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Art and poetry : a study of the illustrations of two pre-raphaelite artists, William Holman Hunt and… Life, Allan Roy 1974

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ART A  STUDY  OF WILLIAM  OF  TWO  HOLMAN  AND  POETRY:  THE  ILLUSTRATIONS  PRE-RAPHAELITE HUNT  AND  ARTISTS,  JOHN  EVERETT  -MILLAIS  by ALLAN  ROY  LIFE  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969  A  THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  IN  REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR  PARTIAL  FOR  OF  THE  FULFILMENT DEGREE  OF  PHILOSOPHY  i n the Department of English  We accept t h i s required  THE  t h e s i s as conforming  t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  August, 1974  COLUMBIA  OF  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  for  shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  purposes  thesis  for  partial  freely  permission may  representatives.  be  It  financial  for  8,  of  British  Canada  of  Columbia,  British  by  gain  Columbia  for  the  understood  of  University  Vancouver  of  extensive  granted  is  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department  The  degree  Library  further  this  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  al1 o w e d  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  i  ABSTRACT  D e s p i t e the growing s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , the d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r i l l u s t r a t i o n s have not been determined, and  and  the complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these works  t h e i r sources have been n e g l e c t e d .  T h i s study of W i l l i a m  Holman Hunt's and John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s ' i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r p o e t r y o u t l i n e s and a p p l i e s e x e g e t i c a l techniques  t h a t are i n d i s p e n s a b l e  to the l i t e r a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n of P r e - R a p h a e l i t e  designs.  I l l u s t r a t i o n i s a fundamental aspect of P r e - R a p h a e l i t e a r t , which i s o f t e n o v e r t l y l i t e r a r y . Brotherhood  Indeed, the  Pre-Raphaelite  not o n l y based t h e i r p a i n t i n g s on contemporary p o e t r y ,  they were a l s o p r a c t i s i n g p o e t s .  T h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y to  literary  s t y l e s and themes i s r e f l e c t e d i n the complex i n t e r p r e t a t i v e methods of t h e i r  designs.  Most s i g n i f i c a n t P r e - R a p h a e l i t e i l l u s t r a t i o n s c o n t a i n f i g u r a t i v e elements;  a few  t i v e secondary  are genuine v i s u a l a l l e g o r i e s , i n which an  l e v e l of meaning embodies a symbolic primary  These f a c t s have been obscured  one.  by the r e s t r i c t e d c r i t e r i a f o r v i s u a l  a l l e g o r y proposed by such c r i t i c s as Angus F l e t c h e r . art  illustra-  Allegorical  can be f o r m a l l y n a t u r a l i s t i c , and E. H. Gombrich m a i n t a i n s  that  the N e o - P l a t o n i c t h e o r y of a n a l o g i c a l symbolism j u s t i f i e s a s s o c i a t i o n s between b e a u t i f u l images and s p i r i t u a l concepts. l e v e l , a n a l o g i e s between e x t e r n a l and  On a s i m p l e r  i n t e r n a l q u a l i t i e s can become  what Gombrich c a l l s " n a t u r a l metaphor."  This device i s e s p e c i a l l y  ii a p p r o p r i a t e t o n a t u r a l i s t i c a r t , i n which t r a d i t i o n a l y  iconography  can be i n t r o d u c e d among n o n - f i g u r a t i v e m o t i f s , i n a p r o c e s s t h a t Erwin Panofsky  terms " d i s g u i s e d symbolism."  In u t i l i z i n g these fundamental a s p e c t s o f v i s u a l a r t , Hunt and M i l l a i s f o l l o w e d the l e a d o f t h e i r immediate E n g l i s h and continental predecessors.  German i l l u s t r a t o r s and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s  employed e l a b o r a t e symbolic t e c h n i q u e s , w h i l e such a r t i s t s as W i l l i a m Mulready and the members o f the E t c h i n g Club i n t r o d u c e d greater realism into English i l l u s t r a t i o n . Though Hunt and M i l l a i s hoped c o n j o i n t l y to i l l u s t r a t e  Keats'  " I s a b e l l a " and o t h e r works, t h e i r mature i n t e r p r e t a t i v e approaches are s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t .  I n f l u e n c e d by Ruskin and by E v a n g e l i c a l  r e a d i n g s o f t h e ' B i b l e , Hunt s p e c i a l i z e s i n symbolic methods employed by e a r l y Renaissance  artists.  I n h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r Tennyson's  "Godiva," he employs e l a b o r a t e " d i s g u i s e d symbolism"; d e s i g n f o r "The Lady o f S h a l o t t , " he i n t e n s i f i e s  in his  the a l l e g o r i c a l  l e v e l o f the poem by r e l a t i n g i t s thematic and symbolic  elements  to a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d h i e r a r c h i c a l system, w h i l e v i s u a l l y e p i t o m i z i n g h i s own c o n c e p t i o n o f the a r t i s t i c i m a g i n a t i o n .  Even when Hunt  p a r a l l e l s l i t e r a r y e f f e c t s with p r i m a r i l y formal techniques, h i s d i s p o s i t i o n o f m o t i f s i s more s i g n i f i c a n t than t h e i r r e n d e r i n g . By c o n t r a s t , M i l l a i s i s more concerned w i t h n a t u r a l metaphor than w i t h s p e c i f i c symbolism, and he v a r i e s h i s s t y l e t o approximate d i f f e r e n t aspects of h i s sources.  Avoiding v i o l e n t  interactions  between f i g u r e s , he d e p i c t s d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s and emotional s t a t e s w i t h s u b t l e g e s t u r e s and c h i a r o s c u r o . Comparing the d e s i g n s o f Hunt and M i l l a i s demonstrates the  iii diversity  and c r i t i c a l complexity o f P r e - R a p h a e l i t e i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  D e s p i t e the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r works, however, both a r t i s t s produced v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f l i t e r a t u r e , which must be to t h e i r sources and t o the t o t a l oeuvres  related  of their creators.  many g r e a t i l l u s t r a t o r s , Hunt and M i l l a i s produced t h e i r b e s t designs f o r poems t h a t were compatible w i t h t h e i r own themes and symbolic methods.  favorite  Like  iv  CONTENTS  Page VOLUME I :  TEXT  L i s t of P l a t e s  v  Acknowledgments  Note  x i i  ,  xiii  Chapter  One  INTRODUCTION  Two  PRINCIPLES OF ILLUSTRATION AND VISUAL SYMBOLISM . . . .  Three  1  SOME ANTECEDENTS OF PRE-RAPHAELITE  ILLUSTRATION . . .  26  79  Four  WILLIAM HOLMAN HUNT  139  Five  JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS  256  Six  CONCLUSION ,.  <-  331  GLOSSARY OF CRITICAL TERMS  338  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  342  VOLUME I I :  ILLUSTRATIONS  V  LIST OF PLATES  U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e wood-engravings;  the  p l a c e o f p u b l i c a t i o n i s London. Plate 1.  John G i l b e r t .  F. Smyth.  "The R e s t o r a t i o n of K i n g C h a r l e s I I , " engraved by  Illustrated  London News,, 2 (3 June 1843), 390.  2.  Richard Westall. "Death o f the F i r s t Born," engraved by B a x t e r a f t e r a p a i n t i n g by W e s t a l l . Illustrations of the Bible, by R i c h a r d W e s t a l l and John M a r t i n , w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s by the Rev. Hobart Caunter, B.D. (Churton, 1835-36), 2, p i . 79.  3.  Thomas Landseer.  "The V i s i o n , " e t c h i n g .  [Thomas Gordon Hake],  Vates: or the Philosophy of Madness; being an Account of the Life, Actions Passions, and Principles of a Tragic Writer (Southgate, 3  1840), p a r t I , p i . 2. 4.  M o r i t z R e t z s c h . E t c h i n g from Umrisse g a r t : J . G. C o t t a , 1820), p i . 4.  5.  Joseph von F i i h r i c h . L i n e e n g r a v i n g by A. P e t r a k from Die Geistliche Rose (Regensburgh: Manz, 1859), p i . 1. O r i g i n a l l y l i t h o graphed by Joseph B i n d e r i n Die Geistige Rose (1844).  6.  Joseph von F i i h r i c h . E t c h i n g from Bilder ( B e r l i n : Reimer, [ c . 1830]), p i . 10.  7-9.  zu Goethe's Faust  (Stutt-  zu Tiecks Genovefa  J u l i u s Schnorr von C a r o l s f e l d . I l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r Der Nibelungen Both ( S t u t t g a r t : J . G. C o t t a , 1843), pp. 54, 211, 324.  10.  Daniel Maclise. I l l u s t r a t i o n f o r "The Mountain S p r i t e , " l i n e e n g r a v i n g by F. P. Becker. Moore's Irish Melodies (Longman, 1845), p. 189.  11.  W i l l i a m Cave Thomas. "Come, p e n s i v e Nun, devout and pure . . . ," engraved by M. J a c k s o n . John M i l t o n , L'Allegro and II Penseroso, w i t h t h i r t y i l l u s t r a t i o n s designed expressly f o r the Art-Union of London (1848), p i . 18.  12.  W i l l i a m Dyce. I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by C h a r l e s Gray, f o r "The S p i n n i n g Maiden's C r o s s " [by W i l l i a m Whewell]. Poems and Pictures: A Collection of Ballads, Songs, and Other Poems, w i t h one hundred i l l u s t r a t i o n s on wood by E n g l i s h a r t i s t s (Burns, 1846), p. 126.  vi Plate 13-14.  15-16.  W i l l i a m Mulready. O l i v e r Goldsmith, 209, 278.  Illustrations,  engraved by John Thompson, f o r (Van V o o r s t , 1843), pp.  The Vicar of Wakefield  Frederick Tayler. I l l u s t r a t i o n s , engraved by John Thompson and Thomas W i l l i a m s , f o r "The D e s e r t e d V i l l a g e . " The Poetical Works of Oliver. Goldsmith, ed. B o l t o n Corney (Longman, 1846), pp. 49, 64.  17.  John C a l l c o t t Horsley. I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by John Thompson, f o r "The D e s e r t e d V i l l a g e . " The Poetical Works of Oliver Goldsmith (1846), p. 59.  18.  R i c h a r d Redgrave. E t c h i n g on copper f o r John M i l t o n , L'Allegro, i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e E t c h i n g Club ( C u n d a l l , 1849), p i . 12.  19-20.  E t c h i n g s on copper f o r Thomas Gray, Elegy in a Country Churchyard, i l l u s t r a t e d by the E t c h i n g Club  Henry James Townsend.  Written  ( C u n d a l l , 1847), p i s . 9, 11. 21-22.  Henry James Townsend. p i s . 16, 7.  E t c h i n g s on copper f o r L''Allegro  (1849),  23.  W i l l i a m James L i n t o n , e n g r a v i n g a f t e r an e t c h i n g by Henry James Townsend ( P l a t e 2 2 ) . John M i l t o n , L'Allegro, i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e E t c h i n g Club (Sampson Low, 1859), p. 8.  24.  Henry James Townsend. p i . 12.  25-31.  32.  E t c h i n g on copper f o r L'Allegro  (1849),  Henry James Townsend. I l l u s t r a t i o n s , engraved by G. P. N i c h o l l s , f o r " G l e n f i n l a s , " by S i r Walter S c o t t . The Book of British Ballads, ed. S. C. H a l l , 2nd s e r i e s (How, 1844), pp. 242-251. W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. D e s i g n i n b r u s h and I n d i a n i n k f o r an e t c h i n g i l l u s t r a t i n g K e a t s ' " I s a b e l l a " (1848). W i l l i a m Holman  Hunt, Pre-Raphaelitism  and the Pre-Raphaelite  Brotherhood  (Macmillan, 1905), 1, 143. 33.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . D e s i g n i n b r u s h and I n d i a i n k f o r an e t c h i n g i l l u s t r a t i n g K e a t s ' " I s a b e l l a " (1848). [Mary B e n n e t t ] ,  Millais: Gallery, April  PRB to PRA: An Exhibition Arranged by the Walker Art Liverpool and the Royal Academy of Arts, London, Jan. t o  1967 [Catalogue of t h e E x h i b i t i o n ] , p i . 4.  34.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. The Light of the World (1853). S i r Edwin A r n o l d , The Light of the World; or, The Great Consummation (London: Longman, 1893), f r o n t i s .  35.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. The Awakening Conscience (1853). [Mary B e n n e t t ] , William Holman Hunt: An Exhibition Arranged by the  vii" Plate  Walker Art Gallery [Catalogue of the E x h i b i t i o n ] ( L i v e r p o o l : Walker A r t G a l l e r y ; London: V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, March t o June 1969), p i . 40. The Hireling  Shepherd  36.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. Hunt, p i . 37.  37.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. Isabella Bennett, Hunt, p i . 72.  38.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. E t c h i n g on copper f o r "My B e a u t i f u l Lady" and "Of My Lady, i n Death," by Thomas Woolner. The Germ, No. 1 (Jan. 1850), f r o n t i s .  39.  John C a l l c o t t Horsley. Away, Death." Ballads Club ( C u n d a l l , 1852).  40.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . "Two L o v e r s by a Rose-Bush," i l l u s t r a t i o n i n pen or b r u s h and I n d i a i n k f o r "My B e a u t i f u l Lady," by Thomas Woolner (1848). John Gere, " P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Drawings," Alphabet and Image, No. 6 (Jan. 1948), p. 28.  41-42.  and  the  Tot  (1851-52).  of  Basil  Bennett,  (1866-68).  E t c h i n g s on s t e e l f o r "Come Away, Come of Shakespeare, i l l u s t r a t e d by the E t c h i n g  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. I l l u s t r a t i o n s , engraved by D a l z i e l f o r "Oriana." Moxon Tennyson, pp. 51, 55.  Brothers,  43.  Frederick Richard P i c k e r s g i l l . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r " O r i a n a , " by A l f r e d Tennyson. C h a r l e s Mackay, ed., The Home Affections Pourtrayed by the Poets (Routledge, 1858), p. 115.  44.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by John Thompson, f o r "The Lady of S h a l o t t . " Moxon Tennyson, p. 67.  45.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. The Lady of Shalott ( l a r g e v e r s i o n ) (18861905). Pr'draffaeliten [Catalogue of the E x h i b i t i o n ] (Baden-Baden: S t a a t l i c h e K u n s t a l l e , 23 Nov. t o 24 Feb. 1974), p i . 49.  46.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. The Lady of 1905). Bennett, Hunt, p i . 96.  47.  Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r "The Lady of S h a l o t t . " Moxon Tennyson, p. 75.  48.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt, "The Lady of S h a l o t t , " pen and i n k and b l a c k c h a l k ( c . 1850). Bennett, Hunt, p i . 31.  49.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l f o r "Godiva." Moxon Tennyson, p. 281.  50.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt.  Shalott  (small version)  ( c . 1887-  Brothers,  Photograph of drawing on the b l o c k f o r  viii Plate "Godiva." f a c i n g p.  Some Poems by Alfred  Lord Tennyson (Freemantle, 1901),  106.  51.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Thomas W i l l i a m s , f o r "The Beggar Maid." Moxon Tennyson, p. 359.  52.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. I l l u s t r a t i o n s , engraved by Thomas W i l l i a m s and John Thompson, f o r " R e c o l l e c t i o n s of the A r a b i a n N i g h t s . "  Moxon Tennyson, pp. 13, 19. 53.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r "The Lent J e w e l s , " by R i c h a r d Chenevix T r e n c h . Robert A r i s W i l l m o t t , ed., English Saored Poetry, of the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Routledge, 1862), frontis.  54.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Joseph Swain, f o r "At N i g h t , " anon. Once a Week, 3 (1860), 102.  55.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. I l l u s t r a t i o n f o r "A Morning Song of P r a i s e , " graphotype p l a t e . Isaac Watts, Divine and Moral Songs ( N i s b e t , [1867]), p. 47.  56.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r "Go and Come," by D [ i n a h M u l o c k ] . Good Words, 3 (1862), 32.  57.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Joseph Swain, f o r "Temujin," by H. P. Once a Week, 3 (1860), 630.  58.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . "The Dying Man," pen and s e p i a i n k and wash (1853). John G u i l l e M i l l a i s , The Life and Letters of Sir John Everett Millais (Methuen, 1899), 1, 207.  59.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , "The (1853). M i l l a i s , 1, 211.  60.  Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , " R e s o l u t i o n ; o r , the I n f a n t H e r c u l e s , " c a r i c a t u r e i n pen and I n d i a i n k of W i l l i a m M o r r i s (1869). R. C. H. B r i g g s , " L e t t e r s to Janey," The Journal of the William Morris Society, 1 (Summer 1964), 9.  61.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , I, 180.  62.  The Order of Release,.1746  pen  and  (1853).  ink  Millais,  A Huguenot, on St. Bartholomew's day, to shield himself from danger by wearing the Roman badge (1852). M i l l a i s , 1, 138.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s .  refusing Catholic 63.  Best Days S k e t c h i n g , "  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . f o r "On the Water," by  I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , "Memor." Once a Week, 1 (1859), 70.  ix Plate 64.  James M c N e i l l W h i s t l e r , "A R i v e r Scene," e t c h i n g . Passages from. Poets, i l l u s t r a t e d by the J u n i o r E t c h i n g Club (Day, [1862]), p i . 45.  Modern English 65.  James Mahoney. Illustration, T o u r i s t s , " anon. The Argosy,  engraved by Whymper, f o r "Autumn 2 (1866), 217.  66.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Joseph Swain, f o r "Dark Gordon's B r i d e , " by B. S. Montgomery. Once a Week, 3 (1860), 238.  67.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Joseph Swain, f o r " I p h i s and A n a x a r e t e , " by Mary C. F. Minister. Once a Week, 4 (1861), 98.  68.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . f o r " S t . Bartholomew," 514.  69.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Joseph Swain, f o r "La F i l l e b i e n garde"e," by S [ h i r l e y ] B [ r o o k s ? ] . Once a Week, 1 (1859), 306.  70.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l f o r "The T a l k i n g Oak." Moxon Tennyson, p. 255.  Brothers,  71.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . Illustration, f o r " L a s t Words," by Owen M e r e d i t h . (1860), 513.  Brothers,  I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , by H. E. E. M. Once a Week, 1 (1859),  Illustrated  engraved by D a l z i e l  The Cornhill  Magazine, 2  72.  George C r u i k s h a n k .  t i t l e page f o r Angus B. Reach,  73.  John Dawson Watson. I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r " L a s t Words," by Henry A l f o r d . English Sacred Poetry (1862), p. 323.  74.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r "The Grandmother's Apology," by A l f r e d Tennyson. Once a Week, 1 (1859), 41.  75.  John G i l b e r t , I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r "Angel V i s i t s , " by C h a r l e s Mackay. The Home Affections Pourtrayed by the Poets (1858), p. 363.  76.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r "The Bishop and the K n i g h t , " anon. The Cornhill Magazine, 6 (1862), 100.  77.  W i l l i a m Mulready.  Clement Lorimer; or, The Book with the Iron Clasps (Bogue, 1849).  Illustration,  engraved by John Thompson, f o r  The Vicar of Wakefield (1843), p. 7.  X  Plate 78.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s .  f o r "Dora."  Illustration,  Moxon Tennyson, p.  engraved by Thomas W i l l i a m s ,  213.  79.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by John Thompson, for "Locksley H a l l . " Moxon Tennyson, p. 267.  80.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , " L o c k s l e y H a l l , " pen i n k . W i l l i a m E. Fredeman c o l l e c t i o n .  81.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l for "Locksley H a l l . " Moxon Tennyson, p. 274.  82.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s .  f o r "Dora." 83.  84.  and b r u s h and  India ,  Brothers,  I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by John Thompson,  Moxon Tennyson, p.  219.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Thomas W i l l i a m s , f o r Rev. John Anderson, The Pleasures of Borne, A Poem ( H a l l , [1856]), frontis. John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s .  E t c h i n g f o r "The  Bridge  of  Sighs."  Passages from the Poems of Thomas Hood, i l l u s t r a t e d by the J u n i o r E t c h i n g Club 85.  (Gambart, 1858), p i . 10.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . "The F i r e s i d e S t o r y , " i l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r " F r o s t i n the H o l i d a y s . " W i l l i a m A l l i n g h a m , The Music Master, A Love Story, and Two of Bay and Night Songs (Routledge, 1855), p. 216.  Series  86.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r "There's Nae Luck About the House," a t t r i b u t e d to W i l l i a m Julius Mickle. The Home Affections Pourtrayed by the Poets (1858), p. 245.  87.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r "Love," by Samuel T a y l o r C o l e r i d g e . Robert A r i s W i l l m o t t , ed. The Poets of the Nineteenth Century (Routledge, 1857), p. 137.  88.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r "The Dream," by L o r d Byron. The Poets of the Nineteenth Century (1857), p. 123.  89.  F o r d Madox Brown.  The Poetical  Works  T i t l e - p a g e v i g n e t t e , engraved on s t e e l , f o r of Lord Byron, ed. W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i  (Moxon, 1870). 90.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by D a l z i e l B r o t h e r s , f o r " M i s t r e s s and Maid," by [Dinah M u l o c k ] , Good Words, 3 (1862), 545.  91.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s .  Illustration,  engraved by Joseph Swain,  xi Plate f o r " S i r T r i s t e m , " by 350. 92.  93.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . f o r " I r e n e , " by R. M.  [Robert] Buchanan.  Illustration,  The Cornhill  Once a Week, 6 (1862),  engraved by Joseph  Swain,  Magazine, 5 (1862), 478.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s .  Illustration,  f o r " S t . Agnes' Eve."  Moxon Tennyson, p. 309.  engraved by D a l z i e l  Brothers,  94.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Joseph Swain, f o r "Maude C l a r e , " by C h r i s t i n a R o s s e t t i . Once a Week, 1 (1859) , 382.  95.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Joseph Swain, f o r "The Head of Bran," by George M e r e d i t h . Once a Week, 2 (1860) , 132.  96.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Joseph Swain, f o r "The Crown of Love," by George M e r e d i t h . " Once a Week, 2 (1860), 10.  97.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n , engraved by Joseph Swain, f o r "The M e e t i n g , " by G[eorge] M [ e r e d i t h ] . Once a Week, 3 (1860), 276.  98.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s .  f o r "The S i s t e r s . " 99.  William Gale.  Illustration,  engraved by D a l z i e l  Brothers,  Moxon Tennyson, p. 109.  E t c h i n g f o r "The S i s t e r s , " by A l f r e d Poets [1862], p i . 32.  Tennyson.  Passages from Modern English 100.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , "The S i s t e r s , " p e n c i l study f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n . M i l l a i s , 1, 304, as a "Sketch f o r Tennyson I l l u s t r a t i o n . 1856."  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  To f o r m a l l y acknowledge a l l t h e h e l p r e c e i v e d d u r i n g p r o j e c t would be an e n j o y a b l e b u t i m p o s s i b l e t a s k .  I would  l i k e to thank the heads and s t a f f s o f the c o l l e c t i o n s  consulted,  f o r making t h e i r h o l d i n g s a v a i l a b l e to me, and f o r t h e i r assistance.  Though I was unable to v i s i t  L i b r a r y , Mrs. J . G. L i n k s  this  kind  t h e Huntington  (Mary L u t y e n s ) g e n e r o u s l y gave me  p r o l o n g e d a c c e s s t o h e r c o p i e s o f the l e t t e r s from M i l l a i s and Hunt i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , which she has j u s t p u b l i s h e d i n The  Forty-first  Volume of the Walpole Society,  Walpole S o c i e t y , 1974), pp. 1-93. Dr.  1972-1974 (Glasgow:  I would a l s o l i k e to thank  Gordon N. Ray f o r a l l o w i n g me to c o n s u l t h i s superb  collec-  t i o n of i l l u s t r a t e d books o f t h e S i x t i e s , and f o r h i s h e l p and encouragement.  Particular  thanks a r e a l s o due t o Mr. Robin  de Beaumont, S i r E r n s t Gombrich,, Mr. J u l i a n H a r t n o l l , Dr. Edward Hodnett, Mr. Jeremy Maas, and Mr. and Mrs. Ronald M a r s h a l l . Dr.  Roy D a n i e l l s and Dr. George Knox have both improved t h e  dissertation  with valuable suggestions.  My p r i n c i p a l debt i s t o  my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. W i l l i a m E. Fredeman, whose constant  assistance  w i t h every aspect o f t h i s study has been i n v a l u a b l e .  Finally, I  would l i k e t o thank the Canada C o u n c i l f o r t h e i r generous support throughout my d o c t o r a l program.  xiii  NOTE  Throughout t h i s study, q u o t a t i o n s from poems a r e c i t e d from the i l l u s t r a t e d e d i t i o n s .  U n l e s s the dates o f p u b l i c a t i o n o f  the d e s i g n s reproduced a r e s u p p l i e d  i n the d i s c u s s i o n ,  g i v e n i n b r a c k e t s w i t h the P l a t e numbers.  they a r e  Dates a r e n o t p r o v i d e d ,  however, f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n A l f r e d Tennyson,  Poems (London:  Moxon, 1857), which i s r e f e r r e d t o i n the L i s t o f P l a t e s and  elsewhere The  as the Moxon Tennyson. following  abbreviations  f o r c o l l e c t i o n s a r e employed:  Angeli: A n g e l i Papers, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Special Collections. B. M.:  Columbia,  B r i t i s h Museum, P r i n t s Room.  Hartley: The H a r o l d H a r t l e y of F i n e A r t s . Huntington: California. Morgan:  C o l l e c t i o n , Boston Museum  The Henry E. Huntington L i b r a r y , San Marino,  The P i e r p o n t  Morgan L i b r a r y , New York C i t y .  Stephens: Frederic'!? George Stephens Papers, B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , Oxford. R. A. L i b r a r y : London.  R o y a l Academy Library-, .Burlington, House,  Troxell: The Janet Camp T r o x e l l C o l l e c t i o n , University Library. V & A: Woolner: Oxford.  Princeton  V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, London. The Thomas Woolner Papers, B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y ,  1 CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  P i c t u r e and poem bear the same r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r as beauty does i n man and woman: the p o i n t o f meeting where the two a r e most i d e n t i c a l i s the supreme p e r f e c t i o n . D. G. R o s s e t t i  1  . . . where the realm o f p o e t r y meets t h a t o f a r t , i n t h e sphere o f i l l u s t r a t i o n . 2 E. H. Gombrich i A f t e r l o n g n e g l e c t , P r e - R a p h a e l i t e a r t and l i t e r a t u r e have r e c e n t l y emerged as r e s p e c t e d s c h o l a r l y s u b j e c t s . his  R o s s e t t i and  c i r c l e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e  critical  a t t e n t i o n , and even minor a s s o c i a t e s o f the movement a r e b e i n g r e assessed.  I n e v i t a b l y , t h i s r e v i v a l has touched  the numerous  i l l u s t r a t i o n s produced between 1850 and 1875 by P r e - R a p h a e l i t e artists.  L i s t e d i n a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n o f W i l l i a m E. Fredeman's  Pre-Raphaelitism:  A Bibliocritical  Study (1965), these designs and  s t u d i e s f o r them have appeared i n s e v e r a l r e c e n t e x h i b i t i o n s and c a t a logues.  The f o r m a l m e r i t s o f these and o t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the  " S i x t i e s " have been acknowledged by such who commends  c r i t i c s as Quentin  them f o r p o s s e s s i n g "a b r e a d t h  drawing, a p u r i t y o f sentiment,  Bell,  of design, a n i c e t y of  which i s w h o l l y  admirable."  To B e l l ,  the e i g h t e e n - s i x t i e s i s " t h e Golden Age o f E n g l i s h I l l u s t r a t i o n " — a n 3 epithet  f i r s t a p p l i e d t o the decade i n the l a s t  As B e l l ' s t r i b u t e s suggest,  century.  t h e renewed a p p r e c i a t i o n o f P r e -  R a p h a e l i t e designs has n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y broadened c r i t i c a l  understanding  2 of  them.  A s i d e from Fredeman, r e c e n t commentators on these works  have added l i t t l e Gleeson White for of  t o the p i o n e e r s t u d i e s of S i x t i e s i l l u s t r a t i o n  (1897) and F o r r e s t R e i d (1928), who  by  deserve h i g h p r a i s e  c o l l e c t i n g and c a t a l o g u i n g the p r o d u c t s o f a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d graphic a r t .  Though p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d f o r c o l l e c t o r s ,  both  books i n c l u d e c r i t i c a l comments on the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s and t h e i r  con-  temporaries, and R e i d p r o v i d e s b r i e f but p e r c e p t i v e c r i t i q u e s of i n d i v i d u a l designs. of  R e i d and White a l s o attempt  these a r t i s t s i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t ;  t o p l a c e the work  y e t t h e i r views of the  e i g h t e e n - s i x t i e s , l i k e t h e i r o p i n i o n s of i t s a r t , a r e o v e r t l y  sub-  4 jective. for  The p e r i o d whose "grotesque  R e i d a "Golden Age"  f u l l paragraph devoted  costumes" r e p e l White  i n the w i d e s t a e s t h e t i c sense.  a  the  "the most d e c o r a t i v e adornment the f e m i n i n e mind e v e r  invented—incomparably,  from the a r t i s t ' s p o i n t of view, s u p e r i o r to  the f o r m l e s s wisps of c l o t h i n g i n f a s h i o n to-day." tic  Almost  of Reid's d i s c u s s i o n of C h a r l e s Keene, f o r example, i s  to a defense of m i d - V i c t o r i a n f a s h i o n s , i n c l u d i n g  crinoline:  is  In a  characteris-  t r a n s i t i o n , R e i d then notes "the p o s i t i v e a e s t h e t i c v a l u e " of the  c r i n o l i n e i n Keene's i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r George M e r e d i t h ' s  Harrington.  He  concludes by pronouncing  these  Evan  designs  e q u a l t o any t h a t were ever made f o r a n o v e l . Nor, when I say t h i s , do I f o r g e t M i l l a i s ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r T r o l l o p e , o r Walker's f o r the Thackerays, f a t h e r and daughter; but somehow Keene's kind of beauty appeals to me more than t h e i r s . 5 A l t h o u g h t h i s passage shows R e i d a t h i s most i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , i t e x e m p l i f i e s h i s approach as independent  to i l l u s t r a t i o n .  Keene"s designs are judged  works of a r t , p r o v i d i n g c e r t a i n k i n d s of a e s t h e t i c  3 pleasure.  Their  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with Meredith's  n o v e l i s not  c o n s i d e r e d , and R e i d a l s o i g n o r e s the e f f e c t on t h e i r " k i n d of beauty" of  the c l u t t e r e d format  of  Once a Week.  Generally, Reid only  d i s c u s s e s the l i t e r a r y and p h y s i c a l context of i l l u s t r a t i o n s when he f i n d s them c o n s p i c u o u s l y o f f e n s i v e , and h i s f r e q u e n t i n d i f f e r e n c e to these matters  i s shared by Gleeson White and most of h i s s u c c e s s o r s .  Even P e r c y Muir, who  i n h i s study of  Victorian  Illustrated  Books g i v e s  some a t t e n t i o n t o the l i t e r a r y a s p e c t s of the works., he examines, f e a r s t h a t " t h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t e x t s may concerned How,  with i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  appear i r r e l e v a n t i n a book  . . .  then, would these authors  define " i l l u s t r a t i o n " ?  To  Muir,  the i l l u s t r a t o r seeks " t o convey to the reader a r e c o g n i z a b l e g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f scenes  and  c h a r a c t e r s i n the author's  s i m i l a r assumption u n d e r l i e s F o r r e s t Reid's  text."^  A  comments on B i r k e t F o s t e r ' s  designs: In any t r u e sense o f the word he was not an i l l u s t r a t o r at a l l . He had no i m a g i n a t i o n , and a p p a r e n t l y took l i t t l e account of the i m a g i n a t i o n of o t h e r s . whatever poet he may be i l l u s t r a t i n g . . . he g i v e s us p r e c i s e l y the same d e l i c a t e l i t t l e B i r k e t F o s t e r i d y l l . Reid's b a s i c concern, however, i s l e s s w i t h the s p e c i f i c a l l y content of i l l u s t r a t i o n s qualities.  than w i t h t h e i r more g e n e r a l n a r r a t i v e  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , he f o l l o w s t h i s c r i t i c i s m o f B i r k e t  F o s t e r w i t h a l o n g t r i b u t e to t h a t a r t i s t ' s Landscape, a c o l l e c t i o n of "admirable" embellished with " i l l u s t r a t i v e " verses. for  Muir, who  literary  Pictures  of- the  engravings which Tom  Taylor  Such a work poses problems  q u e s t i o n s "whether t h i s can s t r i c t l y be  i l l u s t r a t e d book a t a l l , " and  English  called  an  lamely concedes t h a t " i t cannot be  t h a t the p i c t u r e s a r e not r e l e v a n t to the t e x t . "  9  By c o n t r a s t ,  said  4 Gleeson White p r a i s e s the independence o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s from  their  o s t e n s i b l e s o u r c e s , and he r e j o i c e s a t h i s q u e s t i o n a b l e d i s c o v e r y t h a t "dozens o f p i c t u r e s " p u b l i s h e d i n Once  a Week d u r i n g t h e e a r l y S i x t i e s  " a r e e v i d e n t l y p u r e l y the i n v e n t i o n o f the draughtsman.""""^ The a n t i t h e s i s o f White's c o n c e p t i o n o f i l l u s t r a t i o n i s expounded by J . R. Harvey.  In d e f e n d i n g a study o f d e s i g n s f o r V i c t o r i a n n o v e l s  t h a t i g n o r e s George E l i o t , T r o l l o p e , Hardy, and M e r e d i t h , Harvey  argues  t h a t i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e o n l y " j u s t i f i e d " when they a r e " i n d i s p e n s a b l e " to the works they accompany.  "Indispensable" i l l u s t r a t i o n  emerges  from a s o - c a l l e d " c r e a t i v e p a r t n e r s h i p " between a r t i s t and a u t h o r , as e x i s t e d i n the e i g h t e e n - t h i r t i e s and f o r t i e s i n England.  such  The f a c t  t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n between Dickens and " P h i z " i s v i r t u a l l y unique "almost  does n o t p r e v e n t Harvey from a s s o c i a t i n g i t w i t h  a l l the s i g n i f i c a n t uses o f i l l u s t r a t i o n . "  Harvey's  ideal  i l l u s t r a t o r i s a s y c o p h a n t i c drudge, s l a v i s h l y obeying the o r d e r s o f h i s " p a r t n e r , " and f a b r i c a t i n g work t h a t i s a "product and agent o f literature."  By h i s own l i g h t s , Harvey has w r i t t e n t h e " d e f i n i t i v e "  study o f i l l u s t r a t i o n .  There a r e few i f any s i g n i f i c a n t  draughtsmen  b e f o r e " P h i z " who meet these c r i t e r i a , and Harvey i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y censures modern i l l u s t r a t o r s  f o r p r a c t i s i n g the " e n t i r e l y new mode o f  i l l u s t r a t i o n " e s t a b l i s h e d by the Pre-Raphaelites.""""""  Some o f Harvey's  o b j e c t i o n s t o t h i s "new mode" w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n l a t e r  chapters,  but he a s s o c i a t e s i t above a l l w i t h a r t i s t s who c o n c e i v e t h e i r to be a t l e a s t as important as the t e x t s they i l l u s t r a t e . such presumption  i s o n l y t o l e r a b l e from George  designs  To Harvey,  Cruikshank.  Few accounts o f V i c t o r i a n i l l u s t r a t i o n a r e e x c e s s i v e l y and Harvey can a t l e a s t c l a i m t o have a t t r i b u t e d unusual  literary,  shortcomings  5 t o the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s . by w r i t e r s who,  More f r e q u e n t l y , these  i n W i l l i a m M.  Ivins  1  a r t i s t s are  disparaged  d e v a s t a t i n g words, "know books  o n l y as means f o r d i v e r s i o n , " and h o l d " t h a t i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e mere d e c o r a t i o n s , and  t h a t as such no  i l l u s t r a t i o n s are  'good' u n l e s s  • . .  12 they  'harmonize' w i t h  the p r i n t e d t e x t pages."  Decoration  and  i l l u s t r a t i o n are f r e q u e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by w r i t e r s on the Ronald B. McKerrow d e s c r i b e s d e c o r a t i o n as " i n t e n d e d book i n which i t i s used, and  to b e a u t i f y  . . . t h e r e f o r e . . . more o r  s u c c e s s f u l as i t harmonizes w e l l o r i l l " g e n e r a l appearance o f the work."  subject. the  less  w i t h "the,typography  I l l u s t r a t i o n , he sees as  and  "intended  p r i m a r i l y to e l u c i d a t e the t e x t o r to p l a c e the r e a d e r i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n f o r v i s u a l i z i n g the events n a r r a t e d " ;  so d e f i n e d ,  illustra-  t i o n can "be judged on i t s success i n t h i s aim and on i t s m e r i t s as 13 an independent work o f a r t . " U n l i k e R u a r i McLean, who adheres t o 14 McKerrow s d i s t i n c t x o n throughout h i s works on book d e s i g n , c r i t i c s , such as David in practice.  Bland,  endorse i t i n theory and  disregard i t  More i n t e r e s t e d i n typography than l i t e r a t u r e , and  the " u n i t y o f the page" than a r t , Bland and  other  cannot f o r g i v e "the  in  Dalziels  t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s " a l a c k of " f e e l i n g f o r the p r i n t e d page."  "It is significant  t h a t , g e n e r a l l y speaking,  the work of the o l d  s c h o o l s i t s b e t t e r on the page," observes Bland of Moxon's Tennyson, and  though A r t h u r Hughes' s d e s i g n s f o r A l l i n g h a m ' s  " l e s s impressive" Bland  Music Master a r e  than those by h i s c o l l a b o r a t o r s , he i s commended by  f o r showing "more care f o r the l o o k of the page."  obsession with  t h i s s i n g l e aspect of book i l l u s t r a t i o n b e t r a y s him  a e s t h e t i c a l l y dubious and censuring  Bland's  sometimes c o n t r a d i c t o r y judgments.  the p r i n c i p a l S i x t i e s volumes f o r such blemishes  as  into  After  6 " p r e t e n t i o u s typography  and an u n f o r t u n a t e framework o f r e d r u l e s , "  he says o f the d e c l i n e o f i l l u s t r a t i o n by the end o f the decade: " t h e f a i l u r e began when i l l u s t r a t o r s began to l o s e s i g h t o f the u n i t y of the page."''""' Of the c r i t i c s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s b r i e f survey, o n l y P e r c y  Muir  shows a c o n s i s t e n t awareness o f the a r t i s t ' s a b i l i t y t o " e l u c i d a t e the t e x t , " and even h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h i s f u n c t i o n extremely  cursory.  1  of i l l u s t r a t i o n i s  Indeed, t h e r e have been v i r t u a l l y no c r i t i c a l  s t u d i e s of the i n t e r p r e t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f P r e - R a p h a e l i t e which were r e c o g n i z e d as e a r l y as 1896 by Laurence  illustration,  Housman.  To  Housman, these designs a r e " p e r s o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l r e a d i n g s o f t h e poems t o which they words o f the t e x t .  [ b e l o n g ] , . . . n o t merely O f t e n they  echoes i n l i n e o f t h e  [are] the s u c c e s s f u l summing up o f  the d r i f t o f an e n t i r e poem w i t h i n the space o f a s i n g l e p i c t u r e  . . .  Such d e s i g n s can r e s u l t from n e i t h e r t h e c a v a l i e r a d a p t a t i o n o f l i t e r a r y sources e x t o l l e d by White, n o r the s u b j e c t i o n t o a u t h o r i a l d i c t a t e s advocated  by Harvey.  As Housman argues, t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s  are both p e r c e p t i v e i n t e r p r e t e r s o f l i t e r a t u r e and s k i l l e d  artists,  and a c r i t i c a l study o f t h e i r i l l u s t r a t i o n s must combine the thorough a n a l y s i s o f these works w i t h the e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r A l l u s i o n s to a Golden Age o f I l l u s t r a t i o n ,  sources.  to p u r i t y o f sentiment and  n i c e t y o f drawing, and t o u n s p e c i f i e d k i n d s o f beauty,  have n o t  c l a r i f i e d Housman's i n s i g h t i n t o P r e - R a p h a e l i t e d e s i g n s . In p a r t , Housman's arguments have remained unexplored because o f the d i f f i c u l t y o f d e f i n i n g P r e - R a p h a e l i t e i l l u s t r a t i o n .  Though  Housman's comments d i r e c t l y r e f e r t o t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s by D. G. R o s s e t t i , J . E. M i l l a i s , and Holman Hunt to t h e Moxon  Tennyson (1857), they mainly  7 r e l a t e t o the work o f a younger contemporary of these a r t i s t s , Boyd Houghton.  Arthur  Housman c o n s i d e r s Houghton "a d i r e c t descendant and  d i s c i p l e o f those whom one may c a l l the p r e - R a p h a e l i t e F a t h e r s , " and one  o f t h e " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e exponents," w i t h George John P i n w e l l and  F r e d e r i c k Walker, o f " p r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m i n i t s second p e r i o d . " ^  This  1  i s a t b e s t a q u e s t i o n a b l e t h e o r y , and none o f these a r t i s t s i s i n c l u d e d i n F o r r e s t Reid's  c h a p t e r on "The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Group" o r i n W i l l i a m  E. Fredeman's b i b l i o g r a p h y o f P r e - R a p h a e l i t e i l l u s t r a t i o n s . though R e i d and Fredeman concur  Yet,  i n r e j e c t i n g Housman's v e r s i o n o f a  P r e - R a p h a e l i t e "second p e r i o d , " t h e i r own s e l e c t i o n s o f a r t i s t s reflect different  c o n c e p t i o n s o f the movement.  Both authors  include  F o r d Madox Brown, Edward Burne-Jones, A r t h u r Hughes, W i l l i a m Holman Hunt, John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , F r e d e r i c k Sandys, and Simeon Solomon.  Fredeman, however, l i s t s  i l l u s t r a t i o n s by  F r e d e r i c James S h i e l d s , whom R e i d p l a c e s among "Some O c c a s i o n a l C o n t r i b u t o r s , " and by W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t , who i s n o t even mentioned i n Reid's  study.  R e i d devotes  Matthew James Lawless,  l e s s space t o Hunt o r Brown than t o  a minor b u t genuine "descendant and d i s c i p l e "  of t h e o r i g i n a l P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , and he s w e l l s the ranks  o f the move-  ment by i n c l u d i n g Henry Hugh Armstead and Edward John P o y n t e r . Poynter  If  can be e n l i s t e d , why n o t F r e d e r i c k L e i g h t o n , who i s r e p r e s e n t e d  18 i n Robin I r o n s i d e ' s c o l l e c t i o n of P r e - R a p h a e l i t e r e p r o d u c t i o n s ? f a c t , L e i g h t o n i s another o f Reid's  In  " o c c a s i o n a l " and u n c l a s