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Woyzeck : a record and analysis of a production Rapsey, John C. 1969

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WOYZECK  A Record  and A n a l y s i s  of a Production  by JOHN C. RAPSEY B.A.,  Bishop's  University,  1967  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in  t h e Department of THEATRE  We  accept this  required  THE  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  atandatd  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH J u l y , 1969  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  of the requirements  an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  f r e e l y available for  I agree  for  that  r e f e r e n c e and Study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by his r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It  is understood t h a t copying or  of t h i s  thesis for f i n a n c i a l  written  permission.  gain s h a l l  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  publication  not be allowed w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT Woyzeck, an u n f i n i s h e d p l a y  from the year  1837  ti  by the German p l a y w r i g h t  Georg Buchner, was  produced  d i r e c t e d by John Rapsey, i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of requirements f o r a Master of A r t s degree i n the  and  the  Department  o f Theatre o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, at Dorothy Somerset S t u d i o The  from October 16  - 19,  f o l l o w i n g i s a d e t a i l e d record of that  a l o n g w i t h the d i r e c t o r ' s a n a l y s i s and of the  1968.  production  interpretation  script. Woyzeck was  and was  the  produced on a budget of $350.00  performed f o u r times by  cast i n a theatre  a predominantly student  s e a t i n g approximately n i n e t y  S e t t i n g s , costumes and  people.  s e a t i n g arrangement were designed  by Irene Rapsey. This record The  first  i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main  sections.  i s an essay which s t a r t s w i t h a b i o g r a p h i c a l  note on the author and o t h e r works and This i s followed t h i s production  goes on t o d i s c u s s b r i e f l y  his position in l i t e r a r y  his  tradition.  by a b r i e f note on the t e x t used f o r and  then a d e t a i l e d d i r e c t o r ' s a n a l y s i s  o f the p l a y w i t h r e f e r e n c e  t o the s i g n i f i c a n t  interpretations available in English.  This  concludes w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f the o r i g i n and  critical section basis  of  the d i r e c t o r i a l concept adopted for t h i s  production.  This section i s followed by a short bibliography which includes the major books and a r t i c l e s a v a i l a b l e i n English on Buchner and Woyzeck which were taken into consideration i n the preparation of t h i s  production.  Some books are also l i s t e d which had a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on the forming of the d i r e c t o r ' s production  concept. The second section begins with a b r i e f  statement of the d i r e c t o r i a l concept i n r e l a t i o n to the p a r t i c u l a r production conditions involved.  Then  comes the actual s c r i p t showing cuts, blocking, s i g n i f i c a n t d i v i s i o n s and i n d i c a t i n g l i g h t and sound cues.  Each scene i s accompanied by a b r i e f  analysis which indicates the major units within the scene and the d i r e c t o r i a l approach taken i n terms of purpose, action, dominant emotions, character dominance and p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s involved. The t h i r d section i s made up of various tables, records and i l l u s t r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g d i r e c t l y to the production.  Included are l i s t s of l i g h t cues,  sound cues, properties, costumes, cost l i s t s and box o f f i c e reports.  Also included i s a sample of  the programme and copies of press reviews.  The  i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n c l u d e c o l o u r renderings  o f s e t s and  costumes as w e l l as c o l o u r and black-and-white photographs of the p r o d u c t i o n ,  and f i n a l l y , b l u e p r i n t s o f t h e f l o o r  p l a n and working drawings.  V.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introductory Essay  1  Notes  58  Bibliography  60  A Note on the Production Concept  62  Prompt Script  67  Scene Analysis  99  Tables  121  Appendix  141 Programme  141  Reviews  142  Illustrations  146  vi  LIST OF TABLES Page Sound and Sound Cues  121  Lighting Cues  123  Hanging Plot  127  Hanging Plot diagram  129  Total l i g h t s , types and wattage  130  Lighting diagram  131  Costume Plot  132  Property Plot  134  Budget  136  Box O f f i c e report  139  Complimentary Tickets  140  L I S T OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  Page Black and White photographs  146  Colour photographs  152  Costume Drawings: Captain  157  Doctor  158  Woyzeck  159  Drum Major  160  Marie  161  Charlatan  162  Group  (Kathy, Grandmother,  Idiot)  163  Set rendering  164  Ground plan  165  viii.  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I wish to express my sincere gratitude to a l l those whose names appear on the programme for this production, especially  Simon Hargrave, who supervised  the f i r s t production i n the Dorothy Somerset Studio, and Irene Rapsey, who designed  the production, oversaw  the construction of sets and costumes u n t i l moments before the show began, and then some time during Scene XVIII of the opening performance gave b i r t h to a son, exactly one hundred and f i f t y - f i v e years to the day (Greenwich Mean Time) a f t e r the b i r t h of Georg Bvlchner.  fx..  INTRODUCTORY ESSAY  "Every man's a chasm.  I t makes you  dizzy when you look down i n . "  (Woyzeck - Scene XI)  I It  At the time of his death aged 23, Georg Buchner had received his doctorate  from the University of  Zurich and had begun l e c t u r i n g i n comparative anatomy. He also found time to lead a f u l l and varied existence as a playwright, revolutionary, t r a n s l a t o r and student philosophy.  of  His writings include three plays, the  fragment of a Novelle, a revolutionary pamphlet, his doctoral thesis on the nervous system of the barbel f i s h and complete lecture notes for courses i n zoology and philosophy.  His unfinished play Woyzeck became one  of the masterpieces of German drama and a  cornerstone  for much of the late nineteenth and twentieth drama.  century  A fourth play, on the subject of the  Venetian  II  wit Pietro Aretino, was  considered by Buchner's friends  to be h i s best work, but was  l o s t a f t e r his untimely  death.  Buchner's biography i s understandably short but of considerable value, as i t pertains to Woyzeck, which, as the work of a young man  s t i l l undergoing  upheavals i n his thinking, i s open to a v a r i e t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , because of i t s fragmentary and unfinished nature.  Biographical information  provides  no d e f i n i t i v e answer to the problem of Woyzeck, but i t does contain some valuable clues to his thinking  at  the time o f c o n c e p t i o n and r e v i s i o n o f t h e p l a y . II  Georg Buchner was born on October 17th, 1813, in  the s m a l l town o f Goddelau, near Darmstadt,  Germany, i  He was t h e e l d e s t o f s i x c h i l d r e n , a l l but one o f whom l a t e r won some d i s t i n c t i o n i n German l i f e . His father, ti  E r n s t K a r l Buchner,  and h i s two g r a n d f a t h e r s were a l l it  medical doctors.  L o u i s e C a r o l i n e Buchner, h i s mother,  had s t r o n g p a t r i o t i c  f e e l i n g s f o r Hesse, and was some-  what r e l i g i o u s and c o n s e r v a t i v e i n temperament, though a f r i e n d l y and c h e e r f u l woman. was  His father i n contrast  a f r e e t h i n k e r , an admirer o f Napoleon, and a man o f  grim d i s p o s i t i o n . A f t e r moving i n t o Darmstadt  i n 1816,  Georg  attended a p r i v a t e s c h o o l run by Dr. C a r l Weitershausen, and then from March 1825 u n t i l the s p r i n g o f 1831 he went t o t h e Ludwig-Georgs-Gymnasium.  Several of h i s  s c h o o l essays s u r v i v e from t h i s p e r i o d , t h e most n o t a b l e of  which i s a defence o f s u i c i d e , i n which he argues  t h a t those who k i l l  themselves from p h y s i c a l o r  psychological suffering die essentially  from a d i s e a s e .  II  In  the f a l l  o f 1831, Buchner went t o t h e  U n i v e r s i t y o f S t r a s b o u r g t o study zoology and comparative anatomy.  He j o i n e d a student c l u b , the "Eugenia" and II  became f r i e n d s w i t h August and A d o l f S t o b e r , who were  3.  theology students  and  folklore enthusiasts.  Their collection  II  of  A l s a t i a n f o l k s o n g s was  used by Buchner f o r h i s p l a y s .  While i n S t r a s b o u r g , he lodged a t the home o f a P r o t e s t a n t p a s t o r , Johann J a e g l e . daughter Minna and  Georg f e l l  i n love with Jaegle's  the two became s e c r e t l y engaged.  During h i s f i r s t p e r i o d of r e s i d e n c e i n Strasbourg  (from autumn 1831  t o the middle  of  1833)  Buchner's p o l i t i c a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s were sharpened. S t r a s b o u r g a t t h i s time was  a centre f o r p o l i t i c a l  refugees  II  from many German s t a t e s , and although Buchner d i d not care much f o r the regime o f L o u i s - P h i l i p p e , he  was  aware o f a c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r degree of freedom and p r o s p e r i t y than he knew i n h i s n a t i v e Hesse. probable  It is  t h a t he p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the  S t r a s b o u r g branch  of a Paris-based secret p o l i t i c a l  group c a l l e d the " S o c i e t y f o r the R i g h t s o f  Man".  However, h i s l e t t e r s from t h i s p e r i o d i n d i c a t e t h a t he was  s c e p t i c a l concerning p o l i t i c s .  demonstration  He  f o r the hero of the P o l i s h  calls  the  uprising  II  of  1830  a "Komodie" and wrote t o h i s p a r e n t s t h a t  " i f a n y t h i n g can h e l p i n our time, i t i s v i o l e n c e " . Because of a Hessian to  law r e q u i r i n g  students  take a t l e a s t two years of t h e i r advanced t r a i n i n g II  at  2  the l o c a l u n i v e r s i t y , Buchner was  obligated to  t r a n s f e r t o the U n i v e r s i t y of Giessen i n the f a l l  of  4.  1833.  He became q u i c k l y d i s c o u r a g e d both by the i n f e r i o r  q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a t Giesseri, and by t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Hesse, which had become v i r t u a l l y s t a t e under t h e grand duke's m i n i s t e r , Du T h i l .  a police Early  i n 1834, a f t e r r e t u r n i n g t o Giessen from Darmstadt where he had gone t o r e c o v e r from an a t t a c k o f m e n i n g i t i s , .  II  Buchner o r g a n i z e d a S o c i e t y f o r t h e Rights o f Man, and became i n v o l v e d i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s w i t h August Becker  and a p a s t o r by t h e name o f F r i e d r i c h Ludwig  Weidig. calling July,  Buchner wrote a pamphlet The Hessian C o u r i e r f o r a peasant u p r i s i n g , which was p r i n t e d i n  1834, but n o t b e f o r e Weidig had made s u b s t a n t i a l  r e v i s i o n s , s o f t e n i n g t h e tone and adding a number o f passages s p i k e d w i t h B i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n s .  Distribution  had h a r d l y begun when t h e Hessian a u t h o r i t i e s were t i p p e d II  o f f , one o f Buchner's f r i e n d s was caught w i t h c o p i e s i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n and Georg was f o r c e d t o make a h u r r i e d t r i p t o warn a s s o c i a t e s i n o t h e r towns.  Upon r e t u r n i n g  to G i e s s e n , he found t h a t h i s rooms had been  searched.  Knowing t h a t n o t h i n g was found, he lodged a complaint a g a i n s t t h e behaviour  of the p o l i c e .  II  Buchner d i d n o t b e g i n a second  term o f s t u d i e s  at G i e s s e n , but went home t o Darmstadt where he s t a y e d from the autumn o f 1834 u n t i l March 1835.  H i s parents  did not know and would not have approved of his p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , so he spent an uneasy time i n Darmstadt with a ladder at the ready to escape over the garden w a l l . was  He  summoned before the Darmstadt authorities to answer  questions but sent h i s brother Wilhelm instead. resulted from the enquiry, as the judge was  Nothing  a friend of  the family. During t h i s period,in January and February  1835,  he spent f i v e or s i x weeks w r i t i n g his f i r s t play, Danton's Death i n order to make some money. sent the manuscript  Buchner  to Karl Gutzkow, leader of the Young  Germany group, who was  able to f i n d him a publisher.  Before payment could a r r i v e , he grew f e a r f u l of arrest and f l e d to Strasbourg on March 1st, 1835.  A few months  l a t e r a warrant was issued. Once i n Strasbourg, he gave up his revolutionary a c t i v i t i e s and devoted himself to h i s studies.  Because  his father had cut o f f h i s f i n a n c i a l support when he f l e d , Buchner again turned to w r i t i n g to help support himself, t h i s time by t r a n s l a t i n g two dramas by V i c t o r Hugo, Lucr^ce Borgia and Marie Tudor, which he sent to Gutzkow. He also worked at preparing lecture notes i n both comparative and  Spinoza.  anatomy and German philosophy since Descartes  6.  In the summer of 1836  the S t r a s b o u r g  of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y granted him membership and  Society published  h i s t h e s i s on the nervous system of the b a r b e l  fish.  Sometime d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s w i n t e r he worked on Lenz, and,  i n the e a r l y months o f 1836,  Lena f o r a c o m p e t i t i o n  he wrote Leonce  f o r t h e b e s t German comedy.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , B u c h n e r s manuscript  a r r i v e d a few  1  l a t e f o r the J u l y d e a d l i n e and was He may  and  days  r e t u r n e d unopened.  a l s o have worked on Woyzeck and P i e t r o A r e t i n o  during t h i s period. In September o f 1836, U n i v e r s i t y of Z u r i c h and was an o r a l examination.  he  sent h i s t h e s i s t o the  granted  a doctorate  He began l e c t u r i n g i n comparative  anatomy a t Z u r i c h i n November o f t h a t y e a r . a few  f r i e n d s , mostly  He  saw  only  Wilhelm and C a r o l i n e S c h u l z , f e l l o w  e x i l e s from Germany, whom he had met few days b e f o r e he f e l l 1837,  without  ill  i n Strasbourg.  with typhus on February  A 2nd,  he wrote t o Minna J a e g l e t h a t he would have  Leonce and Lena and two  o t h e r p l a y s ready  for publication  w i t h i n a week, these b e i n g most p r o b a b l y Woyzeck Pietro Aretino.  and  However, h i s f e v e r became r a p i d l y  worse and C a r o l i n e Schulz stayed w i t h him c o n s t a n t l y , keeping  a d i a r y o f h i s words spoken i n d e l i r i u m , i n c l u d i n g  t h e statement: "We  do not s u f f e r too much p a i n ,  indeed  7.  we suffer too l i t t l e , for through our pain we are brought /  nearer to God".  3  His fiancee, Minna was  sent f o r ,  11  but Buchner hardly recognized her by the time she arrived on February  17th.  He died two days l a t e r on February  19th,  1837,  at the age of twenty-three. Apart from The Hessian Courier and the Hugo t r a n s l a t i o n s , only Danton's Death had been f u l l y published 11  at the time of Buchner's death.  Over the next two  years  Gutzkow was  able to publish Lenz and part of Leonce and Lena  and i n 1850  Georg's brother brought out an e d i t i o n of his  works i n c l u d i n g some l e t t e r s and the whole of Leonce and Lena. He did not, however, attempt to publish Woyzeck , as i t was too d i f f i c u l t to decipher.  In the 1870's, K a r l Emil  Franzos persuaded the family to allow him to publish 11  Buchner's works and proceeded to bring out a version of Woyzeck i n a p e r i o d i c a l i n 1875, edition in  followed by a complete  1879.  Unfortunately the manuscript  of P i e t r o Aretino  as well as a number of l e t t e r s were probably l o s t i n a f i r e i n the Buchner home and Minna Jaegle destroyed whatever papers were i n her possession shortly before she died i n  1880. 11  Even a f t e r Franzos' e d i t i o n , Buchner s plays 1  were considered too d i f f i c u l t to stage.  The e a s i e s t ,  8.  Leonce and Lena, was Danton's Death was not u n t i l 1913  performed i n Munich i n 1885  produced i n B e r l i n  and  i n 1902.  It  t h a t the Munich Court t h e a t r e staged  by Hauptmann and  the  II  f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n o f Woyzeck. popularity,however,in  was  Buchner d i d g a i n some  the 1880's when he was  l a t e r Wedekind, through  some i n f l u e n c e on N a t u r a l i s m and German  discovered  whom he  exerted  Expressionism.  As he grew i n s t a t u r e , more r e l i a b l e e d i t i o n s of h i s work appeared, e s p e c i a l l y W i t k o w s k i s e d i t i o n of Woyzeck 1  i n 1920  and F r i t z Bergemann's Werke und  Briefe i n  Thus, h a v i n g been v i r t u a l l y f o r g o t t e n w i t h i n a  1922.  few  II  years o f h i s death, Buchner's genius was  recognized  near the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h century and he has  continued  to e x e r t c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e ever s i n c e , most n o t a b l y on the young B r e c h t and the French  avant-garde movement.  The p e r i o d between the end of the wars i n 1815  and the R e v o l u t i o n of 1848  Napoleonic  i s not an  easy  time to d e f i n e i n terms of l i t e r a r y movements i n Germany. Politically extremely  t h e r e was  a c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e between the  r e p r e s s i v e group s t r u g g l i n g t o m a i n t a i n  old establishment  and  f e r v e n t l i b e r a l s bent on a c h i e v i n g  n a t i o n a l u n i t y and p o l i t i c a l t h i s was Classical  the  freedom.  somewhat of a t r a n s i t i o n a l  In  literature,  p e r i o d between the  p e r i o d o f Goethe and S c h i l l e r and the advent  of  Realism.  The term Biedermeier i s used i n German  c r i t i c i s m to describe the period i n l i t e r a t u r e , i n the  p i c t o r i a l arts and as a c u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c a l  epoch.  4  Unfortunately the term has no equivalent i n English and i t s use i s much disputed because of the d i v e r s i t y of things i t i s used to describe. part of the t i t l e of  Coined o r i g i n a l l y as  of some parodies based on the work  a Swabian schoolmaster-poet, i t came to suggest  "someone belonging to the lower middle c l a s s , c l e a r l y showing h i s r u s t i c o r i g i n , simple, decent, home-loving, extremely l i m i t e d and u t t e r l y prosaic: a figure of fun for  the i n t e l l e c t u a l , the a r t i s t , the sophisticated  city-dweller."5  When used i n reference to painting,  Oswald Wolff says the term was used to d i s t i n g u i s h a s t y l e which placed greater emphasis on the small d e t a i l s of everyday l i f e ; which stressed s i t u a t i o n rather than action and therefore concentrated attention on the s o l i d and s t a t i c against which the figures were s i g n i f i c a n t l y posed.g 11  It i s obvious from these statements that Buchner's art  has l i t t l e more than passing resemblance to the  q u a l i t i e s mentioned here.  However,the term i s often  used i n the considerably wider sense of a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l 11  unit, thereby including such a r t i s t s as Buchner and the Young Germany group  without too much discomfort.  Although lacking any humorous connotations,  some scenes  in Woyzeck have a strong Biedermeier q u a l i t y to them. Marie putting her c h i l d to bed or the grandmother's f a i r y t a l e are domestic and f o l k - i s h , but Buchner endows them with t r a g i c i n t e n s i t y .  S i m i l a r l y , despite the fact  that the scenes of Woyzeck are e s s e n t i a l l y s t a t i c ,  the  movement from one to the other gives the impression  of  extreme mobility. •I  Despite the fact that Buchner sent h i s manuscripts to K a r l Gutzkow, the leader of the Young Germany group, he has no more than s u p e r f i c i a l l i t e r a r y a f f i l i a t i o n s with them.  He saw himself primarily as a s o l i t a r y  literary  figure, claiming strong allegiance only to Shakespeare and some of Goethe.  That i s not to say he was  any influence from h i s contemporaries.  free of  Several writers  e i t h e r influenced or anticipated him, e s p e c i a l l y Grabbe and K l e i s t , as well as Lenz, a writer from the Storm and Stress period f o r whom he had a s p e c i a l a f f i n i t y . II  Goethe's Gotz von Berlichingen bears s t y l i s t i c resemblance to Danton's Death  some  i n that both  deal with sprawling h i s t o r i c a l subjects, using short, loosely connected scenes, large g a l l e r i e s of and considerable d e t a i l .  characters  However, there i s a vast gulf  II  i n tone between Buchner's scepticism and p a s s i v i t y , and Goethe's demonstration of the p o s s i b i l i t y of heroic action  and meaningful communication.  A f t e r the Storm and S t r e s s  p e r i o d had d i e d down, Goethe moved i n t o a " c l a s s i c a l " with I p h i g e n i a  i n Tauris  (1786), which owed i t s g r e a t e s t  a l l e g i a n c e t o French N e o - C l a s s i c i s m Buchner c o u l d The quite formal, constructed  feel l i t t l e plays  and f o r which  affinity.  o f H e i n r i c h von K l e i s t are s t r u c t u r a l l y  i n t h a t they employ blank verse  and c a r e f u l l y  p l o t s depending on t h e d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n  between major c h a r a c t e r s . in  K l e i s t ' s blank verse  i s not  the r h e t o r i c a l mode but i s q u i t e u n p r e t e n t i o u s  a q u a l i t y o f normal speech. confront  period  each o t h e r ,  there  and has  Though h i s c h a r a c t e r s i s doubt r a i s e d as t o t h e i r  a b i l i t y t o communicate w i t h each other  and a tone o f  d e s p a i r and s c e p t i c i s m creeps i n which i s very s i m i l a r II  to Buchner. Buchner p r o b a b l y knew Grabbe's Napoleon o r the Hundred Days (1831) when he wrote Danton's Death,. T h i s p l a y i s an h i s t o r i c a l panorama concerned w i t h events l e a d i n g up t o the B a t t l e o f Waterloo. in  I t i s written  prose, u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f tones, l o c a t i o n s , c o n t r a s t i n g  scenes and mixture o f c h a r a c t e r s of h i s t o r i c a l  f o r c e s a t work.  t o evoke a f u l l  picture  Grabbe, however, i s  unable t o f o r g e a dramatic u n i t y from d i v e r s e and II  unconnected m a t e r i a l s ,  and he l a c k s B u c h n e r s dramatic  o b j e c t i v i t y and anonymity.  1  Buchner was fascinated by the poet and playwright Jacob Michael Reinhold Lenz, whose work dates from the II  1770's.  Buchner based h i s Novelle on Lenz's d i a r i e s .  This story contains some l i t e r a r y arguments which are II  generally taken to represent Buchner s own views. 1  Lenz's  plays, e s p e c i a l l y The Private Tutor (1774) and The Soldiers (1776) contain many elements which are fundamental to II  Buchner's drama.  Lenz makes use of ordinary people i n  contemporary settings and his heroes are somewhat small, passive people.  Characters are highly i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and  distinguished by t h e i r manner of speaking.  These plays  have something of the richness of d e t a i l and d i v e r s i t y II  of elements of Buchner's works but they are generally r e s t r i c t e d to a s o c i a l frame of reference and tend to i l l u s t r a t e a s o c i a l moral. The e x i s t e n t i a l probing and the images of an inverted world which are so strong i n II  Buchner do not a r i s e i n Lenz's more limited universe. II  Buchner wrote his f i r s t playrDantbn's Death, during h i s stay at home soon a f t e r h i s p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s concerning The Hessian Courier a f f a i r came under the suspicion of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  A l e t t e r written  to his parents shortly a f t e r i t s completion contains II  one of Buchner s few statements on dramatic theory 1  apart from those i n Lenz.  He writes:  The dramatic poet i s , i n my eyes, nothing but a writer of h i s t o r y for the second time. He transplants us d i r e c t l y i n t o the midst of the l i f e of an era, giving us, instead of a dry account of i t , characters rather than c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and figures rather than descriptions. His foremost task i s to get as close as possible to history as i t r e a l l y happened. His book must be neither more nor less moral than h i s t o r y i t s e l f . 7 Apart from the problem of Buchner's  assumption  that the actual facts of h i s t o r y can be known, t h i s statement accounts i n a large measure for the extent to which he remains aloof and impartial to h i s drama.  His o b j e c t i v i t y  i s a l l the more remarkable when i t i s remembered that he was deeply concerned with the p o l i t i c s of Hesse and that he had recently written The Hessian Courier which began with revolutionary  fervour:  FREEDOM FOR THE HUTS! WAR ON THE PALACES! g The main opposition i n the play i s between the passive, extremely s c e p t i c a l Danton who  feels that  the bloodshed of the Revolution has gone too f a r and the f a n a t i c a l Robespierre who can brook i n h i s purge.  no leniency  I f Buchner betrays any hint of sympathy  i t i s for Danton, though he finds reason to condemn and excuse both men - Danton for h i s absolute r e f u s a l to act and Robespierre f o r his insistence on abstract v i r t u e s . Almost two years before he wrote Danton's Death  14.  he was  already deeply affected by the crushing force of  destiny.  He wrote to his fiancee, Minna: I have been studying the h i s t o r y of the Revolution. I have f e l t as though crushed beneath the f a t a l i s m of History. I f i n d i n human nature a t e r r i f y i n g sameness and i n the human condition an inexorable force, granted to a l l and to none. The i n d i v i d u a l i s no more than the foam on the wave, greatness mere chance, the mystery of genius a puppet play, a ludicrous struggle against a brazen law, which to acknowledge i s the highest achievement, which to master impossible. I no longer intend to bow down to the parade horses and the bystanders of History. I have grown accustomed to the sight of blood. But I am no g u i l l o t i n e blade, g Danton's pessimism and resignation i s equal  to that betrayed i n the f i r s t part of Buchner's l e t t e r . On the eve of h i s death he declares: Yes, when I was a c h i l d ! I t wasn't worth the trouble to fatten me up and keep me warm. Just another job for the gravediggers! I f e e l as i f I'd already begun to s t i n k . (IV. iv) However, i n the l a s t few l i n e s of the l e t t e r quoted e a r l i e r , Buchner seems committed to some act of defiance i n s p i t e of his r e a l i z a t i o n that he i s no " g u i l l o t i n e blade" and i s not running with the tide of h i s t o r y .  His gesture of r e v o l t would perhaps  be i n the manner of L u c i l l e ' s cry at the end of Danton's Death.  As a p a t r o l enters, she shouts:  "Long Live the King", bringing the guards upon her, thus embracing rather than struggling against her destiny. Danton's Death i s not so remarkable f o r i t s innovations i n technique of i t s hero.  as i t i s f o r the extreme p a s s i v i t y  Unlike Woyzeck, the burden of meaning i s  s t i l l carried i n long speeches by the major characters. The weight of time and the force of destiny, however, become major themes i n h i s other plays.  In Woyzeck  there i s a strong sense that the character i s crushed by a society that i s l a r g e l y o b l i v i o u s of him.  Similarly  Danton i s aware that h i s appointment with destiny i s approaching when he says: W i l l the clock never stop! Every t i c k pushes the walls closer around me, t i l l they're narrow as a c o f f i n . (IV. iv) The Captain i n Woyzeck desperately  fills  'that h o r r i b l e stretch of time' with meaningless r i t u a l s i n order not to have to face h i s f u t i l i t y should he wind up a day with ten minutes l e f t over.  These themes are  also present i n Buchner's comedy, Leonce and Lena, i n which boredom i s the strongest motivation. Leonce and Lena i s Buchner's only play i n a recognizably t r a d i t i o n a l form.  There are many echoes  of A l f r e d de Musset's Fantasio, German Romanticism and the commedia d e l l ' a r t e .  The play i s b a s i c a l l y a  gently absurd romantic comedy.  In the second scene we are  presented with the F i c h t e a n - i d e a l i s t monarch of the tiny kingdom of Popo, who  runs about with h i s pants h a l f - o f f  worrying that the "categories" are i n disarray and that his  "free w i l l " i s exposed.  Both h i s son Leonce,  Prince of Popo, and Princess Lena of the neighbouring kingdom of P i p i , escape t h e i r homes to avoid a prearranged marriage to an unknown partner.  They meet i n an inn,  f a l l i n love and return i n disguise to Popo where King Peter, very melancholy at having to cancel his wedding celebration,decides to perform a marriage i n e f f i g y . When the ceremony i s over, Leonce and Lena remove t h e i r masks and discover that the marriage they had each been t r y i n g to escape had been intended to be between them. Instead of asserting t h e i r free w i l l , they have inadvertently performed  the prearranged marriage.  Once King Peter  has departed f o r a l i f e of perpetual thought, Leonce and Lena s e t t l e down to reign i n a s t y l e that i s characterized by V a l e r i o : ...we s h a l l l i e i n the shade and ask the Lord God for macaroni, melons and f i g s , f o r voices soft as music, for bodies fine as c l a s s i c a l heroes and for a commodious r e l i g i o n . (III. i i i ) II  Although Buchner wrote a comedy, i t would be  wrong to assume that he abandoned the despair that permeates Danton's Death.  Leonce and Lena makes use II  of the Romantic Comedy form but Buchner invests h i s play with a tone that bears close r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Theatre of the Absurd. by boredom:  Leonce i s a hero motivated  What people won't do out of mere boredom! They study out of boredom, pray out of boredom, they love, they marry and multiply out of boredom, and then at l a s t they die out of boredom, and - what makes i t so amusing - they do i t with the most serious of countenances, without ever understanding why, and God knows what a l l else. (I. i ) Later i n the same scene Leonce refers to himself as a "poor puppet" who could become moral and useful by wearing a frock coat and carrying an umbrella.  The  speech i s very reminiscent of Woyzeck's view of v i r t u e i n the f i r s t scene of the l a t e r play: ... i f I could have a hat and a watch and a cane, and i f I could talk refined, I'd want to be virtuous, a l l r i g h t . (Sc. I) In Leonce and Lena, Buchner goes to some length i n developing t h i s puppet or automaton image of man.  Near  the end of the play he has V a l e r i o introduce the lovers i n a fashion that betrays h i s personal f e e l i n g s :  Here, ladies and gentlemen, you see two individuals of either sex, a man and a woman, a gentleman and a lady! They are nothing more than a r t i f i c e and mechanical ingenuity, pasteboard and watchsprings. Each i s equipped with a d e l i c a t e , delicate ruby spring under the n a i l of the small toe of the r i g h t foot. Press t h i s lever ever so gently and the mechanism w i l l be set i n motion for f u l l y f i f t y years. These i n d i v i d u a l s are so consummately constructed that they cannot be distinguished from other human beings, unless one knows that they are merely pasteboard; they might even be accepted as members of human society. (III.  iii)  A very s i m i l a r tone i s taken i n Woyzeck i n the fairground scenes  (IV, V) where both the monkey  and the horse are exploited f o r t h e i r human q u a l i t i e s . Buchner emphasizes the very l i t t l e differences which d i s t i n g u i s h man and beast: Charlatan:  Gentlemen, gentlemen! You see here before you a creature as God created i t ! But i t i s nothing t h i s way! Absolutely nothing! But now look at what A r t can do. It walks upright. Wears coat and pants. And even carries a sabre. This monkey here i s a regular s o l d i e r . (Sc.IV)  The view of man presented i n Leonce and Lena i s of a boredom-motivated puppet stumbling into h i s fate II  as he t r i e s to escape i t .  Buchner manages to parody  the Romantic Comedy form while grafting into i t h i s  deepest p h i l o s o p h i c a l musings, without, however, allowing his  despair to overwhelm the gently humorous and resigned  q u a l i t y of the play. The prose fragment Lenz i s a very s t r i k i n g study II  of the growing insanity of the playwright to whom Buchner f e l t e s p e c i a l l y close.  Though the s t y l e of the whole  piece i s very c a p t i v a t i n g , the section which deals with Lenz's arguments against Idealism and Romanticism and his statements about the a r t of the dramatist are of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n a discussion of Woyzeck.  Much of what Lenz  II  says i s usually taken as Buchner's own theories on dramatic a r t .  Some of t h i s material i s used elsewhere  i n t h i s essay, but i t i s worth noting here that there i s often a s i m i l a r i t y discernable between Lenz's r e l i g i o u s fantasies and aberrations, and those of Woyzeck.  II  The text used for t h i s production was b a s i c a l l y Carl Richard Mueller's t r a n s l a t i o n , but with some s u b s t a n t i a l changes.  Two entire scenes which Mueller includes were  l e f t out and the ending of the play was somewhat rearranged. Apart from t h i s , the number of characters was reduced from nearly t h i r t y to ten. *  Mueller, C a r l Richard: Georg Buchner, Complete Plays and Prose ( H i l l and Wang, New York, 1963)  20.  it  It has become t r a d i t i o n a l among Buchner's editors and translators to select or arrange the scenes of Woyzeck according to what they f e l t the author's intention to be, thereby b u i l d i n g something of t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n into the play.  The problem arises mainly because there  e x i s t three fragments of manuscripts f o r the play, two of which are rough drafts of the scenes i n no p a r t i c u l a r order, while the t h i r d seems to be a p a r t i a l l y completed copy.  fair  The facts of the actual case on which the  play i s based are known, but Buchner uses t h i s material so loosely that i t i s impossible to t e l l whether or not he intended to complete the play by having Wovzeck brought to t r i a l and f i n a l l y hung.  S i m i l a r l y , the order of the  scenes i s not known exactly, except i n the simplest cases of  chronology/ nor i s i t possible to t e l l f u l l y which  scenes were complete, which sketches he intended to keep and which to r e j e c t .  Once i t i s acknowledged that  no d e f i n i t i v e arrangement exists and that there are several p o s s i b i l i t i e s of meaning, i t becomes much easier to accept the fact that each editor or d i r e c t o r makes to some extent his  own play out of Woyzeck. The actual occurrence on which Buchner based the  play occurred i n L e i p z i g i n 1821.  A barber, Johann C h r i s t i a n  Woyzeck, aged forty-one, stabbed the widow Frau Woost, aged f o r t y - s i x , i n seven places.  They had been l i v i n g  together for about two years, but she had begun to mistreat him and sleep with s o l d i e r s .  At the t r i a l , the defence  claimed that Woyzeck had suffered e p i l e p t i c f i t s and had sometimes appeared insane or mentally d e f i c i e n t .  An  examination was carried out by a Dr. Clarus who concluded that Woyzeck was responsible f o r h i s actions and an execution date was fixed.  This was delayed when Woyzeck  claimed that he saw visions and f e l t he was pursued by the Freemasons.  A f t e r another i n v e s t i g a t i o n , Clarus  r e i t e r a t e d his o r i g i n a l opinion and Woyzeck was executed on August 27th, 1824, i n L e i p z i g . II  Apart from the major facts of the case, Buchner made no more use of i t than the broad o u t l i n e , despite the  fact that a few phrases from the testimony found t h e i r II  way into the play. Buchner's Woyzeck i s only t h i r t y years o l d , for example, and he and Marie seem to be e s s e n t i a l l y married, though lacking the ceremony.  Marie's  sleeping with the Drum Major appears to be a case of genuine i n f a t u a t i o n , rather than a regular occurrence. Whatever h i s intentions were f o r the ending of the play, II  i t i s c l e a r from the changes i n the story that Buchner did  make  that he was allowing himself considerably more  freedom and inventiveness with the facts of history than he claimed to have done with Danton's Death.  As far as English language c r i t i c i s m i s concerned there are three major areas of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n for Woyzeck/ II  There are those such as Mueller who  regard Buchner as  an early s o c i a l r e a l i s t and thus arrange the play to emphasize these elements.  On the other hand, Herbert  Lindenberger regards him as an extremely despairing e x i s t e n t i a l i s t writer whose play evokes nothing so strongly as the r e a l i t y of human s u f f e r i n g .  The  third  II  view acknowledges the extent of Buchner's despair and scepticism but feels that behind t h i s there echoes a humanistic acceptance of man's condition and the of h i s actions.  futility  Advocates of a l l three views can muster  considerable support for t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Woyzeck but the fact emerges that the whole question seems to hinge on matters of emphasis, arrangement of scenes i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a few key  and  events.  Mueller's e d i t i o n of the play contains, by his own admission, parts of discarded scenes and compilations of dialogue from several d i f f e r e n t sources. He says: II  Buchner, I f e e l , would have completed the play by showing the absolute and inhuman destruction of h i s main character by means of as ghastly a t r i a l as he could possibly have devised, a v e r i t a b l e travesty of j u s t i c e (much i n the s t y l e of the t r i a l scenes i n a number of Brecht p l a y s ) . I t would have been a f i t t i n g end to t h i s most h o r r i f y i n g and modern of dramas.  Clearly Mueller intends to emphasize the s o c i a l aspects of the play.  This leads him to do several things with the text.  The f i r s t i s to t r e a t i t as e s s e n t i a l l y unfinished and  secondly  to point his ending of the play towards a t r i a l scene. Mueller's c l o s i n g scene reads as follows: Policeman: What a murder! A good, genuine, b e a u t i f u l murder! B e a u t i f u l a murder as you could hope f o r ! I t ' s been a long time since we had one like this! (Sc.XXIX) This scene (which i s set i n the morgue) i s followed by t h i s stage d i r e c t i o n : (Woyzeck stands i n t h e i r midst, dumbly looking at the body of Marie; he i s bound, the dogmatic a t n e i s t , t a l l , haggard, timid, good-naturefl"7 scientific.) (Sc.XXIX) It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the f i n a l stage d i r e c t i o n alone of the e n t i r e t r a n s l a t i o n i s Mueller's only personal addition.  This stage d i r e c t i o n tends to  give Woyzeck a more active w i l l and to make him more of a v i c t i m than most editions would allow. Mueller also includes the so-called "Apocryphal Scene" i n which Woyzeck returns from the pond and i s rejected by his son, C h r i s t i a n .  This scene i s sometimes  printed with the q u a l i f i c a t i o n that he returns as 'a ghost' but most c r i t i c s since Franzos f e e l that the scene was to have been rejected and they therefore end the play with  Woyzeck drowning i n the pond. One other c r u c i a l difference between Mueller's e d i t i o n and a l l others i s that he includes a scene between Woyzeck and the Sergeant (Scene XVI) i n which Woyzeck utters some rather long, coherent and philosophical statements concerning science and Nature: I f only you had no courage, there would be no science. Only nature, no amputation, no a r t i c u l a t i o n . What i s this? Woyzeck's arm, f l e s h , bones, veins. What i s this? Dung. (Scene XVI) No other editor has seen f i t to use t h i s scene, primarily because i t i s very dubious, but also because most of the material i n i t seems to have been displaced into other scenes, the f a i r scenes and the f i r s t inn scene. •I  Apart from that, i t seems to v i o l a t e Buchner's design i n that i t i s f a r too d i r e c t a statement f o r Woyzeck to make. Mueller states i n h i s Note on the Texts  that the main  r e s u l t of h i s compiling t h i s version was to give Woyzeck somewhat more to say and to make him a f u l l e r character. As a reading text for Woyzeck, Mueller i s j u s t i f i e d i n c o l l e c t i n g dialogue f o r the character from a l l three manuscript fragments, but f o r playing purposes Woyzeck says f a r too much and comes o f f as a rather i n t e l l i g e n t , coherent person.  The less Woyzeck says i n a philosophical  vein and the more he speaks i n terms of h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  images and obsessions, the more believable a character he becomes. Herbert Lindenberger mentions the fact that the structure of Woyzeck resembles the ' s p a t i a l ' composition which G. Wilson Knight speaks of i n reference to It i s worth quoting Knight on t h i s idea.  Shakespeare.  He says:  One must be prepared to see the whole play i n space as well as time. I t i s natural i n analysis to pursue the steps of the tale i n sequence, n o t i c i n g the l o g i c which connects them,;, regarding those essentials that A r i s t o t l e noted: beginning, middle and end. And yet by giving supreme attention to t h i s temporal nature of drama, we omit what i n Shakespeare i s at least of equivalent importance. A Shakespearian tragedy i s set s p a t i a l l y as well as temporally i n the mind. By t h i s I mean that there are throughout the play a set of correspondences which r e l a t e to each other independently of the time sequence which i s the story. ^ Woyzeck i s a s p a t i a l composition almost to extremes Only four or f i v e scenes have any d i r e c t bearing on the p l o t of the play, while a l l the rest are fragments,  parallels  amplifications or obliquely connected scenes, which e x i s t for the most part outside any chain of causal necessity. Buchner uses a wealth of i n d i r e c t means to transform what would otherwise be a simple and sordid revenge story into a r i c h and compelling t r a g i c v i s i o n .  Causally and  temporally the scenes are as d i s t i n c t as possible, each presenting a v i v i d f l a s h of the l i f e of a small German town.  However, as these images accumulate, there i s a growing interconnection between them on the l e v e l of a pattern of imagery and a sense of s o c i a l forces i n operation. •I  Buchner uses a g a l l e r y of characters which are distinguishable i n a spectrum by t h e i r m i l i t a r y rank, s o c i a l or economic p o s i t i o n , morality or i n t e l l i g e n c e to create a miniature world through which Woyzeck stumbles. The s o c i a l , environmental and p h y s i c a l forces at work II  on Woyzeck are not the only ones i n which Buchner i s interested.  Woyzeck*s physical and mental d e t e r i o r a t i o n  gives r i s e to an apocalyptic v i s i o n which grows throughout the play and adds a further dimension to the play. I t i s i n this area that the s p a t i a l composition of the play i s most evident.  Furthermore, i t i s  it  Buchner"s method of repeating verbal patterns, images, v i s u a l patterns and thematic modes which forms the basis II  of the d i r e c t o r ' s concept of the play.  Buchner tends  throughout the play to b u i l d separate schools of images and suddenly unite them with s u r p r i s i n g e f f e c t . In the scene by the pond i n which Woyzeck stabs Marie, he hesitates and does not seem sure what he i s going to do u n t i l she says: Look how red the moon i s !  It's r i s i n g . (Scene XXIV)  To t h i s , Woyzeck makes what must be an incredible reply: "Like a knife washed i n blood" I t i s as i f the word 'red' acts as a t r i g g e r i n h i s mind, for  immediately  a f t e r t h i s he stabs her.  I t i s almost  pointless to argue the question of premeditation i n t h i s instance.  Obviously Woyzeck has bought a knife, had  visions and heard voices concerning the stabbing, but i t i s also true that we do not always carry out what we plan to do or fantasize about. 8  By the time Marie says  r e d ' i n t h i s scene, there i s a very complex c l u s t e r of  images, ideas and associations connected with t h i s word, which when Woyzeck hears the key word, he  completes  the pattern with an act. The f i r s t time we see Woyzeck with any sort of knife i n his hand i s i n the very f i r s t as he i s shaving the Captain.  scene  In Scene XI the idea of  cutting i s associated with t h i s when the Captain jokes with the doctor at Woyzeck's expense: Stay awhile, Woyzeck! Running through the world l i k e an open razor, you're l i a b l e to cut someone. He runs as i f he had to shave a castrated regiment and would be hung before he discovered and cut the longest h a i r that wasn't there. (Scene IX) The idea of shaving leads to the mention of beards from there to a reference to the Drum Major.  The  and  Captain, who i s toying with Woyzeck, brings up the subject of his wife, and t e l l s him that i f he hurries home around the corner, he w i l l find a h a i r on , ... a c e r t a i n p a i r of l i p s . A p a i r of l i p s , Woyzeck. I know what love i s , too, .... (Scene IX) Woyzeck understands at t h i s moment that the Captain i s saying that the Drum Major and Marie are sleeping together His response i s : Captain, s i r , the earth's hot as coals in h e l l . But I'm cold as i c e , cold as ice. H e l l i s cold. I ' l l bet you. (Scene IX) Moments l a t e r the word 'stab' i s used when the Captain  says: You keep stabbing at me with those eyes of yours and I'm only t r y i n g to help. (Scene IX) From t h i s one scene i t i s possible to see  II  how Buchner uses a c l u s t e r of words and images to surround  a central idea.  A l i s t of key words concerning  Woyzeck*s r e a l i z a t i o n that Marie has been u n f a i t h f u l would read as follows: 'razor', 'cut', 'beard', 'drum major', • l i p s ' , 'hot', 'cold', 'Hell' and 'stab'. In almost every other scene i n the play, these words are echoed, amplified and refined u n t i l  there i s some sort of  pattern i n Woyzeck"s mind. In Scene II i s the f i r s t mention of the Freemasons which i s part of a sort of magic-conspiracy idea that Woyzeck i s obsessed with.  In t h i s scene as well are the  f i r s t apocalyptic images, expressed i n these words: Andres! How bright i t i s ! I t ' s a l l glowing over the town! A f i r e ' s s a i l i n g around the sky and a noise coming down l i k e trumpets. (Scene II) There i s a considerable amount of r e l i g i o u s symbolism i n the play which begins here i n one of Woyzeck's v i s i o n s . The conspiracy idea arid the apocalyptic v i s i o n become connected and f i t i n t o the c l u s t e r of words and images already established through the r e l a t i o n s h i p between 'fire',  'hot' and  'cold', and Woyzeck's mention of H e l l .  However, t h i s does not y e t . f u l l y account for Woyzeck's words as he i s about to stab Marie.  I t could be argued  that he i s replying to only part of what Marie says: "Look how  red the moon i s . "  To which he r e p l i e s : "Like a knife washed i n blood"... On the other hand, Woyzeck could be r e f e r r i n g to the "It's r i s i n g " part of her speech. the knife i s r i s i n g just l i k e the moon.  In other words, I t makes much  more sense , however, i f Woyzeck responds to her whole image, the red moon r i s i n g .  This image has  strong  a f f i l i a t i o n s with the glow over the town and the f i r e i n the sky which Woyzeck sees i n Scene I I . simile  Woyzeck's  ("like a knife washed i n blood") then brings  severa  strains of imagery and action together: the apocalyptic , C h r i s t i a n and revenge themes a l l meet i n the image of the bloody knife (sword, cross) r i s i n g i n the  sky.  At t h i s point, several lines of imagery suddenly coincide and Woyzeck plunges the knife into the body of Marie. Unfortunately  a l l the external evidence of  the play would indicate that t h i s i s a premeditated murder. Jew  A f t e r a l l , Woyzeck does buy  a knife from the  and he does hear voices t e l l i n g him to "Stab the  goat-bitch dead?"14 He also makes a s l i p of the tongue i n Scene XVII when he says "Andres, you know something? There arent many g i r l s l i k e she was". he has already formulated  This could indicate that  a plan to murder Marie.  On the other hand, the case i s quite strong for considering Woyzeck insane at the time of the murder.  There i s the evidence of his physical condition  his  seeing of v i s i o n s , his hearing of voices and  his  s l i p i n Scene XVII, which would indicate a confusion  of r e a l i t y  and dream.  again  However, i t must be remembered  that i n the actual case Woyzeck was responsible.  finally  I t would be reasonable  declared  to assume that  had Buchner been interested i n taking sides i n the controversy his play would have been an example of documentary realism i n which he would have f o r c e f u l l y advocated one or the other views of the murder.  But  II  the simple and obvious fact i s that Buchner does not make a case f o r e i t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - i f anything he makes the "evidence"  f o r both sides more equal.  It is.even misleading to assume that there are sides II  to a controversy  i n Woyzeck.  Buchner s intent seems 1  rather to show that the matter i s more involved than II  a legal-medical controversy.  Buchner's dramaturgy  i s s p a t i a l i n the extreme; there are several layers of imagery concerned with the murder as well as a v a r i e t y of analogous events. B a s i c a l l y , the imagery f a l l s i n t o several major categories.  There i s a major group  concerning  the word "nature" i n t o which f a l l s the hierarchy of characters, such features as the horse, monkey and Woyzeck's r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Doctor.  The second  group focuses around the word "red" and includes the C h r i s t i a n and apocalyptic imagery as well as the l e v e l of the murder of Marie.  realistic  The t h i r d set of images  i s concerned with the word "grotesque" which  penetrates  and unites the other major patterns of imagery. Some of the associations..with the word "red" have already been discussed.  However, there are a  number of instances which have not yet been mentioned. Beginning i n Scene II the apocalyptic imagery connected with a f i r e " s a i l i n g around the sky" becomes associated with another pattern i n the following scene.  As the  s o l d i e r s march by i n parade, Margret notices the glance which the Drum Major threw Marie, and moments l a t e r says to her: I f i t i s n ' t the V i r g i n h e r s e l f ! I'm a respectable person. But you! Everyone knows you could stare your way through seven layers of leather pants! (Scene III) I t i s no coincidence that Margret's i n s u l t likens Marie to the V i r g i n .  Her c h i l d i s named C h r i s t i a n and  Buchner makes several references elsewhere to her innocence.  On the other hand, i n Scene XX he reverses  the image when Marie reads from the Bible the words of the adultress Mary Magdalene. Near the end of t h i s scene Woyzeck and Marie s o l i d i f y t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n s with the apocalyptic images by r e f e r r i n g to the darkness.  Woyzeck says:  Look around you! Everything hard and fixed, so gloomy. (Scene III)  As soon as Woyzeck leaves, Marie feels the darkness c l o s i n g in: It's growing so dark. going b l i n d .  As i f we were (Scene III)  These images of darkness develop o r i g i n a l l y from Woyzeck's II  v i s i o n i n Scene I I , but Buchner goes to considerable length to develop t h i s light-darkness imagery as well as images of eyes and blindness.  The light-darkness theme runs throughout  the play both i n s p e c i f i c references i n the text and i n indications that l i g h t and dark scenes alternate with each other i n a rhythmic fashion through the play.  The references  to seeing begin i n Scene III with Margret's mention of Marie's 'shining eyes', her a b i l i t y to stare through 'seven layers of leather pants' and become extended i n the same scene with mention of Woyzeck's seeing of v i s i o n s and concludes with Marie's f e e l i n g that the c l o s i n g darkness i s l i k e the world going b l i n d .  In Scenes IV and V  the seeing images are further developed when the Sergeant and the Drum Major catch sight of Marie: Sergeant: You'd think a l l that black h a i r would p u l l her down l i k e a weight. And those eyes! Drum Major: Like looking down a w e l l . . . or up a chimney. (Scene IV) As Woyzeck and Marie enter the b r i g h t l y - l i g h t e d booth  of the astronomical horse, Marie exclaims: A l l these l i g h t s ! and Woyzeck's reply unites the light-darkness and seeing images: Sure, Marie.  Black cats with f i e r y eyes.  Furthermore, with the ' f i e r y eyes', there i s an echo of Woyzeck's v i s i o n of the apocalypse as well as a h i n t of the red moon to come. Scene VI i s b r i l l i a n t l y written, a scene which unites a l l the imagery so f a r .  However, before i t i s II  possible to i l l u s t r a t e how much Buchner accomplishes i n t h i s scene, the other major strands of imagery must be picked up. II  Buchner begins i n Scene I to e s t a b l i s h a hierarchy of characters based i n part at least on proximity to a state of "nature".  Other factors are, of course,  important, e.g. s o c i a l p o s i t i o n and economic freedom. Often outbursts of 'nature' are a function of oppression i n these areas.  Woyzeck shaves the Captain, who i s  busy meditating on e t e r n i t y .  When the discussion turns  to the morality involved i n Woyzeck's fathering an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , Woyzeck equates economics and morality: You see, Captain, s i r . . . Money, money! Whoever hasn't got money... Well, who's got morals when he's bringing something l i k e me into the world? (Scene I)  But even the Captain feels the blood i n h i s veins, the s t i r r i n g of h i s 'nature*, which he quickly suppresses with considerations of v i r t u e : Whenever I rest at the window, when i t ' s finished raining, and my eyes follow the white stockings along as they hurry across the s t r e e t . . . Damnation, Woyzeck, I know what love i s , too, then! I'm made of f l e s h and blood, too. But,Woyzeck: Virtue! Virtue! (Scene I) In Scene I I I , the Drum Major i s associated with images from nature: Margret:  What a man! B u i l t l i k e a tree!  Marie:  He walks l i k e a l i o n .  The following two scenes, IV and V, each show trained, humanized animals r e v o l t i n g against that t r a i n i n g and acting n a t u r a l l y . Charlatan: Gentlemen, gentlemen! You see here before you a creature as God created it! But i t i s nothing t h i s way. Absolutely nothing! But now look at what A r t can do! I t walks upright. Wears coat and pants. And even carries a sabre. This monkey here i s a regular s o l d i e r . (Scene IV) Moments l a t e r when the Charlatan asks the monkey f o r a k i s s i t revolts and 'trumpets'.  In the following scene  the astronomical horse i s able to answer h i s t r a i n e r ' s questions, but this'metamorphosed human b e i n g ' s t i l l has  natural impulses: Proprietor of the Booth: This i s no dumb animal. This i s a person! A human being! But s t i l l an animal. A beast. (The nag conducts i t s e l f indecently) That's r i g h t , put society to shame. (Scene V) In Scene IV, i s the f i r s t mention of the word 'grotesque'.  After the Charlatan's advertisement f o r  the astronomical horse, Woyzeck t e l l s the following story: You know, I had a l i t t l e dog once who kept s n i f f i n g around the rim of a b i g hat, and I thought I'd be good to him and make i t easier f o r him and sat him on top of i t . And a l l the people stood around and clapped. (Scene IV) Overhearing t h i s a Gentleman says: Oh, grotesque!  How  r e a l l y grotesque!  Woyzeck's reply supplies one of the more d i f f i c u l t i n t e r p r e t i v e problems of the play.  He says:  Don't you believe i n God either? It's an honest fact I don't believe i n God. You c a l l that grotesque? I l i k e what's grotesque. See that? That grotesque enough f o r you? The problem i s why Woyzeck assumes that because the Gentleman finds the story grotesque he cannot believe in God, and further what Woyzeck i s r e f e r r i n g to when he says "see that?"  The second part seems to be  simply enough explained, i f Woyzeck refers to the monkey dressed as a s o l d i e r and the wife i n pants.  However, the  f i r s t part of the problem i s not so e a s i l y solved, and i t w i l l be l e f t u n t i l l a t e r when the images surrounding the grotesque idea have been more f u l l y developed. This section of the essay began as an explanation II  of how i n Scene VI, Buchner seems to have consolidated the various strands of h i s imagery at t h i s point.  This  i s an extremely important scene also because i t i s the f i r s t scene that can be properly c a l l e d a 'plot' scene insofar as i t contains evidence, however i n d i r e c t , that Marie has slept with the Drum Major.  Marie says:  He t o l d Franz to get the h e l l out, so what could he do! (Scene VI) There i s the fact of the p a i r of earrings which she t e l l s Franz she found, but obviously 'he' gave them to her. Furthermore at the end of the scene, Marie expresses her g u i l t : I am bad, I am. I could run myself through with a k n i f e . (Scene VI) This scene functions very well as a consolidation scene.  In no e d i t i o n i s i t placed e a r l i e r than fourth  and i n every e d i t i o n except the f i r s t crude e f f o r t by Franzos i t i s the e a r l i e s t mention of a p l o t event. ; lt  38.  In the f i r s t part of the scene, Marie i s impatiently t r y i n g to s e t t l e her c h i l d , while vainly preening h e r s e l f with her newly-won earrings before her piece of broken mirror.  What she says to the c h i l d i s not only c r u e l  and s u p e r s t i t i o u s , i t also unites and extends several patterns of images already mentioned.  The light-in-darkness  images are continued with the shining stones of the earrings.  The seeing-blindness  images from previous  scenes  are re-stated i n t h i s scene, when Marie flashes her mirror across the wall and says to the boy: Eyes t i g h t ! Or h e ' l l look into them and make you b l i n d ! (Scene VI) This contrasts with the e a r l i e r image i n Scene III of the mother and c h i l d going b l i n d as the darkness closes in.  There i s a small echo of WoyzeckVs visions i n  Marie's song to the c h i l d : Hurry, lady, close up t i g h t A gypsy l a d i s out tonight And he w i l l take you by the hand And lead you into gypsyland. (Scene VI) The song c l e a r l y implies that a magic world opens up behind the eyes i n sleep. Economic oppression  i s mentioned i n conjunction  with an example of the 'red' imagery, when Marie says: But my mouth i s just as red as any of the fine ladies with t h e i r mirrors from top to bottom. (Scene VI)  Buchner i d e n t i f i e s Marie with the nature imagery in the exchange when Woyzeck sees the earrings: Woyzeck:  I never have luck l i k e that! Two at a time!  Marie:  Am I human or not?  The irony i s that a f t e r the c a r e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n s between 'human' and 'nature' concerning the monkey and horse i n the previous two scenes, i t i s obvious that i t i s her natural impulses which brought her the earrings. In t h i s scene as w e l l , there i s the fever image which growsduring the course of the play.  Woyzeck says  of the sleeping c h i l d : Look at the shiny drops on his forehead. Everything under the sun works! We even sweat i n our sleep. (Scene VI) There i s an early premonition of Marie's death: I am bad! I am! I could run myself through with a k n i f e ! (Scene VI) At the end of the scene, Marie says: We'll a l l end up i n h e l l , anyway, i n the end, man, woman and c h i l d . (Scene VI) This r e l a t e s to the apocalyptic images already  stated  and i s considerably amplified by the fact that though she refers to Woyzeck h e r s e l f , and the boy,Christian, she states i t i n such a way as to include the whole world.  I t i s worth noting at t h i s point that whereas the dramatic structure of the play emphasizes the contrast, lack of causality and distinctness of one scene from another, the interconnection of images, patterns and echoes i s extremely complex. After the consolidating work of Scene VI, II  Buchner brings some of the themes, e s p e c i a l l y the nature-will p o l a r i t y , f u l l y into the open.  The major  part of Scene VII has to do with the doctor reprimanding Woyzeck: In Mankind alone we see g l o r i f i e d the i n d i v i d u a l ' s w i l l to freedom! And you couldn't hold your water! (Scene VII) This equates Woyzeck's state of nature very much with the horse, which pissed when i t wasn't supposed to, and a i s with the l i t t l e dog of Woyzeck's story i n Scene IV. The light-eyes theme i s continued by contrasting the Doctor's s c i e n t i f i c view of l i g h t : I had just stuck my head out the window, opening i t to l e t i n the rays of the sun, so as to execute the process of sneezing... (Scene VII) with Woyzeck's philosophical view: Doctor, s i r , did you ever see anything with double nature? Like when the sun stops at noon, and i t ' s l i k e the whole world was going up on f i r e ? (Scene VII)  By now i t i s clear that much of the l i g h t imagery has developed a fever connotation which continues to grow through the play. Scene VIII finds the Drum Major s t r u t t i n g f o r Marie i n her room. Drum Major:  Wait t i l l Sunday when I wear my helmet with the plume and my white gloves! Damn, t h a t ' l l be a sight for you!  Marie likens him both to a b u l l and a l i o n . the  Judging from  pattern of repetitions on several levels already apparent,  i t i s l i k e l y that t h i s scene (apart from i t s p l o t function) was intended as an amplification of the ' l i t t l e  lovebirds'  that are mentioned i n Scene IV, but are not shown i n Scene V along with the astronomical horse.16 When the Drum Major becomes too possessive i n Scene VIII, Marie breaks away from him, and he mocks the  'devils' i n her eyes.  In the following scene, the  Captain notes that Woyzeck's eyes 'stab' at him when he learns that Marie has been u n f a i t h f u l . It i s extremely important to notice that almost every word of the 'voices' which t e l l Woyzeck to stab Marie i s planted i n h i s mind by someone e l s e .  In t h i s scene  there i s a very subtle progression i n knife images from a reference to Woyzeck's work as a barber:  Stay awhile, Woyzeck! Running through the world l i k e an open razor, you're l i a b l e to cut someone. (Scene IX) to the point where the Captain uses the words: You keep stabbing at me with those eyes of yours .... at the moment when Woyzeck i s l i t e r a l l y stunned by the knowledge of Marie's i n f i d e l i t y . The f i r s t few l i n e s of the next scene connect a series of images.  Scene X begins with more 'seeing'  imagery as Woyzeck stares f i x e d l y at Marie: I don't see i t ! I don't see i t ! My God, why can't I see i t , why can't I take i t i n my f i s t s ! (Scene X) Woyzeck next connects C h r i s t i a n and apocalyptic imagery with the redness of Marie's mouth: A s i n so swollen and b i g - i t stinks to smoke the angels out of Heaven! You have a red mouth, Marie! No b l i s t e r s on i t ? (Scene X) At the end of the scene, the 'seeing' imagery i s associated with the sun: Marie:  You can see a l o t with two eyes while the sun shines. (Scene X)  Furthermore, Marie gives the second premonition of her death (the f i r s t was i n Scene VI), only t h i s time  implants the idea i n Woyzeck's mind: Marie:  Don't you touch me, Franz! I'd rather have a knife i n my body than your hands touch me. (Scene X)  Woyzeck also provides us with a s t a r t l i n g image of  man,  which, because of his reference to Marie's s i n , stinking "to smoke the angels out of Heaven" i s highly reminiscent of the Bible passage i n Scene I I I : Isn't i t written: "And there arose a smoke out of the p i t , as the smoke of a great furnace" Woyzeck says here: Every man's a chasm. I t makes you dizzy when you look down i n . (Scene X) This has strong associationswith the p i t imagery of the Judgment Day passage of Revelations from which the B i b l i c a l quotation comes.  In f a c t , i t i s a somewhat s t a r t l i n g  discovery, the extent to which the Book of Revelations II  figures i n Buchner's images.  The  'red moon which i s so 1  important to the murder scene occurs i n Revelations  6:12  as the s i x t h seal i s opened: ... and l o , there was a great earthquake, and the sun became as black as sackcloth of h a i r , and the moon became as blood. II  Buchner's use of the image i n t h i s stabbing scene makes the apocalyptic connotations of the scene very  obvious.  Thus Woyzeck's simile ( l i k e a knife washed i n blood) can e a s i l y take on the added s i g n i f i c a n c e when i t i s noted that  Jesus, the Lamb of God,  washed i n the blood of  our s i n s , and comes on the Day "as a flame of f i r e "  1 7  of Judgment with eyes  and i n his mouth a"two-edged  sword". 18 ti  It i s clear now  that Buchner makes his images  work i n a musical fashion.  Repetition and  amplification  i n a variety of keys and modes gradually b u i l d up a large charge of emotional impact and s i g n i f i c a n c e . A perfect example of t h i s i s the pattern associated with pissing.  F i r s t , he has the story of the l i t t l e  dog  s n i f f i n g around the rim of a big hat, then the incident of the horse's natural outburst, followed by Woyzeck's being compared to a dog for p i s s i n g on a w a l l .  By t h i s  time Woyzeck has become associated with the l i t t l e of his own  story.  dog  In the mock sermon of Scene XII,  the r e l i g i o u s connotation i s added: Let us piss once more upon the Cross so that somewhere a Jew w i l l die! (Scene XII) In a scene which Mueller includes, but which most editors tend to leave out  because i t seems to be from an early  ti  d r a f t , Buchner has  a startling  closing l i n e :  Look! The sun coming through the clouds l i k e God emptying His bedpan on the world. (Scene XVI) In other words, God's l i g h t i s piss on the world. That Buchner was b i t t e r and despairing when he wrote t h i s play has already been noted, but the extent of his  distaste f o r the world only becomes obvious i n images  such as the one just quoted, or i n the splended reversal of the Grandmother's n i h i l i s t i c f a i r y t a l e i n Scene XXIII. I t i s c l e a r now that the' grotesque' imagery which was f i r s t mentioned i n Scene IV i s not a matter of amplification of that word, but rather has to do with the wealth of images of an upside-down inverted world or p a r t i c u l a r l y narrow views of i t .  The Grandmother's image of the world as  an "upside-down pot"^g f o r example, i s grotesque i n i t s e l f , but  i s made considerably more so by i t s s i m i l a r i t y to the  image of God's empty bedpan.20 11  The e f f e c t of Buchner's method of interweaving various strains of imagery i s to invest rather mundane events with considerable s i g n i f i c a n c e . the  Thus the knife and  red moon i n the murder scene are associated with a  great deal of r e l i g i o u s and apocalyptical symbolism.  The  knife image i n an e a r l i e r scene i s an echo from Macbeth. Woyzeck wakes i n the middle of the night with a feverish vision:  And then when I close my eyes, i t keeps shining there, a b i g , broad k n i f e , on a table by a window i n a narrow, dark s t r e e t , and an old man s i t t i n g behind i t . And the knife i s always i n front of my eyes. (Scene  XIV)  Very few of the physical or image correspondences it  and references which Buchner employs are presented i n an obvious fashion.  They depend rather on a r e s i d u a l pick-up  i n the mind of the spectator on a l a r g e l y unconscious l e v e l Buchner's composition technique makes continual use of these i n d i r e c t means of communication.  For example, there  i s often a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l o c a t i o n of a scene and i t s mood, or s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the fact that the  characters  so often choose to express themselves through folk songs, s t o r i e s , nursery  rhymes and quotations  from the B i b l e .  In his introduction to the plays, Mueller an evocative image f o r Woyzeck.  has  He finds i t 'akin to  a series of stained-glass windows i n a mediaeval cathedral.' However, the image has more to i t than Mueller cares to make of i t .  The picture evoked by t h i s i s of a series of  d i s t i n c t windows separated  by darkness providing the only  colour i n a gloomy cathedral.  Perhaps i t would be more  accurate to say that Woyzeck, because of i t s indirectness i s l i k e the patterns of l i g h t cast from these windows onto the f l o o r of the cathedral.  I t i s only by following the  l i g h t back towards the source that the informing body of  scripture, f o l k l o r e and mythology becomes apparent.  A  II  d i f f i c u l t y with Mueller's image i s that Buchner s stained 1  glass windows involve an atmospheric, cinematic play of light.  The windows of a cathedral have s i g n i f i c a n c e as  events i n the divine History, whereas the scenes of Woyzeck have the charged indirectness of dream images. II  There i s one outstanding II  fact of Buchner's dramaturgy  that i s never mentioned: Buchner wrote f o r money.  He wrote  Danton's Death and sent i t to a publisher i n the hopes that he could earn something.  He wrote Leonce and Lena  for a play contest and he did h i s Hugo t r a n s l a t i o n s to support himself.  There i s no evidence of his sending  his plays to a theatre for production, no evidence that he even spent any time i n a theatre, or thought of having his plays staged.  The point i s that Woyzeck  i s always  so unthinkingly taken as obviously a fourth-wall photographic r e a l i s t i c play.  This assumption i s furthered by the  abruptness of beginnings and endings of some scenes, which seem to demand either a blackout or a quickly dropped curtain.  However, the scenes which end most abruptly,  e s p e c i a l l y the horse scene and the f i g h t between Woyzeck and the Drum Major (Scene XVIII) are usually  considered  II  sketches or appear to be incomplete i n Buchner's f a i r copy of the play.  Almost a l l the other scenes are written on  and  off  stage, while s t i l l preserving the quick-cut q u a l i t y II  that i s prevalent i n the play.  Since Buchner i d e n t i f i e d  so strongly with Shakespeare, and had l i t t l e commerce with the theatre of h i s day, i t seems e n t i r e l y possible that h i s t h e a t r i c a l imagination conceived of h i s play as sweeping across the stage  i n the manner of Shakespeare.  II  Since Buchner gives no i n d i c a t i o n s of staging anywhere i n the play, i t probably means that he was  either  taking the staging c a p a b i l i t i e s of his native theatre absolutely for granted, or that he had some private idea of his  how  i t was  to be done.  Perhaps i t d i d not weigh on  mind very heavily i n view of the fact that he c a l l s  for some rather d i f f i c u l t e f f e c t s , such as a horse u r i n a t i n g on cue, and a pond for Woyzeck to drown i n . II  If Buchner wanted a f u l l set change for each of the scenes he wrote, the production would involve a minimum set  of f i f t e e n major sets, and would necessitate a  change on the average of every three minutes.  the play was  discovered i n the late nineteenth  century,  the R e a l i s t i c and N a t u r a l i s t i c stages could see no of  handling i t , and as a r e s u l t Woyzeck was  u n t i l 1913,  When  way  not produced  almost eighty years a f t e r i t was w r i t t e n ,  and then i n an a n t i - r e a l i s t i c fashion.22 Although Knight seems to think that r e a l i s t i c  staging would not be that d i f f i c u l t , I tend to think that unless straight drops and props were used, changes would average about t h i r t y seconds each.  This adds f i f t e e n  minutes to the running time of the play and more than one scene would be shorter than i t s scene change.  Thirty seconds  of black or curtain at three minute i n t e r v a l s i n such a short production would be s u i c i d a l , e s p e c i a l l y i n view of II  the sharpness of Buchner's cutting from scene to scene. II  I t seems a l l the more l i k e l y that Buchner probably had an image of an Elizabethan stage i n mind as he wrote the play.  Either that, or he was writing a movie without  realizing  it. II  Buchner's use of place i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from Shakespeare's, i n that t e r r i t o r i a l i n s t i n c t s , i n t e r i o r , e x t e r i o r , light-dark, hot-cold, have considerable influence on the action.  A perfect example of t h i s i s  obvious i n a comparison of the f i r s t two scenes.  Scene I  takes place i n the b r i g h t l y - l i t i n t e r i o r of the Captain's quarters.  Woyzeck i s hurriedly performing his task of  shaving the Captain, and i s d e f e r e n t i a l to him to the point of mumbling his assent to the Captain's joking proposition that the wind i s from the North-South.  I t i s very much  the Captain's space, and i n i t , Woyzeck must struggle to be a r t i c u l a t e .  In the following scene, i n a f i e l d outside  the town, Woyzeck and Andres cut s t i c k s for the Captain. The place i s n e u t r a l , the pace i s relaxed;  Andres  whistles and Woyzeck's imagination i s freed to t e l l a story about a spot where the toadstools grow, which rapidly expands i n t o h i s apocalyptic v i s i o n of " f i r e s a i l i n g around the sky and a noise coming down l i k e trumpets".23 Modern l i g h t i n g technique can create most of 11  the q u a l i t i e s of space which Buchner manipulates; hot-cold, l i g h t - d a r k , open-confined and the t e r r i t o r i a l conditions are e a s i l y established by the characters involved.  However, one of the most s t r i k i n g q u a l i t i e s  of the play i s a very strong sense of multiple and variety of focus.  view-point  Moments i n the play cry out for  a close-up: Woyzeck's face as he r e a l i z e s i n Scene IX that Marie has been u n f a i t h f u l , or the exchange of glances between Marie and the Drum Major i n the f a i r scene. A s c e n i c a l l y elaborate production would rob the play of i t s economy and  quickness.  The b a s i c problem i n staging i s that d e t a i l of background i s necessary because of the atmospheric nature of the dramatic  i l l u s i o n involved, while on the other hand,  i n a proscenium staging which best allows f o r t h i s type of i l l u s i o n , v a r i a b i l i t y of viewpoint  and focus are s a c r i f i c e d .  The basis f o r t h i s production tended to emphasize some q u a l i t i e s of the play while others.  sacrificing  One tends to assume that 'atmosphere  1  is a l l -  important i n Woyzeck, and i f one s a c r i f i c e s atmosphere and i t s sharp contrasts from scene to scene, only the p l o t skeleton, which i s minimal, i s l e f t . t h i r d and probably  However, a  the strongest element of the play,  i t s ' s p a t i a l i t y ' i s worth s t r e s s i n g .  To emphasize  t h i s element on stage requires a c e r t a i n abstraction so that images are not so burdened with r e a l i t y that they cannot be recognized  as part of a larger pattern.  The abstraction of f i l m seems to s u i t t h i s play p e r f e c t l y ; background and d e t a i l can be meticulously authentic, and yet the camera, as a s e l e c t i v e eye, can choose i t s d e t a i l , i t s distance, and angle, so as to simultaneously undigested  present the i l l u s i o n of the flow of  experience,  as well as emphasizing the s p a t i a l ,  associative, connection  of one event and the next over  the causal and l i n e a r .  A major consideration i n t h i s  production, which involved an i r r e g u l a r l y shaped playing space, surrounded on three sides by audience, was that the p h y s i o l o g i c a l response of the eye moving i n the socket and the necessity of changing focus would give the spectator an experience  somewhat akin to a changing  camera angle or close-up and long-shot  focusing.  The spectator i s more aware of being  selective  i n t h i s arrangement than i n medium-distance proscenium staging.  However, a major problem with the audience  so close i s that background must obviously be s a c r i f i c e d . To counter-balance that loss, several other aspects had to be emphasized.  F i r s t , the cinematic q u a l i t i e s  of the play, second the dream-image q u a l i t y of the scenes, and t h i r d l y the l i n e a r disjointedness and s p a t i a l connection.  inter-  The dream image quality which i s so apparent  i n the language of the play (and this p a r t i c u l a r  translation)  was taken as the foundation of the production. Film i s the most dream-like of media, except that the dreamer tends to f e e l inside the sphere of action, rather than separated from i t , seeing i t projected. Further, dreams tend to emphasize foreground and wash out except f o r very s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l .  background  The image of the  stained glass windows i n a mediaeval cathedral i s p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant: the windows are i n primary or f u l l hues but are mixed and blended i n r e f l e c t i o n on the f l o o r ; from the vantage point inside the cathedral there i s a sense of dark space behind the spectator, with the images surrounding. To t h i s end, sound originated behind the audience and only actors and minimal hand props were employed against  a deep burgundy background.  Change i n conditions  and  change i n space had to be indicated with l i g h t i n g , sound and use of the space by the actor.  Whereas ' r e a l i s t i c '  theatre demands w i l l i n g a suspension of d i s b e l i e f , t h i s production was  designed to evoke and demand the active  imaginative p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the audience to supply d e t a i l s of place and atmosphere.  A pool of l i g h t  had  to be taken as a pond, an actress i n tights and harness had to be taken as a r e a l horse.  This  production,  then, stressed the dream-image quality of the scenes and strove to contrast the s p a t i a l interconnection of the scenes with t h e i r causal and l i n e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s . The play was  conceived  of as taking place i n each spectator  mind and the production techniques  already mentioned tended  to support t h i s concept. II  There i s one q u a l i t y of Buchner's work which i s often noticed but r a r e l y explored for i t s f u l l that i s , that Woyzeck  significance  r e f l e c t s what i s ultimately a t r a g i c  view of l i f e and therefore i n the end a hopeful, one.  humanistic  Too often the response to t h i s play i s p a r t i a l i z e d . II  Those who  would make Buchner an early Social R e a l i s t point  to the major themes of economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l oppression which are prominent i n the play, as well as the c o n f l i c t between Free W i l l and Determination,  which seems  to be resolved i n favour of the l a t t e r . who  look  S i m i l a r l y , for those  there i s evidence of overwhelming n i h i l i s m and  scepticism i n the r e l i g i o u s imagery and the Grandmother's fairy tale.  These q u a l i t i e s are undoubtedly there i n the II  play, but miss the persistent f e e l i n g that Buchner has great sympathy for the s u f f e r i n g he portrays, while  still  being an uncompromising r e a l i s t i n discerning the nature and o r i g i n of that s u f f e r i n g .  He must approach the r e a l i t y  of that s u f f e r i n g as honestly and as c l o s e l y as possible it  i n order to transcend i t .  Buchner's humanism i s expressed  by Lenz: One must love mankind i n order to penetrate the p a r t i c u l a r existence of each thing; there must be nothing too common, or too ugly. Only then can they be understood. The most i n s i g n i f i c a n t of faces can make a deeper impression than the mere sensation of beauty. 24 \  .— - —  11  Buchner's portrayal of character serves as excellent testimony to the view expressed i n Lenz.  One might think 11  upon examining the dramatis personae of Woyzeck that Buchner was only interested i n characters for t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l or economic hierarchy.  He d i r e c t l y names only  Woyzeck, Marie, Andres, two of Marie's neighbours K a r l , the town i d i o t .  and  Others receive only the simple  designation, Captain, Doctor, Drum Major, Grandmother.  However, each character i s allowed h i s own i n t e g r i t y rather than merely being used for h i s function i n the II  s o c i a l hierarchy or his usefulness i n Buchner's method of composition.  Even i n such devastating p o r t r a i t s  as those of the Doctor or the Captain, Buchner penetrates so deeply into the nature of the character that h i s understanding and ultimate sympathy cannot be denied. II  What i s true of Buchner's treatment of character stands also f o r h i s d i c t i o n .  Michael Hamburger captures  the quality when he says: Yet to see or read Woyzeck i s to gain an experience which no other play affords. Behind i t s bare d i c t i o n and commonplace action, there i s a v i s i o n that removes t h i s fragmentary melodrama from a l l the e x i s t i n g categories. The d i c t i o n of Woyzeck i s so p e r f e c t l y adapted to i t s dramatic function that i t draws the audience or reader into the very vortex of what i t serves to express. It i s a transparent d i c t i o n , poetic not i n i t s e l f , but despite i t s e l f , because i t reveals what i s e s s e n t i a l l y and timelessly human behind the semi-articulate utterings of vulgar persons, a murderer and a s l u t . II  Buchner i s , next to Shakespeare, probably one of the most i n v i s i b l e of dramatists.  He was able, as few  a r t i s t s and dramatists are, to appear to remain impartial and aloof from h i s play, to allow h i s characters the greatest freedom of expression.  I t i s remarkable  that a  young man of twenty-three could have the maturity and v i s i o n II  to write such accomplished  and powerful works as Buchner  produced i n h i s spare moments  stolen from s c i e n t i f i c studies  and revolutionary a c t i v i t i e s .  What experiences gave r i s e  to the depth and i n t e n s i t y of h i s v i s i o n and the creative processes which shaped them can only be guessed at or i n f e r r e d from i n d i r e c t evidence.  As f a r as Woyzeck i s concerned,  Buchner's personal views concerning human nature and l i t e r a t u r e must be gleaned from sources as diverse as h i s lecture on c r a n i a l nerves and the Lenz fragment which contains images it  and statements that seem to relate s p e c i f i c a l l y to Buchner himself, and are relevant to certain parts of Woyzeck. II  Hamburger translates a section of Buchner's lecture on c r a n i a l nerves, i n which he discussed two views of studying natural phenomena, the " t e l e o l o g i c a l " and the "philosophical". The " t e l e o l o g i c a l " view sees every organism as "a complex machine, provided with the most ingenious means of preserving i t s e l f up to a c e r t a i n point".26 II  Buchner rejects t h i s view and proposes what he c a l l s the "philosophical" view i n which: ... nature does not act for s p e c i f i c ends, does not use i t s e l f up i n an endless chain of cause and e f f e c t , each of which determines another; but i n a l l i t s manifestations, Nature i s immediately s u f f i c i e n t to i t s e l f . A l l that i s , i s f o r i t s own sake. To look for the law of t h i s being i s the aim of the view opposed to the t e l e o l o g i c a l . A l l that the former sees as cause, the l a t t e r sees as e f f e c t . When the t e l e o l o g i c a l school i s ready with an answer, the question only begins f o r the p h i l o s o p h i c a l school .  Such thinking profoundly affected h i s dramaturgy, and led him to probe deeply at every l e v e l of human existence to see man s o c i a l l y , economically, p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y , to ask the questions of existence, u n t i l he, l i k e Woyzeck, could say: Every man's a chasm. I t makes you dizzy when you look down i n . (Scene X)  NOTES 1. The m a t e r i a l f o r the b i o g r a p h i c a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s essay has been compiled from a number of sources,, the two main sources b e i n g A. H. J . K n i g h t ' s Georg Buchner ( B a s i l ^ l a c k w e l l , O x f o r d , 1951) and Herbert L i n d e n b e r g e r ' s Georg Buchner (Carbondale, Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964). Both of these c r i t i c s make e x t e n s i v e use of F r i t z Bergemann's Werke und B r i e f e , K n i g h t u s i n g the 1922 e d i t i o n p u b l i s h e d by the I n s e l v e r l a g , and L i n d e n b e r g e r u s i n g the l a t e r e d i t i o n (Wiesbaden, 1958). As both Knight and L i n d e n b e r g e r t r a n s l a t e l e t t e r s and o t h e r m a t e r i a l from Bergemann which i s otherwise u n a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h , I w i l l h e n c e f o r t h c i t e these sources as "Knight" and "Lindenberger" and where they are u s i n g Bergemann as "Knight (or L i n d e n b e r g e r ) from Bergemann". 2.  L i n d e n b e r g e r , p.9  from Bergemann, p.36 8  3.  L i n d e n b e r g e r , p.15,  4.  N o r s t , M. J . "Biedermeier" i n P e r i o d s i n German L i t e r a t u r e , ed., J . M. R i t c h i e (Oswald W o l f f , London, 1966) p. 147.  5.  Ibid. ,  p.148  6.  Ibid. ,  p.150  7.  "From Georg Buchner's L e t t e r s " , t r a n s . Maurice Edwards, Tulane Drama Review, VI, 3 (1962)  8.  M u e l l e r , C a r l R i c h a r d . Georg Buchner Complete P l a y s and Prose ( H i l l and Wang, New York, 1963) p. 169  9.  I b i d . , p.  xiii  10.  I b i d . , p.  xxxii  11.  I b i d . , p. x x x i  12.  Lindenberger, o p . c i t . ,  13.  K n i g h t , G. W i l s o n , The Wheel of F i r e Co., London, 1967) p.3  from Bergemann, p.5 80  p.91 (Methuen &  NOTES (contd). 14.  Scene XIII.  15. For the ordering of scenes i n the various e d i t i o n s , see the footnote i n Knight, p.118. Knight, who otherwise seems to be a very meticulous and astute Buchner scholar seriously misunderstands Scene VI (Scene VII i n his version). He assumes that nothing has happened between Marie and the Drum Major at t h i s point. The evidence i s , of course, circumstantial, but the hint i s too broad to be ignored. For his interpretation see his discussion of Scene VII i n Knight, p.120. 16. Scene V i s considered by a l l editors to be an incomplete sketch. I t ends very awkwardly and abruptly for staging purposes, although i t i s an excellent cinematic cut. I t seems l i k e l y that since he mentioned the l i t t l e lovebirds i n the previous scene that he intended to use them to f i n i s h Scene V. 17.  Revelations,  1:14  18.  Revelations,  1:16  19.  Scene XXIII  20.  See Scene XVI  21.  Mueller, p.xxiv  22.  Lindenberger,  23.  Scene II  24.  Trans. Mueller,  25.  Hamburger, Michael - Reason and Energy, (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1957) p. 206  26.  Hamburger, op. c i t . , p.19 8  p.17  p.151  BIBLIOGRAPHY Ardrey, Robert. The T e r r i t o r i a l Imperative. New York: D e l l Publishing Co., Inc., 1968. Bettelheim, Bruno. The Informed Heart. Glencoe: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1960. Buchner, Georg. Complete Plays and Prose, trans, by C a r l Richard Mueller. New York: H i l l and Wang, 1963. . "Woyzeck", trans, by John Holmstrom, i n Three German Plays. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1963. E s s l i n , Martin. The Theatre of the Absurd. Garden C i t y , New York: Anchor Books, 1961. Hamburger, Michael. Reason and Energy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1957. Hauch, Edward Franklin. "The Reviviscence of Georg Buchner," PMLA, LIV (1929), 892-900. Knight, A. H. J . Georg Buchner. Blackwell, 1951.  Oxford: B a s i l  Knight, G. Wilson. The Wheel of F i r e . London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1967. Lindenberger, Herbert. Georg Buchner. Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s University Press, 1964. McLuhan, Marshall. New York:  Understanding Media. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1964.  Majut, Rudolf. "Georg Buchner and Some English Thinkers," Modern Language Review, XLVIII (1953), 310-22. Peacock, Ronald. "A Note on Georg Buchner's Plays," German L i f e and L e t t e r s , n.s. X(1957), 189-97 R i t c h i e , J.M., e d i t o r . Periods i n German L i t e r a t u r e . London: Oswald Wolff, 1966.  61.  Rosenberg, Ralph P. "Georg Buchner's Early Reception i n America," Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XLIV (1945), 270-73. Spalter, Max. Brecht's T r a d i t i o n . Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1967.  A NOTE ON THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT Part of the d i r e c t o r ' s intention for t h i s production was  to discover what happens to a play which  i s usually given a r e a l i s t i c , proscenium-type staging when i t i s transferred into a very small, round s e t t i n g . encountered.  three-quarter  Several problems were immediately The f i r s t i s a problem of scale:  does  the play seem to have been written for a c e r t a i n size of theatre and stage and does i t demand a c e r t a i n physic point of view for the audience?  The second i s the  nature of the dramatic i l l u s i o n involved:  does the play  depend on the i l l u s i o n of a missing fourth w a l l , or i s some other kind of i l l u s i o n possible? A t h i r d question, related to the other  two,  concerns which q u a l i t i e s of the play become emphasized and which l o s t by the change i n staging circumstances and the imposition of a d i r e c t o r i a l concept. The q u a l i t i e s which struck me most strongly on the f i r s t and subsequent readings of the play were the cinematic juxtaposition of scenes which produces the i l l u s i o n of extreme mobility for the audience, and the dream-like pattern of repeated verbal and physical images.  Because movies and dreams have  many q u a l i t i e s i n common, I searched for a production  concept which could accommodate these two ideas. plan was to conceive  The f i r s t  of the scenes of the play as images  which f l a s h across Woyzeck's mind as he drowns i n the pond.  This was rejected for two reasons.  First,  because several scenes contain things which Woyzeck could not possibly have seen, and secondly,  since Woyzeck  i s i n a state of p h y s i c a l and mental d e t e r i o r a t i o n when he drowns, i t would have to be assumed that the images which the audience sees are the products of a diseased mind.  To maintain  the i l l u s i o n of a drowning man's l i f e  passing before h i s eyes would have meant continuously r e i n f o r c i n g t h i s idea within and between scenes with sound or whatever, thus destroying the very objective quality of the scenes. The idea was then formed to see the play '• as a dream taking place i n the mind of each spectator. This removes the o b j e c t i v i t y problem because dreams are usually f e l t to be outside the control of the dreamer.  The spectator, f e e l i n g apart from the  dream, i s able to i n t e r p r e t somewhat o b j e c t i v e l y what went on within i t .  Of course, i t i s generally  believed that the unconscious mind acts as a kind of censor i n dreams, d i s p l a c i n g c e r t a i n acts or ideas into symbols.  However, the playwright performs a  s i m i l a r function as he chooses words and images, so  none of Buchner's o b j e c t i v i t y i s l o s t by conceiving of the play i n t h i s way. One of the most cinematic q u a l i t i e s of the play i s the rapid change of view-point. the impression  In an e f f o r t to create  of changing angles of viewing and v a r i a t i o n  in distance, the audience was placed i n an i r r e g u l a r pattern around the playing space, as can be seen from the diagram which follows t h i s note. p a r t i a l l y successful.  This was only  In a proscenium theatre, when  a s e t t i n g changes, the audience feels i t has changed place.  In t h i s production, a constant s e t t i n g was used,  making the impression  of mobility harder to create.  However, since dreams are usually taking place inside the head, t h i s d i d not prove to be an overwhelming problem.  As the black and white photographs i n the  I l l u s t r a t i o n s section show, every e f f o r t was made i n the l i g h t i n g to indicate change of place by contrasting the scenes as sharply as possible. The problem of scale arose because of the size of the theatre. to create the impression  Although i t was possible of angles and changing focus,  i t was not possible to get far enough away from the play f o r a panoramic view,which several of the scenes demand.  This leads d i r e c t l y to the kind of i l l u s i o n involved.  A r e a l i s t i c play demands that nothing  be  generalized; each p a r t i c u l a r thing or place or fragment i n the play contributes to a p a r t i c u l a r atmosphere which creates the i l l u s i o n of the flow of l i f e .  Choosing  to conceive of the play as a dream and staging i t i n a constant s e t t i n g with an absolute minimum of props meant that most of the p a r t i c u l a r s which create atmosphere had to be s a c r i f i c e d .  This i n turn meant that the  v i s u a l and verbal patterns of r e p e t i t i o n had to be greatly emphasized to reinforce the dream atmosphere. This was  done by several methods.  choice of t r a n s l a t i o n . transpose  The f i r s t was  the  Most English t r a n s l a t i o n s  the play into a very p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g and  d i a l e c t , knowing that Buchner's o r i g i n a l makes use of the peculiar d i a l e c t of Hesse. Mueller which was  The t r a n s l a t i o n by  used emphasizes the imagery and uses  no d i a l e c t , rather d i s t i n g u i s h i n g characters by q u a l i t y of what they say.  The second method of  emphasizing the dream atmosphere was roles by some of the actors.  the  the doubling of  The actress that  pretended to be a monkey and a horse also played both a whore and a c h i l d to show the mind's a b i l i t y to see the same figure i n a v a r i e t y of functions and roles.  F i n a l l y , sound originated from behind the  audience to promote the impression that they were i n s i d e , rather than separated  from the scene of action.  Other,  more s p e c i f i c instances w i l l be discussed as they arise in the scene analysis. In general, the dream atmosphere seems to have been successfully created. was  The cinematic idea  not f u l l y r e a l i z e d because of the p h y s i c a l i t y of  the actors and the fact that a movie screen i s very much l i k e a proscenium arch, insofar as the spectator remains a constant distance from the image.  The d i r e c t o r ' s  major discovery from t h i s production was of staging on the nature of dramatic  the e f f e c t  i l l u s i o n and  the  necessity (and p e r i l s ) of a l t e r i n g the emphasis of a play to s u i t a new  illusion.  WOYZECK  by  GEORG BUCHNER  PROMPT SCRIPT  SCENE Ia: This scene was  inserted by the d i r e c t o r i n  the blackout preceding the beginning of Scene I.  It  consisted of fragments of l i n e s from the play spoken by actors who were placed behind, at the sides and i n front of the audience. c i r c l e of sound was  The intended e f f e c t of t h i s  to evoke a dream-like q u a l i t y .  The voices began slowly, s o f t l y and  monotonally,  gradually increasing i n rhythm and i n t e n s i t y u n t i l the Captain's phrase, "Not so f a s t , Woyzeck", whereupon the voices faded through three r e p e t i t i o n s of the phrase u n t i l , on the fourth, the l i g h t snapped on to discover Woyzeck i n the process of shaving the Captain.  A  s i m i l a r device was used at the end of the play as Woyzeck drowned i n the pond. several phrases to repeat.  Each character had They were:  And at the beginning. The beginning of the beginning. What i s i t Franz? You look so pale. In Mankind alone we see g l o r i f i e d the i n d i v i d u a l ' s w i l l to freedom! I wish the world were schnapps, schnapps This one has the golden crown. Go to the h o s p i t a l , Franz. And she s i t s there to t h i s day, a l l , a l l alone. Then what's that on your hand? You'll die cheap, but not for nothing. But Woyzeck: V i r t u e 1 Virtue! The Prince always says: "My God, there goes a r e a l man!" There's blood on your hand!  68.  Drink some schnapps with a powder i n i t I t ' l l cut the fever. Don't stop! Don't stop! I know what love i s , too, Woyzeck. Like a person dying. What a murder! A good, genuine, b e a u t i f u l murder! Hurry, so we can s t i l l see something. Not so f a s t , Woyzeck.  WOYZECK SCENE i — A t rfte CAPTAIN'S THE CAPTAIN in a o/uiV. WOYZECK shaving him. CAPTAIN. N o t so fast, W o y z e c k , not so fasti O n e t h i n g at a time! Y o u ' r e making m e dizzy. W h a t a m I to do w i t h the ten extra minutes that you'll finish early today? Just t h i n k , W o y z e c k : you still have thirty beautiful years to live! T h i r t y years! T h a t makes three hundred a n d sixty months! A n d days! Hours! M i n u t e s ! W h a t do you t h i n k you'll d o w i t h all that horrible stretch of time? H a v e y o u ever thought about i t , W o y z e c k ? 'Woyzeck. Yes, sir, C a p t a i n . Captain. It frightens me when I think about the w o r l d . . . w h e n I t h i n k about eternity. Busyness, W o y z e c k , busyness! There's the eternal: that's eternal, that is eternal. T h a t y o u can understand. B u t then again it's not eternal. It's only a moment. A mere moment. W o y z e c k , i t makes m e shudder when I t h i n k that the earth turns itself about i n a single day! W h a t a waste of time! W h e r e will i t a l l <nd? W o y z e c k , I can't even look at a m i l l wheel any more •without becoming melancholy. Woyzeck. Yes, sir, C a p t a i n . Captain. W o y z e c k , you always seem so exasperated! A good m a n isn't like that. A good m a n w i t h a good conscience, that is. W e l l , say something, W o y z e c k ! W h a t ' s the weather like today? Woyzeck. B a d , C a p t a i n , sir, b a d : w i n d ! . Captain. I feel i t already. Sounds like a real storm out there. A w i n d like that has the same effect on m e as a mouse. [Cunningly.] I t h i n k i t must be something out of the north-south. Woyzeck. Yes, sir, C a p t a i n . Captain. H a ! H a ! H a ! North-south! H a ! H a ! H a ! O h , lie's a stupid one! Horribly stupid! [Moved.] Woyzeck,_  109  6>j S T O O L D**»»Hrfc4fi> i t # r or i K t u P U T S ew  n&  dorrs Vs  HMCM>1  &IUtH  F»«.  70.  110  GEORG BUCHNER  you're a good m a n , but [ W i t h dignity.] W o y z e c k , you have no morality! M o r a l i t y , that's when you have morals, you understand. It's a good word. Y o u have a c h i l d without the blessings of the C h u r c h , just like our R i g h t Reverend Garrison C h a p l a i n says: " W i t h o u t the blessings of the C h u r c h . " It's not my phrase. Woyzecfe. C a p t a i n , sir, the good Lord's not going to look at a poor w o r m just because they said A m e n over it before they went at it. T h e L o r d said: "Suffer little children to come unto m e . " Captain. W h a t ' s that you said? W h a t k i n d of strange answer's that? Y o u ' r e confusing me w i t h your answers! Woyzeck: It's us poor people that . . . Y o u s e e , C a p tain, sir . . . M o n e y , money! W h o e v e r hasn't got money . . . W e l l , who's got morals when he's bringing somet h i n g like me into the world? W e ' r e flesh and blood, too. O u r k i n d is miserable only once: i n this world and i n the next. I think if we ever got to Heaven we'd have to help with the thunder. • Captain. W o y z e c k , you have no virtue! Y o u ' r e not a virtuous h u m a n being! Flesh and blood? W h e n e v e r I rest at the window, when it's finished raining, and my eyes follow the white stockings along as they hurry across the street . . . D a m n a t i o n , W o y z e c k , I k n o w what love is, too, then! I'm made of flesh and blood, too. B u t , W o y z e c k : V i r t u e ! V i r t u e ! H o w was I to get r i d of the time? I always say to myself: " Y o u ' r e a virtuous man [Moved], a good m a n , a good m a n . " Woyzeck. Yes, C a p t a i n , sir: V i r t u e . I haven't got m u c h of that. Y o u see, us c o m m o n people, we haven't got virtue. That's the way it's got to be. B u t if I could be a gentlem a n , and if I could have a hat and a watch and a cane, and if I could talk refined, I'd want to be virtuous, all right. There must be something beautiful i n virtue, C a p t a i n , sir._ B u t I'm just a poor good-for-nothing! -  CoAT  OUT  Captain. G o o d , W o y z e c k . You're a good m a n , a good m a n . B u t you t h i n k too m u c h . It eats at you. Y o u always seem so exasperated. O u r discussion has affected me deeply. Y o u can go now. A n d don't r u n sol Slowly! N i c e and slowly d o w n the street!  uMr  cue \  71.  SCENE H]  SCENE  WOYZECK  ii—An  open field. The  town in the  HI  distance  fi»40».eS fr*4T*«.* W H U T U l * ^  WOYZECK and ANDRES cut twig» from tho buehos. AwDnES whistles: WOYZECK. Andres? Y o u k n o w this place is cursed? L o o k at that light streak over there o n the grass. There where the toadstools grow up. T h a t ' s where the head rolls every night. O n e t i m e somebody picked it up. H e thought it was a hedgehog. Three days and three nights and he was i n a box. [Low.] Andres, i t was the Freemasons, don't you see, i t was the Freemasons! Andres [sings]. T w o little rabbits sat on a lawn E a t i n g , o h , eating the green green grass . . . Woyzeck. Quiet! C a n you hear it, Andres? C a n you hear it? Something moving! Andres [sings]. * '"''• E a t i n g , o h , eating the green green grass T i l l all the grass was gone. Woyzeck. It's moving b e h i n d me! U n d e r me! [Stamps on the ground.] Listen! H o l l o w ! It's all hollow down there! It's the Freemasons! Andres. I ' m afraid. Woyzeck. Strange h o w still i t is. Y o u almost want to h o l d your breath. Andres! Andres. W h a t ? Woyzeck. Say something! [Looks about fixedly.] Andres! H o w bright i t is! It's all glowing over the town! A fire's sailing around the sky and a noise corning down like trumpets. It's c o m i n g closer! Let's get out of here! D o n ' t look back! [Brans him into tho bushes.] Andres [after a pause]. W o y z e c k ? D o you still hear it? Woyzecfe. It's quiet now. So quiet. L i k e the world's dead. . Andres. Listen! I can hear the drums inside. W e ' v e got to go!  &Mt>ftl-S  l&M&V.  fVuon.fi  Vitus <*»TH  O M  X  tOMMfe  "TO  ftUtt  Cufc \  u? 1  72  t^fttuc  112  * tTun*-T  GEORG BUCHNER 9-tr.fV J - i . T t  town  SCENE III—The  MAIUE with her CHILD at tho window. Retreat  i , % T O ti.K,  A»\_*  MAnonET.  twit*  The  passes, T H E DRUM MAJOII at its hoad.  MARIE [rocking T H E CHILD in her arms]. Ho, boy! D a da-da-da! C a n y o u hear? They're c o m i n g ! T h e r e ! Margret. W h a t a m a n ! B u i l t like a tree! Marie. He walks like a l i o n . [THE DRUM MAJOR salutes  Aittft \ . X ' l T o vt.U.  HAKIM  i»i u.w-.  t»rr  MARIE.] g o i i H Margret. O h , what a look he threw y o u , neighbor! W e ' r e n o t used t o such things from y o u . Marie [sings]. •«"••'•. Soldiers, o h , y o u pretty lads . . . K f r w V Margret. Y o u r eyes are still shining. Marie. A n d i f they are? T a k e your eyes to the Jew's and let h i m clean t h e m for y o u . M a y b e h e can shine t h e m so you can sell t h e m for a pair of buttons! Kb-nrt Margrat. L o o k who's talking! Just look who's talking! If i t isn't the V i r g i n herself! I ' m a respectable person. B u t you! Everyone knows y o u could stare your way through seven layers of leather pants! _____ Marie. Slut! [Slams the window shut.] C o m e , b o y ! W h a t ' s i t to t h e m , anyway! E v e n i f y o u are just a poor whore's baby, your dishonorable little face still makes your m o t h e r happy! [Sings.] - I have m y trouble a n d bother B u t , baby dear, where is your father? :• W h y should I worry a n d fight T i l h o l d y o u a n d sing through the n i g h t : H e i o popeio, m y baby, m y dove W h a t d o I want n o w w i t h love? (A knock at the window.] W h o ' s there? Is i t y o u , Franz? Come in! . : Woyzecfc. C a n ' t . There's roll call. M a r i e . . D i d y o u c u t w o o d for t h e Captain? Woyzecfe. Y e s , M a r i e . Marie. W h a t is i t , Franz? Y o u look so troubled. Woyzeck. M a r i e , i t happened again, only there was  »»»T»« HP.&CH e-mri Vkfct,i« * ' t T o HofrL  UXti*T  C M * fc.  ftklb VO-ttvS HtSiOfc  ttAftl*  VTto-»<  H0TT_M _ * - H .  M A M . H S68v_6-wC6 '. MT06.  MMM  U . L . • *i»Rt**»  VTHfc*. CRfTAlw » M H «  mti.  ?H.»M*T»«.  T-RNI  R«ttt  »iftfctH  cut?,  M H K SOVANO  +  MA*.*  T O % P . * M M«»7oa.  • w»R(icwt. c - v - v v e ^ y  DMAIMA XA&.WT  U»m«v_  \  Cfrt-Te*.  w  TO  K M . MA Rt M fytowN©  ItPtM  o » I'm & s  IN ? v A t 6  U . * . t K ' t TO T\P O f  TO. » M N C5»»1t«..  X>ft.u>A KftT-fc. TUtWi  T.tlMt  »»CO. SowviD C u e 1  U » » T twit  _NT6*.  n u " w i n  OUT u.ft. t m T ,  X * TO fcHSWT 0 * M-a. SOT, C u t 4> SouviD C * $ V A S H M t H W i f t  TO  SCENE IV]  IB  WOYZECK  more. Isn't i t w r i t t e n : " A n d there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace"? Marie. O h , F r a n z ! Woyzeck. S h h ! Quiet! I've got it! T h e Freemasons! T h e r e was a terrible noise i n the sky and everything was on fire! I ' m on the trail of something, something b i g . It followed me all the way to the town. Something that I can't put m y hands o n , or understand. Something that drives us m a d . W h a t ' l l come of i t all? Marie. F r a n z ! Woyzeck. D o n ' t you see? L o o k around you! E v e r y t h i n g hard and fixed, so gloomy. W h a t ' s moving back there? W h e n G o d goes, everything goes. I've got to get back. Marie. A n d the child? Woyzeck. M y G o d , the b o y ! — T o n i g h t at the fair! I've saved something again. [He leaves. Marie. T h a t m a n ! Seeing things like that! H e ' l l go m a d if he keeps t h i n k i n g that way! H e frightened me! It's so gloomy here. W h y are you so quiet, boy? A r e you afraid? It's growing so dark. A s if we were going b l i n d . O n l y that street l a m p shining i n from outside.. \Sing.s.] A n d what if your cradle is bad Sleep tight, m y lovey, m y l a d . I can't stand i t ! It makes me shiver! [She goes out.  ^ M : K T O ^t»itH  W»CHT  SCENE i v — F a i r booths. Lights.  Lug  People  OLD MAN with a CHILD, WOYZECK, MARIE, CHARLATAN, WIFE, DRUM MAJOR, and SERGEANT OLD MAM [rings while THE CHILD dances to tho barrel b  1'  waeVttCK, ftftouT Marie. M y G o d , w h e n fools still have their senses, then we're all fools. O h , what a m a d world I W h a t a beautiful world! ;  MAfttt  ITfttc  WTO*  114  G E O R G BOCHNER  They go over to THE CHARLATAN who stand9 in front of a booth, his W I F E in trouooro, and a monkey in costume Charlatan. G e n t l e m e n , gentlemen! Y o u see here before you a creature as G o d created i t ! B u t i t is nothing this way! Absolutely nothing! B u t n o w look at what A r t can do. It walks upright. W e a r s coat and pants. A n d even carries a saber. T h i s monkey here is a regular soldier. So what i f he isn't m u c h different! So what if he is still on the b o t t o m rung of the h u m a n ladder! H e y there, take a bow! That's the way! N o w you're a baron, at least. G i v e us a kiss! [The monkey trumpets.] T h i s little customer's musical, too. A n d , gentlemen, i n here you w i l l see the astronomical horse a n d the little lovebirds. Favorites of all the crowned heads of Europe. T h e y ' l l tell you anything: how o l d you are, h o w many children you have, what your ailments are. T h e performance is about to begin. A n d at the beginning. T h e beginning of the beginning!. "Woyzeck. Y o u know. I h a d a little dog once w h o kept sniffing around the r i m of a b i g hat, and I thought I'd be good to h i m a n d make i t easier for h i m a n d sat h i m on top of i t . A n d all the people stood around and clapped. Gentlemen. O h , grotesque! H o w really grotesque! Woyzeck. D o n ' t y o u believe i n G o d either? It's an honest fact I don't believe i n G o d . — Y o u call that grotesque? I like what's grotesque. See that? T h a t grotesque enough for y o u ? — [ T o MARIE.] Y o u want to go in? Marie. Sure. T h a t must be nice i n there. L o o k at the tassels on h i m ! A n d his wife's got pants on! [They go inside. . Drum Major. W a i t a minute! D i d y o u see her? W h a t a piece! Sergeant, H e l l , she could whelp a couple regiments-ef cavalry! Drum Major. And breed d r u m majorsl W « M YtiMti SorgoanU L o o k at the way she carries that head! Y o u ' d think all that black hair would p u l l her down like a weight. A n d those eyes! Drum Major. L i k e l o o k i n g d o w n a w e l l . . . or u p a chimney. C o m e o n , let's go after h e r ! .  CM*«,iATHM »M Tit  tM*fckAT*N ¥ 5»tIt TO  \.l6lHT  Cue  touub eye  10  9  WITH H«»i<H U.(t. i.£veu A l l . **«%?T  ttkUMMAro*,  %*IT U.ft. — CaoM.Mfc To U.ft.SX.T, S»a  a. ftlfcttT  TP  t»TtH  VTU»t«4T  H & M T  CVA6  i l l * )  75.  SCENE  V]  SCENE v—Interior  115  WOYZECK  of the brightly  lighted  booth  MARIE, WOYZECK, PROPRIETOR OF THE BOOTH, SERCEANT, and DRUM MAJOR MARIE. A l l these lights! Woyzeck. Sure, M a r i e . Black cats w i t h fiery eyes. . Proprietor of the Booth [bringing forward a horse]. , Show your talent! Show your brute reason! P u t h u m a n society to shame! G e n t l e m e n , this animal you see here, w i t h a tail o n its torso, and standing o n its four hoofs, is a member of all the learned societies—as well as a professor at our university where h e teaches students h o w to ride a n d fight. B u t that requires simple intelligence. N o w t h i n k w i t h your double reason! W h a t d o you do when you think w i t h your double reason? Is there a jackass i n this learned assembly? [The nag shakes its head.] H o w ' s that for double reasoning? That's physiognomy for you. T h i s is n o d u m b animal. T h i s is a person! A h u m a n being! B u t still an animal. A beast. [The nag conducts itself indecently.] That's right, put society to shame. A s you can see, this animal is still i n a state of Nature. N o t ideal Nature, of course! Take a lesson from h i m ! B u t ask your doctor first, i t may prove highly dangerous! W h a t we have been told by this is: M a n must be natural! Y o u are created of dust, sand, and dung. W h y must you be more than dust, sand, a n d dung? L o o k there at his rcaoon. H e can figure even if he can't count i t off o n his fingers. A n d why? Because he cannot express himself, can't explain. A metamorphosed h u m a n being. T e l l the gentlemen what time i t is! W h i c h of you ladies and gentlemen has a watch? A watch? 0 * » n *Kt*Scrgoant. A watch? [He pulls a watch imposingly and measuredly from his pocket.] There you are, my good man!_ Marie. I want to ^ I | j ^ | S h e clambers down to the first row of seats; T H E SERGEANT helps her.] Drum Major. W h a t a piece!  cue  wttMi  n(«0  tow-tb c u t ^ tto-tfr + A TA*> H 4 T W . A>tt_E \  *0&tl -  VfftM»<  tfelttfr » U T l  TO  -~tfcf t » * T .  f*OT  t u tTtSL  A»Sw- 1 .  _ CHfctlATWW, t\ 7o H«*<f C«,fttKiM_ U>«l> wCrAOt »••*« TO S-t.O*- _*>%_ -  Y'< T O O t - T - t  U^HS  CtrfMftl To  <v_o  Vtofttt ^ H M  F  CftuMTV  &*._»?(  ,  ,  T  STOOL  *  —m**o»T  A*»*-O  VTAOft • 0 * T A*wt S>-. Rfcfti-ltT HrORU tft.wb U0,HT  -*IT_  ?  |  . . " E v » fe--»_l .u.L . »\ (fe. ^  116  GEORG BUCHNER  SCENE vi—MARIE'S room  U6»»T  t«*e  MARIE with her CHILD MARIE [sitting, her CHILD on her lap, a piece of mirror in her hand]. H e told Franz to get the hell out, so what could he d o ! [Looks at herself in the mirror.] L o o k h o w the stones shine! W h a t k i n d are they, I wonder? W h a t k i n d d i d he say they were? Sleep, boy! Close your eyes! T i g h t ! Stay that way now. D o n ' t move or h e ' l l get y o u ! . [Sings.] H u r r y , lady, close u p tight A gypsy lad is out tonight A n d he w i l l take you b y the h a n d A n d lead you i n t o gypsyland. [Continues to look at herself in the mirror.] They^ must be gold! I wonder h o w they'll look o n m e at the dance? O u r kind's got only a little comer i n the world a n d a piece of broken mirror. B u t m y m o u t h is just as red as any of the fine ladies w i t h their mirrors from top to bott o m , and their handsome gentlemen that kiss their hands for them! I ' m just a poor c o m m o n piece! [THE CHILD sits up.] Quiet, boy! Close your eyes! There's the sandman! L o o k at h i m r u n across the wall! [She flashes with the mirror.] Eyes tight! O r h e ' l l look into them and make you blind! J  WOYZECK enters behind her. She jumps up, her hands at her ears. Woyzeck. W h a t ' s that? Marie. N o t h i n g . Woyzeck. There's something shiny i n your hands. Marie. A n earring. I found i t . Woyzeck. I never have luck like that! T w o at a time! Marie. A m I h u m a n or not? _ Woyzeck. I ' m sorry, M a r i e - - L o o k at the boy asleep. L i f t his arm, the chair's hurting h i m . L o o k at the shiny drops o n his forehead. Everything under the sun worksl W e even sweat i n our sleep. U s poor people! Here's some  <'J  T o  Otiie-s  Ho M  >x C O  SCENE VII]  WOYZECK  117  money again, M a r i e . M y pay and something from the Captain. Marie. G o d bless you, F r a n z . Woyzeck. I've got to get back. T o n i g h t , M a r i e ! I ' l l see you tonight! [ H e goes off. Marie [alone, after a pause]. I am bad, I am! I could run myself through w i t h a knife! O h , what a life, what a life! W e ' l l all end up i n hell, anyway, i n the e n d : m a n , woman, and c h i l d ! ;  ?»CK$  «-\e>HT c u t \*(<0 SCENE VII—At the DOCTOR'S  (0*M<>  T H E DOCTOR and WOYZECK  U<UT Cut  DOCTOR. I don't believe i t , W o y z e c k ! A n d a m a n of your word! Woyzeck. W h a t ' s that. D o c t o r , sir? Doctor. I saw i t a l l , W o y z e c k . Y o u pissed o n the street! Y o u were pissing o n the wall like a dog! A n d here I ' m giving you three groschen a day plus board! That's terrible, W o y z e c k ! T h e world's becoming a terrible place, a terrible place! W o y z e c k . B u t , D o c t o r , sir, when N a t u r e . . . Doctor. W h e n Nature? W h e n Nature? W h a t has N a t u r e to do w i t h it? D i d I or d i d I not prove to you that the musculus constrictor vesicae is controlled by your will? N a t u r e ! W o y z e c k , m a n is free! I n M a n k i n d alone we see glorified the individual's w i l l to freedom! A n d you couldn't h o l d your water! [Shakes his head places his hands behind the small of his back, and walks back and forth] H a v e you eaten your peas today, W o y z e c k ? N o t h i n g but peas! Cruciferae! Remember that! There's going to be a revolution i n science! I'm going to blow it sky-high! Urea Oxygen. A m m o n i u m hydrochloratem hyperoxidic. W o y z e c k , couldn't you just try to piss again? G o i n the other room there and make another try. Woyzeck. Doctor, sir, I can't. Doctor [disturbed]. B u t you could piss on the wall. I have it here i n black and white.. O u r contract is right here! I saw it. I saw it w i t h these very eyes. I had just stuck my head out the window, opening it to let i n the  Cut  OecTofc, fr-mfc.  _TfcP* o»* O.MO o r e  {rook.  tf±  Ot-M  »T*Oi»;  To v>0»mt_. M 4 B T * K «>0><t«*K  -tf'»  *»TV  78.  118  GEORG BUCHNER  rays of the sun, so as to execute the process of sneezing. [Goinsi toward him.] N o . W o y z e c k . I ' m not going to vex myself. V e x a t i o n is unhealthy. Unscientific. I ' m calm now, completely calm. M y pulse is beating at its accustomed sixty, and I a m speaking to you i n utmost cold-bloodedness. W h y should I vex myself over a m a n , G o d forbid! A m a n ! N o w i f he were a Proteus, i t would be worth t h e vexation! B u t . W o y z e c k , you really shouldn't have pissed on the wall. ,. Woyzeck. Y o u see, Doctor, sir, sometimes a person's got a certain k i n d of character, like when he's made a certain way. B u t w i t h Nature it's not the same, y o u see. W i t h N a t u r e [He snaps his fingers.], it's like that! H o w should I explain, it's like r Doctor. W o y z e c k , you're philosophizing again. Woyzeck [con/IdingZy]. Doctor, sir, d i d you ever see anything w i t h double nature? L i k e when the sun stops at noon, and it's like the world was going up i n fire? T h a t ' s when I hear a terrible voice saying things to me! Doctor. W o y z e c k , you have an aberratio! Woyzeck [places his finger at his nose]. It's i n the toadstools, D o c t o r , sir, that's where i t is. D i d you ever see the shapes the toadstools make when they grow u p out of the earth? If only somebody could read what they say! Doctor. W o y z e c k , you have a most beautiful aberratio mentalis partialis of a secondary order! A n d so wonderfully developed! W o y z e c k , your salary is increased! Idee fixe of a secondary order, a n d w i t h a generally rational state. Y o u go about your business normally? Still shaving the Captain? Woyzecfe. Yes, sir. •, • Doctor. Y o u eat your peas? Wovzecfe. Just as always. Doctor, sir. M y wife gets the money for the household. Doctor. S t i l l i n the army? Woyzeck. Yes, sir, Doctor. Doctor. You're an interesting case. Patient W o y z e c k , you're to have an increase i n salary. So behave yourself!  T»fc*S •* * ' i O.L. o,fri*-w^ »*>»><tetit,  T*  H'^'  v  Let's feel the pulse. A h yes. •  ^  •  utv\ O H M A A M M H M eft"* \M»*l?ti*- ***** , VThtiPl Ou»CK\.V 0  F m t i  Kt'i cW-T  T ^ P i v»WlEt<  >  VOITH  CA**6 .  »i»>tU i T » e i ot* ^"fcu  ^'t ©»w»4tT*6.t  woVfctt*  VTfttTS l a L*%u&  v««<»tetK X\ —  STUM.  OWT»  To Deer**. ,  — — >*jo>ftetK. s x v r i Arttfr i  79.  SCENE I X ]  WOYZECK  119  SCENE V I I I — M A R I E ' S room D R U M M A J O R and M A R I E D R U M MAJOR. Marie! Marie [looking at him, with expression]. G o o n , show me h o w you m a r c h ! — C h e s t broad as a bull's and a beard like a l i o n ! There's n o t another m a n i n the world like that! A n d there's not a prouder w o m a n than me! Drum Major. W a i t till Sunday when I wear m y helmet w i t h the p l u m e and m y white gloves! D a m n , that'll be a sight for y o u ! T h e Prince always says: " M y G o d , there goes a real man(2 Marie [scoring]. H a ! [Goes toward him.] A man?_ Drum Major. Y o u ' r e not such a bad piece yourself! H e l l , we'll plot a whole brood of d r u m majors! Right? [He puts his arm around her.] Marie [annoyed]. L e t go! D r u m Major. B i t c h ! Marie [fiercely]. Y o u just touch m e ! Drum Major. There's devils i n your eyes. Marie. L e t there be, for all I care! W h a t ' s the difference!  V*iT%(t\  wJrtrt  ttk»«%  OftM»n w*:r©*. X'j To  L  IHt MIDtt Otkeoft RftMiMO fcfcClk. Wt »*TV M \ \ *a*t A M w O vteft. T« TAKt it . HMifc * \ To ttVUfro* LftvfeL. Slltm HlWJH tfcotftf W&*T K'\ vV*f TO ft**. , 4 » H K I ftlfcH'T ,  KlH  a\ t t k t t i T O t+t-a. T\» HMt * l f c * 0 *  H m 0*T  SCENE ix—Street CAPTAIN and DOCTOR. T H E CAPTAIN comes panting the street, stops; pants, looks about.  along  CAPTAIN. H O , D o c t o r , don't run so fast! D o n ' t paddle the air so w i t h your stick! Y o u ' r e only courting death that way! A good m a n w i t h a good conscience never walks as fast as that. A good m a n , . . [ H e catches him by the coat.] D o c t o r , permit me to save a h u m a n life! Doctor. I ' m i n a hurry, C a p t a i n , I ' m i n a hurry! Captain. Doctor, I ' m so melancholy. I have such fantasies. I start to cry every time I see m y coat hanging o n the wall. Doctor. H m ! Bloated, fat, thick neck: apoplectic constit u t i o n . Yes, C a p t a i n , you'll be having apoplexia cerebria  x't « . « .  T*tlUl  TO  * I H .  OtwMlTfcfr.fr TO  tfc»TfclN  *TufcWl  80.  120  GEORG BUCHNER  any time now. O f course you could have it o n only one side. I n w h i c h case y o u ' l l be paralyzed d o w n that one side. O r if things go really well you'll be mentally disabled so that you can vegetate away for the rest of your days. Y o u may look forward to something approximately like that w i t h i n the next four weeks! A n d , furthermore. I can assure you that you give promise of being a most interesti n g case. A n d if it is G o d ' s w i l l that only one half of your tongue become paralyzed, t h e n we w i l l conduct the most i m m o r t a l of experiments. Captain. D o c t o r , you mustn't scare me that way! People are said to have died of fright. O f pure, sheer fright. I can see them n o w with-lemons i n their hands. B u t they'll say: " H e was a good m a n , a good m a n . " Y o u devil's coffinnailmaker! Doctor [extending his hat toward him]. D o you k n o w who this is, Captain? T h i s is Sir H o l l o w h e a d , m y most honorable C a p t a i n Drilltheirassesoff! Captain [makes a series of folds in his sleeve]. A n d do you k n o w who this is, Doctor? T h i s is Sir M a n i f o l d , m y dear devil's coffinnail-maker! H a ! H a ! H a ! B u t no harm meant! I ' m a good m a n , b u t I can play, too, when I want to, Doctor, when I want to . . . W O Y Z E C K  fctHinb  TftKt-  H-»»-. T o  t»i»TMW«  p_r\  a*  *»%T  «M _ o _ T o f t i  pOCVoR  HAT •  o»* < * * * * .  «T*1.T_  F»*6 TO  LfcUCitt  comes toward them and tries to pass in a hurry.  Captain. H o ! W o y z e c k ! W h e r e are you off to i n such a hurry? Stay awhile, W o y z e c k ! R u n n i n g through the world like an open razor, you're liable to cut someone. H e runs as if he had to shave a castrated regiment and w o u l d be h u n g before he discovered and cut the longest hair that wasn't there. B u t on the subject of long beards . . . W h a t was i t I wanted to say? W o y z e c k , why was I t h i n k i n g about beards? Doctor. T h e wearing of long beards o n the c h i n , remarks P l i n y , is a habit of w h i c h soldiers must be broken Captain [continues]. A h , yes, this t h i n g about beards! T e l l me, W o y z e c k , have you found any long hairs from beards i n your soup b o w l lately? H o , I don't t h i n k he understands! A hair from a h u m a n face, from the beard of  WOHTKK  .TOPS tTuft**,.  81.  SCENE  IX]  WOYZECK  121  an engineer, a sergeant, a . . . a d r u m major? W e l l , W o y z e c k ? B u t then he's got a good wife. It's not the same as w i t h the others. Woyzeck. Yes, sir, C a p t a i n l W h a t was i t you wanted to say to me, C a p t a i n , sir? Captain. W h a t a face he's making! W e l l , maybe not i n his soup, but i f he hurries home around the corner I'll wager he might still find one on a certain pair of lips. A pair of lips, W o y z e c k . I k n o w what love is, too, W o y zeck. L o o k at h i m , he's white as chalk! Woyzeck. C a p t a i n , sir, I ' m just a poor devil. A n d there's n o t h i n g else I've got i n the world but her. C a p tain, sir, if you're just making a fool of me . . . Captain. A fool? M e ? M a k i n g a fool of you, W o y z e c k ? Doctor. Y o u r pulse. W o y z e c k , your pulse! Short, h a r d , skipping, irregular. Woyzeck. C a p t a i n , sir, the earth's hot as coals i n h e l l . B u t I ' m cold as ice, cold as ice. H e l l is cold. I ' l l bet y o u . I don't believe it! G o d ! G o d ! I don't believe i t ! Captain. L o o k here, you, how would you . . . h o w ' d y o u like a pair o f bullets i n your skull? Y o u keep stabbing at m e w i t h those eyes of yours, and I ' m only trying to help. Because you're a good m a n , W o y z e c k , a good m a n . Doctor. Facial muscles rigid, taut, occasionally twitches. C o n d i t i o n strained, excitable. Woyzeck. I ' m going. Anything's possible. T h e b i t c h ! Anything's p o s s i b l e . — T h e weather's nice, C a p t a i n , sir. L o o k , a beautiful, hard, gray sky. Y o u ' d almost like to p o u n d a nail i n up there and hang yourself on i t . A n d only because of that little dash between Yes and Yes again . . . and N o . C a p t a i n , sir: Yes and N o : d i d N o make Yes or Yes make N o ? I must think about that. He goes off with long strides, slowly at first, then and faster.  PoCTOtt. X'S  WR\T_ X**  TO  _  *»?VTM* TO. L.OtL  IK NOTtlO-K. , h».-6  X  &0_T»ft *'*  .  ""Aft,! TO  faster  Doctor [shouting after him]. Phenomenon! W o y z e c k , you get a raise! Captain. I get so dizzy around such people. L o o k at h i m go! Long-legged rascals like h i m step out like a shadow r u n n i n g away from its own spider. B u t short ones  A«->  T»  AMM.  •  82.  122  GEORG BUCHNER  only dawdle along. T h e long-legged ones are t h e lightning, the short ones the thunder. H a h a . . . Grotesque! Grotesque! SCENE x — M A R I E ' S room LiftiHT C u t ( »>} MftVS ON \T0«l. B X . C P U C u S t  W O Y Z E C K and M A R I E  shakes his head]. H m ! WOYZECK \looksfixedlyat her and I don't see it! I don't see it! M y Glod, o d , why can't 1 see i t , why can't I take i t i n m y fists! Marie [frightened]. F r a n z , what is i t ? — Y o u ' r e raving, Franz. Woyzecfc. A sin so swollen and b i g — i t stinks to smoke the angels out of Heaven! Y o u have a red m o u t h , M a r i e ! N o blisters o n it? M a r i e , you're beautiful as sin. H o w can mortal sin be so beautiful? Marie. F r a n z , it's your fever m a k i n g you talk this way! Woyzeck. D a m n you! Is this where he stood? L i k e this? L i k e this? Marie. W h i l e the day's long and the world's old a l o t of people can stand i n one spot, one right after the other. — W h y are y o u looking at m e so strange, F r a n z ! I ' m afraid! Woyzecfe. It's a nice street for walking, uh? Y o u could walk corns o n your feet! It's nice walking o n the street, going around i n society. Marie. Society? Woyzeck. A lot of people pass through this street here, don't they! A n d you talk to t h e m — t o whoever you w a n t — but that's not m y b u s i n e s s ! — W h y wasn't i t me! Marie. Y o u expect m e to tell people to keep off the streets—and take their mouths w i t h them when they leave? Woyzeck. A n d don't you ever leave your lips at home, they're too beautiful, i t would be a sin! B u t then I guess the wasps like to light o n them, uh? Marie. A n d what wasp stung you! Y o u ' r e like a c o w chased b y hornets! Woyzeck. I saw h i m ! Marie. Y o u can see a l o t w i t h two eyes while the sun shines!  -  w i . c . (SviO * \ To Vrtft  *wTfc*i  )£'S T>.u. Tu «•«-»*• £\  TO HrCk  - T I N * * *  *  VMS  Tw>fcW  83.  SCENE  Xi]  WOYZECK  123  . Woyzeck. W h o r e ! [ H e goes after her.] Marie. D o n ' t you touch me, F r a n z ! I ' d rather have a knife i n m y body than your hands touch m e . W h e n 1 looked at h i m , m y father d i d n ' t dare lay a h a n d o n me from the time I was ten Woyzecfe. W h o r e ! N o , i t should show o n y o u ! Something! Every man's a chasm. It makes you dizzy when you look d o w n i n . It's got to show! A n d she looks like innocence itself. So, innocence, there's a spot o n y o u . B u t I can't prove i t — ^ a n ' t prove it! W h o can prove it? [He goes off.  SCENE X I — T h e  To H%  Vtfr*.*_tcK. UfcT". OvO t L - U H - S  . w»n.bK  TO U.\..W.xT  M A f t . I V fc*»T tt.fc. »** R-ftCKowT C O * M b  guardhouse  CUV l b  ue»*r cu» nt»}  • . W O Y Z E C K and A N D R E S  ANDRES [sings]. ' i ; • . O u r hostess she has a pretty m a i d She sits i n her garden night a n d day She sits w i t h i n her garden . . . Woyzeck. Andres! ; : . .. Andres. H m ? ' f an Woyzeck. N i c e weather. • >• • Andres. Sunday weather.—They're playing music tonight outside the t o w n . A l l the whores are already there. T h e m e n stinking a n d sweating. W o n d e r f u l , uh? Woyzeck [restlessly]. They're dancing, Andres, they're dancing! Andres. Sure. So what? [Sings.] She sits w i t h i n her garden B u t when the bells have tolled T h e n she waits at her garden gate O r so the soldiers say. Woyzecfe. Andres, I can't keep quiet. Andres. Y o u ' r e a fool! Woyzecfe. I've got to go out there. It keeps t u r n i n g and turning i n m y head. They're dancing, dancing! W i l l she: have h o t hands, Andres? G o d d a m n her, Andres! G o d d a m n her! . Andres. W h a t do y o u want? Woyzecfe. I've got to go out there. I've got to see t h e m .  Av-Plt&s ou VT»6L VUA.&*tT NO0<meK0N Vto.cftY U . c t K i T  1  -  SO-MD  cue  n  84.  124  G E O R G BUCHNER  Andres. A r e n ' t you ever satisfied? W h a t ' s all this for a whore? Woyzeck. I've got to get out of here! I can't stand the heat!  SCENE x n — T h e The windows are open. Dancing. FIRST APPRENTICE  inn  LiftHT  cu*  A>JO*6\  Benches in front of the  (SCO *»H  M  inn. APPRENTICES  AEMCM . OatTen  [sings].  %fr«tH  T h i s shirt I've got o n , i t is not m i n e j A r i d m v soul i t stinketh of brandywine . . . SooonH Approntiod Brother, let me be a real friend and knock a hole i n your nature! Forward! I ' l l knock a hole i n his nature! H e l l , I ' m as good a m a n as he is; I ' l l k i l l every flea on his body! • • 1.. First Apprentice. M y soul, m y soul stinketh of brandyw i n e ! — A n d even money passeth i n t o decay! Forget me not, b u t the world's a beautiful place! Brother,- m y sadness could fill a barrel w i t h tears! I wish our noses were two bottles so we could pour t h e m down one another's throats. The Others [in chorus]. A hunter from the R h i n e O n c e rode through a forest so fine Hallei-hallo, he called to me F r o m h i g h on a meadow, open and free A hunter's life for me. ; at the window. M A R I E and T H E D R U M M A J O R dance past without noticing him.  WoYZECK/jfundj  Woyzeck. B o t h of them! G o d d a m n her! Marie [dancing past]. D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! Woyzeck [seats himself on the bench, trembling, as he looks from thoro through tho window]. L i s t e n ! L i s t e n ! H a , roll o n each other, roll and turn! D o n ' t stop, don't stop, she says! Idiot. P a h ! It stinks! Woyzecft. Yes, it stinks! H e r cheeks are red, red, why should she stink already? K a r l , what is i t you smell?  f.fc.  «OCL  t.t.  t . u . »p  I T f t w O i M G t . IOIOT O N LfrxfUS. KA^MH  &I.*M  MA;»H*  fc*T6n.\ w . u . • fet*t«.6t  tmitie T o  WITH  C»UWD Si*** $*t»«OMlet^. cut i a. (  U  TO  M  »  Pfcwtg.  »AvtU U . K . .  <*TH<< * VTUOtwT  85.  SCENE  Xii]  WOYZECK  125  Idiot. I smell, I smell b l o o d . Woyzeck. Blood? W h y are all things red that I look at now? W h y are they all rolling i n a sea of b l o o d , one on top of the other, t u m b l i n g , t u m b l i n g ! H a , the GQ_ ic — D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! [Ho etarts up passionately, then ginks down again onto tho bonoh.] D o n ' t otop! D o n ' t step! [Boating his hando togothor,] T u r n and roll and r o l l a n d turn! G o d , b l o w out tho oun and lot thorn roll on .aoh other i n thoir lechery! M a n and w o m a n and m a n and beast! T h e y ' l l do it i n the light of the sun! T h e y ' l l do i t i n the p a l m of your h a n d like flies! W h o r e ! T h a t whore's red as coals, red as coals! D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! [Jumps up.] W a t c h h o w the bastard takes h o l d of her! T o u c h i n g her body! He's h o l d i n g her now, h o l d i n g her . . . the way I held her once. [He slumps down in a stuporsFirst Apprentice [preaching from a table]. I say unto you, forget not the wanderer w h o standeth leaning against the stream of time, a n d w h o giveth himself answer w i t h the wisdom of G o d , and saith: W h a t is M a n ? W h a t is M a n ? Y e a , verily I say unto y o u : H o w should the farmer, the cooper, the shoemaker, the doctor, live, had not G o d created M a n for their use? H o w should the tailor l i v e h a d not G o d endowed M a n w i t h the need to slaughter himself? A n d therefore doubt ve not, for all things are lovely and sweet! Y e t the world w i t h all its things is an evil place, and even money passeth i n t o decay. I n conclusion, m y b e l o v . d brethren, let us piss once more upon the Cross so that somewhere a Jew w i l l die! Amid the general shouting and laughing WOYZECK wakens. PEOPLE are leaving the inn. Andres. W h a t are you doing there? Woyzeck. W h a t time is it? Andres. T e n . Woyzecfe. Is that all i t is? I t h i n k it should go faster— I want to t h i n k about it before night. Andres. W h y ? Woyzeck. So i t ' d be over. Andres. W h a t ? Woyzeck. T h e fun. Andres. W h a t are you sitting here by the door for?  o.t.  ****  ***  T  Cue XI All »WT AMt>ftH + vu«yx-«* t*»r AT t**b op ?oc»tA.  86.  126  GEORG BUCHNER  Woyzeck. Because i t feels good, and because I know—• a lot of people sit by doors, b u t they don't k n o w — t h e y don't k n o w t i l l they're dragged out of the door feet first. Andres. C o m e w i t h me! Woyzeck. It feels good here like t h i s — a n d even better if I laid myself down . . . Andres. There's b l o o d on your head. Woyzeck. In m y head, m a y b e . — I f they all knew what time it was they'd strip themselves naked and put o n a silk shirt and let the carpenter make their bed of wood shavings. — Andres. H e ' s drunk. Goes off with the  others.  Woyzeck. T h e w o r l d is out of order! W h y d i d the street-lamp cleaner forget to wipe m y eyes—everything's dark. D e v i l d a m n you, G o d ! I lay i n m y own way: jump over myself. W h e r e ' s m y shadow gone? There's n o safety i n the kennels any more. Shine the m o o n through m y legs again to see if m y shadow's here. [Sings.] E a t i n g , o h , eating the green green grass E a t i n g , o h , eating the green green grass T i l l all the grass was go-o-one. W h a t ' s that l y i n g over there? S h i n i n g like that? It's maki n g me look. H o w i t sparkles. I've got to have i t . [He rushes off.  vnvxfti  DOWN!  L.t&»T t u t a o t b )  UfcHT  C<*6  \\(A.)  i o * M i >  cue  ii.  Ll&HT  CUE  X\l\>)  SCENE x i n — A n open field WOYZECK  WOYZECK. D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! H i s h h ! H a s h h ! T h a t ' s how the fiddles and pipes g o . — D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! — S t o p your playing! W h a t ' s that talking down there? [He stretches out on the ground.] W h a t ? W h a t are you saying? W h a t ? Louder! Louder! Stab? Stab the goatbitch dead? Stab? Stab her? T h e goat-bitch dead? S h o u l d I? M u s t I? D o I hear i t there, too? Does the w i n d say so, too? W o n ' t i t ever stop, ever stop? Stab herl Stab her! Dead! Dead!  C C L £  U€>MT  cut  VPAA6  l^.  87.  WOYZECK  SCENE XV]  SCENE X I V — A room in the ANDRES and WOYZECK  127  barracks.  Night  WOYZECK [softly.] Andres! [ANDRES murmurs in his sleep. Shakes ANDRES.] Andres! H e y , Andres! Andres. M m m m m ! W h a t do you want? W o y z e c k . I can't sleep! W h e n I close m y eyes everything turns and turns. I hear voices i n the fiddles: D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! A n d then the walls start to talk. C a n ' t you hear it? Andres. Sure. L e t them dance! I ' m tired. G o d bless us all, A m e n . W o y z e c k . It's always saying: Stab! Stab! A n d then when I close m y eyes i t keeps shining there, a big, broad knife, on a table by a w i n d o w i n a narrow, dark street, and an old m a n sitting b e h i n d it. A n d the knife is always i n front of m y eyes. Andres. G o to sleep, you f o o l ! W o y z e c k . Andres! There's something outside. I n the ground. They're always p o i n t i n g to i t . D o n ' t you hear them now, listen, now, k n o c k i n g on the walls? Somebody must have seen m e out the w i n d o w . D o n ' t you hear? I hear i t all day l o n g . D o n ' t stop. Stab! Stab theAndres. L a y d o w n . Y o u ought to go to the hospital. T h e y ' l l give you a schnapps w i t h a powder i n i t . I t ' l l cut your fever. Woyzeck. D o n ' t stop! D o n ' t stop! Andres. G o to sleep! _  AMtfttt  H e goes back to sleep.  UtV*T  V - - V T . C I C O M T o o US-Mil ( M A K t * AMOUtt 0*4  &lftO\M.  D»—»** AO<A»— •  Sirs I A P  \*>0<<l6CK.  $ O _ M O  SCENE x v — T H E DOCTOR'S STUDENT, and  Z\  CUfc  in-a-bed.  Do—to  LI_»S  TURW$  O V M . .  t_6 cue  2.1  courtyard  WOVEECK below, T H E DOCTOR in—4he attic window.  DOCTOR. G e n t l e m e n , I find myself on the roof like D a v i d when he beheld Bathsheba. B u t all I see are the Parisian panties of the girls' boarding school drying i n the garden.  _*»T6-«_S Avst? 2. T O ttHTfte VTA6,. . &A*i_,$ Ch-wt  ' P o * . Sl_fc*»C*  88.  128  GEORG BOCHNER  G e n t l e m e n , we are concerned w i t h the weighty question of the relationship of the subject to the object. If, for example, we were to take one of those innumerable things i n w h i c h we see the highest manifestation of the selfaffirmation of the G o d h e a d , and examine its relationship to space, t o t h e earth, a n d t o t h e planetary^constellations . . . G e n t l e m e n , if we were to take 4b» cat a n d toss i t out the window: h o w would this object conduct itself i n conformity with its o w n instincts towards its centrum gravitationis? W e l l , Woyaeol;7 [P.oory.] Woyzeck!_ •Woygoofe [pioho up tho cat]. Doctor, sir, she's b i t i n g me! Doctor. D a m n , why do you handle tho beast co tenderly! It's not your grandmother! [Ha descends.] Woyzeck. Doctor, I ' m shaking. . Doctor [utterly delighted]. Excellent, W o y z e c k , excellent! [Rubs his hands, takes the ent ] W h a t ' s this, gentlemen? T h e new species of rabbit louse! A beautiful species . . . [Ho pulls out a magnifying glaee; tho eat runs off.] A n i m a l s , gentlemen, simply have no scientific instincts. B u t i n its place you may see something else. N o w , observe: for three months this m a n has eaten n o t h i n g b u t peas. N o t i c e the effect. Feel h o w irregularly his pulse beats! A n d look at his eyes! $HH#* Woyzeck. Doctor, sir, everything's going dark! [He sttsdown.] • ' -• _ Doctor. Courage, W o y z e c k ! A few more days and then it w i l l a l l be over w i t h . F e c i , gentlemen, fool! [Thoy fumble over hie tomploo, puloo, and ohooti] Doctor. .Apropos. W o y z e c k , wiggle your ears for the gentlemen! I've meant to show you this before. H e uses only two muscles. Let's go, let's go! Y o u stupid a n i m a l , shall I wiggle them for you? T r y i n g to run out o n us like tho cat? There you are, gentlemen! Here y o u see an example of the transition into a donkey: frequently the result of being raised b y women and of a persistent usage of the G e r m a n i c language. H o w m u c h hair has your mother pulled out recently for sentimental remembrances of you? It's become so t h i n these last few days. It's the peas, gentlemen, the peas!  fr*JO v.6-0.0 wo'rtKit  *»«w*etc pOCToft.  US  Sin  Tf\PS  N*»ITM  utoec .  CftrtC  S\TJ • TfcltS T o  . t\ T o  Ce**T*fc STRAfc ,  Tuft^S To  H»VA .  *>0><tVcit FAttt ©v#>t.  fcKiTS A-ISLE X U & H T Cue iCCo.")  SCENE  XVl]  WOYZECK  SCENE X V I \  129  e inn  WOYZECK. T H E SERGEANT  /  [sings]. . / \ Oh, daughter, my daughter / \ And didn't you know / \ That sleeping with coachmen / \ Would bring you low? / What is it that our Good Lord God caniwt do? What? He cannot make what is done undone./xla! Hal Ha!— But that's the \ay it is, and that's the/vay it should be. But.to make things better is to make/things better. And a respectable rnan\pves his life, and/a man who loves his life has no courage\and a virtuousAnan has no courage. A man with courage\s a dirty dpg. Sergeant [with dignity]. Youjre forgetting yourself in the presence of a brave Yian. / Woyzeck. I wasn't talking about anybody, I wasn't talking about anything, noMike the Frenchmen do when they talk, but it was goad\pi you.—But a man with courage is a dirty dog. / \ ' Sergeant. Damn yony You b\oken mustache cup! You watch or I'll see youyflrink a pat of your own piss and swallow your own raaor! \  WOYMCK  Woyzeck. Sir, you do yourself arlVnjustice! Was it you  I talked about? Did I say you had couWe? Don't torment me, sir! My name is science. Every weadk for my scientific career I get half a guilder. You mustn\ cut me in two or I'll go hungry. I'm a Spinosa pericyclia\\ have a Latin behind. I am a living skeleton. All ManknWl studies me. —What is Man? Bones! Dust, sand, duW. What is Nature? JOust, sand, dung. But poor, stupid Man, stupid Man! We must be friends. If only you had r\ courage, there j^ould be no science. Only Nature, no ambulation, no atticulation. What is this? Woyzeck's arrr\ flesh, bones, veins. What is this? Dung. Why is it rootled in dvmg? Must I cut off my arm? No, Man is selfish, he beats, shoots, stabs his own kind. [He sobs.] We must be  130  GEORG BUCHNER ids. 1 wish our noses were two bottles t h a t _ place her's throats world! [Moved.], -like G o d  pour the world is! L o o k ! T h e si empty  5edpan o n the world.  [He  cries.  SCENE x v i i — T h e barracks yard  UGHT Cut 1 5 ( O  WOYZECK. ANDRES WOYZECK. W h a t have y o u heard? Andres. H e ' s still inside w i t h a friend. Woyzeck. H e said something. Andres. H o w do y o u know? W h y d o I have to be the one to tell you? W e l l , he laughed a n d then he said she was some piece. A n d then something or other about her t h i g h s — a n d that she was h o t as a red poker. Woyzecfe [quite coldly]. So, he said that? W h a t was that I dreamed about last night? A b o u t a knife? W h a t stupid dreams we get!. Andres. H e y , friend! W h e r e y o u off to? Woyzecfe. G e t some wine for the C a p t a i n . Andres, y o u k n o w something? There aren't many girls like she was. Andres. L i k e w h o was? [Goes off. Woyzecfe. N o t h i n g . I ' l l see y o u .  nftcc*fc\  fit.evti.'i  S.R.  turret.* * \ u e * A N O cAotjts Wi*T to A»»DMt.  A* Me Tun**t  *TA,fcTJ T» L6*si6 M AftCritM&t - $ T » K ANO T«A*»l HARtHMC  fc^Hl  X  **»TS  li*»T Cuff 1 * ( O  SCENE X V I I I — T h e inn  towND tufr I C D R U M M A J O R , WOYZECK, and PEOPLE D R U M M A J O R . I ' m a m a n ! [He pounds his chest.] A m a n , you hear? A n y b o d y say different? A n y b o d y who's n o t as crocked as the L o r d G o d H i m s e l f better keep off. I ' l l screw his nose u p his o w n ass! I ' l l . . . [ T o WOYZECK.] Y o u there, get drunk! I wish the world was schnapps, schnapps! Y o u better start drinking! [WOYZECK whistles.] Son-of-a-bitch, y o u want me to p u l l your tongue out a n d wrap i t around your middle? [They wrestle; WOYZECK loses.] Y o u want I should leave enough w i n d i n y o u for a good o l d lady's fart? U h ! [Exhausted and trembling, WOYZECK seats himself on the bench.] T h e son-of-a-bitch  Oft***  WAJfttL ftM 1T0M. K.IMHV, ttuelHT OkMtMOVUT*** CAPUlW OkATttUEO ftlMUMO HIH ,<Mft«*tS4IS (iniMA <.L. ON ttvltL, ftMOMt ftVa.L.  U.ft. ou WIMU..  -  * ' $  *>BH«VJ6  ^ u H f i  -  vMOVlltt. AUb  u r n .  X . I *><<fcT TO DWDNfTfcN. T * * S TH»T OftwJN C t w i l l «.R.  STtlN.  SCENE  xx]  WOYZECK  131  can whistle himself blue i n the face for all I care. [Sings.] Brandy's all m y life, m y life Brandy gives me courage! A Man^ H e sure got more than he asked for. IhcT: He's bleeding. r* Woyzeck. O n e t h i n g after another.*  PACfcS U&ttT  A " . A. w 6 V l I t K., CUB tl  (*. ")  A STM-T SCENE X I X — P a w n b r o k e r ' s  shop  U&HT cu« It ( p'i  WOYZECK and T H E JEW WOYZECK. T h e pistol costs t o o - m u c h . Jew. So you want it or not? M a k e up your m i n d . Woyzeck. H o w m u c h was the knife? Jew. It's straight and sharp. W h a t do you want it for? T o cut your throat? So what's the matter? Y o u get it as cheap here as anywhere else. Y o u ' l l die cheap enough, b u t not for n o t h i n g . W h a t ' s the matter? I t ' l l be a cheap death. W o y z e c k . T h i s ' l l cut more than bread. Jew. T w o groschen. ; W o y z e c k . There! [ H e goes out. Jew. T h e r e , h e says! L i k e i t was n o t h i n g ! A n d it's real money!—Dog! '. '  "TO SP-T. .TAK6* ******  fc*»T. f\t<% txiT. iiftHT  cue  \t  LiatfT  cue  a»C»0  MftfciE  ou STOOL  WITH  CHIld  to* wo cue  SCENE x x — M A R I E ' S r o o m T H E IDIOT. T H E C H I L D . M A R I E IDIOT [lying down, telling fairy tales on his fingers]. This one has the golden crown. He's the L o r d K i n g . T o m o r r o w I ' l l b r i n g the L a d y Queen her c h i l d . Bloodsausage says: C o m e , Liversausage . . . Marie  [paging  through  her  Bible].  "And  AtVtt v-toweV U P A i . . . Z.  no  guile  is  found i n his m o u t h . " L o r d G o d , L o r d G o d ! D o n ' t look at me! [Paging further.] " A n d the Scribes and Pharisees brought unto h i m a woman taken i n adultery, and set her i n the midst . . . A n d Jesus said unto her: N e i t h e r do I c o n d e m n thee; go, and sin no more." [Striking her hands together.] L o r d G o d ! L o r d G o d ! I can't. L o r d G o d , give me only so m u c h strength that I may pray. [ T H E C H I L D  CO  B . C OF  _e»eL  132  GEORG BUCHNER  brasses himself closo to har,] T h e c h i l d is a sword i n m y heart. [ T o T H E IDIOT.] K a r l ! — I ' v e strutted i t i n the light of the sun, like the whore I a m — m y sin, m y sin! [ T H E IDIOT takes T H E C H I L D and grows quiet.] F r a n z hasn't come. N o t yesterday. N o t today. It's getting h o t i n here! [She opens tho window and roads further.] " A n d stood athis feet weeping, a n d began to wash his feet w i t h tears, and d i d wipe t h e m w i t h the hairs of her head, a n d anointed them w i t h o i n t m e n t . " [Striking her breast] Everything dead! Saviour! Saviour! If only I m i g h t anoint Y o u r feet! SCENE x x i — A n open field WOYZECK WOYZECK [buries the knife in a hole]. T h o u shalt n o t k i l l . L a y here! I can't stay h e r e ! . [He rushes off.  x'» -t*r v>  TO.-T  Mfr»_'l  CVUwfc.  ft»ft.*T  -vtAO.it  -  ANDRES. WOYEECK rummages through his belongings. WOYZECK. Andres, this jacket's n o t part of the u n i f o r m , b u t you can use i t , Andres. Andres [replies numbly to almost everything with]. Sure. Woyzecfe. T h e cross is m y sister's. A n d the ring. Andres. Sure. Woyzecfe. I've got a H o l y Picture, t o o : two h e a r t s — they're real gold. I found i t i n m y mother's B i b l e , a n d it said: O L o r d w i t h wounded head so sore So may m y heart be evermore. M y mother only feels n o w when the sun shines o n h e r hands . . . that doesn't matter. . Andres. Sure. Woyzeck [pulls out a paper]. Friedrich Johann F r a n z W o y z e c k . Soldier. R i f l e m a n , Second Regiment, Second Battalion, F o u r t h C o m p a n y . B o r n : the Feast of the A n nunciation, twentieth of July. T o d a y I ' m thirty years o l d . seven months a n d twelve days.. Andres. G o to the hospital, F r a n z . Poor guy, you've  fctM.t  CHlWD d f t C I t  O f c C t t 0©o»*»*TAt»_. P.-TUAMV TO WOOL * t t U  -C-oSfrf %>fU£ - $TfttlDI LiftKT Cut X«) _0UMD  C\At  1*  U6.Hr  tut  Vo  tMTtRt All-* X, To LtMtL  u.ft.  K*»ft6H TO R v i M KNlFtf  tMTJ At tit * Ltfc.*T  SCENE XXII—The barracks  no.*** ,r»»»*e»t  TO 0..C0W. I T .  CMfe l i t ( • - }  I O U M O cue  n  t.l«k»T Cut \\ (b>)  ftWlOf-t!,  $|T*  » » _ l t . l l - _  U . f t . O M  u.vtL  \0OT_  .wTtft.. u>b. AM*(lUo-itjivftt OM STOOL .A X\Mt TO &»«E ^*.t-.^T.^^lMW. ,  L*«TTO  ITIOL  yCifc>S>»TT O _,»\>. THih 1»»K> »ACH TO <T00L Jt*S  6»»*N.TAft6 O M LWtL.  ftfcTuM4.  To iTOOt  X'V b«-M C.MTtO. O O P Lt.CU A w » R.0A O S . t»t,oPl ^ A M A , - ANOWS  P»tK.. IT U?  SCENE  xxni]  WOYZECK  133  got to drink some schnapps with a powder i n i t . I t ' l l k i l l the fever. Woyzeck. Y o u know. A n d r e s — w h e n the carpenter puts those boards together, nobody knows w h o it's made for._  To M..C.fefcvT• T U L N ^ I M  SCENE x x n i — T h e street M A R I E with little CIRLS in front of the house door. GRANDMOTHER. Later WOYZECK  W-HWO..  UftMT CUfc Jl(fc") HMO)INC, . X  u.c.  • G I R L S [singing].  "The sun shone bright o n Candlemas D a y A n d the corn was all i n b l o o m A n d they marched along the meadow way T h e y marched b y two and two. T h e pipers marched ahead T h e fiddlers followed through A n d their socks were scarlet red . . . First Child. I don't like that one. Second Child. W h y d o you always want to be different? First Child. You sing for us, M a r i e ! . Marie. I can't. Second Child. W h y ? ' ' ' Marie. Because. Sef.ojid CJiild. B u t why because? Tmrd Child. G r a n d m o t h e r , you tell us a story! Grandmother. A l l right, y o u little crab a p p l e s ! — O n c e u p o n a time there was a poor little girl who h a d n o father and n o mother. Everyone was dead, and there was n o one left i n the whole wide world. Everyone was dead. A n d the little girl went out and looked for someone night and day. A n d because there was n o one left o n the earth, she wanted t o go to Heaven. A n d the m o o n looked down so friendly at her. A n d when she finally got to the m o o n , it was a piece of rotten wood. A n d so she went to the sun, a n d i t was a faded sunflower. A n d when she got to the stars, they were little golden flies, stuck u p there as i f they were caught i n a spider's web. A n d when she wanted to go back to earth, the earth was a n upside-down p o t . A n d she was a l l alone. A n d she sat down there a n d she cried. A n d she sits there to this day, a l l , a l l alone. :  • K't  To  S.fc.  natt.it Moves T O fcx-'T ctttwoMN t t T , CAnuonot*** K's To Twew  fVOV*«  -K'S  UPVTft*c  fcoww  utrr  »oyt*CK *»a*fc*  VifcMftt tv&trr  OP  \ + itv>iLt.  |  94.  GEORG BUCHNER  134  Woyzeck [appears]. M a r i e ! Marie [startled]. W h a t ! Woyzeck. Let's go. It's getting time. Marie. W h e r e to? Woyzeck. H o w should I know?_ SCENE x x i v — A pond  by the edge of the woods  M A R I E and W O Y Z E C K  M A R I E . T h e n the town must be out that way. It's so dark. Woyzeck. Y o u can't go yet. C o m e , sit down. Marie. B u t I've got to get back. Woyzecfe. Y o u don't want to r u n your feet sore. Marie. W h a t ' s happened to you? Woyzecfe. Y o u know h o w long it's been, M a r i e ? Marie. T w o years from Pentecost. Woyzeck. Y o u k n o w h o w m u c h longer i t ' l l last? Marie. I've got to get back. Supper's n o t made yet. W o y z e c k . A r e you freezing, M a r i e ? A n d still you're so warm. Y o u r lips are hot as coals! H o t as coals, the h o t breath of a whore! A n d still I ' d give u p Heaven just to kiss t h e m again. A r e you freezing? W h e n you're cold through, y o u w o n ' t freeze any more. T h e m o r n i n g dew won't freeze y o u . Marie. W h a t are you talking about? Woyzeck. N o t h i n g . [Silence.] Marie. L o o k h o w red the m o o n is! It's rising. Woyzeck. L i k e a k n i f e washed i n b l o o d . Marie. W h a t are you going to do? F r a n z , you're so pale. [ H e raises the knife.]  Marie.  •  ufrrr  -TAKE*  (UHINQ  weft.  M%(t f\lr\  CHIU>*fr»4 t * l T ftiSiC I L14wT CM.B "i-KO SOU.W& CviE lo U*v»T cue 3 3 Cb) ENTSfc t To L M L J SITS S.fc. O N L f c v t u  .V's To  H I M  S T A N D S W V A Y J H I V *«W"it A * 0 « M O  TMfrt T O KISS HtB. . t » t (T*W S&itS . ( s a E A t t l D O W N STAO.I VdOVtttK HOC P i Heft  flftfl  F r a n z ! Stop! F o r Heaven's sake! H e l p me! H e l p  me! Woyzeck [stabbing madly]. There! T h e r e ! W h y can't you die? There! There! H a , she's still shivering! Still not dead? S t i l l not dead? S t i l l shivering? [Stabbing at her_ again.] A r e you dead? D e a d ! D e a d ! [He drops the knife and runs away.  Two  M E N approach,  First Man. W a i t ! Second Man. Y o u hear something? S h h ! Over there!  SHE. PA.llS • *t FALLS o*i TOP OF rtbft , STAftMUG, STA*« H I * MTv»etN Ll&S . <ti*N*  0*T  U^HT  Cue  VOltcS  A.ISC6  \  $<!<•.)  Cft.O»? PjfrH-iWO  hub.frwCS  135  WOYZECK  SCENE XXV]  First Man. W h h h ! Second Man. It's  There! W h a t a sound! the water, it's calling. It's a l o n g time since anyone drowned here. Let's go! I don't like hearing such sounds! First Man. W h h h ! T h e r e it is again! L i k e a person, dying! Second Man. It's uncanny! So foggy, n o t h i n g but gray mist as far as you can see—and the h u m of beetles like broken bells. Let's get out of here! First Man. N o , it's too clear, it's too l o u d ! Let's go u p  this way! C o m e on!  SCENE  [They hurry on.  $ O U M »  *»/nrt» PEOPLE  WOYZECK. D a n c e ! Everybody! D o n ' t stop! Sweat and stink! H e ' l l get you all i n the end! [Sings.] O h , daughter, m y daughter A n d didn't you know T h a t sleeping w i t h coachmen , W o u l d b r i n g you low? [He dances.] H o , K a t h y ! Sit d o w n ! I ' m so hot, so hot! [Tahoc off his eoat,] That's the way it is: the devil takes one and lets the other get away. K a t h y , you're hot as coals! W h y , tell me why? K a t h y , you'll be cold one day, too. B e reasonable.—Can't you sing something?  Kathy [sings].  cue  \"U  Ufl»»r cuft  xxv—The inn  W O Y Z E C K , K A T H Y , INNKEEPER, IDIOT, and  l\  -SouMO c u t  >  T h a t Swabian l a n d I cannot bear A n d dresses long I w i l l not wear F o r dresses l o n g and pointed shoes A r e clothes a chambermaid never should choose. Woyzeck. N o shoes, no shoes! W e can get to hell without shoes.  Vt^O  VTUO.UT  o % M t 6 S.u.  Qo_r-«. • A . M D - B I OA.lMM.iMfc - _ V » l . AOMtCNTIC. t_«<STO»L O.U. OF LEvHw,. l o i o r M l . W O W H l N \ t i t • ClTJ u. o. . >ultt6l « i T u o t M T -  oOrMCEV CtNTO.fr W W * KAT*{  .  S«r« O M vroou K.VtH<4 O M H>V l-A», Pu*Mt- HO*. O * * $ T U t l M l fcXlTS U.O.. "bHWCfc*  iM T«t_+»T ©F  — OTX_ e< ,  >  Kathy [sings]. T o such and like I ' l l not be prone T a k e back your gold and sleep alone. Woyzeck. Sure, sure! W h a t do I want to get all bloody for? Kathy. T h e n what's that on your hand?  Woyzeck. M e ? M e ?  . p A U C t t fcfctnw© HlH TO W,6*T - SOViM- CUt .%\  O0MJMMA-* •TuftMt  136  GEORG BUCHNER  Kathy. R e d ! It's b l o o d ! [PEOPLE gather round him.] Woyzeck. Blood? Blood? Innkeeper. B l o o d ! . Woyzeck. I t h i n k I cut myself. Here, on m v right h a n d . Innkeeper. T h e n w h y is there blood o n your elbow? Woyzecfe. I wiped i t off. Innkeeper. Y o u r right hand a n d you wiped i t o n your right elbow? Y o u ' r e a smart one!. Idiot. A n d then the G i a n t said: " I smell, I smell the flesh of M a n . " Pew, i t stinks already! Woyzeck. W h a t do y o u want from me? Is i t your business? O u t of m y way or the first one who . _. . D a m n you! D o I look l i k e I murdered somebody? D o I look like a murderer? W h a t are you looking at? L o o k at yourselves! L o o k ! O u t of m y way! [He runs off.  i SCENE x x v i — A t the pond WOYZECK, alone. WOYZECK. T h e knife! W h e r e ' s the knife? I left i t here. I t ' l l give m e away! Closer! A n d closer! W h a t is this place? W h a t ' s that noise? Something's moving! It's quiet n o w . — I t ' s got to be here, close t o her. M a r i e ? H a , M a r i e ! Q u i e t . Everything's quiet! W h y are you so pale, M a r i e ? W h y are y o u wearing those red beads around your neck? W h o was i t gave you that necklace for sinning w i t h h i m ? Y o u r sins made y o u black, M a r i e , they made you black! D i d I make y o u so pale? W h y is your hair uncombed? D i d y o u forget to twist your braids today? T h e knife, the knife! I've got i t ! There! [He runs toward the water.] T h e r e , i n t o the water! [He throws the knife into the water.] It dives like a stone i n t o the black water. N o , it's n o t out far enough for when they swim! [Ho wados into tho pond and throws it out farther.] There! N o w ! B u t i n the summer when they dive for mussels? H a , i t ' l l get rusty, w h o ' l l ever notice i t ! W h y d i d n ' t I break i t first! A m I still bloody? I've got to wash myself. There, there's a spot, a n d there's another . . . [He goes farther out into the water.]  C(Lo<**D W*u$ttl !_©«>*«. LfruAltl  CA.0V>©  U O A B f c f t ,  Uie\*r tuft M u&»T cu& "it. (©) - &NtE*.i ts\Ul To + fc'jTOLtviElJ (.SKftvui. O N uEMEty  INTO  t**"**  * P °  T  U6.HT c u e SklhOSV OtMlNtTA.&t M&MT Cu£ \9 • Wltslfct **©»"\ SC*k»t I o. RHltJ  ftlAtK * fc*\tl MMOS v>we** J5»C0Ml v\o»» iN-teulS. » A N © »A.AV*> W O O V ^ C C I N T © «JAT|ft,. v/otCES fA0£. wo VIE tit t H A M O $>viC.V N T © I N  I H T O  vifcwT.  INATE*.  ON  * Y o u ' l l DittHtAP,  ftu.T K40T f O f t . N.OTmNfc*  U$»T SOUN©  C u e \} cue  CuR.TA)N «-*6>*T C u t H ©  ci6\*T c u t <ti 5 © U N O cue  ua»r  CUE*  \U * V L ; HOUSE  up  SCENE XXIX]  137  WOYZECK  SCENE XXVII- Thc Btroct  ST\Ut \ M T U t l u d  CHILDREN-  VHOVMT  FIRST C i g t e . Let's go find M a r i e ! tUd. W h a t happened? 4. D o n ' t you know? Everybody's out there, a body! 04. W h e r e ? mdx B y the p o n d , out i n the woods. •kU4. H u r r y , so we can still see something. Before they b r i n g i t back [They rush off.  N.  SCENE X X V I I I — I n N.  front  of M A R I E ' S house  IDIOT. C H I L D . WOYZECK.  tlUAtt.S iM  STubtvif  U . R . fc*»T TO  ftoTK &WT  <*1*i  u.R .  / /  IDIOT [hoRKng T H E C H I L D o n his knee, pohtts to W O Y ZECK as he enters]. L o o k y there, he fell j j j t h e water, h e fell i n the w a t e r ^ e fell i n the w a t e r ! / Woyzeck. B o y ! C h r i s t i a n ! / Idiot [looks at himjiqedly]. H e fell i n the water. Woyzeck [wanting to\m}/face T H E C H I L D tenderly, but it turns from him andPsor^ams]. M y G o d ! M y G o d ! Idiot. H e fell i n t h e a t e r . N. Woyzecfe. I ' l l buy you a h o r ^ y , C h r i s t i a n . There, there. [ T H E Canto pulls away. To t n S s j D i O T ] . Here, buy the boy a horsey! [ T H E IDIOT stares athim.] Hop! Hop! H i p - h o p , h<Jrsey! >1 Idioi/\shouting joyously]. H o p ! H o p ! Hip-nSrx horsey! HipjJfop, horsey! /  r  He runs off with  T H E C H I L D . WOYZECK is  SCENE XXIX  aloner\^  1  JUDGE, COURT CLERK, POLICEMAN, CAPTAIN, DocTon, DnuM M A J O R , SEnoEAwrr, IDIOT, and others. WOYEECK vOCTOO.  POLICEMAN. W h a t a murder! A good, genuine, beautiful  DOCTOR. VTAO,*  STfcWcS ACfcofS VfcOVt  AWe  fe*»Ti  THIS  LIME  Avf.E P,iUE  a. J  ou  98.  138  GEORG BUCHNER  murder! Beautiful a murder as y o u could hope for! 4t% been a long time since we had one like this!  '.  stands in their midot, dumbly looking at the body of M A M E ; ho ie bound, tho dogmatic atheist, tall, haggard, timid, good naturod, ooiontifie. WOYZECK  B ^ * ^ ' " * C  <  T  e o  s  t  6  v  ,  e  r  SCENE ANALYSIS Scene I The purpose of t h i s scene i s to e s t a b l i s h the relationship of Woyzeck and the Captain and to reveal character.  Besides, i t provides the opportunity to  show Woyzeck with a type of knife i n h i s hand from the very beginning and shows how he operates under a certain set of circumstances. Woyzeck i s busy at h i s regular task of shaving the Captain.  He i s i n a hurry, concentrating on h i s job  and i s unable to both work and l i s t e n .  The Captain  speaks i n a philosophical vein p a r t l y to hear himself t a l k and p a r t l y to impress Woyzeck with h i s supposed erudition.  Woyzeck's e f f i c i e n t rush contrasts sharply  with the Captain's t i m e - f i l l i n g  ramblings.  Noticing that Woyzeck i s not l i s t e n i n g , and wishing to get a confirmatory r i s e out of him, the Captai takes great pleasure i n using a simple verbal joke to humiliate him. The Captain feels he i s a good man with a good conscience,and as Woyzeck's superior i n s t r u c t him i n matters of morality.  he should  He i s no doubt  t r y i n g to impress Woyzeck with b i t s of knowledge he has picked up from the Chaplain and the Doctor.  100.  Woyzeck, on the other hand, knows h i s Bible well and i s able to j u s t i f y h i s c h i l d out of wedlock with a quotation. Woyzeck interrupts h i s shaving to explain i n a garbled fashion that poor people cannot afford to have morals.  This establishes the economic hierarchy of  the play and underlines the fact that because the Captain has money and therefore v i r t u e he can r e s i s t h i s natural impulses and f i l l h i s time v i r t u o u s l y .  At the end of  the scene, Woyzeck rushes o f f to another task. mood of t h i s scene i s s l i g h t l y strained. feels i t i s necessary  The  The Captain  to t a l k , while Woyzeck i s only  interested i n getting on with the job, thus t h e i r rhythms c o n f l i c t with each other. Scene II In contrast to the bright confined space and hurried pace of the f i r s t scene, t h i s scene finds Woyzeck i n the f i e l d s near sundown c u t t i n g twigs with his friend Andres.  Andres whistles happily as he  bundles the wood and Woyzeck wanders i n with a few sticks/Only s l i g h t l y concerned with h i s task.  Woyzeck  launches i n t o a story about hedgehogs to amuse and perhaps frighten Andres but soon begins to believe i t himself and see i t as part of a conspiracy on the part of the Freemasons.  Andres now sings to reassure  101.  himself, but Woyzeck suddenly hears something the ground.  under  Andres, who hears nothing, l i s t e n s a  moment and then sings more loudly to prevent h i s growing fear.  Woyzeck again hears something and i t becomes  clear that he i s h a l l u c i n a t i n g .  Andres, who understands  only that the place has affected h i s f r i e n d , trembles with fear and t r i e s to run away.  Suddenly Woyzeck stops.  All  i s s i l e n t again u n t i l Andres hears the drums of the regiment i n the distance and they run o f f to join the parade. The purpose of t h i s scene i s to show Woyzeck at work with an equal.  The scene begins with a relaxed  and whimsical q u a l i t y which suddenly becomes very strange, punctuated by bursts of feverish a c t i v i t y , then dead silence and l i s t e n i n g .  The scene establishes the f i r s t  signs of a f e r t i l e imagination and aberration i n Woyzeck, and contrasts him sharply with h i s simple friend Andres who i s happy when h i s hands are busy and who expresses almost a l l of h i s f e e l i n g through song. Scene I I I II  Buchner meant t h i s scene to take place i n Marie's room but i t was played i n the town square to e s t a b l i s h the townspeople's attitude towards Marie and to underline Woyzeck's fatigue as he performs military d r i l l .  102.  The f i r s t unit of the scene shows the enthusiasm for  a parade and establishes the f i r s t sign of a t t r a c t i o n  between Marie and the Drum Major.  The mood of the  scene i s one of general gaiety amid the s l i g h t l y v i c i o u s , gossipy banter of the townsfolk.  Marie stands out as  being secure and proud of her c h i l d i n spite of her s i n . In the second u n i t , a f t e r the parade passes, Marie spends a quiet moment singing to her c h i l d u n t i l an urgent knock on her window interrupts her .  The  purpose of t h i s unit i s to show Woyzeck t r y i n g to explain his of  v i s i o n i n the f i e l d s and r e l a t e i t to his knowledge the Bible.  Marie, i n contrast, i s interested i n  knowing that he has done h i s jobs f o r extra money to support her and the c h i l d and i s extremely impatient with yet another of h i s fantasies. off  When he dashes  to r e j o i n h i s regiment, h i s mood has affected her,  and she, l i k e Andres i n the preceding scene, begins to  fear the approaching darkness and the confinement  of her room.  Now,  even singing to her c h i l d gives  no comfort. Scene IV This scene brings a complete change of mood to the play.  There i s an atmosphere of heavy c a r n i v a l  gaiety, a confusion of sound and colour l i g h t i n g up the  darkness.'  The people are happy and fascinated,  103.  and Marie and Woyzeck are enjoying t h i s simple pleasure. A new element i s introduced when the Charlatan appears to advertise the attractions of a p a r t i c u l a r booth. This part of the scene was used to reinforce the dream q u a l i t y of the play by using an actress i n a s o l d i e r s u i t to play the monkey.  The Charlatan's speech underlines  the fact that the monkey can perform a l l the functions of a s o l d i e r , but he i s momentarily embarrassed and angry when the monkey f a i l s to respond to a command. While Woyzeck t r i e s to take advantage of the assembled crowd to t e l l them a l i t t l e story, Marie and the Drum Major begin to take notice of each other i n the background.  Most of the crowd pays no attention  to Woyzeck but wanders i n t o the booth. Doctor finds the story "grotesque".  Only the This l i n e i s  given to a gentleman i n the o r i g i n a l , but because the Doctor f i t s i n t o that s o c i a l category and because the remark suits him, i t was changed.  I t i s worth noting  that despite the tremendous number of B i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n s which Woyzeck uses throughout the play, he claims to be an atheist i n this scene.  I t i s implied  by h i s  remarks that a world without God i s indeed grotesque. There was a staging d i f f i c u l t y with the t r a n s i t i o n from t h i s scene to the next.  Scene IV i s  the e x t e r i o r of a booth and Scene V i s the i n t e r i o r .  104.  With a revolve t h i s change would be simple to accomplish, but i t was  somewhat awkwardly solved on t h i s stage by  having the crowd e x i t through one door, changing the l i g h t i n g while they were offstage and having them enter the new scene through the other e x i t . Scene V This scene i s almost an exact p a r a l l e l and amplification of the Charlatan's speech i n the previous scene.  This was underlined by having the same actor  play the Proprietor and the same actress play the horse. The purpose of the scene i s to again show a trained animal acting l i k e a human but suddenly reacting instinctively.  A further point of emphasis was  the  master-slave r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a i n e r and animal and the cruelty necessary to enforce t h i s . This scene i s a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the previous one: the human-reason, animal-instinct p o l a r i t i e s are more c l e a r l y defined and Marie and the Drum Major are brought closer together. Both of these scenes are extremely important i n that they bear oblique reference to the s o c i a l hierarchy of the town and to s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such as that between Woyzeck and the Captain.  105.  Scene VI This scene i s a sharp contrast to the crowds, noise and gaiety of the previous  two scenes.  In the  f i r s t unit of t h i s scene Marie i s i n her room with her c h i l d impatiently t r y i n g to get him to sleep so she can preen i n front of her mirror. 'plot  1  This i s also the f i r s t  scene, as i t implies through the earrings that  Marie has s l e p t with the Drum Major and accepted his g i f t . The mood of t h i s unit alternates between Marie's annoyance with the c h i l d and her exuberant vanity the mirror.  before  I t also established her poverty and  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with a few meagre possessions. Although the c h i l d i n Buchner's play i s obviously two or three years o l d , an attempt was made to promote the dream q u a l i t y by using Marie's shawl r o l l e d up to represent  a baby.  This was also  because Marie c l i n g s to the c h i l d f o r comfort and reassurance but soon forgets him, l i k e taking o f f a shawl, when something else excites her. In the second unit of the scene Woyzeck s t a r t l e s Marie when he catches her with the earrings. He i s suspicious and angry and she i s too g u i l t y and confused to l i e e f f e c t i v e l y .  However, she transfers  the g u i l t to Woyzeck when she asserts that she deserves some f r i l l s .  106.  The purpose of t h i s scene i s to show both Woyzeck and Marie i n the dilemma of poverty.  Since he  cannot afford to buy her earrings he i s u n j u s t i f i e d in suspecting her means of getting them.  Marie, on the  other hand, feels g u i l t y that Woyzeck works so hard to provide and yet she i s d i s s a t i s f i e d with what she has and despairing of any hope that things w i l l get better. The mood of t h i s scene v a c i l l a t e s between the poles of happiness and despair, anger and g u i l t . Marie begins the scene on a note of impatient rapture over a p a i r of earrings and ends i t with a g u i l t y premonition of her own  death.  Scene VII This scene i s extremely important i n that i t i s the f i r s t r e a l introduction of the Doctor.  The  purpose of the scene i s to show that Woyzeck has yet another job as a guinea p i g f o r the Doctor's experiments with peas.  The scene establishes the reasons f o r  Woyzeck's physical and mental deterioration evident i n e a r l i e r scenes.  I t also reinforces economic depression  as the major source of Woyzeck's problems. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Doctor and Woyzeck closely p a r a l l e l s that between the Charlatan and h i s monkey and the Proprietor and his horse.  The Doctor's  wrath i s aroused because Woyzeck pissed when he was not  107.  supposed to, just as the horse dropped his human attributes to answer a c a l l of nature. scenes was emphasized  The connection between these  by repeating a v i s u a l image.  Woyzeck  l i k e the horse, stepped on and o f f the stool and the Doctor used h i s cane on Woyzeck i n the same manner that the Proprietor used his whip on the horse. This scene i s e s p e c i a l l y notable for i t s stinging p o r t r a i t of the Doctor.  He treats Woyzeck as an unreliable  experimental object, giving him an increase i n salary when he sees the mental deterioration caused by h i s revolutionary diet.  The Doctor i s c l e a r l y a fanatic, t o t a l l y  engrossed i n his theories and jargon.  Emotions are  u n s c i e n t i f i c and a contract i s a l l that i s necessary to guarantee that Woyzeck w i l l urinate only on his command. The scene contrasts the Doctor's i n f l a t e d fury with Woyzeck's dumb obedience but stubborn insistence on i n s t i n c t as a factor i n behaviour.  At the end of  the scene the Doctor relaxes s l i g h t l y into a patronizing bedside manner tone to enquire about Woyzeck's other a c t i v i t i e s and then sends him on h i s way. Scene VIII Scene VIII i s the second major p l o t scene of the play.  I t confirms that Marie and the Drum Major  are sleeping together.  The f i r s t part of the scene i s  a miniature mating dance between them.  They strut  108.  and preen l i k e peacocks or l i o n s .  Marie i s f u l l y  aroused and at her carefree, animal best u n t i l the Drum Major t r i e s to put h i s arms about her i n a husbandly fashion, whereupon she angrily withdraws.  The Drum  Major takes up her cue and taunts her u n t i l she turns again to him, h a l f i n lust and h a l f i n despair, knowing where i t w i l l a l l end. Scene IX The purpose of the f i r s t u n i t of t h i s scene i s to  show the relationship between the Captain and the  Doctor.  The Captain sees the Doctor s t r i d i n g across  the square i n an obvious hurry and puffs a f t e r him, warning that a man with a good conscience never h u r r i e s . The Doctor ,furious at being interrupted and sick of having to l i s t e n to the Captain's melancholy  symptoms  at every encounter, turns on him and delivers a stinging mock diagnosis of h i s problems.  The Captain i s at  f i r s t t e r r i f i e d and then slowly r e a l i z e s he i s being made a f o o l .  Just at the point where the Captain and  Doctor are face to face h u r l i n g i n s u l t s at one another, Woyzeck rushes by i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . immediately his  The Captain  sees an opportunity to gain revenge for  humiliation at the hands of the Doctor, and begins  to insinuate that Marie i s being u n f a i t h f u l with the Drum Major.  Woyzeck i s confused at f i r s t , but i s  absolutely stunned when he f i n a l l y understands the Captain's h i n t s .  The whole reason f o r a l l h i s a c t i v i t y  has been suddenly pulled from under him. and begins to babble.  He turns white  The Doctor i s delighted to f i n d  further c r i s i s symptoms of h i s experiment and examines him minutely.  F i n a l l y , Woyzeck wanders o f f i n a daze  and the Captain and the Doctor turn to each other goodnaturedly and go o f f arm i n arm. The f i r s t part of t h i s scene i s characterized by a tone of aggressive humour.  However, when the  opportunity arises f o r the b a i t i n g of an underling, the two antagonists are quickly united i n playing an exceedingly cruel joke on Woyzeck.  They do not sense  the c r u e l t y , but rather f e e l that t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y e n t i t l e s them to t h e i r fun. This i s an extremely important moment i n the play because from t h i s point onward Woyzeck*s world collapses around him and he gradually loses both physical and mental c o n t r o l , responding more and more l i k e an automaton to signals from h i s unconscious. Scene X In t h i s scene Woyzeck stumbles into Marie's room and stares f i x e d l y at her, searching for the blemish of her s i n .  Marie, surprised i n the process of primping  for a meeting with the Drum Major, i s defensive and evasive  110.  while Woyzeck mutters vague and incoherent references to her s i n .  F i n a l l y he lunges at her but Marie stops  him short with an i c y r e f u s a l to be touched.  Denied  even that, Woyzeck finds h i s way to the door and goes out i n a daze. I t i s important to note that i n t h i s scene, Marie plants the idea of stabbing i n Woyzeck's mind. Scene XI The purpose of t h i s scene i s to show Woyzeck's growing fever and obsession as well as Andres' lack of comprehension and the beginning of h i s gradual desertion of h i s f r i e n d .  Andres i s cheerfully w h i t t l i n g and s i n g i  with the sounds of the Inn i n the distance.  Finally  the words of Andres' song about the maiden who waits i n her garden f o r the s o l d i e r s reach Woyzeck and he runs o f f with the feverish image of dancing going around i n his mind. The main contrast i n the mood of the scene i s between Andres' cheerful o b l i v i o n and Woyzeck's f i t f u l , automatic response to the words of the song. Scene XII This was intended by Buchner to be a s p l i t scene, contrasing the drunken, sweaty gaiety inside the Inn with Woyzeck's dazed watching through the window.  111.  Because of staging d i f f i c u l t i e s , Woyzeck was brought  into  the Inn but separated from the others by having him watch from a s t o o l against the w a l l . To emphasize Andres' lack of concern, he replaced the Second Apprentice i n the f i r s t part of the scene. The scene begins i n noise and confusion with Andres and the Apprentice howling drunken i n a n i t i e s .  Soon  the whole crowd i s singing together u n t i l the band s t r i k e s up and Marie and the Drum Major leap onto the f l o o r turning and turning.  Woyzeck enters at t h i s point to see the  image of his mind confirmed.  Everyone i s oblivious of  him, except K a r l , the I d i o t , who that w i l l be s p i l l e d .  can smell already the blood  As the frenzied dance swirls  in front of him Woyzeck mumbles almost incoherently that he sees them r o l l i n g and turning and f o r n i c a t i n g i n a sea of blood, l i k e f l i e s i n the palm of h i s hand, l i k e beasts on top of one another.  As the dance ends the  drunken Apprentice r i s e s to d e l i v e r a mock sermon and then crashes out of the door to urinate, the crowd slowly disperses and Andres wakes from h i s stupor to f i n d Woyzeck slumped on the f l o o r . drained and speaks d i s j o i n t e d l y .  Woyzeck i s t o t a l l y Andres assumes that  he i s drunk and goes' o f f with the Apprentice. Woyzeck wanders outside and becomes fascinated with h i s shadow, then f a l l s to h i s knees, h a l f singing  112.  the song about gleam off  the r a b b i t s  from Scene  i n t h e d a r k n e s s c a t c h e s h i s eye  and he  a  rushes  XIII Woyzeck i s w a n d e r i n g  hears  With  fiddles  h i s e a r t o t h e g r o u n d he h e a r s v o i c e s  telling  They  t h e g r o u n d and  become l o u d e r  purpose  of this  the wind  listen. him  joins  s c e n e i s t o make  W o y z e c k ' s s t a t e when t h e i d e a  of k i l l i n g  H i s mind has d e t e r i o r a t e d  w o r d s , images his brain Scene  and  night.  to  i n to  the phrase. The  him.  at  down t o  repeat  under  through the f i e l d s lies  stab Marie.  and  until  sounds  clear  Marie occurs to  to the point  where  from p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s s w i r l  he h e a r s v o i c e s  telling  him  to  in  kill.  XIV This  s c e n e a c c o m p l i s h e s two  Woyzeck p l a g u e d by n i g h t m a r e s become more s p e c i f i c establishes He  Suddenly  to find i t .  Scene  He  II.  Andres  1  i n which  and more g u i l t  things.  t h e images  producing.  have I t also  g r o w i n g i m p a t i e n c e w i t h Woyzeck.  c a n o n l y u n d e r s t a n d Woyzeck's p r o b l e m s  a physical  I t shows  ailment, a fever,  f o r which  i n terms  schnapps  of  with  a powder i s a s i m p l e remedy.  Woyzeck's v i s i o n  knife  i s a premonition of h i s  f l o a t i n g b e f o r e h i s eyes  a c t u a l p u r c h a s e o f t h e m u r d e r weapon.  of the  113.  Scene XV Buchner intended t h i s scene to be a lecture to a group of students from the a t t i c window of a b u i l d i n g . Because of the small cast, the Doctor used the audience as a lecture h a l l .  This mean that the business of dropping  the cat from the window had to be s a c r i f i c e d . The main purpose of the scene i s to expose the pedantry and inhumanity of the Doctor.  He begins h i s  speech with a r i d i c u l o u s l y pompous bad joke and then launches into a weighty consideration of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the subject and the object.  Seeing Woyzeck pass by the window  he drags him into the room to demonstrate the e f f e c t of his pea d i e t .  Woyzeck by t h i s time i s approaching a  state of physical collapse and yet i s c a l l e d upon to wiggle his ears f o r the amusement of the students.  The Doctor  has no f e e l i n g f o r Woyzeck, only d e l i g h t at h i s increasing deterioration.  At the end of the scene, the Doctor heaps  r i d i c u l e on h i s patient and then s t r i d e s o f f with great s a t i s f a c t i o n , leaving Woyzeck collapsed on the f l o o r . Scene XVI This scene was cut e n t i r e l y . Scene XVII The purpose of t h i s scene i s to show Andres' unwillingness to confirm Woyzeck's fears about Marie.  114.  The mood i s one of s t r a i n .  Andres i s on duty  and they must speak i n hushed tones as he marches back and forth on sentinel duty.  When Andres admits that the Drum  Major has t o l d the men i n the barracks that Marie i s hot as a red poker, Woyzeck immediately sees the image of the knife before him.  But whereas Woyzeck's words have been  accompanied by an emotional charge, there i s no.more f e e l i n g i n his voice.  He i s responding automatically and  unthinkingly to the extent that he makes a s l i p of the tongue i n d i c a t i n g that he has* already dreamt of murdering Marie.  Andres seems to make an attempt to understand,  or at least show compassion for his f r i e n d , but he i s unable to communicate i t . Scene XVIII The purpose of t h i s scene i s to show Woyzeck's physical humiliation by the Drum Major.  The Drum Major  stands amid a group of admirers drinking, making gross boasts and t r y i n g to provoke Woyzeck.  Woyzeck can only  whistle i n defiance and the Drum Major takes the opportunity to throw him on the f l o o r .  Woyzeck i s  i n d i f f e r e n t to h i s easy defeat,and the people, after showing minor concern for h i s i n j u r i e s , turn again to t h e i r admiration of the Drum Major. The importance of t h i s scene l i e s i n the fact that i t i s the only confrontation between the Drum Major  115.  and Woyzeck, and Woyzeck i s t o t a l l y unable to assert himself. Scene XIX Because of the open staging i t was  not possible  to recreate the image of the knife buying which occurred Scene XIV.  Instead, the meeting between the Jew  Woyzeck was  in  and  staged to take place under a street lamp i n  a dark a l l e y .  The mood of t h i s sceae i s one of extreme,  innate hatred and mistrust between the Jew  and the S o l d i e r .  The purpose of the scene i s to i l l u s t r a t e  the  economics of murder: Woyzeck cannot afford a p i s t o l  and  must s e t t l e for a k n i f e .  In contrast to the previous  few scenes, Woyzeck shows a sudden strong reaction to the Jew by throwing his groschen on the ground. The  Jew  reacts i n kind, b i t i n g the money to see i f i t i s good and cursing Woyzeck over his shoulder. Scene XX This scene establishes Marie's feelings of guilt.  She s i t s , r e c i t i n g f a m i l i a r passages of the  Bible and searching  for the f a i n t e s t glimmer of s a l v a t i o n ,  while Karl the Idiot t e l l s f a i r y tales on h i s fingers. The  juxtaposition of the f a i r y t a l e s and the Bible  emphasizes the meaninglessness of both. Marie f i r s t finds the command to s i n no more but despairs that she has no strength.  The  child  116.  becomes r e s t l e s s and t h i s increases her g u i l t .  She  paces back and forth worrying about Franz and then returns to her Bible searching f r a n t i c a l l y for a glimmer of hope.  But there i s no Saviour whose feet she can  anoint.  The Saviour i s dead, the world i s dead and  she has no hope of s a l v a t i o n . Scene XXI This scene i s a sharp contrast to the previous one.  The purpose i s to e s t a b l i s h that Woyzeck has made  plans to murder Marie and that he s t i l l retains enough awareness to f e e l g u i l t . Woyzeck, who  c a l l e d himself an a t h e i s t i n Scene  IV, quickly buries the k n i f e , reminding himself of the commandment not to k i l l .  In spite of h i s claim to atheism,  i t i s clear that h i s heritage i s strongly C h r i s t i a n and that he cannot escape i t , because the only words he knows to  express many of h i s feelings are those of the B i b l e .  Several hints i n previous scenes indicate that he i s beginning to see himself as the Redeemer returned Judgment  on  Day.  Scene XXII This scene i s extremely important  i n that  Woyzeck divests himself of a l l his possessions. As Woyzeck hands each memento to Andres, he without  f e e l i n g or sentiment.  reminisces  Andres i s too uncomprehending  to murmur more than "Sure" as Woyzeck d e l i b e r a t e l y disposes of the f i n a l evidence of h i s i d e n t i t y .  When  he reads and throws away his i d e n t i f i c a t i o n papers he has reduced himself to nothing, a nameless automaton. Andres senses that something i s very wrong with Woyzeck and pleads with him again to take some schnapps with a powder for the fever. The mood of this scene contrasts Andres' impotent tender concern with Woyzeck's oblivious calm.  For Andres  i t i s a scene of quiet desperation. At the end of the scene, Woyzeck muses that a carpenter never knows f o r whom he puts the boards together. This applies equally to a c o f f i n or a cross as Andres understands as he looks at Woyzeck's cross i n h i s hand. This image amplifies the evidence that Woyzeck sees himself as a C h r i s t figure. Scene XXIII The sombre tone of the previous scene i s broken by the singing of children as they enter the town square on a bright cold day.  They break o f f t h e i r song on the  word "red" and ask Marie to sing f o r them.  However,  the image of marching and the reminder of blood and s i n make her uneasy and unwilling.  The children appeal to  the Grandmother for a story and she obliges with a devastatingly n i h i l i s t i c f a i r y t a l e , which i s a perfect  118.  image of the decay and emptiness of the world. Woyzeck, who has been watching Marie, enters suddenly and leads her away. The mood of t h i s scene i s one of s l i g h t l y forced gaiety.  The children's song peters out on them because  of Marie's preoccupied mood and the Grandmother's story which began with an e f f o r t to be entertaining soon overtakes her and becomes an image of her l i f e which confuses and frightens the children. The purpose of t h i s scene i s to provide an image of an empty world out of which Woyzeck leads Marie, from nowhere to nowhere. Scene XXIV Woyzeck has l e d Marie to the pond by the woods outside of town.  She i s uneasy and a f r a i d because he  does not seem to know what to do.  He reaches out to her  and his touch brings his feelings back i n a mad  rush as  he struggles i n love and hate to t r y to k i s s her.  She  breaks free f o r a moment and there i s an uncertain s i l e n c e . She notices how red the moon i s , and t h i s image acts as a h a i r t r i g g e r i n h i s unstable mind. image Woyzeck becomes the Redeemer.  With her apocalyptic His knife comes  automatically into h i s hand and r i s e s above her, and he plunges i t into her body again and again, sobbing and k i s s i n g her.  Then he stumbles away into the fog,  119.  leaving his knife behind. In the second unit of t h i s scene, two men approach i n the fog, having heard,Marie s dying screams. 1  They miss  the body i n the fog and pass on. No knife was used i n this scene, because the lack of i t emphasized both the dream quality of the play and the fact that Woyzeck responded to the unconscious signal of a complex image with no sense of h i s own or Marie's reality. Scene  XXV Woyzeck rushes into the Inn, drunk with h i s  release and hoping to lose himself i n the frenzied a c t i v i t y . When the music stops he lunges onto the f l o o r , pushing couples together, grabbing a partner and t r y i n g to sing a song to keep the dance going.  But he i s too weak to  stand and flops onto a stool with Kathy on his lap. Suddenly he pushes her away and forces her to sing f o r him.  She notices the blood on his hand, the crowd turns  to Woyzeck to see what has happened and he begins to make desperate excuses which only cause the crowd to laugh uproariously.  As he becomes more desperate, the  crowd roars more d e r i s i v e l y u n t i l he bolts out of the door screaming that they are murderers. Scene XXVII and the single l i n e of Scene XXIX were inserted at the end of Scene XXV before Woyzeck's  120.  return to the pond.  A c h i l d runs into the Inn to  announce that a body has been found and a l l the people rush out to see.  Then the Doctor crosses the stage  exclaiming over the beauty of the murder. Scene XXVI As the l i g h t comes up slowly on this scene, Woyzeck can be seen dimly, returning to the scene of the murder.  Only Marie's shawl i s l e f t to mark the spot.  Woyzeck searches f r a n t i c a l l y f o r the k n i f e , t a l k i n g tenderly to the body which i s no longer there. the knife and f l i n g s i t i n t o the water.  Suddenly he finds Then, r e a l i z i n g  that he d i d not throw i t f a r enough, he wades i n a f t e r i t and throws i t again. and wades s t i l l  He sees the blood on his hands  farther t r y i n g to wash himself.  The  voices from the beginning of the play begin again and grow i n i n t e n s i t y u n t i l waves of hands break around Woyzeck, drawing him under.  Gradually the voices die out as  Woyzeck's hand sinks out of the l i g h t , leaving the pond calm and dark again. The l i g h t s come up slowly and parade music i s heard i n the distance.  WOYZECK  by  GEORG BUCHNER  A  B  1213.  S O U N D The sound system c o n s i s t e d o f four speakers, one p l a c e d behind each s e c t i o n o f t h e audience and one p l a c e d backstage c e n t r e . A s w i t c h i n g u n i t was made so t h a t sound c o u l d be c h a n n e l l e d through any combination of speakers. I t was a l s o p o s s i b l e t o r o t a t e t h e sound from one speaker t o another behind the audience. SOUND CUES Cue 1:  Three count a f t e r " L i k e the world's then drums on stage l e f t speaker.  Cue 2:  Fade up volume as March r o t a t e s from stage l e f t t o c e n t r e r e a r t o stage r i g h t t o backstage c e n t r e .  Cue  Switch t o a l l f o u r speakers as s o l d i e r s e n t e r ,  3:  dead"  Cue 4:  Fade volume as s o l d i e r s  exit.  Cue 5:  Rotate sound i n r e v e r s e back t o stage and then o u t .  Cue 6  F a i r music on b l a c k o u t .  Cue 7:  Volume up f o r f a n f a r e .  Cue 8  Volume down f o r f a i r  Cue 9  Loud  Cue 10  F a s t fade on horse  Cue  11:  Loud drum r o l l as C h a r l a t a n r a i s e s watch. F a n f a r e f o l l o w e d by Horse e x i t music.  Cue  12:  T r a n s i t i o n music on b l a c k o u t . seven seconds and fade o u t .  Run f o r  Cue  13:  T r a n s i t i o n music on b l a c k o u t . seven seconds and fade o u t .  Run f o r  Cue  14:  T r a n s i t i o n music on b l a c k o u t . seven seconds and fade o u t .  Run f o r  Cue 15:  T r a n s i t i o n music on b l a c k o u t . seven seconds and fade o u t .  Run f o r  left  music.  f a n f a r e f o r Horse's e n t r a n c e . music.  122.  Cue 16:  German waltz on blackout. as l i g h t s come up.  Cue 17:  Fade sound out after "They're dancing, dancing!"  Cue 18  Polka on blackout.  Cue 19  Polka after second chorus of song.  Cue 20:  Fade volume down during Apprentice's sermon.  Cue 21  Fade volume up at end of music and play to end of polka.  Cue 22:  Fade i n crickets on blackout. the scene and then out.  Cue 23:  Crowd noise on blackout. Doctor taps for s i l e n c e .  Cue 24:  Transition music on blackout. seven seconds and fade out.  Cue 25  Fade i n waltz two counts a f t e r Andres' e x i t .  Cue 26  Fade volume down during f i g h t .  Cue 27  Transition music on blackout, nine seconds and fade out.  Cue 28:  Fade i n crickets on blackout, scene.  Cue 29:  Fade c r i c k e t s out after two seconds of blackout.  Cue 30  Fade i n wind a f t e r two seconds of blackout.  Cue 31  Fade wind out a f t e r "It's uncanny!"  Cue 32  Fade up polka a f t e r two seconds of blackout.  Cue 33  Fade i n waltz s o f t l y a f t e r Kathy's song.  Cue 34  Fade waltz out a f t e r Woyzeck's e x i t .  Cue 35  A f t e r l a s t l i n e , bring i n march for curtain call.  Cue 36  Fade volume down a f t e r curtain c a l l and -i-  J '  »  I  L J-  l i W U O t -  Fade sound down  Fade down during song.  «_-»_» «  Play through  Fade out slowly as Play f o r  Play f o r Play  through  LIGHTING CUES Cue  1:  House o u t .  Cue  2:  Up b r i g h t on stage l e f t  Cue  3:  B l a c k o u t as C a p t a i n e x i t s . g e n e r a l a f t e r t h r e e count.  Cue  4 (a):  B l a c k o u t as Woyzeck and Andres e x i t . Up medium i n c l u d i n g l e v e l s a f t e r f i v e  and l e v e l s . Up on dim  count  Cue  4 (b):  Up b r i g h t as Drum Major e n t e r s stage l e f t e x i t .  through  Cue  5:  Fade g e n e r a l as s o l d i e r s  Cue  6:  Fade e v e r y t h i n g out except crowd e x i t s .  Cue  7:  Up s l i g h t l y on stage l e f t  Cue  8 (a):  B l a c k o u t on Marie's  Cue  8 (b):  A f t e r f i v e count up dim g e n e r a l and c o l o u r wheel.  Cue  9:  Up  Cue  10:  C h a r l a t a n spot o u t .  Cue  11 ( a ) :  Fade out g e n e r a l as Drum Major  Cue  11 ( b ) : Up g e n e r a l as crowd e n t e r s .  Cue  11 ( c ) :  Fade out g e n e r a l on f a n f a r e . b l u e s on f l o o r .  Cue  12 ( a ) :  B l a c k o u t as crowd  Cue  12 ( b ) : A f t e r f i v e count r i g h t area.  Cue  13 ( a ) : B l a c k o u t on Marie's  Cue  13 ( b ) : A f t e r f i v e count, general.  Cue  14 ( a ) : B l a c k o u t on Doctor's  exit. levels  after  as Woyzeck e n t e r s  exit.  on C h a r l a t a n ' s spot on f a n f a r e .  exits.  B r i n g up  exits. fade up l e v e l s  and stage  exit.  f a s t fade up t o b r i g h t exit.  124.  Cue 14 (b): After f i v e count, fade up dim on levels and stage l e f t area. Cue 15 (a):  Fast fade out as Marie and Drum Major e x i t .  Cue 15 (b): After f i v e count, fast fade up to bright general. Cue 16 (a): Blackout as Captain and Doctor e x i t . Cue 16 (b): After f i v e count, fade up levels and upstage f l o o r area. Cue 17 (a): Three count after Woyzeck's e x i t , then blackout. Cue 17 (b): After s i x count, fade up to medium general on l e v e l s . Cue 18 (a): Blackout as Woyzeck e x i t s . Cue 18 (b): After f i v e count, fade up medium general f o r Inn i n t e r i o r . Cue 18 (c): Fade up blue spot when Woyzeck stands on stool. Cue 19:  Fade out spot when Woyzeck s i t s .  Cue 20 (a): Fade to dim as Apprentice and Andres e x i t . Cue 20 (b): Fade up blues on f l o o r as Woyzeck steps o f f level. Cue 21 (a): Blackout on Woyzeck's e x i t s . Cue 21 (b): After f i v e count, fade up blue spot on floor. Cue 22:  Blackout on second "dead".  Cue 23:  After f i v e count, fade up window on l e v e l s .  Cue 24 (a): Blackout after Cue 24 (b): After  special  "Go to sleep!"  f i v e count, fade up to bright general.  125.  Cue 25 (a) : B l a c k o u t on Doctor's  exit.  Cue 25 (b) : A f t e r f i v e count, fade up t o dim g e n e r a l on f l o o r . Cue 26 (a) : B l a c k o u t on Andres'  exit.  Cue 26 (b) : A f t e r f i v e count, fade up t o medium Inn interior. Cue 27 (a) : B l a c k o u t a f t e r  "He's b l e e d i n g " .  Cue 27 (b) : A f t e r f i v e count, spot on f l o o r . Cue 28 (a) : B l a c k o u t as Jew  fade up down l e f t  exits.  Cue 28 (b) : A f t e r seven count, fade up t o dim on l e v e l s and stage l e f t a r e a . Cue 29 :  B l a c k o u t a f t e r Marie's l a s t l i n e .  Cue 30:  A f t e r f i v e count, fade up very dim downstage of l e v e l s .  Cue 31 (a) : B l a c k o u t as Woyzeck  exits.  Cue 31 (b) : A f t e r f i v e count, fade up t o medium on and stage r i g h t a r e a .  levels  Cue 32 (a) : Hold f o r t h r e e count a f t e r Woyzeck's e x i t , then b l a c k o u t . Cue 32 (b) : A f t e r f i v e count,  fade up b r i g h t g e n e r a l .  Cue 33 (a) : B l a c k o u t as Marie and Woyzeck e x i t . Cue 33 (b) : A f t e r f i v e count, fade up t o dim on l e v e l s . Cue 34 (a) : Fade out s l o w l y a f t e r Woyzeck's e x i t . Cue 34 (b) : B l a c k o u t a f t e r  " L i k e a person d y i n g . "  Cue 34 ( O :  F a s t fade up t o b r i g h t f o r Inn i n t e r i o r .  Cue 35 :  Fade s l o w l y a f t e r Woyzeck  Cue 36 (a) : B l a c k o u t a f t e r Doctor  exits.  exits.  126 .  Cue 36 (b): Slow fade up on levels and pond spot. Cue 37:  Fade up on water special as Woyzeck steps o f f l e v e l .  Cue 38:  Fade out pond spot as Woyzeck moves forward.  Cue 39:  Fade to black as Woyzeck's hand drops out of l i g h t .  Cue 40:  Fade up bright general f o r curtain  Cue 41:  Blackout.  Cue 42:  House up.  call  LIGHTING HANGING PLOT - WOYZECK Type  Plug  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  500 W Lekd 500 W Leko 500 W Leko 500 W Leko 500 W ' Leko 500 W Leko P a t t 23 I P a t t 23 S  60 52 42 30 18 10 2 15  9 10 11 12 13 14 15  4 P a t t 123 50 P a t t 223 (1,000 W) P a t t 223(1000W)17 P a t t 23 I 40 29 P a t t 23 S 58 P a t t 123 57 P a t t 123  16  P a t t 123  55  17  P a t t 123  54  18 19 20 21 22 23  Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt  123 123 123 123 123 123  49 47 45 39 38 37  Lamp #  Area 1' 2 3 1 2 3 On s c r i m Centre Flood Aisle 2 Floor  Colour 52 52 52 17 17 17 Clear Clear Clear 42  17 Floor Up r i g h t Clear Up c e n t r e C l e a r 52 1 Stage r i g h t 52 fill Stage r i g h t 52 fill Stage r i a h t 52 fill 4 Clear Clear 7 6 Clear 4 Clear Clear 5 Down spot 18  1 2 3 4 5 6  Gang  Notes  + + + + + +  Soft flood Soft flood Soft flood Soft flood Soft flood Soft flood Drop i n I r i s C o l o u r wheel  -  4 + 14 5 6 1 + 14 2 3  10 + 11 11 + 10  -  1 + 4 + 14 15 + 16 + 17  Barn door Barn door Barn door Drop i n I r i s Narrow beam  -  Barn door  15 + 16 + 17  Barn door  15 + 16 + 17  Barn door  18 31 20 18 30  + + + + +  26 + 21 19 + 28 25 26 + 21 22  -  HANGING PLOT - WOYZECK (Contd .) Lamp #  Type  Plug  Area  Colour  Clear 8 Clear 6 Clear Aisle 3 51 Down spot Clear 7 8 Clear Clear 5 Clear 7 Clear 8 Stage l e f t f i l l 51 Centre on steps 17 Stage l e f t f i l l 51 Staqe l e f t f i l l 51 Back f i l l L i g h t frost Back f i l l F r o s t Light Back f i l l f r o s t  24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37  Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt Patt  123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 23S 123 123 123  36 35 33 25 23 22 16 14 12 9 8 7 6 13  38  P a t t 123  11  39  P a t t 123  19  40 41  P a t t 123 P a t t 123  1 31  Back l i g h t Back f i l l  42  P a t t 123  53  Back  fill  43  P a t t 123  43  Back  fill  44 45  P a t t 123 P a t t 123  3 3  Upstage e x i t Upstage e x i t  51 Light frost Light frost Light frost Clear Clear  Notes  Gang 32 + 24 + 29 20 + 25 18 + 26 + 21 31 32 22 31 32 36  + + + + + +  19 24 30 19 24 35  + 28 + 29 + 28 + 29 + 33  36 + 35 + 33 36 + 35 + 33 39 + 37 + 38 39 + 37 + 38 39 + 37 + 38  -  31 + 43 + 53 31 + 43 + 53 31 + 43 + 53 3 3  -  Barn door  -  Barn door Gobo Barn Door Barn door Barn door (No l e n s ) Barn door (No lens) Barn door (No l e n s )  -  Barn (No Barn (No Barn (No  —  door lens) door lens) door lens)  129.  130.  TOTAL LIGHTS AND TYPES 6  500-watt Century  E l i p s o i d e l (Leko) S p o t l i g h t s  2  500-watt Strand P a t t e r n 23 I r i s type m i r r o r spotlights  3  500-watt Strand P a t t e r n 23 S h u t t e r type m i r r o r spotlights  2  1000-watt S t r a n d P a t t e r n 223 8" F r e s n e l l s  32  500-watt S t r a n d P a t t e r n 123 6" F r e s n e l l s  45 Lamps TOTAL WATTAGE:  Q (  - 500-watt F r e s n e l l | -1000-watt F r e s n e l l  C3 o n  28,500  -  500-watt M i r r o r Spot 500-watt Leko C o l o u r wheel  1 -  LIGHTING  DIAGRAM  COSTUME PLOT Nicholas Kendall Perry Haddock:  Elizabeth Murphy:  Ellis  Pryce-Jones  WOYZECK Uniform - jacket, pants, boots, hat ( S c . I l l ANDRES Uniform - jacket, pants, boots, hat ( S c . I l l Sc. XVII) MARIE Red dress, beige blouse, stockings, s l i p p e r s , cream shawl CAPTAIN Uniform - pants, jacket, hat, boots  Jim Shepard:  Buddy Doucette:  H i l l a r y Nicholls  DOCTOR Grey jacket, s h i r t and wide black t i e , striped trousers, s l i p p e r s , glasses, grey bowler hat DRUM MAJOR Uniform - jacket, white pants, high boots, gloves (Sc. V I I I ) , hat (Sc. I l l ) GRANDMOTHER Grey dress, grey shawl, s l i p p e r s  Jace VanderVeen:  Susan Cadman:  IDIOT Brown coat, undershirt, pants, high slippers KATHY Green dress, red trim white blouse MONKEY (Sc.IV) Black t i g h t s , b a l l e t s l i p p e r s , one piece m i l i t a r y uniform, hat, c o l l a r • HORSE (Sc.V) Black t i g h t s , b a l l e t s l i p p e r s , body harness, head harness CHILD (Sc. XXIII) Same as KATHY, but with heavy make-up removed.  133.  COSTUME PLOT (contd.) Craig Davidson:  APPRENTICE (Sc. I l l , XII, XVIII, XXV) Brown pants, beige s h i r t , suspenders, shoes, necktie CHARLATAN (Sc. IV, V) Black jacket with purple fringe, bowler hat, cane, whip (Sc.V) JEW (Sc. XIX) Black overcoat, hat  Scott Swan:  STUDENT (Sc. I l l , IV, V, XII, XVIII, XXV) Grey pants, s h i r t , suspenders, shoes CHILD (Sc. XXIII) Same costume.  WOYZECK PROPERTY PLOT PERSONAL PROPS to be  PRESET:  in dressing rooms  WOYZECK:  Coins  DRUM MAJOR:  Watch Staff Whistle  ANDRES:  Mouth Organ Twigs  MARIE:  Mirror Earrings  CAPTAIN:  Coins  DOCTOR:  Cane Notebook P e n c i l and c l Coin  GRANDMOTHER:  Cane  STAGE RIGHT ON STOOL Shaving mug Shaving brush Shaving cream Razor Razor strop Clothesbrush Napkin P o l i s h i n g cloth STAGE LEFT EXIT Hat for CAPTAIN  135.  AISLE 2 Twigs R i f l e - ANDRES UPPER RIGHT PROP. TABLE: C o l l a r - MONKEY Scene IV: Stick - CHARLATAN Scene V:  Whip - CHARLATAN  Scene VIII  Gauntlet - MARIE  Scene XI:  Knife - ANDRES Wood - ANDRES  Scene XII:  Stein - CAPTAIN Stein - CHILD  Scene XVIII:  Stein - DRUM MAJOR  Scene XXII:  Set shoe rag after f i r s t scene  Scene XXV:  Stein - ANDRES  UPPER LEFT PROP. TABLE Scene XII:  Two Steins - APPRENTICE  Scene XVII:  R i f l e - ANDRES  Scene XVIII:  Two Steins - STUDENT One Stein - CAPTAIN  Scene XX:  Bible - MARIE  Scene XXII:  Cross Ring Picture Jacket Paper  Scene XXV:  Stein - WOYZECK Stein - Preset on A i s l e 2.  ANDRES  BUDGET  Date  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DOROTHY SOMERSET STUDIO "WOYZECK" Georg Buchner October 16 - 20 , 1968 DIRECTED BY JOHN RAPSEY Description Req.#  Source  Amount  Stock  SCENERY MATERIALS 7/12/68 7/17/68 October  56054 56004 Stock  G l i d d e n P a i n t Co. - P a i n t Vancouver T e x t i l e s - Set Set m a t e r i a l s from stock  P0154626 PO151017 Stock  22.00 10.00  P02727  10.00  143.00  LIGHTING 8/13/68  56062  DTJ P r o j e c t i o n  lamps  PROPS 12/4/68  22336 22336  P e t t y Cash - Props P e t t y Cash - Props  J . Cameron J . Rapsey  1.98 3.72  COSTUME MATERIALS 11/8/68 7/17/68 12/ /68  22328 56004 56004  10/ /68  56004  October  Stock  Out o f pocket expenses Vancouver T e x t i l e s - c o t t o n Eaton's - 12 yards Gimp Dressmakers' supply house m a t e r i a l f o r costume Costume m a t e r i a l s from stock (Wool and z i p p e r )  J . Rapsey PO151017 PO151002 PO151003  12.76 16.71 2.15 1.74 13.29  Stock /contd.  /Contd. Date  Reg.#  Description  Source  Amount  Stock  PUBLICITY 9/27/68  56089  10/7/68  56094  10/15/68  56004  11/8/68  22328  10/15/68  56004  9/30/68  38556  Maxwell A r t i s t s ' L t d . PO8058 110 sheets o f cover paper The Ubyssey - 3 ads. P08198 Oct. 10 - 2 c o l s , x 2" Oct. 11 - 2 x 3" Oct. 17 - 1 x 2" G e s t e t n e r (Can) L t d . PO150179 1 electronic stencil for handbills  10.56  Out  13.93  o f pocket - p u b l i c i t y J . Rapsey  24.60  3.53  PROGRAMMES  9/30/68  56091  G e s t e t n e r (Can) L t d . 2 electronic stencils TICKETS  PO150179  1 rubber stamp t i t l e d Woyzeck BkSt43915 Anderson P r i n t i n g Co. Ltd.P910503 4 sets of printed t i c k e t s  7.06  2.57 4.03  PLAY COPIES Out  o f pocket  (Xeroxing)  J . Rapsey  22.25 /contd.  i—•  Contd/ Date  Reg.  #  Description  Source  Amount  PICTURES 11/8/68  22329  Stock c/f  P i c t u r e s f o r Woyzeck Cheque s e n t  P. Yeomans  15.00  Fee  10.00  156.29  HOUSE MANAGER 10/28/68  Fee  Simon Fass - House Manager  194.59  156.29 $350.88  TICKET SALES: PROFIT ;  $360.00 $9.12  CO  t  W O Y Z E C K  <y\  n  II  by Georg Buchner (M.A. T h e s i s Production) D i r e c t e d by John Rapsey - Wednesday, October 16th - t o - Saturday, House Capacity  Date  Unsold  81  Wednesday October 16  Sold $1.50  Sold $1.00  0  10 $15.00  Thursday October 17  0  90  Friday October 18  90  90  October 19th, 1968  Comps.  Additional Seats Sold $1.50  Additional Seats S o l d 51.00  11 $11.00  60  5 $7.50  5 $5.00  $38.5C  33 $49.50  47 $47.00  10  5 $7.50  5 $5.00  $109.0C  0  22 $33.00  57 $57.00  11  5 $7.50  5 $5.00  $102.5C  Saturday October 19  0  32 $48.00  50 $50.00  8  4 $6.00  6 $6.00  $110.OC  TOTALS:  0  97 $145.50  165 $165.00  89  19 $28.50  21 $21.00  $360.0C  Total  140.  WOYZECK COMPLIMENTARY TICKETS  Wednesday, October 16th  Friday, October 18th  James Barber (2) Jack Richards (2) Nick Kendall (I) Craig Davidson (2) Perry Haddock (3) Diana Belshaw (3) Susan Cadman (3) Jace Vanderveen (2) Elizabeth Murphy (4) Buddy Doucette (2) E l l i s Pryce-Jones (4) Gary Olsen (2) Judy Cameron (3) Jim Shepard (2) Sarah Warren (3) Brad Dallas (1) Josephine Patrick (3) John Rapsey (2) Gerri (2) Ian Pratt (1) Noram Young (1) Rick Spencer (1) Rosemary (2) Dr. Brockington (1) Dr. Strassman (1) Miss Somerset (3) Professor Hultberg (1) Mr. Wayne Caux (1) Dr. Don Soule (2)  Nick Kendall (2) B i l l Louis (1) Stanley Weese (1) Moyra Mulholland (1) Pauline Newstone (2) Scott Swan (2) Ushers (2)  Thursday, October 17th H i l l a r y Nicholls (4) Sherry Darcus (2) James Barber (2) Ushers (2)  Saturday, October 19th Penny Irwin (2) Dick Wilcox (2) Scott Swan (2) Ushers (2)  W O Y Z E C K  by  II  GEORG  A P  P  BUCHNER  E  N  D  I  X  0  %  Is  C n  -o  5.  3  *P  53  Z  Z  ro s  I  •+-  n x  0  3,7 3 2 9 - f>  8  5 j  o -f*  -*  5  I* ? ?  3  3  ? f• c 5  ~< /"\ 0^ v u» r (0  o  ro _ — ? 9.  *  ? 2  < ft  T  ro a.  9  </>  n o  O  -4  c  2  a  C  < £  2/8 fc£  3  9-  9  ?8  o p  r  ft  o t f ft.  m  C:  9  ro  I  0*  *o r ~ « — J ! E c 2  c  *  1/  C»  r -4  Z  re  c •7 c  ^  Hi  a c  m  w >  m  Or  0  o I  • 6»  O  o  <  *-  s  >  • ^  m  m  </>£  o  X  2  i  P  H O 30  g c n H  O 2  3  ro  H  oJ  \m\u\A 3  3  § 3  It | c H H  142.  The.;VANCOUVER SUN: Thur., Oct. 17,1968  delight; the literary tags of firmly established in the produc'•"-• By LLOYD DYKK ."•The. newly-built experimental Realism, Naturalism and the tion was the polarity of realism Dorothy Somerset Studio at School of Symbolism are all in the characterization, Woyzeck UBC was unofficially christened equally applicable. Also it has and Marie on one hand, and on Wednesday with a highly con- been said that the hero repre- the other, the gallery of social centrated theatrical distillation, sents the first successfully caricatures including the doctor, devised lower-class, inarticulate the captain and the drum-ma-j Georg Buchner's Woyzeck. jor. , .i-:The effort, directed by John tragic hero. Rapsey, was a fulfillment of the For the simplicity of plot in Woyzeck, the passive victim practical portion of the require- the single thread of action, of social injustice and (since his ments .for.; an MA' degree in there is a cat's cradle of com- solutionless plight is caused by theatre. ' . •' , \J -J plexity in the relations of the a host of natural factors) BuchSFirst, it. was necessary "to characters and their metaphysi- ner's universal tragic figure, was played by Nicholas Kendall. realize that a translation from cal meaning. the original German of this 19th TRAGIC FIGURE And in his role Kendall wasn't -„ century work will never do jus- Woyzeck, a common soldier, quite confident enough to handle tice to the play which depends supports himself and his mis- decisively and convincingly the heavily on' semantics ' for' itst r e s s by' doing odd- jobs, difficult matter of being inarscope, impact and relevance to including shaving his captain ticulately :. passive ' while 'still, • assert themselves fully: ,' and permitting a doctor to study retaining the looker's sympathy for.the.tragicherol 'u '[LITERARY.TAGS;,' rv;"*"'^?;*.the:effects of diet on urine.. 4 Elizabeth Murphy, though, as His mistress becomes involved • * With that little bit of relativity : iij.,- mind, it was possible to with a drum major. Woyzeck is Marie was effective as the com'appreciate Rapsey's deft mold- mocked on every turn ,and pletely human mixture of exu. ing of - the" 29' brief scenes thatfinally kills his mistress by berance, lust and innocence. stabbing her. '\.. x'W,i REPEATED SYMBOLS - .%riVprise-the piete, \;'| :^;!|Woyzedk. is an academicians's What could have been more • Rapsey was sensitive to ffhe? importance of projecting the; [relationship of adjoining scenes," jwhethcr in contrast to one i another or in corroboration! "if.The scenes are thematically'connected, often by as little as a' repeated symbol or song lyric which externally g i v e the. "simple plot a wealth.of complex-] ity, all beautifully structured, i f The thre'e"-'quarter round stage? [was austerely barren of sets.: jAnd the lighting enhanced;thej • atmosphere of the unreal., . --Val 1  :  :  :  !  1  143.  THE PROVINCE, Friday, October 18, 1968  On stage  By JAMES BARBER "This 'modern' theatre," say the romantics, "is all preoccupied with misery." And Brecht, and Adamov, and Pinter they lump together, arid sigh for the good old days, the " r e a l " days, when life had happy endings, and love was true, and only the "sinf u l " suffered. : But long before the theatre of the absurd, or the theatre of cruelty had labels, George Buechner was writing, and ,having rr-performed, plays of concern with the human condition. And for this reason alone it'is worth a trip to the Dorothy S o m e r s e t Studio Theatre at XJBC, to see that even in the much-maligned ^>  '  '  ;  '  ' '  •  \  '  .  •  .  nineteenth century there were the seeds of today in the theatre. - • Another reason might be to visit the new Studio Theatre, to see a surprisingly charming addition to the local stages. But lastly, and most important, would be to see a really first class, involving production, which will be remembered as a worthwhile christening present for the new theatre. '  •  Rapsey. Woyzeck, part >Good Soldier Schweik, part Littlechap, part poet, is. timeless. He is man, plagued by himself, destroying himself, surrounded by-himself, by jealousy, by science, by love and hate and fear and sickness; He is^man the little.  And this is a pretty big order fof a director, even with a script of Buechner's, to get across with very little in the way of scenery or Buechner's Woyzeck is the- props. M A thesis production of John .There is no point in discus-  sing actors in this type o: theatrical adventure—the ac tors do what the directoi . wants them to, if he is J , good director. It is the direc tor who pre-imagines for th< audience, who sweats out th« significances of this movement and that, and commit! himself to saying that this is the way it will be. When it works, he should be congratulated. Which is the purpose of this review. : And if you can get tickets for tonight, the last of its threeday run, you will be able to count yourself among the lucky ones, who have seen a new theatre sprinkled with • something more than the anachronism of holy water.  144.  CHQM RADIO  Friday, October 18th, 1968  Q's REVIEWS THE opening of "WOYZECK", a play by the 19th Century German dramatist, Georg Buchner, coincided Wednesday with the f i r s t opening of the as yet unfinished "Dorothy Somerset Studio" at U.B.C. This new studio, a u x i l i a r y to the larger Freddy Wood Theatre, has seats that are adaptable to the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l play. In the case of Woyzeck, the seats form a semic i r c l e around the centre of action. With t h i s arrangement, the audience has a much greater f e e l i n g of involvement i n the play. There are twentyfour scenes, separated by the dimming of l i g h t s and characterized by various sound e f f e c t s . These sound e f f e c t s often arise from behind the viewers' seats, and envelop the audience. With no props to speak of, John Rapsey, student d i r e c t o r of the production, has c l e v e r l y created settings f o r the characters, ranging from a r o l l i c k i n g inn to a stormy sea. The abundance of scenes builds up a tableau of the forces playing upon the passive hero, Woyzeck. A simple s o l d i e r , he must carry the stigma of cuckold, as Marie, who has borne him a c h i l d , becomes infatuated with the prestigious Drum Major. Poor Woyzeck i s , at the same time, an experiment f o r theDoctor's new d i e t plan, and the object of the Captain's empty philosophical discourses. Knowing only that h i s love has betrayed him, and f e e l i n g the dark forces of h i s subconscious c a l l i n g revenge, he f i n a l l y lashes out from h i s i n e r t i a , i n madness. Although written i n 1836, the play underlines a r t f u l l y , the c o n f l i c t that occurs when ignorance confronts e r u d i t i o n ,  145.  (contd.)  and poverty confronts wealth, making i t modern i n theme, and relevant for contemporary audiences. Georg Buchner died at 23, 130 years ago, leaving Woyzeck as a c o l l e c t i o n of 24 scenes, and while the resultant work i s short and unconventionally structured, there i s no sense of incompleteness. Nicholas Kendall, as Woyzeck, leads the all-student cast. Jim Shepard was p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e as the Doctor. Woyzeck runs u n t i l t h i s Saturday, i n the "Dorothy Somerset Studio" at U.B.C. Next curtain - 8.30 t h i s evening.  W O Y Z E C K  by  II  GEORG BUCHNER  T  L  L  U  S  T  R  A  T  I  O  N  Morality, that's when you have morals, you understand. (Scene I)  So quiet.  Like the world's dead. (Scene II)  147.  148.  149.  150.  I can't s l e e p ! When I c l o s e my e v e r y t h i n g turns and t u r n s .  eyes  Go to the h o s p i t a l , Franz. Poor guy, you've got to drink some schnapps with a powder i n i t . I t ' l l k i l l the fever. (Scene XXII)  Am I s t i l l bloody? I've got to wash myself. (Scene XXVI)  Can you hear i t , Andres? Something moving!  Can you hear i t ? (Scene II)  (Scene III)  Y o u r e not such a bad p i e c e y o u r s e l f ! 1  154.  Kathy:  Then what's that on your hand?  z.oB6y  

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