UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Comparison of physiological correlates accompanying transcendental meditation and relaxation period Cox, David Neil 1974

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A C O M P A R I S O N O F P H Y S I O L O G I C A L C O R R E L A T E S A C C O M P A N Y I N G T R A N S C E N D E N T A L M E D I T A T I O N A N D R E L A X A T I O N P E R I O D b y D A V I D N E I L . C O X B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 9 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y W e a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A p r i l , 1 9 7 4 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e March 28,197*i ABSTRACT Heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, muscle activity, cephalic vasomotor activity and electroencephalograph measurements were obtained from twenty-four subjects i n order to test the hypo-thesis that the practice of Transcendental Meditation i s associated with a hypometabolic state. Sixteen of the subjects were experienced practitioners of Transcendental Meditation and were randomly divided into two groups; one was asked to meditate during the test period and the other was not. The other eight subjects were non-meditating con-trols who sat for a relaxation period. Decreases in heart rate were evident in a l l three groups while no change was observed i n respiration across the test period. During meditation meditators showed significantly greater decreases i n skin conductance than did the meditators and non-meditators during relaxation. None of the groups showed any appreciable changes in cephalic vasomotor activity throughout the experiment. No particular changes in muscle activity were observed i n most subjects; however, several meditators appeared to experience an 'active' meditation i n which increased muscle activity was observed. The electroencephalogram distinguished the meditators from the non-meditators i n that the former showed a predominance of alpha wave activity. It would appear that Transcendental Meditation is accompanied by a variety of physiological changes, although not to the extent implied by the term, hypometabolic state. The extent to which these changes occur, both during meditation and other processes, requires further investigation including the use of longitudinal research. T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s P a g e 1 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n P h y s i o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h o n M e d i t a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s O t h e r t h a n T . M 1 T h e P h y s i o l o g y o f T r a n s c e n d e n t a l M e d i t a t i o n 1 0 I I . P u r p o s e o f t h e P r e s e n t S t u d y 2 3 I I I . M e t h o d . 2 6 S u b j e c t s 2 6 A p p a r a t u s 26 P r o c e d u r e 27 A n a l y s e s 2 8 I V . R e s u l t s 32 H e a r t R a t e 32 S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e 3 4 R e s p i r a t i o n 37 C e p h a l i c V a s o m o t o r A c t i v i t y 39 E EG A c t i v i t y 3 9 S u b j e c t i v e R e p o r t 39 V . D i s c u s s i o n 4 3 P h y s i o l o g i c a l D a t a 4 3 H e a r t R a t e 4 3 S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e . . 4 3 R e s p i r a t i o n 4 4 E E G 4 4 V I . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 4 6 V I I . C o n c l u s i o n . 5 3 5 4 V I I I . R e f e r e n c e s I X . A p p e n d i c e s 61 i i L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e 1. E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o c e d u r e p . 29 T a b l e 2. P e r c e n t A l p h a F o r E y e s C l o s e d P e r i o d s p . 41 i i i L i s t of Figures Figure 1 Heart Rate Response p . 33 F igure 2 Skin Conductance Response p. 36 Figure 3 R e s p i r a t i o n Rate p . 38 Figure 4 Vasomotor A c t i v i t y p . 40 i v L i s t of Appendices Appendix I I n s t r u c t i o n s to Subjects P. 61 Appendix I I Consent Form P. 62 Appendix I I I Subject Data Questionnaire P. 63 Appendix IV E v a l u a t i o n of Session P- 64 Appendix V A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r Heart Rate P. 65 Appendix VI A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r Ski n Conductance P- 69 Appendix V I I A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r R e s p i r a t i o n Rate P. 73 Appendix V I I I A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r Vasomotor A c t i v i t y P- 75 V Acknowledgements The writer would like to express his appreciation to: Dr. R. Hare and Dr. A. Phillips for their advice, assistance and encouragement throughout this study; The Students International Meditation Society and the volunteers who participated in the study; Janice Frazelle for analyzing the data; B i l l Johnston for his assistance in running the subjects and George Blevings for his advice throughout the research; Gloria Lachmenac for typing the manuscript; Maharishi Mahesh Yogi for the meditation and Eileen Learoyd who taught i t to me six and a half years ago. v i I n t r o d u c t i o n R e c e n t l y g r e a t i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n d i s p l a y e d i n t h e o b j e c t i v e e x a m -i n a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s a c c o m p a n y i n g t h e p r a c t i c e o f m e d i t a t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n g i v e n t o T r a n s c e n d e n t a l M e d i t a t i o n ( T . M . ) , a t e c h n i q u e w i d e l y p r a c t i s e d i n W e s t e r n s o c i e t y a n d w h i c h f o r m s t h e t o p i c o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . I n i t i a l l y t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l r e v i e w s o m e o f t h e e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h d o n e o n o t h e r m e d i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a n d t h e n c o n s i d e r s o m e o f t h e w o r k w h i c h h a s d e a l t s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h T . M . P h y s i o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h o n M e d i t a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s O t h e r t h a n T . M . P r i o r t o t h e r e c e n t u p s u r g e i n i n t e r e s t , m o s t p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h o n m e d i t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n v o l v e d s u b j e c t s w i t h e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r o w n p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i q u e s . T h e c l a i m s i n v e s t i g a t e d w e r e o f t e n u n u s u a l e . g . , t h e s t o p p i n g o r c o n t r o l l i n g o f t h e h e a r t , p i t b u r i a l s f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e , v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l o f b o d y t e m p e r a t u r e , e t c . O n e o f t h e p i o n e e r s i n t h i s f i e l d w a s T h e r e s e B r o s s e w h o i n 1 9 3 5 u s e d a p o r t a b l e p o l y g r a p h i n I n d i a t o m o n i t o r t h e h e a r t a c t i v i t y o f s e v e r a l I n d i a n y o g i s . O n e o f h e r p u b l i s h e d r e c o r d s , i n v o l v i n g o n e e l e c t r o -c a r d i o g r a p h i c l e a d , a p n e u m o g r a m , a n d a p u l s e w a v e r e c o r d i n g f r o m t h e r a d i a l a r t e r y , s h o w s t h e h e a r t p o t e n t i a l s a n d p u l s e w a v e d e c r e a s i n g t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y z e r o a n d r e m a i n i n g t h e r e f o r s e v e r a l s e c o n d s . I n 1 9 5 7 W e n g e r , B a g c h i a n d A n a n d c o n d u c t e d m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s e a r c h i n I n d i a i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h r e e y o g i s w h o c l a i m e d t o b e a b l e t o s t o p t h e i r h e a r t b e a t a n d o n e w h o c l a i m e d t o b e a b l e t o s l o w i t . A m o n g t h e s e . f o u r w a s t h e 2 s u b j e c t B r o s s e h a d s t u d i e d i n 1 9 3 5 . I t i s o b v i o u s f r o m t h e i r r e s u l t s t h a t t h e s e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v o l u n t a r i l y c o n t r o l t h e h e a r t d i r e c t l y b u t t h a t s t r i a t e m u s c l e a c t i v i t y w a s u s e d t o p r o d u c e c h a n g e s i n c i r c u l a t o r y p a t t e r n s . F o r t h r e e s u b j e c t s t h e m e a n s t o p r o d u c e t h e s e c h a n g e s a p p e a r e d t o b e a t e c h n i q u e c a l l e d t h e V a l s a l v a m a n e u v e r , w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d t e n s i o n i n t h e a b d o m i n a l a n d t h o r a c i c m u s c l e s , c l o s u r e o f t h e g l o t t i s , a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t r a t h o r a c i c p r e s s u r e , i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h v e n o u s r e t u r n t o t h e h e a r t . H e a r t s o u n d s i n t h e s e s u b j e c t s w e r e m a s k e d b y m u s c l e a c t i v i t y a n d t h e r a d i a l p u l s e a p p e a r e d t o d i s a p p e a r . H o w e v e r , h i g h a m p l i t u d e f i n g e r p l e t h y s m o g r a p h y c o n t i n u e d t o s h o w p u l s e w a v e s a n d t h e e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a p h s h o w e d c o n t i n u e d h e a r t c o n t r a c t i o n s . I t s e e m s t h a t B r o s s e o b t a i n e d t h e r e s u l t s s h e d i d b e c a u s e s h e u s e d o n l y o n e l e a d c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d d i d n o t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e V a l s a l v a m a n e u v e r . T h e s u b j e c t w h o c l a i m e d o n l y t o s l o w h i s h e a r t r a t e d i d s o m a r k e d l y a n d i t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h r o u g h s t r i a t e m u s c l e m e c h a n i s m s h e s t i m u l a t e d v a g u s o u t p u t t o t h e s i n o a t r i a l n o d e , c a u s i n g i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n r e g u l a r c a r d i a c c y c l e s a n d t h e b r i e f e s -t a b l i s h m e n t o f n o d a l r h y t h m s . A n a n d a n d C h h i n a ( 1 9 6 0 ) c o n d u c t e d a s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h t h r e e y o g i s w h o c l a i m e d t o b e a b l e t o v o l u n t a r i l y s t o p t h e i r h e a r t b e a t . T h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t a c t u a l l y d o s o ; i n f a c t , d u r i n g t h e f o r c e d h o l d i n g o f t h e b r e a t h a n d f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r i t , t h e r e w a s a n i n c r e a s e i n h e a r t r a t e , a l t h o u g h s l o w i n g o c c u r r e d f o r s o m e t i m e f o l l o w i n g t h i s p e r i o d . S e v e r a l a c c o u n t s h a v e b e e n g i v e n o f t h e r e c e n t r e s e a r c h d o n e b y 3 G r e e n o n S w a m i R a m a a n d h i s a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l h i s h e a r t a c t i v i t y . W h e n t h e S w a m i ' s t o p p e d ' h i s h e a r t t h e p o l y g r a p h s h o w e d a r e a d i n g o f 3 0 0 b e a t s p e r m i n u t e — a s u d d e n a t r i a l f i b r i l l a t i o n , w h i c h w o u l d f o r m o s t b e a d a n g e r o u s c a r d i a c c o n d i t i o n p r e v e n t i n g b l o o d f r o m b e i n g p u m p e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e b o d y . I t w a s a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t h e w a s a b l e t o p r o d u c e a t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e o f t e n d e g r e e s F a h r e n h e i t b e t w e e n t w o a d j a c e n t a r e a s o f h i s r i g h t h a n d . T e s t i n g Y o g a s t u d e n t s i n I n d i a , W e n g e r a n d B a g c h i ( 1 9 5 7 ) r e p o r t e d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r h e a r t r a t e , g r e a t e r p a l m a r s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e , h i g h e r s y s t o l i c a n d d i a s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e , a n d l o w e r r e s p i r a t i o n d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n , t h a n d u r i n g a r e l a x a t i o n p e r i o d . I t w a s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e s e p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e i n p a r t a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s m a i n t a i n e d b y t h e s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h e t w o p r o c e d u r e s — a r e c l i n e d s a v a s a n a p o s e f o r r e l a x a t i o n a n d a n e r e c t l e g s c r o s s e d p o s i t i o n f o r m e d i t a t i o n . T h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s w e r e c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d f r o m f i v e e x p e r i e n c e d y o g i s . H o w e v e r , s o m e o f t h e s e c o n d g r o u p w e r e a p p a r e n t l y b o t h e r e d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a p p a r a t u s , a n d n o n e f e l t h e h a d a t t a i n e d h i s d e e p e s t s t a t e o f m e d i t a t i o n . A l s o , s o m e s u b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d b o t h m a r k e d i n c r e a s e s a n d d e c r e a s e s i n a u t o n o m i c f u n c t i o n i n g , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t r e p e a t e d r e c o r d i n g s e s s i o n s m a y h a v e b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n m o r e m e a n i n g f u l r e s u l t s . C o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e o l d e r y o g i s d i s p l a y e d f a s t e r h e a r t r a t e s , g r e a t e r p a l m a r s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e , a n d h i g h e r b l o o d p r e s s u r e , s u g g e s t i n g i n c r e a s e d s y m p a t h e t i c a r o u s a l a n d p e r h a p s a m o r e a c t i v e m e d i t a t i v e p r o c e s s t h a n t h a t o b s e r v e d i n t h e 4 s t u d e n t s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e r e s u l t s a n d t h e p o s s i b l e l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t s o f Y o g a t h e a u t h o r s c o m m e n t e d t h a t " . . . c o n t r o l l e d l o n g i t u d i n a l r e -s e a r c h p e r h a p s o f f e r s t h e b e s t a p p r o a c h f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f Y o g i c p r a c t i c e . " ( W e n g e r a n d B a g c h i , 1 9 6 1 , p . 3 2 1 ) . W e n g e r a n d B a g c h i ( 1 9 5 7 ) r e p o r t e l s e w h e r e o n r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m 1 3 a d v a n c e d y o g i s s t u d i e d i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g m o u n t a i n c a v e s . T h e s e s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d a s t a b i l i z a t i o n o r l o w e r i n g o f h e a r t r a t e , r e s p i r a t i o n a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e , d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n . W e l l - m o d u l a t e d a l p h a w a v e a c t i v i t y w a s p r e s e n t i n t h e e l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o -g r a p h ( E E G ) w i t h l o w i n t e n s i t y s t i m u l i n o t a p p e a r i n g t o r e a c h c o n s c i o u s n e s s . H o w e v e r , t h e a u t h o r s s t a t e t h a t t h e s e p h y s i o l o g i c a l t r e n d s s h o w e d v a r i a b i l i t y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e i n t e r m s o f e x t e n t , t i m i n g a n d d i r e c t i o n . A n a n d , C h h i n a a n d S i n g h ( 1 9 6 0 ) c o n d u c t e d e x p e r i m e n t s o n S h r i R a m a n a n d Y o g i w h i l e h e w a s s e a l e d i n a n a i r - t i g h t b o x o n t w o o c c a s i o n s , o n c e f o r t e n h o u r s a n d o n c e f o r e i g h t h o u r s . T h e d a t a w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t h e w a s a b l e t o r e d u c e h i s o x y g e n i n t a k e a n d c a r b o n d i o x i d e o u t p u t o v e r t h e l e v e l s u n d e r b a s a l c o n d i t i o n s . H i s a v e r a g e o x y g e n u t i l i z a t i o n w h i l e i n t h e b o x w a s 1 3 . 3 l i t e r s / h o u r a s c o m p a r e d t o b a s a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1 9 . 5 l i t e r s / h o u r . E v e n w h e n b r e a t h i n g a i r w i t h a d e c r e a s e d o x y g e n c o n t e n t a n d i n c r e a s e d c a r b o n d i o x i d e c o n t e n t t h e y o g i d i d n o t d e v e l o p a n d h y p e r p n o g a o r t a c h y c a r d i a . T h e E E G c h a n g e d f r o m a l p h a t o l o w v o l t a g e f a s t w a v e s r e s e m b l i n g t h o s e o f t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f s l e e p ; t h e s e w a v e s w e r e p r e s e n t f o r m o s t o f h i s t i m e i n t h e b o x w i t h o u t p a s s i n g i n t o t y p i c a l s l e e p p a t t e r n s . O n e o f t h e e a r l i e r s t u d i e s d o n e o n t h e E E G p a t t e r n s o f y o g i s i s 5 t h a t o f D a s a n d G a s t a u t ( 1 9 5 7 ) . T h e f i r s t i s s u e w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a n d i t m a y b e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o n e , i s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f o b t a i n i n g g e n u i n e y o g i s t o s t u d y . T h e y s t a t e , p e r h a p s a l i t t l e o v e r -z e a l o u s l y , t h a t t h e p r o b l e m i s j , t h e . a b s o l u t e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f m e e t i n g a t r u e y o g i o u t s i d e I n d i a , a n o b s t a c l e t h a t t h e W e s t e r n r e s e a r c h e r f i n d s e v e n i n I n d i a , s i n c e o n e o f t h e i r o n c l a d r u l e s o f a y o g i i s n e v e r t o e x h i b i t h i s p o w e r s i n p u b l i c . I f w e n o w r e p o r t a s t u d y o n t h i s s u b j e c t , i t i s d u e t o t h e o n e o f u s w h o l i v e d i n I n d i a i n t h e f a i t h o f h i s f a t h e r s , w h o f r e q u e n t e d a c o m m u n i t y o f y o g i s s i n c e h i s y o u t h , a n d w h o m a n a g e d t o g e t h i s f e l l o w H i n d u s t o l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o a t r u e s t u d y i n h i s p r e s e n c e o n l y . " ( D a s a n d G a s t a u t , 1 9 5 7 , p . 2 1 1 ) . R e c o r d i n g s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m s e v e n s u b j e c t s w i t h 2 - 1 5 y e a r s i n v o l v e m e n t i n y o g i c t e c h n i q u e s . O n l y o n e s u b j e c t r e p o r t e d t h a t h e a t t a i n e d s a m a h d i , t h e d e e p e s t s t a t e o f m e d i t a t i o n , d u r i n g t e s t i n g , w h i l e t h e o t h e r s h a d l e s s e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e r e w a s n o e v i d e n c e o f a n y r e c o r d a b l e m u s c l e a c t i v i t y ( E M G ) d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n . A m o s t i n -t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a n c e w a s t h a t t h e E K G a p p e a r e d t o f o l l o w a p a t t e r n t h a t p a r a l l e l e d t h e c h a n g e s i n E E G . F o r t h e o n e s u b j e c t w h o r e p o r t e d l y a t t a i n e d s a m a h d i t h e E K G p a t t e r n w a s a s f o l l o w s : 8 5 b e a t s / m i n b e f o r e m e d i t a t i o n ; 9 0 b e a t s / m i n d u r i n g l i g h t m e d i t a t i o n ; 9 5 b e a t s / m i n d u r i n g p r o f o u n d m e d i t a t i o n a n d s a m a h d i ; 7 0 b e a t s / m i n a f t e r m e d i t a t i o n . T h e E E G s h o w e d s e v e r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e b a s i c a l p h a r h y t h m d i s -p l a y e d b y a l l s u b j e c t s . T h e f i r s t w a s a n a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e a l p h a r h y t h m b y 1 - 3 H z , a d i m i n u a t i o n o f a m p l i t u d e a n d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f h i g h f r e q u e n c y l o w v o l t a g e w a v e s o f 1 5 , 2 0 H z . B e t a r h y t h m s o f 1 6 - 2 0 H z 6 appeared in the rolandic area or i f already present they increased in amplitude. These were followed by high frequency low voltage waves i n both hemispheres of 20-30 Hz. and as high as 40 Hz which increased i n amplitude during states of profound meditation. At the completion of meditation alpha wave activity reappeared with a frequency as slow as 7 Hz. During meditation stimuli were presented to the subjects. The authors report that, " . . . a l l auditory, photic, t a c t i l e and noxious stimuli applied during profound meditation had no effect on the cerebral electrical activity and these stimuli did not modify the rapid, large-amplitude rhythms described above." (Das and Gastaut, 1957, p. 216). The lack of detail given concerning the nature of the stimulation makes i t d i f f i c u l t to interpret the significance of these data. It would be of particular interest to have more information concerning the tac t i l e and noxious stimulation. In an attempt to account for the neurological mechanisms producing the changes observed during meditation the authors, " . . . postulate that yogic meditation represents an extreme concentration of attention on the object of meditation accompanied by intense reticular excitation with desynchronisation or rapid synchronisation of the cortical electrical activity, cardiac acceleration and physiological sensory deafferentiation." (Das and Gastaut, 1957, p. 219). In the studies cited so far i t can be seen that the physiological patterns observed by various researchers studying meditation are often somewhat contradictory. This may be explained by the fact that there are 7 m a n y d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s o f m e d i t a t i o n s u b s u m e d u n d e r t h e t i t l e Y o g a w i t h s o m e o f t h e m p r o d u c i n g a h y p o m e t a b o l i c s t a t e a n d o t h e r s a h y p e r m e t -a b o l i c s t a t e . H o w e v e r i t w o u l d s e e m t h a t t h e d e e p e s t s t a t e o f m e d i t a t i o n , s a m a h d i , s h o u l d b e s i m i l a r a c r o s s s t u d i e s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e t e c h n i q u e e m p l o y e d t o a t t a i n t h a t s t a t e . A n a n d , C h h i n a a n d S i n g h ( 1 9 6 0 ) o b t a i n e d E E G d a t a f r o m f o u r h i g h l y e x p e r i e n c e d y o g i s i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r a s s e s s t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t d u r i n g d e e p m e d i t a t i o n t h e y a p p e a r o b l i v i o u s t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l i . T w o o f t h e y o g i s w e r e e x p o s e d t o v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y , t h e r m a l , a n d v i b r a t i o n a l s t i m u l a t i o n . O n e o f t h e s e p r a c t i s e d w h a t i s d e s c r i b e d a s " p i n - p o i n t i n g o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " o n d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o n t h e v a u l t o f t h e s k u l l . T h e o t h e r t w o y o g i s w e r e r e p o r t e d t o h a v e i n c r e a s e d p a i n t h r e s h o l d s t o c o l d w a t e r a n d w e r e a b l e t o k e e p t h e i r h a n d i n 4 d e g r e e C e n t i g r a d e w a t e r f o r 4 5 - 5 5 m i n u t e s w i t h o u t d i s c o m f o r t . W h i l e a t r e s t a l l f o u r s u b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d p r o m i n a n t a l p h a a c t i v i t y ; d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n t h e r e w a s p e r s i s t e n t a l p h a a c t i v i t y w i t h i n c r e a s e d a m p l i t u d e m o d u l a t i o n . I n t h e t w o w h o r e c e i v e d t h e s t i m u l a t i o n , a l p h a a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e r e s t i n g p e r i o d s h o w e d c o n s i s t e n t b l o c k i n g w i t h o u t a n y h a b i t u a t i o n t o t h e s t i m u l i , w h e r e a s i n m e d i t a t i o n n o a l p h a b l o c k i n g o c c u r r e d . T h e a t t e m p t s a t p i n p o i n t i n g o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s w e r e a c c o m p a n i e d b y e y e - b l i n k r e s p o n s e s i n t h e f r o n t a l E E G c h a n n e l s . T h e t w o w h o i m m e r s e d t h e i r h a n d s i n w a t e r s h o w e d p e r s i s t e n t a l p h a a c t i v i t y b e f o r e a n d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f i m m e r s i o n . A n i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h b u t o n e t h a t i s n o t e l a b o r a t e d o n i s t h e a u t h o r s ' r e p o r t t h a t t h e y e x a m i n e d t h e E E G a c t i v i t y o f b e g i n n e r s 8 i n y o g i c p r a c t i c e s a n d f o u n d t h a t t h o s e w h o s h o w e d w e l l m a r k e d a l p h a a c t i v i t y i n a r e s t i n g p e r i o d d i s p l a y e d a g r e a t e r a p t i t u d e a n d e n t h u s i a s m f o r Y o g a . I f t h i s w e r e a c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g i t c o u l d h a v e i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h o n m e d i t a t i o n . I t m a y b e p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e i n a d v a n c e w h e t h e r a p e r s o n i s m o r e o r l e s s s u i t e d t o i n v o l v e m e n t i n Y o g a . S w a m i R a m a w h i l e b e i n g t e s t e d b y t h e G r e e n s e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h f e e d -b a c k o f E E G a c t i v i t y a n d i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e p r o d u c e d a l p h a a n d t h e t a w a v e a c t i v i t y a t w i l l ( L u c e a n d P e p e r , 1 9 7 1 , p . 4 3 ) . H e a l s o d i s p l a y e d 2 5 m i n u t e s o f E E G a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d u s u a l l y w i t h d e e p s l e e p , f o l l o w i n g w h i c h h e g a v e a h i g h l y a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t o f v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t s t h a t h a d b e e n m a d e i n h i s p r e s e n c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f E E G a c t i v i t y d u r i n g Z e n m e d i t a t i o n w a s c a r r i e d o u t b y K a s a m a t s u a n d H i r a i ( 1 9 6 6 ) . A n i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n Y o g i c m e d i t a t i o n a n d Z e n m e d i t a t i o n , c a l l e d Z a z e n , i s t h a t t h e l a t t e r i s p e r f o r m e d w i t h t h e e y e s h a l f o p e n , f o c u s e d i n a d o w n w a r d d i r e c -t i o n a b o u t t w o f e e t i n f r o n t o f t h e m e d i t a t o r . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e s u b j e c t s o f i n e x c e s s o f 2 0 y e a r s p r a c t i c e o f Z e n a n d a c o n t r o l g r o u p w h o h a d n o t r a i n i n g i n t h e t e c h n i q u e . T h e E E G c h a n g e s d u r i n g Z a z e n c a n b e s u m m a r i z e d i n f o u r s t a g e s : t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a l p h a w a v e s ; a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e a m p l i t u d e o f p e r s i s t e n t a l p h a w a v e s ; a d e c r e a s e i n t h e a l p h a w a v e f r e q u e n c y ; a n d s o m e t i m e s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t a w a v e s . F o r t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s n o c h a n g e s i n E E G w e r e o b s e r v e d , w i t h a p r e -d o m i n a n c e o f b e t a w a v e a c t i v i t y a n d s h o r t b u r s t s o f a l p h a w a v e s p r e v a i l i n g t h r o u g h o u t . T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n 9 Zen the more extensive the EEG changes. An interesting aspect of this research i s that the Zen master's rating of the development of his students' mental state was correlated with the extent of the EEG changes, indicating, perhaps, that increased proficiency in Zen training i s accompanied by changes in the EEG. Kasamatsu and Hirai distinguish the EEG patterns observed i n Zazen from those accompanying hypnosis and sleep. The EEG record of the former shows few alpha waves and an abundance of beta wave activity. In the drowsy sleep state the reaction to click stimuli i s alpha activity and the typical arousal reaction, whereas in Zen meditation click stimuli block the theta waves, but they spontaneously reappear after several seconds. The response to repeated click stimuli presented during Zen meditation was very different from the response obtained with practitioners of Yoga, where habituation of the alpha blocking response is consistently observed. In experienced Zen meditators the following pattern was ob-served: with the f i r s t stimulus the alpha blocking occurred for two seconds; although the stimulus was presented 20 times at regular intervals of 15 seconds the blocking always occurred for 2-3 seconds. For the control group the longer the stimuli were presented the greater the habituation. These EEG differences between the Zen and Yogic meditation respones to stimuli may be explicable on the basis of important differences i n the philosophies of the two techniques. In the Yogic meditation, an attempt is usually made to minimize one's awareness of body and surroundings, 10 so that a centering device such as a mantra or euphonic sound i s often employed. The studies cited earlier indicate that habituation of alpha blocking occurs to repeated stimulation with Yogic meditators and that many subjects appear oblivious of the stimulation. In Zen meditation the effort i s more towards adopting a stance of passive, unattached observance of events, each stimulus being accepted as stimulus i t s e l f . The Physiology of Transcendental Meditation Transcendental Meditation was f i r s t introduced to Western society by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in 1958 and i s considered by him to be a meditation technique particularly suited to Western l i f e styles. The in i t i a t e i s given a mantra and instructed in the technique by a qualified teacher. Maharishi has defined the process as, "turning the attention inwards towards the subtle levels of thought un t i l the mind transcends the experience of the subtlest state of the thought and arrives at the source of the thought." The philosophical goals of meditation are somewhat d i f f i c u l t to define and vary i n name with different traditions — samahdi, nirvana, self-realization, satori, enlightenment, different names for essentially the same experience. With reference to the somewhat elusive subjective descriptions of these meditative experiences Maharishi has asserted that just as there are distinct physiological states accompanying waking, dreaming and deep sleep, there are distinct and objectively verifiable physiological patterns accompanying T.M. It is this encouragement which has in part resulted i n the tremendous output of s c i e n t i f i c research on T.M. evident during the past several years. 1 1 T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e v i e w i s n o t t o e x a m i n e a l l o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a b u t r a t h e r t o p r e s e n t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f t h e t y p e o f w o r k w h i c h i s b e i n g d o n e a n d t o a c q u a i n t o n e w i t h t h e t y p e s o f d e s i g n s b e i n g u s e d s o a s t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s t h e s i s . S i n c e i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o W e s t e r n s o c i e t y t h e r e h a v e b e e n m a n y i n f o r m a l , s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t s t h a t T . M . i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a h y p o m e t a b o l i c s t a t e , t h a t i s , w i t h a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e r a t e a t w h i c h t h e b o d y u s e s i t s e n e r g y r e s o u r c e s . O n e o f t h e f i r s t e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a i s t h a t o f W a l l a c e ( 1 9 7 0 ) . T w e n t y - s e v e n s u b j e c t s o f v a r y i n g y e a r s i n v o l v e m e n t i n T . M . s e r v e d a s t h e i r o w n c o n t r o l s i n t h i s s t u d y , s i t t i n g f o r a p e r i o d p r i o r t o m e d i t a t i o n w i t h t h e i r e y e s c l o s e d b u t w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t o n o t m e d i t a t e u n t i l t o l d t o d o s o . N o t a l l o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s w e r e m e a s u r e d i n a l l s u b j e c t s b u t o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , W a l l a c e r e p o r t s t h a t : 1 ) w i t h i n 5 - 1 0 m i n u t e s o f b e g i n n i n g m e d i t a t i o n t h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e s i n o x y g e n c o n s u m p t i o n a n d c a r b o n d i o x i d e e l i m i n a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e s p i r a t o r y q u o t i e n t r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y t h e s a m e t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e s t i n g ; 2 ) r e s p i r a t o r y r a t e d e c r e a s e d b y a b o u t t h r e e b r e a t h s / m i n u t e o n t h e a v e r a g e , w i t h t h e l a r g e s t d e c r e a s e b e i n g s e v e n b r e a t h s / m i n u t e ; 3 ) a f t e r 1 5 m i n u t e s o f m e d i t a t i o n t h e m e a n d e c r e a s e i n c a r d i a c o u t p u t w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 p e r c e n t b e l o w t h e c o n t r o l p e r i o d ; 4 ) t h e r e w a s a m e a n d e c r e a s e o f f i v e b e a t s / m i n u t e i n h e a r t r a t e ; 5 ) t h e r e w a s a d e c r e a s e i n a r t e r i a l b l o o d p r e s s u r e ; 6 ) a r t e r i a l l a c t a t e d e c r e a s e d m a r k e d l y , a d e c r e a s e t h a t c o n t i n u e d f o r s o m e t i m e a f t e r m e d i t a t i o n ; 7 ) l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n s k i n r e s i s t a n c e w e r e o b t a i n e d f o r a l l s u b j e c t s ; 8 ) t h e m o s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h a n g e i n t h e E E G w a s a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e 8 - 9 H z w a v e s i n t h e c e n t r o l a n d f r o n t a l r e g i o n s . I n s o m e s u b j e c t s 12 this increase was accompanied by trains of 5-7 Hz theta waves in the frontal areas. In a similar study Wallace (1970a) examined physiological changes accompanying T.M. with 15 college students. Although the design was similar to the previously cited study several subjects in this research received auditory and visual stimulation at irregular intervals during the meditation. The results reported are similar to those described earlier, with the alpha blocking to stimulation showing no habituation during meditation for almost a l l subjects. Wallace concluded that " physiologically, the state produced by T.M. seems to be distinct from commonly encountered states of consciousness such as wakefulness, sleep and dreaming and from altered states of consciousness such as hypnosis and autosuggestion." (Wallace, 1970a, p. 1754). Recognizing that the apparatus used to measure respiration could interfere somewhat with the meditative process, Allison (1970) used three thermisters placed over the mouth and nostrils; they were comfortable and offered minimal distraction. He reports that, during meditation, the respiration rate dropped as low as four breaths/min about half the resting rate. Wallace, Benson and Wilson (1971), studied 36 practitioners of T.M., again with each subject serving as his own control. The results of this study appear to be similar to those obtained by Wallace in his earlier research, although blood lactate was measured somewhat more ex-tensively and was found to decrease in concentration markedly during meditation, and to continue to drop for ten minutes after meditation. In reporting on this study elsewhere, Wallace and Benson (1972) suggest 1 3 t h i s s h a r p d e c r e a s e i n b l o o d l a c t a t e m a y b e i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e h i g h l y r e l a x e d , t h o u g h w a k e f u l , c o n d i t i o n p r e s e n t i n T . M . T h e y a t t r i b u t e i t t o a n i n c r e a s e i n b l o o d f l o w d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n c a u s e d b y a r e d u c t i o n i n s y m p a t h e t i c a c t i v i t y , r e s u l t i n g i n a n a b s e n c e o f v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n a s w e l l a s a r e d u c t i o n i n n o r e p i n e p h r i n e s e c r e t i o n w h i c h w o u l d d i m i n i s h l a c t a t e p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s d e c r e a s e i n b l o o d l a c t a t e c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d b e n e f i c i a l w h e n c o u p l e d w i t h t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t i n t r a v e n o u s i n j e c t i o n s o f l a c t a t e m a y c a u s e a n x i e t y s u m p t o m s , t h a t p a t i e n t s w i t h a n x i e t y n e u r o s i s s h o w a r i s e i n b l o o d l a c t a t e i n s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s , a n d t h a t h y p e r t e n s i v e p a t i e n t s s h o w h i g h b l o o d l a c t a t e l e v e l s e v e n i n t h e r e s t i n g s t a t e ( P i t t s , 1 9 6 9 ) . T h e y c o n c l u d e t h a t : " . . . t h e h y p o m e t a b o l i c s t a t e , r e p r e s e n t i n g q u i e s c e n c e r a t h e r t h a n h y p e r a c t i v a t i o n o f t h e s y m p a t h e t i c n e r v o u s s y s t e m , m a y i n d i c a t e a g u i d e p o s t t o b e t t e r h e a l t h . I t s h o u l d b e w o r t h w h i l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c l i n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t a t e o f w a k e f u l r e s t a n d r e l a x a t i o n . " ( W a l l a c e a n d B e n s o n , 1 9 7 2 , p . 8 4 ) . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h o n d e c r e a s e d b l o o d l a c t a t e d u r i n g T . M . i s r e p o r t e d b y W a l l a c e , B e n s o n , W i l s o n a n d G a r r e t t ( 1 9 7 1 ) . A s i n t h e e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h t h e r e w a s a m a r k e d d e c r e a s e i n b l o o d l a c t a t e d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n , a d e c r e a s e w h i c h w a s m a i n t a i n e d f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g m e d i t a t i o n . O n e o b v i o u s c r i t i c i s m o f t h e r e s e a r c h c i t e d s o f a r i s t h e l a c k o f a d e q u a t e c o n t r o l g r o u p s . M e d i t a t o r s s e r v e d a s t h e i r o w n c o n t r o l s p r i o r t o t h e m e d i t a t i o n p e r i o d w i t h n o a t t e m p t b e i n g m a d e t o c o m p a r e t h e c h a n g e s o c c u r r i n g i n m e d i t a t o r s t o t h o s e w h i c h m i g h t o c c u r w i t h n o n - m e d i t a t i n g s u b j e c t s u n d e r t h e s a m e c o n d i t i o n s . O t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w o u l d b e t o c o m p a r e t h e r e s u l t s o f T . M . t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d f r o m o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s s u c h 1 4 a s r e l a x a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s o r o t h e r f o r m s o f m e d i t a t i o n . W a l l a c e m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e p r e c o n t r o l , c o n t r o l a n d p o s t c o n t r o l p e r i o d s m a y h a v e b e e n a f f e c t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t s o m e s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e p r e c o n t r o l a n d p o s t c o n t r o l p e r i o d s , w h e n t o l d t o s i t q u i e t l y w i t h t h e i r e y e s c l o s e d , t h e y h a d a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o m e d i t a t e . A n y a t t e m p t t o p r e v e n t t h e s u b j e c t s f r o m m e d i t a t i n g i n t h e p r e - o r p o s t -p e r i o d s , s u c h a s a s k i n g t h e m t o e n g a g e i n s o m e a c t i v e m e n t a l e x e r c i s e , c o u l d n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d c o m p a r a b l e t o a s k i n g s o m e o n e t o s i t i n a r e l a x e d , e y e s c l o s e d s t a t e . I t m a y b e t h a t f o r t h i s t y p e o f d e s i g n t h e c o m p a r i s o n s h o u l d b e m a d e b e t w e e n a m e d i t a t i o n p e r i o d w i t h a n e y e s o p e n p r e - a n d p o s t - c o n t r o l p e r i o d , a n d a n o n - m e d i t a t o r w h o f o l l o w s t h e s a m e p r o c e d u r e e x c e p t t h a t h e w o u l d b e t o l d t o r e l a x i n t h e c o n t r o l p e r i o d w i t h h i s e y e s c l o s e d . A s t u d y u s i n g n o n - m e d i t a t i n g c o n t r o l s w a s c o n d u c t e d b y B r o w n , S t e w a r t a n d B l o d g e t t ( 1 9 7 1 ) w h o c o m p a r e d 1 1 m e d i t a t o r s a n d 1 1 n o n - m e d i t a t o r s o n E K G , E E G , r e s p i r a t i o n a n d p e r f o r m a n c e o n f o u r p e r c e p t u a l t h r e s h o l d t a s k s . P r e c o n t r o l p e r f o r m a n c e m e a s u r e s w e r e f o l l o w e d b y a 1 5 m i n u t e p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e m e d i t a t o r s p r a c t i s e d T . M . a n d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s a t q u i e t l y w i t h e y e s c l o s e d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e t a s k s w e r e r e p e a t e d . T h e r e w e r e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o g r o u p s o n p e r c e p t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e m e a s u r e s , w i t h t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f b o t h g r o u p s s h o w i n g i m p r o v e m e n t . T h e E E G o f 1 0 o f t h e 1 1 m e d i t a t o r s s h o w e d 8 - 1 2 H z w a v e s i n t h e f r o n t a l r e g i o n s w h e r e a s o n l y 3 o f t h e 1 1 n o n - m e d i t a t o r s s h o w e d t h i s p a t t e r n . A d i s t i n c t i o n w a s m a d e b e t w e e n 8 - 1 2 H z w a v e s o f t h e o c c i p i t a l a r e a a n d t h o s e o f t h e f r o n t a l r e g i o n . T h e f o r m e r a r e 1 5 u s u a l l y d i s p l a y e d u n d e r e y e s c l o s e d , r e l a x e d s i t u a t i o n s a n d a r e t h e f a m i l i a r a l p h a w a v e s , w h e r e a s t h e l a t t e r f i t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f k a p p a r h y t h m s . T h e s e a r e d e s c r i b e d a s E E G r h y t h m s w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 7 - 1 2 H z w h i c h a r e m o s t p r o m i n e n t w i t h b i l a t e r a l b i p o l a r r e c o r d i n g f r o m t h e f r o n t a l r e g i o n s a n d w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t m o s t n o t i c e a b l y d u r i n g m e n t a l t a s k s . I n s o m e m e d i t a t o r s t h e s e k a p p a r h y t h m s w e r e p r e s e n t b e f o r e , d u r i n g a n d a f t e r m e d i t a t i o n . B r o w n e t a l , c o n c l u d e t h a t " . . . a s c i e n t i f i c q u e s t i o n u n a n s w e r e d t o t h i s t i m e h a s b e e n w h e t h e r T . M . i s a s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s b e t w e e n s l e e p a n d w a k e f u l n e s s . P r e s e n c e o f k a p p a r h y t h m s i n a l l b u t o n e o f t h e 1 1 m e d i t a t o r s a n d o n l y a t a l o w l e v e l i n t h r e e o f t h e 1 1 n o n - m e d i t a t o r s w o u l d t e n d t o s u g g e s t i t t o b e s o m e t h i n g e l s e . R a t h e r , i t t e n d s t o s u g g e s t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f f r o n t a l -c o r t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n s t e a d . T h i s w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d i f m e d i t a t i o n i s a h i g h e r s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o w h i c h t h e m e d i t a t o r a l l e g e d l y t r a n -s c e n d s . " ( B r o w n , S t e w a r t a n d B l o d g e t t , 1 9 7 1 , p . 5 ) . P r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h b y S p o n g , L o w a n d W a d a ( 1 9 7 0 ) i n c l u d e d b o t h e x p e r i e n c e d a n d i n e x p e r i e n c e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f T . M . D u r i n g s o m e s e s s i o n s i n t e r m i t t a n t c l i c k a n d f l a s h s t i m u l i w e r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s . A l l s u b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s i n c r e a s e d a l p h a w a v e a c t i v i t y a n d o n e i n e x p e r i e n c e d s u b j e c t s h o w e d s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n t h e a m o u n t o f a l p h a a c t i v i t y o v e r t h e s e s s i o n s . A l s o , a d e c r e a s e i n a l p h a f r e -q u e n c y , a n d s h o r t p e r i o d s o f t h e t a w a v e a c t i v i t y w e r e o b s e r v e d . H a b i t u -a t i o n o f t h e a l p h a b l o c k i n g r e s p o n s e t o t h e s t i m u l i w a s m u c h g r e a t e r i n i n i n e x p e r i e n c e d t h a n e x p e r i e n c e d s u b j e c t s , w i t h a l l s u b j e c t s s h o w i n g g r e a t e r h a b i t u a t i o n o f a l p h a b l o c k i n g t o c l i c k t h a n t o f l a s h s t i m u l i . 16 The experienced subjects showed no change i n t h e i r a lpha b lock ing over the sess ions and d i sp layed more hab i tua t ion of a lpha b l o c k i n g i n an i n i t i a l c o n t r o l sess ion without medi tat ion than i n subjsequent sess ions wi th medi ta t ion . The inexperienced meditators d i sp layed decreased h a b i t u a t i o n of alpha b lock ing over the sess ions . There was a decrease i n muscle tens ion and incons i s t ent tendencies for heart ra te (mostly decreases) and r e s p i r a t i o n ra te to change. One of the experienced sub-j e c t s d i sp layed no obvious h a b i t u a t i o n of v i s u a l evoked responses to the 300 f l a s h s t i m u l i presented during a medi tat ion which the subject considered s u c c e s s f u l . Evoked responses computed for the f i r s t and l a s t 50 f l a s h s t i m u l i were very s i m i l a r , u n l i k e a sess ion without meditat ion i n which the longer latency components of v i s u a l evoked r e s -ponses to the f l a s h s t i m u l i were reduced i n amplitude at the end of the se s s ion . During a medi tat ion which the meditator considered unsuccess fu l , the v i s u a l evoked responses were lower i n amplitude at the end than at the beginning of medi ta t ion . I t would appear that the v a r i a b i l i t y of h a b i t u a t i o n of v i s u a l evoked responses i s r e l a t e d to the success of the medi ta t ion , coupled wi th the experience of the mediator. There a l so seems to be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between alpha b lock ing and the evoked responses i n that subjects who show greater h a b i t u a t i o n of alpha b lock ing during medi tat ion a l so e x h i b i t greater h a b i t u a t i o n of evoked responses. Th i s r e l a t i o n s h i p appears to extend to the subjec t ' s eva luat ion of the medi ta -t i o n sess ion — i n those evaluated as success fu l subjects were l e s s aware of the ex terna l s t i m u l a t i o n than i n sess ions evaluated as l e s s success-f u l . The data suggest that T . M . i s not accompanied by a lowered c o r t i c a l 1 7 r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o s e n s o r y s t i m u l a t i o n b u t r a t h e r b y a h i g h l e v e l o f r e s -p o n s e r e a d i n e s s , d e s p i t e a b s e n c e o f a t t e n t i o n t o o r p e r c e p t i o n o f , t h e s t i m u l u s s o u r c e . T h i s s t u d y h a s b e e n e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e m o r e s u b j e c t s a n d h a s i n -v o l v e d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n o v e r t w o y e a r s . T h e e a r l i e r r e s u l t s w e r e c o n f i r m e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o e v o k e d p o t e n t i a l s . H o w e v e r , W a d a c o m m e n t s o n a n i m -p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e r e s u l t s , n a m e l y t h e d e g r e e o f i n t e r - a n d i n t r a -s u b j e c t v a r i a b i l i t y a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e p o r t s o n t h e q u a l i t y o f a m e d i t a t i o n s e s s i o n w a s d i f f i c u l t a n d o f t e n m i s l e a d i n g . H e s t a t e s t h a t , " . . . a p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p r e -d i s p o s i t i o n f o r ' i d e a l ' m e d i t a t i v e s t a t e s w a s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t s o m e e x p e r i e n c e d s u b j e c t s s h o w e d l a r g e l y i n c o n g r u o u s s u b j e c t i v e a n d o b j e c t i v e s t a t e s i n s p i t e o f t h e p r o l o n g e d p a s t e x p e r e i n c e w h i l e s o m e i n e x p e r i e n c e d s u b j e c t s a c h i e v e d r e l a t i v e l y c o n g r o u s s u b j e c t i v e a n d o b j e c t i v e s t a t e s w i t h r e l a t i v e e a s e . " ( W a d a , 1 9 7 3 , p . 2 ) . C o m p u t e r i z e d s p e c t r a l a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d b y B a n q u e t ( 1 9 7 2 ) o n s e l e c t e d c h a n n e l s o f t h e E E G o f 1 2 s u b j e c t s p r a c t i s i n g T . M . a n d a g r o u p o f 1 2 c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s w h o w e r e a b o u t t o b e g i n T . M . A p u s h - b u t t o n a p p a r a t u s p e r m i t t e d s u b j e c t s t o i n d i c a t e w h i c h o n e o f f i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v e n t s m i g h t b e o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n : b o d y s e n s a t i o n ; i n v o l u n t a r y m o v e m e n t ; v i s u a l i m a g e r y ; d e e p m e d i t a t i o n ; a n d t r a n s c e n d e n c e . T h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o g r o u p s , a n a l p h a p l u s a n d a n a l p h a m i n u s g r o u p . T h e l a t t e r d i s p l a y e d b e t a d o m i n a n t f r e q u e n c i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e s s i o n w h i l e t h e f o r m e r s h o w e d a l p h a r h y t h m s . I n t h e a l p h a p l u s g r o u p f o u r s u b j e c t s a l t e r n a t e d p o s t e r i o r 1 8 a l p h a p a t t e r n s w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s l y d o m i n a n t b e t a a c t i v i t y w h i c h w a s e q u a t e d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l r e l a x a t i o n w h i l e t h e o t h e r f o u r s u b j e c t s a s s o c i a t e d a l p h a a c t i v i t y w i t h s l o w t h e t a w a v e s a n d l o w v o l t a g e d e l t a f r e q u e n c i e s w i t h a s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t o f d r o w s i n e s s . F o r t h e m e d i t a t o r s a l p h a w a v e a c t i v i t y w a s p r e s e n t i n a l l s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h e p r e - m e d i t a t i o n r e s t p e r i o d a n d b e c a m e p r e d o m i n a n t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f m e d i t a t i o n , w i t h a m p l i t u d e i n c r e a s i n g a n d f r e q u e n c y d e -c r e a s i n g . F o l l o w i n g t h i s a t y p i c a l s h i f t f r o m t h e d o m i n a n t a l p h a t o s l o w e r t h e t a w a v e a c t i v i t y w a s o b s e r v e d . I n f o u r m e d i t a t o r s a t h i r d s t a g e w a s o b s e r v e d w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d , v i a t h e p u s h - b u t t o n , t o b e d e e p m e d i t a t i o n o r e v e n t r a n s c e n d e n c e . T h i s p e r i o d w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a d o m i n a n t b e t a r h y t h m w i t h f r e q u e n c i e s o f 2 0 H z a n d 4 0 H z . T h e e n d o f m e d i t a t i o n w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a l p h a a c t i v i t y , w i t h a d v a n c e d m e d i t a t o r s s h o w i n g a p e r s i s t e n c e o f a l p h a a n d s o m e t h e t a w a v e a c t i v i t y i n t o t h e e y e s o p e n p e r i o d . ; T o p o g r a p h i c a l l y t w o c h a n g e s w e r e o b s e r v e d d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n . T h e r e - - w a s a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s s y n c h r o n i s a t i o n o f t h e a n t e r i o r a n d p o s t e r i o r d e -r i v a t i o n s , w i t h a l p h a r h y t h m s s p r e a d i n g f r o m t h e o c c i p i t o - p a r i e t a l t o t h e a n t e r i o r c h a n n e l s a n d t h e t a a n d b e t a p a t t e r n s d i f f u s i n g p o s t e r i o r l y f r o m t h e f r o n t a l c h a n n e l s . A l s o , a t r a n s i e n t s y m m e t r y b e t w e e n r i g h t a n d l e f t h e m i s p h e r e s w a s o b s e r v e d i n t h e s h i f t i n g p h a s e f r o m s l o w t o f a s t f r e q u e n c i e s — b e t a a c t i v i t y a p p e a r e d f i r s t i n t h e l e f t h e m i s p h e r e f r o m t h e f r o n t a l t o t h e o c c i p i t a l c h a n n e l s . F l a s h a n d c l i c k s t i m u l i w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s e v e n s u b j e c t s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f m e d i t a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s o f a l p h a w a v e a c t i v i t y 1 9 t h e r e w a s u s u a l l y n o b l o c k i n g t o t h e s t i m u l i . T h e c l i c k s t i m u l i b l o c k e d t h e t h e t a w a v e a c t i v i t y b u t o n l y f o r a f e w s e c o n d s ; d u r i n g t h e f a s t e r f r e q u e n c i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e e p m e d i t a t i o n n o c h a n g e s i n b r a i n - w a v e a c t i v i t y w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s t i m u l a t i o n . B a n q u e t a l s o n o t e d t h a t a s t h e m e d i t a t i o n p r o g r e s s e d , m u s c l e a c t i v i t y a n d e y e m o v e m e n t s d i s a p p e a r e d a n d r e s p i r a t i o n b e c a m e s l o w e r a n d s h a l l o w e r . H e s t a t e s t h a t v o l u n t a r y m o v e m e n t t o p u s h t h e b u t t o n c o u l d b e p e r f o r m e d a t a n y s t a t e o f m e d i t a t i o n w i t h o u t a l t e r i n g b r a i n w a v e p a t t e r n s a n d t h a t s u b j e c t s c o u l d a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s r e a d i l y a n d a c c u r a t e l y . T o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e m e d i t a t i v e s t a t e f r o m o t h e r s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s B a n q u e t d i s c u s s e s s o m e o f t h e u n i q u e E E G c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f o r m e r s t a t e , s u c h a s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a l p h a a c t i v i t y a f t e r m e d i t a t i o n w i t h t h e e y e s o p e n a n d t h e d i f f u s i o n o f l a r g e a m p l i t u d e a l p h a w a v e s t o a n t e r i o r r e g i o n s . A s w a s r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r , t h e s t u d y b y K a s a m a t s u a n d H i r a i ( 1 9 6 6 ) d e s c r i b e s h o w t h e r e s p o n s e t o f l a s h a n d c l i c k s t i m u l i d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e s l o w f r e q u e n c i e s o f m e d i t a t i o n f r o m t h o s e o f d r o w s i n e s s a n d s l e e p — s t i m u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r s t a t e p r o d u c e s a t y p i c a l a r o u s a l r e a c t i o n . B a n q u e t n o t e d t h e s a m e t h i n g i n h i s r e s e a r c h a n d a l s o t h a t t h e t h e t a r h y t h m s o f m e d i t a t i o n a r e c o n t i n u o u s t r a i n s o f d o m i n a n t t h e t a a c t i v i t y a t a c o n s t a n t f r e q u e n c y a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e m i x t u r e o r a l t e r a t i o n s o f a l p h a , b e t a a n d d i s c o n t i n u o u s t h e t a a c t i v i t y s e e n i n d r o w s i n e s s . A n o t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n i s f o u n d i n t h e l o w v o l t a g e b e t a w a v e a c t i v i t y o f d e e p m e d i t a t i o n a n d t h a t o f t h e a w a k e s u b j e c t . T h e f o r m e r a p p e a r s o n a b a c k -g r o u n d o f s l o w f r e q u e n c i e s , h a s s p i n d l e - l i k e a m p l i t u d e m o d u l a t i o n a n d s h o w s r h y t h m i c f a s t f r e q u e n c i e s a r o u n d 2 0 a n d 4 0 H z , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i s i 2 0 c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y d o m i n a n t f a s t f r e q u e n c i e s w i t h o u t a n y r h y t h m i c i t y o r r e g u l a r i t y . O n e a s p e c t o f B a n q u e t ' s r e s e a r c h w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d f r o m a m e d i t a t o r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w i s t h a t s u b j e c t s w e r e a p p a r e n t l y a b l e t o i n d i c a t e b y p u s h b u t t o n w h e n t h e y w e r e e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e d e e p e s t s t a t e o f m e d i t a t i o n o r t r a n s c e n d e n c e a n d e v e n t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s i n t h a t s t a t e . I t w o u l d s e e m t h a t i f t h e m e d i t a t o r h a s i n d e e d t r a n s c e n d e d , t h e p r o c e s s o f b e c o m i n g a w a r e o f t h e s t i m u l i a n d r e s p o n d i n g t o i t w o u l d s e r v e t o r e m o v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r o m t h a t s t a t e , i . e . , h e w o u l d b e i n d i c a t i n g w h a t h e h a d b e e n e x p e r i e n c i n g n o t w h a t h e w a s e x p e r i e n c i n g . T h e d a t a o b t a i n e d b y B a n q u e t o n a l p h a b l o c k i n g w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d b y W a l l a c e ( 1 9 7 0 ) a n d S p o n g , L o w a n d W a d a ( 1 9 7 0 ) i n t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n s o f E E G p a t t e r n s d u r i n g T . M . — t h e l a t t e r o b s e r v e d l i t t l e h a b i t u a t i o n t o t h e s t i m u l i , w h e r e a s B a n q u e t r e p o r t s c o n s i s t e n t h a b i t u a t i o n . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s m a y h a v e i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e u s e o f s t i m u l a t i o n d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n a n d t h i s i s s u e w i l l b e e x a m i n e d i n m o r e d e t a i l i n t h e d i s c u s s s i o n . T o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f T . M . o n c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f a u t o n o m i c f u n c t i o n i n g r e l a t e d t o a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s e t o s t r e s s , O r m e - J o h n s o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) s t u d i e d b o t h h a b i t u a t i o n o f G S R t o a t o n e a n d t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s p o n t a n e o u s G S R f l u c t u a t i o n s a s a f u n c t i o n o f m e d i t a t i o n . D e t a i l e d e v i d e n c e i s p r e s e n t e d t o s u g g e s t t h a t a u t o n o m i c s t a b i l i t y i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e n e f i c i a l t o h e a l t h a n d t h a t l a b i l i t y m a y r e s u l t i n " m a l f u n c t i o n " . T w o s t u d i e s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t . I n t h e f i r s t , a h a b i t u a t i o n s t u d y , 21 the subjects — b o t h meditators and non-meditators — received tone pre-sentations un t i l the criterion for habituation was attained. These subjects were also measured for spontaneous GSR several weeks later. I n i t i a l responses to the tone were similar for both groups, with the meditators habituating faster to the tone than the non-meditators. Although the two groups appeared to be equally sensitive to the tone i n i t i a l l y , the mean t r i a l s to criterion for the meditators was 11.0 as compared with 26.1 for non-meditators. Meditators also showed fewer secondary responses to the tones as well as rapid habituation. On the basis of these results i t appears that T.M. may bring about rapid homeo-static stabilization under conditions of auditory stress. The meditators also made significantly fewer spontaneous GSR's over the test period than did the non-meditators. In the second study, subjects planning to begin T.M. were "normal" with respect to spontaneous GSR activity whereas over three different sessions the meditators consistently emitted fewer spontaneous GSR's. Orme-Johnson concluded that, "T.M. may i n -fluence autonomic balance by increasing parasympathetic activity, de-creasing sympathetic activity or both. The possibility that T.M. reduces sympathetic dominance is consistent with the observation of Wallace, Benson and Wilson (1971) that meditators have low resting levels of blood pressure, and i t would explain the present findings of rapid GSR habitu-ation and low levels of spontaneous GSR i n meditators, the GSR being a purely sympathetic response." (Orme-Johnson, 1971, p. 17). Several exploratory studies have been completed by Schwartz (1973) and his co-workers to evaluate the hypothesis that T.M. produces a 2 2 h y p o m e t a b o l i c s t a t e . I n t h e f i r s t s t u d y , a n a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c l a i m t h a t m e d i t a t i o n c o u l d b e c a r r i e d o u t e v e n w h i l e r i d i n g i n a s u b w a y . M e d i t a t o r s a n d n o n - m e d i t a t i n g c o n t r o l s w e r e e x p o s e d t o r e c o r d e d s u b w a y n o i s e s w h i l e G S R a n d o c c i p i t a l a l p h a w e r e b e i n g r e c o r d e d . D u r i n g i n i t i a l e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d s o c c i p i t a l a l p h a i n c r e a s e d i n b o t h g r o u p s , b u t o v e r t h e s e s s i o n t h e r e w a s a d e c r e a s e i n a l p h a , w h i c h w a s g r e a t e s t f o r t h e c o n t r o l s . A s o n l y a l p h a w a v e a c t i v i t y w a s b e i n g s c o r e d i t c o u l d n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d i f t h i s d e c r e a s e w a s d u e t o i n c r e a s e s i n b e t a o r t h e t a w a v e a c t i v i t y . M e d i t a t o r s d i s p l a y e d m o r e a l p h a a c t i v i t y w i t h t h e i r e y e s o p e n t h a n d i d c o n t r o l s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h w a s r e v e r s e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e s e s s i o n . T h i s w a s a t -t r i b u t e d t o a p o s t - m e d i t a t i o n s e n s i t i z a t i o n e f f e c t i n w h i c h v i s u a l s t i m u l i a p p e a r m o r e s t r i k i n g . T h e s k i n r e s i s t a n c e c h a n g e s d i f f e r e d f r o m t h o s e o b t a i n e d b y W a l l a c e e t a l ( 1 9 7 0 a ; b , 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 2 ) ; b o t h g r o u p s d i s -p l a y e d r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n c r e a s e s i n s k i n r e s i s t a n c e . A s e c o n d s t u d y ( S c h w a r t z , 1 9 7 3 ) w a s i n i t i a t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n l a r g e s k i n r e s i s t a n c e c h a n g e s a n d t o f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e t h e E E G s e n s i t i z a t i o n f i n d i n g . M e d i t a t o r s a n d n o n - m e d i t a t i n g c o n t r o l s w e r e e x a m i n e d o v e r o n e e x t e n d e d e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d . T h e E E G s e n s i t i z a t i o n p h e n o m e n o n w a s r e p l i c a t e d . A g a i n , l a r g e c h a n g e s i n s k i n r e s i s t a n c e w e r e n o t o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e m e d i t a t i o n . A f t e r m e d i t a t i o n a s k i n r e s i s t a n c e l e v e l s e n s i t i z a t i o n e f f e c t , s i m i l a r t o t h e E E G e f f e c t . , . . o c c u r r e d . A t h i r d s t u d y c o m p a r e d s k i n r e s i s t a n c e c h a n g e s d u r i n g T . M . a n d a r e l a x a t i o n p e r i o d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f w a t c h i n g a s t r e s s f u l m o v i e . R a t h e r t h a n d i s p l a y i n g t h e e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e i n s k i n r e s i s t a n c e t h e m e d i t a t o r s 23 showed decreases i n skin resistance (i.e., increased electrodermal arousal) which were greater than those for the control group. Concerning these results, Schwartz commented that, " . . . what must be concluded from the data i s that transcendental meditation has both t r a i t and state effects, and that situational factors can play an important role in de-termining both the size and direction of the physiological effects that can be obtained. . . i t may be necessary to do long term studies on individual meditators to observe large effects in multi-physiological systems, or even resort to portable, unobtrusive instruments i n the f i e l d i n order to assess changes presumed to take place in natural meditation." (Schwartz, 1973, p. 4 ) • Purpose of the Present Study The research cited in the introduction has generally involved the use of subjects with formal training i n meditation (e.g., Transcendental Meditation, Zen, Yoga). However, in much of this research adequate control groups against which the obtained results can be compared were not used. Even when non-meditating control groups are employed, several problems s t i l l exist. It i s unlikely that non-meditators could be obtained who have spent the same amount of time s i t t i n g quietly with their eyes closed for extended periods as have the meditators. This situation makes i t d i f f i c u l t to separate the effects of the technique from those of the process of s i t t i n g quietly with eyes closed over repeated sessions. A within-subjects design with the meditator serving as his own control by 2 4 s i t t i n g with his eyes closed without meditating for some period prior to beginning to meditate i s also inadequate. The eyes closed s i t t i n g position i s most condusive to meditation and the tendency to begin meditation or to actively resist i t i s undoubtedly experienced by most meditators i n spite of intentions to do otherwise. Even with this inadequacy the within subjects design i s being used by most researchers i n this area with l i t t l e attention being given to the inappropriatness of this design. Another factor to consider in comparing meditators to non-meditators i s that those who begin meditation may do so by virtue of some special capacity they have for this experience or which causes them to seek this experience. They may differ from non-meditators even before beginning the technique. No attempt has been made to adequately assess any pre-meditation differences that may exist between the two groups. An important aspect of most meditative techniques i s that they usually stress the necessity of a teacher, one who i s already involved i n the practice and, having attained some degree of advancement or training, i s recognized as being capable of imparting the knowledge to others. To what extent this specialized training i s necessary i s not f u l l y known and i t i s possible that some of the changes occurring i n these techniques may be available to some degree without this specialized instruction. The present study was designed to investigate some of these issues, in particular: the use of meditating and non-meditating control groups; the predisposition for meditators to begin meditation when sit t i n g with their eyes closed; the extent to which the physiological changes associated with meditation can be achieved by non-meditators; the extent to which 25 meditators during meditat ion vary from meditators s i t t i n g wi th t h e i r eyes c losed; the p o s s i b i l i t y of s tudying meditat ion i n the laboratory s e t t i n g and to assess some of the v a r i a b l e s that might a f f ec t t h i s type of research . The design invo lved random assignment of Transcendental Medi tators to two groups, one of which was asked to meditate f o r part of the tes t p e r i o d , and the other to s i t wi th eyes c losed without meditat ing for part of the tes t p e r i o d . A t h i r d group composed of i n d i v i d u a l s not involved i n T . M . was asked to fo l low the same procedure as the second group of medi tators . This l a t t e r group could be considered a c o n t r o l group l i k e that used i n most of the previous research; however, i t would a l so be of i n t e r e s t to compare them with the second group of non-meditat ing meditators . Using t h i s design i t should be p o s s i b l e to evaluate some of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes occurr ing i n medi ta t ion , to examine to what extent these changes-are unique to medi tat ion and to what extent they occur i n re laxed meditators or are a v a i l a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l s without t r a i n i n g i n medi ta t ion . I t should be p o s s i b l e to determine whether the non-meditat ing meditators are able to r e s i s t meditat ing when s i t t i n g i n the upr ight , eyes-c losed p o s i t i o n and i f the laboratory s i t u a t i o n a f fec t s the three groups d i f f e r e n t i a l l y ( i . e . , i s the balance necessary i n medi tat ion upset more by the environment than that requ ired for r e l a x a t i o n ) . 2 6 M e t h o d S u b j e c t s T h e s u b j e c t s w e r e 2 4 m a l e v o l u n t e e r s , m o s t o f w h o m w e r e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e S t u d e n t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l M e d i t a t i o n S o c i e t y . T h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h w a s n o t r e v e a l e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s p r i o r t o t h e i r c o m i n g t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y ; t h e y w e r e t o l d o n l y t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e i n v o l v e d i n a p h y s i o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t . T h e s u b j e c t s r a n g e d i n a g e f r o m 2 0 t o 3 0 y e a r s w i t h a m e d i a n o f 2 4 . 5 y e a r s . S i x t e e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f T . M . w i t h a r a n g e o f 1 9 t o 9 0 m o n t h s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e t e c h n i q u e . T h e s e s u b j e c t s w e r e r a n d o m l y d i v i d e d i n t o t w o g r o u p s . A t h i r d g r o u p w a s c o m p o s e d o f 8 n o n - m e d i t a t o r s , f o u r o f w h o m h a d m a d e a p p o i n t m e n t s t o b e g i n T . M . a n d t h e o t h e r f o u r h a v i n g n o t e x p r e s s e d a n y i n t e r e s t i n b e g i n n i n g T . M . O n e o f t h e o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t s a s s i g n e d t o t h e m e d i t a t i o n g r o u p h a d t o b e r e p l a c e d s i n c e e x c e s s i v e b o d y m o v e m e n t s d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t m a d e h i s r e c o r d u n s c o r a b l e . A p p a r a t u s A B e c k m a n T y p e R P o l y g r a p h w a s u s e d t o r e c o r d r e s p i r a t i o n , p a l m a r s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e , h e a r t r a t e , c e p h a l i c v a s o m o t o r a c t i v i t y , e l e c t r o -m y o g h i c a c t i v i t y ( E M G ) f r o m t h e n e c k , a n d E E G . S k i n c o n d u c t a n c e w a s m e a s u r e d d i r e c t l y b y p u t t i n g a c o n s t a n t v o l t a g e o f 0 . 5 V a c r o s s t w o B e c k m a n b i o p o t e n t i a l e l e c t r o d e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e f i r s t a n d t h i r d f i n g e r s o f t h e l e f t h a n d ; a 0 . 5 p e r c e n t N a C l p a s t e w a s u s e d a s t h e c o n t a c t m e d i u m . H e a r t r a t e w a s o b t a i n e d f r o m a s t a n d a r d 2 7 l e a d I c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d a c a r d i o t a c h o m e t e r c o u p l e r w h i c h e x p r e s s e d t h e o u t p u t i n b e a t s p e r m i n u t e ( b p m ) . C e p h a l i c v a s o m o t o r a c t i v i t y w a s m e a s u r e d b y p l a c i n g a p h o t o c e l l p l e t h y s m o g r a p h ( w i t h a l i g h t - e m i t t i n g d i o d e a s t h e l i g h t s o u r c e ) i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f o r e h e a d ; t h e s i g n a l w a s A C c o u p l e d w i t h a t i m e c o n s t a n t o f . 0 3 s e c o n d s . A s t r a i n g a u g e r e c o r d e d r e s p i r a t o r y a c t i v i t y . I n t e g r a t e d E M G a c t i v i t y w a s r e c o r d e d f r o m t h e n e c k , u s i n g t h e l e a d s d e s c r i b e d b y L i p p o l d ( 1 9 6 7 ) . O c c i p i t a l E E G r e c o r -d i n g s w e r e m a d e u s i n g a s i n g l e e l e c t r o d e p l a c e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 - 3 c m . a n t e r i o r t o t h e a n i o n o n t h e m i d l i n e , r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o e l e c t r o d e p l a c e m e n t O2 a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1 0 - 2 0 s y s t e m . A r e f e r e n c e e l e c t r o d e w a s c l i p p e d t o t h e r i g h t e a r . T h e s i g n a l w a s A C c o u p l e d w i t h a t i m e c o n s t a n t o f . 0 3 s e c o n d s . C h a r t s p e e d w a s 1 0 m m p e r s e c o n d . P r o c e d u r e S u b j e c t s f i r s t f i l l e d o u t a b r i e f l i f e h i s t o r y q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d t h e n s a t i n a c o m f o r t a b l e c h a i r i n a n a i r c o n d i t i o n e d , d i m l y l i t I A C a c o u s t i c a l c h a m b e r . T h e r e c o r d i n g e q u i p m e n t w a s s i t u a t e d o u t s i d e t h e c h a m b e r . W h i l e t h e e l e c t r o d e s a n d t r a n s d u c e r s w e r e b e i n g a t t a c h e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c o u s t i c a l c h a m b e r w a s e x p l a i n e d t o t h e s u b j e c t a n d h e w a s t o l d t h a t o n c e t h e e x p e r i m e n t b e g a n a l l c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n h i m a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w o u l d t a k e p l a c e t h r o u g h a n i n t e r c o m . T h e h o o k - u p t i m e w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 5 m i n u t e s . A f t e r t h e h o o k - u p h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d t h e s u b j e c t w a s a s k e d t o s i t q u i e t l y w i t h h i s e y e s o p e n u n t i l g i v e n f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s . S u b j e c t s i n G r o u p s I a n d I I , c o m p r i s e d o f t r a i n e d m e d i t a t o r s , w e r e a l s o t o l d a t t h i s t i m e t h a t i t w a s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e y n o t m e d i t a t e u n t i l g i v e n 2 8 instructions to do so. After approximately five minutes the subject was told that the experiment would begin and that he should s i t quietly with his eyes open. Following another five minute period the subject was told to s i t quietly with his eyes closed. After ten minutes subjects in Group I were asked to begin meditation and those i n Groups II and III were asked to continue s i t t i n g quietly with their eyes closed. After 15 minutes subjects i n Group I were asked to stop meditating and to continue si t t i n g quietly with their eyes closed; those in Groups II and III were asked to continue si t t i n g quietly with their eyes closed. After five minutes a l l subjects were asked to open their eyes and to continue s i t t i n g quietly. Following another five minute period a l l subjects were told that the experiment was finished. The subject then was asked to f i l l out a short questionnaire and also to write a short paragraph summarizing his subjective impression of the session (see Table I for summary of procedure). Analyses The data were scored i n the same manner for a l l three groups. Heart rate, respiration and skin conductance were scored as follows: for the minute prior to the i n i t i a l instruction; for the f i r s t two 30 second periods and then for each minute of the five minute eyes open session; for the f i r s t 30 seconds and four other one minute periods throughout the ten minute eyes closed session; for the f i r s t 30 seconds and six other 29 Table I Experimental Procedure 5 min 10 min 15 min 5 min 5 min Group I eyes open eyes closed m e d i t a t i o n eyes close d eyes open Group I I eyes open eyes close d eyes close d eyes c l o s e d eyes open Group I I I eyes open eyes close d eyes close d eyes c l o s e d eyes open 3 0 o n e m i n u t e p e r i o d s t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 5 m i n u t e m e d i t a t i o n o r r e l a x a t i o n s e s s i o n ; f o r t h e f i r s t t w o 3 0 s e c o n d p e r i o d s a n d t h e n f o r e a c h m i n u t e o f t h e f i v e m i n u t e e y e s c l o s e d s e s s i o n ; a n d f o r t h e f i r s t t w o 3 0 s e c o n d p e r i o d s a n d t h e n f o r e a c h m i n u t e o f t h e f i v e m i n u t e e y e s o p e n p e r i o d . V a s o m o t o r a c t i v i t y w a s s c o r e d b y a v e r a g i n g t h e f i r s t a n d l a s t t e n p e a k - t o - t r o u g h a m p l i t u d e s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e l e c t e d t i m e p e r i o d s , w h i c h w e r e : t h e s e c o n d 3 0 s e c o n d p e r i o d a n d t h e l a s t m i n u t e o f t h e f i v e m i n u t e e y e s o p e n s e s s i o n ; f o r o n e m i n u t e f o l l o w i n g t h e f i r s t 3 0 s e c o n d p e r i o d a n d t h e l a s t m i n u t e o f t h e t e n m i n u t e e y e s c l o s e d s e s s i o n ; f o r o n e m i n u t e f o l l o w i n g t h e f i r s t 3 0 s e c o n d p e r i o d a n d f o r t w o o n e m i n u t e p e r i o d s d u r i n g t h e 1 5 m i n u t e m e d i t a t i o n - r e l a x a t i o n s e s s i o n ; f o r t h e s e c o n d 3 0 s e c o n d p e r i o d a n d t h e f i n a l m i n u t e o f t h e f i v e m i n u t e e y e s c l o s e d s e s s i o n ; a n d t h e s e c o n d 3 0 s e c o n d p e r i o d a n d f i n a l m i n u t e o f t h e f i v e m i n u t e e y e s o p e n s e s s i o n . T h e E E G w a s s c o r e d f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a l p h a w a v e s o v e r t h e e n t i r e t e n m i n u t e s o f t h e e y e s c l o s e d s e s s i o n , t h e 1 5 m i n u t e s o f t h e m e d i t a t i o n -r e l a x a t i o n s e s s i o n , a n d t h e f i v e m i n u t e s o f t h e e y e s c l o s e d s e s s i o n . T h e c r i t e r i o n f o r a l p h a a c t i v i t y w a s 8 - 1 3 c . p . s . r e g u l a r w a v e s o f g r e a t e r a m p l i t u d e t h a n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g i r r e g u l a r w a v e s w i t h a d u r a t i o n o f a t l e a s t o n e s e c o n d . T h e f i r s t f i v e m i n u t e e y e s o p e n p e r i o d s e r v e d a s a b a s e l i n e f o r t h e s u c c e e d i n g p e r i o d s a n d t h e r e s u l t s a r e e x p r e s s e d a s c h a n g e s f r o m t h i s i n i t i a l p e r i o d . F o r c e r t a i n m e a s u r e s f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r i o d s . T h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d , e x c l u d i n g t h e E E G , w e r e a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o • v . ' , . . . 3 1 a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e d e s i g n , c o m p a r i n g t h e t h r e e g r o u p s a c r o s s t h e p e r i o d s a n d e x p r e s s i n g t h e m a s a c h a n g e f r o m t h e i n i t i a l e y e s o p e n p e r i o d . 3 2 R e s u l t s H e a r t R a t e D u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l e y e s o p e n c o n t r o l p e r i o d t h e m e a n s o b t a i n e d f o r h e a r t r a t e w e r e : G r o u p I - 7 7 . 4 b e a t s / m i n ; G r o u p I I - 7 8 . 1 b e a t s / m i n ; G r o u p I I I - 6 7 . 9 b e a t s / m i n . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e f i r s t e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e s i n h e a r t r a t e a c r o s s a l l g r o u p s ( F = 6 . 6 9 , d f = 5 / 1 0 5 , p < . 0 0 0 1 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e g r o u p s e f f e c t a n d t h e g r o u p s X m e a s u r e s i n t e r a c t i o n w e r e n o t s i g -n i f i c a n t . D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d ( t h e m e d i t a t i o n o r r e l a x a t i o n p e r i o d ) a s i g n i f i c a n t m e a s u r e s e f f e c t ( F = 2 . 5 5 , d f = 6 / 1 2 6 , p < . 0 2 5 ) w a s o b t a i n e d , i n d i c a t i n g a n o v e r a l l d e c e l e r a t i o n i n h e a r t r a t e . T h e g r o u p s e f f e c t a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . F i g u r e 1 s h o w s t h a t i n i t i a l l y h e a r t r a t e a c c e l e r a t e d , p r o b a b l y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p e r i o d . A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w a s c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e e f f e c t s . F r o m p o i n t 0 - 1 ( s e e F i g u r e 1 ) a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d s e f f e c t ( F = 5 . 5 5 , d f = 1 / 2 1 , p < . 0 3 ) w a s o b s e r v e d ; h o w e v e r t h e g r o u p s e f f e c t o n l y a p p r o a c h e d s i g -n i f i c a n c e ( F = 3 . 2 0 , d f = 2 / 2 1 , p < . 0 6 ) . F r o m p o i n t s 1 - 7 o n l y t h e p e r i o d s e f f e c t a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ( F = 3 . 6 2 , d f = 1 / 2 1 , p < . 0 7 ) . I n t h e t h i r d e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d a s i g n i f i c a n t m e a s u r e s e f f e c t ( F = 4 . 3 2 , d f = 5 / 1 0 5 , p < . 0 0 1 ) , i n d i c a t i n g a d e c e l e r a t i o n i n h e a r t , r a t e w a s o b s e r v e d . A s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p s X m e a s u r e s e f f e c t ( F = 2 . 5 8 , d f = 1 0 / 1 0 5 , p < . 0 0 8 ) Figure i . Heart Rate Response 5b Eyes closed 1 Eyes closed 2 Restingmeansvt Group-77.35 bpm 2Group-78.n bpm 3Group-67.94 bpm 8 9 10 11 12 Eyes closed 3 14 15 16 17 18 Eyes open 2 OJ 3 4 w a s a l s o p r e s e n t i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t d e c e l e r a t i o n w a s s h o w n b y G r o u p I I I . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s w a s c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d ( s e e F i g u r e 1 ) . F r o m p o i n t s 7 - 8 a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d s e f f e c t ( F = 6 . 5 3 , d f = 1 / 2 1 , p < . 0 2 ) w a s o b s e r v e d , i n d i c a t i n g a n a c c e l e r a t i o n i n h e a r t r a t e d u r i n g t h e m i n u t e i n w h i c h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e p e r i o d w e r e g i v e n . T h e g r o u p s X p e r i o d s i n t e r a c t i o n a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ( F = 2 . 8 3 , d f = 2 / 2 1 , p < . 0 8 ) d u e t o t h e d e c e l e r a t i o n i n h e a r t r a t e o f G r o u p I I i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s h a r p a c c e l e r a t i o n o b s e r v e d i n G r o u p s I a n d I I I . F r o m p o i n t s 8 - 1 3 , a p e r i o d s e f f e c t ( F = 4 . 9 2 , d f = 1 / 2 1 , p < . 0 4 ) w a s o b s e r v e d d u e t o t h e d e c e l e r a t i o n i n h e a r t r a t e w h i c h o c c u r r e d f o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a l a c c e l e r a t i o n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p e r i o d . H o w e v e r , a s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p s X p e r i o d s i n t e r a c t i o n ( F = 4 . 2 6 , d f = 2 / 2 1 , p < . 0 3 ) e m p h a s i z e d t h e p r o n o u n c e d d e c e l e r a t i o n o b s e r v e d i n G r o u p I I I a s c o m p a r e d t o G r o u p s I a n d I I . D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d e y e s o p e n p e r i o d o n l y t h e m e a s u r e s e f f e c t a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . F r o m p o i n t s 1 3 - 1 4 a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d s e f f e c t ( F = 7 . 1 8 , d f = 1 / 2 1 , p < . 0 1 ) w a s o b s e r v e d , a g a i n d u e t o t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n i n h e a r t r a t e w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p e r i o d . H o w e v e r , t h e d e c e l e r a t i o n w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d s d i d n o t o c c u r i n t h i s e y e s o p e n p e r i o d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e D u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l e y e s o p e n c o n t r o l p e r i o d t h e m e a n s o b t a i n e d f o r s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e w e r e : G r o u p I - 1 3 . 8 u m h o s ; G r o u p I I - 1 0 . 6 u m h o s ; G r o u p I I I - 7 . 7 u m h o s . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . 3 5 I n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e c o n t r o l p e r i o d t h e f i r s t e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d p r o d u c e d a s i g n i f i c a n t m e a s u r e s e f f e c t ( F = 2 . 5 0 , d f = 4 / 8 4 , p < . 0 5 ) , r e f l e c t i n g a n i n c r e a s e i n s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e i n a l l t h r e e g r o u p s . W h e n t h e m e d i t a t i o n o r r e l a x a t i o n p e r i o d w a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l p e r i o d , a s i g n i f i c a n t m e a s u r e s e f f e c t ( F = 7 . 7 2 , d f = 6 / 1 2 6 , p < . 0 0 0 3 ) w a s o b t a i n e d , i n d i c a t i n g a d e c r e a s e i n s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e i n t h e t h r e e g r o u p s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . T h e s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p s X m e a s u r e s i n t e r a c t i o n ( F = 2 . 1 7 , d f = 1 2 / 1 2 6 , p < . 0 1 7 ) m a y b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s h a r p d e -c r e a s e i n s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n G r o u p I , a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e s m a l l e r d e c r e a s e s i n G r o u p s I I a n d I I I . A s c a n b e s e e n i n F i g u r e 2 , t h e t r e n d , t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t i s f o r s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e t o i n c r e a s e , a n d y e t w i t h i n s e v e r a l p e r i o d s t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n t h i s m e a s u r e . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h p e r i o d a n i n c r e a s e i n s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e i s u s u a l l y o b s e r v e d , a r e s p o n s e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p e r i o d . F r o m t h i s p o i n t a d e c r e a s e i n s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e i s o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e t h r e e p e r i o d s . T o e m p h a s i z e t h i s p o i n t , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s w a s c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h e s e p e r i o d s ( s i m i l a r t o t h a t d o n e w i t h h e a r t r a t e ) . F r o m p o i n t s 0 — 1 ( s e e F i g u r e 2 ) a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d s e f f e c t ( F = 2 1 . 8 8 , d f = 1 / 2 1 , p < . 0 0 0 2 ) w a s o b s e r v e d i n d i c a t i n g a n i n c r e a s e i n s k i n c o n -d u c t a n c e o v e r t h i s t i m e p e r i o d . F r o m p o i n t s 1 - 7 a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d s e f f e c t ( F = 5 . 0 4 , d f = 1 / 2 1 , p < . 0 3 ) i n d i c a t e d a d e c r e a s e i n s k i n c o n -d u c t a n c e f o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a l r i s e ; a s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p s X p e r i o d i n t e r a c t i o n ( F = 4 . 2 3 , d f = 2 / 2 1 , p < . 0 3 ) e m p h a s i z e d t h e l a r g e r d e c r e a s e o b s e r v e d i n G r o u p I . Figure 2. Skin Conductance Response o 4 • • A , . I'\ 'K M 1 / / / » / --•Gp.l / / "A. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 0 7 13 Eyes closed l Eyes closed 2 Eyes closed 3 Eyes open 2 Resting means-1 Group-13.79pmhos 2Group-io.64jjmhgs 3 Group- 7.70pmhos OJ 3 7 S k i n c o n d u c t a n c e d u r i n g t h e t h i r d e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n i t w a s d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l c o n t r o l p e r i o d ( F = 1 0 . 0 9 , d f = 5 / 1 0 5 , p < . 0 0 0 0 1 ) . W i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d a n a l y s i s o n p o i n t s 7 - 9 i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t m e a s u r e s e f f e c t ( F = 1 5 . 2 3 , d f = 1 / 2 1 , p < . 0 0 0 9 ) d u e t o a n i n i t i a l s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e ; t h i s i n c r e a s e w a s f o l -l o w e d b y a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e ( F = 1 2 . 4 7 , d f = 1 / 2 1 , p < . 0 0 2 ) f r o m p o i n t s 8 - 1 3 . I n t h e s e c o n d e y e s o p e n p e r i o d a s i g n i f i c a n t m e a s u r e s e f f e c t ( F = 5 . 4 9 , d f = 5 / 1 0 5 , p < . 0 0 0 2 ) w a s o b s e r v e d , i n d i c a t i n g a d e c r e a s e i n s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e . H o w e v e r , w h e n t h e a n a l y s i s w a s c o n d u c t e d o n p o i n t s w i t h i n t h e p e r i o d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t i a l i n c r e a s e w a s f o u n d f r o m p o i n t s 1 3 - 1 4 ( F = 1 2 . 0 3 , d f = 1 / 2 1 , p < . 0 1 3 ) . R e s p i r a t i o n I n t h e i n i t i a l e y e s o p e n c o n t r o l p e r i o d t h e m e a n r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e s w e r e : G r o u p I - 1 3 . 4 9 c y c l e s / m i n ; G r o u p I I - 1 5 . 0 1 c y c l e s / m i n ; a n d G r o u p I I I 1 5 . 2 c y c l e s / m i n . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . A s c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l p e r i o d n o s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d i n r e s p i r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d s . D u r i n g t h e t h i r d e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d t h e g r o u p s e f f e c t a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ( F = 3 . 0 0 , d f = 2 / 2 1 , p < . 0 8 ) ; t h i s w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e d u e t o t h e l a r g e r d e c r e a s e i n r e s p i r a t i o n o b s e r v e d i n G r o u p I a s c o m p a r e d t o G r o u p s I I a n d I I I ( s e e F i g u r e 3 ) . I n t h e s e c o n d e y e s o p e n p e r i o d t h e g r o u p s e f f e c t a g a i n a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ( F = 2 . 6 5 , d f = 2 / 2 1 , p < . 1 0 ) ; a g a i n t h i s w o u l d a p p e a r Figure 3. Respiration Rate 4 r 3 -2 -_ 4 L I ' ' • Eyes closed l Eyes closed 2 Eyes closed 3 Eyes open 2 Resting means: 1 Group-13.49 cycles/min. 2Group- 15.01 cycles/min. 3Group- 15.20 cycles/min. oo 3 9 t o b e d u e t o t h e g r e a t e r d e c r e a s e i n G r o u p I a s c o m p a r e d t o G r o u p s I I a n d I I I . C e p h a l i c V a s o m o t o r A c t i v i t y C e p h a l i c v a s o m o t o r a c t i v i t y w a s c o m p u t e d f o r o n l y t h r e e s u b j e c t s i n e a c h g r o u p d u e t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s c o r i n g t h e r e c o r d s . I n t h e f i v e m i n u t e e y e s o p e n c o n t r o l p e r i o d t h e m e a n p u l s e a m p l i t u d e , e x p r e s s e d i n m i l i m e t e r s , w a s : G r o u p I - 6 . 7 3 ; G r o u p I I - 1 0 . 1 0 ; G r o u p I I I - 9 . 3 7 . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . D u r i n g t h e t h r e e e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c e p h a l i c v a s o m o t o r a c t i v i t y w e r e o b s e r v e d . I n t h e s e c o n d e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d a s i g n i f i c a n t m e a s u r e s e f f e c t ( F = 6 . 5 8 , d f = 1 / 6 , p < . 0 4 ) w a s o b s e r v e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t v a s o c o n d i l a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n t h i s l a s t p e r i o d ( s e e F i g u r e 4 ) . E E G A c t i v i t y T h e E E G a c t i v i t y o f t w o s u b j e c t s f r o m e a c h g r o u p w a s s c o r e d d u r i n g t h e t h r e e e y e s c l o s e d p e r i o d s w i t h a l p h a w a v e a c t i v i t y b e i n g t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e . T h e p a r t i c u l a r r e c o r d s w e r e s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e t h e m o s t s c o r a b l e b y h a n d , d i s p l a y i n g f e w a r t i f a c t s a n d c l e a r l y d e f i n e a b l e b r a i n w a v e p a t t e r n s . D u e t o t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f r e c o r d s s c o r e d , n o s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d o n t h e d a t a . T h e a l p h a w a v e p e r -c e n t a g e s a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w i n T a b l e I I . E M G A c t i v i t y M u s c l e t e n s i o n i n t h e n e c k w a s n o t q u a n t i f i e d a s i n m o s t s u b j e c t s t h e r e w a s l i t t l e a p p a r e n t c h a n g e i n m u s c l e a c t i v i t y o v e r t h e s e s s i o n . H o w e v e r , i n a f e w s u b j e c t s , p r o n o u n c e d m u s c l e m o v e m e n t s w e r e o b s e r v e d Figure 4. Vasomotor Activity Resting means-. 1 Group- 6 . 7 3 m m 2 Group- 10.10 mm 3 Group- 9 . 3 7 m m 4 1 T a b l e I I P e r c e n t A l p h a F o r E y e s C l o s e d P e r i o d s e y e s c l o s e d ( 1 0 m i n ) e y e s c l o s e d ( 1 5 m i n ) e y e s c l o s e d ( 5 m i n ) r e l a x a t i o n m e d i t a t i o n o r r e l a x a t i o n r e l a x a t i o n S u b j e c t 1 9 4 . 6 9 7 . 9 9 7 . 7 G r o u p I S u b j e c t 2 8 0 . 0 9 8 . 1 8 6 . 7 S u b j e c t 1 9 5 . 8 9 7 . 4 9 8 . 9 G r o u p I I S u b j e c t 2 9 7 . 2 9 7 . 1 9 7 . 4 S u b j e c t 1 7 5 . 0 7 0 . 8 5 3 . 2 G r o u p I I S u b j e c t 2 3 2 . 2 3 6 . 1 4 8 . 8 4 2 and their significance w i l l be commented on in the discussion. Subjective Report None of the subjects reported any extreme discomfort with the physiological apparatus or the room in which they sat. Some subjects reported feeling drowsy but none indicated that they f e l l asleep. Per-haps the most important observation i s that a l l of the eight meditators in Group II (those asked not to meditate during the session) reported extreme d i f f i c u l t y in preventing themselves from beginning to meditate during the eyes closed periods. In fact a l l of them stated that at some point over this time they f e l t they had slipped into meditation and that they had to consciously halt this process. 4 3 D i s c u s s i o n P h y s i o l o g i c a l D a t a I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y d i f f e r s o m e w h a t f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f s o m e e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h ( W a l l a c e , 1 9 7 0 a , 1 9 7 0 b ; W a l l a c e , B e n s o n a n d W i l s o n , 1 9 7 1 ; W a l l a c e a n d B e n s o n , 1 9 7 2 ; A l l i s o n , 1 9 7 0 ) i n w h i c h f a i r l y e x t r a v a g a n t c l a i m s h a v e b e e n m a d e f o r t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f T . M . T h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t s s e e m t o b e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e t r e n d s o b s e r v e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h o f B r o w n , S t e w a r t a n d B l o d g e t t ( 1 9 7 1 ) a n d S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 7 3 ) . H e a r t R a t e . T h e c h a n g e s i n h e a r t r a t e w e r e i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t n o n - m e d i t a t o r s s h o w e d t h e l o w e s t i n i t i a l l e v e l s a n d a l s o a t t a i n e d t h e l o w e s t l e v e l s o v e r t h e d i f f e r e n t ^ . p e r i o d s , a l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e -t w e e n t h e g r o u p s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . A g e n e r a l d e c r e a s e i n h e a r t r a t e w a s o b s e r v e d i n t h e t h r e e g r o u p s a c r o s s t h e s e s s i o n ; h o w e v e r , a n i n c r e a s e w a s o b s e r v e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h p e r i o d , p r e s u m a b l y a s a r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t s v i a t h e i n t e r c o m . A l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s a d e c r e a s e i n h e a r t r a t e i t w o u l d a p p e a r t o o c c u r t o t h e s a m e d e g r e e i n m e d i t a t o r s d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n a n d r e l a x a t i o n , a n d i n n o n - m e d i t a t o r s d u r i n g r e l a x a t i o n . S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e . U n e x p e c t e d l y , s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e s h o w e d a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e a c r o s s t h e s e s s i o n i n a l l g r o u p s , a l t h o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e s o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e p e r i o d s f o l l o w i n g a n i n i t i a l r i s e ( p r e s u m a b l y d u e t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s ) . H o w e v e r , d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n t h e m e d i t a t o r s s h o w e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r d e c r e a s e i n s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e t h a n d i d 4 4 t h e o t h e r t w o g r o u p s . R e s p i r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e m e d i t a t o r s e x h i b i t e d s l i g h t l y l o w e r e d r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e s t h e c h a n g e s o b s e r v e d d i d n o t r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s . T h e d e c r e a s e s a t t a i n e d w e r e n o t c l o s e t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d b y m o s t o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( A l l i s o n , 1 9 7 0 ; W a l l a c e e t a l , 1 9 7 0 , 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 2 ) a n d , a g a i n , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e c h a n g e s w e r e e q u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o b o t h m e d i t a t o r s a n d n o n - m e d i t a t o r s . E E G A c t i v i t y . O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e c o r d s s c o r e d t h e m e d i t a t o r s d i f f e r e d g r e a t l y f r o m n o n - m e d i t a t o r s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a l p h a w a v e s w h e r e a s m e d i t a t o r s i n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f m e d i t a t i o n a n d r e l a x a t i o n d i d n o t d i f f e r n o t i c e a b l y . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d i n t h e e a r l i e r Y o g i c s t u d i e s ( D a s a n d G a s t a u t , 1 9 5 7 ; A n a n d , C h h i n a a n d S i n g h , 1 9 6 0 ) , t h e Z e n s t u d i e s ( K a s a m a t s u a n d H i r a i , 1 9 6 6 ) a n d T . M . ( W a l l a c e e t a l , 1 9 7 0 , 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 2 ; W a d a , 1 9 7 2 ; B a n q u e t , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h a t t h e m e d i t a t i n g a n d r e l a x i n g m e d i t a t o r s d i d n o t d i f f e r w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r c o n d i t i o n e i t h e r t h e m e d i t a t o r s b e g a n m e d i t a t i o n o r t h a t p r a c t i c e i n s i t t i n g w i t h t h e e y e s c l o s e d o v e r e x t e n d e d s e s s i o n s b r i n g s a b o u t i n c r e a s e s i n a l p h a a c t i v i t y p o s s i b l y a s a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e o f p r a c t i c e . O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s o b t a i n e d , E E G a c t i v i t y m o s t c l e a r l y d i s c r i m i n a t e s b e t w e e n m e d i t a t o r s a n d n o n -m e d i t a t o r s , b u t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o k n o w i f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e m e d i t a t i v e p r o c e s s o r , a s s t a t e d , p r a c t i c e i n s i t t i n g i n t h e r e l a x e d p o s e . O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a n d t h o s e o b t a i n e d b y S c h w a r t z e t a l ( 1 9 7 3 ) a n d B r o w n e_t a l _ ( 1 9 7 1 ) i t w o u l d s e e m t h a t t h e u s e 4 5 of the word hypometabolic to describe the physiological state produced during T.M. should be reevaluated. If this term implies an abnormally low metabolic rate it may be that although meditation produces a state of profound relaxation or quiescence the metabolic rate may not be "abnormally" low. This is not to imply that this is not the case but rather that further research employing the appropriate controls is necessary to assess the physiology of meditationand the appropriateness of the term "a hypometabolic state" in § general sense. 4 6 Impl icat ions for Future Research Although the p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s u l t s of t h i s study are of i n t e r e s t i n themselves, what i s of more importance are some of the conclus ions and opinions that can be made concerning research on medi ta t ion . One cons iderat ion i s that medi tat ion does not always appear to produce the hypometabolic s tate that has been assoc iated wi th i t . One of the subjec t s , a meditator of seven years experience, exh ib i t ed such frequent and pronounced body movements that the polygraph record was unscorable . This body movement was d i sp layed to a l e s s e r extent i n s evera l other subjects and appeared to be part of an extremely a c t i v e medi ta t ion . The nature of t h i s movement, as observed through a window i n the chamber, was frequent ly a j e r k i n g movement over the back or sideways at the neck. I t i s the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s experience that t h i s movement w i t h i n meditat ion i s often termed "unstressing" presumably assoc iated wi th the "release of s tress" w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l brought about by the "hypometabolic state" experienced during medi ta t ion . This phenomenon i s u s u a l l y seen more i n experienced meditators and those who have been on extended meditat ion courses where the medi tat ive s ta te i s experienced for longer per iods . Th i s experience i s by no means considered harmful and i s viewed as one aspect of success fu l medi ta t ion . Thi s f a c t o r may account f o r the discrepancy acknowledged by Wada (1973) i n which incongruous subjec t ive and objec t ive s tates were d i sp layed by some experienced subjects whereas inexperienced subjects u s u a l l y d i s -played congruous subjec t ive and objec t ive s ta te s . The congruous 47 p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a t e would be the hypometabolic one a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e d i t a t i o n ; however, f o r the experienced meditator t h i s might not always be the case, although i t would s t i l l be reported as s u c c e s s f u l m e d i t a t i o n . For the inexperienced meditator t h i s a c t i v e s t a t e w i l l probably c o n s i t u t e l e s s of h i s m e d i t a t i o n experience and he would e x h i b i t the expected patte r n s of quiescence to a greater extent that would the experienced meditator. This s t r e s s r e l e a s e may be so gradual as to be not n o t i c e a b l e or i t may i n t r u d e i n t o awareness. Goleman (1971) has discussed t h i s phenomenon i n depth. He s t a t e s t h a t the, "process of l i b e r a t i n g the nervous system from past s t r e s s e s i s undergone without e f f o r t , v o l i t i o n or i n t e n t i o n . As the meditator reaches a l e v e l of profound r e l a x a t i o n and pure aware-ness w i t h no thoughts, a wide range of k i n e s t h e t i c s e n s a t i o n s , vague f e e l i n g s , or any of the array of psychic events can be t r i g g e r e d at random. Auto-k i n e s t h e s i a may be accompanied by thoughts or may occur alone; or one may n o t i c e only thoughts but no movement . . . I f a t t e n t i o n i s turned to scanning the body when thoughts alone are experienced, u n d e r l y i n g pro-p r i o c e p t i v e k i n e s t h e t i c sensations i n v a r i a b l y w i l l be n o t i c e d . " (Goleman, 1971, p. 11). The r e j u v e n a t i n g e f f e c t of m e d i t a t i o n which r e s u l t s from t h i s process of u n s t r e s s i n g and i t s s i m i l a r i t y to the f u n c t i o n served by dreaming i s emphasized by Goleman. " I propose that u n s t r e s s i n g serves the same p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n f o r the mediator as do dreams f o r the dreamer. I n keeping w i t h the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e , each movement i n un-s t r e s s i n g s i g n a l s the r e l e a s e of a st o r e d mental-emotional s t a t e , event 4 8 or impression, and each such p s y c h i c event i n d i c a t e s the r e l e a s e of s t r e s s on the l e v e l of nerve-and-muscle. That i s , the k i n e s t h e t i c event i s p a r a l l e l e d by a psychic one, and each p s y c h i c event by a k i n e s t h e t i c one." (Goleman, 1971, p. 13). This more a c t i v e aspect of m e d i t a t i o n should be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r as i t c o n s t i t u t e s a most important aspect of the m e d i t a t i v e experience. Knowledge of t h i s s t a t e must be communicated to the non-meditating r e -searcher so as to prevent a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data obtained. Any attempt by researchers to e l i m i n a t e from study meditators who are experiencing t h i s p h y s i c a l aspect of m e d i t a t i o n , p o s s i b l y i n order to guard against movement a r t i f a c t s which would a f f e c t the r e c o r d i n g process, i s t o , pre-s e l e c t s ubjects i n a manner which denies the random i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes o c c u r r i n g i n m e d i t a t i o n . Another problem i s that a design which i n v o l v e s meditators s i t t i n g w i t h t h e i r eyes close d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s not to meditate i s an inadequate c o n t r o l f o r comparison w i t h the m e d i t a t i o n p e r i o d s . E i t h e r the meditator w i l l a c t i v e l y t r y to not meditate i n which case he w i l l be somewhat aroused and the d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n t r o l and m e d i t a t i o n periods w i l l be maximized beyond what they should be, or he may s l i p i n t o m e d i t a t i o n , i n which case the d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be minimized. In t h i s study a l l e i g h t of the meditators who were not asked to meditate reported a f t e r the s e s s i o n t h a t at some p o i n t during the eyes close d periods they found themselves beginning to meditate and that i t was d i f f i c u l t to prevent t h i s . I t would seem that once a person has become i n v o l v e d i n m e d i t a t i o n and has a s s o c i a t e d the r e l a x e d eyes closed pose w i t h that experience i t i s not p o s s i b l e to 49 consider h i s c o n t r o l p e r i o d of non-meditation as eq u i v a l e n t to that of a rel a x e d eyes closed p e r i o d f o r a non-meditator. I t was noted that the i n s t r u c t i o n s at the beginning of the p e r i o d produced l a r g e increases i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y , a f i n d i n g that i s r o u t i n e l y obtained i n p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l research. F a i l u r e to take t h i s p a t t e r n i n t o account could mean that pre-meditation values would be g r e a t l y elevated i f made r i g h t up to the p o i n t at which m e d i t a t i o n a c t u a l l y begins. Subsequent decreases i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y during the p e r i o d of med i t a t i o n would then be exaggerated, r e f l e c t i n g , somewhat a r e t u r n to p r e - i n s t r u c t i o n l e v e l s . To take t h i s e f f e c t i n t o account would be most important i n those s t u d i e s i n which the meditator served as h i s own c o n t r o l . Another i s s u e i n e v a l u a t i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l research on T.M. i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that not a l l meditators e x h i b i t the same changes during m e d i t a t i o n . Some may be c a r d i o v a s c u l a r responders, others electrodermal responders, e t c . , i n the same that some i n d i v i d u a l s tend to respond to d i f f e r e n t forms of s t r e s s w i t h a stereotyped p h y s i o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n ( i n d i v i d u a l - r e s p o n s e s p e c i f i c i t y , Engel, 1972). I f t h i s i s so, the simple averaging of data would tend to obscure what may be important trends. I t i s most important i n research on med i t a t i o n that the nature of the v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d be c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d so that i n f e r e n c e s across s t u d i e s may be made. Although not r e l a t e d to the present f i n d i n g s an example of the d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that may a r i s e i s the v a r i a b l e r e s u l t s obtained i n d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s concerning the e f f e c t of s t i m u l a t i o n on m e d i t a t i o n . The data obtained by Banquet (1973) on alpha b l o c k i n g 5 0 d u r i n g T . M . c o n t r a d i c t t h e e a r l i e r r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d b y W a l l a c e ( 1 9 7 0 ) a n d S p o n g , L o w a n d W a d a ( 1 9 7 0 ) . B a n q u e t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e W a s u s u a l l y n o a l p h a b l o c k i n g t o f l a s h a n d c l i c k s t i m u l i w h e r e a s S p o n g , L o w a n d W a d a , ( 1 9 7 0 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l p h a b l o c k i n g o c c u r r e d d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n a n d w a s g r e a t e r i n e x p e r i e n c e d t h a t i n e x p e r i e n c e d s u b j e c t s . W a l l a c e ( 1 9 7 1 ) a l s o s t a t e s t h a t i n h i s r e s e a r c h a l m o s t a l l s u b j e c t s s h o w e d n o h a b i t u a t i o n o f a l p h a b l o c k i n g t o r e p e a t e d s t i m u l i d u r i n g T . M . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s t h a t m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e s t r e n g t h a n d p r o x i m i t y o f t h e f l a s h a n d c l i c k t o t h e s u b j e c t m a y b e v e r y d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e s e t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t s a n d u n f o r t u n a t e l y d e t a i l o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t i m u l a t i o n i s n o t g i v e n . B a n q u e t n o t e s t h a t h i s r e s u l t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b -t a i n e d b y A n a n d , C h h i n a a n d S i n g h ( 1 9 6 0 ) a n d D a s a n d G a s t a u t ( 1 9 5 7 ) i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f I n d i a n y o g i s i n w h i c h h a b i t u a t i o n o f a l p h a b l o c k i n g o c c u r s t o r e p e a t e d s t i m u l a t i o n . A s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r t h e r e -s u l t s o f K a s a m a t s u a n d H i r a i ( 1 9 6 6 ) , i n t h e i r s t u d y o f Z e n m e d i t a t i o n , a r e o p p o s i t e t o t h i s i n t h a t n o h a b i t u a t i o n o f a l p h a b l o c k i n g i s o b s e r v e d . A n a t t e m p t w a s a l s o m a d e t o e x p l a i n t h e s e r e s u l t s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o m e d i t a t i o n e m p h a s i z e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d b y S p o n g , L o w a n d W a d a ( 1 9 7 0 ) a n d W a l l a c e ( 1 9 7 0 ) i t m a y b e t h a t t h e s t i m u l i t h e y p r e s e n t e d w e r e s o i n t e n s e t h a t i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s u b j e c t s t o n o t b e " a w a r e " o f t h e m . I n B a n q u e t ' s r e s e a r c h t h e s t i m u l i m a y h a v e b e e n o f l e s s e r i n t e n s i t y o r d i f f e r e n t p r o x i m i t y t o t h e s u b j e c t s o t h a t i t w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o p h a s e t h e m o u t . T h i s m a y a l s o a c c o u n t f o r t h e o b s e r -v a t i o n b y S p o n g e t a l , t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d m e d i t a t o r s s h o w e d m o r e a l p h a 5 1 blocking than experienced meditators and more blocking i n meditation than i n rest. They may have actively tried to resist the stimuli, to continue meditation against the stimuli by consciously returning to the mantra each time their meditation was interrupted. The experienced meditator would attempt to remain alert to maintain the meditative state so that he would constantly be orienting to the 'novel' stimuli. The inexperienced meditators, due to their lack of practice i n the technique may have been overwhelmed by the stimuli giving more attention to them and perhaps habituating to them. This would also occur with the experienced meditators when they were not meditating but sittin g at rest as there would be no conflict between the mantra and the stimuli. From this discussion i t follows that the intensity and proximity of the stimulation should be specified as there may be a point at which the stimulation becomes disruptive to the meditative process and variable results may be obtained depending on whether the stimulation intensity is above or below this point. The level at which this would occur w i l l vary with subjects depending on variables such as the length of meditative experience or the technique employed. It may be crucial to ascertain this level for each subject individually prior to doing research on the effect of stimulation during meditation. It would also seem that longitudinal studies are necessary for doing valid research on meditation. The inferences which can be made as the result of testing a meditator i n the laboratory once or twice w i l l always be somewhat limited due to the vast differences that w i l l exist between this situation and the usual meditation environment. It 5 2 a p p e a r s f r o m t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e l a b o r a t o r y a t m o s p h e r e a f f e c t s i n d i v i d u a l m e d i t a t o r s d i f f e r e n t l y , s o m e f i n d i n g i t u n p l e a s a n t w h i l e o t h e r s w e r e c u r i o u s a n d e x c i t e d . T h e a t t a c h m e n t o f e l e c t r o d e s a n d r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e s may e v e n h a m p e r t h e m e d i t a t i v e p r o c e s s . D u e t o t h e s u b t l e b a l a n c e r e -q u i r e d i n m e d i t a t i o n t h e s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s w o u l d p r o b a b l y a f f e c t t h e m e d i t a t o r m o r e t h a n t h e n o n - m e d i t a t o r . O n l y w i t h t h e h a b i t u a t i o n o f e x t e n d e d t e s t i n g a n d t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o m a k e i t s o c a n t h e l a b o r a t o r y m e d i t a t i o n b e c o n s i d e r e d c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e c o n d u c t e d i n f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h e l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n m a y a l s o b e s o m e w h a t a r t i f c i a l i n t h a t t h e m e d i t a t o r w i l l h a v e s o m e k n o w l e d g e o f w h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s l o o k i n g f o r a n d w i l l w a n t t o l i v e u p t o t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n h i s d e s i r e t o ' p e r f o r m ' a n d t o g i v e s u p p o r t t o t h e c l a i m s m a d e f o r m e d i t a t i o n t h e m e d i t a t o r m a y a c t u a l l y p r e v e n t h i m s e l f f r o m a t t a i n i n g t h e d e e p e r m e d i t a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s . I n t h i s s t u d y i t a p p e a r e d t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e m e d i t a t i o n p e r i o d t h e m e d i a t o r s w e r e m o r e a r o u s e d t h a n t h e t w o c o n t r o l g r o u p s ( t h e y d i s p l a y e d h i g h e r h e a r t r a t e a n d i n c r e a s e d c o n d u c t a n c e ) . T h i s may b e t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s ' p e r f o r m a n c e ' e f f e c t . A g a i n i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s e f f e c t w o u l d n o t b e p r e s e n t i n n o n - m e d i t a t i n g c o n t r o l s a s t h e i r o n l y i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l b e t o r e l a x . T h i s w o u l d f u r t h e r e m p a h s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h t h r o u g h w h i c h t h i s p r o b l e m may b e o v e r c o m e t o s o m e e x t e n t . 5 3 Conclusion Following the i n i t i a l dramatic claims for the physiological effects of T.M. and the production of a hypometabolic state, i t now seems necessary to temper some of this enthusiasm with objectivity. Only through a more detached approach to this research w i l l i t be possible to evaluate the extent of the meditative experience. Inadequate designs, lacking in sufficient controls, have prevented an adequate assessment of the physiological aspects of this technique. In this study an attempt was made to incorporate some of the possible controls in order to investigate to what extent meditation is actually associated with a hypometabolic state, and to what extent such a state can occur in non-meditators. Consideration of the more active aspects of meditation i s seen as a most important observation i n this study. Also, of great importance, i s the shift i n emphasis which should now be occurring towards longitudinal research i f meditation i s to be properly examined in the laboratory setting. 5 4 R e f e r e n c e s A k i s h i g e , Y . A h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n Z e n . K y u s h i P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s , B u l l e t i n o f t h e F a c u l t y o f L i t e r a t u r e o f K y u s h u U n i v e r s i t y , F u k u o k a , J a p a n , 1 9 6 8 , N o . 5 . A l l i s o n , J o h n . R e s p i r a t o r y c h a n g e s d u r i n g t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n . T h e L a n c e t . V o l . 1 , N o . 7 6 5 1 , 1 9 7 0 , P p . 8 3 3 - 8 3 4 . A n a n d , B . , C h h i n a , G . S . , a n d S i n g h , B . S o m e a s p e c t s o f e l e c t r o -e n c e p h a l o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s i n Y o g i s . E l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h y a n d C l i n i c a l N e u r o p h y s i o l o g y , 1 9 6 1 , 1 3 , 4 5 2 - 4 5 6 . A n o n y m o u s , T . M . S o m e r e s u l t s . S t u d e n t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l M e d i t a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1 0 1 5 G a y l e y A v e n u e , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 9 . B a g c h i , B a s u K . M y s t i c i s m a n d M i s t i n I n d i a . B i o f e e d b a c k & S e l f - c o n t r o l : a n A l d i n e R e a d e r o n t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f b o d i l y p r o c e s s e s a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A l d i n e - A t h e r t o n , C h i c a g o : N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 . B a g c h i , B . a n d W e n g e r , M . E l e c t r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f s o m e y o g i e x o r c i s e s . E l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h y • a n d C l i n i c a l N e u r o p h y s i o l o g y , 1 9 5 7 , S u p p l e m e n t 7 , 1 3 2 - 1 4 9 . B a g c h i , B . a n d W e n g e r , M . S i m u l t a n e o u s E E G a n d o t h e r r e c o r d i n g s d u r i n g s o m e y o g i c e x e r c i s e s . E l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h y a n d C l i n i c a l N e u r o - p h y s i o l o g y , 1 9 5 8 , 1 0 , 1 9 3 . B a n q u e t , J . P . E E G a n d M e d i t a t i o n . E E G a n d C l i n i c a l N e u r o p h y s i o l o g y , 1 9 7 2 , 3 3 , 4 5 4 . 4 4 9 - 4 5 5 . B o s t o n , M a s s . B a r b e r , T . X . , e t a l ( E d . ) . B i o f e e d b a c k a n d S e l f - C o n t r o l , 1 9 7 0 . A n A l d i n e A n n u a l o n t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f b o d i l y p r o c e s s e s a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e , 1 9 7 0 . B a r b e r , T . X . P h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f h y p n o s i s a n d s u g g e s t i o n . B i o f e e d b a c k a n d S e l f - c o n t r o l , 1 9 7 0 . A n A l d i n e A n n u a l o n t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f b o d i l y p r o c e s s e s a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A l d i n e - A t h e r t o n , C h i c a g o : N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 . 5 5 B l a n c h a r d , E . B . a n d Y o u n g , L . D . S e l f - c o n t r o l o f c a r d i a c f u n c t i o n i n g : A p r o m i s e a s y e t u n f u l f i l l e d . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 7 9 , N o . 3 , M a r c h , 1 9 7 3 . B o e s e , E . a n d B e r g e r , K . I n s e a r c h o f a f o u r t h s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s : P s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f m e d i t a t i o n . I n p r e s s , 1 9 7 2 . P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e M e d i c a l S c h o o l , H e r s h e y , P a . B r a z i e r , M . A . B . T h e A n a l y s i s o f B r a i n W a v e s A l t e r e d S t a t e s o f A w a r e n e s s . R e a d i n g s f r o m S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n . W . H . F r e e m a n & C o m p a n y , S a n F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 7 2 , 1 4 - 2 2 . B r o w n , F . M . f a r i d ' . : ' S t e w a r t , . , W ^ t ; S r . : v a r i d vBM -bdget" t 'pdJ?.2 ,T . .o E E G ? K a p p a ; . R h y t h m s " d u r i n g t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n a n d p o s s i b l e p e r c e p t u a l t h r e s h - h o l d c h a n g e s f o l l o w i n g . C e n t r e C o l l e g e o f K e n t u c k y , D a n v i l l e , K e n t . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o t h e K e n t u c k y A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , R i c h m o n d , K e n t u c k y , 1 9 7 1 . C a m p b e l l , A . S e v e n S t a t e s o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s . H a r p e r & R o w , N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 4 . D a s , N . M . & G a s t a u t , H . V a r i a t i o n s d e l ' a c t i v i t e e l e c t r i q u e d u c e r v e a u , d u c o u e r e t d e s m u s c l e s s q u e l l e t i q u e s a u c o u r s d e l a m e d i t a t i o n e t d e l ' e x t a s e Y o g i q u e . E l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h y a n d C l i n i c a l N e u r o p h y s i o l o g y , S u p p l e m e n t 6 , 2 1 1 - 2 1 9 ( 1 9 5 5 ) . D e i k m a n , A . B i m o d a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e N a t u r e o f H u m a r t C o n s c i o u s n e s s , R . O r n s t e i n ( E d . ) . W . H . F r e e m a n & C o . , S a n F r a n c i s c o , 1 9 7 3 . D e i k m a n , A . J . D e a u t o m a t i z a t i o n & t h e m y s t i c e x p e r i e n c e . T h e N a t u r e o f H u m a n C o n s c i o u s n e s s , R . O r n s t e i n ( E d . ) . W . H . F r e e m a n & C o . , S a n F r a n c i s c o ( 1 9 7 3 ) . D e i k m a n , A . J . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d c o n t e m p l a t i v e m e d i t a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f N e r v o u s & M e n t a l D i s e a s e , 1 9 6 6 , 1 4 2 , 1 0 1 - 1 1 6 . 5 6 E m e r s o n , V . F . C a n b e l i e f s y s t e m s i n f l u e n c e n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y ? S o m e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f r e s e a r c h o n m e d i t a t i o n . T h e R . M . B u r k e M e m o r i a l S o c i e t y N e w s l e t t e r R e v i e w . V o l . V , N o . 1 & 2 , 1 9 7 2 , P p . 2 0 - 3 1 . E n g e l , B . R e s p o n s e S p e c i f i c i t y . C h a p t e r i n H a n d b o o k o f P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y , G r e e n f i e l d , N . S . a n d S t e r n b a c k , R . A . ( E d s . ) . H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1 9 7 2 . F o r e m , J . T r a n s c e n d e n t a l M e d i t a t i o n : M a h a r i s h i M a h e s h Y o g i t h e S c i e n c e o f C r e a t i v e I n t e l l i g e n c e . E . P . D u t t o n , I n c . , 1 9 7 3 . G o l e m a n , D . M e d i t a t i o n a s a m e t a - t h e r a p y : h y p o t h e s e s t o w a r d a p r o p o s e d f i f t h s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e J o u r n a l o f T r a n s p e r s o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , N o . 1 , 1 - 2 5 . G o l e m a n , D ^ i a T h e B u d d a o n m e d i t a t i o n a n d s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s P a r t 1 : T h e t e a c h i n g s . J o u r n a l o f T r a n s p e r s o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 2 , N o . 1 , 1 - 4 4 . G o l e m a n , D . T h e B u d d h a o n m e d i t a t i o n a n d s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , P a r t I I : T h e J o u r n a l o f T r a n s p e r s o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . G r e e n , E . & G r e e n , A . O n t h e m e a n i n g o f t r a n s p e r s o n a l : s o m e m e t a p h y s i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h e J o u r n a l o f T r a n s p e r s o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , N o . 1 , 2 7 - 4 6 . G r e e n , E . & G r e e n , A . M . & W a l t e r s , E . D . V o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l o f i n t e r n a l s t a t e s : P s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d p h y s i o l o g i c a l . T h e J o u r n a l o f T r a n s p e r s o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 0 , N o . 1 , 1 - 2 6 . H a r e , R . A n x i e t y ( A P Q ) a n d a u t o n o m i c r e s p o n s e s t o a f f e c t i v e v i s u a l s t i m u l a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l R e s e a r c h i n P e r s o n a l i t y , V o l . 5 , N o . 3 , S e p t . 1 9 7 1 , 2 3 3 - 2 4 1 . J o h n s o n , L . C . A p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y f o r a l l s t a t e s . P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y , V o l . 6 , N o . 5 , 1 9 7 0 . P p . 5 0 1 - 5 1 6 . 5 7 K a m i y a , J . C o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l o f b r a i n w a v e s . I n R e a d i n g s i i i P s y c h o l o g y  T o d a y . D e l M a r . C a l i f . : C o m m u n i c a t i o n s / R e s e a r c h / M a c h i n e s , 1 9 6 9 , 2 9 9 - 3 0 2 . ( a ) . K a m i y a , e_t j i l ( E d . ) B i o f e e d b a c k a n d s e l f - c o n t r o l : A n a l d i n e R e a d e r o n t h e  r e g u l a t i o n o f b o d i l y p r o c e s s e s a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A l d i n e - A t h e r t o n , C h i c a g o : N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 . K a n e l l a k o s , D . P a p e r o n t h e p h y s i o l o g y o f t h e e v o l v i n g m a n . S t a n f o r d , 1 9 7 0 . D a n e l l a k o s , D . & L u k a s , J . T h e p s y c h o b i o l o g y o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n : A l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , M e n l o P a r k , C a l i f . , 1 9 7 3 . K a p l e a u , P . ( E d . ) . T h e T h r e e P i l l a r s o f Z e n : T e a c h i n g , P r a c t i c e a n d E n l i g h t e n m e n t . B o s t o n : B e a c o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . K a r l i n s , M . & A n d r e w s , L . B i o f e e d b a c k t u r n i n g o n t h e p o w e r o f y o u r m i n d . N e w Y o r k : W a r n e r , 1 9 7 3 . K a s a m a t s u , A . & H i r a i , T . S c i e n c e o f Z a z e n . P s y c h o l o g i a , 1 9 6 3 , 8 6 - 9 1 . K a s a m a t s u , A . & H i r a i , T . A n e l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h i c s t u d y o n t h e z e n m e d i t a t i o n ( Z a z e n ) . F o l i a p s y c h i a t r i c a e t n e u r o l o g i c a J a p o n i c a , ( N i i g a t a ) , 1 9 6 6 , 2 0 , 3 1 5 - 3 3 6 . K a s a m a t s u , A . , O k u m a , T . , T a k e n a k a , S . , K o g a , E . , I k e d a , K . , a n d S u g i y a m a , H . T h e E E G o f z e n a n d y o g a p r a c t i t i o n e r s . E l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h y a n d C l i n i c a l N e u r o p h y s i o l o g y , 1 9 5 7 , s u p p l . N o . 9 , 5 1 - 5 2 . L i p p o l d , 0 . E j - e c ^ t r o m y o g r a p h y . I n P . V e n a b l e s & I . M a r t e n ( E d s . ) , A M a n u a l o f P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l M e t h o d s . N e w Y o r k : W i l e y , 1 9 6 7 , P p . 2 4 5 - 2 9 8 . L u c e , G . a n d P e p e r , E . M i n d o v e r b o d y , m i n d o v e r m i n d . N e w Y o r k T i m e s M a g a z i n e , 1 2 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 1 . 5 8 M a h a r i s h i M a h e s h Y o g i . D e e p m e d i t a t i o n . L o s A n g e l e s . S p i r i t u a l R e g e n e r a t i o n M o v e m e n t , 1 9 6 1 . M a h a r i s h i M a h e s h Y o g i . T h e B h a g a v a d - G i t a . E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n B o o k s L t d . , 1 9 6 7 . M a h a r i s h i M a h e s h Y o g i . T h e S c i e n c e o f B e i n g a n d t h e A r t o f L i v i n g . L o n d o n , S p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n M o v e m e n t P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 3 . M u l h o l l a n d , T . B . C a n y o u r e a l l y t u r n o n w i t h a l p h a ? T h e R . M . B u r k e M e m o r i a l S o c i e t y N e w s l e t t e r - R e v i e w , V o l . V , N o . 1 & 2 , 3 2 - 4 0 . N a r a n j o , C . & O r n s t e i n , R . T h e P s y c h o l o g y o f M e d i t a t i o n . N e w Y o r k , N . Y . T h e V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 . N e e d l e m a n , J . T h e N e w R e l i g i o n s . R i c h m o n d H i l l , O n t a r i o . D o u b l e d a y , 1 9 7 2 . O r m e - J o h n s o n , D . W . A u t o n o m i c s t a b i l i t y a n d t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s a t E l P a s o . P r e s e n t e d a t S e c o n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l S y m p o s i u m o f t h e S c i e n c e o f C r e a t i v e I n t e l l i g e n c e , H u m b o l d t S t a t e C o l l e g e , A r e a t a , C a l i f . , 1 9 7 1 . O r n s t e i n , R . ( E d . ) . T h e N a t u r e o f H u m a n C o n s c i o u s n e s s . W . H . F r e e m a n a n d C o m p a n y , S a n F r a n c i s c o , 1 9 7 3 . O r n s t e i n , R . E . T h e P s y c h o l o g y o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s . S a n F r a n c i s c o : W . H . F r e e m a n a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 7 2 . P i r o t , M . & G o l d w a t e r , B . T h e e f f e c t s o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n u p o n a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r i a , B . C . , 1 9 7 3 , P e r s o n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n . P i t t s , F . N . T h e b i o c h e m i s t r y o f a n x i e t y . S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n ( 2 ) 2 2 0 1 : 6 9 - 7 6 , 1 9 6 9 . S c h w a r t z , G . E . P r o s & c o n s o f m e d i t a t i o n : C u r r e n t f i n d i n g s o n p h y s i o l o g y a n d a n x i e t y , s e l f - c o n t r o l , d r u g a b u s e a n d c r e a t i v i t y . P a p e r r e a d a t A P A i n M o n t r e a l , A u g u s t 2 7 , 1 9 7 3 a s p a r t o f s y m p o s i u m " T h e P s y c h o b i o l o g y o f M e d i t a t i o n " . 5 9 S p o n g , P . & L o w , M . D . & W a d a , J . G r a n t a p p l i c a t i o n o n t h e e l e c t r o -p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n d n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n . U . B . C . , 1 9 7 0 . S t e r n b a c h , R . A . P r i n c i p l e s o f P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y . N e w Y o r k , N . Y . A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 . S t o y v a , J . e t a l ( E d . ) B i o f e e d b a c k a n d s e l f - c o n t r o l , 1 9 7 1 . A n A l d i n e A n n u a l o n t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f b o d i l y p r o c e s s e s a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A l d i n e - A t h e r t o n , C h i c a g o , 1 9 7 2 . S t r o n g , P . B i o p h y s i c a l M e a s u r e m e n t s . T e k t r o n i x I n c . , B e a v e r t o n , O r e g o n 1 9 7 1 . T a r t , C . A p s y c h o l o g i s t ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n . T h e J o u r n a l o f T r a n s p e r s o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , N o . 2 , 1 3 5 - 1 4 0 . T a r t , C . S c i e n t i f i c f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e s t u d y o f a l t e r e d s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e J o u r n a l o f T r a n s p e r s o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , N o . 2 , 9 3 - 1 2 4 . T i m m o n s , B . & K a m i y a , J . T h e p s y c h o l o g y a n d p h y s i o l o g y o f m e d i t a t i o n a n d r e l a t e d p h e n o m e n a : A B i b l i o g r a p h y . T h e J o u r n a l o f T r a n s p e r s o n a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 0 , N o . 1 , 4 1 - 5 9 . V e n a b l e s , P . H . & M a r t i n , I . A m a n u a l o f p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l m e t h o d s . A m s t e r d a m : N o r t h - H o l l a n d P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y , 1 9 6 7 . W a d a , J . A . & H a m m , A . E . E l e c t r o g r a p h i c g l i m p s e o f m e d i t a t i v e s t a t e " c h r o n o -l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c e r e b r a l e v o k e d r e s p o n s e . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 3 . P r e s e n t e d a t A m e r i c a n E E G , 1 9 7 3 . W a l l a c e , R . K . P h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a l " m e d i t a t i o n . S c i e n c e , 1 9 7 0 , 1 6 7 , 1 7 5 1 - 1 7 5 4 . ( a ) . W a l l a c e , R . K . P h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n : a p r o p o s e d f o u r t h s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . P h . D . T h e s i s , P h y s i o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t L o s A n g e l e s . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f . , 1 9 7 0 ( b ) . 6 0 W a l l a c e , R . K . P h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n : A p r o p o s e d f o u r t h s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . P h . D . T h e s i s , P h y s i o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t L o s A n g e l e s , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 7 0 ( b ) . W a l l a c e , R . K . & B e n s o n , H . T h e p h y s i o l o g y o f m e d i t a t i o n . S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n , V o l . 2 2 6 , N o . 2 , 1 7 5 1 - 1 7 5 4 , 1 9 7 2 . W a l l a c e , R . K . , B e n s o n , H . , & W i l s o n , A . F . A w a k e f u l h y p o m e t a b o l i c p h y s i o l o g i c s t a t e . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y , V o l i 2 2 1 , N o . 3 , 1 9 7 1 . W a l l a c e , R . K . , B e n s o n , H . , W i l s o n , A . F . & G a r r e t t , M . D . D e c r e a s e d b l o o d l a c t a t e d u r i n g t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n . F e d e r a l P r o c e e d i n g s , 1 9 7 1 , 3 0 , 3 7 6 . W a l t e r , W . G . T h e e l e c t r i c a l a c t i v i t y o f t h e b r a i n a l t e r e d s t a t e s o f a w a r e n e s s . R e a d i n g s f r o m S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n . W . H . F r e e m a n & C o m p a n y , S a n F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f . , 1 9 7 2 , 4 - 1 3 . W a r r i n g t o n , J . A . E E G a l p h a p r o d u c t i o n i n a l p h a c o n d i t i o n i n g a n d m e d i t a t i o n . M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U . B . C . , 1 9 7 1 . W e n g e r , M . A . & B a g c h i , B . K . S t u d i e s o f a u t o n o m i c f u n c t i o n s i n p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f y o g a i n I n d i a . B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e , 1 9 6 1 , 6^, 3 1 2 - 3 2 3 . W e n g e r , M . , B a g c h i , B . & A n a n d , B . E x p e r i m e n t s i n I n d i a o n " v o l u n t a r y " c o n t r o l o f t h e h e a r t a n d p u l s e . C i r c u l a t i o n , 1 9 6 1 , 2 4 , 1 3 1 9 - 1 3 2 5 . APPENDIX I 61 Instructions to Subjects. Group I and II: It i s most important that you do not meditate un t i l given instructions to do so. So only meditate when and i f you are asked to. A l l groups: Just s i t quietly u n t i l you receive instructions, approximately 5 minutes :We are ready to begin and would like you to si t quietly with your eyes open. Five minutes :Now s i t quietly with the eyes closed. Ten minutes Group I : Would you now begin to meditate Group II: Would you continue sitting easily with the eyes closed. Fifteen minutes Group I: Stop meditating and continue sitting easily with the eyes closed. Group II: Would you continue sitting easily with the eyes closed. Five minutes A l l Groups: Now open the eyes and continue sitting quietly. Five minutes :We are now finished and w i l l be in to unhook you. 6 2 A P P E N D I X 2 C O N S E N T F O R M N a m e : A g e : D o y o u u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a n d t h a t y o u w i l l b e i n v o l v e d i n a p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t u d y ? D o y o u u n d e r s t a n d t h a t y o u m a y w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h i f y o u w i s h ? .  D o y o u c o n s e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t ? S u b j e c t ' s s i g n a t u r e A P P E N D I X 3 6 3 S U B J E C T D A T A B e f o r e S e s s i o n A l l i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l N a m e A g e D a t e o f B i r t h W e i g h t H e i g h t E x t e n t o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n S t a t e o f P h y s i c a l H e a l t h D o y o u e x e r c i s e r e g u l a r l y H o w ? H a v e y o u h a d a n y e x t e n s i v e u s e o f h a l l u c i n o g e n i c d r u g s ? I f s o , w h e n w a s t h e l a s t t i m e ? '  D o y o u s m o k e ? I f s o , h o w e x t e n s i v e l y ? D o y o u d r i n k a l c o h o l ? I f s o , h o w e x t e n s i v e l y ? H a v e y o u e v e r y b e e n u n d e r p s y c h i a t r i c c a r e ? I f s o , h a v e y o u c o m p l e t e d t h a t p r o g r a m m e ? D o y o u t a k e a n y m e d i c a t i o n ? I f s o , w h a t k i n d ? W o u l d y o u c h e c k o f f w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o h o w y o u f e e l n o w : 1 ) F e e l i n g a c t i v e a n d v i t a l ; a l e r t ; w i d e a w a k e 2 ) F u n c t i o n i n g a t a h i g h l e v e l , b u t n o t a t p e a k , a b l e t o c o n c e n t r a t e 3 ) R e l a x e d ; a w a k e ; n o t a t f u l l a l e r t n e s s ; r e s p o n s i v e 4 ) A l i t t l e f o g g y ; n o t a t p e a k ; l e t d o w n 5 ) F o g g i n e s s ; b e g i n n i n g t o l o s e i n t e r e s t i n r e m a i n i n g a w a k e ; s l o w e d d o w n 6 ) S l e e p i n e s s ; p r e f e r t o b e l y i n g d o w n ; f i g h t i n g s l e e p ; w o o z y 7 ) A l m o s t i n r e v e r i e ; s l e e p o n s e t s o o n ; l o s t s t r u g g l e t o r e m a i n a w a k e S i g n a t u r e A P P E N D I X 4 6 4 E v a l u a t i o n o f S e s s i o n W o u l d y o u c h e c k o f f w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s b e s t d e s c r i b e s h o w y o u f e e l n o w : 1 . F e e l i n g a c t i v e a n d v i t a l ; a l e r t , w i d e a w a k e 2 . F u n c t i o n i n g a t a h i g h l e v e l , b u t n o t a t p e a k , a b l e t o c o n c e n t r a t e 3 . R e l a x e d ; a w a k e ; n o t a t f u l l a l e r t n e s s ; r e s p o n s i v e 4 . A l i t t l e f o g g y ; n o t a t p e a k ; l e t d o w n 5 . F o g g i n e s s ; b e g i n n i n g t o l o s e i n t e r e s t i n r e m a i n i n g a w a k e ; s l o w e d d o w n 6 . S l e e p i n e s s ; p r e f e r t o b e l y i n g d o w n ; f i g h t i n g s l e e p ; w o o z y 7 . A l m o s t i n r e v e r i e ; s l e e p o n s e t s o o n ; l o s t s t r u g g l e t o r e m a i n a w a k e I n d i c a t e y o u r g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n s t o t h e s e s s i o n b y p l a c i n g a c h e c k m a r k ( / ) i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e o n e a c h s c a l e . I n t e r e s t B o r e d o m U n e a s i n e s s C u r i o s i t y P h y s i c a l D i s c o m f o r t v e r y l i t t l e : M e n t a l D i s c o m f o r t v e r y l i t t l e : v e r y l i t t l e : v e r y l i t t l e : v e r y l i t t l e : v e r y l i t t l e : v e r y m u c h v e r y m u c h v e r y m u c h v e r y m u c h v e r y m u c h v e r y m u c h W e r e y o u d i s t u r b e d b y a n y o u t e r n o i s e ? W e r e y o u d i s t u r b e d b y t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l a p p a r a t u s ? S i g n a t u r e A P P E N D I X V A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r H e a r t R a t e 6 5 M e a n H e a r t R a t e D u r i n g C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d F S S M § G r o u p s 2 5 1 3 . 8 9 2 5 6 . 9 4 E r r o r 2 1 2 4 9 6 . 3 1 1 8 . 8 7 T o t a l 2 3 3 0 1 0 . 2 F 2 . 1 6 P r o b . 0 . 1 3 8 H e a r t R a t e D u r i n g E y e s C l o s e d 1 A s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e G r o u p 5 G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s E r r o r T o t a l d F 2 E r r o r B e t w e e n 2 1 M e a s u r e s 4 8 8 4 1 1 9 S S 1 1 7 . 3 9 5 4 6 . 4 1 1 1 9 . 6 2 1 0 0 . 3 8 6 2 6 . 4 0 1 5 9 0 . 2 M S 5 8 . 6 9 2 6 . 0 2 4 9 . 9 0 1 2 . 5 5 7 . 4 6 F 2 . 2 6 6 . 6 9 1 . 6 8 P r o b . 0 . 1 2 7 9 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 . 1 1 4 0 H e a r t R a t e D u r i n g E y e s C l o s e d 2 A s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e G r o u p s d F 2 E r r o r B e t w e e n 2 1 M e a s u r e s 6 •irouuGrbups X M e a s u r e s 1 2 E r r o r T o t a l 1 2 6 1 6 7 S S M S 5 1 5 . 1 9 2 5 7 . 6 0 1 9 5 7 . 3 0 2 0 8 . 0 4 1 6 6 . 2 6 1 7 1 4 . 2 4 5 6 1 . 1 9 3 . 2 0 3 4 . 6 7 1 3 . 8 3 1 3 . 6 1 F 2 . 7 6 2 . 5 5 1 . 0 2 P r o b . 0 . 0 8 4 5 0 . 0 2 3 0 0 . 4 3 5 8 A P P E N D I X V ( c o n t ' d ) H e a r t R a t e D u r i n g E y e s C l o s e d 3 a s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d F S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 3 5 3 . 4 6 1 7 6 . 7 3 1 . 8 5 0 . 1 8 0 1 E r r o r B e t w e e n 3 1 2 0 0 3 . 9 9 5 . 4 2 M e a s u r e s 5 2 5 3 . 0 8 5 0 . 6 2 4 . 3 2 0 . 0 0 1 4 G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s 1 0 3 0 2 . 5 4 3 0 . 2 5 2 . 5 8 0 . 0 0 7 9 E r r o r 1 0 5 1 2 3 1 . 4 1 1 . 7 3 T o t a l 1 4 3 4 1 4 4 . 3 H e a r t R a t e D u r i n g E y e s O p e n 2 a s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d F S £ M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 5 9 . 8 7 2 9 . 9 3 0 . 4 4 0 . 6 5 3 1 E r r o r B e t w e e n 2 1 1 4 2 0 . 1 6 7 . 6 3 M e a s u r e s 1 2 6 , . 6 1 2 5 . 3 6 2 . 0 1 0 . 0 8 2 1 G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s 1 0 8 1 . 6 3 8 . 1 6 0 . 6 5 0 . 7 7 1 0 E r r o r 1 0 5 1 3 2 3 . 7 1 2 . 6 1 T o t a l 1 4 3 3 0 1 2 . 2 e a r t R a t e C h a n g e F o r P o i n t s 0—41 S o u r c e d f S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 2 4 4 . 2 5 1 2 2 . 1 2 3 . 2 0 0 . 0 5 9 9 E r r o r B e t w e e n 2 1 8 0 0 . 5 7 3 8 . 1 2 P e r i o d 1 1 5 0 . 5 2 1 5 0 . 5 2 5 . 5 5 0 . 0 2 7 0 G r o u p s X P e r i o d s 2 5 1 . 2 9 2 5 . 6 5 0 . 9 5 0 . 4 0 6 7 E r r o r 2 1 5 6 9 . 6 9 2 7 . 1 3 T o t a l 4 7 1 8 1 6 . 3 A p p e n d i x V ( c o n t ' d ) H e a r t R a t e C h a n g e F o r P o i n t s 1 — > 7 S o u r c e G r o u p s E r r o r B e t w e e n P e r i o d G r o u p s X P e r i o d E r r o r T o t a l d f 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 4 7 S S 1 6 8 . 4 5 8 9 9 . 6 3 1 2 6 . 7 5 9 0 . 8 8 7 3 4 . 3 7 2 0 2 0 . 1 M S 8 4 . 2 3 4 2 . 8 4 1 2 6 . 7 5 4 5 . 4 4 3 4 . 9 7 _ F 1 . 9 7 3 . 6 2 1 . 3 0 P r o b . 0 . 1 6 3 3 0 . 0 6 7 8 0 . 2 9 3 8 H e a r t R a t e C h a n g e F o r P o i n t s 7 — > 8 S o u r c e G r o u p s E r r o r B e t w e e n P e r i o d G r o u p s X P e r i o d E r r o r T o t a l d f 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 4 7 S S 3 4 . 4 7 2 1 0 2 7 . 9 1 4 0 . 0 8 1 2 1 . 5 4 4 5 0 . 3 7 1 7 7 4 . 4 M S 1 7 . 2 3 6 4 8 . 9 5 1 4 0 . 0 8 6 0 . 7 7 2 1 . 4 5 F 0 . 3 5 2 . 2 8 6 . 5 3 2 . 8 3 P r o b . 0 . 7 1 1 4 0 . 0 3 2 7 0 . 0 1 7 6 0 . 0 7 9 9 H e a r t R a t e C h a n g e F o r P o i n t s 8 — > 1 3 S o u r c e G r o u p s E r r o r B e t w e e n P e r i o d G r o u p s X P e r i o d E r r o r T o t a l d f 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 4 7 S S 1 1 4 4 . 2 1 0 0 3 . 3 1 2 6 . 7 5 2 1 9 . 5 0 5 4 0 . 7 5 M S 4 9 . 7 5 4 7 . 7 8 1 2 6 . 7 5 1 0 9 . 7 5 2 5 . 7 5 F 1 . 9 3 4 . 9 2 4 . 2 6 P r o b . 0 . 0 6 7 0 0 . 0 3 5 9 0 . 0 2 7 5 A p p e n d i x V ( c o n t ' d ) H e a r t R a t e C h a n g e F o r P o i n t s 1 3 — > 1 4 S o u r c e G r o u p s E r r o r B e t w e e n P e r i o d G r o u p s X P e r i o d d f 2 2 1 1 2 S S 2 . 8 6 1 2 8 2 . 8 1 4 7 . 0 4 2 . 8 8 M S 1 . 4 3 6 1 . 0 9 1 4 7 . 0 2 1 . 4 4 F 0 . 0 2 7 . 1 8 1 . 0 5 P r o b . 0 . 9 6 4 9 0 . 0 1 3 5 0 . 3 7 0 3 H e a r t R a t e C h a n g e F o r P o i n t s 1 4 S o u r c e G r o u p s E r r o r B e t w e e n P e r i o d G r o u p s X P e r i o d E r r o r T o t a l d f 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 4 7 S S 0 . 3 5 1 0 3 1 . 8 6 5 . 3 3 2 8 . 2 9 5 2 6 . 3 7 1 6 5 2 . 1 M S 0 . 1 7 4 9 . 1 3 6 5 . 3 3 1 4 . 1 5 2 5 . 0 7 F 0 . 0 0 1 . 9 6 2 . 6 1 0 . 5 6 P r o b . 0 . 9 8 6 5 0 . 0 6 5 5 0 . 1 1 7 8 0 . 5 8 2 0 APPENDIX VI Analys i s of Variance for Skin Conductance Mean Skin Conductance During Contro l Per iod Source dF SS MS F Prob. Groups 2 148.29 74.15 1 .34 0.2840 E r r o r 21 1164.7 55.46 T o t a l 23 1313.0 Skin Conductance : During Eyes Closed 1 as Compared to Contro l Per iod Source dF SS MS F Prob. Groups 2 28.82 14.41 0 .41 0.6728 E r r o r Between 21 735.84 35.04 Measures 4 24.36 6.09 2 .50 0.0481 Groups x Measures 8 10.80 1.35 0 .55 0.8136 E r r o r 84 204.75 2.44 T o t a l 119 1004.6 Skin Conductance During Eyes Closed 2 as Compared to Contro l Per iod Source dF SS MS F Prob. Groups 2 112.22 56.11 0 .47 0.6392 E r r o r Between 21 2531.8 120.56 Measures 6 57.18 9.53 4 .72 0.0003 Groups x Measures 12 52.48 4.37 2 .17 0.0172 E r r o r 126 254.44 2.02 T o t a l 167 3008.1 A p p e n d i x V I ( C o n t ' d ) 70 S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e C h a n g e f o r P o i n t s l - » 7 S o u r c e d F S S M S F i P r o b . G r o u p s 2 1 5 . . 6 4 7 . 8 2 0 . 20 0 . 8 1 9 1 E r r o r B e t w e e n 2 1 8 1 5 . . 0 6 3 8 . 8 1 P e r i o d 1 1 4 . . 1 9 1 4 . 1 9 5 . 0 4 0 . 0 3 3 9 G r o u p s x P e r i o d s 2 2 3 . . 7 9 1 1 . 8 9 4 . 2 3 0 . 0 2 8 2 E r r o r 21 5 9 . . 1 0 2 . 8 1 T o t a l 47 9 2 7 . . 77 S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e C h a n g e f o r P o i n t s 7 — > 8 S o u r c e d F S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 3 3 . . 3 2 1 6 . 6 6 0 . 3 5 0 . 7 1 0 3 E r r o r B e t w e e n 2 1 9 8 8 . . 5 6 4 7 . 0 8 P e r i o d 1 4 7 . . 8 0 47 . 8 0 1 5 . 2 3 0 . 0 0 0 9 G r o u p s x P e r i o d s 2 7. . 01 3 . 5 0 1 . 1 2 0 . 3 4 7 1 E r r o r 21 6 5 . . 8 9 3 . 1 4 T o t a l 4 7 1 1 4 2 . ,6 S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e C h a n g e f o r P o i n t s 8 — » 1 3 S o u r c e d F S S M S F i P r o b . G r o u p s 2 6 . . 7 8 3 . 3 9 0 . 07 0 . 9 2 6 2 E r r o r B e t w e e n 2 1 1 0 5 7 . .6 5 0 . 3 6 P e r i o d 1 4 7 . . 8 0 47 . 8 0 1 2 . 47 0 . 0 0 2 0 G r o u p s x P e r i o d s 2 0 . , 3 0 0 . 1 5 0 . 0 4 0 . 9 5 1 0 E r r o r 21 8 0 . , 49 3 . 8 3 T o t a l 47 1 1 9 3 . .0 A p p e n d i x V I ( c o n t ' d ) S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e D u r i n g E y e s C l o s e d 3 a s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d 71 S o u r c e d F S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 3 . 0 2 1 . 5 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 9 7 6 6 E r r o r B e t w e e n 21 2 7 0 0 . 0 1 2 8 . 5 7 M e a s u r e s 5 8 2 . 2 4 1 6 . 4 5 1 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 0 0 0 G r o u p s x M e a s u r e s 1 0 6 . 1 1 0 . 6 1 0 . 3 7 0 . 9 5 4 6 E r r o r 1 0 5 1 7 1 . 1 1 1 . 6 3 T o t a l 1 4 3 2 9 6 2 . 5 S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e D u r i n g E y e s O p e n 2 a s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d F S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 1 2 . 2 2 6 . 1 1 0 . 0 6 0 . 9 2 8 7 E r r o r B e t w e e n 21 1 9 9 5 . 5 9 5 . 0 2 M e a s u r e s 5 5 8 . 5 3 1 1 . 7 1 5 . 4 9 0 . 0 0 0 2 G r o u p s x M e a s u r e s 1 0 1 5 . 8 8 1 . 5 9 0 . 7 5 0 . 6 8 1 6 E r r o r 1 0 5 2 2 3 . 7 7 2 . 1 3 1 2 T o t a l 1 4 3 2 3 0 5 . 9 S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e C h a n g e f o r P o i n t s 0—? •1 S o u r c e d F s s . M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 7 . 3 2 3 . 6 6 0 . 1 0 0 . 8 9 9 9 E r r o r B e t w e e n 21 7 7 7 . 0 4 3 7 . 0 2 P e r i o d 1 4 0 . 3 3 4 0 . 3 3 2 1 . 8 8 0 . 0 0 0 2 G r o u p s x P e r i o d 2 4 . 0 2 2 . 0 1 1 . 0 9 0 . 3 5 5 9 E r r o r 2 1 3 8 . 7 2 1 . 8 4 T o t a l 4 7 8 6 7 . 4 4 Appendix VI (cont'd) Skin Conductance Change for Points 1 3 — H 4 Source dF SS MS F Prob. Groups 2 2 2 . . 2 1 1 1 . 11 0 . . 2 5 0 . 7 8 . 0 5 E r r o r Between 21 9 2 0 . . 61 4 3 . 84 Per iod 1 6 2 . . 3 4 6 2 . 34 1 2 . . 0 3 0 . 0 0 2 4 Groups x Periods 2 1 3 . . 7 1 6 . 8 6 1 . . 3 2 0 . 2 8 7 4 E r r o r 21 1 0 8 . . 7 9 5 . 1 8 T o t a l 47 1 1 2 7 . .7 Skin Conductance Change for Points 1 4 — > 1 9 Source dF SS MS F Prob. Groups 2 3. . 2 6 1 . 6 3 0 . . 0 4 0 . 9 4 6 9 E r r o r Between 2 1 7 8 9 . . 9 8 3 7 . 6 2 Per iod 1 3 6 . . 0 5 3 6 . 0 5 7. . 34 0 . 0 1 2 7 Groups x Periods 2 7. . 3 9 3 . 7 0 0 . , 7 5 0 . 4 8 7 2 E r r o r 21 1 0 3 . . 11 4 . 91 T o t a l 47 9 3 9 . . 7 9 A P P E N D I X V I I A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r R e s p i r a t i o n R a t e M e a n R e s p i r a t i o n R a t e D u r i n g C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d f S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 1 4 . 1 2 7 . 0 6 0 . 9 9 0 . 3 9 0 7 E r r o r 2 1 1 4 9 . 9 4 7 . 1 4 T o t a l 2 3 1 6 4 . 0 5 R e s p i r a t i o n R a t e D u r i n g E y e s C l o s e d 1 A s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d f S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 2 2 . 3 9 1 1 . 1 9 0 . 7 0 0 . 5 1 1 5 E r r o r B e t w e e n 2 1 3 3 5 . 3 1 1 5 . 9 7 M e a s u r e s 4 2 7 . 1 2 6 . 7 8 1 . 9 0 0 . 1 1 7 3 G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s 8 2 1 . 9 3 2 . 7 4 0 . 7 7 0 . 6 3 3 7 E r r o r 8 4 3 0 0 . 1 5 3 . 5 7 3 2 T o t a l 1 1 9 7 0 6 . 9 0 R e s p i r a t i o n R a t e D u r i n g E y e s C l o s e d 2 a s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d f S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 6 8 . 5 2 3 4 . 2 6 1 . 5 4 0 . 2 3 7 4 E r r o r B e t w e e n 2 1 4 6 8 . 1 4 2 2 . 2 9 2 M e a s u r e s 6 3 0 . 6 4 5 . 1 1 1 . 3 2 0 . 2 5 1 7 G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s 1 2 3 9 . 7 9 3 . 3 2 0 . 8 6 0 . 5 9 2 0 E r r o r 1 2 6 4 8 7 . 0 0 3 . 8 7 T o t a l 1 6 7 1 0 9 4 . 1 A p p e n d i x V I I ( C o n t ' d ) R e s p i r a t i o n R a t e D u r i n g E y e s C l o s e d 3 A s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d f S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 1 5 8 . 7 0 7 9 . 3 5 3 . 0 0 0 . 0 7 0 2 E r r o r B e t w e e n 2 1 5 5 5 . 7 5 2 6 . 4 6 M e a s u r e s 5 1 7 . 0 4 3 . 4 1 1 . 2 5 0 . 2 8 9 1 G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s 1 0 1 9 . 4 4 1 . 9 4 0 . 7 2 0 . 7 0 9 3 E r r o r 1 0 5 2 8 5 . 3 5 2 . 7 1 7 7 T o t a l 1 4 3 1 0 3 6 . 3 R e s p i r a t i o n R a t e D u r i n g E y e s O p e n 2 A s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d M S F P r o b . 2 5 . 6 9 2 . 6 5 0 . 0 9 2 9 9 . 7 1 4 . 7 3 1 . 2 1 0 . 3 0 9 9 2 . 2 0 0 . 5 6 0 . 8 4 2 0 3 . 9 1 S o u r c e d f S S G r o u p s 2 5 1 . 3 8 2 1 2 0 3 . 8 9 M e a s u r e s 5 2 3 . 6 4 1 0 2 1 . 9 9 E r r o r B e t w e e n G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s E r r o r 1 0 5 4 1 0 . 7 1 T o t a l 1 4 3 7 1 1 . 6 1 7 5 A P P E N D I X V I I I A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e F o r V a s o m o t o r A m p l i t u d e S o u r c e d f S S M S F_ P r o b . G r o u p s 2 1 8 . 8 1 9 . 4 0 2 . 1 1 0 . 2 0 2 1 E r r o r 6 2 6 . 7 5 4 . 4 6 T o t a l 8 4 5 . 5 6 V a s o m o t o r A m p l i t u d e D u r i n g E y e s C l o s e d 1 A s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d f S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 1 0 . 5 0 5 . 2 5 0 . 5 1 0 . 6 2 8 1 E r r o r B e t w e e n 6 6 1 . 8 8 1 0 . 3 1 M e a s u r e s 1 0 . 2 2 0 . 2 2 0 . 0 0 0 . 9 0 9 2 G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s 2 1 . 8 7 0 . 9 4 1 . 4 9 0 . 2 9 7 8 E r r o r 6 3 . 7 6 0 . 6 3 T o t a l 1 7 7 8 . 0 2 V a s o m o t o r A m p l i t u d e D u r i n g E y e s C l o s e d 2 A s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d f S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 1 1 . 3 8 5 . 6 9 0 . 1 6 0 . 8 4 9 7 E r r o r B e t w e e n 6 2 0 8 . 3 3 3 4 . 7 2 M e a s u r e s 2 1 . 0 9 0 . 5 5 0 . 4 6 0 . 6 4 6 0 G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s 4 0 . 8 7 0 . 2 2 0 . 1 8 0 . 9 4 1 1 E r r o r 1 2 1 4 . 2 5 1 . 1 9 T o t a l 2 6 2 3 5 . 9 3 7 6 A p p e n d i x V I I I ( C o n t ' d ) V a s o m o t o r A m p l i t u d e D u r i n g E y e s C l o s e d 3 A s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d f S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 1 . 8 4 0 . 9 2 0 . 0 4 0 . 9 4 9 8 E r r o r B e t w e e n 6 1 3 6 . 6 2 2 2 . 7 7 M e a s u r e s 1 0 . 7 2 0 . 7 2 0 . 0 0 0 . 9 5 0 5 G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s 2 2 . 9 0 1 . 4 5 0 . 8 9 0 . 4 6 2 6 E r r o r 6 9 . 8 4 1 . 6 4 T o t a l 1 7 1 5 1 . 2 0 V a s o m o t o r A m p l i t u d e D u r i n g E y e s O p e n 2 A s C o m p a r e d t o C o n t r o l P e r i o d S o u r c e d f S S M S F P r o b . G r o u p s 2 2 . 7 2 1 . 3 6 0 . 0 6 0 . 9 3 4 9 E r r o r B e t w e e n 6 1 4 1 . 6 6 2 3 . 6 1 M e a s u r e s 1 2 . 7 2 2 . 7 2 6 . 5 8 0 . 0 4 1 9 G r o u p s X M e a s u r e s 2 2 . 6 9 1 . 3 5 3 . 2 6 0 . 1 0 9 9 E r r o r 6 2 . 4 8 0 . 4 1 T o t a l 1 7 1 5 2 . 2 8 

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