UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A justification of paternalism 1974

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A J U S T I F I C A T I O N OF P A T E R N A L I S M b y R o s e m a r y A n n C a r t e r B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1973 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS F O R THE DEGREE OF M A S T E R OF A R T S i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P h i l o s o p h y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d J o n a t h a n B e n n e t t D. G . B r o w n R i c h a r d S i k o r a THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 ^ In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a i Abstract I attempt i n this paper to develop a theory of paternalism which indicates when and why a paternalistic action i s ju s t i f i e d . In the f i r s t two chapters I consider the extant theories on this subject: in the f i r s t chapter I develop a u t i l i t a r i a n theory of the j u s t i f i - cation of paternalistic interference, and i n the second chapter I consider various non-utilitarian theories that have been offered. Although I do not agree with the u t i l i t a r i a n analysis of rights, and so with their rationale for paternalistic intervention, I argue that such a theory does provide a strong presumption against such inter- ference. Nor do I find any of the non-utilitarian theories satisfac- tory, although they each contain certain important insights. In the third chapter I develop my own theory. I claim that there i s really only a problem i n justifying paternalism when the subject has the prima facie right to do what he proposes to do. I t i s therefore necessary to determine under what conditions any prima facie right can be interfered with. From results of this investigation I conclude that consent, either t a c i t or e x p l i c i t , prior or subsequent to inter- ference, i s the key to the ju s t i f i c a t i o n of paternalistic interference. More specifically, I argue that consent, or the disposition to consent upon receipt of factual information or correction of a logical error, i s a necessary condition for j u s t i f i c a t i o n , and that i t i s also suf- ficient except where i t i s gained by "warping" the subject's prefer- ences, or where i t i s due to lack of relevant information, or a logical error. T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s I n t r o d u c t i o n U t i l i t a r i a n J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f P a t e r n a l i s m Some N o n - u t i l i t a r i a n T h e o r i e s D e v e l o p m e n t o f a n A l t e r n a t i v e T h e o r y B i b l i o g r a p h y i i i A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s a r e d u e t o R i c h a r d S i k o r a f o r h i s h e l p t h r o u g h - o u t t h e s e v e r a l d r a f t s o f t h i s t h e s i s , a n d t o D. G . B r o w n f o r h i s c o m m e n t s o n p r e l i m i n a r y v e r s i o n s . I a l s o w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f t h e C a n a d a C o u n c i l f o r t h e y e a r d u r i n g w h i c h I w r o t e t h i s t h e s i s . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n I m a k e t h e a s s u m p t i o n i n t h i s p a p e r , o n e w h i c h I b e l i e v e i s s h a r e d b y m o s t p e o p l e i n o u r c u l t u r e , t h a t t h e r e i s a s t a n d i n g p r e - s u m p t i o n i n f a v o r o f f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n a n d b e l i e f s , a n d t h a t i f o n e i s t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h e i t h e r o f t h e s e , o n e m u s t b e p r e p a r e d t o o f f e r a r a t i o n a l e f o r d o i n g s o . T h e r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r s u c h i n t e r f e r e n c e c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o c l a s s e s o n t h e b a s i s o f w h o i s s u p p o s e d t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e ~ w h e t h e r i t i s t h e s u b j e c t h i m s e l f o r s o m e o n e e l s e . I n t h e f o r m e r c a s e t h e r e a s o n f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e c o u l d b e e i t h e r t h a t we a r e p r e v e n t i n g h i m f r o m h a r m i n g h i m s e l f o r t h a t we a r e e n s u r i n g t h a t h e i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o r e a l i z e c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s . I n t h e l a t t e r , t h e r e a s o n t h a t w o u l d u s u a l l y b e o f f e r e d i s t h a t we a r e p r o t e c t i n g o t h e r s f r o m t h e h a r m f u l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e s u b j e c t * s a c t i o n s o r b e l i e f s . }ty c o n c e r n i n t h i s p a p e r i s w i t h t h e f i r s t k i n d o f r a t i o n a l e — w h e n t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e i s f o r t h e g o o d o f t h e s u b j e c t , o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , w h e n t h e g r o u n d s f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e a r e p a t e r n a l i s t i c . T h e r e i s a r e c o g n i z e d p r o b l e m i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e n a n d w h y s u c h i n t e r f e r e n c e i s j u s t i f i e d , a n d i t i s t o t h i s p r o b l e m t h a t I d i r e c t my a t t e n t i o n . I s h a l l d e f i n e p a t e r n a l i s m a s c o e r c i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h s o m e o n e ' s a c t i o n s o r b e l i e f s f o r r e a s o n s t o d o p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e s u b j e c t ' s own g o o d . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n m u s t b e t h e s u b j e c t ' s w e l f a r e , b u t i n t e r f e r e n c e n e e d n o t b e f o r t h i s r e a s o n e x c l u s i v e l y i n o r d e r t o b e c o n s i d e r e d p a t e r n a l i s t i c . S o , i f p a r e n t s w a n t t h e i r c h i l d 2 t o t a k e p i a n o l e s s o n s m a i n l y b e c a u s e t h e y t h i n k s h e w i l l b e n e f i t f r o m d o i n g s o , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e i t w i l l m a k e t h e m h a p p y i f s h e l e a r n s t o p l a y t h e p i a n o , t h i s w o u l d s t i l l c o u n t a s p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r - e n c e w i t h h e r a c t i o n s . When we i n t e r f e r e w i t h s o m e o n e ' s a c t i o n we e i t h e r f o r c e t h a t p e r s o n t o d o s o m e t h i n g h e d o e s n o t w a n t t o d o , o r we p r e v e n t h i m f r o m d o i n g s o m e t h i n g h e d o e s w a n t t o d o . I n t e r f e r i n g w i t h s o m e o n e ' s b e l i e f s w o u l d i n v o l v e c h a n g i n g t h e m i n some w a y . B r a i n w a s h i n g w o u l d b e a n e x t r e m e e x a m p l e o f t h i s k i n d o f i n t e r f e r e n c e , a l o n g w i t h a n y o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t r a d i c a l l y m o d i f y t h e b e l i e f s o f t h e p e r s o n s u b j e c t e d t o t h e m . S u c h p r o c e s s e s w o u l d o f c o u r s e h a v e t o b e s e e n b y t h e i n s t i g a t o r s a s b e i n g i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s i n t e r e s t i n o r d e r t o b e p a t e r n a l i s t i c , b u t g i v e n t h e f e r v o r o f some r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c s , i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . D a v i d D o n a l d s o n * h a s o f f e r e d a b r o a d e r d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h s t i p u - l a t e s a s p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t s , n o t o n l y t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t i s f o r c e d t o d o s o m e t h i n g h e d o e s n ' t w a n t t o d o ( o r p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g s o m e t h i n g h e d o e s w a n t t o d o ) b u t a l s o t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a n a l t e r n a t i v e a c t w h i c h a f f e c t s t h e d o n o r e q u a l l y a n d w h i c h t h e b e n e - f i c i a r y p r e f e r s ; f o r e x a m p l e , g i v i n g p e o p l e f o o d v o u c h e r s i n s t e a d o f m o n e y w h e n t h e l a t t e r w o u l d b e p r e f e r r e d . B u t s i n c e t h e d e f i n i t i o n I h a v e o f f e r e i c a p t u r e s t h e c e n t r a l c a s e s o f p a t e r n a l i s m , a n d s i n c e D o n a l d s o n ' s r a i s e s f u r t h e r p r o b l e m s w i t h w h i c h I d o n ' t w i s h t o d e a l i n t h i s p a p e r ( a l t h o u g h I t h i n k t h e y w i l l h a v e t o b e d e a l t w i t h 3 e v e n t u a l l y ) I s h a l l s e t i t a s i d e . I n t h e f i r s t t w o c h a p t e r s I e x a m i n e t h e e x t a n t t h e o r i e s o n t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s m , a n d o f f e r i n t h e t h i r d my own a l t e r n a - t i v e t h e o r y . T h e f i r s t c h a p t e r i s a n a p p l i c a t i o n o f u t i l i t a r i a n t h e o r y t o t h e p r o b l e m o f w h e n o n e o u g h t t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h s o m e o n e ' s a c t i o n s o r b e l i e f s o n p a t e r n a l i s t i c g r o u n d s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e h o w s t r o n g a p r e s u m p t i o n a g a i n s t s u c h i n t e r f e r e n c e c a n b e made o u t o n t h e b a s i s o f u t i l i t y . M i l l t h o u g h t t h a t , a s a m a t t e r o f c o n - t i n g e n t f a c t , p a t e r n a l i s m w o u l d n e v e r b e j u s t i f i e d t o w a r d s s a n e a d u l t s : " . . . t h e s o l e e n d f o r w h i c h m a n k i n d a r e w a r r a n t e d i n d i v i - d u a l l y o r c o l l e c t i v e l y , i n i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e l i b e r t y o f a c t i o n o f a n y o f t h e i r n u m b e r , i s s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n . T h a t t h e o n l y p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h p o w e r c a n b e r i g h t f u l l y e x e r - c i s e d o v e r a n y m e m b e r o f a c i v i l i s e d c o m m u n i t y , a g a i n s t h i s w i l l , i s t o p r e v e n t h a r m t o o t h e r s . H i s own g o o d , e i t h e r p h y s i c a l o r m o r a l , i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t w a r r a n t . A n d t h a t t h i s i s s o b e c a u s e e v e r y o n e w i l l a l w a y s b e b e t t e r o f f i f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i s l e f t t o p u r s u e h i s o w n g o o d a s h e s e e s f i t . I b e l i e v e , a n d a r g u e i m p l i c i t l y , t h a t t h i s i s a f a l s e e m p i r i c a l c l a i m , b u t t h a t t h e r e a r e n o n e t h e l e s s f a i r l y s t r o n g u t i l i t a r i a n a r g u m e n t s a g a i n s t s u c h i n t e r f e r e n c e . I t h i n k i t i s u s e f u l t o i l l u s t r a t e h o w p r o b a b l e i t i s t h a t p a t e r n a l i s m w i l l r e s u l t i n o v e r - a l l d i s u t i l i t i e s , s i n c e t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a f a i r l y s t r o n g a r g u m e n t f o r n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e , o n e w i t h w h i c h m a n y o f u s w i l l b e s y m p a t h e t i c w h e t h e r o r n o t we a r e u t i l i t a r i a n s . B u t I d o n o t t h i n k t h a t u t i l i t y p r o v i d e s t h e n e c e s s a r y m o r a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e . T h a t i s , I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t 4 w h e t h e r o r n o t o n e s h o u l d b e p e r m i t t e d t o d o a s h e w a n t s w h e n i t c o n - c e r n s o n l y h i m s e l f o u g h t t o r e s t e n t i r e l y o n a c a l c u l a t i o n o f u t i l i - t i e s . T h i s i s r e a l l y a b a s i c c o n f l i c t o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f r i g h t s , a n d a l t h o u g h I c a n ' t a r g u e h e r e f o r t h e t r u t h o f my a s s u m p - t i o n — s u c h a n a r g u m e n t b e l o n g s i n a t h e o r y o f r i g h t s — I d o a s s u m e t h a t t h e u t i l i t a r i a n a c c o u n t o f r i g h t s i s n o t c o r r e c t . F o r t h o s e w h o d o n o t s h a r e t h i s a s s u m p t i o n I w o u l d l i k e t o p o i n t o u t t h a t f o r a u t i l i t a r i a n i f t h e o v e r - a l l d i s u t i l i t i e s a n d t h e o v e r - a l l u t i l i t i e s s e e m t o b a l a n c e o u t , s o t h a t t h e r e i s n e i t h e r a n o b l i g a t i o n t o i n t e r - f e r e n o r a n o b l i g a t i o n n o t t o i n t e r f e r e , t h e n w h e t h e r o n e d o e s s o i s q u i t e a r b i t r a r y . E u t s u r e l y y o u w i l l a g r e e t h a t w h e t h e r o n e o u g h t t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h a n o t h e r ' s f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n s h o u l d n o t r e s t o n a n a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n . I d o n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e r e b e i n g s u c h a b a l a n c e i s a n e m p i r i c a l l y i m p l a u s i b l e s i t u a t i o n a l t h o u g h i t m i g h t b e f a i r l y u n u s u a l . A t a n y r a t e , I d o n o t a c c e p t u t i l i t a r i a n i s m a s t h e s o l u t i o n t o m o r a l p r o b l e m s , a p o s i t i o n t h a t i s s h a r e d b y m a n y p e o p l e f o r a n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s a n d b e c a u s e u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , i t s e e m s t o m e , a l l o w s u n j u s t i f i e d p a t e r n a l i s m , I t h i n k i t i s i m p o r - t a n t t o a t t e m p t a n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n r a t i o n a l e f o r p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r - f e r e n c e . R a w l s , ^ D w o r k i n , " * B r o w n , ^ a n d D o n a l d s o n ^ e a c h a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e s u c h a r a t i o n a l e . I n t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r I e x a m i n e t h e s e t h e o r i e s i n some d e t a i l , p o i n t i n g o u t w h a t I t h i n k t h e v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s a r e w i t h 5 e a c h o f t h e m . I d o n ' t t h i n k a n y o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s p r o v i d e t h e c o r r e c t r a t i o n a l e f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e , b u t e a c h o f t h e m h a s i m p o r t a n t i n s i g h t s w h i c h I i n c o r p o r a t e i n o n e w a y o r a n o t h e r i n t o my own t h e o r y . T h e t h i r d c h a p t e r i s d e v o t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d d e f e n s e o f my s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f w h e n p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e i s j u s t i f i e d . B e c a u s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t o i n t e r f e r e i s r e a l l y o n l y a p r o b l e m w h e n t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e p r o p o s e d p a t e r n a l i s m h a s a p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t t o d o w h a t h e i s b e i n g p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g ( o r n o t d o w h a t i s b e i n g r e q u i r e d o f h i m ) , I f i r s t c o n s i d e r u n d e r w h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n y r i g h t c a n b e i n t e r f e r e d w i t h . F r o m my r e s u l t s I c o n c l u d e t h a t c o n s e n t , e i t h e r t a c i t o r e x p l i c i t , p r i o r o r s u b s e - q u e n t t o i n t e r f e r e n c e , i s t h e k e y t o j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e . I a r g u e t h a t c o n s e n t , o r t h e d i s p o s i t i o n t o c o n s e n t u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f j u s t i f i c a - t i o n , a n d t h a t i t i s a l s o s u f f i c i e n t e x c e p t u n d e r some s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s . T o o l e y ' s ? a n a l y s i s o f r i g h t s i s i m p o r t a n t i n s h o w i n g w h e n c o n s e n t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m w h i c h a r i s e s i n t h e a r e a o f r i g h t s w h i c h i s o f c e n t r a l c o n c e r n i n my t h e o r y i s ' w h o h a s r i g h t s ' . B u t b e c a u s e I am n o t o f f e r i n g a t h e o r y o f r i g h t s i n t h i s p a p e r I c a n o n l y m a k e a b r i e f g e s t u r e a t t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h i s d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m . 6 Footnotes for Introduction 1. David Donaldson, "Fathers and Sons", unpublished paper. 2. John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism. Liberty and Representa- tive Government. Everyman's Library (New York: Dutton, 1910) , pp. 72 - 73. 3. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1971), see especially pp. 249 - 250. 4. Gerald Dworkin, "Paternalism", The Monist. Vol. 56 (1972), pp. 64-84. 5. D. G. Brown, "The Rights of Children", The Journal of Education. No. 17 (April 1971), pp. 8 - 20. 6. David Donaldson, "Fathers and Sons", unpublished paper. . -7-.. Michael Tooley, in the Correspondence, Philosophy & Public Affairs. Vol. 2, No. 4 (Summer 1973), PP. 419 - "^W. 7 C h a p t e r 1 U t i l i t a r i a n J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f P a t e r n a l i s m I n t h i s c h a p t e r I a p p l y t h e t h e o r y o f a c t u t i l i t a r i a n i s m t o t h e p r o b l e m o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h e n p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e w i l l b e j u s t i - f i e d . I t i s n a t u r a l t o s u p p o s e t h a t o n g r o u n d s o f u t i l i t y a g r e a t d e a l o f p a t e r n a l i s m w i l l b e c o n d o n e d . T h i s , I s h a l l a r g u e , i s a m i s t a k e ; r a t h e r , o n t h e s e g r o u n d s t h e r e w i l l b e a f a i r l y s t r o n g p r e - s u m p t i o n a g a i n s t p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e w h e n t h e p r o p o s e d s u b - j e c t s a r e s a n e a d u l t s . I n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n I d e v e l o p a n u m b e r o f a r g u m e n t s t o s h o w w h y t h i s s h o u l d b e t h e c a s e . I n t h e s e c o n d , I s h o w w h y i t i s t h a t t h e r e i s n o t t h i s p r e s u m p t i o n w h e n t h e s u b j e c t s a r e c h i l d r e n , t h e i n s a n e , o r m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t . A n d f i n a l l y i n t h e l a s t s e c t i o n , I c o n s i d e r t w o c a s e s w h e r e t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t o i n t e r f e r e a r i s e s ; t h e f i r s t i s o n e i n w h i c h o n g r o u n d s o f u t i l i t y one o u g h t n o t t o i n t e r f e r e , a n d t h e s e c o n d , o n e i n w h i c h o n t h o s e same g r o u n d s , i n t e r f e r e n c e o u g h t t o b e f o r t h c o m i n g . S e c t i o n 1. I n o r d e r t o s h o w t h a t t h e r e i s a p r e s u m p t i o n a g a i n s t i n t e r f e r - e n c e , a n d h o w s t r o n g i t i s , I s h a l l p r e s e n t w h a t I b e l i e v e t o b e t h e c e n t r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n d e t e r m i n g w h a t t h e b a l a n c e o f u t i l i t y i s l i k e l y t o b e i n a n y g i v e n c a s e . O n t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e t h e r e i s o f c o u r s e t h e s u p p o s e d b e n e f i t t o t h e p e r s o n w h o s e a c t i o n i s b e i n g i n t e r f e r e d w i t h . T h e p r o b l e m i s i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h a t t h e p o s s i b l e 8 d i s u t i l i t i e s a r e a n d w h a t k i n d s o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w o u l d l e a d o n e t o e x p e c t d i s u t i l i t i e s w h e r e t h e s e c a n ' t b e a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s e d i n a d v a n c e . I n On L i b e r t y M i l l e i t h e r s u g g e s t s o r s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y a n u m b e r o f t h e r e l e v a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , m a n y o f w h i c h I h a v e i n c o r - p o r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g . S i n c e t h i s i s n o t a c r i t i q u e o f M i l l I s h a l l n o t b e c o n s i d e r i n g h i s t e x t , b u t w h e r e a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s o n e o f t h o s e M i l l h a s s u g g e s t e d I s h a l l a c k n o w l e d g e i t t o b e s u c h w i t h a f o o t n o t e g i v i n g t h e r e l e v a n t p a g e i n On L i b e r t y . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e v a r i o u s u t i l i t a r i a n r e a s o n s f o r n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e I s h o u l d p o i n t o u t t h a t o n g r o u n d s o f u t i l i t y a s t r o n g e r c a s e c a n b e made a g a i n s t i n t e r f e r e n c e w h e n t h e p a t e r n a l i s m t a k e s t h e f o r m o f c o e r c i v e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a n w h e n i t i s m e r e l y p r i v a t e i n t e r - v e n t i o n o f a s i n g l e p e r s o n . I s h a l l a t t e m p t t o m a k e c l e a r w h y t h i s i s s o i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . T h e p o s s i b l e d i s u t i l i t i e s w h i c h a r i s e f r o m p e r s o n a l a n d / o r l e g i s - l a t i v e p a t e r n a l i s m d i v i d e i n t o t h o s e f r o m w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e p a t e r n a l i s m m i g h t h i m s e l f s u f f e r a n d t h o s e f r o m w h i c h t h e s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e m i g h t s u f f e r . I s h a l l c o n s i d e r t h e f o r m e r f i r s t . One o f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t i n t e r f e r e n c e w h i c h p r e s e n t s i t s e l f m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y t o m a n y p e o p l e i s t h e o b j e c t i o n a b l e n a t u r e o f b e i n g f o r c e d t o d o s o m e t h i n g t h a t o n e d o e s n o t w a n t t o d o ( o r b e i n g p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g s o m e t h i n g o n e d o e s w a n t t o d o ) . * T h e v e r y f a c t t h a t i t i s o b j e c t i o n a b l e i s i t s e l f a d i s u t i l i t y w h i c h m u s t b e w e i g h e d a g a i n s t t h e s u p p o s e d b e n e f i t s o f t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e . How g r e a t t h e 9 d i s u t i l i t y i s w i l l d e p e n d b o t h o n t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e c o e r c i o n m u s t b e u s e d a n d h o w o f f e n s i v e i t i s i n i t s e l f . O b v i o u s l y i f t h e f o r c e m u s t b e u s e d o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e , t h e t o t a l d i s u t i l i t i e s w i l l b e m u c h g r e a t e r t h a n i f t h e same a m o u n t o f f o r c e w e r e u s e d o n l y m o m e n t a r i l y . B e c a u s e o f t h i s , l o n g t e r m p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n w i l l b e m o r e l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n o v e r - a l l d i s u t i l i t i e s t h a n s h o r t t e r m i n t e r v e n t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t w i l l o f c o u r s e d e p e n d o n t h e p r e c i s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e . T h e s e c o n d m o s t o b v i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t e a c h p e r s o n h a s m o r e k n o w l e d g e o f h i s own c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f e e l i n g s , p r e f e r e n c e s , d e s i r e s , e t c . t h a n a n y o n e e l s e , a n d t h a t f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s h e i s i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o a s s e s s h i s i n t e r e s t s t h a n a n y o t h e r p e r s o n . ^ T h i s m e a n s t h a t h e h a s a m u c h b e t t e r c h a n c e o f b e i n g a c c u r a t e i n h i s j u d g m e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s o w n g o o d , a n d t h a t o t h e r s a r e l i k e l y t o m a k e m i s t a k e s . S o a l t h o u g h s o m e o n e m i g h t t h i n k t h a t h i s i n t e r - f e r e n c e i s f o r h i s s u b j e c t ' s g o o d , i t w i l l p r o b a b l y t u r n o u t t h a t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e . I f t h i s i s s o t h e n we w i l l h a v e t h e d i s u t i l i t y o f s o m e o n e b e i n g f o r c e d t o d o s o m e t h i n g a g a i n s t h i s w i l l w i t h o u t t h e u t i l i t y o f h i s b e i n g b e t t e r o f f a s a r e s u l t , a n d p e r h a p s e v e n t h e d i s u t i l i t y o f h i s b e i n g w o r s e o f f t h a n h e w a s b e f o r e . T h i s i s e v e n m o r e l i k e l y t o b e t h e c a s e w h e n t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e t a k e s t h e f o r m o f l e g i s l a t i o n s i n c e s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n m u s t b e made o n g e n e r a l p r e s u m p - t i o n s a b o u t w h a t i s g o o d f o r p e o p l e . - ^ S u c h p r e s u m p t i o n s m a y b e a l t o - g e t h e r w r o n g , o r i f r i g h t , m i s a p p l i e d i n i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s . I t h i n k 10 t h e r e i s s t r o n g e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s c l a i m . We c a n n o t o f c o u r s e c o n d e m n a l l p a t e r n a l i s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n o n t h e s e g r o u n d s - - t h e r e m a y w e l l b e some w h i c h d o n o t s u f f e r f r o m s u c h f a u l t s — b u t t h e s e a r e s t r o n g a r g u m e n t s f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e c a u t i o n i n a d o p t i n g s u c h l e g i s l a t i v e m e a s u r e s . N o t o n l y i s a p e r s o n m o r e l i k e l y t o b e m o r e a c c u r a t e i n h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f w h a t i s g o o d f o r h i m s e l f b e c a u s e o f h i s f a v o r e d p o s i - t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e h e i s p r o b a b l y m o r e c o n c e r n e d t h a n a n y o n e e l s e w i t h own w e l l b e i n g . " 4 . T h i s m e a n s t h a t h e w i l l ( p r o b a b l y ) t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y t i m e a n d e n e r g y t o a c c u r a t e l y d e t e r m i n e w h a t r e a l l y i s i n h i s i n t e r e s t , a n d t h u s w i l l h a v e a b e t t e r c h a n c e o f b e i n g c o r r e c t t h a n a w e l l - m e a n i n g , b u t i l l - i n f o r m e d o u t s i d e r . T h e r e w i l l b e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e r e t h e r e i s a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l b o n d , a s b e t w e e n l o v e r s , p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n , s i b l i n g s , a n d o t h e r s . B u t i t s t i l l p r o v i d e s a g o o d r e a s o n f o r u s i n g c a u t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e p a t e r n a l i s t i c a l l y . A g a i n I t h i n k t h e d a n g e r o f p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n i n f a c t r e s u l t - i n g i n g r e a t e r d i s u t i l i t y f o r t h e s u b j e c t i s g r e a t e r w h e n i t t a k e s t h e f o r m o f l e g i s l a t i o n t h a n w h e n a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l i s p r o p o s i n g t o i n t e r f e r e . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s q u i t e o b v i o u s : t h e b o d y o f p e o p l e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n c a n n o t p o s s i b l y t a k e t h e i n t e r e s t i n e a c h p e r s o n n e c e s s a r y t o a s s e s s a c c u r a t e l y h i s p o s i t i o n , a n d t h u s d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i t r e a l l y i s b e t t e r f o r h i m t h a t h i s a c t i o n b e i n t e r f e r e d w i t h o r n o t , w h e r e a s t h i s i s a t l e a s t p o s s i b l e i n 11 i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e , a n d a s p o i n t e d o u t a b o v e , p r o b a b l e w h e n t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n k i n d o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . F i n a l l y , d i s u t i l i t i e s f o r t h e s u b j e c t o f p a t e r n a l i s m m i g h t a r i s e f r o m a p o l i c y o f i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h h i m o n e v e r y o r e v e n m o s t o f t h o s e o c c a s i o n s w h e n i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t h e i s a b o u t t o d o s o m e - t h i n g c o u n t e r t o h i s i n t e r e s t . T h i s w o u l d d e n y h i m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f l e a r n i n g f r o m h i s m i s t a k e s , a n d t h i s m i g h t r e s u l t i n h i s d e l i b e r - a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s r e m a i n i n g u n d e r d e v e l o p e d . T h e d i s u t i l i t i e s o f s u c h a s t a t e w i l l a r i s e f r o m t w o s o u r c e s . T h e f i r s t f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t , w h e n t h e r e i s n o l o n g e r s o m e o n e t o i n t e r v e n e w h e n e v e r i t i s d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y , i t i s l i k e l y h e w i l l o f t e n d o f o o l i s h , p e r s o n a l l y h a r m - f u l t h i n g s . He w o u l d h a v e b e e n b e t t e r o f f i f h e h a d b e e n p e r m i t t e d t o l e a r n h o w b e s t t o s e r v e h i s own i n t e r e s t b y m a k i n g a f e w m i s t a k e s o n s o m e m i n o r m a t t e r s . T h e s e c o n d s o u r c e o f d i s u t i l i t y a r i s e s f r o m t h e f a c t ( i f i t i s a f a c t ) t h a t a n i n d i v i d u a l w h o h a s u n d e r d e v e l o p e d d e l i b e r a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s w i l l b e a l e s s h a p p y i n d i v i d u a l t h a n o n e w h o s e c a p a c i t i e s a r e w e l l - d e v e l o p e d . T h i s w i l l b e t r u e n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f b e i n g u n a b l e t o m a k e w i s e d e c i s i o n s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e b e i n g a c o m p e t e n t d e c i s i o n m a k e r i s f u l f i l l i n g i n i t s e l f ; a n y o n e w h o h a s n ' t t h i s c a p a c i t y t h e n , w i l l b e l e s s h a p p y t h a n s o m e o n e w h o d o e s h a v e i t , o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l . I s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e t h a t t h e s e d i s u t i l i t i e s o n l y p r o v i d e a g o o d r e a s o n f o r n o t m a k i n g a p o l i c y o f i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h s o m e o n e ' s a c t i o n w h e n i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t t h a t p e r s o n i s g o i n g t o d o s o m e t h i n g c o u n t e r t o h i s 12 i n t e r e s t s ; i n a n y p a r t i c u l a r I n s t a n c e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f i n h i b i t i n g a s u b j e c t ' s d e l i b e r a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s w i l l h a v e t o b e b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t t h e g a i n s f r o m d o i n g s o , a l o n g w i t h a n u m b e r o f o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , s u c h a s t h e o n e s a l r e a d y c i t e d a n d t h o s e t h a t f o l l o w . '• I t u r n my a t t e n t i o n n o w t o t h e d i s u t i l i t i e s w h i c h m i g h t b e e x p e r i e n c e d b y a s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e a s a r e s u l t o f p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n . A s i t i s m o r e c o n v e n i e n t t o t a l k o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e t h a n t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f i n t e r f e r e n c e I s h a l l c a s t t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n t h o s e t e r m s . A n d b e c a u s e t h e s t r o n g e s t c a s e c a n b e made a g a i n s t l e g i s l a t i v e m e a s u r e s , I s h a l l c o n s i d e r t h e a r g u m e n t s i n t h a t f i e l d f i r s t . T h e g a i n s t o m a n k i n d r e s u l t i n g f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s b e i n g l e f t t o d o w h a t e v e r t h e y w i s h , p r o v i d i n g i t h a r m s n o o n e e l s e , come f r o m t w o d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s : t h e f i r s t a r e t h e c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s w h i c h a r i s e f r o m p e o p l e b e i n g p e r m i t t e d t o p u r s u e t h e i r own g o o d , s i n c e i n n o v a t i o n o f t e n r e s u l t s ; ^ t h e s e c o n d f r o m t h e b e n e f i t s t o s o c i e t y t h a t r e s u l t f r o m t h e m o n e y , t i m e , a n d e n e r g y t h a t m i g h t b e u s e d t o e n f o r c e p a t e r - n a l i s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n b e i n g d i r e c t e d i n s t e a d i n t o o t h e r a r e a s w h e r e t h e b e n e f i t s t o t h e s o c i e t y o r m a n k i n d a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e , e . g . u s i n g t h e s e r e s o u r c e s t o i n c r e a s e s o c i a l b e n e f i t s , o r i m p r o v e t h e e n v i r o n - m e n t . T h e a r g u m e n t i s t h a t t h e g a i n s t o m a n k i n d o r s o c i e t y , r e s u l t - i n g f r o m n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e w i l l p r o b a b l y o u t w e i g h a n y h a r m t h a t m i g h t b e f a l l t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r a c t i o n s b e i n g u n i n h i b i t e d b y o u t s i d e c o e r c i o n . I t i s f a i r l y c l e a r w h y t h i s s h o u l d b e t h e c a s e 13 a s f a r a s t h e s e c o n d s o u r c e o f b e n e f i t s i s c o n c e r n e d : i t i s j u s t s o t r e m e n d o u s l y d i f f i c u l t t o e f f e c t i v e l y e n f o r c e p a t e r n a l i s t i c l e g i s l a - t i o n , w i t h t h e c o s t t o t h e s o c i e t y i n r e s o u r c e s b e i n g d i r e c t l y c o r r e - l a t e d t o t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . T h e p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t a l c o h o l i s a c a s e i n p o i n t . A n d i t h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n a r g u e d t h a t t h e c o s t o f e n f o r c i n g a n t i - d r u g l e g i s l a t i o n f a r o u t w e i g h s t h e s u p p o s e d b e n e f i t s . I t s e e m s t o me t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t i n t h e s e a n d s i m i l a r c a s e s t h e m o n e y , t i m e , a n d e n e r g y c o n s u m e d c o u l d b e m u c h m o r e p r o f i t a b l y d i r e c t e d e l s e w h e r e . T h e f i r s t s u g g e s t e d b e n e f i t o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f n o n - p a t e r n a l i s m h a s c o n s i d e r a b l e p l a u s i b i l i t y w h e n o n e c o n s i d e r s t h e p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t e o r c h u r c h l a y i n g d o w n s t r i c t r u l e s t h a t o n e i s t o f o l l o w i n d a y t o d a y l i f e . A r t i s t i c a n d s c i e n t i f i c e n d e a v o r s w i l l l i k e l y s u f f e r , a n d t h e c u l t u r e a s a w h o l e , s t a g n a t e . S o , w h e n a p i e c e o f p a t e r n a l i s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n i s b e i n g p r o p o s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s m u s t b e a s k e d : w h a t a r e t h e c o s t s t o s o c i e t y o f e n f o r c i n g s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n ? c o u l d t h e e n e r g y b e m o r e p r o f i t a b l y d i r e c t e d e l s e w h e r e ? a r e we i n o u r n a r r o w m i n d e d w a y i n h i b i t i n g c u l - t u r a l p r o g r e s s ? T h e a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w i l l p l a y a l a r g e p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t a p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n i s j u s t i - f i e d o n u t i l i t a r i a n g r o u n d s . A s f a r a s t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l s o r t o f p a t e r n a l i s m i s c o n c e r n e d , I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e a b o v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i l l p l a y a n y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e ; f r o m s u c h p a t e r n a l i s m t h e r e j u s t w o n ' t b e t h e p o s s i b l e h a r m f u l Ik c o n s e q u e n c e s t o t h e s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . E v e n i f g i v e n t h e a b o v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h e u t i l i t i e s s e e m t o b e o n t h e s i d e o f p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e , o n e h a s s t i l l t o c o n - s i d e r t h e p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s o f s e t t i n g a p r e c e d e n t f o r o t h e r p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t i o n s w h e r e t h e d i s u t i l i t i e s m i g h t o u t w e i g h t h e u t i - l i t i e s . T h i s i s a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m w h e n i t i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c l e g i s - l a t i o n w h i c h i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d , s i n c e t h e l e g a l s y s t e m i s v e r y p r e - c e d e n t o r i e n t e d . S u c h a m e a s u r e m i g h t o p e n t h e d o o r t o a l a r g e n u m b e r o f o t h e r m e a s u r e s f o r w h i c h t h e u t i l i t i e s h a v e n o t b e e n c a r e f u l l y c a l c u l a t e d a n d w h i c h w o u l d i n f a c t r e s u l t i n o v e r a l l d i s u t i l i t y . T h e r e i s some p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t e v e n w h e n t h e p a t e r n a l i s m i s o n l y b e i n g e n g a g e d i n b y a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l p r e c e d e n t w i l l b e a d a n g e r . T h e s o u r c e o f t h e d a n g e r i s t h a t a n o b s e r v e r w i l l r e a s o n : " H e i n t e r f e r e d o n p a t e r n a l i s t i c g r o u n d s s o i t m u s t b e o k a y f o r me t o d o s o , " w h e r e h e h a s n ' t made t h e o t h e r n e c e s s a r y c a l c u l a t i o n s o r h a s n ' t r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l e v a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o c a s e s . T h i s i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e c a s e a g a i n s t l y i n g : w h e n o n e t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o t h e r s f o l l o w i n g o n e ' s e x a m p l e b u t n o t b e i n g a s c a r e f u l i n t h e i r r e a s o n i n g , a n d c o n s i d e r s t h e n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s o f n o t b e i n g a b l e t o b e l i e v e w h a t p e o p l e s a y , t h e n o n e m a y h a v e a g o o d c a s e f o r n o t l y i n g e v e n t h o u g h t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r c a s e w h e n c o n s i d e r e d o n t h e i r own w o u l d j u s t i f y i t . F i n a l l y , I t h i n k I s h o u l d p o i n t o u t t h a t p a t e r n a l i s m w i l l a l w a y s b e a l a s t r e s o r t . I t i s o n l y w h e n a r g u m e n t , e x h o r t a t i o n , o r p l e a s 1 5 h a v e f a i l e d t o c h a n g e s o m e o n e ' s m i n d a b o u t w h a t i s i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t t h a t o n e w i l l b e j u s t i f i e d i n t u r n i n g t o c o e r c i o n t o p r e v e n t h i m f r o m d o i n g s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s a g a i n s t h i s i n t e r e s t . T h i s i s t r u e b e c a u s e p e r s u a s i o n c a r r i e s n o n e o f t h e d i s u t i l i t i e s t h a t p a t e r n a l i s m d o e s ; s o t h e o v e r - a l l u t i l i t y w i l l a l w a y s b e g r e a t e r w h e n s o m e o n e h a s b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y p e r s u a d e d t o d o o t h e r t h a n h e p l a n n e d , t h a n w h e n h e h a s b e e n f o r c e d t o d o s o . O f c o u r s e t h e r e w i l l b e t i m e s w h e n o n e d o e s n ' t h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e n g a g e i n d e b a t e w i t h a p e r s o n a b o u t w h a t h e o u g h t o r o u g h t n o t d o . I n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a s s u m i n g t h e u t i l i - t i e s f a v o u r i n t e r f e r e n c e , p a t e r n a l i s m w o u l d b e t h e o n l y c h o i c e . We h a v e , i n s u m m a r y , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s b a s e d o n u t i l i t a r i a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r n o t e n g a g i n g i n p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n : 1. t h e e v i l o f b e i n g f o r c e d t o d o s o m e t h i n g o n e d o e s n o t w a n t t o d o w i l l o f t e n o u t w e i g h t h e b e n e f i t s ; 2. o t h e r p e o p l e w i l l u s u a l l y b e m i s t a k e n a b o u t w h a t i s g o o d f o r s o m e o n e e l s e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : a ) a p e r s o n i s m o r e c a r e f u l i n h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f h i s i n t e r e s t s t h a n o t h e r s w i l l b e s i n c e h e i s m o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s own w e l l - b e i n g ; b ) h e h a s m o r e k n o w l e d g e o f h i s f e e l i n g s a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a n a n y o n e e l s e ; c ) l e g i s l a t i o n , b e i n g b a s e d o n g e n e r a l p r e s u m p t i o n s c a n n o t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s ; 16 3. t h e r e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n h i b i t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e l i b e r a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s ; 4. t h e c o s t t o s o c i e t y w i l l o f t e n o u t w e i g h t h e b e n e f i t s o f s u c h i n t e r v e n t i o n d u e t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n f o r c i n g p e o p l e t o d o s o m e t h i n g a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l , a n d t o t h e i n n o v a t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m l e a v i n g e a c h p e r s o n t o p u r s u e h i s own g o o d a s h e s e e s f i t ; 5. t h e r e a r e d a n g e r s i n s e t t i n g a p r e c e d e n t ; 6. r e a s o n e d a r g u m e n t , i f i t i s s u c c e s s f u l , w i l l a l w a y s h a v e a g r e a t e r n e t u t i l i t y t h a n f o r c e . I t h i n k i t w i l l b e a g r e e d t h a t t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w o r k t o g e t h e r t o c r e a t e a s t r o n g p r e s u m p t i o n a g a i n s t p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e ( p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n i t i s t o t a k e t h e f o r m o f l e g i s l a t i v e m e a s u r e s ) w h e n t h e s u b j e c t s a r e s a n e a d u l t s . B u t w h a t a b o u t c h i l d r e n , t h e i n s a n e , a n d t h e m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t ? S u r e l y p a t e r n a l i s m w i l l o f t e n b e j u s t i f i e d t o w a r d s t h e m . I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n I s h a l l e x a m i n e t h e c a s e f o r p a t e r n a l i s m t o w a r d s t h e s e c l a s s e s o f p e o p l e i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e r e a s o n s w h i c h I h a v e d e v e l o p e d f o r n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i n g e n e r a l . S e c t i o n 2 . W h a t n e e d s t o b e s h o w n w h e n i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e a c t i o n s o f a c h i l d o n p a t e r n a l i s t i c g r o u n d s i s t h a t some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e a r e i n a p p l i c a b l e g i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a s e a n d / o r t h a t t h e u t i l i t i e s t h e y r e f e r t o a r e s l i g h t a n d c o u l d b e f a i r l y 17 e a s i l y o v e r r i d d e n b y t h e u t i l i t i e s o f i n t e r f e r e n c e . I f t h i s i s u s u a l l y t r u e t h e n we h a v e o n u t i l i t a r i a n g r o u n d s a r e a s o n f o r t h e r e n o t b e i n g a g e n e r a l p r e s u m p t i o n a g a i n s t p a t e r n a l i s m t o w a r d s c h i l d r e n w h i l e t h e r e i s t h i s p r e s u m p t i o n w h e n t h e s u b j e c t i s a n a d u l t . I t h i n k o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s w h i c h m a k e s p a t e r n a l i s m m o r e o f t e n j u s t i f i e d t o w a r d s t h e f o r m e r t h a n t h e l a t t e r i s t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e w r o n g c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e o f t e n t h a n a d u l t s i n t h e i r j u d g m e n t s a s t o w h a t i s i n t h e i r b e s t i n t e r e s t . I f l e f t t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o d o t h i n g s t h a t w i l l b e o f g r e a t h a r m , - o r n e g l e c t t o d o t h o s e t h i n g s w h i c h w o u l d p r o v e b e n e f i c i a l . T h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f s u c h p h e n o m e n a c o u l d b e i n t h e i r l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e , t h e i r u n d e v e l o p e d c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s a n d t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e o r a p p r e c i a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s e - q u e n c e s o f t h e i r a c t i o n s ( o r i n a c t i o n ) . A n d a l t h o u g h i t i s u s u a l l y t r u e t h a t a d u l t s t a k e m o r e i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r own w e l f a r e t h a n a n y o n e e l s e t h i s i s n o t t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f c h i l d r e n . T h e i r p a r e n t s a r e t y p i c a l l y a s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s w e l l - b e i n g a s t h e y a r e i n t h e i r o w n . A n d i f t h e i n s t i g a t o r s o f p a t e r n a l i s m a r e l e g i s l a t o r s t h e i r l a c k o f d i r e c t c o n c e r n w i t h e a c h c h i l d w i l l p r o b a b l y b e r e l a - t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i r g r e a t e r e x p e r t i s e . T h e r e m i g h t b e a c a s e f o r a r g u i n g t h a t t h e a d u l t s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c h i l d a r e b o t h m o r e i n t e r e s t e d a n d have t h e n e c e s s a r y c o m p e t e n c e t o p r o t e c t t h e c h i l d f r o m h i s own a c t i o n s , a n d t h u s p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e f o r m ' o f l e g i s l a t i o n i s n o t o n l y u n n e c e s s a r y , b u t 18 i s m o r e l i k e l y t o b e i n e r r o r t h a n w h e n i t c o m e s f r o m c o n c e r n e d p a r - e n t s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a c l a s s o f l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t s e r v e s t o p r o - t e c t t h e c h i l d f r o m h i s p a r e n t s some o f w h i c h w o u l d b e c l a s s i f i e d a s p a t e r n a l i s t i c ( e . g . r e m o v i n g a c h i l d f r o m h i s home b e c a u s e o f a b u s e e v e n w h e n h e d o e s n ' t w a n t t o g o ) w h e r e s u c h a n o b j e c t i o n c o u l d n o t b e m a d e . I t m i g h t a l s o b e t r u e t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t h i n g s w h i c h p a r e n t s w o u l d b e r e l a t i v e l y p o w e r l e s s t o p r e v e n t t h e i r c h i l d r e n f r o m d o i n g i f i t w e r e n o t f o r h e l p f r o m p a t e r n a l i s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n . A n o t h e r r e l e v a n t f a c t i s t h a t p a t e r n a l i s m i s a l m o s t a l w a y s e n g a g e d i n b y a c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s o r g u a r d i a n s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s t h e r e w i l l b e n o c o s t t o t h e s o c i e t y i n t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f i n s t a n c e s o f i n t e r f e r e n c e . A n d o f t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h p a t e r n a l i s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s c h i l d r e n t h e c o s t i s s t i l l l i k e l y t o b e r e l a t i v e l y l o w a s m o s t o f t h e e n f o r c i n g o f s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l b e h a n d l e d b y t h e a d u l t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n , e i t h e r p a r e n t s , o l d e r m e m - b e r s o f t h e f a m i l y , t e a c h e r s , o r o t h e r s ; e . g . t h o s e l a w s r e q u i r i n g c h i l d r e n t o a t t e n d s c h o o l , p r o h i b i t i n g t h e i r d r i n k i n g a l c o h o l , o r h a v i n g s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s . W h e r e t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e , e i t h e r b e c a u s e t h e r e s p o n s i b l e a d u l t s a r e n ' t i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n t e r f e r e , o r d o n ' t w i s h t o , t h e c o s t t o s o c i e t y w i l l s t i l l b e q u i t e l o w d u e p a r t l y t o t h e r e l a t i v e i n f r e q u e n c y o f s u c h s i t u a t i o n s a n d p a r t l y t o t h e r e l a - t i v e w e a k n e s s o f t h o s e t o w a r d s whom t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , s e t t i n g a p r e c e d e n t i s l e s s d a n g e r o u s w h e n t h e s u b j e c t i s a c h i l d t h a n w h e n i t i s a n a d u l t , s i n c e f o r t h e r e a s o n s 19 o u t l i n e d a b o v e , t h e r e i s l e s s d a n g e r o f i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n w h e n o n e o u g h t n o t t o d o s o . A n d i t s e e m s u n l i k e l y t h a t p a t e r n a l i s m t o w a r d s c h i l d r e n w o u l d b e u s e d a s a p r e c e d e n t f o r p a t e r n a l i s m t o w a r d s a d u l t s s i n c e p e o p l e a r e w i l l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l e v a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o c l a s s e s o f p e o p l e , e v e n i f t h e y a r e n o t a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e p r e c i s e l y w h a t i t i s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e r e a r e t w o r e a s o n s f o r n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e w h i c h m i g h t p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h a c h i l d ' s a c t i o n . T h e f i r s t i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n h i b i t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e l i b e r a t i v e s k i l l s i f o n e f o l l o w s a p o l i c y o f i n t e r f e r e n c e . O b v i o u s l y t h e r e w i l l b e a p l a y - o f f b e t w e e n t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c h i l d b e i n g l e f t t o a c t i n t h e m a n n e r he h a s d e c i d e d u p o n a n d t h e b e n e f i t s o f h a v i n g h i m l e a r n b y e x p e r i e n c e . T h e o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e o b j e c t i o n a b l e n a t u r e o f b e i n g f o r c e d t o d o s o m e t h i n g a g a i n s t o n e ' s w i l l . T h i s i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h i s I t h i n k o f t e n i g n o r e d w h e n a n a d u l t i s d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h a c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s o n p a t e r n a l i s t i c g r o u n d s . D o e s t h e h a r m t o t h e c h i l d w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e r e a l l y o u t w e i g h t h e a n n o y a n c e o f h i s b e i n g f o r c e d i n t o d o i n g s o m e t h i n g h e d o e s n ' t w a n t t o d o ? I t o f t e n w i l l , b u t t h e r e w i l l b e t i m e s w h e n i t w o n ' t . U n l e s s t h i s i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , o n e c a n n o t b e s u r e t h a t o n e ' s i n t e r f e r e n c e i s j u s t i f i e d o n u t i l i t a r i a n g r o u n d s . I t s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e w i l l b e t i m e s w h e n p a t - e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h a c h i l d w i l l b e u n j u s t i f i e d o n t h e 2 0 g r o u n d s o f u t i l i t y , t h e r e i s n o t a s t r o n g p r e s u m p t i o n a g a i n s t i n t e r - f e r e n c e b e c a u s e t h e p o s s i b l e d i s u t i l i t i e s o f d o i n g s o a r e n o t n e a r l y s o g r e a t a s w h e n t h e p r o p o s e d s u b j e c t i s a n a d u l t . T h i s i s a l s o t r u e o f some o f t h e i n s a n e a n d m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t , a n d f o r s i m i l a r r e a s o n s . I f s o m e o n e h a s s e v e r e l y i m p a i r e d c o g n i t i v e o r e m o t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s t h e n u t i l i t y w i l l p r o b a b l y b e o n t h e s i d e o f i n t e r f e r e n c e . T h i s i s t r u e b e c a u s e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g . F i r s t , t h e s e p e o p l e w i l l o f t e n n o t k n o w w h a t i s f o r t h e i r own g o o d , w h i l e s o m e o n e w h o s e c a p a c i t i e s a r e n o t i m p a i r e d w i l l o f t e n b e c o r r e c t i n h i s j u d g - m e n t a s t o w h e t h e r a p e r s o n o u g h t o r o u g h t n o t d o s o m e t h i n g . A n d o n e d o e s n o t u s u a l l y h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t i n h i b i t i n g d e l i b e r a t i v e c a p a c i - t i e s , a l t h o u g h o n e s h o u l d k e e p s u c h a p o s s i b i l i t y i n m i n d , p a r t i c u - l a r l y w h e n t h e p e r s o n f a l l s o n t h e b o r d e r l i n e b e t w e e n t h o s e who a r e s a n e a n d t h o s e who a r e n ' t , o r t h o s e who s u f f e r f r o m m e n t a l d e f i c i e n - c i e s a n d t h o s e who d o n o t . I t m i g h t b e t h e c a s e t h a t a l l o w i n g a b o r d e r l i n e c a s e t o d o some o f t h e t h i n g s w h i c h w i l l c a u s e h i m some p e r s o n a l h a r m w i l l g i v e h i m t h e n e c e s s a r y e x p e r i e n c e t o c o n t r o l v a r - i o u s a r e a s o f h i s l i f e h i m s e l f w i t h o u t o u t s i d e i n t e r f e r e n c e . I t w i l l o f c o u r s e d e p e n d o n t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e h a r m a n d t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f h i s l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h t h e e x p e r i e n c e . E v e n t h e d i s u t i l i t i e s o f t h e c o s t t o s o c i e t y w i l l b e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c o m p a r e d t o t h e p o t e n t i a l p e r s o n a l h a r m w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s we d o n ' t r e a l l y h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t s e t t i n g a p r e c e d e n t ; u t i l i t y w i l l u s u a l l y b e o n t h e s i d e o f i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h i n 21 t h a t c l a s s a n y w a y ; a n d i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t p a t e r n a l i s m t o w a r d s t h o s e w i t h i m p a i r e d c a p a c i t i e s w i l l b e u s e d a s a p r e c e d e n t f o r p a t e r - n a l i s m t o w a r d s p e o p l e w h o s e c a p a c i t i e s a r e n o t i m p a i r e d . We d o o f c o u r s e s t i l l h a v e t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e d i s u t i l i t i e s f o r t h e s u b j e c t o f b e i n g f o r c e d t o d o s o m e t h i n g a g a i n s t h i s w i l l . B u t t h i s d i s u t i l i t y o n i t s own w i l l o f t e n n o t b e g r e a t e n o u g h t o o v e r r i d e t h e u t i l i t y o f i n t e r f e r e n c e . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , a s w i t h c h i l d r e n , t h e r e i s n o t a p r e s u m p t i o n a g a i n s t i n t e r f e r e n c e o n u t i l i t a r i a n g r o u n d s . S e c t i o n 3 I n t h i s s e c t i o n I s h a l l c o n s i d e r t w o c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t o i n t e r f e r e p a t e r n a l i s t i c a l l y a r i s e s . I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f i r s t I s h a l l a r g u e t h a t o n g r o u n d s o f u t i l i t y , a l t h o u g h i t m i g h t a t f i r s t g l a n c e a p p e a r t h a t i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d b e j u s t i f i e d , i t w o u l d i n f a c t p r o b a b l y b e u n j u s t i f i e d . I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e c o n d I c o n s t r u c t a c a s e w h i c h I b e l i e v e i s e m p i r i c a l l y p l a u - s i b l e , a n d i n w h i c h o n g r o u n d s o f u t i l i t y , p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e o u g h t t o b e e n g a g e d i n . T h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s e v e r y s o o f t e n a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t i t s h o u l d b e r e q u i r e d o f p e o p l e b y l a w t h a t t h e y f a s t e n t h e i r s e a t b e l t s w h i l e i n a m o v i n g v e h i c l e . I w o u l d l i k e t o s u g g e s t h o w a u t i l i t a r i a n c a l - c u l a t i o n m i g h t g o . B e c a u s e v a r i o u s r e a s o n s f o r n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e f a i l t o h a v e m u c h w e i g h t i n t h i s c a s e i t m i g h t a p p e a r t h a t u t i l i t y w o u l d f a v o r i n t e r f e r e n c e . F o r i n s t a n c e , i t c a n c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t 22 f a s t e n i n g o n e ' s s e a t b e l t i s i n o n e ' s i n t e r e s t a n d t h u s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e c o m e s f r o m l e g i s l a t o r s i s i r r e l e v a n t . I n f a c t m o s t p e o p l e r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y o u g h t o u t o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t t o f a s t e n t h e i r s e a t b e l t b u t f a i l t o a c t a c c o r d i n g l y f o r a n y o f a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s : t h e y c a n ' t c o m e t o g r i p s e m o t i o n a l l y w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f n o t d o i n g s o ; t h e y s u f f e r f r o m w e a k n e s s o f t h e w i l l ; o r p e r h a p s t h e y i r r a t i o n a l l y p l a c e a h i g h e r v a l u e o n n o t h a v i n g t o b o t h e r w i t h s e a t b e l t s t h a n o n t h e g o o d w h i c h m i g h t r e s u l t . S o o n e c o u l d a r g u e t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i s s i m p l y f o r c i n g p e o p l e t o d o w h a t t h e y a l r e a d y k n o w i s i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t . N o r w i l l t h e c o s t t o s o c i e t y l i k e l y o u t - w e i g h t h e b e n e f i t s o f s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n , a s s u m i n g , t h a t i s , t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e n o s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i s o b e y e d b u t r a t h e r i n t h e c o u r s e o f t i c k e t i n g s p e e d e r s , o r r o u t i n e c h e c k s , f a s t e n e d o r u n f a s t e n e d s e a t b e l t s w o u l d b e s o m e t h i n g o f w h i c h n o t e i s t a k e n , a n d f i n e s o r w h a t e v e r p a s s e d o u t a c c o r d i n g l y . O r p e r h a p s i t c o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t h a t c a r s b e d e s i g n e d i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e a n o b j e c t i o n a b l e n o i s e i f t h e s e a t b e l t s w e r e l e f t u n f a s t e n e d . F i n a l l y i t d o e s n o t s e e m l i k e l y t h a t t h e a n n o y a n c e o f h a v i n g t o f a s - t e n o n e ' s s e a t b e l t w o u l d o u t w e i g h t h e b e n e f i t s o f d o i n g s o , g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t s e r i o u s i n j u r i e s a n d d e a t h c a n o f t e n b e a v o i d e d a s a r e s u l t o f h a v i n g o n e ' s s e a t b e l t f a s t e n e d . B u t i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e u t i l i t i e s s e e m t o b e b a l a n c i n g o u t i n f a v o r o f i n t e r f e r e n c e , t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d t i p t h e b a l a n c e t h e o t h e r w a y , v i z : t h e d a n g e r o f s e t t i n g a p r e c e d e n t . A s n o t e d e a r l i e r t h i s i s a 23 a particular danger i n the realm of legislation because the legal system i s precedent oriented. Because of the high probability of undesirable results of a great deal of paternalistic legislation for the reasons already given i n Section 1, I think the danger of setting a precedent i s great enough to constitute a f a i r l y conclusive reason against a law requiring the fastening of seat belts. The following case i s one i n which on grounds of u t i l i t y i t would probably be concluded that one ought to engage i n paternalis- t i c interference. Say a woman's husband has had i n the past a severe drinking problem. It damaged his health, jeopardized his job, and made him foul tempered and hard to l i v e with. He went to Alcoholics Anonymous meetings and managed to stay off alcohol for a number of years, but due to a particularly stressful time, has decided that he really needs a drink i n order to get through. His wife knows from past experience that i f he has one drink he w i l l again soon be suffer- ing from alcoholism. So she decides to threaten to leave him i f he takes even a single drink. Her husband believes she means what she says, and i n spite of great reluctance decides not to indulge. Was such interference just i f i e d on u t i l i t a r i a n grounds or not? It seems to me that the only considerations that have any force are the bene- f i t s of the interference and the objectionable nature of his being forced to do something against his w i l l . Surely i t i s obvious that i n this case the benefits w i l l f a r outweigh any d i s u t i l i t i e s arising from his being coerced into not doing something he wants to do. This means that interference would be justified on utilitarian grounds. In summary, I have argued that because of a number of consider- ations paternalism will usually result in greater disutilities than utilities, particularly when i t is to take the form of legislation, and that this creates a general presumption against interference on utilitarian grounds, but that there will be some circumstances in which the reverse is true, when on utilitarian grounds interference would be justified. 25 F o o t n o t e s f o r C h a p t e r 1 1. J o h n S t u a r t M i l l , U t i l i t a r i a n i s m . L i b e r t y a n d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e G o v e r n m e n t . E v e r y m a n ' s L i b r a r y ( N e w Y o r k : D u t t o n , 1910), p . 133. 2. M i l l , p . 133. 3. M i l l , p . 133. 4. M i l l , p . 133. 5. M i l l , p . 121. 26 Chapter 2 Some Non-utilitarian Theories I am concerned in this chapter with the extant non-utilitarian theories on the justification of paternalism. I offer critique and criticism of the positions taken by Rawls,1 Dworkin,2 Donaldson,3 and Brown.* Rawls offers three principles of paternalism which he thinks are the ones that "parties would acknowledge in the original position to protect themselves against the weakness and infirmities of their reason and will in society."-' A l l three principles are necessary conditions for paternalistic interference, and are jointly suffi- cient, so only i f a l l the principles are fu l f i l l e d will paternalism be justified. They read as follows: 1. paternalistic intervention must be justified by evidenced failure or absence of reason and will; 2. the intervention must be guided by what is known about the subject's more permanent aims and preferences. We may know about these through familiarity with the particular person in question. But i f we lack any detailed kind of informa- tion we will know that he is probably interested in primary goods because these are things that most people would want no matter what else they want, e.g. health, happiness, nourishment, sufficient wealth, etc. Acting in accordance with the permanent aims and preferences or the primary goods gives the 3rd condition the best chance of being fulfilled. 27 3. t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t m u s t b e s o m e t h i n g o f w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t w o u l d a p p r o v e u p o n t h e r e c o v e r y o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s r a t i o n a l p o w e r s . T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s h a v e , I t h i n k , i n t u i t i v e p l a u s i b i l i t y , e v e n i f o n e d o e s n ' t a c c e p t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e o r i g i n a l p o s i - t i o n . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h I w i s h t o p o i n t o u t . F i r s t , t h e r e i s some a m b i g u i t y a s t o w h e t h e r R a w l s w a n t s t h e n o n - e x i s t e n c e o f r a t i o n a l p o w e r s t o b e a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r i n t e r - f e r e n c e , o r w h e t h e r s i m p l y n o t u s i n g t h e p o w e r s t h a t o n e h a s w o u l d s a t - i s f y t h a t f i r s t c o n d i t i o n . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a t t o s a y s o m e o n e a c t e d i r r a t i o n a l l y i s t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t h e h a s t h e a b i l i t y t o a c t r a t i o n a l l y , b u t h a s n o t d o n e s o . T h i s i s w h y we a t t r i - b u t e i r r a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r t o some p e o p l e a t c e r t a i n t i m e s , w h i l e we n e v e r d o s o t o a n i m a l s — we c r e d i t t h e h u m a n w i t h r a t i o n a l p o w e r s , w h i l e d e n y i n g t h a t a n i m a l s h a v e s u c h p o w e r s . G i v e n t h i s i t s e e m s , a l t h o u g h i t i s n ' t e n t i r e l y c l e a r f r o m t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s a b o v e , t h a t R a w l s w a n t s t h e n o n - e x i s t e n c e o f r a t i o n a l p o w e r s t o b e a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e . B u t h e a l s o s a y s , " P a t e r n a l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s a r e a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t o u r own i r r a t i o n a - l i t y . . . " ^ w h i c h , g i v e n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n d r a w n a b o v e , m e a n s t h a t s i m p l y n o t u s i n g o n e ' s e x i s t e n t p o w e r s c o u l d a l s o s a t i s f y t h e f i r s t c o n d i t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o k n o w w h i c h p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s p r i n c i p l e R a w l s w a n t s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e h o w m u c h p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r - 28 ference would be j u s t i f i e d . The second d i f f i c u l t y i s that the p r i n c i p l e s don't seem to take account of those people who suffer from severe impairment of t h e i r r a t i o n a l capacities and who w i l l never recover or develop them ~ the permanently insane or mentally retarded. Because they won't ever have these a b i l i t i e s i t seems reasonable to suppose that they w i l l never consent to t h e i r p a t e r n a l i s t i c treatment, leaving the t h i r d con- d i t i o n u n f u l f i l l e d . But since i t i s a necessary condition fbr j u s t i - f i e d paternalism, such interference won't be j u s t i f i e d without i t s f u l f i l l m e n t . This leaves us i n the absurd position of paternalism not being j u s t i f i e d f o r those classes of people towards whom i t seems i n t u i t i v e l y to be most obviously j u s t i f i e d . We might t r y to a l l e v i a t e t h i s problem by reading the t h i r d condition as a hypothe- t i c a l ~ perhaps i t i s even meant to be read as such: the i n t e r - ference must be something of which the subject of the paternalism would approve i f he develops or recovers h i s r a t i o n a l powers. This c e r t a i n l y takes care of the permanently insane and mentally retarded, but such a reading seems to leave the way open f o r extending pater- nalism w e l l beyond what most of us would be happy with. I t i s not possible f o r someone to argue that none of us ever develop our ra t i o n a l powers to the capacity of which they are capable, but i f we ever did we would approve of a l l kinds of p a t e r n a l i s t i c treatment which we wouldn't i n our present state. The danger i s the same whether Rawls thinks i r r a t i o n a l i t y and/or the non-existence of 29 rational powers f u l f i l l s the f i r s t condition. In the first case i t could be argued that we would approve i f the existence of our f u l l rational powers were ever realized; in the second case, that we would approve i f we ever came to view the relevant situation rationally, i.e. used the powers available. Of course i t is possible to stipulate the level of development, or the severity of the irrationality and to make this level low enough that there seems l i t t l e threat of too much paternalism. But this requires theoretical work which we don't find in Rawls. Finally, there is a problem with the f i r s t condition — there must be an evidenced absence or failure of reason or will. This seems intuitively to be a reasonable restriction, but I think we'll find that there are some situations in which i t need not be fulfilled in order for paternalism to be justified. For instance, to use an example from Mill, i f someone is about to walk across a bridge which is, unknown to him, on the verge of collapse, we should take whatever means necessary to stop him from doing so, provided we haven't the time to warn him of the danger. There need be no absence or failure of reason in this case to justify such intervention, but merely ignor- ance and insufficient time to remedy i t . Mill denies that this is a case of paternalistic intervention on the grounds that "liberty con- sists in doing what one desires, and he does not desire to f a l l into the river."^ So, the argument concludes, we have not interfered with his freedom. But this seems to ignore the fact that at the time of 30 intervention, the subject does want to cross the bridge, and we are stopping him from attempting to satisfy that want. Of course, one can point out that i f we only had time to warn him of the danger, he would probably have decided not to cross the bridge; or that after explaining why we had grabbed him as he started across, he would probably thank us for saving his l i f e . But these arguments don't show that our interference wasn't paternalistic; they are rather, possible justifications for such interference. At any rate, i f we deny that the interference i n the crossing- the-bridge example i s paternalistic on the grounds that the subject does not desire the consequences, we have to deny that a l l sorts of interference with people's actions would be paternalistic on the same grounds. For example, i t could be argued that children don't really want to die of malnutrition so making them eat their vegetables i s not paternalistic; or that people don't really want to become heroin addicts and so denying them access to heroin i s not paterna- l i s t i c ; that people don't really want to die of lung cancer so making the sale of cigarettes i l l e g a l i s not paternalistic, etc. And i f these measures are not paternalistic, then of course they don't require the justification that they otherwise would. This i s , I think a consequence none of us are w i l l i n g to accept. But, of course, the important point i s that people do want to smoke, take heroin, and not eat their vegetables; such desires might be irrational given that most people also do not want to get lung cancer, become addicts, 31 or be unhealthy. But that does not change the fact that they have the desires, and that the actions of parents or legislative measures are interfering with them. I shall not commit myself at this point on whether or not pater- nalism in such cases as mentioned above i s or would be justified, but i t seems quite clear that stopping someone from attempting to walk across a bridge which is about to collapse Is justifiable interfer- ence, and any theory with a hope of being correct must allow for such cases of paternalistic intervention. But this is just what Rawls* first condition denies, since i t requires that there be an evidenced absence of reason or will. For this reason i t cannot be a necessary condition for the justification of paternalistic interven- tion. Dworkin delimits the area of justifiable paternalism basically by the notion of consent. This is a similar condition to the third one of Rawls but whereas Rawls requires the actual consent of the subject of paternalistic treatment, Dworkin rests his case on the hypothetical consent, not of any particular subject of paternalism, but of rational people. He attempts to produce "certain kinds of con- ditions which make i t plausible to suppose that rational men could reach agreement to limit their liberty even when other men's inter- ests are not affected."^ The conditions, one or a combination of which Dworkin suggests as making i t likely that rational people would agree to paternalistic measures, are as follows: 32 1. when there are certain 'goods' which could be promoted by- certain measures, even i f they are not recognized by the subjects of those measures as being 'goods' at the time. He suggests health and education as being such goods, and compulsory attendance at educational institutes as the paternalistic measure promoting the latter. He makes no suggestion as to how the former might be promoted. 2. where someone i s making an irrational weighting of values. This might be the case where one continues to smoke cigar- ettes i n the light of the dangers of doing so, or when one refuses to fasten his seat belt. Of course there may be other explanations of such behavior, such as #3 below. I t i s implied by Dworkin that laws banning the sale of cigar- ettes and requiring the fastening of seat belts would pro- bably be acceptable to rational persons as paternalistic measures to prevent the harm one might experience from having such irrational values. 3. where someone f a i l s to act i n accordance with his actual preferences and desires. Dworkin thinks paternalistic mea- sures i n such circumstances would be even more clearly acceptable than i n the above condition ( 2 ) , since "we are really not — by assumption ~ imposing a good on another person."9 k. where the decision i s irreversable, e.g. suicide, or where 33 the act w i l l result in some changes which w i l l make i t impossible to make reasoned choices i n the future, e.g. taking certain drugs. He thinks rational people would agree to a cooling off period with respect to suicide, and ( i t i s implied) that they would agree to the ban of certain drugs. 5. where decisions are made under extreme psychological and sociological pressures. The example he gives i s suicide. 6 . where someone i s suffering from a temporary state, such as great fear or depression, that i s inimical to the making of well-informed and rational decisions. 7. where the dangers in doing or not doing something are either not sufficiently understood or f u l l y appreciated by the per- sons involved, where there are severe and undesirable effects and where the activity being prevented or required i s not one which affects one's conception of the person he i s , nor plays a very important role i n his l i f e . Fastening one's seat belt, he suggests, could be a required activity of this kind. 8. where the measures preserve and enhance for the individual his a b i l i t y to rationally consider and carry out his own decisions. It does at least seem plausible that f u l l y rational individuals 34 w o u l d a g r e e t h a t some o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s l i s t e d a b o v e a r e o n e s u n d e r w h i c h a t l e a s t some p a t e r n a l i s t i c m e a s u r e s w o u l d b e a c c e p t a b l e , b u t w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y w o u l d a g r e e t o a l l t h o s e D w o r k i n s u g g e s t s , o r w h e t h e r h e h a s n e g l e c t e d t o l i s t o t h e r s w h i c h t h e y w o u l d f i n d m o r e a m e n a b l e , i s c e r t a i n l y a n o p e n a n d d e b a t a b l e q u e s t i o n , a s D w o r k i n h i m s e l f r e c o g n i z e s . ( " O f c o u r s e a s i n a n y k i n d o f a g r e e m e n t s c h e m a t h e r e a r e g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e c i d i n g w h a t r a t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d o r w o u l d n o t a c c e p t . " ) ^ N o r i s i t c l e a r w h e t h e r t h e s p e c i - f i c m e a s u r e s t h a t D w o r k i n t h i n k s m i g h t b e a g r e e d t o w o u l d i n f a c t b e a g r e e d t o . F o r i n s t a n c e , w o u l d r a t i o n a l p e r s o n s r e a l l y t h i n k l a w s r e q u i r i n g t h e f a s t e n i n g o f s e a t b e l t s d e s i r a b l e ? o r t h o s e b a n n i n g t h e s a l e o f c i g a r e t t e s o r o t h e r d r u g s ? B u t e v e n i f i t w e r e o b v i o u s t o e v e r y o n e w h a t p a t e r n a l i s t i c m e a s u r e s f u l l y r a t i o n a l p e o p l e w o u l d a g r e e t o , w h y s h o u l d t h a t b e c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t t o w h a t p a t e r n a l i s m i s a c t u a l l y j u s t i f i e d ? Why s h o u l d I i n my r a t h e r i m p e r f e c t , f u z z y - h e a d e d , a n d a t l e a s t s o m e t i m e s i r r a t i o n a l s t a t e , b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h w h a t f u l l y r a t i o n a l p e o p l e m i g h t t h i n k a c c e p t a b l e ? Why i s t h e i r a g r e e m e n t m o r a l l y r e l e v a n t ? I h o p e t h e a n s w e r t o t h i s d o e s n ' t a p p e a r t o o t h e r s t o b e s o o b v i o u s t h a t i t d o e s n ' t w a r r a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , s i n c e i t i s n ' t o b v i o u s t o m e . P e r h a p s t h e a n s w e r i s b e c a u s e t h a t i s w h a t I w o u l d a g r e e t o i f I w e r e f u l l y r a t i o n a l . B u t i f t h a t i s t h e a n s w e r i t w o u l d h a v e s a v e d t i m e a n d e n e r g y i f h i s p r i n c i p l e h a d b e e n s t a t e d i n s u c h t e r m s i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , r a t h e r t h a n b r i n g i n g i n t h e a g r e e m e n t s c h e m a . I t h i n k t h i s p r i n c i p l e l o o k s a s c o m p e l l i n g a s i t 35 d o e s b e c a u s e i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t I w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y w a n t t o d o w h a t I w o u l d d o i f I w e r e f u l l y r a t i o n a l . A n d f o r t h e m o s t p a r t I t h i n k t h a t ' s t r u e . B u t i t i s n o t t r u e t h a t I w a n t t o b e f o r c e d b y o t h e r s t o a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c r e s t r i c t i o n s I w o u l d a g r e e t o i f I w e r e f u l l y r a t i o n a l . A n d i f I d o n ' t w a n t t o b e s o f o r c e d , w h a t i s t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l a g r e e m e n t o f my r a t i o n a l s e l f ? T h e f a c t i s t h a t c e r t a i n r i g h t s o f l i b e r t y a n d f r e e - dom o f a c t i o n w o u l d b e i n f r i n g e d ; t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t I w o u l d a g r e e t o s u c h i n t e r v e n t i o n i f I w e r e f u l l y r a t i o n a l i s i r r e l e v a n t . O f c o u r s e i f I a g r e e o r c o n s e n t t o s u f f e r w h a t e v e r p a t e r n a l i s t i c m e a s u r e s a r e s e e n t o b e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h a t I w o u l d a g r e e t o i f I w e r e f u l l y r a t i o n a l , s u p p o s i n g s o m e o n e c o u l d h a v e s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e n we h a v e a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n , s i n c e i t i n v o l v e s a c t u a l a g r e e - m e n t o f my a c t u a l s e l f . I , f o r o n e , w o u l d n o t c o n s e n t t o s u c h i n t e r - f e r e n c e , b u t t h e r e a r e p e o p l e w h o w o u l d . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , w i t h r e s p e c t t o c h i l d r e n D w o r k i n d o e s n o t a p p e a l t o w h a t r a t i o n a l p e o p l e w o u l d a g r e e o u g h t t o b e d o n e t o o r f o r c h i l - d r e n , b u t r a t h e r t o w h a t t h e c h i l d w i l l h i m s e l f s u b s e q u e n t l y r e c o g - n i z e t o h a v e b e e n w i s e r e s t r i c t i o n s . He s a y s , " T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a n i m p o r t a n t m o r a l l i m i t a t i o n o n t h e e x e r c i s e o f s u c h p a r e n t a l p o w e r w h i c h i s p r o v i d e d b y t h e n o t i o n o f t h e c h i l d e v e n t u a l l y c o m i n g t o s e e t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f h i s p a r e n t s ' i n t e r v e n t i o n s . " * 1 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f a c t u a l c o n s e n t , r a t h e r t h a n h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s e n t , s e e m s t o me t o b e a m u c h m o r e p r o m i s i n g l i n e i n d e t e r m i n i n g 36 when and why paternalism i s j u s t i f i e d , a principle which I develop i n the third chapter of this paper. And I think many of the conditions that Dworkin submits as those which rational people would agree to are among those under which many people would i n fact give their actual consent to interference, i f not before some act (or proposed act) at least afterwards. It i s for this reason that I find Dworkin's article of interest and importance. Donaldson12 argues that paternalism i s prima facie wrong, but that there are three circumstances i n which i t would be at least morally permissible: ( 1 ) when there has been an informal (or, I assume, formal) contract to interfere paternalistically under certain specified conditions; (2) when there i s an established social con- vention that paternalistic intervention w i l l be forthcoming under certain conditions; and (3) when the subject i s irrational. With respect to the f i r s t condition, Donaldson has i n mind such things as someone asking a friend to intervene i f he tries to k i l l himself while i n a depressed state. He makes this 'informal contract* to protect himself against the undesirable consequences of contingent situations, such as depression. There i s of course no reason why there couldn't be formal contracts for the same kind of protection. This condition i s really very much lik e the notion of consent that we have already met i n Rawls and Dworkin. However, Donaldson does not consider the possibility of someone consenting to paternalistic intervention after i t has been engaged i n . The third condition i s supposed to cover such 37 people as children and the insane which makes me think that Donaldson really wants the concept of non-rational actions rather than irrational ones, since everyone acts irrationally at some time. If this is true then i t really should read: when the subject is incapable of rational action. It is then, much like one of the two possible readings of Rawls* fi r s t condition, requiring evidenced absence of failure of reason or will, and suffers from some of the same difficulties. Donaldson's second condition — that there are social conventions of paternalistic interference which lead people to expect and, we can assume, want such interference in the circumstances covered by the convention, thus making such Interference acceptable — is new and in my opinion important. The way in which i t is important will be made explicit in Chapter 3. Brown is concerned in his paper "The Rights of Children"^ with determining why paternalism towards children is morally acceptable, while such interference with a sane adult is (he assumes) morally unacceptable. He suggests that the relevant difference is incompe- tence. But since there is no doubt that adults are often incompe- tent to make wise decisions about certain things which affect their well-being where such incompetence would not give anyone the right to interfere with that decision, i t will have to be a special kind of incompetence which only children suffer from. Brown suggests that i t is immaturity, and that this is something that children outgrow by some natural process. It is different from the mere acquisition 38 o f s k i l l s t h r o u g h l e a r n i n g , a n d s o i n s p i t e o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i - t i e s ( b r o a d l y s p e a k i n g ) , o r d e g r e e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ( r e t a r d a t i o n b e i n g a s p e c i a l c a s e ) e v e r y c h i l d w i l l r e a c h t h e s t a g e o f m a t u r i t y n e c e s - s a r y t o m a k e p a t e r n a l i s m i n a p p r o p r i a t e . I f t h i s i s t r u e t h e n we c a n a l l o w f o r some d e g r e e o f i n c o m p e t e n c e i n a d u l t s w i t h o u t t h a t i n c o m - p e t e n c e m a k i n g i t a c c e p t a b l e f o r o t h e r s t o i n t e r f e r e p a t e r n a l i s t i c a l l y , s i n c e i t w o n ' t b e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e k i n d o f i n c o m p e t e n c e , w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t i t i s i n c o m p e t e n c e — t h e s p e c i a l k i n d a r i s i n g f r o m i m m a t u r i t y . — t h a t m a k e s o u r p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h c h i l d r e n a c c e p t a b l e . S i m i l a r l y B r o w n t h i n k s t h a t we h a v e t h e r i g h t t o i n t e r - f e r e w i t h t h e a c t i o n s a n d d e c i s i o n s o f t h e i n s a n e f o r t h e i r own g o o d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s u f f e r i n g f r o m a s p e c i a l k i n d a n d d e g r e e o f i n c o m - p e t e n c e w h i c h a r i s e s f r o m t h e i r i n s a n i t y . He i s c a r e f u l t o p o i n t o u t t h a t i m m a t u r i t y d o e s n o t a f f e c t a l l t h e d e c i s i o n s made b y a c h i l d a b o u t h i s own g o o d ( o r a n y o t h e r d e c i s i o n f o r t h a t m a t t e r ) , a n d t h a t w h e r e i t d o e s n o t a f f e c t h i s d e c i s i o n , i . e . w h e r e t h e c h i l d c o n c e r n e d a c t u a l l y h a s t h e c o m p e t e n c e t o m a k e t h e r e l e v a n t d e c i s i o n , h e a l s o h a s t h e r i g h t t o d o s o . A n d n o d o u b t B r o w n w o u l d a g r e e t h a t t h i s i s t r u e o f t h e i n s a n e a s w e l l . T h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s i s t h a t t h e r e i s n o p r o b l e m j u s t i f y i n g p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n s o f a c h i l d o r s o m e o n e s u f f e r i n g f r o m i n s a n i t y w h e r e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n c o m p e t e n c e s w o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s i n c e i n s u c h c a s e s t h e y d o n o t h a v e t h e r i g h t t o m a k e t h e r e l e v a n t d e c i s i o n . B u t w h e r e t h e d e c i s i o n o f a c h i l d o r a n i n s a n e p e r s o n w o u l d n o t b e 39 a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d b y h i s i m m a t u r i t y o r i n s a n i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y , h e h a s t h e r i g h t t o d o a s h e s e e s f i t w i t h o u t p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e ; s o s u c h i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d b e u n j u s t i f i e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t ' c o m p e t e n c e ' i s a d i s p o s i t i o n a l t e r m : a b i l i t i e s c a n b e p r e s e n t w i t h o u t b e i n g e m p l o y e d . T h i s i s t h e c a s e w h e n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e q u i r i n g t h e m s i m p l y a r e n ' t p r e s e n t , o r w h e n , a l t h o u g h a p e r s o n h a s c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s , h e d o e s n ' t c a l l u p o n t h e m , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e h e h a s n ' t t h o u g h t i t n e c e s s a r y , d o e s n ' t w a n t t o b e b o t h e r e d , o r i s i n f l u e n c e d b y d e s i r e , p a s s i o n , e t c . T h i s m e a n s t h a t s o m e o n e w h o i s c o m p e t e n t ( i . e . h a s t h e n e c e s s a r y a b i l i t i e s ) c o u l d d o s o m e t h i n g i n c o m p e t e n t l y ( i . e . , b a d l y ) , o r v i c e v e r s a . O f c o u r s e i n c o m p e t e n c e a n d i n c o m p e t e n t d e c i s i o n s a r e r e l a t e d — s o m e o n e who i s i n c o m p e t e n t w i l l g e n e r a l l y make i n c o m p e t e n t d e c i s i o n s . I t i s i m p o r - t a n t f o r B r o w n ' s a r g u m e n t t h a t i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y e n d u r i n g i n c o m p e - t e n c e a n d n o t t h e i n c o m p e t e n c e ( i . e . t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , u n w i s e n e s s , e t c . ) o f d e c i s i o n s o r a c t i o n s t h a t m a r k s o f f t h o s e p e o p l e l i a b l e t o j u s t i f i a b l e p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n f r o m t h o s e who a r e n o t l i a b l e t o s u c h i n t e r v e n t i o n . I h a v e t h r e e o b j e c t i o n s t o B r o w n ' s t h e s i s . T h e f i r s t i s a s f o l l o w s : a c c o r d i n g t o B r o w n , t h e a c t i o n o f a c h i l d c a n b e i n t e r f e r e d w i t h f o r h i s own g o o d i f h i s i m m a t u r i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t b e i n g i l l a d v i s e d . T h e c h i l d d o e s n o t h a v e t h e r i g h t t o f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n i n s u c h a c a s e . B u t i f a c h i l d i s a b o u t t o d o s o m e t h i n g c o u n t e r t o h i s i n t e r e s t n o t b e c a u s e o f h i s i m m a t u r i t y , b u t s i m p l y b e c a u s e h e 40 l a c k s c e r t a i n r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , o r b e c a u s e h i s v a l u e s t r u c t u r e i s d i f f e r e n t , o r e v e n i n f e r i o r , o r p e r h a p s some o t h e r r e a s o n n o t a r i s i n g f r o m h i s i m m a t u r i t y , c a n we n o w i n t e r f e r e ? A n d i f s o why ? T h e s e a r e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h we m i g h t f i n d a n a d u l t , b u t w h i c h w o u l d n o t g i v e a n y o n e t h e r i g h t t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n ( a t l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o B r o w n ' s a s s u m p t i o n s ) . B u t s i n c e t h e r e i s n o d i f - f e r e n c e i n k i n d b e t w e e n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s l e a d i n g t o a n u n w i s e a c t i o n i n t h e c a s e o f t h e a d u l t a n d t h a t o f a c h i l d , w h a t g i v e s t h e r i g h t t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a c t i o n ? I t h i n k we w o u l d , a t l e a s t a t t i m e s , h a v e t h e r i g h t t o i n t e r f e r e , a n d I ' m s u r e B r o w n w o u l d a g r e e , b u t h i s t h e o r y o f f e r s n o r a t i o n a l e f o r o u r d o i n g s o . S e c o n d l y , B r o w n ' s t h e o r y m a k e s p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e u n j u s - t i f i e d t o w a r d s a d u l t s i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h I t h i n k m o s t o f u s w o u l d e x p e c t a t h e o r y t o f i n d i t j u s t i f i e d . I am t h i n k i n g h e r e o f s u c h a c a s e a s w h e n a f r i e n d i s d e p r e s s e d a n d i s a b o u t t o m a k e a f o o l i s h d e c i s i o n w h i c h we f e e l s u r e h e w i l l r e g r e t w h e n h e g e t s o v e r h i s b o u t o f d e p r e s s i o n . S a y h e n o r m a l l y h a s t h e a b i l i t i e s t o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s t h e p r o s p e c t s o f t h e f u t u r e , a n d i s p a r t i c u l a r l y g o o d a t m a k i n g p l a n s w h i c h r e f l e c t h i s c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t s a n d v a l u e s . B u t w h i l e d e p r e s s e d h e l o s e s t h e s e a b i l i t i e s ; h e c a n n o l o n g e r s e e t h e f u t u r e w i t h h i s u s u a l p e r s p e c u i t y , a n d i s a b o u t t o m a k e a d e c i s i o n w h i c h r e f l e c t s h i s l o s s o f t h i s a b i l i t y . S a y h e i s g o i n g t o q u i t h i s j o b a n d g o t o s e a . I t h i n k t h a t i n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s a f r i e n d u s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o e r c i o n t o s t o p h i m f r o m c a r r y i n g o u t s u c h a n i d e a 41 o u g h t t o b e j u s t i f i e d b y a t h e o r y w h i c h p u r p o r t s t o s h o w w h e r e a n d w h e n p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e i s a c c e p t a b l e . I w a n t t o m a k e i t c l e a r t h a t t h e d e p r e s s e d p e r s o n i s n o t i n s u c h a s t a t e t h a t h e c o u l d b e c e r t i f i e d a s i n s a n e , s o h e i s n o t s u f f e r i n g f r o m t h e k i n d a n d d e g r e e o f i n c o m p e t e n c e t h a t B r o w n t h i n k s w o u l d j u s t i f y i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h a n a d u l t . T h e f a c t t h a t B r o w n ' s t h e o r y w o u l d n o t j u s t i f y i n t e r - f e r e n c e i n t h e c a s e c i t e d d o e s , I t h i n k , c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r o b j e c t i o n t o t h e t h e o r y , a n d a r e a s o n f o r l o o k i n g f o r o n e w h i c h m o r e a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s a n d e x p l a i n s o u r i n t u i t i o n s i n t h i s r e s p e c t . M y t h i r d o b j e c t i o n h a s t o d o w i t h t h e t h e o r y ' s e m p i r i c a l p r e - s u p p o s i t i o n s a n d B r o w n ' s e m p i r i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s . I t d o e s s e e m r i g h t t h a t a t l e a s t c e r t a i n k i n d s o f i n s a n i t y e n t a i l a s p e c i a l k i n d a n d d e g r e e o f i n c o m p e t e n c e , d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i n c o m p e t e n c e s s u f f e r e d b y n o r m a l a d u l t s . B u t h o w p l a u s i b l e i s t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s some s p e c i a l k i n d o f i n c o m p e t e n c e w h i c h c h i l d r e n s u f f e r f r o m , w h i c h t h e y g r o w o u t o f b y some n a t u r a l p r o c e s s , w h i c h p r o v i d e s g r o u n d s f o r d e n y i n g c h i l d r e n r i g h t s t h a t a d u l t s ( e v e n i n c o m p e t e n t ) o n e s h a v e ? B r o w n a d m i t s t h a t h e d o e s n ' t h a v e t h e k i n d s o f e m p i r i c a l k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h i s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n d e p e n d s u p o n , b u t h e d o e s t h i n k i t m a k e s s e n s e o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s we d r a w . O f c o u r s e , n e i t h e r d o I h a v e t h e e m p i r i c a l k n o w l e d g e n e c e s s a r y t o s h o w t h e e m p i r i c a l p r e - s u p p o s i t i o n e i t h e r t r u e o r f a l s e . B u t I d o f i n d i t i m p l a u s i b l e , a n d I d o n ' t t h i n k i t i s e s s e n t i a l i n p r o v i d i n g a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s we m a k e . I n f a c t I o f f e r a t h e o r y i n t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r 42 w h i c h d o e s n o t n e e d a n y s u c h e m p i r i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n . T h e r e a s o n I f i n d t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n i m p l a u s i b l e i s t h a t I j u s t d o n ' t s e e w h a t k i n d o f t h i n g t h i s ' i m m a t u r i t y ' c o u l d b e t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d f r o m s i m p l y l e a r n i n g h o w t o g e t o n i n t h e w o r l d . I c a n t h i n k o f n o d e c i s i o n a c h i l d , a t l e a s t o n e a b o v e some m i n i m u m a g e , w o u l d m a k e , o r a c t h e w o u l d u n d e r t a k e , t h a t a n a d u l t w h o h a d b e e n s u f f i c i e n t l y u n e x p o s e d , r e c l u s i v e , o v e r l y - p r o t e c t e d , i n e x p e r i e n c e d , o r w h a t e v e r , m i g h t n o t a l s o m a k e o r p r o p o s e t o d o . I n f a c t , I o f t e n s e e a d u l t s d o i n g t h i n g s t h a t I d i d a s a y o u n g t e e n a g e r , w h e r e my i m m e d i a t e r e a c t i o n i s : M y g o d , h a v e n ' t t h e y g r o w n o u t o f t h a t y e t ? B u t t h e y w o n ' t g r o w o u t o f i t ; t h e y w i l l h a v e t o l e a r n t o b e h a v e d i f f e r e n t l y , a s t h e y p r o b a b l y w i l l w h e n t h e y h a v e h a d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e r i e n c e s . B r o w n d o e s s p e c u l a t e t h a t i t i s s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h e i n a b i l i t y t o m a k e o v e r a l l j u d g m e n t s ~ t h e w e i g h i n g o f f a c t s i n a s e n s i b l e w a y — t h a t i s s p e c i a l a b o u t i m m a t u r i t y , a n d t h a t i t i s a n a b i l i t y w h i c h o n e a c q u i r e s n a t u r a l l y a s o n e a p p r o a c h e s a d u l t h o o d . B u t I f i n d t h e e x a m p l e s h e g i v e s w h i c h a r e s u p p o s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e l a c k o f t h i s a b i l i t y u n c o n v i n c i n g . F o r i n s t a n c e , I d o n ' t t h i n k i t i s b e c a u s e we t h i n k a c h i l d i s u n a b l e t o e x e r c i s e o v e r a l l j u d g m e n t i n d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t o t a k e d r u g s t h a t we d e c l i n e t o a l l o w h i m t o m a k e s u c h a d e c i s i o n , a s B r o w n m a i n t a i n s , b u t r a t h e r b e c a u s e we e x p e c t h i s v a l u e s t o b e d i f f e r e n t , o r e v e n i n f e r i o r , f r o m o u r s . B u t , o f c o u r s e , t h i s c a n n o t b e w h a t j u s t i f i e s o u r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e c h i l d , s i n c e d i f f e r e n t , o r i n f e r i o r v a l u e s f o r t h a t m a t t e r , a r e s o m e t h i n g m a n y 43 a d u l t s a l s o s u f f e r f r o m , b u t w h i c h w o u l d n o t j u s t i f y p a t e r n a l i s m t o w a r d s t h e m . H o w e v e r , I d o t h i n k t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t a c h i l d ' s v a l u e s a r e l i k e l y t o c h a n g e , a n d t h a t h e w i l l a s a r e s u l t r e g r e t some o f t h e d e c i s i o n s made a s a c h i l d , h a s s o m e t h i n g t o d o w i t h w h y we f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h a c h i l d i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h e r e w e f e e l i n f e r i o r v a l u e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o o l i s h d e c i s i o n s o r a c t i o n s . T h e p r e c i s e r o l e o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n w h a t I b e l i e v e t o b e t h e j u s t i - f i c a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s m w i l l b e made c l e a r i n C h a p t e r 3. A n a t u r a l s u g g e s t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t i s t h a t i t i s t h e p r o p e n s i t y o f c h i l d r e n t o b e l u r e d b y p r e s e n t p l e a s u r e w h i c h j u s t i f i e s o u r i n t e r - f e r i n g w i t h s u c h d e c i s i o n s a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t o t a k e d r u g s . T h i s , i t m i g h t b e s u g g e s t e d , i s w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s i m m a t u r i t y . T h e m a i n p r o - b l e m h e r e i s t h a t a l t h o u g h i t m i g h t b e t r u e t h a t m o r e c h i l d r e n s u f f e r f r o m t h i s f a u l t t h a n a d u l t s , i t i s s t i l l t r u e t h a t some a d u l t s n e v e r • o u t g r o w ' t h i s a t t i t u d e , a n d i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t some c h i l d r e n d o n ' t s u f f e r f r o m i t . I t r u s t t h a t t h e s e a r e f a i r l y o b v i o u s e m p i r i c a l c l a i m s . T h i s m e a n s t h a t we d o n ' t h a v e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n k i n d b e t w e e n a d u l t s a n d c h i l d r e n t h a t w o u l d j u s t i f y p a t e r n a l i s m t o w a r d s t h e l a t t e r , b u t n o t t h e f o r m e r . A n d i t a l s o m e a n s t h a t f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n w h o d e m o n s t r a t i v e l y d o n ' t w e i g h p r e s e n t p l e a s u r e s m o r e h e a v i l y t h a n f u t u r e o n e s , we h a v e t o f i n d some o t h e r r a t i o n a l e f o r n o t a l l o w i n g t h e m t o t a k e d r u g s i f t h e y d e c i d e t o d o s o . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o t h e r e x a m p l e B r o w n g i v e s o f a d e c i s i o n we w o u l d n o t p e r m i t a c h i l d t o a c t u p o n ~ d e c i d i n g t o q u i t s c h o o l a n d 44 g o t o s e a — i t s e e m s t o me t h a t i f i t i s a n i n a b i l i t y t o m a k e a n o v e r - a l l j u d g m e n t t h a t m a k e s u s u n w i l l i n g t o l e t a c h i l d m a k e s u c h a d e c i s i o n , t h a t h e h a s t h i s i n a b i l i t y b e c a u s e h e h a s a n a r r o w p e r - c e p t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s i n v o l v e d , h a s a w a r p e d n o t i o n o f w h a t s e a m e n d o , a n d i s i n g e n e r a l n o t q u i t e i n t o u c h w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e s i t - u a t i o n . H i s i n a b i l i t y t o m a k e a n o v e r a l l j u d g m e n t t h e n i s g r o u n d e d n o t i n h i s i n a b i l i t y t o w e i g h t h e f a c t s i n a s e n s i b l e w a y , b u t r a t h e r i n h i s i n a b i l i t y t o c o r r e c t l y a s c e r t a i n w h a t t h e f a c t s a r e . I t s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e a r e t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s t h a t a r e l e a r n e d , r a t h e r t h a n come a b o u t t h r o u g h some n a t u r a l p r o c e s s o f g r o w t h . A n d i f t h e y a r e l e a r n e d some p e o p l e w i l l l e a r n t h e m s o o n e r t h a n o t h e r s , a n d some w i l l n o t l e a r n t h e m a t a l l . S u c h i n a b i l i t i e s c a n n o t t h e n b e t h e g r o u n d s f o r j u s t i f y i n g p a t e r n a l i s m t o w a r d s c h i l d r e n , i f one m a i n t a i n s a t t h e same t i m e t h a t a d u l t s , e v e n t h o s e l a c k i n g t h e s e a b i l i t i e s , o u g h t n o t t o b e i n t e r f e r e d w i t h p a t e r n a l i s t i c a l l y . B e s i d e s t h i s I t h i n k t h e e x a m p l e s B r o w n g i v e s w h i c h a r e s u p p o s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e a b i l i t y o f a c h i l d t o a c q u i r e p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s o r a c u t e n e s s o f j u d g m e n t a b o u t p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s a t a n e a r l y a g e , i n c o n - t r a s t t o h i s s u p p o s e d i n a b i l i t y t o e x e r c i s e o v e r a l l j u d g m e n t , i n f a c t t e l l s a g a i n s t t h e v i e w t h a t h e l a c k s s u c h a n a b i l i t y . T a k i n g B r o w n ' s e x a m p l e o f a 10-year o l d c h i l d b e i n g t r u s t e d t o b a b y s i t , I t h i n k s u c h a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t l e a s t a t t i m e s ~ c e r t a i n l y i n e m e r g e n c y s i t u a - t i o n s — r e q u i r e s t h e a b i l i t y t o m a k e o v e r a l l j u d g m e n t s , a n d t h a t we t r u s t t h e c h i l d t o m a k e s u c h j u d g m e n t s b e c a u s e we e x p e c t h i m o r h e r 45 t o a r r i v e a t d e c i s i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e we w o u l d m a k e . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e d r u g - t a k i n g e x a m p l e , w h e r e we e x p e c t t h e c h i l d t o m a k e a d e c i s i o n c o n t r a r y t o t h e o n e we t h i n k I s w i s e . I t s e e m s t o me t h e n t h a t i n c o m p e t e n c e w o n ' t p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s - s a r y r a t i o n a l e a n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e . B u t I d o t h i n k t h a t t h e c o n c e p t h a s some i m p o r t a n t w o r k t o d o i n t h i s a r e a . W h a t i t i s w i l l b e c o m e c l e a r i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 46 F o o t n o t e s f o r C h a p t e r 2 1. J o h n R a w l s , A T h e o r y o f J u s t i c e ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), s e e e s p e c i a l l y p p . 249 - 250. 2. G e r a l d D w o r k i n , " P a t e r n a l i s m " , T h e M o n i s t . V o l . 56 (1972), p p . 64 - 84. 3. D a v i d D o n a l d s o n , " F a t h e r s a n d S o n s " , u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . . 4. D. G... B r o w n , " T h e R i g h t s o f C h i l d r e n " , T h e J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n . N o . 17 ( A p r i l 1971), p p . 8 - 2 0 . 5. R a w l s , p . 249. 6. R a w l s , p . 250. 7. M i l l , p . 152. 8. D w o r k i n , p p . 77 - 78. 9. D w o r k i n , p . 79. 10. D w o r k i n , p . 78. 11. D w o r k i n , p . 77. 12. D o n a l d s o n . 13. B r o w n . 47 C h a p t e r 3 D e v e l o p m e n t o f a n A l t e r n a t i v e Theory- B e a r i n g i n m i n d t h e s u g g e s t e d m e a n s o f j u s t i f y i n g p a t e r n a l i s m w h i c h I h a v e c o n s i d e r e d i n C h a p t e r 2, a n d t h e o b j e c t i o n s r a i s e d , I s h a l l n o w a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a n a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r y w h i c h s h o w s w h y a n d w h e n p a t e r n a l i s m i s j u s t i f i e d . S e c t i o n 1. Two c l a s s e s o f a c t i o n w i t h w h i c h o n e m a y s o m e t i m e s i n t e r f e r e o n p a t e r n a l i s t i c g r o u n d s c a n b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n t h e b a s i s o f w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t h a s o r h a s n o t t h e p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t t o p e r f o r m t h a t a c t i o n . I f t h e s u b j e c t d o e s n o t h a v e t h e p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t t o p e r - f o r m t h e a c t i o n , t h e r e i s n o p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y i n j u s t i f y i n g p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e — t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c p r o - v i d e s a p r i m a f a c i e j u s t i f i c a t i o n a n d t h e r e i s n o r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e a n y f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . I t i s f o r t h o s e a c t i o n s w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t h a s t h e p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t t o p e r f o r m t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f j u s t i f y i n g p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e a r i s e s . I c l a i m t h a t t h e s u b - j e c t ' s w e l f a r e a l o n e d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e a j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e r f e r - e n c e , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h a t a n y p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t i n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s d o e s i t s e l f r e q u i r e j u s t i f i c a t i o n . I f we a r e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e n p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h s o m e o n e ' s p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t i s j u s t i f i e d we m u s t f i r s t d e t e r m i n e w h e n a n y k i n d o f i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h a p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t i s j u s t i f i e d . I b e l i e v e t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s a r e t h e o n e s u n d e r w h i c h a 48 prima facie right can be interfered with, at least when the subject belongs to the central core of right-holders. ( I leave for the moment the questions of what rights animals and mentally defectives have, i f any, and under what conditions they can be overridden.) Though I offer no defense of these conditions, I conjecture that any theory of rights with the logical features we expect i t to have w i l l contain them. 1. when the interference with someone's prima facie right to do something i s to protect someone else's overriding right; 2. when the possessor of the prima facie right alienates i t ; 3. when refraining from interference would result i n s u f f i - ciently large total d i s u t i l i t i e s for other people. The f i r s t condition i s actually an analytic truth, but there are nevertheless theoretical problems with i t : what makes a right an overriding right? How do we assess the relative importance of rights? There are similar d i f f i c u l t i e s with 3: how large must the d i s u t i l i - ties be i n order for interference with a right to be justifiable? There w i l l probably be a significant number of cases i n which i t w i l l be intuitively obvious when one right overrides another, or when the d i s u t i l i t i e s are sufficiently large to override a right, but there w i l l be others i n which i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to decide what one ought to do. But even where i t i s obvious that a prima facie right ought to be overridden by either another right or by the d i s u t i l i t i e s of 49 non-interference, there remains the problem of providing a rationale for the judgments made intuitively. The solutions to these problems belong to a theory of rights, and as such are too broad to be dealt with here. I t should be noted that I am assuming we are not being u t i l i - tarian about these problems. I f we were, there would be no theoreti- cal problems i n either 1 or 3. And, I think 3 would be included i n 1 since a u t i l i t a r i a n would argue that i f the total d i s u t i l i t i e s of non-interference are greater than the d i s u t i l i t y of interference, then that gives others the (overriding) right to interfere with another's prima facie right. I, for one, do not accept this analysis of rights, although I do think (as stated i n 3) that (sufficiently) large d i s u t i l i t i e s w i l l provide a justification for interfering with someone's prima facie right. I trust i t i s clear that I am not quib- bling with the claim that people have a prima facie right to be pro- tected from large d i s u t i l i t i e s , but rather with the claim that the assignment of rights i s based solely on u t i l i t i e s . Of the three conditions under which prima facie rights can be interfered with, 2, alienation of a right, i s the only candidate for justifying paternalism and i t i s , I shall argue, a successful one. Neither 1, an overriding right, nor 2, large d i s u t i l i t i e s for others, are relevant i n determining whether a paternalistic action i s j u s t i - fied since we are by definition considering only interference for which the grounds are the subject's welfare. 50 The alienation of one's right to do a certain thing can be effected i n either of the following ways (there might be other ways of alienating a right, but they w i l l not be relevant to the question of paternalism): 1. one can give his previous consent for someone's interfer- ence with his freedom of action under certain specified circumstances; 2. one can give his subsequent approval of the interference, t a c i t l y or explicitly; that i s , one can subsequently con- sent to the interference. Examples of 1 and 2 should make clear what I have i n mind. Con- sider the following. A, knowing that once temptation presents i t s e l f he i s l i k e l y to break his resolve not to buy cigarettes, asks B to prevent him from doing so before they enter a store. It would nor- mally be impermissible for B to interfere with A's action, but because A has given prior permission for B to interfere i n those circumstances, B i s j u s t i f i e d i n doing so, regardless of B's protestations. A has alienated his right and thus relieved B from his obligation not to interfere; i t i s because he has done so that B i s ju s t i f i e d i n his paternalistic action. This i s a case of previous consent justifying paternalistic interference. As for subsequent consent, consider the following. A i s going to commit suicide and B prevents him from doing so; some time afterwards A either e x p l i c i t l y thanks B for inter- fering, thus giving his consent f o r his doing so, or on the basis of 51 o b s e r v a t i o n — B d o e s n ' t a g a i n a t t e m p t s u i c i d e , i s o b v i o u s l y h a p p y t o s t i l l b e a l i v e , e t c . — i t i s c l e a r t h a t B t a c i t l y a p p r o v e s o f t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e . He h a s i n e f f e c t s u b s e q u e n t l y c o n s e n t e d t o t h e i n t e r - f e r e n c e w i t h h i s r i g h t t o f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n , a n d t h u s a l i e n a t e d t h a t r i g h t i n t h e s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e , a f t e r t h e a c t . C o n s e n t , t h e n i s t h e i m p o r t a n t t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r a p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t i o n i s j u s t i f i e d , b u t t h e r e a r e some c o m - p l i c a t i o n s . S u p p o s e s o m e o n e (1) d i e s b e f o r e h e g e t s a c e r t a i n p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d h a v e l e d h i m t o g i v e h i s c o n s e n t ; o r (2) d o e s n ' t d i e t o o s o o n , b u t s i m p l y n e v e r g e t s a p i e c e o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r - m a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d l e a d h i m t o g i v e h i s c o n s e n t ; o r (3) i s m a k i n g a l o g i c a l b l u n d e r , w h i c h l e a d s h i m t o w i t h h o l d c o n s e n t , w h e r e h e w o u l d o t h e r w i s e g i v e i t . A r e a n y o f t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s m o r a l l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e i s j u s t i - f i e d ? S u r e l y n o t ; s u r e l y a n u n t i m e l y d e a t h , a l o g i c a l e r r o r , o r s i m p l y t h e l a c k o f a p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e m o r a l l y i r r e l e v a n t t o d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r s u c h a n a c t i s j u s t i f i e d . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e I o f f e r t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n a s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s m : t h e s u b j e c t o f a p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t m u s t g i v e e i t h e r h i s p r e v i o u s o r s u b s e q u e n t c o n s e n t t o t h a t a c t i o n , e x p l i c i t l y o r t a c i t l y , o r w o u l d g i v e h i s c o n s e n t i f h e h a d a r e l e v a n t p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , ( i . e . i f h e b e l i e v e d s o m e t h i n g t h a t h e d o e s n o t n o w b e l i e v e ) o r i f h e w e r e n o t m a k i n g a l o g i c a l e r r o r . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h o u g h t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b e s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i f t h e s u b j e c t d i d h a v e , g i v e n h i s 52 p r e s e n t d i s p o s i t i o n s , v a l u e s , i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s , l i f e s t y l e , e t c . w o u l d l e a d h i m t o g i v e h i s c o n s e n t . I f t h i s w e r e n o t t h e c a s e we w o u l d b e i n v o k i n g c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e m o r a l l y r e l e v a n t t o d e t e r - m i n i n g t h e j u s t i f i a b i l i t y o f a p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e s u b j e c t w o u l d c o n s e n t u p o n r e c e i v i n g c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y i f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y w e r e c h a n g e d i n some w a y , t h e n we n o l o n g e r h a v e s i m p l y t h e l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t a l s o t h e s t a t e o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . B u t t h i s i s a c o n d i t i o n w h i c h i s c e r t a i n l y n o t m o r a l l y n e u t r a l . ( I n t h e r e s t o f t h i s p a p e r I s h a l l o f t e n s p e a k o f s i m p l y c o n s e n t b e - i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s m ; t h i s i s t o b e u n d e r s t o o d a s s h o r t h a n d f o r t h e f u l l n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n a s g i v e n i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h . ) T h e p r o b l e m w h i c h n o w p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i s s i m i l a r t o o n e I r a i s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o R a w l s ' p o s i t i o n , v i z ; t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l c l a s s o f p e o p l e t o w a r d s whom p a t e r n a l i s m i s o b v i o u s l y j u s t i f i e d , b u t w i t h r e s p e c t t o w h i c h p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t s w o u l d n o t f u l f i l l t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n , i . e . w h e r e t h e s u b j e c t w i l l n e v e r g i v e h i s c o n s e n t . T h i s , i t s e e m s t o m e , p o i n t s t o a n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n o f t h e c l a s s o f p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t i o n s i n t o t h o s e i n w h i c h i t i s r e a s o n - a b l e t o e x p e c t c o n s e n t ( u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , y e t t o b e made e x p l i c i t ) a n d t h o s e i n w h i c h c o n s e n t i s u n l i k e l y t o b e f o r t h c o m i n g u n d e r a n y c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e s e t w o c l a s s e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o b e c o - e x t e n s i v e w i t h t h e d i v i s i o n o f s u b j e c t s o f p a t e r n a l i s m o n t h e g r o u n d s o f c o m p e t e n c e , t h o s e p e o p l e who a r e p e r m a n e n t l y i n c o m p e t e n t b e i n g 53 co-extensive with the 'no-consent' class; those people who are not permanently incompetent being co-extensive with the 'consent' class. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to be precise about who the incompetents are or what i t i s they are incompetent to do. The people I want included in this class are those whose grasp of reality i s so weak that they are incapable of getting on i n the world without direct and extensive outside help. They are those who are unable to understand or practice the most basic requirements of survival, and so whose lives would be i n immediate danger i f i t were not for interference on the part of others. The mentally retarded ~ at least those below a certain level — and some types of permanently insane, e.g. those who suffer from delusions such as thinking they can f l y , w i l l undoubtedly f a l l into this class. Of course very young children w i l l also be incompe- tent i n this way, but only temporarily. Although this i s a l l rather vague i t should at least be clear what the distinction i s that I wish to draw using the concept of incompetence. The reason that the permanent incompetents w i l l not l i k e l y come to approve of paternalistic actions towards them i s that their state i s unchanging ~ their a b i l i t i e s and quality of judgment are not going to improve (by assumption)— so there i s no reason to believe that they w i l l come to see the wisdom of someone's interference. On the other hand, with respect to those who do not f a l l into the class of permanent incompetents, we can obtain prior consent to paternalistic interference, or expect subsequent consent to be forthcoming under 54 certain conditions, e.g. i f the situation i s such that their assess- ment of i t i s l i k e l y to change, or i f their state i s such that i t i s l i k e l y to change i n such a way as to alter their assessment of the relevant situation. Having made this distinction, I shall set aside the class of permanent incompetents for later consideration (Section 5) as they raise special d i f f i c u l t i e s , and direct my attention to the class of competents. Until such time as i t i s e x p l i c i t l y stated, my remarks are to be understood i n what follows as being directed towards that class. It w i l l be remembered that I have argued that only consent, given before or after an act of paternalism, or the disposition to consent upon the receipt of certain relevant information, or the correction of a logical blunder, w i l l j ustify that interference. Prior consent poses no problem for the person engaging i n paternalis- t i c interference; he knows that under the specified circumstances he can jus t i f i a b l y interfere because the consent of the subject has already been given. But what of someone who i s faced with a situation in which paternalistic interference with another's action i s an open option, but where prior consent has not been given? How i s he to decide whether or not to interfere? The decision, I suggest, should be made on the grounds of the likelihood of subsequent consent. I f the agent judges that i t i s at least reasonably l i k e l y that his inter- ference w i l l meet with the subsequent consent of his subject, then his act would be subjectively ju s t i f i e d . Of course, whether i t i s 55 o b j e c t i v e l y j u s t i f i e d d e p e n d s e n t i r e l y o n w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s u b s e - q u e n t c o n s e n t i s a c t u a l l y g i v e n , o r w o u l d b e g i v e n u p o n t h e r e c e i p t o f c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , o r t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f a l o g i c a l e r r o r . One m i g h t w a n t t o t e m p e r t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s u b j e c t i v e j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : h o w s u r e o n e s h o u l d b e t h a t c o n s e n t w i l l b e f o r t h - c o m i n g w i l l v a r y i n v e r s e l y w i t h h o w s e v e r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d b e . T h a t i s , i f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s w o u l d n o t b e v e r y h a r m f u l , t h e n t h e r e m u s t b e a g o o d c h a n c e o f s u b s e q u e n t a p p r o v a l , b u t i f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s w o u l d b e v e r y b a d i n d e e d , t h e n i t w o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t i f t h e r e w e r e a s m a l l b u t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n c e o f s u b s e q u e n t c o n s e n t . T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e , b u t I ' m n o t s u r e w h a t i t s m o r a l r a t i o n a l e w o u l d b e , o r w h e t h e r i t n e e d s o n e . B u t h o w d o e s o n e j u d g e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s u b s e q u e n t c o n s e n t ? A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o p r e c i s e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , I t h i n k t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h w i l l b e r e l e v a n t i n m a k i n g s u c h a c a l c u l a t i o n . I c a n ' t , b y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a s e , o f f e r a n e x h a u s t i v e l i s t o f m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c o n d i t i o n s , b u t I t h i n k t h e l i s t b e l o w c o n t a i n s m o s t o f t h o s e w h i c h a r e i n t e r e s t i n g , i m p o r t a n t , a n d c e n t r a l . E a c h c o n d i t i o n w i l l b e c o m m e n t e d o n i n some d e t a i l b e l o w . 1. w h e t h e r t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t i o n i s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e s u b j e c t ; 2. w h e t h e r t h e p r o p o s e d s u b j e c t i s i n a t e m p o r a r y s t a t e o f r e l a t i v e i n c o m p e t e n c e ; 3. w h e t h e r r e f r a i n i n g f r o m i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d r e s u l t i n l a r g e 56 d i s u t i l i t i e s f o r t h e p e r s o n c o n c e r n e d , o r w h e t h e r e n g a g i n g i n i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t u t i l i t i e s ; 4. w h e t h e r t h e d e c i s i o n o r a c t i o n h a s h a r m f u l c o n s e q u e n c e s w h i c h a r e i r r e v e r s i b l e ; 5. w h e t h e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e p a t e r n a l i s m i s e n g a g e d i n c o n s t i t u t e a n e m e r g e n c y ; 6 . w h e t h e r c e r t a i n s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s o b t a i n . T h e f i r s t c o n d i t i o n i s o f s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e , s i n c e i f t h e p a t e r - n a l i s t i c a c t w e r e n o t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h e i t h e r h i s p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s ( a s s u m i n g s o m e o n e c o u l d t h i n k t h e y w e r e d o i n g s o m e - t h i n g f o r h i s own g o o d w h e r e t h i s w a s t r u e ) i t w o u l d b e v e r y u n l i k e l y t o m e e t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t ' s s u b s e q u e n t c o n s e n t . S o , t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s o n e w h i c h w i l l a l w a y s h a v e t o b e f u l f i l l e d i f t h e r e i s t o b e a r e a s o n a b l e c h a n c e o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e ; t h i s i s t r u e w h i c h e v e r o f t h e o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n . I c o n j e c t u r e t h a t t h i s i s a l o g i c a l t r u t h . F o r a l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c o n s e n t b e f o r t h - c o m i n g e v e n t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s a r e n e i t h e r m a i n t a i n e d n o r f u r t h e r e d , c o n s e n t m u s t u s u a l l y b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e i r m a i n t e n a n c e o r f u r t h e r a n c e , o t h e r w i s e t h e r e i s n o s e n s e i n s a y i n g t h a t t h e s u b j e c t h a s p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s . T h e r e i s n o : s u c h l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c o n s e n t a n d a n y o f t h e o t h e r c o n - d i t i o n s . H o w e v e r , i t w i l l b e t r u e i n g e n e r a l t h a t w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e n u m b e r o f t h e o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e f u l f i l l e d f o l l o w s a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f a p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t i o n 57 w i l l g i v e h i s s u b s e q u e n t c o n s e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , i f 1 , 2 , a n d 3 a r e f u l f i l l e d t h e r e w i l l g e n e r a l l y b e m o r e c h a n c e o f p a t e r n a l i s m b e i n g j u s t i f i e d t h a n i f o n l y 1 a n d 2 a r e f u l f i l l e d , a n d l e s s c h a n c e o f p a t e r n a l i s m b e i n g j u s t i f i e d t h a n i f a l l o f 1 , 2 , 3 , a n d 4 w e r e f u l - f i l l e d . B u t t h i s w i l l n o t a l w a y s b e t r u e , f o r i f t h e d i s u t i l i t i e s a r e t r e m e n d o u s l y l a r g e , t h e n t h e r e m i g h t b e m o r e c h a n c e o f s u b s e - q u e n t c o n s e n t i f o n l y 1 , 2 , a n d 4 w e r e f u l f i l l e d t h a n i f 1 t h r o u g h 4 w e r e f u l f i l l e d a n d t h e d i s u t i l i t i e s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s . O b v i o u s l y i t d e p e n d s o n t h e p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d e x a c t l y w h a t t h e s u b j e c t p r o p o s e s t o d o a n d w h a t m u s t b e d o n e t o p r e - v e n t h i m . T h e ' p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s ' c o n d i t i o n i s b o t h a n e g a - t i v e o n e , i n d i c a t i n g t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s o n e o u g h t t o a v o i d i f o n e w a n t s h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t i o n t o b e j u s t i f i e d , a s w e l l a s a p o s i - t i v e o n e , i n d i c a t i n g t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s t h a t , i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t w o u l d b e p r o p e r t o p r o m o t e . A p e r s o n ' s p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s w i l l i n c l u d e t h o s e t h i n g s w h i c h h e p l a n s a n d s t r i v e s f o r i n t h e b r o a d o u t l i n e o f h i s l i f e p l a n , s u c h a s h a v i n g a f a m i l y , b e i n g a c o m p e t e n t p i a n i s t , a n d a g o o d p r o f e s s o r . T h e y w i l l a l s o u s u a l l y ( b u t n o t a l w a y s ) i n c l u d e t h e p r i m a r y g o o d s t h o s e t h i n g s t h a t m o s t p e o p l e w a n t n o m a t t e r w h a t e l s e t h e y w a n t , s u c h a s w e l l - d e v e l o p e d i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s , p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l h e a l t h , s u f f i c i e n t w e a l t h , a n d p r o b a b l y o t h e r t h i n g s . B e c a u s e t h i s i s t r u e , i f m o r e s p e c i f i c p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s a r e u n k n o w n , t h e 58 p r i m a r y g o o d s a r e t h e s a f e s t t h i n g s t o p r o m o t e , b e c a u s e t h e y w i l l p r o - b a b l y b e among t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e o f c o u r s e f o r o n e o f t h e p r i m a r y g o o d s t o a c t u a l l y b e c o n - t r a r y t o o n e o f s o m e o n e ' s p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e t h e n o b v i o u s l y i f a n a g e n t w a n t s h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t t o b e j u s t i f i e d b y s u b s e q u e n t c o n s e n t , h e s h o u l d a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s s u b j e c t ' s e x p r e s s e d p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s , a n d n o t t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r i m a r y g o o d ; h i s s u b j e c t w o u l d r i g h t l y c o n s i d e r i t i r r e l e v a n t w h a t m o s t p e o p l e w a n t , a n d g i v e h i s c o n s e n t o n l y i f t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e w a s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h a t h e i n f a c t w a n t s . B e c a u s e i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a p r i m a r y g o o d t o b e c o n t r a r y t o o n e o f a s u b - j e c t ' s p e r m a n e n t a i m s , t h e r e i s a b e t t e r c h a n c e o f c o n s e n t i f o n e i s a b l e t o a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h k n o w n p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r - e n c e s t h a n i f t h e s e a r e u n k n o w n a n d o n e h a s o n l y t h e p r i m a r y g o o d s a s g u i d e l i n e s . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n b e f u l f i l l e d , n o t o n l y b e c a u s e , a s p o i n t e d o u t a b o v e , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t c o n s e n t w i l l b e f o r t h c o m i n g i f t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e i s n o t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s p e r m a n e n t a i m s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s o r t h e p r i m a r y g o o d s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e i f s o m e o n e w e r e t o p u r p o s e l y a c t c o n t r a r y t o t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s t h e s u b j e c t w o u l d r i g h t l y s e e t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e a s s i m p l y a n a s s a u l t o n t h e i n t e g r i t y o f h i s p e r s o n . T h i s c o n d i t i o n i s b a s i c a l l y o n e o f t h o s e o f f e r e d b y R a w l s , b u t i t c a n a l s o b e s e e n t h a t D w o r k i n ' s c o n d i t i o n #8 — t h e m e a s u r e p r e s e r v e s 59 and enhances for the individual his a b i l i t y to rationally consider and carry out his own decisions — would be included i n i t , since what i s being preserved or enhanced i s one's intellectual a b i l i t i e s ~ one of the primary goods. Condition 2 i s about incompetence. I am concerned there not with the distinction between those who suffer from a severe perman- ent incompetence — I am s t i l l concerned only with those who are not permanently incompetent — but those who are suffering from a tempor- ary incompetence relative to their usual state. Temporary insanity or emotionally crippling states are examples of states i n which an adult would be less competent than usual. We know by empirical obser- vation that such people don't have the a b i l i t i e s necessary to make decisions as wisely as they do and would make i f they were not i n such a state. Their perception, assessment or appreciation of relevant facts, weighing of values, and other intellectual a b i l i t i e s are inferior to what they usually are, and their emotional outlook w i l l often be warped. Such i n a b i l i t i e s are liable to result i n decisions that are not only foolish or harmful, but ones which a person would not have made i f he had not been i n an incompetent state and which he would therefore have reason to regret. Because this i s true there i s a good chance that interfering with a decision of a relatively incom- petent person when i t would have bad consequences for him w i l l meet with his approval once he has regained his competence. Similarly, we know from empirical observation that a child's 60 a b i l i t y to assess or appreciate relevant facts, weigh values, etc. are inferior to what they w i l l be when he i s an adult (although he may as a child be as competent as some other (competent) adult). And we can account for this simply by the fact' that children haven't been around long enough to develop their potential a b i l i t i e s or had enough experience i n getting on i n the world. Of course the longer one lives the more experience and knowledge one gains, experience which i s no doubt expressed to some extent i n one's decisions. But children are going through an incredibly rapid period of learning, and thus change, which, i f I may make an empirical speculation, levels out i n our society somewhere around the age of 18. (My guess i s that this i s culturally determined to a rather great extent.) And because their a b i l i t i e s are inferior they are l i k e l y to do things which they (as adults) would think foolish. This means that paternalism towards the child has a good chance of meeting with the subsequent approval of his adult self, since with the development of his a b i l i t i e s and judg- ment he w i l l , we hope, see the wisdom of our interference. I t i s worth pointing out that Dworkin1 s conditions #5 and #6 are subsumed under my condition of incompetence. They are, respectively, where decisions are made under extreme psychological and sociological pressures; and where someone i s suffering from a temporary state, such as great fear or depression, that i s inimical to the making of well-informed and rational decisions. Such conditions are ones which affect the competence of the person suffering from them, and i t i s 61 f o r t h i s r e a s o n , I b e l i e v e , t h a t t h e y a r e i m p o r t a n t — t h e y come u n d e r o n e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h i s r e l e v a n t t o d e t e r m i n i n g • t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e s u b j e c t o f a p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t c o n s e n t i n g t o i t . T h e t h i r d c o n d i t i o n w i l l u s u a l l y b e r e l e v a n t w h e n t h e s u b j e c t i s t e m p o r a r i l y i n c o m p e t e n t r e l a t i v e t o h i s u s u a l s t a t e , s o I s h a l l c o n s i d e r s u c h c a s e s f i r s t . I t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t w o d i f f e r e n t c i r - c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h o n e m i g h t c o n s i d e r a c t i n g p a t e r n a l i s t i c a l l y : (1) w h e n l a r g e d i s u t i l i t i e s w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e ; a n d (2) w h e n o n e ' s i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d r e s u l t i n l a r g e u t i l i t i e s . T h e r e w i l l o f c o u r s e b e t i m e s w h e n o n e c o u l d d o b o t h ~ p r e v e n t d i s u t i l i - t i e s a n d a t t h e same t i m e p r o m o t e c e r t a i n u t i l i t i e s . T h e l a t t e r o f t h e t w o w i l l b e o f i m p o r t a n c e w h e n t h e s u b j e c t i s a c h i l d , a n d t h e f o r m e r w i l l b e o f i m p o r t a n c e w h e n t h e s u b j e c t i s e i t h e r a c h i l d o r a t e m p o r a r i l y i n c o m p e t e n t a d u l t . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h a t e m p o r a r i l y i n c o m p e t e n t a d u l t o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t h e w i l l b e n e f i t f r o m y o u r d o i n g s o , r a t h e r t h a n b e c a u s e h e w i l l h a r m h i m s e l f i f y o u d o n ' t , w i l l s e l d o m a r i s e , a n d e v e n i f i t d i d a n d o n e t o o k t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r f e r e , t h i s w o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t m e e t w i t h h i s a p p r o v a l u p o n r e c o v e r i n g h i s c o m p e t e n t s t a t e . F o r h e c a n p r o m o t e h i s own w e l f a r e i n h i s own w a y w h e n he i s a g a i n c o m p e t e n t , a n d d o e s n ' t n e e d t o b e f o r c e d t o d o s o w h i l e i n c o m p e t e n t . T h i s i s o f t e n n o t t r u e o f c h i l d r e n , s i n c e m a n y o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t p a r e n t s d o t o p r o m o t e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s w e l f a r e a r e t h i n g s w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n w o u l d n o t b e a b l e t o d o o n c e t h e y w e r e a d u l t s ; t h e o p p o r t u n i t y w o u l d h a v e p a s s e d . 62 A n d e v e n w h e r e t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e , t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f h a v i n g b e e n f o r c e d a s a c h i l d t o d o s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c o u l d b e d o n e a s a n a d u l t a r e o f t e n o b v i o u s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , p r o m o t i n g u t i l i t i e s w h e n t h e s u b j e c t i s a c h i l d w i l l o f t e n h a v e a f a i r l y g o o d c h a n c e o f m e e t i n g w i t h s u b s e q u e n t c o n s e n t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f a t e m p o r a r i l y i n c o m p e t e n t a d u l t o r a c h i l d i s p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g s o m e t h i n g w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t i n l a r g e d i s u t i l i t i e s t h e n i t s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t u p o n r e c o v e r y o f h i s c o m p e - t e n t s t a t e , o r u p o n r e a c h i n g a d u l t h o o d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e s u b j e c t w i l l b e h a p p y t h a t h e d i d n ' t d o w h a t h e p r o p o s e d , a n d t h u s w i l l a p p r o v e o f t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e w h i c h p r e v e n t e d h i m , p r o v i d e d o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e m e a n s u s e d t o p r e v e n t h i s a c t i o n w e r e n o t m o r e u n d e s i r a b l e t h a n t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s u n h i n d e r e d a c t i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n . B u t i f t h e d i s u t i l i t i e s w o u l d h a v e b e e n s m a l l , t h e n , ( e v e n i f t h e i n t e r f e r - e n c e c o n s t i t u t e d a s m a l l e r d i s u t i l i t y ) t h e r e w o u l d b e m u c h l e s s c h a n c e o f h i s b e i n g t h a n k f u l f o r t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h e r e m i g h t o f c o u r s e b e some o t h e r p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n , s u c h a s i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y , w h i c h w o u l d g i v e u s i n d e p e n d e n t r e a s o n s f o r b e l i e v i n g c o n s e n t w o u l d b e f o r t h c o m i n g e v e n t h o u g h t h e d i s u t i l i t i e s o f n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n v e r y g r e a t . T h e r e w i l l a l s o b e c a s e s w h e r e , e v e n w h e n s o m e o n e i s i n h i s u s u a l c o m p e t e n t s t a t e , i f n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d r e s u l t i n l a r g e d i s - u t i l i t i e s o n e c o u l d f e e l f a i r l y s u r e t h a t h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d m e e t w i t h s u b s e q u e n t c o n s e n t . S u c h c a s e s w o u l d b e o n e s i n w h i c h t h e 63 s u b j e c t l a c k s a p i e c e o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h h e w i l l h a v e a t some p o i n t i n t h e f u t u r e . F o r i n s t a n c e , s a y i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r e i s a h e l l w h e r e o n e b u r n s f o r e t e r n i t y u n l e s s o n e s a y s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e w o r d s b e f o r e d e a t h : " I a c c e p t C h r i s t . " A n d we k n o w i t , b u t m a n y o t h e r p e o p l e d o n ' t b e l i e v e i t , a n d w h a t ' s m o r e , r e f u s e t o s a y , " I a c c e p t C h r i s t , " b e f o r e d e a t h , t h e r e b y g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e i r e t e r n a l b u r n - i n g . Now, i n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a n d a s s u m i n g t h a t a f t e r d e a t h e a c h p e r s o n w i l l c o m e t o k n o w t h e t r u t h , we c o u l d c o u n t o n g a i n i n g t h e c o n s e n t o f e a c h p e r s o n f o r t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e w h i c h p r e v e n t e d h i m f r o m g o i n g t o h e l l . B u t o f c o u r s e e v e n i f h e n e v e r g o t t h e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e f a c t t h a t h e w o u l d c o n s e n t i f h e d i d g e t i t w o u l d r e n d e r t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e j u s t i f i e d . T h e f o u r t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n a c t u a l l y c o m b i n e s t w o c o n d i t i o n s : d i s - u t i l i t y a n d i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y ; o b v i o u s l y i f a n a c t d i d n o t e n t a i l d i s - u t i l i t i e s a s w e l l a s b e i n g i r r e v e r s i b l e , t h e r e w o u l d b e n o r e a s o n t o i n t e r f e r w i t h i t . I t m i g h t b e t h o u g h t t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n d o e s n ' t r e a l l y a d d a n y t h i n g t o t h e p r e v i o u s c o n d i t i o n o f l a r g e d i s u t i l i t i e s b e c a u s e a n a c t w i t h i r r e v e r s i b l e h a r m f u l c o n s e q u e n c e s w i l l a l w a y s r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r d i s u t i l i t y t h a n t h a t same a c t w o u l d i f i t s c o n s e - q u e n c e s w e r e n o t i r r e v e r s i b l e . B u t I d o n ' t t h i n k i t i s r e d u n d a n t , s i n c e i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h some i r r e v e r s i b l e a c t s w i l l m e e t w i t h t h e s u b - s e q u e n t a p p r o v a l o f t h e s u b j e c t , e v e n t h o u g h t h e d i s u t i l i t i e s o f t h e a c t w o u l d a c t u a l l y h a v e b e e n s m a l l e r t h a n w o u l d u s u a l l y b e n e e d e d t o g a i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t c o n s e n t f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e . T h i s w i l l b e t r u e 64 simply because a person w i l l often be grateful not to have done some- thing which he realizes would have been irreversible, even i f the dis- u t i l i t i e s of doing so would not have been very great. And i f he would be grateful, and there are no other conditions which would lead him to withhold his consent, then i t i s reasonable to expect that his consent w i l l be forthcoming. In this way the i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y of an action w i l l play an important part i n determining the probability of subsequent consent. The f i f t h condition refers to emergency situations. There are of course a number of different kinds of emergency situations, but the one which i s relevant to the question of paternalism i s one i n which the subject i s about to do something, the dangerous nature of which he i s unaware, and of which we haven't time to warn him. Stop- ping someone from crossing a bridge that i s , unknown to him, about to collapse i s a case in point. Once i t i s explained to our subject why we tackled him as he was about to step onto the bridge, i t i s highly l i k e l y that he w i l l approve of our having done so. But i f he i s aware of the potential danger of walking on i t , and while f u l l y i n possession of his senses s t i l l wishes to do so, then we have no reason to believe our interference would meet with his subsequent approval, and ought therefore to refrain. The last condition i s the one, of the three offered by Donaldson, which I thought to be of importance. The suggestion i s that i f there i s a social convention of interfering with a particular kind of action 65 which i s deemed harmful to the individual, then i n the circumstances covered by that convention, people might expect, and in fact count on, such interference. A certain class of attempted suicides would, I think, be covered by such a convention. I am thinking of those cases of suicides which are really a cry for help and not those i n which someone i s either seriously interested i n ending his l i f e , or where he i s i n a state of relative incompetence i n which i t i s impossible for him to assess his situation accurately. People do typically interfere i n the la t t e r two cases, not because of their recognition of a convention of doing so, but either because they think a person ought not to take his l i f e under any circumstances, or because the person proposing to do so really isn't i n a state i n which he can make a reasoned decision about the matter. But for those people who are using a suicide attempt as a cry for help — i n effect say- ing, "Things are going terribly for me, please help," — others might interfere because they recognize the convention of doing so. They understand the attempt to be what i t i s — a cry for help — and respond i n the appropriate manner, i.e. with interference. We can assume that the potential suicidee i s aware of the convention and i s acting i n accordance with i t and expects others to do their part, i.e. stop him from taking his l i f e . And i f this i s the case, i f the subject i s acting i n accordance with the convention, then we can count on his subsequent approval. There are I think certain special kinds of relationships i n which 66 m o r e p a t e r n a l i s m i s j u s t i f i e d t h a n we w o u l d n o r m a l l y e x p e c t , i . e . w h e n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s d o n ' t r e a l l y h a v e t o f u l f i l l a n y o f t h e c o n d i - t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h we w o u l d n o r m a l l y e x p e c t a p p r o v a l . I am t h i n k i n g h e r e o f s u c h r e l a t i o n s a s b e t w e e n h u s b a n d a n d w i f e , l o v e r s , a n d p e r - h a p s s i b l i n g s . T h e s e a r e v e r y c o m p l e x k i n d s o f a s s o c i a t i o n s , a n d i t i s n ' t c l e a r o f w h a t t h e y c o n s i s t , s o I ' m n o t a b l e t o s a y w h y t h e y a l l o w m o r e p a t e r n a l i s m t h a n w o u l d n o r m a l l y b e e x p e c t e d . B u t I t h i n k t h e y q u i t e c l e a r l y d o . F o r e x a m p l e : s a y I h a v e some c o m p l a i n t l i k e a c h i n g k n e e s . I o u g h t t o g o t o t h e d o c t o r t o s e e w h a t t h e p r o b l e m i s , b u t b e c a u s e I h a t e g o i n g t o d o c t o r s , d o n ' t g o . T h e y g e t b a d e n o u g h t h a t my l o v e r b e c o m e s c o n c e r n e d . He d e c i d e s I ' m g o i n g t o t h e d o c t o r ; h e g e t s my c o a t a n d b o o t s , i n s i s t s I p u t t h e m o n , a n d t h a t I g e t i n t o t h e e a r s o h e c a n d r i v e me t o t h e d o c t o r . I ' m n o t g o i n g t o h a v e a f i g h t a b o u t i t , b u t d o a l l t h e s e t h i n g s g r u d g i n g l y , w i s h i n g h e ' d j u s t l e a v e me a l o n e . A f t e r s e e i n g t h e d o c t o r , I r e a l i z e t h a t i t w a s a g o o d t h i n g t h a t h e i n t e r f e r e d i n t h a t w a y , a n d s o a p p r o v e o f h i s a c t i o n s . I t h i n k i t ' s t r u e t h a t i f a n y o n e e l s e t r i e d t h a t , I s h o u l d r e f u s e t o b u d g e . B u t , i f t h e y s u c c e e d e d i n f o r c i n g me t o a d o c t o r , I s h o u l d n o t g i v e c o n s e n t f o r t h a t i n t e r f e r e n c e . I t r u s t t h i s i s n ' t m e r e l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l b u t p o i n t s t o a r e a l , t h o u g h u n e x p l a i n e d , d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h i s k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d o t h e r s n o t o f t h i s c l a s s . S e c t i o n 2. I h a v e o n l y a r g u e d s o f a r t h a t c o n s e n t i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n 6? f o r t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s m , b u t h a v e n o t c o n s i d e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r i t i s a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n . I s h a l l b e c o n s i - d e r i n g t h i s p r o b l e m i n i t s n e g a t i v e f o r m : w h e n i s c o n s e n t n o t a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s m ? I n o r d e r t o a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n I h a v e t o i n t r o d u c e a n e w t e c h n i c a l t o o l , n a m e l y , a m o r e d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f r i g h t s . D o i n g s o h a s t h e a d d i - t i o n a l b e n e f i t o f a l l o w i n g me t o s h o w h o w w h a t I h a v e a l r e a d y s a i d a b o u t t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s m f i t s u n d e r a n a n a l y s i s o f r i g h t s w h i c h h a s i n d e p e n d e n t l y m u c h t o r e c o m m e n d i t . A t y p e o f c i r c u m s t a n c e i n w h i c h c o n s e n t i s n o t a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n i s e x e m p l i f i e d b y a s i t u a t i o n e n v i s a g e d b y R a w l s , v i z : " . . . i m a g i n e t w o p e r s o n s i n f u l l p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e i r r e a s o n a n d w i l l , w h o a f f i r m d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f s ; a n d s u p p o s e t h a t t h e r e i s some p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s t h a t w i l l c o n v e r t e a c h t o t h e o t h e r ' s v i e w , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r o c e s s i s i m p o s e d o n t h e m a g a i n s t t h e i r w i s h e s . I n d u e c o u r s e , l e t u s s u p p o s e , b o t h w i l l come t o a c c e p t c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y t h e i r n e w b e l i e f s " ; * a n d , we w i l l a s s u m e , a p p r o v e o f t h e p r o c e s s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r c o m i n g t o h a v e s u c h b e l i e f s . We m u s t a l s o a s s u m e , i n o r d e r f o r t h e a c t t o b e p a t - e r n a l i s t i c , t h a t t h i s w a s d o n e b e c a u s e i t w a s t h o u g h t t o b e f o r t h e s u b j e c t ' s g o o d . Now we c e r t a i n l y d o n ' t w a n t t o s a y t h a t s u c h i n t e r - f e r e n c e w i t h o n e ' s b e l i e f s w a s j u s t i f i e d . T o o l e y ^ h a s o f f e r e d a n a n a l y s i s o f r i g h t s a n d w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s a v i o l a t i o n o f a r i g h t w h i c h p r o v i d e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r h o l d i n g t h a t 68 u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , c o n s e n t , e v e n t h o u g h i t i s , a s I h a v e a r g u e d , a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s m , i s n o t a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n . B e c a u s e h i s a n a l y s i s p l a y s a n i m p o r - t a n t p a r t i n w h a t f o l l o w s I q u o t e i t i n f u l l : " I n d i v i d u a l A h a s a r i g h t a t t i m e t t h a t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s S o b t a i n a t t * i f a n d o n l y i f i t i s t h e c a s e t h a t i f A w e r e t o d e s i r e a t t i m e t t h a t S o b t a i n a t t i m e t * , t h e n , i n v i r t u e o f t h a t f a c t a l o n e , o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d b e u n d e r a p r i m a f a c i e o b l i g a t i o n t o r e f r a i n f r o m p r e v e n t i n g s t a t e o f a f f a i r s S f r o m o b t a i n i n g a t t i m e t * . . . . A n a c t i o n c a n c o n s t i t u t e a v i o l a t i o n o f A * s r i g h t a t t i m e t t h a t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s S o b t a i n a t t i m e t * i f a n d o n l y i f o n e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n s : (1) t h e a c t i o n i s p e r f o r m e d a t t i m e t , i t p r e v e n t s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s S f r o m e x i s t i n g a t t i m e t * , a n d i n d i v i d u a l A d e s i r e s a t t i m e t t h a t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s S o b t a i n a t t i m e t . (2) t h e a c t i o n i s p e r f o r m e d a t some t i m e t 1 , i t p r e v e n t s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s S f r o m e x i s t i n g a t t i m e t * , a n d a l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l A i s i n c a p a b l e o f d e s i r i n g a t t i m e t 1 ' e i t h e r t h a t S o b t a i n o r t h a t S n o t o b t a i n a t t i m e t * , A d i d d e s i r e a t t i m e t t h a t S o b t a i n a t t i m e t * , w h e r e t i s t h e m o m e n t o f t i m e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l i n w h i c h A i s i n c a p a b l e o f d e s i r i n g e i t h e r t h a t S e x i s t o r t h a t S n o t e x i s t a t t i m e t * . (3) t h e a c t i o n i s p e r f o r m e d a t t i m e t 1 a n d p r e v e n t s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s S f r o m o b t a i n i n g a t t i m e t * , a n d a l t h o u g h i n d i - v i d u a l A d o e s n o t d e s i r e a t t i m e t 1 t h a t S o b t a i n a t t i m e t * , e i t h e r b e c a u s e A i s i n c a p a b l e o f h a v i n g t h e d e s i r e a t t h a t t i m e , o r b e c a u s e t h e r e i s some r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t A d o e s n o t p o s s e s s a t t h a t t i m e , t h e r e i s some l a t e r t i m e t a t w h i c h A w i l l e x i s t a n d a t w h i c h h e w i l l d e s i r e t h a t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s S e x i s t a t t i m e t * . (4) t h e e s s e n t i a l i d e a [ o f t h i s q o n d i t i o n ] i s s i m p l y t h a t a c t i o n s t o w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l d o e s n o t o b j e c t — e i t h e r b e c a u s e h e i s i n c a p a b l e o f d e s i r i n g a t t h e t i m e t h a t t h e y n o t o c c u r , o r b e c a u s e h e l a c k s r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , o r b e c a u s e h i s d e s i r e s h a v e b e e n " w a r p e d " b y p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s — m a y n e v e r t h e l e s s v i o l a t e h i s 69 r i g h t s i f t h e r e i s some t i m e a t w h i c h h e i s o r w i l l b e c a p - a b l e o f w i s h i n g t h a t , t h e a c t i o n h a d n o t b e e n p e r f o r m e d , a n d a t w h i c h t i m e h e w o u l d s o w i s h i f h e h a d a l l t h e - r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a n d h a d n o t b e e n s u b j e c t e d t o i n f l u e n c e s t h a t d i s t o r t e d h i s p r e f e r e n c e s . " 3 A l t h o u g h I ' m n o t e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s t h e y a r e , I t h i n k , b a s i c a l l y c o r r e c t . T h e y s h o w t h a t a n a c t i o n c a n v i o l a t e a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t s b y f r u s t r a t i n g a c o r r e s - p o n d i n g d e s i r e h e h a s n o w , h a d some t i m e i n t h e p a s t , o r w i l l h a v e some t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e , o r w o u l d h a v e i f h e h a d c e r t a i n r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , o r i f i t w e r e n o t f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . I t h i n k we s h o u l d a l s o a d d t h a t t h e r e i s a v i o l a t i o n o f a r i g h t i f a n a c t i o n v i o l a t e s a d e s i r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t w o u l d h a v e i f h e w e r e n o t m a k i n g c e r t a i n l o g i c a l e r r o r s . T h e f i r s t c o n d i t i o n w i l l c o v e r t h e m o s t u s u a l c a s e s o f p a t e r n a - l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e s : t h e s u b j e c t d e s i r e s t o d o s o m e t h i n g a n d i s p r e v e n t e d a t t h a t t i m e f r o m d o i n g s o b y s o m e o n e e l s e ( o r t h e s u b j e c t d e s i r e s n o t t o d o s o m e t h i n g a n d i s c o e r c e d i n t o d o i n g i t ) . B u t t h e f o u r t h c o n d i t i o n , o r r a t h e r a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h c o n d i t i o n , i s o f u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e i n a r g u i n g t h a t a r i g h t h a s b e e n v i o l a t e d i n c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t c a s e s o f p a t e r n a l i s m , s u c h a s t h e o n e q u o t e d f r o m R a w l s o n p . 67. I t w i l l b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e f o u r t h c o n d i t i o n s t a t e s b a s i c a l l y t h a t t h o s e a c t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t d o e s n o t o b j e c t , b u t t o w h i c h h e w o u l d o b j e c t l a t e r i f i t w e r e n ' t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t h e l a c k s r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , o r t h a t h i s d e s i r e s h a v e b e e n w a r p e d b y p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r 70 p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , c o n s t i t u t e a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s r i g h t . I m o d i f y t h i s t o m a k e a n a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n w h i c h r e a d s : I f s o m e o n e l a t e r a p p r o v e s o f a n a c t i o n t o w h i c h h e o b j e c t e d a t t h e t i m e , b u t o f w h i c h h e w o u l d n o t h a v e l a t e r a p p r o v e d i f i t w e r e n o t f o r o n e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s , t h e n t h a t a c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a v i o l a t i o n o f h i s r i g h t : a ) h i s d e s i r e s h a v e b e e n " w a r p e d " b y p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s ; b ) h e l a c k s c e r t a i n r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n ; c ) h e i s m a k i n g l o g i c a l b l u n d e r s . T h i s m e a n s t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t a p p r o v a l o f t h e s u b j e c t i n t h e b e l i e f - c h a n g i n g e x a m p l e c i t e d f r o m R a w l s , t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e u n j u s t i f i e d p a t e r n a l i s m . T h i s c o n d i t i o n (4») i s a l s o u s e f u l i n s h o w i n g t h a t c e r t a i n p a t - e r n a l i s t i c m e a s u r e s w h i c h c h i l d r e n a r e s u b j e c t e d t o a r e u n j u s t i f i e d e v e n t h o u g h t h e y m a y c o m e t o a p p r o v e o f t h e m . A p r o b l e m a r i s e s b e c a u s e w h i c h p a t e r n a l i s t i c m e a s u r e s a c h i l d w i l l c o m e t o a p p r o v e w h e n h e i s a n a d u l t w i l l d e p e n d , i n p a r t , o n h o w s u c c e s s f u l h i s p a r e n t s o r o t h e r s w e r e i n i n c u l c a t i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s a n d a t t i t u d e s . I f t h e y w e r e v e r y s u c c e s s f u l h e m a y n o t d i s s e n t f r o m c e r t a i n k i n d s o f t r e a t m e n t w h i c h i n e f f e c t i m p a i r e d h i s a b i l i t i e s t o l e a d a f u l l a n d h a p p y h u m a n l i f e o r w h i c h w e r e u n d e s i r a b l e f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , h e m i g h t c o m e t o a p p r o v e o f t h e p r e s s u r e s u s e d t o f o r c e h i m i n t o t h e m o u l d o f a n a r r o w r e l i g i o u s s e c t w h i c h f o r b i d s v a r i o u s k i n d s o f a r t i s t i c e n d e a - 71 v o r s a n d i n h i b i t s t h e f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f v a r i o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s ; h e n o w a c c e p t s t h e t e n e t s o f t h e r e l i g i o n , a n d h a s b e e n t r a i n e d t o b e t h e k i n d o f p e r s o n w h o d o e s n o t v a l u e t h e s e t h i n g s . I a p p e a l t o w h a t R a w l s c a l l s t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n P r i n c i p l e i n a r g u i n g t h a t i n t h i s c a s e a r i g h t h a s b e e n i n f r i n g e d : " . . . o t h e r t h i n g s e q u a l , h u m a n b e i n g s e n j o y t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h e i r r e a l i z e d c a p a c i t i e s ( t h e i r i n n a t e o r t r a i n e d a b i l i t i e s ) , a n d t h i s e n j o y m e n t i n c r e a s e s t h e m o r e t h e c a p a c i t y i s r e a l i z e d o r t h e g r e a t e r t h e c o m p l e x i t y . " ^ I t f o l l o w s t h a t p e o p l e w i l l g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r t o d o t h o s e t h i n g s t h a t r e q u i r e m o r e h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d a b i l i t i e s , a n d t h a t i f t h e y d o n o t p r e f e r t h e m t h e y w o u l d d o s o i f g i v e n t h e r i g h t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . S o we c a n a s s u m e i n t h i s c a s e t h a t t h e c h i l d w o u l d h a v e p r e f e r r e d t o h a v e d e v e l o p e d a r t i s t i c a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s h a d h e b e e n a l l o w e d t o d e v e l o p t h e m . T h e f a c t t h a t h e s u b s e q u e n t l y c o n s e n t s t o t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c m e a s u r e s u s e d t o i n h i b i t t h e s e a b i l i t i e s d o e s n o t c o u n t a s a n a l i e n a t i o n o f h i s r i g h t n o t t o h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t e d t o t h e m , b e c a u s e h e w o u l d n o t s o a p p r o v e i f h i s p r e f e r e n c e s h a d n o t b e e n " w a r p e d " b y t h o s e m e a s u r e s , i . e . b e c a u s e o f t h e 4' c o n d i t i o n . ( T h e r e w i l l n o d o u b t b e t i m e s w h e n i t w i l l b e d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e w h e n s o m e o n e ' s p r e f e r e n c e s h a v e b e e n " w a r p e d " . W h e t h e r a n i n d i v i d u a l a p p r o v e s o f t r e a t m e n t w h i c h m a d e h i m a l e s s h a p p y i n d i v i d u a l t h a n h e m i g h t h a v e b e e n , w i l l o f t e n b e a g u i d e t o w h e t h e r h i s p r e f e r e n c e s h a v e b e e n w a r p e d , b u t t h i s w i l l n o t a l w a y s b e t h e c a s e . S u c h j u d g m e n t s , a t l e a s t s o m e t i m e s , w i l l i n v o l v e s u b - s t a n t i v e m o r a l i s s u e s w h i c h I c a n n o t p o s s i b l y g o i n t o h e r e . ) 72 One m a y c o n c l u d e t h a t c o n s e n t , o r t h e d i s p o s i t i o n t o c o n s e n t e i t h e r u p o n r e c e i p t o f c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , o r u p o n t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f l o g i c a l e r r o r s , i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r j u s t i f i e d p a t e r n a l i s m , a n d t h a t i t i s a l s o a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n , e x c e p t i n t h o s e c i r c u m - s t a n c e s c o v e r e d b y t h e c o n d i t i o n 4*. S e c t i o n 3. T h e r e a r e t w o n a t u r a l o b j e c t i o n s t o t h i s t h e o r y o f p a t e r n a l i s m w h i c h I w o u l d n o w l i k e t o c o n s i d e r . T h e f i r s t i n v o l v e s a c a s e e x e m - p l i f i e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g . We h a v e a v e r y u n k i n d i n d i v i d u a l a s m a n a g e r o f a f a c t o r y w h e r e h i s i n f l u e n c e p e r p e t u a t e s v a r i o u s r u l e s a n d r e g u - l a t i o n s w h i c h c a u s e c o n s i d e r a b l e a n d u n n e c e s s a r y h a r d s h i p s f o r t h e w o r k e r s W h i l e h e i s o n h o l i d a y s , h e b e c o m e s u n u s u a l l y b i g h e a r t e d a n d d e c i d e s t o g i v e o r d e r s f o r t h e u n p o p u l a r r e g u l a t i o n s t o b e w i t h - d r a w n . He g i v e s a c o m p a n i o n , s a y a b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e , a l e t t e r c o n - t a i n i n g t h e o r d e r s . B u t h i s c o m p a n i o n , b e i n g f a i r l y s u r e t h a t o n c e t h e m a n a g e r g o e s b a c k t o w o r k h e w i l l n o t o n l y r e g r e t h i s d e c i s i o n , b u t w i l l s u f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l e a n g u i s h b e c a u s e o f i t , d e c i d e s n o t t o m a i l t h e l e t t e r , t h u s p r e v e n t i n g t h e m a n a g e r f r o m c a r r y i n g o u t h i s w i s h e s . We m a y s u p p o s e t h a t , u p o n h i s r e t u r n t o t h e f a c t o r y , t h e m a n - a g e r d i s c o v e r s w h a t h i s c o m p a n i o n h a s d o n e a n d a p p r o v e s o f h i s i n t e r - f e r e n c e . We h a v e h e r e a c a s e o f j u s t i f i e d p a t e r n a l i s m , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e s i s I h a v e d e v e l o p e d . B u t o n e m i g h t o b j e c t , s u r e l y h i s c o m - p a n i o n s h o u l d n o t h a v e i n t e r f e r e d , s i n c e i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n b e t t e r f o r 7 3 a l l t h e w o r k e r s i f h e h a d n o t d o n e s o . T o t h i s I c a n o n l y a g r e e . I h a v e m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h i s i s a j u s t i f i e d p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t i o n , n o t t h a t i t i s a j u s t i f i e d a c t i o n , a l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d . W h e t h e r o n e o u g h t m o r a l l y t o e n g a g e i n p a t e r n a l i s m w i l l d e p e n d n o t o n l y o n w h e t h e r t h e a c t i o n i s o r w i l l b e c o n s e n t e d t o , b u t a l s o o n o t h e r m o r a l c o n s i - d e r a t i o n s , s u c h a s how i t w i l l a f f e c t o t h e r p e o p l e . S o m e t i m e s o n e w i l l c o n c l u d e t h a t a l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d o n e o u g h t n o t e n g a g e i n a n a c t t h a t w o u l d b e j u s t i f i e d p a t e r n a l i s m . T h e s e c o n d p o s s i b l e o b j e c t i o n i n v o l v e s a c a s e t h e b a s i c f o r m o f w h i c h i s a s f o l l o w s : i f a n a c t i o n i s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h , t h e s u b j e c t w i l l n e v e r h a v e t h e e x p e r i e n c e n e c e s s a r y t o s e e t h a t i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a f o o l i s h t h i n g t o d o a n d s o w o u l d n e v e r c o n s e n t t o t h e i n t e r - f e r e n c e , b u t i f t h e a c t i o n w e r e n o t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t w o u l d a t s o m e l a t e r t i m e r e g r e t i t , a n d w o u l d w i s h t h a t s o m e o n e h a d p r e v e n - t e d h i m f r o m d o i n g i t . F o r e x a m p l e , s a y a m a n w a n t s t o t r y h e r o i n , b u t h i s w i f e , b e l i e v i n g i t i s a v e r y h a r m f u l t h i n g t o d o , o b j e c t s , a n d t h r e a t e n s t o l e a v e h i m i f h e t a k e s i t , h o p i n g t h a t h e r t h r e a t w i l l s t o p h i m . H e r t h r e a t w o r k s a n d h e r h u s b a n d n e v e r t a k e s h e r o i n , b u t h e a l s o n e v e r a p p r o v e s o f h e r i n t e r f e r e n c e . H o w e v e r , i f s h e h a d n ' t i n t e r f e r e d , t h e r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n s o m e l a t e r t i m e w h e n h e w o u l d h a v e r e g r e t t e d s t a r t i n g t o t a k e h e r o i n , s a y w h i l e s u f f e r i n g w i t h d r a w a l a n d w o u l d h a v e w i s h e d t h a t h i s w i f e h a d i n t e r f e r e d . I f we c o u l d s t r e t c h ' d o e s n o t h a v e c e r t a i n f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n 1 t o i n c l u d e ' n o t h a v i n g a r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e * we c o u l d p e r h a p s i n c l u d e t h i s c a s e a s o n e o f 74 t h o s e j u s t i f i e d u n d e r my t h e o r y , b y s a y i n g t h a t h e r h u s b a n d w o u l d c o n - s e n t i f h e h a d c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . B u t I d o n ' t t h i n k we c a n ( o r s h o u l d ) s t r e t c h i t i n t h i s w a y , w h i c h m e a n s t h a t p a t e r n a l i s m i n t h i s c a s e ( a n d s i m i l a r o n e s ) w o u l d b e u n j u s t i f i e d . T h i s d o e s p e r h a p s r u n c o u n t e r t o some p e o p l e ' s i n t u i t i o n s o n t h e s u b j e c t , b u t I am n o t a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e s e n t a t h e o r y w h i c h a c c o r d s w i t h e v e r y o n e ' s i n t u i - t i o n s , a l t h o u g h i f i t c l a s h e d w i t h c e r t a i n c e n t r a l o n e s t h i s m i g h t t e l l a g a i n s t i t . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s i n t u i t i o n , h o w e v e r , I s t a n d b y my t h e o r y a n d a g a i n s t t h e i n t u i t i o n . I f o n e d o e s n ' t h a v e t h e r i g h t t o m a k e m i s t a k e s , o n e d o e s n ' t r e a l l y h a v e t h e r i g h t t o f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n . B u t I , a n d I a s s u m e m o s t o t h e r s , t h i n k t h a t p e o p l e d o h a v e t h e r i g h t t o f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n , a n d s o m u s t a d m i t t h a t t h e y h a v e t h e r i g h t t o d o t h i n g s w h i c h m i g h t p r o v e p e r s o n a l l y h a r m f u l . U n l e s s t h e r e e x i s t s o n e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h a p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t c a n b e o v e r r i d d e n , i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h s u c h a c t i o n s w o u l d b e u n j u s t i f i e d . S e c t i o n 4. I h a v e b e e n m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d , i n w h a t h a s g o n e b e f o r e , w i t h i n t e r - p e r s o n a l p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t i o n , a n d h a v e n o t m e n t i o n e d h o w t h e t h e s i s I h a v e d e v e l o p e d a p p l i e s t o p a t e r n a l i s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n . T h e g e n e r a l f o r m o f t h e a r g u m e n t s h o u l d b e c l e a r : p a t e r n a l i s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n i s o n l y j u s t i f i e d i f t h o s e t o w a r d s whom i t i s d i r e c t e d c o n s e n t t o i t . B u t b e c a u s e i t i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s a b o d y o f p e o p l e w h o m a y d i s a g r e e o n w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e s h o u l d b e s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e r e a r e c o m p l i c a t i o n s . 75 I f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e w a n t a p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n , s a y m a k i n g h e r o i n i l l e g a l , b e c a u s e t h e y t h i n k p e o p l e s h o u l d n ' t b e a l l o w e d t o t a k e d r u g s w h i c h ( t h e y b e l i e v e ) a r e h a r m f u l , t h e n we h a v e a c a s e o f u n j u s t i f i e d p a t e r n a l i s m . T h e y a r e i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n o f t h o s e who w a n t t o t a k e h e r o i n o n p a t e r n a l i s t i c g r o u n d s , a n d t h e y h a v e n ' t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h o s e p e o p l e t o d o s o . B u t , i f o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e a g r e e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d n ' t b e p a t e r n a l i s t i c t o w a r d s o t h e r s , b u t s t i l l d o n o t w a n t h e r o i n r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e d a n g e r o f t h e y t h e m s e l v e s y i e l d i n g t o t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f t a k i n g i t , t h e n l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h made i t r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t a h o l d o f — s a y r e q u i r i n g a d o c t o r ' s p r e s c r i p t i o n ~ m i g h t w e l l b e m o r a l l y j u s t i f i e d . T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e w a n t t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a s a s a f e - g u a r d a g a i n s t w e a k n e s s o f t h e w i l l , a n d a r e s i m p l y m a k i n g o t h e r s w h o d o n o t w a n t i t , m a k e a s a c r i f i c e f o r t h e m — t h e l e g i s l a t i o n w o u l d n o t a c t u a l l y b e p a t e r n a l i s t i c f o r t h a t m i n o r i t y . O f c o u r s e i t i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c t o w a r d s t h e m a j o r i t y w h o w a n t i t ( j u s t i - f i a b l y s o , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r c o n s e n t ) b e c a u s e t h e r e w i l l b e t i m e s , s u c h a s w h e n t h e y a r e s u f f e r i n g f r o m w e a k n e s s o f t h e w i l l , w h e n t h e y w o u l d l i k e h e r o i n t o b e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , a n d i t w o n ' t b e b e c a u s e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s n ' t e n t i r e l y c l e a r u n d e r w h a t c o n d i t i o n s t h e m i n o r i t y c a n b e a s k e d t o m a k e s u c h s a c r i f i c e s f o r t h e m a j o r i t y — I s u p p o s e i t w i l l d e p e n d p a r t l y o n h o w g r e a t t h e s a c r i f i c e i s a n d h o w i m p o r t a n t i t i s t h a t i t b e made ~ b u t i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e k i n d o f l e g i s l a t i o n I h a v e s u g g e s t e d w o u l d b e j u s t i f i e d . 76 I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c — t h a t i s , r e q u i r e s a t l e a s t some o f t h e p e o p l e t o d o s o m e t h i n g f o r t h e i r own g o o d w h i c h t h e y d o n o t a t some t i m e w a n t t o d o - - a n d t h a t w h i c h m a y a p p e a r t o b e p a t e r n a l i s t i c b u t i s i n f a c t n o t s o . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f m o s t p e o p l e w a n t s o m e t h i n g l i k e m e d i c a r e t o b e i n s t i t u t e d , t h e n i t i s n o n - p a t e r n a l i s t i c t o c o m p l y w i t h t h e i r w i s h e s , s i n c e t h e y a r e n o t , a t a n y t i m e , b e i n g f o r c e d t o d o s o m e t h i n g t h e y d o n o t w a n t t o d o . A n d i t i s n o n - p a t e r n a l i s t i c t o w a r d s t h o s e w h o d o n o t w a n t i t , e v e n i f t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o o p t i n t o t h e s c h e m e , s i n c e t h e y w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o d o s o (we c a n a s s u m e ) , n o t b e c a u s e i t i s g o o d f o r t h e m t h a t t h e y d o s o , b u t b e c a u s e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t e v e r y o n e j o i n i f t h e s c h e m e i s t o w o r k s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , o r p e r h a p s b e c a u s e i t r e q u i r e s l e s s c o m p l i c a t e d b u r e a u c r a t i c m a c h i n e r y , a n d t h u s l e s s e x p e n d i t u r e o f f u n d s , i f e v e r y o n e i s i n c l u d e d . T h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , s t i l l t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r i t i s m o r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e t h a t t h o s e w h o d o n o t w a n t m e d i c a r e b e r e q u i r e d t o s a c r i f i c e t h e i r f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i n o r d e r t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y may b e n e f i t . I c o n j e c t u r e t h a t i n s u c h a c a s e t h e s a c r i f i c e w o u l d b e m i l d e n o u g h , a n d t h e b e n e f i t s w o u l d b e g r e a t e n o u g h , t o w a r r a n t t h e s a c r i f i c e . S o , w h e n e v e r o n e i s d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r a p i e c e o f ( a p p a r e n t l y ) p a t e r n a l i s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n i s j u s t i f i e d o n e m u s t f i r s t d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i s a c t u a l l y p a t e r n a l i s t i c ; a n d i f i t i s , t h e n i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o d e t e r m i n e t o w a r d s whom i t i s d i r e c t e d , a n d w h e t h e r t h e y h a v e c o n s e n t e d t o i t , o r a r e l i k e l y t o d o s o i n t h e f u t u r e . 77 S e c t i o n 5. T h i s s e c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h o s e p e o p l e w h o I d e s c r i b e d e a r - l i e r a s p e r m a n e n t i n c o m p e t e n t s . I t w i l l b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e y a r e p e o p l e w h o s e g r a s p o f r e a l i t y i s s o w e a k t h a t t h e y a r e i n c a p a b l e o f g e t t i n g o n i n t h e w o r l d w i t h o u t d i r e c t a n d e x t e n s i v e o u t s i d e h e l p . T h e y i n c l u d e t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d — a t l e a s t t h o s e b e l o w a c e r t a i n l e v e l — a n d some t y p e s o f p e r m a n e n t l y i n s a n e . B e c a u s e t h e i r s t a t e i s u n c h a n g i n g i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t c o n s e n t w i l l e v e r b e g i v e n f o r p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e . How t h e n d o I a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t p a t e r n a l i s m i s s o o b v i o u s l y j u s t i f i e d t o w a r d s t h i s c l a s s o f p e o p l e ? B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n I w o u l d l i k e t o m a k e a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n r i g h t s t o d o ~ a c t i o n r i g h t s — a n d r i g h t s t o r e c e i v e . T h e f o r m e r w i l l i n c l u d e s u c h t h i n g s a s t h e r i g h t t o w a l k d o w n t h e s t r e e t a t n i g h t , b u y l i q u o r , d r i v e a c a r , a n d e v e n s c r a t c h , e t c . , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r w i l l i n c l u d e s u c h t h i n g s a s t h e r i g h t t o a f a i r t r i a l , m e d i c a l c a r e , e d u c a t i o n a n d f o o d . Now, a l t h o u g h t h e s i t u a t i o n i s s t i l l u n c l e a r , I c o n j e c t u r e t h a t a c t i o n r i g h t s a r e i n some w a y t i e d t o c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s — t h e a b i l i t y t o a p p r e c i a t e c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , o r t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a c t i o n s , t h e a b i l i t y t o f o r m r e l e v a n t c o n c e p t s , a n d p e r h a p s o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s — a s w e l l a s t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n r e a l i t y a n d f a n t a s y , i n a w a y t h a t i s n o t t r u e f o r r i g h t s t o r e c e i v e . A n d i f t h i s i s t r u e t h e n t h e p e r m a n e n t i n c o m p e t e n t s w i l l e i t h e r h a v e a s m a l l 78 s u b - s e t o f a c t i o n r i g h t s — t h o s e f o r w h i c h t h e y d o n o t r e q u i r e a n y o f t h e a b i l i t i e s t h e y l a c k — o r t h e y w i l l h a v e t h e f u l l r a n g e o f a c t i o n r i g h t s , b u t t h o s e f o r w h i c h t h e y r e q u i r e c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s w i l l b e o f a w e a k e n e d v a r i e t y , w a t e r e d d o w n i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e y d o n o t r e q u i r e t h e s ame c o n d i t i o n s t o o v e r r i d e t h e m a s a r e r e q u i r e d w h e n t h e y a r e h e l d b y p e o p l e w h o a r e c o m p e t e n t i n t h e r e l e v a n t w a y s . I f t h e f o r m e r o f t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s i s t r u e t h e n s u c h p e o p l e w i l l h a v e t h e p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t t o s c r a t c h t h e m s e l v e s w h e n e v e r t h e y f e e l t h e n e e d , b u t t h e y w o u l d n o t e v e n h a v e t h e p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t t o j u m p o u t o f a w i n d o w i f t h e y d e s i r e d t o d o s o , o r t o n o t e a t , o r w h a t e v e r . A n d i f t h e y d o n ' t h a v e t h e s e r i g h t s t h e n we d o n o t h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t j u s t i - f y i n g p a t e r n a l i s m i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g t h e m . I f , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e l a t t e r s u g g e s t i o n i s t r u e , t h e n p e r m a n e n t i n c o m p e t e n t s w i l l h a v e t h e p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t t o j u m p o u t t h e w i n d o w a s w e l l a s o t h e r r i g h t s , b u t t h e y w i l l b e s u c h t h a t t h e y c a n b e e a s i l y o v e r r i d d e n b y s u c h c o n - s i d e r a t i o n s a s d o i n g s o m i g h t r e s u l t i n a b r o k e n l e g , o r p e r h a p s e v e n t h a t d o i n g s o w o u l d c a u s e t h o s e who l o o k a f t e r t h e m c o n s i d e r a b l e w o r k a n d a n x i e t y . A t a n y r a t e , t h e r e n e e d b e n o f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h a p e r m a n e n t i n c o m p e t e n t ' s a c t i o n o t h e r t h a n t h a t i t w a s f o r h i s own g o o d ; t h e p a t e r n a l i s m w i l l n o t i t s e l f n e e d j u s t i f i c a t i o n . C o n s e n t , t h e n i s s i m p l y u n n e c e s s a r y w h e n a n i n c o m p e - t e n t ' s a c t i o n i s b e i n g i n t e r f e r e d w i t h o n p a t e r n a l i s t i c g r o u n d s , w h e n t h e d e c i s i o n t o d o o r n o t d o t h e a c t r e q u i r e s a b i l i t i e s h e d o e s n ' t p o s s e s s . 7 9 T h e s e a r e m e r e c o n j e c t u r e s — I h a v e n ' t a t t h i s s t a g e p h i l o s o - p h i c a l a r g u m e n t s t o b a c k t h e m u p , n o r d o I h a v e a n y c l e a r i n t u i t i o n s a s t o w h i c h o f t h e m m i g h t b e c o r r e c t . H o w e v e r , I d o h a v e some i n c l i n - a t i o n t o w a r d s t h e l a t t e r , b e c a u s e i t f i t s w i t h my v i e w s o n a n i m a l s . Some a n i m a l s ( a t l e a s t t h o s e a b o v e a c e r t a i n e v o l u t i o n a r y s t a g e ) d o , I t h i n k , h a v e a c t i o n r i g h t s , b u t I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e y a r e t h e f u l l - f l e d g e d a c t i o n r i g h t s p o s s e s s e d b y c o m p e t e n t p e o p l e ; r a t h e r t h e i r s w o u l d b e w a t e r e d - d o w n m u c h a s a r e t h o s e o f t h e i n c o m p e t e n t s . A n d t h e r e a s o n c o u l d b e t h e s a m e : t h e y l a c k c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l a b i l i t i e s t h a t w o u l d m a k e t h e m f u l l - f l e d g e d . P e r h a p s t h e r e i s some k i n d o f s l i d i n g s c a l e o f t h e r e l e v a n t a b i l i t i e s f r o m c o m p e t e n t p e o p l e , t o i n c o m p e t e n t p e o p l e , t o t h e h i g h e r a n i m a l s , t o t h e l o w e r a n i m a l s , w h i c h m a t c h e s a s l i d i n g s c a l e o f a c t i o n r i g h t s f r o m t h e f u l l - f l e d g e d o n e s r i g h t d o w n t o n o n e a t a l l . T h i s m i g h t r e s u l t i n w o r m s h a v i n g n o a c t i o n r i g h t s w h a t s o e v e r , w h i l e h o r s e s h a v e p r i m a f a c i e a c t i o n r i g h t s w h i c h m i g h t b e o v e r r i d d e n f a i r l y e a s i l y . S o , f o r i n s t a n c e , i f a h o r s e d o e s n o t w a n t t o g o f o r a r i d e u p t h e t r a i l s h i s p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t n o t t o d o s o m i g h t b e o v e r r i d d e n s i m p l y b y s u c h f a c t s a s we t a k e c a r e o f t h e h o r s e , t r e a t i n g i t i n t h e b e s t m a n n e r we k n o w , we w o u l d l i k e t o g o u p t h e t r a i l s , a n d i t w o n ' t h u r t t h e h o r s e t o d o s o . B u t , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f t h e h o r s e w a n t s t o g o o u t s i d e a n d t h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y n o r e a s o n w h y h e s h o u l d n o t d o s o , t h e n we w o u l d b e i n f r i n g i n g o n h i s r i g h t i f w e w e r e t o r e f u s e t o l e t h i m o u t . I t i s a l s o t r u e , I t h i n k , t h a t v i e w i n g t h e r i g h t s o f i n c o m p e t e n t s 80 a s w a t e r e d - d o w n v e r s i o n s o f t h o s e t h a t c o m p e t e n t s h a v e , f i t s b e t t e r w i t h T o o l e y ' s a n a l y s i s o f r i g h t s , w h i l e t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e y h a v e a s m a l l s u b - s e t o f a c t i o n r i g h t s w o u l d r e q u i r e s o m e r e v i s i o n . T h i s w o u l d p r o b a b l y t a k e t h e f o r m o f a d d i n g a n o t h e r c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e c l a s s o f a c t i o n r i g h t s ( T o o l e y ' s a n a l y s i s r e m a i n i n g b a s i c a l l y t h e s ame f o r r i g h t s t o r e c e i v e ) s p e c i f y i n g t h a t c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e s e r i g h t s . T h e f o r m o f t h e a n a l y s i s w o u l d t h e n b e t w o n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e j o i n t l y s u f f i c i e n t f o r a c r e a t u r e t o h a v e a n a c t i o n r i g h t . S e c t i o n 6. I n s u m m a r y I h a v e a r g u e d t h a t p a t e r n a l i s t i c a c t s a r e i n n e e d o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n w h e r e t h e p e r s o n w h o i s b e i n g i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h a s t h e p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t t o d o t h e t h i n g i n q u e s t i o n . I f t h i s i s a f u l l - f l e d g e d p r i m a f a c i e r i g h t , i . e . i f i t b e l o n g s t o t h e c e n t r a l c o r e o f r i g h t - h o l d e r s , t h e n c o n s e n t , e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e p a t e r n a l i s - t i c a c t , g i v e n i m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y , o r t h e d i s p o s i t i o n t o c o n s e n t u p o n r e c e i p t o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f a l o g i c a l e r r o r , i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n . I t w i l l a l s o b e s u f f i c i e n t e x c e p t i n t h o s e c a s e s w h e r e c o n s e n t i s o n l y f o r t h c o m i n g b e c a u s e t h e s u b j e c t h a s b e e n " w a r p e d " i n c e r t a i n r e l e v a n t w a y s , l a c k s r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n o r i s m a k i n g a l o g i c a l e r r o r . F o r t h o s e c a s e s w h e r e p r e - v i o u s c o n s e n t h a s n o t b e e n g i v e n I o f f e r a n u m b e r o f c o n d i t i o n s a s g u i d e l i n e s f o r d e c i d i n g t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s u b s e q u e n t c o n s e n t . F i n a l l y I s h o w h o w t h e t h e o r y I h a v e d e v e l o p e d a p p l i e s t o p a t e r n a l i s t i c l e g i s - l a t i o n . Footnotes for Chapter 3 1. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1971)., pp. 249 - 250. 2. Michael Tooley, i n the Correspondence, Philosophy & Public Affairs. Vol. 2, No. 4 (Summer 1973), PP. 419 - 3. Tooley, pp. 426 - 427. 4. Rawls, p. 426. 82 Bibliography- Brown, D. G. "The Rights of Children." The Journal of Education. No. 17 (April 1971), pp. 8 - 20. Donaldson, David. "Fathers and Sons." unpublished paper. Dworkin, Gerald. "Paternalism." The Monist. Vol. 56 (1972), pp. 64 - 84. M i l l , John Stuart. Utilitarianism. Liberty and Representative Government. Everyman's Library. New York: Dutton, 1910. Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1971. Tooley, Michael, i n the Correspondence. Philosophy & Public Affairs. Vol. 2, No. 4 (Summer 1973), PP. 419 - 432.

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