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Comparative analysis of the Northern and Southern Athapaskan "Slayer of Monsters" Myth Tyhurst, Robert James Stewart 1974

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN ATHAPASKAN "SLAYER OF MONSTERS" MYTH BY ROBERT JAMES STEWART TYHURST  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN  THE DEPARTMENT OF  ANTHROPOLOGY  WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED STANDARD  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1974  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis at  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  partial  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  in  is  financial  of  Columbia,  British for  for extensive by  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT This t h e s i s examines the d i s t r i b u t i o n of three p o r t i o n s of n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n , or m o t i f s , which are found i n the mythology of the Northern and Southern Athapaskan peoples.  In the Eagle motif, a man enters  an eagles' nest, i n the B u l l motif, a man slays.a large monster w i t h the help qf a rodent or small r o d e n t - l i k e animal, and i n the C l i f f Ogre motif, a man pushes a monster o f f a c l i f f to i t s death.  These m o t i f s , where-  ever they occur i n Athapaskan mythology, are found i n close a s s o c i a t i o n , and are c a r r i e d out by the same c u l t u r e hero, ox c u l t u r e heroes. The Eagle motif, the motif with the widest d i s t r i b u t i o n among the Northern Athapaskans, i s broken i n t o episodes.  An episode i s defined as a segment of  a p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n of a motif which i s not shared with another v e r s i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , or which i s shared by a l l v e r s i o n s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The NEST episode, the only episode of the Eagle motif found f o r a l l the Northern and Southern  Athapaskan  versions examined here, i s broken i n t o elements.  An  element i s defined as a segment of an episode which i s small enough t o adequately describe the t e x t , but which i s s u f f i c i e n t l y large t o enable comparison without the  i n t e r f e r e n c e of minor d e t a i l s .  The elements are  determined as w e l l , so as to permit a one-to-one correspondence i n comparison of elements. Versions of the Nest episode are compared on the basis of the elements which they c o n t a i n , and a c o e f f i c i e n t of s i m i l a r i t y i s c a l c u l a t e d .  I t i s found  that those v e r s i o n s of the Eagle motif which share more than one episode tend to have higher scores on the c o e f f i c i e n t of s i m i l a r i t y than those which share only one episode. Non-Athapaskan versions of the Eagle, B u l l , and C l i f f Ogre motifs from the Southwest, Basin, Plateau, and P l a i n s , are compared with Northern and Southern Athapaskan v e r s i o n of the same m o t i f s . In view of the content and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the three motifs i t i s concluded that i t i s most h i g h l y probable that they were c a r r i e d t o the Southwest by the precursors .of the Southern Athapaskans.. An Appendix contains a t r a n s l a t i o n of Chipewyan, Dogrib, and Hare t e x t s from P e t i t o t ' s " T r a d i t i o n s Indiennes du Canada nord-ouest" (1886).  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  v  PREFACE  vi  INTRODUCTION  1  METHOD  11  MAPPING OF EPISODES  14  COMPARISON OF ELEMENTS IN THE NEST EPISODE . .  20  ELEMENTS CONSIDERED EQUIVALENT  39  INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS  51  COMPARISON OF ATHAPASKAN AND NON-ATHAPASKAN VERSIONS OF THE EAGLE, BULL, AND CLIFF OGRE MOTIFS  59  CONCLUSION  79  FOOTNOTES  85  BIBLIOGRAPHY  88  APPENDIX  93  iv  LIST OF TABLES Table I  Page D i s t r i b u t i o n of Episodes i n Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the Eagle Motif  16>  C o e f f i c i e n t s of S i m i l a r i t y of Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the NEST Episode  50  Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the NEST Episode  56  IV  Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the Eagle Motif  62'  V  Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the B u l l M o t i f ,  70  Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the C l i f f Ogre Motif . . .  76  II III  VI  v  PREFACE This t h e s i s culminates a study which I began i n 1970-1971 o.n the mythology of the Western Apache.  Claude  Levi-Strauss, whose work has done much t o revive and give new d i r e c t i o n t o the study of myth, remarked on a recent v i s i t t o the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia that l i t t l e work had been done on the mythology of the Northern Athapaskan peoples. incompleteness,  I t £s_hoped~ that t h i s t h e s i s , despite i t s  w i l l make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  i n that area. Thanks are due to E l l i Kongas Maranda who  supervised  t h i s t h e s i s and made many h e l p f u l suggestions, t o David F. Aberle whose help with s t a t i s t i c a l and comparative problems was i n v a l u a b l e , and to Robin Ridington, who helped me to understand the meaning of the myths to a people whose l i v e s they s t i l l i n f l u e n c e , the Beaver Indians. I would also l i k e t o express my thanks to Annette M. C l a r k of the National Museum of Canada,^who permitted-me to use p o r t i o n s of her unpublished  f i e l d recordings of  Koyukuk River Indian mythology, and to Michel de V i r v i l l e of the Musee des A r t s et T r a d i t i o n s P o p u l a i r e s , P a r i s , who helped me to develop the comparative method used here.  vi  "The g i g a n t i c s h e l l s of completed systems . . . stand revealed i n i r r e g u l a r c l e f t s across the land."  Andre Breton, Trees Secured Translated by U n i v e r s i t y of 1969.  vii  Young Cherry Against Hares Edouard Rodit Michigan Pres  1  INTRODUCTION Within the recorded mythologies of many of the Athapaskan-speaking peoples there i s a myth i n which a hero slays monsters that are t r o u b l i n g the world and i n which he gives the world i t s present form.  I f i r s t studied  t h i s myth as i t i s found among the Southern Athapaskans (Tyhurst, n.d.).  I found v e r s i o n s of t h i s myth among  the published mythologies of a l l the Southern Athapaskan peoples (except the Kiowa Apache whose mythology has not, to my knowledge, been published), and among neighbouring non-Athapaskan  peoples.  I have since found myths which,  i n some respects, c l o s e l y resemble the Southern Athapaskan "Slayer of Monsters" myth i n the published mythologies of such Northern Athapaskan peoples as the Beaver, Slave, Kaska, Chipewyan, Dogrib, Hare, Han, Tanana, and C h i l c o t i n Indians. The Slayer of Monsters myth i s almost always set i n a period close t o the time of the c r e a t i o n of the earth, or at l e a s t i n a time previous t o that of everyday experience.  That t h i s i s not always the case i n the other  n a r r a t i v e s of the Athapaskan peoples and that i t i s e s p e c i a l l y so f o r the Slayer of Monsters myth i s emphasized i n a number of ways.  2  F i r s t , the myth may be l i n k e d i n a c t u a l n a r r a t i o n , and so as to form a continuing part of the story, w i t h accounts of the c r e a t i o n and s e t t i n g up of the world. Second, animals which men use f o r food instead prey on them, presenting an i n v e r s i o n of the s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l i n g at the time of n a r r a t i o n .  And men are often portrayed  as l a c k i n g c u l t u r e i n the sense of k i n s h i p t i e s and patterns, techniques of obtaining that which they need f o r s u r v i v a l , and ways of behaving which are necessary for s o c i a l l i f e . The set of c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g at the time when the monster slayer l i v e s v a r i e s from one v e r s i o n to another, but, i n general, the monster slayer moves through an unpredictable, protean world where massive supernatural powers oppose and help him i n both animal and human form. An understanding of the symbolic meaning and s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of myth r e q u i r e s reference to information outside of and accessory to t h a t contained i n myths themselves.  E t h n o l o g i c a l information concerning  k i n s h i p p a t t e r n s , material c u l t u r e , exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c u l t u r a l ecology, and other aspects of c u l t u r e are a l l necessary i f the meaning and structure of myth are to be discerned. While the nature of the work presented here precludes such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , i t should be remembered that  3  the t e x t s d e a l t with here as i f they were things are i n f a c t ways of seeing and understanding the world. They are derived from experience, and were t o l d by men, ".and women who themselves, or whose ancestors, knew them t o be t r u e . I have had t o f o l l o w a single problem as best I could.  The diverse mythologies touched upon here and  the meaning which they contain and r e f l e c t would be b e t t e r understood i f they were examined one by one. A f t e r having .spent more than three years analyzing and comparing the various v e r s i o n s of the Slayer of Monsters myth, I found reference t o , and obtained on loan, an unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s by Tamie Tsuchiyama entitled:  (1947)  "A Comparison of the Northern, Southern, and  P a c i f i c Athapaskans:  A Study i n S t a b i l i t y of F o l k l o r e  w i t h i n a L i n g u i s t i c Stock."  In the I n t r o d u c t i o n t o her  t h e s i s , Tsuchiyama w r i t e s : The approach u t i l i z e d i n the d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o d i s c u s s , f i r s t of a l l , the resemblances found i n the mythology of the three Athabaskan groups and then t r a c e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these motifs i n the North American continent north of Mexico t o determine whether the s i m i l a r i t i e s are due t o former contact or t o importation from a common source. The aim of the paper i s not t o seek the ultimate o r i g i n of each motif but t o determine i t s source f o r the Athabaskan group (p. 7 ) . Tsuchiyama discusses s i m i l a r i t i e s which she f i n d s i n the mythology of the Northern and Southern Athapaskans; of the Southern and P a c i f i c Athapaskans; and of the Atha-  4 paskan peoples as a whole (she f i n d s no s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Northern and P a c i f i c Athapaskans which are not shared w i t h the Southern group). Of the eighteen s i m i l a r i t i e s which she found i n comparison of Northern and Southern Athapaskan mythology, she considers that only seven of these " . . . could with any degree of reasonableness be i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i o n s of former CSouthern Athapaskan] contact w i t h t h e i r Northern r e l a t i v e s . " (Tsuchiyama, 1947: 143). Tsuchiyama's method, which c o n s i s t s of comparison of Athapaskan mythological t e x t s w i t h those of other North American Indians i s p a i n s t a k i n g , exhaustive of a v a i l a b l e t e x t s , and cautious i n i t s conclusions.  Her  attempt to examine the whole of a v a i l a b l e Athapaskan mythology pxocedes at the l e v e l of the w r i t t e n t e x t as presented by the ethnographer and covers an immense geographic and c u l t u r a l t e r r i t o r y . With my own work w e l l under way, I came upon Tsuchiyama s d i s s e r t a i o n . 1  I found that my own i n t u i t i v e  conclusions as to the Athapaskan o r i g i n of parts . of the Slayer of Monsters myth among the Southern Athapaskans were supported by her f i n d i n g s . '_Of .the seven "motifs" which Tsuchiyama had considered as having an Athapaskan originoamong the Navajo and Apaches, three, " V i s i t to-Eagle;'s Nest," " K i l l i n g of a Giant B u l l with a Rodent A l l y , " and " C l i f f Ogre,"  ( t o use Tsuchi-  yama' s nomenclature, p. 143) were found i n v e r s i o n s of  5 the Slayer of Monsters myth from both North and South. My own work, however, had convinced me the case for the Athapaskan o r i g i n of these motifs could be put more f o r c e f u l l y than Tsuchiyama had done.  Nowhere  in her conclusion does she mention the fact that s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of the motifs which she believed to have an Athapaskan o r i g i n occurred within a single myth (that i s , they occurred in-'close proximity within the bounds of an oral narrative considered by a mytht e l l e r to be a u n i t ) .  Furthermore, close analysis of the  texts has revealed d e t a i l s of narrative action shared by Northern and Southern Athapaskan versions of these motifs which Tsuchiyama did not touch upon. i  While agreeing with Tsuchiyama s conclusions f  insofar as I am familiar with the relevant material, and insofar as my work on the " o r i g i n " of the motifs discussed by her overlaps with her own,  my own findings have caused  me to disagree p a r t i a l l y with hex pxefexred explanation of the " . . . (1947:  gxeat d i v e r s i t y of Athabaskan mythology  148).  ..."  That i s that "the o r i g i n a l body of Atha-  paskan folkloxe was i n a l l pxobability an extremely meagre and coloxless one to have l e f t so l i t t l e impress on the t r a d i t i o n s of the two gxoups FPacific and Southern] separated at present from the main stock." (148). At least among the Apache and the Navajo, the Slayex of Monstexs stoxy, with i t s appaxently Athapaskan  6 o r i g i n , was preserved, w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n , as a myth accounting f o r i t h e present c o n d i t i o n of the world, and portraying the a c t i o n s of an important c u l t u r e hero. Of the three motifs which Tsuchiyama  identifies  as having a possible Athapaskan o r i g i n among the Southern Athapaskans, the motif of the " V i s i t t o Eagle's Nest""* has the widest d i s t r i b u t i o n . -  It i s  found among the Chipewyan and the Tanana, and among the  f o l l o w i n g Athapaskan-speaking peoples whose t r a d i -  t i o n a l homelands l i e between them: Dogrib, Hare, Han, and C h i l c o t i n .  Beaver, Slave, Kaska, For t h i s reason, I  have decided t o focus comparative a n a l y s i s upon t h i s motif.  The NEST episode (see below f o r d i s c u s s i o n of  "episodes"), the c e n t r a l episode of the motif, and the one by which the motif, despite v a r i a t i o n s , i s recognized by Tsuchiyama, w i l l be broken i n t o elements and the elements compared.  The r e s u l t s w i l l be discussed, and  compared with those obtained by a mapping (as opposed t o a s t r i c t content comparison) of the elements, and by a mapping of the other two motifs mentioned by Tsuchiyama as having a possible Athapaskan origin-.among the Southern Athapaskans.  In a d d i t i o n ,  non-Athapaskan  v e r s i o n s of these motifs w i l l be considered.  7 Texts a v a i l a b l e to me i n which Northern Athapaskan v e r s i o n s of the Eagle motif were found included two f o r the Beaver (Ridington, n.d. and Goddard, 1916), one each f o r Slave (Williamson, 1955) and Kaska 1917), three f o r Chipewyan  (Teit,  ( P e t i t o t , 1886, Goddard,  1912, and Lowie, 1912), one f o r the Dogrib ( P e t i t o t , 1886), two f o r the Hare ( P e t i t o t , 1886 and Osgood, 1931), and one each f o r Han (Osgood, 1971), C h i l c o t i n (Farrand, 1900), and Tanana (Chapman, 1949).  2  The l a s t mentioned v e r s i o n , contained i n a c o l l e c t i o n of "Ten a Texts and Tales from Anvik," i s 1  i d e n t i f i e d simply as "From Tanana" by the author (Chapman, 1914:  101), presumably r e f e r r i n g to the v i l l a g e of  Tanana near the confluence of the Tanana and Yukon R i v e r s i n Alaska.  This would place the point of o r i g i n of the  v e r s i o n w i t h i n the area occupied by the people c a l l e d "Tanana" i n Osgood's a r t i c l e "The D i s t r i b u t i o n  of the  Northern Athapaskan Indians" (1936). Another c o l l e c t i o n of "Ten'a" t e x t s from Nulato, Alaska ( J e t t e , 1909),--in other words, from a l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r y occupied by what Osgood, (1936) terms Koyukon—contains a t a l e i n which a v e r s i o n of Eagle motif i s found.  However, as J e t t e states that the t a l e  i s " . . . presented by natives as a Russian t a l e . . . c o n t a i n i n g ; many evidences of a f o r e i g n o r i g i n " (p. 502),  8  the p o s s i b i l i t y of the importation of the t a l e (and the v e r s i o n of the Eagle motif that i t contains) from elsewhere w i t h i n h i s t o r i c times cannot be discounted. For t h i s reason, t h i s v e r s i o n w i l l not be f u r t h e r considered  here.  A v e r s i o n of the Eagle motif i s contained i n a c o l l e c t i o n of Tales from Good Hope, N.W.T. (Voudrach, 1967).  Voudrach, an Athapaskan Indian, wrote the  s t o r i e s out himself.  Cohen and O s t e r r e i c h , who  prepared the c o l l e c t i o n f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , state i n t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n that " Mr. Voudrach  was born i n A r c t i c  Red River, a Loucheaux [Kutchin, t o use Osgood's terminology (1936)} Indian settlement, but has l i v e d with many years with the Hare Indians of Fort Good Hope" (Voudrach, 1967: 3 ) . I t i s thus impossible to determine what Northern Athapaskan people's v e r s i o n i s being represented i n Voudrach's c o l l e c t i o n .  He might  have learned the s t o r i e s as a youth among the Kutchin, they might represent a pure Hare v e r s i o n which he had learned l a t e r at Fort Good Hope, ox they might represent a mixture of Kutchin and Haxe t x a d i t i o n s .  Because of  t h i s , Voudxach's vexsion w i l l not be considexed  i n the  genexal comparison. Because of impoxtant d i s s i m i l a x i t i e s i n the two  9  Beaver v e r s i o n s , both w i l l be dealt w i t h i n the comparison by elements.  The three Chipewyan  versions,  however, e x h i b i t a higher degree of u n i f o r m i t y , and only the oldest recorded v e r s i o n ( P e t i t o t , 1886), w i l l be considered  i n the wider comparison by elements. A l l  three v e r s i o n s are coded, however, and a comparison between these i s c a r r i e d out.  Of the two Hare v e r s i o n s ,  P e t i t o t ' s alone i s compared by elements.  The Osgood  v e r s i o n i s t o l d i n abstract form i n a d i s c u s s i o n of Satudene and Hare Indian mythology, and thus i s probably a l e s s than e n t i r e l y r e l i a b l e record of the myth. Among the Southern Athapaskans, only one v e r s i o n of the Slayer of Monsters myth (and Eagle motif) was a v a i l a b l e f o r the Lipan (Opler, 1940.) and Mescalero (Hoijex, 1938).  For the other Southern Athapaskans, the  v e r s i o n of the Slayer of Monsters myth selected was chosen on the b a s i s of completeness, i n comparison with other t e x t s , and on the b a s i s of ethnographic r e l i a b i l i t y . The t e x t s selected were Navajo (Matthews, 1897), Western Apache (Goodwin, 1939), C h i i i c a h u a ( H o i j e r , 1938), and J i c a r i l l a (Opler, 1938). The i n t e n t of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine the d i s t r i bution of the Eagle, B u l l , and C l i f f - O g r e motifs among both Northern and Southern Athapaskans, and among peoples with whom they may have been i n d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t contact.  The  10 a n a l y s i s w i l l provide i n f e r e n c e as to whether these m o t i f s were:  l)  t r a n s m i t t e d to the Northern and  Southern groups a f t e r the s e p a r a t i o n of the Southern Athapaskans  from the North, o r ,  2) c a r r i e d by the  p r e c u r s o r s of the Southern Athapaskans when they m i g r a t e d .  from the North  11  METHOD The motif of the " V i s i t t o Eagle's Nest," to be analyzed here, w i l l , f o r the purposes of comparison, be considered t o include a l l events i n the t e x t which occur between the time the hero leaves the ground, and the time the hero i s back on the ground a f t e r having f i n a l l y l e f t the eagle's nest.  The t e x t w i l l d i v i d e i n t o  "episodes," the episodes being a r r i v e d at as f o l l o w s : i f i n V e r s i o n A, a segment of the t e x t - - f o r instance, lowering of the hero from the sky i n t o the eagles' n e s t i s present while i n Version B i t i s absent, the segment may be considered to be an episode.3Each episode under consideration w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o "elementsy" the elements being, h o p e f u l l y , small enough to adequately describe the t e x t , but  sufficiently  large to enable comparison without the i n t e r f e r e n c e of ;v. minor d e t a i l s .  Episodes shared between v e r s i o n s w i l l be  compared on the b a s i s of the elements which they contain. The elements themselves are p a r t i a l l y determined by comparison so t h a t , f o r instance, a s i n g l e element i n one v e r s i o n does not correspond to two or more elements i n another v e r s i o n .  12 Elements i n different versions of an' episode w i l l be examined f o r "equivalence." Two elements are considered equivalent i f they are homologous or analogous.  Homologous elements are those which are,  for p r a c t i c a l purposes, i d e n t i c a l .  Analogous elements  which do not correspond i n d e t a i l , but i n the type of action or information which they contain.  For example,  in the Beaver text collected by Goddard, the young eagle t e l l s the hero that h i s father w i l l return with " h a i l and a big wind"; i n the Slave text the hero i s t o l d that the eaglet's father w i l l return with "rain."  These  elements (they are considered such i n the coding of the texts) are considered equivalent by analogy—the return of the father i s accompanied by a "meteorological phenomenon"—although they are not i d e n t i c a l .  An element  in one version w i l l be considered to have no equivalent in another version i f no element homologous or analogous to i t i s found. The number of equivalent elements i n each pair of episodes under consideration w i l l thus be determined, and a c o e f f i c i e n t of s i m i l a r i t y (c)  w i l l be calculated.  The c o e f f i c i e n t , suggested by Michel de V i r v i l l e , i s calculated as follows, f o r a comparison of episodes A and B: c  ~  =  number of equivalent elements i n A and B number of elements i n episode A + number of elements i n episode B  x  2  13 The c o e f f i c i e n t thus approaches 1.00 as complete agreement i s reached, and 0.00 as complete disagreement i s reached i n comparison of episodes. Validation of the coding procedure has not been carried out.  However, the coding procedure has been  discussed with de V i r v i l l e , and h i s coding of three of the texts considered here has been compared with my  own.  In general, i t was agreed that my i n i t i a l coding of texts was too detailed, and c r i t e r i a for deciding upon the " s i z e " of elements were worked out.  14 :•  MAPPING OF EPISODES Only one episode, the one i n which the hero i s i n the e a g l e s  1  nest ("NEST"), i s shared by a l l v e r s i o n s .  A l l three Chipewyan v e r s i o n s share with the Beaver (Goddard) v e r s i o n , an episode i n which the hero f o l l o w s an arrow i n t o the sky ("ARROW"),, and they share, as w e l l , an episode i n which the hero i s lowered through a hole i n the sky i n t o the nest ("LOWER"). A l l Chipewyan v e r s i o n s share an episode t o the e x c l u s i o n of others that i n which the hero has c e r t a i n adventures i n the sky ("SKY"), and another i n which the hero f l i e s with the help of the eaglet (^'FLIGHT"). The Kaska, Slave, Beaver (Ridington), and Han share an episode i n which the hero i s t o l d t o go i n t o the eagles' nest t o get feathers f o r arrows by an e v i l man (or bear - Han only) ("TASK").  Both Dogrib and Hare  contain an episode i n which the hero goes i n t o the nest to get arrow feathers f o r himself ("FEATHERS").  Both  Beaver v e r s i o n s share with Slave and Dogrib an episode i n which the hero teaches the eaglet how t o eat f i s h  ("FISH").  Tanana alone contains an episode i n which the hero i s t o l d t o go and k i l l the eagles i n order t o gain possession of h i s brother's wife ("WIFE"). A l l Southern Athapaskan versions share an episode i n which the hero transforms the eaglets i n t o various b i r d s  15 ("BIRDS").  They share as w e l l an episode i n which the  hero wraps himself i n an animal i n t e s t i n e (Navajo, Lipan, Mescalero, Chiricahua) or i n an animal hide and a bloodf i l l e d stomach (Western Apache and J i c a r i l l a ) and i s c a r r i e d by an eagle i n t o the nest ("CARRY"). The hero i s also c a r r i e d i n t o the eagles' nest i n an episode i n the C h i l c o t i n v e r s i o n , but here he i s wearing a skin coat t o p r o t e c t himself and i s gathering f e a t h e r s below the nest when he i s picked up ("GATHER"). The Western Apache, Navajo, and J i c a r i l l a  share  an episode t o the e x c l u s i o n of the other Southern Athapaskans, t h a t - i n which the hero i s "helped-to the "ground by O l d Bat Woman ("BAT"). f ollows:  The episodes may be mapped as  16  TABLE I D i s t r i b u t i o n of Episodes i n Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the Eagle Motif BR  CP  K  BG  ARROW SKY LOWER pNEST FLIGHT LNEST  ARROW TASK rNEST FISH -NEST  CL ARROW SKY LOWER NEST FLIGHT LNEST r  W CARRY •NEST BIRDS •NEST BAT  NEST FISH  D  TASK NEST FISH NEST  TASK NEST  Hr  Hn  [  FEATHERS FEATHERS •-NEST NEST FISH LNEST  N CARRY .-NEST BIRDS LNEST BAT  J CARRY pNEST BIRDS LNEST BAT  TASK NEST  WIFE NEST  M  Ch  NEST  BIRDS LNEST  ARROW SKY LOWER -NEST FLIGHT LNEST  Ch  CARRY  r  CG  CARRY  r  NEST  BIRDS LNEST  GATHER NEST  L CARRY  pNEST  BIRDS LNEST  C e r t a i n parts of the NEST episode occur a f t e r the episode w i t h i n the brackets. Symbols used: BR, Beaver (Ridington); BG, Beaver (Goddard) S, Slave: K, Kaska; CP, Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t ) ; CG, Chipewya (Gqddard); CL, Chipewyan (Lowie); D, Dogrib; Hr, Hare; H, Han;-: T, Tanana; Cn, C h i l c o t i n ; W, Western Apache; N, Navajo; J , J i c a r i l l a ; M, Mescalero; Ch, Chiricahua; L, Lipan.  17 The most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of episodes i s t h a t , whereas i n the North there are eight d i f f e r e n t types of combinations of episodes, i n the South, there are only two--one set comprising Western Apache, Navajo, and J i c a r i l l a i n which the BAT episode i s found, and another set comprising C h i r i c a h u a , Mescalero, and Dipan, from which the BAT episode i s absent. Despite the greater heterogeneity of episodes i n the North, however, only two v e r s i o n s — t h e Tanana and C h i l c o t i n - - s h a r e no episodes other than the NEST episode with other Northern v e r s i o n s .  The three Chipewyan  v e r s i o n s , which are i d e n t i c a l w i t h respect to episodes, share w i t h the Beaver (Goddard) v e r s i o n , :.the ARROW and LOWER episodes; the Beaver (Goddard) v e r s i o n shares the FISH episode w i t h Beaver (Ridington), Slave, and Dogrib. The Beaver (Ridington), and Slave v e r s i o n s , i n t u r n , are l i n k e d to the Han and Kaska by sharing the TASK episode, while Dogrib and Hare share the FEATHERS episode. I t should be mentioned at t h i s p o i n t . t h a t the Beaver (Goddard) v e r s i o n appears to be intermediate i n content between the v e r s i o n s of the Chipewyan, who  lived  to the east of the Beaver, and versions of such peoples as the Kaska and Slave, who l i v e d to the North and West of the Beaver.  In the Chipewyan v e r s i o n s , the hero f o l l o w s  an arrow which he has shot i n t o a tree up to the sky.  18 Once i n the sky, the hero has a series of adventures which are shared, with minor variations, by a l l the Chipewyan versions:  he follows a t r a i l to an inhabited  place; an old woman blackens h i s face to prevent him from being loved by her daughters; when she washes h i s face, her two daughters, who are i d e n t i f i e d as mouseg i r l and weasel-girl, f a l l i n love with him; when he l i e s between them, he i s swallowed up by the earth; he i s dug up by a wolf and takes h i s revenge on the g i r l s , destroying them.  The hero i s then lowered on a line  made of sinew through a hole i n the sky by the g i r l s mother.  1  He lands i n the eagles' nest. In the Kaska and Slave versions, the hero comes  upon a family.  He sleeps with the daughter ( or  daughters - Kaska), and the father, who wishes to k i l l him, tests him and sends him on a number of dangerous errands, including a series which have to do with obtaining the materials f o r making arrows--sinew, for the arrow shafts, and feathers.  4  canes  To obtain the  feathers, he i s sent to the eagles' nest. In the Beaver (Goddard) version, the hero follows an arrow into the sky, but the adventures found i n the Chipewyan versions are absent. sky " . . .  a short time . . . "  The hero stays i n the (Goddard, 1916:  234),  and i s lowered, as i n the Chipewyan versions, by an old  19 woman i n t o the eagles' nest.  Following the NEST  episode (and the FISH episode), the hero then comes upon a f a m i l y .  The f a t h e r of three daughters t e s t s  the man and sends him on a number of dangerous errands i n which he must obtain the m a t e r i a l s necessary f o r making arrows.  To obtain f e a t h e r s , the hero must get  them from e a g l e s — b u t here the "NEST" episode (as such) i s extremely short, c o n s i s t i n g only of the f o l l o w i n g sentence:  "He k i l l e d a l l the b i r d s with h i s c l u b , took  the f e a t h e r s , and went home" (Goddard, 1916:  236).  The Beaver (Ridington) v e r s i o n , which was recorded some f i f t y years a f t e r Goddard s v e r s i o n , 1  c l o s e l y resembles the Slave and Kaska v e r s i o n s .  Whether  t h i s v e r s i o n , from which the "Chipewyan" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are absent, represents, f o r example, a l a t e r " l e a r n i n g " of the Slave- and Kaska-type t a l e , or whether the Goddard v e r s i o n represents an "aberrant" mixture of Chipewyan and non-Chipewyan c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i s , because of l a c k of a d d i t i o n a l information, impossible to  determine.  To the best of my knowledge, the set of episodes comprising the ascent of the hero t o the sky, h i s adventures t h e r e , and h i s descent on a l i n e made of sinew, are found only among the Chipewyan and the Athapaskan-speaking Indians of the Koyukuk River i n Alaska (part of Osgood's "Koyukon" (1936)).  In two unpublished t a l e s c o l l e c t e d by  Annette C l a r k at H u s l i a , A l a s k a , i n 1970, and t r a n s c r i b -  20 ed from tape by myself i n the summer of 1973 (Clark, n.d.), the hero ascends to the sky, slays monsters and e v i l people, and descends to the earth on a sinew line made by an old woman.  The presence of these episodes  i n two widely separate locations, and t h e i r apparent absence i n the intervening area, indicates perhaps that they are an "old" Athapaskan t r a d i t i o n .  " .COMPARISON OF ELEMENTS IN THE NEST, EPISODE In the following comparison, each version of the NEST episode i s given i n i t s coded form.  Elements  considered equivalent are indicated, and the measure of similarity  C i s calculated.  In the pairs of elements  marked (*) I have had to divide a single "element into two elements for purposes of comparison.  For example,  i n the Slave version, the man asks the'.:eaglets when h i s parents w i l l return.  In the Beaver (Ridington), (and  other) versions, he asks, f i r s t , when the mother w i l l return, and then, when the father w i l l return, each question being considered an element.  21 Beaver (Ridinqton) Man i s i n eagles* nest; There are two eaglets i n nest He asks which one w i l l t e l l parents G i r l eaglet says she w i l l Man k i l l s her Boy eaglet says he won't t e l l h i s parents Eaglet says he w i l l t e l l h i s parents g i r l eaglet k i l l e d h e r s e l f He says he w i l l say nothing about the smell of man Man t e l l s eaglet to f o o l h i s mother i f she smells anything Man asks when mother comes back Eaglet says she w i l l r e t u r n with heavy r a i n Mother eagle comes back w i t h heavy r a i n She i s c a r r y i n g a h a l f - e a t e n person She asks where eaglet's s i s t e r i s He says she k i l l e d h e r s e l f She smells something Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l her Man k i l l s her Man asks when father comes back Eaglet says he w i l l r e t u r n when r a i n turns to h a i l 21) Man t e l l s eaglet to f o o l f a t h e r about death of mother I Father returns He i s c a r r y i n g dead people Father asks where mother i s Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l him by t e l l i n g him she went back f o r meat Father asks where s i s t e r i s Eaglet says she k i l l e d h e r s e l f Father says he smells something Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l him 30) Man k i l l s him 31) Man l e t s eaglet l i v e •  . FISH episode 32) 33)  Man takes feathers from eagles f o r arrows He returns to e v i l f a m i l y .  22  Beaver  (Goddard)  1) Man i s on large b i r d s ' nest 2) There are three young b i r d s 3) He asks them questions 4) Two of the young b i r d s say they don't l i k e him 5) He knocks them down w i t h a club 6) S u r v i v i n g eaglet warns, man 7) Man asks when father w i l l r e t u r n 8) Eaglet says with h a i l and b i g wind 9) Man asks when mother w i l l r e t u r n 10) Eaglet says w i t h r a i n and b i g wind 11) Father returns with h a i l 12) Says he smells an animal 13) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l h i s father 14) Father looks f o r man walking around nest 15) Man k i l l s him 16) Mother returns with r a i n 17) Says she smells something 18) "She goes looking f o r i t , walking around nest 19) Man knocks her down and k i l l s her 20) Man allows eaglet to l i v e 21) He leaves nest with small eagle.  23  Slave 1) 2) 3; 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) . 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29)  Man i s i n eagles' nest He f i n d s two eaglets i n nest He asks where parents are Eaglet warns him they hunt people Says he won't t e l l h i s parents G i r l eaglet says she w i l l t e l l her parents Man k i l l s her Man asks eaglet when mother w i l l come home He asks when f a t h e r w i l l come home* Eaglet says mother w i l l r e t u r n with h a i l Father w i l l r e t u r n w i t h r a i n Man turns himself i n t o a piece of hay Mother returns with h a i l She i s c a r r y i n g female breast She asks eaglet where h i s s i s t e r i s He says she has a headache Mother says she smells something Eaglet t r i e s t o f o o l her Mother eagle walks around nest Man k i l l s her Father returns with r a i n , He i s c a r r y i n g buttock of boy He asks where mother eagle i s He says she went back t o hunt f o r meat He asks where mother and s i s t e r are Father walks around nest Man k i l l s him Man allows eaglet t o l i v e Man leaves nest with eaglet •  . FISH episode  3Q) 31)  :  Man takes feathers f o r h i s arrows He r e t u r n s to e v i l f a m i l y  24  Kaska 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) (17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29)  Beaver i s i n eagles' nest There are two eaglets i n nest He asks when t h e i r mother w i l l r e t u r n * He asks when t h e i r father w i l l r e t u r n * They say mother w i l l r e t u r n with wind and r a i n at noon c a r r y i n g the legs of a man They say f a t h e r w i l l r e t u r n with wind and h a i l i n the evening c a r r y i n g the upper part of a man One of the eaglets t e l l s i t s parents everything Beaver k i l l s the eaglet he cannot t r u s t He t e l l s the s u r v i v i n g eaglet to t e l l i t s mother the dead one i s s i c k He t e l l s him not t o eat meat brought to him He t e l l s him t o t r y t o f o o l h i s mother i f she smells anything Mother eagle returns She i s c a r r y i n g meat She asks why her son i s dead Eaglet t e l l s her dead one i s s i c k Eaglet refuses t o eat meat Mother eats i t and chokes Beaver k i l l s her with a club Man t e l l s boy t o repeat story t o f a t h e r Father eagle returns He i s c a r r y i n g meat Father eagle asks where wife i s Eaglet says she has not come yet He refuses t o eat meat Father eats meat and chokes Beaver k i l l s him Man allows eaglet t o l i v e He plucks feathers f o r arrows He r e t u r n s t o e v i l f a m i l y  25  Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t )  1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10J 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19)  Man i s i n nest of huge eagle There are human s k u l l s and bones There i s one young eagle He t e l l s man to hide under h i s wings Eaglet says f a t h e r comes with l i g h t Mother comes with dark Man hides under eaglet's wings Father r e t u r n s with l i g h t Says he smells human f l e s h Eaglet t r i e s t o f o o l him Father f l i e s away Mother comes back w i t h thunder and darkness She i s c a r r y i n g human remains Says she smells f r e s h meat Eaglet t r i e s t o f o o l her Mother f l i e s away Father discovers man Eaglet t r i e s t o protect him Man i s allowed t o l i v e . FLIGHT episode  20) 21)  Eaglet i s allowed t o l i v e Man f l i e s away  26  Chipewyan (Goddard)^ 1 ) ' Man i s i n nest of " F l y i n g t h i n g s " 2) Nest i s on an i s l a n d surrounded by r a p i d s 3 ) There i s one young eagle 4 ) Eaglet warns man 5) He hides him under h i s wings 6J Eaglet says mother w i l l a r r i v e with dark 7) Father w i l l come with l i g h t 8) Mother comes i n dark 9) Says she smells something 10) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l her 1 1 ) She f i n d s the man 12) Eaglet t r i e s to protect him 13) Father returns with l i g h t 14) Says he smells something 15) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l him 16) Man i s allowed to l i v e 17) Mother leaves* 18) Father leaves* •  . FLIGHT episode 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25)  •  Man p i l e s brush i n tree next to nest Eagle asks man what he i s doing Man asks f o r f i r e d r i l l Man sets nest on f i r e He clubs mother He clubs f a t h e r He l e t s eaglet l i v e  27  Chipewyan (Lowie)  1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)  Man i s on i s l a n d surrounded by rapids He a r r i v e s at eagles' nest There i s one young eagle He warns the man He hides him under h i s wings Eaglet says mother w i l l come with dark Father w i l l come with big wind Mother returns with dark Says she smells something Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l h i s mother Father returns with wind Says he smells something Eaglet t r i e s t o f o o l h i s father Mother leaves* Father leaves* •  . FLIGHT episode 16)  Man f l i e s off again  28\  Dogribn  1) .Man i s i n eagles' nest 2) There i s one young eaglet 3) He warns man 4) Man asks how he w i l l t e l l when father returns* 5) Man asks how he w i l l t e l l when mother returns* 6) Eaglet says father makes snow f a l l 7) Mother makes r a i n f a l l 8) Eaglet hides man under h i s wings 9) Mother returns 10) She i s c a r r y i n g meat 11) Man k i l l s her 12) Male eagle returns w i t h a beating of wings 13) He i s c a r r y i n g a c h i l d 14) Says he smells something 15) Man k i l l s him 16) Man l e t s eaglet l i v e •  . FISH episode 17')', Man plucks feathers f o r arrows.  29,  Hare  Man i s i n eagles nest There are two eaglets i n the nest He asks i f there i s a t e l l - t a l e Eaglet says h i s s i s t e r w i l l t e l l her parents Man k i l l s her Man asks what happens when father comes home Eaglet says father w i l l a r r i v e with b r i g h t light He asks what w i l l happen when mother comes home Eaglet says when mother a r r i v e s i t w i l l be black night Father returns with noise of wings and thunder and l i g h t e n i n g Says he smells something Eaglet t r i e s t o f o o l him Father f l i e s away Mother a r r i v e s with noise of wings i n darkness Says she smells something Eaglet t r i e s t o f o o l her Mother f l i e s away Man plucks eaglet's feathers He k i l l s eaglet He burns nest He leaves nest with f e a t h e r s .  30 '  Han  1) Man i s i n eagles' nest 2) Thexe are two eaglets i n nest 3) He asks which one t a l k s most 4) One eaglet says he w i l l t e l l parents 5) Man k i l l s him 6) Man asks eaglet when mother returns 7) Eaglet says w i t h gust of snow 8) Man asks when father returns 9) Eaglet says with gust of h a i l 10) Man hides under nest 11) Mother eagle returns with snow 12) She i s c a r r y i n g upper h a l f of man 13) She asks where other eaglet i s 14) Answers that he went down where i t was cool 15) Mother eagle says she smells something 16) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l her 17) Man k i l l s her 18) Father returns with h a i l 19) He i s c a r r y i n g lower h a l f of man 20) He asks where mother i s 21) He says he smells something 22) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l him 23) Man k i l l s father eagle 24) He l e t s eaglet l i v e 25) He gets feathers f o r arrows.  31 Tanana  Man i s i n eagles' nest There are two l i t t l e Fish-Hawks Man k i l l s one He asks where parents are Eaglet says they are out hunting Man t e l l s s u r v i v i n g l i t t l e hawk he w i l l not k i l l her He asks when mother comes back* He asks when father comes back* L i t t l e hawk says her mother w i l l come with r a i n Her father w i l l come w i t h snow Man says he w i l l hide L i t t l e hawk says f a t h e r w i l l k i l l man Mother comes back She asks where brother i s L i t t l e hawk says he f e l l and k i l l e d himself Mother c r i e s Man k i l l s her Father comes back He asks where mother i s L i t t l e hawk says she has not come back yet Man k i l l s him He k i l l s l i t t l e hawk Goes t o brother  32 Chilcotin  1) 2) 3) 4) 5J 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14)  Man i s c a r r i e d i n t o eagles' nest by eagles Man t i e s stone to male eagle's feet Makes him f l y around nest Eagle r e t u r n s to nest t i r e d out Man k i l l s him Man t i e s stone to female eagle's f e e t Makes her f l y around nest She comes back t i r e d out Man k i l l s her Man k i l l s eaglets He l e t s one eaglet l i v e Eaglet c a r r i e s him down Man t e l l s eaglet he must l i v e on c l i f f s He must not k i l l men  33 Western Apache  1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27)  Eagle drops man against rock near nest He s i t s down Man says "cd cd" to eaglets Eaglet t e l l s father man has said "cd cd" to i t Father says i t i s just muscular twitching Father f l i e s away Man k i l l s a l l eaglets except one Man asks surviving eaglet when brother returns "Eaglet says he w i l l come with a kind of r a i n Brother eagle returns with r a i n He drops boy Man k i l l s him Man asks when s i s t e r of eaglet returns Eaglet says she w i l l come with yellow r a i n Sister eagle returns with yellow r a i n She drops g i r l Man k i l l s her Man asks when mother returns Eaglet says with female r a i n Mother returns with female r a i n She drops woman Man k i l l s her Man asks when father returns Eaglet says with male r a i n Father returns with male r a i n He drops a man Man k i l l s him ! BIRDS episode  28) • Man sees Old Woman Bat at foot of rock  34 Navaio  1) 2) 3J 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12J 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19)  Man i s dropped on ledge next t o nest by eagle Eagle s i t s on pinnacle nearby Man says "Sh!" t o eaglets Eaglets t e l l father Father says i t i s a i r escaping from body Father f l i e s away Man asks when father w i l l r e t u r n He asks where father w i l l s i t Eaglets say father w i l l r e t u r n with a he-rain They point out where he w i l l s i t Man asks when mother w i l l r e t u r n He asks where she w i l l s i t Eaglets say mother w i l l r e t u r n with a she-rain They point out where she w i l l s i t Father returns with r a i n , thunder, and lightning Man k i l l s him Mother returns with r a i n She drops body of Pueblo woman on ledge Man k i l l s her ! BIRDS episode  20)  Man sees Bat Woman'  t  35  Jicarilla 1) 2) 3) 4} 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21)  Man i s dropped on rock next t o nest byeagle Eagle s i t s on rock beside nest He t e l l s h i s c h i l d r e n t o eat the man Man says " C i t , c i t ! " Eaglets t e l l t h e i r f a t h e r man has said "Cit!" Father says i t i s a i r coming from wounds He f l i e s away Man asks when mother returns Eaglets say with f i n e r a i n Mother r e t u r n s She drops Pueblo Indian on rock Man's ear t e l l s him how t o k i l l mother eagle Man k i l l s her Man asks when father returns Eaglets say with h a i l Man asks where he s i t s Eaglets t e l l him Man's ear t e l l s him t o l i e down Father r e t u r n s He i s c a r r y i n g a human being Man k i l l s him •  • BIRDS episode 22)  Man sees Old Woman Bat approach rock  36  Mescalero 1) 2J 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17)  Man i s c a r r i e d to eagles' c h i l d r e n Eagle t e l l s i t s c h i l d r e n to eat man Eagle f l i e s away Man asks which of the eaglets can f l y There are four eaglets Man k i l l s three of the eaglets with stone club Man asks s u r v i v i n g eaglet when father w i l l return Eaglet says with f a l l i n g water Eaglet points out where father w i l l s i t Father eagle returns with f a l l i n g water Man k i l l s him Man asks when mother eagle w i l l r e t u r n Eaglet answers i n the evening with f a l l i n g water Man asks where she a l i g h t s Eaglet p o i n t s place out Mother eagle returns Man k i l l s her • BIRDS episode  18)  Man r e t u r n s home to mother  37  Chiricahua  1) 2) 3J 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20)  Man i s thrown i n t o eagles' nest by eagle Eagle c h i l d r e n are t o l d to eat the man Eagle s i t s down on the nest Man says " S s s — ! " Eaglets say t h e i r food has said " S s s — ! " to them Father t e l l s them noise i s a i r coming from wounds Father f l i e s away Man k i l l s a l l the eaglets except one Man asks when f a t h e r eagle w i l l come back Eaglet answers with male r a i n and water dust Man asks eaglet where f a t h e r w i l l s i t Eaglet p o i n t s i t out Father eagle returns w i t h noise Man k i l l s him Man asks when mother w i l l come back Eaglet answers with female r a i n and water dust Man asks where she w i l l s i t Eaglet p o i n t s i t out Mother eagle returns Man k i l l s her •  • BIRDS episode 21)  Man r e t u r n s home to mother  38  Lipan  1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19)  Man i s c a r r i e d t o nest by eagle Eagle t e l l s c h i l d r e n t o eat man Man says "Shush" Eaglets t e l l t h e i r f a t h e r Eagle t r i e s t o k i l l man with h i s t a l o n s He says i t i s only a i r coming out He f l i e s away Man asks when father comes home He asks where he s i t s Eaglets say he comes home with heavy r a i n They say where he s i t s Father returns with r a i n Man k i l l s him Man asks when mother returns He asks where she s i t s Eaglets say she comes with heavy r a i n They say where she s i t s Mother returns with r a i n Man k i l l s her ! BIRDS  20)  episode  Man r e t u r n s t o mother  39  •ELEMENTS CONSIDERED ' EQUIVALENT*:  BR-BG  BR-S  BR-K  BR-CP  BR-D  BR-Hr  1-1 5-5 10-9 12-16 16-17 18-|9 19-7 20-8 22-11 28-12 29-13 30-15 31-20  1-1 2-2 4-6 6-5 10-8 11-10 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18 18-20 19-9 20-11 22-21 23-22 24-23 25-24 26-25 30-27 31-28 32-30 33-31  1-1 2-2 4-7 5-8 7-9 9-11 10-3 11-5 12-12 13-13 14-14 15-15 18-18 19-4 20-6 22-20 23-21 24-22 25-23 30-26 31-27 32-28 33-29  1-1 11-6 12-12 13-13 16-14 17-15 20-5 22-8 28-9 29-10 31-20  1-1 10-5 11-7 12-9 13-10 18-11 19-5 20-6 22-12 23-13 28-14 30-15 31-16 32-17  1-1 2-2 3-3 4-4 5-5 10-8 11-9 12-14 16-15 17-16 19-6 20-7 22-10 28-11 29-12 32-18  Or0.52  C=0.78  C=0.74  C=0.41  C=0.56  C=0.5'  Symbols used are as i n Table I .  40'  BR-Hvv  BR-T  BR-Cn  BR-W  BR-•N  BR-J  1-1 2-2 3-3 4-4 5-5 10-6 11-7 12-11 13-12 14-13 15-14 16-15 17-16 18-17 1.9-8 20-9 22-18 23-19 29-20 28-21 29-22 30-23 31-24 32-25  1-1 2-2 5-3 10- 7 11- 9 12- 13 14- 14 15- 15 18- 17 19-8 20-•10 22-•18 24-•19 25- 20 30-•21  1-1 5-10 18-9 30-5 31-11  1-1 5-7 10-18 11-19 12-20 13-21 18-22 19-23 20-24 22-25 23-26 30-27  1-•1 10-•11 11-•13 12-•17 13-•18 18-•19 19- 7 20-•9 22-•15 30-•16  1-1 10-8 11-9 12-10 13-11 18-13 19-14 20-15 22-19 23-20 30-21  C=0.83  C=0.54  C=0.21  C-0.39  0=0.38  C=0.40  41  BR-M  BR-Ch  BR-L  BG-S  BG-K  BG-C  1-1 5-6 10-12 11-13 12-16 18-17 19-7 20-8 22-10 30-11  1-1 5-8 10-15 11-16 12-19 18-20 19-9 20-10 22-13 30-14  1-1 10-14 11-16 12-18 18-19 19-8 20-10 22-12 30-13  1-1 5-7 6-4 7-9 8-11 9-8 10-10 11-21 14-26 15-27 16-13 17-17 18-19 19-20 20-28 21-29  1-1 5-8 7-4 8-6 9-3 10-5 11-20 15-26 16-12 19-18 20-27  1-1 6-4 8-5 10-6 11-8 12-9 13-10 16-12 17-14 20-20  0=0.39  0=0.36  0=0.35  0=0.62  0=0.44:  0=0.45  BG-D  BG-Hr  BG-Hn  BG-T  BG-Cn  BG-W  1-1 6-3 7-4 8-6 9-5 10-7 11-12 12-14 15-15 16-9 19-11 20-16  1-1 5-5 7-6 8-7 9-8 10-9 11-10 12-11 13-12 16-14 17-15  1-1 5-5 7-8 8-9 9-6 10-7 11-18 12-21 13-22 15-23 16-11 17-15 19-17 20-24  1-1 5-3 7-8 8-10 9-7 10-9 11-18 15-21 16-13 19-17  1-1 5-10 15-5 19-9 20-11  1-1 5-7 7-23 8-24 9-18 10-19 11-25 15-27 16-20 19-22  0=0.63  0=0.52  0=0.61  0=0.45  0=0.29  0=0.41  42 S-K  BG-N  BG-J  BG-M  BG-Ch  BG-L  1-1 7- 7 8- 9 9- 11 10- 13 11- 15 15- 16 16- 17 19-19  1-1 7- 14 8- 15 9- 8 10- 9 11- 19 15- 21 16- 10 19-13  1-1 5-6 7- 7 8- 8 9- 12 10- 13 11- 10 15- 11 16- 16 19-17  1-1 5-8 7- 9 8- 10 9- 15 10- 16 11- 13 15- 14 16- 19 19-20  1-1 7- 8 8- 10 9- 14 10- 16 11- 12 15- 13 16- 18 19-19  1- 1 2- 2 6- 7 7- 8 8- 3 9- 4 10- 5 11- 6 13- 12 14- 13 15- 14 16- 15 20- 18 21- 20 22- 21 23- 22 24- 23 27- 26 28- 27 30- 28 31- 29  C=0.44  C=0.42  C=0.5l  C=0.48  C=0.44  C=0.70  S-C  S-D  5- Hr  5- Hn  S-T  1-1 10- 6 11- 5 13- 12 14- 13 17- 14 18- 15 21-8 28-20  1-1 4-3 8- 5 9- 4 10- 7 11- 6 13- 9 14- 10 20- 11 21- 12 22- 13 27-15 29- 16 30- 17  1- 1 2- 2 6- 4 7- 5 8- 8 9- 6 10- 9 11- 7 13-14 17- 15 18- 16 21-10 30-18  1- 1 2- 2 7- 3 8- 7 9- 8 10- 9 11- 10 13-13 15- 14 16- 15 20- 17 21- 18 23- 29 24- 20 27-21  C=0.36  C=0.58  C=0.50  1- 1 2- 2 6- 4 7- 5 8- 6 9- 8 10- 7 11- 9 13- 11 14- 12 15- 13 16- 14 17- 15 18- 16 20- 17 21- 18 22- 19 23- 20 27- 23 28- 24 30-25 C=0.75  a=0.56  S-Cn 1-1 7-10 20-9 27- 5 28- 11  C=0.22  43 S-N  S-J  S-M  S-Ch  S-L  1-1 7-7 8-18 9-23 10-19 11-24 13-20 14-21 20-22 21-25 22-26 27-27  1-1 8-11 9-7 10-13 11-9 13-17 14-18 20-19 21-15 27-16  1-1 8-8 9-14 10-9 11-15 13-10 14-11 20-13 ' 21-19 22-20 27-21  1-1 7-6 8-12 9-7 10-13 11-8 13-16 20-17 21-10 27-11  1-1 7-8 8-15 9-9 10-16 11-10 13-19 20-20 21-13 27-14  1-1 8-14 9-8 10-16 11-10 13-18 20-19 21-12 27-13  0=0.41  0=0.39  0=0.4:  0=0.41  0=0.39  0=0.3!  s-w  K-C  K-D  K-Hr  K-Hn  K-T  K-Cn  1-1 5-6 6-5 12-12 13-13 20-18 27-20  1-1 3-5 4-4 5-7 6-6 12-9 13-10 18-11 20-12 21-13 26-15 27-16 28-17  1-1 2-2 3-8 4-6 5-9 6-7 12-14 20-10  1-1 2-2 3-6 4-8 5-7 6-9 7-4 8-5 12-11 13-12 14-13 15-14 18-17 20-18 21-19 22-20 26- 23 27- 24 28- 25  1-1 2P2 3-7 4-8 5-9 6-10 8-3 12-13 14-14 15-15 18-17 20-18 22-19 23-20 26-21  1-1 8-10 18-9 26-5 27-11  0=0.28  0=0.57  C=0.32  0=0.70  0=0.58  C=0.23  44  K-W  K-N  K-J  K-M  K-Ch  1-1 3-18 4-23 5-19 6-24 8-7 12-20 13-21 18-22 20-25 21-26 26-27  1-1 3-11 4-7 5-13 6-9 12-17 13-18 18-19 20-15 26-26  1-1 3-8 4-14 5-9 6-15 12-10 13-11 18-13 20-19 21-20 26-21  1-1 3-12 4-7 5-13 6-8 8-6 12-16 18-17 20-10 26-11  1-1 3-15 4-9 5-16 6-10 8-8 12-19 18-20 20-13 26-14  1-1 3-14 4-8 5-16 6-10 12-18 18-19 20-12 26-13  0=0.42  0=0.41  0=0.4:  0=0.43  0=0.40  0=0.37  C-D  C-Hr  C-Hn  C-T  C-Cn  c-w  1-1 3-2 4-3 5-6 7-8 8-12 9-14 12-9 13-10 20-10  1-1 5-7 6-9 8-10 9-11 10-12 11-13 12-14 14-15 15-16 16-17  1-1 5-9 6-7 8-18 9-21 10-22 12-11 13-12 14-15 15-16 20-24  1-1 5-10 6-9 8-18 12-13  1-1 20-11  1-1".. 5-24 6-19 8-25 12-20 13-21  C=0.58  C=0.52  C=0.48  C=0.23  C=0.11  0=0.25  :  K-L  -  •  45 C-N  C-J  C-M  C-Ch  C-L  D-Hr  1-1 5-9 6-13 8-15 12-17 13-18  1-1 5-15 6-9 8-19 12-10 13-11  1-1 5-8 6-13 8-10 12-16  1-1 5-10 6-16 8-13 12-19  1-1 5-10 6-16 8-12 12-18  1-1 4-6 5-8 6-7 7-9 9-14 12-10 14-15 17-18  0=0.29  0=0.28  0=0.26  0=0.24  0=0.24  C=0.4'  D-Hn  D--T  D-Cn  D-W  D-N  D-J  1-1 4-8 5-6 6^9 7-7 9-11 10-12 11-17 12-18 13-19 14-21 15-23 16-24 17-25  1-1 4-8 5-7 6-10 7-9 9-13 11-17 12-18 15-21  1-1 11-9 15-5 16-11  1-1 4-23 5-18 7-19 9-20 10-21 11-22 12-25 13-26 15-27  1-1 4-7 5-11 7-13 9-17 10-18 11-19 12-15 15-16  1-1 4-14 5-8 6-15 7-16 9-18 11-19 12-12 15-13  0_=0.67  0=0.45  0=0.26  0=0.49  0=0.54  0=0.5!  46 D-M  D-Ch  D-L  Hr-Hn  Hr-T  Hr-Cn  1-1 4-7 5-12 6-8 7-13 9-16 11-17 12-10 15-11  1-1 4-7 5-14 6-10 7-16 9-19 11-20 12-13 15-14  1-1 4-8 5-14 6-10 7-16 9-18 11-19 12-12 15-13  1-1 2-2 3-3 4-4 5-5 6-8 7-9 8-6 9-7 10-18 11-21 12-22 14-11 15-15 16-16 18-25  1-1 2-2 5-5 6-8 7-10 8-7 9-9 10-18 14-13 19-22  1-1 5-10  0=0.51  0=0.48  0=0.49  0=0.70  0=0.45  o=o. i :  Hr-W  Hr-N  Hr-J  Hr-M  Hr-Ch  Hr-L  1-1 5-7 6-23 7-24 8-18 9-19 10-25 14-20  1-1 6-7 7-9 8-11 9-13 10-15 14-17  1-1 6-14 7-15 8-8 9-9 10-19 14-10  1-1 6-7 7-8 8-12 9-13 10-10 14-16  1-1 6-9 7-10 8-15 9-16 10-13 14-19  1-1 6-8 7-10 8-14 9-16 10-12 14-18  0=0.33  0=0.34  0=0.33  C=0.36  0=0.33  C=0.3'  47 Hn-T  Hn-Cn  Hrv-W  Hn-N  Hn-J  Hn-M  1-1 2-2 5-3 6-7 7-9 8-8 9-10 11-13 13-14 14-15 17-17 18-18 20-19 23-21  1-1 5-10 17-9 23-5 24-11  1-1 5-7 6-18 7-19 8-23 9-24 11-20 12-21 17-22 18-25 19-26 23-27  / 1-1 6-11 7-13 8-7 9-9 11-17 12-18 17-19 18-15 23-16  1-1 6-8 7-9 8-14 9-15 11-10 12-11 17-13 18-19 19-20 23-21  1-1 5-6 6-12 7-13 8-7 9-8 11-16 17-17 18-10 23-11  0=0.58  0=0.26  0=0.43  0=0.44  0=0.47  C-0.4'  Hn-Ch  Hn-L  T-Cr  :T-W  T-N  T-J  1-1 5-8 6-15 7-16 8-9 9-10 11-19 17-20 18-13 23-14  1-1 6-14 7-16 8-8 9-10 11-18 17-19 18-12 23-13  1-1 3-10 17-9 21-5  I-I  1-1 7-11 8-7 9-13 10-9 13-17 17-19 18-15 21^-16  1-1 7-8 8-14 9-9 10-15 13-10 17-13 18-19 21-21  0=0.43  0=0.40  0=0.22  0=0.42  0=0.4(  3-7 7-18 8-23 9-19 10-24 13-20 17-22 18-25 21-27 0=0.39  48 T-M  T-Ch  T-L  1-1 3-6 7-12 8-7 9-13 10-8 13-16 17-17 18-10 21-11  1-1 3-8 7-15 8-9 9-16 10-10 13-19 17-20 18-13 21-14  1-1 7-14 8-8 9-16 10-10 13-18 17-19 18-12 21-13  C=0.49  C=0.45  C=0.42  Cn-M  Cn-Ch  Cn-L  Cn-W 1-1 5-27 9-22 10-7  Cn-N  Cn-J  1-1 5-16 9-19  1-1 5-21 9-13  C=0.19  C=0.18  C=0..  W-N  W-J  W-M  1-1 5-11 9-17  1-1 5-14 9-20  1-1 5-13 9-19  1-1 2-2 3-3 4-4 5-5 6-6 18-11 19-13 20-17 21-18 22-19 23-7 24-9 25-15 27-16 28-20  1-1 2-2 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 18-8 19-9 20-10 21-11 22-13 23-14 14-15 25-19 26-20 27-21 28-20  1-1 2-2 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 18-8 19-9 20-10 21-11 22-13 23-14 24-15 25-19 26-20 27-21 28-22  C=0.19  £=0.17  0=0.18  0=0.67  0=0.68  0=0. 4!  49 W-Ch  W-L  N-J  N-M  N-Ch  N-L  1-1 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 18-15 19-16 20-19 22-20 23-9 29-10 25-23 27-24  1-1 3-3 4-4 5-6 6-7 18-14 19-16 20-18 22-19 23-8 29-9 25-12 27-13  1-1 2-2 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-14 8-16 9-15 10-17 11-8 13-9 15-19 16-21 17-10 18-11 19-13 20-22  1-1 6-3 7-7 9-8 10-9 11-12 12-14 13-13 14-15 15-10 16-11 17-16 19-17  1-1 2-3 3-.4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-9 8-11 9-10 10-12 11-15 12-17 13-16 14-18 15-13 16-14 17-19 19-20  1-1 3-3 4-4 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-14 12-15 13-16 14-17 15-12 16-13 17-18 19-19  C=0.61  C=0.54  C=0.8(  C=0.68  C=0.88  C=0.8!  J-M  C-Ch  J-L  M-Ch  1-1 7-3 8-12 9-13 10-16 13-17 14-7 15-8 17-9 19-10 21-11  1-1 2-3 3-2 4-4 5-5 6-6 7-7 8-15 9-16 10-19 13-20 14-9 15-10 16-11 17-12 19-13 21-21  1-1 3-2 4-3 5-4 6-6 7-7 8-14 9-16 10-18 13-19 14-8 15-10 16-9 17-11 19-12 21-13  1-1 2-2 3-7 6-8 7-9 8-10 9-12 10-13 11-14 12-15 13-16 14-17 15-18 16-19 17-20 18-21  0=0.55  £=0.79  £=0.76  0=0.82  M-L  Ch-L  1-1 2-2 3-7 7-8 8-10 9-11 10-12 11-13 12-14 13-16 : 14-15 15-17 16-18 17-19 18-20  1-1 2-2 4-3 5-4 6-6 7-7 9-8 10-10 11-9 12-11 13-12 14-13 15-14 16-16 17-15 18-17 19- 18 20- 19 21- 20  £-0.79  C=0.93  TABLE I I C o e f f i c i e n t s of S i m i l a r i t y of Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the NEST Episode BR BR BG S  +  0.21  0.39  0.38  0.40  0.39  0.36 0.34  0.48  0.63  0.52  0.61  0.45  0.29  0.41  0.44  0.42  0.51  0.48 0.44  0.70  0.36  0.58  0.50  0.75  0.56  0.22  0.41  0.39  0.42  0.41  0.39 0.35  +  0.28  0.57  0.32  0.70  0.58  0.23  0.42  0.41  0.43  0.43  0.40 0.37  +  0.58  0.52  0.48  0.23  0.11  0.25  0.29  0.28  0.26  0.24 0.24'  +  0.47  0.67  0.45  0.26  0.49  0.54  0.55  0.51  0.48 0.49  +  0.70  0.45  0.11  0.33  0.34  0.33  0.36  0.33 0.34  +  0.58  0.26  0.43  0.44  0.47  0.47  0.43 0.40  +  0.22  0.39  0.42  0.40  0.49  0.45 0.42  +  0.19  0.18  0.17  0.19  0.17 0.18  0.67 - 0.68  0.48  0.61 0.54  0.86  0.68  0.88 0.85  +  0.55  0.79 0.76  +  0.82 0.79  +  0.62  0.44  +  Hn T Cn --  CP  +  +  +  Ch L  L  Ch  0.54  0.41  Hr  M  M  0.83  0.74  D  J  J  0.59  0.78  CP  N  N  0.56  0.52  K  K  W,  w  Cn  Hn  S  D  T  Hr  BG  Symbols used: BR, Beaver (Ridington); BG, Beaver 1[Goddard); S, Slave; K, Kaska; D, Dogrib; Hr, Hare; Hn, Han; Cn, C h i l c o t i n ; W, Western Apache; J , J i c a r i l l a ; M, Mescalero; Ch, C h i r i c a h u a ; L, Lipan.  0.93 +  51 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS , The NEST episode, the only one shared by a l l versions, shows a pattern of s i m i l a r i t y which corresponds, i n part, with that shown i n comparison of episodes.  In the North Beaver (Ridington)/Slave,  Kaska/Han, and Chipewyan (Petitot)/Chipewyan (Goddard.)/ Chipewyan (Lowie), have r e l a t i v e l y high scores on the measure of similarity--0.78; 0.70; and 0.60, 0.76 and 0.73,—and these three sets are the only ones i d e n t i c a l with respect to episodes.  Those Northern Athapaskan  versions which are not i d e n t i c a l with respect to episodes but which share more than one episode have scores which tend to be lower than the above, but which are s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y high. (Goddard); Kaska;  Beaver (Ridington)/Beaver  Beaver (Ridington)/Slave;  Beaver (Ridington)/  Beaver (Ridington)/Dogrib; Beaver  Beaver (Goddard)/Slave;  (Ridington)/Han  Beaver (Goddard)/Chipewyan  (Petitot);  Slave/Kaska;  Slave/Dogrib;  Kaska/Han;  and Dogrib/Hare  Slave/Han;  a l l belong to t h i s category  and have scores on comparison which range from a high of 0.83 i n the Beaver (Ridington)/Han comparison,  to a low  of 0.47 and 0.48 the comparison of Dogrib/Hare and Beaver (Goddard)/Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t ) , respectively. Northern versions which share only the NEST episode tend to have lower scores on comparison than are generated  e  52  by comparison of versions which share more than one episode, "from a-high of 0.70 i n a comparison of Hare/Han, t o a low of 0.11 i n a comparison of Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t ) / C h i l c o t i n and H a r e / C h i l c o t i n (the lowest score generated i n the whole comparison). There are two sets of Southern Athapaskan v e r s i o n s which are i d e n t i c a l w i t h respect t o episodes.  Mescalero/  Chiricahua/Lipan, w i t h scores of 0.82, 0.79, and 0.93 (the highest score generated i n the whole comparison), and Western A p a c h e / N a v a j o / J i c a r i l l a , w i t h s l i g h t l y lower scores of 0.67, 0.68, and 0.86.  Scores generated by a  comparison between these two sets range from a high of 0.88, i n a Navajo/Chiricahua comparison, t o a low of 0.48, i n a Western Apache/Mescalero  comparison.  The comparatively greater l i n g u i s t i c s i m i l a r i t y (and lower g l o t t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l "time depth") of the &  Southern Athapaskans  seems t o be r e f l e c t e d  i n both the  range and magnitude of C scores generated by a comparison of the NEST episode.  Scores found- i n the comparison of  Northern v e r s i o n s range from a high of 0.83 (Beaver [Ridington] /Han) t o a low of 0.11 (Chipewyan  CPetitot]/  : C h i l c o t i n . and H a r e / C h i l c o t i n ) , f o r a d i f f e r e n c e of 0.72. The highest score i n the South (Chiricahua/Lipan at 0.93) i s 0.10 greater than the highest Northern score; the lowest Southern score (Navajo/Chiricahua at 0.48) i s 0.37  53 greater than the lowest Northern score; and the d i f f e r e n c e between maximum and minimum scores i n the South i s 0.45. Elements found i n both Northern and Southern Athapaskan v e r s i o n s of the NEST episode are as f o l l o w s : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11)  L o c a t i o n of man i n nest K i l l i n g of one or several e a g l e t s before parents have returned Man asks when f a t h e r w i l l r e t u r n Man asks when mother w i l l r e t u r n Eaglet says when f a t h e r w i l l r e t u r n and s p e c i f i e s w i t h what type of "weather" ( r a i n , thunder, l i g h t , dark, e t c . ) Eaglet says when mother w i l l r e t u r n and s p e c i f i e s w i t h what type of "weather" Father eagle r e t u r n s w i t h "weather" Mother eagle r e t u r n s w i t h "weather" Father eagle i s c a r r y i n g meat or human remains Man k i l l s father eagle • Man k i l l s mother eagle  In the coded form, t h i s comprises twelve elements.^ The best score between a Northern and Southern v e r s i o n i s between Dogrib and J i c a r i l l a at 0.55—these two v e r s i o n s sharing eleven elements.  Dogrib and J i c a -  r i l l a , by v i r t u e of c o n t a i n i n g r e l a t i v e l y few elements, (seventeen and twenty-two r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , achieve t h i s r e l a t i v e l y high score, whereas Beaver (Ridington) and Western Apache, f o r example, which share twelve elements, achieve a score on comparison of only 0.39 because of the r e l a t i v e l y greater number of elements they c o n t a i n ( t h i r t y three and t h i r t y - e i g h t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  The lowest score  found f o r a comparison of Northern and Southern v e r s i o n s i s 0.17 f o r C h i l c o t i n / J i c a r i l l a and C h i l c o t i n / C h i r i c a h u a , where only three elements ( l o c a t i o n of man i n nest, and k i l l i n g of parents) are shared.  54 The majority of the scores generated by comparison of Northern and Southern versions, however, (forty-six out of s i x t y ) , range  between 0.33  and  0.55.  A "descriptive" comparison of the versions considered here, based on units of comparison more general than the myth elements i s shown i n the following table.  Included here to provide a basis for discussion  of v a r i a t i o n i n versions, i t i s not intended to be exhaustive of the content of the NEST episode, but rather to represent the majority of important variations i n content. The Northern versions f a l l into two main types, one represented by Han, Kaska, Slave, and Beaver (Ridington) ("Han  type"), and the other represented by  Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t ) ;  Chipewyan (Goddard), and Chipewyan  (Lowie) ("Chipewyan type").  The p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the Han type are as follows:  There are two eaglets i n  the nest. One of the eaglets which w i l l inform i t s parents of the man's presence i s k i l l e d by him.  The man  asks  when the parent eagles w i l l come back, and i s t o l d by the eaglet.  The parents, when they return, are carrying meat.  Both smell something  and ask about the dead eaglet.  The  man k i l l s both parent eagles, and the father eagle, on h i s return, and asks the surviving eaglet where i t s mother i s (not  i n Han or Kaska).  The man  spares the surviving eaglet,  TABLE I I I Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the NEST Episode T Man i s i n nest One eaglet Two eaglets Three eaglets Four eaglets Number not specified Man i s warned Eaglets are t o l d to eat man One eaglet w i l l t e l l parents Man makes noise Man k i l l s eaglet( s) Man asks when mother returns Eaglet says she comes with "weather" Man asks when father comes Eaglet says he comes with "weather" Eaglet hides man under wing Eaglets say where parents s i t Mother returns with "weather" She c a r r i e s meat She smells something She asks about dead eaglet :  Hn  K  S  BR  +  + + +  +  +  +  +  + +  BG  D  Hr  CP  CG  CL  + + +  +  + +  + +  + +  +  +  + +  +  +  +  Cn  W  N  J  M  + + + + +  + + + +  +  +  +  +  + +  +  +  +  + +  +  +  + + +  +  +  + +  +  + +  +  +  + + +  +  + +  +-  +  + + +  +  +  +  + + + + + + + + + + + + +  + + + + +  + +  + + +  + + ++ + +  + + +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  + + + +  + +  + +  +  +  L  + +  + + + +  + + + +  Ch  + + + + + + + + + +  + + + + +  + + + +  + +  + +  + +  +  +  +  + +  + +  +  + +  + + + +, ,+ + + + + + + + + + +  $  TABLE III T Man k i l l s her She f l i e s away Father returns with "weather" He c a r r i e s meat He smells something He asks about mother He asks about dead eaglet Man k i l l s him Man takes feathers Man returns to family Man burns nest Transformation of eaglets Man sees Bat Woman Man returns to mother  Symbols used:  + + +  + present; T, Tanana; (Goddard); (Goddard); N, Navajo;  (continued)  Hn  K  S  BR  BG  D  +  +  +  +  +  +  + + + +  +  + +  + +  +  +  + + + +  + + +  + + + +  + + + +  + +  + (+)  (+)(+) (+) ( + )  Hr  CP  CG  +  +  + +  +  + + +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  + +  + +  +  +  +  +  CL  Cn  W  N  J  M  Ch L  +  +  + +  +  +  +  + +  + + +  +  +  +  + + + (+)  +  +  +  (+) (+)(+)(+ )( + ) (+)(+) + + + + + +  (+) present within Eagle motif, but not i n NEST episode; H, Han;-X, Kaska; S, Slave; BR, Beaver (Ridington); BG, Beaver D, Dogrib; Hr, Hare; CP, Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t ) ; CG, Chipewyan CL, Chipewyan (Lowie); Cn, C h i l c o t i n ; W, Western Apache; J , J i c a r i l l a ; M, Mescalero; Ch, Chiricahua; L, Lipan  c*  57  and taking feathers from the dead eagles, returns to the e v i l family. In the Chipewyan type, there i s one eaglet. warns the man,  and hides him under i t s wings.  The  It man  i s told (but does not ask) when the parents return. The parents, when they return, are not carrying meat (except i n Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t ) , where the mother carries "debris humains" (Petitot, 1886:360) ).  The  parent  eagles f l y away from the nest and are not k i l l e d by the man  (except i n the Chipewyan (Goddard) version where t h i s  occurs after the FLIGHT episode, and where the hero burns the nest).  The man  spares the eaglet and f l i e s  away from the nest on wings given to him by the eaglet. Tanana resembles the Han type, but lacks a few of the units found i n that type.  Dogrib and Hare have  resemblances to the Han type which that type does not share with the Chipewyan type, and other resemblances to the Chipewyan type which that type does not share with Han.  Beaver (Goddard),  i n which the number of eaglets  (three) i s unique among versions considered, and which shares with the Chipewyan type the warning of the hero by the eaglet, for the most part resembles the Han type, a l though i t lacks some of the units found i n that type. C h i l c o t i n shares the k i l l i n g of the parents and of some of the eaglets with the Han type, but lacks most of the units c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of that type.  58 < :  The Southern versions of the NEST episode f a l l into two types:  Western Apache, Navajo, and J i c a r i l l a ,  where the man i s helped down from the nest by Bat Woman, and where one or both of the parents carry meat to the nest; and Mescalero, Chiricahua and Lipan, where the man makes h i s own way down from the nest, and where the parents do not carry meat to the nest. the k i l l i n g  One " u n i t " —  of some of the eaglets--is shared by Western  Apache, Mescalero, and Chiricahua, and i s thus found unevenly i n both types, and another, i n which the man makes a noise to stop the eaglets from eating him, i s found i n a l l Southern versions except Mescalero.  The  number of eaglets i s not specified, except f o r Mescalero, where there are four.  59  COMPARISON OF ATHAPASKAN AND NON-ATHAPASKAN VERSIONS OF THE EAGLE, BULL, AND CLIFF OGRE MOTIFS  8  The content of the Southern Athapaskan Slayer of Monsters myth i s shared, to a great extent, by similar myths from such neighbouring peoples as the Yavapai, and the pueblo-dwelling Zuni, Hopi, Sia and C o c h i t i . It would seem l o g i c a l to assume that the mythologies of these l a t t e r peoples, who had l i v e d i n close proximity i n the Southwestern United States before the a r r i v a l of Europeans,  should have had common content, as did, for  instance, the mythology of the peoples of the northwest coast of North America where the content of many myths from the Raven cycle was shared. In the Slayer of Monsters myth of the Southern Athapaskan peoples, and of the non-Athapaskan peoples of the American Southwest  mentioned above, a hero, or  twin heroes, are born from a woman and sun, or sun and water.  In some Southern Athapaskan and non-Athapaskan  versions the heroes go to their father, the sun, and are tested by him.  He then gives them the weapons with  which to slay monsters.  In a l l versions, the heroes slay  monsters, including the Eagle, B u l l , and C l i f f Ogre.  In  some versions, as i n some of the Northern Athapaskan versions of the NEST episode, the slaying of monsters i s accompanied  by the gathering of material to make arrows.  60 In certain versions, also, the hero or heroes are helped by such characters as Bat Woman or Spider Woman. To accurately i d e n t i f y those portions of the Southwestern versions of the Slayer of Monsters myth which have a non-Athapaskan  o r i g i n would require a  thorough analysis of the mythology of the area.  My-own  incomplete investigations, however, have led me to the following conclusions, which are presented merely as suggestions, and which are not given further proof here: The mythology of the non-Athapaskan  peoples of the  Southwest probably contained the b i r t h of culture heroes from a woman and sun, or sun and water, as well as their testing by the sun, and the adventures of a hero or twin heroes before the a r r i v a l of Athapaskan peoples i n the area.  The mythological figures, Spider Woman and Bat  Woman, probably predate the a r r i v a l of the Southern Athapaskans as-well. Athapaskan peoples have been l i v i n g i n the v i c i n i t y of the Yavapai, Zuni, Hopi, S i a , and C o c h i t i , since at least the beginning of the 17th century, ^' and there are numerous r e l i a b l e accounts of contacts between both Pueblo Indians and Yavapai and Southern Athapaskans i n h i s t o r i c times.••'•0  It would seem probable" that a syncretic  modification and transmission of myth content has occurred both within and between the mythologies of the Athapaskan and non-Athapaskan  peoples of the Southwest  since the  61 times of f i r s t contact between them. The Southwest, as an area, i s unique i n containing a large number of non-Athapaskan versions of the Eagle, B u l l , and C l i f f Ogre motifs which are very similar to Athapaskan, and especially Southern Athapaskan, versions of these motifs.  The Plains and Plateau areas  contain few such versions, and the Basin area, v i r t u a l l y none ."^ Non-Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif are compared i n the following table with the Northern Athapaskan Beaver (Ridington) and,Southern Athapaskan Western Apache versions of the Eagle motif, these l a t t e r two versions being selected because they share a large number of the. elements.'of  comparison used i n Table III,.  Kmong f i v e peoples of the Basin area, the Uintah Ute (Mason, 1910), Northern Shoshone (Lowie, 1909), Wind River Shoshone (Lowie and St. C l a i r , 1909), Kaibab Paiute (Sapir, 1930), and Moapa'(Lowie, 1926), are found myths involving a man and a f l y i n g monster.  These myths, which  i n many ways are similar to each other, bear  little  resemblance to either Northern or Southern Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif. In the Uintah Ute, Northern Shoshone, Wind River Shoshone,, and Kaibab Paiute versions, a man (two men i n the Uintah Ute version) i s carried to an island by a winged monster.  In the Wind River Shoshone, Uintah Ute,  TABLE IV Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the Eagle Motif BR + Man i s i n nest No eaglets mentioned + Two eaglets Four eaglets Number not specified Eaglets are t o l d to eat man + Man k i l l s eaglets Man makes noise Man asks when mother + returns Eaglet says she comes + with "weather" Man asks when father + returns Eaglet says he comes + with "weather" Mother returns with + "weather" + She c a r r i e s meat + Man k i l l s her Father returns with + "weather" + Man k i l l s him Man k i l l s single eagle Man asks where eagles sit Man takes feathers ++ Man k i l l s surviving eagles Man transforms eaglets +  W Sh Ku Th Sa Ui NS WS KP Mo Zu Ho S i Co NY WY Gr Ar Wi Ki +  +  +  + +  +  +  + +  + +  + +  + +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +'+  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  + +  +  +  +  +  + + +  +  +  + +  + +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  + + +  +  +  +  +  + + +  + +  + +  +  + +  +  +  +  + +  + +  +  +  +  + +  +  +  +  +  +  • +  +  +  + +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  + +  + +  +  +  TABLE IV BR Man i s helped from nest Helper i s Bat Helper i s s q u i r r e l  Symbols used:  (continued)  W Sh Ku Th Sa Ui NS WS KP Mo Zu Ho S i Co NY WY Gr Ar Wi Ki  +  +, present; BR, Beaver (Ridington); W, Western Apache; Sh, Shushwap; Ku, Kutenai; Th, Thompson; Sa, Sanpoil; Ui, Uintah Ute; NS, Northern Shoshone; WS, Wind River Shoshone; KP, Kaibab Paiute; Mo, Moapa; Zu, Zuni; Ho, Hopi; S i , Sia; Co, Cochiti; NY, Northeastern Yavapai; WY, Western Yavapai; Gr, Gros Ventre; Ar, Arapaho; Wi, Wichita; K i , Ki owa.  64 and Kaibab Paiute versions, the island i s inhabited by other victims of the winged monster, and i n the Uintah Ute, Northern Shoshone, Wind River Shoshone, and Kaibab Paiute, the winged monster i s k i l l e d by the man.  Young  of the winged monster are not mentioned i n the texts, except i n Uintah Ute, where they are k i l l e d by the man, after he has k i l l e d their parent.  In the Wind River  Shoshone and Uintah Ute versions, the man escapes the island on a boat made from the wings of the s l a i n monster. In Northern Shoshone, he escapes using wings of the s l a i n monster given to him by i t s mother, and iin.; Kaibab Paiute, he leaves the island on a bridge of d i r t and feathers. In the Moapa version, the man i s carried off by a condor.  There are no "eaglets" mentioned, and the man  k i l l s the single monster.  As i n Uintah Ute, Northern  Shoshone, Wind River Shoshone, and Kaibab Paiute, there i s no mention made of the sex of the single parent bird, there i s no association of the parents with weather, and the parent b i r d does not carry meat.  As with the other  basin versions, except Uintah Ute, there i s no mention of young birds. In the Moapa version, however, as i n both Athapaskan and non-Athapaskan versions from the Southwest, the man c o l l e c t s feathers for arrows, and i s helped from the nest by Bat Woman.  The absence of these units from other Basin  accounts, and the location of the Moapa i n Southern-—most  65 Utah and Nevada (Lowie, 1924: l ) to the immediate west and north of the Yavapai and westernmost Southern Athapaskans and Pueblo Indians, would indicate that these units are probably borrowings from the Southwest. Of the four Plateau versions--Shushwap (Teit, 1909), Kutenai (Boas, 1918), Thompson (Teit, 1898), and Sanpoil, (Gould, 1918)--Kutenai alone bears any great resemblance to the Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif.  In the  Shushwap and Sanpoil versions, a man seeks feathers, but for  adornment, rather than f o r arrows.  into eagles' nest.  The man i s carried  In the Shushwap version, he k i l l s the  single parent eagle, transforms the eaglets from monsters into ordinary eagles, and takes feathers " . . . to decorate [him]self . . . ." (Teit, 1909: 649). In the Sanpoil version, he t i e s up, but does not k i l l , the parent eagles, and no mention i s made of h i s taking feathers, although the text indicates that h i s purpose was " . . . to get feathers f o r a head-dress" (Gould, 1918: 108). In the Thompson version, a man desires feathers for  h i s arrows.  He approaches an eagle's nest, and i n  struggling with the eagle, f a l l s off a c l i f f , but i s saved by the eagle, which flaps i t s wings.  The man chokes,  but does not k i l l , the eagle, and takes i t s feathers f o r arrows. The return of the parent eagles, t h e i r association  66  with weather, and the questioning of the eaglets are not found i n Shushwap, Thompson, or Sanpoil, but occur in the Kutenai text, where Coyote and a man f i n d themselves i n a:thunderbirds* nest.  The man asks the young  birds when their parents return, and they reply that they " . . .  come back i n the evening i n the form of a  thunderclouds"(Boas, 1918: 286).  The man k i l l s the  thunderbirds when they return, but spares their young. Among the Arikara (Dorsey, 1904a), Assiniboine (Lowie, 1910), Crow (Lowie, 1918), Mandan-Hidatsa (Beckwith, 1938), and S k i d i Pawnee (1904b) of the Plains are found myths which are very similar to each other, but which have l i t t l e resemblance of the Eagle motif.  to Athapaskan versions  In the Crow version, for example, a  young hunter i s transported while unconscious into an eagles' nest.  The eagles feed the man,  protect their young from water monsters.  and ask him to The man  the monsters and saves the eaglets from them.  The  kills man  does not question the eaglets, and the parent eagle i s not associated with weather.  Furthermore, h i s r o l e , i n  protecting, rather than destroying, the eagles, constitutes an inversion of the hero's role i n the Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif.  These Plains versions, because they  share no s i g n i f i c a n t elements of content with Athapaskan Eagle motif, are omitted from the comparative  table.  More similar to Athapaskan versions are myths from  67 the Gros Ventre (Kroeber, 1908), Arapaho (Dorsey and Kroeber, 1903), Wichita (Dorsey, 1904), and Kiowa (Parsons, 1929).  In the Gros Ventre and Arapaho versions  'a man (two men i n Gros Ventre) goes into a thunderbirds' nest, and questions the young as to when their parents w i l l return. the  As i n the Athapaskan versions of  Eagle motif, the young answer that t h e i r parents w i l l  return with a certain kind of weather (the man asks only about the mother bird i n the Arapaho version).  When the  mother returns, the man challenges her to p u l l h i s arrow out of a rock.  She cannot, the arrow stretches,  and she i s dashed on the rocks.  In the Gros Ventre  version alone, the men k i l l the father as well, and i n the Arapaho, the man k i l l s the eaglets. the  In both versions,  eagles' feathers are plucked for arrows. In the Wichita version the man asks the  young birds who their parents are.  Those which say t h e i r  parents are a type of weather which the hero l i k e s are spared; the others are k i l l e d .  In the Kiowa version, two  boys go into a; birds' nest f o r arrow feathers.  The  parents (Thunder and Lightning) attack them, but they succeed i n getting feathers. Of the non-Athapaskan versions from the Southwest, Zuni (Benedict, 1935) most closely resembles the Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif, especially the Southern Athapaskan versions.  The man asks when the mother comes  .68  i n t h i s version and i n the Hopi (Stephen, 1929) and S i a (Stevenson, 1902), and she i s associated with weather i n Zuni ".and Hopi.  In the Zuni, as well, the man asks when  the father comes, and he i s associated with weather i n the young b i r d s  1  answer.  A mother and a father bird return and are k i l l e d by the man i n a l l of the above Pueblo versions, as well as i n the Northeastern and Western Yavapai (Gifford, 1933) versions.  Units of content shared by the Pueblo and  Yavapai with Southern Athapaskan versions are numerous. The eaglets are t o l d to eat the man i n Zuni, Hopi, and Sia,  and the man makes a noise to stop the eaglets from  eating him i n Zuni, Hopi, Northeastern Yavapai, and Western Yavapai.  The man asks where the parent eagles  s i t i n S i a , and the man i s helped down from the nest by Bat Woman i n Zuni, Northeastern Yavapai, and Western Yavapai (by s q u i r r e l i n S i a ) . As i n c e r t a i n Northern Athapaskan versions, where the man teaches the eaglet to eat  f i s h and turns i t from a man-eating monster into a  normal eagle, and a l l Southern Athapaskan versions, where the eaglets are changed into various, l e s s dangerous, birds, the eaglets are transformed i n Zuni and Hopi, but are k i l l e d i n S i a . In the C o c h i t i (Eiumarest, 1919) version, the Pueblo version least similar to the Southern Athapaskan versions, a single parent eagle i s k i l l e d , feathers f o r arrows are  69 taken, and the eaglets are transformed. The B u l l motif, i n which a man k i l l s a large monster with the help of a rodent, or small rodent-like animal such as a shrew, i s found among the Northern Athapaskans for Han, Kaska, Slave, Beaver (Ridington). Beaver (Goddard), and Dogrib, and takes place i n a l l cases because the man needs sinew for arrows.  The  rodent helper digs a tunnel up to the monster, and i n a l l except Beaver (Goodard), answers that i t needs f u r to keep i t s children warm when questioned  by the monster.  The man enters the tunnel, approaches the monster unseen, and k i l l s i t .  In the Kaska and Beaver (Ridington) versions,  the dying b u l l digs into the ground i n an attempt to reach the man.  In a l l Northern Athapaskan versions, the man  takes sinew from the dead " b u l l . " The Southern Athapaskan versions—Western Navajo, J i c a r i l l a ,  Apache,  Mescalero, Chiricahua, and L i p a n — a r e  i d e n t i c a l to the Northern versions except that i n a l l , the rodent helper, a gopher, digs four tunnels.  The dying  b u l l digs into the ground i n a l l Southern Athapaskan versions. for  The taking of sinew by the hero i s found only  Western Apache. Two instances of a small animal aiding i n the  k i l l i n g of a large monster are found i n the Plateau area, for  Pend d'Oreille (Teit, 1917) and Flathead (McDermott,  1901).  In both versions, Coyote's helper, a mouse, digs  TABLE V Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the B u l l Motif Hn K S BR BG D W N J M Ch L P F Sy KP Zu Ho S i Co NY WY K i Ma Helper digs tunnel There are four tunnels Helper asks f o r f u r Man k i l l s b u l l from below He t a l k s to b u l l Man k i l l s b u l l from above Helper k i l l s b u l l Dying b u l l digs ground Man takes sinew  Symbols used:  +++  + ++++++  ++++ +++  ++++  + + + + + + + ++  ++++++ ++++++  + + ++++++ +  + ++  + + +++++ + + + + + + + +  ++  + + + + + + + +  + + + +  +  + +  + + + + + + + + +  +, present; Hn, Han; K, Kaska; BR, Beaver (Ridington); BG, Beaver (Goddard); D, Dogrib; W, Western Apache; N, Navajo; J , J i c a r i l l a ; . M, Mescalero; Ch, Chiricahua; L, Lipan; -P, Pend d ' O r e i l l e ; F, Flathead; Sv, Shivwits; KP, Kaibab Paiute; Zu, Zuni; Ho, Hopi; S i , S i a ; Co, C o c h i t i ; NY, Northeastern Yavapai; WY, Western Yavapa K i , Kiowa; Ma, Mandan-Hidatsa.  71 a tunnel so that Coyote may approach a monster. emerges from the tunnel, s u r p r i s i n g the monster.  Coyote Coyote  t a l k s t o the monster, t r i c k i n g him i n t o laying, down h i s weapons, and k i l l s the monster. In the mythology of the Shivwits (Lowie, 1926) and Kaibab Paiute (Sapir, 1930), two Basin peoples, a snake which Coyote i s c a r r y i n g i n a bag escapes, tunnels to a giant antelope, and k i l l s i t . In the Pend d ' O r e i l l e , Flathead, Shushwap, and Kaibab Paiute v e r s i o n s , Coyote's helper does not ask f o r fur,  nor does the dying monster d i g i n t o the ground.  No  mention i s made of taking sinew. In four versions from the P l a i n s — A r a p a h o (Dorsey and Kroeber, 1903), Gros Ventre (Kroeber, 1908), Crow (Lowie, 1918) and Cheyenne (Kroeber, 1900)--a mole or gopher tunnels t o the home of a b u f f a l o which has c a r r i e d off  a woman.  The woman escapes through the tunnel and  r e j o i n s her people. Two B l a i n s versions more s i m i l a r t o the Athapaskan v e r s i o n s of the B u l l motif are found f o r the Kiowa (Parsons, 1929) and Mandan-Hidatsa (Beckwith, 1938).  I n the Kiowa  v e r s i o n , two boys seeking sinew t u r n i n t o a mole which tunnels towards a b u f f a l o . the  When questioned by the b u f f a l o ,  mole says i t wants f u r f o r i t s c h i l d r e n .  The mole  pierces the side of the b u f f a l o with a s t i c k and the b u f f a l o , i n i t s death throes, f o l l o w s the mole i n i t s tunnel.  The boys take sinew f o r t h e i r arrows.  72 In the Mandan-Hidatsa v e r s i o n , a man i s aided by a mole which tunnels to a giant e l k . The man goes i n t o the tunnel and k i l l s the e l k . There i s no mention of the mole asking f o r f u r , or of the e l k digging i n t o the  ground. In the Southwest, the Hopi (Stephen, 1929),  Zuni (Benedict, 1935), S i a (Stevenson, 1902), C o c h i t i (Dumarest, 1919) and, Northeastern and Western Yavapai ( G i f f o r d , 1933) versions of the B u l l motif c l o s e l y resemble the Southern Athapaskan v e r s i o n s .  The helper  asks f o r f u r i n the Zuni, Hopi, and Western Yavapai versions; the monster i s k i l l e d by a man who f o l l o w s the tunnel to a point below the monster, and the monster digs the ground i n a l l of the above v e r s i o n s .  Only i n  Zuni, however, are there four tunnels, and a l l versions lack the t a k i n g of sinew from the dead monster. In the C l i f f Ogre motif, a man pushes an adversar over a c l i f f t o h i s death. the  Northern Athapaskans f o r Kaska, Beaver (Ridington),  and Beaver (Goddard). the  The man involved i n t h i s motif i s  hero of the Northern Athapaskan v e r s i o n of the Slaye  of Monsters myth. the  This motif i s found among  That i s , he a l s o slays the Eagle and  B u l l , as w e l l as other monsters.  Similarities in  Southern Athapaskan versions of the Slayer of Monsters myth which are not shared with Northern v e r s i o n s , have  73  been outlined above, and are dealt with i n greater d e t a i l i n "The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Myth Elements i n Southern Athapaskan Mythology" (Tyhurst, n.d.).  Northern Athapas-  kan versions of the Slayer of Monsters myth also share incidents which are not found i n Southern Athapaskan mythology.  For example, i n the Beaver (Ridington),  Beaver (Goddard), Kaska, Slave, Dogrib, Hare, and Han texts referred to here," the hero who has s l a i n the Eagle and the B u l l (the Hare version alone lacks the slaying of the B u l l ) , must overcome a monster which has swallowed a large amount of.water.  He i s helped by a bird with a  sharp beak who f l i e s at the monster, piercing i t s stomach, and releasing the water.  While I have not yet myself  carried out an exhaustive comparison of Northern Athapaskan versions of the Slayer of Monsters myth and other myths, i t appears that such a comparison would reveal many important  similarities.  In the Kaska version of the C l i f f Ogre motif, Beaver, the hero of the Kaska Slayer of Monsters myth, i s told by Sheep-Man to look over a c l i f f at some sheep below. Beaver t r i c k s Sheep-Man into looking f i r s t and pushes him over the c l i f f .  Sheep-Man-'is wife, who i s waiting below for  victims to f a l l from the c l i f f , clubs him before she recognizes who i t i s . elk  In the Beaver (Goddard) version, an  t r i e s to kick a man over a bank.  The man succeeds i n  throwing the elk over the bank, and the elk i s k i l l e d by his  wife who i s waiting below and who " . . . thought i t  74  was a stranger she was k i l l i n g  . . . ". - (Goddard, 1916:  236). In the Beaver (Ridington) version, as i n the Kaska version, a man i s t o l d to look over a c l i f f at some sheep below.  The " C l i f f Ogre," here an e v i l , man,  i s pushed o f f the c l i f f , and i s badly injured. i s no mention of h i s wife waiting below. 12  There  Instead, the  hero turns him into an owl. Among the Southern Athapaskans, the C l i f f Ogre i s found for Western Apache, Navajo, and J i c a r i l l a . In the Western Apache version, a monster i d e n t i f i e d as a mountain sheep (Goodwin, 1939: 22) t r i e s to kick a man off a c l i f f .  The man cuts the monster's head from  a rock to which i t i s attached, and throws the monster off the c l i f f to i t s death.  There i s no mention of  anyone waiting below. In the Navajo and J i c a r i l l a versions, as well, a monster t r i e s to kick the hero of the Slayer of Monster's myth off a c l i f f .  In the Navajo version, as  i n the Western Apache version, the man cuts the monster's head from rocks to which i t i s attached.  In  both Navajo and J i c a r i l l a , the man succeeds i n pushing the  monster off the c l i f f .  His children, waiting below,  devour h i s body. In three similar versions from the Plateau area-Pend d'Oreille (Teit, 1917), Flathead (McDermott, 1901), and Sahaptin (Farrand, 1917)—Coyote i s pushed over a  75  c l i f f by a " C l i f f Ogre" after being told to look at some sheep below.  The " C l i f f Ogre" i s i d e n t i f i e d as  a sheep i n Pend d'Oreille and Sahaptin, but not i n Flathead.  Coyote i s k i l l e d  by the f a l l , but i s  revived by an a l l y — F o x i n Flathead and Pend d ' O r e i l l e , Magpie i n Sahaptin.  Coyote goes back to the c l i f f  and pushes the C l i f f Ogre o f f , k i l l i n g the  it.  None of  Plateau versions mention anyone waiting at the  bottom of the C l i f f . In ahNorthern Shoshone  (Lowie, 1909) version  from the Basin, a giant t r i e s to throw Weasel off a c l i f f , but Weasel approaches the giant unseen, and throws him over the c l i f f to h i s death.  As i n the  Plateau versions, there i s no one waiting below. Three versions are found i n the Plains area-Arapaho (Dorsey and Kroeber, 1903), Crow (Simms, 1903), and Blackfoot (Grinnell, 1913)—but only i n Crow and Blackfoot i s there any mention of someone waiting at the  bottom of the c l i f f for victims.  In Crow, a man  t r i e s to push two boys off a cut bank, but they elude him.  The man f a l l s off the c l i f f and i s eaten by h i s  father who i s waiting i n the water below.  In Blackfoot,  a woman t r i p s passers-by with a rope so that they f a l l from a c l i f f .  A man cuts her rope  and causes her to  f a l l into water below, where she i s eaten by a monster fish.  TABLE VI Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the C l i f f - O g r e Motif  K Monster i s sheep Man i s t o l d to look at sheep Monster f a l l s from c l i f f Monster i s attached Monster's r e l a t i v e s wait below Monster f i s h waits below  Symbols used:  BR  BG  +  N  J  +  +  +  +  +  +  W  ++ +  +  P  F  +  + +  +  +  +  Sn  NS  Zu  +  +  S i NY  Ar  Cr  BI  +  +  +  1 3  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  + + +  + +  + , present; K, Kaska; BR, Beaver (Ridington); BG, Beaver (Goddard); W, Western Apache; J , J i c a r i l l a ; P, Pend d ' O r e i l l e ; F, Flathead; Sn, Sahaptin;.- NS, Northern Shoshone; Zu, Zuni; S i , S i a ; NY, Northeastern Yavapai; A r , Arapaho; Cr, Crow; BI, B l a c k f o o t .  77  In Arapaho, " C l o t - c h i l d " i s l e d t o the edge of a b i g hole by a man. the  The.'iman  t r i e s t o push the boy i n t o  hole, but f a l l s i n t o the hole himself, and i s k i l l e d . In the Southwest, non-Athapaskan v e r s i o n s of the  C l i f f Ogre motif are found f o r the Zuni (Benedict, 1935), Sia (Stevenson, 1902), Northeastern Yavapai ( G i f f o r d , 1933), and Taos (Parsons, 1940). Both Zuni and Northeastern Yavapai c l o s e l y resemble the Southern Athapaskan Navajo and J i c a r i l l a v e r s i o n s .  In the Zuni v e r s i o n , a  a one-horned giant t r i e s t o k i c k two boys from a c l i f f . The boys throw him over the c l i f f and he i s eaten by his children.  The same i n c i d e n t s occur i n the North-  eastern Yavapai v e r s i o n , except that here a s i n g l e man opposes a monster c a l l e d "Cliff-person-kick-down" ( G i f f o r d , 1933.).  In Northeastern Yavapai, as i n Navajo  and Western Apache (but not Z u n i ) , the monster i s attached t o the c l i f f and the man cuts him f r e e before throwing him down. In the S i a v e r s i o n , a cougar t r i e s t o convince two boys t o pass i n f r o n t of him on a narrow path on a cliff.  The boys convince the cougar t o l e t them pass  behind him, and push the cougar o f f the c l i f f ,  killing  him. The Taos v e r s i o n , of a l l Southwestern non-Athapaskan v e r s i o n s of the C l i f f Ogre motif, resembles Athapaskan  78  versions the l e a s t .  A giant repeatedly pushes a boy  from a c l i f f but cannot k i l l him. The boy t r i c k s the giant i n t o l e t t i n g himself be burned t o death on a f i r e which the boy b u i l d s .  In the Taos v e r s i o n a l s o , the  k i l l i n g of the giant i s r e l a t e d t o a s i n g l e , i s o l a t e d myth.  I n a l l other Southwestern versions of the Slayer  of Monsters myth, the k i l l i n g of the Eagle, B u l l , and C l i f f Ogre are c a r r i e d out by the same hero, or twin heroes, and t h e i r actions take place w i t h i n the same, continuing n a r r a t i v e .  79  CONCLUSION The central episode of the Northern and Southern Athapaskan Eagle motif, the NEST episode, has been compared by elements.  I t was found that, as a r u l e , those  Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif which shared more than one episode were more similar i n the contents of the NEST episode than those which shared only the NEST episode. The Northern Athapaskan versions of the NEST episode, the Eagle motif showed considerably more v a r i a t i o n in content than did Southern Athapaskan versions of the same episode. The three motifs considered here are found together only among the Northern Athapaskans (Kaska and Beaver), the Southern Athapaskans (Navajo, J i c a r i l l a , and Western Apache), and among the peoples of the Southwest with whom they were c l o s e l y associated (Zuni, Sia, and Northeastern Yavapai). In each of the above cases, the motifs are found together within a single myth and are carried out by the same hero. A l l three motifs are not found i n the mythology of any other non-Athapaskan people considered here.  Such a  d i s t r i b u t i o n i s best accounted f o r by the motifs being carried to the Southwest by the precursors of the Southern Athapaskans when they migrated from the North. If i t i s assumed that the motifs originated i n the  80  Southwest--the only l o c a t i o n where a l l three motifs are found i n the mythology.of non-Athapaskan peoples--and were transmitted from there t o the North, the motifs might have been transmitted: 1.  Through Athapaskan-speaking peoples t o the North at a time when a s t r i n g of migrating Athapaskans stretched from Canada t o the Southwest, or  2.  In severalty through non-Athapaskans. The f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y must be r e j e c t e d as i t  involves f a r more steps than migration with f u l l r e t e n t i o n . The second p o s s i b i l i t y l i k e w i s e involves more steps than migration w i t h f u l l r e t e n t i o n , and i n a d d i t i o n assumes steps i n which one or more of the motifs was l o s t among the nonAthapaskan peoples through whom the transmission occurred. The content of the three motifs a l s o f u r n i s h e s , evidence i n favour of migration w i t h r e t e n t i o n . Some elements of content of these three motifs are shared only between the Northern and Southern Athapaskans; others among the Northern and Southern Athapaskans, and neighbouring peoples i n the Southwest, with extremely l i m i t e d occurrence among other non-Athapaskans. A minimal r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the proto-myth may be c a r r i e d out by i n c l u d i n g a l l elements of the motifs shared between the Northern and Southern Athapaskan v e r s i o n s of the three m o t i f s .  Such a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a minimal one, s i n c e ,  elements o r i g i n a l l y shared by the precursors of both groups  81 may have since been l o s t .  Using the elements of comparison  of content from Table IV, Table V and Table V I , those that are  shared between Northern and Southern Athapaskans are  as f o l l o w s : l)  Eagle Motif 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.  2)  Man i s i n nest Man k i l l s eaglets Man asks when mother returns Eaglet says she comes with "weather" Man asks when father returns Eaglet says he comes w i t h "weather" Mother returns with "weather" She c a r r i e s meat Man k i l l s her Father r e t u r n s with "weather" He c a r r i e s meat Man k i l l s him Man takes feathers  B u l l Motif 1. Helper d i g s tunnel 2. Helper asks f o r f u r 3. Man k i l l s b u l l from below 4. Dying b u l l d i g s ground 5. Man takes sinew  3)  C l i f f Ogre Motif 1. 2. 3.  Monster i s sheep Monster f a l l s from c l i f f Monster's r e l a t i v e s wait below Only two of the Northern and Southern Athapaskan  elements of comparison i n the Eagle motif are not found among non-Athapaskans  (see Table I V ) . These elements-'-the  c a r r y i n g of "meat" by the p a r e n t s — a r e , however, u n i t s which are  h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n that i t i s human meat which they  82  axe c a r r y i n g , and i t i s t h i s which makes them monsters. In the Han, Kaska, Slave, and Beaver (Ridington) v e r s i o n s of the Eagle motif, i t i s s p e c i f i e d i n the text that both parents r e t u r n t o the nest with e i t h e r human parts or with dead people.  In the Chipewyan  (Petitot)  v e r s i o n , i t i s the mother who returns t o the nest w i t h d e b r i s humain,s. and i n the Dogrib v e r s i o n i t i s the father eagle who c a r r i e s a c h i l d t o the nest. Among the Southern Athapaskans, both mother and father eagles r e t u r n to the nest c a r r y i n g people i n the Western Apache and J i c a r i l l a v e r s i o n s of the Eagle motif. In the Navajo, the mother returns c a r r y i n g the body of a Pueblo woman. In the B u l l motif, the man takes sinew from the dead monster i n the Northern Athapaskan,. Han, Kaska, Slave, Beaver (Ridington), Beaver (Goddard), and Dogrib v e r s i o n s . This element i s found i n the Western Apache v e r s i o n , and, among non-Athapaskans, only, among the Kiowa (see Table V ) ^ who have long, been associated w i t h the Athapaskan-speaking Kiowa Apache.  -  In the C l i f f Ogre motif, the monster's r e l a t i v e s wait below i n the Northern Athapaskan Beaver (Goddard) and Kaska v e r s i o n s , and i n the Southern Athapaskan Navajo arid J i c a r i l l a versions.  This element i s found i n the Southwest  for Zuni and Northeastern Yavapai. Outside the Southwest, however, i t i s found only f o r Crow (see Table V I ) .  83 The three motifs are present together within a single myth among the Northern and Southern Athapaskans. No non-Athapaskan group aside from those i n the Southwest has a l l three motifs.  Thus the myth i t s e l f , or at least the  minimal reconstruction of the proto-myth presented above, i s most l i k e l y to have originated among the Athapaskans i n the North, or among those peoples of the Southwest whose mythology contains a l l three motifs.  Transmission from the  Southwest to the North, however, i s less l i k e l y than migration with retention because i t involves more steps, whether through a string of migrating Athapaskans, or i n severalty through non-Athapaskans. The Eagle and Bull motifs themselves contain elements found only among the Northern and Southern Athapaskans (with a single occurrence of the element of taking sinew, from the Bull motif, among the non-Athapaskan Kiowa).  The  element of " r e l a t i v e s waiting below," from the C l i f f Ogre motif, i s found i n the mythology of two  non-Athapaskan  peoples of the Southwest, but outside the Southwest, only among the Crow. In addition, several of the underlying ideas of the Slayer of Monsters myth are found i n both Northern and Southern Athapaskan versions of the myth.  In the Eagle and  B u l l motifs, not only i s a monster s l a i n , but i t also becomes something useful for hunters.  In the Eagle motif, feathers  for arrows are taken from the dead eagles (Northern Athapas-  84 kan - Han, Slave, Kaska, Beaver (Ridington), Beaver (Goddard), Dogrib and Hare; Apache).  Southern Athapaskan - Western  In the B u l l motif, sinew i s taken from the dead  monster (Northern Athapaskan - Han, Kaska, Slave, Beaver (Ridington), Beaver (Goddard), and Dogrib;  Southern  Athapaskan - Western Apache). The idea of making the world a safe ,place f o r people to l i v e i s found i n both Northern and Southern Athapaskan v e r s i o n s of the myth.  The monsters which k i l l people  and make the world dangerous, are themselves k i l l e d or transformed.  In the Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t ) v e r s i o n of the  Slayer of Monsters myth (see t r a n s l a t i o n i n Appendix of t h i s paper), the monster s l a y e r attacks the g i r l "Breast F u l l of Mice." earth.  Vermin come out of her body and spread over the  As a r e s u l t of t h i s , misery, sickness, famine, forced  f a s t i n g , death, and cold have plagued people since.  In a  Navajo v e r s i o n of the Slayer of Monsters myth not p r e v i o u s l y considered here (Navaio H i s t o r y 1971: '68 - 69), Hunger Man, Poverty Man, Sleep Man, L i c e Man, and Old Age are f i v e monsters which the monster s l a y e r d i d not k i l l .  Thus i n a  Northern and a Southern Athapaskan version of the myth, the monster s l a y e r , despite h i s powers, i s responsible f o r the presence of c e r t a i n human problems upon the earth. In view of a l l the above f a c t s , i t i s most h i g h l y probable that the three motifs were c a r r i e d t o the Southwest by the precursors of the Southern Athapaskans when they migrated.  85  FOOTNOTES 1. The term "motif" i s used by Tsuchiyama t o r e f e r t o whatever,specific p o r t i o n of Athapaskan mythology she i s c o n s i d e r i n g . She c a l l s those p a r t s of Athapaskan mythology i n which a v i s i t i s made t o an eagle's nest, a " b u l l " i s s l a i n , or a " c l i f f ogre" i s defeated, "motifs." Her usage i s followed here. In the " V i s i t to Eagle's Nest" motif, the hero makes h i s way i n t o the nest of a l a r g e b i r d monster ( u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as an e a g l e ) . With few exceptions, he questions the eaglets i n the nest as to when t h e i r parents w i l l r e t u r n , and k i l l s the parent eagles, making h i s way t o the ground. 2. My own t r a n s l a t i o n s of P e t i t o t ' s Chipewyan, Dogrib, and Hare t e x t s (1996) are appended as sample texts. 3. I f only two t e x t s were being compared and they agreed i n the content of a l l major a c t i o n s , both would be considered to c o n s i s t of a s i n g l e episode. Any p o r t i o n of a t e x t shared by a l l t e x t s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n would be considered an episode, as w e l l . 4. I t i s during the obtaining of the sinew that the hero comes upon and s l a y s the "Giant B u l l . " 5. The Chipewyan (Goddard) and Chipewyan (Lowie) v e r s i o n s of the NEST episode, while not included i n the wider comparison by elements, are compared w i t h each other here: Elements Considered Equivalent CP-CG  CP-CG  CG-CL  1-1 3-3 5-7 6-6 7-5 8-13 9-14 10-15 11-18 12-8 14-9  1-2 3-3 5-7 6-6 7-5 8-11 9-12 10-15 11-15 12-8 14-9  1-2 2-1 3-3 4-4 5-5 6-6 7-7 8-8 9-9 10-10 13-11  86 CP-CG  CP-CG  CG-CL  15-10 16-17 20-25  15-10 16-14 21-16  14-12 15-13 17-14 18-15  C=0.60  0=0.76  0=0.73  See, f o r example, H o i j e r (1956). 7. Whether the man l e t s the eaglet l i v e i s , i n the Southern Athapaskan v e r s i o n s , part of the content of the BIRDS episode. And even here a comparison w i t h Northern v e r s i o n s i s d i f f i c u l t . The eaglet, f o r example, i s turned i n t o an owl (Western Apache), or i s made smaller ( J i c a r i l l a and L i p a n ) . In no case are a l l the eaglets k i l l e d , but t h i s "element" which resembles, f o r example, element 31 of Beaver (Ridington (man l e t s eagle l i v e ) , i s because of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n comparison, not included i n the l i s t of elements shared between Northern and Southern v e r s i o n s . The Western Apache v e r s i o n of the NEST episode considered here takes place w i t h i n the context of a search by the hero f o r m a t e r i a l s , t o make arrows—he has himself c a r r i e d i n t o the nest i n order t o get f e a t h e r s . However, while he obtains the feathers, he does not do so w i t h i n the NEST episode, and thus another possible s i m i l a r i t y between Western Apache and such Northern versions as Beaver (Ridington), Slave, Kaska, Dogrib, Hare and Han (e.g., Han element 25: He gets feathers for arrows) i s not represented i n the comparison by elements. 8. Many of the non-Athapaskan t e x t s r e f e r r e d t o below are r e f e r r e d t o i n Tsuchiyama (1947). A l l have, however, been examined f i r s t hand. 9. According t o Spanish accounts (CZarate-Salmeron 1899-1900J and [Benavides, 1916J c i t e d i n [ H i l l , 19403). 10. See, f o r example, Goodwin (1942) f o r accounts of t r a d i n g between Western Apache and Hopi (p. 74), and of intermarriage between Western Apache and Yavapai (pp. 88-92). 11. The area c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s used here f o l l o w Kroeber*s c u l t u r e area c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s (1963), w i t h s l i g h t modificat i o n s i n terminology. Such m o d i f i c a t i o n s are made t o  f  87  f a c i l i t a t e discussion of the motifs considered, and do not, I believe, depart excessively from Koreber's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . As with Kroeber, the Pueblo Indians (Cochiti, Hopi, Sia, Taos, Zuni), Yavapai, Navajo, and Apache are termed as belonging to the Southwest culture area. Kroeber includes the Lipan Apache i n the South Texas culture area (Kroeber, 1963: 37), but they are included i n the term "Southwest" here, so as to include them with other Southern Athapaskans. A l l peoples referred to here as being within the Plateau area—Flathead, Kutenai, Pend d ' O r e i l l e , Sanpoil, Shushwap, Sahaptin, and Thompson—are included i n Kroeber*s "Columbia-Fraser Plateau" area (1963: 55). Peoples referred to as being within the Basin area—Kaibab Paiute, Northern Shoshone, Moapa, Shivwits, Uintah Ute, and Wind River Shoshone—are referred to as "Great Basin" by Kroeber (1963: 49). Peoples referred to here as Plains are included i n Kroeber s ^Southern Plains" (Kiowa) (Kroeber, 1963: 79) and "Northern Plains" (Arapaho, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Crow, and Gros Ventre) (Kroeber, 1963: 80). Referred to as Plains here, but placed i n the " P r a i r i e " culture area by Kroeber are the Arikara and Mandan-Hidatsa. They are described by him as ". . . a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a i r i e tribes who entered the plains but retained their p r a i r i e culture" (1963: 83). Also termed Plains here, are the Wichita and S k i d i Pawnee, whom Kroeber places i n the "Red River" area, to the immediate south and east of the Southern Plains (1963: 74). The terms "Northern Athapaskan" and "Southern Athapaskan," do not, of course, refer to culture areas, but rather to those Athapaskan speaking peoples l i v i n g north of the Canada-U.S. border, and i n or near the Southwest, respectively. r  12. In a C h i l c o t i n "version" which has l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y to Kiowa, Beaver (Ridington), or Beaver (Goddard), a man i s pushed off a c l i f f and escapes by turning himself into a flying-squirrel. 13. • The C h i l c o t i n and Taos versions are omitted as they share none of the units of content shown i n the Table. 14. These translations were made by myself, and checked by E l l i and Pierre Maranda. They are included here as sample texts. To f a c i l i t a t e typing, accents found i n P e t i t o t ' s o r i g i n a l have been omitted. The phonetic symbol p i s represented by R.  88  BIBLIOGRAPHY Beckwith, M.W. "Mandan-Hidatsa Myths and Ceremonies." Memoirs of the American Folklore Society, V o l . 32 (1938). Benavides, Fray A. de. The Memorial of Fray Alonso de Benavides. 1630. trans. A. E. Ayer, Chicago: 1916. • Benedict, Ruth. "Zuni Mythology." Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology, V o l . 21 (1935). Boas, F.. "Kutenai Tales." B u l l e t i n of the Bureau of American Ethnology. V o l . 59 (1918). Breton, Andre. Young Cherry Trees Secured Against Hares, trans. Edouard R o d i t i . The University of Michigan Press, 1969. Chapman, J . W. "Ten'a Texts and Tales from Anvik." Publications of the American Ethnological Society. V o l . 6 (1914). Clark, A. Unpublished tape recordings collected at Huslia, Alaska. Museum of Man, Ottawa (n.d.). Dorsey, G.A. "The Mythology of t h e W i c h i t a . " Carnegie I n ssttiilt u t i o n of Washington Publication. No. 21 U904i "Traditions of the Arikara." Carnegie I n s t i t u t i o n of Washington Publication. No. 17 (1904a). "Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee." Memoirs of the American Folklore Society. V o l . 8 (1904b). _, and A. L. Kroeber. "Traditions of the Arapaho. F i e l d Columbian Museum Anthropological Series. V o l . 5 (1903). Dumarest, N. "Notes on C o c h i t i , New Mexico." Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association. V o l . 6 (1919) pp. 139-234." Farrand, L. "Sahaptin Tales." Memoirs of the American Folklore Society. V o l . 11 (1917), pp. 135-180. . "Traditions of the C h i l c o t i n Indians." Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, V o l . 4, Part 1 (1900).  89 G i f f o r d , E.W. "Northeastern and Western Yavapai Myths." Journal of American F o l k l o r e , V o l . 46 (1933), pp. 347-415. Goddard, P.E. "The Beaver Indians." Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural H i s t o r y . V o l . 10. Part 4 (1916). . "Chipewyan Texts." Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural H i s t o r y . V o l . 10, Part 1 (1912). Goodwin, G. "Myths and Tales of the White Mountain Apache. Memoirs of the American F o l k l o r e S o c i e t y . V o l . 33 (1939). . The S o c i a l Organization of the Western Apache. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1942. Gould, M. K. "Sanpoil Tales." Memoirs of the American F o l k l o r e Society. V o l . 11 (1918), pp. 101-113. G r i n n e l l , G.B. 1913.  Blackfeet Indian S t o r i e s . New York:  Gunnerson, J.H. and D. A. Gunnerson. "Apachean C u l t u r e : A Study i n Unity and D i v e r s i t y . " i n "Apachean C u l t u r e , H i s t o r y and Ethnology." M. E. Opler and K. H. Basso, eds., Anthropological Papers of the U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona, No. 21 (1971),"pp. 7-27. H i l l , W. W. "Some Navaho C u l t u r e Changes During Two Centuries (with a t r a n s l a t i o n of the E a r l y Eighteenth Century Rabal Manuscript)." Smithsonian Miscellaneous C o l l e c t i o n s . - V o l . 100 (1940). " H o i j e r , H. Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache Texts. • The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press,"Chicago:< 1938. . "The Chronology of the Athapaskan Languages." I n t e r n a t i o n a l Journal of American L i n g u i s t i c s . V o l . 22 (1956), pp. 219-232. J e t t e , J . "On Ten'a F o l k l o r e . " Journal of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e . V o l . 39 (1909). pp. 460505.  90  Kroeber, A. L. "Cheyenne Tales." Journal of American F o l k l o r e . V o l . 13 (1900), pp. 161-190. . C u l t u r a l and Natural Areas of Native North America. Berkeley and Los Angeles, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1963. 'Gros Ventre Myths and Tales." Anthropologic a l Papers of the American Museum of Natural H i s t o r y . V o l . 1 (1908), pp. 55-139. Lowie, R. H. "The A s s i n i b o i n e . " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers of the American Museum of Natural H i s t o r y . V o l . 4 (1910). . "Chipewyan Tales." A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers of the American Museum of Natural H i s t o r y . V o l . 10, Part 3 (1912). . "Myths and T r a d i t i o n s of the Crow Indians." A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . V o l . 25 (1918). "The Northern Shoshone." A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . Vol.2 (1909), pp. 165-306. . "Shoshonean Tales." Journal of American F o l k l o r e . V o l . 37 (1926), pp. 1-242. _, and H. H. St. C l a i r . "Shoshone and Comanche Tales." Journal of American F o l k l o r e . V o l . 22 (1909) pp. 265-282. McDermott, L. " F o l k l o r e of the Flathead Indians of Idaho: Adventures of Coyote." Journal of American F o l k l o r e . V o l . 1 4 ( 1 9 0 1 ) , pp. 240-251. Mason, J . A. "Myths of the Uintah Utes." Journal of American F o l k l o r e . V o l . 23 (1910), pp. 299-363.. Navaio H i s t o r y . Ethelou Y a z z i e , ed. Navajo Community College Press, Many Farms, Arizona (1971).. Opler, M.E. "Myths and Legends of the Lipan Apache Indians."., Memoirs of the-American..Folklore Society,,-Vol. 31 (1938). !  "Myths and Tales of the J i c a r i l l a Apache Indians." Memoirs of the American F o l k l o r e Society. V o l . 31, (1938).  91 Osgood, C. "The D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Northern Athapaskan Indians." Yale University Publications i n Anthropology. Vol. 7 (1936). pp. 1-23. . "The Ethnography of the Great Bear Lake Indians," National Museum of Canada B u l l e t i n , No. 70 (1932), pp. 31-97. . "The Han Indians: A Compilation of Ethnographic and H i s t o r i c a l Data on the Alaska-Yukon Boundary Area." Yale University Publications i n Anthropology. V o l . 74 (1971). Parsons, E.C. "Kiowa Tales." Memoirs of the American Folklore Society. V o l . 22 (1929)-. ' .. "Taos Tales." Memoirs of the American Folkl o r e Society. V o l . 34 (1940 P e t i t o t , E.F.S. "Traditions indiennes du Canada nordouest." Les L i t t e r a t u r e s Populaires de Toutes les Nations. Paris, 1886, Vol. 23. Ridington, Robin. "Snake Man, Told by Johnny Chipesia." Unpublished manuscript, n.d. Sapir, E. "Tests of the Kaibab Pointes and Uintah Utes." Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Vol. 65 (1930). Simms, S. C. "Traditions of the Crows." F i e l d Columbian Museum Anthropological Series, V o l . 2 (1903), pp.. 281-324. Stephen, A.M. "Hopi Tales." Journal of American Folkl o r e . V o l . 42 (1929), pp. 1-72. Stevenson, M.C. "The S i a . " Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Vol. 23 (1902). Teit, J.A. "Kaska Tales." Journal of American Folklore. Vol. 30 (1917), pp. 427-473. . "Pend d'Oreille Tales." Memoirs of the American Folklore Society. V o l . 11 (1917), pp. 114-118. . "The Shushwap." Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. Vol. 4, Part 7 (1909). . "Traditions of the Thompson River Indians." Memoirs of the American Folklore Society. V o l . 6 (1898). ' •  92 Tsuchiyama, Tamie. "A Comparison of the F o l k l o r e of the Northern, Southern, and P a c i f i c Athapaskans: A Study i n S t a b i l i t y of F o l k l o r e Within a L i n g u i s t i c Stock." Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , 1947. Tyhurst, R.J.S. "The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Myth Elements i n Southern Athapaskan Mythology. Unpublished Honours Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. (1972). Voudrach, P. "Good Hope Tales." B u l l e t i n of the N a t i o n a l Museum of-Canada. V o l . 204 (1967), pp. 1-58. Williamson, R.G. "Slave Indian Legends." V o l . 1 (1955), pp. 119-143.  Anthropologica.  Zarate-Salmeron, F.G. "Relaciones . . . desde e l ano 1538 hasta e l de 1626," t r a n s . C. F. Lummis. Land of Sunshine, v o l s . 11-12 (1899-1900).  APPENDIX  94  ELTCHELEKWIE ONNIE ( P e t i t o t 1886: 352 - 3 6 2 )  1 4  (Chipewyan) At the beginning of time, there was an o l d man who had two sons.  One day he t o l d them, "My c h i l d r e n ,  get i n t o your dugout canoe, and go hunting, because there i s nothing t o eat here." The two obedient boys got i n t o the canoe and l e f t at once t o go hunting.  The old man said t o them,  "You should go west, because t h a t ' s where your f i r s t homeland i s , and only there w i l l you l i v e happily." So they l e f t . On the f o u r t h day of t h e i r journey, they came t o a w a t e r f a l l c a l l e d E l t s i n n a t h e l i n or the w h i r l i n g chasm. There they captured some Canada geese.  But when evening  had come, they didn't know where they were, and they got lost altogether. The next morning, and during the f o l l o w i n g days, the two brothers didn't get any f u r t h e r ahead.  In the  meantime they had eaten t h e i r l i t t l e geese, and went along the deserted and steep shores of Great Slave Lake, on the shore of which they came upon a mountain c a l l e d Dene-chath-yaRe—the mountain with men i n s i d e .  95 "Older brother," said the younger of the boys to his brother, "This country i s n ' t anything l i k e our own.  Where do you think we are?" "Alas, younger brother," answered the older, "I  don't know any more than you. you at a l l . All  But don't l e t i t trouble  Let's keep on going." of a sudden the two brothers heard voices  under the ground—the voices of giants (OtchoRe) who l i v e d on the northern shore of Great Slave Lake.  In  front of the mountain a l i t t l e giant and h i s sister were playing together.  The cone-shaped mountain was  their tent. "Oh, what l i t t l e men,"  they cried j o y f u l l y ,  seeing the two Dene brothers. They ran to them, and took them i n their hands. They put them i n their mittens, l i k e l i t t l e birds f a l l e n from a nest which one wishes to warm up, and took them in t h i s way to their parents. "Look father, mother, what l i t t l e b i t s of men  we  have just found on the shore," they said laughing. "Don't make fun of them," said the giant father, who was a very kind man.  "My  speaking to the two brothers.  children," he added, "Stay with us.  No  one  w i l l do you harm." Saying t h i s the giant gave each boy the eye of a giant trout to eat.  96 The l i t t l e Dene l i v e d then at Dene-chath-yaRe on the north shore of Great Slave Lake.  They went to  inspect the f i s h i n g hooks and nets i n the company of the giant's children, and didn't want for anything. But i n the end they grew t i r e d of t h i s comfortable and easy l i f e , and asked to continue t h e i r journey. "Of course," said the giant. He made them f i s h pemmican, and gave to each one two  arrows. "You w i l l k i l l male moose with t h i s male arrow,"  he told them, "and with t h i s female arrow you w i l l pursue the female.  These two arrows are very powerful.  They come back by themselves  after you have shot them.  Therefore, do not go after them to retrieve them, for i f you do so, misfortune w i l l occur.  I forbid i t  absolutely." The two brothers promised everything and  left.  As they were leaving, the kind giant indicated to them the setting sun as the point on the horizon where their f i r s t homeland lay, and told them to move i n that d i r e c t i o n . A l i t t l e after leaving the home of the good giant the younger of the two brothers sighted a s q u i r r e l perch on a large f i r tree, and shot one of h i s arrows at i t . Then he ran right away to retrieve i t .  97 "Oh, my younger brother, take care, don't take hold of i t at a l l , " cried out the older boy.  "You  know that we were t o l d not to. I t i s very bad, they think, to disobey." But the younger boy persisted. " I t ' s i n my grasp," he shouted to h i s brother, "I can reach i t . " He then held out h i s arm to grasp i t , but i t went higher, following the s q u i r r e l , who mocked the hunter. "Ah, see here, I have i t ! " he shouted triumphantly. But the arrow, escaping him, went higher again, and kept going up. the arrow.  At l a s t the young man got hold of  But immediately i t took off l i k e a lightning  bolt and shot with great speed towards the sky, carrying after i t the unfortunate younger brother.  The arrow  ;  went right up into the sky. Up there was a superior Land, i n a l l ways similar to that which we l i v e i n . When the young man arrived there, he found i t covered with white f r o s t , and on the snow he saw a large number of the tracks of a l l sorts of animals whose f l e s h i s edible. He saw also a big white road.  I t was wide and  along i t were trees bearing f r u i t , and signposts.  On the  road a pair of completely new snowshoes were planted i n  98 the snow.  They appeared to be waiting for him.  The younger brother, carried f a r from h i s country by h i s disobedience, put on these snowshoes, and followed the white path.  He arrived i n t h i s way  at an immense tent i n which he found three women who showed him h o s p i t a l i t y . The oldest woman, mother of the two others, said to him i n secret, "My son-in-law, I must warn you that my g i r l s are e v i l . trust them.  They t r i c k humans.  Do not  Do not l i e with them, and do not even watch  them sleeping." Saying t h i s , and to prevent any r e l a t i o n s between t h i s young man—whom she found handsome—and her daughters, the old woman blackened h i s entire face with charcoal. She did t h i s for fear that he would be loved by them. In the evening, the two c e l e s t i a l maidens arrived home from the hunt, for they were "ammazon huntresses." The older one was named "breast f u l l of weasels" (DelkRayle-tta-naltay), and the younger one "breast f u l l of mice" (Dlune-Ha-naltay). As soon as they saw the l i t t l e black boy who was s i t t i n g i n t h e i r mother's tent, they couldn't stop laughing, and made fun of him. The old woman had won. But the next day, the young man, stung to the quick, and having washed h i s face and hands, appeared- so handsome to .the two s i s t e r s that  99  both shouted at the same time, "I want to have him! I want to have him!  He w i l l be mine!"  In vain the old woman opposed herself to their union.  The two g i r l s threw themselves on the handsome  young man,  carried him to t h e i r bed, and made him  sleep between them. But they had not even spent one night t o g e t h e r — despite the mother's p r o t e c t i o n — b e f o r e a chasm opened beneath the young man and he was swallowed up alive i n the bosom of the earth above. "Nari (poor unfortunate!)," cried out the old woman when she saw him disappear.  Here i s another hand-  some man whom you have taken away from me, you e v i l ones!" Meanwhile, a huge wolf came up.  Smelling human  f l e s h i n the place where the young c u l p r i t lay, he set himself to digging the earth with h i s powerful claws. Through h i s digging, he freed the man from h i s horrible grave. On the white path he waited for "Breast F u l l of Mice."  He wanted to take h i s revenge on her, but he  couldn't k i l l her, because she was immortal.  Then he  tore off her clothes and tore her into pieces, and a l l the mice, rats, moles, snakes, worms, and other harmful creatures which were closed up i n her breast came out  100  and spread over the earth--where they have l i v e d to t h i s day.  Since then there has been on the earth so  much misery ( l l a y ) , sickness (tata), famine (dan), forced fasting (klu).  ( e t t c h i e r i ), death (edzil) , and cold  A l l that has come upon us through the d i s -  obedience of the young man, and the malice of the' woman. This i s why we k i l l a l l mice (klu), moles (dan), insects ( l l a e ) , and harmful animals ( e t t c h i e r i )» which have caused man's unhappiness. Then the old woman, who l i v e d i n the big tent, said to the handsome young man, "Come here, trust me at last.  I am going to get f o r you the means to return to  the earth from which you have come.  I know a place on  t h i s upper earth where there i s a hole from which you can see the earth below.  I am going to l e t you down  through t h i s opening." Saying t h i s , the old woman cut up some elk skins into strips and made a long thong from them, at the end of which she t i e d the young man under h i s armpits.  Then  she l e t him down through the gaping hole. "As soon as you f e e l the earth under your feet," she t o l d him, " l e t the thong go." The old woman then l e t the young Dene down through the hole, and he went down f o r a long time* since the distance was great and the thong was very long.  101  At l a s t h i s foot f e l t an obstacle " I have a r r i v e d on earth," he thought. So he released the thong which i n a wink of an eye went back up towards the sky, and he found himself . . . w h e r e ? — i n the aerie of Orelpale (Whiteness), a huge eagle who  l i v e d on human f l e s h .  A l l around Dene. i n the g i g a n t i c nest of the eagle who bones.  ate men,  he saw nothing but human s k u l l s and  He looked down, but he saw with f r i g h t that he  was f a r — v e r y f a r — f r o m h a b i t a b l e ground. L u c k i l y , the eaglet <Jwho was i n the nest}, had p i t y on the  man.  "He makes me f e e l m e r c i f u l , " the eaglet said to himself.  "He i s so young.  Hide y o u r s e l f under my  wings, brother-in-law," he said to the young man.  "And  i f you see i t becoming l i g h t , that i s my f a t h e r , the giant eagle, a r r i v i n g at the Nest.  But i f darkness  comes upon us, that i s a sign that my mother i s a r r i v i n g . " A l l of a sudden, Dene., hearing a great noise of wings, went and took refuge under the wings of the e a g l e t . Immediately i t became l i g h t , and the male eagle returned to the nest. "Ah!  This smells n i c e l y of f r e s h human f l e s h ! "  he s a i d , s n i f f i n g a l l around. "Is that s u r p r i s i n g , " said the e a g l e t , "since you bring me human f l e s h to devour every day?"  102 Orelpale. the father, went away, and Dene regained a b i t of confidence.  An instant l a t e r , the  noise of thunder was heard again, i t became dark and the female Orelpale entered the nest with human remains i n her talons. "How sniffing  i t smells of fresh meat!" she cried out,  inquisitively.  "Come on, mother, i s that surprising, since you keep bringing i t to me yourself?" answered the eaglet. The female eagle i n her turn went away. This couldn't go on for long. Orelpale r e a l i z i n g that there was aerie.  It ended with  a mortal l i v i n g i n his  Angered, he wanted to k i l l the bold man who  come to defy him even i n his own  had  nest.  Then the eaglet threw himself between h i s father and the  man. "If you k i l l him,"  he cried out, "I w i l l throw  myself at once from my nest onto the earth." For fear of causing the death of h i s son, the father eagle consented  to l e t the man  Then the eaglet said to the man, l i v e here.  live. "You cannot always  My father w i l l be able to surprise and  you, for a l l I know.  kill  Here, take these wing feathers of  mine, f i t them to your body, and t r y to f l y around my nest.  If you succeed i n going around three times, you  are saved and w i l l be able to f l y to your own  country.  103 So the young man f i t t e d the feathers of the thunder-bird t o h i s arms and legs and t r i e d to f l y . The f i r s t time he leapt forward, he f e l l and hurt hims e l f badly. But the eaglet picked him up. "So do l i k e t h i s , and l i k e t h a t , " he said t o him. And l i t t l e by l i t t l e he taught him how t o f l y by supporting him on h i s wings. aided by the e a g l e t .  At l a s t the man succeeded,  He could make i t around the a e r i e  one, two, and, at l a s t three times.  And immediately  flew away towards the earth using the feathers of the helpful eaglet.  That i s the end.  he  104  DUNE YA-MON RIYA ( P e t i t o t 1886:  321 - 328)  (Dogrib) Then they l e f t f o r war - f o r d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r f e l l o w s - except f o r one old woman who l i v e d with her son.  Many w a r r i o r s went along the path, and there  were a l s o many women. But the old woman took the arrows of her son t o stop him from going t o war.  Vainly  she c r i e d , shouting, "Don't go." They went a l l the same.  A f t e r they had l e f t , one  young man said t o h i s old mother, "Mother, I want t o f o l l o w the crowd."  And he l e f t by himself.  He followed the great war-path, he examined the countryside, and having discovered a b i g tent from high on a mountain, he sat on the mountainside over the country.  and looked  F i n a l l y , he went back down the  mountain and went t o the b i g lodge he had seen from the mountaintop. An o l d man and h i s old wife l i v e d there.  They  were cooking r a b b i t and f i s h i n woven f i r - r o o t pots, and gave him some t o eat. The two o l d people had a very b e a u t i f u l daughter whom the young man took.to ardently d e s i r i n g .  So a f t e r  105  they had eaten what the g i r l had served them, and a f t e r she had gone to sleep, the old ones said to t h e i r guest, "Now  our daughter i s alone.  L i e next to  her and sleep w i t h her." So the young Dune man went towards the younger stranger.  He l a y down beside her, and took hold of  her b r e a s t s . He wanted to sleep w i t h her.  But a l l at  once he f e l t nothing beside him except a white weasel. He didn't consider himself beaten at a l l , however.  He s l e p t w i t h her a l l the same, and became  her husband by f o r c e . The next day, the g i r l said to her father and mother, "This one has robbed me of a l l my  magic."  "So what?" they answered. " A l l r i g h t them, I'm going to inspect my hare snares," she answered. The young man accompanied her i n her i n s p e c t i o n . He took hares through the strength of h i s medicine. Then he went to a l i t t l e lake.,  He threw a stone i n t o  the lake and k i l l e d an enormous pike. He d i d n ' t have arrows.  He threw a piece of wood  i n t o the branches of a t r e e , and the branches f e l l turned i n t o arrows.  and  But the arrows weren't feathered.  So .he had to get f e a t h e r s .  He looked up and  saw  the aerie of a bald-headed eagle at the top of a b i g f i r tree.  He climbed up and went i n t o the eagle's nest.  106 There was a single eaglet. the young magician,  "Man," he said t o  "My f a t h e r and mother are not here.  If they f i n d you here when they come back, you are l o s t . Hide y o u r s e l f under my wings." "Then t e l l me how I w i l l t e l l your father from your mother." "The  male eagle makes snow, and the female eagle  makes the r a i n f a l l , " said the eaglet. He put the man under cover and crouched down i n his  a e r i e , h i d i n g him under h i s outstretched wings. All  of a sudden the giant eagle Nontiele came  back t o the nest with some food.  I t was the female, and  she had a b i g crown of f e a t h e r s .  She gave her son some  f r e s h meat. The man k i l l e d her, and she died. A moment l a t e r , the giant male eagle a r r i v e d i n his  t u r n , i n a b i g swoop. "This smells of human f l e s h , " he c r i e d out.  Saying t h i s he put down i n the aerie a l i t t l e which he gave as food t o the eaglet.  child,  The man k i l l e d him,  but he said t o the l i t t l e eagle who had protected him, "As f o r you, you w i l l leave and from now on you w i l l l i v e on nothing but the f i s h you catch."  And he l e t him go.  But he plucked the feathers from the other two eagles, and i n that way got feathers f o r h i s a r r o w s — feathers of thunder.  107 Suddenly an Etie-kotcho (gigantic reindeer) appeared on the path. and gigantic.  It was lying there, immense  It seemed impossible but . . . how to  k i l l i t ? Everyone was hiding under the trees. When the young magician said to a mouse, "Dig f:or me a subterranean route towards the monster." The mouse went into the earth.  It dug and  opened up a tunnel right up to a point beneath the sides of the huge man-eater, right under i t s heart. The magician s l i d into the tunnel behind the mouse. Both came out of the earth at that place. the  They pierced  flanks of Etie-kotcho. they stabbed i t i n the heart,  and i t died on the spot.  The magician took i t s sinew  and went away. Then he wanted to have heads for h i s arrows— heads of f l i n t — a n d he began to look for them.  Suddenly  he saw an enormous toad who was juggling on a block of f l i n t where he lay.  The man took some mud,  and made i t  into hard and compact b a l l s which he threw f o r c e f u l l y at the toad, k i l l i n g i t .  Then he took the arrow  flints  which the toad had made through the strength of his medicine. Being thus provided with a woman and magic arrows, Dune l e f t for ,war.  Suddenly he heard a dog barking--  indicating the presence of men--and saw something l i k e a  108 wolverine rapidly crossing the path.  Having seen i t  before i t saw him, he said to himself," first.  I saw him  He's mine." He ran at the wolverine, reached i t , and throw-  ing  h i s cape over i t s head, pierced i t with h i s  arrows, and l a y on i t . Immediately  I t was a man, an enemy warrior.  he scalped him, and set out again.  There was i n t h i s place a r i v e r .  He cleared i t  in one leap and found himself on the opposite bank, i n the land of the Wolverines.  There was a great many  Wolverines i n t h i s place, and their dwellings could be seen everywhere. for  He heard the l i t t l e  wolverines crying  food. Immediately  the magician hid himself.  death and put himself on a l e r t .  He feigned  The Wolverines, believing  him to be dead, carelessly came up to him. he struck out and h i t one on the nose.  Immediately  The Wolverine  sneezed, blew h i s nose, and pine r e s i n came out. Then he came back to his wife whom he had l e f t with his  mother.  wife.  "Change yourself into a bear," he said to h i s  The old woman objected to t h i s , for.fear that he  would then k i l l her. His  But he wanted i t , and i t was done.  wife became a bear. "Ah, my son-in-law," cried out the old mother,"  If the young people see my daughter l i k e t h i s , they w i l l take her f o r a real bear and k i l l her."  Saying t h i s , she  109 took away a l l h i s weapons.  But he threw himself on the  bear as she was running away and k i l l e d her with arrows. While she was dying, the bear turned back i n t o a woman and c a l l e d out to her father f o r help, demanding revenge and j u s t i c e .  The o l d man attacked the magician,  who ran towards a lake, and threw himself i n t o i t .  As  he plunged i n t o the lake, he changed himself i n t o a beaver. Then the o l d man, outraged and f u r i o u s , over the wickedness of Yamon, changed himself i n t o a hydre (Yikone)--a g i g a n t i c animal resembling an ox, except f o r the  wings on i t s back. He came down from the sky, set himself down on the  waters of the lake and swallowed them a l l up. rested on the shore.  Then he  He was so f u l l of water that h i s  immense b e l l y was stretched l i k e a swollen bladder. The magician then ordered a plover to run at the hydre and t o pierce i t s b e l l y with i t s sharp and slender bill.  The b i r d obeyed him.  I t pierced the b e l l y of the  hydre. and immediately a l l the water which i t contained came r o a r i n g out.  Since that time, the great waters  have roared. As f o r the winged ox, i t went back to the sky. And the f l o o d , which caused t h i s great gush of water, drowned the two o l d people.  110 The people wanted, however, to get r i d of such a fearsome sorcerer.  But Dune Yamon-riya threw himself  into the water again, again became a beaver, and went up the Naotcha (Mackenzie River), and b u i l t an immense dam at Na-deinlin tcho (the Ramparts rapids), where he l i v e d for some time i n the form of a f i s h , on Etie-ndue. or Reindeer, i s l a n d . Then, having l e f t t h i s lodging, and always f e a r f u l of being surprised by enemies, he again went up the Mackenzie, t h i s time along the shore, accompanied by Porcupine.  Having arrived at the second rapids on the  river--the  rapids called Nadeinlin-tsele. or Sans-Saut.  he carried the porcupine across the r i v e r on h i s back, and placed the porcupine upstream from the rapids, so that i t would stay there u n t i l the end of time, on the l e f t bank. As for himself, s t i l l i n the form of a beaver, he made a second dam across the Naotcha which i s the Sans-Saut rapids.  Then he again crossed the r i v e r , and  settled on the right bank at the place c a l l e d Tsa-chotRe-niha (the big beaver who dips his t a i l i n the water), so called because the island so named i s i n fact h i s t a i l . That i s the end.  Ill  KUNYAN (THE SENSIBLE) OR EKKA-DEKINE ( P e t i t o t 1886:  141 - 149)  (Hare) Kunyan (The Sensible) l i v e d alone on the earth, having f o r a wife h i s own s i s t e r , a woman as s e n s i b l e as himself.  He was an o l d man without ancestors or  descendants. Here i s how he got married:  He was l i v i n g  completely alone when, having gone somewhere, he found a b e a u t i f u l woman there who pleased him.  He asked her  for something t o eat. She gave him food.  So then he  l i v e d with t h i s woman, who, as I have already s a i d , was h i s own s i s t e r . Mice and weasels who were l i k e men l i v e d there also.  The mouse said t o Kunyan. "My son, what have you  come t o do here where we l i v e ?  Don't you have your  r e l a t i v e s t o l i v e with?" "The Sensible" l i v e d meanwhile w i t h the mouse and took her f o r h i s w i f e .  As they s l e p t / mink and  weasels went i n through h i s anus t r y i n g t o destroy him. But he ejected them, got up, and raged against the woman who had-come t o t r i c k him. The mouse l e f t him and went t o complain t o her  112 father, the polar bear, a big fellow, to whom she said, "A man has done this.and that to me. me, and h i t and insulted  He was angry with  me."  The polar bear, deeply upset, immediately got up and went to "The Sensible" to ask him the reason for his behaviour.  But he, who was waiting for them under the  wild pear trees which grow abundantly there, began by gorging himself to h i s f i l l with pears. the  Then he  killed  bear and h i s daughter and went away. After that, "The Sensible" f e l t l i k e making some  arrows.  Having seen the largest of the pear trees from  a distance, he h i t i t on the trunk, and at once there f e l l from i t s branches a r a i n of completely finished arrow shafts. "Now  I need some arrow points," he said.  He went from there to the edge of the water, where he saw a big layered stone.  He threw i t i n the water,  then into a f i r e , and immediately the rock divided into a number of f l a t stones, from which he made arrow points i n an instant. "Now  I need feathers for my arrows," he said.  He went to a big f i r , on top of which a large white-headed eagle had fixed i t s aerie.  He climbed up,  in the absence of the mother and the father eagles, and huddled up i n the nest with the eaglets.  113 "Is me?"  there among you a t e l l - t a l e who might betray  "The Sensible" asked the eaglets. "Yes," said a l i t t l e eagle, "my s i s t e r over  there who speaks i l l and i s devious." Kunyan took her, k i l l e d her, threw her down below the nest and took her place. "So t e l l me, l i t t l e  one, when your father comes  back to the nest, what happens?" "The Sensible" said to the eaglet. "If  i t i s my father who i s coming back you w i l l  be flooded with a bright l i g h t , " answered the b i r d . "And  i f I t i s your mother arriving at the nest,  what happens then?" continued the man. "If  i t i s my mother, i t w i l l be black night."  Saying t h i s , the eaglet went back to his place in the aerie.  There was heard a great noise of wings  which made thunder and lightning, and a l l of a sudden the big eagle came back, and i t was l i g h t . "I smell human f l e s h !  I smell human f l e s h ! " cried  out the thunderbird. "So what! day,"  You bring me human f l e s h to eat every  answered the eaglet," and you are surprised to  smell i t s odour!" The male flew away again.  Then there came another  noise of wings, and the female eagle arrived at the nest. Immediately i t became dark.  114  "I smell human f l e s h !  I smell fresh f l e s h ! "  cried out the carnivorous eagle. "Mother, you leave some here for me every Why  day.  are you surprised to smell i t s odour?" answered  the l i t t l e  eagle.  She l e f t i n her turn, and the man alone again with his saviour. on the eaglet. burned the nest.  found himself  At once he threw himself  He plucked h i s new grown feathers, and He took the l i t t l e one and  him, pulling out the feathers one by one.  plucked  He k i l l e d the  eaglet and went away with a quantity of these thunderbird feathers which he f i t t e d to his arrows. From h i s union with his s i s t e r , Kunyan had a son-a sullen boy who  cried a l l the time.  "Of course, he has no toys," he thought. He went away to the edge of the sea and into a big f i r - t r e e .  He lopped off a l l the branches  except a cluster right at the top. off  climbed  Then he cut the tree  at the bottom and gave i t to the c h i l d as a r a t t l e .  From then on, he didn't cry any more. After that, Kunyan had a wish to k i l l a l l men. Towards t h i s end, he made a great stock of dry willow wood—which i s very hard and sharp l i k e iron points. put points on the dry branches and planted them l i k e a barricade.., a l l around h i s tent.  Night came, and  everyone came to v i s i t "The Sensible."  A l l were  He  115 disembowelled or run through by these stakes. Then he said to h i s s i s t e r , "With b i r c h bark, make me a baby-carrying  sling."  "What do you want to do with that?" said h i s si ster. However, she made him the s l i n g , which she decorated with moss. When Kunyan had the s l i n g , he changed himself into a l i t t l e baby, and sat i n the l i t t l e  seat.  He  fastened the sling around h i s l i t t l e body, and went staggering--his legs hither and thither--towards the people who were gathered together beside the sea. "See t h i s l i t t l e c h i l d who i s coming to us," someone shouted. Throwing away h i s sling and diapers, the l i t t l e c h i l d became a t e r r i b l e giant again.  He threw himself  on the crowd and massacred them with furor. After that, "The Sensible" said to h i s s i s t e r , "Over there, at Foot-of-the-Sky, big  I am going to make a  raft." "And what do you want to do with t h i s ? " she  answered. "If,  as I foresee, there i s a flood, we w i l l take  refuge there," he said. It was part of h i s plans for what remained of mankind on the earth.  They laughed at him.  116  "Oh!  oh! oh!  If there i s a flood we w i l l take  refuge i n the trees," they answered. "That's f i n e , that's f i n e , " he said.  " I f there  i s a flood, I w i l l s a i l away on my r a f t . " So he wove thick ropes from roots. great number of them.  He made a  He worked a l o t . He brought  together big pieces of wood and made, a l l by himself, a large r a f t . A l l of a sudden, there was a flood the l i k e s of which had never been seen. from every d i r e c t i o n . i n the trees.  It was as i f water gushed  People hastened to save  themselves  But the water went higher and higher,  reached them and drowned them.  A l l the people died.  As f o r "The Sensible," he had a good large r a f t whose pieces were united and bound with rope. on the waters and did not perish.  He floated  While f l o a t i n g , he  thought of the future and picked up two by two a l l the herbivorous animals, a l l the birds, and even a l l the carnivores which he met on h i s way. "Get onto my r a f t , " he said," for soon there w i l l be no more earth." In f a c t , the earth disappeared for a very long time and nobody f e l t l i k e going to look for it--nobody, i t i s said. earth.  The muskrat dived f i r s t and t r i e d to reach the Alas!  He came back to the surface of the sea.  half-dead, and without having touched i t .  117 He dived a second time, and t h i s time, as he got  back onto the r a f t , he said to Kunyan. "I  smelled the earth, but I could not reach i t . "  After the muskrat, the beaver dove i n h i s turn. For ing. out  a long time he stayed under water without reappearAt l a s t , they saw him coming back up on h i s back, of breath, and unconscious.  But i n h i s paw he held  a b i t of s i l t , which he gave to "The Sensible." The old man placed t h i s mud on the water thinking, "I wish for an earth again." At  the same time, he breathed upon t h i s b i t of  earth, and as he animated i t , i t grew. put  Immediately he  a l i t t l e b i r d on i t , and i t grew more. The old man began to blow and blow, and the earth  kept on growing.  Then he put a fox on i t , who went  around the f l o a t i n g disk i n a single day. increased i n volume.  But the earth  The fox ran completely around  again,; and the earth kept on swelling.  The fox ran more,  and the earth, hiding before him, grew i n dimensions. The fox went two, three, four, f i v e and six times around the earth, and i t always enlarged. When the fox had gone around i t the seventh time, i t was complete and as i t had been before the flood. Then "The Sensible" made a l l the animals get off the  r a f t , and put them down on the earth.  his  wife, and h i s son disembarked there.  Then he himself,  118 "It i s through us," he said, "that t h i s earth w i l l be repopulated." Then the earth was repopulated with men and women. After that, Kunyan found himself i n the presence of another d i f f i c u l t y .  A l l around him there stretched  out the immense sea which had absorbed a l l the water, and he could not be i t s master.  Then the monster-bird,  called Yikone or the Bittern, drank a l l the water. saw the d i f f i c u l t y and helped the man.  He  But having drunk  the water, he remained lying" inert, h i s b e l l y excessively swollen. "The Sensible" said to a plover, "The Hydre. the drinker of water, i s lying i n the sun, h i s wide belly of water.  full  Pierce i t . "  The plover went near the Bittern, who did not suspect a creature similar to him. "My grandmother doubtless has a stomach ache," he said. And while seeming to f e e l sorry f o r the Bittern, he passed h i s hand over i t s stomach as i f to rub i t . Suddenly the plover scratched the b e l l y of the Bittern with a vigorous blow of h i s claws.  Immediately  the water rumbled, the water was heard to roar.  From the  b e l l y of the hydre. there came r i v e r s which formed lakes. And the earth, watered again, became habitable once more.  

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