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Student attitude and achievement in freshman physics, as related to stated student occupational choice… Fox, Roger F. 1974

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STUDENT ATTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT IN FRESHMAN PHYSICS, AS RELATED TO STATED STUDENT OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH by ROGER F. FOX B.Sc. University of Br i t ish Columbia, 1959 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of SCIENCE EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required staridar<l THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1974 In presenting this thesis in partial fulf i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f inancial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. ROGER F. FOX Department The University of Br i t ish Columbia Vancouver V6T1W5, Canada ABSTRACT Knowledge of how different vocation-oriented groups of students respond to the classroom environment is a serious concern of an instructor in a f i r s t year college physics course -- especial ly those who accept the responsibi l i ty of f ac i l i t a t ing the resolution of vocational choice determination. Knowledge about the nature of the instructor 's class -- in terms of how they respond to various aspects of the teaching-learning situation -- has interpretative value in making decisions about special instructional provisions for the groups. This thesis was an attempt to provide information about the nature of the differences between vocation-oriented groups of students, in terms of selected dependent variables, important to the instructor of a f i r s t year college physics course. The data for the study was gathered from one class of a Physics 110 course offered at the University of Br i t ish Columbia. Students in the class were divided into three groups based on vocational choice. Each of these groups were further subdivided in terms of the amount of high-school physics experience. Nineteen dependent variables were c lass i f ied into three categories: (a) Antecedent -- Variables which provided information on a student's general academic a b i l i t y , and his competence in Science subjects at the high-school l eve l , (b) Cognitive -- Variables which provided information on student achievement during the year in Physics 110, and i i i (c) Affective -- Variables providing information about a student's attitude towards concepts related to science in general and physics in part icular. The data gathered was analysed f i r s t by a one-way multivariate analysis of variance. This analysis showed that there was a s ta t i s -t ica l s ignif icant difference between vocation-oriented group centroids on the dependent variables taken a l l at a time. The analysis was carried further to determine the nature of these group differences through a discriminant analysis. The discriminant analysis produced two signif icant discriminant functions which provided information on the variables that contributed most to differentiat ing between the groups along each function. The overall conclusion that was suggested is that only those students who were required to take just one year of college physics were c lear ly distinguished from the other vocation oriented groups. The major dist inct ion between these groups being academic ab i l i t y . Years of schooling in a subject area was also an important dist inguish-ing factor for instructional purposes, but this factor did not discrim-inate between the various vocation-oriented groups. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express his thanks to his committee: Dr. Cannon, Committee Chairman, Dr. Boldt and Dr. Westphal. Special thanks must be given to Dr. Cannon for the opportunity to do graduate work, and for a l l his efforts on my behalf. The author wil l always be indebted to Dr. Boldt for his guidance, empathy, and patient understanding of my d i f f i c u l t nature. Dr. Boldt provided inspirat ion, and gave unstintingly of his time to ensure a successful conclusion to the study. The author wishes to acknowledge the many others who were so wi l l ing to l isten and offer advice: Dr. Bashook, Mr. Page, and Mr. and Mrs. Erickson. Without their continual urging and encourage-ment this work may not have been completed. The author expresses his deepest affection to his wife Marguerite, and two chi ldren, Jennifer and Pamela, each of whom, in her own way, helped in the real isat ion of the value of this study. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . iv TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES . ix LIST OF FIGURES x 1. THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT . 1 1.1 Importance of the Study 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem , 4 1.2.1 General Problem 4 1.2.2 Specific Problem . . . 4 1.2.3 Stat is t ica l Hypothesis 5 1.3 Definit ion of Terms 6 1.4 Method of Study 6 1.4.1 Cognitive Variables 6 1.4.2 Affective Variables 7 1.4.3 Antecedent Variables 8 1.5 Limitations of the Study 9 2. RELATED STUDIES 10 2.1 Theories of Vocational Choice 10 2.1.1 Non-Developmental Theories 10 2.1.2 Developmental Theories 11 2.1.3 Summary 16 vi Chapter Page 2.2 Student Characteristics and Vocational Choice 17 2.2.1 Educational Interests of the Student 17 2.2.2 Ab i l i t i e s of the Student 17 2.2.3 Values Held by the Student . . . . . . 18 2.2.4 Personality of the Student 19 2.2.5 Summary 22 2.3 Self-Concept and Vocational Choice 23 2.3.1 Importance of Vocational Self-Concept 23 2.4 Academic Achievement and Vocational Choice . . 26 2.4.1 Importance of Academic Success . . . . 26 2.4.2 Summary 32 . 2.5 Secondary School Achievement and Vocational Choice 32 2.5.1 Importance of Secondary School Achievement to Success in College . . . 32 2.6 Conclusions 34 3. METHOD OF STUDY 36 3.1 Subjects Used in the Study 36 3.1.1 Nature of the Subjects 36 3.1.2 Selection of the Subjects . 37 3.2 Method of Collecting the Data 39 3.2.1 Nature of the Independent Variables . 39 v i i Chapter Page 3.2.2 Method of Collecting Data on the Independent Variables . . . . . 41 3.3 Nature of the Dependent (Criterion) Variables 41 3.3.1 Method of Collecting Data on the Dependent Variables 43 3.4 Method of Analysis 48 3.4.1 Data Processing 48 3.4.2 Testing the Null Hypothesis 48 3.4.3 Discriminant Analysis 49 4. RESULTS OF THE STUDY 50 4.1 Summary of Results 50 4.1.1 The Data 50 4.2 Analysis of the Data . . 53 4.2.1 Multivariate Analysis of Variance . . . 53 4.3 Discriminant Analysis . . . . . . . . 55 4.3.1 Results 55 4.4 Interpretation of Results 58 4.4.1 Variables Contributing to Group Separation 58 4.5 Summary of Results 64 5. CONCLUSIONS 65 5.1 The Problem 65 5.2 Conclusions 66 5.2.1 Group Differences . . . . 66 5.2.2 Discriminant Analysis 67 Chapter Page 5 . 3 Recommendations for Further Study 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 APPENDICES 77 APPENDIX A - Personal Data Sheet APPENDIX B - Semantic-Differential Instrument APPENDIX C - Knowledge Pre-Test APPENDIX D - Mid-Term I Examination APPENDIX E - Xmas Examination APPENDIX F - Mid-Term II Examination APPENDIX G - Terminal Examination ix LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. PERCENT OF STUDENTS INDICATING EACH VOCATIONAL CHOICE 38 II. DATA MATRIX 47 III. GROUP MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND TOTAL SAMPLE MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS 51 IV. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE - RESULTS 54 V. TABLE OF LATENT ROOTS (EIGENVALUES); CHI-SQUARE TEST FOR EACH ROOT 55 VI. SCALED VECTORS FOR EACH DEPENDENT VARIABLE ON THE DISCRIMINANT FUNCTIONS 56 VII. GROUP CENTROIDS ON DISCRIMINANT FUNCTIONS I AND II .. . 57 VIII. GROUP CS-1: FUNCTION I 60 IX. GROUP CS-2: FUNCTION I 61 X. GROUP RS-1: FUNCTION I 61 XI. GROUP RS-2: FUNCTION I 62 XII. GROUP U-l: FUNCTION I 62 XIII. GROUP U-2: FUNCTION I 63 X LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Group Centroids in Discriminant Space 5 9 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT 1.1 Importance of the Study Classroom experience with f irst-year courses at the college level sometimes raises the question of whether or not special provision should be made for different groups of students taking the course. Of concern to the instructor of a required course in physics for entering college students, for example, may be the major differences between the different vocation-oriented groups in his class in terms of a number of cr i ter ion variables for the course, and to make appropriate provis-ions for these groups, i f necessary. When instructional programmes are being developed for use by teachers, a fa i lure to monitor entry sk i l l s can result in a grossly inadequate match between learning needs of students and the content of instruction. 1 That the matter of vocational goals of students should be of concern to the instructor has been emphasized by Ginzberg [1951]. Skager, R.W., Student Entry Sk i l l s and the Evaluation of  Instructional Programmes: A Case Study, Report No. 53, June 1969, p. 1, Centre for the Study of Evaluation. 2 The educational system impinges direct ly and i n -direct ly on the many aspects of the process of occupational choice determination. There are a host of problems of both philosophy and procedure which should be c r i t i c a l l y evaluated to insure that present practices contribute to, rather than depart from, the effective resolution of occupational choice.2 Educational practice should contribute not only to the general aims of education but also to specif ic aims such as the effective 3 resolution of vocational choice. Thus, according to Ginzberg, i f c lass -room instruction is to be effective in the resolution of occupational choice, an instructor needs to take students with different occupational goals into account. Stated more succinctly: . . . technology has created a new relationship between man, his education, and his work, in which education is placed squarely between man and his work.4 Fac i l i ta t ing the resolution of vocational choice is an urgent matter at the first-year college leve l . The prerequisite courses offered at this level are immediately prior to embarking on specialized studies. As such, courses at the f irst-year college level often serve as choice-points at which f inal decisions about a vocation are made. The importance of assisting students in f ina l iz ing a vocational choice at the f i r s t year college level is emphasized by Ginzburgh [1951], Havinghurst [1953], and Super [1963], These researchers have suggested E. Ginzberg, et aK , Occupational Choice: An Approach to a  General Theory, New York: Columbia University Press, 1951, p. 242. 30p.. C i t . , p. 1. 4 G. Venn, Man, Education and Work, Washington Council on Education, 1964, p . l . 3 that, at the first-year, col lege leve l , students make the most r ea l i s t i c decisions on l i fe-sty le and vocation. Knowledge of how different vocation-oriented groups respond to the classroom environment is a serious concern to the instructor of a f irst-year college course -- especial ly to those who accept the responsibi l i ty of f ac i l i t a t ing the resolution of vocational choice determination. Knowledge about the nature of the differences between the various vocation-oriented groups in his c lass , -- in terms of how they respond to various aspects of the teaching-learning situation — has interpretative value in making decisions about special instructional provisions for the groups. The aim of the present study was to provide information about the nature of group differences in a f irst-year college physics course. Such information is intended to be useful in meeting the problem of resolving questions of vocational choice through special instructional provisions. The following passage by Rosenburg [1957] summarizes, perhaps, the significance of the study: The college youth of today are the occupational e l i te of tomorrow. On their present decisions hinge the fate of industry, commerce, po l i t i c s , the pro-fessions, the arts and sciences, the educational system of the future. This then, is a part icular ly crucial group to study . . . the people who wil l occupy key positions (social) in time to come.5 M. Rosenburg, Occupations and Values, The Free Press, I l l i no i s , 1957, p. 3. 4 1.2 Statement of the Problem 1.2.1 General Problem The general problem investigated was the nature of major differences between a number of different vocation-oriented groups of students taking a f i r s t year college course, in terms of measures on a number of selected dependent or cr i ter ion variables deemed important to the instructor of the course. Since educational outcomes are seldom measures against a single variable, i t seemed more appropriate to look for differences among the groups by comparing their relat ive performance on a l l the selected cr i ter ion variables as an integrated whole. Commenting on this procedure, Tatsuoka noted that, . . . the original variables usually stand in such a complicated pattern of intercorrelations among one another that we cannot, without danger of redundancy and inconsistency, speak of group differences with respect to each of them separately. Thus examining a pattern of weights, gives us a much more accurate account of the nature of group differences in terms of a set of variables than does looking at each variable separately with no regard for their interrelations and partly overlapping information.^ 1.2.2 Specific Problem The problem investigated,in the study, stated more spec i f i ca l l y was the ident i f icat ion and description of variables which serve to H.M. Tatsuoka, Selected Topics in Advanced S ta t i s t i cs :  Discriminant Analysis, Institute for Personality and Ab i l i t y Testing, Champaign, I l l i no i s , 1970, pp. 53-54. 5 discriminate between groups of students defined, a p r i o r i , on the basis of stated vocational choice. Two specif ic questions, related to the broader problem, were dealt with in the study: 1. Are there s ta t i s t i ca l l y s ignif icant differences between different vocational-choice groups on the selected cr i ter ion variables, taken as a whole? 2. Along what (possible psychologically meaningful) dimensions do these groups dif fer? 1.2.3 Stat is t ica l Hypothesis 1. The population centroids of the different vocation-oriented groups wil l not d i f fe r s igni f icant ly - H£. 2. If s ignif icant differences between population centroids ex is t , s t a t i s t i ca l l y s ignif icant discriminant functions can be found which can be used to differentiate between the different vocation-oriented groups. Tests of significance of the population centroids and the significance of discriminant functions obtained, wil l be carried out at levels of significance currently used in educational research, a = 0.3, and 0.1. 6 1.3 Definit ion of Terms Vocational Choice: The indication on the 'Student Personal Data Form' of the way by which the student anticipates earning a l iv ing upon completion of his college programme. Discriminant Function: A l inear combination of weighted variables which maximizes the ratio of the between-7 8 9 group variance and within-group variance. ' ' 1.4 Method of Study Al l the variables used in the study were divided into three main categories. 1.4.1 Cognitive Variables Measures of cognitive ab i l i t y were an integral part of the course and were as follows: 1. Knowledge Pre-Test -- A test designed by the course instructor to ascertain student entry sk i l l s and physics knowledge. It was administered at the start of the course. ^D.F. Morrison, Multivariate Stat ist ica l Methods, McGraw-Hill, 1967, p. 130. o °M.M. Tatsuoka, Discriminant Analysis, Institute for Personal- i ty and Ab i l i t y Testing, 1970, No. 6. ^D.V. Tiedeman, The U t i l i t y of the Discriminant Function in  Psychological and Guidance Investigations, Harvard Educational Review, Vol. XXI, No. 2, Spring 1951, pp. 74-75. 7 2. Scheduled Examinations -- Each of the following were con-structed by the instructor using Bloom's Taxonomy^ of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain 'as a base. 1 They were as follows: (a) Mid-Term I: Administered to a l l students in November 1969. (b) Christmas Examination: Administered in December, 1969. (c) Mid-Term II: Administered in February, 1970. (d) Terminal Examination: Administered in A p r i l , 1970. 1.4.2 Affective Variables The instrument used to col lect affective data was developed and used by Page [1970]^ in the Physics Education Evaluation Project. It was an adaptation of what is known in psychological research as a 13 Semantic Differential [Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum, 1957]. The instrument wil l be described in greater detail in a later chapter. B.S. Bloom, et aj_., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives:  Handbook I: Cognitive Domain, David McKay Co. Inc., New York, 1967. ^ G . Page, Evaluation of Non-Cognitive Course Objectives, Report of the Physics Education Evaluation Project, U.B.C., January, 1970. 1 2 I b i d . 1 3 C E . Osgood, G.J. Suci, P.H. Tannenbaum, The Measurement of  Meaning, Urbana, University of I l l i no i s , 1957. 8 1 . 4 . 3 A n t e c e d e n t V a r i a b l e s T h e s e v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n a s t u d e n t ' s g e n e r a l a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y a n d h i s a b i l i t y i n P h y s i c s a t t h e H i g h - S c h o o l l e v e l . 1. C o - O p e r a t i v e A c a d e m i c A b i l i t y T e s t ( C A A T ) . T h i s t e s t h a d t w o c o m p o n e n t s : ( a ) V e r b a l a n d ( b ) Q u a n t i t a t i v e . S c o r e s o n t h e t w o c o m p o n e n t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a s v a r i a b l e s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t o t a l t e s t s c o r e . T h i s t e s t w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y t e s t i n g s t a f f a s p a r t o f t h e t e s t i n g p r o g r a m m e g i v e n t o a l l f r e s h m e n s t u d e n t s . 2 . H i g h - S c h o o l G r a d u a t i n g A v e r a g e M a r k . T h i s s c o r e w a s a c o m p o s i t e o f a s t u d e n t ' s f i n a l h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t i n g m a r k i n E n g l i s h , M a t h e m a t i c s a n d P h y s i c s . I t w a s c o m p u t e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n d u s e d b y t h e R e g i s t r a r o f U . B . C . t o d e t e r m i n e e l i g i b i l i t y f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e f i r s t y e a r o f s t u d i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y . 3 . H i g h - S c h o o l P h y s i c s , C h e m i s t r y a n d M a t h e m a t i c s G r a d e s . T h e s e g r a d e s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e S t u d e n t P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t . S t u d e n t P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t . T h e d a t a s h e e t ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) w a s c o m p l e t e d b y e v e r y s t u d e n t t a k i n g t h e P h y s i c s c o u r s e . F r o m t h i s s h e e t t h e v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e o f e a c h w a s a s c e r t a i n e d i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e n u m b e r o f y e a r s -- o n e o r t w o -- o f H i g h - S c h o o l P h y s i c s e a c h s t u d e n t h a d c o m p l e t e d . T h e s e t w o p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n w e r e u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h e g r o u p i n g o f s t u d e n t s . 9 1.5 Limitations of the Study 1 . There was no evidence to support a claim that the findings applied to a f in i t e population, other than the students who participated in the study. 2. Al l questions, on the Cognitive and Affective measures, were asked by means of a paper and pencil questionnaire. Thus, no assurance could be given that each question was interpreted consistently and without bias by a l l respondents. 10 CHAPTER 2 RELATED STUDIES 2.1 Theories of Vocational Choice 2.1.1 Non-Developmental Theories For approximately the f i r s t half of the 20th century, studies dealing with problems of vocational choice tended to take a non-develop-mental approach. Vocational choice was seen as an event-in-time selection. In 1909, Parsons^ took a sort of "square peg, square hole" approach in watching a person with his choice of work. Subsequent 2 3 publications by Paterson and Darley and Williamson fostered this approach to the problems of vocational choice. 4 In 1954, Pepinsky and Pepinsky published their "trait-and-factor" theory of vocational choice which, although based on a theory of individual differences, Vrank Parsons, Choosing a Vocation, Boston: Houghton-Mifflin co . , 1909. 2 D. G. Paterson and J .G. Darley. Men, Women, and Jobs, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press: 1936. 3 E. G. Williamson, How to Counsel Students, New York, McGraw-Hi l l Book Co., 1939. 4 H.B. Pepinsky, and P.N. Pepinsky, Counselling: Theory and  Practice, New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1954. 11 concerns i t s e l f with individual t ra i ts or factors which are believed to determine the choice of and success in an occupation. . . . It i s , for the most part, a person-centered viewpoint with emphasis on personal t ra i t s . 5 Pepinsky suggested that an indiv idual , in trying to resolve his problem of job select ion, appraises himself, i .e. his strengths and weaknesses. He becomes as knowledgeable as possible about the ava i lab i l i t y of jobs open to him, and that l ine of work which offers him the greatest potential satisfaction and success. 2,1.2 Developmental Theories Beginning in the 1940's and with increasing emphasis during the 1950's, the conceptualization of vocational choice as a long-term, developmental process came under consideration. In contrast to the point-in-time event phenomenon, this approach views vocational choice as an on-going, comprehensive process involving many facets of inter -related behaviours during various points or stages of the indiv idual 's l i f e . Buehler [1933]^ developed a theory of l i f e stages in which she concluded that most people go through corresponding developmental stages at similar chronological ages. These l i f e stages have been categorized as Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance, and Decline. 5 D.E. Super and P.B. Bachrach, Sc ient i f ic Careers and Vocational  Development Theory, New York, Columbia University Press, 1957. ^C. Buehler, Der Menschliche Lebenslaut als Ps.ychoqiches Problem, (Translation Kerrick, J . , The Human Condition with Respect to-), Leipzig, H i rze l , 1933. 12 Buehler theorized that vocational development, i .e . , develop-ment toward choosing a vocation as well as other aspects of one's l i f e , f i t into these f ive stages. Mi l ler and Form [1951]^ described l i f e stages from the point of view of work character ist ics. They viewed vocational development as a l i fe-long process in stages called Preparatory (awareness of work), Init ia l (part time jobs), Transit ion, T r i a l , Stable and Retired work periods. Ginzberg and his associates [Ginzberg, Ginzberg, Axelrod and o Herma, 1951], an economist, psychiatr ist , soc io logist , and a psycho-log is t , respectively, joined forces to develop a theory of occupational choice. Their general theory is as follows: F i r s t , occupational choice is a process which takes place over a minimum of six or seven years, and more typ ica l ly , over ten years or more. Secondly, since each decision during adolescence is related to one's experience up to that point and in turn has an influence on the future, the process of decision making is basical ly i r revers ib le . F ina l ly , since occupational choice involves the balancing of a series of subjective elements with the opportunities and l imitations of rea l i t y , the crysta l l izat ion of occupa-tional choice inevitably has the quality of a compromise.9 Ginzberg and his associates theorized that there are three periods of occupational choice: the period of fantasy choice, governed D. C. Mi l ler and W.H. Form, Industrial Sociology, New York, Harper Brothers, 1951. g E. Ginzberg, et al_., Occupational Choice: An Approach to a  General Theory, New York: Columbia University, 1951. 9 I b i d . , p. 198. 13 by the wish to be an adult; the period of tentative choices beginning at about age 11 and determined largely by interests, then by capacit ies, and then by values; and the period of rea l i s t i c choices, beginning at about age 17, in which exploratory, c rys ta l l i za t ion , and specif icat ion phases succeed each other. Havighurst [1964]^ considers vocational development to be a l i fe-long process. He suggests that there are six stages in one's vocational development, from childhood to old age. Within Stage Three (acquiring identity as a worker in the occupational structure), Havighurst views the "apparent confusion and lack of career decision in the minds of many college students" as "signs of the d i f f i cu l t y experienced in making what is understood to be a central decision about l i f e . " 1 1 The widely accepted work of Havighurst [1953] on the concept and measurement of developmental tasks and task behaviour has recently 12 been adapted by Super [1963] to a concept of vocational developmental tasks. Super has proposed the following sequence of vocational developmental tasks: 1. Crysta l l iz ing a vocational preference. 2. Specifying a vocational preference. 3. Impementing a vocational preference. 4. Stabi l iz ing in a vocation. 5. Consolidating status and advancing in a vocation. ^R. J . Havighurst, Human Development and Education, New York: Longmans Green, 1953. 1 1 Ib id. , p. 232. 12 D.E. Super, Career Development: Self Concept Theory, Princeton: College Entrance Examination Board, 1963, 14 13 In Super's ear l ier work [1957] he described vocational adjustment as an ongoing, continuous, generally i rreversible process, and that i t is an orderly, patterned process in l i f e stages. Super's vocational l i f e stages follow [1957b]: 1. Growth (birth to age 14). Self-concept develops through ident i f icat ion with key figures in family and in school; needs and fantasy are dominant early in this stage; interest and capacity become more important in this stage with increas-ing social participation and real i ty-test ing. Substages of the Growth stage are: Fantasy (4-10 years) Interest (11-12 years) Capacity (13-14 years) 2. Exploration (Age 15-24). Self-examination, role tryouts, and occupational exploration take place in school, leisure ac t iv i t ies and part-time work. Sub-stages of the exploration stage are: Tentative (15-17 years). Needs, interests, capacit ies, values, and opportunities are a l l considered. Tentative choices are made and tried out in fantasy, d i s -cussion, courses, work, etc. Transition (18-21 years). Reality considerations are given more weight as the youth enters labor market or professional training and attempts to implement a self-concept. D.E. Super, Vocational Development: A Framework for Research, New York: Columbia University, 1957. 15 3. Establishment (25-44 years). Having found an appropriate f i e l d , effort is put forth to make a permanent place in i t . There may be some t r i a l early in this stage, with consequent shift ing but establishment may begin without t r i a l , especially in the professions. Substages of the establishment stage are: Tr ia l (25-30 years). Stabi l izat ion (31-44 years). 4. Maintenance (Age 45-64 years). 5. Peeline (Age 65 on). In Super's newer work [1963]^ he describes crysta l l izat ion of a vocational preference as a developmental task encountered typica l ly during the early and middle adolescent years, the 14 to 18 year old period of the tentative substage. During this period the student is expected by society to begin to formulate ideas as to f ie lds and levels of work which are appropriate for him; sel f and occupational concepts which wil l enable him to make tentative choices, to commit himself to a type of education or training which wil l lead him toward some part ia l ly specified occupation. In addit ion, Super and Bachrach [1957] note that there is a social systems theory which: D.E. Super, Vocational Development: A Framework for Research, New York: Columbia University, 1957. 16 . . . places emphasis upon the dynamic interaction of the individual with the social systems which impinge on . him, and upon the interaction of these social systems with one another . . . based on the concept of develop-mental tasks which confront the individual with a need to make certain. . . . Vocational development is thus seen as essential ly a compromising or synthesizing interaction between the individual and the social systems in which he operates. 15 Substantial contributions were made to occupational choice theory by Ann Roe [1956] 1 6 in her The Psychology of Occupations and subsequent writings, Roe looks upon the indiv idual , as does Maslow, as an 'integrated organized whole,' whose c lass i f i ca t ion should be based upon his goals or needs, whether conscious or unconscious. Thus Roe sees an occupation as a primary source of need sat isfact ion. In an apparent attempt to come to some immediate closure, she seeks to arrange these goals or needs in an hierarchy of pre-potency and makes what appears to be a somewhat arbitrary choice of Maslow's somewhat arbitrary hierarchial system.17 2.1.3 Summary There are a profusion of theories dealing with vocational choice. Most of the theories reviewed have suggested that occupational choice is a process lasting over a period of time. Many factors enter into the process, making i t complex. It is s ignif icant to note that most tend to agree on the age at which vocational commitments are made. 15 D.E. Super and P.B. Bachrach, Sc ient i f ic Careers and Vocational  Development Theory, Mew York: Columbia University Press, 1957, p. 104. ^Anne Roe, The Psychology of Occupations, New York: J . Wiley, 1956. ^R.R. Corkhuff, M. Alexik, and S. Anderson. Do We Have a  Theory of Vocational Choice, Personnel and Guidance Journal 47, 1967, pp. 335-345. 17 This age usually coincides with the entry of a student to college or university. 2.2 Student Characteristics and Vocational Choice 2.2.1 Educational Interests of the Student The pattern of interests which develop in a student over a period of time has been considered a basis for career choice. Mi l ler 18 and Thomas [1966] suggested that for college students, educational interests may be s igni f icant ly related to their vocational interests. The highest correlation they obtained were between the physical sciences, engineering and industrial arts and expressed student interests. The lowest correlations obtained were between fine arts and the social sciences and the log ica l ly related vocations. Based on this study, i t appears that educational interests may be related to several vocational interests and a vocational interest may encompass several educational interests. 2.2.2 Ab i l i t i e s of the Student A conf l ic t arises in such studies. The ab i l i t i e s of the student are as important as their interests and may prove to be as 19 s igni f icant , i f not more so. Wolfe and Oxtoby [1952] investigated 18 D.C. Mi l ler and D.L. Thomas,"Relationship Between Educational and Vocational Interests," Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 46-49, September 1956. 19 D. Wolfe and T. Oxtoby, Distribution of Ab i l i t y of Students  Specializing in Different F ie lds, Science, 116, 1952, pp. 311-314. 18 t h e a b i l i t y o f g r a d u a t e s i n a number o f v o c a t i o n s . Based on s c o r e s f r o m t h e S c h o l a s t i c s A b i l i t y T e s t , t h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s o f s t u d e n t s i n e n g i n e e r i n g , l a n g u a g e s , p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s , and p s y c h o l o g y were h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o l l e g e a v e r a g e ; t h o s e o f t h e b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s , s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and a r t s m a j o r s w e r e a b o u t e q u a l ; w h i l e t h o s e g r a d u a t i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e , commerce , and e d u c a t i o n were b e l o w t h i s a v e r a g e . Thus a b i l i t y c o m b i n e d w i t h i n t e r e s t c o m p l i c a t e s t h e p i c t u r e . An a t t e m p t was made t o c o r r e l a t e t h e two i n a s t u d y by M a r s h a l l and on S impson [ 1 9 4 3 ] . They s u g g e s t e d t h a t : 1 . S t u d e n t s w i t h d e f i n i t e v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and c h o i c e s r a n k r e l a t i v e l y l o w i n I . Q . , b u t a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e i s m e d i o c r e and h i g h . 2 . S t u d e n t s w i t h t e n t a t i v e v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s r a n k h i g h i n I . Q . and i n g r a d e s . 3 . S t u d e n t s who a r e u n d e c i d e d r a n k m e d i o c r e o r l o w i n I . Q . w i t h a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e u s u a l l y l o w . 21 2 . 2 . 3 V a l u e s H e l d by t h e S t u d e n t C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o i n t e r e s t s a r e t h e v a l u e s a p e r s o n h o l d s 22 a b o u t l i f e , w o r k , and s c i e n t i f i c p u r s u i t s . R e z l e r [ 1 9 6 0 ] e x a m i n e d M.V . M a r s h a l l and L . S i m p s o n , " V o c a t i o n a l C h o i c e and C o l l e g e G r a d e s , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 2 7 , 1 9 4 3 , p p . 3 0 3 - 3 0 5 . 2 1 I b i d . G . R e z l e r , " P e r s o n a l V a l u e s and A c h i e v e m e n t i n C o l l e g e , " P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l 3 4 , 1 9 6 0 , p p . 1 3 7 - 1 4 3 . 19 the values of under-achievers with those of achievers. The main concern was to determine whether or not a lack of achievement resulted from having 'wrong values, ' or not carrying bel iefs or values into action. He stated his findings thus: In order to achieve in College, they (students) would need to have more compelling values than l iv ing up to the Joneses and making money; they would need to believe in self-expression, independence, and hard work, self-disc ip l ine and making one's own decisions. Commitment — whether active or passive — has far reaching con-sequences for the student's college career. 23 24 A number of investigators notably Cooley [1958] have attempted to identify personal characterist ics of students at various grade levels which would assist in predicting vocational choice. In addition some of these investigators combined environmental aspects of the school, and family and occupational characterist ics with personal attributes in an effort to obtain as global a picture as possible. 2.2.4 Personality of the Student 2 5 Astin [1967] used 26 measures of personal character ist ics, three measures of school environmental characterist ics and a number 2 3 I b i d . W.W. Cobley, Career Development of Sc ient ists: An Overlapping  Longitudinal -Study, Cambridge, Mass., 1958. 20 of variables relating to socio-economic status, and occupational planning. She used a multiple discriminant analysis, and summarized her f indings: Seniors choosing careers in sciences show an interest in the physical sciences, l ingu is t i cs , and obtain higher scores on reading comprehension than those subjects aspiring to other occupations . . . to score high on the Mature Personality Temperament Scale, to possess more information about l i terature. . . . The business group tends to score high on the business-management interest scale and l i terature information and to score high on the English Total variable. For the teaching group, the social service and l i terature-l inguist ic interests appear to be the best predictors. High scores on physical information and a career choice of engineering at the ninth grade level are negative predictors of a career choice of teaching at the 12th grade level.26 The importance of personality factors in vocational choice is 77 ?R well established [Roe, 1956], Seigleman and Peck, [1960] Tiedeman and O'Hara, 1963] . 2 9 Elton [1967] 3 0 investigated the influence of personality and ab i l i t y predictors in the selection of career roles and vocational choices. Elton used the Omnibus Personality Inventory, the composite American College Test and performed a step-wise multiple-discriminant analysis. Elton found that the personality characterist ics 25 Helen A. Astin,"Career Development During the High School Years," Journal of Counselling Psychology ]_4, 1967, pp. 94-98. 2 6 I b i d . 27 A. Roe, The Psychology of Occupations, New York: Wiley, 1952. 28 M. Siegelman and R.F. Peck, "Personality Patterns Related to Occupational Roles," Genetic Psychology Monographs 58, 1960, pp. 291-349. 29 D.V. Tiedeman, and R.P. O'Hara, Career Development: Choice  and Adjustment, Mew York: Appleton, Century Crofts, 1963. 30 C F . Elton, "Prediction of Career Role and Vocational Choice," Journal of Counselling Psychology 14, 1967, pp. 99-105. 21 of students who were undecided as to their vocational choice were: 1. They enjoy independence. 2. Had less ab i l i t y than those who were vocationally more committed. (The Engineering-Agriculture-Technology oriented students showed a greater interest in science and problem-solving). 3. They tend to withdraw from social contacts and responsibi l i ty . Students choosing the f i e ld of Business and Finance appeared to be tolerant of ambiguity and non-authoritarian. Students choosing vocations in the Arts-Humanities expressed a low interest in science and problem-solving but admitted to being anxious and having more adjustment problems. Essential ly Elton found that: It would have to be assumed that freshmen are at the stage of development in which the choice of vocation is a r ea l i s t i c concern in their struggle for adult status.31 . . . relationships found are far more complex than or ig ina l ly postulated.32 33 A study by Stienberg [1955] attempted to find answers to two questions: (a) what pattern of scores for students emerged from --"three measures of personality"and (b) were there any signif icant differences 31 C F . Elton, "Prediction of Career Role and Vocational Choice," Journal of Counselling Psychology 14, 1967, pp. 99-105. 3 2 I b i d . 33 Carl Stienberg, "Personality Trait Patterns of College Students Majoring in Different F ie lds , " Psychological Monographs: General and Applied 69, 1955, Whole No. 403. in personality patterns among these students who were majoring in different f i e lds . He summarized the differences as follows: Chemistry and Mathematics: These two sub-groups show similar tendencies on a l l factors. Sc ien t i f i c , mechanical, and quantitative ac t i v i t i es or attitudes are valued most by the men special izing in these subjects. Their most pronounced aversions are for aesthetic, business contact, and social service ac t i v i t i es . Direct communication with people does not seem to interest these students to any appreciable extent. Biochemistry and Psychology: The common bond between them (the sub-groups) is the merging of sc ient i f i c attitudes with an interest in helping people. . . . Both groups show a stronger interest in prestige and power than might have been expected. . . . 34 2.2.5 Summary While the evidence indicates that numerous factors play an oc important role in vocational choice, Mallinson [1969] undertook a study on factors affecting college achievement in which he included vocational choice. He, however, came to the conclusion that: The two most s ignif icant factors related to overall achievement in College were the student's I.Q. and his bel ief that his parents thought education was important. With respect to the election of, and achievement i n , Science courses, an inf luential factor, in addition to the two above, was the number of Science courses.taken in Hsgh School. Interest in Science as indicated by the Kuder Preference Record during College seems to have l i t t l e influence since many of those who majored in Science did not evidence interest on the test. 36 34 Carl Stienberg, "Personality Trai t Patterns of College Students Majoring in Different F ie lds , " Psychological Monographs:  General and Applied 69, 1955, Whole No. 403. 35 G.G. Mallinson, "Factors Affecting College Student's Achievement in Science," U.S. Dept. of Health Education and Welfare, Final Report, Project 5-0813, 1969, p. 29. 3 6 I b i d . 23 2.3 Self-Concept and Vocational Choice 2.3.1 Importance of Vocational Self-Concept The term "vocational self-concept" has been used by Super [1963] to denote the . . . constellation of se l f attributes considered by the individual to be vocationally relevant whether or not they have been translated into a vocational preference. 37 The vocational development process, br ie f ly summarized by Super [1963] is that In expressing a vocational preference, a person puts into occupational terminology his idea of the kind of person he i s ; that in entering an occupation, he seeks to implement a concept of himself; that in getting established in an occupation he achieves self-actual izat ion. The occupation this makes possible the playing of a role appropriate to the self concept. 38 It is generally accepted in the American culture that social and economic status depend more upon one's occupation than upon anything else. Roe [1956] has stated that entering upon an occupation is generally seen in our culture as a symbol of adulthood, and an indication that a young man or woman has reached a stage of some independence and freedom. 39 J ' D . E . Super, Career Development: Self Concept Theory, Princeton College Entrance Examination Board, 1963, p. 20. 3 8 I b id , p. 1. 39 Anne Roe, The Psychology of Occupations, New York: J . Wiley, 1956,, p. 32. 24 Roe feels that occupations are of extreme importance as a source of need sat isfact ion. Beardslee and O'Dowd [1962, p. 607] attributes the pressures toward early vocational choice to the fact that: . . . student's perceive occupations largely in terms of their implications for a style of l i f e and a place in the community status system, and the importance of occupations in the formation of an identity. 40 The authors further state that: For students, the occupation even specifies the personal qual i t ies of i ts present and future members, providing a readymade personality for those who cannot establish a secure identity from their own experience. 41 Beardslee and O'Dowd [1962] feel that the lack of an identity "manifests i t s e l f in a purposelessness and unwillingness to be productive, an inab i l i t y to commit oneself to anyone or anything." Katz and Sanford [1962] have observed that freshmen who . . . arrive at College with a concrete proposal concerning a course of study leading to some vocational goal can easi ly be 'talked out' of their plan; many have been under pressure to say what they are going to do or to be so that they have made superficial choices that were not in accord with their genuine needs or interests. 42 D.C. Beardslee and D.D. O'Dowd, "Students and the Occupational World," M.N. Sanford (ed.), The American College, New York: John Wiley, 1962. 4 1 D . C . Beardslee and D.D. O'Dowd, "D.D. Students and the Occupational World," M.N. Sanford (ed.), The American College, New York: John Wiley, 1962. 42 J . Katz and N. Sanford, "The Curriculum in Perspective of Theory of Personality Development," M.N. Sanford (ed.), The American  College, New York: John Wiley, 1962, p. 443. 2 5 T h e y f e e l t h a t m o s t s t u d e n t s d o n o t h a v e sufficiently developed interests, e s p e c i a l l y w h e n i t c o m e s t o p l a n n i n g a l o n g t e r m c o u r s e o f s t u d y . Vocational self-concept, as a component of t o t a l self-concept may also be a factor in the achievement of College students. E r i k s o n 4 3 [ 1 9 5 0 ] s t a t e s t h a t i t i s p r i m a r i l y t h e i n a b i l i t y t o s e t t l e o n a n o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y t h a t d i s t u r b s y o u n g p e o p l e . T r u m a n [ 1 9 6 4 ] b e l i e v e s . . . a C o l l e g e m u s t be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e l e v e l a n d s o u r c e s o f s t u d e n t a n x i e t y , s i n c e a d e e p l y t r o u b l e d y o u n g man i s u n l i k e l y t o be a g o o d s t u d e n t . 4 4 a n d f u r t h e r m o r e t h a t a t l e a s t a p o r t i o n o f t h i s a n x i e t y d e r i v e s f r o m t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s . R a u s h e n b u s h [ 1 9 6 4 ] r e l a t e d t h a t Y o u h a v e t o b e l o n g s o m e w h e r e b e f o r e y o u c a n be s o m e t h i n g o r d o s o m e t h i n g . . . t h i s n e e d w a s a c a u s e o f . . . ' d e e p e s t a n x i e t y . ' 4 5 T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a n x i e t y a n d a c h i e v e m e n t h a s b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d b y S p i e l b e r g e r a n d W e i t z [ 1 9 6 4 ] who r e p o r t t h a t : . . . a n x i o u s c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s e a r n e d l o w e r g r a d e s a n d o n l o n g - t e r m f o l l o w - u p , h a d a h i g h e r d r o p o u t r a t e d u e t o a c a d e m i c f a i l u r e t h a n n o n - a n x i o u s c l a s s m a t e s o f c o m p a r a b l e a b i l i t y . 4 6 4 3 E . H . E r i k s o n , C h i l d h o o d a n d S o c i e t y , New Y o r k : W. N o r t o n , 1 9 5 0 , p . 2 2 8 . 4 4 D. T r u m a n , C o l u m b i a C o l l e g e T o d a y , New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y 1 1 , 1 9 6 4 , p p . 2 . 5 - 2 7 . 4 5 E. R a u s h e n b u s h , T h e S t u d e n t a n d H i s S t u d i e s , W e s l e y a n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 , p . 1 4 9 . 4f i C D . S p e i l b e r g e r a n d H . W e i t z , " I m p r o v i n g t h e A c a d e m i c P e r f o r m a n c e o f A n x i o u s C o l l e g e F r e s h m e n , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l M o n o g r a p h s 7 8 , ( 1 3 ) , N o . 5 9 0 , 1 9 6 4 , p . 1 1 . 26 However, they also add that there is l i t t l e evidence that personality problems are direct and immediate causes of poor academic performance. Spielberger and Weitz [1964] believe that i t is more l ike ly that: . . . in response to the pressures of College l i f e , students with personality problems are pre-disposed to develop maladaptive study habits and attitudes which in turn, interfere with the learning process and lead to underachievement. 47 2.4 Academic Achievement and Vocational Choice 2.4.1 Importance of Academic Success The l i terature on the College student t e l l s us that a substantial proportion of able students leave College before graduation. The studies of students pi le up evidence that too many of our students work casually . . . d r i f t in the College or d r i f t out. 48 These studies report that the proportion varies from College to College with a t t r i t ion rates fluctuating from twelve percent to eighty-two percent [ I f fer t , 1958; 4 9 Sanford, 1962; 5 0 Wise, 1958 5 1 ] . Something is obviously wrong on the College campus. We need to know more about the personal characterist ics of students that are ^ C . D . Speilberger and H. Weitz, "Improving the Academic Performance of Anxious College Freshmen," Psychological Monographs _78, (13), No. 590, 1964, p. 1. 48 E. Raushenbush, The Student and His Studies, Wesleyan University Press, 1964, p. 150. 49 R.E. I f fer t , Retention and Withdrawal of College Students, Washington, Government Printing Off ice, 1958. 27 of significance for learning, and we need to know more about the various kinds of educational experiences which influence students' growth and development. Many authors are in agreement that We have yet to succeed in identify ing, for the major-i ty of College students, the principal factors which are related to academic success. 52 L i te ra l l y hundreds of studies have been completed in recent 53 years on the topic of predicting success in College, Sanford [1962]. An extensive review of academic achievement by Endler and Steinberg [1963]^ and of-underachievement by Peterson [1963],^ both came to the conclusion that "The only consistent finding has been that there are no consistent resul ts . " Summerskill [1962], in a recent review, reported that voca-tional motivation is demonstratably related to a t t r i t i on . He found that students with definite vocational choices are more l i ke ly to be overachievers in College, but not at a l l Colleges. S imilar ly, students with definite vocational choices are more l ike ly to graduate from College, although this also has not been a universal f inding. He considered i t noteworthy that the majority of students could report a 50 N. Sanford, The American College, New York: John Wiley, 1962. 51 W.M. Wise, They Come for the Best Reasons, Washington: Council of Education, 1958. 5 2 I b i d . , p. 22. 5 3 I b i d . 54 N.S. Endler and D. Steinberg, "Prediction of Academic Achieve-ment at the University Level," Personnel and Guidance Journal 41, 1963, pp. 694-699. • 55 R. Peterson, Some Biographical and Attitudinal Characteristics  of Entering College Freshmen, Princeton: Educational Testing Service,1964. 56 J . Summerskill, "Dropouts from College, M.N. Sanford (ed.), The American College, New York: John Wiley, 1962. 28 "def ini te" or "probably" vocational choice early in their College careers. 57 In another review, Beardslee and O'Dowd [1962] point out that, on a national scale, there is evidence that vocationally oriented students are more l i ke ly to succeed in College "both from a psychological and an academic point of view." They also conclude that freshmen who are undecided about their occupational future "will contribute dispro-portionately to the dropouts in ensuing years. A number of authors have recently expressed similar viewpoints on the relationship of an early vocational decision and academic success 59 in College. A study at New York University reported by Coleman [1960] found that students who settled on their career goals during their f i r s t year of College fared better than those who decided later . The survey also discovered that, on the average, these students wind up earning higher salaries and are more l ike ly to remain in their f i e lds . Hilgard [1953] 6 0 stated that . . . with the vocational objective l e f t out or postponed for the future, general education is l i ke ly to lead either to dilettantism or to that degeneration of College l i f e which makes everything else seem more important to the student than the classroom. 61 1960. p. 460. 5 7 I b i d . 5 8 0 p . C i t . , p. 609. 59 J .C . Coleman, Success in College, Chicago, Scott, Foresman, ^E.R. Hilgard, Introduction to Psychology, New York, 1953, 6 1 i b i d . 2 9 Vineyard [ 1 9 6 4 ] believes that College freshman without an educational goal wi l l see . . . l i t t l e pract ica l i ty in the courses on their study programs, be poorly motivated to achieve and, unless a choice is soon made, wil l become dropouts. 62 Sanborn [ 1 9 6 5 ] recently came to the conclusion that: . . . as a rule, those who could envision the long-range outcomes of College . . . those who could specify reasonably well the vocational goals they expected to reach — worked successfully during their f i r s t semester in College. Those who had no particular expectations concerning what they wanted to do after they graduated, as a rule, worked unsuccessfully. 6 3 The implication that College freshmen should have a "f ixed aim" is questionable in view of the evidence that the selection of a vocation is not a single choice, but rather a process that takes place over a number of years, Ginzberg [ 1 9 5 1 ] , 6 4 Super [ 1 9 5 7 ] . 6 5 C O E.E. Vineyard, "Organizing for Guidance in the Small College," M.H. Estrin and D. Goode (ed.), College and University Teaching,Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1 9 6 4 . 6 3 M.P. Sanborn, "Vocational Choice, College Choice and Scholastic Success of Superior Students" Vocational Guidance Quarterly 1 3 , 1 9 6 5 , pp. 1 6 1 - 1 6 8 . 6 4 E. Ginzberg, ejt al_., Occupational Choice: An Approach to a  General Theory, New York: Columbia University, 1 9 5 1 . 6 5 D.E. Super, and P.B. Bachrach, Sc ient i f ic Careers and  Vocational Development Theory, New York: Columbia University Press, 1 9 5 7 . ^R .E . I f fer t , Retention and Withdrawal of College Dropouts:  Successes or Fai lures, Educational Record 4 6 , 1 9 6 5 , pp. 7 7 - 9 2 . 30 I f fert [1958] found that in general: Students who reported a change in subject-field of interest had a higher graduation percentage than did students who maintained their interests in subject-f ie lds d is t inc t l y occupational in character and had the highest persistence and graduation rates. Change in interest from the academic to the pract ica l , com-bined with the higher graduation rate of those who change and of those who adhere to practical subject-f ie lds suggests that occupation-centered interests promote persistence in College. 66 Ford and Urban [1965] reporting on a study of College students at the Pennsylvania State University, speculate that: . . . highly f lex ib le ,University structures within which bright students can make one commitment and then another until they hit pay d i r t , is the most conducive to the graduation of bright students. 67 In the above study, an examination of graduation rates in relation to the frequency with which students transferred among the ten Colleges within the Pennsylvania State University revealed the following graduation rates: one change, 40 percent; two changes, 78 percent; and three or more changes, 91 percent. Of the students who made no change in College, 62 percent earned degrees. Ford and Urban found that students who made two, three, or more changes had higher scholastic aptitude scores than those who made no change or only one change. D.H. Ford and H.B. Urban, "College Dropouts: Successes or Fai lures," Educational Record 46, 1965, pp. 77-92. 31 The des i rab i l i ty of early vocational choice as a means of assuring academic success in College has recently been challenged. Chervenik [1965] stated that: "a firm commitment at College entrance is . . . not necessary, and even may be undesirable." She feels that . . . deferring vocational decisions may free the student from anxiety and allow him to prof i t by application to learning, rather than suffer an overly pragmatic concern of: Where wil l i t lead vocationally? 68 69 Tucci [1961] discovered a trend indicating that vocationally undecided students were actually superior to def in i te ly decided students in regard to c l a r i t y of self-concept. And Thompson [1966] ,^ in a study of student commitment to a specif ic d isc ip l ine at the University of Cal i fornia at Davis, found that in general, committed students tended to earn lower grades and also tended to have lower verbal and mathematical ab i l i t y than the uncommited student. The commited student was also observed to follow a certain behaviour pattern. He appears to be t radi t ional ly oriented, dedicated, hard-working, and task centered, according to Thompson. 68 E. Chervenik, "The Question of College Majors," Vocational  Guidance Quarterly 13, 1965, pp. 176-178. 69 M.A. Tucci , "Self-Concept Clar i ty and Vocational Choice in F i rst Year College Males," Unpublished, Ed. D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1961. ^^E.E. Thompson, "Impact of Commitment Upon Performances of College Students," Personnel and Guidance Journal 44, 1966, pp. 503-506. 32 2.4.2 Summary The reviewed studies suggest that the student most l ike ly to achieve the highest grades in College and remain to graduate, is the one who has some vocational goal in mind when he enters College, but who has not committed himself to a specif ic vocation. However, the voca-t ional ly committed student may be inf lexib le in his ab i l i t y to change programmes, and more tradi t ional ly oriented. 2.5 Secondary School Achievement and Vocational Choice 2.5.1 Importance of Secondary School Achievement to Success in  College Past and present research indicate agreement that the " . . . evidence is quite clear that achievement in high school is the best single predictor of College success." 7^ A study by Altman [1959] , 7 2 and a review by Travers [1949] , 7 3 of over 200 prediction studies, support the conclusion that . . . average high school grades surpass either subject-matter or psychological tests as predictors of College Grades. 74 Morris I. Stein, Personality Measures in Admissions: Antecedent  and Personality Factors as Predictors of College Success. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1963, p. 1. 7 2 E.R. Altman,"The Effect of Rank in Class and Size of High School on the Academic Achievement of Central Michigan College Seniors Class of 1957." Journal of Educational Research 52, 1959, pp. 307-309. 73 R.M.w. Travers, "Signif icant Research on the Prediction of Academic Success," in the Measurement of Student Adjustment and  Achievement, W.T. Donahue, e_t a]_., Ann Arbour: University of Michigan Press, 1949, pp. 147-190. 33 75 This conclusion is further supported by Fishman who concluded that high school grades not only predict College freshman grades but also rank among the best predictors of future College achievement. The r e l i ab i l i t y of the grade average as a predictor may be challenged as i t is based largely on subjective judgements by teachers. However, Bloom and Peters 7^ report that, in certain instances, these grade averages may have a r e l i ab i l i t y coeff ic ient as high as +0.85. In addition they suggest that the judgements of high-school teachers correlate highly with the judgements of College instructors and with College achievement. A study by Adkins 7 7 on students who had graduated from a high-school and were attending University showed a correlation coeff ic ient of 0.46 between high-school grade point average and their College 78 freshmen grade point average. Michael and Jones found that high-74 Ibid. 75 J .A. Fishman, "Social-Psychological Theory for Selecting and Guiding College Students," American Journal of Sociology 61, 1966, pp. 472-484. 76 B.C. Bloom and-F.R. Peters, The Use of Academic Prediction  Scales for Counselling and Selecting College Entrants. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1961. 7 7 R . C . Adkins, "Predicting Academic Success in College by Means of High-School Performance," Educational Records Bulletin 18, 1963. 7 8W.B. Michael and R.A. Jones, "Stabi l i ty of Prediction Va l id i t ies of High-School Grades and Scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test of the College Entrance Examination Board for Liberal Arts Students," Educational and Psychological Measurement 23, 1963, pp. 375-378. 34 school achievement was a better predictor of College grades than either the part or total scores of the Scholastic Aptitude Test. A predictive study at a small southern College, using high-school rank, SAT, SCAT, and Comparative English Test scores, by Vick 79 and Homaday showed that the high-school rank and the score on the Comparative English Test were the best predictors of College academic achievement. 2.6 Conclusions Colleges and Universities are playing a c r i t i c a l role in the preparation of young people for a vocation in their adult l i f e . Education is a primary variable which determines an indiv idual 's role in society. As a consequence a greater understanding of the student and of the. educational process. The preceeding review of the s ignif icant l i terature on the Theories of Vocational Choice; Student Characteristics and Vocational Choice; Self-Concept and Vocational Choice; Academic Achievement and Vocational Choice; Secondary School Achievement and Vocational Choice; was an attempt to relate the present investigation to relevant studies. These studies make i t clear that many variables in an educational setting affect the student at any one time. These studies also suggest a need to investigate the problem of the relat ive importance of these variables in relat ion to teaching and learning of students engaged in M.C. Vick and J .A. Homaday, "Predicting Grade Point Average at a Small Southern College," Educational and Psychological Measurement, 22, 1962, pp. 795-799. 35 the process of resolving the problem of vocational choice. Multivariate analysis has the advantage over conventional univariate procedures in that group differences on a given set of variables are more in terpre ta t i ve because interrelationships between the variables are taken into account. Usually, the variables stand in such a complicated pattern of intercorrelations among one another that i t is impossible, without the danger of redundancy and inconsistency, to interpret group differences with respect to each of them separately. Discriminant functions obtained by multivariate analysis of var iab i l i t y between students on a set of variables, on the other hand, are un-correlated with one another and this fact makes i t possible to interpret the differences and resemblances between the groups more consistently. Some of the studies described above (notably those of Cooley [1958] and Elton [1967]) used multivariate analysis. In each case different variables were used. The present study is based on a set variables presumed to be direct ly related to the educational outcomes of a course of instruction and thus constitute an attempt to relate the educational process in a specif ic course to problems of vocational choice. 36 CHAPTER 3 METHOD OF STUDY The following sections of this chapter deal with the subjects used in the study, methods of col lect ing data about the subjects, and the method of analyzing the data used. 3.1 Subjects Used in the Study 3.1.1 Nature of the Subjects Students entering the University of Br i t ish Columbia take a f i r s t year physics course as an elective or required course. Three types of physics courses are offered: (a) Pre-honours physics course for students electing a science and/or a mathematics honours course of studies -- Physics 120, (b) Physics 110 for those students requiring physics for a particular course of studies, e.g. Medicine, and who have had some high-school physics, and, (c) Physics for those students who have had no high-school physics, but require a f i r s t year physics course -- Physics 115. Since students who register in Physics 110 have varying backgrounds in high-school physics and tend to seek varied vocational goals, i t was decided that Physics 110 students constitute the subjects of the study. Three sections of Physics 110 were offered in the Physics Department at the University of Br i t ish Columbia at the time of this investigation. The c r i t e r i a used by students in choosing a particular 37 section of the course was, as far as could be determined, based on convenience. The total enrollment for Physics 110 in 1969-1970 was 992. Section 1 contained 382 students, Section 11-425 and Section 111-185. The academic ab i l i t y of the students in each section, as measured by the Co-operative Academic Ab i l i t y Test, was very nearly the same. The mean scores were: Section 1-72.6, Section 11-70.4, and Section 111-73.4. The proportion of students in each section indicating the various vocational choices l is ted on the Personal Data Sheet are given in Table 1. 3.1.2 Selection of the Subjects Al l the subjects in Section 1 of Physics 110 were used in the study. The selection was based on c r i t e r i a of convenience. The basis for selecting Section 1 were: 1. The instructor was wi l l ing to participate in the study of the extent of: (a) Developing a careful ly considered rationale for the course. (b) Cooperating in the construction of suitable instruments to obtain measures on the cr i ter ion variables estab-lished for the course. 1 2. The data necessary for this study was readily available. ^Report of the Physics Education Evaluation Project, University of Br i t ish Columbia, 1970. 3 8 TABLE I PERCENT OF STUDENTS INDICATING EACH VOCATIONAL CHOICE Vocational Choice Section I Section II Section III Engineering 15.50% 20.00% 14.78% Physics 1.20 0.70 0.98 Bio-Sciences 7.87 7.12 9.51 Medicine 12.80 11.40 11.32 Pharmacy .2.48 3.30 2.95 Teaching 3.37 3.70 4.43 Geology 2.03 1.64 0.98 Forestry 2.48 3.30 3.94 Undecided 26.30 28.80 30.00 Note: Table 1 shows that the three sections of Physics 110 were quite similar in the vocational choices indicated. 39 3.2 Method of Collecting the Data 3.2.1 Nature of the Independent Variables Students were asked to indicate years of high-school physics taken, their occupational choice, and their educational background in science. Based on these responses, the students were divided into six groups, each group representing a category or an independent variable of the study. The basis for grouping were as follows: 1. Indicated occupational choice. 2. The number of years of university physics the student would have to take in pursuit of the vocation chosen. This was determined through consultation with the University Calendar, 5 5 t h Session, 1969-1970, and councellors in various departments at the university. 3. The number of years of high-school physics taken. The categories or independent variables were determined as follows: (a) Cardinal Science: A l l students whose vocational goals could be included in the following subject-matter areas: Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Geology, and Meteorology. Each of these areas of study require students to undertake more than one year of study in university physics. Subjects in this area were further subdivided into two sub-categories based on (3) above; i .e. subjects with 40 one year of high-school physics and subjects with two years of high-school physics. (b) Undecided: This category included a l l subjects who indicated that they were undecided as to vocational goal. This category was further subdivided according to (3). (c) Required Science: This group included subjects whose indicated vocational goals were: Forestry, Agriculture, Teaching, Home-Economics, and Medicine. These occupation-al areas require only one year of University Physics --usually in the freshman year. This category was also subdivided into two groups according to (3). The c lass i f i ca t ion procedure described above was 2 based largely on the Course Rationale which identi f ied three categories of students for whom the course, was spec i f i ca l l y planned: (a) Students whose future work depends on knowledge of physics methods and facts. . . . (b) Students whose future work depends to some extent on knowledge of physics methods and facts. . . . (c) Students whose future work w i l l , i f at a l l be only indirect ly related to physics. . . . 2 Report of the Physics Education Evaluation Project, Univer-s i ty of Br i t ish Columbia, 1970, p. 5. 41 3.2.2 Method of Collecting Data on the Independent Variables The Personal Data Sheet used in this research consisted of a single page questionnaire of the self-report type. (A sample can be found in Appendix A). 3 In regard to self-report instruments, Froehlich and Darley conclude that: 1. Self-report documents have reasonably satisfactory levels of va l id i ty , r e l i a b i l i t y , and use, especial ly i f the student's responses are given careful consideration. 2. Students wil l consistently and accurately report the facts concerning themselves i f conditions are favourable. 4 The students were asked to complete the Personal Data Sheet at the start of the academic year. Student responses to the questionnaire constituted data on the independent variables of the study. 3.3 Nature of the Dependent (Criterion) Variables The dependent variables used in this study f a l l into three groups; (a) Cognitive, (b) At t i tud ina l , (c) Antecedent. (a) Cognitive: Measures on cognitive variables were obtained by means of regular tests and examinations that were given by the instructor during the course. They include the 3 C P . Froehlich and J .G. Darley, Studying Students, Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1952, p. 151. 4 I b id . 4 2 Mid-Term Tests, F i rs t Term Test, and the Final Examin-ation. A pre-test was given at the year's start , and served as a measure of background knowledge of physics, prior to the course. (b) At t i tud ina l : Measures on att itudinal variables were obtain c by Page [1969]. Based on a Semantic Differential type of instrument developed by Osgood, Suci, and Tannebaum [1957]^ these measures represented indicants of attitude toward selected concepts related to the Physics 110 course (e.g. Physics, Problem Solving, Natural Phenomena, e tc . ) . The instrument can be found in Appendix B. (c) Antecedent: Measures on antecedent variables important to achievement in the course, such as academic ab i l i t y , high-school physics achievement, and high-school mathematics and chemistry achievements were obtained from a number of sources. The Cooperative Academic Ab i l i t y Test was administered by the University Counselling Services, and, according to the Educational Testing Service . . . measures sk i l l in handling certain specif ic kinds of verbal and mathematical material performance which bears a rather high relationship to school achievement. 7 J G . Page, Doctoral Candidate, Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Br i t ish Columbia. ^C.E. Osgood, G.J. Suci and P.H. Tannebaum, The Measurement  of Meaning, Urbana: University of I l l i no i s , 1957. ^Educational Testing Service, Cooperative Test Div is ion, Ca l i forn ia , 1967. 4 3 3.3 .1 Method o f C o l l e c t i n g Data on t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e s C o g n i t i v e Dependent V a r i a b l e s : 1. Knowledge P r e - T e s t : T h i s t e s t was d e s i g n e d w i t h t h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f p r o v i d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t o r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on s t u d e n t s u b j e c t m a t t e r p r e p a r a t i o n . A m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e f o r m a t was u s e d . B l o o m ' s Taxonomy o f o E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s ( C o g n i t i v e Domain) p r o v i d e d 9 t h e b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e i t e m s o f t h i s t e s t . T h i s t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e a c a d e m i c y e a r . 2. C o u r s e E x a m i n a t i o n s : F o u r e x a m i n a t i o n s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ; ( a ) M i d - T e r m I, November , 1969. (b ) Xmas, December , 1969. ( c ) M i d - T e r m II, F e b r u a r y , 1970 and (d ) T e r m i n a l E x a m i n a t i o n , A p r i l , 1970. E a c h o f t h e s e e x a m i n a t i o n s was a d m i n i s t e r e d u n d e r t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s s e t o u t by t h e U n i v e r s i t y . B l o o m ' s Taxonomy o f E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s C o g n i t i v e Domain was u s e d a s a g u i d e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s (memory, c o m p r e h e n s i o n , a p p l i c a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , and s y s t h e s i s ) were a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d . ^ Each o f t h e 8 B . S . B l o o m , Taxonomy o f E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s C o g n i t i v e  Domain , D a v i d M c K a y , New Y o r k , 1967. g W. W e s t p h a l , R e s u l t s o f t h e P h y s i c s E d u c a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n  P r o j e c t - F i n a l R e p o r t , P h y s i c s D e p a r t m e n t U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970. 4 4 questions were subjected to judgement as to the level the question represented. These examinations provided a measure of individual cognitive achievement during, and at the end of, the Physics 110 course. Each instrument can be found in Appendices C, D, E, F and G. Attitudinal Variables An adaption of the Semantic Differential [Osgood, Suci, and Tannebaum, 1957] designed and administered by G. Page [1969], was used to gather data on the amount of favorableness toward or against objectives culled from the Course Rationale, e.g. Intellectual Excitement. The rating scales used were descriptive word-pairs: important — unimportant: valuable — worthless; rewarding 1 - unreward-ing, and so on (see Appendix B). These ratings constituted the data used for analysis. The concepts presented to the student for rating were selected on the bases of: 1. Emphasis given in the Course Rationale. For example, Intellectual Excitement was mentioned and stressed in the Rationale as a hoped-for course outcome. W. Westphal, Results of the Physics Education Evaluation  Project - Final Report, Physics Department, University of Br i t ish Columbia, 1970. 45 2. Importance as an aspect of the course to which course objectives would be related. The concept, Natural Phenomena, for example, represented such an aspect of the course. 3. Importance as a major external factor which could influence the attainment of course objectives. My Previous Physics Course is an example of an objective of this kind. The descriptive word-pairs used in connection with the rating scales were selected as follows: 1. Adjectives or adjectival phrases were chosen which described how the instructor thought the students would perceive the course objective. Each word or phrase selected was matched with an appropriate antonym to provide word or phrase-pairs. 2. Twelve word-pairs were selected from the evaluative, potency, and act iv i ty dimension l i s t s in Osgood's work for use as a reference in f ac i l i t a t ing interpretation of the scales developed for the present evaluation s tudy. 1 1 The concepts used were: Physics, Problem Solving, Natural Phenomena, Intellectual Excitement, My Previous Physics Course, My 1 1 G . Page, Report of the Physics Educational Evaluation  Project, University of Br i t ish Columbia, January, 1970. Previous Physics Lecturer, and My Expectations for Physics 110. The complete instrument is included in the Appendix B. Antecedent Dependent Variables These variables were entry s k i l l s , academic ab i l i t y , and student background knowledge. Data on these variables were obtained as follows: 1. From the Personal Data Sheet, achievement in High-School Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics was obtained. 2. The Cooperative Academic Ab i l i t y Test administered by the University Student Services provided: . . . measures of sk i l l in handling certain specif ic kinds of verbal and mathematical material -- performance which bears a rather high relationship to school achievement. 12 3. The High-School graduating averages of each student, as computed by the Department of Education of Br i t ish Columbia, was obtained through the University of Student Services Department. This average mark was computed from final grades obtained in English, Mathematics, Physics, and one other science. Table II gives a summary of the kinds of data collected in the form of a data matrix. 12 Cooperative Academic Ab i l i t y Test, Handbook of the Educa-tional Testing Service, Cooperative Test Divis ion, Ca l i forn ia , 1966. 47 TABLE II DATA MATRIX DEPENDENT VARIABLES GROUPS Cardinal Science Required Science Undecided One Year (N=62) Two Year (N=55) One Year (N=91) Two Year (N=49) Two Year (N=67) Two Year (N=58) C 0 G N I T I V E Knowledge Pre-Test Mid-Term I Xmas Mid-Term II Terminal Examination A T T I T U D I N A L Physics Problem Solving Natural Phenomena Intellectual Excitement My Previous Physics Instructor My Previous Physics Course My Expectations for Physics 110 A N T E C E D E N T ) ! e r b a l , Cooperative Component A c a 3 e m i c Quantitative Ab i l i t y Component Test High-School: 1. Ph. Grade 2. Chem. Grade 3. Math. Grade 4. High School Graduating Average 48 3.4 Method of Analysis 3.4.1 Data Processing Al l data was punched onto IBM cards and checked by the Univer-s i ty Centre Keypunch operator service. Each punched card contained a . student ident i f icat ion number, group c lass i f i ca t ion and the scores on a l l variables. 3.4.2 Testing the Null Hypothesis Multivariate analysis of variance procedures were used to analyse the data and to test the null hypothesis of the study, stated in s ta t is t i ca l form as follows: H2 : El = H2 = H3 * * * = Hk » where the centroid of the j group is given by: Ej = Hj2' Ej3» * ' *' Hjm' * * * ' V m = 1,2,3, • • •, p, dependent variables. The null hypothesis was tested at the p = 0.03 level of signif icance. This value was chosen on the basis of current educational practice. 49 Using a one-way, fixed effects multivariate design, the Cooley 13 and Lohnes computer programme -- : -- was applied to the data, and a test of the null hypothesis made. 3.4.3 Discriminant Analysis Since the population centroids for the six different vocational-choice groups were found to d i f fe r s igni f icant ly on the nineteen depen-dent variables taken simultaneously, a study of group differences in terms of performance on a set of nineteen dependent variables was undertaken. The method used was a discriminant analysis. The computer programme used for this purpose was DISCRIM.14 This programme yielded additional information such as: 1. Chi-square tests on each discriminant function. 2. A cross-check on the data generated by the Cooley 15 and Lohnes programme. The results and conclusions of the study are given in the following chapters. W.W. Cooley and P.R. Lohnes, Multivariate Procedures for  the Behavioural Sciences. New York: John Wiley, 1962. 14 D.J. Veldman, Fortran Programming for the Behavioural  Sciences, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967. 15 Cooley, op. c i t . 5 0 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY In order to answer the questions in Section 1.1.2 of Chapter 1, multivariate and discriminant analyses on the data collected were carried out. The results obtained and an interpretation of the results are presented in this chapter. 4.1 Summary of Results 4.1.1 The Data Table III presents a summary of the group s izes, group means, group standard deviations, and the total sample s ize , mean and the standard deviation, on each dependent variable. Examination of Table III showed that the mean scores for groups CS-2, RS-2, and U-2, seem consistently higher on each cognitive dependent variable than those for groups CS-1, RS-1 and U-l. The same pattern does not appear evident for any other group of variables, i .e. the Antecedent or Affective dependent variables. However, in some cases, e.g. CAAT, the mean scores for groups RS-2 and U-2 appear noticeably higher than those for RS-1 and U-l. These patterns in mean scores made a further analysis necessary. The results of these analyses are outlined in the following sections of the Chapter. TABLE III GROUP MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND TOTAL SAMPLE MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS CS -I CS -II RS -I RS -II Ul U- II Total Sample N=63 N= 56 N= 91 N= 48 N= 66 N= 58 N= =382 Variables Mean SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD CAAT 73.54 8.13 74.25 10.74 70.55 13.43 74.06 8.37 70.24 13.37 73.17 11.42 72.37 11.47 VC 33.79 6.07 32.79 7.16 32.21 8.39 33.25 6.50 31.41 8.50 32.00 8.86 32.52 7.74 QC +-> 33.78 4.33 41 .43 5.02 38.34 7.19 40.75 4.29 38.83 6.68 41.17 5.24 39.85 5.86 HSPh cu T3 2.11 0.90 2.05 1.07 2.26 0.98 2.10 0.93 2.18 1.14 1.96 0.94 2.13 0.99 HSC o 2.63 0.94 2.77 0.97 2.41 0.97 2.65 0.91 2.64 0.83 2.48 0.92 2.58 0.93 HSM CL) 4J 2.51 0.96 2.79 1.04 2.57 0.99 2.77 0.97 2.73 0.94 2.57 0.90 2.64 0.97 HSGA C <t 70.63 7.37 69.91 6.18 70.35 6.26 68.83 5.84 70.77 19.69 69.57 6.05 70.01 6.53 KPT CO 22.54 3.99 27.70 3.84 21.47 4.18 26.90 4.04 21.97 3.94 26.26 4.55 24.05 4.80 MT-I > •r— 28.75 7.74 31.93 7.85 27.27 8.52 31.46 8.13 28.17 8.71 31.22 7.08 29.48 8.23 XM +-> 65.63 15.15 72.04 12.47 59.90 17.07 70.87 16.88 66.98 16.55 73.29 12.54 67.26 16.06 MT-I I c CD 34.87 6.20 36.80 7.48 32.74 6.91 36.27 8.50 33.68 8.42 37.29 6.54 34.98 7.48 TE O o 66.92 13.99 68.27 15.77 60.41 15.21 67.02 13.55 65.89 15.51 66.34 13.39 65.31 14.87 Ph 0.20 0.58 0.35 0.44 0.18 0.52 0.26 0.63 0.30 0.49 0.32 0.51 0.26 0.53 PS 0.09 0.58 0.12 0.52 0.20 0.51 0.34 0.40 0.20 0.64 0.18 0.67 0.18 0.56 NP c: 0.22 0.66 0.17 0.54 0.29 0.52 0.33 0.54 0.21 0.50 0.12 0.57 0.23 0.56 IE •a Z3 0.68 0.63 0.59 0.49 0.65 0.54 0.61 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.52 0.72 0.67 0.61 PPI +-> •r— -0.46 0.99 -0.03 0.70 -0.37 1.05 -0.16 0.66 -0.44 0.86 -0.32 0.97 -0.31 0.91 PPC -M +-> -0.58 1.17 -0.14 0.97 -0.44 1.35 -0.31 1.15 -0.42 1.02 -0.44 1.14 -0.40 1.16 EP < 0.16 0.80 0.25 0.75 0.23 0.63 0.30 0.75 0.34 0.66 0.20 0.85 0.24 0.73 Note: Independent Variables: (1) Cardinal Science -- A group of students who were required to undertake more than one year of university physics. In any following presentation of data, they wil l be label led: CS-1 -- Cardinal Science -- one year of high-school physics CS-2 -- Cardinal Science -- two years of high-school physics (2) Required Science -- The group of students who were not required to undertake more than one year of university physics. Its designation wil l be: RS-1 -- Required Science -- one year of high-school physics RS-2 -- Required Science -- two years of high-school physics TABLE III (continued) Note: (continued) ( 3 ) Undecided — The category of students who indicated that they were undecided as to vocational goal. Its designation wil l be: U-l -- Undecided -- one year of high-school physics U-2 -- Undecided -- two years of high-school physics Dependent Variables: Cognitive: (1) Knowledge Pre-Test -- This test was given to the subjects to help the instructor determi a student's subject matter preparation for the course Physics 110. In any following presentation of data i t wi l l be labelled KPT. (2) Course Examinations — The four examinations administered during the Physics 110 course. These wi l l be designated: Mid-term I — MT-1 Xmas — XM Mid-term II — MT-2 Terminal Examination -- TE Attitudinal — Measures determined from the instrument designed and administered by G. Page. Their designations wi l l be as follows: Physics -- Ph My Previous Physics Instructor — PPI Problem Solving -- PS My Previous Physics Course -- PPC Natural Phenomena -- NP My Expectations of Physics 110 — EP Intellectual Excitement -- IE Antecedent Measures -- These variables were entry s k i l l s , academic ab i l i t y , and student background knowledge. These wil l have the following designations: The Cooperative Academic Ab i l i t y Test — CAAT The Verbal Component of CAAT -- VC The Quantitative Component of CAAT -- QC High-school Achievement in Physics -- HSPh High-school Achievement in Chemistry -- HSC High-school Achievement in Mathematics -- HSM High-school Grade Average — HSGA ro 5 3 4.2 Analysis of the Data 4.2.1 Multivariate Analysis of Variance The specif ic question to which the multivariate analysis of variance is directed, was: Are there s ta t i s t i ca l l y s ignif icant differences between vocation-oriented groups on the selected cr i ter ion variables taken as a whole. The relevant s ta t is t i ca l null hypothesis tested was: The population centroids of the dif ferent vocation-oriented groups wil l , not d i f fe r s igni f icant ly --designated h^. A test for the equality of group dispersions H-j — was f i r s t performed to test this underlying assumption of the Multivariate Analysis of Variance procedure. The relevant s ta t i s t i ca l hypothesis tested was: The population dispersions of the different vocation-oriented groups wi l l not d i f fer significantly-designated H,. Table IV shows a summary of the MANOVA analysis. 54 TABLE IV MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE - RESULTS Null Hypothesis F-Value d f 2 P H-| = M = 5388.40 0.27 16555.00 493913.75 p > 0.05 H 2 = A = 0.518 2.28 n o 1744 p < 0.001 Since the test for H-j was not s ignif icant at the 0.05 level of confidence, i t seemed reasonable to assume that the underlying assumption was met, and therefore the test for is va l id . The test for H^  is based on Wilk's Lambda value and for the six groups, a value of 0.518 was obtained. In testing the significance of this Lambda value, the F approximation developed by Rao1 was used. This produced an F-value of 2.28 which was s ignif icant beyond the 0.001 level of confidence. The null hypothesis was therefore rejected. This analysis showed that there was a s ignif icant difference between group centroids on the dependent variables taken a l l at a time. In order to examine the nature of the group differences in terms of the dependent variables, the multivariate analysis of variance was followed by a discriminant analysis of the data shown in Table III. Since a discriminant analysis produces discriminant functions, or uncorrelated linear combinations of the original variables, inter -pretation of the nature of group differences is enhanced. ^C.R. Rao, Advanced Stat ist ica l Methods in Biometric Research, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1958. 55 4.3 Discriminant Analysis The discriminant analysis dealt with the question: "Along what (possibly psychologically meaningful) dimensions do these groups d i f fer? " The hypothesis tested was: "If s ignif icant differences between population centroids exist , s t a t i s t i ca l l y s ignif icant discrimin-ant functions can be found to dif ferent iate between the different vocation-oriented groups." 4.3.1 Results The results of the analysis are presented in Tables V, VI, and VII TABLE V TABLE OF LATENT ROOTS (EIGENVALUES); CHI-SQUARE TEST FOR EACH ROOT Latent roots Percent of Chi-Square Degree of P (Eigenvalues) Trace Value Freedom I 0.5633 72.07 164.44 26 0.00 II 0.1042 . 13.51 36.93 24 0.05 The f i r s t two roots reported were the only two roots that showed signif icant Chi-square values at or beyond the 0.05 level of confidence. 3 The 'total discriminatory power' was 85.58 percent of the discriminant M.M. Tatsuoka, Discriminant Analysis, Institute for Personal- i ty and Ab i l i t y Testing, Chicago, 111., 1970. 56 TABLE VI SCALED VECTORS FOR EACH DEPENDENT VARIABLE ON THE DISCRIMINANT FUNCTIONS Variables Scaled Vectors Function Function I II A CAAT -34.55 -50.74 N T VC 17.54 31.78 E QC 22.74 27.17 C E HSPh -7.84 -2.94 D HSC 4.24 0.55 E N HSM 1.30 -4.23 T HSGA -7.57 4.54 C 0 KPT 22.91 -3.21 G N MT-I 0.97 -0.80 I XM 8.53 7.06 T I MT-I I 3.65 1.16 V TE -0.55 11.15 E Ph 5.26 6.44 A F PS -4.80 -3.88 F NP -3.07 -4.80 E C IE. • -0.92 -0.22 T PPJ 3.50 -3.46 I V PPC 0.33 0.90 E EP -1.94 0.06 57 space. Thus 85.58 percent of the var iab i l i t y in the discriminant space is relevant to group di f ferent iat ion. TABLE VII GROUP CENTROIDS ON DISCRIMINANT FUNCTIONS I AND II Groups Discriminant Function Centroids Function I Function II CS-1 4.46 1.59 CS-2 5.50 1.46 RS-1 2.85 1.32 RS-2 5.03 1.17 U-1 3.32 1.63 U-2 5.10 1.64 The Scaled vectors for each dependent variable on the two signif icant discriminant functions are shown in Table VI. The highest positive scaled weights on the f i r s t discriminant function are those for variables VC (17.54), QC (22.74) and KPT (22.91). The largest negative weights were, CAAT (-34.55), HSPh (-7.84) and HSGA (-7.57). The negative weights for HSPh and HSGA are small enough -- less than one quarter of CAAT -- to be discarded in the interpretation of the discriminant function. The second discriminant function showed much the same pattern of scaled weights. The largest positive scaled weights are those for 58 QC (27.17) and VC (31.78). It is interesting to note that KPT is replaced by TE (11.15). However, the weight for TE is less than one-half of the weights for VC and QC, and so does not play a practical role in the interpretation of the second discriminant function. CAAT (-34.55) has a high negative scaled weight and was the only dependent variable considered in the interpretation of the function. Figure 1 shows the group centroids plotted in the discriminant space. The figure shows a d is t inct separation between the groups CS-1, RS-1, U-1 and the.groups CS-2, RS-2 and U-2 on the f i r s t discr imin-ant function. A smaller, but s ign i f icant , separation can be seen on the second discriminant function between the groups RS-1, RS-2 and the other four groups, namely CS-1, CS-2, U-1 and U-2. 4.4 Interpretation of Results 4.4.1 Variables Contributing to Group Separation To determine the relat ive extent to which each dependent variable (CAAT, KPT, etc.) contributed to the overall group separation on a s ignif icant discriminant function, the scale factor must be removed. The adjustment is made by multiplying the elements of each normalized weight by the square root of the corresponding diagonal elements of the W matrix, i .e. the sum of the squared deviations from the group means. These scaled values were shown in Table VI. Although the scaled weights serve as an index for deciding which variables are important in the over-all separation, answers are 2.0 c o c c o 1.0 + U-l @ CS-1 © u-2 © ® CS-2 RS-1 ® ® RS-2 — I 1 1 1 1 r-1-0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Discriminant Function I Figure 1 Group Centroids in Discriminant Space 60 not readily apparent as to the underlying psychological meaning of the group separation. Rather than attach an arbitrary label to the d i s -criminant function, a more systematic approach was undertaken. The 4 " 5 method suggested by Rulon [1952] and used by Cooley [1958], was used in the present study. In the tables that follow a (+x) indicated that the group mean was above the grand mean and a (-x), below the grand mean. In the.column 'v' is the corresponding element of the normalized latent vector. Column 'xv' contains the contribution of that variable to the group score. The group score (centroid) i t s e l f is at the top of the table. Those variables contributing d i rect ly to a group's centroid displacement are l is ted in order, followed by those which modified the shi f t away from the centre of the discriminant, or the overall mean. A detailed examination of Tables VIII to XIII shows: TABLE VIII GROUP CS-1: FUNCTION I d„ = 3.46 Variable X V XV VC 1.27 0.12 0.0324 KPT -1.51 0.29 -0.4379* CAAT 1.17 -0.16 -0.0702 QC -0.07 0.20 -0.0140 P.J. Rulon, D.V. Tiedeman, et al_., The Profi le Problem: A Methodological Study of the Interpretation of Multiple Test Scores, Cambridge, Mass.: Educational Research Corporation, 1954. 5 W.W. Cooley, Career Development of Scient ists: An Overlapping  Longitudinal Study, Cambridge, Mass. (mimeographed), 1958. 61 TABLE IX GROUP CS-2: FUNCTION I d 1 0 = 5.50 Variable X V XV KPT 3.65 0.29 1.0595* QC 1.58 0.20 0.3160 VC 0.27 0.12 0.0324 CAAT 1.88 -0.16 -0.3008 TABLE X GROUP RS-1: FUNCTION I d 1 0 = 2.85 Variable X V XV CAAT -2.82 -0.16 0.4512 KPT -2.38 0.29 -0.6902* VC -0.31 0.12 -0.0302 62 TABLE XI GROUP RS-2: FUNCTION I Variable X V XV KPT 1.85 0.29 0.5365* QC 0.90 0.20 0.1800 VC .0.73 0.12 0.0876 CAAT 2.18 -1.16 -0.305 TABLE XII GROUP U-1: FUNCTION I d l c = 3.32 Variables X V XV CAAT -3.13 -0.16 0.5008 VC 0.73 0.12 0.0876 KPT -2.08 0.29 -0.6032* QC -1.02 0.20 -0.2040 Variable contributing most to group centroid modification. 63 TABLE XIIV GROUP U-2: FUNCTION I d 1 6 = 5.10 Variables X V XV KPT 2.21 0.29 0.6409* QC 1.32 0.20 0.2640 VC -0.52 0.12 -0.0624 CAAT +0.20 -0.16 -0.0320 1. Groups CS-1, RS-1 and U-1. Since the high (negative) weighted variates out-weigh the high (positive) weighted variates, the group centroid was 'pulled back' towards the overall mean by the negatively weighted variables. For each group the dependent variable KPT contributed most to the modification of the group centroid posit ion. 2. Groups CS-2, RS.-2 and U-2. The high (positive) weighted variates out-weigh the high (negative) weighted variates, there-fore the group centroid was moved away from the overall mean --or, the group centroid was 'pulled away' from the overall mean. The dependent variable KPT contributed most, for each group, to the modification of the centroid posit ion. * Variable contributing most to group centroid modification. 64 A similar analysis and interpretation of the second discrim-inant function was not necessary, as the most heavily weighted dependent variables -- CAAT, VC and QC -- gave a f a i r l y clear picture of the nature of the group separation in terms of academic ab i l i t y . 4.5 Summary of Results The acceptance of the null hypothesis H-j: "The population dispersions of the different vocationally-oriented groups wil l not d i f f e r . " Made the test of : "The population centroids of the different vocation-oriented groups wil l not d i f fe r s ign i f i cant ly , " tenable. The null hypothesis was rejected and a discriminant analysis was performed on the data to determine the nature of the group differences. Two signif icant discriminant functions were found to account for 85.58 percent of the var iab i l i t y in the discriminant space relevant to group separation. The scaled vectors (or weights) showed that on the f i r s t function the dependent variables VC, QC, and KPT and CAAT contributed most to the group separation. Further analysis of the variables on the f i r s t discriminant function showed that the variable KPT con-tributed most to the separation of the groups along this function. The same pattern of variables and weights occurred on the second discriminant function, but with the omission of the dependent variable KPT. 65 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS 5.1 The Problem Classroom experience with f irst-year courses at the college level sometimes raises the question of whether or not special provision should be made for different groups of students taking a f i r s t year course. Ginzberg [1951]1 pointed out that education should contribute to the specif ic aims of students, such as an effective resolution of the problem of vocational choice. Fac i l i ta t ing vocational choice is an urgent matter at the college leve l , because first-year college courses often serve as choice-points at which f inal decisions about a vocation are made. The importance of assisting students in making a vocational 2 3 choice has been documented by Havinghurst [1953] and Super [1963]. The general problem of the study was to determine the nature of the differences between various vocation-oriented groups of students taking a first-year college course, with a view to accommodating these differences, i f possible, in the classroom. The differences were examined in terms of a number of selected dependent variables deemed ^E. Ginzberg, et al_., Occupational Choice: An Approach to a  General Theory, New York: Columbia University Press, 1951. 2 R.J. Havinghurst, Human Development and Education, New York: Longmans Green, 1953. 3 D.E. Super, Career Development: Self Concept Theory, Princeton College Entrance Examination Board, 1963. 6 6 important to the instructor of the course, for instructional purposes. More spec i f i ca l l y , the problem of identifying and describing variables which could serve to discriminate between groups defined, a p r i o r i , on the basis of vocational choice, was undertaken. Two particular questions, related to the broader problem, were dealt with. These were: 1. Are there s ta t i s t i ca l l y s ignif icant differences between different vocation-choice groups on the selected cr i ter ion variables, taken as a whole? 2. Along what (possibly psychologically meaningful) dimensions do these groups di f fer? The conclusions reached'are dealt with in this chapter. Recommendations for further study wil l be suggested in the last section of the chapter. 5.2 Conclusions 5.2.1 Group Differences The results show that the nineteen dependent variables, taken as a whole, had the power to discriminate between certain vocation-oriented groups (see Chapter IV, Section 4.1.1). These differences, however, though s ta t i s t i ca l l y s igni f icant , do not necessarily imply any practical signif icance. A discriminant analysis was carried out to determine the nature of the group differences. 67 5.2.2 Discriminant Analysis Discriminant analysis was performed to determine the relat ive extent to which each of the original dependent variables contributed to group separation. Two discriminant functions proved to be s t a t i s t i c -a l l y s ignif icant in accounting for group differences. Scaled weights were used as indices for deciding which of the variables contributed most to group centroid separation. By examining the relative importance of each variable in this way, the discriminant functions were interpreted as psychological dimensions of group d i f f e r -ences. Examination of these dimensions suggested important differences between the groups that could be useful in planning classroom instruct ion. F i rs t Discriminant Function A study of the f i r s t discriminant function (Figure 1) showed that those students with two years of high-school physics were c lear ly separated from those with just one year of high-school physics. The dependent variables contributing most to the separation of the vocation-oriented groups: Cardinal Science -- one year of high-school physics (CS-1) Required Science -- one year of high-school physics (RS-1) Undecided -- one year of high-school physics (U-l) from the groups: Cardinal Science -- two years of high-school physics (CS-2) Required Science -- two years of high-school physics (RS-2) 6 8 Undecided -- two years of high-school physics (U-2) along the f i r s t dimension were the verbal component (VC) and quantitative component (QC) of the Cooperative Academic Ab i l i t y Test (CAAT), Knowledge Pre-Test (KPT) and the total CAAT scores. The Cooperative Academic Ab i l i t y Test (CAAT) is designed to y ie ld a re l iable and val id estimate of academic ab i l i t y . Thus i t is reasonable to conclude that the vocation-oriented groups d i f fered, in part, on this attr ibute. The variable KPT (Knowledge Pre-Test) also had a s ignif icant weight on the f i r s t function. This suggests that the amount of experi-ence a student has in high-school physics also served to distinguish between the groups. A more detailed 'post facto' analysis given in the preceeding chapter (Section 4 . 4 ) substantiates this contention.. In this analysis the variable KPT contributed most to the translation of the group centroids along f i r s t dimension, relat ive to the overall group discriminant mean. The Knowledge Pre-Test was administered to the students before the course (Physics 110) started. It was designed to provide the instructor with information relating to the sk i l l s and knowledge students had prior to the course. Thus these results tend to support the claim that what separates the vocation-oriented groups is not only academic ab i l i t y , but also prior high-school experience in a subject area. 6 9 Second Discriminant Function The plot of tye group centroids (Figure 1) shows a separation of the groups RS-1, RS-2 from the other groups -- CS-1, CS-2, U-1, U-2. The variables contributing most to this separation were much the same as those for the f i r s t function. The major difference being, that only the variables VC, QC and CAAT were weighted heavily, and no other variable played a s ignif icant role in group separation. Evidently, certain vocation-oriented groups can be distinguished on the basis of academic ab i l i t y alone. The overall conclusion that is suggested, is that only the Required Science (RS) groups can be c lear ly distinguished from the other vocation-oriented groups. The major d ist inct ion being that the Required Science (RS) groups do not appear to be as capable, academically, as the rest. Years of schooling in a subject area is an important d i s -criminating factor for instructional purposes, but this factor does not differentiate between the various vocation-oriented groups. An implication of the study is that the treatment of students in a freshman physics course should be considered on the basis of: 1. The number of years of high-school physics experience and 2. Whether or not students are simply taking the course as a prerequisite to further study. 5.3 Recommendations for Further Study In view of the results obtained, a number of recommendations for further study in the area of schooling in relation to vocational choice follow: 70 1. What sort of instruction should the RS types of students receive? 2. Why are the affective factors not important in distinguishing between vocation-oriented groups? 3. Since the group of undecided students, those without a specif ic vocational goal in mind, did not d i f fe r s igni f icant ly from some vocationally oriented students, i t would be of interest to examine how a career planning programme could affect the achievement of these undecided students. 4. Would vocationally committed students obtain any benefit from a career planning programme through the development of a wider view-point and experience, in career planning? In summary the author would l ike to refer back to a study quoted in Chapter II, by Mallinson [1968], as this present study showed a remarkable degree of agreement with one of his conclusions, namely: The two most s ignif icant factors related to overall achievement in College were the student's IQ and his bel ief that his parents thought education was important. 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Washington, Council on Education, 1958. WISENTHAL, M. "Freshman Success: A College Responsibi l i ty," in College  and University Teaching. H. Estrein & D. Goode (eds.), College and University Teaching, W.C Brown, 1964. W00LFE, D. & 0XT0BY, T. "Distribution of Ab i l i t y of Students Special izing in Different F ie lds , " Science 116. 1952. 77 A P P E N D I C E S A P P E N D I X A Personal Data Sheet 79 PHYSICS INFORMATION SHEET Please Print Name ' Surname School Last Attended: Secondary College Given Names Reg. No, Name of School Location Name of College Location High School Graduating Average % Math and Science Course Completed in secondary School (c i rc le appropriate numbers and indicate f inal mark and year completed) Course Respective Marks Year Taken Physics 91,11,12 Chemistry 91,11,12 Biology 91,11,12 Math 91,11,12 Other (specify) , Other lab Science courses taken this year (give course numbers) Biology^ Chemistry Engineering Other V. Q. T. PC PA Ml X M2 FC FA F L T FG Please leave blank Professional Objective -- Check (/) one item where applicable. Undecided Engineering Ministry — Agriculture — Architecture Armed Services Bio-Sciences — Business (Comm.) Chemistry C iv i l Service Dentistry Forestry Geology Home Economics Journal ism Library Law Medicine Rehab. Medicine Music Pharmacy Physics Physical Education Social Work — Teaching Other A P P E N D I X B Semantic-Differential Instrument 81 PHYSICS._EDUCA.TION" EVALUATION PROJECT The purpose of t h i s study i s to.measure your per-ception of c e r t a i n concepts r e l a t e d to physics and physics courses, by having you judge these concepts against a series of d e s c r i p t i v e scales. You are asked to make-your judgments on the basis of what these concepts mean to you. THIS IS NOT A TEST, as ther@-are.no r i g h t or wrong answers, and your responses w i l l i n no way influence your grades i n t h i s course. You w i l l f i n d the concepts to be judged i n bold face l e t t e r s . For example, REGISTRATION AT U.B.C. Below t h i s headline concept are a seri e s of d e s c r i p t i v e scales against which you w i l l judge the concept. An example of a d e s c r i p t i v e scale i s chaotic == == == == == == == ordered I f you f e e l that the headline concept i s very c l o s e l y  r e l a t e d to one end of the scale, you should respond: chaotic ~* == == == == == == ordered OR chaotic == == = = . == == == ordered I f you f e e l that the headline concept i s quite c l o s e l y  r e l a t e d to one or the other end of the scale (but not extremely), you should respond: chaotic == »». == == == == == ordered O R chaotic == == == == =- ~ == ordered I f the headline concept seems only s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d to one side as opposed to the other side (but i s not r e a l l y n e u t r a l ) , then you should respond: chaotic == == == == == == ordered OR chaotic - 2 - 8 2 T h e d i r e c t i o n t o w a r d w h i c h y o u r e s p o n d , o f c o u r s e , d e p e n d s u p o n w h i c h o f t h e t w o e n d s o f t h e s c a l e s e e m m o s t c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e t h i n g y o u a r e j u d g i n g . I f y o u c o n s i d e r t h e o b j e c t t o b e n e u t r a l o n t h e s c a l e , b o t h s i d e s o f t h e s c a l e e q u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o b j e c t , o r i f t h e s c a l e i s c o m p l e t e l y i r r e l e v a n t , u n r e l a t e d t o t h e o b j e c t , t h e n y o u s h o u l d r e s p o n d i n t h e m i d d l e s p a c e : c h a o t i c 1 == == == ° » == == == o r d e r e d I M P O R T A N T : ( 1 ) B e s u r e t o r e s p o n d t o e v e r y s c a l e f o r e v e r y c o n c e p t . ( 2 ) D o n o t m a k e m o r e t h a n o n e r e s p o n s e o n a g i v e n s c a l e . ( 3 ) R e s p o n d u s i n g t h e p e n c i l p r o v i d e d . W o r k a t a f a i r l y r a p i d p a c e . D o n o t p u z z l e o v e r i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s . G i v e y o u r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s , t h e i m m e d i a t e " f e e l i n g s " a b o u t t h e i t e m s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , p l e a s e d o n o t b e c a r e l e s s , b e c a u s e i t i s y o u r t r u e i m p r e s s i o n s t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t . B e l o w i s p a r t o f a s a m p l e p a g e f o r y o u t o f i l l i n f o r p r a c t i c e . D o n o t s p e n d m o r e t h a n a f e w s e c o n d s m a r k i n g e a c h s c a l e . Y o u r f i r s t i d e a i s w h a t i s w a n t e d . Y o u c a n w o r k f a s t e r i f y o u d o t h e f o l l o w i n g : F i r s t , f o r m a p i c t u r e i n y o u r m i n d o f t h e h e a d l i n e c o n c e p t ( i n t h i s c a s e " U n i v e r s i t y L e a r n i n g " ) . T h e n , r e a d - e a c h - s c a l e . a n d m a k e y o u r r e s p o n s e s v e r y r a p i d l y . v a l u a b l e d i f f i c u l t b e n e f i c i a l f o r s o c i e t y m y s t e r i o u s d e a d P L E A S E D O N O T T U U N I V E R S I T Y L E A R N I N G T H E P A G E U N T I L T O L D w o r t h l e s s e a s y h a r m f u l f o r s o c i e t y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e a l i v e T O D O S O . T H A N K Y O U . Name Last First 8 3 T E S T NUMBER S H E E T NUMBER DIRECTIONS: Make your mark as long as the pair of lines, and completely fill in the area between the pair of lines. If you change your mind, erase your first mark COMPLETELY. REGISTRATION NUMBER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 „SL _J__ __?_. - .4. _A_ J... .JL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 _Q__ 1 .JL 4 5 6 J... 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 «=?== 1 2 3 4_ 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 important not applicable : : r : r beneficial for society passive : : z : : never Intel-lectually exciting oriented toward principles mysterious i n -valuable n m small n m efficient z z z z z not needed by society challenging z z z z z good miraculous _ dead -----intuitive weak never fun nice -----moving -----ihould be guided by society _____ rewarding difficult interesting -----opportunity for initiative -----tricky z z z z z discouraging = = = = = never dull = I = = = beautiful slow -----clarifies -----wide -----meaningless unnecessary PHYSICS unimportant applicable harmful for society sometimes intel-lectually exciting oriented toward facts understandable worthless large inefficient needed by society not challenging bad rational alive theoretical strong always fun awful still should not be guided by society unrewarding easy not interesting no opportunity for initiative straight forward encouraging always dull ugly fast complicates narrow meaningful necessary PROBLEM SOLVING important i n n not applicable i n n beneficial for society passive : : : : : never intel-lectually exciting oriented toward principles mysterious zzzzz valuable n m small i n -efficient -----not needed by society challenging z z z z z good -----miraculous dead z z z z z intuitive ------weak never fun nice moving should be guided by society : : m rewarding -----difficult _____ interesting opportunity for initiative =---= tricky z z z z z discouraging z z z z z never dull z z z z z beautiful -----slow clarifies wide -----meaningless -----unnecessary unimportant applicable harmful for society sometimes intel-lectually exciting oriented toward facts " = n understandable worthless " large " inefficient • ----- needed by society ------ not challenging : : : : : b a d rational • _____ alive theoretical • strong " always fun awful i n n s t i " should not be : : : : : guided by society i n n unrewarding • easy not interesting no opportunity . for initiative i n n straight forward I : I I I encouraging " _____ always dull • ----- ugly ----- fast : : : : : complicates " : : : : : narrow " ----- meaningful ™ _____ necessary " Name. Last First 84 T E S T NUMBER S H E E T NUMBER DIRECTIONS: Make your mark as long as the pair of lines, and completely fill in the area between the pair of lines. If you change your mind, erase your first mark COMPLETELY. NATURAL PHENOMENA important : : : : : not applicable : : : := beneficial for society passive m i -never intel-lectually exciting oriented toward principles mysterious i n -valuable ; —— smalt ——; efficient ------not needed by society -----challenging z z z z z good -----mirapulous dead intuitive weak never fun nice moving should be guided by society rrrrr rewarding diff icult . . . . . interesting opportunity for initiative : : : = : tricky discouraging z z z z z never dull beautiful slow -----clarifies z z z z z wide meaningless unnecessary : : : ; . unimportant : ; r r r applicable harmful for society rrrrr active sometimes intel-lectually exciting oriented toward facts zzzzz understandable worthless i n — large i n — inefficient rrrrr needed by society rrrrr n ° t challenging bad r r ; : : rational : : : : : alive ; : : ; ; theoretical rrrrr strong always fun rrrrr awful ----- still should not be : : : : . guided by society rrrrr unrewarding r r r r : e a s V rrrrr n o t interesting no opportunity for initiative rrrrr straight forward rrrrr encouraging rrrrr always dull r r ; : : ugly r r r ; : fast rrrrr complicates rrrrr narrow r r r r ; meaningful rrrrr necessary REGISTRATION NUMBER 2 3 4 5 -6- 7 8 ..?. ___2. „ 3 . _.4_ __5._ -.6. - 8 . ..9 ___2. ...3. __4_ __5_ ..6. ..7__ -JL ..?. ._4__ ..5. .JL 7_ .JL 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 6_ __7 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 INTELLECTUAL EXCITEMENT^ important not applicable beneficial for society passive rrrrr never intel-lectually exciting oriented toward principles mysterious valuable small efficient not needed by society challenging good miraculous dead intuitive weak . never fun . nice --. moving __. should be guided by society zz: rewarding --. difficult . . . interesting . . . opportunity for initiative --: tricky --: discouraging ---never dull --• beautiful slow clarifies ---wide meaningless ---unnecessary — rrrr ; unimportant rrrr; applicable harmful for society rrrrr active • sometimes intel- • lectually exciting oriented toward facts rrrrr understandable r r r r : worthless " r r r r : large rrrrr Inefficient " : r r ; ; needed by society" rrrrr n ° t challenging . . . . . bad :;::: ra^onal -: ; ; r r alive • rrrrr theoretical rrrrr strong -rrrrr a ' w a V S fun rrrrr awful . . . . . still should not be -rr.. guided by society rrrrr unrewarding rrrrr e a s y ~ r r r ; : n o t interesting " no opportunity for initiative rrrrr straight forward ™ : : ; : : encouraging ™ rrrrr always dull ™ rrrrr ugly r r r ; : fast -rrrrr complicates " rrrrr narrow "* rrrrr meaningful "" r r r ; ; necessary ~ Name Last T E S T NUMBER S H E E T NUMBER First DIRECTIONS: Make your mark as long as the pair of lines, and completely fill in the area between the pair of lines. If you change your mind, erase your first mark COMPLETELY. 8 5 REGISTRATION NUMBER 0 1 2 __3__ 4 5 6 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...1.. .A. _JL __6._ 7 _ .JL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7__ 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 MY PREVIOUS PHYSICS COURSE important r r r r r not applicable : : : : : beneficial for society passive m i -never Intel-lectually exciting oriented toward principles : : : : : mysterious i n -valuable -----small i n -efficient n n i not needed by society challenging -----good miraculous dead -----intuitive weak -----never fun nice -----moving should be guided by society m i l rewarding difficult _____ interesting opportunity for initiative r u n tricky : : : : : discouraging -----never dull -----beautiful slow -----clarifies -----wide meaningless unnecessary unimportant I I I I I applicable harmful for society sometimes intel-lectually exciting oriented toward facts I I I I I understandable r r r r r worthless large r r r r r inefficient n - n needed by society zzzzz n ° t challenging " i n b -d r r r r r rational zzzzz alive I I I I I theoretical I I I I I strong always fun IIIII awful : : : n s t i " should not be I I I I I guided by society IIIII unrewarding easy r r r r r n o t Interesting no opportunity for Initiative i i ; n straight forward n : n encouraging i n n always dull zzzzz ugly r r r r r f as t I I I I I complicates r r r r r narrow zzzzz meaningful n n : necessary MY PREVIOUS PHYSICS INSTRUCTOR important I I I I I not applicable I I I I I beneficial for society passive m n never intel-lectually exciting -----oriented toward principles : : : : : mysterious n m valuable = = r r r small : : : : : efficient I = r r r not needed by society challenging z z z z z good miraculous -----dead -----intuitive weak never fun nice moving should be guided by society I I I I I rewarding -----difficult interesting -----opportunity for initiative I I I I I tricky -----discouraging n m never dull -----beautiful -----slow -----clarifies n : n wide z - z z z meaningless -----unnecessary unimportant applicable harmful for society sometimes intel- -lectually exciting oriented toward facts r i m understandable " r r r r r worthless r r r r r ' a r 9 e " r r r r r inefficient • ----- needed by society" r r r r r n o t challenging " r r r r r b a d r r r r r r a t 'onal r r r r r a ' ' v e ™ theoretical strong ~ always fun -awful " still should not be m r r r r r guided by society unrewarding — r r r r r e a s v ™ not interesting no opportunity for initiative _ r r r r r straight forward ™ r r r r r encouraging ™ r r r r r always dull ™ r r r r r u9'y r r r r r f a s t r r r r r complicates ™ r r r r r narrow ~ r r r r r meaningful " r r r r r necessary ™ Name Last First 8 6 T E S T NUMBER S H E E T NUMBER DIRECTIONS: Make your mark as long as the pair of lines, and completely fill in the area between the pair of lines. If you change your mind, erase your first mark COMPLETELY. MY EXPECTATIONS TOWARD PHYSICS 110 important ==== not applicable ==== beneficial for _ society -never intel-lectually exciting oriented toward principles mysterious -----valuable small -----efficient -----not needed by society -----challenging -----good miraculous dead intuitive weak never fun nice moving should be guided by society _____ rewarding difficult interesting opportunity for initiative ===== tricky -discouraging — - -never dull beautiful slow clarifies wide meaningless unnecessary _=__ unimportant ==== applicable harmful for society sometimes Jntel-lectually exciting oriented toward facts ===== understandable ===== worthless ===== large ===== inefficient ===== needed by society ===== n ° t challenging ===== b a d ===== r a t'onaI ===== alive ===== theoretical ===== strong ----- always fun ===== awful ===== s t i " should not be --=== guided by society ===== unrewarding ===== e a S v ===== n o t Interesting no opportunity —r— f o r initiative ===== straight forward ===== encouraging ----- always dull _—— ugly ----- fast ----- complicates ===== narrow ===== meaningful ===== necessary REGISTRATION NUMBER - ? „ __3_ .A.. __5_ . . 6 . „ 8 „ __?_ ___2__ - 3 . .A.. - 5 . __6. . .9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 4 _A. 7 .A. 2 3 4 5 6 7_ 8 9 2 3 4_ __5_ 6 J... 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A P P E N D I X C Knowledge Pre-Test 88? P H Y S I C S E D U C A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N P R O J E C T I n s t r u c t i o n s T h i s i s n o t a c o u r s e e x a m i n a t i o n . T h e r e s u l t s w i l l n o t c o u n t t o w a r d y o u r g r a d e . T h i s t e s t i s p a r t o f a n a t i o n a l s t u d y o n p h y s i c s t e a c h i n g , a n d y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n i n c o m p l e t i n g i t w i l l h l e p i m p r o v e p h y s i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s a n d s i m i l a r i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e s . Y o u w i l l h a v e f o r t y ( 4 0 ) m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e t h e 3 7 q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s t e s t . E a c h q u e s t i o n h a s f o u r o r f i v e c h o i c e s . C h o o s e o n e o f t h e s e , a n d m a r k t h e p r o p e r s p a c e o n t h e a n s w e r s h e e t w i t h a l e a d p e n c i l . N o t e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n u m b e r s o n t h e a n s w e r s h e e t r u n h o r i z o n t a l l y a c r o s s t h e p a g e . I f a f t e r y o u h a v e c h o s e n o n e o f t h e g i v e n a l t e r n a t i v e s , y o u f e e l y o u w o u l d r a t h e r h a v e g i v e n a n a n s w e r o t h e r t h a n t h o s e l i s t e d , w r i t e y o u r a n s w e r o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t ( l a s t p a g e o f t h i s b o o k l e t ) . I f a q u e s t i o n s e e m s t o o d i f f i c u l t , m a k e t h e m o s t c a r e f u l g u e s s y o u c a n , r a t h e r t h a n - w - a s - t e - 4 ; i m e o v e r i t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t y o u a n s w e r — a l l q u e s t i o n s . E X A M P L E T h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s 1 . T o m J o n e s 2 . H u g h H e f n e r 3 . R o n a l d R e g a n 4. W a l t e r G a g e 5 . W . A . C . B e n n e t t 89 NAME REGISTRATION NO. l a s t f i r s t 1 . Two sacks of i d e n t i c a l marbles are hung one meter a p a r t . Which of the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s would approximately double the grav-i t a t i o n a l f o r c e t h a t one sack of marbles e x e r t s on the other sack? 1 . Move them c l o s e r , to one-half the s e p a r a t i o n . 2 . Move them f u r t h e r a p a r t , to twice the s e p a r a t i o n . 3 . Move them f u r t h e r a p a r t , t o f o u r times the s e p a r a t i o n . 4 . Double the number of marbles i n one sack. 5 . Double the number of marbles i n both sacks. I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, p l e a s e do so on the back of the y e l l o w sheet. 2. Consider the f o l l o w i n g : A . a w i r e loop surrounding a w i r e w i t h a steady c u r r e n t . B. a magnet dropping through a w i r e l o o p . C. a s t a t i o n a r y magnet at the center o f a w i r e l o o p . In which of the above i s a c u r r e n t produced i n the w i r e loop? 1 . A o n l y 2 . B o n l y 3 . C o n l y 4 . A and C o n l y 5 . B and C o n l y I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, p l e a s e do so on the back of the y e l l o w sheet. Two spheres, one of mass 5 k i l o g r a m s and the other of mass 1 0 k i l o g r a m s , are dropped a t the same time from the top of a tower ( n e g l e c t a i r f r i c t i o n ) . When they are 1 meter above the ground, the two spheres have the same 1 . momen turn. 2 . k i n e t i c energy. 3 . p o t e n t i a l energy. 4 . t o t a l mechanical energy. *' 5 . a c c e l e r a t i o n . I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, p l e a s e do so on the back of the y e l l o w sheet.. 9 0 - 2 -A b e a m o f e l e c t r o n s i s d i r e c t e d b e t w e e n t w o c h a r g e d p l a t e s a s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e d i a g r a m a t t h e r i g h t . O n c e t h e b e a m i s b e t w e e n t h e p l a t e s i t w i l l 1 . c u r v e i n d i r e c t i o n A . 2. c u r v e i n d i r e c t i o n B . 3 . c u r v e i n d i r e c t i o n C . 4 . c u r v e i n d i r e c t i o n D . 5 . c o n t i n u e i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e . I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . Q u e s t i o n s 5 a n d 6 r e f e r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n . D u r i n g a m a n e u v e r i n s p a c e f l i g h t , a f r e e - f l o a t i n g a s t r o n a u t p u s h e s a f r e e - f l o a t i n g i n s t r u m e n t p a c k a g e . T h e m a s s o f t h e a s t r o n a u t i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t p a c k a g e . T h e f o r c e e x e r t e d b y t h e a s t r o n a u t o n t h e i n s t r u m e n t p a c k a g e i s : 1; e q u a l t o t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d b y t h e p a c k a g e o n t h e a s t r o n a u t . 2. g r e a t e r t h a n t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d b y t h e p a c k a g e o n t h e a s t r o n a u t . 3 . l e s s t h a n t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d b y t h e p a c k a g e o n t h e a s t r o n a u t . 4 . e q u a l t o z e r o . 5 . g r e a t e r t h a n , l e s s t h a n , o r e q u a l t o t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d b y t h e p a c k a g e o n t h e a s t r o n a u t ; o n e c a n n o t t e l l w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n h e r e . I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . D u r i n g t h e p u s h b y t h e a s t r o n a u t o n t h e p a c k a g e 1 . t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e a s t r o n a u t i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t p a c k a g e . 2 . t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e a s t r o n a u t i s s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t p a c k a g e . 3 . n e i t h e r a s t r o n a u t n o r i n s t r u m e n t p a c k a g e a r e a c c e l e r a t e d . 4 . t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n s o f e a c h a r e e q u a l i n m a g n i t u d e b u t o p p o s i t e i n d i r e c t i o n . 5 . t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n s o f e a c h a r e e q u a l i n m a g n i t u d e a n d i n t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n . I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . 91 - 3 -G a m m a r a y s a r e 1 . h i g h f r e q u e n c y e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c r a d i a t i o n . 2 . i d e n t i c a l t o e l e c t r o n s . 3 . l i k e e l e c t r o n s , b u t w i t h a p o s i t i v e c h a r g e . 4. n u c l e i o f t h e e l e m e n t h e l i u m . 5. n u c l e i o f t h e e l e m e n t h y d r o g e n . W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i s a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y ? 1 . W o r k 2 . K i n e t i c e n e r g y 3 . F o r c e 4 . P o t e n t i a l e n e r g y 5 . P o w e r T w o s p h e r e s , A a n d B , a r e 4 m e t e r s a p a r t . A c h a r g e o f 2 m i c r o c o u l o m b s i s d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r s p h e r e A a n d a c h a r g e o f 1 m i c r o c o u l o m b i s d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r s p h e r e B . ( S e e s k e t c h . ) H o w d o e s t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d b y A o n B c o m p a r e w i t h t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d b y B o n A ? 1 . T h e f o r c e o n A i s 4 t i m e s t h e f o r c e o n B . 2 . T h e f o r c e o n A i s 2 t i m e s t h e f o r c e o n B . 3 . T h e f o r c e o n A i s t h e s a m e a s t h e f o r c e o n B . 4 . T h e f o r c e o n A i s h, t h e f o r c e o n B . 5. T h e f o r c e o n A i s \ t h e f o r c e o n B . I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . 4 •••«.- - - >! 2 m i c r o c o u l o m b s <5> 1 m i c r o c o u l o m b I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . 9 2 - 4 -1 0 . S o m e o n e l i f t s a b o w l i n g b a l l f r o m t h e f l o o r a n d p l a c e s i t o n a r a c k . I f y o u k n o w t h e w e i g h t o f t h e b a l l , w h a t e l s e m u s t y o u k n o w i n o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e t h e w o r k h e d o e s o n t h e b a l l ? 1 . n o t h i n g e l s e . 2 . h o w m u c h f o r c e i t t a k e s t o l i f t i t . 3 . h o w f a s t i t w a s l i f t e d . 4 . h o w f a r i t w a s l i f t e d . 5 . h o w l o n g i t t o o k t o l i f t i t . I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . 1 1 . W h e n t w o w a v e s p a s s t h e s a m e p o i n t a t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e w a v e s a t t h i s p o i n t a l w a y s 1 . c a n c e l o u t 2 . r e f l e c t o f f e a c h o t h e r 3 . r e i n f o r c e e a c h o t h e r 4 . h i n d e r e a c h o t h e r s p r o g r e s s 5 . s u p e r i m p o s e I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . T H E R E M A I N I N G Q U E S T I O N S O N L Y P R O V I D E 4 A L T E R N A T I V E S W H E R E A S T H E A N S W E R S H E E T S T I L L P R O V I D E S F O R 5 A L T E R N A T I V E S . R E S P O N S E C A T E G O R Y 5 O N T H E A N S W E R S H E E T S H O U L D B E I G N O R E D F O R T H E S E Q U E S T I O N S . 1 2 . S c i e n t i s t s o n t h e i m a g i n a r y p l a n e t Q h a v e d e f i n e d a u n i t o f l e n g t h , t h e " l a r " , t o b e t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t w o m o u n t a i n p e a k s o n t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e p l a n e t . T h e u n i t o f t i m e o n t h e p l a n e t Q i s c a l l e d t h e " t i k " , a n d i s d e f i n e d a s t h e a v e r a g e i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n p u l s e b e a t s o f t h e k i n g . W h a t u n i t s w o u l d e x p r e s s a c c e l e r a t i o n o n p l a n e t Q i f a c c e l e r a t i o n w e r e d e f i n e d a s i t i s o n e a r t h ? 1 . l a r / t i k 7 2 . h l a r t i k 3 . t i k / l a r - . 4 . l a r / t i k ^ I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . 93 13. An oxygen atom consists of: 1. a nucleus (neutrons and electrons) surrounded by a cloud of protons. 2. a nucleus (protons and electrons) surrounded by a cloud of neutrons. 3. a nucleus (neutrons) surrounded by a cloud of protons and electrons. 4. a nucleus (protons and neutrons) surrounded by a cloud of electrons. I f you would rather answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, please do so on the 1 back of the yellow sheet. 14. A body of mass m moving from r e s t at constant a c c e l e r a t i o n a reaches a f i n a l v e l o c i t y v^ i n time t . The k i n e t i c energy at f i n a l v e l o c i t y i s 1. mvf 2. ma 3. ?_mv^  4. at I f you would rather answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, please do so on the back of the yellow sheet. 15. An object at r e s t may have a non-zero amount of 1. momentum 2. k i n e t i c energy 3. p o t e n t i a l energy 4. v e l o c i t y I f you would rather answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, please do so on the back of the yellow sheet. 16, I f an object of mass m i s at r e s t at a distance h above ground, and the a c c e l e r a t i o n of g r a v i t y i s g, the p o t e n t i a l energy of the object i s 1. mg 2. mgh2 3. hmh 4. !2gh'' I f you would rather answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, please do so on the back of the yellow sheet. 94 V Given F and F' are the f o c i o f the l e n s , the image o f o b j e c t 0 i s most c o r r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t e d by 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4 I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, p l e a s e do so on the back of the y e l l o w s h e e t . 18. Two p l a n e t a r y b o d i e s whose c e n t r e s a r e s e p a r a t e d by a d i s t a n c e r a re a t t r a c t e d t o each o t h e r by a g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e which i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o : 1. r 2. r 2 3. 1/r 4. 1 / r 2 I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, p l e a s e do so on the back o f the y e l l o w s h e e t , 19. When the speed o f a c a r i s doubled, the c a r ' s 1. k i n e t i c energy i s doubled 2. p o t e n t i a l energy i s doubled 3. momentum i s doubled 4. i n e r t i a i s doubled I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, p l e a s e do so on the back o f the y e l l o w s h e e t . •rt. 20. A p o i n t charge +CL e x e r t s an e l e c t r o s t a t i c f o r c e F on p o i n t charge -t-Qp 3 c e n t i m e t e r s away. I f the charges a re p l a c e d 6 c e n t i m e t e r s a p a r t , t h e magnitude o f the e l e c t r o s t a t i c f o r c e +Q. e x e r t s on +Q 2 w i l l be 1. 4F 2 . 2F 3. F/2 4. F/4 I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, p l e a s e do so on the back o f the y e l l o w s h e e t . 17. - 6 O ir 9 5 _ 7 -2 1 . W o r k e q u a l s 1 . f o r c e x d i s p l a c e m e n t 2 . e n e r g y ± t i m e 3 . m a s s x v e l o c i t y 4 . f o r c e x t i m e I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . 2 2 . A L L E X C E P T O N E o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c l e s c a n b e a c c e l e r a t e d b y a n e l e c t r i c o r m a g n e t i c f i e l d . W h i c h o n e i s t h e e x c e p t i o n ? 1 . e l e c t r o n 2 . p r o t o n 3 . n e u t r o n 4 . a l p h a p a r t i c l e I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . Q u e s t i o n s 2 3 a n d 2 4 r e f e r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m . s p e e d / 3 * t i m e 2 3 . T h e g r a p h r e p r e s e n t s t h e s p e e d o f a c a r t r a v e l l i n g a l o n g a s t r a i g h t r o a d . T h e m a x i m u m a c c e l e r a t i o n o c c u r s a t t h e t i m e 1 . 1 2 . 2 3 . 3 4 . 4 I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f . t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . s p e e d i s g r e a t e s t a t t h e t i m e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o p o i n t 1 2 3 4 2 4 . T h e 1. 2 . 3 . 4 . I f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e y e l l o w s h e e t . 96 - 8 -25. "There i s an e l e c t r i c f i e l d a t t h i s p o i n t " means: 1. There i s an e l e c t r i c charge at t h i s p o i n t . 2. A charged o b j e c t at t h i s p o i n t would experience a f o r c e . 3. The charge a t t h i s p o i n t i s d i f f e r e n t from the charges i n neighbouring p o i n t s . 4. E l e c t r i c charges (a c u r r e n t ) are moving through t h i s p o i n t . I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, ple a s e do so on the back of the y e l l o w sheet. 26. A f l o w e r pot s t a r t i n g from r e s t i s dropped from a window s i l l , and s t r i k e s the ground w i t h v e l o c i t y v f a f t e r a time t i n f r e e f a l l ( a c c e l e r a t i o n due to g r a v i t y g ) . N e g l e c t i n g a i r r e s i s t a n c e , the d i s t a n c e d o f the window s i l l from the ground c o u l d be found by u s i n g the equation 1. d = v f t 2. d = v f t + hgt2 3. d = hgt2 4. d = v f 2 / g I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, please do so on the back of the y e l l o w sheet. 27. A communications s a t e l l i t e o f mass m i s i n a c i r c u l a r o r b i t of r a d i u s r . I f i t s v e l o c i t y i s v, the c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e i t experiences i s 1. v 2 / r 2. mv 2/r 3. mv 4. %mv2 I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, please do so on the back of the y e l l o w sheet. •Pi 28. A v e r t i c a l w i r e hidden i n a w a l l i s c a r r y i n g a d i r e c t c u r r e n t . What p i e c e o f equipment might h e l p you b e s t f i n d the l o c a t i o n of the wire? 1. galvanometer 2. charged p i t h b a l l on a s t r i n g 3. compass 4. r a d i o r e c e i v e r I f you would r a t h e r answer i n a d i f f e r e n t way, please do so on the back of the yel l o w sheet. 9 7 - 1 0 -3 5 . y 2 x + 7 ; d y = d x 1 . 6 x - 2 2 . 1 2 x - 2 3 . 6 x - 2 + 7 / x 2 x 3 - x 2 + 7 x 4 . 3 6 . f ( 2 x + 5 ) d x = ) 2 . 1 . 3. 4 . 3 7 . V e c t o r s a n d s c a l a r s h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p e r t i e s : 1 . v e c t o r : d i r e c t i o n a n d m a g n i t u d e s c a l a r : d i r e c t i o n o n l y 2 . v e c t o r : d i r e c t i o n o n l y s c a l a r : d i r e c t i o n a n d m a g n i t u d e 3 . v e c t o r : m a g n i t u d e o n l y s c a l a r : d i r e c t i o n a n d m a g n i t u d e 4 . v e c t o r : d i r e c t i o n a n d m a g n i t u d e s c a l a r : m a g n i t u d e o n l y QUESTION NUMBER SPACE FOR ALTERNATE ANSWERS ANSWER A P P E N D I X D Mid-Term I Examination PHYSICS 110 SECTION 1 MIDTERM EXAM, NOVEMBER 1969 100 NAME . CP lease P r i n t ) REG. NO. Physics High School Background Physics l l only Physics l l and J2 Other (Specify) Th is examination cons i s t s of 7 sheets ( f ront page inc luded) . P lease make sure that you have a complete paper. For rough work, please use back of the sheets . DO NOT FILL IN, PLEASE Marks: l 2a 2b 2c 3a 3b 5 6 7a 7b TOTAL P h y s i c s 110 S e c t i o n I - 2 - 101 M i d t e r m I , N o v e m b e r 1969 NAME CP l e a s e P r i n t ) 1. I n t e r m s o f t h e m e t e r - k i l o g r a m - s e c o n d s y s t e m , i n w h i c h u n i t s d o y o u g i v e a c e n t r i p e t a l a c c e l e r a t i o n ? ANSWER: 2. D e f i n i t i o n o f f o r c e a ) G i v e a d e f i n i t i o n o f f o r c e , i n t h e f o r m o f a n e q u a t i o n . A N S W E R : b) E x p l a i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e s y m b o l s u s e d . c ) I s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n v a l i d o u t s i d e t h e r e a l m o f c l a s s i c a l p h y s i c s ? ( C h e c k a p p r o p r i a t e b o x ) ^ - - j ^ £-j G i v e r e a s o n f o r y o u r a n s w e r 2 c ) 1 0 2 Law o f C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Momentum a) S t a t e t h e law o f c o n s e r v a t i o n o f momentum. ( I f you s t a t e i t i n t h e f o r m o f an e q u a t i o n , e x p l a i n t h e mean ing o f t h e s y m b o l s u s e d ) b) Draw a s k e t c h o f an e x p e r i m e n t d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e law o f c o n s e r v a t i o n o f momentum. - _» . 103 On the surface of the earth, a net force of l newton is required to give an object of mass l kg an acceleration of I m sec"^. On the surface of the moon, the net force required to give the same object the same acceleration as above would be: the same not the same cannot be answered with the data provided If you would rather answer in a different way, please do so on the back of the preceding page. A truck of mass m^  = 4,000 kg with a t r a i l e r of mass m£ - 2,000 kg are moving along a level road with a constant speed of v 0 = 5 m sec"1. The truck then gives the truck-and-trailer combination a constant acceleration of a 3 0.5 m sec"2 during a time interval T = 20 sec. Which of the following data would you need to find the tension of the coupling during the time of acceleration? (Friction neglected) (You are not requested to calculate the result of this problem. It is only required to sort the data given in the way indicated below) mi (mass of truck) Needed Not Needed m£ (mass of trailer.) Needed Not Needed v Q ( i n i t i a l speed) Needed Not Needed a (acceleration) Needed Not Needed T (duration of accel.) Needed Not Needed - 5 - 1 0 4 The speed of low-orbit sate l l i tes ( i . e . radius of orbit radius of earth, R e) is 8 km/sec. What speed if required for an earth sa te l l i t e to maintain a c ircular orbit with a radius of 2 .R P ? ANSWER: 105 In t h e a t t a c h e d c o p y ( n e x t page) f r o m a n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t , a f r e e l y f l o a t i n g a s t r o n a u t Is shown, c o m p a r i n g t h e m a s s e s o f two m i n a t u r e p l a n e t s by u s e o f a d o u b l e - p a n b a l a n c e . L e t u s assume t h a t t h e b a l a n c e i s not s e n s i t i v e enough t o be d e f l e c t e d by g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e s a c t i n g between any p a r t s o f t h e s y s t e m shown ( a s t r o n a u t , e q u i p m e n t , m i n a t u r e p l a n e t s ) . a ) I f t h e a s t r o n a u t i s c , l o s e t o a s t r o n g l y g r a v i t a t i n g p l a n e t , w o u l d t h i s b a l a n c e w o r k ? YES NO G i v e r e a s o n s f o r y o u r a n s w e r . b) If t h e a s t r o n a u t w e r e f a r away f r o m any c o s m i c o b j e c t , how c o u l d he f i n d o u t ( u s i n g t h e e q u i p m e n t shown) w h i c h o f t h e m i n i a t u r e p l a n e t s has t h e g r e a t e r mass? D e s c r i b e h i s p o s s i b l e a c t i o n s and o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d e t a i l . I f you need more s p a c e f o r w r i t i n g , u s e t h e b a c k o f t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e . ksma 1 0 6 MAXWELL COILEN the technology and the romance of grams have deflected awareness from of this moonmark moment in the F'-»-th» truth is that the advent into v " ' dimension to i it, a new ving this ition and >ened to ien and • • it that •h \ ? stood nillion ••• home . t :1s ex-x of the . . - . A S . For (incidence •tat uniting, vant sci-.,ls now ble not • :h three :.:it to tell eyes left , er to be wealed < inning >g the tome-_ r de-cien-. ted, \nto " ' still • • of the ary ies-.F-IS: a-/. • • - ; L .",V,v-v^ '^-: ~ \ V ^ ' .:. •"•.'.•y>! ••.'•'*<• y- '.1-.' \\»'^ - .:-V'. > T , ' i ; ^ *. '-vIL'&SS. ti l l i f ^ K ^ a i l l i l l as yet ap-ce A P P E N D I X E Xmas Examination NAME G i v e n name; b u r n a m o ( P l e a s e P r i n t ) R E G . NO. S I G N A T U R E 108 T H E UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A C H R I S T M A S EXAM! (NATIONS - D E C E M B E R , ! 9 5 9 P H Y S I C S I I O S e c t i o n I ( T u e s , W e d , F r i 8 : 3 0 ) ( M e c h a n i c s , E l e c t r i c i t y , a n d A t o m i c S t r u c t u r e ) T i m e : 2 h o u r s IMPORTANT T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f ! 0 p a g e s ( t h i s p a g e i n c l u d e d ) . B e f o r e s t a r t i n g c h e c k t h a t y o u h a v e a c o m p l e t e p a p e r . S h o w a l l y o u r c a l c u l a t i o n s , d o r o u g h w o r k o n t h e b a c k o f t h e p a g e s . N o t i c e : Two c h o i c e s s r e p r o v i d e d f o r q u e s t i o n 9 , t h r e e c h o i c e s a r e p r v o i d e d f o r q u e s t i o n I O . P l e a s e g i v e y o u r name a n d . r e g i s t r a t i o n n u m b e r o n b o t h t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d p a g e . NAME R E G . NO . 109 - 2 -) E x p r e s s , i n t e r m s o f m e t e r , k i l o g r a m , s e c o n d , t h e u n i t o f w o r k C4] 2) G i v e N e w t o n ' s U n i v e r s a l Law o f G r a v i t y i n t h e f o r m o f a n e q u a t i o n . 3) Law o f C o n s e r v a t i o n o f A n g u l a r M o m e n t u m ( a ) S t a t e t h e l a w i n i t s g e n e r a l f o r m , i n w o r d s : ( b ) G i v e , w i t h t h e a i d o f a d r a w i n g , a n e x a m p l e o f a s i t u a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e l a w . [6] 110 A s s u m e a r e s e a r c h e r c l a i m s t h a t he h a s d e t e c t e d a new f o r m o f e n e r g y ( e . g . c o n t a i n e d i n t h e a n a l y t i c t r a n s c e n d e n t i a I i t y o f e l e p h a n t s , o r w h i c h e v e r t h e s e a t o f t h i s a s s u m e d new k i n d o f e n e r g y m i g h t b e ) . In o r d e r t o s h o w t h a t t h i s e n e r g y a c t u a l l y e x i s t s ( i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d e n e r g y a s u s e d i n p h y s i c s ) , w h a t k i n d o f p r o o f w o u l d t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a v e t o g i v e ? G i v e a b r i e f a n s w e r , n o t e x c e e d i n g 5 0 w o r d s ( p o s i t i v e I y o n l y t h e f i r s t 5 0 w o r d s w i l l be r e a d f o r m a r k i n g ) [ i o 3 F o r a c e r t a i n s p r i n g , a m a s s o f 1 0 0 g r a m s , a t t a c h e d t o t h e s p r i n g , p e r f o r m s a s i m p l e h a r m o n i c m o t i o n o f a m p l i t u d e I c m . T h e p e r i o d i s I s e c . T ( a ) W h a t w o u l d t h e p e r i o d b e i f t h e s a m e m a s s w o u l d b e o s c i l l a t i n g w i t h a n a m p l i t u d e o f 2 cm? ( b ) W h a t w o u l d t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s a m e s y s t e m be a t n a n a m p l i t u d e o f I cm, i f a 2 0 0 g r a m m a s s w a s u s e d i n s t e a d o f . t h e -100 g r a m m a s s ? cs: 111 During a maneuver in space f l i g h t , a f r e e - f l o a t i n g astronaut pushes a f r e e - f l o a t i n g instrument package. The mass of the astronaut i s g r e a t e r than t h a t of the instrument package. The magnitude of the force exerted by the astronaut on the instrument package i s equal t o the magnitude of the force exerted by the package on the astronaut greater than the magnitude of the force exerted by the package on the astronaut. less than the magnitude of the f o r c e exerted by the package on the . astronaut. g r e a t e r than, less than, or equal t o the magnitude of the f o r c e exerted by the package on the astronaut; one cannot t e l l with the information given here.. If you would r a t h e r answer in a d i f f e r e n t way, please do so on the back of the preceding page. During the push by the astronaut on the package, the magnitude of the a c c e l e r a t i o n of the astronaut i s g r e a t e r than t h a t of the instrument package. the magnitude of the a c c e l e r a t i o n of the astronaut i s s m a l l e r than t h a t of the instrument package. n e i t h e r astronaut nor instrument package are a c c e l e r a t e d . the a c c e l e r a t i o n s of each are equal in magnitude but opposite in d i r e c t i o n . the a c c e l e r a t i o n s of each are equal in magnitude and in the same d i r e c t i o n . J - ^ - J If you would r a t h e r answer in a d i f f e r e n t way, please do so on the back of the preceding page. The f o l l o w i n g r e f e r s t o frames of reference in c l a s s i c a l mechanics ( i . e . r e l a t i v i t y excluded) a) The p o t e n t i a l energy of a p a r t i c l e depends on the f o l l o w i n g p r o p e r t i e s of the frame of reference: v e l o c i t y and l o c a t i o n , v e l o c i t y o n l y , l o c a t i o n only C6D b) The k i n e t i c energy of a p a r t i c l e depends on the f o l l o w i n g p r o p e r t i e s of the frame of reference: v e l o c i t y and l o c a t i o n , v e l o c i t y o n l y , l o c a t i o n only f.6]] - 5 -112 8) T h e p e n d u l u m s h o w n c o n s i s t s o f a s t i c k o f l e n g t h I = O . G m o f n e g l i g i b l e m a s s , a n d a p e n d u l u m b o b o f m a s s m = 0 . 5 k g . In i t s e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n , t h e b o b i s g i v e n a n i n i t i a l s p e e d o f v Q = 5 m/sec. Is t h i s s p e e d s u f f i c i e n t t o make t h e p e n d u l u m s w i n g t h r o u g h t h e m a x i m u m p o i n t , P , o n t h e c i r c l e ? ( s e e d i a g r a m ) , g = 9 . 8 m / s e c - 2 / f r i c t i o n n e g l e c t e d , ( c r e d i t w i l l be g i v e n o n l y i f y o u r w o r k i s s h o w n ) . A N S : W i l l r e a c h P Wi I I n o t _ r e a c h P Y o u h a v e t h e C H O I C E b e t w e e n Q u e s t i o n 9 a a n d 9 b . a t t e m p t i n g o n e o f t h e s e t w o . R e a d b o t h q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e 9 a ) T h e f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y d i a g r a m f o r a n a t o m ' r n a • m o l e c u l e . T h e q u a n t i t i e s a , b , c a r e a m o u n t s o f e n e r g y ( t h e y a r e p o s i t i v e ) W Q = KE + U . E x p r e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g q u a n t i t i e s i n t e r m s o f a , b , a n d c w h e n t h e a t o m i s i n p o s i t i o n x . . Do n o t i g n o r e m i n u s s i g n s i n y o u r a n s w e r - . t ct 1 W h a t i s t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y ? W h a t i s t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y ? W h a t i s t h e t o t a l e n e r g y ? W h a t i s t h e e n e r g y o f d i s s o c i a t i o n ( i . e . t h e a m o u n t , o f " a d d i t i o n a I e n e r g y t o r e m o v e t h e a t o m f r o m t h e m o l e c u l e ? [ 2 ] 121 L2J [22 1 1 3 - 6 -Y o u h a v e t h e C H O I C E b e t w e e n q u e s t i o n s 9 a a n d 9 b . R e a d b o t h q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g o n e o f t h e s e t w o 9 b ) An i r o n b l o c k o f t e m p e r a t u r e T | = 20°C i s g i v e n a n i n i t i a l s p e e d v Q o n a r o u g h s u r f a c e . Due t o f r i c t i o n , i t c o m e s t o r e s t a f t e r s l i d i n g f o r t = 3 s e c o n d s . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e i r o n b l o c k i s T2 = 2 0 . 5 ° C . I t t a k e s 4 6 0 j o u l e s p e r k i l o g r a m t o i n c r e a s e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f i r o n b y o n e d e g r e e c e n t i g r a d e s . W h i c h i n i t i a l s p e e d , v Q , d i d t h e b l o c k a t l e a s t h a v e ? (No c r e d i t f o r t h e o b v i o u s a n s w e r : " a t l e a s t v G = 0 " ) A N S . : T h e i n i t i a l s p e e d o f t h e b l o c k w a s a t l e a s t [8] 1 1 4 - 7 -Y o u h a v e t h e C H O I C E b e t w e e n Q u e s t i o n s 1 0 a , 1 0 b , a n d 1 0 c . H a v e a l o o k a t a l l t h e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e y o u a t t e m p t o n e o f t h e s e . 1 0 a ) IS a * = J ^ p ( o r , i n i t ' s m o r e g e n e r a l f o r m , a = f^ f )> A LAW  OF P H Y S I C S ? I f y o u d e c i d e t h a t i t jhs a l a w , d e s c r i b e w h a t t h e w o r d " l a w " m e a n s in p h y s i c s , a n d e x p l a i n why a" = / A t i s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I f y o u d e c i d e t h a t i t i s n o t a l a w , d e s c r i b e w h a t t h e w o r d " l a w " m e a n s in p h y s i c s , a n d why a = d t / _ t d o e s n o t m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s s t a t e d in y o u r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t " l a w " . P l e a s e d r a f t y o u r a n s w e r o n t h e b a c k o f t h e e x a m s h e e t s . T h e d r a f t w i l l n o t b e r e a d f o r m a r k i n g . T h e n g i v e y o u r f i n a l a n s w e r b r i e f l y ( n o t m o r e t h a n 150 w o r d s , » 8 s e n t e n c e s ) o n t h i s p a g e . P O S I T I V E L Y O N L Y T H E F I R S T 150 WORDS ON T H I S P A G E W I L L B E R E A D My f i n a l b r i e f a n s w e r i s : T h e r e f o r e , i n my o p i n i o n , a = ^ / 1 \ t i s a l a w -* T h e r e f o r e , i n my o p i n i o n , a =&f/hi i s n o t a l a w [ I O ] ( C r e d i t wi l l o n l y be g i v e n i f y o u r r e a s o n s a r e s t a l e d ) 1 1 5 - 8 -Y o u h a v e t h e C H O I C E b e t w e e n q u e s t i o n s 1 0 a , I O b , a n d 1 0 c . H a v e a l o o k a t a l l t h r e e q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e y o u a t t e m p t o n e o f t h e s e . I O b ) C o n s t r u c t a t i m i n g d e v i c e . A s s u m e y o u w e r e g i v e n a w o r k s h o p f u l l o f t o o l s a n d r a w m a t e r i a l s o f y o u r c h o i c e . Y o u r t a s k s a r e : a ) t o b u i l d a t i m i n g d e v i c e . T h i s d e v i c e i s g o i n g t o b e u s e d f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s o f some a c t i v i t y a s how l o n g i t t a k e s a m o u s e t o f i n d i t s w a y o u t o f a m a z e . T h e d e v i c e h a s t o b e b u i l t s u c h t h a t , b y m e a s u r i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f i t s c o m p o n e n t s u s i n g d e v i c e s l i s t e d u n d e r b ) , t h e c l o c k c a n b e c a l i b r a t e d . I f y o u w i s h , m o t o r s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e i n y o u r t i m i n g d e v i c e . No e l e c t r o n i c e q u i p m e n t i s a v a i l a b l e . b) to c a l i b r a t e t h e d e v i c e . F o r c a l i b r a t i n g , y o u h a v e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e s , m a s s e s , a n d f o r c e s . Np_ i n s t r u m e n t s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o m e a s u r e t i m e s . R e s t r i c t i n g c o n d i t i o n s : N o s i g n a l s f o r t i m i n g c a n b e r e c e i v e d f r o m o u t s i d e ( e . g . o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s u n o r s t a r s , d u r a t i o n o f t h e d a y , f r e q u e n c y o f A C p o w e r s u p p l y , " r p m " - d a t a o f m o t o r s , e t c ) No_ u s e may b e made o f t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t g = 9.8 m / s e c 2 . D e t e r m i n i n g " g " i s n o t a l l o w e d a s p a r t o f t h e c a l i b r a t i o n . c) to m e a s u r e t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y . I) D r a w a s k e t c h o f y o u r t i m i n g d e v i c e , a n d d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y how i t w o r k s . - 9 -1 1 6 ( Q u e s t i o n 1 0 b , c o n t i n u e d ) 2) S t a t e b r i e f l y w h i c h d i s t a n c e s a n d / o r m a s s e s a n d / o r f o r c e s y o u a r e g o i n g t o m e a s u r e i n o r d e r t o c a l i b r a t e y o u r t i m i n g d e v i c e , a n d how y o u c a l i b r a t e i t , i n s e c o n d s . G i v e e q u a t i o n s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e y o u r a n s w e r . ( R e m e m b e r : g = 9.8 m / s e c 2 " f o r b i d d e n " ) [ 6 ] 3) D e s c r i b e how y o u w o u l d t h e n m e a s u r e t h e d u r a t i o n ( i n s e c o n d s ) o f t h e a c t i v i t y . C2D - 10 -1 1 7 Y o u h a v e t h e C H O I C E b e t w e e n q u e s t i o n s 1 0 a , I O b , a n d 1 0 c . H a v e a l o o k a t a l l t h r e e q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e y o u a t t e m p t o n e o f t h e s e . 10c) E x c i t a t i o n o f a t o m s b y a t o m - a t o m c o l l i s i o n s T h e e n e r g y s t o r e d i n a h e l i u m a t o m e x c i t e d t o i t s f i r s t e n e r g y l e v e l a b o v e i t s g r o u n d s t a t e , i s W = 3.2 x I O - 1 8 j o u l e s . I t t a k e s , t h e r e f o r e , W = 3.2 x I O - 1 8 j o u l e s t o e x c i t e a h e l i u m a t o m . H o w e v e r , i f o n e s h o o t s a b e a m o f h e l i u m a t o m s , e a c h o f K . E . = W = 3.2 x I 0 ~ 1 8 j o u l e s , i n t o a c o n t a i n e r w i t h h e l i u m g a s , n o e x c i t a t i o n s o c c u r . ( A c t u a l l y , t h e e n e r g y h a s t o b e a t l e a s t t w i c e a s m u c h ) . i ) E x p l a i n why n o e x c i t a t i o n s o c c u r a n d s u b s t a n t i a t e y o u r a n s w e r b y t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e q u a t i o n s . 151 i i ) E x p l a i n why t h e K . E . o f t h e a t o m s i n t h e b e a m h a s t o b e a t l e a s t 2 x W. [5] A P P E N D I X F Mid-Term II Examination 119 NAME (pl_as_ print) ~ REG. NUMBER HIDTERf-; EXAM, PHYSICS 110 SEC 1 February, 1570 1. Tin's examination consists of 7 pages, front page included. Make sure you have a complete paper. 2. Some of the questions are "multiple choice questions". If you would rather give an answer other than those provided please do so on the back of the page preceding the question. In these cases do not forget to indicate "see back of preceding page". 3. Ycu have the choice to omit either question 5 or 6. 4. You have the choice to omit one of the questions 7 S 8 or 9. 5. Please do not forget to give your name on this page and on the next n a n A p ge. DATA: mass of electron: 9.1 x lO'^gm (= 9.1 x 10"3 lkg) charge of electron: -4.8 x 10"io statcoul (=-1.5. x ICT^Coul) mass of proton: 1.67 TCT21*gm (= 1.67 K^kg) charge of proton: +4.8 x 1 0 " i o s t a t c c u l (= + 1 < 6 x 1 0 - i 9 C o u l ) DO WOT FILL Ii! la lb 2a 2b 3 4a 4b 4c 5 6a 6 b 7 8 o Total 120 l-IAMt (please print) Definit ion of: E lectr ic Field a) Give the def init ion as an equation: b) Explain the symbols used: (3) (3) Coulomb's Law a) Give the lav; as an equation: (3) b) Explain the meaning of the symbols used: (3) Two points 3 A and 3 5 are 10 cm apart on an e lect r ic f i e l d , ^ If i t takes 200 ergs to move an object with a charge of 5 statcoulombs from A to B, what is the potential difference between A and B? AI;S (5) 121 A current I flows around a square wire loop of side length 1. The loop is placed in a homogeneous magnetic field B , constant in magnitude and direction over the area of the loop. The direction of B is at right angles to the plane of the loop. - 2 ~hX-a) The total force acting on the loop due to I and B has the magnitude AS!S b) The total force acting on the loop is in the direction: • +x/n -X ; Q+y; Q-y, Q+z; • -z ; • none of these c) The combined action of the forces acting on the four sides will turn the loop as indicated by arrow 0 3 V • 5 ; • 6 ; Q not at all . 122 YOU HAVE THE CHOICE BETWEEN QUESTIONS 5 A N D 6 5 . The crev.' of a.spaceship measures the e lectr ic f i e ld in the surroundings of a planet. Tracing out the e lectr ic f i e ld lines they found that each f i e ld l ine leaving the surface of the planet on one point re-enters the surface at another point. However, tnere are additional f i e l d lines., entering the surface of tha planet and coming from in f in i t y . What conclusion can be drav/n about the planet? ( 6 ) YOU HAVE THE CHOICE BETWEEN QUESTIONS 5 A M D 6 G. An electron moves in a region where there is a magnetic f i e l d , constant in magnitude and direct ion. What kind of path does the electron describe? (No e lec t r i c or gravitational f i e lds assumed.) a) There is information missing to answer the question in an unambiguous way. Complete the question by making an additional assumption concerning the motion : My additional assumption i s : (3) b) From the question and the additional assumption, I conclude that the electron moves along a _ (3) - 6 -YOU HAVE THE CHOICE TO OMIT ONE OF THE QUESTIONS 7, 8 OR 9 123 8. In a f i r s t experiment, a proton moves with the speed v through point P, tn direction +x. It experiences a force, F, in direction +y. In a second experiment, a proton, moves with twice the speed ( i .e . 2v) through P, in the same direction +x. It also experiences a force In the direction +y, the force however has half the magnitude, (I.e. F/2) as compared to experiment 1. - f x " SXPEftiMBhlT I An e lec t r i c and/or magntide f i e l d (assumed not to have changed between the f i r s t and the second experiment) was/were the cause of this force. Check off the direction (or directions,) of the f i e ld (or f ie lds ) that could have caused these forces: E1ECTRIC: Q +x; Q - x ; Q +y; Q -y; 0+z? Q -i} Q n o e lec t r i c f i e l d r MAGNETIC: Q +Xj • O +y; D -y, Q +Zj • -z} Q no magnetic f i e l d v (9) 124 YOU HAVE THE CHOICE TO OMIT ONE OF THE QUESTIONS 7, 8 OR 9 Pulling down a wall in an apartment, ycu find a single isolated copper wire, after the wall is down (see drawing). You suspect you might well cut the wire as some disconnected wires have been le f t in the walls after rewiring the apartment. To find out i f the wire is s t i l l needed, ycu switch on a l l the e lect r ic equipment available using every e lect r ic outlet in the apartment. If the wire is part of the power network, i t wi l l now carry an alternating current. 60 cycles/sec. How could you find out, using Physics 110 lab or lecture equipments whether or not there is an alternating current flowing through the wire? (As you do not wish to damange the insulation of the wire, you cannot make direct e lectr ica l contact with the wire material. The ends of the wire are not accessible. The temperature rise in the wire due to the current would be too small to be detected.) What could you do? (describe you actions and the results in detai l ) ( 9 ) A P P E N D I X G Terminal Examination 126 NAME R E G - N 0 -G i v e n name S u r n a m e P L E A S E P R I N T S I G N A T U R E T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S e s s i o n a l E x a m i n a t i o n - A p r i l 1 9 7 0 P H Y S I C S M O - S e c t i o n I ( M e c h a n i c s , E l e c t r i c i t y a n d A t o m i c S t r u c t u r e ) T I M E : 3 h o u r s P L E A S E NOTE 1 . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f 9 p a g e s ( i n c l u d i n g t h i s p a g e ) . C h e c k t h a t y o u h a v e a c o m p l e t e p a p e r . 2 . Y o u h a v e t h e c h o i c e t o o m i t : One o f t h e q u e s t i o n s IO a n d I I One o f t h e q u e s t i o n s 1 2 , 1 3 , 14 O n e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s 1 5 , 1 6 , 17 3 . P l e a s e g i v e y o u r n a m e , i n p r i n t , a n d y o u r r e g . n o . o n t h i s p a g e a n d o n t h e n e x t p a g e . Do n o t f i l l i n C h o i c e O m i t C h o i c e O m i t o n e l a l b 2 a 2b 3 a 3 b 4 a 4 b 5 a 5b 6 7 8 9 »— 10 i 1 1 12 13 j 14 r 15 i 16 17 i T o t a i i < C h o i c e O m i t o n e 127 NAME ( p l e a s e p r i n t ) R E G . N O . I . a ) G i v e a d e f i n i t i o n o f FORCE ( C l a s s i c a l M e c h a n i c s ) , a s a n e q u a t i o n : b ) E x p l a i n t h e s y m b o l s u s e d : 2. a ) G i v e a d e f i n i t i o n o f MOMENTUM ( C l a s s i c a l M e c h a n i c s ) , a s a n e q u a t i o n : b ) E x p l a i n t h e s y m b o l s u s e d : 3 . a ) G i v e a d e f i n i t i o n o f WORK ( C l a s s i c a l M e c h a n i c s ) , a s a n e q u a t i o n : b ) E x p l a i n t h e s y m b o l s u s e d : 4 . a ) G i v e a d e f i n i t i o n o f E L E C T R I C P O T E N T I A L D I F F E R E N C E , a s a n e q u a t b ) E x p l a i n t h e s y m b o l s u s e d : 5 . A n o b j e c t m o v e s o n a c i r c l e w i t h c o n s t a n t s p e e d . a ) G i v e a n e q u a t i o n f o r t h e f o r c e r e q u i r e d t o k e e p i t i n o r b i t : ion: b ) E x p l a i n t h e s y m b o l s u s e d : 3. G i v e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e w a v e l e n g t h A , t h e f r e q u e n c y f , a n d t h e s p e e d o f p r o p a g a t i o n v o f a w a v e : C O N T I N U E D . - 3 -1 2 8 7 . When t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y o f a s y s t e m i n c r e a s e s t h e r e w i l l a l s o be a n i n c r e a s e , i n m a s s . G i v e a n e q u a t i o n g o v e r n i n g t h i s m a s s i n c r e a s e : : (3) 8 . S o m e b o d y c l a i m s t h a t t e l e p a t h i c s i g n a l s a r e a s p e c i a l k i n d o f w a v e s . W h a t g e n e r a l k i n d o f e x p e r i m e n t w o u l d h e h a v e t o p e r f o r m t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e y a c t u a l l y a r e w a v e s ( i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d " w a v e s " a s u s e d i n p h y s i c s ) ? ( 8 ) 9. N u c l e a r E n e r g y c a n be c o n v e r t e d i n t o h e a t by n u c l e a r f u s i o n a s w e l l a s by n u c l e a r f i s s i o n . C o u l d o n e n o t m a k e t h e b e s t u s e o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s b y f i r s t s p l i t t i n g a t o m s ( n u c l e a r f i s s i o n , h e a t w i l l b e p r o d u c e d ) , a n d t h e n r e - u n i t i n g t h e p a r t s a g a i n ( n u c l e a r f u s i o n , h e a t w i l l be p r o d u c e d ) ? R e p e a t i n g t h i s c y c l e o v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n , o n e w o u l d h a v e a n i n e x h a u s t i b l e e n e r g y s o u r c e . E x p l a i n , i n t e r m s o f t h e b i n d i n g e n e r g i e s o f n u c l e i , why t h i s p r o c e s s i s i m p o s s i b l e . (8) 1 2 9 YOU HAVE THE C H O I C E TO OMIT Q U E S T I O N IO OR Q U E S T I O N I I IO . A r a d i o a c t i v e s a m p l e e x p l o d e s i n a l a b o r a t o r y . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e e x p l o s i o n a G e i g e r c o u n t e r i n t h e r o o m r e c o r d s 9 6 0 c o u n t s / s e c . One d a y l a t e r , t h e s a m e c o u n t e r r e c o r d s 2 4 0 c o u n t s / s e c . A s s u m i n g t h a t a s a f e l e v e l o f r a d i a t i o n a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e c o u n t e r w o u l d be 1 c o u n t / s e c , w h a t w o u l d b e a r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e o f t h e n u m b e r o f d a y s s i n c e t h e e x p l o s i o n f o r p e o p l e t o s a f e l y r e - e n t e r t h e l a b o r a t o r y ? ( G i v e r e a s o n s w i t h y o u r a n s w e r ) ( 1 . 0 ) YOU H A V E T H E C H O I C E TO OMIT Q U E S T I O N 10 OR Q U E S T I O N I I A m i c r o p h o n e s t a n d s a t s o m e d i s t a n c e f r o m a w a l l . A t s o m e g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e , a l o u d s p e a k e r e m i t s s o u n d . T h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s o u n d i s s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d b e g i n n i n g f r o m z e r o , w h i l e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e s o u n d i s k e p t c o n s t a n t . When t h e f r e q u e n c y i s b e l o w 1 , 5 0 0 c y c l e s / s e c , s o u n d w i l l be p i c k e d up b y t h e m i c r o p h o n e . A t 1 , 5 0 0 c y c l e s / s e c , n o s o u n d i s r e c e i v e d . When t h e f r e q u e n c y i s i n c r e a s e d f u r t h e r , t h e m i c r o p h o n e w i l l p i c k up s o u n d a g a i n . a ) E x p l a i n t h i s p h e n o m e n o n aj_d b ) p r e d i c t a t w h i c h h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y t h e r e w i b e t h e n e x t m i n i m u m s o t h a t n o s o u n d w i l l be r e c e i v e d by t h e m i c r o p h o n e . a ) E X P L A N A T I O N : AC. SovHCE f V M i t W M O U t WALL ( 5 ) b ) A N S : NEXT M I N I M U M OCCURS A T : c y c l e s / s e c ( 5 ) C O N T I N U E D - 5 -130 YOU HAVE THE C H O I C E TO OMIT ONE OF THE Q U E S T I O N S 1 2 , I 3 o r 14 An i n d i r e c t way f o r m e a s u r i n g c u r r e n t s ( f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o m e a s u r e s t r o n g c u r r e n t i s t o p a s s t h e c u r r e n t , I , t h r o u g h t h e p r i m a r y c o i l o f a t r a n s f o r m e r p u I s e s ) a n d t o d i s p l a y t h e s e c o n d a r y e m f / e , T h e c u r r e n t b e g i n s t o f l o w t i m e t . T h e o s c i I l o s c o p e t r a c e o f t h e s e c o n d a r y e m f , I o o k s I i k e t h i s : a t A f t e r £ a_ £ e_ _f_ u_ J_ c o n s i -d e r a t i o n , g i v e a q u a l i t a t i v e g r a p h o f t h e p r i m a r y c u r r e n t 3 S -4-1 w i t h a n OSC I I s c o p e , 5? . IT! *. -i m t ( 1 2 ) YOU HAVE THE C H O I C E TO OMIT ONE OF T H E Q U E S T I O N S 1 2 , 1 3 , o r 14 1 3 . A p r o t o n m o v e s , w i t h s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g s p e e d , a l o n g a s t r a i g h t l i n e ( x - a x i s o f a c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m ) . T h e o n l y f o r c e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s m o t i o n a r e c a u s e d by e l e c t r i c a n d / o r m a g n e t i c f i e l d s . T h e s e e l e c t r i c a n d / o r m a g n e t i c f i e l d s a r e c o n s t a n t i n t i m e a n d h o m o g e n e o u s i n s p a c e . W h i c h o n e o r m o r e o f t h e f i e l d s l i s t e d b e l o w h a s t o b e , o r c o u l d b e , p r e s e n t ? ( d i s r e g a r d s i g n s , " a l o n g x - a x i s " m e a n s : i n d i r e c t i o n o f + o r - x-) T h e r e h a s t o be a n e l e c t r i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e x - a x i s j | T h e r e c o u l d b e a n e l e c t r i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e x ' a x i s | | T h e r e h a s t o b e a n e l e c t r i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e y a x i s | | T h e r e c o u I d be a n e l e c t r i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e y a x i s | | T h e r e h a s t o be a n e l e c t r i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e z a x i s T h e r e c o u I d b e a n e l e c t r i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e z a x i s T h e r e h a s t o be a m a g n e t i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e x ' a x i s T h e r e c o u I d b e a m a g n e t i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e x j a x i s T h e r e h a s t o be a m a g n e t i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e y a x i s T h e r e c o u l d b e a m a g n e t i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e y a x i s T h e r e h a s t o be a m a g n e t i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e z a x i s T h e r e c o u I d be a m a g n e t i c f i e l d a l o n g t h e z a x i s ( 1 2 ) J f y o u w o u l d r a t h e r a n s w e r i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y , p l e a s e d o s o o n t h e b a c k o f t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e . C O N T I N U E D . - 6 - 131 YOU HAVE T H E C H O I C E TO OMIT ONE OF T H E Q U E S T I O N S I 2 , 13 o r 14 14. A s s u m e y o u b o u g h t a I 0 0 W a t t A . C . p o w e r s u p p l y s p e c i f i e d t o s u p p l y c u r r e n t s a t a f r e q u e n c y o f 5 0 c y c l e s / s e c . How c o u l d y o u t e s t f o r t h e f r e q u e n c y u s i n g n o t h i n g e l s e b u t some w i r e , a n d a c a l i b r a t e d s t r o b o s c o p e w i t h a d j u s t a b l e f r e q u e n c y ? ( P l e a s e e x p l a i n y o u r a n s w e r w i t h t h e a i d o f a d r a w i n g . ) C O N T I N U E D - 7 - 132 YOU HAVE T H E C H O I C E TO OMIT ONE OF THE Q U E S T I O N S 1 5 , 16 o r 17 1 5 . (A S p y v s . S p y e p i s o d e ) P a s s i n g t h e B l a c k S p y ' s s p a c e s h i p w i t h a r e l a t i v e s p e e d o f 8 0 $ o f t h e s p e e d o f l i g h t , t h e W h i t e S p y t r i g g e r s a t i m e bomb h i d d e n i n t h e B l a c k S p y ' s s h i p . I f t h e e x p l o s i o n i s t o o c c u r 1 , 0 0 0 m d i s t a n t f r o m t h e W h i t e S p y ' s s h i p , a t w h a t t i m e i n t e r v a l s h o u l d t h e t i m e bomb be s e t ? YOU HAVE T H E C H O I C E TO OMIT ONE OF T H E Q U E S T I O N S 1 5 , 16 o r 17 1 6 . S p a c e e x p l o r e r s d i s c o v e r a r i n g o f c h a r g e d p a r t i c l e s o r b i t i n g a r o u n d a m y s t e r i o u s c l o u d . T h e r i n g c o n s i s t s o f p o s i t i v e h y d r o g e n i o n s a n d n e g a t i v e o x y g e n i o n s , c i r c u l a t i n g i n t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n . T h e s p e e d o f t h e h y d r o g e n i o n s i s I k m / s e c , t h e s p e e d o f t h e o x y g e n a t o m s i s 2 k m / s e c , t h e r a d i u s o f o r b i t i s t h e s a m e f o r b o t h k i n d s o f p a r t i c l e s . T h e n u m b e r o f p a r t i c l e s p e r c u b i c m e t e r i s t o o s m a l l t o a l l o w t h e i o n s t o c o m b i n e . F o r t h e s a m e r e a s o n , n o e l e c t r i c o r m a g n e t i c f o r c e s b e t w e e n t h e i o n s c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e m o t i o n . T h e e x p l o r e r s d i s c u s s t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e c i r c u l a r o r b i t s o f t h e i o n s . T r y t o r u l e o u t a s many o f t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s a s p o s s i b l e . ( 1 2 ) a ) T h e c i r c u l a r o r b i t s a r e d u e t o g r a v i t a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n b y a m a s s i v e s t a r w i t h i n t h e c l o u d . | I c o u l d be | I c a n n o t b e G i v e r e a s o n s f o r y o u r c h o i c e . C O N T I N U E D (4 ) 133 ( Q u e s t i o n 1 6 , c o n t i n u e d ) 1 6 . b ) T h e c i r c u l a r o r b i t s a r e d u e t o a c h a r g e d o b j e c t h i d d e n i n t h e c l o u d . I | c o u l d be [ | c a n n o t b e G i v e r e a s o n s f o r y o u r c h o i c e . c ) T h e c i r c u l a r o r b i t s a r e d u e t o a m a g n e t i c f i e l d a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e p l a n e o f t h e o r b i t s . | | c o u l d be | ] c a n n o t b e G i v e r e a s o n s f o r y o u r c h o i c e . C O N T I N U E D - 9 - 134 YOU HAVE THE C H O I C E TO OMIT ONE OF THE Q U E S T I O N S 15, 16 o r 17 1 7 . D e s i g n a d e v i c e t o ( i n d i r e c t l y ) m e a s u r e t h e w a v e l e n g t h o f a g i v e n u l t r a v i o l e t s p e c t r a l l i n e . No_ u s e may be made o f i n t e r f e r e n c e ( a s e . g . by u s i n g g r a t i n g s , s l i t s , s t a n d i n g w a v e p a t t e r n s ) o r o f r e f r a c t i o n ( e . g . a s by u s i n g a p r i s m ) . G i v e a d r a w i n g o f y o u r d e s i g n i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l . E x p l a i n w h a t y o u o b s e r v e w i t h t h i s d e v i c e , a n d how y o u o b t a i n t h e w a v e l e n g t h o f t h e s p e c t r a l l i n e f r o m y o u r o b s e r v a t i o n s . A ( 12) 

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