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Comparative analysis of the Northern and Southern Athapaskan "Slayer of Monsters" Myth Tyhurst, Robert James Stewart 1974

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN ATHAPASKAN "SLAYER OF MONSTERS" MYTH BY ROBERT JAMES STEWART TYHURST A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED STANDARD THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT This thesis examines the d i s t r i b u t i o n of three portions of narrative action, or motifs, which are found i n the mythology of the Northern and Southern Athapaskan peoples. In the Eagle motif, a man enters an eagles' nest, i n the B u l l motif, a man slays.a large monster with the help qf a rodent or small rodent-like animal, and i n the C l i f f Ogre motif, a man pushes a monster off a c l i f f to i t s death. These motifs, where-ever they occur i n Athapaskan mythology, are found i n close association, and are carried out by the same culture hero, ox culture heroes. The Eagle motif, the motif with the widest d i s t r i b u t i o n among the Northern Athapaskans, i s broken into episodes. An episode i s defined as a segment of a pa r t i c u l a r version of a motif which i s not shared with another version under consideration, or which i s shared by a l l versions under consideration. The NEST episode, the only episode of the Eagle motif found for a l l the Northern and Southern Athapaskan versions examined here, i s broken into elements. An element i s defined as a segment of an episode which i s small enough to adequately describe the text, but which i s s u f f i c i e n t l y large to enable comparison without the interference of minor d e t a i l s . The elements are determined as w e l l , so as to permit a one-to-one correspondence i n comparison of elements. Versions of the Nest episode are compared on the basis of the elements which they contain, and a co e f f i c i e n t of s i m i l a r i t y i s calculated. I t i s found that those versions of the Eagle motif which share more than one episode tend to have higher scores on the c o e f f i c i e n t of s i m i l a r i t y than those which share only one episode. Non-Athapaskan versions of the Eagle, B u l l , and C l i f f Ogre motifs from the Southwest, Basin, Plateau, and Plains, are compared with Northern and Southern Athapaskan version of the same motifs. In view of the content and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the three motifs i t i s concluded that i t i s most highly probable that they were carried to the South-west by the precursors .of the Southern Athapaskans.. An Appendix contains a t r a n s l a t i o n of Chipewyan, Dogrib, and Hare texts from P e t i t o t ' s "Traditions Indiennes du Canada nord-ouest" (1886). i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v PREFACE v i INTRODUCTION 1 METHOD 11 MAPPING OF EPISODES 14 COMPARISON OF ELEMENTS IN THE NEST EPISODE . . 20 ELEMENTS CONSIDERED EQUIVALENT 39 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 51 COMPARISON OF ATHAPASKAN AND NON-ATHAPASKAN VERSIONS OF THE EAGLE, BULL, AND CLIFF OGRE MOTIFS 59 CONCLUSION 79 FOOTNOTES 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY 88 APPENDIX 93 iv LIST OF TABLES Table Page I D i s t r i b u t i o n of Episodes i n Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the Eagle Motif 16> I I C o e f f i c i e n t s of S i m i l a r i t y of Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the NEST Episode 50 I I I Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the NEST Episode 56 IV Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the Eagle Motif 62' V Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the B u l l Motif, 70 VI Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the C l i f f Ogre Motif . . . 76 v PREFACE This thesis culminates a study which I began i n 1970-1971 o.n the mythology of the Western Apache. Claude Levi-Strauss, whose work has done much to revive and give new d i r e c t i o n to the study of myth, remarked on a recent v i s i t to the University of B r i t i s h Columbia that l i t t l e work had been done on the mythology of the Northern Athapaskan peoples. I t £s_hoped~ that t h i s t h e s i s , despite i t s incompleteness, w i l l make a contribution to investigations i n that area. Thanks are due to E l l i Kongas Maranda who supervised t h i s thesis and made many helpful suggestions, to David F. Aberle whose help with s t a t i s t i c a l and comparative problems was invaluable, and to Robin Ridington, who helped me to understand the meaning of the myths to a people whose l i v e s they s t i l l influence, the Beaver Indians. I would also l i k e to express my thanks to Annette M. Clark of the National Museum of Canada,^who permitted-me to use portions of her unpublished f i e l d recordings of Koyukuk River Indian mythology, and to Michel de V i r v i l l e of the Musee des Arts et Traditions Populaires, P a r i s , who helped me to develop the comparative method used here. v i "The gigantic s h e l l s of completed systems . . . stand revealed i n ir r e g u l a r c l e f t s across the land." Andre Breton, Young Cherry  Trees Secured Against Hares Translated by Edouard Rodit University of Michigan Pres 1969. v i i 1 INTRODUCTION Within the recorded mythologies of many of the Athapaskan-speaking peoples there i s a myth i n which a hero slays monsters that are troubling the world and i n which he gives the world i t s present form. I f i r s t studied t h i s myth as i t i s found among the Southern Athapaskans (Tyhurst, n.d.). I found versions of t h i s myth among the published mythologies of a l l the Southern Athapaskan peoples (except the Kiowa Apache whose mythology has not, to my knowledge, been published), and among neighbouring non-Athapaskan peoples. I have since found myths which, i n some respects, closely resemble the Southern Athapaskan "Slayer of Monsters" myth i n the published mythologies of such Northern Athapaskan peoples as the Beaver, Slave, Kaska, Chipewyan, Dogrib, Hare, Han, Tanana, and C h i l c o t i n Indians. The Slayer of Monsters myth i s almost always set i n a period close to the time of the creation of the earth, or at least i n a time previous to that of everyday exper-ience. That t h i s i s not always the case i n the other narratives of the Athapaskan peoples and that i t i s especially so for the Slayer of Monsters myth i s emphasized i n a number of ways. 2 F i r s t , the myth may be linked i n actual narration, and so as to form a continuing part of the story, with accounts of the creation and setting up of the world. Second, animals which men use for food instead prey on them, presenting an inversion of the s i t u a t i o n prevailing at the time of narration. And men are often portrayed as lacking culture i n the sense of kinship t i e s and patterns, techniques of obtaining that which they need for s u r v i v a l , and ways of behaving which are necessary for s o c i a l l i f e . The set of conditions prevailing at the time when the monster slayer l i v e s varies from one version to another, but, i n general, the monster slayer moves through an unpredictable, protean world where massive supernatural powers oppose and help him i n both animal and human form. An understanding of the symbolic meaning and structural significance of myth requires reference to information outside of and accessory to that contained i n myths themselves. Ethnological information concerning kinship patterns, material culture, exchange relationships, c u l t u r a l ecology, and other aspects of culture are a l l necessary i f the meaning and structure of myth are to be discerned. While the nature of the work presented here pre-cludes such investigations, i t should be remembered that 3 the texts dealt with here as i f they were things are i n fact ways of seeing and understanding the world. They are derived from experience, and were t o l d by men, ".and women who themselves, or whose ancestors, knew them to be true. I have had to follow a single problem as best I could. The diverse mythologies touched upon here and the meaning which they contain and r e f l e c t would be better understood i f they were examined one by one. After having .spent more than three years analyzing and comparing the various versions of the Slayer of Monsters myth, I found reference to, and obtained on loan, an unpublished Ph.D. thesis by Tamie Tsuchiyama (1947) e n t i t l e d : "A Comparison of the Northern, Southern, and P a c i f i c Athapaskans: A Study i n S t a b i l i t y of Folklore within a L i n g u i s t i c Stock." In the Introduction to her thesis, Tsuchiyama writes: The approach u t i l i z e d i n the d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to discuss, f i r s t of a l l , the resemblances found i n the mythology of the three Athabaskan groups and then trace the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these motifs i n the North American continent north of Mexico to determine whether the s i m i l a r i t i e s are due to former contact or to importation from a common source. The aim of the paper i s not to seek the ultimate o r i g i n of each motif but to determine i t s source for the Athabaskan group (p. 7). Tsuchiyama discusses s i m i l a r i t i e s which she finds i n the mythology of the Northern and Southern Athapaskans; of the Southern and P a c i f i c Athapaskans; and of the Atha-4 paskan peoples as a whole (she finds no s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Northern and P a c i f i c Athapaskans which are not shared with the Southern group). Of the eighteen s i m i l a r i t i e s which she found i n comparison of Northern and Southern Athapaskan mythology, she considers that only seven of these " . . . could with any degree of reasonableness be interpreted as indications of former CSouthern Athapaskan] contact with t h e i r Northern r e l a t i v e s . " (Tsuchiyama, 1947: 143). Tsuchiyama's method, which consists of comparison of Athapaskan mythological texts with those of other North American Indians i s painstaking, exhaustive of available texts, and cautious i n i t s conclusions. Her attempt to examine the whole of available Athapaskan mythology pxocedes at the l e v e l of the written text as presented by the ethnographer and covers an immense geographic and c u l t u r a l t e r r i t o r y . With my own work well under way, I came upon Tsuchiyama 1s dissertaion. I found that my own i n t u i t i v e conclusions as to the Athapaskan o r i g i n of parts . of the Slayer of Monsters myth among the Southern Atha-paskans were supported by her findings. '_Of .the seven "motifs" which Tsuchiyama had considered as having an Athapaskan originoamong the Navajo and Apaches, three, " V i s i t to-Eagle;'s Nest," " K i l l i n g of a Giant B u l l with a Rodent A l l y , " and " C l i f f Ogre," (to use Tsuchi-yama' s nomenclature, p. 143) were found i n versions of 5 the Slayer of Monsters myth from both North and South. My own work, however, had convinced me the case for the Athapaskan origin of these motifs could be put more forcefully than Tsuchiyama had done. Nowhere in her conclusion does she mention the fact that significant proportion of the motifs which she believed to have an Athapaskan origin occurred within a single myth (that i s , they occurred in-'close proximity within the bounds of an oral narrative considered by a myth-te l l e r to be a unit). Furthermore, close analysis of the texts has revealed details of narrative action shared by Northern and Southern Athapaskan versions of these motifs which Tsuchiyama did not touch upon. i While agreeing with Tsuchiyamafs conclusions insofar as I am familiar with the relevant material, and insofar as my work on the "origin" of the motifs discussed by her overlaps with her own, my own findings have caused me to disagree partially with hex pxefexred explanation of the " . . . gxeat diversity of Athabaskan mythology . . . " (1947: 148). That i s that "the original body of Atha-paskan folkloxe was in a l l pxobability an extremely meagre and coloxless one to have l e f t so l i t t l e impress on the traditions of the two gxoups FPacific and Southern] separated at present from the main stock." (148). At least among the Apache and the Navajo, the Slayex of Monstexs stoxy, with i t s appaxently Athapaskan 6 o r i g i n , was preserved, with some modification, as a myth accounting fo r i t h e present condition of the world, and portraying the actions of an important culture hero. Of the three motifs which Tsuchiyama i d e n t i f i e s as having a possible Athapaskan o r i g i n among the Southern Athapaskans, the motif of the " V i s i t to Eagle's Nest""*- has the widest d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t i s found among the Chipewyan and the Tanana, and among the following Athapaskan-speaking peoples whose t r a d i -t i o n a l homelands l i e between them: Beaver, Slave, Kaska, Dogrib, Hare, Han, and C h i l c o t i n . For t h i s reason, I have decided to focus comparative analysis upon t h i s motif. The NEST episode (see below for discussion of "episodes"), the central episode of the motif, and the one by which the motif, despite v a r i a t i o n s , i s recognized by Tsuchiyama, w i l l be broken into elements and the elements compared. The r e s u l t s w i l l be discussed, and compared with those obtained by a mapping (as opposed to a s t r i c t content comparison) of the elements, and by a mapping of the other two motifs mentioned by Tsuchiyama as having a possible Athapaskan origin-.among the Southern Athapaskans. In addition, non-Athapaskan versions of these motifs w i l l be considered. 7 Texts available to me i n which Northern Athapas-kan versions of the Eagle motif were found included two for the Beaver (Ridington, n.d. and Goddard, 1916), one each for Slave (Williamson, 1955) and Kaska (Teit, 1917), three for Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t , 1886, Goddard, 1912, and Lowie, 1912), one for the Dogrib ( P e t i t o t , 1886), two for the Hare ( P e t i t o t , 1886 and Osgood, 1931), and one each for Han (Osgood, 1971), C h i l c o t i n (Farrand, 1900), and Tanana (Chapman, 1949). 2 The l a s t mentioned version, contained i n a c o l l e c t i o n of "Ten1a Texts and Tales from Anvik," i s i d e n t i f i e d simply as "From Tanana" by the author (Chapman, 1914: 101), presumably r e f e r r i n g to the v i l l a g e of Tanana near the confluence of the Tanana and Yukon Rivers i n Alaska. This would place the point of o r i g i n of the version within the area occupied by the people called "Tanana" i n Osgood's a r t i c l e "The D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Northern Athapaskan Indians" (1936). Another c o l l e c t i o n of "Ten'a" texts from Nulato, Alaska (Jette, 1909),--in other words, from a location within the t e r r i t o r y occupied by what Osgood, (1936) terms Koyukon—contains a tale i n which a version of Eagle motif i s found. However, as Jette states that the tal e i s " . . . presented by natives as a Russian tal e . . . containing ; many evidences of a foreign o r i g i n " (p. 502), 8 the p o s s i b i l i t y of the importation of the tale (and the version of the Eagle motif that i t contains) from elsewhere within h i s t o r i c times cannot be discounted. For t h i s reason, t h i s version w i l l not be further considered here. A version of the Eagle motif i s contained i n a c o l l e c t i o n of Tales from Good Hope, N.W.T. (Voudrach, 1967). Voudrach, an Athapaskan Indian, wrote the stories out himself. Cohen and Osterreich, who prepared the c o l l e c t i o n for publication, state i n th e i r introduction that " Mr. Voudrach was born i n A r c t i c Red River, a Loucheaux [Kutchin, to use Osgood's termin-ology (1936)} Indian settlement, but has l i v e d with many years with the Hare Indians of Fort Good Hope" (Voudrach, 1967: 3). I t i s thus impossible to deter-mine what Northern Athapaskan people's version i s being represented i n Voudrach's c o l l e c t i o n . He might have learned the stories as a youth among the Kutchin, they might represent a pure Hare version which he had learned l a t e r at Fort Good Hope, ox they might represent a mixture of Kutchin and Haxe txaditions. Because of t h i s , Voudxach's vexsion w i l l not be considexed i n the genexal comparison. Because of impoxtant d i s s i m i l a x i t i e s i n the two 9 Beaver versions, both w i l l be dealt with i n the comparison by elements. The three Chipewyan versions, however, exhibit a higher degree of uniformity, and only the oldest recorded version ( P e t i t o t , 1886), w i l l be considered i n the wider comparison by elements. A l l three versions are coded, however, and a comparison between these i s carried out. Of the two Hare versions, P e t i t o t ' s alone i s compared by elements. The Osgood version i s t o l d i n abstract form i n a discussion of Satudene and Hare Indian mythology, and thus i s probably a less than e n t i r e l y r e l i a b l e record of the myth. Among the Southern Athapaskans, only one version of the Slayer of Monsters myth (and Eagle motif) was available for the Lipan (Opler, 1940.) and Mescalero (Hoijex, 1938). For the other Southern Athapaskans, the version of the Slayer of Monsters myth selected was chosen on the basis of completeness, i n comparison with other texts, and on the basis of ethnographic r e l i a b i l i t y . The texts selected were Navajo (Matthews, 1897), Western Apache (Goodwin, 1939), Chiiicahua (Hoijer, 1938), and J i c a r i l l a (Opler, 1938). The intent of t h i s thesis i s to examine the d i s t r i -bution of the Eagle, B u l l , and Cliff-Ogre motifs among both Northern and Southern Athapaskans, and among peoples with whom they may have been i n direct or in d i r e c t contact. The 10 analys is w i l l provide inference as to whether these motifs were: l ) transmitted to the Northern and Southern groups a f ter the separation of the Southern Athapaskans from the North, or, 2) ca r r ied by the precursors of the Southern Athapaskans from the North when they migrated. 11 METHOD The motif of the " V i s i t to Eagle's Nest," to be analyzed here, w i l l , for the purposes of comparison, be considered to include a l l events i n the text which occur between the time the hero leaves the ground, and the time the hero i s back on the ground after having f i n a l l y l e f t the eagle's nest. The text w i l l divide into "episodes," the episodes being arrived at as follows: i f i n Version A, a segment of the text--for instance, lowering of the hero from the sky into the eagles' n e s t -i s present while i n Version B i t i s absent, the segment may be considered to be an episode.3-Each episode under consideration w i l l be divided into "elementsy" the elements being, hopefully, small enough to adequately describe the text, but s u f f i c i e n t l y large to enable comparison without the interference of ;v. minor d e t a i l s . Episodes shared between versions w i l l be compared on the basis of the elements which they contain. The elements themselves are p a r t i a l l y determined by comparison so that, for instance, a single element i n one version does not correspond to two or more elements i n another version. 12 Elements in different versions of an' episode wi l l be examined for "equivalence." Two elements are considered equivalent i f they are homologous or analogous. Homologous elements are those which are, for practical purposes, identical. Analogous elements which do not correspond in detail, but in the type of action or information which they contain. For example, in the Beaver text collected by Goddard, the young eagle t e l l s the hero that his father w i l l return with "hail and a big wind"; in the Slave text the hero i s told that the eaglet's father w i l l return with "rain." These elements (they are considered such in the coding of the texts) are considered equivalent by analogy—the return of the father i s accompanied by a "meteorological phenomenon"—although they are not identical. An element in one version w i l l be considered to have no equivalent in another version i f no element homologous or analogous to i t i s found. The number of equivalent elements in each pair of episodes under consideration w i l l thus be determined, and a coefficient of similarity (c) w i l l be calculated. The coefficient, suggested by Michel de V i r v i l l e , i s calculated as follows, for a comparison of episodes A and B: c = number of equivalent elements in A and B x 2 ~ number of elements in episode A + number of elements in episode B 13 The coefficient thus approaches 1.00 as complete agree-ment is reached, and 0.00 as complete disagreement i s reached in comparison of episodes. Validation of the coding procedure has not been carried out. However, the coding procedure has been discussed with de V i r v i l l e , and his coding of three of the texts considered here has been compared with my own. In general, i t was agreed that my i n i t i a l coding of texts was too detailed, and c r i t e r i a for deciding upon the "size" of elements were worked out. 14 :• MAPPING OF EPISODES Only one episode, the one i n which the hero i s i n the eagles 1 nest ("NEST"), i s shared by a l l versions. A l l three Chipewyan versions share with the Beaver (Goddard) version, an episode i n which the hero follows an arrow into the sky ("ARROW"),, and they share, as w e l l , an episode i n which the hero i s lowered through a hole i n the sky into the nest ("LOWER"). A l l Chipewyan versions share an episode to the exclusion of others -that i n which the hero has certain adventures i n the sky ("SKY"), and another i n which the hero f l i e s with the -help of the eaglet (^'FLIGHT"). The Kaska, Slave, Beaver (Ridington), and Han share an episode i n which the hero i s t o l d to go into the eagles' nest to get feathers for arrows by an e v i l man (or bear - Han only) ("TASK"). Both Dogrib and Hare contain an episode i n which the hero goes into the nest to get arrow feathers for himself ("FEATHERS"). Both Beaver versions share with Slave and Dogrib an episode i n which the hero teaches the eaglet how to eat f i s h ("FISH"). Tanana alone contains an episode i n which the hero i s to l d to go and k i l l the eagles i n order to gain possession of h i s brother's wife ("WIFE"). A l l Southern Athapaskan versions share an episode i n which the hero transforms the eaglets into various birds 15 ("BIRDS"). They share as well an episode i n which the hero wraps himself i n an animal intestine (Navajo, Lipan, Mescalero, Chiricahua) or i n an animal hide and a blood-f i l l e d stomach (Western Apache and J i c a r i l l a ) and i s carried by an eagle into the nest ("CARRY"). The hero i s also carried into the eagles' nest i n an episode i n the C h i l c o t i n version, but here he i s wearing a skin coat to protect himself and i s gathering feathers below the nest when he i s picked up ("GATHER"). The Western Apache, Navajo, and J i c a r i l l a share an episode to the exclusion of the other Southern Athapas-kans, t h a t - i n which the hero i s "helped-to the "ground by Old Bat Woman ("BAT"). The episodes may be mapped as f ollows: 16 TABLE I Di s t r i b u t i o n of Episodes i n Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the Eagle Motif BR TASK rNEST FISH -NEST BG ARROW NEST FISH [ TASK NEST FISH NEST K TASK NEST CP ARROW SKY LOWER pNEST FLIGHT LNEST CG ARROW SKY LOWER -NEST FLIGHT LNEST CL D Hr Hn Ch ARROW SKY LOWER rNEST FLIGHT LNEST FEATHERS FEATHERS •-NEST FISH LNEST NEST TASK NEST WIFE NEST GATHER NEST W N J CARRY CARRY CARRY •NEST .-NEST pNEST BIRDS BIRDS BIRDS •NEST LNEST LNEST BAT BAT BAT M Ch L CARRY CARRY CARRY rNEST rNEST pNEST BIRDS BIRDS BIRDS LNEST LNEST LNEST Certain parts of the NEST episode occur aft e r the episode within the brackets. Symbols used: BR, Beaver (Ridington); BG, Beaver (Goddard) S, Slave: K, Kaska; CP, Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t ) ; CG, Chipewya (Gqddard); CL, Chipewyan (Lowie); D, Dogrib; Hr, Hare; H, Han;-: T, Tanana; Cn, C h i l c o t i n ; W, Western Apache; N, Navajo; J, J i c a r i l l a ; M, Mescalero; Ch, Chiricahua; L, Lipan. 17 The most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of episodes i s that, whereas i n the North there are eight different types of combinations of episodes, i n the South, there are only two--one set comprising Western Apache, Navajo, and J i c a r i l l a i n which the BAT episode i s found, and another set comprising Chiricahua, Mescalero, and Dipan, from which the BAT episode i s absent. Despite the greater heterogeneity of episodes i n the North, however, only two v e r s i o n s — t h e Tanana and Chilcotin--share no episodes other than the NEST episode with other Northern versions. The three Chipewyan versions, which are i d e n t i c a l with respect to episodes, share with the Beaver (Goddard) version, :.the ARROW and LOWER episodes; the Beaver (Goddard) version shares the FISH episode with Beaver (Ridington), Slave, and Dogrib. The Beaver (Ridington), and Slave versions, i n turn, are linked to the Han and Kaska by sharing the TASK episode, while Dogrib and Hare share the FEATHERS episode. I t should be mentioned at t h i s point.that the Beaver (Goddard) version appears to be intermediate i n content between the versions of the Chipewyan, who l i v e d to the east of the Beaver, and versions of such peoples as the Kaska and Slave, who l i v e d to the North and West of the Beaver. In the Chipewyan versions, the hero follows an arrow which he has shot into a tree up to the sky. 18 Once in the sky, the hero has a series of adventures which are shared, with minor variations, by a l l the Chipewyan versions: he follows a t r a i l to an inhabited place; an old woman blackens his face to prevent him from being loved by her daughters; when she washes his face, her two daughters, who are identified as mouse-g i r l and weasel-girl, f a l l in love with him; when he l i e s between them, he i s swallowed up by the earth; he i s dug up by a wolf and takes his revenge on the g i r l s , destroying them. The hero i s then lowered on a line made of sinew through a hole in the sky by the g i r l s 1 mother. He lands in the eagles' nest. In the Kaska and Slave versions, the hero comes upon a family. He sleeps with the daughter ( or daughters - Kaska), and the father, who wishes to k i l l him, tests him and sends him on a number of dangerous errands, including a series which have to do with obtaining the materials for making arrows--sinew,4 canes for the arrow shafts, and feathers. To obtain the feathers, he i s sent to the eagles' nest. In the Beaver (Goddard) version, the hero follows an arrow into the sky, but the adventures found in the Chipewyan versions are absent. The hero stays in the sky " . . . a short time . . . " (Goddard, 1916: 234), and i s lowered, as in the Chipewyan versions, by an old 19 woman into the eagles' nest. Following the NEST episode (and the FISH episode), the hero then comes upon a family. The father of three daughters tests the man and sends him on a number of dangerous errands i n which he must obtain the materials necessary for making arrows. To obtain feathers, the hero must get them from eagles—but here the "NEST" episode (as such) i s extremely short, consisting only of the following sentence: "He k i l l e d a l l the birds with h i s club, took the feathers, and went home" (Goddard, 1916: 236). The Beaver (Ridington) version, which was recorded some f i f t y years after Goddard 1s version, clo s e l y resembles the Slave and Kaska versions. Whether t h i s version, from which the "Chipewyan" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are absent, represents, for example, a l a t e r "learning" of the Slave- and Kaska-type t a l e , or whether the Goddard version represents an "aberrant" mixture of Chipewyan and non-Chipewyan c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i s , because of lack of additional information, impossible to determine. To the best of my knowledge, the set of episodes comprising the ascent of the hero to the sky, his adven-tures there, and his descent on a l i n e made of sinew, are found only among the Chipewyan and the Athapaskan-speaking Indians of the Koyukuk River i n Alaska (part of Osgood's "Koyukon" (1936)). In two unpublished t a l e s collected by Annette Clark at Huslia, Alaska, i n 1970, and transcrib-20 ed from tape by myself in the summer of 1973 (Clark, n.d.), the hero ascends to the sky, slays monsters and ev i l people, and descends to the earth on a sinew line made by an old woman. The presence of these episodes in two widely separate locations, and their apparent absence in the intervening area, indicates perhaps that they are an "old" Athapaskan tradition. " .COMPARISON OF ELEMENTS IN THE NEST, EPISODE In the following comparison, each version of the NEST episode i s given in i t s coded form. Elements considered equivalent are indicated, and the measure of similarity C i s calculated. In the pairs of elements marked (*) I have had to divide a single "element into two elements for purposes of comparison. For example, in the Slave version, the man asks the'.:eaglets when his parents w i l l return. In the Beaver (Ridington), (and other) versions, he asks, f i r s t , when the mother will return, and then, when the father w i l l return, each question being considered an element. 21 Beaver (Ridinqton) Man i s i n eagles* nest; There are two eaglets i n nest He asks which one w i l l t e l l parents G i r l eaglet says she w i l l Man k i l l s her Boy eaglet says he won't t e l l his parents Eaglet says he w i l l t e l l h is parents g i r l eaglet k i l l e d herself He says he w i l l say nothing about the smell of man Man t e l l s eaglet to f o o l his mother i f she smells anything Man asks when mother comes back Eaglet says she w i l l return with heavy r a i n Mother eagle comes back with heavy r a i n She i s carrying a half-eaten person She asks where eaglet's s i s t e r i s He says she k i l l e d herself She smells something Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l her Man k i l l s her Man asks when father comes back Eaglet says he w i l l return when r a i n turns to h a i l 21) Man t e l l s eaglet to f o o l father about death of mother I Father returns He i s carrying dead people Father asks where mother i s Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l him by t e l l i n g him she went back for meat Father asks where s i s t e r i s Eaglet says she k i l l e d herself Father says he smells something Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l him 30) Man k i l l s him 31) Man l e t s eaglet l i v e • . FISH episode 32) Man takes feathers from eagles for arrows 33) He returns to e v i l family. 22 Beaver (Goddard) 1) Man i s on large birds' nest 2) There are three young birds 3) He asks them questions 4) Two of the young birds say they don't l i k e him 5) He knocks them down with a club 6) Surviving eaglet warns, man 7) Man asks when father w i l l return 8) Eaglet says with h a i l and big wind 9) Man asks when mother w i l l return 10) Eaglet says with r a i n and big wind 11) Father returns with h a i l 12) Says he smells an animal 13) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l h i s father 14) Father looks for man walking around nest 15) Man k i l l s him 16) Mother returns with r a i n 17) Says she smells something 18) "She goes looking for i t , walking around nest 19) Man knocks her down and k i l l s her 20) Man allows eaglet to l i v e 21) He leaves nest with small eagle. 23 Slave 1) Man i s i n eagles' nest 2) He finds two eaglets i n nest 3; He asks where parents are 4) Eaglet warns him they hunt people 5) Says he won't t e l l h is parents 6) G i r l eaglet says she w i l l t e l l her parents 7) Man k i l l s her 8) Man asks eaglet when mother w i l l come home 9) He asks when father w i l l come home* 10) Eaglet says mother w i l l return with h a i l 11) Father w i l l return with r a i n 12) Man turns himself into a piece of hay 13) Mother returns with h a i l 14) She i s carrying female breast 15) . She asks eaglet where his s i s t e r i s 16) He says she has a headache 17) Mother says she smells something 18) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l her 19) Mother eagle walks around nest 20) Man k i l l s her 21) Father returns with r a i n , 22) He i s carrying buttock of boy 23) He asks where mother eagle i s 24) He says she went back to hunt for meat 25) He asks where mother and s i s t e r are 26) Father walks around nest 27) Man k i l l s him 28) Man allows eaglet to l i v e 29) Man leaves nest with eaglet • . FISH episode 3Q): Man takes feathers for h i s arrows 31) He returns to e v i l family 24 Kaska 1) Beaver i s i n eagles' nest 2) There are two eaglets i n nest 3) He asks when th e i r mother w i l l return* 4) He asks when th e i r father w i l l return* 5) They say mother w i l l return with wind and r a i n at noon carrying the legs of a man 6) They say father w i l l return with wind and h a i l i n the evening carrying the upper part of a man 7) One of the eaglets t e l l s i t s parents everything 8) Beaver k i l l s the eaglet he cannot trus t 9) He t e l l s the surviving eaglet to t e l l i t s mother the dead one i s sick 10) He t e l l s him not to eat meat brought to him 11) He t e l l s him to t r y to f o o l his mother i f she smells anything 12) Mother eagle returns 13) She i s carrying meat 14) She asks why her son i s dead 15) Eaglet t e l l s her dead one i s sick 16) Eaglet refuses to eat meat (17) Mother eats i t and chokes 18) Beaver k i l l s her with a club 19) Man t e l l s boy to repeat story to father 20) Father eagle returns 21) He i s carrying meat 22) Father eagle asks where wife i s 23) Eaglet says she has not come yet 24) He refuses to eat meat 25) Father eats meat and chokes 26) Beaver k i l l s him 27) Man allows eaglet to l i v e 28) He plucks feathers for arrows 29) He returns to e v i l family 25 Chipewyan (Petitot) 1) Man i s i n nest of huge eagle 2) There are human sku l l s and bones 3) There i s one young eagle 4) He t e l l s man to hide under his wings 5) Eaglet says father comes with l i g h t 6) Mother comes with dark 7) Man hides under eaglet's wings 8) Father returns with l i g h t 9) Says he smells human f l e s h 10J Eaglet t r i e s to foo l him 11) Father f l i e s away 12) Mother comes back with thunder and darkness 13) She i s carrying human remains 14) Says she smells fresh meat 15) Eaglet t r i e s to fool her 16) Mother f l i e s away 17) Father discovers man 18) Eaglet t r i e s to protect him 19) Man i s allowed to l i v e . FLIGHT episode 20) Eaglet i s allowed to l i v e 21) Man f l i e s away 26 Chipewyan (Goddard)^ 1 ) ' Man i s i n nest of "Flying things" 2 ) Nest i s on an island surrounded by rapids 3 ) There i s one young eagle 4 ) Eaglet warns man 5) He hides him under his wings 6 J Eaglet says mother w i l l arrive with dark 7) Father w i l l come with l i g h t 8) Mother comes i n dark 9 ) Says she smells something 10) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l her 1 1 ) She finds the man 12) Eaglet t r i e s to protect him 1 3 ) Father returns with l i g h t 14) Says he smells something 1 5 ) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l him 16) Man i s allowed to l i v e 17) Mother leaves* 18) Father leaves* • . FLIGHT episode • 19) Man p i l e s brush i n tree next to nest 20) Eagle asks man what he i s doing 2 1 ) Man asks for f i r e d r i l l 2 2 ) Man sets nest on f i r e 2 3 ) He clubs mother 24) He clubs father 2 5 ) He l e t s eaglet l i v e 27 Chipewyan (Lowie) 1) Man i s on island surrounded by rapids 2) He arrives at eagles' nest 3) There i s one young eagle 4) He warns the man 5) He hides him under his wings 6) Eaglet says mother w i l l come with dark 7) Father w i l l come with big wind 8) Mother returns with dark 9) Says she smells something 10) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l h i s mother 11) Father returns with wind 12) Says he smells something 13) Eaglet t r i e s to fo o l h i s father 14) Mother leaves* 15) Father leaves* • . FLIGHT episode 16) Man f l i e s off again 28\ Dogribn 1) .Man i s i n eagles' nest 2) There i s one young eaglet 3) He warns man 4) Man asks how he w i l l t e l l when father returns* 5) Man asks how he w i l l t e l l when mother returns* 6) Eaglet says father makes snow f a l l 7) Mother makes r a i n f a l l 8) Eaglet hides man under h i s wings 9) Mother returns 10) She i s carrying meat 11) Man k i l l s her 12) Male eagle returns with a beating of wings 13) He i s carrying a c h i l d 14) Says he smells something 15) Man k i l l s him 16) Man l e t s eaglet l i v e • . FISH episode 17')', Man plucks feathers for arrows. 29, Hare Man i s i n eagles nest There are two eaglets i n the nest He asks i f there i s a t e l l - t a l e Eaglet says his s i s t e r w i l l t e l l her parents Man k i l l s her Man asks what happens when father comes home Eaglet says father w i l l arrive with bright l i g h t He asks what w i l l happen when mother comes home Eaglet says when mother arrives i t w i l l be black night Father returns with noise of wings and thunder and lightening Says he smells something Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l him Father f l i e s away Mother arrives with noise of wings i n darkness Says she smells something Eaglet t r i e s to fo o l her Mother f l i e s away Man plucks eaglet's feathers He k i l l s eaglet He burns nest He leaves nest with feathers. 30 ' Han 1) Man i s i n eagles' nest 2) Thexe are two eaglets i n nest 3) He asks which one t a l k s most 4) One eaglet says he w i l l t e l l parents 5) Man k i l l s him 6) Man asks eaglet when mother returns 7) Eaglet says with gust of snow 8) Man asks when father returns 9) Eaglet says with gust of h a i l 10) Man hides under nest 11) Mother eagle returns with snow 12) She i s carrying upper half of man 13) She asks where other eaglet i s 14) Answers that he went down where i t was cool 15) Mother eagle says she smells something 16) Eaglet t r i e s to f o o l her 17) Man k i l l s her 18) Father returns with h a i l 19) He i s carrying lower half of man 20) He asks where mother i s 21) He says he smells something 22) Eaglet t r i e s to fo o l him 23) Man k i l l s father eagle 24) He l e t s eaglet l i v e 25) He gets feathers for arrows. 31 Tanana Man i s i n eagles' nest There are two l i t t l e Fish-Hawks Man k i l l s one He asks where parents are Eaglet says they are out hunting Man t e l l s surviving l i t t l e hawk he w i l l not k i l l her He asks when mother comes back* He asks when father comes back* L i t t l e hawk says her mother w i l l come with r a i n Her father w i l l come with snow Man says he w i l l hide L i t t l e hawk says father w i l l k i l l man Mother comes back She asks where brother i s L i t t l e hawk says he f e l l and k i l l e d himself Mother c r i e s Man k i l l s her Father comes back He asks where mother i s L i t t l e hawk says she has not come back yet Man k i l l s him He k i l l s l i t t l e hawk Goes to brother 32 C h i l c o t i n 1) Man i s carried into eagles' nest by eagles 2) Man t i e s stone to male eagle's feet 3) Makes him f l y around nest 4) Eagle returns to nest t i r e d out 5J Man k i l l s him 6) Man t i e s stone to female eagle's feet 7) Makes her f l y around nest 8) She comes back t i r e d out 9) Man k i l l s her 10) Man k i l l s eaglets 11) He l e t s one eaglet l i v e 12) Eaglet ca r r i e s him down 13) Man t e l l s eaglet he must l i v e on c l i f f s 14) He must not k i l l men 33 Western Apache 1) Eagle drops man against rock near nest 2) He sits down 3) Man says "cd cd" to eaglets 4) Eaglet t e l l s father man has said "cd cd" to i t 5) Father says i t i s just muscular twitching 6) Father f l i e s away 7) Man k i l l s a l l eaglets except one 8) Man asks surviving eaglet when brother returns 9) "Eaglet says he wil l come with a kind of rain 10) Brother eagle returns with rain 11) He drops boy 12) Man k i l l s him 13) Man asks when sister of eaglet returns 14) Eaglet says she w i l l come with yellow rain 15) Sister eagle returns with yellow rain 16) She drops g i r l 17) Man k i l l s her 18) Man asks when mother returns 19) Eaglet says with female rain 20) Mother returns with female rain 21) She drops woman 22) Man k i l l s her 23) Man asks when father returns 24) Eaglet says with male rain 25) Father returns with male rain 26) He drops a man 27) Man k i l l s him ! BIRDS episode 28) • Man sees Old Woman Bat at foot of rock 34 Navaio 1) Man i s dropped on ledge next to nest by eagle 2) Eagle s i t s on pinnacle nearby 3J Man says "Sh!" to eaglets 4) Eaglets t e l l father 5) Father says i t i s a i r escaping from body 6) Father f l i e s away 7) Man asks when father w i l l return 8) He asks where father w i l l s i t 9) Eaglets say father w i l l return with a he-rain 10) They point out where he w i l l s i t 11) Man asks when mother w i l l return 12J He asks where she w i l l s i t 13) Eaglets say mother w i l l return with a she-rain 14) They point out where she w i l l s i t 15) Father returns with r a i n , thunder, and lightning 16) Man k i l l s him 17) Mother returns with r a i n 18) She drops body of Pueblo woman on ledge 19) Man k i l l s her ! BIRDS episode 20) Man sees Bat Woman' t 35 J i c a r i l l a 1) Man i s dropped on rock next to nest by-eagle 2) Eagle s i t s on rock beside nest 3) He t e l l s his children to eat the man 4} Man says " C i t , c i t ! " 5) Eaglets t e l l t h e i r father man has said " C i t ! " 6) Father says i t i s a i r coming from wounds 7) He f l i e s away 8) Man asks when mother returns 9) Eaglets say with fine r a i n 10) Mother returns 11) She drops Pueblo Indian on rock 12) Man's ear t e l l s him how to k i l l mother eagle 13) Man k i l l s her 14) Man asks when father returns 15) Eaglets say with h a i l 16) Man asks where he s i t s 17) Eaglets t e l l him 18) Man's ear t e l l s him to l i e down 19) Father returns 20) He i s carrying a human being 21) Man k i l l s him • • BIRDS episode 22) Man sees Old Woman Bat approach rock 3 6 Mescalero 1 ) Man i s carried to eagles' children 2 J Eagle t e l l s i t s children to eat man 3 ) Eagle f l i e s away 4 ) Man asks which of the eaglets can f l y 5 ) There are four eaglets 6 ) Man k i l l s three of the eaglets with stone club 7 ) Man asks surviving eaglet when father w i l l return 8 ) Eaglet says with f a l l i n g water 9) Eaglet points out where father w i l l s i t 1 0 ) Father eagle returns with f a l l i n g water 1 1 ) Man k i l l s him 1 2 ) Man asks when mother eagle w i l l return 1 3 ) Eaglet answers i n the evening with f a l l i n g water 1 4 ) Man asks where she a l i g h t s 1 5 ) Eaglet points place out 1 6 ) Mother eagle returns 1 7 ) Man k i l l s her • BIRDS episode 1 8 ) Man returns home to mother 37 Chiricahua 1) Man i s thrown into eagles' nest by eagle 2) Eagle children are t o l d to eat the man 3J Eagle s i t s down on the nest 4) Man says "Sss—!" 5) Eaglets say t h e i r food has said "Sss—!" to them 6) Father t e l l s them noise i s a i r coming from wounds 7) Father f l i e s away 8) Man k i l l s a l l the eaglets except one 9) Man asks when father eagle w i l l come back 10) Eaglet answers with male r a i n and water dust 11) Man asks eaglet where father w i l l s i t 12) Eaglet points i t out 13) Father eagle returns with noise 14) Man k i l l s him 15) Man asks when mother w i l l come back 16) Eaglet answers with female r a i n and water dust 17) Man asks where she w i l l s i t 18) Eaglet points i t out 19) Mother eagle returns 20) Man k i l l s her • • BIRDS episode 21) Man returns home to mother 38 Lipan 1) Man i s carried to nest by eagle 2) Eagle t e l l s children to eat man 3) Man says "Shush" 4) Eaglets t e l l t h e i r father 5) Eagle t r i e s to k i l l man with his talons 6) He says i t i s only a i r coming out 7) He f l i e s away 8) Man asks when father comes home 9) He asks where he s i t s 10) Eaglets say he comes home with heavy r a i n 11) They say where he s i t s 12) Father returns with r a i n 13) Man k i l l s him 14) Man asks when mother returns 15) He asks where she s i t s 16) Eaglets say she comes with heavy r a i n 17) They say where she s i t s 18) Mother returns with r a i n 19) Man k i l l s her ! BIRDS episode 20) Man returns to mother 39 •ELEMENTS CONSIDERED ' EQUIVALENT*: BR-BG BR-S BR-K BR-CP BR-D BR-Hr 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 5-5 2-2 2-2 11-6 10-5 2-2 10-9 4-6 4-7 12-12 11-7 3-3 12-16 6-5 5-8 13-13 12-9 4-4 16-17 10-8 7-9 16-14 13-10 5-5 18-|9 11-10 9-11 17-15 18-11 10-8 19-7 12-13 10-3 20-5 19-5 11-9 20-8 13-14 11-5 22-8 20-6 12-14 22-11 14-15 12-12 28-9 22-12 16-15 28-12 15-16 13-13 29-10 23-13 17-16 29-13 16-17 14-14 31-20 28-14 19-6 30-15 17-18 15-15 30-15 20-7 31-20 18-20 18-18 31-16 22-10 19-9 19-4 32-17 28-11 20-11 20-6 29-12 22-21 22-20 32-18 23-22 23-21 24-23 24-22 25-24 25-23 26-25 30-26 30-27 31-27 31-28 32-28 32-30 33-29 33-31 Or0.52 C=0.78 C=0.74 C=0.41 C=0.56 C=0.5' Symbols used are as i n Table I. 40' BR-Hvv BR-T 1-1 1-1 2-2 2-2 3-3 5-3 4-4 10-7 5-5 11-9 10-6 12-13 11-7 14-14 12-11 15-15 13-12 18-17 14-13 19-8 15-14 20-•10 16-15 22-•18 17-16 24-•19 18-17 25-20 1.9-8 30-•21 20-9 22-18 23-19 29-20 28-21 29-22 30-23 31-24 32-25 C=0.83 C=0.54 BR-Cn BR-W 1-1 1-1 5-10 5-7 18-9 10-18 30-5 11-19 31-11 12-20 13-21 18-22 19-23 20-24 22-25 23-26 30-27 C=0.21 C-0.39 BR-•N BR-J 1-•1 1-1 10-•11 10-8 11-•13 11-9 12-•17 12-10 13-•18 13-11 18-•19 18-13 19-7 19-14 20-•9 20-15 22-•15 22-19 30-•16 23-20 30-21 0=0.38 C=0.40 41 BR-M BR-Ch BR-L BG-S BG-K BG-C 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 5-6 5-8 10-14 5-7 5-8 6-4 10-12 10-15 11-16 6-4 7-4 8-5 11-13 11-16 12-18 7-9 8-6 10-6 12-16 12-19 18-19 8-11 9-3 11-8 18-17 18-20 19-8 9-8 10-5 12-9 19-7 19-9 20-10 10-10 11-20 13-10 20-8 20-10 22-12 11-21 15-26 16-12 22-10 22-13 30-13 14-26 16-12 17-14 30-11 30-14 15-27 19-18 20-20 16-13 20-27 17-17 18-19 19-20 20-28 21-29 0=0.39 0=0.36 0=0.35 0=0.62 0=0.44: 0=0.45 BG-D BG-Hr BG-Hn BG-T BG-Cn BG-W 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 6-3 5-5 5-5 5-3 5-10 5-7 7-4 7-6 7-8 7-8 15-5 7-23 8-6 8-7 8-9 8-10 19-9 8-24 9-5 9-8 9-6 9-7 20-11 9-18 10-7 10-9 10-7 10-9 10-19 11-12 11-10 11-18 11-18 11-25 12-14 12-11 12-21 15-21 15-27 15-15 13-12 13-22 16-13 16-20 16-9 16-14 15-23 19-17 19-22 19-11 17-15 16-11 20-16 17-15 19-17 20-24 0=0.63 0=0.52 0=0.61 0=0.45 0=0.29 0=0.41 42 BG-N BG-J BG-M BG-Ch BG-L S-K 1-1 7- 7 8- 9 9- 11 10- 13 11- 15 15- 16 16- 17 19-19 1-1 7- 14 8- 15 9- 8 10- 9 11- 19 15- 21 16- 10 19-13 1-1 5-6 7- 7 8- 8 9- 12 10- 13 11- 10 15- 11 16- 16 19-17 1-1 5-8 7- 9 8- 10 9- 15 10- 16 11- 13 15- 14 16- 19 19-20 1-1 7- 8 8- 10 9- 14 10- 16 11- 12 15- 13 16- 18 19-19 1- 1 2- 2 6- 7 7- 8 8- 3 9- 4 10- 5 11- 6 13- 12 14- 13 15- 14 16- 15 20- 18 21- 20 22- 21 23- 22 24- 23 27- 26 28- 27 30- 28 31- 29 C=0.44 C=0.42 C=0.5l C=0.48 C=0.44 C=0.70 S-C 1-1 10- 6 11- 5 13- 12 14- 13 17- 14 18- 15 21-8 28-20 S-D 1-1 4-3 8- 5 9- 4 10- 7 11- 6 13- 9 14- 10 20- 11 21- 12 22- 13 27-15 29- 16 30- 17 5- Hr 1- 1 2- 2 6- 4 7- 5 8- 8 9- 6 10- 9 11- 7 13-14 17- 15 18- 16 21-10 30-18 5- Hn 1- 1 2- 2 6- 4 7- 5 8- 6 9- 8 10- 7 11- 9 13- 11 14- 12 15- 13 16- 14 17- 15 18- 16 20- 17 21- 18 22- 19 23- 20 27- 23 28- 24 30-25 S-T 1- 1 2- 2 7- 3 8- 7 9- 8 10- 9 11- 10 13-13 15- 14 16- 15 20- 17 21- 18 23- 29 24- 20 27-21 S-Cn 1-1 7-10 20-9 27- 5 28- 11 C=0.36 C=0.58 C=0.50 C=0.75 a=0.56 C=0.22 43 s-w S-N S-J 1-1 1-1 1-1 7-7 8-11 8-8 8-18 9-7 9-14 9-23 10-13 10-9 10-19 11-9 11-15 11-24 13-17 13-10 13-20 14-18 14-11 14-21 20-19 20-13 20-22 21-15 ' 21-19 21-25 27-16 22-20 22-26 27-21 27-27 0=0.41 0=0.39 0=0.4: K-C K-D K-Hr 1-1 1-1 1-1 5-6 3-5 2-2 6-5 4-4 3-8 12-12 5-7 4-6 13-13 6-6 5-9 20-18 12-9 6-7 27-20 13-10 12-14 18-11 20-10 20-12 21-13 26-15 27-16 28-17 0=0.28 0=0.57 C=0.32 S-M S-Ch S-L 1-1 1-1 1-1 7-6 7-8 8-14 8-12 8-15 9-8 9-7 9-9 10-16 10-13 10-16 11-10 11-8 11-10 13-18 13-16 13-19 20-19 20-17 20-20 21-12 21-10 21-13 27-13 27-11 27-14 0=0.41 0=0.39 0=0.3! K-Hn K-T K-Cn 1-1 1-1 1-1 2-2 2P2 8-10 3-6 3-7 18-9 4-8 4-8 26-5 5-7 5-9 27-11 6-9 6-10 7-4 8-3 8-5 12-13 12-11 14-14 13-12 15-15 14-13 18-17 15-14 20-18 18-17 22-19 20-18 23-20 21-19 26-21 22-20 26- 23 27- 24 28- 25 0=0.70 0=0.58 C=0.23 K-W K-N K-J 1-1 1-1 1-1 3-18 3-11 3-8 4-23 4-7 4-14 5-19 5-13 5-9 6-24 6-9 6-15 8-7 12-17 12-10 12-20 13-18 13-11 13-21 18-19 18-13 18-22 20-15 20-19 20-25 26-26 21-20 21-26 26-21 26-27 0=0.42 0=0.41 0=0.4: C-D C-Hr C-Hn 1-1 1-1 1-1 3-2 5-7 5-9 4-3 6-9 6-7 5-6 8-10 8-18 7-8 9-11 9-21 8-12 10-12 10-22 9-14 11-13 12-11 12-9 12-14 13-12 13-10 14-15 14-15 20-10 15-16 15-16 16-17 20-24 C=0.58 C=0.52 C=0.48 44 K-M K-Ch K-L 1-1 1-1 1-1 3-12 3-15 3-14 4-7 4-9 4-8 5-13 5-16 5-16 6-8 6-10 6-10 8-6 8-8 12-18 12-16 12-19 18-19 18-17 18-20 20-12 20-10 20-13 26-13 26-11 26-14 - • 0=0.43 0=0.40 0=0.37 C-T C-Cn c-w 1-1 1-1 1-1".. 5-10 : 20-11 5-24 6-9 6-19 8-18 8-25 12-13 12-20 13-21 C=0.23 C=0.11 0=0.25 45 C-N C-J C-M C-Ch C-L D-Hr 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 5-9 5-15 5-8 5-10 5-10 4-6 6-13 6-9 6-13 6-16 6-16 5-8 8-15 8-19 8-10 8-13 8-12 6-7 12-17 12-10 12-16 12-19 12-18 7-9 13-18 13-11 9-14 12-10 14-15 17-18 0=0.29 0=0.28 0=0.26 0=0.24 0=0.24 C=0.4' D-Hn D--T D-Cn D-W D-N D-J 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 4-8 4-8 11-9 4-23 4-7 4-14 5-6 5-7 15-5 5-18 5-11 5-8 6^ 9 6-10 16-11 7-19 7-13 6-15 7-7 7-9 9-20 9-17 7-16 9-11 9-13 10-21 10-18 9-18 10-12 11-17 11-22 11-19 11-19 11-17 12-18 12-25 12-15 12-12 12-18 15-21 13-26 15-16 15-13 13-19 15-27 14-21 15-23 16-24 17-25 0_=0.67 0=0.45 0=0.26 0=0.49 0=0.54 0=0.5! 46 D-M D-Ch D-L Hr-Hn Hr-T Hr-Cn 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 4-7 4-7 4-8 2-2 2-2 5-10 5-12 5-14 5-14 3-3 5-5 6-8 6-10 6-10 4-4 6-8 7-13 7-16 7-16 5-5 7-10 9-16 9-19 9-18 6-8 8-7 11-17 11-20 11-19 7-9 9-9 12-10 12-13 12-12 8-6 10-18 15-11 15-14 15-13 9-7 14-13 10-18 19-22 11-21 12-22 14-11 15-15 16-16 18-25 0=0.51 0=0.48 0=0.49 0=0.70 0=0.45 o=o. i : Hr-W Hr-N Hr-J Hr-M Hr-Ch Hr-L 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 5-7 6-7 6-14 6-7 6-9 6-8 6-23 7-9 7-15 7-8 7-10 7-10 7-24 8-11 8-8 8-12 8-15 8-14 8-18 9-13 9-9 9-13 9-16 9-16 9-19 10-15 10-19 10-10 10-13 10-12 10-25 14-17 14-10 14-16 14-19 14-18 14-20 0=0.33 0=0.34 0=0.33 C=0.36 0=0.33 C=0.3' 47 Hn-T Hn-Cn Hrv-W Hn-N Hn-J Hn-M 1-1 1-1 1-1 / 1-1 1-1 1-1 2-2 5-10 5-7 6-11 6-8 5-6 5-3 17-9 6-18 7-13 7-9 6-12 6-7 23-5 7-19 8-7 8-14 7-13 7-9 24-11 8-23 9-9 9-15 8-7 8-8 9-24 11-17 11-10 9-8 9-10 11-20 12-18 12-11 11-16 11-13 12-21 17-19 17-13 17-17 13-14 17-22 18-15 18-19 18-10 14-15 18-25 23-16 19-20 23-11 17-17 19-26 23-21 18-18 23-27 20-19 23-21 0=0.58 0=0.26 0=0.43 0=0.44 0=0.47 C-0.4' Hn-Ch Hn-L T-Cr :T-W T-N T-J 1-1 1-1 1-1 I - I 1-1 1-1 5-8 6-14 3-10 3-7 7-11 7-8 6-15 7-16 17-9 7-18 8-7 8-14 7-16 8-8 21-5 8-23 9-13 9-9 8-9 9-10 9-19 10-9 10-15 9-10 11-18 10-24 13-17 13-10 11-19 17-19 13-20 17-19 17-13 17-20 18-12 17-22 18-15 18-19 18-13 23-13 18-25 21^ -16 21-21 23-14 21-27 0=0.43 0=0.40 0=0.22 0=0.39 0=0.42 0=0.4( 48 T-M T-Ch T-L Cn-W Cn-N Cn-J 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 3-6 3-8 7-14 5-27 5-16 5-21 7-12 7-15 8-8 9-22 9-19 9-13 8-7 8-9 9-16 10-7 9-13 9-16 10-10 10-8 10-10 13-18 13-16 13-19 17-19 17-17 17-20 18-12 18-10 18-13 21-13 21-11 21-14 C=0.49 C=0.45 C=0.42 C=0.19 C=0.18 C=0.. Cn-M Cn-Ch Cn-L W-N W-J W-M 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 5-11 5-14 5-13 2-2 2-2 2-2 9-17 9-20 9-19 3-3 3-4 3-4 4-4 4-5 4-5 5-5 5-6 5-6 6-6 6-7 6-7 18-11 18-8 18-8 19-13 19-9 19-9 20-17 20-10 20-10 21-18 21-11 21-11 22-19 22-13 22-13 23-7 23-14 23-14 24-9 14-15 24-15 25-15 25-19 25-19 27-16 26-20 26-20 28-20 27-21 27-21 28-20 28-22 C=0.19 £=0.17 0=0.18 0=0.67 0=0.68 0=0. 4! 49 W-Ch W-L N-J 1-1 1-1 1-1 2-3 3-3 2-2 3-4 4-4 3-4 4-5 5-6 4-5 5-6 6-7 5-6 6-7 18-14 6-7 7-8 19-16 7-14 18-15 20-18 8-16 19-16 22-19 9-15 20-19 23-8 10-17 22-20 29-9 11-8 23-9 25-12 13-9 29-10 27-13 15-19 25-23 16-21 27-24 17-10 18-11 19-13 20-22 C=0.61 C=0.54 C=0.8( J-M C-Ch J-L 1-1 1-1 1-1 7-3 2-3 3-2 8-12 3-2 4-3 9-13 4-4 5-4 10-16 5-5 6-6 13-17 6-6 7-7 14-7 7-7 8-14 15-8 8-15 9-16 17-9 9-16 10-18 19-10 10-19 13-19 21-11 13-20 14-8 14-9 15-10 15-10 16-9 16-11 17-11 17-12 19-12 19-13 21-13 21-21 0=0.55 £=0.79 £=0.76 N-M N-Ch N-L 1-1 1-1 1-1 6-3 2-3 3-3 7-7 3-.4 4-4 9-8 4-5 5-6 10-9 5-6 6-7 11-12 6-7 7-8 12-14 7-9 8-9 13-13 8-11 9-10 14-15 9-10 10-11 15-10 10-12 11-14 16-11 11-15 12-15 17-16 12-17 13-16 19-17 13-16 14-17 14-18 15-12 15-13 16-13 16-14 17-18 17-19 19-19 19-20 C=0.68 C=0.88 C=0.8! M-Ch M-L Ch-L 1-1 1-1 1-1 2-2 2-2 2-2 3-7 3-7 4-3 6-8 7-8 5-4 7-9 8-10 6-6 8-10 9-11 7-7 9-12 10-12 9-8 10-13 11-13 10-10 11-14 12-14 11-9 12-15 13-16 12-11 13-16 : 14-15 13-12 14-17 15-17 14-13 15-18 16-18 15-14 16-19 17-19 16-16 17-20 18-20 17-15 18-21 18-17 19- 18 20- 19 21- 20 0=0.82 £-0.79 C=0.93 TABLE I I Co e f f i c i e n t s of S i m i l a r i t y of Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the NEST Episode BR BG S K CP D Hr Hn T Cn w N J M Ch L BR + 0.52 0.78 0.74 0.41 0.56 0.59 0.83 0.54 0.21 0.39 0.38 0.40 0.39 0.36 0.34 BG + 0.62 0.44 0.48 0.63 0.52 0.61 0.45 0.29 0.41 0.44 0.42 0.51 0.48 0.44 S + 0.70 0.36 0.58 0.50 0.75 0.56 0.22 0.41 0.39 0.42 0.41 0.39 0.35 K + 0.28 0.57 0.32 0.70 0.58 0.23 0.42 0.41 0.43 0.43 0.40 0.37 CP + 0.58 0.52 0.48 0.23 0.11 0.25 0.29 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.24' D + 0.47 0.67 0.45 0.26 0.49 0.54 0.55 0.51 0.48 0.49 Hr + 0.70 0.45 0.11 0.33 0.34 0.33 0.36 0.33 0.34 Hn + 0.58 0.26 0.43 0.44 0.47 0.47 0.43 0.40 T + 0.22 0.39 0.42 0.40 0.49 0.45 0.42 Cn + 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.19 0.17 0.18 W , -- + 0.67 - 0.68 0.48 0.61 0.54 N + 0.86 0.68 0.88 0.85 J + 0.55 0.79 0.76 M + 0.82 0.79 Ch + 0.93 L Symbols used: BR, Beaver (Ridington); BG, Beaver 1 [Goddard); S, Slave; K, Kaska; + D, Dogrib; Hr, Hare; Hn, Han; Cn, C h i l c o t i n ; W, Western Apache; J , J i c a r i l l a ; M, Mescalero; Ch, Chiricahua; L, Lipan. 51 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS , The NEST episode, the only one shared by a l l versions, shows a pattern of similarity which corres-ponds, in part, with that shown in comparison of episodes. In the North Beaver (Ridington)/Slave, Kaska/Han, and Chipewyan (Petitot)/Chipewyan (Goddard.)/ Chipewyan (Lowie), have relatively high scores on the measure of similarity--0.78; 0.70; and 0.60, 0.76 and 0.73,—and these three sets are the only ones identical with respect to episodes. Those Northern Athapaskan versions which are not identical with respect to episodes but which share more than one episode have scores which tend to be lower than the above, but which are s t i l l relatively high. Beaver (Ridington)/Beaver (Goddard); Beaver (Ridington)/Slave; Beaver (Ridington)/ Kaska; Beaver (Ridington)/Dogrib; Beaver (Ridington)/Han Beaver (Goddard)/Slave; Beaver (Goddard)/Chipewyan (Petitot); Slave/Kaska; Slave/Dogrib; Slave/Han; Kaska/Han; and Dogrib/Hare a l l belong to this category and have scores on comparison which range from a high of 0.83 in the Beaver (Ridington)/Han comparison, to a low of 0.47 and 0.48 the comparison of Dogrib/Hare and Beaver (Goddard)/Chipewyan (Petitot), respectively. Northern versions which share only the NEST episode tend to have lower scores on comparison than are generated e 52 by comparison of versions which share more than one episode, "from a-high of 0.70 i n a comparison of Hare/Han, to a low of 0.11 i n a comparison of Chipewyan ( P e t i t o t ) / C h i l c o t i n and Hare/Chilcotin (the lowest score generated i n the whole comparison). There are two sets of Southern Athapaskan versions which are i d e n t i c a l with respect to episodes. Mescalero/ Chiricahua/Lipan, with scores of 0.82, 0.79, and 0.93 (the highest score generated i n the whole comparison), and Western Apache/Navajo/Jicarilla, with s l i g h t l y lower scores of 0.67, 0.68, and 0.86. Scores generated by a comparison between these two sets range from a high of 0.88, i n a Navajo/Chiricahua comparison, to a low of 0.48, i n a Western Apache/Mescalero comparison. The comparatively greater l i n g u i s t i c s i m i l a r i t y (and lower glottochronological "time depth") of the & Southern Athapaskans seems to be reflected i n both the range and magnitude of C scores generated by a comparison of the NEST episode. Scores found- i n the comparison of Northern versions range from a high of 0.83 (Beaver [Ridington] /Han) to a low of 0.11 (Chipewyan C P e t i t o t ] / :Chilcotin . and Hare/Chilcotin), for a difference of 0.72. The highest score i n the South (Chiricahua/Lipan at 0.93) i s 0.10 greater than the highest Northern score; the lowest Southern score (Navajo/Chiricahua at 0.48) i s 0.37 53 greater than the lowest Northern score; and the difference between maximum and minimum scores i n the South i s 0.45. Elements found i n both Northern and Southern Athapaskan versions of the NEST episode are as follows: 1) Location of man i n nest 2) K i l l i n g of one or several eaglets before parents have returned 3) Man asks when father w i l l return 4) Man asks when mother w i l l return 5) Eaglet says when father w i l l return and specif i e s with what type of "weather" ( r a i n , thunder, l i g h t , dark, etc.) 6) Eaglet says when mother w i l l return and spec i f i e s with what type of "weather" 7) Father eagle returns with "weather" 8) Mother eagle returns with "weather" 9) Father eagle i s carrying meat or human remains 10) Man k i l l s father eagle • 11) Man k i l l s mother eagle In the coded form, t h i s comprises twelve elements.^ The best score between a Northern and Southern version i s between Dogrib and J i c a r i l l a at 0.55—these two versions sharing eleven elements. Dogrib and J i c a -r i l l a , by vir t u e of containing r e l a t i v e l y few elements, (seventeen and twenty-two respectively), achieve t h i s r e l a t i v e l y high score, whereas Beaver (Ridington) and West-ern Apache, for example, which share twelve elements, achieve a score on comparison of only 0.39 because of the r e l a t i v e l y greater number of elements they contain ( t h i r t y -three and t h i r t y - e i g h t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The lowest score found for a comparison of Northern and Southern versions i s 0.17 for C h i l c o t i n / J i c a r i l l a and Chilcotin/Chiricahua, where only three elements (location of man i n nest, and k i l l i n g of parents) are shared. 54 The majority of the scores generated by comparison of Northern and Southern versions, however, (forty-six out of sixty), range between 0.33 and 0.55. A "descriptive" comparison of the versions considered here, based on units of comparison more general than the myth elements i s shown in the following table. Included here to provide a basis for discussion of variation in versions, i t is not intended to be exhaustive of the content of the NEST episode, but rather to represent the majority of important variations in content. The Northern versions f a l l into two main types, one represented by Han, Kaska, Slave, and Beaver (Riding-ton) ("Han type"), and the other represented by Chipewyan (Petitot); Chipewyan (Goddard), and Chipewyan (Lowie) ("Chipewyan type"). The principal characteristics of the Han type are as follows: There are two eaglets in the nest. One of the eaglets which w i l l inform i t s parents of the man's presence is ki l l e d by him. The man asks when the parent eagles w i l l come back, and i s told by the eaglet. The parents, when they return, are carrying meat. Both smell something and ask about the dead eaglet. The man k i l l s both parent eagles, and the father eagle, on his return, and asks the surviving eaglet where i t s mother is (not in Han or Kaska). The man spares the surviving eaglet, TABLE III Northern and Southern Athapaskan Versions of the NEST Episode T Hn K S BR BG D Hr CP CG CL Cn W N J M Ch L + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +- + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Man i s in nest One eaglet Two eaglets Three eaglets Four eaglets Number not specified Man i s warned Eaglets are told to eat man One eaglet w i l l t e l l parents Man makes noise Man k i l l s eaglet(:s) Man asks when mother returns Eaglet says she comes with "weather" Man asks when father comes Eaglet says he comes with "weather" Eaglet hides man under wing Eaglets say where parents s i t Mother returns with , , "weather" + + + $ She carries meat She smells something She asks about dead eaglet TABLE III (continued) T Hn K S BR BG D Hr CP CG CL Cn W N J M Ch L Man k i l l s her + + + + + + + + + + + + + + She f l i e s away + + + + Father returns with "weather" + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + He carries meat + + + + + + + He smells something + + + + + + + + He asks about mother + + + + + He asks about dead eaglet + + Man k i l l s him + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Man takes feathers + + + + + + ( + ) Man returns to family + + + (+) (+) Man burns nest + Transformation of (+) ( + ) (+)(+)(+ )( + ) (+)(+) eaglets (+)(+) Man sees Bat Woman + + + Man returns to mother + + + Symbols used: + present; (+) present within Eagle motif, but not in NEST episode; T, Tanana; H, Han;-X, Kaska; S, Slave; BR, Beaver (Ridington); BG, Beaver (Goddard); D, Dogrib; Hr, Hare; CP, Chipewyan (Petitot); CG, Chipewyan (Goddard); CL, Chipewyan (Lowie); Cn, Chilcotin; W, Western Apache; N, Navajo; J, J i c a r i l l a ; M, Mescalero; Ch, Chiricahua; L, Lipan c* 57 and taking feathers from the dead eagles, returns to the evil family. In the Chipewyan type, there is one eaglet. It warns the man, and hides him under i t s wings. The man i s told (but does not ask) when the parents return. The parents, when they return, are not carrying meat (except in Chipewyan (Petitot), where the mother carries "debris humains" (Petitot, 1886:360) ). The parent eagles f l y away from the nest and are not k i l l e d by the man (except in the Chipewyan (Goddard) version where this occurs after the FLIGHT episode, and where the hero burns the nest). The man spares the eaglet and f l i e s away from the nest on wings given to him by the eaglet. Tanana resembles the Han type, but lacks a few of the units found in that type. Dogrib and Hare have resemblances to the Han type which that type does not share with the Chipewyan type, and other resemblances to the Chipewyan type which that type does not share with Han. Beaver (Goddard), in which the number of eaglets (three) i s unique among versions considered, and which shares with the Chipewyan type the warning of the hero by the eaglet, for the most part resembles the Han type, a l -though i t lacks some of the units found in that type. Chilcotin shares the k i l l i n g of the parents and of some of the eaglets with the Han type, but lacks most of the units characteristic of that type. 58 :< The Southern versions of the NEST episode f a l l into two types: Western Apache, Navajo, and J i c a r i l l a , where the man i s helped down from the nest by Bat Woman, and where one or both of the parents carry meat to the nest; and Mescalero, Chiricahua and Lipan, where the man makes his own way down from the nest, and where the parents do not carry meat to the nest. One " u n i t " — the k i l l i n g of some of the eaglets--is shared by Western Apache, Mescalero, and Chiricahua, and i s thus found unevenly in both types, and another, in which the man makes a noise to stop the eaglets from eating him, i s found in a l l Southern versions except Mescalero. The number of eaglets i s not specified, except for Mescalero, where there are four. 59 COMPARISON OF ATHAPASKAN AND NON-ATHAPASKAN VERSIONS OF THE EAGLE, BULL, AND CLIFF OGRE MOTIFS8 The content of the Southern Athapaskan Slayer of Monsters myth is shared, to a great extent, by similar myths from such neighbouring peoples as the Yavapai, and the pueblo-dwelling Zuni, Hopi, Sia and Cochiti. It would seem logical to assume that the mythologies of these latter peoples, who had lived in close proximity in the Southwestern United States before the arrival of Europeans, should have had common content, as did, for instance, the mythology of the peoples of the northwest coast of North America where the content of many myths from the Raven cycle was shared. In the Slayer of Monsters myth of the Southern Athapaskan peoples, and of the non-Athapaskan peoples of the American Southwest mentioned above, a hero, or twin heroes, are born from a woman and sun, or sun and water. In some Southern Athapaskan and non-Athapaskan versions the heroes go to their father, the sun, and are tested by him. He then gives them the weapons with which to slay monsters. In a l l versions, the heroes slay monsters, including the Eagle, Bull, and C l i f f Ogre. In some versions, as in some of the Northern Athapaskan versions of the NEST episode, the slaying of monsters i s accompanied by the gathering of material to make arrows. 60 In certain versions, also, the hero or heroes are helped by such characters as Bat Woman or Spider Woman. To accurately identify those portions of the Southwestern versions of the Slayer of Monsters myth which have a non-Athapaskan origin would require a thorough analysis of the mythology of the area. My-own incomplete investigations, however, have led me to the following conclusions, which are presented merely as suggestions, and which are not given further proof here: The mythology of the non-Athapaskan peoples of the Southwest probably contained the birth of culture heroes from a woman and sun, or sun and water, as well as their testing by the sun, and the adventures of a hero or twin heroes before the arrival of Athapaskan peoples in the area. The mythological figures, Spider Woman and Bat Woman, probably predate the arrival of the Southern Athapaskans as-well. Athapaskan peoples have been living in the vi c i n i t y of the Yavapai, Zuni, Hopi, Sia, and Cochiti, since at least the beginning of the 17th century, ^ ' and there are numerous reliable accounts of contacts between both Pueblo Indians and Yavapai and Southern Athapaskans in historic times.••'•0 It would seem probable" that a syncretic modification and transmission of myth content has occurred both within and between the mythologies of the Athapaskan and non-Athapaskan peoples of the Southwest since the 61 times of f i r s t contact between them. The Southwest, as an area, i s unique in contain-ing a large number of non-Athapaskan versions of the Eagle, Bull, and C l i f f Ogre motifs which are very similar to Athapaskan, and especially Southern Athapaskan, versions of these motifs. The Plains and Plateau areas contain few such versions, and the Basin area, virtually none ."^ Non-Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif are compared in the following table with the Northern Athapaskan Beaver (Ridington) and,Southern Athapaskan Western Apache versions of the Eagle motif, these latter two versions being selected because they share a large number of the. elements.'of comparison used in Table III,. Kmong five peoples of the Basin area, the Uintah Ute (Mason, 1910), Northern Shoshone (Lowie, 1909), Wind River Shoshone (Lowie and St. Clair, 1909), Kaibab Paiute (Sapir, 1930), and Moapa'(Lowie, 1926), are found myths involving a man and a flying monster. These myths, which in many ways are similar to each other, bear l i t t l e resemblance to either Northern or Southern Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif. In the Uintah Ute, Northern Shoshone, Wind River Shoshone,, and Kaibab Paiute versions, a man (two men in the Uintah Ute version) i s carried to an island by a winged monster. In the Wind River Shoshone, Uintah Ute, TABLE IV Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the Eagle Motif BR W Sh Ku Th Sa Ui NS WS KP Mo Zu Ho Si Co NY WY Gr Ar Wi Ki + + + + + + + + + +'+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + • + + + Man k i l l s single eagle + + + + + + + Man asks where eagles si t + + + Man takes feathers + + + + + + + + + Man k i l l s surviving eagles - + + + + Man transforms eaglets + + + + + + Man i s in nest + + + + + + + + + + + + + + No eaglets mentioned + + + + + Two eaglets + Four eaglets + + + Number not specified + + + + + Eaglets are told to + + + eat man + Man k i l l s eaglets + + + Man makes noise + + Man asks when mother returns + + + + + + Eaglet says she comes + + with "weather" + + + Man asks when father returns + + + + Eaglet says he comes + with "weather" + + + Mother returns with "weather" + + + + + She carries meat + + + Man k i l l s her + + + + + + Father returns with "weather" + + + + Man k i l l s him + + + + + + TABLE IV (continued) BR W Sh Ku Th Sa Ui NS WS KP Mo Zu Ho Si Co NY WY Gr Ar Wi Ki Man i s helped from nest + Helper i s Bat Helper i s squirrel Symbols used: +, present; BR, Beaver (Ridington); W, Western Apache; Sh, Shushwap; Ku, Kutenai; Th, Thompson; Sa, Sanpoil; Ui, Uintah Ute; NS, Northern Shoshone; WS, Wind River Shoshone; KP, Kaibab Paiute; Mo, Moapa; Zu, Zuni; Ho, Hopi; Si, Sia; Co, Cochiti; NY, Northeastern Yavapai; WY, Western Yavapai; Gr, Gros Ventre; Ar, Arapaho; Wi, Wichita; Ki, Ki owa. 64 and Kaibab Paiute versions, the island i s inhabited by other victims of the winged monster, and in the Uintah Ute, Northern Shoshone, Wind River Shoshone, and Kaibab Paiute, the winged monster i s kil l e d by the man. Young of the winged monster are not mentioned in the texts, except in Uintah Ute, where they are kil l e d by the man, after he has ki l l e d their parent. In the Wind River Shoshone and Uintah Ute versions, the man escapes the island on a boat made from the wings of the slain monster. In Northern Shoshone, he escapes using wings of the slain monster given to him by i t s mother, and iin.; Kaibab Paiute, he leaves the island on a bridge of dirt and feathers. In the Moapa version, the man i s carried off by a condor. There are no "eaglets" mentioned, and the man k i l l s the single monster. As in Uintah Ute, Northern Shoshone, Wind River Shoshone, and Kaibab Paiute, there i s no mention made of the sex of the single parent bird, there i s no association of the parents with weather, and the parent bird does not carry meat. As with the other basin versions, except Uintah Ute, there i s no mention of young birds. In the Moapa version, however, as in both Athapaskan and non-Athapaskan versions from the Southwest, the man collects feathers for arrows, and is helped from the nest by Bat Woman. The absence of these units from other Basin accounts, and the location of the Moapa in Southern-—most 65 Utah and Nevada (Lowie, 1924: l) to the immediate west and north of the Yavapai and westernmost Southern Athapaskans and Pueblo Indians, would indicate that these units are probably borrowings from the Southwest. Of the four Plateau versions--Shushwap (Teit, 1909), Kutenai (Boas, 1918), Thompson (Teit, 1898), and Sanpoil, (Gould, 1918)--Kutenai alone bears any great resemblance to the Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif. In the Shushwap and Sanpoil versions, a man seeks feathers, but for adornment, rather than for arrows. The man i s carried into eagles' nest. In the Shushwap version, he k i l l s the single parent eagle, transforms the eaglets from monsters into ordinary eagles, and takes feathers " . . . to decorate [him]self . . . ." (Teit, 1909: 649). In the Sanpoil version, he ties up, but does not k i l l , the parent eagles, and no mention i s made of his taking feathers, although the text indicates that his purpose was " . . . to get feathers for a head-dress" (Gould, 1918: 108). In the Thompson version, a man desires feathers for his arrows. He approaches an eagle's nest, and in struggling with the eagle, f a l l s off a c l i f f , but i s saved by the eagle, which flaps i t s wings. The man chokes, but does not k i l l , the eagle, and takes i t s feathers for arrows. The return of the parent eagles, their association 66 with weather, and the questioning of the eaglets are not found in Shushwap, Thompson, or Sanpoil, but occur in the Kutenai text, where Coyote and a man find them-selves in a:thunderbirds* nest. The man asks the young birds when their parents return, and they reply that they " . . . come back in the evening in the form of a thunderclouds"(Boas, 1918: 286). The man k i l l s the thunderbirds when they return, but spares their young. Among the Arikara (Dorsey, 1904a), Assiniboine (Lowie, 1910), Crow (Lowie, 1918), Mandan-Hidatsa (Beckwith, 1938), and Skidi Pawnee (1904b) of the Plains are found myths which are very similar to each other, but which have l i t t l e resemblance to Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif. In the Crow version, for example, a young hunter i s transported while unconscious into an eagles' nest. The eagles feed the man, and ask him to protect their young from water monsters. The man k i l l s the monsters and saves the eaglets from them. The man does not question the eaglets, and the parent eagle i s not associated with weather. Furthermore, his role, in protecting, rather than destroying, the eagles, constitutes an inversion of the hero's role in the Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif. These Plains versions, because they share no significant elements of content with Athapaskan Eagle motif, are omitted from the comparative table. More similar to Athapaskan versions are myths from 67 the Gros Ventre (Kroeber, 1908), Arapaho (Dorsey and Kroeber, 1903), Wichita (Dorsey, 1904), and Kiowa (Par-sons, 1929). In the Gros Ventre and Arapaho versions 'a man (two men in Gros Ventre) goes into a thunder-birds' nest, and questions the young as to when their parents w i l l return. As in the Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif, the young answer that their parents w i l l return with a certain kind of weather (the man asks only about the mother bird in the Arapaho version). When the mother returns, the man challenges her to pull his arrow out of a rock. She cannot, the arrow stretches, and she i s dashed on the rocks. In the Gros Ventre version alone, the men k i l l the father as well, and in the Arapaho, the man k i l l s the eaglets. In both versions, the eagles' feathers are plucked for arrows. In the Wichita version the man asks the young birds who their parents are. Those which say their parents are a type of weather which the hero likes are spared; the others are k i l l e d . In the Kiowa version, two boys go into a; birds' nest for arrow feathers. The parents (Thunder and Lightning) attack them, but they succeed in getting feathers. Of the non-Athapaskan versions from the Southwest, Zuni (Benedict, 1935) most closely resembles the Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif, especially the Southern Athapaskan versions. The man asks when the mother comes .68 in this version and in the Hopi (Stephen, 1929) and Sia (Stevenson, 1902), and she i s associated with weather in Zuni ".and Hopi. In the Zuni, as well, the man asks when the father comes, and he i s associated with weather in the young birds 1 answer. A mother and a father bird return and are kil l e d by the man in a l l of the above Pueblo versions, as well as in the Northeastern and Western Yavapai (Gifford, 1933) versions. Units of content shared by the Pueblo and Yavapai with Southern Athapaskan versions are numerous. The eaglets are told to eat the man in Zuni, Hopi, and Sia, and the man makes a noise to stop the eaglets from eating him in Zuni, Hopi, Northeastern Yavapai, and Western Yavapai. The man asks where the parent eagles sit in Sia, and the man is helped down from the nest by Bat Woman in Zuni, Northeastern Yavapai, and Western Yavapai (by squirrel in Sia). As in certain Northern Athapaskan versions, where the man teaches the eaglet to eat fish and turns i t from a man-eating monster into a normal eagle, and a l l Southern Athapaskan versions, where the eaglets are changed into various, less dangerous, birds, the eaglets are transformed in Zuni and Hopi, but are killed in Sia. In the Cochiti (Eiumarest, 1919) version, the Pueblo version least similar to the Southern Athapaskan versions, a single parent eagle i s ki l l e d , feathers for arrows are 69 taken, and the eaglets are transformed. The Bull motif, in which a man k i l l s a large monster with the help of a rodent, or small rodent-like animal such as a shrew, i s found among the Northern Athapaskans for Han, Kaska, Slave, Beaver (Ridington). Beaver (Goddard), and Dogrib, and takes place in a l l cases because the man needs sinew for arrows. The rodent helper digs a tunnel up to the monster, and in a l l except Beaver (Goodard), answers that i t needs fur to keep i t s children warm when questioned by the monster. The man enters the tunnel, approaches the monster unseen, and k i l l s i t . In the Kaska and Beaver (Ridington) versions, the dying bull digs into the ground in an attempt to reach the man. In a l l Northern Athapaskan versions, the man takes sinew from the dead "bull." The Southern Athapaskan versions—Western Apache, Navajo, J i c a r i l l a , Mescalero, Chiricahua, and Lipan—are identical to the Northern versions except that in a l l , the rodent helper, a gopher, digs four tunnels. The dying bull digs into the ground in a l l Southern Athapaskan versions. The taking of sinew by the hero i s found only for Western Apache. Two instances of a small animal aiding in the ki l l i n g of a large monster are found in the Plateau area, for Pend d'Oreille (Teit, 1917) and Flathead (McDermott, 1901). In both versions, Coyote's helper, a mouse, digs TABLE V Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the B u l l Motif Hn K S BR BG D W N J M Ch L P F Sy KP Zu Ho S i Co NY WY K i Ma Helper digs tunnel +++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + There are four tunnels + + + + + + + Helper asks for fur + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Man k i l l s b u l l from below +++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + He t a l k s to b u l l + + Man k i l l s b u l l from above + + Helper k i l l s b u l l + + Dying b u l l digs ground + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Man takes sinew + + + + + + + + Symbols used: +, present; Hn, Han; K, Kaska; BR, Beaver (Ridington); BG, Beaver (Goddard); D, Dogrib; W, Western Apache; N, Navajo; J , J i c a r i l l a ; . M, Mescalero; Ch, Chiricahua; L, Lipan; -P, Pend d'Oreille; F, Flathead; Sv, Shivwits; KP, Kaibab Paiute; Zu, Zuni; Ho, Hopi; S i , S i a ; Co, C o c h i t i ; NY, Northeastern Yavapai; WY, Western Yavapa K i , Kiowa; Ma, Mandan-Hidatsa. 71 a tunnel so that Coyote may approach a monster. Coyote emerges from the tunnel, surprising the monster. Coyote t a l k s to the monster, t r i c k i n g him into laying, down hi s weapons, and k i l l s the monster. In the mythology of the Shivwits (Lowie, 1926) and Kaibab Paiute (Sapir, 1930), two Basin peoples, a snake which Coyote i s carrying i n a bag escapes, tunnels to a giant antelope, and k i l l s i t . In the Pend d' O r e i l l e , Flathead, Shushwap, and Kaibab Paiute versions, Coyote's helper does not ask for fur, nor does the dying monster dig into the ground. No mention i s made of taking sinew. In four versions from the Plains—Arapaho (Dorsey and Kroeber, 1903), Gros Ventre (Kroeber, 1908), Crow (Lowie, 1918) and Cheyenne (Kroeber, 1900)--a mole or gopher tunnels to the home of a buffalo which has carried off a woman. The woman escapes through the tunnel and rejoins her people. Two Blains versions more similar to the Athapaskan versions of the B u l l motif are found for the Kiowa (Parsons, 1929) and Mandan-Hidatsa (Beckwith, 1938). In the Kiowa version, two boys seeking sinew turn into a mole which tunnels towards a buffalo. When questioned by the buffalo, the mole says i t wants fur for i t s children. The mole pierces the side of the buffalo with a s t i c k and the buffalo, i n i t s death throes, follows the mole i n i t s tunnel. The boys take sinew for t h e i r arrows. 72 In the Mandan-Hidatsa version, a man i s aided by a mole which tunnels to a giant elk. The man goes into the tunnel and k i l l s the elk. There i s no mention of the mole asking for fur, or of the elk digging into the ground. In the Southwest, the Hopi (Stephen, 1929), Zuni (Benedict, 1935), Sia (Stevenson, 1902), C o c h i t i (Dumarest, 1919) and, Northeastern and Western Yavapai (Gifford, 1933) versions of the B u l l motif cl o s e l y resemble the Southern Athapaskan versions. The helper asks for fur i n the Zuni, Hopi, and Western Yavapai versions; the monster i s k i l l e d by a man who follows the tunnel to a point below the monster, and the monster digs the ground i n a l l of the above versions. Only i n Zuni, however, are there four tunnels, and a l l versions lack the taking of sinew from the dead monster. In the C l i f f Ogre motif, a man pushes an adversar over a c l i f f to his death. This motif i s found among the Northern Athapaskans for Kaska, Beaver (Ridington), and Beaver (Goddard). The man involved i n t h i s motif i s the hero of the Northern Athapaskan version of the Slaye of Monsters myth. That i s , he also slays the Eagle and the B u l l , as well as other monsters. S i m i l a r i t i e s i n Southern Athapaskan versions of the Slayer of Monsters myth which are not shared with Northern versions, have 73 been outlined above, and are dealt with in greater detail in "The Distribution of Myth Elements in Southern Athapaskan Mythology" (Tyhurst, n.d.). Northern Athapas-kan versions of the Slayer of Monsters myth also share incidents which are not found in Southern Athapaskan mythology. For example, in the Beaver (Ridington), Beaver (Goddard), Kaska, Slave, Dogrib, Hare, and Han texts referred to here," the hero who has slain the Eagle and the Bull (the Hare version alone lacks the slaying of the Bull), must overcome a monster which has swallowed a large amount of.water. He i s helped by a bird with a sharp beak who f l i e s at the monster, piercing i t s stomach, and releasing the water. While I have not yet myself carried out an exhaustive comparison of Northern Athapaskan versions of the Slayer of Monsters myth and other myths, i t appears that such a comparison would reveal many important similarities. In the Kaska version of the C l i f f Ogre motif, Beaver, the hero of the Kaska Slayer of Monsters myth, i s told by Sheep-Man to look over a c l i f f at some sheep below. Beaver tricks Sheep-Man into looking f i r s t and pushes him over the c l i f f . Sheep-Man-'is wife, who i s waiting below for victims to f a l l from the c l i f f , clubs him before she recognizes who i t i s . In the Beaver (Goddard) version, an elk tries to kick a man over a bank. The man succeeds in throwing the elk over the bank, and the elk i s kil l e d by his wife who i s waiting below and who " . . . thought i t 74 was a stranger she was k i l l i n g . . . ". - (Goddard, 1916: 236). In the Beaver (Ridington) version, as in the Kaska version, a man i s told to look over a c l i f f at some sheep below. The " C l i f f Ogre," here an evil, man, is pushed off the c l i f f , and i s badly injured. There i s no mention of his wife waiting below. Instead, the 12 hero turns him into an owl. Among the Southern Athapaskans, the C l i f f Ogre is found for Western Apache, Navajo, and J i c a r i l l a . In the Western Apache version, a monster identified as  a mountain sheep (Goodwin, 1939: 22) trie s to kick a man off a c l i f f . The man cuts the monster's head from a rock to which i t i s attached, and throws the monster off the c l i f f to i t s death. There i s no mention of anyone waiting below. In the Navajo and J i c a r i l l a versions, as well, a monster tries to kick the hero of the Slayer of Monster's myth off a c l i f f . In the Navajo version, as in the Western Apache version, the man cuts the monster's head from rocks to which i t i s attached. In both Navajo and J i c a r i l l a , the man succeeds in pushing the monster off the c l i f f . His children, waiting below, devour his body. In three similar versions from the Plateau area--Pend d'Oreille (Teit, 1917), Flathead (McDermott, 1901), and Sahaptin (Farrand, 1917)—Coyote i s pushed over a 75 c l i f f by a " C l i f f Ogre" after being told to look at some sheep below. The " C l i f f Ogre" i s identified as a sheep in Pend d'Oreille and Sahaptin, but not in Flathead. Coyote i s killed by the f a l l , but i s revived by an ally—Fox in Flathead and Pend d'Oreille, Magpie in Sahaptin. Coyote goes back to the c l i f f and pushes the C l i f f Ogre off, k i l l i n g i t . None of the Plateau versions mention anyone waiting at the bottom of the C l i f f . In ahNorthern Shoshone (Lowie, 1909) version from the Basin, a giant tri e s to throw Weasel off a c l i f f , but Weasel approaches the giant unseen, and throws him over the c l i f f to his death. As in the Plateau versions, there i s no one waiting below. Three versions are found in the Plains area--Arapaho (Dorsey and Kroeber, 1903), Crow (Simms, 1903), and Blackfoot (Grinnell, 1913)—but only in Crow and Blackfoot i s there any mention of someone waiting at the bottom of the c l i f f for victims. In Crow, a man tries to push two boys off a cut bank, but they elude him. The man f a l l s off the c l i f f and i s eaten by his father who i s waiting in the water below. In Blackfoot, a woman trips passers-by with a rope so that they f a l l from a c l i f f . A man cuts her rope and causes her to f a l l into water below, where she i s eaten by a monster fish. TABLE VI Athapaskan and Non-Athapaskan Versions of the Cliff-Ogre Motif K BR BG W N J P F Sn NS Zu S i NY Ar Cr B I 1 3 Monster i s sheep + + + + Man i s t o l d to look at sheep + + + + + Monster f a l l s from c l i f f + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Monster i s attached + + + Monster's r e l a t i v e s wait below + + + + + + + Monster f i s h waits below + Symbols used: + , present; K, Kaska; BR, Beaver (Ridington); BG, Beaver (Goddard); W, Western Apache; J, J i c a r i l l a ; P, Pend d'Oreille; F, Flathead; Sn, Sahaptin;.- NS, Northern Shoshone; Zu, Zuni; S i , Sia; NY, North-eastern Yavapai; Ar, Arapaho; Cr, Crow; BI, Blackfoot. 77 In Arapaho, " C l o t - c h i l d " i s led to the edge of a big hole by a man. The . ' iman t r i e s to push the boy into the hole, but f a l l s into the hole himself, and i s k i l l e d . In the Southwest, non-Athapaskan versions of the C l i f f Ogre motif are found for the Zuni (Benedict, 1935), Sia (Stevenson, 1902), Northeastern Yavapai (Gi f f o r d , 1933), and Taos (Parsons, 1940). Both Zuni and North-eastern Yavapai closely resemble the Southern Athapaskan Navajo and J i c a r i l l a versions. In the Zuni version, a a one-horned giant t r i e s to kick two boys from a c l i f f . The boys throw him over the c l i f f and he i s eaten by his children. The same incidents occur i n the North-eastern Yavapai version, except that here a single man opposes a monster called "Cliff-person-kick-down" (Gifford, 1933.). In Northeastern Yavapai, as i n Navajo and Western Apache (but not Zuni), the monster i s attached to the c l i f f and the man cuts him free before throwing him down. In the Sia version, a cougar t r i e s to convince two boys to pass i n front of him on a narrow path on a c l i f f . The boys convince the cougar to l e t them pass behind him, and push the cougar off the c l i f f , k i l l i n g him. The Taos version, of a l l Southwestern non-Athapas-kan versions of the C l i f f Ogre motif, resembles Athapaskan 78 versions the leas t . A giant repeatedly pushes a boy from a c l i f f but cannot k i l l him. The boy t r i c k s the giant into l e t t i n g himself be burned to death on a f i r e which the boy builds. In the Taos version also, the k i l l i n g of the giant i s related to a single, isolated myth. In a l l other Southwestern versions of the Slayer of Monsters myth, the k i l l i n g of the Eagle, B u l l , and C l i f f Ogre are carried out by the same hero, or twin heroes, and t h e i r actions take place within the same, continuing narrative. 79 CONCLUSION The central episode of the Northern and Southern Athapaskan Eagle motif, the NEST episode, has been compared by elements. It was found that, as a rule, those Athapaskan versions of the Eagle motif which shared more than one episode were more similar in the contents of the NEST episode than those which shared only the NEST episode. The Northern Athapaskan versions of the NEST episode, the Eagle motif showed considerably more variation in content than did Southern Athapaskan versions of the same episode. The three motifs considered here are found together only among the Northern Athapaskans (Kaska and Beaver), the Southern Athapaskans (Navajo, J i c a r i l l a , and Western Apache), and among the peoples of the Southwest with whom they were closely associated (Zuni, Sia, and Northeastern Yavapai). In each of the above cases, the motifs are found together within a single myth and are carried out by the same hero. A l l three motifs are not found in the mythology of any other non-Athapaskan people considered here. Such a distribution i s best accounted for by the motifs being carried to the Southwest by the precursors of the Southern Athapaskans when they migrated from the North. If i t i s assumed that the motifs originated in the 80 Southwest--the only location where a l l three motifs are found i n the mythology.of non-Athapaskan peoples--and were transmitted from there to the North, the motifs might have been transmitted: 1. Through Athapaskan-speaking peoples to the North at a time when a stri n g of migrating Athapaskans stretched from Canada to the Southwest, or 2. In severalty through non-Athapaskans. The f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y must be rejected as i t involves far more steps than migration with f u l l retention. The second p o s s i b i l i t y likewise involves more steps than migration with f u l l retention, and i n addition assumes steps i n which one or more of the motifs was l o s t among the non-Athapaskan peoples through whom the transmission occurred. The content of the three motifs also furnishes , evidence i n favour of migration with retention. Some elements of content of these three motifs are shared only between the Northern and Southern Athapaskans; others among the Northern and Southern Athapaskans, and neighbouring peoples i n the Southwest, with extremely li m i t e d occurrence among other non-Athapaskans. A minimal reconstruction of the proto-myth may be carried out by including a l l elements of the motifs shared between the Northern and Southern Athapaskan versions of the three motifs. Such a reconstruction i s a minimal one, since, elements o r i g i n a l l y shared by the precursors of both groups 81 may have since been l o s t . Using the elements of comparison of content from Table IV, Table V and Table VI, those that are shared between Northern and Southern Athapaskans are as follows: l ) Eagle Motif 1. Man i s i n nest 2. Man k i l l s eaglets 3. Man asks when mother returns 4. Eaglet says she comes with "weather" 5. Man asks when father returns 6. Eaglet says he comes with "weather" 7. Mother returns with "weather" 8. She carries meat 9. Man k i l l s her 10. Father returns with "weather" 11. He ca r r i e s meat 12. Man k i l l s him 13. Man takes feathers 2) B u l l Motif 1. Helper digs tunnel 2. Helper asks for fur 3. Man k i l l s b u l l from below 4. Dying b u l l digs ground 5. Man takes sinew 3) C l i f f Ogre Motif 1. Monster i s sheep 2. Monster f a l l s from c l i f f 3. Monster's r e l a t i v e s wait below Only two of the Northern and Southern Athapaskan elements of comparison i n the Eagle motif are not found among non-Athapaskans (see Table IV). These elements-'-the carrying of "meat" by the parents—are, however, units which are highly s i g n i f i c a n t i n that i t i s human meat which they 82 axe carrying, and i t i s t h i s which makes them monsters. In the Han, Kaska, Slave, and Beaver (Ridington) versions of the Eagle motif, i t i s specified i n the text that both parents return to the nest with either human parts or with dead people. In the Chipewyan (Petitot) version, i t i s the mother who returns to the nest with debris humain,s. and i n the Dogrib version i t i s the father eagle who carries a c h i l d to the nest. Among the Southern Athapaskans, both mother and father eagles return to the nest carrying people i n the Western Apache and J i c a r i l l a versions of the Eagle motif. In the Navajo, the mother returns carrying the body of a Pueblo woman. In the B u l l motif, the man takes sinew from the dead monster i n the Northern Athapaskan,. Han, Kaska, Slave, Beaver (Ridington), Beaver (Goddard), and Dogrib versions. This element i s found i n the Western Apache version, and, among non-Athapaskans, only, among the Kiowa (see Table V ) ^ who have long, been associated with the Athapaskan-speaking Kiowa Apache. -In the C l i f f Ogre motif, the monster's r e l a t i v e s wait below i n the Northern Athapaskan Beaver (Goddard) and Kaska versions, and i n the Southern Athapaskan Navajo arid J i c a r i l l a versions. This element i s found i n the Southwest for Zuni and Northeastern Yavapai. Outside the Southwest, however, i t i s found only for Crow (see Table VI). 83 The three motifs are present together within a single myth among the Northern and Southern Athapaskans. No non-Athapaskan group aside from those in the Southwest has a l l three motifs. Thus the myth i t s e l f , or at least the minimal reconstruction of the proto-myth presented above, i s most li k e l y to have originated among the Athapaskans in the North, or among those peoples of the Southwest whose mythology contains a l l three motifs. Transmission from the Southwest to the North, however, i s less l i k e l y than migration with retention because i t involves more steps, whether through a string of migrating Athapaskans, or in severalty through non-Athapaskans. The Eagle and Bull motifs themselves contain elements found only among the Northern and Southern Athapaskans (with a single occurrence of the element of taking sinew, from the Bull motif, among the non-Athapaskan Kiowa). The element of "relatives waiting below," from the C l i f f Ogre motif, i s found in the mythology of two non-Athapaskan peoples of the Southwest, but outside the Southwest, only among the Crow. In addition, several of the underlying ideas of the Slayer of Monsters myth are found in both Northern and Southern Athapaskan versions of the myth. In the Eagle and Bull motifs, not only i s a monster slain, but i t also becomes something useful for hunters. In the Eagle motif, feathers for arrows are taken from the dead eagles (Northern Athapas-84 kan - Han, Slave, Kaska, Beaver (Ridington), Beaver (Goddard), Dogrib and Hare; Southern Athapaskan - Western Apache). In the B u l l motif, sinew i s taken from the dead monster (Northern Athapaskan - Han, Kaska, Slave, Beaver (Ridington), Beaver (Goddard), and Dogrib; Southern Athapaskan - Western Apache). The idea of making the world a safe ,place for people to l i v e i s found i n both Northern and Southern Atha-paskan versions of the myth. The monsters which k i l l people and make the world dangerous, are themselves k i l l e d or transformed. In the Chipewyan (Petitot) version of the Slayer of Monsters myth (see tr a n s l a t i o n i n Appendix of t h i s paper), the monster slayer attacks the g i r l "Breast F u l l of Mice." Vermin come out of her body and spread over the earth. As a resu l t of t h i s , misery, sickness, famine, forced f a s t i n g , death, and cold have plagued people since. In a Navajo version of the Slayer of Monsters myth not previously considered here (Navaio History 1971: '68 - 69), Hunger Man, Poverty Man, Sleep Man, Lice Man, and Old Age are f i v e monsters which the monster slayer did not k i l l . Thus i n a Northern and a Southern Athapaskan version of the myth, the monster slayer, despite his powers, i s responsible for the presence of certain human problems upon the earth. In view of a l l the above f a c t s , i t i s most highly probable that the three motifs were carried to the South-west by the precursors of the Southern Athapaskans when they migrated. 85 FOOTNOTES 1. The term "motif" i s used by Tsuchiyama to refer to whatever,specific portion of Athapaskan mythology she i s considering. She c a l l s those parts of Athapaskan mythology i n which a v i s i t i s made to an eagle's nest, a " b u l l " i s s l a i n , or a " c l i f f ogre" i s defeated, "motifs." Her usage i s followed here. In the " V i s i t to Eagle's Nest" motif, the hero makes h i s way into the nest of a large b i r d monster (usually i d e n t i f i e d as an eagle). With few exceptions, he questions the eaglets i n the nest as to when t h e i r parents w i l l return, and k i l l s the parent eagles, making his way to the ground. 2. My own translations of Pe t i t o t ' s Chipewyan, Dogrib, and Hare texts (1996) are appended as sample texts. 3. I f only two texts were being compared and they agreed i n the content of a l l major actions, both would be considered to consist of a single episode. Any portion of a text shared by a l l texts under consideration would be considered an episode, as w e l l . 4. I t i s during the obtaining of the sinew that the hero comes upon and slays the "Giant B u l l . " 5. The Chipewyan (Goddard) and Chipewyan (Lowie) versions of the NEST episode, while not included i n the wider comparison by elements, are compared with each other here: Elements Considered Equivalent CP-CG CP-CG CG-CL 1-1 1-2 1-2 3-3 3-3 2-1 5-7 5-7 3-3 6-6 6-6 4-4 7-5 7-5 5-5 8-13 8-11 6-6 9-14 9-12 7-7 10-15 10-15 8-8 11-18 11-15 9-9 12-8 12-8 10-10 14-9 14-9 13-11 86 CP-CG CP-CG CG-CL 15-10 15-10 14-12 16-17 16-14 15-13 20-25 21-16 17-14 18-15 C=0.60 0=0.76 0=0.73 See, for example, Hoijer (1956). 7. Whether the man l e t s the eaglet l i v e i s , i n the Southern Athapaskan versions, part of the content of the BIRDS episode. And even here a comparison with Northern versions i s d i f f i c u l t . The eaglet, for example, i s turned into an owl (Western Apache), or i s made smaller ( J i c a r i l l a and Lipan). In no case are a l l the eaglets k i l l e d , but t h i s "element" which resembles, for example, element 31 of Beaver (Ridington (man l e t s eagle l i v e ) , i s because of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n comparison, not included i n the l i s t of elements shared between Northern and Southern versions. The Western Apache version of the NEST episode considered here takes place within the context of a search by the hero for materials,to make arrows—he has himself carried into the nest i n order to get feathers. However, while he obtains the feathers, he does not do so within the NEST episode, and thus another possible s i m i l a r i t y between Western Apache and such Northern versions as Beaver (Ridington), Slave, Kaska, Dogrib, Hare and Han (e.g., Han element 25: He gets feathers for arrows) i s not represented i n the comparison by elements. 8. Many of the non-Athapaskan texts referred to below are referred to i n Tsuchiyama (1947). A l l have, however, been examined f i r s t hand. 9. According to Spanish accounts (CZarate-Salmeron 1899-1900J and [Benavides, 1916J cited i n [ H i l l , 19403). 10. See, for example, Goodwin (1942) for accounts of trading between Western Apache and Hopi (p. 74), and of intermarriage between Western Apache and Yavapai (pp. 88-92). 11. The area c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s used here follow Kroeber*s culture area c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s (1963), with s l i g h t modifica-tions i n terminology. Such modifications are made to f 87 f a c i l i t a t e discussion of the motifs considered, and do not, I believe, depart excessively from Koreber's classification. As with Kroeber, the Pueblo Indians (Cochiti, Hopi, Sia, Taos, Zuni), Yavapai, Navajo, and Apache are termed as belonging to the Southwest culture area. Kroeber includes the Lipan Apache in the South Texas culture area (Kroeber, 1963: 37), but they are included in the term "Southwest" here, so as to include them with other Southern Athapaskans. A l l peoples referred to here as being within the Plateau area—Flathead, Kutenai, Pend d'Oreille, Sanpoil, Shushwap, Sahaptin, and Thompson—are included in Kroeber*s "Columbia-Fraser Plateau" area (1963: 55). Peoples referred to as being within the Basin area—Kaibab Paiute, Northern Shoshone, Moapa, Shivwits, Uintah Ute, and Wind River Shoshone—are referred to as "Great Basin" by Kroeber (1963: 49). Peoples referred to here as Plains are included in Kroeber rs ^Southern Plains" (Kiowa) (Kroeber, 1963: 79) and "Northern Plains" (Arapaho, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Crow, and Gros Ventre) (Kroeber, 1963: 80). Referred to as Plains here, but placed in the "Prairie" culture area by Kroeber are the Arikara and Mandan-Hidatsa. They are described by him as ". . . agri-cultural prairie tribes who entered the plains but retained their prairie culture" (1963: 83). Also termed Plains here, are the Wichita and Skidi Pawnee, whom Kroeber places in the "Red River" area, to the immediate south and east of the Southern Plains (1963: 74). The terms "Northern Athapaskan" and "Southern Athapaskan," do not, of course, refer to culture areas, but rather to those Athapaskan speaking peoples living north of the Canada-U.S. border, and in or near the Southwest, respectively. 12. In a Chilcotin "version" which has l i t t l e similarity to Kiowa, Beaver (Ridington), or Beaver (Goddard), a man i s pushed off a c l i f f and escapes by turning himself into a flying-squirrel. 13. • The Chilcotin and Taos versions are omitted as they share none of the units of content shown in the Table. 14. These translations were made by myself, and checked by E l l i and Pierre Maranda. They are included here as sample texts. To f a c i l i t a t e typing, accents found in Petitot's original have been omitted. The phonetic symbol p i s represented by R. 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY Beckwith, M.W. "Mandan-Hidatsa Myths and Ceremonies." Memoirs of the American Folklore Society, Vol. 32 (1938). Benavides, Fray A. de. The Memorial of Fray Alonso de Benavides. 1630. trans. A. E. Ayer, Chicago: 1916. • Benedict, Ruth. "Zuni Mythology." Columbia University  Contributions to Anthropology, Vol. 21 (1935). Boas, F.. "Kutenai Tales." Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Vol. 59 (1918). Breton, Andre. Young Cherry Trees Secured Against Hares, trans. Edouard Roditi. The University of Michigan Press, 1969. Chapman, J. W. "Ten'a Texts and Tales from Anvik." Publications of the American Ethnological  Society. Vol. 6 (1914). Clark, A. Unpublished tape recordings collected at Huslia, Alaska. Museum of Man, Ottawa (n.d.). Dorsey, G.A. "The Mythology of theWichita." Carnegie Instil U904i itution of Washington Publication. 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Vol. 10, Part 1 (1912). Goodwin, G. "Myths and Tales of the White Mountain Apache. Memoirs of the American Folklore  Society. Vol. 33 (1939). . The Social Organization of the Western Apache. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942. Gould, M. K. "Sanpoil Tales." Memoirs of the American  Folklore Society. V o l . 11 (1918), pp. 101-113. G r i n n e l l , G.B. Blackfeet Indian Stories. New York: 1913. Gunnerson, J.H. and D. A. Gunnerson. "Apachean Culture: A Study i n Unity and Diversity." i n "Apachean Culture, History and Ethnology." M. E. Opler and K. H. Basso, eds., Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 21 (1971),"pp. 7-27. H i l l , W. W. "Some Navaho Culture Changes During Two Centuries (with a t r a n s l a t i o n of the Early Eighteenth Century Rabal Manuscript)." Smithsonian  Miscellaneous Collections .-Vol. 100 (1940). " Hoijer, H. Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache Texts. • The University of Chicago Press,"Chicago:< 1938. . 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Journal of American Folk-lore. Vol. 42 (1929), pp. 1-72. Stevenson, M.C. "The Sia." Report of the Bureau of  American Ethnology. Vol. 23 (1902). Teit, J.A. "Kaska Tales." Journal of American Folklore. Vol. 30 (1917), pp. 427-473. . "Pend d'Oreille Tales." Memoirs of the American Folklore Society. Vol. 11 (1917), pp. 114-118. . "The Shushwap." Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. Vol. 4, Part 7 (1909). . "Traditions of the Thompson River Indians." Memoirs of the American Folklore Society. Vol. 6 (1898). '• 92 Tsuchiyama, Tamie. "A Comparison of the Folklore of the Northern, Southern, and P a c i f i c Athapaskans: A Study i n S t a b i l i t y of Folklore Within a L i n g u i s t i c Stock." Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a : University of C a l i f o r n i a , unpublished Ph.D. the s i s , 1947. Tyhurst, R.J.S. "The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Myth Elements i n Southern Athapaskan Mythology. Unpublished Honours Thesis, University of B.C. (1972). Voudrach, P. "Good Hope Tales." B u l l e t i n of the National Museum of-Canada. Vol. 204 (1967), pp. 1-58. Williamson, R.G. "Slave Indian Legends." Anthropologica. Vol. 1 (1955), pp. 119-143. Zarate-Salmeron, F.G. "Relaciones . . . desde e l ano 1538 hasta e l de 1626," trans. C. F. Lummis. Land of Sunshine, vols. 11-12 (1899-1900). APPENDIX 94 ELTCHELEKWIE ONNIE (Pe t i t o t 1886: 352 - 362 ) 1 4 (Chipewyan) At the beginning of time, there was an old man who had two sons. One day he t o l d them, "My children, get into your dugout canoe, and go hunting, because there i s nothing to eat here." The two obedient boys got into the canoe and l e f t at once to go hunting. The old man said to them, "You should go west, because that's where your f i r s t homeland i s , and only there w i l l you l i v e happily." So they l e f t . On the fourth day of t h e i r journey, they came to a wa t e r f a l l c a l l e d E l t s i n nathelin or the whirling chasm. There they captured some Canada geese. But when evening had come, they didn't know where they were, and they got lo s t altogether. The next morning, and during the following days, the two brothers didn't get any further ahead. In the meantime they had eaten t h e i r l i t t l e geese, and went along the deserted and steep shores of Great Slave Lake, on the shore of which they came upon a mountain c a l l e d Dene-chath-yaRe—the mountain with men inside. 95 "Older brother," said the younger of the boys to his brother, "This country isn't anything like our own. Where do you think we are?" "Alas, younger brother," answered the older, "I don't know any more than you. But don't let i t trouble you at a l l . Let's keep on going." A l l of a sudden the two brothers heard voices under the ground—the voices of giants (OtchoRe) who lived on the northern shore of Great Slave Lake. In front of the mountain a l i t t l e giant and his sister were playing together. The cone-shaped mountain was their tent. "Oh, what l i t t l e men," they cried joyfully, seeing the two Dene brothers. They ran to them, and took them in their hands. They put them in their mittens, like l i t t l e birds fallen from a nest which one wishes to warm up, and took them in this way to their parents. "Look father, mother, what l i t t l e bits of men we have just found on the shore," they said laughing. "Don't make fun of them," said the giant father, who was a very kind man. "My children," he added, speaking to the two brothers. "Stay with us. No one wi l l do you harm." Saying this the giant gave each boy the eye of a giant trout to eat. 96 The l i t t l e Dene lived then at Dene-chath-yaRe on the north shore of Great Slave Lake. They went to inspect the fishing hooks and nets in the company of the giant's children, and didn't want for anything. But in the end they grew tired of this comfort-able and easy l i f e , and asked to continue their journey. "Of course," said the giant. He made them fish pemmican, and gave to each one two arrows. "You w i l l k i l l male moose with this male arrow," he told them, "and with this female arrow you w i l l pursue the female. These two arrows are very powerful. They come back by themselves after you have shot them. Therefore, do not go after them to retrieve them, for i f you do so, misfortune w i l l occur. I forbid i t absolutely." The two brothers promised everything and l e f t . As they were leaving, the kind giant indicated to them the setting sun as the point on the horizon where their f i r s t homeland lay, and told them to move in that direction. A l i t t l e after leaving the home of the good giant the younger of the two brothers sighted a squirrel perch on a large f i r tree, and shot one of his arrows at i t . Then he ran right away to retrieve i t . 97 "Oh, my younger brother, take care, don't take hold of i t at a l l , " cried out the older boy. "You know that we were told not to. It i s very bad, they think, to disobey." But the younger boy persisted. "It's in my grasp," he shouted to his brother, "I can reach i t . " He then held out his arm to grasp i t , but i t went higher, following the squirrel, who mocked the hunter. "Ah, see here, I have i t ! " he shouted triumphantly. But the arrow, escaping him, went higher again, and kept going up. At last the young man got hold of the arrow. But immediately i t took off like a lightning bolt and shot with great speed towards the sky, carrying after i t the unfortunate younger brother. The arrow ; went right up into the sky. Up there was a superior Land, in a l l ways similar to that which we live in. When the young man arrived there, he found i t covered with white frost, and on the snow he saw a large number of the tracks of a l l sorts of animals whose flesh i s edible. He saw also a big white road. It was wide and along i t were trees bearing f r u i t , and signposts. On the road a pair of completely new snowshoes were planted in 98 the snow. They appeared to be waiting for him. The younger brother, carried far from his country by his disobedience, put on these snowshoes, and followed the white path. He arrived in this way at an immense tent in which he found three women who showed him hospitality. The oldest woman, mother of the two others, said to him in secret, "My son-in-law, I must warn you that my g i r l s are e v i l . They trick humans. Do not trust them. Do not l i e with them, and do not even watch them sleeping." Saying this, and to prevent any relations between this young man—whom she found handsome—and her daughters, the old woman blackened his entire face with charcoal. She did this for fear that he would be loved by them. In the evening, the two celestial maidens arrived home from the hunt, for they were "ammazon huntresses." The older one was named "breast f u l l of weasels" (DelkRayle-tta-naltay), and the younger one "breast f u l l of mice" (Dlune-Ha-naltay). As soon as they saw the l i t t l e black boy who was sitting in their mother's tent, they couldn't stop laughing, and made fun of him. The old woman had won. But the next day, the young man, stung to the quick, and having washed his face and hands, appeared- so handsome to .the two sisters that 99 both shouted at the same time, "I want to have him! I want to have him! He w i l l be mine!" In vain the old woman opposed herself to their union. The two g i r l s threw themselves on the handsome young man, carried him to their bed, and made him sleep between them. But they had not even spent one night together— despite the mother's protection—before a chasm opened beneath the young man and he was swallowed up alive in the bosom of the earth above. "Nari (poor unfortunate!)," cried out the old woman when she saw him disappear. Here i s another hand-some man whom you have taken away from me, you e v i l ones!" Meanwhile, a huge wolf came up. Smelling human flesh in the place where the young culprit lay, he set himself to digging the earth with his powerful claws. Through his digging, he freed the man from his horrible grave. On the white path he waited for "Breast Full of Mice." He wanted to take his revenge on her, but he couldn't k i l l her, because she was immortal. Then he tore off her clothes and tore her into pieces, and a l l the mice, rats, moles, snakes, worms, and other harmful creatures which were closed up in her breast came out 100 and spread over the earth--where they have lived to this day. Since then there has been on the earth so much misery (lla y ) , sickness (tata), famine (dan), forced fasting (ettchieri ), death (edzil) , and cold (klu). A l l that has come upon us through the dis-obedience of the young man, and the malice of the' woman. This i s why we k i l l a l l mice (klu), moles (dan), insects (llae ), and harmful animals ( ettchieri )» which have caused man's unhappiness. Then the old woman, who lived in the big tent, said to the handsome young man, "Come here, trust me at last. I am going to get for you the means to return to the earth from which you have come. I know a place on this upper earth where there i s a hole from which you can see the earth below. I am going to let you down through this opening." Saying this, the old woman cut up some elk skins into strips and made a long thong from them, at the end of which she tied the young man under his armpits. Then she let him down through the gaping hole. "As soon as you feel the earth under your feet," she told him, "let the thong go." The old woman then let the young Dene down through the hole, and he went down for a long time* since the distance was great and the thong was very long. 1 0 1 At l a s t his foot f e l t an obstacle "I have arrived on earth," he thought. So he released the thong which i n a wink of an eye went back up towards the sky, and he found himself . . . where?—in the aerie of Orelpale (Whiteness), a huge eagle who l i v e d on human f l e s h . A l l around Dene. i n the gigantic nest of the eagle who ate men, he saw nothing but human s k u l l s and bones. He looked down, but he saw with f r i g h t that he was f a r — v e r y f a r — f r o m habitable ground. Luckily, the eaglet <Jwho was i n the nest}, had p i t y on the man. "He makes me f e e l merciful," the eaglet said to himself. "He i s so young. Hide yourself under my wings, brother-in-law," he said to the young man. "And i f you see i t becoming l i g h t , that i s my father, the giant eagle, a r r i v i n g at the Nest. But i f darkness comes upon us, that i s a sign that my mother i s a r r i v i n g . " A l l of a sudden, Dene., hearing a great noise of wings, went and took refuge under the wings of the eaglet. Immediately i t became l i g h t , and the male eagle returned to the nest. "Ah! This smells nicely of fresh human f l e s h ! " he said, s n i f f i n g a l l around. "Is that surprising," said the eaglet, "since you bring me human f l e s h to devour every day?" 102 Orelpale. the father, went away, and Dene regained a bit of confidence. An instant later, the noise of thunder was heard again, i t became dark and the female Orelpale entered the nest with human remains in her talons. "How i t smells of fresh meat!" she cried out, sniffing inquisitively. "Come on, mother, i s that surprising, since you keep bringing i t to me yourself?" answered the eaglet. The female eagle in her turn went away. This couldn't go on for long. It ended with Orelpale realizing that there was a mortal living in his aerie. Angered, he wanted to k i l l the bold man who had come to defy him even in his own nest. Then the eaglet threw himself between his father and the man. "If you k i l l him," he cried out, "I w i l l throw myself at once from my nest onto the earth." For fear of causing the death of his son, the father eagle consented to let the man l i v e . Then the eaglet said to the man, "You cannot always live here. My father w i l l be able to surprise and k i l l you, for a l l I know. Here, take these wing feathers of mine, f i t them to your body, and try to f l y around my nest. If you succeed in going around three times, you are saved and w i l l be able to f l y to your own country. 103 So the young man f i t t e d the feathers of the thunder-bird to his arms and legs and t r i e d to f l y . The f i r s t time he leapt forward, he f e l l and hurt him-self badly. But the eaglet picked him up. "So do l i k e t h i s , and l i k e that," he said to him. And l i t t l e by l i t t l e he taught him how to f l y by supporting him on his wings. At l a s t the man succeeded, aided by the eaglet. He could make i t around the aerie one, two, and, at l a s t three times. And immediately he flew away towards the earth using the feathers of the helpful eaglet. That i s the end. 104 DUNE YA-MON RIYA (Peti t o t 1886: 321 - 328) (Dogrib) Then they l e f t for war - for destruction of th e i r fellows - except for one old woman who l i v e d with her son. Many warriors went along the path, and there were also many women. But the old woman took the arrows of her son to stop him from going to war. Vainly she c r i e d , shouting, "Don't go." They went a l l the same. After they had l e f t , one young man said to his old mother, "Mother, I want to follow the crowd." And he l e f t by himself. He followed the great war-path, he examined the countryside, and having discovered a big tent from high on a mountain, he sat on the mountainside and looked over the country. F i n a l l y , he went back down the mountain and went to the big lodge he had seen from the mountaintop. An old man and his old wife l i v e d there. They were cooking rabbit and f i s h i n woven f i r - r o o t pots, and gave him some to eat. The two old people had a very beautiful daughter whom the young man took.to ardently desiring. So after 105 they had eaten what the g i r l had served them, and after she had gone to sleep, the old ones said to th e i r guest, "Now our daughter i s alone. Lie next to her and sleep with her." So the young Dune man went towards the younger stranger. He lay down beside her, and took hold of her breasts. He wanted to sleep with her. But a l l at once he f e l t nothing beside him except a white weasel. He didn't consider himself beaten at a l l , however. He slept with her a l l the same, and became her husband by force. The next day, the g i r l said to her father and mother, "This one has robbed me of a l l my magic." "So what?" they answered. " A l l r i g h t them, I'm going to inspect my hare snares," she answered. The young man accompanied her i n her inspection. He took hares through the strength of h i s medicine. Then he went to a l i t t l e lake., He threw a stone into the lake and k i l l e d an enormous pike. He didn't have arrows. He threw a piece of wood into the branches of a tree, and the branches f e l l and turned into arrows. But the arrows weren't feathered. So .he had to get feathers. He looked up and saw the aerie of a bald-headed eagle at the top of a big f i r tree. He climbed up and went into the eagle's nest. 106 There was a single eaglet. "Man," he said to the young magician, "My father and mother are not here. If they f i n d you here when they come back, you are l o s t . Hide yourself under my wings." "Then t e l l me how I w i l l t e l l your father from your mother." "The male eagle makes snow, and the female eagle makes the r a i n f a l l , " said the eaglet. He put the man under cover and crouched down i n his aerie, hiding him under his outstretched wings. A l l of a sudden the giant eagle Nontiele came back to the nest with some food. I t was the female, and she had a big crown of feathers. She gave her son some fresh meat. The man k i l l e d her, and she died. A moment l a t e r , the giant male eagle arrived i n his turn, i n a big swoop. "This smells of human f l e s h , " he cried out. Saying t h i s he put down i n the aerie a l i t t l e c h i l d , which he gave as food to the eaglet. The man k i l l e d him, but he said to the l i t t l e eagle who had protected him, "As for you, you w i l l leave and from now on you w i l l l i v e on nothing but the f i s h you catch." And he l e t him go. But he plucked the feathers from the other two eagles, and i n that way got feathers for his arrows— feathers of thunder. 107 Suddenly an Etie-kotcho (gigantic reindeer) appeared on the path. It was lying there, immense and gigantic. It seemed impossible but . . . how to k i l l i t ? Everyone was hiding under the trees. When the young magician said to a mouse, "Dig f:or me a subterranean route towards the monster." The mouse went into the earth. It dug and opened up a tunnel right up to a point beneath the sides of the huge man-eater, right under i t s heart. The magician slid into the tunnel behind the mouse. Both came out of the earth at that place. They pierced the flanks of Etie-kotcho. they stabbed i t in the heart, and i t died on the spot. The magician took i t s sinew and went away. Then he wanted to have heads for his arrows— heads of f l i n t — a n d he began to look for them. Suddenly he saw an enormous toad who was juggling on a block of f l i n t where he lay. The man took some mud, and made i t into hard and compact balls which he threw forcefully at the toad, k i l l i n g i t . Then he took the arrow f l i n t s which the toad had made through the strength of his medicine. Being thus provided with a woman and magic arrows, Dune l e f t for ,war. Suddenly he heard a dog barking--indicating the presence of men--and saw something like a 108 wolverine rapidly crossing the path. Having seen i t before i t saw him, he said to himself," I saw him f i r s t . He's mine." He ran at the wolverine, reached i t , and throw-ing his cape over i t s head, pierced i t with his arrows, and lay on i t . It was a man, an enemy warrior. Immediately he scalped him, and set out again. There was in this place a river. He cleared i t in one leap and found himself on the opposite bank, in the land of the Wolverines. There was a great many Wolverines in this place, and their dwellings could be seen everywhere. He heard the l i t t l e wolverines crying for food. Immediately the magician hid himself. He feigned death and put himself on alert. The Wolverines, believing him to be dead, carelessly came up to him. Immediately he struck out and hit one on the nose. The Wolverine sneezed, blew his nose, and pine resin came out. Then he came back to his wife whom he had lef t with his mother. "Change yourself into a bear," he said to his wife. The old woman objected to this, for.fear that he would then k i l l her. But he wanted i t , and i t was done. His wife became a bear. "Ah, my son-in-law," cried out the old mother," If the young people see my daughter like this, they w i l l take her for a real bear and k i l l her." Saying this, she 109 took away a l l his weapons. But he threw himself on the bear as she was running away and k i l l e d her with arrows. While she was dying, the bear turned back into a woman and c a l l e d out to her father for help, demanding revenge and j u s t i c e . The old man attacked the magician, who ran towards a lake, and threw himself into i t . As he plunged into the lake, he changed himself into a beaver. Then the old man, outraged and furious, over the wickedness of Yamon, changed himself into a hydre (Yikone)--a gigantic animal resembling an ox, except for the wings on i t s back. He came down from the sky, set himself down on the waters of the lake and swallowed them a l l up. Then he rested on the shore. He was so f u l l of water that his immense b e l l y was stretched l i k e a swollen bladder. The magician then ordered a plover to run at the hydre and to pierce i t s b e l l y with i t s sharp and slender b i l l . The b i r d obeyed him. I t pierced the b e l l y of the hydre. and immediately a l l the water which i t contained came roaring out. Since that time, the great waters have roared. As for the winged ox, i t went back to the sky. And the flood, which caused t h i s great gush of water, drowned the two old people. 110 The people wanted, however, to get r i d of such a fearsome sorcerer. But Dune Yamon-riya threw himself into the water again, again became a beaver, and went up the Naotcha (Mackenzie River), and built an immense dam at Na-deinlin tcho (the Ramparts rapids), where he lived for some time in the form of a fish, on Etie-ndue. or Reindeer, island. Then, having le f t this lodging, and always fearful of being surprised by enemies, he again went up the Mackenzie, this time along the shore, accompanied by Porcupine. Having arrived at the second rapids on the river--the rapids called Nadeinlin-tsele. or Sans-Saut. he carried the porcupine across the river on his back, and placed the porcupine upstream from the rapids, so that i t would stay there until the end of time, on the le f t bank. As for himself, s t i l l in the form of a beaver, he made a second dam across the Naotcha which i s the Sans-Saut rapids. Then he again crossed the river, and settled on the right bank at the place called Tsa-cho- tRe-niha (the big beaver who dips his t a i l in the water), so called because the island so named is in fact his t a i l . That i s the end. I l l KUNYAN (THE SENSIBLE) OR EKKA-DEKINE (Pet i t o t 1886: 141 - 149) (Hare) Kunyan (The Sensible) l i v e d alone on the earth, having for a wife his own s i s t e r , a woman as sensible as himself. He was an old man without ancestors or descendants. Here i s how he got married: He was l i v i n g completely alone when, having gone somewhere, he found a beautiful woman there who pleased him. He asked her for something to eat. She gave him food. So then he li v e d with t h i s woman, who, as I have already said, was his own s i s t e r . Mice and weasels who were l i k e men l i v e d there also. The mouse said to Kunyan. "My son, what have you come to do here where we l i v e ? Don't you have your r e l a t i v e s to l i v e with?" "The Sensible" l i v e d meanwhile with the mouse and took her for h i s wife. As they s l e p t / mink and weasels went i n through h i s anus trying to destroy him. But he ejected them, got up, and raged against the woman who had-come to t r i c k him. The mouse l e f t him and went to complain to her 112 father, the polar bear, a big fellow, to whom she said, "A man has done this.and that to me. He was angry with me, and hit and insulted me." The polar bear, deeply upset, immediately got up and went to "The Sensible" to ask him the reason for his behaviour. But he, who was waiting for them under the wild pear trees which grow abundantly there, began by gorging himself to his f i l l with pears. Then he killed the bear and his daughter and went away. After that, "The Sensible" f e l t like making some arrows. Having seen the largest of the pear trees from a distance, he hit i t on the trunk, and at once there f e l l from i t s branches a rain of completely finished arrow shafts. "Now I need some arrow points," he said. He went from there to the edge of the water, where he saw a big layered stone. He threw i t in the water, then into a f i r e , and immediately the rock divided into a number of f l a t stones, from which he made arrow points in an instant. "Now I need feathers for my arrows," he said. He went to a big f i r , on top of which a large white-headed eagle had fixed i t s aerie. He climbed up, in the absence of the mother and the father eagles, and huddled up in the nest with the eaglets. 113 "Is there among you a t e l l - t a l e who might betray me?" "The Sensible" asked the eaglets. "Yes," said a l i t t l e eagle, "my sister over there who speaks i l l and i s devious." Kunyan took her, ki l l e d her, threw her down below the nest and took her place. "So t e l l me, l i t t l e one, when your father comes back to the nest, what happens?" "The Sensible" said to the eaglet. "If i t i s my father who i s coming back you w i l l be flooded with a bright light," answered the bird. "And i f It i s your mother arriving at the nest, what happens then?" continued the man. "If i t i s my mother, i t w i l l be black night." Saying this, the eaglet went back to his place in the aerie. There was heard a great noise of wings which made thunder and lightning, and a l l of a sudden the big eagle came back, and i t was light. "I smell human flesh! I smell human flesh!" cried out the thunderbird. "So what! You bring me human flesh to eat every day," answered the eaglet," and you are surprised to smell i t s odour!" The male flew away again. Then there came another noise of wings, and the female eagle arrived at the nest. Immediately i t became dark. 114 "I smell human flesh! I smell fresh flesh!" cried out the carnivorous eagle. "Mother, you leave some here for me every day. Why are you surprised to smell i t s odour?" answered the l i t t l e eagle. She l e f t in her turn, and the man found himself alone again with his saviour. At once he threw himself on the eaglet. He plucked his new grown feathers, and burned the nest. He took the l i t t l e one and plucked him, pulling out the feathers one by one. He killed the eaglet and went away with a quantity of these thunderbird feathers which he fitted to his arrows. From his union with his sister, Kunyan had a son--a sullen boy who cried a l l the time. "Of course, he has no toys," he thought. He went away to the edge of the sea and climbed into a big f i r - t r e e . He lopped off a l l the branches except a cluster right at the top. Then he cut the tree off at the bottom and gave i t to the child as a rattle. From then on, he didn't cry any more. After that, Kunyan had a wish to k i l l a l l men. Towards this end, he made a great stock of dry willow wood—which i s very hard and sharp like iron points. He put points on the dry branches and planted them like a barricade.., a l l around his tent. Night came, and everyone came to v i s i t "The Sensible." A l l were 115 disembowelled or run through by these stakes. Then he said to his sister, "With birch bark, make me a baby-carrying sling." "What do you want to do with that?" said his si ster. However, she made him the sling, which she decorated with moss. When Kunyan had the sling, he changed himself into a l i t t l e baby, and sat in the l i t t l e seat. He fastened the sling around his l i t t l e body, and went staggering--his legs hither and thither--towards the people who were gathered together beside the sea. "See this l i t t l e child who i s coming to us," someone shouted. Throwing away his sling and diapers, the l i t t l e child became a terrible giant again. He threw himself on the crowd and massacred them with furor. After that, "The Sensible" said to his sister, "Over there, at Foot-of-the-Sky, I am going to make a big raft." "And what do you want to do with this?" she answered. "If, as I foresee, there i s a flood, we wi l l take refuge there," he said. It was part of his plans for what remained of mankind on the earth. They laughed at him. 116 "Oh! oh! oh! If there i s a flood we w i l l take refuge in the trees," they answered. "That's fine, that's fine," he said. "If there i s a flood, I w i l l sail away on my raft." So he wove thick ropes from roots. He made a great number of them. He worked a lot. He brought together big pieces of wood and made, a l l by himself, a large raft. A l l of a sudden, there was a flood the likes of which had never been seen. It was as i f water gushed from every direction. People hastened to save themselves in the trees. But the water went higher and higher, reached them and drowned them. A l l the people died. As for "The Sensible," he had a good large raft whose pieces were united and bound with rope. He floated on the waters and did not perish. While floating, he thought of the future and picked up two by two a l l the herbivorous animals, a l l the birds, and even a l l the carnivores which he met on his way. "Get onto my raft," he said," for soon there w i l l be no more earth." In fact, the earth disappeared for a very long time and nobody f e l t like going to look for it--nobody, i t i s said. The muskrat dived f i r s t and tried to reach the earth. Alas! He came back to the surface of the sea. half-dead, and without having touched i t . 117 He dived a second time, and this time, as he got back onto the raft, he said to Kunyan. "I smelled the earth, but I could not reach i t . " After the muskrat, the beaver dove in his turn. For a long time he stayed under water without reappear-ing. At last, they saw him coming back up on his back, out of breath, and unconscious. But in his paw he held a bit of s i l t , which he gave to "The Sensible." The old man placed this mud on the water thinking, "I wish for an earth again." At the same time, he breathed upon this bit of earth, and as he animated i t , i t grew. Immediately he put a l i t t l e bird on i t , and i t grew more. The old man began to blow and blow, and the earth kept on growing. Then he put a fox on i t , who went around the floating disk in a single day. But the earth increased in volume. The fox ran completely around again,; and the earth kept on swelling. The fox ran more, and the earth, hiding before him, grew in dimensions. The fox went two, three, four, five and six times around the earth, and i t always enlarged. When the fox had gone around i t the seventh time, i t was complete and as i t had been before the flood. Then "The Sensible" made a l l the animals get off the raft, and put them down on the earth. Then he himself, his wife, and his son disembarked there. 118 "It i s through us," he said, "that this earth w i l l be repopulated." Then the earth was repopulated with men and women. After that, Kunyan found himself in the presence of another d i f f i c u l t y . A l l around him there stretched out the immense sea which had absorbed a l l the water, and he could not be i t s master. Then the monster-bird, called Yikone or the Bittern, drank a l l the water. He saw the d i f f i c u l t y and helped the man. But having drunk the water, he remained lying" inert, his belly excessively swollen. "The Sensible" said to a plover, "The Hydre. the drinker of water, i s lying in the sun, his wide belly f u l l of water. Pierce i t . " The plover went near the Bittern, who did not suspect a creature similar to him. "My grandmother doubtless has a stomach ache," he said. And while seeming to feel sorry for the Bittern, he passed his hand over i t s stomach as i f to rub i t . Suddenly the plover scratched the belly of the Bittern with a vigorous blow of his claws. Immediately the water rumbled, the water was heard to roar. From the belly of the hydre. there came rivers which formed lakes. And the earth, watered again, became habitable once more. 

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