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Organizational determinants of the use of sex in hiring decisions : a case study Erickson, Linda Diane Lindgre 1974

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ORGANIZATIONAL DETERMINANTS OF THE USE OF SEX IN HIRING DECISIONS: A CASE STUDY by L. DIANE LINDGREN ERICKSON B.A. , YorkkUniversity, 1969 A THESIS SUMBITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f ttZjeWAapsfoya O&J r%OC+j£>/crc*A The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a i A B S T R A C T T h e l a c k o f s e x u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h i r i n g e m p l o y e e s h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t o b e a f u n c t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h p o l i c i e s a r e c o m m u n i c a t e d t o m e m b e r s a n d a d h e r e d t o b y s e n i o r m e m b e r s , a n d t h e b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n o f h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s . W h e n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n d o e s n o t e s t a b l i s h b o t h a c o m m i t m e n t t o e q u a l e m p l o y -m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w o m e n a n d m e n a n d t h e p r o c e d u r e s t o c a r r y o u t t h a t c o m m i t m e n t , i n d i v i d u a l b i a s a n d b e l i e f s a b o u t s e x a n d w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e a r e u s e d i n s e l e c t i o n . T h e s e b e l i e f s p e r t a i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e x o f t h e e m p l o y e e a n d j o b q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a n d t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l w o r k p e r f o r -m a n c e o f m e n a n d w o m e n w o r k e r s . T h e s e b e l i e f s , w h e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e x a m -i n e d , h o w e v e r , a r e n o t s u p p o r t e d e m p i r i c a l l y . A n i n - d e p t h s t u d y o f h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s w a s c o n d u c t e d i n o n e o r g a n -i z a t i o n , u t i l i z i n g a n u m b e r o f r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . D e m o g r a p h i c d a t a f o r t h e l a b o u r f o r c e a s a w h o l e a n d d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a f o r t h e o r g a n -i z a t i o n s t u d i e d w e r e u t i l i z e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e d e g r e e a n d p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e s e x - s e g r e g a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s . F o r m a l d o c u m e n t s , r e c o r d s a n d p o l i c i e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o h i r i n g w e r e e x a m i n e d , a n d f o l l o w i n g a o n e m o n t h p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e P e r s o n n e l O f f i c e , l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d i n -t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e P e r s o n n e l o f f i c e r s . T h e n , t o p e r m i t a m o r e d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s , i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s h i r i n g e m p l o y e e s f o r a s a m p l e o f t w e n t y - f o u r p o s i t i o n s . I t w a s f o u n d t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n d o e s n o t h a v e e x p l i c i t p o l i c i e s a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d t h a t t h e r e a r e n o w r i t t e n p r o c e d u r e s g o v e r n i n g t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f j o b o p e n i n g s t o a p p l i c a n t s . F u r t h e r , t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r s e l e c t i n g a m o n g a p p l i c a n t s w e r e d e m o n s t r a t e d t o b e i n a d e q u a t e t o i n s u r e i i u n b i a s e d s e l e c t i o n . T h e l a c k o f d e v e l o p e d p o l i c i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s w a s a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o t h e w o r k l o a d o f t h e P e r s o n n e l O f f i c e , t h e d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d a u t h o r i t y f o r h i r i n g i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . I n l i e u o f f o r -m a l , s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e c r u i t m e n t a n d s e l e c t i o n , i n f o r m a l a n d s e x - b i a s e d s t a n d a r d s h a v e d e v e l o p e d . T h e d i f f e r e n t i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f j o b o p e n i n g s t o f e m a l e a n d m a l e a p p l i c a n t s r e f l e c t s t h e s e x - t y p i n g o f j o b s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . J o b r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a a r e p r i m a r i l y d e f i n e d b y s u p e r v i s o r s i n i n d i v i d u a l d e p a r t m e n t s a n d r o u t i n e l y i n c l u d e t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e x o f a c c e p t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s . T h i s s p e c i f i c a -t i o n i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t o b e b a s e d o n c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d u n t e s t e d b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f w o m e n a n d m e n w o r k e r s . S o m e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a r e d i s c u s s e d . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s f o r a r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s t o r e s t r i c t ; : t h e u s e o f s e x a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i CHAPTER ONE: THE SEX-SEGREGATION OF OCCUPATIONS 1 Introduction 1 The Sex-Segregation of Occupations 1 Work Roles and Sex Roles 3 Aims of the Study 5 Organizational Determinants of Behaviour and Discriminatory Hiring Practices 7 Organizational Policy 7 The Bureaucratization of Recruitment and Selection Procedures 8 Summary 18 CHAPTER TWO: METHODOLOGY 20 Scope of the Investigation 20 Data Collection 21 The Sample 22 Collecting the Data for Each Position 24 CHAPTER THREE: THE PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION: A GENERAL OUTLINE 28 Sources of Recruits 28 Selection Procedures 30 The Resultant Distribution of Women and Men in the Organization 31 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page The Hiring Process: Dimensions of Analysis 32 CHAPTER FOUR: THE FORMAL STRUCTURE OF THE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS 34 Formal Procedures for the Selection of Employees 34 Limitations on the Bureaucratization of the Hiring Process 38 Constraints of Work Load 38 The Distribution of Responsibility and Authority in Hiring 38 Summary 46 CHAPTER FIVE: THE INFORMAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HIRING PROCESS AND THE SEX-SEGREGATION OF OCCUPATIONS 47 Assumptions About How Hiring Should be Conducted 47 The Context of Hiring: Division of Labour in the Personnel Department 48 The Communication of Job Openings to Applicants 50 Advertising 51 Informal Recruitment 52 Resource Files 53 General Enquiries 54 The Definition of Job Requirements and Selection Criteria 55 Beliefs About the Relevance of Sex in Selection 58 Characteristics Relating to Work Performance 59 Characteristics Not Relating to Work Perfor-mance 66 Summary 67 V TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSIONS 69 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research 73 Recommendations for Changing the Hiring Process 75 Policies 75 Procedures 76 Power 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY 81 v i LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Employed Labour Force in Selected Occupational Categories by Sex, Women as a Percentage of the Total Labour Force, and the Percentage D i s t r i -bution of Women by Occupation, Canada, 1971. Table 2. Association of Sex of Recruiter, Sex of Applicants and Advertising, by Position. 49 Table 3. Beliefs about Women Workers, 59 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I would l i k e to thank foremost, a l l the members of the Personnel Department who, through t h e i r i n t e r e s t and cooperation, not only made the research possible but also made i t a rewarding experience. This apprecia-t i o n must also be extended to the supervisors i n the organization who par-t i c i p a t e d i n sometimes lengthy interviews. My thanks are also extended to my supervisor, Dr. G. Gray, both for h i s support for the project and h i s c r i t i c i s m s of successive d r a f t s , and to Dr. H. Jacobson and Dr. P. Marchak. I would also l i k e to acknowledge the f i n a n c i a l support for the f i n a l stages of the thesis received from the Graduate Fellowship Fund. F i n a l l y I would l i k e to express my appreciation to Paul Erickson for h i s h e l p f u l comments, assistance i n typing the f i n a l d r a f t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y f or h i s willingness to adjust h i s career plans to enable me to f u l f i l l my own. 1 CHAPTER ONE THE SEX-SEGREGATION OF OCCUPATIONS INTRODUCTION This study arose out of an i n t e r e s t i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the labour force and a concern with the l i m i t a t i o n s which are placed on that p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These l i m i t a t i o n s take the form of r e s t r i c t i o n s both on the k ind of work that women do and on the rewards assigned to that work. A major feature of women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n work i s the concentrat ion of women i n a smal l number of occupations , i n which the major i ty of workers are female. The Sex-Segregation of Occupations To the extent that women and men do not occupy many of the same j o b s , they may be seen as operat ing i n two l a r g e l y non-competit ive labour forces (Oppenheimer, 1970: 64). Support for th i s observat ion can be found i n other studies and analyses of census data (Fuchs ,''.1971: 14; Smith, 1961: 39; M e l t z , 1966; Labour Canada, 1972). In Canada i n 1971, over h a l f of the female labour force was employed i n two occupat ional ca tegor ie s , c l e r i -c a l and s e r v i c e and r e c r e a t i o n , and these occupations were over 60% female 1 (Table 1) . The use of labour force s t a t i s t i c s underestimates th i s pat tern due to the aggregation of a number of occupations i n one occupat ional cate -gory. For example, i n the category "service and recreat ion" women workers 1. See Labour Canada, 1972: 32 for an explanat ion of the c a l c u l a t i o n of the Labour Force and the s e l e c t i o n of occupations for i n c l u s i o n i n Table 1. 2 Table 1. Employed Labour Force in Selected Occupational Categories by Sex, Women as a Percentage of the Total Employed Labour Force, and the Percentage Distribution of Women by Occupation, Canada, 1971 Women as a per-Women Men centage of the Percentage N N total labour force distribution Occupation '000 '000 in each occupation of women Managerial 106 693 13.4 3.9 Professional and Technical 470 673 41.1 17.5 Clerical 878 339 72.1 32.7 Sales 223 350 38.9 8.3 Service and Recreation 599 397 60.1 22.3 Communication 34 36 48.6 1.3 Farmers and Farm Workers 66 447 12.9 2.5 Craft,, Production and Related Workers 275 1670 14.1 10.2 Labourers and Unskilled Workers 28 322 8.0 1.0 A l l Occupational Categories 2687 5392 33.3 100.0 Source: Labour Canada, 1972: Table 14. are concentrated in a few occupations such as waitress, practical nurse, cleaner, cook and hairdresser (Meltz, 1966: Table 9). While 41% of profes-sional and technical employees in 1971 were female, within that category 75% of the total teaching and nursing profession is comprised of women. Only an estimated 24% of women in the professional and technical category were employed in other areas (Labour Canada, 1972: 28). While direct comparisons with labour statistics from other coun-tries are not feasible due to different methods of aggregating occupations, the U.S. statistics indicate a similar pattern as that described above. In 1960 in the U.S., women made up 33% of the labour force, with approximately 3 5 9 % o f t h e w o m e n w o r k e r s i n o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e 7 0 % o r m o r e f e m a l e ( O p p e n h e i m e r , 1 9 7 0 : 7 5 ) . T h i s s e x - s e g r e g a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s h a s p e r s i s t e d o v e r t i m e . E v e n t h o u g h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f f e m a l e w o r k e r s i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y i n s o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n b o t h C a n a d a a n d t h e U . S . , " t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e p r e -d o m i n a n t l y f e m a l e i n 1 9 0 0 w e r e a l s o p r e d o m i n a n t l y f e m a l e i n 1 9 5 0 . . . t h e d a t a p r o v i d e u s w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e o f a r a t h e r r e m a r k a b l e s t a b i l -i t y i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h a r e " f e m a l e o c c u p a t i o n s " " ( O p p e n h e i m e r , 1 9 7 0 : 7 6 - 7 7 ) . W h e r e c h a n g e s i n t h e s e x c o m p o s i t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d , t h e y h a v e f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n o f i n v a s i o n a n d s u c c e s s i o n o n t h e p a r t o f w o m e n . W h e r e w o m e n e n t e r p r e v i o u s l y ' m a l e ' f i e l d s , t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e o c c u p a t i o n t o b e c o m e p r e d o m i n a n t l y f e m a l e . W h e r e m e n e n t e r a ' f e m a l e ' f i e l d h o w e v e r , t h e o c c u p a t i o n r e m a i n s p r e d o m i n a n t l y f e -m a l e w i t h t h e m e n m o v i n g i n t o t h e t o p p o s i t i o n s . T h u s , " m a l e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e c o m e m o r e s e g r e g a t i v e , o r r e s i s t a n t t o f e m a l e e n t r y , w h e r e a s f e m a l e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e c o m e l e s s s e g r e g a t i v e , o r m o r e p e r m i s s i v e . . . a b o u t i n -c l u d i n g m a l e s " ( G r o s s ; 1 9 6 § : 2 0 5 ) . o o W o r k R o l e s a n d S e x R o l e s A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e f e m a l e o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e l i m i t e d w o r k r o l e s w h i c h w o m e n o c c u p y a r e m o s t c o m m o n l y d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f s e x r o l e s . ' W o m e n ' s w o r k ' b o t h i n t h e h o m e a n d t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i s p r e -d o m i n a n t l y o f a s e r v i c e a n d s u p p o r t i v e n a t u r e . T h i s c a n b e o b s e r v e d i n t h e j o b s w h i c h w o m e n m o s t c o m m o n l y h o l d : t e a c h e r , n u r s e , w a i t r e s s , c l e a n e r , c o o k , c l e r k a n d s e c r e t a r y . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e l o w s t a t u s o f w o m e n i n o u r 4 s o c i e t y , t h e e c o n o m i c r e w a r d s f o r t h i s w o r k a r e l o w . T h e o p p o s i t i o n w h i c h o n e r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d a m o n g e m p l o y e r s t o w o m e n o c c u p y i n g h i g h s t a t u s o r h i g h s a l a r i e d j o b s h o w e v e r , w a s a b s e n t f o r t h o s e j o b s " i n w h i c h t h e w o m a n i n c u m b e n t p l a y e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f h e l p m a t e t o a m a l e V I P " ( S m i t h , 1 9 6 1 : 4 0 ) . T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f w o m e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n w o r k c a n b e s e e n a s p r o b l e m a t i c i f o n e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s t a t u s o f w o m e n i n s o c i e t y , o r t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r w o m e n a n d m e n i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w o m e n w o r k e r s i n a l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f l o w s t a t u s , l o w p a y i n g j o b s r e i n f o r c e s t h e l o w s t a t u s o f w o m e n i n s o c i e t y a n d , i t m a y b e a r g u e d , r e p r e s e n t s a r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r w o m e n t o w o r k a t j o b s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e -f i n e d a s ' f e m a l e ' . T h i s l a t t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y i m -p o r t a n t a s m o r e w o m e n a r e s e e k i n g t o t r a n s c e n d r e s t r i c t i v e s e x r o l e s . T h e q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s , i s t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f e m a l e a n d m a l e w o r k e r s , w h i c h c a n b e d e m o n s t r a t e d o n a n a g g r e g a t e l e v e l , a r e s u l t o f s e l f -s e l e c t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f i n d i v i d u a l s , i n t e n t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b y e m -p l o y e r s , o r a r e t h e r e f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f r e c r u i t m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s e l e c t i n d i v i d u a l s o f o n e s e x o n l y ? W h i l e t h e r o o t s o f t h e p h e n o m e n o n m a y b e i n s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w o m e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d s t o w o r k , a f o c u s o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a s t h e p r o d u c t o f i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s h a s o n l y l i m i t e d u t i l i t y . F i r s t l y , a t t i t u d e s a r e r e s i s t a n t t o c h a n g e ; t h e e x e r c i s e o f p r e j u d i c e i s n o t s i g n i -f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r a d i c t i n g t h e f a u l t y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w h i c h a r e c i t e d i n s u p p o r t o f a t t i t u d e s ( H e i s t a n d , 1 9 7 0 : 9 ) . F u r t h e r , a f o c u s o n t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a t t i t u d e s o b s c u r e s t h e ] 5 e f fec t of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework wi th in which d i s c r i m i n a t i o n takes p lace . In analys ing the expression of rac ism, Lohman and Reitzes (1952: 240) argue that " in modern mass soc ie ty i n d i v i d u a l behaviour i s i n c r e a s -i n g l y c o n t r o l l e d by d e l i b e r a t e l y organized c o l l e c t i v i t i e s . . . the i n d i v i -dual ' s r a c i a l a t t i tudes are subordinated to and mobi l ized by d e f i n i t i o n s of the s i t u a t i o n suppl ied by organizat ions" . Thus, decis ions which a f fec t the opportunity for women to engage i n s p e c i f i c types of work occur w i t h i n work organ iza t ions , and the s t r u c -tures of organizat ions can be shown to af fect the expression and i n h i b i t i o n of d i scr iminatory a t t i t u d e s . Therefore , the focus of t h i s research i s on the features of organizat ions which contr ibute to the a l l o c a t i o n of jobs on the bas i s of sex through the recruitment and s e l e c t i o n process . This does not assume that these features are the only ones respons ib le for the d i s -t r i b u t i o n of men and women workers i n the organ iza t ion . I t was not w i t h i n the scope of the research, however, to i s o l a t e and define a l l of the r e l e -vant factors i n the maintenance of the sex-segregation of occupations. Aims of the Study The research was designed to provide an in-depth account of the process of recruitment and s e l e c t i o n i n one organizat ion and an ana lys i s of the s t r u c t u r a l features of the process which sys temat i ca l ly b ias the s e l e c -t ion of employees on the bas i s of sex. This involves an examination of both the cons tra int s on i n d i v i d u a l behaviour of the s t r u c t u r e and funct ion ing of organizat ions and the values which have become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d as a r e -s u l t of a p a r t i c u l a r form of o r g a n i z a t i o n . These concerns transect a number of areas of socio logy and, whi le women's studies i s a growing f i e l d , few 6 studies of a similar nature have as yet been conducted. Thus, the construc-tion of an explanatory framework consisted of a synthesis of observations from the sociology of sex roles, formal organizations, race relations and social psychology. In order to obtain information on both individual and organiza-tional levels, and to obtain a more complete accounting of the processes involved in recruitment and selection, a number of research techniques were employed. This involved the analysis of demographic data for the l a -bour force as a whole, descriptive s t a t i s t i c a l data for the organization studied, formal documents, records, and policies of the organization, as well as interviews with and observation of individuals responsible for recruitment and selection. The data then, was extensive and provided ac-counts of the process from a number of perspectives. It was not, how-ever, of a sufficiently intensive and precise nature to allow for an accur-ate test of specific hypotheses, or a determination of the relative weights, in quantitative terms, of the contribution of different factors to the sex-segregation of occupations. The standards which were used in the analysis to test the rela-tionships relied on the consistency with which a relationship occurs, rather than on a s t a t i s t i c a l measure of the magnitude of the relationship. Thus, the study is primarily an exploratory one due to the broad scope of the problem, the nature of the data utilized and the lack of .developed theories. 7 ORGANIZATIONAL DETERMINANTS OF BEHAVIOUR AND DISCRIMINATORY HIRING PRACTICES The sex-segregationof occupations i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s cannot be understood simply w i t h reference to the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n the s e l e c -t i o n process. While i n d i v i d u a l p r e j u d i c e may be used i n the s e l e c t i o n of employees, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s act as c o n s t r a i n t s on the use of sex as a re l e v a n t c r i t e r i a i n recruitment and s e l e c t i o n . I t i s argued that i n order to insure that h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s are n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , three condi-t i o n s must be met: the o r g a n i z a t i o n must have e x p l i c i t p o l i c i e s against d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n recruitment and s e l e c t i o n which are communicated to i t s members; these p o l i c i e s must not be contravened i n p r a c t i c e by s e n i o r mem-bers of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and there must be c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d r u l e s and pro-cedures f o r a s s i g n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to jobs on the b a s i s of merit. Where these c o n d i t i o n s are not met, the use of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y c r i t e r i a becomes a f u n c t i o n of the biases and b e l i e f s of the i n d i v i d u a l s making the h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l P o l i c y E x p l i c i t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s p r o h i b i t i n g the use of d i s c r i m -i n a t o r y s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a are a necessary but not s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n to insure n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y h i r i n g . P o l i c i e s , to be e f f e c t i v e , must be com-municated to those re s p o n s i b l e f o r h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and must be "made v i s i b l e i n p r a c t i c e , not only on paper" (Kahn et a l . , 1964: 41). Where i n d i v i d u a l s are not aware of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s a n t i -d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c i e s they are more l i k e l y to e x e r c i s e t h e i r own p r e j u -d i c i a l a t t i t u d e s (Quinn et a l . , 1968: 59) . However, even i f the organiza-8 t i o n ' s o f f i c i a l stand i s an e g a l i t a r i a n one, i f the p o l i c y i s not r o u t i n e l y followed by senior members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the in tent of the p o l i c i e s i s subverted. Quinn (1968: 78) found that "pol icy" was i n t e r p r e t e d to inc lude "both what was sa id and what was done by those respons ib le for i t s formulat ion and implementation. The d i s t i n c t i o n between "written" and "unwritten" p o l i c y , although t i d y , had very l i t t l e meaning for those who must put p o l i c y into p r a c t i c e . " F u r t h e r , he found that e x p l i c i t a n t i -d i s cr imina tory p o l i c i e s and programs to combat d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were i n e f f e c -t i v e " in the presence of act ions i n t e r p r e t e d by managers as i n d i c a t i n g that t h e i r company was only g iv ing l i p - s e r v i c e to equal opportunity" (Quinn et a l . , 1968: 79). The Bureaucra t i za t ion of Recruitment  and S e l e c t i o n Procedures An unbiased a l l o c a t i o n of q u a l i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s to work ro les may be accomplished, i n combination with o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o l i c y , through the b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n of the s e l e c t i o n process . The "spec ia l v i r t u e " of bureaucrat i c organ i za t i on , as described by Weber (1958: 216), i s the e l i m -i n a t i o n from cons iderat ion of "love, h a t r e d , and a l l pure ly persona l , i r r a -t i o n a l , and emotional elements which escape c a l c u l a t i o n " . The bureaucra-t i z a t i o n of s e l e c t i o n decis ions e n t a i l s i n part the development of an ex-tensive system of rules and w r i t t e n documents, with c l e a r l y defined and q u a n t i f i e d standards for s e l e c t i o n . In th i s way, work ro les are to be assigned "on the bas i s of t e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s which are ascerta ined through formal ized , impersonal procedures" (Merton, 1949: 151). 9 Communicating Job Openings to A p p l i c a n t s Thee l i t e r a t u r e on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l determinants of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s has focussed on the n e c e s s i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g bureaucra-t i c procedures f o r o b j e c t i v e l y s e l e c t i n g among a p p l i c a n t s . I t i s a l s o ne-cessary however, that o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o l i c y and procedures extend to the communication of job openings to a p p l i c a n t s . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between women and men i n h i r i n g i s maintained i n part by processes which c o v e r t l y or by d e f i n i t i o n l i m i t the popu l a t i o n from which a p p l i c a n t s w i l l be drawn. When a p o s i t i o n becomes vacant, c l e a r l y not a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who are a v a i l a b l e and q u a l i f i e d to f i l l the p o s i t i o n are seen by the employer. The in f o r m a t i o n systems used by both employers and a p p l i c a n t s f o r p o s i t i o n s are i n f l u e n t i a l i n r e s t r i c t i n g the number of candidates considered. While there i s some informat i o n on how Negroes and whites d i f f e r i n job hunting p r a c t i c e s ( L u r i e and Rayack, 1966) , i n v e s t i -gations have not focussed s p e c i f i c a l l y on how men and women d i f f e r i n t h i s respect. Recruitment of employees by org a n i z a t i o n s c o n s i s t s of both formal and i n f o r m a l methods. Newspaper and magazine advertisements, p r o f e s s i o n a l agencies and ed u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are used as sources of r e c r u i t s . There are obvious biases inherent i n u t i l i z i n g newspapers which have sex-segregated job advertisements, n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l magazines whose readership c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of one sex only, and canvassing p r i v a t e schools f o r men or women only. These forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can be l e g i s l a t e d against through o r g a n i z a t i o n a l procedures. Informal systems of recruitment a l s o serve to perpetuate the sex-segregation of occupations but are more d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l . Employees i n -10 form friends, colleagues and relatives about job openings, employers u t i l i z e professional, colleagial and friendship networks as sources of referrals. In this way, factors which influence the formation of social networks, and the biases of other individuals also influence the selection of recruits (Mayhew, 1968: 67; Heistand, 1970: 26; Lurie and Rayack, 1966: 92). Re-cruitment and advancement in the professions depends greatly on interper-sonal ties and establishing a 'sponsor-protege' relationship with an es-tablished member of the profession (Epstein, 1970: 966). These relation-ships have in the past been developed among people of the same sex and the normalization of cross-sex colleagial relationships has yet to occur on a wide scale (Epstein, 1970: 977; Caplow, 1965: 237). Entry into the professions, given the present numerical dominance of males in established positions, is therefore, more restricted for women than for men. Thus, the effect of organizational policies and procedures against discrimination w i l l be insufficient to insure non-discrimination where informal channels of recruitment are used. Establishing Selection Criteria In order to provide adequate procedures for selection on the basis of merit, the formal standards must detail the qualifications which have been defined as necessary for carrying out work requirements and a proce-dure for determining whether applicants do or do not possess these quali-fications. While some qualifications such as manual s k i l l s , work exper-ience or specialized educational achievement, are technical in nature and easily measured, others, such as conceptual s k i l l s , supervisory a b i l i t y , motivation or social s k i l l s , are more vague or complex and thus less easily measured. 11 Where the selection c r i t e r i a which are to be used as indicators of these qualifications are not clearly specified and procedures are not bureaucratized, hiring decisions are more likely to be determined by i n -dividual bias and beliefs about the relevance of personal characteristics of applicants for work performance (Dalton, 1951: 414; Coates and Pellegrin, 1957: 215; Kahn et a l . , 1964: 4; Mayhew, 1968: 69). In these cases, a wide range of personal characteristics have been used as indicators of potential work performance. Social character-i s t i c s - sex, race, religion, nationality, ethnicity and social standing -have been shown to be crucial in the selection and promotion of individuals for a range of positions, but particularly on a managerial or executive level (Dalton, 1951; Beattie and Spencer, 1971; Bowman, 1964, 1965; Coates and Pellegrin, 1957; Powell, 1963). Other characteristics which play a significant role in the selection and promotion of individuals are: p o l i -t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n , participation in selected off-the-job recreational ac-t i v i t i e s or membership in particular organizations, informal friendships with superiors, and the acquisition of the attitudes, values and behaviour patterns of superiors (Dalton, 1951; Coates and Pellegrin, 1957; Powell, 1963). The use of these c r i t e r i a is not simply a reflection of prejudice on the part of individuals responsible for recruitment and selection, but is a response to the need to make decisions on the basis of inadequate i n -formation. The use of these c r i t e r i a i s , in addition, regarded as j u s t i -fiable as they are believed to be relevant for evaluating potential work performance. Rationality in selection is redefined to include not simply 1 2 o b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e s o f a b i l i t y b u t a l s o b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s o c i a l f a c t o r s t o w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e . E x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e a r e l i n k e d w i t h p e r s o n a l c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s b y m e a n s o f s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s - e i t h e r t h e s e m e a n i n g s a r e p a r t o f a c o r p u s o f s o c i e t a l v a l u e s o r b e l i e f s o r t h e y a r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p e r -c e i v e d a t t i t u d i n a l o r b e h a v i o u r a l n o r m s o f t h e i m m e d i a t e s o c i a l e n v i r o n -m e n t : t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i t s c l i e n t s ( K a h n e t a l . , 1 9 6 4 : 4 4 ; Q u i n n e t a l . , 1 9 6 8 : 3 6 ) . T h e u s e o f s e x a s a s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a m a y b e u n d e r s t o o d i n t h i s c o n t e x t : w h e r e h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e n o t b u r e a u c r a t i z e d , i n d i v i d u a l b i a s o r b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s e x i n p r e d i c t i n g w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e a r e u s e d a s b a s e s f o r h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s . F u r t h e r , a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e s t s o f t h e s e b e l i e f s r e v e a l s t h a t , c o n t r a r y t o a c c e p t e d s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s , t h e y a r e n o t b a s e d o n o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y b e t w e e n w o m e n a n d m e n w o r k e r s . S e x a s a S e l e c t i o n C r i t e r i a S e x , u n l i k e m o s t s o c i a l f a c t o r s , i s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d t o b e a n i m p o r t a n t s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . I n t e r m s o f t h e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a f f e c -t e d , s e x i s t h e m o s t c o n s i s t e n t e x a m p l e o f t h e u s e o f p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s i n j o b a l l o c a t i o n . W h i l e t h e u s e o f s e x i n s e l e c t i o n r e s t r i c t s t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f b o t h w o m e n a n d m e n , t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e m o r e s e v e r e f o r w o m e n , g i v e n t h e l i m i t e d n u m b e r a n d l o w s t a t u s o f t h e j o b s w h i c h t h e y p r e s e n t l y h o l d . T h e b e l i e f s w h i c h a r e a d v a n c e d a s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s f o r t h e u s e o f s e x a s a s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a r e l a t e t h e s e x o f e m p l o y e e s t o p o t e n t i a l w o r k 13 performance. Women are sometimes characterized as having greater manual dexterity than men (Oppenheimer, 1970: 103); being tempermentally or bio-logically unfit for jobs requiring managerial responsibility (Bowman et al. , 1965: 20, 28) or those requiring physical exertion. In this way, sex is related directly to formal job requirements. Sex is also seen to be related in more indirect ways to job per-formance. It is assumed that there is a potential loss of business or pro-ductivity where clients, customers or co-workers would object to dealing with women in certain occupational roles. The primary objection to women workers is voiced about women in supervisory roles. Having women in super-visory capacities is believed to be unacceptable to superiors, colleagues and subordinates, whether they be male or female (Bowman et a l . , 1965; Op-penheimer, 1970: 107; Powell, 1963; Wilensky, 1968). This belief may be based in part on the norms which govern male-female interacting in general. Caplow (1965: 237-38) suggests that "the attitudes which govern interper-sonal relationships in our culture sanction only a few working relation-ships between men and women" and that there is a general expectation that "intimate groups, except those based on family or sexual ties, should be composed of either sex but never of both". Where work groups are mixed, the beliefs that "women should not be in authority over men of roughly the same social class and age" (Wilensky, 1968: 241) and that women should not " i n i t i a t e " action for men (Caplow, 1965: 241) support the opposition to wo-men supervising male subordinates. Thus the traditional norms which gov-ern male-female interaction influence the definition of suitable occupa-tional roles. The costs attributed to hiring women are also interpreted to 1 4 i n c l u d e t h e h i g h t u r n o v e r a n d a b s e n t e e i s m r a t e o f f e m a l e s a n d t h e i r r e s i d e n -t i a l i m m o b i l i t y . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f w o m e n w h i c h r e s u l t f r o m t h e f a m i l y r o l e s t h e y p e r f o r m a r e a l s o b e l i e v e d t o b e i m p o r t a n t f o r w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e . W o m e n h a v e c u s t o m a r i l y b e e n a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k o f c h i l d - r e a r i n g a n d t h e r e h a s b e e n l i t t l e s u p p o r t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e s t a t e o r c o m m u n i t y i n s h a r i n g i t s m a j o r b u r d e n s . S i n c e t h e w o r k i n g l i f e o f w o m e n i s m o r e l i k e l y t h a n t h a t o f m e n t o i n v o l v e s o m e d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , t h e s t r u c t u r i n g o f w o r k w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s o n l y m i n i m a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r m a t e r n i t y l e a v e a n d v a l u e s f u l l - t i m e c o n t i n u o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n w o r k , d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y p e n a l i z e s w o m e n w o r k e r s i n o u r s o c i e t y . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t r u c t u r i n g o f w o r k a c t i v i t y t o o k p l a c e o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e w h e n t h e e m p l o y e d l a b o u r f o r c e c o n s i s t e d a l m o s t e n -t i r e l y o f m e n , a n d t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , o f s i n g l e w o m e n . ( S e e M e l t z , 1 9 6 6 ; O s t r y , 1 9 6 6 , 1 9 6 8 ; S p e n c e r a n d F e a t h e r s t o n e , 1 9 7 0 , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n s o f f e m a l e l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C a n a d a . ) T h u s t h e n e e d s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f w o r k e r s f r o m t h o s e p o p u l a t i o n s b e c a m e p a r t o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h u n d e r l y t h e d e s i g n o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f w o r k o r g a n i z a t i o n s . W h e n t h e w o r k a c t i v i t i e s o f m a r r i e d w o m e n w e r e c o n f i n e d t o t h e h o m e , i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h i n c o m e t o s u p p o r t a f a m i l y , m a l e w o r k e r s h a d t o w o r k f u l l - t i m e a n d t h i s w o r k a c t i v i t y c o v e r e d t h e m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e i r l i v e s . I n t h i s w a y , i t c a m e t o b e a s s u m e d a n d c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t h a t w o r k e r s w o u l d b e f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s , h a v e c o n -t i n u o u s w o r k h i s t o r i e s a n d g i v e p r i o r i t y t o w o r k d e m a n d s o v e r f a m i l y r e s -p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 1 5 A r c h i b a l d ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 1 8 ) o u t l i n e d t h r e e m a j o r c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y m e n t s t r u c t u r e w h i c h f a v o u r s f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s : " ( 1 ) o t h e r t y p e s o f e m p l o y e e s d o n o t r e c e i v e e q u a l t r e a t m e n t ; ( 2 ) b u i l t -i n c o m p l i c a t i o n s a n d c o n f u s i o n s d i s c o u r a g e u s e o f o t h e r t y p e s o f e m p l o y e e s , e v e n w h e n t h i s w o u l d b e o f a d v a n t a g e t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t ; a n d ( 3 ) e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w o m e n w i t h f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e m o r e l i m i t e d t h a n n e e d b e " . T h e u s e o f p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e e s i s n o t w i d e s p r e a d . G i n z b e r g ( 1 9 6 8 : 2 0 2 ) s t a t e s t h a t " o n l y t h e m o s t a l e r t c o r p o r a t i o n h a s r e c o g n i z e d '" t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f a p a r t - t i m e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m a s a w a y o f a t t r a c t i n g a b l e w o m e n b a c k i n t o e m p l o y m e n t " a n d t h a t b u s i n e s s e s " a r e u s u a l l y u n w i l l i n g t o m a k e e v e n m o d e s t a d j u s t m e n t s i n h o u r s , v a c a t i o n s , a n d o t h e r s c h e d u l i n g t o a t t r a c t a b l e w o m e n . " S i m i l a r l y , m a n y w o m e n r e t u r n t o w o r k a f t e r h a v i n g c h i l d r e n . T h e r e a r e h o w e v e r , f e w w i m s t i t t u f c i o n a l i z e d c h a n n e l s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y c a n b e r e - t r a i n e d a n d g a i n r e - e n t r y i n t o t h e l a b o u r f o r c e a t a l e v e l c o m m e n -s u r a t e w i t h t h e i r s k i l l s . A d v a n c e m e n t w h i c h r e l i e s h e a v i l y o n t h e a c c u m -u l a t i o n o f s e n i o r i t y w i l l f a v o u r m e n o v e r w o m e n . T h e R e l e v a n c e o f S e x f o r P r e d i c t i n g W o r k P e r f o r m a n c e : T h e E v i d e n c e M a n y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a s s u m p t i o n s b o t h a b o u t t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s e x r o l e s f o r w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s e x t o w o r k r e -q u i r e m e n t s d o n o t a p p e a r t o b e b a s e d o n e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e . T h e a r g u m e n t t h a t w o m e n a r e p o o r o c c u p a t i o n a l r i s k s b e c a u s e t h e y w i l l q u i t t h e i r j o b s i s n o t s u p p o r t e d b y a n a l y s e s o f t u r n o v e r r a t e s . I n a s t u d y o f t h e U . S . F e d e r a l P u b l i c S e r v i c e , w o m e n w e r e s h o w n t o h a v e a c o n s i s -t e n t l y h i g h e r t u r n o v e r r a t e t h a n m e n b y g r a d e o f o c c u p a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , a n d 16 age group. However, "the most s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g was that the greatest variances i n turnover rates occur between d i f f e r e n t age groups, occupat ions , and grade l e v e l s , rather than between the sexes ' , ' (Harr ison, 1964: 82). S i m i l a r l y , A r c h i b a l d (1970) notes that women i n the Canadian P u b l i c Serv ice are younger, lower paid and concentrated i n occupations with l i t t l e oppor-t u n i t i e s for advancement, factors which i n themselves are r e l a t e d to t u r n -over. While the turnover rate for women on the whole then, was found to be higher than for men, "female terminees are three times more l i k e l y to re turn to the s e r v i c e than male terminees. The combined e f fec t (of th i s and other factors) leads to women i n the s erv i ce having almost the same number of years of i n - s e r v i c e experience as men" ( A r c h i b a l d , 1970: 95). S i m i l a r l y , data on absenteeism refutes employers' contentions that women workers are less r e l i a b l e i n terms of report ing for work. S t a t i s t i c s from a U . S . P u b l i c Service survey and the Metropol i tan L i f e Insurance Com-pany show p r a c t i c a l l y no d i f ference i n days o f f work due to i l l n e s s between men and women ( A r c h i b a l d : 41). S i m i l a r data from the Canadian P u b l i c Ser -v ice i n d i c a t e that women on the average use only 1.24 days per year more leave ( i . e . , t o t a l of s i c k leave , casual and s p e c i a l leave) than men (Arch-i b a l d , 1970: 42). While there i s evidence to support the b e l i e f that males are p r e -ferred i n supervisory p o s i t i o n s , there i s a lso strong evidence to show that experience with women i n such pos i t i ons decreases pre judice against women superv i sors . Bowman et a l . (1965: 166) report that "those who report such personal experience are more l i k e l y to be s trong ly favourable to the idea df women i n management than are t h e i r colleagues lack ing such experience". This 17 r e l a t i o n s h i p between experience with women i n a supervisory or c o l l e a g i a l capacity and p o s i t i v e opinions about women workers i s a lso supported by Harr i son (1964: 83) and A r c h i b a l d (1970: 46). These three s tudies a lso show women to be cons i s t en t ly more support ive of the idea of women i n man-a g e r i a l pos i t i ons than are men. While these f indings do not suggest that there are no costs involved i n p l a c i n g females i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y male occu-pations , they do suggest that the long run ef fect would be to decrease oppos i t ion to women managers and thus decrease the s t r a i n s i n v o l v e d . A more fundamental challenge to b e l i e f s about the r e l a t i o n be-tween sex and task performance i s the contradic tory nature of the sex-typing of jobs . What i s l a b e l l e d a 'man's j o b ' i n one l o c a l i t y i s a 'woman's j o b ' i n another. One of the most obvious examples of th i s i s the domination of medical p r a c t i c e i n North America by men and i n the U . S . S . R . by women. The common denominator i n the sexual d i v i s i o n of labour may be the p r i n c i p l e that "whatever the s t r i c t l y male tasks are , they are defined as more h o n o r i f i c " (Goode, 1964: 70). Thus medicine i n the U . S . S . R . i s not accorded the pres t ige i t receives i n Canada and the U . S . , except for the top posts which are s t i l l he ld by men. I t i s a lso apparent that there i s no necessary r e l a t i o n between the s t r u c t u r i n g of work a c t i v i t y which r e l i e s on f u l l - t i m e continuous work performance and optimum work performance. The r e - s t r u c t u r i n g of work a c t i -v i t y to b e t t e r s u i t the needs of women workers or men who wish to p a r t i c i -pate more f u l l y i n c h i l d - r e a r i n g , does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean a loss of p e r -formance for the organizat ion for a l l types of jobs . WKeEeethe time required for a c q u i r i n g s k i l l s i s r e l a t i v e l y shor t , where performance of tasks remains s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same over t ime, i t may be argued that there i s no r e a l 18 advantage to f u l l - t i m e work or continuous work h i s t o r i e s . In a d d i t i o n , where work tasks are r e p e t i t i v e , the use of part - t ime workers may give improved work performance. Even where tasks are not r e p e t i t i v e , other features of work a c t i v i t y could be a l t e r e d to allow for the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women without loss of performance. Wilensky (1968: 241) suggests that the reason men dominate medical p r a c t i c e i n North American and women dom-inate the profess ion i n the U . S . S . R . , i s not a t t r i b u t a b l e to the d i f f e r e n t s tate ideologies but rather to the way i n which medical p r a c t i c e i s so -c i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d : "medicine i n the Soviet Union i s p u b l i c not p r i v a t e , group not s o l o , and entry i s c o n t r o l l e d by the s t a t e , which can enforce a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p o l i c i e s " . Thus medical p r a c t i c e , and by inference a range of other occupations , could be s t ruc tured to allow for the d i f f e r e n t needs of women workers and s t i l l accomplish the work goals of the occupa-t i o n . SUMMARY The use of sex as a bas i s for job a l l o c a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d by a lack of e x p l i c i t a n d . c l e a r l y i n s t i t u t e d p o l i c i e s against d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a lack of c l e a r l y defined and quant i f i ed standardssfor s e l e c t i o n and d i f f e r e n -t i a l recruitment processes . Where the organizat ion does not e s t a b l i s h both a commitment to equal employment opportuni t i e s for women and men and the procedures to carry out that commitment, i n d i v i d u a l b ias and b e l i e f s about the sex of appl icants are l i k e l y to be used i n s e l e c t i o n . Some work s k i l l s and thus the a b i l i t y to perform work tasks have come to be associated with e i t h e r female or male sex s tatuses . I t has been postulated and tested i n part that th i s connection i s l a r g e l y based on s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of the mean-ing of sex and not on e m p i r i c a l d i f ferences between men and women workers. 19 In addition, i t has been argued that characteristics which are sex-linked as a result of sex roles are not necessarily related to work performance. 2 0 C H A P T E R T W O  M E T H O D O L O G Y I t w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t a s t u d y o f t h i s n a t u r e w o u l d m e e t w i t h c o n -s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n . A n e x p l o r a t o r y c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s o c i a l r e s e a r c h b r a n c h o f a l a r g e b u s i n e s s f i r m i n t h e c i t y c o n f i r m e d t h i s v i e w . T h e o r -g a n i z a t i o n w h e r e t h e s t u d y w a s c o n d u c t e d w a s c h o s e n f o r a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s . A s a n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , i t w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e s u p p o r t f o r a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h . I n a d d i t i o n , a s t a t i s t i c a l s u r v e y a n d r e p o r t h a d b e e n r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d o n t h e s t a t u s o f w o m e n i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , g i v i n g v a l u a b l e b a c k g r o u n d d a t a . T h e P e r s o n n e l O f f i c e , w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e " r e c r u i t m e n t , s e l e c t i o n a n d a p p o i n t m e n t o f s t a f f f o r a l l d e p a r t m e n t s " , ( A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 : 2 ) w a s s e l e c t e d a s t h e f o c u s f o r t h e s t u d y . I n o r d e r t o g a i n p e r m i s s i o n t o c o n d u c t t h e s t u d y , m e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d w i t h t h e c h a i r m e n o f t w o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m m i t t e e s f o r m e d t o e x a m i n e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t a t u s o f w o m e n r e p o r t a n d f i n a l l y w i t h t h e A s s i s -t a n t D i r e c t o r o f P e r s o n n e l . I n e a c h c a s e , i n t e r e s t a n d e n t h u s i a s m w e r e s h o w n i n t h e p r o p o s a l . A c o n c e r n w a s e v i d e n t , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h b e u n d e r t a k e n w i t h i n a n o b j e c t i v e f r a m e w o r k , a n d t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r w a s n o t s i m p l y e n t e r i n g t h e f i e l d t o p r o v e t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t w o m e n w a s e p i d e m i c i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . A s s u r a n c e s w e r e o f f e r e d t h a t t h e s e c o n -d i t i o n s w o u l d i n f a c t b e m e t a n d t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h h a d a c a d e m i c l e g i t i m a c y . S C O P E O F T H E I N V E S T I G A T I O N T h e j o b a l l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s t a g e s : i n i t i a l r e -c r u i t i n g o f c a n d i d a t e s f o r p o s i t i o n s , t h e s c r e e n i n g o f t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s t o 21 provide a more s e l e c t i v e l i s t o o f candidates and the f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t . Sources of i n f l u e n c e on t h i s process go beyond the p o l i c i e s and procedures of the Personnel O f f i c e . E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the community, a f e d e r a l employment bureau and a student r e f e r r a l s e r -• v i c e are used as resources i n the recruitment process. The extent to which these agencies d i f f e r e n t i a t e between men and women i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g and r e f e r r a l f u n c t i o n s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of .men and women i n the f i r s t stage. A f t e r the study had been i n i t i a t e d , i t was discovered that the Personnel O f f i c e i s not a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the s e l e c t i o n of a l l employees. There are areas of employment which are conducted e n t i r e l y by the departments and some areas i n which the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s shared. As an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p o l i c i e s and procedures of the sources of r e c r u i t s mentioned above would c o n s t i t u t e major s t u d i e s i n themselves, and as the pr o p o r t i o n of employees who are h i r e d without going through Personnel was estimated as r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , these areas were defined as ou t s i d e the scope of the study. DATA COLLECTION Demographic data f o r the labour f o r c e as a whole and d e s c r i p -t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l data f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t u d i e d were u t i l i z e d to demon-s t r a t e the degree and p e r s i s t e n c e of the sex segregation of occupations. Information on the formal s t r u c t u r e of the process of recruitment and s e l e c t i o n was contained i n the Personnel Department's Annual Report, the p o l i c y and procedure manual, and i n formal d e s c r i p t i o n s of the gobs i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g those f o r the Personnel r e c r u i t e r s . 2 2 In addition, the advertising records and appointment records were examined for a three month period: two months preceding the study and the f i r s t month of the study. On the basis of this examination, a number of dimensions were outlined which formed the basis for the interviews with each of the recruit-ers. The interviews were designed to allow a comparison of their jobs and description of the process of recruitment and selection with the formal picture I had constructed, to determine the extent to which written guide-lines were made use of in the course of their work, the c r i t e r i a they f e l t were important in evaluating applicants for positions,and how advertising decisions were made. These interviews with the recruiters were loosely structured and ranged from approximately half an hour to an hour in length. The combination of information from a month of observation and questioning and the recruiter interviews provided the basis for the selection of a sample of positions to be examined as they were f i l l e d , for the next stage of the project. The Sample The sample of positions to be studied in detail was selected dur-ing a one week period. The recruiters kept a l i s t of positions which were phoned in to them each day of that week. The restrictions on the e l i g i b i l -ity of positions for selection are described below. The sample of eligible positions was selected from each l i s t using a table of random numbers. Be-cause of the large number of job openings, one-third of the positions were selected for analysis. The resultant sample consisted of fourteen c l e r i c a l , secretarial and library positions, two technical or research positions and eight professional or supervisory positions. In the latter category, there 23 were four trades , t e c h n i c a l or maintenance, two o f f i c e admin i s tra t ion and two computing p o s i t i o n s . Seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n the demands for p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s , and seasonal and economic cycles which a f fec t the supply of labour , may have af fected the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the kinds of jobs open i n the week chosen as the sampling p e r i o d . A complete comparison of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of jobs open i n other time periods i s not f e a s i b l e as a l l vacant pos i t i ons do not appear on the weekly job pos t ings . Two categories of c l e r i c a l pos i t i ons were excluded from s e l e c -t i o n : temporary c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l work, and l i b r a r y a s s i s t a n t s . The temporary c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l jobs were on the average, of two weeks d u r a t i o n . While the s k i l l s required are s i m i l a r for temporary and permanent work, the importance of the temporary workers for the operat ion of the departments i s much more l i m i t e d . Therefore , these p o s i t i o n s are most commonly f i l l e d by the f i r s t person r e f e r r e d by Personnel . In a d d i -t i o n , no f i l e s are kept by the r e c r u i t e r s on these p o s i t i o n s . For these reasons, the sampling of c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l pos i t i ons was r e s t r i c t e d to permanent ones. As there were approximately f i f t y permanent c l e r i c a l and secre -t a r i a l job openings i n the sampling p e r i o d , a dec i s ion was made to fur ther l i m i t the s e l e c t i o n of these pos i t i ons by e l i m i n a t i n g l i b r a r y as s i s tants from cons iderat ion . The organizat ion of the l i b r a r y s t a f f i s unique i n the organ iza t ion . There i s an i n d i v i d u a l on the l i b r a r y f a c u l t y who i s respons ib le for s t a f f recrui tment , i n i t i a l in t erv i ewing , and r e f e r r a l of appl icants to i n d i v i d u a l departments i n the l i b r a r y . There are , i n a d d i t i o n , an ac t ive s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n , a s t a f f manual, and an es tab l i shed grievance 24 p r o c e d u r e w h i c h d o e s n o t go t h r o u g h t h e P e r s o n n e l D e p a r t m e n t . I t w a s f e l t t h a t a s m a l l s a m p l e f r o m t h i s g r o u p w o u l d n o t p r e s e n t s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n -i t y t o a n a l y s e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a n d w o u l d p r o v i d e t o o l a r g e a r a n g e o f c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . A f t e r t h e s a m p l e o f p o s i t i o n s h a d b e e n s e l e c t e d a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g o f s u p e r v i s o r s h a d b e g u n , i t w a s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r l i b r a r y p o s i t i o n s w e r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e d e t a i l e d t h a n f o r m o s t p o s i t i o n s . T h u s , a m o r e d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o h a v e o v e r - s a m p l e d t h i s g r o u p a n d c o n t r a s t e d t h e h i r i n g p r o -c e d u r e s w i t h i n t h e l i b r a r y w i t h t h o s e i n t h e r e s t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Two n o n - c l e r i c a l l i b r a r y p o s i t i o n s w e r e n o t e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s a m p l e b u t w e r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o f o r m a n y c o n c l u s i o n s i n t h i s r e g a r d . A s t h e j o b s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m l i s t s p r o v i d e d b y e a c h r e c r u i t e r , o n e j o b c a t e g o r y w a s o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d . W h i l e p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s u p e r v i s o r y j o b s a r e p r i m a r i l y h a n d l e d b y o n e r e c r u i t e r , t h r e e o t h e r s a l s o f i l l t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s h a d a g r e a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f b e i n g s e l e c t e d t h a n p o s i t i o n s w h i c h w e r e f i l l e d b y o n l y o n e r e c r u i t e r . F e w t e c h n i c a l p o s i t i o n s w e r e c o v e r e d a s t w o o f t h e s e j o b s h a d a l r e a d y b e e n f i l l e d b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r s a n d l i s t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e -c r u i t e r s w a s s i m p l y a f o r m a l i t y . One o t h e r t e c h n i c a l p o s i t i o n w a s l i s t e d b u t n o d e c i s i o n w a s b e i n g m a d e p e n d i n g a d e c i s i o n o n r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e j o b . C o l l e c t i n g t h e D a t a f o r E a c h P o s i t i o n F o r e a c h p o s i t i o n c h o s e n , a r e c o r d w a s m a i n t a i n e d o f t h e a d v e r t i s -i n g u s e d , t h e f o r m a l j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e a n d w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e u s e d , m a j o r j o b t a s k s , t h e e d u c a t i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e d o f a p p l i c a n t s , a n d t h e i n f o r m a l c o m m e n t s b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r s a b o u t t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h w e r e 25 given over the phone to the r e c r u i t e r s . Information was a l so recorded for each appl icant for each p o s i t i o n - t h e i r sex, age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , number of dependents, educat ion, work experience, s p e c i a l s k i l l s , how they heard about the job opening, and the r e c r u i t e r ' s comments w r i t t e n on t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n forms. As i n d i v i d u a l s were h i r e d , l e t t e r s were sent to the supervisors i n the departments who were respons ib le for the f i n a l in terv iewing and h i r i n g . The interviews i n the departments began two months a f t e r the i n i -t i a t i o n of the study. Of the 23 interviews requested, only one was not completed. The interviews i n the departments were loose ly s t r u c t u r e d , and var i ed i n length from twenty minutes to one and a h a l f hours , with the average time being f i f t y minutes. I began by o u t l i n i n g i n general terms, what the pro jec t was about; that I had been observing the procedures which were used i n Personnel and I was now in teres ted i n the c r i t e r i a which were used i n the departments to s e l e c t among the appl icants who were r e f e r r e d . I d id not r e f e r to my focus on the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between women and men appl icants at th i s time. I wanted to make c l ear that I was not working for the Personnel O f f i c e , as I f e l t th i s would constra in the responses I would o b t a i n . This very general i n t r o d u c t i o n proved s a t i s f a c t o r y i n a l l but one case, where the respondent wished more d e t a i l e d information and requested to see a copy of the completed t h e s i s . Fol lowing th i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , the respondents were asked, "could you describe the p o s i t i o n and the k ind of person you were looking f o r ? " . For the remainder of the interview I t r i e d to discuss the fo l lowing dimen-sions without us ing d i r e c t probes: the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 26 the respondent considered important for the job, how the respondent judged the presence or absence of these characteristics; the main duties of the position; the opportunities for advancement; a preference for either a male or a female in this position and reasons for a preference; opinions on the capabilities of men and women in general; and fi n a l l y , the degree of satisfaction with present methods of recruiting employees. In a number of cases, the most informative part of the interview took place after the 'interview' had o f f i c i a l l y ended. At this time more personal examples of situations the respondent had dealt with and opinions on women were expressed. These comments were recorded, to the best of my abil i t y to recall, immediately after the interview. Throughout the study, f i e l d notes were kept both of personal ob-servations and interpretations of behaviour, and the substance of conversa-tions between myself and members of the department or among members of the department. Where possible, the actual text of the conversation was recor-ded. As the procedures and records for recruiting and hiring are not entirely standardized, complete and comparable information for a l l positions and applicants was not obtainable. In addition, a possible source of var-iation in the processing of men and women, the job interview, was not exam-ined. There were then, omissions and a degree of lack of standardization in the data collection. While i t could not be directly tested, i t was fe l t that these features of the study limited only the amount of information gath-ered and did not systematically bias the conclusions which would be drawn from the data. The analysis of the interviews with supervisors in departments does not represent the response of the whole sample on a l l dimensions, as the 27 respondents did not answer a set number of questions. For example, a l l respondents were asked whether they were satisfied with the.present method of recruiting employees. A few people, in answering this question, men-tioned that they recruited candidates outside of Personnel procedures. Others mentioned this when discussing individual applicants whom they had seen but for whom I had no information as they had not been screened by Personnel. However, as the respondents were not systematically asked i f they recruited applicants outside of the Personnel Department, the responses on this dimension do not represent the actual proportion of supervisors who do so. The social relationships which were formed in the course of the project also influenced the research. On the one hand, as I became accept-able to the members of the department, they became more freely accessible for questioning as well as less guarded in their responses. On the other hand, a system of mutual obligations arose out of this lessening of distance. I f e l t that the cooperation in giving information was not simply an obliga-tion to do so, but also involved a friendly interest. This in turn made me feel bound by the norms of friendship, not simply to doing a thorough job of investigation. These obligations were in some respects conflicting, in that I became more reluctant to record negative aspects of the way in which the process was organized and carried out by these individuals. This strain was f e l t , but recognized, and hopefully has not unduly influenced the analysis which is presented in subsequent chapters. 28 CHAPTER THREE THE PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION: A GENERAL OUTLINE The Personnel Office in the organization has fourteen staff mem-bers. Two are primarily concerned with labour relations and administration, four have recruitment and selection of employees as their main duties, while one other individual whose major function is job analysis, assists with re-cruitment. While two of the seven c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff members are responsible for answering enquiries about employment on the phone and at the Personnel counter, the others relieve in this capacity as required. SOURCES OF RECRUITS I n i t i a l contact with applicants is made through both formal chan-nels - advertisements, referral agencies, educational institutions - and informal ones. In addition, applicants contact the organization on their own i n i t i a t i v e , apart from these channels. The use of newspaper advertisements varies by the type of job, supply of recruits available through other channels, the time period within which a replacement needs to be found,and budgetary considerations. Ad-vertisements are most commonly used for professional and supervisory and specialized technical positions. Advertisements for higher level profes-sional and supervisory jobs may be placed on a national level. Because of the cost involved, other methods of recruitment are usually Utilized before advertising. Of the 24 positions studied, 12 were advertised and of these, seven were in the professional and supervisory classification. Canada Manpower was contacted largely for lower level technical, trades, service and maintenance positions. Past experience, both positive 29 a n d n e g a t i v e , w a s c i t e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e d e c i s i o n t o c o n t a c t M a n p o w e r f o r p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n s . T e c h n i c a l a n d v o c a t i o n a l c o l l e g e s w e r e u s e d f o r a l i m i t e d r a n g e o f p o s i t i o n s . C o n t a c t w a s i n i t i a t e d o n d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s b y b o t h t h e c o l l e g e s a n d t h e P e r s o n n e l D e p a r t m e n t . S u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t s a l s o c o n t a c t e d b o t h M a n p o w e r a n d t e c h n i c a l c o l l e g e s o n t h e i r o w n . I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e h a n d i c a p p e d a l s o c o n t a c t e d t h e P e r s o n n e l D e p a r t m e n t a b o u t e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h u s , c o n t a c t w i t h a p p l i c a n t s o u t s i d e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s m a d e t h r o u g h a n u m b e r o f c h a n n e l s . A p p l i c a n t s f o r s o m e p o s i t i o n s a r e a l s o r e c r u i t e d f r o m w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a s w e e k l y l i s t s o f v a c a n c i e s a r e c i r c u l a t e d o r " p o s t e d " i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t s . T h e s e p o s t i n g s a r e c o m p r i s e d m a i n l y o f o p e n i n g s f o r p e r -m a n e n t j o b s . W h e n a p o s i t i o n b e c o m e s o p e n , r e c r u i t e r s a l s o c o n s u l t ' r e s o u r c e f i l e s ' o f a p p l i c a t i o n s . T h e s e f i l e s c o n t a i n a p p l i c a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s w h o h a v e a p p l i e d a t a t i m e w h e n n o s u i t a b l e p o s i t i o n s w e r e a v a i l a b l e , o r w h o w e r e n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n c o m p e t i n g f o r a j o b . A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s a l s o h a v e r e s o u r c e f i l e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h o s e p e o p l e w h o h a v e w r i t t e n t o o r c o m e t o s e e t h e m d i r e c t l y . M o r e i n f o r m a l a n d l e s s s y s t e m a t i c c h a n n e l s o f r e c r u i t m e n t a r e a l s o u s e d . S u p e r v i s o r s c o n t a c t m a n a g e r s i n t h e i r f i e l d f o r p o s s i b l e r e -c r u i t s a n d r e f e r e n c e s . E m p l o y e e s r e f e r f r i e n d s a n d r e l a t i v e s a s w e l l a s c o l l e a g u e s f r o m f o r m e r p l a c e s o f e m p l o y m e n t . A p p l i c a n t s a l s o c o n t a c t t h e P e r s o n n e l D e p a r t m e n t a p a r t f r o m t h e s e c h a n n e l s . I n d i v i d u a l s a p p l y t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n p e r s o n o r b y p h o n e a n d e n q u i r e g e n e r a l l y a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e m p l o y m e n t o r c o n s u l t t h e p o s t i n g s 30 for suitable positions. Individuals also contact the departments directly where there are vacancies. Almost half of the supervisors interviewed indicated that candidates contacted them in this manner. While most sup-ervisors w i l l interview and consider individuals who do not f i r s t apply to the Personnel Office, others w i l l not. SELECTION PROCEDURES The selection procedures vary by whether the application is in the form of a general enquiry about employment or an application for a spe-c i f i c position, and the type of position for which applied. The involvement of the c l e r i c a l staff in the Personnel Office is greatest when handling gen-eral requests for information by potential applicants. Members of the cler-i c a l staff w i l l enquire about the applicant's work history and qualifica-tions. They w i l l then present the current employment opportunities they judge to be suitable for the applicant. For applications to specific posi-tions they may simply check that applicants meet the minimum requirements. specified for that position. The application forms for continuing employment are more detailed than those for temporary work. Both forms however, require information on an applicant's sex, marital status, age, number of dependents and their re-lationship to the applicant. Applicants for lower level, non-clerical positions may be inter-viewed bri e f l y before being asked to f i l l out an application form. These are used to determine whether or not their background and s k i l l s are suit-able for positions within the organization. Applicants for c l e r i c a l work are required to f i l l out an applica-tion form and take cle r i c a l aptitude and typing tests. The c l e r i c a l aptitude 31 tests evaluate o f f i c e vocabulary, mathematics, and f i l i n g accuracy and speed. I f the applicants' test scores are acceptable, they are then interviewed and evaluated as to the l e v e l of c l e r i c a l or s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n for which they are q u a l i f i e d . They are then referred to supervisors i n a number of departments. The r e c r u i t e r s may check the applicants' references at t h i s time. I f no s u i t a b l e positions are open, or i f the applicants are not h i r e d for any of the positions for which they have competed, t h e i r applications are put on f i l e according to the l e v e l at which they were c l a s s i f i e d . The t e s t i n g and interview procedure take approximately two hours to complete. For positions other than c l e r i c a l , the r e c r u i t e r s may screen the applications and/or resumes f o r each p o s i t i o n , e i t h e r independently or with the supervisor. They w i l l arrange interviews and check the references of those judged to be most q u a l i f i e d . f A p p l i c a n t s may be interviewed both i n Personnel and i n the department or have a j o i n t interview with a Per-sonnel r e c r u i t e r and department representative(s). A range of procedures are used by the supervisors. The majority of supervisors interviewed required the applicants to submit a resume or f i l l out a short a p p l i c a t i o n form i n the department; four of these also checked the references of applicants they were s e r i o u s l y considering for the p o s i t i o n . In ten of the 24 positions f i l l e d , the interview i n the department involved only the supervisor. In the remainder however, the peo-ple with whom the applicant would work, the incumbent i n the p o s i t i o n and/or one or more l e v e l s of supervisory s t a f f were also included. THE RESULTANT DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN AND MEN IN THE ORGANIZATION The h i r i n g process i n the organization does not r e s u l t i n a random d i s t r i b u t i o n of females and males among the types of jobs i n the organization. 3 2 W o m e n f o r m 5 9 % u o f t h e t o t a l s t a f f o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t l i k e w o m e n i n t h e o v e r a l l l a b o u r f o r c e , a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a f e w j o b c a t e g o r i e s . S i x t y -e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e f e m a l e s t a f f a r e e i t h e r c l e r k s , s e c r e t a r i e s o r f o o d s e r v i c e w o r k e r s . O n l y 5% o f t h e m a l e s t a f f f i l l a n y o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . C o n v e r s e l y , w h i l e 7 5 % o f t h e m e n a r e e i t h e r t e c h n i c i a n s o r i n t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n t d e p a r t m e n t , o n l y 1 9 % o f t h e w o m e n a r e i n t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s . A m o r e d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t s o f c o n t i n u i n g s t a f f f o r a t h r e e m o n t h p e r i o d s h o w e d m u c h t h e s a m e p a t t e r n . T h e s t e n o g r a p h e r s , c l e r k s , k e y -p u n c h e r s a n d M T S T o p e r a t o r s a p p o i n t e d w e r e a l l f e m a l e . O f t h e 2 4 l i b r a r y a s s i s t a n t s a p p o i n t e d , o n e w a s m a l e . C o m p u t e r o p e r a t o r s a n d p r o g r a m m e r s ( n = 1 0 ) a n d a l l o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f ( n = 4 ) e x c l u d i n g n u r s e s , w e r e m a l e . S i m i l a r l y , f o r t h e s a m p l e o f 2 4 p o s i t i o n s s t u d i e d , o n l y t h r e e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n t e r v i e w e d w e r e f e m a l e s . I f t h i s i s r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o m e n i n s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s , t h e n m o s t h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e m a d e b y m a l e s . A l l t r a d e s m e n - s e r v i c e w o r k e r s , i c e m a k e r s , p a t r o l m e n , k i o s k a t t e n d a n t s , g a r d e n e r s , e l e c t r i c i a n s a n d c a r p e n t e r s - w e r e m a l e . M e n a n d w o m e n w e r e m o r e e v e n l y r e p r e s e n t e d a s r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s a n d t e c h n i c i a n s : o f t h e 9 4 a p p o i n t m e n t s i n t h e s e c a t e -g o r i e s , 4 4 % w e r e f e m a l e . T h u s t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s w h i c h i s u s e d r e -s u l t s i n a d e f i n i t e s e x b i a s i n h i r i n g . I t i s t h e t a s k o f t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e t h e s i s t o e x a m i n e h o w t h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e u s e o f s e x i n t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s . T H E H I R I N G P R O C E S S : D I M E N S I O N S O F A N A L Y S I S C h a p t e r F o u r i n v e s t i g a t e s t h o s e f e a t u r e s o f t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f e m a l e a n d m a l e e m -p l o y e e s . A n a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d o f t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h 3 3 r e g a r d t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d t h e f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e r e c r u i t m e n t a n d s e l e c t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s . I t i s a r g u e d t h a t t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s n e i t h e r p r o h i b i t s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n n o r d o e s i t p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e b a s e s f o r u n b i a s e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . O t h e r f e a t u r e s o f t h e o r g a n -i z a t i o n w h i c h a f f e c t t h e f o r m u l a t i o n a n d e n f o r c e m e n t o f p o l i c i e s a n d p r o -c e d u r e s a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d . T h e i n f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h h a v e d e v e l o p e d f o r c o m m u n i c a t i n g j o b o p e n i n g s t o a p p l i c a n t s a n d f o r d e f i n i n g j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d s e l e c -t i o n c r i t e r i a , a n d t h e s e x - b i a s w h i c h r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e . 34 CHAPTER FOUR THE FORMAL STRUCTURE OF THE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS I t has been argued that the c l a r i t y and communication of p o l i c i e s and procedures are important i n determining the use of sex i n the s e l e c t i o n process. In the organization studied, there are no e x p l i c i t p o l i c i e s pro-h i b i t i n g discrimination i n h i r i n g ; nor are there written procedures govern-ing the communication of job openings to applicants. The organization's " p o l i c i e s " therefore, w i l l be communicated to i t s members and to job a p p l i -cants by the extent to which discriminatory practices are permitted. FORMAL PROCEDURES FOR THE SELECTION OF EMPLOYEES In order to achieve an unbiased s e l e c t i o n of q u a l i f i e d applicants, s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a both about job requirements and how to determine whether applicants meet these requirements must be provided to Personnel r e c r u i t e r s . These conditions are not always met for the po s i t i o n s i n the organization studied. Written information i s not available f o r a l l p o s i t i o n s . There are no job descriptions for hourly positions i n the organization, which account f o r over two-thirds of the yearly appointments. Many of these p o s i -tio n s , however, involve s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same work tasks as the continuing appointments. For the l a t t e r p o s i t i o n s , there are two major sources of i n -formation - a manual of general job descriptions f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of p o s i -tio n s , and a c o l l e c t i o n of detailed job s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l p o s i -tions within a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The manual of job descriptions gives a gen-e r a l outline of the nature of the work, degree of independence or i n d i v i d u a l 35 j u d g e m e n t r e q u i r e d i n p e r f o r m i n g t h e j o b , t y p i c a l j o b d u t i e s , a n d m i n i m u m a n d p r e f e r r e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . T h i s a p p l i e s t o m o s t o f f i c e a n d t e c h n i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a n d a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r t y p e s o f j o b s s u c h a s h o u s i n g m a i n -t e n a n c e , c o m p u t e r o p e r a t o r a n d n u r s e . T h e s e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s h o w e v e r , d o n o t p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n o n w h i c h t o a s s e s s a p p l i c a n t s , a s t h e r e i s a w i d e v a r i a t i o n i n j o b t a s k s w i t h i n a j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . F o r t h e p o s i -t i o n o f i n t e r m e d i a t e c l e r k f o r e x a m p l e , w h i l e a c c o u n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e i s r e -q u i r e d i n o n e d e p a r t m e n t , i n v o i c e e x p e r i e n c e i n a n o t h e r a n d e x p e r i e n c e a s a r e c e p t i o n i s t f o r a n o t h e r , t h e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s i m p l y s t a t e s t h a t a " k n o w l e d g e o f o f f i c e p r o c e d u r e s g a i n e d t h r o u g h a m i n i m u m o f t w o y e a r ' s e x p e r i e n c e " i s r e q u i r e d . T h e r e w a s a l s o s o m e v a r i a t i o n i n t e r m s o f m i n i m u m q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r s o m e c l e r i c a l a n d s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s : " a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e m a y b e r e q u i r e d b y s o m e d e p a r t m e n t s " . J o b s p e c i f i c a t i o n s m a y b e a v a i l a b l e i f t h e j o b h a s b e e n c r e a t e d i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s o r h a s b e e n r e v i e w e d o r r e c l a s -s i f i e d i n t h a t t i m e p e r i o d , b u t t h e y a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m o r e d e t a i l e d t h a n t h e g e n e r a l j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s . I n s o m e c a s e s , t h e j o b t a s k s w e r e e n u m e r a t e d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o p e r f o r m t h e m . W h e r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w e r e w r i t t e n d o w n , t h e y r a n g e d f r o m e d u c a -t i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n a n d p r e v i o u s w o r k e x p e r i e n c e t o p h y s i c a l a n d p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : G o o d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ; C l e a n d r i v e r ' s l i c e n s e ; I n i t i a t i v e , t a c t a n d d i s c r e t i o n ; W i l l i n g n e s s t o l e a r n ; A b i l i t y t o s u p e r v i s e o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f v a r i o u s e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d s ; O r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y ; 36 Promotable; Personal characteristics suitable to accepting responsibilities; Stability; F l e x i b i l i t y ; Mature person, with tact; Pleasant personality and right attitude in dealing with customers. While some qualifications are readily measured, the objective assessment of other characteristics such as i n i t i a t i v e , tact, or organizational a b i l i t y , would be d i f f i c u l t without extensive reference checks. In addition, i t is not clear what standards are used to determine essential qualifications. The requirement of a university degree for example, for carrying out inter-mediate c l e r i c a l and secretarial jobs was recognized as simply a preference on the part of some department heads. Thus, limited written information which is available to recruiters presents the dilemma of evaluating applicants on c r i t e r i a which are both d i f f i c u l t to measure and perhaps only tangentially related to work performance. The inadequacy of the formal documents was also noted in the inter-views with supervisors. Approximately one-third of the supervisors were of the opinion that Personnel did not know what the positions in their respec-tive departments were about: "Personnel doesn't know what is required, on what is on paper." "They are too busy, and don't know the f i e l d . " "Personnel sends over ridiculous people, i t ' s a wasteoof time, as they don't know the f i e l d . " "I ask what they (applicants) were tol.d by Personnel and i t is usually irrelevant information. Then I explain what the job is about and people are amazed. Personnel should be closer in touch with what the jobs really are." 37 " T h e y s e n d o v e r p e o p l e w h o d o n ' t e v e n m e e t t h e b a s i c r e q u i r e -m e n t s . " " T h e y h a v e g i v e n o u t i n c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e j o b s w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e , t h e y j u s t d o n ' t h a v e e n o u g h s t a f f . " T h r e e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n a d d i t i o n , t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p o s i t i o n s c h a n g e d a s t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g p r o g r e s s e d . C r i t e r i a w h i c h h a d n o t b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i n i t i a l a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e j o b i n c r e a s e d i n i m p o r t a n c e a f t e r i n t e r v i e w i n g a n u m b e r o f a p p l i -c a n t s . S o m e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d j o b s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e i n a d d i t i o n , r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e x o f t h e i n c u m b e n t i n t h e p o s i t i o n . F e m i n i n e p r o n o u n s a r e a s s o c i a t e d m o s t f r e q u e n t l y w i t h l o w e r l e v e l c l e r i c a l a n d s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s a n d m a s c u l i n e p r o n o u n s a r e u s e d i n t h e t r a d e s a n d t e c h n i c a l a n d u p p e r l e v e l p o s i t i o n s - e i t h e r d i r e c t l y , o r i n d i r e c t l y b y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r o r h e a d o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a s " h e " . W h i l e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e u s e o f t h e s e p r o n o u n s c a n n o t b e d i r e c t l y t e s t e d , i t w o u l d b e u n r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t i t p l a y s n o p a r t i n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s e x - s e g r e g a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h u s , t h e p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h p e r t a i n t o r e c r u i t m e n t a n d s e l e c t i o n d o n o t , i n i s o l a t i o n , p r o v i d e a v i a b l e s e t o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e o r o b j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d s o n w h i c h t o b a s e h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s . A l s o , t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s l e g i t i -m a t e s e x a s a s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a b y t h e u s e o f g e n d e r i n j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s . T h e f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s a n d t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e a f f e c t e d b y o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n : t h e w o r k l o a d o n t h e P e r -s o n n e l O f f i c e , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d a u t h o r i t y f o r h i r i n g , a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t d e - c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . 38 LIMITATIONS ON THE BUREAUCRATIZATION OF THE HIRING PROCESS Constraints of Work Load The work load on the Personnel r e c r u i t e r s compounds the inade-quacy of the formal procedures. I t does so by l i m i t i n g t h e i r opportun i -t i e s for i n v e s t i g a t i n g the duties and requirements of the p o s i t i o n s as w e l l as conducting thorough examinations of the background and q u a l i f i c a -t ions of a p p l i c a n t s . The volume of appointments, i n combination with other adminis-t r a t i v e duties required of the r e c r u i t e r s , imposes severe time cons tra int s on the recruitment and s e l e c t i o n process . In 19 72-73, an average of n i n e t y -three monthly and 320 temporary appointments were made each month. These f igures do not inc lude promotions and t r a n s f e r s , re-appointments, changes i n account, or s p e c i a l wage increases , which are also processed through the department. In the same time p e r i o d , the r a t i o of work load to the number of Personnel s t a f f members i n the organizat ion s tudied was over two and a h a l f times that i n a s i m i l a r organ iza t ion i n the same c i t y . This work load on the Personnel o f f i c e encourages the use of work routines which have proven f u n c t i o n a l i n terms of l essening demands on the s t a f f members' time - most no tab ly , the t rans fer of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the supervisors i n departments. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and Author i ty i n H i r i n g The wide range of jobs w i t h i n the organizat ion and the non-r o u t i n i z a t i o n of research pos i t i ons makes the formulat ion of comprehensive and consistent p o l i c i e s a d i f f i c u l t task. There i s , i n a d d i t i o n , a separa-39 tion of responsibility for the hiring process and power over f i n a l selection decisions. The responsibilities of the Personnel Department include "re-cruitment, selection and appointment for all...departments" (Annual Report, 1973: 2). Policies regarding this process originate in the Personnel Office and i t is the responsibility of the recruiters to have a "thorough knowledge of Personnel policies, procedures, and practices and the ab i l i t y to interpret and disseminate this information in a clear and concise manner" to senior members of the organization (Recruiter Job Specification). The power in the selection of employees, however, l i e s primarily in the department, as the fi n a l decisions are made there. Personnel policies could maintain their effectiveness in this con-text i f Personnel had clear authority over the supervisors in the departments. This is not the case. As an educational institution, the goals of the or-ganization are "to supply the f a c i l i t i e s and services whereby teaching and research may proceed as easily as possible" (Staff Handbook: 1). The ad-ministrative staff, of which the Personnel Department is a part, occupy a secondary and service role for the academics, many of whom are also super-visors. Thus, Personnel is placed in the position of being nominally res-ponsible for recruitment and selection but without actual control over h i r -ing decisions and in a position of less authority than many of the super-visors who are affected by the policies Personnel constructs. These policies then, w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to enforce. Consequences of the Distribution of Authority and Responsibility in Hiring The response to this context has been the development of a de-centralized and largely unregulated process. Personnel policies are formally 4 0 communicated only to department heads. It i s then the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the heads to inform supervisors w i th in t h e i r departments. However, as the major i ty of department heads are academics whose p r i o r i t i e s are most f r e -quently centred on t h e i r academic rather than t h e i r admin i s t ra t ive r o l e , they do not c o n s i s t e n t l y do so. I t was recognized i n Personnel that t h i s was the "weak l i n k " i n the communication of p o l i c y , but i t was not seen as Personnel ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to f i l l t h i s gap. Thus the h i r i n g dec i s ions are frequent ly made by i n d i v i d u a l s who are not aware of the p o l i c i e s Personnel has e s t a b l i s h e d . The p o l i c y manual cons i s t s of a large number of memos responding to problems which have a r i s e n w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , as w e l l as a general o u t l i n e of the recruitment and s e l e c t i o n procedure and s p e c i f i c regu la t ions regarding condi t ions of work. Thus p o l i c y i s formulated both on an ad hoc bas is and as part of a l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n i n negot ia t ing with unions or i n r e -gu la t ing the behaviour of employees. The general Personnel procedures are both ambiguous and c o n t r a d i c -t o r y , r e f l e c t i n g the dilemmas created by the s t ruc ture of a u t h o r i t y . The r o l e of Personnel i n the s e l e c t i o n and recruitment of cont inuing s t a f f i s s p e c i f i e d as fo l lows: "1. Department Head n o t i f i e s Personnel O f f i c e that p o s i t i o n w i l l be coming vacant and consults with Personnel O f f i c e on pay r a t e . 2. Personnel O f f i c e w i l l r e c r u i t and tes t app l i cant s and a r -range for interviews with Department Head. 3 . Department Head advises Personnel O f f i c e of app l i cant s e l -ected ." The procedures for recruitment and s e l e c t i o n of temporary s t a f f are again l e ss d e t a i l e d : 41 "1. Head of Department notifies Personnel Office of temporary help required and consults with Personnel Office on rate of pay. 2. Interview applicants. 3. Applicant selected and Personnel Office advised of date and hour of employment." Thus, while the annual report states that the responsibilities of the Personnel Office are to include both recruitment and selection of staff for a l l departments, other documents indicate that actual involvement of Personnel w i l l be more restricted. The procedures for selection of contin-uing staff include the participation of Personnel in the recruitment, test-ing and referral of applicants. Those for temporary appointments do not specifically include Personnel in those stages but neither is the respon-s i b i l i t y stated to l i e exclusively with the department concerned. In another section of the Personnel policy manual, in the form of a memo, there is a more detailed description of the "Recruitment, Selection and Appointment of Technicians, Research Assistants and Technicians on Grants". This is a major category of appointments and formed over one-third of the total continuing appointments in 1972-73, and approximately 7% of the temporary appointments in that time. The "normal procedures" which are to be applied to this category were outlined as follows: "1. A statement of the duties and job requirements should be sent to the Personnel Office as soon as i t is known that the job w i l l become available. If requested, the Personnel Office w i l l arrange for recruitment of suitable applicants by reference to the f i l e s or advertising. The office re-tains on a continuous basis on f i l e the names and qualifica-tions of applicants for a l l kinds of positions. At the same time there is no objection to the department concerned doing recruiting on i t s own. 42 2. The Personnel O f f i c e w i l l r e f e r p o s s i b l e candidates to the i n d i v i d u a l or departments concerned. 3. The Personnel O f f i c e w i l l arrange f o r the p o s t i n g of the p o s i t i o n where a p p l i c a b l e . " The involvement of the Personnel O f f i c e then, may, at the d i s c r e t i o n of the s u p e r v i s o r , be assumed by_ the supervisor f o r a p a r t i c u l a r category of appoint-ments. I t i s not c l e a r , simply w i t h reference to w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n , whe-ther the Personnel Department i s to p l a y a p u r e l y a d v i s o r y r o l e to the de-partments, to be u t i l i z e d at the o p t i o n of the departments, or whether i t has an independent a u t h o r i t y i n the process. Where h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n are made e x c l u s i v e l y by Personnel o f f i c e r s there i s a decreased p r o b a b i l i t y that those d e c i s i o n s w i l l be d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . Mayhew (1968: 68) argues that n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s l i k e l y to be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d among personnel o f f i c e r s , but where they have l i t t l e power and h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s are made i n i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s or departments, d i s c r i m i n a t o r y s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a w i l l be used. This argument i s supported i n another study ( A r c h i b a l d , 1970: 59) by the r e s u l t s of an experiment to determine "whether a male candidate would be given preference over a female candidate of p r e c i s e l y equal a b i l i t y and experience". F i v e v i t a e were constructed and presented to t r a i n e e s i n the P u b l i c Service Com-miss i o n to be ranked according to the s u i t a b i l i t y of the f i c t i o n a l c a n d i -dates f o r a job which was described to the t r a i n e e s . The best "candidate" was shown to have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r chance of being ranked f i r s t when the t r a i n e e s b e l i e v e d i t to be a male than when i t was given a female name. While there was then, obvious d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on the p a r t of the t r a i n e e s on the whole, the r e s u l t s f o r those i n Personnel A d m i n i s t r a t i o n "showed no tendency to d i s c r i m i n a t e whatsoever" ( A r c h i b a l d , 1970: 207). 4 3 While there is evidence in the literature to demonstrate the relationship between decentralization of hiring and discrimination, there is only speculation as to the reasons for this relationship. Personnel officers may either be trained to avoid the use of discriminatory c r i t e r i a or may be less biased individuals than other members of the organization. The observations of this study indicate that i t is also l i k e l y however, that decentralization is associated with a lack of policies and procedures for hiring which in turn has been shown to contribute to discrimination in organizations. The recruiters were asked what documents they consulted in the course of their work and whether the written procedures were helpful in doing their job. The formal procedures most often referred to were the rules concerning pay rates, vacations, sick leave, dismissal procedures and job descriptions. For areas other than these, i t was suggested that the p o l i -cies were largely taken-for-granted or consisted of 'rule-of-thumb' proce-dures as the policy manual did not cover a l l situations they encountered. There was a consensus among the members of the Personnel Department that the role of Personnel was that of recruiting, screening and referring suitable candidates to departments. The function of Personnel was also interpreted to be in the "information and persuasive end of things" rather than the en-forcement of policies and procedures in the departments. It was maintained that the departments resent interference by Personnel and that i t wouldn't be feasible for Personnel to dictate to the departments. Thus, the members of the Personnel Office did not assume that they had a mandate to systemati-cally enforce Personnel policies. 44 Thus, the authority structure of the organization, general Per-sonnel policies and the interpretation of the role of the Personnel Depart-ment by i t s members together foster the decentralization of decision-making and the abdication of responsibility by Personnel. There i s , therefore, no agency to which the participants in the process must account for their decisions, and only limited policy formulation. Alternative Responses to the Distribution of Responsibility and Authority The desire of some supervisors for greater control and formaliza-tion of the hiring process and the recognition by supervisors of the indepen-dent authority of Personnel indicate that the barriers to regulation of the process may not be as substantial as they are interpreted to be. While almost one-third of the supervisors interviewed would like to bypass Personnel completely, others referred to the disadvantages of having to rely on word-of-mouth policies and expressed the view that Personnel should expand their role: "If I was going to do something outside the norm, I'd have to check with the Director. If there was a policy I could refer to, then I could say we had to consider both men and women." "This (lack of written policies) is a weakness in their policies - i f you follow their suggestions and get in hot water, they re-verse their decisions." "Personnel should expand and take a big role (in the organization). There should be one full-time person for (two specific) depart-ments just for contract negotiation and to be a listening post for the problems of our staff. There i s no one to do that job at present." It was also evident that the supervisors were not clear about the role of Personnel in recruitment and selection. One supervisor f e l t that Personnel screened candidates on qualifications, with evaluation in the departments being primarily concerned with the personal l i f e of the applicants. Another 45 h o w e v e r , b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e d e p a r t m e n t s w e r e m o s t q u a l i f i e d t o e x a m i n e t h e t e c h n i c a l s u i t a b i l i t y o f a p p l i c a n t s a n d t h a t h e l e f t i t t o P e r s o n n e l t o f i n d o u t i f a p p l i c a n t s a r e " h o m o s e x u a l , h a v e a d r i n k i n g p r o b l e m , o r a n y t h i n g e l s e t h a t w o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r w o r k . " O t h e r s w e r e u n c e r t a i n a b o u t t h e r i g o r e m p l o y e d b y P e r s o n n e l i n t h e s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s a m b i g u i t y i n -d i c a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e d e f i n i n g t h e r o l e o f P e r s o n n e l t o i n c l u d e m o r e s y s t e m a t i c p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n . W h i l e P e r s o n n e l w a s d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y i n a s e r v i c e c a p a c i t y ' s : f o r t h e s u p e r v i s o r y m e m b e r s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t a l s o s e r v e d a s t h e l o c u s f o r g r i e v a n c e s f r o m t h e e m p l o y e e s a n d t h u s , w a s i n p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e d i n i m p o s i n g l i m i t a t i o n s o n t h e s u p e r v i s o r s . T h e m o s t c l e a r e x a m p l e o f a d h e r -e n c e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s t o p o l i c y l a i d d o w n b y a n o u t s i d e a u t h -o r i t y i s t h e u n i o n r e g u l a t i o n s . A l e g a l c o n t r a c t i s o u t o f n e c e s s i t y r e c o g -n i z e d a s l e g i t i m a t e a n d b i n d i n g b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r s . I n d e p e n d e n t a u t h o r i t y w a s a l s o a t t r i b u t e d b y s u p e r v i s o r s t o t h e P e r s o n n e l O f f i c e : " A f e w y e a r s a g o w e d i d n ' t h i r e w o m e n f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n ; w e d i d n ' t f e e l i t w a s p r o p e r f o r t h e m t o b e o n t h e n i g h t s h i f t . W e a s k e d t h e s e c u r i t y p e o p l e i f t h e y w o u l d b e a r o u n d w h e n t h e s h i f t c h a n g e d - s o t h e g i r l s w o u l d h a v e s o m e p r o t e c t i o n a s t h e y w e n t t o t h e i r c a r s b u t s e c u r i t y s a i d ' n o w a y ' . B u t t w o y e a r s a g o ( a r e c r u i t e r ) s a i d t h a t w a s a g a i n s t ( o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ) p o l i c y , s o w e a b a n d o n e d i t ; a n d a c t u a l l y t h e y s t a y l o n g e r t h a n t h e m e n , w e h a v e n ' t h a d a n y p r o b l e m s . " W h i l e o t h e r s i m i l a r i n s t a n c e s w e r e o b s e r v e d , t h e p r o b l e m s w e r e s o l v e d i n -d i v i d u a l l y a n d i n f o r m a l l y . T h i s r e s u l t s t h e n i n t h e i n c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a -t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s a n d p o l i c i e s o v e r t i m e a n d a c r o s s r e c r u i t e r s . T h u s w h i l e t h e o n e e x a m p l e g i v e n a b o v e w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s a g a i n s t t h e o r g a n i -z a t i o n ' s p o l i c y t o r e f u s e t o h i r e f e m a l e s f o r a n i g h t s h i f t p o s i t i o n , a s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t b y a n o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t f o r a m a l e t o f i l l t h e n i g h t s h i f t p o s i t i o n o f w h a t w a s n o r m a l l y a ' f e m a l e j o b ' , w a s a c c e p t e d . 46 While these observations suggest that the systematic formaliza-tion and communication of policies to supervisors would affect recruitment and selection, they also il l u s t r a t e the extent to which the process i s unstandardized and unregulated at present. SUMMARY The structure of the hiring process in the organization studied is one which has been demonstrated, in other studies, to be conducive to the development of discriminatory practices. There is no organizational policy against the use of sex and sex is built in to some job descriptions and job specifications. The choice of channels of recruitment is not gov-erned by rules and the procedures which do exist for the evaluation of applicants are inadequate to insure unbiased selection. This weak formal structure has been accounted for in part by the work load of the Personnel Office, the distribution of responsibility and authority for hiring and the consequent decentralization of decision-making. In addition the pos-s i b i l i t y has been raised that the conditions leading to the lack of ade-quate policies and procedures may be responsive to change. An examina-tion of the consequences of this formal structure for the use of sex in hiring decisions in the organization is undertaken in Chapter Five. 47 C H A P T E R F I V E T H E I N F O R M A L O R G A N I Z A T I O N O F T H E H I R I N G P R O C E S S  A N D T H E S E X - S E G R E G A T I O N O F O C C U P A T I O N S I t h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s a v a i l a b l e f o r s t r u c t u r i n g t h e r e c r u i t m e n t a n d s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s a r e i n a d e q u a t e i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n t o i n s u r e s e l e c t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f m e r i t . F u r t h e r , i t h a s b e e n s h o w n t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f w o r k l o a d h a v e l e d t o a d e c e n t r a -l i z e d a n d l a r g e l y u n r e g u l a t e d h i r i n g p r o c e s s . A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e x -s e g r e g a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n m u s t t h e n l o o k a t t h e i n -f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h h a v e d e v e l o p e d t o o r d e r b o t h t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f j o b o p e n i n g s t o a p p l i c a n t s a n d t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . A S S U M P T I O N S A B O U T H O W H I R I N G S H O U L D B E C O N D U C T E D T h e r e c r u i t e r s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r w o r k i n t e r m s o f s e l e c t i n g t h e b e s t c a n d i d a t e s f o r e a c h p o s i t i o n . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i s s u e o f e q u a l o p p o r -t u n i t y f o r w o m e n t o e n t e r a l l o c c u p a t i o n s , a s s u r a n c e s w e r e o f f e r e d t h a t t h e P e r s o n n e l O f f i c e d i d n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t w o m e n i n h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s . S i m i l a r l y , s u p e r v i s o r s w h o w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e u n b i a s e d a n d s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s o n t h e b a s i s o f m e r i t : " T h e r e i s n o d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n h e r e , w e w o u l d a l s o h i r e a y o u n g l a d y . " " I w i l l s a y ' h e ' o r m a y b e ' s h e ' ( w h e n r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n ) b u t i t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r . " " W e a r e n o t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y h e r e , a n d t h i s c a n b e p r o v e n . W e h a v e p e o p l e f r o m a l l p l a c e s . " 48 "I never consider whether a person is married, has kids, is purple, male or female. I like to think I try to consider whether each person is fi t t e d to the particular job." "You have to select by ab i l i t y - i t ' s what is in the head that matters, not what's on i t . " The remainder of this chapter demonstrates that in fact the pro-cess of recruitment and selection doesnnotfollow these beliefs. An analy-sis of the informal organization of the hiring process reveals that biased selection is also supported by beliefs, ones which contradict those stated above. THE CONTEXT OF HIRING: DIVISION OF LABOUR IN THE PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT The informal assignment of jobs to recruiters has led to an a l -most exclusive association of female recruiters with female applicants and male recruiters with male applicants. Female recruiters are also associated with jobs which are sex-typed as female, and male recruiters with jobs which are sex-typed as male (see Table 2 ) . A l l temporary and most permanent cl e r i c a l and secretarial positions are handled by female recruiters while trades and technical and most professional and supervisory positions are handled by male recruiters. It is evident in Table 2 that for the majority of positions, there i s a direct correspondence between the sex of the recruiter, the incumbent in the position and of the individual hired. In only six cases is this correspondence broken. In only two positions was the sex of the recruiter different from the sex of the incumbent in the position. Thus, even though c l e r i c a l positions are normally the responsibility of female recruiters, two of the three c l e r i c a l positions where a male held the job were handled by male recruiters. 49 Table 2. Association of Sex of Recruiter, Sex of Applicants and Advertis-ing, by Position Type of Position & Position Number Sex of Recruiter(s) Sex of Incumbent Sex of Person Hired Advertising Column CLERICAL 1 M M M M/F 2 M •M M 3 F M M 4 F F F 5 F F F F 6 F F F 7 F F F 8 F F F F 9 F N.A.* F SECRETARIAL 10 F N.A. F 11 F F F F 12 F F F F TECHNICIAN, RESEARCH ASSISTANT 13 F,M N.A. F 14 M M M PROFESSIONAL AND SUPERVISORY i) Trades, Technical, Maintenance 15 M N.A. M 16 M M M M 17 M M M M 18 F F F M/F i i ) Computer Personnel (Operators, Pro-grammers) 19 M M M M/F 20 M F M M i i i ) Office, Administra-tive 21 F F F M/F 22 M M F M LIBRARY POSITIONS 23 F M M 24 F M M * N.A. = new position. 50 T h e a s s i g n m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s t o r e c r u i t e r s i s n o t f o r -m a l l y d e t e r m i n e d a n d i s i n p a r t a f u n c t i o n o f w o r k l o a d , p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n n f i l l i n g t h e p o s i t i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r . I f o n e r e -c r u i t e r i s t o o b u s y t o h a n d l e a j o b r e q u e s t o r f e e l s a n o t h e r r e c r u i t e r i s m o r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n , s h e / h e w i l l p a s s t h e r e q u e s t o n t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n . S u p e r v i s o r s a l s o a s s o c i a t e t h e s e x o f t h e r e c r u i t e r w i t h t h e s e x o f a p p l i c a n t s a n d t h u s c o n t a c t f e m a l e r e c r u i t e r s w h e n t h e y w a n t f e -m a l e a p p l i c a n t s a n d m a l e r e c r u i t e r s w h e n m a l e a p p l i c a n t s a r e d e s i r e d . W h i l e r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t p o s i t i o n s a r e f i l l e d e x c l u s i v e l y b y m a l e r e c r u i t e r s , o n e s u p e r v i s o r p l a c e d a request f o r a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t w i t h a f e m a l e r e -c r u i t e r . A s t h e s u p e r v i s o r e s t i m a t e d t h a t u p t o 5 0 % o f t h e w o r k w o u l d b e c l e r i c a l , t h e a b i l i t y t o t y p e w a s i n c l u d e d i n t h e j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s . H e s p e c i f i e d i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t h e w a n t e d a f e m a l e . E v e n t h o u g h t h e p o s i t i o n w a s c l a s s i f i e d a s a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t , b e c a u s e o f t h e c l e r i c a l c o m p o n e n t a n d h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e j o b a s a f e m a l e o n e , h e c o n t a c t e d a f e m a l e r e -c r u i t e r . T h e r e q u e s t w a s a p p r o p r i a t e l y p a s s e d o n t o t h e m a l e r e c r u i t e r w h o n o r m a l l y f i l l s t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . T h e r e c r u i t e r t h e n r e f e r r e d a m a l e a p p l i c a n t a n d w a s c o n t a c t e d i m m e d i a t e l y b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r w h o r e n e w e d h i s r e q u e s t f o r a f e m a l e . T h e l a t i t u d e w h i c h e x i s t s f o r a s s i g n i n g p o s i t i o n s t o r e c r u i t e r s m a y , t h e r e f o r e , p e r p e t u a t e t h e s e x - s e g r e g a t i o n o f o c c u p a -t i o n s . T H E C O M M U N I C A T I O N O F J O B O P E N I N G S T O A P P L I C A N T S T h e c h a n n e l i n g o f w o m e n a n d m e n i n t o d i f f e r e n t j o b s b e g i n s w i t h t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t b e t w e e n a p p l i c a n t s a n d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e c o m m u n -51 ication of specific job openings to applicants is accomplished through newspaper advertisements, social and occupational networks, and by con-tacting individuals whose applications were selected from recruiters' f i l e s . This channeling of women and men into different jobs also occurs when applicants enquire at the Personnel Office about employment oppor-tunities. Advertising The use of sex in advertising is documented in Table 2 . At the time of the study the advertisements in the local papers were divided into Help Wanted Male; Help Wanted Female; and Help Wanted Male/Female. For the sample of positions studied, the Female column was used exclusively for c l e r i c a l and secretarial positions. The only c l e r i c a l position adver-tised in the Male/Female column was one which was handled by a male re-cruiter, currently occupied by a male employee and f i l l e d by a male appli-cant. Two of the three remaining joint column advertisements were placed by female recruiters for supervisory positions which were then f i l l e d by females. The four positions placed in the Male column were a l l in the professional and supervisory category. They were handled by male recrui-ters and except in one case were f i l l e d by male applicants. The use of gender in Advertised job t i t l e s such as waitress, draftsmen, patrolman, also conveys the impression that only female or male applicants are de-sired for those jobs. While some ads stated that the position was open to both men and women, this was not done systematically. A limited number of departments other than Personnel make their own advertising decisions. These decisions follow the same pattern as 52 t h o s e o r i g i n a t i n g i n P e r s o n n e l , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t o n e s u p e r v i s o r w a s n o t a w a r e t h a t t h e r e w a s a M a l e / F e m a l e c o l u m n i n t h e n e w s -p a p e r s . T h e r e c r u i t e r s w e r e q u e s t i o n n e d a s t o h o w a d v e r t i s i n g d e c i s i o n s w e r e m a d e . T w o r e s p o n s e s w e r e g i v e n . F i r s t l y , t h a t a d v e r t i s i n g w a s d e -c i d e d b y w h e t h e r a m a n o r w o m a n c o u l d d o t h e j o b . T h i s r a t i o n a l e i s c o n -t r a d i c t e d i n p r a c t i c e , a s i n t h e p o s i t i o n s s t u d i e d a f e m a l e w a s h i r e d f o r o n e j o b w h i c h w a s a d v e r t i s e d i n t h e m a l e c o l u m n . S e c o n d l y t h a t a d v e r -t i s i n g w a s d e t e r m i n e d o n a n e c o n o m i c b a s i s ; t h a t i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o g e t t h e b e s t r e t u r n i n t e r m s o f n u m b e r o f a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h e m o n e y s p e n t o n a d v e r t i s i n g . T h e e s t i m a t i o n o f w h i c h c o l u m n p r o d u c e d t h e b e s t r e s u l t s w a s b a s e d b o t h o n p a s t e x p e r i e n c e a n d o n t h e s e x - t y p i n g o f j o b s . I t w a s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t p a s t e x p e r i e n c e h a d s h o w n w h i c h j o b s m e n o r w o m e n a p p l i e d f o r a n d t h a t t h e r e w a s a l o w e r r e s p o n s e r a t e b y b o t h s e x e s t o a d s p l a c e d i n t h e M a l e / F e m a l e c o l u m n . H o w e v e r , i t w a s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a c o m m o n s e n s e n o t i o n w a s u s e d o f w h i c h j o b s w e r e d o n e b y m e n a n d w h i c h w e r e d o n e b y w o m e n , i . e . , t h a t i t w a s a " c u l t u r a l t h i n g " . T h u s , a d v e r t i s i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e n o t m a d e s o l e l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f r e c r u i t i n g t h e b e s t q u a l i f i e d a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h e j o b s b u t r a t h e r o n e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s a n d o n t h e s o c i e t a l s e x - t y p i n g o f o c c u p a -t i o n s . T h i s s e x - t y p i n g o f j o b s , t h e r e f o r e , b e c o m e s p a r t o f t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i s p e r p e t u a t e d b y t h a t p r o c e s s . I n f o r m a l R e c r u i t m e n t R e c r u i t m e n t t h r o u g h s o c i a l a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l n e t w o r k s , a l t h o u g h u s e d i n l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e p o s i t i o n s s t u d i e d , w a s a l s o s e x - b i a s e d . 53 E m p l o y e e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n f o r m e d f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s i n o t h e r d e p a r t -m e n t s , a n d r e l a t i v e s a b o u t j o b s s i m i l a r t o t h e i r s w h i c h w e r e o p e n . T h e f r i e n d s o r c o l l e a g u e s o f e m p l o y e e s w h o d i d a p p l y f o r t h e s e p o s i t i o n s s t u d i e d , a l l e x c e p t o n e , w e r e o f t h e s a m e s e x a s t h e e m p l o y e e . T h i s p r o c e s s c o n -t r i b u t e s t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f e m a l e s a n d m a l e s i n s p e c i f i c j o b s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T w o s u p e r v i s o r s a l s o i n f o r m a l l y c o n t a c t e d s u p e r v i s o r s o u t s i d e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a n t s a n d i n b o t h c a s e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c o n t a c t e d w e r e o f t h e i r o w n s e x . O n e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t r e f e r r a l b y c u r r e n t e m p l o y e e s i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t o r s o m e o n e k n o w n p e r s o n -a l l y t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r a n d t h e a p p l i c a n t w a s t h e b e s t m e t h o d o f r e c r u i t -m e n t : " T e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s j u s t g e t y o u t o t h e t h r e s h o l d " . H o w e v e r , a n o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r s t a t e d t h a t i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e , t h i s m e t h o d h a d n o t p r o v e n t o b e m o r e r e l i a b l e t h a n o t h e r s . R e s o u r c e F i l e s A p p l i c a n t s a r e a l s o s e l e c t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f r o m r e c r u i t e r s ' b a c k f i l e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n s . T h e u s e o f t h e s e f i l e s , f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s u p e r v i s o r y a n d u p p e r l e v e l t e c h n i c a l p o s i t i o n s , r e l i e s o n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e r e c r u i t e r s t o r e c a l l p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n s , a s t h e y a r e f i l e d u n d e r t h e n a m e o f t h e a p p l i c a n t r a t h e r t h a n b y t h e p o s i t i o n . T h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e s e l e c t i v e p r o c e s s o f r e c a l l i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s i s n o t c l e a r . A l l b u t o n e o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h e s a m p l e o f p o s i t i o n s w h o w e r e d r a w n f r o m t h e r e s o u r c e f i l e s w e r e m a l e , a n d t h e o n e f e m a l e s e l e c t e d w a s f o r a p o s i t i o n w h i c h h a d b e e n d e s i g n a t e d a ' f e m a l e ' o n e b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r . W i t h o u t i n f o r -m a t i o n o n t h e n u m b e r o f e q u a l l y q u a l i f i e d a p p l i c a n t s o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x , 54 h o w e v e r , t h i s s e l e c t i o n c a n n o t b e a t t r i b u t e d t o a b i a s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e r e c r u i t e r s . T h e r e i s a l s o s o m e e v i d e n c e h o w e v e r , t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n s o f m e n w i t h c l e r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e a r e i n e f f e c t r e s e r v e d f o r m a l e c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g t r e a t e d i n t h e s a m e m a n n e r a s t h o s e o f f e m a l e c l e r i c a l a p p l i c a n t s . A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r c l e r i c a l w o r k a r e n o r m a l l y r e t a i n e d b y f e -m a l e r e c r u i t e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f f o u r m e n w i t h e x p e r i e n c e a s c l e r k s , c l e r k / t y p i s t s a n d f l e x o w r i t e r o p e r a t o r w e r e r e t a i n e d b y a m a l e r e c r u i t e r a n d u s e d i n f i l l i n g t w o m a l e c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c l e r i c a l a p t i t u d e t e s t s w h i c h a r e r o u t i n e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a p p l i c a n t s f o r c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s w e r e n o t g i v e n t o t h o s e a p p l y i n g f o r t h e s e t w o p o s i t i o n s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e d u t i e s i n c l u d e d t y p i n g a n d f i l i n g . G e n e r a l E n q u i r i e s T h e c h a n n e l i n g o f f e m a l e a n d m a l e a p p l i c a n t s i n t o s e x - t y p e d j o b s a l s o t a k e s p l a c e w h e n i n d i v i d u a l s m a k e g e n e r a l e n q u i r i e s t o P e r s o n n e l c l e r -i c a l s t a f f a b o u t e m p l o y m e n t o r a b o u t j o b s w h i c h h a v e b e e n p o s t e d . T h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f f e m a l e r e c r u i t e r s w i t h f e m a l e a p p l i c a n t s a n d c l e r i c a l w o r k i s r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e o f f i c e s t a f f a n d i n f l u e n c e s t h e j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e y p r e s e n t t o a p p l i c a n t s : " T h e r e ' s s o m e o n e o n t h e p h o n e , w h o w a n t s t o k n o w w h o t o s p e a k t o r e g a r d i n g f e m a l e e m p l o y m e n t . W h o s h o u l d s h e s e e ? " T h e r e s p o n s e w a s t h a t s h e s h o u l d s e e , ( a f e m a l e r e c r u i t e r ) , w h o i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e c r u i t m e n t o f o f f i c e s t a f f . S i m i l a r l y , a w o m a n e n q u i r i n g a b o u t s u m m e r w o r k a v a i l a b l e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s a s k e d i n t u r n " I s t h i s f o r c l e r i c a l w o r k ? " O n a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n a c l e r k w a s u n c e r t a i n a b o u t w h i c h r e c r u i t e r w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f P e r s o n n e l p r o c e d u r e 5 5 a n d w a s i n f o r m e d t h a t " I f i t ' s f o r a n y o f t h e m e n , a s k M r . , i f i t ' s f o r t h e c l e r k s , M r s . . " T h e r e f e r r a l o f f e m a l e a p p l i c a n t s t o f e m a l e r e c r u i t e r s , g i v e n t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a b o u r i n P e r s o n n e l , l e a d s t o t h e c h a n n e l i n g o f w o m e n i n t o c l e r i c a l w o r k . T h i s t a k e s p l a c e a s t h e c l e r i c a l s t a f f h a v e e v e n m o r e l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n w h i c h t o b a s e t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o a p p l i c a n t s t h a n t h e r e c r u i -t e r s . T h e f u l l j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d t h e s u p e r v i s o r s ' t e c h n i c a l s p e c i f i c a -t i o n s , w h i c h w o u l d p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e r e l e v a n c e o f a n a p p l i c a n t ' s b a c k g r o u n d a n d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s , a r e n o t r o u t i n e l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c l e r k s . T h i s i s m o s t a p p l i c a b l e i n t h e c a s e o f t e c h n i c a l p o s i t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d t o t h e r e c r u i t e r s o v e r t h e p h o n e a n d w h e r e o n l y k e y r e q u i r e m e n t s h a v e b e e n r e c o r d e d . T H E D E F I N I T I O N O F J O B R E Q U I R E M E N T S A N D S E L E C T I O N C R I T E R I A I t h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n w r i t t e n j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d j o b s p e c i f i c a t i o n s d o e s n o t p r o v i d e a s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g e m p l o y e e s . O f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r p o s i t i o n s s t u d i e d , t h e r e w e r e 1 5 j o b s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e b u t t h e y w e r e c o n s u l t e d f o r o n l y s i x p o s i -t i o n s , a n d i n t h e s e c a s e s t h e r e c r u i t e r s t a l k e d t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r a s w e l l . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r a l l b u t o n e o f t h e r e m a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s w e r e t a k e n o v e r t h e p h o n e a n d / o r s e n t t o P e r s o n n e l b y t h e d e p a r t m e n t i n a m e m o . I n t h e r e m a i n i n g c a s e , t h e r e c r u i t e r w e n t t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t t o t a l k w i t h t h e s u p -e r v i s o r a n d t h e i n c u m b e n t i n t h e p o s i t i o n a n d o b s e r v e t h e d u t i e s i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e j o b . I n t h i s w a y , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e j o b a n d i t s r e q u i r e m e n t s c o m e f r o m t h e s u p e r v i s o r s . T h e r e c r u i t e r s t h e n , a r e d e p e n d e n t o n t h e s u p e r v i s o r s 56 to be able to do t h e i r job. Further, the e v a l u a t i o n of a s a t i s f a c t o r y performance on the part of the Personnel o f f i c e r s i s i n terms of f i n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s who are acceptable to the s u p e r v i s o r s . Thus, the c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s s p e c i f i e d by s u p e r v i s o r s as necessary f o r work performance become c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n the e v a l u a t i o n and r e f e r r a l of a p p l i c a n t s by r e c r u i t e r s . These c r i t e r i a however, do not simply p e r t a i n to the t e c h n i c a l competence necessary to perform the job and are not always made e x p l i c i t f o r each job. The s u p e r v i s o r ' s expectations are then i n t e r p r e t e d by Personnel o f f i c e r s i n a more general sense: "You p i c k up f e e l i n g s , t r y to f i n d out what kind of i n d i v i d u a l the department wants." "We develop a f e e l f o r what the departments out there want." "You get to know who would be acceptable f o r which departments." "You g r a d u a l l y get a ' f e e l ' f o r who i s s u i t a b l e , to know who w i l l f i t i n - i t ' s almost l i k e a stereotype, but not r e a l l y . " "Sometimes when a person walks i n the door you can t e l l f o r sure h e ' l l get the job. I t ' s l i k e i n s t i n c t . " While the perception of s u p e r v i s o r s ' preferences may be accurate, where they i n c l u d e the sex of a p p l i c a n t s the use of such perceptions as standards f o r r e f e r r a l s by r e c r u i t e r s simply serves to r e i n f o r c e the use of sex. Thus, f o r two of the p o s i t i o n s s t u d i e d where the s u p e r v i s o r s c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d i n the i n t e r v i e w that e i t h e r male or female a p p l i c a n t s would be acceptable, the r e c r u i t e r s s t a t e d : "They u s u a l l y h i r e men - an o l d e r person, someone r e t i r e d from the s e r v i c e s . " "They look f o r o l d e r , married men w i t h k i d s , as the s a l a r y i s h i g h . " 57 In another case, the supervisor indicated that he had not thought about hiring a woman for the position and that was partly because Personnel had never referred a female applicant. The sex-segregation of jobs may then be perpetuated by a cycle of mis-information or mis-interpretation of sup-ervisors' preferences. The intuitive evaluation of the suitability of applicants by recruiters extends beyond the anticipation of supervisors' preferences: "Recruiting i s a s k i l l you build up over the years. You develop a sixth sense." "You tend to categorize people from experience - we're playing the odds. The number of factors on which to base an assessment in the interview situation is limited, so we have to work on generalizations." "We'd like to get as much information about applicants (in terms of their personal background) to try and 'make the pieces of the puzzle f i t together'. We are concerned with the factors that affect worker s t a b i l i t y . " The legitimation of the supervisors' specifications of non-technical c r i t e r i a by recruiters stems directly from their position in the authority structure and the inadequacy of the formal selection procedures. The recruiters are dependent on the supervisors for the definition of job requirements and, i t has been argued, do not have the authority to syste-matically reject the c r i t e r i a which the supervisors have defined as impor-tant in f i l l i n g particular positions. If the recruiters did reject these c r i t e r i a , they would have only the inadequate job descriptions or job spec-ifications on which to base referrals. In addition, recruiters expressed the belief that to ignore sup-ervisors' preferences would create poor working relationships within the job and thus be dysfunctional for work performance: 58 "The top candidate may not be chosen for reasons of compatibil-i t y , or whichever aspect of the job the (supervisor) feels is most important - there is a certain amount of f l e x i b i l i t y in the requirements." "Job specifications are used i f they are available, but we talk to the departments, as they have additional information or quali-fications. They usually refer to technical aspects of the job but also to what sort of individual would f i t into the situation -outgoing, etc." "We w i l l usually go along with the departments (in specifying the kind of person they want) providing that the person has the minimum requirements." The compliance with the perceived preferences of the supervisors has clear consequences for the sex-segregation of occupations where these preferences include the sex of the applicant. Of the 24 positions studied, in only four cases was the sex of the person to be hired not seen as a relevant factor in selection. In 13 of the 24 positions, sex was mentioned as a c r i t e r i a by the supervisor, the recruiter, or was stated in the job specification. For seven of the remaining eleven positions, sex was im-plied as relevant to the job by the placement of a newspaper advertisement in either the Female or the Male column only. BELIEFS ABOUT THE RELEVANCE OF SEX IN SELECTION The beliefs of supervisors support the use of sex in assigning individuals to jobs in the organization. Women and men are not believed to be equally competent in a l l jobs; rather, women are defined as "suit-able" for a limited range of positions. The use of sex was ju s t i f i e d on the grounds that i t was a practical indicator of potential work performance and that i t was based on observation, common knowledge or common sense. Thus, the use of sex is not recognized by the supervisors as contradicting their belief that they do>not discriminate against women in hiring decisions. 59 T h e d i m e n s i o n s o n w h i c h f e m a l e s a r e e v a l u a t e d i n f a c t i n c l u d e b o t h t h o s e r e l a t e d t o w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h o s e n o t r e l a t e d t o w o r k p e r -f o r m a n c e . E x a m p l e s f o r e a c h a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 3 a n d a r e d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y b e l o w . T a b l e 3 . B e l i e f s A b o u t W o m e n W o r k e r s C a t e g o r y D e s c r i p t i o n E x a m p l e s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s F e m a l e s e x i s u s e d a s a n S u p e r v i s o r y o r m a n a g e r i a l r e l a t e d t o w o r k i n d i c a t o r o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a b i l i t y p e r f o r m a n c e o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h a r e C o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h c o -b e l i e v e d t o b e r e l a t e d t o w o r k e r s w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e f o r s p e c i f i c P h y s i c a l S t r e n g t h j o b s S u b m i s s i v e n e s s T e c h n i c a l a n d S o c i a l s k i l l s A v a i l a b i l i t y f o r s h i f t w o r k T u r n o v e r , A b s e n t e e i s m C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s F e m a l e s a r e e v a l u a t e d o n A p p e a r a n c e n o t r e l a t e d t o c r i t e r i a w h i c h a r e n o t C o n c e r n f o r w o m e n ' s p e r -w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e r a t i o n a l i z e d t o b e r e l a t e d s o n a l s a f e t y t o w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e , b u t w h i c h a r e s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f f e m a l e a p p l i c a n t s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s R e l a t e d t o W o r k P e r f o r m a n c e  S u p e r v i s o r y o r M a n a g e r i a l A b i l i t y T h e l i m i t a t i o n s o n w o m e n i n s u p e r v i s o r y o r m a n a g e r i a l p o s i t i o n s , e x p r e s s e d b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s , w e r e f e l t t o s t e m b o t h f r o m a l a c k o f m a n a g e m e n t s k i l l s o n t h e p a r t o f w o m e n a n d f r o m t h e a t t i t u d e s o f c o - w o r k e r s : 60 "Women may be turned down for supervisory pos i t i ons as there i s the f e e l i n g that women have more trouble superv i s ing other women than men do, and women supervisors may not rece ive support from other supervisory l e v e l s . " "Groups of females r e l a t e b e t t e r to male superv i sors . I f there i s a group of females and one male, the man w i l l n a t u r a l l y be taking on more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and provides cont inu i ty to the work group, and there i s less pet t iness i n v o l v e d . " "When women come in to r e a l men's jobs , in to management, the men are threatened; i f the woman i s aggress ive , then they get turned o f f . I f they (women) have pat ience , most men w i l l accept them, but they are s t i l l a f r a i d of aggressive women.V "Women may not be good as managers, they usually' have come up through the ranks , from f i l e c l e r k to superv i sor , and so don't have a "management phi losophy", ( the i r ) t r a i n i n g has been con-cerned wi th d e t a i l , not a general perspect ive or a n a l y s i s . " Two supervisors proposed that the l i m i t a t i o n s stemming from the a t t i tudes of co-workers be avoided by s e l e c t i n g co-workers by t h e i r a t t i tudes to the sex of managers rather than s e l e c t i n g managers by t h e i r sex: "Some men won't work under a woman, so you have to make th i s a cons iderat ion - f i n d out how he gets along with h i s w i f e , then do they have a good opinion of the opposite sex. I f there are problems, you have to back up the s u p e r v i s o r . " "We had one man who wouldn't work under (the female s u p e r v i s o r ) , so he was t rans ferred to another s e c t i o n . " In one case, a supervisor who had had only p o s i t i v e experience with women i n a supervisory capacity s t i l l expressed a p o t e n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n on women's performance i n those p o s i t i o n s : "Supervisors must be emotional ly s trong; women are more emotional than men and w i l l show emotions before a man would. Men may have the same emotions but at l ea s t they don't show i t . " The b e l i e f s about the l i m i t a t i o n s on female supervisors were contrad ic ted by the experience of two superv i sors : 61 "The senior ( technician) i s a woman and we have had no problems (with a mixed-sex work group) and there i s a woman over the c l erks ( a l l female) and that ' s been O.K. too ." "I've j u s t had female supervisors here (over a l l female s ta f f ) and they have been good." These observations suggest that the b e l i e f s about women's supervisory a b i l -i t i e s are not based on cons i s tent , observable d i f ferences i n a b i l i t y be-tween women and men i n these p o s i t i o n s . C o m p a t i b i l i t y with Co-Workers There were also contrad ic tory views on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of same-or mixed-sex work groups. The r e c r u i t e r s i n d i c a t e d that for some super-v i s o r s , the d e f i n i t i o n of the s u i t a b i l i t y of appl icants was l i n k e d to the a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s to f i t in to a p a r t i c u l a r work s i t u a t i o n . This i n turn was based on the s o c i a l s i m i l a r i t y of the appl icant with the members of the work group: "People have to f i t in to the work group, so i f they are mostly o lder people there , they w i l l want an o lder person." "Some departments w i l l spec i fy that they don't want women or men for p a r t i c u l a r jobs and the reasons they give would be say, i f i t ' s for heavy work - that has to be a man; or i f the work group i s one sex or the other ." In th i s way, the sex of i n d i v i d u a l s present ly performing the job i n the department can determine the sex of her or h i s successor. However, i t was a lso proposed by one supervisor that having mixed-sex work groups was d e s i r a b l e : "It makes a d i f ference (to have a mixed-sex work group) i n the informal s t r u c t u r e . The women w i l l be kidded and w i l l give i t back and i t l ightens up the atmosphere. People w i l l f l i r t around and a l l th i s improves morale. One of the g i r l s w i l l , say, bake a cake for one of the guys' b i r t h d a y s . " 62 Physical Strength That woman is regarded as the "weaker sex" was evident in discus-sions of jobswhich require physical exertion: "There is a physical aspect of this work - women can't be moved around to the receiving and shipping position. The one woman is perfect in what she can do, but she is not so flexible. Older people get tired and health is a problem - there is the same restraint as the ladies." "This involves l i f t i n g heavy items; i t ' s not suitable for a g i r l . The assumption is that women wouldn't like l i f t i n g boxes. My guess would be that the Director would feel i t wasn't a wo-man's job, that they (women employees) should do womanly tasks like typing and f i l i n g . He wouldn't like to see women doing heavy work." "(This work) involves long, t i r i n g hours, so women aren't suit-able." There were exceptions however, to the assumption that any work where "good physical fitness" was specified as a requirement, was a man's work: "There is quite a bit of l i f t i n g in this job. Each box weighs about 50 pounds, and the labour code says women aren't to l i f t more than 35, but we haven't had any problems - they can make two trips i f they want to. We considered a woman for the shipping clerk but that is l i f t i n g a l l day and moving cartons that are 400 pounds." "The shipper-receiver was a man, but now we've put a female in -the shipper l e f t and she was working in the department already and volunteered for i t . " The decision that the physical aspect of a job is beyond the cap-ab i l i t i e s of females is at the discretion of the supervisor. In one of the departments, women were excluded from a category of positions because the supervisor preferred to have the " f l e x i b i l i t y " of being able to move people to the shipping position when he was short-staffed, even though they were not hired for that position. The shipping position in this case was defined as requiring a male employee. In these cases, no evidence was provided to 63 substantiate the claim that women were not strong enough to perform the jobs. Submissiveness, Acceptance of a Lack of Promotion Opportunities The association of c l e r i c a l work with women was frequently due to the dead-end nature of the jobs. It was fe l t that women would, more readily than men, accept jobs which provided no promotion opportunities or which were of a routine nature and poorly paid: "The Director feels that the women are easier to work with. Men don't suit c l e r i c a l positions, they think they should be the administrators....Men are more ambitious, so that affects them, a g i r l would accept her position and not complain." "(In trying to cut down on turnover i t was suggested that they) might hire women with a family who are trying to get back to work - more stable, no real aspirations." "Women are perhaps better for the lower level jobs, as they stay longer." This view of women as submissive, stable workers was expressed perhaps in its most extreme form by one supervisor: "The best girls at the lower levels are orientals - quiet, keep their mouths shut and do their jobs, no chatting." The inferences which one draws from these comments, about attitudes towards women, do not provide encouragement for the possibility of breaking down the sex barriers in these job categories. A Personnel recruiter commented on this association of women with low-level work: "A lot of these jobs are a real put-down of women. They des-cribe a moronic job with low pay and then they say they think a woman would be most suitable or suited to this position." Special Ski l l s Women were considered to be naturally better at some jobs than men. This was to some extent linked to technical s k i l l s : "women have a 64 better capacity for detail work", "because of their experience in the home, women have better record-keeping s k i l l s " . It was more frequent^ linked, however, to the presumed social s k i l l s of women which were believed to be important in positions requiring contact with clients or customers: "We wanted a young, good-looking g i r l for the position; we fel t (clients) would interact better with young women - that almost sounds sexist. (The Director) emphasized the young females and he's been at i t a long time, so he knows. Anyone could learn to do this job, so appearance and personality take precedence." "Women have natural s k i l l s - diplomacy,smoothing things over; they should use their diplomatic s k i l l s . Women are good co-ordinators, conference leaders." "This is a gi r l ' s job...there aren't many male receptionists are there?...In this position, she w i l l be meeting people who have been travelling and therefore they w i l l be tired, and a woman has more sympathy for things like that." "Sex doesn't matter, but I ' l l have to say we thought an attrac-tive g i r l might have more influence with (department heads), but then we realized this was probably unfounded." "The (clients) want a pretty g i r l - they bitch when the recep-tionist hasn't said "good morning" to them, hasn't shown them the proper deference. If there was a choice, I'd probably pick one the public would think attractive...but I'd take a dog who could do the work over a pretty face for the (clients)." There is a clear assumption here that the clients for whom these delibera-tions are made are male, even where both males and females use the depart-ment's services. This pre-occupation with the comfort of male clients is illustrated further: "Women are better at handling irate customers and do not show their tempers...the male ego of the customer is not threatened as much and the male ego of the employee doesn't get attacked. Males are inclined to be professionally oriented and have to have a f a i r amount of self-respect and i f a (client) comes in and starts to beef and say he's incompetent, he fights back and this creates more hassles. The females more naturally tend to smile and i t becomes apparent that they are just doing a job as best they can." 65 I n t h i s c a s e , t h e s u p e r v i s o r w a s q u e r i e d w h e t h e r t h i s r a t i o n a l e w a s b a s e d o n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s f r o m m a l e s w h o h a d h e l d t h e p o s i t i o n s . T h e s u p e r v i s o r s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o n e g a t i v e r e p o r t s : " M y d e c i s i o n w a s n ' t a ' s c i e n t i f i c ' o n e " . R a t h e r , h e h a d b a s e d h i s p o l i c y t o r e p l a c e m e n i n t h e s e p o s i t i o n s w i t h w o m e n t h r o u g h o u t t h e d e p a r t m e n t , o n i n f e r e n c e f r o m h i s o w n r e a c t i o n s a s a c u s t o m e r o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t . T h u s h i r i n g d e c i -s i o n s a r e m a d e o n c r i t e r i a w h i c h a r e n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o p e r f o r m i n g w o r k t a s k s b u t r a t h e r o n t h e p r e s u m e d p r e f e r e n c e s o f m a l e c u s t o m e r s o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t . O f t h e f i v e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e s a m p l e w h i c h i n v o l v e d c o n t a c t w i t h c l i e n t s o r c u s t o m e r s i n o n l y o n e c a s e d i d t h e s u p e r v i s o r n o t e x p r e s s a b e -l i e f a b o u t w o m e n b e i n g m o s t s u i t a b l e f o r s u c h a p o s i t i o n . A v a i l a b i l i t y f o r S h i f t W o r k ; A b s e n t e e i s m ; T u r n o v e r W o m e n ' s r o l e i n t h e f a m i l y w a s b e l i e v e d b y s o m e t o a f f e c t t h e i r s t a b i l i t y i n t e r m s o f t u r n o v e r a n d a b s e n t e e i s m , a n d t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r s h i f t w o r k : " W e a s k s i z e o f f a m i l y , a g e s a n d c a r e o f c h i l d r e n - t h i s i s u s e d m o r e f o r s e l e c t i o n p u r p o s e s f o r w o m e n t h a n f o r m e n . W e u s u a l l y a s k b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n w h a t t h e i r s p o u s e d o e s b u t i t i s c o n s i d e r e d m o r e r e l e v a n t i n t h e c a s e o f w o m e n . " " I f t h e y a r e f e m a l e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s d o e s n ' t e n t e r a s m u c h a s i t u s e d t o , b u t i f s h e ' s m a r r i e d t o a p o s t - d o c , h e w i l l l e a v e a n d s o w i l l s h e p r o b a b l y . " " S e x d o e s n ' t m a t t e r , b u t i f t h e y a r e m a r r i e d , p e r h a p s w e a r e a l i t t l e m o r e c a u t i o u s w i t h t h e f e m a l e s , w e l o o k f o r s t a b i l i t y . " " O n e t h i n g m a y r e s t r i c t t h e i r a b i l i t y , a n d t h i s r e f e r s t o w o m e n ' s p o s i t i o n > ; a s h o m e m a k e r . I f t h e y w e r e t o a d v a n c e ( i n t h i s d e p a r t -m e n t ) t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o w o r k a n y s h i f t , a n y d a y . W o m e n a r e n o t s o f l e x i b l e . " 6 6 O t h e r s u p e r v i s o r s d i d n o t c o n n e c t t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f w o m e n w i t h s t a b i l i t y : " T u r n o v e r i s h i g h i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s , a n d w e ' v e t r i e d e v e r y t h i n g . R e a l l y d o n ' t k n o w h o w t o j u d g e s t a b i l i t y , y o u c a n a l w a y s g e t a l e m o n . Y o u c a n ' t c h a i n p e o p l e t o j o b s . " " W e n e v e r c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r a p e r s o n i s m a r r i e d . . . W h a t d o e s m a r -r i a g e m e a n t o d a y ? P e o p l e h a v e t h e s a m e t i e w h o l i v e t o g e t h e r . . . . W e h a v e a h a p p y w o r k g r o u p ( i n t h i s d e p a r t m e n t ) a n d w e r e -c o g n i z e t h a t e a c h p e r s o n h a s m o r e t o t h e i r l i f e t h a n j u s t w o r k , a n d i f t h e r e i s a f a m i l y p r o b l e m t h e y a r e t o l d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d a t t e n d t o i t . T h e p e o p l e h e r e a r e c o n s c i e n t i o u s a n d i t w o r k s o u t . " T h e o b s e r v a t i o n s b y s u p e r v i s o r s o n t h i s d i m e n s i o n w h i c h w e r e b a s e d o n d a t a o n t u r n o v e r r a t e s i n t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t w e r e c o n t r a r y t o t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d b y o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r s . O n e s u p e r v i s o r n o t e d t h a t t h e w o m e n i n t h e p r o f e s -s i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i n h i s d e p a r t m e n t s t a y e d l o n g e r t h a n t h e m e n , w h i l e a n o -t h e r s t a t e d t h a t t h e t u r n o v e r r a t e f o r w o m e n i n h i s d e p a r t m e n t w a s l o w e r t h a n t h e m e n ' s a t a l l l e v e l s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s N o t R e l a t i n g t o W o r k P e r f o r m a n c e S u p e r v i s o r s a l s o e x p r e s s e d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w o m e n w h i c h w e r e n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e , b u t w h i c h w e r e u s e d i n s e l e c t i o n . W o m e n w e r e e v a l u a t e d o n s t a n d a r d s o f a p p e a r a n c e w h i c h w o u l d n o t b e a p p l i e d t o m e n : " T h e y s h o u l d b e p r i m , p r o p e r , n e a t , a n d s h o u l d n ' t l i g h t u p a c i g a r e t t e i n t h e i n t e r v i e w . A p p e a r a n c e m e a n s a l o t - d o t h e y t a k e t h e t r o u b l e t o m a k e a g o o d i m p r e s s i o n ? " " I d o n ' t l i k e i t i f t h e y l i g h t u p a c i g a r e t t e w i t h o u t a s k i n g -s o m e o f t h e g i r l s d o t h a t - t h e y j u s t a s k , " w h e r e ' s t h e a s h t r a y ? " " M u s t b e n e a t i n a p p e a r a n c e . T h i s r e f l e c t s o n c h a r a c t e r , i f t h e y a r e n e a t t h e n t h e y h a v e a n o r d e r l y m i n d . I w o u l d n ' t w a s t e t i m e i n t e r v i e w i n g a n y o n e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a w o m a n , i f t h e y c a m e i n w i t h a c i a g r e t t e i n t h e i r m o u t h , o r i f t h e y l i g h t u p i m m e d i a t e l y . T h e g i r l s h e r e c a n ' t s m o k e a t t h e i r d e s k s - I ' m f u s s y t h a t w a y . T h e y 67 must have a ladylike appearance, suitable to their age...and shouldn't show a lot of leg, no corduroy trousers. I held out against trousers, personally, I don't approve of them. Dress reflects on efficiency, morale, Men should be clean, clean-shaven." "People used to phone in (to the Personnel Department) and say "as long as she's 36-24-36, i t doesn't matter". There i s less of this now at least." In addition, a paternalistic concern for the safety of women workers on night shift work was expressed: "They get off at midnight sometimes so i f they live in the east end i t w i l l be one before they get home i f they take the bus. We ask about how they feel about walking to the parking lot at mid-night and taking the bus. Women are weaker; from experience, men don't have to worry about getting raped." "A few years ago we didn't hire women for this position; we didn't feel i t was proper for them to be on the night shift. We asked the security people i f they would be around when the shift changed - so the girls would have some protection as they went to their cars but security said 'novway'." The sex of applicants to be hired is therefore consistently i n -corporated into the selection c r i t e r i a . This is supported by beliefs about the relevance of sex for predicting work performance. However, women are evaluated not solely on characteristics related to work performance, but also by the 'natural a b i l i t i e s ' with which women are presumed to be endowed, their appearance, and by their appeal to male clients and co-workers. Moreover, the supervisors hold contradictory beliefs about the characteris-tics of women workers, beliefs which are not consistently supported empi-r i c a l ly. SUMMARY The informal structure of recruitment and selection leads to the systematic exclusion of females from particular jobs in the organization. 68 It is maintained that the sex-segregation of occupations is reinforced by differential communication of job openings to female and male appli-cants. This takes place through the use of sex-segregated advertising, social and occupational networks, unsystematic use of resource f i l e s and the presentation of job opportunities to applicants by c l e r i c a l staff. The job requirements and selection c r i t e r i a used by recruiters and supervisors in hiring decisions are defined by supervisors in the de-partments. This process allows the exercise of individual bias and beliefs about sex and work performance, and the sex of applicants was discovered to be routinely considered as a relevant selection c r i t e r i a . The validity of these beliefs about women workers is questionable as beliefs held by some supervisors are contradicted by both the beliefs and the experience of other supervisors. Through the operation of these features of the hiring process and the division of labour in Personnel, the principle of equal opportun-ity for women, affirmed by recruiters and supervisors, is superceded by practices which channel women into jobs which are sex-typed as female. 69 CHAPTER SIX  CONCLUSIONS The f o l l o w i n g dimensions have been i d e n t i f i e d as determinants of sexual d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s : Does the o r g a n i z a t i o n have e x p l i c i t p o l i c i e s against d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ? Are these p o l i c i e s communicated to i t s members? Are these p o l i c i e s adhered to by s e n i o r members of the or g a n i z a t i o n ? Are there c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d r u l e s and procedures f o r a s s i g n i n g i n d i -d i v i d u a l s to jobs on the b a s i s of merit? I t was argued from the l i t e r a t u r e that where these c o n d i t i o n s are not met, h i r i n g w i l l be biased through the operation of i n f o r m a l channels of r e c r u i t -ment, i n d i v i d u a l p r e j u d i c e , or b e l i e f s about the relevance of the sex of ap p l i c a n t s f o r p r e d i c t i n g work performance. These observations are a l s o supported by the r e s u l t s of the pre-sent research. In the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t u d i e d , sex i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y used as a convenient and acceptable c r i t e r i a i n h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s . The org a n i z a -t i o n a l p o l i c i e s w i t h regard to h i r i n g do not e x p l i c i t l y p r o h i b i t the use of sex i n h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and procedures have not been c o n s i s t e n t l y communicated to i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n the h i r i n g process. In a d d i t i o n , the use of sex i s given t a c i t approval i n the organ-i z a t i o n by those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the: h i r i n g process. This i s evident i n the use of gender i n job t i t l e s and job d e s c r i p t i o n s , by sex-segregated a d v e r t i s i n g , and by the acceptance by Personnel o f f i c e r s of s u p e r v i s o r s ' requests f o r e i t h e r female or male a p p l i c a n t s only. 70 There are no rules to govern the i n i t i a l recruitment of appli-cants. The channels of recruitment which are used lead to the maintenance of the present distribution of females and males in the organization. Ad-vertising decisions reflect the societal sex-typing of occupations and thus perpetuate that process in the organization. Informal channels of recruit-ment and the unsystematic use of resource f i l e s are also sex-biased. In addition, i t has been observed that female applicants making general en-quiries about employment from the Personnel Office are likely to be direc-ted to female recruiters. This process, given the present distribution of labour in the Personnel Office, has been shown to lead to the channeling of women into office work. The formal procedures for establishing selection c r i t e r i a and for evaluating applicants by the organization are inadequate to insure that individuals are assigned to jobs on the basis of merit. Written i n -formation about job tasks and the qualifications necessary to perform them are not available for a l l jobs in the organization. In many cases where qualifications are specified, particularly when they are abstract or complex, there are no procedures for determining whether applicants f u l -f i l l the qualifications. There are, in addition, no rules to insure impar-t i a l selection where there are more applicants who meet these qualifications than there are jobs. The definitions of job requirements and selection c r i t e r i a which are used in hiring decisions are primarily determined by supervisors with-in departments. This process results in the routine use of the sex of applicants as a selection c r i t e r i a and clearly contradicts the supervisors' 71 assertationsthat they do not discriminate against women. The use of sex is not recognized as discriminatory by the supervisors however, as they main-tain that sex is a practical indicator of work performance. However, an examination of the beliefs which support this contention reveals that they are contradictory and are not consistently supported empirically. Some supervisors believe women have d i f f i c u l t i e s in supervising other women; others state this has not been so in their experience. One supervisor as-serts that women show their emotions more than men; another asserts that they are better than men at keeping their tempers. Some supervisors feel that a woman's marital status is of primary importance in predicting work stab i l i t y ; others feel that i t is of no importance. Women are also evalu-ated on characteristics which aie^not related to work performance. Further, in some cases the selection of individuals by sex is not ^ rationalized but is clearly the result of an unexamined sex-typing of jobs. The beliefs about women workers also reflect the societal evalu-ation of women. Women are defined as "suitable" not simply for a limited range of positions, but for a limited range of low-status positions. Regardless of the validity of the beliefs, they are used to sup-port the inclusion of sex in the definition of "acceptable" applicants which is conveyed either exp l i c i t l y or implicitly to recruiters. As the recruiters act upon the supervisors' specification of selection c r i t e r i a , this sex bias has consequences for the evaluation and referral of applicants by recruiters. Thus, the recruiters who also maintain that they do not discriminate, par-ticipate in a process which systematically excludes women from particular jobs. Personnel policies against sexual discrimination w i l l be ineffective ( 72 as long as recruiters accept supervisors' specifications of the sex of the applicants. This practice is rationalized in part by maintaining that to ignore supervisors' preferences would create poor working conditions within the jobs and thus be dysfunctional for work performance. The sup-ervisors' right to select employees on personal preference remains substan-t i a l l y unchallenged, as long as the applicant meets the basic job q u a l i f i -cations . The sex-bias in the presentation of job opportunities to appli-cants by Personnel c l e r i c a l staff may result in turn from their perception of the sex-typing of jobs by recruiters. The lack of adequate formal specification of job requirements may have consequences not only for the evaluation of applicants by recruiters, supervisors, and c l e r i c a l staff but also for the evaluation of job oppor-tunities by applicants. Just as i t has been observed (Lurie and Rayack, 1966) that Negroes apply for particular jobs in particular companies because i t is known that these are "Negro jobs", so men and women applicants may have preconceived ideas about which jobs are open to them in the organiza-tion. Where the organization does not provide consistent, explicit state-ments that in fact a l l jobs are open to both sexes, and where the informa-tion about job tasks and qualifications is inadequate, the sex of individuals presently holding the jobs may be taken as representative of job opportuni-ties i n the organization. In addition, as salary information i s not usually given out un t i l a formal application has been submitted for a position, there is no purely monetary incentive to apply for a particular position. 73 The inadequacy of organizational p o l i c i e s and procedures for h i r -ing i s a t t r i b u t e d i n part to the work load i n the Personnel O f f i c e and the separation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for h i r i n g , and power i n h i r i n g decisions. The Personnel workload does not permit a thorough, independent analysis of job requirements or the measurement of s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . While f o r -mal p o l i c i e s and procedures o r i g i n a t e i n the Personnel O f f i c e and the r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l stages of h i r i n g i s delegated to Personnel, f i n a l h i r -ing decisions are made outside of that department. It i s not clear from written Personnel p o l i c i e s whether Personnel has the r i g h t to censure de-partmental h i r i n g decisions. In p r a c t i c e , such authority i s exercised, but t h i s i s not done c o n s i s t e n t l y . In addition, as the decisions reached on these occasions are not recorded, they do not have a binding or a cumu-l a t i v e e f f e c t . Thus, the h i r i n g process i n the organization i s a decen-t r a l i z e d and l a r g e l y unregulated one. Thus, i n an organization where 1) the use of sex i s not e x p l i c i t -l y p rohibited, 2) the procedures for determining job requirements and f o r r e c r u i t i n g and evaluating applicants are inadequate, and 3) where i n d i v i d u a l s making h i r i n g decisions do not have to account for those decisions, the sex of applicants w i l l be systematically used i n assigning i n d i v i d u a l s to j obs. LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The l i m i t a t i o n s of the study stem p r i m a r i l y from conducting a case study, which does not permit the observation of the e f f e c t of v a r i a t i o n i n the formal structure of the h i r i n g process on sexual d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 74 This i s a l i m i t a t i o n which applies to most of the work which has been done i n t h i s f i e l d . A more comprehensive test of the r o l e of organizational constraints on discriminatory behaviour would involve the comparison of h i r i n g prac-t i c e s i n a number of organizations which d i f f e r on: organizational p o l i c i e s with regard to di s c r i m i n a t i o n ; the communication of p o l i c i e s to members; the adherence to p o l i c i e s by senior members of the organization; the c l a r -i t y of procedures f o r r e c r u i t i n g , evaluating and s e l e c t i n g applicants; and the degree to which h i r i n g decisions are decentralized. This test could also be accomplished by studying the e f f e c t s of changes i n the formal structure of the h i r i n g process on di s c r i m i n a t i o n i n one or more organizations over time. A question which also remains to be answered i s how much of the sex-segregation of occupations can be at t r i b u t e d to the structure of or-ganizational p o l i c i e s and procedures. This can be accomplished both by a more extensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n of organizational determinants and by i n v e s t i -gating other possible explanations such as s e l f - s e l e c t i o n into occupations by applicants. More work should also be undertaken to construct adequate measures and tests for determining whether h i r i n g decisions are d i s c r i m i -natory. This study does not provide an analysis of a l l aspects of the h i r i n g process i n the organization studied. The recruitment and s e l e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s f o r temporary appointments i s a major area which should be investigated further. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of discriminatory h i r i n g p ractices as a s o c i a l problem presents considerable d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r theory construction. An i n -75 v e s t i g a t i o n w h i c h a s p i r e s t o p r o v i d i n g s o l u t i o n s t o t h a t p r o b l e m m u s t r e c -o g n i z e t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s i n a d d i t i o n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e t e r m i -n a n t s w h i c h t o g e t h e r r e s u l t i n s e x u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s . T h i s e n t a i l s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a n e x p l a n a t o r y f r a m e w o r k w h i c h s p e l l s o u t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h o n e a n d t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e y i n t e r a c t t o c a u s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . I r i T h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t e d o n l y a l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s . W h i l e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m s w i l l t a k e c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e t o r e s o l v e , t h e p r o b l e m o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h i r i n g r e q u i r e s m o r e i m -m e d i a t e r e s o l u t i o n . T h u s , a n u m b e r o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a v e b e e n f o r m u l a -t e d f r o m t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h f o r c h a n g i n g t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s . R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S F O R C H A N G I N G T H E H I R I N G P R O C E S S T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s p r o p o s e d ' b e l o w f o l l o w d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e p r o p o s e d f o r a l t e r i n g b o t h t h e f o r m a l a n d i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s . T h e p r o p o s a l s a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e g e n e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a n d a s s u c h d o n o t i d e n t i f y a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o n e q u a l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r w o m e n . T H n e e e m a i n a r e a s o f r e f o r m a r e t r e a t e d : p o l i c i e s , p r o c e d u r e s a n d p o w e r . P o l i c i e s T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n m u s t e x p l i c i t l y p r o h i b i t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f s e x a n d a f f i r m t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a l l j o b s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e o p e n t o w o m e n a n d m e n . T h e s e p o l i c i e s m u s t b e c o m m u n i c a t e d t o a l l m e m b e r s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o a p p l i c a n t s a n d t o r e f e r r a l a g e n c i e s , a n d m a d e e v i -d e n t i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e o r -g a n i z a t i o n . 76 The data suggest that the existing communication networks are insufficient for this task. The Personnel Office must assume responsib-i l i t y either for communicating directly with a l l supervisors or ensuring that a l l department heads do so within their departments. Other avenues for communicating policy to a l l staff members in the organization should be explored. A general -statement that women and men must be considered for a l l jobs is not sufficient. The common rationalizations for contravening this principle should be explicitly rejected. Thus, i t should be formally stated for example, that women must not be excluded from night shift posi-tions or those which specify "physical strength" as a job requirement, and that a preference of the supervisor, clients or co-workers for inter-acting with individuals of one sex or the other w i l l not be respected. Discrimination w i l l persist in effect although denied in principle i f anti-discrimination policies are not s t r i c t l y adhered to by those respon-sible for the hiring process. Thus, the Personnel officers should not ac-cept supervisors' requests for applicants of one sex or the other. Procedures Communicating Job Openings to Applicants Since the time the study was undertaken, the Help Wanted adver-tisements in the local newspapers have been re-organized and are no longer segregated by sex. However, in order to counteract the sex-typing of jobs by applicants, a l l advertisements, placed by the organization should state that the position is open to both females and males, and job t i t l e s should not refer to sex. Resource f i l e s should be systematically maintained by 77 types of jobs so that a l l qualified applicants are considered for new job openings. The Definition of Job Requirements and Selection Criteria The use of sex and other social characteristics arose to f i l l a need; to construct, from the participants' perspectives, a functional ba-sis for identifying job requirements and evaluating applicants. The or-ganization must, therefore, not only prohibit the use of sex in this regard, but also provide other means of accomplishing the same end, i.e., i t must be possible to select individuals on the basis of merit. Job requirements and selection c r i t e r i a should be as objective and as detailed as possible. The c l a r i f i c a t i o n of ambiguous or complex c r i t e r i a i s of crucial importance in restricting discriminatory hiring decisions. The importance of a l l c r i t e r i a should be validated, and not taken for granted. Every effort should be made to provide specific indica-tors of job requirements so that a l l applicants may be evaluated on an objective standard. Detailed job descriptions and selection c r i t e r i a should be available not only to supervisors and recruiters, but also to Personnel c l e r i c a l staff and applicants. Information should be circulated to a l l those involved in the hiring process about the validity of common beliefs about the relevance of sex for work performance. Faulty generalizations about women workers should be consistently challenged when they are used in support of a re-quest for either female or male applicants. It should be assumed that a l l jobs can be performed by both sexes unless extensive, systematic evidence can be provided to the contrary. 78 Other tests have shown that the experience of working with women in jobs which have been sex-typed as male is a better catalyst for reduc-ing resistance to their entry into these fields than educational informa-tion. Thus, a systematic effort should be made to place qualified i n d i v i -duals of the opposite sex in a l l presently sex-segregated occupations. The success of this effort w i l l constitute a test of the policy that a l l jobs in the organization are open to both sexes. This would also have the effect of neutralizing the sex-bias in informal recruitment. In Practice The goal of selecting solely on the basis of merit could poten-t i a l l y be achieved i f : The organization had clear and consistent policies against dis-crimination which were communicated to i t s members; Senior members of the organization adhered to these policies in a l l hiring decisions; A l l selection c r i t e r i a were quantified and the evaluation of applicants was standardized and restricted to only those c r i -teria which had been proven to be directly related to work per-formance . It has been argued that the organization can restrict the use of sex in selection by approximating those conditions through a re-structuring of the hiring process. However, u n t i l those changes occur and individuals of both sexes are routinely considered for a l l jobs, the sex of applicants w i l l be systematically used in assigning individuals to jobs. It may be necessary, therefore, to break down the sex-segregation of occupations by ruling that a specified percentage of appointments in every occupational category must be female. 79 Where there are many applicants who have satisfied a l l objec-tive requirements for a position, the f i n a l selection is made therefore, on c r i t e r i a other than those relating to capability. It has been shown that selection which is made on the personal preferences of supervisors is l i k e l y to be sex-biased. Therefore, to insure an unbiased selection in these cases i t may be necessary to make a random selection among the quali-fied applicants. In order to communicate organizational policies to supervisors and to establish the independent authority to reject supervisors' d i s c r i -minatory requests, to investigate job requirements, test the relevance of selection c r i t e r i a for work performance, adequately evaluate a l l applicants and to actively recruit females for male jobs, the number of staff members of the Personnel Office must be significantly increased. The division of labour in the Personnel Office should also be altered so that jobs which are sex-typed as female are more evenly dis-tributed between male and female recruiters and so that female recruiters are responsible for a wider range of positions. Power The changes which are proposed w i l l require the clear delegation of the power to enforce those changes to some agency in the organization. This in turn w i l l require the allocation of sufficient resources in terms of time, money and staff, to accomplish this task. This power to control decisions must also be exercised; hiring decisions should be systematically reviewed and discriminatory decisions re-voked. If such decisions are not revoked, organizational policies against discrimination w i l l be routinely disregarded by members of the organization. 80 These reviews should be conducted p a r t i c u l a r l y where d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n i s most l i k e l y to occur. The data suggests that t h i s can be estimated by the known biases of i n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v i s o r s , the degree to which the job requirements and s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a can be o b j e c t i v e l y determined and the number of t e c h n i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d a p p l i c a n t s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the h i r i n g process must be re q u i r e d to j u s t i f y t h e i r h i r i n g *». d e c i s i o n s on o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a . 81 BIBLIOGRAPHY Archibald, Kathleen 1970 Sex and the Public Service. 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