l group of items, 6, 11, 15, 16. a r e based on F r a n k l * s con-t e n t i o n t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l can ex p e r i e n c e meaning i n death, i l l n e s s , s u f f e r i n g , and g u i l t ; t h a t i s , a t t i t u d i n a l v a l u e s can c o n t r i b u t e t o a g r e a t e r meaning i n l i f e . V a l i d i t y i s measured a g a i n s t an o p e r a t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n . C o n s t r u c t ( o r co n c u r r e n t ) v a l i d i t y has been confirmed by the instrument's d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i n the o r d e r of means, of h e a l t h y and p s y c h i a t r i c p o p u l a t i o n s and by i t s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of sub-groups among p a t i e n t and n o n - p a t i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s . D i f f e r e n c e s between PIL means of normal and p s y c h i a t r i c p o p u l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P< . 0 0 1 ) . - 35 -C r i t e r i o n v a l i d i t y was e v a l u a t e d by two measures: c o r r e l -a t i o n of PIL s c o r e s w i t h t h e r a p i s t s ' and m i n i s t e r s ' r a t i n g s and w i t h F r a n k l ' s own t h l r t e e n - l t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the m i n i s t e r s ' and the t h e r a p i s t s ' r a t i n g s and the s c a l e y i e l d e d Pearson Product-Moments of .47 and .38. Crumbaugh Mah o l i k (1964) found a c o r r e l a t i o n of .68 between the PIL s c a l e and F r a n k l ' s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The odd-even r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t y i e l d e d a Pearson Product-Moment of .85. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Purpose i n L i f e T e s t i s simple. D i r e c t i o n s a r e e a s i l y understood by a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s . F o r the purposes of t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t an adapted v e r -s i o n of the PIL was used. I t had t o be adapted f o r computer s c o r i n g which l i m i t e d the r a t i n g s c a l e f o r each item t o f i v e i n s t e a d of seven. T h i s d e s t r o y e d any p o s s i b i l i t y of comparing the r e s u l t s w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d norms. F o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s comparison i s unimportant i n t h i s study as l o n g as the i n s t r u -ment d i s c r i m i n a t e s the p o p u l a t i o n s as p r e d i c t e d . G u i l f o r d (1956) and Cronbach (i960) agree t h a t both f i v e and seven-point r a t i n g s c a l e s a r e e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . T e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A t the r e q u e s t of the West Vancouver S c h o o l Doard student anonymity had t o be safeguarded. In o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y groups the IBM answer sheets had t o be coded. They were coded i n -c o n s p i c u o u s l y a t the back. The code i d e n t i f i e d b e h a v i o r groups, achievement, grade, sex, and s c h o o l (Appendix l v ) . T h i s was - 36 -done by p l a c i n g the score sheet face down on a t r a n s p a r e n t , i l l u m i n a t e d g l a s s . Inconspicuous red ink dots were p l a c e d i n the a p p r o p r i a t e spaces of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s e c t i o n . A f t e r the t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the answer sheets were marked i n p e n c i l i n the a p p r o p r i a t e spaces of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s e c t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the p o s i t i o n of the r e d dots a t the back f o l l o w i n g the same procedure of i l l u m i n a t i n g the answer sheet as above. A remov-a b l e name t a g was attached to each answer sheet i n order t o be c e r t a i n t h a t the students of the corresponding groups recorded t h e i r answers on the desig n a t e d answer sheets. T h i s procedure a l s o enabled the r e s e a r c h e r to keep an accurate count of those students who d i d not answer the i n v e n t o r y due to absenteeism or f o r other reasons. The students were asked to remove the name tags b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g the answer sheets as a f u r t h e r assurance of anonymity. The Purpose i n L i f e Test was admi n i s t e r e d by the s t a f f i n each s c h o o l . The e n t i r e student body of each s c h o o l wrote the t e s t at one s i t t i n g and at the same time. Standard procedures and formal i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r answering'the instrument were read over the intercom i n a l l three schools and i n the same manner (Appendix i i i ) . Each s t a f f member was p r o v i d e d with a copy of the same i n s t r u c t i o n s t o enable them t o answer any ques t i o n s from students about procedures. The only d i f f i c u l t y experienced i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the instrument arose i n the f i r s t s c h o o l t e s t e d . Some students saw the code and assumed t h a t i t i d e n t i f i e d them as i n d i v i d u a l s . For t h i s reason f u r t h e r c l a r i -f i c a t i o n had t o be g i v e n . The students were assured t h a t the - 37 -code i d e n t i f i e d them a c c o r d i n g t o grade, sex, and s c h o o l o n l y . T h i s problem a r o s e i n the f i r s t s c h o o l o n l y as m o d i f i e d i n -s t r u c t i o n s were s u p p l i e d t o the o t h e r s c h o o l s b e f o r e a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n (Appendix H i ) . S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures F o l l o w i n g Edwards (1964) and K e r l i n g e r (I964) one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was used t o t e s t the s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses about the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the PIL means of the v a r i o u s groups. There a r e t h r e e assumptions behind the use of a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e : n o r m a l i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n , homogeneity of v a r i a n c e and c o n t i n u i t y , and e q u a l i n t e r v a l s of measures. I t i s assumed t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n s i n the groups a r e n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d because they a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o approach n o r m a l i t y . The v a r i a n c e s w i t h i n the groups are assumed t o be homogeneous from group t o group, w i t h i n the bounds of random v a r i a t i o n . F i n a l l y , i t i s assumed t h a t the measure i s a continuous measure w i t h e q u a l i n t e r v a l s . That i s t o say, i t i s assumed t h e r e were not g r o s s d e p a r t u r e s from n o r m a l i t y , homogeneity of v a r i a n c e , and e q u a l i t y of i n t e r v a l s which would v i t i a t e the use of the F t e s t . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d out by the use of Program BMDX64 o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computer Centre. T h i s program i s e x p l a i n e d i n Appendix x i i . - 38 -Summary The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t e d a summary of the assumptions and methods used t o form the groups. The second s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e d the measuring d e v i c e , the Purpose i n L i f e T e s t . The t h i r d s e c t i o n r e p o r t e d the t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n procedures. A f i n a l s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e d the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures used t o a n a l y z e the d a t a . - 39 -CHAPTER V FINDINGS The p r e v i o u s chapters have set the stage f o r the a n a l y s i s of data. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 presented a statement of the problem, e s t a b l i s h e d the t h e o r e t i c a l framework w i t h i n which the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was conducted, and provided a resume of the r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e . Chapter 4 provided an e x p l a n a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h methods and techniques needed to gather the d a t a and t e s t hypotheses. T h i s chapter presents an a n a l y s i s of data, i n c l u d i n g t a b l e s . Each hypothesis was evaluated on the b a s i s of s i g n i f i -cant F scores which determined whether i t was supported or r e j e c t e d . Four hypotheses were evaluated i n t h i s manner. Hypothesis I Table I: PIL Means, S.D.'s, and F scores f o r Leader, Normal, and Deviant Students. Leaders (Group 1) Non-Leaders (Group 2) Deviants (Group 3) F Scores N. 375 M. 72.74 S.D. 9.20 2380 69.86 11.06 194 64.76 11.97 30.601** Group 2 Group 3 Group 1 vs 21.862** 60.984** Group 2 vs 13.867** * S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 ** S i g n i f i c a n t at .001 As i s shown i n Table I, the hypothesis t h a t l e a d e r s , non-- 40 -l e a d e r s , and d e v i a n t s would have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t PIL scores was supported (F = 30.601; p < ,^01). The hypothesis t h a t l e a d e r s would score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the PIL than would the non-leader group was supported (F = 21.862; p < .01). The hypothesis t h a t l e a d e r s would score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the d e v i a n t group was supported (F = 60.984; p <C .01). The hypothesis t h a t non-leaders would score s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the deviant group was a l s o supported (F = 13.867; p < .01). Hypothesis I I Table I I : PIL Means, S.D.'s, and F score f o r High and Low Achievement among Leaders. Higher than Less than F C+ Achievement C+ Achievement Score N. 229 146 M. 72.95 72.34 0.4142 S.D. 9.65 8.75 * S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t .001 As shown i n Table I I , the hypothesis t h a t the higher a c h i e v i n g l e a d e r group would score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the PIL than would the lower a c h i e v i n g leader group was not sup-ported (F = 0.4142; p > .01). - 41 -Table I I I : PIL Means, S.D.'s, and P score f o r High and Low Achievement i n the Deviant Group. Pas s i n g Achievement F a i l i n g Achievement F Score N. 117 73 M. 64.71 64.75 1.1482 S.D . 12.20 11.90 * S i g n i f i c a n t at • 01 ** S i g n i f i c a n t at • 001 As shown i n Table I I I , the hypothesis that the higher a c h i e v i n g d e v i a n t group would score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the PIL than would the lower a c h i e v i n g d e v i a n t group was not sup-p o r t e d (F = 1.1482; p > .01). HYPOTHESIS I I I Table IV: PIL Means, S.D.'s, and F score of Male and Female Students of the T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n . Males Females F Score N. 1524 M. 68.99 S.D. 10.48 1425 69.38 11.19 2.760 * S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 ** S i g n i f i c a n t at .001 As shown i n Table IV, the hypothesis that male students i would not score s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t on the PIL than would female students was supported (F = 2.760; p > .01). - 42 -HYPOTHESIS IV T a b l e V: PIL Means, S.D. 's, and F score of Students f o r Each Grade L e v e l . Grades 8 9 10 11 12 F Score M. 650 624 573 568 534 M. 71.29 70.51 67.91 66.44 68.87 21..0281++ S.D. 10.71 11.01 10.82 10.23 9.49 + S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 ++ S i g n i f i c a n t a t .001 As shown i n T a b l e V, the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t students i n grades 8 - 1 2 would not have s i g n l f i c a K j H ^ l f f e r e n t s c o r e s on the PIL was not supported (F * 21.0281; p< .01). T a b l e V I : F R a t i o s of D i f f e r e n c e s between Student PIL Scores i n Grades 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. Grade 9 10 11 12 8 vs 2.060 j 52.835++ 43.841++ 26.316++ 9 vs I 33.897++ 26.637++ j 13.867++ 10 vs | [ J 0.442 3.582 11 v s | J 1.588 + S i g n i f i c a n t at,. .01 ++ S i g n i f i c a n t a t .001 T a b l e VI i n d i c a t e s the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n of s c o r i n g among stud e n t s i n grades 8-12: Grade 8 s t u d e n t s d i d not score s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the PIL than d i d grade 9 s t u d e n t s (F = 2.060; p<.01). Grade 8 s t u d e n t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the PIL than d i d students - J O -l n grades 10, 11, and 12 (F's = 52.84, 43 .84, 26.32; p< .01). Grade 9 s t u d e n t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the PIL than s t u d e n t s i n grades 10, 11, and 12 d i d (P's = 33.90, 26.64, 13.8?; p<.01). The PIL s c o r e s of grade 10 students were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the s c o r e s of grade 11 and 12 s t u d e n t s (P's = 0.44, 3.58; p>.01). Grade 11 student PIL s c o r e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the s c o r e s of grade 12 s t u d e n t s (P = 1.59; pj>.01). A d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s i s found i n Chapter V I . - 44 -CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS T h i s chapter w i l l provide an e v a l u a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s . The d i s c u s s i o n concerns i t s e l f with the f o u r areas e x p l o r e d by the hypotheses and makes s e v e r a l i n f e r e n c e s based upon the i n v e s t i g a t i o n ' s t h e o r e t i c a l framework. The chapter a l s o concerns i t s e l f w ith r e s e a r c h l i m i t a t i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . C o n c l u s i o n s B r i e f l y , the c o n c l u s i o n s of the study can be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : 1) The hypothesis t h a t students who h e l d l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s would have hig h e r meaning i n l i f e scores than would s t u -dents who were i n the non-leader group (P = 21.862, p <C .01) and students who were i n the d e v i a n t group (F = 60.984, p <C .01) was confirmed. 2) The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t students who were i n the non-leader group would have h i g h e r meaning i n l i f e scores than would students who were i n the d e v i a n t group was confirmed (F = 13.867, p <.01). 3) The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t students who had higher academic a c h i e v e -ment would have hig h e r meaning i n l i f e scores than would students who had lower academic achievement was not sup-ported (F = 0.414, p > .01). 4) The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there would not be any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between meaning i n l i f e scores of students i n grades 8 to 12 was not supported (F = 21.028, p < . 0 l ) . - 45 -Grade 8 and 9 students had h i g h e r meaning i n l i f e s c ores than d i d students i n grades 10, 11, and 12. 5) The hypothesis t h a t male and female students would not have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t meaning i n l i f e s c o r e s was supported (F = 2.759, p > .01). Inferences and I m p l i c a t i o n s T h i s s e c t i o n concerns i t s e l f w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p of meaning i n l i f e to s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l e a d e r s h i p and d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r s , academic achievement, and sex and grade l e v e l d i f -f e r e n c e s . These i n f e r e n c e s are based upon F r a n k l ' s n o t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the development of meaning i n l i f e . In some r e s p e c t s , however, the i n f e r e n c e s are an e x t e n s i o n of F r a n k l ' s t h e o r y . 1) L e a d e r s h i p , S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n , and Meaning i n L i f e I t was assumed t h a t students who h e l d executive p o s i -t i o n s i n the school were more i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l and a t h -l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s than students who d i d not h o l d executive p o s i t i o n s , namely, the non-leader and the d e v i a n t groups. I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t students who were more i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s would have h i g h meaning i n l i f e s c o r e s . Thus the l e a d e r s h i p group would be expected to have a h i g h e r meaning i n l i f e score than the non-leader and d e v i a n t groups. As p r e d i c t e d , the l e a d e r s h i p group had a h i g h e r meaning i n l i f e score than d i d the non-leader group and the d e v i a n t group. This f i n d i n g p r o v i d e s e m p i r i c a l evidence i n support of the assumption t h a t a higher l e v e l of s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h high meaning i n l i f e . T h i s f i n d i n g supports F r a n k l ' s theory t h a t - 46 -whenever adolescents reach out to others they experience a greater sense of usefulness and i d e n t i t y , and as a r e s u l t , they have a greater sense of meaning i n l i f e . This f i n d i n g also suggests that when leaders are chosen, t h e i r peers recognize th e i r uniqueness and s i n g u l a r i t y , a condition which again seems associated with high meaning i n l i f e . 2) Deviancy, Social P a r t i c i p a t i o n , and Meaning i n L i f e Deviant students were considered to be involved at the lowest l e v e l of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . That i s to say, by v i o l a t i n g rules and sanctions they isolated themselves from the school community. In th i s study, students who were involved at a low l e v e l of s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n were predicted to have low meaning in l i f e . As predicted, the deviant group had the lowest meaning i n l i f e scores. This f i n d i n g provides empirical evidence i n support of the assumption that a lower l e v e l of s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i -pation i s associated with low meaning i n l i f e . Furthermore, low meaning i n l i f e scores of deviant students provide sup-port f o r Frankl's (1963, p. 169) statement that low meaning in l i f e or e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum underlies deviancy. He has said that people who suffer from e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum have the symptoms of boredom, apathy, aimlessness, and confusion and they tend to see themselves as irresponsible individuals who are bound by limi t a t i o n s set by others. 3) Academic Success and Meaning i n L i f e The findings did not support the prediction that aca-demic success i s associated with high meaning i n l i f e . I t - 47 -was assumed t h a t h i g h marks i n d i c a t e d mastery of s u b j e c t matter. I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t mastery of s u b j e c t matter was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f e e l i n g of competence and w e l l - b e i n g , a c o n d i t i o n which seemed to be r e l a t e d to h i g h meaning i n l i f e . T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t academic success, sub-j e c t matter mastery, and f e e l i n g s of competence and w e l l -b e i n g might not be r e l a t e d to high meaning i n l i f e . 4) Grade L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s and Meaning i n L i f e The f i n d i n g t h a t grade 8 and 9 students had h i g h e r meaning i n l i f e s c o r e s than d i d grade 10, 11, and 12 s t u -dents suggests t h a t young adolescents experience h i g h e r meaning i n l i f e than o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t s . That i s to say, young a d o l e s c e n t s i n grades 8 and 9 appear t o be l e s s con-f u s e d , tend to f e e l more worthwhile, and f i n d l i f e more e x c i t i n g and meaningful than the o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t s i n grades 10 to 12. In r e l a t i o n s h i p to F r a n k l ' s (1955, p. 33) statement t h a t urgent q u e s t i o n i n g of the meaning of l i f e i s most l i k e l y t o occur d u r i n g adolescence, and assuming t h a t low meaning i n l i f e scores are r e l a t e d to t h i s q u e s t i o n i n g stage, t h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t adolescents q u e s t i o n the meaning of l i f e a t a l a t e r stage of adolescent development, namely, i n grades 10, 11, and 12. T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o suggests e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between meaning i n l i f e and c u r r i c u l u m content, t e a c h i n g methods, v o c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , and home and community e x p e c t a t i o n s . 5) Sex D i f f e r e n c e s and Meaning i n L i f e As had been hypothesized, male and female students d i d - 48 -not have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t meaning i n l i f e scores. It would appear that a sense of meaning i n l i f e was not the prerogative of one sex over the other. Implications f o r Further Research Some of the conclusions and inferences of t h i s thesis sug-gest p o s s i b i l i t i e s f or further research. 1) The f i r s t study suggested by the findings i s a r e p l i c a t i o n of t h i s investigation among adolescent populations of other l o c a l i t i e s . Representative samples of adolescents i n other school d i s t r i c t s would determine whether or not the above findings are true of other secondary school populations. 2) The conclusion that high meaning i n l i f e scores were not associated to high academic achievement was based on scores of the leadership and deviant groups only. Another project could investigate the relationship between meaning i n l i f e scores and academic success among students i n the non-leader group in order to determine whether or not the results would be si m i l a r . 3) A t h i r d project i s suggested by the differences between meaning i n l i f e scores of students in various grade l e v e l s . A r e p l i c a t i o n of thi s thesis using a sample of adolescents from other l o c a l i t i e s would establish whether or not t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was nested i n school variables s p e c i f i c to West Vancouver or whether or not i t is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the adolescents generally. Thus a replicate of t h i s study would determine whether or not meaning i n l i f e score differences are due to stages i n adolescent development; to differences - 49 -in curriculum content and teaching methods; to poor voca-tional planning; or to home and community expectations. Assuming that deviant adolescents in and out of school exhibit similar behaviors we should also study adolescents who are in legal custody. This study would determine whether or not deviant adolescents who are attending school and deviant adolescents who are in correctional centres and in drug treatment f a c i l i t i e s have similar meaning in l i f e scores. Finally, there is the possibility of setting up a remedial help program for deviant adolescents. This program would involve faculty, student leaders, and deviants in small groups and in a work experience alternative. Bringing together faculty, student leaders, and deviants in small group instruction and discussion would involve the deviants in an intellectual and communal experience where they could learn to develop a higher level of social involvement as they c l a r i f y their beliefs and values through exposure to the ideas and behaviors of their peers and significant adults. The work experience component would help the deviant adolescents translate into real l i f e situations the concepts, techniques, and methods that they have learned. Deviants would have a chance to c l a r i f y meanings and values through exposure to additional knowledge by way of f i e l d projects which could involve helping slow learners in elementary grades; organizing recreation programs for mentally retarded and physically handicapped children and adolescents; and - 50 -v i s i t i n g s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . The involvement of d e v i a n t ado-l e s c e n t s w i t h a d o l e s c e n t l e a d e r s would take advantage of the n a t u r a l i n f l u e n c e of peers i n d e v e l o p i n g h e a l t h y a t t i t u d e s toward s c h o o l and l e a r n i n g and i n r e i n f o r c i n g d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o r s . A d o l e s c e n t l e a d e r s would p r o v i d e the r e c o g n i -t i o n , the a p p r o v a l , the support, and the h e l p t h a t d e v i a n t s need, Furthermore, a d o l e s c e n t l e a d e r s , w i t h t h e i r s i m i l a r age l e v e l s and background, would not o n l y p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s but would a l s o use the idiom by which youth communicate t h e i r f e e l i n g s , g o a l s , and e x p e r i e n c e s . A most f i t t i n g c o n c l u s i o n f o r t h i s study i s suggested by V i c t o r F r a n k l ' s (1969) comment about the g o a l of e d u c a t i o n : . . . i n an age such as ours, t h a t i s t o say, i n an age of e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum, the foremost t a s k of e d u c a t i o n , i n s t e a d of b e i n g s a t i s f i e d w i t h t r a n s m i t t i n g t r a d i t i o n s and knowledge, i s t o r e f i n e t h a t c a p a c i t y which a l l o w s man t o f i n d unique meanings. Today e d u c a t i o n cannot a f f o r d t o proceed a l o n g the l i n e s of t r a d i t i o n , but must e l i c i t the a b i l i t y t o make independent and a u t h e n t i c d e c i s i o n s (page 6 4 ) . H e l p i n g s t u d e n t s r e f i n e t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o f i n d unique meanings and t o make independent and a u t h e n t i c d e c i s i o n s may be the g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g e d u c a t o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s today. E v e r y day and eve r y hour makes new deeds n e c e s s a r y and new ex p e r i e n c e s p o s s i b l e . May we not r e s t content w i t h our achievements. -51-CHAPTER V I I REFERENCES A c u f f , F.G. R e t i r e m e n t , meaning and, a d j u s t m e n t : The e m e r i t u s  p r o f e s s o r and r e t i r e d c l e r g y of a s o u t h w e s t e r n s t a t e , U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Missouri.---, 1967. A l l p o r t , Gordon, W. The P e r s o n i n P s y c h o l o g y , B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1968. B a z z i , T. Paper r e a d b e f o r e t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Psy-c h o t h e r a p y , B a r c e l o n a , 1958. Blns w a n g e r , L. E x i s t e n t i a l A n a l y s i s and P s y c h o t h e r a p y : P r o g r e s s  In P s y c h o t h e r a p y , Fromm-Relchraann, P r e l d a and Moreno, J . L . (Eds.) New York: Grime and S t r a t t o n , 1956. Crumbaugh, J.C. "The Case o f F r a n k l ' s W i l l t o Meaning", J o u r n a l  of E x i s t e n t i a l P s y c h i a t r y , 1963, 4, 403 - 412. Crumbaugh, J.C. M a h o l i k , L.T. "An E x p e r i m e n t a l Study i n E x i s t e n -t i a l i s m " , J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1964, 20(2), 200 - 207. Crumbaugh, J.C. "The A p p l i c a t i o n of L o g o t h e r a p y " , J o u r n a l of  E x i s t e n t i a l i s m , 1965, 5, 403 - 412. Crumbaugh, J.C. " C r o s s - V a l i d a t i o n o f Purpose i n L i f e T e s t " , J o u r n a l o f I n d i v i d u a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1968, 24 Crumbaugh, J.C. L o z e s , S r . M., R a p h a e l , S h i e r a d e r , R. " F r a n k l ' s W i l l t o Meaning i n a R e l i g i o u s O r d e r " , Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n C o n v e n t i o n , B o s t o n , 1968. D u f k o v a , D. K r a t o c h v i l , S. " P s y c h o m e t r e c k i Zkoumani E x l s t e n c i a -l i F r u s t r a c e " , C e s k o s l o v e n s k a P s y c h o l o g i e , 1967, 11, 594 E b e l , R.L. "Must A l l T e s t s Be V a l i d " , American P s y c h o l o g i c a l  J o u r n a l , 196l, 10, 640. Eddy, E.D. The C o l l e g e I n f l u e n c e on S t u d e n t C h a r a c t e r , Washington, D.C.: American C o u n c i l of E d u c a t i o n , 1959. Edwards, A l l e n L. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n I n P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h New Yo r k : H o l t R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1964". -52-Elmore, T.M. Chambers, S.D. "Anomle, E x i s t e n t i a l Neurosis and Personality", American Psychological Association, Boston: 196?. Ellenberger, Henri, P. Angel, E. Existence, A New Dimension i n  Psychiatry and Psychology, New York: Basic Books, 195*3. Erikson, E r i c . Childhood and Society, New York: W.W. Norton, 1950. Fabry, Joseph B. The Pursuit of Meaning;. Logotherapy Applied to  L i f e , Boston* Beacon Press, 1968. Frankl, V i c t o r . Doctor and the Soul, New York: Alfred A. Kropf Inc. 1955. Frankl, V i c t o r . Man In Search for Meaning, Paperback e d i t i o n , New York: Washington Square Press, 1963. Frankl, V i c t o r . Psychotherapy and E x i s t e n t i a l i s m : Selected Papers  on Logotherapy, New York: Simon and Shuster, 196?. Frankl, V i c t o r . The Wi l l to Meaning: Foundations and Applica-tions of Logotherapy, Mew York: New American Library, Fromm, Eri c h . The Sane Society, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1955. Fromm, Er i c h . The Revolution of Hope, New York: Harper and Row, 1968. Goodman, Paul. Growing Up Absurd, New York: Random House, i 9 6 0 . Gertz, H.O. "Treatment of the Phobic and the Obsessive-Compul-sive Patients", American Journal of Psychiatry, 1966, 123, 548. Gertz, H.O. "Severe Depressive and Anxiety States", Mind, 1963, 1, 225. Gibson, K.R. An evaluation of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program f o r adolescent p s y c h i a t r i c patients, Unpublished Masters Thesis, Western Michigan University, 1968. Gutheil, E.A. "Proceedings of the Association f o r the Advan-cement of Psychotherapy", American Journal of Psychothe-rapy, 1956, 10, 134. Horney, Karen. The Neurotic Personality of Our Time, New York: W.W. Norton, 193?. -53-Kerlinger, Fred, N. Foundations of Behavioural Research, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. Koffka, K. P r i n c i p l e s of Gestalt Psychology, New York: Har-court and Brace, 1935. Kohler, W. Gestalt Psychology, New York: L i v e r i g h t , 1947. Kr a t o c h v i l , 5 . "K psychoterapii e x i s t e n c i a l n i f r u s t r a c e " , Ceskoslovenka P s y c h l a t r l a , 1966, 62, 322. Kvllbaugh, G. Paper read before the Austrian Medical Society of Psychotherapy, Vienna, 19&3. Ledermann, F.K. " C l i n i c a l Applications of E x i s t e n t i a l Psy-chotherapy", Journal of E x i s t e n t i a l Psychiatry, 1962, 3, 45. Maslow, Abraham. Toward a Psychology of Being,(2nd ed.), To-ronto: D. Van Norstrand^ 1968. May, Rollo. Man i n Search f o r Himself, New York: Basic Books 1953. May Rollo. Love and W i l l , New York: W.W. Norton, 1969. Murphy, Kay. Attitudes of college students toward l i f e i n v o l vement and s o c i e t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1968. Nardini, J.E. "Survival Factors i n American Prisoners of War American Journal of Psychiatry, 1952, 109, 154. Nyholm, S.E. A r e p l i c a t i o n of a psychometric approach to e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Portland, 1966. Perls, F. S. Gestalt Therapy Verbatim, Lafayette: Real Peopl Press, 19o"9. Perl s , F.S., H e f f e r l i n e , Ralph. Goodman, Paul. Gestalt The-rapy, New York: J u l i a n Press, 1951. P r i l l , J . J . "Orhanneurose and Konstitution bei Chronish-Funktionellen, Unterleibsbeshweden der Frau", Z e i l - s c h r l f t f u r Psychotehrapie, 1955. 5, 215. -5-+-S a h a k l a n , W i l l i a m S., (Ed.) P s y c h o t h e r a p y and. C o u n s e l l i n g : : S t u d i e s i n T e c h n i q u e . C h i c a g o : Rand McNally, 1969. S m i t h , M i l t o n , G. A S i m p l i f i e d Guide t o S t a t i s t i c s , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1930. S n e d e c o r , C.W. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods,(5th e d . ) , Ames: Iowa S t a t e C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1956. Tweedie, D.F. L o g o t h e r a p y and t r e C h r i s t i a n F a i t h : An Eva-l u a t i o n o f Frankl°s Approach t o P s y c h o t h e r a p y , Grand R a p i d s : Baker Book House, 1962. Tweedie, D.F. The C h r i s t i a n and t h e Couch: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C h r i s t i a n L o g o t h e r a p y , Grand R a p i d s : Baker Book House, 1963: Ungersma, A . J . The S e a r c h f o r Meaning, P h i l a d e l p h i a ; West-m i n s t e r P r e s s , 1961H V i c t o r , R.G. K r u g , C M . " P a r a d o x i c a l I n t e n t i o n i n t h e T r e a t -ment of C o m p u l s i v e Gambling", American J o u r n a l of Psy- c h o t h e r a p y . 1967, 21, 803. V o r s b u s c h , H.J. Paper r e a d b e f o r e t h e A u s t r i a n M e d i c a l S o c i e -t y of P s y c h o t h e r a p y , V i e n n a , 1965. V o l h a r d , R. Langen, D. " M e h r d i m e n s l o n a l e P s y c h o t h e r a p i e " , Z e i l s c h r l s t f u r P s y c h o t h e r a p i e , 1953. 3, 1. W e e s s k o f f _ J o e l s o n , E. "Some comments on a V i e n n e s e S c h o o l o f P s y c h i a t r y " , J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l Psy- c h o l o g y . 1955, 51. 701. Werner, T.A. Paper r e a d b e f o r e t h e Symposium of L o g o t h e r a p y a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of P s y c h o t h e r a p y , V i e n n a , 196l. W h e e l i s , A l l e n , The Quest f o r I d e n t i t y , New York: W.W. N o r t o n , 1958. -55-APPENDIX'i ORIGINAL INSTRUMENT: PURPOSE IN LIFE TEST NAME. .DATE. AGE- SEX. CLASSIFICATION. THE PURPOSE IN LIFE TEST J a m e s C . C r u m b a u g h , P h . D . V e t e r a n s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n H o s p i t a l G u l f p o r t , M i s s i s s ipp i L e o n a r d T . M a h o l i c k , M . D . T h e B r a d l e y Cen te r , Inc. C o l u m b u s , G e o r g i a Part A For each of the following statements, circle the number that would be most nearly true for you. Note that the numbers always extend from one extreme feeling to its oppo-site kind of feeling. "Neutral" implies no judgment either way; try to use this rating as little as possible. 1. I am usually: 1 completely bored 4 (neutral) 6 7 exhuberant, enthusiastic 2. Life to me seems: 7 6 always exciting 4 (neutral) completely routine 3. In life I have: 1 2 no goals or aims at all 4 (neutral) Very clear goals and aims 4. My personal existence is: 1 2 Utterly meaningless without purpose 4 (neutral) very purposeful and meaningful 5. Every day is: 7 6 constantly new and different 4 (neutral) exactly the same Copyright 1969 pBjjrljottttftrtr Affiliate CHICAGO PLAZA BROOKPORT. ILLINOIS 6201O Teat #168 6. If I could choose, I would: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 prefer never to (neutral) Like nine more have been born lives just like this one 7. After retiring, I would: 7 6 do some of the exciting things I have always wanted to 4 (neutral) 2 1 loaf completely the rest of my life 8. In achieving life goals I have: 1 2 3 made no progress whatever 4 (neutral) 6 7 progressed to com-plete fulfillment 9. My life is: 1 empty, filled only with despair 4 (neutral) 6 7 running over with exciting good things 10. If I should die today, I would feel that my life has been: 7 6 5 4 3 very worthwhile (neutral) completely worthless 11. In thinking of my life, I: 1 2 often wonder why I exist 4 (neutral) always see a reason for my be-ing here 12. As I view the world in relation to my life, the world: 1 2 3 4 5 completely confuses me (neutral) 6 7 fits meaningfully with my life 13. I am a: 1 very irresponsible person 4 (neutral) very responsible person 14. Concerning man's freedom to make his own choices, I believe man is: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 absolutely free to (neutral) completely bound by limitations of heridity and environment make all life choices 15. With regard to death, I am: 7 6 5 prepared and unafraid 4 (neutral) 2 1 unprepared and frightened 16. With regard to suicide, I have: 1 2 3 thought of it seriously as a way out 4 (neutral) 6 7 never given it a second thought 17. I regard my ability to find a meaning, purpose, or mission in life as: 7 very great 6 4 (neutral) practically none 18. My life is: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 in my hands and I (neutral) out of my hands am in control of it and controlled by external factors 19. Facing my daily tasks is: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a source of pleasure (neutral) a painful and bor-and satisfaction ing experience 20. I have discovered: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 no mission or (neutral) clear-cut goals purpose in life and a satisfying life purpose Part B Make complete sentences of each of the following phrases. Work rapidly, filling in the blanks with the first thing that pops into your mind. 1. More than anything, I want 2. My life is 3- I hope I can 4. I have achieved 5. My highest aspiration -6. The most hopeless thing 7. The whole purpose of my life Continued— 8. I get bored • 9. Death is — 10. I am accomplishing — — — 11. Illness and suffering can be _ — . 12. To me all life is 13. The thought of suicide___ — Part C Write a paragraph describing in detail your aims, ambitions, goals in life. How much progress are you making in achieving them? - 5 6 -APPENDIX i i MODIFIED PURPOSE IN L I F E TEST page a PART I HOW TO ANSWER AND MARK THE ANSWER SHEET; (Nos. 1 -20) 1. In each of the statements below, choose the number that is most near-ly true for you. Then completely blacken the numbered space on the en-closed answer sheet that corresponds to the question in this booklet. 2. The numbers(1,2,3,4,5, or, 5,4,3,2,1) in each question extend from one extreme feeling to i t s opposite kind of feeling. "Neutral" Implies no judgment either way, try to use this rating as l i t t l e as possible. 3. If you change your mind, erase your f i r s t mark completely. Make no stray marks on the answer sheet. 4. Use an HB pencil. Please do not use ink or ballpoint pen. 5. Sample questions; Answer sheet 1. I find my school experiences to be most; sample 1 2 3 4" 5 I :J: * 5 >i» 5 boring (neutral) exciting 5. I feel that students are; Answer sheet 5 3 2 1 sample always (neutral) completely 5 _ 1 ^ 3 4. .5 happy unhappy APPROXiMATELY*TEN* MINUTES*HAVE° BEEN"ALLOTTED*FOR* PART*I PART I QUESTIONS; 1. I am usually; 1 2 3 completely bored (neutral) 2. Life to me seems: 5 4 3 always (neutral) exciting 3. In l i f e I have: 1 2 3 no goals or (neutral) aims at a l l 4. My personal existence i s ; 1 2 3 utterly meaningless, (neutral) without purpuse 5. Every day i s : I 4 3 constantly new (neutral) and different 6. IT I could choose. I would; 1 2 3 prefer never to (neutral) have been born exhuberant, enthusiastic completely routine very clear aims and goals very purposeful and meaningful exactly the same like nine more lives just like this one (CONTINUE ON PAGE b) page b 7. After r e t l r l n g t I would: ~ 5 4* 3 do some of the exciting (neutral) things I have always wanted 8. In achieving l i f e goals. I have: 1 2 3 made no progress (neutral) loaf completely the rest of my l i f e progressed to com-plete f u l f i l l m e n t 9. My l i f e Is: 1 2 3 empty,filled (neutral) only with despair 10. If I should die today. I would f e e l that my l i f e has been: running over with exciting good things ~5~~ T very worthwhile (neutral) 11. In thinking of my llfe« It 1 2 3 often wonder why (neutral) I exist 12. As I view the world i n r e l a t i o n to my l i f e , 1 2 3 completely con- (neutral) fuses me 13. I am at 1 2 3 4 5 very irresponsible (neutral) very responsible person person 14. Concerning man's freedom to make hisown choices 9 I believe man i s : 2 1 completely worthless 4 5 always see a reason for my being here the worldt 5 f i t s meaningfully with my l i f e 1 4~ absolutely free to make a l l l i f e choices (neutral) 15. With regard to deaths I am: 5 ™ 4 3 prepared and (neutral) unafraid 16. With regard to s u l c l d e a I have; 1 2 3 thought of It seriously (neutral) as a way out completely bound by the l i m i t a t i o n s of he-redity and environment unprepared and frightened never given i t a second thought 17. I regard my a b i l i t y to f i n d a meaning^ purpose, or mission i n l i f e as: very great 18. My l i f e 1st 5 i n my hands and I am i n control of i t 4 4 (neutral) (neutral) p r a c t i c a l l y none 2 1 out of my hands and con controlled by external forces 19. Facing my d a l l y tasks 1st ^ 3 a source of pleasure (neutral) and s a t i s f a c t i o n 20. I have discovered: - _ 2 3 no mission or (neutral) purpose i n l i f e a f t e r the directions f o r Part II have been read'to you continue with Part I I . . . . . . . . . » 9 e . » e o » e o o » o » c 9 e » » a o o o o a o o e o o < > o o 9 8 e 8 o e « s > 9 « o « > © i > o o o » « > e « » . » . » » » » » « a painful and Boring experience 4 5 clear-cut goals and a s a t i s f y i n g l i f e purpose PART I I INSTRUCTIONS page 1. 1. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of problems which o f t e n t r o u b l e students of your age. Some of these problems are l i k e l y to be t r o u b l i n g you and some are not. As you read the l i s t , p i c k out the problems which are t r o u b l i n g you and mark the space below the numbers of those items on the answer sheet. 2. The items are numbered from 25. 1 to 90. 5. i n the b o o k l e t and on the answer sheet. T h i s means t h a t you l e a v e one complete l i n e from l e f t to r i g h t blank on the answer sheet between P a r t I and P a r t I I . 3. The numbers on the answer sheet go from l e f t to r i g h t a c r o s s the page. 4. The items i n the b o o k l e t are i n groups of f i v e and these groups are numbered from l e f t to r i g h t a c r o s s both page two and t h r e e . Open the b o o k l e t and l o o k . 5. Read a c r o s s both page two and three answering i n columns 1, 2, 3, & 4 u s i n g the numbers of the items i n the b o o k l e t as they are found on the answer sheet f o r items 25. 1. to 68. 5. 6. On page f o u r the items i n the b o o k l e t are i n groups of f i v e and these are numbered from l e f t to r i g h t a c r o s s the page. Use a l l f o u r columns from item 69. 1. to 90. 5. f o r page f o u r . Use the number  on the answer sheet which i s the same as the number i n the b o o k l e t 7 7. Answer as f o l l o w s : example 1. — I f 25. 2. and 25. 4. were t r o u b l i n g you, you would mark the answer sheet as f o l l o w s . ( T h i s i s how the statements l o o k i n the b o o k l e t . ) ( T h i s i s how you would mark the answer sheet.) 25. 1. Being underweight 2. Being overweight 3. Not g e t t i n g enough e x e r c i s e 4. G e t t i n g s i c k too o f t e n 5. T i r i n g v ery e a s i l y 25 example 2.— I f none of the items i n number 90 were t r o u b l i n g you, you would leave that p a r t of the answer sheet blank. ( T h i s i s how the statements l o o k i n the booklet.) 90. 1. School a c t i v i t i e s p o o r l y organized 2. Students not g i v e n enough r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 3. Not enough s c h o o l s p i r i t 4. Lunch hour too s h o r t 5. Poor Assemblies ( T h i s i s how you would leav e the answer sheet.) 90 Lake a mark f o r each item t h a t i s t r o u b l i n g you, but do not make a mark f o r any item t h a t i s not t r o u b l i n g you. bTART AT ITEM 25. 1. ON THE ANSWER SHEET AND IN THE BOOKLET, I f you mark an item that i s not t r o u b l i n g you, erase the mark f o r t h a t item completely. APPROXIMATELY 35 MINUTES HAVE BEEN MADE AVAILABLE FOR THIS SECTION. 1'l.uiASE WORK AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE. THANKYOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION. IKPORTAUTt Read a c r o s s both page two and three ' and answer i n the a p p r o p r i a t e column on the answer sheet. page 2 Being underweight Being overweight Not getting enough exercise Getting sick too often Tiring very easily Needing to learn how to save money Not knowing how to spend my money wisely Having less money than my friends have Having to ask parents for money Having no regular allowance (or income) Slow in getting acquainted with people Awkward in meeting people Being ill at ease at social affairs Trouble in keeping a conversation going Unsure of my social etiquette Having dates Awkward in making a date Not mixing well with the opposite sex Not being attractive to the opposite sex Not being allowed to have dates Getting into arguments Hurting people's feelings Being talked about Being made fun of Being "different" Losing my temper Taking some things too seriously Being nervous Getting excited too easily Worrying Not going to church often enough Not living up to my ideal Puzzled about the meaning of God Doubting some of the religious things I'm told Confused on some of my religious beliefs Worried about a member of the family Sickness in the family Parents sacrificing too much for me Parents not understanding me Being treated like a child at home Unable to enter desired vocation Doubting the wisdom of my vocational choice Needing to know my vocational abilities Doubting I can get a job in my chosen vocation Wanting advice on what to do after high school Missing too many days of school Being a grade behind in school Adjusting to a new school Taking the wrong subjects Not spending enough time in study Having no suitable place to study at home Familv not understanding what I have to do in school Wanting subjects not offered by the school Made to take subjects I don't like Subjects not related to everyday life 26, 30. 34, 38. 42, 46, 50. 54. 58, 62, 66, 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3.. 4. -5. -1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 Frequent headaches Weak eyes Often not hungry for my meals Not eating the right food Gradually losing weight Too few nice clothes Too little money for recreation Family worried about money Having to watch every penny I spend Having to quit school to work Not enough time for recreation Not enjoying many things others enjoy Too little chance to read what I like Too little chance to get out and enjoy nature Wanting more time to myself No suitable places to go on dates Not knowing how to entertain on a date Too few dates Afraid of close contact with the opposite sex Embarrassed by talk about sex Wanting a more pleasing personality Not getting along well with other people Worrying how I impress people Too easily led by other people Lacking leadership ability 1 Daydreaming 1 Being careless , Forgetting things Being lazy Not taking some things seriously enough Parents making me go to church Disliking church services Doubting the value of worship and prayer Wanting to feel close to God Affected by racial or religious prejudice Not living with my parents Parents separated or divorced Father or mother not living Not having any fun with mother or dad Feeling I don't really have a home • Needing to decide on an occupation . Needing to know more about occupations . Restless to get out of school and into a job Can't see that school work is doing me any good Want to be on my own • • Not really interested in books • Unable to express myself well in words . Vocabulary too limited Trouble with oral reports Afraid to speak up in class discussions • ' Textbooks too hard to understand • Teachers too hard to understand > So often feel restless in classes , Too little freedom in classes Not enough discussion in classes Page 1 . 2. 3. 4. p. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3 • 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 1 . 2. i . 4. 3 1 . 2. 3 • 4. Not as strong and healthy as I should be Not getting enough outdoor air and sunshine Not getting enough sleep Frequent colds Frequent sore throat Wanting to earn some of my own money Wanting to buy more of my own things Needing money for education after high school Needing to find a part-time job now Needing a job during vacations Nothing interesting to do in my spare time Too little chance to go to shows Too little chance to enjoy radio or television Too little chance to pursue a hobby Nothing interesting to do in vacation Disappointed in a love affair Girl friend Boy friend Deciding whether to go steady Wondering if I'll find a suitable mate Slow in making friends Being timid or shy Feelings too easily hurt Getting embarrassed too easily Feeling inferior Moodiness, "having the blues" Trouble making up my mind about things Afraid of making mistakes Too easily discouraged Sometimes wishing I'd never been born Wondering how to tell right from wrong Confused on some moral questions Parents old-fashioned in their ideas Wanting to understand more about the Bible Wondering what becomes of people when they die Being criticized by my parents .Parents favoring a brother or sister Mother Father Death in the family Choosing best subjects to take next term Choosing best subjects to prepare for college Choosing best subjects to prepare for a job Getting needed training for a given occupation Wanting to learn a trade Not getting studies done on time Not liking school Not interested in some subjects Can't keep my mind on my studies Don't know how to study effectively Not enough good books in the library Too much work required in some subjects Not allowed to take some subjects I want Not getting along with a teacher School is too strict 28. 32. 36. 40. 44. 48. 52. 56. 60. 64. 68. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 .. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Poor complexion or skin trouble Poor posture Too short Too tall Not very attractive physically Living too far from school Relatives living with us Not having a room of my own Having no place to entertain friends Having no car in the family Not being allowed to use the family car Not allowed to go around with the people I like So often not allowed to go out at night In too few student activities Too little social life Being in love Loving someone who doesn't love me Deciding whether I'm in love Deciding whether to become engaged Needing advice about marriage Being criticized by others Being called "high-hat" or "stuck-up" Being watched by other people Being left out of things Having feelings of extreme loneliness Afraid to be left alone Too easily moved to tears Failing in so many things I try to do Can't see the value of most things I do Unhappy too much of the time Can't forget some mistakes I've made Bothered by ideas of heaven and hell Afraid God is going to punish me Troubled by the bad things other kids do Being tempted to cheat in classes Being an only child Not getting along with a brother or sister Parents making too main decisions for me Parents not trusting me Wanting more freedom at home Deciding whether or not to go to college Needing to know more about colleges Needing to decide on a particular college Afraid I won't be admitted to a college Afraid I'll never be able to go to college Trouble with mathematics Weak in writing Weak in spelling or grammar Trouble in outlining or note taking Trouble in organizing papers and reports Classes too dull Teachers lacking personality Teachers lacking interest in students Teachers not friendly to students Not getting personal help Iroin the teachers TTTI?N T1-TR PAP.V. 71 . 73. 75. 77. 79. 69. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3.! 5.1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 85 . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1.! ^ 4.1 1.1 2.1 3.' 4. 5. 8 1 . 83. 87. 89 . Trouble with my hearing Speech handicap (stuttering, etc.) Allergies (hay fever, asthma, hives, etc.) Glandular disorders (thyroid, lymph, etc.) Menstrual or female disorders Parents working too hard Not having certain conveniences at home Not liking the people in my neighborhood Wanting to live in a different neighborhood Ashamed of the home we live in Wanting to learn how to dance Wanting to learn how to entertain Wanting to improve myself culturally Wanting to improve my appearance Too careless with my clothes and belongings Going with someone my family won't accept Afraid of losing the one I love Breaking up a love affair Wondering how far to go with the opposite sex j Wondering if I'll ever get married Wanting to be more popular Disliking someone Being disliked by someone Avoiding someone I don't like Sometimes acting childish or immature Being stubborn or obstinate Tending to exaggerate too much Having bad luck Not having any fun Lacking self-confidence Sometimes lying without meaning to Swearing, dirty stories Having a certain bad habit Being unable to break a bad habit Lacking self-control Clash of opinions between me and my parents Talking back to my parents Parents expecting too much of me Wanting love and affection ; Wishing I had a different family background Lacking training for a job Lacking work experience Afraid of unemployment after graduation Doubting ability to handle a good job Don't know how to look for a job Don't like to study Poor memory Slow in reading Worrying about grades Worrying about examinations Teachers not considerate of students' feelings Teachers not practicing what they preach Tco many poor teachers Grades unfair as measures of ability Unfair tests 70. 72. 74 . 1. 2 . 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 0 . 62 . 84 . 86 . 88 . 90. Poor teeth Nose or sinus trouble Smoking Trouble with my feet Bothered by a physical handicap Borrowing money Working too much outside of school hours Working for most of my own expenses Getting low pay for my work Disliking my p a n t fob 76. 78. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4 . 5 . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Too little chance to do what I want to do Too little chance to get into sports No good place for sports around fans 1 Acting skill in sports and gaiws Not rata* my IrjMuc rJsjfeB v o l Thinking too much about sex matters Concerned over proper sex behavior Finding it hard to control sex urges Worried about sex diseases Needing information about sex matters Being too envious or jealous Speaking or acting without thinking Feeling that nobody understands me Finding it hard to talk about my troubles No one to tell my troubles to Too many personal problems Having memories of an unhappy childhood Bothered by bad dreams Sometimes bothered by thoughts of fastwity Thoughts of suicide Sometimes not being as honest as 1 should be Getting into trouble Giving in to temptations Having a troubled or guilty oonnienfje Being punished for something I didn't do Friends not welcomed at home Family quarrels Unable to discuss certain problems at home Wanting to leave home Not telling parents everything Not knowing what I really want Needing to plan ahead for the future Family opposing some of my plans Afraid of the future Concerned about military service Getting low grades Just can't get some subjects Not smart enough Afraid of failing in school work Wanting to quit school School activities poorly organized Students not given enough responsibility Not enough school spirit Lunch hour too short Poor assemblies Qheek P a r t I. .DATE. .CIT Y_ .GRADE OR AGE. CLASS. -SEX. M OR F .INSTRUCTOR. .DATE OF BIRTH-NAME OF TEST -PART-DIRECTIONS! Read each question and its numbered answers. When you have decided which answer is correct, blacken the corresponding space on this sheet with a No. 2 pencil. Make your mark as long as the pair of lines, and completely fill the area between the pair of lines. If you change your mind, erase your first mark COMPLETELY. Moke no stray marks', they may count against you. 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S05 WHICH CAN BE USED IN IBM 805 FORM NO. IOOOA 155 AND IOOOB 108. LIEU OF PRINTED IN U. S. A. -57-APPENDIX i i i ADMINISTRATION INSTRUCTIONS TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE  PIQUETTE * ANDERSON RESEARCH" TWO HAYS BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATION OP THE INVENTORY: 1• Please announce at each announcement period between now and test time that a l l students must bring to the class i n which the inventories w i l l be administered, two H.B. or #2 pencils and an eraser. I f a reason i s to be given, state that, "A survey designed to help educators gain information which w i l l enable them to work towards improving the school system i s to be administered." BEFORE GOING TO CLASS ON THE DAY OP ADMINISTRATION, PLEASE DO THE  FOLLOWING: 2« Take the envelopes of booklets and answer sheets from your mail boxes. 3. Check to see that you have a booklet and an answer sheet f o r each student i n your cl a s s . Names w i l l be attached to the answer sheets. 4. Obtain extra pencils from the o f f i c e . 5. Be i n the class before the period starts as the time scheduled provides us with a minimum of time. (NOTE:ORAL INSTRUCTIONS ARE TO BE IN GLASS PLEASE DO THE FOLLOWING: GIVEN OVER THE P. A. SYSTEM) 0. min. 6. Check to see that a l l students have pencils and erasers, and hand out extra pencils to those students who do not have p e n c i l s . Keep a record of those students who borrow pen c i l s . No electrographic pencils are to be used. 7« Hand out booklets and answer sheets to the students according to the names on the answer sheets. NO STUDENT IS TO USE AN ANSWER  SHEET OTHER THAN THE ONE WITH HIS OR HER NAME ON IT. r — : 15 minutes f o r # 6&7) 5. min. 8. Read the following: GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS The two sets of items which you have i n the booklet before you are not meant to be a t e s t . They are part of a research project which i s intended to help educators improve schools, Please avoid f a l s i f y i n g your answers as t h i s w i l l mean that you do not wish to have your opinions or feelings considered. In no way w i l l the researchers be able to i d e n t i f y you as an i n d i v i d u a l once you have removed your name tag from the answer sheet. Please do not remove the name tag u n t i l instructed to do so. Name tags have been attached so that the researchers can keep a record of those who have not answered the inventory. This i s important f o r compiling accurate research data. Please do not write your name or any other i d e n t i f y i n g information on the answer sheet. Make no stray marks on the answer sheet. ; 9« Read aloud from the booklet the instructions f o r Part I, as the students follow i n t h e i r booklets. Say, "Follow the instructions • f o r Part I as I read them to you." ( 3 m i n u t e s f o r # 8&9) 8 0min. 10. A l l o w t e n minutes f o r P a r t I . 11. When 7 minutes have e l a p s e d announce, "Three minutes r e m a i n f o r p a r t one." ( P l e a s e move around the room w a t c h i n g f o r s t u d e n t s who a r e a n s w e r i n g i m p r o p e r l y . ) 12. When t e n minutes have e l a p s e d , announce, "Stop and l i s t e n t o the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p e r t I I . F o l l o w the d i r e c t i o n s f o r p a r t I I on y o u r "booklet as I r e a d them." (10 minutes f o r # 10, 11, & 12) 8 min. 13« P l e a s e r e a d the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p a r t l l f r o m the "booklet. (3 minutes f o r # 13) :1 min. 14. A f t e r t e n minutes have passed s a y , "There a r e t w e n t y - f i v e minutes r e m a i n i n g . " 15. A f t e r twenty minutes have passed s a y , "There a r e f i f t e e n m inutes r e m a i n i n g . 16. A f t e r t h i r t y minutes have passed s a y , "There a r e f i v e m inutes r e m a i n i n g . " 17. A t the end o f the c l a s s s a y , " P l e a s e remove your name t a g fr o m the answer sheet w i t h o u t t e a r i n g o r damaging the answer s h e e t . The l a s t p e r s o n i n each row c o l l e c t the answer s h e e t s . The f i r s t p e r s o n i n each row c o l l e c t the "booklets. A l l t h o s e who "borrowed p e n c i l s p l e a s e r e t u r n them t o me ( t h e t e a c h e r ) as you l e a v e . W a i t u n t i l I check y o u r name of the l i s t when you r e t u r n y o u r p e n c i l . " 18. Check t o see t h a t a l l p e n c i l s have been r e t u r n e d . 19. P l a c e the answer s h e e t s and the b o o k l e t s i n the e n v e l o p e s , and r e t u r n them and the p e n c i l s t o the o f f i c e y o u r s e l f . , ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 34 t o 39 minutes f o r # 14 t o 19) ?0 t o 60 minutes THANKYOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION H i l l s i d e Secondary School March 9 1970 THE PIQUBTTE -ANDERSON BESHAECH PROJECT w w n j w t — • w n T n w i i N»iimwii'*ii> i i w n » n < m > < I » I W I » " H M mn>' ' m . t i i i iniia mn i i »ni w« » i m u m H I U M The following changes are to be ©sde in the Teachers* Instructions f o r fchie Project: 7 - no change Sections 1 <° Section 8 Section 9 Sections 10 - 11 Section 12 Section 13 Section Ik - 18 » to be read over the P*Ae to pornit an explanation concerning coding© « to be read by the HH teacher including the instructions on Page (a) - allow a M ^ H E of &en ®inuto® 6 Ba sure to draw stua®nts~¥tt©ntlon to fen© fact; that the Answer sheet raoves Horizontally not v e r t i c a l l y that Answers l92tJ9k are h o r i z o n t a l l y on the 1st l i n e . Answers 5&697*8 ho r i z o n t a l l y on the second and so on. - Instruct students to f o l d t h e i r papers e put down t h e i r p e n c i l and s i t quietly i f they f i n i s h before the end of 10 min,, - At the end of 10 minutes OH %hen a l l students are f i n i s h e d carry on to Part 12„ - As given - Read the Instruction on Page 1 f o r Part 11« - Emphasize that students are to begin Part 11 with Answer 25» Inform students t h a t 9 a f t e r they have completed a l l questions and checked t h e i r answers* they ' may turn i n t h e i r answer sheets s and study qu i e t l y f o r the r e s t of the period,, Tear o f f the nans tags as the papers are brought i n , - As given f o r those students who have not turned i n papers before the maximum time allotment of 35 minutes* Section 19 When a l l papers have been c o l l e c t e d complete Send papers to o f f i c e as an i n d i c a t i o n that you are complete. - 5 8 -APPENDIX i v IDENTIFICATION CODES -59-A grade t e n , male, s t u -dent l e a d e r , with C+ or b e t t e r i n more than 50% of h i s courses and a t t e n -d i n g H i l l s i d e S c h o o l . D E N T I F I C A T I O N N U M B E R 3 6 Hot? 1, Behavior Groups 0 - Student Leader 1 - C o n t r o l 2 - Deviant Row 2, Achievement Groups 0 - Student Leader C+ or b e t t e r 1 - Student Leader with l e s s than C+ 2 - Deviant, more than D 3 - Deviant, l e s s than D Row 3, Sex 0 - Male 1 - Female Row k% Grade l e v e l 0 - grade 3 1 - grade 9 2 - grade 10 3 - grade 11 k - grade 12 Row 5. S c h o o l 0 - S e n t i n e l 1 - H i l l s i d e 2 - West Vanvouver -60-APPENDIX v LEADER QUESTIONNAIRE -61-SEX, NAME DIVISION .... SCHOOL Please note your membership i n any sc h o o l c l u b , o r g a n i z a t i o n , team or student c o u n c i l and your p o s i t i o n , i f any. 1. NAME OF CLUB (Drama, Scie n c e , e t c . ) POSITION HELD (Pres. S e c t . e t c . ) 2. NAME OF ORGANIZATION (Annual, N ears paper, e t c . ) POSITION HELD ( e d i t o r , a r t d i r e c t o r , e t c .) 3. TEAMS; NAME OF TEAM ( b a s k e t b a l l , e t c . ) POSITION HELD ( c a p t a i n , coach, e t c . ) if. STUDENT COUNCIL POSITION HELD (Pres. C l a s s Rep., Committee et -62-APT'ENDIX v i ANALYSIS OP VARIANCE TABLES I. Behavior groups, sex, grade l e v e l s and s c h o o l . I I . Leader-Achievement. I I I . Deviant-Achievement. Table I ANALYSIS OP VARIANCE OF BEHAVIOR GROUPS. SEX, GRADE LEVELS AND SCHOOL ON THE PURPOSE IN LIFE TEST ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TABLE SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES D.F. MEAN SQUARE F MEAN 4939165.74304 1 4939165.00000 43064.21875 GROUPS 7019.52874 2 3509.76367 30.60136 *** GROUPS 1 x 2 2507.46735 1 2507.46729 21.86241 *** GROUPS 1 x 3 6994.41716 1 6994.41406 60.98378 *«* GROUPS 2 x 3 3853.50370 1 3853.50366 33.59840 *** SEX 316.51979 1 316.51978 2.75971 + GRADES 9647.12964 4 2411.78223 21.02815 *** GRADES 10 x 11 50.72246 1 50.72246 0.44225 GRADES 10 x 12 410.84925 1 410.84912 3.58216 GRADES 11 x 12 182.12483 1 182.12483 1.58793 GRADES 8 x 9 236.31731 1 236.31731 2.06043 GRADES 8 x 10 6059.86399 1 6059.86328 52.83549 *** GRADES 8 x 11 5028.21239 1 5028.21094 43.84059 *** GRADES 8 x 12 3018.21380 1 3018.21362 26.31558 *** GRADES 9 x 10 3887.72331 1 3887.72314 33.89677 *** GRADES 9 x 11 3055.09403 1 3055.09399 26.63713 *** GRADES 9 x 12 1590.44138 1 1590.44116 13.86694 **< SCHOOL 123.97679 2 61.98839 0.54047 GRADE x SCHOOL 2187.04446 8 273.38037 2.38358 * GROUP x SEX x GRADE 1505.50477 8 188.18808 1.64080 ERROR ** Signifi 335247.70135 -00/ cant at .01 2923 114.69301 * Significant at .05 t Significant at .10 i Table I I ANALYSIS OP VARIANCE OF LEADER-ACHIEVEMENT GROUPS ON THE PIL ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TABLE SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES D.F. MEAN SQUARE F MEAN 1599134.45441 1 1599134.00000 19919.30469 ACH. a x b 33.25912 1 33.25911 0.41429 SEX 15.01178 1 15.01178 0.18699 GRADE 839.59418 4 209.89850 2.61456 * ACH. x SEX 0.76636 1 0.76636 0.00955 ACH. x GRADE 437.06493 4 109.26617 1.36105 SEX x GRADE 237.19693 4 59.29922 0.73865 ACH. x SEX x GRADE 324.73100 4 81.18274 1.01124 ERROR 28419.34007 354 80.28061 ** S i g n i f i cant a t .01 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 1 Table I I I ANALYSIS OF THE DEVIANT-AChIKVEMKNT GROUPS ON PIL  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TABLE SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES D.F. MEAN SQUARE — — — — — — — i F MEAN ACH. c x d SEX GRADE ACH. x SEX ACH. x GRADE SEX x GRADE ACU. x SEX x GRADE ERROR ** S i g n i f i * S i g n i f i \ S i g n i f i 485621.57528 158.13584 96.30973 1166.98408 154.65761 953.01818 1059.09482 6b6.57265 23412.92975 cant at .01 cant a t .05 cant at .10 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 4 4 170 485621.56250 158.13583 96.30972 291.74585 154.65761 238.25452 264.77368 166.64313 137.72311 3526.07153 1.14822 0.69930 2.11835 + 1.12296 1.72995 1.92251 1.20999 - 6 6 -'PENDIX v i i PIL ITEM .MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL POPULATION -67-PIL ITEM MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL POPULATION VARIABLE NAME N SUM X SUM X2 MEAN S.D. PI 3245 1.1394 4.2944 3.511 0.951 P2 3245 1.1294 4.2906 3.480 1.053 P3 3245 1.2784 5.3276 3.940 0.947 P4 3245 1.2353 5.0091 3.807 0.972 P5 3245 1.0892 4.1082 3.357 1.181 P6 3245 1.2035 4.7267 3.709 0.901 P7 3245 1.3955 6.3571 4.300 1.047 P8 3245 1.0353 3.6285 3.190 1.002 P9 3245 1.1974 4.6760 3.690 0.891 PIO 3245 1.1178 4.3450 3.445 1.235 P l l 3245 9.4070 3.3839 2.899 1.423 P12 3245 9.0660 3.0138 2.794 1.218 P13 3245 1.2040 4.7612 3.710 0.952 P14 3245 1.0079 3.6855 3.106 1.308 PI 5 3245 1.0794 4.1108 3.326 1.266 P16 3245 1.2890 5.6812 3.972 1.315 P17 3245 1.1893 4.7217 3.665 1.058 P18 3245 1.1434 4.5338 3.524 1.248 P19 3245 1.0310 3.6642 3.177 1.094 P20 3245 1.1820 4.6464 3.643 1.025 - 6 8 -APPENDIX v i i i PIL ITEM CORRELATION CLUSTER ANALYSIS FOR TOTAL POPULATION -69-PIL ITEM CORRELATION CLUSTER ANALYSIS FOR TOTAL POPULATION ITEM ORDR NAME REPL MEAN ENTR AVG TOT AVG ENTR ORDR ORDR SPEC I P7 NO 4.300 0.157 0.153 18 ***# 2 PI 6 NO 3.972 0.234 0.214 14 **## 3 P3 NO 3.940 0.521 0.225 1 **#* 4 P4 NO 3.807 0.348 0.281 4 **** 5 P13 NO 3.710 0.161 0.155 17 ***# 6 P6 NO 3.709 0.293 0.255 8 *#** 7 P9 NO 3.690 0.321 0.293 5 ***# 8 P17 NO 3.665 0.399 0.250 3 *#** 9 P20 NO 3.642 0.521 0.304 2 **** 10 PI 8 NO 3.524 0.175 0.170 16 •*### 11 PI NO 3.511 0.289 0.240 12 **•*•«• 12 P2 NO 3.480 0.286 0.262 10 **** 13 P10 NO 3.445 0.298 0.263 7 #*** 14 P5 NO 3.356 0.296 0.249 11 *#*# 15 P8 NO 3.190 0.306 0.236 6 ***# 16 P19 NO 3.177 0.289 0.266 9 **** 17 P14 NO 3.106 0.133 0.133 19 ***# 18 P l l NO 2.899 0.248 0.228 13 **** 19 PI 2 NO 2.794 0.223 0.208 15 **** AVERAGE CORRELATION WITH ALL ITEMS IN SCALE = 0.231 Un c l u s t e r e d item = R1.5 ENTR AVG = average c o r r e l a t i o n of the item with p r e v i o u s item i n s c a l e TOT AVG = average c o r r e l a t i o n of the item with a l l items i n the s c a l e -70-'ENDIX i x PIL ITEM CORRELATION MATRIX PIL ITEM CORRELATION MATRIX PI P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 PIO P l l P2 0.3611 P3 0.1963 0.1938 P4 0.3208 0.2948 0.3043 1 ' 0.3437 0.4681 0.1862 0.3052 P6 0.2612 0.3172 0.1994 0.3554 0.2861 P7 0.1830 0.1670 0.1637 0.1797 0.1861 0.1438 P8 0.1886 0.2291 0.3340 0.2619 0.2199 0.2446 0.1341 P9 0.3851 0.3870 0.2458 0.3984 0.3670 0.4148 0.1563 0.2882 PIO 0.2682 0.2934 0.1784 0.3533 0.2966 0.3291 0.1520 0.3007 0.3876 P l l 0.1837 0.2391 0.1862 0.2994 0.2121 0.2346 0.1292 0.2397 0.2478 0.2914 P12 0.1682 0.2066 0.2113 0.2432 0.1873 0.2022 0.1327 0.2289 0.2084 0.2267 0.3121 P13 0.1537 0.1180 0.2048 0.1757 0.1048 0.1471 0.1353 0.1838 0.1492 0.1647 0.1206 P14 0.1231 0.1700 0.0634 0.1194 0.1524 0.1290 0.0780 0.1138 0.1570 0.1674 0.1532 P15 0.0383 0.0581 0.0308 0.0642 0.0512 -0.0791 0.0402 0.0552 0.0479 0.0739 0.1088 P16 0.1776 0.1933 0.1474 0.2726 0.1797 0.2977 0.1401 0.1842 0.3118 0.2702 0.2822 P17 0.2419 0.2455 0.3311 0.3367 0.2213 0.2296 0.2017 0.2561 0.2937 0.2451 0.2556 P18 0.1502 0.2200 0.1814 0.1401 0.1518 0.2210 0.0950 0.1444 0.1915 0.16 14 0.1246 P19 0.3316 0.3337 0.2104 0.2938 0.3593 0.2925 0.1840 0.2982 0.3456 0.3135 0.2431 P20 0.2756 0.2776 0.5208 0.4030 0.2556 0.2788 0.1874 0.3885 0.3450 0.3239 0.3450 ' P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 ? P19 ' i l i j P13 0.1447 P14 0.1738 0.0762 P15 0.1300 0.0577 0.0829 P16 0.2279 0.1268 0.1646 -0.0384 i i P17 0.2202 0.1758 0.1224 0.0888 0.2030 i P18 Q.1681 0.1776 0.1662 0.0249 0.1447 0.2100 P19 0.2222 0.2147 0.1385 0.0913 0.2448 0.2473 0.2032 P20 0.2608 0.2129 0.1363 0.0759 0.2805 0.4669 0.2071 0.3065 APPENDIX x PIL ITEM MEANS, S.D.'s, SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS PIL ITEM MEANS. S.D.'S. SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS VARIABLE COUNT MEAN S.D. MIN. MAX. COUNT COUNT SKEW. KURT. NAi>fE NO MD CODE CODE M.D.I M.D.2 3RD 4TH PI 2949 3.51 0.95 1 5 0 0 -0.837 -0.083 P2 2949 3.47 1.06 1 5 0 0 -0.802 -0.274 P3 2949 3.95 0.95 1 5 0 0 -1.025 0.815 P4 2949 3.77 0.97 1 5 0 0 -0.753 0.261 P5 2949 3.34 1.18 1 5 0 0 -0.408 -0.934 P6 2949 3.70 0.91 1 5 0 0 -0.740 0.667 P7 2949 4.29 1.05 1 5 0 0 -1.667 2.163 P8 2949 3.17 1.01 1 5 0 0 -0.458 -0.607 P9 2949 3.67 0.90 1 5 0 0 -0.734. 0.345 PIO 2949 3.42 1.25 1 5 0 0 -0.416 -0.891 P l l 2949 2.84 1.42 1 5 0 0 0.048 -1.347 P12 2949 2.77 1.22 1 5 0 0 0.127 -1.031 PI 3 2949 3.72 0.95 1 5 0 0 -0.795 0.444 P14 2949 3.06 1.32 1 5 0 0 -0.888 -1.245 PI 5 2949 3.26 1.25 1 5 0 0 -0.252 -0.933 P16 2949 3.92 1.34 1 5 0 0 -0.917 -0.539 P17 2949 3.64 1.06 1 5 0 0 -0.674 -0.041 P18 2949 3.61 1.20 1 5 0 0 -0.693 -0.469 P19 2949 3.15 1.09 1 5 0 0 -0.260 -0.742 P20 2949 3.62 1.03 1 5 0 0 -0.732 0.089 PIL TOTAL 2949 69.89 11.03 20 100 0 0 -0.490 0.322 -75-APPENDIX x i F i g u r e 1. Index of R e l a t i o n Between Group Membership and Scores on the Purpose i n L i f e Test F i g u r e 2. PIL Scores of Leader, Normal and Deviant Students F i g u r e 3. PIL Scores f o r Student Leaders, High and Low A c h i e v e r s F i g u r e 4. PIL Scores f o r Deviant Students with Passing and F a i l i n g Achievement -76-55 50 Behavior Groups Deviant Normal Leader F i g u r e I: Index of R e l a t i o n Between Group Membership and Scores on the Purpose i n L i f e T e s t . E = .95 (E =\/—|) Exf -77-75 70 PIL 65 Scores 60 55 -A - - — ~K 8 11 12 Figure I I : 9 10 Grade Levels PIL Scores of Leader, Normal, and Deviant Students, Legend Leaders Normals Deviants - 7 8 -80 75 PIL Scores 70 65 8 11 12 9 10 Grade L e v e l s F i g u r e I I I : PIL Scores f o r Student Leaders, High and Low A c h i e v e r s Legend C+ and Higher Less than C+ -79-70 50 8 9 10 11 12 Grade L e v e l s F i g u r e IV: PIL Scores f o r Deviant Students with Passing and F a i l i n g Achievement. Legend P a s s i n g F a i l i n g - 8 0 -APPENDIX x i i COMPUTER PROGRAM BMDX64 UBC BMDX.64 Subject Codes: 13.6, 13.7, 13.2 GENERAL LINEAR HYPOTHESIS Implemented from the UCLA BMD Package by B i l l Coshow The University of Br i t i sh Columbia Computing Centre March 1971 UBC BMDX64 UBC APPENDIX This appendix includes the modifications, extensions and/or restrictions to this program as implemented on the 360/67 at UBC. Headings and subheadings in the appendix correspond directly to those used in the main write-up, which is attached. Page references to the main write-up are also included. 2. ORDER OF CARDS IN JOB DECK (page 2) a. Systems Cards The first three system cards are as follows: i . Request for Service Card i i . $SIG ID number i i i . Password The fourth system card, the $RUN card, varies according to where the user has his data stored, and where he would like his output to go. The program always expects to read control cards (i.e. 2(a) to 2(d) and 2(f) to the $SIGN0FF card) from unit 5, and to write the output on unit 6. If not otherwise specified on the $RUN card, these units will be the card reader and the printer respectively; so if the user has his data on cards the fourth system card for a batch run would be $RUN *BMDX64 If the user has. his data in a file called DATA and his control cards on cards, then column 22 of the PROBLM card must contain a number n (n^l ,5 and n<9). The number, n, refers to a file referenced by the $RUN card. • The fourth system card would look like this, if the user put a 4 in column 22 of the PROBLM card: $RUN *BMDX64 4=DATA If the user has his control cards in a file, CONTRL, and his data in a file called DATA, with a 7 in column 22 of the PROBLM card, the fourth system card would be: $RUN *BMDX64 5=C0NTRL 7=DATA If the data is stored on tape LI5, there is a 4 in column 22 of the PROBLM card and the output is to be put on file OUTPUT, then the fourth and fifth system cards would be: $RUN *M0UNT PAR=L159TP *DATA* RACK=RH0000 •' $RUN *BMDX64 4=*DATA* 6=0UTPUT UBC BMDX64 Page 2 f. Data INPUT Cards Each input record should contain one value for each variable. g. Finish Card Following the FINISH card there should be a $SIGN0FF card ($SIG in the first four columns is sufficient). Health Sciences Computing Facility University of California Los Angelee, California 90024 Paul Sampson Revised: February, 1968 BMDX64 GENERAL, LINEAR HYPOTHESIS G E N E R A L DESCRIPTION a. This program computes a linear regression and tests general linear hypotheses concerning the model. b. Dummy variables specifying the analysis of variance part of the design are generated by the program and tested automatically. c. Additional hypotheses stated in the form of linear restrictions on the regression coefficients may be tested. d. It has the option of using design cards. e. Allowance is made for unequal cells and unequal replicates. f. The program is written in FORTRAN IV using double-precision arithmetic. RESTRICTIONS a. t + q + max(h, 10) < 90 where t = number of dummy analysis of variance variable a generated q - number of covariates h - number of restrictions in the largest additional hypothesis b. p < 10 where p = number of analysis of variance indices ORDER OF THE INPUT DECK a. System Cards b. Problem Card c. Dummy Variable Cards ^ d. . D-type Variable Format Cards for the data e. Data Deck if data is on cards (f. ) . D-type Variable Format Card for the hypotheses BMDX64 Page 2 (g.) Hypothesis Cards (f. ) and (g. ) are required only for special types of hypotheses. Those tested automatically are: (i) Each analysis of variance component equal to zero (ii) Each covariate regression coefficient equal to zero (iii) A l l covariate regression coefficients equal to zero simultaneously. Repeat a. - (g. ) as desired h. Finish Card PROGRAM CONTROL CARDS b. Problem Card Col. 1-6 P R O B L M 7-12 Alphanumeric problem identification 13, 14 Number of covariates 15, 16 Number of analysis of variance components (dummy variable cards) Number of hypotheses in addition to those tested automatically Largest number of restrictions in any of the additional hypotheses Number of the alternate input tape if data is not on cards Number of variable format cards for the data If positive, this value is the number of observations (design cards are not used). If negative, this value is the number of cells (design cards are used). Number of analysis of variance indices (< 10) Number of levels of the first index Number of levels of the second index etc. if necessary 1 if design variables are specified on design card; 0 if cell indices are specified on design card; blank if design cards are not used. c. Dummy Variable Cards Each analysis of variance component is designated by the breakdown of its degrees of freedom, e.g. , 1-1, I(J-l). If there is no dependency in the model, the product of the non-zero numbers following Column 12 will be the degrees of freedom for the component. The constant term ia specified by blanks following Column 12. 17, 18 19, 20 21, 22 23 24-28 29, 30 31, 32 33, 34 35-50 51, 52 BMDX64 Page 3 Col. 1-6 DUMVAR 7-12 Alphanumeric name for this component 13, 14 Degrees of freedom attributed to the first index 15, 16 Degrees of freedom attributed to the second index 17, 18 etc. For example, for a crossed two-factor design where the factors I and J have 3 and 6 levels, respectively, the dummy variable cards would be: DUMVAR MEAN DUMVAR 1 2 ' DUMVAR J 5 DUMVAR I J 2 5 ' ' d. V a r i a b l e Format C a r d ( s ) f o r the D a t a The f o r m a t o f t h e i n p u t d a t a i s s p e c i f i e d w i t h ' a FORTRAN f o r m a t s p e c i f i c a -t i o n . T h i s c o n s i s t s o f a l e f t p a r e n t h e s i s i n column 1, f o l l o w e d by a sequence o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , and e n d i n g w i t h a r i g h t p a r e n t h e s i s . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c e s a r e s p e c i f i e d u s i n g I - f o r m a t code. The dependent v a r i a b l e ' and c o v a r i a t e s a r e s p e c i f i e d u s i n g F -format code. . Columns 73-80 may n o t be u s e d , b u t t h e f o r m a t may be c o n t i n u e d on up t o 10 c a r d s . Example: The i n p u t d a t a f o r a 2-way a n a l y s i s w i t h one c o v a r i a t e was p r e p a r e d w i t h t he i n d i c e s i n column 1 and column 3, t h e c o v a r i a t e i n columns 10-13, and t h e dependent v a r i a b l e i n columns 20-25. The fo r m a t c a r d was: . (I1,1X,I1,6X,F4.0,6X,F6.3) (e. ) D e s i g n C a r d ( s ) (1) Specification of design card(s) with design variables. Col. 1-6 DESIGN 7-9 Number of replicates 10-14 Value of the first design variable 15-19 Value of the second design variable 75-79 Value of the 14th design variable If there are more than 14 design variables, use additional design cards starting in Col. 10 and punching 14 values per card. • Note that the order of design variable for jth observation is U J 1 1,' J12 J K N r l ) J21 J2(N 2-1) T T J P ( N p - i ^ U i l ' U i l ' U i 2 ' •-• U i 2 ' U ' where N. denotes the number of levels of ith index, and P is the number of indices. BMDX64 Page 4 1-6 DESIGN 7-9 Number of replicates 10, 11 F i r s t analysis of variance index 12, 13 Second analysis of variance index 28, 29 10th analysis of variance index t Data Deck Each observation must be punched as specified in Section d above. If design card(s) are used, each observation is preceded by its design card. ) Variable Format Card for the Hypotheses One D-type variable format card specifying the t + q + 1 elements of one restriction. ) Hypotheses Cards Each hypotheses of the form t+q Y. a. B. = C. j = 1, 2 h i=l 1 - 1 is specified by a card (i) followed by a set of cards (ii) (i) Col. 1-6 HYPOTH 7-12 Alphanumeric name for this hypothesis 13-14 Number of restrictions (h) (ii) The h restrictions punched'according to the hypothesis! format card in the following order: f a i l a i 2 ••• ai,t+q ' C l *21 a 22 a2,t+q ' C 2 a h l a h2 . ah,t+q C h • a i l " ' ' a i t c o r r e B P o n c * t o *he variables generated by the dummy variable cards and a. ,,.. . a. correspond to the covariates. l , t+1 i , t+q F BMDX64 Page 5 OUTPUT ' a. Regression coefficients under each hypothesis and under no hypothesis. b. A tolerance factor for each matrix inversion required in (a) which may be used as an indication of the accuracy of the results. (See computational Procedure) c. Analysis of Variance table d. For each cell of the design the following is printed: (i) Dummy variables generated by the program. (ii) Predicted value of the dependent variable evaluated at the sample means of the covariates. These correspond to adjusted cell means if a full model is used; that is, if the number of cells is equal to the number of dummy variables. C O M PUTATIONAL PROCEDURE The basic model is the analysis of covariance model: 1 r y = y. +---+u + f? x + • • • + fl x + e 1 1 q q 1 p 1 p The variables i , i are called the analysis of variance indices, the 1 P variables x^, . . . , x are called the covariates and the variable y is called the dependent variable. The variables p.-3 = u J are called analysis of variance components. i, .... i P Each component is represented as a linear combination of dummy variables J = 0., v j l + • • • + fl. , v J d J Jl Jdj i l J d i th The dummy variables v , . . . , v for the j analysis of variance component are specified by means of the j*** Dummy Variable Card. th Let n denote the number of levels of the k index i, and let m., denote the k th th J value assigned to the k index on the j Dummy Variable Card. Let m., if m... i 0 d = * • Jk J 1 if m., = 0 (or blank) BMDX64 Page 6 Fo r i ^ = 1 and I = 1, . . . , d k let k k, t k, n jk k For i k = 1.... , d k and i k = l , . . . , n k let 3* • • • * _ L J k i , 1 P IT k v. . = u. V ' ^ p k=l Xk For each i this defines a set of d. = TT~ d., variables J k=l J k J r • • p J r P V * = V. . 1 ... 1 1 p For convenience we shall lexographically order these variables on i ...... ^  i p with j2 moving the fastest, £ the nesct fastest, etc. . and denote them by 1 ' iL j l j2 j d j v J , V , . . . , V th These are the dummy variables specified by the.j Dummy Variable Card and used to represent the j t n analysis of variance component uJ. The order of the entire set of variables is: the d^ variables for the first component, the d 2 variables of the second component, etc. , followed by the covariates in natural order. Let these be denoted by z^, z 2, • • • z s a n d t n e corresponding regression coefficients by ft" , y_, ... g" . Then the full linear model can be written as y = z. +•••+#" z + e 3 1 1 S 3 Least squares estimates of y , . . . , $ are obtained. An F-statistic is 1 s computed for each hypothesis of the form u*' = 0, j=l r and leaBt squares estimates of (f , , . . . , <>f under the hypothesis are obtained by eliminating 1 s the relevant variables. In addition, an F-statistic is obtained for each covariate. For each set of hypothesis cards an F-statistic for the hypothesis BMDX64 Page 7 S a fj = c i = 1, . . . , r is obtained. The values a.. , c. , r are opacified on the hvpotheoie cardo. - xj i * Each matrix inversion is performed by pivoting on diagonal elements. Let (k) th S be the matrix as it appears after the k pivot operation. The (k-i-l)at pivot element is selected so that r. = sf!^ / sf^' is a maximum. If the largest -12 i i i u. r. is smaller than 10 , the matrix ie assumed singular and the remaining vari.-_biuj are not used. The last value of r. for which the corresponding variable - n is included is printed as the tolerance. A tolerance of 10 indicates that roughly 16-n places of accuracy remain. E X A M P L E The model used in the test problem is: y_= u + a. + b. . + c,x, + c_x, + e i = 1, 2; j = l,2, 3 • i ij 1 1 2 2 . Stated as a regression problem this becomes 8 k=l k k The values of z^ through z^ generated for each cell of the deoign are indicated on the output, z-j and Z g are the covariates x^ and X £ . In this case, the predicted. cell values are the adjusted cell means. 

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