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Woyzeck : a record and analysis of a production Rapsey, John C. 1969

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WOYZECK A Record and A n a l y s i s o f a P r o d u c t i o n by JOHN C. RAPSEY B.A., Bishop's U n i v e r s i t y , 1967 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f THEATRE We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d atandatd THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1969 In p resen t ing t h i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree tha t the L ib ra ry s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re ference and Study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion fo r ex tens ive copying of t h i s t hes i s fo r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t is understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thes is f o r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be al lowed w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n permiss ion . Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT Woyzeck, an unfinished play from the year 1837 ti by the German playwright Georg Buchner, was produced and directed by John Rapsey, i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for a Master of Arts degree i n the Department of Theatre of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, at the Dorothy Somerset Studio from October 16 - 19, 1968. The following i s a d e t a i l e d record of that production along with the d i r e c t o r ' s analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s c r i p t . Woyzeck was produced on a budget of $350.00 and was performed four times by a predominantly student cast i n a theatre seating approximately ninety people. Settings, costumes and seating arrangement were designed by Irene Rapsey. This record i s divided into three main sections. The f i r s t i s an essay which s t a r t s with a biographical note on the author and goes on to discuss b r i e f l y his other works and his p o s i t i o n i n l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . This i s followed by a b r i e f note on the text used for t h i s production and then a detailed d i r e c t o r ' s analysis of the play with reference to the s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t i c a l i nterpretations a v a i l a b l e i n English. This section concludes with a discussion of the o r i g i n and basis of the directorial concept adopted for this production. This section i s followed by a short bibliography which includes the major books and articles available in English on Buchner and Woyzeck which were taken into consideration in the preparation of this production. Some books are also l i s t e d which had a significant influence on the forming of the director's production concept. The second section begins with a brief statement of the directorial concept in relation to the particular production conditions involved. Then comes the actual script showing cuts, blocking, significant divisions and indicating light and sound cues. Each scene is accompanied by a brief analysis which indicates the major units within the scene and the directorial approach taken in terms of purpose, action, dominant emotions, character dominance and particular d i f f i c u l t i e s involved. The third section is made up of various tables, records and illustrations relating directly to the production. Included are l i s t s of light cues, sound cues, properties, costumes, cost l i s t s and box office reports. Also included is a sample of the programme and copies of press reviews. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s include colour renderings of sets and costumes as well as colour and black-and-white photographs of the production, and f i n a l l y , blueprints of the f l o o r plan and working drawings. V. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introductory Essay 1 Notes 58 Bibliography 60 A Note on the Production Concept 62 Prompt Script 67 Scene Analysis 99 Tables 121 Appendix 141 Programme 141 Reviews 142 Illustrations 146 v i LIST OF TABLES Page Sound and Sound Cues 121 Lighting Cues 123 Hanging Plot 127 Hanging Plot diagram 129 Total lights, types and wattage 130 Lighting diagram 131 Costume Plot 132 Property Plot 134 Budget 136 Box Office report 139 Complimentary Tickets 140 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Black and White photographs 146 Colour photographs 152 Costume Drawings: Captain 157 Doctor 158 Woyzeck 159 Drum Major 160 Marie 161 Charlatan 162 Group (Kathy, Grandmother, Idiot) 163 Set rendering 164 Ground plan 165 v i i i . ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to express my sincere gratitude to a l l those whose names appear on the programme for this production, especially Simon Hargrave, who supervised the f i r s t production in the Dorothy Somerset Studio, and Irene Rapsey, who designed the production, oversaw the construction of sets and costumes un t i l moments before the show began, and then some time during Scene XVIII of the opening performance gave birth to a son, exactly one hundred and f i f t y - f i v e years to the day (Greenwich Mean Time) after the birth of Georg Bvlchner. fx.. INTRODUCTORY ESSAY "Every man's a chasm. It makes you dizzy when you look down i n . " (Woyzeck - Scene XI) I I t At the time of his death aged 23, Georg Buchner had received his doctorate from the University of Zurich and had begun lecturing in comparative anatomy. He also found time to lead a f u l l and varied existence as a playwright, revolutionary, translator and student of philosophy. His writings include three plays, the fragment of a Novelle, a revolutionary pamphlet, his doctoral thesis on the nervous system of the barbel fish and complete lecture notes for courses in zoology and philosophy. His unfinished play Woyzeck became one of the masterpieces of German drama and a cornerstone for much of the late nineteenth and twentieth century drama. A fourth play, on the subject of the Venetian II wit Pietro Aretino, was considered by Buchner's friends to be his best work, but was lost after his untimely death. Buchner's biography is understandably short but of considerable value, as i t pertains to Woyzeck, which, as the work of a young man s t i l l undergoing upheavals in his thinking, i s open to a variety of interpretations, because of i t s fragmentary and unfinished nature. Biographical information provides no definitive answer to the problem of Woyzeck, but i t does contain some valuable clues to his thinking at the time of conception and r e v i s i o n of the play. II Georg Buchner was born on October 17th, 1813, in the small town of Goddelau, near Darmstadt, Germany, i He was the eldest of s i x ch i l d r e n , a l l but one of whom l a t e r won some d i s t i n c t i o n i n German l i f e . His father, t i Ernst Karl Buchner, and his two grandfathers were a l l i t medical doctors. Louise Caroline Buchner, his mother, had strong p a t r i o t i c feelings for Hesse, and was some-what r e l i g i o u s and conservative i n temperament, though a f r i e n d l y and cheerful woman. His father i n contrast was a freethinker, an admirer of Napoleon, and a man of grim d i s p o s i t i o n . A f t e r moving into Darmstadt i n 1816, Georg attended a private school run by Dr. C a r l Weitershausen, and then from March 1825 u n t i l the spring of 1831 he went to the Ludwig-Georgs-Gymnasium. Several of hi s school essays survive from t h i s period, the most notable of which i s a defence of s u i c i d e , i n which he argues that those who k i l l themselves from physical or psychological s u f f e r i n g die e s s e n t i a l l y from a disease. II In the f a l l of 1831, Buchner went to the University of Strasbourg to study zoology and comparative anatomy. He joined a student club, the "Eugenia" and II became friends with August and Adolf Stober, who were 3. theology students and f o l k l o r e enthusiasts. Their c o l l e c t i o n II of A l s a t i a n folksongs was used by Buchner for his plays. While i n Strasbourg, he lodged at the home of a Protestant pastor, Johann Jaegle. Georg f e l l i n love with Jaegle's daughter Minna and the two became se c r e t l y engaged. During his f i r s t period of residence i n Strasbourg (from autumn 1831 to the middle of 1833) Buchner's p o l i t i c a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s were sharpened. Strasbourg at t h i s time was a centre for p o l i t i c a l refugees II from many German states, and although Buchner did not care much for the regime of Louis-Philippe, he was aware of a considerably greater degree of freedom and prosperity than he knew i n his native Hesse. I t i s probable that he p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the Strasbourg branch of a Paris-based secret p o l i t i c a l group c a l l e d the "Society f o r the Rights of Man". However, hi s l e t t e r s from t h i s period indicate that he was s c e p t i c a l concerning p o l i t i c s . He c a l l s the demonstration f o r the hero of the P o l i s h u p r i s i n g II of 1830 a "Komodie" and wrote to his parents that " i f anything can help i n our time, i t i s violence". 2 Because of a Hessian law r e q u i r i n g students to take at l e a s t two years of t h e i r advanced t r a i n i n g II at the l o c a l u n i v e r s i t y , Buchner was obligated to transfer to the University of Giessen i n the f a l l of 4 . 1833. He became quickly discouraged both by the i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n at Giesseri, and by the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Hesse, which had become v i r t u a l l y a po l i c e state under the grand duke's minister, Du T h i l . Early i n 1834, after returning to Giessen from Darmstadt where he had gone to recover from an attack of meningitis, II . Buchner organized a Society for the Rights of Man, and became involved i n revolutionary a c t i v i t i e s with August Becker and a pastor by the name of F r i e d r i c h Ludwig Weidig. Buchner wrote a pamphlet The Hessian Courier c a l l i n g for a peasant u p r i s i n g , which was printed i n July, 1834, but not before Weidig had made substantial r e v i s i o n s , softening the tone and adding a number of passages spiked with B i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n s . D i s t r i b u t i o n had hardly begun when the Hessian a u t h o r i t i e s were tipped II o f f , one of Buchner's friends was caught with copies i n his possession and Georg was forced to make a hurried t r i p to warn associates i n other towns. Upon returning to Giessen, he found that h i s rooms had been searched. Knowing that nothing was found, he lodged a complaint against the behaviour of the p o l i c e . II Buchner did not begin a second term of studies at Giessen, but went home to Darmstadt where he stayed from the autumn of 1834 u n t i l March 1835. His parents did not know and would not have approved of his p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , so he spent an uneasy time in Darmstadt with a ladder at the ready to escape over the garden wall. He was summoned before the Darmstadt authorities to answer questions but sent his brother Wilhelm instead. Nothing resulted from the enquiry, as the judge was a friend of the family. During this period,in January and February 1835, he spent five or six weeks writing his f i r s t play, Danton's Death in order to make some money. Buchner sent the manuscript to Karl Gutzkow, leader of the Young Germany group, who was able to find him a publisher. Before payment could arrive, he grew fearful of arrest and fled to Strasbourg on March 1st, 1835. A few months later a warrant was issued. Once in Strasbourg, he gave up his revolutionary act i v i t i e s and devoted himself to his studies. Because his father had cut off his financial support when he fled, Buchner again turned to writing to help support himself, this time by translating two dramas by Victor Hugo, Lucr^ce Borgia and Marie Tudor, which he sent to Gutzkow. He also worked at preparing lecture notes in both comparative anatomy and German philosophy since Descartes and Spinoza. 6. In the summer of 1836 the Strasbourg Society of Natural History granted him membership and published his thesis on the nervous system of the barbel f i s h . Sometime during the previous winter he worked on Lenz, and, i n the early months of 1836, he wrote Leonce and  Lena for a competition for the best German comedy. Unfortunately, Buchner 1s manuscript arrived a few days late for the July deadline and was returned unopened. He may also have worked on Woyzeck and P i e t r o Aretino during t h i s period. In September of 1836, he sent his thesis to the University of Zurich and was granted a doctorate without an o r a l examination. He began l e c t u r i n g i n comparative anatomy at Zurich i n November of that year. He saw only a few fri e n d s , mostly Wilhelm and Caroline Schulz, fellow e x i l e s from Germany, whom he had met i n Strasbourg. A few days before he f e l l i l l with typhus on February 2nd, 1837, he wrote to Minna Jaegle that he would have Leonce and Lena and two other plays ready for p u b l i c a t i o n within a week, these being most probably Woyzeck and Pietro Aretino. However, his fever became rapidl y worse and Caroline Schulz stayed with him constantly, keeping a diary of his words spoken i n delirium, including the statement: "We do not s u f f e r too much pain, indeed 7. we suffer too l i t t l e , for through our pain we are brought / nearer to God". 3 His fiancee, Minna was sent for, 11 but Buchner hardly recognized her by the time she arrived on February 17th. He died two days later on February 19th, 1837, at the age of twenty-three. Apart from The Hessian Courier and the Hugo translations, only Danton's Death had been ful l y published 11 at the time of Buchner's death. Over the next two years Gutzkow was able to publish Lenz and part of Leonce and Lena and in 1850 Georg's brother brought out an edition of his works including some letters and the whole of Leonce and Lena. He did not, however, attempt to publish Woyzeck , as i t was too d i f f i c u l t to decipher. In the 1870's, Karl Emil Franzos persuaded the family to allow him to publish 11 Buchner's works and proceeded to bring out a version of Woyzeck in a periodical in 1875, followed by a complete edition in 1879. Unfortunately the manuscript of Pietro Aretino as well as a number of letters were probably lost in a f i r e in the Buchner home and Minna Jaegle destroyed whatever papers were in her possession shortly before she died in 1880. 11 Even after Franzos' edition, Buchner1s plays were considered too d i f f i c u l t to stage. The easiest, 8. Leonce and Lena, was performed i n Munich i n 1885 and Danton's Death was produced i n B e r l i n i n 1902. I t was not u n t i l 1913 that the Munich Court theatre staged the II f i r s t production of Woyzeck. Buchner did gain some popularity,however,in the 1880's when he was discovered by Hauptmann and l a t e r Wedekind, through whom he exerted some influence on Naturalism and German Expressionism. As he grew i n stature, more r e l i a b l e editions of his work appeared, e s p e c i a l l y Witkowski 1s e d i t i o n of Woyzeck i n 1920 and F r i t z Bergemann's Werke und Briefe i n 1922. Thus, having been v i r t u a l l y forgotten within a few II years of his death, Buchner's genius was recognized near the end of the nineteenth century and he has continued to exert considerable influence ever since, most notably on the young Brecht and the French avant-garde movement. The period between the end of the Napoleonic wars i n 1815 and the Revolution of 1848 i s not an easy time to define i n terms of l i t e r a r y movements i n Germany. P o l i t i c a l l y there was a constant struggle between the extremely repressive group struggling to maintain the old establishment and fervent l i b e r a l s bent on achieving national unity and p o l i t i c a l freedom. In l i t e r a t u r e , t h i s was somewhat of a t r a n s i t i o n a l period between the C l a s s i c a l period of Goethe and S c h i l l e r and the advent of Realism. The term Biedermeier is used in German criticism to describe the period in literature, in the p i c t o r i a l arts and as a cultural-historical epoch.4 Unfortunately the term has no equivalent in English and it s use is much disputed because of the diversity of things i t is used to describe. Coined originally as part of the t i t l e of some parodies based on the work of a Swabian schoolmaster-poet, i t came to suggest "someone belonging to the lower middle class, clearly showing his rustic origin, simple, decent, home-loving, extremely limited and utterly prosaic: a figure of fun for the intellectual, the a r t i s t , the sophisticated city-dweller."5 When used in reference to painting, Oswald Wolff says the term was used to distinguish a style which placed greater emphasis on the small details of everyday l i f e ; which stressed situation rather than action and therefore concentrated attention on the solid and static against which the figures were significantly posed.g 11 It i s obvious from these statements that Buchner's art has l i t t l e more than passing resemblance to the qualities mentioned here. However,the term i s often used in the considerably wider sense of a socio-political 11 unit, thereby including such artists as Buchner and the Young Germany group without too much discomfort. Although lacking any humorous connotations, some scenes in Woyzeck have a strong Biedermeier quality to them. Marie putting her child to bed or the grandmother's fairy tale are domestic and folk-ish, but Buchner endows them with tragic intensity. Similarly, despite the fact that the scenes of Woyzeck are essentially static, the movement from one to the other gives the impression of extreme mobility. • I Despite the fact that Buchner sent his manuscripts to Karl Gutzkow, the leader of the Young Germany group, he has no more than superficial literary a f f i l i a t i o n s with them. He saw himself primarily as a solitary l i t e r a r y figure, claiming strong allegiance only to Shakespeare and some of Goethe. That i s not to say he was free of any influence from his contemporaries. Several writers either influenced or anticipated him, especially Grabbe and Kleist, as well as Lenz, a writer from the Storm and Stress period for whom he had a special a f f i n i t y . II Goethe's Gotz von Berlichingen bears some s t y l i s t i c resemblance to Danton's Death in that both deal with sprawling histo r i c a l subjects, using short, loosely connected scenes, large galleries of characters and considerable d e t a i l . However, there i s a vast gulf II in tone between Buchner's scepticism and passivity, and Goethe's demonstration of the possibility of heroic action and meaningful communication. A f t e r the Storm and Stress period had died down, Goethe moved int o a " c l a s s i c a l " period with Iphigenia i n Tauris (1786), which owed i t s greatest allegiance to French Neo-Classicism and for which Buchner could f e e l l i t t l e a f f i n i t y . The plays of Heinrich von K l e i s t are s t r u c t u r a l l y quite formal, i n that they employ blank verse and c a r e f u l l y constructed plots depending on the d i r e c t confrontation between major characters. K l e i s t ' s blank verse i s not i n the r h e t o r i c a l mode but i s quite unpretentious and has a q u a l i t y of normal speech. Though his characters confront each other, there i s doubt raised as to t h e i r a b i l i t y to communicate with each other and a tone of despair and scepticism creeps i n which i s very s i m i l a r II to Buchner. Buchner probably knew Grabbe's Napoleon or the Hundred Days (1831) when he wrote Danton's Death,. This play i s an h i s t o r i c a l panorama concerned with events leading up to the Battle of Waterloo. I t i s written i n prose, using a var i e t y of tones, locations, contrasting scenes and mixture of characters to evoke a f u l l picture of h i s t o r i c a l forces at work. Grabbe, however, i s unable to forge a dramatic unity from diverse and II unconnected materials, and he lacks Buchner 1s dramatic o b j e c t i v i t y and anonymity. Buchner was fascinated by the poet and playwright Jacob Michael Reinhold Lenz, whose work dates from the II 1770's. Buchner based his Novelle on Lenz's diaries. This story contains some literary arguments which are II generally taken to represent Buchner1s own views. Lenz's plays, especially The Private Tutor (1774) and The Soldiers (1776) contain many elements which are fundamental to II Buchner's drama. Lenz makes use of ordinary people in contemporary settings and his heroes are somewhat small, passive people. Characters are highly individualized and distinguished by their manner of speaking. These plays have something of the richness of detail and diversity II of elements of Buchner's works but they are generally restricted to a social frame of reference and tend to il l u s t r a t e a social moral. The existential probing and the images of an inverted world which are so strong in II Buchner do not arise in Lenz's more limited universe. II Buchner wrote his f i r s t playrDantbn's Death, during his stay at home soon after his p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s concerning The Hessian Courier a f f a i r came under the suspicion of the local authorities. A letter written to his parents shortly after i t s completion contains II one of Buchner1s few statements on dramatic theory apart from those in Lenz. He writes: The dramatic poet i s , in my eyes, nothing but a writer of history for the second time. He transplants us directly into the midst of the l i f e of an era, giving us, instead of a dry account of i t , characters rather than characteristics and figures rather than descriptions. His foremost task is to get as close as possible to history as i t really happened. His book must be neither more nor less moral than history i t s e l f . 7 Apart from the problem of Buchner's assumption that the actual facts of history can be known, this statement accounts in a large measure for the extent to which he remains aloof and impartial to his drama. His objectivity is a l l the more remarkable when i t i s remembered that he was deeply concerned with the p o l i t i c s of Hesse and that he had recently written The Hessian Courier which began with revolutionary fervour: FREEDOM FOR THE HUTS! WAR ON THE PALACES! g The main opposition in the play i s between the passive, extremely sceptical Danton who feels that the bloodshed of the Revolution has gone too far and the fanatical Robespierre who can brook no leniency in his purge. If Buchner betrays any hint of sympathy i t i s for Danton, though he finds reason to condemn and excuse both men - Danton for his absolute refusal to act and Robespierre for his insistence on abstract virtues. Almost two years before he wrote Danton's Death 14. he was already deeply affected by the crushing force of destiny. He wrote to his fiancee, Minna: I have been studying the history of the Revolution. I have f e l t as though crushed beneath the fatalism of History. I find in human nature a terrifying sameness and in the human condition an inexorable force, granted to a l l and to none. The individual i s no more than the foam on the wave, greatness mere chance, the mystery of genius a puppet play, a ludicrous struggle against a brazen law, which to acknowledge is the highest achievement, which to master impossible. I no longer intend to bow down to the parade horses and the bystanders of History. I have grown accustomed to the sight of blood. But I am no guillotine blade, g Danton's pessimism and resignation i s equal to that betrayed in the f i r s t part of Buchner's letter. On the eve of his death he declares: Yes, when I was a child! It wasn't worth the trouble to fatten me up and keep me warm. Just another job for the gravediggers! I feel as i f I'd already begun to stink. (IV. iv) However, in the last few lines of the letter quoted ea r l i e r , Buchner seems committed to some act of defiance in spite of his realization that he i s no "guillotine blade" and i s not running with the tide of history. His gesture of revolt would perhaps be in the manner of Lucille's cry at the end of Danton's Death. As a patrol enters, she shouts: "Long Live the King", bringing the guards upon her, thus embracing rather than struggling against her destiny. Danton's Death i s not so remarkable for i t s innovations in technique as i t is for the extreme passivity of i t s hero. Unlike Woyzeck, the burden of meaning i s s t i l l carried in long speeches by the major characters. The weight of time and the force of destiny, however, become major themes in his other plays. In Woyzeck there is a strong sense that the character i s crushed by a society that i s largely oblivious of him. Similarly Danton is aware that his appointment with destiny i s approaching when he says: Will the clock never stop! Every tick pushes the walls closer around me, t i l l they're narrow as a coffin. (IV. iv) The Captain in Woyzeck desperately f i l l s 'that horrible stretch of time' with meaningless rituals in order not to have to face his f u t i l i t y should he wind up a day with ten minutes l e f t over. These themes are also present in Buchner's comedy, Leonce and Lena, in which boredom is the strongest motivation. Leonce and Lena i s Buchner's only play in a recognizably traditional form. There are many echoes of Alfred de Musset's Fantasio, German Romanticism and the commedia dell'arte. The play i s basically a gently absurd romantic comedy. In the second scene we are presented with the Fichtean-idealist monarch of the tiny kingdom of Popo, who runs about with his pants half-off worrying that the "categories" are in disarray and that his "free w i l l " is exposed. Both his son Leonce, Prince of Popo, and Princess Lena of the neighbouring kingdom of Pi p i , escape their homes to avoid a prearranged marriage to an unknown partner. They meet in an inn, f a l l in love and return in disguise to Popo where King Peter, very melancholy at having to cancel his wedding celebration,decides to perform a marriage in effigy. When the ceremony is over, Leonce and Lena remove their masks and discover that the marriage they had each been trying to escape had been intended to be between them. Instead of asserting their free w i l l , they have inadvertently performed the prearranged marriage. Once King Peter has departed for a l i f e of perpetual thought, Leonce and Lena settle down to reign in a style that i s characterized by Valerio: ...we shall l i e in the shade and ask the Lord God for macaroni, melons and figs, for voices soft as music, for bodies fine as classical heroes and for a commodious religion. (III. i i i ) II Although Buchner wrote a comedy, i t would be wrong to assume that he abandoned the despair that permeates Danton's Death. Leonce and Lena makes use II of the Romantic Comedy form but Buchner invests his play with a tone that bears close relationship to the Theatre of the Absurd. Leonce is a hero motivated by boredom: What people won't do out of mere boredom! They study out of boredom, pray out of boredom, they love, they marry and multiply out of boredom, and then at last they die out of boredom, and - what makes i t so amusing - they do i t with the most serious of countenances, without ever understanding why, and God knows what a l l else. (I. i) Later in the same scene Leonce refers to himself as a "poor puppet" who could become moral and useful by wearing a frock coat and carrying an umbrella. The speech is very reminiscent of Woyzeck's view of virtue in the f i r s t scene of the later play: ... i f I could have a hat and a watch and a cane, and i f I could talk refined, I'd want to be virtuous, a l l right. (Sc. I) In Leonce and Lena, Buchner goes to some length in developing this puppet or automaton image of man. Near the end of the play he has Valerio introduce the lovers in a fashion that betrays his personal feelings: Here, ladies and gentlemen, you see two individuals of either sex, a man and a woman, a gentleman and a lady! They are nothing more than a r t i f i c e and mechanical ingenuity, pasteboard and watchsprings. Each i s equipped with a delicate, delicate ruby spring under the nail of the small toe of the right foot. Press this lever ever so gently and the mechanism w i l l be set in motion for ful l y f i f t y years. These individuals are so consummately constructed that they cannot be distinguished from other human beings, unless one knows that they are merely pasteboard; they might even be accepted as members of human society. (III. i i i ) A very similar tone is taken in Woyzeck in the fairground scenes (IV, V) where both the monkey and the horse are exploited for their human qualities. Buchner emphasizes the very l i t t l e differences which distinguish man and beast: Charlatan: Gentlemen, gentlemen! You see here before you a creature as God created i t ! But i t i s nothing this way! Absolutely nothing! But now look at what Art can do. It walks upright. Wears coat and pants. And even carries a sabre. This monkey here i s a regular soldier. (Sc.IV) The view of man presented in Leonce and Lena is of a boredom-motivated puppet stumbling into his fate II as he tries to escape i t . Buchner manages to parody the Romantic Comedy form while grafting into i t his deepest philosophical musings, without, however, allowing his despair to overwhelm the gently humorous and resigned quality of the play. The prose fragment Lenz is a very striking study II of the growing insanity of the playwright to whom Buchner f e l t especially close. Though the style of the whole piece i s very captivating, the section which deals with Lenz's arguments against Idealism and Romanticism and his statements about the art of the dramatist are of special interest in a discussion of Woyzeck. Much of what Lenz II says i s usually taken as Buchner's own theories on dramatic art. Some of this material is used elsewhere in this essay, but i t i s worth noting here that there is often a similarity discernable between Lenz's religious fantasies and aberrations, and those of Woyzeck. II The text used for this production was basically Carl Richard Mueller's translation, but with some substantial changes. Two entire scenes which Mueller includes were l e f t out and the ending of the play was somewhat rearranged. Apart from this, the number of characters was reduced from nearly thirty to ten. * Mueller, Carl Richard: Georg Buchner, Complete  Plays and Prose ( H i l l and Wang, New York, 1963) 20. it It has become traditional among Buchner's editors and translators to select or arrange the scenes of Woyzeck according to what they f e l t the author's intention to be, thereby building something of their own interpretation into the play. The problem arises mainly because there exist three fragments of manuscripts for the play, two of which are rough drafts of the scenes in no particular order, while the third seems to be a pa r t i a l l y completed f a i r copy. The facts of the actual case on which the play is based are known, but Buchner uses this material so loosely that i t is impossible to t e l l whether or not he intended to complete the play by having Wovzeck brought to t r i a l and f i n a l l y hung. Similarly, the order of the scenes is not known exactly, except in the simplest cases of chronology/ nor i s i t possible to t e l l f u l l y which scenes were complete, which sketches he intended to keep and which to reject. Once i t i s acknowledged that no definitive arrangement exists and that there are several p o s s i b i l i t i e s of meaning, i t becomes much easier to accept the fact that each editor or director makes to some extent his own play out of Woyzeck. The actual occurrence on which Buchner based the play occurred in Leipzig in 1821. A barber, Johann Christian Woyzeck, aged forty-one, stabbed the widow Frau Woost, aged forty-six, in seven places. They had been l i v i n g together for about two years, but she had begun to mistreat him and sleep with soldiers. At the t r i a l , the defence claimed that Woyzeck had suffered epileptic f i t s and had sometimes appeared insane or mentally deficient. An examination was carried out by a Dr. Clarus who concluded that Woyzeck was responsible for his actions and an execution date was fixed. This was delayed when Woyzeck claimed that he saw visions and f e l t he was pursued by the Freemasons. After another investigation, Clarus reiterated his original opinion and Woyzeck was executed on August 27th, 1824, in Leipzig. II Apart from the major facts of the case, Buchner made no more use of i t than the broad outline, despite the fact that a few phrases from the testimony found their II way into the play. Buchner's Woyzeck is only thirty years old, for example, and he and Marie seem to be essentially married, though lacking the ceremony. Marie's sleeping with the Drum Major appears to be a case of genuine infatuation, rather than a regular occurrence. Whatever his intentions were for the ending of the play, II i t i s clear from the changes in the story that Buchner did make that he was allowing himself considerably more freedom and inventiveness with the facts of history than he claimed to have done with Danton's Death. As far as English language criticism is concerned there are three major areas of interpretation for Woyzeck/ II There are those such as Mueller who regard Buchner as an early social r e a l i s t and thus arrange the play to emphasize these elements. On the other hand, Herbert Lindenberger regards him as an extremely despairing existentialist writer whose play evokes nothing so strongly as the reality of human suffering. The third II view acknowledges the extent of Buchner's despair and scepticism but feels that behind this there echoes a humanistic acceptance of man's condition and the f u t i l i t y of his actions. Advocates of a l l three views can muster considerable support for their interpretation of Woyzeck but the fact emerges that the whole question seems to hinge on matters of emphasis, arrangement of scenes and interpretation of a few key events. Mueller's edition of the play contains, by his own admission, parts of discarded scenes and compilations of dialogue from several different sources. He says: II Buchner, I feel, would have completed the play by showing the absolute and inhuman destruction of his main character by means of as ghastly a t r i a l as he could possibly have devised, a veritable travesty of justice (much in the style of the t r i a l scenes in a number of Brecht plays). It would have been a f i t t i n g end to this most horrifying and modern of dramas. Clearly Mueller intends to emphasize the social aspects of the play. This leads him to do several things with the text. The f i r s t is to treat i t as essentially unfinished and secondly to point his ending of the play towards a t r i a l scene. Mueller's closing scene reads as follows: Policeman: What a murder! A good, genuine, beautiful murder! Beautiful a murder as you could hope for! It's been a long time since we had one like this! (Sc.XXIX) This scene (which is set in the morgue) i s followed by this stage direction: (Woyzeck stands in their midst, dumbly looking at the body of Marie; he i s bound, the dogmatic atneist, t a l l , haggard, timid, good-naturefl"7  scientific.) (Sc.XXIX) It i s interesting to note that the f i n a l stage direction alone of the entire translation i s Mueller's only personal addition. This stage direction tends to give Woyzeck a more active w i l l and to make him more of a victim than most editions would allow. Mueller also includes the so-called "Apocryphal Scene" in which Woyzeck returns from the pond and i s rejected by his son, Christian. This scene i s sometimes printed with the qualification that he returns as 'a ghost' but most c r i t i c s since Franzos feel that the scene was to have been rejected and they therefore end the play with Woyzeck drowning in the pond. One other crucial difference between Mueller's edition and a l l others i s that he includes a scene between Woyzeck and the Sergeant (Scene XVI) in which Woyzeck utters some rather long, coherent and philosophical statements concerning science and Nature: If only you had no courage, there would be no science. Only nature, no amputation, no articulation. What is this? Woyzeck's arm, flesh, bones, veins. What i s this? Dung. (Scene XVI) No other editor has seen f i t to use this scene, primarily because i t i s very dubious, but also because most of the material in i t seems to have been displaced into other scenes, the fa i r scenes and the f i r s t inn scene. • I Apart from that, i t seems to violate Buchner's design in that i t i s far too direct a statement for Woyzeck to make. Mueller states in his Note on the Texts that the main result of his compiling this version was to give Woyzeck somewhat more to say and to make him a f u l l e r character. As a reading text for Woyzeck, Mueller i s jus t i f i e d in collecting dialogue for the character from a l l three manuscript fragments, but for playing purposes Woyzeck says far too much and comes off as a rather intelligent, coherent person. The less Woyzeck says in a philosophical vein and the more he speaks in terms of his characteristic images and obsessions, the more believable a character he becomes. Herbert Lindenberger mentions the fact that the structure of Woyzeck resembles the 'spatial' composition which G. Wilson Knight speaks of in reference to Shakespeare. It is worth quoting Knight on this idea. He says: One must be prepared to see the whole play in space as well as time. It i s natural in analysis to pursue the steps of the tale in sequence, noticing the logic which connects them,;, regarding those essentials that Aristotle noted: beginning, middle and end. And yet by giving supreme attention to this temporal nature of drama, we omit what in Shakespeare is at least of equivalent importance. A Shakespearian tragedy i s set spatially as well as temporally in the mind. By this I mean that there are throughout the play a set of correspondences which relate to each other independently of the time sequence which is the story. ^ Woyzeck is a spatial composition almost to extremes Only four or five scenes have any direct bearing on the plot of the play, while a l l the rest are fragments, parallels amplifications or obliquely connected scenes, which exist for the most part outside any chain of causal necessity. Buchner uses a wealth of indirect means to transform what would otherwise be a simple and sordid revenge story into a rich and compelling tragic vision. Causally and temporally the scenes are as distinct as possible, each presenting a vivid flash of the l i f e of a small German town. However, as these images accumulate, there is a growing interconnection between them on the level of a pattern of imagery and a sense of social forces in operation. •I Buchner uses a gallery of characters which are distinguishable in a spectrum by their military rank, social or economic position, morality or intelligence to create a miniature world through which Woyzeck stumbles. The social, environmental and physical forces at work II on Woyzeck are not the only ones in which Buchner i s interested. Woyzeck*s physical and mental deterioration gives rise to an apocalyptic vision which grows throughout the play and adds a further dimension to the play. It i s in this area that the spatial composition of the play is most evident. Furthermore, i t is it Buchner"s method of repeating verbal patterns, images, visual patterns and thematic modes which forms the basis II of the director's concept of the play. Buchner tends throughout the play to build separate schools of images and suddenly unite them with surprising effect. In the scene by the pond in which Woyzeck stabs Marie, he hesitates and does not seem sure what he is going to do until she says: Look how red the moon i s ! It's rising. (Scene XXIV) To this, Woyzeck makes what must be an incredible reply: "Like a knife washed in blood" It i s as i f the word 'red' acts as a trigger in his mind, for immediately after this he stabs her. It i s almost pointless to argue the question of premeditation in this instance. Obviously Woyzeck has bought a knife, had visions and heard voices concerning the stabbing, but i t i s also true that we do not always carry out what we plan to do or fantasize about. By the time Marie says 8red' in this scene, there i s a very complex cluster of images, ideas and associations connected with this word, which when Woyzeck hears the key word, he completes the pattern with an act. The f i r s t time we see Woyzeck with any sort of knife in his hand is in the very f i r s t scene as he i s shaving the Captain. In Scene XI the idea of cutting i s associated with this when the Captain jokes with the doctor at Woyzeck's expense: Stay awhile, Woyzeck! Running through the world like an open razor, you're liable to cut someone. He runs as i f he had to shave a castrated regiment and would be hung before he discovered and cut the longest hair that wasn't there. (Scene IX) The idea of shaving leads to the mention of beards and from there to a reference to the Drum Major. The Captain, who is toying with Woyzeck, brings up the subject of his wife, and t e l l s him that i f he hurries home around the corner, he w i l l find a hair on , ... a certain pair of l i p s . A pair of l i p s , Woyzeck. I know what love i s , too, .... (Scene IX) Woyzeck understands at this moment that the Captain i s saying that the Drum Major and Marie are sleeping together His response i s : Captain, s i r , the earth's hot as coals in h e l l . But I'm cold as ice, cold as ice. Hell i s cold. I ' l l bet you. (Scene IX) Moments later the word 'stab' is used when the Captain says: You keep stabbing at me with those eyes of yours and I'm only trying to help. (Scene IX) From this one scene i t i s possible to see II how Buchner uses a cluster of words and images to surround a central idea. A l i s t of key words concerning Woyzeck*s realization that Marie has been unfaithful would read as follows: 'razor', 'cut', 'beard', 'drum major', •l i p s ' , 'hot', 'cold', 'Hell' and 'stab'. In almost every other scene in the play, these words are echoed, amplified and refined u n t i l there i s some sort of pattern in Woyzeck"s mind. In Scene II is the f i r s t mention of the Freemasons which is part of a sort of magic-conspiracy idea that Woyzeck is obsessed with. In this scene as well are the f i r s t apocalyptic images, expressed in these words: Andres! How bright i t i s ! It's a l l glowing over the town! A fire's sailing around the sky and a noise coming down like trumpets. (Scene II) There is a considerable amount of religious symbolism in the play which begins here in one of Woyzeck's visions. The conspiracy idea arid the apocalyptic vision become connected and f i t into the cluster of words and images already established through the relationship between ' f i r e ' , 'hot' and 'cold', and Woyzeck's mention of Hell. However, this does not yet.fully account for Woyzeck's words as he is about to stab Marie. It could be argued that he is replying to only part of what Marie says: "Look how red the moon i s . " To which he replies: "Like a knife washed in blood"... On the other hand, Woyzeck could be referring to the "It's rising" part of her speech. In other words, the knife is rising just like the moon. It makes much more sense , however, i f Woyzeck responds to her whole image, the red moon rising. This image has strong a f f i l i a t i o n s with the glow over the town and the f i r e in the sky which Woyzeck sees in Scene II. Woyzeck's simile ("like a knife washed in blood") then brings severa strains of imagery and action together: the apocalyptic , Christian and revenge themes a l l meet in the image of the bloody knife (sword, cross) rising in the sky. At this point, several lines of imagery suddenly coincide and Woyzeck plunges the knife into the body of Marie. Unfortunately a l l the external evidence of the play would indicate that this i s a premeditated murder. After a l l , Woyzeck does buy a knife from the Jew and he does hear voices t e l l i n g him to "Stab the goat-bitch dead?"14 He also makes a s l i p of the tongue in Scene XVII when he says "Andres, you know something? There arent many gi r l s like she was". This could indicate that he has already formulated a plan to murder Marie. On the other hand, the case is quite strong for considering Woyzeck insane at the time of the murder. There is the evidence of his physical condition his seeing of visions, his hearing of voices and again his s l i p in Scene XVII, which would indicate a confusion of reality and dream. However, i t must be remembered that in the actual case Woyzeck was f i n a l l y declared responsible. It would be reasonable to assume that had Buchner been interested in taking sides in the controversy his play would have been an example of documentary realism in which he would have forcefully advocated one or the other views of the murder. But II the simple and obvious fact i s that Buchner does not make a case for either interpretation - i f anything he makes the "evidence" for both sides more equal. It is.even misleading to assume that there are sides II to a controversy in Woyzeck. Buchner1s intent seems rather to show that the matter i s more involved than II a legal-medical controversy. Buchner's dramaturgy is spatial in the extreme; there are several layers of imagery concerned with the murder as well as a variety of analogous events. Basically, the imagery f a l l s into several major categories. There i s a major group concerning the word "nature" into which f a l l s the hierarchy of characters, such features as the horse, monkey and Woyzeck's relationship with the Doctor. The second group focuses around the word "red" and includes the Christian and apocalyptic imagery as well as the r e a l i s t i c level of the murder of Marie. The third set of images is concerned with the word "grotesque" which penetrates and unites the other major patterns of imagery. Some of the associations..with the word "red" have already been discussed. However, there are a number of instances which have not yet been mentioned. Beginning in Scene II the apocalyptic imagery connected with a f i r e "sailing around the sky" becomes associated with another pattern in the following scene. As the soldiers march by in parade, Margret notices the glance which the Drum Major threw Marie, and moments later says to her: If i t isn't the Virgin herself! I'm a respectable person. But you! Everyone knows you could stare your way through seven layers of leather pants! (Scene III) It is no coincidence that Margret's insult likens Marie to the Virgin. Her child is named Christian and Buchner makes several references elsewhere to her innocence. On the other hand, in Scene XX he reverses the image when Marie reads from the Bible the words of the adultress Mary Magdalene. Near the end of this scene Woyzeck and Marie so l i d i f y their a f f i l i a t i o n s with the apocalyptic images by referring to the darkness. Woyzeck says: Look around you! Everything hard and fixed, so gloomy. (Scene III) As soon as Woyzeck leaves, Marie feels the darkness closing in: It's growing so dark. As i f we were going blind. (Scene III) These images of darkness develop originally from Woyzeck's II vision in Scene II, but Buchner goes to considerable length to develop this light-darkness imagery as well as images of eyes and blindness. The light-darkness theme runs throughout the play both in specific references in the text and in indications that light and dark scenes alternate with each other in a rhythmic fashion through the play. The references to seeing begin in Scene III with Margret's mention of Marie's 'shining eyes', her a b i l i t y to stare through 'seven layers of leather pants' and become extended in the same scene with mention of Woyzeck's seeing of visions and concludes with Marie's feeling that the closing darkness i s like the world going blind. In Scenes IV and V the seeing images are further developed when the Sergeant and the Drum Major catch sight of Marie: Sergeant: You'd think a l l that black hair would pull her down like a weight. And those eyes! Drum Major: Like looking down a well... or up a chimney. (Scene IV) As Woyzeck and Marie enter the brightly-lighted booth of the astronomical horse, Marie exclaims: A l l these lights! and Woyzeck's reply unites the light-darkness and seeing images: Sure, Marie. Black cats with fiery eyes. Furthermore, with the 'fiery eyes', there i s an echo of Woyzeck's vision of the apocalypse as well as a hint of the red moon to come. Scene VI i s b r i l l i a n t l y written, a scene which unites a l l the imagery so far. However, before i t is II possible to i l l u s t r a t e how much Buchner accomplishes in this scene, the other major strands of imagery must be picked up. II Buchner begins in Scene I to establish a hierarchy of characters based in part at least on proximity to a state of "nature". Other factors are, of course, important, e.g. social position and economic freedom. Often outbursts of 'nature' are a function of oppression in these areas. Woyzeck shaves the Captain, who is busy meditating on eternity. When the discussion turns to the morality involved in Woyzeck's fathering an illegitimate child, Woyzeck equates economics and morality: You see, Captain, s i r . . . Money, money! Whoever hasn't got money... Well, who's got morals when he's bringing something like me into the world? (Scene I) But even the Captain feels the blood in his veins, the st i r r i n g of his 'nature*, which he quickly suppresses with considerations of virtue: Whenever I rest at the window, when i t ' s finished raining, and my eyes follow the white stockings along as they hurry across the street... Damnation, Woyzeck, I know what love i s , too, then! I'm made of flesh and blood, too. But,Woyzeck: Virtue! Virtue! (Scene I) In Scene III, the Drum Major is associated with images from nature: Margret: What a man! Built like a tree! Marie: He walks like a l i o n . The following two scenes, IV and V, each show trained, humanized animals revolting against that training and acting naturally. Charlatan: Gentlemen, gentlemen! You see here before you a creature as God created i t ! But i t i s nothing this way. Absolutely nothing! But now look at what Art can do! It walks upright. Wears coat and pants. And even carries a sabre. This monkey here is a regular soldier. (Scene IV) Moments later when the Charlatan asks the monkey for a kiss i t revolts and 'trumpets'. In the following scene the astronomical horse is able to answer his trainer's questions, but this'metamorphosed human bei n g ' s t i l l has natural impulses: Proprietor of the Booth: This i s no dumb animal. This i s a person! A human being! But s t i l l an animal. A beast. (The nag conducts  i t s e l f indecently) That's right, put society to shame. (Scene V) In Scene IV, is the f i r s t mention of the word 'grotesque'. After the Charlatan's advertisement for the astronomical horse, Woyzeck t e l l s the following story: You know, I had a l i t t l e dog once who kept sniffing around the rim of a big hat, and I thought I'd be good to him and make i t easier for him and sat him on top of i t . And a l l the people stood around and clapped. (Scene IV) Overhearing this a Gentleman says: Oh, grotesque! How really grotesque! Woyzeck's reply supplies one of the more d i f f i c u l t interpretive problems of the play. He says: Don't you believe in God either? It's an honest fact I don't believe in God. -You c a l l that grotesque? I like what's grotesque. See that? That grotesque enough for you? The problem i s why Woyzeck assumes that because the Gentleman finds the story grotesque he cannot believe in God, and further what Woyzeck is referring to when he says "see that?" The second part seems to be simply enough explained, i f Woyzeck refers to the monkey dressed as a soldier and the wife in pants. However, the f i r s t part of the problem i s not so easily solved, and i t w i l l be l e f t until later when the images surrounding the grotesque idea have been more ful l y developed. This section of the essay began as an explanation II of how in Scene VI, Buchner seems to have consolidated the various strands of his imagery at this point. This is an extremely important scene also because i t is the f i r s t scene that can be properly called a 'plot' scene insofar as i t contains evidence, however indirect, that Marie has slept with the Drum Major. Marie says: He told Franz to get the h e l l out, so what could he do! (Scene VI) There i s the fact of the pair of earrings which she t e l l s Franz she found, but obviously 'he' gave them to her. Furthermore at the end of the scene, Marie expresses her gui l t : I am bad, I am. I could run myself through with a knife. (Scene VI) This scene functions very well as a consolidation scene. In no edition i s i t placed earlier than fourth and in every edition except the f i r s t crude effort by Franzos i t is the earliest mention of a plot event. lt; 38. In the f i r s t part of the scene, Marie is impatiently trying to settle her child, while vainly preening herself with her newly-won earrings before her piece of broken mirror. What she says to the child is not only cruel and superstitious, i t also unites and extends several patterns of images already mentioned. The light-in-darkness images are continued with the shining stones of the earrings. The seeing-blindness images from previous scenes are re-stated in this scene, when Marie flashes her mirror across the wall and says to the boy: Eyes tight! Or h e ' l l look into them and make you blind! (Scene VI) This contrasts with the earlier image in Scene III of the mother and child going blind as the darkness closes i n . There i s a small echo of WoyzeckVs visions in Marie's song to the child: Hurry, lady, close up tight A gypsy lad is out tonight And he w i l l take you by the hand And lead you into gypsyland. (Scene VI) The song clearly implies that a magic world opens up behind the eyes in sleep. Economic oppression i s mentioned in conjunction with an example of the 'red' imagery, when Marie says: But my mouth i s just as red as any of the fine ladies with their mirrors from top to bottom. (Scene VI) Buchner identifies Marie with the nature imagery in the exchange when Woyzeck sees the earrings: Woyzeck: I never have luck like that! Two at a time! Marie: Am I human or not? The irony i s that after the careful distinctions between 'human' and 'nature' concerning the monkey and horse in the previous two scenes, i t i s obvious that i t is her natural impulses which brought her the earrings. In this scene as well, there i s the fever image which growsduring the course of the play. Woyzeck says of the sleeping child: Look at the shiny drops on his forehead. Everything under the sun works! We even sweat in our sleep. (Scene VI) There i s an early premonition of Marie's death: I am bad! I am! I could run myself through with a knife! (Scene VI) At the end of the scene, Marie says: We'll a l l end up in h e l l , anyway, in the end, man, woman and child. (Scene VI) This relates to the apocalyptic images already stated and is considerably amplified by the fact that though she refers to Woyzeck herself, and the boy,Christian, she states i t in such a way as to include the whole world. It i s worth noting at this point that whereas the dramatic structure of the play emphasizes the contrast, lack of causality and distinctness of one scene from another, the interconnection of images, patterns and echoes i s extremely complex. After the consolidating work of Scene VI, II Buchner brings some of the themes, especially the nature-will polarity, f u l l y into the open. The major part of Scene VII has to do with the doctor reprimanding Woyzeck: In Mankind alone we see glorified the individual's w i l l to freedom! And you couldn't hold your water! (Scene VII) This equates Woyzeck's state of nature very much with the horse, which pissed when i t wasn't supposed to, and ais with the l i t t l e dog of Woyzeck's story in Scene IV. The light-eyes theme is continued by contrasting the Doctor's s c i e n t i f i c view of light: I had just stuck my head out the window, opening i t to let in the rays of the sun, so as to execute the process of sneezing... (Scene VII) with Woyzeck's philosophical view: Doctor, s i r , did you ever see anything with double nature? Like when the sun stops at noon, and i t ' s like the whole world was going up on fire? (Scene VII) By now i t is clear that much of the light imagery has developed a fever connotation which continues to grow through the play. Scene VIII finds the Drum Major strutting for Marie in her room. Drum Major: Wait t i l l Sunday when I wear my helmet with the plume and my white gloves! Damn, t h a t ' l l be a sight for you! Marie likens him both to a bu l l and a l i o n . Judging from the pattern of repetitions on several levels already apparent, i t i s l i k e l y that this scene (apart from i t s plot function) was intended as an amplification of the ' l i t t l e lovebirds' that are mentioned in Scene IV, but are not shown in Scene V along with the astronomical horse.16 When the Drum Major becomes too possessive in Scene VIII, Marie breaks away from him, and he mocks the 'devils' in her eyes. In the following scene, the Captain notes that Woyzeck's eyes 'stab' at him when he learns that Marie has been unfaithful. It i s extremely important to notice that almost every word of the 'voices' which t e l l Woyzeck to stab Marie is planted in his mind by someone else. In this scene there i s a very subtle progression in knife images from a reference to Woyzeck's work as a barber: Stay awhile, Woyzeck! Running through the world like an open razor, you're liable to cut someone. (Scene IX) to the point where the Captain uses the words: You keep stabbing at me with those eyes of yours .... at the moment when Woyzeck i s l i t e r a l l y stunned by the knowledge of Marie's i n f i d e l i t y . The f i r s t few lines of the next scene connect a series of images. Scene X begins with more 'seeing' imagery as Woyzeck stares fixedly at Marie: I don't see i t ! I don't see i t ! My God, why can't I see i t , why can't I take i t in my f i s t s ! (Scene X) Woyzeck next connects Christian and apocalyptic imagery with the redness of Marie's mouth: A sin so swollen and big - i t stinks to smoke the angels out of Heaven! You have a red mouth, Marie! No blisters on i t ? (Scene X) At the end of the scene, the 'seeing' imagery i s associated with the sun: Marie: You can see a lot with two eyes while the sun shines. (Scene X) Furthermore, Marie gives the second premonition of her death (the f i r s t was in Scene VI), only this time implants the idea in Woyzeck's mind: Marie: Don't you touch me, Franz! I'd rather have a knife in my body than your hands touch me. (Scene X) Woyzeck also provides us with a startling image of man, which, because of his reference to Marie's sin, stinking "to smoke the angels out of Heaven" is highly reminiscent of the Bible passage in Scene III: Isn't i t written: "And there arose a smoke out of the p i t , as the smoke of a great furnace" Woyzeck says here: Every man's a chasm. It makes you dizzy when you look down i n . (Scene X) This has strong associationswith the pit imagery of the Judgment Day passage of Revelations from which the B i b l i c a l quotation comes. In fact, i t i s a somewhat startling discovery, the extent to which the Book of Revelations II figures in Buchner's images. The 'red moon1 which is so important to the murder scene occurs in Revelations 6:12 as the sixth seal i s opened: ... and lo, there was a great earthquake, and the sun became as black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood. II Buchner's use of the image in this stabbing scene makes the apocalyptic connotations of the scene very obvious. Thus Woyzeck's simile (like a knife washed in blood) can easily take on the added significance when i t is noted that Jesus, the Lamb of God, washed in the blood of our sins, and comes on the Day of Judgment with eyes "as a flame of f i r e " 1 7 and in his mouth a"two-edged sword". 18 t i It i s clear now that Buchner makes his images work in a musical fashion. Repetition and amplification in a variety of keys and modes gradually build up a large charge of emotional impact and significance. A perfect example of this is the pattern associated with pissing. F i r s t , he has the story of the l i t t l e dog sniffing around the rim of a big hat, then the incident of the horse's natural outburst, followed by Woyzeck's being compared to a dog for pissing on a wall. By this time Woyzeck has become associated with the l i t t l e dog of his own story. In the mock sermon of Scene XII, the religious connotation i s added: Let us piss once more upon the Cross so that somewhere a Jew w i l l die! (Scene XII) In a scene which Mueller includes, but which most editors tend to leave out because i t seems to be from an early t i draft, Buchner has a startling closing line: Look! The sun coming through the clouds -like God emptying His bedpan on the world. (Scene XVI) In other words, God's light i s piss on the world. That Buchner was bitter and despairing when he wrote this play has already been noted, but the extent of his distaste for the world only becomes obvious in images such as the one just quoted, or in the splended reversal of the Grandmother's n i h i l i s t i c fairytale in Scene XXIII. It i s clear now that the' grotesque' imagery which was f i r s t mentioned in Scene IV i s not a matter of amplification of that word, but rather has to do with the wealth of images of an upside-down inverted world or particularly narrow views of i t . The Grandmother's image of the world as an "upside-down pot"^g for example, is grotesque in i t s e l f , but i s made considerably more so by i t s similarity to the image of God's empty bedpan.20 11 The effect of Buchner's method of interweaving various strains of imagery i s to invest rather mundane events with considerable significance. Thus the knife and the red moon in the murder scene are associated with a great deal of religious and apocalyptical symbolism. The knife image in an earlier scene i s an echo from Macbeth. Woyzeck wakes in the middle of the night with a feverish vision: And then when I close my eyes, i t keeps shining there, a big, broad knife, on a table by a window in a narrow, dark street, and an old man s i t t i n g behind i t . And the knife i s always in front of my eyes. (Scene XIV) Very few of the physical or image correspondences it and references which Buchner employs are presented in an obvious fashion. They depend rather on a residual pick-up in the mind of the spectator on a largely unconscious level Buchner's composition technique makes continual use of these indirect means of communication. For example, there i s often a relationship between the location of a scene and i t s mood, or significance in the fact that the characters so often choose to express themselves through folk songs, stories, nursery rhymes and quotations from the Bible. In his introduction to the plays, Mueller has an evocative image for Woyzeck. He finds i t 'akin to a series of stained-glass windows in a mediaeval cathedral.' However, the image has more to i t than Mueller cares to make of i t . The picture evoked by this i s of a series of distinct windows separated by darkness providing the only colour in a gloomy cathedral. Perhaps i t would be more accurate to say that Woyzeck, because of i t s indirectness is like the patterns of light cast from these windows onto the floor of the cathedral. It i s only by following the light back towards the source that the informing body of scripture, folklore and mythology becomes apparent. A II d i f f i c u l t y with Mueller's image is that Buchner1s stained glass windows involve an atmospheric, cinematic play of light. The windows of a cathedral have significance as events in the divine History, whereas the scenes of Woyzeck have the charged indirectness of dream images. II There is one outstanding fact of Buchner's dramaturgy II that is never mentioned: Buchner wrote for money. He wrote Danton's Death and sent i t to a publisher in the hopes that he could earn something. He wrote Leonce and Lena for a play contest and he did his Hugo translations to support himself. There is no evidence of his sending his plays to a theatre for production, no evidence that he even spent any time in a theatre, or thought of having his plays staged. The point i s that Woyzeck is always so unthinkingly taken as obviously a fourth-wall photographic r e a l i s t i c play. This assumption is furthered by the abruptness of beginnings and endings of some scenes, which seem to demand either a blackout or a quickly dropped curtain. However, the scenes which end most abruptly, especially the horse scene and the fight between Woyzeck and the Drum Major (Scene XVIII) are usually considered II sketches or appear to be incomplete in Buchner's f a i r copy of the play. Almost a l l the other scenes are written on and off stage, while s t i l l preserving the quick-cut quality II that is prevalent in the play. Since Buchner identified so strongly with Shakespeare, and had l i t t l e commerce with the theatre of his day, i t seems entirely possible that his theatrical imagination conceived of his play as sweeping across the stage in the manner of Shakespeare. II Since Buchner gives no indications of staging any-where in the play, i t probably means that he was either taking the staging capabilities of his native theatre absolutely for granted, or that he had some private idea of how i t was to be done. Perhaps i t did not weigh on his mind very heavily in view of the fact that he c a l l s for some rather d i f f i c u l t effects, such as a horse urinating on cue, and a pond for Woyzeck to drown i n . II If Buchner wanted a f u l l set change for each of the scenes he wrote, the production would involve a minimum of fifteen major sets, and would necessitate a set change on the average of every three minutes. When the play was discovered in the late nineteenth century, the Realistic and Naturalistic stages could see no way of handling i t , and as a result Woyzeck was not produced un t i l 1913, almost eighty years after i t was written, and then in an a n t i - r e a l i s t i c fashion.22 Although Knight seems to think that r e a l i s t i c staging would not be that d i f f i c u l t , I tend to think that unless straight drops and props were used, changes would average about thirty seconds each. This adds fifteen minutes to the running time of the play and more than one scene would be shorter than i t s scene change. Thirty seconds of black or curtain at three minute intervals in such a short production would be suicidal,especially in view of II the sharpness of Buchner's cutting from scene to scene. II It seems a l l the more lik e l y that Buchner probably had an image of an Elizabethan stage in mind as he wrote the play. Either that, or he was writing a movie without realizing i t . II Buchner's use of place i s somewhat different from Shakespeare's, in that t e r r i t o r i a l instincts, interior, exterior, light-dark, hot-cold, have considerable influence on the action. A perfect example of this is obvious in a comparison of the f i r s t two scenes. Scene I takes place in the b r i g h t l y - l i t interior of the Captain's quarters. Woyzeck is hurriedly performing his task of shaving the Captain, and is deferential to him to the point of mumbling his assent to the Captain's joking proposition that the wind is from the North-South. It i s very much the Captain's space, and in i t , Woyzeck must struggle to be articulate. In the following scene, in a f i e l d outside the town, Woyzeck and Andres cut sticks for the Captain. The place i s neutral, the pace is relaxed; Andres whistles and Woyzeck's imagination i s freed to t e l l a story about a spot where the toadstools grow, which rapidly expands into his apocalyptic vision of " f i r e sailing around the sky and a noise coming down like trumpets".23 Modern lighting technique can create most of 11 the qualities of space which Buchner manipulates; hot-cold, light-dark, open-confined and the t e r r i t o r i a l conditions are easily established by the characters involved. However, one of the most striking qualities of the play is a very strong sense of multiple view-point and variety of focus. Moments in the play cry out for a close-up: Woyzeck's face as he realizes in Scene IX that Marie has been unfaithful, or the exchange of glances between Marie and the Drum Major in the f a i r scene. A scenically elaborate production would rob the play of i t s economy and quickness. The basic problem in staging i s that d e t a i l of background is necessary because of the atmospheric nature of the dramatic i l l u s i o n involved, while on the other hand, in a proscenium staging which best allows for this type of i l l u s i o n , v a r i a b i l i t y of viewpoint and focus are sacrificed. The basis for this production tended to emphasize some qualities of the play while s a c r i f i c i n g others. One tends to assume that 'atmosphere1 i s a l l -important in Woyzeck, and i f one sacrifices atmosphere and i t s sharp contrasts from scene to scene, only the plot skeleton, which i s minimal, i s l e f t . However, a third and probably the strongest element of the play, i t s 'spatiality' is worth stressing. To emphasize this element on stage requires a certain abstraction so that images are not so burdened with reality that they cannot be recognized as part of a larger pattern. The abstraction of film seems to suit this play perfectly; background and detail can be meticulously authentic, and yet the camera, as a selective eye, can choose i t s detail, i t s distance, and angle, so as to simultaneously present the i l l u s i o n of the flow of undigested experience, as well as emphasizing the spatial, associative, connection of one event and the next over the causal and linear. A major consideration in this production, which involved an irregularly shaped playing space, surrounded on three sides by audience, was that the physiological response of the eye moving in the socket and the necessity of changing focus would give the spectator an experience somewhat akin to a changing camera angle or close-up and long-shot focusing. The spectator is more aware of being selective in this arrangement than in medium-distance proscenium staging. However, a major problem with the audience so close i s that background must obviously be sacrificed. To counter-balance that loss, several other aspects had to be emphasized. F i r s t , the cinematic qualities of the play, second the dream-image quality of the scenes, and thirdly the linear disjointedness and spatial inter-connection. The dream image quality which i s so apparent in the language of the play (and this particular translation) was taken as the foundation of the production. Film i s the most dream-like of media, except that the dreamer tends to feel inside the sphere of action, rather than separated from i t , seeing i t projected. Further, dreams tend to emphasize foreground and wash out background except for very significant d e t a i l . The image of the stained glass windows in a mediaeval cathedral i s particularly relevant: the windows are in primary or f u l l hues but are mixed and blended in reflection on the floor; from the vantage point inside the cathedral there is a sense of dark space behind the spectator, with the images surrounding. To this end, sound originated behind the audience and only actors and minimal hand props were employed against a deep burgundy background. Change in conditions and change in space had to be indicated with lighting, sound and use of the space by the actor. Whereas ' r e a l i s t i c ' theatre demands willing a suspension of disbelief, this production was designed to evoke and demand the active imaginative participation of the audience to supply details of place and atmosphere. A pool of light had to be taken as a pond, an actress in tights and harness had to be taken as a real horse. This production, then, stressed the dream-image quality of the scenes and strove to contrast the spatial interconnection of the scenes with their causal and linear distinctions. The play was conceived of as taking place in each spectator mind and the production techniques already mentioned tended to support this concept. II There i s one quality of Buchner's work which is often noticed but rarely explored for i t s f u l l significance that i s , that Woyzeck reflects what i s ultimately a tragic view of l i f e and therefore in the end a hopeful, humanistic one. Too often the response to this play i s partialized. II Those who would make Buchner an early Social Realist point to the major themes of economic, social and physical oppression which are prominent in the play, as well as the conflict between Free Will and Determination, which seems to be resolved in favour of the latter. Similarly, for those who look there is evidence of overwhelming nihilism and scepticism in the religious imagery and the Grandmother's fairy tale. These qualities are undoubtedly there in the II play, but miss the persistent feeling that Buchner has great sympathy for the suffering he portrays, while s t i l l being an uncompromising re a l i s t in discerning the nature and origin of that suffering. He must approach the reality of that suffering as honestly and as closely as possible it in order to transcend i t . Buchner's humanism is expressed by Lenz: One must love mankind in order to penetrate the particular existence of each thing; there must be nothing too common, or too ugly. Only then can they be understood. The most insignificant of faces can make a deeper impression than the mere sensation of beauty. 24 \ .— - — 11 Buchner's portrayal of character serves as excellent testimony to the view expressed in Lenz. One might think 11 upon examining the dramatis personae of Woyzeck that Buchner was only interested in characters for their position in the social or economic hierarchy. He directly names only Woyzeck, Marie, Andres, two of Marie's neighbours and Karl, the town idiot. Others receive only the simple designation, Captain, Doctor, Drum Major, Grandmother. However, each character i s allowed his own integrity rather than merely being used for his function in the II social hierarchy or his usefulness in Buchner's method of composition. Even in such devastating portraits as those of the Doctor or the Captain, Buchner penetrates so deeply into the nature of the character that his understanding and ultimate sympathy cannot be denied. II What i s true of Buchner's treatment of character stands also for his diction. Michael Hamburger captures the quality when he says: Yet to see or read Woyzeck i s to gain an experience which no other play affords. Behind i t s bare diction and commonplace action, there is a vision that removes this fragmentary melodrama from a l l the existing categories. The diction of Woyzeck i s so perfectly adapted to i t s dramatic function that i t draws the audience or reader into the very vortex of what i t serves to express. It i s a transparent diction, poetic not in i t s e l f , but despite i t s e l f , because i t reveals what i s essentially and timelessly human behind the semi-articulate utterings of vulgar persons, a murderer and a slut. II Buchner i s , next to Shakespeare, probably one of the most invisible of dramatists. He was able, as few artists and dramatists are, to appear to remain impartial and aloof from his play, to allow his characters the greatest freedom of expression. It i s remarkable that a young man of twenty-three could have the maturity and vision II to write such accomplished and powerful works as Buchner produced in his spare moments stolen from s c i e n t i f i c studies and revolutionary a c t i v i t i e s . What experiences gave rise to the depth and intensity of his vision and the creative processes which shaped them can only be guessed at or inferred from indirect evidence. As far as Woyzeck i s concerned, Buchner's personal views concerning human nature and literature must be gleaned from sources as diverse as his lecture on cranial nerves and the Lenz fragment which contains images it and statements that seem to relate specifically to Buchner himself, and are relevant to certain parts of Woyzeck. II Hamburger translates a section of Buchner's lecture on cranial nerves, in which he discussed two views of studying natural phenomena, the "teleological" and the "philosophical". The "teleological" view sees every organism as "a complex machine, provided with the most ingenious means of preserving i t s e l f up to a certain point".26 II Buchner rejects this view and proposes what he calls the "philosophical" view in which: ... nature does not act for specific ends, does not use i t s e l f up in an endless chain of cause and effect, each of which determines another; but in a l l i t s manifestations, Nature is immediately sufficient to i t s e l f . A l l that i s , i s for i t s own sake. To look for the law of this being i s the aim of the view opposed to the teleological. A l l that the former sees as cause, the latter sees as effect. When the teleological school is ready with an answer, the question only begins for the philosophical school . Such thinking profoundly affected his dramaturgy, and led him to probe deeply at every level of human existence to see man socially, economically, physically and spir i t u a l l y , to ask the questions of existence, until he, like Woyzeck, could say: Every man's a chasm. It makes you dizzy when you look down in. (Scene X) NOTES 1. The material for the biographical section of t h i s essay has been compiled from a number of sources,, the two main sources being A. H. J . Knight's Georg Buchner (Basil ^ l a c k w e l l , Oxford, 1951) and Herbert Lindenberger's Georg Buchner (Carbondale, Southern I l l i n o i s University Press, 1964). Both of these c r i t i c s make extensive use of F r i t z Bergemann's Werke und B r i e f e , Knight using the 1922 e d i t i o n published by the Inselverlag, and Lindenberger using the l a t e r e d i t i o n (Wiesbaden, 1958). As both Knight and Lindenberger translate l e t t e r s and other material from Bergemann which i s otherwise unavailable in English, I w i l l henceforth c i t e these sources as "Knight" and "Lindenberger" and where they are using Bergemann as "Knight (or Lindenberger ) from Bergemann". 2. Lindenberger, p.9 from Bergemann, p.36 8 3. Lindenberger, p.15, from Bergemann, p.5 80 4. Norst, M. J. "Biedermeier" i n Periods i n German L i t e r a t u r e , ed., J. M. Ritchie (Oswald Wolff, London, 1966) p. 147. 5. I b i d . , p.148 6. I b i d . , p.150 7. "From Georg Buchner's Letters", trans. Maurice Edwards, Tulane Drama Review, VI, 3 (1962) 8. Mueller, C a r l Richard. Georg Buchner Complete  Plays and Prose ( H i l l and Wang, New York, 1963) p. 169 9 . Ibid . , p. x i i i 10. Ibid . , p. x x x i i 11. I b i d . , p. xxxi 12. Lindenberger, o p . c i t . , p.91 13. Knight, G. Wilson, The Wheel of F i r e (Methuen & Co., London, 1967) p.3 NOTES (contd). 14. Scene XIII. 15. For the ordering of scenes in the various editions, see the footnote in Knight, p.118. Knight, who otherwise seems to be a very meticulous and astute Buchner scholar seriously misunderstands Scene VI (Scene VII in his version). He assumes that nothing has happened between Marie and the Drum Major at this point. The evidence i s , of course, circumstantial, but the hint is too broad to be ignored. For his interpretation see his discussion of Scene VII in Knight, p.120. 16. Scene V is considered by a l l editors to be an incomplete sketch. It ends very awkwardly and abruptly for staging purposes, although i t is an excellent cinematic cut. It seems lik e l y that since he mentioned the l i t t l e lovebirds in the previous scene that he intended to use them to finish Scene V. 17. Revelations, 1:14 18. Revelations, 1:16 19. Scene XXIII 20. See Scene XVI 21. Mueller, p.xxiv 22. Lindenberger, p.17 23. Scene II 24. Trans. Mueller, p.151 25. Hamburger, Michael - Reason and Energy, (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1957) p. 206 26. Hamburger, op. c i t . , p.19 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ardrey, Robert. The Te r r i t o r i a l Imperative. New York: Dell Publishing Co., Inc., 1968. Bettelheim, Bruno. The Informed Heart. Glencoe: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1960. Buchner, Georg. Complete Plays and Prose, trans, by Carl Richard Mueller. New York: H i l l and Wang, 1963. . "Woyzeck", trans, by John Holmstrom, in Three German Plays. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1963. Esslin, Martin. The Theatre of the Absurd. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1961. Hamburger, Michael. Reason and Energy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1957. Hauch, Edward Franklin. "The Reviviscence of Georg Buchner," PMLA, LIV (1929), 892-900. Knight, A. H. J. Georg Buchner. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1951. Knight, G. Wilson. The Wheel of Fire. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1967. Lindenberger, Herbert. Georg Buchner. Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s University Press, 1964. McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1964. Majut, Rudolf. "Georg Buchner and Some English Thinkers," Modern Language Review, XLVIII (1953), 310-22. Peacock, Ronald. "A Note on Georg Buchner's Plays," German Life and Letters, n.s. X(1957), 189-97 Ritchie, J.M., editor. Periods in German Literature. London: Oswald Wolff, 1966. 61. Rosenberg, Ralph P. "Georg Buchner's Early Reception in America," Journal of English and  Germanic Philology, XLIV (1945), 270-73. Spalter, Max. Brecht's Tradition. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1967. A NOTE ON THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT Part of the director's intention for this production was to discover what happens to a play which is usually given a r e a l i s t i c , proscenium-type staging when i t is transferred into a very small, three-quarter round setting. Several problems were immediately encountered. The f i r s t is a problem of scale: does the play seem to have been written for a certain size of theatre and stage and does i t demand a certain physic point of view for the audience? The second is the nature of the dramatic i l l u s i o n involved: does the play depend on the i l l u s i o n of a missing fourth wall, or i s some other kind of i l l u s i o n possible? A third question, related to the other two, concerns which qualities of the play become emphasized and which lost by the change in staging circumstances and the imposition of a directorial concept. The qualities which struck me most strongly on the f i r s t and subsequent readings of the play were the cinematic juxtaposition of scenes which produces the i l l u s i o n of extreme mobility for the audience, and the dream-like pattern of repeated verbal and physical images. Because movies and dreams have many qualities in common, I searched for a production concept which could accommodate these two ideas. The f i r s t plan was to conceive of the scenes of the play as images which flash across Woyzeck's mind as he drowns in the pond. This was rejected for two reasons. F i r s t , because several scenes contain things which Woyzeck could not possibly have seen, and secondly, since Woyzeck is in a state of physical and mental deterioration when he drowns, i t would have to be assumed that the images which the audience sees are the products of a diseased mind. To maintain the i l l u s i o n of a drowning man's l i f e passing before his eyes would have meant continuously reinforcing this idea within and between scenes with sound or whatever, thus destroying the very objective quality of the scenes. The idea was then formed to see the play '• as a dream taking place in the mind of each spectator. This removes the objectivity problem because dreams are usually f e l t to be outside the control of the dreamer. The spectator, feeling apart from the dream, is able to interpret somewhat objectively what went on within i t . Of course, i t i s generally believed that the unconscious mind acts as a kind of censor in dreams, displacing certain acts or ideas into symbols. However, the playwright performs a similar function as he chooses words and images, so none of Buchner's objectivity i s lost by conceiving of the play in this way. One of the most cinematic qualities of the play is the rapid change of view-point. In an effort to create the impression of changing angles of viewing and variation in distance, the audience was placed in an irregular pattern around the playing space, as can be seen from the diagram which follows this note. This was only partially successful. In a proscenium theatre, when a setting changes, the audience feels i t has changed place. In this production, a constant setting was used, making the impression of mobility harder to create. However, since dreams are usually taking place inside the head, this did not prove to be an overwhelming problem. As the black and white photographs in the Illustrations section show, every effort was made in the lighting to indicate change of place by contrasting the scenes as sharply as possible. The problem of scale arose because of the size of the theatre. Although i t was possible to create the impression of angles and changing focus, i t was not possible to get far enough away from the play for a panoramic view,which several of the scenes demand. This leads directly to the kind of i l l u s i o n involved. A r e a l i s t i c play demands that nothing be generalized; each particular thing or place or fragment in the play contributes to a particular atmosphere which creates the i l l u s i o n of the flow of l i f e . Choosing to conceive of the play as a dream and staging i t in a constant setting with an absolute minimum of props meant that most of the particulars which create atmosphere had to be sacrificed. This in turn meant that the visual and verbal patterns of repetition had to be greatly emphasized to reinforce the dream atmosphere. This was done by several methods. The f i r s t was the choice of translation. Most English translations transpose the play into a very particular setting and dialect, knowing that Buchner's original makes use of the peculiar dialect of Hesse. The translation by Mueller which was used emphasizes the imagery and uses no dialect, rather distinguishing characters by the quality of what they say. The second method of emphasizing the dream atmosphere was the doubling of roles by some of the actors. The actress that pretended to be a monkey and a horse also played both a whore and a child to show the mind's a b i l i t y to see the same figure in a variety of functions and roles. Finally, sound originated from behind the audience to promote the impression that they were inside, rather than separated from the scene of action. Other, more specific instances w i l l be discussed as they arise in the scene analysis. In general, the dream atmosphere seems to have been successfully created. The cinematic idea was not fu l l y realized because of the physicality of the actors and the fact that a movie screen i s very much like a proscenium arch, insofar as the spectator remains a constant distance from the image. The director's major discovery from this production was the effect of staging on the nature of dramatic i l l u s i o n and the necessity (and perils) of altering the emphasis of a play to suit a new i l l u s i o n . W O Y Z E C K by GEORG BUCHNER PROMPT SCRIPT SCENE Ia: This scene was inserted by the director in the blackout preceding the beginning of Scene I. It consisted of fragments of lines from the play spoken by actors who were placed behind, at the sides and in front of the audience. The intended effect of this c i r c l e of sound was to evoke a dream-like quality. The voices began slowly, softly and monotonally, gradually increasing in rhythm and intensity u n t i l the Captain's phrase, "Not so fast, Woyzeck", whereupon the voices faded through three repetitions of the phrase u n t i l , on the fourth, the light snapped on to discover Woyzeck in the process of shaving the Captain. A similar device was used at the end of the play as Woyzeck drowned in the pond. Each character had several phrases to repeat. They were: And at the beginning. The beginning of the beginning. What i s i t Franz? You look so pale. In Mankind alone we see glorified the individual's w i l l to freedom! I wish the world were schnapps, schnapps This one has the golden crown. Go to the hospital, Franz. And she sits there to this day, a l l , a l l alone. Then what's that on your hand? You'll die cheap, but not for nothing. But Woyzeck: Virtue1 Virtue! The Prince always says: "My God, there goes a real man!" There's blood on your hand! 68. Drink some schnapps with a powder in i t I t ' l l cut the fever. Don't stop! Don't stop! I know what love i s , too, Woyzeck. Like a person dying. What a murder! A good, genuine, beautiful murder! Hurry, so we can s t i l l see something. Not so fast, Woyzeck. WOYZECK SCENE i — A t rfte CAPTAIN'S THE CAPTAIN in a o/uiV. WOYZECK shaving him. CAPTAIN. N o t so fast, Woyzeck, not so fasti O n e thing at a time! You're making me dizzy. W h a t am I to do w i t h the ten extra minutes that you'l l finish early today? Just think, Woyzeck: you stil l have thirty beautiful years to live! T h i r t y years! T h a t makes three hundred and sixty months! A n d days! Hours! Minutes! W h a t do you think you' l l do w i t h all that horrible stretch of time? Have you ever thought about it , Woyzeck? 'Woyzeck. Yes, sir, Captain . Captain. It frightens me when I think about the world . . . when I th ink about eternity. Busyness, Woyzeck , busyness! There's the eternal: that's eternal, that is eternal. T h a t you can understand. B u t then again it's not eternal. It's only a moment. A mere moment. Woyzeck, i t makes m e shudder when I think that the earth turns itself about i n a single day! W h a t a waste of time! W h e r e wi l l i t al l <nd? Woyzeck, I can't even look at a m i l l wheel any more •without becoming melancholy. Woyzeck. Yes, sir, Capta in . Captain. Woyzeck, you always seem so exasperated! A good man isn't l ike that. A good man with a good conscience, that is. W e l l , say something, Woyzeck! W h a t ' s the weather l ike today? Woyzeck. B a d , Capta in , sir, bad: w i n d ! . Captain. I feel i t already. Sounds like a real storm out there. A w i n d like that has the same effect on me as a mouse. [Cunningly.] I think i t must be something out of the north-south. Woyzeck. Yes, sir, Captain . Captain. H a ! H a ! H a ! North-south! H a ! H a ! H a ! O h , lie 's a stupid one! Horr ib ly stupid! [Moved.] Woyzeck,_ 109 6>j S T O O L D**»»Hrfc4fi> i t # r or i K t u P U T S ew n& dorrs V s H M C M > 1 F » « . &IUtH 70. 110 GEORG BUCHNER you're a good man, but [ W i t h dignity.] Woyzeck , you have no morality! Moral i ty , that's when you have morals, you understand. It's a good word. Y o u have a chi ld with-out the blessings of the C h u r c h , just l ike our Right Reverend Garrison Chaplain says: " W i t h o u t the blessings of the C h u r c h . " It's not my phrase. Woyzecfe. Captain , sir, the good Lord's not going to look at a poor worm just because they said A m e n over it before they went at it . T h e L o r d said: "Suffer l itt le children to come unto me." Captain. W h a t ' s that you said? W h a t k i n d of strange answer's that? You're confusing me with your answers! Woyzeck: It's us poor people that . . . You - see , Cap-tain, sir . . . M o n e y , money! Whoever hasn't got money . . . W e l l , who's got morals when he's bringing some-thing l ike me into the world? W e ' r e flesh and blood, too. O u r k i n d is miserable only once: i n this world and i n the next. I think i f we ever got to Heaven we'd have to help with the thunder. • Captain. Woyzeck, you have no virtue! You're not a virtuous human being! Flesh and blood? Whenever I rest at the window, when it's finished raining, and my eyes follow the white stockings along as they hurry across the street . . . Damnat ion, Woyzeck, I know what love is, too, then! I 'm made of flesh and blood, too. But , Woyzeck: V i r t u e ! V i r t u e ! H o w was I to get r id of the time? I always say to myself: " Y o u ' r e a virtuous man [Moved], a good man, a good m a n . " Woyzeck. Yes, Captain , sir: V i r t u e . I haven't got much of that. Y o u see, us common people, we haven't got virtue. That 's the way it's got to be. B u t i f I could be a gentle-man, and if I could have a hat and a watch and a cane, and if I could talk refined, I 'd want to be virtuous, all right. There must be something beautiful i n virtue, Captain , sir._ B u t I 'm just a poor good-for-nothing! Captain. G o o d , Woyzeck. You're a good man, a good man. B u t you think too much. It eats at you. Y o u always seem so exasperated. O u r discussion has affected me deeply. Y o u can go now. A n d don't run sol Slowly! N i c e and slowly down the street! CoAT OUT u M r cue \ 71. SCENE H] WOYZECK H I SCENE i i — A n open field. The town in the distance WOYZECK and ANDRES cut twig» from tho buehos. AwDnES whistles: WOYZECK. Andres? Y o u know this place is cursed? Look at that l ight streak over there on the grass. There where the toadstools grow up. That 's where the head rolls every night. O n e t ime somebody picked it up. H e thought it was a hedgehog. Three days and three nights and he was i n a box. [Low.] Andres, i t was the Freemasons, don't you see, i t was the Freemasons! Andres [sings]. T w o little rabbits sat on a lawn Eat ing , oh, eating the green green grass . . . Woyzeck. Quiet! C a n you hear i t , Andres? C a n you hear it? Something moving! Andres [sings]. * '"''• Eat ing , oh, eating the green green grass T i l l all the grass was gone. Woyzeck. It's moving behind me! Under me! [Stamps on the ground.] Listen! H o l l o w ! It's al l hollow down there! It's the Freemasons! Andres. I 'm afraid. Woyzeck. Strange how stil l i t is. Y o u almost want to hold your breath. Andres! Andres. W h a t ? Woyzeck. Say something! [Looks about fixedly.] Andres! H o w bright i t is! It's all glowing over the town! A fire's sailing around the sky and a noise corning down like trumpets. It's coming closer! Let 's get out of here! D o n ' t look back! [Brans him into tho bushes.]  Andres [after a pause]. Woyzeck? D o you still hear it? Woyzecfe. It's quiet now. So quiet. L i k e the world's dead. . Andres. Listen! I can hear the drums inside. W e ' v e got to go! fi»40».eS fr*4T*«.* W H U T U l * ^ &Mt>ftl-S O M l & M & V . Vitus f V u o n . f i u? <*»TH X "TO ftUtt 1 t O M M f e Cufc \ 72 112 GEORG BUCHNER SCENE III—The town MAIUE with her CHILD at tho window. MAnonET. The Retreat passes, THE DRUM MAJOII at its hoad. MARIE [rocking THE CHILD in her arms]. Ho, boy! D a -da-da-da! C a n you hear? They're coming! There! Margret. W h a t a man! B u i l t l ike a tree! Marie. He walks like a l i o n . [THE DRUM MAJOR salutes MARIE.] g o i i H Margret. O h , what a look he threw you, neighbor! W e ' r e not used to such things from you. Marie [sings]. •«"••'•. Soldiers, oh, you pretty lads . . . K f r w V Margret. Y o u r eyes are sti l l shining. Marie. A n d if they are? Take your eyes to the Jew's a n d let h i m clean them for you. Maybe he can shine them so you can sell them for a pair of buttons! Kb-nrt Margrat. L o o k who's talking! Just look who's talking! If i t isn't the V i r g i n herself! I ' m a respectable person. B u t you! Everyone knows you could stare your way through seven layers of leather pants! _____ Marie. Slut! [Slams the window shut.] C o m e , boy! W h a t ' s i t to them, anyway! E v e n if you are just a poor whore's baby, your dishonorable l itt le face stil l makes your mother happy! [Sings.] - I have my trouble and bother  B u t , baby dear, where is your father? :• W h y should I worry and fight T i l h o l d you and sing through the night: H e i o popeio, my baby, my dove W h a t do I want now with love? (A knock at the window.] W h o ' s there? Is it you, Franz? C o m e i n ! . : Woyzecfc. Can ' t . There's rol l call. M a r i e . . D i d you cut wood for the Captain? Woyzecfe. Yes, M a r i e . Marie. W h a t is i t , Franz? Y o u look so troubled. Woyzeck. M a r i e , i t happened again, only there was t^fttuc * t T u n * - T 9-tr.fV t J - i . T twit* A » \ _ * i , % T O ti.K, Aittft \ . X ' l To vt.U. H A K I M i»i u.w-. t»rr »»»T»« HP.&CH e-mri Vkfct,i« * ' t T o HofrL U X t i * T C M * fc. ftklb VO-ttvS HtSiOfc ttAftl* VTto-»< TO H 0 T T _ M _ * - H . M A M .H S68v_6-wC6 '. U » » T twit »»CO. SowviD Cue 1 M M M MT06. _ N T 6 * . U . L . • *i»Rt**» IN ? v A t 6 Cfrt-Te*. VTHfc*. CRfTAlw » M H « U . * . t K ' t TO T\P Of \ w m t i . TO. » M N C5»»1t«.. T -RN I U»m«v_ + M A * . * TO X>ft.u>A KftT-fc. TUtWi ItPtM K M . MA Rt M fytowN© ? H . » M * T » « . o» I 'm & s R « t t t T O %P.*M M«»7oa. n u " w i n T . t l M t • w»R( i cw t . c - v - v v e ^ y O U T u . f t . t m T , D M A I M A »iftfctH M H K X * TO fcHSWT 0 * M-a. SOT, XA&.WT c u t ? , S O V A N O C u t 4> SouviD C*$ V A S H M t H W i f t SCENE IV] WOYZECK I B more. Isn't i t written: " A n d there arose a smoke out of the pit , as the smoke of a great furnace"? Marie. O h , Franz!  Woyzeck. Shh! Quiet! I've got it! T h e Freemasons! There was a terrible noise i n the sky and everything was on fire! I 'm on the trail of something, something big . It followed me all the way to the town. Something that I can't put my hands on, or understand. Something that drives us mad. W h a t ' l l come of i t all? Marie. Franz! Woyzeck. D o n ' t you see? L o o k around you! Everything hard and fixed, so gloomy. W h a t ' s moving back there? W h e n G o d goes, everything goes. I've got to get back. Marie. A n d the child? Woyzeck. M y G o d , the b o y ! — T o n i g h t at the fair! I've saved something again. [He leaves. Marie. T h a t man! Seeing things l ike that! H e ' l l go mad if he keeps thinking that way! H e frightened me! It's so gloomy here. W h y are you so quiet, boy? Are you afraid? It's growing so dark. As i f we were going b l i n d . O n l y that street lamp shining i n from outside.. \Sing.s.] A n d what i f your cradle is bad Sleep tight, my lovey, my lad. I can't stand i t ! It makes me shiver! [She goes out. SCENE i v — F a i r booths. Lights. People OLD MAN with a CHILD, WOYZECK, MARIE, CHARLATAN, WIFE, DRUM MAJOR, and SERGEANT OLD MAM [rings while THE CHILD dances to tho barrel b 1' Marie. M y G o d , when fools sti l l have their senses, then we're all fools. O h , what a mad world I W h a t a beautiful world! ; ^ M : K T O t^»itH W»CHT Lug waeVttCK, M A f t t t WTO* ftftouT ITfttc 1 1 4 GEORG BOCHNER They go over to THE CHARLATAN who stand9 in front of a booth, his WIFE in trouooro, and a monkey in costume Charlatan. Gent lemen, gentlemen! Y o u see here before you a creature as G o d created it! B u t it is nothing this way! Absolutely nothing! B u t now look at what A r t can do. It walks upright. Wears coat and pants. A n d even carries a saber. T h i s monkey here is a regular soldier. So what i f he isn't m u c h different! So what if he is still on the bottom rung of the human ladder! H e y there, take a bow! That 's the way! N o w you're a baron, at least. Give us a kiss! [The monkey trumpets.] T h i s l i tt le customer's musical, too. A n d , gentlemen, i n here you w i l l see the astronomical horse and the little lovebirds. Favorites of al l the crowned heads of Europe. They ' l l tell you anything: how old you are, how many children you have, what your ailments are. T h e performance is about to begin. A n d at the beginning. T h e beginning of the beginning!. "Woyzeck. Y o u know. I had a little dog once who kept sniffing around the r im of a b ig hat, and I thought I'd be good to h i m and make i t easier for h i m and sat h i m on top of i t . A n d all the people stood around and clapped. Gentlemen. O h , grotesque! H o w really grotesque!  Woyzeck. D o n ' t you believe i n G o d either? It's an honest fact I don't believe i n G o d . — Y o u call that gro-tesque? I l ike what's grotesque. See that? T h a t grotesque enough for y o u ? — [ T o MARIE.] Y o u want to go in? Marie. Sure. T h a t must be nice i n there. Look at the tassels on h i m ! A n d his wife's got pants on! -[They go inside. . Drum Major. W a i t a minute! D i d you see her? W h a t a piece! Sergeant, H e l l , she could whelp a couple regiments-ef cavalry! Drum Major. And breed d r u m majorsl W « M YtiMti SorgoanU Look at the way she carries that head! Y o u ' d think al l that black hair would pul l her down like a weight. A n d those eyes! Drum Major. L i k e looking down a wel l . . . or u p a chimney. C o m e o n , let's go after her! . CM*«,iATHM »M Tit tM*fckAT*N ¥ 5»tIt TO \.l6lHT Cue 10 touub eye 9 WITH H«»i<H U.(t. i .£veu A l l . **«%?T ttkUMMAro*, %*IT U.ft. — CaoM.Mfc To U.ft.SX.T, S » a a. ftlfcttT TP t » T t H VTU»t«4T H & M T CVA6 i l l * ) 75. S C E N E V ] WOYZECK 115 SCENE v—Interior of the brightly lighted booth MARIE, WOYZECK, PROPRIETOR OF THE BOOTH, SERCEANT, and DRUM MAJOR MARIE. A l l these lights!  Woyzeck. Sure, M a r i e . Black cats with fiery eyes. . Proprietor of the Booth [bringing forward a horse]. , Show your talent! Show your brute reason! Put human society to shame! Gentlemen, this animal you see here, with a tail on its torso, and standing on its four hoofs, is a member of al l the learned societies—as well as a pro-fessor at our university where he teaches students how to ride and fight. B u t that requires simple intelligence. N o w think w i t h your double reason! W h a t do you do when you think with your double reason? Is there a jackass i n this learned assembly? [The nag shakes its head.]  How's that for double reasoning? That's physiognomy for you. T h i s is no dumb animal. T h i s is a person! A human being! B u t stil l an animal. A beast. [The nag conducts itself indecently.] That 's right, put society to shame. As you can see, this animal is stil l i n a state of Nature. N o t ideal Nature, of course! Take a lesson from h i m ! B u t ask your doctor first, i t may prove highly dangerous! W h a t we have been told by this is: M a n must be natural! Y o u are created of dust, sand, and dung. W h y must you be more than dust, sand, and dung? L o o k there at his rcaoon. H e can figure even if he can't count i t off on his fingers. A n d why? Because he cannot express himself, can't ex-plain. A metamorphosed human being. T e l l the gentlemen what time i t is! W h i c h of you ladies and gentlemen has a watch? A watch? 0 * » n *Kt*Scrgoant. A watch? [He pulls a watch imposingly and measuredly from his pocket.] There you are, my good man!_ Marie. I want to ^ I | j ^ | S h e clambers down to the first row of seats; THE SERGEANT helps her.] Drum Major. W h a t a piece! wttMi c u e n(«0 tow-tb c u t ^ tto-tfr + A TA*> H 4 T W . A>tt_E \ * 0 & t l VfftM»< -~tfcf t » * T . - tfelttfr » U T l f*OT t u tTtSL TO A»Sw- 1 . _ CHfctlATWW, t\ 7o H«*<f C«,fttKiM_ U>«l> wCrAOt »••*« TO S-t.O*- _*>%_ - Y'< TO O t - T - t U^HS CtrfMftl To STOOL <v_o F , , T * ? Vtofttt CftuMTV —m**o»T ^ H M & * . _ » ? ( A*»*-O VTAOft • 0* T A*wt | S>-. Rfcfti-ltT . ."Ev » fe--»_l HrORU tft.wb - * I T _ . u . L . U0,HT »\ (fe. ^  116 GEORG BUCHNER SCENE vi—MARIE'S room MARIE with her CHILD MARIE [sitting, her CHILD on her lap, a piece of mirror in her hand]. H e told Franz to get the hell out, so what could he do! [Looks at herself in the mirror.] L o o k h o w the stones shine! W h a t k i n d are they, I wonder? W h a t k i n d d i d he say they were? Sleep, boy! Close your eyes! T i g h t ! Stay that way now. D o n ' t move or he ' l l get y o u ! . [Sings.] H u r r y , lady, close up tight J A gypsy lad is out tonight A n d he w i l l take you by the hand A n d lead you into gypsyland. [Continues to look at herself in the mirror.] They^ must be gold! I wonder how they'll look on me at the dance? O u r kind's got only a l itt le comer i n the world and a piece of broken mirror. B u t my mouth is just as red as any of the fine ladies with their mirrors from top to bot-tom, and their handsome gentlemen that kiss their hands for them! I 'm just a poor common piece! [THE CHILD sits up.] Quiet , boy! Close your eyes! There's the sandman! L o o k at h i m run across the wall ! [She flashes with the mirror.] Eyes tight! O r he ' l l look into them and make you b l i n d ! WOYZECK enters behind her. She jumps up, her hands at her ears. Woyzeck. W h a t ' s that? Marie. N o t h i n g . Woyzeck. There's something shiny i n your hands. Marie. A n earring. I found i t . Woyzeck. I never have luck l ike that! T w o at a time! Marie. A m I human or not? _ Woyzeck. I ' m sorry, M a r i e -L i f t his arm, the chair's hurt ing h i m . L o o k at the shiny drops on his forehead. Everything under the sun worksl We even sweat i n our sleep. U s poor people! Here's some U 6 » » T t«*e >x C O -Look at the boy asleep. <'J T o Otiie-s Ho M SCENE VII] WOYZECK 117 money again, M a r i e . M y pay and something from the Capta in . Marie. G o d bless you, Franz. Woyzeck. I've got to get back. Tonight , M a r i e ! I ' l l see you tonight! [He goes off. Marie [alone, after a pause]. I am bad, I am! I could run myself through with a knife! O h , what a life, what a life! W e ' l l all end up i n hel l , anyway, i n the end: man, woman, and chi ld! ;  SCENE VII—At the DOCTOR'S THE DOCTOR and WOYZECK DOCTOR. I don't believe i t , Woyzeck! A n d a man of your word! Woyzeck. W h a t ' s that. Doctor, sir? Doctor. I saw i t a l l , Woyzeck. Y o u pissed on the street! Y o u were pissing on the wall l ike a dog! A n d here I 'm giving you three groschen a day plus board! That's ter-rible, Woyzeck! T h e world's becoming a terrible place, a terrible place! Woyzeck . B u t , Doctor, sir, when Nature . . . Doctor. W h e n Nature? W h e n Nature? W h a t has Nature to do w i t h it? D i d I or d id I not prove to you that the musculus constrictor vesicae is controlled by your will? Nature! Woyzeck, man is free! In M a n k i n d alone we see glorified the individual's w i l l to freedom! A n d you couldn't ho ld your water! [Shakes his head places his hands behind the small of his back, and walks back and forth] Have you eaten your peas today, Woyzeck? N o t h i n g but peas! Cruciferae! Remember that! There's going to be a revolution i n science! I 'm going to blow it sky-high! Urea Oxygen. A m m o n i u m hydrochloratem hyperoxidic. Woyzeck, couldn't you just try to piss again? G o i n the other room there and make another try. Woyzeck. Doctor, sir, I can't. Doctor [disturbed]. B u t you could piss on the wall . I have it here i n black and white.. O u r contract is right here! I saw it . I saw it wi th these very eyes. I had just ?»CK$ «-\e>HT cut \*(<0 (0*M<> C u t U<UT Cut OecTofc, fr-mfc. {rook. _TfcP* o»* O.MO o r e O t - M »T*Oi»; tf± To v>0»mt_. M 4 B T * K «>0><t«*K * » T V -tf'» stuck my head out the window, opening it to let i n the 78. 118 GEORG BUCHNER rays of the sun, so as to execute the process of sneezing. [Goinsi toward him.] N o . Woyzeck. I 'm not going to vex T»fc*S •* * ' i O.L. myself. Vexat ion is unhealthy. Unscientific. I 'm calm now, o,fri*-w^ »*>»><tetit, completely calm. M y pulse is beating at its accustomed sixty, and I am speaking to you i n utmost cold-blooded-ness. W h y should I vex myself over a man, G o d forbid! A man! N o w if he were a Proteus, i t would be worth the vexation! But . Woyzeck, you really shouldn't have pissed T* H'^' on the wall . v ,. Woyzeck. Y o u see, Doctor, sir, sometimes a person's got a certain k i n d of character, like when he's made a cer-tain way. B u t with Nature it's not the same, you see. W i t h Nature [He snaps his fingers.], it's l ike that! H o w should I explain, it's l ike r Doctor. Woyzeck, you're philosophizing again. ^ 0 u t v \ O H M Woyzeck [con/IdingZy]. Doctor, sir, d id you ever see A A M M H M eft"* anything with double nature? L i k e when the sun stops \M»*l?ti*- ***** at noon, and it's like the world was going up i n fire? That 's , when I hear a terrible voice saying things to me! • VThtiPl Ou»CK\.V Doctor. Woyzeck, you have an aberratio! F m t i O W T » ST U M . Woyzeck [places his finger at his nose]. It's i n the toad-stools, Doctor, sir, that's where it is. D i d you ever see the shapes the toadstools make when they grow up out of the earth? If only somebody could read what they say! Doctor. Woyzeck, you have a most beautiful aberratio Kt'i cW-T mentalis partialis of a secondary order! A n d so wonder-fully developed! Woyzeck, your salary is increased! Idee fixe of a secondary order, and with a generally rational state. Y o u go about your business normally? St i l l shaving T ^ P i v»WlEt< VOITH CA**6 . the Captain? »i»>tU iT» e i ot* ^"fcu Woyzecfe. Yes, sir. •, • Doctor. Y o u eat your peas? Wovzecfe. Just as always. Doctor, sir. M y wife gets the ^'t ©»w»4tT*6.t money for the household. Doctor. S t i l l i n the army? Woyzeck. Yes, sir, Doctor. Doctor. You're an interesting case. Patient Woyzeck , you're to have an increase i n salary. So behave yourself! woVfctt* VTfttTS l a L*%u& Let's feel the pulse. A h yes. v««<»tetK X\ To Deer**. , • — > — — >*jo>ftetK. sxvri Arttfr i 79. S C E N E I X ] WOYZECK 119 SCENE V I I I—M A R I E ' S room DRUM M A J O R and M A R I E D R U M MAJOR . M a r i e ! Marie [looking at him, with expression]. G o on, show me how you march!—Chest broad as a bull's and a beard like a l i o n ! There's not another man i n the world like that! A n d there's not a prouder woman than me! Drum Major. W a i t t i l l Sunday when I wear my helmet with the plume and my white gloves! D a m n , that ' l l be a sight for you! T h e Prince always says: " M y G o d , there goes a real man(2 Marie [scoring]. H a ! [Goes toward him.] A man?_ Drum Major. You're not such a bad piece yourself! H e l l , we' l l plot a whole brood of drum majors! Right? [He puts his arm around her.] Marie [annoyed]. L e t go! D r u m Major. B i t c h ! Marie [fiercely]. Y o u just touch me! Drum Major. There's devils i n your eyes. Marie. L e t there be, for all I care! W h a t ' s the difference! SCENE ix—Street CAPTAIN and DOCTOR. T H E CAPTAIN comes panting along the street, stops; pants, looks about. CAPTAIN. H O , Doctor, don't run so fast! D o n ' t paddle the air so w i t h your stick! You're only courting death that way! A good man with a good conscience never walks as fast as that. A good man , . . [He catches him by the coat.] Doctor, permit me to save a human life! Doctor. I 'm i n a hurry, Capta in , I 'm i n a hurry! Captain. Doctor, I 'm so melancholy. I have such fan-tasies. I start to cry every time I see my coat hanging on the wall . Doctor. H m ! Bloated, fat, thick neck: apoplectic consti-tution. Yes, Capta in , you'l l be having apoplexia cerebria L V*iT%(t\ w J r t r t ttk»«% OftM»n w*:r©*. X'j To IHt MIDtt Otkeoft RftMiMO fcfcClk. Wt »*TV M \ \ *a*t AMwO vteft. T« TAKt it . HMifc *\ To ttVUfro* LftvfeL. Slltm HlWJH tfcotftf W&*T KlH K'\ vV*f TO ft**. , 4 » H K I ftlfcH'T , a\ t t k t t i T O t+t-a. T\» HMt * lfc * 0 * Hm 0*T x't «.«. T * t l U l T O * I H . O t w M l T f c f r . f r * T u f c W l T O tfc»TfclN 80. 120 GEORG BUCHNER any time now. O f course you could have it on only one side. I n which case you' l l be paralyzed down that one side. O r i f things go really well you'l l be mentally disabled so that you can vegetate away for the rest of your days. Y o u may look forward to something approximately like that wi th in the next four weeks! A n d , furthermore. I can assure you that you give promise of being a most interest-ing case. A n d if it is God's w i l l that only one half of your tongue become paralyzed, then we w i l l conduct the most immortal of experiments. Captain. Doctor, you mustn't scare me that way! People are said to have died of fright. O f pure, sheer fright. I can see them now with-lemons i n their hands. B u t they'll say: " H e was a good man, a good m a n . " Y o u devil's coffinnail-maker! Doctor [extending his hat toward him]. D o you know who this is, Captain? T h i s is Sir Hollowhead, my most honorable Captain Drilltheirassesoff! Captain [makes a series of folds in his sleeve]. A n d do you know who this is, Doctor? T h i s is Sir M a n i f o l d , my dear devil's coffinnail-maker! H a ! H a ! H a ! B u t no harm meant! I 'm a good man, but I can play, too, when I want to, Doctor, when I want to . . . W O Y Z E C K comes toward them and tries to pass in a hurry. Captain. H o ! Woyzeck! W h e r e are you off to i n such a hurry? Stay awhile, Woyzeck! R u n n i n g through the world l ike an open razor, you're liable to cut someone. H e runs as i f he had to shave a castrated regiment and would be hung before he discovered and cut the longest hair that wasn't there. B u t on the subject of long beards . . . W h a t was i t I wanted to say? Woyzeck, why was I thinking about beards? Doctor. T h e wearing of long beards on the c h i n , re-marks Pl iny , is a habit of which soldiers must be broken Captain [continues]. A h , yes, this thing about beards! T e l l me, Woyzeck, have you found any long hairs from beards i n your soup bowl lately? H o , I don't think he understands! A hair from a human face, from the beard of fctHinb H-»»-. T o T f t K t - t»i » T M W « HAT • p_r\ a* o»* < * * * * . *»%T «M _o_Toft i F»*6 pOCVoR «T*1.T_ TO LfcUCitt WOHTKK .TOPS tTuft**,. 81. S C E N E I X ] WOYZECK 1 2 1 an engineer, a sergeant, a . . . a drum major? W e l l , Woyzeck? B u t then he's got a good wife. It's not the same as with the others. Woyzeck. Yes, sir, Capta inl W h a t was i t you wanted to say to me, Capta in , sir? Captain. W h a t a face he's making! W e l l , maybe not i n his soup, but i f he hurries home around the corner I ' l l wager he might sti l l find one on a certain pair of l ips. A pair of l ips, Woyzeck . I know what love is, too, W o y -zeck. Look at h i m , he's white as chalk! Woyzeck. C a p t a i n , sir, I 'm just a poor devil. A n d there's nothing else I've got i n the world but her. Cap-tain, sir, if you're just making a fool of me . . . Captain. A fool? M e ? M a k i n g a fool of you, Woyzeck? Doctor. Y o u r pulse. Woyzeck, your pulse! Short, hard, skipping, irregular. Woyzeck. C a p t a i n , sir, the earth's hot as coals i n he l l . B u t I ' m cold as ice, cold as ice. H e l l is cold. I ' l l bet you. I don't believe it! G o d ! G o d ! I don't believe i t ! Captain. L o o k here, you, how would you . . . h o w ' d y o u l ike a pair of bullets i n your skull? Y o u keep stabbing at me with those eyes of yours, and I 'm only trying to help. Because you're a good man, Woyzeck, a good m a n . Doctor. Facial muscles rigid, taut, occasionally twitches. C o n d i t i o n strained, excitable. Woyzeck. I 'm going. Anything's possible. T h e b i t c h ! Anything's possible .—The weather's nice, Capta in , sir. Look, a beautiful, hard, gray sky. Y o u ' d almost l ike to pound a nail i n up there and hang yourself on i t . A n d only because of that l itt le dash between Yes and Yes again . . . and N o . Captain , sir: Yes and N o : d id N o make Yes or Yes make N o ? I must think about that. He goes off with long strides, slowly at first, then faster and faster. Doctor [shouting after him]. Phenomenon! Woyzeck , you get a raise! Captain. I get so dizzy around such people. L o o k at h i m go! Long-legged rascals like h i m step out l ike a shadow running away from its own spider. B u t short ones PoCTOtt. X'S *»?VTM* TO. L.OtL WR\T_ _ IK NOTtlO-K. , X** T O h » . - 6 X . &0_T»ft *'* ""Aft,! TO A « - > A M M . T » • 8 2 . 122 GEORG BUCHNER only dawdle along. T h e long-legged ones are the light-ning, the short ones the thunder. H a h a . . . Grotesque! Grotesque! SCENE x—M A R I E ' S room WOYZECK and M A R I E WOYZECK \looks fixedly at her and shakes his head]. H m ! lod, why can't 1 see i t , I don't see it! I don't see it! M y G , why can't I take i t i n my fists! Marie [frightened]. Franz, what is i t ? — Y o u ' r e raving, Franz. Woyzecfc. A sin so swollen and b i g — i t stinks to smoke the angels out of Heaven! Y o u have a red mouth, M a r i e ! N o blisters on it? M a r i e , you're beautiful as sin. H o w can mortal sin be so beautiful? Marie. Franz, it's your fever making you talk this way! Woyzeck. D a m n you! Is this where he stood? L i k e this? L i k e this? Marie. W h i l e the day's long and the world's old a lot of people can stand i n one spot, one right after the other. — W h y are you looking at me so strange, Franz! I 'm afraid! Woyzecfe. It's a nice street for walking, uh? Y o u could walk corns on your feet! It's nice walking on the street, going around i n society. Marie. Society? Woyzeck. A lot of people pass through this street here, don't they! A n d you talk to t h e m — t o whoever you w a n t — but that's not my business!—Why wasn't it me!  Marie. Y o u expect me to tell people to keep off the streets—and take their mouths with them when they leave? Woyzeck. A n d don't you ever leave your lips at home, they're too beautiful, it would be a sin! B u t then I guess the wasps like to l ight on them, uh? Marie. A n d what wasp stung you! You're l ike a cow chased by hornets! Woyzeck. I saw h i m ! Marie. Y o u can see a lot with two eyes while the sun shines! LiftiHT C u t ( »>} MftVS ON \T0«l. BX.CPUCuSt - * w T f c * i wi .c . (SviO * \ To Vrtft )£'S T>.u. Tu «•«-»*• £ \ TO HrCk - T I N * * * * V M S T w > f c W 83. S C E N E X i ] WOYZECK 123 . Woyzeck. W h o r e ! [He goes after her.] Marie. D o n ' t you touch me, Franz! I 'd rather have a knife i n my body than your hands touch me. W h e n 1 looked at h i m , my father didn't dare lay a hand on me from the time I was ten Woyzecfe. W h o r e ! N o , i t should show on you! Some-thing! Every man's a chasm. It makes you dizzy when you look down i n . It's got to show! A n d she looks like inno-cence itself. So, innocence, there's a spot on you. B u t I can't prove i t—^an' t prove it! W h o can prove it? [He goes off. SCENE X I — T h e guardhouse • . W O Y Z E C K and ANDRES ANDRES [sings]. ' i ; • . O u r hostess she has a pretty maid She sits i n her garden night and day She sits wi th in her garden . . . Woyzeck. Andres! ; : 1 . -.. Andres. H m ? ' f an Woyzeck. N i c e weather. • >• • Andres. Sunday weather.—They're playing music to-night outside the town. A l l the whores are already there. T h e men stinking and sweating. W o n d e r f u l , uh? Woyzeck [restlessly]. They're dancing, Andres, they're dancing! Andres. Sure. So what? [Sings.] She sits wi th in her garden B u t when the bells have tolled T h e n she waits at her garden gate O r so the soldiers say. Woyzecfe. Andres, I can't keep quiet. Andres. You're a fool! Woyzecfe. I've got to go out there. It keeps turning and turning i n my head. They're dancing, dancing! W i l l she: have hot hands, Andres? G o d damn her, Andres! G o d damn her! To Vtfr*.*_tcK. H% UfcT". OvO tL-UH - S . w » n . b K TO U.\..W.xT M A f t . I V fc*»T tt.fc. »** R-ftCKowT C O * M b CUV l b ue»*r cu» nt»} Av-Plt&s ou VT»6L VUA.&*tT NO0<meK0N Vto.cftY U.ctKiT . Andres. W h a t do you want? Woyzecfe. I've got to go out there. I've got to see them. - S O - M D c u e n 84. 124 GEORG BUCHNER Andres. Aren' t you ever satisfied? W h a t ' s al l this for a whore? Woyzeck. I've got to get out of here! I can't stand the heat! SCENE xn—The inn The windows are open. Dancing. Benches in front of the inn. APPRENTICES FIRST APPRENTICE [sings]. T h i s shirt I've got on, i t is not mine j A r i d mv soul i t stinketh of brandywine . . . SooonH Approntiod Brother, let me be a real friend and knock a hole i n your nature! Forward! I ' l l knock a hole i n his nature! H e l l , I 'm as good a man as he is; I ' l l k i l l every flea on his body! • • 1.. First Apprentice. M y soul, my soul stinketh of brandy-w i n e ! — A n d even money passeth into decay! Forget me not, but the world's a beautiful place! Brother,- my sad-ness could fill a barrel wi th tears! I wish our noses were two bottles so we could pour them down one another's throats. The Others [in chorus]. A hunter from the R h i n e Once rode through a forest so fine Hallei-hallo, he called to me F r o m high on a meadow, open and free A hunter's life for me. ; W o Y Z E C K / j f u n d j at the window. M A R I E and T H E D R U M M A J O R dance past without noticing him. Woyzeck. B o t h of them! G o d damn her!  Marie [dancing past]. D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! Woyzeck [seats himself on the bench, trembling, as he looks from thoro through tho window]. L isten! Listen! H a , rol l on each other, roll and turn! D o n ' t stop, don't stop, she says! Idiot. Pah! It stinks! Woyzecft. Yes, it stinks! H e r cheeks are red, red, why should she stink already? K a r l , what is i t you smell? LiftHT cu* (SCO A>JO*6\ * » H M « O C L t . t . A E M C M . O a t T e n t . u . »p %fr«tH I T f t w O i M G t . IOIOT f . f c . O N L f r x f U S . K A ^ M H & I . * M M A ; » H * tmitie fc*T6n.\ w . u . • T o fet*t«.6t WITH C»UWD Si*** $*t»«OMlet^. ( U M » cut i a. T O Pfcwtg. <*TH<< * VTUOtwT »AvtU U . K . . 85. S C E N E X i i ] WOYZECK 125 Idiot. I smell, I smell blood. Woyzeck. Blood? W h y are all things red that I look at now? W h y are they all roll ing i n a sea of blood, one on top of the other, tumbling, tumbling! H a , the GQ_ ic — D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! [Ho etarts up passionately, then ginks down again onto tho bonoh.] D o n ' t otop! D o n ' t step! [Boating his hando togothor,] T u r n and roll and rol l and turn! G o d , blow out tho oun and lot thorn rol l on .aoh other i n thoir lechery! M a n and woman and man and beast! T h e y ' l l do it i n the l ight of the sun! T h e y ' l l do i t i n the palm of your hand like flies! W h o r e ! T h a t whore's red as coals, red as coals! D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! [Jumps up.] W a t c h how the bastard takes hold of her! T o u c h i n g her body! He's holding her now, holding her . . . the way I held her once. [He slumps down in a stupors-First Apprentice [preaching from a table]. I say unto you, forget not the wanderer who standeth leaning against the stream of time, and who giveth himself answer w i t h the wisdom of G o d , and saith: W h a t is M a n ? W h a t is M a n ? Yea, verily I say unto you: H o w should the farmer, the cooper, the shoemaker, the doctor, live, had not G o d created M a n for their use? H o w should the tailor l ive had not G o d endowed M a n with the need to slaughter himself? A n d therefore doubt ve not, for all things are lovely and sweet! Y e t the world with al l its things is an evil place, and even money passeth into decay. In con-clusion, my belov.d brethren, let us piss once more upon the Cross so that somewhere a Jew w i l l die! Amid the general shouting and laughing WOYZECK wakens. PEOPLE are leaving the inn. Andres. W h a t are you doing there? Woyzeck. W h a t time is it? Andres. T e n . Woyzecfe. Is that all i t is? I think it should go faster— I want to think about it before night. Andres. W h y ? Woyzeck. So i t ' d be over. Andres. W h a t ? Woyzeck. T h e fun. Andres. W h a t are you sitting here by the door for? o.t. * * * * * * * T Cue XI All »WT AMt>ftH + vu«yx-«* t*»r AT t**b op ?oc»tA. 86. 126 GEORG BUCHNER Woyzeck. Because i t feels good, and because I know—• a lot of people sit by doors, but they don't know—they don't know t i l l they're dragged out of the door feet first. Andres. C o m e with me! Woyzeck. It feels good here l ike t h i s — a n d even better if I laid myself down . . . Andres. There's blood on your head. Woyzeck. In my head, maybe.—If they al l knew what time it was they'd strip themselves naked and put on a silk shirt and let the carpenter make their bed of wood shavings. — -Andres. He's drunk. Goes off with the others. Woyzeck. T h e world is out of order! W h y d i d the street-lamp cleaner forget to wipe my eyes—everything's dark. D e v i l damn you, G o d ! I lay i n my own way: jump over myself. Where 's my shadow gone? There's no safety i n the kennels any more. Shine the moon through my legs again to see if my shadow's here. [Sings.] Eat ing, oh, eating the green green grass Eat ing , oh, eating the green green grass T i l l al l the grass was go-o-one. W h a t ' s that ly ing over there? Shining like that? It's mak-i n g me look. H o w it sparkles. I've got to have i t . [He rushes off. SCENE x i n — A n open field WOYZECK WOYZECK . D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! H i s h h ! Hashh! That 's how the fiddles and pipes g o . — D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! — S t o p your playing! W h a t ' s that talking down there? [He stretches out on the ground.] W h a t ? W h a t are you saying? W h a t ? Louder! Louder! Stab? Stab the goat-bitch dead? Stab? Stab her? T h e goat-bitch dead? Should I? M u s t I? D o I hear i t there, too? Does the wind say so, too? W o n ' t i t ever stop, ever stop? Stab herl Stab her! Dead! Dead! vnvxfti D O W N ! L.t&»T t u t aotb) U f c H T C<*6 \\(A.) i o * M i > c u e i i . Ll&HT CUE X\l\>) C C L £ V P A A 6 U € > M T cut l ^ . 87. SCENE XV] WOYZECK 1 2 7 SCENE X I V — A room in the barracks. Night ANDRES and WOYZECK in-a-bed. WOYZECK [softly.] Andres! [ANDRES murmurs in his sleep. Shakes ANDRES.] Andres! Hey, Andres!  Andres. M m m m m ! W h a t do you want? Woyzeck . I can't sleep! W h e n I close my eyes every-thing turns and turns. I hear voices i n the fiddles: D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! A n d then the walls start to talk. C a n ' t you hear it? Andres. Sure. L e t them dance! I 'm tired. G o d bless us al l , A m e n . Woyzeck. It's always saying: Stab! Stab! A n d then when I close m y eyes i t keeps shining there, a big, broad knife, on a table by a window i n a narrow, dark street, and an old man sitting behind it . A n d the knife is always i n front of my eyes. Andres. G o to sleep, you fool! Woyzeck . Andres! There's something outside. In the ground. They're always pointing to i t . D o n ' t you hear them now, listen, now, knocking on the walls? Somebody must have seen me out the window. D o n ' t you hear? I hear i t al l day long. D o n ' t stop. Stab! Stab the-Andres. L a y down. Y o u ought to go to the hospital. T h e y ' l l give you a schnapps with a powder i n i t . I t ' l l cut your fever. Woyzeck. D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! Andres. G o to sleep! _ H e goes back to sleep. SCENE x v—T H E DOCTOR'S courtyard STUDENT, and WOVEECK below, T H E DOCTOR in—4he attic window. DOCTOR. Gentlemen, I find myself on the roof like D a v i d when he beheld Bathsheba. B u t all I see are the Parisian panties of the girls' boarding school drying i n the garden. CUfc Z\ V - - V T . C I C O M Too US-Mil ( M A K t * A M O U t t 0*4 & l f t O \ M . D»—»** AO<A»— • Sirs I A P \*>0<<l6CK. L I _ » S Do—to AMtfttt T U R W $ O V M . . UtV*T t_6 $ O _ M O cue 2.1 _*»T6-«_S Avst? 2. T O ttHTfte VTA6,. . &A*i_,$ C h - w t ' P o * . Sl_fc*»C* 88. 128 GEORG BOCHNER Gentlemen, we are concerned w i t h the weighty question of the relationship of the subject to the object. If, for example, we were to take one of those innumerable things i n which we see the highest manifestation of the self-affirmation of the Godhead, and examine its relationship to space, to the earth, and to the planetary^constella-tions . . . Gentlemen, if we were to take 4b» cat and toss it out the window: how would this object conduct itself i n conformity with its own instincts towards its centrum gravitationis? W e l l , Woyaeol;7 [P.oory.] Woyzeck!_ •Woygoofe [pioho up tho cat]. Doctor, sir, she's b i t ing me! Doctor. D a m n , why do you handle tho beast co tenderly! It's not your grandmother! [Ha descends.] Woyzeck. Doctor, I 'm shaking. . Doctor [utterly delighted]. Excellent, Woyzeck , excel-lent! [Rubs his hands, takes the ent ] W h a t ' s this, gentle-men? T h e new species of rabbit louse! A beautiful species . . . [Ho pulls out a magnifying glaee; tho eat runs off.] Animals , gentlemen, simply have no scientific instincts. B u t i n its place you may see something else. N o w , observe: for three months this man has eaten nothing but peas. Not ice the effect. Feel how irregularly his pulse beats! A n d look at his eyes! $ H H # * Woyzeck. Doctor, sir, everything's going dark! [He stts-down.] • ' -• _ Doctor. Courage, Woyzeck! A few more days and then it w i l l al l be over wi th . Fec i , gentlemen, fool! [Thoy fumble over hie tomploo, puloo, and ohooti] Doctor. .Apropos. Woyzeck, wiggle your ears for the gentlemen! I've meant to show you this before. H e uses only two muscles. Let 's go, let's go! Y o u stupid animal , shall I wiggle them for you? T r y i n g to run out on us l ike tho cat? There you are, gentlemen! Here you see an example of the transition into a donkey: frequently the result of being raised by women and of a persistent usage of the Germanic language. H o w much hair has your mother pulled out recently for sentimental remembrances of you? It's become so t h i n these last few days. It's the peas, gentlemen, the peas! fr*JO v.6-0.0 wo'rtKit *»«w*etc S i n utoec . pOCToft. Tf\PS N*»ITM CftrtC US S\TJ • TfcltS To . t\ T o Ce**T*fc STRAfc , Tuft^S To H»VA . *>0><tVcit FAttt ©v#>t. fcKiTS A-ISLE X U & H T Cue iCCo.") S C E N E X V l ] WOYZECK 1 2 9 SCENE XVI - e inn \ WOYZECK. T H E SERGEANT / W O Y M C K [sings]. . / \ Oh, daughter, my daughter / \ And didn't you know / \ That sleeping with coachmen / \ Would bring you low? / What is it that our Good Lord God caniwt do? What? He cannot make what is done undone./xla! Hal Ha!— But that's the \ay it is, and that's the/vay it should be. But.to make things better is to make/things better. And a respectable rnan\pves his life, and/a man who loves his life has no courage\and a virtuousAnan has no courage. A man with courage\s a dirty dpg. Sergeant [with dignity]. Youjre forgetting yourself in the presence of a brave Yian. / Woyzeck. I wasn't talking about anybody, I wasn't talking about anything, noMike the Frenchmen do when they talk, but it was goad\pi you.—But a man with courage is a dirty dog. / \ ' Sergeant. Damn yony You b\oken mustache cup! You watch or I'll see youyflrink a pat of your own piss and swallow your own raaor! \ Woyzeck. Sir, you do yourself arlVnjustice! Was it you I talked about? Did I say you had couWe? Don't torment me, sir! My name is science. Every weadk for my scientific career I get half a guilder. You mustn\ cut me in two or I'll go hungry. I'm a Spinosa pericyclia\\ have a Latin behind. I am a living skeleton. All ManknWl studies me. —What is Man? Bones! Dust, sand, duW. What is Nature? JOust, sand, dung. But poor, stupid Man, stupid Man! We must be friends. If only you had r\ courage, there j^ ould be no science. Only Nature, no ambulation, no atticulation. What is this? Woyzeck's arrr\ flesh, bones, veins. What is this? Dung. Why is it rootled in dvmg? Must I cut off my arm? No, Man is selfish, he beats, shoots, stabs his own kind. [He sobs.] We must be 130 GEORG BUCHNER ids. 1 wish our pour the world is! Look! T h e si empty noses were her's throats two bottles t h a t _ place world! [Moved.], -like G o d 5edpan on the world. [He cries. SCENE x v i i — T h e barracks yard WOYZECK. ANDRES WOYZECK . W h a t have you heard? Andres. He's sti l l inside with a friend. Woyzeck. H e said something. Andres. H o w do you know? W h y do I have to be the one to tell you? W e l l , he laughed and then he said she was some piece. A n d then something or other about her thighs—and that she was hot as a red poker.  Woyzecfe [quite coldly]. So, he said that? W h a t was that I dreamed about last night? About a knife? W h a t stupid dreams we get!. Andres. Hey, friend! W h e r e you off to? Woyzecfe. G e t some wine for the Capta in . Andres, you know something? There aren't many girls l ike she was. Andres. L i k e who was? Woyzecfe. N o t h i n g . I ' l l see you. [Goes off. SCENE XVI I I—The inn D R U M M A J O R , WOYZECK, and PEOPLE D R U M MAJOR . I 'm a man! [He pounds his chest.] A man, you hear? Anybody say different? Anybody who's not as crocked as the L o r d G o d Himself better keep off. I ' l l screw his nose up his own ass! I ' l l . . . [To WOYZECK.] Y o u there, get drunk! I wish the world was schnapps, schnapps! Y o u better start drinking! [WOYZECK whistles.] Son-of-a-bitch, you want me to pul l your tongue out and wrap i t around your middle? [They wrestle; WOYZECK loses.] Y o u want I should leave enough wind i n you for a good o l d lady's fart? U h ! [Exhausted and trembling, WOYZECK seats himself on the bench.] T h e son-of-a-bitch UGHT Cut 15 ( O n f t c c * f c \ fit.evti.'i S.R. turret.* * \ u e * A N O cAotjts Wi*T to A»»DMt. A* Me Tun**t *TA,fcTJ T» L6*si6 M AftCritM&t - $T»K ANO T«A*»l HARtHMC fc^Hl **»TS X li*»T Cuff 1 * ( O towND tufr I C Oft*** WAJfttL ftM 1T0M. U.ft. ou WIMU.. K.IMHV, ttuelHT OkMtMOVUT*** CAPUlW OkATttUEO ftlMUMO HIH ,<Mft«*tS4IS (iniMA <.L. ON ttvltL, ftMOMt ftVa.L. - * ' $ *>BH«VJ6 vMOVlltt. AUb ^ u H f i u r n . - X.I *><<fcT TO D W D N f T f c N . T * * S TH»T OftwJN C t w i l l «.R. STtlN. S C E N E xx] WOYZECK 131 can whistle himself blue i n the face for all I care. [Sings.] Brandy's all my life, my life Brandy gives me courage! A Man^ H e sure got more than he asked for. IhcT: He's bleeding. r* Woyzeck. O n e thing after another.* A S T M - T SCENE X I X — P a w n b r o k e r ' s shop WOYZECK and T H E JEW WOYZECK . T h e pistol costs too-much. Jew. So you want it or not? M a k e up your m i n d . Woyzeck. H o w much was the knife? Jew. It's straight and sharp. W h a t do you want it for? T o cut your throat? So what's the matter? Y o u get it as cheap here as anywhere else. Y o u ' l l die cheap enough, but not for nothing. W h a t ' s the matter? I t ' l l be a cheap death. Woyzeck. T h i s ' l l cut more than bread. Jew. T w o groschen. ; Woyzeck. There! [He goes out. Jew. There, he says! L i k e i t was nothing! A n d it 's real m o n e y ! — D o g ! '. '  SCENE xx—MARIE 'S r o o m T H E IDIOT. T H E CHILD. M A R I E IDIOT [lying down, telling fairy tales on his fingers]. T h i s one has the golden crown. He's the L o r d K i n g . Tomorrow I ' l l bring the Lady Queen her chi ld . Bloodsausage says: C o m e , Liversausage . . . Marie [paging through her Bible]. " A n d no guile is found i n his m o u t h . " L o r d G o d , L o r d G o d ! D o n ' t look at me! [Paging further.] " A n d the Scribes and Pharisees brought unto h i m a woman taken i n adultery, and set her i n the midst . . . A n d Jesus said unto her: Neither do I condemn thee; go, and sin no more." [Striking her hands together.] L o r d G o d ! L o r d G o d ! I can't. L o r d G o d , give me only so much strength that I may pray. [THE C H I L D PACfcS A " . A. w 6 V l I t K., U&ttT CUB tl (*. ") U&HT cu« It ( p'i "TO SP-T. .TAK6* ****** fc*»T. A t V t t f\t<% v-toweV U P t x i T . A i . . . Z. i i f t H T cue \ t C O to* wo cue LiatfT c u e a»C»0 MftfciE ou STOOL B . C OF _e»eL WITH C H I l d 132 GEORG BUCHNER brasses himself closo to har,] T h e chi ld is a sword i n m y heart. [To T H E IDIOT.] K a r l ! — I ' v e strutted it i n the light of the sun, l ike the whore I a m — m y sin, my sin! [ THE IDIOT takes T H E C H I L D and grows quiet.] Franz hasn't come. N o t yesterday. N o t today. It's getting hot i n here! [She opens tho window and roads further.] " A n d stood at-his feet weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and d i d wipe them with the hairs of her head, and anointed them with ointment." [Striking her breast] Everything dead! Saviour! Saviour! If only I might anoint Y o u r feet! SCENE x x i — A n open field WOYZECK WOYZECK [buries the knife in a hole]. T h o u shalt not k i l l . L a y here! I can't stay here! . [He rushes off. SCENE XXII—The barracks ANDRES. WOYEECK rummages through his belongings. WOYZECK . Andres, this jacket's not part of the uni form, but you can use i t , Andres. Andres [replies numbly to almost everything with]. Sure. Woyzecfe. T h e cross is my sister's. A n d the ring. Andres. Sure. Woyzecfe. I've got a H o l y Picture, too: two h e a r t s — they're real gold. I found i t i n my mother's Bible , and it said: O L o r d with wounded head so sore So may my heart be evermore. M y mother only feels now when the sun shines on her hands . . . that doesn't matter. . Andres. Sure. Woyzeck [pulls out a paper]. Friedrich Johann F r a n z Woyzeck. Soldier. Rif leman, Second Regiment, Second Battal ion, Fourth Company. B o r n : the Feast of the A n -nunciation, twentieth of July. Today I 'm thirty years o ld . seven months and twelve days.. T O . - T x'» -t*r v> Mfr»- CVUwfc. no.*** ,r»»»*e»t _ ' l ft»ft.*T T O 0 . . C 0 W . I T . - v t A O . i t fctM.t CH lWD d f t C I t - O f c C t t 0©o»*»*TAt»_. P.-TUAMV TO WOOL * t t U -C-oSfrf %>fU£ - $TfttlDI LiftKT Cut X«) _ 0 U M D C\At 1 * U6.Hr tut Vo tMTtRt All-* X, u.ft. To LtMtL K*»ft6H TO R v i M KNlFtf tMTJ At tit * L t f c . * T CMfe l i t ( • - } I O U M O cue n t.l«k»T Cut \\ (b>) ftWlOf-t!, $ | T * U . f t . O M u.vtL » » _ l t . l l - _ \ 0 O T _ .wTtft.. u>b. A M*(lUo-itjivftt OM STOOL .A X\Mt TO &»«E *^.t-.^ T.^ l^MW,. L * « T T O I T I O L yCi fc>S>»T T O _,»\>. THih 1»»K> »ACH TO <T00L Jt*S 6»»*N.TAft6 O M LWtL. Andres. G o to the hospital, Franz. Poor guy, you've ftfcTuM4. To iTOOt X'V b«-M C.MTtO. O O P Lt.CU Aw» R.0A O S . t»t,oPl ^ A M A , - ANOWS P»tK.. IT U? S C E N E xxni] WOYZECK 133 got to drink some schnapps with a powder i n i t . I t ' l l k i l l the fever. Woyzeck. Y o u know. Andres—when the carpenter puts those boards together, nobody knows who it's made for._ SCENE xxni—The street M A R I E with little CIRLS in front of the house door. GRANDMOTHER. Later WOYZECK • G I R L S [singing]. "The sun shone bright on Candlemas Day A n d the corn was all i n bloom A n d they marched along the meadow way T h e y marched by two and two. T h e pipers marched ahead T h e fiddlers followed through A n d their socks were scarlet red . . . First Child. I don't like that one. Second Child. W h y do you always want to be different? First Child. You sing for us, M a r i e ! . Marie. I can't. Second Child. W h y ? ' ' ' : Marie. Because. Sef.ojid CJiild. B u t why because? Tmrd Child. Grandmother, you tell us a story!  Grandmother. A l l right, you little crab apples!—Once upon a time there was a poor l itt le girl who had no father and no mother. Everyone was dead, and there was no one left i n the whole wide world. Everyone was dead. A n d the little girl went out and looked for someone night and day. A n d because there was no one left on the earth, she wanted to go to Heaven. A n d the moon looked down so friendly at her. A n d when she finally got to the moon, i t was a piece of rotten wood. A n d so she went to the sun, and it was a faded sunflower. A n d when she got to the stars, they were little golden flies, stuck up there as i f they were caught i n a spider's web. A n d when she wanted to go back to earth, the earth was an upside-down pot. A n d she was all alone. A n d she sat down there and she cried. A n d she sits there to this day, al l , al l alone. To M..C. fefcvT • T U L N ^ I M W - H W O . . UftMT CUfc Jl(fc") HMO)INC, . X u.c. • K't To S.fc. natt.it Moves T O fcx-'T ctttwoMN t t T , CAnuonot*** K's To Twew f V O V * « UPVTf t *c - K ' S fcoww utrr | »oyt*CK *»a*fc* \ + VifcMftt tv&trr O P itv>iLt. 94. 134 GEORG BUCHNER Woyzeck [appears]. M a r i e ! Marie [startled]. W h a t ! Woyzeck. Let's go. It's getting time. Marie. W h e r e to? Woyzeck. H o w should I know?_ SCENE x x i v — A pond by the edge of the woods M A R I E and WOYZECK M A R I E . T h e n the town must be out that way. It's so dark. Woyzeck. Y o u can't go yet. C o m e , sit down. Marie. B u t I've got to get back. Woyzecfe. Y o u don't want to run your feet sore. Marie. W h a t ' s happened to you? Woyzecfe. Y o u know how long it's been, Marie? Marie. T w o years from Pentecost. Woyzeck. Y o u know how much longer i t ' l l last? Marie. I've got to get back. Supper's not made yet. Woyzeck . Are you freezing, Marie? A n d still you're so warm. Y o u r lips are hot as coals! H o t as coals, the hot breath of a whore! A n d stil l I 'd give up Heaven just to kiss them again. Are you freezing? W h e n you're cold through, you won't freeze any more. T h e morning dew won't freeze you. Marie. W h a t are you talking about? Woyzeck. N o t h i n g . [Silence.] -Marie. L o o k how red the moon is! It's rising. Woyzeck. L i k e a knife washed i n blood. Marie. W h a t are you going to do? Franz, you're so pale. [He raises the knife.] Marie. Franz! Stop! F o r Heaven's sake! H e l p me! H e l p me! Woyzeck [stabbing madly]. There! There! W h y can't you die? There! There! H a , she's sti l l shivering! St i l l not dead? St i l l not dead? St i l l shivering? [Stabbing at her_ again.] A r e you dead? Dead! Dead! [He drops the knife and runs away. Two M E N approach, First Man. W a i t ! Second Man. Y o u hear something? Shh! Over there! • ufrrr ( U H I N Q weft. - T A K E * M%(t f\lr\ CHIU>*fr»4 t * l T ftiSiC I L14wT CM.B "i -KO SOU.W& CviE lo U*v»T cue 3 3 Cb) ENTSfc t To L M L J SITS S.fc. O N L f c v t u .V's To H I M S T A N D S W V A Y J H I V *«W"it A*0«MO TMfrt TO KISS HtB. . t » t (T*W S&itS . ( s a E A t t l D O W N STAO.I VdOVtttK HOC P i Heft flftfl SHE. PA.llS • *t FALLS o*i TOP OF rtbft , STAftMUG, STA*« H I * MTv»etN Ll&S . <ti*N* 0 * T A.ISC6 \ U ^ H T Cue $<!<•.) VOltcS Cft.O»? PjfrH-iWO hub.frwCS SCENE XXV] WOYZECK 135 First Man. W h h h ! There! W h a t a sound! Second Man. It's the water, it's calling. It's a long time since anyone drowned here. Let's go! I don't l ike hearing such sounds! First Man. W h h h ! There it is again! L i k e a person, dying! Second Man. It's uncanny! So foggy, nothing but gray mist as far as you can see—and the h u m of beetles l ike broken bells. Let 's get out of here! First Man. N o , it's too clear, it's too loud! Let's go up this way! C o m e on! [They hurry on. SCENE xxv—The inn WOYZECK, KATHY, INNKEEPER, IDIOT, and PEOPLE WOYZECK . Dance! Everybody! D o n ' t stop! Sweat and stink! H e ' l l get you al l i n the end! [Sings.] O h , daughter, m y daughter A n d didn't you know T h a t sleeping with coachmen , W o u l d bring you low? [He dances.] H o , Kathy! Sit down! I ' m so hot, so hot! [Tahoc off his eoat,] That's the way it is: the devil takes one and lets the other get away. Kathy, you're hot as coals! W h y , tell me why? Kathy, you'l l be cold one day, too. Be reasonable.—Can't you sing something? Kathy [sings]. >  T h a t Swabian land I cannot bear  A n d dresses long I w i l l not wear F o r dresses long and pointed shoes Are clothes a chambermaid never should choose. Woyzeck. N o shoes, no shoes! W e can get to hell without shoes. Kathy [sings]. T o such and like I ' l l not be prone Take back your gold and sleep alone. Woyzeck. Sure, sure! W h a t do I want to get all bloody for? Kathy. T h e n what's that on your hand? -SouMO cut l\ $ O U M » cue \"U Ufl»»r cuft V t ^ O *»/nrt» V T U O . U T o%Mt6 S.u. Qo_r-«. • A . M D - B I O A . l M M . i M f c - _ V » l . AOMtCNTIC. t_«<STO»L O.U. OF LEvHw,. l o i o r M l . W O W H l N \ t i t • ClTJ u. o. . >ultt6l « i T u o t M T - oOrMCEV CtNTO.fr W W * KAT*{ . S«r« O M vroou K.VtH<4 O M H>V l-A», Pu*Mt- HO*. O * * $ T U t l M l fcXlTS U.O.. "bHWCfc* iM T«t_+»T ©F — , O T X _ > e < Woyzeck. M e ? M e ? . p A U C t t fcfctnw© HlH TO W,6*T - SOViM- CUt . % \ O0MJMMA-* •TuftMt 136 GEORG BUCHNER Kathy. R e d ! It's blood! [PEOPLE gather round him.] Woyzeck. Blood? Blood? Innkeeper. B l o o d ! . Woyzeck. I think I cut myself. Here, on mv right hand. Innkeeper. T h e n why is there blood on your elbow? Woyzecfe. I wiped i t off. Innkeeper. Y o u r right hand and you wiped i t on your right elbow? You're a smart one!. Idiot. A n d then the G i a n t said: " I smell, I smell the flesh of M a n . " Pew, i t stinks already! Woyzeck. W h a t do you want from me? Is it your business? O u t of my way or the first one who . _. . D a m n you! D o I look l ike I murdered somebody? D o I look like a murderer? W h a t are you looking at? Look at your-selves! Look! O u t of my way! [He runs off. i SCENE xxvi—At the pond WOYZECK, alone. WOYZECK . T h e knife! Where 's the knife? I left i t here. I t ' l l give me away! Closer! A n d closer! W h a t is this place? W h a t ' s that noise? Something's moving! It's quiet now. — I t ' s got to be here, close to her. Marie? H a , M a r i e ! Quiet . Everything's quiet! W h y are you so pale, Marie? W h y are you wearing those red beads around your neck? W h o was it gave you that necklace for sinning with him? Y o u r sins made you black, M a r i e , they made you black! D i d I make you so pale? W h y is your hair uncombed? D i d you forget to twist your braids today? T h e knife, the knife! I've got i t ! There! [He runs toward the water.] There, into the water! [He throws the knife into the water.] It dives l ike a stone into the black water. N o , it's not out far enough for when they swim! [Ho wados into tho pond and throws it out farther.] There! N o w ! B u t i n the summer when they dive for mussels? H a , i t ' l l get rusty, who ' l l ever notice it! W h y didn't I break i t first! A m I stil l bloody? I've got to wash myself. There, there's a spot, and there's another . . . [He goes farther out into the water.] C(Lo<**D W*u$ttl !_©«>*«. C A . 0 V > © L f r u A l t l U O A B f c f t , Uie\*r tuft M u&»T cu& "it. (©) - &NtE*.i ts\Ul To + fc'jTOLtviElJ (.SKftvui. O N uEMEty I N T O t**"** * P ° T U6.HT c u e SklhOSV OtMlNtTA.&t M&MT Cu£ \9 • Wltslfct **©»"\ SC*k»t I o. RHltJ I N ftlAtK * fc*\tl MMOS I H T O vifcwT. v>we** J5»C0Ml v\o»» iN-teulS. »A N © »A.AV*> W O O V ^ C C I N T © «JAT|ft,. v/otCES fA0£. wo VIE tit t H A M O $>viC.V N T © I N A T E * . O N * You ' l l DittHtAP, ftu.T K40T f O f t . N.OTmNfc* U$ » T C u e \} SOUN© cue CuR.TA)N «-*6>*T C u t H© ci6\*T cut <ti 5 © U N O cue \U u a » r C U E * * V L ; H O U S E up SCENE XXIX] WOYZECK 137 SCENE XXVII - Thc Btroct ST\Ut \ M TUt l u d CHILDREN-V H O V M T FIRST C i g t e . Let's go find M a r i e ! tUd. W h a t happened? 4. D o n ' t you know? Everybody's out there, a body! 04. Where? mdx B y the pond, out i n the woods. •kU4. Hurry, so we can still see something. Be-[They rush off. fore they bring i t back N. SCENE X X V I I I — I n front of MARIE ' S house / N . IDIOT. CHILD. WOYZECK. / IDIOT [hoRKng T H E C H I L D on his knee, pohtts to W O Y -ZECK as he enters]. Looky there, he fell j j j / t h e water, he fell i n the w a t e r ^ e fell i n the w a t e r ! / Woyzeck. Boy! Christ ian! / Idiot [looks at himjiqedly]. H e fell i n the water. Woyzeck [wanting to\m}/face T H E C H I L D tenderly, but it turns from him andPsor^ams]. M y G o d ! M y G o d ! Idiot. H e fell i n t h e a t e r . N. Woyzecfe. I ' l l buy you a hor^y, Christ ian. There, there. [THE Canto pulls away. To t n S s j D i O T ] . Here, buy the boy a horsey! [THE IDIOT stares athim.] H o p ! H o p ! Hip-hop, h<Jrsey! >1 Idioi/\shouting joyously]. H o p ! H o p ! Hip-nSrx horsey! HipjJfop, horsey! r He runs off with T H E CHILD. WOYZECK is aloner\^ STubtvif tlUAtt.S iM U . R . fc*»T TO <*1*i ftoTK &WT u.R . SCENE XXIX 1 JUDGE, COURT CLERK, POLICEMAN, CAPTAIN, DocTon, DnuM MAJOR, SEnoEAwrr, IDIOT, and others. WOYEECK v O C T O O . POLICEMAN . W h a t a murder! A good, genuine, beautiful D O C T O R . STfcWcS ACfcofS VTAO,* VfcOVt Avf.E a. AWe fe*»Ti P,iUE J o u THIS LIME 98. 138 GEORG BUCHNER murder! Beautiful a murder as you could hope for! 4t% B ^ * ^ ' e been a long time since we had one like this! '. " * C < T o s t 6 v , e r W O Y Z E C K stands in their midot, dumbly looking at the body of M A M E ; ho ie bound, tho dogmatic atheist, tall, haggard, timid, good naturod, ooiontifie. SCENE ANALYSIS Scene I The purpose of this scene i s to establish the relationship of Woyzeck and the Captain and to reveal character. Besides, i t provides the opportunity to show Woyzeck with a type of knife in his hand from the very beginning and shows how he operates under a certain set of circumstances. Woyzeck is busy at his regular task of shaving the Captain. He is in a hurry, concentrating on his job and is unable to both work and li s t e n . The Captain speaks in a philosophical vein partly to hear himself talk and partly to impress Woyzeck with his supposed erudition. Woyzeck's effici e n t rush contrasts sharply with the Captain's ti m e - f i l l i n g ramblings. Noticing that Woyzeck i s not listening, and wishing to get a confirmatory rise out of him, the Captai takes great pleasure in using a simple verbal joke to humiliate him. The Captain feels he i s a good man with a good conscience,and as Woyzeck's superior he should instruct him in matters of morality. He is no doubt trying to impress Woyzeck with bits of knowledge he has picked up from the Chaplain and the Doctor. 100. Woyzeck, on the other hand, knows his Bible well and is able to justify his child out of wedlock with a quotation. Woyzeck interrupts his shaving to explain in a garbled fashion that poor people cannot afford to have morals. This establishes the economic hierarchy of the play and underlines the fact that because the Captain has money and therefore virtue he can resist his natural impulses and f i l l his time virtuously. At the end of the scene, Woyzeck rushes off to another task. The mood of this scene is slightly strained. The Captain feels i t i s necessary to talk, while Woyzeck is only interested in getting on with the job, thus their rhythms conflict with each other. Scene II In contrast to the bright confined space and hurried pace of the f i r s t scene, this scene finds Woyzeck in the fields near sundown cutting twigs with his friend Andres. Andres whistles happily as he bundles the wood and Woyzeck wanders in with a few sticks/Only slightly concerned with his task. Woyzeck launches into a story about hedgehogs to amuse and perhaps frighten Andres but soon begins to believe i t himself and see i t as part of a conspiracy on the part of the Freemasons. Andres now sings to reassure 101. himself, but Woyzeck suddenly hears something under the ground. Andres, who hears nothing, listens a moment and then sings more loudly to prevent his growing fear. Woyzeck again hears something and i t becomes clear that he i s hallucinating. Andres, who understands only that the place has affected his friend, trembles with fear and tries to run away. Suddenly Woyzeck stops. A l l is silent again u n t i l Andres hears the drums of the regiment in the distance and they run off to join the parade. The purpose of this scene is to show Woyzeck at work with an equal. The scene begins with a relaxed and whimsical quality which suddenly becomes very strange, punctuated by bursts of feverish activity, then dead silence and listening. The scene establishes the f i r s t signs of a f e r t i l e imagination and aberration in Woyzeck, and contrasts him sharply with his simple friend Andres who i s happy when his hands are busy and who expresses almost a l l of his feeling through song. Scene III II Buchner meant this scene to take place in Marie's room but i t was played in the town square to establish the townspeople's attitude towards Marie and to underline Woyzeck's fatigue as he performs military d r i l l . 102. The f i r s t unit of the scene shows the enthusiasm for a parade and establishes the f i r s t sign of attraction between Marie and the Drum Major. The mood of the scene is one of general gaiety amid the slightly vicious, gossipy banter of the townsfolk. Marie stands out as being secure and proud of her child in spite of her sin. In the second unit, after the parade passes, Marie spends a quiet moment singing to her child u n t i l an urgent knock on her window interrupts her . The purpose of this unit is to show Woyzeck trying to explain his vision in the fields and relate i t to his knowledge of the Bible. Marie, in contrast, is interested in knowing that he has done his jobs for extra money to support her and the child and i s extremely impatient with yet another of his fantasies. When he dashes off to rejoin his regiment, his mood has affected her, and she, like Andres in the preceding scene, begins to fear the approaching darkness and the confinement of her room. Now, even singing to her child gives no comfort. Scene IV This scene brings a complete change of mood to the play. There i s an atmosphere of heavy carnival gaiety, a confusion of sound and colour lighting up the darkness.' The people are happy and fascinated, 103. and Marie and Woyzeck are enjoying this simple pleasure. A new element i s introduced when the Charlatan appears to advertise the attractions of a particular booth. This part of the scene was used to reinforce the dream quality of the play by using an actress in a soldier suit to play the monkey. The Charlatan's speech underlines the fact that the monkey can perform a l l the functions of a soldier, but he is momentarily embarrassed and angry when the monkey f a i l s to respond to a command. While Woyzeck tries to take advantage of the assembled crowd to t e l l them a l i t t l e story, Marie and the Drum Major begin to take notice of each other in the background. Most of the crowd pays no attention to Woyzeck but wanders into the booth. Only the Doctor finds the story "grotesque". This line i s given to a gentleman in the original, but because the Doctor f i t s into that social category and because the remark suits him, i t was changed. It is worth noting that despite the tremendous number of B i b l i c a l allusions which Woyzeck uses throughout the play, he claims to be an atheist in this scene. It is implied by his remarks that a world without God i s indeed grotesque. There was a staging d i f f i c u l t y with the transition from this scene to the next. Scene IV i s the exterior of a booth and Scene V is the interior. 104. With a revolve this change would be simple to accomplish, but i t was somewhat awkwardly solved on this stage by having the crowd exit through one door, changing the lighting while they were offstage and having them enter the new scene through the other exit. Scene V This scene i s almost an exact parallel and amplification of the Charlatan's speech in the previous scene. This was underlined by having the same actor play the Proprietor and the same actress play the horse. The purpose of the scene is to again show a trained animal acting like a human but suddenly reacting instinctively. A further point of emphasis was the master-slave relationship between trainer and animal and the cruelty necessary to enforce this. This scene is a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the previous one: the human-reason, animal-instinct polarities are more clearly defined and Marie and the Drum Major are brought closer together. Both of these scenes are extremely important in that they bear oblique reference to the social hierarchy of the town and to specific relationships, such as that between Woyzeck and the Captain. 105. Scene VI This scene i s a sharp contrast to the crowds, noise and gaiety of the previous two scenes. In the f i r s t unit of this scene Marie i s in her room with her child impatiently trying to get him to sleep so she can preen in front of her mirror. This is also the f i r s t 'plot 1 scene, as i t implies through the earrings that Marie has slept with the Drum Major and accepted his g i f t . The mood of this unit alternates between Marie's annoyance with the child and her exuberant vanity before the mirror. It also established her poverty and dissatisfaction with a few meagre possessions. Although the child in Buchner's play i s obviously two or three years old, an attempt was made to promote the dream quality by using Marie's shawl rolled up to represent a baby. This was also because Marie clings to the child for comfort and reassurance but soon forgets him, like taking off a shawl, when something else excites her. In the second unit of the scene Woyzeck startles Marie when he catches her with the earrings. He i s suspicious and angry and she i s too guilty and confused to l i e effectively. However, she transfers the guilt to Woyzeck when she asserts that she deserves some f r i l l s . 106. The purpose of this scene is to show both Woyzeck and Marie in the dilemma of poverty. Since he cannot afford to buy her earrings he is unjustified in suspecting her means of getting them. Marie, on the other hand, feels guilty that Woyzeck works so hard to provide and yet she i s dissatisfied with what she has and despairing of any hope that things w i l l get better. The mood of this scene vacillates between the poles of happiness and despair, anger and guilt. Marie begins the scene on a note of impatient rapture over a pair of earrings and ends i t with a guilty premonition of her own death. Scene VII This scene i s extremely important in that i t is the f i r s t real introduction of the Doctor. The purpose of the scene is to show that Woyzeck has yet another job as a guinea pig for the Doctor's experiments with peas. The scene establishes the reasons for Woyzeck's physical and mental deterioration evident in earlier scenes. It also reinforces economic depression as the major source of Woyzeck's problems. The relationship between the Doctor and Woyzeck closely parallels that between the Charlatan and his monkey and the Proprietor and his horse. The Doctor's wrath is aroused because Woyzeck pissed when he was not 107. supposed to, just as the horse dropped his human attributes to answer a c a l l of nature. The connection between these scenes was emphasized by repeating a visual image. Woyzeck like the horse, stepped on and off the stool and the Doctor used his cane on Woyzeck in the same manner that the Proprietor used his whip on the horse. This scene i s especially notable for i t s stinging portrait of the Doctor. He treats Woyzeck as an unreliable experimental object, giving him an increase in salary when he sees the mental deterioration caused by his revolutionary diet. The Doctor i s clearly a fanatic, totally engrossed in his theories and jargon. Emotions are unscientific and a contract i s a l l that i s necessary to guarantee that Woyzeck w i l l urinate only on his command. The scene contrasts the Doctor's inflated fury with Woyzeck's dumb obedience but stubborn insistence on instinct as a factor in behaviour. At the end of the scene the Doctor relaxes slightly into a patronizing bedside manner tone to enquire about Woyzeck's other activ i t i e s and then sends him on his way. Scene VIII Scene VIII is the second major plot scene of the play. It confirms that Marie and the Drum Major are sleeping together. The f i r s t part of the scene i s a miniature mating dance between them. They strut 108. and preen like peacocks or lions. Marie is ful l y aroused and at her carefree, animal best until the Drum Major tries to put his arms about her in a husbandly fashion, whereupon she angrily withdraws. The Drum Major takes up her cue and taunts her u n t i l she turns again to him, half in lust and half in despair, knowing where i t w i l l a l l end. Scene IX The purpose of the f i r s t unit of this scene is to show the relationship between the Captain and the Doctor. The Captain sees the Doctor striding across the square in an obvious hurry and puffs after him, warning that a man with a good conscience never hurries. The Doctor ,furious at being interrupted and sick of having to listen to the Captain's melancholy symptoms at every encounter, turns on him and delivers a stinging mock diagnosis of his problems. The Captain is at f i r s t t e r r i f i e d and then slowly realizes he i s being made a fool. Just at the point where the Captain and Doctor are face to face hurling insults at one another, Woyzeck rushes by in the opposite direction. The Captain immediately sees an opportunity to gain revenge for his humiliation at the hands of the Doctor, and begins to insinuate that Marie i s being unfaithful with the Drum Major. Woyzeck i s confused at f i r s t , but i s absolutely stunned when he f i n a l l y understands the Captain's hints. The whole reason for a l l his activity has been suddenly pulled from under him. He turns white and begins to babble. The Doctor i s delighted to find further c r i s i s symptoms of his experiment and examines him minutely. Finally, Woyzeck wanders off in a daze and the Captain and the Doctor turn to each other good-naturedly and go off arm in arm. The f i r s t part of this scene is characterized by a tone of aggressive humour. However, when the opportunity arises for the baiting of an underling, the two antagonists are quickly united in playing an exceedingly cruel joke on Woyzeck. They do not sense the cruelty, but rather feel that their superiority entitles them to their fun. This i s an extremely important moment in the play because from this point onward Woyzeck*s world collapses around him and he gradually loses both physical and mental control, responding more and more like an automaton to signals from his unconscious. Scene X In this scene Woyzeck stumbles into Marie's room and stares fixedly at her, searching for the blemish of her sin. Marie, surprised in the process of primping for a meeting with the Drum Major, is defensive and evasive 110. while Woyzeck mutters vague and incoherent references to her sin. Finally he lunges at her but Marie stops him short with an icy refusal to be touched. Denied even that, Woyzeck finds his way to the door and goes out in a daze. It i s important to note that in this scene, Marie plants the idea of stabbing in Woyzeck's mind. Scene XI The purpose of this scene i s to show Woyzeck's growing fever and obsession as well as Andres' lack of comprehension and the beginning of his gradual desertion of his friend. Andres i s cheerfully whittling and singi with the sounds of the Inn in the distance. Finally the words of Andres' song about the maiden who waits in her garden for the soldiers reach Woyzeck and he runs off with the feverish image of dancing going around in his mind. The main contrast in the mood of the scene i s between Andres' cheerful oblivion and Woyzeck's f i t f u l , automatic response to the words of the song. Scene XII This was intended by Buchner to be a s p l i t scene, contrasing the drunken, sweaty gaiety inside the Inn with Woyzeck's dazed watching through the window. 111. Because of staging d i f f i c u l t i e s , Woyzeck was brought into the Inn but separated from the others by having him watch from a stool against the wall. To emphasize Andres' lack of concern, he replaced the Second Apprentice in the f i r s t part of the scene. The scene begins in noise and confusion with Andres and the Apprentice howling drunken inanities. Soon the whole crowd is singing together until the band strikes up and Marie and the Drum Major leap onto the floor turning and turning. Woyzeck enters at this point to see the image of his mind confirmed. Everyone is oblivious of him, except Karl, the Idiot, who can smell already the blood that w i l l be spilled. As the frenzied dance swirls in front of him Woyzeck mumbles almost incoherently that he sees them r o l l i n g and turning and fornicating in a sea of blood, like f l i e s in the palm of his hand, like beasts on top of one another. As the dance ends the drunken Apprentice rises to deliver a mock sermon and then crashes out of the door to urinate, the crowd slowly disperses and Andres wakes from his stupor to find Woyzeck slumped on the floor. Woyzeck i s totally drained and speaks disjointedly. Andres assumes that he is drunk and goes' off with the Apprentice. Woyzeck wanders outside and becomes fascinated with his shadow, then f a l l s to his knees, half singing 112. the song about the r a b b i t s from Scene I I . Suddenly a gleam i n the darkness catches h i s eye and he rushes o f f t o f i n d i t . Scene XIII Woyzeck i s wandering through the f i e l d s a t n i g h t . He hears f i d d l e s under the ground and l i e s down to l i s t e n . With h i s ear t o the ground he hears v o i c e s t e l l i n g him t o stab Marie. They become l o u d e r and the wind j o i n s i n t o repeat the phrase. The purpose o f t h i s scene i s to make c l e a r Woyzeck's s t a t e when the i d e a of k i l l i n g Marie o c c u r s t o him. His mind has d e t e r i o r a t e d t o the p o i n t where words, images and sounds from p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s s w i r l i n h i s b r a i n u n t i l he hears v o i c e s t e l l i n g him to k i l l . Scene XIV T h i s scene accomplishes two t h i n g s . I t shows Woyzeck plagued by nightmares i n which the images have become more s p e c i f i c and more g u i l t p r o d u c i n g . I t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s Andres 1 growing impatience with Woyzeck. He can o n l y understand Woyzeck's problems i n terms o f a p h y s i c a l a i l m e n t , a f e v e r , f o r which schnapps w i t h a powder i s a simple remedy. Woyzeck's v i s i o n of the k n i f e f l o a t i n g b e f o r e h i s eyes i s a p r e m o n i t i o n o f h i s a c t u a l purchase of the murder weapon. 113. Scene XV Buchner intended this scene to be a lecture to a group of students from the attic window of a building. Because of the small cast, the Doctor used the audience as a lecture h a l l . This mean that the business of dropping the cat from the window had to be sacrificed. The main purpose of the scene i s to expose the pedantry and inhumanity of the Doctor. He begins his speech with a ridiculously pompous bad joke and then launches into a weighty consideration of the relationship between the subject and the object. Seeing Woyzeck pass by the window he drags him into the room to demonstrate the effect of his pea diet. Woyzeck by this time i s approaching a state of physical collapse and yet is called upon to wiggle his ears for the amusement of the students. The Doctor has no feeling for Woyzeck, only delight at his increasing deterioration. At the end of the scene, the Doctor heaps ridicule on his patient and then strides off with great satisfaction, leaving Woyzeck collapsed on the floor. Scene XVI This scene was cut entirely. Scene XVII The purpose of this scene i s to show Andres' unwillingness to confirm Woyzeck's fears about Marie. 114. The mood is one of strain. Andres is on duty and they must speak in hushed tones as he marches back and forth on sentinel duty. When Andres admits that the Drum Major has told the men in the barracks that Marie i s hot as a red poker, Woyzeck immediately sees the image of the knife before him. But whereas Woyzeck's words have been accompanied by an emotional charge, there i s no.more feeling in his voice. He is responding automatically and unthinkingly to the extent that he makes a s l i p of the tongue indicating that he has* already dreamt of murdering Marie. Andres seems to make an attempt to understand, or at least show compassion for his friend, but he i s unable to communicate i t . Scene XVIII The purpose of this scene is to show Woyzeck's physical humiliation by the Drum Major. The Drum Major stands amid a group of admirers drinking, making gross boasts and trying to provoke Woyzeck. Woyzeck can only whistle in defiance and the Drum Major takes the opportunity to throw him on the floor. Woyzeck is indifferent to his easy defeat,and the people, after showing minor concern for his injuries, turn again to their admiration of the Drum Major. The importance of this scene lies in the fact that i t is the only confrontation between the Drum Major 115. and Woyzeck, and Woyzeck i s totally unable to assert himself. Scene XIX Because of the open staging i t was not possible to recreate the image of the knife buying which occurred in Scene XIV. Instead, the meeting between the Jew and Woyzeck was staged to take place under a street lamp in a dark alley. The mood of this sceae is one of extreme, innate hatred and mistrust between the Jew and the Soldier. The purpose of the scene i s to i l l u s t r a t e the economics of murder: Woyzeck cannot afford a pistol and must settle for a knife. In contrast to the previous few scenes, Woyzeck shows a sudden strong reaction to the Jew by throwing his groschen on the ground. The Jew reacts in kind, biting the money to see i f i t i s good and cursing Woyzeck over his shoulder. Scene XX This scene establishes Marie's feelings of guilt. She s i t s , reciting familiar passages of the Bible and searching for the faintest glimmer of salvation, while Karl the Idiot t e l l s fairy tales on his fingers. The juxtaposition of the fairy tales and the Bible emphasizes the meaninglessness of both. Marie f i r s t finds the command to sin no more but despairs that she has no strength. The child 116. becomes restless and this increases her guilt. She paces back and forth worrying about Franz and then returns to her Bible searching frantically for a glimmer of hope. But there i s no Saviour whose feet she can anoint. The Saviour is dead, the world is dead and she has no hope of salvation. Scene XXI This scene is a sharp contrast to the previous one. The purpose is to establish that Woyzeck has made plans to murder Marie and that he s t i l l retains enough awareness to feel guilt. Woyzeck, who called himself an atheist in Scene IV, quickly buries the knife, reminding himself of the commandment not to k i l l . In spite of his claim to atheism, i t i s clear that his heritage is strongly Christian and that he cannot escape i t , because the only words he knows to express many of his feelings are those of the Bible. Several hints in previous scenes indicate that he is beginning to see himself as the Redeemer returned on Judgment Day. Scene XXII This scene i s extremely important in that Woyzeck divests himself of a l l his possessions. As Woyzeck hands each memento to Andres, he reminisces without feeling or sentiment. Andres i s too uncomprehending to murmur more than "Sure" as Woyzeck deliberately disposes of the final evidence of his identity. When he reads and throws away his identification papers he has reduced himself to nothing, a nameless automaton. Andres senses that something is very wrong with Woyzeck and pleads with him again to take some schnapps with a powder for the fever. The mood of this scene contrasts Andres' impotent tender concern with Woyzeck's oblivious calm. For Andres i t is a scene of quiet desperation. At the end of the scene, Woyzeck muses that a carpenter never knows for whom he puts the boards together. This applies equally to a coffin or a cross as Andres understands as he looks at Woyzeck's cross in his hand. This image amplifies the evidence that Woyzeck sees himself as a Christ figure. Scene XXIII The sombre tone of the previous scene is broken by the singing of children as they enter the town square on a bright cold day. They break off their song on the word "red" and ask Marie to sing for them. However, the image of marching and the reminder of blood and sin make her uneasy and unwilling. The children appeal to the Grandmother for a story and she obliges with a devastatingly n i h i l i s t i c fairy tale, which i s a perfect 118. image of the decay and emptiness of the world. Woyzeck, who has been watching Marie, enters suddenly and leads her away. The mood of this scene i s one of slightly forced gaiety. The children's song peters out on them because of Marie's preoccupied mood and the Grandmother's story which began with an effort to be entertaining soon overtakes her and becomes an image of her l i f e which confuses and frightens the children. The purpose of this scene i s to provide an image of an empty world out of which Woyzeck leads Marie, from nowhere to nowhere. Scene XXIV Woyzeck has led Marie to the pond by the woods outside of town. She is uneasy and afraid because he does not seem to know what to do. He reaches out to her and his touch brings his feelings back in a mad rush as he struggles in love and hate to try to kiss her. She breaks free for a moment and there is an uncertain silence. She notices how red the moon i s , and this image acts as a hair trigger in his unstable mind. With her apocalyptic image Woyzeck becomes the Redeemer. His knife comes automatically into his hand and rises above her, and he plunges i t into her body again and again, sobbing and kissing her. Then he stumbles away into the fog, 119. leaving his knife behind. In the second unit of this scene, two men approach in the fog, having heard,Marie 1s dying screams. They miss the body in the fog and pass on. No knife was used in this scene, because the lack of i t emphasized both the dream quality of the play and the fact that Woyzeck responded to the unconscious signal of a complex image with no sense of his own or Marie's reality. Scene XXV Woyzeck rushes into the Inn, drunk with his release and hoping to lose himself in the frenzied activity. When the music stops he lunges onto the floor, pushing couples together, grabbing a partner and trying to sing a song to keep the dance going. But he i s too weak to stand and flops onto a stool with Kathy on his lap. Suddenly he pushes her away and forces her to sing for him. She notices the blood on his hand, the crowd turns to Woyzeck to see what has happened and he begins to make desperate excuses which only cause the crowd to laugh uproariously. As he becomes more desperate, the crowd roars more derisively u n t i l he bolts out of the door screaming that they are murderers. Scene XXVII and the single line of Scene XXIX were inserted at the end of Scene XXV before Woyzeck's 120. return to the pond. A child runs into the Inn to announce that a body has been found and a l l the people rush out to see. Then the Doctor crosses the stage exclaiming over the beauty of the murder. Scene XXVI As the light comes up slowly on this scene, Woyzeck can be seen dimly, returning to the scene of the murder. Only Marie's shawl is l e f t to mark the spot. Woyzeck searches frantically for the knife, talking tenderly to the body which i s no longer there. Suddenly he finds the knife and flings i t into the water. Then, realizing that he did not throw i t far enough, he wades in after i t and throws i t again. He sees the blood on his hands and wades s t i l l farther trying to wash himself. The voices from the beginning of the play begin again and grow in intensity unt i l waves of hands break around Woyzeck, drawing him under. Gradually the voices die out as Woyzeck's hand sinks out of the light, leaving the pond calm and dark again. The lights come up slowly and parade music i s heard in the distance. W O Y Z E C K by GEORG BUCHNER A B 1213. S O U N D The sound system consisted of four speakers, one placed behind each section of the audience and one placed backstage centre. A switching unit was made so that sound could be channelled through any combination of speakers. I t was also possible to rotate the sound from one speaker to another behind the audience. SOUND CUES Cue 1: Cue 2: Cue 3 : Cue 4: Cue 5: Cue 6 Cue 7: Cue 8 Cue 9 Cue 10 Three count a f t e r "Like the world's dead" then drums on stage l e f t speaker. Fade up volume as March rotates from stage l e f t to centre rear to stage r i g h t to backstage centre. Switch to a l l four speakers as so l d i e r s enter, Fade volume as so l d i e r s e x i t . Rotate sound i n reverse back to stage l e f t and then out. F a i r music on blackout. Volume up for fanfare. Volume down for f a i r music. Loud fanfare for Horse's entrance. Fast fade on horse music. Cue 11: Loud drum r o l l as Charlatan raises watch. Fanfare followed by Horse e x i t music. Cue 12: Tran s i t i o n music on blackout. Run for seven seconds and fade out. Cue 13: Tran s i t i o n music on blackout. Run for seven seconds and fade out. Cue 14: Tr a n s i t i o n music on blackout. Run f o r seven seconds and fade out. Cue 15: Tran s i t i o n music on blackout. Run for seven seconds and fade out. 122. Cue 16: Cue 17: Cue 18 Cue 19 Cue 20: Cue 21 Cue 22: Cue 23: Cue 24: Cue 25 Cue 26 Cue 27 Cue 28: Cue 29: Cue 30 Cue 31 Cue 32 Cue 33 Cue 34 Cue 35 Cue 36 German waltz on blackout. Fade sound down as lights come up. Fade sound out after "They're dancing, dancing!" Polka on blackout. Fade down during song. Polka after second chorus of song. Fade volume down during Apprentice's sermon. Fade volume up at end of music and play to end of polka. Fade in crickets on blackout. Play through the scene and then out. Crowd noise on blackout. Fade out slowly as Doctor taps for silence. Transition music on blackout. Play for seven seconds and fade out. Fade in waltz two counts after Andres' exit. Fade volume down during fight. Transition music on blackout, nine seconds and fade out. Fade in crickets on blackout, scene. Play for Play through Fade crickets out after two seconds of blackout. Fade in wind after two seconds of blackout. Fade wind out after "It's uncanny!" Fade up polka after two seconds of blackout. Fade in waltz softly after Kathy's song. Fade waltz out after Woyzeck's exit. After last line, bring in march for curtain c a l l . Fade volume down after curtain c a l l and - i - J ' » I L J- l i W U O t - «_-»_» « LIGHTING CUES Cue 1: House out. Cue 2: Up bright on stage l e f t and l e v e l s . Cue 3: Blackout as Captain e x i t s . Up on dim general a f t e r three count. Cue 4 (a): Blackout as Woyzeck and Andres e x i t . Up medium including le v e l s a f t e r f i v e count Cue 4 (b): Up bright as Drum Major enters through stage l e f t e x i t . Cue 5: Fade general as so l d i e r s e x i t . Cue 6: Fade everything out except l e v e l s a f t e r crowd e x i t s . Cue 7: Up s l i g h t l y on stage l e f t as Woyzeck enters Cue 8 (a): Blackout on Marie's e x i t . Cue 8 (b): After f i v e count up dim general and colour wheel. Cue 9: Up on Charlatan's spot on fanfare. Cue 10: Charlatan spot out. Cue 11 (a): Fade out general as Drum Major e x i t s . Cue 11 (b): Up general as crowd enters. Cue 11 (c): Fade out general on fanfare. Bring up blues on f l o o r . Cue 12 (a): Blackout as crowd e x i t s . Cue 12 (b): Af t e r f i v e count fade up le v e l s and stage r i g h t area. Cue 13 (a): Blackout on Marie's e x i t . Cue 13 (b): After f i v e count, f a s t fade up to bright general. Cue 14 (a): Blackout on Doctor's e x i t . 124. Cue 14 (b): After five count, fade up dim on levels and stage l e f t area. Cue 15 (a): Fast fade out as Marie and Drum Major exit. Cue 15 (b): After five count, fast fade up to bright general. Cue 16 (a): Blackout as Captain and Doctor exit. Cue 16 (b): After five count, fade up levels and upstage floor area. Cue 17 (a): Three count after Woyzeck's exit, then blackout. Cue 17 (b): After six count, fade up to medium general on levels. Cue 18 (a): Blackout as Woyzeck exits. Cue 18 (b): After five count, fade up medium general for Inn interior. Cue 18 (c): Fade up blue spot when Woyzeck stands on stool. Cue 19: Fade out spot when Woyzeck s i t s . Cue 20 (a): Fade to dim as Apprentice and Andres exit. Cue 20 (b): Fade up blues on floor as Woyzeck steps off level. Cue 21 (a): Blackout on Woyzeck's exits. Cue 21 (b): After five count, fade up blue spot on floor. Cue 22: Blackout on second "dead". Cue 23: After five count, fade up window special on levels. Cue 24 (a): Blackout after "Go to sleep!" Cue 24 (b): After five count, fade up to bright general. 125. Cue 25 (a) : Blackout on Doctor's e x i t . Cue 25 (b) : After f i v e count, fade up to dim general on f l o o r . Cue 26 (a) : Blackout on Andres' e x i t . Cue 26 (b) : After f i v e count, fade up to medium Inn i n t e r i o r . Cue 27 (a) : Blackout a f t e r "He's bleeding". Cue 27 (b) : Aft e r f i v e count, fade up down l e f t spot on f l o o r . Cue 28 (a) : Blackout as Jew e x i t s . Cue 28 (b) : After seven count, fade up to dim on l e v e l s and stage l e f t area. Cue 29 : Blackout a f t e r Marie's l a s t l i n e . Cue 30: After f i v e count, fade up very dim downstage of l e v e l s . Cue 31 (a) : Blackout as Woyzeck e x i t s . Cue 31 (b) : Aft e r f i v e count, fade up to medium on le v e l s and stage r i g h t area. Cue 32 (a) : Hold for three count a f t e r Woyzeck's e x i t , then blackout. Cue 32 (b) : Aft e r f i v e count, fade up bright general. Cue 33 (a) : Blackout as Marie and Woyzeck e x i t . Cue 33 (b) : After f i v e count, fade up to dim on l e v e l s . Cue 34 (a) : Fade out slowly a f t e r Woyzeck's e x i t . Cue 34 (b) : Blackout a f t e r "Like a person dying." Cue 34 (O : Fast fade up to bright for Inn i n t e r i o r . Cue 35 : Fade slowly a f t e r Woyzeck e x i t s . Cue 36 (a) : Blackout a f t e r Doctor e x i t s . 126 . Cue 36 (b): Slow fade up on levels and pond spot. Cue 37: Fade up on water special as Woyzeck steps off level. Cue 38: Fade out pond spot as Woyzeck moves forward. Cue 39: Fade to black as Woyzeck's hand drops out of light. Cue 40: Fade up bright general for curtain c a l l Cue 41: Blackout. Cue 42: House up. HANGING PLOT - WOYZECK Lamp # Type Plug 1 500 W Lekd 60 2 500 W Leko 52 3 500 W Leko 42 4 500 W Leko 30 5 500 W ' Leko 18 6 500 W Leko 10 7 Patt 23 I 2 8 Patt 23 S 15 9 Patt 123 4 10 Patt 223 50 (1,000 W) 11 Patt 223(1000W)17 12 Patt 23 I 40 13 Patt 23 S 29 14 Patt 123 58 15 Patt 123 57 16 Patt 123 55 17 Patt 123 54 18 Patt 123 49 19 Patt 123 47 20 Patt 123 45 21 Patt 123 39 22 Patt 123 38 23 Patt 123 37 LIGHTING Area Colour Gang Notes 1' 52 1 + 4 + 14 Soft flood 2 52 2 + 5 Soft flood 3 52 3 + 6 Soft flood 1 17 4 + 1 + 14 Soft flood 2 17 5 + 2 Soft flood 3 17 6 + 3 Soft flood On scrim Clear - Drop i n I r i s Centre Clear - Colour wheel Flood A i s l e 2 Clear - Barn door Floor 42 10 + 11 Barn door Floor 17 11 + 10 Barn door Up r i g h t Clear - Drop i n I r i s Up centre Clear - Narrow beam 1 52 1 + 4 + 14 -Stage r i g h t 52 15 + 16 + 17 Barn door f i l l Stage r i g h t 52 15 + 16 + 17 Barn door f i l l Stage r i a h t 52 15 + 16 + 17 Barn door f i l l 4 Clear 18 + 26 + 21 -7 Clear 31 + 19 + 28 -6 Clear 20 + 25 -4 Clear 18 + 26 + 21 -5 Clear 30 + 22 -Down spot 18 HANGING PLOT - WOYZECK (Contd .) Lamp # Type Plug Area Colour Gang Notes 24 Patt 123 36 8 Clear 32 + 24 + 29 -25 Patt 123 35 6 Clear 20 + 25 -26 Patt 123 33 A i s l e 3 Clear 18 + 26 + 21 Barn door 27 Patt 123 25 Down spot 51 -28 Patt 123 23 7 Clear 31 + 19 + 28 -29 Patt 123 22 8 Clear 32 + 24 + 29 -30 Patt 123 16 5 Clear 22 + 30 31 Patt 123 14 7 Clear 31 + 19 + 28 -32 Patt 123 12 8 Clear 32 + 24 + 29 -33 Patt 123 9 Stage l e f t f i l l 51 36 + 35 + 33 Barn door 34 Patt 23S 8 Centre on steps 17 Gobo 35 Patt 123 7 Stage l e f t f i l l 51 36 + 35 + 33 Barn Door 36 Patt 123 6 Staqe l e f t f i l l 51 36 + 35 + 33 Barn door 37 Patt 123 13 Back f i l l Light f r o s t 39 + 37 + 38 Barn (No door lens) 38 Patt 123 11 Back f i l l Frost Light 39 + 37 + 38 Barn (No door lens) 39 Patt 123 19 Back f i l l f r o s t 39 + 37 + 38 Barn (No door lens) 40 Patt 123 1 Back l i g h t 51 - -41 Patt 123 31 Back f i l l Light f r o s t 31 + 43 + 53 Barn (No door lens) 42 Patt 123 53 Back f i l l Light f r o s t 31 + 43 + 53 Barn (No door lens) 43 Patt 123 43 Back f i l l Light f r o s t 31 + 43 + 53 Barn (No door lens) 44 Patt 123 3 Upstage e x i t Clear 3 -45 Patt 123 3 Upstage e x i t Clear 3 — 129. 130. TOTAL LIGHTS AND TYPES 6 500-watt Century E l i p s o i d e l (Leko) Spotlights 2 500-watt Strand Pattern 23 I r i s type mirror spotlights 3 500-watt Strand Pattern 23 Shutter type mirror spotlights 2 1000-watt Strand Pattern 223 8" F r e s n e l l s 32 500-watt Strand Pattern 123 6" Fres n e l l s 45 Lamps TOTAL WATTAGE: 28,500 Q - 500-watt F r e s n e l l ( | -1000-watt F r e s n e l l C3 -o n -1 -500-watt Mirror Spot 500-watt Leko Colour wheel LIGHTING DIAGRAM COSTUME PLOT Nicholas Kendall Perry Haddock: Elizabeth Murphy: E l l i s Pryce-Jones Jim Shepard: Buddy Doucette: Hillary Nicholls Jace VanderVeen: Susan Cadman: WOYZECK Uniform - jacket, pants, boots, hat (Sc.Ill ANDRES Uniform - jacket, pants, boots, hat (Sc.Ill Sc. XVII) MARIE Red dress, beige blouse, stockings, slippers, cream shawl CAPTAIN Uniform - pants, jacket, hat, boots DOCTOR Grey jacket, shirt and wide black t i e , striped trousers, slippers, glasses, grey bowler hat DRUM MAJOR Uniform - jacket, white pants, high boots, gloves (Sc. VIII), hat (Sc. I l l ) GRANDMOTHER Grey dress, grey shawl, slippers IDIOT Brown coat, undershirt, pants, high slippers KATHY Green dress, red trim white blouse MONKEY (Sc.IV) Black tights, ballet slippers, one piece military uniform, hat, collar • HORSE (Sc.V) Black tights, ballet slippers, body harness, head harness CHILD (Sc. XXIII) Same as KATHY, but with heavy make-up removed. 133. COSTUME PLOT (contd.) Craig Davidson: APPRENTICE (Sc. I l l , XII, XVIII, XXV) Brown pants, beige shirt, suspenders, shoes, necktie CHARLATAN (Sc. IV, V) Black jacket with purple fringe, bowler hat, cane, whip (Sc.V) JEW (Sc. XIX) Black overcoat, hat Scott Swan: STUDENT (Sc. I l l , IV, V, XII, XVIII, XXV) Grey pants, shirt, suspenders, shoes CHILD (Sc. XXIII) Same costume. W O Y Z E C K PROPERTY PLOT PERSONAL PROPS to be WOYZECK: DRUM MAJOR: ANDRES: MARIE: CAPTAIN: in dressing rooms Coins Watch Staff Whistle Mouth Organ Twigs Mirror Earrings Coins DOCTOR: GRANDMOTHER: Cane Notebook Pencil and c l Coin Cane PRESET: STAGE RIGHT ON STOOL Shaving mug Shaving brush Shaving cream Razor Razor strop Clothesbrush Napkin Polishing cloth STAGE LEFT EXIT Hat for CAPTAIN 135. AISLE 2 Twigs Rifle - ANDRES UPPER RIGHT PROP. TABLE: Scene IV: Scene Scene Scene V: VIII XI: Scene XII: Collar - MONKEY Stick - CHARLATAN Whip - CHARLATAN Gauntlet - MARIE Knife - ANDRES Wood - ANDRES Stein - CAPTAIN Stein - CHILD Scene XVIII: Scene XXII: Scene XXV: UPPER LEFT PROP. TABLE Stein - DRUM MAJOR Set shoe rag after f i r s t scene Stein - ANDRES ANDRES Scene XII: Two Steins - APPRENTICE Scene XVII: Rifle - ANDRES Scene XVIII: Two Steins - STUDENT One Stein - CAPTAIN Scene XX: Bible - MARIE Scene XXII: Cross Ring Picture Jacket Paper Scene XXV: Stein - WOYZECK Stein - Preset on Aisle 2. BUDGET Date 7/12/68 7/17/68 October Req.# 56054 56004 Stock THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DOROTHY SOMERSET STUDIO "WOYZECK" Georg Buchner October 16 - 20 , 1968 DIRECTED BY JOHN RAPSEY Description SCENERY MATERIALS Glidden Paint Co. - Paint Vancouver Textiles - Set Set materials from stock LIGHTING Source P0154626 PO151017 Stock Amount 22.00 10.00 Stock 143.00 8/13/68 56062 DTJ Projection lamps PROPS P02727 10.00 12/4/68 22336 22336 Petty Cash - Props Petty Cash - Props COSTUME MATERIALS J . Cameron 1.98 J. Rapsey 3.72 11/8/68 7/17/68 12/ /68 10/ /68 October 22328 56004 56004 56004 Stock Out of pocket expenses J . Rapsey 12.76 Vancouver Textiles - cotton PO151017 16.71 Eaton's - 12 yards Gimp PO151002 2.15 Dressmakers' supply house -material for costume PO151003 1.74 Costume materials from stock (Wool and zipper) Stock /contd. 13.29 /Contd. Date Reg.# 9/27/68 56089 10/7/68 56094 10/15/68 56004 11/8/68 22328 10/15/68 56004 9/30/68 38556 9/30/68 56091 Description Source Amount Stock PUBLICITY Maxwell A r t i s t s ' Ltd. PO8058 10.56 110 sheets of cover paper The Ubyssey - 3 ads. P08198 24.60 Oct. 10 - 2 cols, x 2" Oct. 11 - 2 x 3" Oct. 17 - 1 x 2" Gestetner (Can) Ltd. PO150179 3.53 1 e l e c t r o n i c s t e n c i l for handbills Out of pocket - p u b l i c i t y J . Rapsey 13.93 PROGRAMMES Gestetner (Can) Ltd. - PO150179 7.06 2 e l e c t r o n i c s t e n c i l s TICKETS 1 rubber stamp t i t l e d Woyzeck BkSt43915 2.57 Anderson P r i n t i n g Co. Ltd.P910503 4.03 4 sets of printed t i c k e t s PLAY COPIES Out of pocket (Xeroxing) J . Rapsey 22.25 /contd. i—• Contd/ Date Reg. # Description Source Amount Stock 11/8/68 22329 10/28/68 Fee PICTURES Pictures for Woyzeck Cheque sent HOUSE MANAGER P. Yeomans Simon Fass - House Manager Fee c/f 156.29 15.00 10.00 194.59 156.29 $350.88 TICKET SALES: PROFIT ; $360.00 $9.12 C O t W O Y Z E C K <y\ n II by Georg Buchner (M.A. Thesis Production) Directed by John Rapsey - Wednesday, October 16th -to- Saturday, October 19th, 1968 House Date Unsold Sold Sold Comps. Additio n a l Addi t i o n a l Total Capacity $1.50 $1.00 Seats Sold Seats Sold $1.50 51.00 81 Wednesday 0 10 11 60 5 5 October 16 $15.00 $11.00 $7.50 $5.00 $38.5C 90 Thursday 0 33 47 10 5 5 October 17 $49.50 $47.00 $7.50 $5.00 $109.0C 90 Friday 0 22 57 11 5 5 October 18 $33.00 $57.00 $7.50 $5.00 $102.5C 90 Saturday 0 32 50 8 4 6 October 19 $48.00 $50.00 $6.00 $6.00 $110.OC TOTALS: 0 97 165 89 19 21 $145.50 $165.00 $28.50 $21.00 $360.0C 140. W O Y Z E C K COMPLIMENTARY TICKETS Wednesday, October 16th James Barber (2) Jack Richards (2) Nick Kendall (I) Craig Davidson (2) Perry Haddock (3) Diana Belshaw (3) Susan Cadman (3) Jace Vanderveen (2) Elizabeth Murphy (4) Buddy Doucette (2) E l l i s Pryce-Jones (4) Gary Olsen (2) Judy Cameron (3) Jim Shepard (2) Sarah Warren (3) Brad Dallas (1) Josephine Patrick (3) John Rapsey (2) Gerri (2) Ian Pratt (1) Noram Young (1) Rick Spencer (1) Rosemary (2) Dr. Brockington (1) Dr. Strassman (1) Miss Somerset (3) Professor Hultberg (1) Mr. Wayne Caux (1) Dr. Don Soule (2) Thursday, October 17th Hillary Nicholls (4) Sherry Darcus (2) James Barber (2) Ushers (2) Friday, October 18th Nick Kendall (2) B i l l Louis (1) Stanley Weese (1) Moyra Mulholland (1) Pauline Newstone (2) Scott Swan (2) Ushers (2) Saturday, October 19th Penny Irwin (2) Dick Wilcox (2) Scott Swan (2) Ushers (2) W O Y Z E C K by II GEORG BUCHNER A P P E N D I X % I s < o I m * -*P 3 1/ c •7 c > -o 0 a c •+-0 C n o 5. 3,7 re ft s Or Hi I 0* 0 • • ^ 6» w > ^ O m Z ro s Z Z I 3 2 8 9 - f> 9 53 r -4 n * x ro r 9 -</> 3 c 9 o p 3 9 3 *o r~«—J!E c 2 ro a. 2/8 fc£ C : m C» o t f ft. 5 o -f* j -* < £ ~< /"\ 0^  v u» r (0 5 I* ? ? ? 8 ? f • c 5 o ro < ft T m </>£ _ — ? 9. ro * ? 2 n o -4 C 2 m O c a o X 2 P i 3 H o J 3 § 3 \m\u\A It c | H O 30 3 g c n H O 2 H H 142. The.;VANCOUVER SUN: Thur., Oct. 17,1968 '•"-• By LLOYD DYKK ."•The. newly-built experimental Dorothy Somerset Studio at UBC was unofficially christened Wednesday with a highly con-centrated theatrical distillation, Georg Buchner's Woyzeck. .i-:The effort, directed by John Rapsey, was a fulfillment of the practical portion of the require-ments .for.; an MA' degree in theatre. ' . •' , \J -J SFirst, it. was necessary "to realize that a translation from the original German of this 19th century work will never do jus-tice to the play which depends heavily on' semantics ' for' its scope, impact and relevance to • assert themselves fully: ,' '[LITERARY.TAGS;,' rv;"*"'^?;*. • * : With that little bit of relativity : iij.,- mind, it was possible to 'appreciate Rapsey's deft mold-. ing of - the" 29' brief scenes that - .%riVprise-the piete, \-:^ ;!|Woyzedk. is an academicians's delight; the literary tags of Realism, Naturalism and the School of Symbolism are all equally applicable. Also it has been said that the hero repre-sents the first successfully devised lower-class, inarticulate tragic hero. For the simplicity of plot in the single thread of action, there is a cat's cradle of com-plexity in the relations of the characters and their metaphysi-cal meaning. TRAGIC FIGURE -„ Woyzeck, a common soldier, supports himself and his mis-t r e s s by' doing odd- jobs, including shaving his captain and permitting a doctor to study the:effects of diet on urine.. :4 His mistress becomes involved with a drum major. Woyzeck is mocked on every turn ,and finally kills his mistress by stabbing her. '\.. :x'W,i What could have been more firmly established in the produc-1 tion was the polarity of realism in the characterization, Woyzeck and Marie on one hand, and on the other, the gallery of social caricatures including the doctor, the captain and the drum-ma-j jor. , Woyzeck, the passive victim of social injustice and (since his solutionless plight is caused by a host of natural factors) Buch-ner's universal tragic figure, was played by Nicholas Kendall. And in his role Kendall wasn't quite confident enough to handle decisively and convincingly the difficult matter of being inar-ticulately :. passive ' while 'still, retaining the looker's sympathy for.the.tragicherol 'u Elizabeth Murphy, though, as Marie was effective as the com-pletely human mixture of exu-berance, lust and innocence. REPEATED SYMBOLS ! ;'| • Rapsey was sensitive to ffhe? importance of projecting the; [relationship of adjoining scenes,"1 jwhethcr in contrast to one i another or in corroboration! "if.The scenes are thematically-'connected, often by as little as a' repeated symbol or song lyric which externally g i v e the. "simple plot a wealth.of complex-] ity, all beautifully structured, i f The thre'e"-'quarter round stage? [was austerely barren of sets.: jAnd the lighting enhanced;thej • atmosphere of the unreal., . --Val 143. THE PROVINCE, Friday, October 18, 1968 On stage By JAMES BARBER "This 'modern' theatre," say the romantics, "is all pre-occupied with misery." And Brecht, and Adamov, and Pinter they lump together, arid sigh for the good old days, the " r e a l " days, when life had happy endings, and love was true, and only the "sin-f u l " suffered. : But long before the theatre of the absurd, or the theatre of cruelty had labels, George Buechner was writing, and ,having rr-performed, plays of concern with the human con-dition. And for this reason alone it ' is worth a trip to the Dorothy S o m e r s e t Studio Theatre at XJBC, to see that even in the much-maligned >^ ' ' ; ' ' ' • \ ' . • . • nineteenth century there were the seeds of today in the theatre. - • -Another reason might be to visit the new Studio Theatre, to see a surprisingly charm-ing addition to the local stages. But lastly, and most important, would be to see a really first class, involving production, which wil l be re-membered as a worthwhile christening present for the new theatre. ' Buechner's Woyzeck is the-M A thesis production of John Rapsey. Woyzeck, part >Good Soldier Schweik, part Little-chap, part poet, is. timeless. He is man, plagued by him-self, destroying himself, sur-rounded by-himself, by jeal-ousy, by science, by love and hate and fear and sickness; He is^man the little. And this is a pretty big order fof a director, even with a script of Buechner's, to get across with very little in the way of scenery or props. .There is no point in discus-sing actors in this type o: theatrical adventure—the ac tors do what the directoi . wants them to, if he is J , good director. It is the direc tor who pre-imagines for th< audience, who sweats out th« significances of this move-ment and that, and commit! himself to saying that this is the way it wil l be. When it works, he should be congratulated. Which is the purpose of this review. : And if you can get tickets for tonight, the last of its three-day run, you wil l be able to count yourself among the lucky ones, who have seen a new theatre sprinkled with • something more than the anachronism of holy water. 144. CHQM RADIO Friday, October 18th, 1968 Q's REVIEWS THE opening of "WOYZECK", a play by the 19th Century German dramatist, Georg Buchner, coincided Wednesday with the f i r s t opening of the as yet unfinished "Dorothy Somerset Studio" at U.B.C. This new studio, auxiliary to the larger Freddy Wood Theatre, has seats that are adaptable to the needs of the individual play. In the case of Woyzeck, the seats form a semi-circl e around the centre of action. With this arrangement, the audience has a much greater feeling of involve-ment in the play. There are twenty-four scenes, separated by the dimming of lights and characterized by various sound effects. These sound effects often arise from behind the viewers' seats, and envelop the audience. With no props to speak of, John Rapsey, student director of the production, has cleverly created settings for the characters, ranging from a ro l l i c k i n g inn to a stormy sea. The abundance of scenes builds up a tableau of the forces playing upon the passive hero, Woyzeck. A simple soldier, he must carry the stigma of cuckold, as Marie, who has borne him a child, becomes infatuated with the prestigious Drum Major. Poor Woyzeck i s , at the same time, an experiment for theDoctor's new diet plan, and the object of the Captain's empty philosophical discourses. Knowing only that his love has betrayed him, and feeling the dark forces of his sub-conscious calling revenge, he f i n a l l y lashes out from his inertia, in madness. Although written in 1836, the play underlines artf u l l y , the conflict that occurs when ignorance confronts erudition, 145. (contd.) and poverty confronts wealth, making i t modern in theme, and relevant for contemporary audiences. Georg Buchner died at 23, 130 years ago, leaving Woyzeck as a collection of 24 scenes, and while the resultant work is short and unconventionally structured, there is no sense of incompleteness. Nicholas Kendall, as Woyzeck, leads the all-student cast. Jim Shepard was particularly effective as the Doctor. Woyzeck runs until this Saturday, in the "Dorothy Somerset Studio" at U.B.C. Next curtain - 8.30 this evening. W O Y Z E C K by II GEORG BUCHNER T L L U S T R A T I O N Morality, that's when you have morals, you understand. (Scene I) So quiet. Like the world's dead. (Scene II) 147. 148. 149. 150. I can't sleep! When I close my eyes everything turns and turns. Go to the hospital, Franz. Poor guy, you've got to drink some schnapps with a powder in i t . I t ' l l k i l l the fever. (Scene XXII) Am I s t i l l bloody? I've got to wash myself. (Scene XXVI) Can you hear i t , Andres? Can you hear i t ? Something moving! (Scene II) (Scene III) You 1re not such a bad piece yourself! 154. Kathy: Then what's that on your hand? z.oB6y 

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