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Existing arrangements and procedures for generating and analyzing information : a comparative evaluation… Doyle, Brian Owen 1974

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EXISTING ARRANGEMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR GENERATING AND ANALYZING INFORMATIONi A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SEVERAL GREATER VANCOUVER REGIONAL DISTRICT PARK AND/OR RECREATION AGENCIES fey BRIAN OWEN DOYLE B. E. S. Unive r s i t y of Waterloo, 1 9 7 2 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS, i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 7 4 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f m y D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Community and Regional Planning T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e May 1. 1974 ABSTRACT One major task faced by public recreation planners i s the determination of the type, quantity and q u a l i t y of future rec-reation that w i l l be demanded. A second follow-up job involves the attempt to maximize user s a t i s f a c t i o n by providing adequate recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s while allowing f o r l i m i t a t i o n s i n both recreation resources and agency c a p a b i l i t y . Prerequisite to the successful completion of these two tasks i s the presence of a sound research framework that i s complemented by relevant information and proper analysis techniques. The major concern of t h i s thesis was to describe, i n some d e t a i l , the present state of r e c r e a t i o n a l planning i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . In p a r t i c u l a r , research was directed towards the assessment of e x i s t i n g arrangements and procedures f o r generating and analyzing-recreation information. Three major objectives were r e a l i z e d t (1) to evaluate the planning methodologies presently used i n the assessment of the supply and demand for recreation resources} (2) to assess the s u i t a b i l i t y and c a p a b i l i t y of public park and/or recreation agencies to undertake continuous, e f f i c i e n t and relevant rec-r e a t i o n a l planning} and (3) to propose changes i n the present arrangements and procedures for r e c r e a t i o n a l planning. The methodology used i n t h i s study followed two r e l a t e d and complementary steps. In the i n i t i a l phase, a 'comprehensive i recreation planning model' was developed. It consisted of three sub-models of i n v e s t i g a t i o n : demand, supply and demand-supply linkage analyses. The l a t t e r step focused on a comparative evaluation of the r e c r e a t i o n a l planning approach and the rec-reation agency i . e . i t ' s c a p a b i l i t y and s u i t a b i l i t y f o r research, for one regional and twelve municipal park and/or recreation agencies i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , v i a the 'comprehensive recreation planning model' and the seventy-seven c r i t e r i a that were used as indicators of q u a l i t y . Results of the comparative evaluation indicated s i g n i f i c a n t d e f i c i e n c i e s i n several aspects of the r e c r e a t i o n a l planning approaches currently being used. Major l i m i t a t i o n s i n the research c a p a b i l i t y of the recreation agencies were linke d to / inadequate research budgets, and to i n s u f f i c i e n t data generation and processing a b i l i t y . Further, the majority of agencies examined showed a need f o r more information regarding the rec-reation c l i e n t e l e i . e . t h e i r demands, preferences, degrees of preference, l e i s u r e time budgets, and t h e i r past education and experiences r e l a t e d to public recreation; and, the recreation resources i . e . land, f a c i l i t i e s and services by type, nature and quantity. i i A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I w o u l d f i r s t l i k e t o t h a n k I r v i n g K . F o x , P r o f e s s o r o f R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a n d D i r e c t o r o f t h e W a t e r R e s o u r c e s R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , f o r h i s h e l p i n d e f i n i n g t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s , a n d f u r t h e r , f o r h i s i d e a s o f t o p i c a p p r o a c h w h i c h w e r e f o u n d v e r y u s e f u l . I n a d d i t i o n , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k G o r d o n W. S t e a d , V i s i t -i n g P r o f e s s o r a t t h e S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , f o r h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s r e g a r d i n g v a r y i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e s i s p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d f o r m a t , a n d f o r h i s d i r e c t i o n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t o p i c d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i r d l y , m y t h a n k s a r e e x t e n d e d t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e t h i r t e e n s t u d y a r e a s . W h i t h o u t t h e i r g e n e r o s i t y o f t i m e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n , t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o e x p r e s s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o m y w i f e , P a m , w h o s p e n t m u c h o f h e r t i m e i n t h e p r o o f r e a d i n g a n d t y p i n g o f t h i s t e x t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i LIST OF GRAPHS v i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i i i LIST OF MAPS ix LIST OF TABLES x INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I LITERATURE SEARCH 11 CHAPTER II BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN THE PLANNING FOR FUTURE PUBLIC RECREATION 32 Recreation Demand Analysis 33 Recreation Supply Analysis 4 0 Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis 4 3 The Recreational Planning Model—Assembled . 4 3 CHAPTER III AN EVALUATION OF THE RECREATION DEMAND ANALYSIS USED BY THIRTEEN RECREATION AREAS IN THE GVRD 4 7 A. Terms Of Study Reference 4 8 B. Information Prerequisites 4 9 C. Information Source and Generation 54 D. Analysis Techniques 56 Conclusions . . 5 9 i v Page CHAPTER IV AN EVALUATION OF THE RECREATION SUPPLY ANALYSIS USED BY THIRTEEN AREAS IN THE GVRD 90 A. Information Prerequisites , 91 B. Analysis Techniques 94 C. Scope of the Supply Analysis 96 Conclusions 97 CHAPTER V AN EVALUATION OF THE RECREATION DEMAND-SUPPLY LINKAGE ANALYSIS USED BY THIRTEEN AREAS IN THE GVRD 122 Conclusions 123 CHAPTER VI AN EVALUATION OF TWELVE PARK AND/OR RECREATION AGENCIES IN THE GVRD 133 A. Attitude Towards Research 134 B. General Considerations 135 C. Appropriateness of the Recreation Agency to do Recreation Research 136 D. Capability of the Recreation Agency« Agency St a f f 138 Budget Considerations 139 Information Capability 142 Conclusions 144 CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 180 General Conclusions 185 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . 195 v Page APPENDICES 2 0 5 Appendix I Public Recreation and/or Park Agencies Surveyed .., 206 Appendix II Town And Community Park Space Standards For Several M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Within The GVRD 2 0 7 Appendix III Current Recreational Preferences ... 208 Appendix IV The Complete Park Systems GVRD .... 2 0 9 Appendix V Responsibility for Recreational A c t i v i t i e s and F a c i l i t i e s 210 Appendix VI Survey Description 211 Appendix VII Letter of Introduction sent to White Rock 214 Appendix VIII The Survey Document 216 Appendix IX Annual Per Capita P a r t i c i p a t i o n Days In Outdoor Recreation 2 3 2 v i LIST OF GRAPHS Graph Page I Canadian Populations Percentage Composition Of Rural And Urban Population 1851-2000 21 II Degree To Which 'Demand C r i t e r i a ' Have Been Met By The Study Group 6 l III Degree To Which 'Supply C r i t e r i a ' Have Been Met By The Study Group 99 IV Degree To Which The 'Agency Cr i t er ia ' Have Been Met By The Study Group 146 V Recreational Planning; Degree To Which The Seventy-Seven Quality Cr i t er ia Have Been Met By The Study Group.181 "^1 Recreational Planning Methodology! Degree To Which The Forty-Seven Quality Cr i t er ia Have Been Met By The Study Group I 8 3 v i i L I S T O F I L L U S T R A T I O N S I l l u s t r a t i o n P a g e I T h e O p t i m u m R e c r e a t i o n A r e a M a n a g e m e n t S i t u a t i o n . . 4 I I G e n e r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g A p p r o a c h e s 2 3 I I I R e c r e a t i o n A s A S y s t e m : T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y 2 9 I V R e c r e a t i o n A s A S y s t e m : 2 1 s t C e n t u r y M o d e l 3 0 V T h e R e c r e a t i o n C o n s u m p t i o n M o d e l 33 V I F o r c e s A n d V a r i a b l e s A f f e c t i n g T h e D e m a n d F o r R e c r e a t i o n 3 7 V I I D e m a n d A n a l y s i s S u b - S y s t e m 39 V I I I S u p p l y A n a l y s i s S u b - S y s t e m 41 I X D e m a n d - S u p p l y L i n k a g e A n a l y s i s S u b - S y s t e m 44 X T h e R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g M o d e l — A s s e m b l e d 46 v i i i LIST OF MAPS Map page I GVRD: M u n i c i p a l Boundary Map 9 i x LIST OF TABLES Table Page i GVRD« Range Of Population Forecast For 2001 19 i i Example of Comparative Opportunities Approach 2 7 i i i Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 1 62 i v Recreation Demand Analysis t C r i t e r i o n 2 63 v Recreation Demand Analysis 1 C r i t e r i o n 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 v i Recreation Demand Analysis 1 C r i t e r i o n 4 65 v i i Recreation Demand Analysis 1 C r i t e r i o n 5 • • • 66 v i i i Recreation Demand Analysis 1 C r i t e r i o n 6 67 i x Recreation Demand Analysis! C r i t e r i o n 7 68 x Recreation Demand Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 8 69 x i Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 9 7 ° x i i Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 10 71 x i i i Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 1 1 72 xiv Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 12 73 xv Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 1 3 74 x v i Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 14 75 x v i i Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 1 5 7 6 x v i i i Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 16 77 xix Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 1 7 78 xx Recreation Demand Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 18 79 x Table Page xxi Recreation Demand Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 19 80 x x i i Recreation Demand Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 20 81 x x i i i Recreation Demand Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 21 82 xxiv Recreation Demand Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 22 83 xxv Recreation Demand Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 23 .. 84 xxvi Recreation Demand Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 24 85 x x v i i Recreational Planning Methodology* Demand Analysis* Degree To Which The Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas 86 x x v i i i Recreational Planning Methodology* Demand Analysis* Degree To Which The Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas—By Percentage Degree And Rank 87 xxix Demand Analysis—Summary Table Of Aggregate Totals 88 xxx Recreation Supply Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 25 . . • • 1 0 0 xxxi Recreation Supply Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 26 101 x x x i i Recreation Supply Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 27 102 x x x i i i Recreation Supply Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 28 103 xxxiv Recreation Supply Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 29 104 xxxv Recreation Supply Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 30 105 xxxvi Recreation Supply Analysis * C r i t e r i o n 31 . . . . . . . . 106 x x x v i i Recreation Supply Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 32 . • • • • 1 0 7 x x x v i i i Recreation Supply Analysis* C r i t e r i o n 33 ••••108 xxxix Recreation Supply Analysis*. C r i t e r i o n 34 109 x l Recreation Supply Analysis» C r i t e r i o n 35 .110 x i Table Page x i i Recreation Supply Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 36 I l l x l i i Recreation Supply Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 37 112 x l i i i Recreation Supply Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 38 113 x l i v Recreation Supply Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 39 - 1 - 4 x i v Recreation Supply Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 40 115 x l v i Recreation Supply Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 41 116 x l v i i Recreation Supply Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 42 117 x l v i i i Recreation Supply Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 43 118 x l i x Recreational Planning Methodology: Supply Analysis: Degree To Which The Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas 119 1 Recreational Planning Methodology: Supply Analysis: Degree To Which The Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas—By Percentage Degree And Rank 12.0 l i Supply Analysis—Summary Table Of Aggregate Totals . 121 I i i Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 44 126 l i i i Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 45 127 l i v Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 46 128 l v Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis: C r i t e r i o n 47 129 l v i Recreational Planning Methodology: Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis: Degree To Which The Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas . 130 l v i i Recreational Planning Methodology: Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis: Degree To Which The Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study A r e a s — By Percentage Degree And Rank 131 ' I v i i i Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis—Summary Table Of Aggregate Totals 1 3 2 x i 1 Table Page l i x The Recreation Agencyi Attitude Towards Research i C r i t e r i o n 4 8 1 4 7 l x The Recreation Agency* Attitude Towards Research: C r i t e r i o n 4 9 1 4 8 l x i The Recreation Agency: General Considerations: C r i t e r i o n 50 1 4 9 l x i i The Recreation Agency: General Considerations: C r i t e r i o n 51 • 1 5 0 l x i i i The Recreation Agency: General Considerations: C r i t e r i o n 52 1 5 1 l x i v Appropriateness Of The Recreation Agency To Do Research: C r i t e r i o n 5 3 • 1 5 2 lxv Appropriateness Of The Recreation Agency To Do Research* C r i t e r i o n 5 ^ 153 l x v i Appropriateness Of The Recreation Agency To Do Research* C r i t e r i o n 5 5 • 1 5 ^ l x v i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Agency Staff* C r i t e r i o n 56 1 5 5 I x v i i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Agency Staff* C r i t e r i o n 5 7 1 5 6 l x i x Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Agency Staff* C r i t e r i o n 5 8 157 lxx Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Agency Staff* C r i t e r i o n 5 9 1 5 8 l x x i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Agency Staff* C r i t e r i o n 6 0 1 5 9 l x x i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Budget Considerations* C r i t e r i o n 6 1 1 6 0 l x x i i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Budget Considerations* C r i t e r i o n 6 2 1 6 1 l x x i v Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Budget Considerations* C r i t e r i o n 63 1 6 2 x i i i Table Page lxxv Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Budget Considerations! C r i t e r i o n 64 163 l x x v i Capability Of The Recreation Agency1 Budget Considerations 1 C r i t e r i o n 65 164 l x x v i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Budget Considerations 1 C r i t e r i o n 66 165 l x x v i i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency» Budget Considerations 1 C r i t e r i o n 67 166 l x x i x Capability Of The Recreation Agencyi Budget Considerations 1 C r i t e r i o n 68 167 lxxx Capability Of The Recreation Agency« Budget Considerations t C r i t e r i o n 69 168 l x x x i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Information Capability* C r i t e r i o n 70 I 6 9 l x x x i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Information Capability* C r i t e r i o n 71 170 l x x x i i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Information Capability* C r i t e r i o n 72 • 171 l x x x i v Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Information Capability* C r i t e r i o n 73 172 lxxxv Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Information Capability * C r i t e r i o n 74 173 lxxxvi Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Information Capability* C r i t e r i o n 75 174 l x x x v i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Information Capability* C r i t e r i o n 76 175 l x x x v i i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency* Information Capability* C r i t e r i o n 77 176 lxxxix Agency Evaluation—Summary Table Of Aggregate Totals 177 x i v Table Page xc Recreational Planning Methodology! Degree To Which The Forty-Seven Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas I89 x c i Recreational Planning Methodology! Degree To Which The Forty-Seven Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas—By Percentage Degree And Rank 190 x c i i The Park And/Or Recreation Agency: Degree To Which The Thirty Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas 191 x c i i i The Park And/Or Recreation Agency 1 Degree To Which The Thirty Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas-*- By Percentage Degree And Rank 192 xciv Summary Comparison: The Park And/Or Recreation Agency And The Recreational Planning Methodology* Degree To Which The Seventy-Seven Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas 193 xcv Summary Comparison* The Park And/Or Recreation Agency And The Recreational Planning Methodology* Degree To Which The Seventy-Seven Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas—By Percentage Degree And Rank 194 xv INTRODUCTION A major task of public recreational planning i s the determination of type, quantity and qual i t y of recreation that w i l l be demanded i n the future. A second task involves the attempt to maximize user s a t i s f a c t i o n by providing ade-quate recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s while allowing for li m i t a t i o n s i n both recreation resources and agency capabil-i t y . The extent of these recreational planning tasks can be s p e c i f i c a l l y viewed as» 1. the development of an adequate planning and research framework which w i l l be comprehensive i n that i t allows for investigation into the following s a l i e n t components of the recre a t i o n a l planning task: a. demand analysis i . e . to define the type, quantity and qual i t y of public recreation that w i l l be needed by a d i v e r s i t y of interests within the study population; b. supply analysis i . e . to define the type, nature and amount of both present and future, public and private, recreation resources that should be made available -1--2-to s a t i s f y estimated future recreation demands j c. demand-supply linkage analysis i . e . to define the relationships between supply and consumption or u t i l i z a t i o n of recre-ation resources and the factors which stimulate resource usage; and, d. to suggest the various future demand and supply combinations which may occur and to define p r a c t i c a l u t i l i z a t i o n rates given the l i m i t a t i o n s of» s p e c i f i c rec-reation needs and preferences of the pop-ulation, the s c a r c i t y of recreation re-sources available and, the p o l i c y con-s t r a i n t s found within the public recre-ation authority. 2. the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of relevant information needed i n the above research framework and the search f o r t h i s data; and, 3. the development of methods and techniques f o r the measurement, recording and assessment of the data that i s c o l l e c t e d . Because of the complexity of the recreational planning tasks faced by the public agencies and because of the degree of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of research and planning that would be necessary to e s t a b l i s h an optimum recreation area manage-ment s i t u a t i o n , few recreation agencies, i f any, have r e a l i z e d t h i s optimum s i t u a t i o n ( I l l u s t r a t i o n I ) . The major recre a t i o n a l planning and re l a t e d research e f f o r t s i n Canada and the United States have been i n i t i a t e d by the Federal, State and P r o v i n c i a l government authorities concerned with public recreation. Although the research c a p a b i l i t y of these agencies i s substantial, only a few have been credited with r e l a t i n g supply to demand i n a reasonable and quantitative manner (Michigan Department of Conservationi 1967). Documentation concerning municipal and regional govern-ment attempts to e s t a b l i s h a comprehensive recr e a t i o n a l planning approach i s fragmented and b a s i c a l l y not available f o r review i n c o l l e c t i v e summary form. However, i t seems f a i r to assume that due to the comparatively small research c a p a b i l i t y of these a u t h o r i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y at the munici-p a l l e v e l , urban recreational planning i s , at best, only i n the development stage. The major concern of t h i s thesis i s to describe i n some d e t a i l the present state of recreational planning i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , hereafter referred to as the GVRD. The s p e c i f i c purpose of the thesis i s to assess the I l l u s t r a t i o n I The Optimum Recreation Area Management Situation* *The area of overlap represents the optimum recreation management s i t u a t i o n . - 5 -e x i s t i n g arrangements and procedures for generating and analyzing recreation information. To t h i s end, a compara-t i v e evaluation of several GVRD park and/or recreation agencies was undertaken. There are three s p e c i f i c objectives of t h i s research e f f o r t t 1. to evaluate the planning methodologies used f o r assessing the supply and demand f o r recreation resources as a basis for making decisions about the type, quantity and q u a l i t y of future public recreation? 2. to assess the s u i t a b i l i t y and c a p a b i l i t y of public park and/or recreation agencies to undertake the investigations and analyses required to estimate the supply and demand f o r public recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s } and, 3. to propose changes i n the present arrangements and procedures for recreational planning. The methodology used i n the following study consisted of two re l a t e d and complementary steps. In the f i r s t phase of the study, e f f o r t was directed towards the development of a 'Comprehensive Recreation Planning Model'. The l a t e r research phase consisted of an evaluation of twelve municipal and one regional r e c r e a t i o n a l planning agencies within the -6-GVRD, along with an evaluation of the recreational planning approaches used by each agency. The 'Comprehensive Recreation Planning Model' consisted of three important sub-modelsi a demand analysis model; a supply analysis model; and, a demand-supply linkage analysis model. The development of the 'Comprehensive Recreation Planning Model* was f e l t useful for three reasons« 1. the model was useful i n helping the author conceptualize the problem i . e . i n understanding more f u l l y the extent and nature of recre a t i o n a l planning, and i n recognizing the e s s e n t i a l components of the problem from which to focus a l i t e r a t u r e search} 2. the model helped i n forming a general study framework r and f i n a l paper format; and, 3. the model further became a standard from which to evaluate the s p e c i f i c recreational planning approaches used by various public recreation agencies within the GVRD. The self-administered survey employed i n t h i s paper, Planning For Future Urban Recreation—An Evaluation Of Both  Planning Methodologies And Planning Agencies, was intended to provide an information basis from which to address the f i r s t and second objectives of thi s thesis. The subject content of the survey was c l a s s i f i e d under -7-two main headings, each of which had several sub-headings, as follows! 1. An evaluation of planning methodologies presently used by re c r e a t i o n a l planning agencies i n the GVRD» a. an evaluation of the demand analyses used$ b. an evaluation of the supply analyses used} and, c. an evaluation of the demand-supply linkage analyses used. 2. An evaluation of park and/or recreation agencies regarding t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y and appropriateness to do r e c r e a t i o n a l planning» a. research a t t i t u d e i b. general considerations! c. appropriateness, i n terms of stated r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a n a l y t i c a l capacity! d. agency s t a f f i e. budget considerations! and, f. information capability* The survey subject matter was rather extensive i n that i t t r i e d to touch upon the key recreational planning concerns involved with determining the type, nature, and quantity of future recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s needed i n urban environments. The twelve municipal and one regional recreation agencies included i n the survey were represented by experienced -8-recreation administrative o f f i c i a l s who were chosen because of the overview they had gained i n the recreational planning f i e l d (see Appendix I ) . Survey instructions, format, and content are presented i n Appendices VI and VIII. The format of the thesis consists of an introductory section followed by seven chapters. The introduction has presented two of the main tasks faced by urban recreational planners and has l i s t e d several of the key areas of concern that must be addressed to accomplish these tasks. Following t h i s section i s an outline of the p a r t i c u l a r research methodology employed i n t h i s paper to evaluate both the planning approaches currently used i n the GVRD area and the c a p a b i l i t y of the recreation agency to handle rec r e a t i o n a l planning i n the study area (see MAP 1). Chapter I consists of a l i t e r a t u r e review which serves to bring the art of r e c r e a t i o n a l planning, i n North America, into clearer perspective. Included i s a chronological development of r e c r e a t i o n a l planning i n both North America generally, and i n Canada s p e c i f i c a l l y . This section i s followed by a general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l planning approaches with a b r i e f description of each major approach. Chapter II serves to develop and i l l u s t r a t e the 'Comprehensive Recreation Planning Model', along with i t s MAP I GVRD: MUNICIPAL BOUNDARY MAP i n , i i J West \ NortV Va.r*co\^ vev v • IV a.fKOwjJB'r I N/aLTvcouLve-r / r-L-p — ' f o r t ^ ' f a e v U ^ " J - C ^ > ^ Delta v_ Surrey iVUW+e 1 -10-three major component models. The composite model i s l a t e r used i n the next four chapters as one basis of comparison from which to evaluate the recre a t i o n a l planning methodologies presently being used by public recreation agencies i n the GVRD area. Chapters I I I , IV, V and VI contain the r e s u l t s of the survey, Planning For Future Urban Recreation—An Evaluation  Of Both Planning Methodologies And Planning Agencies. In these chapters, the thi r t e e n recreation and/or park agencies surveyed are evaluated with regard to agency c a p a b i l i t y and s u i t a b i l i t y , and planning methodology used. The evaluation i s based upon a comparison of these agencies to each other and, further, a comparison of these agencies to the 'Comprehensive Recreation Planning Model', which forms the major content of the f i r s t part of the survey. Chapter VII consists of the summary and conclusions. I t presents an overview of the information presented i n Chapters II I , IV, V and VI, and further, makes a more general com-parative evaluation of recre a t i o n a l planning among the t h i r -teen areas studied. In the f i n a l section, there i s a d i s -cussion of general conclusions concerning the two major subject areas of focus i n t h i s paper i . e . rec r e a t i o n a l plan-ning methodologies presently being used i n the GVRDi and, recr e a t i o n a l planning agencies« t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y and s u i t a b i l i t y f or recreational planning. CHAPTER I Literature Search The A c h i l l e s heel of recre a t i o n a l planners has been stated as the lack of a method whereby the future demand for recreation f a c i l i t i e s at s p e c i f i c locations may be predicted with a f a i r degree of r e l i a b i l i t y and then rel a t e d numerically to the supply of recreation resources i n order to determine probable future recreation needs, thus providing the s t a t i s -t i c a l basis f o r program evaluation and a continuous planning process (Michigan Department of Conservation! 1967). Only over the l a s t f i f t e e n years has there been a major emphasis on the development of a comprehensive recr e a t i o n a l planning approach and rela t e d research methodologies, i n an attempt to answer the above problem. The major impetus f o r the development of improved re c r e a t i o n a l planning strategies has come from the top le v e l s of government. In the United States, a major and i n f l u e n t i a l pioneering e f f o r t was launched i n the early 1960's by the Outdoor Rec-reation Research Review Commission, hereafter refer r e d to as the ORRRC. The ORRRC developed an aggregate and empirical ap-proach to determining recreation demand. The method was p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n thati (1) population growth, i n d i v i d u a l tastes and preferences and socio-economic factors -11-- 1 2 -were used i n studying the demand f o r recreation a c t i v i t y ; and further, (2) demand was related to supply by assessing various opportunity factors i . e . proximity of pot e n t i a l users to the s i t e ; a c c e s s i b i l i t y ; and, income (Daiute, Robert J . : 1966). In addition to ORRRC, various State governments have contributed towards the development of a comprehensive rec-r e a t i o n a l planning approach i n creating state-wide recreation plans. In 196?1 a summary report of the t y p i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l planning methods of seventeen State authorities was published with the following observations which serve well to define the state of recre a t i o n a l planning between the years 1950 and 19661 1. " I t i s evident that a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of public time and money i s going into r e c r e a t i o n a l planning e f f o r t s across the continent. 2. I t i s clea r that to date there has been very l i t t l e uniformity of approach; i n fac t , the one thing one can say about the plans i s that each one i s unique. This uniqueness i s not just the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t conditions and problems from one area to another. Rather, i t i s the re s u l t of a great v a r i a t i o n of opinion among planners on the v a l i d i t y of various techniques. For instance, some r e l y almost exclusively on ORRRC p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates and other ORRRC techniques while others r e j e c t them as not applicable. - 1 3 -3 . I t appears that not a l l states are convinced that state-wide comprehensive recreation plans which attempt to quantify and r e l a t e supply and demand are either necessary or f e a s i b l e . 4. Only C a l i f o r n i a and Wisconsin have been able to go through the en t i r e process of r e l a t i n g supply to demand i n a rea-sonably quantitative manner and predict needs i n f a i r d e t a i l . 5. It appears that some doubtful planning procedures may be perpetuated because they are r e l a t i v e l y easy to apply and t h e i r use i n several e a r l i e r plans has given them respect-a b i l i t y . 6 . I t i s evident that recreation planning i s i n i t s infancy and the necessary technology i s only just beginning to be developed. Because of t h i s and the paucity of r e l i a b l e data, there has been much temporizing and use of stop-gap methodology with which even the originators are d i s s a t i s f i e d . 7. It i s concluded that a new, more adequate approach to rec-reation planning i s desperately needed."1 In Canada, the year 1967 was a s i g n i f i c a n t stepping stone towards the development of a comprehensive approach to recreation planning, at the national l e v e l . In that year the National ^Michigan Department of Conservation, Outdoor Recreation  Planning i n Michigan by a Systems Analysis Approach. Part I I I , Technical Report No. 12 (Lansing, Michigan, December, 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 6 0 - 6 1 . - 1 4 -Parks Service of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern development began the Canadian Outdoor Recreation Demand Study. Four phases of t h i s study are worthy of note as t h i s method, i n part, r e f l e c t s the present approach to national outdoor and rec r e a t i o n a l planning i n Canada: (1) the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the causal factors of outdoor recreation by an examination of house-holder c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c t i v i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; (2 ) the Canada Land Inventory program which rated land c a p a b i l i t y f o r various recreation uses*! (3) park v i s i t o r surveys which ascertained v i s i t o r o r i g i n , t r i p type, length of stay, a c t i v i t y choice and the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the v i s i t o r s ! and, (4 ) an analysis of supply and p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In the evolution of recreation research, more emphasis appears to have been placed on recreation demand as compared to supply analysis and demand-supply linkage analysis. In North America, recreation demand research has gone through three stages p r i o r to 1968 (Taylor* 1 9 6 8 ) : (1 ) the estimation of v i s i t o r volume at s p e c i f i c recreation s i t e s (Clawson: 1959)J *The Canada Land Inventory Recreation Capability C l a s s i f i c a - t i o n was conceived through the auspices of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Rehabilitation and Development Act of I 9 6 I . -15-( 2 ) the prediction of p a r t i c i p a t i o n per unit of recreational a c t i v i t y (ORRRC # 2 6 ) j and, (3) the prediction of demand for a group of a c t i v i t i e s within a given park. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , with regard to Canadian recreation research, the development of recreation demand research tech-niques has gone through a number of c l e a r l y definable stages (Taylor, Gordon D.« 1 9 6 9 ) . Five steps are i d e n t i f i e d * (1 ) The Pre - 1 9 5 0 Period* A period i n which 'demand* analysis was viewed as too complex with too many intangible variables. Further, "There seemed to be no need to worry about demand. It appeared to e x i s t i n unsatiable quantities. " 2 E a r l y research e f f o r t s were b a s i c a l l y descriptive i n character and c l o s e l y associated with philosophical l i t -erature (Moncrief, Lewis W.1 1 9 7 0 ) , dealing with the r o l e of recreation and l e i s u r e behaviour i n our culture (Kaplani 1960s Meudi 1 9 6 2 ) . ( 2 ) The Late 1 9 5 0 's Period 1 A more r a t i o n a l basis of research procedure was established i n t h i s phase. The study focus was on predicting the t o t a l number of v i s i t o r days that a given area could be c a l l e d upon to accomodate i n a given year (Clawsont 1 9 5 9 ) . Taylor, Gordon D. "History and Techniques of Recreation Demand Prediction," Proceedings Congress f o r Recreation and  Parks. National Recreation and Park Association (Chicago, September, 1 9 6 9 ) . p. I 8 9 . - 1 6 -(3) The Late - Late 1950*s Period i In t h i s period, demand fo r each recreation a c t i v i t y was determined by measuring con-sumption rather than measuring both the market and non-market or latent demand fo r recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s . ( 4 ) The 1964 Strategyt This p a r t i c u l a r strategy was i n i t i a t e d by the National and H i s t o r i c Park Branch of the Federal Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, along with the ten p r o v i n c i a l park branches. The proce-dure used attempted to measure •demand' fo r recreation i n Canada by f i r s t t r y i n g to understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-r tween consumption and supply. The following basic assumptions were usedt 1. Parks and Recreation areas should be viewed as part of a system i n which numerous sub-systems occur e.g. re-source oriented parks, user-oriented parks and i n t e r -mediate parks? and, 2. The commonly accepted measure of park demand, v i s i t a t i o n , i s not demand at a l l , but i s i n fact consumption. Consumption was described as b a s i c a l l y a function of supply and demand and pri c e . ( 5 ) The Post 1964 Strategy i After 1 9 6 4 , research e f f o r t s were focused on i n d i r e c t sources f o r continuing assessments of recreational behaviour e.g. relationships between socio-economic factors of the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s * and t h e i r recreation *This term i s used synonymously with recreation p a r t i c i p a n t . - 1 7 -a c t i v i t i e s (Campbell« 1 9 6 9 i Lentnekj 1 9 6 9 ) . Much current research emphasis i s s t i l l concerned with using i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c a l methods which attempt to e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n -ships among variables (Moncrief, Lewis W.t 1 9 7 0 ) . A recent advance i n developing a more f l e x i b l e and comprehensive understanding of demand was recently t r i e d by the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests i n t h e i r Tourism and Outdoor Recreation Plan. The procedure adopted involved an attempt to record the a c t i v i t y or set of ac-t i v i t i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n within a year by an i n d i v i d u a l or group of ind i v i d u a l s (Currie, Authuri 1 9 7 3 ) . The A c h i l l e s heel problem faced by recreation planners at the national and state government l e v e l s serves to i l l u s t r a t e the large amounts of e f f o r t that have been directed towards solving t h i s very complex issue. Imagine now the magnitude of the problem faced by municipal and regional recreation planners. Two facts alone stress the burden f e l t by the lower l e v e l gov-ernment agencies 1 1. municipal and regional recreation agencies, i n l i g h t of the large increases i n both the v e r t i c a l and horizontal growth components of public recreation, w i l l be faced with s a t i s -f y i n g the bulk of future recreation demands, which w i l l be urban oriented1 and, 2. the scarce resources i . e . time, budget and expertise, of -18-these l o c a l public recreation agencies to do the needed recreational planning at the desirable l e v e l of sophis-t i c a t i o n which the problem warrants. The v e r t i c a l growth i n public recreation i . e . increase i n the consumption or use of presently known recreation a c t i v i t i e s , i s attributed to one main variable i . e . population increase, and several lesser factors e.g. increases i n mobility and l e i s u r e time. Under the conservative assumption that amounts of public recreation to be u t i l i z e d w i l l remain constant per capita, then any increase i n amounts of public recreation demanded w i l l be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to population growth. Pro-jected population growth estimates (Table i ) serve to show just how substantial a growth i n public recreation demand may be, to the year 2001. The horizontal growth component of public recreation i . e . increase i n the number of recreation a c t i v i t i e s , constitutes the other force underlying growth i n public recreation. There has been general agreement i n recreation research l i t e r a t u r e regarding the types of factors which influence t h i s horizontal growth. There i s strong disagreement, however, concerning the degree of influence credited to the various factors. Two groups of these factors are described b r i e f l y belowi 1. The various socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the popula-t i o n including: education, occupation, l i f e cycle, l e i s u r e time and composition, personal net disposable income and - 1 9 -T a b l e i G V R D : R a n g e o f P o p u l a t i o n F o r e c a s t f o r 2 0 0 1 * M i g r a t i o n P e r 5 Y e a r s L o w M e d i u m H i g h I n c r e a s i n g . B i r t h R a t e 7 0 , 0 0 0 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 1 2 5 , 0 0 0 L o w 1 , 6 9 3 , 2 6 3 1 , 9 0 6 , 3 6 1 2 , 0 8 4 , 2 1 1 2 , 0 7 5 , 7 6 1 M e d i u m 1 , 7 1 3 , 4 9 5 1 , 9 2 8 , 0 8 7 2 , 1 0 7 , 3 6 0 2 , 0 9 8 , 3 2 0 H i g h 1 , 8 0 2 , 7 6 4 2 , 0 2 4 , 5 2 2 2 , 2 0 9 , 5 9 2 2 , 1 9 8 , 2 1 7 S o u r c e : G V R D P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t : 1 9 7 3 * 1 . T h e c o h o r t s u r v i v a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m w a s u s e d . 2. M i g r a t i o n r a t e s t o t h e G V R D w e r e s e t a t 7 0 , 0 0 0 , 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 a n d 1 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r 5 y e a r s . A f u r t h e r f o r e c a s t ( l a b e l l e d ' I n c r e a s i n g * i n t h e a b o v e t a b l e ) w a s r u n i n w h i c h m i g r a t i o n w a s i n c r e a s e d b y 1 0 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s e a c h 5 y e a r s . I n t h i s f o r e c a s t , m i g r a t i o n i n -c r e a s e d f r o m 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n t h e 1 9 7 1 - 7 6 p e r i o d , t o 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 m i g r a n t s i n t h e 1 9 9 6 - 2 0 0 1 p e r i o d . 3. B i r t h r a t e s w e r e v a r i e d a s s e t o u t i n t h e a b o v e t a b l e . T h e h i g h b i r t h r a t e i s t h e a c t u a l 1 9 7 0 a g e - s p e c i f i c b i r t h r a t e f o r t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e m e d i u m r a t e i s t h e e s t i m a t e d 1 9 7 0 r a t e f o r t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t d e r i v e d f r o m t h e 1 9 7 0 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a g e - s p e c i f i c b i r t h r a t e s . T h e l o w r a t e i s a n e s t i m a t e f o r t h e G V R D b a s e d o n a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e d o w n w a r d t r e n d i n b i r t h r a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e l a s t 1 0 y e a r s . -20-others. . . 2. The e f f e c t of technology i n helping to stimulate demand, enhance recreation resources and creating new rec r e a t i o n a l opportunities i . e . (1) the introduction of new r e c r e a t i o n a l uses f o r current technology e.g. the current b i c y c l e fad; (2) new technology creating new recreation types e.g. snow-mobilingi and, (3) new equipment technology e.g. buckle s k i boots. The phenomenon of urban population concentration (Graph I) i n North American c i t i e s w i l l focus the burden of the heaviest demands for future recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s on urban recreation planners. In support of t h i s idea i s data showing 80 percent of present Canadian l e i s u r e time to be spent within the c i t y , with a projected estimate over the next t h i r t y years that t h i s percentage figure w i l l remain substantial at around 75 percent (MacNeilli 1971). Meeting urban needs with urban opportunity for public recreation w i l l become a very d i f f i c u l t task f o r planners as future land-use competition escalates. Recreation planners w i l l f a i l t h i s task unless planning strategies are developed to arm planners with r a t i o n a l l y founded and e f f e c t i v e argu-ments to compete equally with other potent land-use developers. To achieve t h i s , r ecreational planning must be given a higher p r i o r i t y status i n l o c a l government concerns. Reflections of -21-G r a p h I C a n a d i a n P o p u l a t i o n t P e r c e n t a g e C o m p o s i t i o n O f R u r a l A n d U r b a n * P o p u l a t i o n 1 8 5 1 - 2 0 0 0 100$ 75% 50% 25% 0% 3 1 1851 1901 1921 R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n 1966 1951 1981 2000 Y E A R S o u r c e : J . W . M a c N e i l l : 1971 * S i n c e 1951 " t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f u r b a n h a s b e e n u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e a l l p e r s o n s r e s i d i n g i n c i t i e s , t o w n s a n d v i l l a g e s o f 1,000 a n d o v e r a n d p e r s o n s l i v i n g i n c e n s u s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . ( D . B . S . C e n s u s o f C a n a d a : 19&1) -22-past experience i . e . parkland encroachments and small budget allotments, indicate the low status previously accorded to public recreation agencies (Mann, LawrenceJ 1970I Peddie, Richards 1968). There are several key benefits to be r e a l i z e d from properly c a r r i e d out recreational planning and related research. Three such benefits are« 1. the benefits r e s u l t i n g from e f f i c i e n c y , so that resource a l l o c a t i o n w i l l not be wasteful, but rather provide op-timum benefits, hence providing a basis f o r managing the public recreation budget (Burton, T. L.1 1970) 2. the development of an information basis from which to determine the economic f e a s i b i l i t y of development (Kalter, R. J. and Gosse L. E.1 1970) 3. the provision of a r a t i o n a l basis from which to make reasonable decisions among alternative choices concerning how, when, to whom, to what purpose and i n what combinations scarce resources are to be allocated. Public r e c r e a t i o n a l planning approaches can be c l a s s i f i e d , f o r convenience, under f i v e general headings (Burton, T. L.1 1972). The f i v e classes presented below represent a wide range i n planning approach s o p h i s t i c a t i o n from the very simple and i n t u i t i v e methods to the very complex and comprehensive meth-odologies. -23-I l l u s t r a t i o n I I G E N E R A L C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F R E C R E A T I O N A L P L A N N I N G A P P R O A C H E S R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g A p p r o a c h S t a n d a r d s I A p p r o a c h S t a n d a r d s I I A p p r o a c h C o m p a r a t i v e O p p o r t u n i t i e s A p p r o a c h D e m a n d - S u p p l y -A n a l y s i s A p p r o a c h S y s t e m s A n a l y s i s A p p r o a c h -24-1. Standards I Approach The Standards I Approach consists of using i n -t u i t i v e l y derived r a t i o s of f a c i l i t i e s and/or services to population*. Once these r a t i o s are established they can be m u l t i p l i e d by future population estimates to determine the numbers of p a r t i c u l a r recreation services and f a c i l -i t i e s that w i l l be needed. This rudimentary approach has been widely accepted and i s used primarily because i t i s simple to understand and apply, and further, i t requires minimum data. The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s approach are» a. i t does not r e l a t e to assessed needs of the popula-t i o n and, therefore, i s u n r e a l i s t i c i n assuming a uniformity of population and a proper balance of recreation acreage, area-by-area (Daiute, Robert J . t 1966)i *Park and recreation standards are a measure of the quantity, nature and q u a l i t y of park and recreation f a c i l i t i e s and services to be established. Three types of recreation standards are commonly used i n the Standards I and Standards II Approaches (Mittelstaedt, Arthur H., Ward, Richard G., Lowery, Raymond P.t 1969)« 1. e x i s t i n g l o c a t i o n standards 2. e x i s t i n g use standards 3. e x i s t i n g size and design standards Appendices II, I I I , IV and V contain s p e c i f i c examples. -25-b. i t does not analyze demand-supply in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i t assumes a s t a t i c s i t u a t i o n and more knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n than i s actually known (Daiute, Robert J . : I 9 6 6); and, c. the approach cannot be used f o r relevant forecasting. 2. Standards II Approach The Standards II Approach i s s i m i l a r to the Standards I Approach i n i t s technique for estimating future recrea-t i o n needs to be met. The main difference between the two i s that i n the Standards II Approach the r a t i o of f a c i l i t i e s to population i s derived from user surveys and expressed i n arithmetic formulae. I t i s s t i l l r e l a t i v e -l y simple to understand and employ, while now r e f l e c t i n g a c t i v i t y u t i l i z a t i o n by type and frequency. Because of a combination of i t s basic l i m i t a t i o n s , t h i s approach i s currently i n l i t t l e use. These l i m i t a -tions are 1 a. the method contains no analysis of demand-supply interactions 1 b. user surveys can be expensive to carry outj and, c. the approach cannot be used f o r r e l i a b l e forecasting as i t assumes unchanged a c t i v i t y demands by type and nature i n the future. - 2 6 -3. Comparative Opportunities Approach The Comparative Opportunities Approach consists of a comparative analysis, of one or more study areas, based upon an index of i n t u i t i v e l y determined 'need' indicators and subjectively chosen supply factors r e l a t e d to a c i t y or regional average. P a r t i c u l a r study areas which show a r e l a t i v e *need* for more recreation f a c i l i t i e s and/or services are s a t i s f i e d to the extent where they r e a l i z e the c i t y or regional average i n terms of the type and quan-t i t y of services and f a c i l i t i e s normally provided (Table i i ) . The Comparative Opportunities Approach accepts the r e a l i t i e s of a world of s c a r c i t y and focuses upon r e l a t i v e opportunities. It provides simple c r i t e r i a f o r resource a l l o c a t i o n . The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s approach include» a. i t i s too subjective i n i t s choice of both 'need' indicators and 'supply * factors» b. i t i s based upon a weak i n t e r n a l l o g i c which r e l i e s t o t a l l y on r e l a t i v e adequacy with l i t t l e regard f o r absolute adequacy. The present general usage of t h i s approach i s small scale but increasing. -27-T a b l e i i E X A M P L E O F C O M P A R A T I V E O P P O R T U N I T I E S A P P R O A C H S t u d y A r e a I n d i c a t o r o f R e c r e a t i o n ' N e e d * e . g . J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e s p e r 1 , 0 0 0 R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y I n d i c a t o r e . g . R e c r e a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e p e r c a p i t a S u p p l y D e f i c i e n c y R e a l i z e d * N e i g h b o u r h o o d A 8 $ 2 . 1 0 $1.48 N e i g h b o u r h o o d B 3 $4.20 - $ 0 . 6 2 N e i g h b o u r h o o d C 6 $3-35 $ 0 . 2 3 C i t y A v e r a g e 5 $3-58 $ 0 . 0 0 * T h e s u p p l y d e f i c i e n c y i s a r r i v e d a t b y s u b t r a c t i n g s p e c i f i c s t u d y a r e a p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e f r o m t h e c i t y a v e r a g e p e r c a p i t a r e c r e a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e . -28-4. Demand-Supply Analysis Approach This approach attempts to r e l a t e , and ultimately balance, recreation demand to recreation resources by means of an i n t u i t i v e comparison of s o c i a l surveys, user surveys and service/resource surveys. The main advantage of t h i s method i s that i t re-f l e c t s current a c t i v i t y and current a v a i l a b i l i t y of supply. The approach has several l i m i t a t i o n s : a. i t i s too subjective i n r e l a t i n g demand to supply; b. the method has no v a l i d forecasting a b i l i t y as the estimation of future recreation demands should not merely be determined by the projections of present demands because t h i s technique assumes unchanged demand preferences i n the future; and, c. the use of frequent surveys i s very expensive. Although the Demand-Supply Analysis Approach i s being increasingly used, at present i t s usage i s r e l a t i v e l y small scale. 5. Systems Analysis Approach In systems analysis, demand and supply are analyzed i n the context of simulated ' t o t a l * systems ( I l l u s t r a t i o n s III and IV). This r e l a t i v e l y new strategy for recreational planning, which i s b a s i c a l l y s t i l l i n the research phase of develop-ment, i s based on several fundamental concepts: R e c r e a t i o n A s A S y s t e m : T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y P U B L I C F e d e r a l M u n i c i p a l L i b r a r i e ^ R e c r e a t i o r ^ ^ E d u c a t i o n ^  i e s ^ ^ M u s e u m s ^ 3 F i r e P o l i c e ^  ^ H o u s i n g ^ ^ H e a l t h ^ H i g h w a y s ^ ^ W e l f a r e ^ R e g i o n a l V O L U N T E E R A G E N C I E S ( N o n - P u b l i c ; N o n - P r o f i t ) Y o u t h Y o u t h N e i g h b o u r h o o d S e r v i c e s G r o u p s C e n t e r s ( YMCA/YWCA ; ( S c o u t s,j H o s t e l s ) 4 - H ; e t c . ) C O M M E R C I A L A m u s e m e n t & E n t e r t a i n m e n t ^ F o r m a l ^ ^ I n f o r m a l ^ A t h l e t i c s & S p o r t s ^ F o r m a l ^ ^ I n f o r m a l ^ T r a v e l ^ P R I V A T E ^ C h u r c h e s ^ S p o r t s / H o b b y G r o u p s B u s i n e s s / I n d u s t r y / U n i o n s P r i v a t e & S p e c i a l C l u b s I N F O R M A L ORGAN IZED I n d i v i d u a l ^ ^ F a m i l y ^ ^ P e e r G r o u p ^ ^ C o m m u n i t y ^ S o u r c e ' . N V t . VO e l ^ c r '. \ °>70 R e c r e a t i o n A s A S y s t e m ; 21st C e n t u r y M o d e l / ' ' R e s o u r c e \ S t i m u l a t i o n \ Sti A c q u i s i t i o p M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r I n t e r - A g e n c y R e l a t i o n s V o l u n t e e r S e r v i c e s N e i g h b o u r h o o d W o r k e r s D i r e c t S e r v i c e s 3 f I n d i v i d u a l / ^ | — • S r o u p P r o g r a m m i n g i e s e a r c h & ' P r o g r a m . E v a l u a t i o n T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m m i n g R e s o u r c e & F a c i l i t y <—I S c h e d u l e & A l l o t m e n t M o n i t o r & E v a l u a t i o n s I n v e n t o r y A v a i l a b l e & P o t e n t i a l R e s o u r c e s L e i s u r e ^ | F a c i l i t y I n v e n t o r y 1. A l l o c a t e 2. S c h e d u l e 3. M o n i t o r 4. E v a l u a t e 7 4 P r o f i l e o f I n t e r e s t s / N e e d s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n I J L e i s u r e P l a n n i n g |& R e s e r v a t i o n s S e r v i c e [ 5. S e a r c h / R e t r i e v e 6. L e i s u r e P l a n n i n g 7. R e s e r v a t i o n s - 3 1 -a. "Recreation i s a complex system involving a large number of highly i n t e r r e l a t e d public, private and commercial agencies reacting to other s o c i e t a l sys-tems e.g. economic, transportation, . . . Municipal and regional recreation must view i t s organization and management within the concept of recreation as a system."3 b. The recreation system i s i n a continuous state of fl u x r e f l e c t i n g the variable nature of the forces a f f e c t i n g i t s demand factors, supply factors and demand-supply linkage factors. A major advantage of using the Systems Analysis Approach i n r e c r e a t i o n a l planning i s i t s a b i l i t y to forecast. However, the approach requires sophisticated computer/math a b i l i t y to apply and i s expensive to use f o r the majority of l o c a l recreation agencies which do not r e a l i z e preferred economies of scale f o r recreation research. ^Myron E. Weiner, Systems Approach to Municipal Recreation (Connecticut, 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 1 1 . CHAPTER II Basic Considerations In The Planning  For Future Public Recreation This chapter presents a strategy f o r solving the two major tasks faced by public recreation agencies i . e . to determine future public recreation needs and desires by type, nature and quantity, and to determine how best to s a t i s f y these needs. Included i s a breakdown of the strategy i p a r t i c u l a r analysis needed, relevant planning considerations, and information pre-req u i s i t e s necessary for analysis completion. The planning ap-proach suggested i s viewed as one continuous planning process i n which research input i s phased i n a set sequence. A dynamic approach to recreational planning i s recognized as being e s s e n t i a l . On one l e v e l , recreation s p e c i a l i s t s must continuously appraise the character of aggregate demand—actual and p o t e n t i a l u s e r s — t h e i r needs and u n f u l f i l l e d desires. At a second l e v e l , land-use planners must analyze and systematize the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s and services r e l a t i v e to supply concepts. The c r i t i c a l job i s to meter the present and future dimensions of personal p r i o r i t i e s and mesh these with the e x i s t i n g and planned supply of f a c i l i t i e s and programs - 3 2 --33-i n order to maximize the s a t i s f a c t i o n to the r e c r e a t i o n i s t (Sullivan, G. V. i 1969). The recreation consumption model ( I l l u s t r a t i o n V) i d e n t i f i e s the three inputs necessary f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of a recreation a c t i v i t y . The model further i l l u s t r a t e s three types of anal-yses required i n determining what future recreation demands w i l l be: demand analysis} supply analysis; and, demand-supply linkage analysis. I l l u s t r a t i o n V The Recreation Consumption Model DEMAND» SUPPLYi DEMAND-SUPPLY by type, by type, LINKAGESi by nature and + nature and + type, nature quantity quantity and quantity Recreation Demand Analysis The very nature of municipal and regional recreation, being user oriented rather than resource oriented, suggests the importance of understanding the p a r t i c u l a r demands of the re c r e a t i o n i s t . The demands are a function of several variables* (a) tastes and preferences of the c l i e n t f o r p a r t i c u l a r RECREATION CONSUMPTIONi by type, nature and quantity - 3 4 -recreation a c t i v i t i e s , and the s a t i s f a c t i o n derived from each; (b) personal circumstances including health, income, l e i s u r e time available and the nature of the l e i s u r e time packages! (c) the d i s u t i l i t i e s i money, time and anxiety incurred while engaging i n the a c t i v i t y ! and, (d) the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l t e r -native uses for personal time, money and energy (Kalter, R. J. and Gosse, L . S.t 1970). . Much 'demand research* i n the past has been d e f i c i e n t f o r two reasons i the confusion a r i s i n g from ambiguous recreation demand terminology and subsequent erroneous concepts of demand that have been used (Knetsch, J. L. t 1969)5 and, the lack of information used for demand studies. Two frequently confused concepts of recreation demand need d e f i n i t i o n . One concept includes the broad d e f i n i t i o n i n which demand means the desire of people to pa r t i c i p a t e i n recreation a c t i v i t i e s . This includes both the expressed or market or f u l -f i l l e d desire and the unexpressed or u n f u l f i l l e d desire (Burton, T. L . J 1968). It i s assumed that t h i s demand i s r e f l e c t e d i n a person's preferences f o r a c t i v i t y even though he may not pa r t i c i p a t e . The other concept of demand i s more lim i t e d i n that recreation demand i s only equated to the number of people who par t i c i p a t e (Department of Natural Resources, D i v i s i o n of Conservation, Wisconsin! 1 9 6 8 ) . -35-Because of the distorted impressions of recreation demand that have resulted from the above semantic confusion, several erroneous planning applications of improperly defined demand analyses have occurred (Knetsch, J . L . i 1969)1 1. improper accounting of supply considerations has l e d to the assumption that people demand only increasing quantities of what they now have, hence perpetuating the status quo and present imbalances; 2. the serious error of completely missing many important demands for recreation and rel a t e d amenity values 1 and, 3. the simple extrapolation of p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates does not take adequate account of important substitutions among various recreation demands which can have immense importance to the e f f i c i e n t provision of recreation opportunities. Inadequate recreation demand data has further l i m i t e d rec-r e a t i o n a l planning. For example, l i t t l e information has been co l l e c t e d and analyzed for the t o t a l recreation experience (Glawson, M. and Knetsch, J . L.» 1966); a n t i c i p a t i o n of the recreation experience; t r a v e l to actual s i t e ; on-site experiences; t r a v e l back to o r i g i n ; and, r e c o l l e c t i o n of the t o t a l recreation experience. Although the whole recreation experience i s the unit of study, quite frequently only the on-site experiences of the - 3 6 -p a r t i c i p a n t have been recognized as being important f o r research. The lack of 'real knowledge' of the recreation s i t u a t i o n has been r e f l e c t e d i n the writings of several professionals con-cerned with recreation (Burton, T. L . i 197°t Sessoms, H. D.t 1965: and Wennergren, E. B. and Nielsen, D. B . t 1970)1 " S t a t i s t i c a l estimates of recreation demands and values have been somewhat li m i t e d by procedures which r e l y on ex-post statements of past user a c t i v i t i e s . Expected use i s not d i r e c t l y incorporated into the data, and therefore the r e s u l t i n g analysis i s of res-t r i c t i v e value i n estimating demands and resource value f o r unconstructed s i t e s on planned resource developments."4 and further, "Planners and recreation s p e c i a l i s t s have f o r the past two decades r e l i e d primarily on standards which stress the relationships of the siz e of the area served with the number of people r e s i d i n g therein. This concept i s no longer functional! increased mobility, l e i s u r e and family income are bringing about rapid changes i n our recreational patterns. A study of s o c i a l variables which condition recre-ation pursuits i s basic for the sound planning of recreation areas." 5 Three broad sets of forces have been credited with a f f e c t i n g the demand f o r recreation ( I l l u s t r a t i o n VI). In the 'Demand Analysis Sub-System* model ( I l l u s t r a t i o n VII), two categories of recreation demand are suggested for in-depth research! known future demands $ and, latent future demands. TE. B. Wennergren and D. B. Nielsen, "Probability Estimates Of Recreation Demands," Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Washington, D. C , 1970), p. 112. 5R\ D. Sessoms, "New Bases f o r Recreational Planning," Parks  and Recreation, 48 (1) (1965). p. 12. - 3 7 -I l l u s t r a t i o n VI F O R C E S A N D V A R I A B L E S A F F E C T I N G T H E D E M A N D F O R R E C R E A T I O N R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d P h y s i c a l T e c h n o l o g i c a l F o r c e s I n s t i t u t i o n a l F o r c e s S o c i o - e c o n o m i c F o r c e s P e r s o n a l a n d F a m i l y M o b i l i t y D e v e l o p m e n t o f M a s s M e d i a C o m m u n i c a t i o n s N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e A v a i l a b i l i t y T h e L a w M a j o r S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s T r a d i t i o n C h a n g e i n T i m e i . e . w o r k / r e c r e a t i o n r a t i o s D e m o g r a p h i c F a c t o r s I n c o m e a n d O c c u p a t i o n o f F a m i l i e s a n d I n d i v i d u a l s E d u c a t i o n ( B u r t o n , T . L . i 1 9 6 8 ) -38-Further, these s p e c i f i c investigations and information re-quirements are recommended« 1. data regarding current 'study area' population t o t a l s and composition by socio-economic t r a i t s ; data regarding population projections and projected population composition by socio-economic t r a i t s ; 2. data regarding expressed future a c t i v i t y preferences and degree of preferences for the 'study population* v i a a c t i v i t y preference surveys and other mechanisms; 3. an analysis of the relationships between the study popula-tions* socio-economic t r a i t s and recreation a c t i v i t y pre-ferences; and, 4. data concerned with the latent desires and preferences of both existing and p o t e n t i a l 'study populations' v i a i n d i r e c t indicators of future a c t i v i t y preferences i . e . through ex-tension of known relationships between populations' socio-economic t r a i t s and recreation a c t i v i t y preferences. The value of c o r r e l a t i n g socio-economic population charac-t e r i s t i c s with recreation p a r t i c i p a t i o n , by type and frequency, has been suggested by ORRRC (Study Report # 1 9 ) . Correlated variables included! sex, age, place of residence, family income, education, race and occupation (Appendix IX f o r further s t r a t i -f i c a t i o n of factors tested with examples of test r e s u l t s ) . - 3 9 -I l l u s t r a t i o n V I I D E M A N D A N A L Y S I S S U B - S Y S T E M A n a l y s i s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p o p u l a t i o n s * s o c i o - e c o n o m i c t r a i t s a n d r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s E x p r e s s e d f u t u r e a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s v i a a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s u r v e y s a n d d e g r e e o f a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s u r v e y s P o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s a n d p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n b y s o c i o - e c o n o m i c t r a i t s L a t e n t d e s i r e s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s o f b o t h e x i s t i n g a n d p o t e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n s v i a i n d i r e c t i n d i c a t o r s o f f u t u r e a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s i . e . t h r o u g h e x t e n s i o n o f k n o w n r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p o p u l a t i o n s * s o c i o - e c o n o m i c t r a i t s a n d r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s K n o w n f u t u r e d e m a n d F u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d L a t e n t f u t u r e d e m a n d -40-The ORRRC concluded that i n t h e i r analysis only about one-third of the variance i n a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n was credited to the socio-economic variables of the study population (ORRRCt 1 9 6 2 ) . * In the "Demand Analysis Sub-System' model presented i n t h i s study, the projection of known socio-economic population t r a i t s to a c t i v i t y preferences and p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates i s recognized as a useful planning t o o l when considered i n cohort with: known future a c t i v i t y preferences; and, the e f f e c t of environmental variables (explained i n the Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis Model). Recreation Supply Analysis The Supply Analysis Sub-System Model ( I l l u s t r a t i o n VIII) serves to i l l u s t r a t e the extent of analyses necessary, and the types of information prerequisite for relevant evaluation of recreation resources. A major d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between the absolute supply and the e f f e c t i v e supply of recreation resources. It i s recommended that the supply analyses should e n t a i l an evaluation of the following considerations (Twiss, Robert H.1 1970) . *There are three recreation research models used i n the analysis of several socio-economic variables and t h e i r e f f e c t s on recreation demand ( C i c c h e t t i , C.1 1972)« 1. Population S p e c i f i c Models ( C i c c h e t t i , C. i 1972); 2. S i t e S p e c i f i c Recreation Area Models (Kalter, R., Gosse, L . i 1970; Cesario, F.1 1969; Cheung, H.t 1972); and, 3 . S i t e S p e c i f i c User Models (Jubenville, A.1 1971; Van Doren, C. and Lentnek, B.1 I 9 6 9 ) . -41-I l l u s t r a t i o n V I I I S U P P L Y A N A L Y S I S S U B - S Y S T E M E f f e c t i v e s u p p l y o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s A b s o l u t e s u p p l y o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s T o t a l p u b l i c s u p p l y o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s T o t a l p r i v a t e s u p p l y o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s I n v e n t o r y o f e x i s t i n g p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s I n v e n t o r y o f p r o p o s e d p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s I n v e n t o r y o f e x i s t i n g p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s I n v e n t o r y o f p r o p o s e d p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s T o t a l d e m a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y -42-1. an inventory of e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l , public and private, recreation resources i . e . land, f a c i l i t i e s and services, by type, nature and quantity or s i z e ; 2. a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system fo r both the physical i . e . land and f a c i l i t i e s , and the service-program aspects of the recreation resource. Such a system might include a combination of general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems i . e . those based on (1) i n -tensity of service and/or f a c i l i t y use} (2) the type of agency c o n t r o l l i n g the resource e.g. public, private-commercial and private-voluntary! (3) user oriented/resource oriented? and, (4) ecological c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems} 3. a measurement of 'capacity constraints' f o r a l l recreation resources. These constraints should state the number of people per acre that can be accommodated without deteriora-t i o n of the resource or the recreation a c t i v i t y . They may be based on health or safety standards; f a c i l i t y or s i t e load factors? a crowding index} natural carrying capacity of the s i t e to withstand c u l t u r a l intrusions as tested by the tolerance l e v e l s of the vegetation, s o i l compaction, destructive vandalism and related human impacts; and, 4. l o c a t i o n factors* i n - s i t e l o c a t i o n factors concerned with f a c i l i t y design standards} and, peripheral s i t e l o c a t i o n factors concerned with neighbouring land use c o n f l i c t s , both ex i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l . - 4 3 -Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis Demand-supply linkage factors ( I l l u s t r a t i o n IX) are v a r i -ables that r e l a t e demand to the usage of a f a c i l i t y or service (Lee, I. M.s 1 9 6 2 ) . They may depress or stimulate demand, or they may detract from or enhance the supply factors (Maw, R.» 1 9 7 1 ) . They include a v a i l a b i l i t y or a c c e s s i b i l i t y of recreation resources i n terms of distance, time and cost of t r a v e l (Abramson, M. P.t 1 9 6 4 ) , a t t r a c t i b i l i t y i n physical and a t t i t u d i n a l terms (Cesario, J r . 1 i 9 6 0 ) , transportation f a c i l i t i e s , study area physiography and climate, e x i s t i n g opportunity, public awareness, and saturation and competing opportunities (Owens, G. P.» 1 9 6 5 ) . Evidence from research findings to date indicate a strong c o r r e l a t i o n between several demand-supply linkage factors and recreation preferences and p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates. These factors, i n part, represent the remaining two-thirds of the unaccounted causal factors underlying recreation demanded as presented i n ORRRC findings. The Recreation Planning Model—Assembled The recreation planning model ( I l l u s t r a t i o n X) presents a systematic approach for achieving the major research tasks faced by public recreation agencies. The model i s dependent upon several conditions before -44-I l l u s t r a t i o n IX DEMAND-SUPPLY LINKAGE ANALYSIS SUB-SYSTEM Climate Awareness Demand-Supply Linkages A c c e s s i b i l i t y A t t r a c t i o n / Detraction - i r -relevant re c r e a t i o n a l planning can occur« 1. a continuous and systematic planning process which i s co-ordinated at the inter-governmental and intra-governmental l e v e l s as well as with a l l affected private recreation agencies and recreation i n t e r e s t groups? 2. the inc l u s i o n of three major sets of analyses? demand analysis? supply analysis? and, demand-supply linkage analysis ? 3. ready access to and s u f f i c i e n t use of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y input i n the above sets of studies? 4. a recreation agency with the resource c a p a b i l i t y to carry out the above conditions i . e . research leadership, time and money? and, 5. a recreation agency which enjoys s u f f i c i e n t independence e.g. p o l i t i c a l independence, to allow unhampered execution of the recre a t i o n a l planning process as presented i n the model ( I l l u s t r a t i o n X). I l l u s t r a t i o n X The R e c r e a t i o n a l Plan'ning Model—Assembled. Develop Methods For E s t i m a t i n g _ Recreation Demand Estimate .Present Demand Estimate P o t e n t i a l Demand Determine Demand-Supply Linkage R e l a t i o n s h i o s Determine Present Supply D e f i c i e n -c i e s Develop Methods For Measuring _ And Recording Type, Q u a l i t y And Quantity Of Recreation Resources Inventory . E x i s t i n g Recreation Resources ->7 Inventory P o t e n t i a l Resources Determine Demand-Supply T . n n V P c r p R e l a t i o n -ships Determine P o t e n t i a l Supply D e f i c i e n -c i e s S p e c i f i c Studies Determine Recreation P o l i c y S e l e c t . Resources To Meet-Present D e f i c i e n -c i e s A c t i o n Program S e l e c t :> Resources To Meet P o t e n t i a l D e f i c i e n -c i e s N A c t i o n Program CHAPTER III An Evaluation Of The Recreation Demand Analysis  Used By Thirteen Recreation Areas  In The GVRD A properly c a r r i e d out demand analysis should r e s u l t i n the evaluation of the type, nature and quantity of demand f o r both present and future, public and private, recreation r e -sources. In t h i s chapter, there i s a comparative evaluation of the 'demand analysis' used by each of the th i r t e e n recreation authorities (sometimes referred to as the study group) tested i n the GVRD. Four main subject areas were considered i n the evaluation: A. Terms Of Study Reference: B. Information Prerequisites; C. Information Source and Generation; and, D. Analysis Techniques. For each major subject area, several 'quality c r i t e r i a * were established which served to point out what planning requirements or research standards should be considered and used .by any rec-r e a t i o n a l planning agency i n order that a 'proper' demand analysis could be implemented i . e . of the type suggested i n Chapter II. - 4 7 --48-The source of the c r i t e r i a was twofold: a synthesis of recom-mendations taken from the recreation and l e i s u r e l i t e r a t u r e : and, the ideas of the author. The recreation agencies* sur-veyed were evaluated on the basis of how well they met i . e . to what degree they achieved, the 'quality c r i t e r i a ' presented (Appendix VIII). A. Terms Of Study** Reference Prerequisite to any relevant demand analysis i s a clear statement of the study terms of reference along with d e f i n i -tions of important concepts and ambiguous recreation terminology used. This precaution avoids not only the possible confusion a r i s i n g from semantic differences i n recreation and research jargon, but also i s instrumental i n pointing out any biases i n -herent i n the analysis. The study terms of reference should further include a delineation of both the study area and study population used. Quality C r i t e r i a Suggested: 1. Demand, l i k e l e i s u r e , i s a word that needs to be c l e a r l y defined. D i s t i n c t i o n s should be made *North Vancouver City was the only municipality studied which did not have a formal public parks and/or recreation agency. **Hereafter, unless otherwise indicated, the terms 'study' and 'research' w i l l r e f e r to the work of the recreation and/or park agencies that are examined i n t h i s thesis. -49-between the various concepts of demand, f o r example, expressed or market demandi l a t e n t or non-expressed demand? and, f r u s t r a t e d demand? and, 2. In r e c r e a t i o n demand st u d i e s both the 'study popu-l a t i o n ' and the p h y s i c a l study area should be c l e a r l y defined. Results from the survey showed only two p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s — i n Port Moody and i n White R o c k — t o have made c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s between the various concepts of r e c r e a t i o n demand (Table i i i ) . Most agencies had, however, described both t h e i r study p o p u l a t i o n and study area during t h e i r demand s t u d i e s (Table i v ) . B. Information P r e r e q u i s i t e s Several i n f o r m a t i o n p r e r e q u i s i t e s are necessary i n the de-mand a n a l y s i s . The q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of the data gathered should be s u f f i c i e n t to a l l o w the d e c i s i o n maker and the r e -searcher an understanding of t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n marketi the c l i e n t e l e and i t s composition by s o c i a l , economic and l o c a t i o n a l t r a i t s ? and, the p a r t i c u l a r needs, preferences and degrees of preference t h a t t h i s c l i e n t e l e has f o r both present and f u t u r e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n resources i . e . s e r v i c e s , land and f a c i l i t i e s . The ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a * presented below suggest s e v e r a l of the i n f o r m a t i o n requirements necessary f o r the type of demand - 5 0 -a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e d above and o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I . Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a S u g g e s t e d ! 3 . The r e c r e a t i o n demand a n a l y s e s s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h a l l t y p e s o f i n v o l v e m e n t by t h e i n d i v i d u a l , s u c h as v i g o r o u s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n , s p e c t a t o r a c t i v i t y and e m o t i o n a l s t i m u l a t i o n } 4 . The demand a n a l y s e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a l l m a j o r segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n e . g . s e x , age , r a c e , o c c u p a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , i n c o m e , e d u c a t i o n and p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l h e a l t h } a n d , 5 . There a r e a t l e a s t f i v e phases o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y t h a t a r e deemed as s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e ' c o n -sumer ' ( C l a w s o n , M. and K n e t s c h , J . L . i 1 9 6 6 )i (1 ) a n t i c i p a t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e a c t i v i t y } (2) t r a v e l t o t h e a c t i v i t y } (3) o n - s i t e a c t i v i t y } (4 ) t r a v e l b a c k t o home} a n d , (5) r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y . A l l phases s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d i n t h e demand a n a l y s i s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e amount and t y p e o f u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n r e s u l t i n g from e a c h p h a s e . A l t h o u g h a l l t h i r t e e n r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s a g r e e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , w i t h i n t h e s e t h r e e above c r i t e r i a , s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d i n the demand a n a l y s i s , o n l y two a g e n c i e s — i n P o r t -51-Moody and i n Richmond—claimed to have met a l l three c r i t e r i a f u l l y (Tables v, v i and v i i ) . Further, a l l but two of the agencies — i n Delta and i n North Vancouver C i t y — h a d given some research consideration to a l l three c r i t e r i a . The youth of the Delta recreation agency was given as the reason for the lack of study into C r i t e r i o n 4 . Results of the survey f o r C r i t e r i o n 5 showed that, f o r the most part, the t o t a l recreation experience was not the u n i t of study whenever recreation studies were made. Although there are several areas i n which t r a v e l to recreation s i t e s i s an important planning factor due to the large physical area of the j u r i s d i c t i o n e.g. GVRD, Surrey, Vancouver, West Vancouver and Coquitlam, only three agencies had done adequate research i n t h i s area. However, a l l study areas, except North Vancouver City, had done peripheral study concerning t h i s subject matter. Additional Quality C r i t e r i a Suggested: The recreation agency should have an h i s t o r i c a l record of a l l useful recreation data, f o r example: 6. per capita usage rates of the various recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s ; 7. preference ratings, from 'representative' segments of the t o t a l population, f o r a l l e x i s t i n g and a l l poten-t i a l l y available recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s ; and, - 5 2 -8. some measure of the degree of preference which these • r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' p o p u l a t i o n segments may show towards both e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s ; There are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the type and amount of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y to be u t i l i z e d or consumed. These f a c t o r s should be taken i n t o account and t e s t e d f o r t h e i r degree of i n f l u e n c e s 9. the t o t a l number of people i n the planning area; 1 0 . an estimate of the number of v i s i t o r s i . e . people from outside the 'study area' t h a t use the r e c r e a t i o n resources; 1 1 . the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n w i t h -i n the planning area; 1 2 . the study populations* socio-economic t r a i t s s age, sex, occupation, f a m i l y s i z e and composition, education, race . . . j 1 3 . the study populations' average income, and the d i s t r i -b u t i o n of income among i n d i v i d u a l s ; 14. the study populations* average l e i s u r e time and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e i s u r e time among i n d i v i d u a l s "and the composition of t h e i r time budgets; and, 1 5 . the study populations* s p e c i f i c education and past ex-periences and present knowledge r e l a t i n g to p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . -53-I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e a b o v e t e n ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' i s n e e d e d i n d e f i n i n g t h e e x p r e s s e d a n d n o n - e x p r e s s e d r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d s o f t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n m a y b e u s e d i n a n s w e r i n g s u c h k e y q u e s t i o n s a s i w h o a r e t h e r e c r e a t i o n c l i e n t e l e ? } w h a t a r e t h e c l i e n t e l e s ' d e m a n d s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s ? ; w h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t b e t w e e n c l i e n t e l e t r a i t s e . g . s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c m a k e u p , g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y u t i l i z e d o r p r e f e r r e d ? ; a n d , w h a t a r e t h e c o n s u m e r d i s u t i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , a n d h o w c a n t h e y b e m i n i m i z e d ? O n l y t w o a g e n c i e s — i n P o r t M o o d y a n d i n W h i t e R o c k — m e t t h e r a t h e r s t r i n g e n t s t a n d a r d s s e t f o r t h i n C r i t e r i a 6, 7 a n d 8. F i v e o f t h e t h i r t e e n r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s h a d n o i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n w h i l e s i x a g e n c i e s h a d n o d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e g r e e o f a c t i v i t y p r e -f e r e n c e f r o m t h e i r s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n ( T a b l e s v i i i , i x a n d x ) . A l t h o u g h m o s t a g e n c i e s w e r e v e r y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g a r e a , o n l y t w o o r t h r e e a g e n c i e s h a d a n a d e q u a t e e s t i m a t e o f t h e n u m b e r o f v i s i t o r s t h a t u s e t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . T h i s w a s a s u r p r i s e d u e t o t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f l o c a l a g e n c i e s t h a t a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r u n i q u e o r s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s t h a t a t t r a c t p e o p l e f r o m w e l l b e y o n d t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s e . g . V a n c o u v e r : S t a n l e y P a r k , Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h P a r k ; W e s t V a n c o u v e r : L i g h t h o u s e P a r k ; N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t : L y n n C a n y o n P a r k ; a n d , G V R D : - 5 4 -B o u n d a r y B a y p e r i p h e r y ( T a b l e s x i a n d x i i ) . O n l y t w o a g e n c i e s — i n P o r t M o o d y a n d i n W h i t e R o c k — a p p e a r t o h a v e g e n e r a t e d s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( C r i t e r i a 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 1 4 a n d 1 5 ) . H o w e v e r , W h i t e R o c k , i n a d d i t i o n t o e l e v e n o t h e r s t u d y a r e a s , a d m i t t e d t o v e r y l i t t l e o r n o i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e l e i s u r e t i m e o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h a t l e i s u r e t i m e . T h e o t h e r s t a n d a r d s , C r i t e r i a 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 a n d 1 5 , t h a t a r e f u r t h e r n e c e s s a r y f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s , a n d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n s u m e r d i s -u t i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n , a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n d i s r e g a r d e d o r g i v e n l o w p r i o r i t i e s b y m o s t a g e n c i e s e x a m i n e d . ( T a b l e s x i i i , x i v , x v , x v i a n d x v i i ) . C . I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e a n d G e n e r a t i o n T h e s o u r c e o f r e c r e a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t h e t e c h n i q u e s u s e d f o r g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l d e t e r m i n e , f o r a l a r g e p a r t , t h e q u a l i t y a n d a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e d a t a f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . T h e s e t w o f a c t o r s f o r m t h e b a s i s o n w h i c h t h e d e m a n d a n a l y s i s i s m a d e , a n d , f u r t h e r , a r e a m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t o f t h e q u a l i t y o f a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s . Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a S u g g e s t e d : 1 6 . E x p e r i m e n t a l r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s a n d a c t i v i t i e s a n d n e w f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d b e r e g u l a r l y u s e d t o t e s t f o r -55-p u b l i c reaction} 17. Recreation a c t i v i t y preference surveys should be very extensive and present the widest p r a c t i c a b l e range of a c t i v i t y choice to the * consumer* so as not to be too shallow and thereby l i m i t h i s choices 18. The r e c r e a t i o n agency should have an h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d of a l l u s e f u l r e c r e a t i o n data such as p u b l i c r e c r e a -t i o n demands expressed v o l u n t a r i l y by phone, l e t t e r and v e r b a l complaints and requests f o r more or d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s } and, 19. One or more communication exchange mechanisms should be developed to provide a l l concerned i n t e r e s t s (e.g. the consumer, the planner, the resource manager, the a c t i v i t y and s e r v i c e manager and the d e c i s i o n maker) the opportunity of r e a c t i n g t o both present and proposed r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . This r e a c t i o n should e n t a i l an e v a l u a t i o n of the type, q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of r e c r e a t i o n . C r i t e r i o n 19 was f u l l y met by almost a l l agencies w i t h no agency ad m i t t i n g to no communication mechanism (Table x x i ) . Most agencies s t a t e d t h a t they had adequate interdepartmental communication as w e l l as a good l i a s o n between the agency and the p u b l i c v i a s e v e r a l p u b l i c exchange mechanisms. North Vancouver C i t y was the only m u n i c i p a l i t y t h a t was s e v e r e l y - 5 6 -h a n d i c a p p e d b y t h e t o t a l a b s e n c e o f a f o r m a l m u n i c i p a l a g e n c y f o r p a r k s a n d / o r r e c r e a t i o n . C r i t e r i o n 1 6 w a s a n s w e r e d w i t h m i x e d r e a c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h s i x a g e n c i e s c o m p l e t e l y m e t t h e c r i t e r i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e t e s t i n g o f e x p e r i m e n t a l r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a n d p r o g r a m s , f o u r a g e n c i e s w e r e e n t i r e l y d e f i c i e n t i n t h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h , a n d t w o o t h e r s h a d d o n e o n l y m a r g i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n ( T a b l e x v i i i ) . A l t h o u g h i t w a s g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t t h e p h o n e a n d l e t t e r w e r e t w o g o o d m e a n s o f i n f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e c -r e a t i o n a g e n c y a n d i t s p u b l i c , o n l y s i x a g e n c i e s f e l t t h a t t h e y h a d t a k e n f u l l a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s m e c h a n i s m ( T a b l e x x ) . I n t h e a r e a o f f o r m a l e x c h a n g e m e c h a n i s m s , b e t w e e n t h e p u b -l i c a n d t h e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y e . g . t h r o u g h r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s u r v e y s , f o u r a g e n c i e s s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n s u r v e y s w e r e s o m e w h a t b i a s e d i n t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t a s e x t e n s i v e a s t h e y c o u l d h a v e b e e n , a n d f o u r a d d i t i o n a l a g e n c i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s u r v e y s w e r e v e r y b i a s e d i n l i m i t i n g p u b l i c r e s p o n s e . I n s e v e r a l c a s e s , a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s u r v e y s h a d n o t , a s y e t , b e e n a t t e m p t e d ( T a b l e x i x ) . D . A n a l y s i s T e c h n i q u e s T h e g e n e r a t i o n o f ' g o o d * r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h d a t a m a y w e l l p r o v e t o b e f r u i t l e s s u n l e s s p r o p e r t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e c o r d e d d a t a . S e v e r a l ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a * h a v e -57-been suggested from which to judge the adequacy of the demand a n a l y s i s techniques p r e s e n t l y being used by the t h i r t e e n r e c r e a -t i o n agencies surveyed. Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a T e s t e d i 20. When determining the degree of p u b l i c d e s i r e , or pre-ference, f o r v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , s u b s t i t u t i o n of the supply f a c t o r s should be considered and t e s t e d to f i n d supply s u b s t i t u t e s that y i e l d s i m i l a r amounts of user s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l e s s p u b l i c c o s t ; 21. In the e s t i m a t i o n of f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n demands, both the expressed and non-expressed or l a t e n t demands of the p o p u l a t i o n should be taken i n t o account. S p e c i a l techniques should be searched f o r and t e s t e d to measure and r e c o r d these demands? 22. E s t i m a t i o n of f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n demands should not merely be determined by the p r o j e c t i o n of present de-mands as t h i s method assumes unchanged demand preferences, by type and degree, i n the future? 23. Recreation demand estimates that are borrowed from some other r e c r e a t i o n and/or park agency should be adopted only a f t e r c a r e f u l review, and t e s t e d f o r appropriateness i n the s p e c i f i c study area. M o d i f i c a t i o n o f these es-timates w i l l l i k e l y be needed to meet the s p e c i f i c r e -quirements of the p a r t i c u l a r study population? and, - 5 8 -2 4 . T o i n c r e a s e k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g t h e t y p e a n d d e g r e e o f i n f l u e n c e t h a t t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s w i l l h a v e o n t h e d e m a n d f o r f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , a s t u d y o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , a s t h e y r e l a t e t o r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d , s h o u l d b e u n d e r t a k e n . C r i t e r i o n 2 0 w a s c o m m o n l y v i e w e d a s h a v i n g m u c h m e r i t i n t e r m s o f p r o v i d i n g a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t a l l o t m e n t o f s c a r c e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . H o w e v e r , o n l y o n e m u n i c i p a l i t y — W h i t e R o c k — i n d i c a t e d a n y s u c c e s s i n u s i n g t h e m e t h o d s u g g e s t e d . T h e r a t h e r s t r i n g e n t i n f o r m a t i o n p r e r e q u i s i t e s e . g . C r i t e r i o n 7 ( a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e r a t i n g s ) a n d C r i t e r i o n 8 ( d e g r e e s o f p r e f e r e n c e ) , n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e C r i t e r i o n 2 0 c o u l d b e a c h i e v e d m i g h t w e l l e x p l a i n w h y s o f e w a g e n c i e s h a d n o t u s e d t h e m e t h o d ( T a b l e x x i i ) . O n l y f i v e a g e n c i e s f u l l y m e t C r i t e r i o n 23, w i t h o n e a d d i t i o n a l a g e n c y f a l l i n g i n t o t h e ' A l m o s t ' c a t e g o r y . O n c e a g a i n t h e r e a s o n f o r i m p r o p e r l y a p p l i e d r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d d a t a , b o r r o w e d f r o m a n o n - l o c a l s o u r c e , m a y w e l l b e c r e d i t e d t o t h e l a c k o f l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n d a t a f r o m w h i c h e i t h e r t o c r e a t e s p e c i f i c r e -c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y a n d f a c i l i t y s t a n d a r d s o r f r o m w h i c h t o t e s t a n d m o d i f y b o r r o w e d r e c r e a t i o n s t a n d a r d s ( T a b l e x x v ) . T h r e e c r i t e r i a , 2 1 , 2 2 a n d 2 4 , c o n c e r n t h e n e e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n n e e d s . O n l y o n e -59-a g e n c y — i n White Rock—has taken i n t o account both the expres-sed and l a t e n t demands of i t s c l i e n t e l e and f u r t h e r , has i n v e s t -i g a t e d methods f o r using t h i s data i n the e s t i m a t i o n of f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n demands (Tables x x i i i , x x i v and x x v i ) . Although four agencies have f u l l y met C r i t e r i o n 22, they have achieved i t not because of s p e c i a l p r o j e c t i o n techniques r e v e a l i n g f u t u r e r e c r e a -t i o n demands, r a t h e r they have depended upon ' f l e x i b i l i t y of r e -source use* e.g. m u l t i p l e use of f a c i l i t i e s and l a n d ; a c t i v i t y s cheduling; temporal and s p a t i a l zoning of uncomplementary groups of a c t i v i t i e s ; and, the use of f l e x i b l e s e r v i c e and f a c i l i t y design standards. Conclusions (a) The s i x t e e n ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' presented as standards to be met i n the r e c r e a t i o n demand a n a l y s i s have only been met to the degree of L7 percent* by the study group. Seven agencies d i d b e t t e r than t h i s average percentage score (Table x x v i i i ) . (b) The f o l l o w i n g l i s t ranks the t h i r t e e n study areas accord-in g t o how w e l l they met a l l s i x t e e n ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' presented i n t h i s chapter. *A11 percentages w i l l be given i n t h e i r uncorrected form unless s t a t e d otherwise (see Appendix VI f o r d e f i n i t i o n s o f s t a t i s t i c a l terminology used i n t h i s t e x t ) . F u r t her, a l l references to average percentages i n the t e x t have been rounded to the nearest whole number, f o r s i m p l i c i t y . - 6 0 -Area Rank Coquitlam 4 D e l t a 11 GVRD 9 New Westminster 7 North Vancouver C i t y 13 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 12 Port Coquitlam 6 Port Moody 1 Richmond 5 Surrey 8 Vancouver 10 West Vancouver 3 White Rock 2 Only two r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s — i n P o r t Moody and i n White Rock—have achieved a high absolute percentage score i n meeting the s i x t e e n ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' presented (Table x x v i i i ) . I n a d d i t i o n , both of these agencies have scored w e l l i n the fo u r subject areas evaluated i n the demand a n a l y s i s . The percentage scores of the study group, c a l c u l a t e d from -61-t h e f o u r s u b j e c t a r e a s e v a l u a t e d i n t h e d e m a n d a n a l y s i s , a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w : Graph II D e g r e e T o W h i c h ' D e m a n d C r i t e r i a ' H a v e B e e n M e t  B y T h e S t u d y G r o u p S u b j e c t A r e a E v a l u a t e d ( 5 5 . 3 8 ) T e r m s o f S t u d y R e f e r e n c e k \ \ \ ^ \ SI (1*H6) I n f o r m a t i o n P r e r e q u i s i t e s \ \ \ \ \ \ ^ W ( 5 8 . 0 8 } I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e a n d G e n e r a t i o n . \ \ V ^ 1 ( 3 6 . 9 2 ) A n a l y s i s T e c h n i q u e s T o o ^ T h e p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e s i x t e e n c r i t e r i a t e s t e d a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e x x i x . , -62-T a b l e i i i R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 1 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a >* I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d •si-S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * - 6 3 -T a b l e i v R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 2 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a # G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * -64-T a b l e v R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 3 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a * G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t # P o r t C o q u i t l a m « P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r » W h i t e R o c k # -65-T a b l e v i R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 4 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a •«• G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m # P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k •H--66-T a b l e v i i R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 5 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a * G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r •8-N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d S u r r e y # V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * - 6 7 -T a b l e v i i i R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 6 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a « G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * . N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t tt P o r t C o q u i t l a m « P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y « V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * - 6 8 -Table ix Recreation Demand Analysis: Criterion 7 Municipality or Area Is Criterion Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam Delta * GVRD New Westminster North Vancouver City North Vancouver Dis tr ic t Port Coquitlam Port Moody # Richmond •a-Surrey * Vancouver * West Vancouver White Rock •it-- 6 9 -T a b l e x R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 8 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m « D e l t a G V R D tt N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t tt P o r t C o q u i t l a m » P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d •a-S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r # W e s t V a n c o u v e r » W h i t e R o c k * -70-T a b l e x i R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 9 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a * G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r •a-N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k * -71-Table x i i Recreation Demand Analysis: Criterion 10 Municipality or Area Is Criterion Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam Delta « GVRD * New Westminster * North Vancouver City North Vancouver Dis tr ic t » Port Coquitlam i » Port Moody * Richmond « Surrey Vancouver * West Vancouver •it-White Rock -?2-Table x i i i R e c r e a t i o n Demand A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 1 1 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam * D e l t a » GVRD * New Westminster » North Vancouver C i t y North Vancouver D i s t r i c t » Port Coquitlam Port Moody Richmond * Surrey Vancouver » West Vancouver tt White Rock * -73-Table x i v R e c r e a t i o n Demand A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 12 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam D e l t a * GVRD •8-New Westminster North Vancouver C i t y * North Vancouver D i s t r i c t * Port Coquitlam Port Moody Richmond * Surrey * Vancouver West Vancouver •it-White Rock * -74-Table xv • R e c r e a t i o n Demand A n a l y s i s * C r i t e r i o n 13 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam D e l t a tt GVRD * New Westminster * North Vancouver C i t y North Vancouver D i s t r i c t tt Port Coquitlam Port Moody * Richmond Surrey * Vancouver West Vancouver * White Rock -75-T a b l e x v i R e c r e a t i o n Demand A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 14 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e No Does N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a * G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k -76-Table x v i i R e c r e a t i o n Demand A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 15 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam tt D e l t a * GVRD # New Westminster * North Vancouver C i t y w » North Vancouver D i s t r i c t tt Port Coquitlam * Port Moody * Richmond tt Surrey tt Vancouver tt West Vancouver White Rock * -77-Table x v i i i 1 R e c r e a t i o n Demand A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 16 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No_ Does Not Apply Coquitlam D e l t a * GVRD * New Westminster North Vancouver C i t y # North Vancouver D i s t r i c t * Port Coquitlam Port Moody * Richmond •»• Surrey * Vancouver •»• West Vancouver White Rock * -78-Table x i x R e c r e a t i o n Demand A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 17 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No D o e s N o t Apply Coquitlam tt D e l t a * GVRD tt New Westminster •Se-North Vancouver C i t y •» North Vancouver D i s t r i c t « Port Coquitlam Port Moody * Richmond Surrey tt Vancouver •si-West Vancouver *-White Rock * -79-Table xx R e c r e a t i o n Demand A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 18 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam •* D e l t a * GVRD New Westminster tt North Vancouver C i t y * North Vancouver D i s t r i c t # Port Coquitlam « Port Moody tt Richmond « Surrey * Vancouver * West Vancouver tt White Rock * -80-Table xxi R e c r e a t i o n Demand A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 19 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam it D e l t a * GVRD New Westminster * North Vancouver C i t y it North Vancouver D i s t r i c t Port Coquitlain Port Moody * Richmond it Surrey it Vancouver it West Vancouver it White Rock * -81-T a b l e x x i i R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 20 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y « N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t tt P o r t C o q u i t l a m » P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k -82-T a b l e x x i i i R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 21 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a * G V R D •«• N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k -83-T a b l e x x i v > : R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 2 2 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a * G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t •»• P o r t C o q u i t l a m tt P o r t M o o d y « R i c h m o n d » S u r r e y tt V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * -84-T a b l e xxv R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 23 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m # P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y •a-V a n c o u v e r •a W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * - 8 5 -T a b l e x x v i R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 2 4 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m •»«• D e l t a G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m tt P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y » V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r « W h i t e R o c k # - 8 6 -T a b l e x x v i i R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g y i D e m a n d A n a l y s i s t D e g r e e T o W h i c h T h e Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a H a v e B e e n M e t B y T h e T h i r t e e n S t u d y A r e a s M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a A r e C r i t e r i a M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m 12 0 8 4 0 D e l t a 4 1 9 10 0 G V R D 5 1 14 3 1 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 1 14 8 1 0 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y 2 0 7 14 1 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t 0 3 11 10 0 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 10 1 11 2 0 P o r t M o o d y 21 0 2 0 1 R i c h m o n d 7 9 5 3 0 S u r r e y 2 8 12 2 0 V a n c o u v e r 3 •3 13 5 0 W e s t V a n c o u v e r 12 1 10 1 0 W h i t e R o c k 18 1 5 0 0 -87-T a b l e x x v i i i R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g y i D e m a n d A n a l y s i s : D e g r e e T o W h i c h T h e Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a H a v e B e e n M e t B y T h e T h i r t e e n S t u d y A r e a s — B y P e r c e n t a g e D e g r e e A n d R a n k M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a P o i n t S c o r e P e r c e n t S c o r e U n c o r r e c t e d P e r c e n t S c o r e C o r r e c t e d R a n k C o q u i t l a m 68 56.67% 56.6795 4 D e l t a 32 26 .67 2 6 . 6 7 11 G V R D 42 3 5 . 0 0 3 6 . 5 2 9 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 56 46 .67 46 .67 7 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y 17 14.17 14 .78 13 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t 20 1 6 . 6 7 1 6 . 6 7 12 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 64 5 3 . 3 3 5 3 . 3 3 6 P o r t M o o d y 107 89.17 93.04 1 R i c h m o n d 67 5 5 . 8 3 5 5 . 8 3 5 S u r r e y 46 3 8 . 3 3 3 8 . 3 3 8 V a n c o u v e r 37 3 0 . 8 3 3 0 . 8 3 10 W e s t V a n c o u v e r 73 6 0 . 8 3 6 0 . 8 3 3 W h i t e R o c k 98 81 .67 81.67 2 A V E R A G E : 56 46 .60 4 7 . 0 6 - 8 8 -T a b l e x x i x D E M A N D A N A L Y S I S — S U M M A R Y T A B L E O F A G G R E G A T E T O T A L S * C r i t e r i o n S u b j e c t A r e a s S c o r e N u m b e r E v a l u a t e d T o t a l T o t a l U n c o r r e c t e d C o r r e c t e d P o s s i b l e A c t u a l P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e T e r m s o f S t u d y R e f e r e n c e 1 65 2 3 35-38 35.38 2 65 49 75.38 75.38 A V E R A G E : 65 36 55.38 55.38 I n f o r m a t i o n P r e r e q u i s i t e s 3 65 45 6 9 . 2 3 6 9 . 2 3 4 65 3 6 55.38 55.38 5 65 28 4 3 . 0 8 4 3 . 0 8 6 65 3 6 55.38 55-38 7 65 22 3 3 . 8 5 • 33-85 8 65 19 2 9 . 2 3 2 9 . 2 3 9 65 53 81.54 81.54 10 65 22 33-85 3 3 . 8 5 11 65 47 7 2 . 3 1 72.31 12 65 2 9 4 4 . 6 2 4 4 . 6 2 13 65 14 21.54 2 3 . 3 3 14 65 17 2 6 . 1 5 2 6.15 15 65 17 2 6.15 2 6.15 A V E R A G E » 65 2 9 . 6 2 4 5 . 5 6 4 5 . 7 0 I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e a n d G e n e r a t i o n 16 65 35 53.85 58.33 17 65 3 1 4 7 . 6 9 47.69 18 65 38 58.46 58.46 19 65 47 7 2.31 7 2 . 3 1 A V E R A G E : 65 37.75 5 8 . 0 8 59.20 * t n e a g g r e g a t e t o t a l s f o r t h e t h i r t e e n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s u r v e y e d f o r e a c h c r i t e r i o n t e s t e d - 8 9 -Table xxix Cont'd. DEMAND ANALYSIS—SUMMARY TABLE OF AGGREGATE TOTALS C r i t e r i o n Subject Areas Score Number Evaluated T o t a l T o t a l Uncorrected Corrected P o s s i b l e A c t u a l Percentage Percentage A n a l y s i s Techniques 2 0 65 22 3 3 . 8 5 3 3 . 8 5 2 1 65 16 24.62 24.62 22 65 2 6 40.00 4 3 . 3 3 2 3 65 36 5 5 . 3 8 5 5 . 3 8 24 65 2 0 3 0 . 7 7 3 0 . 7 7 AVERAGE: 65 2k 3 6 . 9 2 3 7 . 5 9 *the aggregate t o t a l s f o r the t h i r t e e n areas surveyed f o r each c r i t e r i o n t e s t e d CHAPTER IV An E v a l u a t i o n Of The Recreation Supply Analyses Used  By T h i r t e e n Areas I n The GVRD The planning f o r f u t u r e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n r e q u i r e s , i n a d d i t i o n to the r e c r e a t i o n demand a n a l y s i s , a study of the r e c r e a t i o n resources, both those p r e s e n t l y and p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e . Both set s of analyses are p r e r e q u i s i t e to balanc-i n g r e c r e a t i o n demand and r e c r e a t i o n supply. The end goal i s the p r o v i s i o n f o r optimum resource a l l o c a t i o n and f o r maximum s a t i s f a c t i o n to the r e c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t . In t h i s chapter, a comparative e v a l u a t i o n i s made of the p a r t i c u l a r 'supply a n a l y s i s * used by each member of the study group examined. Three main subject areas were considered i n t h i s e v a l u a t i o n : A. Information P r e r e q u i s i t e s ; B. A n a l y s i s Techniques; and, C. Scope of the Supply A n a l y s i s . The use of ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' i n the ensuing e v a l u a t i o n i s based on the same r a t i o n a l e as set out i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Chapter I I I . - 9 0 -- 9 1 -A . I n f o r m a t i o n P r e r e q u i s i t e s A n e x t e n s i v e a w a r e n e s s o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i . e . t h e i r t y p e , n a t u r e a n d q u a n t i t y , i s n e c e s s a r y f o r o p t i m u m r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . R e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a f u n d a m e n t a l p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e m a x i m u m s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a S u g g e s t e d i T h e p a r k a n d / o r r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y s h o u l d h a v e c o m p i l e d a r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y f o r i t s e n t i r e a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t 2 5 . l e g a l b o u n d a r i e s ; 2 6 . l a n d s c a p e c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d a r e a s i z e * 2 7 . d r a i n a g e a n d t o p o g r a p h y ? 2 8 . g e o l o g i c a l d a t a a n d s o i l d a t a ; 2 9 . v e g e t a t i o n i . e . t y p e , d e n s i t y a n d m a t u r i t y ; 3 0 . c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f s i t e s ; 3 1 . p a s t m a n a g e m e n t h i s t o r y ; 3 2 . n a t u r a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y ; 3 3 . p l a n n i n g o r d o n a n c e s e . g . p u b l i c h e a l t h s t a n d a r d s ; 3 ^ . a d j a c e n t l a n d u s e s ; 3 5 . l a n d - u s e p o t e n t i a l ; a n d , 3 6 . g e n e r a l a n d u n i q u e a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h e r e s o u r c e . - 9 2 -C r i t e r i a 2 5 , 2 6 , 33 a n d 3^ w e r e v e r y w e l l m e t b y a l m o s t a l l m e m b e r s i n t h e s t u d y g r o u p . M o s t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , a l -t h o u g h n o t d i r e c t l y a v a i l a b l e i n s e v e r a l o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s , i s a c c e s s i b l e t h r o u g h o n e o r a n o t h e r i n t e r - g o v e r n -m e n t a l d e p a r t m e n t s ( T a b l e s x x x , x x x i , x x x v i i i a n d x x x i x ) . A t l e a s t f o u r o f t h e ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a * p r e s e n t e d c o u l d b e u s e d i n d e f i n i n g t h e n a t u r a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e r e c -r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e i . e . l a n d . A l t h o u g h f i v e a g e n c i e s h a v e m e t o r h a v e a l m o s t m e t C r i t e r i o n 3 2 , o n l y t h r e e o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s a p p e a r t o h a v e g a t h e r e d t h e s u p p o r t d a t a ( C r i t e r i a 2 7 , 2 8 a n d 2 9 ) n e e d e d i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s ( T a b l e s x x x i i , x x x i i i , x x x i v a n d x x x v i i ) . F o r e x a m p l e , a l t h o u g h P o r t M o o d y a d m i t s t o h a v i n g m e t C r i t e r i o n 3 2 , i t l a c k s i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g v e g e t a t i o n b y t y p e , d e n s i t y a n d m a t u r i t y . T h e g a t h e r i n g o f s u c h s o p h i s t i c a t e d d a t a i s r e g a r d e d b y a f e w m u n i c i p a l i t i e s e . g . P o r t M o o d y a n d R i c h m o n d , a s a l o w p r i o r i t y i t e m d u e t o t h e r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f ' v i r g i n l a n d ' w h e r e t h e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e c a n b e e x p a n d e d w h e n e v e r p r e s e n t r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s a r e f e l t t h r e a t e n e d b y a m e n i t y d e -g r a d a t i o n . S e v e n o f t h e a r e a s s u r v e y e d h a d g a t h e r e d o n l y m i n i m a l d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s t o w i t h s t a n d o r t o l e r a t e t h e v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i . e . b y a c t i v i t y t y p e a n d f r e q u e n c y . O n e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y , i n C o q u i t l a m , h a d - 9 3 -not c a l c u l a t e d the n a t u r a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of i t s resources, even though i t had s e v e r a l of the data requirements necessary to do so. The seven areas, j u s t mentioned, lacked b a s i c i n f o r -mation needed to meet C r i t e r i o n 32 (Table x x x v i i ) . An important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the supply a n a l y s i s i s a l i s t i n g of the general and unique a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of the resource. This i n f o r m a t i o n could be used as an i n d i c a t i o n of the nature and q u a l i t y of the resource and then used to inform the p u b l i c about the k i n d of r e c r e a t i o n resources t h a t are a v a i l a b l e to them. This i n f o r m a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n to data regard-i n g the c u l t u r a l aspects of s i t e s , was a low research p r i o r i t y item f o r more than h a l f o f the study group (Tables xxxv and x i i ) . Two a d d i t i o n a l major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t are needed i n the supply a n a l y s i s ares past management h i s t o r y ( C r i t e r i o n 31) and land-use p o t e n t i a l ( C r i t e r i o n 3 5 ) . Past management h i s t o r y i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n regarding previous land-use types and s p e c i a l bylaws and r e s t r i c t i v e covenants t h a t might a f f e c t f u t u r e development on the s i t e . S i x agencies f u l l y met t h i s c r i t e r i o n and an a d d i t i o n a l two agencies almost met i t completely. Two agencies had no in f o r m a t i o n regarding t h i s subject and one agency, i n Richmond, considered the c r i t e r i o n i n a p p r o p r i a t e due to the r e l a t i v e abundance of ' v i r g i n lands* i n i t s munici-p a l i t y i n which most of i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e development took -94-p l a c e . T h e l a t t e r c r i t e r i o n — l a n d - u s e p o t e n t i a l — a l s o m e r i t s a t t e n t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . T h e c r i t e r i o n c o n c e r n s (1) t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d a n d f a c i l i t i e s t o a c -c o m m o d a t e n e w a n d / o r m o r e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a t a s p e c i f i e d q u a l i t y l e v e l o f s e r v i c e j (2) p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e l a n d - u s e c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n t h e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e a n d a d j a c e n t l a n d - u s e t y p e s j a n d , (3) e n c r o a c h m e n t s f r o m o t h e r l a n d - u s e t y p e s i n t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e e . g . e n c r o a c h m e n t s f r o m h i g h w a y o r r a i l d e v e l o p m e n t . S e v e n m e m b e r s o f t h e s t u d y g r o u p h a d g a t h e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e a b o v e c o n c e r n s , a n d o n e m e m b e r h a d a l m o s t m e t t h e c r i t e r i o n . O n l y o n e m u n i c i p a l i t y , V a n c o u v e r , i n d i c a t e d h a v i n g n o d a t a c o n c e r n i n g l a n d - u s e p o t e n t i a l o f i t s r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s ( T a b l e s x x x v i a n d x l ) . B . A n a l y s i s T e c h n i q u e s T h e f o u r ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a * p r e s e n t e d b e l o w a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e d a t a g e n e r a t e d a n d u s e d i n t h e s u p p l y a n a l y s i s . T h e c r i t e r i a a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e t y p e o f c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d b e m a d e i n t h e a n a l y s i s . Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a S u g g e s t e d : 37. R e f l e c t i n g t h e v a r i a b l e n a t u r e o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , a n i n v e n t o r y o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d b e m a d e r e g u l a r l y : - 9 5 -3 8 . A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m s h o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e r e c o r d i n g o f b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l i . e . l a n d a n d f a c i l i t i e s , a n d t h e s e r v i c e - p r o g r a m a s p e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s } 3 9 . T h e m e a s u r e m e n t a n d c o d i n g o f s u p p l y v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d b e d o n e i n a s y s t e m a t i c w a y w i t h u n i f o r m u n i t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t } a n d , 4 0 . M e a s u r e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s a n d c o d i n g o f s u p p l y v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d b e r e g u l a r l y a p p r a i s e d a n d m o d i f i e d i f n e c e s s a r y . O n l y t w o a g e n c i e s — i n P o r t M o o d y a n d i n W h i t e R o c k — c o n s i s -t e n t l y m e t f u l l y a l l f o u r o f t h e a b o v e c r i t e r i a ( T a b l e s x l i i , x l x i i , x l i v a n d x i v ) . A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m i s u s e d b y s o m e o f t h e s t u d y a g e n c i e s b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e s a q u i c k a n d s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d f o r r e c o r d i n g t h e i r r e s o u r c e s . O n l y f i v e a g e n c i e s h a d e i t h e r f u l l y o r a l m o s t m e t t h i s c r i t e r i o n . A d d i t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r o r d e r l y r e c o r d i n g a n d e f f i c i e n t m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e s u p p l y v a r i -a b l e s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n C r i t e r i a 39 a n d 4 0 . B o t h o f t h e s e c r i t e -r i a w e r e m e t p o o r l y b y t h e t h i r t e e n r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s e x c e p t i n P o r t M o o d y a n d i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r ( T a b l e s x l i v a n d x i v ) . Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i o n 3 ? d e p i c t s h o w c u r r e n t , a n d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t h o w r e l e v a n t , t h e r e c r e a t i o n d a t a i s f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . O n t h e a v e r a g e , o v e r h a l f o f t h e s t u d y g r o u p a d m i t t e d t o w o r k -i n g w i t h o u t d a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n ( T a b l e x l i i ) . - 9 6 -C. Scope of the Supply A n a l y s i s There are c e r t a i n parameters w i t h i n which the supply a n a l y s i s should be considered. The three ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' below deal w i t h the scope and content of the supply a n a l y s i s . Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a Suggested: 41. A supply a n a l y s i s should take i n t o account both p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e and p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e r e c -r e a t i o n resources! 42. A comprehensive inventory of r e c r e a t i o n resources should i n c l u d e a l l r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e whether they be p u b l i c , private-commercial or p r i v a t v o l u n t a r y ; and, 4 3 . The supply a n a l y s i s should i n c l u d e a measurement of 'capacity c o n s t r a i n t s ' f o r a l l r e c r e a t i o n resources. These c o n s t r a i n t s should s t a t e the number of people per acre per day t h a t can be accommodated without d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the resource or the r e c r e a t i o n ac-t i v i t y . Once again, only two r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s — i n Port Moody and i n White R o c k — s t a t e d t h a t they had completely met the above three c r i t e r i a . C r i t e r i o n 41 was w e l l met by a l l but two a g e n c i e s — i n - 9 7 -S u r r e y a n d i n V a n c o u v e r . T h i s t y p e o f m a j o r i t y r e s p o n s e w a s e x p e c t e d a s r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g b y i t s v e r y n a t u r e r e q u i r e s a g o o d l o o k f o r w a r d d u e t o t h e l o n g t i m e l a g s b e t w e e n p e r c e i v -e d r e c r e a t i o n n e e d a n d a c t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h a t n e e d v i a r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o r r e c r e a t i o n s i t e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t ( T a b l e x l v i ) . C r i t e r i o n 4 2 c o n c e r n s o n e a s p e c t o f h o w e x t e n s i v e t h e s u p p l y a n a l y s i s s h o u l d b e . T h e m a j o r i t y o f a g e n c i e s h a d , o n h a n d , m u c h o f t h e d a t a r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h i s c r i t e r i o n . F i v e a g e n c i e s , h o w e v e r , h a d o n l y m i n i m a l d a t a ( T a b l e x l v i i ) . T h e f i n a l ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i o n ' , f o r a l a r g e p a r t , d e a l s w i t h t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s — l a n d , f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s . T o p r e v e n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g • c a p a c i t y c o n s t r a i n t s ' f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i s f e l t n e c e s -s a r y . O n l y t w o a g e n c i e s c o m p l e t e l y m e t t h i s s t a n d a r d , a n d a n a d d i t i o n a l t w o a g e n c i e s a l m o s t m e t t h e s t a n d a r d ( T a b l e x l v i i i ) . C o n c l u s i o n s ( a ) T h e n i n e t e e n ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' p r e s e n t e d a s s t a n d a r d s t o b e m e t i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n s u p p l y a n a l y s i s , h a v e b e e n m e t t o t h e e x t e n t o f 56 p e r c e n t b y t h e s t u d y g r o u p . O n l y f i v e a r e a s d i d b e t t e r t h a n t h e s t u d y g r o u p a v e r a g e . -98-The f o l l o w i n g l i s t ranks the t h i r t e e n study areas ac-cording to how w e l l they met a l l nineteen ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' presented i n t h i s chapter. Area Rank Coquitlam 4 D e l t a 1 1 GVRD 9 New Westminster 7 North Vancouver C i t y 1 3 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 12 Port Coquitlam 6 P o r t Moody 1 Richmond 5 Surrey 8 Vancouver 10 West Vancouver 3 White Rock 2 Only two r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s — i n Port Moody and i n White Rock—have achieved a high absolute percentage score, i n meeting the nineteen ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' presented (Table 1 ) . Both these agencies, i n a d d i t i o n , appear to have scored - 9 9 -w e l l o n a l l t h r e e s u b j e c t a r e a s e v a l u a t e d i n t h e s u p p l y -a n a l y s i s s i n f o r m a t i o n p r e r e q u i s i t e s ; a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s ; a n d , s c o p e o f t h e s u p p l y a n a l y s i s , ( d ) T h e p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s f o r t h e t h r e e s u b j e c t a r e a s e v a l u -a t e d i n t h e s u p p l y a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w : G r a p h I I I D e g r e e T o W h i c h ' S u p p l y C r i t e r i a ' H a v e B e e n M e t  B y T h e S t u d y G r o u p S u b j e c t A r e a E v a l u a t e d V \ \ \ \ ^ T T I ( 6 2 . 3 1 ) I n f o r m a t i o n P r e r e q u i s i t e s \ \ \ N ( 3 8 . 0 8 ) A n a l y s i s T e c h n i q u e s \ \ \ \ (5^.87) S c o p e o f t h e S u p p l y A n a l y s i s 0% 50% 100% -100-T a b l e xxx R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 25 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a •a-G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k -101-T a b l e xxxi R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 2 6 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e No Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m # D e l t a * G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r •K-N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r # W h i t e R o c k * -102 T a b l e x x x i i R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 2 ? M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a * G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m # P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d •SC-S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r tt W h i t e R o c k tt 0 -103-T a b l e x x x i i i R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 2 8 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a * G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t « P o r t C o q u i t l a m tt P o r t M o o d y tt R i c h m o n d tt S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k » -104--Table xxxiv R e c r e a t i o n Supply A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 29 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does N o t Apply Coquitlam D e l t a # GVRD •a-New Westminster North Vancouver C i t y •a-North Vancouver D i s t r i c t * Port Coquitlam Port Moody •a- -Richmond # Surrey * Vancouver West Vancouver White Rock * -105-T a b l e x x x v R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 30 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e No Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r # W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k * --106-Table x x x v i • R e c r e a t i o n Supply A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 31 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam * D e l t a GVRD #• New Westminster North Vancouver C i t y * North Vancouver D i s t r i c t * Port Coquitlam Port Moody * Richmond tt Surrey * Vancouver West Vancouver # White Rock * -107-T a b l e x x x v i i R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 32 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m it D e l t a G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y • f r R i c h m o n d S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * -108-T a b l e x x x v i i i R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 3 3 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a * G V R D « N e w W e s t m i n s t e r « N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t » P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d tt S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * - 1 0 9 -Table xxxix R e c r e a t i o n Supply A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 34 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam * D e l t a it GVRD New Westminster it North Vancouver C i t y * North Vancouver D i s t r i c t # Port Coquitlam * Port Moody * Richmond Surrey * Vancouver West Vancouver * White Rock * -110-T a b l e x l R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s $ C r i t e r i o n 35 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k * - I l l -T a b l e x i i R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 36 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m » D e l t a » G V R D tt N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m tt P o r t M o o d y tt R i c h m o n d S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r tt W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k * 1 -112-T a b l e x l i i R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 37 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e No Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a it G V R D it N e w W e s t m i n s t e r it N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y it N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d S u r r e y it V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k * -113-T a b l e x l i i i R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n JB M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y # V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k * -114-T a b l e x l i v R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 39 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a * G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t •K-P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * -115-Table x i v R e c r e a t i o n Supply A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 40 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m » D e l t a * G V R D tt N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y « N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k -116-T a b l e x l v i R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 4 1 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m tt D e l t a » G V R D # N e w W e s t m i n s t e r « N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m tt P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r # W h i t e R o c k tt -117-T a b l e x l v i i R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 4-2 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a •St-G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r # N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y - * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t •st-P o r t C o q u i t l a m # P o r t M o o d y •st-R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y # V a n c o u v e r •St-W e s t V a n c o u v e r •it-W h i t e R o c k it--118-T a b l e x l v i i i R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 4-3 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a tt G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m » P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d tt S u r r e y tt V a n c o u v e r # W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k * - 1 1 9 -Table x l i x R e c r e a t i o n a l Planning Methodology i Supply A n a l y s i s : Degree To Which The Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The T h i r t e e n Study Areas M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Are C r i t e r i a Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam 7 2 7 3 0 D e l t a 6 6 2 5 0 GVRD 5 1 12 1 0 New Westminster 3 6 9 1 0 North Vancouver C i t y 3 1 8 7 0 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 1 5 7 6 0 Port Coquitlam 14 2 3 0 0 Port Moody 18 0 0 1 0 Richmond 13 1 1 2 2 Surrey 2 9 6 2 0 Vancouver 3 2 8 3 3 West Vancouver 10 0 8 1 0 White Rock 18 0 1 0 0 \ -12 co-Table 1 R e c r e a t i o n a l Planning Methodology i Supply Analysis« Degree To Which The Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The T h i r t e e n Study A r e a s — B y Percentage Degree And Rank M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Poi n t Score Percent Score Uncorrected Percent Score Corrected Rank Coquitlam 48 50.5395 50.5395 7 D e l t a 50 5 2 . 6 3 5 2 . 6 3 6 GVRD 40 42.11 42.11 10 New Westminster 42 4 4 . 2 1 4 4 . 2 1 9 North Vancouver C i t y 26 2 7 - 3 7 2 7 . 3 7 12 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 2? 28.42 28.42 13 Port Coquitlam 79 8 3 . 1 6 8 3 . 1 6 .3 Port Moody 90 9 4 . 7 4 9 4 . 7 4 2 Richmond 69 7 2 . 6 3 81.18 4 Surrey 43 4 5 . 2 6 4 5 . 2 6 8 Vancouver 29 3 0 . 5 3 3 6 . 2 5 11 West Vancouver 58 6 1 . 0 5 6 1 . 0 5 5 White Rock 91 9 5 . 7 9 9 5 . 7 9 1 AVERAGEi 53 5 6 . 0 3 5 7 . 1 3 \ - 1 2 1 -Table l i SUPPLY ANALYSIS—SUMMARY TABLE OF AGGREGATE TOTALS* C r i t e r i o n Subject Areas Score Number Evaluated T o t a l T o t a l ' Uncorrected Corrected P o s s i b l e A c t u a l Percentage Percentage Information P r e r e q u i s i t e s 2 5 65 6 3 9 6 . 9 2 9 6 . 9 2 2 6 65 4 7 7 2 . 3 1 7 2 . 3 1 27 65 41 63.O8 63.O8 28 6 5 2 6 40.00 40.00 29 6 5 2 1 3 2 . 3 1 3 2 . 3 1 30 6 5 28 4 3 . 0 8 4 3 . 0 8 31 65 38 58.46 6 3 . 3 3 32 65 30 46.15 46.15 33 65 58 8 9 . 2 3 8 9 . 2 3 34 65 6 1 9 3 . 8 5 9 3 . 8 5 35 65 42 64.62 64.62 36 6 5 3 1 4 7 . 6 9 4 7 . 6 9 AVERAGE: 65 40.50 6 2 . 3 1 6 2 . 7 1 A n a l y s i s Techniques 37 65 2 6 40.00 4 3 . 3 3 38 65 24 3 6 . 9 2 3 6 . 9 2 39 65 29 4 4 . 6 2 48.33 40 65 2 0 3 0 . 7 7 3 3 - 3 3 AVERAGE s 65 24.75 3 8 . 0 8 40.48 Scope of An a l y s i s 41 6 5 4 9 7 5 . 3 8 7 5 . 3 8 42 65 39 6 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 4 3 65 19 2 9 . 2 3 2 9 . 2 3 AVERAGE: 65 3 5 . 6 7 5 4 . 8 7 5 5 . 6 8 *the aggregate t o t a l s f o r the t h i r t e e n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s surveyed f o r each c r i t e r i o n t e s t e d C H A P T E R V A n E v a l u a t i o n  O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d - S u p p l y L i n k a g e A n a l y s i s  U s e d B y T h i r t e e n A r e a s I n T h e G V R D T h e f i n a l m a j o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e c r e a t i o n u t i l i z a t i o n i . e . u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h a t f o r c e s a c t t o b r i n g r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d a n d r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s t o g e t h e r , i s t h e d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e s t u d y . W i t h o u t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e s , r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s m a y w e l l b e u n d e r u s e d a n d o p t i m u m s a t i s f a c t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c f r o m r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y m a y n e v e r b e r e a l i z e d . Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a S u g g e s t e d : T h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r v a r i a b l e s a r e c h i e f e x a m p l e s o f d e m a n d -s u p p l y l i n k a g e f a c t o r s . T h e y s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d a s i m -p o r t a n t a n d e f f o r t s h o u l d b e m a d e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r i m -p a c t o n f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d s . 4 4 . A w a r e n e s s i . e . t h e l e v e l o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e a v a i l -a b i l i t y a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a f a c i l i t y . I t i s i n f l u e n c e d b y i d e n t i t y o r a s s o c i a t i o n , p u b l i c i t y a n d p r o x i m i t y ; 4 5 . A c c e s s i b i l i t y i . e . j o u r n e y t i m e a n d j o u r n e y c o s t i n t e r m s o f f i n a n c i a l , p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l e x p e n d i t u r e ; -122--123-4 6 . A t t r a c t i o n o r d e t r a c t i o n f a c t o r s i . e . c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s , w h e n g r o u p e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o o n e a n o t h e r , w i l l m u t u a l l y a t t r a c t o r d e t r a c t . F o r e x a m p l e , s m a l l e r f a c i l i t i e s h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o b e m o s t a f f e c t e d b y b e i n g c l o s e t o l a r g e r f a c i l i t i e s : a n d , 4 7 . T h e w e a t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h a f f e c t s m o s t a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t -l y o r i n d i r e c t l y . P e o p l e m a y n o t p u r s u e p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n c e r t a i n w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s a n d c o n s e q u e n t -l y w i l l s e e k a l t e r n a t i v e s . O n l y o n e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y , i n P o r t M o o d y , w a s c o n -s i s t e n t i n f u l l y m e e t i n g a l l f o u r o f t h e a b o v e ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' . H o w e v e r , o v e r h a l f o f t h e o t h e r m e m b e r s i n t h e s t u d y g r o u p e i t h e r c o m p l e t e l y o r a l m o s t m e t m o s t o f t h e s e f o u r c r i t e r i a ( T a b l e s I i i , l i i i , l i v a n d l v ) . I n t e r m s o f t h e e n t i r e s t u d y g r o u p , l i n k a g e f a c t o r s c o n -c e r n e d w i t h r e s o u r c e a w a r e n e s s a n d w e a t h e r w e r e r e c o g n i z e d a s b e i n g t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f t h e f o u r l i n k a g e f a c t o r s p r e s e n t e d . G e n e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t y w a s w e a k e s t c o n -c e r n i n g t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y l i n k a g e f a c t o r , w i t h t w o a g e n c i e s — i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r a n d i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t — h a v i n g a l -l o t e d n o i m p o r t a n c e t o t h i s f a c t o r . C o n c l u s i o n s ( a ) T h e f o u r ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' p r e s e n t e d a s p l a n n i n g a n d -124-research standards to be met i n the demand-supply l i n k a g e a n a l y s i s have been achieved to the degree of 58 percent by the study group. Seven members of t h i s group d i d b e t t e r than the average percent score (Table l v i i i ) . The i n d i v i d u a l members of the study group were ranked ac-cording to how w e l l they met the four c r i t e r i a i n t h i s chapter. Area Rank Coquitlam 3 D e l t a 3 GVRD 5 New Westminster 4 North Vancouver C i t y 4 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 6 Port Coquitlam 2 Port Moody 1 Richmond 2 Surrey 3 Vancouver 3 West Vancouver 4 White Rock 3 -125-Only three r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s — i n Port Moody, Port Coquitlam and i n Richmond—have r e c e i v e d a high percent-age score i n the demand-supply l i n k a g e a n a l y s i s (Table l v i i ) . -126-T a b l e H i D e m a n d - S u p p l y L i n k a g e A n a l y s i s s C r i t e r i o n 4 4 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a * G V R D « N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t » P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k tt -127-T a b l e l i i i D e m a n d - S u p p l y L i n k a g e A n a l y s i s s C r i t e r i o n 4-5 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y •a-N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m * • P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k -128-Table l i v " Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis: Criterion 46 Municipality or Area Is Criterion Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam # Delta * GVRD New Westminster * North Vancouver City North Vancouver Dis tr ic t tt Port Coquitlam Port Moody * Richmond * Surrey tt Vancouver West Vancouver tt White Rock # -129-Table l v Demand-Supply Linkage A n a l y s i s : C r i t e r i o n 47 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam it D e l t a •a-GVRD * New Westminster # North Vancouver C i t y North Vancouver D i s t r i c t Port Coquitlam * Port Moody * Richmond •a-Surrey Vancouver * West Vancouver •a-White Rock * - 1 3 0 -T a b l e l v i R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g y i D e m a n d - S u p p l y L i n k a g e A n a l y s i s i D e g r e e T o W h i c h T h e Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a H a v e B e e n M e t B y T h e T h i r t e e n S t u d y A g e n c i e s M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a A r e C r i t e r i a M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m 2 0 2 0 0 D e l t a 0 k 0 0 0 G V R D 1 0 3 0 0 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 0 3 1 0 0 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y 0 3 1 0 0 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t 0 0 3 1 0 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 3 1 0 0 0 P o r t M o o d y 0 0 0 0 R i c h m o n d 2 2 0 0 0 S u r r e y 1 2 1 0 0 V a n c o u v e r 1 1 1 0 1 W e s t V a n c o u v e r 2 0 0 2 0 W h i t e R o c k 2 0 2 0 0 - 1 3 1 -Table l v i i Recreational Planning Methodology! Demand-Supply Linkage Analysis! Degree To Which The Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas—By Percentage Degree And Rank Municipality or Area Point Score Percent Score Uncorrected Percent Score Corrected Rank Coquitlam 12 6 0 . 0 0 $ 6 0 . 0 0 $ 3 Delta 12 6 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 3 GVRD 8 40 . 0 0 40 . 0 0 5 New Westminster 10 5 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 4 North Vancouver City 10 5 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 4 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 3 1 5 . 0 0 1 5 . 0 0 6 Port Coquitlam 16 80 . 0 0 80 . 0 0 2 Port Moody 20 1 0 0 , 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 Richmond 16 80 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 2 Surrey - i • 12 6 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 3 Vancouver 9 4 5 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 3 West Vancouver 10 5 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 4 White Rock 12 6 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 3 AVERAGEi 12 5 7 . 6 9 5 8 . 8 5 \ -132-Table l v i i i DEMAND-SUPPLY LINKAGE ANALYSIS—SUMMARY TABLE OF AGGREGATE TOTALS* C r i t e r i o n S ubject Area Score Number Ev a l u a t e d T o t a l T o t a l Uncorrected C o r r e c t e d P o s s i b l e A c t u a l Percentage Percentage Linkage F a c t o r s LL 65 4 3 6 6 . 1 5 6 6 . 1 5 4 5 65 34 5 2 . 3 1 5 6 . 6 7 4 6 65 34 5 2 . 3 1 5 2 . 3 1 4 7 65 4 1 6 3 . O 8 6 3 . O 8 Average: 65 38 5 8 . 4 6 5 9 . 5 5 *the aggregate t o t a l s f o r the t h i r t e e n areas surveyed f o r each c r i t e r i o n t e s t e d C H A P T E R V I A n E v a l u a t i o n  O f T w e l v e * P a r k A n d / O r R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c i e s I n T h e G V R D T h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s i n t h e s t u d y g r o u p . T h e c o m p a r a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s c o n c e n t r a t e s o n d e f i n i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t y a n d s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y t o a c h i e v e t h e t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g o u t l i n e d i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g m o d e l p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I . A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e h a l f o f t h e s u r v e y , P l a n n i n g F o r F u t u r e  U r b a n R e c r e a t i o n — A n E v a l u a t i o n O f B o t h P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g i e s A n d P l a n n i n g A g e n c i e s , w a s d e v o t e d t o g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e -g a r d i n g t h e t w e l v e r e c r e a t i o n a n d / o r p a r k a g e n c i e s i n t h e s t u d y g r o u p . S u b j e c t a r e a s e v a l u a t e d i n c l u d e d i A . A t t i t u d e T o w a r d s R e s e a r c h ; B . G e n e r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; c . A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y t o d o R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h ; a n d , A l t h o u g h N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y w a s t h e t h i r t e e n t h a r e a s t u d i e d , t h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y d i d n o t h a v e a p u b l i c P a r k a n d / o r R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y . D u e t o t h e s t u d y m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a e m p l o y e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r d i d n o t a p p l y t o N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y . -133-- 1 3 4 -D. C a p a b i l i t y of the Recreation Agency; 1. Agency S t a f f ; 2. Budget Considerations; and, 3. Information C a p a b i l i t y . As i n Chapters I I I , IV and V, ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' were used as i n d i c a t o r s of the type of c o n d i t i o n s t h a t should be accepted w i t h i n a r e c r e a t i o n agency. A. A t t i t u d e Towards Research Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a Suggested: 48. There should be r e c o g n i t i o n by the agency t h a t a l -though i t appears obvious t h a t demand f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n e x i s t s , there i s a r e a l need to assess the type, nature and q u a n t i t y of demand f o r f u t u r e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n resources; and, 4 9 . Research i n demand a n a l y s i s , supply a n a l y s i s and demand-supply linka g e a n a l y s i s should not be regarded as too complex, wi t h too many immeasurable v a r i a b l e s , to be recognized as being a u s e f u l and p r a c t i c a b l e planning t o o l . The above two c r i t e r i a were w e l l met by most members of the study group. Three agencies, however, admitted t h a t there was only p a r t i a l r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r agency t h a t r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h was necessary (Table l i x ) . F urther, two agencies - 1 3 5 -i n d i c a t e d t h a t the type of study o u t l i n e d i n C r i t e r i o n 49 was, to some degree, too s o p h i s t i c a t e d f o r t h e i r agency to handle p r o p e r l y (Table l x ) ; B. General Considerations Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a Suggested* 5 0 . R e c r e a t i o n a l planning w i t h i n the r e c r e a t i o n agency should be continuous, coordinated and systematic; 5 1 . An exchange mechanism should be e s t a b l i s h e d to a l l o w f o r both inter-governmental and intra-governmental communication i n r e c r e a t i o n a l planning, to a l l o w f o r c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n of ideas, n o n - d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t and complementary research; and, 5 2 . Park and r e c r e a t i o n standards are f r e q u e n t l y borrowed from a n o n - l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n agency. These f a c i l i t y and s e r v i c e standards should be c a r e f u l l y reviewed and modified, i f necessary, to meet l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s before being adopted. Only three r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s — i n Coquitlam, Port Moody and i n R i c h m o n d — f u l l y met a l l three ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' sug-gested i n t h i s s e c t i o n . C r i t e r i o n 50 was very w e l l met by the study group members w i t h only one member t o t a l l y d e f i c i e n t and three a d d i t i o n a l agencies p a r t i a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n the type of r e c r e a t i o n a l - 1 3 6 -p l a n n i n g s u g g e s t e d ( T a b l e l x i ) . C r i t e r i o n 51 w a s t h e m o s t p o o r l y a c h i e v e d o f t h e t h r e e • q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' p r e s e n t e d . O n l y f o u r a g e n c i e s h a d e s t a b -l i s h e d t h e k i n d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n e x c h a n g e m e c h a n i s m p r o p o s e d ( T a b l e l x i i ) . T h e l a s t c r i t e r i o n , c o n c e r n e d w i t h b o r r o w e d p a r k a n d r e c -r e a t i o n s t a n d a r d s , w a s c o m p l e t e l y m e t b y h a l f o f t h e s t u d y g r o u p . O n e a g e n c y , i n a d d i t i o n , a l m o s t m e t t h e c r i t e r i o n ( T a b l e l x i i i ) . C . A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y t o d o R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a S u g g e s t e d * 5 3 . T h e s p e c i f i c l e g a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y t h a t a n a g e n c y h a s t o d o r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g s h o u l d b e c l e a r l y w r i t t e n , s t a t i n g i t s r o l e a n d l i m i t a t i o n s . T h i s a u t h o r i t y a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h o u l d b e d o c u m e n t e d i . e . r e c o r d e d i n s t a t u t e s , c h a r t e r s o r i n a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e m e m o r a n d a ! 5 4 . I t s h o u l d b e t h e r o l e a n d f u n c t i o n o f a p u b l i c r e c -r e a t i o n a n d / o r p a r k a g e n c y t o a c t , n o t o n l y a s m a i n -t a i n e r a n d o p e r a t o r o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , b u t f u r t h e r , t o a c t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t w a y a s d e v e l o p e r a n d p l a n n e r o f f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s ! a n d , - 1 3 7 -55• I f there i s another agency, p u b l i c or p r i v a t e , which i s more capable i . e . i n terms of e x p e r t i s e and oper-a t i n g budget, of handling the burden of l o c a l r e c r e a -t i o n a l planning, then such an agency should be formal-l y recommended to bear t h i s burden. Five members of the study group s t a t e d t h a t they had completely achieved a l l three c r i t e r i a presented i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The appropriateness of the r e c r e a t i o n agency to do r e c r e a -t i o n a l planning and r e l a t e d research i . e . i n terms of having a formal d i r e c t i v e o u t l i n i n g the agency's s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s matter, was i n doubt i n two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s — D e l t a and North Vancouver D i s t r i c t — a n d p a r t i a l l y i n doubt i n three a d d i -t i o n a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as i n d i c a t e d by the r esponse iB to C r i t e r i o n 53 (Table l x i v ) . Although most study group members b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was t h e i r r o l e to a c t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t way as the developer and planner of f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n resources (Table l x v ) , a l a r g e number of agencies a l s o recognized the value of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e co-operative planning i n r e c r e a t i o n (Table l x v i ) . A l a r g e number of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n agencies, f o r example, r e l i e d on s e v e r a l volunteer and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s to handle s p e c i a l types of r e c r e a t i o n programs. Further, i n almost a l l cases, members of the study group recognized t h e i r p a r t i a l dependence on s e n i o r government grants t o finance many of t h e i r l a r g e r r e s e a r c h and -138-d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s . D . C a p a b i l i t y o f t h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : A g e n c y S t a f f V a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y s t a f f a r e f e l t n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e p r o p e r l y o r g a n i z e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d r e s e a r c h c a n b e a c h i e v e d . Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a S u g g e s t e d : 56. T h e e x p e r i e n c e a n d a c a d e m i c b a c k g r o u n d o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f m e m b e r s s h o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w f o r e f f i c i e n t a n d s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h t o b e o r g a n i z e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d . S t a f f m e m b e r s s h o u l d b e c a p a b l e o f c a r r y i n g o u t r e c -r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e m a n d a n a l y s i s , s u p p l y a n a l y s i s a n d d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e a n a l y s i s ; 57. P r o f e s s i o n a l p a r k a n d r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y m e m b e r s s h o u l d b e a c t i v e m e m b e r s o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s : 58. T h e a g e n c y s h o u l d h a v e p l a n n i n g l e a d e r s h i p i . e . c o n -s t r u c t i v e a n d e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n a n d a d v i c e , e s -p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o e s t a b l i s h i n g r e s e a r c h g o a l s a n d m e t h o d o l o g y : 59. R e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h a n d p l a n n i n g s h o u l d b e a l l o t t e d t o s t a f f m e m b e r s o n t h e b a s i s o f s t a f f a b i l i t y t o c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h r a t h e r t h a n j u s t o n s t a f f a v a i l a b i l i t y t o d o r e s e a r c h ; a n d , - 1 3 9 -60. B e c a u s e o f t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g m o r e f u l l y t h e d e m a n d , s u p p l y a n d d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e f a c t o r s , a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t m a y e x i s t " b e t w e e n t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s s h o u l d h a v e t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r , o r a c c e s s t o , i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y r e s e a r c h . O n l y o n e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y — i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r — a d m i t t e d t o h a v i n g m e t c o m p l e t e l y a l l f i v e ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a * p r e s e n t i n t h i s s e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f a g e n c i e s c r e d i t e d t h e i r p r o -f e s s i o n a l s a s b e i n g a c t i v e m e m b e r s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( T a b l e l x v i i i ) , l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e a g e n c i e s f e l t t h a t , t h e y h a d t h e t y p e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f n e e d e d f o r e f f i c i e n t a n d s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h ( T a b l e l x v i i ) . M o r e t h a n h a l f o f t h e s t u d y g r o u p , h o w e v e r , i n d i c a t e d h a v i n g t h e a d e q u a t e p l a n n i n g l e a d e r -s h i p n e e d e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s ( T a b l e l x i x ) . I n t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , C r i t e r i a 59 a n d 60 w e r e u s e d t o i n d i -c a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f s h o r t a g e s i n g e n e r a l a n d i n a d e q u a t e a c c e s s t o s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f i n p a r t i c u l a r e . g . e c o l o g i s t s , h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s a n d s o o n . B o t h c r i t e r i a w e r e f u l l y m e t b y s i x a g e n c i e s ( T a b l e s l x x a n d l x x i ) . D . C a p a b i l i t y o f t h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : B u d g e t C o n s i d e r a t i o n s P o s s i b l y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c a u s a l f a c t o r u n d e r l y i n g -140-inadequate r e c r e a t i o n a l planning and research, by type and q u a n t i t y , i s the l i m i t e d research budget of the r e c r e a t i o n agency. The f o l l o w i n g nine ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a * are suggested as the type of budget c o n s i d e r a t i o n s necessary to ensure an adequate and p r o p e r l y proportioned r e c r e a t i o n research budget, i n terms of money and time. Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a Suggested« 61. P r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f members should be allowed r e g u l a r time periods to do research, v a r y i n g from l i t e r a t u r e review to f i e l d s t u d i e s ; 62. Agencies handling r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h should make a v a i l a b l e a set percentage of t h e i r t o t a l , annual a d m i n i s t r a t i v e budget f o r research purposes; and, 63. The r e c r e a t i o n and/or park agency should i n v e s t i g a t e the a v a i l a b i l i t y of governmental and p r i v a t e agency grants, and apply f o r them when they can be used ad-vantageously f o r demonstration p r o j e c t s and research. Only the White Rock p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n agency met a l l three o f the above ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a * t o t a l l y . The m a j o r i t y of the study agencies neglected to set aside a set percentage of t h e i r t o t a l annual budget f o r research purposes (Table l x x i i i ) . The agency i n Port Moody f e l t t h a t C r i t e r i o n 62 d i d not apply to i t as i t s research was t o t a l l y -141-integrated with a l l aspects of the administration of public recreation, hence, no set portion of the annual budget could be distinguished as being for research purposes only. Only f i v e recreation agencies allowed t h e i r professional s t a f f regular time periods to do research (Table l x x i i ) . The general inadequacy of the recreation agency research budget was indicated by the response of the study group to C r i t e r i o n 63 i n which nearly a l l recreation agencies took f u l l advantage of senior government and private agency f i n a n c i a l assistance (Table l x x i v ) . Additional Quality C r i t e r i a Suggested* Agencies responsible for recreational planning should have access to, or should budget for, the needed support services and f a c i l i t i e s , such ass 64. adequate l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s ; 6 5 . f u l l or part-time l i b r a r i a n ; 6 6 . computer f a c i l i t i e s and expertise; 6 7 . adequate physical o f f i c e space; 6 8 . adequate research equipment, storage f a c i l i t i e s and f i l i n g cabinets; and, 6 9 . adequate c l e r i c a l s t a f f . Although ten of the agencies surveyed indicated having adequate l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , only four agencies had either a f u l l or part-time l i b r a r i a n (Table l x x v i ) . -142-C r i t e r i o n 6 6 r e c e i v e d t h e p o o r e s t r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e t w e l v e a g e n c i e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s u r v e y , w i t h o n l y f o u r r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s h a v i n g a c c e s s t o c o m p u t e r f a c i l i t i e s a n d e x p e r t i s e ( T a b l e l x x v i i ) . W i t h r e s p e c t t o h a v i n g a d e q u a t e c l e r i c a l s t a f f , o n l y f o u r a g e n c i e s i n t h e s t u d y g r o u p s h o w e d a m a j o r d e f i c i e n c y ( T a b l e l x x x ) . A l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d y a g e n c i e s a l s o i n d i c a t e d h a v i n g s u f f i c i e n t r e s e a r c h e q u i p m e n t a n d p h y s i c a l o f f i c e s p a c e ( T a b l e s l x x v i i i a n d I x x i x ) . D . C a p a b i l i t y o f t h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : I n f o r m a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a S u g g e s t e d : 70. T h e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y s h o u l d h a v e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d -i n g t h e l a t e s t r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h e s t o d e m a n d a n a l y s i s , s u p p l y a n a l y s i s a n d d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e a n a l y s i s ? 71. R e c r e a t i o n d a t a s h o u l d b e m e a s u r e d a n d r e c o r d e d i n s t a n d a r d u n i f o r m u n i t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t , a n d i n t h e s m a l l e s t p o s s i b l e u n i t v a l u e , t o i n c r e a s e t h e g e n e r a l u s a g e o f t h i s d a t a f o r f u t u r e a n d / o r b r o a d e r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s ; a n d , 72. T h e r e c r e a t i o n a n d / o r p a r k a g e n c y s h o u l d h a v e t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , a s s e m b l y , p r o c e s s i n g a n d r e t r i e v a l . O n l y o n e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y , i n P o r t M o o d y , m e t - 1 4 3 -f u l l y a l l t h r e e o f t h e v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a * l i s t e d o n t h e p r e v i o u s p a g e . O t h e r t h a n t h e a g e n c i e s i n P o r t M o o d y , W h i t e R o c k a n d i n R i c h m o n d , a l l o t h e r a g e n c i e s p r o v e d t o b e i n a d e q u a t e r e g a r d i n g t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y , a s d e p i c t e d i n t h e l a s t t h r e e c r i t e r i a ( T a b l e s l x x x i , l x x x i i a n d l x x x i i i ) . O n l y f i v e a g e n c i e s f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e a d e q u a t e l y i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e l a t e s t r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h e s i n r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . T h e o t h e r a g e n c i e s f e l t v a r y i n g a m o u n t s o f i g n o r a n c e r e g a r d i n g s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a S u g g e s t e d * T h e f o l l o w i n g d o c u m e n t s s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e c -r e a t i o n a n d / o r p a r k a g e n c y , a s t h e y p r o v i d e e s s e n t i a l p l a n n i n g t o o l s * 73. a m u n i c i p a l o r r e g i o n a l l o n g r a n g e m a s t e r p l a n ( o f w h i c h t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s h o u l d b e a n i n t e g r a l p a r t ) * . 7 4 . a c o m p r e h e n s i v e P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n P l a n ( w h i c h s h o u l d t e l l h o w m u c h o f w h a t s h o u l d b e p u t w h e r e , f o r w h o m , w h e n i t w i l l b e n e e d e d a n d w h y i t i s i n c l u d e d ) * 75- a p a r k a n d r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y p l a n ( i . e . a f o r m a l l y w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t o f p o l i c i e s , g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s ) ; 76. a r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m ; a n d , 77. a c a p i t a l b u d g e t p l a n . - 1 4 4 -T h i s s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s t h r e e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f i c i e n t a n d r e l e v a n t r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n -n i n g i . e . C r i t e r i a 73» 74 a n d 7 5 . O n l y t w o a g e n c i e s — i n S u r r e y a n d i n W h i t e R o c k — h a d a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l a l l t h r e e o f t h e d o c u -m e n t s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e s e c r i t e r i a . I n t h e t w e l v e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d t h e o n e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t e x a m i n e d , o n l y f i v e a r e a j u r i s d i c t i o n s h a d l o n g r a n g e m a s t e r p l a n s . F u r t h e r , o n l y t w o r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s i n t h e s e t h i r t e e n a r e a s h a d a c o m p l e t e d p a r k s a n d r e c r e a t i o n p l a n t h a t w a s p a r t o f t h e l o n g r a n g e m a s t e r p l a n f o r t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n ( T a b l e s l x x x i v a n d l x x x v ) . A p a r k s a n d r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y p l a n i s a k e y t o s o u n d r e c -r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s b o t h d i r e c t i o n a n d g u i d e l i n e s f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n w h e t h e r t h e a c t i o n c o n c e r n s r e -s e a r c h g o a l s o r t h e t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m t o d e v e l o p . T h r e e o f t h e s t u d y a g e n c i e s f e l l s h o r t o f C r i t e r i o n 75 » a n d t w o o t h e r s w e r e c o m p l e t e l y v o i d o f s u c h a p o l i c y p l a n ( T a b l e l x x x v i ) . T h e l a s t t w o ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' w e r e v e r y w e l l m e t b y a l -m o s t a l l m e m b e r s o f t h e s t u d y g r o u p ( T a b l e s l x x x v i i a n d l x x x v i i i ) . C o n c l u s i o n s ( a ) T h e t h i r t y ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' s u g g e s t e d a s c o n d i t i o n s t o b e m e t b y t h e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y , h a v e b e e n a c h i e v e d t o t h e e x t e n t o f 56 p e r c e n t b y t h e s t u d y g r o u p . S e v e n a g e n c i e s e i t h e r t i e d o r d i d b e t t e r t h a n t h i s a v e r a g e s c o r e ( T a b l e x c i i i ) . - 1 4 5 -T h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t r a n k s t h e t h i r t e e n s t u d y a r e a s a c -c o r d i n g t o h o w w e l l t h e y m e t a l l t h i r t y ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . A r e a R a n k C o q u i t l a m 6 D e l t a 10 G V R D 7 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 11 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y 13 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t 12 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 4 P o r t M o o d y 1 R i c h m o n d 3 S u r r e y 9 V a n c o u v e r 8 W e s t V a n c o u v e r 5 W h i t e R o c k 2 O n l y t w o a g e n c i e s — i n P o r t M o o d y a n d i n W h i t e R o c k — a c h i e v e d a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e i . e . a b o v e 8 0 p e r c e n t , f o r a l l c r i t e r i a t e s t e d ( T a b l e x c i i i ) . - 1 4 6 -( d ) T h e p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s f o r t h e s i x s u b j e c t a r e a s e v a l u a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w s G r a p h I V D e g r e e T o W h i c h T h e ' A g e n c y C r i t e r i a ' H a v e B e e n M e t B y T h e S t u d y G r o u p s. \ \ \ ( 6 6 . 6 7 ) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ M m . 0 8 ) \ \ \ \ \ M ( 5 3 - 3 3 ) \ \ \ \ ^ \ v^l ( 5 7 . 8 5 ) 1 \ \ \ \ \ - M ( 5 0 . 9 4 ) > \ \ \ \ V I ( 5 1 . 1 5 ) U I 1 I -S u b j e c t A r e a E v a l u a t e d A t t i t u d e T o w a r d s R e s e a r c h G e n e r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s A g e n c y A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s C a p a b i l i t y r A g e n c y S t a f f B u d g e t C o n s i d e r a t i o n s I n f o r m a t i o n 1 0 0 % -147-T a b l e l i x T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : A t t i t u d e T o w a r d s R e s e a r c h : C r i t e r i o n 48 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m tt D e l t a * G V R D tt N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d tt S u r r e y tt V a n c o u v e r tt W e s t V a n c o u v e r tt W h i t e R o c k tt -148-T a b l e l x T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : A t t i t u d e T o w a r d s R e s e a r c h : C r i t e r i o n 49 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a * G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y » N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t » P o r t C o q u i t l a m « P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y tt V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k * -149-Table l x i The R e c r e a t i o n Agencys General C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : C r i t e r i o n 50 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam D e l t a * GVRD New Westminster # North Vancouver C i t y North Vancouver D i s t r i c t * Port Coquitlam Port Moody * Richmond Surrey Vancouver West Vancouver White Rock * -150-Table l x i i The R e c r e a t i o n Agency: General C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : C r i t e r i o n 51 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam * D e l t a * GVRD New Westminster * North Vancouver C i t y * North Vancouver D i s t r i c t * Port Coquitlam * Port Moody * Richmond * Surrey * Vancouver * West Vancouver White Rock * -151-Table l x i i i The R e c r e a t i o n Agency: General C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : C r i t e r i o n 52 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam * D e l t a * GVRD * New Westminster North Vancouver C i t y North Vancouver D i s t r i c t * Port Coquitlam * Port Moody Richmond •Yc Surrey Vancouver * West Vancouver # White Rock * -152-Table l x i v A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s Of The R e c r e a t i o n Agency To Do Research: C r i t e r i o n 53 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam * D e l t a * GVRD * New Westminster * North Vancouver C i t y * North Vancouver D i s t r i c t •si-Port Coquitlam * Port Moody # Richmond * Surrey •si-Vancouver West Vancouver * White Rock •ss-- 1 5 3 -T a b l e l x v A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y T o D o R e s e a r c h : C r i t e r i o n 5^ M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a tt G V R D # N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y tt R i c h m o n d S u r r e y • « V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r tt W h i t e R o c k * - 1 5 4 -T a b l e l x v i A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y T o D o R e s e a r c h : C r i t e r i o n 55 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a •a-G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t # P o r t C o q u i t l a i n P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k •3c--155-T a b l e l x v i i C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : A g e n c y S t a f f : C r i t e r i o n 56 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e N o D e g r e e D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a * G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k - 1 5 6 -T a b l e l x v i i i C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : A g e n c y S t a f f : C r i t e r i o n 57 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a tt G V R D tt N e w W e s t m i n s t e r tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y *-R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k - 1 5 7 -T a b l e l x i x C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : A g e n c y S t a f f : C r i t e r i o n 58 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a G V R D tt N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t tt P o r t C o q u i t l a m tt P o r t M o o d y tt R i c h m o n d tt S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r tt W h i t e R o c k tt -158-Table lxx• Capability Of The Recreation Agency: Agency Staff: Criterion 59 Municipality or Area Is Criterion Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam # Delta GVRD New Westminster North Vancouver City * North Vancouver Dis tr ic t * Port Coquitlam •H-Port Moody * Richmond Surrey Vancouver * West Vancouver * White Rock - 1 5 9 -T a b l e I x x i C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : A g e n c y S t a f f : C r i t e r i o n o O M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e N o D e g r e e D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m » D e l t a » G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y tt V a n c o u v e r tt W e s t V a n c o u v e r •«• W h i t e R o c k tt -160-T a b l e l x x i i C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : B u d g e t C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : C r i t e r i o n o l M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e No Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a * G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m •a-P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d S u r r e y •H-V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k -161-Table l x x i i i Capability Of The Recreation Agency: Budget Considerations: Criterion o2 Municipality or Area Is Criterion Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam Delta GVRD New Westminster North Vancouver City * North Vancouver Dis tr ic t tt Port Coquitlam * Port Moody tt Richmond tt Surrey it Vancouver « West Vancouver it White Rock tt -162-T a b l e l x x i v C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : B u d g e t C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : C r i t e r i o n 63 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m •a-D e l t a G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k -163-T a b l e l x x v C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : B u d g e t C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : C r i t e r i o n 64 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * --164-T a b l e l x x v i C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : B u d g e t C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : C r i t e r i o n 65 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a * G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d * S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r tt W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * -165-T a b l e l x x v i i C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : B u d g e t C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : C r i t e r i o n 6 6 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y •K-N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d # S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * -166-Table l x x v i r i Capability Of The Recreation Agency: Budget Considerations: Criterion 67 Municipality or Area Is Criterion Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam * Delta GVRD •K-New Westminster North Vancouver City North Vancouver Dis tr ic t * Port Coquitlam * Port Moody * Richmond •K-Surrey * Vancouver * West Vancouver * White Rock *• -167-Table l x x i x -C a p a b i l i t y Of The R e c r e a t i o n Agency: Budget C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : C r i t e r i o n 68 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam # D e l t a tt GVRD * New Westminster tt North Vancouver C i t y tt North Vancouver D i s t r i c t * Port Coquitlam « Port Moody Richmond tt Surrey Vancouver •ss-West Vancouver •si-White Rock tt -168-Table lxxx C a p a b i l i t y Of The R e c r e a t i o n Agency: Budget C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : C r i t e r i o n 69 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam D e l t a • GVRD * New Westminster •K-North Vancouver C i t y North Vancouver D i s t r i c t Port Coquitlam Port Moody * Richmond Surrey Vancouver West Vancouver * White Rock - 1 6 9 -Table Ixxxi Capability Of The Recreation Agency: Information Capability: Criterion 70 Municipality or Area Is Criterion Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam » Delta * GVRD New Westminster North Vancouver City * North Vancouver Dis tr ic t # Port Coquitlam « Port Moody Richmond tt Surrey * Vancouver * West Vancouver tt White Rock # -1?0-Table l x x x i i C a p a b i l i t y Of The R e c r e a t i o n Agency: Information C a p a b i l i t y : C r i t e r i o n 71 M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Is C r i t e r i o n Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam » D e l t a tt GVRD *-New Westminster * North Vancouver C i t y tt North Vancouver D i s t r i c t » Port Coquitlam Port Moody * Richmond # Surrey # Vancouver * West Vancouver * White Rock - 1 7 1 -T a b l e l x x x i i i C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : I n f o r m a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y : C r i t e r i o n 72 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o Does N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a * G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k -172-T a b l e lxxxiv C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : I n f o r m a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y : C r i t e r i o n 73 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m •a-D e l t a tt G V R D tt N e w W e s t m i n s t e r tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m * P o r t M o o d y tt R i c h m o n d S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k * -173-T a b l e l x x x v C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : I n f o r m a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y : C r i t e r i o n 74 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s ' A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e No Does Not A p p l y C o q u i t l a m * D e l t a •R-G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t # P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r * W h i t e R o c k * -174-T a b l e l x x x v i C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : I n f o r m a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y : C r i t e r i o n 75 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m D e l t a # G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t * P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d S u r r e y # V a n c o u v e r * W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k - 1 7 5 -T a b l e l x x x v i i C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : I n f o r m a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y : C r i t e r i o n 76 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m •H-D e l t a G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r it N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m it P o r t M o o d y * R i c h m o n d it S u r r e y it V a n c o u v e r •* W e s t V a n c o u v e r •K-W h i t e R o c k * -176-T a b l e l x x x v i i i C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : I n f o r m a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y : C r i t e r i o n 77 M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a I s C r i t e r i o n M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m •a-D e l t a * G V R D * N e w W e s t m i n s t e r * N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y tt N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d tt S u r r e y * V a n c o u v e r « W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k - 1 7 7 -Table lxxxix A G E N C Y E V A L U A T I O N — S U M M A R Y T A B L E O F A G G R E G A T E T O T A L S * C r i t e r i o n N u m b e r S u b j e c t A r e a s E v a l u a t e d S c o r e T o t a l P o s s i b l e T o t a l A c t u a l U n c o r r e c t e d P e r c e n t a g e C o r r e c t e d P e r c e n t a g e A t t i t u d e T o w a r d s R e s e a r c h 48 Lg 65 65 46 48 7 0 . 7 7 7 3 - 8 5 7 6 . 6 7 8 0 . 0 0 A V E R A G E : 65 47 7 2 . 3 1 7 8 . 3 4 G e n e r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s • 50 51 52 65 65 65 37 27 40 5 6 . 9 2 41 . 5 4 6 1 . 5 4 6 1 . 6 7 4 5 . 0 0 6 6 . 6 7 A V E R A G E s 65 3 ^ . 6 7 5 3 . 3 3 5 7 . 7 8 A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y T o D o R e s e a r c h 53 54 55 65 65 65 36 48 46 5 5 . 3 8 7 3 . 8 5 7 0 . 7 7 6 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 7 6 . 6 7 A V E R A G E : 65 4 3 - 3 3 6 6 . 6 7 7 2 . 2 2 * t h e a g g r e g a t e t o t a l f o r t h e t h i r t e e n a r e a s s u r v e y e d f o r e a c h c r i t e r i o n t e s t e d -1?8-Table lxxxix Cont'd, AGENCY EVALUATION—SUMMARY TABLE OF AGGREGATE TOTALS" Criterion Subject Areas Score Number Evaluated Total Total Uncorrected Corrected Possible Actual Percentage Percentage Agency-Capability : Staff 56 65 30 46 . 15 5 0 . 0 0 57 65 44 6 7 . 6 9 7 3 . 3 3 58 65 37 5 6 . 9 2 6 1 . 6 7 59 65 38 58.46 6 3 . 3 3 60 65 39 6 0 . 0 0 65.OO AVERAGE: 65 3 7 . 6 0 57.84 6 2 . 6 6 Agency Capability: Budget 61 65 25 38.46 41 .67 62 65 21 3 2 . 3 1 38.18 63 65 46 7 0 . 7 7 7 6 . 6 ? 64 65 4 ? 7 2 . 3 1 7 8 . 3 3 65 65 22 3 3 . 8 5 40 . 0 0 66 65 20 3 0 . 7 7 3 3 - 3 3 67 65 38 58.46 6 3 . 3 3 . 68 65 38 58.46 6 3 . 3 3 69 65 41 63 .O8 6 8 . 3 3 AVERAGE: 65 33-11 5 0 . 9 4 5 5 . 9 0 Agency Capability s Information 70 65 26 40 . 0 0 4 3 . 3 3 71 65 20 3 0 . 7 7 3 3 . 3 3 72 65 17 2 6 . 1 5 2 8 . 3 3 73 65 30 46 . 15 5 0 . 0 0 -179-Table lxxxix Cont'd. AGENCY EVALUATION--SUMMARY TABLE OF AGGREGATE TOTALS C r i t e r i o n Number Subject Areas Evaluated Score T o t a l P o s s i b l e T o t a l A c t u a l Uncorrected Percentage Corrected Percentage Agency C a p a b i l i t y : Information Cont'd 74 75 76 77 65 65 65 65 24 40 51 58 36.92 61.54 78.46 89.23 40.00 66.67 92.73 96.67 AVERAGE: 65 33-25 51.15 56.38 C H A P T E R V I I S u m m a r y A n d C o n c l u s i o n s T h e p r e c e e d i n g f o u r c h a p t e r s h a v e b e e n u s e d t o d e f i n e t h e s t a t e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h i r t e e n j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r e a s w i t h i n t h e G V R D . T w o s u b j e c t a r e a s h a v e p r o v i d e d t h e m a i n f o c u s f o r e v a l u a t i o n s r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s , a s d e f i n e d b y t h r e e s e t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e m a n d , s u p p l y a n d d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e s : a n d , t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g a g e n c y , i n t e r m s o f i t s c a p a b i l i t y a n d s u i t a b i l i t y t o u n d e r t a k e r e c r e -a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g a n d r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h . A . A n E v a l u a t i o n o f T h i r t e e n R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g i e s a n d T w e l v e P a r k a n d / o r R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c i e s 1. I n t o t a l , s e v e n t y - s e v e n ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' w e r e u s e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e s t u d y a r e a s . T h e s t u d y g r o u p m e t t h e s e ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' b y 53 p e r c e n t w i t h s i x a g e n c i e s a c h i e v i n g h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n t h e s t u d y g r o u p a v e r a g e . O n l y t w o a g e n c i e s — i n P o r t M o o d y a n d i n W h i t e R o c k — h a d r e l a -t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s i . e . a b o v e 80 p e r c e n t . T h e l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e w a s c r e d i t e d t o N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y w h i c h w a s s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d b y t h e -180--181-absenee of a municipal park and/or recreation agency. Table xcv shows the percentage scores for both the study group and for the t h i r t e e n i n d i v i d u a l members of the group. The study areas are further ranked ac-cording to how well they achieved the seventy-seven •quality c r i t e r i a ' . 2. The study group's average percentage score, f o r the two major subject areas evaluated, i s presented i n the following graph. Graph V Recreational Planning:  Degree To Which The Seventy-Seven Quality C r i t e r i a  Have Been Met By The Study Group Subject Area Evaluated \ \ \ \ \ 1 (51.39) Recreational Planning Methodology \ \ \ \ \ \ l (55.90) The Park And/Or Recreation Agency \ \ \ \ V 1 (52.95) Recreational Planning 0% 100% - 1 8 2 -3. T h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o m a j o r s u b j e c t a r e a s e v a l u a t e d . B o t h s c o r e s w e r e r a t h e r l o w c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m a x i m u m s c o r e p o s s i b l e a n d i n v i e w o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s i . e . a b o v e 80 p e r c e n t , r e c e i v e d b y t w o r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s i n t h e s t u d y g r o u p — i n P o r t M o o d y a n d i n W h i t e R o c k . T h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s o f t h e s e t w o a g e n c i e s s e r v e s t o p o i n t o u t t h a t m a n y , i f n o t a l l , o f t h e s e v e n t y -s e v e n ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' s u g g e s t e d , a r e i n f a c t a t -t a i n a b l e a n d p r a c t i c a l f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . B . A n E v a l u a t i o n o f T h i r t e e n R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g i e s 1 . T h e f o r t y - s e v e n ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a * s u g g e s t e d a s s t a n -d a r d s t o b e m e t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e x e c u t i o n o f a s o u n d r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g m e t h o d o l o g y h a v e b e e n m e t , b y t h e s t u d y g r o u p , t o t h e e x t e n t o f 51 p e r c e n t . O n l y s i x o f t h e s t u d y a g e n c i e s t e s t e d a c h i e v e d a h i g h e r p e r -c e n t a g e s c o r e t h a n t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e f o r t h e s t u d y g r o u p . T w o a g e n c i e s — i n P o r t M o o d y a n d i n W h i t e R o c k — s c o r e d e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l i . e . a b o v e 80 p e r c e n t , i n a l l t h e ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a * t h a t w e r e p r e s e n t e d . T a b l e x c i d e p i c t s h o w w e l l t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d y g r o u p m e m b e r s a n s w e r e d t h e f o r t y - s e v e n c r i t e r i a r e g a r d i n g t h e -183-r e c r e a t i o n a l planning methodology. I t shows both the percentage scores obtained and the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the group members. 2. The ' r e c r e a t i o n planning model', as presented i n Chapter I I , c o n s i s t s of three major sets of i n v e s -t i g a t i o n t h a t were f e l t necessary f o r a comprehensive approach to r e c r e a t i o n a l planning* demand a n a l y s i s ; supply a n a l y s i s ; and, demand-supply l i n k a g e a n a l y s i s . The percentage scores f o r the study group as a whole, c a l c u l a t e d from the e v a l u a t i o n of the three major sets of i n v e s t i g a t i o n l i s t e d above, are presented below i n graph form. Graph VI R e c r e a t i o n a l Planning Methodology;  Degree To Which The Forty-Seven Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a  Have Been Met By The Study Group v \ \ V V 1 (46.60) \ \ \ \ S 3 (56.03) v V V V \ ( 5 7 . 6 9 ) \ \ \ \ \~1 (51.39) 0% 100% Demand A n a l y s i s Supply A n a l y s i s Demand-Supply Linkage A n a l y s i s R e c r e a t i o n a l Planning Methodology -184-3. In the e v a l u a t i o n of both the demand a n a l y s i s and the supply a n a l y s i s , used by the study group, the general f i n d i n g was t h a t the research techniques used, f o r each a n a l y s i s type, were the major area of d e f i c i e n c y i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l planning approach. C. An E v a l u a t i o n of Twelve R e c r e a t i o n a l Planning Agencies 1. T h i r t y ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' were used i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the r e c r e a t i o n a l planning agency. The study group met these c r i t e r i a t o the degree of 56 percent. Seven agencies had higher percentage scores than the average percentage score f o r the study group. Two r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s — i n Port Moody and i n White Rock—had obtained very high percentage scores i . e . above 80 percent, f o r the t h i r t y ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' presented. North Vancouver C i t y r e c e i v e d a zero percentage score because i t lacked a r e c r e a t i o n and/or park agency. Table x c i i i shows how w e l l the study agencies answered the t h i r t y ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' . I t l i s t s both the percentage scores ob-t a i n e d and the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the study group members. 2. The twelve r e c r e a t i o n a l planning agencies were examined on the b a s i s of s e v e r a l subject areas t (a) a t t i t u d e towards research: - 1 8 5 -( b ) g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s } ( c ) a g e n c y a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s ; a n d , ( d ) a g e n c y c a p a b i l i t y i . e . ( i ) s t a f f ( i i ) b u d g e t ( i i i ) i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e s u b j e c t c a t e g o r y ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s r e s e a r c h ' r e -c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e o f a l l t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s e x a m i n e d , f o r t h e s t u d y g r o u p a s a w h o l e ( T a b l e l x x x i x ) . T h e m o s t t r o u b l e s o m e s u b j e c t a r e a f o r t h e s t u d y g r o u p c o n c e r n e d b u d g e t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( T a b l e l x x x i x ) . I n a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y w a s t h e s e c o n d m a j o r w e a k n e s s a m o n g t h e s t u d y m e m b e r s , i n g e n e r a l , w i t h o n l y 51 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u g g e s t e d ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' b e i n g m e t ( T a b l e l x x x i x ) . G e n e r a l C o n c l u s i o n s 1. R e s u l t s o f t h e c o m p a r a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d e f i c i e n c i e s i n s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h e s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g u s e d . M a j o r l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e r e s e a r c h c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s w e r e l i n k e d t o i n a d e q u a t e r e s e a r c h b u d g e t s , a n d t o i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a g e n e r a t i o n a n d p r o c e s s i n g a b i l i t y . F u r t h e r , t h e m a j o r i t y o f a g e n c i e s e x a m i n e d s h o w e d a n e e d f o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n -186-r e g a r d i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n c l i e n t e l e i . e . t h e i r d e m a n d s , p r e f e r e n c e s , d e g r e e s o f p r e f e r e n c e , l e i s u r e t i m e b u d g e t s , a n d t h e i r p a s t e d u c a t i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d t o p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n ; a n d , t h e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i . e . l a n d , f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s b y t y p e , n a t u r e a n d q u a n t i t y . I n a d e q u a t e i n -f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e t y p e s p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n s t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n e r ' s r e l i a n c e o n t h e ' s t a t u s q u o ' , t r a d i t i o n a n d r i g i d r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y a n d s e r v i c e s t a n -d a r d s ( C h a p t e r I ) , a s t h e m o s t a v a i l a b l e a n d l e a s t e x -p e n s i v e g u i d e l i n e t o u s e a s a b a s i s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n -n i n g . 2. T h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g m o d e l , p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I , p r o v i d e s a r a t h e r s i m p l e a p p r o a c h t o r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . T h e m o d e l r e c o m m e n d s t h r e e s e t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ! a d e m a n d a n a l y s i s , a s u p p l y a n a l y s i s a n d a d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e a n a l y s i s . B e c a u s e o f t h e r a t h e r s t r i n g e n t p r e r e q u i s i t e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e o p t i m u m u s e o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g m o d e l e . g . t h e s e v e n t y - s e v e n ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' s u g g e s t e d , i t i s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t a s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y o r b o d y b e e s t a b l i s h e d t o h a n d l e a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e s o p h i s -t i c a t e d r e s e a r c h w o r k . T h e s p e c i a l a g e n c y w o u l d i n v o l v e a c o o p e r a t i v e a n d c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t o n t h e p a r t o f a l l -187-m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d a r e a s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n t h e G V R D . T h e n e w a g e n c y w o u l d e n j o y s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s n o t n o w r e a l i z e d b y i n d i v i d u a l r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s i n t h e G V R D a r e a s a . c e r t a i n ' e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e ' c o u l d b e r e a l i z e d f r o m a c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e , h e n c e a l l o w i n g f o r m o r e i n -d e p t h r e s e a r c h i n t o m a n y s u b j e c t a r e a s n o t n o w e c o n -o m i c a l l y p r a c t i c a l a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l a g e n c y l e v e l ; b . a c c e s s t o , o r c a p a b i l i t y f o r i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y r e -s e a r c h a n d p l a n n i n g v i a t h e b r o a d r a n g e o f e x p e r t o p i n i o n p r e s e n t l y f o u n d i n t h e G V R D a r e a b u t f r a g -m e n t e d w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s ; a n d , c . a r e l i a b l e a n d m o r e a d e q u a t e f i n a n c i a l b a s e . S u c h a n a g e n c y c o u l d a c t a s a r e s e a r c h c e n t r e , a n d a n i n -f o r m a t i o n d e p o t f o r l o c a l p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s . 3. T h e m a j o r p l a n n i n g t o o l s o f a n y p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y a r e t h e r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y p l a n , t h e p a r k s a n d r e c r e a t i o n p l a n , a n d t h e l o n g r a n g e a r e a p l a n . M a n y a g e n c i e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a l a c k e d o n e o r m o r e o f t h e s e b a s i c p l a n n i n g d o c u m e n t s a n d a r e , a s a r e s u l t , g r e a t l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n t e r m s o f p l a n n i n g d i r e c t i o n a n d g u i d a n c e . 4. A t y p e o f c o s t / b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s a n d r e s e a r c h c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e G V R D m i g h t w a r r a n t a t t e n t i o n f r o m a n i n t e r e s t e d r e -s e a r c h e r . T h e s t u d y r e s u l t s w o u l d c e r t a i n l y p r o v e u s e f u l -188-f o r any public recreation agency i n i t s se l e c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r planning approach that has the ultimate goal of achieving optimum resource a l l o c a t i o n and maximum recreational s a t i s f a c t i o n to the public. There present-l y exists, among the thirteen j u r i s d i c t i o n a l areas ex-amined i n t h i s thesis, a wide range of recre a t i o n a l plan-ning strategies and research c a p a b i l i t y situations from which to base a f r u i t f u l investigation. - 1 8 9 -T a b l e x c R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g y t D e g r e e T o W h i c h T h e F o r t y - S e v e n Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a H a v e B e e n M e t B y T h e T h i r t e e n S t u d y A r e a s M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a A r e C r i t e r i a M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m 21 2 17 7 0 D e l t a 10 11 11 15 0 G V R D 11 2 29 4 1 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 4 23 18 2 0 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y 5 4 16 21 1 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t 1 8 21 17 0 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 27 4 14 2 0 P o r t M o o d y 43 0 2 1 1 R i c h m o n d 22 12 6 5 2 S u r r e y 5 19 19 4 0 V a n c o u v e r 7 6 22 6 6 W e s t V a n c o u v e r 24 1 18 4 0 W h i t e R o c k 38 1 8 0 0 -190-Table x c i R e c r e a t i o n a l Planning Methodology« Degree To Which The Forty-Seven Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The T h i r t e e n Study Areas« By Percentage Degree And Rank M u n i c i p a l i t y or Area Poi n t Score Percent Score Uncorrected Percent Score Corrected Rank Coquitlam 128 54.47% 5 4 . 4 7 % 6 D e l t a 94 40 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 9 GVRD 90 3 8 . 3 0 3 9 . 1 3 10 New Westminster 107 4 5 . 5 3 4 5 . 5 3 7 North Vancouver C i t y 53 2 2 . 5 5 23.04 12 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 50 21.28 21.28 13 Port Coquitlam 161 6 8 . 5 1 6 8 . 5 1 3 Port Moody 217 9 2 . 3 4 9 4 . 3 5 1 Richmond 152 64 . 6 8 6 7 . 5 6 4 Surrey 101 42 . 9 8 42 . 9 8 8 Vancouver 75 . 3 1 . 9 1 3 6 . 5 9 11 West Vancouver 141 6 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 . 5 White Rock 201 8 5 . 5 3 8 5 . 5 3 2 AVERAGEi 121 5 1 . 3 9 5 2 . 2 3 \ - 1 9 1 -Table x c i i The Park And/Or Recreation Agencyi Degree To Which The Thir t y Quality C r i t e r i a Have Been Met By The Thirteen Study Areas Municipality or Area Are C r i t e r i a Met? Yes Almost To Some Degree No Does Not Apply Coquitlam 17 1 10 2 0 Delta 10 . 2 10 8 0 GVRD 13 3 10 3 1 New Westminster 4 9 13 4 0 North Vancouver City 0 0 0 0 30 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 0 6 11 13 0 Port Coquitlam 18 5 6 . 1 0 Port Moody 25 o 4 .0 1 Richmond 18 7 3 1 1 Surrey 9 9 9 3 0 Vancouver 10 5 8 7 0 West Vancouver 17 6 6 1 0 White Rock 24 0 6 0 0 \ - 1 9 2 -T a b l e x c i i i T h e P a r k A n d / O r R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : D e g r e e T o W h i c h T h e T h i r t y Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a H a v e B e e n M e t B y T h e T h i r t e e n S t u d y A r e a s : B y P e r c e n t a g e D e g r e e A n d R a n k M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a P o i n t S c o r e P e r c e n t S c o r e U n c o r r e c t e d P e r c e n t S c o r e C o r r e c t e d R a n k C o q u i t l a m 98 6 5 - 3 3 $ 6 5 . 3 3 $ 6 D e l t a 66 4 4 . 0 0 4 4 . 0 0 10 G V R D 84 5 6 . 0 0 5 7 . 9 3 7 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 60 4 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 11 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 13 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t 29 1 9 . 3 3 1 9 . 3 3 12 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 111 7 4 . 0 0 7 4 . 0 0 4 P o r t M o o d y 129 8 6 . 0 0 8 8 . 9 7 1 R i c h m o n d 114 7 6 . 0 0 7 8 . 6 2 •3 S u r r e y 81 5 4 . 0 0 5 4 . 0 0 9 V a n c o u v e r 83 5 5 . 3 3 5 5 . 3 3 8 W e s t V a n c o u v e r 109 7 2 . 6 7 7 2 . 6 7 . 5 W h i t e R o c k 126 8 4 . 0 0 8 4 . 0 0 2 A V E R A G E : 84 5 5 - 9 0 5 6 . 4 8 - 1 9 3 -T a b l e x c i v S u m m a r y C o m p a r i s o n i T h e P a r k A n d / O r R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y A n d T h e R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g y ! D e g r e e T o W h i c h T h e S e v e n t y - S e v e n Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a H a v e B e e n M e t B y T h e T h i r t e e n S t u d y A r e a s M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a A r e C r i t e r i a M e t ? Y e s A l m o s t T o S o m e D e g r e e N o D o e s N o t A p p l y C o q u i t l a m 38 3 27 9 0 D e l t a 20 13 21 23 0 G V R D 2 4 5 39 7 2 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 8 32 31 6 0 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y 5 4 16 21 31 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t 1 14 32 30 0 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 4 5 9 20 3 0 P o r t M o o d y 68 0 6 .1 2 R i c h m o n d 4 0 19 9 6 3 S u r r e y 14 28 2 8 7 0 V a n c o u v e r 17 11 30 13 6 W e s t V a n c o u v e r 4 1 7 2 4 5 0 W h i t e R o c k 62 1 1 4 0 0 \ -194-T a b l e x c v S u m m a r y C o m p a r i s o n : T h e P a r k A n d / O r R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y A n d T h e R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g y ; D e g r e e T o W h i c h T h e S e v e n t y - S e v e n Q u a l i t y C r i t e r i a H a v e B e e n M e t B y T h e T h i r t e e n S t u d y A r e a s : B y P e r c e n t a g e D e g r e e A n d R a n k M u n i c i p a l i t y o r A r e a P o i n t S c o r e P e r c e n t S c o r e U n c o r r e c t e d P e r c e n t S c o r e C o r r e c t e d R a n k C o q u i t l a m 226 58.70% 58.70% 6 D e l t a 160 41.56 41.56 11 G V R D 174 45.19 46.40 8 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 167 4 3 . 3 8 4 3 . 3 8 9 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y 13.77 23.04 13 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t 79 20.52 20.52 12 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 272 70.65 70.65 4 P o r t M o o d y 346 8 9 . 8 7 9 2 . 2 7 1 R i c h m o n d 266 69.09 71.89 3 S u r r e y 182 47 .27 47 .27 7 V a n c o u v e r 148 38.44 41.69 10 W e s t V a n c o u v e r 250 64.94 64.94 5 W h i t e R o c k 327 84.94 84.94 2 A V E R A G E : ' -204 52.95 54.40 - 1 9 5 -B I B L I O G R A P H Y A b r a m s o n , M . 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R e c r e a t i o n A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l . A Uniform Method  f o r Measuring and Repo r t i n g R e c r e a t i o n Use on the P u b l i c  Lands and Waters o f the United S t a t e s . Washington, D. C.: R e c r e a t i o n A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , 1965• Van der Smissen, B. E v a l u a t i o n and S e l f - S t u d y o f P u b l i c Rec- r e a t i o n and Park Agencies (A Guide with Standards and E v a l u a t i v e C r i t e r i a ) . A r l i n g t o n , V i r g i n i a : N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n and Park A s s o c i a t i o n , 1972. Van Doren, C., and B. Lentnek. " A c t i v i t y S p e c i a l i z a t i o n Among Ohio's R e c r e a t i o n Boaters," J o u r n a l o f L e i s u r e Research. V o l . 1. No. 4 , - 1 9 6 9 . -204-W a g n e r , J . V . K . " S o m e M a j o r P r i n c i p l e s i n R e c r e a t i o n L a n d -U s e P l a n n i n g , " J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y . N o . 49, 1951. W e i n e r , M . E . S y s t e m s A p p r o a c h T o M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i o n . I n s t i t u t e o f P u b l i c S e r v i c e , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t , 1970. W e n n e r g r e n , E . B . , a n d D . B . N i e l s e n . " P r o b a b i l i t y E s t i m a t e s o f R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d s , " J o u r n a l o f L e i s u r e R e s e a r c h . V o l . 2. N o . 1. W a s h i n g t o n , D . C~ W i n t e r , 1970. W i l s o n , C . " T h e L o c a t i o n a l a n d L e g a l A s p e c t s o f R e c r e a t i o n a l O p e n S p a c e I n T h e U r b a n C o m m u n i t y . " W a t e r l o o , O n t a r i o : W a t e r l o o L u t h e r a n U n i v e r s i t y , 19^ 9 • W o l f e , R . I . " T h e G e o g r a p h y o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n : A D y n a m i c A p p r o a c h , " G e o g r a p h i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , B . C . G e o g r a p h y S e r i e s  N o . 8 ( a d d r e s s e d t o t h e B . C . D i v i s i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f G e o g r a p h e r s , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , -J M a r c h 18, 1967. W r i g h t , J . R . G u i d e l i n e s t o R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e G o a l s . N o . 4?. G u e l p h , O n t a r i o : U n i v e r s i t y o f G u e l p h , T h e C e n t r e f o r R e s o u r c e s D e v e l o p m e n t , N o v e m b e r , 1971. Y u k i c , T . S . " S t a n d a r d s a s I n s t r u m e n t s o f C o m p a r i s o n , " F u n d a - m e n t a l s o f R e c r e a t i o n . N e w Y o r k : H a r p e r & R o w , 1963. -205-APPENDICES -206-A p p e n d i x I P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n a n d / o r P a r k A g e n c i e s S u r v e y e d M u n i c i p a l i t y o r  A r e a C o q u i t l a m D e l t a G V R D N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t M o o d y R i c h m o n d S u r r e y V a n c o u v e r W e s t V a n c o u v e r W h i t e R o c k A g e n c y P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t R e g i o n a l P a r k s O f f i c e P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t • ( n o n e ) P a r k s D e p a r t m e n t R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t B o a r d o f P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t O f f i c e o f t h e C i t y C l e r k A g e n c y  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e D . C u n n i n g s ( D i r e c t o r ) M . P o w l e y ( D i r e c t o r ) A . P e n n e r ( R e g i o n a l P a r k O f f i c e r ) K . W i n s l a d e ( A d m i n i s t r a t o r ) G . P a u g e t t ( B u i l d i n g D e p a r t m e n t ) D . O o s t i n d i e ( S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) J . T a y l o r ( D i r e c t o r ) M . R . S a v o i e ( D i r e c t o r ) 0 . H a r w o o d ( A d m i n i s t r a t o r ) W. G r e e n ( A d m i n i s t r a t o r ) C . M a n n ; ( A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A s s i s t a n t ) J . W o o d ( S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) W. C o p e m a n ( A r e n a M a n a g e r ) -20?-Appendix II Town And Community Park Space Standards For Several M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Within The GVRD C o q u i t l a m . W e s t V a n c o u v e r N o r t h V a n . D i s t . : S u r r e y B u r n a b y N o r t h V a n . C i t y V a n c o u v e r N e w W e s t m i n s t e r W h i t e R o c k P o r t C o q u i t l a m R i c h m o n d D e l t a P o r t M o o d y F r a s e r M i l l s ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ o.o 0.5 -'i.o . A c r e s / 1 0 0 P o p u l a t i o n 1.5 Source: Corporation Of The C i t y Of New Westminster: 1970 -208-Appendix III Current R e c r e a t i o n a l P r e f e r e n c e s OUTINGS PER PERSON PER YEAR PURPOSE OF OUTING U.S.A.1 7 PU'JET SOUND2 FOR ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE LOWER MAINLAND3 ALL ACTIVITIES 4 REGIONAL PARK ACTIVITIES ONLY 5 • Sporto rind Games o children'a play area a c t i v i t y o a t h l e t i c f i e l d a c t i v i t y o g o l f i n g o recreation centre, '©..corciaercial sports-y11,4 not given not-given• not given •'• • • 2.0 ' not given not given y 9.0 2.0' not estimated - not estimated . not Regional '.•'•.''7. 7, not Regional 1/10 i n Regional.Parka = not regional not Regional i n c i d e n t a l i n c i d e n t a l ..; .2 Observation o nature study o sightseeing o pleasure d r i v i n g • 2.1 . 5.9 • • 20.7 . 2.0 [-17.7 2.5 • • 5.0. •••;. . 15.0 ... ' i Regional = . 1/3 Regional.= 7-• roads i n Regionai.'Parks. s= 'l'-25 . . .• :i.7 -1.0 Picnicking -and Caaminff ;;, ' ' o picnicking • ' o group capping o overnight camping . •'• 3 - 5 ' V :-...7.5 •••• .3." • 3 - ° • ' i .Regional =• 77.-. •.•;'•.•.• . i Regional = not Regional . 3.75 Beach Use o swimming and beach a c t i v i t y l i ; 3 . ' .14.0 ;:3/4 Regional ',=/;•'. .- J. •10.5". 'Water Soort '•' o boating, canoeing,.sailing . • • .o other water sport ' ..... .•>' :' 2.2 .,'' 6.7 '•-.'.1.6 • '•'.'• *•' • ••.••:5'.0. .5/.:.•. 74 frons Regional • base. = •' •j.from Regional' base. = .'2.5 ' .• : .25 Winter Sport •'. \k '••„ . ••'.•• . ; •••• .'•.'.'•:.' •• • 7 < • o .skiing o other winter sports .1 • 77.• • .• i . i • •''. ".'."2.0'"'. '" not. Regional •'•• ''-! .•'' 1/3 Regional V ':' '•' . .oinor .2 T r a i l ' Une' ••• .' ''•'''• ' © s t r o l l i n g ;•. © hiking - ' c mountaineering . . o t r a i l r i d i n g -. 1 7 . 9 '." , >• -.4 •. •; .1 : . ..1.3 \7: ' . 10.0'' .".''"•:•.'• '• 3.8 •; not given .6 V'.'.-v 12;0 .•^:-.:."4..0-.', • ' .1 ." •' - 6 :' ' • Jr Regional = . i - Regional - .' ' . • 7 . not Regional .7 Regional =' 'v ' 6.0' ••• .2.0 . ninor * / -3. Fishing and Hunting o sport3 f i s h i n g o hunting 4.2 ' 1.9 6.0 1.3 6.0 •:' •'  •'. • '. - 5 '. ' "• •1/3 Regional ="••' 7 '-' • : ' '  •• not Regional 2.0 i n c i d e n t a l . """Outdoor Recreation Reeourceo Review Commission, National Recreation Survey. ORRKC Study Report 19, Washington, D.C; 1962. 2 L. K, Korthwood et..al:.'.Outdoor Recreation i n the Pu^et Sound Region. 1963. Seattle, Washington; 1964. : ^Aasumea adequate f a c i l i t i e s available-.. ., •^Estimated ' , ' '^Calculated from t h i r d column on basis of proportions shown, which are based on Table 2. v.'-. Source: .GVRD: 1 9 6 6 - 2 0 9 -Appendix IV The Complete Park System: GVRD PARK TYPE WTO RS3POSSIBILITY (municipal, private, or joint responsibility}) WSIGhTiO'JRHOOD PARKS (municipal reaponaibillty3) COMMUNITY PARKS (aunicipal rwaponalbilityJ) PARK PUNCTIOH' o to provide pro-school children In u garden aparlacnt, housing projoct, or other higher density r e s i d e n t i a l area with a substitute for the "backyard*; doy uao. o cai n l y to provide wet l v l t y areno for pro-school and eleaentary school children i n the r e s i d e n t i a l "neighbour* hood" (3,000-6,000 pooplo) served by an elementary achool; day uae. o nay include play lot. o aainly to provido net 1 v i t y arena f o r high achool Btudenta and yauAj? adults in the "comaunity" (15,000-40,000 people) sorved by a high achool; day UDO . o say include neighbourhood pork. o 1 ociitinn: at the foouu of a "block" or housing development assuring accons without street croasingo. . •> \ a ul-/.ft: ono or two loto, ao needed. 9 development: airaplc, safe appnrntun.at child*a .scale to I n s t i l l aenao cf aclf-diacovery; paved areas f o r wheeled toya. o lociit Ion: at the centro of a "neighbourhood", preferably r-.hxt to the elementary echoed grounda, f a c i l i t a t i n g ecccoo on foot avoiding aajor street croaalnge. Ofiorvice rnciiuii: 1/4 to 1/2 mile, depending upon density. oru . -n .T.t ntunrinrdi 1.25 acrco per 1,000 population excluding " 000 including school grounds. . nl icnool groundo, 2.5 acrec per . : A acre mlniauin. _ 1 o;wf nt: uppnrntua and'fielda for' play and active goaea; may have tiome ueaannal uupervi :i 1 on. ed o l o c n t l on: at the centre of a "comauni ty" , preferably r.eit to the high achool ground3, f a c i l i t a t i n g n c c e a 3 on foot and by bicy c l e . e nervice radlun; 1/2 to 1 1/2'isilea, depend lag' upon density. o c u r r e n t ntnndnrd: 1.25 acres per 1,000 population excluding school grour.da; 2,5 ccrue per 1,000 including achool grounds, o s 1 z e: 20 acre ainitaua. odevelnpmcnt: heavier apparatus; f i e l d s for teas aporta; upeciniized f a c i l i t i e s f o r tennis, lacroaae, cr swiping; Indoor f a c i l i t i e s ; aeaaonai or year-round oupe rvl a Ion for a l l e'ge groups. URBAN PARKS (aunicipal responsibility?) oto provldo areas of special treatment or landscaping as a contraot to assure variety in a highly urbanized area uuch aa a c i t y or town centre, uhojping oroa, o f f i c e area, or i n d u s t r i a l art-a; for working or shopping adulta; day uae. olo c a t i o n : at the heart of a coaaercinl core, an'area of heavy podeatrlan t r a f f i c , n parkway or boulevard, a lo c a l i z e d focus In an Induntrlni area. o o 17.a: small enough l o f i t into the urban texture; numerous enough to f u l f i l ' t h e function. a development: c shopping mall with benches and landscaping, a c i t y square, a aa a l l iandaceped node at a.key intersect 1 on, a special vantage point, a busy' passageway.for pedestrians between buildings to interconnect key areas. TOWS PARKS (aunicipal l e v e l of reoponalbllity3,4) eto provido c e n t r a l natural areas and a c t i v i t y areas f o r rcoidents i n a "regional town" (over 50,000 people); for both active ar.d caaual use, alao providing a focus f o r anjor c i v i c f a c i l i t i e o and c i v i c pride; day uoe on on incidental atop or special t r i p baais. omay include coaaunity park. olo c a t i o n: one or aoro within oach "regional'.town",• permitting acceaa by t r a n s i t and car. o aervlce radlun; 3 to 5 mllea. e current ntond'nrd: 4-5 acroa per 1,000 population, o ai?.e: 40 acre ainiaua. odevelopment; natural areao and a c t i v i t y areas, as a single function or i n combination; natural nrean consisting .of natural or developed open lawns, wooded areas, water areaa, and vantage points, a c t i v i t y arena consisting of a unique sports area, fairgrounda, or building complex. REGIONAL PARKS (regional l e v e l of roeponaibility3,5) o t o provido rcaidenta of n natural region with aajor nnturnl nrcaa and nctt v i t y - arena within a convenient distance for day uae on a special t r i p or inc i d e n t a l atop basis. o nay include a town park, but only when located within or booide a regional town. olocntlon: p r i a a r i l y to aerve regional town population • concentrations, with unique natural features aa a secondary conaideration; access by cor or special t r i p t r a n s i t . onervice rndiua: up to 1 hour d r i v i n g t i a o . ocurrent otandard: 13.0 acres per 1,000 population. o size: 150 acre minimum; smaller f o r a unique feature. o dovel onnient: i n natural arena, a niniaua of development to augment natural topographic features; in n c t l v l t y arena, such developaent as i s necessary to re a l i z e the recreational potential. " ' PROVINCIAL PARKS (pro v i n c i a l reaponalbility) o t o provido roeidento and tour:.oto with wilrtornena arena of province-wide ulgnificnnce for weekend uao ar.d extended atny uao,' natural nrpan of province-wide and regional olgnlflcimco for day uoe, overnight uco, and H a l t e d extended at ay uao, and act 1ylty nfonn of provlncu-wido and regional uignlficonco f o r day u.00 and H a l t e d overnight use. omay include u regional park when lo c a -ted within or near region. o1 pent 1 on: dependent upon location of outstanding natural feuturea, but auat be related to major population concentra-tions in the province and to aajor tranooortation .1 inkngea. ofiervlce rndltia: i n d e f i n i t e for w 11Aern.-:m mean, 3 houru for natural a r e n a , 2 hours for ar 11 vl t y n r e n j i . ocurrrnt M ta iu i i i r r i : 30 acroo p.rr 1,000 population for wl Irtt-rneiv nri'im ii--id natural nr.::to, 15 ycrua per 1,000 for HC! ; VI t y t r a i l nccu:i8 only; In imtu 1 tn mcidva'-ai i ' n t l i n w1 Uii-rnonii area:i, t r a i l a and related 1'ajllitiou, wltd incidental r ^ ' i ' o a -t i O M a l development uhure not i n c o n f l i c t with caaual ti'.m;>a;>hero; l n »ctl vi ty are tin, c a r e f u l intensive or extensive devol opaiciit with pi-ovinlona l'or ofl'-uoaoon .or incidental canuul use. NATION AJ, PARKS (nut 1onol reoponoibillty) oto provide people In a v i s i t o r or touriat role with wl lJt:rni>nn '\rena for extended atay use, and nn'.urttl  area;t of national signifleunc-i for day uae nnd extended utny uae; uitphaalu on uxtenaive natural arena with incidental recreational featuroa. olocation: t o t a l l y dependent upon-locat:on of outstanding l o c a l i z e d oconery, unique oconic, gei'.gruphic, or geological t oat urea of nat ional interua'-, out y landing example a of f i or a and fuuna of national interest, fuuturuu providing outatundi opportunity for non-urban outdoor recreation aaid superb aurroundlngu. ' odnvel nptat.-tit; i n wildernenn_ are aw, t r a i l tieceua, OJid i n niuu areaa, t r a i l s and related f n c i U t i e a ; c.ireful devulcpaunt to iiauurc prucorvation of geographic, b i o l n g i c u l , OJ^ .J guologica feutureu of national significance f o r the benefit, education and enjoyaent of present and future rcaidenta and v i a i t o r u , avoiding impairment by private exploitation, over-use, or iaprtjpur uoe. . Doell, R ^ i <2 report a of llltl. the i'u^et .•m by C. K. liut ler, liound Intergovernnent til L&aaed on an aanuouraent of waterinl in Pnt-k_ and Recro;it 1 on Admlnl nlrttt 1 on by C. ParkB fnr America by the U. S. Department of the Inturlor, iuid Protect Oo;:ni p^. Cui.tere-nee, and dlncuauions with ounicipal, provincl.il, mid federal parka ol'l'l 2 I n deacriblng park function: wllOernonn areay oean large tracto of undeveloped land providing people ine opportunity to expand the i r knowledge and e x ^ r i e n c o ~ f T n e outdoors In l t i natural wild state, divorced frca c i v i l i z a t i o n ; n:ilurn.l_iirv l la arnn native or developed tireaa of apeclui occnlc quality, or M o t o r i c or othur npecial Inter casual viewing or experiencing, which cay lnc l u in j i d c n t a l recreat 1onal ac t ywia^lng, If they do" not c o n f l i c t witn the cauual q u a l i t i e s of un area; ^ J l ' i l of c u l t u r a l algnificance preserved for uch ao hiking, cnrapliiK. picnicking, and mean arena with natural featureu suited tiral active outdoor aporta u e t i v i U u u ou un intensive or extenuivo baalu, which any Include incidental or offrueuaon caaunl ncti v l t y , 'UtiiilMJimlbillty l a Uncrgna 1 znd Arena l l a u with the P r j v l n e l u l Govuriuaent. ^ h M M H m a l b i l l t y \\»u with t h e luo or three a f f e c t e d a j n l c l pal 1 11 eu j u l n t l y wh.:r.i mi individual au(iicl|mUly la. too atuall to provide nuch u pt.rk on l i s Own, or where a diaWnet loclal unit averlnpu cuniclpal bounJiul ea. ^Reupwialbllity f a l i u to the affectud municipal i t i e u Jointly, to the province, to the aunlcipul11lea and the province Jointly, o to a regional govurnaenlal body. -210-Appendix V R e s p o n s i b i l i t y F o r R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s A n d F a c i l i t i e s ACTIVITY OR FACILITY'" LEVEL OF RESPONSIBILITY MUNICIPAL REGIONAL PROVINCIAL NATIONAL "PRIVATE""' oo^rt: [t a n d 0 i^m o chi ldren 1 n 'piny nvono o nthlctic f ie lds • o golf cnumcn • o recreation nnd. cul turni' centre o commercial sports eventn . yen yoo yco yes • yes incidental incidentnl yco yea . yoa yoa -It in no:;t dl f f l cu l t to develop 'i rr.njor park i f vide appeal without l a c l ' j d i n / ' r,".71': Incidental f a c i l i t i e s of thin type. Provioion of golf couraoa in nplit between municipal, re-gional, and "private" ronpon-o i b i l i t y . They ahould only be considered aa a regional f a c i l i t y where thoy can be combined with other regional ^ pork a c t i v i t i e a . Observation j o nature'study . ' o oightaeeing 0 pleaouro driving . R o m e yea yoa yea yoo incidental yea yea yes yea yea yee —-C Driving for pleaeuro io not confined to parka, but. ap-pliea to any atreet of j oconic value. Attention ahould be given by each gov-ernment level reoponaible for roads to aeoure their beauti f icat ion. Since at pre3ont thero i3 no region-a l agency with respor.oibil-i t y for roadB, Regional Park agency responsibil ity" would be confined to the beautif ication of roada _ within Regional Parka. •• • Picnicking nnd CamDinc: | o picnicking •. . I • •' y e e o group capping ! • ' " ' ' ' ' o overnight'camping . | • yes some some yea • - yea yes a one some yes Overnight capping for the general public is not con-sidered a regional parka act iv i ty , but group Capping for charitable groups, etc. could be included on a Uni ted regional 'bnsia. Bench Use 1 I -o swiping.and I • some' 1 beach act iv i ty . I / yes.' yea . Municipal role limited to f a c i l i t i e s of localized use or limited s ize . j Water Soort' • o boating, canoeing, nail ing o water aport ' {other than boating) i oome ' yes. . yea , • yes yes yes I -= incidental | Areaa for boating are a federal nnd provincial re-aponaibi l i ty, while launching and mooring f n c i l i t i c s hnve been Inrgely private, with none municipal f a c i l i t i e s . Major mooring f n c i l i t i e a might well f a l l to regional administration with nrivnte operation. Cnre must be taken to avoid conf l ic ts be-tween boating, swimming, and _ f ish ing . j Winter Snort ' j ' o skiing"r o winter sport^ (other than' '• advanced skiing) . some , l i t t l e ., yes yes yes yes incidental } yes | Because of the 3cale cf oper-incidental ation nnd facilities r c -| quired, ski ing ohoulti regain | a provincial and nntionnl r e -I aponaibi l i ty, with private I responsibi l i ty Uni ted to | management. Other winter I aports, which may include 1 "beginner" ski ing, might be | accomodated in some regional | parka. Tra i l Use ; o s t ro l l ing o hiking ' o mountaineering o t r a i l / r i d i n g . yoe yea yea yes. incidental r y e a yea yea incidental • yea yea yea 1 Public responsibi l i ty should 1 centre around t r a i l provision 0 D 7 1 C | while f a c i l i t i e s 3uch na hoa-| t e la , stables, or bike ren-fjorao B tnla should be a "private" v e a | reaponaibi l i ty. Fishing nnd Hunting ! o nports"flahing j o hunting j • • • • • • ' • : • • ' • ' yea in special arena only yea yoa yea yoa yoa yea 1 — j . Controlled hunting in regional narks s t r i c t l y limited t o npocinl nrona, i f any, .that would not be in conf l ic t with general r e -creational use. "Refer'also to the - statements about Provincial Parks and National Parka, Appendix A nnd B. A c t i v i t i e s ' a r e hot independent, na one act ivi ty may alao be incidental to another. Por example, sightseeing would'be • Incidental-..to walking for pleasure. ^Private" .inoludoe commercial oporationa and oonooooione, private olubs, and charitablo organisations and i n s t i t u t i o n s -211-A p p e n d i x V I P l a n n i n g F o r F u t u r e U r b a n R e c r e a t i o n s A n E v a l u a t i o n  O f B o t h P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g i e s A n d P l a n n i n g A g e n c i e s T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s u r v e y , a n d a n o u t l i n e o f i t s c o n t e n t s , a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . T h e c o v e r a g e o f t h e s u r v e y i . e . t h e s t u d y a r e a s a n d a g e n c i e s , i s l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x I , a n d a n e x a m p l e o f t h e s u r v e y d o c u m e n t i s p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x V I I I . T h e s u r v e y c o n s i s t e d o f s e v e n t y - s e v e n ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' t h a t c o n c e r n e d s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . T h e s e c r i t e r i a w e r e p r e s e n t e d i n w r i t t e n f o r m t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f v a r i o u s p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a n d / o r p a r k a g e n c i e s i n t h e G V R D . T h e a g e n c y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w e r e a s k e d t o r e a d c a r e f u l l y a l l t h e c r i t e r i a p r e s e n t e d , w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f m e a s u r i n g h o w w e l l t h e i r a g e n c y h a d a c h i e v e d t h e s t a t e d c o n d i t i o n s . A n s w e r s t o t h e c e n t r a l s u r v e y q u e s t i o n , " I s t h e c r i t e r i o n m e t ? " w e r e b a s e d m a i n l y o n t h e e x p e r i e n c e a n d e x p e r t j u d g e m e n t o f t h e s e o f f i c i a l s , r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a t e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t y o r a r e a . A l t h o u g h o n l y a c h e c k m a r k w a s r e q u i r e d i n t h e ' a n s w e r c o l u m n ' o f t h e i r c h o i c e , a d d i t i o n a l c o m -m e n t s w e r e o f t e n a d d r e s s e d t o t h e a u t h o r w h o a c c o m p a n i e d e a c h s u r v e y , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f o n e s u r v e y w h i c h w a s m a i l e d t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y i n W h i t e R o c k ( A p p e n d i x V I I ) . r -212-B e c a u s e N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y h a d n o f o r m a l p u b l i c p a r k s a n d / o r r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y , a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n t e n t o f t w o p r o f e s s i o n a l p a r k s t u d i e s , w h i c h w e r e p r e p a r e d a s a b a s i s f o r p u b l i c p a r k a n d r e c r e a t i o n p r o v i s i o n i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , w a s m a d e t o e v a l u a t e t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d . T h e t w o r e p o r t s w e r e : 1 . A S t u d y O f P a r k s D e v e l o p m e n t A n d M a i n t e n a n c e  I n c l u d i n g A F i v e Y e a r P l a n ( p r e p a r e d b y J o h n L a n t z i u s a n d A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t s , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 ? 0 ) ; a n d , 2 . P a r k s R e p o r t 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 8 6 ( p r e p a r e d b y t h e C i t y o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , J u l y , 1 9 7 0 ) . A c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s w a s a l s o m a d e i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e a p p r o a c h u s e d f o r p a r k s a n d / o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g b y t h e G V R D P a r k s D e p a r t m e n t . T h e r e p o r t u s e d w a s : A R e g i o n a l P a r k s P l a n F o r T h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d R e g i o n , ( M a y , 1 9 6 6 ) . S u r v e y R e s u l t s : S c o r i n g M e t h o d U s e d I n o r d e r t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n t h e v a r y i n g d e g r e e s t o w h i c h t h e ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' w e r e m e t b y t h e s t u d y g r o u p , t h e f o l l o w i n g s c o r i n g w a s u s e d . R e s p o n s e S c o r e G i v e n Y e s 5 A l m o s t 3 T o S o m e D e g r e e 1 N o 0 D o e s N o t A p p l y — -213-D e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l T e r m i n o l o g y U s e d a . m a x i m u m p o i n t s c o r e = ( n u m b e r o f ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' t e s t e d ) X ' ( t h e m a x i m u m p o i n t s c o r e i . e . 5) b . a c t u a l p o i n t s c o r e = t h e s u m o f t h e v a l u e o r s c o r e a c h i e v e d f o r a l l o f t h e ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' t e s t e d c . u n c o r r e c t e d p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e = a c t u a l p o i n t s c o r e x 100?2l t o t a l n u m b e r o f c r i t e r i a t e s t e d \ d . c o r r e c t e d p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e = a c t u a l p o i n t s c o r e x 1 0 ( w ( t o t a l n u m b e r o f c r i t e r i a t e s t e d ) - ( n u m b e r o f c r i t e r i a t h a t d o n o t a p p l y ) A p p e n d i x V I I T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A VANCOUVER, CANADA V6T 1W5 SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY & REGIONAL PLANNING M r . A . T . R u s s e l l , P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r , D e a r M r . R u s s e l l : I a m a s e c o n d y e a r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t e n r o l l e d i n t h e S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r e s e n t l y , I a m g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f m y t h e s i s e n t i t l e d : E x i s t i n g A r r a n g e m e n t s A n d P r o c e d u r e s F o r G e n e r a t i n g  A n d A n a l y z i n g I n f o r m a t i o n : A C o m p a r a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n O f S e v e r a l  G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P a r k A n d / O r R e c r e a t i o n  A g e n c i e s . T h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s m a y b e s t a t e d a s 1 . t o e v a l u a t e t h e p l a n n i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s u s e d f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e s u p p l y a n d d e m a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s a s a b a s i s f o r m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e t y p e , q u a n t i t y , a n d q u a l i t y o f f u t u r e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n ? 2. t o a s s e s s t h e s u i t a b i l i t y a n d c a p a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c p a r k a n d / o r r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a n d a n a l y s e s r e q u i r e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e s u p p l y a n d d e m a n d f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s ; a n d , 3 . t o p r o p o s e c h a n g e s i n t h e p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . T h e e n c l o s e d s u r v e y i s d i r e c t e d a t a n s w e r i n g t h e f i r s t t w o t h e s i s o b j e c t i v e s . I t w i l l h o p e f u l l y p r o v e t o b e a u s e f u l t o o l f o r e v a l u a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h r o u g h ' o u t t h e G V R D . F u r t h e r , t h e e x t e n t o f c o o p e r a t i o n f r o m t h e v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a n d / o r p a r k a g e n c i e s w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s s u r v e y i n p r o v i d i n g a n o v e r v i e w o f p a r k a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e G V R D . -215-P a g e 2 T h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s u r v e y c o n s i s t s o f s e v e n t y - s e v e n s t a n d a r d s o r ' q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a ' t h a t c o n c e r n s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . T h e s e s t a n d a r d s s h o u l d b e r e a d c a r e f u l l y w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f m e a s u r i n g h o w w e l l y o u r a g e n c y a c h i e v e s t h e s t a t e d c o n d i t i o n s . A n s w e r s t o t h e c e n t r a l s u r v e y q u e s t i o n , " I s t h e c r i t e r i o n m e t ? " w i l l b e m a i n l y b a s e d o n y o u r e x p e r i e n c e a n d e x p e r t j u d g e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a t e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n y o u r m u n i c i p a l i t y . A l t h o u g h o n l y a c h e c k (i.e. y ) i s r e q u i r e d i n t h e ' a n s w e r c o l u m n ' o f y o u r c h o i c e , y o u r p e r s o n a l c o m m e n t s m a y b e w r i t t e n o n t h e b a c k o f t h e s u r v e y i f n e c e s s a r y . T h e c o m p l e t e d t h e s i s w i l l b e a v a i l a b l e f o r f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e t h r o u g h t h e S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U . B . C . I h o p e y o u w i l l f i n d t h e s u r v e y o f i n t e r e s t . T h a n k y o u v e r y m u c h f o r y o u r t i m e a n d a s s i s t a n c e . Y o u r s s i n c e r e l y , -216-A P P E N D I X V I I I T h e S u r v e y D o c u m e n t P l a n n i n g F o r F u t u r e U r b a n R e c r e a t i o n i  A n E v a l u a t i o n O f B o t h P l a n n i n g M e t h o d o l o g i e s  A n d P l a n n i n g A g e n c i e s -217-A . R E C R E A T I O N P L A N N I N G M E T H O D O L O G Y T h e p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e : a s t u d y o f p u b l i c n e e d s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s ; a c o m p l e t e s u p p l y i n v e n t o r y a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b o t h p r e s e n t a n d p o t e n t i a l , a n d p r i v a t e a n d p u b l i c s e r v i c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s ; a n d , a s t u d y o f t h e ' d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e f a c t o r s ' i . e . f a c t o r s s u c h a s c l i m a t e o r p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s w h i c h m a y d e p r e s s o r s t i m u l a t e d e m a n d , o r m a y d e t r a c t f r o m o r e n h a n c e t h e s u p p l y f a c t o r s . 1 . R e c r e a t i o n D e m a n d A n a l y s i s a . D e m a n d , l i k e l e i s u r e , i s a w o r d t h a t n e e d s t o b e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . D i s -t i n c t i o n s s h o u l d b e m a d e b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s c o n c e p t s o f d e m a n d , f o r e x a m p l e : e x p r e s s e d o r m a r k e t d e m a n d ; l a t e n t o r n o n - e x p r e s s e d d e m a n d ; a n d , f r u s t r a t e d d e m a n d . b . R e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d a n a l y s e s s h o u l d b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a l l t y p e s o f i n v o l v e -m e n t b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u c h a s v i g o r o u s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , i n t e l l e c -t u a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n , s p e c t a t o r a c t i v i t y , a n d e m o t i o n a l s t i m u l a t i o n . - 2 1 8 -c . I n r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d s t u d i e s , b o t h t h e ' s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n ' a n d t h e p h y s i c a l s t u d y a r e a s h o u l d b e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . d . D e m a n d a n a l y s e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a l l m a j o r s e g m e n t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( e . g . s e x , a g e , r a c e , o c c u p a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , i n c o m e , e d u c a t i o n , p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l h e a l t h ) . e . T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t f i v e p h a s e s o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y t h a t a r e d e e m e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e ' c o n s u m e r ' : ( 1 ) a n t i c i p a t i o n a n d p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e a c t i v i t y ; ( 2 ) t r a v e l t o t h e a c t i v i t y ; ( 3 ) o n s i t e a c t i v i t y ; (k) t r a v e l b a c k t o h o m e ; a n d , ( 5 ) r e c o l l e c t i o n o f a c t i v i t y . A l l p h a s e s s h o u l d b e a s s e s s e d i n t h e d e m a n d a n a l y s e s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a m o u n t a n d t y p e o f u s e r s a t i s f a c -t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m e a c h p h a s e . f . E x p e r i m e n t a l r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s a n d a c t i v i t i e s a n d n e w f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d b e r e g u l a r l y u s e d t o t e s t f o r p u b l i c r e a c t i o n . g . R e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s u r v e y s s h o u l d b e v e r y e x t e n s i v e a n d p r e s e n t - 2 1 9 -the widest practicable range of a c t i v i t y choice, to the 'consumer', so as not to be too shallow and thereby l i m i t his choice. h. When determining the degree of public desire, or preference, for various recreation a c t i v i t i e s , sub-s t i t u t i o n of the supply factors should be considered and tested to f i n d supply substitutes that y i e l d s i m i l a r amounts of user s a t i s f a c t i o n with less public cost. i . The recreation agency should have an h i s t o r i c a l record of a l l useful recreation data, for example: 1. per capita usage rates of the various recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s ; 2. preference ratings, from 'rep-resentative' segments of the t o t a l population, for a l l ex i s t i n g and a l l p o t e n t i a l l y available recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s ; 3. some measure of the degree of preference which these 'rep-resentative' population segments -220-may show towards existing and po t e n t i a l l y available services and f a c i l i t i e s ; k. public recreation demands ex-pressed v o l u n t a r i l y by phone, l e t t e r and verbal complaints and requests for more or d i f -ferent recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s ; j . In the estimation of future recreation demands, both the expressed and non-expressed or latent demands of the population should be taken into account. Special techniques should be searched for and tested to measure and record these demands, k. Estimation of future recreation demands should not merely be determined by the projection of present demands as t h i s method assumes unchanged demand pref-erences, by type and degree, i n the future. 1 . Recreation demand estimates that are borrowed from some other recreation and/ or park agency should be adopted only a f t e r careful review, and tested f o r appropriateness i n the s p e c i f i c study -221-area. Modification of these estimates w i l l l i k e l y be needed to meet the s p e c i f i c requirements of the p a r t i c u l a r study population. m. One or more communication exchange mechanisms should be developed to provide a l l concerned interests (e.g. the consumer, the planner, the resource manager, the a c t i v i t y and service man-ager, and the decision maker) the op-portunity of reacting to both present and proposed recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s . This reaction should e n t a i l an evaluation of the type, quantity, and q u a l i t y of recreation. n. There are several factors that influence the type and amount of recreation ac-t i v i t y to be u t i l i z e d or consumed. These factors should be taken into ac-count and tested for t h e i r degree of influence s 1. the t o t a l number of people i n the planning area; 2. an estimate of the number of v i s i t o r s ( i . e . people from outside the 'study area') that use your -222-recreation resources; 3. the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population within t h i s planning area; k. the study populations' socioecon-omic t r a i t s : age, sex, occupation, family s i z e and composition, race, education, ...; 5. the study populations' average i n -come, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of income among individuals 5 6. the study populations' average l e i s u r e time, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e i s u r e among individuals, and the composition of t h e i r time budgets; 7. the study populations' s p e c i f i c education and past experiences and present knowledge r e l a t i n g to public recreation. o. To increase knowledge concerning the type and degree of influence that the various s o c i a l , economic and demo-graphic factors w i l l have on the demand for future recreation a c t i v i t i e s , a study of the inter r e l a t i o n s h i p s of - 2 2 3 -t h e s e f a c t o r s , a s t h e y r e l a t e t o r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d , s h o u l d b e u n d e r -t a k e n . 2 . R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y A n a l y s i s a . T h e p a r k a n d / o r r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y s h o u l d h a v e c o m p i l e d a r e s o u r c e i n -v e n t o r y f o r t h e i r e n t i r e a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e f o l l o w -i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : 1. l e g a l b o u n d a r i e s 2. l a n d s c a p e c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d a r e a s i z e 3. d r a i n a g e a n d t o p o g r a p h y 4. g e o l o g i c a l d a t a a n d s o i l d a t a 5. v e g e t a t i o n i . e . t y p e , d e n s i t y a n d m a t u r i t y 6. c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f s i t e s 7. p a s t m a n a g e m e n t h i s t o r y 8. n a t u r a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y 9. p l a n n i n g o r d a n a n c e s e . g . p u b l i c h e a l t h s t a n d a r d s 10. a d j a c e n t l a n d u s e s 11. l a n d u s e p o t e n t i a l 12. g e n e r a l a n d u n i q u e a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h e r e s o u r c e s . b . R e f l e c t i n g t h e v a r i a b l e n a t u r e o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , a n i n v e n t o r y o f -224-these resources should be made reg-u l a r l y . c. A supply analysis should take into account both presently available and p o t e n t i a l l y available recreation re-sources. d. A comprehensive inventory of recreation resources should include a l l recreation services and f a c i l i t i e s whether they be public, private-commercial or private-voluntary. e. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system should be de-veloped for the recording of both the physical ( i . e . land and f a c i l i t i e s ) and the service-program aspects of recre-ation resources. f. The supply analysis should include a measurement of 'capacity constraints' fo r a l l recreation resources. These constraints should state the number of people per acre per day that can be ac-commodated without deterioration of the resource or the recreation a c t i v i t y . g. The measurement and coding of supply variables should be done i n a systematic way with uniform units of measurement. -225-h . M e a s u r e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s a n d c o d i n g o f s u p p l y v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d b e r e g u l a r l y a p p r a i s e d a n d m o d i f i e d i f n e c e s s a r y . 3. D e m a n d - S u p p l y L i n k a g e A n a l y s i s D e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e f a c t o r s a r e v a r i a b l e s t h a t r e l a t e d e m a n d t o t h e u s a g e o f a f a c i l i t y . T h e y m a y d e p r e s s o r s t i m u l a t e r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d , o r t h e y m a y d e t r a c t f r o m o r e n h a n c e t h e s u p p l y f a c t o r s . 1. T h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r v a r i a b l e s a r e c h i e f e x a m p l e s o f d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e f a c t o r s . T h e y s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d a s i m p o r t a n t a n d e f f o r t s h o u l d b e m a d e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r i m p a c t o n f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d s . a . A w a r e n e s s i . e . t h e l e v e l o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f a f a c i l i t y . I t i s i n f l u -e n c e d b y i d e n t i t y o r a s s o c i a t i o n , p u b l i c i t y a n d p r o x i m i t y . b . A c c e s s i b i l i t y i . e . j o u r n e y t i m e a n d j o u r n e y c o s t i n t e r m s o f f i n a n c i a l , p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l e x p e n d i t u r e . c . A t t r a c t i o n o r d e t r a c t i o n f a c t o r s i . e . c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s , w h e n g r o u p -e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o o n e a n o t h e r , w i l l m u t u a l l y a t t r a c t o r d e t r a c t . - 2 2 6 -F o r e x a m p l e , s m a l l e r f a c i l i t i e s have b e e n f o u n d t o be most a f f e c t e d by b e i n g c l o s e t o l a r g e r f a c i l i t i e s , d . The w e a t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h a f f e c t s most a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t l y o r i n -d i r e c t l y . P e o p l e may n o t p u r s u e p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n c e r t a i n w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s and c o n s e q u e n t l y w i l l s e e k a l t e r n a t i v e s . B . THE PARK AND/OR RECREATION AGENCY 1 . A t t i t u d e t o w a r d s r e s e a r c h a . T h e r e s h o u l d be r e c o g n t i o n by t h e a g e n c y t h a t a l t h o u g h i t a p p e a r s o b v i o u s t h a t demand f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n e x i s t s , t h e r e i s a r e a l n e e d t o a s s e s s t h e t y p e , n a t u r e and q u a n t i t y o f demand f o r f u t u r e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . b . R e s e a r c h i n demand a n a l y s i s , s u p p l y a n a l y s i s and d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e a n a l y s i s s h o u l d n o t be r e g a r d e d as t o o c o m p l e x , w i t h t o o many i m m e a s u r a b l e v a r i a b l e s , t o be r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g a u s e f u l and p r a c t i c a b l e p l a n n i n g t o o l . 2 . G e n e r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s a . R e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g w i t h i n t h e r e c -r e a t i o n agency s h o u l d be c o n t i n u o u s , -227-c o o r d i n a t e d a n d s y s t e m a t i c . b . A n e x c h a n g e m e c h a n i s m s h o u l d b e e s -t a b l i s h e d t o a l l o w f o r b o t h i n t e r -g o v e r n m e n t a l a n d i n t r a - g o v e r n m e n t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , t o a l l o w f o r c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f i d e a s , n o n -d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t a n d c o m p l e m e n t a r y r e s e a r c h . . c . P a r k a n d r e c r e a t i o n s t a n d a r d s a r e f r e q u e n t l y b o r r o w e d f r o m a n o n - l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y . T h e s e f a c i l i t y a n d s e r v i c e s t a n d a r d s s h o u l d b e c a r e f u l l y r e v i e w e d a n d m o d i f i e d , i f n e c e s s a r y , t o m e e t l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s b e f o r e b e i n g a d o p t e d . 3. A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y T o  D o R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h a . T h e s p e c i f i c l e g a l a n d a d m i n i s t a t i v e a u t h o r i t y t h a t a n a g e n c y h a s t o d o r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g s h o u l d b e c l e a r l y w r i t t e n , s t a t i n g i t ' s r o l e a n d l i m i t a -t i o n s . T h i s a u t h o r i t y a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h o u l d b e d o c u m e n t e d i . e . i n s t a t u t e s , c h a r t e r s , o r i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m e m o r a n d a . b . I t s h o u l d b e t h e r o l e a n d f u n c t i o n o f -228-a p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a n d / o r p a r k a g e n c y t o a c t , n o t o n l y a s m a i n t a i n e r a n d o p e r a t o r o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , b u t f u r t h e r , t o a c t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t w a y a s d e v e l o p e r a n d p l a n n e r o f f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . c . I f t h e r e i s a n o t h e r a g e n c y , p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c , w h i c h i s m o r e c a p a b l e ( i . e . i n t e r m s o f e x p e r t i s e a n d o p e r a t i n g b u d g e t ) o f h a n d l i n g t h e b u r d e n o f l o c a l r e c -r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , t h e n s u c h a n a g e n c y s h o u l d b e f o r m a l l y r e c o m m e n d e d t o b e a r t h i s b u r d e n . C a p a b i l i t y O f T h e R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c y : A g e n c y S t a f f a . T h e e x p e r i e n c e a n d a c a d e m i c b a c k g r o u n d o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f m e m b e r s s h o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w f o r e f f i c i e n t a n d s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h t o b e o r g a n i z e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d . S t a f f m e m b e r s s h o u l d b e c a p a b l e o f c a r r y i n g o u t r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e m a n d a n a l y s i s , s u p p l y a n a l y s i s a n d d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k -a g e a n a l y s i s . b . P a r k a n d / o r r e c r e a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s s h o u l d b e a c t i v e m e m b e r s o f - 2 2 9 -t h e i r professional organizations. c. The agency should have planning leader-ship i . e . constructive and e f f e c t i v e supervision and advice, e s p e c i a l l y with regard to establishing research goals, and methodology. d. Recreation research and planning should be a l l o t e d to s t a f f members on the basis of s t a f f a b i l i t y to conduct research rather than just on s t a f f a v a i l a b i l i t y to do the research. e. Because of the comprehensive approach that i s necessary i n understanding more f u l l y the demand, supply and demand-supply linkage factors, and the re-lationships that may exist between these factors, the recreation planners should have the c a p a b i l i t y for, or access to, i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y research. Budget Considerations f. Professional s t a f f members should be a l -lowed regular time periods to do re-search, varying from l i t e r a t u r e review to f i e l d studies. g. Agencies handling recreation research should make available a set percentage -230-o f t h e i r t o t a l a n n u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u d g e t , f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . h . T h e r e c r e a t i o n a n d / o r p a r k a g e n c y s h o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a n d p r i v a t e a g e n c y -g r a n t s , a n d a p p l y f o r t h e m w h e n t h e y c a n b e u s e d a d v a n t a g e o u s l y f o r d e m o n -s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s a n d r e s e a r c h . i . A g e n c i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g s h o u l d h a v e a c c e s s t o , o r s h o u l d b u d g e t f o r , t h e n e e d e d s u p -p o r t s e r v i c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s , s u c h a s : 1. a d e q u a t e l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s ; 2. f u l l o r p a r t t i m e l i b r a r i a n ; 3. c o m p u t e r f a c i l i t i e s a n d e x p e r t i s e ; k. a d e q u a t e p h y s i c a l o f f i c e s p a c e ; 5. a d e q u a t e r e s e a r c h e q u i p m e n t , s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s a n d f i l i n g c a b i n e t s ; 6. a d e q u a t e c l e r i c a l s t a f f . I n f o r m a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y j . T h e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y s h o u l d h a v e i n -f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e l a t e s t r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h e s t o d e m a n d a n a l y s i s , s u p p l y a n a l y s i s a n d d e m a n d - s u p p l y l i n k a g e a n a l y s i s . -231-R e c r e a t i o n d a t a s h o u l d be measured and r e c o r d e d I n s t a n d a r d u n i f o r m u n i t s o f measurement , and i n t h e s m a l l e s t p o s -s i b l e u n i t v a l u e , t o i n c r e a s e t h e g e n e r a l usage o f t h i s d a t a f o r f u t u r e a n d / o r b r o a d e r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . The r e c r e a t i o n a n d / o r p a r k agency s h o u l d have t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , a s s e m b l y , p r o c e s s i n g and r e t r i v a l . The f o l l o w i n g documents s h o u l d be a v a i l -a b l e , t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n a n d / o r p a r k agency , as t h e y p r o v i d e e s s e n t i a l p l a n n i n g t o o l s J 1. a m u n i c i p a l l o n g r ange m a s t e r p l a n ( o f w h i c h t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s h o u l d be an i n t e g r a l p a r t ) 2. a c o m p r e h e n s i v e P a r k s and R e c -r e a t i o n P l a n ( w h i c h s h o u l d t e l l how much o f what s h o u l d be p u t where , f o r whom, when i t w i l l be needed , and why i t i s i n c l u d e d ) 3. a P a r k and R e c r e a t i o n P o l i c y P l a n ( i . e . a f o r m a l l y w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t o f p o l i c i e s , g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s ) 4. a R e c r e a t i o n Program 5. a C a p i t a l Budge t P l a n -232-Appendix IX A N N U A L PER CAPITA PARTICIPATION D A Y S . . OUTDOOR R E C R E A T I O N j (PERSONS 12 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER IN WESTERN UNITED STATES, I960). M A L E P f U J ! P j ""*"""'"" "**""'*""' '"j" 12 TO 17 YEARS '• | IS TO 24 YEARS j '. . '•: ', i 25 TO 44 YEARS . ' ' i 45 TO 64 YEARS ! ' 65 YEARS AND OVER • ... METRO. AREAS OVER 1,000,000 ..'METRO AREAS, SMALLER ' .,:W" .OTHER URBAN AREAS . . \ ' i. _ V, .-,«.• ' ' RURAL, NON-FARM " ' '' I ' RURAL, FARM LESS THAN SI,SOO 51,500 TO $2,999 $3,000 TO $-1,499 I $4,500 TC $5,999 | $6,000 TO $7,999 ' ' $8,000 TO $9,999 $10,000 TO $14,999 $15,000 AND OVER [EDUCATION " ' " 7 _ _ ! 4 YEARS OR LESS • ! 5 TO 7 YE ASS ; 3 YEARS •,, HIGH SCHOOL, 1 TO 3 Y8ARS HIGH SCHOOL, A YEARS COLLEGE, 1 TO 3 YEARS COLLEGE, ', YE««»C O" M O S S . i CAUCASIAN I NON-CAUCASIAN PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL , • MANAGERS, OFFICIALS ".. "• •••• CLERICAL, SALES WORKERS ;. CRAFTSMEN, FOREMEN • O P E R A T I V E S , LABORERS ' SERVICE WORKERS FARM WORKERS I 2 3 RT*1 • 50 ' 100 DAYS SOURCE: STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BASED ON DATA O B T A I N E D FROM THE OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES REVJEft'.COMMISSIOlV 150 200 250 

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