UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social functioning of the aged as it relates to the utilization of health and medical services Stevenson, Barry W. A. 1974

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SOCIAL FUNCTIONING OF THE AGED AS IT RELATES TO THE UTILIZATION OF HEALTH AND MEDICAL SERVICES by ~ B 7 W . A . STEVENSON B . S c . , S imon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 1 M . S c . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 2 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Depa r tmen t o f HEALTH CARE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1 9 7 ^ In presenting th is thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f r ee ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho la r ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Barry W.A. Stevenson Department of Health Care & Epidemiology The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date January 31,1975 ABSTRACT T h u s s t u d y d e s c r i b e s a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n : Is there a relationship between social functioning in the Aged, defined within a specific population sample, and the utilization of health and medical services by those persons? T h e r e s u l t s s h o w t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d u t i l i z a t i o n , a n d t h a t decreased social functioning correlates significantly with higher health and medical service utilization a n d a l s o t h a t intervening variables do not significantly suppress this relationship. T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a n d p o l i c y i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e A g e d i n o u r s o c i e t y . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS P a g e A B S T R A C T i i L I S T OF T A B L E S v L I S T OF F I G U R E S v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i D E D I C A T I O N i x INT R O D U C T I O N 1 C h a p t e r 1 L I T E R A I U R E E R E V . I EW 3 1.1 D e v e l o p i n g a M o d e l o f H e a l t h U t i l i z a t i o n b y t h e A g e d 16 2 T H E S I S Q U E S T I O N . . 19 2211 S S t a t e m e n t o f I n q u i r y . . 19 2.2 D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s 2 0 3 METHODOLOGY 2 2 3.1 S t u d y D e s i g n 2 2 3.2 T h e S a m p l e 2 2 3. 3 I n s t r u m e n t 2 5 3.4 S e l e c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s 2 8 i i i C h a p t e r P a g e 4 R E S U L T S 38 4.1 S e c t i o n A: P r o f i l e o f S u b - G r o u p s . . . . 38 4.2 S e c t i o n B: C o m p a r i s o n o f S u b - G r o u p s A a n d B. . . . . . • 56 4.3 S e c t i o n C: M u l t i v a r i a n t A n a l y s i s . . . . 84 5 D I S C U S S I O N 90 5.1 D i s c u s s i o n o n C o m p a r i s o n o f S u b - G r o u p s A a n d B w i t h R E f e r e n c e t o Mean S c o r e s . . 90 5.2 D i s c u s s i o n o n C o m p a r i s o n o f S u b - G r o u p s A a n d B w i t h R e f e r e n c e t o C o r r e l a t i o n s , B r e a k d o w n s a n d C r o s s T a b u l a t i o n s . . . . 93 5.3 D i s c u s s i o n o n C o m p a r i s o n o f S u b - G r o u p s A a n d B w i t h R e f e r e n c e t o M u l t i v a r i a n t A n a l y s i s . . 96 5.4 Summary o f D i s c u s s i o n s 97 R E F E R E N C E S AND B I B L I O G R A P H Y 101 A P P E N D I C E S I S u b d i v i s i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n s A a n d B f o r u s e a s a P o p u l a t i o n B a s e i n T h i s S t u d y . . . . i l l I I C e r t i f i c a t e o f A p p r o v a l f o r R e s e a r c h I n v o l v i n g Human S u b j e c t s . 114 I I I L e t t e r o f I n v i t a t i o n f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . 1 1 6 IV L e t t e r o f I n t e r v i e w e r I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1 9 V T h a n k Y o u L e t t e r f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n 121 VI S e l e c t i o n o f ' P r i m e ' V a r i a b l e s u s e d i n D a t a A n a l y s i s 1 2 3 V I I I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1 4 0 V I I I B r e a k d o w n s o f U t i l i z a t i o n V a r i a b l e s b y I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s 182 IX C r o s s T a b u l a t i o n s o f ' S i g n i f i c a n t ' V a r i a b l e s f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B 2 3 8 i v T A B L E OF CONTENTS T a b l e P a g e l a A g e 3 8 •2a S e x 39 3a M a r i t a l S t a t u s 40 4a P l a c e o f B i r t h 41 5a R e l i g i o n 4 2 6a P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e 43 7a E d u c a t i o n 4 5 l b A g e 47 2b S e x 48 3b M a r i t a l S t a t u s 49 4b P l a c e o f B i r t h 50 5b R e l i g i o n 51 6b P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e 52 7b E d u c a t i o n 54 8 Raw Mean S c o r e s o f G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B V a r i a b l e s ( a l l ) 57 v T a b l e P a g e 9 T a b l e o f S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e f o r Raw M e a n S c o r e s 66 10 C o r r e l a t i o n s ( S i m p l e a n d P a r t i a l ) f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B ' P r i m e ' V a r i a b l e s -P h y s i c i a n U s e I n d e x 67 11 C o r r e l a t i o n s ( S i m p l e a n d P a r t i a l ) f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B ' P r i m e ' V a r i a b l e s -D e p e n d e n t U s e I n d e x 68 12 C o r r e l a t i o n s ( S i m p l e a n d P a r t i a l ) f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B ' P r i m e ' V a r i a b l e s -H o s p i t a l U s e I n d e x 69 13 T a b l e o f S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B a s R e l a t e d t o U t i l i z a t i o n I n d i c e s . 79 14 M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B f o r a l l ' S i g n i f i c a n t l y ' C o r r e l a t e d V a r i a b l e s a s i n T a b l e 13 8 5 v i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e P a g e 1 An e c o l o g i c a l m o d e l o f u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s 17 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e s u p p o r t a n d d i r e c -t i o n g i v e n t o me b y my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e ; D r . D. A n d e r s o n , ( c h a i r m a n ) , D r . V. M i t c h e l l , M r s . E . B r a d l e y , D r . J . C r a n e a n d D r . M. V e r n i e r . S p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e i s e x t e n d e d t o M r . L a r r y C h a r a c h f o r a s s i s t i n g i n much o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l w o r k a n d f o r h i s c o n c e r n a n d i n t e r e s t t h r o u g h -o u t t h i s s t u d y . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e two i n t e r -v i e w e r s , M r s . W. T u r n e r a n d M r s . G. C a n d i d o f o r t h e i r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e . A l s o t o M i s s S h a r o n H a l l e r , many t h a n k s f o r h e r t i r e l e s s e f f o r t s i n t y p i n g t h e s e v e r a l r e v i s i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o t h a n k my w i f e J a n i c e f o r h e r d e v o t i o n a n d p a t i e n c e d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . T h i s s t u d y was s u p p o r t e d b y f u n d s made a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h a N a t i o n a l H e a l t h G r a n t F e l l o w s h i p . v i i i DEDICATION to M u r i e l R. Each"e a n d A n n i e L . S t e v e n s o n 'whose devotion to family, strength of character3 and compassion for others inspired t h i s study. ' i x INTRODUCTION T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n w i t h t h e m a j o r p u r p o s e o f o b s e r v i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e A g e d a n d t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s b y t h o s e p e r s o n s . I n t e r e s t i n t h i s q u e s t i o n was d e v e l o p e d a f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e t o p i c a n d t h e s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s a n d s o c i a l s y s t e m s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e A g e d . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e o l d e r p e r s o n i n s o c i e t y h a s f o r t o o l o n g b e e n s u p p o r t e d o n a n ' a f t e r t h e f a c t ' b a s i s . C h r o n i c l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e s a n d o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g h a v e s u p p o r t e d c o n t i n u e d u s e o f p r o g r a m s w h i c h , a t t h e v e r y l e a s t , p r o v i d e ' s t e r i l e ' e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r o l d e r p e o p l e t o d i e i n . T h e i m p e t u s f o r t h i s s t u d y was t h e d e s i r e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e v i e w t h a t , w i t h a b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l s u p p o r t s y s t e m f o r t h e A g e d , u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s w o u l d be d e c r e a s e d , s i n c e p e o p l e w o u l d t h e n be no l o n g e r a s p r e d i s p o s e d t o u s e t h e s e h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . T h e y w o u l d b e b e t t e r a b l e t o f u n c t i o n o n t h e i r own w i t h a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f i n d e p e n d e n c e r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g t o r e l y o n s o m e o n e e l s e t o m e e t t h e i r p h y s i c a l a n d b b i o l o g i . c a l ;oneeds . 1 2 H a v i n g d e f i n e d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , a m e t h o d -o l o g y w as t h e n a d o p t e d t o o b t a i n t h e r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e h y p o t h e s i s . T h e m e t h o d e m p l o y e d was a d e s c r i p t i v e , c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d y i n v o l v i n g t h e u s e o f a s t r a t i f i e d r a n d o m s a m p l e . Two s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n s u b g r o u p s w e r e s e l e c t e d a s f o l l o w s : G r o u p A. S e n i o r C i t i z e n ' s R e s i d e n c e G r o u p Group B. P e r s o n a l C a r e Home G r o u p T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t . A f t e r a b r i e f l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , t h e s t u d y i s r e p o r t e d i n d e t a i l , a n d a p p r o p r i a t e s u g g e s t i o n s a r e o f f e r e d f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a n d p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s . C h a p t e r 1 LITERATURE REVIEW T h e s c i e n c e a n d s t u d y o f human a g i n g , c o n s i d e r e d a m a j o r s e c t o r o f t h e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s c i e n c e o f a g i n g c a l l e d G e r o n t o l o g y , h a s d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e l a s t t h r i t y y e a r s i n t o a r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g a n d i n t e r e s t i n g f i e l d o f i n q u i r y . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t h a s b e e n s t i m u l a t e d b y a d v a n c e m e n t s i n m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h a n d t e c h n o l o g y , d e m o g r a p h i c a n d e c o n o m i c s t u d i e s o f p o p u l a t i o n s , m e e t i n g s a n d c o n f e r e n c e s t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r t o p i c s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e f i e l d o f human a g i n g , p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d r e p o r t s o n r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e a g i n g p r o c e s s , a n d m a j o r r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f a g i n g , s u c h a s t h e u n i v e r s i t y c e n t r e s o f D u k e , C o r n e l l , C h i c a g o , M i c h i g a n a n d S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . S u c h p e o p l e a s B i r r e n ( 1 7 ) , T i b b i t t s ( 6 5 ) , S h o c k ( 5 9 ) , a n d B u r g e s s ( 2 2 ) . h a v e f u r n i s h e d h a n d b o o k s a n d o v e r v i e w s o n human a g i n g a n d h a v e p r o v i d e d much k n o w l e d g e i n t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l , b i o l o g i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l a r e a s o f G e r o n t o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F r o m t h i s m a s s o f l i t e r a t u r e a n d s c i e n t i f i c know-l e d g e a b o u t t h e human a g i n g p r o c e s s , t h i s b r i e f l i t e r a t u r e 3 4 r e v i e w a t t e m p t s t o p r e s e n t some o f t h e m a j o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h e t h e s i s t o p i c : t h a t i s , s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , a n d t h e r e l a t e d u s e o f s c a l e s a n d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l t o o l s a n d t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o m e e t t h e h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l n e e d s o f t h e a g e d . A l s o , s e v e r a l s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e l a s t f e w y e a r s w h i c h c e n t r e o n t h e u s e o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s b y t h e A g e d . T h e s e s t u d i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d b r i e f l y t o d e m o n s t r a t e a n e e d a n d p r i o r i t y f o r s t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e A g e d t o u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e A g e d B r o m l e y ( 2 1 ) h a s p r e s e n t e d a n o v e r v i e w o f human a g i n g i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f human a g i n g . He d e s c r i b e s t h e 65 a n d o v e r y e a r s a s t h e p e r i o d o f s e n e s c e n c e when d i s e n g a g e m e n t f r o m o c c u p t i o n a l r o l e s a n d c o m m u n i t y a f f a i r s o c c u r s . B r o m l e y s u g g e s t s f u r t h e r t h a t s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l d i s o r d e r h e i g h t e n s , a s do p r o m i n e n c e o f k i n s h i p a n d p r i m a r y - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He d i s c u s s e s b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l d e p e n d e n c y o f t h e a g e d , a f t e r 7 0 , a n d t h e i r f u l l d i s e n g a g e m e n t f r o m l i f e a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l t e r m i n a t i o n a t d e a t h . 5 T h e r e h a s b e e n much G e r o n t o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e a r e a o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d s o c i e t y . C u m m i n g s a n d H e n r y ( 2 7 ) , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s H a v i g h u r s t , N e u g a r t e n , a n d T o b i n ^ h a v e p r e s e n t e d a t h e o r y o f d i s e n g a g e m e n t i n l a t e r l i f e w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e d i s e n g a g e f r o m l i f e a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h a t t h i s d i s e n g a g e m e n t i s r e l a t e d t o ' s u c c e s s -f u l a g i n g ' o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . D i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h i s v i e w b y M a d d o x ( 4 1 , 4 2 ) , L i p m a n ( 4 0 ) a n d o t h e r s , h a s l e f t t h e c o n c e p t o f d i s e n g a g e m e n t a n o p e n q u e s t i o n a n d c a p a b l e o f b e i n g i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y f o r d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s o f t h e e l d e r l y . I n N e u g a r t e n ' s e d i t i o n o f MiddleeAg'eeatid 'Aging ( 4 6 ) , s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e a r e p r e s e n t e d . S u s s m a n , T o w n s e n d , N e u g a r t e n , a n d S h a n a s p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s t o s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n t h a t f a m i l y - k i n n e t w o r k s do e x i s t a n d a r e v i t a l t o t h e p r o p e r f u n c t i o n i n g o f e l d e r l y p e o p l e . E v e n t h o u g h t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i s c h a n g i n g , t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e r e m a i n s , a n d i s m o d i f i e d t o m e e t t h e c h a l l e n g e o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l c h a n g e s . B o y d a n d O a k e s ( 1 9 ) p r e s e n t v a r i o u s v i e w s o n t h e s u b j e c t s o f w o r k , l e i s u r e , a n d r e t i r e m e n t a n d t h e w a y s i n w h i c h o l d e r p e o p l e a d j u s t t o t h e s e c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n s . F o r t h e m a l e , ' H a v i g h u r s t , R . J . , Neugar ten , B . L . , and T o b i n , S . S . , "Disengagement and P a t t e r n s of A g i n g , " from Middle Age and Aging3 e d . by B . L . Neugar ten , Chicago U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . 6 t h e r e t i r e m e n t s t a g e c a n be a t r a m a t i c p e r i o d when i n c o m e i s s u d d e n l y l e s s e n e d , p e e r s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h w o r k - r e l a t e d f r i e n d s a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s d e c r e a s e , a n d much o f h i s t i m e m u s t t o s p e n t i n a s i t u a t i o n t h a t he f i n d s f o r e i g n a n d d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t t o . T h e f e m a l e o f t e n h a s d e v e l o p e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a l l o w h e r t o go o n f u n c t i o n i n g r e l a t i v e l y u n a f f e c t e d b y t h e r e t i r e m e n t p r o c e s s e x c e p t p e r h a p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h o s e women who h a v e t a k e n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s i n s o c i e t y ( 8 6 ) . T h e r e h a s b e e n much d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s s t a g e o f l i f e f o r t h e v a r i o u s m a r r i e d , u n m a r r i e d a n d w i d o w e d e l d e r l y ( 6 5 , 7 3 ) . E a c h g r o u p r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t a d j u s t m e n t s t r a t e g y a n d t h i s h a s h a d i t s e f f e c t o n o t h e r a r e a s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n c l u d i n g f a m i l y r o l e s , a c t i v i t i e s a n d ' s u c c e s s f u l a g i n g ' ( 7 3 ) . W i l l i a m s a n d D o n a h u e ( 6 5 ) d i s c u s s t h e c h a n g i n g s t a t u s , r o l e s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e e l d e r l y , a n d t h e e f f e c t o f r e t i r e m e n t i n t o d a y ' s s o c i e t y . R e t i r e m e n t i s s e e n i n c o n t e x t w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n t h e a g i n g s i t u a t i o n . H e a l t h , e c o n o m i c s e c u r i t y , s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , m o r a l e , s e l f - i m a g e , a c t i v i t y , a n d s o c i a l i -z a t i o n a r e b u t a f e w o f t h e s e o t h e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g f a c t o r s w h i c h m u s t be d e a l t w i t h . T i b b i t t s ( 6 6 ) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t w hen c e r t a i n o l d e r p e r s o n s a r e d e p r i v e d o f s o c i a l c o n t a c t s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n , t h e y may h a v e a n a c t u a l n e e d f o r i l l n e s s , 7 a n d b e i n g i l l may b e c o m e i n i t s e l f a s o c i a l r o l e , b r i n g i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e l d e r l y p e r s o n who w o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e h a v e i t . When a n o l d e r p e r s o n h a s l o s t h i s s o c i a l c o n t a c t s , t h r o u g h r e t i r e m e n t , a n d d o e s n o t h a v e t h e s u p p o r t i v e n e t w o r k o f t h e f a m i l y t o a l l o w h i m t o r e c i p r o c a t e w i t h l i f e a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s t a k i n g c a r e o f g r a n d c h i l d r e n , h e l p i n g a r o u n d t h e h o u s e , a n d e x p r e s s i n g o p i n i o n s o n l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , t h a t p e r s o n may o f t e n f i n d a v e n u e s t o a l l e v i a t e h i s l a c k o f s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t a n d n e c e s s i t y f o r l i v i n g . D i s e n g a g e m e n t ( 2 6 ) may p l a y i t s p a r t i n t h i s p r o c e s s a s w e l l , b u t t h e l e s s s u p p o r t e d t h e p e r s o n , t h e m o r e v u l n e r a b l e t h a t p e r s o n b e c o m e s t o t h e f o r c e s o f l i f e . S o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g may b e , a n d i s h y p o t h e s i z e d h e r e , a s a m a j o r f a c t o r i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h r e s o u r c e s , o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e n o r m a l i n c i d e n c e o f p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l d i s o r d e r t h a t a c c o m p a n i e s o l d a g e . S e v e r a l o f t h e s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s r e v i e w b r i n g a t t e n t i o n - t o t h e i s s u e o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g a s i t r e l a t e s t o h e a l t h s e r v i c e u t i l i -z a t i o n . F o r t h e m o m e n t , h o w e v e r , l e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e d e m a n d t h a t i s p l a c e d b y t h e e l d e r l y o n some o f t h e r e s o u r c e s p r o -v i d e d b y t h e h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . U t i l i z a t i o n o f H e a l t h S e r v i c e s b y t h e A g e d I n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e h a v e b e e n a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r o f s t u d i e s a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i n C a n a d a , U n i t e d S t a t e s , B r i t a i n , a n d o t h e r 8 c o u n t r i e s . T h e c o n c e r n f o r r i s i n g c o s t s i n t h e h e a l t h c a r e s e c t o r o f t h e e c o n o m y h a s f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n o n who i s u t i l i z i n g t h e m o s t h e a l t h s e r v i c e a n d i n w h a t a r e a t h i s u t i l i z a t i o n i s 2 t h e g r e a t e s t . R e p o r t s o n t h e C a n a d i a n h e a l t h c a r e s y s t e m s u g g e s t t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f h e a l t h c a r e i s i n h o s p i t a l u t i l i z a t i o n . A n o t h e r 20 p e r c e n t i s t a k e n up i n p h y s i c i a n s ' s e r v i c e s . S t u d i e s b y A n d e r s e n ( 5 , 6 ) a n d A n d e r s o n ( 8 , 9 , 1 0 ) , w o r k i n g w i t h d a t a f r o m t h e H e a l t h I n f o r m a t i o n F o u n d a t i o n a n d N.O.R.C. s u r v e y s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e '50 s a n d '60s show some i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s a n d a g e . F o r e x a m p l e , p e r s o n s 65 a n d o v e r h a v e m o r e home v i s i t s b y p h y s i c i a n s , h o s p i t a l a d m i s s i o n s / d i s c h a r g e s p e a k a t t h e 65 a n d o v e r p e r i o d , l e n g t h o f s t a y i n c r e a s e s w i t h a g e , 70 p e r c e n t o f r e s i d e n t s o f n u r s i n g a n d p e r s o n a l c a r e homes a r e o v e r 75 y e a r s o f a g e , p a t i e n t s i n c h r o n i c c a r e h o s p i t a l s a r e m a i n l y 65 y e a r s o l d a n d o v e r , a n d p e o p l e o v e r 65 y e a r s o l d s p e n d m o r e m o n e y o n h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s t h a n a n y o t h e r a g e g r o u p . T h e N a t i o n a l C e n t r e H e a l t h S t a t i s t i c s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( 4 4 ) s u p p o r t s t h e s e f a c t s . R i c h a r d s o n ( 5 2 ) s u p p o r t s t h e s e f i n d i n g s b y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t r e l a t i v e t o h o s p i t a l u t i l i z a t i o n , t h e p o o r , w h i c h i n c l u d e s a m a j o r i t y o f o l d e r p e o p l e o n p e n s i o n s a n d l o w i n c o m e s , h a v e h i g h e r a d m i s s i o n r a t e s a n d l o n g e r l e n g t h s o f s t a y . W i r i c k F r o m S p e c i a l S t u d y No. 2 9 , " H e a l t h C a r e i n C a n a d a : a C o m m e n t a r y , " p r e s e n t e d by t h e S c i e n c e C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , D r . H.R. R o b e r s o n ( e d . ) , 1973-9 ( 7 4 ) , i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n i n M i c h i g a n , f o u n d t h a t a g e a n d s e x w e r e t h e p r i n c i p l e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f h o s p i t a l u s e , w i t h t h o s e o v e r 65 y e a r s o l d h a v i n g a h o s p i t a l i -z a t i o n r a t i o o f 1 o u t o f e v e r y 6 p e r s o n s i n t h e s a m p l e . A l s o n o t e d was t h e h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h o s e 65 y e a r s o l d a n d o v e r r e c e i v i n g m o r e t h a n o n e h o u s e c a l l b y t h e d o c t o r . A l l o f t h e s t u d i e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e s u g g e s t r e l a t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h u t i l i z a t i o n a n d t h e a d d e d e f f e c t o f f a m i l y s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n . T h e o l d e r , w i d o w e d o r s e p a r a t e d p e r s o n i s s e e n a s a h e a v y u t i l i z e r a s w e l l . S o c i a l s t r u c t u r e a l s o c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a g e a n d s e x a s a p r e d i c t o r o f h i g h u t i l i z a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e a g e d a r e t h e h i g h e s t u t i l i z e r s o f h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s a n d t h a t t h i s u t i 1 i z a t i o n ' i s r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s , a s w e l l a s t o t h e m o r e o b v i o u s n e e d v a r i a b l e s o f i l l n e s s a n d h e a l t h 1 e v e ! . T h e W.H.O./I.C.S.-M.C.U. s t u d y ( 7 6 , 7 7 , 4 , 5 1 ) p o i n t s t o s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s . T h e p r e d i s p o s i n g f a c t o r s o f a g e , f a m i l y s i z e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a n d s o f o r t h h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o n u t i l i z a t i o n , w h i c h , a l t h o u g h n o t a s g r e a t a s t h e f a c t o r o f p e r c e i v e d i l l n e s s , i s w o r t h n o t i n g . M c K i n l a y ' s ( 4 3 ) o v e r v i e w o f t h e u s e o f h e a l t h a n d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s m a k e s r e p e a t e d m e n t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , a s r e g a r d s f a m i l y n e t w o r k s a n d s o c i a l r o l e s , o n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d w e l f a r e f a c i l i t i e s a n d r e s o u r c e s . A s he s t a t e s , 10 The concept's considerable u t i l i t y (referring to the concept of social networks and family patterns) and explanatory power when incorporated in propositions relating to other areas of - social behavior has yet- to be fully explored. M c K i n l a y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l n e t -w o r k s ( r e l a t i n g t o s t u d i e s o n L o n d o n f a m i l i e s ) i n t h e s t u d y o f u t i l i z a t i o n b e h a v i o u r may b r i d g e t h e c o n c e p t u a l g a p t h a t e x i s t s i n g e t t i n g a t t h e r e a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f u t i l i z a t i o n . He s t a t e s , It is perhaps truistic to point out that the family, and its associated kin and friendship networks, are important influences on health and illness behavior, yet there have been remarkably few attempts to specify the nature of such influences. S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e A g e d a s I t R e l a t e s t o U t i l i z a t i o n  o f H e a l t h R e s o u r c e s Among t h o s e s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e l o o k e d a t t h e u t i l i -z a t i o n o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s by t h e a g e d p o p u l a t i o n , f e w a r e s p e c i f i c e n o u g h i n t h e i r d a t a g a t h e r i n g a n d a n a l y s i s t o show a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s o c i a l a n d f a m i l y f u n c t i o n -i n g f a c t o r s a n d t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . M o s t s t u d i e s m e r e l y l e a v e t h e r e a d e r w o n d e r i n g i f t h e r e m i g h t b e a c o n n e c t i o n , b y p o i n t i n g t o t h e h i g h e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s b y o l d e r , w i d o w e d a n d p a r t n e r l e s s p e r s o n s ( 1 4 , 1 6 , 6 0 , 6 2 , 6 4 , 3 1 , 3 2 , 4 8 , 2 8 , 4 5 ) , o r t h e l e s s e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s b y t h o s e 11 o l d e r p e r s o n s who a r e h e a d s o f f a m i l i e s o r who a r e s o c i a l l y a c t i v e a n d f u n c t i o n i n g . P e r h a p s o n e o f t h e b e t t e r s t u d i e s w h i c h p o i n t s t o s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i t s e f f e c t o n h e a l t h s e r v i c e u t i l i z a t i o n i s t h e w o r k o f t h e B r i t i s h r e s e a r c h e r s A b l e - S m i t h a n d T i t m u s s ( 1 ) , a n d l a t e r T o w n s e n d ( 6 8 , 6 9 ) . T h e f i n d i n g s o f A b l e - S m i t h a n d T i t m u s s s h o w e d t h a t a t t h e t i m e o f t h e 1951 C e n s u s i n E n g l a n d , t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e h o s p i t a l b e d s f o r t h e e l d e r l y w e r e o c c u p i e d b y s i n g l e a n d w i d o w e d o r d i v o r c e d p e o p l e . A s t h e y p u t i t , Marriage and its survival into old age appears to be a powerful safeguard against admission to hospitals in general and to mental and 'chronic1 hospitals in p a r t i c u l a r . T o w n s e n d ( 6 8 ) i n h i s s t u d y o f t h e b o r o u g h B e t h n a l G r e e n i n E a s t L o n d o n , a n d c o m p a r a t i v e f i g u r e s f o r i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i z e d o l d e r p e r s o n s i n h o s p i t a l s a n d homes a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t r a n d o m , f o u n d t h a t t h e o l d p e o p l e who make c l a i m s o n h o s p i t a l a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e a r e a v e r y u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g r o u p . A s he s t a t e s . Compared with the population at large many more live alone; more of them are unmarried, more are c h i l d l e s s , more have sons but not daughters, and more are separated from daughters when they have them. H i s c o n c l u s i o n s p o i n t t o t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e c l a i m s made by t h e i s o l a t e d ' o l d e r p e r s o n 1 a n d t h e l e a s t c l a i m s made b y o l d e r women w i t h d a u g h t e r s o r o t h e r f e m a l e r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g n e a r b y . 1 2 S u c h m a n ( 6 3 ) , i n a s t u d y o f a d u l t s o v e r 21 y e a r s o f a g e ( n = 1,883) l i v i n g i n t h e W a s h i n g t o n H e i g h t s c o m m u n i t y o f New Y o r k C i t y , t e s t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who b e l o n g t o r e l a t i v e l y m o r e h o m o g e n e o u s a n d c o h e s i v e g r o u p s w i l l b e m o r e l i k e l y t o r e a c t t o i l l n e s s a n d m e d i c a l c a r e i n t e r m s o f t h e s o c i a l g r o u p d e f i n i t i o n a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e m e d i c a l b e h a v i o u r , r a t h e r t h a n t h e m o r e f o r m a l a n d i m p e r s o n a l i z e d p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e o f f i c i a l m e d i c a l c a r e s y s t e m . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s b a s e d o n t h e p o s t u l a t e t h a t b e h a v i o u r i s c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e s o c i a l g r o u p s w h i c h b e a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . U s i n g t h e G u t t m a n s c a l i n g p r o c e d u r e , t h e s o c i a l i n d i c e s o f e t h n i c e x c l u s i v i t y , f r i e n d s h i p s o l i d a r i t y a n d f a m i l y t r a d i -t i o n a n d a u t h o r i t y w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h i n d i c e s o f r e s p o n s e t o i l l n e s s . T h e f i n d i n g s w e r e a s f o l l o w s . S o c i a l f a c t o r s w e r e f o u n d t o b e p r e d i s p o s i n g t o w a r d i l l n e s s , a l t h o u g h i l l n e s s m i g h t a l s o a f f e c t s o c i a l f a c t o r s , s u c h a s w hen m e d i c a l c o s t s r e d u c e e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . H o w e v e r , t h e i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e s a n d h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e i s a l s o m o r e a f u n c t i o n o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s t h a n g r o u p s t r u c t u r e o r h e a l t h a t t i t u d e s . H e r e we n o t e an i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d ( 8 ) t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s , b a s e d u p o n i n d i v i d u a l i n c o m e , e d u c a t i o n , a n d o c c u p a t i o n ( a s d e f i n e d a n d f o r m u l a t e d by S u c h m a n ) i s an i m p o r t a n t p r e -d i s p o s i n g f a c t o r i n t e r m s o f u t i l i z a t i o n . S u c h m a n f o u n d t h a t 13 o l d e r , l o w e r c l a s s m a l e s i n ' p a r o c h i a l 1 g r o u p s w e r e t w e l v e t i m e s a s l i k e l y t o h o l d a ' p o p u l a r ' h e a l t h o r i e n t a t i o n ( n o n -s c i e n t i f i c o r i e n t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y l o w f a c t u a l k n o w l e d g e a b o u t d i s e a s e , s u s p i c i o n o f o u t s i d e m e d i c a l c a r e , a n d r e l i a n c e u p o n m e m b e r s o f o n e ' s own g r o u p f o r h e l p a n d s u p p o r t d u r i n g i l l n e s s - S u c h m a n ) a s c o m p a r e d t o o l d e r , u p p e r c l a s s f e m a l e s i n ' c o s m o p o l i t a n ' g r o u p s . T h e f i n a l s u m m a r y o f • S u c h m a n 1 s f i n d i n g s i s i n d i c a t e d i n a b e h a v i o u r a l m o d e l w h i c h s h o w s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , S O C I A L F A C T O R S S O C I O - M E D I C A L F A C T O R S M E D I C A L F A C T O R S D e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s S o c i a l g r o u p f a c t o r s •individual medical o r i e n t a t i o n and responses • rep r w i t h i n t e d f rom Suchman, E . A . (63) ar rows i n d i c a t i n g c a u s a l i t y H e a l t h s t a t u s M e d i c a l C a r e T h e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t d e m o g r a p h i c a n d s o c i a l g r o u p s t r u c t u r e f a c t o r s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t l y ( a s w e l l a s d e p e n d e n t l y ) r e l a t e d t o m e d i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , w h i c h i s a g a i n i n d e p e n d e n t l y r e l a t e d t o m e d i c a l c a r e . A r i s e i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s r e f l e c t s a r i s e i n c h o i c e o f p r i v a t e p h y s i c i a n f o r m e d i c a l c a r e , f o r e a c h t y p e 14 o f s o c i a l g r o u p s t r u c t u r e a n d m e d i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n ( p o p u l a r , m i x e d , s c i e n t i f i c ) . S u c h m a n , i n s u m m a r y , s u g g e s t s t h a t p o l i c y t o w a r d s m e d i c a l c a r e a n d p u b l i c h e a l t h p r o g r a m s s h o u l d t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e ' p a r o c h i a l - p o p u l a r ' s o u r c e o f r e s i s t a n c e a n d m a l u t i l i z a -t i o n . W i t h o u t d e b a t i n g t h e i s s u e o f w h e t h e r ' p a r o c h i a l ' , o l d e r , l o w e r c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d be o r i e n t e d t o u s e p h y s i c i a n s ' s e r v i c e s m o r e , i t i s c l e a r f r o m t h i s s t u d y t h a t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , i n t h e a r e a s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l g r o u p s t r u c t u r e , h a s a d e c i d e d e f f e c t o n u t i l i z a t i o n . I s a c c , et al.'s ( 3 6 ) s t u d y o f i l l o l d p e o p l e i n t h e E a s t E n d o f G l a s g o w p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e l a c k o f s u p p o r t i v e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s t o m a i n t a i n o l d e r p e o p l e i n s o c i e t y c a u s e s h i g h e r u t i l i z a t i o n r a t e s f o r t h i s a g e g r o u p . A g a i n , t h e i l l , o l d e r p e r s o n , l i v i n g e i t h e r a l o n e o r o u t o f r e a c h o f f a m i l y m e m b e r s a n d r e l a t i v e s , p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e q u i r e s m o r e m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n a n d c a u s e s a h i g h e r d e m a n d a n d u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . L o w e r s o c i a l c l a s s s h o w e d up a s a p r e d i s p o s i n g f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g u t i l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s . M o r e t h a n t w o -t h i r d s o f t h o s e i n t h e ' g e r i a t r i c ' g r o u p , a s c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r ' m e d i c a l ' p a t i e n t s o v e r 65 y e a r s o f a g e , w e r e o v e r 7 5 y e a r s o l d . A l t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e two g r o u p s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t e n o u g h t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e m , a g e n e r a l t r e n d was e s t a b l i s h e d , t h a t t h e m o r e s o c i a l l y d i s -a d v a n t a g e d t h e e l d e r l y p a t i e n t w a s , i n t e r m s o f h i s o r h e r 1 5 s o c i a l n e t w o r k a n d l i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , t h e m o r e c a r e was r e q u i r e d . O n c e a g a i n , a s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g d e c r e a s e d , s o u t i l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e d . A d a m s , M. a n d S i n d e l l , M.G. ( 3 ) i n a t w o - y e a r l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y , l o o k e d a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f 1 5 0 o l d e r p a t i e n t s a n d t h e i r u s e o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o l l o w i n g d i s c h a r g e f r o m a c h r o n i c i l l n e s s r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n c e n t r e . T h e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a g e , s e x , s o c i o -e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a n d p h y s i c a l f u n c t i o n d i d n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n h i g h a n d l o w u t i l i z e r s o f n u r s i n g c a r e . T h e i n t e n s i t y o f f a m i l y c o m m i t m e n t was p o s i t v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h u t i l i z a t i o n . S u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h e r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o u t s i d e t h e i r h o u s e h o l d s u s e d n u r s i n g s e r v i c e l e s s . I n t h e same s t u d y , A dams a n d S i n d e l l ( 2 ) n o t e d t h e t e n a c i t y o f t h e s o c i a l n e t w o r k i n m a i n t a i n i n g a g i n g , d i s a b l e d p e r s o n s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t o l d e r , d i s a b l e d p e r s o n s f i r s t s e e k m o d i f i e d p r o t e c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t s ( n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l ) ; t h i s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e n u m b e r s s h i f t i n g t o h o mes o f m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n a n d o t h e r s . We h a v e s e e n f r o m t h i s b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a -t u r e t h a t c e r t a i n a r e a s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l f a m i l y n e t w o r k s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l i n g r o u p s , a n d g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f o l d e r p e o p l e w i t h t h e i r p e e r s a n d f r i e n d s t e n d t o s h ow a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e u s e o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s w h e r e s u p p o r t ! " b a s i c c a r e i s r e q u i r e d . A s T o w n s e n d ( 6 8 ) h a s s t a t e d : 16 . . . if any of the -processes and problems of aging are to be understood, old people must be studied as members of families (which usually means extended families of three generations); and if this is true, • those concerned with social and health administration must, at every stage, treat old people as an inseparable part of a family group, which is more than just a residential unit. 1.1 D e v e l o p i n g a M o d e l o f H e a l t h U t i l i z a t i o n b y t h e A g e d W i t h a n o v e r v i e w o f how t h e A g e d f u n c t i o n s o c i a l l y a n d how t h e y u t i l i z e h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , we c a n now a p p r o a c h a f o r m a l i z e d m o d e l l i n g o f how t h e A g e d b e c o m e p r e d i s p o s e d t o w a r d s u t i l i z a t i o n . D r a w i n g h e a v i l y f r o m t h e m o d e l o f p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o w a r d s h e a l t h c a r e u s e d e s c r i b e d b y A n d e r s o n (4), we c a n s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e l e v e l s o f f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( B r o m l e y ( 2 1 ) ) : p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l , a n d b i o l o g i c a l . T h r o u g h t h e d y n a m i c e q u i l i b r i u m e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e s e l e v e l s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e c o m e s p r e d i s p o s e d t o w a r d s h e a l t h a n d m e d i e a - l c a r e u t i l i z a t i o n . F i g u r e 1 s h o w s t h e a u t h o r ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h i s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n a n d t h e e c o l o g -i c a l m e l i e u t h a t e f f e c t s t h e e v e n t u a l u t i l i z a t i o n l e v e l s a s d e s c r i b e d . H e r e we s e e t h a t a s t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s n e e d , a f u r t h e r e q u i l i b r i u m i s e s t a b l i s h e d , m o d i f i e d b y t h e i n t e r -v e n i n g f a c t o r s o f t h e s y s t e m a n d t h e a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o w a r d u s e . O n c e t h i s e q u i l i b r i u m i s f a v o r e d i n t h e ' u s e 1 d i r e c t i o n , f u r t h e r f a c t o r s 1 7 P s y c h o l o g i c a l P r o b l e m s & S t a t u s - m e n t a l s t a t e - s e l f c a r e p e r c e p t i o n S o c i a l S t r u c t u r a l Network I n t e r a c t i o n / E x c h a n g e P a t t e r n s L i f e S t y l e s / A c t i v i t i e s L i f e S t r e s s / C r i s i s H o u s i n f i / H o u s e h o l d _ C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s H e a l t h and M e d i c a l P r o b l e m s & S t a t u s - m o b i l i t y - m o r b i d i t y BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING SYSTEM FACTORS and CONSTRAINTS DEKOGRAPHIC-< SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS PEF1CE1YED HEEDS . 1 r DEMAND MEDICAL FOR CARE A > UTILIZATION (LEVEL 1) A UTILIZATION (LEVEL 2) UTI I.IZATION (LKVK1. ;j) AITlTUDbS EXPECTATIONS! PERCEPTIONS; R a c e / E t h n i c R e l i g i o n E d u c a t i o n Income O c c u w i t i on LI ' PERSONAL ENABLING FACTORS e o f S e - v i c e c P r i l Ked j F i n a n e inr; Methods G e o g r a p h y / D i s t a n c e A F i g u r e 1 . A n e c o l o g i c a l m o d e l o f u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . 18 b e c o m e e v i d e n t . O t h e r m o r e r e s t r i c t i v e s y s t e m s f a c t o r s a s w e l l a s p e r s o n a l e n a b l i n g f a c t o r s e f f e c t t h e f u r t h e r m o v e m e n t b e t w e e n d e m a n d a n d u s e . O n c e h e o v e r c o m e s t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a b l e t o u s e t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f c a r e , f r o m p r i m a r y t o t e r t i a r y , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d r e f e r r a l a n d m e c h a n i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s s e t a t t h i s l e v e l . H a v i n g u s e d t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f c a r e , t h e r e i s a f e e d b a c k l o o p t o p r e -d i s p o s i t i o n w h i c h e f f e c t s t h e f u r t h e r ' e p i s o d i c ' p r e d i s p o s i -t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . O f c o u r s e , e f f e c t i n g t h i s p r e d i s p o -s i t i o n a r e o t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c a n d c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s a s s h o w n i n t h e m o d e l . T h i s t h e n r e p r e s e n t s a d y n a m i c p r e d i s p o s i t i o n - t o -u s e m o d e l f r o m w h i c h we c a n d r a w i n f e r e n c e s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r i n q u i r y . W i t h t h i s m o d e l i n m i n d , t h i s s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d i n a n a t t e m p t t o f i n d a n s w e r s t o some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g t o u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s b y t h e A g e d . C h a p t e r 2 THESIS QUESTION 2 . 1 S t a t e m e n t o f I n q u i r y I n f o r m u l a t i n g a t h e s i s q u e s t i o n , t h e m a i n c o n c e r n was t o o b s e r v e w h e t h e r t h e A g e d p o p u l a t i o n s h o w e d a r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , a n d t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y f u n c t i o n e d s o c i a l l y . T h e s t u d y r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n by l o o k i n g a t a d e f i n e d p o p u l a t i o n o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s w i t h i n t h e V a n c o u v e r A r e a , o b t a i n i n g a n i n d e x o f t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n a n d c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r l e v e l s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . T h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e A g e d i s r e l a t e d t o u t i l i z a t i o n , b u t no s t u d y h a s g i v e n e x p l i c i t d i r e c t i o n t o o r i n f a c t p r o v e d t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p d o e s e x i s t . T o d e m o n -s t r a t e t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h e i n t e n t o f t h e s t u d y p r e s e n t e d h e r e . T h e r e f o r e o u r m a j o r t h e s i s q u e s t i o n i s a s f o l l o w s : Is there a relationship between social functioning in the Aged, defined within a specific population sample, and the utilization of health and medical services by those persons? 19 20 I n r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , s e v e r a l f a c t o r s a r e i m p l i c i t . O n e , i f t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p , w h a t . d i r e c t i on d o e s i t t a k e ? T h a t i s , d o e s l o w e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g r e l a t e t o h i g h e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s ? S e c o n d , i s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t r u e f o r a l l t h o s e u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c e s m e a s u r e d ? T h i r d , w h a t , i f a n y , c o n t r i b u t i o n o r e f f e c t d o i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s p l a y i n t h e a b o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? F i n a l l y , d o e s d e p e n d e n c y a s d e f i n e d b y t h e t y p e o f r e s i d e n t i a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n u s e d b y t h e s u b p o p u l a t i o n s s t u d i e d , r e l a t e t o t h e a b o v e s u g g e s t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? T h a t i s , d o e s l o w e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g r e l a t e t o h i g h e r h e a t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e u t i l i z a -t i o n o n l y i n g r o u p s o f h i g h d e p e n d e n c y ? T h e s e q u e s t i o n a r e a n s w e r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n -t a t i o n . S u g g e s t i o n s a r e a l s o m a d e , b a s e d o n t h e s e f i n d i n g s , a s t o f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a n d p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s . 2.2 D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s T h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s , i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n , a r e e x p l a i n e d b r i e f l y a s f o l l o w s : Aged - p o p u l a t i o n o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s o l d a n d o v e r . s p e c i f i o population sample - t h o s e s a m p l e s r a n d o m l y d r a w n f r o m a d e f i n e d s u b p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e A g e d a n d d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l , i n t h e M e t h o d o l o g y . 21 social functioning - o n e o f t h r e e l e v e l s o f f u n c -t i o n i n g , d e s c r i b e d i n t h e m o d e l o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e u t i l i z a t i o n , a n d d e f i n e d a s t h o s e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h e m a n a t e f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f p e r s o n s i n t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . E x a m p l e s o f some o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n c l u d e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , c o n t a c t , a c t i v i t y , l i f e s t r e s s , a n d m a r i t a l e x p e r i e n c e . utilization of health and medical services - a s d e f i n e d i n t h e M e t h o d o l o g y , t h o s e i n d i c e s o f u s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h o f t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e m e a s u r e d ( p h y s i c i a n , h o s p i t a l , h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l ) . intervening variables - a s d e f i n e d i n t h e M e t h o d o l o g y , t h o s e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a c c o u n t f o r d e m o g r a p h i c , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , a n d b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , a s w e l l a s a t t i t u d e s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s , p e r s o n a l e n a b l i n g f a c t o r s , a n d s y s t e m c o n s t r a i n t s . 22 C h a p t e r 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 S t u d y D e s i g n I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n , a d e s c r i p t i v e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n . F o l l o w i n g t h e p a r a m e t e r s o u t l i n e d i n t h e m o d e l o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e u t i l i z a -t i o n ( F i g u r e 1 ) , a s a m p l e s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e was e m p l o y e d f o r g a t h e r i n g t h e r e q u i r e d d a t a . T h i s t e c h n i q u e a f f o r d e d a com -p r e h e n s i v e y e t i n e x p e n s i v e m e t h o d o f r e s e a r c h i n g t h e p o p u l a -t i o n b a s e . I t p r o v i d e d f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n s e l e c t i n g q u e s t i o n c o n t e n t a s w e l l a s s p e e d i n c o l l e c t i n g a n d a n a l y z i n g o f d a t a . L i m i t a t i o n s i m p o s e d b y t h e u s e o f a s a m p l e s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e , s u c h a s t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s o n i n t e r v i e w i n g , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s , s a m p l i n g e r r o r s , a n d t i m e a n d m o n e y l i m i t a t i o n s , w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n l i e u o f o t h e r m e t h o d s . H o w e v e r , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e s a m p l e s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e . 3.2 T h e S a m p l e T h e p o p u l a t i o n f r o m w h i c h t h e s a m p l e was d r a w n n u m b e r e d some 1 0 , 0 0 0 ( a p p r o x i m a t i o n ) p e r s o n s , a g e d 65 a n d 23 o v e r , l i v i n g i n V a n c o u v e r , B . C . e i t h e r w i t h i n s e n i o r c i t i z e n ' s r e s i d e n c e s o r i n p e r s o n a l c a r e homes ( b o a r d i n g h o m e s , r e s t h o m e s , p e r s o n a l c a r e h o m e s ) . T h e p o p u l a t i o n w a s % d i v i d e d b e t w e e n t h e s e two g r o u p i n g s a n d d e s c r i b e d a s P o p u l a t i o n A a n d P o p u l a t i o n B r e s p e c t i v e l y ( s e e A p p e n d i x I ) . T h e d i s t i n c -t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s was made o n t h e b a s i s o f d e p e n d e n c y . T h u s , P o p u l a t i o n A was d e s c r i b e d a s p e r s o n s l i v i n g w i t h i n s e n i o r c i t i z e n ' s r e s i d e n c e s who ( b e c a u s e o f e l i g i b i l i t y r e -q u i r e m e n t s ) w e r e a b l e t o c a r e f o r t h e i r b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f d a i l y l i v i n g ( f e e d i n g , d r e s s i n g , g r o o m i n g , t o i l e t , p h y s i c a l a m b u l a t i o n a n d d r e s s i n g ) ; a n d P o p u l a t i o n B was d e s c r i b e d a s t h o s e p e r s o n s u n a b l e t o m e e t t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d s o b e c a m e e l i g i b l e f o r p e r s o n a l c a r e a c c o m m o d a t i o n . T h e t e c h n i q u e o f s t r a t i f i e d r a n d o m s a m p l i n g was u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s t e c h n i q u e a l l o w s f o r t h e d i v i s i o n o f a p o p u l a t i o n i n t o a n u m b e r o f s t r a t e o r s u b p o p u l a t i o n s , s o t h a t t h e e l e m e n t s s e l e c t e d w i t h i n e a c h s t r a t u m a r e m o r e h o m o g e n e o u s t h a n e l e m e n t s b e t w e e n s t r a t a . S t r a t i f i e d s a m p l e s h a v e a n u m b e r o f a d v a n t a g e s o v e r s i m p l e r a n d o m s a m p l i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a l l o w s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f w h a t e v e r i n f o r m a t i o n he may p o s s e s s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . W i t h t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , s a m p l i n g c a n be d o n e m o r e e f f i c i e n t l y t h a n i f i t w e r e u n a v a i l -a b l e . S e c o n d l y , i t c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s a m p l i n g e r r o r s a r i s e o n l y w i t h i n s t r a t e , n o t b e t w e e n s t r a t a ( 8 2 ) . I f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n e a c h s t r a t u m c a n be r e d u c e d , t h e e s t i m a t e 24 o f t h e p a r a m e t e r w i l l b e m o r e a c c u r a t e t h a n i f o n e h a d t o s a m p l e r a n d o m l y t h r o u g h o u t a n e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l i n g a l l o w s c a s e s w i t h i n e a c h s t r a t u m t o be s e l e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s a n d i n d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s . S i n c e i t w o u l d r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t a n d much a d d i t i o n a l t i m e t o a d e q u a t e l y m e a s u r e d e p e n d e n c y a s a v a r i a b l e a n d s i n c e t h e s u b g r o u p m e n t i o n e d h a s , b y d e f i n i t i o n , b e e n s e l e c t e d o n t h i s b a s i s , t h e n s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a s s u c h p r o v i d e s t h e a d v a n t a g e s m e n t i o n e d . N e x t , t wo m a i n s u b g r o u p s , G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B, w e r e r a n d o m l y s a m p l e d u s i n g a t a b l e o f r a n d o m d i g i t s , a f t e r p r e -v i o u s l y ' o r d e r i n g ' t h e m e m b e r s o f e a c h s u b g r o u p . F i v e s a m p l e r e s i d e n c e s w e r e c h o s e n f r o m e a c h s u b p o p u l a t i o n , c o m p r i s i n g a t o t a l o f 6 2 7 r e s i d e n t s f r o m P o p u l a t i o n A ( s e n i o r c i t i z e n r e s i d e n t s ) a n d 1 2 5 r e s i d e n t s f r o m P o p u l a t i o n B ( p e r s o n a l c a r e h o m e s ) . A s a m p l i n g r a t e s a m p l e s i z e r e q u i r e d  # o f r e s i d e n t s i n s u b p o p u l a t i o n was a p p l i e d t o e a c h r e s i d e n c e i n o r d e r t o s e l e c t a n e q u i t a b l e s a m p l e s i z e f r o m e a c h r e s i d e n c e . T h e n t h e n u m b e r o f r e s i -d e n t s s e l e c t e d f o r e a c h r e s i d e n c e was r a n d o m l y s a m p l e d f r o m a n o r d e r e d l i s t o f r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n c e . T h e s a m p l e s i z e s e l e c t e d f r o m e a c h s u b p o p u l a t i o n was s e t a t 25 1 0 0 . T h i s f i g u r e was s e l e c t e d t o a l l o w f o r a d e q u a t e s t a t i s -t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e t i m e a n d m o n e y c o n s t r a i n t s a f f o r d e d t h e s t u d y . O n c e t h e s a m p l e g r o u p s , G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B r e s p e c t i v e l y , w e r e s e l e c t e d , a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e two g r o u p s was u n d e r t a k e n . I n o r d e r t o f u l l y c o v e r t h e v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n , a s u m m a r y 1 i s t o f g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n a r e a s a n d s u b j e c t s was c o m p o s e d . F r o m t h i s l i s t a n i n s t r u m e n t was d e v e l o p e d t o m e a s u r e t h e d e p e n d e n t a n d i n d e -p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . T h e r e s p o n s e r a t e was c a l c u l a t e d a s b e i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e who r e s p o n d e d t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t o v e r t h o s e who w e r e a b l e t o r e s p o n d ( t o t a l # o f p o s s i b l e r e s p o n d e n t s ) . T h e i n s t r u m e n t u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n t a i n e d a m e n t a l s t a t u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h r e d u c e d t h e s a m p l e s e l e c t e d o r i g i n a l l y ( G r o u p A - 3%; G r o u p B - 1 1 % ) . A f u r t h e r 6% i n G r o u p A a n d 9% i n G r o u p B w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s u r v e y . O f t h o s e r e m a i n i n g a s p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e f o r G r o u p A was 8 4 . 6 % ( 1 5 . 4 % r e f u s a l s ) a n d f o r G r o u p B was 8 5 % ( 1 5 % r e f u s a l s ) . 3.3 I n s t r u m e n t F r o m a l i s t o f g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s a n d s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a n i n t e r v i e w - q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o m p o s e d . B e c a u s e some r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e u n a b l e t o w r i t e 26 c l e a r l y o r r e a d e f f e c t i v e l y , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r e s e n t e d i n a n i n t e r v i e w m a n n e r , a n d s o p r o v i d e d f o r some f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h e i n t e r v i e w - q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o m p o s e d o f s c a l e s a b s t r a c t e d f r o m l i t e r a t u r e s o u r c e s ( 3 7 , 3 8 , 5 0 * 8 0 , 8 3 ) a s w e l l a s some o r i g i n a l s c a l e s a n d q u e s t i o n s c o m p o s e d b y t h e a u t h o r . T h e n o n - o r i g i n a l s c a l e s w h i c h w e r e u s e d w e r e c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f o r v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y ( r e f e r t o 3 8 , 5 0 , 8 0 a n d 8 3 ) . O f t h e f e w s c a l e s t h a t w e r e o r i g i n a l , c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o w o r d i n g a n d c o n t e n t s o a s t o m i n i m i z e e r r o r s . A s a f i r s t a t t e m p t t o t e s t t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d f a t i g u e f a c t o r s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t , t h e f i r s t d r a f t was p r e -t e s t e d u s i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e g r o u p n o t c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n b u t w i t h a n a l o g o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S i x r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e e x p o s e d t o t h e i n i t i a l d r a f t o f t h e i n t e r -v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S u b s e q u e n t l y , r e v i s i o n s w e r e made t o t h e i n t e r v i e w - q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y c e r t a i n a r e a s w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , a n d t o r e d u c e t h e s i z e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s r e v i s e d d r a f t was t h e n e m p l o y e d a s t h e i n s t r u m e n t ( s e e A p p e n d i x V I I ) . T h e i n t e r v i e w - q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h r e e i n t e r v i e w e r s who h a d t a k e n p a r t i n s i m i l a r p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ( a u t h o r i n c l u d e d ) . A l l i n t e r v i e w e r s s p e n t a w e ek d i s c u s s i n g common a p p r o a c h e s a n d a t t e m p t i n g t o r e d u c e i n t e r -v i e w e r b i a s . S p e c i f i c t e s t s o f i n t e r v i e w e r b i a s w e r e p e r -f o r m e d u s i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t a n d m e a s u r i n g t h e v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n 27 s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n r e s p o n s e s f o r t h e same s u b j e c t b y a l l i n t e r -v i e w e r s . T h e t e s t s r e v e a l e d a l o w l e v e l (<5%) o f i n t e r v i e w e r v a r i a t i o n a s s h o w n b e l o w ; E x a m i n a t i o n o f I n t e r v i e w e r V a r i a n c e o n S e I e c t e d T e s t s I n t e r v i ew I I n t e r v i e w 2 I n t e r v i ew 3 P.G.C. S e a 1e S o c i a l R ea d j u s t m e n t R a t i ng S c a l e P h y s i c a 1 S e 1 f - M a i n t e n a n c e S c a l e 1 4 550 6 1 4 5 3 7 6 1 3 5 63 6 T h e s e t h r e e s c a l e s ( t e s t s ) w e r e s e l e c t e d a n d d e l i v e r e d a t o n e w e e k i n t e r v a l s t o a r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t , o f s i m i l a r d e m o g r a p h i c c o m p o s i t i o n t o t h e s t u d y g r o u p ( a g e , l o c a t i o n , e t c . ) by e a c h i n t e r v i e w e r r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e r e s i d e n c e m a n a g e r s w e r e c o o h t a e f c e d h b y r - m a i 1 ( s e e l e t t e r - A p p e n d i x I I I ) i n f o r m i n g t h e m o f t h e s t u d y . F u l l a p p r o v a l f r o m T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o c a r r y o u t t h e s t u d y was g r a n t e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I ) . W i t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o w e e k s , e a c h r e s i d e n c e m a n a g e r was v i s i t e d p e r s o n a l l y b y t h e a u t h o r a n d h i s o r h e r a p p r o v a l c o n f i r m e d . F o l l o w i n g a p p r o v a l o f t h e m a n a g e r s , t h e r e s i d e n t s w e r e s e l e c t e d a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s w e r e b r o u g h t i n . E a c h i n t e r v i e w e r w as i n t r o -d u c e d b y a l e t t e r ( s e e A p p e n d i x I V ) t o t h e s u b j e c t e x p l a i n i n g 28 t h e s t u d y a n d o u t l i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y ( c o n s e n t , c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) . O n c e c o n s e n t was g i v e n , t h e i n t e r v i e w b e g a n . T h e a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f i n t e r v i e w was 40 m i n u t e s ; t h e r a n g e was b e t w e e n 20 t o 60 m i n u t e s . T h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e p e r f o r m e d p r i v a t e l y i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s p e r s o n a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n o n e s i t t i n g . P o s s i b l e r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e s e l e c t e d r a n d o m l y f r o m t h e l i s t , b y e a c h i n t e r v i e w e r . T h e r e s i d e n c e s w e r e s e l e c t e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d r a n d o m l y . A l l i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o m p l e t e d b e t w e e n A p r i l 2 9 , 1 9 7 4 , a n d May 3 1 , 1 9 7 4 . A f i n a l l e t t e r o f t h a n k s was s e n t t o e a c h r e s p o n d e n t ( s e e A p p e n d i x V ) . No c o m p l a i n t s a r o s e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e s t u d y . O n l y i n o n e c a s e d i d a r e s p o n d e n t c a l l t o q u e r y w h e t h e r s h e m i g h t be a b l e t o g i v e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n n o t r e q u e s t e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w . 3.4 S e l e c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s Due t o t h e s c o p e o f t h e m o d e l o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e u t i l i z a t i o n f r o m w h i c h t h e i n s t r u m e n t was c o m p o s e d , t h e i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w - q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d 125 d i s c r e t e q u e s t i o n s , some o f w h i c h w e r e s c a l e s o r m a t r i c e s t h a t g e n e r a t e d m o r e t h a n o n e r e s p o n s e . , When t h e d a t a was a n a l y s e d , i t was p o s s i b l y t o g e n e r a t e a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s f r o m t h e b a s i c l i s t b y l o o k i n g w i t h i n q u e s t i o n s a n d s c a l e s t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f m o r e s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s t o a q u e s t i o n a r e a . 29 A t t h i s s t a g e , t h e v a r i a b l e l i s t c o m p r i s e d some 213 v a r i a b l e s ( d e p e n d e n t , i n d e p e n d e n t a n d i n t e r v e n i n g ) . T h i s n u m b e r o f v a r i a b l e s , w i t h t h e s m a l l 'n' ( G r o u p A = 7 7 ; G r o u p B = 6 8 ) made i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t f e w e r 'pwime' v a r i a b l e s b e l i s t e d t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e m o d e l p a r a m e t e r s . W i t h t h i s a i m , u s i n g a h e u r i s t i c a p p r o a c h i n v o l v i n g l o g i c , l i t e r a -t u r e r e s e a r c h , a n d c o r r e l a t i o n v a l u e s a s i n c l u s i o n p a r a m e t e r s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o r e d u c e t h e l i s t t o 29 v a r i a b l e s f o r G r o u p A a n d 30 v a r i a b l e s f o r G r o u p B ( s e e A p p e n d i x V I ) . T h i s l i s t was f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d t o e x p a n d i n c e r t a i n g r o u p s a n d c r e a t e c o m p o s i t e v a r i a b l e s t h a t r e l a t e d t o a common t h e m e , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d 'n' v a l u e o f t h e v a r i a b l e s l i s t e d . F o r e x a m p l e , d u e t o l o w n u m b e r s o f d i s c r e t e m a r i t a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e r e s p o n s e s , a new c o m p o s i t e v a r i a b l e c a l l e d ' m a r i t a l e x p e r i e n c e 1 was d e r i v e d . T h i s v a r i a b l e t o o k t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s i n f o r m a t i o n a n d e x p a n d e d i t t o i n c l u d e l e n g t h o f t i m e i n c u r r e n t s t a t u s p l u s n u m b e r o f l i v i n g c h i l d r e n . T h i s new c o m p o s i t e v a r i a b l e t h e n g a v e a s c o r e f r o m l o w t o h i g h f o r t h e a m o u n t o f m a r i t a l e x p e r i e n c e p e r r e s p o n d e n t . A p p e n d i x VI o u t l i n e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s f i n a l l i s t o f v a r i a b l e s . . T h e f o l l o w i n g o v e r v i e w o f t h e v a r i a b l e l i s t u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a w i l l d i s p l a y t h e m a j o r m o d e l p a r a m e t e r s c o n s i d e r e d . 30 3.4.1 D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s I n o r d e r t o m e a s u r e t h e u s e o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c i a n u s e , u s e o f h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l a n d s e r v i c e s , a n d h o s p i t a l u s e , t h r e e f i n a l i n d i c e s w e r e g e n e r a t e d a s f o l l o w s : Physician Use Index - t h i s i n d e x m e a s u r e d t h e r e p o r t e d n u m b e r o f v i s i t s t o t h e p h y s i c i a n w i t h i n t h e p a s t p e r i o d s o f d a y , w e e k , m o n t h a n d y e a r . T h i s m a t r i x was t h e n r e v i e w e d f o r e a c h r e s p o n d e n t t o c r o s s c h e c k a s t o t h e a v e r a g e r e p o r t e d v i s i t s p e r y e a r . T h i s f i g u r e was th'en u s e d a s a n i n d e x o f p h y s i c i a n u s e ( q u e s t i o n 4 4 , A p p e n d i x V I I ) . Dependent Use Index - t h i s i n d e x was s i m i l a r t o t h e i n d e x a b o v e , e x c e p t t h a t i t g e n e r a t e d a n u m e r i c a l s c a l e * f o r l e v e l s o f d e p e n d e n t u s e o f a n c i l l a r y o r h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l ) a n d d e p e n d e n t u s e ( a b o v e a v e r a g e y e a r l y u s e o f h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l ) a n d d e p e n d e n t u s e ( a b o v e a v e r a g e u s e o f h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l ) . T h e h i g h e r t h e s c o r e o f u s e a b o v e t h e a v e r a g e c u t o f f , t h e g r e a t e r t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s s c o r e d d e p e n d e n t u s e ( q u e s t i o n 5 3 , A p p e n d i x V I I ) . D e p e n d e n t use was d e f i n e d as t h e use o f h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l who w o u l d n o r m a l l y not be u s e d by p e r s o n s o f a v e r a g e h e a l t h s t a t u s ( i . e . p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e , s o c i a l w o r k e r , p r i v a t e n u r s i n g s e r v i c e s , e t c . ) . 31 Hospital Use Index - a s a m e a s u r e o f h o s p i t a l u s e , t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f d a y s s p e n t i n h o s p i t a l w i t h i n t h e l a s t y e a r was g e n e r a t e d a s an a b s o l u t e f i g u r e . No a t t e m p t was made t o r e d u c e t h i s n u m b e r t o ' e p i s o d e s ' s i n c e o u r c o n c e r n i n t h i s s t u d y was t o r e l a t e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g t o u s e o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s ; s o t h e a c t u a l n u m b e r o f d a y s s p e n t i n h o s p i t a l g a v e a c l e a r e r v i e w o f how t h a t r e s p o n d e n t was c a p a b l e o f b e i n g s u p p o r t e d o u t s i d e o f t h e h o s p i t a l f a c i l i t y . 3.4.2 I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s T h e r e w e r e s e v e n d i s t i n c t g r o u p s o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s f o l l o w i n g t h e m o d e l p a r a m e t e r s o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r . T h e m a j o r i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s . A l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a s i n t e r v e n -i n g o r ' c u t t i n g ' v a r i a b l e s . T h e s e s e c o n d a r y v a r i a b l e s w e r e e m p l o y e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s a s c o n t r o l s f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t e d b e t w e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a n d t h e d e p e n -d e n t v a r i a b l e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a n o v e r v i e w o f a l l i n d e -p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . 2 . 4 . 2 . 1 S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g V a r i a b l e s Contact variables - a s a m e a s u r e o f t h e a m o u n t o f c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e r e s p o n d e n t a n d h i s o r h e r f a m i l y a n d f r i e n d s , f i v e d i s c r e t e a n d o n e o v e r a l l v a r i a b l e w e r e d e v e l o p e d a s f o l l o w s : 32 - T o t a l s i b l i n g c o n t a c t - T o t a l c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t - T o t a l g r a n d c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t - T o t a l g r e a t - g r a n d c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t - T o t a l f r i e n d c o n t a c t - T o t a l c o n t a c t - a l l T h e s e v a r i a b l e s w e r e a b s t r a c t e d f r o m a l a r g e r m a t r i x o f c o n -t a c t ( q u e s t i o n 3 4 a , A p p e n d i x V I I ) a n d i n t e r n a l l y w e i g h t e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x V I ) f o r t h e t y p e o f c o n t a c t ( w r i t t e n , p h o n e d , o r v i s i t e d ) . Activity variables - a s a m e a s u r e o f t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , f o u r d i s c r e t e a n d o n e o v e r a l l v a r i a b l e w e r e d e v e l o p e d a s f o l l o w s : - T o t a l S p e c i a l A c t i v i t i e s - T o t a l P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s - T o t a l R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s - T o t a l O r g a n i z e d a n d S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s - T o t a l A c t i v i t i e s - a l l T h e s e v a r i a b l e s w e r e a b s t r a c t e d f r o m a l a r g e r m a t r i x o f a c t i v i t y ( q u e s t i o n ' A c t i v i t i e s ' , p . 2 3 , A p p e n d i x V I I ) a n d i n t e r n a l l y w e i g h t e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x V I ) f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e s e a c t i v i t y a r e a s ( a l o n e , s p o u s e o n l y , o r f a m i l y , f r i e n d s a n d i n f o r m a l s ) . 33 Exchange variables - a s a m e a s u r e o f t h e a m o u n t o f i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e ( f a m i l y o n l y ) f o r e a c h r e s p o n d e n t , f o u r v a r i a b l e s w e r e g e n e r a t e d a s f o l l o w s : - E x c e s s i v e g i v i n g exchange - Two-way exchange - G i v i n g excha nge - R e c e i v i n g exchange T h e s e v a r i a b l e s w e r e a b s t r a c t e d f r o m a l a r g e r e x c h a n g e s c a l e ( q u e s t i o n 3 2 , A p p e n d i x V I I ) a s d e s c r i b e d i n A p p e n d i x V I ) . Life Stress - a m e a s u r e o f l i f e s t r e s s was g e n e r a t e d u s i n g q u e s t i o n 3 5 , A p p e n d i x V I I . T h i s s c a l e r e p r e s e n t s a t r u n c a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e A d u l t S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g s c a l e o f T. H o l m e s , et al. ( 8 0 ) . Family Structure - t h i s v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a c o m p o s i t e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h m e a s u r e d i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y m e m b e r s . W e i g h t i n g was g i v e n t o t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y o v e r t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y . A t o t a l s c o r e r e f l e c t e d t h e c a p a c i t y f o r a f a m i l y s u p p o r t s y s t e m ( h i g h e r s c o r e = h i g h e r c a p a c i t y = g r e a t e r f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e ) . Total Social Scale - t h i s v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a c o m p o s i t e o f q u e s t i o n s 2 6 a , b a n d c , A p p e n d i x V I I . By c o m b i n i n g a l l t h r e e q u e s t i o n s i n t o a s c o r e , i t was p o s s i b l e 34 t o r e f l e c t t h e d e g r e e o f s o c i a l s t a t u s f o r e a c h r e s p o n d e n t ( h i g h e r s c o r e = h i g h e r s t a t u s ) . Marital Experience - a s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r b y e x a m p l e , t h i s v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a c o m p o s i t e o f t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s r e s p o n s e s p l u s a c o n c e r n f o r t h e n u m b e r o f l i v i n g c h i l d r e n . T h e v a r i a b l e t h u s g i v e s a m e a s u r e o f m a r i t a l e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e f a c t i t s e l f . 3 . 4 . 2 . 2 I n t e r v e n i n g V a r i a b l e s Demographic Variables Age - r e p r e s e n t s the p resent age of the person in years ( in some c a s e s , grouped in to u n i t s of 5 years as in q u e s t i o n 2, Appendix V i i ) . Sex - r e p r e s e n t s the r e s p o n d e n t ' s sex Re 1 i g i on /B i r th - t h i s v a r i a b l e r e f l e c t s both the r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n of the respondent and the p l a c e of b i r t h . Due to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e i t h e r of these v a r i a b l e s , n e i t h e r v a r i a b l e was of use by i t s e l f . However, by com-b i n i n g the two v a r i a b l e s , a b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t e d v a r i a b l e was a c h i e v e d which r e f l e c t e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondent more d i s c r i m i n a t e 1 y . Fam i 1 y S t r u c t u r e -| T o t a l S o c i a l S c a l e as d i s c u s s e d under " S o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e 1 used M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e J here as ' c u t t i n g ' v a r i a b l e s 35 Reason f o r Moving to B . C . - t h i s v a r i a b l e is a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of q u e s t i o n 19, Appendix VII to o b t a i n a more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g d i s -t r i b u t i o n of reasons why respondents moved to B . C . S tab i1? ty - t h i s v a r i a b l e is a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of q u e s t i o n 17, Appendix VII to measure the s t a b i l i t y of the respondents wi th r e s p e c t to l o c a t i o n . Biological Variables General Hea l th - t h i s v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a composi te score f o r q u e s t i o n 27, Appendix VI I . It r e f l e c t s the genera l h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks as to the r e s p o n d e n t ' s genera l a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n in good h e a l t h . (The h igher the s c o r e , the b e t t e r the h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g . ) Mob i1 i ty - t h i s v a r i a b l e r e f l e c t s the p h y s i c a l impairment or handicap (ques t ion 28, Appendix V I l ) the respondent h a s . (The h i g h e r the s c o r e , the l e s s mobi le the r e s p o n d e n t . ) M o r b i d i t y - t h i s v a r i a b l e r e f l e c t s the presence of long s t a n d i n g or c h r o n i c morbidity or i l l n e s s (ques t ion 29, Appendix V I l ) wi th the respondent . (The h igher the s c o r e , the more i l l n e s s the respondent has had. ) Meals - t h i s v a r i a b l e represen ts the e a t i n g h a b i t s of the respondent (ques t ion 61, Appendix V l l ) . (The h igher the s c o r e , the more f r e q u e n t l y the respondent e a t s / d a y . ) 36 Psychologieal Variables Due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n m e a s u r i n g ( s u b j e c t i v e l y ) t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t , a n d i n l i e u o f a m e n t a l h e a l t h s t a t u s p r e - q u e s t i o n n a i r e , o n l y o n e s c a l e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g was e m p l o y e d , t h a t b e i n g t f t h e P.G.C. m o r a l e s c a l e . T h i s s c a l e t e s t s t h e o v e r a l l m o r a l e o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t . ( H i g h e r s c o r e s d e n o t e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f m o r a l e . ) Attitude Variables M e d i c a l S a t i s f a c t i o n - t h i s v a r i a b l e r e p r e -s e n t s t h e l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n ( s u b j e c t i v e ) w i t h h e a l t h and m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s as s e e n by t h e r e s p o n d e n t . ( H i g h e r s c o r e s d e n o t e l e s s s a t i s f a c t i o n . ) D i s t r u s t - t h i s v a r i a b l e i s a r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f q u e s t i o n 58, A p p e n d i x V l l to r e f l e c t the d i s t r u s t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f o r h e a l t h and m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s ( h i g h e r s c o r e d e n o t e s g r e a t e r d i s t r u s t ) . Personal Enabling Variables Due t o t h e f a c t t h a t a l l s e n i o r c i t i z e n s r e c e i v e b o t h M e d i c a r e a n d P h a r m a c a r e , a s w e l l a s m i n i m a l h o s p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e ( $ l / d a y ) , t h e d i r e c t c o s t o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l c a r e i s m i n i m a l a n d a s s u c h n e g a t e s m e a s u r e o f f i n a n c i a l e l e g i b i l i t y . H o w e v e r , some s e r v i c e s r e m a i n o u t s i d e t h e r e a l m o f t h o s e p r e p a i d m e d i c a l p l a n s a n d do c a u s e some d e g r e e o f p e r s o n a l e n a b l i n g p r e j u d i c e . D i s t a n c e t o t h o s e f a c i l i t i e s i s a l s o a d e t e r m i n a t e o f u s e a s o u t l i n e d in t h e m o d e l p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e two m a j o r (4 v a r i a b l e s ) a r e a s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a s f o l l o w s : 37 Ext ra Cost - t h i s v a r i a b l e r e f l e c t s the e x t r a c o s t i n c u r r e d f o r s e r v i c e s o u t s i d e the p r e p a i d medical p lans (ques t ion 55, Appendix VII) (Higher s c o r e denotes e x t r a c o s t ) . Convenience of Use p h y s i c i a n Convenience of Use -h o s p i t a l Conven i ence of Use -Heal th Re la ted Personnel these v a r i a b l e s r e -f leet- the conven ience wi th which the r e -spondent may use the • h e a l t h and medical s e r v i c e s (ques t ion 56, Appendix VII) (h igher s c o r e s denote g r e a t e r i nconveni e n c e ) . System Variables I t was n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y t o g e n e r a t e d a t a o n ' p h y s i c i a n g e n e r a t e d d e m a n d ' a n d a s s u c h m e a s u r e t h e • d e g r e e t o w h i c h n e e d i s c o n v e r t e d t o de m a n d f o r h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . H o w e v e r , t h e f o l l o w i n g two v a r i a b l e s r e f l e c t how t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t c o n c e r n -i n g t h i s i s s u e . Forced Use - t h i s v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t s the r e s p o n d e n t ' s f e e l i n g as to whsthwhethe rp'thie p h y s i c i a n was f o r c i n g him or her to r e c e i v e medical a t t e n t i o n (ques t ion 59, Appendix V I I ) . (Higher s c o r e s denotes f o r c e f u l use . ) Cho i ce of Use - t h i s v a r i a b l e r e f l e c t s the r e s p o n d e n t ' s f e e l i n g regard ing h is or her c h o i c e of h e a l t h or medical s e r v i c e s ( q u e s t i o n 60, Appendix V l l l ) . (Higher s c o r e denotes l e s s c h o i c e . ) C h a p t e r 4 RESULTS 4.1 S e c t i o n A : P r o f i l e o f S u b - G r o u p s 4.1.1 G r o u p A ( R e s i d e n t i a l H o u s i n g G r o u p ) 4 . 1 . 1 . 1 Aje_ A g e r a n g e d f r o m 65 t o 95 w i t h a m e a n , m e d i a n a n d mode o f 7 6 . 7 6 , 7 5 . 1 5 , a n d 7 5 . 0 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e l a r e p r e -s e n t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s g r o u p a c c o r d i n g t o a g e g r o u p i n g . T h e a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f G r o u p A a r e b e t w e e n 65 a n d 80 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 0 % ) w i t h a d e c l i n e i n a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n a f t e r a g e 8 0 . T a b l e l a A g e T o t a l # % o f T o t a l 6 5 - 6 9 7 0 - 7 4 7 5 - 7 9 8 5 - 8 9 90+ 10 28 10 8 3 1 3 . 0 3 6 . 4 1 3 . 0 1 0 . 3 3.9 T O T A L 77 1 0 0 . 0 38 4 . 1 . 1 . 2 S e x S e x d i s t r i b u t i o n ( a s i n T a b l e 2 a ) s h o w e d t h a t women o u t n u m b e r e d men 3 t o 1. T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n c a n be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e h i g h r a t e o f m a r i t a l d i s s o l u t i o n d u e t o d e a t h o f a s p o u s e . O U r n e x t s e c t i o n o n m a r i t a l s t a t u s s u p p o r t s t h i s c l a i m . T a b l e 2a S e x T o t a l # % o f T o t a l M a l e F e m a l e 17 60 22.1 7 7 . 9 T O T A L 77 1 0 0 . 0 4 0 4 . 1 . 1 . 3 M a r i t a l S t a t u s A s s h o w n i n T a b l e 3 a , t h e l a r g e s t m a r i t a l s t a t u s g r o u p s a r e t h e w i d o w e d g r o u p ( 5 0 . 6 % ) . S e c o n d a r e t h o s e p r e s e n t l y m a r r i e d ( 2 4 . 7 % ) ; w i t h t h o s e who a r e s i n g l e , d i v o r c e d , o r s e p a r a t e d o c c u p y i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 % o f t h e t o t a l g r o u p . T h i s i s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s a n d s t a t i s t i c s o n r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g g r o u p s ( 1 5 , 8 4 ) . T a b l e 3a M a r i t a l S t a t u s T o t a l # % o f T o t a l M a r r i e d 19 2 4 . 7 S i n g l e 11 1 4 . 3 D i v o r c e d 4 5.2 Wi d o w e d 39 5 0 . 6 S e p a r a t e d 4 5.2 T O T A L 77 1 0 0 . 0 41 4 . 1 . 1 . 4 R a c e O f t h e t o t a l g r o u p , o n l y 1 r e s p o n d e n t was O r i e n t a l , l e a v i n g 9 8 . 7 % o f t h e g r o u p C a u c a s i a n ( O c c i d e n t a l ) . 4 . 1 . 1.5 P l a c e o f B i r t h Among t h o s e i n t h e g r o u p , m o r e t h a n h a l f w e r e b o r n i n t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s , a s s h o w n i n T a b l e 4 a . T a b l e 4 a P l a c e o f B i r t h T o t a l # % o f T o t a l C a n a d a 17 22.1 U . S .A. 4 5.2 B r i t i s h I s l e s 44 57.1 A u s t r a l i a 0 0.0 O t h e r 12 1 5 . 6 T O T A L 77 1 0 0 . 0 42 4.1.1.6 R e l i g i o n T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e g r o u p ( 8 0 . 5 % ) w e r e P r o t e s t a n t . T a b l e 5a s h o w s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n . T a b l e 5a R e l i g i o n T o t a l # % o f T o t a l - • . P r o t e s t a n t 62 8 0 . 5 > C a t h b < l : i c 4 5,2 No r e l i g i o n 8 1 0 . 4 O t h e r 3 3.9 T O T A L 77 1 0 0 . 0 43 4 . 1 . 1 . 7 P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e T h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p h a v e l i v e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a c c o m m o d a t i o n b e t w e e n 5-9 y e a r s , a n d h a v e r e s i d e d i n V a n c o u v e r , B . C . f o r o v e r 20 y e a r s a s s h o w n i n T a b l e 6 a . T a b l e 6 a P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e 0 -"11 m o n t h s T l — 4 4 y e a r s 5 - 9 y e a r s 10 - 19 y e a r s 20 - 29 y e a r s 30+ y e a r s # % # % # % # % # % # % P r e s e n t A c c o m m o d a t i o n 28 3 6 . 4 10 1 3 . 0 35 4 5 . 4 4 5.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 V a n c o u v e r 1 1.3 2 2.6 5 6.5 12 1 5 . 6 21 2 7 . 3 36 4 6 . 8 B . C . 1 1.3 1 1.3 3 3.9 8 1 0 . 4 20 2 6 . 0 44 57.1 C a n a d a 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 2.6 3 3.9 72 9 3 . 5 44 4 . 1 . 1 . 8 I n c o m e M o s t r e s p o n d e n t s ( 9 6 . 1 % ) i n t h i s g r o u p h a v e m o n t h l y i n c o m e s o f b e t w e e n 2 0 1 - 3 0 0 d o l l a r s . T h e m a i n s o u r c e o f t h i s i n c o m e i s f r o m O l d A g e p e n s i o n a n d O l d A g e S u p p l e m e n t . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 % o f t h i s g r o u p h a v e a d d i t i o n a l i n c o m e f r o m s a v i n g s a n d i n v e s t m e n t s . 45 4 . 1 . 1 . 9 E d u c a t i o n A s s h o w n i n T a b l e 7 a , m o s t r e s p o n d e n t s h a d g r a d e 12 o r l e s s e d u c a t i o n ( 8 3 . 2 % ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 % h a d p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . T a b l e 7a E d u c a t i o n T o t a l # % o f T o t a l No f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g 1 1 .3 P r i m a r y ( g r a d e 8 o r l e s s ) 36 4 6 . 8 S e c o n d a r y ( g r a d e 9 - 1 2 ) 27 35.1 U n i v e r s i t y , n o t f i n i s h e d 4 5.2 N o n a c a d e m i c , p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g 8 1 0 . 4 U n i v e r s i t y , w i t h d e g r e e 1 1 .3 B e y o n d b a s i c u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e 0 0.0 T O T A L 77 1 0 0 . 0 46 4 . 1 . 1 . 1 0 O c c u p a t i o n T h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p ( 4 1 . 6 % ) h a d b e e n h o u s e w i f e s m o s t o f t h e i r l i v e s . T h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t g r o u p w e r e L a b o u r e r s ( 2 2 . 1 % ) , f o l l o w e d by s e c r e t a r i a l / o f f i c e w o r k e r s ( 1 5 . 6 % ) . 4 7 4.1.2 G r o u p B ( P e r s o n a l C a r e Home G r o u p ) 4 . 1 . 2 . 1 A g e A g e r a n g e d f r o m 6 5 - 9 6 w i t h a m e a n , m e d i a n a n d mode o f 8 1 . 1 3 , 8 1 . 5 0 , a n d 7 6 : 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e l b r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s g r o u p a c c o r d i n g t o a g e g r o u p s . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h i s g r o u p a r e b e t w e e n 7 5 - 9 0 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 0 % ) . T a b l e l b A g e T o t a l # % o f T o t a l 6 5 - 6 9 3 4.4 7 0 - 7 4 9 1 3 . 2 7 5 - 7 9 19 2 7 . 9 8 0 - 8 4 14 2 0 . 7 8 5 - 8 9 16 2 3 . 5 90+ 7 1 0 . 3 T O T A L 68 1 0 0 . 0 48 4 . 1 . 2 . 2 S e x T h e s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 2b s h o w s a 3 - t o - l r a t i o o f f e m a l e t o m a l e . S h o r t e r l i f e e x p e c t a n c y o f t h e m a l e a s d i s p l a y e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s ( 1 5 , 8 4 ) h e l p s t o e x p l a i n t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . T a b l e 2b S e x T o t a l # % o f T o t a l M a l e F e m a l e 16 52 2 3 . 5 7 6 . 5 T O T A L 68 1 0 0 . 0 49 4 . 1 . 2 . 3 M a r i t a l S t a t u s A s s h o w n i n T a b l e 3 b , t h e l a r g e s t m a r i t a l s t a t u s g r o u p a r e t h e w i d o w e d ( 7 2 . 1 % ) a s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r f o r G r o u p A . T a b l e 3b M a r i t a l S t a t u s T o t a l # % o f T o t a l M a r r i e d 2 2.9 S i n g ! e 10 1 4 . 7 D i v o r c e d 4 5.9 W i d o w e d 49 72.1 S e p a r a t e d 3 4.4 T O T A L 68 1 0 0 . 0 50 4 . 1 . 2 . 4 R a c e A l l r e s p o n d e n t s ( 1 0 0 % ) i n t h i s g r o u p w e r e C a u c a s i a n ( O c c i d e n t a l ) . 4 . 1 . 2 . 5 P l a c e o f B i r t h T h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p w e r e b o r n i n t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s ( 4 5 . 6 % ) , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y b y t h o s e b o r n i n C a n a d a ( 3 3 . 8 % ) . T a b l e 4b P l a c e o f B i r t h T o t a l # % o f T o t a l C a n a d a 23 3 3 . 8 U . S.A. 4 5.9 B r i t i s h I s l e s 31 4 5 . 6 A u s t r a l i a 0 0.0 O t h e r 10 1 4 . 7 T O T A L 68 1 0 0 . 0 51 4 . 1 . 2 . 6 R e l i g i o n M o s t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p ( 9 2 . 6 % ) w e r e P r o t e s t a n t . T a b l e 5b R e l i g i o n T o t a l # % o f T o t a l P r o t e s t a n t 63 9 2 . 6 C a t h o l i c 3 4.4 No r e l i g i o n 1 1 .5 O t h e r 1 1 .5 T O T A L 68 1 0 0 . 0 52 4 . 1 . 2 . 7 P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e T h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p h a d l i v e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a c c o m m o d a t i o n 4 y e a r s o r l e s s ( 7 3 . 6 % ) , b u t h a d r e s i d e d i n V a n c o u v e r , B . C . f o r o v e r 30 y e a r s . T a b l e 6b P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e 0 - 1 1 m o n t h s 1 - 4 y e a r s 5 - 9 y e a r s 10 - - 1 9 y e a r s 20 - 29 y e a r s 30+ y e a r s # % # % # % # % # % # % P r e s e n t t A c c o m m o d a t i o n " 28 41 .2 22 3 2 . 4 17 2 5 . 0 1 1 .5 0 0.0 0 0.0 V a n c o u v e r 1 1 .5 1 1.5 10 1 4 . 7 6 8.8 5 7.4 44 6 4 . 7 B . C . 1 1.5 0 0.0 5 7.4 5 7.4 7 1 0 . 3 49 72.1 C a n a d a a 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 2.9 1 1.5 1 1 .5 64 94.1 53 4 . 1 . 2 . 8 I n c o m e M o s t r e s p o n d e n t s ( 8 2 . 4 % ) h a d m o n t h l y i n c o m e s o f b e t w e e n 2 0 1 - 3 0 0 d o l l a r s . T h i s i n c o m e was d e r i v e d m a i n l y f r o m O l d A g e P e n s i o n ( 9 5 . 6 % ) a n d O l d A g e S u p p l e m e n t ( 7 5 % ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 6 - 1 7 % o f t h i s g r o u p h a d a d d i t i o n a l i n c o m e f r o m s a v i n g s a n d i n v e s t m e n t s . 54 4 . 1 . 2 . 9 E d u c a t i o n i A s s h o w n i n T a b l e 7 b , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s h a d g r a d e 12 o r l e s s e d u c a t i o n ( 8 5 . 3 % ) . T a b l e 7b E d u c a t i o n T o t a l # % o f T o t a l No f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g 3 4.4 P r i m a r y ( g r a d e 8 o r l e s s ) 33 4 8 . 5 S e c o n d a r y ( g r a d e 9 - 1 2 ) 22 3 2 . 4 U n i v e r s i t y , n o t f i n i s h e d 4 5.9 N o n a c a d e m i c , p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g 5 7.4 U n i v e r s i t y , w i t h d e g r e e 1 1 .5 B e y o n d b a s i c u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e 0 0 T O T A L 68 1 0 0 . 0 55 4 . 1 . 2 . 1 0 O c c u p a t i o n T h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h i n t h i s g r o u p ( 4 8 . 5 % ) w e r e h o u s e w i v e s m o s t o f t h e i r l i v e s . L a b o u r e r s f o r m e d t h e s e c o n d ( 2 0 . 6 % ) g r o u p , f o l l o w e d b y s e c r e t a r i a l / o f f i c e w o r k e r s ( 1 4 . 7 % ) . 56 4.2 S e c t i o n B: C o m p a r i s o n o f S u b - G r o u p s A a n d B T h e c o m p a r i s o n o f G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n t h r e e s u b - s e c t i o n s . S u b - s e c t i o n I w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f r a w mean s c o r e s f o r e a c h s u b - g r o u p , r e p o r t i n g a n y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r o u p s f o r e a c h o f t h e d e p e n d e n t a n d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . T h e F - t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e u s e o f t h e t - t e s t v a r i a n c e e s t i m a t e ( i . e . , t h o s e F - t e s t s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e (P 1 .05) w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e u s e o f a s e p a r a t e v a r i a n c e e s t i m a t e ) . S u b - s e c t i o n I I w i l l c o n s i d e r s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a n d t h e d e p e n d e n c e v a r i a b l e s . T r e n d s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a n d s u p p o r t e d , w h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t , w i t h t h e b r e a k d o w n o f m e a n s f o r t h o s e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s ( a n d c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s ) . S u b - s e c t i o n I I I w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e s t a b l i s h e d i n S e c t i o n I I , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p a r t i a l c o r r e -l a t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g f o r t h e i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s . 4.2.1 S u b - S e c t i o n I : Raw Mean S c o r e s 4 . 2 . 1 . 1 D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s A s d e s c r i b e d i n T a b l e 8, i n a l l c a s e s , G r o u p B h a s a l a r g e r mean t h a n G r o u p A. H o w e v e r , b o t h t h e P h y s i c i a n * R e f e r t o S . P . S . S . M a n u a l A p p e n d i x , p a g e A-01 7 - 2 4 4 - 0 7 , S e c t i o n 2 0 . 1 . 4 , 1 C o m p a r i s o n o f S a m p l e M e a n s . . .,' w h e r e a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o ' t ' may b e c o m p u t e d i n c a s e w h e r e g i v e n -p o p u l a t i o n s h a v e u n e q u a l v a r i a n c e s . T - T E S T * POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATE * SEPARATE VARIANCE ESTIMATE » » * STANDARD * F 2-TAIL • T DECREES Of 2-TAIL * T DEGREES OF 2-TAIL ERROR * VALUE PROB. * VALUE FREEDOM PROB. * VALUE FREEDOM PROB. VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX * * GROUP 1 77 3.3506 1.925 0.219 • * 142.99 0.283 « 1.26 0.335 * -1.07 143 0.286 * > -1.08 CROUP 2 68 3.6765 1.714 0.208 * • * * OPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX * « GROUP 1 77 0.3766 1.225 0.140 * * 82.44 0.127 * 7.63 0.000 * -1.62 143 0.108 < » -1.54 GROUP 2 68 1.0441 3.383 0.410 * * 0 * • QUE53 HOSPITAL USE INDEX * GROUP 1 77 4.4286 10.259 1.169 * * 71.37 * 27.12 0.000 * -2.37 143 0.019 ' > -2.24 0.02B GROUP 2 68 19.1765 53.424 6.479 * * * * OUEOl SEX * * GROUP I 77 0.2208 0.417 0.048 * * 0.837 * 1.05 0.841 * -0.21 143 0.837 • -0.21 139.92 GROUP 2 68 0.2353 0.427 0.052 * * * * 0UE02 AGE * * CROUP 1 77 2.9351 1 .380 0.157 * * 141.47 * 1.04 0.862 * -3.65 143 0.000 • -3.65 0.000 GROUP 2 68 3.7647 1.351 0.164 « * SROUP 1 - SUBFILE GRDU GROUP 2 - SUBFILE BGRO VARIABLE NUMBER STANDARD OF CASES MEAN DEVIATION R e f e r s t o u s e o f a p p r o p r i a t e ' t ' t e s t , d e p e n d e n t u p o n 1 F 1 t e s t a s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , w h e r e p o p u l a t i o n s h a v e u n e q u a l v a r i a n c e s . S U B F I L E GROUPA 6 G R O U P T - T E S T GROUP I - S U B F I L E GROU GROUP 2 - S U B F I L E BGRO V A R I A B L E NUMBER OF C A S E S MEAN S T A N D A R O D E V I A T I O N S T A N D A R D * ERROR * F V A L U E 2 - T A I L P R O B . * P O O L E O V A R I A N C E E S T I M A T E * T D E G R E E S OF 2 - T A I L * V A L U E F R E E D O M P R O B • S E P A R A T E V A R I A N C E E S T I M A T E T D E G R E E S OF 2 - T A I L V A L U E F R E E D O M ?\3A. N T O T F A M S F A M I L Y S T R U C T U R E GROUP I 7 7 1 4 . 4 8 0 5 GROUP 2 1 1 . 3 8 2 4 2 2 . 7 6 5 9 . 3 6 3 2 . 5 9 4 1 . 1 3 5 5 . 9 1 0 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 5 1 4 3 0 . 2 9 7 1 . 0 9 1 0 3 . 6 0 0 . 2 7 6 T O T S O C S C T O T A L S O C I A L S C A L E GROUP 1 6 6 7 . 2 7 2 7 GROUP 2 6 . 0 0 0 0 2 . 181 2 . 3 2 0 0 . 2 6 8 0 . 3 0 0 1 . 1 3 0 . 6 2 3 * I . I B 124 0 . 2 4 1 1 . 1 8 1 2 0 . 9 9 0 . 2 4 2 M A R I T E X P M A R I T A L E X P E R I E N C E G R O U P 1 7 7 6 . 7 2 0 8 GROUP 2 68 5 . 5 8 8 2 4 . 3 8 3 3 . 6 1 7 0 . 4 9 9 0 . 4 3 9 1 . 4 7 0 . 1 1 0 1 . 6 8 143 0 . 0 9 4 1 . 7 0 1 4 2 . 3 7 0 . 0 9 1 S T A B I L I T S T A B I L I T Y GROUP 1 7 7 CROUP 2 68 4 . 6 1 0 4 4 . 3 8 2 4 2 . 2 5 5 1 . 7 1 9 0 . 2 5 7 1 . 7 2 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 6 8 1 4 3 0 . 4 9 9 0 . 6 9 1 4 0 . 1 3 0 . 4 9 2 GENHEAI .T G E N E R A L H E A L T H GROUP 1 7 7 GROUP 2 6 8 5 . 4 2 8 6 4 . 3 6 7 6 4 . 3 3 0 5 . 0 6 6 0 . 4 9 3 0 . 6 1 4 1 . 3 7 0 . 1 8 4 * 1 . 3 6 143 0 . 1 7 6 1 . 3 5 1 3 2 . 6 5 0 . 1 8 0 M O B I L I T Y M O B I L I T Y GROUP I 77 GROUP 2 * * 0 . 9 7 4 0 0 . 5 6 1 0 . 0 6 4 * * * 1 . 6 5 0 . 0 3 5 * - 2 . 5 9 1 . 2 5 0 0 0 . 7 2 0 0 . 0 8 7 * * * « 1 4 3 0 . 0 1 1 - 2 . 5 5 1 2 6 . 1 6 * 0 . 0 1 2 M O R B I D I T M O R B I D I T Y GROUP 1 77 G R O U P 2 6 8 2 . 6 6 2 3 2 . 3 2 3 5 2 . 6 4 4 2 . 4 5 2 0 . 3 0 1 * * 0 . 2 9 7 * 1 . 1 6 0 . 5 3 1 0 . 8 0 1 4 3 0 . 4 2 7 0 . 8 0 1 4 2 . 6 4 0 . 4 2 5 CO 00 SUBFILE GROUPA BGHOUP GROUP 1 - SUBFILE GROU GROUP 2 - SUBFILE BGRO CO 4 * POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATE » SEPARATE VARIANCE ESTIMATE VARIABLE NUMBER OF CASES MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR * * F VALUE 2-TAIL PROB. * * T VALUE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 2-TAIL « PROB. * T VALUE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 2-TAIL PRDii . MEALS MEALS * * GROUP I 77 4.688 3 1.672 0.191 * • GROUP 2 68 5.8971 0.794 0.096 * * 4.43 0.000 * • « -5.44 143 0.000 * -5.66 111.54 0.003 PGES:ALE MORALE » * GROUP 1 77 15.2208 3.810 0.434 * * * * GROUP 2 68 14. 1029 4.008 0.486 * * * 1. 11 0.666 * * 1. 72 143 0.087 * 1.72 138.72 0.089 QUE57 MEDICAL SATISFACTION * * GROUP 1 77 1.2338 0.456 0.052 * * GROUP. 2 68 1.2794 0.484 0.059 * * * 1.13 0.611 * * -0.58 143 0.560 * -0.58 138.28 0.561 DISTRUST DISTRUST * * GROUP 1 77 0.0909 0.289 0.033 * * GROUP 2 68 0.1471 0.357 0.043 * * 1.52 0.077 * * * -1.05 143 0.298 * -1.03 129.05 0.3U4 0UE55 EXTRA COST * * GROUP 1 77 0.2338 0.426 0.049 * « GROUP 2 68 0.2500 0.436 0.053 * * » 1.05 0.838 * * * -0.23 143 0.821 * -0.23 139.90 0.821 QST5&1 CONt/ENIENCE OF USE - PHYSICIAN a * GROUP 1 77 I.7273 0.662 0.075 * * GROUP 2 68 1.6029 0.626 0.076 * « * 1.12 0.647 * * * 1. 16 143 0.249 * 1.16 142.30 0.247 QST562 CONVENIENCE OF USE - HOSPITAL * * GROUP 1 77 1.5844 0.593 0.068 * * * * GROUP 2 68 1.8382 0.507 0.061 * * * 1.37 0.193 * * * -2.75 143 0.007 • -2.78 142.86 0.006 cn SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP GROUP 1 - SUBFILE GROU GROUP 2 - SJBFILE BGRO * POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATE < > SEPARATE VARIANCE EST IMATE VARIABLE NUMBER STANDARD STANDARD * F 2-TAIL * T DEGREES OF 2-TAIL < » T DEGREES DF 2-TAIL OF CASES MEAN DEVIATION ERROR * VALUE PROB. * VALUE FREEDOH PROB. « > VALUE FREEDOM PROS. 0ST563 CONVENIENCE OF USE - H.R. P. * * GROUP t 77 1.5455 0.575 0.065 * * 1. 12 0.628 * -1.88 143 0.062 * ' -1.89 142.36 0.061 GROUP 2 68 1.7206 0.542 0.066 * « * * 0UE59 FORCED USE * * GROUP I 77 0.0130 0. 114 0.013 « * * 6.29 0.000 • -2. 13 143 0.035 « -2.03 85.65 0.345 GROUP 2 68 0.0882 0.286 0.035 * * * * 0UE60 CHOICE OF USE • * GROUP I 77 0.8571 0.352 0.040 * * * 1.34 0.219 * 1.00 143 0.319 « 0.99 133.41 0.324 GROUP 2 68 0.7941 0.407 0.049 * * * * TOTSIBCN TOTAL SIBLING CONTACT * * GROUP 1 77 9.7013 12.870 1.467 • * * 1.03 0.913 * 0.38 143 0.701 « 0.39 141.24 0.701 GROUP 2 68 8.8824 12.694 1.539 * • • * TOTCHDCN TOTAL CHILDREN CONTACT * * GROUP 1 75 14.5467 14.493 1.673 * * * 1.03 0.900 * -0. 16 141 0.870 « -0.16 140.03 0.870 GROUP 2 . 68 14.9412 14.269 1.730 * * * * TOTGRDCN TOTAL GRANDCHILDREN CONTACT * * GROUP 1 76 5.9605 6.908 0.792 « * « 1.13 0.616 * -0.43 142 0.668 • -0.43 137.97 0.669 GROUP 2 68 6.4706 7.329 0.889 * * * TOTGRTCN TOTAL GREATGRANDCHILDREN CONTACT * * GROUP 1 77 0.9221 2.640 0.301 * « * 1.75 0.019 * -1.33 143 0.184 * -1.31 123.90 0.192 GROUP 2 68 1.6029 3.490 0.423 • • * * O FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 0 f / u v //4> SUBFILE GKOJPA B3R0UP T E S T GROUP 1 - SUBFILE GROU GROUP 2 - SUBFILE BGRO VARIABLE NUMBER OF CASES MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR F 2 - T A I L VALUE PROB. » POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATE * T DEGREES OF 2 -TA IL * VALUE FREEDOM PROB. SEPARATE VARIANCE ESTIMATE T DEGREES OF 2 -TAIL VALUE FREEOOM PROB. TOTFRDCN TOTAL FRIEND CONTACT GROUP 1 74 13.0405 GRDJP 2 66 8.8939 8 .310 8. 192 0 .966 1.008 1.03 0 .910 * 2 .97 138 0.004 2 .9T 136 .60 0 .004 TOTAAC TOTAL SPECIAL ACTIVIT IES GROUP 1 77 18.6883 GROUP 2 68 12.0294 33.268 7.167 3.791 0 .B69 21.54 0 .000 1.62 143 0.108 1.71 8 3 . 9 4 0.091 TOTBAC TOTAL PHYSICAL ACTIVIT IES GROUP 1 77 5.8182 GROUP 2 1.2500 33.888 1.028 3.862 0 .125 * * * * *1087 .52 0 .000 * 1. 11 143 0.269 1.18 76 . 16 0.241 TOTCAC TOTAL RECREATIONAL ACTIV IT IES GROUP I 77 11.0519 33.407 GROUP 2 68 5 . 1324 3 .236 3 .807 0.392 * 106.54 0 .000 1.45 143 0.148 1.55 77.61 0 .126 TOTDAC TOTAL ORGANIZED C SOCIAL ACTIVIT IES GROUP 1 77 . 8 .3377 33.674 GROUP 2 68 3.5882 2 .819 3 .837 0 .342 * 142.68 0 .000 1.16 143 0.248 1.23 77.21 0.221 TOTABCD TOTAL ACTIVIT IES GROUP 1 77 43.8961 133.532 GROUP 2 22 .0000 10.988 15.217 1.333 * 147.67 0 .000 * * * * * 1.35 143 0 .180 1.43 77 .16 0 . 1 5 6 INTERAbS EXCESSIVE GIVING EXCHANGE GROUP 1 77 - 0 . 1 2 9 9 GROUP 2 68 -0 .1912 0 . 894 0 .966 0.102 0 .117 1.17 0 .509 0 .40 143 0.692 0 .39 137.38 0 .693 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP GROUP 1 - SUBFILE GROU GROUP 2 - SUBFILE BGRO * POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATE * ' SEPARATE VARIANCE ESTIMATE VARIABLE NUMBER OF CASES MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR * « F VALUE 2-TAIL PROB. « * T VALUE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 2-TAIL « PROB. * T VALUE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 2-TAIL PROB. INTERAbA TWO-WAY EXCHANGE * * GROUP 1 77 2.3117 2.047 0.233 « * GROUP 2 68 2.1029 1.622 0.197 * * « 1.59 0.053 * » 0.67 143 0.501 « 0.68 141.40 0.495 0UEA32 GIVING EXCHANGE * * GROUP I 77 1.0909 1.078 0.123 * « GROUP 2 68 0.9559 0.953 0.116 * • * 1.28 0.304 * * * 0.79 143 0.428 * 0.80 143.00 0.425 0UEB32 RECEIVING EXCHANGE • • GROUP 1 77 1.2208 1.154 0.132 * * GROUP 2 68 1.1471 0.935 0.113 * * * 1.52 0.079 * * * 0.42 143 0.676 • 0.42 141.97 0.672 QUE35 LIFE STRESS * * GROUP 1 76 439.1709 141.005 16.174 * • GR3UP 2 64 479.9844 116.945 14.618 • • * 1.45 0.128 * * * -1.84 138 0.068 * -1.87 137.97 0.063 TOTCONTR TOTAL CONTACT * * GROUP 1 77 50.9221 35.147 4.005 * * GROUP 2 68 43.4412 29.817 3.616 * « • 1.39 0.171 * * • 1.37 143 0.172 * 1.39 142.78 0.168 AGE * • GROUP 1 77 76.7662 7.063 0.805 * * * • GROUP 2 68 81.1323 6.758 0.820 * * * 1.09 0.714 * * * -3.79 143 0.000 * -3.80 142.07 0.000 63 U s e I n d e x ( P . U . I . ) a n d t h e D e p e n d e n t U s e I n d e x ( D . U . I . ) d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . O n l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e H o s p i t a l U s e I n d e x ( H . U . I . ) d o e s G r o u p B s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r f r o m G r o u p A (P < . 0 2 8 ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t G r o u p B h a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r h o s p i t a l u s e t h a n d o e s G r o u p A . 4 . 2 . 1 . 2 I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s Social Functioning Variables A s T a b l e 8 d e s c r i b e s , t h r e e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r m e a n s b e t w e e n G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B. T h e s e t h r e e a r e a s f o l l o w s : T o t a l F r i e n d C o n t a c t ( P 5 . 0 0 4 ) T o t a l S p e c i a l A c t i v i t i e s ( P < . 0 9 1 ) ^ E n l T|!' t t s " t " ' E - . 0 4 5 ) P . • • i i I— . / r, <r nn-i \ ( o n e t a i I t e s t : M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e ( P S .09 ) n < n/ICs r P 1 . 0 4 5 ) I n a l l t h r e e c a s e s , G r o u p B h a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r m e a n s t h a n G r o u p A (P < . 1 ) . A l t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , m o s t c o n t a c t v a r i a b l e s s h o w e d h i g h e r m e a n s f o r G r o u p B. H o w e v e r , m o s t o t h e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s s h o w e d l o w e r mean v a l u e s f o r G r o u p B o v e r G r o u p A . Intervening Variables T a b l e 8 r e f l e c t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r a w man co m -p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B f o r t h e i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g o v e r v i e w i s e v i d e n t . 64 - G r o u p B i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n mean a g e t h a n G r o u p A (P. < . 0 0 1 ) - G r o u p B i s s i g n i f i c a n t I y l e s s m o b i l e t h a n G r o u p A (P < . 0 1 2 ) - G r o u p B e a t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e m e a l s / d a y t h a n d o e s G r o u p A (P < . 0 0 1 ) - G r o u p B h a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r m o r a l e t h a n d o e s G r o u p A ( P < . 0 8 7 ) ( o n e t a i l t e s t ; P < . 0 4 3 ) - G r o u p B h a s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e d i f -f i c u l t t i m e g e t t i n g t o a h o s p i t a l f a c i l i t y t h a n d o e s G r o u p A ( P < . 0 0 7 ) t - G r o u p B f e e l s s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e f o r c e d t o r e c e i v e u n n e c e s s a r y m e d i c a l a n d h e a l t h r e l a t e d c a r e t h a n d o e s G r o u p A ( P - . 0 4 5 ) I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e h e r e t h a t t h e r a w m e a n s f o r g e n e r a l h e a l t h a n d m o r b i d i t y a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n g r o u p s , a l t h o u g h G r o u p A h a s a h i g h e r l e v e l o f m o r b i d i t y a n d l e s s g e n e r a l h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g t h a n d o e s G r o u p B. 4.2.2 O v e r v i e w o f R e s u l t s - S u b - S e c t i o n I M e n t i o n was made e a r l i e r , i n t h e m e t h o d o l o g y s e c t i o n , a s t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B. I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s s e l e c t i o n was t o s t r a t i f y f o r d e p e n d e n c e ( b a s e d o n a b i l i t y t o c a r e f o r o n e ' s s e l f ) . A s s u p p o r t i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e , a q u e s t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h p h y s i c a l s e l f -m a i n t e n a n c e ( q u e s t i o n 3 0 , A p p e n d i x V I I ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d . 65 T h e r e s u l t s s h o w t h a t G r o u p B i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e d e p e n d e n t (P - .05) t h a n G r o u p A w i t h r e s p e c t t o p h y s i c a l s e l f - m a i n -t e n a n c e . W h e r e a s t h e mean f o r G r o u p A i s 5 . 8 7 0 , t h e mean f o r G r o u p B i s 5 . 0 2 9 . T h e r e f o r e , t h e two s t r a t i f i e d g r o u p s do d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o d e p e n d e n c y , s h o w i n g t h a t G r o u p A i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e i n d e p e n d e n t t h a n G r o u p B. W i t h r e v i e w o f S u b - S e c t i o n I - Raw Mean S c o r e s , T a b l e 9 s h o w s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e m e a n s b e t w e e n t h e t w o g r o u p s . We c a n n o t e f r o m t h i s t a b l e t h a t H o s p i t a l U s e ( H . U . I . ) i s l e s s f o r G r o u p A t h a n f o r G r o u p B. G r o u p B h a s a mean o f h o s p i t a l u s e f o u r t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n G r o u p A. A l s o w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s l i s t e d , G r o u p B i s l e s s t h a n G r o u p A i n a l l c a s e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , G r o u p B i s o l d e r , l e s s m o b i l e , e a t s m o r e / d a y , h a s l o w e r m o r a l e , h a s m o r e d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g t o h o s p i t a l , a n d f e e l s f o r c e d t o r e c e i v e u n n e c e s s a r y m e d i c a l a n d h e a l t h c a r e . 4 . 2 . 3 S u b - S e c t i o n I I : C o r r e l a t i o n a n d B r e a k d o w n s  a n d C r o s s T a b u l a t i o n s T a b l e s 1 0 , 11 a n d 12 w i l l be u s e d a s t h e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n . O n l y t h o s e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h s h o w s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a -t i o n s ( P < .05) f o r e i t h e r G r o u p A o r G r o u p B w i l l b e p r e -s e n t e d . I n r e v i e w i n g t h e b r e a k d o w n s f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B, 66 T a b l e 9 T a b l e o f S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s f o r Raw Mean S c o r e s Raw Mean S c o r e s L e v e l o f S i g n i f i c a n c e ( t w o t a i l ) G r o u p A G r o u p B D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s . 0 2 8 + H o s p i t a l U s e I n d e x 4 . 4 2 8 6 1 9 . 1 7 6 5 I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s Social Functioning Variables T o t a l F r i e n d C o n t a c t T o t a l S p e c i a l A c t i v i t i e s M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e 1 3 . 0 4 0 5 1 8 . 6 8 8 3 6 . 7 2 0 8 8 . 8 9 3 9 1 2 . 0 2 9 4 5 . 5 8 8 2 • 0 0 4 • 0 9 1 * t .091 T Intervening Variables A g e M o b i 1 i t y M e a l s P . G . E . M o r a l e C o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e -h o s p i t a l s F o r c e d u s e 7 6 . 7 6 6 2 . 9 7 4 0 4 . 6 8 8 3 1 5 . 2 2 0 8 1 . 5 8 4 4 . 0 1 3 0 8 1 . 1 3 2 3 1 . 2 5 0 0 5.8971 1 4 . 1 0 2 9 1 . 8 3 8 2 .0882 . 0 0 1 . . 0 1 2 1 . o o r .087 • 0 0 7 , . 0 4 5 T U s i n g o n e - t a i l t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ( d i v i d i n g t w o -t a i l e d t e s t b y 2) , h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t G r o u p B i s l e s s t h a n G r o u p A ( p B _ y.^ )» t h e r e s u l t s s h ow t h a t f o r T o t a l S p e c i a l A c t i v i t i e s , M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e a n d P . G . E . M o r a l e , t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m e a n s ( m u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e j e c t e d s i n c e ja B. < u ^ ) . ^ R e f e r s t o t h e u s e o f t h e s e p a r a t e v a r i a n c e e s t i m a t e a s n o t e d e a r l i e r . Table 10 Correlations (Simple and Partial) for Group A and Group B 'Prime' Variables - Physician Use Index = Y i Group Group A t B -.0941 Que 01 -.0726 -.0255 Que 02 -.237 5 -.0761-' Relbrn . 3154 .1661 Ntot-f ams -.0491 -.0370 Tot-socsc . 0905 .2731 Mari -texp -.1226 -.2378 New-whymv -.052? .0953 Stab-i l i t. .1218 -.3722 Gen-healt . 0212 .1318 Mob-il i ty .1710 .4929 Mor-bidit . 2502 -.0893 Meals -.0964 -.1968 P.G.C. -.2267 .0352 Que 57 . 0556 .1607 Di s-trust .1798 .0710 Que 55 . 2220 .0898 Qst 561 . .0099 .1031 Qst 562 -.0243 .1888 Qst 563 -.1470 -.1376 Que 59 . 0973 -.1556 Que ' 60 . 2256 Totsibcii 0210 2324 1 -4 n 4— .0059 . 2087 .0081 .1508 .0235 . 0280 .0576 . 2079 .0297 . 2082 .0835 . 2035 .0029 . 2079 .0204 . 2753 .0303 . 2210 .0352 . 2009 .1459 .1650 -.0126 . 2284 .0126 . 2414 .0168 . 2035 -.0163 . 2206 .0134 ' . 2253 .0393 . 2081 .0170 . 2232 .0210 . 2042 .0468 . 2242 .0209 . 2045 Totchdcn  7010740 . 1 509 -.0282 . 1 704 . 0234 . 1 680 . 0100 .1302 -. 0450 16 5-.0509 .0397 . 0231 1 68-.0391 1596 -.0751 . 2024 -.0279 .1745 -. 0242 .1539 -.0499 .1315 -.0503 .1536 -.0079 MZ<i -.0320 .1 940 -.0157 .1806 -.0262 .1765 -.0268 .1645 -.0393 .1661 -.0598 .1476 -. 0245 .1516 -.1015 Totgrdcn 071 3 2532 . 0597 -.0961 . 0652 -.0742 .0916 -.0411 .0613 -.1222 .0595 -.1152 -.0312 -.0563 .0322 -.0986 .0605 -.1160 .0733 -.0353 .0688 -.0872 .0738 -.1760 . 0250 -.1105 .0657 -.0428 .0631 -.0935 .0566 -.0826 .0636 1 -.0960 .0518 -. 092 5 .0588 -.0966 .0400 - l . 1222 .0480 -.0952 .0807 -.2 740 Totgrtcn 1 31 5 254 5 .1870 -.3011 1 -7 n >S . 2088 -.2026 . 1 867 -.2669 .1799 -.3218 .1908 -.3053 .1431 -.2826 .1884 -.2988 .1904 -.2107 . 2364 -. 2994 .2233 -.2919 .2406 -.2873 .1 563 -.3027 .2161 -.2427 . 2002 -.2962 .1947 -. 3027 .2120 -.3002 .2168 -.2957 .1913 -.2999 .1959 -.2124 .1895 -.3086 .1913 -.2986 Totfrdcn 1 254 1924 -. 1783 -.1456 .1724 -.1578 -.2160 -.2477 -.1626 -.1451 -.1749 -.1452 -.1531 -M474 -.1846 -.1446 -.1802 -.1267 -.1777 -.1468 -.1569 -.1424 -.1720 -.2235 -.1689 -.1359 -.1459 -.0535 -.1766 -.1405 -.1677 -.2329 -.2016 i -. 1380 -.1807 -.1414 .1718 -.1440 -.1649 -.2574 -.2103 -.1449 -.1218 Totaac 1 222 0137 . 0929 -.1038 .1099 . 0846 .0782 . 0959 .0636 .1094 .0993 . 0834 -.0023 .1372 .0393 .1031 .1028 . 0999 .1860 .2032 .1311 •'. 0988 . 0673 . 0525 .0770 . 0075 .1516 . 2250 .1074 .1085 .1256 .1590 .1 008 ' . 0849 .1339 . 2222 .1084 . 1023 .1210 . 0877 .0608 .1144 .1427 .0495 ' Totbac 1 333 0532 -. 1031 -.0459 -.1183 -.059 3 -.1039 -.0553 -.1158 -.0448 - 1 2-.0599 -.1675 -.0249 -.0949 -.0444 -.1022 -.0492 -.0730 -.0448 -.1175 -.0174 -.0603 -.0072 -.1050 -. 052 7 - 0906 -.0257 -.1143 -.0429 -.1298 -.0641 -.1185 -.0473 -.1057 -.0435 -.1240 -.0427 -.1062 -.0694 -.0947 -. 0374 -.1482 -.04 0 6 Totcac 945 1809 . 0497 -.1617 . Ub/4 -.2210 . U4y4 -.1212 .0577 -.1629 .0598 -.1801 -.0471 -.1408 .0028 -.1631 .0582 -.1649 .1245 -.1612 .0629 -.1500 .0303 -.1932 .0546 -. 2625. .071 3 -.1129 .0534 -.2637 .0309 -.1492 .0423 -.1684 . 0708 -.159 5 .0708 -.7 709 . 0756 -.1807 .0410 -.2552 .0430 -.1883 Totdac 296 7 2464 . 2808 -.1971 P I T T . Z84 1 -.154 5 .2640 -.1842 .2818 -.1966 .2823 -.2034 .2324 -.1813 .2483 -.1997 .2827 -.2220 .3339 -.1968 . 2634 -.1791 .2648 -.2026 .2447 -.2022 .2812 -.2220 .2896 -.2042 .3016 -.1821 .3012" -.2536 .3014 -.1940 .2921 -.2056 .2788 -.2240 .2609 -.2045 .3242 -.2736 Totabcd 1492 1563 .1274 -.0947 i n r i . 1 3 34 -.1106 .1130 -.0841 .1125 -.0958 .1365 -.1230 .0170 -.0626 .0801 - . 0971 .1374 -.1090 . 2237 -.0948 .1350 -.0752 .1182 -.114 5 .1039 -.1029 .1647 . 0255 .1329 -.0948 .0350 -.0680 . 1 303 " -.1020 .1595 -.0902 .1 376 -.0994 .1456 -.1304 .1045 -.0880 .1475 - . 1134 Interabs 2511 0155 - . 3052 . 0199 - . 318/ -.0147 -.3263 . 0098 .3060 . 0300 -.3043 . 0293 -.2921 . 0233 2999. 0319 -.3119 . 0511 -.2976 . 0233 -.3097 . 0290 -.2602 . 0476 -.2886 . 0138 - 3406 . 0023 -.3074 . 0262 -.2886 . 0229 -.3072 H. 0262 -.2902 . 0284 -.3009 . 0302 -.2957 .0178 -.3064 . 0303 -.3216 . 06SE Interaba' 0836 0140 .1428 -.0187 f\*t d c .1460 . 0191 . 1 551 . 0427 . 1 292 -.0188 .1500 -.0254 .0525 . 0195 .0787 -.0193 .1581 -.0466  9 -.0184 .1454 . 0079 .1581 . 0033 .1370 -. 0198 .1376 . 0094 .1503 -.0196 .1413 . 0222 . 1 586 ' . 0042 .1 555 -.0194 .1517 -.0193 .1337 -.0262 .1508 -.0287 . 1 208 -.0277 QueA32 "• 0084 0207 . 0366 . 0 n n a 1 . U 31 Z . 0087 'i *j 'i i 04 9. 0425 .0230 .0015 .0448 -.0062 -.0500 . 0300 -.0297 . 0002 .0568 -.0128 .1276 -.0003 .0383 . 0294 .0684 . 0290 .0377 -.. 0202 .0210 . 0827 .0439 -.0020 0422 . 0262 .0517 " . 0124 .0566 -.0016 .0477 - 0005 .0311 -.0222 .0447 -.0085 .0089 . 0128 QueB32 _• 16 20 0039 . 2283 -.0309 flFSF . Z32 1 . 0233 .2454 . 0308 . 21 62 -.0309 .2339 -.0358 145. 0031 .1 729-.0322 . 2359 -.'0650 .3084 -.0201 .2316 -.0128 2272 -.0216 .2175 -.0232 .2331 . 0800 .2354 -.0292 .2210 .0114 . 2431 • -.0049 . 2329 -.0304 .2344 - 032 3 .2172 -.0385 .2354 -.0392 .2130 -.0578 Que 35 • 3240 0162 .2535 . 0035 A 1 P t . 3U89 . 0091 .2376 -.0378 . 2735 . 0033 .2595 . 0220 .2204 . 0150 . 2261 . 0016 . 2596 -.0079 .1621 . 0027 .2876 -.0036 .1731 -.2227 . 2398 . 0104 .2184 -.0606 .2615 . 0008 . 2368 -.0087 .2432• -.0233 . 2547 . 0222 .2719 -.0002 .251 3 -.0235 .2525 -.0052 .3027 -.0112 Totcontr* 0786 1493 .0757 -.1193 1 T f l q . 9y4b -.0815 1 U l J .091 2 -.1020 .0907 -.1469 0876-.1248 .01 57 -.0817 .0506 -.1212 .0853 -.1259 .1279 -.1196 .1219 -.1114 .1556 -.2537 .0394 -.2223 .1042 -.0343 .0928 -.2270 .0899 -.0956 .0919 ' -.1148. .1033 -.2255 .0897 -.2290 .0878 - .1507 .0751 -.2246 .1183 -.2 726 Ntotfams" 1661 0491 .1702 -.0034 l\A(\!\ .1863 . 0105 U L L H . 1 666 . 0214 .1741 -.0171 .0 64 . 0557 .1966 -.0032 .1802 -.0212 .2233 -.0045 .1806 -.0078 .0490 -.0237 .1646 -.0237 .2232 .0185 .1776 -.0046 .1941 -.0012 . 1 876 " -.0026 .1988 -.0006 .1949 -.0032 .2100 -.0060 .1707 -.0089 .1853 -.0120 Totsocsc" 0370 0905 -.04 00 . 0927 I l l A l -.0560 . 0457 - .0578 .1069 -.0072 . 0920 -.0833 .1183 -.0260 . 0902 -.0301 .1087 -.0116 . 0929 -.0332 '. 0883 -.0.98 . 0976 -.0297 . 0865 -.0146 .1346 -.0359 . 0922 -.0350 . 0927 -.0309 • . 0655 -.0532 . 092 7 -.0346 . 0940 -.0384 . 0949 -.0655 . 0927 -.0410 . 0663 Maritexp - 2731 1236 ; 340 1 -.0961 . 3 S 3 1 -.0067 .3147 -.0755 .2944 -.1106 .3310 -.1227 .3091 -.0983 3380 -.1056 .3109 -.0962  3300 -.0770 .2185 -.0492 .3320 -.1127 . 3463 -.0679 .3322 -.0953 .3364 -.1019 .3281 " -.0976. . 3251 -.0980 . 3424 -.0964 . 3537 -.2294 .3137 -.0856 .3112 -.2053 CM v » CO T— —i 1. R e f e r s t o y i z s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( y ) a n d i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s ( z ) . 2. R e f e r s t o x y x ' s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( y ) a n d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( x ) . 3. R e f e r s t o x y , » z p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . - i . T a b l e 11 C o r r e l a t i o n s ( S i m p l e and P a r t i a l ) f o r Group A and Group B ' P r i m e ' V a r i a b l e s - Dependent Use Index = y 2 Group A f 1." Group B - . 1 6 4 7 Que 01 -.1518 - . 0 3 9 8 Que 02 -.0206 - . 0 0 7 5 R e l b r n .1130 .0298 N t o t -f ams -.1428 - . 0 8 8 8 T o t -s o c s c -.2132 . 2649 M a r i -t e x p -.0485 .0191 New-whymv -.1439 .0109 S t a b -11 i t .1202 - . 3 8 5 5 G e n -h e a l t -.0392 .1675 M o b -i l i t y . 0689 .1251 M o r -b i d i t .1250 - .0511 H e a l s .1250 - . 2 8 1 7 P . G . E . -.1070 .0288 Que 57 . 0288 - . 0 2 3 6 D i s -t r u s t . 2047 .1820 Que 55 .1240 .2258 Q s t 561 .-. 0057 . 1640 Q s t 562 -.0206 .1155 Q s t 563 . 0720' - . 0 3 8 8 Que 59 . 2728 - . 2 3 9 6 Que 60 -.0150 - . 0 2 3 1 -.0293 .0112 -.0369. .0113 - . 0 4 5 7 .0170 - . 0451 .0377 -.0411 .0626 -.0452 . 0090 -.0526 .0119 -.0281 .0253 -.04 00 .0348 -.0471 .0325 -.0595 - . 0 0 7 3 -.0780 - . 0 0 0 5 - . 0 3 5 3 .0076 - . 0332 .0308 - . 0272 - . 0 0 0 7 - . 0 3 0 5 .0612 - . 0 4 2 6 .0170 - . 0 3 2 5 .0127 -.0400 .0172 -.0289 .0157 -.0431 • T o t c h d c n _ ; ^ l l .0646 -.1212 . 1180 -.1429 .1188 -.1210 .1129 -.0636 .0953 -.1105 .0144 -.1299 .1198 -.1484 .1135 -.1721 .1650 -.1264 .1327 -.1289 .1107 -.1290 .0999 -.1122 .0990 -.1290 .1 374 ' -.1453 .1036 -.1185 .1600 -.1241 .1482 -.1260 .1645 -.1398 .1187 -.1310 .1135 - . 0970 .0966 - . 2 500 SSI - . 1 0 0 1 -.1939 - . 0 8 5 8 - . 2 7 5 7 - . 0 7 7 9 -.156? - . 0 8 6 3 -.1068 - . 0 9 9 1 - . 2 3 8 2 - . 1 7 5 6 -.1682 - . 0 8 6 7 - . 2 0 2 8 - . 0 8 9 3 -.1928 - . 0 8 8 7 - . 2 7 3 7 - . 0 8 2 2 -.1688 - . 0 8 6 8 -.2001 - . 1 1 1 2 -.1480 - . 0 9 3 8 -.1645 - . 0 9 1 3 - . 2 7 5 2 - . 0 8 0 8 -.1633 - . 0 9 0 4 - . 2 7 4 2 - . 1 2 0 3 -.1770 .0588 - . 2 7 7 2 - . 1 1 2 6 - ' . 2 60 0 - . 0 9 0 9 -.17 54 - . 0 6 3 3 - . 2 9 " $ - . 1 5 3 9 -.0271 - . 1 2 8 8 -.0118 - . 1 2 7 5 .0152 - . 1 2 7 7 . 0720 - . 1 4 2 8 . 0234 - . 1 8 4 9 . 02 80 - . 1 2 3 7 -.0119 - . 1 3 6 0 -.009 5 - . 1 0 1 4 - . 0032 - . 0 9 3 3 . 0032 - .1231 . 0066 - . 1 5 5 4 . 0084 - . 1 0 0 7 . 0202 - . 1 4 4 5 -.000? ' - . 1 2 2 9 -.0009 - . 0 9 0 5 -.0022 - . 0 8 5 5 -.0022 .1913 -.006? - . 1 2 7 7 . 0022 - . 1 2 5 6 - . 0 2 7 5 - . 1 4 1 5 -.0003 . T o t f r d c n . ; ^ . 0585 -.1597 .0639 -.1724 .0541 -.2094 .0677 -.1799 .0658 -.1774 •0945 -.1741 .0642 -.1627 .0612 -.1568 .0837 - . 2 7 2 5 .0985 -.1718 .0721 - . 2 0 4 0 . .0696 - . 2028 .1478 -.1628 .0605 - . 2 8 2 2 .0582 -.1622 .011 7 -.1656 . 0574 - . 2 7 8 2 - . 1 7 1 8 - . 2 6 7 0 .0798 - . 2 7 0 2 .0575 - . 2 750 .1908 - . 2 72 2 - . 2 1 5 7 -.0767 - . 1 8 7 9 -.0581 - . 1 9 6 0 -.0645 - . 1 9 6 5 -.0178 - . 1 8 9 9 -.0059 - . 2 9 4 7 -.0474 - . 1 9 2 3 -.0824 - . 1 8 2 4 -.0649 - .1111 - . 0 5 0 5 - . 1521 -.0629 - . 1 9 5 6 - . 0 7 5 2 - . 2011 - . 0456 - . 1 0 9 4 -.0296 - . 1 7 4 4 -.0660 - . 1 9 9 8 -.0210 - . 1 9 2 4 -.0827 - . 1 2 7 6 -.0622 .1084 -.0650 - . 1 7 0 7 - . 0 5 5 2 - . 2 0 6 0 - . 0 3 2 6 - . 1 3 1 0 - . 0 7 2 5 - . 0 8 2 2 -.0751 - . 0 9 8 9 - . 2072 - . 0 9 6 1 - . 2 2 2 7 - . 0 9 9 2 - . 2 2 2 3 - . 0 7 4 2 -.0771 - . 1 4 4 7 -.0982 - . 0 9 8 3 -.1049 - . 0 9 2 6 - . 2 2 2 7 - . 0 5 3 5 -.1154 - . 1 1 1 0 -.0966 - .0861 -.0973 - . 0 9 5 6 -.0941 - . 0 6 3 3 - . 2 0 2 5 - . 1 1 3 6 -.1105 - . 0 8 7 4 -.1251 - . 1 2 4 9 - . 2 2 2 4 - . 0 9 2 7 - . 2 0 8 4 - . 1 2 4 0 -.1044 - . 0 9 5 3 -.1028 - . 0 9 4 4 -.0877 - . 1 6 7 5 - . 2 0 7 2 ™ < « :J01| - . 2 3 0 1 - . 0 7 2 5 - . 2 1 6 2 -.0565 - . 2 1 6 5 -.0439 - . 2 1 4 0 -.0376 - . 2 0 4 4 -.0242 - . 3 1 9 9 -.0457 - . 2 2 0 9 - . 0 7 5 3 - . 2121 -.0616 - . 1 5 6 9 -.0804 - . 2 0 8 2 -.0524 - . 2 2 2 8 - . 0 6 7 2 - . 2 1 5 2 -.0608 - .2021 -.0472 - . 2 1 5 9 - . 0 5 7 2 - . 2 0 2 9 -.0479 - . 2 54 5 -.0665 - . 1 8 6 5 -.0605 . 0708 - . 0 7 7 5 - . 1 9 9 6 -.0551 - . 2 1 9 2 - . 0 3 8 8 - . 2 4 6 6 -.0C02 T „ t J „ - . 0 3 8 1 T O t d 3 C -.1666 - . 0 1 7 4 -.1732 - . 0 1 2 0 - . 16 56 - . 0 2 1 1 - . 2 5 2 0 - . 0 1 2 7 - . 2500 - . 0 1 1 6 -.1495 - . 0 7 1 9 -.1506 - . 0 1 2 2 -.1817 - . 0 1 1 4 -.1820 .0271 -.1606 - . 0 4 0 4 -.1506 - . 0 2 6 2 - . 2 5 8 5 - . 0 4 3 4 - . 2 5 0 3 - . 0 2 8 6 -.1495 - . 0 0 0 6 -.1533 - . 0 2 1 1 -.1460 - . 0 2 6 4 - . 2 4 4 5 .0235 -.1628 . 2921 -.1777 - . 0 2 0 6 -.1549 - . 0 2 0 3 - . 2 838 - . 0 4 5 1 - . 2 558 ::)%\ - . 1 9 7 0 -.1544 - . 1 8 2 7 -.1487 - . 1 9 1 5 - . 2 4 5 3 - . 1 8 7 5 - . 2 2 5 4 - . 1 7 3 1 - . 0996 - . 3 0 8 8 - . 2 3 8 3 - . 1 8 8 4 -.1729 - . 1 7 9 0 -.1620 - . 1 0 3 5 - . 2 5 2 5 - . 1 8 3 2 -.1411 - . 1 9 1 0 -.1547 - . 2 0 2 7 -.1249. ^.1393 -.140? - . 1 7 7 2 -.1497 - . 1 8 4 3 -.1285 - . 1 9 1 6 -.1579 - . 1 3 4 3 -.1545 .1376 -.1638 - . 1741 -.1447 - . 1 9 4 6 - . 2 32 3 - . 1 6 7 7 -.1524 ^ ^ - : l T o 9 i .2071 -.3414 . 2051 -.3490 .1958 - . 3 5 0 2 .2010 -.3450 . 2062 - . 3 5 5 8 .2362 - . 3 5 4 5 .2004 -.3328 .2266 -.2271 .2611 -.3499 .2052 - . 3 4 6 2 . 2253 -.3464 .2164 - . 2249 .1673 - . 3 6 0 2 .1966 - . 3 4 6 2 .1877 -.2692 .2071 -.2698 . 2674 -.2491 .2203 - . 3 4 8 5 .2197 -.3474 . 2008 -.3563 .1933 -.34 63 I n t e r a b a : : ° ^ 3 .0334 -.1006 .0098 -.0773 - . 0 0 9 2 -.0546 - . 0 1 5 4 -.0160 - . 0 0 9 6 - . 0 5 0 5 - . 1 0 4 5 -.0563 - : o i 18 -.0880 - . 0 0 5 2 -.1005 . 0790 -.0740 - . 0 1 9 2 -.0613 - . 0 1 4 8 -.0674 - . 0 1 9 0 -.0718 - . 0 4 5 0 -.0538 - . 0 0 7 8 -.0726 - . 0 0 4 2 -.0420 .0098 -.0506 - . 0 0 0 3 - . 0 7 3 5 - . 0 0 8 8 -.0769 - . 0 2 9 5 -.0692 - . 0 1 0 7 -.1066 - . 0 7 0 5 - . 0 7 5 2 .0369 -.2747 . 0590 - . 2 5 6 7 .0559 - . 2 4 5 2 .0525 -.2192 .0593 -.2474 - . 0 1 9 2 - . 2 5 0 5 .0591 - . 2 5 4 6 .0684 - . 2709 .1658 - . 2 5 5 6 . 0493 -.2525 .0596 -.2444 .0529 - . 2 3 8 2 .0117 - . 2 5 2 7 . 0578 -.2530 .0577 -.2396 .0787 - . 24 59 .0882 - . 2 5 5 7 . 0647 -.2583 . 0445 - . 2 5 3 4 .0565 -.2898 .0033 - . 2 5 « ' 4 QueB32 - - 0 9 0 1 ^ . 0827 .0964 . 0934 - . 0725 .1150 .0699 .1414 .0780 .1724 - . 0 7 3 7 .1330 - . 1 7 4 5 .1468 - . 0 7 8 1 . 09.79' - . 0 7 1 6 . 0911 - . 0 1 0 7 . 22 72 - . 0 8 2 7 . 2300 - . 0 8 3 9 .2224 - . 0 8 5 6 .1025 - . 0 9 3 7 .1615 - .0691 .1165 - . 0 6 2 7 .1582 - . 0 5 6 4 .2503 - . 0 8 2 5 . 2 2 77 - . 0 7 7 4 .1149 - . 0 9 6 6 . 1204 - . 0731 . 0057 - . 1 2 6 1 . 2 2 43 .0406 .1452 . 0800 . 1495 .0647 . 2302 .0761 .1446 .0694 . 2203 . 0293 .1579 .0759 . 2 237 .0681 . 1418 .0834 . 2 532 .1070 . 1464 .0492 .1251 .0601 . 2364 - .0386 .1402 .0675 .2538 .0975 .1418 - . 0 0 3 5 .1242 .0563 .1516 .091 8 .1401 .0609 .1619 .0714 ..1282 .1375 .1479 .0498 -.2019 . 0046 - . 2 0 2 8 .0048 - . 2 0 0 2 .0047 - . 2 3 0 6 - . 0 0 5 6 - . 2 7 0 5 - .0628 -.1952 .0050 - . 2267 - . 0 0 1 5 - . 2 2 2 5 .0439 -.1961 .0454 - . 2 0 2 4 .0136 -.2210 - .0265 -.1949 .0282 -.1907 .0103 -.2004 .0067 - . 2 7 8 3 .0055 - . 2 0 22 .0313 - . 2024 .0010 - . 2 0 5 5 .0000 -.1930 .0003 - . 2 8 6 2 .0486 -.2084 N t o t f . m s . ; " ^ * .0081 -.1615 .0344 - . 2 4 4 2 .0302 -.1360 . 0203 -.1151 - . 0 6 1 9 -.1328 .0351 -.1418 .0368 - . 2 6 2 3 .0805 - . 2 4 3 2 .0367 -.1428 .0044 - . 2 4 6 7 .0262 -.1040 .1206 -.1384 . 0270 -.1418 .0267 - . 2 4 2 8 .0582 : - . 2443 .0789 -.1444 .0632 - . 2 4 2 5 .0619 -.1423 .0325 -.1109 . 0444 - . 2 445 - . 0 9 8 5 -.2566 - . 0 9 5 6 -.2118 - . 0 9 7 0 - . 2 2 0 0 - . 0 8 4 1 -.1961 - . 0 7 9 4 - . 2 0 5 8 - . 0 8 8 8 -.2183 - . 0 8 3 8 -.2018 - . 0 6 3 0 - . 2 2 8 7 - . 0 8 4 9 -.2151 - . 0 7 7 9 - . 2 i 5 3 - . 0 8 5 0 - . 2 0 6 2 - . 0 4 8 4 -.2070 - . 0 8 3 8 - . 2257 - . 0 9 0 8 - . 2252 - . 0 7 5 4 - . 2 2 2 0 - . 1 3 0 2 - . 2 2 3 7 - . 0861 -.2069 - . 0 9 1 0 - . 22 46 - . 0 9 7 9 - . 22 2 7 - . 0 9 9 3 - . 219 2 K . r t t . x p _ : | « « . 2986 -.0579 . 2758 -.0603 .2718 -.0491 .2802 . 0206 .2732 -.0049 . 2791 -.0774 .2808 - . 0651 .2488 - . 0 5 0 2 .2737 -.0460 .2530 -.0422 . 2744 -.0260 .3171 -.0499 . 2764 -.0585 . 2772 -.0612 .2693 -.0585 . 2625 -.0568 . 2969 -.0582 . 2951 -.0516 .2736 -.0223 .2395 - . 0 5 8 3 £2 , . oo v . • • • —? ; • - • — 1. R e f e r s t o y 2 z s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e (y) a n d i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s ( * ) • 2. R e f e r s t o x y 2 s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e (y) a n d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( x ) . 3. R e f e r s t o x y 2 • z p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . S T a b l e 12 • C o r r e l a t i o n s ( S i m p l e and P a r t i a l ) f o r Group A and Group B ' P r i m e ' V a r i a b l e s - H o s p i t a l Use Index = y 3 Group A ( 1 -Group B . 0483 Que 01 -.0535 - . 0 1 0 1 Que 02 -.0894 .1449 R e l b r n . 0304 - . 0 4 1 4 N t o t -f ams -.2430 .1355 T o t -s o c s c -.0229 . 2450 M a r i t e x p -.0744 .1167 New-whymv -.1266 .0796 S t a b -i 1 i t . 0409 - . 3 2 7 4 G e n -h e a l t . 0812 .1 596 Mob-i l i t y -.0958 .1539 M o r -b i d i t -.2203 - . 0 9 7 2 Meal s . 0229 - . 0 9 6 7 P . G . E . -.0682 - . 0 4 7 0 Que 57 . 0847 - . 0 7 0 9 Di s -t r u s t . 0292 .1996 Que 55 . 0258 . 1415 Qst 561 -.2368 .0924 Qst 562 . 2353 - . 0 3 5 7 Q s t 563 . 2084 - . 0 3 8 6 Que 59 . 0225 - . 2 3 0 4 Que 60 -. 2089 - . 0 7 0 6 -.0709 - . 0 8 5 3 -.0789 - . 0 8 4 2 -.0789 - . 0 8 4 4 . 0847 - . 1 2 3 0 -.0772 - . 0 3 0 8 -.0524 - . 0 6 9 3 -.0898 - . 0 6 9 3 -.0770 - . 0 6 8 9 -.0649 - . 0601 - . 0722 - . 0 5 2 4 -.0598 - . 0 9 9 5 r-, 0776 - . 0 7 9 5 -.0708 - . 0 7 4 9 -.0900 - . 0 5 6 5 -.0753 - . 0 8 9 7 -.0745 - . 0 4 3 6 -.0802 - . 0 7 6 3 -.2237 - . 0 7 5 6 -.0695 .0684 -.0765 - . 0 7 3 3 - .0 72 2 T o t c h d c n-":°"7 .0030 -.2496 - . 0 0 4 6 -.2475 - . 0 1 1 0 -.2475 - . 0 0 0 7 -.1429 .0361 -.2502 - . 1 1 9 8 -.2793 .01 25 -.2665' - . 0 2 2 1 -.2595 .0166 -.2560 - . 0 0 0 2 -.2657 - . 0 1 6 7 -.2492 - . 0 3 6 8 -.2556 - . 0 1 7 6 -.2452 - . 0 1 3 7 -.2434 - . 0 2 3 9 -.2497 - . 0 3 2 5 -.2501 .0088 -.2476 - . 0 0 8 6 -.2430 - . 0 0 7 8 -.2232 - . 0 1 3 7 -.2527 - . 0 3 5 1 - . '223 T o t g r d c n : ; ^ 4 / 7 - . 1 4 2 5 -.2041 - . 1 4 3 7 -.2592 - . 1 8 0 8 -.2892 - . 1 4 3 8 -.2592 - . 1 2 8 1 -.2930 - . 2 3 1 2 -.2997 - . 1 3 1 1 . -.3272 . - . 1 5 3 4 -.2952 - . 1 4 8 5 -.2956 - . 1 4 2 4 -.3009 - . 1 4 6 3 -.2762 - . 1 8 0 6 -.2986 - . 1 4 5 8 -.2864 - . 1 4 3 1 -.2894 - . 1 4 0 1 -.2907 - . 1 5 7 5 -.2923 - . 1 6 8 4 -.2616 - . 1 5 1 2 -.2868 - . 1 4 4 4 -.2599 - . 1 5 0 6 -.292 6 - . 1 2 6 0 -.2504 - . 0 4 8 1 -.1642 - . 0 4 8 1 -.1426 - . 0 4 1 2 -.1436 - . 0 4 9 4 -.0482 - . 0 2 8 2 -.1470 - . 1 0 4 6 -.2355 - . 0 4 7 8 -.1616 - . 0 7 4 4 -.2492 - . 0 2 9 5 -.1598 - . 0 3 0 8 -.1548 - . 0 5 1 5 -.1582 - . 0 9 0 6 -.2488 - . 0 4 1 9 -.2360 - . 0 5 7 5 -.2493 - . 0 5 1 5 -.1481 - . 0 1 2 8 -.1488 - . 0 2 4 3 -.1296 - . 0 5 7 3 -.1301 - . 0 5 2 3 -.1314 - . 0 5 4 6 -.2509 - . 0 6 6 1 -.2552 T o t f r d c n : : ] " s - . 1 5 4 1 -.2077 - . 1 5 3 4 -.2234 - . 1 2 0 6 -.2333 - . 1 5 8 9 -.2295 - . 1 5 8 7 -.2146 - . 1 3 6 1 -.2161 - . 1 5 3 8 -.2043 - . 1 6 4 4 - . 2245 - . 1 5 5 5 -.2086 - . 1 3 7 5 -.2166 - . 1 4 9 0 -.2995 - . 1 4 9 9 - . 2262 - . 1 3 5 0 -.2064 - . 1 5 4 2 -.2077 - . 1 6 2 6 -.2232 - . 2 2 7 0 -.2108 - . 1 6 4 5 -.2720 - . 1 5 1 6 -:25S4 - . 1 5 6 3 -.2008 - . 1 6 7 3 -.22 4 4 - . 0 5 8 1 - .2 29 5 T o u a c ::Yin - . 1 8 4 2 -.2446 - . 1 8 6 0 -.2352 - . 1 6 1 2 -.2381 - . 1 8 4 7 -.1765 - . 1 8 0 7 -.2364 - . 2 8 9 5 -.2284 - . 1651 -.2625 - . 1 8 5 3 -.2346 - . 1 3 2 0 -.2332 - . 1 6 6 6 -.2312 - . 2 0 0 5 -.2218 - . 2 1 0 8 -.2339 - . 1 6 2 8 - . 232 5 - . 1 9 7 6 -. 2286 - . 2 0 3 4 -.2359 - . 1 9 8 0 -.2498 - . 1 5 0 2 -.1910 - . 1 8 2 8 -.2215 - . 1 8 8 6 -.2108 - . 2 1 1 1 -.2342 - . 1 3 6 6 - . 79 52 T o t b a c - - 0 1 7 4 -.0400 - . 0 2 4 7 -.0248 - . 0 2 6 7 -.0446 - . 0 2 9 0 -.0446 - . 0 2 0 3 -.0500 - . 0 6 8 0 -.0404 - . 0 6 0 1 -.0310 - . 0 2 9 1 -.0394 - . 0 0 1 7 -.0437 - . 0 1 8 3 -.064 5-- . 0 2 8 2 -.0686 - . 0 0 7 3 -.0575 - . 0 1 7 4 -.0443 - . 0 0 7 4 -.0356 - . 0 1 7 0 -. 0406 - . 0 0 9 8 -.0462 - . 0 4 7 5 -.0445 - . 0 1 5 4 -.0347 - . 0 3 4 8 -.0624 - . 0 2 1 5 -.0029 - . 0 1 6 7 -.0420 - . 0 8 3 0 -.0487 T o t c a c - . 1 8 6 6 -.1209 - . 1 8 6 9 -.1190 - . 1 8 5 3 -.1190 - . 1 8 9 0 -.0597 - . 2 1 2 6 -.1210 - . 2 8 2 6 -.1113 - . 1 7 0 0 -.1417 - . 1 8 1 3 -.1239 - . 1 4 0 8 -.1281 - . 1 8 2 7 -.1362 - . 1971 -.2270 - . 1 8 9 6 -.2238 - . 1 7 9 9 -.1125 - . 1 8 8 0 -.2275 T . 1 7 6 5 -.1222 - . 2 3 1 6 -.2274 - . 1 6 7 7 -.1096 - . 1 7 5 4 -. 0629 - . 1 9 0 3 -.0979 - . 1 9 3 2 -.2 229 - . 2 1 7 7 -.2236 T o t d a c ::\Ve 5? - . 1 5 0 3 -.2257 - . 1 5 0 3 -.2151 - . 1 2 4 5 -.22 52 - . 1 5 0 4 -.2228 - . 1 5 2 8 -.2264 - . 2 1 3 9 -.2094 - . 1 3 3 7 -. 2430 - . 1 5 0 9 -.2222 - . 1 3 1 5 -.2246 - . 1 7 9 3 -.2479 - . 1 6 8 9 -.2200 - . 2 0 2 4 - . 2283 - . 1 5 7 8 -.2115 - . 1 5 8 0 -.2288 - . 1 6 1 7 -.2159 - . 1 1 6 7 -.2209 - . 1 3 1 2 -.1834 - . 1 4 5 4 -.1688 - . 1 5 0 9 -.2856 - . 1 6 3 6 -.2296 - . 1 0 5 3 -.24 54 T ° t a b c d : : » ; o - . 2 0 1 2 -.2572 - . 2 0 1 8 -.2532 - . 1 8 2 6 -.2532 - . 2 0 0 5 -.2294 - . 2 2 2 9 -.2579 - . 3 2 1 3 -.2508 - . 1 8 3 9 . 2834 - . 1 9 4 6 -.2565 - . 1 4 4 8 -.2672 - . 2 0 2 4 -.2810 - . 2 1 2 9 -.. 2524 - . 2 3 0 6 -.2570 - . 1871 -.2600 - . 2 0 6 0 -.2553 - . 2 0 5 3 -.2539 - . 2 1 5 0 -.2592 - . 1 7 1 5 -.2140 - . 1991 -.2177 - . 2 0 3 8 -.2222 - . 2 1 6 6 -.2544 - .1899 -.2462 i n t e r a b s : ; ^ ^ - . 0 4 1 2 -.2253 - . 0 4 6 1 -.1246 - . 0 2 2 1 -.1346 - .0414 -.1215 - . 0 4 8 9 -.2323 - . 0171 -.1363 - . 0 4 7 3 -.2076. - . 0 1 3 2 -.2 305 - . 0 1 5 0 -.1250 - . 0 4 1 0 -.1393 - . 0 1 8 9 -.13.79 - .0231 -.1374 - . 0 5 8 3 -.1408 - . 0 3 9 1 -.1385 - . 0 5 6 6 -.2345 - . 0 4 1 9 -.1404 - . 0 0 5 0 -.1487 - . 0 3 3 3 -.1420 - . 0 4 1 4 -.2232 - . 0 3 9 8 . - . 2'324 - . 0 5 9 6 -.2 553 I n t e « - « b » : : J " i - . 2 0 3 9 -.2496 - . 2 1 2 6 -. 2289 - . 2 1 4 6 -.2289 - . 2 0 4 0 -.2528 - . 2 1 0 0 - . 2325 - . 3 0 9 1 -.2265 - . 1 8 3 0 -.2481 - . 1 9 6 6 -.2380 - . 1 5 6 3 -.2343 - . 2 1 4 6 -.254 5 - .21 27--.2422 - . 2 2 0 0 -.2326 - . 2 1 9 6 -.2325 - . 2 0 7 8 -.2348 - . 2 0 1 4 -.2327 - . 1 9 2 7 -.2245 - . 2 0 2 7 -.2488 - . 2 0 6 8 -.2280 - . 2 0 6 5 -.2093 - . 2 0 6 7 -.2367 - . 2 7 7 3 -.2295 Q - A 3 2 :: 15602 - . 2 1 2 1 -.2555 - . 2 2 4 8 -.2737 - . 2 1 6 2 -.2737 - . 2 1 2 2 -.2056 - . 2 2 0 8 -.2757 - . 3031 -.2710 - . 1 9 2 7 -.2756 - . 2 0 0 7 -.2784 - . 1 5 7 9 -. 2744 - . 2 2 2 5 -. 3140 - . 2 1 3 3 -.2840 - . 2211 -.2808 - . 2 3 3 9 -. 2733. - . 2 1 5 1 -.2827 - . 2 1 4 3 -.2758 - . 2 0 1 6 -.2727 - . 1 9 9 9 -.3005 - . 2 1 2 5 -.2783 - . 2 1 4 3 -.2479 - . 2 1 4 5 -.2802 - . 2 9 0 8 -.2932 QueB32 : ; ] « » - . 1 7 4 6 -.14 09 - . 1 7 9 8 -.1183 - . 1 9 1 0 -.2253 - . 1 7 4 7 -.0551 - . 1 7 8 0 -.1229 - . 2 7 9 6 -.1095 - . 1 5 2 1 -.1510 - . 1 7 4 9 -.1292 - . 1 3 8 2 -.1293 - . 1 8 4 7 -.1396 - . 1 9 0 6 -.1282 - . 1 9 6 2 -.2238 - . 1 8 3 5 -.1087 - . 1 7 9 2 -.2225 - . 1 6 8 5 -.1214 - . 1 6 4 2 -.2224 - . 1 8 5 1 -.1285 - . 1 8 0 0 -.1148 - . 1 7 7 4 -.1130 - . 1 7 7 8 -.2265 - . 2 3 5 1 -.2044 n,.» « -07-03 Q U e 3 5 -.0902 . 0909 -.1002 .1042 -.2023 .1279 -.1023 .0813 -.1108 . 0920 -.2032 .0416 -.0899 .1067 -.1337 .0649 -.0975 - . 0 3 1 8 -.0874 .1039 -.0914-.0556 -.0639 .0632 -. 0961 .0476 -.1178 .0861 -.1010 .1055 -.0982 - . 0 0 2 3 -.2069 .0701 -.0370 .0914 -.0404 .0837 - . 0523 .0794 -.0988 .1441 -.085? T O T E O N T R : : 3 L " - . 1 6 8 6 - . 3522 - . 1 7 0 2 -.3574 - . 1 7 2 8 -.3574 - . 1 7 1 3 -.2809 - . 1 5 7 9 -.3600 - . 2 4 4 7 -.. 3832 - . 1 5 5 3 -.3842 - . 1 9 1 1 -.3628 - . 1 5 4 5 -.3580 - . 1 4 9 8 -.3687 - . 1 6 4 4 -.3465 - . 2 2 58 -.3595 - . 1 6 6 4 -.3675 - . 1 7 4 1 -.3565 - . 1 7 0 8 -.3595 - . 1 9 8 4 -.3572 - . 1 5 8 1 -.3290 - . 1 7 5 1 -.077 7 - .1714" -.3275 - . 1 7 8 3 -.2590 - . 1 3 9 8 -.52 29 N t o t f a m s : : 2 « o - . 0 2 7 6 -.2452 - . 0 2 8 8 -.2329 - . 0 1 6 1 -.2321 - . 0 0 9 7 -.2338 - . 1 2 7 2 -.2376 - . 0391 -.2344 - . 0 2 8 4 -.2373 - . 0041 -.2259 - . 0 3 2 2 -.2354 - . 0681 -.2355 - . 0 4 4 9 -.2469 - . 0 0 7 5 -.2300 - . 0 2 9 7 -.2370 - . 0 4 1 0 -.2342 - . 0 0 9 7 -.2350 - . 0051 -.2199 - . 0 1 8 7 -.2455 - . 0 3 3 9 -.2354 - . 0 3 5 2 -.2352 - . 0 2 6 6 -.2316 T o t s o c s c , ; ^ 5 .1371 -.0425 .1380 -'. 0346 .1636 -.0205 .1320 -.0235 .1521 -.0070 .1309 -.0253 .1539 -.0206 .1700 -.0347 .1411 -.0200 .1502 -.0228 .1424 -.0224 .1534 -.0114 . 1340 -.0195 .1346 -.0218 .1596 -.0249 .1144 -.0232 .1391 -.0637 .1355 -.0290 .1299 -.0215 .1366 -.0009 .2517 -.0617 .2542 -.0534 .2951 -.0565 .2802 . 0733 .2624 -.0579 .2744 -.0834 .2638 -.0622 .2273 -.0720 .2504 -.0807 .2271 -.0806 . 2520 -.0644 .2606 -.0537 . 2536 -.0502 .2548 -.0621 .2464 -.0621 .2421 -.0780 . 2628 -.0598 .2536 -.0259 . 2504 -.0598 .2166 -.0569 1., Refers to y 3 z simple correlations between dependent variable (y) andH-nterveni ng variables (z). 2 . Refers to xy 3 simple correlations between dependent variable (y) and independent variables (x) 3. Refers to xy 3-z pa r t i a l c orrelations. CTi CO 70 a n y a r e a s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t r e n d o r n o n - l i n e a r p a t t e r n s w i l l b e m e n t i o n e d , t o p r o v i d e a c h e c k a g a i n s t d a t a t h a t d o n o t m e e t t h e c r i t e r i a i m p o s e d b y t h e P e a r s o n P r o d u c t M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n ( l i n e a r i t y ) . C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n w i l l b e u s e d a s a f u r t h e r c h e c k f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n . 4 . 2 . 3 . 1 P h y s i c i a n U s e I n d e x ( P . U . I . ) Social Functioning Variables T h e r e a r e f o u r i n s t a n c e s i n G r o u p A w h e r e s i g n i f i -c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s (P < .05) b e t w e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a n d P . U . I , a r e d e m o n s t r a t e d . T h e y a r e : - T o t a l O r g a n i z e d a n d S o c i a l ^ _ 2 9 6 7 ) A c t i v i t y ( T o t d a c ) - E x c e s s i v e G i v i n g E x c h a n g e ^ _ 2 5 1 1 ) ( I n t e r a b s ) - L i f e S t r e s s ( Que 3 5 ) (IT = . 3 2 4 0 ) ( r = .273 I) - M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e (Ma r i t e x p ) W h e r e a s t o t a l O r g a n i z e d A c t i v i t y , E x c e s s i v e G i v i n g E x c h a n g e , a n d M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e a r e p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P . U . I . , L i f e S t r e s s i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P . U . I . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t a s t h e r e s p o n d e n t f e e l s g r e a t e r L i f e S t r e s s , t h e u s e o f p h y s i c i a n s w i l l i n c r e a s e . G r o u p B h a s o n l y two v a r i a b l e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P . U . I . : 71 - T o t a l G r e a t - g r a n d c h i l d r e n C o n t a c t ( T o t g r t c h ) . 2 5 4 5 ) - T o t a l O r g a n i z e d a n d S o c i a l A c t i v i t y ( T o t d a c ) (r. = - . 2 4 6 4 ) I n b o t h c a s e s , t h e l o w e r t h e c o n t a c t o r a c t i v i t y , t h e m o r e p h y s i c i a n u s e i s e v i d e n t . L i f e S t r e s s , M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e a n d E x c h a n g e v a r i a b l e s do n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h P . U . I . f o r G r o u p B a s t h e y do f o r G r o u p A. P . U . I . i n G r o u p A . T h e y a r e : - G e n e r a l H e a l t h ( G e n h e a l t h ) ( r = - . 3 7 2 2 ) T h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u g g e s t t h a t a s G e n e r a l H e a l t h g e t s b e t t e r ( s c o r e g e t s l a r g e r ) , v i s i t s t o t h e p h y s i c i a n go do w n ; a n d a s M o r b i d i t y ( i l l n e s s ) i n c r e a s e s , p h y s i c i a n v i s i t s i n c r e a s e . I n G r o u p B, two v a r i a b l e s s h o w s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a -t i o n s w i t h P . U . I . T h e y a r e : Intervening Variables Two v a r i a b l e s s h o w s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h - M o r b i d i t y ( M o r b i d i t ) ( r = . 4 9 2 9 ) - A g e ( Q u e 0 2 ) ( r = - . 2 3 7 5 ) - M o r b i d i t y ( M o r b i d i t ) • ( r = . 3 5 0 2 ) 72 A s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n c r e a s e i n a g e i n G r o u p B, t h e y h a v e l e s s v i s i t s t o p h y s i c i a n s . A s t h e y h a v e i n c r e a s e d m o r b i d i t y , t h e y v i s i t p h y s i c i a n s m o r e . N o t e h e r e t h a t a g e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d i n G r o u p A a s i t i s i n G r o u p B w i t h P . U . I . H o w e v e r , t h e v a r i a n c e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e s e g r o u p s , f o r a g e . A l s o G e n e r a l H e a l t h d o e s n o t c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i -c a n t l y w i t h P . U . I , f o r G r o u p B a s i t d o e s f o r G r o u p A . 4 . 2 . 3 . 2 D e p e n d e n t U s e I n d e x ( D . U . I . ) Social Functioning Variables O n l y M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e ( M a r i t e x p ) ( r = . 2 6 4 9 ) c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h D . U . I , i n G r o u p A . A s m a r i t a l e x p e r i e n c e i n c r e a s e s , t h e u s e o f d e p e n d e n t f o r m s o f h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l a n d s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e s . O n l y i n t w o v a r i a b l e s d o e s G r o u p B c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h D . U . I . T h e y a r e : - E x c e s s i v e G i v i n g E x c h a n g e ( r = - . 3 1 0 1 ) ( I n t e r a b s ) - G v ! ng E - G i v i n g E x c h a n g e (Que A 3 2 ) ( r = - . 2 4 4 3 ) I n b o t h c a s e s , a s t h e e x c h a n g e i n c r e a s e s , t h e d e p e n d e n t u s e o f h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l a n d s e r v i c e s d e c r e a s e s . H e r e , m a r i t a l e x p e r i e n c e i n G r o u p B h a s n o t s i g -n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h D . U . I . , a n d G r o u p A h a s n o t s i g -n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h e x c h a n g e v a r i a b l e s . 73 Intervening Variables F o u r v a r i a b l e s i n G r o u p A c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P t .05) w i t h D . U . I . T h e y a r e : - G e n e r a l H e a l t h ( G e n h e a l t h ) ( r = - . 3 8 5 5 ) - P.G.E. M o r a l e S c a l e ( P . G . E . ) ( r = - . 3 8 1 7 ) - C o n v e n i e n c e o f U s e - H o s p i t a l , ooco-v /r> + cc - i \ ( r = . 2 2 5 8 ) ( Q s t 56 1) - C h o i c e o f U s e ( Q u e 6 0 ) ( r = - . 2 3 9 6 ) G e n e r a l H e a l t h a n d P . G . E . M o r a l e S c a l e b o t h c o r r e l a t e n e g a -t i v e l y w i t h D . U . I . ; t h a t i s , a s t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i n c r e a s e , d e p e n d e n t u s e d e c r e a s e s . H o w e v e r , a s t h e C h o i c e o f U s e o f h e a l t h a n d h e d m i c a l s e r v i c e s d e c r e a s e s , h o s p i t a l u s e i n c r e a s e s ; T h e C o n v e n i e n c e o f U s e - H o s p i t a l s v a r i a b l e a p p e a r s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h D . U . I , p o s i t i v e l y ; i . e . , a s i t b e c o m e s m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o g e t t o a h o s p i t a l , t h e u s e o f o t h e r h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l a n d s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e s . O n l y o n e v a r i a b l e i n G r o u p B i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h D . U . I . , t h e F o r c e d U s e v a r i a b l e ( Q u e 5 9 ) ( r = . 2 7 3 6 ) . A s t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n G r o u p B f e e l s l e s s p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e p h y s i c i a n t o r e c e i v e w h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t c o n s i d e r s u n n e c e s s a r y m e d i c a l o r h e a l t h c a r e , s o t h e u s e o f h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l i n c r e a s e s . N o t e h e r e t h a t G e n e r a l H e a l t h , M o r a l e a n d C h o i c e o f U s e h a v e no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h D . U . I , i n G r o u p B a s t h e y do f o r G r o u p A . 74 4 . 2 . 3 . 3 H o s p i t a l U s e I n d e x ( H . U . I ) Social Functioning Variables O n l y M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e ( M a r i t e x p ) ( r = . 2 4 5 0 ) i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h H o s p i t a l U s e f o r G r o u p A. T h e H i g h e r t h e M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e , t h e h i g h e r t h e H . U . I . G r o u p B, h o w e v e r , h a s f i v e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h s i g n i f i -c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h H . U . I . T h e y a r e - T o t a I C h i I d r e n C o n t a c t ( T o t c h d e n ) - T o t a l G r a n d c h i l d r e n C o n t a c t ( T o t g n d c n ) - G i v i n g E x c h a n g e (Que A 3 2 ) - T o t a l C o n t a c t ( T o t c o n t n ) - F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e ( N t o t f a m s ) I n a l l c a s e s a b o v e , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s n e g a t i v e w i t h H . U . I . T h i s e m p h a s i z e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n e o f c o n t a c t a n d f a m i l y s u p p o r t s y s t e m s t o o f f s e t t h e u s e o f h o s p i t a l ( l e n g t h o f d a y s h o s p i t a l i z e d ) . N o t e t h a t t h e s e c o n t a c t a n d f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e v a r i a b l e s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i n g t o H . U . I , i n G r o u p A . ( r = - . 2 6 5 7 ) ( r = - . 2 9 5 7 ) ( r = - . 2 4 0 4 ) ( r = - . 3 5 4 4 ) ( r = - .24 3 0 ) Intervening Variables I n G r o u p A , two v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h H . U . I . T h e y a r e : 75 - G e n e r a l H e a l t h ( G e n h e a l t h ) ( r = - . 3 2 7 4 ) - C h o i c e o f U s e ( Q u e 6 0 ) ( r = - . 2 3 0 4 ) I n b o t h c a s e s , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h H . U . I , i s n e g a t i v e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t a s G e n e r a l H e a l t h i m p r o v e s , H o s p i t a l U s e d e c r e a s e s ; a n d a s t h e c h o i c e o f u s e o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s i s r e d u c e d , H o s p i t a l U s e i n c r e a s e s . I n G r o u p . B , two v a r i a b l e s s h o w s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e -l a t i o n w i t h H . U . I . T h e y a r e : I n t h e s e t wo c a s e s , a s i t b e c o m e s l e s s c o n v e n i e n t f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o u s e h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , t h e m o r e t h e s e s e r v i c e s a r e u s e d . n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h H . U . I , f o r G r o u p B a s t h e y a r e f o r G r o u p A . 4 . 2 . 3 . 4 B r e a k d o w n A n a l y s i s f o r U t i l i z a t i o n I n d i c e s U p o n s u r v e y i n g t h e b r e a k d o w n a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a s t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c e s ( P . U . I . , D . U . I , a n d H . U . I . ) f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B ( A p p e n d i x V I I I ) , a : f e w t r e n d s a p p e a r , w h i c h w e r e n o t n o t e d e a r l i e r i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . C o n v e n i e n c e o f U s e ^ P h y s i c i a n ( Q s t 56 I ) ( r = . 2 3 6 8 ) - C o n v e n i e n c e o f U s e - H o s p i t a l '0.(Qst " 5 6 2 ) ( r = . 2 3 5 3 ) N o t e t h a t G e n e r a l H e a l t h a n d C h o i c e o f U s e a r e T o t a l S i b l i n g C o n t a c t i n G r o u p A a p p e a r s t o h a v e a ' u - s h a p e d ' r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h P . U . I . F o r H i g h o r Low T o t a l S i b l i n g c o n t a c t , P . U . I , i s low a s c o m p a r e d t o h i g h e r P . U . I , f o r t h e m e d i u m T o t a l S i b l i n g c o n t a c t s e t . T h i s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be t h e c a s e w i t h G r o u p B. T o t a l S o c i a l S c a l e i n G r o u p B a p p e a r s t o h a v e a ' u - s h a p e d ' r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h H . U . I . T h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s s c o r i n g l e s s t h a n 5 ( l o w e r c l a s s r a n g e ) o r g r e a t e r t h a n 10 ( u p p e r c l a s s r a n g e ) h a v e g r e a t e r h o s p i t a l u s e t h a n do t h e m i d d l e g r o u p 9 6 - 9 s c o r e s ) . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p j s n o t s e e n f o r G r o u p A r e s p o n d e n t s . T o t a l s i b l i n g c o n t a c t f o r G r o u p A a p p e a r s t o r e f l e c t a g r e a t e r H . U . I , v a l u e f o r t h o s e w i t h low t o t a l s i b l i n g c o n t a c t t h a n w i t h g r e a t e r s i b l i n g c o n t a c t . T o t a l c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t f o r G r o u p A r e f l e c t s a s i m i l a r t r e n d . R e l i g i o n - B i r t h , a v a r i a b l e d e s i g n e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e B r i t i s h - P r o t e s t a n t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n s a m p l e s f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B, s h o w s t h e f o l l o w i n g t r e n d : t h a t t h e m o r e B r i t i s h - P p o t e s t a n t t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s i n G r o u p B, t h e l e s s u t i l i z a t i o n i s o b s e r v e d . T h i s t r e n d i s n o t s h o w n i n G r o u p A. I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s o c i o - c u I t u r a I f a c t o r m e a s u r e d by t h i s v a r i a b l e a s s e r t s i t s e f f e c t , t h e m o r e d e p e n d e n t t h e g r o u p . A s a g e n e r a l t r e n d , t h o s e who s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y m o ved t o B.C. f o r h e a l t h r e a s o n s ( a s m e a s u r e d by t h e v a r i a b l e s , ' R e a s o n f o r M o v i n g t o B . C . ' ) , h a d l e s s h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l u t i l i z a t i o n , b o t h i n G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B. T h e u t i l i z a t i o n e x p r e s s e d by t h e o c c u p a t i o n / n a t i v e a n d e s t h e t i c / o t h e r ) s h o w e d no t r e n d o v e r a l l . 77 4 . 2 . 3 . 5 C r o s s T a b u l a t i o n o f U t i l i z a t i o n I n d i c e s  by t h e I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s f o r G r o u p  A a n d G r o u p B s e p a r a t e l y T h e c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s , a s p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x I X , a r e s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e f i n d i n g s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . An o v e r v i e w o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b s e r v e d i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s a n d a s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 3 , i s s u p p o r t e d a n d f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d by r e v i e w i n g t h e d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f t h o s e r e s p o n s e s o b s e r v e d i n G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s . A p p e n d i x IX p r e s e n t s a r e v i e w o f a l l s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B, s o t h a t a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a n d s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s i s e v i d e n t . T h e c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s f o r e a c h g r o u p p r e s e n t some i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s . F i r s t , i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c e s a n d t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , m o s t o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r p h y s i c i a n u s e i n d e x f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B a r e f a i r l y w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d . H o w e v e r , w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d e p e n d e n t u s e i n d e x a n d h o s p i t a l u s e i n d e x , c o n s i d e r -a b l e v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n b e t w e e n t h o s e who u s e t h e s e s e r v i c e s a t a l l , a n d t h o s e who do n o t u s e t h e s e s e r v i c e s . I n s e v e r a l c a s e s , t h e n o n - u s e o f e i t h e r o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s i s 8 0 % o r g r e a t e r i n G r o u p A a n d 6 0 - 7 0 % i n G r o u p B. W h a t d o e s t h i s mean i n t e r m s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n 78 T a b l e s 1 0 , 11 a n d 12? O b v i o u s l y , t h e u s e o f t h e s e two s e r v i c e a r e a s i s g r e a t e r f o r G r o u p B t h a n f o r G o u p A by 1 0 - 2 0 % . A l s o , i f we a b s t r a c t t h e u s e r s f r o m t h e n o n - u s e r s , i n b o t h c a s e s o f t h e u s e i n d i c e s , t h e d i r e c t i o n a n d s t r e n g t h o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d i s s u p p o r t e d . T h a t i s , o f t h o s e who u s e t h e s e s e r v i c e s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d t h e o t h e r i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e p r e -s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 3 , a r e s u p p o r t e d by t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e u s e r s . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e K e n d a l l ' s T a u B s i g n i f i c a n c e . N o t e t h a t i n a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s n o t e d e a r l i e r f o r c o r r e l a t i o n a n d b r e a k d o w n a n a l y s i s , t h e c r o s s ' t a b s a r e i n a g r e e m e n t . I t w o u l d a p p e a r , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t we c a n a c c e p t b o t h t h e s i g n i f i -c a n c e a n d d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r . 4.2.4 O v e r v i e w o f R e s u l t s - S u b - S e c t i o n I I T a b l e 13 r e p r e s e n t s t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s u b - s e c t i o n ( s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s ) . F r o m t h i s t a b l e c o l l e c t i v e i n f e r e n c e s c a n be d r a w n a c r o s s m a j o r v a r i a b l e g r o u p s . T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l v i e w o f t h e f i n d i n g s . T a b l e 13 T a b l e o f S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t i o n a l A . n a l y s i s o f G r o u p A a n d - G r o u p B as R e l a t e d t o -Ut i 1 i z a t i on I n d i c e s P h y s i c i a n Use Index ( P . U . I . ) D e p e n d e n t Use In d e x ( D . U . I . ) H o s p i t a l Use In d e x ( H . U . I ) G r o u p A Gro u p B Group A Gro u p B Group A Gro u p B S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g V a r i a b l e s T o t a l c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t -.2657 T o t a l g r a n d c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t -.2957 T o t a l g r e a t g r a n d c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t -.2545 i T o t a l c o n t a c t -.3544 T o t a l o r g a n i z e d and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y .2967 -.2464 E x c e s s i v e g i v i n g e x c h a n g e -.2511 -.3101 G i v i n g e x c h a n g e -.2443 -.2404 L i f e s t r e s s .3240 M a r i t a l e x p e r i e n c e .2731 .2649 .2450 F a m i l y s t r u c t u r e -.2430 I n t e r v e n i n g V a r i a b l e s Age -.2375 G e n e r a l h e a l t h -.3722 -.3855 -.3274 M o r b i d i t y .4929 .3502 M o r a l e -.3817 C o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e - p h y s i c i a n .2368 C o n v e n i e n c e u f u s e - h o s p i t a l .2258 .2353 C h o i c e o f u s e -.2396 -.2304 F o r c e d u s e .2738 vo 80 4 . 2 . 4 . 1 S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g a s i t R e l a t e s t o  U t i l i z a t i o n Contact Variables I t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h g r e a t - g r a n d c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P . U . I , f o r G r o u p B, t h e m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c o n t a c t v a r i a b l e s i s s h o w n f o r G r o u p B w i t h r e s p e c t t o H . U . I . H e r e we f i n d t h a t c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t , g r a n d c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t a n d t o t a l c o n t a c t a r e a l l n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h H . U . I . G r o u p A , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n f o r c o n t a c t w i t h a n y o f t h e u t i l i z a t i o n v a r i a b l e s . Activity Variables A c t i v i t y v a r i a b l e s a p p e a r t o b e o f l i t t l e c o r r e -l a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e e x c e p t w i t h r e s p e c t t o P . U . I . H e r e we f i n d t h a t G r o u p A s h o w s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t o t a l O r g a n i z e d a n d S o c i a l A c t i v i t y , w h e r e a s G r o u p B s h o w s a n e g a -t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e s a m e v a r i a b l e . No o t h e r a c t i v i t y v a r i a b l e s s h ow s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . Exchange Variables W i t h r e s p e c t t o P . U . I . , o n l y G r o u p A s h o w s a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r E x c e s s i v e G i v i n g E x c h a n g e . H o w e v e r , f o r b o t h D . U . I , a n d H . U . I . , G r o u p B s h o w s n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n 81 f o r t h e e x c h a n g e v a r i a b l e s . G i v i n g E x c h a n g e a n d E x c e s s i v e G i v i n g E x c h a n g e a p p e a r t o be t h e m a i n v a r i a b l e s h e r e . Life Stress O n l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o P . U . I , f o r G r o u p A d o e s L i f e S t r e s s c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y . T h e h i g h e r t h e L i f e S t r e s s , t h e h i g h e r t h e P . U . I . L i f e S t r e s s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e i t h e r D . U . I , o r H . U . I , f o r e i t h e r G r o u p A o r G r o u p B. Marital Experience O n l y f o r G r o u p A , a n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o a l l u t i l i z a -t i o n i n d i c e s , d o e s m a r i t a l e x p e r i e n c e c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y . G r o u p B h a s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e . N o t e t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s h e r e a r e p o s i t i v e . Family Structure O n l y f o r H . U . I , i n G r o u p B d o e s F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e c o r r e l a t e ( n e g a t i v e l y ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y . I t d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r G r o u p A o r f o r P . U . I , a n d D . U . I . 82 4 . 2 . 4 . 2 I n t e r v e n i n g V a r i a b l e s a s t h e y R e l a t e t o  U t i l i z a t i o n I n d i c e s O n l y G r o u p B, w i t h r e s p e c t t o P . U . I , h a s a s i g n i f i -c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . T h e o l d e r t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s i n G r o u p B, t h e l e s s p h y s i c i a n u s e i s o b s e r v e d . General Health O n l y f o r G r o u p A , f o r a l l u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c e s , i s G e n e r a l H e a l t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d ( n e g a t i v e ) . I n a l l c a s e s t h e b e t t e r t h e G e n e r a l H e a l t h , t h e l e s s u s e i s o b s e r v e d . T h i s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be e v i d e n t f o r G r o u p B. Morbidity O n l y f o r P . U . I . , a n d f o r b o t h G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B, d o e s m o r b i d i t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e . H i g h e r m o r b i d i t y r e f l e c t s h i g h e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c i a n . Morale O n l y f o r G r o u p A , a n d f o r D . U . I . , d o e s m o r a l e h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r e l a t i o n . T h e h i g h e r t h e m o r a l e , t h e l e s s u s e o f t h e m o r e d e p e n d e n t f o r m s o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l a n d s e r v i c e s . 83 Convenience of Use Variables I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e l e s s c o n v e n i e n t i t i s t o u s e o n e t y p e o f s e r v i c e , t h e m o r e a n o t h e r t y p e o f s e r v i c e i s u s e d . A s s h o w n , f o r G r o u p A , f o r D . U . I , t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r c o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e - p h y s i c i a n . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t a s t h e u s e o f p h y s i c i a n i s made l e s s c o n v e n i e n t , o t h e r d e p e n d e n t f o r m s o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l c a r e a r e u s e d m o r e . S i m i l a r l y , f o r G r o u p B, f o r H . U . I . , c o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e - p h y s i c i a n i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d ( l e s s c o n v e n i e n t u s e o f p h y s i c i a n r e l a t e d t o m o r e u s e o f h o s p i t a l ) . I n G r o u p B, h o w e v e r , we do o b s e r v e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n f o r c o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e - h o s p i t a l w i t h H . U . I . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t e v e n t h o u g h h o s p i t a l s may be i n c o n v e n i e n t t o u s e , t h e y a r e u s e d m o r e a s t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e ( d i f f i c u l t y ) i n c r e a s e s . Choioe of Use O n l y f o r G r o u p A , f o r D . U . I , a n d H . U . I . , i s t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . A s t h e c h o i c e o f u t i l i z i n g h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l • s e r v i c e s d e c r e a s e s , t h e u s e o f h o s p i t a l s a n d h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l a n d s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e s . 84 Forced Use O n l y f o r G r o u p B, f o r D.U. I . , d o e s f o r c e d u s e c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y . A s t h e r e s p o n d e n t f e e l s l e s s f o r c e d by t h e p h y s i c i a n t o u s e h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l • c a r e , d e p e n d e n t u s e o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l a n d s e r v i c e s i s i n c r e a s e d . 4 . 2 . 5 S u b - S e c t i o n I I I : P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s A s T a b l e s 1 0 , 1 1 , a n d 12 d e s c r i b e , t h e r e w e r e a f e w c a s e s w h e r e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a n d u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c e s ( P . U . I . , D . U . I . , H . U . I . ) w e r e a l t e r e d ( r e d u c e d o r i n c r e a s e d ) by c o n t r o l l i n g ( p a r t i a l 1 i n g ) f o r i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s . H o w e v e r , u p o n c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e s p e c i f i c a l t e r a t i o n s i n c o r r e l a t i o n , i t was f o u n d t h a t i n no c a s e w e r e t h e a l t e r a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . I t c a n t h e r e f o r e be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n S u b - S e c t i o n I I a r e n o t s p u r i o u s b u t do r e f l e c t t h e l e v e l o f c o r r e l a t i o n d o c u m e n t e d . 4.3 S e c t i o n C: M u l t i v a r i a n t A n a l y s i s T a b l e 14 d i s p l a y s t h e r e s u l t s o f a m u l t i p l e s t e p -w i s e r e g r e s s i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 3 , f o r e a c h o f t h e two s a m p l e g r o u p s f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c e s . U s i n g e a c h u t i l i z a t i o n i n d e x * • « * » • • • * * « * * * • * • * * * • * * M U L T I P L E R E G R E S S I O N * • » * * * * * * » » » * VARIABLE LIST I REGRESSION LIST 1 DEPENDENT VARIABLE.. VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX VARIABLE MORBIDIT GENHEALT TOTOAC QUE35 MARITEXP INTE3ABS (CONSTANT) MORBIDITY GENERAL HEALTH TOTAL ORGANIZED C SOCIAL ACTIVITIES LIFE STRESS MARITAL EXPERIENCE EXCESSIVE GIVING EXCHANGE SUMMARY TABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSQ CHANGE SIMPLE R 0.49470 0.57*34 0.6073* 0.62418 0.63902 0.65162 0.24473 0.32987 0.36887 0.38960 0.40035 0.42461 0.24473 0.08514 0.03900 0.02073 0. 01876 0.01626 0.49470 -0.35976 0.12419 0.32324 0.32042 -0.22342 B 0.27233 -0.11291 0.00742 0.00214 0.06247 -0.29036 1.75707 BETA 0.37992 -0.25925 0.13*50 0.15725 0.1*328 -0.13*38 TABLE FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE - 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA 10/18/7* PAGE 11 « » « < , . * * « » * * * * • « * * * * * * * * M U L T I P L E DEPENDENT VARIABLE.. DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX SUMMARY TABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSQ CHANGE R E G R E S S I O N * * * * » * » « • • * * * VARIABLE GENHEALT PGESCALE MAR IT EXP QUE60 QST562 (CONSTANT) GENERAL HEALTH MORALE MARITAL EXPERIENCE CHOICE OF USE CONVENIENCE OF USE - HOSPITAL 0.39320 0.48970 0.55461 0.57935 0.58271 0.15461 0.23980 0.30759 0. 33564 0.33955 0.15461 0.08520 0.06779 0.02805 0.00391 SIMPLE R -0.39320 -0.39287 0.26538 -0.23434 0.17890 VARIABLE LIST REGRESSION LIST -0.08360 -0.09089 0.07358 -0.51336 0.14326 1.95131 BETA -0.29174 -0.28001 0.256*5 -0.14730 0.0685* TABLE FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA 10/18/74 PAGE 12 • • • * » * • • * * * • • • • • * * • * * • * M U L T I P L E DEPENDENT VARIABLE.• QUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX SUMMARY TABLE VARIABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSQ CHANGE R E G R E S S I O N * * * * * * • • » * « • * VARIABLE LIST REGRESSION LIST GENHEALT GENERAL HEALTH QUE6D CHOICE OF USE MARITEXP MARITAL EXPERIENCE (CONSTANT) 0.33421 0.40803 0.45765 0.11170 0.16649 0.20944 0.11170 0.05479 0.04295 SIMPLE R -0.33421 -0.22464 0.24429 -0.77871 -6.50291 0.49982 10.96120 BETA -0.32*68 -0.22293 0.23815 CO cn • * * * * * • * « * * * * • • • * • « * * * • M U L T I P L E R E G R E S S I O N * * * * « « * * • * » • • VARIABLE LIST 1 REGRESSION LIST * DEPENDENT VARIABLE.. VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX VARIABLE NORBIOIT OUE02 TOTOAC TOTG*TCN (CONSTANT) MORBIDITY AGE TOTAL ORGANIZED C SOCIAL ACTIVITIES TOTAL GREATGRANDCHILDREN CONTACT SUMMARY TABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSQ CHANGE SIMPLE R 0.36929 0.38479 0.39171 0.39253 0. 13638 0.14806 0.15344 0.15408 0. 13638 0.01168 0.00538 0.00064 0. 36929 -0.20366 -0.14078 -0.10937 B 0.22810 -0.12240 -0.04547 -0.01314 3.69293 B E T A 0.32789 -0.09617 -0.07416 -0.02710 TABLE FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE BGROUP « * « * * * « « * « » « * * * * » * * « * » * M U L T I P L E DEPENDENT VARIABLE.. DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX SUMMARY TABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSQ CHANGE 10/18/74 PAGE 20 R E G R E S S I O N « * * * « * » « * » * • * VARIABLE LIST 1 REGRESSION LIST 5 VARIABLE INTE*ABS EXCESSIVE GIVING EXCHANGE QUE59 FORCED USE QUEA32 . GIVING EXCHANGE (CONSTANT) 0.31261 0.43406 0.45856 0.09773 0.18841 0.21028 0.09773 0.09068 0.021B7 SIMPLE R -0.31261 0.26940 -0.23142 B -1.14481 3.79443 -0.63646 1.05418 B E T A -0.27505 0.32343 -0.16400 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 21 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE - 07/09/74) SUBFILE BGROJP » • • • * • • * • * * « • * • • * • • * * , * M . u L T I P L E R E G R E S S I O N * * * * * * • • « • • * * DEPENDENT VARIABLE.. 0UE5O HOSPITAL USE INDEX VARIABLE TOFGROCN 3ST562 UUEA32 TOTCONTR INTHABA NTOTFAMS QST561 (CONSTANT) TOTAL GRANDCHILDREN CONTACT CONVENIENCE OF USE - HOSPITAL GIVING EXCHANGE TOTAL CONTACT TWO-WAY EXCHANGE FAMILY STRUCTURE CONVENIENCE OF USE - PHYSICIAN SUHHARY TABLE VARIABLE LIST 1 REGRESSION LIST 6 MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSQ CHANGE SIMPLE R B BETA 0.27389 0.07502 0.07502 -0.27389 -0.58530 -0.079*5 0.33199 0.11022 0.03520 0.20437 17.30361 0.15935 0.37478 0.14046 0.03024 -0.25995 -21.48090 -0.35464 0.39378 0.15507 0.01461 -0.26984 -0.24658 -0.13585 0.41106 0.16897 0.01390 -0.20871 8.14887 0.24470 0.42135 0.17753 0.00856 -0.26715 -0.71377 -0.12520 0.43026 0.18512 0.00759 0.19905 8.75337 0.09834 -0.73788 CO LT) 87 a s a d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a n d i n c l u d i n g a s i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a l l t h o s e c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t a r e r e c o r d e d . a s s i g n i f i c a n t (P 1 . 0 5 ) , we c a n o b s e r v e a ' p r e d i c t i v e ' e f f e c t f o r t h o s e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a s r e g a r d s u s e o f t h e s p e c i f i e d u t i l i z a -t i o n i n d e x . 4.3.1 G r o u p A T h e s u m m a r y t a b l e d i s p l a y e d f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c e s i n d i c a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g ' p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ' o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . 4 . 3 . 1 . 1 P h y s i c i a n U s e I n d e x r 2 = . 4 2 4 6 , t h e r e f o r e a c c o u n t f o r 4 2 . 4 6 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e P < . 0 1 , f o r d . f . = 7 1 , # o f v a r i a b l e s = 6 4 . 3 . 1 . 2 D e p e n d e n t U s e I n d e x r 2 = . 3 3 9 6 , t h e r e f o r e a c c o u n t i n g f o r 3 3 . 9 6 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e P < .01 f o r d . f . = 7 2 , # o f v a r i a b l e s = 5 4 . 3 . 1 . 3 H o s p i t a l U s e I n d e x r 2 = . 2 0 9 4 , t h e r e f o r e a c c o u n t i n g f o r 2 0 . 9 4 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e P < .01 f o r d . f . = 7 4 , # o f v a r i a b l e s = 3 88 I n a l l c a s e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o show s i g n i f i c a n t ' p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ' o f u s e by t h o s e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s e m p l o y e d i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s , s u c h a s g e n e r a l h e a l t h a n d m o r b i d i t y , e x p l a i n a m a j o r i t y o f t h i s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e . 4 . 3 . 2 G r o u p B T h e f o l l o w i n g s u m m a r y s d i s p l a y t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y f o u n d f o r t h e G r o u p B i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a s p e r T a b l e 1 4 . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1 P h y s i c i a n U s e I n d e x r 2 = . 1 5 4 1 , t h e r e f o r e a c c o u n t i n g f o r 1 5 . 4 1 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e P < .01 f o r d . f . = 6 4 , # o f v a r i a b l e s = 4 4 . 3 . 2 . 2 D e p e n d e n t U s e I n d e x r 2 = . 2 1 0 3 , t h e r e f o r e a c c o u n t i n g f o r 2 1 . 0 3 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e P < .01 f o r d . f . = 6 5 , # o f v a r i a b l e s = 3 4 . 3 . 2 . 3 H o s p i t a l U s e I n d e x r 2 = . 1 8 5 1 , t h e r e f o r e a c c o u n t i n g f o r 1 8 . 5 1 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e P 1 .05 f o r d . f . = 6 1 , # o f v a r i a b l e s = 7 89 I n a l l c a s e s , t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s u s e d i n t h e e q u a t i o n s h ow s i g n i f i c a n t ' p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ' o f u t i l i z a t i o n . H e r e a l s o , s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s t e n d t o e x p l a i n m o r e o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n u t i l i z a t i o n t h a n w i t h G r o u p A . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e h o s p i t a l u s e i n d e x r e g r e s s i o n , w h e r e t h e m a j o r ' p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ' c o m e s f r o m t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s o f c o n t a c t a n d e x c h a n g e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e h e r e , a s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s ( T a b l e 1 3 ) , t h e d i r e c t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c e s . I n G r o u p B, f o r e x a m p l e , a l l t h e c o n t a c t a n d e x c h a n g e v a r i a b l e s f o r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g s h ow a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o n u t i l i z a t i o n ; t h a t i s , a s c o n t a c t a n d e x c h a n g e i n c r e a s e , u t i l i z a t i o n d e c r e a s e s . C h a p t e r 5 DISCUSSION I n r e p o r t i n g o n t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e d a t a h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d i n s u c h a m a n n e r a s t o f a c i l i t a t e a t h o r o u g h o v e r v i e w a n d r e s p o n s e t o t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n . I t h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t h a t G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B d i f f e r d e m o g r a p h i -c a l l y a n d t h a t G r o u p A i s m o r e i n d e p e n d e n t t h a n G r o u p B. T h u s i t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s w o u l d o c c u r b e t w e e n g r o u p s . T h e s t u d y h a s a t t e m p t e d t o c o n s i d e r t h i s v a r i a n c e b y u s i n g v a r i o u s s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s , a n d s how t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e m e a n s do e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e two s u b -p o p u l a t i o n s i n s u p p o r t o f t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n . T h e r e p o r t w i l l d i s c u s s t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a s w e l l a s f u r t h e r c o r r e l a t i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n s . 5.1 D i s c u s s i o n o n C o m p a r i s o n o f S u b - G r o u p s A a n d B w i t h  R e f e r e n c e t o Mean S c o r e s I n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n , a n d i n r e v i e w -i n g S e c t i o n B o f t h e R e s u l t s S e c t i o n , s u b - s e c t i o n I , t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n b e m a d e . 90 91 F i r s t , t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e ( T a b l e 9 ) t h a t h o s p i t a l u s e i n G r o u p B i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ( c o n t r o l l i n g f o r v a r i a n c e ) t h a n i n G r o u p A. T h i s t r e n d , a l t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i -c a n t , i s a l s o d i s p l a y e d f o r p h y s i c i a n u s e a n d d e p e n d e n t u s e . I n f a c t , G r o u p B a p p e a r s t o u s e h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n d o e s G r o u p A. S e c o n d l y , i n t h r e e o u t o f n i n e t e e n v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d , G r o u p B i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r i n t e r m s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g t h a n i s G r o u p A. T h i s t r e n d i s a g a i n a g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n f o r m o s t o f t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x t e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d . T h i r d , a s a g e n e r a l r u l e , t h e i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s g e n e r a l h e a l t h a n d m o r b i d i t y , w h i c h s h o u l d , by d e f i n i t i o n , p r e d i s p o s e t o w a r d h i g h e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , do n o t a p p e a r t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e two s a m p l e g r o u p s . F o u r t h , w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e m a i n i n g i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s , G r o u p B a p p e a r s t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o a g e , m o r b i d i t y , e a t i n g h a b i t s , m o r a l e , c o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , a n d f o r c e d u s e . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , G r o u p B i s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y o l d e r g r o u p , l e s s m o b i l e , o f t e n h a s l o w e r m o r a l e , f i n d s i t m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o u s e h o s p i t a l s a n d h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l , a n d f e e l s s o m e w h a t f o r c e d t o r e c e i v e u n n e c e s s a r y m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n . 92 A l s o , i n l i e u o f t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e , G r o u p B i s m o r e d e p e n d e n t i n t e r m s o f p h y s i c a l s e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e t h a n G r o u p A . T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s s u p p o r t e d b y r e f e r e n c e t o q u e s t i o n 3 0 , A p p e n d i x V I I , w h i c h i s a c r u d e m e a s u r e o f p h y s i c a l s e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e . A s a n o v e r v i e w t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , i t c a n be s u g g e s t e d t h a t l o w e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g i s r e l a t e d t o t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . N o t o n l y i s t h i s s o , b u t f o r t h o s e p e r s o n s d e f i n e d i n t h e s a m p l e who h a v e l o w e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , t h e r e i s a h i g h e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . T h i s t r e n d i s e s t a b l i s h e d o v e r m o s t o f t h e i n d i c e s a n d s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s o b s e r v e d . T h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t i n c r e a s e d a g e , t o some e x t e n t , d o e s s u g g e s t h i g h e r h e a l t h c a r e u t i l i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e w o r k o f A n d e r s o n a n d A n d e r s o n ( 5 , 6 ) , who s t a t e t h a t . . . people over 65 have more home v i s i t s by physicians. . . . hospital admissions/discharges peak after age 65. . . . length of hospital stay increases with age. H o w e v e r , e v e n t h o u g h G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B a r e s i g -n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n a g e ( 7 6 . 7 6 v s . 8 1 . 1 3 ) r e s p e c t i v e l y ( m e a n s c o r e s ) ) , t h e r e i s l i t t l e , i f a n y , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e b e t w e e n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s a f t e r a g e 7 0 . 93 W i t h t h i s i n m i n d , a n d i n l i e u o f t h e l a c k o f s u p p o r t i v e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h o s e o t h e r i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s r e d u c e t h e o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d u t i l i z a t i o n , a c a s e h a s b e e n made i n s u p p o r t o f t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n : t h a t , i n d e e d , s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g i s r e l a t e d t o t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . F u r h t e r , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p a p p e a r s t o h a v e d i r e c t i o n a n d i s s p e c i f i c f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d i c e s o f u t i l i z a t i o n , a s t h e f o l l o w -i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l e n d e a v o r t o s u p p o r t . 5.2 D i s c u s s i o n o n C o m p a r i s o n o f S U b - G r o u p s A a n d B w i t h  R e f e r e n c e t o C o r r e l a t i o n s , B r e a k d o w n s a a r i d C 6 r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n s I n t h e o v e r v i e w o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n S e c t i o n B, s u b - s e c t i o n I I , a s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 1 3 , i t was f o u n d t h a t n o t o n l y i s t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d u t i l i z a t i o n , b u t t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o w s v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c t r e n d s b e t w e e n i n d i c e s o f u t i l i z a t i o n f o r G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B. What a p p e a r s t o be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n o n e i n s t a n c e , may n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t i n a n o t h e r . L e t us d i s c u s s a f e w o f t h e s e e x a m p l e s . 94 5.2.1 E x a m p l e 1: S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g V a r i a b l e s -C o n t a c t a n d E x c h a n g e L o o k i n g a t T a b l e 1 3 , o n e c a n o b s e r v e t h a t c o n t a c t h a s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r G r o u p B, b u t n o t f o r G r o u p A . T h i s i s e x p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e h o s p i t a l u s e i n d e x . H e r e i t a p p e a r s t h a t i n c r e a s e d c o n t a c t w i t h c h i l d r e n , g r a n d -c h i l d r e n a n d t o t a l c o n t a c t w i t h f a m i l y a n d f r i e n d s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l o w e r e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f h o s p i t a l s a s d e f i n e d b y t h e i n d e x ( n u m b e r o f h o s p i t a l d a y s ) . G r o u p A a p p e a r s n o t t o h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r c o n t a c t v s . u t i l i z a t i o n . I t may b e s u g g e s t e d h e r e t h a t a s g r e a t e r n u m b e r s o f c o n t a c t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n o l d e r p e o p l e a n d t h e i r f a m i l y a n d f r i e n d s , t h e r e i s l e s s n e e d t o u s e h o s p i t a l s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t w o u l d be r e q u i r e d w i t h o u t t h a t s u p p o r t s y s t e m . I n t h e a r e a o f e x c h a n g e , b o t h g i v i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g , a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i s e s t a b l i s h e d . G r o u p B a p p e a r s t o h a v e a m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n h o s p i t a l a n d h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l u t i l i z a t i o n t h a n d o e s G r o u p A . I n t h e c a s e o f p h y s i c i a n u s e , h o w e v e r , G r o u p A h a s t h i s t r e n d e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e a b s e n c e o f G r o u p B. P e r h a p s t h i s i n d i c a t e s , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t s u p p o r t e d a d e q u a t e l y by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s s h o w n , t h e a b i l i t y o f e x c h a n g e t o b e a n e f f e c t i v e f a c t o r i n r e l a t i n g t o h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s u t i l i z a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e s e 95 o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c o n t a c t a n d e x c h a n g e do i n d i c a t e d e f i n i t e l y t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h s h o w s d i r e c t i o n t o w a r d s u t i 1 i z a t i o n . 5.2.2 E x a m p l e 2: f G e n e r a l H e a l t h L o o k i n g a g a i n a t T a b l e 1 3 , n o t e t h a t g e n e r a l h e a l t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o a l l t h r e e i n d i c e s o f u t i l i z a t i o n f o r G r o u p A a n d f o r n o n e i n G r o u p B. What t h i s s u g g e s t s i s t h a t , a s g e n e r a l h e a l t h i m p r o v e s f o r t h o s e i n G r o u p A , u t i l i z a t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s i n d i c a t e d d e c r e a s e s . H o w e v e r , f o r G r o u p B, g e n e r a l h e a l t h d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i n g t o l o w e r u t i l i z a t i o n . I t , i n f a c t , d o e s n o t a p p e a r i n a l l t h r e e c a s e s . What d o e s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s u g g e s t ? W hat a p p e a r s t o be e v i d e n t h e r e i s t h a t G r o u p B i s h o t i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e i r g e n e r a l h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g a s much a s G r o u p A. G r u p B a p p a r e n t l y u s e s h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , i n s p i t e o f a n y c o n t r a - i n d i c a t i o n s f r o m g e n e r a l h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g . T h i s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be e x p l a i n e d by d i s t r i b u t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d i n h i s t o g r a m s ( n o t i n c l u d e d ) o f g e n e r a l h e a l t h f o r b o t h g r o u p s . P e r h a p s t h e l o w e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g G r o u p B u s e s h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s f o r o t h e r t h a n h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l c a r e r e a s o n s . T h i s s t u d y c a n n o t s u p p o r t t h i s s t a t e m e n t f u r t h e r w i t h t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d ; h o w e v e r , t h i s i n d i c a t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( T i b b i t t s ( 6 6 ) ) . 96 F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o b r e a k d o w n s ( A p p e n d i x V I I I ) a n d c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s ( A p p e n d i x I X ) ( a n d a s r e p o r t e d i n t h e r e s u l t s ) , s u g g e s t t h a t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s made e a r l i e r a r e s u p p o r t e d b y t h o s e d a t a a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s . T h e t r e n d s t h a t h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d a p p e a r t o be s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e d a t a . P a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , a s p r e s e n t e d i n s u b - s e c t i o n I I I o f t h e R e s u l t s S e c t i o n , s u g g e s t t h a t i n no c a s e do t h e i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s we h a v e d i s c u s s e d . I n d e e d , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s p u t f o r t h a r e i n s u p p o r t o f t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n . 5.3 D i s c u s s i o n o n C o m p a r i s o n s o f G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B w i t h  R e f e r e n c e t o M u l t i v a r i a n t A n a l y s i s S e c t i o n C o f t h e R e s u l t s S e c t i o n o u t l i n e s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n made f r o m p e r f o r m i n g a s e r i e s o f m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s o n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s a s p e r T a b l e 1 3 , t o d e t e r m i n e t o w h a t e x t e n t t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s c o u l d a c t a s p r e d i c t o r s o f u t i l i z a t i o n . B o t h G r o u p A a n d G r o u p B w e r e c o n s i d e r e d f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c e s . T h e f i n d i n g s ( T a b l e 1 4 ) r e v e a l t h a t , i n a l l c a s e s , s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g c o n t r i b u t e s i n p a r t t o t h e o v e r a l l p r e -d i c t a b i l i t y o f u t i l i z a t i o n . T h i s i s m o r e e v i d e n t i n G r o u p B t h a n i n G r o u p A , w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o h o s p i t a l u s e . 97 A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f e r r o r v a r i a n c e u n a c c o u n t e d f o r i n a l l o f t h e s e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s , a n d i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e l o w 'n' v a l u e e m p l o y e d , i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o s h ow t h a t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c e s , a n d a l s o t h a t h i g h e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g p r e d i c t s l o w e r u t i l i z a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n G r o u p A , w i t h r e s p e c t t o ' P h y s i c i a n U s e ' , t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i s 4 2 . 4 % , w h i c h i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r t h a n o t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e f o u n d ( 5 , 9 ) . 5.4 Summary o f D i s c u s s i o n s T h i s d i s c u s s i o n h a s c o n s i d e r e d t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n . I n d o i n g s o , i t h a s b e e n p o s s i b l e t o s h o w , u s i n g t h r e e s e p a r a t e t e c h n i q u e s , t h a t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g i s r e l a t e d t o t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . I t h a s a l s o b e e n s h o w n t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d u t i l i z a t i o n h a s d i r e c t i o n , a n d t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t l o w e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g i s r e l a t e d t o h i g h e r h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e u t i l i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p p r e s s e d b y t h e i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e m o d e l o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e u t i l i z a t i o n . A l s o i m p o r t a n t i s t h e f i n d i n g t h a t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g a p p e a r s t o be e s p e c i a l l y o p e r a t i v e i n s i t u a t i o n s o f g r e a t e r d e p e n d e n c y ( G r o u p B ) . 98 5.4.1 R e s e a r c h I m p l i c a t i o n s F r o m o u r f i n d i n g s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t o n e v i t a l a r e a t o i n v e s t i g a t e w i l l be t h e e f f e c t o f a d e q u a t e s o c i a l s u p p o r t s y s t e m s w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e A g e d , t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r t h e s e s u p p o r t s y s t e m s do i n f a c t r e d u c e t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . O u r r e s u l t s h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h i s f o r a s e l e c t e d s a m p l e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f e l d e r l y p e r s o n s e s p e c i a l l y s h o w n f o r G r o u p B. T h u s i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e u s e o f i t w o u l d i n c r e a s e s o c i a l s u p p o r t s y s t e m s f o r t h e m o r e d e p e n d e n t g r o u p s o f t h e e l d e r l y w o u l d l e a d t o l o w e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . H o w e v e r , r e s e a r c h m u s t e s t a b l i s h m o r e d e f i n i t e l y t h a t s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t m e c h a n i s m s , d e s i g n e d f o r s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n s u b - g r o u p s , do i n f a c t d e t e r t h e o v e r u s e a n d m i s u s e o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . T h i s r e s e a r c h c a n n o t be d o n e f o r a l l g r o u p s a t o n c e , n o r w i l l i t be p o s s i b l e t o be a s s p e c i f i c a s i t s h o u l d be t o r e f l e c t a l l l e v e l s o f n e e d a n d s u p p o r t . H o w e v e r , c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s o n s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n s w i l l l e a d t o a b e t t e r k n o w l e d g e a n d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e r e q u i r e -m e n t s i n t h i s a r e a . 5.4.2 P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s I f t h e r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e m e n t m e n t i o n e d a b o v e i s t o be c a r r i e d 5 o U ' t t m o r e m o n e y w i l l h a v e t o be p r o v i d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m 99 s h o u l d b e m o d i f i e d t o e f f e c t a b e t t e r s o c i a l s u p p o r t s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e A g e d p e r s o n i n o u r s o c i e t y c a n be a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n a s i n d e p e n d e n t a n d p r o d u c t i v e a s p o s s i b l e . We a r e n o t p r e s e n t l y u s i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s we h a v e t o t h i s e n d . C o -o r d i n a t i o n a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n a l l l e v e l s o f s o c i a l , h e a l t h , a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y m a k e r s m u s t be s t r e s s e d , t o p r o v i d e a b e t t e r o v e r a l l s o c i a l s u p p o r t n e t w o r k . O n g o i n g f o s t e r - h o m e p r o j e c t s , a c t i v i t y g r o u p s f o r s e n i o r s , a n d m e a n -i n g f u l i n t e r a c t i o n a n d e x c h a n g e n e t w o r k s m u s t be f u t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e a t t h i s t i m e t o p r o v i d e a n a d e q u a t e c o s t a n a l y s i s o f t h e t r a d e - o f f b e t w e e n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a n d h e a l t h c a r e d e l i v e r y p l a n n i n g , d u e t o t h e l a c k o f a d e q u a t e t o o l s t o m e a s u r e t h i s e f f e c t . T h a t i s t o s a y , we do n o t know p r e s e n t l y w h e t h e r i t i s l e s s e x p e n s i v e t o p r e v e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l p o l i c i e s t h a t p r e v e n t a n d d e t e r u s e , o r w h e t h e r i t i s o f m o r e b e n e f i t t o b u i l d m o r e h o s p i t a l s a n d h e a l t h r e l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l c a r e c o v e r a g e . T h e i n d i c a t i o n s , b o t h f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d f r o m t h i s s t u d y , a r e t h a t t h e r e m i g h t be w o r t h w h i l e m o n e t a r y b e n e f i t s f r o m t h i s t r a d e o f f . T h e r e i s o f c o u r s e t h e o b v i o u s 'human v a l u e ' t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t . S u r e l y t h e m o r e s o c i a l l y v i a b l e s e n i o r c i t i z e n ' s a r e , t h e b e t t e r f o r s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . U l t i m a t e l y , who b e n e f i t s 1 00 m o s t b y t h i s c h a n g e i n p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l , b e c a u s e s o o n e r o r l a t e r , we a l l b e c o m e c l a s s i f i e d a s ' T h e A g e d ' . R E F E R E N C E S AND B I B I M . 0 G R A P H Y A b e l - S m i t h , B., a n d T i t m u s s , R.M., The Cost of the National Health Services in England and Wales, L o n d o n , C . L ) . P . , 1 9 5 6 . A d a m s , M. a n d S i n d e l l , M.G., " T e n a c i t y o f t h e S o c i a l N e t w o r k i n M a i n t a i n i n g A g i n g , D i s a b l e d i n t h e C o m m u n i t y , " a p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e 2 1 s t A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f G e r o n t o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , D e n v e r , C o l o r a d o , O c t . 3 1 - N o v . 2, 1 9 6 8 . A , " S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g Among H i g h a n d Low U t i l i z e r s o f H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , " a p a p e r p r e s e n t e d i n t h e 8th International Congress of Gerontology - Proceedings, V o l . I I , p . 8 7 , 1 9 6 9 . A n d e r s o n , D.O., " T h e M e a s u r e m e n t s o f U s e a n d D e m a n d , " a d i s c u s s i o n p a p e r p r e p a r e d f o r t h e 6 t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l S c i e n t i f i c M e e t i n g o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l E p i d e m i o -l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , P r i n s t e n , Y u g o s l a v i a , A u g u s t 28 - S e p t e m b e r 4 , 1 9 7 1 . 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W i l s o n , D., " S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s - O l d A g e 2, Social Work Today, V o l . 4, No. 1 8 , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . A P P E N D I X I SUBDIVISION OF POPULATIONS A AND B FOR USE AS A POPULATION BASE IN THIS STUDY i l l G r o u p A G r o u p B S e n i o r C i t i z e n 1 s R e s i d e n c e G r o u p V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l A l u m n i Mr. P l e a s a n t H o u s i n g S o c . B u r r a r d M a n o r G o r d o n F a r m * H o u s e S o r o p t o m i s t C l u b o f V a n e . K i n g ' s D a u g h t e r s M a n o r S o r o p t o m i s t - L i o n ' s M a n o r S t . P a u l ' s H i g h R i s e N i c h o l s o n T o w e r R o y a l O r a n g e M a n o r G r a n d i v e w T e r r a c e F i r s t U n i t e d C h u r c h - O p p . L o d g e C h a u L u e n T o w e r V a n c o u v e r S k e e n a T e r r a c e M c L e a n P a r k M c L e a n P a r k A d d i t i o n R a y m u r M a n o r B e u l a h G a r d e n s Homes S o c . W a l l a c e W i l s o n H o u s e G r a n d v i e w T o w e r s E a s t L i o n s P r o j e c t s -L i o n s M a n o r E a s t L i o n s P r o j e c t s -G i l l a r d M a n o r C o l u m b u s T o w e r s O d d F e l l o w s M a n o r C o l e o p y P a r k S o c . New C h e l s e a S o c . # 4 & 5 New C h e l s e a S o c . # 3 L i o n ' s V i e w E d w a r d B y e r s Home F i n i s h C a n a d i a n S o c . B.C . B a p t i s t S o c . New C h e l s e a S o c . # 1 & 2 K o p e r n i k L o d g e L i o n s A r g y l e M a n o r C u l l o d e n C o u r t K i l l a r n e y G a r d e n s O r c h a r d P a r k P e r s o n a l C a r e Home G r o u p S u n s e t M a n o r T a t ! o w ? P a r k ' M a n o r T r a n q u i 1 R.H . H o l y R o s a r y R e s i d e n c e C h a l m e r s F o u n d . - B o a r d R e s i d . S h a u g h n e s s y M a n o r C h r i s t i a n C a r e f o r t h e E l d e r l y W i n d e r m e r e R o s e A n n L o d g e A l d o r L o d g e G.H. C a r l i s l e L o d g e C e d a r C r e s t R.H. C y p r e s s R.H. A b b i g a i l G.H. A s h d e n e P e r s . C a r e Home B i r c h R.H. B y w a y L o d g e C h e s t n u t M a n o r E v e r g r e e n R.H. F l e m i n g s G.H. F r a s e r G.H. G o l d e n A g e G.H. H i g h l a n d M a n o r H o l l a n d L o z u s R.H. H y c r o f t R.H. S h a m r o c k R.H. W i l l o w s R.H. L i t t l e M o u n t a i n Sunnyhbjlim G.H. S t e p h e n L o d g e R a y a n n L o d g e P a u l ' s G.H. M e t r o P.C. Home M c D o n a l d L o d g e T r e l a w n e y R.H. T a l o n P l a c e M u r r a y L o d g e L a u r a l R.H. M a p l e R.H. Oak R.H. R o s e R.H. 112 1 1 3 G r o u p A O r c h a r d P a r k U k r a i n i a n M a n o r S c o t t i s h M a n o r E v a n g e l T o w e r s K i n g E d w a r d C o u r t P a r k d a l e M a n o r K i w a n i s M a n o r G r o u p B C o z y L o d g e R.H. G l e n L o d g e R.H. L a k e w o o d R.H. N a p i e r P.C. Home W h i t e H o u s e R.H. C o l l i n g w o o d R.H. F a i r h a v e n U n i t e d C h u r c h Homes F i n i s h -Can. R.H. I c e l a n d i c C a n . R.H. C l a r e n d o n C o u r t G e r m a n C a n . S e n . C i t . Home S u n n y s i d e H o u s e B l e n h e i m L o d g e L o u i s B r i e r Home Y o u v i 1 1 e T r i n i t y L o d g e B a l f o u r H o u s e S t . J u d e s A n g . Home K e v i n L o d g e A d e r a H o u s e A s t e r H o u s e C h e r r y D o o r s R.H. H e a t h e r R.H. H o l l y R i d g e M a n o r Q u e e n E l i z . H a l l A m b e r L o d g e W h i t e G a t e s L o d g e M c D o n a l d L o d g e M o n a r c h L o d g e R.H. S e a v i e w R.H. O r i o n P .C. Home P o i n t G r e y L o d g e R.H. R o s e d a l e L o d g e S h a u n e s s e y R.H. S o u t h a r d a i r e R.H. T w i n C e d a r s L o d g e V i c t o r i a L o d g e A P P E N D I X I I CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL FOR RESEARCH INVOLING HUMAN SUBJECTS 114 A P P E N D I X I I I LETTER OF INVITATION FOR PARTICIPATION 116 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA V A N C O U V E R 8, C A N A D A 117 lKAi .n i SCII:NCI:S C F . N T R I : >I TICI-: oi- in r. C O O R D I N A T O R A p r i l 1 2 , 1 9 7 4 D e a r S i r o r Madam: F o r s o m e t i m e now, t h e r e h a s b e e n a n e f f o r t t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c o n c e r n s a n d p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e A g e d i n o u r s o c i e t y . A v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s , s u c h a s t h e U n i t e d C o m m u n i t y S e r v i c e s , h a v e u n d e r t a k e n s u r v e y s ' a n d s p e c i a l s t u d i e s t o l o c a t e a r e a s o f c o n c e r n a n d p r o v i d e h e l p a n d i n f o r m a t i o n t o o u r S e n i o r C i t i z e n s . We w o u l d l i k e t o i n v i t e y o u t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , s p o n s o r e d b y T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t o s t u d y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e A g e d a n d t h e i r u s e o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . Y o u r f a c i l i t y h a s b e e n r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h o s e f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a , who p r o v i d e h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l c a r e t o t h e A g e d . O u r i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f s e l e c t e d r e s i d e n t s w i l l s e e k t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e s o c i a l a n d b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e A g e d , a n d t h e i r u s e o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s . E a c h r e s i d e n t w i l l b e i n d i v i d u -a l l y i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a n d w i l l h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f d e c l i n i n g . E a c h w i l l b e a s k e d q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r d a i l y f u n c t i o n i n g , p e r c e p t i o n s , a n d u s e o f s e r v i c e s . A l l r e s p o n s e s w i l l b e k e p t s t r i c t l y confidential, a n d w i l l b e u s e d f o r p l a n n i n g a n d r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . F u r t h e r , we w i l l n o t i d e n t i f y y o u r s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t y i n a n y way i n t h e r e p o r t . W h a t we w o u l d l i k e t o a s k o f y o u , i s t h a t y o u a l l o w u s t o s a m p l e t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h o s e p e r s o n s s i x t y - f i v e ( 6 5 ) y e a r s o f a g e a n d o v e r p r e s e n t l y r e s i d i n g i n y o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . W h a t we r e q u i r e o n l y , i s a c u r r e n t l i s t o f r e s i d e n t s f r o m w h i c h we may A P P E N D I X IV LETTER OF INTERVIEWER INTRODUCTION 1 1 9 A P P E N D I X V THANK YOU LETTER FOR PARTICIPATION 1 21 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA V A N C O U V E R 8 , C A N A D A 122 I I K A I T . I S U I : N ( : K S C : I : N T R I ' M a y 2 1 , 1 974 o i I'ICI: <)i T i n : C O O R D I N A ! O R D e a r I w o u l d l i k e t o t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o t h a n k y o u s i n c e r e l y , f o r y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y ; Social Functioning of the Aged as i t Relates to Utilization of Health and Medical Services Y o u r c o n c e r n a n d i n t e r e s t i n t h i s m a t t e r h a s b e e n o f b e n e f i t i n h e l p i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d p l a n f o r b e t t e r h e a l t h c a r e d e l i v e r y t o S e n i o r C i t i z e n s . I s i n c e r e l y t r u s t t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n we h a v e g a t h e r e d w i l l a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b e t t e r a n d m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d s o f c a r i n g f o r a n d s u p p o r t i n g S e n i o r C i t i z e n s i n o u r c o m m u n i t y . T h a n k y o u , B a r r y W.A. S t e v e n s o n , B . S c . , M . S c . H e a l t h S e r v i c e s P l a n n i n g D e p t . o f H e a l t h C a r e a n d E p i d e m i o l o g y F a c u l t y o f M e d i c i n e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , B.C. BWAS:sh A P P E N D I X V I SELECTION OF 'PRIME' VARIABLES USED IN DATA ANALYSIS T h i s i s a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f t h o s e ' p r i m e ' v a r i a b l e s ( d e p e n d e n t a n d i n d e p e n d e n t ) u s e d a s a B a s e e f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s . D i a g r a m 1 o u t l i n e s t h e o v e r a l l m e t h o d o f s e l e c t i n g t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t d i s p l a y s t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e r i v a t i o n o f e a c h ' p r i m e ' v a r i a b l e f r o m t h e I n t e r v i e w -Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A p p e n d i x V I I ) . D e r i v a t i o n o f D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s Physician Use Index = VSTMDYR ( q u e s t i o n 4 4 ) , s u p p o r t e d b y c o m p a r i s o n w i t h F R E Q V S Y R ( q u e s t i o n 4 4 ) . S e a l e i f VSTMDYR = 1, t h e n v i s i t s / y r = 0-2 i f " = 2, t h e n " = 3-4 i f " = 3 , t h e n " = 5+ 123 I n i t i a l V a r i a b l e L i s t V a r i a b l e L i s t E x p a n s i o n 1 a) B r e a k u p o f S c a l e s to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n (va f ;t abdves ) b) C o m b i n a t i o n o f ' s e l e c t e d ' v a r i a b l e s to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s I N T E R V I E W > f y EXPANDED V a r i a b l e L i s t Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 125 q u e s t i o n s 159 van i ab.l*es V A R I A B L E L I S T 2 1 3 v a r i a b l e s s e e ( F i g u r e 1) F i n a l V a r i a b l e L i s t (a) C o r r e l a t i o n ; r - .25 P < .01 (b) L o g i c ( h e u r i s t i c app r o a c h ) (c) L i t e ra t u re REDUCED VAR IA BILE LIST; 3 0-40 v a r i a b l e s s e e ( F i g u r e 2) C O M P O S I T E V A R I A B L E L I S T 43 va r i a b1 e s see ( F i g u r e 3) D I S C U S S I O N W I T H T H E S I S C O M M I T T E E D i a g r a m 1. O v e r v i e w o f F i n a l V a r i a b l e L i s t S e l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e . SOCIAL FUNCTIONING EI To t s i b c n EC Totchdcn EA Totgrdcn WI To t e r t c n WC Totf r d c n WA Totwrtcn Quo A32 T o t v i s c n Que B32 Totphocn A c t i v i t y EWIP Que AJk EWCP • Que 35 EWAP Que 3? EWIS Que 33 ErfCS Que 39 EVAS Que- tiO Totaac Que kl Totbac Que 1*3 Totcac Receptiv Totdac T o t a l a c t Totspsac v Totfamac C X Que 01 Que 03 Married S i n g l e Divorced Widowed Separate L i v e n i l d Kalechn Fmlochn Grndchld Malecrdo Fmlegrdc Que 11 Brothers SiEjtera R e l i g i o n Brr.canad Totsocsc Brnuca B r n b r t i a Brnaustr Brnother Qot 171 Qst. 1?2 Qst 173 Qst 17^ Movfamil' Totfmstr Kovhealt Movoceup Movesthe Mbvnativ Kovother Que 2k Que 26 Que B26 Que c26 Que 27 Quo E27 Que C27 Que D27 M o b i l i t y Morbidit Que 30 Meals Genhealt. ( ' Z ' VARIABLES) (• • Z • VARIABLES) ATTITUDES/EXP ./PERC. ( i n c l . u t i l . feedback) Que 57 Qst 581 Qst 582 Qst 583 PERS. ENAB. FAC. Que 55 Qst 561 Qst 562 Qst 563 PCEscale UTILIZATION Vstmdyr Freqvsyr Hsptyear Freqhspt Que 50 Dpntuse Inde-Duse (' X ' VARIABLES) SYSTEM FAC./CONS. Que 5 9 Que 60 ro tn SOCIAL FUNCTIONING (A) (B) Totchncn Totgrdcr Totdad Totaad EI Totalac Totsibcn Totdac WC Que 39' Que 37 Que 35 Que itj Sibcnad Que 35 Que ho EWIS Totwtad Que 39 DEH50GRAPHIC ; 1(A) ! ; ( B ) Que 11 j Que 11 Movfamil Brncanad Que B26 : • • Totsocsc Separate Separate Brnusa Qst 173 Brothers Que 2k Divorced Que 01 Qst 1?V Movoccup Divorced BIOLOGICAL : (A) (B) Genhealt Que C2? Mobility Mobility Morbid i t Meals Meals v ATTITUDES/EXP./Perc. (A) (B) Que 57 . Qst 581 Qst 582, Qst 583 V , ; PER3. ENAB. FAC. (A) (B) Qst 561 . Qst 561 Que 55 PSYCHOLOGICAL (A) PGEscale ' ( B ) PGEscale SYSTEM FAC./CONS. (A) (B) Que 59 Que 59 Que 60 UTILIZATION U) (B) Vstmdyr Que 50 Dpntuse Vst:r,dyr( fJGLLB£Z Contact SOCIAL FUNTIONING Tots ibcn ^ Totchdcn Totgrncn Totgrtcn f Totfrdcn Totcontr ^ Totaac Totbac Totcac Totdac Totabcd A c t i v i t y Exchange Que 01 Que 02 Relbrn Ntotfams \ Totsocsc Maritexp Newwhymv S t a b i l i t Interabs Interaba QueA32 QueB32 J Que.35 - L i f e Stress Ntotfams - Family Structure Totsocsc - S o c i a l Status Maritexp - M a r i t a l Experience ATTITUDES Que 57 D i s t r u s t Genhealt M o b i l i t y Morbidit Meals P . G . E . V UTILIZATION -•Vstmdyr Dpntuse Que 50 PERS. ENAB.FAC• Que 55 Que 561 Que 562 Que 563 SYSTEM FAC, Que 59 Que 60 £ 3 1 28 Dependent Use Index = D P N T U S E ( q u e s t i o n 5 3 , N o ' s 2 , 3 , 8 , 9 , 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 4 ) S e a l e i f Y = 1 Q = 2 M = 3 W = 4 D = 5 0 = 0 Hospital Use Index = QUE 50 ( q u e s t i o n 5 0 ) , s u p p o r t e d by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h F R E Q H S P T a n d H S P T Y E A R ( q u e s t i o n 4 9 ) S e a l e t o t a l # o f d a y s ( f o r a l l e p i s o d e s ) s c o r e d a s t o t a l f i g u r e I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g V a r i a b l e s  C o n t a c t V a r i a b l e s T T o t a l S i b l i n g C o n t a c t = T O T S I B C N ( q u e s t i o n 3 4 ( a ) , N o ' s 1 t o 4 ) - T o t a l C h i l d r e n C o n t a c t = TOTCHDCN ( q u e s t i o n 3 4 ( a ) , N o ' s 5 t o 8 ) - T o t a l G r a n d c h i l d r e n C o n t a c t = TOTGRDCN ( q u e s t i o n 3 4 ( a ) , No. 9 ) - T o t a l G r e a t g r a n d c h i l d r e n C o n t a c t = T 0 T G R T C N ( q u e s t i o n 3 4 ( a ) , No. 1 0 ) 1 29 - T o t a l F r i e n d C o n t a c t = T O T F R D C N ( q u e s t i o n 3 4 ( a ) , No. 11) - T o t a l C o n t a c t = TOTCONTR ( q u e s t i o n 3 4 ( a ) , N o . ' s 1 t o 11) A l l c o n t a c t q u e s t i o n s w e r e w e i g h t e d a s f o l l o w s : W r i t e = 1 1 (y = I 1\ ! £ = 2 V i s i t = 3 -• t i m e s m = 3 W = P h o n e = 2 j d = i E a c h v a r i a b l e was t h e n s t r a t i f i e d i n t o ' g r o u p i n g s ' d e p e n d i n g on d i s t r i b u t i o n f r o m l o w = 1 t o h i g h = 3. A c t i v i t y V a r i a b l e s - T o t a l S p e c i a l A c t i v i t i e s = T O T A A C ( A c t i v i t i e s a t o e p l u s g ) - T o t a l P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s = T O T B A C ( A c t i v i t i e s f ) - T o t a l R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s = T O T C A C ( A c t i v i t i e s h) - T o t a l O r g a n i z e d a n d S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s = T O T D A C ( A c t i v i t i e s j t o 1) 1 30 S c a l e A l l a c t i v i t y q u e s t i o n s w e r e w e i g h t e d a s f o l l o w s : N/A = 0 A l o n e = 1 S p o u s e o n l y = 2 F a m i l y , f r i e n d s , i n f o r m a l s , g r o u p s = 3 E a c h v a r i a b l e was t h e n s t r a t i f i e d i n t o ' g r o u p i n g s ' d e p e n d i n g on d i s t r i b u t i o n , f r o m l o w = 1 t o h i g h = 3. E x c h a n g e V a r i a b l e s - - E x c e s s i v e G i v i n g E x c h a n g e = I N T E R A B S ( q u e s t i o n 3 2 ( a ) m i n u s q u e s t i o n 3 2 ( b ) ) - Two-way E x c h a n g e = I N T E R A B A ( q u e s t i o n 3 2 ( a ) p l u s q u e s t i o n 3 2 ( b ) ) - G i v i n g E x c h a n g e = QUE A 3 2 ( q u e s t i o n 3 2 ( a ) ) - R e c e i v i n g E x c h a n g e = QUE B32 ( q u e s t i o n 3 2 ( b ) ) S c a l e One p o i n t was g i v e n f o r e a c h s u b - l e v e l ( 1 - 4 ) o f e a c h q u e s t i o n t o a r r i v e a t t o t a l s c o r e s f o r q u e s t i o n 3 2 ( a ) a n d 3 2 ( b ) . T h e E x c h a n g e V a r i a b l e s w e r e t h e n s t r a t i f i e d i n t o " g r o u p i n g s ' d e p e n d i n g o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , f r o m l o w = 1 t o h i g h = 3 f o r QUE A 3 2 a n d QUE B 3 2 , o n a s c a l e f r o m -4 t o +4 f o r I N T E R A B S a n d o n a s c a l e f r o m 0 t o 8 f o r I N T E R A B A . 131 L i f e S t r e s s = QUE 35 ( q u e s t i o n 3 5 ) S e a l e T o t a l s s e o r e s w e r e s t r a t i f i e d i n t o ' g r o u p i n g s ' , a s p e r d i s t r i b u t i o n f r o m v e r y l o w = 0 t o v e r y h i g h = 4 F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e = NTOTFAMS ( q u e s t i o n s 4, 8 ^ , 8 ( 2 ) ' 1 0 ( 1 ) ' 1 0 ( 2 ) ' 1 1 p l u s c 1 L i e s ' t l o n 1 2 ( i ) a n d 1 2 ( 2 ) ^ S c a l e NTOTFAMS was w e i g h t e d a s f o l l o w s : M a r r i e d = 5 S i n g l e = 0 W i d / d i v / s e p = 1 M a l e c h i l d r e n = # t i m e s 2 F e m a l e c h i l d r e n = # t i m e s 2 M a l e g r a n d c h i l d r e n = # o n l y F e m a l e g r a n d c h i l d r e n = # o n l y G r e a t g r a n d c h i l d r e n = # o n l y - 1 B r o t h e r s = # o n l y S i s t e r s = # o n l y T h e t o t a l s c o r e / r e s p o n d e n t was t h e n s t r a t i f i e d i n t o g r o u p s d e p e n d i n g o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , f r o m l o w = 1 t o h i g h = 3. 1 32 T o t a l S o c i a l S c a l e = T O T S O C S C ( q u e s t i o n 2 6 ( a ) , ( b ) a n d ( c ) ) S e a l e T h e s c a l e was s c o r e d a n d w e i g h t e d a s f o l l o w s : q u e s t i o n 2 6 ( a ) , ( 1 ) = 1 ( 2 ) t o ( 3 ) = 2 ( 4 ) t o ( 8 ) = 3 q u e s t i o n 2 6 ( b ) , ( 1 ) o n l y = 5 (1 ) p l u s ( 2 ) = 4 ( 2 ) o n l y = 3 ( 2 ) p l u s ( 3 ) = 2 ( 3 ) o n l y = 1 q u e s t i o n 2 6 ( c ) , a s n u m b e r e d f r o m 1 t o 7. T h e s c a l e r a n g e d f r o m 3 t o 1 5 . M a r i t a l E x p e r i e n c e = M A R I T E X P ( q u e s t i o n s 4, 5, 6 a n d 7 ) S e a l e M A R I T E X P = A + B + C w h e r e A = 6 i f q u e s t i o n 4 > 2 = 0 i f " 4 = 2 7 i f " 4 = 1 B = 3 i f q u e s t i o n 4 = = 1 i f " 4 = = 4 i f " 4 = =-3 i f " 4 > =-2 i f " 4 > =-1 i f " 4 > 1 a n d q u e s t i o n 5 = 3 1 a n d " 5 = 2 1 a n d " 5 > 3 2 a n d " 5 > 4 2 a n d " 5 = 4 2 a n d " 5 = 3 C = q u e s t i o n 7 ( - 2 ) i f q u e s t i o n 6 > 2 a n d q u e s t i o n 5 = 1.5 t i m e s q u e s t i o n 7 ( - 2 ) i f q u e s t i o n 6 >2 a n d q u e s t i o n 5 > 1 s c a l e r a n g e d f r o m 0 t o 1 7 . I n t e r v e n i n g V a r i a b l e s A g e = QUE 02 ( q u e s t i o n 2) u s i n g s c a l e : a s s h o w n S e x = QUE01 ( q u e s t i o n 1 ) S e a l e M a l e = 1 F e m a l e = 0 R e l i g i o n - B i r t h = RELBRN ( q u e s t i o n s 13 a n d 1 4 ) 134 S e a l e RELBRN = 1 i f q u e s t i o n 13 = 1 a n d 14 = 3 = 2 i f q u e s t i o n 13 = 1 a n d 14 3 = 3 i f q u e s t i o n 13 f 1 a n d 14 = 3 = 4 i f q u e s t i o n 13 f 1 a n d 1 4 M R e a s o n f o r M o v i n g t o B . C . = NEWWHYMV ( q u e s t i o n 1 9 ) S S c a l e NEWWHYMV = 1 i f q u e s t i o n 19 = 1, 3, o r 5 = 2 i f q u e s t i o n 1 9 = 2 = 3 i f q u e s t i o n 19 = 4 o r 6 S t a b i l i t y = S T A B I L I T ( q u e s t i o n 1 7 ) S e a l e S T A B 111 I T = F + 6 + H w h e r e F = 1 i f q u e s t i o n 1 7 ( d ) > 5 G = 1 i f q u e s t i o n 1 7 ( 2 ) > 3 a n d 1 7 ( 2 ) < 5 = 2 i f q u e s t i o n 1 7 ( 2 ) = 6 H = 2 i f q u e s t i o n 1 7 ( 1 ) = 2 = 4 i f q u e s t i o n 1 7 ( 1 ) > 2 1 35 6 E N H E A L T ( q u e s t i o n 2 7 a , b , c a n d d ) S e a l e a + b + c + d w h e r e a = -2 i f y e s = % i f no b = -3 i f y e s = 1 i f no c = -1 i f y e s = % i f no d = i f y e s =2 i f no T h e s c a l e r a n g e d f r o m -7 t o +8. G e n e r a l H e a l t h = G E N H E A L T = M o b i l i t y = M O B I L I T Y ( q u e s t i o n 2 8 ) S c a l e S c o r e ( a ) G e n e r a l F u n c t i o n i n g ( b ) M o b i l i t y F u n c t i o n i n g i f Y E S ( c ) I m m o b i l i t y g l a s s e s , h e a r i n g ( n o t d e a f ) , s p e e c h i m p e d i -m e n t , e t c . - o r t h o - o s t e o . ( o n e l e g s h o r t e r ) , a r t i f i c i a l l i m b , p a r a l y s i s o f l i m b s ( p a r t i a l ) , m i s s i n g l i m b s ( a c c i d e n t s ) , s e v e r e f a i l i n g e y e s i g h t ( t o w h i t e c a n e d e g r e e ) b l i n d n e s s ( w i t h o u t a b i l i t y t o m a n e o u v e r a r o u n d ) , t o t a l r e s t r i c -t i v e p a r a l y s i s o r p h y s i c a l a m b u l a t i o n , i n c o n t e n a n c e , e t c . i f NO A l l jTO r e s p o n s e s s c o r e 0 136 T h e s c a l e r a n g e d f r o m 0 t o 9. M o r b i d i t y = MORBID I T ( q u e s t i o n 2 9 ) S e a l e P r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o U t i l i z a t i o n o f H e a l t h & M e d i c a l C a r e i f y e s -j LOW (1) MEDIUM ( 2 ) ( t w i c e / y e a r ) ( o n c e / q u a r t e r ) i n s o m n i a b r o n c h i t i s r h e u m a t i sm d i a b e t e s a r t h r i t i s ( o r d . ) c a t e r a c t s i n t e s t i n a l ( s t o m . a s t h m a u p s e t s e v e r e n e r v o u s h e r n i a d i s o r d e r v a r i c o s e • v e i n s h i g h B.P. h e m o r r h o i d s e p i 1 e p s y s t r o ke e n em i a e m p h y s e m a r u p t u r e B l a d d e r p r o b l e m s h y p e r t e n s i o n r h e u m a t o i d a r t h r i t i s HIGH ( 6 ) ( o n c e / m o n t h ) h e a r t c o n d i t i o n c a n c e r s e v e r e h y p e r t e n s i o n I n s c o r i n g , w e i g h t i n c r e a s i n g # o f c o n d i t i o n s a s f o i l - e a c h a d d i t i o n a l l o w = 1; med. = 2; a n d h i g h = 6 i f no A l l no r e s p o n s e s s c o r e 0 1 3 7 T h e s c a l e r a n g e d f r o m 0 - 8 i f q u e s t i o n 60 f M e a l s = MEALS ( q u e s t i o n 6 1 ) S e a l e s c o r e = 1 = 2 = 3 i f = 4 i f = 5 i f = 6 i f = 7 i f = 8 i f = 9 i f = 1 2 3 4 5 1 + 5 2 + 5 3 + 5 4 + 5 T h e s c a l e r a n g e d f r o m 1 t o 9. M o r a l e = P . G . E . S C A L E ( q u e s t i o n 3 1 ) S e a l e a s i n d i c a t e d i n q u e s t i o n T h e s c a l e r a n g e d f r o m 1 t o 2 1 . M e d i c a l S a t i s f a c t i o n = QUE 57 ( q u e s t i o n 5 7 ) S e a l e s c o r e = 1 i f (1 ) = 2 i f ( 2 ) = 3 i f ( 3 ) D i s t r u s t = D I S T R U S T ( q u e s t i o n 5®(.i.) (2) a n d (3)^ S e a l e 1 i f q u e s t i o n 5 8 ( 1 ) = y e s o f i f 11 5 8 ( 2 ) = y e s o r i f 11 5 8(3) = y e s 0 i f n 5 8 ( 1 ) = no o r i f 11 5 8 ( 2 ) = no o r i f 11 5 8 ( 3 ) = no E x t r a C o s t = QUE 55 ( q u e s t i o n 55) S e a l e QUE 55 = 1 i f y e s = 0 i f no C o n v e n i e n c e o f U s e V a r i a b l e s - C o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e - p h y s i c i a n = QUE 561 ( q u e s t i o n 5 6 ^ - j ) - C o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e - h o s p i t a l s = QUE 562 ( q u e s t i o n 5 6 ^ 2 ) ) - C o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e - H.R.P. = QUE 563 ( q u e s t i o n 56/o\) S c a l e s c o r e = 1 i f v e r y c o n v e n i e n t = 2 i f m o d e r a t e l y c o n v e n i e n t = 3 i f d i f f i c u l t F o r c e d U s e = QUE 59 ( q u e s t i o n 5 9 ) S e a l e s c o r e = 1 i f y e s = 0 i f no C h o i c e o f U s e = QUE 60 ( q u e s t i o n 6 0 ) S e a l e s c o r e = 1 i f y e s = 0 i f no A P P E N D I X V I I INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 140 INTERVIEW Q U E S T I O N N A I R E f o r t h e s t u d y 141 S O C I A L FUNCTIONING OF THE AGED AS IT RELATED TO  U T I L I Z A T I O N OF HEALTH AND M E D I C A L S E R V I C E S C O N F I D E N T I A L I . D . # [ ] [ ] [ 0 C ] R e s p o n d e n t ' s Name -A d d r e s s I N T E R V I E W C A L L S I n t e r v i e w t i m e D a t e B e g a n E n d e d R e s u l t s 1 a . m . / p . tn. a . m . / p . m . 2 a . m. / p . m . a . m . / p . m. 3 a . m . / p . m . a . m. / p . m . I n t e r v i e w e r I n t e r v i e w e r C o m m e n t s PURPOSE OF THE STUDY T o i d e n t i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t may e x i s t b e t w e e n u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s b y t h e A g e d , b e i n g t h o s e p e r s o n s s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s o f a g e a n d o v e r , a n d t h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g ^ '•. . - ; To a s s e r t a i n w h e t h e r c e r t a i n ' g r o u p s ' o f t h e A g e d , a p p e a r t o u t i l i z e m o r e h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l c a r e t h a n o t h e r s , i n a n e f f o r t t o g a i n i n s i g h t a n d d i r e c t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g f u t u r e h e a l t h c a r e s e r v i c e s . T o g a i n m o r e k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e ' A g e d ' i n o u r s o c i e t y f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s , a n d a s a s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o w a r d s t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f t h o s e c o n c e r n e d . 143 THE INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE T h e i d e n t i t i e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d a l l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i s s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l a n d w i l l be u s e d o n l y f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . Y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r v i e w i s e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y . I f y o u f i n d s ome q u e s t i o n s t o o d i f f i c u l t t o a n s w e r t h e y may be o m i t t e d . CONSENT I f y o u w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y , w o u l d y o u k i n d l y s i g n t h i s c o n s e n t f o r m , i n w h i c h y o u a c k n o w l e d g e : t h a t t h e * p u r p o s e s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y h a v e b e e n e x p l a i n e d t o y o u . t h a t y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v o l u n t a r y . P a r t i c i p a n t ' s S i g n a t u r e 144 MENTAL STATUS PRETEST B e f o r e we co m m e n c e w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e , w o u l d y o u p l e a s e a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g s h o r t q u i z ? T h a n k y o u . MENTAL STATUS Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 1 . W h e r e a r e we now? (Correct name of place) 2. W h e r e i s t h i s p l a c e ? (Correct city) 3. W h a t i s t o d a y ' s d a t e ? (Day of month) 4. Wha t m o n t h i s i t ? 5. W h a t y e a r i s ^ i t ? 6. How o l d a r e y o u ? 7. Wha t i s y o u r b i r t h d a y ? (Month) 8. What y e a r w e r e y o u b o r n ? 9. Who i s t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f C a n a d a ? 1 0 . W h a t was P r i m e M i n i s t e r b e f o r e h i m ? S c o r e s : 0-2 CBS a b s e n t o r m i l d 3-8 CBS m o d e r a t e 9-10 CBS s e v e r e NOTE: a ) i f s c o r e i s l e s s t h a n 7 ( c o r r e c t ) , t h a n k t h e r e s p o n d e n t f o r h i s / h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d p r o -c e e d t o n e x t r e s p o n d e n t . b ) i f s c o r e i s 7 o r g r e a t e r ( c o r r e c t ) , p r o c e e d w i t h t h e d e t a i l e d i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I . G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N NOTE: Check the appropriate answer. I f not appli-cable, specify by writing reply below question. 1. S e x o f r e s p o n d e n t ? 1) 2) mal e f e m a l e 2. A g e o f r e s p o n d e n t ? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) D a t e o f b i r t h ? 6 5 - 6 9 7 0 - 7 4 7 5 - 7 9 8 0 - 8 4 8 5 - 8 9 90+ 1) 2) 3) d a y m o n t h y e a r M a r i t a l S t a t u s ? 1) 2) 3) 4 ) 5) m a r r i e d s i n g l e d i v o r c e d wi d o w e d s e p a r a t e d 1 45 F o r R e s e a r c h e r 1 s Use O n l y ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( 5 ) ( 6 ) ( 7 ) ( 8 ) ( 9 ) (10M1TT (12)03)-( 1 4 ) For 146 R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only How l o n g h a v e y o u b e e n o n e o f t h e a b o v e ( 4 ) ? 1) 0 - 1 1 m o n t h s 2) 1 - 4 y e a r s 3) 5 - 9 y e a r s 4 ) 1 0-19 y e a r s 5) 2 0 - 2 9 y e a r s 6 ) 30+ y e a r s W h a t m a r i t a l s t a t u s d i d y o u h a v e b e f o r e t h i s t i m e ( r e f e r t o 5 ) ? ( 1 5 ) 1) m a r r / i e d 2) s i n g l e 3) d i v o r c e d 4 ) w i d o w e d 5) s e p a r a t e d ( 1 6 ) 7. Do y o u h a v e a n y c h i l d r e n l i v i n g ? 1) s i n g l e no c h i 1 d r e n 2) m a r r i e d , no c h i l d r e n 3) 1 c h i l d 4 ) 2 c h i l d r e n 5) 3 c h i l d r e n 6 ) 4 o r m o r e c h i l d r e n ( 1 7 ) 8. W h a t s e x a r e y o u r c h i l d r e n ? 1) # m a l e 2) # f e m a l e 3) no c h i l d r e n ( 1 8 ) ( 1 9 ) ( 2 0 ) For 147 R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 9. Do y o u h a v e a n y g r a n d c h i l d r e n ? 1) n o n e 2) 1 g r a n d c h i 1 d 3) 2 g r a n d c h i l d r e n 4 ) 3 g r a n d c h i l d r e n 5) 4 o r m o r e g r a n d c h i l d r e n ( 2 1 ) 10 What s e x a r e y o u r g r a n d c h i l d r e n ? 1 ) # m a l e 2) # f e m a l e 3) no c h i l d r e n ( 2 2 ) ( 2 3 ) ( 2 4 ) 11 . Do y o u h a v e a n y g r e a t g r a n d c h i l d r e n ? 1) n o n e 2 ) 1 g r e a t g r a n d c h i l d 3) 2 g r e a t g r a n d c h i l d r e n 4) 3 g r e a t g r a n d c h i l d r e n 5) 4 o r m o r e g r e a t g r a n d c h i l d r e n ( 2 5 ) 1 2 . Do y o u h a v e a n y b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s l i v i n g ? 1 ) n o n e 2) # b r o t h e r s 3) # s i s t e r s ( 2 6 ) (27) ( 2 8 ) For 148 Researcher 1 s Use Only 1 3. W h a t i s y o u r r e l i g i o n ? 1) P r o t e s t a n t 2 ) Roman C a t h o l i c 3) No r e l i g i o n 4 ) O t h e r i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 2 9 ) 1 4 . W h e r e w e r e y o u b o r n ? ( c o u n t r y ) •I.) C a n a d a 2) U . S . A . 3) B r i t i s h I s l e s 4) A u s t r a l i a 5) O t h e r i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 3 0 ) 1 5 . Do y o u s p e a k a n y l a n g u a g e o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h ? 1) Y e s 2) No i f y e s , s p e c i f y ( 3 1 ) 1 6 . W h a t r a c i a l o r i g i n a r e y o u ? 1) C a u c a s i a n ( O c c i d e n t a l ) 2) O r i e n t a l 3 ) N e g r o i d 4) O t h e r i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 3 2 ) For 1 4 9 Res ea r c h e r 1 s Use Only 1 7 . How l o n g h a v e y o u l i v e d i n a n y o f t h e f o l 1 o w i n g ? ( y e a r s ) 1) P r e s e n t a c c o m m o d a t i o n 2) V a n c o u v e r 3) B . C . 4) C a n a d a ( 3 3 ) ( 3 4 } ( 3 5 ) ( 3 6 ) 18 W h e r e d i d y o u l i v e b e f o r e c o m i n g t o B. C . ? s p e c i f y , 1 9 . Why„d.id v o u move t o t h e W e s t C o a s t o f B . C . ? ( r e a s o n s } 1) 2) 3) 4 ) 5) 6) i f o t h e r f a m i l y h e a l t h o c c u p a t i on e s t h e t i c r e a s o n s ( c l i m a t e , e t c . ) N a t i v e o f B. C . O t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 3 7 ) 1 50 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 2 0 . W h a t t y p e o f w o r k h a v e y o u d o n e m o s t o f y o u r l i f e ? 1 ) h o u s e w i f e 2) c r a f t s m a n 3) f a r m i n g 4 ) l a b o u r e r 5) s e r v i c e man 6) p r o f e s s i o n a l 7 ) s a l e s / a d v e r t i s i n g 8) m a n a g e m e n t 9) o t h e r i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 3 8 ) 2 1 . Why d i d y o u s t o p w o r k i n g ? 1) N/A, h o u s e w i f e 2) i l l h e a l t h 3) p e r s o n a l c h o i c e 4) e m p l o y e r ' s p o l i c y 5) u n a b l e t o f i n d w o r k 6) o t h e r i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 3 9 ) i f i l l h e a l t h , s p e c i f y For 1 51 R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 2 2 . D i d y o u e n j o y y o u r w o r k ? 1) y e s 2) no i f n o , s p e c i f y ( 4 0 ) 2 3 . I f r e s p o n d e n t i s o r h a s b e e n m a r r i e d , w h a t  t y p e o f w o r k d i d s p o u s e do m o s t o f l i f e ? 1) h o u s e w i f e 2) c r a f t s m a n 3 ) f a r m i n g 4 ) l a b o u r e r 5) s e r v i c e man 6) p r o f e s s i o n a l 7) s a l e s / a d v e r t i s i n g 8 ) m a n a g e m e n t 9) o t h e r i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 4 1 ) 2 4 . W h a t i s y o u r p r e s e n t m o n t h l y i n c o m e f r o m a l l s o u r c e s ? 1 ) < 1 0 0 2) 101 - 1 5 0 3) 1 51 - 2 0 0 4 ) 201 - 3 0 0 5) 301 - 4 0 0 6) 401 - 5 0 0 7 ) > 500 ( 4 2 ) i f > $ 5 0 0 , s p e c i f y For 152 Resea r c h e r 1 s Use On ly 2 5 . What a r e t h e m a i n s o u r c e s o f t h i s i n c o m e ? 1) O l d A g e p e n s i o n ( f e d e r a l ) ( 4 3 ) 2) O l d A g e S u p p l i m e n t ( f e d e r a l ) ( 4 4 ) 3) P r o v i n c i a l S u p p l i m e n t ( 4 5 ) 4) V e t e r a n s A l l o w a n c e ( 4 6 ) 5) W o r k m a n ' s A l l o w a n c e ( 4 7 ) 6) S o c i a l W e l f a r e ( 4 8 ) 7) R e l a t i v e s A l l o w a n c e ( 4 9 ) 8 ) I n v e s t m e n t s ( 5 0 ) 9) S a v i n g s ( 5 1 ) 1 0 ) m o t h e r ( 5 2 ) i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y 2 6 . [ S O C I A L C L A S S / S T A T U S S C A L E ] P l e a s e a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . ( a ) W h a t was y o u r ( o r y o u r h u s b a n d ' s , i f  m a r r i e d ) top i n c o m e p e r y e a r b e t w e e n "  4 0 - 6 5 y e a r s o f a g e ? 1) < $ 2 0 0 0 | ( 5 3 ) 2) 2 0 0 1 - 4 0 0 0 3) 4 0 0 1 - 6 0 0 0 .4) =6001:-8000 5) 8 0 0 1 - 1 0 , 0 0 0 6) 1 0 , 0 0 0 - 2 0 , 0 0 0 7 ) 2 0 , 0 0 1 - 5 0 , 0 0 0 8 ) > $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 For 1 5 3 Res ea rc he Use Only W i t h whom d i d y o u a s s o c i a t e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y ? i . e 1) p r o f e s s i o n a l / m a n a g e r i a l t y p e s 2) s k i l l e d c r a f t s m e n / s m a l l b u s i n e s s m e n 3) l a b o u r i n g / s e m i - s k i l l e d t y p e s 1) d o c t o r s , l a w y e r s , a c c o u n t a n t s e x e c u t i v e s , e t c . 2) c o n t r a c t o r s , s a l e s m e n , s m a l l b u s i n e s s m e n , e t c . 3) f a r m e r s , l a b o u r e r s , e t c . ( 5 4 ) How f a r d i d y o u go i n s c h o o l ? 1) no f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g 2) P r i m a r y ( g r a d e 8 o r l e s s ) 3) S e c o n d a r y ( g r a d e s 9 - 1 2 ) 4) U n i v e r s i t y , n o ' t f f n , n i s h e d 5) n o n a c a d e m i c , p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i ng 6) U n i v e r s i t y , w i t h d e g r e e 7) B e y o n d b a s i c u n i v e r s i t y d e g r . e e ( m a s t e r s , d o c t o r a t e , e t c . ) (55') I b4 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only I I . HEALTH FUNCTIONING 2 7 . Now, I w o u l d l i k e t o a s k y o u a b o u t y o u r h e a l t h a n d how y o u h a v e b e e n f e e l i n g r e c e n t l y . ( a ) W i t h i n t h e l a s t two weeks, d i d y o u  s t a y i n b e d a l l o r p a r t o f a n y d a y  b e c a u s e y o u w e r e n o t f e e l i n g w e l l ? 1) 2) y e s no ( 5 6 ) ( b ) D i d y o u c o n s u l t a p h y s i c i a n o r o t h e r  h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l a b o u t t h i s Taj? 1) 2) y e s no ( 5 7 ) ( c ) W e r e t h e r e a n y d a y s w i t h i n t h e l a s t  two weeks when y o u w e r e n o t a b l e t o do y o u r u s u a l a c t i v i t i e s b e c a u s e y o u  w e r e n o t f e e l i n g w e l l ? 1) 2) y e s no ( 5 8 ) ( d ) W i t h i n t h e l a s t two weeks, d i d y o u  t h i n k t h e r e was a n y t h i n g w r o n g w i t h  y o u r h e a l t h ? 1) 2) y e s no ( 5 9 ) 1 55 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 2 8 . D o j y o u h a v e a n y p h y s i c a l i m p a i r m e n t o r  h a n d i c a p ? 1) y e s 2) no i f y e s , s p e c i f y ( 6 0 ) 29 Do y o u h a v e a n y l o n g s t a n d i n g h e a l t h p r o b l e m o r c h r o n i c i l l n e s s ? 1) 2) y e s no i f y e s , s p e c i f y ( 6 1 ) 3 0 . ^ P H Y S I C A L S E L F - M A I N T E N A N C E S C A L E ] P l e a s e a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s C h e c k a p p r o p r i a t e s c o r e . S c o r e T o i l e t 1. C a r e s f o r s e l f a t t o i l e t com-p l e t e l y ; no i n c o n t i n e n c e 1 2. N e e d s t o b e r e m i n d e d , o r n e e d s h e l p i n c l e a n i n g s e l f , o r h a s r a r e ( w e e k l y a t m o s t ) a c c i d e n t s 0 3. S o i l i n g o r w e t t i n g w h i l e a s l e e p , m o r e t h a n o n c e a week 0 4. S o i l i n g o r w e t t i n g w h i l e a w a k e , m o r e t h a n o n c e a week 0 5. No c o n t r o l o f b o w e l s o r b l a d d e r 0 ( 6 2 ) 156 For Resea r c h e r 1 s Use Only B. F e e d i n g S c o r e 1. E a t s w i t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e 1 2. E a t s F W i i t h h m i n o r a s s i s t a n c e a t m e a l t i m e s , w i t h h e l p i n p r e p a r -i n g f o o d o r w i t h h e l p i n c l e a n -i n g up a f t e r m e a l s 0 3. F e e d s s e l f w i t h m o d e r a t e a s s i s -t a n c e a n d i s u n t i dy 0 4. R e q u i r e s e x t e n s i v e a s s i s t a n c e f o r a l l m e a l s . 0 5. D o e s n o t f e e d s e l f a t a l l a n d r e s i s t s e f f o r t s o f o t h e r s t o f e e d h i m 0 D r e s s i n g 1. D r e s s e s , u n d r e s s e s a n d s e l e c t s c l o t h e s f r o m own w a r d r o b e 1 2. D r e s s e s a n d u n d r e s s e s s e l f , w i t h m i n o r a s s i s t a n c e 0 3. N e e d s m o d e r a t e a s s i s t a n c e i n d r e s s i n g o r s e l e c t i o n o f c l o t h e s 0 4. N e e d s m a j o r a s s i s t a n c e i n d r e s s i n g b u t c o o p e r a t e s w i t h ' e f f o r t s o f o t h e r s t o h e l p 0 5. C o m p l e t e l y u n a b l e t o d r e s s s e l f a n d r e s i s t s e f f o r t s o f o t h e r t o h e l p 0 D. G r o o m i ng ( n e a t n e s s , h a i r , n a i l s , h a n d s , f a c e , c l o t h i n g ) 1. A l w a y s n e a t l y d r e s s e d a n d w e l l -g r o o m e d , w i t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e 1 2. G r o o m s s e l f a d e q u a t e l y , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l m i n o r a s s i s t a n c e , e . g . , i n s h a v i n g 3. N e e d s m o d e r a t e a n d r e g u l a r a s s i s -t a n c e o r s u p e r v i s i o n i n g r o o m i n g 4. N e e d s t o t a l g r o o m i n g c a r e , b u t c a n r e m a i n w e l l g r o o m e d a f t e r h e l p f r o m o t h e r s 5. A c t i v e l y n e g a t e s a l l e f f o r t s o f o t h e r s t o m a i n t a i n g r o o m i n g P h y s i c a l A m b u l a t i o n 1. G o e s a b o u t g r o u n d s o r c i t y 2. A m b u l a t e s w i t h i n r e s i d e n c e o r a b o u t o n e b l o c k d i s t a n t 3. A m b u l a t e s w i t h a s s i s t a n c e o f ( c h e c k o n e ) : a ( i a n o t h e r p e r s o n , b ( i r a i 1 i ng c ( i c a n e d ( i w a l k e r , o r e ( 1 w h e e l c h a i r : 1 g e t s i n a n d o u t w i t h o u t h e l p 2 n e e d s h e l p i n g e t t i n g i n a n d o u t 4. S i t s u n s u p p o r t e d i n c h a i r o r w h e e l -c h a i r , b u t c a n n o t p r o p e l s e l f w i t h o u t h e l p 5. B e d r i d d e n m o r e t h a n h a l f t h e t i m e I 00 For R e s e a r c h e r 1 s Use Only S c o r e B a t h i ng 1. B a t h e s s e l f ( t u b , s h o w e r , s p o n g e b a t h ) wi t h o u t h e l p 1 2. B a t h e s s e l f , w i t h h e l p i n g e t t i n g i n a n d o u t o f t u b 0 3. W a s h e s f a c e a n d h a n d s o n l y , b u t c a n n o t b a t h e r e s t o f b o d y 0 4. D o e s n o t w a s h s e l f b u t i s c o o p e r a t i v e w i t h t h o s e who b a t h e h i m 0 5. D o e s n o t t r y t o w a s h s e l f , a n d r e s i s t s e f f o r t s t o k e e p h i m c l e a n 0 III. SOCIAL FUNCTIONING 3 1 . [ " F . I . R . O . - B " S C A L E OF I N C L U S I O N / C O N T R O L A F F E C T I O N ] P l e a s e a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . ( a ) F o r e a c h s t a t e m e n t b e l o w , d e c i d e w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a n s w e r s b e s t a p p l i e s t o y o u (Place the number of the ans,wer in the space at the right of the statement.) P l e a s e b e a s h o n e s t a s y o u c a n . 1. usually 2. often 3. sometimes 4. occasionally 5. rarely 6. never 1. I t r y t o b e w i t h p e o p l e . 2. I l e t o t h e r p e o p l e d e c i d e w h a t t o do 3. I j o i n s o c i a l g r o u p s . 4. I t r y t o h a v e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e o p l e 5. I t e n d t o j o i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n s w hen I h a v e a n o p p o r t u n i t y 6. I l e t o t h e r p e o p l e s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e my a c t i o n s 7. I t r y t o b e i n c l u d e d i n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s 8. I t r y t o h a v e c l o s e , p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e o p l e 1 59 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only ( 6 3 ) ( 6 4 ) ( 6 5 ) ( 6 6 ) ( 6 7 ) ( 6 8 ) 1 60 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use On ly 1. usually 4. oooasionally 2. often 5. rarely 3. sometimes 6. never 9. I t r y t o i n c l u d e o t h e r p e o p l e i n my p i a n s 1 0 . I l e t o t h e r p e o p l e c o n t r o l my a c t i o n s 1 1 . I t r y t o h a v e p e o p l e a r o u n d me 12. I t r y t o g e t c l o s e a n d p e r s o n a l w i t h p e o p l e 1 3 . When p e o p l e a r e d o i n g t h i n g s t o g e t h e r I t e n d t o j o i n t h e m 1 4 . I am e a s i l y l e d b y p e o p l e 1 5 . I t r y t o a v o i d b e i n g a l o n e 1 6 . I t r y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s ( b ) F o r e a c h o f t h e n e x t g r o u p o f s t a t e m e n t s , c h o o s e o n e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a n s w e r s : 1. most people 2. many people 3. some people 4. a few people 5. one or two people 6. nobody 1 7 . I t r y t o b e f r i e n d l y t o p e o p l e 1 8 . I l e t o t h e r p e o p l e d e c i d e w h a t t o do 19 . My p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h p e o p l e a r e c o o l a n d d i s t a n t 2 0 . I l e t o t h e r p e o p l e t a k e c h a r g e o f t h i n g s 2 1 . I t r y t o h a v e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e o p l e For 161 R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 1. most people 4. a few people 2. many people 5. one ov two people 3. some people 6. nobody 22. I l e t o t h e r p e o p l e s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e my a c t i o n s 2 3 . I t r y t o g e t c l o s e a n d p e r s o n a l w i t h p e o p l e 2 4 . I l e t o t h e r p e o p l e c o n t r o l my a c t i o n s 2 5 . I a e t ' - c o o l ^ a n d d d i s t a n . t ^ w d i t h p e o p l e 2 6 . I am e a s i l y l e d b y p e o p l e 2 7 . I t r y t o h a v e c l o s e , p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e o p l e ( c ) F o r e a c h o f t h e n e x t g r o u p o f s t a t e m e n t s ,  c h o o s e o n e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a n s w e r s : 1. most people 4. a few people 2. many people 5. 1 ov 2 people 3. some people 6. nobody 2 8 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o i n v i t e me t o t h i n g s 2 9 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o a c t c l o s e a n d p e r s o n a l w i t h me 30 . I t r y t o i n f l u e n c e s t r o n g l y o t h e r p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n s 3 1 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o i n v i t e me t o j o i n i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s 3 2 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o a c t c l o s e t o w a r d me 3 3 . I t r y t o t a k e c h a r g e o f t h i n g s w hen I am w i t h p e o p l e 3 4 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o i n c l u d e me i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s 1. most people 2. many people 3. some people 4. a few people 5. 1 or 2 people 6. nobody 3 5 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o a c t c o o l a n d d i s t a n t t o w a r d me 36 . I t r y t o h a v e o t h e r p e o p l e do t h i n g s t h e way I w a n t t h e m d o n e 3 7 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o a s k me t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s 3 8 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o a c t f r i e n d l y t o w a r d me 3 9 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o i n v i t e me t o p a r -t i c i p.a t e e i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s 4 0 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o a c t d i s t a n t t o w a r d me 162 For Resea r c h e r ' s Use On ly ( d ) F o r e a c h o f t h e n e x t g r o u p o f s t a t e m e n t s ,  c h o o s e o n e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a n s w e r s : 1. usually 4. occasionally 2. often 5. rarely 3. sometimes 6. never 4 1 . I t r y t o b e t h e d o m i n a n t p e r s o n w hen I am w i t h p e o p l e 4 2 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o i n v i t e me t o t h i n g s 4 3 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o a c t c l o s e t o w a r d me 4 4 . I t r y t o h a v e o t h e r p e o p l e do t h i n g s I w a n t d o n e 4 5 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o i n v i t e me t o j o i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s 4 6 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o a c t c o o l a n d d i s t a n t t o w a r d me 4 7 . I t r y t o i n f l u e n c e s t r o n g l y o t h e r p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n s 1 63 F o r R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 1. usually 4. occasionally 2.. often 5. r a r e l y 3. sometimes 6.- never 4 8 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o i n c l u d e me i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s 4 9 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o a c t c l o s e a n d p e r s o n a l w i t h me 50. I t r y t o t a k e c h a r g e o f t h i n g s w h e n I'm w i t h p e o p l e 5 1 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o i n v i t e me t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s 5 2 . I l i k e p e o p l e t o a c t d i s t a n t t o w a r d me 53 . I t a k e c h a r g e o f t h i n g s w hen I'm w i t h p e o p l e 164 . E . MORALE SCALE] Please answer the following questions. Question gs keep getting worse as I get older ve as much pep as I did last year, much do you feel lonely? le thing bother me more this year e enough of my friends and re la t ives ou get older you are less useful 'ou could l ive where you wanted, where would you l ive? imetimes worry so much that I can' t sleep i get o lder , things are better , worse, or the same than lough they would be imetimes feel that l i f e i s n ' t worth l i v ing n as happy now as I was when 1 was younger jve a lot to be sad about pie had i t better in the old days m afraid of a lot of things et mad more than I used to Fe is hard for me most of the time ri s a t i s f i e d are you with your l i f e today? take things hard person has to l i ve for today and not worry about uorrow health Is the same, bet ter , or worse than most ople my age get upset easi ly Response Alternat ives No Yes Yes No Not much A lot Yes No Yes No Yes No No Yes Better Worse Same Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No Not sa t i s f i ed Sat is f ied No Yes No Yes Better Same Worse No Yes Score 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 "Here" is the only + 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only (69)(70) For 165 R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 3 2 . [ I N T E R G E N E R A T I O N A L EXCHANGE S C A L E - ' FA M I L Y O N L Y ] P l e a s e a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . a ) I n t h e p a s t year, h a v e y o u g i v e n h e l p  i n a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y s ? ( c h e c k , i f y e s T 1) f i n a n c i a l 2) g o o d s 3) s e r v i c e s 4) k n o w l e d g e , s h a r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , i d e a s , c o u n s e l i ng ( 7 1 ) b ) I n t h e p a s t year, h a v e y o u r e c e i v e d h e l p i n a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  ( c h e c k i f y e s ) 1) f i n a n c i a l 2) g o o d s 3) s e r v i c e s A- 4) k n o w l e d g e , s h a r i n g ? e x p e r i e n c e s , i d e a s , c o u n s e l i ng w a y s ( 7 2 ) 166 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use onIy A c t i v i t i e s With whom do you part ic ipate in these a c t i v i t i e s (73)(74) Spouse Fami ly , . f r i ends , N/A Alone only informals, groups thdays her's day c i a l hol idays: 1) Thanksgiving . 2) New Years 3) Christmas 4) Easter i v e r s a r i e s , weddings ation t r ips r ts /phys ica l exercise: 1) bowling 2) gol f 3) f ish ing 4) ba l l games 5) walking 6) spectator 7) other n i c s , drives reational A c t i v i t i e s : 1) bingo 2) cards 3) dancing 4) movies, t e l e v i s i o n , radio 5) shopping/browsing 6) reading 7) sewing, crochet 8) drawing, a r t , music 9) academic ( lextures, night school ) 10) other ng out s and Organized A c t i v i t i e s 1) O.A.P. 2} Hospital Aux i l l i a ry 3) Other Senior C i t i zen 's Clubs 4; Rotary, Kinsmen, E lks , etc . a l v i s i t s 1) in residence 2) out-of-residence 1 6 7 [ 1 N T E R G E N E R A T I 0 N A L FREQUENCY OF INTERACTION SCALE] Please answer the following questions. (Circle the appropriate frequency under each section.) If more than one person in any group, choose most frequent members. Family members Method and Frequency of Contact N/A Write V i s i t Phone other(s) 0 /D/W/H/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y ster(s) 0 /D/W/H/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y other (s ) - i n-1aw 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y ster (s ) - in - law 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y male children (married) 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y le chi ldren (married) 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y male children (single) 0/D/W/M/Q/Y • 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y le chi ldren (single) 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y andchi1dren 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y eat grandchildren 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y ose fr iends 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y Which of the above (a) health problem (state would you most i)1 frequently turn to for advice concerning a F o r R e s e a r c h e r ' s U s e O n l y ( 7 5 ) ( 7 6 ) ( 7 7 ) . F o r 168 R e s e a r c h e r 1 s Use O n l y 3 5 . I S O C I A L R E A D J U S T M E N T R A T I N G S C A L E ] P l e a s e a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n F r o m t h e l i s t o f l i f e e v e n t s b e l o w , oivole t h e r a n k o r d e r n u m b e r o f e a c h e v e n t e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t d u r i n g h i s / h e r l i f e t i m e . ( 7 8 ) ( 7 9 ) ( 8 0 ) E N D R a n k L i f e E v e n t M ean V 1 D e a t h o f s p o u s e 100 2 D i v o r c e 73 3 M a r i t a l s e p a r a t i o n 65 4 J a i l t e r m 63 5 D e a t h o f c l o s e f a m i l y member 63 6 P e r s o n a l i n j u r y o r i l l n e s s 53 7 M a r r i a g e 50 8 F i r e d a t w o r k 47 9 M a r i t a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n 45 10 R e t i r e m e n t 45 11 C h a n g e i n h e a l t h o f f a m i l y -.^member 44 12 S e x d i f f i c u l t i e s 39 13 G a i n o f new f a m i l y member 39 14 B u s i n e s s r e a d j u s t m e n t 39 15 C h a n g e i n f i n a n c i a l s t a t e 38 16 D e a t h o f c l o s e f r i e n d 37 17 C h a n g e i n n u m b e r o f a r g u m e n t s wi t h s s p o u s e 35 18 S o n o r d a u g h t e r l e a v i n g home 29 19 O u t s t a n d i n g p e r s o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t 28 20 C h a n g e i n l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s 25 21 R e v i s i o n o f p e r s o n a l h a b i t s 24 22 C h a n g e i n r e s i d e n c e 20 23 C h a n g e i n r e c r e a t i o n 19 24 C h a n g e i n c h u r c h a c t i v i t i e s 19 25 C h a n g e i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s 18 26 C h a n g e i n s l e e p i n g h a b i t s 16 27 C h a n g e i n n u m b e r o f f a m i l y g e t - t o g e t h e r s 1 5 28 C h a n g e i n e a t i n g h a b i t s 15 29 V a c a t i o n 13 30 C h r i s t m a s 12 31 M i n o r v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e l a w 11 1 69 For Resea r c h e r 1 s Use Only IV. HOUSEHOLD FUNCTIONING AND HOUSING: ACCOMMODATION ( i ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( 5 ) 3 6 . W h a t t y p e o f l i v i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n do y o u h a v e ? 1) S e n i o r c i t i z e n 1 s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t 2) B o a r d i ng home 3) R e s t home 4 4) R e s i d e n t i a l R e t i r e m e n t home ( o t h e r t h a n S e n i o r C i t i z e n ' s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t ) 5) O t h e r i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 6 ) 3 7 . How many r o o m s d o e s y o u r p e r s o n a l l i v i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n h a v e ? 1) o n e r o o m 2) two r o o m s 3) t h r e e r o o m s 4 ) f o u r o r m o r e r o o m s (7) 1 70 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 3 8 . D o e s a n y o n e l i v e w i t h y o u  a c c o m m o d a t i o n ? 1) y e s 2) no i f y e s , s p e c i f y i n y o u r p e r s o n a l ( 8 ) 3 9 . Do y o u h a v e t h e u s e o f a t e l e p h o n e ? 1) y e s 2) no (9) 4 0 . Do y o u h a v e t o c l i m b s t a i r s r e g u l a r l y ? 1) y e s 2) ho ( 1 0 ) 41 How s a t i s f i e d a r e y o u w i t h y o u r p r e s e n t 42, 1) v e r y s a t i s f i e d 2) s a t i s f i e d 3) d i s s a t i s f i e d W h a t , i f a n y t h i n g , d o y o u f i n d - t h e most u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a b o u t y o u r a c c o m m o d a t i o n ( r e s i d e n c e ) 1) n o i s y 2) l a c k o f p r o p e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 3) o t h e r r e s i d e n t s 4 ) n e i g h b o u r h o o d - 5) a c t i v i t i e s 6 ) n o t h i ng 7) o t h e r ( 1 1 ) ( 1 2 ) i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y For 1 71 Res ea rcher 1 s Use Only 4 3 . Interviewer's ohoioe: D e s c r i b e t h e p e r s o n a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o h o u s e k e e p i n g , c l e a n l i n e s s , e t c . 1) g o o d ( a d e q u a t e ) | ( 1 3 ) 2) f a i r ( m o d e r a t e ) 3) p o o r ( i n a d e q u a t e ) 1 72 F o r e R e s e a r c h e r ' s U s e O n l y V. UTILIZATION OF HEALTH AND MEDICAL SERVICES NOTE: F o r q u e s t i o n s 4 4 , 4 9 a n d 5 3 , a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e a s c l e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f u t i l i z a t i o n b y w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e m a t r i x . 4 4 . How o f t e n d i d y o u s e e a p h y s i c i a n i n t h e p a s t p e r i o d s ? ( C i r c l e the appropriate frequenoy(s)) . a) n o n e 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 2) o n c e 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 3) tw i c e 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 4) t h r e e t i m e s 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 5) f o u r t i m e s 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 6) f i v e o r m o r e t i m e s 0/D/W/M/Q/Y ( 1 4 ) ( 1 5 ) 4 5. W h e r e d i d most o f t h e s e v i s i t s t a k e p l a c e ? 1) d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e 2) home v i s i t 3) h o s p i t a l v i s i t 4 ) N/A ( 1 6 ) -r-R -f 1 73 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 4 6 . W h a t t y p e o f v i s i t s w e r e most o f t h e  a b o v e '(44, 4 5 ) ? ~~ 1) s u r g i c a l 2) m e d i c a l 3) o t h e r 4 ) N/A i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y . ( 1 7 ) 4 7 . I f t h e v i s i t s w e r e mainly m e d i c a l ,  w h a t t y p e w e r e t h e y ? 1) g e n e r a l f i e x a m i n a t i o n 2) p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e 3) i l l n e s s - r e l a t e d 4 ) o t h e r 5) N/A i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 1 8 ) 4 8 . W h a t t y p e o f p h y s i c i a n s p e c i a l t y was most  u s e d d u r i n g t h e s e v i s i t s ? 1) G e n e r a l P r a c t i c t i o n e r 2) S p e c i a l i s t ( G y n o c o l o g y s t g e r i a t r i c t i o n , e t c . ) . 3 ) n u r s e - p r a c t i c t i o n e r 4 ) n u r s e 5) o t h e r i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 1 9 ) 1 74 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 4 9 . How o f t e n d i d y o u r e q u i r e h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n  i n t h e p a s t p e r i o d s ? ( C i r c l e appropriate frequency (s)) 1) n o n e 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 2) o n c e 0/D/W/ISJ/Q/Y 3) t w i c e 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 4) t h r e e t i m e s 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 5) f o u r t i m e s 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 6) f i v e o r m o r e t i m e s 0/D/W/M/Q/Y (20)(21) 5 0 . How long w e r e e a c h o f t h e h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n s  i n t h e p a s t y e a r ? ( d a y s ) 1) N/A 2) 1 s t 3) 2 n d 4 ) 3 r d 5) 4 t h 6) 5 t h ( 2 2 ) ( 2 3 ) 51 . W h a t t y p e o f h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e w,as most u s e d ? 1) A c u t e c a r e 2) A c t i v a t i o n a n d r e h a b . 3) E x t e n d e d c a r e 4 ) I n t e r m e d i a t e c a r e 5) P e r s o n a l c a r e ( 2 4 ) 175 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only 5 2 . W h e r e d i d t h e h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e t a k e p l a c e most oftenl 1) i n ^ p a t i e n t 2) o u t - p a t i e n t 3) e m e r g e n c y 4 ) o t h e r i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 2 5 ) 5 3 . D i d y o u h a v e o c c a s i o n t o u s e a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l ( s e T v i c e s )  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d s ? Cirole appropriate  frequency. 1) N o n e 2) 3) 4 ) 5) 6 ) P u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e S o c i a l w o r k e r h e a l e r o r h e r b i a l i s t p h a r m a c i s t o p t o m e t r i s t ( o p t i c i a n ) 7) c h i r o p r a c t o r o r n a t u r o p a t h 8) m e a l s - o n - w h e e l s 9) L . I , P . - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e 1 0 ) P r i v a t e n u r s i n g s e r v i c e s 1 1 ) H o m e m a k e r s s e r v i c e s 1 2 ) D e n t i s t o r d e n t a l m e c h a n i c 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y ( 2 6 ) ( 2 7 ) 1 76 For R e s e a r c h e r 1 s Use Only 1 3 ) H e a r i n g a i d s p e c i a l i s t s 1 4 ) M e n t a l h e a l t h 1 5 ) O t h e r i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y w o r k e r 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 0/D/W/M/Q/Y 177 For R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only V I . PERSONAL ENABLING FACTORS 5 4 . Do y o u s u b s c r i b e t o a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e p l a n s ? 1) M e d i c a r e ( 2 8 ) 2) P h a r m a c a r e ( 2 9 ) 3) M.S.A. ( 3 0 ) 4) C U . & C. ( 3 1 ) 5) B.C.M.P. ( 3 2 ) 6) o t h e r ( 3 3 ) i f o t h e r , s p e c i f y ( 3 4 ) 55 . Do y o u i n c u r e a n y e x t r a c o s t s f o r h e a l t h  a n d m e d i c a l c a r e o t h e r t h a n t h e p r e m i u m  f o r t h e a b o v e ( 5 4 ) i n s u r a n c e p l a n s ? -1) y e s | ( 3 5 ) 2) no i f y e s , s p e c i f y 1 78 For Resea r c h e r 1 s Use Only 56. How c o n v e n i e n t i s i t f o r y o u t o g e t t o t h e  f o l l o w i n g s e r v i c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s ? 1. 2. 3. V Mod. Co n . C o n . P i f f i c u l t 1 ) n e a r e s t p h y s i c i a n I ( 3 6 ) 2) n e a r e s t h o s p i t a l I ( 3 7 ) 3) h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l o r s e r v i c e s u s e d ( 3 8 ) 179 For Resea r c h e r 1 s Use Only V I I . ATTITUDES/ EXPECTATIONS, PERCEPTIONS 5 7 . How do y o u f e e l ( s u b j e c t i v e l y ) a b o u t t h e k i n d o f m e d i c a l a n d h e a l t h r e l a t e d s e r v i c e  y o u r e c e i v e ? 1) V e r y s a t i s f i e d 2) M o d e r a t e l y s a t i s i f e d 3) D i s s a t i s f i e d ( 3 9 ) 5 8 . H a v e y o u e v e r h a d o c c a s i o n t o d i s t r u s t a n y  o f t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l c a r e s e r v i c e s ? Y e s No 1) p h y s i c i a l ( 1 ) 2) h o s p i t a l ( 1 ) 3) h e a l t h r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l ( 1 ) ( 2 ) . ( 2 ) . ( 2 ) ( 4 0 ) ( 4 1 ) ( 4 2 ) i f y e s , s p e c i f y ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) For 180 R e s e a r c h e r ' s Use Only V I I I . SYSTEMS FACTORS^CONSTRAINTS 5 9 . D i d y o u e v e r h a v e o c c a s i o n t o f e e l t h a t y o u r  d o c t o r was f o r c i n g y o u t o r e c e i v e u n n e c e s s a r y m e d i c a l o r h e a l t h r e l a t e d c a r e ? 1) y e s 2) no i f y e s , s p e c i f y (43) 60, Do y o u f e e l t h a t y o u h a v e a ' r e a l c h o i c e o v e r t h e t y p e u t i l i z e ( i . e . o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l c a r e y o u  p e r s o n a l c h o i c e ) ? 1) y e s 2) no i f $10,1 s p e c i f y (44) For R e s e a r c h e Use On ly How f r e q u e n t l y do y o u e a t d u r i n g t h e d a y ?  ( g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g ) . 1) One f u l l m e a l 2) 2 f u l l m e a l s 3) 3 f u l l m e a l s • 4) 4 o r m o r e f u l l m e a l s ( 4 5 ) 5) i n t e r m i t a n t s n a c k s , e t c , A P P E N D I X V I I I BREAKDOWNS OF UTILIZATION VARIABLES BY INDEPENDENT VARIABLES 182 F I L E T H E S I S ( C R E A T I O N D A T E » 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) S U B F I L E G R O U P A 6 J R 0 U P . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S C R I T E R I O N V A R I A B L E VSTMDYR P H Y S I C I A N U S E I N D E X B R O K E N OOWN BY S J B F I L BY N T O T F A H S F A M I L Y S T R U C T U R E V A R I A B L E C O D E V A L U E L A B E L SUM MEAN S T D D E V V A R I A N C E N FOR E N T I R E P O P J L A T I O N 3 1 4 . O O O O 2 . 1 6 5 5 0 . 8 8 9 9 0 . 7 9 1 9 ( 1 4 5 1 S U B F I L GROU 1 6 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 1 0 4 0 . 9 2 6 0 . 8 5 7 , 7 7 ) NT 0 TF AMS 1 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 0 1 . 8 9 2 0 . 9 3 6 0 . 8 7 7 1 3 7 ) N T O I F A M S 2 . 0 0 6 5 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 4 1 0 . 8 7 2 0 . 7 6 1 ( 2 9 ) N T O T F A H S 3 . 0 0 2 7 . 0 0 0 2 . 4 5 5 0 . 9 3 4 0 . 8 7 3 ( 11 I S U B F I L BGRO 1 5 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 3 5 0 . 8 4 8 0 . 7 2 0 , 6 8 ) NTO I F A M S 1 . 0 0 8 9 . 0 0 0 ' 2 . 4 0 5 0 . 8 3 2 0 . 6 9 2 ( 3 7 ) N T O I F A M S 2 . 0 0 3 8 . 0 0 0 1 . 8 1 0 0 . 8 1 4 0 . 6 6 2 ( 2 1 ) N T O I F A M S 3 . 0 0 2 5 . 0 0 0 2 . 5 0 0 0 . 7 0 7 0 . 5 0 0 ( 1 0 ) T O T A L C A S E S - 1 4 5 F I L E T H E S I S ( C R E A T I O N D A T E = 0 7 / 3 9 / 7 4 ) S U B F I L E GROUPA B S R O U P D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S C R I T E R I O N V A R I A B L E V S T M D Y R P H Y S I C I A N U S E I N D E X B R O K E N DOWN BY S J B F I L BY T O T S O C S C T O T A L S O C I A L S C A L E V A R I A B L E C O D E V A L U E L A B E L SUM MEAN S T D DEV V A R I A N C E N FOR E N T I R E P O P U L A T I O N 2 6 7 . 0 0 0 0 2 . 1 1 9 0 0 . 8 8 1 9 0 . 7 7 7 7 ( 1 2 6 ) S U B F I L GROU 1 3 5 . 0 0 0 2 . 0 4 5 0 . 9 1 9 0 . 8 4 4 I 6 6 ) T D T S O C S C 4 . 0 0 1 4 . 0 0 0 1 . 7 5 0 0 . 8 8 6 0 . 7 8 6 I 8 ) T D T S O C S C 5 . 0 0 1 8 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 5 0 0 . 8 8 6 0 . 7 8 6 1 8 ) T D T S O C S C 6 . 0 0 2 7 . 0 0 0 2 . 4 5 5 0 . 9 3 4 0 . 8 7 3 ( 111 T D T S O C S C 7 . 0 0 1 5 . 0 0 0 1 . 8 7 5 0 . 9 9 1 0 . 9 8 2 ( 8 ) T D T S O C S C 8 . 0 0 2 2 . 0 0 0 1 . 8 3 3 0 . 9 3 7 0 . 8 7 9 ( 1 2 ) T D T S O C S C 9 . 0 0 1 3 . 0 0 0 1 . 8 5 7 0 . 9 0 0 0 . 8 1 0 ( 7) T D T S O C S C 1 0 . 0 0 1 6 . 0 0 0 2 . 6 6 7 0 . 8 1 6 0 . 6 6 7 ( 6 ) T D T S O C S C 1 1 . 0 0 9 . 0 0 0 1 . 8 0 0 0 . 8 3 7 0 . 7 0 0 I 5 ) T O T S O C S C 1 2 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 I 1 ) S U B F I L BGRO 1 3 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 0 0 0 . 8 4 0 0 . 7 0 5 t 6 0 ) T O T S O C S C 3 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 ( 1 ) T D T S O C S C 4 . 0 0 1 3 . 0 0 0 1 . 8 5 7 0 . 9 0 0 0 . 8 1 0 I 7 ) T D T S O C S C 5 . 0 0 2 4 . 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 5 3 0 . 9 0 9 ( 1 2 ) T D T S O C S C 6 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 0 2 . 3 0 8 0 . 7 5 1 0 . 5 6 4 I 131 T D T S O C S C 7 . 0 0 1 4 . 0 0 0 2 . 3 3 3 0 . 8 1 6 0 . 6 6 7 ( 6 ) T D T S O C S C 8 . 0 0 2 4 . 0 0 0 2 . 4 0 0 0 . 8 4 3 0 . 7 1 1 ( 1 0 ) T D T S D C S C 9 . 0 0 9 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 5 0 0 . 9 5 7 0 . 9 1 7 1 4) T D T S O C S C 1 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 I 1) T D T S O C S C 1 1 . 0 0 7 . 0 0 0 2 . 3 3 3 1 . 1 5 5 1 . 3 3 3 I 3 ) T D T S D C S C 1 2 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 I 1 ) T D T S O C S C 1 3 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 2 . 5 0 0 0 . 7 0 7 0 . 5 0 0 ( 2 ) T O T A L C A S E S - 1 4 5 M I S S I N G C A S E S - 19 OR 1 3 . 1 P C T . TABLE 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 * PACE & F ILE THESIS (CREATION OATE = 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 * ) SUBFILE GROUPA B3KQUP D E S C R I P T I O N PHYSICIAN USE INDEX O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE VSTMDYR BRUKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY HARITEXP MARITAL EXPERIENCE VARIABLE FOR E N T M E POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 314.0000 MEAN 2.1655 STO DEV 0 .8899 VARIANCE 0 .7919 N 1*51 F IL GROU 162.000 2 . 1 0 * 0.926 0 .857 ( 771 MA* ITEXP 0 .0 19.000 1.727 0.905 0 .818 ( 11) MAR ITEXP 3 .00 19.000 1.900 0 . 9 9 * 0 .989 ( 10) MARITEXP * . 0 0 11.000 2.200 1.095 1 .200 ( 5) MAR ITEXP 5.00 17.000 2.125 0.991 0.982 ( 81 MARITEXP 6. 00 7 .000 2.333 1.155 1.333 ( 3) MARITEXP 7.00 16.000 1.600 0 .8 *3 0.711 1 10) MAR ITEXP 8.00 * . 0 0 0 2.000 1 .41* 2 .000 < 21 MAR ITEXP 9 .00 13.000 2.600 0 . 8 9 * 0 .800 ( 5) MARITEXP 10.00 1.000 1.000 0 .0 0 .0 ( 1) MA* ITEXP 11.00 25.000 2.273 0.905 0 .818 ( 11) MAR ITEXP 12.00 9 .000 3.000 0 .0 0 .0 I 3) MAR 1 TEXP 12.50 6 .000 3.000 0 .0 0 .0 ( 21 MA* ITEXP 13.00 8 .000 2.667 0 .577 0 .333 ( 3) MARITEXP 15.00 2 .000 2 .000 0 .0 0 .0 I 1 ) MAR ITEXP 15.50 2 .000 2.000 0 .0 0 .0 < 1) MAR ITEXP 17.00 3 .000 3.000 0 .0 0 .0 1 1) F IL BGRO 152.000 2.235 0 .8 *8 0 .720 1 68) MARITEXP 0 . 0 24 .000 2 . *00 0.843 0.711 ( 10) MAR ITEXP 3. 00 20 .000 2.222 0.972 0 . 9 4 * I 9) MARITEXP * . 0 0 8 .000 2 .667 0.577 0 .333 ( 3) MARITEXP 5.00 25 .000 2.273 0.905 0 .818 ( 11) MARITEXP 6. 00 26 .000 2.000 1.000 1.000 I 13) MAR ITEXP 7 .00 13.000 2.600 0.548 0 .300 I 51 MARITEXP 8 .00 10.000 2.000 1.000 1.000 ( 51 MARITEXP 9 .00 11.000 2.200 0 .837 0 .700 ( 5) MARITEXP 10 .00 7 .000 2 .333 0.577 0 .333 ( 31 MARITEXP 11.00 3 .000 3.000 0 .0 0 .0 ( 1) MAR ITEXP 15.00 2 .000 2.000 0 .0 0 .0 ( 1) MARITEXP 16 .00 3 .000 1.500 0 .707 0 .500 ( 2) TOTAL CASES • 1*5 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA BiROUP . . . . . O E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SJBFIL BY TDTCONTR TOTAL CONTACT VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENIIRE POPULATION 314.0000 2.1655 0.8899 0.7919 I 145) SUBFIL GROU 162.000 2.104 0.926 0.857 ( 77) TDTCONTR 1.00 7.000 2.333 1.155 1.333 ( 3) TDTCDNTR 2.00 6. 000 2.000 1 .000 1 .000 ( 3) TDTCONTR 3.00 36.000 2.118 0.928 0.860 ( 17) TDTCONTR 4.00 B.000 2.000 1.155 1.333 ( 41 TDTCOSTR 5.00 28.000 2.154 0.899 0.808 ( 13) TDTCOSTR 6.00 1-6.000 1.600 0.966 0.933 ( 10) TO TCON T R 7.00 8.000 • 1.600 0.894 0.800 ( . 5) TDTCONTR 8.00 26.000 2.889 0.333 0.111 ( 9) TDTCONTR 9.00 15.000 1 .875 0.991 0.982 ( 81 TDTCONTR 10.00 2.000 2.000 0.0 0.0 ( 1) TDTCONTR 11.00 I.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 ( 1) TDTCONTR 12.00 6.000 3.000 0.0 0.0 ( 21 TDTCONTR 14. 00 3.000 3.000 0.0 0.0 I 1) SUBFIL BGRO 152.000 2.235 0.848 0.720 ( 68) TDTCONTR 0.0 4. 000 2.000 1.414 2.000 ( 2) TDTCONTR 1.00 12.000 3.000 0.0 0.0 ( 4) TDTCONTR 2.00 8.000 2.000 1.155 1.333 ( 4) TDTCONTR 3.00 29.000 2.417 0.900 0.811 ( 12) TDTCONTR 4.00 18.000 2.571 0.787 0.619 I 7) TDTCONTR .5.00 26.000 2.167 0.835 0.69T ( 12) TDTCONTR 6.00 9.000 1.800 1.095 1.200 ( 5) TDTCONTR 7.00 15.000 1.875 0.641 0.41 1 ( 8) TDTCONTR 8.00 11.000 2.200 0.837 0.700 ( 5) TDTCONTR 9.00 6.000 2.000 1.000 1.000 ( 3) TDTCONTR 11.00 11.000 2.750 0.500 0.250 ( 4) TDTCONTR 12.00 2.000 2.000 0.0 0.0 ( 1) TDTCONTR 14.00 1.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 1 1) TOTAL CASES = 145 CO cn FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE - 07/09/7*1 SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP - . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BRUXEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TOTSIBCN TOTAL SIBLING CONTACT VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENURE POPULATION 314.0000 2.1655 0.8899 0.7919 ( 145) SUBFIL GROU 162.000 2.104 0.926 0. 857 < 77) T'JTSIBCN 0.0 37.000 1.850 0.933 0. 871 ( 20) TDTSIBCN 1.00 65.000 2.321 0.905 0. 819 ( 28) TDTSIBCN 2.00 32.000 2.462 0.877 0. 769 ( 13) TDTSIBCN 3.00 28.000 1.750 0.856 0. 733 ( 16) SUBFIL BGKO 152.000 2.235 0.848 0. 720 ( 68) TDTSIBCN 0.0 43.000 1.955 0.899 0. 807 ( 22) TDTSIBCN 1.00 46.000 2.190 O.B73 0. 762 ( 21) TDTSIBCN 2.00 35.000 2.692 0.630 0. 397 I 13) TDTSIBCN 3.00 28.000 2.333 0.779 0. 606 ( 121 T O T A L C A S E S » 1 4 5 LU/ 10/ (4 P A G E 9 F I L E T H E S I S ( C R E A T I O N O A T E « 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) S U B F I L E G R O J P A B 3 R O U P D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S C R I T E R I O N V A R I A B L E VS TMOVR P H Y S I C I A N U S E I N D E X B R O K E N DOWN BY S J B F I L BY T 3 T C H D C N T O T A L C H I L D R E N C O N T A C T V A R I A B L E FOR E N T I R E P O P U L A T I O N C O D E V A L U E L A B E L SUM 3 1 4 . 0 0 0 0 MEAN 2 . 1 6 5 5 S T D D E V 0 . 8 8 9 9 V A R I A N C E 0 . 7 9 1 9 N 1 4 5 ) S U B F I L T 3 T C H 3 C N T 3 T C H D C N T 3 T C H D C N T 3 T C H D C N S U B F I L I 3 T C H D C N T 3 T C H 3 C N T 3 T L H D C N T 3 T C H D C N GROU 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 BGRO 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 1 6 2 . 0 0 0 4 9 . 0 0 0 4 2 . 0 0 0 3 3 . 0 0 0 3 8 . 0 0 0 1 5 2 . 0 0 0 5 2 . 0 0 0 4 1 . 0 0 0 2 4 . 0 0 0 3 5 . 0 0 0 2 . 1 0 4 1 . 8 8 5 2 . 2 1 1 2 . 0 6 3 2 . 3 7 5 2 . 2 3 5 2 . 2 6 1 2 . 4 1 2 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 1 8 8 0 . 9 2 6 0 . 9 0 9 0 . 9 1 8 0 . 9 9 8 0 . 8 8 5 0 . 8 4 8 0 . 8 6 4 0 . 7 9 5 0 . 9 5 3 0 . 8 3 4 0 . 8 5 7 0 . 8 2 6 0 . 8 4 2 0 . 9 9 6 0 . 7 8 3 0 . 7 2 0 0 . 7 4 7 0 . 6 3 2 0 . 9 0 9 0 . 6 9 6 T O T A L C A S E S » 1 4 5 F I L E T H E S I S ( C R E A T I O N D A T E « 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 * 1 S U B F I L E G R O U P A B 3 R O U P . _ - . . . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S C R I T E R I O N V A R I A B L E V S T M D Y R P H Y S I C I A N U S E I N D E X B R O K E N DOWN BY S U B F I L BY T O T G R D C N T O T A L G R A N D C H I L D R E N C O N T A C T V A R I A B L E FOR E N U R E P O P U L A T I O N C O D E V A L U E L A B E L SUM 3 1 4 . 0 0 0 0 MEAN 2 . 1 6 5 5 S T D D E V 0 . 8 8 9 9 V A R I A N C E 0 . 7 9 1 9 N 1*51 S U B F I L T 3 T G R D C N T 3 T G P . 3 C N T 3 T G R D C N T O T G R D C N S U B F I L T 3 T G R D C N T 3 T G R D C N T 3 T G R 3 C N T 3 T G R 3 C N T O T A L C A S E S » GKUU 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 B G R O 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 1 6 2 . 0 0 0 7 1 . 0 0 0 2 2 . 0 0 0 3 8 . 0 0 0 3 1 . 0 0 0 1 5 2 . 0 0 0 7 1 . 0 0 0 2 7 . 0 0 0 2 3 . 0 0 0 3 1 . 0 0 0 2 . 1 0 * 2 . 0 8 8 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 3 8 5 2 . 2 3 5 2 . 3 6 7 2 . 2 5 0 2 . 0 9 1 2 . 0 6 7 0 . 9 2 6 0 . 9 3 3 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 * 3 0 . 8 7 0 0 . 8 * 8 0 . 8 5 0 0 . 9 6 5 0 . 8 3 1 0 . 7 9 9 0 . 8 5 7 0 . 8 7 1 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 8 8 9 0 . 7 5 6 0 . 7 2 0 0 . 7 2 3 0 . 9 3 2 0 . 6 9 1 0 . 6 3 8 1 * 5 F I L E T H E S I S ( C R E A T I O N D 4 T E . « 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) S U B F I L E GROUPA BGKOUP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S C R I T E R I O N V A R I A B L E VSTMDYR P H Y S I C I A N USE I N D E X B R O K E N DOWN BY S U B F I L BY T O T G R T C N T O T A L G R E A T G R A N D C H I L D R E N C O N T A C T V A R I A B L E COOE V A L U E L A B E L SUM MEAN STD D E V V A R I A N C E N FOR E N I M E P O P U L A T I O N 3 1 4 . 0 0 0 0 2 . 1 6 5 5 0 . 8 8 9 9 0 . 7 9 1 9 1 1 4 5 ) S U B F I L GROU 1 6 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 1 0 4 0 . 9 2 6 0 . 8 5 7 I 7 7 ) T D T G R T C N 0.0 1 3 8 . 0 0 0 2 . 0 9 1 0 . 9 2 4 0 . 8 5 3 ( 6 6 ) T D T J R T C N 1.00 6 . 0 0 0 1 . 5 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 1 4) T D T G R T C N 2 . 0 0 9 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 5 0 6 . 9 5 7 0 . 9 1 7 1 4) T D T G R T C N 3 . 0 0 9 . 0 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 I 3 ) S U B F I L BGRO 1 5 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 3 5 0 . 8 4 8 0 . 7 2 0 I 6 8 ) T D T G R T C N 0.0 1 2 7 . 0 0 0 2 . 3 5 2 0 . 8 5 0 0 . 7 2 3 ( 5 4 ) T D T G R T C N 1.00 4 . 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 ( 2 ) T D T G R T C N 2 . 0 0 1 5 . 0 0 0 1 . 6 6 7 0 . 7 0 7 0 . 5 0 0 ( 9 ) T D T G R T C N 3 . 0 0 6 . 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 ( 3 ) T O T A L C A S E S • 1 4 5 F I L E T H E S I S ( C R E A T I O N D A T E - 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) S U B F I L E G R O U P A B G R O U P D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I 0 N S C R I T E R I O N V A R I A B L E V S T M D V R P H Y S I C I A N U S E I N D E X B R O K E N DOWN BY S J B F I L BY T 3 T F R D C N T O T A L F R I E N D C O N T A C T V A R I A B L E F O R E N T I R E P O P U L A T I O N S U B F I L T O T F R D C N T 3 T F R 3 C N T 3 T F R 3 C N T O T F R D C N S U B F I L T 3 T F R 3 C N T 3 T F R 3 C N T 3 T F R 3 C N T D T F R D C N C O D E V A L U E L A B E L S U N MEAN S T D D E V V A R I A N C E N 3 1 4 . 0 0 0 0 2 . 1 6 5 5 0 . 8 8 9 9 0 . 7 9 1 9 ( 1 4 5 ) GROU 1 6 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 1 0 4 0 . 9 2 6 0 . 8 5 7 ( 7 7 ) 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 0 0 2 . 1 4 3 0 . 9 4 9 0 . 9 0 1 ( 1 4 ) 1 . 00 3 7 . 0 0 0 2 . 1 7 6 0 . 8 8 3 0 . 7 7 9 1 171 2 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 0 2 . 3 0 8 0 . 9 2 8 0 . 8 6 2 I 2 6 ) 3 . 0 0 3 5 . 0 0 0 1 . 7 5 0 0 . 9 1 0 0 . 8 2 9 I 2 0 ) BGRO 1 5 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 3 5 0 . 8 4 8 0 . 7 2 0 I 6 8 ) 0 . 0 5 1 . 0 0 0 2 . 3 1 8 0 . 8 9 4 0 . 7 9 9 ( 2 2 ) 1 . 0 0 5 8 . 0 0 0 2 . 4 1 7 0 . 7 7 6 0 . 6 0 1 ( 2 4 ) 2 . 0 0 2 2 . 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 1 1 1 ) 3 . 0 0 2 1 . 0 0 0 1 . 9 0 9 0 . 7 0 1 0 . 4 9 1 I 1 1 ) T O T A L C A S E S = 1 4 5 F ILE H E S I S (CREATION DATE = 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 ' . ) SUBFILE GROUPA BJkOUP _ . . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE VSTMUYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TOTAAC TOTAL SPECIAL ACTIV IT IES VAR1 ABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 314.0000 2.1655 0 .8899 0 .7919 ( 145) SUBFIL GROU 162.000 2.104 0 .926 0 .857 ( 77) TDTAAC 0 .0 3 .000 1.000 0.0 0 .0 ( 3) TOTAAC I .00 . 40 .000 2.222 0 .943 0 .889 ( 18) TOTAA: 2.00 42 .000 2.000 0 .949 0 .900 ( 211 TOTAAC 3 .00 77 .000 2.200 0.901 0 .812 ( 35) s u e F i L BGRO 152.000 2.235 0 .848 0 .720 ( 68) TOTAAC 0.0 15.000 2.143 1.069 1.143 ( 7) T3TAAC 1.00 46 .000 2.300 0 .865 0 . 747 ( 20) TOTAA: 2.00 43 .000 2.150 0 .933 0 .871 I 201 TOTAAC 3 .00 48 .000 2.286 0 .717 0 .514 I 21) TOTAL CASES « 145 TABLE 10 /18 /74 PAGE 14 F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE « 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA BSROUP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY T3TDAC TOTAL ORGANIZED t SOCIAL ACTIVIT IES VARIABLE COOE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD OEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 314 .0000 2 .1655 0.8899 0 .7919 I 1451 SUEFIL GROU 162.000 2.104 0.926 0 .857 , 77) T3TDAC 1.00 19.000 1.583 0.793 0 .629 ( 12) T3TDAC 2 .00 67 .000 2.030 0.951 0 .905 ( 33) T3TDAC 3 .00 76.000 2 .375 0.871 0 .758 « 32) SUBFIL BGKO 152.000 • 2 .235 0.848 0 .720 68) T3TDAC 1.00 54 .000 2.348 0 .935 0 . 8 7 * ( 23) TOTDAC 2 .00 64 .000 2.462 0 .647 0.418 ( 26) T3TDAC 3.00 34 .000 1.789 0 .855 0 .731 ( 19) TOTAL CASES « 145 TABL: 10/18/7* PAGE IS F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE = 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 * ) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP CRITERION VARIABLE VSTMDY* BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TOTABCD D E S C R I P T I O N PHYSICIAN USE INDEX TOTAL ACTIVIT IES 0 F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S VARIABLE FOR EN r ME POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 31* .0000 MEAN 2.1655 STO DEV 0.8899 VARIANCE 0 .7919 N 1*5) SUBFIL GROU 162.000 2 . 1 0 * 0 .926 0 .857 ( 77) TDTABCD * . 0 0 1.000 1.000 0 .0 0 .0 1 1 ) TDTABCD 6.00 12.000 2 .000 1.095 1.200 1 6) TDT4ECD 7 .00 18.000 1.800 0 .919 0 . 8 * * ( 10) TDTABCD 8 .00 23.000 2.091 1 . 0 * * 1.091 I 11) TDTABCD 9 .00 33.000 2.357 0 . 8 * 2 0 .709 I 1*) • TDTABCD 10.00 26.000 2.000 1 .000 1 .000 ( 13) t TDTABCD 11.00 21.000 2.100 0 .876 0 .767 I 10) TDTABCD 12.00 28 .000 2.333 0 .888 0 .788 ( 12) ; SUBFIL BGRO 152.000 2.235 0 . 8 * 8 0 .720 1 68) J TDTABCD 3 .00 7 .000 2.333 1.155 1.333 < 31 TDTABCO * . 0 0 6 .000 3.000 0 .0 0 .0 I 2) ; TDTABCD 5.00 9 .000 3.000 0 .0 0 .0 I 3) < i TDTABCD 6. 00 28.000 2 . 1 5 * 0 .987 0 . 9 7 * ( 13) o TDTABCD 7.00 15.000 2 .500 0 .837 0 .700 ( 6) ; TDTABCD 8 .00 29.000 2.071 0 .829 0 .687 ( 1*) J; TDTABCD 9 . 00 20 .000 2.222 0.972 0 . 9 * * I 9) TDTABCD 10.00 27 .000 2 .077 0 .760 0 .577 1 13) TDTABCD 11.00 9.000 2.250 0 .957 0 .917 I *) TDTABCO 12.00 2.000 2.000 0.0 0.0 1 11 TOTAL CASES • 1*5 FABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 16 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/39/74) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP r„7„7 7, " " D E S C R I P T I O N D F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERI3M VARIABLE VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY IMTERABS EXCESSIVE GIVING EXCHANGE VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 314.0000 MEAN 2.1655 STD DEV 0.8899 VARIANCE 0.7919 N 145) SUBFIL INTERABS INTERABS INTERABS INTERABS SUBFIL . INTERABS INTERABS INTERABS INTERABS INTERABS TOTAL CASES -GRUU -2.00 -1.00 0. 0 1. 00 BGRO -2.00 -1.00 0.0 1.00 2.00 162.000 6.000 29.000 113.000 14.000 152.000 10.000 38.000 83.000 16.000 5.000 2.104 3.000 2.636 1.982 2.000 2.235 2.500 2.375 2.075 2.667 2.500 0.926 0.0 0.809 0.916 1.000 0.848 0.577 0.806 0.917 0.516 0.707 0.857 0.0 0.655 0.839 1.000 0.720 0.333 0.650 0.840 0.267 0.500 77) 2) 11 I 57) 7) 68) 4) 16) 40) 6) 2 ) 145 F I L E THESIS (CREATIUN DATE » 0 7 / 3 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA bGROUP . _ - _ D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE VST MDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BRUKEN OOWN BY SJBFIL BY INTERABA TWO-WAY EXCHANGE VARIAbLE COOE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 314 .0000 2 .1655 0 .8899 0 .7919 ( 145) SUBFIL GRUU 162.000 2.104 0 .926 0 . 857 , 77) IMTfcRABA 2 .00 44 .000 1.913 0 .949 0 . 901 ( 23) INTERABA 3 .00 13.000 2 .167 0 .983 0 . 967 ( 6) 1MTERABA 4 . 0 0 37 .000 2.176 1.015 1. 029 1 17) INTERABA 5 .00 30 .000 2 .500 0 .905 0 . 818 ( 12) INTERABA 6. 00 38 .000 2 .000 0 .816 0 . 667 • 19) SUBFIL BGRO 152.000 2 .235 0 .848 0 . 720 ( 68) INTERABA 2 .00 31 .000 2.214 0 .975 0 . 951 ( 14) INTERABA 3.00 23 .000 2 .556 0.72 6 0 . 528 ( 9) INTERABA 4 .00 45 .000 2 .045 0 .899 0 . 807 ( 22) ISTERABA 5. 00 31 .000 2 .385 0 .768 0 . 590 . ( 13) INTERABA 6 .00 22 .000 2 .200 0 .789 0 . 622 I 10) TOTAL CASES » 145 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE = 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA BSROUP . _ . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY QUEA3Z GIVIMG EXCHANGE VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STO DEV VARIANCE N FOR E N U R E POPULATION 314 .0000 2 .1655 0 .8899 0 .7919 ( 145) SUBFIL GROU 162.000 2.104 0.926 0 .857 ( 771 QJEA32 1. 00 59 .000 2.107 0 .956 0 .914 1 28) 0JEA32 2 .00 55.000 2.115 0.993 0 .986 I 26) 0UEA3Z 3 .00 48 .000 2 .087 0 .848 0 .719 ( 23) SUBFIL BGRO 152.000 2.235 0 .848 0 .720 ( 681 QJEA32 1.00 56 .000 2.333 0 .868 0 . 7 5 4 ' ( 24) &JEA32 2 .00 61 .000 2 .103 0 .900 0 .810 I 29) OJEA32 3.00 35.000 2.333 0 .724 0 .524 ( 15) TOTAL CASES • 145 F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE = 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROJPA BGROUP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BROKEN DOrfN BY SUBFIL BY 0JEB32 RECEIVING EXCHANGE VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 314.0000 2 .1655 0 .8899 0 .7919 I 1451 SUBFIL GROU 162.000 2.104 0 .926 0 . 857 , 77) OJEB32 1.00 48 .000 1.846 0 .925 0 .855 ( 26) 0UEB32 2 .00 50.000 2 .273 0 .985 0 .970 ( 221 0JEB32 3 .00 64 .000 2 .207 0.861 0 .741 <• 29) SUBFIL BGKO 152.000 2 .235 0 .848 0 .720 , 68) 0JEB32 1.00 44 .000 2 .316 0 .885 0 . 7 8 4 ( 19) OJEB32 2 .00 53 .000 2 .120 0 .927 0 . 8 6 0 ( 25) QJEB32 3.00 55.000 2.292 0.751 0 .563 I 24) TOTAL CASES • 145 F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 0 7 / 3 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROJPA BGROUP - - D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SJBFIL BY RELBRN RELIGIONBIRTH VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 314.0000 MEAN 2 .1655 STD OEV 0 .8899 VARIANCE 0 .7919 N 145) SUBFIL RELERN RELbRN RELbRN RELBR1 SUBFIL RELBRN RELBRN RELBRN RELBRN GROU 1.00 2 .00 3 .00 4 .00 BGRO 1.00 2.00 3 .00 4 . 0 0 BRITISH-PROTESTANT NOT BR IT-PRO TESTANT BRITISH-NO PROT. NO BRIT-NO PROTE STAN BRITISH-PROTESTANT NOT BRIT-PR3TESTANT BRITISH-NO PROT. NO BRIT-NO PROTESTAN 162.000 84 .000 50 .000 7 .000 21 .000 152.000 58 .000 80 .000 3 .000 11 .000 2.104 2.154 2.174 1.400 2 .100 2 .235 1.933 2.424 3 .000 2 .750 0.92 6 0 .933 0 .887 0.894 0.994 0.848 0 .907 0.751 0 .0 0 .500 0 . 8 5 7 0 .870 0 . 7 8 7 0 .800 0 . 9 8 9 720 823 564 0 250 TOTAL CASES - 145 TABLE 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 * PAGE 21 F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE - 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 * 1 SUBFILE GROUPA BSROUP . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY NEWWHYMV REASON FOR MOVING TO B . C . VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 31* .0000 MEAN 2.1655 STD DEV 0.8899 VARIANCE 0 .7919 N 1*51 SUBFIL NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV SUBFIL NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV GROU 1.00 2 .00 3 .00 BGRO 1.00 2 .00 3 .00 FAM-OCCU-NATIVE HEALTH ESTHETIC-OTHER FAH-OCCU-NATI VE HEALTH ESTHETIC-OTHER 162.000 109.000 B.000 • * 5 . 0 0 0 152.000 103.000 9 .000 * 0 . 0 0 0 2 . 1 0 * 2.271 2.000 1.800 2.235 2.289 1.600 2.222 0 .926 0 .869 1.155 0 .957 0 . 8 * 8 0.815 1.095 0 .678 0.857 0.755 1.333 0 .917 0 .720 0.665 1.200 0.771 771 *8> * ! 251 681 *51 5) 18) TOTAL CASES • 1*5 F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE " 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA BJROUP . ^ D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SJBFIL BY NTOTFA1S FAMILY STRUCTURE VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 100.0000 MEAN 0.6897 STD DEV 2 .4959 VARIANCE 6.2294 N 145) SUBFIL NTOIFAMS NTOIFAMS NTOIFAMS SUBFIL NTOTFAMS NTOIFAMS NTOTFAMS GROU 1.00 2 .00 3 .00 BGRO 1.00 2 .00 3 .00 29.000 6 .000 20 .000 3 .000 71.000 58.000 8.000 5 .000 0.377 0.162 0.690 0.273 1.044 1.568 0.381 0.500 1.225 0 .688 1.734 0 .905 3.383 4 .432 1.071 1.269 1.501 0 .473 3 .007 0 .818 11 .446 19.641 1.148 1.611 77) 371 29) 11) 68) 37) 21) 10) TOTAL CASES • 145 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 23 F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE = 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA 63K0UP . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TOTSOCSC TOTAL SOCIAL SCALE VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD OEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE P0PJLAT10N 92.0000 0 .7302 2.6212 6.8706 I 126) SUBFIL GROU 27.000 0.409 1.301 1.692 ( 66) TDTSOCSC 4 .00 3 .000 0.375 1.061 1.125 1 81 TDTSOCSC 5 .00 3.000 0.375 1.061 1.125 1 8) TDTSOCSC 6 .00 11.000 1.000 2.490 6.200 ( 11) TDTSOCSC 7.00 1.000 0.125 0.354 0.125 ( 8) TDTSOCSC 8.00 3.000 0.250 0.866 0 .750 1 12) TDTSOCSC 9 .00 4 .000 0.571 1.512 2.286 t 7) TDTSOCSC 10.00 2.000 0.333 0 .816 0 .667 ( 61 TOTSOCSC 11.00 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 5) TDTSOCSC 12.00 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 1) SUBFIL BGKO 65.000 1.083 3.529 12.451 1 601 TOTSOCSC 3.00 23.000 23.000 0.0 o . o I 1) TDTSOCSC 4 .00 20.000 2.857 5.113 26 .143 ( 71 TDTSOCSC 5.00 1.000 0.083 0 .289 0 .0B3 1 12) TOTSOCSC 6 .00 2.000 0.154 0.376 0.141 ( 13) TDTSOCSC 7.00 4 .000 0.667 1.633 2 .667 1 61 TDTSOCSC 8.00 5 .000 0.500 0 .850 0.722 ( 10) TDTSOCSC 9.00 4 .000 1.000 2 .000 4 . 000 1 4) TDTSOCSC 10.00 3 .000 3.000 0 .0 0 .0 1 1) TDTSOCSC 11.00 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 3) TOTSOCSC 12.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 11 TDTSOCSC 13.00 3 .000 1.500 2.121 4.500 ( 21 TOTAL CASES ' 145 MISSING CASES • 19 OR 13.1 P C T . F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE » 07 /09 /741 SUBFILE CROUPA B3R0UP O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY MARITEXP MARITAL EXPERIENCE VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 100.0000 0.6897 2 .4959 6.2294 t 145) SUBFIL GRUU 29.000 0.377 1.225 1.501 ( 77) MAR ITEXP 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0.0 ( 11) MARITEXP 3.00 3.000 0.300 0 .949 0 .900 1 10) MARITEXP 4 .00 5.000 1.000 1.414 2 .000 1 5) MAR ITEXP 5 .00 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 8) MARITEXP 6.00 1.000 0.333 0 .577 0.333 I 31 MARITEXP 7.00 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 10) MAR ITEXP 8 .00 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 2) MAR ITEXP 9 .00 3.000 0.600 1.342 1 .800 1 5) MAR 1TEXP 10.00 0.0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 1 1) MAR ITEXP 11.00 4 .000 0.364 1.206 1.455 ( 11) MAR ITEXP 12.00 3.000 1.000 1 .732 3 .000 1 3) MAR I TEXP 12.50 2 .000 1.000 1.414 2 .000 ( 2) MAR ITEXP 13.00 0 .0 0.0 b .o 0 .0 I 3) MARITEXP 15.00 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 1) MAR ITEXP 15.50 0.0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 I 1) MAR ITEXP 17.00 8.000 8.000 0 .0 0 .0 ( 1) SUBFIL BGRO 71.000 1.044 3.383 11.446 ( 68) MARITEXP 0 .0 5.000 0.500 0 .850 0.722 ( 10) MAR ITEXP 3 .00 19.000 2.111 4 .649 21.611 ( 9) MAR ITEXP 4 .00 6.000 2.000 3.464 12.000 ( 3) MAR ITEXP 5.00 3.000 0.273 0 .905 0.818 ( 11) MARITEXP 6 .00 30.000 2.308 6 .356 40.397 I 13) MAR ITEXP 7.00 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 5) MAR ITEXP 8 .00 3.000 0.600 1.342 1.800 ( 5) MARITEXP 9 .00 1.000 O.20O 0 .447 0 .200 1 5) MAR ITEXP 10.00 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 3) MARITEXP 11.00 3.000 3.000 0 .0 0 .0 ( 1) MAR ITEXP 15.00 1.000 1.000 0 .0 0 .0 ( 1) MARITEXP 16.00 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 2) TOTAL CASES * 145 O CO r o o c o TABLE F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP O E S C R CRITERION VARIABLE OPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TDTCONTR TOTAL CONTACT I P I I INDEX VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL FOR ENTIRE POPULATION SUBFIL GROU TDTCONTR 1.00 TDTCONTR 2.00 TDTCONTR 3 .00 i TDTCONTR 4 .00 \ TDTCONTR 5.00 TDTCONTR 6 .00 ; TDTCONTR 7 .00 3 TDICONTR 8.00 TDTCONTR 9 . 00 ; TDTCONTR 10.00 TDTCONTR 11.00 TDTCONTR 12.00 ; TDTCDNTR 14.00 3 SUBFIL BGRO 't TDTCONTR 0 . 0 i TDTCONTR 1.00 TDTCONTR 2. 00 TDTCONTR 3.00 TDTCONTR 4 .00 TDTCONTR 5.00 TDTCONTR 6 .00 TDTCONTR 7.00 TDTCONTR 8 .00 TDTCONTR 9 .00 TDTCONTR 11.00 TDTCONTR 12.00 TDTCONTR 14.00 TOTAL CASES « 145 cc CO O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE - N >0.0000 0.6897 2.4959 6.2294 ( 145) 29.000 0.377 1.225 1.501 I 77) 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 3) 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 ( 3) 7.000 0.412 1.176 1.382 ( 17) 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 4) 7.000 0.538 1.050 1. 103 ( 13) 6.000 0.600 1.265 1.600 ( 10) 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 5) 8.000 0.889 2 .667 7.111 t 9) 1.000 0.125 0.354 0.125 ( 8) 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 1 ) 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0 .0 I 1) 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 2) 0.0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 11 71.000 1.044 3.383 11.446 ( 68) 9 .000 4.500 2.121 4 .500 ( 2) 15.000 3.750 6.850 46.917 ( 4) 2 .000 0.500 1.000 1.000 ( 4) 25 .000 2 .083 6.612 43 .720 ( 12) 1.000 0.143 0.378 0 .143 1 7) 5.000 0.417 0.900 0.811 ( 121 4 .000 0.800 1.789 3.200 ( 5) 6.000 0 .750 1.389 1.929 ( 8) 0.0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 5) 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 . 0 ( 3) 4 .000 1.000 2 .000 4 .000 ( 4) 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0 . 0 ( 1) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 ( 1) ro o T A B L E 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 4 PAGE 26 F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE = 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA BGKOUP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TDTSIBCN TOTAL SIBLING CONTACT VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STO OEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 100.0000 0.6897 2.4959 6.2294 ( 145) SueFIL GROU 29.000 0.377 1.225 1.501 ( 77) T3TSIBCN 0 .0 3 .000 0 .150 0.671 0.450 1 20) T3TSIBCN 1.00 20.000 0.714 1.761 3.101 ( 28) T3TSIBCN 2 .00 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 13) T3TSIBCN 3.00 6.000 0.375 1.025 1.050 1 16) SUBFIL BGRO 71.000 1.044 3.383 11.446 ( 68) T3TSIBCN 0 .0 35.000 1.591 3.217 10.348 ( 22) T3TSIBCN 1.00 3 .000 0.143 0.478 0 .229 ( 21) T3TSI8CN 2.00 30 .000 2.308 6 .356 40.397 1 13) T3TSIBCN 3.00 3 .000 0.250 0 .866 0 .750 ( 12) TOTAL CASES « 145 TABLE r M u c c F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROJPA BGROUP . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE UPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX 3ROXEN DOWN BV SJBFIL BY TOTCHDCN TOTAL CHILDREN CONTACT VARIABLE FOR E N U R E POPULATION SUBFIL TOTCHDCN TOTCHDCN TOTCHDCN TOTCHDCN SUBFIL TOTCHDCN TOTCHDCN TOTCHDCN TOTCHDCN CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE H 100.0000 0.6897 2.4959 6.2294 I 145) GROU 29.000 0.377 1.225 1.501 ( 77) 0 .0 6.000 0.231 0.815 0.665 ( 26) 1.00 8.000 0.421 1.071 1.146 ( 19) 2 .00 6 .000 0.375 1.025 1.050 ( 16) 3.00 .9.000 0.563 1.999 3 .996 ( 16) BGRO 71.000 1.044 3.383 11.446 ( 68) 0 .0 28.000 1.217 3.133 9 .814 ( 23) 1.00 33.000 1.941 5.584 31.184 « 17) 2 .00 8.000 0.667 1.371 1.879 ( 12) 3.00 2.000 0.125 0.342 0 .117 ( 16) TOTAL CASES - 145 r n b c CO FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE - 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA BSROUP D E S C R I P T I O N D F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE UPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TDTGRDCN TOTAL GRANDCHILDREN CONTACT 3 VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 100.0000 0.6897 2 .4959 6.2294 ( 1451 SUBFIL GROU 29.000 0.377 1.225 1.501 77) TDTGRDCN 0. 0 15.000 0.441 1.106 1.224 ( 34) TDTGRDCN 1.00 5.000 0.455 1.036 1.073 | 11) TDTGRDCN 2 .00 8. 000 0.421 1.835 3.368 ( 19) TDTGRDCN 3 .00 1.000 0.077 0 .277 0.077 13) SUBFIL BGRO 71.000 1.044 3.383 11.446 68) TDTGRDCN 0 .0 51.000 1.700 4 .886 23.872 ( 30) TDTGRDCN 1.00 8.000 0.667 1.155 1.333 | 12) TDTGRDCN 2 .00 8.000 0.727 1.421 2.018 ( 11) TDTGRDCN 3 .00 4 .000 0.267 1.033 1.067 ( 15) TOTAL CASES « 145 i i ro o TABLE 10 /18 /74 PAGE 29 F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP D E S C R I P T I DEPENDENT USE INDEX 0 N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL . . „ . , . , . , BY TDTGRTCN TOTAL GREATGRANDCHILDREN CONTACT VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION COOE VALUE LABEL SUM 100.0000 MEAN 0.6897 STD DEV 2 .4959 VARIANCE 6.2294 N 145) SUBFIL TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN SUBFIL TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN GRUU 0 .0 1.00 2.00 3 .00 29.000 29.000 0.0 0.0 0 .0 0.377 0.439 0 .0 0.0 0.0 1.225 1.314 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 1.501 1.727 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 I 77) 1 66) ( 4) ( 4) I 31 BGRO 0 .0 1.00 2 .00 3 .00 71.000 57.000 3.000 7.000 4 .000 1.044 1.056 1.500 0 .778 1.333 3.383 3.713 2.121 1.563 2 .309 11.446 13 .789 4 .500 2 .444 5 .333 I 68) ( 54) ( 2) I 9) I 3) TOTAL CASES » 145 T A B L : 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 4 P A G E 3 0 F I L E T H E S I S ( C R E A T I O N D A T E » 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 1 S U B F I L E G R O U P A B G R O U P D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S C R I T E R I O N V A R I A B L E D P N T U S E D E P E N D E N T U S E I N D E X B R O K E N DOWN BY S U B F I L B Y T O T F R D C N T O T A L F R I E N D C O N T A C T V A R I A B L E C O D E V A L U E L A B E L SUM M E A N STD D E V V A R I A N C E N FOR ENTIRE P O P U L A T I O N 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 6 8 9 7 2 . 4 9 5 9 6 . 2 2 9 4 1 1451 S U B F I L GROU 2 9 . 0 0 0 0 . 3 7 7 1 . 2 2 5 1 . 5 0 1 , 7 7 ) T O T F R D C N 0 . 0 3 . 0 0 0 0 . 2 1 4 0 . 8 0 2 0 . 6 4 3 ( 1 4 ) T O T F R D C N 1 . 0 0 4 . 0 0 0 0 . 2 3 5 0 . 9 7 0 0 . 9 4 1 ( 1 7 ) T O T F R D C N 2 . 0 0 1 4 . 0 0 0 0 . 5 3 8 1 . 6 7 9 2 . 8 1 8 ( 2 6 ) T O T F R D C N 3 . 0 0 8 . 0 0 0 0 . 4 0 0 0 . 9 9 5 0 . 9 8 9 ' 2 0 ) S U B F I L BGRO 7 1 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 4 4 3 . 3 8 3 1 1 . 4 4 6 ( 6 8 ) T O T F R D C N 0 . 0 3 7 . 0 0 0 1 . 6 8 2 4 . 9 8 9 2 4 . 8 9 4 ( 2 2 ) T D H R D C N 1 . 0 0 2 9 . 0 0 0 1 . 2 0 8 3 . 0 0 7 9 . 0 4 2 ( 2 4 ) T O T F R D C N 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 0 . 2 7 3 0 . 9 0 5 0 . 8 1 8 ( 1 1 ) T O T F R D C N 3 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 0 . 1 8 2 0 . 6 0 3 0 . 3 6 4 . ( 1 1 ) T O T A L C A S E S » 1 4 5 TAELE 10 /18 /74 PAGE 31 F ILE THESIS (CREATION OATE - 07 /09 /74 ) SUBFILE GROJPA BGROUP - - D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TOTAAC TOTAL SPECIAL ACTIVIT IES VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 100.0000 0.6897 2 .4959 6.2294 ( 145) SUBFIL GROU 29 .000 0.377 1.225 1.501 ( 77) TOTAAC 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 ( 3) TOTAAC 1.00 11.000 0.611 1.243 1.546 ( 18) TOTAAC 2 . 00 17.000 0.810 1.965 3.862 ( 21) TOTAAC 3.00 1.000 0.029 0 .169 0.029 ( 35) SUBFIL BGRO 71.000 1.044 3.383 11.446 ( 68) TOTAAC 0 .0 23.000 3.286 5.251 27.571 ( 7) TOTAAC 1.00 1.000 0.050 0 .224 . 0 .050 ( 20) TOTAAC 2 .00 35.000 1.750 5 .129 26.303 ( 20) T3TAAC 3 .00 12.000 0.571 1.248 1.557 ( 21) TOTAL CASES » 145 TABLE 10 /18 /74 PAGE 3Z F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP D E S C R I P T I OEPENDENT USE INDEX 0 N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY T3TDAC TOTAL ORGANIZED t SOCIAL ACTIV IT IES VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VAR I ANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 100.0000 0.6897 2 .4959 6.2294 ( 145) SUBFIL T3TDAC TDTUAC \T3TGAC GROU 1.00 Z.OO 3 .00 Z9 .000 7 .000 10.000 1Z.000 0.377 0.583 0.303 0 .375 1.225 1.379 0.847 1.497 1.501 1.902 0 .718 2 .242 I 77) 12) 33) 32) SUBFIL T3T0AC T3TUAC T3TUAC BGRO 1.00 Z.OO 3 .00 71.000 47 .000 11 .000 13 .000 1.044 2.043 0 .423 0.684 3.383 5.523 1.027 1.376 11 .446 30 .498 1.054 1.895 68) 23) 26) 19) TOTAL CASES - 145 TABLE 10 /18 /74 PAGE 33 F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE = 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SU6FILE GROUPA BGROUP . - _ D E S C R I P T I O N D F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TOTABCD TOTAL ACTIVIT IES VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 100.0000 MEAN 0.6897 STD DEV 2 .4959 VARIANCE 6.2294 N 145) SUBFIL TOTABCD TDTABCD TOTABCD TDTABCD T3TABC0 TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD SUBFIL TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TOTABCD GROU 4 .00 6 .00 7. 00 8.00 9 .00 10. 00 11.00 12 .00 BGRO 00 00 00 00 00 8 .00 9 .00 10 .00 11 .00 12.00 29.000 0.0 4 .000 10.000 6.000 0 .0 8.000 0.0 1.000 71.000 20.000 1.000 0 .0 3.000 24.000 3 .000 10.000 7.000 3.000 0.0 0.377 0.0 0.667 I.000 0.545 0.0 0.615 0.0 0.083 1.044 6.667 0.500 0.0 0.231 4.000 0.214 1.111 0.538 0.750 0 .0 1.225 0 .0 1.633 1.333 1.214 0 .0 2 .219 0 .0 0 .289 3.383 7.024 0 .707 0 .0 0.832 9 .317 0 .579 1.764 1.127 1.500 0.0 1.501 0 .0 2 .667 1.778 1.473 0 .0 4 .923 0 .0 0.083 11.446 49.333 0 .500 0 .0 0.692 86.800 0.335 3.111 1.269 2 .250 0 .0 TOTAL CASES = 145 TABLE 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 * PAGE 3* F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 * 1 SU8FILE GROUPA BSROUP ;RIT=RION VARIABLE BROKEN DOWN BY BY DPNTUSE SUBFIL INTERABS 3 E S C R I P T DEPENDENT USE INDEX I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S EXCESSIVE GIVING EXCHANGE VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N - FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 100.0000 0 .6897 2 , * 9 5 9 6 . 2 2 9 * ( 1*5) SUBFIL GROU 29 .000 0.377 1.225 1.501 ( 77) INTERABS - 2 . 0 0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 I 2) INTERABS - 1 . 0 0 * . 0 0 0 0 . 3 6 * 1.206 l . * 5 5 ( 11 ) IN T LRA BS 0 .0 1* .000 0 . 2 * 6 0.763 0 .581 I 57) INTERABS 1.00 11 .000 1.571 3 . 0 * 7 9 .286 ( 71 SUBFIL BGKO 71 .000 1 . 0 * * 3.383 1 1 . 4 * 6 ( 68) • INTERABS - 2 . 00 23 .000 5.750 11.500 132.250 ( *) INTERABS - 1 . 0 0 25 .000 1.563 3 .577 12 .796 ( 16) » 1 INTERABS 0 . 0 23 .000 0.575 1.318 1.738 ( 40) I INI CRABS 1.00 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 I 6) : INTuRABS 2 .00 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 ( 2) TOTAL CASES » 145 in CO ro co T A B L E 10 /18 /74 PAGE 35 F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE * 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP D E S C R DEPENDENT USE CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY INTERABA TWO-WAY EXCHANGE I P T I INDEX 0 N 0 F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 100.0000 MEAN 0.6897 STD DEV 2 .4959 VARIANCE 6.2294 H 145) SUBFIL INTERABA INTERABA INTERABA INTERABA INTERABA SUBFIL INTERABA INTERABA INTERABA INTERABA INTERABA GROU 2 .00 3 .00 4 . 0 0 5 .00 6.00 BGRO 2.00 3.00 4 . 0 0 5 .00 6 .00 29.000 4 .000 7 .000 9.000 8.000 1.000 71.000 13.000 18.000 30.000 7 .000 3 .000 0.377 0.174 1.167 0.529 0.667 0.053 1.044 0.929 2.000 1.364 0.538 0.300 1.225 0 .576 1.835 1.179 2 .309 0 .229 3.383 1.730 4 .610 4.924 1.330 0 .949 1.501 0.332 3.367 1.390 5.333 0 .053 11.446 2.995 21 .250 24.242 1.769 0 .900 77) 23) 6) 17) 121 19) 68) 14) 91 22 ) 13) 10) TOTAL CASES « 145 LEAF 215 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. T A B L E 10/18/74 PAGE 36 F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE * 07 /09/74) SUBFILE GROJPA BGROUP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX 3RUKEN DOWN BY SJBFIL BY 0UEA32 GIVING EXCHANGE VARIABLE FOR ; N ! I R E POPULATION SUBFIL QJEA32 0JEA32 0JEA32 SUBFIL 0JEA32 0JEA32 QJEA32 CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N 100.0000 0.6897 2 .4959 6.2294 I 145) GROU 29.000 0.377 1.225 1.501 , 77) 1.00 8.000 0.286 0 .897 0.804 ( 28) 2 . 00 12.000 0.462 1.104 1.218 ( 26) 3 .00 9 .000 0.391 1.672 2.794 « 23) BGRO 71.000 1.044 3.383 11.446 68) 1. 00 54 .000 2 .250 5 .375 28.891 { 24) 2 .00 14.000 0.483 1.184 1.401 { 29) 3.00 3.000 0.200 0 .775 0 .600 ( IS) TOTAL CASES » 145 T A B L E 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 * PAGE 37 F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE » 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 * 1 SUBFILE GROJPA BGROUP - _ D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX 3R0KEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY QUEB32 RECEIVING EXCHANGE VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 100.0000 0.6897 2 .4959 6 . 2 2 9 * I 145 1 SUBFIL GROU 29.000 0.377 1.225 1.501 , 771 0UEb3Z 1.00 7.000 0.269 0.778 0.605 ( 26) 0 JE632 2 .00 21.000 0.955 2 .035 * . 1 *1 ( 22) CJER32 • 3 .00 1.000 0 . 0 3 * 0 .186 0 . 0 3 * • 291 SUBFIL BGKO 71.000 1 .0 * * 3.383 l l . * * 6 68) GJEB32 1.00 13.000 0 .68* 1.529 2 .339 ( 19) QJEB32 2 .00 25.000 1.000 2.901 8.417 1 25) 0UEB32 3 .00 33.000 1.375 4 . 7 * * 22 .505 ( 24) TOTAL CASES * 145 TABLE F I L E THESIS ICREATIUN DATE * 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA bSROUP D E S C R DEPENDENT USE CRITERION VARIABLE OPNTUSE 8RUKEN OOWN BY SUBFIL BY RELBRN RELISIONBIRTH I P T INDEX 10 /18 /74 I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S PAGE 38 VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION SUBFIL RELBRN RELbRN RELfcRN RELBRN SUBFIL RELBRN RELBRN RELBRN RELBRN TOTAL CASES » 145 CODE VALUE LABEL GRUU 1.00 BRITISH-PROTESTANT 2 .00 NOT BRIT-PRDTESTANT 3.00 ORHISH-NO PROT. 4 . 0 0 NO BRIT-NO PROTESTAN BGRO 1.00 BR ITISH-PROTESTANT 2 .00 NOT BR IT-PROTESTANT 3 .00 BRITISH-NO PROT. 4 . 0 0 NO BRIT-NO PROTESTAN SUM 100.0000 29.000 19.000 000 000 000 71.000 10.000 57.000 0 .0 4 .000 MEAN 0.6897 0.377 0.487 0.130 0.200 0.600 1.044 0.333 1.727 0.0 1.000 STD DEV 2 .4959 1.225 1.502 0 .626 0 .447 1.350 3.383 1.028 4 .686 0 .0 0 .816 VARIANCE 6 .2294 1.501 2 .256 0.391 0 .200 1.822 11.446 1.057 21 .955 0 .0 0.667 N 145) 77) 391 23) 5) 10) 68) 301 33) 1) 4) ro 00 T A B L E 10 /18 /74 PAGE 39 F ILE THESIS (CREATION OATE = 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE OPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SJBFIL BY NEWWHYMV REASON FOR MOVING TO B . C . VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 100.0000 MEAN 0.6897 STD DEV 2 .4959 VARIANCE 6.2294 N 14S) SUBFIL NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV SUBFIL NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV GROU 1.00 2 .00 3 .00 BGRO 1.00 2 .00 3 .00 FAM-OCCU-NATIVE HEALTH ESTHETIC-OTHER FAM-OCCU-NATIVE HEALTH ESTHETIC-OTHER 29.000 18.000 0 .0 11.000 71.000 64.000 0 .0 7 .000 377 375 0 440 1.044 1.422 0 .0 0 .389 1.225 1.331 0 .0 1.121 3.383 4 .070 0 .0 1.037 1.501 1.771 0 .0 1.257 11.446 16.568 0 .0 1.075 TOTAL CASES • 145 TABLE 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 * PAGE *0 F ILE THESIS ICREATION DATE « 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 * ) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP CRITERION VARIABLE 0UE50 BROKEN DOWN BY SJBFIL BY NTOTFAMS D E S C R I P T I O N HOSPITAL USE INDEX FAMILY STRUCTURE 0 F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STO DEV VARIANCE H FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 218.0000 1 .503* 0 .9363 0.8767 1*5) SUBFIL GROU 102.000 1.325 0.733 0 .538 , 77) NTOTFAMS 1.00 * 9 . 0 0 0 1.32* 0 .709 0.503 ( 371 NTOTFAMS 2 .00 39.000 1.3*5 0 . 8 1 * 0 .663 ( 29) NTOTFAMS 3 .00 1* .000 1.273 0 . 6 * 7 0 . * 1 8 « 11) SUBFIL BGRO 116.000 1.706 1 .09 * 1.196 ( 68) NTOTFAMS 1.00 7* .000 2.000 1.225 1.500 ( 37) NTOTFAMS 2 .00 26 .000 1.238 0 .700 0 . * 9 0 ( 21) NTOTFAMS 3 .00 16.000 1.600 0 .966 0 .933 I 101 TOTAL CASES • 1*5 r-H ro ro o TABLE 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 * PACE 41 F ILE TMESIS (CREATION DATE » 07 /09 /74 ) SUBFILE GROUPA BGRQUP . . . . . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE 0UE5O HOSPITAL USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SJBFIL BY TOTSOCSC TOTAL SOCIAL SCALE VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD OEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 186.0000 1.4762 0.9184 0.8434 I 126) SUBFIL TOTSOCSC T3TS0CSC TOTSOCSC T O T S O C S C TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC SUBFIL TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC T o r s u c s c TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC TOTSOCSC TOTAL CASES MISSING CASES GRUU 4 .00 5.00 6 .00 7.00 8 .00 9 .00 10.00 11 .00 12.00 BGRO 3 .00 4 .00 5 .00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9 .00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13 .00 88 .000 10.000 11.000 16.000 11.000 13.000 10.000 8.000 8.000 1.000 98.000 4 .000 12.000 18.000 19.000 7.000 16.000 6.000 4 .000 6.000 3.000 3 .000 1.333 1.250 1.375 1.455 1.375 1.083 1.429 1.333 1.600 1.000 1.633 4.000 1.714 1.500 1.462 1.167 1.600 1.500 4 .000 2.000 3.000 1.500 0.751 0 .463 0. 744 0 .820 0.744 0 .289 1.134 0 .816 1.342 0 .0 1.057 0 .0 1.254 1.168 0 .776 0.408 0 .966 1.000 0 .0 1.732 0 .0 0 .707 0 .564 0.214 0.554 0.673 0.554 0.083 1.286 0.667 1.800 0.0 1.118 0 .0 1.571 1.364 0.603 0 .167 0.933 1.000 0 .0 3.000 0 .0 0 .500 145 19 OR 13.1 PCT. T A B L E 10 /18 /74 PAGE 42 F ILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROJPA B5R0UP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE QUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY MARITEXP MARITAL EXPERIENCE VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 218.0000 MEAN 1.5034 STD OEV 0.9363 VARIANCE 0.8767 N 1451 SUBFIL M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P MAR I T E X P M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P MAR I T E X P MAR I T E X P M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P MAR I T E X P M A R I T E X P MAR I T E X P M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P MAR I T E X P M A R I T E X P SUBFIL MAR I T E X P MAR I T E X P M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P MAR I T E X P M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P M A R I T E X P GROU 0 .0 3 .00 4 . 0 0 5 .00 6 .00 7. 00 8 .00 9 .00 10. 00 1 1.00 12.00 12 .50 13 .00 15. 00 15. 50 17.00 BGRO 0 . 0 3.00 4 .00 5 . 00 6 .00 7 .00 8 .00 9 .00 10.00 11 .00 15.00 16 .00 102.000 12.000 11.000 8.000 12.000 4 .000 11.000 2 .000 6.000 I .000 18.000 3.000 4 .000 5.000 1.000 1.000 3.000 116.000 21.000 16.000 6.000 20.000 19.000 9.000 7 .000 8.000 3 .000 2 .000 1.000 4 .000 1.325 1.091 1.100 1.600 1.500 1 .333 1.100 1.000 1.200 1.000 1.636 1.000 2.000 1.667 1.000 1.000 3.000 1.706 2.100 1.778 2.000 1.818 1.462 1.800 1.400 1.600 1.000 2.000 1.000 2.000 0 .733 0.302 0 .316 0.894 0 .926 0 .577 0 .316 0 .0 0 .447 0 .0 1.206 0.0 1.414 1.155 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1.094 1.287 1.302 1.000 1.168 1.127 1.304 0.894 0.894 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1.414 0 .538 0.091 0 .100 0 .800 0 .857 0 .333 0 .100 0 .0 0 .200 0 .0 1.455 0 .0 2 .000 1.333 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 196 656 1 .694 .000 .364 .269 .700 .800 0 .800 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 2 .000 TOTAL CASES • 145 T A B L E 10/18/74 PAGE 43 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP CRITERION VARIABLE QUE50 BROKEN DOWN BY SJBFIL BY TOTCONTR D E S C R I P T HOSPITAL USE INDEX I O N OF S U B P O P U L A T I O N S TOTAL CONTACT SUM MEAN STD DEV VAR 1ANCE !18.0000 1.5034 0.9363 0.8767 102.000 1.325 0.733 0.538 6.000 2.000 1.732 3.000 3.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 22.000 1.294 0.772 0.596 5.000 1.250 0.500 0.250 19.000 1.462 0.776 0.603 14.000 1.400 0.843 0.711 5.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 14.000 1.556 0.882 0.778 8.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 1.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 1.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 2.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 2.000 2.000 0.0 0.0 116.000 1.706 1.094 1.196 7.000 3.500 0.707 0.500 13.000 3.250 1.500 2.250 .6.000 1.500 1.000 1.000 24.000 2.000 1.348 1.818 14.000 2.000 1.000 1.000 15.000 1.250 0.622 0.386 10.000 2.000 1.414 2.000 11.000 1.375 0.744 0.554 5.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 4.000 1.333 0.577 0.333 5.000 1.250 0.500 0.250 1.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 1.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION SUBFIL TOTCONTR TDTCONTR TDTCONTR TDTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR SUBFIL TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR TOTCONTR C O D E GROU 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 14.00 BGKO 0.0 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 11.00 12.00 14.00 VALUE LABEL N 145) TOTAL CASES • 145 TABLE 10/18/7* PAGE ** FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 07/09/7*) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE 0UE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TOTSIBCN TOTAL SIBLING CONTACT VARIABLE FOR ENURE POPULATION SUBFIL TOTSIBCN TDTSIBCN TDTSIBCN TDTSIBCN SUBFIL TDTSIBCN TDTSIBCN TDTSIBCN TOTSIBCN CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N 218.0000 1.503* 0.9363 0.8767 I 1*5) GROU 102.000 1.325 0.733 0.538 , 77) 0.0 22.000 1.100 0.308 0.095 I 20) 1.00 *6.000 1.6*3 1.026 1.053 1 28) 2.00 1*.000 1.077 0.277 0.077 I 13) 3.00 20.000 1.250 0.577 0.333 • 16) BGRO 116.000 1.706 1.09* 1.196 ( 68) 0.0 **.000 2.000 1.23* 1.52* ( 22) I.00 30.000 l.*29 0.926 0.857 ( . 21) 2.00 21.000 1.615 0.961 0.923 I 131 3.00 21.000 1.750 1.215 l.*77 I 12) TOTAL CASES • 1*5 T A B L E 10/18/74 PAGE 45 FILE THESIS (CREATION OATE » 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROJPA BGROUP . - - _ D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE QUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX 3R0KEN DOWN BY SJBFIL BY TOTCHDCN TOTAL CHILDREN CONTACT VARIABLE COOE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 218.0000 1.5034 0.9363 0.8767 145) SUBFIL GROU 102.000 1.325 0.733 0.538 , 77) TOTCHDCN 0.0 33.000 1.269 0.667 0.445 ( 26) TOTCHDCN 1.00 27.000 1.421 0.902 0.813 ( 19) TOTCHDCN 2.00 21.000 1.313 0.704 0.496 | 161 TOTCHDCN 3.00 21.000 • 1.313 0.704 0.496 16) SUBFIL BGRO 116.000 1.706 1.094 1.196 , 68) TOTCHDCN 0.0 54.000 2.348 1.335 1.783 ( 23) TOTCHDCN 1.00 24.000 1.412 0.870 0.757 { 17) TOTCHDCN 2.00 16.000 1.333 0.778 0.606 ( 12) TOTCHDCN 3.00 22.000 1.375 0.719 0.517 ( 16) TOTAL CASES • 145 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 46 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE * 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROJPA BGROUP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE QUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY T3TGRDCN TOTAL GRANDCHILDREN CONTACT VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 218.0000 1.5034 0.9363 0.8767 1 145) SUBFIL GROU 102.000 1.325 0.733 0.538 1 77) TDTGRDCN 0.0 49.000 1.441 0.894 0.799 I 34) TDTGRDCN 1.00 14.000 1.273 0.647 0.418 I 11) TDTGRDCN 2.00 23.000 1.211 0.535 0.287 ( 19) TDTGRDCN 3.00 16.000 1.231 0.599 0.359 ( 13) SUBFIL BGRO 116.000 1.706 1.094 1.196 ( 68) TDTGRDCN 0.0 68.000 2.267 1.311 1.720 ( 30) TDTGRDCN 1.00 14.000 1.167 0.389 0.152 < 12) TDTGRDCN 2.00 IS.000 1.364 0.809 0.655 ( U l TDTGRDCN 3.00 19.000 1.267 0.594 0.352 1 15) TOTAL CASES • 145 ro ro CT) r ABLE 10 /18 /74 PAGE 47 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE * 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) SUBFILE GROUPA B3R0UP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE GUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BV SUBFIL BY TDTGRTCN TOTAL GREATGRANDCHILDREN CONTACT VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION COOE VALUE LABEL SUM 218.0000 MEAN 1.5034 STD DEV 0.9363 VARIANCE 0 .876T N 145) SUBFIL TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN SUBFIL TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN TDTGRTCN GROU 0 .0 1.00 2 .00 3 .00 BGRO 0 .0 1.00 2 .00 3 .00 102.000 88.000 4 .000 • 4 .000 6 .000 116.000 97 .000 4 .000 12.000 3 .000 1.325 1.333 1.000 1.000 2.000 1.706 1.796 2.000 1.333 1.000 0 .733 0.751 0 .0 0 .0 1.000 1.094 1.172 1.414 0 .500 0 .0 0 .538 0 .564 0 .0 0 .0 1.000 1.196 1.373 2 .000 0 .250 0.0 TOTAL CASES = 145 T A B L E 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 4 P A G E 48 F I L E T H E S I S ( C R E A T I O N D A T E » 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) S U B F I L E G R O U P A BGROUP - _ . _ . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S C R I T E R I O N V A R I A B L E U U E 5 0 H O S P I T A L U S E I N D E X B R O K E N OOWN BY S U B F I L BY T O T F R D C N T O T A L F R I E N D C O N T A C T V A R I A B L E C O D E V A L U E L A B E L SUN MEAN S T D D E V V A R I A N C E N FOR E N T I R E P O P U L A T I O N 2 1 8 . 0 0 0 0 1 . 5 0 3 4 0 . 9 3 6 3 0 . 8 7 6 7 1 1 4 5 ) S U B F I L GROU 1 0 2 . 0 0 0 1 . 3 2 5 0 . 7 3 3 0 . 5 3 8 1 7 7 ) T O T F R D C N 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 0 0 1 . 4 2 9 0 . 9 3 8 0 . 8 7 9 ( 1 4 ) T O T F R D C N 1 . 0 0 2 4 . 0 0 0 1 . 4 1 2 0 . 9 3 9 0 . 8 8 2 ( 171 T O T F R D C N 2 . 0 0 3 3 . 0 0 0 1 . 2 6 9 0 . 6 0 4 0 . 3 6 5 ( 2 6 ) T 3 T F R 0 C N 3 . 0 0 2 5 . 0 0 0 1 . 2 5 0 0 . 5 5 0 0 . 3 0 3 ( 201 S U B F I L BGRO 1 1 6 . 0 0 0 1 . 7 0 6 1 . 0 9 4 1 . 1 9 6 ( 6 8 ) T O T F R D C N 0 . 0 4 2 . 0 0 0 1 . 9 0 9 1 . 2 6 9 1 . 6 1 0 ( 221 T O T F R D C N 1 . 0 0 4 1 . 0 0 0 1 . 7 0 8 0 . 9 9 9 0 . 9 9 8 ( 2 4 ) T O T F R D C N 2 . 0 0 1 3 . 0 0 0 1 . 1 8 2 0 . 6 0 3 0 . 3 6 4 ( 1 1 ) T O T F R D C N 3 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 0 1 . 8 1 8 1 . 2 5 0 1 . 5 6 4 ( 111 T O T A L C A S E S = 145 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 49 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 07/09/74) SUBTILE GROUPA BGROUP CRITERION VARIABLE BROKEN DOWN BY BY O E S C R I P T I HOSPITAL USE INDEX 0 N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S QUE50 SUBFIL T3TAAC TOTAL SPECIAL ACTIVITIES VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 218.0000 MEAN 1.5034 STD DEV 0.9363 VARIANCE 0.8767 N 145) SUBFIL T3TAAC T3TAAC T3TAAC T3TAAC SUBFIL T3TAAC T3TAAC T3TAAC T3TAAC GROU 0.0 1.00 2. 00 3.00 BGRO 0.0 1.00 2.00 3.00 102.000 3.000 28.000 28.000 43.000 116.000 15.000 32.000 41.000 28.000 1.325 1.000 1.556 1.333 1.229 1.706 2.143 1.600 2.050 1.333 0.733 0.0 0.984 0.796 0.547 1.094 1.464 1.046 1.276 0.658 0.538 0.0 0.967 0.633 0.299 1.196 2.143 1.095 1.629 0.433 771 3) 18) 211 35) 68) 7) 20) 20) 21) TOTAL CASES • 145 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 50 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP D E S C R I P T I O N OF S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE OUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BROKEN' DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TOTDAC TOTAL ORGANIZED £ SOCIAL ACTIVITIES VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 218.0000 MEAN 1.5034 STD DEV 0.9363 VARIANCE 0.8767 N 145) SUBFIL TOTDAC TOTDAC TOTDAC SUBFIL TOTDAC TOTDAC TOTDAC GROU 1.00 2.00 3.00 BGRO 1.00 2.00 3.00 102.000 17.000 47.000 38.000 116.000 45.000 48.000 23.000 1.325 1.417 1.424 1.188 1.706 1.957 1.846 1.211 0.733 0.996 0.792 0.535 1.094 1.224 1.120 0.713 0.538 0.992 0.627 0.286 1.196 1.498 1.255 0.509 TOTAL CASES » 145 TABLE 10/18/74 PACE 51 FILE THESIS (CAE A TIUN DATE = 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE QUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX 3RGKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY TOTABCD TOTAL ACTIVITIES VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 218.0000 MEAN 1 .5034 STD OEV 0.9363 VARIANCE 0.8767 N 145) SUBFIL TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCO TDTABCD TOTABCD SUBFIL TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCO TDTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCD TOTABCD TDTABCD TDTABCO GROU 4.U0 6.00 7.00 8 . 00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 BGRO 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 102.000 1.000 11.000 13.000 14.000 19.000 18.000 14.000 12.000 116.000 8.000 2.000 9.000 21.000 14.000 26.000 11.000 17.000 7.000 1.000 1.325 1.000 1.833 1.300 1.273 1.357 1.385 1.400 1.000 1.706 2.667 1.000 3.000 1.615 2.333 1.857 1.222 1.308 1.750 1.000 0.733 0.0 1.329 0.675 0.647 0.842 0.768 0.699 0.0 1.094 1.528 0.0 1.732 1.044 1.211 1.167 0.667 0.855 0.957 0.0 0.538 0.0 1 .767 0.456 0.418 0.709 0.590 0.489 0.0 1.196 2.333 0.0 3.000 1.090 1.467 1.363 0.444 0.731 0.917 0.0 TOTAL CASES « 145 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 52 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE - 07/09/741 SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP _ D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE 8UE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY INTERABS EXCESSIVE GIVING EXCHANGE VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 218.0000 MEAN 1.5034 STO DEV 0.9363 VARIANCE 0.8767 N 1451 SUBFIL INTERABS INTERABS INTERABS INTERABS SUBFIL INTERABS INTLRABS INTERABS INTERABS INTERABS GROU -2.00 -1.00 0.0 1.00 BGRO -2.00 -1.00 0.0 1.00 2.00 102.000 2.000 16.000 75.000 9.000 116.000 9.000 26.000 68.000 8.000 5.000 1.325 1.000 1.455 1.316 1.286 1.706 2.250 1.625 1.700 1.333 2.500 0.733 0.0 0.934 0.711 0.756 1.094 1.500 0.957 1.114 0.816 2.121 0.538 0.0 0.873 0.506 0.571 1.196 2.250 0.917 1.241 0.667 4.500 771 21 11) 571 71 68) 41 16) 40) 61 2) TOTAL CASES « 145 CO ro co ro TABLE 10/18/7* PAGE 53 FILE THESIS (CREATION OATE « 07/09/7*1 SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP . D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE GUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BRUKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY INTERABA TWO-WAY EXCHANGE VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUM MEAN STO DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 218.0000 1 .5034 0.9363 0.8767 ( 145) SUBFIL GRUU 102.000 1.325 0.733 0.538 , 77) INTERABA 2.00 33.000 1.435 0.843 0.711 ( 23) INTERABA 3.00 9.000 1.500 1.225 1.500 ( 6) INTERABA *.00 21.000 1.235 0.562 0.316 ( 171 INTERABA 5.00 16.000 1.333 0.651 0.424 ( 121 INTERABA 6.00 23.000 1.211 0.631 0.398 1 19) SUBFIL BGRO 116.000 1.706 1.094 1. 196 ( 68) INTERABA 2.00 33.000 2.357 1.336 1 .786 ( 14) INTLRABA 3.00 15.000 1.667 1.118 1.250 ( 9) INTERABA 4.00 35.000 1.591 1.054 1.110 ( 22) INTERABA 5.00 19.000 1.462 0.776 0.603 ( 13) INTERABA 6.00 14.000 1.400 0.966 0.933 ( 10) TOTAL CASES • 145 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 54 PILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 07/09/741 SUBFILE GROUPA BGROUP . D E S C R I P T I O N OF S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE OUESO HOSPITAL USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY QUEA32 GIVING EXCHANGE VARIABLE CODE VALUE LABEL SUN MEAN STD DEV VARIANCE N FOR ENTIRE POPULATION 218.0000 1.5034 0.9363 0.8767 ( 145) SUBFIL GROU 102.000 1.325 0.733 0.538 , 77) 0JEA32 1.00 41.000 1.464 0.922 0.851 ( 28) OJEA32 2.00 32.000 1.231 0.514 0.265 ( 26) 0JEA32 3.00 29.000 1.261 0.689 0.474 ' 23) SUBFIL 8GK0 116.000 1.706 1.094 1.196 ( 68) 0JEA32 1.00 52.000 2.167 1.308 1.710 1 24) OJEA32 2.00 42.000 1.448 0.783 0.613 ( 29) QJEA32 3.00 22.000 1.467 1.060 1.124 ( 15) TOTAL CASES ' 145 TABLE 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 4 P A G E 5 5 F I L E T H E S I S ( C R E A T I O N D A T E • 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 4 ) S U B F I L E G R O J P A BGROUP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S C R I T E R I O N V A R I A B L E 0 U E 5 0 H O S P I T A L USE I N D E X B R O K E N DOWN BY S U B F I L BY U U E B 3 2 R E C E I V I N G EXCHANGE V A R I A B L E CODE V A L U E L A B E L SUM MEAN S T D D E V V A R I A N C E H FOR E N T I R E P O P U L A T I O N 2 1 8 . 0 0 0 0 1 . 5 0 3 4 0 . 9 3 6 3 0 . 8 7 6 7 ( 1 4 5 1 S U B F I L Q J E B 3 2 O J E B 3 2 0 J E B 3 2 GROU 1.00 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 1 0 2 . 0 0 0 3 6 . 0 0 0 3 1 . 0 0 0 3 5 . 0 0 0 1.325 1.385 1 . 4 0 9 • 1 .207 0 . 7 3 3 0 . 8 0 4 0 . 8 5 4 0 . 5 5 9 0 . 5 3 8 0 . 6 4 6 0 . 7 2 9 0 . 3 1 3 { 7 7 ) 2 6 ) 2 2 ) 2 9 ) S U B F I L U J E B 3 2 Q J E B 3 2 0 J E B 3 2 BGRO 1.00 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 1 1 6 . 0 0 0 4 3 . 0 0 0 3 4 . 0 0 0 3 9 . 0 0 0 1 . 7 0 6 2 . 2 6 3 1 . 3 6 0 1.625 1 . 0 9 4 1 . 3 2 7 0 . 8 1 0 1 . 0 1 3 1 . 1 9 6 1 . 7 6 0 0 . 6 5 7 1 . 0 2 7 .1 6 8 ) 1 9 ) 2 5 ) 2 4 ) T O T A L C A S E S 1 4 5 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 56 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE - 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA BSROUP D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE QUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY RELBRN RELIGIONBIRTH VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 218.0000 MEAN 1.5034 STD OEV 0.9363 VARIANCE 0.8767 N 145) SUBFIL RELBRN RELbRN RELBRN RELERN SUBFIL RELBRN RELBRN RELBRN RELBRN GROU 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 BGRO 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 BRITISH-PROTESTANT NOT BR IT-PRO TESTANT BRITISH-NO PROT. NO BRIT-NO PROTESTAN BRITISH-PROTESTANT NOT BRIT-PROTESTANT BRITISH-NO PROT. NO BRIT-NO PROTESTAN 102.000 51.000 29.000 6.000 16.000 116.000 48.000 55.000 4.000 9.000 1.325 1.308 1.261 1.200 1.600 1.706 1.600 1.667 4.000 2.250 0.733 0.694 0.689 0.447 1.075 1.094 1.037 1.051 0.0 1.500 0.538 0.482 0.474 0.200 1.156 1.196 1.076 1.104 0.0 2.250 TOTAL CASES » 145 TABLE 10/18/74 PACE 57 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 07/09/741 SUBFILE GROUPA B3R0UP - - _ D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B P O P U L A T I O N S CRITERION VARIABLE UUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BROKEN DOWN BY SUBFIL BY NEWWHY1V REASON FOR MOVING TO B.C. VARIABLE FOR ENTIRE POPULATION CODE VALUE LABEL SUM 218.0000 MEAN 1 .5034 STD DEV 0.9363 VARIANCE 0.8767 N 145) SUBFIL NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV SUBFIL NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV NEWWHYMV GROU 1.00 2.00 3.00 BGKO 1.00 2.00 3.00 FAM-OCCU-NATIVE HEALTH ESTHETIC-OTHER FAM-OCCU-NATIVE HEALTH ESTHETIC-OTHER 102.000 64.000 4.000 34.000 116.000 77.000 6.000 33.000 1.325 1.333 1.000 1.360 1.706 1.711 1.200 1.833 0.733 0.663 0.0 0.907 1.094 1.141 0.447 1.098 0.538 0.440 0.0 0.823 1.196 1.301 0.200 1.206 77) 48) 41 25) 68) 45) 5) 18) TOTAL CASES * 145 A P P E N D I X IX CROSS T A B U L A T I O N S OF ' S I G N I F I C A N T ' V A R I A B L E S FOR GROUP A AND GROUP B 238 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE * F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE - 07/09/7*1 SUBFILE GROUPA • • • * « • * • • * • • • * * • • * C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BY TOTDAC • • * » VSTMDYR » » • • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * COUNT TOTDAC 1.001 2.001 3.001 ROW TDTAL 1.00 7 I 1* I 8 I 29 37.7 2.00 3 I A I * I 11 14.3 3.00 2 I 15 I 20 I 37 48.1 O F * * * * • • * • * * * * • * • • • TOTAL 0RGANI2ED G SOCIAL ACTIVITIES * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PAGE 1 OF COLUMN TOTAL 12 15.6 33 42.9 32 41.6 77 100.0 CHI SQUARE • 7.96275 WITH 4 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE « 0.0930 CRAMER'S V - 0.22739 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT « 0.30614 KENDALL'S TAU B « 0.26631 SIGNIFICANCE - 0.0003 KENDALL'S TAU C - 0.24490 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0007 GAMMA - 0.41724 SOMER'S D « 0.26362 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 5 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/741 SUBFILE GROUPA » • « » » • VSTMDYR * « « « « » * * * * * * * * * * . PHYSIC IAN USE INDEX C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N O F * * » « « * « » • « « * * « « » * » BY INTERABS EXCESSIVE GIVING EXCHANGE VSTMDYR » » » * » * * * * * * * « * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PAGE 1 OF 1 COUNT INTERABS -2.001 -1.001 0.0 1 1.001 ROW TOTAL -1.00 0 I 2 I 24 I 3 29 37.7 2.00 0 I 0 I 10 I 1 1 11 14.3 3.00 2 I 9 I 23 I 3 1 37 48. 1 COLUMN TOTAL 2 2.6 11 14.3 57 74.0 7 9.1 77 100.0 CHI SQUARE - 8.96727 WITH 6 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE » 0.1754 CRAMER'S V » 0.24131 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT « 0.32297 KENDALL'S TAU B • -0.22912 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0014 KENDALL'S TAU C » -0.17406 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0115 GAMMA * -0.46237 SOMER'S 0 - -0.27454 T O O TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 6 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE - 07/39/741 SUBFILE GROUPA • • « * • « « « « • • * * * » » * » VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INOEX • » * » C R O S S T A B U L A T 1 ON BY QUE35 OF # » * • » * » « « * » » * * * » « • LIFE STRESS VSTMOYK » * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * • * • * * • • * • • * • • PAGE 1 OF I COUNT QUE 35 0.0 I 1.00 2.001 3.001 4.001 ROW TOTAL r 1.00 2 I 15 9 I 1 I 2 I 29 37.7 ,-2.00 2 I 4 2 I 2 I 1 I 11 14.3 3.00 3 1 6 12 I 7 I 9 I 37 48.1 COLUMN TOTAL 7 9.1 25 32.5 23 29.9 10 13.0 12 15.6 77 100.0 CHI SQUARE * 14.94231 WITH 8 OEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0603 CRAMER'S V « 0.31149 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT « 0.40314 KENDALL'S TAU B » 0.28737 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0001 KENDALL'S TAU C * 0.29195 SIGNIFICANCE * 0.0001 GAMMA * 0.41009 SOMER'S 0 » 0.25747 cr. ro FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA , * * • • , * , * * * * • * * « * * C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF . * * • * • » * . . • • * • • • * « VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BY MARITEXP HARITAt. EXPERTENCE » « » * » » « * * * * • » * * * » * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * P A G E 1 0 F Z D VSTMDYR MARITEXP COUNT COLUMN TOTAL (CONTINUED) 11 14.3 10 13.0 5 6 . 5 8 10.4 3 3.9 10 13.0 2 2.6 5 6.5 1 1.3 ROM TOTAL } 0.0 I 3.001 4.001 5.001 6.001 7.001 8.001 9.001 10.001 11.001 1.00 I 6 I 5 I 2 1 3 I 1 I 6 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 3 I 29 37.7 2.00 I 2 1 1 1 0 I 1 I 0 I 2 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 2 I 11 14.3 3.00 I 3 I 4 I 3 1 4 I 2 I 2 I 1 I 4 I 0 I 6 I 37 48.1 14.3 100.0 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 5 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 07/09/741 SUBFILE GROUPA » « « » * « » * « • * * * « * * * * VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX » « • » • • • • » » * • * * * * * • MARITEXP C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * * * » * » * * • » * » * * • * * * BY MARITEXP MARITAL EXPERIENCE * « » » * » * • » * * * * * • * • * » • * * * » * * * * * * * PAGE 2 OF 2 VSTMDYR COUNT I ROW TOTAL ' I 12.001 12.501 13.001 15.001 15.501 17.001 1.00 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 29 37.7 2.00 I 0 I 0 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 0 I 11 14.3 3.00 I 3 I 2 I 2 I 0 I 0 I 1 I 37 48.1 COLUMN TOTAL 3 3.9 2 2.6 3 3.9 1 1.3 CHI SQUARE = 32.68764 WITH 30 DEGREES OF FREEDOM CRAMER'S V » 0.46071 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT = 0.54590 KENDALL'S TAU B » 0.21366 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0026 KENDALL'S TAU C - 0.23680 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0010 GAMMA « 0.28606 SOMER'S 0 » 0.17548 1 1.3 SIGNIFICANCE 1 1.3 77 100.0 0.3363 ro ro TABLE 10/18/7* PAGE 9 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/7*1 SUBFILE GROUPA • * • * * • • • • • • • * * * * * • VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * BY GENHEALT GENERAL HEALTH • • • • * • * • • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * • * * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PAGE 1 COUNT 1 GENHEALT -7.001 -*.O0I -2.001 -1.001 0.0 I 1.001 2.001 5.001 ROW TOTAL 8.001 1.00 0 I 0 I 1 I 0 I 0 I 1 I 0 I 5 I 22 I 29 I 37.7 Z.OO 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 1 11 I 11 I 1*.3 3.00 * I Z I 2 I 1 I 1 I 0 I * • I 7 ] 16 I 37 I *B.l COLUMN TOTAL * 5.Z z 2.6 3 3.9 1 1.3 1 1. 3 1 1.3 * 5.2 12 15.6 *9 63.6 77 100.0 CHI SQUARE • 22.70219 WITH 16 DEGREES OF FREEDOM CRAMER'S V » 0.38395 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT » 0.*7718 KENDALL'S TAU B = -0.3267* SIGNIFICANCE > 0.0000 KENOALL'S TAU C » -0.28639 SIGNIFICANCE - 0.0001 GAMMA « -0.57056 SOMER'S 0 » -0.33933 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.1219 10/18/74 PAGE 10 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX * • • • • * * • * • • * * * * * * * * * R 0 S S T * * * * * A B U L * * * * A T I O N OF * * * * * BY MORBIDIT MORBIDITY * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PAGE * * * I OF * 1 MORBIDIT COUNT I I 0.0 I 1.001 2.001 3.001 4.001 5.001 6.001 7.001 8.001 9.00 ROW TOTAL 1.00 I 12 I 8 1 6 I 2 I 1 I 0 1 0 1 0 I 0 I 0 29 37.7 2.00 I 2 1 2 1 3 I 0 I 1 I 0 1 2 1 0 I 1 I 0 11 14.3 3.00 I 6 1 2 1 8 I 3 I 2 I 1 1 9 1 1 I 3 I 2 37 48.1 COLUMN 20 12 TOTAL 26.0 15.6 17 22.1 5 6.5 4 5.2 1 11 1.3 14.3 1 1.3 4 5.2 2 2.6 77 100.0 CHI SQUARE « 24.60580 WITH 18 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.1362 CRAMER'S V = 0.39972 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT - 0.49211 KENDALL'S TAJ 8 « 0.40676 SIGNIFICANCE « 0.0000 KENDALL'S TAU C • 0.43262 SIGNIFICANCE « 0.0000 GAMMA = 0.55773 SOMER'S 0 - 0.34813 TABLE 10/18/7* PAGE 12 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/7*) SUBFILE GROUPA • • • • • • • • • • * • • * • * • • C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF • * « » * * * • • * • » • » » * * • OPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BY MARITEXP MARITAL EXPERIENCE » « « » « « « « » « * . * » * « » » * * * * « « * * « • * « « * * * * * * * * * * * * * • » * * * PAGE 1 OF 2 OPNTUSE MARITEXP COUNT COLUMN TOTAL (CONTINUED) 11 1*.3 10 13.0 5 6.5 8 10.* 3 3.9 10 13.0 2 2.6 5 6.5 1 1.3 ROW TOTAL I 0.0 I 3.001 ' *.0OI 5.001 6.001 7.001 8.001 9.001 10.001 11.00 0.0 I 11 I 9 I 3 I 8 I 2 I 10 I 2 I * I 1 I 10 1.00 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I • 0 2.00 I 0 I 0 I 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 3.00 I 0 I 1 1 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 1 I 0 I 0 *.00 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 1 8.00 I o I 0 1 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 11 1*.3 77 100.0 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 13 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA * • • « * • * • * • * * * * * * * * C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF • * * « * * * * • • * « * • * * * * DPMTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BY MARITEXP MARITAL EXPERIENCE * * * * * * * PAGE 2 OF 2 DPNTJSE * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * COUNT MARITEXP 12.001 12.501 13.001 15.001 15.501 17.001 ROM TOTAL 0.0 2 I 1 I 3 I 1 I 1 I 0 68 88.3 1.00' 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 i 1 1.3 2.00 0 I 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 2 2.6 3.00 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 4 5.2 4.00 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 1 1 1.3 8.00 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 1 ] 1 1.3 COLUMN TOTAL 3 3.9 2 2.6 3 3.9 1 1.3 1 1.3 1 1.3 77 100.0 CHI SQUARE • 146.26862 WITH 75 DEGREES OF FREEDOM CRAMER'S V « 0.61638 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT * 0.80940 KENDALL'S TAU B • 0.12543 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0508 KENDALL'S TAU C * 0.06639 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.1931 GAMMA » 0.27063 SOMER'S D » 0.05149 SIGNIFICANCE 0.0000 ro TABLE 10/16/74 PAGE 14 FILE THESIS ICREAT10N DATE « 07/39/74) SUBFILE GROUPA • • * • • * • * * • * • * * * « • * C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * OPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BY GENHEALT GENERAL HEALTH COUNT OPNTUSE 0.0 1.00 Z.OO 3.00 8.00 COLUMN TOTAL * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * • * • PAGE 1 GENHEALT I -7.001 -4.001 -2.001 -1.001 0.0 I 1.001 2.001 5.001 ROW TOTAL 8.001 I Z I 1 I 2 I 1 I 1 I 1 3 I 10 47 I 68 I 88.3 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 0 I 0 1 I 1 I 1.3 I 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 ' 0 I 1 0 I 2 I 2.6 I 1 I 1 1 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 0 I 1 1 I 4 I 5.2 I 0 I 0 I 0 I o . 1 0 I 0 1 I o : 0 I 1 I 1.3 I 0 I 0 I 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 0 I o ; 0 I 1 I 1.3 4 5.Z 2 2.6 3 3.9 1 1.3 1 1.3 1 1.3 4 5.2 12 15.6 49 63.6 77 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 68.39359 WITH 40 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0034 CRAMER'S V = 0.42148 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT = 0.68586 KENDALL'S TAU B • -0.32882 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0000 KENDALL'S TAU C • -0.13763 SIGNIFICANCE ' 0.0362 GAMMA => -0.66148 SOMER'S 0 - -0.20384 so a co TABLE FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA 10/18/74 PAGE 15 » » • * « • OPNTUSE * • * • » • * * * * * * DEPENDENT • * * • « « * * USE • « * » * * INDEX * * « * » C R 0 S S T * * * * * * A B U L * * * * A T I O N OF * * * * * BY PGESCALE MORALE * * * * * * * * * * * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PAGE * * * 1 OF * 2 - ,-PGESCALE COUNT I ROM t j TOTAL OPNTUSE I 3.00 I 4.00 6.001 7.001 9.001 10.001 11.001 12.001 13.001 14.00 0.0 I 0 I 1 0 I 3 I 0 I 1 1 2 1 2 I 4 I 5 68 88.3 1.00 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 • 0 1 0 1 0 I 0 I 0 1 1.3 I 2.00 I 0 I 0 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 1 0 1 0 I 0 I 0 2 2.6 p J 3.00 I 0 I 0 1 0 I 0 I 1 I 0 1 0 1 1 I 0 I 0 4-5.2 I 4.00 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 1 1 1 0 I 0 I 0 1 1.3 < 1 . 8.00 I 1 I 0 ; o i 0 I 0 I 0 1 0 1 0 I 0 I 0 1 1.3 1 COLUMN TOTAL 1 1.3 1 1.3 l 1.3 3 3.9 1 1.3 I 3 1.3 3.9 3 4 5.2 5 6.5 77 100.0 (CONTINUED) ro -Da 00 TABLE 10/18/74 PACE 16 FILE THESIS (CREATION OATE « 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA * » • » * * • « * « « « « » * * * * OPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * BY PGESCALE MORALE * • PAGE 2 OF 2 OPNTJSE * * * * * » * * * » * » * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * COUNT PGESCALE 15.001 16.00 17.001 18.001 19.001 20.001 21.001 ROW TOTAL 0.0 12 I 6 12 I 9 I 5 I 5 I 1 I 68 88.3 1.00 1 I 0 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 1 1.3 2.00 0 I 0 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 2 2.6 3.00 0 I 0 1 0 I 0 I 2 1 0 I 0 I 4 5.2 4.00 0 I 0 ! 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 1 1.3 8.00 0 I 0 1 0 I 0 I 0 1 0 I 0 I 1 1.3 COLUMN TOTAL 13 16.9 6 7.8 13 16.9 9 11.7 7 9.1 5 6.5 1 1.3 77 100.0 181.49950 WITH 80 DEGREES OF FREEDOM • 0.68661 COEFFICIENT » 0.83793 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0000 KENDALL* S TAU B • -0.16150 SIGNIFICANCE KENDALL'S TAU C - -0.08541 SIGNIFICANCE GAMMA • -0.34992 SOME*•S 0 • -0i07923 0.0175 0.1324 ro T A B L E 1 0 / 1 8 / 7 * P A G E 17 F I L E T H E S I S ( C R E A T I O N D A T E = 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 * 1 S U B F I L E GROUPA D P N T U S E D E P E N O E N T USE I N D E X C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N O F » * * * • • * • * • « • » • BY Q S T 5 6 2 C O N V E N I E N C E OF U S E - H O S P I T A L D P N T U S E COUNT Q S T 5 6 2 1 . 0 0 1 2 . 0 0 1 3 . 0 0 1 ROW T O T A L 0.0 3 1 I 3 * I 3 I 6 8 8 8 . 3 -1 . 0 0 1 I 0 I 0 I 1 1.3 2 . 0 0 2 I 0 I 0 I 2 2.6 3 . 0 0 2 I 2 I 0 I * 5.2 * . 0 0 0 I 1 I 0 I 1 1.3 8 . 0 0 0 I 0 I 1 I 1 1.3 COLUMN T O T A L 3 6 * 6 . 8 37 * B . 1 * 5.2 7 7 1 0 0 . 0 C H I SQUARE • 2 3 . 1 2 1 * 0 H I T H 10 D E G R E E S OF F R EEDOM S I G N I F I C A N C E • 0 . 0 1 0 3 CRAMER'S V « 0 . 3 8 7 * 8 C O N T I N G E N C Y C O E F F I C I E N T • 0 . * 8 0 5 6 K E N D A L L ' S TAU B * - 0 . 0 1 6 6 6 S I G N I F I C A N C E « 0 . * 1 3 9 K E N D A L L ' S TAU C • - 0 . 0 0 8 6 0 S I G N I F I C A N C E - 0 . * 5 5 3 GAMMA = - 0 . 0 * 5 8 2 SOMER'S D » - 0 . 0 1 0 * 7 If! cn ro cn o TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 18 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 07/09/741 SUBFILE GROUPA * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * * * » * * « » * * • * • * » * » • OPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BY QUE60 CHOICE OF USE , » , « * * « » » * « • » » * » « « * * * * » » « » « * * » « * » « « • * * * * * * « « * » * • » PAGE 1 OF 1 QUE 60 OPNTUSE COUNT 0.0 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 6.00 COLUMN TOTAL 0.0 11 14.3 ROW TOTAL 1.00 I 9 1 59 68 88.3 I 0 I 1 1 1.3 I 0 I 2 2 2.6 I 0 I 4 4 5.2 I 1 I 0 1 1.3 I 1 I 0 1 1.3 66 77 85.7 100.0 CHI SQUARE •= 13.22794 WITH 5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE * 0.0213 CRAMER'S V « 0.41448 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT « 0.38289 KENDALL'S TAU B - -0.10115 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0933 KENDALL'S TAU C • -0.04655 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.2717 GAMMA = -0.353B5 SOMER'S 0 • -0.09504 CD CO f~— Vj r-l. TABLE 10/18/74 PACE 20 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 07/09/741 SUBFILE GROUPA * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF « * * « * » * « * * * * * * « * « QUE50 HOSPITAL USE INOEX BY MARITEXP MARITAL EXPERIENCE * « « » « » « « « * * * « « * * » » « * * * « » * * * * * « * * * * * * * » « « » * « « « * * * « PAGE 1 OF MARITEXP QUE50 COUNT I 0.0 I 3.001 4.001 5.001 6.001 7.001 8.001 9.001 10.001 11.00 1.00 I 10 I 9 I 3 1 6 I 2 I 9 I 2 I 4 I 1 I 8 2.00 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 0 I 1 I 1 I 0 I 1 I 0 I 1 3.00 I 0 I 0 I 1 I 2 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 4.00 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 2 COLUMN 11 10 5 8 3 10 2 5 1 11 TOTAL 14.3 13.0 6.S 10.4 3.9 13.0 2.6 6.5 1.3 14.3 ROW TOTAL 62 80.5 7 9.1 6 7.8 2 2.6 77 100.0 (CONTINUED) TABLE 10/18/7* PAGE 21 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 07/09/7*1 SUBFILE GROUPA « • . , • • • • * * • • • • • • * « C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * • . . * • * . * * * • • • • • • * 3UF50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BY MARITEXP MARTTAL EXPERIENCE • * « « . » , . * « « « « . • * * • * « • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * P A C E 2 0 F 2 MARITEXP OUESO COUNT I 12.001 12.501 13.001 15.001 15.501 17.00 1.00 I I 3 I 1 I 2 I 1 I 1 I 0 2.00 I 1 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 3.00 1 I 0 I 1 I 1 I 0 I 0 I 1 *.00 I I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 0 COLUMN TOTAL 3 3.9 2 2.6 3 3.9 1 1.3 1 1.3 1 1.3 ROW TOTAL 62 80.5 7 9.1 6 7.8 2 2.6 77 100.0 CHI SQUARE * *6.07973 WITH *5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM CRAMER'S V » 0.**663 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT « 0.61187 KENDALL'S TAU B - 0.116*5 SIGNIFICANCE - 0.06*2 KENDALL'S TAU C « 0.085*6 SIGNIFICANCE " 0.1323 GAMMA ' 0.207*2 SOMER'S 0 - 0.0712* SIGNIFICANCE = 0.*27* CD c o ro cn co TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 22 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 07/09/74) SUBFILE . GROUPA « * • « * » • « » » * « » * • * * * C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * * • * » * * « • » » • » « » * « 3UE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BY GENHEALT GENERAL HEALTH * * • « * * • * * » * * * » « * * • « * * * * • * * • * * * * * * * * « « * * * * * » • « * • « * PAGE 1 OF GENHEALT COUNT I I ROW I TOTAL I -7.001 -4.001 -2.001 -1.001 0.0 I 1.001 2.001 5.001 8.001 0UE50 1 1— 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1.00 I I I I I 2 1 I I I I 0 1 3 I 10 I 43 I 62 I I 1 I I I I I I I 80.5 -I 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 2.00 I I I 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 I I 0 1 I I 4 1 7 I I I I I I I I I I 9.1 _I 1 __I 1 , 1 j I 1 1 3.00 I 2 1 I I I I 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 6 I I I I I I I I I I 7.8 -I , _ , j 1 1 1 I 1 1 4.00 I 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 I I I I 0 1 2 I I I I I I I I I I 2.6 -I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COLUMN 4 2 3 I 1 1 4 12 49 77 TOTAL 5.2 2.6 3.9 1.3 1.3 1.3 5.2 15.6 63.6 100.0 CHI SQUARE « 43.74622 WITH 24 DEGREES OF FREEOOM SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0082 CRAMER'S V « 0.43518 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT - 0.60191 KENDALL'S TAU B - -0.28367 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0001 KENDALL'S TAU C • -0.16461 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0158 GAMMA - -0.52286 SOMER'S D • -0.21942 TABLE 10/18/74 PACE 23 F I L E THESIS (CREATION OATE » 07/09/74) SUBFILE GROUPA • * • * • * * * * • * * » * • « • * • , * » C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N O F * * * • * * « • » » « « « 3UE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BY QUE60 CHOICE OF USE * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PAGE 1 OF 1 QUE53 QUE 60 COUNT 1.00 2.00 I 3.00 I 4.00 I COLUMN TOTAL 0.0 8 11 14.3 1.00 54 66 85.7 ROW TOTAL 62 80.5 7 9.1 6 7.8 2 2.6 77 100.0 CHI SQUARE • 5.12455 WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM CRAMER'S V - 0.25798 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT = 0.24980 KENDALL'S TAU B = -0.10456 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0861 KENDALL'S TAU C » -0.06004 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.2165 GAMMA = -0.31228 SOMER'S 0 » -0.12259 SIGNIFICANCE 0.1629 CD CO ro cn TABLE 10/18/7* PAGE 38 FILE TMESIS (CREATION DATE * 07/09/7*) SUBFILt BGROUP VSTMDYR • • » * • VSTM3YR * * * * * * * * * * * * C PHYSICIAN USE INDEX * • • • * * * * • * * * « • R O S S * * * * T A B * * * U L A T I O N OF * * * * * * * * * * * BY TOTGRTCN TOTAL GREATGRANDCHILDREN • * » . * * * * * * • • * * * • « * * • * * * TOT GRTCN COUNT I I 0.0 I 1.001 2.001 ROW TOTAL 3.001 1.00 I 13 I 0 1 * I 1 I 18 I 26.5 2.00 I 9 1 2 1 * I 1 I 16 I 23.5 3.00 I 32 I 0 1 1 I 1 I 3* I 50.0 COLUMN 5* 2 TOTAL 79.* 2.9 9 13.2 3 *.* 68 ICO.O 1*.*6038 WITH 6 DEGREES OF FREEOOM » 0.32608 COEFFICIENT » 0.*1876 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.02*9 • * * • • • * CONTACT PAGE 1 OF 1 KENDALL'S TAU B » KENDALL'S TAU C « GAMMA » -0.*9329 SOMER'S D » -0.36*31 0.27235 SIGNIFICANCE = 0.1907* SIGNIFICANCE > 0.000* 0.0097 c n c n TABLE 10/18/7* PAGE 39 FILE THE SIS (CREATION DATE = 07/09/7*1 SUBFILE BGROJP * * # * * * * * * * * * * * * * * • VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX VSTMDYR • » « * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * COUNT TOTDAC 1.001 2.001 3.001 ROW TOTAL 1.00 7 I 2 9 I 18 26.5 2.00 1 I 10 5 I 16 23.5 3.00 15 I 1* 5 I 3* 50.0 COLUMN TOTAL 23 33.8 26 38.2 19 27.9 68 100.0 C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * BY TOTDAC TOTAL ORGANIZED C SOCIAL ACTIVITIES * * • « * * * • • * * * * * * * • • • * PAGE 1 OF CHI SQUARE ' 16.13152 WITH * DEGREES OF FREEDOM CRAMER'S V « 0.3***0 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT - 0.*3788 KENDALL'S TAU B « -0.2*228 SIGNIFICANCE « 0.0015 KENDALL'S TAU C » -0.23356 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0021 GAMMA * -0.35503 SOMER'S 0 » -0.235*5 SIGNIFICANCE « 0.0028 TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 40 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/74) SUBFILE BGROUP • • • * • • • * • • * * • • * * • • C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * » * # » « * » » * * » * • * * * » VSIMOYR PHYSICIAN USE INOEX BY 0UE02 AGE « » » . « « * « * « « « « « * * « * * « » * * » « » * * * * * * » « * * * * » < . * * * * » » « * « PAGE 1 OF 1 0UE02 VSTH3YR COUNT I 1.001 2.001 3.001 4.001 5.001 6.001 1.00 I 1 I 1 I 6 I 2 I 4 I 4 I 2.00 I 0 I 2 I 2 I 5 I 4 I 3 I 3.00 I 2 I 6 I 11 I 7 I 8 I 0 I COLUMN TOTAL 3 4.4 9 13.2 19 27.9 14 20.6 16 23.5 7 10.3 ROW TOTAL 18 26.5 16 23.5 34 50.0 68 100.0 CHI SQUARE • 12.81967 WITH 10 DEGREES OF FREEDOM CRAMER'S V • 0.30702 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT •> 0.39827 KENDALL'S TAU B • -0.21066 SIGNIFICANCE - 0.0049 KENDALL'S TAU C • -0.22253 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0032 GAMM* * -0.29291 SOMER'S 0 • -0.18682 SIGNIFICANCE 0.2339 CO CO r\3 cn Oo TABLE 10/18/7* PAGE 41 FILE THESIS (ORE ATI ON DATE « 07/09/74) SUBFILE BGROUP « • * * • • * * • * * * • * * • * * C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF » * * » » » * * * * » « * * * « » • VSTMDYR PHYSICIAN USE INDEX BY HORBIOIT MORBIDITY * * » • « » « • • • * * * * » » • * • » « . * * * * * » * * * * * * * » * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PAGE I 0 F * VSTMDYR MORBIDIT COUNT COLUMN TOTAL 21 30.9 11 16.2 13 19.1 6 8.8 3 4.4 2 2.9 6 8.8 3 4 .4 ROW TOTAL I 0.0 I 1.001 2.001 3.001 4.001 5.001 6.001 7.001 8.001 1.00 I 9 I 3 1 4 I 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 1 I 0 I I 18 26.5 2.00 I 4 I 5 I 3 I 1 I 2 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 1 1 t 16 23.5 3.00 I 8 I 3 I 6 I 4 I 1 I 2 I 6 I 2 1 2 I I 34 50.0 3 4 .4 68 100.0 CHI SQUARE * 20.43532 WITH 16 DEGREES OF FREEDOM CRAMER'S V • 0.38763 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT • 0.48070 KENDALL'S TAU B - 0.29501 SIGNIFICANCE « 0.0002 KENDALL'S TAU C » 0.31661 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0001 GAMMA « 0.40803 SOMER'S 0 • 0.25752 SIGNIFICANCE * 0.2013 cn o CO co TAELE 10/16/74 PAGE 34 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE * 07/09/74) SUBFILE BGROUP * • » • « * • « * • * * * * * * * • C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N O F * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * DPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX EV INTERABS EXCESSIVE GIVING EXCHANGE DPNTJSE » » • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * • * * • * * * * * * * COUNT INTERABS -2.001 -1.001 0.0 I 1.001 2.001 ROW TOTAL 0.0 3 I 11 31 I 6 I 2 I 53 77.9 . 1.00 0 I 1 i 3 I 0 I 0 I 4 . 5.9 2.00 0 I 0 i 2 I 0 I 0 I 2 2.9 3.00 0 I 2 I 2 I 0 I 0 I 4 5.9 4.00 0 I 1 ] 1 I 0 I 0 1 2 2.9 6.00 1 0 I 0 1 1 I 0 I 0 I 1 1.5 14.00 0 I 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 1 1.5 23.00 1 1 I 0 I 0 1 0 I 0 I 1 1.5 COLUMN TOTAL 4 5.9 16 23.5 40 58.8 6 8.8 2 2.9 68 100.0 CHI SQUARE • 25.84074 WITH 28 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE « 0.5818 CRAMER'S V - 0.30823 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT « 0.52476 KENDALL'S TAU B * -0.18703 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0109 KENDALL'S TAU C * -0.11083 SIGNIFICANCE * 0.0872 GAMMA * -0.40275 SOMER'S 0 • -0.15118 O o CO CO ro o TABLE 10/18/74 PASE 35 OO CD o c o C O FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 07/09/74) SUBFILE BGROUP • * « » » * « • « * « . * * * * , , C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * * * « • * » * * • * • • * » « » « DPNTJSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX BY 0UEA32 GIVING EXCHANGE • * • • • • * * « * * * • « * * » * * « * » • « * * « * * » * « » * « « « * * « » » « « » * » » » PAGE I OF 1 OPNTUSE 0UEA32 COUNT 0.0 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 6.00 14.00 23.00 COLUMN TOTAL 24 35.3 ROW TOTAL I 1.001 2.001 3.001 i 15 I 24 I 14 I 53 77.9 ! 3 I 1 I 0 I 4 5.9 1 I 1 I 0 I 2 2.9 2 I 1 I 1 I 4 5.9 0 I 2 I 0 I 2 2.9 1 I 0 I 0 I 1 1.5 1 I 0 I 0 I 1 1.5 1 I 0 I 0 I 1 1.5 29 42.6 15 22. 1 68 100.0 CHI SQUARE • 13.56929 WITH 14 DEGREES OF FR.EEDON CRAMER'S V » 0.31587 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT » 0.40786 KENDALL'S TAU B » -0.25927 SIGNIFICANCE " 0.0007 KENDALL'S TAU C » -0.19334 SIGNIFICANCE - 0.0089 GAMMA = -0.51736 SOMER'S D « -0.19987 SIGNIFICANCE ° 0.4823 ro Oi TABLE FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/741 SUBFILE BGROUP C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF » * * » * * » » * • * * • * < " « * * BV QUE59 FORCED USE » « » , « » » • » • « • « » » * • * » * » * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * • * * * * * P A G E l. 1 « * • » * * » » * * • « * * * * * * OPNTUSE DEPENDENT USE INDEX DPNTJSE QUE 59 COUNT 0.0 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 6.00 14.00 23.00 COLUMN TOTAL 0.0 50 62 91.2 1.00 3 6 8.8 ROW TOTAL 53 77.9 4 5.9 2 2.9 4 5.9 2 2.9 1 1.5 1 1.5 1 1.5 68 100.0 7 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE CHI SQUARE » 26.60536 WITH CRAMER'S V « 0.62550 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT = 0.53031 KENDALL'S TAU B » 0.24909 SIGNIFICANCE « 0.0011 KENDALL'S TAU C = 0.12370 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0648 GAMMA * 0.64706 SOMER'S D « 0.38441 0.0004 o o c o ro cn ro TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 25 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/74) SUBFILE BGROUP * * * * * • • * • • • • * • * • * * C R O S S T A B U L A T I 0 N 0 0UE59 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BY TOTCHDCN * * * * * • • • • * * • * * * * * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * TOTCHDCN COUNT I V ROM j TOTAL 0UE50 I 0.0 I 1.001 2.001 3.00 12 45 1.00 I 10 I 13 I 10 I I I I 66.2 2.00 I 2 I 2 I 0 I 2 6 I I I 8.8 i 3.00 I 4 I 1 I 2 I 2 9 I I 1 13.2 i 4.00 I 7 I 1 I 0 I 0 8 i I I I 1 11.8 t COLUMN 23 17 12 16 68 I TOTAL 33.8 25.0 17.6 23.5 100.0 * * • • • • * • * * * • • • • • • * TAL CHILDREN CONTACT * * * * * * * * * * * PAGE 1 OF 1 CHI SQUARE • 15.97245 WITH CRAMER'S V « 0.27981 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT » 0.43613 KENDALL'S TAU B » -0.28992 SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0002 KENDALL'S TAU C • -0.23991 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0016 GAMMA = -0.46222 SOMER'S D » -0.24427 9 DECREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0675 ZD CP; ca TABLE 10718/7* PAGE 26 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/7*) SUBFILE BGROJP • * » * • * • * • « • » * * « * * • C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * * * « « * * * • » * « * • » * « • 3UE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BY TDTGRDCN TOTAL GRANOCHILDREN CONTACT « » , » • » » « » » • » • * * * * * « * * » # * * * * * * * * * • * * * * » * » * * * • * » * * * PAGE 1 OF 1 TOTGRDCN QJE50 COUNT I . 0.0 I 1.001 2.001 3.001 ROW TOTAL V 1.00 I 1* I 10 I 9 I 12 I *5 66.2 .-2.00 I 2 I 2 I 0 I 2 I 6 8.8 3.00 I 6 I 0 I 2 I 1 I 9 13.2 *.00 I 8 I 0 I 0 I 0 I 8 11.8 COLUMN TOTAL 30 **.! 12 17.6 11 16.2 15 22.1 68 100.0 CHI SOUARE = 18.86139 WITH 9 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE - 0.026* CRAMER'S V « 0.30*07 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT * 0.*6599 KENDALL'S TAU B - -0.32828 SIGNIFICANCE - 0.0000 KENDALL'S TAU C • -0.26*71 SIGNIFICANCE » 0.0006 GAMMA = -0.55102 SOMER'S 0 - -0.28386 CO r o Oi TABLE 10/18/74 PACE 27 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE « 07/09/74) SUBFILE BGROUP 0UE50 QUE 50 * * * * * HOSPITAL * * * * * * * * * * USE INDEX * * * * * • • * * * C R O S S * * * * * T A B U L * * * * * A T I 0 N OF BY TOTCONTR * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * TOTAL CONTACT * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PAGE • * * 1 OF • 2 COUNT TOTCONTR 0.0 I 1.00 [ 2.001 3.001 4.001 5.00 I 6.001 7.001 8.001 9.001 ROM TOTAL 1.00 0 I 1 3 I 7 I 3 I 10 I 3 I 6 I 5 I 2 1 45 66.2 2.00 0 I 0 0 1 1 I 1 I 1 I 0 I 1 I 0 I 1 1 6 8.8 3.00 1 I 0 1 I 1 I 3 I 1 [ 1 I 1 I 0 I 0 1 9 13.2 4.00 1 I 3 0 I 3 I 0 I 0 1 1 I 0 I 0 I 0 1 8 11.8 COLUMN TOTAL 2 2.9 4 5.9 4 5.9 12 17.6 7 10.3 12 17.6 5 7.4 8 11.8 5 7.4 3 4.4 68 100.0 (CONTINUED) L T V . Tt cn cc 1-t ro CM TABLE 10/18/7* PAGE 28 F I L E THESIS ICREATION DATE - 0 7 / 0 9 / 7 * ) SUBFILE BGROUP • , « « • « • • • « « • • » * • • « C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N O F * » » • * * • * » * * * • » » * * * QUE50 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BY TOTCONTR TOTAL CONTACT « » » « « » « » » * « • « * » « * » » » * * » * « < . * * * * « * * * * * * * * » » * « • * * * • * PAGE 2 OF 2 QUE50 COUNT TOTCONTR 11.001 12.001 1*.00I RUM TOTAL r 1.00 3 I 1 I 1 I *5 66.2 2.00 1 I 0 I 0 I 6 8.8 3.00 0 I 0 I 0 I 9 13.2 *.00 0 I 0 I 0 I 8 11.8 COLUMN TOTAL * 5.9 1 1.5 1 1.5 68 100.0 I CHI SQUARE • **.077*2 HITH 36 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE » 0.1670 CRAMER'S V « 0.*6*83 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT • 0.62712 KENDALL'S TAU B - -0.31277 SIGNIFICANCE « 0.0001 KENDALL'S TAU C • -0.28*31 SIGNIFICANCE - 0.0002 GAMMA = -0.**859 SOMER'S 0 - -0.23990 ro cn cr> TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 29 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE • 07/09/74) SUBFILE BGROUP * • « » • QUE53 QUE50 * * * * * * HOSPITAL * * * * * * * * * * USE INDEX * * * * • • * * * C R O S S * * * * * T A B * * * 0UEA32 COUNT I 1 1.001 2.00 1 3.001 ROM TOTAL 1.00 I 12 I 21 I 12 I 45 66.2 2.00 I 2 I 3 I 1 I 6 8.8 3.00 I 4 I 5 [ 0 I 9 13.2 4.00 I 6 I 0 1 2 I 8 11.8 COLUMN 24 29 15 68 A T I O N OF * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * BY QUEA32 GIVING EXCHANGE * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PAGE 1 OF 1 TOTAL 35.3 42.6 22.1 100.0 CHI SQUARE ' 11.28144 WITH CRAMER'S V • 0.28801 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT » 0.37722 KENDALL'S TAU B » -0.24877 SIGNIFICANCE -KENDALL'S TAU C - -0.21670 SIGNIFICANCE « GAMMA • -0.41750 SOMER'S 0 • -0.22401 6 DESREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0801 0.0011 0.0040 CO TH ro cn TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 30 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 07/09/741 SUBFILE BGROUP 3UES0 QUE53 » • * « « « HOSPITAL • * » « « » * * * * * * * USE INDEX * * * * * * * * C R O S S * * * * * T A B * * * NTOTFAMS COUNT I I 1.001 2.00 3.001 ROW TOTAL 1.00 I 20 I 18 7 I 45 66.2 2.00 I 4 I 2 0 1 6 8.B 3.00 I 6 I 0 ( 3 I 9 13.2 4.00 I 7 I 1 : o I 8 11.8 COLUMN TOTAL 37 54.4 21 30.9 10 14.7 68 100.0 V T I 0 N OF • * * * • • * * • * • * » • • * * * BY NTOTFAMS FAMILY STRUCTURE » * • * * « * * * * * • * * • * • * • * PAGE 1 OF 1 CHI SQUARE * 11.92756 WITH 6 DEGREES OF FREEDOM CRAMER'S V » 0.29615 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT * 0.38630 KENDALL'S TAU B = -0.22953 SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0025 KENDALL'S TAU C » -0.19074 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.0097 GAMMA * -0.42120 SOMER'S 0 • -0.21665 SIGNIFICANCE 0.0636 ro co TABLE 10/18/74 PAGE 31 FILE THESIS ICREATION DATE « 07/09/74) SUBFILE BGROUP 3UE53 QUE53 * * * * * * * * * * * * * HOSPITAL USE INDEX • • » • * * • • * * • • * * C R O S S * * * * * T A B • * * COUNT QST561 1.001 2.00 3.001 ROW TOTAL 1.00 21 I 23 1 I 45 66.2 2.00 2 I 3 1 I 6 8.8 3.00 5 I 3 1 I 9 13.2 4.00 4 I 2 2 I 8 11.8 COLUMN TOTAL 32 47.1 31 45.6 5 7.4 68 100.0 A T I O N OF * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * BY QST561 CONVENIENCE OF USE - PHYSICIAN * * * • • * * * • • • * * * * * * • * • PAGE 1 OF 1 CHI SQUARE ' 7.64146 WITH 6 DEGREES OF FREEDDM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.2656 CRAMER'S V = 0.23704 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT - 0.31784 KENDALL'S TAU B « 0.05091 SIGNIFICANCE • 0.2663 KENDALL'S TAU C ' 0.04152 SIGNIFICANCE * 0.3054 GAMMA * 0.08815 SOMER'S D • 0.04897 cn CO ro cr, W3 T A B L E 10/10/74 PAGE 32 FILE THESIS (CREATION DATE » 07/09/74) SUBFILE BGROUP. 0 « c , * « » * » * * « « * * » * * * C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N OF * * * » • » * * » « * • « * * « * * QUE53 HOSPITAL USE INDEX BY QST562 CONVENIENCE OF USE - HOSPITAL • 9 « * * * » * * » » « * * * * * « * * * * * * * * * * * * * « * * * * * * * * « * * » « * * * * PAGE 1 OF I QUE50 COUNT 0ST562. 1.001 .2.001 3.001 1.00 12 I 31 I 2 I 2.00 0 I 6 I 0 I 3.00 1 1 8 I 0 I 4.00 2 1 4 I 2 I COLUHN TOTAL IS 22.1 49 72.1 4 5.9 ROW TOTAL 45 66.2 6 8.8 9 13.2 8 11.8 68 100.0 CHI SQUARE « 9.89494 WITH 6 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE » 0.1291 CRAMER'S V « 0.26973 CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT • 0.35641 KENDALL'S TAU B » 0.15257 SIGNIFICANCE « 0.0308 KENDALL'S TAJ C « 0.10835 SIGNIFICANCE « 0.0921 GAMMA » 0.33069 SOMER'S 0 » 0.16852 ro o 

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