UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The ethnological society of London 1843-1871 Careless, Virginia Ann Stockford 1974

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THE ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 18^3 - 1871 by VIRGINIA ANN STOCKFORD CARELESS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1°68 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 197^ In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f. a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t or b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a Date i . ABSTRACT The E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London was a f o r e r u n n e r of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e of Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d , the main body of p r o f e s s i o n a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i n B r i t a i n today. Some d i s c u s s i o n of i t e x i s t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e , although i t i s not g e n e r a l l y known i n c o n v e n t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s of anthropology. I t has a l s o been p a r t i c u l a r l y n e g l e c t e d i n text-book accounts of the development of the d i s c i p l i n e . What d i s c u s s i o n does e x i s t u s u a l l y f o c u s s e s upon the ESL's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London, a s p l i n t e r group, formed i n I 8 6 3 . The two u n i t e d i n 1871 to form the RAI. S t u d i e s t o date have t r i e d to account f o r the s p l i t i n i n t e l l e c t u a l terms, l o o k i n g at the d i f f e r e n t ideas the two groups h e l d , and the r e u n i o n i n s t r u c t u r a l terms, s a y i n g t h a t f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s drove the two together. T h i s t h e s i s , concerned with only one of the two groups, argues t h a t the standard i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are not v a l i d , s i n c e they n e g l e c t the a l l - i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l aspect. The s o c i a l composition of each group must be examined and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the members' s o c i a l s t a t u s . The outcome of t h i s examination i s the d i s c o v e r y t h a t a p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l e x p l a n a t i o n i s most a p p r o p r i a t e t o understanding the events under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s type of e x p l a n a t i o n a s s e r t s t h a t the major f o r c e s a t p l a y were s o c i a l , and they must be recognized and brought out. T h i s i s not to ignore or deny the importance of i n t e l l e c t u a l or s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s but t o contend t h a t any e x p l a n a t i o n based on e i t h e r of these alone i s inadequate. To t h i s end, the t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the s o c i a l c omposition of the ESL and c o n s i d e r s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of i t s p a r t i c u l a r makeup f o r i t s type of anthropology. At the same time a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n of the i n t e l l e c t u a l and s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s of the group. Thus, each f a c e t of the S o c i e t y i s presented, so t h a t a l l the evidence can be weighed t o g e t h e r i n d e c i d i n g upon the most a p p r o p r i a t e e x p l a n a t i o n . T h i s treatment of the ESL serves another purpose: to i l l u s t r a t e the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach t o h i s t o r y . The p a s t i s regarded as a c u l t u r e d i s t i n c t and d i f f e r e n t from our own, m e r i t i n g c a r e f u l and unbiassed study j u s t as does a p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e . An ethnographic account of the group i n q u e s t i o n i s given, r e l a t i n g i t t o i t s c u l t u r a l context of V i c t o r i a n England i n order to i n t e r p r e t i t s behaviour c o r r e c t l y . I t i s argued t h a t because of our c l o s e l i n e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o V i c t o r i a n England we do not t h e r e f o r e "know" our p a s t , but r a t h e r are the more l i k e l y to f a l l prey t o mistaken i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and b i a s s e s . We must regard our past to be as f o r e i g n to us as any strange c u l t u r e , and approach i t with the same c a u t i o n . There i s more than methodological s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s r easoning. F i n d i n g t h a t the past does c o n t a i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s opens up a whole new f i e l d f o r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l endeavour. Anthro-p o l o g i s t s can f i n d i n the past more s o c i e t i e s t o study, y i e l d i n g more m a t e r i a l f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the nature of c u l t u r e and of Man. A f u r t h e r reason f o r a c a r e f u l approach to t h i s t o p i c and t h i s p e r i o d i s the i m p l i c a t i o n s i t has f o r the h i s t o r y of anthropology. A. c e r t a i n p i c t u r e of Nineteenth Century a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i s common to standard works of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o textbooks of anthropology which purport to i n t r o d u c e the d i s c i p l i n e t o new students. T h i s p i c t u r e i s d e s c r i b e d i n the t h e s i s and shown to be not only wrong but a l s o Whiggish. I t s consequences are to be d e p l o r e d : a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s work with a misguided view of t h e i r past and l e a r n an approach t o h i s t o r y t h a t l o o k s f o r "Good Guys" and "Bad Guys". The f u n c t i o n s of such h i s t o r i o g r a p h y are explored here and an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r i t s p e r s i s t e n c e i s o f f e r e d , with r e f e r e n c e to a Kuhnian framework of argument. T h i s h i s t o r i o g r a p h y i s to be r e j e c t e d and a l l the more since a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s e s p e c i a l l y , endeavour to avoid ethnocentrism; y e t , where t h e i r a n c e s t o r s are concerned, they are found i n d u l g i n g i n i t w i t h no qualms at a l l . H i s t o r y of anthropology must be more accurate. T h i s t h e s i s i s an attempt i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . ABBREVIATIONS APS Aborigines' P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y AR A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Review ASL A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London SSJ o.s. E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , o l d s e r i e s ESJ n. s. E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , new s e r i e s ESL E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London EST E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y T r a n s a c t i o n s RAI Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e V TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i A b b r e v i a t i o n s i v Acknowledgments i x Chapter I. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter 2. The ESL: H i s t o r y , Aims and I n t e r e s t s 46 Chapter 3 . The ESL: S t r u c t u r e and O r g a n i z a t i o n 80 Chapter 4 . The ESLs S o c i a l Composition 1 1 9 Chapter 5. The ESL: S o c i a l S t a t u s 164 Chapter 6. The ESL: A. Reassessment 186 B i b l i o g r a p h y .214 Appendix I. The S o c i a l Information on the ESL Members.... 2 3 4 A.ppendix I I . The S o c i a l Areas of V i c t o r i a n London 2 8 5 Appendix I I I . D e t a i l e d Table of the Residence of the ESL Members i n the S o c i a l Areas of V i c t o r i a n London 2 8 9 vi. LIST OF TABLES I. Topics Discussed by the ESL.... 6 2 I I . Geographical Areas Discussed by the ESL..... 6 5 I I I . P a r t i c i p a t i o n of ESL Members by Type of C o n t r i b u t i o n . . 67 IV. A n a l y s i s of P a r t i c i p a t i o n of ESL Members by Type 6 9 V. P a r t i c i p a t i o n of ESL members by Number of Times Contributed 6 9 VI. L i f e t i m e Memberships i n the ESL I 8 6 3 - I 8 7 0 88 V I I . A b s t r a c t of Receipts and Expenditures f o r 1845 95 V I I I . Y e a r l y Balances of the ESL 1851-1856 96 IX. Statement of Accounts of F r e d e r i c k Hindmarsh, Treasurer, with the E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London, from 2 3 r d May I 8 6 5 t o 2 3 r d May 1866 97 X. Statement of Account of F r e d e r i c k Hindmarsh, Treasurer, w i t h the E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London, from the 2 2 n d of May, 1866, to the 2 1 s t of May, 1867 98 XI. Statement of Account of H.G. Bohn, Treasurer, w i t h the E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y from May 31, I869 to May 1 6 , 1 8 7 0 99 X I I . Membership i n the ESL I 8 6 3 - I 8 7 0 101 X I I I . Membership i n the ESL by Address I 8 6 3 - I 8 7 0 1 0 2 XIV. ESL Membership i n England outside London I 8 6 3 - I 8 7 O . . . . 1 0 5 XV. ESL Membership i n the World outside Great B r i t a i n I 8 6 3 - I 8 7 0 106 XVI. T i t l e of the Members of the ESL 124 XVII. Education of the ESL Members 1 2 5 XVIII. Revised P i c t u r e of the ESL Members' Education 131 XIX. Occupations of the ESL members 133 XX. Adjusted T o t a l of the ESL Members' Occupations 140 v i L XXI. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P r o f e s s i o n s i n the ESL i n England XXII. ESL Membership i n Other A s s o c i a t i o n s 1^6 XXIII. Membership Fees f o r C e r t a i n London Clu b s , 18?9 1^8 XXIV. Areas of M i d - V i c t o r i a n London with t h e i r S o c i a l Meanings 1 7 6 XXV. Residence of the ESL Members on the S o c i a l Areas of London I 8 6 3 - I 8 7 0 178 XXVI. Mention of ESL Members i n V i c t o r i a n B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r i e s 183 Appendix I I I D e t a i l e d Table of ESL Members' Residence i n S o c i a l Areas of London 289 IMPS Geographical Areas Discussed "by the ESL S o c i a l Areas of V i c t o r i a n London (Bound i n back. i x . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS F i r s t , as I have intended f o r some time, my thanks go to Boh Kerr, to the water, and the mountains. Next, t o innumerable apartment - and house-mates f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e through the whole t h i n g . Then to f e l l o w graduate students, e s p e c i a l l y Mumtaz Akhtar, Bob McDonald, B i l l Young, Barb M a r s h a l l , and Dan Conner f o r t h e i r sympathy and suggestions. A l s o to be thanked are Robin B. F i s h e r , John Black and C h r i s t i n a Borne. I was f o r t u n a t e i n meeting Douglas Lorimer and Dr. James Winter a f t e r embarking upon t h i s t h e s i s , and b e n e f i t t e d a good d e a l from t h e i r know-ledge and ideas. Others i n the UBC h i s t o r y department a l s o o f f e r e d h e l p f u l s uggestions, p a r t i c u l a r l y P r o f e s s o r James Huzel and Dr. John N o r r i s and Dr. Anthony Wohl, who gave a summer course on V i c t o r i a n England. Dr. W.E. W i l l m o t t of the UBC anthropology department s t a r t e d o f f with me on t h i s p r o j e c t , although i t o u t l a s t e d h i s own st a y at UBC, and gave me much e d i t o r i a l comment, and encouragement and support i n g e n e r a l . Other thanks f o r hel p go t o Dr. M.E. Prang, and to my parents. Without the l a t t e r the t h e s i s could not have been typed and d u p l i c a t e d , and t h a t was only the most r e c e n t of t h e i r many c o n t r i b u t i o n s , t o t h i s e f f o r t . Without Janet K l e i n , t h i s t h e s i s would not have been typed as s p e e d i l y and as capably as i t was, and my thanks and sympathy go to her f o r so v a l o r o u s l y X. working her way through i t . At the l a s t , of course, must go my thanks t o my a d v i s e r s : P r o f e s s o r S. S t r a k e r , who came i n near the end but o f f e r e d much help and thought, and P r o f e s s o r s W ilson Duff and K.O.L. B u r r i d g e of the UBC anthropology department f o r t h e i r guidance and comments. 1. Chapter I; I n t r o d u c t i o n The Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e of Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d i s now i n i t s second century. Although today f a c i n g f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s which have n e c e s s i t a t e d the s e p a r a t i o n of i t s l i b r a r y and h e a d q u a r t e r s , 1 and somewhat threatened by c o n f l i c t s between d i f f e r e n t s t r a i n s of i n t e r e s t s , the RAI s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e s the main body of p r o f e s s i o n a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i n England.-' I t p u b l i s h e s Man, has a v a s t a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i b r a r y , and supports f e l l o w s h i p s and l e c t u r e s i n anthropology.^ I t has r e c e n t l y d e c l a r e d i t s d e s i r e to be f r e e of i t s o r i g i n s i n V i c t o r i a n times, seeking to be more than "an o l d - f a s h i o n e d Nineteenth Century Learned S o c i e t y " , but those o r i g i n s remain of i n t e r e s t , although they are no longer meant to be of i n f l u e n c e . The RAI dates i t s own b e g i n n i n g to 184-3, with the b i r t h of the E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London. I t s o f f i c i a l account however, of the events from t h a t time t o the f o r m a t i o n of the I n s t i t u t e i n 18?1, (when the ESL u n i t e d with the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London) i s , to say the l e a s t , b r i e f , and g i v e s no sense of the s i g n i f i c a n t developments of the p e r i o d between the 7 two dates. Yet t h i s was a time c r u c i a l t o the f o r m a t i o n of the s c i e n c e of anthropology as we now know i t . Indeed, the d e f i n i t i o n of anthropology c u r r e n t today as an h o l i s t i c s c i e n t i f i c study of Man, i n v o l v i n g a l l the aspects of h i s experience and h i s p o s i t i o n i n the l a r g e r animal world, 2 . o r i g i n a t e d i n t h i s p e r i o d . I t was noted a t the time as a r a d i c a l departure from the old meaning of the word, C o n n o t -es i n g " g o s s i p " . The f o u r - f o l d d i v i s i o n of the s t r a i n s w i t h i n anthropology t h a t we s t i l l r e c o g n i z e — l i n g u i s t i c s , ethnology, Q p h y s i c a l anthropology and a r c h a e o l o g y — 7 a l s o emerged i n England d u r i n g t h i s mid-Nineteenth century e r a . In r e c e n t y e a r s , we have become more aware of t h i s p e r i o d , through work l i k e J.W. Burrow's on V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n a r y thought, and George Stocking's a r t i c l e on the f o r m a t i o n 10 of the RAI. I t was a time of much a c t i v i t y and argument, and one t h a t m e r i t s c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n f o r t h a t reason a l s o . T h i s t h e s i s looks a t one of the two S o c i e t i e s of t h i s time i n l e n g t h , t h a t of the e t h n o l o g i s t s . Besides d e t a i l i n g the h i s t o r y of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group, such a study p r o v i d e s a means of e n t r y i n t o the q u e s t i o n s of the f o r m a t i o n of the ASL, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two S o c i e t i e s , and t h e i r l a t e r union which produced the RAI. In a more g e n e r a l sense, i t a l s o l e a d s us to c o n s i d e r the nature and development of m i d - V i c t o r i a n anthropology. I The E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London was s e t up i n 184-3 by men who l e f t the A b o r i g i n e s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y . They were not as i n c l i n e d t o t h a t body's i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on m i s s i o n a r y work, and wanted to ask more s c h o l a r l y q u e s t i o n s 11 about p r i m i t i v e peoples. By 1 8 6 3 , some members of t h i s new group were f e e l i n g t h a t i t s concerns were not y e t s c h o l a r l y 3. enough, and twelve of them l e f t t o form the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London. Whereas the ESL concentrated upon the v a r i o u s races of Man and t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the ASL wanted to go f u r t h e r and look more c l o s e l y a t Man's pl a c e i n Nature, and the l i n k s between him and other animals. The a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s were more i n t e r e s t e d i n an all-encompassing 12 Science of Man. Other i s s u e s were a l s o i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s p l i t , such as polygenism versus monogenism; t h a t i s , the q u e s t i o n of how many s p e c i e s of Man there were: the r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n of the u n i t y of the human s p e c i e s , and i t s i m p l i c a -t i o n s f o r the e q u a l i t y of the r a c e s of Man; the stand thus to be taken on the American C i v i l War; o p i n i o n s about the c u r r e n t I r i s h s i t u a t i o n : and, beyond these, the a d m i t t i n g 13 of women t o an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y . ^ S h o r t l y a f t e r the ASL was formed, the problem of combining s c i e n c e and r e l i g i o n arose here, with the r e s u l t t h a t those who favoured t h e i r s t u d i e s having a m i s s i o n a r y purpose l e f t 124. i n 1865 to s e t up the V i c t o r i a I n s t i t u t e . A f t e r t h a t , there was no other h i v i n g o f f from e i t h e r the ESL or the ASL. The two S o c i e t i e s e x i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y , as noted u n t i l 1871, when they u n i t e d as the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e of 1 5 Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d ("Royal" as added i n 1907) . Negotiations f o r union had begun i n 1868, but there were many problems to r e s o l v e , of which a major one was the proposed name " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l " f o r the new I n s t i t u t e . The ethno-l o g i s t s c o u l d not accept i t , and the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s r e f u s e d to give i t up. The l a t t e r group were f i n a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r stand, and the I n s t i t u t e r e c e i v e d t h e i r name,'LU In 1873» a number of the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p a r t y who f e l t t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were be i n g ignored withdrew to form 17 the London A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , but t h i s ended i n I 8 7 6 , and the RAI continued i t s development as the s o l e anthropo-l o g i c a l body i n England. The two o r i g i n a l S o c i e t i e s i n t h i s s t o r y , the ESL and ASL, e x i s t e d a p a r t , then, f o r e i g h t y e a r s , from I 8 6 3 "to 1871. 18 The p e r i o d i c s n i p i n g i s s u i n g from the ASL d u r i n g t h e i r d i v i s i o n showed t h a t the s e p a r a t i o n , from t h a t group's p o i n t of view a t l e a s t , was not e x a c t l y amicable. Yet they shared 19 meeting rooms, ' p u b l i s h e d j o u r n a l s of ve r y s i m i l a r formats, wrote on s i m i l a r t o p i c s , and even had some ov e r l a p i n member-sh i p . And so a q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as t o t h e i r p r e c i s e natures and r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s t o g e t h e r with the s e p a r a t i o n and l a t e r r e u n i o n of the S o c i e t i e s has c o n s t i t u t e d a t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n from time to time i n some of the d e t a i l e d 20 h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s of anthropology t h a t e x i s t , as w e l l 21 as i n the o c c a s i o n a l paper. The d i s c u s s i o n , however, seems l i k e the s i t u a t i o n of the S o c i e t i e s themselves, confused and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . Reading the accounts t h a t e x i s t , one f i n d s disagreement i n them about the S o c i e t i e s ' purposes, t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , the reasons f o r the s p l i t , and the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t made re u n i o n p o s s i b l e . There i s a l s o c o n f u s i o n about the a c t u a l outcome of the reunion. 22 Did the e t h n o l o g i s t s win, as some say, or the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s 23 as others do? J Or d i d no one win: was the RAI something 5. completely new? There i s reason t h e r e f o r e to r e a s s e s s the s i t u a t i o n , to see i f the d i s c r e p a n c i e s can be c l e a r e d up. A. f u r t h e r reason f o r seeking to present a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e here i s t h a t , a p a r t from accounts i n the few works on the growth of the d i s c i p l i n e of anthropology, I t i s not a g e n e r a l l y know p e r i o d i n i t s h i s t o r y . S u r v e y i n g twenty-2 "5 two textbooks of anthropology, J one f i n d s mention of the two S o c i e t i e s i n only f o u r of them, with a g r e a t d e a l more c o n f u s i o n than t h a t noted a b o v e . T h i s i s more than a simple matter of n e g l e c t , as awareness of the S o c i e t i e s c a s t s a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t l i g h t on the way we see V i c t o r i a n B r i t i s h anthropology. The t y p i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s p e r i o d i s t h a t there were only a few i s o l a t e d , and t h e r e f o r e v e r y b r i l l i a n t , i n d i v i d u a l s t h i n k i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y a t the time, p a r t i c u l a r l y T y l o r , Maine, McLennan, F r a s e r and Spencer. Granted, t h i s v e r s i o n goes on to say t h a t t h e i r ideas may be u s e l e s s now, and even wrong, but t h a t they s t i l l should be g i v e n c r e d i t and venerated f o r t h e i r p i o n e e r i n g 27 work. ' But there were two S o c i e t i e s concerned w i t h the study of Man a t t h a t time, not to mention the i n c l u s i o n of a n t h r o -p o l o g i c a l p u r s u i t s i n a s e c t i o n of the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n O Q f o r the Advancement of Science. Hence we must d i s c a r d an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d view of the p a s t of the d i s c i p l i n e . These "lone t h i n k e r s " i n V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n had bodies of s i m i l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h whom to exchange i d e a s . Perhaps 6 . the i n s i g h t s t h a t we a t t r i b u t e to these few persons of genius were only those h e l d commonly by the members of the groups. And indeed, T y l o r and McLennan both belonged t o the ESL, and F r a s e r , of a l a t e r p e r i o d , was a member of the 29 30 RAI. 7 Spencer, as Burrow p o i n t s out, was a r e c l u s e , ^ while Maine was more i n t e r e s t e d i n b e i n g a lawyer then a founder of a n t h r o p o l o g y . J At any r a t e , the Nineteenth Century was not the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d e se r t t h a t we regard i t , and i t needs r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the l i g h t of what i s r e a l l y was. Not o n l y have commentators n e g l e c t e d the circumstances surrounding the f o r m a t i o n of the RAI, and ignored the f a c t t h a t a commianity of people w i t h a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s e x i s t e d a t t h i s time, they a l s o overlooked the work done i n the two S o c i e t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f we are so l i t t l e aware of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , i t a l s o seems l i k e l y t h a t we have not f u l l y comprehended t h e i r endeavours. F o r t h a t reason too, the p i c t u r e of Nineteenth centure anthropology t h a t we have i s s i m p l i s t i c , and even dubious. To c i t e the Standard V e r s i o n once more, we have the venerated F a t h e r s at l e a s t g e t t i n g the d i s c i p l i n e going, but i n the main d o i n g i t wrong, b e i n g armchair a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and throrough-going and 32 misguided e v o l u t i o n i s t s . Yet i t seems i m p o s s i b l e t h a t t h a t was a l l t h a t they d i d , and t h a t they a l l achieved nothing. Again, a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n seems i n order. 7. I f the ESL has been n e g l e c t e d today, i t a l s o seems to have had l i t t l e impact on i t s own time. One f i n d s v e r y few r e f e r e n c e s to the S o c i e t y , f o r example, d u r i n g the years of i t s e x i s t e n c e , i n contemporary j o u r n a l s . Of the t h i r t y -two p u b l i c a t i o n s surveyed by the present w r i t e r , only two mentioned the ESL. Although prominent f i g u r e s who were members of i t , such as A.R. Wallace, Thomas Huxley, S i r Charles L y e l l and C h a r l e s Darwin, appear f r e q u e n t l y , the ESL i s not mentioned i n c o n j u n c t i o n with t h e m . ^ S i m i l a r l y , i t would f i r s t appear t h a t the members d i d not regard t h e i r t i e with the S o c i e t y as important. E n t r i e s i n b i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n a r i e s seldom note t h a t a person belonged t o the ESL, although other S o c i e t i e s such as the Royal S o c i e t y and the Royal Geographical S o c i e t y are mentioned. Even Huxley, who f i g u r e d so g r e a t l y i n the f o r m a t i o n of the RA.I, does Ik not mention i t i n h i s autobiography. I t i s too simple a s o l u t i o n however to decide t h a t the ESL was of no s i g n i f i c a n c e . A b r i e f r e a d i n g of the S o c i e t y ' s j o u r n a l s r e v e a l s many men of note i n other areas of V i c t o r i a n l i f e , i n p o s i t i o n of power and p r e s t i g e . Mention has been made of L y e l l , Darwin, Huxley, and Wallace, men of V i c t o r i a n s c i e n c e . There were a l s o those who h e l d h i g h governmental p o s i t i o n s , such as S i r Ru t h e r f o r d A l c o c k , Lord Brougham, S i r James Kay-Shuttieworth, E a r l Gray, and men of note i n other f i e l d s , such as Charles K i n g s l e y , F.W. F a r r a r , S i r James C l a r k , and S i r John C o n o l l y . I t does not make sense to say t h a t these men, so accomplished and prominent 8. i n t h e i r own f i e l d s , were simply incapable i n ethnology. One wonders j u s t what the So c i e t y meant to them, what f u n c t i o n i t f u l f i l l e d i n t h e i r l i v e s , and how these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s might e x p l a i n i t s r e p u t a t i o n , or l a c k t h ereof, i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . The very c o n t r a d i c t i o n , then, between the S o c i e t y ' s contemporary r e p u t a t i o n and the c a l i b r e of i t s membership, f u r n i s h e s yet another reason f o r re-examining the ESL. What faces us, i n f a c t , i s the two-fold question of the ESL's p o s i t i o n i n our time and i n i t s own. An i n q u i r y i n t o the ESL i n t h i s l a t t e r way comes to have bearing on the h i s t o r y of m i d - V i c t o r i a n England, as i t produces an examination of some of the s o c i e t y ' s famous men i n a sphere where apparently t h e i r a b i l i t y d i d not shine through. Such an examination a l s o has relevance to V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l h i s t o r y i n another way, i n that i t i s a study of a p a r t i c u l a r men's a s s o c i a t i o n . The m i d - V i c t o r i a n period was e s p e c i a l l y a time of the m u l t i -p l i c a t i o n of men's groups, a feature remarked upon by f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s to England, J and a phenomenon th a t has yet to be studied i n depth. There are d e s c r i p t i v e accounts of some of the older groups, and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d analyses 37 of s e l e c t e d S o c i e t i e s . Lyndsay F a r r a l l has suggested a f o u r - f o l d typology of such groups: the p h i l a n t h r o p i c s o c i e t y , the r e l i g i o u s s e c t , (the p o l i t i c a l movement)-^ the learned s o c i e t y . But other than t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (which, i t should be noted, i s not s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d t o men's groups) there i s l i t t l e to be found by way of an o v e r a l l examination 9. of these a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . One can t h i n k of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on such groups i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s f o r i t s suggestions of f u n c t i o n s t h a t might a l s o be present i n V i c t o r i a n England. There i s the c r o s s - c u t t i n g e f f e c t t h a t such groups have i n a s o c i e t y which i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y complex, and d i f f i c u l t to i n t e g r a t e through f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n . - ^ A s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h i s case break down s o c i e t y i n t o manageable groups i n which d e c i s i o n s can be made and tasks s o l v e d . Such groups a l s o combat the i m p e r s o n a l i t y of a s o c i e t y by o f f e r i n g the members a b a s i s of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Then too, there i s the aspect of s o l i d a r i t y , i n t h i s case among the males of the s o c i e t y , as the occupants of a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e and upholders 40 of p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e s . These and other f i n d i n g s from the l i t e r a t u r e may on a more d e t a i l e d examination be found to be r e l e v a n t to the phenomenon of groups i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r t h e s i s i s concerned with more l i m i t e d matters, but i t does have broader s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h a t i t o f f e r s i n f o r m a t i o n on one of these groups t h a t may be added to the growing body of such work, and e v e n t u a l l y u t i l i z e d i n an o v e r a l l study. F u r t h e r , i t may suggest, i n p o i n t i n g to the important aspects of the ESL, what types of t h i n g s are to be looked f o r i n the l a r g e r i s s u e . The s u b j e c t of t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , and the i n f o r m a t i o n i t d i s c u s s e s has b e a r i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r upon the h i s t o r y of anthropology, and more g e n e r a l l y upon 1 0 . the h i s t o r y of V i c t o r i a n England. To these ends the work here i s important f o r the data i t deals w i t h . I I This t h e s i s a l s o has relevance i n another areas metho-dology. In t h i s study, I wish to t e s t and argue i n favour of c e r t a i n methodological p o i n t s . One has t o do w i t h the way i n which the h i s t o r i e s of such V i c t o r i a n men's groups are done. The s t u d i e s of t h i s s o r t f a l l i n t o two main types, as mentioned above. F i r s t , there are those which are e s s e n t i a l l y kl d e s c r i p t i o n s and chronologies of the group's a c t i v i t i e s . Then there are those t h a t attempt to trace a S o c i e t y ' s development and s i g n i f i c a n c e to i t s time, o f t e n i l l u s t r a t i n g k2 a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t or theory e x t e r n a l to the group. In both types there i s g e n e r a l l y some mention of the membership or the s o c i a l composition of the group, u s u a l l y anecdotal or b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n the former, and attempts at more a n a l y t i c a l treatment i n the l a t t e r . But these analyses need to be more r i g o u r o u s l y done. On the whole, t h i s a n a l y s i s bases upon very incomplete, suggestive m a t e r i a l that i s never m e t h o d i c a l l y examined. For example, from reference to a few f a c t s about i n d i v i d u a l kl members, the nature of the whole Soc i e t y i s deduced, J or from reference to a l a r g e r , but s t i l l not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e kk sample, the same s o r t of c o n c l u s i o n i s attempted. B i o -g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on what i s a c t u a l l y a small number of people out of the t o t a l i s g i v e n i n d e t a i l , thus c l o u d i n g 4< the inadequacy of the sample, ^ and percentages of s i m i l a r l y 46 s m a l l groups are presented as b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t . The meanings of the s o c i a l f e a t u r e s of the group are not always sought i n t h e i r own context, but i n ours, thus g i v i n g anachron-47 i s t i c readings of the data. ' I t i s my c o n t e n t i o n , which I attempt t o i l l u s t r a t e here, t h a t the s o c i a l a n a l y s i s must be p r o p e r l y done, i n d e t a i l and m e t h o d i c a l l y , and the s o c i a l nature of the group must be v a l i d l y e s t a b l i s h e d . U n t i l then, a l l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can r e l a t e only to impressions, not data. In a sense, t h i s i s l i t t l e more than a c a l l f o r good h i s t o r y , and n o t h i n g v e r y n o v e l . S t i l l , i n t h a t i t i s necessary to p o i n t out and r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n , the f a c t remains t h a t adequate s t u d i e s of the s o c i a l aspect of such groups are, on the whole, y e t to be done. B e a r i n g t h i s i n mind, i n t h i s t h e s i s I attempt to r e c o n s t r u c t the s o c i a l nature of the ESL as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e , drawing only such c o n c l u s i o n s as the documentation warrants, and l o o k i n g f o r a s o c i a l c o n f i g u r a -t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the whole group. Another, more g e n e r a l , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e i s the way i n which the h i s t o r y of anthropology i s done, p a r t i c u l a r l y by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . Mention has been made e a r l i e r of the u s u a l p i c t u r e of Nineteenth Century anthropology, and how the i n f o r m a t i o n on the ESL and ASL stands to change i t d r a s t i c a l l y . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the f i n d i n g s on t h i s p e r i o d can now be expanded and explored. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the 12. existence of two S o c i e t i e s concerned w i t h the Science of Man goes beyond the p o i n t of c o r r e c t i n g erroneous f a c t s about V i c t o r i a n anthropology. I t has consequences f o r our view of the past and development of our d i s c i p l i n e i n general. I f we reassess the standard p i c t u r e of t h i s period i n anthropology s u s p i c i o n s as to the p i c t u r e ' s v a l i d i t y should a r i s e , even without having, as we happen to have here, p a r t i c u l a r f a c t s t h a t c o n t r a d i c t i t . The n o t i o n of Great Men, e i t h e r i n s p i r e d or misguided, seems at the l e a s t s i m p l i s t i c . I t gives a very heroic p i c t u r e of our development, which has the f u n c t i o n of r e i n f o r c i n g . u s i n our s t r u g g l e s today, e s p e c i a l l y to the extent that our forebears were t a c k l i n g the same problems th a t we face. But i s t h i s f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d by a true reading of the past? In the p a r t i c u l a r case here, t h i s does not seem to be so. The next aspect of the standard i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i s that the essence of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l development was i n t e l l e c t u a l , and that i t c o n s i s t e d of a succession of good ideas -- the Great Idea concept. This p o i n t of view tends to make one look at the ideas of the past d i v o r c e d from t h e i r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l context, and thus o f t e n from t h e i r o r i g i n a l meaning. I t a l s o , l i k e the Great Man approach, creates a u t i l i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e towards the past, l o o k i n g at i t f o r what i t s a i d of use to us today, and not f o r what i t was i n i t s own terms. 1 3 . This way of t r e a t i n g ideas, plus the view that the succeeding ideas are seen as cumulative progress, leads to a f u r t h e r points the e v a l u a t i v e nature of the treatment of the past. Our a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l predecessors are seen 48 as " a n t i c i p a t i n g " or " f a i l i n g to see" important p o i n t s ; they are i n s p i r e d or misguided, and a c c o r d i n g l y venerated because or i n s p i t e of themselves. And y e t , by whose c r i t e r i a are they "misguided" or " i n s p i r e d " ? F u r ther, when such judgments of our predecessors change so r a d i c a l l y over time, one must be even more d o u b t f u l of the f a c t u a l nature of the p i c t u r e he i s accepting. To i l l u s t r a t e , E.B. T y l o r Lg i s today commonly seen as the Father of Anthropology: y T.H. Huxley, on the other hand, i s h a r d l y ever mentioned i n c o n j u c t i o n w i t h anthropology except as somehow le n d i n g h i s name to the annual Huxley Memorial Lecture of the RAI.-^ Yet the p o s i t i o n of these men i n anthropology today represents a complete r e v e r s a l of an e a r l i e r view that Huxley was more important to the development of the d i s c i p l i n e and T y l o r 51 was completely on the wrong tr a c k . S i m i l a r l y , the i d e a t h a t a l l the people i n t e r e s t e d i n anthropology i n the Nineteenth century were o l d - s t y l e e v o l u t i o n i s t s i s again sweeping, s i m p l i s t i c , and suspect. The f a u l t here i s not a matter of having the wrong f a c t s about our past; indeed, the f a c t s are hardly known, and very seldom sought. The problem l i e s r a t h e r i n the area of how we approach the past and do our h i s t o r y : the h i s t o r i o -graphy of anthropology. 14. The v a r i o u s elements t h a t we have d i s c u s s e d i n the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l treatment of i t s past are not unique to t h a t d i s c i p l i n e . They are t y p i c a l of the h i s t o r y of s c i e n c e i n g e n e r a l . T.S. Kuhn has d i s c u s s e d the matter i n h i s S t r u c t u r e of S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s , and p o i n t e d out the f a l l a c y of such procedures, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Great Man -Great Idea approach, and the n o t i o n of cumulative progress with i t s attendant e v a l u a t i v e treatment of the past. J H i s t o r i a n s have l a b e l l e d the approach "the Whig I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y " ! i t i s h i s t o r y seen only from the p o i n t of view of the c u r r e n t v i c t o r s , t r a c i n g t h e i r development to success.-'' T h i s type of h i s t o r i o g r a p h y has been so widespread i n a n t h r o -pology t h a t J.W. Burrow, i n h i s E v o l u t i o n and S o c i e t y , p o i n t s out t h a t he i s s p e c i f i c a l l y not doing a h i s t o r y of V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l anthropology as a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s would do i t , and he goes f a r t h e r to i d e n t i f y j u s t t h a t s o r t of h i s t o r y as Whiggish. We have suggested a f u n c t i o n of such h i s t o r i o g r a p h y f o r h i s t o r i a n s , i n a s m u c h as they are g i v e n a type of moral support i n t h e i r present-day concerns. F u r t h e r , t h e i r work i s g i v e n v a l i d a t i o n to the extent t h a t they can demonstrate t h e i r d i r e c t i n t e l l e c t u a l descent from the p a s t , and t r a c e t h e i r c u r r e n t q u e s t i o n s and thoughts to t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e ' s founders. T h i s f u n c t i o n of Whig h i s t o r i o g r a p h y may be of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n anthropology i f anthropology i s , as Kuhn says of a l l the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , i n a p r e - para-digmatic s t a t e . By t h i s Kuhn means t h a t a d i s c i p l i n e 15. i s not t r u l y a science, i t s p r a c t i o n e r s not having reached an agreedupon d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r concerns and methods, and, t h e r e f o r e , s t i l l arguing as to the nature of the f i e l d . I t c e r t a i n l y strengthens the case of a given school i f i t can be seen as a d i r e c t descendant of the founders of the d i s c i p l i n e , c a r r y i n g the true and proper t r a d i t i o n s to the present. Thus th a t " h i s t o r y i s on our s i d e " becomes an important c l a i m to make i n these circumstances, and hence provides a m o t i v a t i o n to i n t e r p r e t the past i n order to e s t a b l i s h j u s t t h a t f a c t . A good example of t h i s i s Marvin H a r r i s ' s Rise of A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Theory i n which he, a c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n i s t , sees the h i s t o r y of anthropology as being the h i s t o r y of the f i n a l emergence of the c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n a r y framework i n anthropology. But i n h i s attempt to e s t a b l i s h t h i s , the h i s t o r y of the d i s c i p l i n e s u f f e r s . Those of schools which opposed h i s are w r i t t e n o f f as i n s i g n i f i c a n t or v i l l a i n o u s ; thus, Boas becomes mi s d i r e c t e d and unproductive,-^ and Kroeber, whose impact on anthropology. was, says H a r r i s , doomed by h i s primary t r a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e , 5 9 i s s i m i l a r l y passed over. H a r r i s ' s i s a dangerous book, not j u s t f o r i t s f a u l t y h i s t o r y , but f o r i t s p o s s i b l e e f f e c t . I t i s easy to accept h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as simply being the h i s t o r y of anthropology i f one has no other knowledge of the f i e l d w ith which to compare i t . F u r t h er, h i s book i s so i m p r e s s i v e l y l a r g e , and there are so few h i s t o r i e s of anthropology, most of which only repeat the work of those preceding them,^ 0 that i t i s the more tempting to take him as the Truth. The q u e s t i o n of the a u t h o r i t y t h a t the h i s t o r i a n of anthropology, because of h i s r a r i t y enjoys, l e a d s us to another i s s u e , t h a t of i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s u nfortunate t h a t most novice anthropology students l e a r n t h e i r h i s t o r y of anthropology from those textbooks which are the s t r o n g e s t adherents to the "standard v e r s i o n " . As Kuhn has p o i n t e d out, such works have a.great e f f e c t because they p r o v i d e a student's f i r s t c o n t a c t with the 6 l nature and b a s i c s of h i s d i s c i p l i n e . When t e x t s p r e s e n t the type of s t o r y t h a t we f i n d i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l h i s t o r i o -graphy, they not only perpetuate myths about the past, they a l s o pass on a way of l o o k i n g a t the p a s t t h a t i s to be discouraged. Poor h i s t o r y of anthropology, t h e r e f o r e , i s e s p e c i a l l y bad when i t appears i n sources l i k e these. S u r e l y a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s could spend more time determin-i n g what d i d happen i n the p a s t . Then they c o u l d d e c i d e whether i t i s r e l e v a n t to today's concerns, and i f i t i s use i t , and i f not transcend i t . But t h a t i s a step to take a f t e r documenting the past, not while d o i n g i t . They c o u l d take t h i s e f f o r t f o r reasons, s t i l l of a u t i l i t a r i a n nature, t h a t George S t o c k i n g has p o i n t e d out. Anthropolo-g i s t s c o u l d save some time i n t h e i r s t u d i e s i f they c o u l d l o o k a t the past and " . . . d i s t i n g u i s h between the q u e s t i o n s . asked which have l o n g s i n c e been answered, the q u e s t i o n s which are s t i l l open, and the q u e s t i o n s which we would no 62 l o n g e r even recognize as such". Beyond t h a t , they might 1 7 . have an i n t e r e s t i n the past j u s t p o s s i b l y because i t i s a p p e a l i n g f o r what i t was, and f o r what happened, which, so f a r , we h a r d l y know. There i s a f u r t h e r reason f o r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s d o i n g b e t t e r h i s t o r y and not making these mistakes, and t h a t i s t h a t they are t r a i n e d t o do otherwise. R e l a t i v i s m and o b j e c t i v i t y are va l u e s c e n t r a l t o the d i s c i p l i n e , a t l e a s t when approaching p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s . Why are these suspended when a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s c o n s i d e r t h e i r own past? A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s today would not take a few s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s and g e n e r a l i z e about the r e l a t e d c u l t u r e and time from these, with no r e f e r e n c e to the a c t u a l context. S i m i l a r l y , an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t would not c o n s i d e r the words of a c u l t u r e , f o r example, t h e i r o r a l t r a d i t i o n , a p a r t from t h e i r s e t t i n g . And what a n t h r o p o l o g i s t would l a b e l the members of a p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e "misguided" or " f a r - s e e i n g " ? Such terms are o b v i o u s l y out of the q u e s t i o n . S u r e l y our val u e s L b e y o n d our d e a l i n g s w i t h p r i m i t i v e peoples. Thus we must t r y t o see the men of the past i n t h e i r own terms, as products of t h e i r s o c i e t y and- c u l t u r e ; to understand them we must a l s o examine t h e i r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o ntext. We must look f o r the meaning of t h e i r a c t i v i t y i n t h i s , and not i n our own s e t t i n g . In essence t h i s means r e g a r d i n g our past as we would another c u l t u r e . T h i s i s more than j u s t a p h i l o s o p h i c a l stand taken f o r the sake of argument or a metho d o l o g i c a l t r i c k ; i t i s a l s o a l o g i c a l l y t e n a b l e approach. Our past i s j u s t as much another c u l t u r e , 1 8 , removed from us i n time, as i s a p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y , removed from us i n space. We are not i d e n t i c a l i n e i t h e r case. We are more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to our own past, "being l i n e a l l y descended from i t and a f f e c t e d thus by i t s d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s . S t i l l , the c u l t u r e t h a t we experience today i s one t h a t has developed over time, and i s not the same as th a t of our ancesto r s . In f a c t , because of the v e r y c l o s e n e s s between our past and o u r s e l v e s , w i t h our r e s u l t i n g r e a c t i o n s f a v o u r a b l e or nega t i v e , we have a l l the more reason t o t r y to r ecognize and s e t aside our b i a s e s . In t h i s endeavour we can make use of techniques l e a r n e d f o r the study of p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s . One of these i s , the h o l i s t i c approach, and concern with a l l the aspects of a s o c i e t y together. Thus we are concerned with the s t r u c t u r e and nature of the t o t a l s o c i e t y i n q u e s t i o n , and a l s o , t o t h i s end, with documenting the v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s of s o c i a l l i f e i n t h a t s o c i e t y or p a r t of i t t h a t we are s t r e s s i n g . T h i s l a t t e r i s i n i t s e l f a second technique t y p i c a l t o anthro-pology; the ethnographic approach. A p p l y i n g these techniques to the case here, we are t h e r e f o r e t r y i n g t o understand the ESL as a phenomenon of V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y , and a l s o g a t h e r i n g , s o r t i n g and p r e s e n t i n g d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s group. Where necessary, we can r e f e r s p e c i f i c p o i n t s t o the m a t e r i a l on the l a r g e r V i c t o r i a n s e t t i n g i n order to comprehend t h e i r meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s t h e s i s , i n t h i s sense, r e p r e s e n t s a t e s t of the argument t h a t the past i s another c u l t u r e and ought to be t r e a t e d as such. At l e a s t , we 1 9 . should not take the other p o s i t i o n t h a t our ancestors were s i m i l a r enough to us to be p e r f e c t l y comprehensible according to our own experiences and behaviour u n t i l we know t h i s f o r c e r t a i n . This a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l treatment of the past has an obviously wider a p p l i c a t i o n than the question of the h i s t o r y of anthropology. Our h i s t o r y i n general could be approached t h i s way, with advantages to both h i s t o r i a n s and anthropolo-g i s t s . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s would g a i n a new f i e l d i n which to develop t h e i r ideas on the nature of Man, and h i s t o r i a n s would g a i n new techniques to apply to the past. And f i n a l l y , i n terms of the issue r a i s e d at the beginning: t h i s approach has bearing upon the question of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of h i s t o r y and anthropology. Here we are advocating, and t h i s t h e s i s w i l l demonstrate, the a p p l i c a t i o n of anthropology t o h i s t o r y . To these ends, t h e r e f o r e , t h i s t h e s i s i s of relevance i n the area of methodology. I l l There i s yet a t h i r d area that t h i s t h e s i s bears upon, besides data and methodology, and t h a t i s the type of i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n that best e x p l a i n s the t o p i c here. The most u s u a l e x p l a n a t i o n of the p o s i t i o n of the ESL, i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the ASL, and the reunion i s given i n terms of the i n t e l l e c t u a l aspects of the groups i n question. With reference to the events l e a d i n g to the formation of the RAI,. issues are compared and c o n t r a s t e d , and the.two groups are seen 20. as separated e s s e n t i a l l y by t h e i r d i f f e r e n t ideas on these t o p i c s . Thus the ESL i s seen as: m o n o g e n i s t , ^ hence b e l i e v i n g 64 i n the u n i t y of the human s p e c i e s , and as a consequence a n t i - r a c i s t ; ^ a c c e p t i n g r e l i g i o n , ^ (although a l s o a c c e p t i n g 6 7 6 8 Darwin); humanitarian and p h i l a n t h r o p i c ; and i n favour 69 of a d m i t t i n g women to the S o c i e t y . 7 The ASL i s regarded 70 as r e p r e s e n t i n g the other s i d e of the c o i n : p o l y g e n i s t , 71 b e l i e v i n g i n the e x i s t e n c e of a number of s p e c i e s of Man, 72 73 * 74 and r a c i s t ; ' a n t i - r e l i g i o n ' ^ and p r o - s c i e n c e , ' although 7 5 opposed to Darwin:'-^ concerned only with study and not advocat-76 7 9 i n g a cause:' and opposed to a l l o w i n g women m t h e i r S o c i e t y . ' 7 And so i t i s argued t h a t i n i m i c a l b e l i e f s kept the two S o c i e t i e s a p a r t . T h i s i s a v e r y neat and understandable p i c t u r e , but the f a c t alone t h a t there are i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s w i t h i n each p r o f i l e suggests t h a t i t may be o v e r l o o k i n g something. That the ESL could support both r e l i g i o n and Darwin i s one obvious i n c o n s i s t e n c y , and t h a t the ASL c o u l d be both committed onl y to s c h o l a r l y work, and y e t r a c i s t , i s another. Attempts have been made to i r o n out some of these problems. S t o c k i n g , f o r example, has o f f e r e d an e x p l a n a t i o n of how the ESL could 7 8 be the more favourable to Darwin. But then one f i n d s o n l y one a r t i c l e i n t h a t S o c i e t y ' s t h i r t e e n volumes of 7 9 p u b l i c a t i o n s mentioning Darwin,' 7 and wonders i f there was t h a t much of an impact made by him on t h i s group, and t h a t , even i f the ASL opposed Darwin, d i d the ESL n e c e s s a r i l y accept him? F u r t h e r , other l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t the S o c i e t y was q u i t e i m p e r v i o u s t o h i s i d e a s , a l t h o u g h s t i l l 80 not a c t u a l l y opposed t o them. S i m i l a r l y , the ESL a l s o t a l k e d i n f a v o u r of s c i e n c e , and i n d e e d was i t s e l f o s t e n s i b l y formed from the A b o r i g i n e s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y i n o r d e r t o s t u d y Man r a t h e r t h a n t o promote a cause. A. r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p o s i t i o n s of b o t h S o c i e t i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y were n o t e q u a l l y ranged a l o n g a s e t of i s s u e s on which t h e y h e l d c o n t r a r y o p i n i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , the ASL p u b l i s h e d d e f i n i t e s t a t e m e n t on i t s v i e w s of the i n e q u a l i t y of r a c e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r the Negro's i n f e r i o r i t y . I t a l s o went f a r t h e r t o s u p p o r t the South i n the A m e r i c a n O p C i v i l War, and Governor Eyre of ZTarnaica f o r h i s h a r s h s u p p r e s s i o n of an u p r i s i n g of Negro f a r m e r s . -* The ESL, however, d i d n o t l a u n c h a c o u n t e r a t t a c k , condemn the ASL, or promote the o p p o s i t e s i d e s i n the d i s p u t e s t h a t the ASL e n t e r e d . I n s t e a d , i t was s i l e n t . There i s o n l y one r e f e r e n c e i n t h i s group's j o u r n a l s t h a t might i n d i c a t e i t s t a k i n g a s t a n d on the Negro's p o s i t i o n i n humanity, but the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s becomes a p p a r e n t o n l y a f t e r G. S t o c k i n g has p o i n t e d i t out f o r us. That was the m ention of a d e l a y i n p u b l i s h i n g an a r t i c l e on S i e r r a Leone. The f a c t t h a t S i e r r a Leone was a s t a t e of f r e e d s l a v e s , and the i l l u s t r a t i o n s accompanying the a r t i c l e d e p i c t e d the Negro i n a v e r y f l a t t e r i n g way, t h a t i s , s i m i l a r i n appearane t o W h i t e s , i n d i c a t e s , says S t o c k i n g , the ESL's 84-a n t i - r a c i s t v i e w s . T h i s i s not a t a l l o b v i o u s , however, from the l i t t l e t h a t the ESL r e v e a l s i n i t s b r i e f note 22. about the delay. J The c o n t r o v e r s y seems to have stemmed more from James Hunt who opposed the a r t i c l e and who s h o r t l y a f t e r l e f t the S o c i e t y to s e t up and l e a d the ASL, r a t h e r than i t s having been a major i s s u e with two camps e q u a l l y opposed. Hence, the p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l a n a t i o n i s f a c e d by v a r i o u s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , which perhaps a more;'.detailed study of the s i t u a t i o n w i l l e x p l a i n and c l e a r up. Then again, perhaps t h i s type of e x p l a n a t i o n i s not adequate f o r the case here. The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s of how some people c o u l d belong to both S o c i e t i e s : perhaps they were not so s t r o n g l y p o l a r i z e d on the i s s u e s as other, more v o c a l , members. There i s the f u r t h e r problem of how union was p o s s i b l e , i n terms of how the competing i d e a s were r e c o n c i l e d . T h i s i s one type of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to keep i n mind, then, when a n a l y z i n g the s i t u a t i o n here i n more d e t a i l . J u s t what were the ideas of the groups, and to what extent were they d i f f e r e n t and incompatible? In t h i s study we w i l l document the d e t a i l of the ESL, thus e s t a b l i s h i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l nature of the S o c i e t y . Then we can compare t h i s with s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l on the ASL. F o r now, t h i s l a t t e r w i l l come from the l i t e r a t u r e and a c u r s o r y r e a d i n g of the ASL's p u b l i c a t i o n s ; a complete study of the matter must await a s i m i l a r d e t a i l e d treatment of t h a t group. There i s a second type of e x p l a n a t i o n p o s s i b l e here which has been touched upon, but not developed, by George S t o c k i n g . He t a l k s of three s u c c e s s i v e approaches to the 23. study of Man involved i n the period i n question, which he c a l l s the " e t h n o l o g i c a l " , " a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l " and " e v o l u t i o n a r y " 86 t r a d i t i o n s . Elsewhere, he has r e l a t e d these to Kuhn's work on the s t r u c t u r e of s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n s , r e f e r r i n g O n t o them as "paradigms". Thus he has suggested a d i f f e r e n t area to look at i n c o n s i d e r i n g the two S o c i e t i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . For although "paradigm" has to do mainly w i t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l aspect of s c i e n t i f i c thought, how knowledge i s organized and i n t e r p r e t e d , i t has the f u r t h e r connation of the way i n which such a framework comes to p r e v a i l . A paradigm i s not j u s t a way of seeing the world; i t i s a p a r t i c u l a r way of seeing the world t h a t has won acceptance. To Kuhn, change i n s c i e n t i f i c ideas i s not an issue of the succession of one idea by a b e t t e r one, as i s the Q O u s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Rather, he s t r e s s e s the importance of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c i e n t i f i c ideas and the community of s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Ideas have to be accepted by the community, not j u s t be b e t t e r : indeed, s u p e r i o r i t y i s something i n i t s e l f to be decided by the comminity, and not 89 an inherent q u a l i t y of the i d e a i t s e l f . x Thus the str u g g l e i n science f o r the ascendancy of an i d e a or set of ideas as a framework; that i s , a paradigm, i s to be seen as a stru g g l e of the s c i e n t i f i c community. Kuhn's study of science focusses upon the nature of t h i s community and i t s workings r a t h e r than upon ideas as i s o l a t e s . His i s thus a type of exp l a n a t i o n concerned more w i t h s t r u c t u r a l or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l elements.^ 0 24. Other l i t e r a t u r e on the same i s s u e which expands Kuhn's t h e s i s may a l s o be r e l e v a n t here. Warren Hagstrom i s concerned with the o r g a n i z a t i o n of s c i e n c e r a t h e r than i d e a s per se, and h i s book, The S c i e n t i f i c Community, d e a l s with d i s p u t e s among the members of a d i s c i p l i n e , o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n the f o r m a t i o n of a new d i s c i p l i n e . Lyndsay F a r r a l l has summarized h i s argument as f o l l o w s : d i f f e r e n c e s as to g o a l s , methods, or t h e o r i e s produce d e v i a n t groups which can attempt e i t h e r to reform the d i s c i p l i n e , or to g a i n f o r themselves the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the orthodox group enjoys. T h i s may be done by s e t t i n g up a new j o u r n a l and a p p e a l i n g to a u t h o r i t i e s 91 outside the d i s c i p l i n e . A f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n of Kuhn's work i s o f f e r e d by M.D. K i n g who g i v e s a l a b e l t o the outcome of such d i s p u t e s : i n t e l l e c t u a l a u t h o r i t y . He says t h a t while Kuhn i d e n t i f i e s the arguments over paradigms as a p a r t of the s c i e n t i f i c community, he does not c a r r y the i m p l i c a t i o n of these to 92 i t s l o g i c a l end. Kuhn t a l k s of the s u c c e s s i o n of one paradigm by another, the r e s u l t of a s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n , only i n terms of a r e l i g i o u s c o n v e r s i o n or g e s t a l t switch, thus e f f e c t i v e l y removing the q u e s t i o n to the realms of the 93 unanalysable and u n d i s c u s s a b l e . J King, however, f e e l s t h a t i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e l i e s w i t h i n our grasp. The outcome of a s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n i s the i n t e l l e c t u a l a u t h o r i t y accorded t o the s u c c e s s f u l paradigm, and, by e x t e n s i o n , to i t s upholders. I t has gained, by winning, the r i g h t to d e f i n e the f i e l d of study, to decide what q u e s t i o n s are important and how to 25. pursue them, and how to i n t e r p r e t the r e s u l t i n g d i s c o v e r i e s . I t can thus l i c e n s e or censor p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the f i e l d a c c o r d i n g t o how c l o s e l y they f o l l o w i t s model. I t has become the new orthodoxy. T h i s type of e x p l a n a t i o n may be a p p r o p r i a t e to the case under examination here. P o s s i b l y the two S o c i e t i e s were i n v o l v e d i n a s t r u g g l e over t h e i r d i f f e r e n t views of Man, the outcome of which would decide v/hich group would d e f i n e the study of anthropology. The d i f f e r e n c e s between them then were l e s s a matter of p a r t i c u l a r i d e a s then something more s t r u c t u r a l , having to do with what types of q u e s t i o n s and t h e o r i e s were v a l i d and important, and thus how a n t h r o -pology was to be organized and c a r r i e d out. From the g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of the ESL-A.SL d i s p u t e , an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n along these l i n e s seems p l a u s i b l e . The ASL d i d s e t up i t s own j o u r n a l , and i t claimed to be more concerned with true s c i e n c e . Perhaps a c l o s e r look a t the ESL w i l l r e v e a l s i m i l a r evidence of the s t r u g g l e as t h a t S o c i e t y experienced i t , and more d e t a i l s as to i t s nature and outcome. P o s s i b l y too, t h i s o v e r a l l e x p l a n a t i o n w i l l be more s a t i s f a c t o r y than a s o l e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l one. Using t h i s framework, however, r e q u i r e s some c a u t i o n , f o r i t i n v o l v e s a f a i r amount of e x t r a p o l a t i o n . Anthropology at the time we are s t u d y i n g was not a s c i e n c e i n Kuhn's sense; indeed, as we have poini&Jout above, Kuhn t h i n k s t h a t a l l the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s today are s t i l l i n the pre-paradigmatic s t a t e , and not proper s c i e n c e s . S t r i c t l y speaking then, Kuhn, and King who c a r r i e s on from him, cannot be a p p l i e d to the case i n question here. S t i l l , Kuhn does allow f o r some wider a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s argument, saying that s i m i l a r 96 developments i n f i e l d s outside science are not impossible. S i m i l a r l y , Hagstrom defines the boundaries of h i s work very p r e c i s e l y , He i s concerned with the s c i e n t i f i c community only, which he sees as a Twentieth Century phenomenon, and 97 then only i n the experimental sciences. Thus Nineteenth Century anthropology i s not (by h i s narrow d e f i n i t i o n ) a d i s c i p l i n e . We must therefore at l e a s t be c a r e f u l i n saying that the developments we are c o n s i d e r i n g d i r e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e a Kuhnian framework, but to the extent that they manifest s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s , reference to t h i s type of e x p l a n a t i o n i s v a l i d f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the events t a k i n g place. In both types of e x p l a n a t i o n discussed thus f a r , the i n t e l l e c t u a l and t h e . s t r u c t u r a l , the concern i s w i t h the s c i e n t i f i c community only: the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the group of men i n the p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the ideas that these groups produced. But there i s a l s o the question of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the community to the l a r g e r one: the p o s i t i o n of the group members i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . This i s an aspect that Kuhn and Hagstome do not d e a l w i t h , as they regard the s c i e n t i f i c community as a closed one, 98 and do not r e l a t e i t to the outside world. Other h i s t o r i a n s 99 of science argue s i m i l a r l y , and p o s s i b l y today, with science such as w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n , 27. such i s indeed the case. However, i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s was so i n Nineteenth Century England, when s c i e n c e - • 100 , , . . . . . . . . . . . 101 was not a p r o f e s s i o n , b a r e l y a d i s c i p l i n e i n u n i v e r s i t i e s , 102 and s t u d i e s i n s c i e n t i f i c s o c i e t i e s , l a r g e l y by amateurs whose v o c a t i o n s were i n other u n r e l a t e d areas. The chance to do s c i e n c e a t t h i s time, moreover, was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to one's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , as, e x c e p t i n g a v e r y s m a l l group 104-1 0 3 of p a i d , f u l l - t i m e s c i e n t i s t s , J only those w i t h the means, and t h e r e f o r e the l e i s u r e , c ould pursue s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r i e s . Thus we have a t h i r d framework of e x p l a n a t i o n with which to regard the ESL: a s o c i a l one. In t h i s we are concerned with the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the group to the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , and how t h e i r composition was r e f l e c t e d i n the work they d i d . There i s more reason i n t h i s study to c o n s i d e r t h i s type of framework, i n the l i g h t of the p a r t i c u l a r problem t h a t emerges with the ESL: the d i s c r e p a n c y between the S o c i e t y ' s r e p u t a t i o n and the q u a l i t y of i t s membership. In t h i s case the t i e with the l a r g e r s o c i a l c ontext cannot be ignored. Moreover, i t may be t h a t the ASL had a s o c i a l c omposition of a d i f f e r e n t s o r t , and t h a t t h i s was a funda-mental d i s t i n c t i o n between the two groups. F i n a l l y , perhaps t h i s element i s more important than any i n t e l l e c t u a l d i f f e r -ences,- or a p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r a l s t r u g g l e . * # * 28. In sum, t h i s t h e s i s attempts to say something i n each of three d i f f e r e n t areas. At the l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n , i t o f f e r s m a t e r i a l on a p e r i o d of anthropology t h a t i s n e i t h e r w e l l known-or w e l l understood. Secondly, i t p r o v i d e s i n f o r -mation on a form of group t y p i c a l of t h i s p e r i o d of E n g l i s h h i s t o r y . Next, i t i l l u s t r a t e s and t e s t s ^ ^ ' ^ m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p o i n t s about s t u d i e s of such groups, the nature of the h i s t o r y of anthropology, and the p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l techniques to a S o c i e t y i n our own past. Then, i t bears on the types of e x p l a n a t i o n s used i n d e a l i n g with the p a r t i c u l a r problem at hand, the ESL and ASL, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p and reunion, and a l s o the more g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s between such groups, and the processes and i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . The next and f i n a l i s s u e to d i s c u s s i s the procedure by which t h i s study was c a r r i e d out. My main source of i n f o r m a t i o n was the p u b l i c a t i o n s of the ESL: the J o u r n a l , c o v e r i n g the years 1844-531 "the Trans-a c t i o n s f o r 1861-69, and the new s e r i e s Journal,.' f o r 1869-71. These volumes, t h i r t e e n i n a l l , c o n t a i n a r t i c l e s , mention of members and e x e c u t i v e , mentions of meetings and the d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t took plac e a t them, and p r e s i d e n t i a l addresses. Reports of the Annual Meetings are p u b l i s h e d i n some volumes of the T r a n s a c t i o n s , and these sometimes i n c l u d e a l i s t of the papers read to the S o c i e t y i n the year preceding. One a l s o f i n d s membership l i s t s p u b l i s h e d i n the T r a n s a c t i o n s f o r I863 and 1866-71 . The e n t r i e s i n these are d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to type of membership, and they i n c l u d e , besides 2 9 . names, addresses, and i n d i c a t i o n of s o c i a l t i t l e , occupation, and membership i n a s s o c i a t i o n s other than the ESL. In t o t a l , the journals t e l l about such t h i n g s as the ideas and t o p i c s of i n t e r e s t to the S o c i e t y , i t s aims and formal setup, numbers and d i s t r i b u t i o n of members, and the s o c i a l nature of the membership. In the e a r l i e r j o u r n a l s , the s e l e c t i o n s cover a broad time span. The l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n s seem i n c r e a s i n g l y b e t t e r organized and more d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a c t i v i t y i n the meetings. The dates of the a r t i c l e s are more or l e s s c h r o n o l o g i c a l by the time of the second s e r i e s of the J o u r n a l . A comparison of the t a b l e s of contents with the l i s t s of a r t i c l e s read, as given i n the y e a r l y Report, show, f o r example, th a t i n I 8 6 9 only f o u r of the f o r t y - t h r e e 1 0 *5 papers presented were not published, J and i n 1870, f i v e or t h i r t y - e i g h t were l e f t out. The type of m a t e r i a l i n the j o u r n a l s a l s o changes over time, and one s t a r t s f i n d i n g book reviews and s e c t i o n s , such as the Notes and Queries, f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l questions. There are a l s o some o b i t u a r i e s , although these were published only f o r those who made p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s 107 to the S o c i e t y or to ethnology. The y e a r l y Reports, which e x i s t f o r 1868-70 include a statement of the budget, which i s u s e f u l f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n of the ESL. The p r e s i d e n t i a l addresses, too, o f t e n mention the S o c i e t y ' s f i n a n c e s . 3 0 . - These volumes furnished most of the i n f o r m a t i o n analyzed here on the ESL. They are not complete sources, and t h i s f a c t must be recognized and taken i n t o account. Where I could, I supplemented them w i t h other m a t e r i a l , f o l l o w i n g elsewhere leads t h a t emerged from the j o u r n a l s . In the l e a s t one can note the v a r i o u s drawbacks and gaps, and consider t h e i r e f f e c t on the t h e s i s . One problem i s how much of the i n f o r m a t i o n published was s p e c i f i c a l l y s e l e c t e d , and how much was the r e s u l t of accident. To what extent do the j o u r n a l s m i r r o r the ESL, and how much allowance should one make f o r e r r o r s ? For i n s t a n c e , a number of the S o c i e t y ' s members were a l s o i n the ASL, but of the 648 names of people that appear i n the former, only nine are described as FASL. A. l i s t of the founding members of the ASL, on the other hand, 108 give seventy-six of the ESL members. Who was wrong here, and, i f the ESL, was t h i s d e l i b e r a t e omission or j u s t oversight? There i s a l s o the question of the a r t i c l e s s e l e c t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . Were they included because they were thought c o n t r o v e r s i a l or s i g n i f i c a n t , or were they the only ones submitted to the e d i t o r ? Then, how much s o c i a l data has been omitted J do the j o u r n a l s t e l l us a l l there i s to know about a person, or only what seems most impressive, or again, only what the e d i t o r was able to f i n d out? Thus, i n t e r p r e t i n g the ESL from i t s own p u b l i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e s awareness of the problems i n v o l v e d . More documentary m a t e r i a l on the S o c i e t y would f i l l i n some of the gaps. The RAI i n London does have a copy of the C o u n c i l Minutes, and there i s manuscript m a t e r i a l i n v a r i o u s a r c h i v e s i n B r i t a i n . While I was unable t o go to see these f o r myself, I d i d look at the notes of one who had, Douglas Lorimer, who worked on the papers of John Lubbock, Lord Avebury, and the Huxley and Wallace c o l l e c t i o n s , i n w r i t i n g a t h e s i s on V i c t o r i a n a t t i t u d e s toward the Negro. P e r i o d i c a l l y , I s h a l l r e f e r t o h i s notes t o document c e r t a i n i d e a s here. One cannot r e l y v e r y h e a v i l y on such a source, but where i t does e n l i g h t e n the m a t e r i a l under d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s u s e f u l t o i n c l u d e . I u t i l i z e d h i s notes on the ESL Minutes to help e s t a b l i s h the number and times of meetings, and a l s o the S o c i e t y ' s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . I a l s o noted c e r t a i n v e r y r e v e a l i n g quotes from l e t t e r s of Huxley, Wallace and Lubbock on the s t a t e of the ESL, and the n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r union. My major primary sources t h e r e f o r e came from the S o c i e t y i t s e l f . I augmented these to some extent with some other contemporary sources, p a r t i c u l a r l y Nineteenth Century j o u r n a l s , and some novels. F o r the r e s t , I r e f e r r e d t o Twentieth Century h i s t o r i c a l treatments, - both i n g e n e r a l works and i n ones devoted to s p e c i f i c t o p i c s - and b i o g r a p h i e s and b i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n a r i e s . However, I d i d not use these a d d i t i o n a l sources d i r e c t l y f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l data, but r a t h e r to e x p l a i n the d e t a i l s from the j o u r n a l s . Thus they f u r n i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n of the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l context i n which the ESL e x i s t e d , and to which I r e f e r r e d f o r the p r e c i s e meaning of the v a r i o u s f a c t s presented the S o c i e t y ' s j o u r n a l s . 32, T h i s i s , to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , a departure from how s o c i a l m a t e r i a l i s gathered i n most s t u d i e s of S o c i e t i e s of t h i s s o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r my not u s i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l 109 d i c t i o n a r i e s f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . P a r t of the reason f o r t h i s was simply economic, the l a c k i n g of the time and funds t o r e s e a r c h the 648 members of the ESL i n such d e t a i l . But besi d e s some n e c e s s i t y , there was a l s o r e a s o n i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h i s step. The ESL's j o u r n a l s f u r n i s h a g r e a t d e a l of s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n : almost every name mentioned has a d d i t i o n a l s o c i a l d a t a g i v e n w i t h i t . T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the case w i t h other S o c i e t i e s , and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r h i s t o r i a n s are f o r c e d to c o n s u l t b i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n a r i e s f o r the necessary d e t a i l . In doing so, however, one i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y s e l e c t i n g t o study a c e r t a i n type of man, and p o s s i b l y t a l k i n g about a v e r y s m a l l number of the t o t a l group. B i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n a r i e s only c o n t a i n men of note, of achievement and fame, and u n l e s s a S o c i e t y has a high r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n of these, one w i l l l e a r n v e r y l i t t l e about the whole group. Had I time to d e a l with more sources', there are v a r i o u s ones I would examine. F i r s t I would add the i n f o r m a t i o n from the d i c t i o n a r i e s and b i o g r a p h i e s t o t h a t of the j o u r n a l s . Then, I would look i n t o such t h i n g s as census data, u n i v e r s i t y r e g i s t r a t i o n l i s t s , Post O f f i c e d i r e c t o r i e s , and medical r e g i s t e r s . These would add i n p a r t i c u l a r the i n f o r m a t i o n on the members, r e l a t i n g t o the v a r i o u s aspects of s o c i a l l i f e . I t would a l s o be u s e f u l t o check the names of executive and o r d i n a r y members of v a r i o u s other a s s o c i a t i o n s to see i n which ones, and of which type of groups, the ESL members appear. Much of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s not i n the ESL's j o u r n a l s , and the chance i s t h a t the members were not a s s o c i a t e d with these v a r i o u s groups. However, a l l o w i n g f o r l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n and e r r o r s c r e a t i n g the j o u r n a l s ' p i c t u r e , i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the ESL members were a c t i v e i n these other f i e l d s . There i s the f i n a l and f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n of i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the members of the group. More r e s e a r c h would e s t a b l i s h more c l e a r l y the t i e s of blood and marriage, and thus the amount of i n t e r a c t i o n outside the concerns of ethnology. For an exhaustive study, thus, the m a t e r i a l can be added to , but f o r now, a t l e a s t , what we have i s s u f f i c i e n t t o the purposes of the t h e s i s . I have examined the m a t e r i a l on the ESL with r e s p e c t to three main c a t e g o r i e s : i t s thoughts and i n t e r e s t s , i t s f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspect, and i t s s o c i a l composition. The d a t a and arguments r e l e v a n t t o each aspect are presented i n the body of the t h e s i s as f o l l o w s : Chapter 2: aims, purposes, t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d , i s s u e s and ideas of the ESL. Chapter 3: development of the S o c i e t y from i t s o r i g i n s , numbers d i s t r i b u t i o n , o f f i c e s , f i n a n c e s . Chapters 4 s o c i a l composition - s o c i a l d ata on the and 5 '• members and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e , o v e r a l l nature of the membership of the ESL. 3^. The approach i n t h i s i s i n keeping w i t h what I have advocated above, the a p p l i c a t i o n of anthropology to h i s t o r y . T h i s i s intended to be an h o l i s t i c study, l o o k i n g a t the group i n i t s d i f f e r e n t aspects, as a p a r t of a l a r g e r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l context. I t i s a l s o an ethnographic treatment of the group, d e s c r i b i n g i t as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n t to our own, and, as such, a study i n which the d e t a i l i n i t s e l f , f o r documenting l i f e i n another c u l t u r e , i s of i n t e r e s t . L a s t l y , the p a r t i c u l a r d i v i s i o n s i n t h i s ethnographic account were chosen to correspond with the areas u s u a l l y focussed upon by the d i f f e r e n t frameworks of explana-t i o n d i s c u s s e d above. Thus the i n f o r m a t i o n i n Chapter 2 i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t which one would s t r e s s f o r a p r i m a r i l y i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l a n a t i o n . That i n Chapter 3 r e l a t e s t o the s t r u c t u r a l type of e x p l a n a t i o n , and t h a t i n Chapters 4 & 5 f u r n i s h e s the m a t e r i a l r e l e v a n t to an e x p l a n a t i o n s t r e s s i n g the s o c i a l nature of such a group. At the end of the ethno-g r a p h i c study, d i v i d e d i n t h i s way, we can see which, i f any, of these aspects predominates, thus d e t e r m i n i n g which type of e x p l a n a t i o n i s most v a l i d . 35-References s 1. Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I r e l a n d (RAI) I n s t i t u t e of Great B r i t a i n and Centenary Appeal Pamphlet, 1971 ' 9 . 2. I b i d . Centenary Appeal P o l i c y Statement, 1971: 2-4. 3- I b i d . p. 2. 4. I b i d . Centenary Appeal Pamphlets8 . 5. I b i d . : ? . 6. I b i d . Centenary Appeal P o l i c y Statements2,5 . 7. I b i d . I n f o r m a t i o n Pamphlet. 8. B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of Science 9. 10. 12. RAI Burrow, J.W. Sto c k i n g , George 11. K e i t h , A r t h u r Report, 1871:145-14-7. Centenary Appeal Pamphlet t 8 . E v o l u t i o n and S o c i e t y s A. Study i n V i c t o r i a n S o c i a l Theory. Cambridge s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. "What's i n a name? The o r i g i n s of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e " Man, 1971, v .6 ,#3069-390. "How can the I n s t i t u t e b e s t serve the needs of anthropology?" JRAI, 1917, v.4-7:12-30. E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London J o u r n a l . n . s . , v 2 , 1870:15. (ESJ) A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Review, I 8 6 3 , v . l s l , 5, 11. (AR) 13- Barnes, John A. Burrow, J.W. K e i t h , A r t h u r R e i n i n g , Conrad "Anthropology i n B r i t a i n before and a f t e r Darwin" Mankind. i 9 6 0 , v.5 , #9077. E v o l u t i o n and S o c i e t y . London, 1970:120-4. "How can the I n s t i t u t e b e s t serve the needs of anthropology?" 1917,tl9. "A l o s t p e r i o d of a p p l i e d anthropology" American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 1962, v.64-:593. 36. 14. 15-16. 17. Stocking, George K e i t h , A r t h u r G unni ngham, J.D. K e i t h , A r t h u r Tax, S o l E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y K e i t h , A r t h u r R e i n i n g , Conrad Tax, S o l 18. e.g. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l 19. K e i t h , A r t h u r 20. H a r r i s , Marvin Hays, H.R. Penniman, T.K. "What's i n a name?", 1971: 3 7 0 - 3 8 I . o p . c i t . : 2 1 . "Anthropology i n the E i g h t e e n t h Century" ..JRA.I. 1 9 0 8 , v. 38:10. o p . c i t . : 2 3 . "The s e t t i n g of the s c i e n c e of Man" The V o i c e of America Forum L e c t u r e s  i n Anthropology. 1 °ZH iW. of London J o u r n a l , n.s. v2 1870: c l x x x i x . o p . c i t . : 2 3 . op.cit.: 5 9 6 . op.c11 . : 4 . S o c i e t y of London Popular Magazine of Anthropology, 1866:88 A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Review, 1867, v. 5 * ^ 0 . o p . c i t . : 19 ,20. The Rise of A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Theory: A. H i s t o r y of T h e o r i e s of C u l t u r e . New York: Thomas C r o w e l l & Co., 1968:100. From Ape to Angel: An Informal  H i s t o r y of Anthropology. New York: C a p r i c o r n Books, 1964:211. A. Hundred Years of Anthropology. London: D u c k w o r t h & Co., 1952:117 f f . 21. Cunningham, D.J. Barnes, John A. K e i t h , A r t h u r Reining, Conrad Stocking, George Tax, S o l o p . c i t . o p . c i t . o p . c i t . o p . c i t . o p v c i t . o p . c i t . 22. K e i t h , A r t h u r Reining, Conrad o p . c i t . o p . c i t . -.22. :596. 23. Burrow, J.W. Cunningham, D.J. o p . c i t . o p . c i t . :127. i l O . 24. Stocking, George o p . c i t . 0 8 3 . 25. Beals, Ralph & H o i j e r , Harry An I n t r o d u c t i o n New York: Macmillan, 1959. 3 7 . B e a t t i e , John Bock, P h i l i p Bohannan, Paul Coon, C a r l e t o n Coon, C a r l e t o n & Hunt, Edward Other C u l t u r e s , New York: Free Press, 1 9 6 4 Modern C u l t u r a l Anthropology: An  I n t r o d u c t i o n . New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1 9 6 9 . S o c i a l Anthropology. 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I looked a t the f o l l o w i n g j o u r n a l s , which were those a v a i l a b l e i n the UBC l i b r a r y f o r the years t h a t the ESL e x i s t e d . I looked f o r r e f e r e n c e s to my t o p i c i n years that were s i g n i f i c a n t to the ESL, and, as an e x t r a check, i n the succeeding year to each important one. Thus, I looked through each j o u r n a l f o r 184-3, the year the ESL began, and 184-4-; then, I 8 6 3 i the year the ASL was formed, and 1864; and f i n a l l y , 1 8 7 1 1 the year of union, and 1 8 7 2 , to see of there was any d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s , and of the events t h a t l e d to i t . In the f o l l o w i n g l i s t , the checkmarks beside c e r t a i n t i t l e s i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g : 2 checkmarks mean t h a t the ESL i t s e l f was mentioned. One checkmark means t h a t ethnology, anthropology, or c e r t a i n people who belonged to the ESL were mentioned. A checkmark i n parentheses means t h a t there was mention of p r i m i t i v e peoples, but nothing s p e c i f i c about the study of ethnology or the S o c i e t y . 3 9 . (s) A l l the Year Round  The Argosy  The Athenaeum  B e l g r a v i a B entley's M i s c e l l a n y ^Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine y Chamber's Edinburgh J o u r n a l y C o r n h i l l Magazine s Contemporary Review Country L i f e Edinburgh Monthly Review Family Economist F o r e i g n Q u a r t e r l y Review ^ F o r t n i g h t l y Review •^Fraser's Magazine /^Gentleman's Magazine (•)Good Words {/)Household Words (/)Penny Magazine y Macmillan's Magazine Monthly Review M i r r o r s N a t i o n a l Review New Monthly Magazine Poor Man's Guardian The Press P r o s p e c t i v e Review  y Q u a r t e r l y Review S p e c t a t o r Sunday Magazine Temple Bar / Westminster Review One can see t h a t these j o u r n a l s covered a broad range of i n t e r e s t s and appealed to v a r i o u s groups i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . 34-. S n e l l , Ada, ed. 3 5 . S c h l e s i n g e r , Max Wey, F r a n c i s Autobiography ( 1 8 8 9 ) and S e l e c t e d  Essays by T.H. Huxley. 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Penniman, T.K. Kuhn, T.S. Stocking, George Barnes: 3 7 5 - 6 Burrow:124 Lorimer, Douglas 64. K e i t h : l 6 L o r i m e r : 1 9 6 . 6 5 . S t o c k i n g , G. 6 6 . I b i d . : 3 7 6 . 6 7 . I b i d . : 3 7 7 - 9 . 6 8 . I b i d : 3 7 2 Lorimer: 1 9 5 T a x x l . 6 9 . Burrow: 1 2 1 L o r i m e r : 2 0 1 7 0 . Stocking, G. L o r i m e r : 2 0 2 . 7 1 . I b i d . 7 2 . Burrow:121 L o r i m e r : 2 0 1 R e i n i n g : 5 9 ^ • "The h i s t o r y of anthropology" Memoirs of the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  S o c i e t y of London. 1 8 6 5 , v . 1 1 3 3 5 - ^ 5 8 . H i s t o r y of Anthropology. London: Watts & Co. , 1 9 3 4 . op. c i t . op. c i t . S t r u c t u r e : 1, 1 0 , 1 3 5 - 6 , 141-2, 164-6. Race, C u l t u r e & E v o l u t i o n : 1 1 . B r i t i s h A t t i t u d e s to the Negro, 1 8 5 0 - 1 8 7 0 . Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbis, 1 9 7 2 : 1 9 6 . "What's i n a Name?":373-"What's i n a name,?'" : 3 7 ^ 43. 7 3 . 7 4 . 7 5 . 7 6 . 7 7 . 7 8 . 7 9 -8 0 . 8 1 . 82. 83-84. 85. 86. 87. 88. S t o c k i n g , G. L o r i m e r : 2 0 0 . S t o c k i n g , G. L o r i m e r : 2 0 0 . Burrow:131 S t o c k i n g , G. I b i d : 3 7 6 T a x s l . Burrow:121 L o r i m e r : 2 0 1 . S t o c k i n g , G. Crawfurd, John Bar.ne s, J . W. Burrow, J.W. K e i t h : 1 9 L o r i m e r : 2 0 0 f f St o c k i n g , G. I b i d : 3 7 6 . 3 7 9 . K e i t h : 1 9 . L o r i m e r : 2 3 5 S t o c k i n g , G. Sto c k i n g , G. I b i d : 3 7 4 I b i d : 3 7 6 "What's i n a name?":378. "What's i n a name?":377-9. "On the theory of the o r i g i n of s p e c i e s by n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n i n the s t r u g g l e f o r l i f e " E t h n o l o g i c a l  S o c i e t y of London T r a n s a c t i o n s . 1 8 6 9 . v . V I I I i 2 7 - 3 8 . "Anthropology i n B r i t a i n before and a f t e r Darwin" Mankind. 1 9 6 0 : 3 6 9 . E v o l u t i o n and S o c i e t y : 1 2 2 - 3 . "What's i n a name?":379. "What's i n a name?":379. I b i d : 3 7 6 . E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London T r a n s a c t i o n s , 1863, v . 2 : v - v l S t o c k i n g , G. "What's i n a name?":384-6. S t o c k i n g , G. to V i r g i n i a C a r e l e s s , J u l y 2 6 , 1971. Kuhn, T.S. S t r u c t u r e of S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s : 95. c f . King, M.D. "Reason, t r a d i t i o n and the prog r e s s i v e -ness of s c i e n c e " H i s t o r y and Theory, 1971, v.10 :3-4 , 5-7. 89. c f . Kuhn, T.S. " P o s t s c r i p t - - ! 9 6 9 " 1 1 7 6 . 4 4 . 9 0 . I b i d i l ? 6 - 1 8 l c f Ben-David, Joseph The S c i e n t i s t ' s Role i n S o c i e t y ; A Comparative Study. Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 9 7 1 : 2 - 6 . 9 1 . F a r r a l l , L. op. c i t : l 8 5 f f c f . Hagstrom, Warren The S c i e n t i f i c Community. New York: B a s i c Books, 1 9 6 5 . Chapter 4. 9 2 . 9 3 . 9^. 9 5 . 9 6 . 9 7 . 9 8 . 9 9 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 2 . 1 0 3 . 1 0 4 . 1 0 5 . King, M.D. I b i d . : 2 8 - 9 c f Kuhn, T.S. King, M.C. c f Kuhn, T.S. Kuhn, T.S. Hagstrom, Warren I b i d . Kuhn, T.S. • . . . op. c i t : 2 1 - 2 9 . S t r u c t u r e : IIO - I 3 4 . QP. c i t : 5, 1 9 - 3 2 . S t r u c t u r e : 7, 1 1 , 1 8 - 1 9 , 4 9 , 1 0 2 , 108. " P o s t s c r i p t — 1 9 6 9 " : 2 0 8 - 9 . op. c i t . : 1 . • ... " P o s t s c r i p t ~ 1 9 6 9 " i l ? 6 - 8 . c f . Ben-David, Joseph op. c i t : 7-14, and r e f e r e n c e s . Cardwell, D.S.L. 1 0 1 . Roderick, G.W. The O r g a n i z a t i o n of Science i n  England: A R e t r o s p e c t . London: W i l l i a m Heineman L t d . , 1 9 5 7 : 1 9 2 . The Emergence of a S c i e n t i f i c  S o c i e t y i n England 1800-1965. London: Macmillan, 1 9 6 7 : 1 1 . I b i d . : 1 3 Cardwell, D.S.L. I r v i n e , 'William C a r d w e l l : 1 9 2 Reader, W.J. op. c i t . : 4 6 . Apes, Angels and V i c t o r i a n s . London: Weidenfeld & N i c o l s o n , 1 9 5 5 * 2 7 . P r o f e s s i o n a l Men: The Rise of the  P r o f e s s i o n a l C l a s s e s i n Nineteenth- Century England. London: Weidenfeld and N i c o l s o n , 1 9 6 6 : 1 0 0 f f , 3 2 - 3 . E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London Report, Annual Meeting, May I869 ESJ, n.s. I 8 6 9 , v . l : v i i - i v . 1 0 6 . I b i d . Report, Annual Meeting, May 1870, ESJ n s v 2 I 8 7 0 : x - x i i . 4 5 -107. E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London T r a n s a c t i o n s . 1868, v.5 '341. Chapter 2: The ESL: H i s t o r y , Aims and I n t e r e s t s The beginnings of the ESL can be t r a c e d to the movement 1 f o r the a b o l i t i o n of s l a v e r y . V a r i o u s Englishmen, e s p e c i a l l y E v a n g e l i c a l s and Quakers, a g i t a t e d f o r the end of the A f r i c a n s l a v e trade and s l a v e r y i n the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s , u n t i l 2 they achieved success i n 1833« The f o l l o w i n g year, a number of these men formed the P a r l i a m e n t a r y S e l e c t Committee on A b o r i g i n e s to ensure t h a t the new law was b e i n g p r o p e r l y observed.-^ They acted as a p r e s s u r e group on b e h a l f of n a t i v e peoples with whom England had d e a l i n g s . When i n 1837 the Committee's p a r t i c u l a r work was ended, some of i t s members formed the A b o r i g i n e s ' P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y to 4 continue v i g i l a n c e i n n a t i v e a f f a i r s . Over time, the APS's concerns seemed to d i v i d e i n t o two areas. There was the p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n of the n a t i v e s * treatment, and the s c h o l a r l y one of t h e i r o r i g i n s and nature. By 184-3 these i n t e r e s t s had d i v e r g e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t o warrant the e s t a b l i s h -ment of another S o c i e t y , and i n t h a t year the ESL was born.^ The prime mover i n t h i s was Thomas Hodgkin, a Quaker d o c t o r who had been i n the f o r e f r o n t of the a b o l i t i o n move-ment and i n the establishment of the APS.^ He favoured the s c i e n t i s t camp of the APS, having been f a v o u r a b l y impressed by the E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of P a r i s , which had gone beyond b e i n g merely a French v e r s i o n of the APS and was more i n v o l v e d 7 i n s t u d y i n g the peoples with v/hich i t d e a l t . As the years went on, i t seemed i n c r e a s i n g l y to Hodgkin and others t h a t 47. the APS was not having much p o l i t i c a l impact. Indeed, the S o c i e t y seemed to r e c o g n i z e t h i s f a c t i t s e l f when i n 1842 i t changed i t s p u b l i s h e d aim from p r o t e c t i n g the abor-Q i g i n e s t o r e c o r d i n g t h e i r h i s t o r y . Yet d e s p i t e t h i s change, there were s t i l l those who found the work of the APS u n s a t i s f a c ^ : t o r y f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , and a group of twenty-three men met i n Hodgkin's home i n February 1843 "to s e t up the ESL. 9 There i s a s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h i s new S o c i e t y was not concerned merely wi t h d i s i n t e r e s t e d study. The members' humanitarian views were an important p a r t of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , and l i k e l y f u r n i s h e d a g u i d e l i n e to t h e i r r e s e a r c h . For i n s t a n c e , a major i s s u e of t h i s time was t h a t of monogenesis 10 vs. polygenesxs. Was Mankind c r e a t e d a t one time, and t h e r e f o r e of one s p e c i e s , or had there been more than one C r e a t i o n , and thus were there d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s of human l i f e ? T h i s q u e s t i o n had important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r one's view of other r a c e s : were they a l s o Man, a l s o "us", and to b e ' t r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y , or were they something e l s e , "others", and t h e r e f o r e beyond the p a l e ? The ESL s t a t e d i t s view on t h i s i n the f i r s t volume of i t s J o u r n a l : ...we may be able to c o l l e c t the c o l o u r s of the prism, each of them r i c h and b e a u t i f u l , i n t o the pure ray of l i g h t , and c o n f i r m by i n d u c t i v e s c i e n c e the c h e r i s h e d u n i t y of m a n k i n d . . . . H Thus, the S o c i e t y ' s m o t i v a t i o n was not wholly i m p a r t i a l . In I 8 6 3 the complaint of inadequate s c i e n c e was brought 12 a g a i n s t t h i s new body. Led by James Hunt, the former 48. Honorary S e c r e t a r y of the ESL, e l e v e n men l e f t to form the 13 A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London. J Besides the s c i e n t i f i c q u e s t i o n , there were a l s o other i s s u e s c i t e d f o r the s p l i t . Disagreements over the p l a c e of Negroes, the I r i s h q u e s t i o n , and the admission of women to meetings were among t h e m . ^ There was a l s o a disagreement w i t h the l i n e of study t h a t the ESL favoured, c e n t e r i n g l a r g e l y on p h i l o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s 1 and methodology. J The ASL founders wanted a more p h y s i c a l 16 and anatomical approach. T h i s stemmed perhaps from t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s as d o c t o r s . Hunt h i m s e l f was a p h y s i c i a n , 17 t r a i n e d i n the h i g h l y - r e g a r d e d S c o t t i s h system. ' However, i t i s not c l e a r j u s t how much t h i s move r e p r e -sented i n t e l l e c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and how much i t was a matter of p e r s o n a l i t i e s . There were a number of people who h e l d memberships i n both S o c i e t i e s , i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n f l i c t s ap-p a r e n t l y notwithstanding. There were even those who served 18 on the executive of both S o c i e t i e s . Yet, a t the same time, there were p u b l i s h e d e x p r e s s i o n s of o p p o s i t i o n and 19 even antagonism between the two. ' Most of these emanated from the ASL, and many of these were anonymous. L a t e r , they were r e v e a l e d as w r i t t e n by Hunt, who was e d i t o r of 20 the ASL's p u b l i c a t i o n , as w e l l as the S o c i e t y ' s p r e s i d e n t . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t r e u n i o n of the two S o c i e t i e s i n 1871 was f a c i l i t a t e d by Hunt's death i n 1868 and t h a t the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n 21 was a l s o more than an i n t e l l e c t u a l matter. As f a r as p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n s of i t s i d e a s went, the ASL presented i t s e l f as f a v o u r i n g p o l y g e n e s i s i n c o n t r a s t 49. 22 to the other S o c i e t y ' s support of monogenesis. By i m p l i c a -t i o n , and i n f a c t , t h i s group b e l i e v e d i n the d i f f e r e n t i a l v a l u e s of d i f f e r e n t r a c e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r the i n f e r i o r i t y 23 of the Negro. y I t supported Governor's Eyre's s u p p r e s s i o n 24 of the u p r i s i n g of Black farmers i n Jamaica i n 1866. The ASL a l s o favoured the South i n the. American C i v i l War, J I t had a s m a l l e r c l i q u e i n i t , of dubious academic c h a r a c t e r , c a l l e d the C a n n i b a l C l i q u e . T h i s group met i n an I t a l i a n r e s t a u r a n t o f f L e i c e s t e r Square, and were brought to order by a mace carved i n the shape of a Negro head. The S o c i e t y offended the C h r i s t i a n Union, i t s neighbours across the road, when they d i s p l a y e d the s k e l e t o n of a savage i n t h e i r 2 7 f r o n t window.' Des p i t e i t s apparent d e d i c a t i o n to s c i e n c e , the ASL as a whole was regarded as a group of o u t c a s t s i n the l e g i t i m a t e s c i e n t i f i c world. Huxley d e s c r i b e d them 28 at d i f f e r e n t times as "quacks" and "that nest of imposters", Joseph Hooker was them as "...a s o r t of Haymarket to which 29 the demi-monde of s c i e n c e g r a v i t a t e d . . . " . S i r John Lubbock, who was the f i r s t p r e s i d e n t of the u n i t e d S o c i e t i e s , advised the French a r c h a e o l o g i s t Morlot to have n o t h i n g to do with them.. 3 0 There was some problem of where the two S o c i e t i e s d i d a c t u a l l y f i t i n t o the l a r g e r world of B r i t i s h s c i e n c e . For a l l i t s drawbacks, the ASL was an extremely v i g o r o u s and p r o l i f i c group, and d i d seem to have the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s t h a t could be p r o d u c t i v e i n the development of 31 a s c i e n c e of Man. The ESL, the more orthodox and a c c e p t a b l e 50. of the two, was somewhat d i s a p p o i n t i n g . Huxley, w r i t i n g of them to Lubbock i n 1867, s a i d t h a t they were "simply 32 an organized s t u p i d i t y " . With time, i t appears t h a t such s c i e n t i s t s came to favour the union of the two S o c i e t i e s as a way of p r e s e r v i n g the best of both and s l o u g h i n g o f f the worst. Two i n f a n t S o c i e t i e s s t u d y i n g the sci e n c e of Man were weak and r e p e t i t i v e , whereas one might make a s t r o n g 34 s t a r t i n an important new f i e l d . Indeed there were men i n both S o c i e t i e s who were i n t e r e s t e d i n union. Mention 3 S of such was a c t u a l l y made the year a f t e r the A.SL was f o r m e d ^ and arose a g a i n throughout the 1860's. 37 In 1868 n e g o t i a t i o n s were f o r m a l l y opened. J l They were beset by much argument and disagreement, one of the b i g g e s t problems being the choice of a name. "Anthropology" was anathema to many of the e t h n o l o g i s t s , both as b e i n g presumptuous, and f o r i t s obvious connections with the ASL.-^ D i s c u s s i o n broke down over t h i s i s s u e , but with much e f f o r t on the p a r t of v a r i o u s people, and not a s m a l l 39 amount of backroom d e a l i n g , t a l k s were resumed i n 1869. In 1871 an agreement was f i n a l l y reached, the o f f e n d i n g name was accepted, and the two S o c i e t i e s were u n i t e d as the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e of Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d . Such i n most g e n e r a l terms was the l i f e of the ESL from i t s b i r t h t i l l i t s end with the c r e a t i o n of the RAI. We can now look i n more d e t a i l at the years i n which i t f l o u r i s h e d , t u r n i n g to c o n s i d e r the aims and ideas of the group. I t s prospectus expressed i t s concern as "the promotion and d i f f u s i o n of the most important and i n t e r e s t i n g branch of knowledge, t h a t of man". As we have noted, t h i s study had as a by-product, and perhaps as a purpose, ideas about the true o r i g i n and nature of Man. Man c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d as w e l l as d e s c r i b e d , and e x p l a i n e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , i n ways t h a t were compatible with the members' b e l i e f s . To g a i n b e t t e r understanding of how the study was to be c a r r i e d out and of what r e s u l t s were expected, we can c o n s i d e r the ideas of i t s members as expressed i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s , p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n the P r e s i d e n t i a l addresses g i v e n a t the Annual Meetings. These w r i t i n g s noted the o b j e c t i v e f a c t t h a t n a t i v e L± peoples around the world were d y i n g or being k i l l e d o f f . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was cause f o r some concern, although not q u i t e f o r the same reasons t h a t had prompted the f o r m a t i o n . . 42 of the APSs t h a t i s , to preserve and p r o t e c t the a b o r i g i n e s . The authors noted t h a t the study of a b o r i g i n a l races c o u l d a f f o r d ideas about what kind of b e i n g Man was i n h i s b a s i c 43 s t a t e and about the o r i g i n s of v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l t r a i t s . J With the p a s s i n g of such peoples would go the v a l u a b l e chance of thus e x p l o r i n g the nature of Man. There were a l s o l a r g e r i s s u e s t o c o n s i d e r . The q u e s t i o n s of monogenesis, p o l y g e n e s i s , and the u n i t y of the human 44 s p e c i e s have been noted. There was a l s o the i s s u e of the a n t i q u i t y of Man. The thoughts on t h i s were c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g r e v i s e d as g e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the world was a g r e a t d e a l o l d e r than the time worked out a c c o r d i n g 52. to the B i b l i c a l r e c o r d . J T h i s i n t u r n r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n of the v a l i d i t y of the B i b l e , and l e d i n t o the whole problem of the r e l a t i o n s of r e l i g i o n and s c i e n c e . Were they antagon-i s t i c , mutually e x c l u s i v e frameworks of e x p l a n a t i o n , or was there some way i n which they could be r e c o n c i l e d ? The study of a b o r i g i n a l peoples, and a l s o of the evidence of p r e h i s t o r i c man from the numerous f o s s i l f i n d s of t h i s Lo p e r i o d would help i n u n t a n g l i n g these problems. The ESL authors- 'expressed . t h e i r own views on these .issues. T h e i r b e l i e f - . i n .monogenesis -has a l r e a d y been mentioned, and others echoed the passage quoted above i n support of LQ the u n i t y of the s p e c i e s . The outcome of e t h n o l o g i c a l study would be a b e t t e r understanding of the other members of the human f a m i l y . D i e f f e n b a c h ' s statement on t h i s amounts to a p l e a t o overcome ethnocentrism: I f we have examined, step by step, the p h y s i c a l h i s t o r y of the human race -- i f v/e have entered the wigwam of the Red Indian, and f o l l o w e d the hunter i n o b t a i n i n g the scanty means of h i s p r e c a r i o u s e x i s t e n c e - -i f we have endured and A r c t i c w i n t e r i n the snow hut of the Esquimaux and have ceased to sneer a t him when we f i n d t h a t no other l i f e was p o s s i b l e under the circumstances i n which he i s placed -- i n one word, i f we have t r a c e d Humanity through a l l the forms, simple and complicated, rude and c i v i l i z e d and have found t h a t i n each s t a t e there i s something recommendable, then, and not t i l l then s h a l l we t r e a t with c o n s i d e r a t i o n those who d i f f e r from us, i n s t e a d of warring a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s and forms which are not the same as our own.^9 53. On the q u e s t i o n of the g e o l o g i c a l f i n d s and the accuracy of the B i b l e , Hodgkin p o i n t e d out i n 184-3-4 t h a t the s i g n i f i -cance of the f i n d s were s t i l l h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e and i n c o n -c l u s i v e . ^ 0 He s a i d , however, t h a t " r e l i g i o n has no t h i n g to f e a r from the s t r i c t e s t s c r u t i n i z i n g of -the characters., and h i s t o r y of the v a r i e t i e s of mankind, or from the g e o l o g i c a l study of the globe on which they b e l o n g " . ^ 1 C u l l added th a t one should r e c o g n i z e the l i m i t s of the B i b l e ; f o r example, there i s no mention of the New World, y e t th a t does not make the account i n a c c u r a t e . I t had to be taken f o r what i t was, an a n c i e n t h i s t o r y . I t was r e l i g i o n , not ethnography, and could not be used as a guide or evidence <3 of what Man i s . J Brodie a l s o s a i d t h a t ethnology d i d not c o n t r a d i c t but r a t h e r confirmed the B i b l i c a l r e c o r d . The ESL's a t t i t u d e toward r e l i g i o n and scie n c e i s summed up i n C u l l ' s q u o t a t i o n of Spurzheim: ... genuine p h i l o s o p h y and genuine r e l i g i o n are v e r y n e a r l y a k i n . The one exp l o r e s the e l d e r volume of nature — the other i n v e s t i g a t e s the l a t e r volume of D i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n . Both u n i t e i n t h e i r p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t s ; both promote the pr e s e n t improvement of man; both conduce to h i s u l t i m a t e f e l i c i t y . 55 A number of the men who wrote on ethnology and i t s p o t e n t i a l i n s o l v i n g such problems noted the opportune p o s i t i o n t h a t B r i t i s h e t h n o l o g i s t s occupied. B r i t a i n as a s u c c e s s f u l t r a d i n g n a t i o n was i n c o n t a c t w i t h many u n c i v i l i z e d p a r t s of the world, and so was i n a n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n to meet d i f f e r e n t r a c e s and gather i n f o r m a t i o n on them.-'0' She was a l s o i n v o l v e d with n a t i v e people through her m i l i t a r y 54. and n a v a l a c t i v i t i e s and th r o u g h the e n e r g i e s of the v a r i o u s e x p l o r i n g p a r t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l a d v e n t u r e r s who t r a v e l l e d the g l o b e . ' There was t h e n a p l a c e f o r e t h n o l o g y , and those w r i t i n g on the m a t t e r made c l e a r t h a t t h i s was not t o be me r e l y a n o t h e r name f o r any o t h e r s t u d y t h a t was a l r e a d y engaged i n . A l t h o u g h s i m i l a r t o v a r i o u s o t h e r f i e l d s of r e s e a r c h , e t h n o l o g y was s t i l l u n i q u e . I t was l i k e n a t u r a l h i s t o r y i n t h a t i t l o o k e d a t s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s and changes i n l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s , and was a t t e m p t i n g t o a r r i v e a t b a s i c C-Q l a w s . But i t was not o n l y n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , f o r i t d e a l t w i t h what has been and not o n l y w i t h what i s . - ^ I n t h i s way, i t had more i n common w i t h a r c h a e o l o g y and h i s t o r y . A l s o , i t was concerned w i t h Man as a group, a p e o p l e , a n a t i o n , and a v a r i e t y , and not o n l y as a m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l constitution.^° Some of e t h n o l o g y ' s f i n d s were l i k e t hose of g e o l o g y , 61 i n d e a l i n g w i t h the p a s t and changes over t i m e . S t i l l , i t was more t h a n g e o l o g y because i t a l s o used h i s t o r y and 62 the h i s t o r y of language as i m p o r t a n t p a r t s of i t s work. I t was concerned w i t h p h y s i o l o g y , anatomy, c r a n i o l o g y and p h r e n o l o g y i n d e a l i n g w i t h the p h y s i c a l n a t u r e of man,^ but i t went beyond l o o k i n g a t man me r e l y as a p h y s i c a l 64 phenomenon. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the a u t h o r s d i d n o t deny e t h n o l o g y ' s l i n k s w i t h t h e s e f i e l d s , and th e y urged a c o - o p e r a t i o n between the v a r i o u s approaches t o the s t u d y of man t o a r r i v e a t a complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s u b j e c t . °^ 55. T h i s new and necessary s c i e n c e of man would be served by the ESL. J u s t as B r i t a i n was the i d e a l p l a c e f o r the development of ethnology, so London, as the hub of B r i t a i n , was the p e r f e c t home f o r a S o c i e t y devoted to t h a t study. The ESL. w^juld p r o v i d e a g a t h e r i n g - p l a c e and a forum f o r men i n t e r e s t e d i n ethnology t o a i r t h e i r i d e a s . ^ I t c o u l d be a r e p o s i t o r y f o r m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d on the d i f f e r e n t r aces of the world, whether w r i t t e n or a r t i f a c t . I t cou l d s t i m u l a t e new researches by g e n e r a t i n g q u e s t i o n s t o be answered on the d i f f e r e n t aspects of human l i f e , and perhaps by g i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d to those g a t h e r i n g such 69 i n f o r m a t i o n . ' Through p u b l i c a t i o n s the S o c i e t y could inform others of developments i n the f i e l d , and r e c o r d the 7 0 ideas of v a r i o u s e t h n o l o g i s t s . The work done by the ESL was to reach outside i t s own doors and the concerns of i t s members. I t would s t i l l be a s s o c i a t e d with those i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o t e c t i n g the n a t i v e s , 71 by f u r n i s h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o groups such as the APS.' I t c o u l d help t r a v e l l e r s i n understanding the peoples they met, and would be of use to men of commerce who had to trade 72 w i t h n a t i v e peoples. The knowledge and analyses i t imparted would be of use to men i n the C o l o n i e s who were charged 7 3 w i t h l o o k i n g a f t e r the n a t i v e s . J L a s t l y , i t c o u l d make the statesman's l o t e a s i e r i n i n f o r m i n g him about those 7 4 f o r whom he had to d e s i g n p o l i c i e s . Ethnology was a study, thus claimed the e t h n o l o g i s t s , t h a t was s o r e l y needed. The study was intended t o be c a r r i e d out as thoroughly 56. as p o s s i b l e . The S o c i e t y was concerned w i t h the many v a r i e t i e s of human p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l forms t h a t were to be found 7 *5 over the world. ^ A c u r s o r y glance at the c o u n t r i e s mentioned i n the y e a r l y assessment of e t h n o l o g i c a l work shows t h a t t h i s exhaustive approach was taken s e r i o u s l y . The Report f o r 184-4, f o r example, mentions work done on the f o l l o w i n g areas and c o u n t r i e s , : Europe, A s i a , Russia, A f r i c a , America, A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand, P o l y n e s i a , Melanesia. These r e p o r t s a l s o d i s c u s s e d the work done i n s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to ethnology such as p h i l o l o g y , c r a n i o l o g y , paleography, 77 geology, music, anatomy, e t c . ' Thus, the members met with i d e a s outside t h e i r immediate ar e a of i n t e r e s t . They a l s o were informed of the work done by e t h n o l o g i s t s i n other 78 c o u n t r i e s t o f u r t h e r t h e i r knowledge of Man.' Besides l o o k i n g a t the many forms of human l i f e , the ESL a l s o c o n s i d e r e d i t s many p a r t s . In the f i r s t volume of the J o u r n a l , D i e f f e n b a c h t a l k e d of s t u d y i n g such t h i n g s as the f e c u n d i t y of d i f f e r e n t r a c e s , t h e i r muscular s t r e n g t h , d u r a b i l i t y , l o n g e v i t y and n a t u r a l d i s e a s e s . Then he d i s -cussed more s t r i c t l y c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n s such as body markings, food, medicine, domesticated animals and p l a n t s , c l o t h i n g , 7 9 s h e l t e r , language, and music. Others repeated and enlarged t h i s l i s t , adding such f e a t u r e s as i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y , moral q u a l i t i e s , form of government, degree of c i v i l i z a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , i n f l u e n c e of environment, h i s t o r y , and so on. In 1839 a paper by P r i c h a r d on e x t i n c t r a c e s prompted the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n to produce A Manual of E t h n o l o g i c a l I n q u i r y to a i d i n l e a r n i n g about what a b o r i g i n a l peoples pi were l e f t i n the world. The committee t h a t drew up the q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d Hodgkin and C u l l , and the r e s u l t was the a n c e s t o r of today's Notes and Queries. Then as now t h i s work was intended to guide t r a v e l l e r s , s a i l o r s , c o n s u l s , merchants, e t c . , i n c o l l e c t i n g d ata on d i f f e r e n t r a c e s . A l s o , i t would serve to promote a c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n tye type of m a t e r i a l gathered, thus making p o s s i b l e accurate comparative s t u d i e s . In 1851 i the ESL p r i n t e d the manual i n i t s own p u b l i -c a t i o n . I t was f o u r t e e n pages long, and i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g main headings: p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r - f o r example, s i z e , c o m p l e x i o n , e t c . - language, i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y l i f e , b u i l d i n g s and monuments, works of a r t , domestic animals, government and law, geography and s t a t i s t i c s , s o c i a l r e l a -p p t i o n s , r e l i g i o n , s u p e r s t i t i o n s , e t c . From time to time i t was r e v i s e d as new q u e s t i o n s arose. The manual s t a t e d i n a c l e a r and d e t a i l e d form j u s t what q u e s t i o n s the ethnolo g i s t was to c o n s i d e r , and, i t might be noted, h e r e i n l a y the seeds of systematic f i e l d w o r k . Equipped with a d e l i n e a t i o n of the areas they were s t u d y i n g and the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s they were a s k i n g , the e t h n o l o g i s t s a l s o d e f i n e d two dimensions along which they were going to proceed. F i r s t , there was the matter of a d e t a i l e d examination of a people's l i f e i n terms of the aspects d e s c r i b e d above. T h i s was an attempt to document t h e i r present-day e x i s t e n c e as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e , much l i k e 58. the synchronic s t u d i e s done by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s today. Then there was the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of these people i n a temporal framework. How d i d they develop over time? What were the o r i g i n s and causes of t h e i r present-day l i f e s t y l e s ? In l i k e manner, the g e n e r a l study of mankind as a whole was to proceed. One needed to understand contemporary Man i n h i s many forms, and a l s o the o r i g i n s and development of hyman l i f e . ^ As f a r as a s p e c i f i c methodology f o r answering these q u e s t i o n s went, the e t h n o l o g i s t s had l i t t l e to say. The 84 need f o r systematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n was p o i n t e d out, and there was some awareness of how work was done i n other 8 f i e l d s . D One author even advocated a p a r t i c u l a r type of reasoning, i n d u c t i o n , as the way to c a r r y out the s c i e n c e of Man.°^ But there was no t a l k of such t h i n g s as c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s , v a l i d i t y t e s t s or s t a t i s t i c a l accuracy. E q u a l l y , although s c i e n c e had been the i s s u e i n the c r e a t i n g of the ESL and l a t e r i n the s p l i t t i n g o f f of the ASL, there was almost no s e r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n of ethnology as a science and what s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s e n t a i l e d . Science seems to have been more important i n an e v a l u a t i v e sense than i n a p r a c t i c a l one. I t was r e l e g a t e d to the r o l e of a Good Thing, and ethnology was to be s c i e n t i f i c i n order to share i n t h a t goodness. When i t d i d not seem to measure up to what some people thought s c i e n c e should be, i t was c r i t i c i z e d a c c o r d i n g l y . John Crawfurd was a g u i d i n g l i g h t i n the ESL, p r e s i d e n t f o r f o u r terms, v i c e - p r e s i d e n t f o r 5 9 . t h r e e , and, with h i s f o r y - s e v e n d i f f e r e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the p u b l i c a t i o n s , the most a c t i v e of any of the ESL members. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , Huxley deprecated Crawfurd because he d i d not meet Huxley's p a r t i c u l a r requirements of s c i e n c e : ...Crawfurd i s dragging Ethnology through the dust whenever he t a l k s about i t — I have every r e s p e c t f o r the weakness of a r e a l l y able and d i s t i n g u i s h e d man who i s past work but i t i s g e t t i n g too bad.88 S i m i l a r l y , under Huxley's p r e s i d e n c y the S o c i e t y was reorgan-8 9 l z e d to render i t more s c i e n t i f i c . 7 The re u n i o n of the two S o c i e t i e s , of course, was a l s o seen as a v i c t o r y f o r o • 90 S c i e n c e . S t i l l , b e s i d e s i n v o k i n g i t s name and worth, there was l i t t l e time spent i n the ESL on d i s c u s s i o n of j u s t what "Science" was, and how one would a c t u a l l y do good s c i e n c e . Only one a r t i c l e i n the ESL's J o u r n a l touched on the s u b j e c t . T.S. Prideaux, i n 1864, argued f o r more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s of terms and a typology of rac e s so t h a t e t h n o l o -g i s t s would be speaking a common language. He c a l l e d f o r more order and r i g o u r i n the c o l l e c t i n g of da t a as the b a s i s of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o be made about Man. He advocated the establishment of a museum of specimens and a l i b r a r y of coloured engravings to f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s . He wondered what the laws were i n t h i s s c i e n c e of Man, and argued f o r the i n d u c t i v e method as the way to a r r i v e a t them. L a s t l y , he cautioned t h a t the student of Man must re c o g n i z e any p e r s o n a l b i a s e s and s e t them a s i d e — an e a r l y condemnation of e t h n o c e n t r i c i s m . But h i s was the 60. lone v o i c e i n almost t h i r t y years of p u b l i c a t i o n . ^ We can examine the ESL's i n t e r e s t s and aims i n terms of the work t h a t the S o c i e t y d i d . T h i s i n v o l v e s both the t o p i c s and g e o g r a p h i c a l areas t h a t the ESL d i s c u s s e d over 92 the years. Table I d e a l s with the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d by the S o c i e t y , summarized by year and category. The items analyzed i n t h i s c h a r t are the e n t r i e s i n the ESL p u b l i c a t i o n s . On the whole these are a r t i c l e s , u s u a l l y papers read a t meetings, t h a t were then p u b l i s h e d . Besides these, the e n t r i e s i n c l u d e book reviews, annual r e p o r t s , "Notes and Queries", a question-and-answer f e a t u r e , and l i s t s of the S o c i e t y ' s e x e c u t i v e . The c a t e g o r i e s of the t a b l e have been d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s ! column one, "Ethnography & Ethnographic" r e f e r s to a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g with the customs and l i f e s t y l e of a t o t a l c u l t u r e or some of i t s aspects. T h i s i n c l u d e s such f e a t u r e s as r e l i g i o n , a r t , poetry, environment, k i n s h i p , government, e t c . "Ethnology" i s a p p l i e d to a r t i c l e s t h a t present theory drawn from such ethnographic m a t e r i a l . (Both t h i s c a t e g o r y and the one p r e c e d i n g have been a p p l i e d only, t o e n t r i e s d e a l i n g with peoples contemporaneous to the e t h n o l o g i s t s d o ing the study.) A r t i c l e s about ethnology i t s e l f as an a c t u a l f i e l d of study, an i n c i p i e n t d i s c i p l i n e , the ESL, or p a r t i c u l a r e t h n o l o g i s t s , f a l l i n t o the t h i r d category. " P h i l o l o g y , Language, L i n g u i s t i c s " r e f e r s to w r i t i n g about a c t u a l languages or the study of l i n g u i s t i c s . " P h y s i c a l , Anatomy, Races" i s a p p l i e d to a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g with the p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of a people, p h y s i o l o g i c a l and anatomical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and race d e f i n e d p h y s i c a l l y r a t h e r than c u l t u r a l l y . "Archae-ology" r e f e r s to e x c a v a t i o n s , a c t u a l f i n d s , and r e p o r t s on such. " P r e - h i s t o r y , H i s t o r y " i s a p p l i e d to i n f o r m a t i o n on Man's past found i n w r i t t e n and u n w r i t t e n documents. A n a l y z i n g these these f i g u r e s , one f i n d s t h a t columns 1-3t which are v e r y s i m i l a r i n nature, combined make up the bulk of the papers. Ethnography i s c o n s i s t e n t l y s t r o n g over the years, with ethnology becoming of importance i n the 1 8 6 0 ' s . P h i l o l o g y wanes i n t h i s decade while archae-ology and p r e h i s t o r y i n c r e a s e . T h i s suggests a change i n the i n t e r e s t s of the S o c i e t y , and i n the men w r i t i n g a r t i c l e s and i n c o n t r o l . I t a l s o suggests a growing sympathy with the p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s of the ASL, f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d s i n v o l v e f o s s i l s as w e l l as a r t i f a c t s , and a technique f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g such f i n d s would be u s e f u l t o s c h o l a r s of both areas. P r e h i s t o r y i s n a t u r a l l y a l l i e d with archaeology, d e a l i n g as i t does with the time p e r i o d i n which the f i n d s were d e p o s i t e d . The d e c l i n e i n p h i l o l o g y would show the l e s s e n i n g i n f l u e n c e of the P r i c h a r d i a n s t r a i n of ethnology, aga i n b r i n g i n g the ESL c l o s e r to the other S o c i e t y . The growth and d e c l i n e of t o p i c s i n p h y s i c a l anthro-pology from I 8 6 I - I 8 6 3 a l s o seems s i g n i f i c a n t . I would i n t e r p r e t the i n c r e a s e as evidence of i n t e r e s t s that were to l e a d to the s p l i t t i n g o f f of the ASL, i n i m i c a l as they were i n concern and approach to p h i l o l o g y and ethnology. Table I: Topics Discussed by the ESL N.b. There were no a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d between 1854 and 1861. Column # Date 1 8 4 4 1 8 4 5 1 8 4 6 1 8 4 7 1 8 4 8 1 8 4 9 1 8 5 0 1 8 5 1 1 8 5 2 1 8 5 3 1 8 5 4 1 8 6 1 1 8 6 2 I863 1 8 6 4 1 8 6 5 1 8 6 6 1 8 6 7 1 8 6 8 1 8 6 9 1 8 7 0 Ethnog. Ethnog's 9 2 2 1 1 0 1 9 4 4 4 13 6 5 7 8 9 12 13 15 4 3. 4. 5 . 6. 7 . re E t h n o l P h i l . Phys. ESL Lang. Anat. P r e h i s t . T o t a l mol. E t h n o l ' t s L i n g . Race Arch a e o l . H i s t . per year 0 1 1 0 0 0 11:.. 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 2 0 0 0 4 0 5 1 0 0 1 8 0 1 2 2 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 8 0 l 6 4 0 1 16 0 1 5 2 0 1 13 0 2 2 1 1 1 11 7 1 1 10 0 1 3 3 5 1 4 7 6 0 28 4 0 0 1 0 0 10 4 2 1 2 2 3 21 4 1 1 2 4 2 22 8 4 2 1 5 5 34 9 2 1 3 1 2 30 9 2 1 2 4 2 33 9 2 2 3 15 4 50 9 3 0 2 16 5 39 ON 6 3 . The I863 f i g u r e c ould thus show the i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l s t u d i e s t h a t remained once the ASL members had departed. Thus, the t o p i c s s t u d i e d are i n d i c a t i v e of the s t a t e of the S o c i e t y , as w e l l as showing the i n t e r e s t s of i t s members. We may a l s o l e a r n about the S o c i e t y ' s concerns by examing the g e o g r a p h i c a l areas t h a t i t d e a l t with. Table II i s a l s o arranged by year and category. As i n Table I, each item here i s a J o u r n a l entry. Not every j o u r n a l e n t r y " d e a l t with a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e or people, and so one may f i n d a d i s c r e p a n c y between the number of items g i v e n f o r a year and the a c t u a l t o t a l of j o u r n a l e n t r i e s f o r the same year. V/here more than once country was r e f e r r e d t o , the item was coded under " v a r i o u s " . The c a t e g o r i e s on the c h a r t correspond to those numbered on the accompany-i n g map. They had to be chosen s o m e w h a t ' a r b i t r a r i l y , s i n c e boundaries and n a t i o n a l u n i t s change f r e q u e n t l y . They are meant, however, e s s e n t i a l l y t o f a c i l i t a t e the l o c a t i n g of peoples d i s c u s s e d on the map so t h a t one may r e a d i l y d i s c o v e r what p a r t s of the world were most important to the ESL. To t h i s end the world has been d i v i d e d as f o l l o w s : 1. B r i t a i n 2. C o n t i n e n t a l Europe and Canary I s l a n d s 3. Middle E a s t and Northern A f r i c a 4. P a k i s t a n , A f g h a n i s t a n , and Kashmir 5« Mongolia :. 6. ..South A s i a 7. East A s i a 8, Southeast A s i a 9. the P h i l i p -p i n e s 10. P a c i f i c I s l a n d s 11. A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand 12. Black Sub-Saharan A f r i c a 13. North America . . M a p Is G e o g r a p h i c a l A r e a s D i s c u s s e d b y t h e E S L ON Table l i s Geographical Areas Discussed by the ESL. Date 1. 2. 3- 4. 5. 6. 7- 8. 9. 10. 1 1 . 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. t o t a l 1844 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 2 0 11 1845 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 4 1846 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 4 1847 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 5 1848 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 8 1849 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 5 1850 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 1851 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 2 0 0 18 1852 2 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 1 1 16 1853 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 13 1854 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 11 1861 3 2 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 4 2 0 1 11 33 1862 3 1 2 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 4 9 28 I863 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 10 1864 3 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 7 21 1865 3 1 2 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 0 2 3 22 1866 4 4 3 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 1 3 1 0 1 7 34 1867 0 3 l 0 0 4 4 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 9 30 1868 3 5 0 0 0 4 3 2 0 0 0 3 3 0 1 6 33 1869 6 2 2 1 0 10 3 0 0 1 4 4 5 0 1 4 55 1870 18 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 5 39 t o t a l 51 33 16 1 1 40 12 13 1 4 19 35 24 3 20 75 ON 66. 1/4-. the Caribbean, and 15. ;Latin America. One might not expect an e t h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y i n Great B r i t a i n where there were no a b o r i g i n a l peoples to spend most of i t s time on i t s own n a t i v e s , but t h i s seems to have been the case. Many of the a r t i c l e s on B r i t a i n had to do w i t h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d s i n that nation. Here again the S o c i e t y ' s work i n d i c a t e s the d i r e c t i o n s i n which i t s i n t e r e s t s were l e a d i n g i t . Next i n importance came B r i t a i n ' s most s i g n i f i c a n t I m p e r i a l possessions under V i c t o r i a . : I n d i a and Ceylon; and then the other Colonies of B r i t i s h North America, A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand. Of i n t e r e s t too, are the number of items concerning L a t i n America and the Far East. Although not s i g n i f i c a n t i n the Empire u n t i l a s l i g h t l y l a t e r date, A f r i c a a l s o received much a t t e n t i o n . I t appears then, that the ESL studied not j u s t i n t e r e s t i n g peoples, or sought out ones of p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n t i f i c note. I t s i n t e r e s t s seemed to have followed very c l o s e l y those of i t s country. Thus f a r t h i s chapter has d e a l t w i t h the substance of the ESL's concerns. I t remains now to look at who and how many of the Society's members co n t r i b u t e d to the d i s c u s s i o n of the v a r i o u s i s s u e s and t o p i c s t h a t have been examined above. The findings on.participation are given i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r these comes again from the j o u r n a l s and i s of two types: mention i n the t e x t of the j o u r n a l s and mention i n the membership l i s t s . Of the 648 ESL members, one f i n d s 234 names that Table I l l s P a r t i c i p a t i o n of ESL Members by Type of C o n t r i b u t i o n 0 1 only 2 3 L 5 2 3 4 New 1 2 5 N & W 11 D,W,S, 1 D,P,W,S, 1 1 D i s c u s s 2 5 N & P 6 N,P,S, 1 N,D,P,W, 6 P o s i t i o n 2 9 P & W 1 3 D,P,W, 1 3 N.P.W.S, 1 Write 1^3 D & W 14 N,D,P, 3 Submit 4 D & P 5 N.P .W, 1 W & S 2 N,D,W, 4 N & D 5 t o t a l 2 3 4 3 2 6 56 2 3 8 1 ON ^0 appear i n the membership l i s t s only, and 174 t h a t are found i n the t e x t of the j o u r n a l s only. The r e s t — 2 4 0 — appear i n both l i s t s and j o u r n a l s . In Table I I I , f i v e types of p a r t i c i p a t i o n have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d . "N" means that a man i s mentioned as becoming a new member. "D" means that the person took i n a d i s c u s s i o n at a meeting. "P" means that the member i s l i s t e d as occupying a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n i n the ESL's executive. "W" means that the member has published an a r t i c l e i n the Soc i e t y ' s j o u r n a l , and "S" means tha t the person i n question i s noted as submitting an a r t i c l e , w r i t t e n by someone e l s e , to be read before the ESL. Of these, N represents a minimal c o n t r i b u t i o n , — only t a k i n g membership i n the So c i e t y — , while P denotes the exe r c i s e of power i n the Society. V/ and D represent the c o n t r i b u t i o n of ideas, and S the same to a l e s s e r extent, i n that the one i n question has presented another's t h i n k i n g t o the Society. Table I I I therefore presents the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the ESL members, broken down by these d i s t i n c t i o n s . The columns i n t h i s t a b l e take account of the f a c t that a man might p a r t i c i p a t e i n more than one way. Thus, f o r example, column 2 gives i n f o r m a t i o n on those who c o n t r i -buted i n two d i f f e r e n t ways, not i n g the p a r t i c u l a r combin-a t i o n s of types of p a r t i c i p a t i o n that occurred. A n a l y z i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the d i f f e r e n t types s e p a r a t e l y produces the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : 69. Table IV; A n a l y s i s of P a r t i c i p a t i o n of ESL Members; by Type N D P W S 161 79 81 271 12 Thus, we can see that 4 l 4 of the members co n t r i b u t e d i n some way to the ESL and that the l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n was i n ideas. Table V presents the number of times that the members p a r t i c i p a t e d , again broken down by the cate-g o r i e s o u t l i n e d above. N i s omitted from here as of course one could become a new member only once. Table V; P a r t i c i p a t i o n of the ESL Members by Number of Times Contributed  #"Times per person D P W S 1 45 26 146 9 2-5 29 35 42 3 6-10 5 15 5 0 11-15 0 0 2 0 16-20 0 0 0 0 20-30 0 0 0 0 30-40 o o o o 40-50 0 0 1 (47) 0 (Crawfurd) To r e c a p i t u l a t e the main p o i n t s , Chapter 2 has presented the purposes, i n t e r e s t s and ideas of the ESL, and t h e i r changes over time. This could be compared, u l t i m a t e l y , 70. w i t h a s i m i l a r l y d e t a i l e d breakdown of the ASL's i n t e l l e c -t u a l a t t r i b u t e s f o r a complete study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two" S o c i e t i e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r note here, i n terms of the ESL's p o s i t i o n among contemporary o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i s how c l o s e l y i t s aims and concerns were t i e d to those of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . I t was very much the r e s u l t of England's s i t u a t i o n i n the m i d - V i c t o r i a n era that the study of ethnology could be pursued by i t s members, and was a l s o a t t r a c t i v e to them. Thanks to the country's i n t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s , i t s economic expansion, the r e s u l t i n g p r o s p e r i t y and increased l e i s u r e f o r those most f o r t u n a t e , there were funds and time f o r t r a v e l and study. Thanks to England's i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , opportunity e x i s t e d f o r the same fortunate few to meet p r i m i t i v e peoples, whether as t o u r i s t s , businessmen, or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the B r i t i s h government. Related t o , and perhaps as a r e s u l t of, B r i t a i n ' s s i t u a t i o n both at home and abroad dur i n g the era, there was increased i n t e r e s t i n the search f o r s o c i o -s c i e n t i f i c i n formation, that saw the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of groups centred around study of v a r i o u s s o r t s , from Working Men's I n s t i t u t e s to the Royal I n s t i t u t i o n . Ethnology was i n t h i s way a n a t u r a l product of i t s times. Further more, the ESL's e t h n o l o g i c a l work was not only an outgrowth of m i d - V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y , i t was a l s o designed to feed back i n t o t h a t s o c i e t y . The p r e s i d e n t i a l Addresses show the close a s s o c i a t i o n between the ESL's i n t e r e s t s and those of the Empire, i n the j u s t i f i c a t i o n s g i v en f o r the Society's e x i s t e n c e , such as: h e l p i n g men of commerce to understand and d e a l w i t h the n a t i v e s and making the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s task e a s i e r . The ESL's work was a l s o c l o s e l y involved w i t h the concerns of Englishmen i n t h e i r own country. The notable occupation of the ESL with B r i t i s h " p r i m i t i v e s " and t h e i r own c u l t u r a l beginnings mirrored a growing awareness i n the E n g l i s h of themselves as a people. I t a l s o had to do w i t h the q u e s t i o n i n g at t h i s time of the o r i g i n s and a n t i q u i t y of the World i n g e n e r a l , i n the face of g e o l o g i c a l and f o s s i l f i n d s that challenged the t r a d i t i o n a l B i b l i c a l :. account, and by i m p l i c a t i o n s , the v a l i d i t y of the B i b l e . Around t h i s revolved the l a r g e r q u e s t i o n of the v a l i d i t y of r e l i g i o n i t s e l f , and the extent to which science o f f e r e d b e t t e r ways of e x p l a i n i n g the world. The ESL was not only i n v o l v e d i n t h i s l a t t e r issue by the nature of i t s work: i t a l s o took a stand i n the matter, upholding r e l i g i o n , although r e c o g n i z i n g l i m i t a t i o n s to the B i b l e . The S o c i e t y i n t h i s sense was not j u s t a detached s c h o l a r l y group; i t was very f i r m l y rooted i n the s o c i e t y of which i t was a p a r t . A second major p o i n t developed i n t h i s chapter takes us from the d i s c u s s i o n of the Society's p o s i t i o n i n i t s own time to a reassessment of i t s r e p u t a t i o n i n today's world. The d e t a i l s that have emerged suggest t h a t i n terms of our concerns today, the ESL was doing anthropology that 72, was p e r f e c t l y acceptable and good. I t stressed ethnography and ethnology, s t u d i e s that s t i l l command our a t t e n t i o n . The former was organized around a standardized set of questions, the Notes and Queries, which i n t u r n was based upon a concept of s o c i e t y composed of d i f f e r e n t p a r t s with each part r e q u i r i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n : i n other words, on the concept of an organized a n d ' i n t e r r e l a t e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Neither of these fe a t u r e s are f o r e i g n to us today. What ethnology was done i n the S o c i e t y thus followed as an extension of the b a s i c e t h n o g r a p h i c work, and not as vague s p e c u l a t i o n . Moreover, we have seen that f i e l d w o r k was encouraged by the ESL, and that the bulk of the papers on p r i m i t i v e peoples were w r i t t e n from the b a s i s of personal experience. L a s t l y , we have found cautions a g a i n s t ethno-centrism and support of r e l a t i v i s m , such as any modern an t h r o p o l o g i s t would give. Consequently the ESL's r e l e g a t i o n to o b l i v i o n i n our day does not seem warranted. Considering i t s achievement i n terms of what we yalu e , i t should enjoy a much b e t t e r r e p u t a t i o n . We must f i r s t c o r r e c t our p i c t u r e of the past and e a r l y development of anthropology: d e t a i l e d enthography d i d not s t a r t with p r o f e s s i o n a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , nor f i e l d -work wi t h Malinowski. Besides, i f p r a i s e and g l o r y are to accompany r e c o g n i t i o n of such achievements, as they so t y p i c a l l y do i n anthropology, they have to date been wrongly bestowed, and t h i s too need c o r r e c t i n g . C e r t a i n l y , the mistaken view of t h i s p e r i o d i n t e x t s and h i s t o r i e s 73. of anthropology should be amended. S t i l l f u r t h e r , i n the l i g h t of the great d i f f e r e n c e between the textbook accounts of the period and the p i c t u r e uncovered here, one must consider the extent to which the h i s t o r y of anthropology has been w r i t t e n to propagandize f o r v a r i o u s schools of thought, r a t h e r than to seek out and f a c t u a l l y present what happened i n the past. As we t u r n to Chapter 3» °ne must note the changes i n the t o p i c s d e a l t w i t h by the ESL, w i t h archaeology showing up with i n c r e a s i n g frequency i n the l a t e r years of the S o c i e t y ' s l i f e . That trend becomes c l e a r e r when i t i s r e l a t e d to the d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter 3 of the s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the ESL. 74. References: 1. A d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y of the ESL i s a v a i l a b l e from v a r i o u s sources, p a r t i c u l a r l y George Stocking's "What's i n a Name? The o r i g i n s of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e (1837-71)" Man v o l 6, #3069-390, 1971, and Arthur K e i t h ' s "How can the I n s t i t u t e best serve the needs of Anthropology?" J o u r n a l of the Royal  A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , v.47, 1917:12-30. There i s a l s o u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n i n J.A. Barnes "Anthro-pology i n B r i t a i n before and a f t e r Darwin" Mankind v V, #9, 1960:369-385? J.W. Burrow's E v o l u t i o n and  So c i e t y : a Study i n V i c t o r i a n S o c i a l Theory. Cambridge; Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1970; and George Stocking's Race, Culture and E v o l u t i o n , New York; Free Press, 1968. Various textbooks on anthropology have short h i s t o r i c a l sketches of the d i s c i p l i n e , but these tend to be anecdotal, and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . There are some h i s t o r i e s of Anthropology that mention the ESL, but again much of t h e i r work needs v e r i f y i n g . D.A. Lorimer•s Ph.D. t h e s i s B r i t i s h A t t i t u d e s toward the  Negro, 1850-1870, March 1972, U.B.C, Department of H i s t o r y , unpublished, has two very u s e f u l chapters on t h i s p e r iod. He has str e s s e d the ASL, but has a f a i r amount of m a t e r i a l on the ESL and i t s members, and on i s s u e s , events, and p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n V i c t o r i a n anthropology. The h i s t o r y of the ESL covers a period of almost 30 years, and so i s impossible to condense here. Thus, I have chosen to mention only those issues and events of most note i n sket c h i n g the development of the S o c i e t y over t h i s time. 2. George Stocking "What's i n a name? The Origins of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e " Man, 1971, v.6 , #3*369. 3. I b i d . 4. I b i d . 5. A r t h u r K e i t h "How can the I n s t i t u t e best serve the needs of anthropology?" J o u r n a l of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  I n s t i t u t e , 1917, v.47*13. 6. I b i d . : Stocking op. ci t . 1 3 6 9 . 7. K e i t h , l o c . c i t . 8. Stocking, op. c i t . : 3 7 1 . 7 5 -9. K e i t h , op. c i t . : 1 4 . 10. George Stocking Race. Culture and E v o l u t i o n . New York; Free Press, 1968:38 f f . D.A. Lorimer B r i t i s h A t t i t u d e s to the Negro, 1850-1870. unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972:189ff. 11. Dr. Erns t Dieffenbach "The study of Ethnology" J o u r n a l of the E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of  London, old s e r i e s , 1848, v.1:17. n.b. This a r t i c l e appears i n the J ournal volume f o r 1848, which contains dated a r t i c l e s as e a r l y as 1844. Dieffenbach's a r t i c l e i t s e l f i s not dated, but there i s reason to b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s e a r l i e r than the date of the volume. K e i t h mentions t h i s paper i n h i s 1917 a r t i c l e , g i v i n g i t s date as 1843 ( K e i t h : 17), Hence, we w i l l regard t h i s as the date of the a r t i c l e . 12. Stocking "What's i n a Name?" 1971*373. 13. Ibid.:370? K e i t h , op. c i t . : 1 9 . 14. K e i t h I b i d . J.W. Burrow E v o l u t i o n and So c i e t y , 1970:120-1. 15. Stocking op. c i t . : 377. 16. I b i d . :376; Burrow op. c i t . :123. 17. Burrow I b i d . W.J. Reader P r o f e s s i o n a l Men: The Rise of the P r o f e s s i o n a l Classes i n the Nine- teenth Century! London, 1966; Weidenfeld and Nicholson:134 . 18. c f . advertisement i n the f i r s t volume of the ASL's A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Review, I863, g i v i n g the members of i t s executive, and "Twelfth L i s t of Foundation Fellows of the ASL correcte d to June, 1865". published i n T. Bendysshe, ed., The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l T r e a t i s e s of J.F.  Blumenbach. London, 1865» published by the ASL. 19. Burrow op. c i t . : 124. 20. Stocking "What's i n a Name?":382. 76. 21. c f . Burrow op. c i t . si 27 Lorimer op. c i t . s245. 22. Burrow op. cit. :224s S t o c k i n g op. c i t . $378. 23. Stocking Ibid.:3?9; Lorimer, op. cit. s 2 3 0 24. Burrow op. c i t . :125• Lorimer op. c i t . :284; Stocking op. c i t . :379. 25. J.A. Barnes "Anthropology i n B r i t a i n before and a f t e r Carwin" Mankind, 1960:373. 26. K e i t h op. c i t . : 20; S t o c k i n g op. c i t . : 3 8 0 . 27. Stocking I b i d . 28. Lorimer op. cit. : 2 3 6,244. 29. Ibid.:242. 30. Stocking op. c i t . . : 377. 31. T.H. Huxley to John Lubbock, October 18, I867. From D.A. Lorimer's notes on Avebury Papers, B r i t i s h Museum, A d d i t i o n a l MS 49 p 640ff 24-5-32. I b i d . 33. Lorimer, op. c i t . : 2 4 4 - 5 . 34. "But I f e e l very s t r o n g l y the d e s i r a b l e n e s s of u n i t i n g the s c a t t e r e d and more l e s s r i v a l f o r c e s of the Ethnolo-g i s t s and A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and i f I can be of the l e a s t use i n b r i n g i n g the union I s h a l l not a l l o w any provate convenience to stand on the way..." T.H. Huxley to John Lubbock, August 1, 1866. Avebury Papers, from D.A. Lorimer's notes. BM Add. MS 49, 640 f , 137 (unbound). 35. Minutes of the ESL C o u n c i l , A p r i l 12, 1864. From D.A. Lorimer's notes. 36. S t o c k i n g op. c i t . O87 . 37. K e i t h , op. c i t . : 2 1 . 38. Ibid.:387; John Beddoe Memories of E i g h t y Years. B r i s t o l , 1910, J.W. A r r o w s m i t h s 2 1 5 . T.H. Huxley Address to the E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London, 1870. J o u r n a l  of the E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , new s e r i e s , v . 2 . : x x i . 77. 3 9 . 40. 41 . 42. 43. K e i t h , op. c i t . '.22; Sto c k i n g , op. c i t . : 383. 4 4 . 4 5 . 46. 47. 48. Richard King Address to the ESL, May 2 5 , 1844. E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y J o u r n a l ( h e r e a f t e r ESJTi old s e r i e s , v.2 , 1 8 5 0 : 1 5 . King, op. c i t . : 1 1 Rear-Admiral S i r Charles Malcolm Address to the ESL, May 2 9 , 1846. ESJ, o.s., v . 2 : 6 9 . , 1850. King, op. c i t . : 15 . Dieffenbach Thomas Hodgkin "The study of Ethnology", 1843 : 1 ? . ESJ, o.s.' v.1 . 1848. "The Progress of Ethnology" ESJ, o.s., v. 1 : 1 8 4 8 : 3 0 - 1 . n.b. This a r t i c l e , l i k e Dieffenbach's (see footnote #11) has no date, and appears i n the J ournal volume dated 1848. However, King's a r t i c l e of 1844 makes reference to i t , and so we may conclude t h a t i t was w r i t t e n i n e i t h e r 1843 or 1844. Malcolm, op. c i t . : 6 9 - 7 0 S i r B.C. Brodie, Address to the ESL, May 16, 1854. ESJ, o.s., v.4," 1 8 5 6 : 2 9 5 . Diefenbach op. c i t . , : 1 5 , f f ; Hodgkin, op. c i t . : 2 8 James C. P r i c h a r d Address to the ESL, June 2 2 , 1847. ESJ, o.s., v . l . , 1848 : 3 2 9 . Brodie Address to the SSL;-- May 2 7 , 1853. ESJ, o.s., v . 4 . , 1856«99ff. Hodgkin, op. c i t . * 3 5 f f Richard C u l l "Remarks on the nature, objects and evidences of E t h n o l o g i c a l s cience" 1851 ESJ, o.s., v.3 , 1 8 5 4 : 1 0 9 Brodie, Address, 1853*99 f f . C u l l "On the recent progress of Ethnology", May 14 , 1852. ESJ, o.s., v.3 , 1 8 5 4 : 1 7 7 . King, op. c i t . : 1 1 . Dieffenbach op. c i t . : 1 5 , 1 7 , 2 0 ; Hodgkin, op. c i t . : 2 8 ; P r i c h a r d , op. c i t . : 3 2 9 > Brodie, 1 8 5 3 * 9 8 - 9 . 78. 4 9 . Dieffenbach, op. c i t . '.26. 50. Hodgkin, op. cit. : 3 6 - 9« 51. Ibid. - . 3 5 . 52. C u l l , 1851,'109. 53. I b i d . t l 0 7 - 9 . 54. Brodie, 1 8 5 3 * 6 1 . 55. C u l l , 1852:177. 56. Dieffenbach, op. c i t . : l 6 ; King, op. c i t . : 9 . 57. P r i c h a r d Anniversary Address f o r 1848. ESJ, o.s., v . 2 , 1850:120. 58. Dieffenbach, op. c i t . : 1 5 , 1 8 . 59 . P r i c h a r d , 1847*302. 60 . C u l l , 1851*103. 6 1 . P r i c h a r d , 1847 :303-62. I b i d . -.304. 63. C u l l , 1851*103 -4. 64. P r i c h a r d , 1847*304. 65 . Dieffenbach, op. c i t . : 2 5 ; Hodgkin, op. c i t . : 3 4 ; King, bp. c i t . : 1 8 ; Malcolm, 1 8 4 6 : 6 9 ; P r i c h a r d , 1847*304 -329 ; Brodie, 1854 :295 . 66 . King, op. c i t . :9 . 67. Hodgkin, op. c i t . : 4 2 ; King, op. c i t : 1 9 . 68 . I b i d . 69. Hodgkin, op. c i t . : 4 2 ; King, op. c i t . : 4 4 . 70. I b i d . 71. King, op. c i t . : 4 5 » 7 2 . Malcolm Address to the ESL, May 26 , 1845 . ESJ, o.s., v . 2 , 1 8 5 0 : 4 3 . 79. 73. Dieffenbach, op. c i t . : 2 6 . 74. King, op. c i t . -.20; Brodie, 1853:102. 75. Hodgkin, op. c i t . : 4 2 . 76. King, op. c i t . : 2 6 - 3 6 . 77. Hodgkin, op. c i t . : 3 1 - 2 | King, op. c i t . : 2 0 - 4 - ; Malcolm, 1845:53; Malcom, 1846:81-2, 71; P r i c h a r d , 1847:315; P r i c h a r d , 1848: 121-130, 144; C u l l , 18535117; C u l l , 1854:297-314. 78. Malcolm 1846:71; P r i c h a r d 1848:144; C u l l 1853:117. 79. Dieffenbach, op. c i t . : l 8 - 2 2 . 80. Hodgkin, op. c i t . t 2 7 ; Brodie, 1854:295. 81. ESJ, o.s., 193-4., v . 3 , 1854. 82. Ibid.:193-208 83. Dieffenbach, op. c i t . s i ? , 18, 24; Hodgkin, op. c i t . s 3 0 - l ; P r i c h a r d , 1847O02; Brodie, 1854:295. 84. Hodgkin, op. c i t . : 4 l . 85. I b i d . :31 f f ; King, op. c i t . :18; P r i c h a r d , 1847*302. 86. Dieffenbach, op. c i t . : 1 6 . 87. c f . K e i t h , op. c i t . : 1 8 ; y e a r l y l i s t s of o f f i c e r s & c o u n c i l of the ESL; ESL p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r count of a r t i c l e s . 88. Huxley to Lubbock, October 18, 1867. BM Add. MS 49, 640f, 24-5 (unbound) Avebury Papers. From D.A. Lorimer's notes. 89. ESJ, New s e r i e s , v. 1, I869:x, x i - x i v , 1-4. 90. ESJ, new s e r i e s , v.2, 1 8 ? 0 : x x i i ; c f . Stocking "What's i n a Name?":374. 91. T.S. Prideaux "On the p r i n c i p l e s of Ethnology", November 22, 1864. Transactions  of the ESL ( h e r e a f t e r EST), v . 3 , 1865:408-417. 92. The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the two c h a r t s comes from an a n a l y s i s of the 13 volumes of the p u b l i c a t i o n s of the ESL. 8 0 . Chapter 3: The ESL: S t r u c t u r e and Organization Having examined the o r i g i n s and aims of the ESL, we can now look at i t s a c t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e . This c a l l s f o r an exe r c i s e i n i t s e l f , r e q u i r i n g a recon-s t r u c t i o n of the Society's l i f e from the m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e i n the Journals Minutes, contemporary primary sources, and the secondary l i e t e r a t u r e . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t ' i s only as complete as these sources allow. A f i r s t and bas i c f a c t to note i s that the ESL- was a Soc i e t y of men. Women could not become members, and only two women ever published anything i n the Soc i e t y ' s Journals. This s i t u a t i o n was p a r t l y the r e s u l t of custom. Men's clubs were a common feature of V i c t o r i a n England and i played an important part i n male s o c i e t y . Nonetheless, women could attend meetings of some other groups that were formed out of common i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t , such as the Royal Geographical S o c i e t y (RGS). The r e f u s a l to admit women to the ESL meetings a l s o r e f l e c t e d another feature of contemporary B r i t i s h s o c i e t y . As Hunt pointed out when the ASL was formed, s o c i e t i e s involved i n the d e t a i l e d s c i e n t i f i c study of man would have to d i s c u s s such t o p i c s as p h a l l i c worship, c i r c u m c i s i o n , puberty r i t e s , and so on. These could hardly be mentioned i n mixed company, and so the presence of women would s e r i o u s l y impede the s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s of such a Society.-^ When i n 1869 the ESL i n s t i t u t e d a s e r i e s of p u b l i c l e c t u r e s which women were allowed to attend, the ASL was quick to po i n t out and mourn i t s r i v a l ' s departure 4 from seri o u s i n q u i r y . The ESL cam i n t o being i n Thomas Hodgkin's house i n Brook St. i n February 7 , 184-3, and continued to meet there from then t i l l September, 1 8 4 4 . - ' Then i t moved to 27 S a c k v i l l e St. which i t rented from Dr. Richard King, 6 i t s f i r s t s ecretary. King was a close a s s o c i a t e of Hidgkin* i n the APS, and had been re s p o n s i b l e f o r i s s u i n g the pro-spectus proposing the c r e a t i o n of an e t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y i n J u l y , 1 8 4 2 . 7 King moved i n September, 1 8 4 7 , to 17 S a v i l e Row and the ESL moved too, to new quarters i n King's house. By 1 8 5 2 the S o c i e t y and King were at odds, and the ESL moved out t o 23 Newman S t . , Oxford S t . , where i t remained u n t i l 1 8 5 9 . Then i t went to 4 St. Martin's P l a c e , T r a f a l g a r Square, near the present s i t e of the o Na t i o n a l P o r t r a i t G a l l e r y . The rooms were rented from the Royal S o c i e t y of L i t e r a t u r e , and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the ASL met i n the very same place - on d i f f e r e n t n i g h t s , of c o u r s e . 1 0 The ESL stayed at t h i s l a s t address during the r e s t 1 1 of i t s l i f e , and f o r some time a f t e r union. I t underwent f i v e moves, t h e r e f o r e , i n the period we are concerned w i t h , but spent the m a j o r i t y of i t s years i n only two places. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note the area of London i n which i t was loc a t e d and how i t was s i t u a t e d i n r e l a t i o n to the homes of i t s members. This p o i n t w i l l be developed 82. i n more d e t a i l i n a l a t e r chapter. S u f f i c e i t for-now t o mention where i t was l o c a t e d , i n Mayfair f o r nine years, Marylebone f o r seven, then P i c c a d i l l y f o r the remaining twelve years of i t s l i f e ; and t o note t h a t these were 12 areas of high s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . J u s t when and how o f t e n the ESL met i s never c l e a r l y s tated i n the Journals. S t i l l , most of the J o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , which were papers presented at the meetings, have a date. They can be used, a c c o r d i n g l y , to work out the frequency of meetings. Unfortunately, the f i r s t s e r i e s of the Journals r e q u i r e s a good d e a l of s p e c u l a t i o n , f o r here no date i s given f o r many of the a r t i c l e s . A l s o , there are great time gaps, as the f o u r volumes cover a period of over a decade. With the l a t e r volumes of t h i s s e r i e s , however, as with the Transactions and the "new s e r i e s " J o u r n a l , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t the S o c i e t y met every two weeks. A reference i n Rear Admiral S i r Charles Malcolm's Address of.May 2 9 , 1846, f u r t h e r confirms t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , f o r he t a l k s of adding to the l i s t of communications 13 to the ESL every f o r t n i g h t . J These meetings were the r e g u l a r ones f o r the whole S o c i e t y , and the new s e r i e s of the J o u r n a l designated them "ordinary". I t was i n these meetings that most of the ideas on ethnology were presented. A r t i c l e s were read and discussed. From time to time specimens of e t h n o l o g i c a l note were e x h i b i t e d , whether a c t u a l n a t i v e s or a r t i f a c t s . Presents to the l i b r a r y and museum were a l s o noted. The 83-meetings seem to have been important s o c i a l gatherings as w e l l as i n t e l l e c t u a l forums, i f the amount of money 14 spent on refreshments i s a f a i r i n d i c a t i o n . There was another category of meeting, the Anniver-sary meeting i n May, and i t becomes apparent that t h i s was a y e a r l y occurrence. Later volumes a l s o c a l l e d t h i s a General meeting. I t was at t h i s time t h a t the r e p o r t s on the Society's a c t i v i t i e s and achievements of the preceding year, as w e l l as p r e s i d e n t i a l addresses, were given. One wonders why the anniversary meeting was held i n May when s i g n i f i c a n t dates associated w i t h the ESL's beginnings are February and September, as noted before. A. p o i n t from E l i z a b e t h I s i c h e i ' s V i c t o r i a n Quakers may be r e l e v a n t here. The author notes how the Quakers, a c t i v e i n p h i l a n -thropy, founded a number of S o c i e t i e s which had t h e i r general meetings i n May, to c o i n c i d e w i t h the Quaker's 1 5 Y e a r l y Meeting. And indeed, Hodgkin was a Quaker, as 16 were a number of the men who founded the ESL. Besides these two types of meetings, there was a t h i r d category v/hich emerged i n 1869 w i t h the r e o r g a n i z a -t i o n of the ESL under Huxley's presidency: the S p e c i a l Meeting. These were held p e r i o d i c a l l y , and l a d i e s were 17 permitted to attend. ' For example, one was held on B r i t i s h ethnology and archaeology; i n p a r t i c u l a r , on the question of p r e s e r v i n g s i t e s and r e l i c s which were threatened with d e s t r u c t i o n . Others d e a l t with I n d i a , North America, New Zealand and P o l y n e s i a , the p r a c t i c e 84. being to examine one area i n depth at each meeting. These nights were intended to po p u l a r i z e ethnology, and perhaps to a t t r a c t new members and money. The ESL reported 18 them as w e l l attended, a l t houg h.. .. l a t e r students of the S o c i e t y have s a i d that they d i d not achieve the d e s i r e d 19 r e s u l t s , e i t h e r i n membership or funds. 7 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the S p e c i a l Meetings on were held i n the theatre of the Royal School of Mines, 21 and a l s o i n the theatre of the Museum of P r a c t i c a l Geology. In both cases, t h i s was with the permission of S i r Roderick 22 Murchison, who was i n charge of these i n s t i t u t i o n s . Murchison had a l s o been a founding f o r c e i n the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of Science i n 1831 and a tr u s t e e from I 8 3 2 - I 8 7 O , s e r v i n g as i t s general s e c r e t a r y from 1836-1845, and pre s i d e n t i n 1846. 2^ The e t h n o l o g i s t s were represented at the annual B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n Meetings, and the s e c t i o n they were given to share w i t h geography 24 i n 1851 had Murchison as i t s president. Murchison had a l s o been a l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n the Royal Geographical S o c i e t y . I n f a c t , he was power behind 2 i t . ^ I t was t h i s S o c i e t y ' s model, deplored by the ASL, that the ESL was f o l l o w i n g i n attempting to reach the p u b l i c and i n adm i t t i n g l a d i e s . Crawfurd, i n one of h i s terms as the ESL's p r e s i d e n t , had a c t u a l l y t r i e d to get h i s S o c i e t y to j o i n the RGS. He was un s u c c e s s f u l , apparently opposed by executive members who wanted autonomy f o r the 26 ESL. One might a l s o note t h a t the S p e c i a l Meetings 8 5 . were o r i g i n a t e d under Huxley as part of a r e d i r e c t i o n of the ESL's energies, and that Huxley was employed by Murchison as a l e c t u r e r at the School of M i n e s . ^ The G e o l o g i c a l Survey that Huxley worked on was a l s o d i r e c t e d 2 9 by Murchison, 7 and Murchison was a member of the ESL Co u n c i l from 1865 u n t i l 18?1, the year of union and of 30 h i s own death. J These f a c t s seem to be more than j u s t c o i n c i d e n t a l or of passing i n t e r e s t . They suggest s t r o n g l y how involved the l e g i t i m a t e s c i e n t i f i c world was i n the ESL, des p i t e t h a t S o c i e t y ' s low s c i e n t i f i c s t a t u s . 3 1 The S o c i e t y , meeting where i t d i d , supervised as i t was,.':was'in very c l o s e contact w i t h t h i s world. We mentioned i n the preceding chapter Huxley's view of the ESL. Now we see tha t e s t a b l i s h e d s c i e n t i s t s were doing more than t a l k i n g . Changes were being made i n the ESL, changes that would f u r t h e r suggest th a t the ESL was, i f g e n t l y , d e l i b e r a t e l y and d e f i n i t e l y guided to a more respectable s c i e n t i f i c p o s i t i o n , which was f i n a l l y achieved by union w i t h the ASL i n 18?1.^ 2 In the same year that the S p e c i a l Meetings were introduced, the Annual Report made p r o v i s i o n f o r yet another s o r t of meeting: s e c t i o n a l meetings. Again, t h i s was to the end of more e f f i c i e n t , more s c i e n t i f i c work. The p l a n was introduced to have a number of d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s which would devote themselves to s p e c i f i c aspects of e t h n o l o g i c a l study j namely b i o l o g y , comparative psychology, s o c i o l o g y , archaeology, and p h i l o l o g y . T h e i r concerns 86. and l i m i t s were described, and each s e c t i o n v/as to have an e l e c t e d s e c r e t a r y to c o l l e c t information.- and arrange to present i t . From time to time, i f there were enough m a t e r i a l or issues to r e q u i r e such, a s e c t i o n could have i t s own meeting where i t could go i n t o more d e t a i l on a subject than the ordinary or s p e c i a l meetings permitted. ^ 3 L a s t l y , there were C o u n c i l meetings, i n v o l v i n g the el e c t e d members of the executive. These are mentioned f o r the f i r s t i n the 1869 Report, and here one a l s o gets 34 an idea of the Council's a c t i v i t i e s . P r i o r to that time, the only i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s group's meetings comes from the C o u n c i l Minutes, which are housed i n the RAI l i b r a r y . My knowledge of the Minutes i s second-hand, from D.A. Lorimer's notes, and so i t i s hard to know e x a c t l y how much m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e . They e x i s t f o r 184-6-l869i and George Stocking, who has a l s o used them i n studying the RAI, has pronounced them "more or l e s s complete". From them we l e a r n t h a t the C o u n c i l met on the same nights as the ordinary m e e t i n g s , a n d t h a t i t s t a s k was t o p l a n the agenda of the l a r g e r gatherings,-^ The 1869 Report o u t l i n e s t h e i r work i n more d e t a i l as i n c l u d i n g the "pro-p o s a l of new ordinary members... announcement of the meetings of the S o c i e t y or of i t s Sections and of the papers to be read at them", as w e l l as r e c e i v i n g the r e p o r t s of the t r e a s u r e r , l i b r a r i a n , general s e c r e t a r y , p u b l i c a t i o n s and f o r e i g n s e c r e t a r i e s , and d i s c u s s i o n of the Soc i e t y ' s • 38 business.^ From the Minutes one le a r n s v a r i o u s new f a c t s that never appear i n the j o u r n a l s . For insta n c e , i n 1960 Crawfurd proposed the admission of women as guests to 39 meetings. This was accepted, but with the pr o v i s o 40 " i n a l l occasions c e r t i f i e d by C o u n c i l " . E v i d e n t l y , no such occasions ever arose. In 1862, an attempt to have "Royal"/appended to the Soc i e t y ' s name f a i l e d when S i r George Grey refused to recommend i t to the Queen on the grounds that there were not enough members to warrant such h 42 41 a move. One f i n d s that the ASL proposed union with the ESL i n November, 1864, the year a f t e r the s p l i t . In January 1866, moreover, a proposal was re c e i v e d f o r 43 union w i t h the P h i l o l o g i c a l S o ciety. J This was never p u b l i c l y announced or duscussed. To a l l i n t e n t s and purposes i t never o f f i c i a l l y happened, f o r Huxley, t a l k i n g of n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the ASL i n 1870, envisaged p o s s i b l e unions w i t h other S o c i e t i e s , yet mentioned only the Archaeo-l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , and the 44 G e o l o g i c a l Society. The omission here seems more than an o v e r s i g h t , when one considers that p h i l o l o g y was the dominant approach i n the ESL's science d u r i n g the 1840's len 46 4< and 1 8 5 0 *s, and then remembers Huxley's view of t h i s work under Crawfurd. Turning from meetings to membership, v/e are faced w i t h more r e c o n s t r u c t i o n work. From an a n a l y s i s of the jou r n a l s one can conclude t h a t there were three ranks of membership: Members or Fellows; Honorary Fellows* 88, and Corresponding Members. A l l of these ranks were e l e c t e d , but ordinary members had to pay a fee, while Honorary Fellows entered f r e e . I t appears, too, that Honorary Fellows had l i t t l e say i n t h e i r nomination and e l e c t i o n unless they were v i o l e n t l y opposed. Hunt, f o r example, resigned h i s membership and o f f i c e i n the ESL the year the ASL was formed, but upon r e c e i p t of h i s r e s i g n a t i o n the ESL 4 7 e l e c t e d him an Honorary Fellow. A l s o , one notes the s i n g u l a r l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the Honorary Fellows i n the Society's a f f a i r s , whether i n p r e s e n t i n g papers or i n occupying executive p o s i t i o n s , and the sketchy, out-of-date i n f o r m a t i o n on them i n the membership l i s t s . Thus, i t appears that t h e i r major c o n t r i b u t i o n to the S o c i e t y may have been i n the p r e s t i g e t h e i r names imparted. The Corresponding Members were apparently e l i g i b l e f o r fees l i k e the ordinary members, and both had the choice of paying e i t h e r an annual s u b s c r i p t i o n or t a k i n g out a l i f e t i m e membership. The number of l i f e t i m e members, i n those years i n which i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s , was as f o l l o w s ; Table V i s L i f e t i m e Memberships i n the ESL I863-I87O Year Number T o t a l Membership I863 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 35 42 43 45 45 41 284 297 297 302 302 325 8 9 -One can see that very few people took advantage of t h i s method of paying t h e i r fees. The annual s u b s c r i p t i o n was set i n 1844 as L2, along w i t h a 3=3 entrance fee. I t was decided t h a t the f i r s t two hundred men could compound f o r L12, and t h e r e a f t e r f o r 48 £20. In 1846, the s u b s c r i p t i o n changed from 3=2 to 2Gns, and i t was decided that a f t e r the S o c i e t y reached two hundred there would be an entrance fee of 3=3.3s. This s t a t e , however was never r e a c h e d . ^ According to the Report of 1870, the fee remained at 2Gns f o r the r e s t of the ESL's l i f e , f o r i t was s t i l l that i n that year.-' 0 There was a l s o a p r o v i s i o n f o r country members, those l i v i n g beyond a twenty-mile r a d i u s , to j o i n as A s s o c i a t e s and 51 52 pay only L l . l s . This r u l e was not revoked u n t i l 1870, and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the Corresponding Members were a l s o subject to i t s c o n d i t i o n s . A l l types of members seem to have been e l i g i b l e f o r executive p o s i t i o n , although Corresponding Members would be p h y s i c a l l y unable to take such up. This c o n s i s t e d of a p r e s i d e n t , a number of v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s , u s u a l l y f o u r , a t r e a s u r e r , a s e c r e t a r y , a l i b r a r i a n , and a C o u n c i l of from seventeen to nineteen people. The i n f o r m a t i o n here i s a l s o sketchy, e x i s t i n g i n most d e t a i l f o r those years f o r which there are published l i s t s of the O f f i c e r s and C o u n c i l of the ESL. Otherwise, one l e a r n s by n o t i n g references to p o s i t i o n given a f t e r an author's name, and mention i n the C o u n c i l Minutes and the secondary l i t e r a t u r e . 9 0 . Most of t h i s data i s therefore from the 1860's. The terms of a l l o f f i c e s were one year, and e l e c t i o n s ' appear to have been held at the Annual Meetings. There was a tendency f o r people to be r e - e l e c t e d or simply switched to another o f f i c e . Fo example, f o r the e i g h t years f o r which there are l i s t s of the O f f i c e r s and C o u n c i l , one f i n d s only f o r t y d i f f e r e n t names f o r the 189 posts open over t h i s period. A.s f a r as the d u t i e s of the var i o u s o f f i c e s go, there i s again l i t t l e e x p l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n u n t i l the Annual Report of 1869- Up t i l l then, i t i s a matter of deduction. The president chaired meetings and each year addressed the S o c i e t y on the nature of ethnology or the ESL's progress. Although h i s d u t i e s are never o u t l i n e d , i t seems from assessing h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n the So c i e t y t h a t he was i t s leader and guided i t s i n t e r e s t s . Huxley l e d the ESL to reunion w i t h the ASL, but under Crawfurd such an achievement was not p o s s i b l e . I t seems tha t once one became head of the ESL he determined the d i r e c t i o n t h a t the Soci e t y was to f o l l o w . The v i c e - p r e s i d e n t ' s , t r e a s u r e r ' s , and Council's r o l e s are a l s o not described i n the ESL p u b l i c a t i o n s . I t would appear that the v i c e - p r e s i d e n t a s s i s t e d the pre s i d e n t i n the running of the Society. A r e t i r e d p r e s i d e n t became a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t when he stepped down, but i t i s hard to know what part he then played i n decision-making, and. i f h i s status was the same as that of the other v i c e -p r e s i d e n t s . One may assume th a t the t r e a s u r e r c o l l e c t e d s u b s c r i p t i o n s , .kept the books, and drew up the budget. His term was a y e a r l y one, but over the e i g h t years of the published l i s t s there were, i n f a c t , only two men i n t h i s p o s i t i o n . I t seems to have been more a p r a c t i c a l than a p o l i t i c a l post. In 1 8 6 9 , ' the separate p o s i t i o n of Receiver was introduced to c o l l e c t funds, and presumably to l i g h t e n the t r e a s u r e r ' s load.. L a s t l y , we f i n d the job of C o u n c i l member a l s o l a c k i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n , but i t appears that the C o u n c i l was the assembly that handled most of the Society's day-to-day business. The s e c r e t a r y seems to have been the other important executive member besides the p r e s i d e n t , although t h i s might be dependant on p e r s o n a l i t y , and not a feature of the r o l e per se. When C u l l , f o r example, was Secretary, he d e l i v e r e d a paper each year at the General Meeting on the progress of ethnology. In t h i s he was sharing a job t r a d i t i o n a l l y performed by the P r e s i d e n t , and i n one case, 54-the year a f t e r Malcolm!s death, c a r r y i n g i t out alone. When Hunt threatened to r e s i g n h i s post i n I 8 6 3 , o s t e n s i b l y because h i s load was too heavy, and perhaps very much because of h i s d i f f e r i n g views on ethnology, the C o u n c i l voted to r e t a i n h i s s e r v i c e s and h i r e d a paid a s s i s t a n t to help him. J~> The Secretary's p o s i t i o n was s p l i t a f t e r I863 and shared by two men. The o f f i c e was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n 92. i n 1869, and d i s t i n c t i o n s were made between general s e c r e t a r y , s e c r e t a r y f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s , f o r e i g n s e c r e t a r y , l o c a l and departmental s e c r e t a r i e s , and s e c t i o n a l s e c r e t a r i e s . Each had h i s own l i s t of d u t i e s , o u t l i n e d i n some d e t a i l i n t hat year's Annual Report. B a s i c a l l y , each had to c o l l e c t and organize papers and communications i n h i s p a r t i c u l a r sphere of i n t e r e s t , arrange f o r t h e i r presenta-t i o n to the C o u n c i l , and t h e i r eventual reading or p u b l i c a -t i o n . Each had to keep minutes of the meetings that he was concerned with, and arrange f o r press r e l e a s e s . The s e n i o r Secretary of the Society was u s u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the term "Honorary" before h i s t i t l e . There i s evidence t h a t the ESL's s e c r e t a r y s h i p had once been a paid p o s i t i o n , f o r the C o u n c i l Minutes of May 1 7 , 1849, record the d e c i s i o n to end the Secretary's s a l a r y . The only paid p o s i t i o n was that of A s s i s t a n t Secretary, who by 1869 was a l s o the sub-editor and had the r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y of seeing to whatever the others l e f t incompleted, p o t e n t i a l l y a great d e a l of work4^ There was a p o s i t i o n of l i b r a r i a n , but t h i s i s again not described. The same person,L.J. Beale, held the post d u r i n g the years of the Transactions f o r which i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s . The new s e r i e s J o u r n a l does not mention anyone as l i b r a r i a n , so perhaps t h i s job was c a r r i e d out by another member of the executive. L a s t l y , there was the e d i t o r , whose p o s i t i o n a l s o r e c e i v e s l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n the j o u r n a l s . I t i s not c l e a r whether t h i s job was 93. held by one of the executive or i f i t could be held by any person who was i n t e r e s t e d . For the old s e r i e s J o u r n a l there i s no mention of any e d i t o r , save f o r a d i s c l a i m e r at the beginning of each volume that the contents are the opinions of the c o n t r i b u t o r s , and not of the C o u n c i l . The Transactions do not even have t h i s item. Volume 2 of the Transactions has a noted i n s e r t e d by Thomas Wright, Hon. Sec., e x p l a i n i n g the absence of some p i c t u r e s t h a t the S o c i e t y had intended 59 to p u b l i s h . 7 Perhaps, then, the e d i t o r s h i p was h i s job. But was i t r e g u l a r l y the Secretary's? Volume 6 of the Transactions mentions payment of the e d i t o r as p a r t of the budget. Was t h i s an honorarium or a s a l a r y ? The new s e r i e s of the J o u r n a l mentions a board of e d i t o r s and a sub-editor as w e l l , The board i s the same f o r both years, c o n s i s t i n g of Huxley, the P r e s i d e n t , Lubbock, a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , A.L. Lane Fox, General Secretary, Hyde Cla r k e , Foreign Secretary, and P r o f e s s o r George Busk, a C o u n c i l member. The sub-editor's p o s i t i o n , as o u t l i n e d i n the 1869 Report, was supposed to be a p a r t 60 of the A s s i s t a n t Secretary's job. This was the case i n 1870, when F. Rudler held both posts, but i n I869, the sub-editor was J.H. Lamprey, who was not even on the executive. I t appears that the e d i t o r i a l board was chosen more l e s s a r b i t r a r i l y by the p r e s i d e n t . The p u b l i c a t i o n s of the ESL changed three times i n format: the old s e r i e s J o u r n a l , 1843-1856, the Transactions, 9 4 . 1861-1869, and f i n a l l y the new s e r i e s J o u r n a l , I 8 6 9 - I 8 7 O . Each time, the p u b l i s h e r a l s o changed? from W.M. Watts to John Murray to N. Triibner r e s p e c t i v e l y . Murray and Trubner appear on the membership l i s t , although they never contributed any a r t i c l e s . Watts i s not l i s t e d , but as h i s work f o r the ESL was over i n 1856, and the f i r s t l i s t does not appear u n t i l I 8 6 3 , h i s membership may simply not have been recorded. Having examined the S o c i e t y ' s s t r u c t u r e , i t now remains f o r us to look at some aspects of the development of ESL over time; that i s , i n regard to i t s f i n a n c i a l s t a t e , i t s numbers and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i t s membership. The f i n a n c i a l support came p a r t l y from f e e s , which have been discussed, and a l s o from the sale of i t s j o u r n a l s . Otherwise, personal g i f t s enlarged i t s assets. Information on the Society's finances i s most d e t a i l e d where the f i n a n c i a l statements are a c t u a l l y p r i n t e d . F a i l i n g t h a t , one must glean whatever he can from chance comments. The f i r s t reference to t h i s matter i s i n 1844, when Richard King s a i d that the ESL was i n working order but 6l needed more money, and to that end, more members. The f o l l o w i n g year, President S i r Charles Malcolm noted th a t the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n was favourable, which f a c t he saw as an accomplishment f o r a Soc i e t y such as the ESL, e x i s t i n g as i t d i d on p r i v a t e s u b s c r i p t i o n s . 0 ^ Information on 1846 i s a v a i l a b l e from a statement published f o r that year. We w i l l reproduce i t here, f o r i t i s 95. of i n t e r e s t to look at how the S o c i e t y spent i t s money as w e l l as i t s o v e r a l l f i n a n c i a l s t a t e . T a b l e V i i : ABSTRACT OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE FOR 1845. £ >• d. Balance brought forward 99 14 10 Subscriptions 144 4 0 Compositions 36 0 0 Balance due to Petty Cash 19 13 11 £299 12 9 London, May 29, 1846. £ *. d. Rent 135 0 0 Messenger 40 0 0 Housekeeping Expenses 34 6 3 Stationery 16 12 5 Printing 10 17 0 Coals 4 19 0 Postages and Parcels 4 12 5 Hire of Seats 4 10 0 Miscellaneous 2 5 3 Balance in the hands of Treasurer.... 46 10 5 £299 12 9 Examined and approved, THOMAS MAY, » . ... W. P. ANDREWS, \ A u t M o r s -That t h i s represented the S o c i e t y i n a hea l t h y s i t u a t i o n i s supported by the f a c t that Crawfurd i n 186? compared the year's budget w i t h that of 1846 , choosing the l a t t e r 64 as a time when the ESL was "considered t o be prospering". U n t i l 1866 , one must c o n s u l t the C o u n c i l Minutes f o r mention of fi n a n c e s . On June 1 9 , 1 8 5 0 , the A u d i t o r ' s r e p o r t was pronounced f a v o u r a b l e , and the S o c i e t y was declared to be i n a secure f i n a n c i a l s t a t e . The Annual Report of 1851 noted t h a t the f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n had impro v e d , ^ and th a t of 1853 judged t h a t the s i t u a t i o n was h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y and th a t the S o c i e t y was on f i r m ground. For 1855 -7 there i s nothing d e f i n i t e r e p o r t e d , except the f i g u r e of the S o c i e t y ' s balance at the time. 96. In A p r i l , 1857» the Minutes expressed an i n a b i l i t y to re p o r t on the f i n a n c i a l s t a t e because the Soc i e t y ' s books 68 were imperfect. This must have been q u i c k l y remedied, because the f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t was given May:6 of tha t year; 69 however again only the balance i s state d . ' Looking at the balances may give some i n d i c a t i o n of the Soc i e t y ' s s i t u a t i o n , i f one i s c o r r e c t i n assuming that i t s expenses and income remained r e l a t i v e l y constant. The f o l l o w i n g chart summarizes what in f o r m a t i o n i s to be had on t h i s . One should keep i n mind that a balance of £ 4 - 6 . 1 0 . 5 was considered "prospering" i n 1846. Table V I I I ; Y e a r l y Balances of the ESL 1851-1856 7 0 Year Balance 1851 £ 5 4 . 4 . 4 1852 £ 2 7 . 8 . 9 1853 £ 3 3 . 1 9 . 9 1854 £33.24 .10 1855 £46 . 1 . 1 0 1856 £ 2 3 . 5 . 1 0 The above f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e that the ESL's fortunes were not very good i n the 1850's, and t h i s f i n d i n g i s borne out by the secondary l i t e r a t u r e . K e i t h t a l k s of the " f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s of 1857", 7 1 and says of 1858 t h a t " f i n -. . 72 a n c i a l c r i s i s succeeded f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s " . S tocking, too, says there was a "serious d e c l i n e " i n the mid-1850's, which was a t t r i b u t e d by the Secretary to the Crimean War 7 3 and by Hunt to the deadening impact of r e l i g i o n . J However, he t a l k s of the ESL coming back to l i f e i n 1859 and i860, and K e i t h a l s o says t h a t the s i t u a t i o n improved i n the •60's. 7^ From t h i s decade on we get more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o and here we a l s o have the chance of l e a r n i n g what the Soc i e t y ' s income and expenses were. In 1866 the C o u n c i l reported t h a t the accounts were so s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a t the So c i e t y had the l a r g e s t balance ever. 7"' The s a l e of the Transactions, an important item of the budget, had gone up, and the increase i n F e l l o w s , while not great, 76 was steady. The breakdown was as f o l l o w s ! Table I X j Statement of Accounts of FBEDERICK HINDMARSII, Treasurer, with the ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETT OF LONDON, from 23rd May, 18G5, to 23rd Ma;/, 18GG. & t. d. To nnlnnco, as per Inst Account on May 23rd, 1*05 153 2 10 „ Subscriptions of Mim-t.ers fur lite current and pust years (including compositions) .. 82-1 )2 6 • Commission. .. 17 3 11 303 8 7 „ Cftah of Mr. Murray, on sale of Society Trfinsilctiitts .. 20 2 4 Cash error in addition of Sub-scriptions .. .. 0 3 6 „ KtM'^ive'l dirterenc« of duty of Insurance - 0 2 3 £ 1 8 1 19 6 For Rent, Insurance, etc. „ Kefreshntents and attendance at livening Meetings „ Reporting Proceedings „ Mr. iticlmrJs, lor Printing „ Mr. Wrigut, for expenses and editing tlie Transactions fur ISlio and HC6 „ Mr. Cobbett, for Painting.. " „ Balance £ s. ,1. 40 9 0 52 5 0 2ti G U isr 4 (j ft t 0 4 17 fi 1C4 11 C tUl 19 ft {Signed; MOXKI. ItKALK, I , .. A. C.VMPIJKI.I,, M*'i.'»w. 77, I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the items of the budget, and i n p a r t i c u l a r the amount spent on refreshments, which would suggest t h a t the s o c i a l f a c t of g e t t i n g together was of no l i t t l e importance. 98. The f o l l o w i n g year was again reported as satisfactory.'° • I.'iembership was up, the number of new members gr e a t e r than i n any one year f o r some years past, and a very few of the Fellows had r e t i r e d . Finances were described as f l o u r i s h -i n g , the t r e a s u r e r ' s balance being; even l a r g e r than the 7 9 preceding year.'- 7 The breakdown here was as f o l l o w s : Table X: 80 iii'„t ,,j Arcnnl «f I ' I : K L K I ; I C K II I N D M . M I S I I , Tnnxunr, with T H E E T H N O L O G I C A L S O C I E T Y O F LONDON,/row th,: 22nd of May, 1866, to tlw 2Ut of May, 1SG7. £ t. d. To balance as per last account on May 22nd, 1SC0 1C4 11 6 „ Subscriptions of Members for the Current and Past Years , £ 2 8 5 1 0 Less commission 16 16 4 268 4 8 ., Cash of Mr. Murray on Sale of Society's Transactions . . . £ 9 19 0 21 14 8 31 13 8 4G4 9 10 Esumintd May 21, 1867, WILLIAM BLACKMAX, ) . ,., ' ( Auditors. IIAIU'.INOTOX TUKE, £ s. d. By Rent and Insurance 40 6 9 „ Refreshments and Attendance at Even-ing Meetings 59 13 8 „ Mr. Mackie as assistant to the Secretary 40 0 0 „ Mr, Richards for Printing 128 6 0 „ Mr. Wright for Expenses and Editing the Transactions 43 10 0 „ Messrs. Bruce and Ford (Stationers) . . . 5 17 3 „ Gratuity to Mr. Suggate of the Royal Geographical Society 1 0 0 „ Balance 145 16 2 464 9 10 Refreshments were s t i l l a la r g e expense, more even than the e d i t i n g of the j o u r n a l ; but p u b l i c a t i o n s were a l s o r e c e i v i n g a l o t more money a l t o g e t h e r than before. 3y I 8 6 9 , the E S L was under Huxley and changing c o n s i -derably. I t s f i n a n c e s were a l s o changing. The I 8 6 9 Report says nothing s p e c i f i c but comments t h a t the "Soci e t y ' s operations have always been on a l i m i t e d s c a l e , and i t s 81 heads of expenditure few". The 1870 p i c t u r e i s more 99 . d e t a i l e d . The new q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l was popular and s e l l i n g w e l l . 82 The budget was as f o l l o w s : ?able XI: 3 3 S T A T E M E N T of A C C O U N T of I I . G. Hons, Esq., Treasurer, with the E T H N O L O G I C A L SO C I E T Y from May 31, 18G9, to May IG, 1870. £ d. To Balance at Bankers, May 31st, 1800 52 5 2 ,, Subscriptions received from Members during the Session of 1609-70, less Collector's Commis-sion 283 2 11 ,, Contribution towards Lithograph, by Sir G. Grey • • • • 3 0 0 ., Sale of Society's Transactions. Cash received from Mr. Murray :— £ s. d. Julv 7, ISO!) G 9 7 March 9, 1S70 10 8 9 10 18 4 £ 3 5 5 0 C Examined. FREDERICK HINDMARSH. 1 J. \V. FLOWER. I Auditors. £ ». d. By Rent (one year aud a half) 00 0 0 „ Salary of Secretary and Assistant-Secretaries:— Mr. "Wright....". £ 1 0 0 0 Mr. Lamprey 25 0 0 Mr. Rudler 7 10 O 42 10 0 „ Printing (Mr. Richards), on account 60 0 0 „ Lithographing:— Mr. Jobbins..'. £ 3 9 9 Mr. Stanford 4 5 0 Mr. Ilauhart 14 18 Mr. "Wcller 3 7 26 1 0 „ Photographing (Mr. Pedroletti) 10 0 0 „ Stationery:— Messrs. Bruce & Ford £ 3 9 10 Mr. Stanford 0 18 0 4 7 10 „ Attendance at Special Meetings at Museum of Practical Geology 3 14 0 ., Postage and Incidental Expenses 38 8 3 „ Balance at Bankers', May 10th, 1870 120 5 4 £ 3 5 5 0 5 A s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h i s from the tv/o preceding accounts of Crawfurd's day i s the disappearance of r e f r e s h -ments. The expenses appear to have been concentrated i n t o the work of the S o c i e t y , l a r g e l y the pr o d u c t i o n of the J o u r n a l . T h i s , I b e l i e v e , i s i n d i c a t i v e of the changes i n the ESL wit h Huxley's coming to power. I t looks as i f the S o c i e t y had become more s e r i o u s and, p o s s i b l y , more e f f i c i e n t . One should note t h a t there i s no debt apparent i n 100, the S o c i e t y d u r i n g t h i s time. Every year was an improve-ment, according to the a v a i l a b l e data. This i s s i g n i f i c a n t when one considers the reasons behind the ESL and ASL reunion. Lorimer has s a i d that both S o c i e t i e s were deeply 84 m debt, and a l e t t e r from Huxley to Lubbock would seem to confirm t h i s : P u t t i n g both together there w i l l be something over 400 paying members and a debt of about L1100 - L1200 one t h i r d of which (roughly) belongs to the Ethnolo-g i s t s and two t h i r d s to the Anthropolo-g i s t s . 85 K e i t h and Stocking do not mention t h i s as an element i n the ESL's side of n e g o t i a t i o n s , although they do note 86 the ASL's debt. The f a c t s presented above would support t h i s . I f , then, the S o c i e t y was solvent or even prosper-i n g , the reasons f o r union could not have been f i n a n c i a l . Nor could f i n a n c i a l reasons have prompted Huxley's reorgan-i z a t i o n of the ESL. I t would seem that something else was behind h i s d e s i r e to r e - o r i e n t the S o c i e t y , perhaps an i n t e r e s t i n growth, - and of a c e r t a i n s o r t , - r a t h e r than s u r v i v a l . At any r a t e , i t w e l l may be presumed that the ESL enjoyed good f i n a n c i a l h e a l t h . The next question to examine i s the s i z e of the S o c i e t y . The c h a r t e r meeting of the ESL was attended O n by twenty-three men. K e i t h says t h a t the Society's 88 beginnings were "auspicious", and Lorimer s t a t e s that by 1844 there were 157 members.0^ Malcolm's p r e s i d e n t i a l address of the f o l l o w i n g year s t r e s s e d the need to a t t r a c t 101., new members,^ and i n 1846 the number was up to 1 7 0 . ° ^ There i s no mention of the issue again u n t i l 1852, when 92 we f i n d C u l l again c a l l i n g f o r more members. In 1854, the C o u n c i l Minutes stated that 4-5 annual s u b s c r i p t i o n s 93 and three l i f e memberships were paid i n the year previous. In 18551 "the Minutes record that the number of paying members f o r 1854- was down to 5 4 . ^ The next year i t was 9 5 even lower, at 32. J By 1858 t h i s number had r i s e n s l i g h t l y 96 to 38, and from there things seem to have improved u n t i l i n I863 there were 212. During the I860!s the membership l i s t s were published, and so we w i l l present a summary of t h e i r data i n the f o l l o w i n g charts Table XIIs Chart of Membership i n the ESL I863-I87O Honorary Corresponding Year Fellows Fellows Members T o t a l I863 212 4-4 28 284 1866 219 47 31 297 1867 219 47 31 297 1868 227 42 33 302 1869 230 39 33 302 1870 237 45 33 325 Thus, except f o r a slump i n the 1850's, the Soc i e t y seems to have e i t h e r stood s t i l l or grown each year. Again, e s s e n t i a l l y i t seems to have prospered, and again, one wonders why changes i n the ESL were necessary. Having looked, at the number of members per year, we can now consider where they l i v e d , and j u s t where and Table X I I I ; Membership i n the ESL by Address 1863-70. Difference between 1 s t Place 1863, 1866 1867 1868 1869 I87O & l a s t London 122 117 108 106 101 108 -14 England 62 62 61 69 85 83 +21 Scotland 4 5 8 7 6 11 +7 I r e l a n d 1 • 0 0 1 2 >.2 +1 Wales 1 1 0 0 1 3 +2 Foreign 59 81 87 104 80 86 +27 Not Known 35 31- 33 35 27 25 -10 T o t a l 386 297 297 292 302 318 o 103. how f a r the ESL's i n f l u e n c e reached. The data i n t h i s case a p p l i e d only to the 1860's, when the published l i s t s are a v a i l a b l e . We must make do w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n : yet s t i l l , the '60*s were e s p e c i a l l y important years f o r the S o c i e t y , being the decade when i t regained i t s f o o t i n g f i n a n c i a l l y and n u m e r i c a l l y , and the years which was the s p l i t of the ASL and the l a t e r reunion. Using the addresses given i n the l i s t s , I have analyzed the extent of the ESL's membership by the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : London, the r e s t of England, Scotland, I r e l a n d and Wales, Foreign c o u n t r i e s and a r e s i d u a l category of "not known" those people f o r whom the i n f o r m a t i o n i s incomplete. Table X I I gives the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s . From t h i s one can see that with the t o t a l number of members almost constant, the p r o p o r t i o n from London decreased over the years while those outside the c i t y increased. Thus London i n time came to be more the Society's base of operations, and not the sole scene of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . Concerning the question of where the members l i v e d outside London, the accompanying t a b l e s show the d i s t r i -b u t i o n i n England and i n the r e s t of the world. The d i v i s i o n of England i n the Table XIV i s by county, and i n the world map by the regions e s t a b l i s h e d Map I i n the preceding chapter. The numbers included i n each area represent the lowest and the highest number of members i n that area over the e i g h t year span f o r which t h i s 1 i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e . One sees that i n England, the membership outside London was heaviest i n the Home Counties and then stretched north i n t o the southern Midlands, and to Devon on the West. There were not a great many members i n East A n g l i a or i n Northern England except f o r Lancashire. As f o r f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s d e a l t w i t h i n Table XV, the g r e a t e s t number were i n C o n t i n e n t a l Europe, and the next g r e a t e s t i n Imperial possessions, p a r t i c u l a r l y I n d i a and Ceylon. Singapore i s of e s p e c i a l note, alone having as many members as I n d i a . Thus we have seen how the ESL was organized and how i t worked, i t s s i z e , and where knowledge of i t spread. We have shown that the Soc i e t y was t h r i v i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the 1 8 6 0 ' s up to union. What changes were made i n i t were therefore not necessary: The ESL was doing w e l l as i t was, f i n a n c i a l l y healthy and, according to the p r e s i d e n t i a l addresses, content with i t s s i t u a t i o n . There was no reason to increase membership, no n e c e s s i t y to expand and complicate executive d u t i e s , and no need f o r new types of meetings. The changes, hence, must have been to meet purposes outside the group. The changes had the e f f e c t of p o p u l a r i z i n g ethnology and broadening the s o c i a l base of the ESL's membership. They a l s o introduced more s c i e n t i f i c r i g o u r i n t o the study of Man, with the new d i v i s i o n of ethnology i n t o d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s , thus a l l o w i n g close s u r v e i l l a n c e and guidance of the work done i n the S o c i e t y by the l a r g e r 105. Table XIV; ESL Membership i n England Outside London 1863-70. h.b. Where more than one number i s given w i t h a county name, the f i r s t represents the lowest number of members and the second the highest number i n t h i s county over the given time span. County Number Bedfordshire 2-3 Berkshire 0-1 Buckinghamshire 1-2 Cheshire 2-4 Cambridge s h i r e 0-1 Cumberland 1 Durham 0-5 Devonshire 0-1 Essex 1-3 G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e 5-7 Hampshire 0-2 H e r t f o r d s h i r e 1-3 Kent 7-11 Lancashire 3-9 Middlesex 10-14 Oxford 1-3 N o r f o l k 1-2 Northumberland 1-3 Nottinghamshire 0-1 Shropshire 1-2 Somerset 1-6 S t a f f o r d s h i r e 1-2 S u f f o l k 0-1 Surrey 2-8 Sussex 0-3 Warwickshire 0 Westmorland 1-2 W i l t s h i r e 2-3 Yorkshire 1-4 Guernsey 0-4 I s l e of Man 0-1 Table XV s ESL Membership i n the World Outside Great B r i t a i n 1863-70. n.b. The numbers with each area i n d i c a t e the lowest and highest membership over the given span of years. Area Number 1. B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d 1 2. C o n t i n e n t a l Europe & Canary Islands 28-35 3. Middle East & Northern A f r i c a 2-3 4. P a k i s t a n , Afghanistan & Kashmir •••o 5. Mongolia 0 6. South A s i a 5-14 7. East A s i a 1-4 8. Southeast A s i a 4-5 (plus pore alone 2 9. P h i l i p p i n e s 0 10. P a c i f i c Islands 0 11. A u s t r a l i a & New Zealand 4-7 12. Black Sub-Saharan A f r i c a 2 13- North America 0-2 14. Caribbean 1-3 15. L a t i n America 0-2 s c i e n t i f i c world. The changes i n the ESL a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t a new group was i n c o n t r o l of i t . I t has been stated t h a t the i n t r o -d u c t i o n of S p e c i a l Meetings, the expansion and r e d e f i n i t i o n of executive p o s i t i o n s , the changes i n types of spending, e t c . , were a l l i n s t i t u t e d under Huxley's presidency. We must a l s o note that Huxley had nothing to do wit h the ESL u n t i l 1 8 6 3 . according t o the f i r s t mention of him i n the jo u r n a l s . Why d i d he j o i n then? At f i r s t glance, the answer seems s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d enough. Huxley, l i k e so many others, was i n t e r e s t e d i n ethnology. But Huxley apparently had other motivations. In I863 John Lubbock became pre s i d e n t of the ESL, and Huxley wrote him, "Of course under these circumstances, I s h a l l 9 7 become a member and do my best to help you...". ' Huxley's concern w i t h the ESL was not s o l e l y , i f a t a l l , founded upon an i n t e r e s t i n ethnology. As has been shown i n an e a r l i e r chapter when d i s c u s s i n g what Huxley f e l t about Orawfurd, Huxley was not happy wi t h ethnology a s . j i t was then being studied. The ESL he described as "an organized s t u p i d i t y " . ^ I t does make sense that he should t r y to change the Soci e t y on a t t a i n i n g i t s presidency. A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of the major a l t e r a t i o n s t h a t the S o c i e t y was to experience under Huxley i s the f a c t t h a t no obituary of Crawfurd was ever published by the ESL. Crawfurd had been on the ESL's executive many times and, p u b l i s h i n g 47 papers, was the most p r o l i f i c ethnolo-g i s t of the Society. He was p r a i s e d by h i s colleagues 108:. i n d i f f e r e n t p a p e r s 7 7 and, more than any of the few who were given the h o n o u r , h e merited an obituary. The ESL, now under Huxley, only noted h i s passing and made 10' mention of i n t e n t to p u b l i s h an obituary i n the f u t u r e . This i n t e n t i o n was never r e a l i z e d . The changes that Huxley made were i n keeping w i t h h i s views, purposes, and standards. However, as has been e s t a b l i s h e d , they were not i n keeping w i t h those of the S o c i e t y he joined. His aims were g r a f t e d i n t o the ESL, not a n a t u r a l outgrowth of i t . Why d i d he introduce the changes th a t he did? A most obvious answer i s that the ESL would gain the r e s p e c t a b i l i t y that i t lacked under Crawfurd: r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i n the s c i e n t i f i c world. Huxley was a p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n t i s t , and was a c t i v e i n seeking to improve the standards of V i c t o r i a n science and spread 102 science's i n f l u e n c e . A f u r t h e r purpose i s to be found i n a most r e v e a l i n g from Huxley to Lubbock i n 1866, a l e t t e r that supports the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a group wi t h aims d i r e c t l y counter t o the S o c i e t y ' s own came to take over the ESL. So f a r as my i n d i v i d u a l and personal f e e l i n g i s concerned I should have no h e s i t a t i o n about d e c l i n i n g to become the P r e s i d e n t of any S o c i e t y whatever— as I have not a p a r t i c l e of time or strength more than I need to get through the work th a t I already have before me. But I f e e l very s t r o n g l y the d e s i r -ableness of u n i t i n g the s c a t t e r e d and more or l e s s r i v a l f o r c e s of the Ethnolo-g i s t s and A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and i f I can be of the l e a s t use i n b r i n g i n g about the union I s h a l l not a l l o w any p r i v a t e convenience to stand i n the way. In order to put my own p e r s o n a l i t y out of the business a l t o g e t h e r the best t h i n g I can do, I t h i n k i s to place myself a l t o g e t h e r i n your hands. I f the amalgamation can be brought about i n a way s a t i s f a c t o r y to you and you t h i n k that i t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r me to be President I w i l l accept the o f f i c e and do my best i n i t . I f not, not, 103 This l e t t e r , showing both Huxley's purpose and Lubbock's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t , f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t the changes i n the ESL that preceded union w i t h the ASL were more than c o i n c i d e n t a l l y r e l a t e d . Indeed, the changes would f a c i l i t a t e union. With a c l e a n i n g up of the ESL's o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s t r u c t u r e could be set up i n t o which the ASL's members could e a s i l y f i t . The ESL's j o u r n a l became q u a r t e r l y , l i k e the ASL's, and the p u b l i s h e r to whom was switched under Huxley j u s t 104 happened to p u b l i s h the ASL's j o u r n a l as w e l l . Of course, more than the s t r u c t u r e would need changing i f the two S o c i e t i e s were to come together. There was the ques t i o n of i n t e r e s t s and ideas. Here the changes i n the t o p i c s d e a l t with by the ESL., which were noted i n chapter 2, played t h e i r p a r t . These changes functioned as a move toward a n e u t r a l ground that could enable the two S o c i e t i e s to come t o -gether with n e i t h e r g i v i n g up i t s i n t e r e s t s . Archaeology fed i n t o the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l concerns of the e t h n o l o g i s t s on the one hand, and the b i o l o g i c a l and anatomical concerns of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s on the other. 110. The two would no longer be resea r c h i n g i n unrelated f i e l d s , each i n i t s own way, and t h e i r work could be i n t e g r a t e d as together c o n t r i b u t i n g to a complete study of Man. Thus the c o n f l i c t between the two S o c i e t i e s would be solved. These two reasons that have been suggested as Huxley's p o s s i b l e m o t i v a t i o n f o r h i s behaviour as ESL president are not unrelated. U n i t i n g the two groups, both of which v/ere pursuing the same study would not only stop the controversy between them, i t would, again, b e n e f i t V i c t o r i a n science. I t would promote a more productive science of Man, w i t h both S o c i e t i e s now e x p l o r i n g common instead of di s p a r a t e questions. The end of controversy would end the negative a t t e n t i o n one p a r t of science was a t t r a c t i n g to i t s e l f and, by extension, to s c i e n t i f i c p u r s u i t s i n -• general. One more f i e l d of s c i e n t i f i c endeavour would be taught to proceed i n the c o r r e c t way, w i t h any success b r i n g i n g f u r t h e r i n g the general advance of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. Huxley described the ESL and ASL as r e s p e c t i v e l y 10 5 an "organized s t u p i d i t y " and a "nest of imposters". S u r p r i s i n g l y enough, he d i d have some favourable things to day about the ASL: The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y i s c e r t a i n l y a l i v e and vigorous and under proper d i r e c -t i o n may become a very valuable organiza-t i o n . 106 S t i l l , as c o n d i t i o n s p r e s e n t l y stood, n e i t h e r of the two S o c i e t i e s e x i s t i n g alone was acceptable. A l t e r e d and uni t e d they would produce good s c i e n t i f i c data, thus enhancing the r e p u t a t i o n of science. More study would be necessary to e s t a b l i s h whether Huxley was mainly f o l l o w i n g h i s own i n t e r e s t s , or i n t e r e s t s shared with others, i n h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n the ESL. There i s evidence to suggest that the l a t t e r was the case, con-s i d e r i n g that Lubbock was a l s o i n v olved i n Huxley's aims, as e a r l y as the f i r s t year that he became p r e s i d e n t of the ESL. (This was, i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the same year th a t the ASL s p l i t o f f from the ESL, and so i t would appear t h a t i n t e r e s t i n union of the two groups began immediately upon the c r e a t i o n of the second.) But there may have been others besides Huxley and Lubbock concerned w i t h the s i t u a t i o n of the. ESL. Murchison has a l s o been mentioned i n conncection w i t h the Society. These three men, along with others who were i n the ESL, were a l s o members of two e l i t e groups of the s c i e n t i f i c world: the 107 Red Lions of the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n ' and the "X" Club 1 nR of the Royal Society. I t was s a i d of these groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y the X 109 Club, that they ran science. y More evidence i s necessary to prove that they d e l i b e r a t e l y moulded the ESL to t h e i r purposes as a group, as a " S c i e n t i f i c Mafia", or an i n v i s i b l e 110 c o l l e g e . But they c e r t a i n l y d i d belong to these e l i t e s , 1 1 2 . and many of them were a l s o involved w i t h the ESL. F i v e of the nine members of the X Club, f o r i n s t a n c e , were 1 1 1 members of the ESL. The ESL was changed, and union was e f f e c t e d . We have shown that i n t h i s Huxley and Lubbock, at l e a s t , were f o l l o w i n g motives of t h e i r own, motives e x t e r n a l to the ESL. I t would indeed be i n t e r e s t i n g to know whether these motives were shared by any other than these two men, and e x a c t l y by whom. At t h i s stage we could say t h a t we have now an explan-a t i o n of the ESL-ASL r e l a t i o n s h i p , and of i t s r e s o l u t i o n by union. And, from chapter 2 , we have found reasons to modify the present day view of the ESL's anthropology. Thus, w i t h such answers to the i s s u e s set out i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , have we anything more to look at? There are, however, s t i l l the questions of the ESL's r e p u t a t i o n i n i t s own time, and why i t d i d not have the aims f o r i t s e l f and view of i t s purpose t h a t Huxley held. There i s the matter of the type of membership and how t h i s a f f e c t e d , i f i t d i d at a l l , the work and i n t e r e s t s of the Society. Hence we must go on, to look at the ESL i n i t s f i n a l aspect: the s o c i a l , and thus complete our ethnographic study of t h i s group. Then having examined i t i n a l l i t s f a c e t s , we can attempt conclusions as t o the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Society. 113. References 1. Ralph N e v i l l London Clubs, t h e i r H i s t o r y and Treasures. London, 1911; Chatto & Windus:135 f f . Max Schl e s i n g e r Saunterings i n and about London. Nath a n i e l Cooke:115 F r a n c i s Wey Les A n g l a i s Chex Eux, 1856 -S e l e c t i o n i n Jacob Korg, ed. London i n Dickens' Day, Englewood C l i f f s , I960; P r e n t i c e - H a l l : 1 2 8 . 2. The Popular Magazine of Anthropology, A p r i l 1866, v . 2 ; 8 l . Published by the ASL. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Review, 1868, v.6:434. Published by the ASL. 3. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Review, 1869, v.7:119. 4. I b i d . 5. A r t h u r K e i t h "How can the I n s t i t u t e best serve the needs of anthropology?" J o u r n a l of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , 1917, v.47:14. 6. Ibid.:13 7. E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London J o u r n a l ( h e r e a f t e r ESJ) • old s e r i e s (o.s.) v.2,1850:15. 8. K e i t h op. c i t . : 1 3 . 9. I b i d , c f . p. 30. 10. Ibid,:13,20. 11. Ibid.:26. .The ESL mbved i n 1884 t o Hanover Square, the quarters of the Z o o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y . 12. The d i f f e r e n t areas of London and t h e i r r e l a t i v e s t a t u s are described and documented i n Chapter 5« At that time the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the ESL's l o c a t i o n w i l l be c l e a r e r . 13. ESJ o.s., v.2,:70. 14. This w i l l become more apparent l a t e r on i n the chapter when we d i s c u s s the f i n a n c i a l statements of the Society. 114;. 15. E l i z a b e t h A, I s i c h e i V i c t o r i a n Quakers. London, 1970; Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : x i x 16. George Stocking "What's i n a name? The o r i g i n s of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e " Man, 1971 , v.6 , # 3 0 7 3 . c f . 3 6 9 . 17. ESJ new s e r i e s (n.s.) v . l , 1869:ix. 18. ESJ n.s., v.2, I 8 7 0 : x i i i . 19- For example, K e i t h op. c i t . :19. 20. ESJ n.s., v . l : i x . 21. ESJ n.s., v . 2 : x i i i . 22. Bernard H. Becker S c i e n t i f i c London. London, 1874; Henry S. King & Co.0 2 6 . 2 3 . O.J.R. Howarth The B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of Science: A.  Retrospect, 1831-1931. London, 1931; B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n : 18 - 9 . 24. ESJ o.s. v . 3 , 5 1 . 2 5 . Becker op. c i t . 0 2 2 - 3 . 26. Crawfurd to Murchison, September 21, i860. Murchison Papers, BM Add. MS 46, 125 f , 483.83 (unbound). From D.A. Lorimer's notes. 27. C y r i l Bibby T.H. Huxley, S c i e n t i s t , Humanist, and Educator. London, 1959-Watts.112. 28. Wm. I r v i n e Apes, Angels and V i c t o r i a n s : Darwin, Huxley, and E v o l u t i o n . Cleveland, 1 9 5 5 s Meridian Books: 3 2 . 2 9 . A r c h i b a l d Geikie L i f e of S i r Roderick I. Murchison. 2 v o l s . London, 1875. John Murray:189. 3 0 . C a r r o l l L. Fenton The Story of Great G e o l o g i s t s . M i l d r e n A, Fenton New York, 19^5; Books f o r L i b r a r i e s Press»110. 3 1 . Huxley to Lubbock, October 18, 186?. This i s quoted i n chapter 2 of t h i s t h e s i s , p.13- Avebury Papers, BM. 11.5, 3 2 . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of some s o r t of a scheme, i f not a conspiracy, on the p a r t of v a r i o u s l e a d i n g V i c t o r i a n s c i e n t i s t s conerning the ESL, without any r e a l reference to i t s members' wishes, i s presented here f o r the f i r s t time, as f a r as I am aware. A f u l l case would r e q u i r e more research on V i c t o r i a n science, the ASL's side of the union, and a d e t a i l e d examination of the manuscript evidence. But at l e a s t from the documents I have assembed, t h i s case i s p l a u s i b l e , and would only be borne out by f u r t h e r study. 33- ESJ n.s., v . 2 : x i i - x i v . 3^. ESJ n.s., v . l r x i v . 3 5 . George Stocking to V. C a r e l e s s , September 2 3 , 1971. 3 6 . ESL C o u n c i l Minutes, A p r i l 1 9 i 184-9. From D.A. Lorimer's notes on the Minutes i n the RAI l i b r a r y , London. 37. c f . Minutes, March 17 , A p r i l 14, I863. 3 8 . ESJ n.s., v . l s x i v . 39. Minutes, October 17 i i860. 4-0. I b i d . , November 27, i860. 41. I b i d . , November 4, 1862. 42. I b i d . , November 8, 1864. 43. I b i d . , January 9, 1866. 44. ESJ n.s., v.2:xxiv. 4 5 . D.A. Lorimer B r i t i s h A t t i t u d e s to the Negro, 1850-1870. Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , UBC, 1972:196. 46. Huxley to Lubbock, October 18, I867. Cf. footnote #31 of t h i s chapter. 47. Minutes, May 5 , I863. 48. ESJ o.s. v . l , 1848. This i n f o r m a t i o n i s from Lorimer's notes on MS notes i n the RAI L i b r a r y ' s copy of t h i s volume. 49. K e i t h op. c i t . : 1 3 . 5 0 . ESJ n.s., v . 2 : i x . 5 1 . K e i t h op. c i t . : 1 3 . 116. 52. ESJ n.s., v . 2 : i x . 53- ESJ n.s., v . l . x i i i . 54. ESJ o.s., v.3.103-9; Ibid.i165-117s I b i d . , v.4:104-118; Ibid.:297-3l6. 55. Minutes, February 6, 1861. 56. E S J n . s . , v . l : x i - x i i i . 57. Minutes. May 17, 1849. 58. ESJ n.s., v . l : x i i i . 59. EST, v . 2 , 1863:v-vi 60. ESJ n.s., v l : x i i i . 61. ESJ o.s., v.1:40. 62. Ibid.:43. 63. I b i d . J 2 . 64. EST, v.6,1867-8:6. 65. Minutes, June 19, 1850. 66. I b i d . , May 14, 1851. 67. I b i d . , May 27, 1853. 68. I b i d . , A p r i l 8, 1857. 69. I b i d . , May 6, 1857. 70. These f i g u r e s are from the Minutes of the f o l l o w i n g dates, i n the order given on the c h a r t : May 14, 1851; May 14, 1852; May 27, 1853; May 26, 1854; May 25, 1855; and May 28, I856. 71. K e i t h op. c i t . i f o o t n o t e , p . l 6 . 72. Ibid.:16. 73. Stocking op. cit. 1 3 7 3 . 74. I b i d . ; K e i t h op. c i t . : 1 8 . 75. EST v.5, 1866-7:4. 76. I b i d . : l . 117, 77. I b i d . : 4 . 78. I b i d . , v.6, .867-8:1. 79. I b i d . : 4 . 80. I b i d . : 5. 81. ESJ n.s., v.1:x. 82. ESJ n.s., v . 2 : x i i . 83. Ibid.:xv. 84. Lorimer op; c i t . : 2 4 5 85. Huxley to Lubbock, January 18?1. BM Add MS 49, 642 (unbound) Avebury Papers. From D.A. Lorimer's notes. 86. K e i t h op. c i t . s23; Stocking op. c i t . O83 . 87. K e i t h op. c i t . : 1 4 . 88. Ibid.:16. 89. Lorimer op. c i t . : 1 9 5 . 90. ESJ o.s., v.2 : 6 l . 91. K e i t h op. c i t . : 1 3 -92. ESJ o.s. v.3-1854:176. 93. Minutes, May 26, 1854. 94. Ibid.;May 25, 1855. 95. I b i d . , May 28, I856. 96. K e i t h op. c i t . : l 6 . 97. Huxley to Lubbock, A p r i l I 8 6 3 , BM Add MS 49 639 f l 0 3 , Avebury Papers. From Doug Lorimer's notes. 98. Same to Same, October 18, 186?. BM Add MS 49 640 f f 24 -5 , unbound. Avebury Papers. From D. Lorimer's notes. 99. EST, v . 5 . 1866:338:343. 100. I b i d . , p 341. 101. ESJ n.s., v . l , I 8 6 9 : x i . 118.. 102. I r v i n e , op. c i t . p 264 f f . 103. Huxley to Lubbock, September 24, 1866. BM Add MS 49 640f 133 unbound, Avebury Papers, From D. Lorimer*s notes. 104. E S J n . s . , v . l , 1869:x. E S J n . s . , v.2, 1 8 7 0 i x i i . c f . t i t l e pages of ESL and ASL p u b l i c a t i o n s . 105. Stocking, George "What's i n a name?" :377, quoting Huxley to Lubbock, May 3, I863. 106. Huxley to Lubbock, October 18, I867. BM Add MS 49, 640ff 22 -5 . unbound, Avebury Papers. From D. Lorimer's notes. 107. Bibby, C y r i l T.H. Huxley, S c i e n t i s t , Humanists, and Educator. London, 1959' Watts:95;248,9. Huxley, Leonard, ed. L i f e and L e t t e r s of Thomas Henry Huxley. New York, 1901: D. Appleton & Co.: v.l , p 9 4 . I r v i n e , op. c i t . p 235; 264. Lodge, S i r O l i v e r Advancing Science: Being a Personal Reminiscencess of the B r i t i s h  A s s o c i a t i o n i n the 19th Century. London, 1931: Ernest Benn:153-4. 108. Jensen, J. Vernon "The X Club: F r a t e r n i t y of V i c t o r i a n S c i e n t i s t s . " B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l f o r the H i s t o r y of  Science, v.5, #17, 1970-1:66 f f . 109. c f . Ibid:65 , 7;72. 110. Ibid. : 6 5 - 6 . 111. Ibid.;71. 119-Chapter 4s The'ESL: S o c i a l Composition Having examined the i n t e l l e c t u a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspects of the ESL. our next task i s to look at the s o c i a l . , In t h i s we are concerned w i t h the nature of i t s membership: the l i f e of the men apart from t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the ESL and t h e i r place i n the l a r g e r V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l context. Thus, we wish to describe the i n d i c a t i v e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of t h e i r l i v e s as V i c t o r i a n Englishmen, and then assess the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these a t t r i b u t e s . This i s not j u s t a study i n i n d i v i d u a l or c o l l e c t i v e biography i n t h a t our primary i n t e r e s t i s not i n the men themselves or i n the ESL merely as the sum of these i n d i v i d u a l s . Rather, we are concerned with what the f a c t s on the i n d i v i d u a l s t e l l us about the t o t a l i t y . What type of group was created out of the s o c i a l experience of the ESL, and what was i t s r o l e i n V i c t o r i a n l i f e ? To t h i s end, the in f o r m a t i o n on the members has been organized and analyzed, not by i n d i v i d u a l , but by v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l l i f e . T his procedure a l s o has methodological s i g n i f i c a n c e . The s o c i a l nature of the group must be e s t a b l i s h e d , not j u s t assumed or described by quoting the sources. Hence, i n t h i s and i n the next chapter the in f o r m a t i o n on the ESL membership i s tre a t e d i n the same way a s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t would analyze data on any group today. D i f f e r e n t s o c i a l dimensions are examined i n t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h the members' 120. s o c i a l nature, such as t i t l e , education, occupation, and so on. The a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l r e l e v a n t to each dimension i s considered, and conclusions are then a r r i v e d at as to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the data here. A f u l l p i c t u r e of the S o c i e t y emerges when the v a r i o u s dimensions are considered together, a p i c t u r e based upon c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s , not impression or anecdote. The main source f o r t h i s m a t e r i a l i s the p u b l i c a t i o n s of the S o c i e t y i t s e l f . Here one very r a r e l y f i n d s a name without some f u r t h e r s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . People:• are mentioned i n such ways as: Captain Cameron, H.M. Consul; Prof. George Busk, FRS; S i r Thomas Edward Colebrooke, B a r t , M'CP. , FRS.,- FRAS: Rev. T. Cornthwaite; John Shortt Esq., MD; and so on. The names appear i n t h i s form i n both the body of the j o u r n a l s and i n the membership l i s t s , and one can see that they t e l l a great d e a l about the members. The s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n i t s d e t a i l i s reproduced i n Appendix I. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l summarize t h i s data as much as p o s s i b l e , being more concerned to present observations and conclusions drawn from i t . Upon c l o s e r examination t h i s m a t e r i a l f a l l s i n t o c e r t a i n general d i v i s i o n s . The f i r s t and most obvious i s s e x , f o r example "Mr., "Mrs.". A. second category i s t i t l e - f o r example, Eq u i r e , S i r , Lord. Further d i s t i n c t i o n s are made of rank of a r i s t o c r a c y - f o r i n s t a n c e , E a r l , P r i n c e , and orders 121, of knighthood — KCSI, CB., e t c . U n i v e r s i t y education i s i n d i c a t e d by the degree obtained, i n d i c a t i n g the subjects s t u d i e d , - e.g., B . l . , M.B., - and the l e v e l achieved — M.A., Ph.D. Honorary degrees are a l s o noted, and p r o f e s -s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s i n d i c a t e d by job t i t l e s such as "Dr." and "Rev.". Occupation i s a t h i r d category, given through acronyms l i k e M.D,, M.P., or a c t u a l t i t l e — Consul. Membership i n a s s o c i a t i o n s other than the ESL i s a l s o noted by acronyms f o l l o w i n g the name — ERAS, FRS. L a s t l y there are addresses, but these are given only on the member-ship l i s t s and are therefore to be had only f o r the years 1863-71. The ESL j o u r n a l s do not t e l l e v e r y t h i n g about the members. Were there the choice of more, one might add the c a t e g o r i e s of r e l i g i o n , age, and perhaps income. Otherwise one :would d e s i r e simply more in f o r m a t i o n i n the c a t e g o r i e s that e x i s t . Nevertheless, what the jou r n a l s c o n t a i n i s c e r t a i n l y s u f f i c i e n t f o r the a n a l y s i s at hand. Other primary sources, such as novels, l e t t e r s and p e r i o d i -c a l s , and the secondary l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y b i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n a r i e s , o f f e r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the members, but with temporal and f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s on research I have not r e f e r r e d to these f o r d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l , and t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a study of the ESL as i t presented i t s e l f i n i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s . Where I do use the other sources i s i n e x p l a i n i n g the data from the j o u r n a l s , to 1 2 2 . , put my f i n d i n g s i n t o t h e i r s o c i a l context. The above-mentioned c a t e g o r i e s have been used i n a n a l y z i n g the s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the ESL. Let us now d i s c u s s the f i n d i n g s f o r each one i n more d e t a i l . Because t h i s a n a l y s i s i s concerned with ESL members as part of V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y , data on f o r e i g n e r s has not been included i n the d i s c u s s i o n ; that i s to say, those who were n a t i v e s or c i t i z e n s of a country other then B r i t a i n . B r i t i s h people i n the c o l o n i e s or even l i v i n g i n a f o r e i g n country are included because they s t i l l f i g u r e d i n and were a f f e c t e d by the V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l m i l i e u . In c e r t a i n cases, where a f o r e i g n e r had been a long-time r e s i d e n t of England and a c t i v e i n the s o c i a l l i f e there, he has been included as p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . S u b t r a c t i n g the f o r e i g n group, t h e r e f o r e , from the t o t a l ESL membership of 64-8 leaves us with a group of 594. I t i s these t h a t we are concerned with i n d i s c u s s i n g the s o c i a l aspect of the ESL. The f i r s t category to consider, then, i s sex. This can be d e a l t w i t h f a i r l y b r i e f l y f o r , as has been noted, only two of the persons mentioned over the ESL's t h i r t y years were female. This s i t u a t i o n was not uncommon f o r t h a t p e r i o d , as most a s s o c i a t i o n s of i t s s o r t then were l i m i t e d to men.1 The Royal Geographical S o c i e t y , i n p a r t i c u l a r , and other i n t e r e s t - o r i e n t e d groups admitted Women to t h e i r meetings, but r a r e l y allowed them to become 123.. members.0 The admission of women was a t o p i c of some d i s c u s s i o n i n the ESL, as we have seen, and even i n 1868, when they were allowed to attend the S p e c i a l Meetings without needing a member's i n v i t a t i o n , they were s t i l l not admitted to membership i n the Society.-^ The ESL thus maintained a f a i r amount of exclusiveness and i t s " s e r i o u s " image f o r not having female members. T i t l e i s the next category. Here the three b a s i c d i v i s i o n s of "commoner", "intermediate", and "noble" have been used. The "intermediate" l a b e l i s app l i e d to those who were commoners by b i r t h but achieved noble rank by being knighted. The f i n d i n g s are given i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . The i n f o r m a t i o n i n the d i f f e r e n t columns of the t a b l e i s arranged according to the values given 4 l t by V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . From t h i s we see that over 50% of the ESL were com-moners, while 5.7% were intermediate, and 5-5%, a p p r o x i -mately, were noble. For 31% we have no information. At l e a s t one-tenth of the S o c i e t y therefore was non-commoner. From Whitaker's Almanack of 1879 we f i n d a t o t a l of 2841 non-commoners i n the t o t a l B r i t i s h p o p u l a t i o n of 33 m i l l i o n , a percentage of .0084. Thus, the ESL had many times the n a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n of non-commoners, q u i t e a s u b s t a n t i a l number of t h i s e l i t e . The next category to consider i s education. The f i n d i n g s presented i n Table XVII. To e s t a b l i s h the education Table XVIt T i t l e of the Members of the ESL commoner intermediate- noble Esq 309 KP 1 Prince 2 Mr 23 KCB 8 Duke 1 Mrs 1 KB 3 E a r l 4 Miss 1 CB 5 Viscount 1 KCSI GSI KCMG KCM 2 1 1 1 Baron (Lord) 7 S i r , B a r t 18 (i n h e r i t e d " S i r " ) KCH 1 S i r 11 other Maharajah 2 Prince 1 no entry t o t a l ESL 190 alone t o t a l 334 (56.2,96) 34 (5.17%) 3 190 {.5%) (33.1%) Table XVIIs Education of the ESL Members. u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s i o n a l no entry t o t a l ESL A r t s B.A.. 4 M.A, 9 Ph.D. 3 guessed Prof. 7 T o t a l A r t s 23 Theology D.D. 13 guessed Rev. 32 Archdeacon 1 Bishop 1 Lord Bishop 1 Archbishop 1 T o t a l Theology 4-9 Law LL. B. D.C.L. T o t a l Law 1 3. 4 Medicine M.B. 1 M.D. 42 T o t a l medicine 43 Law B a r r i s t e r Judge Chief J u s t i c e T o t a l Medicine Dr. Surgeon MRCS F T o t a l Other Geologist 1 2 1 4 32 4 6 42 428 t o t a l 119 47 428 594 of the ESL members any degrees obtained were f i r s t noted. Use was a l s o made of h i n t s i n other data such as mention of a p r o f e s s i o n , f o r example, "Rev.", "Dr.", or membership i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , f o r example, FRCS, as these a l s o t e l l about t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d . The conclusions i n these cases are entered s e p a r a t e l y i n each column i n the t a b l e as "guessed". In some instances a person had more than one i n d i c a t i o n of education, such as "Dr., MRCP", or "B.A., FRCS". Where t h i s occurred, the most obvious i n d i c a t o r of education was chosen. The other type of data was used i n the absence of such d i r e c t f a c t s . We should note that the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i s only on post-secondary education, and that not a l l of i t has to do w i t h u n i v e r s i t y attendance. U n i v e r s i t i e s at that time taught only the c l a s s i c s , and l i b e r a l a r t s , while t r a i n i n g f o r the v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n s was obtained e l s e -Q where. Hence the d i v i s i o n on the t a b l e between "univer-s i t y " and " p r o f e s s i o n a l " was necessary. We w i l l look f i r s t at what these f i n d i n g s t e l l us d i r e c t l y , and then at t h e i r general s i g n i f i c a n c e . The b a s i c d i v i s i o n of " u n i v e r s i t y " and " p r o f e s s i o n a l " r e f l e c t s the type of subjects s t u d i e d , and a l s o has to do with the nature of the education r e c e i v e d . As G.K. C l a r k p o i n t s out, the p r o f e s s i o n a l man was not then n e c e s s a r i l y an educated man, but a t r a i n e d man, u s u a l l y l e a r n i n g through apprenticeship. U n i v e r s i t y education imparted a more 1 2 ? . general knowledge r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . This d i s t i n c t i o n has an e v a l u a t i v e aspect, f o r education i n t h i s sense was t y p i c a l l y the possession of gentlemen. U n i v e r s i t y men t h e r e f o r e occupied a somewhat higher s o c i a l p o s i t i o n than those w i t h other types of e d u c a t i o n . 7 Within the " u n i v e r s i t y " column, we can see the break-down i n t o A r t s , theology, medicine, and law. In A r t s , the B.A. was the usual degree rec e i v e d . An M.A., at Oxford and Cambridge, was obtained a f t e r a subsequent p e r i o d of time by paying a sum of money. I t was assumed that the r e c i p i e n t had spent the time i n f u r t h e r reading and thought, but the main f u n c t i o n of the degree was to l e t the holder vote i n the u n i v e r s i t y senate: i t d i d not 1 0 r e a l l y r e f l e c t any s c h o l a s t i c achievement. At the U n i v e r s i t y of London, and at S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s , however, 1 1 the M.A. was a c t u a l l y earned. This degree's mam f u n c t i o n 1 2 seems to have been as a l i c e n c e t o teach, and we may consider t h a t at l e a s t some of the M.A.'s here were engaged i n that p r o f e s s i o n . Ph.D. degrees were even more r a r e , 1 3 given at the time only by German u n i v e r s i t i e s . J Thus, t h i s degree i n d i c a t e d something about where i t s holder s t u d i e d , and again i t suggests a teaching or research p o s i t i o n . The Professors may not have been Ph.D's, but were probably a l s o involved i n teaching. In a sense, the data on theology could be included i n the " p r o f e s s i o n a l " column i n t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y i n t h i s case provided t r a i n i n g f o r the c l e r g y , — at l e a s t 128. i f one were A n g l i c a n . ^ Those of d i s s e n t i n g r e l i g i o n s attended academies of t h e i r own denominations. These academies had a c u r r i c u l u m and approach s i m i l a r to the . . . 15 u n i v e r s i t i e s , and t h e i r q u a l i t y were a l s o comparable. y For t h i s reason a l l the "Rev's" are entered i n the "univer-s i t y " column as t h e i r education was of the same type, and s i m i l a r l y to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The high c l e r g y mentioned under theology were most l i k e l y 16 A n g l i c a n , and one may assume that they had at l e a s t 17 a f i r s t degree. ' Law and medicine degrees were r e l a t i v e l y r a r e at t h i s time, and so the men who held these degrees were somewhat 18 a s p e c i a l e l i t e i n themselves. These were persons who had added the more general education, t h a t of a gentleman, to t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s i o n s . The r e s t of the men i n these f i e l d s , entered i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l column, would have been t r a i n e d w i t h those already prac-t i s i n g i n these areas. Law students read w i t h lawyers at the Inns of Court, t h e i r only formal requirement being to eat a given number of meals there i n order to ensure 19 contact w i t h t h e i r s u p e r i o r s . y Doctors were t r a i n e d 20 i n h o s p i t a l s , as were some surgeons, although the l a t t e r 21 more oft e n learned through a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . Those who are entered as. M/FRCS are to be noted "as having met the s t r i c t e r standards that some surgeons were t r y i n g to make u n i v e r s a l i n an attempt to improve t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n ' s 22 standing. The g e o l o g i s t , unless he had learned h i s 129. c r a f t as an amateur e n t h u s i a s t , ^ might have had e i t h e r medical t r a i n i n g or a S c o t t i s h or Non-Conformist education, as these were the only m i l i e u s i n which he could study 24 s c i e n t i f i c techniques. We can reduce the number i n the "no entry" column somewhat by c o n s i d e r i n g those for'whom we have information. I t turns out that almost a l l the e d u c a t i o n a l data i s on the commoners. We have edu c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on only f i v e of the non-commoners, and these are a l l members of the "intermediate" group discussed above. These f i v e c o n s i s t of two of the M.D.'s i n Table I I , two D.C.L.'s, and one Ph.D.. An a d d i t i o n a l three of the intermediate group are given as LL.D. (There are a t o t a l of f i v e LL.D.'s mentioned i n the j o u r n a l s . ) There i s no e d u c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n at a l l f o r the "noble" group. We t h e r e f o r e know that they d i d not receive p r o f e s s i o n a l or u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , and i t i s at the l e a s t improbable that they 2 5 would have had trade or c r a f t a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s . y Upon r e f l e c t i o n , t h i s l a c k of e d u c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the nobles i n terms of the columns i n Table XVII i s not s u r p r i s i n g . As a r i s t o c r a t s , they would probably have been educated at home or attended a secondary i n s t i t u t i o n such as a p u b l i c boarding school i n the E n g l i s h sense. They they could have gone to u n i v e r s i t y , but not f o r s p e c i f i c 27 t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r f u t u r e i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . Any education f o r a d u l t occupation, such as owning land or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n government, i f indeed any p a r t i c u l a r 130. occupation was taken up, would not be acquired from i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i z e d education as i t then e x i s t e d . T h e i r a r i s t o c r a c y , t h e r e f o r e , i s i n i t s e l f f a i r evidence of t h e i r education. Thus, we can reasonably s u b s t r a c t the 35 nobles from the "no entry" column as accounted f o r . S i m i l a r l y , we can subtra c t the two women as t h e i r s i t u a t i o n a l s o e x p l a i n s t h e i r education. They would 2 8 have been educated at home or i n special:,schools f o r 29 g i r l s . ' U n i v e r s i t y attendance f o r women was extremely 30 rare at t h i s time, and, e q u a l l y , t r a i n i n g f o r the p r o f e s -31 sions was almost non-existent. We can use o f f i c e r rank i n the armed f o r c e s i n the same way to e s t a b l i s h education. During the period under c o n s i d e r a t i o n army commissions, except f o r the Royal A r t i l l e r y 32 and the Royal Engineers, were purchased. These commis-sions went then to those who could a f f o r d them, men of 33 high p o s i t i o n , J and entrance i n t o the armed s e r v i c e s 34 thus furnished an a l t e r n a t i v e to u n i v e r s i t y education. We can remove the men i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , 37 i n a l l , from the t o t a l number of blanks on the t a b l e . O f f i c e r s i n the A r t i l l e r y and Engineers were s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d , and had to attend a m i l i t a r y c o l l e g e to earn t h e i r commis-s i o n s . - ^ Those ESL members who were o f f i c e r s i n these regiments, 8 i n a l l , can thus be moved from the "no entry" to the " p r o f e s s i o n a l " column. A. Royal Naval commission a l s o c a l l e d f o r t r a i n i n g , a n d so the 9 naval o f f i c e r s i n the So c i e t y can a l s o be moved to the p r o f e s s i o n a l column. With these adjustments, the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the ESL members' education emerges as f o l l o w s : Table X V I I I : Revised P i c t u r e of ESL Members' Education • I °A u n i v e r s i t y education 120 20 .2 p r o f e s s i o n a l ( i ncludes R.E., R.A., & R.N. O f f i c e r s ) 82 13-0 non-profe s s i onal ( a r i s t o c r a c y , women, & army o f f i c e r s ) 74 12 .4 t o t a l 276 46.5 no entry 318 53-5 t o t a l 594 100.0 Thus, we have i n f o r m a t i o n on the education of almost h a l f of the Soc i e t y ' s membership. I t appears that univer s i t y education was the most common type here, accounting f o r 43.8% of those on whom we have information. However, we must a l s o remember th a t t h i s f i g u r e i n c l u d e s men i n law, medicine, and theology, and that t h e i r education was combined w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Taking these together with those i n the " p r o f e s s i o n a l " column, we have thus a t o t a l of 178 who were prepared f o r the profes si o n s . In e f f e c t , then, the predominant focus of the education of the ESL members f o r whom we have i n f o r m a t i o n 132. was p r o f e s s i o n a l . We can get an idea of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s s i t u a t i o n when we compare i t w i t h that of the whole of England. In 1868, Matthew Arnold s t a t e d that England had 3500 m a t r i c u l a t e d u n i v e r s i t y students out 3 7 of a population of 20 m i l l i o n - " — a percentage of .17. In c o n t r a s t , the ESL's un i v e r s i t y - e d u c a t e d men c o n s t i t u t e d 20.2% of such a group. The next body of data to consider i s that on occupa-t i o n . I n t h i s area, the i n f o r m a t i o n breaks down i n t o e i g h t main d i v i s i o n s : r e l i g i o n , medicine, government, m i l i t a r y , law, education, museums and l i b r a r i e s , and the miscellaneous category of "other". The f i n d i n g s are presented i n Table XIV. For s i m p l i c i t y , the e n t r i e s i n the columns are again l i s t e d i n order of t h e i r r e l a t i v e rank i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . (The evidence f o r the order used w i l l become apparent i n the explanations that f o l l o w below.) Thus, the t a b l e a l s o i n d i c a t e s the values of the infor m a t i o n given t h e r e i n . In t h i s , as i n Table XVII, guesses are entered separately. Again, we can begin our a n a l y s i s by c o n s i d e r i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n column by column. The f i r s t one, r e l i g i o n , represents 7.5% of the t o t a l membership of the ESL. This compares with the n a t i o n a l f i g u r e of 1.014% engaged i n r e l i g i o u s occupations?^ or with .41% of ad u l t males between 20 and 60 years, the a c t u a l age group that would 39 be employed i n t h i s occupation. ' Almost a l l of those 133. Table XIX; Occupations of the ESL Members. r e l i g i o n Archbishop 1 Lord Bishop 1 Bishop 1 Archdeacon 1 Canon 1 Chaplain 1 Missionary 1 guessed Rev. 36 D.D. 1 medicine Dr. 27 guessed M.D. 35 MRCS 8 F Surgeon 3 government home abroad Secretary Consul of State f o r the Colonies M.P. 1 19 Other reps to f o r e i g n c ou n t r i e s i n C o l o n i a l govts. c i v i l C o l o n i a l servants 4 c i v i l s e r -vants 11 5 6 8 t o t a l ( 7 . 5 % ) 44 (12.2995)73 24 - 5 4 -(9.0%) 30 m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s army 37 R.E., R. A . j R.N. 17 m i l i t a r y surgeons 4 ranks 2 t o t a l %)60 law Chief J u s t i c e 2 Judge 2 B a r r i s t e r 1 S o l i c i t o r 1 (1.0%)6 education Prof 13 Master 1 museums^&i l i b r a r i e s (2.7%)14 (.84%)5 other no entry t o t a l ESL pu b l i s h e r 2 317 594 g e o l o g i s t 2 Borneo Co. 1 I s l e of Man govt 1 Pasha (English) 1 V i c e r o y 1 Maharajah 2 t o t a l (3.3%) 11 (33-3%)317 594 134.-entered here appear to have occupied the most common c l e r i c a l rank of "Rev". What denominations they were i s not s p e c i f i e d . As t h e i r entry under "guessed" suggests, one cannot know f o r c e r t a i n from the ESL m a t e r i a l alone i f they were a l l p r a c t i s i n g m i n i s t e r s . The t i t l e could a l s o s i g n i f y LQ a teaching p o s i t i o n . The high p o s i t i o n s can most probably be i d e n t i f i e d as Church of England. The number of these seem small but c o n t r a s t i n g the .5% that they comprised of the ESL membership with the n a t i o n a l f i g u r e f o r such c l e r g y , .004% of the p o p u l a t i o n , t h i s group i s very h i g h l y represented i n the S o c i e t y . The next column, medicine, contains the l a r g e s t s i n g l e occupation group i n the ESL, comprising 12.3% of "the membership. This f i g u r e compares with the .4% that such 42 4 l men c o n s t i t u t e d on the t o t a l or 1.7% of a d u l t males. J Three of the 73 men l i s t e d here are d i s t i n g u i s h e d as surgeons, and the 8 M/FRCS may be added to them. We might, f o r the purposes of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , a l s o note the four m i l i t a r y surgeons, making a t o t a l of f i f t e e n ESL members thus engaged. The remaining 62 M.D.'s and Dr.'s must have been p h y s i c i a n s . None are given as apo-t h e c a r i e s or pharmacists. These l a b e l s are important, f o r they r e f l e c t ranks w i t h i n a p r o f e s s i o n i n which there was a s t r u g g l e going on f o r p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n . There was some distance between p h y s i c i a n s and surgeons, the former being the e s t a b l i s h e d , 44 respected arm of medicine, the l a t t e r occupying a lower 1 3 5 . p o s i t i o n , s t i l l t a i n t e d with the "sawbones" image. S u r g i c a l 45 techniques were s t i l l very crude during t h i s p e r i o d . Apothecaries and pharmacists were considered almost beyond 46 the pale. The l i f e t i m e of the ESL saw the attempts of medicine, e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s lower branches, to improve 47 and regulate i t s standards. ' The establishment of the 48 College of Surgeons i n 1800 was one such attempt, and so we may consider those of i t s members i n the ESL as more aware of the pr o f e s s i o n ' s s t a t u s , and, i n submitting to the C o l l e g ' s standards, of high c a l i b r e i n t h e i r f i e l d . These men therefore came clo s e to the high rank of the ph y s i c i a n s . As was the case with the Church, there i s a p o s s i -b i l i t y t hat not a l l those given as M.D. p r a c t i s e d t h e i r c r a f t . J u s t as one w i t h t h e o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g might become a teacher, so could one with medical education do other work. Teaching medicine was an obvious p o s s i b i l i t y . For some men, such as Huxley, medical t r a i n i n g a l s o provided an avenue to the p u r s u i t of s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s . ^ However, 51 there were not many a c t u a l jobs i n science, and few of these paid reasonably. As Huxley s a i d "A man who chooses a l i f e of science chooses not a l i f e of poverty, 52 but, so f a r as I can see a l i f e of nothing". Those who had medical degrees and d i d not p r a c t i s e , unless i n another occupation, could do so only i f they were men 53 of means. J Government is the next heading, involving 9.9?° of the membership: i t is also the next largest occupation represented in the ESL. This is sub-divided into those who played a part in the Br i t i sh governmental system at home and those whose duties were performed abroad. In the home government, the majority are M.P.'s,-twenty of them including a Secretary of State, or 3-37%. This was a sizeable number considering that there were only 650 M.P. ' s , .0019% of the total population?^ or .007% of the adult males. The C i v i l Service, moreover, was starting to be an important source of employment for university-educated men in the mid-Victorian period, and from 1853 on, with the inst i tut ion of exams for the Indian C i v i l Service, increasingly aware of i t s professional status. Those mentioned here probably were not very much affected by moves to improve .the c i v i l servant's status, as at least three of the four had very high positions: one, "lord", at the War Office, another the Superintendent of H.M. Stationery Office, and another, H.M. Medical Inspector of Factories. The fourth is given only as "the admiralty", with no other information. In the govern-ment work abroad, most of the members were involved in the Diplomatic Service, a body with very high p r e s t i g e . ^ A. position in colonia l government was also a. desirable role the men engaged here providing the colonies with much 59 of their professional class. 1-37 • The m i l i t a r y i s next, represented i n the same streng t h i n the ESL as the government. The m a j o r i t y were o f f i c e r s , w i t h the d i s t i n c t i o n shown on the t a b l e between those who purchased t h e i r commissions, and those who received o f f i c e r t r a i n i n g . The f o u r m i l i t a r y surgeons are entered here, and not under medicine, because they were a c t u a l l y employed by the armed f o r c e s . Law, comprising 1.01% of the membership, i s of some-what l e s s importance i n the ESL than those discussed to date. In a l l of B r i t a i n , i n comparison, lawyers formed .52% of the p o p u l a t i o n , or .109% of the a d u l t males 6 l between 20 and 60 years. As w i t h the other p r o f e s s i o n s the l a b e l s given here are of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms of ranking. Law, l i k e other p r o f e s s i o n s at the time, was a l s o undergoing changes. I t , too, had i t s lower branch, the s o l i c i t o r s , who were to b a r r i s t e r s what surgeons were p h y s i c i a n s , and who were s i m i l a r l y t r y i n g t o improve 62 t h e i r p o s i t i o n . Thus the j u s t i c e s and b a r r i s t e r i n the ESL were of the upper, respected branch of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . The lone s o l i c i t o r , however, had a good c l a i m to be considered w i t h them, i n that he was S o l i c i -t o r to the Post O f f i c e , a p o s i t i o n that he held f o r some time, and which paid w e l l above the average s a l a r y . J Education was a l s o of much l e s s importance as an occupation i n the ESL than most of the others discussed so f a r , but at 4 .7% i t was s t i l l represented- more than law. In comparison, teachers made up .51 of the t o t a l 1 3 8 . 6k population. This number might be swelled, i f some of those given as M.D.'s, M.A.'s and Rev.'s were a c t u a l l y employed as teachers. Again, we must note that most of the data i n t h i s column deals with those of high p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r occupation. Professors were very rare at t h i s t i m e . ^ The "Master" l i s t e d taught at Harrow, one of the "ancient seven" p u b l i c schools, and one with a very high r e p u t a t i o n . ^ The s t a f f members of museums and l i b r a r i e s might be included i n the education column, although the aim of 67 such i n s t i t u t i o n s was not s o l e l y pedagogical. ' These areas are r e l a t i v e l y w e l l represented i n the ESL, f o r they have only one l e s s member than law, although the l a t t e r was much the l a r g e r as a p r o f e s s i o n . Two of the men entered here were Keepers at the B r i t i s h Museum, 6 8 and earned f a i r l y high s a l a r i e s . A t h i r d was D i r e c t o r of the Geology Museum, and a f o u r t h was the Keeper of the Royal Gardens at Kew: both h i g h l y paid p o s i t i o n s . The l a s t to be mentioned i n t h i s category was the L i b r a r i a n 6 9 of the Corporation of London, who was a l s o very w e l l paid. The f i n a l column of occupational data on the ESL membership i s "other", w i t h the s p e c i f i c s show i n the t a b l e . The two p u b l i s h e r s are those who published the ESL's Transactions and new s e r i e s of J o u r n a l , John Murray and Nicholas Triibner r e s p e c t i v e l y . These are the only two men who could be considered "trade", but they are 1 139. a l s o of e x c e p t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s . T h e i r establishments were h i g h l y respected and occupied important places i n 70 V i c t o r i a n c u l t u r e . Murray's was an old f i r m , p u b l i s h i n g 71 Byron, Jane Austen and Darwin, among others. Trubner's was more r e s t r i c t e d to works d e a l i n g with anthropology, and he himself was a noted O r i e n t a l i s t and student of • • 72 r e l i g i o n . The two g e o l o g i s t s are the Soc i e t y ' s only recognized s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i t i o n e r s , members of a p r o f e s s i o n 7 3 j u s t beginning to emerge at the end of the ESL's l i f e . The Borneo Company employee i s the only member of the ESL mentioned as having anything t o do with business. The r e s t i n the "other" column, except f o r the Pasha, are members of t h e i r own governments; they are not Englishmen i n c o l o n i a l governments but p a r t i c u l a r people of c o u n t r i e s very c l o s e l y t i e d to B r i t a i n . We can, moreover, add to the "other" column and d i m i n i s h the "no entry" column here as we d i d wit h the educ a t i o n a l information. F i r s t , we may take the sex of the two women i n the S o c i e t y as i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r occu-p a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n as i t was of t h e i r education. I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that any woman i n t h i s group would have 74 an occupation outside the home. Then there i s again the question of the non-commoners. Of the "intermediate" group, 24- have occupational i n f o r m a t i o n and 12 have none. Of the a r i s t o c r a c y only ? of 38 have any mention of an occupation. This i s not s u r p r i s i n g , as we mentioned before, i n that much of t h e i r a d u l t a c t i v i t y , such as 1 land-owning, would not be for m a l i z e d i n t o a s p e c i f i c employment. I t would seem th a t being noble, l i k e being female, was an occupation i n i t s e l f . Thus, our r e v i s e d o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the ESL's occupations emerges as f o l l o w s Table XX: Adjusted T o t a l s of ESL Members' Occupations # % of to r e l i g i o n 44 14.6 medicine 73 24 .1 government 54 17.9 m i l i t a r y 53 17 .5 law 6 1 .9 education 14 4.6 museums & l i b r a r i e s 5 1.6 other 11 3-3 & women 2 .6 Sc nobles 35 11.5 t o t a l 302 100. 0 We have information* t h e r e f o r e , on over 50% of the Society* members-.: Having d e a l t w i t h the d e t a i l s , we can enlarge upon t h i s o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of occupation. Looking f i r s t at the type of job, we can note that women and business are under-represented f i e l d s , and pass on to the next and more s i z e a b l e group, the nobles and those i n government p o s i t i o n s ; that i s , M.P.'s, diplomats and members of the c o l o n i a l governments. These have been considered together because t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s had i n common the exer-c i s e of power and req u i r e d no p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g . Burrow-i n g a concept from Lw. J. Reader, t h i s may be l a b e l l e d 141. " a r i s t o c r a t i c employment". D In t h i s category there are 73 men, 78 i f one inc l u d e s those i n f o r e i g n governments w i t h the same type of p o s i t i o n , or about one-third of the ESL members on whom there i s occupational information. The remaining two-thirds c o n s t i t u t e a group i n themselves. Although the a c t u a l jobs are qu i t e d i v e r s e , they belong to a r e l a t i v e l y narrow range of occupation. A l l required post-secondary t r a i n i n g , and a l l were considered p r o f e s s i o n s . This l a r g e r group were a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l men. And these were not only p r o f e s s i o n a l men, but men of high s t a t u s i n the p r o f e s s i o n s . We have noted above t h a t , with the exception of those i n the Church, the m a j o r i t y of the ESL's members occupied high p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s . They were men of p r e s t i g e there. Furthermore, the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s i n which they were were a l s o p r e s t i g i o u s . In d i s c u s s i n g the occupational data, there has been,pointed out on d i f f e r e n t occasions the existence of an upper and lower branch i n a p r o f e s s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n medicine and law. Those d i v i s i o n s were based upon the r e l a t i v e age of the p r o f e s s i o n : the ol d e r , more e s t a b l i s h e d branch was considered the upper and respected; the younger had to st r u g g l e f o r s i m i l a r recog-n i t i o n . I t has been shown tha t the ESL members were almost a l l i n the upper branches, and i f i n the lower, s t i l l :of high p o s i t i o n there. The d i s t i n c t i o n between old and new was a l s o made among the d i f f e r e n t p r o f e s s i o n s , and p r e s t i g e granted 14 2". a c c o r d i n g l y . The "esteemed" or " p r i v i l e g e d " p r o f e s s i o n s were the Church, law, medicine, u n i v e r s i t y , army and navy, 76 and higher c i v i l s e r v i c e . The " u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d " included p a i n t e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , s c u l p t o r s , c i v i l engineers, educators, 77 parliamentary agents, and a c t u a r i e s . Thus a l l the p r o f e s s i o n a l s mentioned i n the ESL, except the teachers, museum workers, and e n t r i e s i n "other", were of the respected p r o f e s s i o n s . The p o s i t i o n of teachers d i d r i s e somewhat, and i n 1861 they were f i r s t mentioned as a separate group 7 8 i n the Census. Considering the high p o s i t i o n s of the p a r t i c u l a r educators and museum men here, one can assume tha t they were not t o t a l l y cast o f f from t h e i r more accepted brothers. S c i e n t i s t s had somewhat f a r t h e r t o climb f o r r e c o g n i t i o n . Science was taught only outside the p u b l i c schools, meaning that s c i e n t i s t s , l i k e those of the "lower branches" received only p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , never the 79 h i g h l y valued education of a gentleman.'' In summary, the ESL p r o f e s s i o n a l s on the whole were indeed to be found i n high-ranking p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i r f i e l d s and i n the upper branches and more p r e s t i g i o u s p r o f e s s i o n s . I have introduced comparative f i g u r e s f o r the r e s t of England when d e a l i n g w i t h the numbers i n a p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s i o n represented i n the ESL. These can now be brought together f o r a more comprehensive view of the s i t u a t i o n . The question here i s how the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n s i n the ESL compares wi t h the n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n . Did c e r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n s have a much stronger, 14-3. or weaker, weighting i n t h i s S o c i e t y than i n s o c i e t y at large ? The f i g u r e s f o r B r i t a i n used here are those f o r 1881, the nearest year to the ESL period f o r which t h i s type of informat i o n was a v a i l a b l e , and they are compared w i t h the pop u l a t i o n t o t a l f o r tha t year. These f i g u r e s are f o r one year only, to i l l u s t r a t e the p i c t u r e then i n England. The ESL f i g u r e s , of course, come from t h i r t y years of p u b l i c a t i o n s , but as we are i n t e r e s t e d i n general d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns r a t h e r than a c t u a l numbers, the two sets of data can be compared. I t should be remembered that we are now t a l k i n g of a c t u a l numbers employed, and not of the s o c i a l worth or rank of the d i f f e r e n t p r o f e s -s i o n s . The f i n d i n g s are summarized i n Table XXI, the data i n each h a l f of i t ordered according to t h e i r importance i n the p a r t i c u l a r group i n question. The n a t i o n a l f i g u r e s are f o r only England and Wales, but t h i s does not r a d i c a l l y a l t e r the p i c t u r e . Omitting the I r i s h and S c o t t i s h members f o r the sake of comparison a f f e c t s only one person i n the Church, and one i n education. Comparing the two sets of f i g u r e s p o i n t s out the d i f f e r e n t importance of the v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n s i n the country and i n the ESL. We can note the f l a v o u r of the ESL that r e s u l t s from i t s p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t p r o f e s s i o n s . The t h i r d l a r g e s t p r o f e s s i o n i n the country, medicine, i s the l a r g e s t i n the ESL. The l a r g e s t i n England, ed u c a t i o n , i s the f o u r t h l a r g e s t Table XXI; D i s t r i b u t i o n s of the P r o f e s s i o n s i n the ESL and i n England p r o f e s s i o n England # %* ESL # rank i n edu c a t i o n 168,920 1. 91 14 2.7 4 r e l i g i o n 36,682 .41 44 7.5 3 medicine 15,116 .17 73 12.29 1 law 13,395 .109 6 1.01 6 m i l i t a r y 54 8.9 2 (home & C i v i l S e r v i c e 12 abroad) 2.0 5 museums 5 .84 7 s c i e n c e 2 .37 8 * % of t o t a l male p o p u l a t i o n between 20 and 60 years. •p-l k 5 . i n the Society. The f a c t that the p r o f e s s i o n s are not represented i n the ESL i n the same weights as they occupied i n the whole country i s s i g n i f i c a n t . I t suggests t h a t the ESL contained a c e r t a i n type of people, and was not j u s t a miniature r e p l i c a of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . The p r o p o r t i o n of doctors and the m i l i t a r y i n the ESL, f o r example, are more s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the f a c t t h a t they d i d not form so large a s e c t i o n of the t o t a l p o pulation. T h e i r stronger r e p r e s e n t a t i o n would thus i n f l u e n c e the q u a l i t y of the ESL, notably i n the group's i n t e r e s t s and opinions. Having d e a l t with the a v a i l a b l e data on occupation, we can tu r n to the next area f o r which we have i n f o r m a t i o n : membership i n other a s s o c i a t i o n s . There are three main types of a s s o c i a t i o n s : i n v i t a t i o n a l , ones w i t h membership r e s t r i c t e d to those asked to join? p r o f e s s i o n a l , those associated w i t h one's occupation; and i n t e r e s t , groups organized around a common t o p i c or area of study. Member-ship i n almost a l l such a s s o c i a t i o n s was l i m i t e d to men, although l a d i e s could attend meetings of some of the i n t e r e s t groups with v a r y i n g degrees of freedom, accord-81 i n g to the r u l e s of the p a r t i c u l a r e n t i t y . As there were u s u a l l y membership fees f o r a l l these a s s o c i a t i o n s , membership was f u r t h e r l i m i t e d to those who could a f f o r d . . . 82 to j o i n . The f i n d i n g s here are given i n Table XXII. The data comes from acronyms f o l l o w i n g a person's name, i n d i -Table XXII s ESL Membersh i n v i t a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l London Royal S o c i e t y k 5 Atheneum 26 O r i e n t a l 5 Indian & O r i e n t a l 1 East I n d i a United Service 1 Army & Navy 1 Grenadier Guards 1 Brooks' 1 New U n i v e r s i t y 1 Drones 0 MRCP F " (London) MRCS F 2 1 13 f o r e i g n I m p e r i a l Academy of Medicine of France 1 r e s t of Great B r i t a i n New Club, Edinburgh f o r e i g n I n s t i t u t de France t o t a l (15-9%) 95 (11.1%) 2? n Other A s s o c i a t i o n s i n t e r e s t (includes 146 i n executive positions) Society of A n t i q u a r i e s 3 k Royal Geographical Society 33 G e o l o g i c a l Society 29 Royal S o c i e t y of L i t e r a t u r e 14 Linnaean Society 10 Royal A s i a t i c S o c i e t y 7 A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London 8 S t a t i s t i c a l S ociety 1 Entomological S o c i e t y 1 Zo o l o g i c a l Society 1 Royal I r i s h Academy 1 f o r e i g n P a r i s E t h n o l o g i c a l Society 1 American E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y 1 Mem., C h i l e U n i v e r s i t y 1 Musee d ' H i s t o i r e Naturel, 1 P a r i s S t a t i s t i c a l Soc, Darmstadt 1 (25.0%) 151 147. e a t i n g membership i n such groups. The i n v i t a t i o n a l and i n t e r e s t groups are o r d e r e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e i r i mportance i n the ESL, as t h e i r s o c i a l r a nk i n terms of each o t h e r was a r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d m a t t e r . The p r o f e s s i o n a l groups ar e o r d e r e d i n terms of t h e i r s o c i a l r a n k . ^ I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t we are d e a l i n g w i t h two t y p e s of s t a t i s t i c s h e r e : the t o t a l number of members who be l o n g e d t o o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the t o t a l number of memberships h e l d i n such groups by ESL members. These numbers are d i f f e r e n t because some members belonged t o more t h a n one o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n . As f a r as the f o r m e r t o t a l goes, we have i n f o r m a t i o n on 133 m e n who were i n o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s , or 22.3% of the ESL members. The t o t a l number of known memberships i n o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s i s t h a t a p p e a r i n g on the t a b l e . I n the " i n v i t a t i o n a l " column the a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t appear, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the R o y a l S o c i e t y , and perhaps a l s o the Atheneum, f u n c t i o n e d e s s e n t i a l l y as 84 gentlemen's c l u b s , and ones of some s t a t u s . T h e i r f e e s i n d i c a t e t h e i r e x c l u s i v e n e s s . We can r e f e r t o W h i t a k e r ' s Almanack f o r 1879 "to g e t an i d e a of th e s e . 148. Table X X I I I ; Membership Fees f o r C e r t a i n London Clubs, 1879 8 ^ club Atheneum Brooks's EIUS Guards' New U n i v e r s i t y O r i e n t a l fees entrance £31.10.0 £ 9 . 9 . 0 £31.0.0 £31.0.0 £31.0.0 £31.0.0 y e a r l y £ 7 . 7 . 0 £ 1 1 . 1 1 . 0 £ 8 . 8 . 0 £10.0. 0 £ 8 . 7 . 0 £ 8 . 8 . 0 These charges are a l l very s i m i l a r and, compared to the proposed 3 guineas entrance fee f o r the ESL (apparently never implemented) and i t s two guineas y e a r l y f e e , are al s o q u i t e expensive. 8 ^ The number of members a l s o shows the s e l e c t i v e n e s s of the a s s o c i a t i o n s . Using 1879 f i g u r e s again, we f i n d t h a t the Royal Geographical S o c i e t y , f o r 87 example, had approximately 3400 members i n comparison to the Atheneum's 1200 and Brooks's 6 0 0 . 8 8 Some of these clubs had a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r membership besides money and, of couse, e l e c t i o n by 89 a l l of the members. ' The O r i e n t a l and East I n d i a United Service clubs, f o r inst a n c e , were r e s t r i c t e d to those 90 who had served i n the East, while the Army and Navy, and Guards' clubs were only f o r the members of those 91 p a r t i c u l a r f o r c e s . The New U n i v e r s i t y Club was f o r 92 those who had attended Oxford and Cambridge' — and member-ship here a l s o suggested other s o c i a l f a c t s about a person, p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l i g i o n , f o r only those p r o f e s s i n g the T h i r t y -93 Nine A r t i c l e s could take a degree at these u n i v e r s i t i e s . J 149. The Atheneum was an i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a great d e a l of p r e s t i g e . I t was on the s t r e e t of genteel c l u b s , 94 St. James, and, l i k e other c l u b s , f u r n i s h e d the address f o r many of i t s members, w h e n they v i s i t e d London from the country or abroad. Belonging to the Atheneum a l s o meant more than s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . The club had a s e l e c t membership of men noted i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e . J For example, S i r W i l l i a m C u b i t t , the b u i l d e r , Thomas Chandler H a l i b u r t o n , author of Sam S l i c k , John Ruskin, Anthony T r o l l o p e , S i r R. Owen, the n a t u r a l i s t , 96 and Captain F i t z r o y , commander of the Beagle, were members. The Royal S o c i e t y was e q u a l l y s e l e c t , but i t s primary emphasis was on achievement i n one's p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d 97 r a t h e r than on income. I t was e s s e n t i a l l y a group of i n t e l l e c t u a l s , c o n t a i n i n g as i t were, the " a r i s t o c r a c y " 98 or cream of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . I t tended to favour 99 s c i e n t i f i c r a t h e r than l i t e r a r y p u r s u i t s . ' ' I t s members included S i r Humphry Davy and Dr. W.H. Wollaston, the chemist, S i r Roderick I. Murchison, president of the Royal Geographical S o c i e t y , Darwin, L y e l l and Hooker, important i n n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . T h e ESL members i n t h i s and i n the Atheneum were thus men of some s t a t u s . In the " p r o f e s s i o n a l " column, we can note that the e n t r i e s c o n s i s t only of those i n medical a s s o c i a t i o n s . I have discussed already the d i f f e r e n t branches of medicine and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Royal Colleges. Membership i n these, as has been pointed out, t e l l s us something 150. about a person's a t t i t u d e toward h i s p r o f e s s i o n and h i s p o s i t i o n as a doctor. The Royal College of P h y s i c i a n s was p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r i t s members were an extremely small e l i t e of the doctors. To be accepted, one had to have attended Oxford or Cambridge, which r e -101 quirement a u t o m a t i c a l l y excluded Dissenters and f u r t h e r l i m i t e d the group to those of high a b i l i t y or money. The s o c i a l base of these groups, w i t h membership determined by occupation, was not q u i t e as r e s t r i c t e d as that of the i n v i t a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , although, of course, only 102 c e r t a i n people could a f f o r d to study medicine or q u a l i f y to j o i n the Colleges. These S o c i e t i e s a l s o had a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n from the i n v i t a t i o n a l , having the more s p e c i f i c i n t e n t of advancing the p r o f e s s i o n i n a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g a gathering place f o r men of a p a r t i c u l a r group. For the i n t e r e s t groups, i t i s important t o note the number of ESL members on the executive of such bodies, 11% of a l l those who were i n other i n t e r e s t groups. They would appear to be occupying a s i z e a b l e number of the p o s s i b l e executive p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n those v a r i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s . The p a r t i c u l a r S o c i e t i e s entered here, and the number of memberships held i n them by ESL members t e l l a good deal about these men's concerns i n areas outside ethnology. In c o n s i d e r i n g which of these a s s o c i a -t i o n s were most important, we f i n d that the S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s - had the highest p a r t i c i p a t i o n , followed 151. c l o s e l y by the Geographical S o c i e t y . Next was the G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , then came a jump down to the Royal S o c i e t y of L i t e r a t u r e , to the Linnaean S o c i e t y , and then the A s i a t i c and A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t i e s . The f i g u r e s here t e l l us more than j u s t the s p e c i f i c areas that received the a t t e n t i o n of the ESL members. They a l s o present a c e r t a i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n of that S o c i e t y ' s i n t e r e s t s . There i s an obvious o r i e n t a t i o n toward n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , a focus concerned with Man as w e l l as the r e s t of the world i n i t s p h y s i c a l aspects (Geographical, Geo-l o g i c a l S o c i e t i e s ) and i t s b i o l o g i c a l (Linnaean, Z o o l o g i c a l S o c i e t i e s ) aspects. And the i n t e r e s t i n Man i s more i n h i s c u l t u r a l aspect, - what he makes and does (Society of A n t i q u a r i e s , L i t e r a t u r e S o c i e t y ) , - than i n the s h e e r l y p h y s i c a l , the form and f u n c t i o n of h i s body. One would not summarize the p r o f i l e thus created as hard or p h y s i c a l 103 science. ^ None of the areas mentioned above proceeded by experimental, l a b o r a t o r y methods, but r a t h e r by the more developmental approach t y p i c a l to n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . R e c a l l i n g the d i s c u s s i o n i n a previous chapter of the ESL's own procedure and concerns, we can note that the outside i n t e r e s t s of i t s members' seem very much i n harmony . 104 with these. In terms of the three broad cat e g o r i e s used above, we see that i n t e r e s t groups, then i n v i t a t i o n a l , and f i n a l l y p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were j o i n e d , i n t h a t order of 152' . preference. This i s perhaps understandable c o n s i d e r i n g the requirements f o r membership i n these v a r i o u s groups and the r e s u l t i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s that were placed on would-be members. N a t u r a l l y , fewer people could j o i n a p r o f e s -s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n then an i n t e r e s t group. The number i n i n v i t a t i o n a l groups i s s u r p r i s i n g l y s i z e a b l e when one considers that membership i n the clubs on Table XXII involved only . 0 2 % of the t o t a l p o pulation. J In com-pa r i s o n , 6.80% of the ESL members were associated w i t h the same groups. I have mentioned that membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s was a l s o r e l a t i v e l y rare at 10 6 t h i s time. The ESL therefore were q u i t e w e l l represented i n these p r e s t i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s . Again, many of the ESL men were on the executives of other groups: thus, they a l s o held high p o s i t i o n s i n the other bodies of which they were members. The above a n a l y s i s has presented most of the s o c i a l data on the ESL to be garnered from i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s . There i s s t i l l one more category of m a t e r i a l to consider, namely, addresses, but t h i s w i l l be set aside f o r now, as i t i s not q u i t e of the same s o r t as the foregoing. The i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s only f o r 1 8 6 3 - 7 1 , not the whole 30-year period of the ESL. Moreover, i t w i l l be used f o r a more s p e c i f i c purpose i n the next chapter. We can pause here, then, to assess what has been e s t a b l i s h e d thus f a r . 153. We have i n f o r m a t i o n on at l e a s t one category of the main headings o u t l i n e d at the beginning of the chapter f o r 646 of the ESL members, l e a v i n g only 2 with no e n t r i e s at a l l . There seems to be no one category which alone s i g n i f i e s the ESL's s o c i a l c u l t u r e . Neither sex nor t i t l e do: t h i s was not j u s t a men's group or a group of people of p a r t i c u l a r b i r t h . S i m i l a r l y , i t was not a S o c i e t y of people i n a s i n g l e occupation or of even one type of occupation, f o r example, p r o f e s s i o n a l . Nor was the membership made up e n t i r e l y of the members of any other a s s o c i a t i o n , or again any type of such as a s s o c i a t i o n . We cannot e x p l a i n the s o c i a l data by any category besides those we have discussed above. The ESL members are f o r example, not a l l of the--same .age -or r e l i g i o n . The categories and t h e i r contents that we have been d i s c u s s i n g so f a r are a l l of a d i r e c t nature: such things as age, sex, occupation, education, and so on, are f a c t s that simply need to be stated. We have not found any one of these alone very h e l p f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g the ESL s o c i a l composition. We must a c c o r d i n g l y look f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n that i n v o l v e s more a b s t r a c t i o n : i s there any p a r t i c u l a r aspect or theme to be found common to these c a t e g o r i e s t h a t stands out as most important i n the s o c i a l data? Indeed, one such aspect i s r e a d i l y apparent: s o c i a l s t a t u s . I have mentioned st a t u s s e v e r a l times i n e n l a r g -i n g upon the meaning of the s o c i a l data. P o s i t i o n has 154. been of importance i n d e a l i n g w i t h the data w i t h i n each category under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I have contrasted the r e l a t i v e status of married women i n the ESL as opposed to s i n g l e , non-commoners t o commoners, and I have d i s t i n -guished between the orders of knighthood and ranks of n o b i l i t y . I n "education" I noted the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l values of u n i v e r s i t y and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . In "occupa-t i o n " I t a l k e d of the types of occupations, w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e s t a t u s , and the d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the pr o f e s s i o n s of o l d and new, and upper and lower branches. I n "other a s s o c i a t i o n s " I a l s o noted the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n t types of groups t h a t e x i s t e d , and the p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n s held i n them. P o s i t i o n was again important i n c o n s i d e r i n g the data i n terms of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Comparing the s i t u a t i o n i n the ESL w i t h the r e s t of V i c t o r i a n England, I pointed out the r e l a t i v e p r e s t i g e of an a s s o c i a t i o n which excluded women i n c o n t r a s t to one which allowed them to j o i n . A much higher r a t i o was found, of non-commoners to commoners i n the ESL compared w i t h t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s i n a l l of V i c t o r i a n England. S i m i l a r l y , the high r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of post-secondary education i n the ESL was observed i n the l i g h t of i t s r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y i n the whole n a t i o n . The a r i s t o c r a t i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l employment found i n the ESL was contrasted with i t s occurrence i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and noted other occupations, such as business and trade, which d i d not appear i n the Soc i e t y . L a s t l y , 15-5. the ESL's lar g e membership i n other a s s o c i a t i o n s was weighed again s t the i n e l i g i b i l i t y of the mass of E n g l i s h people to j o i n such groups. These c o n t r a s t s a l l revolve around the one question, r e l a t i v e or s o c i a l s t a t u s . I t i s apparent, then, how l a r g e l y s t a t u s f i g u r e s i n the s o c i a l data on the ESL. I t i s not j u s t a major aspect of any one category here: i t i s shared throughout by a l l . I t i s the thread which t i e s together a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . As has been shown, p o s i t i o n i n the v a r i o u s areas discussed above i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d to p o s i t i o n i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . The b a s i c question t h a t remains i s s o c i a l s t a t u s . We can thus concentrate upon t h i s p a r t i c u l a r aspect as c r u c i a l to a proper understanding of the s o c i a l data. The narrowing of focus provides a convenient place to break o f f here, to leave the c e n t r a l question of s o c i a l s t a t u s i n the ESL to the next chapter. 156. References 1. i N e v i l Ralph London Clubs; T h e i r H i s t o r y and Treasures. London: Chatto & Windus, 1911, p.134 f f . Sc h l e s i n g e r , Max Saunterings In and About London. London: Nathaniel Cooke, 1853:115 F. Wey i n Jacob Korg, ed. London i n Dickens' Day. Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1960:128. 2. Popular Magazine of Anthropology published by the Anthro-p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London, A p r i l 1866, v.2 ; 8 l . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Review, published by the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London, 1868, v .6s434. 3« J o u r n a l of the E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London, new s e r i e s , London; N. Trubner, v . l : x i v . 4. The ranking was e s t a b l i s h e d from a reading of the l i t e r a t u r e . The "commoner" column notes the ascendancy of men over women, and married women over s i n g l e . The "intermediate" column gives the d i f f e r e n t orders of' knighthood according to t h e i r r e l a t i v e rank, and "noble" does the same f o r the l e v e l s of n o b i l i t y . The source f o r these l a t t e r two columns i s Whitaker's Almanack f o r 1879 (London: J. Whitaker, 1879), pp69-76, which gives the c o r r e c t orders f o r these. Had the l i b r a r y a l a r g e r c o l l e c t i o n of Almanacks, the source would be c l o s e r i n date to the years of the ESL. But the l i m i t a t i o n s posed by t h i s are not that great, since i t i s u n l i k e l y that there would be any change i n the order given. 5. The acronyms f o r the d i f f e r e n t orders of knighthood stand f o r the f o l l o w i n g t i t l e s : KP Knight of St. P a t r i c k KCB Knight Commander of the Bath CB Commander of the Bath KCSI Knight Commander of the Sta r of I n d i a - order i n s t i t u t e d i n Queen V i c t o r i a ' s r e i g n CSI Commander of the S t a r of I n d i a KCMG Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George KCM Knight Commander of St. Michael The in f o r m a t i o n here i s from Whitaker pp.67-76. 6. "Bart" = Baronet 7. Again, the l i b r a r y s i t u a t i o n places l i m i t e d on the documentation here, 1879 being the e a r l i e s t Almanack 157, a v a i l a b l e . The f i g u r e of non-commoners was a r r i v e d at by adding the t o t a l s of the members of the House of Lords (pp80-7), number of Baronets (pp77-9) and number of Knights (pp69-76) f o r that year. The r e s u l t i n g breakdown of non-commoners i s as f o l l o w s : House of Peers Baronets Knights KG KT KP KB KSI KCMG t o t a l 503 +28 I r i s h 16 S c o t t i s h 698 +65 I r i s h 99 S c o t t i s h 53 24 32 1112 113 109 2841 This t o t a l was compared wi t h the po p u l a t i o n f i g u r e , a r r i v e d at by adding the most recent Census t o t a l , 31 m i l l i o n i n 1871, to the decennial increase of 2 m i l l i o n (Whitaker, p 197). The f i g u r e s are ther e f o r e approximate, but the general trend i s what i s wanted, and they serve f o r t h i s purpose. 8. - C l a r k , G.K. Reader, W.J. 9. C l a r k e , G.K. Reader, W.J. 10. Conway, J . Green, V.H.H. 11. N o r r i s , J. 12. Green, V.H.H. Mansbridge, A l b e r t The Making of V i c t o r i a n England. London: Methuen, 1962:263. P r o f e s s i o n a l Men: The Rise of the  P r o f e s s i o n a l Classes i n Nineteenth  Century England. London: Weiden-f e l d & Ni c o l s o n , 1966:134. op. c i t . : 2 6 3 . op. c i t . : 1 3 4 . Personal communication, May 1972, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The U n i v e r s i t i e s . Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1969s191. Personal communication, J u l y , 1973, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. op. cit. : 1 9 1 The Older U n i v e r s i t i e s of England: Oxford and Cambridge. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1923:2. 158. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. N o r r i s , J. C onway, J. Reader, W.J. Green, V.H.H. Green, V.H.H. Mountford, S i r James Personal communication, Personal communication, P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:141-2. The U n i v e r s i t i e s : 2 6 4 - 5 . J u l y 1973-May 1972. dp. c i t . : 9 9 . B r i t i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966:23. The Archdeacon i s obviously A n g l i c a n as t h i s p o s i t i o n occurs only i n the Church of England. The others can a l s o be checked by means of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and sees. The Archbishop i s of Du b l i n , and as he i s c a l l e d "Right Rev" i s probably Church of England. The Lord Bishop's seat i s i n Labuan, and t h i s was a l s o Anglican. The Bishop, of W e l l i n g t o n , could be e i t h e r Roman C a t h o l i c or Anglican. ( c f . Whitaker, 154, 157). Green, c f . Reader, Cole, G.D.H. Green Reader Reader I b i d . : 60, 136. I b i d . : 34. I b i d . : 21. I b i d . : 7. Cardwell, D.S.L. Green, c f . Cole, Green I r v i n e , W i l l i a m Reader, op. cit.:192,264. P r o f e s s i o n a l Men 128. Studies i n Class S t r u c t u r e . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1955'>66. op. c i t : 1 9 2 . op. c i t . : 1 6 - 1 8 , 128. op. c i t . :21-2,46. The Organization of Science i n England: a Retrospect. London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1957:54. op. c i t . : 2 4 0 . op. c i t . : 6 8 . op;;6it. :233 Apes, Angels, and V i c t o r i a n s : Darwin, Huxley, and E v o l u t i o n . Cleveland: The World P u b l i s h i n g Co.,1959: 285ff op. c i t . i l 3 0 - 2 . 138ff. 25. c f . Reader op. c i t . : 4 8 . 159. 26. Best, Geoffrey 27. Reader, W.J. 28. Reader, I b i d . :19 29. c f . Green 30. Reader, Green 31. Reader, 32. I b i d . : 75 C l a r k , 33. Reader Cl a r k , 34. Reader, 35- Reader 36. Ibid. : 8 0 . 37. Ibid.:130. 38. This percentage i s a r r i v e d a t by comparing Reader's f i g u r e s oh the numbers i n the p r o f e s s i o n s , ( P r o f e s s i o n a l  Men; Appendix I , p 211) w i t h the po p u l a t i o n of England. The set of Reader's f i g u r e s nearest to the ESL period i s 1881, and the pop u l a t i o n f i g u r e i s a l s o f o r that date, a r r i v e d at as explained i n footnote 7» above. 39. The f i g u r e s here are from B.R. M i t c h e l l , A b s t r a c t of  B r i t i s h H i s t o r i c a l S t a t i s t i c s , Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1962:12-17. 40. Reader P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:12. 41. See footnote 38 above f o r exp l a n a t i o n of the o r i g i n of these f i g u r e s . 42. The f i g u r e s here are again from Reader, P r o f e s s i o n a l  Men, Appendix I , p 211, compared wi t h the po p u l a t i o n f i g u r e from Whitaker, p 197. M i d - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n , 1851-1875. London: Weidenfeld & Ni c o l s o n , 1 9 7 1 1 I 6 O - I . L i f e i n V i c t o r i a n England. London: B.T. Bat s f o r d L t d . , 1964:19ff. P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:170. op. cit. : 1 2 7 V i c t o r i a n England:166 P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:l69 op. cit. : 1 2 0 - 1 . P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:167, 172-3. op. c i t . : 2 6 6 . P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:97 Making of V i c t o r i a n England:219-20. V i c t o r i a n England:24. P r o f e s s i o n a l Men: 96-7. l 6 o . 4 3 . 4 4 . 4 5 . 4 6 . 4 7 . 48 . 4 9 . 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. M i t c h e l l Reader, Cole Reader I b i d . : 3 2 , 4 0 - 3 . Ibid. : 4 3 , 23-4. Ibid. : 3 4 . C l a r k , Cole, P e r k i n , Harold Cole I r v i n e C l a r k Reader I r v i n e l o c . c i t . P r o f e s s i o n a l Meru 16-21, 32-43 Studies i n Class Structure; 6 6 . P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:33. op. c i t . : 2 6 l op. c i t . : 6 6 . The O r i g i n s of Modern E n g l i s h  S o c i e t y , 1780-1880 op. c i t . : 6 6 . Apes Angels and Victorians s 13-14. op. cit.»263 P r o f e s s i o n a l Men: 134, 136. op. c i t . : 2 7 Quoted i n Reader P r o f e s s i o n a l Men, 140, from Margaret Reeks R e g i s t e r .."and H i s t o r y of the Royal School of Mines, Royal School of Mines (old Students' A s s o c i a t i o n ) 1920. Reader P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:6. The f i g u r e s come from Whitaker's Almanack f o r 1879» p 91-7 on the House of Commons membership, and on populat i o n , p 197» as explained i n footnote 7. M i t c h e l l B r i g g s , Asa Cla r k Reader Reader C l a r k Burn, W.L. Cole Evans, Joan l o c . c i t . The Age of Improvement. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1959 :442-3. op. c i t . : 2 6 6 . V i c t o r i a n England:!16. P r o f e s s i o n a l Men : 8 5 , l 8 5 . op. c i t . : 2 6 6 , 219-20. The Age of Equipoise: a Study of the M i d - V i c t o r i a n Generation. London: Unwin U n i v e r s i t y Books, 1964-i254 op. c i t . : l 4 3 The V i c t o r i a n s . Cambridge: Cam-bridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966:47. l 6 l . 59. 60. 61. 63. 64. 65. 66. Briggs Checkland, S.G. op. c i t . : 4 l l . The Rise of I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y i n England, 1815-1885. New York: Martin's Press, 1965:295. St. The f i g u r e s on lawyers are from Reader, P r o f e s s i o n a l Men, Appendix I , p 211, a r r i v e d at by adding together the b a r r i s t e r and s o l i c i t o r f i g u r e s . The t o t a l ' i s compared with the pop u l a t i o n f i g u r e f o r the same year, e s t a b l i s h e d i n footnote 7 above. For the purpose of t h i s comparison, we are i n c l u d i n g the j u s t i c e s i n the ESL wit h the b a r r i s t e r s f o r the Soc i e t y ' s t o t a l . flitchell 62. Reader l o c . c i t . P r o f e s s i o n a l Men»21. 25-31. This man was mentioned i n t h i s p o s i t i o n i n the ESL f i r s t i n 1867, and according to Whitaker's Almanack f o r 1879, he s t i l l held t h i s o f f i c e and received £ 1 5 0 0 per annum (pl04). This s a l a r y , i n terms of Dudley Baxter's assessment of the s i t u a t i o n i n 1867 ( i n John Burnett P l e n t y and Want: a S o c i a l H i s t o r y  of D i e t i n England from 1815 to the Present, Harmonds-worth: Penguin Books"! 1966, p 124) places him i n the upper' c l a s s . .^rc- .'. ;i o The f i g u r e s are again from Appendix I , p 211, P r o f e s - s i o n a l Men, compared with the n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n (Whitaker, p 197) Cf. footnote 7. Cole C l a r k Newsome, David 67. W i t t l i n , Alma op. c i t . : 6 8 . op. cit. : 2 6 7 Godliness and Good Learning: Four  Studies on a V i c t o r i a n I d e a l . London: John Murray, 1961:72. The Museum: i t s H i s t o r y and i t s Tasks i n Education. London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l , 1949:149. 68. Whitaker's Almanack f o r 1879 gives the s a l a r i e s f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n s , which range from £ 6 5 0 to £800 (p 104). In comparison, Thomas Huxley received £200 f o r l e c t u r i n g at the Royal School of Mines and Museum of P r a c t i c a l Geology (p 104). 69. This p o s i t i o n i n 1879 received £ 7 0 0 per annum (Whitaker's Almanack f o r 1879, P 207). 162., 70. Whyte, F r e d e r i c W i l l i a m Heinemann. London: Johnathan Cape, 1928:15. 71. Paston, George At John Murray's: Records of a L i t e r a r y C i r c l e 1843-1892. London John Murray, . 9 3 2:xi, 8-10, 10-11, l 6 8 f f . 72. Mumby, Frank P u b l i s h i n g and B o o k s e l l i n g : a H i s t o r y from the E a r l i e s t Times Whyte, to the Present Day. London: J. Cape, 1956:349. op. c i t . :1 5. 73. Cardwell Evans The Organisation of Science:80-The V i c t o r i a n s : 48,212. 1 74. Best Reader M i d - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n : 280-1 V i c t o r i a n England:159-61. 75. Reader P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:73-4. 76. Burn Checkland The Age of Equipoise:254 The Rise of I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y : 295 Reader P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:150. 77. Reader Cole I b i d . S tudies i n Class Structure:6.6-7 • 78. Reader P r o f e s s i o n a l Men: 147. 79. Cole op. c i t . : 6 8 . 80. The f i g u r e s here are from Reader, P r o f e s s i o n a l Men, Appendix I , p 211 f o r the p r o f e s s i o n s and Whitaker's Almanack f o r 1879 f o r the pop u l a t i o n , as explained i n footnote 1. 81. Best, M i d - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n : 169. C l a r k , The Making of V i c t o r i a n England:262 N e v i l l , London Clubs: 135. Wey, i n Korg, London i n Dickens's Day: 128 - 9 / S c h l e s i n g e r , Saunterings i n and about London: 114-116. B e l l , Aidon London i n the Age of Dickens. Norman; U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma Press, 1967:105-7. 82. c f . Whitaker, p 76. S c h l e s i n g e r , op. c i t . : 1 1 5 . 83. This has been brought out i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the prof e s s i o n s and t h e i r branches. 163-84. Besant, S i r Walter London i n the Nineteenth Century. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1 9 0 9 : 2 0 . 8 5 . Whitaker, ; 7 6 . 86. c f . chapter 3 , p 9 . 87 . This i s a r r i v e d at by u s i n g the I 8 3 O f i g u r e of 4-60 as a base, and adding s i x t y new members per year, c a l c u l a t e d as the average y e a r l y growth f o r t h i s l p e r i o d , u n t i l the year 1879. The f i g u r e s are from H. Robert M i l l The Record of the Royal Geographical S o c i e t y 1 8 3 0 - 1 9 3 0 . London: Royal Geographical S o c i e t y 1 9 3 0 : p 2 3 3 . The t o t a l given f o r 1871-92 i s 3 5 0 0 , and so the 34-00 f i g u r e might be reduced somewhat to a l l o w f o r the number who l e f t through death or r e s i g n a t i o n s . S t i l l , the number i n t h i s type of S o c i e t y was over twice that i n the other. 8 8 . Whitaker, p 7 6 . 8 9 . N e v i l l , O P . c i t . -.157 f f . Wey i n Korg, op. c i t . : 1 2 8 . 9 0 . N e v i l l , op. c i t . : 2 1 2 , 215 . 91 . I b i d . : 2 4 4 , 253-92. I b i d . : 239 Thornbury, Walter, and Walford, Edward Old and New London: A N a r r a t i v e o"f i t s H i s t o r y , i t s People and I t s Places. v . 1 - 6 . London: C a s s e l l & Co. L t d . , 1 8 8 7 - 9 3 : v, i v : l 6 0 . 9 3 . Stimson, Dorothy S c i e n t i s t s and Amateurs: A.  H i s t o r y of the Royal S o c i e t y . New York: Henry Schuman 1 9 4 8 : 2 0 2 . 94. S c h l e s i n g e r , op. c i t . : 1 1 3 . 9 5 . N e v i l l , op. c i t . : 2 7 5 . 9 6 . Ward, Humphry H i s t o r y of the Atheneum, 1824--1925. London: P r i n t e d f o r the Club, 1 9 2 6 : 1 1 8 - 1 5 7 . 97. Lyons, S i r Henry The Royal S o c i e t y 1 6 6 0 - 1 9 4 0 : A. H i s t o r y of i t s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i64.-< 98. 99. 100. 101. 102 . 103. 104. 105. I b i d . : i x . Stimson, Dorothy,/ Lyons, Reader, I b i d . : 63-4. under i t s Charters. Cambridge : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1944: Ix-x. S c i e n t i s t s and Amateurs; A H i s t o r y of the Royal Society. New York: Henry Schuman, 1 9 4 8 : 2 1 6 . op. c i t . i 2 3 2 - 2 7 1 . P r o f e s s i o n a l Men: 1 6 - 2 1 . Evans-Pritchard, E.E. " S o c i a l Anthropology Past and Present" i n Robert Manners and David Kaplan eds. Theory i n  Anthropology: a Sourcebook, Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1968, p P 4 6 - 5 k : P52-53-Eggan, Fred " S o c i a l Anthropology and the Method of C o n t r o l l e d Comparison" pp 5^-66 i n Manners & Kaplan:54. Beck, Lewis "The 'Natural Science I d e a l ' i n the S o c i a l Sciences" pp 80-89 i n Manners and Kaplan : 8 0 - 5 f f . c f . chapter 2, p 61-64 x Again, we are u s i n g f i g u r e s f o r 1879 from Whitaker, p 74, compared w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n of that year ( c f . footnote 7 ) . 106. Cole, op. c i t . '.66. 165, Chapter 5i The ESL: S o c i a l Status Before d i s c u s s i n g the ESL i n terms of s o c i a l s t a t u s , we must consider the system of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a n England. F i r s t , one should consider the terms and concepts used i n such an a n a l y s i s . The usual term i s " c l a s s " but i t should be used w i t h c a u t i o n f o r s e v e r a l reasons. For one t h i n g , I t h i n k that c l a s s i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a n a l y t i c a l concept, an observer's category. I t i s a u s e f u l way of separ a t i n g the v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s of s o c i e t y and naming them, but I would argue that except f o r an obviously and r i g i d l y s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y , such as I n d i a , the r . l a b e l s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of c l a s s are very hard to apply p r e c i s e l y . To be sure, there are even problems i n ap p l y i n g them to Ind i a . I agree w i t h Roger Brown's argument that true c l a s s i s pe r c e i v a b l e and i d e n t i f i a b l e by the members of the group concerned, and by o u t s i d e r s , w i t h both r e c o g n i z i n g the same boundar-i e s and requirements. 1 In d e a l i n g w i t h V i c t o r i a n England, moreover the problem of c l a s s i s compounded by the confusion t h a t e x i s t e d then, and e x i s t s s t i l l i n the minds of h i s t o r i a n s , as to the a p p l i c a t i o n both of the term and of i t s usual s u b d i v i s i o n s i n t o upper, middle, and lower. These l a b e l s were used i n the Nineteenth Century, and are consequently v a l i d f o r use today i n d i s c u s s i n g t h a t p e r i o d , but t h e i r a p p l i -166. c a t i o n i s beset by d i f f i c u l t i e s . Geoffrey Best describes the s i t u a t i o n very w e l l i n h i s preface to M i d - V i c t o r i a n  B r i t a i n : I t i s probably i n respect of c l a s s that I s h a l l be found, by the s o c i o l o g i c a l , most wanting. I have used the language of c l a s s more as i t was used by mid-V i c t o r i a n s than as i t i s used by any ancient or modern school of s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s , i . e . I have used i t c o n t i n u -a l l y and confusedly. M i d - V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y , i t i s hardly too much to say, was obsessed by c l a s s and r i d d l e d w i t h class-consciousness, and g e n e r a l l y not at a l l c l e a r what i t a l l meant. We may have to f o l l o w h i s reasoning when d e a l i n g with V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . One cannot then ignore c l a s s , but i t must be c a r e f u l l y approached as a very complicated matter. A great d e a l has been said already, and c e r t a i n l y there i s more to be s a i d on the V i c t o r i a n c l a s s system. Instead of paraphrasing the l i t e r a t u r e on the matter, i t seems not unreasonable to present here a p i c t u r e t h a t has been drawn from reading both Nineteenth Century and cu r r e n t sources, b r i n g i n g out the p o i n t s t h a t appear to be most s i g n i f i c a n t . The t r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n of upper, middle, and lower c l a s s e s i s s t i l l u s e f u l as a basic way of c a t e g o r i z i n g the people of V i c t o r i a n England. Further d i v i s i o n s i n terms of r e l a t i v e rank w i t h i n these c l a s s e s , again of upper, middle, and lower, amy a l s o be a p p l i e d , although they are more c a r e f u l perhaps regarding the middle and lower c l a s s e s . However, I have found that 167. a d u a l d i v i s i o n , based on the q u a l i t y or nature of the s t a t u s occupied one's l i f e s t y l e and values r a t h e r than on rank alone, m i r r o r s more f a i t h f u l l y the s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n the m i d - V i c t o r i a n c l a s s e s . The upper c l a s s c o n s i s t e d of the h e r e d i t a r y peers and gentry, of landed and u s u a l l y wealthy f a m i l i e s , and 3 . . a l s o other persons of great wealth.^ The p o s i t i o n of these l a t t e r r e s u l t e d from t h e i r f i n a n c i a l success, and was thus achieved and not a s c r i b e d . A d e f i n i t e d i s t i n c t i o n was made between these two groups, although both were considered upper c l a s s . The a r i s t o c r a t ' s s t a t u s , by v i r t u e of how i t was obtained i t s h e r e d i t a r y c h a r a c t e r , was regarded as s u p e r i o r . Money alone, however, even great amounts of i t , would not a u t o m a t i c a l l y r a i s e one i n t o t h i s c l a s s . Only wealth from c e r t a i n respectable sources, such as banking, high finance or the l e a d i n g branches of commerce was recognized.^ Ownership of a s u c c e s s f u l f a c t o r y or mine, 7 f o r example, would not win entry i n t o t h i s c l a s s , although i t might provide the p o t e n t i a l f o r such an entry, i f the Q proper channels f o r a c h i e v i n g higher status were used. U n t i l that was done, men i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , the V i c t o r i a n o nouveaux r i c h e s , were considered middle c l a s s . W i t h i n the middle c l a s s i t s e l f there a l s o seems to have been two d i v i s i o n . The lower and l a r g e r of these c o n s i s t e d of those most obviously i d e n t i f i e d as s o l i d , 168., respectable c i t i z e n s , the ones who most c l o s e l y f i t the stereotype we have today of the sober, hard-working V i c t o r i a n . Then there were those who, although a c t u a l l y p a r t of the middle c l a s s , were not obviously so from appearances. Among them were the prosperous men i n business, the nou-veaux r i c h e s that I have mentioned, whose f i n a n c i a l success gave them the p o s s i b i l i t y of enjoying higher s t a t u s , once the passage of time had rubbed o f f some of the recent-11 ness of t h e i r achievement. In a d d i t i o n to these there were the p r o f e s s i o n a l s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s who a l s o faced the p o s s i b i l i t y of an upward change i n s t a t u s . Harold P e r k i n has c a l l e d them the " f o r g o t t e n middle c l a s s " , p a r t l y because they were of a d i f f e r e n t s o r t from the mass of that group, and a l s o because, when d i s c u s s i n g the V i c t o r i a n c l a s s system, they c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y neglected 12 to place themselves i n i t . These l a t t e r people, one may i n t e r p r e t , held the p o t e n t i a l of l e a v i n g t h e i r c l a s s f o r s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t reasons than those of the businessmen. The d i s t i n c t i o n again depends upon q u a l i t y : they had a l i f e s t y l e very s i m i l a r to the upper c l a s s . In f a c t , at t h e i r best, i t was c l o s e s t to t h a t of the cream of the upper c l a s s , the n o b i l i t y . For one t h i n g , t h e i r income was not based 13 upon tradesmanlike endeavour. J Payment i n the p r o f e s s i o n s was by f i x e d - f e e , not wages, and one received more business i n accordance w i t h the high q u a l i t y of h i s s e r v i c e s . The work of i n t e l l e c t u a l w r i t e r s s i m i l a r l y had a r e l a t i v e l y 169. assured audience i f the q u a l i t y of production was acceptable, and thus w r i t e r s experienced a s i t u a t i o n with some sense of c u l t i v a t e d s t a b i l i t y r a t h e r than of crass competition 1 5 f o r money. ^ These circumstances, says P e r k i n , r e s u l t e d i n the men concerned having a c e r t a i n degree of s e l f respect, which they expected to be confirmed by the r e s t 16 of s o c i e t y . Furthermore, standards and q u a l i t y of work became important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The ethos of m e r i t i n g success, of earning because of good work done, was strong i n t h i s group, and t h i s was very d i f f e r e n t from the business-man's e t h i c of maximizing p r o f i t s . This group of middle c l a s s men was, t h e r e f o r e , s i m i l a r to the upper c l a s s i n the way they l e d t h e i r l i v e s and a l s o i n having a concept of a p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y such as merit as a goal of l i f e i n which money was secondary. In the upper c l a s s , s i m i l a r l y , high p o s i t i o n was held by d i n t of b i r t h or assured wealth, but sheer p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s was not the e s s e n t i a l aspect of t h i s p o s i t i o n . Rather, as w i t h the middle c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s , a p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y that t h i s status emobdied was what was important. The p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y of the upper c l a s s was g e n t i l i t y . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e f i n i n g " g e n t i l i t y " and the r e l a t e d l a b e l of "gentleman" p r e c i s e l y . 1 Indeed, the V i c t o r i a n s were a l s o confused as to i t s meaning. Nevertheless, l i k e " c l a s s " , i t was widely used then, and i s v a l i d to use now. Such t r a i t s as i n t e g r i t y , honour, kindness to and p r o t e c t i o n of those weaker, e s p e c i a l l y 1 7 0 . women and c h i l d r e n , f a i r f i g h t i n g , sportsmanlike behaviour, courteous manners, evidence of good t a s t e , considerateness but firmness i n f o l l o w i n g what was r i g h t , were among 18 the many features regarded as a t t r i b u t e s of a gentleman. Further, t h i s l a b e l was not a p p l i e d merely to a concept. I t was the name of an a c t u a l , recognizable group of men, as the usage above and i n examples l i k e "Burke's Landed Gentry" show. I t was another name f o r the n o b i l i t y , those of r e a l b i r t h and breeding, and i t expressed the type of 19 behaviour associated with t h e i r r e s u l t i n g p o s i t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , not a l l a r i s t o c r a t s acted as gentlemen, and t h i s r a i s e s a t h i r d connotation i n the usage of t h i s terms as the name of the i d e a l behaviour a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s group. The concept of g e n t i l i t y i n t h i s l a s t sense had a broader a p p l i c a t i o n , p r o v i d i n g a norm f o r the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. Just as the n o b i l i t y were at the top of the s o c i a l ladder, so t h e i r i d e a l behaviour was taken 2 0 as the model f o r the r e s t of the s o c i e t y . Moreover, i f one's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n were favourable, behaving l i k e a gentleman could be a; means of upward m o b i l i t y . For example, those already c l o s e to the upper c l a s s would, by a c t i n g l i k e the n o b i l i t y , be even more s i m i l a r , and more acceptable, to the c l a s s to which they were a s p i r i n g . ^ At the same time, they would be more d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the c l a s s from which they had sprung. 1 7 1 . Gentlemanly behaviour, was one means of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . Other avenues were hypergamy, and the " r i g h t " education, 22 and the character of occupation. The f i r s t of these i s e a s i l y understood, but we can d w e l l upon the l a t t e r two at more length i n c o n s i d e r i n g the general question of middle c l a s s a s p i r a t i o n to the upper c l a s s . Education and occupation f i g u r e d i n t h i s a s p i r a t i o n f o r the most obvious reason that attendance at a s o c i a l l y approved school and l a t e r u n i v e r s i t y , and employment i n the r i g h t 23 s o r t of job, notably the p r o f e s s i o n s , J imparted p r e s t i g e to the i n d i v i d u a l so i n v o l v e d . Moreover, these places not only provided avenues to the upper c l a s s , they a l s o provided access to i t s members. Mi d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d r e n met t h e i r upper-class counterparts 24 at the best schools, p a r t i c u l a r l y p u b l i c schools, and 2 5 i n u n i v e r s i t y , J and as f a r as p o s s i b l e , the l i m i t s being set by upper-class a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y , they a l l formed one group i n such a s i t u a t i o n . In the p r o f e s s i o n s , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n continued. The p r o f e s s i o n s were considered acceptable employment f o r the younger sons of the n o b i l i t y and gentry who would not i n h e r i t the f a m i l y lands and 27 d i r e c t l y e x e r c i s e power. The upper branches of more e s t a b l i s h e d p r o f e s s i o n s were a p a r t i c u l a r choice f o r such men, and these occupations r e f l e c t e d the high pres-28 t i g e of. t h e i r upper-class members. Thus, i t can be v a l i d l y argued that a smaller element w i t h i n the middle c l a s s had an a f f i n i t y w i t h the upper 172. c l a s s , owing to the nature of t h e i r source of income, concern w i t h the type or q u a l i t y of l i f e that they l e d , and t h e i r norm and model of behaviour. They a l s o had the opportunity through v a r i o u s channels, of a t t a i n i n g a high p o s i t i o n . P o t e n t i a l l y , i n f a c t , they were c l o s e r to a c h i e v i n g t h i s than were the businessmen i n t h e i r own c l a s s , and i n some ways c l o s e r to the n o b i l i t y than even the wealthy members of the upper c l a s s . In d i s c u s s i n g the lower c l a s s i n V i c t o r i a n England we are again d e a l i n g w i t h two separate groups: the s k i l l e d a r t i s a n s and the l a b o u r e r s , and the f a c t of a d i s t i n c t i o n between them was s o c i a l l y recognized i n the usual a p p e l l a -29 . t i o n of the "working c l a s s e s " . T h e i r merging i n t o one and i t s subsequent development w i t h i n the V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d 30 i s a t o p i c of h i s t o r i c a l importance i n i t s e l f , but i t i s not necessary to go i n t o that here, f o r i t i s q u i t e apparent from the data already presented t h a t the ESL members were not of t h i s s o c i a l category. Having e s t a b l i s h e d a framework f o r the V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l s t r a t a , we can r e t u r n to a d i s c u s s i o n of the ESL. The i n f o r m a t i o n on addresses bears most d i r e c t l y on t h i s t o p i c . As was stated before, t h i s m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e only f o r the l a s t eight years of the ESL's l i f e t i m e . I t has been f u r t h e r l i m i t e d to the London addresses f o r the sake of the a n a l y s i s that f o l l o w s . I t w i l l become apparent that the other addresses are s c a t t e r e d over too l a r g e an area to be u s e f u l . 173-Addresses can t e l l v a r i o u s t h i n g s . Most b a s i c a l l y , they record the p h y s i c a l f a c t of l o c a t i o n : where a b u i l d i n g i s s i t u a t e d or a person l i v e s . Taken i n comparison, they can a l s o t e l l about p r o x i m i t y and suggest conclusions about i n t e r a c t i o n between people l i v i n g at d i f f e r e n t places. I f they are a v a i l a b l e i n enough d e t a i l f o r a manageable area, however, addresses can a l s o t e l l about s o c i a l s t a t u s . I t i s to t h i s end th a t the ESL addresses have been u t i l i z e d . People do not j u s t l i v e at a s p e c i f i c address: they l i v e i n an area, often with a name and of a c e r t a i n s o c i a l composition. F u r t h e r , these compositions are o f t e n g e n e r a l -i z e d i n t o c e r t a i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which are accorded d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l values. There are thus "good" and "bad" addresses i n terms of the l i f e s t y l e and s o c i a l s t a t u s of the p a r t i c u -l a r people. To take an example c l o s e to home: people l i v i n g i n Vancouver recognize d i f f e r e n c e s between the areas of Shaughnessy, K i t s i l a n o and East Vancouver. These d i f f e r e n c e s are i n more than j u s t i n name: they have s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . Knowing t h a t a doctor, f o r example, l i v e s i n Shaughnessy r a t h e r than i n K i t s i l a n o g i ves the p e r c e i v e r an idea about such aspects as the person's age, income, and type of c l i e n t e l e . The a c t u a l f a c t s would have to be v e r i f i e d i n each case, but there are g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n s t h a t can be made about the s o c i a l nature of each area and the type of people l i v i n g there. The observer r e f e r s to these i n e s t a b l i s h i n g others i n t h e i r s o c i a l 174. group, and i n d e c i d i n g where he himself wishes to l i v e . S i m i l a r l y , there were d i f f e r e n t areas with s p e c i f i c names i n V i c t o r i a n London, as of course there are i n London today. In some cases these had formal d e f i n i t i o n and boundaries, such as boroughs, - f o r example Chelsea, -or parishes l i k e St. G i l e s ' or e l e c t o r a l wards, such as Tower Hamlets. W i t h i n these p o l i t i c a l areas were others more expressly s o c i a l i n nature. Here, the name might come from a p a r t i c u l a r landmark or s i t e ( f o r example, the Tyburn gallows and the Tyburn Ri v e r which y i e l d e d 31 the name Tyburnia)-; or from an event such as the f a i r once held l o c a l l y i n May which s u p p l i e d the name f o r i t s 32 area, Mayfair. Such names would be a p p l i e d t o a general area w i t h f o l k r a t h e r than formal boundaries, and although the s i t e or event might disappear — Tyburn gallows were 33 moved west and the r i v e r d r i e d u p ; ^ the May f a i r was 34 d iscontmued^ -- the name remained, and with i t a s o c i a l connotation expressive of the type of people l i v i n g i n that area. The boundaries could s h i f t with time, or the connotation change: N o t t i n g H i l l , once a brand-new, s o l i d l y m iddle-class area, i s today of lowe r - c l a s s composition, and the name has the l a t t e r meaning to present-day Londoners. E q u a l l y , the connotation could p e r s i s t : thus, Mayfair and B e l g r a v i a are s t i l l w e ll-reputed areas of London, and t h e i r s o c i a l meaning i s so widely understood as to be appropriated f o r p r e s t i g i o u s North American apartments. 1 7 5 , This f a c t of areas w i t h s o c i a l meaning i n V i c t o r i a n London has been used i n a n a l y z i n g the addresses of the ESL members. The u n d e r l y i n g concept was that i f one could determine the areas and t h e i r meanings i n the ESL's p e r i o d , he could l e a r n more about t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n by l o c a t i n g the membership i n terms of these areas. To e s t a b l i s h the areas, use was made of a v a i l a b l e reference m a t e r i a l on London at the time under d i s c u s s i o n , from both Nineteenth Century and contemporary maps and accounts. One should not, of course, n e c e s s a r i l y take the impressions recorded i n these sources, even i f there i s a high degree of agreement between them,- as being a l l there i s to say about the particular"' areas. We are d e a l i n g w i t h g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and o v e r a l l impressions, even ster e o -types, and the degree of homogeneity i s u l t i m a t e l y something to be e s t a b l i s h e d , not assumed. However, t h i s problem can be taken i n t o account. Moreover, when there are p a r t i c u l a r s t r e e t s that can be looked up, as w i t h the ESL addresses, not to mention a d d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the i n d i v i d u a l members, the f i n d i n g s can be e a s i l y checked, and any r a d i c a l e r r o r s would become r e a d i l y apparent. Thus, we may f e e l the more secure i n t h i s approach. Appendix I I contains the r e s u l t i n g d e t a i l s on the r e l e v a n t areas of V i c t o r i a n London, t h e i r boundaries and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w i t h the references to the sources used. 176', A map of these areas i s given i n the same Appendix. For the t e x t of the t h e s i s , however, the f i n d i n g s may be summarized i n t h e i r most s i m p l i f i e d and ge n e r a l i z e d form i n Table XXIV. This presents the areas by name, with t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s as e s t a b l i s h e d by the research. T h e i r values have been expressed i n the c l a s s terms o u t l i n e d above, and the various areas grouped together according to t h e i r s i m i l a r s o c i a l nature. The Kensington group, f o r i n s t a n c e , i s located on the t a b l e below the upper c l a s s and above the middle c l a s s . This p o s i t i o n best r e f l e c t s t h e i r a c t u a l p o s i t i o n i n E n g l i s h s o c i e t y , and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r high s t a t u s . The areas l i s t e d here are only those which f i g u r e i n the ESL date. Table XXIV: Areas of M i d - V i c t o r i a n London with t h e i r S o c i a l Meanings  s o c i a l nature upper c l a s s n o b i l i t y -wealth middle c l a s s mobile " s o l i d " -area Mayfair, B e l g r a v i a Atheneum (St. James* S t . , P a l l M a l l (clubs) Westminister Tyburnia, P i m l i c o Marylebone, Paddington (somewhat lower) Kensington, Brompton, Chelsea, Knightsbridge St. John's Wood, Regent's Park, Bloomsbury (somewhat lower) Covent Garden, Strand, C i t y ( a l s o i n cludes work addresses of upper c l a s s ) . Bayswater, Notting H i l l south of the Thames - Wandsworth, Lambeth, Southwark 1 The next question i s where the ESL members f i t i n t o these areas. The f i n d i n g s are given i n Table XXV. A more d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of the data, broken down by areas w i t h i n the l a r g e r groupings, i s given i n Appendix I I I . Reading down i n Table XXV, the areas are ranked i n order of s o c i a l s t a t u s , as i n Table XXIV. Areas of the same s o c i a l nature are grouped under the mane of t h e i r f i r s t entry; f o r example, "Mayfair grouping". Reading across, the d i f f e r e n t years f o r which there i s address i n f o r m a t i o n are given. The t o t a l number of London addresses f o r each year i s given i n the l a s t column. I t should be noted that the f i g u r e i n t h i s l a s t column does not represent the sum of the preceding columns, but r a t h e r the t o t a l number of addresses mentioned i n the r e l e v a n t area over the seven years. The f i g u r e thus takes i n t o account addresses repeated i n consecutive years and does not count them more than once. At the bottom of the ta b l e are mentioned those who l i v e d i n London i n areas other than the ones on the chart. These were not entered separately by s p e c i f i c area as there were not enough i n any one to warrant i t s i n c l u s i o n here. An a l y z i n g the data i n t h i s t a b l e y i e l d s the f o l l o w i n g trends. We see, f i r s t , t hat the groupings are represented i n the ESL i n the same order as they were ranked i n V i c -t o r i a n s o c i e t y : the order that the groupings f o l l o w when ranked by s o c i a l value i s the same order i n which we f i n d the ESL members d i s t r i b u t e d i n the va r i o u s groupings. Table XXV: Residence of the ESL Members i n the S o c i a l Areas of London 1 8 6 3 - I 8 7 I  t o t a l # a c t u a l area :•. I863 1866 186? 1868 1869 1870 addresses Mayfair grouping - Mayfair, B e l g r a v i a , 65 53 4.9 38 4-9 38 106 Atheneum, St. James St, P a l l M a l l , Westminster Tyburnia grouping - Tyburnia, P i m l i c o , 18 20 13 17 16 17 44 Marylebone, Paddington Kensington grouping - Kensington, Brompton, Chelsea, Knightsbridge, St John's Wood, Regent's Park, Bloomsbury Covent Garden grouping - Covent Garden, Strand, C i t y of London Bayswater grouping - Bayswater, N o t t i n g H i l l Other London - south of Thames, north London t o t a l ESL t h a t year 21 16 16 16 15 14 38 18 17 14 10 11 15 31 5 6 6 5 9 9 14 4 5 5 5 6 6 9 131 117 103 91 106 101 242 284 297 297 302 302 325 CO 17 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the ESL members resided most i n the areas which were of highest s o c i a l s t a t u s . The Mayfair grouping i s n o t i c e a b l y the l a r g e s t , i n i t s e l f almost 45% of a l l the London addresses. Comparing the number i n t h i s grouping w i t h that i n the Tyburnia one, we see that the ESL members tended to l i v e i n the upper-class areas that contained " q u a l i t y " r a t h e r than j u s t wealth. The mobile middle-class g r o u p ' l i v. i ng i n t h e . Kensington grouping i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t s large represen-t a t i o n , which i s very c l o s e i n s i z e to the Tyburnia group-ing. These two would overlap to an extend, w i t h the noveaux r i c h e s members oft e n l i v i n g i n the l e s s p r e s t i g i o u s Tyburnia areas. S i m i l a r l y , the Kensington and Mayfair groupings would overlap, w i t h the upper c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l s o l i v i n g i n the former, e s p e c i a l l y i n Brompton and 35 Knightsbridge. J y St. John's Wood at t h i s time would probably c o n t a i n middle-class people. One member i n t h i s area i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t : Thomas Huxley. I have discussed how h i s o r i e n t a t i o n and concerns d i f f e r e d from the m a j o r i t y of the ESL members. Now we f i n d that he i s a l s o s p a t i a l l y , and hence s o c i a l l y , d i s t i n c t . The Kensington grouping, i t must be remembered, represented those men who had the p o t e n t i a l of c l i m b i n g , but u n t i l then they. would not neces-s a r i l y be of high s t a t u s . Huxley's presence i n St. John's Wood i s i n d i c a t i v e of h i s s t i l l d i f f e r e n t and lower s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . 180'. The Covent Garden grouping i s one which again i n c l u d e s some overlap, f o r both upper and middle c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s worked or l i v e d i n t h i s area. This was oft e n a second 3 6 address i n the former's case. I t i s thus of much the same stat u s as the higher-ranked Kensington grouping. Comparatively few of the true middle c l a s s are rep-resented i n the London addresses of the ESL members. Bayswater and Not t i n g H i l l were almost notorious f o r t h e i r 3 7 sameness and quasi-genteel p l a c i d i t y . - " The areas south of the r i v e r a l s o c o n s i s t e d of t y p i c a l l y m i d d l e - c l a s s , cheaper d w e l l i n g p l a c e s , and they, too, are q u i t e under represented i n the ESL. The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e , consequently, i s of the ESL as a group that l i v e d l a r g e l y i n areas of high s t a t u s of a p a r t i c u l a r kind. This i n f o r m a t i o n , of course, comes from only of the ESL membership. Nevertheless, even i f the Society's members d i d not a l l l i v e i n high-status areas, a s i z e a b l e number of them d i d . C e r t a i n l y one would not f i n d as l a r g e a s e c t i o n of the whole p o p u l a t i o n represented i n these same areas. This f i n d i n g i s h i g h l y suggestive about the members' s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i n general. One wonders i f t h e i r s t a t u s i n other areas c o i n c i d e d w i t h that documented by the data on addresses. When we recon s i d e r the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of s o c i a l data presented i n the foregoing chapter, t h i s indeed seems to be the case. F i r s t , the ESL members were of high status because they were males i n V i c t o r i a n 1 8 1 . s o c i e t y , although t h i s i s too broad a category to be very s i g n i f i c a n t . T i t l e , i s somewhat more p r e c i s e , and I have noted the percentage of non-commoners i n the ESL as much greater than i n the t o t a l population. T i t l e i n i t s e l f i s a statement of s o c i a l s t a t u s , and so the i n f o r m a t i o n here t e l l s us d i r e c t l y the number of members of high p o s i t i o n as a r e s u l t of b i r t h or s o c i a l recog-n i t i o n of achievement. Next i s education, and once more, we have noted the high r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d men i n the ESL i n c o n t r a s t to the r e s t of the population. As regards occupatio.n, again the ESL had a much l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n than the n a t i o n as a whole of men w i t h high status i n t h i s f i e l d . These men are found both i n a r i s t o c r a t i c employment and i n the p r o f e s s i o n s , i n which l a t t e r they were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the high-ranked branches where, to emphasize the p o i n t , a l a r g e number of them held high p o s i t i o n s . F i n a l l y , i n terms of other a s s o c i a t i o n s , we have pointed out the number of them found i n p r e s t i g i o u s , e x c l u s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and i n executive p o s i t i o n s i n ones somewhat more e a s i l y j o i n e d . As the addresses i n d i c a t e , and as the other s o c i a l data bears out, the ESL members' st a t u s was g e n e r a l l y high. The ESL thus was a group wi t h a l a r g e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of men who enjoyed high p o s i t i o n i n V i c t o r i a n Society. We can v e r i f y t h i s c o n c l u s i o n by i n t r o d u c i n g a f i n a l set of data, which i s secondary r a t h e r than primary m a t e r i a l , 1 8 2 . and not i n t e n t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to the ESL; t h a t i s to say, b i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n a r i e s . There are two of these which are r e l e v a n t to the per i o d of the ESL, the D i c t i o n a r y of  N a t i o n a l Biography, and F. Boase's Modern E n g l i s h Biography. They c o n t a i n , as Boase expressed i t , "anyone who has been w e l l known and about whom a qu e s t i o n might a r i s e i n general conversation", with Boase g i v i n g t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a s l i g h t l y wider a p p l i c a t i o n than the DNB. Many of the men mentioned i n these volumes are not w e l l known today, but th a t does not discount them as recognized i n t h e i r own time. The V i c t o r i a n s that we remember have been chosen according to our own curre n t y a r d s t i c k s and the l a s t i n g q u a l i t y of t h e i r work to t h i s day. The d i c t i o n a r i e s are the b e t t e r judges of a person's fame i n terms of h i s contemporaries, and they t e l l us the worth of a V i c t o r i a n i n h i s own'time. They are thus u s e f u l as records of those men who were then considered to be at the top of t h e i r s o c i e t y . Having regard to them i n t h i s way, the DNB and Boase have been examined as i n d i c a t i v e of the s t a t u s of the ESL's members, i n s o f a r as they were mentioned i n these works. The f i n d i n g s are given i n Table XXVI. 183. Table XXVI: Mention of ESL Members i n V i c t o r i a n B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r i e s no e n t r y ( i n c l u d e DNB Boase Fo r e i g n member 19th Century, v.1-21 114 1892-1901 55 19th Century, v.22 25 1908-1921 34 20th Century, 1901-11 24 20th Century, 1912-21 7 TE7 8 9 t o t a l number of mentions of ESL members 256 The s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g here i s that 43.1% of the ESL members are mentioned i n the d i c t i o n a r i e s . Obviously, these sources do not incl u d e anywhere near t h a t large a s e c t i o n of the t o t a l population. This outside data f i r m l y supports our conclusions drawn from the ESL's own m a t e r i a l on the high s o c i a l s t a t u s of the Soc i e t y ' s members. The s o c i a l data on the ESL, i n summary, leads us to recognize status as i t s most important aspect. We see s t i l l f u r t h e r that the p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s of the group's members was high. 184. References 1. Brown, Roger S o c i a l Psychology. New York: The Free Press, 1965:113-4, f f I am not p r e s e n t i n g a review of the l i t e r a t u r e and the v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and c l a s s , as t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s not aimed at developing an argument i n t h i s l i n e . Rather, I have u t i l i z e d the p a r t i c u l a r approach which makes most sense out of the m a t e r i a l under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and presented only i t . 2. Best, Geoffrey 3. Reader, W.J. Best, Burn, W.L. 4. Best, 5. Ibid.:240-249. Burn, 6. Cole, G.D.H. Evans, Joan M i d - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n 18 51-187 5. London: Weidenfeld 1971:xvi. & N i c o l s o n , L i f e i n V i c t o r i a n England. London: B.T. Bats f o r d L t d . , 1964:17-19 op. cit. : 2 3 8 The Age of Equipoise: a Study  the M i d - V i c t o r i a n Generation London: Unwin U n i v e r s i t y Books, 1964:255-op. c i t . : 2 3 9 « op. cit. : 2 5 4 Studies i n Class S t r u c t u r e . London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l , 1955:61, 67 The V i c t o r i a n s . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966:47. 9. Best, 10. Reader, Evans, 7. Cole, op. c i t . :6l Evans, op. c i t . :48. 8. Best, op. c i t . :233-238 Checkland, S.G. The Rise of I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y i n England 1815-188 5. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965:290. Ibid. : 2 5 2 - 3 V i c t o r i a n England: 114-115, 153-4 op. c i t . : 4 9 11. Cole, Reader, op. c i t . : 6 5 V i c t o r i a n England:126 185. 12. P e r k i n , Harold 13. Ibid, :256 Best, Annan, Noel 14. P e r k i n , 15. Ibid.:255-256 B r i g g s , Asa 16. 17. P e r k i n , Best, Burn, C l a r k 18. Besant, S i r Walter Best, Burn, C l a r k , Cole, Evans, Reader, 19. Best, Burn, Cl a r k , Cole, 20. Best, B r i g g s , Reader, 21. Best, 22. B r i g g s , Reader, W.J. The O r i g i n s of Modern E n g l i s h  S o c i e t y 1780-1880. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1969:252 and f f . op. c i t . : 2 3 8 "The I n t e l l e c t u a l A r i s t o c r a c y " i n J.H. Plumb, ed, Studies  S o c i a l H i s t o r y : a Tr i b u t e i n to G. Trevelyan, pp243-287. Longmans, Green & Co. Lond on: 1955:252. op. c i t . : 2 5 k The Age of Improvement. London: Longmans, Green & Co.; 1959:411. op. cit. : 2 5 4 . op. cit. :245:7 op. c it. : 2 5 5 f f op. cit.3t'2 53. London i n the Nineteenth Century London: Adam & Charles Black, 1909:14 op. cit : 2 3 8 f f :op. cit. : 2 2 5 f f OP. c i t . : 2 5 5 f f op. c i t . : 6 l f f op. c i t . :75. #83, quoting J.H. Newman Idea of a U n i v e r s i t y , Discourse V I I I . V i c t o r i a n England:9 . op. cit.:249-50, 53-4 op. cit. : 2 5 4 - 5 op. cit. : 2 5 3 op. c i t . : 6 l . op. cit. : 2 4 7 op. c i t . : 4 4 l V i c t o r i a n England:9 . op. c i t . :246 397 op. cit. : 3 9 7 P r o f e s s i o n a l Men: the Rise of the P r o f e s s i o n a l Classes i n Nineteenth 186. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29-30. 31. 32. 33. 3 k . 35. 36. 37. C l a r k , Cole, Reader, Best, C l a r k , Cole, Reader, Reader, Ibid. J 1 9 C l a r k , Best, Evan, Reader, c Evans, Reader, c f . P e r k i n , cf.E.P. Thomson, L o f t i e , W.J., Timbs, John, L o f t i e , Timbs, c f . Appendix I I . I b i d . Century England. London: Weidenfeld & N i c o l s o n , 1966: 73, 126. op. cit. : 2 6 0 op. c i t . : 6 5 V i c t o r i a n England:!16 P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:132. op. cit. : 2 5 3 op. cit. : 2 5 2 , 2 5 5 op. c i t . : 6 3 V i c t o r i a n England : l l 6 . op. c i t . : 2 7 3 . op. c i t . :253 op. c i t . :47, 4-9 V i c t o r i a n England:18ff P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:6ff, 73. op. c i t . : 4 7 V i c t o r i a n England:24ff P r o f e s s i o n a l Men:6ff, 73. op. cit. : 2 3 1 The Making of the E n g l i s h Working  Class. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1968. A H i s t o r y of London. London: E. Stanford, 1884:203, 204, 219. Walks and Talks About London. London: Lockwood & Co., 1865:39. op. c i t . : 2 0 4 , 205, 219. l o c . c i t . D i s r a e l i , c i t e d i n Hibbert, Christopher, London: the  Biography of a C i t y , London: longmans, 1969:186. 38. Boase, F r e d e r i c , Modern E n g l i s h Biography. Truro 1 Netherton & Worth, 1892-1921, 6 v o l s . v . l : i v . 18?. Chapter 6: The ESL: A Reassessment With t h i s d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e of the ESL before us, i t remains to reconsider the t o t a l i t y . V/e can s t a r t by summarizing the main p o i n t s of the ethnographic m a t e r i a l that has been adduced. I t must be assessed to see what the e f f e c t i s on the accepted p i c t u r e of the ESL. We then can judge which aspect of the group, the i n t e l l e c t u a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , or s o c i a l , stands out as most s i g n i f i c a n t . The next question a r i s e s as to what type of e x p l a n a t i o n i s most appropriate to a r e v i s e d p i c t u r e of the ESL. F i n a l l y , the outcome of the whole study has to be con-sidered i n terms of the v a l i d i t y of i t s methodology. I. To assess the t h e s i s ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i n respect to data, l e t us r e c a p i t u l a t e the main points developed i n the various chapters. Chapters 2 and 3 presented the o r i g i n s , aims and s t r u c t u r e of the S o c i e t y , n o t i n g what changes occurred i n these over the t h i r t y years of the ESL's l i f e . The changes were seen i n both the t o p i c s examined by the S o c i e t y and i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was argued that these changes were not necessary to the ESL's continued s u r v i v a l and t h a t they were i n f a c t imposed upon the S o c i e t y by men pursuing t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . Huxley i n p a r t i c u l a r was i d e n t i f i e d as a prime mover i n e f f e c t i n g the change, i n g u i d i n g the ESL towards goals 1 8 8 . of h i s own. His immediate goal, union with the ASL, would serve the l a r g e r purposes of V i c t o r i a n Science i n general. The l a s t two chapters i n the body of the t h e s i s d e t a i l s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the ESL, which h i t h e r t o has not been examined i n any d i s c u s s i o n of that Society. They f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h that the most important fe a t u r e Of the ESL's s o c i a l makeup was the status of the membership, which was both r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous and high. A. minor but nonetheless important f a c t to be noted i s one s t a t u s i n p a r t i c u l a r : Huxley's, which shows him to be l o c a t e d s o c i a l l y apart from the ESL, and underlines h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l s e p a r a t i o n from i t . Thus h i s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the ESL went byond the matter of the study of Man. In t h i s matter, as i n the ASL's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the ESL, s o c i a l i s s u e s were involved. Also to be noted i n these chapters i s the endeavour t o r e l a t e the regions and s o c i a l s t a t u s i n V i c t o r i a n London, as a measure of documenting and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the nature of the c i t y of that time. The n o t i o n of using r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n on s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i s a f u r t h e r p o i n t developed i n t h i s t h e s i s . Another c o n t r i b u t i o n , a l s o of a methodologi-c a l nature, i s the use of e n t r i e s i n b i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n -a r i e s i n the same way, as general i n d i c a t o r s of s t a t u s , and not s o l e l y f o r the p a r t i c u l a r b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l t h a t they present. L a s t l y , the s o c i a l m a t e r i a l uncovered here sets f o r t h something of the l i f e s t y l e of men of a 189. p a r t i c u l a r s e c t o r of V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . We look at the nature of t h e i r l i v e s as V i c t o r i a n s i n v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s , and f o l l o w these through to the expression of the man's p o s i t i o n s i n i n t e r e s t s , groups j o i n e d , and ideas produced. In so doing, we document a l e s s e r known area of such men's l i v e s : t h e i r avocation. F i n a l l y , i n l o o k i n g at the ESL i n i t s various f a c e t s we are a l s o doing something r e l a t i v e l y r a r e ; attempting an ethnographic treatment of a group i n our h i s t o r y . P a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s aside,'what new o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the ESL emerges from t h i s study? The i n t e l l e c t u a l aspect does not seem f u l l y adequate as a means of e x p l i -c a t i o n , since s t r e s s i n g only the S o c i e t y ' s aims and ideas would not i l l u m i n a t e the character of the group's s o c i a l composition. In the I n t r o d u c t i o n , indeed* i t was suggested that there might he more than ideas involved i n the ESL-ASL s p l i t and union, and the m a t e r i a l subsequently presented here has e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s very p o i n t . Besides, i t i s not a simple matter of there being two S o c i e t i e s studying anthropology i n t h i s p e r i o d , w i t h the choice of which one to j o i n r e s t i n g only upon the d i f f e r e n t ideas they held. For with the ESL we have found that membership i n one of these S o c i e t i e s corresponds with enjoying a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l s t a t u s and t h i s i s s u r e l y more than coincidence. A study of ideas alone cannot e x p l a i n t h i s alignment. 190. S t r e s s i n g only the s t r u c t u r a l aspect of the ESL poses the same problem. The i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l changes w i t h i n the S o c i e t y have been traced to the move of Huxley's group to impose i t s standards and r e a l i z e i t s goals f o r V i c t o r i a n science. But t h i s was not a l l that was happening with ESL: there i s the f u r t h e r f a c t t h a t , the healthy small S o c i e t y that was u n n e c e s s a r i l y changed was a l s o composed of men of s i m i l a r , and notably high status i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . Emphasizing only the s t r u c t u r a l aspect would neglect t h i s v i t a l f a c t , and - c o n s i d e r i n g that the s i g n i f i -cance of the ESL's s o c i a l makeup has been brought out f o r the f i r s t time here, and i s of such a s t r i k i n g n a t ure,-we are compelled to examine and e x p l a i n the s o c i a l aspect of t h i s group, not ignore i t . We have discussed i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n how the ESL would have looked i f i t had been e i t h e r an i n t e l l e c t u a l or a s t r u c t u r a l phenomenon i n essence; a group, that i s , upholding a p a r t i c u l a r set of ideas, or a group represent-in g one side of a s t r u c t u r a l s t r u g g l e . But i t i s now contended instead that the s o c i a l aspect was predominant i n the phenomenon. Developing t h i s argument, I would maintain t h a t s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s would a f f e c t both why one studied ethnology, and a l s o the way i n which one d i d so. F i r s t , an i n t e r e s t i n ethnology, i n the broadest sense, can be seen as d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to f a c t o r s i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . I t has been pointed out above how ethnology was an outcome of B r i t a i n ' s circumstances i n 191. t h i s p e r i o d , both at home and abroad. Domestic and i n t e r -n a t i o n a l concerns to g e t h e r brought Englishmen i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the i s s u e s of ethnology, i n the sense t h a t they became more aware of p r i m i t i v e peoples, i n t r i g u e d by the n a t i v e s ' way of l i f e , i n t e r e s t e d to account f o r the o r i g i n s of t h i s , and concerned about t h r e a t s to the s u r v i v a l of p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s . F u r t h e r , we have shown t h a t the ESL i t s e l f had deep r o o t s i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , and even p e r c e i v e d i t s r o l e as having something to o f f e r on the i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g i t . The second way i n which s o c i a l f o r c e s would be n o t a b l y r e l e v a n t , t h a t i s , the manner i n which ethnology was to be done, was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l s e t t i n g . In t h a t t h i s was preeminently a time of the a c t i v e f o r m a t i o n of men's groups, and a time of i n c r e a s e d and a c t i v e concern with the a c q u i s i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n about the world, an a s s o c i a t i o n devoted to e t h n o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s was the n a t u r a l mode i n which to organize the s c i e n c e of Man. As a s s o c i a t i o n was a l s o about the only way t h a t any such o r g a n i z a t i o n was p o s s i b l e a t t h i s time. T o p i c s d e a l i n g with a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s were to be found i n n e i t h e r s c h o o l nor u n i v e r s i t y . c u r r i c u l a . A . s c i e n t i f i c a s s o c i a t i o n alone c o u l d c e n t r a l i z e and organize a f i e l d of study. I t o f f e r e d a l o c a t i o n , a meeting p l a c e f o r men of l i k e i n t e r e s t s to gather and exchange t h e i r i d e a s . I t f u n c t i o n e d as a c l e a r i n g house f o r the spread of such i d e a s , with i t s p u b l i c a t i o n b e i n g v i r t u a l l y the s o l e means 192. of d i s s e m i n a t i n g thoughts about the nature of Man. Again, the ESL's j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r i t s formation and d e s c r i p t i o n s of what i t could o f f e r showed th a t i t was c l e a r l y aware of t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Once more, t h i s group represented a response to the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s surrounding i t . To c o n s i d e r i n g the s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between ethnology and the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n more d e t a i l , we can look at the l i n k s between s p e c i f i c s o c i a l f e a t u r e s and that study. I n other words, we can consider the i m p l i -c a t i o n s of one's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n f o r h i s involvement i n ethnology. F i r s t , as has been discussed i n the body of the t h e s i s , status and occupation are r e l a t e d . The va r i o u s occupations of the V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d were open only to people of p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s . For example, only those of high status were e l i g i b l e f o r what was i d e n t i f i e d . e a r l i e r as the " a r i s t o c r a t i c employment" of the more e s t a b l i s h e d p r o f e s s i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , there were occupations l i m i t e d to lower status people. The consequence of t h i s f o r ethnology was that the p a r t i c u l a r job one held determined the p o s s i b i l i t y of contact with p r i m i t i v e peoples, whether, f o r example, one worked i n the c o l o n i e s , or was r e s t r i c t e d to employment at home. Furthermore, only men of means had the time and money to t r a v e l to p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , and so status again was r e l a t e d to one's opportunity of w i t n e s s i n g p r i m i t i v e l i f e . 193. Since status thus determined the type of employment and the p o s s i b i l i t y of t r a v e l , i t a l s o i n f l u e n c e d the type of contact one had with p r i m i t i v e peoples. A govern-ment a d m i n i s t r a t o r , f o r in s t a n c e , would be a c t u a l l y exposed to n a t i v e s o c i e t i e s , but he would a l s o be d e a l i n g w i t h them i n terms of a s t r i c t l y defined r e l a t i o n s h i p , and the, i n t e r a c t i n g e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h t h e i r leaders. A t r a d e r , a missionary or a s a i l o r , on the other hand, would have d i f f e r e n t experiences of n a t i v e s o c i e t i e s , and correspon-i n g l y d i f f e r e n t views. Then, were one oriented towards study, d i r e c t experience of p r i m i t i v e peoples might shape the approach he would take. Having seen a p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e at work, a student of the Science of Man might be more i n t e r e s t e d i n the substance of an a c t u a l people's l i v e s r a t h e r than with more a b s t r a c t theory about human descent. Having experienced a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e , he might be more concerned w i t h what c u l t u r e s are l i k e and how they d i f f e r , r a t h e r than w i t h the p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e of p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s . On the other hand, i f a person never l e f t England, h i s only contact w i t h p r i m i t i v e s would be with the i s o l a t e d few examples brought to the country by t r a v e l l e r s . He would see l i t t l e of the n a t i v e s * c u l t u r e , having only one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e before him. But he would see obvious and s t r i k i n g p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , would be understandably drawn to study and r e f l e c t upon these. Thus, the extent and nature of one's contact with p r i m i t i v e s would a f f e c t h i s i n t e r e s t i n them, the way i n which he 194-;-regarded them, and h i s understanding of them. This could r e s u l t i n , as has been developed, an ethnographic, ethno-l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n to the Study of Man. And, we have shown the determination of t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n to be s t a t u s -based . Status a f f e c t e d not only the V i c t o r i a n s ' concern wi t h the study of Man but a l s o h i s a t t i t u d e toward i t . With work i n other f i e l d s t a k i n g up most of t h e i r time and a t t e n t i o n , the men j o i n i n g an i n t e r e s t group would not regard i t as the main focus of t h e i r energies. They would regard i t as an avocation, a hobby, and t h i s view would a f f e c t the output of the group a c c o r d i n g l y . Again, those occupying p o s i t i o n s of power and p r e s t i g e would have no need of the s o c i a l b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g from member-ship i n such a group. There were, indeed, s o c i a l b e n e f i t s to be had. The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i n t e r e s t groups such as the ESL had the opportunity of enhancing t h e i r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e somewhat. F i r s t , by appending to t h e i r names l e t t e r s i n d i c a t i n g membership, they s i g n i f i e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and t h e i r a b i l i t y to g a i n entry i n t o such a group. Then, they a l s o stood to share i n any honour ac c u r i n g to t h e i r group achievements i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of study. I t should be noted that at t h i s time, the dividends of such achievement were e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l , because the body of s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i t i o n e r s was i t s e l f i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t o r of V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y , and not as i s the case today, separate community. Science, i n 195. t h i s sense, was much more a l a y a c t i v i t y , and. was judged by the standards of the l a y s o c i e t y . S c i e n t i f i c achieve-ment therefore had strong i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the s o c i a l sphere. Those men w i t h t h e i r high s t a t u s already e s t a b l i s h e d and assured had no need of these by-products of group membership. They were not upwardly mobile, and would not j o i n an i n t e r e s t group to achieve any s o c i a l ends. This s i t u a t i o n would a f f e c t the group's output, inasmuch as such members f e l t no need to achieve f o r the sake of the s o c i a l dividends. Lacking an urgency to produce, a group composed of men of t h i s type of st a t u s would go along at i t s own, more l e i s u r e l y pace, i t s concern would be e s s e n t i a l l y with the subject i t s e l f , and whatever i n s i g h t s might a r i s e would do so without being force d . There would be no need f o r c a r e f u l s t e e r i n g of the group towards success, and so questions of methodological r i g o u r , and the d e f i n i t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f i e l d would a c c o r d i n g l y not rec e i v e close a t t e n t i o n . In t h i s way, statu s would a f f e c t the work produced by an i n t e r e s t group. The p a r t a c c o r d i n g l y played by the s o c i a l composition of the ESL i s the more understandable i n the l i g h t of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the elements and processes involved i n a group of high s t a t u s . In terms of one's experience shaping h i s a t t i t u d e toward p r i m i t i v e men, we have assuredly noted the number of ESL members who d i d have a c t u a l contact 1 9 6 . w i t h n a t i v e s o c i e t i e s , p l u s the f a c t t h a t most of the a r t i c l e s i n the j o u r n a l s were w r i t t e n from f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e . Thus, f o l l o w i n g the argument above, the S o c i e t y ' s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n w i t h c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s of p r i m i t i v e l i f e and emphasis on ethnography can be under-s t o o d . Then, we f i n d a s i z e a b l e number of the ESL members whose o c c u p a t i o n s i n v o l v e d them w i t h p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a c i t y . T h i s a g a i n as argued, would shape the c o n c e r n s of the members, and thus t h o s e of the ESL. Moreover, the ESL's r e l a t i v i s m and c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t e t h n o c e n t r i s m can be t r a c e d t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n the f i e l d , as may a l s o be t h e i r s u p p o r t of the u n i t y of the human s p e c i e s , and the e q u a l i t y of the r a c e s of Man. The e f f e c t t h a t s o c i a l s t a t u s would have upon a V i c t o r i a n ' s type of commitment t o an i n t e r e s t group f u r t h e r throws l i g h t upon the ESL's s i t u a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t the ESL members were of such importance i n o t h e r f i e l d s shows t h a t e t h n o l o g y was not t h e i r main c o n c e r n but a hobby, a pastime. Achievement i n e t h n o l o g y was not n e ces-s a r y t o enhance the work t h e y pursued f u l l - t i m e n o r , g i v e n t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , would i t h e i g h t e n t h e i r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . A c c o r d i n g l y , as the p a t t e r n o u t l i n e d above would l e a d one t o e x p e c t , t h e i r work was not s t r i c t l y g u i d e d , aimed a t achievement. As has been shown, methodology was h a r d l y d i s c u s s e d (one a r t i c l e ) , and a f t e r 1854 the p r e s i d e n t i a l a d d r e s s e s d i d not d e a l w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n 197. and s i g n i f i c a n c e of ethnology. F i n a l l y , the p a r t i c u l a r problem r a i s e d i n the Introduc-t i o n , the paradox of the Society's r e p u t a t i o n , given i t s composition, becomes c l e a r when one considers the i m p l i c a -t i o n of t h i s makeup. A. group of the ESL's nature would ha r d l y be concerned w i t h impact. Indeed, the ESL by i t s own admission d i d not have a s p e c i f i c cause, and was not a p o l i t i c a l pressure group. C e r t a i n l y the members, with the power they commanded i n t h e i r main f i e l d s of endeavour, could have been e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l l y had they chosen to be. And so, not c o n s t a n t l y d r i v e n to produce impressive work, the ESL could only o f f e r such when i t emerged out of the group's p a r t i c u l a r pace and procedure. The Society's l a c k of impact, th e r e f o r e must be seen not as evidence of i t s members' ineptness or i t s contemporaries' n e g l e c t : i t was the r e s u l t of a choice made by the members, a choice stemming from s o c i a l c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s as to the type of group that the ESL was to be. The ASL's behaviour, i n c o n t r a s t , would suggest that i t s members' stat u s was not the same as the ESL's. The ASL was p a r t i c u l a r l y preoccupied :with i t s success and p r e s t i g e . F.or.'example*, this • group pointed out t h e i r l a r g e membership l i s t , swelled however by canvassing d r i v e s and the e l e c t i o n of men who had no say at a l l i n the i matter. S i m i l a r l y , they noted t h e i r a f f i n i t y w ith European and American a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t i e s , c l a i m i n g thus 198.-to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u r e . The A.SL, as would be expected, was much more aware of scie n c e , of being s c i e n t i f i c and of pursuing s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s with a rigourous methodology. J More seems to have been at stake i n t h i s f o r them than f o r the ethno-l o g i s t s . In t h i s way, anthropology was not q u i t e the hobby that ethnology was. A d e t a i l e d study of the ASL of the s o r t done here with the other S o c i e t y would be necessary to e s t a b l i s h e x a c t l y what was the s t a t u s of t h i s group's membership, but the cursory glance that we have given would show i t to be lower than that of the ESL. The ASL members appear to be more concerned w i t h s t a t u s , and t h i s t r a i t would make them f a l l more n a t u r a l l y i n the upwardly mobile middle c l a s s , discussed i n the preceding chapter, than i n the upper c l a s s with which the ESL seem more comparable. Fur t h e r evidence of the ASL's lower status i s i n the smaller number of non-noble members. The ASL i n 1 8 6 5 had 1 0 nobles, 5 of the intermediate group we i d e n t i f i e d i n chapter 4, and 3 8 5 commoners, of a t o t a l of 4 5 6 names given on the membership l i s t f o r that year.^ 4 . 1 % of i t s member-ship t h e r e f o r e , as compared with 1 1 . 2 % of the ESL's, was non-commoner. Furthermore, the ASL was much more represented i n i n t e r e s t groups, having 4 ? . 2 % of i t s membership i n such a s s o c i a t i o n s , (the ESL had 2 5 % i n the same type of group) while having a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of only 7 . 0 % to the ESL's 1 5 . 9 % i n the more e x c l u s i v e i n v i t a t i o n a l groups. 199. L a s t l y , we f i n d that while i n the ESL 61.9% of the members l i v e d i n the upper c l a s s areas of London (Mayfair, and Tyburnia groupings), 18.5% i n the mobile middle c l a s s areas (Kensington, Covent Garden groupings), and 9-4% i n the middle c l a s s areas (Bayswater, "other" groupings), i n the ASL the corresponding d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the same areas was 36.4%, 44.0% and 31.0%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . ^ The question that faces us now i s : given the two types of status embodied i n each group, with t h e i r e f f e c t s , how was reunion p o s s i b l e ? The d i f f e r e n t statuses them-selves are not by nature r e a d i l y r e c o n c i l a b l e : a person can be e i t h e r high status or mobile. Both represent d i f f e r e n t , and to that extent, incompatible, l e v e l s i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e . Moreover, i n that s t a t u s would a f f e c t one's experience and hence world-view, the r e s u l t i n g a t t i t u d e s towards p r i m i t i v e s , and i n t e r e s t s and aims i n studying them would s i m i l a r l y be d i f f e r e n t i n the two groups. Furthermore, these two embodiments of d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s - r e l a t e d outlooks could not e a s i l y c o - e x i s t i n union. One group would l i k e l y have to be destroyed, or at l e a s t subordinated, w i t h the united body f o l l o w i n g the p a t t e r n of the v i c t o r i o u s group. Thus, given t h e i r natures, one may w e l l content that the union of the two S o c i e t i e s could only have been achieved e i t h e r by the ASL r e t u r n i n g to the f o l d and g i v i n g up i t s i n t e r e s t s , or by i t triumphing'over"the ESL and making 200. i t s concerns those of the t o t a l i t y . But what would r e s u l t i n e i t h e r case would not be a true union, nor does one seem to have been l o g i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . I t i s u n l i k e l y that i f one group won ,: the other i n view of i t s s o c i a l i d e n t i t y and therefore i t s i n t e r e s t s , would ha p p i l y remain i n being. E i t h e r i t s members would leave, or the group, unable to change i t s s t a t u s and thus i t s o r i e n t a t i o n i n such a union, would be at the l e a s t made very uncomfortable . And. indeed, why would i t j o i n another group on such grounds? At any r a t e , there i s no evidence of such a p a t t e r n of events i n the case at hand. There i s no record of mass exoduses from e i t h e r group before or a f t e r union. The small group of anthro-p o l o g i s t s that formed the London A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y was soon recovered by the I n s t i t u t e . A f u r t h e r p o i n t i s that n e i t h e r group's t o p i c s of i n t e r e s t s were abandoned. They were a l l incorporated i n the new study of Man, thus o r i g i n a t i n g the f o u r - f o l d d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the subject that i s s t i l l i n use todays c u l t u r a l anthropology, p h y s i c a l anthropology, archaeology and l i n g u i s t i c s . The s o c i a l nature of the two groups must have remained i n t a c t , as d i d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . Thus n e i t h e r group p r e v a i l e d i n union, a f i n d i n g which explains how students of the argu-ment today, no matter what side they espouse, can c l a i m t h a t t h e i r party won. The RAI was an i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the two groups on equal f o o t i n g . How, then, was t h i s accomplished i f as we have shown, union was impossible between the two incompatible elements concerned? The answer i s that there was more invo l v e d i n the union than the two p r o t a g o n i s t s . There was a t h i r d element, Huxley's group, with t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r set of i n t e r e s t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y what Huxley d i d , t a k i n g him as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of these i n t e r e s t s i n general, was to p l a y down the reason f o r d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups — that i s , t h e i r s o c i a l nature — and impose a l a r g e r framework i n t o which both of them could f i t , and to which each of them was r e l e v a n t ; namely, science. Reconsidering the changes th a t Huxley made, one can see that they a l l c o n t r i b u t e d to shape the study of Man i n t o a s c i e n t i f i c endeavour, adhering, of course, to Huxley's i n t e r e s t s . He introduced the methodology of science, the concerns of science and the goal of s c i e n -t i f i c success to the ESL, thus f i t t i n g the Society's work to t h i s l a r g e r purpose. S i m i l a r l y , by e f f e c t i n g union, he turned the ASL away from i t s questionable p u r s u i t s and stands, and harnessed i t s enthusiasm to the r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of the ESL, thus s e t t i n g up a s o l i d foundation f o r the s c i e n t i f i c study of anthropology. In t h i s way, s e r v i n g the l a r g e r purpose of science, n e i t h e r group need p r e v a i l , and each could f o l l o w i t s own kind of research. Together the two S o c i e t i e s would c o n t r i b u t e to the science of Man, each covering d i f f e r e n t aspects, and then to V i c t o r i a n science. They needed only to remember that they were 202. u l t i m a t e l y devoted to.the goals of science, and must y i e l d t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l i n q u i r i e s and procedure i f these clashed with s c i e n t i f i c concerns. Thus the only p o s s i b l e way of e f f e c t i n g such a union between the two groups, i n essence changing the s t a t u s of one of them, was obviated by the entry of a t h i r d group which took over the s i t u a t i o n and solved i t to i t s own advantage. I t may appear that i n thus e x p l a i n i n g the r e s o l u t i o n of the ESL-A.SL c o n f l i c t , we are no longer d i s c u s s i n g the s o c i a l aspect of the ESL, and are i n f a c t r e t u r n i n g to the others that we r e j e c t e d e a r l i e r as major f a c t o r s of e x p l i c a t i o n . Are we then saying, as i t may seem, that Huxley solved the s o c i a l l y - b a s e d impasse between the two S o c i e t i e s by removing the argument to the realm of the i n t e l l e c t u a l , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on what issues one would pursue i n the study of Man and the types of explana-t i o n to which one would r e f e r ? But t h i s we cannot say, f o r the s u p e r f i c i a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l phenomenon goes f a r t h e r than that. I t has a deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e of a s t r u c t u r a l nature. Huxley was extending more than a view of science: i t was the p a r t i c u l a r view of the group that he was associated w i t h , and the one t h a t they were imposing with i n c r e a s i n g success on V i c t o r i a n science i n general. The s i t u a t i o n here e x e m p l i f i e s one more instance of such success. I t was thus a matter of s i g n i f i c a n c e to the s t r u c t u r e of science. Huxley was s t a n d a r d i z i n g V i c t o r i a n science according to h i s terms. 203. Further, h i s treatment of the ESL and ASL was part of a l a r g e r s t r u c t u r a l process! the sepa r a t i o n of science from the l a y community, and i t s c o n s o l i d a t i o n i n a community of s c i e n t i f i c s p e c i a l i s t s . S h i f t i n g the base of a group l i k e the ESL from the s o c i a l to a s c i e n t i f i c one denied the p r a c t i t i o n e r the r i g h t to de f i n e h i s f i e l d of study and methodology f o r hi m s e l f , and thus had the e f f e c t of negating the importance of h i s p a r t i c u l a r background to h i s work. I n c r e a s i n g l y at t h i s time t h i s way of organ-i z i n g s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s was spreading, w i t h the r e s u l t that people were r e c r u i t e d to f i e l d s that t o l d them how to proceed. A c e n t r a l i z e d study was thus emerging to replace the o r g a n i z a t i o n of V i c t o r i a n science as i t was then c o n s t i t u t e d by the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advance-ment of Science. The A s s o c i a t i o n was a loose union of groups pursuing d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s . The new science, that was espoused and worked f o r by Huxley and h i s f r i e n d s , was to be i n c o n t r o l of the work done, with p r a c t i t i o n e r s conforming to i t s canons. In t h i s way a new community of s c i e n t i f i c workers was t a k i n g shape, one defined by and answerable only to science. Huxley's treatment of the ESL can be seen as part of t h i s l a r g e r process i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of V i c t o r i a n sciences the c l o s i n g of the s c i e n t i f i c community. But, j u s t as the processes at work here were not only i n t e l l e c t u a l , they were a l s o more than s t r u c t u r a l . There were obviously s o c i a l f o r c e s at play i n these a l t e r -2 0 4 . a t i o n s . W i t h the change i n the way of d o i n g s c i e n c e came a change i n the type of p e o p l e . S c i e n c e was opened up t o thos e who were q u a l i f i e d t o work i n i t . Thus a l a r g e r group t h a n b e f o r e was e l i g i b l e , n e e d i n g o n l y e d u c a t i o n f a v o u r a b l e t o s c i e n t i f i c p u r s u i t s , whether i n a new, s e c u l a r E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t y , f o r e i g n u n i v e r s i t y , or a h o s p i t a l . The emergence of a p r o f e s s i o n of s c i e n c e f u r t h e r d e m o c r a t i z e d s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s , now t h a t one d i d not r e q u i r e independent means i n o r d e r t o study. The f o r m a t i o n of a s e p a r a t e s c i e n t i f i c community a l s o had obvious s o c i a l consequences, i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v o r c i n g s c i e n t i f i c work and workers from the i n f l u e n c e of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Then, t o o , the work of the men i n v o l v e d i n these p r o c e s s e s of change had d e f i n i t e s o c i a l f o u n d a t i o n s . We have e s t a b l i s h e d H u x l e y ' s l o w e r s t a t u s r e l a t i v e t o t h a t of the ESL members: h i s b e h a v i o u r had v e r y d e f i n i t e s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . He was not of a t h i r d group s o c i a l l y , i n r e l a t i o n t o the ESL and ASL, as he c e r t a i n l y was i n t e l -l e c t u a l l y . H i s s t a t u s was c l o s e r t o t h a t t y p i c a l t o the ASL, as has been e s t a b l i s h e d h e r e , the upwardly m o b i l e m i d d l e - c l a s s man, one of the " f o r g o t t e n m i d d l e c l a s s " . I t t h u s makes sense t h a t he a p p r e c i a t e d the ASL's m o t i -v a t i o n and enthusiasm, w h i l e d e p l o r i n g the ends t o w h i c h t h e s e were used. C e r t a i n l y i n r e g a r d t o the two S o c i e t i e s he had more i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f i n i t y w i t h the ASL, f i n d i n g the ESL t o t a l l y w o r t h l e s s t o h i s purposes. T h i s a f f i n i t y was n a t u r a l , g i v e n i t s s o c i a l r o o t s . 205. Huxley was a l s o one of the few p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n t i s t s of the time, and thus was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the i n t e r e s t s of that group to be more f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . The issue here was more than some vague goal f o r the p r o f e s s i o n . By denying the importance of s o c i a l p o s i t i o n to the p u r s u i t of s c i e n t i f i c questions, and s t r e s s i n g the need f o r f u l l -time paid s c i e n t i s t s , Huxley was i n essence advocating t h a t men l i k e himself be granted the opportunity to do the work that they wished to. He never expressed, i t i s t r u e , h i s pr o f e s s i o n ' s attainment of s t a t u s as a goal of h i s work. S t i l l , he b e l i e v e d i n the worth of i t s work enough to seek to extend i t s i n f l u e n c e and r e c o g n i t i o n , and so he was d e f i n i t e l y i n v o lved i n promoting i t s i n t e r e s t s . Indeed, h i s concern with the worth of s c i e n t i f i c work and attempt to upgrade i t , was i n i t s e l f an expression of h i s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n : the concern w i t h the merit of one's work. In t h i s sense, then, the changes i n the ESL, as an instance of s i m i l a r ones elsewhere i n science at t h i s time, were most d e f i n i t e l y of a s o c i a l nature: the replacement of an upper-class s o c i a l base of s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s by an upwardly mobile middle-class one. Thus we have returned to consider the s o c i a l aspect of the ESL, and f i n d t h a t not only i s i t the most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e , but a l s o i t o f f e r s a c e n t r a l e x p l a n a t i o n of the events i n which the S o c i e t y was involved. This i s not to deny the importance of the other two aspects: the c l a i m i s , however, that d e s p i t e i n t e l l e c t u a l and s t r u c t u r a l 206. f e a t u r e s , the processes at work were of a fundamentally s o c i a l nature. The s o c i a l composition of the ESL and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the member's status are p i v o t a l to our understanding the Society. This i s a l s o not to argue s o c i a l determinism, but to demonstrate that i n t e l l e c t u a l and s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , at l e a s t i n the case at hand, have s o c i a l r oots which have been ignored, to the detriment of our understanding. The assumption behind t h i s reasoning i s that one's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n exposes him to p a r t i c u l a r experiences. I t a l s o exposes him to the p a r t i c u l a r set of values and a t t i t u d e s that he r e c e i v e s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n . From these antecedents comes the way i n which he perceives the world. The argument given here i s not a new view: indeed, there are numerous works i n the l i t e r a t u r e both t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l on the l i n k s between one's group membership and h i s per-ception. I t i s new, however, to introduce t h i s concept to the question of the ESL, and to see the matter at hand i n terms of i t . In most basic terms, the s i t u a t i o n f a c i n g us i s the replacement of one world view by another. Hence, seeing the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s o c i a l aspect y i e l d s an i n t e g r a t e d comprehensible p i c t u r e that has been l a c k i n g u n t i l now. Further, to the extent that an explanation s t r e s s i n g the s o c i a l aspect a l s o takes i n t o account and e x p l a i n s the i n t e l l e c t u a l and s t r u c t u r a l elements of the S o c i e t y , i t i s of a sup e r i o r nature to any other s o r t of explanation. 207.. I I . The above, i n sum, i s the c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i n the area of data - t o c r e c a l l the three areas o u t l i n e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n . The p r e s e n t a t i o n of a new i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n of the ESL leads us t o consider the second area, the type of explanation used, and t o decide which of the frameworks discussed p r e v i o u s l y i s best s u i t e d to the case i n question. I t has been pointed out that an explanation f o c u s s i n g upon i n t e l l e c t u a l elements only misses the very s i g n i f i c a n t feature of the s o c i a l aspect of the ESL. A f u r t h e r and more fundamental p o i n t i s that explanations to date that have stressed the ideas involved i n the period have not been d e a l i n g with i n t e l -l e c t u a l phenomena. One can show th a t what have been t y p i c a l l y regarded as purely i n t e l l e c t u a l expressions of the group are much more of a s o c i a l nature, more t r u l y l a b e l l e d " a t t i t u d e s " than "ideas". An a t t i t u d e goes beyond an idea i n t h a t besides having a c o g n i t i v e aspect, i t a l s o has an -effective and a conative aspect. Thus, while an idea - f o r example, that the world i s round, - i s created and changed by thought, an a t t i t u d e , - f o r example, that woman's p o s i t i o n should be improved - e n t a i l s an emotional o r i e n t a t i o n to an i n t e l l e c t u a l stand — the question of commitment t o , or r e j e c t i o n of, the object of thought. An a t t i t u d e a l s o i n v o l v e s a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n toward a c e r t a i n type of a c t i v i t y i n keeping with the thought and the v a l u i n g of i t , - the holder of "the '.attitude intends to and w i l l 208. act i n a c e r t a i n way, expressive of h i s p a r t i c u l a r commit-ments. Accordingly, while an i d e a can be studied i n terms of what i t says and i t s place among the thoughts of i t s time, an a t t i t u d e must be taken not f o r i t s substance but as a clue t o something e l s e . The s o c i a l f o r c e s producing the a t t i t u d e r a t h e r than i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l expression are what need to be examined. Reconsidering the d i f f e r e n c e s between the ESL and ASL i n the l i g h t of t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n shows that v/e are, i n f a c t , d e a l i n g w i t h a t t i t u d e s . The i s s u e s of d i s c u s s i o n between the two groups were not merely i n t e l l e c t u a l . The argument between monogenism and polygenism was more than a r a t i o n a l matters i t i n v o l v e d one's commitment to r e l i g i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the controversy over the u n i t y of the species had to do.with one's acceptance or r e j c t i o n of Creation. The consequence of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r argument, racism, had an obviously conative aspect, such as i s not found i n the pure realm of ideas. The stand on the I r i s h q uestion, and the a d m i t t i n g of women to the S o c i e t y a l s o entered i n t o realms other than the i n t e l l e c t u a l . L a s t l y , as we have shown, commitment to science meant a great d e a l more than accepting a p a r t i c u l a r framework of ideas. We are thus d e a l i n g w i t h a t t i t u d e s , not ideas and are t h e r e f o r e concerned w i t h the s o c i a l processes involved i n the i s s u e s , r a t h e r than with t h e i r substance. Hence the d i f f e r e n t stands taken by each S o c i e t y on the above-mentioned issues are to be explained by 2 0 9 . . each group's s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n which i n each case produced a d i f f e r e n t perception of Man and of the world. That a t t i t u d e s r a t h e r than ideas were the b a s i s of the d i f f e r -ences between the ASL and ESL has been hi n t e d at by Douglas Lorimer's t h e s i s , l i n k i n g m i d - V i c t o r i a n racism to the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the time. Here we go f u r t h e r , showing th a t not only racism but a l l the issues concerning the two S o c i e t i e s stemmed from d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s . The r e s u l t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e x p l a i n s why i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s a r i s e when one t r i e s to represent the two group as ranged along d i f f e r e n t sides of an argument. T h e i r stands were not always d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y ones, because two d i f f e r e n t statuses are not phenomena that can be regarded as a n t i -t h e t i c a l . They represent d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s on the same s c a l e , side by side r a t h e r than opposed. Therefore, although the members of d i f f e r e n t statuses sometimes w i l l hold contrary opinion, they may not n e c e s s a r i l y do so. Some of t h e i r ideas, o r i g i n a t i n g from two completely d i f f e r e n t experiences of the world, may be n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l or even unrelated. In t h i s way, the ESL could be n o n - r a c i s t r a t h e r than a n t i - r a c i s t , while the ASL was r a c i s t . S i m i l a r l y , both could ignore Darwin, although f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. Thus, we see that an i n t e l l e c t u a l framework of explanation i s i n a p p l i c a b l e , f o r i t has been shown here that the very f e a t u r e s which would be l a b e l l e d "ideas" and used f o r an i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l a n a t i o n are of an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t (and s o c i a l ) nature. 2 1 0 . As f o r the next type of explanation suggested, the s t r u c t u r a l , the case here does not seem to f i t a Kuhnian p a t t e r n . In the s t r u g g l e of the ESL and A.SL, n e i t h e r side emerges v i c t o r i o u s , to impose i t s d e f i n i t i o n of anthro-pology and methodology on the whole f i e l d . Rather, both are subordinated t o a t h i r d group, g r a f t e d on t o the d i s p u t e , and not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n e i t h e r S o c i e t y ' s v e r s i o n of anthropology. In terms of the development of V i c t o r i a n science i n general, we are, as we have shown, d e a l i n g w i t h issues t h a t are more of a s t r u c t u r a l nature. The ESL a f f o r d s an instance of the processes by which science was standardized and i n c r e a s i n g l y separated from s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s at t h i s time. The study here a l s o d e t a i l s the way i n which the goals f o r science were achieved by the p a r t i c u l a r group of people involved i n t h i s endeavour. As has been discussed however, examining the s t r u c t u r a l aspect of t h i s s i t u a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s studying the s o c i a l f a c t o r , as the s t r u g g l e s of science at t h i s time centred around the question of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Here then, a true Kuhnian ex p l a n a t i o n i s not a p p r i a t e , f o r we are not able to look at the processes w i t h i n the s c i e n t i f i c community separate from t h e i r s o c i a l context. Hence we must t u r n to a s o c i a l e x planation as the most u s e f u l . The s t r u c t u r a l processes i n science at t h i s time were very much a part of the processes of the t o t a l s o c i e t y . These l a t t e r processes have to be under-s t o o d and accounted f o r . But a s o c i a l framework of e x p l a n -a t i o n wins h e r e , f o r r e a s o n s o t h e r t h a n d e f a u l t . As we have shown, an e x p l a n a t i o n s t r e s s i n g the s o c i a l a s p e c t of the ESL i s s u p e r i o r f o r i t s a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g n a t u r e : i t i n c l u d e s and e x p l a i n s b o t h i n t e l l e c t u a l and s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , and shows how and where t h e y f i t i n t o the t o t a l p i c t u r e . F o c u s s i n g upon the s o c i a l a s p e c t t h u s l e a d s t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the whole group, i n v o l v e d i n a l l i t s a s p e c t s . I l l F i n a l l y , we can c o n s i d e r the l a s t of the t h r e e main a r e a s of c o n c e r n i n t h i s t h e s i s : methodology. To the e x t e n t t h a t the assumptions and t e c h n i q u e s argued f o r i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n have been s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o d u c i n g a new and more c o h e r e n t p i c t u r e of the E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London, t h e y are v a l i d a t e d . C a r r y i n g out a complete and d e t a i l e d s o c i a l a n a l y s i s i s f r u i t f u l and, f o r chang-i n g the u s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the ESL i s n e c e s s a r y . S i m i l a r l y , an h o l i s t i c , e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d y y i e l d s the d e t a i l s t h a t here have l e d us t o u n d e r s t a n d the p r o p e r w e i g h t of the S o c i e t y ' s d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s - and t h u s the group's t r u e n a t u r e . An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the ESL's b e h a v i o u r and f e a t u r e s i n terms of i t s (and not our) s o c i a l s e t t i n g has a l s o been i l l u s t r a t e d , and s u p p o r t e d here. The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e thus has been shown t o have i t s b a s i s i n f a c t : we have ind e e d been d e a l i n g 212. w i t h c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n t from our own of t h e ' m i d - T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . The t h e s i s ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the above m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p o i n t s has s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the way t h a t a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s t r e a t the h i s t o r y of t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e . I t can be seen t h a t t h i s n i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y p e r i o d has been wrongly judged, and even n e g l e c t e d . I t terms of a n t h r o p o l o g y today, the work done t h e n remains v e r y r e l e v a n t and d e s e r v i n g of r e c o g n i t i o n worthy of the esteem t h a t has been wr o n g l y d i s p e n s e d , elsewhere. The u s u a l h i s t o r y of a n t h r o p o l o g y , i n g i v i n g no i n d i c a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n e . of t h i s f o u n d i n g p e r i o d , has made us the p o o r e r i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d i s c i p l i n e ' s development. T h e r e f o r e , t o r e c t i f y t h i s m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n and p r e v e n t s i m i l a r ones o c c u r r i n g , we must much more w i d e l y e s t a b l i s h what happened i n the p a s t , and t h e n a s s e s s i t . In r e g a r d t o a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s d e a l i n g w i t h the p a s t in--general, i t can be seen t h a t here i s a f r u i t f u l f i e l d f o r t h e i r endeavours. A n t h r o p o l o g y o p e r a t e s w i t h i n the r e a l m of h i s t o r y no l e s s t h a n any of man's i n q u i r i e s i n t o p a s t a c t i v i t y . P r a c t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , a n t h r o p o l o g y might do w e l l t o c u l t i v a t e h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s , s i n c e p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s are f a s t d i s a p p e a r i n g , and those t h a t s t i l l do e x i s t are i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s eager t o welcome a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s today. But more i m p o r t a n t , the p a s t i s more t h a n a l a s t r e s o r t . I t i s a v a l i d f i e l d of study. I t t a k e s us out of o u r s e l v e s , and e n a b l e s us t o r e f l e c t 213. back with new pers p e c t i v e s upon our own s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l experience, and upon the nature of Man. Moreover, i n view of our l i n e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with the past, we are examining our o r i g i n s , and so the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l study of the past has a double s i g n i f i c a n c e . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s can s t a r t working i n t h i s new and v i r t u a l l y untouched f i e l d , -and demonstrate that "Anthropology doesn't j u s t mean Indians". 214. References K e i t h , Arthur Lorimer, D.A. "How can'the I n s t i t u t e r b e s t serve the needs of anthropology?" J o u r n a l of the Royal Anthropolo- g i c a l I n s t i t u t e . 1917, v.47: footnote, p.20. 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S c h l e s i n g e r , Max Saunterings i n and about London. E n g l i s h e d i t i o n by Otto Wenckstern London:1853s Nathaniel Cooke. Schusky, Ernest L. Culbert, T. P a t r i c k I n t r o d u c i n g C u l t u r e . Englewood C l i f f s , 1967: P r e n t i c e -H a l l . S e r v i c e , Elmain R. P r i m i t i v e S o c i a l Organization. New York, 1962: Random House. 2 2 6 . I I SECONDARY SOURCES (Cont'd) A. Books (Cont'd) Sheppard, F r a n c i s London 1808-1870: The I n f e r n a l Wen. London, 1971: Seeker & Warburg. Simon, B r i a n S t u d i e s i n the H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n 1780-1870. London, I960: Lawrence & W i s h a r t . S n e l l , Ada, ed. A u t o b i o g r a p h y (1889) and S e l e c t e d Readings by T.H. Huxley. B o s t o n , 1909: Houghton M i f f l i n . S t i m s o n , D o r o t h y S c i e n t i s t s and Amateurs: A H i s t o r y of the R o y a l S o c i e t y . New York, 1948: Henry Schuman. S t o c k i n g J r . , George W. Race, C u l t u r e and E v o l u t i o n . New York*; 1968: Free P r e s s . Thomson, E.P. The making of the E n g l i s h W orking C l a s s . Harmondsworth, 1968: P e n g u i n Books. Thornbury, W a l t e r W a l f o r d , Edward Old and New London: A N a r r a t i v e of i t s H i s t o r y , i t s P e o p l e , and  i t s P l a c e s . o v o l s . London, 1887-1893: C a s s e l l & Co. L t d . Timbs, John Walks and T a l k s about London. London^ 1865: Lockwood & Co. T i t i e v , M i s c h a The S c i e n c e of Man. New York, 1963: H o l t , R h i n e h a r t & Winston. Ward, Humphry H i s t o r y of the Atheneum 1824-1925. London, 1926: P r i n t e d f o r the C l u b . Whyte, F r e d e r i c W i l l i a m Heinemann. London, 1928: Johnathan Cape. 22?. I I SECONDARY SOURCES (Cont'd) A. Books (Cont'd) W i t t l i n , Alma S. The Museum: i t s H i s t o r y and i t s Tasks i n Education. London, 1949s Routledge & Kegan Paul. Wolf, E r i c Anthropology. Englewoods C l i f f s , 1964: Prentice-H a l l . B. A r t i c l e s Annan, N. G. Barnes, John A, "The i n t e l l e c t u a l a r i s t o c r a c y " i n J.H. Plumb, ed. Studies i n  S o c i a l H i s t o r y : a Tr i b u t e to G.M. Trevelyan. pp243-287. London, 1955s Longmans, Green & Co. "Anthropology i n B r i t a i n before and a f t e r Darwin". Mankind, v.5, #9 1960:369-385. Bendysshe, Thomas "The H i s t o r y of Anthropology "Memoirs of the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  S o c i e t y of London, v . l , 7 ^ x i i i I863: 335-458. Brabrook, E.V/, Coats, A.W. Coats, S.W. Cunningham, D.J. Ele s h , David "President's Address" J o u r n a l  of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  I n s t i t u t e v.25 1 8 9 5 : 3 7 9 - 4 0 4 . "The s o c i a l composition of the Royal Economic S o c i e t y , and the beginnings of the B r i t i s h economics p r o f e s s i o n ' 1890-1915" B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Sociology v.21, 1970:75-85-"Anthropology i n the Eighteenth Century" Journa l of the Royal  A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , v . 3 8 , 1908:10-35. "The Manchester S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y : a case study of a d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n the h i s t o r y of e m p i r i c a l s o c i a l research". J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y of the  Behavioural Sciences, 228. I I SECONDARY SOURCES (Cont'd) B. A r t i c l e s (Cont'd) v . 8 , 1972:280-301; 407-417. Harding, John Proshansky, Harold Kutner, Bernard Chein, I s i d o r " P r e j u d i c e and e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s " i n G. Lindzey and E. Aronson, ed., The Handbook of S o c i a l Psychology, 2nd e d i t i o n . Reading, Mass, 1969: Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Co., v.5:1-76. H o l t , B.W.G. " S o c i a l aspects i n the emergence of chemistry as an exact s c i e n c e : the B r i t i s h chemical p r o f e s s i o n " . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , v . 2 1 , 1970:181-199. Jensen, J . Vernon "The X Club: F r a t e r n i t y of V i c t o r i a n s c i e n t i s t s " . B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l 'for the H i s t o r y of  Scie n c e , v.5, #17, 1970-1: 5-72. K e i t h , A r t h u r King, M.D. Kuhn, T.S. Musgrove, F. "How can the I n s t i t u t e b e s t serve the needs of anthropology?" J o u r n a l of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  I n s t i t u t e , v.47, 1917:12-30. "Reason, t r a d i t i o n , and the pr o g r e s s i v e n e s s of s c i e n c e " . H i s t o r y and Theory, v.10, 1971:3-32. " P o s t s c r i p t - 1969" i n T.S. Kuhn The S t r u c t u r e of S c i e n t i f i c  R e v o l u t i o n s . 2nd e d i t i o n . I n t e r -n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p a e d i a of U n i f i e d S c i e n c e , Chicago, 1970: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, v.2#2:174-210. " M i d d l e - c l a s s e d u c a t i o n and employment i n the Nineteenth Century". Economic H i s t o r y  Review n.s., #12, 1959-60: 99-111. Reining, Conrad C. "A. l o s t p e r i o d of a p p l i e d anthro-pology". American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , v.64, 1962:593-600. 229, I I . SECONDARY SOURCES (Cont'd) B. A r t i c l e s (Cont'd) Smith, S i r Grafton E l l i o t "The place of Thomas Henry Huxley i n anthropology," J o u r n a l  of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , v.65, 1935:199-204. Stocking J r . , George "What i n a name? The Origins of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e . " Man, v.6,#3, 1971: 369-390. Tax, S o l C. Theses F a r r a l l , Lyndsay Lorimer, D.A, R i t t , Lawrence "The s e t t i n g of the science of Man." The Voice of America  Forum Lectures i n Anthropology. U.S., (ca. 1964): VOA. The Origins and Growth of the  E n g l i s h Eugenics Movement 1865-1925. unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1969» B r i t i s h A t t i t u d e s to the Negro, 1850-1870. unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972. The V i c t o r i a n Conscience i n  A.ction: The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Promotion of S o c i a l Science 1857-1886. unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 1959. 2 3 0 . Appendix Is The S o c i a l Information on the ESL Members This i s the data on a l l those people mentioned i n the 13 volumes of ESL p u b l i c a t i o n s . The in f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a l l the s o c i a l f a c t s given w i t h the mention of a person i n both the body of the j o u r n a l s , and i n the membership l i s t s , -which l a t t e r e x i s t only f o r I 8 6 3 -71. The informat i o n i n t h i s Appendix has been arranged i n numbered c a t e g o r i e s , corresponding to those c a t e g o r i e s used i n the t e x t of the t h e s i s (chapters 4 & 5)« An explanation of the format of the Appendix f o l l o w s i n d e t a i l . I t should be noted that a category i s mentioned f o l l o w i n g a person's name only i f there i s a c t u a l m a t e r i a l to be presented i n that category. (1) source of in f o r m a t i o n J = body of jou r n a l s L = membership l i s t ( 2 ) date of source The date given i s t h a t of the volume i n which the person i s f i r s t mentioned. This may correspond with the a c t u a l date of the i n f o r -mation, but does not n e c e s s a r i l y . The time l a g i s t h a t between the a c t u a l date of the in f o r m a t i o n , and the date of p u b l i c a t i o n . The volume years are given as followss e.g. I863 = the inf o r m a t i o n i s from t h i s volume only 1863-67= the inf o r m a t i o n i s f o r these dates, i n c l u s i v e I863 = the i n f o r m a t i o n s t a r t s i n the I863 volume and continues to the end of the ESL;; i . e . 1871 (the 1870 volume) 231. n.b. 1869J i s used "because the f i r s t year of the p u b l i c a t i o n of the new s e r i e s J o u r n a l was the same as the l a s t year Transactions (1869 - no " J " ) . (3) t i t l e The standard t i t l e s of commoners are used; e.g., Esq, Miss, Non-commoners are mentioned by the name of the t i t l e , e.g. S i r Lord. The orders of knighthood are given i n t h e i r acronyms. For an e l a b o r a t i o n of these, please r e f e r to chapter 4 , footnote 5 ' (4) education Where given, the degree a t t a i n e d i s entered i n t h i s category, i n the common forms used; e.g. B.C., D.D. n.b. LDS= L i c e n t i a t e of Dental Surgery. Guesses as to education have been made on the b a s i s of other i n f o r m a t i o n ; e.g. acronyms i n d i c a t i n g jobs-Dr, Prof - or i n d i c a t i n g membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s -FRCP. These are entered i n brackets g i v i n g the basis of the guess. (5) occupation Jobs are i n d i c a t e d by standard a b b r e v i a t i o n s ; e.g. Dr, Rev, or by a c t u a l job d e s c r i p t i o n s . Again, guesses have been made, here on the b a s i s of the education received or membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . These guesses are again given i n brackets. Some acronyms have been entered to i n d i c a t e the type of job, g e n e r a l l y when d e a l i n g w i t h m i l i t a r y regiments. These are again ones of standard usage; e.g.: RE: Royal Engineers RA: Royal A r t i l l e r y RN:.-.Royal Navy RM: Royal Marines CE: C i v i l Engineer 232, (6) membership i n o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s C l u b s are g e n e r a l l y mentioned by name n.b. EIUS= E a s t I n d i a U n i t e d S e r v i c e C l u b Membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i s g i v e n i n the s t a n d a r d form; e.g. FRCP, MRCS. n.b. F = F e l l o w M = Member Membership i n i n t e r e s t groups i s g i v e n by t h e i r acronym; i . e . : RGS = R o y a l G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y SA = S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s GS = G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y RSL = R o y a l S o c i e t y of L i t e r a t u r e LS = L i n n a e a n S o c i e t y ASL = A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of London RAS = R o y a l A s i a t i c S o c i e t y ZS = Z o o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y RIA. = R o y a l I r i s h Academy "M" or "F" are used w i t h t h e s e , a c c o r d i n g t o the p e r s o n ' s type of membership. E x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s a re noted by s t a n d a r d a b r e v i a t i o n s ; e.g. P r e s , V-P, Sec. n.b. CM = C o r r Mem = C o r r e s p o n d i n g Member HF = Hon F e l l = Honorary F e l l o w (7) a d d r e s s e s These are g i v e n as on the membership l i s t s . The a c t u a l a d dress i s f o l l o w e d by a l e t t e r i n d i c a t i n g the r e g i o n i t i s i n as f o l l o w s : L = London E = England (everywhere b u t London) S = S c o t l a n d I = I r e l a n d W = Wales F = F o r e i g n ( o u t s i d e Great B r i t a i n ) Moves a r e n o t e d , "moved t o . . . " , as a r e second a d d r e s s e s . The l a t t e r a re i n d i c a t e d by "and i n ....". T h i s i s t o p o i n t out the a d d i t i o n of a n o t h e r a d d r e s s , r a t h e r t h a n a move. The a b b r e v i a t i o n s used f o r t h e c o u n t i e s a r e the s t a n d a r d ones. 233-(8) p o s i t i o n held i n the ESL Here any mention of a p o s i t i o n i s noted, whether simply e l e c t i o n as a F e l l o w or Member, or an executive post. These l a t t e r are i n d i c a t e d by standard a b b r e v i a t i o n s (see (6) above), n.b. CM = Corresponding Member HF = Honorary Fellow C o u n c i l = held a p o s i t i o n on the executive c o u n c i l of the ESL, although not a s p e c i f i c one, c f . Sec. (9) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the ESL Here the i n f o r m a t i o n i s entered by i n i t i a l , w i t h a number to note the number of times t h i s type of p a r t i c i p a t i o n occured i n an entry. The i n i t i a l s are as f o l l o w s : N = New member. This notes a person's e l e c t i o n to the ESL. There i s never any number wi t h t h i s as obviously, i t only happened once per person. D = D i s c u s s i o n E = Executive p o s i t i o n V/ = A r t i c l e w r i t t e n S = A r t i c l e submitted - t h i s would not n e c e s s a r i l y have been w r i t t e n by the person submitting i t . n,b."for the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n " notes that the a r t i c l e i n question was not f i r s t presented to the ESL, but o r i g i n a l l y prepared f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s Meeting, and repeated or discussed i n the ESL. The a c t u a l a r t i c l e t i t l e s are to be found i n the j o u r n a l s . They are too long to reproduce here. L a s t l y , there are e n t r i e s preceding the d i f f e r e n t names entered. These are of two s o r t s . " F " notes that the person concerned was a f o r e i g n e r , as defined i n t h i s t h e s i s i n chapter k,p ,123 , The other i n i t i a l s , "B" and "D", w i t h numbers f o l l o w i n g thern, r e f e r to the b i o g r a p h i c a l 234. d i c t i o n a r y m a t e r i a l ( c f . chapter 5, PP 183 - 4 ) . These i n i t i a l s are entered beside the names of men who appear i n the d i c t i o n a r i e s , the i n i t i a l i n d i c a t i n g the work i n which the man appears; i . e . D = DNB, and "B" = Boase (Modern E n g l i s h Biography). The numbers f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t e the s e r i e s of the d i c t i o n a r y concerned, as f o l l o w s : DI = DNB, 19th Century v.1-2 21 D2 = DNB, 19th Century v.22 D3 = DNB, 20th Century, 1901-11 D4 = DNB, 20th Century, 1912-21 BI = Boase, 1892-1902 B2 = Boase, 1908-21 ( c f . chapter 5, P 19, and b i b l i o g r a p h y re p u b l i c a t i o n dates and s e r i e s . ) The only t h i n g the ESL data does not t e l l us, besides c e r t a i n areas such as r e l i g i o n and age, i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the men involved. Outside b i o g r a p h i c a l informa-t i o n , f o r example, t e l l s us that J. Crawfurd was 0. Crawfurd's f a t h e r , and that J. Beddoe married A. Lane Fox's daughter. This type of in f o r m a t i o n i s not a c c e s s i b l e from an a n a l y s i s of the jo u r n a l s alone. S t i l l , there i s p l e n t y t o d e a l w i t h , without t h i s dimension, and there are c e r t a i n l y suggestions of i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the data a v a i l a b l e . 235. Appendix I B2 B2 B DI D2 Acheson, F. Adams, Wm. Agassiz, Louis (1) J ( 2 ) , 1869. 2 W. (1) L (2) 1863-5 H e n r i e t t a St. (1) L (2) 1863-Mass.iF (8) HF. (3) Esq. (9) , (3) Esq. (7) Cavendish Sq. sL. , (7) Cambridge, Ainsworth, W. Fr a n c i s (1) J (2) 1861 (9) 1 W. Ait k e n , Alexander M. A.kerman, J . A l b e r t Alcock, Rutherford Ameneuney, (1) L (2) 1861 (6) FSA, FRGS (7) 2 Pump Court, Temple; L; 1870, moved to CalcuttasF. (1) J (2) 1856 (6) FSA (9) 1 W. • (1) J (2) 1856 (3) P r i n c e (9) 1 S. (1)L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) S i r , KCB (5) Envoy E x t r a o r d i n a r y & M i n i s t e r P l e n i p o t e n t i a r y , China, 1867-70 (7) Japan:F; I867 moved to China:F, (1) J (2) I863 (3) Mr. (9) 2 D. D3 Amhurst, W.A. Tyssen B2 Anderson, C. F Aner, A l v i s A n k e t e l l , M.J. DI Antrim (1) L (2) I863.. . (3) Esq. (6) FRSL (7) D i d l i n g t o n , Brandon, N o r f o l k i E . (1) J (2) 1856 (3) S i r , Bart. (9) 1 W ( f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n ) . (1) L (2) I863... (7) ViennasF, (1) L (2) 1863-70 (3) Esq, (7) 9 Ladbroke Sq:L; moved i n 1869 to 30 Downshire, H i l l , Hampsteac" , Mx:E; returned to 9 Ladbroke Sq. i n 1870. (1) L (2) 1870 (3) E a r l (7) C h r i s t Church, Oxford. 236. Anstey, Thomas Ghisholm (1) L (2) 1863 (9) I 8 6 3 . Appleyard, W. Armstrong, Wm D3 A r t h u r , Wm. D2 B2 DI Ashbury, James Ashurst, W.H. BI Ashworth, Henry A t k i n s , Charles A, Atkinson, G.M. A.tkinson, J.C. Atkinson, T.W. A u l t o n , A.D. A y l i f f e , Babington, J. Backhouse, Edward (1) L (2) 1863.. (5) Rev (8) CM. (4) (Rev) (1) L (2) 1867-70 (3) S i r , Bart, KCB (6) FRS, Atheneum (7) Atheneum Club, P a l l Mall:L. (1) L (2) 1 8 6 3 . . . ( k ) (Rev) (5) Rev (7) 2 6 , Camden Grove, Kensington: L; moved, I 8 6 7 to Glendun, East Acton Cheshire: E; and i n 1869 to Methodist C o l l e g e , B e l f a s t : I . (1) JL (2) 1868-9 (3) Esq (7) 9 Sussex Place, Hyde Park Gardens:! (8) Fellow, 1867 (8) N. (1) L (2) 1 8 6 ? . . . (3) Esq. (5) S o l i c i t o r to the Post O f f i c e (7) 7 P r i n c e of Wales Terrace, Kensing-ton Palace, 1868 on: L; 186?, 28, Norfolk Crescent:L. (1) JL (2) 1868 (3) Esq. (7) The Oaks, Bolton, Cumberland: E (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 (3) Esq (7) Farnham Royal, near Slough, Bucks: E (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) J (2) 1870 (3) Esq (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1870 (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1861 (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) Bradford House, W a l s a l l , S t a f f s : E (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) J (2) I 8 6 3 (3) Mr. (7) Cape of Good Hope (9) 1 D. (1) J (2) 1 8 6 9 J (3) Esq (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (7) Ashburn, near Sunderland, Sussex:E (8) Member (9) N. Backhouse, J.H. Bagehot, Walter B a i l e y , John Baker, John (1) JL (2) 1870 (9) mention of death (1) L (2) 1867... (3) Esq (7) 12 Upper Belgrave St: L. (1) J (2) 1863 ( k) B.A., Oxon. (5) P r i n c i p a l A s s i s t a n t C o l o n i a l Secretary of Ceylon (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1863 (3) Esq (5) Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of New South Wales (7) Houchin's H o t e l , St. James* St:L (8) Fellow (9) N. Baker, Samuel White (1) JL (2) 186?... (3) S i r (5) Pasha (7) Headingham H a l l , Bungay, Su f f o l k : E (8) Fellow (9) N; 1 W. Baker, W i l l i a m B a i l e y (1) JL (2) 1861... (3) Esq (7) New Zealand: F (9) 1 W. B a l f o u r , George Barnes, J.W. (1) JL (2) 1867..• (3) C.B. (5) Major General (6) Atheneum (7) Atheneum Club:L (8) C o u n c i l ! F e l l o w , VP (9) N;4 E. (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (7) Market Place, Durham:E (8) Member (9) N. Bartrum, John S t o t h e r t (1) JL (2) 1867.. B a s t i a n , A. Bate, C. Spence B a y l i s , Thomas Henry Beale, L i o n e l J . (3) Esq (6) FRCS (7) k l Gay St., Bath Somerset E (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1869-70 (4) (Dr) (5) Dr. (7) B e r l i n (8) HF (9) N. (1) J (2) 1870 (3) Mr. (6) FRS (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (7) 3, The Terrace, Kensington Garden Sq.: L (8) Member (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1863-69 (3) Esq (4) (MRCS) (5) (MRCS) (6) MRCSVFRSL (7) 108 Long Aere:L (8) Hon. L i b r a r i a n (9) 6 E : l W. 238. Beamish, Richard B e a t t i e , Wm. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq. (?) 2 S u f f o l k Sq., Cheltenham, Gloucester-s h i r e :E. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (4) (M.D . ) (5) M.D. (7) 13 Upper Berkeley St :L. Beaumont George Baker (1) J (2) 1854 (3) Esq (9) 1 W. Beckett, Charles Beddoe, John (1) J (2) 1856 (9) 1W - f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . (1) JL (2) 1861... (4) B.A,, M.D. (5) M.D. (7) 4 W e t h e r e l l P l a c e , C l i f t o n , Bedfordsh.:E; moved to 2 Lansdowne Pl a c e , C l i f t o n ; E , 186? (8) C o u n c i l 2 E; 2 W. (1) J (2) 1850 (4) (Dr.) (5) Dr. (9) 1 w. (1) J (2) 1863 (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (9) 1 D. (1) J (2) 1861-7 (3) S i r (5) Capt. R.N., Admiral (9) 2 D ; 2 W. (1) JL (2) 1869J... (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) Dr. (6) New U n i v e r s i t y Club (7) New U n i v e r s i t y Club, St. James' StsL moved to c/o Dr. B i r d , 18 H e r t f o r d S t . , M a y f a i r i L , 1870 (8) Member (9) N; 1 W. Bickmore, A l b e r t S. (1) J (2) 1869 (4) M.A.. (7) Cam-bridge, USA (9) 1 W. Beke, G.T, Belcher, Brymer Belcher, Edward B e l l , A.W. Bigg, Thomas Black, W.H. Blackmore, W i l l i a m (1) L (2) 1867 (3) Esq (7) Cronstadt House, Abbey Wood, Kent:E. (1) J (2) 1869J (3) Esq (9) 3 D;l W. (1) JL (2) 1867..• (3) Esq (7) Shepley House, Carshalton, Surrey: E; moved to Founder's Court, Lothbury:L, 1870 (8) Fellow, C o u n c i l (9) N; 5 E; 1 W. 239. B l a c k w e l l , J.W. BI F'' ( 1 ) J (2) 1869 J (3) Esq. (8) Member (9) N. Blake, Charles Carter ( 1 ) J (2) 1863, 1869J (3) Mr. (5) Lecturer on Zoology at the London I n s t i t u t i o n (6) Hon. Sec. ASL (9) L D; 1 W. Blanc, H. DI Bohn,Henry G. DI B o i l e a u , John B o l l a e r t , W. (1) J (2) 1869 ( k) M.D. (5) H.M. India n Medical S t a f f , l a t e l y on S p e c i a l Duty i n A b y s s i n i a (6) MRCSE, FRGS, FASL (9) 1 W. ( 1 ) JL (2) 1863. . . (3) Esq (6) FRSL, FRGS, FRAS (7) York S t . , Covent Garden:L; moved i n 1 8 6 8 to H e n r i e t t a S t . , Covent GardensL ( 8 ) C o u n c i l , Hon. Treasurer (9) 5 E. (1) L (2) I863 (3) S i r , Bart. (6) FRS, VP-RSL (7) 20 Upper Brook St:L. (1) JL (2) 1850. . . (6) FRGS, Corr. Mem. Univ. C h i l e , CM. American E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y (7) 2 1 A Hanover Sq:L (8) CM (9) 1 D:4 W. Bonaparte, Louis Lucien (1) L (2) 1863. . . (3) His Highness, Prin c e (7) 8 Westbourne Grove West, No t t i n g H i l l s L j moved i n I867 to 8 N o r f o l k Terrace:L and P a r i s as second address. B2 Bonavia, DI Bonham, George D2 Bonwick, James DI B o t f i e l d , . Beriah (1) JL (2) 1870 (4) Dr.) (5) Dr. (7) 9 Northwick Terrace, Maida H i l l i L (8) Member (9) N. (1) L (2) I863 (3) S i r , B art, KCB (7) Great Western H o t e l i L . ( 1 ) JL (2) 1869J. . . (3) Esq (6) FRGS (7) 13 A l f r e d Rd. Acton, Ches.:E (8) Member (9) N;l D; •1 W. (1) JL (2) I863 (3) Esq (5) M.P. ( 6 ) FRS, FSA, FRSUA (7) 5 Grosvenor Sq:L (8) V-P. (9) 1 E. Boucher de Perthes, (1) L (2) I863-68 (3) M. (7) A b b e v i l l e , France:F. (8) HF. Boudin, Bourien, Bowring, John (1) L (2) I863 (4) (Dr. ) (5) Dr. (7) P a r i s : F (8) HF. (1) J (2) 1865 (4) (the Pere) (5) the Pere (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863-68 (3) S i r , KB (4) (LL.D.) (6) Atheneum (7) A.theneum ClubsL and Claremont, Exeter:E Boyle, F r e d e r i c k (1) J (2) 1868 (6) FRGS (9) 1 W. Bracebridge, Charles H o l t (1) JL (2) I863.. . (3) Esq (6) Atheneum (7) A.theneum Club: L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E. Braddle, Thomas Bragge, W i l l i a m Brent, J.B. Br i g g s , John B r i n e , Lindsay Broca, Paul Brodie, B.C, (1) JL (2) 1868... (3) Esq (4) (HBM Attorney-General) (5) H.B.M. Attorney-General (7) Singapore (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) I 8 7 O (3) Esq (6) FRGS, FSA (7) S h i r l e H a l l e , S h e f f i e l d , York: E. (1) J (2) 1854 (3) Esq (5) B a r r i s t e r -at-law (9) 1 W - f o r B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n Meeting. (1) L (2) I863.. . (5) Lt.-Gen. (6) O r i e n t a l and Atheneum Clubs (7) O r i e n t a l and atheneum Clubs:L. (1) JL (2) 1869J... (5) Capt., R.N. (6) Army & Navy Club (7) Army 8c Navy Club, P a l l M a l l : L ; moved i n 1870 to A l l S a i n t s ' Rectory, Axminster, Somerset:E (8) Member (9) N; 1 W. (1) L (2) I863... (3) M. (7) P a r i s : F (8) HF. (1) J (2) 1856 (3) S i r , Bart. (4) D.C.L. (6) FRS, Corr. Mem. of the Academy of Sciences of the I n s t i t u t e of France, Pres i n 1854 (8) Pres (9) IE; 2 W- p r e s i -d e n t i a l addresses. 2 4 l . Brodie, James (1) J (2) 1866 (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (9) 1 W. Brookes, Henry (1) JL (2) 1869.. . (3) Esq (?) 12 De Beauvoir Sq:L (8) Member, S e c t i o n a l Secretary f o r Comparative Psychology (9) N; IE. DI Brougham & Vaux, Henry (1) L (2) 1863-67 (3) Rt. Hon. Lord (6) FRS (7) 4 Grafton St:L, and i n I867 Brougham H a l l , Westmor-land : E. BI Buchanan, Walter (1) L (2) I863-67 (3) Esq (5) M.P. (7) Glasgow, and Fenton's H o t e l , St. James* St. sL. BI B u l l e r , James Wentworth (1) L (2) I863 (3) Esq (5) M.P. (7) 109 Jermyn St:L. Burke, Luke (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (6) FA.SL (7) 11 Eaton S t . , Gloucester Rd:L; moved i n I867 to 5 A l b e r t Terrace, Acton, Ches:E (8) C o u n c i l (9) 3 E: 9 D. D2 Burton, Richard F. (1) JL (2) 1861. . . (5) Capt, H.M. Consul (6) FSE, FRGS (7) Fernando Po: F; moved i n I867 to Santos, B r a z i l : F , and i n I869J to Damascus (9) 3 W. D2 Busk, George (1) JL (2) 1861. . . (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (6) FRS, FLS, Atheneum (7) Atheneum C l u b : l , and i n I 8 6 7 15 Harley St:L; moved i n I 8 6 9 J to 32 Harley St:L (8) V-P, C o u n c i l , E d i t o r (9) 9 E; 3 D s ? W. Caddy, (1) J (2) 1867 (4) (Dr) (5) Dr., Surgeon, Royal Navy (9) 1 W. BI Cameron, CD. (1) L (2) I863 -69 (5) Capt., H.M. Consul (7) Nassowah, A b y s s i n i a . Campbell, A r c h i b a l d (1) JL (2) I 8 6 7 . . . (3) Esq (4) (M.D.) (5) Dr., Late Superintendant of D a r j e e l i n g , (6) FLS (7) 104 Lansdown Rd., Kensington Partk, N o t t i n g H i l l : L (8) Fellow, V-P, Co u n c i l (9) N;6E: 3D; 5 W. 242, D2 Campbell, George DI Campbell, J.F, Campbell, Walter B2? Camps, W i l l i a m DI? Carnac, H. R i v e t t (1) JL (2) 186?... ( 3 ) Esq (5) J u s t i c e , Lt-Gov of Bengal ( 6 ) Atheneum, ( 7 ) C a l c u t t a ; F, and Atheneum Club;L; moved i n 1869J to St. George's Sq:L, and i n 1870 to BengalsF (8) Fellow, C o u n c i l (9) N;l E;2 D;1W. (1) J (2) 1867... ( 3 ) Esq (7) Islay r:S (9) 2 W. (1) JL (2) 1870 (5) Captain, R.E. ( 7 ) Newcastle-upon Tyne, NorthumberlandsE ( 8 ) Member (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 3 ... (4) M.D. (5) M.D. ( 7 ) 52 Park S t . , Grosvenor Sq:L, moved i n 1869 to #84, same s t r e e t , and i n 1870 to The H a l l , W ilburton, E l y , CambssE (9) 1 D. (1) L (2) 1870 ( 3 ) Esq ( 7 ) Simlah, India:F. Carpenter, F r e d e r i c Stanley (1) JL (2) 1868. D2 C a u l f i e l d , R, Cavendish, Richard (3) Esq ( 7 ) 1 0 9 V i c t o r i a St.:L; moved to 10 E l g i n Rd., D u b l i n : I , i n 1 8 6 9 J , and i n 1 8 7 0 c/o Mrs. Trygarn G r i f f i t h , Careiglwyd, Holyhead;W ( 8 ) Fellow ( 9 ) N. ( 1 ) J (2) 1 8 7 0 (3) Esq (4) (LL.D) ( 6 ) FSA ( 9 ) 2 W. (1 ) L (2) I 8 6 7 (3) Lord ( 6 ) Atheneum ( 7 ) C h i s l e h u r s t , Kent, and Atheneum Club, P a l l M a l l . Chambers, Charles Harcourt (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (6) F A S L ( 7 ) Chesham Place L; ( 8 ) Fellow ( 9 ) N. Chambers E s c o t t C h a r l t o n , Wm ( 1 ) J (2) 1 8 6 9 J ( 3 ) Mr ( 8 ) Member ( 9 ) N. ( 1 ) L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . ( 3 ) Esq ( 7 ) Hasleyside, Bellingham, Hexham, Northumberland:E. 2 K3. C h a t f i e l d , F. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) 12 P a l l M a l l , and Atheneum Club:L (6) Atheneum. C h i l d , W.D, (1) L (2) 1870 (3) Esq (7) 8 Finsbury Place:!. B2 Cholmondeley, T.J. (1) L (2) 1869... (5) C o l (7) Abbots Moss, Northwich, Ches:E. DI C h r i s t y , Henry (1) JL (2) I863-65 (3) Mr. (6) FSA, FLS, FGS (7) 103 V i c t o r i a St, :L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 2 E; 1 D; 1 W. Churcher, James Graham (1) L (2) I863 (3) Esq (6) FASL (7) 55 B l e s s i n g t o n Rd., Lee, Kent:E. DI Clark , James (1) JL (2) I863-69J (3) S i r , Bart (4) M.D. (5) M.D. (6) FRS (7) Bushy Park, Mx:E (9) 1 W. B2 Clarke, Hyde (1) JL (2) 1866... (3) Esq; KCM (4) M.C. (LL.D.) (5) Dr. (7) 32 St George's Sq, P i m l i c o : L (8) Fellow, C o u n c i l , Hon. Foreign Sec, E d i t o r , S e c t i o n a l Sec f o r P h i l o l o g y (9) N; 5 E; 10D; 8 w -includes answering "Notes & Queries" (6) F. of Royal S o c i e t y of Northern A n t i q u a r i e s . Member of the German O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y , the American O r i e n t a l Soc, of the Academy of A n a t o l i a , of the P h i l o l o g i c a l Soc of Constantinople. C l a r k e , Robert (1) JL (2) I863... (3) Esq (4) (Surgeon) (5) Surgeon, l a s t of H.M. C o l o n i a l S e r v i c e , formerly Member of the Executive & L e g i s l a -t i v e C ouncils of the Gold Coast, A c t i n g J u d i c i a l Assessor (8) CM (9) 1 W. BI C l a v e r i n g , A l o y s i u s W i l l i a m (1) JL (2) I863... (3) S i r , Bart (6) Atheneum (7) Atheneum Club:L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 7 E. 244. DI C l a y , Wm. Clunch e n , James Graham Cook i n g s , W.S. C o l e , R.A. B2 D3 (1) L (2) 1863-69 (3) S i r , B a r t (7) . 91 Eaton S q . : L ; moved i n 1869 t o Cadogan P l a c e J L (1) J (2) I 8 6 3 (3) Esq (8) F e l l o w (9) N. (1) J L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) 20 U n i v e r s i t y S t . Gcwer S t : L (8) F e l l o w (9) N . (1) J (2) 1869 (3) Esq (5) Capt (9) 1 W. Col e b r o o k e , Thomas Edward (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) S i r , B a r t (5) MVP. (6) FRS, FRAS (7) 57 South S t . Pa r k Lane:L. Coleman, J . S h e r r a r d C o l l i n g w o o d , C o l l i n s , W.W. DI Colonsay. DI C o n n o l l y , John (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq. (1) J (2) 1868 (4) (Dr.) (5) Dr. (6) FLS (9) 1 W. (1) J L (2) 1 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (7) 15 Buckingham S t : L ; moved i n I 8 6 9 t o 2 H e r e f o r d , Old Brompton:L (8) F e l l o w (9) N. (1) L (2) 1868... (3) Rt Hon Lord (6) New C l u b , E d i n b u r g h (7) New C l u b , E d i n b u r g h : S. (1) J L (2) 1863-67 (4) (Dr.) (5) Dr. (6) FRS (7) H a r w e l l , Mx:E (8) ( P r e s ) - s t a t e d i n o b i t u a r y (9) o b i t u a r y by S i r James C l a r k . C o n w e l l , Eugene A l f r e d (1) J (2) 1867 (3) Esq (9) 1 W. Copeland, George F o r d (1) J L (2) 1 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (4) (FRCS) (5) (FRCS) (6) FRCS (7) Bays H i l l , Cheltenham, Glouces:E (8) F e l l o w (9) N. C o r n t h w a i t e , T u l l i e (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (7) Walthamstow, E s s e x E. 245. DI Crawfurd, John D3 Crawfurd, Oswald J. Creswick, H.C. Cri c h t o n , W.J. (1) JL (2) 1848-68 (3) Esq (6) FRS, FRGS, V-P, RGS, Foreign A s s o c i a t e of the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Soc of Paris, A.theneum (7) 15 W i l l i a m St, Lowndes SqsL; moved i n 1867 to 14 E l v a s t o n Place, Queen's Gate, and Atheneum Club:L (8) Pres, V-P (9) 7 E; 11 D; 48 W. (1) L (2) 1863.•• (3) Esq (5) H.B.M. Consul, (7) Foreign O f f i c e : L; from 1868 on, Oporto, P o r t u g a l . (1) J (2) 1868 (3) Esq (9) 2 W. (1) JL (2) 1863-69 (3) Esq (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (7) 11 Eaton Place: L (8) Fellow (9) N. Croker, T.F. D i l l o n (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 3 . . . ( 3 ) Esq (6) FSA (7) 19 Pelham Place, Brompton; L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 6 E. Crowley, Johnathan Sparrow (1) JL (2) 1863-67 (3) Esq (5) C.E. (7) Lavender H i l l L; moved i n 1867 to Sudbury, Mx:E (8) Fellow (9) N. C u l l , Richard C u l l e n , BI C u n l i f f e , R. (1) JL (2) 1850. . .(6)FSA, (7) 13 Tavistock, Bedford Sq:L (8) Represent ESL at B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , Fellow, Hon Sec (9) 2 E; 4 D; 10 W. ( I ) J (2) 1866-68 (4) (Dr.) (5) Dr. (9) 2W. (1) L (2) 1863... (3) Esq (7) 21 C a r l t o n Place, Glasgow: S. B2 Cunningham, Alexander (1) JL (2) 1869J... (5) Major-General (7) 1 Clarendon Rd, Kensington:L; i n 1870, c/o Messrs Henry S. King & Co, 65 C o r n h i l l : L (8) Member (9) N. Cursetjee, Manockjee (1) JL (2) 1867-69 (3) Esq (5) J u s t i c e (7) Bombay:F (8) Fellow (9) N. 246. F F? F? C u t l e r , G. D'Abbadie, Antoine D*Avezac, Des Barres, M. (1) L (2) 1863. . . (3) Esq (6) FRSL (7) B r o o m h i l l House, S h e f f i e l d , York:E; moved i n 1869 to Nelson Terrace, S h e f f i e l d : E . (1) J (2) 1854 (3) M (9) 1 W -f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . (1) L (2) I863.. . (3) M. (6) Membre de l ' I n s t i t u t (7) 42 Rue du Bac, P a r i s . (1) L (2) I863 (5) Judge (7) Nova S c o t i a (8) HF. De Bode, Clement Augustus (1) J (2) 1848-56 (3) Baron (9) 2 V/. De F u l l n e r , A, De Grey & Ripon, (1) JL (2) 1867.. (8) CM. (3) Monsieur (1) L (2) I863.. . (3) Rt Hon, E a r l (7) 1 C a r l t o n Gardens:L. De Malahide, Talbot (1) JL (2) I863.. . (3) Lord (6) FRS, FSA Atheneum (7) AtheneumsL, and Malahide C a s t l e near D u b l i n : I (8) V-P (9) 3 E: 2D. De Tschudi, (1) J (2) 1848 (4) (Dr.) (5) Dr. (9) 1 w. Des R u f f i e r e s , C. Robert (1) JL (2) I863.. . (3) Esq (6) FGS (7) Wilmot Lodge, Rochester Rd., Camden Town:L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 4 E. Du C h a i l l u e , M. Dadabhal, N a o r o j i Dale, D. Dalton, E.T. (1) JL (2) 1861 (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1867-68 (3) Esq (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (7) 32 Gt. St. Helen's, Bishopsgate:L (8) Fellow (9) Ni 1 W. (1) L (2) I863 (3) Esq (7) West Lodge, D a r l i n g t o n , Durham:E. (1) J (2) 1868 (5) L i e u t - C o l , Commis-sion e r of Chota-Nagpore (9) 1 W. 247. D a n i e l l , G. Wythes D a n i e l l , W.F, (1) L (2) 1869J... (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) M.D. (7) 38 Bessborough St. P i m l i c o : L . (1) JL (2) 1848-63 (4) M.D. (5) (M.D.) ( 6 ) FRGS (7) S i e r r a Leone, 1863 (8) Fellow (9) 2 W. Da r b i s h i r e , Robert, D. Darwin, Charles Darwin, E. Davies, J.F. (1) JL ( 2 ) 1869J... (3) Esq (4) B.A. (6) FGS (7) 26 George St, Manchester»E (8) Member (9) N. (1) L ( 2 ) 1863. . . (3) Esq (4) M.A. (7) Down, Beckham, Kent*. E (8) HF ( 6 ) FRS. (1) L ( 2 ) 1863 (3) Esq (7) 6 Queen Anne St:L. (1) J ( 2 ) I 8 6 3 (3) S i r , Bart (8) Fellow (9) N. Davis, John F r a n c i s (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 - 6 9 J (3) S i r , Bart, KCB (6) Atheneum (7) Hollywood, Glouces:E; and i n I 8 6 7 Atheneum ClubsL (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E. Davis, Joseph Barnard (1) JL (2) 1861. . . (3) Esq (4) (FRCS), M.D. (5) M.D. (6) FRS, FSA (7) Shelton, S t a f f s 1 E (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E; 1 W. Daw, George H. Dawkins ,„ W. Boyd Dendy, Walter Denison, W i l l i a m Dennis, G. Devonshire, ( 1 ) L (2) 1 8 6 9 . . . (3) Esq (7) C h i s l e h u r s t , Kent. i l ) JL (2) 1 8 6 9 J . . . (3) Esq (4) M.A. (6) FGS, FRS (7) C h i s l e h u r s t , KentsE; moved i n 1 8 7 0 to B i r c h View, Norman Rd, Rusholme, Manchester: E (8) C o u n c i l , S e c t i o n a l Sec f o r Archaeology ( 8 ) 3 E; I D ; 2 W. ( 1 ) J (2) 1 8 6 9 J (9) 1 W. ( 1 ) J (2) 1 8 6 9 J (3) S i r ( 9 ) 1 W. ( 1 ) J (2) 1 8 6 9 (3) Esq (5) V i c e -Consul f o r Bengazi. ( 1 ) JL (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Duke (6) FRS ( 7 ) Devonshire House, P i c c a d i l l y ( 8 ) Fellow ( 9 ) N. 248. DI Dickinson, John Dickenson j r , John Dickman, Henry Dickson, Peter (1) L (2) 1867. . . (3) Esq (6) FRS, Atheneum (7) 39 Upper Brook St:Lf and i n 1869J Atheneum Clubs L. (1) JL (2) 1863.•• (3) Esq (6) FRS, FGS, Atheneum, (7) Atheneum Clubs L (8) Fellow, C o u n c i l (9) N: 8 E. (1) J (2) 1863 (3) Esq (4) (Surgeon) (5) C o l o n i a l Surgeon, (7) Ceylon (9) 1 W. (1) J L (2) 1867 (3) Esq (7) 28 Upper Brook StsL ( 8 ) Fellow (9) N. Dieffenbach, Ernest (1) J (2) 1848 (4) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (9) 1 W. DI D i l k e , Charles Wentworth (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) S i r , Bart (5) Mi'P. (?) 76 Sloane StsL (8) Member (9) N. Dohne, J.R. BI? Donaldson, J.W. Donovan, C. B2 D o r i a , A. Dubli n , Duckworth, W i l l i a m Duncan, David (1) L (2) 1863. . . (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (8) HF. (1) J (2) 1854-56 (4) D.D. (5) Rev (9) 2 W. - one f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . (1) JL (2) 1863-69J (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (7) H I Strand sL; moved 1869J to 106 StrandsL (9) 2 D; 1 W. (1) J (2) 1869J (5) Captain, C o l (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863 (4) (Rev) (5) Rt Rev, Archbishop of St. Stephen's Green (7) D u b l i n : I . • (1) L (2) 1863-69 (3) Esq (6) FRCS (7) 31 N o r f o l k S t , Strand L; moved i n 1867 to 38 Bryanstone Sq;L. (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (4) M.A. (5) Prof (7) Presidency C o l l e g e , MadrassF (8) Member (9) N. 249. D2 Duncan, P.M. DI Dunkin, A.J, DI Dunn, Robert DI (1) JL (2) 1869J . . . (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) Prof (6) FRS, Sec, GS (7) 40 B l e s s i n g t o n , Lee, Kent:E (8) S e c t i o n a l Sec f o r Biology (9) 1 E. (1) JL (2) 1869. . . (3) Mr (7) D a r t f o r d , Kent:E; moved i n 1869J to 44 Bessborough Gardens:L, with D a r t f o r d as a second address (9) 1 D. (1) JL (2) 1856... (4) (FRCS) (5) (FRGS) (6) FRCS (7) 31 Norfolk St. Strand:L (8) Fellow. V-P, Cou n c i l (9) 9 E; 6W. Dunraven & Mountearl (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) E a r l , KP (6) FRS, FRGS, FSA. (?) 5 Buckingham Palace Gate, P i m l i c o : L (8) Member (9) N. E a r l , George Windser Eastwood, J.W, Edwards, John Edwards, H. Milne Edwards, H.W. F Egypt, BI E l l i o t , Walter (1) J (2) 1863 (3) Esq (6) MRA.S (8) CM (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863.•• (4) M.D. (5) Dr. (7) F a i r f o r d R e t r e a t , GloucessE: moved i n 1869 to Dr. K e e l i n g ' s , 16 Broomhall St, S h e f f i e l d , York: E; moved i n 1869J to Dimsdale Park, D a r l i n g t o n , Durham:E. (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (7) Hare Court, Temple:L (8) Member (9) N. (1) L (2) I863 . . . (4) M.D, (M.D.) (7) P a r i s : F (8) HF. (1) J (2) 1869J (9) 1 W. (5) (1) J (2) 1863, (3) V i c e r o y (8) Hon Member (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1869J. . . (3) S i r K C . S I • " (7) Wolfelee, Hawick, New Brunswick (8) Member (9) N; 1 W. B2 E l l i s , A . J . (1) J (2) I863 (3) Mr (9) 1 D. .250. DI DI E l l i s , James E r i e , W i l l i a m BI Euing, W i l l i a m D3 Evans, John (1) J (2) 1863 (3) Esq (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) 186? (3) S i r (5) Lord Chief J u s t i c e of the Court of Common Please (7) 12 Prin c e s Gardens, Hyde ParksL. (1) JL (2) 1868... (3) Esq (7) 209 West George St. Glasgow:S; and i n 1869, Royal Exchange, Glasgow (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1863-•• (3) Mr (6) FSA, FRS, FGS (7) Nash M i l l s , Hemel Hempstead, H e r t f o r d s h i r e : E (8) C o u n c i l (9) 3 E; 4-D ; 2 W . Fairbank, F r e d e r i c k Royston (1) L (2) 1863-69 (3) Esq (4) FRCP (5) (FRCP, MRCS) (6) FRCP, MRCS (7) St. Mary's Terrace, Hulme, Manchester, Lanes:E. F a i r b a i r n , W. D3 F a r r a r , A.S. D3 F a r r a r , F r e d e r i c W. Fergusson, James Firm, James (1) L (2) 186?... (3) Sir, Bart (6) FRS (?) Manchester: E. (1) JL (2) 1870 (4) D.D. (5) Rev (7) The Colleg e , Durham:E (8) Member (9) N. (1) JL (2) I863.. . (4) M.A. (5) Rev, A s s i s t a n t C l a s s i c a l Master (6) FRS (7) Harrow-on-the-Hill, Mx:E (8) Fellow, C o u n c i l (9) 4 E; 3 W. (1) J (2) 1869J. . . (9) I D ; 1 W. (1) L (2) I863 . . . (3) Esq (7) Jerusalem:F (8) CM. Fi s h e r , Anthony Lax (1) L (2) 186? (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) M.D.) (7) 14 York Place, Portman Sq:L. F i s h e r , Morton Coates (1) JL (2) 1869J... (3) Esq (7) 58 Threadneedle S t i L (8) Member (9) N; 1 W. F i t z r o y , _ F i t z w i l l i a m , W.S. Fleming, J.W. Flower, J.W. Folsom, George Forbes, David F o r t , Richard Fosberry, Fowler, R.N. Fox, Augustus Lane Fox, C.H. (1) JL (2) I86I - 6 3 (5) Admiral (6) FRS (7) 38 Onslow SqL: (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1869... (3) Esq (5) FSS, Late Member of the Supreme L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l of I n d i a (7) 28 Ovington Sq:L. (1) J (2) 1863 (4) (Surgeon) (5) Surgeon, 37th Regt (6) FRCS (9) 1 W - communicated Dickman's paper. (1) JL (2) 1869J... (3) Esq (6) FGS (7) Park H i l l , Croydon, Surrey; E. (8) Member, C o u n c i l (9) N; 2 E; 3 D . (1) JL (2) 1867. . . (3) Esq (6) Pres, American E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y (7) New York (8) HF. (1) JL (2) 1869J . . . (3) Esq (6) FRS, FGS (7) 11 York P l a c e , Portman Sq:L (8) C o u n c i l Member (9) N; 1 E: 1 W. (1) JL' (2) 1865-68 (3) Esq (5) M.P. (7) 24 Queen's Gate Gardens L, and Read H i l l , Whalley, Lanes:E (8) c o u n c i l (9) 1 E. (1) J (2) 1869J (5) Major, V.C. (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) I863... (3) Esq (7) 30 C o r n h i l l ; L . (1) JL (2) I863 . . . (5) C o l , Grenadier Guards (6) Guards' Club, FSA (7) Guards' Club, P a l l M a l l s L : i n 1869J 10 Upper P h i l l i m o r e Gdns, KensingtonsL (8) Hon Sec, Hon General Sec, C o u n c i l , E d i t o r (9) 6 E; 8 D: 6 W - and read v a r i o u s papers of others. (1) JL (2) I863. . . (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (7) B r i s l i n g t o n House, B r i s t o l , GloucessE; moved i n 1869J to The Beeches, B r i s t o l : E. (8) Fellow (9) N. 2 5 2 . D2 Franks, Augustus W. Fraser , Thomas F F r i e n d , Wm. Freund, W i l l i a m B2 Fytche, A l b e r t G a l i t z i n , Ernest D2 Galton, Douglas D3 Galton, F r a n c i s Gardner, CT... Gardner, E.V. Gardner, Peter B2? Gascoyne, J.B. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 6 . . . (3) Esq (5) B r i t i s h Museum (6) D i r , SA (7) B r i t i s h Museum and 55 Upper Seymour St. Portman SqsL; moved i n 1869J to 103 V i c t o r i a S t , Westminster: L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 3 E. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 7 . . . (5) Captain (7) Otago, New Zealand:F (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) I863 . . . (4) M.A.(LL.D.) (7) Breslau:F (8) CM. (1) J (2) 1864-56 (4) (Dr) (5) Dr. (6) FGS (9) 3 W . (1) JL (2) 1867... (5) L t - C o l , Chief Commissioner of Martaban, and Tenasserim Provinces (6) Reform Club (7) Martaban, BurmasF (8) Fellow (9) N; 1 W. (1) J (2) 1856 (3) P r i n c e (6) CM of RGS (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (5) Capt (6) FRS (7) 12 Chester St, Grosvenor Place :L (8) Fellow ('9) N. (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Mr (6) FRGS, FRS, Atheneum (7) 42 Rutland Gate, Hyde Park, and i n I867 Atheneum Club:L (8) Hon Sec, C o u n c i l (9) 3 E; I D ; 2 W. (1) JL (2) 1869J... (3) Esq (5) of H.B.M. Consular Service i n China (6) FRGS (7) 3 St. James' Terrace, Paddington:L; and i n 1870 Shanghai (8) Member (9) N; 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863... (3) Esq (7) Sunbury, Mx: E. (1) L (2) 1863-70 (3) Esq (7) 41 Inverness Terrace, BayswatersL. (1) JL (2) I863 (5) Capt (6) Atheneum (8) Fellow (7) Atheneum ClubsL (9) N. -253. Gassiot, John P. G i g l i o l i , G i l e s , John V. G i l l e s p i e , Wm. ( 1 ) JL (2) 1863-•• (3) Esq (6) FRS (7) Clapham Common:L (8) Fellow ( 9 ) N. (1) JL (2) 1863.•• (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (7) Pavia:F (8) CM, HF. (1) J (2) 1854 ( 9 ) 1 W. (1) L ( 2 ) 1867. . • (3) Esq (7) Torbane H i l l , Edinburgh:S. Glyn, George. G r e n f e l l (1) L ( 2 ) 1863 (3) Esq ( 5 ) M.P. (7) 4 2 South St, Grosvenor SqsL. Gore, Richard, Thomas (1) L ( 2 ) 1 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (7) 6 Queen Sq. Bath, SomersetsE. Grant, Grattan, John Greenhow, J.M. Greenwell, W. ( 1 ) J (2) 1 8 6 5 ( 5 ) Captain ( 9 ) 1 W. ( 1 ) J (2) 1 8 5 4 ( 9 ) 1 W. ( 1 ) J ( 2 ) 1 8 6 1 ( 4 ) (MRCS) ( 5 ) (MRCS)(6) MRCS ( 9 ) 1 W. ( 1 ) JL ( 2 ) 1 8 6 9 . • . ( 4 ) M.A. ( 5 ) Rev, Canon of Durham ( 6 ) FSA, FASL (7) DurhamsE (8) C o u n c i l ( 9 ) 2 E; 1 W. Grey, Charles Edward Grey, Grey, George Grey, Henry ( 1 ) L (2) I863 (3) S i r (7) Marlborough House, Tunbridge Wel l s , Kent:E. ( 1 ) J (2) 1 8 5 4 (3) E a r l (5) Sec of State f o r the Colonies ( 9 ) 1 S. ( 1 ) JL (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) S i r , KCB ( 5 ) Governor of New Zealand ( 6 ) A.theneum (7) New Zealand :F; and i n 1 8 6 9 , Atheneum Clubs L ( 9 ) 2 W. (1) L (2) I863. . . ( 5 ) L t . . R.N. (7) Marlborough House, Tunbridge W e l l s , KentsE; i n I867, H.M.S. I r r e s i s t i b l e , Southampton, HampssE; I869, H.M.S. Al'gerine. Grey, w.R. 25 k . (1) L (2) I 8 6 7 . . . (3) Esq (5) Super-intendant of H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e (7) P r i n c e s St, Westminsters L. G r i f f i t h , R. Trygarn Grout, Lewis (1) L (2) 1867 (3) Esq. (1) J (2) 1854 (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (9) 1 W. G u i s e , William V e r n o n (1) JL (2) I 8 6 9 J . . . (3) S i r , Bart (6) FGS, FLS (7) Elmore Court, Gloucess E (8) Member (9) N. Gurney, John Henry Guth r i e , Alexander Guthrie, James Haast, J u l i u s Haigh, (1) L (2) I863-67 (3) Esq (5) M.P. (7) 24 Kensington Palace Gardens s i 5 moved i n I867 to 9 St. James's Sq.sL, with Catton H a l l , N o r f o l k as a second address. (1) JL (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) 8 Upper Wimpole S t . : (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) JL (2) I863. . . (3) Esq (7) 8 Upper Wimpole S t : L; moved i n I867 to 3 Poynders Rd, Clapham Park:L (8) Fellow (9) N. (1<) J (2) 1870 (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (6) FRS (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1869 (3) Miss (9) 1 W. Hamilton, Alexander (1) L (2) 1 8 6 9 J . . . ( 5 ) Capt, R.E. (7) Portsmouth, Hampshire:E, moved i n 1870 to Bermuda:F. Hamilton, A r c h i b a l d (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 ? . . . ( 3 ) Esq (7) Southborough, Bromley, Kent:E (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E. ., Hamilton, Rowland Hamilton, Rowland Hanson, A.W. Har r i s o n , Charles Harvey, John (1) L (2) 1863 . . . ( 3 ) Esq (7) C a l c u t t a : F ; and i n 1867 13 Leadenhall StsL; t h i s changed i n I 8 6 9 to 32 New Broad StsL. (1) L (2) I863...(7) Bengal (8) CM. (1) J (2) 1856 (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1 8 6 9 J . . . ( 7 ) 10 Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park:L. (1) L (2) 1 9 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (5) Borneo Co. (7) 7 Mincing LanesJj. 2 5 5 . Hay, John F Hayden, F.V. Heathcote, D3 Hector, James F? Heldmann, B2? Henderson, Alex Henderson, Robert F Henry, Joseph Hepburn, James Hepburn, Robert Hewitt, Jonas B2 Heywood, James DI Hincks, Edward Hindmarsh, F. ( 1 ) L ( 2 ) 1 8 6 3 ( 4 ) (Rev) ( 5 ) Rev ( ? ) 7 P h i l i p Terrace, Tottenham, Mx:E. ( 1 ) JL ( 2 ) 1 8 6 9 J ( 4 ) (Prof) ( 5 ) Prof ( 7 ) P h i l a d e l p h i a : ? (8) HF. (1 ) J ( 2 ) 1 8 6 3 ( 5 ) Lt.. ( 9 ) 1 D. ( 1 ) J ( 2 ) 1 8 6 1 ( 4 ) M.D. ( 5 ) (M.D.) ( 9 ) 1 W. ( 1 ) J ( 2 ) 1 8 6 3 ( 4 ) (Prof) ( 5 ) Prof ( 8 ) CM. ( 1 ) L ( 2 ) 1 8 6 3 . • • ( 4 ) (Rev) ( 5 ) Rev ( 8 ) CM. ( 1 ) L ( 2 ) I 8 6 3 . . . ( 3 ) Esq ( 7 ) Randall's Park, Surrey:E. ( 1 ) JL ( 2 ) 1 8 6 9 J ( 4 ) (Prof) ( 5 ) Prof ( 7 ) Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Washington:F ( 8 ) HF. (1 ) JL ( 2 ) 1868-69 ( 3 ) Esq ( 8 ) Fellow (9) Ni' ( 1 ) L ( 2 ) 1 8 6 3 ... ( 3 ) Esq ( 7 ) 8 Davies St, Berkeley Sq: L; moved i n I 8 6 7 to 7 0 Portland Place:L. (1 ) JL ( 2 ) 1 8 6 9 J . . . ( 3 ) Esq ( 7 ) Crown Court, Threadneedle St:L ( 8 ) Member ( 9 ) N . ( 1 ) JL ( 2 ) I863... ( 3 ) Esq ( 6 ) FSA, FRS, Atheneum ( 7 ) 2 6 Kensington Palace Gardens:L; and i n I 8 6 7 , Atheneum Club: L ( 8 ) C o u n c i l ( 9 ) 2 E. ( 1 ) J ( 2 ) 1 8 5 4 ( 4 ) D.D. ( 5 ) Rev ( 9 ) 2 w. ( 1 ) JL ( 2 ) 1 8 5 4 . . . ( 6 ) FRGS, FGS ( 7 ) 17 Bucklersby:L; i n I 8 6 7 a l s o 4 New Inn, Strand:L, and Townsend House, Barkway, Herts:E ( 8 ) Represent ESL at B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , V-P, Hon Treasurer, C o u n c i l ( 9 ) 8 E. 256. H j a l t a l i n , Jon A, Hodgkin, Thomas Hodgson, B.H. (1) J (2) 1868. . . (9) 1 D> 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1848-63 (4) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (6) FRGS (?) 35 Bedford Sq: L (8) V-P, C o u n c i l (9) 4 E: 3 D; 3 W + obituary n o t i c e by Richard King. (1) L (2) 1863. . . (3) Esq (7) Bengal:F; moved i n 1870 to The Grange, Wooton-under-Edge, nr A l d e r l e y , Ches:E. Hodgson, D a n i e l Kirkman (1) L (2) 1863... (3) Esq (5) M.P. (7) 36 Brook St: L, and i n I867, Sparrows Herne, Bushy, Herts:E. Van der Hoevan, Hogg, John Hollond, Robert Hooker, J Horton, W.J.S. Hotten, J.C. Houghton, W. Howorth, H.H. Hughes, T McK Hume, A. (1) L (2) 1863-69 (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (8) HF. (1) J (2) 1856 (4) M.A. (6) FRS, FLS, RGS, Foreign Sec of RSL (9) 1 V/ - f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . (1) L (2) I863-67 (3) Esq (7) Gt. Stanmore, Mx:E. (1) JL (2) (4) M.D. (6) FRS (9) 1 Dj 2 W. (5) D i r e c t o r of the Royal Gardens, Kew:E (3) CB. (1) L (2) 1867 (3) Esq (7) Talbot V i l l a , Rugely, S t a f f o r d s h i r e : E . (1) JL (2) 1868... (3) Esq (7) 174 P i c c a d i l l y : L (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) J (2) 1869 (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1868... (3) Esq (7) C a s t l e H a l l , Rochdale, Lanes: E: moved i n I869J to Derby House, E c c l e s , Man-c h e s t e r ^ (8) Fellow, C o u n c i l (9) N; 1 E; 1 D; 8 W. (1) JL (2) 1869 J (3) Esq (4) M.A. (6) FGS, FSA (7) 28 Jermyn St. :L (8) Member, C o u n c i l , S e c t i o n a l Sec f o r Archaeology (9) Nfji 3 E. (1) J (2) 1854 (4) D.C.L., (LL.D.) (5) Rev (6) FSA. (9) 1 W - f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . 257. Hunt, George Lennox (1) L (2) I863-67 (3) Esq (5) H.M. Consul (7) Pernambuco:F; moved i n I867 to Rio de Ja n e i r o , B r a z i l : F . Hunt, John B2 Hunter, W.W. DI Hunt, James Husband, Frank Husband, H.A. B2 Hutchinson, Thomas J. (1) JL (2) I 8 6 7 . . . (3) Esq (7) 156 New Bond StsL (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) 1870 (3) Esq (5) C i v i l Servant (7) Bengal C i v i l S e rvice (8) HF. (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 (4) Ph.D. (6) FSA, FRSL, Foreign Associate of the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of P a r i s Sec,,;; to S e c t i o n E, B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n (7) Ore House, nr Hastings, Sussex; E (8) Hon Sec, (9) 1 E; 4 D; 2 W. (1) J (2) I 8 6 3 (3) Esq (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1868-69 (3) Esq (7) C i t y of London Asylum, Stone, KentsE (8) Fellow (9) N . D2 Huxley, F.W. Huxley, T.H. (1) JL (2) 1861. . . (5) Consul (6) FRGS, FRSL, FA.SL, V-P d' honneur de 1 ' I n s t i t u t d'Afrique, P a r i s ; Socio Estrangero de l a Sociedad P a l e o n t o l o g i c a , Buenos Ayres (7) RosariosF (9) 3 VI. (1) J (2) I 8 6 3 (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E; 1 W. (1) JL (2) I863 . . . (4) (Prof) (LL.D) (6) FRS, FLS, Pres, GS (7) Museum of P r a c t i c a l Geology, 26 Abbey P l a c e , St. John's Wood; L (8) C o u n c i l , Pres, E d i t o r (9) 9 E; 8 D; 5 W - includes 3 p r e s i -d e n t i a l addresses. Imrie, Wm. (1) L (2) 1863-67 (3) Esq (7) 16 S a v i l e Row:L. 258-. I n g l i s , John BI Ingham, Robert Inman, R.M. Ir e l a n d , J.C. Isenburg, Jackson, Henry Jagor, Janson, F.H. DI J e f f c o t t , J.M. J e f f r i e s , Edmund Johnson, Johore, Jones, James DI Jones, Harry (1) J (2) 1854. . . (4) (Rev) (5) Missionary, Reformed P r e s b y t e r i a n Church of Scotland (8) CM (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (5) M.P. (7) 13 King's Bench Walk, Temple:L. (1) JL (2) 1869J. . . (3) Esq (4-) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (6) FRGS (7) Redbourn, St. Albans, Herts:E; moved i n 1870 to Edinborough House, West St, Brighton, SussexsE (8) Member (9) N. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) 2 Sion Row, Marsh Gate, Richmond, SurreysE. (1) L (2) 1863-70 (4-) (Rev) (5) (8) CM. (1) L (2) 1863-67 (3) Esq (7) St. James's Row, S h e f f i e l d , YorksE. (1) J (2) 1870 (4) (Dr.) (5) Dr. (9) l w. (1) L (2) 1863-69 (3) Esq (7) C h i s l e h u r s t , KentsE. (1) JL (2) 1869J. . . (3) Esq (5) Member of the House of Keys, High B a i l i f f of Castletown (7) Castletown, Isle, of Man:E (8) Member (9) N. (1) L (2) 1867. . . (3) Esq (7) Kondosalla, Ceylon:F (8) CM. (1) J (2) I863 (3) Mr. (9) 2 D. (1) L (2) 1867. . . (3) Maharajah, (7) 22 Manchester SqsL; moved i n 1868 to Singapore. (1) J (2) 1863.•• (3) Esq (6) Corr Mem of the E t h n o l o g i c a l Soc at Amoy (7), China:F (8) CM (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1869J (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (9) 1 W. 259. DI Jones, W.A. Jordan, W. K a n i k o f f , M. ; BI Kennedy, James BI Kennedy, R. H a r t l e y Ke rnahan, BI King, David DI King, Richard DI King, S.W. DI K i n g s l e y , Kirwan, Richard Knapp, J.L. (1) JL (2) ! 8 6 9 J . . . ( k ) (Rev) (5) Rev (6) FGS (?) Taunton, Somerset: (8) Member (9) N. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) Charing Cross s L. (1) J (2) 1866 (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1856 (4) LL.B (5) l a t e H.B.M.'s Judge i n the mixed court at Havana (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863-68 (3) Esq. (1) L (2) 1869.•• (L) (Rev Dr) (5) Rev Dr (6) FRSL, FASL (7) 50 Greenwood Rd, D a l s t o n , Mx:E. (1) JL (2) 1863-5 (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (7) Eltham, Kent:E (8) C o u n c i l (9) 2 E. (1) JL (2) 1 8 4 8 . . . (4) M.D. (5) Dr, H.M. Medical Inspector of F a c t o r i e s (6) LSA, FASL, CM. E t h n o l o g i c a l Soc of New York, S t a t i s t i c a l Soc of Darmstadt, HF, E t h n o l o g i c a l Soc of P a r i s , FRCS (7) 17 S a v i l e Row's-L; moved i n 1869 to Queen Anne StsL; moved i n 1869J to 12 Bulstrode Rd, Cavendish SqsL (8) Hon Sec, C o u n c i l (9) 5 E; 2 D;4 W - i n c l u d e s 2 o b i t u a r i e s , and 1 address re .Ethnology. (1) L (2) 1863 (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (6) FGS, FSA, FRGS (7) Saxlingham, NorfolksE. (1) J (2) I863 (4) (Rev Prof) (5)Rev Prof (8) F e l l o w (9) N, (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 9 . • . (4) M.A. (5) Rev (7) G i t t i s h a m , Honiton, DevonshiresE (8) Member (9) N. (1) L (2) I863... (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (8) CM. 260 . BI Knox, Robert Kolbe, F.N. Labuan, DI Laing, Samuel Lamprey, Jones H. D4 Lang, Andrew Langlands, J. DI Latham, R.G. Lawford, Edward B2 Lay, H.N. D3 Layard, A u s t i n H. ( 1 ) J (2) I 8 6 I - 6 3 ( 4 ) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (6) CM of the Im p e r i a l Academy of Medicine of France, Foreign Associate of the Anthro-p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of P a r i s , Foreign As s o c i a t e of Nat u r a l H i s t o r y Soc of Hesse Cass e l ( 8 ) HF (9) 2 D ; 2 W. ( 1 ) J (2) 1 8 5 4 ( 4 ) (Rev) (5) Rev (9) 1 V/. ( 1 ) J (2) 1 8 6 3 (4) (Bishop) (5) Lord Bishop (?) L a b u a n T F (9) 1 W. ( 1 ) L (2) 1 8 6 7 . . • (3) Esq (5) M.P. ( 6 ) FGS ( 7 ) 6 Kensington Gardens Terrace, Bayswater:L; moved i n 1 8 7 0 to B r i g h t o n , Sussex. ( 1 ) JL (2) 1 8 6 8 - 6 9 J ( 4 ) M.B., M.D. (5) Surgeon, 6 7 t h Regt, (6) L i b r a r i a n , RGS (7) Portsmouth, Hampshire:E ( 8 ) Member, A s s i s t a n t Sec, Sub-Editor (9) 3 Wj 1 S. ( 1 ) L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (7) 35 Weymouth StsL; moved i n I 8 6 7 to 77 Harley St, Cavendish Sq:L,: moved i n 1 8 6 8 to Dunmore Tynemouth (Teignmouth?) :E. ( 1 ) JL (2) 1 8 6 8 . . . (3) Esq (7) V i c t o r i a , New South Wales:F ( 8 ) F e l l o w (9) N. ( 1 ) JL (2) 1 8 4 8 . . . ( 4 ) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (6) Pres, S e c t i o n E, B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , FRS, Atheneum (7) Atheneum Club:L (8 ) HF (9) 11 W. ( 1 ) L (2) I863... (3) Esq (4) M.D. (7) Leighton Buzzard, Bedford-s h i r e sE. ( 1 ) L (2) 1 8 6 3 - 6 7 (3) Esq. (1 ) (2) 1 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (4) D.C.L., M.D. (5) M.P., H.M. Ambassador at the Court of Madrid (7) 1 3 0 I P i c c a d i l l y : L ; moved i n 1 8 7 0 to Madrid ( 8 ) HF. 261, BI Layard, W. Layland, _ Lefroy, B2 Leidy, Joseph L e i t n e r , G.W. Lennox, Ar t h u r Lepsius, R. Lueckart, BI Lewin, Malcolm (1) J (2) 1863-69J (3) Mr. (9) 2 W, (1) J (2) 1869J (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1870 (5) Major-General, R.A. (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1869J (4) (Dr.) (5) Dr (7) P h i l a d e l p h i a J F (8) HF. (1) JL (2) 1863... (4) Ph.D. M.A. (5) Dr, (6) FRAS, FPS (7) 7 Belgrave Rd, Abbey Rd:L; moved i n 186? to Government C o l l e g e , Lahore, India:F (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1868... (3) Esq (7) 7 Beaufort Gdns, Brompton Rd:L: i n 1870, c/o Lord T. C e c i l , G r a n v i l l e P l a c e , Portman Sq:L (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) 1863. . . (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (7) B e r l i n : F . (8) HF. (1) L (2) I863 . . . (4) (D r) (5 ) , Dr, Prof of Anatomy and Zoology (7) U n i v e r s i t y of Giessen (8) HF. (1) JL (2) 1863-68 (3) Esq (7) 31 Gloucester Gdns, Bishop's Rd, PaddingtonsL (8) C o u n c i l (9) 2 E. L i b r a r i a n of the Corporation of London (1) JL (2) 1868 D2 L i n t o n , Lynn Llo y d , Edmund B2 Lockhart, W i l l i a m Logan, Alexander DI Logan, J.R. (5) L i b r a r i a n of the L i b r a r y of the Corporation of London (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) J (2) 1868 (3) Mrs (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) I863 (3) Esq (6) FRCS (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1861... (3) Esq (6) MRCS (8) CM (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1867... (3) Esq (7) Singapore (8) CM. (1) L (2) 1863-69J (3) Esq (6) FGS (7) Singapore. (1) JL ( 2 ) 1869J... ( 3 ) Esq ( 4 ) M.A. (?) West Hay, Wrington, Somerset E (8) Member (9) N. (1) L ( 2 ) 1863.•• ( 3 ) Esq (?) Upper Norwood Mx:E. (1) J ( 2 ) 1867 ( 3 ) Esq (9) 1 W. (1) JL ( 2 ) 1863... ( 3 ) S i r , Bart ( 5 ) M.P. ( 6 ) FSA, FRS, V-P, LS, Pres, Entomological Soc ( 7 ) C h i s l e h u r s t . Kent:E> moved i n I 8 6 7 to High Elms, Farnborough, KentsE (8) Pres, V-P, E d i t o r (9) 3 D; 6 W; 11 E. (1) L ( 2 ) I863... ( 4 ) (Prof) ( 5 ) Dr, Prof of Anatomy i n the Sencken-burg I n s t i t u t e ( 7 ) F r a n k f o r t -on-the-Main (8) HF. (1) J ( 2 ) 1870 ( 3 ) Mr (9) 1 D. (1) L ( 2 ) I863... ( 3 ) Esq ( 7 ) 1 0 3 St Vincent, St, Glasgow: S; moved i n I 8 6 7 to 7 3 Kensington Garden Square, Paddington:L: moved i n I869 to 32 Pembridge Sq, N o t t i n g H i l l : L , (1) J ( 2 ) I 8 5 k ( k) M.A. ( 5 ) Prof, Queen's Colle g e , B e l f a s t ( 7 ) B e l f a s t (9) 1 W - f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . Macfarlane, John Gray (1 ) JL ( 2 ) 1867... ( 3 ) Esq ( 7 ) Clyde V i l l a , Annerly H i l l , Upper Norwood MxiE (8) Fellow (9) N, MacGowan, (1) JL ( 2 ) 186$... ( k ) (Dr) ( 5 ) Dr ( 7 ) 518 Broadway, New York:F (8) CM (9) 1 D. Mackie, S.J. (1) JL ( 2 ) I 8 6 3 - 6 8 ( 3 ) Mr. (6) FGS ( 7 ) Alma Sq,St John's Wood:L; moved i n I 8 6 7 to 1 Market Place, Oxford C i r c u s : L (8) Fellow (9) 3 D j l W. Long, W i l l i a m Love, Ho r a t i o Lubbock, F r e d e r i c k Lubbock, John Lucae, L u k i s , J.W. McClelland, James MacDouall, Mackinnon, Lauchlan (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 (7) B i t t a c y House, M i l l H i l l , Hendon, MxsE. Mackintosh, D a n i e l Macleay, George McLennan, J.F. Maclure, Andrew (1) JL (2) 1861-69 (6) FGS (7) West St. Chichester, SussexsE (8) F ellow (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1870 (3) Esq (7) P e n d h i l l Court, B l e t c h i n g l e y : E . (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (7) 81 P r i n c e s St, Edinburgh:S (8) Member, C o u n c i l (9) N; I E ; 1 D. (1) JL (2) 1868... (3) Esq (7) 14-Ladbroke Sq. N o t t i n g H i l l s L (8) Fellow (9) Ns. M'Nair, John F r e d e r i c k Aldolphus (1) JL (2) 1867..• (5) Capt, Major, R.A,, Executive Engineer, (7) Singapore:F (8) Fellow (9) N. M a c k r e l l , J . Major, R.H. Malcoto, Charles Malcolm, W.E. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) 34 Cannon St WestiL. (1) J (2) 1861 (3) Esq (6) FSA (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1850-54 (3) S i r (5) Rear Admiral, Vice Admiral (8) Pres (9) 2 E; 3 W - p r e s i d e n t i a l addresses. (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (7) Burnfoot, Langholme near C a r l i s l e , Cumberland:E. Manigear, Simon Casie C h i t t y (1) J (2) 1865-66 (9) 2 W. Mann, Robert Jones Mapleton, R.J. Markham, Clements R. ; (1) JL (2) I 8 6 7 . . . (4) M.D. (5) Superintendant of Education i n N a t a l (6) FRAS (7) N a t a l i F moved to Duke St. Strand:L, 1870 (8) Fellow, CM (9) N;2 W. (1) J (2) 1870 (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (9) 2 W. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 7 . . . ( 3 ) Esq (6) Hon Sec, RGS, O r i e n t a l Club (7) 21 E c c l e s t o n Sq. and O r i e n t a l Clubs 264. L (9) 1 D; 2 V/. BI F? D2 DI DI Marsh, Henry Marsh, Matthew (1) J ( 2 ) 1863 (3) Esq ( 5 ) M.P. ( 8 ) Fellow ( 9 ) N. (1) L ( 2 ) 1863... ( 3 ) Esq ( 5 ) M.P. (6) A.theneum (7) 48 Dover St and Atheneum ClubsL; moved i n 1867 to 6 Rutland Gate, and Ramridge, Andover Hants:E. (1) JL ( 2 ) 1867 ( 3 ) Esq ( 5 ) M.P. (7) 32 St. George's Rd, P i m l i c o s L , and P a t t e r d a l e & Halstead H a l l s , P e n r i t h , Cumberland:E (8) Fellow (9) N. Ma r t i n , Richard Biddulph (1) L ( 2 ) 1869... ( 3 ) Esq (7) Lombard St; L & Clarewood, B i c k l e y , Ches:E. BI M a r s h a l l , W i l l i a m Mason, James Wood Maury, A l f r e d Maw, George Maxwell, P. Benson Mayer, Joseph Mayers, W i l l i a m F. Mayson, John S. Me e k i n s , Meigs, J. A i t k e n (1) L ( 2 ) 1869J... ( 3 ) Esq (7) Government C o l l e g e , C a l c u t t a s F . (1) L (2) 1863... (6) Member of the I n s t i t u t e , P a r i s (8) HF. (1) JL (2) 1867-68 (3) Esq (6) FSA (7) B e n t h a l l H a l l , Broseley, Salop:E (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) 1868... (3) S i r ( 5 ) Chief J u s t i c e (7) Singapore. (1) JL (2) 1863... (3) Esq (6) FSA. (7) Lord St, L i v e r p o o l , Lanes:E (8) C o u n c i l (9) 3 E. (1) L (2) 1867... (3) Esq ( 5 ) H.M. Vice-Consul (7) Cantons F. (•1) L (2) 1863. . . (3) Esq (7) F a l l o w f i e l d , ManchestersE. (1) J (2) I863 (3) Mr (9) 1 D . (1) L (2) I863... ( 5 ) L i b r a r i a n of the Academy of Natural. Sciences, P h i l a d e l p h i a (8) HF. 2 6 5 . B l BI Meryon, Edward M i l e s , W. Augustus T/iilligan, Joseph M i l l i n g e n , F. MiIne s, Monckt on M i l t o n , M i t c h e l l , A l b e r t (1) J (2) 1869 (4) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (6) FRCP (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) I 8 5 k . . . (5) J.P. Commis-si o n e r of P o l i c e , Sydney (6) CM of S t a t i s t i c a l Soc, Musee d ' H i s t o i r e N a t u r e l , P a r i s (8) CM (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Mr (4) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (6) FGS, FZS, FLS, MRAS (7) 15 Northumberland St, StrandsL (9) 1 D. (1) J (2) 1870 (5) Major (6) FRGS (9) 1 V/. (1) J (2) 1863 (3)Mr (9) 1 D. (1) JL (2) I867 . . . (4) Viscount (5) M.P. .107) 34 Curzon S t , and 19 Grosvenor St:L (8) V-P, Co u n c i l (9) 2 E. (1) L (2) 1869. . . (3) Esq (7) Elrnstead, Kent. M i t c h e l l , Alexander (1) L (2) I863 . . . (3) Esq (7) 6 Gt Stanhope S t , Mayfair, C a r o l -s i d e , Berwickshire. Moggridge, M. Monkman, C. Montgomerie, P a t r i c k (1) JL (2) 1869J . . . (3) Esq (6) FGS (7) Monmouthshire:W (8) Member (9) N. (1) J (2) 1870 (3) Esq (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1867 (3) KCB (5) Lt-Gen. Montgomery, Robert Mortimer (1) L (2) I863 . . . (3) Esq (7) 7 Ashley Place, V i c t o r i a S t , West-minster :L. Moody, John Bl Moore, Joseph (1) L (2) 1869. . . (3) Esq (7) St Maurice V i l l a , Heworth Rd, York:E, and c/o J.D. Neale Esq. 13 South Sq. Gray's InnxL. (1) J (2) 1854 (4) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (8) represent ESL at B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . 266-i DI M o r r i s , Eugene M o r r i s , E. Rowley M o r r i s , John D4 Morrison, Walter B2 Mouat, F.J, DI Muir, J. D2 M u l l e r , Max (1) JL (2) 1869J... (3) Esq (5) R.M. (7) Birchwood, Sydenham H i l l MxsE (8) Member (9) N. (1) L (2) 1870 (7) Grungrog Cottage, WelshpoolsL. (1) JL (2) 1869J. . . (7) 28 Avenue, Bennett's Park, Blackheath, Kents E (8) Member (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (5) M.P. (7) 21 Bolton St, P i c c a d i l l y s L (8) Member (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1863. . . (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) Inspector of Indian Goals (7) I n d i a ; F and 45 Arundel St, N o t t i n g H i l l s L (8) Fellow (9) N; 1 D; 1 W. (1) L (2) 1867-69 (3) Esq (6) Atheneum (7) Atheneum ClubsL, and 16 Regent's Terrace, E d i n -burgh :S. (1) JL (2) 1867...(4) (Prof) (5) Prof (7) Oxford:E (8) HF. Munton, F r a n c i s Kerridge (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (6) FRGS (7) 21 Montague S t , R u s s e l l SqsL (8) Member (9) N. DI Murchison, Roderick I. (1) J. (2) 1863. . . (3) S i r , ...KCB (6) FRS, Pres of the Geographical S o c i e t y (4) D.C.L. (5) D i r e c t o r -General of the Museum of P r a c t i c a l Geology (7) 16 Belgrave Sq (8) C o u n c i l (9) 7 E; 2D. DI Murray, John (1) L (2) 1863-69J (3) Esq (5) p u b l i s h e r ) (7) 50 Albemarle StsL; and i n 1867, Newstead, Wimbledon Park. Napier, W i l l i a m Donald (1) J L (2) I863... (3) Esq (7) 22 George S t , Hanover SqsL; moved i n 1879J to Ardmore Lodge, Spring Grove, I s l e w o r t h , MxsE (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 Es 1 D. 26?. Napier, W i l l i a m B2 Nash, Davyd W. Nash, Robert Lucas Nasmyth, Alexander Neale, J. Dormer B l Newcastle, B l Newell, R.S. DI Nicholas, Thomas DI Nicholson, B r i n s l e y D3 Nicholson, Charles N i c o l , Dyce Bl N i c o l l , Donald (1) L (2) 1863. . . (?) ^  P o r t l a n d Place, Great Malvern Worcester:E; moved i n 1867 to Burgage H i l l , Southwell, Notts: E. (1) JL (2) I863. . . (3) Esq (6) FSA, MRSL (7) Cheltenham, Glouces:E (8) Hon Sec (9) 3 E. (1) X. (2) 1870 (3) Esq (7) Craven Cottage, Finchley.E (8) Member (9) N. (1) J (2) 1848 (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1869... (3) Esq (7) 13 South Sq. Gray's Inn: L. (1) J (2) I863 (3) Duke (9) 1 S. (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (7) Ferndene, Gateshead, Durham:E (8) Member (8) N. (1) JL (2) 1869J. .•(4) M.A. (5) Dr (6) FGS (7) 3 Craven St, Strand:L (8) Member, C o u n c i l (9) N; I E ; 3 D; 1 W. (1) L (2) I863... (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) 60th R i f l e s , Surgeon-Major Medical S t a f f , Auckland (7) Chatham, KentsE; moved i n I867 to Auckland, New Zealand:F. (1) JL (2) I863 . . . (3) S i r , Bart (6) V-P, ASL, FRSL (?) 5 Cleveland Row, St. James's:L; moved i n I867 to 26 Devonshire P l a c e , Marylebone:L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 6 E. (1) JL (2) 1863-69J (3) Esq (5) M.P. (7) 5 Hyde Park Terrace: Bayswater:L; moved to 13 Hyde Park Terrace i n I867, with Babentoy, K i n c a r d i n e s h i r e : S as a second address (8) Fellow (9) N . (1) L.(2) I869 (3) Esq (7) Oaklands, West End, Hampstead, Mx:E. 268. N i c o l u c c i , G i u s t i n i a n o (1) L (2) 1863. . . (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (?) Naples:F (8) HF. DI N i l l s s o n , S. Nixon, B r i n s l e y Nott, J.C. O'Callaghan, P. 0'Riley, Edward O l d f i e l d , Augustus Oldham, T. DI Oliphant, Lawrence D3 O l i v e r , S.P. Opper, Gustav Orton, W. B i l l i n g DI Osborne, Sherard F Otto, (1) JL (2) 1863. • • (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (?) StockbolmrF (8) HF (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (?) 1? Bury St, St JamessL. (1) L (2) 1863-68 (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (?) Mobile, Alabama, U.S.:F (8) HP. (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (4) D.C.L.... (LL.D) (6) FSA (7) Leamington, Warwickshire:E (8) Member (9) N. (1) L (2) 1863.•• (3) Esq (7) Burm.ah:F (8) CM. (1) J (2) 1865 (3) Esq (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1854 (5) Geologist to the I n d i a n Survey (6) FGS (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863-69 (3) Esq (5) M.P. (6) Atheneum (7) Atheneum Club and 35 H a l f Moon St. P i c c a d i l l y L. (1) JL (2) 1870 (5) L i e u t , R.A. (6) FRGS (7) 40 H a u t e v i l l e , Guernsey:E (8) CM (9) 2W. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 9 J . . . (4) Dr) (5) Dr (7) 5 Adelaide Sq. Windsor, Berkshire:E (8) Member (9) N; I D ; 1 W. (1) L (2) 1 8 6 9 . . . (3) Esq (7) Chorlton-on-Medlock, Lanes:E. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 8 . . . (5) Capt, RN (6) Atheneum (?) 119 Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, and Atheneum Club:L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 2 E. (1) L (2) 1863.•• (4) (Prof) iS) Prof (7) CopenhagenrF (8) HF. 269. DI Ouvry, F r e d e r i c DI Owen, Richard Paget, Arthur DI Palgrave, W. G i f f o r d Palmer, J.L. DI P a r i s h , Woodbine, (1) L (2) 1869. . . (3) Esq (7) 12 Queen Anne StsL (6) Treasurer, S A . (1) J (2) 1850-64 (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (6) FRS (9) 3 W. (1) J (2) 1863 (3) Esq (8) Fellow (9) N . DI Parkes, Harry Patterson, Edmund Pearse, George Godfrey (1) L (2) 1 8 6 9 . . . (3) Esq (7) Trebizond (8) HF. (1) J (2) 1869 (5) Capt (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1866 (3) KCH (6) FRS (9) 2 W. (1) JL (2) 186-3... (3) S i r , KCB (5) M i n i s t e r P l e n i p o t e n t i a r y , Yeddo, Japan (6) Atheneum and O r i e n t a l Clubs (7) Atheneum & O r i e n t a l ClubssL; and i n 1867, Yeddo, Japan (8) Fellow (9) N ; 1 D. (1) L (2) 1863.•• (3) Esq (7) Sydney, New South WalessF (8) CM. (1) JL (2) 1869J (5) Major, RA RA (9) 1 W. P e r e i r a , F r a n c i s c o E. (1) L (2) 1 8 6 7 . . . (3) Esq (7) IndiasF; moved i n 1868 to Singapore. Perry, Gerald Raoul (1) JL (2) I863.. . (3) Esq (5) H.B.M. Consul (7) Para, B r a z i l s F: moved i n I867 to Rio Grande de SulsF; moved i n 1868 to Stock-holmsF (8) Fellow (9) N . DI F Perry, T. Erskine Perty,_ DI P e t h e r i c k , H.W. (1) JL (2) I863 (3) S i r , KB (7) 36 Eaton PlacesL ( 8 ) Fellow (9) Ns 1 D. (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (7) Berne ( 8 ) HF. (1) L (2) I 8 6 7 . . . (3) Esq ( 7 ) 2 Denmark V i l l a s , Waddon New Rd. Croydon, SurreysE. 270. F P h a i r , J.P. Phayre, A.P. Phoebus, P i c k , Edward P i c k e r i n g , Charles P i c t e t , (1) J (2) 1870 (3) Esq (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1863... (3) S i r , CCB (5) L t - C o l , Governor of Pegu, (6) EIUS (7) Pegu, B r i t i s h Burmah:F, and EIUS Club, 14- St James' Sq:L (8) Fellow (9) Ni 2 W. (1) L (2) 1863.•• (4-) (Prof) (5) Dr, Prof of Na t u r a l H i s t o r y (7) U n i v e r s i t y of Giessen:F (8) HF. (1) L (2) 1863 (4-) :(©r) (5) Dr (7) 40 Bryanston St:L. (1) L (2) I863. Dr (8) CM. (4-) (Dr) (5) (1) L (2) I863...O) M. (7) Geneva: F (8) HF. (1) JL (2) 1869J (3) Esq (5) Inspector of Schools (7) C e n t r a l India:F and 24- I f i e l d Rd, West Brompton, MxsE (8) Member (9) N. (1) J (2) 1867 (5) C o l , H.M. Consul and P o l i t i c a l Agent (7) Zanzibar:F (9) 1 W. DI Poole, Reginald S t u a r t (1) JL (2) 1863-67 (3) Mr (7) B r i t i s h Museum (8) Fellow (9) 2 D ; 1 W. D3 P l a t t s , John D2 P l a y f a i r , Pope, George H. Pope, W.H. Po r t e r , R.F. Postans, T. (1) JL (2) 1869... (3) Esq (6) New U n i v e r s i t y Club, 1 S a v i l e Row: L (8) Member (9) N. (1) L (2) 1867-68 (5) Member of Co u n c i l PEI (7) Prin c e Edward Islands F. (1) J (2) 1870 (4-) (Rev) (5) Rev (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 184-8 (5) Capt (9) 1 w. P o s t l e t h w a i t e , J.L. (1) L (2) I863.. . (3) Esq (7) 38 Bessborough St, P i m l i c o s L , and i n 186?, Northend Cottage, Hastings, SussexsE. '271. Power, .(1) J (2) 1863 (9) 2 D. (3) Mr. DI Prendergast, Thomas (1) L (2) 1867-68 (6) East I n d i a Club (?) East I n d i a Club, St James' Sq, and Grosvenor HotelsL. D2 Prestwich, Joseph DI F DI DI (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 9 J . . . ( 3 ) Esq ( 6 ) FRS (7) Shoreham, Sevenoaks, Kent:E ( 8 ) Member ( 9 ) N. P r i c h a r d , James Cowles (1) J (2) 1848-50 (4) M.D. (8) Pres (6) FRS (9) 2 E; 2 W = obituary; n o t i c e . P r i c e , David S. P r i c e , Lorenzo T. Prideaux, T.S. P u l f o r d , A. P u l l e r , A, G i l e s Pusey, S.E.B. Quatrefages, A. de Queteld, L.A.J, (or Quetelet) Rae, Raikes, Henry (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (7) C r y s t a l P a l a c e i L . (1) L (2) 1 8 6 9 . . . (3) Esq (7) 11 Hockley H i l l , Birmingham, War: E. (1) J (2) 1863-65 (3) Mr (9) I D : 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1867 . .• (3) Esq (7) B r o o m h i l l , Hampton Wick, Kingston-on-Thames, Surrey:E (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) 1867.•• (3) Esq (7) Youngsbury, Ware, Herts:E. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 3 . • • (3) Esq (6) FASL, FRGS (7) 14 Grosvenor Place:L; moved i n 1867 to Green St. Grosvenor Sq; L, w i t h Pusey House, Faringdon, Berks:E as a second address (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E. (1) L (2) 1863. • . W .(Prof) (5) Prof of Ethnology des Plantes (6) Membre de l ' I n s t i t u t (7) P a r i s s F (8) HF. (1) L (2) 1 8 6 3 . . . (5) Astronomer Royal (7) Brussels:F (8) HF. (1) J (2) 1866 (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 (3) Esq (?) Llwynegrin H a l l , Mold-.W. 272. Ramsay, George Dalhousie (1) JL (2) 1863-69 (3) Esq (7) War O f f i c e , P a l l M a l l s L (8) Fellow, C o u n c i l (9) N ; I E. Ramsay, John Rankin, T. (1) JL (2) 1868...(3) Esq (7) I s l a y , A r g y l l s h i r e : S ; moved i n 1869J t o 43 I r r n e r s Court, Glasgow: S, and then i n 1870 to 49 Dunlop St, Glasgow:S, w i t h I s l a y as a second address (8) Fellow (9) N . (1) J (2) 1856 (4) M.A. (5) Rev (9) 1 V/ - f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . Ransford, H. Fowler (1) JL (2) I863-67 (3) Esq (7) 26 Chancery Lane: L (8) Fellow (9) N. R a t c l i f f e , Charles Rawlinson, Henry Read, W.H. Reid, Lestock R. Renan, N.M. (1) L (2) I863.. . (3) Esq (6) FRSL, FRGS, FLS, FSA, FGS (7) Wyddrington, Edgbastion, Birmingham Warwickshire:E. (1) L (2) I863... (3) S i r , KCB (5) Major-General, M.P. (6) FRS (7) 1 H i l l St. Berkeley Sq:L: moved i n 1870 to 21 Charles St, Berkeley Sq:L. (1) L (2) 1867-69J (3) Esq (6) O r i e n t a l Club (7) Singapore:F and O r i e n t a l Club:L. (1) L (2) I863.. . (3) Esq (6) Atheneum (7) 122 Westbourne Terrace. (1) L (2) I863 . . . (6) Membre de 1 * I n s t i t u t , P a r i s (8) HF. Richardson, F r a n c i s (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (7) Park Lodge, Blackheath, Kent: E. R i d l e y , Wm. Rigby, C P . R i s i n g , (1) J (2) 1856 (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1867 (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1866 (5) L i e u t , RN (9) 1 W. Riv i n g t o n , (1) J (2) 1870 (3) Mr (9) 1 D. 273-Roberts, A. (1) L (2) 1869 (3) Esq. Robertson, Archibald. (1) J (2) 1868 (3) Esq (8) F e l l o w (9) N. Robins, T. V a l e n t i n e Robinson, Edward Robinson, G.A. Robinson, G.A. Rogers, George DI R o l l e s t o n , Goerge Rome, James Ronay, Hyacinthe R o s e h i l l , Ross, J.G.C. F Roth, Roweroft, H.C. (1) JL (2) 1867-68 (3) Esq (7) Hale Bank, D i t t o n , L i v e r p o o l ; E (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (4) D.D. (LL.D) (8) HF. (1) L (2) 1867-69 (3) Esq (?) Prahan, Widcombe H i l l , Bath, Somerset sE. (1) L (2) I863. . . (3) Esq (7) P a r i s . (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 8 . . . (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (?) Longwood House, Ashton, B r i s t o l , Glouces:E (8) F e l l o w (9) N. (1) JL (2) I863.. . (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (6) FRS (?) Oxford:E (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E. (1) L (2) I863 (3) Esq (4) M.A. (7) Woodlands, Hamilton, New Brunswick:F. (1) JL (2) 186?... (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (?) 162 Gt P o r t l a n d St, Mary-legone:L; moved i n 1869J to Pesth:F ( 8 ) Fellow (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1870 (3) Lord (?) Easter Warriston House, Edinburgh:S (8) Member (9) N. (1) L (2) I863. . . (3) Esq (7) Cocoa I s l a n d s , nr JavasF. (8) CM. (1) L (2) I863.. . (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (7) Heidelberg-.F (8) HF (1) JL (2) I863... (3) Esq (5) L t , Bengal Engineers (?) 3 Talbot Terrace, Westbourne Park:L and a f t e r I869, forwarding addresses. (8) F e l l o w (9) N. 274. Rudler, F.W, (1) J (2) 1869J (3) Esq (6) FGS (8) Sub-Editor, A s s i s t a n t Sect (9) 3 E. R u s s e l l , A.H. (1) L (2) I863 (5) Captain. Ruxton, George, A.F. Bl Ryan, Edward St. C l a i r , George DI St. John Bayle St. John, S.A, D3 St. John, Spencer B l St, Maur, Edward Sadler, A l f r e d DI Salomons, David Sanderson, A.M. Sanderson, A l f r e d W. (1) J (2) 1850 (5) L i e u t (9) 1 W -f- obituary by Dr. King. (1) JL (2) I863.. . (3) S i r (7) Garden Lodge, 5 Addison Rd, Kensington:L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 2 E. (1) L (2) 1867.•• (3) Esq (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (6) FGS (7) Banbury, Oxford:E; moved i n 18?0 to 104 Sussex Rd, Seven S i s t e r s Rd, Holloway, Mx: E 1. (1) J (2) 1848 (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1867 (5) L t , H.M. 60th Regt (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) I863... (3) Esq (5) H.M. Consul-General, Charge des A f f a i r e s (7) Hayti:F (8) Fellow (9) N: ID; 1W. (1) L (2) I863 (3) Lord (7) Admiralty, Whitehall:L. (1) L (2) 1868-89 (3) Esq (7) Bayham V i l l a , P a t s h u l l Rd, K e n t i s h Twon, Mx:E. (1) L (2) I863... (3) S i r , Bart (5) Alderman, M.P. (6) FRSL (7) 26 Gt Cumberland St:L and Broom H i l l , Tunbridge W e l l s , Kent:E. (1) L (2) I863 (3) Esq (7) 17 A r c h i b a l d S t , Campbell Rd, Bow:E. ( 1)J (2) 1863 (3) Esq (8) Fellow •(9) N. Sanderson, W. Wallbank (1) JL (2) 1869J. . . ( 3 ) Esq (7) Royal I n f i r m a r y , Manchester:E (8) Member (9) N. 275-DI Sandwith, Humfrey F (1) JL (2) 1863-67 (3) C.B. (7) 6 Onslow, Sq, BromptonsL: moved i n I867 to L l a n r h a i d r H a l l , Denbigh! W (8) Fellow (@) Nj 1 D. DI S a u l l , Wm. Devonshire (1) J (2) 1854 (3) Esq (6) FGS (9) 1 W - f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . Saunders, Trelawny (1) J (2) 1870 (3) Mr (9) 1 D. Scherzer, C a r l R i t t e r Von (1) L (2) I863... (7) ViennasF (8) HF. Schetelig,_ DI Schomburgk, Robert Schwarz, J u l i u s (1) J (2) 1869 (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1854-68 (3) S i r (4) Rh.D (5) H.M. Consul (7) Santo Domingo (9) 2 W. (1) L (2) I863, Dr (8) CM. (4) (Dr) (5) S c o t t , F r e d e r i c k Henry (1) JL (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) 9 Cornwall Terrace, Regent's P a r k : l (8) Fellow (9) N. Sco t t , John S c o t t , Thomas DI Scouler, John DI Seemann, B l Selwyn, E.J. F Semper, C a r l Bl? Seymour, Henry Danby (1) JL (2) 1867-69 (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (7) 22 Manchester SqjL; moved' i n 1868 to Singapore:F (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 7 . . . (3) Esq (7) Singapore:F and Charing Cross HotelsL (8) Fellow (9) N . (1) JL (2) 1 8 4 8 . . . (4) M.D. (5) Prof (6) FLS (7) Glasgow iS (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) I863 (4) Dr (5) Dr (9) 1 D. (1) L (2) I863 (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (7) B l a c k h e a l t h , Kent:E. (1) JL (2) 1870 (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (7) Wurzburg (8) HF. (1) L (2) 1867-69 (3) Esq (5) 276. DI Sharp, V/. Bl DI B2 Shaw, Norton Shaw, W. Wardrup S h e f f i e l d , S h i e l , J u s t i n S h o r t t , John M.P. (7) 39 Upper Grosvenor Sts L, and Knoyle House, Hindon, W i l t s I E (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (4-) M.D. (5) (M.D.) (6) FRS (7) Rugby, War sE. (1) JL (2) 1863-68 (4) (Dr) (5 ) Dr (6) FRGS (9) 1 S. (8) HF. (1) L (2) 1867-67 (3) Esq (7) 5 Newman's Court, C o r n h i l l s L . (1) L (2) 1867...(3) E a r l (7) 20 P o r t l a n d Place, and S h e f f i e l d Park, U c k f i e l d , Sussex:E. (1) JL (2) 1863-69 (3) S i r , KCB (5) Major-General (7) 13 Eaton Place, Eaton Squ:L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 2 E. (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (4-) L.DS M.D. (5) Z i l l a h Surgeon, Surgeon of H.M. Madras Army, General Superintendant of V a c c i n a t i o n (6) FLS, MRCPL, (7) Chingleput, Madras 1F (8')' Fellow, (9) N; 6 W. Showers, Charles L i o n e l (1) JL (2) I863. Shuttleworth, J.K. Simpson, James (5) Major (7) India:F (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) I863 (3) S i r , Bart (7) 38 Gloucester Sq:L. (1) JL (2) 18?0 (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (7) K i r k b y Stephen, West-morland :E (8) Members (9) N. Simpson, W i l l i a m Henry (1) JL (2) 1868 (3) Esq (7) 50 Gower St.si (8) Fellow (9) N. DI S i n c l a i r , Skene, Henry Smith, (1) J (2) I863 (5) Archdeacon (9) 1 D. (1) J (2) 1850 (9) 1 W. C D J (2) I863 (3) Mr (7) Jordan H i l l (9) 1 D. 277. Smart, Bath Charles (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (4) M.D. ( 5 ) (M.D.) (6) MRCS (7) Balsham, Luton, CambssE; moved i n I867 to Oxford Rd, Manchester:E; moved i n 1868 to Greek House, Waterloo Rd, ManchesteriE (8) Fellow ( 9 ) N; 1 W - f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . Smith, E. Osborne (1) JL (2) I863 ( 3 ) Esq (6) FRGS (7) 21 Cornwall Terrace, Regent's ParksL (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E . Smith, John (1) JL (2) I863... ( 3 ) Esq (?) 8 T a v i s t o c k P l a c e , Tavistock Sq:L; moved i n I867 to 1 Gt George St, Westminster:L; moved i n I869 t o Stroud Green, Upper Holloway, MxsE (8) Member (9) N. Smith, Thomas J. (1) L (2) 1 8 6 9 J . . . ( 3 ) Esq (7) Hessle, Kingston-on-Hull, YorkssE. Bl Snow, W. Parker (1) JL (2) I 8 6 I - 6 9 ( 5 ) Capt (8) Fellow ( 9 ) 2 Ds 1 W. DI S o l l y , Samuel Reynolds (1) JL (2) I863-65 ( 3 ) Esq (4-) M.D. ( 5 ) (M.D.) (6) FRS, FSA (7) 10 Manchester SqsL (8 ) F e l l o w C o u n c i l ( 9 ) Nsl E: 1 D. Some r v i l l e , W i l l i a m (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 ... ( 3 ) Esq (7) Strathaven House, Hendon, MxsE; and i n 186? t Wood StsL (8) Fellow ( 9 ) N. Spence, G.W. (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 ( 3 ) Esq (4-) M.D. ( 5 ) M.C. ( 7 ) Alnwick, Northumber-land sE (8) Fellow (9) N. Spencer, W. Henry (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 ( 3 ) Esq ( 6 ) FASL ( 7 ) Church Sq. High Wycombe BuckssE. Spottiswoode, W i l l i a m (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 ... ( 3 ) Mr. (4) M.A. ( 6 ) FRS ( 7 ) 1 9 Chester St, Belgrave SqsL; moved to 50 Gros-venor Place i n 1 8 6 7SL (8) C o u n c i l ( 9 ) 3 E; 1 D; 1 W. Sproat, G i l b e r t Malcolm (1 ) J (2) 186? ( 3 ) Esq (9) 2 W. 278. Squier, E.G. S t a t i o n , J . J . Stanbridge, W.E. Sta p l e s , H.I. S t e e l , E.H. Steenstrup, Japetus S t e f f e n s , Alfonso Steinhauer, C a r l (1) J (2) 1870 (7) New York (9) 1 D. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) Lewishara, KentsE. (1) JL (2) I863... (?) Wombat, Daylesford, V i c t o r i a : F (8) Fellow (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) Colombo, Ceylon. (1) J (2) 1869 (5) L i e u t , R.A. (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1867... ( k) (Prof) (5) Prof (7) Copenhagen:F (8) HF (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) I869 (9) 1W. (1) L (2) I867... (5) D i r e c t o r of the E t h n o l o g i c a l Museum (7) Copenhagen (8) HF. Stepney, "William F r e d e r i c k Cowell (1) JL (2) 1867 (3) Esq (7) 9 Bolton St, P i c c a d i l l y s L ; moved i n 1868 to 6 W i l t o n Terrace, Palace Rd, Upper Norwood, MxsE; moved i n 1870 to 8 Bolton S t, P i c c a d i l l y : L (8) Fellow (9) N . Stevens, N. Henry (1) JL (2) I863. . . (3) Esq (7) l k Finsbury C i r c u s : L (8) Fellow (9) N . DI Stewart, Alexander P a t r i c k (1) L (2) 1 8 6 3 - 6 9 J ( k ) (Dr) (5) Dr (7) 7 k Grosvenor St, Grosvenor Sq:L. Stewart, Charles Edward (1) L (2) 18?0 (5) Captain, 5yh Punjab I n f a n t r y (7) l k Sussex Gdns sL. D3 Strachy,. (1) J (2) I85 k (5) Capt, Bengal Engineers (9) 1 W-for the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . 279. Bl B l DI Strangford, S t r e t t o n , George A. S t r e t t o n , H. S t u a r t , Robert Sutherland, J.P. Sutherland, P.G. S w i f t , Robert L. Swinhoe, Robert Tagore, G.M. (1) JL (2) 1863-69 (3) Viscount (7) 58 Cumberland StsL (8) Fellow, Council (9) N: 2 E. (1) J (2) 1869-70 (3) Mr (8) Receiver (9) 2 E. (1) L (2) 1863 ( k) M.A. (5) Rev (7) Cromwell House, Highgate Mx:E. (1) J (2) 1868 ( 3 ) CB (5) Major, H.M. Consul (7) A l b a n i a (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) I863... (3) Esq (4) M.D. (7) N a t a l , South A f r i c a : F. (1) J (2) 1856 (4) M.D. (5) Surgeon (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 ? . . . (3) Esq (5) Consul (7) Oporto, Portugal:F and Levinge Lodge, Richmond:E: moved i n 1868 to Barcelona (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) I863.•• (3) Esq (8) CM. (1) J (2) 1863 (4) (Prof) (5) Prof of Hindu Law at U n i v e r s i t y Co l l e g e , London (9) 2 W. Tamil, n a t i v e of Ceylon (1) J (2) 1865 (9) 1 w, Tanner, James (1) L (2) 1 8 6 8 . . . (4) (Rev) ( 5 ) Rev, J u n i o r Chaplain, Madras E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Establishment (7) B e l l a r y , Madras. Taylor, Thomas Meadows (1) JL (2) I863. .. ( 3 ) CSI ( 5 ) Col ( 6 ) MRAS, MR I A. (8) CM (9) 1 W. D3 Temple Richard (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 7 . . . ( 3 ) KCSI ( 5 ) Resident a t Hyderabad, M i n i s t e r of Finance, C a l c u t t a (6) Indian and O r i e n t a l Club (7) Indian & O r i e n t a l Club, Hanover Sq:L; moved i n 1868 to Hyderabad:F; 280. DI B l Tennant, John moved i n 1869 to C a l c u t t a : F (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) I863... (3) Esq (6) Brooks' Club (?) St R o l l a x , Glasgow:S, and Brooks' Club:L. Tennent, J. Emerson (1) L (2) 1863 (3) S i r , KCB (7) 66 Warwick St. P i m l i c o : L . Thomsen, G.J. Thompson, J . Thomson, A.S. Thomson, G. Thomson, T.R. Heywood T h r e l k e l d , Sidney Thrupp, John Thurlow, Edward DI Thurnam, John (1 ) L (2) 1 8 6 7 - 6 8 (3) Esq (7) Copenhagen:F (8) HF. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 8 . . . (3) Esq (7) Singapore:F (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) J (2) 1854 (4) M.D. (5) Surgeon, 5 8 t h Regt (9) 1 W . (1) J (2) 1868 (3) Esq (9) 1 W . (1) J (2) 1850-54 (Dr) (5) Dr, Surgeon NR, "Niger E x p e d i t i o n " (9) 3 W. - one f o r B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . (1) L (2) I863... (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (8) CM. (1) JL (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (6) FRGS (7) 7 Warwick Sq, P i m l i c o : L ; moved I867 to B e l l Yard, Doctor's Commons:!; moved i n 1 8 6 9 J to Sunnyside, Dorking, Surrey:E (8) C o u n c i l (9) 4 E; 2 W + mention of death. (1) L (2) I863 . . . (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (6) Atheneum (7) Atheneum Club, P a l l Mall:L. (1) JL (2) I863... (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) W i l t s Country Asylum (6) FSA (7) Devizes, W i l t s h i r e : E ; moved i n 1868 to W i l t s Country Asylum (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E. Tiddeman, Richard H i l l Timmins, Samuel (1$ JL (2) 1870 (3) Esq (4) B.C. (5) of HM G e o l o g i c a l Survey (6) FGS (7) 28 Jermyn S t i L (8) Member (9) N . (1) JL (2) I 8 6 7 . . . (3) Esq (6) FRSL (7) Elvetham Lodge, Birmingham, War:E (8) Fellow (9) N. 281. Tolme, CD. Townsend, J.P. Travers, W. Tr'ubner, N, Tuke, T. Harrington T u l l o c h , Alexander Tumangung, Turnery (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) 20 Queen Sq:L. (1) J (2) 1854 (3) Esq ( 9 ) 1 W.-for B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . (1) J (2) 1866 (3) Esq (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq ( 5 ) (publisher) (7) 60 Paternoster Row:L. (1) JL (2) 1 8 6 3 . . . (3) Esq (4) M.D. (7) Chiswick, EssexsE: moved i n I867 to 37 Albemarle StsL, with Manor House Chiswick: E, as a second address: Manor House only as 1870 address (8) C o u n c i l , V-P (9) 3 E. (1) J (2) I 8 6 3 ( 3 ) S i r ( 5 ) General (9) 1 D. (1) J (2) 1868 (3) Maharajah (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) I 8 6 3 . . . (4) (Prof) ( 5 ) Prof (8) CM. T y l o r , Edward Burnet Underwood, John-; Ussher, John Vaughan, George Vaughan, J.D. Vaux, W.S.W. Vogt, C a r l Von Baer, (1) JL ( 2 ) I863. . . (3) Esq (7) Linden, W e l l i n g t o n , Somerset:E (8) C o u n c i l , V-P (9) 3 Ej 2 W. (1) L ( 2 ) 1863 (3) Esq ( 4 ) M.D. ( 5 ) (M (7) Hastings, Sussex:E. (1) JL ( 2 ) 1867-69 (3) Esq (7) 54 Belgrave Rd, P i m l i c o : L (8) Member, C o u n c i l (9) N: 1 E. (1) JL ( 2 ) 1867-68 (3) Esq (7) Singapore (8) Fellow ( 9 ) N. (1) L ( 2 ) I869. . . (8) CM. (1) J ( 2 ) 1861 ( 4 ) M.A. ( 9 ) 1 W. (1) JL ( 2 ) 1 8 6 8 J . . . ( 4 ) (Prof) ( 5 ) Prof ( 7 ) Genev;a:F (8) HF. (1) L ( 2 ) I863..• ( 4 ) (Prof) ( 5 ) Prof (7) St Petersburg:F (8) HF. 282. DI F D4 Dl Wade, Thomas F r a n c i s (1) JL (2) 1867... (3) Esq (5) Sec, HM Legation, Pekin (7) Pekin, China:F (9) 1 W. Waitz, Walcott, P. Walker, J.S. Walker, T. (1); L (2) I863-68 (4) (Prof) (5) Prof (7) Marbourg:F (8) HF. (1) J (2) I863 (3) Mr (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) I863... (3) Esq (7) 31 Lombard St:L; moved i n I867 to The Bury, Hunsdon, Ware, Herts:E. (1) L (2) I863... (3) Esq (7) Beulah Rd, Tunbridge, W e l l , KentsE Wallace, A l f r e d R u s s e l l (1) JL (2) 1865..• (3) Esq (7) 9 St Mark's Crescent:L; moved i n 1870 to H o l l y House, Tanner St, Barking Essex:E (8) Fellow, C o u n c i l ( 9 ) Ni 1 E i 1 Di 2 W . F Walther, P h i l i p p A, Ward, Samuel J. B l Warner, Edward (1) L (2) I863... (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (7) Darmstadt:F (8) HF. (1) JL (2) I863-67 (3) Esq (4) M.D. (5) Dr (7) 28 Pinsbury C i r c u s : L (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E; 1 D. (1) JL (2) I863... (3) Esq (5) M.P. (7) 49 Grosvenor P l a c e ; and i n 186?, Higham H a l l , Woodford, EssexsE (8) F e l l o w (9) N. Warren, J, (T.P. Bruce?) (1) L (2) 1868... (3) Esq (?) Mitcham, Surrey:E. Watson, Samuel Watts, J. King Waugh, Andrew Sco t t (1) JL (2) I863-67 (3) Esq (?) 12 Bouverie St, F l e e t StsL (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (?) St Ives, HuntssE. (1) JL (2) I863-69J (3) S i r , KCB (5) Major-General, RE (6) Atheneum, FRS (7) Atheneum ClubsL, and i n 186?, Petersham Terrace, Queen's Gate GdnssL (8) Fellow (9) N. 2.83. B l D4 D l Webster, John W e l l i n g t o n , Wells Mordaunt (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (?) St _ James' Row, S h e f f i e l d , Yorkss E. (1) J (2) 1869J (5) Bishop (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1867 (3) S i r (7) 107 V i c t o r i a St, WestministersL. West, Reginald S a c k v i l l e (1) L (2) 1867-68 (3) (Hon) (4) (Rev) (5) Rev (?) Withyham, Tunbridge W e l l , Kent:E; and i n 1868, Knole Sevenoakss E. Westropp, Hodder Whishaw, James White, White, F. White, James T. Whymper, F r e d e r i c k Wienecke, (1) JL (2) 1867..• (3) Esq (9) 3 W. (1) L (2) 1863 (3) Esq (6) O r i e n t a l Club, FSA (7) 16 York Terrace, Regent's Park:L; and i n 1869, O r i e n t a l Club, Hanover Sq:L. (1) J (2) 1863 (3) Esq (9) 1 D. (1) J (2) 1869 (9) 1 W. (1) JL (2) 1863 (3) Esq (7) 20 Cumberland Terrace, Regent's P a r k i L (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) J (2) 1869 (3) Esq (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) 1863.. . (4) (Docteur) (5) Docteur, O f f i c i e r de Sante de S.M. l e Roi des Pays-Bas, C h e v a l i e r (7) B a t a v i a : F (8) CM. Wildman, Leveson W i l k i n s , J.W. Wilk i n s o n , J . Gardner Williamson, G. (1) J (2) 1866 (5) Capt, RN (9) 1 W. (1) J (2) 1863 (3) Esq (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) L (2) I863 . . . (3) S i r (6) FRS (7) 33 York St, Portman Sq:L (8) HF. (1) L (2) 1863 (4) (Dr) (5) Dr (7) A l d e r s h o t t , HampssE. 284. D3 Wilson, Charles Winwood, Henry D3 Wolfe, H. Drummond Wood, Samuel Wood, W. M a r t i n Woods, Robert Carr (1) J (2) 1866 ( 5 ) Capt (9) 1 W. ( 1 ) JL (2) 1869J... (4) M.A. ( 5 ) Rev (6) FGS ( 7 ) 4 Cavendish Crescent, BathsE (8) Member (9) N. (1) JL (2) I863... ( 3 ) S i r , KCMG ( 5 ) Sec to Lord High Commissioner, Ionian I s . ( 7 ) 1 5 Rutland Gate:L (8) Fellow (9) N. (1) JL (2) I863... ( 3 ) Esq (6) FSA ( 7 ) Shrewsbury, Salop:E (8) C o u n c i l (9) 1 E. (1) J (2) 1866 ( 3 ) Esq (9) 1 W. (1) L (2) I863... ( 3 ) Esq ( 7 ) Singapore:F. F Wrangell, Ferdinand Von (1) L (2) I863... ( 5 ) Admiral (7) St Petersburgh (8) HF Wright, F. Beresford (1) JL (2) 1870 ( 3 ) Esq (7) Al d e r c a r H a l l , Langley M i l l s nr NottinghamsE (8) Member ( 9 ) N. DI Wright, Thomas Wylie, B2? Young, Robert (1) JL (2) I863... ( 3 ) Esq (4) M.A. (6) Hon MRSL, FSA Corr Mem Imperi a l I n s t i t u t e of France ( 7 ) 14 Sydney St, Brompton:L (8) Hon Sec, V-P ( 9 ) 8 E; 2 D ; 3 W. (1) J (2) I863 ( 3 ) Mr ( 9 ) 1 D. (1) J (2) 1854 ( 3 ) Esq (4) (MRCS) (5) KUVIRCS) (6) MRCS ( 9 ) 1 W -f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . 2 8 5 . Appendix I I ; The S o c i a l Areas of V i c t o r i a n London These are the areas of London, as discussed i n Chapter 5, that are associated with the ESL addresses. The informa-t i o n has been arranged i n t a b l e form below g i v i n g the d e t a i l s on the areas. The m a t e r i a l i n the "boundaries" and "nature" columns come from the various sources on Nineteenth Century London. The complete references are i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y f o l l o w i n g the t a b l e . name Mayfair B e l g r a v i a boundaries -Timbs:39 -Hutchings:696 -Old & New London i v : 2 7 5 - 8 0 . ( h e r e a f t e r O&N L. ) 34-5 -Handbook f o r London, 1849: -Hutchings:231 -O&N L v:8 — re both Mayfair and B e l g r a v i a St. James ( s t r e e t ) P a l l M a l l ( s t r e e t ) nature -EadesJ228,242,247 -Korgsl32 - B e l l : 5 1 -Eades:247 -Sheppard :49 -Hutchings : 7 n 9 -Sheppard:184,351 -*Timbs:298 — re d i f f e r e n c e s between Mayfair grouping and Tyburnia grouping -Korg:132 - L o f t i e : 2 1 9 -Sheppard:353 Tyburnia -Eades:207 - L o f t i e : 2 3 5 -O&N L:188 -Eades-.228,247, 2 8 6 -Harrison'178 - L o f t i e : 2 1 9 286. Marylebone Paddington Kensington Brompton Chelsea Knightsbridge St. John's Wood Bloomsbury - B e l l , map:7 - L o f t i e s202 -0&N L: v:25L -O&N L v:204 -Bell : 5 2 -O&N L v:110 •O&N L v:50 -Hutchings map:24-5 -Loftie : 2 0 5 - 6 -Hibbert : 138 -Hutchings:888 - O&N L v :248 -Sheppard:90-1 -Besant : 4 , 6 -Hutchings, map:24-5 -0&NL v :480 -Ash:150 -Bell:5 1 -Hibbert:186 -O&N L lv : 4 2 8 , 446,448,468 -Sheppard:24,362 -Ash:150 -Hibbert:186 -Bell:5 2 -O&N L v:l? 7 -Sheppard:362 -O&NL v :110 -Bell:5 2 -Boynton:264 -Sheppard:362 (included i n other areas-cf •Chelsea, Kensing-ton) -Coppock 8c P r i n c e : 84,104 -O&N L v:248 - B e l l : l 6 7 -Besant :4 -Brown:94 -Brown:94 -Loftie:2 0 7 -O&N L i v : 4 8 0 -- re C i t y of Westminster — B e l l : 4 4 ; Eades:227; Hutchings :4695 Schlesinger : 1 7 1 — Covent Garden Strand C i t y of London -O&N L i i i : 2 3 8 ( s t r e e t ) -Bartholemew's P l a n of London - B e l l : 7 -Hutchings :469, map:24-5 -Sheppard:24 - B e l l : 4 4 -Hutchings :604 - L o f t i e : 8 l - B e l l : 4 4 -Sheppard '287 v Regent S t r e e t Charing Cross V i c t o r i a Bayswater Not t i n g H i l l ( s t r e e t ) ( s t r e e t ) ( s t r e e t ) - O & N : ; . L v i i 8 3 -Harrison:192 -O&N L : v : ! 8 l - B e l l . 9 0 , 1 7 3 -Korg:132 -Sheppard:169,355 -Hibhert : 1 8 9 -Timbs:249 -Hibbert :187 -Ash:150 -Harrison:201 -O&N L v:177 , !83 -Eades:206 -Harrison:201 south of the Thames - B e l l * 5 3 Sources Ash, Bernard Bartholemew* s B e l l , Aldon D. The Golden C i t y ; London between the  F i r e s , 1666-1941. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1964. P l a n of London. London Bartholemew Map Co. , 1970. London i n the Age of Dickens. Norman: U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma Press, 1967. Besant, S i r Walter London i n the Nineteenth Century. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1901. Boynton, Percy Brown, Ivor London i n E n g l i s h Literature,., Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1913. London: An I l l u s t r a t e d H i s t o r y . London: Studio V i s t a , 1965-Coppock, J.T. and P r i n c e , Hugh C. eds. Greater London London: Faber & Faber, 1964. Cunningham, Peter Handbook f o r London Past and Present. London: John Murray, 1849. Eades, George A, H i s t o r i c London: The Story of a C i t y and  i t s People. London: Queen Anne Press L t d . , 1966. 288. H a r r i s o n , Michael London Growing: the Development of a M e t r o p o l i s . London: Hutchinson, 1965» Hibbert, Christopher London: the Biography of a C i t y . London: Longmans, 1 9 ° 9. Hutchings, W.W. London Town Past and Present. London: C a s s e l l & Co. L t d . , 1909. Korg, Jacob London i n Dickens' Day. Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , i960. L o f t i e , J.W. A H i s t o r y of London. London: E. Stanford, 1884. S c h l e s i n g e r , Max Saunterings In and About London. London: Nathaniel Cooke, 1853« Sheppard, F r a n c i s London 1808-1870: the I n f e r n a l Wen. London: Seeker & Warburg, 1971. "0&N"-Thornbury, Walter, and Walford, Edward Old and New London: A. N a r r a t i v e of I t s H i s t o r y , I t s People, and I t s Places. 6 v o l s , v . i - 2 by Thornbury, and v.3-6 by Walford, London: C a s s e l l & Co. L t d . , 1887-93. 289-. Appendix I I I . D e t a i l e d Table of ESL Members' Residence i n S o c i a l Areas of London t o t a l area 1 8 6 3 1866 1 8 6 7 1 8 6 8 1 8 6 9 1 8 7 0 a c t u a l adds Mayfair 18 20 2 0 1 5 16 14 37 B e l g r a v i a 1 2 9 8 4 7 8 17 Atheneum St James St 21 1 9 1 8 1 5 1 3 1 3 3 2 P a l l M a l l Westminister 14 5 3 4 1 3 3 2 0 t o t a l M ayfair grouping 6 5 5 3 4 9 38 4 4 3 8 Tyburnia 3 3 2 3 1 4 7 P i m l i c o 4 5 4 6 5 5 1 2 Marylebone 1 0 1 1 6 8 9 8 2 3 Paddington 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 t o t a l Tyburnia grouping 18 2 0 13 17 1 6 17 Kensington 5 5 5 4 4 3 1 0 Brompton 4 2 3 4 3 3 7 Chelsea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Knightsbridge 1 4 5 5 5 4 5 St John's Wood 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 Regent's Park 4 1 1 0 0 0 4 Bloomsbury 6 2 1 •2 2 3 9 t o t a l Kensington grouping 21 1 6 ' 1 6 ' 1 6 1 5 14 Covent Garden 3 3 3 1 1 1 4 Strand 4 4 4 4 5 6 8 C i t y of London 11 1 0 7 5 : 5 8 1 9 T o t a l Covent Garden grouping 18 17 14 1 0 11 1 5 Bayswater 3 3 3 3 4 5 7 N o t t i n g H i l l 2 3 3 2 5 4 7 t o t a l Bayswater 6 grouping 5 6 5 9 9 south of Thames 3 3 3 3 4 4 0 north London 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 t o t a l other London grouping 4 5 5 5 6 6, t o t a l 1 3 1 1 1 7 1 0 3 91 1 0 6 1 0 1 The a r e a s on t h i s map are those established by the d o c u m e n t a t i o n i n Appendix I I . Those ar e a s o u t l i n e d w i t h a b r o k e n l i n e and i n c a p i t a l s are ones w i t h f o r m a l b o u n d a r i e s ; , e.g. C i t y of ^ondon, Borough o f K e n s i n g t o n . The r e s t a r e the s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d a r e a s of M i d - V i c t o r i a n London. The s t r e e t map used here i s from G e o g r a p h e r s 1  London A t l a s , Kent: Geographers' toap Company ., 5th e d i t i o n , The s c a l e o f the map i s g i v e n below s c a l e : :,ap o: i e S o c i a l A r e a s of • / i c t o r i a n London 

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