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The role of imagery in children’s linked noun pair learning Catchpole, Michael John 1974

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THE ROLE OP IMAGERY IN CHILDREN'S LINKED NOUN PAIR LEARNING by M i c h a e l John Catchpole B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master o f A r t s i n the Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D a t e i ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h between semantic e l a b o r a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i n g imagery t h e o r i e s of c h i l d r e n ' s l i n k e d noun p a i r l e a r n i n g . Grades 2 and 6 s t u d e n t s were prese n t e d w i t h s i x t e e n p a i r s o f nouns l i n k e d by d i f f e r e n t types of c o n n e c t i v e s and f o l l o w i n g l e a r n i n g s et p r e s e n t a t i o n were r e q u i r e d t o r e c a l l the second noun o f each p a i r upon p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f i r s t . One t h i r d o f the Ss i n each grade were asked t o form v i s u a l images of the two nouns of each p a i r (imagery Prompting c o n d i t i o n ) ; one t h i r d were i n s t r u c t e d t o form i n t e r a c t i n g images of each p a i r (imagery T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n ) ; and the r e m a i n i n g Ss were g i v e n no s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n (No T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n ) . R e s u l t s from the experiment showed No T r a i n i n g and Imagery T r a i n i n g Ss t o be u n a f f e c t e d by the type of c o n n e c t i v e employed t o l i n k the p a i r s . However, those Ss i n the Imagery Prompting c o n d i t i o n r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p a i r s l i n k e d by i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g l i n k s ( i . e . , verbs and i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s ) r e l a t i v e t o p a i r s l i n k e d by c o n n e c t i v e s which d i d not suggest a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n ( i . e . , c o n j u n c t i o n s and n o n - i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s ) . The r e s u l t s were i n t e r p r e t e d as f a v o u r i n g an i n t e r a c t i n g imagery r a t h e r than semantic e l a b o r a t i o n t h e o r y o f c h i l d r e n ' s l i n k e d noun p a i r l e a r n i n g . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i TABLE OE CONTENTS i i LIST OF TEXT TABLES i i i LIST OP APPENDIX TABLES i v LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x INTRODUCTION- 1 METHOD 24 RESULTS ' 3 5 DISCUSSION - 61 GENERAL CONCLUSION 77 REFERENCES 79 APPENDIX 8 5 i i i LIST OF TEXT TABLES Table 1. General E x p e r i m e n t a l Design 25 Table 2. Examples o f the Types o f P r a c t i c e , L e a r n i n g , and R e c a l l M a t e r i a l s Employed i n the E x p e r i -ment 34 Table 3« Mean Number of Second Nouns C o r r e c t l y Re-c a l l e d i n Each C e l l of Design 1 37 Table 4« Mean Number o f Second Nouns C o r r e c t l y Re-c a l l e d i n Each Type of T r a i n i n g x Type o f Connective C e l l Averaged Over L i s t and Grade - Design 2 . 41 Table 5' Mean Number of Second Nouns C o r r e c t l y Re-c a l l e d i n Each C e l l of Design 2 45 Table 6. Mean Number of Second Nouns C o r r e c t l y Re-c a l l e d i n Each Type o f T r a i n i n g x Type of Connective x Nature of I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n C e l l Averaged Over L i s t and Grade (Design 2) . . 47 Table 7. Mean Number of Connectives C o r r e c t l y Re-c a l l e d i n Each C e l l o f Design 1 53 Tab l e 8. Mean Number of Connectives C o r r e c t l y Re-c a l l e d i n Each C e l l of Design 2 56 i v LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES Table 1. P r a c t i c e Items Employed D u r i n g Imagery T r a i n i n g , Imagery Prompting, and No T r a i n i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s 86 Table 2 . L i s t 1 - L e a r n i n g Set Items ( P r e s e n t a t i o n Order) 87 Table 3« L i s t 2 - L e a r n i n g Set Items ( P r e s e n t a t i o n Order) 88 Table 4« L i s t 3 - L e a r n i n g Set Items ( P r e s e n t a t i o n Order) 89 Table 5» L i s t 4 - L e a r n i n g Set Items ( P r e s e n t a t i o n Order) 90 Table 6 . Format of the E x p e r i m e n t a l B o o k l e t s 91 Table 7« I n t r o d u c t i o n and General P a i r e d - A s s o c i a t e I n s t r u c t i o n s 92 Table 8 . Imagery T r a i n i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s 93 Table 9- Imagery Prompting I n s t r u c t i o n s 94 Table 1 0 . No T r a i n i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s . 95 Table 1 1 . Second Noun R e c a l l I n s t r u c t i o n s 96 Table 1 2 . Connective R e c a l l I n s t r u c t i o n s 97 Table 1 3 . Source Table f o r the A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e of Design 1 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) 98 Table 14 . Newman-Keuls Test o f the Type of Connective E f f e c t i n Design 1 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) . . . . Table 15- Simple Main E f f e c t s Test and Subsequent Newman-Keuls T e s t s o f the L i s t x Connective I n t e r a c t i o n i n Design 1 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) . . Table 16. Newman-Keuls A n a l y s i s o f the Type o f T r a i n i n g E f f e c t i n Design 1 - Second Noun R e c a l l . . . . Table 17. Simple Main E f f e c t s Test and Subsequent Newman-Keuls Test of the T r a i n i n g x Con-n e c t i v e I n t e r a c t i o n i n Design 1 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) from the P o i n t o f View of a Comparison Among Connectives f o r Each Type of T r a i n i n g Table 18. Simple Main E f f e c t s Test and Subsequent Newman-Keuls A n a l y s i s o f the T r a i n i n g x Connective I n t e r a c t i o n i n Design 1 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) from the P o i n t o f View of a Comparison Among T r a i n i n g Procedures f o r Each Type o f Connective Table 19. Source Table f o r the A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e of Design 2 - Second Noun R e c a l l Table 20. Newman-Keuls Test of the Type of T r a i n i n g E f f e c t i n Design 2 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) . . . . Table 21. Simple Main E f f e c t s Test of the L i s t x Connective I n t e r a c t i o n i n Design 2 (Second v i Noun R e c a l l ) from the P o i n t o f View o f a Comparison Among Connectives f o r Each L i s t . . . 109 Table 22. Simple Main E f f e c t s Test and Subsequent Newman-Keuls Test o f the L i s t x Connective I n t e r a c t i o n i n Design 2 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) from the P o i n t of View of a Comparison Among L i s t s f o r Each Connective 110 Table 23. Simple Main E f f e c t s A n a l y s i s of the I n t e r a c t i o n of Type of T r a i n i n g x Nature of I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n f o r P r e p o s i t i o n s - Design 2 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) from the P o i n t of View of a Comparison of I n t e r a c t i n g v e r s u s Non-I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s f o r Each Type of T r a i n i n g I l l Table 24- Simple Main E f f e c t s A n a l y s i s o f the I n t e r -a c t i o n o f Type of T r a i n i n g x Nature of I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n f o r Verbs p l u s Prepo-s i t i o n s - Design 2 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) from the P o i n t o f View of a Comparison of I n t e r a c t i n g v e r s u s N o n - i n t e r a c t i n g Prepo-s i t i o n s f o r Each Type of T r a i n i n g 112 Table 25. Simple Main E f f e c t s A n a l y s i s and Subsequent Newman-Keuls T e s t s of the I n t e r a c t i o n of T r a i n i n g x Connective x Nature o f I m p l i e d v i i I n t e r a c t i o n i n Design 2 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) from the P o i n t of View o f a Comparison Among T r a i n i n g Procedures f o r Each Type of Connective 113 Table 26. Source Table f o r the A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e of D e sign 1 - Connective R e c a l l 115 Table 27. Newman-Keuls Test o f the T r a i n i n g E f f e c t i n Design 1 (Connective R e c a l l ) 116 Table 28. Newman-Keuls Test o f the Connective E f f e c t i n Design 1 (Connective R e c a l l ) 117 Table 29. Simple Main E f f e c t s Test and Subsequent Newman-Keuls A n a l y s i s o f the Connective x L i s t I n t e r a c t i o n i n Design 1 (Connective R e c a l l ) from the P o i n t of View of a Com-p a r i s o n Among L i s t s f o r Each Type o f Con-n e c t i v e 118 Table 30. Source Table f o r the A n a l y s i s o f Va r i a n c e of Design 2 (Connective R e c a l l ) 120 Table 31. Newman-Keuls Test o f the T r a i n i n g E f f e c t i n D e s ign 2 (Connective R e c a l l ) 122 Table 32. Simple Main E f f e c t s A n a l y s i s of the I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n x L i s t x Connective I n t e r a c t i o n i n Design 2 (Connective R e c a l l ) 123 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Fi g u r e 1 . G r a p h i c a l Representation of the Type of T r a i n i n g x Type of Connective I n t e r a c t i o n i n the Design 1 A n a l y s i s of Second Noun R e c a l l 4 2 F i g u r e 2 . G r a p h i c a l Representation of the Nature of Implied I n t e r a c t i o n x Type of T r a i n i n g x Type of Connective I n t e r a c t i o n i n the Design 2 A n a l y s i s of Second Noun R e c a l l . . . . 4 8 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. John Y u i l l e f o r h i s a d v i c e and h e l p i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . A l s o I would l i k e t o thank Dr. C h r i s T r a g a k i s and Dr. Nancy S u z u k i f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s and h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . F i n a l l y I'd l i k e t o thank Mr. G. R. P h i l i p s and the Grades 2 and 6 s t u d e n t s of K i n g s f o r d - S m i t h Elementary Sc h o o l f o r t h e i r k i n d c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of the e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a . 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N A n u m b e r o f r e s e a r c h e r s ( e . g . , R o h w e r , 1966, 1967? D a v i d s o n a n d A d a m s , 1970; S u z u k i a n d R o h w e r , I968; a n d Y u i l l e , 1973) h a v e r e p o r t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t e d w i t h n o u n p a i r s e m b e d d e d i n a p r i n -t e d s e n t e n c e f r a m e w i l l r e c a l l m o r e o f t h e s e p a i r s t h a n w i l l c h i l d r e n w h o s t u d y t h e s a m e p a i r s m i n u s t h e s e n t e n c e f r a m e . T h i s f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t o b t a i n e d w h e n t o - b e - l e a r n e d p a i r s o f n o u n s a r e e m b e d d e d i n a s e n t e n c e h a s b e e n f o u n d t o d e p e n d o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n n e c t i v e e m p l o y e d t o l i n k t h e p a i r . W h e n a c o n j u n c t i o n i s i n s e r t e d b e t w e e n t h e t w o n o u n s ( e . g . , t h e C A T a n d t h e B O O K ) , r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e i s n o b e t t e r t h a n t h a t o b t a i n e d w i t h a s t a n d a r d n o u n - n o u n t y p e o f p r e -s e n t a t i o n ( e . g . , C A T - B O O K ) , ( R o h w e r , 1966; R o h w e r , S h e u l l a n d L e v i n , I967; a n d S u z u k i a n d R o h w e r , I968) . H o w e v e r , i f a v e r b i s e m p l o y e d t o j o i n t h e n o u n s ( e . g . , t h e C A T c h e w s t h e B O O K ) , t h e n c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e i s g r e a t l y i m p r o v e d ( e . g . , S u z u k i a n d R o h w e r , 1968; a n d Y u i l l e , 1973)• T w o e x p l a n a t i o n s h a v e b e e n f o r w a r d e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h i s a b i l i t y o f v e r b s t o f a c i l i t a t e c h i l d r e n ' s p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g ( P A L ) . O n e g r o u p o f r e s e a r c h e r s ( e . g . , R o h w e r , 1970, 1973; a n d R o h w e r a n d M a t z , 1974) h a v e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h i s i m p r o v e m e n t r e f l e c t s t h e o p e r a t i o n o f v e r b a l - s e m a n t i c p r o c e s s e s , w h i l e a n o t h e r g r o u p ( e . g . , Y u i l l e , 1973, 1974) h a v e p r o p o s e d t h a t v e r b l i n k s f o s t e r i n t e r a c t i v e  i m a g e r y p r o c e s s e s . 2 S p e c i f i c a l l y , Rohwer (197°) has proposed t h a t verbs f a c i l i -t a t e p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g by c h i l d r e n because these types o f c o n n e c t i v e s f o s t e r a process he c a l l s "semantic e l a b o r a t i o n " . P r e -s e n t a t i o n o f the t o — b e — l e a r n e d p a i r i n a v e r b — l i n k e d sentence, says Rohwer, ser v e s t o modify the two nouns such t h a t they come t o share a common semantic a s p e c t . T h i s shared aspect mediates the p a i r and thus improves the l i k e l i h o o d o f c o r r e c t r e t r i e v a l of the second item upon p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the f i r s t . F o r example, a p a i r l i k e "DOG-BALL" might, i f p r e s e n t e d to an a d u l t , a u t o m a t i c a l l y evoke a number of common semantic a t t r i b u t e s shared by the two i t e m s . I n the case o f the c h i l d , however, t h i s spontaneous "semantic e l a b o r a t i o n " of the p a i r i s not so l i k e l y t o occur. S i m i l a r l y , says Rohwer, embedding the noun p a i r i n the phrase "the DOG and the BALL", a l s o w i l l not improve r e c a l l s i n c e c o n j u n c t i v e c o n n e c t i v e s l i k e "and" do not en-courage the g e n e r a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s shared by the two i t e m s . However, i f the verb "chews", f o r example, i s i n s e r t e d between the p a i r o f nouns, then the r e s u l t a n t phrase "the DOG chews the BALL" w i l l f o s t e r o r prompt the semantic e l a b o r a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n t h i s example the verb "chews" says Rohwer, g i v e s the two u n r e l a t e d items "DOG" and "BALL" a common semantic a t t r i b u t e o r r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i . e . , the one who chews and the one who i s chewed). T h i s shared c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mediates the p a i r and g r e a t l y improves the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t subsequent p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the noun "DOG" w i l l evoke the response "BALL". In c o n t r a s t t o the semantic e l a b o r a t i o n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the 3 s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t a d o p t e d b y R o h w e r (1970), i s a n i m a g i n a l p r o c e s s e s h y p o t h e s i s p r o p o s e d b y Y u i l l e (1973). Y u i l l e (1973, 1974) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e c a l l i m p r o v e m e n t o b t a i n e d w h e n v e r b s a r e e m p l o y e d t o l i n k n o u n p a i r s r e f l e c t s t h e o p e r a t i o n o f n o n - v e r b a l i m a g e r y c o d e s . B a s e d o n a s i m i l a r p r o p o s a l f o r w a r d e d b y P a i v i o (l97l) a n d B o w e r (1972) t o e x p l a i n t h e g r e a t e r e a s e o f l e a r n i n g o f i n t e r a c t i n g v e r s u s s i d e - b y - s i d e o b j e c t p a i r s ( e . g . , M i l g r a m , I967; R e e s e , 1965; H o l y o a k , H o g e t e r p , a n d Y u i l l e , 1972; a n d Y u i l l e a n d C a t c h p o l e , 1973), Y u i l l e (1973) p r o p o s e d t h a t v e r b s e n c o u r a g e S_ t o g e n e r a t e a n i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e o f t h e o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s o f t h e t w o n o u n s . T h i s c o m p o s i t e i m a g e f a c i l i t a t e s r e c a l l s i n c e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t i t e m o f a p a i r c u e s t h e e n t i r e i m a g e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s e c o n d i t e m . S i m i l a r l y , t h e l a c k o f i m p r o v e m e n t i n r e c a l l w h i c h r e s u l t s w h e n c o n j u n c t i v e l i n k s a r e e m p l o y e d o c c u r s b e c a u s e S s g e n e r a t e t w o s e p a r a t e i m a g e s o f t h e p a i r i t e m s s u c h t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f o n e i t e m n e e d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c u e t h e s e c o n d . H o l y o a k , H o g e t e r p , a n d Y u i l l e (1972) f o u n d s u p p o r t f o r a n i n -t e r a c t i v e i m a g e r y h y p o t h e s i s i n a s t u d y w h i c h c o m p a r e d v e r b s v e r s u s i n t e r a c t i n g l i n e d r a w i n g s a s m e d i a t o r s f o r n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g . F i n -d i n g s f r o m t h e H o l y o a k e t . a l . (1972) e x p e r i m e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t l i n k i n g n o u n p a i r s w i t h a v e r b c o n n e c t i v e w a s a s e f f e c t i v e f o r i m -p r o v i n g s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l a s w a s a l i n e d r a w i n g w h i c h d e p i c t e d t h e t w o i t e m s i n a n i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t c o u p l e d w i t h d a t a f r o m L e v i n (1970, a ) , w h i c h s h o w e d t h a t p r o v i d i n g t h e o r i g i n a l n o u n p l u s 4 verb t o cue second noun r e c a l l was no more e f f e c t i v e than c u e i n g w i t h the f i r s t noun o n l y ( i . e . , no v e r b ) , l e d Holyoak e t . a l . (1972) to conclude t h a t the s p e c i f i c nature o f the verb used t o l i n k the p a i r o f nouns i s i r r e l e v a n t . Rather, these authors concluded, the verb merely s e r v e s t o suggest t o S_ t h a t he or she generate h i s o r her own i n t e r a c t i n g image o f the two it e m s . A subsequent study by Y u i l l e (1973) o b t a i n e d f u r t h e r support f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . Y u i l l e (1973) found t r i a l - t o - t r i a l changes i n the l i n k i n g verb i n no way a f f e c t e d second noun r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o Ss presen t e d the same l i n k on each t r i a l . H i s c o n c l u s i o n from these r e s u l t s was t h a t the verb merely encourages S_s t o generate t h e i r own i n t e r a c t i n g images. Y u i l l e (1974) r e p l i c a t e d the Y u i l l e (1973) f i n d i n g s t h a t the verb s e r v e s merely an exemplar f u n c t i o n f o r imagery c o d i n g . Furthermore, Y u i l l e (1974) r e p o r t e d t h a t Ss a b i l i t y t o c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l the o r i g i n a l verb was u n r e l a t e d t o the l i k e l i h o o d o f c o r r e c t second noun r e c a l l . Though t h i s r e s u l t added f u r t h e r weight t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the s p e c i f i c n a t ure o f the c o n n e c t i n g verb i s unimportant, i t does not a l l o w a d e f i n i t i v e c h o i c e between i n t e r a c t i n g imagery and v e r b a l semantic hypotheses of l i n k e d noun p a i r l e a r n i n g by c h i l d r e n . A d e f i n i t e c h o i c e i s not p r o v i d e d between these a l t e r n a t i v e s because i t c o u l d be argued (though Rohwer does not do so) t h a t the verb serves merely t o suggest t o Ss t h a t they generate t h e i r own semantic l i n k between the two i t e m s . That i s , l i n k i n g noun p a i r s w i t h a verb may encourage Ss t o generate h i s o r her own semantic o v e r l a p which may or may not 5 r e l a t e t o the s p e c i f i c l i n k i n g v e r b . Though somewhat l e s s parsimonious than Y u i l l e * s (l973> 1974) i n t e r a c t i n g imagery h y p o t h e s i s , the semantic e l a b o r a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e does weaken the d e f i n i t y o f Y u i l l e ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i m a g i n a l p r o c e s s e s are s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t . However, data from s e v e r a l o t h e r areas o f r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o c h i l d r e n ' s a s -s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g do f a v o u r an i n t e r a c t i n g imagery h y p o t h e s i s . F o r example Jensen and Rohwer (1963, 1965) and Cooper (1968) r e p o r t e d an even s t r o n g e r f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t o f verb v e r s u s c o n j u n c t i o n connec-t i v e s when the o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s of noun p a i r s are present e d a l o n g w i t h the p r i n t e d l i n k e d nouns. Though i t c o u l d be argued t h a t the s i m u l -taneous o b j e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n somehow f a c i l i t a t e d Ss g e n e r a t i o n o f a common semantic a t t r i b u t e , i t seems more a p p r o p r i a t e t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s r e s u l t as r e f l e c t i n g an i n c r e a s e d prompting o f imagery codes. P a i v i o (1970) h y p o t h e s i z e d s u c c e s s f u l PAL of co n c r e t e noun p a i r s t o i n v o l v e a th r e e stage p r o c e s s : f i r s t , S_ must generate images o f the two i t e m s ; s e c o n d l y , these two images must be i n t e r a c t e d ; and t h i r d l y , at r e c a l l , t h i s composite image must be t r i g g e r e d and c o r r e c t l y de-coded. F o l l o w i n g P a i v i o ' s (197°) r e a s o n i n g , i t appears l i k e l y t h a t simultaneous noun p l u s o b j e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n , by p r o v i d i n g a more con-c r e t e s t i m u l u s f o r image g e n e r a t i o n , would a i d S_s c a r r y i n g out of the f i r s t o f the t h r e e s t e p s o f i n t e r a c t i n g image g e n e r a t i o n and thus i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d o f c o r r e c t r e c a l l . The degree o f t h i s f a c i l i -t a t i o n would be p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h i f S_ was u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the o b j e c t 6 r e f e r e n t s o f t h e t w o n o u n s s i n c e , i n t h e s e c a s e s , i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n w o u l d b e i m p o s s i b l e . P r e s e n t i n g t h e o b j e c t s , t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d a t l e a s t e n s u r e t h a t S_ g e n e r a t e s t h e t w o s e p a r a t e i m a g e s . F u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r o p o s a l t h a t i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y p r o -c e s s e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p o t e n t i a l o f v e r b s f o r i m p r o v i n g c h i l -d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g o f n o u n p a i r s i s f o u n d i n a s t u d y b y R e e s e (1969). W h i l e s o m e r e s e a r c h e r s ( e . g . , R o h w e r a n d L e v i n , 1968; a n d R e e s e , I969) h a v e r e p o r t e d t h a t " s e m a n t i c a l l y a n o m o l o u s " p h r a s e s l i k e " C A T S j u m p S O N G S " a r e n o b e t t e r r e c a l l e d t h a n u n l i n k e d p a i r s ( d e s p i t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e v e r b ) i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t s u c h p h r a s e s a r e n o t o n l y " s e m a n t i c a l l y a n o m o l o u s " , b u t a r e a l s o n o n - i m a g e a b l e . H o w e v e r , R e e s e (1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t b i z a r r e p h r a s e s l i k e " t h e F I S H t a l k s o n t h e T E L E P H O N E " d o i m p r o v e n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g r e l a t i v e t o u n l i n k e d o r c o n j u n c t i v e l y l i n k e d c o n t r o l p a i r s . T h o u g h b o t h " C A T S j u m p S O N G S " a n d " t h e F I S H t a l k s o n t h e T E L E P H O N E " a r e c l e a r l y s e m a n t i c a l l y a n o m o -l o u s , t h e c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o t y p e s o f p h r a s e s s e e m s t o b e i n t h e i r e a s e o f i m a g e f o r m a t i o n . " C A T S j u m p S O N G S " i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g e p h r a s e ( h o w c a n S_ i m a g e t h e n o u n " S O N G " ) w h e r e a s t o g e n e r a t e a n i m a g i n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a f i s h t a l k i n g o n a t e l e p h o n e i s p o s s i b l e . T h a t i s , f o l l o w i n g Y u i l l e * s (1973) r e a s o n i n g , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e v e r b " j u m p " b e t w e e n " C A T S " a n d " S O N G S " w i l l n o t i m p r o v e P A L b e c a u s e , s i n c e t h e n o u n " S O N G " c a n n o t e a s i l y b e t r a n s -f o r m e d i n t o a v i s u a l i m a g e , _S w i l l b e u n a b l e t o g e n e r a t e h i s o r h e r o w n i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e t w o i t e m s . H o w e v e r , i n s e r t i n g t h e v e r b . . . p h r a s e 7 " t a l k s on" between the nouns "FISH" and "TELEPHONE" i s f a c i l i t a t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o subsequent r e c a l l t e s t i n g because both nouns can be re p r e s e n t e d as v i s u a l images and t h e r e f o r e the c h i l d i s prompted t o generate an i n t e r a c t i o n between the two items due t o the presence o f the v e r b . Another body of r e s e a r c h which p r o v i d e s s t r o n g e r support t o an i n t e r a c t i v e imagery r a t h e r than semantic e l a b o r a t i o n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g i s found i n a s e r i e s o f experiments designed t o t r a i n c h i l d r e n t o form t h e i r own mnemonic m e d i a t i o n s t r a -t e g i e s . Based on the success o f v e r b - l i n k e d E - s u p p l i e d sentences f o r i m p r o v i n g noun p a i r l e a r n i n g i n c h i l d r e n , Rohwer and h i s c o l l e g u e s attempted t o t r a i n c h i l d r e n t o generate t h e i r own sentences. D e s p i t e e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g , attempts t o t r a i n c h i l d r e n t o generate t h e i r own f a c i l i t a t i v e sentences were u n s u c c e s s f u l (e.g., Rohwer, Ammon, and L e v i n , 1971; and Rohwer and Ammon, 197l) w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f a bl o c k e d p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n a s t u d y by Ammon and Ammon (1970)- Rohwer's c o n c l u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g these n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s was t h a t "perhaps i t would be more f r u i t f u l t o d e l a y t r a i n i n g i n the use of e l a b o r a t i v e prompts ( i . e . , S-generated sentences) u n t i l p r e a d o l e s c e n c e , and t o ensure e f f i c i e n t l e a r n i n g at younger age l e v e l s by i n c o r p o r a t i n g the prompts ( i . e . , E - s u p p l i e d sentences) d i r e c t l y i n t o the m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d f o r l e a r n i n g " (Rohwer and Gerdes, 197l)« De s p i t e t h i s somewhat pes-s i m i s t i c pronouncement, o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d ( e . g . , L e v i n and K a p l i n , 1972; T a y l o r and B a l c k , 1969; and Y u i l l e and C a t c h p o l e , 8 1973j 1974) have been s u c c e s s f u l i n t r a i n i n g c h i l d r e n t o improve t h e i r p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e performance. However, these h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n i n g procedures were based on an i n t e r a c t i v e imagery r a t h e r t han v e r b a l e l a b o r a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s and, t h e r e f o r e , were designed t o encourage the use of imagery r a t h e r than v e r b a l codes. Impetus f o r these imagery i n d u c t i o n procedures came from the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned f i n d i n g t h a t o b j e c t p a i r s p r e s e n t e d as i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h each o t h e r are b e t t e r r e -c a l l e d than o b j e c t - p a i r s p r e s e n t e d i n a n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g s i d e - b y - s i d e f a s h i o n (Bower, 1972; Milgram, 1967; Reese, 19655 and Y u i l l e and Ca t c h p o l e , 1973). Given t h a t c h i l d r e n can b e n e f i t from E - s u p p l i e d i n t e r a c t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s , Y u i l l e and Catchpole (1973) t e s t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n s t r u c t i n g Ss t o t h i n k o f t h e i r own i n t e r a c t i o n s ( i . e . , i n t e r a c t i n g images) a l s o would improve r e c a l l . T h e i r experiment compared the r e c o g n i t i o n performance of t h r e e groups of k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n presented w i t h twenty p a i r s o f o b j e c t s . Group one was p r e s e n t e d the o b j e c t p a i r s i n a s i d e - b y - s i d e manner; group two s t u d i e d the same p a i r s however E generated an i n t e r a c t i o n between the two items o f each p a i r ; and group t h r e e a l s o r e c e i v e d s i d e - b y - s i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n but was g i v e n i n t e r a c t i v e imagery t r a i n i n g p r i o r t o l e a r n i n g s et p r e s e n t a t i o n . The comparison o f the r e c o g n i t i o n s c o r e s f o r these t h r e e groups o f c h i l d r e n r e v e a l e d t h a t those Ss who generated t h e i r own i n t e r a c t i n g images ( i . e . , group 'three) and those Ss who viewed a l r e a d y i n t e r a c t i n g p a i r s ( i . e . , group two) performed e q u a l l y w e l l and s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than d i d Ss g i v e n an u n i n s t r u c t e d 9 s i d e - b y - s i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o n d i t i o n ( i . e . , group one). Thus i t ap-peared from these r e s u l t s t h a t k i n d e r g a r t e n - a g e c h i l d r e n are capable of f o r m i n g i n t e r a c t i n g images i f i n s t r u c t e d t o do so and these Si-generated i n t e r a c t i n g images are as e f f e c t i v e as i n t e r a c t i o n s genera-t e d by E. Danner and T a y l o r (1973) a l s o o b t a i n e d evidence s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n can b e n e f i t from i n s t r u c t i o n t o generate i n t e r a c t i n g images. I n the Danner and T a y l o r (1973) study i t was found t h a t c h i l d r e n from grades one, t h r e e , and s i x who drew t h e i r own i n t e r -a c t i o n s o f t o - b e - l e a r n e d o b j e c t p a i r s showed s u p e r i o r r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o S_s presen t e d the same s i d e - b y - s i d e items but not g i v e n such i n s t r u c -t i o n . T h i s study r e p r e s e n t s a t e s t o f l e a r n i n g between E - s u p p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n s and S-generated i n t e r a c t i n g images. The f a c t t h a t c h i l -dren can b e n e f i t from t h e i r own i n t e r a c t i n g l i n e drawings of s i d e - b y -s i d e o b j e c t p a i r s l e n d s f u r t h e r support t o the Y u i l l e and Catchpole (1973) h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c h i l d r e n of t h i s age can generate i n t e r a c t i n g images. That i s , i n o r d e r t o generate the i n t e r a c t i n g l i n e drawings, Ss i n the Danner and T a y l o r (1973) experiments must have been capable of f i r s t f o r m i n g i n t e r a c t i n g . i m a g e s . Given t h a t imagery t r a i n i n g was e f f e c t i v e f o r i m p r o v i n g c h i l -dren's l e a r n i n g of o b j e c t p a i r s , Y u i l l e and Catchpole (1974) attempted t o extend the range of a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r imagery t r a i n i n g procedure. R e s u l t s from t h e i r second study not o n l y r e p l i c a t e d the p r e v i o u s f i n -d i n g t h a t imagery t r a i n i n g improves c h i l d r e n ' s r e c o g n i t i o n memory but a l s o extended t h i s improvement t o t e s t s of immediate and delayed 10 r e c a l l . G r a d e o n e S_s i n t h e Y u i l l e a n d C a t c h p o l e (1974) e x p e r i m e n t w h o w e r e t r a i n e d t o g e n e r a t e t h e i r o w n i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s s h o w e d a n i m m e d i a t e r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e w h i c h w a s o n e - h u n d r e d p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n t h e i r u n t r a i n e d c l a s s m a t e s . F u r t h e r m o r e t h i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t p e r s i s t e d e v e n a f t e r a o n e w e e k d e l a y . I n a d d i t i o n , Y u i l l e a n d C a t c h p o l e (1974) r e p o r t e d t h a t S_s o r i g i n a l l y t r a i n e d i n t h e u s e o f i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e u n t r a i n e d S s o n a n e w p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e t a s k a d m i n i s t e r e d o n e w e e k a f t e r t h e o r i g i n a l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , e v e n t h o u g h t h e s e S_s w e r e g i v e n n o a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s t o e m p l o y i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y c o d i n g . I n v i e w o f t h e i r h i g h d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s w i t h r e g a r d t o t r a i n i n g S s t o f o r m u l a t e t h e i r o w n i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s o f o b j e c t p a i r s , C a t c h p o l e a n d Y u i l l e (1974) d e c i d e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f i m a g e r y t r a i n i n g f o r i m p r o v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s n o u n - p a i r l e a r n i n g . S i n c e R o h w e r , Amnion, a n d L e v i n ( l97l) a n d R o h w e r a n d A m m o n ( l97l) h a d a c h i e v e d n o s u c c e s s i n t r a i n i n g c h i l d r e n t o g e n e r a t e e f f e c t i v e s e m a n t i c e l a b o r a -t i o n s t r a t e g i e s ( i . e . , S - g e n e r a t e d s e n t e n c e s ) t o i m p r o v e n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g , C a t c h p o l e a n d Y u i l l e (1974) w e r e i n t e r e s t e d t o s e e i f t r a i n i n g c h i l d r e n t o g e n e r a t e i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s o f t h e o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s o f n o u n p a i r s w o u l d b e e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s t y p e o f l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e g r a d e s t w o a n d f i v e S_s i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t r e v e a l e d i m a g e r y t r a i n i n g t o b e a h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e p r o c e d u r e f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e c a l l o f n o u n p a i r s a s w e l l a s o f n o u n p a i r s a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e i r o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i m u l t a n e o u s o b j e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n a l o n g 11 w i t h the noun p a i r s r e s u l t e d i n no b e t t e r performance than noun p a i r s a l o n e . T h i s r e s u l t was i n t e r p r e t e d by the authors as i n d i c a t i n g t h a t S_s o f these ages were capable o f fo r m i n g maximally e f f e c t i v e images of the nouns employed i n the experiment ( i f i n s t r u c t e d t o do so) and r e c e i v e d no a d d i t i o n a l image g e n e r a t i o n b e n e f i t from the presence of the o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s o f the nouns. The r e c a l l improvement o f imagery t r a i n e d S_s i n the noun and noun-plus-object c o n d i t i o n s i n t h i s experiment was equal t o t h a t o b t a i n e d by u n t r a i n e d Ss pr e s e n t e d w i t h nouns p l u s ( a l r e a d y ) i n t e r a c t i n g o b j e c t s . I n c o n t r a s t , f o r the u n t r a i n e d Ss, noun p l u s i n t e r a c t i n g o b j e c t s were l e a r n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than e i t h e r nouns or nouns p l u s s i d e - b y - s i d e o b j e c t s . Thus i t appears from the Catchpole and Y u i l l e (1974) experiment t h a t t r a i n i n g c h i l d r e n t o generate i n t e r a c t i n g images o f the o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s o f noun p a i r s w i l l improve r e c a l l o f the p a i r s t o the same degree as w i l l p r e s e n t i n g the o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s of these nouns i n an i n t e r a c t i o n . One f u r t h e r r e s u l t from the Catchpole and Y u i l l e (1974) study apparently-r e f l e c t e d some developmental changes i n S_s a b i l i t y t o employ i n t e r -a c t i v e imagery codes. F o r grade two S_s the b r i e f t r a i n i n g session., i n the use of i n t e r a c t i n g images a l s o improved r e c a l l performance i n the nouns p l u s i n t e r a c t i n g o b j e c t s c o n d i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o the un-t r a i n e d S_s. However, f o r grade f i v e S_s no such improvement was ob-t a i n e d . Thus, concluded the a u t h o r s , not o n l y does imagery t r a i n i n g improve c h i l d r e n ' s noun p a i r and noun p l u s o b j e c t p a i r l e a r n i n g but a l s o , f o r younger S_s, i t i n c r e a s e s Ss a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l a l r e a d y i n -12 t e r a c t i n g o b j e c t p a i r s . S i n c e n o s u c h i m p r o v e m e n t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n t r a i n e d S s p r e s e n t e d w i t h n o u n s v e r s u s n o u n s p l u s o b j e c t s t h i s i m p r o v e m e n t m u s t h a v e r e f l e c t e d a n e f f e c t o f i m a g e r y t r a i n i n g f o r p r o m p t i n g S_s t o f o c u s o n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e t w o i t e m s . H a v i n g d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i m a g e r y t r a i n i n g i s a h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d f o r i m p r o v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g o f n o u n p a i r s , C a t c h p o l e a n d Y u i l l e (1974) t h e n c o m p a r e d t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r i m a g e r y t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e , a v e r b a l e l a b o r a t i o n t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t e m p l o y e d b y A m m o n a n d A m m o n (1970), a n d a n o t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . T o t e s t f o r p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e t r a i n i n g m a t e r i a l s a n d t h e t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , C a t c h p o l e a n d Y u i l l e (1974) t r a i n e d h a l f o f t h e S_s i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h o b j e c t s a n d t h e o t h e r h a l f w i t h n o u n s . T h e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r e a c h S_ c o n s i s t e d o f a m i x e d l i s t o f n o u n a n d o b j e c t p a i r s . S_s a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l t h e s e i t e m s w a s t e s t e d b o t h i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r l e a r n i n g s e t p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d o n e w e e k l a t e r . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f a s t u d y b y L e v i n , D a v i d s o n , W o l f f , a n d C i t r o n (1973) C a t c h p o l e a n d Y u i l l e (.1974) f o u n d t h a t f o r i m m e d i a t e r e c a l l b o t h v e r b a l a n d i m a g e r y t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s w e r e e q u a l l y f a c i l i t a t i v e a n d r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i -f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r r e c a l l t o t h e u n t r a i n e d c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . A l s o , a t i m m e d i a t e r e c a l l , e q u a l n u m b e r s o f n o u n a n d o b j e c t p a i r s w e r e r e -c a l l e d . H o w e v e r , a f t e r t h e o n e w e e k d e l a y , S s t r a i n e d i n t h e u s e o f i n t e r a c t i v e i m a g e r y r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e o f t h e o r i g i n a l p a i r s t h a n d i d t h e v e r b a l t r a i n i n g S s t h o u g h t h i s l a t t e r g r o u p s t i l l 13 c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more items than the no t r a i n i n g Ss. A l s o a f t e r one week s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t p a i r s were r e c a l l e d r e l a t i v e t o the noun p a i r s . F i n a l l y , Catchpole and Y u i l l e (1974) found t h a t imagery t r a i n e d Ss r e c a l l e d more o f the o b j e c t p a i r s t han noun p a i r s , whereas f o r the v e r b a l l y t r a i n e d S_s no d i f -f e r e n c e was found between r e c a l l f o r o b j e c t s v e r s u s nouns. Catchpole and Y u i l l e i n t e r p r e t e d the g r e a t e r decrease i n r e c a l l o f the v e r b a l l y t r a i n e d Ss r e l a t i v e t o the imagery t r a i n e d S_s t o the n o t i o n t h a t v e r b a l t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s i n the g e n e r a t i o n o f some v e r b a l codes which a l t h o u g h s a l i e n t at immediate r e c a l l fade more r a p i d l y over time than do the i m a g i n a l codes generated by _Ss t r a i n e d i n the use of i n t e r a c t i v e imagery. Though t h i s p r o p o s a l o f f e r e d a parsimonious e x p l a n a t i o n o f the d a t a c o l l e c t e d by these a u t h o r s , Catchpole and Y u i l l e (1974) d i d not attempt t o e x p l a i n the reason f o r t h e i r success w i t h v e r b a l t r a i n i n g compared t o the l a c k o f success o b t a i n e d by Rohwer ( e . g . , Rohwer and Ammon, 197l)« The d i s c r e p a n c y between the performance o f v e r b a l l y t r a i n e d S_s i n the Catchpole and Y u i l l e and L e v i n e t . a l . (1973) ex-periments and the performance o f v e r b a l l y t r a i n e d _Ss i n the Rohwer e t . a l . (l97l) and Ammon and Ammon (.1970) s t u d i e s i s p u z z l i n g . How-ever one p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t the mixed o b j e c t and word p a i r l i s t employed by Catchpole and Y u i l l e (1974) and L e v i n e t . a l . (1973) p r o v i d e d a necessary prompt t o generate imagery codes f o r the v e r b a l t r a i n i n g S_s i n these experiments, w h i l e the pure noun p a i r p r e s e n t a -t i o n employed i n the Rohwer experiments d i d not evoke i m a g i n a l c o d i n g . 14 T h a t i s , t h o u g h i m a g e r y t r a i n i n g a u t o m a t i c a l l y p r o m p t s S s t o g e n e r a t e i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g i n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f n o u n p a i r s , v e r b a l t r a i n i n g m a y n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y p r o m p t S s t o i m a g e p r e s e n t e d n o u n p a i r s . T h u s i n c l u s i o n o f o b j e c t p a i r s a s w e l l a s n o u n p a i r s m a y h a v e f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s f i r s t i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n s t e p o f i m p r o v e d n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g a n d t h u s a l l o w e d S s t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e s e c o n d s t e p o f c o g n i t i v e l y i n -t e r a c t i n g t h e s e i m a g e s . T h i s i m a g e f a c i l i t a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f s i m u l -t a n e o u s o b j e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n m i g h t b e l i k e n e d t o t h e g r e a t e r s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t o b t a i n e d w h e n o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d a l o n g w i t h l i n k e d n o u n p a i r s ( c f . J e n s e n a n d R o h w e r , 1963, 1965). T h e Y u i l l e a n d C a t c h p o l e (1973, 1974) a n d C a t c h p o l e a n d Y u i l l e (1974) e x p e r i m e n t s a d d f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t o f v e r b s w i t h r e s p e c t t o l i n k e d n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g r e f l e c t s t h e o p e r a t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i v e i m a g e r y c o d e s . H o w e v e r , t h e e q u a l i m m e d i a t e r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e o b t a i n e d w i t h v e r b a l e l a b o r a t i o n a n d i m a g e r y t r a i n i n g s t i l l p r e v e n t s a c o n c l u s i v e d e c i s i o n a s t o t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f s e m a n t i c e l a b o r a t i o n a n d i n t e r a c t i v e i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n i n c h i l d r e n ' s a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g . O n e f u r t h e r e x p e r i -m e n t b y R o h w e r , L y n c h , L e v i n , a n d S u z u k i (1967) m a y p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c r i t i c a l t e s t t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . R o h w e r e t . a l . (1967) f o u n d p r e p o s i t i o n s a l s o w e r e c a p a b l e o f f a c i l i t a t i n g P A L t h o u g h n o t t o t h e s a m e e x t e n t a s v e r b s . V e r b s a f f o r d e d m a x i m a l f a c i l i t a t i o n , p r e p o s i t i o n s g a v e i n t e r m e d i a t e f a c i l i t a t i o n , a n d c o n j u n c t i o n s d i d n o t i m p r o v e P A L r e -15 l a t i v e t o a n u n l i n k e d c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t l e a d s t o t w o o b v i o u s q u e s t i o n s : f i r s t , w h a t p r o p e r t y o f p r e p o s i t i o n s c a u s e s t h e m t o f a c i l i t a t e c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g o f n o u n p a i r s , a n d s e c o n d , w h y i s t h i s f a c i l i t a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n t h a t w h i c h i s o b t a i n e d f r o m v e r b s ? F r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f E o h w e r ' s ( 1 9 7 ° ) s e m a n t i c e l a -b o r a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s i t i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s w h y p r e p o s i t i o n s s h o u l d f a l l b e t w e e n v e r b s a n d c o n j u n c t i o n s i n t e r m s o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f o s t e r a s e m a n t i c l i n k . H o w e v e r , i f o n e t u r n s t o P a i v i o ' s (l97l) a n d B o w e r ' s (1972) e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i m p r o v e m e n t i n r e c a l l t h a t o c c u r s w h e n o b j e c t p a i r s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a n i n t e r a c t i n g f a s h i o n a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s s u g g e s t e d . P a i v i o (1971) s t a t e s t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l f a c t o r f o r t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n o b t a i n e d w h e n o b j e c t p a i r s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a n i n t e r a c t i n g f a s h i o n i s t h a t t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e t w o i t e m s p e r m i t s S_ t o e n c o d e t h e m a s a s i n g l e c o m p o u n d i m a g e . T h i s s t o r a g e o f t h e t w o i t e m s i n o n e c o m p o u n d i m a g e f a c i l i t a t e s r e c a l l s i n c e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t i t e m a t t h e t i m e o f r e c a l l c u e s t h e e n t i r e i m a g e a n d t h u s t h e s e c o n d i t e m . Y u i l l e (1973, 1974) h a s c a l l e d u p o n a n i d e n t i c a l p r o c e s s t o e x p l a i n t h e a b i l i t y o f v e r b s t o f a c i l i -t a t e c h i l d r e n ' s n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g . T h a t i s , p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t w o i t e m s a s l i n k e d b y a v e r b c a u s e s S_ t o g e n e r a t e a s i n g l e i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e o f t h e o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s o f t h e t w o n o u n s . I f Y u i l l e (1973, 1974) i s c o r r e c t t h e n w h y a r e p r e p o s i t i o n s a l s o e f f e c t i v e f o r i m p r o v i n g n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g b u t n o t t o t h e s a m e d e g r e e a s a r e v e r b s ? A p o s -s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t p r e p o s i t i o n s f a l l i n t o t w o 16 c a t e g o r i e s : those t h a t suggest a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the two items i n q u e s t i o n ( e . g . , "on", " i n " , and "around") and those t h a t i m p l y a non-touching p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ( e . g . , "above", " b e s i d e " , "between"). T h e r e f o r e , Rohwer e t . a l . (1967) may have employed ( i n t h e i r p r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n ) some p r e p o s i t i o n s which suggested an i n t e r a c t i o n between p a i r members and some which d i d n o t . F o l l o w i n g P a i v i o ' s (l97l) r e a s o n i n g , those p r e p o s i t i o n s which suggest a s i n g l e i n t e r a c t i n g image o f the two nouns s h o u l d be as f a c i l i t a t i v e as v e r b s , w h i l e those t h a t i m p l y a s i d e - b y - s i d e o r over-under r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i . e . , two separate images) should be no more f a c i l i t a t i v e w i t h r e s -pect t o r e c a l l performance, than are c o n j u n c t i o n s . Thus perhaps the Rohwer e t . a l . (1967) f i n d i n g t h a t p r e p o s i t i o n s d i d not f a c i l i t a t e PAL as much as v e r b s , r e f l e c t e d the presence o f some n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s i n the p r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n which d e f l a t e d the mean f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t of t,his type o f c o n n e c t i v e . I f t h i s p r o p o s a l t h a t i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s w i l l improve c h i l d r e n ' s noun p a i r l e a r n i n g and n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s w i l l n o t , i s c o r r e c t , then s t r o n g support f o r an i n t e r a c t i n g imagery h y p o t h e s i s o f l i n k e d noun p a i r l e a r n i n g w i l l be p r o v i d e d . That i s , from the p o i n t of view o f Rohwer's (1970) semantic e l a b o r a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s , t h e r e i s no reason why p r e p o s i t i o n s which suggest a d i s t a n c e d s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o u l d p r o v i d e any l e s s r e c a l l f a c i l i t a t i o n than do those p r e p o s i t i o n s which im p l y an a c t u a l p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n of the two i t e m s . However, from an i n t e r a c t i v e imagery p o i n t o f view, t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between 17 "the two c l a s s e s of p r e p o s i t i o n s i s v i t a l because a c c o r d i n g t o P a i v i o (1971), Bower (1972), and Y u i l l e (1973), r e c a l l f a c i l i t a t i o n o c curs o n l y i f the two items can be s t o r e d i n a s i n g l e compound i m a g i n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n o r der t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h r e p l i c a t e d , i n p a r t , the Rohwer e t . a l . (1967) experiment, however, the degree of i n t e r a c t i o n suggested by the c o n n e c t i v e s i n the p r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n was s y s t e m a t i c a l l y manipulated. That i s , noun p a i r s were l i n k e d by v e r b s , c o n j u n c t i o n s , or p r e p o s i t i o n s , and h a l f of the p r e p o s i t i o n s i m p l i e d a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the two items f o r each p a i r and h a l f d i d n o t . I n a d d i t i o n t o these t h r e e t ypes of c o n n e c t i v e s ( i . e . , v e r b s , c o n j u n c t i o n s , and p r e p o s i t i o n s ) a f o u r t h type of c o n n e c t i v e (verb p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n ) was a l s o i n c l u d e d . I f an i m p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n between the two items i s n e c e s s a r y t o im-prove r e c a l l performance then o n l y those verbs which are coupled w i t h an i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g . F o r example, a l i n k e d noun p a i r l i k e "the BULL runs under the FLAG" should not be as r e a d i l y r e c a l l e d as "the BULL runs i n t o the FLAG" because the former does not suggest a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the p a i r mem-bers w h i l e the l a t t e r does. T h e r e f o r e t o e x p l o r e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the s u g g e s t i o n of a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s c r i t i c a l t o r e c a l l improvement of verb p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s , o n e - h a l f of the verbs i n the verb p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n were p a i r e d w i t h i n t e r -a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s w h i l e the o t h e r h a l f were p a i r e d w i t h n o n - i n t e r -a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s . 18 To summarize the above d i s c u s s i o n f o u r types o f c o n n e c t i v e s were employed t o l i n k the t o - b e - l e a r n e d noun p a i r s : one q u a r t e r were l i n k e d by v e r b s , one q u a r t e r by c o n j u n c t i o n s , one q u a r t e r by prepo-s i t i o n s , and one q u a r t e r by verbs p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , w i t h i n the p r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n , one h a l f o f the members of t h i s c o n n e c t i v e c a t e g o r y suggested a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the two p a i r items and one h a l f suggested a d i s t a n c e d s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . S i m i l a r l y , f o r the p a i r s l i n k e d by verbs p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n s , h a l f em-p l o y e d a verb p l u s i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n and h a l f employed a verb p l u s n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n . I f the s u g g e s t i o n o r i m p l i c a t i o n of a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s the c r i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n f o r i m p r o v i n g noun p a i r l e a r n i n g then p a i r s l i n k e d by v e r b s , i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i -t i o n s , and verbs p l u s i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s , s h o u l d be b e t t e r r e c a l l e d t h an are p a i r s l i n k e d by c o n j u n c t i o n s , n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g prepo-s i t i o n s , o r verbs p l u s n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s . A f u r t h e r probe i n t o the r o l e of imagery i n c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the experiment through a m a n i p u l a t i o n of the type o f t r a i n i n g g i v e n t o S_s. Catchpole and Y u i l l e (1974) found t h a t Ss i n s t r u c t e d t o form an i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g i n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f noun p a i r s showed s u p e r i o r r e c a l l t o S_s not g i v e n such i n s t r u c t i o n . They concluded t h a t c h i l d r e n have the p o t e n t i a l t o form i n t e r a c t i n g images of noun p a i r s but w i l l not do so u n l e s s p r o v i d e d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n . Presumably,, t h e r e f o r e , i n a l i n k e d noun p a i r l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i n g imagery t r a i n i n g would be b e n e f i c i a l f o r o n l y 19 those p a i r s T^hich do not a l r e a d y have an i n t e r a c t i o n o f the two items suggested by the p a r t i c u l a r c o n n e c t i v e . Thus, w h i l e i n t e r a c t i n g imagery t r a i n i n g s h o u l d improve r e c a l l of c o n j u n c t i o n , n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n , and verb p l u s n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s a l l o t h e r p a i r s i n the l e a r n i n g set should be no b e t t e r l e a r n e d than t h e y would be i n the absence o f any s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g . To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s E t r a i n e d some S_s i n the use of i n t e r a c t i n g images w h i l e o t h e r S_s r e c e i v e d no s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g . I f u n i n s t r u c t e d c h i l d r e n auto-m a t i c a l l y employ imagery c o d i n g i n l i n k e d noun p a i r l e a r n i n g s i t u a -t i o n s then these S_s should perform b e t t e r when c o n n e c t i v e s which sug-gest an i n t e r a c t i o n are used t o l i n k the p a i r s (because an i n t e r a c t i n g image would be s t o r e d ) r a t h e r than when c o n n e c t i v e s which suggest a d i s t a n c e d s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p are employed (because sep a r a t e images w i l l be generated) . On the o t h e r hand for. Ss t r a i n e d t o generate t h e i r own i n t e r a c t i o n s ( i . e . , imagery t r a i n i n g ) no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e -c a l l s c o r e s s h o u l d occur among the c o n n e c t i v e s because these S_s generate t h e i r own i n t e r a c t i o n of each p a i r r e g a r d l e s s o f the con-n e c t i v e . T h e r e f o r e , assuming S_ generated and E - s u p p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n s t o be e q u a l l y f a c i l i t a t i v e i t would be expected t h a t imagery t r a i n e d Ss would show s u p e r i o r r e c a l l t o u n t r a i n e d .Ss i n the case of p a i r s l i n k e d by c o n n e c t i v e s which do not suggest an i n t e r a c t i o n . However, f o r those p a i r s which a l r e a d y have an i n t e r a c t i o n suggested by the co n n e c t i v e ( i . e . , v e r b , i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n , and verb p l u s i n t e r -a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n l i n k s ) performance under imagery t r a i n i n g s h o u l d 20 e q u a l performance under no t r a i n i n g . T h i s p r e d i c t i o n i s based on two assumptions which may prove t o be i n c o r r e c t . F i r s t l y , u n t r a i n e d Ss may not a u t o m a t i c a l l y employ imagery codes when pr e s e n t e d w i t h p r i n t e d l i n k e d noun p a i r s ( c f . Y u i l l e and P r i t c h a r d , 19&9; L e v i n , K a p l a n , and H o r v i t z , 197l)» I f t h i s s h o u l d occur then i n terms of i n t e r a c t i v e imagery c o d i n g the nature of the c o n n e c t i v e employed ( i . e . , i n t e r a c t i n g v e r s u s n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g ) would be i r r e l e v a n t be-cause t h e r e would be no S_ generated images t o combine i n t o a compound i m a g i n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Secondly, _S and E generated i n t e r a c t i o n s may not be e q u a l l y f a c i l i t a t i v e and t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r e n t i a l r e c a l l might occur between imagery t r a i n i n g and no t r a i n i n g f o r p a i r s l i n k e d by i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g c o n n e c t i v e s . That i s , w h i l e both E-sup-p l i e d ( e .g., No T r a i n i n g - Verb l i n k s ) and-S^generated ( e . g . , Imagery T r a i n i n g - Verb l i n k s ) i n t e r a c t i o n s o f p a i r members s h o u l d be b e t t e r r e c a l l e d t h an nonv-dnteracted p a i r s ( e . g . , No T r a i n i n g - C o n j u n c t i o n l i n k s ) i t may be the case t h a t e i t h e r S-generated or E - s u p p l i e d i n -t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be e x t r a f a c i l i t a t i v e . On one hand p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n s might be b e t t e r than h a v i n g S_s generate t h e i r own s i n c e an i n t e r a c t i o n of every p a i r i s ensured i n the case of E - s u p p l i e d l i n k s but not n e c e s s a r i l y f o r S-generated l i n k s . On the o t h e r hand, however, by h a v i n g S_s generate separate images and then i n t e r a c t them ( i . e . , Imagery T r a i n i n g ) i m a g i n a l c o d i n g might be more l i k e l y t o be evoked r e l a t i v e t o E - s u p p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n s which may not a u t o m a t i c a l l y prompt imagery p r o c e s s e s . 21 To p a r t i a l l y c o n t r o l f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t no sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t w i l l o c cur f o r the u n t r a i n e d S_s ( c f . Y u i l l e and P r i t c h a r d , 1969) and t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of non-i n t e r a c t i n g imagery i n d u c t i o n f o r l i n k e d noun p a i r l e a r n i n g , a t h i r d i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n (imagery Prompting) was i n c l u d e d i n the ex-p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . The Imagery Prompting c o n d i t i o n i n v o l v e d t r a i n i n g S_s t o generate i m a g i n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the two nouns of each p a i r ( j u s t as was done w i t h Imagery T r a i n i n g ) however no a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n t o i n t e r a c t these images was g i v e n . Thus the i n c l u s i o n p f the Imagery Prompting c o n d i t i o n was designed t o serve two purposes. F i r s t , what e f f e c t s w i l l prompting n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g image g e n e r a t i o n have on second noun r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o i n t e r a c t i n g image g e n e r a t i o n f o r the v a r i o u s types of c o n n e c t i v e s . Second, as has o c c a s i o n a l l y been r e p o r t e d i n o t h e r l i n k e d noun p a i r l e a r n i n g s t u d i e s (e.g., Davidson, Schwenn, and Adams, 1970; L e v i n , 1970(a); and Y u i l l e and P r i t c h a r d , 1969) s h o u l d no sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t occur i n the c u r r e n t experiment, the i n c l u s i o n o f a group of Ss prompted t o image the two nouns s h o u l d i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d o f imagery c o d i n g and t h e r e f o r e ( a c c o r d i n g t o Y u i l l e , 1973, 1974) ensure a f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t o f i n t e r a c t i n g as opposed t o n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g c o n n e c t i v e s . T h i s i n c l u s i o n of an imagery prompting c o n d i t i o n designed t o i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d o f S_s g e n e r a t i n g images of t o - b e - l e a r n e d noun p a i r s might be l i k e n e d t o a simultaneous l i n k e d noun p a i r p l u s o b j e c t r e -f e r e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n which has been found t o g i v e a s t r o n g e r and more 2 2 c o n s i s t e n t s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t t h a n l i n k e d n o u n p a i r s a l o n e ( c f . J e n s e n a n d R o h w e r , 1963, 1965) • T h e r e f o r e i f , a s i s g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t e d ( e . g . R o h w e r , 1967; R o h w e r e t . a l . , 1967; a n d Y u i l l e , 1973) a s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t o c c u r s f o r t h e N o T r a i n i n g S s t h e n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s e a n d t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g S s s h o u l d b e r o u g h l y e q u a l . H o w e v e r , i f f o r s o m e r e a s o n S s i n t h e N o T r a i n i n g g r o u p d o n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y e m p l o y i m a g e r y c o d e s a n d t h e r e f o r e n o s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t s o c c u r , t h e n t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g S_s w i l l h o p e f u l l y e n s u r e s u c h a f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t a n d t h u s a l l o w c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h t h o s e S s g i v e n ( i n t e r a c t i v e ) I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g , . , F o r t h o s e S s g i v e n I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g e q u a l r e c a l l w a s e x p e c t e d f o r e v e r y t y p e o f c o n n e c t i v e b e c a u s e t h e s e S s w e r e t r a i n e d t o g e n e r a t e i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s o f e v e r y p a i r r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e c o n n e c t i v e . H o w -e v e r , f o r I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g a n d m o s t l i k e l y a l s o f o r N o T r a i n i n g , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e c a l l f a c i l i t a t i o n o f c o n n e c t i v e s w a s e x p e c t e d w i t h i n t e r a c t i n g c o n n e c t i v e s g i v i n g g r e a t e r r e c a l l t h a n n o n - i n t e r -a c t i n g c o n n e c t i v e s . O n e f u r t h e r v a r i a b l e t o b e m a n i p u l a t e d i n t h e p r o p o s e d r e s e a r c h w i l l b e t h e S_s" a g e . C a t c h p o l e a n d Y u i l l e (1974) f o u n d t h a t f o r y o u n g e r S s ( G r a d e 3), t r a i n i n g i n t h e u s e o f i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r o v e d t h e s e S_s r e c a l l o f o b j e c t p a i r s p r e s e n t e d i n a n a l r e a d y i n t e r a c t i n g f a s h i o n . F o r t h e s i x t h g r a d e S s , h o w e v e r , n o s u c h i m -p r o v e m e n t w a s o b t a i n e d . C a t c h p o l e a n d Y u i l l e ' s (1974) c o n c l u s i o n 23 r e g a r d i n g t h i s r e s u l t was t h a t a p p a r e n t l y f o r the younger _Ss, i n t e r -a c t i n g imagery t r a i n i n g encouraged the Ss t o focus g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n on the i n t e r a c t i o n i f the two it e m s , whereas the o l d e r _Ss were a l r e a d y r e c e i v i n g maximum b e n e f i t from the i n t e r a c t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n . Based on t h i s r e s u l t , the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d p o s s i b l e developmental changes i n c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o employ i n t e r a c t i v e imagery codes. Should l i n k e d noun p a i r r e c a l l performance show a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n t o noun p l u s i n t e r a c t i n g o b j e c t l e a r n i n g , i t may be the case t h a t f o r younger S_s i n t e r a c t i v e imagery t r a i n i n g w i l l i n c r e a s e the a l r e a d y f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t o f j o i n i n g p a i r s w i t h c o n n e c t i v e s t h a t suggest an i n t e r a c t i o n . That i s , by c a u s i n g _Ss t o fo c u s on the i n t e r a c t i o n i m p l i e d by c e r t a i n c o n n e c t i v e s , the younger S_s may s t o r e more f a c i l i t a t i v e i n t e r a c t i n g images of t o - b e - l e a r n e d nouns. I n a d d i t i o n t o second noun r e c a l l the proposed r e s e a r c h a l s o t e s t e d S_s' a b i l i t y t o c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l the c o n n e c t i v e employed t o l i n k each p a i r . Y u i l l e (1973) found t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o r e -c a l l the o r i g i n a l c o n n e c t i v e was i n no way r e l a t e d t o second noun r e c a l l . The c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h w i l l t e s t the g e n e r a l i t y of Y u i l l e ' s r e s u l t and w i l l a l s o determine i f any r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the r e c a l l o f c o n n e c t i v e s o t h e r than verbs and c o r r e c t second noun r e c a l l . 24 M E T H O D S u b j e c t s A t o t a l o f 72 S_s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T h i r t y - s i x o f t h e s e S_s w e r e i n G r a d e 2 a n d 36 w e r e i n G r a d e 6. S s w e r e d r a w n f r o m o n e l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s s c h o o l i n t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . T h e s t u d y i n v o l v e d b o t h m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s a n d t h e n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s o f e a c h s e x w e r e r o u g h l y e q u a t e d f o r e a c h c e l l o f t h e d e s i g n . D e s i g n A s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n i s p r o -v i d e d i n T a b l e 1. T h e e x p e r i m e n t e m p l o y e d a 2 x 3 x 4 x 4 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n w i t h o n e t w o - l e v e l n e s t e d f a c t o r . O n e v a r i a b l e ( t w o l e v e l s o f w h i c h c o n t a i n e d t h e n e s t e d f a c t o r ) w a s m a n i p u l a t e d w i t h i n S s , t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e w e r e b e t w e e n S s v a r i a b l e s . T h e f i r s t b e t w e e n S s v a r i a b l e w a s G r a d e . O n e - h a l f o f t h e S s w e r e G r a d e t w o s t u d e n t s a n d t h e o t h e r h a l f w e r e i n G r a d e s i x . T y p e o f I n s t r u c t i o n w a s t h e s e c o n d b e t w e e n S s v a r i a b l e . O n e - t h i r d o f t h e S s w i t h i n e a c h g r a d e w e r e g i v e n a b r i e f s e s s i o n o f i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y t r a i n i n g w i t h t h i r t e e n p r a c t i c e p a i r s . A s e c o n d t h i r d o f t h e S_s w i t h i n e a c h g r a d e w e r e g i v e n a n i m a g e r y p r o m p t i n g s e s s i o n w i t h t h e s a m e t h i r t e e n p a i r s . T h e r e m a i n i n g S s w i t h i n e a c h g r a d e a l s o v i e w e d t h e s e t h i r t e e n p r a c t i c e p a i r s , h o w e v e r , t h e y w e r e g i v e n n o s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n . L i s t w a s t h e t h i r d b e t w e e n S s v a r i a b l e . O n e - f o u r t h o f t h e S s i n e a c h o f t h e s i x General Experimental Design T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e Verb p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n Verb Co n j u n c t i o n P r e p o s i t i o n Non- Non-I n t e r - I n t e r - I n t e r - I n t e r -a c t i n g a c t i n g a c t i n g a c t i n g L i s t 1 Imagery L i s t 2 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 u R L i s t 4 A L i s t 1 D Imagery L i s t 2 E Prompting L i s t 3 L i s t 4 2 L i s t 1 No L i s t 2 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 L i s t 4 L i s t 1 -Imagery L i s t 2 n T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 \i R L i s t 4 A L i s t 1 D Imagery L i s t 2 E Prompting L i s t 3 L i s t 4 6 L i s t 1 No L i s t 2 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 L i s t 4 26 Grade x Type of I n s t r u c t i o n c e l l s s t u d i e d L i s t 1, one-quarter s t u d i e d L i s t 2, one-quarter s t u d i e d L i s t 3, and the r e m a i n i n g S_s s t u d i e d L i s t 4- The w i t h i n Ss v a r i a b l e was Type of C o n n e c t i v e . Pour o f the s i x t e e n t o - b e - l e a r n e d p a i r s were l i n k e d by a p r e p o s i t i o n , f o u r p a i r s were l i n k e d by a c o n j u n c t i o n , f o u r o f the p a i r s were l i n k e d by a v e r b , and f o u r o f the o r i g i n a l s i x t e e n p a i r s were l i n k e d by a verb p l u s a p r e p o s i t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n a f i f t h v a r i a b l e was n e s t e d w i t h i n the p r e p o s i t i o n and the p r e p o s i t i o n p l u s verb c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s v a r -i a b l e was Nature of I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n . Two of the f o u r p r e p o s i t i o n s i n each l i s t suggested a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f the two items and two d i d n o t . S i m i l a r l y , i n the verb p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n , two of the f o u r p r e p o s i t i o n s i m p l i e d an i n t e r a c t i o n and two i m p l i e d no p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Two measures o f l e a r n i n g were employed i n the experiment: second noun r e c a l l and c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l . F o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the s i x t e e n t o - b e - l e a r n e d p a i r s , Ss were p r e s e n t e d w i t h the f i r s t noun of each p a i r one at a time and then attempted t o w r i t e down the c o r r e c t second noun. Next, Ss were prese n t e d w i t h the o r i g i n a l p a i r s minus the c o n n e c t i v e . S s 1 t a s k was then t o attempt t o f i l l i n the o r i g i n a l c o n n e c t i v e . R e s u l t s from these two dependent measures were ana l y z e d by means of two separate 2 x 3 x 4 x 4 a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e . I n a d d i t i o n the nested f a c t o r was a n a l y z e d by f i r s t e l i m i n a t i n g the verb and c o n j u n c t i o n c o n d i t i o n s and then a n a l y z i n g r e m a i n i n g 2 x 3 x 4 x 2 x 2 d e s i g n . Thus the a n a l y s i s o f the ne s t e d f a c t o r i n v o l v e d 27 t h r e e b e t w e e n S s v a r i a b l e s : G r a d e (2 a n d 6), T y p e o f I n s t r u c t i o n ( i m a g e r y T r a i n i n g , I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g , a n d H o T r a i n i n g ) , a n d L i s t ( l , 2, 3, a n d 4), a n d t w o w i t h i n S_s v a r i a b l e s : T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e ( p r e p o s i t i o n s a n d v e r b s p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n s ) a n d N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n ( i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s a n d n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i -t i o n s ) . M a t e r i a l s T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s c o n s i s t e d o f t h e n a m e s o f 94 o b j e c t s o r a n i m a l s f a m i l i a r t o c h i l d r e n . P o u r o f t h e s e i t e m s w e r e s e l e c t e d t o f o r m t w o p r a c t i c e p a i r s w h i c h w e r e e m p l o y e d d u r i n g t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e p r o c e d u r e , t e n o f t h e i t e m s f o r m e d t h e f i v e p r a c t i c e p a i r s e m p l o y e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n ( i . e . I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g , I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g o r N o T r a i n i n g ) , a n d s i x t e e n i t e m s w e r e s e l e c t e d t o f o r m e i g h t p a i r s w h i c h w e r e u s e d i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e m a t e r i a l s e m p l o y e d f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x ( T a b l e l ) . S i n c e t h e a c t u a l t o - b e - l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l s w e r e l i n k e d b y o n e o f f o u r t y p e s o f c o n n e c -t i v e s ( i . e . v e r b , p r e p o s i t i o n , c o n j u n c t i o n , o r v e r b p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n ) , t h e e i g h t i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a i r s w e r e a l s o l i n k e d b y t h e s e f o u r c o n n e c t i v e t y p e s i n o r d e r t o f a m i l i a r i z e S s w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f t h e l e a r n i n g s e t i t e m s . T h e r e f o r e , o f t h e e i g h t i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a i r s , t w o w e r e l i n k e d b y v e r b s , t w o w e r e l i n k e d w i t h p r e p o s i t i o n s , t w o w i t h t h e c o n j u n c t i o n " a n d " , a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g t w o p a i r s w e r e l i n k e d b y a v e r b 28 p l u s a p r e p o s i t i o n . T h e o r d e r o f t h e s e c o n n e c t i v e s w a s r a n d o m i z e d a m o n g t h e e i g h t i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a i r s , w i t h t w o r e s t r i c t i o n s : ( a ) o n e t y p e o f c o n n e c t i v e d i d n o t a p p e a r t w i c e i n a r o w a n d ; ( h ) c o n n e c t i v e s w e r e f i t t e d w i t h p a i r s o n l y i f t h e r e s u l t a n t p h r a s e w a s n o t s e m a n t i -c a l l y a n a m o l o u s . A l s o t h e a r t i c l e " t h e " w a s i n s e r t e d i n f r o n t o f e a c h o f t h e t w o n o u n s i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e e a s e o f r e a d i n g o f e a c h p h r a s e . T h e p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g s e t i t e m s w a s t h e s a m e a s t h a t u s e d t o g e n e r a t e t h e e i g h t l i n k e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a i r s , e x c e p t t h a t i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l f o r p o s s i b l e l i s t s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s f o u r l i s t s w e r e f o r m e d ( A p p e n d i x , T a b l e s 2 - 5)« T h e s e f o u r l i s t s w e r e g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g 64 n o u n s p l u s e i g h t w o r d s f r o m e a c h o f t h e f o u r c o n n e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s ( i . e . e i g h t v e r b s , e i g h t p r e p o -s i t i o n s , a n d e i g h t c o n j u n c t i o n s ) . E a c h o f t h e e i g h t m e m b e r s f r o m o n e c o n n e c t i v e c a t e g o r y w a s u n i q u e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c o n j u n c -t i o n l i n k s w h e r e , i n e v e r y c a s e , t h e c o n j u n c t i o n " a n d " w a s e m p l o y e d . I n a d d i t i o n , d u e t o t h e l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f f a m i l i a r p r e p o s i t i o n s , p r e p o s i t i o n s u s e d b y t h e m s e l v e s i n o n e l i s t w e r e u s e d a s p r e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e v e r b p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n i n a n o t h e r l i s t a n d v i c e v e r s a . T h u s , i n f a c t , t h e l e a r n i n g s e t c o n n e c t i v e s c o n s i s t e d o f o n e c o n j u n c -t i o n , e i g h t p r e p o s i t i o n s , a n d s i x t e e n v e r b s s o a r r a n g e d a s t o n o t o v e r l a p w i t h i n o n e l i s t a n d f o r m i n g t w o i n d e p e n d e n t s e t s o f s i x t e e n c o n n e c t i v e s ( f o u r o f e a c h t y p e ) . I n a d d i t i o n , i n t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a n d v e r b p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , w i t h i n e a c h l i s t t w o o f t h e s e 29 p r e p o s i t i o n s i m p l i e d a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n ( e . g . , " o n " , " i n " , a n d " a r o u n d " ) a n d t w o i m p l i e d a d i s t a n c e d s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ( e . g . , " a b o v e , " b e l o w " a n d " u n d e r " ) . L i s t s 1 a n d 3 w e r e c r e a t e d b y r a n d o m l y p a i r i n g 32 o f t h e r e m a i n i n g 64 n o u n s . T h e s a m e p a i r s w e r e u s e d i n t h e s e t w o l i s t s t h o u g h t h e s e p a i r s w e r e i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r i n e a c h l i s t . S i m i l a r l y L i s t s 2 a n d 4 w e r e c r e a t e d f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g 32 n o u n s a n d a l s o c o n t a i n e d i n d e n t i c a l p a i r s . I n a d d i t i o n , t o f u r t h e r c o n t r o l f o r p o s s i b l e l i s t s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s , L i s t s 1 a n d 4 e m p l o y e d t h e s a m e s i x -t e e n c o n n e c t i v e s . L i s t s 2 a n d 3 a l s o e m p l o y e d s i x t e e n c o n n e c t i v e s n o n e o f w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n L i s t s 1 a n d 4« A l l p a i r s e m p l o y e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t s w e r e c r e a t e d r a n d o m l y w i t h t h e r e s t r i c t i o n t h a t o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d i t e m s ( e . g . , p e n c i l - e r a s e r ) w e r e e x c l u d e d . M a t e r i a l s f o r t h e s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l c o n s i s t e d o f t h e f i r s t n o u n o f e a c h p a i r p l u s a b l a n k s p a c e f o r t h e S _ s ' r e s p o n s e . R e c a l l o r d e r w a s r a n d o m i z e d r e l a t i v e t o p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r . C o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l w a s t e s t e d a f t e r s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l a n d i n v o l v e d p r e s e n t i n g S s w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g s e t p a i r s ( r a n d o m l y ) o n e a t a t i m e a n d a s k i n g . t h e m t o f i l l i n t h e m i s s i n g c o n n e c t i v e i n a p r o v i d e d s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o n o u n s . A l l l e a r n i n g , i n s t r u c t i o n a l , a n d r e c a l l m a t e r i a l s w e r e t y p e d o n 4 i n . x 5 i n . s h e e t s o f p a p e r a n d f o r m e d i n t o b o o k l e t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x , T a b l e 6 f o r t h e f o r m a t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l b o o k l e t s ) . E a c h S_s s t u d i e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f b o o k l e t s . B o o k l e t o n e c o n t a i n e d t h e t w o d e m o n s t r a t i o n p a i r s , t w o d e m o n s t r a t i o n r e c a l l p a g e s , f i v e 30 u n l i n k e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a i r s , a n d e i g h t l i n k e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a i r s . B o o k l e t t w o c o n t a i n e d t h e s i x t e e n l i n k e d l e a r n i n g s e t p a i r s f o l l o w e d h y t h e f i r s t n o u n o f e a c h p a i r a n d a b l a n k s p a c e . B o o k l e t t h r e e c o n -t a i n e d t h e s i x t e e n o r i g i n a l p a i r s m i n u s t h e o r i g i n a l c o n n e c t i v e . N o u n p a i r s w e r e t y p e d i n c a p i t a l s , a l l o t h e r w o r d s w e r e t y p e d i n l o w e r c a s e l e t t e r s . P r o c e d u r e I n o r d e r t o m a x i m i z e E 1 s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t i n g s e s s i o n , S s w e r e t e s t e d i n g r o u p s o f f o u r i n a s e p a r a t e r o o m d u r i n g r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m p e r i o d s . T h e s e f o u r S s r e p r e s e n t e d o n e - t h i r d o f t h e n u m b e r o f S s t e s t e d i n e a c h o f t h e s i x o r i g i n a l G r a d e x T y p e o f I n s t r u c t i o n c e l l s . W i t h i n e a c h g r a d e , o n e - t h i r d o f t h e S_s i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e T y p e o f I n s t r u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n s w a s t e s t e d b e f o r e a s e c o n d o r t h i r d g r o u p o f f o u r S s w a s t e s t e d . T h u s a t o t a l o f 72 S s p a r t i c i -p a t e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a n d t h e s e S s w e r e t e s t e d i n e i g h t e e n g r o u p s o f f o u r S_s e a c h . E a c h o f t h e f o u r S s i n a p a r t i c u l a r t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s t u d i e d o n e o f t h e f o u r l i s t s . T h u s i n e a c h o f t h e s i x b e t w e e n S s c e l l s o f t h e d e s i g n t h e r e w e r e t w e l v e S s , t h r e e o f w h i c h s t u d i e d L i s t 1, t h r e e L i s t 2, t h r e e L i s t 3, a n d t h r e e s t u d i e d L i s t A . S i n c e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f 36 S s p e r g r a d e i n v o l v e d d r a w i n g S_s f r o m t w o c l a s s e s a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l , a t e s t i n g g r o u p c o n t a i n e d o n e m a l e a n d o n e f e m a l e f r o m e a c h o f t w o c l a s s e s . A s s i g n m e n t o f l i s t s t o e a c h o f t h e f o u r S s i n a t e s t i n g g r o u p w a s l a t i n i z e d s u c h t h a t , f o r . e x a m p l e , g i r l s f r o m C l a s s A d i d n o t a l w a y s s t u d y L i s t 1. T h a t i s , a s s i g n m e n t o f l i s t s t o S s w a s l a t i n i z e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o S _ s ' s e x a n d h o m e r o o m c l a s s . S_s w e r e c a l l e d t o t h e t e s t i n g r o o m a l p h a b e t i c a l l y w i t h t h e r e s t r i c t i o n t h a t a t e s t i n g g r o u p c o n t a i n e d o n e m a l e a n d o n e f e m a l e f r o m e a c h c l a s s . I n t h e t e s t i n g r o o m S_s w e r e s e a t e d b e s i d e o n e a n o t h e r a t a l o n g t a b l e f a c i n g E . E s a t a b o u t f o u r f e e t i n f r o n t o f a n d f a c i n g t h e S_s b e h i n d a n o t h e r t a b l e . F o l l o w i n g E ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f h i m s e l f , S_s w e r e t o l d t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a " - g a m e " t o s e e h o w m u c h t h e y c a n r e m e m b e r ( f o r t h e 6th G r a d e S_s t h e w o r d " e x p e r i m e n t " w a s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e w o r d " g a m e " ) . S_s w e r e a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e b o r e n o r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r r e p o r t c a r d m a r k s ( S e e A p p e n d i x , T a b l e 7 f o r t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n a n d G e n e r a l P a i r e d - A s s o c i a t e I n s t r u c -t i o n s ) . T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e c o n s i s t e d o f s i x p a r t s . P a r t 1. i n v o l v e d a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e t a s k . I n o r d e r t o f a m i l i a r i z e S_s w i t h t h e p r o c e d u r e t h e y w e r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h t w o p r a c -t i c e p a i r s f o r f i f t e e n s e c o n d s e a c h . N e x t t h e y v i e w e d t h e f i r s t n o u n o f e a c h o f t h e s e p a i r s a n d a t t e m p t e d t o w r i t e d o w n t h e c o r r e c t s e c o n d n o u n . P a r t 2 b e g a n w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e t y p e o f l e a r n i n g p r o c e d u r e t o b e e m p l o y e d b y S s i n a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p . O n e - t h i r d o f t h e S s w e r e g i v e n a b r i e f t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n i n t h e u s e o f i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y m n e m o n i c s ( S e e A p p e n d i x , T a b l e 8 ) . S_s i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n w e r e a s k e d t o i m a g i n e t h e t w o m e m b e r s o f e a c h p a i r a s " p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r " . F i v e s e c o n d s a f t e r S s r e a d e a c h p a i r E s u g g e s t e d a 32 p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n f o r the two i t e m s . O n e - t h i r d of the Ss w i t h i n each grade r e c e i v e d imagery prompting i n s t r u c t i o n s (See Appendix, Table 9 ) . These _Ss were asked t o t h i n k o f p i c t u r e s o f the two nouns on each page. The r e m a i n i n g Ss r e c e i v e d no s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g (See Appendix, Table 1 0 ) . They were merely t o l d t h a t the P a r t 2 p a i r s were examples of the type of p a i r s t o f o l l o w . P a r t 3 of the exper-i m e n t a l procedure served two purposes: (a) i t f a m i l i a r i z e d Ss w i t h the exact nature of the l e a r n i n g set items and (b) i t ensured t h a t S_s were f a m i l i a r w i t h the l e a r n i n g procedure t h e y were t o attempt t o employ. T h e r e f o r e , Imagery T r a i n e d Ss were asked to p i c t u r e the two nouns of each sentence and i n t e r a c t these images. Imagery Prompted Ss were asked t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f the two nouns i n the sentence, and Ss i n the Ho T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n were merely asked t o read the sentence. F o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the t h i r t e e n p r a c t i c e items Ss were reminded of the l e a r n i n g procedure they were t o attempt t o employ and then were p r e s e n t e d w i t h the a c t u a l t o - b e - l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l s ( P a r t 4 ) . Due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y between the grade two and s i x s t u d e n t s the grade two's s t u d i e d each o f the s i x t e e n l i n k e d p a i r s f o r twenty seconds w h i l e the grade s i x Ss were g i v e n o n l y f i f t e e n seconds f o r each page. E paced the Ss by a s k i n g them t o " t u r n the page" at a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r v a l s . P a r t 5 of the e x p e r i m e n t a l procedure f o l l o w e d the second noun r e c a l l s e s s i o n and r e q u i r e d Ss t o read the f i r s t noun of each p a i r 33 one at a time and then t o attempt t o w r i t e down the c o r r e c t second noun. S i x t h grade S_s were g i v e n f i f t e e n seconds per page w h i l e grade two S_s proceeded t o subsequent pages every twenty seconds. Complete second noun r e c a l l i n s t r u c t i o n s are p r o v i d e d i n the Appendix (Table 11). A f t e r second noun r e c a l l was t e s t e d the Ss were g i v e n a t h i r d b o o k l e t c o n t a i n i n g the o r i g i n a l p a i r s minus the o r i g i n a l c o n n e c t i v e ( s ) ( P a r t 6). They were then i n s t r u c t e d t o t r y t o w r i t e down the word or words which t h e y r e c a l l went between the two nouns on each page (see Appendix, Table 12). Once a g a i n grade two S_s were g i v e n twenty seconds per page and grade s i x ' s were g i v e n f i f t e e n seconds per page. D u r i n g both second noun and c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l t e s t i n g S_s were encour-aged t o guess. Some examples of the types o f p r a c t i c e , l e a r n i n g , and r e c a l l m a t e r i a l s employed i n the experiment are p r o v i d e d i n Table 2 . F o l l o w i n g the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n S_s were g i v e n a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n of the purposes o f the experiment and then r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r c l a s s -rooms . 34 T A B L E 2 E x a m p l e s o f " t h e T y p e o f P r a c t i c e , L e a r n i n g , a n d R e c a l l M a t e r i a l s E m p l o y e d i n t h e E x p e r i m e n t I . E x a m p l e o f P a i r e d A s s o c i a t e D e m o n s t r a t i o n P a i r s P r e s e n t a t i o n AIRPLANE T H I M B L E R e c a l l A I R P L A N E I I . E x a m p l e o f P h r a s e I T r a i n i n g , P r o m p t i n g , o r P r a c t i c e P a i r s P r e s e n t a t i o n R U L E R S T R I N G I I I . E x a m p l e s o f E a c h o f t h e F o u r T y p e s o f L i n k e d T r a i n i n g , P r o m p -t i n g o r P r a c t i c e P a i r s P r e s e n t a t i o n : P r e p o s i t i o n 1. T h e F L Y a b o v e t h e A S H T R A Y C o n j u n c t i o n 2. T h e P L A T E a n d t h e C O M B V e r b 3- T h e A L L I G A T O R s p l a s h e s t h e F L O W E R V e r b p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n 4. T h e H A I R C L I P r u s t s w i t h i n t h e .JUG I V . E x a m p l e s o f t h e F o u r T y p e s o f t o - b e - L e a r n e d P a i r s P r e s e n t a t i o n : P r e p o s i t i o n 1. T h e E L A S T I C a r o u n d t h e B O O K C o n j u n c t i o n 2. T h e B R A C E L E T a n d t h e C A R V e r b 3- T h e B I R D s m a s h e s t h e W H I S T L E V e r b p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n 4« T h e B U L L r u n s u n d e r t h e F L A G R e c a l l : 1. B I R D 2. E L A S T I C 3. A L L I G A T O R 4. H A I R C L I P V . E x a m p l e o f P r e s e n t a t i o n f o r C o n n e c t i v e R e c a l l T h e B I R D t h e W H I S T L E 35 R E S U L T S T h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e : G r a d e (2 v s 6), T y p e o f T r a i n i n g ( i m a g e r y T r a i n i n g v s I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g v s U o T r a i n i n g ) , L i s t ( l v s 2 v s 3 v s 4), a n d T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e ( P r e p o s i t i o n s v s C o n j u n c t i o n s v s V e r b s v s V e r b s p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s ) w i t h a f i f t h v a r i -a b l e ( N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n - I n t e r a c t i n g v e r s u s N o n - I n t e r -a c t i n g ) n e s t e d w i t h i n t h e P r e p o s i t i o n a n d V e r b p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i -t i o n s . T h e T r a i n i n g , L i s t , a n d G r a d e v a r i a b l e s w e r e a n a l y z e d b e t w e e n S s a n d t h e C o n n e c t i v e a n d N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s w e r e a n a l y z e d w i t h i n S _ s . T w o d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e e m p l o y e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t : s e c o n d , n o u n r e c a l l a n d c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l . F o r e a c h d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e t w o s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e w e r e p e r f o r m e d . T h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d c o l l a p s i n g o v e r t h e N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n w h i l e t h e s e c o n d i n c l u d e d t h i s v a r i a b l e b u t d r o p p e d t h e V e r b a n d C o n j u n c t i o n c o n n e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f o r m e r t w o a n a l y s e s ( i . e . , o n e f o r s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l a n d o n e f o r c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l ) a r e p r e s e n t e d u n d e r D e s i g n 1 a n d t h e l a t t e r p a i r o f a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n D e s i g n 2. P r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e f o u r a n a l y s e s o c c a s i o n a l l y i n c l u d e s t h e r e p o r t i n g 6f F r a t i o s w i t h .05< p < .075 r a t h e r t h a n t h e u s u a l p < . 0 5 « T h e r e a s o n f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s u n u s u a l l y h i g h a l p h a l e v e l w a s b e c a u s e t w o v i t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s e m e r g e d w i t h p < ' . 0 7 5 » 36 D u e t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e p r e d i c t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , a d e c i s i o n w a s m a d e t o s u b j e c t a l l P r a t i o s w i t h p < .075 " t o s u b s e q u e n t p o s t h o c a n a l y s i s . I n f a c t , a s f o l l o w s i n t h e r e s u l t s s e c t i o n , m o s t o f t h e p r e d i c t e d p a i r w i s e c o m -p a r i s o n s w e r e f o u n d w i t h i n t h e s e t w o m a r g i n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s a n d m a n y o f t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s m a l l p r o -b a b i l i t i e s , e . g . , p < .01. A . S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l S s r e s p o n s e s i n t h e t e s t o f s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l w e r e s c o r e d b y a l o o s e c r i t e r i o n m e t h o d s u c h t h a t s y n o n y m s o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e s a n d m i s s p e l l e d w o r d s w e r e c o u n t e d a s c o r r e c t . 1. D e s i g n 1 - G r a d e x T y p e o f T r a i n i n g x L i s t x T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e T h e m e a n n u m b e r o f s e c o n d n o u n s c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d i n e a c h c e l l o f t h e D e s i g n 1 a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3- F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , s c o r e s i n t h e P a n d V + P c o n d i t i o n s w e r e c o l l a p s e d o v e r t h e t w o l e v e l s o f t h e N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e . T h u s , s i n c e e a c h S_ s t u d i e d s i x t e e n p a i r s o f n o u n s , a m a x i m u m s c o r e o f f o u r w a s p o s s i b l e f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r t y p e s o f c o n n e c t i v e s . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p e r f o r m e d u p o n t h e s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l s c o r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x ( T a b l e 13). G r a d e e m e r g e d a s a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e o f v a r i a t i o n , F ( l , 48) = 4.O9, p < .05. G r a d e 6 S_s c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e o f t h e s e c o n d n o u n s t h a n d i d t h e G r a d e 2 S s . T h e G r a d e v a r i a b l e w a s 37 T A B L E 3 M e a n N u m b e r o f S e c o n d N o u n s C o r r e c t l y R e c a l l e d i n E a c h C e l l o f D e s i g n 1 - 2 x 3 x 4 x 4 V e r b s p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s C o n j u n c t i o n s V e r b s P r e p o s i t i o n s L i s t 1 O.67 0.33 1.33 1.33 I m a g e r y L i s t 2 0.67 0.67 1.00 2.00 p T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.67 1.00 1.00 0.33 u R L i s t 4 1.33 0.67 0.67 1.00 A L i s t 1 0.33 0.33 0.33 1.00 D I m a g e r y L i s t 2 2.00 1.00 1.00 2.33 E P r o m p t i n g L i s t 3 1.33 1.00 1.00 1.33 L i s t 4 1.33 0.33 1.33 1.33 2 L i s t 1 0.67 0.33 0.67 0.33 N o L i s t 2 0.33 0.67 1.00 O.67 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.00 L i s t 4 1.00 0.00 0.67 0.33 L i s t 1 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.00 I m a g e r y L i s t 2 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 a T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 2.00 1.33 1.33 1.67 Ur R L i s t 4 0.67 0.67 1.33 1.00 A L i s t 1 2.67 1.00 1.67 1.33 D I m a g e r y L i s t 2 0.67 0.67 1.33 3-33 E P r o m p t i n g L i s t 3 0.67 0.33 0.33 1.67 L i s t 4 2.33 1.33 2.67 2.67 6 L i s t 1 1.67 O.67 0.67 0.67 N o L i s t 2 0.33 0.33 0.67 1.33 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.33 1.67 1.00 0.67 L i s t 4 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.33 38 not i n v o l v e d i n any s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n of both age groups possessed the r e q u i r e d s k i l l s t o l e a r n noun p a i r s under the v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . That i s , a l t h o u g h grade 2 Ss performed at a lower l e v e l than grade 6 Ss, the f a c t t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e d i d not i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s suggests t h a t the younger _Ss were merely l e s s e f f i c i e n t i n u t i l i z i n g the same l e a r n i n g s k i l l s possessed by the s i x t h grade Ss. P o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the o v e r a l l s u p e r i o r performance of the o l d e r S_s might be improved r e a d i n g s k i l l s o r an i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o a t t e n d t o the t a s k . S i n c e the purpose f o r the i n c l u s i o n of the age m a n i p u l a t i o n i n the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h was t o t e s t f o r developmental changes i n l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and s i n c e no such d i f f e r e n c e s emerged no f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the main e f f e c t of Grade w i l l be undertaken. Type of Connective a l s o emerged as a s i g n i f i c a n t source of v a r i a t i o n , F(3, 144) = 5«10> p<.01. Subsequent a n a l y s i s of t h i s main e f f e c t by the Newman-Keuls procedure (Appendix, Table 14) r e -v e a l e d t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t p a i r w i s e comparisons. F i r s t , i n agreement w i t h p r e v i o u s work, noun p a i r s l i n k e d by Verbs were s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r r e c a l l e d than were C o n j u n c t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s (p< .055)' Secondly a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h past r e s e a r c h , P r e p o s i t i o n s gave h i g h e r r e c a l l s c o r e s t han C o n j u n c t i o n s (p< .055)• T h i r d l y , the combination of Verbs p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s a l s o gave s u p e r i o r second noun r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o C o n j u n c t i o n s (p< . O l ) . Thus the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of r e c a l l f a c i l i -t a t i o n o b t a i n e d w i t h each of the f o u r types of c o n n e c t i v e s was 39 C < P = V = V + P . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e x c e p t t h a t u n l i k e R e h w e r e t . a l . (1967) n o V e r b o v e r P r e p o s i t i o n s u p e r i o r i t y w a s f o u n d i n t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . S i n c e t h e m a i n e f f e c t o f C o n n e c t i v e i n t e r a c t e d w i t h T y p e o f T r a i n i n g f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e C o n n e c t i v e e f f e c t m u s t a w a i t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e m a i n e f f e c t o f C o n n e c t i v e w a s s o m e w h a t q u a l i f i e d b y a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h L i s t , P(9, 144) = 2.10, p < .05. S u b s e -q u e n t a n a l y s i s o f s i m p l e m a i n e f f e c t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x , T a b l e 15) r e -v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a m o n g t h e f o u r t y p e s o f c o n n e c t i v e s f o r L i s t s 2 a n d 4 o n l y . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s b y t h e N e w m a n - K e u l s p r o -c e d u r e s h o w e d t h a t f o r L i s t 2 t h e c o n n e c t i v e p a t t e r n w a s V + P > V = P = C , w h e r e a s f o r L i s t 4 t h e p a t t e r n w a s V + P = V = P > C . D e s p i t e t h e f a i l u r e t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s t h e t r e n d o f t h e c o n n e c t i v e p a t t e r n f o r L i s t s 1 a n d 3 w a s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t f o u n d i n L i s t 4 ( s e e L i s t x C o n -n e c t i v e s u m m a r y t a b l e i n t h e A p p e n d i x , T a b l e 15)» T y p e o f T r a i n i n g a l s o e m e r g e d a s a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e o f v a r i -a n c e , F ( 2 , 48) = 6.79, P< «01. S u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s b y t h e N e w m a n -K e u l s p r o c e d u r e ( A p p e n d i x , T a b l e 1 6 ) r e v e a l e d t h a t S s i n t h e N o T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o o r e r t h a n e i t h e r t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g ( N T < I T , p <'.05) o r I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g ( N T < I P , p < . O l ) S _ s . N o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f S s g i v e n t h e s e l a t t e r t w o t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g . P r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f D e s i g n 1 n o w t u r n s t o a m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n , i n v o l v i n g C o n n e c t i v e a n d 40 T r a i n i n g , F ( 6 , 144) = 1-92, p< .075• The mean number of second nouns c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d i n each o f the twelve T r a i n i n g x Connective c e l l s are p r e s e n t e d i n Table A. I n a d d i t i o n a g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n F i g u r e 1. Two approaches t o a s t a -t i s t i c a l s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f the T r a i n i n g x Connective i n t e r a c t i o n were undertaken. F i r s t , from the p o i n t o f view o f a comparison among c o n n e c t i v e s f o r each type o f t r a i n i n g , a n a l y s i s o f simple main e f f e c t s (Appendix, Table 17) r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the c o n n e c t i v e s f o r e i t h e r the Imagery T r a i n i n g ( F ( 3 , 144) = 1.07 ) or: No T r a i n i n g ( F ( 3 , 144) = 0 . 3 7 ) S_s. However f o r the Imagery Prompting Ss a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Type of Connective was o b t a i n e d , F ( 3 , 144) = 7 . 4 9 , p < . 0 1 . Subsequent p a i r w i s e comparisons by the Newman - K e u l s procedure showed t h a t f o r Ss t r a i n e d i n Imagery Prompting, C o n j u n c t i o n c o n n e c t i v e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s f a c i l i t a t i v e than those of any ot h e r c a t e g o r y ( i . e . C<P, p < . 0 5 5 ; C< V, p < . 0 5 5 ; and C<V+P, p < T . 0 l ) . Furthermore the f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t of Verb p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n connec-t i v e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than any o t h e r type o f c o n n e c t i v e ( i . e . V+P>C, p < . 0 1 ; V+P>P, p < - 0 5 ; and V+P>V, p < . 0 5 5 ) . P r i o r t o r e l a t i n g these r e s u l t s t o the e x p e r i m e n t a l p r e d i c t i o n s the r e s u l t s of the same T r a i n i n g x Connective i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l now be pr e s e n t e d from the p o i n t o f view of a comparison among t r a i n i n g procedures f o r each of the f o u r types of c o n n e c t i v e s (Appendix, Table 1 8 ) . F o r noun p a i r s l i n k e d by C o n j u n c t i o n s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the t h r e e types o f t r a i n i n g , F ( 2 , 144) = 0 . 9 2 . S i m i l a r l y 41 TABLE 4 Mean Number of Second Nouns C o r r e c t l y R e c a l l e d i n Each C e l l o f the Design 1 T r a i n i n g x Connective I n t e r a c t i o n Verbs p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s C o n j u n c t i o n s Verb P r e p o s i t i o n s Imagery T r a i n i n g Imagery Prompting No T r a i n i n g O.96 0.92 1.17 1.29 1.88 1.42 0.75 1.21 0.63 0.54 0.79 O.67 42 2 . 0 0 1.75 a LU _ i 1 .50 _ i < o H i CC z o z a z o o U J w LL o CC LU m Z Z < LU 1.25 1.00 .75 . 5 0 . 2 5 h - • IMAGERY PROMPTING -9 IMAGERY TRAINING • 9 NO TRAINING - 0 J _ CONJUNCTIONS PREPOSITIONS VERBS VERBS PLUS PREPOSITIONS TYPE OF CONNECTIVE F I G . 1. G r a p h i c a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e T y p e o f T r a i n i n g x T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e I n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e D e s i g n 1 A n a l y s i s o f S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l 43 f o r Verb l i n k e d p a i r s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t r a i n i n g p r o -cedures were o b t a i n e d , F(2, 144)= 1.33. However f o r noun p a i r s l i n k e d by P r e p o s i t i o n s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g was o b t a i n e d , F(2, 144) = 4-14, p<«05. Subsequent Newman-Keuls a n a l y s i s determined t h a t f o r P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d noun p a i r s Imagery Prompting was s i g n i f i c n a t l y more f a c i l i t a t i v e than No T r a i n i n g w i t h the performance of Imagery T r a i n i n g Ss f a l l i n g r o u g h l y i n the middle of the o t h e r two t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s . A s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g was a l s o found f o r those p a i r s l i n k e d by Verb p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n c o n n e c t i v e s , F(2, 144) = 9«56, p <'.01. Subsequent Newman-Keuls a n a l y s i s of t h i s simple main e f f e c t r e v e a l e d Imagery Prompting t o give maximum performance ( i . e . , I P > I T , p < .05; and IP>NT, p< . O l ) , Imagery T r a i n i n g t o g i v e i n t e r m e d i a t e r e c a l l (IT > NT, p < .05), and No T r a i n i n g t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o o r e r than the o t h e r two t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s . To summarize, the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of the T r a i n i n g x Connective i n t e r a c t i o n r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found a c r o s s c o n n e c t i v e s f o r e i t h e r the Imagery T r a i n i n g or No T r a i n i n g S_s. However, f o r the Imagery Prompting Ss, a d i f f e r e n t i a l p a t t e r n of c o n n e c t i v e s was o b t a i n e d such t h a t Conjunc-t i o n s gave the poorest second noun r e c a l l , Verbs and P r e p o s i t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n i n t e r m e d i a t e performance, and the combination of Verbs p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o the o t h e r t h r e e types of c o n n e c t i v e s . A comparison among t r a i n i n g p r o -cedures f o r each of the f o u r types of c o n n e c t i v e s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f -44 i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among types of t r a i n i n g f o r e i t h e r the C o n j u n c t i o n or Verb l i n k e d noun p a i r s . However, f o r noun p a i r s l i n k e d by P r e -p o s i t i o n s , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t r a i n i n g procedures were o b t a i n e d such t h a t S_s i n the No T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n performed s i g n i f -i c a n t l y p oorer than Imagery Prompting Ss. Performance o f the Imagery T r a i n i n g S_s i n combination w i t h P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k s f e l l between t h a t of the o t h e r two t r a i n i n g p rocedures. A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of t r a i n i n g was o b t a i n e d f o r noun p a i r s l i n k e d by Verbs p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s . Imagery Prompting was most e f f e c t i v e w i t h V+P l i n k s , Imagery T r a i n i n g gave i n t e r m e d i a t e r e c a l l , and the No T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o orer than e i t h e r o f the o t h e r two types of t r a i n i n g . Due t o the c o m p l e x i t y o f these f i n d i n g s and the importance of the r e s u l t s from the Design 2 a n a l y s i s ( e s p e c i a l l y the e f f e c t s of the Nature o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e ) , no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the T r a i n i n g x Connective e f f e c t w i l l be undertaken u n t i l the e n t i r e second noun r e c a l l r e s u l t s have been p r e s e n t e d . 2. Design 2 - Grade x Type o f T r a i n i n g x L i s t x Type of Connective x Nature of I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n The mean number of second nouns c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d i n each c e l l of Design 2 are presen t e d i n Table 5. R e s u l t s from the 2 x 3 x 4 x 2 x 2 a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e performed upon these d a t a are present e d i n the Appendix (Table 1 9 ) . Sin c e the Design 2 a n a l y s i s merely i n v o l v e d d r o p p i n g the Verb and C o n j u n c t i o n c o n n e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s and p a r t i t i o n i n g the P r e p o s i t i o n and Verb p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n s 45 T A B L E 5 M e a n N u m b e r o f S e c o n d N o u n s C o r r e c t l y R e c a l l e d i n E a c h C e l l o f D e s i g n 2 P r e p o s i t i o n s V e r b s p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s N o n - N o n -I n t e r a c t i n g I n t e r a c t i n g I n t e r a c t i n g I n t e r a c t i n g L i s t 1 0.33 0.33 1.00 0.33 I m a g e r y . L i s t 2 0.00 0.67 1.00 1.00 n T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.00 \j R L i s t 4 0.33 1.00 0.33 0.67 A L i s t 1 0.33 0.00 0.67 0.33 D I m a g e r y L i s t 2 1.33 0.67 1.33 1.00 E P r o m p t i n g L i s t 3 1.00 0.33 0.33 1.00 L i s t 4 0.67 0.67 0.33 1.00 2 L i s t 1 0.33 0.33 0.00 0.33 N o L i s t 2 0.33 0.00 0.33 0.33 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.67 0.00 0.33 0.67 L i s t 4 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.00 L i s t 1 0.33 0.33 1.00 0.00 I m a g e r y L i s t 2 0.67 0.33 1.00 1.00 rt T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.67 U R L i s t 4 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.67 A L i s t 1 1.33 1.33 0.67 0.67 D I m a g e r y L i s t 2 0.33 0.33 1.67 1.67 E P r o m p t i n g L i s t 3 0.67 0.00 0.33 1.33 L i s t 4 1.33 1.00 1.67 1.00 6 L i s t 1 0.33 1.33 0.33 0.33 N o L i s t 2 0.00 0.33 0.33 1.00 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.00 0.33 0.33 0.33 L i s t 4 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 46 i n t o t w o s e p a r a t e p a r t s ( i . e . I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s a n d N o n - I n t e r -a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s ) , m a n y o f t h e e f f e c t s o b t a i n e d i r i t h i s a n a l y s i s w e r e a l r e a d y a n a l y s e d i n D e s i g n 1. T h e r e f o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f D e s i g n 2 f o c u s e s u p o n t h o s e r e s u l t s n o t a l r e a d y e x t r a c t e d f r o m D e s i g n 1. F o r t h e s a k e o f c o m p l e t e n e s s , s i m p l e m a i n e f f e c t s a n d N e w m a n - - K e u l s a n a l y s i s o f t h o s e f i n d i n g s o v e r l a p p i n g w i t h D e s i g n 1 a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x ( T a b l e s 20, 21, a n d 22). T h e o n l y u n i q u e o u t c o m e o f t h e D e s i g n 2 a n a l y s i s o f s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l w a s a m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h r e e - w a y i n t e r a c t i o n o f T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e x N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n , F ( 2 , 48) = 2.68, p < .075-T h e m e a n n u m b e r o f s e c o n d n o u n s c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d i n e a c h o f t h e t w e l v e T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e x I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n c e l l s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6. I n a d d i t i o n a g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s I n t e r a c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n F i g u r e 2. S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o a s t a t i s t i c a l s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h r e e - w a y i n t e r a c t i o n w e r e u n d e r t a k e n . F i r s t , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t , t w o a n a l y s e s o f s i m p l e m a i n e f f e c t s w e r e p e r f o r m e d o n t h e I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n x T r a i n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s ; o n e a n a l y s i s f o r P r e p o -s i t i o n s a n d o n e a n a l y s i s f o r V e r b s p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s . B o t h o f t h e s e a n a l y s e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f a c o m p a r i s o n o f I n t e r a c t i n g v e r s u s N o n - I n t e r a c t i n g c o n n e c t i v e s f o r e a c h t y p e o f t r a i n i n g ( A p p e n d i x , T a b l e s 23 a n d 24)- T h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e s i m p l e m a i n e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s c o n d u c t e d o n P r e p o s i t i o n s i s p r e s e n t e d f i r s t . N e i t h e r t h e N o T r a i n i n g ( F ( l , 48) = 0.06) n o r t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g 47 T A B L E 6 M e a n N u m b e r o f S e c o n d N o u n s C o r r e c t l y R e c a l l e d i n E a c h T y p e o f T r a i n i n g x T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e x N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r -a c t i o n C e l l A v e r a g e d O v e r L i s t a n d G r a d e - D e s i g n 2 ( S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l ) P r e p o s i t i o n s V e r b s p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s I n t e r a c t i n g N o n - i n t e r a c t i n g I n t e r a c t i n g N o n - i n t e r a c t i n g I T 0.42 0.54 O.75 O.54 I P 0.88 0.54 0.88 1.00 N T 0.29 0.33 0.29 0.38 1.00 PREPOSITIONS 48 Q H •3 <l O m GO P O S5 Q O O w o w PQ P H .75 .50r . 2 5 1.00) . 7 5 . 5 0 r . 2 5 I^magery Prompting Imagery Training No Training INTERACTING VERBS PLUS PREPOSITIONS NON-INTERACTING Imagery Prompting "**-.«. Imagery Training No Training _ L _L INTERACTING NON-INTERACTING NATURE OF THE IMPLIED INTERACTION P I G . 2 . G r a p h i c a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n x T y p e o f T r a i n i n g x T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e I n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e D e s i g n 2 A n a l y s i s o f S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l 49 ( F ( l , 48) = 0.53 ) S_s s h o w e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l o f p a i r s l i n k e d h y I n t e r a c t i n g v e r s u s N o n - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s . H o w e v e r , f o r t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g S_s s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e p a i r s l i n k e d b y I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s w e r e r e c a l l e d r e l a t i v e t o p a i r s l i n k e d b y N o n - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e D e s i g n 1 a n a l y s i s , t h e s e r e s u l t s s h o w d i f f e r e n t i a l c o n n e c t i v e f a c i l i t a t i o n ( i n f a v o r o f i n t e r a c t i n g l i n k s ) o n l y f o r t h o s e S s g i v e n I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . F o r n o u n p a i r s l i n k e d b y V e r b p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n c o n n e c t i v e s , n o d i f f e r e n c e w a s o b t a i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e f o r a n y o f t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g . I n -c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r e d i c t i o n s , V e r b s p l u s I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s d i d n o t r e s u l t i n h i g h e r s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o V e r b s p l u s N o n - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s . I n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f y t h e I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n x C o n n e c t i v e x T r a i n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n , f o u r a n a l y s e s o f s i m p l e m a i n e f f e c t s w e r e p e r f o r m e d t o c o m p a r e t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r a i n i n g p r o -c e d u r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r t y p e s o f c o n n e c t i v e s ( i . e . , I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s , N o n - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s , V e r b s p l u s I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s , a n d V e r b s p l u s N o n - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s ) . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e s e a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x ( T a b l e 25) • F o r I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f T r a i n i n g w a s o b t a i n e d , F ( 2 , 48) = 6.45, p < .01. S u b s e q u e n t N e w m a n - K e u l s a n a l y s i s o f t h i s e f f e c t s h o w e d I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g t o r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r 50 r e c a l l "than Imagery T r a i n i n g ( IP > IT, p < .05) or Ho T r a i n i n g ( I P >NT, p < .05) w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between these l a t t e r two c o n d i t i o n s . F o r Hon - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the th r e e types of t r a i n i n g , F(2, 48) = 0.99. T u r n i n g now t o the two Verb p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , f o r Verbs p l u s I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the t h r e e t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s ( F(2, 48) = 6.46, p < .01 ) such t h a t the Imagery Prompting and Imagery T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s gave equal performance and both were s u p e r i o r t o the Ho T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n ( i . e . IP = IT -> NT, p < .05). F o r Verbs p l u s Non - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e -p o s i t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o found among the t h r e e t ypes o f t r a i n i n g , F(2, 48) = 7«17, P < «01. Subsequent Newman -Keu l s a n a l y s i s of t h i s e f f e c t r e v e a l e d Imagery Prompting t o r e s u l t i n s u p e r i o r second noun r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o Imagery T r a i n i n g o r No T r a i n i n g w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between these l a t t e r two c o n d i t i o n s ( i . e . IP > IT = NT, p < .05). To summarize, the r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f the I m p l i e d I n t e r -a c t i o n x Connective x T r a i n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n were as f o l l o w s . I n t e r -a c t i n g and Non - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n equal second noun r e c a l l f o r both Imagery T r a i n i n g and No T r a i n i n g Ss, however, f o r Ss i n the Imagery Prompting c o n d i t i o n r e c a l l was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r w i t h I n t e r a c t i n g as opposed t o Non - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s . 51 Verb plus I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n and Verb plus Non - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k s gave equal second noun r e c a l l f o r each of the three types of t r a i n i n g . From the point of view of a comparison among t r a i n i n g procedures f o r each connective, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the three types of t r a i n i n g f o r noun p a i r s l i n k e d by Hon - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s . However f o r p a i r s l i n k e d by I n t e r -a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g was found such that Imagery Prompting gave s u p e r i o r r e c a l l to e i t h e r Imagery T r a i n i n g or No T r a i n i n g with these l a t t e r two c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t i n g i n equal performance. For Verbs plus Non - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s an i d e n -t i c a l p a t t e r n of r e s u l t s to that found with I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s was obtained ( i . e . IP > IT = NT), however f o r Verb plus I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s both Imagery Prompting and Imagery T r a i n i n g gave s u p e r i o r r e c a l l to No T r a i n i n g . F o l l o w i n g a b r i e f p r e s e n t a t i o n of the connective r e c a l l a n a l y s i s a complete summary of the Designs 1 and 2 second noun r e c a l l a n a l y s i s w i l l be provided. B. Connective R e c a l l The outcome of the connective r e c a l l a n a l y s i s w i l l be presented only b r i e f l y and w i l l l a r g e l y serve to confirm or weaken hypotheses forwarded on the b a s i s of the second noun r e c a l l r e s u l t s . The reasons f o r the de-emphasis of the connective r e c a l l r e s u l t s are as f o l l o w s . 52 F i r s t , b e c a u s e a l l f o u r c o n n e c t i v e s i n t h e C o n j u n c t i o n c o n d i t i o n w e r e " a n d " ( w h i l e u n i q u e c o n n e c t i v e s w e r e e m p l o y e d i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e c o n n e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s ) , t h e c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l s c o r e s f o r t h e C o n j u n c -t i o n l i n k s a r e e x t r e m e l y u n r e l i a b l e d u e t o t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o b a b i l i t y o f Ss o b t a i n i n g a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e b y g u e s s i n g . T h i s u n r e l i a b i l i t y i s f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d d u e t o a t e n d e n c y o n t h e p a r t o f Ss t o f r e q u e n t l y g u e s s " a n d " a s t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . S e c o n d , b e c a u s e c o r r e c t r e c a l l o f V e r b p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k s r e q u i r e d t h e S s t o r e c a l l t w o w o r d s r a t h e r t h a n o n e , t h e p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s , p r e s u m a b l y , a r t i f i c i a l l y d e f l a t e d . T h i r d , s i n c e i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o a d o p t a n u n u s u a l l y s t r i c t s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e ( b e c a u s e m a n y s y n o n y m s o f t h e c o r -r e c t c o n n e c t i v e s o c c u r r e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s ) t h e r e c a l l o f P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k s m a y h a v e b e e n l o w e r e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e V e r b l i n k r e c a l l b e c a u s e m o s t o f t h e s y n o n y m s e m p l o y e d w e r e o f t h e P r e p o s i t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n o f t h e V e r b s . T h a t i s , d u e t o t h e l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f p r e p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h ( r e l a t i v e t o t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f v e r b s ) i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o e m p l o y s y n o n y m s o f p r e p o s i t i o n s ( e . g . , " u n d e r " a n d " b e l o w " ) i n t h e l e a r n i n g s e t w h e r e a s a l l t h e v e r b s e m p l o y e d w e r e r e l a t i v e l y u n i q u e . T h u s a s t r i c t s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e w o u l d b e m o r e l i k e l y t o f a v o r V e r b r a t h e r t h a n P r e p o s i t i o n r e c a l l b e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t e r r e s p o n s e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k s . 1. D e s i g n 1 - G r a d e x T y p e o f T r a i n i n g x L i s t x T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e T h e m e a n n u m b e r o f c o n n e c t i v e s c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d i n e a c h c e l l o f t h e D e s i g n 1 a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 7- R e s u l t s f r o m t h e T A B L E T M e a n N u m b e r o f C o n n e c t i v e s C o r r e c t l y R e c a l l e d i n E a c h C e l l o f D e s i g n 1 - 2 x 3 x 4 x 4 -G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e P C V V + P L i s t 1 0.00 1.33 1.33 0.33 I m a g e r y L i s t 2 0.33 1.00 2.00 0.00 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.67 0.33 0.67 0.67 G R L i s t 4 0.67 3.00 1.00 0.67 A L i s t 1 1.33 1.00 1.33 0.67 D I m a g e r y L i s t 2 0.00 3-33 2.67 1.00 E P r o m p t i n g L i s t 3 0.67 1.67 0.67 0.67 L i s t 4 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 2 L i s t 1 0.33 3.00 1.00 0.00 N o L i s t 2 0.33 1.00 1.33 0.00 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.67 1.67 0.67 0.67 L i s t 4 0.33 0.67 2.00 0.33 L i s t 1 2.00 0.67 1.67 0.33 I m a g e r y L i s t 2 0.33 2.33 2.00 1.00 rt T r a i n i n g - L i s t 3 0.67 0.00 1.33 0.33 U R L i s t 4 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.67 A L i s t 1 1.00 2.00 1.33 1.00 D I m a g e r y L i s t 2 0.00 1.00 3.00 0.33 E P r o m p t i n g L i s t 3 1.00 1.67 1.00 0.67 L i s t 4 1.33 2.33 2.00 0.33 6 L i s t 1 0.00 1.00 1.67 0.67 N o L i s t 2 0.33 0.67 1.00 0.33 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.33 1.67 1.33 0.33 L i s t 4 0.33 1.67 0.67 0.00 54 a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p e r f o r m e d u p o n t h e s e d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x ( T a b l e 2 6 ) . U n l i k e t h e s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l a n a l y s i s G r a d e d i d n o t e m e r g e a s a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l a n a l y s i s , F ( l , 48) = O.56. O n e t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n b a s e d o n t h i s r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e s u p e r i o r s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l o f t h e o l d e r S_s d o e s n o t r e f l e c t t h e i r g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e E - s u p p l i e d c o n n e c t i v e s . B e y o n d t h i s ' " s i m p l e c o n c l u s i o n n o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s r e s u l t w i l l b e a t t e m p t e d . T y p e o f T r a i n i n g e m e r g e d a s a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e o f v a r i a t i o n , F ( 2 , 48) = 3»27, P <«05. S u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s b y t h e N e w m a n - K e u l s p r o c e d u r e ( A p p e n d i x , T a b l e 27) r e v e a l e d o n l y o n e s i g n i f i c a n t p a i r -w i s e c o m p a r i s o n : I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g r e s u l t e d i n h i g h e r c o n n e c t i v e r e -c a l l t h a n N o T r a i n i n g - ( p <.05) w i t h I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g f a l l i n g b e t w e e n t h e o t h e r t w o c o n d i t i o n s . T h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g S_s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n t o g e n e r a t e s e p a r a t e i m a g e s , c o m b i n e d w i t h a n E - s u p p l i e d l i n k , w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t i n m a x i m u m c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o S s t r a i n e d t o f o r m t h e i r o w n l i n k s ( i . e . , I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g ) o r S s n o t p r o m p t e d t o g e n e r a t e i m a g e s ( i . e . , N o T r a i n i n g ) . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s T r a i n i n g e f f e c t w i l l f o l l o w t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f D e s i g n 2 c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l a n a l y s i s . T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e e m e r g e d a s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t , F ( 3 , 144) = 23.93, p<.01. S u b s e q u e n t N e w m a n - K e u l s a n a l y s i s ( A p p e n d i x , T a b l e 28) s h o w e d C o n j u n c t i o n a n d V e r b l i n k s t o b e e q u a l l y w e l l r e c a l l e d r e l a -55 t i v e t o e a c h o t h e r a n d t o b e b e t t e r r e c a l l e d t h a n e i t h e r P r e p o s i t i o n o f V e r b p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n c o n n e c t i v e s w i t h r e c a l l o f t h e s e l a t t e r t w o l i n k s n o t d i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( i . e . , C = V > P = V + P ) . D u e t o t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n c o m p a r i n g t h e s e c o n n e c t i v e s ( a s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l r e s u l t s ) n o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s o u t c o m e i s p r o v i d e d . T h e o t h e r t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e D e s i g n 1 c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l a n a l y s i s a l l i n v o l v e d t h e L i s t v a r i a b l e : L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e , F ( 9 , 144) = 2.02, p < .05; G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t , F ( 6 , 48) = 2.88, p <.05; a n d G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e x L i s t . A b r e a k -d o w n o f t h e L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n b y a n a l y s i s o f s i m p l e m a i n e f f e c t s ( A p p e n d i x , T a b l e 29) r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a m o n g l i s t s f o r t h e v e r b l i n k e d p a i r s o n l y , F ( 3 * 144) = 4*48,. p.<01. S u b s e q u e n t N e w m a n - K e u l s a n a l y s i s s h o w e d t h a t f o r V e r b l i n k e d p a i r s L i s t 2 > L i s t 3 = L i s t 1 = L i s t 4. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e o t h e r t w o i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e l i s t v a r i a b l e r e v e a l e d n o s y s t e m a t i c . -i n t e r p r e t a b l e e f f e c t s . 2. D e s i g n 2 - G r a d e x T y p e o f T r a i n i n g x L i s t x T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e x N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n T h e m e a n n u m b e r o f c o n n e c t i v e s c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d i n e a c h c e l l o f t h e D e s i g n 2 a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 8. R e s u l t s f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p e r f o r m e d u p o n t h e s e d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x , T a b l e 30 ) . A s i d e f r o m a m a i n e f f e c t o f T r a i n i n g ( F ( 2 , 48) = 4*19, p<.05), w h i c h i s a n a l y z e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x ( T a b l e 31) 56 TABLE 8 Mean Number of Connectives C o r r e c t l y R e c a l l e d i n Each C e l l of Design 2 - 2 x 3 x 4 x 2 x 2 P r e p o s i t i o n s Verbs p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s Non- Non-I n t e r a c t i n g I n t e r a c t i n g I n t e r a c t i n g I n t e r a c t : L i s t 1 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 Imagery L i s t 2 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 f l T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.33 0.33 0.67 0.00 Ur R L i s t 4 0.67 0.00 0.00 0.67 A L i s t 1 1.00 0.33 0.33 0.33 D Imagery L i s t 2 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 E Prompting L i s t 3 0.33 0.33 0.67 0.00 L i s t 4 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.33 2 L i s t 1 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 No L i s t 2 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.33 0.33 0.67 0.00 L i s t 4 0.33 0.00 0.33 0.00 L i s t 1 I.67 0.33 0.00 0.33 Imagery L i s t 2 0.00 0.33 1.00 0.00 rt T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.00 U R L i s t 4 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.33 A L i s t 1 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.67 D Imagery L i s t 2 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 E Prompting L i s t 3 1.00 0.00 0.33 0.33 L i s t 4 1.00 0.33 0.33 0.00 6 L i s t 1 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.33 • No L i s t 2 0.00 0.33 0.33 0.00 T r a i n i n g L i s t 3 0.33 0.00 0.33 0.00 L i s t 4 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 57 a l l o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s i n D e s i g n 2 w e r e u n i q u e t o t h i s a n a l y s i s . N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n e m e r g e d a s a n s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e o f v a r i a t i o n , F ( l , 48) = 16.25, p<.01. S_s c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d s i g -n i f i c a n t l y m o r e o f t h e c o n n e c t i v e s w h i c h s u g g e s t e d a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o n o u n s ( i . e . , I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s a n d V e r b s p l u s I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s ) r e l a t i v e t o c o n n e c t i v e s w h i c h i m p l i e d a n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i . e . , N o n - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s a n d V e r b s p l u s N o n - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s ) . T h i s r e s u l t w a s s o m e w h a t q u a l i f i e d b y a s i g n i f i c a n t I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n , F(3, 48) = 5*99, P < .01. R e s u l t s f r o m s u b s e q u e n t s i m p l e m a i n e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s o f t h i s i n t e r -a c t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x ( T a b l e 32) . A g e n e r a l s u m m a r y o f t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e s e p o s t h o c a n a l y s e s i s a s f o l l o w s : i n t e r a c t i n g l i n k s w e r e e i t h e r b e t t e r o r e q u a l l y w e l l r e c a l l e d r e l a t i v e t o n o n -i n t e r a c t i n g l i n k s a n d t h i s e f f e c t i n t e r a c t e d w i t h L i s t s u c h t h a t f o r L i s t s 1 a n d 4 I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s w e r e b e t t e r r e c a l l e d t h a n N o n -I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s w h e r e a s f o r L i s t s 2 a n d 3 V e r b s p l u s I n t e r -a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s w e r e b e t t e r r e c a l l e d t h a n V e r b s p l u s N o n - I n t e r -a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s . D u e t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s e c o n d n o u n a n d c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l r e s u l t s a s u m m a r y o f t h e i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s i s n o w p r e s e n t e d . 5 8 S U M M A R Y O F R E S U L T S L i s t e f f e c t s , i n t e r d e s i g n r e p l i c a t i o n s , a n d u n r e l i a b l e f i n d i n g s ( e . g . , t h e c o n n e c t i v e c o m p a r i s o n f o r c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l ) w i l l b e o m i t t e d f r o m t h i s s u m m a r y s i n c e t h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e a l r e a d y d e a l t w i t h i n t h e R e s u l t s s e c t i o n . T h i s s u m m a r y f o c u s e s u p o n o n l y t h o s e r e s u l t s t o b e i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e D i s c u s s i o n . A . C o n n e c t i v e R e c a l l T h e c o m p a r i s o n a m o n g t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l s h o w e d I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g t o r e s u l t i n s u p e r i o r r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o N o T r a i n i n g w i t h I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g f a l l i n g b e t w e e n t h e s e o t h e r t w o c o n d i t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , S s r e c a l l o f c o n n e c t i v e s w h i c h i m p l i e d a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e t w o i t e m s w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e i r r e c a l l o f c o n n e c t i v e s w h i c h i m p l i e d a d i s t a n c e d s p a t i a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p , . B . S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l S i n c e a l l s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t s w h i c h e m e r g e d i n t h e s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l a n a l y s i s w e r e i n v o l v e d i n o n e o f t w o s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r -a c t i o n s , p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l r e s u l t s s u m m a r y w i l l r e p o r t t h e b r e a k d o w n o f t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s . F r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f a c o m p a r i s o n a m o n g c o n n e c t i v e s f o r e a c h t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e n e i t h e r t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g n o r t h e N o T r a i n i n g 59 SiS performed "better w i t h any one type of c o n n e c t i v e r e l a t i v e t o any o t h e r . However f o r the Imagery Prompting S_s r e s u l t s from Design 1 showed C o n j u n c t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o o r e r r e c a l l e d than Verb or P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s which i n t u r n were not as w e l l r e c a l l e d as Verbs p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s . Furthermore, as shown i n Design 2 , Imagery Prompting _Ss r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p a i r s l i n k e d by I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s - t h a n by N o n - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s . T h i s g r e a t e r r e c a l l , on the p a r t of Imagery Prompting S_s, f o r p a i r s l i n k e d by i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g l i n k s was a major f i n d i n g of the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . Unexpectedly, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence was found between the second noun r e c a l l o f Verb p l u s I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n and Verb p l u s Non - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s . From the p o i n t of view of a comparison among t r a i n i n g p r o -cedures f o r each c o n n e c t i v e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the t h r e e types of t r a i n i n g f o r noun p a i r s l i n k e d by C o n j u n c t i o n s or Verbs. However f o r P r e p o s i t i o n and Verb p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among typ e s of t r a i n i n g were o b t a i n e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y f o r noun p a i r s l i n k e d by I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s , S_s g i v e n Imagery Prompting r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more second nouns than e i t h e r the Imagery T r a i n i n g or No T r a i n i n g Ss who d i d not d i f f e r . F o r noun p a i r s l i n k e d by Non - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n second noun r e c a l l were o b t a i n e d a c r o s s the t h r e e types of t r a i n i n g . F o r Verb p l u s I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s both Imagery Prompting and Imagery T r a i n i n g S_s performed 60 e q u a l l y w e l l a n d s u p e r i o r t o N o T r a i n i n g S _ s . F i n a l l y f o r n o u n p a i r s l i n k e d b y V e r b s p l u s N o n - I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g g a v e s u p e r i o r r e c a l l t o I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g a n d N o T r a i n i n g w h i c h d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . 61 D I S C U S S I O N T h e l a c k o f a n y s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t a m o n g t h o s e _Ss I n t h e N o T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n w a s o n e o f t h e m o r e u n e x p e c t e d o u t c o m e s o f t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . T h e D e s i g n 1 a n a l y s i s o f s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l s c o r e s s h o w e d t h e u n t r a i n e d S_s t o d e m o n s t r a t e e q u a l p e r f o r m a n c e r e -g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r n o u n p a i r s w e r e l i n k e d b y p r e p o s i t i o n s , v e r b s , c o n j u n c t i o n s , o r v e r b s p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , a s s h o w n i n t h e D e s i g n 2 s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l a n a l y s i s , S_s i n t h e N o T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n r e c a l l e d r o u g h l y e q u a l n u m b e r s o f p a i r s l i n k e d b y i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i -t i o n s , n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s , v e r b s p l u s i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i -t i o n s , a n d v e r b s p l u s n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s . T h e c u r r e n t f a i l u r e t o r e p l i c a t e t h e s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a s t r e s e a r c h o n c h i l d r e n ' s l i n k e d n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g ( c f . , D a v i d s o n a n d A d a m s , 1970; R o h w e r , I966; R o h w e r , 1967; R o h w e r e t . a l . , 1967; a n d S u z u k i a n d R o h w e r , 1968). T h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d r e -s e a r c h e r s a l l f o u n d v e r b l i n k e d n o u n p a i r s t o b e b e t t e r r e c a l l e d t h a n n o u n p a i r s l i n k e d b y c o n j u n c t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , R o h w e r e t . a l . (1967) f o u n d p r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d n o u n p a i r s t o b e b e t t e r r e c a l l e d t h a n c o n -j u n c t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s , a l t h o u g h p r e p o s i t i o n s d i d n o t f a c i l i t a t e s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l a s m u c h a s v e r b s . N o n e t h e l e s s , d e s p i t e t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d , t h e c i r r e n t r e s e a r c h i s n o t a l o n e i n f a i l i n g t o o b t a i n i t . D a v i d s o n , S c h w e n n a n d A d a m s (1970), Y u i l l e a n d P r i t c h a r d (1969), L e v i n (1970a), 6 2 and L e v i n , Kaplan, and H o r v i t z ( l 9 7 l ) a l s o f a i l e d "to f i n d c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l o f verb l i n k e d p a i r s "to be any g r e a t e r than t h e i r r e c a l l o f noun p a i r s l i n k e d by c o n j u n c t i o n s . Based on the two c u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s of the sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t ( i . e . , Rohwer's 1970 semantic e l a b o r a t i o n hypothe-s i s and Y u i l l e ' s 1973 i n t e r a c t i n g imagery h y p o t h e s i s ) i t i s p o s s i b l e t o generate f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the f a i l u r e o f t h i s and o t h e r experiments t o r e p l i c a t e the sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n phenomenon. F i r s t , from a semantic e l a b o r a t i o n p o i n t of view two a l t e r n a t i v e s are p o s s i b l e : e i t h e r (a) S_s f a i l e d t o generate semantic e l a b o r a t i o n s f o r the p a i r s d e s p i t e the presence of l i n k s which are supposed t o f o s t e r t h i s p rocess ( i . e . , v e r b s , p r e p o s i t i o n s , and verbs p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n s ) or (b) Ss spontaneously generated semantic e l a b o r a t i o n s f o r p a i r s . r e g a r d l e s s o f the nature of the c o n n e c t i v e . Second, from an i n t e r -a c t i n g imagery framework two s i m i l a r p o s s i b i l i t i e s are suggested: e i t h e r (a) S_s f a i l e d t o generate i n t e r a c t i n g images f o r the p a i r s des-p i t e the presence of i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g l i n k s ( i . e . , v e r b s , i n t e r -a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s , and verbs p l u s i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s ) or (b) S_s spontaneously generated i n t e r a c t i n g images f o r p a i r s r e g a r d l e s s of the nature of the c o n n e c t i v e . I n o t h e r words the equal second noun r e c a l l o b t a i n e d (by some r e s e a r c h e r s ) w i t h v a r i o u s types of c o n n e c t i v e s r e f l e c t s e i t h e r spontaneous m e d i a t i o n of p a i r s r e g a r d l e s s of the type of c o n n e c t i v e or no m e d i a t i o n d e s p i t e the presence of l i n k s which u s u a l l y prompt s u c c e s s f u l m e d i a t i o n . 63 A l t h o u g h , at f i r s t g l a n c e , these f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s may appear e q u a l l y p l a u s i b l e one o f them i s more parsimonious than the o t h e r s both on the b a s i s of t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y and p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . F i r s t , the p r o p o s a l t h a t the u n t r a i n e d S_s were spontaneously g e n e r a t i n g mediators ( e i t h e r i m a g i n a l or semantic) i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y s i m p l y be-cause o f t h e i r v e r y low second noun r e c a l l s c o r e s . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n ' s a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g ( e . g . , Catchpole and Y u i l l e , 1974) have found no evidence t o suggest t h a t c h i l d r e n c o n s i s t e n t l y generate spontaneous e f f e c t i v e mediators f o r u n l i n k e d noun p a i r s . T h e r e f o r e i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t the c o n j u n c t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s i n the present experiment were mediated ( e i t h e r i m a g i n a l l y or v e r b a l l y ) . I n support of t h i s argument, i n no case has l i n k i n g noun p a i r s w i t h c o n j u n c t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n h i g h e r second noun r e c a l l than a simple noun-noun type o f p r e s e n t a t i o n ( c f . , Rohwer, 1966; Rohwer, Schwenn and L e v i n , 1967; and Su z u k i and Rohwer, I 9 6 8 ) . Given t h a t l i t t l e o r no m e d i a t i o n o c c u r r e d f o r c o n j u n c t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s , and s i n c e performance of the u n t r a i n e d Ss f o r the o t h e r p a i r types was e q u a l l y poor, m e d i a t i o n must have been absent ( o r minimal) i n these cases as w e l l . Thus, i t seems c l e a r t h a t spontaneous m e d i a t i o n cannot account f o r the l a c k of a sentence f a c i l i -t a t i o n e f f e c t i n the u n t r a i n e d Ss. The main argument a g a i n s t the t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e , t h a t the l a c k of a sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n among the Ho T r a i n i n g S_s r e f l e c t s a f a i l u r e ( f o r some reason) t o generate semantic e l a b o r a t i o n s , i s t h a t the e l a -b o r a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s makes no allowance f o r f a i l u r e s t o o b t a i n the 6 4 s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s e m a n t i c e l a b o r a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s h i n g e s o n S_s p e r f o r m i n g b e t t e r w i t h v e r b ( a n d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t p r e p o s i t i o n ) l i n k e d p a i r s a s o p p o s e d t o c o n j u n c t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s , a n d t h e f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n t h i s r e s u l t c r e a t e s t h e o r e t i c a l d i f -f i c u l t y f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s . W h i l e i t m i g h t b e p o s s i b l e t o m o d i f y t h e n o t i o n o f s e m a n t i c e l a b o r a t i o n s u c h t h a t c e r t a i n e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e v e n t i t f r o m o c c u r r i n g , n o s u c h m o d i f i c a t i o n s u g g e s t s i t s e l f a t t h i s t i m e . H o w e v e r , t h e f o u r t h a l t e r n a t i v e , t h a t t h e H o T r a i n i n g S s d i d n o t s h o w a s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t d u e t o a f a i l u r e t o g e n e r a t e i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s e v e n f o r t h o s e p a i r s l i n k e d b y i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g c o n n e c t i v e s , c a n b e s h o w n t o b e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s , a s w e l l a s w i t h o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e . P e r u s a l o f p a s t r e s e a r c h o n s e n t e n c e e m b e d d e d n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g b y 6 ' h i l d r e n s h o w s t h e s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t t o o c c u r i n a m o r e p r o n o u n c e d a n d c o n s i s t e n t m a n n e r i f t h e o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d a l o n g w i t h t h e p r i n t e d l i n k e d n o u n p a i r s ( e . g . , J e n s e n a n d R o h w e r , 1963, I965) ° r i f t h e p a i r s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a n a u r a l r a t h e r t h a n p r i n t e d f a s h i o n ( e . g . , L e v i n , K a p l a n , a n d H o r v i t z , 1 9 7 1 ) • I f , h o w e v e r a p u r e l y p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t o - b e - l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l i s p r o v i d e d ( e . g . , Y u i l l e a n d P r i t c h a r d , I969) o r i f a p r i n t e d p l u s a u r a l p r e s e n t a -t i o n i s p r o v i d e d ( e . g . , L e v i n e t . a l . , 1 9 7 l ) t h e n i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e p r e s e n t o n e ) n o s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d . W h i l e d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s e m a n t i c e l a -b o r a t i o n t h e o r y ( w h y s h o u l d t h e s e v a r i o u s m a n i p u l a t i o n s a f f e c t g e n e r a -65 t i o n of semantic o v e r l a p s ) these r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the no-t i o n t h a t the u n t r a i n e d S_s f a i l e d t o generate i n t e r a c t i n g images. Combining the r e s u l t s o f past and c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on c h i l d r e n ' s l i n k e d noun p a i r l e a r n i n g i t appears t h a t the f a i l u r e of p r i n t e d types o f p r e s e n t a t i o n t o r e s u l t i n a sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t may be due t o the i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h i s .mode of p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h the g e n e r a t i o n of imagery codes. I n o t h e r words, r e a d i n g l i n k e d noun p a i r s may occupy the v i s u a l system t o a degree which i n t e r f e r e s w i t h ( o r even p r e c l u d e s ) image f o r m a t i o n . The n o t i o n t h a t v i s u a l a c t i v i t y i n t e r f e r e s w i t h ima-gery processes has found e m p i r i c a l support i n a number of s t u d i e s . F o r example, both Atwood (1969) and Brooks (1968) r e p o r t e d p o o r e r performance on imagery t a s k s when the v i s u a l system was otherwise oc-cup i e d ( e . g . , r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , or m o n i t o r i n g ) . T h i s p r o p o s a l i s some-what q u a l i f i e d s i n c e some r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., Y u i l l e , 1973) have foimd a sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t i n a p u r e l y p r i n t e d l i n k e d noun p a i r l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Presumably the f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n a sentence f a c i -l i t a t i o n e f f e c t w i t h p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t pheno-menon which may be assuaged on o c c a s i o n by v a r i o u s f a c t o r s such as h i g h l y developed r e a d i n g s k i l l s o r , perhaps, a s t r o n g p r o p e n s i t y t o image pr e s e n t e d nouns. The c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n s under which the sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n w i l l occur g i v e n a p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n a w a i t s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Three c o n d i t i o n s which do c o n s i s t e n t l y p r o -v i d e a sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t (though these do not i n v o l v e a p u r e l y p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n ) are simultaneous o b j e c t r e f e r e n t p r e s e n t a -66 t i o n ( e . g . , J e n s e n a n d R o h w e r , 1 9 6 3 ) , s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s t o i m a g e p r e s e n t e d n o u n p a i r s ( i . e . , t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g c o n d i t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y ) , a n d a n a u r a l r a t h e r t h a n p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n ( e . g . , L e v i n e t . a l . , 1 9 7 l ) ' T h e r e a s o n f o r t h e c o n s i s t e n t o c c u r a n c e o f a s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t g i v e n a n y o f t h e a b o v e m a n i p u l a t i o n s , m a y b e t h a t e a c h s e r v e s t o c i r c u m v e n t t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d i m a g e i n h i b i t o r y e f f e c t o f a p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h a t i s , b y a v o i d i n g p r e s e n t i n g t h e l i n k e d n o u n p a i r s t o t h e v i s u a l s y s t e m a n a u r a l t y p e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n m a y f r e e t h e v i s u a l s y s t e m f o r i m a g e r y c o d i n g . S i m i l a r l y s i m u l t a n e o u s o b j e c t r e f e r e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n o r s p e c i f i c i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s m a y f u n c t i o n t o e n s u r e t h a t S_s d o f o r m i m a g e s o f p r e s e n t e d n o u n p a i r s . A s s t a t e d b y P a i v i o ( l 9 7 l ) g e n e r a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e i m a g e s i s v i t a l t o i m p r o v e d n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g s i n c e w i t h o u t s u c h c o d i n g , l i n k s w h i c h s u g g e s t a n i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l n o t r e s u l t i n i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e r e w i l l b e n o S - g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s t o b e i n t e r a c t e d . I n s u m m a r y i t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e c u r r e n t f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n a s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t a m o n g t h e u n t r a i n e d S s r e f l e c t s a n i n h i b i t o r y e f f e c t o f p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n u p o n i m a g i n a l c o d i n g , a n d b e c a u s e t h i s r e a d i n g p r o b l e m r e d u c e s i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n t o s u c h a l a r g e e x t e n t ( i n m o s t c a s e s ) , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e E - s u p p l i e d c o n n e c t i v e i s s u g g e s t i v e o f a n i n t e r a c t i o n i s u n i m p o r t a n t s i n c e i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s w i l l n o t b e f o r m e d . T h e t r e n d a m o n g t h e N o T r a i n i n g S s t o r e c a l l c o n -j u n c t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s s l i g h t l y l e s s r e a d i l y t h a n t h o s e l i n k e d b y o t h e r t y p e s o f c o n n e c t i v e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e I m a g e r e d u c t i o n e f f e c t o f a 67 p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n may not have prevented i m a g i n a l c o d i n g e n t i r e l y and, as i n d i c a t e d i n some experiemnts, on o c c a s i o n a s i g n i f i c a n t sen-tence f a c i l i t a t i o n among p r i n t e d l i n k e d noun p a i r s can be expected t o o c c u r . No e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the r e s u l t s of these experiemnts i s p r o v i d e d though, presumably c h i l d r e n w i t h b e t t e r r e a d i n g s k i l l s would read more q u i c k l y and t h e r e f o r e the v i s u a l system might not be so l i k e l y t o be f u l l y o c c u p i e d . I n terms of i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i t i s c l e a r t h a t s u c c e s s f u l imagery m e d i a t i o n i s h i g h l y dependent on the n a ture of the p r e s e n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l s as w e l l as Ss l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y and, t h e r e f o r e , f u t u r e experimenters would be wise t o c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l these c o n d i t i o n s . The d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s now t u r n s t o the performance of those S_s i n the Imagery T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n . I n D e sign 1 i t was found t h a t _Ss i n s t r u c t e d t o form i n t e r a c t i n g images of every noun p a i r c o r -r e c t l y r e c a l l e d e q u a l numbers of p a i r s l i n k e d by v e r b s , c o n j u n c t i o n s , p r e p o s i t i o n s , and verbs p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y r e s u l t s from Design 2 showed the Imagery T r a i n i n g Ss t o perform e q u a l l y w e l l w i t h p a i r s l i n k e d by i n t e r a c t i n g and n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s (alone or w i t h v e r b s ) . A l t hough these r e s u l t s appear c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r e d i c t i o n t h a t the Imagery T r a i n i n g S_s would show no d i f f e r e n t i a l f a c i l i t a t i o n a c r o s s c o n n e c t i v e s (because t h e y were f o r m i n g t h e i r own i n t e r a c t i n g images), the r e s u l t s from the comparisons among t r a i n i n g procedures f o r each type of c o n n e c t i v e d i s p u t e the n o t i o n t h a t the Imagery T r a i n i n g S_s were, i n f a c t , f o r m i n g e f f e c t i v e i n t e r a c t i n g images. 68 U n e x p e c t e d l y a n d d e s p i t e t h e f r e q u e n t f i n d i n g t h a t I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g i s a p o w e r f u l E - i n d u c e d l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y ( e . g . , Y u i l l e a n d C a t c h p o l e , 1973, 1-9745 L e v i n e t . a l . , 1973; a n d C a t c h p o l e a n d Y u i l l e , 1974), t h e p e r f o r -m a n c e o f t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g £>s w a s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e N o , T r a i n i n g S_s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a n y t y p e o f c o n n e c t i v e e x c e p t v e r b s p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n s . A p p a r e n t l y , t h o u g h a h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e m n e m o n i c f o r u n l i n k e d n o u n a n d o b j e c t p a i r l e a r n i n g I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g i s i n e f f e c t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r o v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g o f l i n k e d n o u n p a i r s . H o w e v e r , d e s p i t e a f a i l u r e t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S s s h o w e d a s t r o n g a n d c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d t o w a r d s h i g h e r r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o t h e N o T r a i n i n g S s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h e v e r y t y p e o f c o n n e c t i v e . I n v i e w o f t h i s s t r o n g , b u t n o t q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t , s u p e r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e o f I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g r e l a t i v e t o N o T r a i n i n g a d e f i n i t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s i s m o s t d i f f i c u l t t o g e n -e r a t e . T h a t i s , o n t h e o n e h a n d , s i n c e t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S_s d i d n o t h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l t h a n t h e N o T r a i n i n g S_s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s u p p o r t t h e i d e a t h a t t h e y w e r e f o r m i n g t h e i r o w n i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y c o d e s . W h i l e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , b e c a u s e o f t h e s t r o n g a n d c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d s h o w i n g I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g t o b e s u p e r i o r t o N o T r a i n i n g , i t c a n n o t b e a r g u e d t h a t t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S s s h o w e d a l a c k o f i m a g e r y c o d i n g e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t o f t h e u n t r a i n e d S s . T h e r e f o r e t w o a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s w i l l b e p r o v i d e d w h i c h m a y h e l p s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h e r s c l a r i f y t h e u t i l i t y o f I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g w i t h l i n k e d n o u n p a i r s . O n e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s f i n d i n g m a y b e t h a t t h e I m a g e r y 69 T r a i n i n g S_s f a i l e d t o s h o w s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r e c a l l t h a n t h e H o T r a i n i n g S s d u e t o a n i n t e r f e r e n c e b e t w e e n E - s u p p l i e d a n d S - g e n e r a t e d l i n k s . T h a t i s , b e c a u s e t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t o f o r m i m a g e s o f t h e t w o n o u n s a n d t h e n i n t e r a c t t h e s e i m a g e s i t s e e m s t h a t t h e i r p o o r p e r f o r m a n c e w o u l d n o t b e d u e t o a r e a d i n g p r o b l e m a s w a s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e M o T r a i n i n g S s ( b e c a u s e t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g " S_s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t o p i c t u r e t h e t w o n o u n s ) b u t r a t h e r t o a n i n t e r -f e r e n c e b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o g e n e r a t e t h e i r o w n i n t e r a c t i o n s a n d E - s u p p l i e d i n t e r a c t i n g l i n k s . I n o t h e r w o r d s t h e g e n e r a l l y s u p e r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e o f I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g r e l a t i v e t o N o T r a i n i n g m a y h a v e r e -s u l t e d f r o m a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e i m a g e r y i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t o f p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n , h o w e v e r , b e c a u s e S s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o f o r m t h e i r o w n i n t e r -a c t i o n s w e r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e E - s u p p l i e d l i n k s t h e o v e r a l l r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S s w a s n o t a s g r e a t a s m i g h t o t h e r -w i s e b e e x p e c t e d . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a b a s i c p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . I f E a n d S_ s u p p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n s w e r e i n c o m p a t i b l e t h e n t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S s s h o u l d h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d t h e m o s t i n t e r f e r e n c e i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g l i n k s a n d t h e l e a s t i n t e r -f e r e n c e w i t h p a i r s l i n k e d b y c o n n e c t i v e s w h i c h d o n o t s u g g e s t a n i n -t e r a c t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e p a t t e r n o f s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l a c r o s s c o n n e c -t i v e s r e v e a l e d a t r e n d e x a c t l y o p p o s i t e t o t h e a b o v e r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h a t i s , t h e r e w a s a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d a m o n g t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S_s t o r e c a l l p a i r s l i n k e d b y i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g c o n n e c t i v e s m o r e r e a d i l y t h a n p a i r s l i n k e d b y n o n - i n t e r a c t i o n c o n n e c t i v e s . T h i s r e s u l t 70 c o n s i d e r a b l y w e a k e n s t h e i d e a t h a t t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S s t o p e r f o r m b e t t e r t h a n t h e N o T r a i n i n g S s r e f l e c t s a n i n t e r f e r e n c e b e t w e e n E_ a n d S_ s u p p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n s . A s e c o n d , s o m e w h a t m o r e p a r s i m o n i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g a n d N o T r a i n i n g i s b a s e d o n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S_s w e r e c o n f u s e d a s t o h o w t o f o l l o w t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t h a t s o m e p a i r s a l r e a d y h a d a n E -s u p p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n . T h a t i s , S_s m a y h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d t o f o r m i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s o f p r e s e n t n o u n p a i r s a n d m a y h a v e d o n e s o f o r t h e f i r s t f e w i t e m s , h o w e v e r , g i v e n t h e l a r g e n u m b e r s o f p a i r s a l r e a d y h a v i n g a n i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t e d b y t h e l i n k , t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S s m a y h a v e t h e n a b a n d o n e d t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t a n d m e r e l y r e a d ( a n d p e r h a p s i m a g e d ) t h e r e m a i n i n g l i n k e d p a i r s . T h u s t h e f i r s t f e w c o n -j u n c t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s m a y h a v e b e e n t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s , h o w e v e r , t h e s u b s e q u e n t d r o p p i n g o f t h e i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y s t r a t e g y p r e v e n t e d a l l c o n j u n c t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s f r o m b e i n g c o d e d a s i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s . S i m i l a r l y , S s m a y h a v e f o r m e d t h e i r o w n i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s f o r t h e o t h e r t y p e s o f l i n k e d p a i r s i n t h e f i r s t f e w c a s e s a n d t h e n s t o r e d t h e E - s u p p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g i t e m s . T h i s e x -p l a n a t i o n c a n n o t b e d i r e c t l y t e s t e d f r o m p r e s e n t d a t a b u t f u r t h e r s t u d y w i t h b e t w e e n S s d e s i g n s c a n e x a m i n e i t s v a l i d i t y . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S_s w e r e c o n f u s i n g a n d , i n l i g h t o f t h e i r c o n s i s t e n t l y , b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l r e l a t i v e t o t h e N o T r a i n i n g S s i t m a y b e t h e c a s e 71 t h a t t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S s w e r e f o r m i n g s o m e i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s . T h e l a c k o f a c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f I m a g e r y T r a i n e d S j s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h l i n k e d n o u n p a i r s c l e a r l y p o i n t s t o a n e e d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . T w o s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h m a y h e l p c i r c u m v e n t c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y w o u l d b e t o m o d i f y t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s u c h t h a t S_s a r e i n s t r u c t e d t o f o r m i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s f o r o n l y t h o s e p a i r s w h i c h d o n o t a l r e a d y h a v e a n i n t e r a c t i o n i m p l i e d b y t h e c o n n e c t i v e o r t o e m p l o y o n l y n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g l i n k s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g . I n s p i t e o f t h e u n e x p e c t e d f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n a s i g n i f i c a n t s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t a m o n g t h e W o T r a i n i n g S _ s , a s t r o n g e f f e c t w a s f o u n d i n t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g c o n d i t i o n . A s s h o w n i n t h e D e s i g n 1 s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l a n a l y s i s , S s i n t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g c o n d i t i o n r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s c o n j u n c t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s r e l a t i v e t o n o u n p a i r s l i n k e d b y v e r b s p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n s , v e r b s , a n d p r e p o s i t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h o s e p a i r s l i n k e d b y v e r b s p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n s w e ' r e s i g -n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r r e c a l l e d t h a n p a i r s l i n k e d b y t h e o t h e r t h r e e t y p e s o f c o n n e c t i v e s . W o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l p e r -f o r m a n c e w a s f o u n d b e t w e e n v e r b a n d p r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s . F r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f a c o m p a r i s o n a m o n g t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g S s h a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r e c a l l s c o r e s t h a n t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S s i n t h e c a s e o f v e r b p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s o n l y , a l t h o u g h a l a r g e b u t n o t q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n f a v o u r o f I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g w a s a l s o f o u n d f o r p r e p o s i t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s . R e l a t i v e 72 t o the No T r a i n i n g S_s the performance of the Imagery Prompting Ss was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r both p r e p o s i t i o n and verb p l u s p r e p o s i -t i o n l i n k e d p a i r s and, i n a d d i t i o n , a s t r o n g but not q u i t e s i g n i f i -cant s u p e r i o r i t y of Imagery Prompting was a l s o found i n the case of verb l i n k s . I n s p e c t i o n of F i g u r e 1 suggests t h a t the f a i l u r e o f t h i s l a t t e r d i f f e r e n c e t o reach s i g n i f i c a n c e r e f l e c t e d , i n p a r t , a n o n - s i g -n i f i c a n t t r e n d among the No T r a i n i n g S_s t o perform b e t t e r w i t h verb l i n k s . C o n s i d e r i n g both the i n t e r a c t i n g imagery and semantic e l a b o r a -t i o n e x p l a n a t i o n of the sentence f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t , s e v e r a l outcomes of the Design 1 a n a l y s i s f a v o u r the former h y p o t h e s i s over the l a t t e r . F i r s t , from the p o i n t of view of semantic e l a b o r a t i o n s i t i s u n c l e a r why verbs and p r e p o s i t i o n s gave r o u g h l y equal second noun r e c a l l f a -c i l i t a t i o n ( i n f a c t , the t r e n d showed p r e p o s i t i o n s t o r e s u l t I n h i g h e r performance). I t seems t h a t verbs l i k e " e a t s " and "wears", f o r example, s h o u l d be more l i k e l y t o prompt the g e n e r a t i o n of semantic o v e r l a p s than p r e p o s i t i o n s l i k e " i n " or "on". However, from an i n t e r a c t i n g imagery p e r s p e c t i v e the r o u g h l y equal f a c i l i t a t i o n of verb and p r e -p o s i t i o n l i n k s i s e n t i r e l y expected because ( a c c o r d i n g t o the hypo-t h e s i s ) verbs f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l due t o the f a c t t h a t t h e y suggest i n t e r a c t i n g images. Thus a verb l i k e "wears", f o r example, g i v e s an equal f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t r e l a t i v e t o the p r e p o s i t i o n "on" because both suggest a p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f the two i t e m s . Since f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the e f f e c t o f p r e p o s i t i o n and verb p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n 73 l i n k s r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e , a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e c o n n e c t i v e s w i l l f o l -l o w t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e D e s i g n 2 r e s u l t s . A s e c o n d o u t c o m e o f t h e D e s i g n 1 a n a l y s i s w h i c h f a v o u r s t h e i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y h y p o t h e s i s w a s t h e f a c t t h a t a - s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d i n t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g b u t n o t t h e N o T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n . W h i l e i t i s u n c l e a r h o w f o r m a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e i m a g e s c o u l d b e n e f i t t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f s e m a n t i c e l a b o r a t i o n s s u c h a p r o c e s s i s v i t a l t o s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r -a c t i n g i m a g e f o r m a t i o n . I f t h e p r o p o s a l t h a t m e r e l y r e a d i n g p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l w i l l n o t e v o k e ( a n d m a y i n h i b i t ) i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n i s c o r r e c t , t h e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t a m o n g t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g S s s u g g e s t s t h a t s u c h a n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e c a n o v e r -c o m e t h i s p r o b l e m . T h a t i s , b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f S s g e n e r a -t i n g s e p a r a t e i m a g e s o f t h e t w o n o u n s i n e a c h p a i r ( e i t h e r b y i n s t r u c -t i o n t o d o s o o r a l s o , p e r h a p s , b y s i m u l t a n e o u s o b j e c t r e f e r e n t p r e -s e n t a t i o n e . g . , J e n s e n a n d R o h w e r , 1963, 1965)> i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n p r o m p t s w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o i m p r o v e S_s r e c a l l o f p a i r s l i n k e d b y i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g c o n n e c t i v e s b e c a u s e t h e s e c o n n e c t i v e s w o u l d p r o m p t S_s t o i n t e r a c t t h e i r s e l f - g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s . W h e r e a s , f o r p a i r s l i n k e d b y c o n n e c t i v e s w h i c h d o n o t i m p l y a n i n t e r a c t i o n , S_s w o u l d n o t b e p r o m p t e d t o i n t e r a c t t h e t w o i m a g e s f o r m e d f o r e a c h n o u n p a i r a n d t h e r e f o r e w o u l d n o t s h o w i m p r o v e d r e c a l l . T h e D e s i g n 2 a n a l y s i s o f t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g S s s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l s c o r e s a d d s s t r o n g s u p p o r t t o t h e i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y h y p o t h e s i s 74 o f c h i l d r e n ' s l i n k e d n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e n o t i o n t h a t g i v e n s e p a r a t e i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n , l i n k s w h i c h s u g g e s t a n i n t e r -a c t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n h i g h e r s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l t h a n n o n - i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g l i n k s , t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e D e s i g n 2 a n a l y s i s s h o w e d t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g S s t o r e c a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p ^ . 0 6 ) m o r e p a i r s l i n k e d h y i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s ( e . g . , " i n " , " o n " , a n d " a r o u n d " ) t h a n n o n -i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s ( e . g . , " b e s i d e " , " o v e r " a n d " b e l o w " ) . B y f i r s t e n s u r i n g s e p a r a t e i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n , I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g r e s u l t e d i n a r e c a l l p a t t e r n h i g h l y i n f a v o u r o f i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g c o n n e c -t i v e s . T h e f i n d i n g t h a t i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s p r o d u c e h i g h e r s e -c o n d n o u n r e c a l l t h a n n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s i s t h e s t r o n g e s t e v i d e n c e t o d a t e i n f a v o u r o f a n i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y h y p o t h e s i s o f c h i l d r e n ' s l i n k e d n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g . A p p a r e n t l y , b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t S s w o u l d g e n e r a t e i m a g e s o f t h e t w o n o u n s i n e a c h p a i r , t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g p r o c e d u r e w a s a b l e t o a v o i d t h e u s u a l i m a g e i n h i b i t o r y e f f e c t o f h a v i n g S_s r e a d p r i n t e d l i n k e d n o u n p a i r s a n d t h u s a r e c a l l p a t t e r n s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r o f i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g l i n k s w a s o b t a i n e d . F u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h e i m a g e r y h y p o t h e s i s a s e l a b o r a t e d i n t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n i s f o u n d i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l a n a l y s i s . F i r s t , t h e f i n d i n g t h a t i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s a n d v e r b s p l u s i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r r e c a l l e d t h a n t h e i r n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s l e n d s c r e d e n c e t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t S s w e r e t e n d i n g t o s t o r e E - s u p p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h a t i s , b e c a u s e 75 i n t e r a c t i n g l i n k s r e s u l t e d i n i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s t o r a g e w h i l e n o n - ' i n t e r a c t i n g l i n k s d i d n o t , S_s g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s a s o p p o s e d t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l s p e c i f i c d i s -t a n c e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s u p p o r t s t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t _Ss w e r e t e n d i n g t o f o r m i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e s o f t h e E - s u g g e s t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e c o m p a r i s o n a m o n g t h e t h r e e t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s o n t h e c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l t a s k s h o w i n g I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g t o g i v e m a x i m u m c o n n e c t i v e r e -c a l l , I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g t o r e s u l t i n i n t e r m e d i a t e c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l , a n d N o T r a i n i n g t o g i v e t h e p o o r e s t c o n n e c t i v e r e c a l l , s u p p o r t s t h e p r o p o s a l t h a t t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g S s w e r e m a k i n g t h e m o s t u s e o f E - s u p p l i e d c o n n e c t i v e s w h i l e t h e I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g S s w e r e a l s o u s i n g t h e E - s u p p l i e d l i n k s b u t t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , a n d t h e N o T r a i n i n g S s r e c e i v e d t h e l e a s t b e n e f i t f r o m t h e p r o v i d e d c o n n e c t i v e s . T u r n i n g n o w t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g S s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h v e r b s p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n l i n k s , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e D e s i g n 2 a n a l y s i s w e r e i n d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l p r e d i c t i o n s . U n e x p e c t e d l y , v e r b s p l u s i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s d i d n o t r e s u l t i n h i g h e r s e c o n d n o u n r e c a l l t h a n v e r b s p l u s n o n - i n t e r -a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s . A p p a r e n t l y , a d d i t i o n o f a v e r b t o a n o n - i n t e r -a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n i m p r o v e d t h e n o r m a l l y p o o r r e c a l l f a c i l i t a t i o n o f s u c h a l i n k t o t h e s a m e l e v e l a s t h a t o b t a i n e d w i t h a n i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n o r v e r b p l u s i n t e r a c t i n g . p r e p o s i t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , f o r e x a m p l e , a p h r a s e l i k e " t h e C A T r u n s u n d e r . t h e H O U S E " w o u l d , b e a s w e l l r e c a l l e d a s " t h e C A T r u n s i n t h e H O U S E " e v e n t h o u g h " t h e C A T u n d e r t h e 76 H O U S E " w o u l d n o t b e a s w e l l r e c a l l e d a s " t h e C A T i n t h e H O U S E " . T h i s p o t e n t i a l o f v e r b s f o r s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e o t h e r w i s e n o n - f a c i l i t o r y e f -f e c t o f n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s i s p u z z l i n g a n d m u s t a w a i t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e c a p a c i t y o f v a r i o u s v e r b s t o p r o m p t i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e g e n e r a t i o n . T h e a p p e a r a n c e o f s e v e r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e l i s t v a r i -a b l e m a y i n d i c a t e a l a c k o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e c a p a c i t y o f c e r t a i n l i n k e d p a i r s t o e l i c i t i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y c o d i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , " t h e B I R D o v e r t h e F I E L D " d o e s n o t s u g g e s t a n i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e w h e r e a s " t h e E L A S T I C o v e r t h e B O O K " d o e s s u g g e s t a n i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s c a p a c i t y o f c o n n e c t i v e s t o e i t h e r s u g g e s t o r n o t s u g g e s t i n t e r a c t i o n s d e p e n d i n g o n t h e n o u n s t h e y l i n k m a y b e r e s p o n s i b l e i n p a r t f o r s o m e o f t h e l i s t i n t e r a c t i o n s . A n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t m a y b e r e s p o n s i b l e i s w h e t h e r t h e n o u n s r e f e r t o a n i m a t e o r i n a n i m a t e t h i n g s . N o n e t h e l e s s t h e o c c u r e n c e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n c e r t a i n i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a n d c e r t a i n l i s t s d o e s n o t s e r i o u s l y q u a l i f y t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s b e c a u s e i n m o s t c a s e s t h e l i s t i n t e r a c t i o n d i d n o t i n d i c a t e a r e v e r s a l o f a n e f f e c t a m o n g l i s t s b u t r a t h e r a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n s o m e l i s t s a n d a s i m i l a r b u t n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d i n o t h e r s . 77 G E N E R A L C O N C L U S I O N S I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t a p u r e l y p r i n t e d m o d e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t i v e f o r m a x i m i z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l o f s e n t e n c e e m b e d d e d n o u n p a i r s . B e c a u s e t h i s t y p e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n m u s t b e e n c o d e d b y r e a d i n g , c h i l d r e n ' s v i s u a l s y s t e m i s o c c u p i e d a n d t h u s t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y e m p l o y i m a g e r y m n e m o n i c s w h i c h t h e r e f o r e c a u s e s a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e i r r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e . I n t h e c a s e o f p a i r s l i n k e d b y i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g c o n n e c t i v e s t h i s p r o b l e m c a n b e o v e r c o m e i n a t l e a s t t h r e e w a y s . F i r s t , b y e m p l o y i n g a n a u r a l r a t h e r t h a n p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n , S s v i s u a l s y s t e m c a n b e f r e e d a n d t h u s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s i m a g e r y c o d i n g . S e c o n d , r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e t h a t b y s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n t o g e n e r a t e v i s u a l i m a g e s o f p r e s e n t e d n o u n ; . p a i r s , c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o o v e r c o m e t h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m . T h i r d , o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e f o u n d t h a t s i m u l t a n e o u s o b j e c t r e f e r e n t p r e s e n -t a t i o n w i l l a l s o e n s u r e e f f e c t i v e i m a g e r y c o d i n g . A f e w r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e o b t a i n e d a s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t e v e n i n t h e c a s e o f a p u r e l y p r i n t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s m a y a l s o a l l o w o r e n c o u r a g e i m a g e r y c o d i n g . F o r n o u n p a i r s l i n k e d b y c o n n e c t i v e s w h i c h d o n o t s u g g e s t a n i n t e r a c t i o n r e s u l t s f r o m t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t t h a t I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g m a y b e e f f e c t i v e t h o u g h p e r h a p s o n l y i f i n t e r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g l i n k s a r e n o t i n c l u d e d a m o n g t h e p a i r s l i n k e d b y c o n n e c t i v e s w h i c h d o n o t i m p l y a n i n t e r a c t i o n . I n t e r m s o f t h e o r e t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y 78 c r e a t e g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y f o r t h e s e m a n t i c e l a b o r a t i o n t h e o r y o f l i n k e d n o u n p a i r l e a r n i n g . F i n d i n g s s h o w i n g s u p e r i o r r e c a l l f o r p a i r s l i n k e d b y i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s r a t h e r n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e s t r o n g s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t o b t a i n e d o n l y i n t h e I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g c o n d i t i o n , a r e c l e a r l y f a r m o r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n t e r a c t i n g i m a g e r y p r o c e s s e s a r e t h e m a j o r c o n t r i b u -t i o n t o t h e s e n t e n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n p h e n o m e n o n . 79 R E F E R E N C E S A m m o n , P . R . a n d A m m o n , M . S . E f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g i n v o c a b u l a r y v e r s u s s e n t e n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n . 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T h e B A L L r u n s a r o u n d t h e M I R R O R 91 T A B L E 6 F o r m a t o f E a c h E x p e r i m e n t a l B o o k l e t B o o k l e t N u m b e r 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 P r e s e n t a t i o n T i m e 10 s e c . 10 s e c . 10 s e c . 10 s e c . 10 s e c . e a c h 10 s e c . e a c h P a g e N u m b e r 1 2 3 4 5 9 10 • 17 1 • 16 17 « 32 1 16 u n l i n k e d p a i r s f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e p r o c e d u r e f i r s t w o r d o f e a c h d e m o n s t r a t i o n p a i r p l u s b l a n k s p a c e f o r p a r t n e r f i v e u n l i n k e d p r a c t i c e p a i r s f o r e m p l o y m e n t d u r i n g t r a i n i n g , p r o m p -t i n g , o r p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n e i g h t l i n k e d p a i r s f o r e m p l o y m e n t d u r i n g p h a s e 2 o f I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g , I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g , o r N o T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s s i x t e e n t o - b e - l e a r n e d l i n k e d p a i r s f i r s t w o r d o f e a c h p r e c e d i n g p a i r p r e s e n t e d i n a r a n d o m o r d e r . S p a c e p r o v i d e d f o r S_ t o s u p p l y s e c o n d n o u n o r i g i n a l t o - b e - l e a r n e d p a i r s w i t h a s p a c e i n s t e a d o f t h e o r i g i n a l c o n n e c t i v e . S s t a s k i s t o s u p p l y t h e c o n n e c t i v e . 92 T A B L E 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n a n d G e n e r a l P a i r e d A s s o c i a t e I n s t r u c t i o n s " H e l l o , . m y n a m e i s M i k e C a t c h p o l e . I ' m a u n i v e r s i t y s t u -d e n t a n d a m d o i n g s o m e w o r k t o t r y t o f i n d o u t h o w c h i l d r e n l i k e y o u r e m e m b e r t h i n g s . " W h a t I a m g o i n g t o d o i s g i v e y o u a b o o k l e t w i t h s o m e p a i r s o f w o r d s i n i t . I w i l l a s k y o u t o r e a d t h e s e p a i r s v e r y c a r e f u l l y a n d t r y t o r e m e m b e r t h e m . A f t e r y o u h a v e r e a d t h e p a i r s I w i l l s h o w y o u t h e f i r s t w o r d o f e a c h p a i r , o n e a t a t i m e , a n d y o u r j o b w i l l b e t o t r y t o w r i t e d o w n t h e p a r t n e r o f t h e f i r s t w o r d . " F o r e x a m p l e i f y o u w o u l d t u r n o v e r y o u r b o o k l e t y o u w i l l s e e t h a t t h e f i r s t p a i r o f w o r d s i s ' A I R P L A N E T H I M B L E ' . Y o u r j o b i s t o r e m e m b e r t h a t ' A I R P L A N E ' g o e s w i t h ' T H I M B L E ' . H o w p l e a s e t u r n t o p a g e 2. T h i s p a i r o f w o r d s i s ' B U T T O N R O C K ' . Y o u r j o b i s t o r e m e m b e r t h a t ' B U T T O N ' g o e s w i t h ' R O C K ' . A l r i g h t n o w t u r n t o p a g e 3« W h a t I w a n t y o u t o d o i s w r i t e d o w n t h e w o r d t h a t w e n t w i t h t h e w o r d ' A I R P L A N E ' i n t h e b l a n k . T h e a n s w e r i s ' T H I M B L E ' . D i d e v e r y o n e g e t t h a t ? G o o d n o w t u r n t o p a g e 4 a n d w r i t e d o w n t h e p a r t n e r f o r t h e w o r d ' B U T T O N ' . T h e a n s w e r o s ' R O C K ' . D i d e v e r y -o n e g e t t h a t ? O k a y , t h i s i s j u s t h o w w e w i l l p l a y t h e r e a l g a m e e x c e p t t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e m o r e p a i r s t o r e m e m b e r . A r e t h e r e a n y q u e s t i o n s ? " 93 T A B L E 8 I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s " T h e r e i s a s p e c i a l w a y I w a n t y o u t o l e a r n t h e r e a l p a i r s s o w e w i l l p r a c t i c e t h i s m e t h o d f o r a w h i l e . W h a t I w a n t y o u t o d o i s f o r e a c h p a i r y o u r e a d t r y t o t h i n k o f a m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f t h e t w o t h i n g s p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r . F o r e x a m p l e i f y o u t u r n t o p a g e 5 y o u s e e t h e p a i r 1 R U L E R S T R I N G ' . W h a t I w a n t y o u t o d o i s t o t r y a n d t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r . F o r . e ' x a m p l e t h e R U L E R m e a s u r e s t h e S T R I N G . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 6. T h i s p a i r i s ' A R R O W G U I T A R * . T r y t o i m a g i n e h o w t h e s e t w o t h i n g s m i g h t p l a y t o g e t h e r . F o r e x a m p l e t h e A R R O W s h o o t s t h e G U I T A R . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 7« T h e p a i r i s ' T I E B R U S H * . I w a n t y o u t o t h i n k o f a m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f h o w t h e s e t w o t h i n g s c o u l d g o t o g e t h e r . F o r e x a m p l e t h e T I E w r a p s a r o u n d t h e B R U S H . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 8. T h i s p a i r i s ' L E A F H A M M E R 1 . T r y t o i m a g i n e h o w t h e s e t w o t h i n g s c o u l d p l a y t o g e t h e r . F o r e x a m p l e t h e L E A F f a l l s o n t h e H A M M E R . N e x t t u r n t o p a g e 9. T h i s p a i r o s ' M A S K F R O G ' . T r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f h o w t h e s e t w o t h i n g s c o u l d p l a y t o g e t h e r . F o r e x a m -p l e t h e M A S K c o u l d b e o n t h e F R O G . " N o w , w h e n y o u s e e t h e r e a l p a i r s w h i c h y o u a r e t o t r y t o r e m e m b e r t h e y w i l l b e p r i n t e d i n c a p i t a l s i n a s h o r t s e n t e n c e . W h a t I w i l l w a n t y o u t o d o i s t o r e a d t h i s s e n t e n c e a n d t r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e i n y o u r m i n d o f t h e t w o t h i n g s p r i n t e d i n c a p i -t a l s p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r . S o f i r s t w e w i l l l o o k a t s o m e m o r e p r a c -t i c e p a i r s b u t n o w t h e y w i l l b e i n s h o r t s e n t e n c e s . O k a y , t u r n t o p a g e 10. •' T h e : L I G H T B U L B i n s i d e t h e B U G G Y ' . T r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s g o i n g t o g e t h e r . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 11. ' T h e A L L I G A T O R s p l a s h e s t h e F L O W E R ' . O n c e a g a i n t r y t o i m a -g i n e t h e s e t w o t h i n g s p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 13* ' T h e N E C K L A C E a n d t h e C L O T H E S P E G ' . T r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s g o i n g t o g e t h e r . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 14. ' T h e H O O K c a t c h e s t h e S H E L L ' . N o w t h i n k o f a - p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s g o i n g t o g e t h e r . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 15. ' T h e P L A T E a n d t h e C O M B ' . I m a g i n e h o w t h e s e t w o t h i n g s c o u l d p l a y t o g e t h e r . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 16. ' T h e F L Y a b o v e t h e A S H T R A Y ' . I m a g i n e h o w t h e t w o t h i n g s c o u l d g o t o g e t h e r . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 17. ' T h e H O C K E Y P L A Y E R d a n c e s b e t w e e n t h e H E L I C O P T E R S ' . T h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r . " N o w I a m g o i n g t o h a v e y o u r e a d t h e r e a l p a i r s t h a t I w a n t y o u t o r e m e m b e r . E a c h p a i r w i l l b e i n c a p i t a l s i n a s h o r t s e n t e n c e . F o r e a c h p a i r r e a d t h e s e n t e n c e c a r e f u l l y a n d t r y t o i m a g i n e h o w t h e t w o t h i n g s c o u l d p l a y t o g e t h e r . 94 T A B L E 9 I m a g e r y P r o m p t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s " T h e r e i s a s p e c i a l w a y I w a n t y o u t o l e a r n t h e r e a l p a i r s s o w e w i l l p r a c t i c e t h i s m e t h o d f o r a w h i l e . W h a t I w a n t y o u t o d o i s f o r e a c h p a i r y o u r e a d t r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e t w o t h i n g s . F o r e x a m p l e i f y o u t u r n t o p a g e 5 you s e e t h e p a i r ' R U L E R S T R I N G ' . W h a t I w a n t y o u t o d o i s t o t r y a n d t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s . F o r e x a m p l e t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f a R U L E R a n d a S T R I N G . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 6. T h i s p a i r i s ' A R R O W G U I T A R ' . T r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f a n A R R O W a n d a G U I T A R . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 7. T h e p a i r i s ' T I E B R U S H ' . I w a n t y o u t o t r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f a T I E a n d a B R U S H . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 8. T h i s p a i r i s ' L E A F H A M M E R ' . T r y t o i m a g i n e a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t h i n g s . T h a t i s t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f a L E A F a n d a H A M M E R . N e x t t u r n t o p a g e 9. T h i s p a i r i s ' M A S K F R O G ' . T r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s . T h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f a M A S K a n d F R O G . " N o w , w h e n y o u s e e t h e r e a l p a i r s w h i c h y o u a r e t o t r y t o r e -m e m b e r t h e y w i l l b e p r i n t e d i n c a p i t a l s i n a s h o r t s e n t e n c e . W h a t I w a n t y o u t o d o i s t o r e a d t h e s e n t e n c e a n d t r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e i n y o u r m i n d o f t h e t w o t h i n g s p r i n t e d i n c a p i t a l s . S o f i r s t w e w i l l l o o k a t s o m e m o r e p r a c t i c e p a i r s b u t n o w t h e y w i l l b e i n a s h o r t s e n t e n c e . O k a y t u r n t o p a g e 10. ' T h e L I G H T B U L B i n s i d e t h e B U G G Y ' . T r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 11. ' T h e A L L I G A T O R s p l a s h e s t h e F L O W E R ' . O n c e a g a i n t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 12. ' T h e H A I R C L I P r u s t s w i t h i n t h e J U G ' . T h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 13. ' T h e N E C K L A C E a n d t h e C L O T H E S P E G ' . T r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 14. ' T h e H O O K c a t c h e s t h e S H E L L ' . T h i n k o f a p i c t u r e i n y o u r m i n d o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 15. ' T h e P L A T E a n d t h e C O M B ' . I m a g i n e a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 16. ' T h e F L Y a b o v e t h e A S H T R A Y ' . T h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 17. ' T h e H O C K E Y P L A Y E R d a n c e s b e t w e e n t h e H E L I C O P T E R S ' . T h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e s e t w o t h i n g s . " N o w I a m g o i n g t o h a v e y o u r e a d t h e r e a l p a i r s t h a t I w a n t y o u t o r e m e m b e r . E a c h p a i r w i l l b e p r i n t e d i n c a p i t a l s i n a s h o r t s e n t e n c e . F o r e a c h p a i r r e a d t h e s e n t e n c e o a r e f u l l y a n d t r y t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e o f t h e t w o t h i n g s . " 95 T A B L E 10 N o T r a i n i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s " B e f o r e w e s t a r t t h e r e a l g a m e w e w i l l p r a c t i c e a b i t m o r e t o m a k e s u r e e v e r y b o d y u n d e r s t a n d s . F o r e x a m p l e i f y o u t u r n t o p a g e 5 y o u s e e t h e p a i r ' R U L E R S T R I N G ' . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 6. T h i s p r a c t i c e p a i r i s ' A R R O W G U I T A R ' . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 7. T h i s p a i r i s ' T I E B R U S H * . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 8. T h i s p a i r i s ' L E A P H A M M E R 1 . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 9. T h e p a i r i s ' M A S K F R O G ' . " N o w , w h e n y o u s e e t h e r e a l p a i r s w h i c h y o u a r e t o t r y t o r e m e m b e r t h e y w i l l b e p r i n t e d i n c a p i t a l s i n a s h o r t s e n t e n c e . W h a t I w i l l w a n t y o u t o d o i s t o r e a d t h i s s e n t e n c e a n d t r y t o r e m e m b e r t h e p a i r . S o f i r s t w e w i l l l o o k a t s o m e m o r e p r a c t i c e p a i r s b u t n o w t h e y w i l l b e i n . s h o r t s e n t e n c e s . O k a y t u r n t o p a g e 10. ' T h e L I G H T B U L B i n s i d e t h e B U G G Y ' . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 11. ' T h e A L L I G A T O R s p l a s h e s t h e F L O W E R ' . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 12. ' T h e H A I R C L I P r u s t s w i t h i n t h e J U G ' . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 13. ' T h e N E C K L A C E a n d t h e C L O T H E S P E G ' . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 14. ' T h e H O O K c a t c h e s t h e S H E L L ' . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 15. ' T h e P L A T E a n d t h e C O M B ' . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 16. ' T h e F L Y a b o v e t h e A S H T R A Y ' . N o w t u r n t o p a g e 17. ' T h e H O C K E Y P L A Y E R d a n c e s b e t w e e n t h e H E L I C O P T E R S ' . " N o w I a m g o i n g t o h a v e y o u r e a d t h e r e a l p a i r s t h a t I w a n t y o u t o r e m e m b e r . E a c h p a i r w i l l b e i n c a p i t a l s i n a s h o r t s e n t e n c e . F o r e a c h p a i r r e a d t h e s e n t e n c e c a r e f u l l y a n d t r y t o r e m e m b e r t h e p a i r . 96 T A B L E 11 S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l I n s t r u c t i o n s " N o w t h a t y o u h a v e r e a d a l l t h e , p a i r s I a m g o i n g t o h a v e y o u r e a d t h e f i r s t w o r d o f e a c h p a i r , o n e a t a t i m e , a n d t r y t o w r i t e d o w n i t s p a r t n e r , t h e s e c o n d w o r d . T h e o n l y w o r d I w a n t y o u t o w r i t e i n t h e b l a n k b e s i d e t h e f i r s t w o r d i s i t s p a r t n e r , t h e s e c o n d w o r d . P l e a s e g u e s s i f y o u h a v e a n y i d e a . D o n ' t w o r r y a b o u t s p e l l i n g a n d k e e p y o u r a n s w e r s t o y o u r s e l f . " N o w t u r n t o p a g e 34 a n d t r y t o w r i t e d o w n t h e p a r t n e r f o r t h i s w o r d . . . " 97 T A B L E 12 C o n n e c t i v e R e c a l l I n s t r u c t i o n s " T h i s i s t h e l a s t p a r t o f t h e g a m e . A s y o u r e m e m b e r t h e t w o w o r d s o f e a c h p a i r h a d t h e w o r d " t h e " i n f r o n t o f t h e m . A l s o t h e y h a d o n e o r t w o w o r d s b e t w e e n t h e m . W h a t I a m g o i n g t o d o n o w i s s h o w y o u t h e p a i r s y o u j u s t t r i e d t o r e m e m b e r . T h e r e w i l l b e a b l a n k b e t w e e n t h e m . Y o u r j o b w i l l b e t o t r y t o r e m e m b e r t h e w o r d o r w o r d s t h a t j o i n e d a p a i r a n d w r i t e i t i n t h e b l a n k . Y o u w i l l h a v e 10 s e c o n d s f o r e a c h p a i r . A r e t h e r e a n y q u e s t i o n s ? O k a y , t u r n t o p a g e 50 a n d t r y t o f i l l i n t h e m i s s i n g w o r d o r w o r d s . N o w t u r n t o p a g e ^1..." 98 T A B L E 13 S o u r c e T a b l e f o r t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f D e s i g n 1 S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l - G r a d e (2) x T y p e o f T r a i n i n g (3) x L i s t (4) x T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e (4) S o u r c e B e t w e e n S u b j e c t s G r a d e T y p e o f T r a i n i n g L i s t G r a d e x T r a i n i n g G r a d e x L i s t T r a i n i n g x L i s t G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t S u b j e c t s w i t h i n G r o u p s ( E r r o r ) W i t h i n S u b j e c t s T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e G r a d e x C o n n e c t i v e T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e G r a d e x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e C o n n e c t i v e x S u b j e c t s w i t h i n G r o u p s ( E r r o r ) T o t a l S S d f M S F P 138.163 71 6.420 1 6.420 4.091 P<.05 21.299 2 10.649 6.785 P<-01 4.177 3 1.392 O.887 -1.549 2 0.774 0.493 -0.955 3 0.318 O.203 -11.563 6 1.927 1.228 -16.868 6 2.811 1.791 — 75-333 48 1.569 158.750 216 10.705 3 3.568 5.104 p<.01 0.423 3 0.161 0.230 — 8.035 6 1.339 1.916 P<.075 13.198 9 I.466 2.098 P<C.05 1.340 6 0.223 0.320 -6.976 9 0.775 1.109 -6.437 18 0.358 0.512 -10.910 18 0.606 0.867 -100.667 144 0.699 296.913 287 99 T A B L E 14 N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t o f T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e M a i n E f f e c t - D e s i g n 1 ( S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l ) S o u r c e C o n n e c t i v e S S 10.71 d f 3 M S 3.57 P 5.10 P4 . . O I O r d e r T r e a t m e n t i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n s C 53 P 72 3 V 76 V + P 92 T r u n c a t e d R a n g e S x q .95 S x q .99 2 19.86 26.25 3 23.84 29.80 4 26.18 31.94 C P V V + P 19 P<-055 V 23 P<-055 4 V + P 39 P<-01 20 16 T A B L E 15 100 S i m p l e M a i n E f f e c t s T e s t a n d S u b s e q u e n t N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t s o f t h e L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e I n t e r a c t i o n i n D e s i g n 1 ( S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l ) P c V V+P L i s t 1 20 10 16 17 L i s t 2 15 16 21 35 L i s t 3 17 18 16 20 L i s t 4 20 9 23 20 A n a l y s i s o f S i m p l e M a i n E f f e c t s i - C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t S o u r c e S S d f M S F C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t 1 2.93 3 O.98 1.40 C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t 2 14.15 3 4.72 6.75 C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t 3 0.49 3 0.16 — C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t 4 6.33 3 2.11 3.02 E r r o r IOO.67 144 0.70 P ^ . O I P<.05 a ) N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t f o r C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t 2 O r d e r 1 2 3 4 T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n P C V V + P T j 15 1 6 21 35 T r u n c a t e d R a n g e 2 3 4 S x q . .95 8 . 0 8 9.70 10.66 S x q .99 10.69 1 2 . 1 3 1 3 . 0 0 P C V V + P P - 1 6 20 p<T.01 C 5 19 P<«01 V 14 P<.01 V + P b) N e w m a n - K e u l s f o r C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t 4 O r d e r 1 2 3 4 T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n C P P + V V T j 9 20 20 23 101 T A B L E 15 ( c o n t . ) T r u n c a t e d R a n g e 2 3 4 S x q . .95 8 . 0 8 9.70 10.66 S x q . .99 10.69 12.13 13.00 C P V + P V C - 11 p<.01 11 p<.01 14 p<.01 P 0 3 V + P - 3 V 102 T A B L E 16 N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t o f t h e T y p e o f T r a i n i n g E f f e c t i n D e s i g n 1 ( S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l ) S o u r c e T r a i n i n g S S 21.30 d f 2 M S 10.65 F 6.79 P<-01 O r d e r T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n s N T 63 I T 104 I P 126 T r u n c a t e d R a n g e S x c - .95 S x q .99 2 34.88 46.38 3 41.98 52.99 N T I T I P N T I T 41 P<-05 I P 63 pCOl 22 103 T A B L E 17 S i m p l e M a i n E f f e c t s T e s t a n d S u b s e q u e n t N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t o f t h e T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e I n t e r a c t i o n i n D e s i g n 1 ( S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l ) f r o m t h e P o i n t o f V i e w o f C o n n e c t i v e a t T r a i n i n g p C V V + P I T 23 22 28 31 I P 34 18 29 45 N T 15 13 19 16 S o u r c e S S d f M S F C o n n e c t i v e a t I T 2.25 3 0.75 1.07 C o n n e c t i v e a t I P 15-71 3 5-24 7-49 C o n n e c t i v e a t N T 0.78 3 0.26 -E r r o r 100.67 144 0.70 - K e u l s T e s t f o r C o n n e c t i v e a t I P O r d e r 1 2 3 4 T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n s C V P V + P T j 18 29 34 45 T r u n c a t e d R a n g e 2 3 4 S x q .95 11.47 13 • 76 15-11 S x q .99 15.16 17.20 18.43 C V P C 11 p<.055 16 P<.05 V p V + P p P<.01 V + P 27 p O O l 16 p<.05 11 pO055 104 T A B L E 18 S i m p l e M a i n E f f e c t s T e s t a n d S u b s e q u e n t N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t s o f t h e T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e I n t e r a c t i o n i n D e s i g n 1 ( S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l ) f r o m t h e P o i n t o f V i e w o f T r a i n i n g a t C o n n e c t i v e P C V V + P I T 23 22 28 31 I P 34 18 29 45 N T 15 13 19 16 S o u r c e S S d f M S P P T r a i n i n g a t P 7.58 2 3.79 4.14 P<.05 T r a i n i n g a t C I.69 2 0.85 O.92 T r a i n i n g a t V 2.53 2 1.26 1.38 T r a i n i n g a t V + P 17.53 2 8.76 9-56 p<.01 P o o l e d E r r o r 144 O.92 a ) N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t f o r T r a i n i n g a t P O r d e r 1 2 3 T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n s N T I T I P T j 15 2 3 34 T r u n c a t e d R a n g e 2 3 S x q .95 13.09 15.71 S x q .99 17.31 19.65 N T I T I P N T 8 19 p<.05 I T _ l l I P b ) N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t f o r T r a i n i n g a t V + P O r d e r 1 2 3 T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n s N T I T I P T j 16 31 45 T A B L E 18 ( c o n t . ) T r u n c a t e d R a n g e 2 3 S x q .95 13.09 15-71 S x q .99 17.31 19.65 F T I T V + P N T - 15 P<.05 29 p<.01 I T - 14 p<.05 I P 106 T A B L E 19 S o u r c e T a b l e f o r t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f D e s i g n 2 S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l - G r a d e (2) x T y p e o f T r a i n i n g (3) x L i s t (4) x T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e (2) x N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n (2) S o u r c e S S d f M S ' P P G r a d e 1.39 1 1.39 2.96 _ T y p e o f T r a i n i n g 12.01 2 6.00 12.81 p<.01 L i s t 1.58 3 0.53 1.13 -T y p e o f C o n n e c t i v e 1.39 1 1.39 4.04 P<.05 N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n O.56 1 0.56 0.17 — G r a d e x T r a i n i n g O.76 2 O.38 0.81 — G r a d e x L i s t 0.75 3 0.25 0.53 -T r a i n i n g x L i s t 2.94 6 0.49 1.04 -G r a d e x C o n n e c t i v e 0.22 1 0.22 0.65 -T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e 0.55 2 0.27 0.80 -L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 4.12 3 1.47 4.28 p ^ . O l G r a d e x I n t e r a c t i o n O.56 1 O.56 0.17 -T r a i n i n g x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.34 2 0.17 0.53 -L i s t x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.83 3 0.28 0.09 -C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n O.56 1 O.56 0.16 -G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t 6.19 6 1.03 2.20 -G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e O.13 2 0.66 0.19 -G r a d e x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 2.42 3 0.81 2.34 -T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 1.73 6 0.29 0.84 -G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x I n t e r a c t i o n 1.17 '2 0.59 1.82 -G r a d e x L i s t x I n t e r a c t i o n O.92 3 0.31 0.95 -T r a i n i n g x L i s t x I n t e r a c t i o n 3.27 6 0.55 1.69 -G r a d e x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.22 1 0.22 0.63 -T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 1.88 2 0.94 2.68 P<.075 L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 1.81 3 0.60 1.72 -S u b j . w. G r o u p s 22.50 48 0.47 - -G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 2.15 6 0.36 I.04 -G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t x I n t e r a c t i o n 1.10 6 0.18 0.57 -G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.88 2 0.44 1.26 -G r a d e x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n O.36 3 0.12 0.34 -T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 1.51 6 0.25 O.72 -C o n n e c t i v e x S u b j . w . g r o u p s 16.50 48 0.34 I n t e r a c t i o n x S u b j . w. g r o u p s 15.50 48 0.32 107 T A B L E 19 ( c o n t . ) S o u r c e S S d f M S F G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n O.95 6 0.16 O.45 C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n x S u b j . w . g r o u p s 16.83 48 0.35 108 TABLE 20 Newman-Keuls Test o f the Type o f T r a i n i n g Main E f f e c t - Design 2 - Second Noun R e c a l l Source SS df MS P p T r a i n i n g 12.01 2 6.00 12.81 P<.01 Order 1 2 3 Treatment i n Order of P o s i t i o n s IP IT NT T j 31 54 79 Truncated Range 2 3 Sxq. .95 19.12 22.94 Sxq .99 25.49 29.12 I P IT NT IP - 23 p<.05 48 p<.01 IT - 25 p<.05 NT T A B L E 21 S i m p l e M a i n E f f e c t s T e s t o f t h e L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e I n t e r a c t i o n i n D e s i g n 2 ( S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l ) f r o m t h e P o i n t o f V i e w o f C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t P r e p o s i t i o n s V e r b s p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s L i s t 1 20 17 L i s t 2 15 35 L i s t 3 17 20 L i s t 4 20 20 S o u r c e S S d f M S F P C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t 1 0.13 1 0.13 0.36 _ C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t 2 5-56 1 5-56 16.16 PO01 C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t 3 0.13 1 0.13 0.36 — C o n n e c t i v e a t L i s t 4 0.0 1 0.0 0.0 — E r r o r 48 0.34 F o r L i s t 2 V + P > P P £.01 110 T A B L E 22 S i m p l e M a i n E f f e c t s T e s t a n d S u b s e q u e n t N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t o f t h e L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e I n t e r a c t i o n i n D e s i g n 2 ( S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l ) f r o m t h e P o i n t o f V i e w o f L i s t a t C o n n e c t i v e P r e p o s i t i o n s V e r b s p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s L i s t 1 20 17 L i s t 2 15 35 L i s t 3 17 20 L i s t 4 20 20 L i s t a t C o n n e c t i v e - P o o l e d E r r o r T e r m = .4063 S o u r c e S S d f M S P P L i s t a t P • 50 3 0.17 0.41 — L i s t a t V + P 6.00 3 2.00 4.92 P<-01 P o o l e d E r r o d 48 o.41 N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t o f L i s t a t V + P O r d e r 1 2 3 T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r O f P o s i t i o n s L i s t 1 L i s t 3 L i s t 4 L i s t 4 T j 17 20 20 35 T r u n c a t e d R a n g e 2 3 4 S x q .95 10.90 13.12 14-42 S i q .99 14.53 • 16.60 17.82 L l L3 L4 L2 L 1 - 3 3 18 P<.01 L 3 - 0 15 p<.01 L 4 - 15 P<-01 L2 I l l T A B L E 2 3 S i m p l e M a i n E f f e c t s A n a l y s i s o f t h e I n t e r a c t i o n o f T y p e o f T r a i n i n g x N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n a t P r e p o s i t i o n s - D e s i g n 2 ( S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l ) f r o m t h e P o i n t o f V i e w o f N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n a t T r a i n i n g I T I P N T I n t . P 1 0 2 1 7 N o n - i n t . P 1 3 1 3 S o u r c e I m p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n a t I T ( p r e p s ) I m p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n a t I P ( p r e p s ) 1 . 3 3 1 1 * 3 3 3 - 8 0 p £ . 0 6 I m p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n a t N T E r r o r S S d f M S P 0.19 1 0.19 — 3 .33 . 8 0 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 2 -4 8 0.35 F o r I P - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p s > n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g p r e p s 112 TABLE 24 Simple Main E f f e c t s A n a l y s i s o f the I n t e r a c t i o n o f Type o f T r a i n i n g x Nature of I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n at Verbs p l u s P r e p o s i t i o n s - Design 2 (Second Noun R e c a l l ) from the P o i n t of View of Nature o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n s at T r a i n i n g V+Int.P V+Non-int.P IT : 18 13 I P 21 24 NT 7 9 Source I m p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n at IT (V+P) I m p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n at IP (V+P) I m p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n at NT (V+P) E r r o r SS df MS F P 0.52 1 0.52 1.49 — 0.19 1 0.19 0.53 -0.08 1 0.08 0.24 — 48 0.35 T A B L E 25 113 S i m p l e M a i n E f f e c t s A n a l y s i s a n d S u b s e q u e n t N e w m a n -K e u l s T e s t s o f t h e T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e x N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n i n D e s i g n 2 ( S e c o n d N o u n R e c a l l ) f r o m t h e P o i n t o f V i e w o f T r a i n i n g a t C o n n e c t i v e X N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n P V + P I n t . N o n - i n t . I n t . N o n - i n t . I T 10 13 18 13 I P 21 13 21 24 KT 7 8 7 9 S o u r c e S S d f M S F P T r a i n i n g f o r i n t . a t P 4-53 2 2 . 2 6 6.45 P^.01 T r a i n i n g f o r n o n - i n t . a t P O.69 2 0.35 0.99 _ T r a i n i n g f o r i n t . a t V + P 4.53 2 2.26 6.46 p<.01 T r a i n i n g f o r n o n - i n t . a t V + P 5-03 2 2.51 7.17 P<-01 E r r o r 48 0.35 N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t s f o r T r a i n i n g a t I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o -s i t i o n s , T r a i n i n g a t V e r b s p l u s I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s , a n d T r a i n i n g a t V e r b s p l u s N o n - i n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s T r u n c a t e d R a n g e 2 3 S x q .95 8.27 9.95 S x q .99 11.02 12.59 a ) T r a i n i n g a t I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s O r d e r 1 2 3 T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n s N T I T I P T j •7 10 21 T A B L E 25 ( c o n t . ) N T I T I P N T 3 14 p O O l I T - 11 p < . 0 5 I P T r a i n i n g a t V e r b s p l u s I n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s O r d e r 1 2 3 T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n s N T I T I P T j 7 18 21 N T I T I P N T - 11 p < . 0 5 14 p C . O l I T 3 I P T r a i n i n g a t V e r b s p l u s N o n - i n t e r a c t i n g P r e p o s i t i o n s O r d e r 1 2 3 T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n s N T I T I P T j 9 13 24 N T I T I P N T 4 15 P < . 0 1 I T - 11 p < . 0 5 I P 11.5 T A B L E 26 S o u r c e T a b l e f o r t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f D e s i g n 1 - C o n n e c t i v e R e c a l l S o u r c e S S d f M S F G r a d e 0 . 5 0 1 0 . 5 0 0 . 6 5 _ T y p e o f T r a i n i n g 5 . 0 5 2 2 .52 3 . 2 7 P.<.05 L i s t 2.35 3 O . 7 8 1 .02 — C o n n e c t i v e 55-68 3 18 .56 23 .93 — G r a d e x T r a i n i n g 1.65 2 0 . 8 2 1.07 — G r a d e x L i s t 0 . 6 4 3 0 . 2 1 0 . 2 8 _ T r a i n i n g x L i s t 7.67 6 1.28 1.66 — G r a d e x C o n n e c t i v e 2.25 3 0 .75 0 . 9 7 — T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e 2.42 6 0 . 4 0 O . 5 2 — L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 14 .07 9 1.56 2 .02 P £ . 0 5 G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t 13 .30 6 2 .22 2 .88 P < . 0 5 G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e 2.77 6 O . 4 6 0 . 6 0 — G r a d e x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 4.17 9 O . 4 6 0 . 6 0 — T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 21.41 18 1.19 1.53 -S s f - ' w i t h i n G r o u p s ( E r r o r ) 37-00 48 0 . 7 7 G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 2 9 . 0 6 18 1.61 2 . 0 8 p < . 0 1 C o n n e c t i v e x S s w i t h i n G r o u p s ( E r r o r ) 111.67 144 O . 7 8 1 1 6 T A B L E 2 7 N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t o f t h e T r a i n i n g E f f e c t i n D e s i g n 1 - ( C o n n e c t i v e R e c a l l ) S o u r c e T r a i n i n g E r r o r S S 5 . 0 5 d f 2 4 8 F 2 . 5 2 0 . 7 7 P P<-05 O r d e r T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n s T j N T 7 8 I T 9 1 I P 1 0 9 T r u n c a t e d R a n g e S x q .95 S x q .99 2 2 4 - 5 2 3 2 . 1 8 3 2 9 . 1 7 3 6 . 5 6 N T I T I P N T I T 1 3 I P 3 1 P<-05 1 8 117 TABLE 28 Newman-Keuls Test of the Connective E f f e c t i n ' Design 1 (Connective R e c a l l ) Source SS Connective 55*68 E r r o r Order 1 Treatments i n Order of P o s i t i o n s V+P T j 34 df MS F p 3 18.56 23.93 p<.01 144 O.78 2 3 4 P V c 42 99 103 Truncated Range r 2 3 4 Sxq. .95 20.92 25.02 27.49 Sxq .99 27.56 31.30 33.54 V+P V+P P V C V 65 p<.01 57 P<.01 69 p<.01 61 p<.01 V+P = P < V=C TABLE 29 Simple Main E f f e c t s Test and Subsequent Newman-Keuls A n a l y s i s of the Connective x L i s t I n t e r -a c t i o n i n Design 1 (Connective R e c a l l ) from the P o i n t of View o f a Comparison Among L i s t s at Each Connective P C V V+P L i s t 1 14 27 25 9 L i s t 2 4 28 36 8 L i s t 3 12 21 17 10 L i s t 4 12 27 21 7 Source SS df MS F P L i s t at P 3.28 3 1.09 1.41 -L i s t at C 1.71 3 0.57 0.74 p<.01 L i s t at V 11.17 3 3.72 4.81 -L i s t at V+P 0.27 3 0.09 0.12 -E r r o r 144 0.77 Newman-Keuls Test f o r L i s t at V Order 1 2 3 4 Treatments i n Order of P o s i t i o n s L3 L 4 L l L2 T j 17 21 25 36 Truncated Range 2 3 4 Sxq .95 10.41 12.50 13.73 Sxq .99 13-76 15.63 16.75 TABLE 29 (corrt.) L i s t 3 L i s t 4 L i s t 1 L i s t 2 L i s t 3 - 4 8 19 p<-01 L i s t 4 - 4 15 P<.025 L i s t 1 - 11 p<.05 L i s t 2 120 T A B L E 30 S o u r c e T a b l e f o r t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f D e s i g n 2 - C o n n e c t i v e R e c a l l S o u r c e S S d f M S P P G r a d e 0.35 1 0.35 I.69 — T r a i n i n g 1.72 2 0.86 4.19 P<-05 L i s t 1.03 . 3 0.34 I.67 — C o n n e c t i v e 0.22 1 0.22 1.05 — N a t u r e o f I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n 3-56 1 3.56 16.25 P<.01 G r a d e x T r a i n i n g 0.55 2 0.27 1.34 -G r a d e x L i s t 0.60 3 0.19 0.93 — T r a i n i n g x L i s t 1.03 6 0.17 0.84 — G r a d e x C o n n e c t i v e 0.13 1 0.13 0.59 — T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e 0.90 2 0.45 0.21 — L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 0.75 3 0.25 1.18 — G r a d e x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.14 1 0.14 0.06 — T r a i n i n g x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.26 2 0.13 0.59 — L i s t x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.31 3 0.10 0.47 — C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n O.56 1 O.56 0.26 — G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t 1.37 6 0.23 1.11 — G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e 0.40 2 0.20 0.93 — G r a d e x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 0.35 3 0.12 0.55 — T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 1.10 6 0.18 0.87 -G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.90 2 0.45 0.21 -G r a d e x L i s t x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.13 3 0.42 0.19 -T r a i n i n g x L i s t x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.72 6 0.12 0.55 -G r a d e x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n • 0.13 1 0.13 0.59 -T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.30 2 0.15 0.70 -L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 3.81 3 1.27 5.99 PCO I S s w i t h i n G r o u p s ( E r r o r ) 9-83 48 0.20 G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e 2.30 6 0.38 1.81 — G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.94 6 0.16 0.71 -G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.27 2 0.14 0.14 -G r a d e x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 1.46 3 0.49 2.30 -1 2 1 T A B L E 30 ( c o n t . ) S o u r c e S S d f M S F T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 0.67 6 0 . 1 1 0.53 C o n n e c t i v e x S s w i t h i n G r o u p s ( E r r o r ) 10.17 4 8 0 . 2 1 I n t e r a c t i o n x S s w i t h i n G r o u p s ( E r r o r ) 10.50 4 8 0 . 2 2 G r a d e x T r a i n i n g x L i s t x C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n 2.65 6 O.44 2 . 0 8 C o n n e c t i v e x I n t e r a c t i o n x S s w i t h i n G r o u p s ( E r r o r ) 10.17 4 8 0 . 2 1 p 122 T A B L E 31 N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t o f t h e T y p e o f T r a i n i n g E f f e c t i n D e s i g n 2 ( C o n n e c t i v e R e c a l l ) S o u r c e S S d f M S F p T r a i n i n g 1.72 2 0.86 4.19 P<.05 E r r o r 48 0.20 O r d e r 1 2 3 T r e a t m e n t s i n O r d e r o f P o s i t i o n s N T I T I P T j 15 29 32 T r u n c a t e d R a n g e 2 3 S x q . .95 1 2 . 6 4 15.21 S x q .99 16.85 19.29 N T I T I P N T - 14 p<v.'05 17 p<.05 I T - 3 I P N T < I T = I P 123 TABLE 32 A n a l y s i s o f S i m p l e M a i n E f f e c t s o f t h e L i s t x I m p l i e d I n t e r a c t i o n x C o n n e c t i v e I n t e r a c t i o n i n D e s i g n 2 ( C o n n e c t i v e R e c a l l ) P V + P I n t . N o n - i n t . I n t . N o n - i n t . L i s t 1 11 3 4 5 L i s t 2 1 3 8 0 L i s t 3 8 4 9 1 L i s t 4 10 2 3 4 S o u r c e S S d f M S P P L i s t 1 I n t . P v s V + i n t . P 1.36 1 6.48 P ^ . O l L i s t 1 N o n - i n t . P v s V + n o n - i n t . P 0.11 1 0.52 — L i s t 1- I n t . P v s N o n - i n t . P ,. 1.78 1 8.48 p<.01 L i s t 1: V + i n t . P v s V + n o n - i n t . P 0.03 1 0.14 — L i s t 2 I n t . P v s V + i n t . P 1.36 1 6.48 p<.01 L i s t 2: N o n - i n t . P v s V + n o n - i n t . P 0.25 1 1.19 -L i s t 2- I n t . P v s N o n - i n t . P 0.12 1 0.57 — L i s t 2 V + i n t . P v s V + n o n - i n t . P 1.78 1 8.48 p<.01 L i s t 3' I n t . P v s V + i n t . P 0.03 1 0.14 ' — ' L i s t 3 N o n - i n t . P v s V + n o n - i n t . P 0.25 1 1.19 — L i s t 3 I n t . P v s N o n - i n t . P 0.44 1 2.10 — L i s t 3 V + i n t . P v s V + n o n - i n t . P 1.78 1 8.48 p<.01 L i s t 4 . I n t . P v s V + i n t . P 1.37 1 6.52 p<£.01 L i s t 4 N o n - i n t . P v s V + n o n - i n t . P O . l l 1 O.52 — L i s t 4 I n t . P v s N o n - i n t . P 1.78 1 8.48 p<.01 L i s t 4 V + i n t . P v s V + n o n - ^ i n t . P 0.03 1 0.14 — E r r o r 48 0.21 

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