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Correlative myths in the Cantos of Ezra Pound : a tentative examination of the Poundian Universe Dozzi, Bryan R. 1974

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CORRELATIVE MYTHS IN THE CANTOS OF EZRA POUND: A TENTATIVE EXAMINATION OF THE POUNDIAN UNIVERSE by BRYAN R. DOZZI B„A, , University of Windsor, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of English We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e / Ifft I lAr ABSTRACT The Cantos i s f i r s t and foremost a record of a search f o r knowledge of s y n t h e s i s : "To have gathered from the a i r / a l i v e t r a d i t i o n . " The poem i s a continuing record of a quest f o r o r i g i n s , which Pound c h a r a c t e r i s e s as a r e t u r n to nature and reason: "to behave n a t u r a l l y , i n t u i t i v e l y . Not pedagogy but harmony, the f i t t i n g t h i n g . " In the r e t u r n to o r i g i n s , h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , h i s t o r y , myths and even r e a l i t y cease to e x i s t as separable e n t i t i e s , but d r i f t together and coalesce: " h i s t o r y i s the continuum which man i s , and i f a man does not l i v e i n the thought that he i s h i s t o r y , he i s not capable of h i m s e l f . " The r e t u r n to o r i g i n s , to the place where one was born, gives r i s e to a sacramental v i s i o n of a world peopled w i t h d i v i n i t i e s . The r e t u r n to o r i g i n s , then, i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , both of the voyager and of the world through which he moves; and the world of everyday r e a l i t y , where men pass time, the world c l u t t e r e d by "the bane of men moving", the world of paradoxes and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , metamorphoses i n t o the ordered universe of the psyche, the u n i f i e d world of d i v i n e harmony, the world whose great Mystery i s a c c e s s i b l e to the i n i t i a t e . The order w i t h i n the psyche i s absolute; the psychic experience destroys or transforms the e x t e r n a l i s e d and systematic order which i s i n s o c i e t y . The psychic experience u t t e r s i t s e l f as myth ( f o r "the s e r i o u s a r t i s t " presents "the image of h i s own d e s i r e , hate, or i n d i f f e r e n c e . The more p r e c i s e the record the more l a s t i n g , . . " i -r-i i the work of art"). And the myth i t s e l f , alive, a moving image, i s , as the psychic experiencer knows, a camouflage, behind which lies meaning. Myth embodies and enacts that moment when the world is seen as significant. Myth is the Image qualifying the perceiver's experience; myth i s the touchstone for the transformation of seemingly particular, isolated and subjective data into universal, living and significant design. It is not an abstract of experience, for to abstract i s to destroy, and myth v i t a l i s e s : i t is the perceived aff i n i t y of one thing for another. In a universe of process, myth is attuned to the absolute, evolving, energizing "fragments". In the mythic view, the world is experienced as a latent energy, ready to transform i t s e l f instantaneously into another form. The world becomes, then, a world of metamorphoses, and the Image is the signature of myth. As a "vortex", the Image is experience; as a signature of myth, the Image acts as a medium in which "historical" figures are metamorphosed into universals transcending time, recurring, ever present. The thesis delineates the central myths of the poem, and shows how these are used in conjunction with personae and Pound's Imagistic technique in a search for knowledge, a search for origins. Part I examines the central operating factors of Pound's technique and links them to Pound's attraction to myth, especially those central to the structure of The Cantos. Drawing especially on "Psychology and Troubadours" i t shows how mood, myth, persona, are a l l part of a grander scheme that originates in Pound's view of the world he lives in. Part II examines how myths play a central role in the poem, focussing on Canto 39 and the central correlative myth-complexes of i i i the poem: Aphrodites-Artemis (Diana) and Demeter-Persephone. These myths are the foundation of a unifying construct which reveals The Cantos as a search for origins. Part III extends the discussion to the quasi-mystical features of the image of "the great b a l l of crystal": we share with Pound in the creation of the poem. The poem becomes a voyage into "the great acorn of light", a voyage analog to the voyage of the soul as rendered in the Egyptian myths of Ra-Set. We become initiates of a f i n a l lasting pervasive Mystery, The Cantos i t s e l f . In the Great Ball of Crystal resides the elusive Lady of Pound's f i r s t love, the Troubadours. So the nature of poetry is affirmed as r i t u a l , that real act in which the transitory Human meets and merges with the everlasting Forma, the divinely beautiful. Man is an order, whose mind gives shape to the ineffable. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE 13 CHAPTER TWO 49 CHAPTER THREE 107 FOOTNOTES 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY 123 INTRODUCTION The d i f f i c u l t y of discovery (in the close world which the human is because i t is ourselves and nothing outside us, like the other) i s , that definition i s as much a part of the act as is sensation i t s e l f , in this sense, that conjecture about i t is as much of i t as i t s coming at us, it s going on. In other words, we are ourselves both the instrument of discovery and the instrument of definition.! In the light of this statement, what does one do? What directions of exploration, what means of exegesis are available to the man who comes to grips with the latent implications of Olson's statement? For Ezra Pound, .the directions of exploration led him into self-discovery, and into himself. Thereehesfound the means of exegesis: But to have done instead of not doing this is not vanity To have with decency, knocked That a blunt should open To have gathered from the air a live tradition or from a fine old eye the unconquered flame This is not vanity. Here error is a l l in the not done a l l in the diffidence that faltered.2 "Knock", he did, and out of his knocking on the doors of consciousness, there is l e f t a census of the "households" he visited, The Cantos. In "the close world" of The Cantos, we return to origins, to the places of our birth: Gods float in the azure air, Bright gods and Tuscan, back before 2 d e w w a s s h e d . L i g h t : a n d t h e f i r s t l i g h t , b e f o r e e v e r d e w w a s f a l l e n . P a n i s k s , a n d f r o m t h e o a k s , d r y a s , A n d f r o m t h e a p p l e , m a e l i d , T h r o u g h a l l t h e w o o d , a n d t h e l e a v e s a r e f u l l o f v o i c e s , A - w h i s p e r , a n d t h e c l o u d s b o w e o v e r t h e l a k e , A n d t h e r e a r e g o d s u p o n t h e m , A n d i n t h e w a t e r , t h e a l m o n d - w h i t e s w i m m e r s , T h e s i l v e r y w a t e r g l a z e s t h e u p t u r n e d n i p p l e C C a n t o 3 , p . 1 1 ) I t i s t h e r e , i n u n i s o n w i t h - t h e p o e t , t h a t w e d i s c o v e r " e s t d e u s i n n o b i s " C C a n t o 9 8 ) ; a h i t h e r t o u n t a p p e d " f o r c e " l i v e s w i t h i n u s a w a i t i n g t h e m o m e n t o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e . P o u n d t a k e s u s i n t o o u r s e l v e s a n d i n t o t h a t e x t e n s i o n o f t h e S e l f w e c a l l t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h w e l i v e . H e p r o d s u s t h r o u g h , h i s p o e t r y , t h r o u g h h i s p r o s e , t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h , i s l i f e ; h e e l i c i t s f r o m u s t h a t r e s p o n s e t o a w o r l d i n w h i c h n o s p a c e i s f i x e d a n d n o t i m e m e a s u r e d : I t i s d a w n a t J e r u s a l e m w h i l e m i d n i g h t h o v e r s o v e r t h e P i l l a r s o f H e r c u l e s . A l l a g e s a r e c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s . I t i s B . C . l e t u s s a y i n M o r r o c c o . T h e m i d d l e A g e s a r e i n R u s s i a . T h e f u t u r e s t i r s a l r e a d y i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e f e w . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f l i t e r a t u r e , w h e r e t h e r e a l t i m e i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e a p p a r e n t , a n d w h e r e m a n y d e a d m e n a r e o u r g r a n d c h i l d r e n ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , w h i l e m a n y o f o u r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s h a v e b e e n g a t h e r e d i n t o A b r a h a m ' s b o s o m , o r s o m e m o r e f i t t i n g r e c e p t a c l e . - ^ H e i n d u c e s u s t o e x t e n d o u r b o u n d a r i e s a n d p a r t a k e i n a n e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i n c l u d e s t h e f e a t s o f h e r o e s , t h e v i l l a i n i e s o f m e n , t h e a c t s o f g o d s . I n s o d o i n g , o u r p e d e s t r i a n , c o m m o n s e n s e s t a n d a r d s a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o v a l u e s w h o s e r o o t s t a p t h e l i v i n g , t r a n s f o r m i n g e s s e n s e o f l i f e ^ : a s a c r a m e n t a l v i s i o n o f a w o r l d p e o p l e d w i t h d i v i n i t i e s . 3 S i n c e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , h o w e v e r , i s n o t e a s y , t h e r e t u r n t o o r i g i n s d e m a n d s s t r u g g l e . F o r t h e p a t h i s f i l l e d w i t h p i t f a l l s , w i t h d a n g e r s t h a t a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f a s u b t l e c o n d i t i o n i n g p r o c e s s a b o u t w h i c h t h e o r d i n a r y t r a v e l l e r k n o w s v e r y l i t t l e . A s a n a r t i s t , P o u n d f e e l s b o u n d t o t e l l u s o f t h e d a n g e r s t h a t w i l l b e s e t u s o n t h e r o a d t o d i s c o v e r y o f o u r " h u m a n u n i v e r s e " . H e f e e l s o b l i g e d a s a a p o e t , a n d a t t i m e s i s e v a n g e l i c a l i n t o n e , t o i n d i c a t e t h o s e t h i n g s w h i c h w i l l h a r m : I f p o e t s d o n ' t m a k e c e r t a i n h o r r o r s a p p e a r h o r r i b l e w h o w i l l ? A l l v a l u e s u l t i m a t e l y c o m e f r o m o u r j u d i c i a l s e n t e n c e s . ( T h i s a r r o g a n c e i s n o t m i n e b u t S h e l l e y ' s , a n d i s a b s o l u t e l y t r u e . ) H u m a n i t y i s m a l l e a b l e m u d , a n d t h e a r t s s e t t h e m o u l d s i t i s l a t e r c a s t i n t o . U n t i l t h e c e l l s o f h u m a n i t y r e c o g n i z e c e r t a i n t h i n g s a s e x c r e t e m e n t , t h e y w i l l s t a y i n h u m a n c o l o n a n d p o i s o n i t . ^ T h e p o e t , t h e n , h a s a m i s s i o n . A n d i t w a s a s a p o e t t h a t P o u n d d i s -c o v e r e d t h e r e w a s a c e r t a i n p e r m a n e n t , r e s i d u a l m e m o r y - b a n k t h a t h e l d a r e c o r d o f o r i g i n s , a n d t h a t t h e r e l a y t h e k e y t o m a n ' s p r o g r e s s . H e s t a t e s i n " T h e T r a d i t i o n " : A r e t u r n t o o r i g i n s i n v i g o r a t e s b e c a u s e i t i s a r e t u r n t o n a t u r e a n d r e a s o n . T h e m a n w h o r e t u r n s t o o r i g i n s d o e s s o b e c a u s e h e w i s h e s t o b e h a v e i n t h e e t e r n a l l y s e n s i b l e m a n n e r . T h a t i s t o s a y , n a t u r a l l y , i n t u i t i v e l y . H e d o e s n o t w i s h t o d o t h e r i g h t t h i n g i n t h e w r o n g p l a c e , t o " h a n g a n o x w i t h t r a p p i n g s , " a s D a n t e p u t s i t . H e w i s h e s n o p e d a g o g y b u t h a r m o n y , t h e f i t t i n g t h i n g . 6 T h e h a r m o n y h e s p e a k s o f d e m a n d s t h a t w e a c c e p t , o r w h a t i s m o r e e x -a c t i n g o n t h e h u m a n p s y c h e , t h a t w e s u r r e n d e r t o t h e " f o r c e " t h a t i s r e c o g -n i z e d b y a r t i s t s a s a r r e s t e d i n a w o r k o f a r t . A r t i s t s a r e " t h e a n t e n n a e o f t h e r a c e " , f o r t h e y h e r a l d t h e d a w n i n g o f a n e w a g e , o r c h a n g e a n e x i s t i n g o n e . T h e y p e r c e i v e c u r r e n t s t h a t l i e h i d d e n f r o m o r d i n a r y m a n . T h e y a r e l i n K e d b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r s p e c i a l t a l e n t t o a c o l l e c t i v e l y c o n -s c i o u s c r e a t i v e c o n t i n u u m , a n d a s P o u n d p o i n t s o u t i n h i s e s s a y o n 4 C a v a l c a n t i , " T h e T u s c a n d e m a n d s h a r m o n y i n s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n t h e p l a s t i c . H e d e c l i n e s t o l i m i t h i s a e s t h e t i c t o t h e i m p a c t o f l i g h t o n t h e e y e . . . . T h e r e i s a r e s i d u e o f p e r c e p t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n o f s o m e t h i n g w h i c h r e q u i r e s a h u m a n b e i n g t o p r o d u c e i t " ( L E , p . 1 5 1 ) . T h e a r t i s t i s a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d t h e o r d i n a r y a s E r i c h N e u m a n n s t a t e s , " i n h i s o w n s u f f e r i n g t h e c r e a t i v e m a n e x p e r i e n c e s t h e p r o f o u n d w o u n d s o f h i s c o l l e c t i v i t y a n d h i s t i m e , h e c a r r i e s d e e p w i t h i n h i m a r e g e n e r a t i v e f o r c e c a p a b l e o f b r i n g i n g f o r t h a c u r e n o t o n l y f o r h i m s e l f , b u t a l s o f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y . T r o m h a r m o n y c o m e s t h e B a l a n c i n g o f c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s , t h e " s t i l l n e s s " t h a t i s t h e s e c r e t o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; E l i o t c a p t u r e s t h e m o m e n t t h u s ; W o r d s m o v e , m u s i c m o v e s O n l y i n t i m e ; b u t t h a t w h i c h i s o n l y l i v i n g C a n o n l y d i e . W o r d s , a f t e r s p e e c h r e a c h I n t o t h e s i l e n c e . O n l y b y t h e f o r m , t h e p a t t e r n , C a n w o r d s o r m u s i c r e a c h T h e s t i l l n e s s , a s a C h i n e s e j a r s t i l l M o v e s p e r p e t u a l l y i n i t s s t i l l n e s s . 8 T h e a r t i s t i m b i b e s t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e h a r m o n y - f o r h e i s , a s E l i o t h i n t s , a t o n c e c r e a t o r a n d d e s t r o y e r . A s c r e a t o r , h e c r e a t e s s o m e t h i n g i n t i m e w h o s e b i r t h , b e c a u s e i t i s I n t i m e , i s i t s d e a t H . T e t , h e i s a l s o a s e e r w h o i s a b l e t o u t t e r a s S i l e n u s i s s a i d t o h a v e u t t e r e d t o K i n g M i d a s , " O h - w r e t c h e d e p h e m e r a l r a c e , c h i l d r e n o f c h a n c e a n d m i s e r y , w h y d o y o u c o m p e l m e t o t e l l y o u w h a t i t w o u l d b e j m o s t e x p e d i e n t f o r y o n n o t t o h e a r ? W h a t i s b e s t o f a l l i s u t t e r l y b e y o n d y o u r r e a c h ; n o t t o b e b o r n , n o t t o h e , t o B e n o t h i n g . B u t s e c o n d B e s t f o r y o u - ^ - t o d i e s o o n . " 9 A s c r e a t o r a n d s e e r , t h e a r t i s t c a n a r r i v e a t s o m e i d e a o f w h a t f o r m s t h e B a s i s o f t h e c r e a t i v e c o n t i n u u m , w i t h , w h i c h h e i s i n e x t r i c a B l y l i n k e d , a n d i n t h e e x i s t e n t i a l p r e d i c a m e n t h e f i n d s h i m s e l f h a v i n g , 5 i n s o m e w a y , t o e l u c i d a t e w h a t S i l e n u s h a s s a i d . H e m u s t r e c o n c i l e h i m s e l f t o t h e a w f u l r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h e c a n o n l y c r e a t e t h e t r a n s i t o r y , y e t i n t h e e c s t a c y o f h i s c r e a t e d f o r m l i e s " t h e p a t t e r n " t h a t p o i n t s t o t h e " s t i l l n e s s " t h a t " l i v e s " . F o r P o u n d , m y t h s b e c a m e t h e l i v i n g e m b o d i m e n t s o f t h e p a r a d o x e s w h i c h d e m a n d e d h i s a c c e p t a n c e i f h e w a s t o d i s c o v e r t h e o r i g i n s o f h i s " H u m a n U n i v e r s e " . M y t h s p r o v i d e t h e c l u e s t o t h e u n i t y o f e x i s t e n c e t h a t i s i n h e r e n t i n w h a t a p o e t e x p e r i e n c e s . P o u n d r e c o r d s t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t y o f m y t h i n T h e S p i r i t o f R o m a n c e w h e n h e a f f i r m s : " I b e l i e v e i n a s o r t o f p e r m a n e n t b a s i s i n h u m a n i t y , t h a t i s t o s a y , I b e l i e v e t h e G r e e k m y t h a r o s e w h e n s o m e o n e h a v i n g p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e d e l i g h t f u l p s y c h i c e x p e r i e n c e t r i e d t o c o m m u n i c a t e i t t o o t h e r s a n d f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o s c r e e n h i m -s e l f f r o m p e r s e c u t i o n . " 1 0 P o u n d s a w t h a t t h e a t t e m p t t o e x p r e s s a v i t a l , h u m a n d e s i r e r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d i n a s m a n y w a y s a s p o s s i b l e . P o u n d . f u l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t e a c h p s y c h i c e x p e r i e n c e d e s t r o y s a l l s y s t e m a t i c o r d e r t h a t i s i n s o c i e t y . I t i s t h e o r d e r w i t h i n t h e p s y c h e w h i c h i s f o u n d t o b e a b s o l u t e , a n d t h u s t h e s u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f t h i s n a t u r a l o r d e r , " t h e K o s m o s i n s i d e a h u m a n b e i n g — t h e o r d e r h a r m o n y u n i v e r s e w h i c h w e c a l l o u r i n d i v i d u a l o r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e " , 1 1 m a y c a u s e a p e r s o n t o b e o s t r a c i z e d . T h u s , P o u n d a l s o s a w m y t h a s h a v i n g b e e n b r o u g h t o n b y f e a r o f r e j e c t i o n B y a s o c i e t y w h o s e b o u n d a r i e s a r e s e t . I t i s a f e a r , e n g e n d e r e d B y t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f l i v i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e , o f f i n d i n g t h e t r u t h . , a n d I d o n o t t h i n k I a m t o o f a r w r o n g i n d r a w i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n t o N e i t z s c h e , w h o s t a t e s ; N o w n o c o m f o r t a v a i l s a n y m o r e ; l o n g i n g t r a n s c e n d s a w o r l d a f t e r d e a t h , e v e n t h e g o d s ; e x i s t e n c e i s n e g a t e d a l o n g w i t h t h e g l i t t e r i n g r e f l e c t i o n i n t h e g o d s o r i n a n i m m o r t a l B e y o n d . 6 Conscious of the truth he has once seen, man now sees everywhere only the horror and absurdity of existence; now he understands what is symbolic of Ophelia's fate; now he understands the wisdom of the sylvan god, Silenus: he is nauseated.12 This feeling of nausea too must somehow be subjected to dampers or else i t leads to madness. Pound did not wish to enter into the psychology of the psychic experience as deeply as Neitzsche, yet, in his own way, he found a means of solving the dilemma. In his essay "How to Read", Pound states, "It appears to me quite tenable that the function of literature as a generated prize-worthy;;force is precisely that i t does incite humanity to continue living; that eases the mind of strain, and feeds i t , I mean definitely as nutrition of impulse" (LE, p. 20). It is through literature that he himself produces a "cure" for the malaise of the individual. ... Pound's various thoughts on the role of the a r t i s t in society are presented in an essay entitled "The Serious Artist". There he presented what was and always would be at the basis of any a r t i s t i c endeavor he attempted. The basis was the precision of the thing presented, as he says, in making a comparison between, the a r t i s t and a scientist: "The results of each observation must in i t s e l f be taken as determining a general law, although after experiment, certain observations may be held as typical or normal. The serious a r t i s t is s c i e n t i f i c in that he presents the image of his desire, of his hate as precisely that, as_ precisely the image  of his own desire, hate or indifference. The more precise his record the more lasting and unassailable his work of art" (LE, p. 46). The phrase which I have underlined leads us to another statement of his aesthetics 7 i n Gaudier-Brzeska, "The point of Imagisme i s that i t does not use images as ornaments. The image i s i t s e l f the speech. The image i s the word beyond formulated speech."-'-3 Pound's r o l e as a r t i s t , i n the l i g h t of these statements, i s a ro l e that i s l i v e d i n the poetry of The Cantos. I t i s brought to l i f e ^from the coordinat ing fac tors of a poet ics whose genesis res ts i n a commitment to " truth" . "Truth" i s i n the a c t u a l i t y of the experience, i t s p r e c i s i o n i s i t s s i n g u l a r focus—the a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i o n . The ro l e i s formed from a s p e c i a l knowledge: "The same appl ies with cheques against knowledge. I f Marconi says something about u l t r a - s h o r t waves i t MEANS something. I ts meaning can only be proper ly est imated by someone who knows."l^ To try to abstract i s f a t a l to the p r e c i s i o n of expression that Pound seeks. He must present h i s image i n i t s most auspic ious e x i s t e n t i a l l i g h t . I t cannot be otherwise because a l l images are l i f e , are a l i v e with l i v i n g . They do not come from l i v i n g , but are l i v i n g . Myths are a fundamental a c t u a l i t y of l i f e for they themselves are "cheques against knowledge". The experiencer of the psychic experience knows i n the same sense as a Marconi , that what he had camouflaged "MEANS something". To t h i s extent , Pound employs myths as images q u a l i f y i n g h i s a c t u a l experience. Myths act as touchstones for the transformation of seemingly p a r t i c u l a r and subjec t ive data i n t o u n i v e r s a l , l i v i n g designs. Whatever s i g n i f i c a n c e i s drawn from the designs i s dependent upon the presentat ion of the myths to be ure , but i t a l so depends upon the r e c e p t i v i t y of an audience to the myths. I t i s because of the l a t t e r condi t ion that myths, as I t r u l y b e l i e v e Pound experienced them,in The Cantos, are t i e d to a search 8 for order. The order is f e l t to exist i n times of extraordinary perception and these times are real, "For our basis in nature we rest on the indisputable and very s c i e n t i f i c fact that there are in the 'normal course of things' certain times, a certain sort of moment more than another, when man feels his immortality upon him'.''" (Spirit of Romance, p. 94). In some fundamental way, whatever tension there may be between the presentation of the myths and the receptivity of the audience to them i s resolved in the form of The Cantos, the actual images which present the myths. Pound recognized that things are seen ultimately in process. They are a continuum. What to the ears and eyes is separate i s , in reality, a relationship between two things, a relationship that never resolves i t s e l f completely, but is demonstrable in and through poetry: Le paradis n'est pas a r t i f i c i e l but sepezzato apparently i t exists only in fragments unexpected excellent sausage, the smell of mint, for example. (Canto 74, p. 438) "Fragments" indicate, in some fundamental way, an aff i n i t y of one thing for ^another, and a pervasiveness of this a f f i n i t y . It is in myths that the a f f i n i t y is seen and f e l t most readily. Myths are born out of the minds and experience of man. Out of his mind a "sexual" union of "fragments" occurs and "something real and valid is brought into the world." One may also add without any hesistation, "It i s with EROS that mythology is concerned. Which amounts to saying that as a psyche man is only an order comparable to Kosmos when he or she is love—that only love is order in the vertical of the s e l f . M y t h s change the conception of man for man becomes progenitor along with every other 9 e n e r g y o r d e r t h a t e x i s t s . T h e r e i s n o m a n t h e n r e a l i t y . I t i s a l l o n e a n d i t i s a l l t h e s a m e . M a n i s n o l o n g e r s e e n , a s E r i c h N e u m a n n p o i n t s o u t , " i n a n h i s t o r i c a l o r h o r i z o n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , e m b e d d e d i n h i s g r o u p , h i s t i m e , a n d h i s c u l t u r a l c a n o n , " b u t i s b e g u n t o b e s e e n " i n a n e w p e r s p e c t i v e — v e r t i c a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e a b s o l u t e " . 1 6 M y t h s b e c o m e t h e c u r r e n c y o f t h e n e w c o n c e p t i o n o f m a n . T h e y a r e i n t u n e w i t h t h e A b s o l u t e e v o l v i n g , e n e r g i z i n g " f r a g m e n t s " . E v e r y t h i n g i s t h e A b s o l u t e a n d t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n a t t e m p t i n g a n y e l u c i d a t i o n o f t h e a b s o l u t e r e s i d e s i n d i s c e r n i n g i t s e s s e n c e , i t s b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F o r P o u n d , t h e s o l u t i o n w a s t e c h n i c a l , n a m e l y t h e i d e o g r a m m i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i m a g i s t i c s e q u e n c e . S u c h t e c h n i q u e , r e f l e c t i n g a m o d e o f p e r c e p t i o n , p r o d u c e d a v i e w o f a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s t r i p p e d t o i t s e s s e n t i a l d e t a i l s : a n a p p r o a c h t o t h e A b s o l u t e , a s i t p a t t e r n s t h e p h y s i c a l a n d e x p e r i e n t i a l w o r l d . T h e t e c h n i q u e i s u s e d w i t h m e t a m o r p h o s i s , a n d t h e v a r i o u s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s g e n e r a t e a p o e t r y w h o s e e s s e n c e e l u c i a d a t e s t h e a b s o l u t e . M e t a m o r p h o s i s a l l o w s f o r a n y m u l t i t u d e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t o o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . P o u n d s e e s i n m e t a m o r p h o s i s a d y n a m i c f o r c e w h i c h e m u l a t e d w h a t i s e x p e r i e n c e d a s " c h a n g e " i n t h e u n i v e r s e . I n G u i d e t o  K u l c h u r , h e u n e q u i v o c a b l y s t a t e s h i s b e l i e f i n m e t a m o r p h o s i s w h e n h e s a y s " a g r e a t t r e a s u r y o f v e r i t y e x i s t s f o r m a n k i n d i n O v i d a n d i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f O v i d ' s l o n g p o e m a n d t h a t o n l y i n t h i s f o r m c o u l d i t b e r e g i s t e r e d " . ! ^ H i s e m p h a s i s c l e a r l y s h o w s t h a t i n O v i d ' s M e t a m o r p h o s e s , t h e w h o l e w o r l d i s e x p e r i e n c e d a s a l a t e n t e n e r g y r e a d y t o t r a n s f o r m i t s e l f i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y i n t o a n o t h e r f o r m . N o t h i n g i s e v e r i n s t a s i s . 10 Even the images with which Pound works become "dynamic1.1. His view of the image i s seen as "a rad iant mode or c l u s t e r ; i t i s what I can, and must perforce c a l l a VORTEX, from which, and through which and in to which, ideas are constant ly rushing" (Brzeska, p . 92). The image acts as a s ignature for the metamorphosis, and from the image assoc ia t ions expand i n ever widening c i r c l e s to become the absolute . In a d d i t i o n , the image i s formed out of what Pound has h imsel f experienced. Thus i n h i s Cantos, the image i s the experience, and as a "signature" of myth acts as the medium in.vwhich " h i s t o r i c a l " f igures become metamorphosized in to universa l s whose example withstands the ravages of time and who fos ter a human s p i r i t that Pound wishes to see e s tab l i shed i n modern 18 s o c i e t y . We have a taste of Chinese h i s t o r y , economics and phi losophy; monetary systems and p o l i t i c a l theories are expounded; the personal s u f f e r i n g of the poet i s v i s i b l y seen; yet a l l i s one image, a l l i s a synergy. Nothing remains constant except the idea that " A l l i s a f lux" . A l l things evolve according to an order of occurrence that i s rendered i n the Confucian anology, "That axis i n the center i s the great root of the universe; that harmony i s the universe 's outspread process (of ex i s tence ) . From this root and i n th is harmony, heaven and earth are e s tab l i shed i n t h e i r prec i s e m o d a l i t i e s , and the multitudes of creatures p e r s i s t , 19 nourished on t h e i r mer id ians ." Man i s an order , and as such, i s nourished on a "meridian", an axis of reference of the absolute . Pound sought to r e e s t a b l i s h man's axis of reference by p o i n t i n g out that "his tory i s the continuum which man i s , and i f a man does not l i v e i n the thought that he i s a h i s t o r y , he i s not capable of himself". Pound points to a 11 return to o r i g i n s , to b i r t h p l a c e s of the i n d i v i d u a l . In the re turn to o r i g i n s , h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , h i s t o r y , myths and even r e a l i t y cease to e x i s t as fragmented e n t i t i e s , but d r i f t together and coalesce . Man learns from the process of synthes i s . I contend i t i s c e n t r a l to an understanding of The Cantos to r e a l i z e that i t i s f i r s t and foremost a record of a search for knowledge of synthes i s . I t can be traced as a f i l d 'e tre through The Cantos. I t recurs again and again i n the myths employed i n the poem and i t i s th i s search for order that makes one aware of the fac t : C e r t a i n i t i s that these myths are only i n t e l l i g i b l e i n a v i v i d and g l i t t e r i n g sense to whom they occur . I know, I mean one man who understands;'the L a u r e l , and another who has, I should say met Artemis . These things are for them r e a l . (The S p i r i t of Romance, p . 92) And the magic of The Cantos i s that through metamorphosis the experiences happen to the reader. The Cantos become for the reader r e a l and lead the reader u l t i m a t e l y to "the source p a r t , i n which the stream emerges from the darkness and enters the l i g h t , and i s both at once, darkness and l i g h t , i s the turning po int of t r a n s i t i o n and transformat ion ." In th i s b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n , I have attempted to o u t l i n e what I b e l i e v e i s the bas i s of The Cantos. Out of Pound's e r u d i t i o n came a vast poem whose boundaries boggle the mind. Yet w i th in The Cantos l i e vast areas of c o r r e l a t i o n that bear great rewards i f explored. In the subsequent pages, I w i l l attempt to de l ineate what I have found_are the c e n t r a l c o r r e l a t i v e myths of the poem to show how these myths were used i n combination with persona and Pound's i m a g i s t i c technique i n a search for knowledge, a search for "or ig ins" that has las ted now over s i x t y years 12 and appears to be terminable , at l e a s t for the poet h imse l f , only i n h i s death. In Part I , I w i l l set down what I see as- the c e n t r a l operat ing fac tors of Pound's technique and l i n k these wi th h i s a t t r a c t i o n for myths e s p e c i a l l y those c e n t r a l to the s t r u c t u r e of The Cantos. I w i l l discuss mainly those very complex ideas introduced i n The S p i r i t of Romance e n t i t l e d "Psychology and Troubadours". I w i l l show how mood, myth (mythos), persona are a l l part of a grander scheme that or ig inates i n Pound's view of the world i n which he l i v e s . In Part I I , I w i l l examine with the a i d of a d i s cuss ion of Pound's ideas concerning the nexus of a poet's involvement i n crea t ing poetry , how myths play a c e n t r a l r o l e i n the poem. In th i s d i scuss ion I w i l l point out through deal ing with Canto 39 i n p a r t i c u l a r the c e n t r a l c o r r e l a t i v e myth-complexes of the poem: Aphrodite-Artemis (Diana), and Demeter-Persephone. I w i l l extrapolate from these complex-myths a un i fy ing construct which supports my contention that The Cantos are a search for o r i g i n s i n a Poundian "Human Universe". Part I I I w i l l summarize my ideas on the c o r r e l a t i v e myths presented i n the res t of thes is through a fur ther extrapolat ion on the quasi—mystical features of the image of the "great b a l l of crystal".•''Thxs s ec t ion should thus establishva_-final" perspect ive , i n which:The-Cah.tos--as" a-whole may B~e regarded. A n d I w o r s h i p I h a v e s e e n w h a t I h a v e s e e n . C a n t o I I Chapter One As readers and experiencers of the images a poet presents, we tend to connect reality and myth. Ernst Cassirer says, man lives with obj ects only in so far as he lives with these forms; he reveals reality to himself, and himself to reality, in that he lets himself and the environment enter into this plastic medium, in which the two do not 20 merely make contact, but fuse with each other For the poet, the connection and contact i s supersensorial. Myth is not something that exists as a distinct entity separated and apart from his l i f e , but i t is_ l i f e just as much as breathing. As Cassirer has pointed out, there is no arbitrary distinction nor division imposed upon the "object" and the "forms". They are really one and the same to the poet. Robert Duncan has explained the experience of the poet as 2 1 "the chiaroscuro in which forces and aversions mingle". Following from Cassirer, one can readily see that the poet's world is not a compact, "reasoned" world. His world is a world of shades and shadows, a world where nothing is stable but is in continual movement, a mixing where ' and "forms" partake in a creative fusing. Reason is superseded by an awareness of the ineffable, the unstructured element of l i f e , the process through which creation occurs and which is only seen as the "chiaroscuro". Eliot in "East Coker" sees this process as: 14 Wait without thought, f o r you are not ready f o r thought: So the darkness s h a l l be l i g h t , and the s t i l l n e s s , the dancing.22 The awareness i s a t o t a l experience, an experience that can be c a l l e d "enlightenment". As C a s s i r e r h i n t e d i n h i s statement, such enlightenment i s both s p i r i t u a l and cor p o r e a l f o r "forms" and " o b j e c t s " are i n the r e a l i t y of the c r e a t i o n i n t e r r e l a t e d and a whole. What C a s s i r e r points to and what Pound r e v e a l s i n The Cantos i s that an awareness of myth, the " l i v i n g " part (the r e v e l a t i o n of the myth by the poet to h i m s e l f ) i s an a c t i v e not a passiv e endeavor. Because i t i s an a c t i v e s t r u g g l e i t i n v o l v e s the poet i n an immediacy, a present where present i s defined as a boundary-free e x p e r i e n c e , ; i . e . l a c k i n g a h o r i z o n t a l d i r e c t i o n w i t h past and f u t u r e as l i m i t s . To the poet, the myth becomes as r e a l as the " o b j e c t s " which he uses to express the experience of l i v i n g the myth. Reason i n such a process i s an i r r e l e v a n t and l u d i c r o u s t o o l . I t f a l s i f i e s r a t h e r than r e v e a l s the " o r i g i n s " of the poet which l i e i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Cosmos. Duncan focuses a t t e n t i o n on the experience that reason creates i n j u s t i f y i n g i t s i n c l u s i o n i n 'the " l i v i n g " process when he says that experience "haunts a l l reasonable men today, surrounding them w i t h , and then p r o t e c t i n g them from, the shadows cast by the enlightenment, the darkness of p o s s i b i l i t i e s that c o n t r o l cannot manage the world of thought and f e e l i n g i n which we p a r t i c i p a t e but do not dominate, where we are 23 used by things even as we use them." Un l i k e the poet, the reasoned man cannot come to question h i s o r i g i n s d i r e c t l y , nor can he face the con-f r o n t a t i o n between h i s own s p e c i a l ordering of r e a l i t y w i t h an ord e r i n g 15 (and the poet is totally immersed in i t ) that treats a l l equally, and most importantly, with indifference. The poet unlike the reasoned man cannot discard anything that does not f i t "a system". A l l is equally important. The poet is forced to become adaptive rather than structured in his 24 creation.. The poet has no other recourse because his poetry must be. He cannot rely on any predetermined system that lies outside of what his poetry is in relation to the living reality of the myth he deals with in that poetry. Thus the poet utilizes a special kind of knowing, a kind that Pound speaks of in referring to Leo Frobenius in Guide to Kulchur: He has in especial seen and marked out a kind of knowing, the difference between knowledge that has been acquired by particular effort and the knowing that is in people, "in the a i r " . . . His archeology is not retrospective i t i s immediate, (p. 57) The "kind of knowing" that Pound saw in the work of Frobenius was a view of the reality in which c i v i l i z a t i o n exists as devoid of any "past", and whichnihsteadrregard's? c i v i l i z a t i o n as a series of experiences a l l relevant, but determined by a particular people's awareness of their "present". What Pound saw in Frobenius was the man's uncanny ab i l i t y to perceive the "radical" of a people's operational milieu in their dealings with their origins. Frobenius discovered how a people dealt with their reality and what was the organic base upon which their whole cosmic awareness rested. Pound makes i t quite clear in his references to Frobenius that i t istnbt..hisadiseoyery\6filost^tribes that is important, but that i t is his method of discovery that is important. His method is adaptive and not structured. Thus Pound's attitude towards the material presented in The Cantos 16 i s b u i l t upon the same type of awareness of r e l a t i o n s h i p s that Frobenius l i n k e d h imsel f to i n order to "discover" a people's o r i g i n s . I t i s th i s same r e l a t i o n s h i p that fashions the treatment of myth i n The Cantos. The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a symbiot ic , organic one i n which Pound and myth are not separate e n t i t i e s , but i n a c o n t i n u a l process of interchange. O n e „ c a n n o t separate Pound from the myth withwwhich he deals . The s t ruc ture of the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s dependent on the interchange of r e a l i t y that C a s s i r e r has pointed out i n the statement I quoted above. Just as the experience of l i f e i s an immediate, present one, so too i s The Cantos. The Cantos occur "now", i n the immediacy of the interchange, the tens ion , that occurs between what const i tutes r e a l i t y to Pound at any given moment and what cons t i tu tes r e a l i t y i n the framework of The Cantos. Yet The Cantos e x i s t i n the "now" only as Poind's method of dea l ing with r e a l i t y . The means are to be i d e n t i f i e d with the end, and the end i t s e l f i s a c t i v i t y rather than d e s t i n a t i o n . Before l eav ing th i s idea , I wish to add one more comment that I f e e l i s re levant to seeing the d i s t i n c t i o n that Frobenius makes between the "known" and the "knowing", one that Pound mis in terpre ted i n h i s usual missionary enthusiasm. C a r l Jung s ta ted i n h i s The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche a fac t about what Frobenius had uncovered: . . .Many of those mythologica l mot i f s , i n c o l l e c t i n g which Frobenius , i n p a r t i c u l a r has rendered such s i g n a l s e r v i c e , one a l so found i n dreams, often wi th p r e c i s e l y the same s i g n i f i c a n c e . . . . T h e comparison of t y p i c a l dream motifs wi th those of mythology suggests the idea—already put f o r t h by Neitzsche—that dream-th ink ing should be regarded as a phylogenet ic o lder mode of thought . . . Just as the body bears the traces of i t s phylogenet ic development, so a l so does the human mind. Hence there i s nothing s u r p r i s i n g about the p o s s i b i l i t y that the f i g u r a t i v e language of dreams i s a s u r v i v a l from an archa ic mode of thought.^5 1 7 J u n g ' s c o m m e n t h i n t s a t t h e r a d i c a l o f t h e b e l i e f o f t h e p o e t e s p e c i a l l y w h e r e h e s p e a k s a b o u t a n " a r c h a i c m o d e o f t h o u g h t " . T h e r e t u r n t o " o r i g i n s " s e e m s t o b e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l u n i o n b e t w e e n m a n a n d t h e c o s m o s , a u n i o n t h a t C h a r l e s O l s o n h a s s o b r i l l i a n t l y e p i t o m i z e d i n t h e c o n c r e t e p h y s i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y o f t o d a y ' s s c i e n c e i n " E q u a l , T h a t i s , T o t h e R e a l S e l f " : T h e i n e r t i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e w o r l d i s a_ r e a l t h i n g  w h i c h n o t o n l y e x e r t s e f f e c t s u p o n m a t t e r b u t i n t u r n  s u f f e r s s u c h e f f e c t s . . . . t h a t m a t t e r o f f e r s p e r i l s w i d e r t h a n m a n i f h e d o e s n ' t d o w h a t s e e m s t h e h a r d e s t t h i n g f o r h i m t o d o , o u t s i d e o f s o m e a r t a n d s c i e n c e : t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i n g s , a n d t h e p r e s e n t o n e s , a r e t h e a b s o l u t e c o n d i t i o n s ; b u t t h e y a r e s o b e c a u s e t h e  s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e r e a l a r e f l e x i b l e , [ m y i t a l i c s ] q u a n t a d i s s o l v e i n t o v i b r a t i o n s , a l l d o e s f l o w , a n d y e t i s t h e r e , t o b e m a d e p e r m a n e n t , i f t h e m e a n s a r e e q u a l . 2 6 J a n e H a r r i s o n i n T h e m i s : A S t u d y o f t h e S o c i a l O r i g i n s o f G r e e k R e l i g i o n p o i n t s o u t t h a t , " A m y t h o s t o t h e G r e e k w a s p r i m a r i l y j u s t a t h i n g s p o k e n , u t t e r e d b y t h e m o u t h . I t s a n t i t h e s i s o r r a t h e r c o r r e l a t i v e 2 7 i s t h e t h i n g d o n e , e n a c t e d , t h e e r g o n o r w o r k . " H a r r i s o n ' s s t a t e m e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t m y t h m a y b e r e g a r d e d a s a s e l f - g e n e r a t i n g f a c t o r . I n t h a t s e n s e i t m a k e s i t s e l f n e w e a c h t i m e i t c o m e s i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h a h u m a n e l e m e n t f o r : . A l w a y s t h e r e i s t h e s a m e a n t i t h e s i s o f s p e e c h a n d a c t i o n w h i c h a r e b u t t w o w a y s o f e x p r e s s i n g e m o t i o n , t w o f o r m s o f r e a c t i o n ; t h e m y t h o s t h e t a l e t o l d , t h e a c t i o n r e c o u n t e d , i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e a c t i o n a c t u a l l y d o n e . I t i s f r o m t h i s a n t i t h e s i s t h a t t h e s e n s e o f u n r e a l i t y , n o n e x i s t e n c e g r a d u a l l y a r i s e s . 2 8 I f e e l t h a t P o u n d h a s a l s o s e e n t h a t t h e a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f a m y t h o l o g y t a k e s p l a c e i n i t s t e l l i n g , a n d , i n d o i n g s o , t a k e s m a n b a c k t o h i s o r i g i n s . " F r o m s o u n d s m a d e b y t h e m o u t h , t o w o r d s s p o k e n a n d t h e n c e t o t a l e o r s t o r y t o l d t h e t r a n s i t i o n i s e a s y . " P o u n d t r a c e s b a c k t h r o u g h t h i s s e t 18 and r e g i s t e r s h i s r e a c t i o n i n a statement i n The S p i r i t of Romance; I b e l i e v e the Greek myth arose when someone having passed through d e l i g h t f u l psychic experience t r i e d to communicate i t to others and found i t necessary to screen himself from p e r s e c u t i o n . Speaking a e s t h e t i c a l l y , the myths are e x p l i c a t i o n s of mood. (p. 92) Pound sees the Greek;myth as formulated i n r e a c t i o n to the attempt by the experiencer of " d e l i g h t f u l psychic phenomena" to e x p l a i n what i s i n d e f i n a b l e and unexplainable i n words. I t i s a l s o important to n o t i c e that Pound sees t h i s r e a c t i o n as based on a f e a r of p e r s e c u t i o n . Taken i n the context of what Duncan says about "reasoned man" above, Pound's p a r t i c u l a r use of myth i n The Cantos i n d i c a t e s h i s own view of cosmic r e a l i t y . In Pound's emphasis, the experiencer of psychic phenomena was bound by the e x i s t i n g circumstances of the Greek s e n s i b i l i t y to present what he experienced as the pantheon of gods we now a s s o c i a t e w i t h ancient Greece. Masked t h e r e f o r e i n the guise of a pantheon of gods, goddesses and other beings i s the e s s e n t i a l , p r i m o r d i a l Greek experience of the i n e f f a b l e . In the i n d i v i d u a l experience i t s e l f there i s present the "dance" w i t h the cosmos, the s h a r i n g i n c r e a t i o n where i n d i v i d u a l and cosmos use one..another s y m b i o t i c a l l y . Since myths, as Pound explains, are the "screens" set up by an i n d i v i d u a l to by-pass p e r s e c t u i o n , they are the " s i g n a t u r e s " of a deeper experienced r e a l i t y . Because myths are " e x p l i c a t i o n s of mood", mood i s the r e f o r e a p r i m o r d i a l f a c t o r of cosmic consciousness. Mood i n Pound's r e a l i t y i s the touchstone of genuine experience. I t i s a f a c t o r that i s a key to the s t r u c t u r e of a man's " o r i g i n s " . Mood i s the r e g i s t e r atemporally of the i n d i v i d u a l response to psychic phenomena which are i n themselves experiences of the process of c r e a t i o n which the cosmos i s . 19 Specifically, mood is the energy that generates myth for i t is the interrelationship between act and word. It i s the energizer of an "Incarnation" of space and time in- material and that material is words. Because myth is the explication of mood, myth can be used to e l i c i t mood, or more saliently,amood is implicit in myth. Because mood, as I have explained, is a primordial factor of an individual's experience of reality, mood can be used to e l i c i t the "delightful psychic experience", as witnessed in the individual case. Charles Olson has seen how Pound has employed myth and mood in the ways I just described and has shown how this is done in writing to Robert Creeley in "The Mayan Letters". He says to Creeley: {Pound] thus creates the methodology of the Cantos, viz., a space-field where by inversion, though the material is a l l time material he has driven through i t so sharply by the beak of his ego, that, he has turned time into what we must now have, space and it s l i v e air.29 If we take Olson's statement and apply i t in tandem with Pound's regarding the Greek myth and psychic experience therein, we find three factors in operation as Pound's myth derives from mood. First of a l l "the space-field'.1 is the actual experience at the primordial level of the cosmos complete with i t s undifferentiated experiences. Within that spacefield are particular nodes ("time material"): the Greek myth dominant significantly in The Cantos until Rock-Drill; the Egyptian myth of the later Cantos; the Poundian myth concretized in the image "the acorn of light" of Canto 116. Secondly, Olson's use of the image "the beak of his ego" points to the method through which mood and myth are concretized in The Cantos. Myths are the "time material" 2 0 w h i c h t h e " e g o " , i n i t s i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e o f m o o d t h r o u g h m y t h , u n i t e s a l l m y t h s a s o n e — t h e P o u n d i a n m y t h w h i c h i s T h e C a n t o s . T h i r d l y , a s t h e e g o " s m a s h e s " t h r o u g h , t i m e d i s a p p e a r s a n d w h a t w e h a v e i s a " d e l i g h t f u l p s y c h i c e x p e r i e n c e " a s m y t h h a s c o m e f u l l c i r c l e t o b e c o m e " t h e a c o r n o f l i g h t " , a m y t h o f P o u n d ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f a l l m y t h s a s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e C o s m o s a s f l u x . P o u n d s t a t e s i n t h e s a m e e s s a y ( " P s y c h o l o g y a n d T r o u b a d o u r s ' ^ - r - f r o m w h i c h I " d e r i v e t h e i d e a o f t h e G r e e k m y t l j i t h a t r e g a r d i n g O v i d , B r o w n i n g a n d A p u l e i u s : T h e m o o d , t h e p l a y i s e v e r y t h i n g ; f a c t s a r e n o t h i n g . O v i d , b e f o r e B r o w n i n g , r a i s e s t h e d e a d a n d d i s s e c t s t h e i r m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s ; h e w a l k s w i t h t h e p e o p l e o f m y t h ; A p u l e i u s , i n r e a l l i f e , i s c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e f i c t i t i o u s h e r o . . . ( p . 9 2 ) I n t h e l i g h t o f w h a t I h a v e j u s t d i s c u s s e d , P o u n d ' s e m p h a s i s o n t h e i d e a " f a c t s a r e n o t h i n g " i s i m p o r t a n t . F a c t s f o r P o u n d , a s h e i n d i c a t e s i n t h i s q u o t a t i o n , e n t e r t a i n r e a s o n s f o r s o m e t h i n g , , a n d r e a s o n ' b e c a u s e o f i t s s t r u c t u r i n g c a t e g o r i z i n g f u n c t i o n o f r e a s o n , i t i s t h e d e s t r o y e r o f m o o d . R e a s o n a m p u t a t e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e " d e l i g h t f u l p s y c h i c e x p e r i e n c e " a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e r o f t h a t p h e n o m e n o n . B y s t a t i n g t h a t O v i d " w a l k s w i t h t h e p e o p l e o f m y t h " , P o u n d s r e - e m p h a s i z e s t h e f a c t t h a t O v i d s h a r e s i n a d a n c e o f c r e a t i o n w i t h t h e C o s m o s ; t h e r e i s a n i m m e d i a c y o f p r e s e n c e , a f u n c t i o n i n g i n a n d w i t h m o o d . T h e r e i s n o d i f f e r e n c e i n k i n d b e t w e e n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y o f O v i d ' s M e t a m o r p h o s e s a s h e e x p e r i e n c e d i t , a n d t h e a c t u a l t a l e ; t h e r e i s „ a . , f u n d a m e n t a l u n i t y , f o r ' t h e w o r d s u s e d i n T h e C a n t o s ( O v i d , e x p e r i e n c e d ) r . a n d v i n t h e w r i t i n g h o f n t h e t a l e ; - a r e t h e s a m e . T h e t a l e i s h i s u n i v e r s e a n d h i s e g o h a s c o n c r e t i z e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n " s p a c e a n d i t s l i v e a i r " . T h e r e i s a t o t a l a b a n d o n m e n t o f r e a s o n a n d a t o t a l l y e x i s t e n t i a l d a n c e i s e n a c t e d w i t h t h e c o s m o s . 21 The psychic experience seen i n the l i g h t of t h i s i d e a allows the i n d i v i d u a l f o r the duration of h i s experience to be p a r t of the atemporal consciousness that i s represented i n myths. I t allows the i n d i v i d u a l to view the system i n which he has h i s base w i t h the same i n d i f f e r e n c e as he views c r e a t i o n as i t occurs i n the cosmos. In terms of The Cantos, t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l i n a c o l l e c t i v e l y renewing process generated by mood allows the poem to define i t s own l i m i t s because experience i s f i r s t and foremost an i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g . The mood of The  Cantos i s the a c t i v a t i n g f i e l d i n which the i n d i v i d u a l partakes i n "a d e l i g h t f u l p s y c h i c experience" and thus returns to h i s o r i g i n s which i s r e a l l y Pound's o r i g i n s which i s the c o l l e c t i v e l y conscious enactment of c r e a t i o n of the Cosmos. At the same time, through the numerous in t e r c h a n g i n g myths that f l o a t i n and out of the poem simultaneously, Pound p o i n t s out that mood i s omnipresent and, as he formulates i n The Cantos, "The f a c t of the matter i s that one of the q u a l i t i e s proper to r e a l i t y i s that of possessing p e r s p e c t i v e , that i s of o r g a n i z i n g i t s e l f i n d i f f e r e n t ways so as to be v i s i b l e from p o i n t s " . Since r e a l i t y , as Pound has shown i n The Cantos, has p e r s p e c t i v e , and si n c e Pound s t r e s s e s the ps y c h i c nature of experience, and s i n c e , i n "Psychology and Troubadours" e s p e c i a l l y , that experience i s r e l a t i v e i n an E I n s t e i n i a n sense, what the i n d i v i d u a l experiences i s an apperception of the Absolute. The i n d i v i d u a l experience, as Ortega has pointed out, becomes, th e ' m e a s u r e ^ o f x r e a l i t y y i t h e "ego as eye". Ortega observes: ... t h i s r e a l i t y i s what the observer perceives from the place he occupies; i t i s ther e f o r e a r e l a t i v e r e a l i t y . But as t h i s r e l a t i v e r e a l i t y ... i s the only one there i s , i t must be, as w e l l as b e i n g , r e l a t i v e , be true o r , what comes to the same t h i n g , absolute r e a l i t y , 3 0 2 2 M y t h f u n c t i o n s a s t h e m e d i u m i n w h i c h t h e A b s o l u t e i s p l a c e d i n t h e l a r g e r c o l l e c t i v e l y - c o n s c i o u s s o c i e t a l e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s a t t h i s l e v e l t h a t I s e e T h e C a n t o s f u n c t i o n i n g a s a n e v e r - c h a n g i n g c o n t a c t p o i n t b e t w e e n t h e " e g o " a s I a n d t h e e g o a s " e y e " . T h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s o b s e r v a t i o n o f h i s r o l e i n m y t h i s t a k e n t o a f u l l e r r e a l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e d i r e c t i n g o f e n e r g y f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e e x i s t e n t i a l " I " , t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h a t " I " a s t h e p e r c e i v e r o f t h e w h o l e r a n g e o f " d e l i g h t f u l p s y c h i c e x p e r i e n c e s " w h i c h m a k e u p t h a t " I " . I t i s t h e r e a l i z a t i o n b v t h e i n d i v i d u a l o f t h e f a c t t h a t , ^ l i k e T h e C a n t o s , h e t o o i s m e r e l y f l u x a n d n o t h i n g e l s e . H e i s a c o n t i n u u m n o t a p a s t , p r e s e n t , a n d f u t u r e ; h e i s 31 a n i m m e d i a c y , a " n o w " . I f w e l o o k a t T h e C a n t o s , w e f i n d a p a s s a g e w h i c h i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e m e a n i n g o f m o o d a n d i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h m y t h . I n C a n t o 7 9 , w e r e a d : 0 L y n x g u a r d t h i s o r c h a r d K e e p f r o m D e m e t e r ' s f u r r o w T h i s f r u i t h a s a f i r e i n i t , P o m o n a , P o m o n a N o g l a s s i s c l e a r e r , t h a n t h e g l o b e s o f t h i s f l a m e w h a t s e a i s c l e a r e r t h a n t h e p o m o g r a n a t e b o d y h o l d i n g t h e f l a m e ? P o m o n a , P o m o n a , L y n x , k e e p w a t c h o n t h i s o r c h a r d T h i s i s n a m e d M e l a g r a n a o r t h e P o m o g r a n a t e f i e l d T h e s e a i s n o t c l e a r e r i n a z u r e N o r t h e H e l i a d s b r i n g i n g l i g h t H e r e a r e l y n x e s H e r e a r e l y n x e s , I s t h e r e a s o u n d i n t h e f o r e s t o f p a r d o r o f b a s s a r i d o r c r o t a l e o r o f l e a v e s m o v i n g ? ( p . 4 9 0 ) L o o k i n g a t t h e p a s s a g e w e s e e a n i m m e d i a c y o f i n v o l v e m e n t . T h e r e e x i s t s a r e a l i t y t h a t i s a t o n e o a n d t h e s a m e t i m e a n e x t r a p o e t i c a l 23 extension of the Poundian universe and an extension of the imago-associative references of myths that are united with the distinct and perceived presence of the poet as speaker. We have focused here in the symbiotic contraction of poetic experience the constructs of The Cantos. We begin with a reference to the lynx, an animal sacred to Dionysius; we have the name of Demeter introduced and juxtaposed to her i s the Dionysian r i t e of which I w i l l speak more completely shortly. Presented with Demeter and Dionysius we have the Persephone myth and the idea of sex. We also have presented to us the idea of light-imagery as i t operates within The Cantos. The emphasis is definitely mythological, but i n -separable from the myths is the idea of sex. Sex is presented in i t s ordinary sense as the relationships between what Is male and what is female, yet i t offers also a means of describing myth., and more especially, of presenting mood. The passage vibrates with a tense expectancy, a highly-charged d i s t i l l -ation of emotion waiting to burst out into creation. Pound wishes to emphasize the fact that the discovery of sex at the physical level i s at the same time, in some fundamental way, the discovery of Creation. With the discovery of sex, the realization of polarities in the physical universe, and aptly exemplified in the myths presented, there is the discovery of Life and Death. The incliision of the light-imagery- emphasizes the fact that sex operates as a perspective from which reality i s seen to exist in i t s multi-dimensional aspect. The pomogranate seed Is at one and the same time the source of creation: Demeter's benevolence and the subsequent rejuvenation of a dead earth, and the source of death, Persephone's seasonal return to Hades and the death of Earth. 2 4 I t i s also expressive of the death of childhood and the immediate b i r t h i n t o adulthood, from which discovery (of sex on the human l e v e l ) one learns the secret of l i f e and death which i s transformation. Mood operant here i n Canto 79 i n i t i a t e s then sustains the continual discovery and presentation of experiences on a l l l e v e l s of the "human universe". Mood i s seen here as the energy which sustains and nourishes the discoveries made i n the experience of the poem, as i t establishes for the duration of a thought, a l l the causal adaptations of a singular image. I t i s impossible to speak of the Lynx passage i n univalent terms because the passage i s not composed of a s i n g l y , definable image, but i s composed of collectively-composite images whose singular r e a l i t y i s not a s t a t i c node but a continuum. The Lynx passage turns upon i t s e l f again and again i n ever expanding spheres of reference, so that one image i s not dominant. The r e s u l t i s a synergy of sorts generated by and through mood, and enacted i n myth. Because Pound has referred to Ovid as "walking with the people of myth, I wish to elucidate Pound's point further and point out i n the l i g h t of the discussion of the Lynx passage how Ovid's version possesses the same immediacy of presentation that pervades the Lynx passage. In Ovid, the perspective can be s a i d to be more structured, and therefore c o n s i s t i n g of a singular emphasis. Yet i t i s impossible to miss the same sense of immediacy, of "nowness" that pervades Pound's version: Here looking on these h o l i e r i t e s with lewde prophaned eyes, King Pentheys moother f i r s t of a l l h i r f o r e s a i d sonne espies. 2 5 A n d l i k e a B e l d a m f i r s t o f a l l s h e d o t h u p o n h i m r u n n e , A n d w i t h h i r J a v e l i n g f u r i o u s l y s h e f i r s t d o t h w o u n d h i r s o n n e . C o m e h i t h e r s i s t e r s c o m e s h e c r i e s , h e r e i s t h a t m i g h t y B o r e , H e r e i s t h a t B o r e t h a t s t r o t e s o u r f i e l d e s , h i m w i l l I s t i k e t h e r e f o r e . H e n o w c o n d e m n e s h i s o w n d e f a u l t , a n d s a y e s h e w a s t o o b o l d e , A n d w o u n d e d a s h e w a s h e c r i e s h e l p e A u n t A u t o n o e , N o w f o r A c t e o n s b l e s s e d s o u l e s o m e m e r c i e s h o w t o m e . S h e w i s t n o t w h o A c t e o n w a s , b u t r e n t w i t h o u t d e l a y H i s r i g h t h a n d o f f : a n d I n o t a r e h i s t o t h e r h a n d a w a y . T o l i f t u n t o h i s m o t h e r t h o t h e w r e t c h h a d n e r e a n a r m e : B u t s h e w i n g h i r h i s m a i m e d c o r s e , a n d w o u n d e s y e t b l e e d i n g w a r m e , 0 m o t h e r , s e e , h e s a y e s : w i t h t h a t A g a v e h o w l e t h o u t : A n d w r i t h e d w i t h h i r n e c k e a w r i e , a n d s h o o k e h i r h a i r e a b o u t . A n d h o l d i n g f r o m h i s b o d i e t o m e h i s h e a d e i n b l o o d i e h a n d e s , S h e c r i e s : 0 f e l l o w e s i n t h i s d e e d o u r n o b l e c o n q u e s t s t a n d s . 3 2 T h e p u n i s h m e n t t h a t f a l l s u p o n P e n t h e u s f o r h i s d e f a m a t i o n a n d r e f u s a l t o w o r s h i p D i o n y s i u s i s h o r r i b l e a n d t h e m o n s t r o s i t y o f t h e a c t c a n a c t u a l l y b e f e l t i n t h e i m a g e r y a n d t h e d i a l o g u e . W i t h a k e e n s e n s e o f o b j e c t i v i t y , O v i d s e n s u a l l y e n a c t s t h e o r g i a s t i c p l e a s u r e w i t h w h i c h t h e w o m e n r i p a p a r t t h e h u m b l e d P e n t h e u s . H e i s c a r e f u l t o c a m o u f l a g e t h e r e a l i n t e n t o f t h e a t t a c k u n t i l t h e e n d w h e n i n a s i n g l e l i n e t h e a w e s o m e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e D i o n y s i a n r e v e l c o m e s t o t h e f o r e : " 0 f e l l o w e s i n t h i s d e e d o u r n o b l e c o n q u e s t s t a n d s " . T h e m e a n i n g o f h e r w o r d s a r e d e v a s t a t i n g i n t h e i r i m p a c t f o r t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y a c k n o w l e d g e t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n e x t e r i o r f o r c e w h i c h w o r k s t h r o u g h t h e w o m e n a n d o v e r w h i c h t h e y h a v e n o r e a l c o n t r o l , y e t f e e l c o n t r i t e i n h a v i n g f o l l o w e d . H e r e w e s e e t h e D i o n y s i a n a n d t h e A p o l l i n i a n c l a s h w i t h u r g e n t f u r y . P e n t h e u s , t h e d i s -b e l i e v e r , i s k i l l e d , o r r a t h e r t r a n s f o r m e d , i n a n a c t o f o r g i a s t i c f r e n z y . 26 His reasoned, wanton, and structured d i s b e l i e f i s transformed by an equally unreasoned, wanton, and unstructured b e l i e f to a balance where the r e a l i t y of the Dionysian r e v e l i s recognized as a s a l i e n t part of nature. Mood plays i t s part by e s t a b l i s h i n g the p o l a r i t y within which the transformation from death to l i f e w i l l occur. We see the causal connections between Pentheus' act of irreverence and his death at the hands of h i s mother. I t also re-establishes the balance between dream and r e a l i t y for we see that the v i c t i m i s recognized as being a v i c t i m and the slayer accepts her r o l e i n the drama of transformation that has been enacted. I f we look at the Ovid passage from another perspective, persona functions as a meta-presence. Ovid i s there i n the passage as author, yet he i s not. There i s a "separateness" between the f e e l i n g of the poem as something written and the a c t u a l i t y of i t s presentation. The author i s only there because his name i s associated with the poem. The paradox i s explained by George Wright i n The Poet i n the Poem; But while the words of the.poem are spoken by a persona, they are also i n some sense spoken by the poet. They issue from two d i f f e r e n t mouths simultaneously—from the mouth of the mask and from the mouth of the man who wears the mask.33 You can f e e l the presence of the poet, but cannot s p e c i f i c a l l y point to i t . He i s there as the coordinating force giving the words a f i e l d i n which they arrange themselves i n the reader's mind of t h e i r own accord. The poetry we experience i n Ovid and i n The Cantos i s a r e c i p r o c a l proposition. The poem i t s e l f does not remain i n s t a s i s on the page, but becomes part of the experience of the reader as i t i s part of the experience of the poet. The poetry t r u l y i s as Olson states: "energy transferred from 27 where the poet got i t (he w i l l have several causations), by way of the 34 poem i t s e l f to, a l l the way over to, the reader". In the f l i g h t of th i s d e f i n i t i o n , the persona becomes a "vector" as i t i s used? 1 inlphysics?.. Its magnitude i s the extent of i t s contemporaneity i n r e l a t i o n to the mood, and i t s d i r e c t i o n i s omnidirectional within the frame of r e f e r e n c e — t h e poem. S t i l l on a te c h n i c a l l e v e l , mood i s linked with the poet's use of persona. I t can be s a i d that mood f a c i l i t a t e s the a c t u a l i z a t i o n of the energy that creates the personae that operate within the poem. There i s subtle yet noticeable l i n k among the voices of the poem. The voices do not belong s o l e l y to Pound nor to the created personae nor to the reader. Instead they are part of a co l l e c t i v e l y - c o n s c i o u s enactment of images that a r i s e s because of the fact that c e r t a i n elements i n the poem are presented i n a cer t a i n order. When an image i s created, there i s immediately set up a causal connection between the image as presented i n the poem and the co l l e c t i v e l y - c o n s c i o u s images within which the poet operates. I have defined this connection as I see i t operating i n The Cantos a polyvalent persona r a d i c a l . The causal connection that I f i n d i n The Cantos between the image as i t i s seen i n the poem and the c o l l e c t i v e l y - c o n s c i o u s images within whose framework the poet operates i s simply a more technical d e s c r i p t i o n of my previous idea of the ego as " I " and the ego as "eye". Within the poem, the image presented by the poet i s a creation of f a c t s . I t operates dependent on the poet's view of r e a l i t y for i t i s the v e r b a l i z a t i o n of the poet's r e a l i t y as he sees i t . At the same time, however, I have shown how mood pervades mythos and thus determines c a t e g o r i c a l l y the range 28 of perspective that the poet w i l l use. Thus as " I " the poet w i l l ex-perience r e a l i t y on a one to one basis which he v e r b a l i z e s . But because that judgment to ver b a l i z e i n a c e r t a i n way i s contingent on mood (the primordial root) the v e r b a l i z a t i o n i s not t o t a l l y an i n d i v i d u a l response. I t i s tempered to a very great extent by the poet's immersion i n a larger mythos. The Sp.pa&eSisy reaction of the ego as " I " , the one to one v e r b a l i z a t i o n , i s not so, but i s a synthesis engendered by the ego as "eye". The i n d i v i d u a l consciousness i s using the cosmos as i t i s being used by i t i n the v e r b a l i z a t i o n of the image. The causal connection i s therefore the l i n k of consciousness between the poet's ego as "eye" and the reader's ego as "eye". One sees through the experience of the other. The personae cannot be said to be the poet's own because they are operative only i n r e l a t i o n with a larger my thos of which the reader i s a part. The poem therefore becomes the f i e l d i n which the energy generated by mood i s transferred from poet a l l the way over to the reader. Returning to the device I see Pound using i n the poem, I have used the term poUy-valent because the persona, l i k e a molecule possessing a high valence, has a p o s s i b i l i t y of forming many compounds dependent on the contingent conditions of the f i e l d i n which i t finds i t s e l f . I f one looks at Canto 4 } f o r example^the number of d i f f e r e n t , yet s i n g u l a r l y u n i f i e d masks that a r i s e are great i n comparison say with Canto 9. One point I wish to stress i s that the polyvalent persona r a d i c a l i s not a s i n g l e , i s o l a t a b l e e n t i t y , but i s an everchanging continuum. I chose the word " r a d i c a l " because I wished to emphasis the organic nature of a dominant emphasis within each image c l u s t e r that employs personae. 29 Perhaps an even more l u c i d explanation of what i s the b a s i c mechanism i n the use of masks i n The Cantos i s to say the polyvalent  persona r a d i c a l functions as a matrix. I t i s a form which gives to mythological or h i s t o r i c a l l y r e a l persons an order, a f i x e d , i d e n t i f i a b l e "image". This "image" i s only f l e e t i n g while the r a d i c a l i t s e l f i s being changed,as mood energizes i t . The "image" i s a p o l a r i z e d "object" that remains stable only long enough to act as a contact point for a glimpse of a more pervasive, more " r e a l " image that i s a compound not an element. The r e a l image i s what mood di r e c t s attention to. I t i s l i k e a " d e l i g h t f u l psychic experience". You experience the r e a l i t y of the cosmos through i t s parts, but only by. seeing thoseapa-rtsbchange, not remaining stable. In each image c l u s t e r where the r a d i c a l i s employed, we discover Pound's central emphasis throughout the poem, namely that change i s r e a l , and nothing e l s e i s \ that man must r e a l i z e himself as a continuum, a " v i b r a t i o n " not a s o l i d stable organism. Thus i n summarization, the polyvalent persona r a d i c a l i s a c e n t r a l s t a b i l i z i n g persona matrix which transforms i t s e l f i n t o any mask, dependent upon the images presented. I t appears to operate as a p o s i t i v e feed-back system: what i s used reinforces the images and the mask which i s formed by those images. Another qu a l i t y that the polyvalent persona r a d i c a l demonstrates i s that of polar-i z a t i o n . I t defines the aspects of the mask which the p a r t i c u l a r images evoke, creating a poetic " f i e l d " , i n which there i s an associative interplay between the mask and i t s substantive p a r a l l e l i n h i s t o r y or i n myth. At the same time, however, a curious synthesis takes place. The contrast between the mask and the conscious r e a l i z a t i o n of the mask as e x i s t i n g i n 30 poetry, and not i n r e a l i t y ' , disappears and what we have i s a synergy. One can note the separate e n t i t i e s w i th in the poetry , but i t i s the funct ion ing of the whole, the images and the mask together that forms the poetry . The d i s s e c t i o n of the poetry produces only "pieces" of the whole. The poem i t s e l f remains a b lock moving according to the energy i t i t s e l f , as a whole, produces. I f i n d Buckminsterr F u l l e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n of synergy to be most appropriate i n shedding l i g h t on what I have j u s t s t a t e d . He says, "Synergy i s the only word i n our language that means the behavior of whole systems unpredicated by the separate ly observed behaviors of the system's separate parts or any subassembly of the system 35 p a r t s . " The persona r a d i c a l i s a combining element which creates the poetry we experiencesas the combination of many vo ices , yet seeming i c o n s i s t i n g of a s in g u la r core v o i c e . I f we look at the Lynx passage again , the c e n t r a l s t a b i l i z i n g matrix cons is t s of a p o l a r i z e d complex of Demeter-Persephone and Dionys ius . The a f f i n i t y of each partner of the complex for i t s opposite i s seen i n the a s s o c i a t i v e propert ies of the images w i t h i n the s t a b i l i z i n g matr ix . The Lynx image es tab l i shes the Dionysian po l e , whi le the Demeter image es tabl i shes the A p o l l i n e a n p o l e . The passage i s set in to motion by the Pomona image, which begins the movement towards the e s t a b l i s h i n g of the s ingu lar "core" v o i c e . Pomona was a Roman goddess who d id not love the w i l d woodland, but pre ferred to prune and tend the orchard . She shut h e r s e l f away from men, tending her orchard ins tead . Only one man p e r s i s t e d i n h i s courtship of her and he was Vertumnus. He d i sguised himsel f each time he came to the orchard and so r a i s e d no fear i n the Pomona. F i n a l l y he r e a l i z e d that h i 31 disguises were leading him no where and he f e l l upon a new p l a n . He came to the orchard dressed as an o l d lady and a f t e r admiring Pomona's handiwork, he k i s sed her . Pomona was not taken aback by the gesture at f i r s t because i t was an o ld woman who k i ssed her . But , she became alarmed when the o ld woman p e r s i s t e d i n k i s s i n g her . Vertumnus noted the alarm and stopped. He went and sat opposite an elm tree over which grew a grape v ine loaded with grapes. He s a i d to Pomona: "How l o v e l y they are together, and how d i f f e r e n t they would be apar t , the tree useless and the v ine f l a t on the ground unable to bear f r u i t . Are you not l i k e such a vine? You turn from a l l who des i re you. You w i l l t ry to stand a lone . And yet there i s one—l i s t en to an o ld woman who loves you more than you know—you would do w e l l not to r e j e c t , Vertumnus. You are h i s f i r s t love and w i l l be h i s l a s t . And he too cares for the orchard and the garden. He would work by your side."36 He then t o l d her of the sad s tory of the maiden Anaxarete and her lover I p h i s . Venus turned her in to a stone image a f ter the s u i t o r hung himself on her gatepost because of the maiden's d i s d a i n . Vertumnus then took o f f h i s d i sgu i se and Pomona accepted the youth and h i s l o v e . . In the l i g h t of th i s myth, i t becomes apparent that the Pomona image i s a "seed c r y s t a l " which causes the p o l a r i t i e s of the passage to prec ipate the masks used i n t h e i r presenta t ion . The mask which ut ters the invocat ion to Dionysius i s succeeded by another m a s k w K ± c h / v 6 r e e s a n invocat ion to Pomona. These two i n turn co inc ide and are represented by a t h i r d mask/who heightens the experience by ty ing together then disassembling the themes which the masks present . Pomona becomes Persephone, who i s mourned by Demeter, who i s the guardian of e a r t h . Dionysius i s invoked to keep a l i v e the s p i r i t of dream, of spontaneity that br ings about transformat ion. The voices together mesh 32 i n a plea for succour as the passage moves with i n the canto as a whole. An equilibrium i s wrought from the i n t e r a c t i o n of the voices and a t h i r d dominant voice emerges, that of Pound as prisoner i n P i s a . The passage forms a block with the rest of the canto as Albert Cook says: Each i n d i v i d u a l canto i s made up of blocks of statement, and each block tends to center i n a v i s u a l perception (ideogram) or an event from someone's l i f e (persona), or occasionally i n something that possesses the dual character of ideogram and persona. Ideogram exists then, " p a r a t a x i c a l l y " , or on an absolute l e v e l with persona, so that one cannot be s i g n i f i e r and the other s i g n i f i e d . Beyond the smaller blocks within cantos, each canto i t s e l f constitutes a larger block, usually a persona, which i s : s s set o f f against other blocks.3 7 The mythical involvement provides the " l i v i n g " background into which we can enter to share the experience of the Poundian universe at P i s a . The i n t e r p l a y of voices, e s p e c i a l l y that invoking Pomona, produces a "harmony" which speaks of love and the ordeals which must be passed i n order to a t t a i n i t . The immediacy of the Pisan experience i s f e l t i n the mood fashioned by the i n t e r p l a y of the voices. The images involve us i n the experience of the cold nights at Pisa when the only thing Pound had to keep his body warm was a small f i r e , and the only thing he had to keep hi s mind "warm" was h i s dreams. His dreams, his rev e l s , the Dionysian aspect of r e a l i t y s provide, as we r e a d i l y see, keep aliveothecpoeitic-sensi-b i l i t y with which he had t r i e d to b u i l d h i s "paradiso t e r r e s t r e " . We experience through the masks the same ecstacy as Pound, an ecstacy which Neitzsche has outlined i n h i s The B i r t h of Tragedy: "Under the charm of the Dionysian not only i s the union between man and man reaffirmed, but nature which has become alienated, h o s t i l e , subjugated, celebrates once 33 more her r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with her l o s t son man. Free ly earth p r o f f e r s her g i f t s , and peacefu l ly the beasts of prey of the rocks and deserts a p p r o a c h . W e , i n one vo ice w i th Pound, vo ice our gra t i tude : "Thou w i l t give thanks when n ight i s spent" (Canto 84). The play of opposites produces a l i n g e r i n g tens ion , an anxiety that drives to the center of the psyche. The anxiety i s r e l i e v e d only i n the acceptance of the s i t u a t i o n so that: Now the s lave i s a free man; now a l l the r i g i d , h o s t i l e b a r r i e r s that n e c e s s i t y , c a p r i c e , or "impudent convention" have f i xed between man and man are broken. Now, with the gospel of u n i v e r s a l harmony, each one fee ls h imse l f not only u n i t e d , r e c o n c i l e d , and fused with h i s neighbour, but as one wi th him, as i f the v e i l of maya had been torn aside and were now merely f l u t t e r i n g i n ta t t er s before the mysterious p r i m o r d i a l uni ty .39 J . Krishnamurdi o f f e r s , i n d i f f e r e n t terms, an accurate.j_ydescription of th i s process: But at the moment they began to chant, t h e i r faces were transformed and became r a d i a n t , ageless , and they created , wi th the sound of t h e i r words and t h e i r powerful in tonat ion that atmosphere of a very ancient language. They were the words, the sound and the m e a n i n g . . . . It wasn't the sound of a s inger on the stage, but there was the s i l e n c e that ex i s t s between two movements of sound.40 The reader and poet become the masks j u s t as i n Krishnamurdi 1 s i n s i g h t the s ingers were the words. Mood can be l ikened to "the s i l e n c e between the two movements of sound". Mood aids i n the e s t a b l i s h i n g of the e q u i l i b r i u m of voices as the p o l a r i z a t i o n of the i n t e r n a l elements of the complex merges in to a synergy. Any attempt to p inpoint and i s o l a t e the p o l y - v a l e n t r a d i c a l r e s u l t s i n the disturbance and de-energ iz ing of the mood. The immediacy of the passage becomes l o s t i n the t e l l - t a l e search for a way to t i e together d i s j o i n t e d m a t e r i a l . The method of the poem i s 34 the message for "The person of the Cantos is both multiple and moving; the motion of the face and i t s masks, instead of governing the shifts from short poem to short poem, has become the organizing principle of i „41 a very long one. Persona is the actuality of the involvement of the poet within his universe, while mood is created simultaneously as soon as that actuality enters the poetry. Persona functions at the technical level of the poem as a poly-valent radical to which attach a l l the images necessary to complete a transfer of energy between poet and reader. The result i s a synergy, a combination of energies generated by the meeting of the poet and reader in persona. Returning to the passages I have been describing, we see in the following excerpt from Browning's "Fra Lippo Lippi", the transfer of energy from poet to reader through persona and the presence of mood as created by the use of a mask. Browning's poem is immediate. It occurs "now". The fact that i t is a dramatic monologue i s important to the immediacy of the presentation, but a comparison with Browning's "Andrea Del Sarto" shows how it tistthe mask, not the form tfrat creates the immediacy of the experience. Lippo loses his substance and becomes Browning and then becomes the reader. There is a controlling intelligence to be sure, but i t s existence i s peripherally} important to the poem. What is important is the transfer of the energy from the poet through the mask to the reader. The passionate outcry of Lippo aids in the poetic interaction, but i t does not become overbearing: 35 However, you're my man, you've seen the world The beauty and the wonder and the power, The shape of things, their colors, lights and shades, Changes and surprizes and God made i t a l l ! Fo'r what" Do you feel thankful, aye or no, For this f a i r town's face, yonder river's line, The mountain round i t and the sky above. Much more the figures of man, woman, and child, These are frame to? What's i t a l l about? To be passed over, despised? or dwelt upon, Wondered at? oh, this last of courselyyou say. But why not do as well as say—paint these Just as they are, careless of what comes of it? God's works—paint anyone, and count i t crime To let a truth s l i p . Don't object, "His works Are here already; nature is complete: Suppose you reproduce her—(which you can't) There's no advantage! You must beat her then." For don't you mark? we're made so that we love Fi r s t when we see them painted, things we have passed Perhaps a hundred times not cared to see; And so they are better, painted—better to us. Which is the same thing. Art was given for that; God uses us to help each other so, Leading our minds out.42 Browning is there in the persona, but so are we as readers. We are taken into the poem by Lippi and there manipulated by him. We are forced to recognize, as Robert Langbaum so aptly puts i t , "an original dis-equilibrium between the object in i t s conventional or understood aspect and the object as perceived by the observer, and the observer's business is to right the balance by understanding in the course of the poem his 43 own perception". We are forced to accept Lippi's statements for the duration of the poem. We sympathize with him, yet do not judge him. We share with him the perspective from which he rants against the strictures of his day. We are there with him as he speaks to the watchmen; we are there as he argues with himself because we have assumed the mask along with him. We share in the poetic contract inherent in the monologue. 36 Though one may be hard put to say Browning has an actu a l , "psychic" contact with L i p p i , we s t i l l share i n the c o l l e c t i v e experience of Browning as he assumes the mask of L i p p i . There i s a symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p established. We become L i p p i through Browning's a b i l i t y to take the actual h i s t o r i c a l circumstance and project himself into i t . We accomplish the symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p by sympathizing with L i p p i which i n r e a l i t y means we have assumed that what. Br.gwningxhas f e l t i s s i m i l a r to what we as readers have f e l t i n our own l i f e circumstances. In other words, we tend to expand the experience of the poem and the involvement i n the immediacy of the poem to include our experience. In so doing, we e s t a b l i s h a synergy so that we combine the elements i n the poem so they f i t into a whole i n which there i s nor; r e a l difference between the 4 4 r e a l i t y of the poem and our involvement i n that r e a l i t y . In Metamorphoses Ovid i s seen to be t o t a l l y involved i i i my thos as he speaks from within the poem as the actual observer and celebrant of the r e a l i t y i n which Acteon i s s a c r i f i c e d . There i s no separation between Ovid and the myth. There i s no past i n which the myth occurred and to which Ovid i s c a l l i n g a ttention ini>hi!sis Metamorphoses. A l l i s a "now". Ovid's method of presentation enables the reader to r e a l i z e the a c t u a l i t y of the myth i n an atemporal perspective. There i s no separation between the catagorles of r e a l i t y that reason delineates. There i s only one r e a l i t y and that r e a l i t y i s the;poem. Browning does the same and Pound recognizes t h i s f a c t i n the two poets. Browning's L i p p i i s not the " r e a l " L i p p i granted, nor i s Ovid's Acteon the " r e a l " Acteon, but each presentation i s a t o t a l , involved persona. Through sympathy as Langbaum has d e s c r i b e d , ^ r i g h t i n g "the 37 balance" of one's "per c e p t i o n " , we as readers come to partake i n a p o e t i c c o n t r a c t that i s "dynamic" as opposed to " s t a t i c " . Because of the involvement i n mythos that each poet d i s p l a y s , we become par t of the poem as much as any of the personae presented t h e r e i n . In Pound's passage, we see a use of images and personae that takes us one step beyond the dynamism of Ovid and Browning. With Pound, the r e a l i z a t i o n on the p a r t of the reader that he i s e n t e r i n g a p o e t i c c o n t r a c t does not e x i s t . What i s before the reader i s a l l there i s . As Pound presents h i s images, the reader discovers that what he had b e l i e v e d was past r e a l i t y being r e t o l d i n a new way i s not the case. What he assumed was past r e a l i t y i s a p o i n t i n a p e r s p e c t i v e from which he canddetermine how h i s own i n d i v i d u a l l i f e "experience" i s p a r t of my thos. The reader r e a l i z e s he i s , as the poet i s a l s o , a p a r t i c i p a n t i n a c o l l e c t i v e l y - c o n s c i o u s c r e a t i v e endeavor c a l l e d poetry. Poetry, when seen i n t h i s l i g h t , becomes a l i v i n g , dynamic f o r c e i n which at the moment of transformation or metamorphosis a l l becomes one and the " i n d i v i d u a l existence i s r e s o l v e d in;.a m y s t i c a l experience i n which present e x i s t s out of time and a l l being reveals i t s e l f as one 46 continuous blood stream coursing through the a r t e r i e s of r e a l i t y " . In The Cantos as e x e m p l i f i e d i n the Lynx passage, we see that i n the complex that images and personae are, an experience does not become an i s o l a t e d , fragmented p e r c e p t i o n , but becomes an aggregate of a l l experiences and perceptions that have occurred. Knowledge i s seen as a whole not as p a r t s which add up to form a whole, a t o t a l . Man i s seen as a whole a l s o and there i s an attempt on Pound's p a r t , as he s t a t e s i n P a t r i a Mia,"to f i n d out what s o r t of things are t r a n s i e n t ; what s o r t of things r e c u r . . . to 38 l e a r n upon what force s , cons truct ive and d i s p e r s i v e , of s o c i a l order , move. To become human for Pound i s to begin to have some sor t of c u r i o s i t y , a des ire to break with the safety of s o c i a l and moral cond i t ion ing and become part of the human universe experiencing for oneself in t imate ly what "endures" and what i s "trans ient" . To become human i s to r e a l i z e , "It a l l coheres" and that to be born anew i s to pass through "a d e l i g h t f u l psychic experience" and i n the r e a l i z a t i o n to pass "beyond your bonds and borders",("The Flame"). The a c t u a l process of a c q u i r i n g knowledge i s slow and arduous. "Real knowledge does NOT f a l l off the page in to one's stomach" (Kul . p . 107). I t requires perserverence to gain r e a l knowledge for " i t goes in to n a t u r a l man i n t i d b i t s . A scrap here , a scrap there; always p e r t i n e n t , l i n k e d to sa fe ty , or n u t r i t i o n or pleasure" (Kul . p . 99). Pound's method i s that of a man who searches for knowledge^ h i s means are h i s end as they should be. For him the knowledge of something lay i n i t s o r i g i n s i n the "basis of renewals: for there "In the gloom the gold / gathers i n the l i g h t about it":' (Canto 17, p. 78): there "as of waves tak ing , form, / As the sea, h a r d , a g l i t t e r of c r y s t a l / And the waves r i s i n g but formed, h o l d i n g t h e i r form. / No l i g h t reaching through them1.1 (Canto 23, p . 109). He, seeks knowledge of: The forma, the immortal concetto, the concept, the dynamic form which i s l i k e the rose pat tern d r i v e n i n t o the dead i r o n - f i l i n g s by the magnet, not by the m a t e r i a l conduct with the magnet i t -s e l f , but separate from the nagnet c u t - o f f by the layer of g las s , the dust and the f i l i n g s r i s e and spr ing in to order . Thus the forma, the concept r i s e s from death. (Kul . p . 152) 39 Yet, the knowledge must be tested against a c r i t e r i a of human worth. The new knowledge must be weighted against the old. Such a process seems mechanical but, as Eva Hesse points out, i t allows Pound "to include within his range various territories that have not hitherto been touched on in literature and which science is only now beginning to consider."48 The various masks that emerge in each canto are a liv i n g embodiment of the "mental" check, the return to origins. The multivoiced masks aid in the recognition of the cultural heritage deemed by Pound to be fundamental to humanity. The individual realizes that he is part of synergy and his relevance is only useful as a tool in the return to origins, not as a point of reference. Out of the search for knowledge comes a poetry in which transformation constantly occurs: The god is inside the stone, vacuos exercet aera morsus. The force is arrested, but there is never any question about i t s latency, about the force being the essential, and the rest "accidental" in the philosophic technical sense. The shape occurs. (LE, p. 152) The poetry is l i t e r a l l y "charged" so that the "Self feels steeped, as i t were, in a mythico-religious atmosphere, which ever enfolds i t , and in which i t now lives and moves; i t takes only a spark, a touch, to create the god or daemon out of this charged atmosphere."^ It is a poetry in which there is no way, no possibility of dealing with any idea in a reality that does not recognize the existence of a collectively conscious continuum. One cannot deal with the actual reality of a war without taking into account i t s origins: 40 There died a myriad And the best among them, For an o ld b i t c h gone i n the tee th , For a botched c i v i l i z a t i o n , Charm, smi l ing at the good mouth, Quick eyes gone under earth ' s l i d , For two gross of broken s tatues , For a thousand bat tered books.50 In the horror of World War I , Pound r e a l i z e d that "Br i tann ia" was an "old b i t c h gone i n the teeth" and the t e r r i b l e human carnage that was t o l l e d was an i n j u s t i c e beyond b e l i e f . The t e r r i b l e irony of the depression and the outcry that came of that depression i s rendered po inted ly i n Pound's assessment of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n : "For two gross of broken s ta tues , / For a thousand bat tered books". Set against the thousands who died on a l l s ide s , the p r i c e was beyond tragedy, beyond human b e l i e f . From contemplation of such madness, Pound in"Hugh Selwyn Mauberley"sets a new course and as the Cantos of that p e r i o d i n d i c a t e , the course was back to the o r i g i n s of the human universe . Once o r i g i n s have been d iscovered, the poet i s able to lead the reader back to the source of fragmentation of the soc i e ty ; i t s d i s p e r s a l in to castes , c lasses which r e s u l t e d i n the a l i e n a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l . Pound wishes to make humanity aware of i t s la tency , i t s godly regenerative force and the sense of community of a l l th ings . His whole emphasis dr ives at t h i s idea i n The Cantos. A new awareness d iscoverable i n the re turn to o r i g i n s i s t i e d to a recogn i t ion of the cycles of the "discoverable" human universe , i n the Olsonian sense. These cycles have been maintained i n myth and through myth one "discovers" the paths to one's o r i g i n s . Involve-ment i n myth creates the v i s t a of the immediate moment, the past i s present , the present future: 41 The long flank, the firm breast and to know beauty and death and despair and to think that what has been shall be, flowing, ever u n s t i l l . No man can see his own end. The Gods have not returned. "They have never l e f t us" They have not returned. Cloud's processional and the air moves with their l i v i n g . (Canto 113, p. 787) The immediacy of living necessitates that relationships be established between things that would have otherwise been passed over. Pound's poetry issues an invitation to become a " l i v i n g " creature by shedding the conditioning of society and morality and seeking in the confrontation with age-old myths one's own answers to the riddles that are part of that "living", In Eliot's portrait of "J. Alfred Prufrock", we have epitomized the conditioning which Pound wishes to penetrate through his poetry: And indeed there w i l l be time To wonder, "Do I dare?" and "Do I dare?" Time to turn back and descend the stair, With a bald spot in the middle of my h a i r — (They w i l l say: "How his hair is growing thin!") My morning coat, my collar mounted firmly the chin, My necktie rich and modest, but asserted by a simple p i n — (They w i l l say: "But how his arms and legs are thin!") Do I dare ^ Disturb the universe? Pound seeks to awaken in humanity the seed of "force" which w i l l lead man through the intelligent use of his "latent" creativity to create the Arcanum: "The City of Light, Dioce" (Canto 74, p. 425). His poetry harkens tovthe. .call of the natural cycles of l i f e which he knows to exist and which demand of the individual a total, immediate involvement. Gary Snyder in Earth HouseLHold elaborates on this idea towards which Pound works when he says: 42 To l i v e i n the "mythological present" i n close r e l a t i o n with nature and i n basic but d i s c i p l i n e d body/mind states suggests a wider-ranging imagination and a closer subjective knowledge of one's own p h y s i c a l properties than i s usually a v a i l a b l e to men l i v i n g (as they describe i t ) impotently and inadequately i n " h i s t o r y " — t h e i r mind-content programmed and t h e i r caressing of nature complicated by the extensions and abstractions which elaborate tools are. A hand pushing a button may y i e l d great power, but that hand w i l l never learn what a hand can do. Unused capacities go sour.-^ A poetry that i s written with the focus on the "mythological present" creates for the reader a d i f f e r e n t set of co-ordinates than he i s used to employing. I t forces the reader to r e a l i g n h i s thought processes because the necessity of exact temporal-spacial i d e n t i t y i s gone. There i s no need to use a structure other than that which the images employed formulate. Lines and rhythms become the guideposts as Olson has indicated . i n "Projective Verse" .andA€b:e<ri1i .Gbokrseesoithemeasaifundiamem-fcalaroLr The Cantos: Lines, however, are exactly what we do have: the movement of the l i n e i s the one ambiguous feature of the design i n t h i s poem, as i n most free verse: t h i s stable feature permits a l l the other permuta-tions of design and instance to take place. The "terms" seem to be suspended i n an equilibrium of two or three g r a v i t i e s , two or three possible designs, a l l at once, and the rhythmic movement of the poem canbbe "slow" without l o s i n g any of i t s improvisatory freedom...53 The poet i s freed of discontinuous involvement with images and i s " f r e e " to employ himself t o t a l l y and d i r e c t l y i n his poetry: Est deus i n nobis, and They s t i l l o f f e r s a c r i f i c e to that sea- g u l l est deus i n nobis 43 S h e b e i n g o f C a d m u s l i n e , t h e s n o w ' s l a c e i s s p r e a d t h e r e l i k e s e a f o a m B u t t h e l o t o f ' e m Y e a t s , P o s s u m a n d W y n d h a m h a d n o g r o u n d b e n e a t h ' e m O r a g e h a d P e r r a g i o n a l e v a l e B i a c K s H a w l ' s ^ f o r T D e m e t e f ? n - H C a n t o s : ; , 9 § y ) p ' . 685) O n e r e c e i v e s i m m e d i a t e l y o n r e a d i n g t h i s p a s s a g e " i m p u l s e a s s o c i a t i o n s " ; t h e " e x a c t " m e a n i n g , i f t h i s i s e v e r t h e c a s e , s e e m s r e m o v e d , " f o r e i g n " b e c a u s e o f t h e G r e e k , a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e C h i n e s e . E a c h p a r t c a n b e s e p a r a t e d a n d t r a n s l a t e d , b u t t h e p a s s a g e i s n o t i f o r m u l a t e d o n t h e p a r s 54 p r o t o t o p r i n c i p l e . E a c h p a r t m e a n s n o t h i n g e x c e p t i n t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y o c c u r . T h e a s s o c i a t i n g p r o c e s s i n t h e m i n d i s t h e f o r m u l a t i n g c o n s t r u c t o f t h e p a s s a g e . T h e r e i s n o m e a n i n g i n t h e l i t e r a l s e n s e o f t h e w o r d ; w h a t w e h a v e i s a n i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n i m a g e a n d p e r s o n a t h a t i n f o r m s t h r o u g h e v e r - e x p a n d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s . O n e i m a g e m e l t s i n t o a n o t h e r w h i c h c r e a t e s a n o t h e r i m a g e . A t o n e f e l l s w o o p , t h e w h o l e v i s t a o f t h e C a n t o s w e e p s b e f o r e t h e r e a d e r . T h e c h a n g i n g i m a g e s a l l m e s h , y e t s e e m s e p a r a t e a n d a p e r s o n a - r a d i c a l v o i c e s c r y p t i c a l l y a j u d g m e n t t h a t s e e m s o n l y t o h i n g e o n . t h e C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r a p p e a r i n g b e s i d e i t . " T h e r e i s a g o d i n u s " i s l i n k e d t o t h e c u l t o f t h e s e a - g u l l w h o i s s e e n t o c o n t a i n a g o d a n d w h o i s w o r s h i p p e d b e c a u s e o f i t . T h e q u a n t u m l e a p t o t h e " t h e r e " w h e r e " s n o w ' s l a c e " a n d " s e a f o a m " c o i n c i d e r e v e r b e r a t e s w i t h t h e e c h o o f m e t a m o r p h o s i s o f " e s t d e u s i n n o b i s " . T h e f e c u n d i v e i m a g e s o f s n o w f l a k e a n d s e a f o a m s u g g e s t a l i n k w i t h t h e b i r t h o f A p h r o d i t e f r o m t h e s e a , a n d t h e " l a t e n c y " w h i c h P o u n d s u g g e s t s e x i s t s i n a l l t h i n g s . T h e p r e s e n c e o f D e m e t e r e l i c i t s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e c o r n r i t u a l , f e r t i l i t y a n d t h e C o r n u c o p i a o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d , t h e r a p e o f 44 Persephone, s t e r i l i t y and barrenness on the other. Yet a l l the images i n t e r m i g g l e , look together i n t o a s i n g l e p r e s e n t a t i o n c r e a t i n g a h i g h l y charged atmosphere. Each image i s not only something concrete, but i s something that i s m u l t i l a t e r a l . Each acts as a t r i g g e r i n g device f o r the p r e c i p i t a t i o n of f u r t h e r images and f u r t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s . Take f o r example the Chinese character pur4 i t acts as a s i g n a l f o r the Confucian element, "block" i n the canto. I t r e f e r s us back t o Canto 55 i n which i t i s the l a s t character. The characters read i n t r a n s l a t i o n : " v i r t u o u s men use wealth (to) develop themselves unvirtubus men themselves become prosperous." This leads us to Pound's t r a n s l a t i o n of Confucius which reads: "The humane man uses h i s wealth as a means to d i s t i n c t i o n , the inhumane becomes ammere harness to h i s takings."55 The meaning of the character as i t stands beside the men whom Pound had known i n d i c a t e s the r e f e r r a l to an already e x i s t e n t h i e r a r c h y because the passage contains an e x p l i c i t value judgment. Orage i s t i e d i n w i t h the e t h i c s from which the value judgment gains i t s a u t h o r i t y because of h i s benevolent use of "wealth". Pound speaks of Orage i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n to John Drummond i n 19 34 i n very g r a t e f u l terms: At any r a t e , he d i d more to feed me than anyone e l s e i n England, and I wish anyone who esteems my existence wd, pay back whatever they f e e l i s due to i t s s t a l v a r r t s u s t a i n e r . My gate r e c e i p t s Nov 1, 1914-15 were 42 quid 10s and Orage's 4 guineas a month t h e r e a f t e r wuz the SINEWS, by gob the sinooz.56 Orage had a t t a i n e d s t a t u r e i n Pound's books as an humanitarian because he used wealth to a i d others who needed help without g a i n i n g r e c o g n i t i o n f o r h i m s e l f . Though wealthy and d i s t i n g u i s h e d as e d i t o r of The New Age, h i s 45 humanitarian ideals dictated that he, at an age when most men r e t i r e , begin a new magazine c a l l e d The New English Weekly. Pound l i n k s this new adventure with s i n c e r i t y i n the Confucian sense. Orage recognizes that as "a man of action", he has r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to others, and places his worldly recognition aside. Orage i s malleable, he submits to trans-formation and achieves h i s goal. He has f e r t i l e "ground" beneath him, "ground" that has been c a r e f u l l y t i l l e d and nurtured. It i s apparent, I f e e l , that even i n this short exegesis a sense of the unity of The Cantos can be seen. A l l knowledge i n the poem i s at once p r i o r and immediate, f o r the method of p r e s e n t a t i o n — t h e ideogrammic technique—forces the reader to face instantaneously the product of symbiotic connections. A l l images, a l l knowledge i n The Cantos, i s new and vibrant with the l a t e n t energy of i t s being ready to transmute i t to another image. As such,.there i s only one experience, an e x i s t i n g i n and with the poem. What we take to the poem as readers i s only an extension of what i s e l i c i t e d from us i n our i n t e r a c t i o n within the poem. Nothing about the poem therefore seems fragmented, and nothing can be examined as a separate e n t i t y from the poem without the sense of the irrelevancy of the action. There i s a sense that what i s being examined i n i s o l a t i o n i s i n some way al t e r e d ; i t s "meaning" changed and a l i e n to the synergy i n which i t operates. At no time can a passage, an image, a mask be examined without sensing i t s absolute involvement i n the poem as a whole. The only idea that I f i n d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y deals with the sense of the a l t e r a t i o n of an image through examination of i t i s found i n physics: 46 Heisenburg's p r i n c i p l e of ' indeterminism' which recognized the ex-perimental discovery that "the act of measuring always a l t e r s that which was being measured, turns experience into a continuous and never-repeatable evolut ionary scenario .""^ The a c t u a l examination of a poem i s t a c i t agreement, for the durat ion of the examination at l e a s t , with the poet that what he says i s t r u t h . Whether or not there i s t r u t h i n the poem, i s recognizable only i n the means with which we share with the poet the experience he has seen f i t to t r a n s c r i b e . We accept the status quo of the poem while at the same time harken to another c r i t e r i o n that Pound expresses i n a c r i t i q u e on Brancus i ' s scu lpture i n the P a r i s Museum: But the contemplation of form.or of formal-beauty leading in to the i n f i n i t e must be d i sassoc ia ted from the dazzle of c r y s t a l ; there i s a sort of r e l a t i o n , but there i s the more important divergence; with the c r y s t a l i t i s an hypnosis , or a contemplative f i x a t i o n of thought, or an excitement of the "sub-conscious" or unconscious (whatever the d e v i l that may b e ) , and with the i d e a l form i n marble i t i s an approach to the i n f i n i t e by form, by p r e c i s e l y the highest poss ib le degree of consciousness of formal p e r f e c t i o n ; as free of acc ident as any of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l demands of a "Paradiso" can make i t . (LE, p . 444) C r i t i c s who attempt to examine The Cantos as a work which has a predetermined end and o v e r a l l d i scernable plan that can be looked to as a guide need only to look at what The Cantos themselves record . Pound has there recorded a very apt statement of the f u t i l i t y of p lans: I have brought the great b a l l of c r y s t a l who can l i f t i t ? Can you enter the great acorn of l i g h t ? But the beauty i s not the madness Tho my errors and wrecks l i e about me. And I am not a demigod, 47 Tho' my errors and wrecks l i e about me And I am not a demigod, I cannot make i t cohere. If love be not in the house there is nothing The voice of famine unheard. How came beauty against this blackness, Twice beauty under the elms— To be saved by squirrels and bluejays? (Canto 116, p. 796) Pound realizes that there is no end to the poem. What ends is the search for an "arcanum", for a "paradiso terrestre". The questioning despair indicates the further realization that the universe is a human one discoverable in and around the factor "Tho' my errors and wrecks l i e about me". The surrender to the despair, "I cannot make i t cohere" and "I have brought the great b a l l of crystal / who can l i f t i t ? " suggests, along with the central statement "If love be not in the house there i s nothing", the "Paradiso" i s attainable, has been reached, in fact has always been there. Pound finds that the poem cannot be terminated through a conscious act of the w i l l . Nothing is possible,he discovers, unless there is love, and love necessitates the abandonment of w i l l in the awareness of the other,in whatever sense:corporeally or sp i r i t u a l l y . The total realization of the open-endedness of the poem is seen in the terminating image in the passage, "To be saved by squirrels and bluejays?" It is an "epiphany" of sorts for i t indicates the "paradiso" i s to be found in the experience df the moment of liv i n g . It is of no use to speak of The Cantos as disjointed, as parts loosely held together because of a common t i t l e . The Cantos is a synergy and a l l criticism which f a i l s to take this fact into account i s rubbish. Much criticism of The Cantos is irrelevant in as much as i t f a i l s to realize 48 t h a t i t i s a r e c o r d o f a s e a r c h f o r k n o w l e d g e a n d t h a t i t i s b y i t s o w n d e s i g n o p e n - e n d e d : A n d t h e b u l l b y t h e f o r c e t h a t i s i n h i m n o t l o r d o f i t , m a s t e r e d ( C a n t o s 1 1 3 , p . 7 8 9 ) T h e " f o r c e " t o w h i c h P o u n d r e f e r s i s t h e u n i f y i n g e n e r g y o f l i f e , a n d a s E v a H e s s e r e m a r k s : P o u n d s e e s t h e u n i v e r s e a s b e i n g s u s t a i n e d b y a n O v i d i a n c o n t i n u i t y w h i c h i s m a n i f e s t i n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f m e t a m o r p h o s i s , w h e r e g r a d u a t e d t r a n s i t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e f r o m i n o r g a n i c r o c k t o o r g a n i c v e g e t a t i o n , f r o m v e g e t a b l e t o a n i m a l , f r o m a n i m a l t o m a n , a n d f r o m m a n t o g o d s ( p l u r a l ) o r " d i v i n e s t a t e s o f m i n d " , a n d f r o m g o d s b a c k t o i n o r g a n i c o r o r g a n i c h y p o s t a s e s . A n d i t i s t h i s u n i v e r s a l c y c l i c a l m o v e m e n t t h a t h e w o u l d r e c o r d i n t h e p e r p e t u u m c a r m e n o r p e r m a n e n t m e t a p h o r " o f h i s C a n t o s . 5 8 O n e c o u l d a l s o c a l l i t " h a r m o n y " , o r t o m a k e i t s u b s t a n t i v e , w e c o u l d w r i t e c h u n g — " t h e u n w o b b l i n g p i v o t " . T h e f o r c e i s t h e m e a n b u t i t i s a l s o m u c h m o r e . I t i s t h e c e n t r a l i d e a c o n t a i n e d i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e c h a r a c t e r w o n g . A l l " c o h e r e s " ±f_ t h e e m p e r o r c a r r i e s o u t h i s d u t i e s . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e e m p e r o r a n d t h e u n i v e r s e i s t h e c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n t h e o r a c l e o f t h e I C h i n g , a n d t h e " e m p e r o r " a s s u m e s m a n y g u i s e s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e " m o m e n t " . T h e e m p i r e i s a t p e a c e a n d t h e r e e x i s t s a n e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e w h e n t h e " f o r c e " f i n d s i t s m e a n . A l l " c o h e r e s " w h e n e a r t h , m a n , a n d s k y p a r t a k e i n t h e u n i t a r y e x i s t e n c e o f t h e m o m e n t . I n t h e " c l o s e u n i v e r s e " t h a t i s T h e C a n t o s , P o u n d i l l u s t r a t e s t h r o u g h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f h i s p o e t r y i n a l i f e - d e a t h s y s t e m , t h e u n i t y o f a l l t h i n g s . A l l i s i n o r d e r w h e n t h e r e i s n o r e s i s t a n c e t o c h a n g e , t o m e t a m o r p h o s i s . F o r t h e b l u e f l a s h a n d t h e m o m e n t s b e n e d e t t a t h e y o u n g f o r t h e o l d t h a t i s t r a g e d y A n d f o r o n e b e a u t i f u l d a y t h e r e w a s p e a c e . C a n t o 1 1 7 Chapter Two In his masterful trilogy entitled The Masks of God, Joseph Campbell makes an interesting statement that i s pertinent to what I w i l l discuss in this part of the paper. Campbell points out that Teiresias plays a central role in the pantheon of classic gods, a role that I think most c r i t i c s of The Cantos have failed to see the significance of. Campbell states: In this tale the mating serpents like those of the caduceus, are the sign of a world-generating force that plays through a l l pairs of opposites, male and female, birth and death... His impulsive stroke placed him between the two, like the middle staff (axis mundi); and he was thereupon flashed to the other side for seven years... the side of which he formerly had had no knowledge.... again touched the living symbol of the two that are i n nature one... was thereafter one who was in knowledge of both.59 Campbell's intent illustrates that Teiresias alone of a l l the gods has total and complete knowledge of the cycles ofpikifes He carries within him a knowledge of the sexual impulses of the universe. The a f f i n i t y of what is male for what is female is understood. The latent force that seeks fulfillment in unison with a partner is seen in i t s total perspective. Most importantly, Teiresias' act of twice striking the copulating serpents demonstrates that he has learned from his experience. Henhas learned what 50 p o w e r , w h a t f o r c e t h e u n i v e r s e c o n s i s t s o f , a n d t h a t t h e f o r c e i s a u n i t y p a r t a k i n g o f w h a t i s m a l e a n d f e m a l e . P o u n d ' s l o g i c i n T h e C a n t o s d r i v e s t o w a r d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s a m e e n d , t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f u n i t y b a s e d u p o n t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s i n a s y n e r g y . T h i s a t t a i n m e n t o f u n i t y i s p o s s i b l e o n l y w h e n t h e w i l l t o w a r d s u n i t y , t h e f o r c e o f a m a l g a m a t i o n m o v e s t o w a r d a b a l a n c e t h a t P o u n d h a s r e n d e r e d i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f C o n f u c i u s : T h a t a x i s i n t h e c e n t e r i s t h e g r e a t r o o t o f t h e u n i v e r s e ; t h a t h a r m o n y i s t h e u n i v e r s e ' s o u t s p r e a d p r o c e s s ( o f e x i s t e n c e ) . F r o m t h i s r o o t a n d i i n t h i s h a r m o n y , h e a v e n a n d e a r t h a r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r p r e c i s e m o d a l i t i e s , a n d t h e m u l t i t u d e s o f c r e a t u r e s p e r s i s t , n o u r i s h e d o n t h e i r m e r i d i a n s . P o u n d ' s c o n t e n t i n T h e C a n t o s i s s e t u p s o t h i s " b a l a n c e " c a n b e e x p e r i e n c e d , a n d s o m e t h i n g l e a r n e d f r o m i t . T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f m a t e r i a l t h a t i s u n d e r g o i n g m e t a m o r p h o s i s h e l p s i n t h e u n i t y o f a l l t h i n g s w i t h i n t h e p o e m t o b e a c c o m p l i s h e d . T h e m o v e m e n t o f t h e i m a g e s t h a t a r e p r e s e n t e d i s o u t w a r d s i n e v e r e x p a n d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t s e e k t o e n c o m p a s s t h e w h o l e b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t i s m a n . R e t u r n i n g t o T e i r e s i a s a g a i n , w e s e e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f s e x u a l i t y a s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h i s f i g u r e a s a c o o r d i n a t e , i n a d e s i g n t h a t o u t l i n e s w h a t t h e a c t o f c r e a t i o n e n t a i l s . T o u n d e r s t a n d s e x u a l i t y i n P o u n d ' s u n i v e r s e i s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e o r i g i n s o f m a n . H e s a y s i n T h e S p i r i t o f R o m a n c e t h a t a b o u t m a n i s " t h e u n i v e r s e o f f l u i d f o r c e , a n d b e l o w u s t h e g e r m i n a l u n i v e r s e o f w o o d a l i v e , o f s t o n e a l i v e . M a n i s — t h e s e n s i t i v e p a r t o f h i m — a m e c h a n i s m . " ( p . 9 2 ) . B e c a u s e o f P o u n d ' s v i e w , m a n a p p e a r s a n a l y z a b l e , o r a t l e a s t h e i s o p e n t o b e i n g a n a l y z e d . Y e t t h e a c t o f c r e a t i o n p r e c l u d e s a n y a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t a v i e w o f t h e 5 1 " v i t a l universe" of man in any way except a wholistic one. In an essay entitled "Psychology and Troubadours", Pound theorized about the nature of the creative impulse that gave rise to the age of romance. In his essay, he makes several points that are worth noting because they throw light upon the role of sexuality in The Cantos, and the manner in which man is linked to the universe through sexuality. The most relevant statement he makes regarding sexuality is one concerning Humanism. He says that with the age of Humanism "Man is concerned with man and forgets the whole and the flowing" (Spirit of Romance, p. 93). Man's sense of perspective is lost. The contemplation of the individual fragments the wholistic view, destroys the participation mystique and renders man "impotent". Man is no longer able to share his being with the universe and so become part of i t . Pound distinguished two kinds of consciousness that are found in man. Basing his concept on one adapted from Greek psychologists, he says some men have their minds "circumvolved around them like soap-bubbles reflecting sundry patches of the macrocosmos" (p. 92). Others he says have a "germinal" consciousness and have thoughts "as the thought of the tree is in the seed, or in the grass, or the grain, or the blossom" (p. 92). Pound's emphasis rests with this latter type of mind. To Bound such a mind is more useful because i t is alive, i t awakens at every moment to the fact that metamorphosis is a reality, a constructive force of i t s own. Because such minds are one with the universe, they are "the more poetic, and they affect mind about them, and transmute i t as the seed the earth" (p. 93). If we harken back to his thoughts in "The Serious 5 2 A r t i s t " a n d A B C o f R e a d i n g , s u c h m i n d s a r e " t h e a n t e n n a e o f t h e r a c e " . T h e y c r e a t e a l i v i n g n e x u s b e t w e e n m a n a n d h i s u n i v e r s e . P o u n d o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e l i v i n g n e x u s w a s u s u a l l y m a n i f e s t e d t h r o u g h s e x a f t e r t h e r i s e o f H u m a n i s m . P o u n d q u a l i f i e s t h e i d e a o f s e x a n d h a s u s l o o k a t t h e c o n c e p t w i t h o u t t h e n a r r o w b o u n d a r i e s t h a t t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y u s a g e h a s p l a c e d d o n i t . H e s a y s , " A t a n y r a t e , w h e n w e d o g e t i n t o t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e f l o w i n g w e f i n d s e x , o r s o m e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o i t , ' ' p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e ' , r ' : N o r t h a n d S o u t h ' , " s u n a n d m o o n " , o r w h a t e v e r c u l t o r s c i e n c e y o u p r e f e r t o s u b s t i t u t e " ( p . 9 2 ) . S e x u a l i t y , i n P o u n d ' s s e n s e , e x p r e s s e s t h e u n i v e r s e ' s a c t s o f c r e a t i o n ; i t i s a s y m b o l o f t h e b o n d i n g , c o h e s i v e f o r c e s t h a t c o m e t o g e t h e r a t e v e r y m o m e n t i n m u c h t h e s a m e m a n n e r a s h e i l l u s t r a t e s i n t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e t e l e g r a p h . H e s a y s : " I n t h e t e l e g r a p h w e h a v e a c h a r g e d s u r f a c e — p r o d u c e d i n a c o g n a t e m a n n e r — a t t r a c t i n g t o i t , o r r e g i s t e r i n g m o v e m e n t s i n t h e i n v i s i b l e a e t h e r " ( p . 9 3 ) . T h e m e t h o d o f t h e t e l e g r a p h i s i n s t a n t a n e o u s , a n d a s h e r e l a t e s t h i s t o t h e t r o u b a d o u r s , t h e " a t t r a c t i n g " o r " r e g i s t e r i n g " i s p r o d u c e d " b e t w e e n t h e p r e d o m i n a n t n a t u r a l p o l e s o f t w o h u m a n m e c h a n i s m s " ( p . 9 4 ) . T h e t r o u b a d o u r f o u n d h i m s e l f a t h i s o r i g i n s w h e n h e c r e a t e d s o n g s f o r h i s l a d y . T h r o u g h t h e s o n g s h e d i s c o v e r e d t h e s u b t l e l i n k s o f s e x u a l i t y w i t h " t h e r e a l m o f f l u i d f o r c e " , a n d a s w e s e e " i n t h e r e a l m o f f l u i d f o r c e ' , ' ; , o n e s o r t o f v i b r a t i o n p r o d u c e s a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t i e s , h e a t a n d l i g h t " ( p . 9 4 ) . " T h e r e a l m o f f l u i d f o r c e " i s n o t t r i d i m e n s i o n a l , b u t m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l . T h e t r o u b a d o u r s a w i n h i s l a d y ; a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l r e a l i t y , " s o m e v e s t i g e o f h e a v e n l y s p l e n d o r " . A s P o u n d s t a t e s , a n y s u c h v i e w o f " h e a v e n l y 53 splendor" i s n a t u r a l l y inaccurate for such splendors "are i n e f f a b l e and innumberable and no man having beheld them can f i t t i n g l y narrate them or remember them exactly" (p. 96). It i s even more important to see s e x u a l i t y , i n the Poundian sense, led the troubadour .'"from c o r r e l a t i n g a l l these d e t a i l s (of paradise) for purposes of comparison" to c o l l e c t i n g " a l l the d e t a i l s in to a s ing l e energy^.rhis'b.lady." .* Pound f i n a l l y corre la tes a l l these ideas i n t o a s i n g l e statement which i s loaded with meaning, "The Lady contains the catalogue, i s more complete. She serves as a sor t of mantram" (p. 97). The lady i s more complete because she i s a representa t ion , very c a r e f u l l y composed, of the i n e f f a b l e . Pound's use of the concept of mantram makes even more sense when i t i s r e a l i z e d that the concept e n t a i l s the idea of mantra,which i s a means of reaching a s ingu lar unity with onese l f . The Lady as a mantram becomes a c e n t r a l cons iderat ion of what i s presented i n The Cantos i f we take into cons iderat ion what Mircea E l i a d e says about a mantra: A mantra i s a "symbol" i n the archa ic sense of the term—it i s simultaneously the symbolized " r e a l i t y " and the symboliz ing "sign". There i s an occu l t correspondence between the mantra's m y s t i c a l l e t t e r s and s y l l a b l e ' s (the matrkas, "mothers", and the b i j a s , "seeds") and the subt l e organs of the human body on the one hand and on the other , between those organs and the d i v i n e forces asleep or manifested i n the cosmos. By working on the "symbol", one awakens a l l the forces that correspond to i t , on a l l l eve l s of b e i n g . ^ I doubt that such a use of the word mantram by Pound i s an acc ident . Somehow Pound recognized i n the Indian construct what cons t i tu ted for the troubadour, i n the poems to h i s Lady, a construct of medi ta t ion , i n the same way that the l e t t e r s and s y l l a b l e s of a mantra d i d for an Indian myst ic . Furthermore, the whole business of the mystery of the 54 "troubar clus" and i t s a f f i n i t i e s with the Indian idea throws open a whole vista from which Pound's quasi-mysticism becomes more and more interesting. In any case, my reasoning may be taken "cum grano" as Pound said of his ideas about the troubadours, but the relationships to Eastern mysticism are there and are somewhat d i f f i c u l t to pass over lightly. The relationships become even more interesting i f we add what Pound found as "Clause 30 of a chivairic code in Latin purporting to have been brought to the court of Arthur". The Clause stated-. "The lover stands in unintermittent imagination of his lady (co—amantis)" (P. 97). 6 2 The relationship between the Lady "as a sort of mantram" and sexuality as represented in the creative impulse of a "germinal consciousness" is carried into The Cantos, to which is added the additional construct of metamorphosis. The addition of metamorphosis as an element provides a vehicle with which the " f l u i d realm" may be explored. Metamorphosis makes clear the union of man and "the v i t a l universe" for i t is the power in metamorphosis, as i t is seen in The Cantos, that generates the energy which takes man to his origins. Pound employs a l l these features when he desires an image representative of "the f l u i d universe".,,that w i l l be at once "educational" to those with twentieth-century sen s i b i l i t i e s . Using The Odyssey as a motif in a highly charged image, he presents snatches of the epic poem in which we see the protaggnist, Odysseus, facing t r i a l s in his attempt to return home. These highly charged images usually have Odysseus coming to terms with his place in the " f l u i d " universe in one manner or another, discovering what sexuality in its broadest sense means. It is also obvious from the opening canto that 55 the Odysseus of The Cantos is a "reincarnated" Odysseus: A second time? why? man of i l l star, Facing the sunless dead and this joyless region? (Canto 1, p. 4) He is a mask in whom the poet and reader unite; he is a voice through which the hard-won knowledge of Homer's man is retold in a new timeless and spaceless dialogue. Carl Jung marked the use of such figures asasymbols. It is his psychological insight about "symbol" that elucidates to a great extent Pound's theorizing i n "Psychology and Troubadours" and his use of the persona Odysseus. Jung says: The sign is always less than the concept i t represents, while a symbol always stands for something more than itsobbvious and immediate meaning. Symbols, moreover, are natural and spontaneous products.63 To Pound Odysseus is a symbol and at the same a mantram, whose invocation is a sign that there is need for leadership of an explorer of worth, a proven man. In addition, Boris de Rachewiltz says, "Eytomologically the word symbol implies an act of throwing together, a dynamic process which i s , by definition, almost opposite to that of analysis, which 64 implies the act of resolving a complex whole into i t s component elements." Using the new Odysseus as helmsman, The Cantos £i§3 a record of a voyage 65 conducted "by periplus rather than by Acquinas map", and as Forrest Read points out,"was to be a poem written notmfromhwithin-modern.civilization, but a poem about a break from modern c i v i l i z a t i o n and a search for a , I I 66 new basis . The new Odysseus steers by craft and ingenuity. Logic does not work on unchartered seas for i t is unwieldly, as i t is based on already established 56 and seemingly proven results. Like the old Odysseus, the new is protected by Hermes, shrewdest and most cunning of the gods, and Divine Herald, the solemn guide of the dead to their last home. The significance of the opening canto can be seen in greater depth when i t i s known that the new Odysseus has returned to Hades through the help of Hermes. It is also useful to know that i t was Hermes who presented to Odysseus some moly with which he gained mastery of Circe. Only a reincarnation of Odysseus in a role of a "germinal consciousness" could undertake to steer man away from the twentieth century and out into the sea of the " f l u i d " universe. It i s in his consciousness that we reside and partake in the discovery of our own phantastikon. Unlike the troubadours, however, we lack a chivalric code from which a concept such as the Lady may be derived. We are l e f t , as was Odysseus, to our own devices and i t is the influence of Odysseus that "affects" our minds.and transmutes i t "as the seed the earth". We are caught up in a vast creative vortex. Odysseus is alive as well,as a l l the gods. A l l is understood in "a glittering sense"; we as individuals register or attract "movement in the invisible aether". Thus myth in the poem is a means of communication. Mythopoeia, or "the habit of thinking or of expressing thought in terms of myth", as Boris de Rachewiltz puts i t , is "more readily understood when we c a l l to mind that "'to live a myth" means to participate in an experience outsideoof hi s t o r i c a l time by means of a symbolic process in which imponderable forces become effective in the human sphere".^ In addition, myth appears in The Cantos to act as a parameter in the relationship 68 between "the natural poles of two human mechanisms". The images of 57 t h e p o e t r y i n w h i c h a m y t h o p e r a t e s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . V a s t c o r r e l a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e a s e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i m a g e i s l i n k e d t o t h e m y t h i n o n e w a y o r a n o t h e r . M y i d e a o f t h e p o l y - v a l e n t p e r s o n a r a d i c a l i s u s e f u l a s a m e a n s o f e x p l i c a t i o n . T h e r a d i c a l i s t h e h i g h l y c h a r g e d e l e m e n t t o w h i c h i m a g e s a t t a c h t h e m s e l v e s s s o t h a t a c o m p l e x o f i m a g e s r e s u l t s . T h i s c o m p l e x m o v e s a n d p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t h r o u g h a s i n g l e " c o n s c i o u s n e s s " w h i c h c a n n o t b e i s o l a t e d . T h i s s i n g l e " c o n s c i o u s n e s s c a n o n l y b e r e l a t e d w i t h a n o u t w a r d e x p a n d i n g s e r i e s o f i m a g e c o m p l e x e s w h i c h a r e t h e m s e l v e s i n f u s e d w i t h a n e n e r g y o f c o r r e l a t e d m y t h s . A s a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a n e x e g e s i s o f s o m e c a n t o s w h o s e c o n t e n t i s u s e f u l i n i l l u s t r a t i n g p o i n t s t h a t I h a v e m a d e , i t m a y b e a d v a n t a g e o u s t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e m a r k s o f a t l e a s t o n e c r i t i c w h o h a s f a i l e d t o g r a s p t h e i d e a s b e h i n d P o u n d ' s u s e o f m y t h s . I n d o i n g t h i s , I h o p e t o d e m o n s t r a t e a c r i t i c a l m o d u s o p e r a n d i t h a t i s o f n o v a l u e t o a w o r t h -w h i l e d i s c u s s i o n o f T h e C a n t o s , i n f a c t , i s u s e l e s s i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f a n y w o r k o f a r t . N o e l S t o c k s a y s o f C a n t o 39 t h a t i t i s " b e a u t i f u l c e r t a i n l y , b u t d i s j o i n t e d , a n d t h e r e i s o n c e a g a i n t h e p r o b l e m o f o v e r a l l m e a n i n g a n d t h e a u t h o r ' s r e f u s a l t o e x p l a i n h i m s e l f o r g i v e d i r e c t i o n s . . . . O n c e a g a i n w e m a y s u s p e c t h e m a y b e t r y i n g t o i m p l y m o r e t h a n h e k n o w s o r m o r e t h a n 6 8 h e i s a b l e t o t u r n i n t o p o e t r y . " S t o c k ' s v i e w i s a t o t a l l y m y o p i c o n e , a v i e w b a s e d o n a n a r r o w c o n c e p t o f w h a t m y t h i s a n d w h a t P o u n d i s a b l e t o f a s h i o n f r o m m y t h b y m e a n s o f t e c h n i q u e s . S t o c k i s i m m o v e a b l e i n h i s o p i n i o n s o f w h a t p o e t r y s h o u l d b e a n d a s a r e s u l t h e v i e w s t h e c a n t o a s s o m e t h i n g a n a l y z a b l e . H i s v i e w o f w h a t p o e t r y s h o u l d b e i s g i v e n o n t h e 5 8 o p e n i n g p a g e o f h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o R e a d i n g T h e C a n t o s : A S t u d y o f  M e a n i n g i n E z r a P o u n d : B u t u n t i l w e a r e a b l e t o s e e s o m e , a t l e a s t , o f t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e p a r t s s u c h a s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o h o l d i n t h e m i n d f o r l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , w e c a n n o t s p e a k o f t h e w o r k a s c o h e r e n t . N o t t h a t w e m u s t o f n e c e s s i t y s u b m i t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o s u c h t r e a t m e n t s , o n l y t h e y m u s t b e o f a k i n d o p e n t o i t . N o t w h o l l y s o , n e c e s s a r i l y , b u t e n o u g h t o b e a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h t h e g r o u n d o f r e a l i s m w h i c h i s n a t u r a l l y p r e s e n t i n t h e w o r k i n g o f t h e h u m a n m i n d . 6 9 H i s h e s i t a n c y i n s t a t i n g w h a t i s t h e b a s i s o f h i s c r i t i c i s m m a r k s t h e e x t e n t o f h i s b o u n d a r i e s . T h e y d o n o t e x t e n d p a s t " t h e g r o u n d o f r e a l i s m w h i c h i s n a t u r a l l y p r e s e n t i n t h e w o r k i n g o f t h e h u m a n m i n d . " T h e " g r o u n d o f r e a l i s m " t h a t S t o c k a d h e r e s t o i s t h e h o r i z o n t a l , t w o -d i m e n s i o n a l r e a l i t y o f a s t a t i c w o r l d . M a n i s n o t d y n a m i c i n t h e s e n s e o f m e t a m o r p h o s i s b e c a u s e s u c h a c o n c e p t h a s n e e d o f m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a w a r e n e s s . P o e t r y i s a s y s t e m o f o n - o f f m e c h a n i c s i n w h i c h e l e m e n t s a r e p l u g g e d i n t h a t " f i t " o r f a r e " f i t t i n g " . I n a n y c a s e , t h e e m p h a s i s i s o n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e m i n d t o " g r a s p " a n d u n d e r s t a n d l o g i c a l l y . T h i n g s f i t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a c c e p t e d a s b e i n g s o . W h a t S t o c k ' s m i n d e m a n a t e s i s f e a r , e x i s t e n t i a l f e a r o f t h e u n k n o w n , t h a t w h i c h i s n o n - c o n v e n t i o n a l o p e r a t i n g b y m e a n s o f i t s o w n l a w . W i t h l o g i c t h e r e i s n o f e a r b e c a u s e e v e r y t h i n g h a s i t s p l a c e " n a t u r a l l y " a s d e f i n e d b y t h e m i n d . T h e C a n t o s f a i l s t o a d h e r e t o S t o c k ' s c o n v e n t i o n s b e c a u s e i t i s a l a w u n t o i t s e l f , a s E v a H e s s e s a y s ; " U n l i k e D a n t e , w h o e m b a r k s u p o n a c o n d u c t e d t o u r o f f i r s t h e l l , t h e n p u r g a t o r y , a n d f i n a l l y p a r a d i s e , a n d h a s o n l y t o f o l l o w t h e s c h e m a , O d y s s e u s - P o u n d s t r i k e s o u t i n t o t h e u n k n o w n i n t h e m e r e h o p e o f r e a c h i n g I t h a c a a n d p a r a d i s e , b u t w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s h i p w r e c k a n d u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e r e m a i n i n g w i t h h i m 59 a l l the time as_ an e s s e n t i a l element of the whole venture." Un-f o r t u n a t e l y , the "schema" that Stock d e s i r e s i s not present i n the poem i n the sense that he wishes. He h i m s e l f must become i n v o l v e d i n the voyage towards knowledge as we a l l must once we begin to read the poem. The Cantos i s open to a l l "consciousness" and i t s u l t i m a t e lesson i s a knowledge of H e r a c l i t u s 1 statement " A l l things are a f l u x " . For Stock, the poem i s something that e x i s t s out there; i t i n no way corresponds to h i m s e l f , to h i s l i f e experience. I t i s not a v i a b l e energy system of i t s own. He cannot accept the idea that he makes the poem i n the same way that i t makes him, or as Robert Duncan expresses, "Disease, death, t e r r o r and the r u i n of c i t i e s are not experienced but d e a l t w i t h , where r a t i o n a l theory wages i t s w a r . " ^ The poem f u l f i l l s i t s e l f only i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h us and t h i s i s the key to the poetry of The Cantos, f o r only then i s "the charged s u r f a c e " produced. We share w i t h Pound, e x p e r i e n c i a l l y , the energy t r a n s f e r "between the predominant n a t u r a l poles of two human mechanisms". Robert Duncan p i n p o i n t s the e x i s t e n t i a l experience of " l i v i n g " poetry when he says: But I can have no recourse to t a s t e . The work of Denise Levertov or Robert Creeley or L a r r y Eigner belongs not my a p p r e c i a t i o n s but to my immediate concern i n l i v i n g . That I might " l i k e " or " d i s l i k e " a poem of Zukovsky's or Charles Olson's means nothing where I t u r n to t h e i r work as evidence of the r e a l . Movement and a s s o c i a t i o n here are not a r b i t r a r y , but a r i s e as an inner need. I can no more r e s t w i t h my impressions of Maximus than I can!indulge my impressions at any v i t a l p o i n t : I must study t h r u , deepen my experience, search out the challenge and s a l v a t i o n of the work.72 Seen i n the l i g h t of Duncan's " e x p e r i e n c i a l " view of poetry, Stock's demands that The Cantos f i t h i s own p a t t e r n seem t r i v i a l . The r e a l i t y of l i t e r a t u r e , a t l e a s t "great" l i t e r a t u r e , i s that i t adheres to i t s own 60 p a t t e r n , and thus what the poetry i m p l i e s , as i n Pound's case, i s only what i t s images imply. U n l i k e the poet who created the poetry, Stock can only begrudingly admit that the poetry i s " b e a u t i f u l " or some other such statement. Stock i s suspended i n a l o g i c that accepts only one s i d e of a d u a l i t y , and h i s statement:"if one of the i n t e n t i o n s of the f i r s t two pages (Canto 39) i s to give o f f an aura of sex as p h y s i c a l pleasure, a b l i n d need and a r e l e a s e , then i t probably succeeds", i n d i c a t e s the one-sidedness of h i s o p i n i o n . Stock f a i l s to grasp the sy n e r g e t i c view of s e x u a l i t y as i t operates so b e a u t i f u l l y w i t h i n the canto. Though h i s view i s " c o r r e c t " and " v a l i d " , i t i s only so super-f i c i a l l y . I t lack s the t o t a l i n s i g h t that sets against s e x u a l i t y as " b l i n d need and a r e l e a s e " , s e x u a l i t y as c o n t r o l and w i l l . Before l e a v i n g Stock, I wish to add one more comment that i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l to what I have s a i d about him as a c r i t i c . C h r i s t i n e Brook-Rose i n A ZBC of Ezra Pound c r y p t i c a l l y summarizes Stock's c r i t i c i s m i n a footnote. She says of h i s Poet i n E x i l e , " I must add that Mr. Stock's combination of admiration and disappointment has produced an immensely honest book, more u s e f u l however on the e a r l i e r poetry than on The Cantos;'" Of h i s Reading  The Cantos from which I took the quotations used above, she says i t " s u f f e r s from a l a c k of c r i t i c a l demonstration, f a l l i n g too o f t e n i n t o personal opinions that t h i s or that i s p o i n t l e s s as f a r as he can see, 74 e t c . " Having d e a l t as p o l i t e l y as I can w i t h Stock l e t me turn to Canto 39 and present a c r i t i q u e . The features of Canto 39 are brought to l i f e by the i n t e r a c t i o n of myth;, and persona i f one takes the time to read the canto. The opening ranks w i t h the best poetry that Pound w r i t e s and i t s p r e c i s i o n and beauty 6 1 b e c o m e o b v i o u s w h e n s e e n I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t e m a n a t e f r o m i t . I t m a y b e t r u l y s a i d o f t h e i n i t i a l l i n e s o f t h e c a n t o t h a t " t h e f o r m a r i s e s f r o m d e a t h " : D e s o l a t e i s t h e r o o f w h e r e t h e c a t s a t , D e s o l a t e i s t h e i r o n r a i l t h a t h e w a l k e d A n d t h e c o r n e r p o s t w h e n c e h e g r e e t e d t h e s u n r i s e . I n t h e h i l l p a t h : " t h k k , t h g k " o f t h e l o o m " T h k k , t h g k " a n d t h e s h a r p s o u n d o f a s o n g u n d e r o l i v e s W h e n I l a y i n t h e - i n g l e o f C i r c e I h e a r d a s o n g o f t h a t k i n d . F a t p a n t h e r l a y b y m e G i r l s t a l k e d t h e r e o f f u c k i n g , b e a s t s t a l k e d t h e r e o f e a t i n g , A l l h e a v y w i t h s l e e p , f u c k e d g i r l s a n d f a t l e o p a r d s , L i o n s l o g g y w i t h C i r c e ' s t i s a n e , G i r l s l e e r y w i t h C i r c e ' s t i s a n e ( C a n t o 3 9 , p . 1 9 3 ) W i t h t h e o p e n i n g w o r d " d e s o l a t e " a n d i t s r e p e t i t i o n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d l i n e , a s t r e a m o f i m a g e s b t e " g i h ' s t o f l o w a n d w e a r e c a u g h t i n a c r e a t i v e v o r t e x w h o s e i n i t i a l o u t - p o u r i n g i n d i c a t e s a m o o d o f l o n e l i n e s s a n d s a d n e s s , a n d i m p l i e s a s e n s e o f l o s s . T h e i m a g e w h i r l s u s f a r t h e r a n d f a r t h e r i n t o i t s e l f a n d t h e s u b s t a n t i v e e l e m e n t " c a t " f o c u s e s t h e m o v e m e n t . I t s u g g e s t s c o r r e l a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e m o o d t h a t h a s b e e n c r e a t e d . O n e c o u l d e v e n g o s o f a r a s s a y t h a t i t i m p l i c a t e s P o u n d p e r s o n a l l y i n t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f a c a t i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h a t r a i t t h a t W . B . Y e a t s h a s o u t l i n e d i n A V i s i o n . H e r e l a t e s a n a n e c d o t e i n w h i c h P o u n d w o u l d g o o u t i n t o t h e a l l e y n e a r h i s h o m e a n d f e e d a l l t h e s t r a y c a t s . H e k n e w e a c h b y n a m e a n d t h e y k n e w h i m . Y e a t s s a y s f o r e a c h c a t P o u n d h a d a t a l e a n d t h a t h e 6 2 expressed a deep sadness f o r the p l i g h t of these c a t s . Yeats h i g h l i g h t s t h i s anecdote by adding, "Was t h i s p i t y a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i s genera-t i o n that has s u r v i v e d the Romantic Movement, and of mine and hers that saw i t d i e — I too a r e v o l u t i o n i s t — s o m e drop of h y s t e r i a s t i l l at the bottom of the c u p . " ^ The canto i s permeated w i t h a sense of l o s s f o r an u n l o c a l i z e d , u n s p e c i f i e d e n t i t y . Yeats statement acts as a p o i n t of reference from which the o r g a n i z i n g design i n the canto may be deduced. I t i n d i c a t e s the existence of a c o o r d i n a t i n g "consciousness" operative w i t h i n the canto, a "consciousness" through which we experience the sense of l o s s d i r e c t l y . The consciousness" i s not only a mask of the poet represented i n the e p i c f i g u r e Odysseus, but i t i s a l s o an amalgam of s e v e r a l i n t e r r e l a t e d f i g u r e s . In a d d i t i o n Yeats statement provides an i n s i g h t i n t o the mean-ing of the canto i n r e l a t i o n to the whole poem. Returning to the opening l i n e s again, they appear incongrous to what f o l l o w s . I say "appears" because i n f a c t they imply an. a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d s e t of experiences. The a s s o c i a t i o n s that are derived from the word "Desolate" i n c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h The Odyssey construct i l l u m i n a t e a p a r a l l e l w i t h Iathaca. They p o i n t t o Penelope,and the world i n which she f u n c t i o n s , f i l l e d w i t h the same sense of l o s s that the opening l i n e s engender. The p a r a l l e l becomes, more apparent when we consider the image of the loom. This image creates a resonance between the i n i t i a l sense of l o s s that c h a r a c t e r i z e s Penelope's world and the sense of discovery that i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of C i r c e ' s world whose d e s c r i p t i o n f o l l o w s . We have contrasted two ways of l i f e ; Penelope's of w i l l and c o n t r o l w i t h C i r c e ' s of l a x i t y and abandonment of the w i l l . 63 The sound of the loom c o n c r e t i z e s the image of Penelope s p i n n i n g a shroud f o r Odysseus' f a t h e r Laertes as a sham to keep from marrying one of the many s u i t o r s who wreak havoc on her household. The b e l i e f i n the r e t u r n of Odysseus generates a steadfastness that r e s u l t s i n c o n t r o l of e x t e r n a l circumstances. Her w i l l triumphs over l o n e l i n e s s and despair. W i l l i s seen as inwardly formulated as a response to an attempt to l a y the past aside. Through w i l l Penelope i s strengthened and maintained and thus i s able to c o n t r o l her des t i n y . On the other hand, the sound of the loom v i b r a t e s w i t h the energy of the goddess C i r c e . With the loom, C i r c e i s s a i d to weave snares to entrap unsuspecting men, to take away from them t h e i r humanity and change them t o animals. Coupled w i t h the sound of the loom i s her song which i s , I f e e l , a f l a s h of the song of the Siren s who would have l e d Odysseus and h i s crew to t h e i r deaths. More i m p o r t a n t l y , the sound.of the loom and the sound of a song induce through t h e i r meaning i n The  Odyssey a sense of s e c u r i t y . I t i s a sense of s e c u r i t y that o r i g i n a t e s from a memory of the past. Travel-weary men come upon a house w i t h a b e a u t i f u l woman who i s sp i n n i n g and s i n g i n g a song. There i s no p o s s i b l e doubt of the ideas;they t h i n k . They t h i n k of the comfort and the p h y s i c a l pleasure a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l y i n g w i t h the woman who i s a symbol of the women they yearn to be w i t h i n t h e i r homeland. Moreover, the presence of "predators" which are tame, and the apparent a i r of peace and contentment increase the sense of s e c u r i t y that Odysseus' crew seeks. Yet, the presence of " f a t " panthers, l i o n s and leopards i s unnatural. Where t h e i r ferociousness should be aroused, there i s languor. 6 4 Where once they might be considered a c t i v e and aggressive, the predators l i e i n passive l a z i n e s s . A l l i n C i r c e ' s " i n g l e " i s permeated w i t h an abandonment of w i l l , a l a s s i t u d e that seems to react against a l l sense of a c t i v i t y . The c o n t r a s t w i t h the w i l l - e n e r g i z e d world of I t h a c a h i g h l i g h t s C i r c e ' s world even more pronouncedly. Where there i s a c t i o n i n Penelope's world, we f i n d only t a l k of " e a t i n g " , of " f u c k i n g " . There i s no a c t i o n ; a l l w a i t to be fed or: s e x u a l l y g r a t i f i e d . The p h y s i c a l images employed created a world i n which a l l energy i s l o c a l i z e d i n the v i s c e r a l and g e n i t a l areas. These areas are symbolic of the immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n gotten i n indulgence. They represent the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the "moment" as opposed to the s a t i s f a c t i o n that i s a t t a i n e d through d i s c i p l i n e and moderation. The pleasures of the moment give way to sorrow and despair as they are as f l e e t i n g as the substances which produce the momentary s a t i s f a c t i o n . The abandonment of c o n t r o l leads to a genuine sorrow as seen i n the c r i e s of Odysseus' crew as they wallow i n the s t y a f t e r being bewitched by C i r c e . The s e l f - i n d u l g e n t world of C i r c e ' s i n g l e i s based on a b e l i e f i n an i d e a l w orld, a world where the wants of the body are s a t i a t e d . But such an i d e a l i s never p o s s i b l e because memory creates an i d e a l that i s never q u i t e a t t a i n e d and thus the immediate p h y s i c a l pleasure i s as f l e e t -i n g as the thought from which i t sprung. As Pound presents the canto,one begins to see that true s a t i s f a c t i o n does not r e s i d e i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n of b o d i l y needs, but r e s i d e s i n using the mind to c o n t r o l the body. C i r c e i s e v i l , or thought to be so, because she changes men i n t o animals. I f seen i n ±a.s true l i g h t , C i r c e merely completes a c y c l e already begun i n the minds of men. The thought of the e a r t h l y paradise of b o d i l y 65 pleasure is the impetus which leads to the total abandonment of the will to bodily satisfaction at the expense of the will. What is forgotten fs the necessity of responsibility for one's acts. Total abandonment to the senses leads only to sorrow as Homer so poignantly registers: "They were like pigs—head, hair and al l , and they grunted just as pigs do; but their senses were the same as before, and they remembered everything" (11. 229-241, p. 238). Because they had failed to take heed of their senses, they pay for the loss of control. As the canto unfolds, the syntax becomes more and more disjointed as it registers the points of entry and depature.of the central "conscious-ness" in the canto. At the same time, the breaks in syntax allow for the associations of the whole poem to enter the canto and energize each image with a greater power. There is at once created a unity of expression that needs no words to complete an energy transfer, only the presence of another association. The syntax is like a psychedelic scenario, a pulsat-ing, expanding contradicting explosion of images: — born to Helios and Perseis that had Pasiphae for twin Venter venustus, cunni cultrix of the velvet marge ver novuum, canorum, ver novuum Spring overborne into summer late spring in the leafy autumn KALON AOIDIAEI First honey and cheese honey at first then acorns Honey at the start then acorns honey and wine then acorns Song sharp at the edge, her crotch like a young sapling (p. 192-193) 6 6 E a c h p r o p e r n o u n r e v e r b e r a t e s w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h f o l d a n d i n f o l d o n o n e a n o h h e r . " H e l i o s " , " P e r s e i s " , a n d " P a s i p h a e " p r e s e n t C i r c e ' s f a m i l y . I n t e r m s o f t h e c a n t o a n d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h a r e e l i c i t e d , C i r c e ' s f a m i l y i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . A p o l l o i s h e r f a t h e r a n d P a s i p h a e i s h e r t w i n s i s t e r , b o t h o f w h o m f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n m y t h s t h a t a u g m e n t t h e m e a n i n g P o u n d w i s h e s t o s h o w t h r o u g h h i s i m a g e s . P a s i p h a e w a s w i f e o f K i n g M i n o s a n d f i g u r e s i n t h e m y t h o f t h e M i n o t a u r a s s h e b o r e t h e m o n s t e r a s a p u n i s h m e n t f o r h e r h u s b a n d ' s i n s u l t o f N e p t u n e . K i n g M i n o s r e f u s e d t o s a c r i f i c e a b e a u t i f u l b u l l w h i c h N e p t u n e h a d g i v e n h i m t o s a c r i f i c e . N e p t u n e d i s c o v e r e d h e h a d b e e n t r i c k e d a n d a s a p u n i s h m e n t h e h a d P a s i p h a e f a l l m a d l y i n l o v e w i t h t h e b u l l a n d f i n a l l y c o p u l a t e w i t h i t . T h e p a r a l l e l s c e n e s o f l u s t t h a t p e r v a d e t h i s m y t h a n d t h a t w h i c h P o u n d p r e s e n t s a s a p a r t o f t h e " i n g l e " o f C i r c e r e p r e s e n t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e l o s s o f c o n t r o l . M o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e m y t h i l l u s t r a t e s h o w a l l m y t h s i n t h e c a n t o b e c o m e o n e . W e k n o w f r o m a k n o w l e d g e o f T h e O d y s s e y t h a t i n o r d e r t o c o n t i n u e o n h i s j o u r n e y t o w a r d s I t h a c a , O d y s s e u s m u s t g a i n k n o w l e d g e f r o m C i r c e . W e s e e t h a t i n t h e m y t h , o f t h e M i n o t a u r i t i s A A p o l l o ' s d a u g h t e r w h o c o p u l a t e s w i t h a b u l l . T h e d i v e r g e n t t h r e a d s o f m e a n i n g c o m e t o g e t h e r w h e n i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t i t i s t h r o u g h t h e s l a u g h t e r o f A p o l l o ' s b u l l s o n S i c i l y t h a t O d y s s e u s a n d h i s c r e w a r e s h i p w r e c k e d a n d o n l y O d y s s e u s s u r v i v e s . D i g g i n g e v e n d e e p e r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f N e p t u n e a s t h e i n i t i a t o r o f t h e a w f u l c o n s e q u e n c e s t h a t l e a d t o t h e b i r t h o f t h e M i n o t a u r f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n o n h i s r o l e a s a v e n g e r o f t h e i n s u l t d o n e a t T r o y b y t h e G r e e k s . I n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r t h e G r e e k ' s l a c k o f p r o p e r s a c r i f i c e t o t h e g o d s w h o a i d e d t h e i r v i c t o r y , N e p t u n e i s c a l l e d o n t o p u n i s h t h e m . H i s f u r y l e d 6 7 to Odysseus's ten year journey and the ultimate destruction of his men. In each case, i t was a loss of control that led to sorrow through the vengeance of the gods. At Troy, i t was the happiness and joy of victory and the claiming of the spoils of war; on Crete, i t was the covetousness of King Minos; w i l l giving way to desire; on Circe's i s l e , i t was once again desire, but a desire coupled with the false joy associated with an indulgence of the senses. In each case there was a. relinquishing of responsibility for the pleasure of the moment, for the pleasure of the transitory. While maintaining a focus on the necessity of responsibility in the search for knowledge, Pound also sets in motion another block of images which interweave with the responsibility theme and link the canto with other parts of the poem. The cry "ver novuum" nofekonlytaw.akens'tthe : nea'den^ tjo the presence of eternal spring on the i s l e of Circe, but also points to a theme that is marked by the snatches of a colloquy. The cry notes the joy of a travel-weary crew on discovering a supposed haven from the t r i a l s of a menacing fate. Captured in the simplest images i s a joy of men accustomed to hard labor and pain in a world in which time is arrested. Spring, in i t s sexual exuberance of new l i f e , remains arrested at the peak of i t s freshness at that exquisite moment before i t begins to lose that freshness in the summer's sun. With the shout "KALON AOIDIAEI", Pound makes the poem come alive to the response of man to man. Circe i s a woman or a goddess and thus the shout of joy. She sings and spins. She is something that Odysseus' men can identify with, someone with whom they can share their sorrow and someone who possibly offers succour after many hardships. The crew react 6 8 t o C i r c e i n a human way. A f t e r t h e t e r r o r o f t h e g i a n t Polyphemus, C i r c e ' s f e a t u r e s a r e a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t t h o u g h t , w i t h o u t f e a r . A g a i n s t t h i s human r e a c t i o n , Pound p l a y s the c o n t r o l and w i l l o f Odysseus and h i s s i n g u l a r m i s s i o n t o r e t u r n t o I t h a c a . To Odysseus, " a l w a y s w i t h y o u r mind on t h e p a s t " , C i r c e r e p r e s e n t s a n o t h e r o b s t a c l e o v e r w h i c h he must t r i u m p h and so c o n t i n u e on h i s way. There i s no r e s p i t e f o r him. A l l must be o r d e r and c o n t r o l . H i s " d e s t i n y " can o n l y be f u l f i l l e d , when he r e a c h e s I t h a c a . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s d e s t i n y , e v e r y t h i n g and e v e r y o n e , i n c l u d i n g h i s men, a r e t h e r e f o r e d e l e g a t e d t o s e c o n d a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . N o t h i n g can s t a n d i n . t h e way o f t h e a c h i v e -ment o f t h i s g o a l . Pound emphasizes t h i s u n y i e l d i n g s i d e o f Odysseus i n o r d e r t o e x p r e s s a t e n s i o n t h a t i s o n l y r e l e a s e d when Odysseus l e a r n s t o a c c e p t t h a t p a r t o f h i m s e l f t h a t i s c o m p a s s i o n a t e , i s y i e l d i n g . F o r h i s men, t h e b i t t e r n e s s o f t h e i r d e s t i n y i s m a g n i f i c e n t l y r e n d e r e d i n t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e words " F i r s t honey and cheese" i n d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s . The s t r e s s f a l l i n g on t h e word " f i r s t " and upon t h e word " t h e n " i n each l i n e emphasizes t h e m i s e r a b l e p r e d i c a m e n t t h e i r human a p p e t i t e s have p l a c e d them i n d e s p i t e t h e i r f o r m e r h a r d s h i p s . Pound p l a y s upon t h e f a t e o f t h e crew i n t h a t a t no t i m e i n The Odyssey do t h e y e v e r come out_on„top o f a n y t h i n g . The whole s p e c t r u m o f hope t u r n i n g t o d e s p a i r i s f l a s h e d a g a i n and a g a i n , and t h e s e n s e l e s s n e s s o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i s r e c o r d e d . One f e e l s t h e j o y "Song s h a r p a t t h e edge, h e r c r o t c h l i k e a young s a p l i n g " v a n i s h t o b e ' r e p l a c e d w i t h an abysmal des-p a i r : " t h e n a c o r n s " . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e d i s r u p t e d s y n t a x w i t h a meter c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e anapest e n c l o s e d between t r o c h e ' e s s p r o d u c e s a pas s a g e t h a t i s t r u l y m e a n i n g f u l i n sense and sound. 6 9 T h e o r a c l e t h a t O d y s s e u s r e c e i v e s f r o m C i r c e d r i v e s t h e t e n s i o n t o a g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y f o r i t i s a p r o p h e c y t h a t i n i t s u l t i m a t e e x t e n s i o n f o r e t e l l s " t h e d e a t h o f t h e c r e w . C i r c e ' s w o r d s a r e t r a n s l a t e d , " B u t f i r s t y o u m u s t a c c o m p l i s h a n o t h e r j o u r n e y , a n d c o m e t o t h e h o u s e o f H a d e s a n d a w e s o m e P e r s e p h o n e , t o c o n s u l t w i t h t h e s o u l o f T h e b a n T e i r e -s i a s , t h e b l i n d p r o p h e t o f s t e a d f a s t m i n d ; t h o u g h h e i s d e a d , P e r s e p h o n e h a s g r a n t e d h i m a l o n e p o s s e s s i o n o f h i s f a c u l t i e s , w h i l e t h e o t h e r s h a d e s a r e w i t n e s s . " ( 1 1 . 4 8 7 - 4 9 6 , p . 2 9 1 ) O d y s s e u s m u s t a c c e p t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e a t h o f h i s m e n a s i s r e n d e r e d i n t h e b e a u t i f u l l y i m a g e d p a s s a g e : E u r i l o c h u s , M a c e r , b e t t e r t h e r e w i t h g o o d a c o r n s T h a n w i t h a c r a b f o r a n e y e , a n d 3 0 f a t h o m o f f i s h G r e e n s w i s h i n t h e s o c k e t I t i s t h e O d y s s e u s o f T h e C a n t o s w h o s p e a k s t h e s e w o r d s a n d n o t t h e O d y s s e u s o f H o m e r . T h e " n e w " O d y s s e u s h a s l e a r n e d f r o m t h e m i s t a k e s o f t h e p a s t . E u r i l o c h u s a c t s a s t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n a t e l e s c o p i n g o f i m a g e s t h a t r e p r e s e n t t h e p l i g h t o f t h e c r e w . E u r i l o c h u s r e p r e s e n t s b o t h c o n s t r u c t i v e a n d d e s t r u c t i v e e l e m e n t s w i t h i n t h e c a n t o . O n t h e o n e h a n d , h e a l o n e r e c o g n i z e d , i n t h e u n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g o f C i r c e ' s i n g l e a d a n g e r a n d r e t u r n e d t o t e l l O d y s s e u s o f f e l l o w s ' f a t e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d h e r e p r e s e n t s t h e d e s t r u c t i v e e l e m e n t o f O d y s s e u s ' s i n g u l a r d e s t i n y . I t i s E u r i l o c h u s w h o c a r r i e s o f f t h e c a t t l e o f A p o l l o a n d l e a d s t o t h e d e a t h o f e v e r y o n e e x c e p t O d y s s e u s . I t i s t h r o u g h O d y s s e u s ' c o n t r o l t h a t h i s m e n g o h u n g r y a s t h e y a r e f o r c e d t o c o n t i n u e o n w a r d a t a l l c o s t s . I n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e s e n s i b i l i t i e s o f h i s c r e w m e n , t h e n e w O d y s s e u s f r e e s h i m s e l f f r o m a r o l e t h a t i s r i g i d a n d 70 devoid of human compassion. The Homeric Odysseus becomes human accept-ing without qualification those qualities which are not considered heroic in the classic sense. The Eurilochus passage points to another canto that registers in much more direct way the ri g i d i t y of the Odyssian destiny and i t s destructiveness. In Canto 20, the Lotus-^Eaters c r i t i c i z e Odysseus for his monomania: Lotophagoi of the suave nails, quiet, scornful, Voee-profondo: "Feared neither dead nor pain for this beauty; If harm harm to ourselves." And beneath: the clear bones, far down, Thousand on thousand. "What gain with Odysseus, "They that died in the whirlpool "And after.many vain labors, "Living by stolen meat, chained to the rowing bench, "That they should have great fame "And l i e by night with the goddess? "Their names are not written in bronze "Nor their rowing sticks set with Elpenor's; "Nor have they mound by sea-bord. "That saw never the olives under Spartha "With the leaves green then not green, "The click of the light among the branches; "That saw not the bronze h a l l nor the ingle "Nor lay there with the queen's waiting maids, "Nor had they meats of Kalupso "Or her s i l k skirts brushing their thighs. "Give! What were they given? Ear-wax. "Poison and ear-wax, and a salt-grave by the b u l l - f i e l d "neson amumona, their heads like sea-crows in the foam, 71 " B l a c k s p l o t c h e s , s e a - w e e d u n d e r l i g h t n i n g ; " C a n n e d b e e f o f A p o l l o , t e n c a n s f o r a b o a t l o a d . " ( C a n t o 2 0 , p p . 9 3 - 9 4 ) I n t h e s c o r n f u l , m o c k i n g t o n e o f a " c o n s c i o u s n e s s " t h a t h a s s e e n t h e o u t c o m e o f s i n g u l a r m a n i a s , t h e p o e t r y t a k e s u s i n t o t h e r e a l m o f T h e O d y s s e y a n d i n t o t h e d e p t h s o f a n c i e n t G r e e c e . W e s e e . t h e r e g a r d f o r h u m a n l i f e b y g o d s a s w e l l a s l e a d e r s t o b e m i n i m a l . L i v e s a r e d e p l o y e d a s a m e a n s o f d i s p l a y i n g w h i m s o f p o w e r . T h e d e v a s t a t i o n o f T r o y w . i - ; t h - . l t h e £ s ! i n ; g i l e l i v e c h i l d w h o i s t h r o w n f r o m t h e w a l l s w h i l e h i s n o w e n s l a v e d m o t h e r w a t c h e s h e l p l e s s l y , i s a s p e c t a c l e b e y o n d b e l i e f . O d y s s e u s ' h e r o i c s a r e s e e n f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e y a r e w i t n e s s e d a s a s o r t o f m o n o m a n i a b a s e d o n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e e d t o c o n q u e r a n d c o n t r o l , a r e a s s u r a n c e , t o t h e s e l f o f o n e ' s p o w e r b e f o r e t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e g o d s . T h e c a r n a g e o f T r o y , t h e h a r d s h i p , l o n e l i n e s s a n d u l t i m a t e d e a t h o f t h e c r e w m e n b e l i t t l e w h a t e v e r g l o r y t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f I t h a c a b r i n g s t o O d y s s e u s . M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e q u e s t i o n i n g ? t o n e o f t h e l o t o p h a g o i u n r d e a r m i n e , s t h e s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e o n w h i c h T h e O d y s s e y i s b u i l t . T h e y , q u e s t i o n a p a r t o f G r e e k l i f e t h a t h a s n o t b e e n r e g a r d e d a s d e s t r u c t i v e , b u t t a k e n t o b e a w a y o f l i f e . P o u n d a t t e m p t s t o p o i n t o u t a l e s s o n f o r t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y m a n . I n h e r e n t i n t h e s c o r n f u l d i a t r i b e i s a s e n s e o f , w a s t e , a m i s - a p p l i c a t i o n o f c r e a t i v e e n e r g y . A s E . R . D o d d s p o i n t s o u t i n T h e G r e e k s a n d t h e I r r a t i o n a l , t h e h e r o e s o f H o m e r w e r e i m m e r s e d i n a " s h a m e c u l t u r e " a a n d f o r t h e m t o l o s e p u b l i c 76 e s t e e m w a s a f a t e w o r s e t h a n d e a t h . T h u s , i t i s e a s y t o s e e t h a t u n d e r -l y i n g O d y s s e u s ' t r e k i s t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h d r i v e h i m e v e r o n w a r d 7 2 i n f e a r o f " l o s i n g " h i s n a m e . E l p e n o r ' s e p i t a p h f r o m C a n t o I s t r i k e s a n o t e o f s a l i e n c e h e r e : " A m a n o f n o f o r t u n e , a n d w i t h a n a m e t o c o m e . " I t w a s E l p e n o r ' s f a t e t o f a l l f r o m C i r c e ' s r o o f i n a d r u n k e n s t u p o r a n d s o l o s e a l l c h a n c e o f f a m e . T h e e p i t a p h i m p l i e s a f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h l i f e w i t h t h e g o d s f o r h a v i n g a l l o w e d s u c h a f a t e t o b e f a l l a m a n . H o m e r i c m a n w a s a m a n o f c o n t r o l a n d w i l l . F o r h i m " t h e h i g h e s t g o o d i s n o t t h e e n j o y m e n t o f a q u i e t c o n s c i e n c e , b u t t h e e n j o y m e n t o f t i m e , p u b l i c e s t e e m . . . A n d t h e s t r o n g e s t m o r a l f o r c e w h i c h H o m e r i c m a n k n o w s i s n o t t h e f e a r o f g o d , b u t r e s p e c t f o r h u m a n o p i n i o n , a i d o s . . . " ^ O d y s s e u s s t a t e m e n t o f t h e e f f e c t o f C i r c e ' s d r u g o n h i s m e n p a y s p a r t -i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o h i s m e n ' s a b a n d o n m e n t o f t h e i r t h o u g h t o f h o m e : . " W h e n s h e h a d g o t t h e m i n t o h e r h o u s e , s h e s a t t h e m u p o n b e n c h e s a n d s e a t s a n d m i x e d t h e m a m e s s w i t h c h e e s e , h o n e y , m e a l , a n d P a r m n i a n w i n e , b u t s h e d r u g g e d i t w i t h w i c k e d p o i s o n s t o m a k e t h e m f o r g e t t h e i r h o m e s , a n d w h e n s h e h a d d r u n k s h e t u r n e d t h e m i n t o p i g s w i t h a s t r o k e o f h e r 7 8 w a n d . . . " W i t h o u t t h e t h o u g h t o f h o m e i . e . s o c i a l - c o n d i t i o n i n g , t h e y h a v e n o s h a m e a n d t h u s a r e f r e e t o d o w h a t t h e y p l e a s e . I t i s n o t w i t h o u t p u r p o s e t h a t a l o n g w i t h t h e s e n s e o f l o s s t h a t i s p a r t o f t h e m o o d o f C a n t o 3 9 , t h e r e c a n n o w b e r e c o g n i z e d , a n ^ u b i q u i t o u s f e a r . S e e n i n t h e l i g h t o f C a n t o 2 0 a n d E l p e n o r ' s i r o n i c e p i t a p h , t h i s f e a r i s a n e x i s t e n t i a l f e a r d e r i v e d f r o m a l o s s o f a b a s i s . T h e H o m e r i c O d y s s e u s h a s b e e n d r i v e n i n t o a c o r n e r b y t h e s c o r n a n d s h a m e l e v e l l e d a t h i m b y t h e l o t o p h a g o i . T h e y h a v e f o r c e d a m e t a m o r p h o s i s t o o c c u r ; t h e y h a v e f o r c e d h i m t o s l e e p w i t h C i r c e a n d t h u s t o c o m b i n e c o n t r o l w i t h a b a n d o n m e n t a n d f o r m a s y n t h e s i s t h a t i s t r u l y s y n c r e t i c . N o l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y i s a c u l t o f h e r o i s m b a s e d o n n o b l e d e e d s a n d n o b l e c o m b a t . 7 3 T o t a l l y m a s c u l i n e s t r e n g t h i s u n n e c e s s a r y . W h a t i s n e c e s s a r y i s l o v e . W i t h l o v e i s a l l a y e d a l l f e a r o f s h a m e f o r l o v e s u r p a s s e s s h a m e . I t i s n o l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y f o r O d y s s e u s t o " c o n t r o l " t h e s i t u a t i o n , t o " c o n q u e r " i n o r d e r t o g a i n k n o w l e d g e o f s o m e t h i n g . I t i s n o l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y f o r h i m t o p o s s e s s m o l y t o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f f r o m t h e r h a p s o d y o f C i r c e . W i t h C i r c e h e s h a r e s i n t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f b o u n d a r i e s b e t w e e n w h a t i s " m a l e " a n d w h a t i s " f e m a l e " . H e h a s l e a r n e d t o s u r r e n d e r t o t h e f o r c e s w h i c h a r e a t o n c e c r e a t i v e a n d d e s t r u c t i v e . O d y s s e u s h a s u n d e r g o n e a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a n d h a s b e c o m e " m o d e r n " a n d t h e c h a n g e i n h i s s t r u c t u r e . i s r e g i s t e r e d i n a c h a n g e i n C a n t o 3 9 . B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e L a t i n " S . u m u s i n f i d e " , t h e e m p h a s i s i s u p o n t h e m e t a m o r p h i c p o w e r i n n a t u r e . T h e s o n g o f s p r i n g w h i c h w a s p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r i n . t h e c a n t o n o w p r o c l a i m s w i t h v i g o r t h e a d v e n t o f a n e w a w a r e n e s s . T h e r e h a s b e e n a " m a r r i a g e " p e r f o r m e d , t w o e l e m e n t s h a v e b e e n j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , a n d t h e m o o d p o i n t s t o t h e j u b i l a t i o n o f t h e o n l o o k e r s , a s t h e y t o o h a v e s h a r e d i n t h e m a r r i a g e . T h e j u b i l a t i o n i s e x h i b i t e d i n t h e . r h y t h m t h a t m a r k s t h e " n e w " a w a r e n e s s o f . l i f e ' s e n e r g i e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e c y n i c a l a i r t h a t m a r k e d t h e d i a t r i b e o f C a n t o 2 0 , w e h a v e a t o n e t h a t i n f o r m s C a n t o 3 9 w i t h a d e t e r m i n a t i o n r e n d e r e d v i s i b l e i n t h e m o v e m e n t o f - t h e p o e t r y : F i f t y a n d f o r t y t o g e t h e r . E R I M E N A I D E K U D O N I A I B e t u e n e A p r i l e a n d M e r c h e w i t h s a p n e w i n t h e b o u g h W i t h p l u m f l o w e r s a b o v e t h e m w i t h a l m o n d o n t h e b l a c k b o u g h W i t h j a s m i n e a n d o l i v e l e a f - 3 ' T o t h e b e a t o f t h e m e a s u r e F l a n k b y f l a n k o n t h e h e a d l a n d w i t h t h e g o d d e s s ' e y e s t o s e a w a r d B y C i r c e o , b y T e r r a c i n a , w i t h t h e s t o n e e y e s w h i t e t o w a r d t h e s e a ( p . 1 9 5 ) 74 The "new" crew move without h e s i t a t i o n , without f e a r . Theyaare a l i v e to the rhythm of l i f e , the c y c l i c b i r t h and death of a l l t h i n g s . T h e i r determination i s grounded i n the seminal i d e a that each b i r t h i s a r e b i r t h from death; they are a p a r t of the " v i t a l u n i v e r s e " : With one measure unceasing: "Fac deum.'" "Est f a c t u s . " Ver novum! ver novum! Thus made the s p r i n g Beaten from f l e s h i n t o l i g h t Hath swallowed t h e f f i r e b a l l A t r a v e r s o l e f o g l i e His rod hath made god i n my b e l l y S i c l o q u i t u r nupta Cantat s i c nupta (pp. 195-196) A new age has dawned, a new l i f e has begun. Man i s no longer h o r i z o n t a l l y bound as a maker of h i s t o r y , he i s h i s t o r y . H i s power re s i d e s i n h i s a b i l i t y to swallow "The f i r e - b a l l " • , to become, l i g h t , to become energy through the t r a n s l a t i o n of experience i n t o Eros. Odysseus of o l d has surrendered t o C i r c e and i n doing so has surrendered to the female aspect arid has become whole. Odysseus has partaken i n a "cre a t i v e ' 1 act and now r a d i a t e s , "Beaten from f l e s h i n t o l i g h t " , a u n i t y of being. He has found a name and a purpose. We have seen.in Canto 39 the myth of The Odys s ey.us ed.as the inform-i n g element of a pe r s p e c t i v e that acts as a "cheque" against knowledge. The myth allows Pound to deal w i t h the l i f e of the twentieth century i n terms of a symbology that i s s t i l l v a l i d although the w o r l d which f o s t e r e d i t has long s i n c e passed away. Through the myth the past l i v e s again and the c y c l i c p a t t e r n o f l i f e i s i l l u s t r a t e d . Nothing dies or passes away. A l l the past i s an informing c o n s t r u c t f o r the present. In the f i g u r e 75 of Eurilochus, we see the fvision of many l i n e s of action within the construct of The Odyssey forming a s i n g l e unity.. This symbolizes, throughout The Cantos the casual connection between a l l l i f e . Circe indicates a-, p o s i t i o n on a l i v i n g continuum which has Penelope as i t s opposite. Each compliments the other and each figure acts i n i t s own r i g h t as a pole about which corresponding images can gather. Yet, what Canto 39 shows us i s myth as the most basic "cheque" against knowledge. As we have seen iri The S p i r i t of Romance, myth springs from the psyche of the i n d i v i d u a l and presents a glimpse of the vast correlations that operate simultaneously i n the "human" and " v i t a l " universes. Myth, then, as seen i n Canto 39, i s a means of transcending a l l ages, a l l time, without l o s i n g the elemental correspondence to the human condition. In the treatment of the C i r c i a n motif iri Canto 39, we notice a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis placed upon the r o l e of beauty. Whene one looks at something b e a u t i f u l as a source of pleasure, beauty i s revealed as destructive, as a source of pain and e v i l . Circe's beauty enslaves men, usurps t h e i r w i l l s . Pasiphae spawns the Minotaur i n punishment f o r her husband's attempt to possess a b u l l whose beauty surpassed a l l animals. Pound plays upothe fa c t that beauty r e s i s t s any attempt to possess i t . To attempt to possess beauty r e s u l t s i n an awesome p r i c e . f As':?r early as Canto I I , we see beauty regarded i n t h i s way. In Canto I I , we hear the o l d men of Troy voice t h e i r dissent over • Helen's presence i n t h e i r c i t y : 7 6 " L e t h e r g o b a c k t o t h e s h i p s , B a c k a m o n g G r e c i a n f a c e s , l e s t e v i l c o m e o n o u r o w n , E v i l a n d f u r t h e r e v i l , a n d a c u r s e c u r s e d o n o u r c h i l d r e n , M o v e s , y e s s h e m o v e s l i k e a g o d d e s s A n d h a s t h e f a c e o f a g o d a n d t h e v o i c e o f S c h o e n e y ' s d a u g h t e r s , A n d d o o m g o e s w i t h h e r i n w a l k i n g , L e t h e r g o b a c k t o t h e s h i p s b a c k a m o n g G r e c i a n v o i c e s . " ( C a n t o II, p . 6 ) H e l e n r e p r e s e n t s t h e e p i t o m e o f e a r t h l y b e a u t y a n d s o m e h o w i n h e r b e a u t y r e s i d e s a s e e d o f d e s t r u c t i o n t h a t g e r m i n a t e s i n t o s o r r o w . P o u n d ' s e m p h a s i s r e s t s i n t h e i m p e r m a n e n c e o f t h e t y p e o f b e a u t y £<o;un'dc i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s u c h a s H e l e n . T i m e l e s s b e a u t y r e s i d e s i n t h e q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e p r e s e n t i n t h e " l i v i n g " m o m e n t : " a s t h e s c u l p t o r s e e s t h e f o r m i n t h e a i r " a s t h e g l a s s s e e n u n d e r w a t e r , " K i n g O t r e u s , m y f a t h e r . . . a n d t h e w a v e s t a k i n g f o r m a s c r y s t a l n o t e s a s f a c e t s o f t h e a i r , a n d t h e m i n d t h e r e , b e f o r e t h e m , m o v i n g , s o t h e n o t e s n e e d e d n o t m o v e . ( C a n t o 2 5 , p . 1 1 9 ) B e a u t y c o m e s u n a w a r e s t o t h e b e h o l d e r l i k e " a t i n f l a s h i n t h e s u n -d a z z l e " ( C a n t o II, p . 7 ) , o r a s s e e n i n t h e p a s s a g e a b o v e , a t t r a c t e d t o t h a t w h i c h i s b e a u t i f u l . A p h r o d i t e c a m e t o l o o k o n t h e c o u n t e n a n c e o f A n c h i s e s b e c a u s e i t w a s v e r y b e a u t i f u l . O u t o f t h e l u s t f o r b e a u t y ; s p r i n g s h o r r o r s s u c h a s t h e M i n o t a u r , w h i l e i n t h e " n a t u r a l " u n i o n o f b e a u t y w i t h a n a p p o i n t e d r e c e p t o r a h a r m o n y i s w r o u g h t a n d l i f e i s c r e a t e d : 7 7 o r A n c h i s e s t h a t l a y h o l d o f h e r f l a n k s o f a i r d r a w i n g h e r t o h i m C y t h e r a p o t e n s n o c l o u d , b u t t h e c r y s t a l b o d y t h e t a n g e n t f o r m e d i n t h e h a n d ' s c u p a s l i v e w i n d i n t h e b e e c h g r o v e a s s t r o n g a i r a m i d c y p r e s s . ( C a n t o 7 6 , p . 4 5 6 - 4 5 7 ) B e a u t y r e s i d e s ' i n t h e m o v e m e n t o f e n e r g y , i t i s n o t s t a t i c . I t i s f o r e v e r i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n . T h e i m a g e o f t h e e t h e r e a l g o d d e s s g r a s p e d b y m o r t a l h a n d s s y m b o l i z e s t h e a r t i s t i c i m p u l s e w h i c h a g o n i z i n g l y a w a i t s t h e m o m e n t w h e n t h e e t e r n a l i s v i s u a l i z e d , w h e n t h e h u m a n i s " b e a t e n f r o m f l e s h i n t o l i g h t " . I t i s t h e m o m e n t w h e n t h e i n e f f a b l e " s u b m i t s " t o b e i n g c o n c r e t i z e d , w i t h o u t f o r c e , n a t u r a l l y : L a y t h e r e , t h e l o n g s o f t g r a s s , a n d t h e f l u t e l a y t h e r e b y h e r t h i g h S u l p i c i a , t h e f a u n s , t w i g - s t r o n g , g a t h e r e d a b o u t h e r ; T h e f l u i d , o v e r t h e g r a s s Z e p h y r u s , p a s s i n g t h r o u g h h e r " d e u s n e c l a e d i t a m a n t e s " . ( C a n t o 2 5 , p . 1 1 8 ) O u t o f f e a r c a n c o m e n o u n i o n , n o b e a u t y , n o l o v e . O n l y i n t h e " s u r r e n d e r " t o t h e " f o r c e " w h i c h d r i v e s t o w a r d s c r e a t i o n a n d i s s o b e a u t i f u l l y r e n d e r e d , " T h e f l u i d , o v e r t h e g r a s s / Z e p h y r e u s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h h e r ' ^ d o e s b e a u t y a n d l o v e r e s u l t . L e s t h e r p a s s i o n f o r C e r i n t h u s t u r n t o l u s t , a w a n t o n " f o r c e " , t h e d e s i r e t o p o s s e s s r a t h e r t h a n t o u n i t e w i t h t h e c r e a t i v e f o r c e , t h e e t e r n a l s e m e n , v i s i b l e o n l y i n t h e " s i g n " o f t h e w i n d a s a " f o r c e " b e n d i n g t a l l g r a s s , t r a n s f o r m s h e r l o v e i n t o b e a u t y . S u l p i c i a b e c o m e s p a r t o f t h e f e c u n d i v e u n i v e r s e . S h e i s A p h r o d i t e s u b m i t t i n g t o A n c h i s e s , s h e i s C i r c e s u b m i t t i n g t o O d y s s e u s , s h e i s " s t o n e 7 8 k n o w i n g t h e f o r m w h i c h t h e c a r v e r i m p a r t s " ( C a n t o 7 4 , p . 4 3 0 ) . H e r l o v e b e c o m e s a g e n e r a t i n g f o r c e r e v e r b e r a t i n g t h e d i c t u m : " P o n e m e t u m ; / M e t u m , n e c d e u s l a e d i t ( a m a n t e s ) " u w h i c h t r a n s l a t e s " L a y a s i d e f e a r , / F e a r , g o d d o e s n o t h a r m ( l o v e r s ) , " ( C a n t o 2 5 , p . 1 1 7 ) , t h r o u g h o u t t h e u n i v e r s e . O n l y w h e n f e a r i s a l l a y e d d o e s t r u e c r e a t i o n r e s u l t , f o r i n l a c k i n g f e a r " s u r r e n d e r " c o m e s w i t h o u t q u a l i f i c a t i o n . I n h i s c h o i c e o f t h e S u l p i c i a - C e r i n . t h u s . m o t i f , P o u n d i l l u s t r a t e s h o w t h e " s u r r e n d e r " . o f . S u l p i c i a t o h e r " p a s s i o n " f o r C e r i n t h u s , t h e l o s i n g o f h e r s e l f t o t a l l y a n d c o m p l e t e l y i n h e r l o v e ( n o t l u s t ) , r e s u l t s i n a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h a t p a s s i o n i n t o a d i v i n e q u a l i t y . F e a r o f t h e t o t a l i m m e r s i o n i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s o f t h e u n i v e r s e , t h e f e a r o f t h e l o s s o f t h e " e g o " w h i c h d e f i n e s a n d . p r o t e c t s b y d e f i n i -t i o n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e S e l f , c l o u d s t h e m i n d i n P o u n d ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e h u m a n p r e d i c a m e n t . F e a r o f b e c o m i n g " l o s t " , o f l o s i n g t h e i d e n t i t y t h e e g o h a s s o d i l i g e n t l y c r e a t e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d , h o l d s t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r o m r e c o g n i z i n g " e s t d e u s i n n o b i s " . F e a r f r e e z e s t h e m i n d , i t p r e v e n t s m o v e m e n t : A n d f r o m t h e s t o n e p i t s , t h e h e a v y v o i c e s , H e a v y s o u n d : " S e r o , s e r o , . . " N o t h i n g w e m a d e , w e s e t n o t h i n g i n o r d e r , " N e i t h e r h o u s e n o r c a r v i n g , " A n d w h a t w e t h o u g h t h a d b e e n t h o u g h t t o o l o n g ; " O u r o p i n i o n n o t o p i n i o n i n e v i l ' " B u t o u r o p i n i o n b o r n e f o r t o o l o n g . " W e h a v e g a t h e r e d a s i e v e f u l l o f w a t e r . " ( C a n t o 2 5 , p . 1 1 8 ) 0 7 9 W e r e a d i n H o m e r o f O d y s s e u s ' f e a r o f l o s i n g h i m s e l f i n C i r c e . I t i s o n l y . t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r c e s s i o n o f t h e a l l - c u n n i n g H e r m e s t h a t O d y s s e u s i s s a v e d f r o m d i s a s t e r a n d p r o v i d e d w i t h a " p r o t e c t i o n " : " A s h e s p o k e h e p u l l e d t h e h e r b o u t o f t h e g r o u n d a n d s h o w e d m e w h a t i t  w a s l i k e . T h e r o o t w a s b l a c k , w h i l e t h e f l o w e r w a s a s w h i t e a s m i l k ; t h e g o d s c a l l i t M o l y , a n d m o r t a l m a n c a n n o t u p r o o t i t , b u t t h e g o d s c a n d o w h a t e v e r t h e y l i k e l " 1 ( 1 1 . 3 0 2 - 3 0 7 , p . . 2 3 9 ) I t . i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e m e a n i n g o f s u r r e n d e r a s s e e n i n t h e p a s s a g e s i n v o l v i n g A p h r o d i t e a n d S u l p i c i a , t h a t O d y s s e u s i s s h o w n t h e h e r b M o l y . I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e h e r b c a n o n l y b e u p r o o t e d b y t h e g o d s , o r p e r h a p s o n l y b y H e r m e s h i m s e l f . . A s I h a v e a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t i n a n e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n o f C a n t o 3 9 , O d y s s e u s p l a y s o u t a r o l e o f a n a g g r e s s o r a s h e i s p o r t r a y e d b y P o u n d i n t h e f i r s t m o v e m e n t o f t h e C a n t o . H e a c t s a s a m a s c u l i n e f o r c e i n t h e C i r c e a n m o t i f ; h e m u s t s u p p o s e d l y " c o n q u e r " C i r c e i n o r d e r t o g a i n k n o w l e d g e f r o m h e r . A t a n y c o s t h e m u s t n o t s u b m i t t o h e r : " B u t I r u s h e d a t h e r w i t h m y s w o r d d r a w n a s t h o u g h I w o u l d k i l l h e r , w h e r e o n s h e f e l l w i t h a l o u d s c r e a m , c l a s p e d m y k n e e s , a n d s p o k e p i t e o u s l y , s a y i n g , " W h o a n d w h e n c e a r e y o u ? f r o m w h a t p l a c e a n d p e o p l e h a v e y o u c o m e ? H o w c a n i t b e t h a t m y d r u g s h a v e n o p o w e r t o c h a r m y o u ? . . . y o u m u s t b e s p e l l - p r o o f ; ; s u r e l y y o u " c a n b e n o n e o t h e r t h a n t h e b o l d h e r o U l y s s e s . . . . . s o b e i t t h e n ; s h e a t h e y o u r s w o r d a n d l e t u s g o t o b e d , t h a t w e m a y m a k e " f r i e n d s a n d l e a r n t o t r u s t e a c h o t h e r . " ( 1 1 . 3 2 1 - 3 3 5 , p . 2 3 9 ) I n h i s u n p r e p a r e d s t a t e a s a m o r t a l b e f o r e H e r m e s ' i n t e r c e s s i o n a n d t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e M o l y , O d y s s e u s w o u l d h a v e b e e n a s " p r o f a n e " t o t h e g o d d e s s a s w e r e h i s m e n . B e f o r e m e e t i n g H e r m e s , h e w a s " U n i n i t i a t e d " t o t h e M y s t e r y o f E r o s , t o t h e A r c a n u m o f L o v e . I n h i s m o n o m a n i a , h e k n e w n o o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e e x c e p t t h a t o f t h e m a s c u l i n e , t h e o v e r - p o w e r i n g , 80 t h e c o n q u e r i n g , t h e d e s t r o y i n g . H e h a d n o k n o w l e d g e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e f e m i n i n e , t h e s u b m i t t i n g , t h e s u r r e n d e r i n g , t h e c r e a t i v e . I n r e a l i t y , h e w a s " N o M a n " ; h e w a s " A m a n o f n o f o r t u n e , w i t h a n a m e t o c o m e " . H e r m e s i n i t i a t e d h i m i n t o t h e r i t e s o f E r o s , o f C r e a t i o n . H e r m e s ' b r i e f v i s i t o p e n e d t o O d y s s e u s t h e w o r l d o f c o n s t r u c t i v e u n i t y . I n t h e r i t u a l e n a c t e d w i t h t h e M o l y , a n d i n c e r t a i n t y y i t i s a r i t e o f p a s s a g e , w e h a v e t h e g o d r e v e a l i n g t o t h e " i n t i a t e " t h e s y m b o l o f t h e M y s t e r y i n w h i c h h e w i l l p a r t a k e a n d s h a r e ; w e h a v e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n a s t o h i s c o n d u c t i n t h e M y s t e r y ; a n d w e h a v e t h e r e w a r d f o r t o l d 79 i f t h e " i n t i a t e " i s s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s v e n t u r e . T h e M o l y i s o f p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e a s i t t h r o w s l i g h t o n w h a t e m e r g e s i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f C a n t o 3 9 . T h e b l a c k r o o t s n o t o n l y s y m b o l i z e t h e d a r k n e s s o f H a d e s , b u t a l s o t h e p r e s e n c e o f " d r e a d P r o s e r p i n e " , t a k e n b y f o r c e f r o m a w o r l d o f l i g h t t o H a d e s , a d a u g h t e r m o u r n e d b y D e m e t e r w h o s e s o r r o w c a u s e d a l l l i f e t o w i t h e r a n d d i e a w a y . 1 A t t h e s a m e t i m e , w e s e e s y m b o l i z e d i n t h e m i l k - w h i t e f l o w e r s t h e p r e s e n c e o f A p h r o d i t e , b o r n o f " w a v e s t a k i n g f o r m a s c r y s t a l " , t h e g o d d e s s o f B e a u t y . T h e M o l y a l s o s i g n i f i e s t h e c y c l i c p a t t e r n o f r e g e n e r a t i o n f r o m d e a t h . P e r s e p h o n e r i s e s e a c h s p r i n g t r i u m p h a n t l y t o p r o c l a i m t h e g e r m i n a t i o n o f l i f e a g a i n , a n d e a c h f a l l m u s t r e t u r n t o H a d e s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e s y m b o l o f t h e M o l y p o i n t s t o t h e c r e a t i v e e n e r g y t h a t P e r s e p h o n e ' s r e t u r n d r a w s o u t o f h e r m o t h e r D e m e t e r . I t i s h e r l o v e t h a t g e r m i n a t e s l i f e a g a i n . I n t o t h e p a t t e r n s t e p s A p h r o d i t e , a s s t r e s s e d b y P o u n d i n T h e C a n t o s . S h e i s t h e l i v i n g f o r c e o f b e a u t y t h a t m a r k s t h e p r e s e n c e o f E r o s . C i r c e i s 8 1 a l i g n e d w i t h P e r s e p h o n e a s i t i s f r o m C i r c e t h a t O d y s s e u s m u s t g a i n e n t r y i n t o H a d e s , t h e r e a l m o f P r o s e r p i n e . T h e m y s t e r y w h i c h P o u n d s e e s O d y s s e u s t a k e p a r t i n h a s a s i t s c h i e f c e l e b r a n t , H e r m e s . J o s e p h C a m p b e l l ' s e l a b o r a t i o n o n H e r m e s r o l e i n c l a s s i c m y t h o l o g y i s v a l u a b l e a t t h i s p o i n t a s a m e a n s o f s u m m a r i -z i n g t h e b a s i c s o f t h e M y s t e r y . H e s a y s : D e a t h i n t h e p l a n e o f v i s i o n o f t h a t w o r k [ I l i a d ] , i s t h e e n d ; t h e r e i s n o t h i n g a w e s o m e , w o n -d r o u s , o r o f p o w e r b e y o n d t h e v e i l o f d e a t h , b u t o n l y t w i t t e r i n g , h e l p l e s s s h a p e s . . . . I n T h e O d y s s e y , o n t h e o t h e r , h a n d , t h e p a t r o n g o d o f O d y s s e u s ' v o y a g e i s t h e t r i c k s t e r , H e r m e s ? , , g u i d e o f t h e s o u l s t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d , t h e p a t r o n , a l s o , o f r e ^ b i r t h a n d l a n d o f k n o w l e d g e s b e y o n d d e a t h , w h i c h m a y b e k n o w n t o h i s i n i t i a t e s e v e n i n l i f e . H e i s t h e g o d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s y m b o l o f t h e c a d u c e u s , t h e t w o s e r p e n t s i n t e r t w i n e d ; a n d h e i s t h e m a l e t r a d i t i o n a l l y , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t r i a d o f t h o s e g o d d e s s e s o f d e s t i n y — A p h r o d i t e , H e r a , a n d A t h e n e — w h o , i n t h e g r e a t l e g e n d , c a u s e d t h e T r o r -j a n w a r . 8 0 I n o r d e r t o d e s c e n d a n d s h a r e i n t h e a w e s o m e M y s t e r y o f L i f e a n d D e a t h , O d y s s e u s m u s t b e p r e p a r e d . H e m u s t b e a b l e t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e s e e r T e i r e s i a s s a y s t o h i m ; h e m u s t b e r e a d y t o c o m e a l i v e t o t h e M y s t e r y , t o s h a r e i n i t s c o n t i n u a l c e l e b r a t i o n . T e i r e s i a s , a s C a m p b e l l ' s e a r l i e r s t a t e m e n t h a s s h o w n , i s t h e o n l y o n e o f t h e d e i t i e s w h o t r u l y k n o w s w h a t t h e M y s t e r y e n t a i l s ' , h e , a l o n e , h a s p a r t a k e n t r u l y i n t h e m a l e ( a g g r e s s i v e ) a n d f e m a l e ( r e c e p t i v e ) a s p e c t s o f E r o s , t h e e n e r g i z i n g e l e m e n t o f t h e M y s t e r y . H e a l o n e , i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e n e w k n o w l e d g e w h i c h t h e p o e m i s , c a n p o i n t t h e w a y t o I t h a c a , t o t h e o r i g i n s 82 o f t h e " p a r a d i s o t e r r e s t r e " . I n " P e r s e p h o n e ' s E z r a " , G u y D a v e n p o r t m a k e s a g o o d p o i n t r e g a r d i n g t h e m a l e - f e m a l e a s p e c t o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s w h i c h i s f o u n d i n T h e C a n t o s b y p o i n t i n g o u t F r o b e n i u s ' v i e w o f c u l t u r e . I n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f F r o b e n i u s ' d e s i g n , i t b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t t h a t P o u n d m u s t h a v e b e e n q u i t e t a k e n w i t h i t a s i t s e e m s t o h i g h l i g h t m o s t o f w h a t I h a v e b e e n s p e a k i n g . H e s t a t e s , i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f C a n t o 9 7 ; : A c u l t u r e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t L e o F r o b e n i u s u n d e r s t o o d i t ( a n d h e n c e P o u n d ) , h a d t w o d o m i n a n t s y m b o l s , t h e m a l e o n e o f a c t i o n , t h e f e m a l e . o n e o f s t i l l n e s s a n d p l a c e ( R u h e a n d R a u m ) . . T h e m a l e s y m b o l i s o f d i r e c t i o n , e x p a n s i o n , i n t e n s i t y , c o n s i d e r i n g s p a c e a d i s t a n c e t o t r a v e r s e a n d m e a s u r e , a n d i s t h e r e f o r e v o l a t i l e , u n s t a b l e , d e s t i n y r i d d e n . . . . T h e f e m a l e i s o n t h e o t h e r h a n d a m o u n t a i n , a c a v e , t h e f e c u n d e a r t h , c o n s i d e r i n g s p a c e a s a r o o m . W o m a n f o r P o u n d , i s . . t h e s t i l l n e s s a t t h e h e a r t o f - t h e . c u l t u r e . ( m y i t a l i c s ) ^ ~~ I f D a v e n p o r t i s c o r r e c t i n h i s a s s u m p t i o n , a n d h e m o s t c e r t a i n l y m u s t b e j u d g i n g b y t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s o f C a n t o 39 f a l l i n t o p l a c e i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t o f w o m a n a s s t i l l n e s s , t h e w h o l e C i r c e a n m o t i f a l i g n s - w i t h t h e A p h r o d i t e m o t i f b e g u n i n C a n t o 2 w i t h t h e o l d m e n w a r y o f H e l e n ' s b e a u t y . I n a d d i t i o n , P e r s e p h o n e b e c o m e s i n t r i c a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h b o t h t h e s e m o t i f s . A v a s t s c h e m a u n f o l d s i n w h i c h t h e g o d d e s s e s o f L i g h t a n d D a r k n e s s a r e p a i r e d , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e M y s t e r y o f L i f e a n d D e a t h . P o u n d e m p h a s i s i n C a n t o 39 o n t h e s t a t e t o w h i c h O d y s s e u s ' m e n w e r e c h a n g e d p o i n t s t o a n o t h e r g o d d e s s w h o c a n b e a d d e d t o t h i s d u a l i t y o f P e r s e p h o n e a n d A p h r o d i t e . R e t u r n i n g t o T h e O d y s s e y f o r a m o m e n t , w e r e a d o f t h e e n c o u n t e r b e t w e e n C i r c e a n d t h e c r e w o f O d y s s e u s : 8 3 P r e s e n t l y t h e y r e a c h e d t h e g a t e s o f t h e g o d d e s s ' s h o u s e , a n d a s t h e y s t o o d t h e r e t h e y c o u l d h e a r C i r c e . w i t h i n , s i n g i n g m o s t b e a u t i f u l l y a s s h e w o r k e d a t h e r l o o m , m a k i n g a w e b s o f i n d , s o s o f t , a n d o f s u c h d a z z l i n g c o l o u r s a s n o o n e b u t a g o d d e s s c o u l d w e a v e . O n t h i s P o l i t e s , w h o m I t r u s t e d m o r e t h a n a n y o t h e r o f m y m e n , s a i d , " T h e r e i s s o m e o n e i n s i d e w o r k i n g a t a l o o m a n d s i n g i n g m o s t b e a u t i f u l l y ; t h e w h o l e p l a c e r e s o u n d s w i t h i t , l e t u s c a l l h e r a n d s e e w h e t h e r s h e i s w o m a n o r g o d d e s s . " ( 1 1 . 2 1 0 - 2 2 9 , p . 2 3 8 ) T u r n i n g n o w t o C a n t o I V w e r e a d : B e n e a t h i t , b e n e a t h i t N o t a r a y , n o t a s l i w e r , n o t a s p a r e d i s c o f s u n l i g h t F l a k i n g t h e b l a c k , s o f t w a t e r ; B a t h i n g t h e b o d y o f n y m p h s , o f n y m p h s , a n d D i a n a , N y m p h s , w h i t e - g a t h e r e d a b o u t h e r , a n d t h e a i r , a i r , S h a k i n g , a i r a l i g h t w i t h t h e g o d d e s s . T h e n A c t e o n : V i d a l V i d a l . I t i s o l d V i d a l s p e a k i n g , s t u m b l i n g a l o n g i n t h e w o o d . ( C a n t o I V , p . 1 4 ) P a r a l l e l l e d i n t h i s w a y , w e s e e , i n t h e i m a g e s o f e a c h m y t h , a . s i m i l a r i t y o f m e a n i n g . I n e a c h c a s e , a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n m a y b e d e r i v e d w h i c h s p e a k s o f t h e v i o l a t i o n o f " s a c r e d g r o u n d " b y p r o f a n e m o r t a l s . I n t h e c a s e o f T h e O d y s s e y , t h e m e n c h o o s e t o c a l l . o u t t o t h e g o d d e s s w i t h i n , t o v i o l a t e h e r s a c r e d s p a c e . T h e r e i s a f u r t h e r h i n t a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s i n t h e w a y i n w h i c h H o m e r h a s d e s c r i b e d C i r c e ' s h o u s e , " W h e n t h e y h a d r e a c h e d C i r c e ' s h o u s e t h e y f o u n d i t b u i l t o f c u t s t o n e s , o n a s i t e t h a t c o u l d b e s e e n f r o m a f a r , i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f o r e s t . " M y i t a l i c s p o i n t o u t t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h a n e d i f i c e i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e 8 4 f o r e s t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n l e f t a l o n e , o r a p p r o a c h e d w i t h c a u t i o n . O n e c o u l d a r g u e t h a t t h e h o u s e a c t s a s a l u r e t o m e n , b r i n g i n g t h e m t h r o u g h n a s c e n t c u r i o s i t y ci w i t h i n C i r c e ' s s p h e r e o f p o w e r , b u t P o l i t e s ' s t a t e m e n t s e e m s t o i n d i c a t e a d e l i b e r a t e a c t o f w i l l . O v i d ! s p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f C i r c e ' s a b o d e . ; d o e s n o t p l a y u p t h e f a c t o f a p u r p o s e f u l v i o l a t i o n o f a s a c r e d s p a c e . W e r e a d : N o w w h i l e s h e k e e p s t h i s w o n t , b e h o l d , b y w a n d r i n g i n t h e f r i t h H e w i s t n o t w i t h e r ( h a v i n g s t a i d h i s p a s t i m e t i l l t h e m o r r o w ) C o m e C a d m u s N e p h e w t o t h i s t h i c k e : a n d e n t r i n g i n w i t h s o r r o w ( S u c h w a s h i s c u r s e d c r e u l l f a t e ) s a w P h e b e w h e r e s h e w a s h t . ( M e t a , I I I , 1 1 . 2 0 5 - 2 0 8 ) Y e t j A c t e o n ' s w a n d e r i n g i n a f o r e s t s a c r e d t o D i a n a s e e m s , l i k e P o l i t e s ' b o l d a c t „ b o l d a c t , t o b e t e m p t i n g f a t e , a n u n w i s e a c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w h e n t h e g o d s a r e i n v o l v e d . C i r c e ' s p u n i s h m e n t i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o p i g s , w h i l e D i a n a ' s , a m u c h m o r e d e a d l y a c t , y e t f i t t i n g i n a w a y , h a s A c t e o n p r a n c e a w a y a s a s t a g t o b e c h a s e d a n d k i l l e d b y h i s o w n h u n t i n g d o g s . I n e a c h c a s e , t h e u m a k i i n i g s s o f a s a c r i l e g e l i e a t t h e b a s i s o f t h e p u n i s h m e n t s m e t e d o u t . T h e t h e m e o f b e a u t y a s d e s t r u c t i v e i s s e e n m o r e c l e a r l y i n v i e w o f t h e s a c r i l e g e e m p h a s i s i n e a c h m y t h . B e c a u s e o f t h e p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n s i n t e r m s o f C i r c e a n d A r t e m i s , I f e e l A r t e m i s i s t h e t h i r d m e m b e r o f a g o d d e s s t r i u m v i r a t e t h a t d o m i n a t e s T h e C a n t o s t h r o u g h o u t . A r t e m i s p l a y s a k e y r o l e w i t h i n t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e t r i u m v i r a t e . H e r c l a s s i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a s g o d d e s s o f c h a s t i t y , p u r i t y , a n d c l e a r h e a r t p l a c e s h e r i n a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n T h e C a n t o s . S h e s t a n d s 85 between the heavenly Aphrodite, representing light and beauty, and the hell-bound Persephone, who represents darkness and death. She is the protectress of the Sacred Space, of the "st i l l n e s s " that is representa-tive of the Triumvirate of Goddesses. She is the active and earthly quality in the "s t i l l n e s s " . Before leaving the ideas of violation and punishment, I wish to point out another theme linked to these ideas. It appears, either by design or by accident, that within the poem, Pound feels the violation of sacred space is necessary as a means of gaining knowledge. Rather than employ the word "necessary", the word should be "natural". The violation brings the revelation of the Mystery to the violater in a direct and sensual manner. In an earlier quotation from The Odyssey, I i t a l i z e d the words "with my sword drawn". Hermes, in instructing Odysseus in the r i t u a l he is to enact, tells him to draw his sword and rush on Circe, and only then w i l l she recognize that she cannot control  him. The phallic symbolism is obvious, especially i f we add to i t the idea of the Sacred Space. Hermes says that once Odysseus has drawn his sword, Circe w i l l want to go to bed with him. Symbolically, the act which Odysseus performs is a primitive r i t e that has i t s origins in f e r t i l i t y cults. ^  j_ n a i ly case, Circe succumbs to the power which complements her own. The con-joining of Circe and Odysseus in bed signifies the celebration of the Mystery, the actual r i t u a l is performed. The sexual union of man and woman reveals the mystery of l i f e which is the ultimate goal in a search for knowledge. These contrasting features enhance rather than n u l l i f y the quality of the poetry. The poetry remains alive in the same way as the myths, 8 6 f r o m w h i c h a n d w i t h w h i c h P o u n d f o r m u l a t e s t h a t p o e t r y , a r e a l i v e " i n a g l i t t e r i n g s e n s e " . T h e r e i s n o s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n a c t , a c t i o n , a n d a c t o r . T h e y a r e a l l o n e : t h e i m a g e , t h e p o e t r y , a n d t h e p o e t . T h e y a r e a l l i n t r i n s i c a l l y u n i t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p r o c e s s w h i c h c a n b y n o w , I h o p e , b e s i m p l y s t a t e d a s L i v i n g . I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f m y t h a n d m e t a m o r p h o s i s i n T h e C a n t o s , G e o r g e D e k k e r m a k e s a s t a t e m e n t a b o u t A p h r o d i t e t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l t o m y p o s t u l a t i o n o f t h e g o d d e s s t r i u m v e r a t e . R e f e r r i n g t o . C a n t o 9 0 , a n d t o t h e p a s s a g e : K u t h e r a K u t h e r a s e m p i t e r n a U b i a m o r , i b i o c u l u s V a e q u i c o g i t a t i s i n u t i l e ' q u a m i n n o b i s s l m u l i t u d i n e d i v a n a e r e p e r e t u r i m a g o ( C a n t o 9 0 , p . 6 0 6 ) h e s a y s : T h e g o d d e s s o f L o v e h a s a s o n e o f h e r e p i t h e t s , " e t e r n a l " ; a n d t h i s i s n o t q u i t e t h e s a m e t h i n g a s s a y i n g t h a t " L o v e i s e t e r n a l " . . . . T h i s i s t h e p e r m a n e n t e l e m e n t i n P o u n d ' s u n i v e r s e , a n d i t i s t y p i c a l t h a t h e p r e f e r s t h e g o d d e s s K u t h e r e i a t o t h e a b s t r a c t i o n A m o r . . . . i t ; i s n o t t h e s o u l ( o r " K u t h e r a " ) t h a t d e l i g h t s , b u t t h e l o v e t h a t f l o w s f r o m i t ; a n d l o v e i n f l o w i n g , m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n a c t i o n s , t h r o u g h c o n c r e t e p a r t i c u l a r s . W e r e s p o n d t o t h i s l o v e w o r s h i p f u l l y b y o b s e r v i n g i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , i . e . b y d i r e c t i n g o u r a t t e n t i o n o u t s i d e o f o u r s e l v e s . ^ 3 H e a l s o g o e s o n t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e l a s t t w o l i n e s o f t h e p a s s a g e r e p r e s e n t a c o r o l l a r y faf • t h e . m e d i e v a l " D o c t r i n e o f S i g n a t u r e s " , w h i c h h o l d s t h a t a l l c r e a t e d t h i n g s c o n t a i n t h e " s i g n a t u r e s " o f d i v i n e f o r m s a n d , a s s u c h , s h o u l d b e r e s p e c t e d ; 8 4 ' A. g o o d e x a m p l e o f t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e " D o c t r i n e . - . o f S i g n a t u r e s " i s e m p l o y e d b y P o u n d i n T h e C a n t o s i s t h e S u l p i c i a p a s s a g e t h a t I h a v e a l r e a d y s p o k e n o f p r e v i o u s l y . T h e 8 7 p a s s a g e i n d i c a t e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e i n e f f a b l e i n t h e p h y s i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f S u l p i c i a . W e r e c o g n i z e i n S u l p i c i a t h e m a r k i n g s o f a . m o r e b a s i c , a m o r e e l e m e n t a l a n d i n f o r m i n g m a t r i x . S h e i s a n a r c h e t y p e f o r t h e r e c e p t i v e , f e c u n d f e m a l e e l e m e n t , a " s i g n a t u r e " o f t h e u l t i m a t e f e m a l e f o r m w h i c h i n m y t h i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y A p h r o d i t e , P e r s e p h o n e , L e d a , E u r o p a a n d C i r c e t o n a m e t h e m o s t o b v i o u s . T h e r e i s a l s o a s l i g h t a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e d o c t r i n e , i f i t w o u l d b e c a l l e d s u c h , i n t h a t S u l p i c i a i s a " s i g n a t u r e " f o r n o t o n l y a f o r m a , b u t a l s o a p r o c e s s . S h e i s v i s i b l e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e c r e a t i v e u r g e t h a t g i v e s b i r t h t o a l l t h i n g s . P o u n d s e e k s t o r e c r e a t e t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f s u c h a r c h e t y p e s a s S u l p i c i a , a s D o n a l d D a v i e p o i n t s o u t , " n o t t h e c o n c e p t , a n y o r a l l o f t h e m , b u t 85 r a t h e r t h e f o r m a , t h e t h i n g s b e h i n d a n d c o m m o n t o t h e m a l l . " I f w e c o m b i n e t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n w i t h t h e o n e m a d e b y D a v e n p o r t a s t o t h e " f l o w i n g " a s p e c t o f E r o s a s p r e s e n t e d b y P o u n d i n t h e f i g u r e o f A p h r o d i t e , w e b e g i n t o s e e h o w P o u n d h a s a d a p t e d t h e " d o c t r i n e o f S i g -n a t u r e s " f o r t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y s e n s i b i l i t i e s . W h a t b e t t e r w a y t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e t a s k o f d r i v i n g b a c k t o t h e " t h i n g " b e h i n d a l l p h e n o m e n a t h a n t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f m y t h s . M y t h s s u c h a s t h a t o f C i r c e a n d O d y s s e u s , A r t e m i s a n d A c t e o n , A p h r o d i t e a n d A n c h i s e s p r o v i d e a r i c h l y p r o f u s e s o u r c e o f a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t c a n b e e m p l o y e d b y P o u n d t o d i r e c t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e r e a d e r t o t h e f o r m a . T h e m y t h s p r o v i d e t h e m e a n s b y w h i c h h e c a n e m p l o y i m a g e s t o r e g i s t e r o n t h e s e n s e s a m u l t i v e r s a l a w a r e n e s s o f a n i n v o l v e d a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p r i n c i p a l w h i c h a p p e a r s t o g o v e r n a l l p h e n o m e n a . E a c h i m a g e i s i n v o l v e d i n a p r o c e s s , a f l o w i n g i n w h i c h a n d o u t o f w h i c h i t d e f i n e s a p e r s p e c t i v e . 8 8 Each image is sensory-bounded i.e. Anchises reaches for Aphrodite's "airy flanks", Zephyrus, as a " f l u i d over the grass", yet the images make one aware of the form which energizes the images. Donald Davie remarks: "By arranging sensory impressions, he aims to state, not ideas, but the form behind and in ideas, the moment before that "fine thing held in the mind' has precipitated out now this idea, now that." 8 6 Myths lend themselves to adaptation because the images with which they are given a "physical" for pi c t o r i a l l y , plastically, or verbally are a l l , in themselves, an adaptation of the flowing forma. They are physical expressions, and here Jane Harrison's idea of mythos spoken of earlier, i s enlightening for i t points to the idea of r i t e (Opuimeror), of what is not v e r b a l . ^ Equally important, myths are, as Jung states, "original revelations of the preconscious psyche, involuntary statements about unconscious psychic happenings, and anything but allegories of physical processes..."87 Jane Harrison, in less technical language, am-p l i f i e s what Jung has said elsewhere, when she says "a myth is not merely a word spoken; i t is a re-utterance or a pre-utterance, i t is a focus of emotion, and uttered as we have seen collectively or at least with collective sanction."88 j_ n both statements one can see myth is not considered as fantasy, but as a real and true enactment of something that has occurred or is occurring in the individual or the community in which he resides. Myths, therefore, amplify in their actualizations, both in r i t e and verbalization, a more elemental source whose nature appears to l i e behind a l l reality. The idea of "signatures" enables Pound to employ myths in a less structured manner in the poem than his purpose would otherwise allow. He 89 c a n b u i l t a r o u n d a m y t h a w h o l e c o m p l e x o f s e e m i n g l y d i s a s s o c i a t e d i m a g e s . T h e s e i m a g e s . a r e , h o w e v e r , p r e c i s e l y c h o s e n t o p r o v i d e a f i e l d o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e m y t h i n i t s " s i g n a t u r e " f u n c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n e a c h i m a g e w i t h i n t h e c o m p l e x i s p r e c i s e l y a r t i c u l a t e d t o p r o v i d e a s m a n y a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r m y t h s a s p o s s i b l e , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g a s e r i e s o f l i n k e d m y t h s ^ a l l w i t h a p r i m a r y o r i g i n . I n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s f e a t u r e w i t h i n t h e p o e m , t h e r e a d e r b e g i n s t o r e a l i z e t h e u n i t y o f a l l p h e n o m e n a i n t h e s a m e w a y t h a t h e r e a l i z e s a l l m y t h s o r i g i n a t e f r o m a s i n g l e , p r i m o r d i a l s o u r c e . P o u n d ' s i n t e n t i o n i n T h e C a n t o s , a s I n o w r e p e a t a g a i n , i s t o b r i n g m o d e r n m a n i n t o a n e w a w a r e n e s s o f h i m s e l f b y e s t a b -l i s h i n g a k n o w l e d g e t h a t i s b a s e d i n t h e r o o t s o f a n a w a r e n e s s o f h i s o r i g i n s . I t g o e s w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t t h e n e w a w a r e n e s s i n c l u d e s t h e p o e t a l s o . P o u n d p r o v i d e s t h e i m p e t u s f o r a " q u a n t u m " l e a p t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e u l t i m a t e f o r m a t h r o u g h h i s p e r c e p t u a l a w a r e n e s s a s a p o e t , k e e n t o t h e p h e n o m e n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e f o r m i n t h e w o r l d a b o u t h i m a n d t h r o u g h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n a n " a c t i v a t i n g " p o e t r y . W e , t h e r e a d e r s , c o m p l e t e t h e l e a p b y r e c o g n i z i n g i n o u r o w n w o r l d t h e p h e n o m e n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f f o r m a a n d l i n k i n g t h i s a w a r e n e s s w i t h t h e " a c t i v a t i n g " p o e t r y . I n C a n t o 7 6 , w e h a v e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o t h e p o e m o f a n e l e m e n t m a r k i n g a c l i m a x o f a c y c l e w i t h i n t h e p o e m . P o u n d u t t e r s : l a s c a l z a : l o s o n ' l a l u n a a n d t h e y h a v e b r o k e n m y h o u s e t h e h u n t r e s s i n b r o k e n p l a s t e r k e e p s w a t c h n o l o n g e r ( p . 4 5 3 ) T h e r e f e r e n c e t o " l a l u n a " ( t h e m o o n ) a n d t o " t h e h u n t r e s s " c u l m i n a t e a m o v e m e n t t o w a r d s a " j j a r a d i s o " a n a m o v e m e n t t o w a r d s a " p a r a d i s o " a n d e m p h a s i z e t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s t h e 90 poet finds himself in the DTC at Pisa. It marks the end of an era for the poet, a "punctuation" point in the l i f e of the poet, and The Cantos obviously: "The enormous tragedy in the peasant's bent shoulders" (Canto 74, p. 425). The moon reference establishes, at one and the same time, the coordinates of the poem at the present time (the predica-ment of Pisa), and the origins of a "re-constructed" design visible in Rock/Drill, Thrones, and Drafts and Fragments. The "huntress" reference completes a design begun early in the poem. If we trace the movement of the poem towards this climax, we find that from Canto IV, where the liv i n g protectorship of Artemis was f i r s t invoked, the poet has attempted to establish, as best he could, an earthly equilibrium atune to the cyclic order of the universe. In theory, this equilibrium was founded in the idea of a just society wherein a man paid a "presso giusto" for whatever he undertook. This idea of the "just price" i s defined as a pivotal construct of education in it s broadest sense: Keep 'em off the market four years and leave 'em without understanding, No classics, no American history, no center, no general root, No presso giusto as core. (Canto 85, p. 549) Each individual lives according to a dictum based on a primordial union with the earth Cfrom which a l l "wealth" comes) and heaven (from which the intimate union with the ultimate forma is actualized). One can readily see the implications of a socio-economic system involved in this theory. Pound's basis is Confucian and is rendered in an image that symbolizes the harmony the 9 1 C o n f u c i a n o r d e r b r i n g s . T h a t i m a g e i s t h e C i t y . . . T h e i m a g e o f t h e C i t y s t a n d s a s t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f a l l P o u n d ' s i m a g e s . I t i s i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e a c t u a l , n o t t h e o r e t i c a l , c r e a t i v e p o w e r n e c e s s a r y i n t h e m a k i n g o f t h e C i t y t h a t t h e g o d d e s s t r i u m v i r a t e i s s e e n a t w o r k . I t i s i m b u e d w i t h t h e e n e r g y o f a l l f i g u r e s w i t h i n t h e p o e m w h o h a v e , i n t h e i r d i v e r s e w a y s , s t r i v e n t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e a r t h l y e q u i l i b r i u m o n t h e i r o w n . O d y s s e u s , w h o m w e f i r s t e n c o u n t e r a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e p o e m , i s a " b u i l d e r " o f s o r t s . H e i s t h e f i g u r e f r o m m y t h w h o b u i l d s t h e b r i d g e o v e r w h i c h w e , a s t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y r e a d e r s , m u s t p a s s i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n t h e h a r m o n y o f o p p o s i t e s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t , S i g i s m u n d o M a l a t e s t a , w h o s e P r o m e t h e a n f o r -t i t u d e i s v i e w e d b y P o u n d a s a s y m b o l o f t h e q u a l i t y n e c e s s a r y i f t h e . C i t y i s t o b e b u i l t a n d i f i t i s t o e n d u r e , s t a n d s a s a v i s i b l e m o n u m e n t , a s t h e T e m p l e a t T i m i n i ( M a l a t e s t a ) , o f t h e u n d y i n g d e s i r e t h a t i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e m a n w i t h a C o n f u c i a n s e n s i b i l i t y . I n T h e P i s a n C a n t o s , P o u n d d o n s t h e O d y s s e a n m a s k a n d s p e a k s : " I a m n o m a n , m y n a m e . i s n o m a n " b u t W a n j i n a i s , s h a l l w e s a y , O u a n J i n o r t h e m a n w i t h a n e d u c a t i o n a n d w h o s e m o u t h w a s r e m o v e d b y h i s f a t h e r b e c a u s e h e m a d e t o o m a n y t h i n g s w h e r e b y c l u t t e r e d t h e b u s h m a n ' s b a g g a g e O u a n J i n s p o k e a n d t h e r e b y c r e a t e d t h e n a m e d t h e r e b y m a k i n g c l u t t e r t h e b a n e o f m e n m o v i n g a n d s o h i s m o u t h w a s r e m o v e d . ( C a n t o 7 4 , p . 4 2 7 ) I t i s d u r i n g h i s i n t ' e r r i m e n t i n P i s a t h a t t h e s u n b e c a m e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r f o r m o u t h : " m o u t h , i s t h e s u n t h a t i s g o d ' s 92 m o u t h " / o r i n a n o t h e r c o n n e c t i o n ( p e r i p l u m ) " ( C a n t o 8 7 , p . 4 6 6 ) . I t i s s y m b o l i c , a s d e R a c h e w i l t z r e m a r k s , o f " t h e c r e a t i v e w o r d , t h e P a r a c l e t e a n d L o g o s , r i s i n g f r o m c o n s c i o u s n e s s " . H e i s a m a n o n w h o m " t h e s u n h a s s e t " a n d w h o m u s t f a c e t h e d a r k n e s s o f t h e e x i s t e n t i a l h e l l o f t h e D T C a l o n e . A s a m o d e r n O d y s s e u s , h e m u s t f i n d h i s o w n w a y o u t o f H a d e s . H e h a s o n l y t h e m a d C a s s a n d r a a s s e e r a n d n o t T i r e s i a s T h e b a n . H e h a s r e a l i z e d t h a t h e h a s t a r r i e d t o o l o n g i n " t h e c l u t t e r " , " t h e b a n e o f m e n m o v i n g " . H e h a s s o m e h o w l o s t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e f l o w i n g r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i m a g e o f n o m a d i c B u s h m e n o f A u s t r a l i a . A r t e m i s i s e v o k e d t h r o u g h a f o c u s i n g o f i m a g e s . R e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e " m o v i n g t B u s h m e n w h o a r e a t a l l t i m e a t t u n e t o t h e r h y t h m o f n a t u r e , w e f i n d t h e a r c h e t y p e o f t h e H u n t e r , u l t i m a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n A r t e m i s . P o u n d h a s c h o s e n t h e O u a n J i n m y t h w e l l , f o r i t p r e c i p a t a t e s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f c r e a t i v e s e n s i b i l i t y w h i c h l i n k t h e a r t i s t w i t h t h e H u n t e r . I n t h e a r t i s t ' s c a s e , h e m u s t b e a t t u n e t o t h e r h y t h m o f n a t u r e ' i n t h e s a m e w a y t h a t t h e n o m a d i c B u s h m e n m u s t b e a w a k e t o n a t u r e ' s s i g n s a t a l l t i m e s i f t h e y a r e t o s u r v i v e . P o u n d r e n d e r s t h e r h y t h m o f n a t u r e , t o w h i c h a l l a r t i s t s m u s t s o m e h o w a t t u n e t h e m s e l v e s , i n t h e t e r m " t h e G r e a t B a s s " . I n s p e a k i n g o f t h e i d e a s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e t e r m , h e s a y s i n G u i d e t o K u l c h u r : U p t i l l L e i b n i z y o u c a n f i n d m e n w h o r e a l l y s t r u g g l e w i t h t h o u g h t . A f t e r E e i b i t z ^ t t h e g p r e t e h a e n ^ o k i h d . o f A f t e r t h o u g h t c e a s e d t o l e a d m e n . B e f o r e w e h a d m u c h m a t e r i a l s c i e n c e , o r d u r i n g t h e t w o t h o u s a n d y e a r s ' l a p s e b e t w e e n t h e m i s l a y i n g o f w h a t G r e e k s c i e n c e t h e r e h a d b e e n a n d t h e n e w s c i e n c e o f G a l i l e o a n d o f t h e r e n a i s s a n c e , t h e d e f i n i n g o f t e r m s , s p e c u l a t i o n , t h e m e a s u r i n g a n d t e s t i n g o f o n e t h o u g h t o n a n o t h e r a n d t h e a t t e m p t t o l o c k 93 t h o u g h t i n w o r d s H A D l e d m e n , i t e v e n c o n d u c e d t o m a t e r i a l s c i e n c e . A f t e r -w a r d s i t w a s t h e r e s u l t o f o n e " s c i e n t i -f i c d i s c o v e r y " o r a n o t h e r . . . . P h i l o s o -p h i c a r g u m e n t w a s f l o o d e d w i t h a n e w b a t c h o f s i m i l e s . ( p p . 7 2 - 7 4 ) A s a n a r t i s t P o u n d f e l t t h a t h i s a r r e s t a n d i m p r i s o n m e n t i n d i c a t e d a l o s s o f t o u c h w i t h t h e h a r m o n y o f t h e u n i v e r s e a l l " m o v i n g " m e n p o s s e s s . H e h a s l o s t t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e G o d d e s s o f t h e H u n t , A r t e m i s , a n d m u s t f i n d h i s m y t h o s a n d r e j o i n t h e " d a n c e " w i t h n a t u r e w h i c h m y t h o s e n t a i l s . W h i l e A r t e m i s w a s g u a r d i a n o f T h e C a n t o s u p t o h i s i n t e r n m e n t a t P i s a , s h e i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o " l a l u n a " : F o r t u n a a s s u m e d t h e p r o t e c t o r -s h i p o f t h e p o e t a n d t h e C i t y w h o s e c o n s t r u c t i o n h a s f a l t e r e d g r e a t l y a n d m u s t a w a i t t h e g e n e s i s o f a b e t t e r p l a n . T h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m A r t e m i s t o F o r t u n a p o i n t s o u t t h e e x t e n t o f P o u n d ' s d e s c e n t i n t o H a d e s . H e i s f a c e d w i t h r e v a l u i n g h i s w h o l e s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t , o f g e t t i n g i n t u n e w i t h t h e w o r l d a g a i n : J ' a i e u p i t i e d e s a u t r e s s p r o b l e m e n t p a s a s s e z , a n d a t m o m e n t s t h a t s u i t e d m y o w n c o n v e n i e n c e ( C a n t o . 7 6 , p . 4 6 0 ) U n d e r t h e s i g n o f F o r t u n a , w h o i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e m o o n , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p h a s e s , h e i s b u f f e t - t e d b y a s e n s e o f f a i l u r e t h a t h i s c h a n c e t o b u i l d t h e e t e r n a l C i t y m a y b e o v e r . H e a l s o i s a l o n e w i t h o u t l i g h t , a s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f n o m o o n . H e i s i n a t w i l i g h t z o n e w i t h n o s e e r t o g u i d e h i m t o h a r m o n y a n d t h e r e f o r e t o - e n l i g h t e n m e n t : C a s s a n d r a , y o u r e y e s a r e l i k e t i g e r s , " w i t h n o w o r d w r i t t e n i n t h e m Y o u a l s o h a v e I c a r r i e d t o n o w h e r e t o a n i l l h o u s e a n d t h e r e i s n o e n d t o t h e j o u r n e y . ( C a n t o 7 8 , p . 4 7 7 ) 9 4 T h e O d y s s e u s e v o c a t i o n i s p r e s e n t a s a l w a y s d u r i n g t h e P i s a n s e q u a l , h e r e ^ ) t e l e s c o p i n g t h e H a d e s j o u r n e y a n d p r o p h e c y t h a t b r o u g h t O d y s s e u s t o I t h a c a w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e s o u n d i n g t h e d e a t h k n e l l f o r h i s w r e t c h e d c r e w . W h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s p a s s a g e i s P o u n d ' s p r e d i c a -m e n t ; h e d o e s n o t h a v e a s e e r , b u t m u s t a w a i t t h e d e a l i n g s o f F o r t u n a , w h a t e v e r t h e y m a y b e . G o i n g b a c k t o t h e o p e n i n g o f C a n t o I I , w e f i n d a c o m p l e x o f i m a g e s t h a t o p p o s e t h i s d e s p a i r , y e t h i g h l i g h t t h e d e s p a i r b y p l a c i n g i t i n a p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h i t s o p p o s i t e b u t c o m p l i m e n t a r y a s p e c t . I n C a n t o I I w e r e a d : S o - s h u c h u r n e d i n t h e s e a S e a l s p o r t s i n t h e s p r a y ^ w h i t e d c i r c l e s o f c l i f f w a s h S l e e k h e a d , d a u g h t e r o f L i r , e y e s o f - P i c a s s o U n d e r b l a c k f u r - h o o d , l i t h e d a u g h t e r o f O c e a n ; A n d t h e w a v e r u n s i n t h e b e a c h - g r o o v e : E l e a n o r , . . . ( p . 6) W e b e g i n w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o L i P o , w h o a t t e m p t e d t o e n v e l o p e t h e m o o n ' s r e f l e c t i o n i n t h e s e a . I n L i P o ' s a c t i o n , w e h a v e a n a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e 89 a t a s _ a l , " u n i o n w i t h g o d " , s u d d e n l y . W e s e e s u c h a n a t t e m p t a s a v a i n e n d e a v o r f o r L i P o w a s n o t a t t u n e d t o n a t u r e a n d t h e " s i m i l e " i . e . t h e r e f l e c t i o n i n t h e s e a , i s o n l y a t r a p t o c a t c h t h e u n w a r y . B e c a u s e o f t h e m o o n i m a g e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h L i P o ' s a c t , s u c h a r e f e r e n c e i l l u m i n a t e s P o u n d ' s s t a t e o f m i n d a t P i s a . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e i n a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f h e r d i v i n i t y a s v i e w e d b y c l a s s i c a l m a n , A r t e m i s , a s t h e t w i n s i s t e r o f A p o l l o ( P h o e b u s ) , i s g i v e n t h e e p i t h e t P h o e b e a n d i s G o d d e s s o f t h e M o o n . 9 5 T h e i m a g e o f L i P o t a k e s u s f o r w a r d t o C a n t o I V a n d a l i g n s i t s e l f a s a m y t h o l o g i c a l p a r a l l e l w i t h A c t e o n a n d V i d a l , b o t h o f w h o m p a r t a k e i n a m e t a m o r p h o s i s i n v o l v i n g A r t e m i s i n h e r a s p e c t a s G o d d e s s o f t h e H u n t . A c t e o n p e r i s h e d f o r h i s " s u d d e n " a t t e m p t a t a t a s a l , a n d p o o r V i d a l , i n h i s a t t e m p t a t " U n i o n w i t h g o d " t h r o u g h a n i m m e r s i o n i n h i s " L a d y " , d o n n e d t h e s k i n s o f a w o l f a n d w a s a t t a c k e d b y h i s L a d y ' s d o g s . S o m e h o w P o u n d f e e l s h i m s e l f i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n a s L i . P o , A r t e m i s , a n d V i d a l . L i k e t h e m h e h a s s o u g h t f o r a t a s a l , a n d l i k e t h e m s e e m e d t o b e p u n i s h e d f o r h i s e f f o r t . T h e s u b s e q u e n t i m a g e s i n t h e p a s s a g e p o i n t o u t a r e a s o n t h a t P o u n d c a m e t o t e r m s w i t h a s h e c o n t e m p l a t e d h i s s i t u a t i o n . L i - P o , t h r o u g h " s e a - c h a n g e " , b e c o m e s " d a u g h t e r o f L i r " a n d , w i t h t h e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e w a v e , t h e s e a - n y m p h b e c o m e s a s h a d e o f A p h r o d i t e . T h e i m a g e c l u s t e r i s m e t a m o r p h o s i z e d i n t o t h e f i g u r e o f E l e a n o r - H e l e n a n d t h e w h o l e . . s p e c t r u m o f T h e T r o j a n W a r a r i s e s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , t h i s i m a g e c o m p l e x s p e a k s o f q u i c k c h a n g e a n d t h e m u t a b i l i t y o f t h e p h y s i c a l b e a u t y a n d t h e d a n g e r t h a t l i e s i n p l a c i n g e m p h a s i s o n s u c h b e a u t y w i t n e s s e d b y L i P o a n d H e l e n , a n d b y a t e l e s c o p i n g o f i m a g e s , A r t e m i s . I n t h e a t t e m p t f o r a t a s a l , " b e a u t y i s d i f f i c u l t " ( C a n t o 7 4 , p . 4 4 4 ) t o gg.rSspng b e c a u s e o f " t h e c l u t t e r " , t h e " s i m i l e s " m a n h i m s e l f c r e a t e s , t h m a k i n g a h i m s e l f u n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e m e r g e n c e w i t h g o d w h e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y a r i s e s . H e l o s e s t h e f e e l i n g f o r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n " i n t h e - ' n o r m a l " c o u r s e o f t h i n g s c e r t a i n t i m e s , a c e r t a i n s o r t o f a m o m e n t m o r e t h a n a n o t h e r , w h e n a m a n f e e l s h i s i m m o r t a l i t y u p o n h i m " ( S p i r i t o f R o m a n c e , p . 9 4 ) . P o u n d , i n i n v o k i n g t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f A r t e m i s i n t h e e a r l y C a n t o s , i n v o k e d a n a s p e c t o f h e r r o l e a s H u n t r e s s : t h a t o f p r o t e c t o r o f t h e y o u n g 9 6 a n d t h e f l e d g e l i n g . Y e t , l i k e A c t e o n a n d L i P o , h e f o r g o t h e r o t h e r a s p e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f F o r t u n a a n d a s t h e f e a r e d H e c a t e g o d d e s s o f s p e l l s a n d e n c h a n t m e n t s . H e h a d f o r g o t t e n t h a t A r t e m i s p r o t e c t s o n l y t h o s e c r e a t u r e s w h i c h c a n n o t f e n d f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h o s e w h i c h a h c i V 6 riot l e a r n e d t o " m o v e " a c c o r d i n g t o e v e r - c h a n g i n g N a t u r e . H e r e a l i z e s , a n d s i g n i f i e s h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s r e s l s . t a m . G e t o t h e o t h e r a s p e c t s o f h i s p r o t e c t o r e s s , i n C a n t o 8 0 : r e s p o s d o n n e z a c i l s s e n z a t e r m i n e f u g e I m m a c u l a t a R e g i n a L e s l a r m e s q u e j ' a i c r e e s e m ' i n o n d e n t T a r d , t r e s t a r d j e t ' a i c o n n u e l a T r i s t e s s e , I h a v e b e e n h a r d a s y o u t h s i x t y y e a r s , ( p . 5 1 3 ) H e r e a l i z e s h i s p a r a l l e l t o A c t e o n a n d L i P o w a n d e r i n g a b o u t " t h e g r e e n w o r l d " t h i n k i n g o n e w a s a w a r e o f t h e f o r m a , ( t h e g o d d e s s ) o n l y . t o b e s t r u c k d o w n b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t s o f o n e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f o r m a i n i t s b r u t i s h a s p e c t . I n a d d i t i o n , " l a T r i s ' t e s s e " i s a s m u c h p a r t o f t h e f l o w i n g a s i s h a p p i n e s s a n d t h e " p r e c i s e " u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e o p p o s i t e s i s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " t h e g r e e n w o r l d " : P u l l d o w n t h y v a n i t y , I s a y p u l l d o w n . L e a r n o f t h e g r e e n w o r l d w h a t c a n b e t h y p l a c e I n s c a l e d i n v e n t i o n o r t r u e a r t i s t r y , P u l l d o w n t h y v a n i t y , P a q u i n p u l l d o w n ! T h e g r e e n c a s q u e h a s o u t d o n e y o u r e l e g a n c e . ( C a n t o 8 1 , p . 5 2 1 ) 9 7 T h e e d i f i c e o f n a t u r e h a s " o u t d o n e " t h e r a i s i n g o f t h e C i t y . T h e m a g i c w i t h w h i c h t h e C i t y w a s p r o t e c t e d i s g o n e a s t h e h a r m o n y w h i c h k e e p s t h e m a g i c w a l l a r o u n d t h e e t e r n a l C i t y h a s b e e n l o s t i n t h e " c l u t t e r " o f " s i m i l e s " . T i e d i n w i t h A r t e m i s , i n h e r r o l e a s F o r t u n a , T h e P i s a n C a n t o s b r i n g t o t h e f o r e P e r s e p h o n e a n d D e m e t e r i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a s p e c t s a s d i v i n i t i e s . P e r s e p h o n e , w h o s e " m y t h " i s o f " t h e k i n e s i s o f g r o w t h a n d g e r m i n a t i o n , o f l o s s a n d r e t u r n " i s c o u p l e d w i t h h e r m o t h e r D e m e t e r , w h o s e o w n r o l e i n T h e C a n t o s " h a s b e e n f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e s i g n o f 9 0 t h e p r o c e s s ' s m a t u r i t y , t h e h a r v e s t " . I n h e r r o l e a s t h e s i g n o f g e r m i n a t i o n a n d r e b i r t h , s h e b e c o m e s " t h e l i v i n g t r e e " , w h i c h c a n b e a s s o c i a t e d , I b e l i e v e , w i t h A r t e m i s ' r o l e w i t h i n t h e g o d d e s s T r i u m -v i r a t e a s t h e " a c t i v e " e l e m e n t i n t h e c r e a t i v e s t i l l n e s s . D e m e t e r i s " t h e t r e e c a r v e d , s h a p e d , p a i n t e d , c a p i t a l l e d w i t h a c a n t h u s , t r a n s l a t e d 9 1 i n t o m a r b l e , e v e n t u r n e d u p s i d e d o w n ( a s a t K n o s s u s ) D e m e t e r i s t h e o u t w a r d s i g n o f t h e i n w a r d c r e a t i v e e n e r g y g e n e r a t e d w i t h i n t h e T r i u m v i r a t e . I t i s a l s o r e l e v a n t t o t h e i d e a o f t h e T r i u m v i r a t e t h a t i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s P e r s e p h o n e a n d D e m e t e r m a i n t a i n o n e a n o t h e r t h r o u g h t h e . h y p o s t a s i s o f t h e i r u n i f i e d r o l e s w i t h i n t h e T r i u m v i r a t e . E a c h o f t h e g o d d e s s e s w i t h i n t h e T r i u m v i r a t e p a r t a k e s o f t h e o t h e r & s " e n e r g y , y e t a r e e v o k e d s e p a r a t e l y w h e n t h e n e e d a r i s e s , a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h T h e P i s a n C a n t o s . W i t h t h e P i s a r i m a t e r i a l , e a c h g o d d e s s i s s e e n i n h e r " p r e c i s e m o d a l i t y " , o p p o s i t e i n f u n c t i o n f r o m t h e n e x t , y e t i n t r i c a t e l y c o n n e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r c o m m o n , s h a r e d d i v i n i t y . G u y D a v e n p o r t p o i n t s o u t a n i n t e r e s t i n g f a c e t o f D e m e t e r ' s r o l e i n m y t h o l o g y : t h a t o f h e r d u a l c a p a c i t y , a s p r o t e c t o r e s s o f f i e l d a n d c i t y . T h e f i e l d e m p h a s i s i s a n a n c i e n t o n e , t h o r o u g h l y d i s c u s s e d i f o n e c a r e s 9 2 t o t a k e t h e t i m e t o r e a d i n J a n e H a r r i s o n . H e r o t h e r a s p e c t a s 9 8 p r o t e c t o r e s s o f t h e C i t y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . D a v e n p o r t p o i n t s o u t t h a t i t w a s " C y b e l e , t h e P h y r g i a n D e m e t e r , w h o a s f a r a s w e k n o w , f i r s t w o r e a c r o w n o f b a t t l e m e n t s , f o r s h e w a s n o t o n l y g o d d e s s o f m o u n t a i n s , f o r e s t s , a n d t h e w e a l t h o f n a t i o n s , b u t w a s a l s o g i v e r o f 9 3 t o w e r s a n d c i t y w a l l s t o m a n k i n d . " H e a l s o g o e s o n t o s h o w t h a t t h e g o d d e s s T r i u m v i r a t e i s a s a l i e n t c o n s t r u c t w i t h i n t h e p o e m . H e i l l u s t r a t e s h o w D e m e t e r e n t e r s t h e p o e m i n C a n t o I s y n t h e s i z e d i n A p h r o -d i t e w h o " a p p e a r s d i s g u i s e d a s a P h r y g i a n p r i n c e s s , t o b e g e t w i t h A n c h i s e s , t h e c i t y - b u i l d e r A e n e a s , t r a n s p l a n t e r o f a c u l t u r e t o w h i c h i n t i m e , a n o r a c l e w i l l c a u s e C y b e l e ' s t u r r e t - c r o w n e d i m a g e t o b e -9 4 b r o u g h t . " I n R o m e C y b e l e w a s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t a s t h e E t r u s c a n G o d d e s s V o r t u m m a , " G o d d e s s o f t h e T u r n i n g Y e a r , a n i n d i g e n o u s D e m e t e r w h o s e n a m e w o u l d g e t c h a n g e d t o F o r t u n a , a n d w a s t o b e f u s e d w i t h t h e a l l e g o r -i c a l R o m a . " ^ " * I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t D e m e t e r i s a s m u c h a p a r t o f T h e C a n t o s a s i s a n y o t h e r g o d d e s s , a n d m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , i s p e r h a p s t h e p r i m o r d i a l b a s i s , T h e G r e a t M o t h e r , o f a l l t h e m y t h s i n T h e C a n t o s . P e r s e p h o n e f o l l o w s i n s i m i l a r s u i t . H e r r o l e b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n T h e C a n t o s d u r i n g a n d a f t e r t h e P i s a n e x p e r i e n c e . S h e b e c o m e s s y m b o l o f t h e " l i v i n g " c i t y w h i c h w i l l r i s e a g a i n f r o m t h e " d r e a m s " t h a t " c l a s h a n d a r e s h a t t e r e d " ( C a n t o 1 1 7 , p . 8 0 2 ) . B e c a u s e s h e i s s o m u c h a p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g m e t a m o r p h o s i s , t o s e e h e r " i n a g l i t t e r i n g s e n s e " i s t o s e e d e a t h a s r e b i r t h , a n d t o l i v e i n h a r m o n y w i t h t h e u n i v e r s e . I w i s h f o r a m o m e n t t o d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c h a n g e o f a t t i t u d e t h a t h a s v i s i b l y t a k e n p l a c e i n P o u n d a n d r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e c o n t e n t o f 99 the latest published work, Drafts and Fragments. We notice in these Cantos the re-emergence of Artemis as the visible coordination figure of the Triumvirate of the poem. Her re-emergence serves as a most beautiful culmination of a cycle began in The Pisan Cantos. There one notices the introduction of the idea of forsitan which Pound made manifest out of his experience at Pisa. Connected to this idea of forsitan was "luna" or "Fortuna", which I explained was none other than Artemis in another guise. Most importantly the Pisan sequel and the latest sequel are correlated for each was produced in an atmosphere of despair. The despair of The Pisan Cantos was brought on through Pound's detention and the subsequent mental and physical breakdown. It is perhaps advantageous to point out that the despair of the latest Cantos is just as real, but stems from a much different, and for what I have been saying above, very significant cause. James Laughlin, Pound's North American publisher, indicated i t s very real exi-stence i n answer to correspondence of mine concerning the possibility of having a complete and errata-free text of The Cantos made available. He stated: The d i f f i c u l t y for actually making corrections in the book is that i t i s impossible to get Pound himself to go over them and approve them. In recent years, I have visited him several times and have shown him the corrections, but he simply cannot or w i l l not concentrate to the point of deciding which ones he wants made. As you probably heard, he is i n a very depressed state of mind, and about a l l he w i l l say about the Cantos i s "Why not abolish them".96 In the Pisan sequel Pound came to accept the limitations of his 100 monomania as the outside world impinged its reality on him. However the core of his monomania was not totally driven out as the evidence of parts of Rock-Drill and Thrones demonstrated. At the same time, his acceptance of forsitan and the implications of that acceptance led Pound to a greater understanding of his monomania in terms of his human universe. In other words, his diatribes on usuary gained a truer more focused perspective. One thing that Pound was forced to do in focusing h«±g perspective was to accept his anti-semitic bigotry as a reality: "But the worst mistake I made was the stupid, suburban prejudice of anti-Semitism". This statement was made to Allan Ginsberg in Italy in 1967. What Ginsberg replied highlights through allusion the cause of the despair which seems to have embittered Pound. Ginsberg stated: It's lovely to hear you say that. Well, no because anyone with any sense can see i t as a humor, in that sense part of the drama, a model of your consciousness. Anti-Semiticism is your fuck-up, like not liking Buddhists, but i t ' s part of the model and the great accomplishment was to make a working model of your mind. Nobody cares i f i t ' s Ezra Pound's mind, but i t ' s a mind like everybody's mind.97 What Ginsberg sees in his usually perceptive manner is the reality of the situation in which Pound, he and a l l other poets work. He reasserts the value of the poetic endeavour for Pound's benefit by pointing out that a l l experience that i s poetry is most surely a "model" of the poet's •consciousness. For Pound that "consciousness" is aware that the "air is alive with gods". To actually realize the particular "consciousness" is to enter into a most intense, totally-absorbing struggle, and that 1 0 1 s t r u g g l e i s a n e x i s t e n t i a l o n e . P o u n d h a s s t r u g g l e d a n d h i s ' . i s . t h e d e s p a i r o f a l l m e n w h o h a v e s o u g h t t o f i n d t h e i r o r i g i n s . P o u n d h a s c o m e t o s e e t h a t m a n i s l i m i t e d i n s o f a r a s h e p o s s e s s e s a p h y s i c a l s u b s t a n c e s u c h a s a b o d y . T h e e x q u i s i t e b e a u t y o f t h a t r e a l i z a t i o n o f l i v i n g i s t h a t i t i s p a r t o f a w h o l e . I t i s a c o l l e c t i v e l y - c o n s c i o u s i m p r e s -s i o n o f w h a t c r e a t i o n e n t a i l s . T h a t a w o r l d u n d e r F o r t u n a i s r u l e d b y f o r s i t a n a s a t o t a l a n s w e r t o e x i s t e n c e i s a n u n r e a l i t y . T h e d e s p a i r t h a t c o m e s o v e r a m a n w h e n h e r e a l i z e s t h e m u t a b i l i t y o f t h e w o r l d ( a n d f o r a p o e t l i k e P o u n d t h e m u t a b i l i t y o f T h e C a n t o s ) i s a r e a l i t y . B u t t h e c a u s e o f t h e d e s -p a i r w h e n s e r i o u s l y r e g a r d e d ( a s G i n s b e r g d o e s , p o i n t i n g o u t , " . . . i t ' ; s p a r t o f t h e m o d e l " ) i n t h e l i g h t o f P o u n d ' s i d e a o f f o r s i t a n t t a k e s m a n o u t t h e d e s p a i r a n d p u t s h i m o n a h i g h e r p l a n e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . P o u n d i s d i r e c t e d t o s e e h i s p l a c e , i . e . h i s " w o r k i n g m o d e l " , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e w h o l e t o w h i c h i t c o n t r i b u t e s . P o u n d I f e e l r e c o g n i z e d t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d i f w e t u r n t o C a n t o 1 1 3 w e s e e h o w h e e m p l o y s A r t e m i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I n C a n t o 1 1 3 h e w r i t e s : T h a t b o d y i s i n s i d e t h e s o u l — t h e l i f t i n g a n d f o l d i n g b r i g h t n e s s t h e d a r k n e s s s h a t t e r e d t h e f r a g m e n t . . A n d t h e b u l l b y t h e f o r c e t h a t i s i n h i m n o t l o r d o f i t m a s t e r e d . A n d i n t h y m i n d b e a u t y , 0 , A r t e m i s . A s t o s i n t h e y i n v e n t e d i t — e h ? t o i m p l e m e n t d o m i n a t i o n e h ? l a r g e l y . 1 0 2 A n d i n e v e r y w o m a n , s o m e w h e r e i n t h e s n a r l i s a t e n d e r n e s s , A b l u e l i g h t u n d e r t h e s t a r s T h e r u i n e d o r c h a r d s , t r e e s r o t t i n g . E m p t y F r a m e s a t L i m o n e A n d f o r a . ^ l i t t l e m a g n a m i m i t y s o m e w h e r e A n d t o k n o w t h e s h a r e f r o m t h e c h a r g e ( s c a l a a l t r u i ) G o d ' s e y e a r t ' o u , d o n o t s u r r e n d e r p e r c e p t i o n . A n d i n t h y m i n d b e a u t y , 0 A r t e m i s D a p h n e a f o o t i n v a i n s p e e d . W h e n t h e S y r i a n o n y x i s b r o k e n . O u t o o f t h e d a r k , t h o u , F a t h e r H e l i o s , l e a d e s t , B u t t h e m i n d a s I x i o n , u n s t i l l , e v e r t u r n i n g . ( C a n t o 1 1 3 , p p . 7 8 8 - 7 9 0 ) H e r e i n C a n t o 1 1 3 , m y t h t r u l y d o e s c o m e a l i v e , a n d w e e x p e r i e n c e f i r s t h a n d P o u n d ' s p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h A r t e m i s a s m y t h o s w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f a m a s k . O u t o f h i s d e s p a i r , h e " s e e s " c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n a l l t h i n g s a n d e x p r e s s e s h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n a p o e t r y t h a t i s i m m e d i a t e a n d m o v i n g . A r t e m i s i s f o r P o u n d " h e r e " a s w i t n e s s e d b y t h e i n t e r -j e c t i o n " e h " . S h e i s " r e a l " i n t h e " g l i t t e r i n g " s e n s e o f a " d e l i g h t f u l p s y c h i c e x p e r i e n c e " . W e o b s e r v e " a p r o c e s s o f o s m o s i s " , a s d e R a c h e w i l t z s t a t e s , " b e t w e e n t h e d i v i n e a n d h u m a n w o r l d " . M y t h f o r P o u n d h a s b e c o m e " t h e a c t o f l i v i n g a m y t h " , a s i n O v i d , a n d t h i s i s " a d y n a m i c p r o c e s s q u i t e u n r e l a t e d t o h i s r e a d i n g a n d i n v o l v i n g c o m p l e x m u l t i p l e 9 8 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s . " T o g a i n k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h A r t e m i s i s t o b r i n g t o c o m p l e t i o n G i n s b e r g ' s i n s i g h t o f " a w o r k i n g m o d e l o f y o u r m i n d " . T h r o u g h A r t e m i s , t h r o u g h t h e a c t o f l i v i n g a m y t h , t h e P o u n d i a n m y t h , h e i s a b l e t o b r i n g i n t o c r e a t i o n , a c t u a l l y s h a r e i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f E c b a t a n a , W a g a d u , R o m a . T h e ' ' C i t y e t e r n a l " c o m e s i n t o c r e a t i o n a t e v e r y m o m e n t b e c a u s e a s d e R a c h e w i l t z i l l u s t r a t e s , " A s a c o r o l l a r y i t m i g h t b e a d d e d 1 0 3 t h a t i n h e r m e t i c p h i l o s o p h y , ' t o k n o w ' o r ' b e a w a r e ' o f a g o d m e a n s t o b r e a k t h r o u g h t o a n d u n i t e w i t h t h e c r e a t i v e s t a t e " , ( p . 1 8 6 ) W e s e e i n t h i s C a n t o h o w p h e n o m e n a ( f a c t s ) b e c o m e " n o t h i n g " ; t h e y a r e n o t i m p o r t a n t i n t h e m s e l v e s , b u t a r e m e r e l y u s e f u l a s t o o l s . T h r o u g h p h e n o m e n a t h e e t e r n a l f o r m a r e v e a l s i t s e l f n o t a s a n a c t u a l " s o m e t h i n g " , b u t a s . a p r o c e s s " u n s t i l l , e v e r t u r n i n g " . Y e t t h e y a r e a l s o a h i n d r a n c e s i n c e s - a p p o a t s u c h a s P o u n d i s - f o r c e d t o c o n f r o n t p h e n o m e n a o n a o n e t o o n e b a s i s , a s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p n e c e s s i t a t e d b y e a c h ' s e x i s t e n c e . I n d e f i n i n g t h e m o d e l , a l l p h e n o m e n a a r e d e f i n e d u l t i m a t e l y i n t e r m s o f t h e m i n d p e r c e i v i n g ( " d o n o t s u r r e n d e r p e r c e p t i o n " ) a n d i n s o d o i n g P o u n d i s u n a b l e t o " s e p a r a t e " h i m s e l f t o t a l l y f r o m m a t e r i a l t h i n g s . H e m a y b e a b l e t o " p e r c e i v e " t h e f o r m a , t h e e t e r n a l a s p e c t o f p h e n o m e n a , b u t b e c a u s e h e m u s t u s e p h e n o m e n a t o " p e r c e i v e " , h e i s t r a p p e d i n h i s o w n m o d e l . D e R a c h e w i l t z e l a b o r a t e s o n t h i s p a r a d o x i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f P l u t a r c h ' s D e f a c i e i n o r b e l u n a e . P l u t a r c h , h e s a y s , p o s t u l a t e d t w o d i s t i n c t d e a t h s f o r m a n : t h e d e a t h o f t h e b o d y o n . e a r t h w h e r e b o d y i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m m i n d a n d s o u l , a n d a s e c o n d w h e r e s o u l i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m m i n d " o n t h e m o o n w h e n m a n ' s i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e i s r e a b s o r b e d 99 i n t o t h e c o s m i c c y c l e " . P l u t a r c h , h e e x p l a i n s , s a y s o o n l y " c o n q u e r e r s " a s c e n d b e y o n d t h e m o o n i . e . a t t a i n a t a s a l . H e c o n c l u d e s a l l u d i n g t o P o u n d ' s i d e a s o n f o r m a , t h a t P l u t a r c h ' s e m p h a s i s s e e m s t o i n d i c a t e a n " a c t i v e ' c o n q u e s t ' " o f t h e l u n a r s p h e r e , b e n e a t h w h i c h a l l r e m a i n s u n s t a b l e , i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n a h i g h e r o r d e r . P o u n d s i n c e P i s a h a s a c c e p t e d f o r s i t a n a s t h e r u l i n g f o r c e i n t h e w o r l d o f p h e n o m e n a . S u c h a n a c c e p t a n c e i s , i f n o t f a t a l i s t i c , a t l e a s t " p a s s i v e " a n d t h u s t h e 1 0 4 p o e t t i e d t o c o n c r e t e s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n m u s t " f o r e v e r r e m a i n u n d e r t h e s p e l l o f t h e m o o n " . ( p . 1 8 6 ) T h u s i n t e r m s o f t h e i d e a s o f P l u t a r c h , i n w h i c h P o u n d p l a c e s m u c h s t o c k , a p o e t i s b o u n d l i k e t h e " m a d " C a s s a n d r a , t r a p p e d b y t h e v i r t u e o f h i s o w n p e r c e p t i o n . T h e p o e t b y " t h e f o r c e t h a t i s h i m " , o v e r w h i c h h e h a s a p p a r e n t l y n o c o n t r o l , i s " m a s t e r e d " . T h e • " b o d y i n t h e s o u l " a s s e r t s i t s e l f o n l y t o p r o v i d e t h e " s u b s t a n c e " w i t h w h i c h P o u n d c a n i n v o l v e h i m s e l f i n t h e " c r e a t i v e s t a t e " . Lie. accGxsp.lAshn Y e t d e R a c h e w i l t z f a i l s t o s e e w h a t P o u n d h a s d o n e a n d w h i c h p e r -h a p s o n l y G i n s b e r g h a s b r o u g h t t o l i g h t . P o u n d i s a b l e t o e s c a p e f r o m t h e " c i r c l e " o f p e r c e p t i o n t h r o u g h p e r c e p t i o n i t s e l f . B y c r e a t i n g h i s " o w n " x ; w o r k i n g m o d e l , h i s o w n h u m a n u n i v e r s e , t h r o u g h t h e c o n s t a n t i n p u t o f i m a g e s , h e i s a b l e t o c r e a t e a s t a t e m a d e m a n i f e s t i n h i s p o e t r y , t h a t i s i n t o t a l c r e a t i v e c h a n g e a t a l l m o m e n t s . A r t e m i s b e -c o m e s i n D r a f t s a n d C a n t o s a " s i g n a t u r e " o f t h e c r e a t i v e f o r c e s h e h a s e m b o d i e d t h r o u g h o u t t i m e . S h e i s a " s i g n a t u r e " o f t h e f o r m a o f p o l a r ^ i t y , l i f e a n d d e a t h , c r e a t i o n a n d d e s t r u c t i o n , s e x — m a l e a n d f e m a l e . H e r e v o c a t i o n i s a m e a n s o f t e l e s c o p i n g t h e f a c t o r s t h a t m a k e T h e  C a n t o s w h a t i t t r u l y i s . W h a t i t t r u l y i s i s a m o d e l o f t h e c r e a t i v e s t a t e o f a t a s a l w h i c h i s a t o n e a n d t h e s a m e t i m e P o u n d ' s l i f e a n d P o u n d ' s d e a t h o r m o r e , e x a c t l y h i s " o r i g i n s " . F o r t h e r e a d e r s o f t h e p o e m i t b e c o m e s a " s i g n a t u r e " t h a t p o i n t s t o t h e s a m e f a c t b u t w i t h a d i f f e r e n t e m p h a s i s . W e e x p e r i e n c e o u r o r i g i n s i n s y m p a t h y w i t h P o u n d a n d t h u s c o m e s h a r e a l l t h a t i s c o l l e c t i v e l y - c o n s c i o u s i n t h e " H u m a n U n i v e r s e " . I n t h e c r y p t i c l i n e , " a g n o m o n / O u r s c i e n c e i s f r o m t h e w a t c h i n g 1 0 5 o f s h a d o w s " ( C a n t o 8 5 , p . 5 4 3 ) , t h e p o e t i n v o l v e s h i m s e l f , s o i t a p p e a r s , i n " a c o n s t a n t s e a r c h f o r t h e c e n t r e , t h e p o i n t w h e r e , o n t h e d a y o f t h e s u m m e r s o l s t i c e , t h e i m a g i n a r y l i n e s t r e t c h i n g f r o m t h e g n o m o n t o t h e s u n f o r m s t h e c o s m i c a x i s " ' ! " ^ T h e p o e t , d e f i n e s t h e h u m a n u n i v e r s e , i n t h e w o r d s o f C o n f u c i u s , " i n i t s p r e c i s e m o d a l i t i e s " , e v e r y t h i n g p l a c e d i n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a " l i v i n g " p r e s s o g i u s t o . T h e p o e t a e d i f i c a n s i s a p u r v e y o r o f t h e f r u i t s o f o r d e r a n d h a r m o n y . H e l a y s o u t " a c c o r d i n g t o a t i m e - h o n o r e d c a n o n . . . s a c r e d s p a c e a n d t i m e f r o m s e c u l a r s p a c e a n d t i m e " . Y e t h e p o i n t s o u t a n d l i v e s t h e f a c t t h a t " t h e p l a c e o f b e i n g c r e a t e d i n t h e w o r l d , e v e n t h e h a p p i e s t p a r t o f i t , i s b u i l t u p o n a p a r t i n g , a d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e e t e r n i t y o f t h e p e r f e c t c i r c l e i n t o l i m i t a t i o n a n d i n t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y o f p a s t , p r e s e n t , a n d f u t u r e — o f g e n e r a t i o n s . " " ' " ^ " ' " M y t h , a s i n m y t h o s , i s t h e " m u s i c " , i n t h e P o u n d i a n s e n s e o f t h e w o r d ( " T h e G r e a t B a s s " ) , b y w h i c h t h e i n e f f a b l e e n t e r s e x i s t e n c e ; i t i s a n i n c a n t a t i o n w h i c h e v o k e s t h e c r e a t i v e e n e r g y t o f o r m u l a t e i t s e l f i n a s i g n o f t h e u n i t y w h i c h t h e s i n g e r s h a r e s . M y t h , l i k e m u s i c , i s a n i n s t a n t a n e o u s f l a s h o f e n e r g y . I t p e r s i s t s a s a m e l o d y , a s u c c e s s i o n o f n o t e s , a s u c c e s s i o n o f f l a s h e s o f s u p r e m e o r d e r , b u t i s " n o t h i n g " o n l y a m o u t h f u l o f a i r " , a n " i m m o r t a l c o n c e t t o " : " W e h a v e " , s a i d M e n c i u s , " b u t p h e n o m e n a . " m o n u m e n t a . I n n a t u r e a r e s i g n a t u r e s n e e d i n g n o v e r b a l t r a d i t i o n , o a k l e a f n e v e r p l a n e l e a f . J o h n H e y d o n . ( C a n t o 8 7 , p . 5 7 3 ) 1 0 6 T h e " m o n u m e n t a " , i n t h e p o e t ' s h a n d s , b e c o m e t h e b u i l d i n g b l o c k s o f " a c i t y i n t h e m i n d i n d e s t r u c t i b l e " . T h e p o e t ' s w o r k a n d P o u n d i n T h e  C a n t o s h a s i m b u e d : u s w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f i t , p r o v i d e s u s w i t h e n e r g y t o m a k e a q u a n t u m l e a p t o t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e f a c t " t h a t t r u t h i s a c h a r a c t e r o f r e a l i t y , a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f t r u t h i s a n y t h i n g a n y o n e i , I I 1 0 2 o f u s m a n a g e s t o d o , i n s h o o t i n g o n t h e t a r g e t . C h a p t e r III T e m p u s t a c e n d i , t e m p u s l o q u e n d i ( C a n t o 74 ) 1 0 7 I n t h e s h o r t s p a n o f t h i s p a p e r , I h a v e s h o w n h o w P o u n d h a s m a n a g e d T h e  C a n t o s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f m y t h . I h a v e a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d h o w h e h a s u s e d h i s i d e a o f t h e i m a g e a s a m e a n s o f r e n d e r i n g t h e m y t h s i n a l i v i n g p r e s e n t . I n t h i s r e g a r d I i n t r o d u c e d a n d e x p l a i n e d t h e u s e o f a c o n s t r u c t I n a m e d t h e p o l y v a l e n t p e r s o n a r a d i c a l i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h P o u n d ' s u s e o f p e r s o n a w i t h i n m y t h . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y I h a v e s h o w n h o w m y t h s a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e " i n t e r p l a y a n d t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n o f t h r e e d o m i n a n t r e c u r r i n g m y t h s f o r m a b a s i s u p o n w h i c h P o u n d ' s d i v e r s e y e t r e l e v a n t e r u d i t i o n t o o k s h a p e . T o t h e e n d t h e . v a r i o u s m y t h s h a v e s h a p e d a n d r e s h a p e d t h e m s e l v e s b e i n g c a l l e d b y P o u n d v a r i o u s n a m e s . T h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e f a l d d e n i i u i f f i t h a t " I f e e l h e h a s g i v e n t h e e v e r - c h a n g i n g c o m p l e x o f m y t h s , p e r s o n a e a n d i m a g e s i s r e n d e r e d s o b e a u t i f u l l y i n C a n t o 1 1 6 : I h a v e b r o u g h t t h e g r e a t b a l l o f c r y s t a l w h o c a n l i f t i t ? C a n y o u e n t e r t h e g r e a t a c o r n o f l i g h t ? ( p . 7 9 5 ) T h i s i s w h e r e a n d w h e n t h e p o e m c o m e s t o g e t h e r a n d b e c o m e s m o r e t h a n j u s t p o e t r y . I t b e c o m e s " r e l i g i o n " , i t b e c o m e s " m y t h " . F o r P o u n d , a n d f o r u s ( a s w e h a v e s h a r e d i n t h e " c r e a t i o n o f t h e p o e m a s m u c h a s h e ) t h e v o y a g e i n t o " t h e g r e a t a c o r n o f l i g h t " , i s s i m i l a r t o t h e v o y a g e o f t h e s o u l a s r e n d e r e d i n E g y p t i a n m y t h o l o g y . W e e n t e r i n t h e s a m e w a y a s h e f i r s t h a d e n v i s i o n e d i t , i n t h e b a r g e o f h i s o w n m a k i n g ^ t h a t o f R a - S e t . P o u n d ' s o w n c r e a t i o n , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t w o m a l e d e i t i e s i n t o a s i n g l e " f e m a l e " d i v i n i t y a s s e e n i n C a n t o 9 1 : 1 0 8 T h e P r i n c e s s R a - S e t h a s c l i m b e d t o t h e g r e a t k n e e s o f s t o n e S h e e n t e r s p r o t e c t i o n , t h e g r e a t c l o u d i s a b o u t h e r , S h e h a s e n t e r e d t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f c r y s t a l ( p . 6 1 1 ) T e l e s c o p e d i n t h e i m a g e o f R a - S e t i s t h e u n i o n o f t h e T r i u m v i r a t e t h e p o s i t i v e w i t h t h e n e g a t i v e , m a l e w i t h f e m a l e a n d i n t h a t u n i o n w e h a v e p o s e d t h e q u e s t i o n i n C a n t o 1 1 6 , t h e m a n n e r o f e n t r a n c e . W e a r e i n i t i a t e s o f a f i n a l l a s t i n g , p e r v a s i v e M y s t e r y , t h a t o f t h e p o e m T h e  C a n t o s . T h e r e i s n o t o n e e n e r g y , b u t a c o l l e c t i v e g r o u p o f e n e r g i e s t h a t c r e a t e t h e p o e m . O n c e w e a s s u m e o u r p l a c e o n t h e s u n - b a r g e o f R a - S e t w e m o v e a c c o r d i n g t o a t o t a l l y n e w s e t o f l a w s . A s I h a v e a t t e m p -t e d t o s h o w , t h e s e l a w s a r e f o r m e d i n E r o s ( t h e u n i o n o f w h a t i s p o s i t i v e w i t h w h a t i s n e g a t i v e ) w i t h t h e r e s u l t i n g u n i v e r s e c r e a t e d a n d d e s t r o y e d i n E r o s . W e a r e s e t a d r i f t i n a " c h a r g e d " a i r w h e r e t h e r e i s t h e s y n c r e t i c c o m b i n a t i o n a n d d i s s o l u t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s w h i r l i n g t o g e t h e r " e v e r u n s t i l l " : T h e g o l d e n s u n b o a t b y o a r , n o t b y s a i l L o v e m o v i n g t h e s t a r s b y t h e a l t a r s l o p e T a m u z I T a m u z I ( C a n t o 9 1 , p . 6 1 2 ) W i t h a s i n g l e o a r , y e t u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f m a n y g o d s ( I s i s , T h e L a d y o f t h e B o a t , H o r u s t h e S u p p l i c a n t , T h e B u l l o f T r u t h , t h e P r u d e n t 1 0 3 O n e , W i l l a n d t h e O a r s m a n ) , w e e n t e r t h e " a r c a n u m o f l i g h t " , k n o w i n g f u l l w e l l t h a t w e a r e a t t h e s a m e t i m e e n t e r i n g t h e " d a r k n e s s o f H a d e s " . T h u s t h e a c t u a l h i e r o g l y p h c a n b e l i k e n e d t o w h a t i s t e r m e d a y a n t r a a n d o n l y k n o w n i n i t s t r u e m e a n i n g , l i k e t h e e a r o f c o r n i n t h e D e m e t e r - P e r s e p h o n e r i t e , t o a n i n i t i a t e o f t h e M y s t e r y o f T h e C a n t o s . 109 A y a n t r a i s a y o g i c i n s t r u m e n t f o r c e n t e r i n g t h e m i n d , a n d J o h n S e n i o r i n T h e W a y D o w n a n d O u t e x p l a i n s i t i s " a n i m a g e o r g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n w h i c h a c t s a s a l e n s f o r t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p s y c h i c e n e r g y " , a n d i s c o n s t r u c t e d " s o t h a t s e t s o f o p p o s i t e s w i l l b e c o n t a i n e d a n d y e t r e m a i n o p p o s i t e . . . . a s i m u l t a n e i t y o f a n t a g o n i s t i c a s p e c t s i n t h e o n e a n d o n l y „ 1 0 4 e s s e n c e . T h r o u g h o u t t h e l a t e r p a r t o f T h e C a n t o s , w e h a v e s u c h d e v i c e s e m p l o y e d . P o e t r y t e n d s t o w a r d r i t u a l a n d I h a v e s h o w n w h e r e t h e t e n d e n c i e s a r e m o s t p r e v a l e n t i n b o t h P o u n d ' s p o e t r y a n d h i s p r o s e . I m b u e d w i t h a q u a s i - m y s t i c i s m o f N e o - P l a t o n i c o r i g i n s , f r o m t h e o u t s e t o f t h e " m a r v e l l o u s " i n T h e S p i r i t o f R o m a n c e , P o u n d h a s b e e n o n t h e t r a i l o f t h e e l u s i v e L a d y o f h i s f i r s t l o v e , t h e T r o u b a d o u r s . H e h a s t r a c k e d h e r d o w n a n d s h e n o w r e s i d e s i n t h e " G r e a t B a l l o f C r y s t a l " . T h e m o v e m e n t o f t h e p o e m , f r o m t h e o u t s e t , h a s t a k e n P o u n d t h r o u g h m a n y c h a n g e s , m a n y " l i f e s a n d d e a t h s " , s o t o s p e a k . F r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f P i s a , w e h a v e g a i n e d a m o s t r e v e a l i n g g l i m p s e o f t h e i n n e r m e c h a n -i s m s o f t h e p o e m t h r o u g h a n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c r e a t o r o f t h e p o e m . T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f P i s a f o r P o u n d w a s h i s d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h h i s o r i g i n s . I t i s o u t o f t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n t h a t w e g e t s o m e o f t h e m o s t b e a u t i f u l p o e t r y o f t h e m o d e r n a g e , r i c h i n t h e e n e r g y P o u n d e x p e n d e d t o k e e p h i m s e l f f r o m s u i c i d e : W h e n t h e m i n d s w i n g s b y a g r a s s - b l a d e a n a n t ' s f o r e f o o t s h a l l s a v e y o u t h e c l o v e r l e a f s m e l l s a n d t a s t e s a s i t s f l o w e r T h e i n f a n t h a s d e s c e n d e d f r o m t h e m u d o n t h e t e n t r o o t t o T e l l u s l i k e t o l i k e c o l o r h e g o e s a m i d g r a s s - b l a d e s g r e e t i n g t h e m t h a t d w e l l u n d e r X T H 0 N 0 S 1 1 0 t o c a r r y o u r n e w s t o t h e m t h a t d w e l l u n d e r t h e e a r t h , b e g o t t e n o f a i r , t h a t s h a l l s i n g i n t h e b o w e r o f K o r e , a n d h a v e s p e e c h w i t h T i r e s i a s T h e b a e C r i s t o R e , D i o s o l e ( C a n t o 8 3 , p . 5 3 3 ) F r o m t h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d e a t h , P o u n d h a s c o m e t o r e a l i z e t h e i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e " v i t a l " u n i v e r s e a n d t h e " h u m a n " u n i v e r s e . H e h a s s e e n h o w " b e a u t y i s d i f f i c u l t " t o a c h i e v e i n i t s " d i v i n e " s e n s e ( f o r m a ) a n d h o w t h e t r a n s i t o r y a s p e c t o f p h e n o m e n a ( m a n i n c l u d e d ) i s o n e o f s u f f e r i n g : T i m e i s n o t , T i m e i s t h e e v i l , b e l o v e d B e l o v e d t h e h o u r s a s a g a i n s t t h e h a l f - l i g h t o f t h e w i n d o w w i t h t h e s e a m a k i n g h o r i z o n l e c o n t r e - j o u r . t h e l i n e o f t h e c a m e o p r o f i l e " t o c a r v e A c h a j i a " a d r e a m p a s s i n g o v e r t h e f a c e i n t h e h a l f - l i g h t V e n e r e , C y t h e r e a " a u t R h o d o n " v e n t o l i g u r e , v e n i ( C a n t o 7 4 , p . 4 4 4 ) I v i e w T h e C a n t o s a s t h e r e g i s t e r o f a " s p i r i t u a l " j o u r n e y a s w e l l a s a p o e m . P o e t r y , s u c h a s s e e n i n t h e p a s s a g e a b o v e , a n d t h e t h e o r i e s a n d i d e a s P o u n d h a s e m p l o y e d i n d i c a t e d r i v e t o w a r d t h e c e n t e r o f t h e h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e . F o r s i x t y y e a r s , P o u n d h a s m a i n t a i n e d a g e r m i n a l s e n s i b i l i t y t h a t o n l y i n t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s h a s b e e n e m e r g i n g a m o n g t h e p o p u l a c e . H e h a s m a i n t a i n e d f o r s i x t y y e a r s a p e r s e r v e r e n c e t o t r u t h t h a t h a s m a r k e d h i m a s a f o u n d i n g f a t h e r o f m o d e r n v e r s e : I l l T o a c t o n o n e ' s d e f i n i t i o n ? W h a t c o n c r e t e l y d o I m y s e l f m e a n t o d o ? I m e a n t o s a y t h a t o n e m e a s u r e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , e i t h e r o f a n a g e o r o f a s i n g l e i n d i v i -d u a l , i s w h a t t h a t a g e o r p e r s o n r e a l l y w i s h e s t o d o _ . A m a n ' s h o p e m e a s u r e s h i s c i v i l i z a t i o n . T h e a t t a i n a b i l i t y o f t h e h o p e m e a s u r e s , o r m a y m e a s u r e , t h e c i v i l i z a t i o n o f h i s n a t i o n a n d t i m e . ( G u i d e t o K u l c h u r , p . 1 4 4 ) I t w a s P o u n d ' s p r o f o n d h o p e a t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g t h i s t y p e o f a s s e s s m e n t o f h i m s e l f a n d h i s m i l i e u t h a t t h e " P a r a d i s o T e r r e s t r e " w a s i n t h e o f f i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e e v e n t s a f t e r 1 9 3 8 . p r o v e d t h a t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f m a n ' s a b i l i t y t o h o p e a n d t h e r e b y " c i v i l i z e " s w a s n o t t h e n o r m . I t w a s t o b e h i s f a t e t o l i v e t h r o u g h a . t i m e w h e n t h e h y s t e r i a o f w a r s w e p t a l l a s i d e , t u m b l i n g t h e g r e a t C i t y a b o u t h i s f e e t i n r u i n s . P o u n d h a s l i v e d t h r o u g h h i s p e a k o f h o p e a n d h i s n a d i r o f d e s p a i r . H e h a s a l w a y s r e t u r n e d t o t h e c e n t e r . N o w i n h i s o l d a g e , P o u n d i s g i v e n t o s i l e n c e . H i s v i s i t o r s n o t e , a s d i d M i c h a e l R e c k , " S i n c e a b o u t . 1 9 6 0 , h o w e v e r , E z r a P o u n d i s a c h a n g e d p e r s o n . H e t a l k s v e r y l i t t l e , i s o f t e n d e p r e s s e d , a n d d e c l a r e s t h a t h i s o w n w r i t i n g i s w o r t h l e s s . T h e s a m e s e n t i m e n t w a s e x p r e s s e d b y L a u g h l i n i n h i s l e t t e r t o m e . I t i s G i n s b e r g , I t r u l y b e l i e v e , m o r e t h a n a n y o n e e l s e w h o h a s s e e n t o t h e h e a r t o f P o u n d ' s " d e s p a i r " . H i s c r y p t i c s t a t e m e n t t o P o u n d a s h e w a s a b o u t t o p a r t f r o m h i m e p i t o m i z e s t h a t i n s i g h t . H e s a i d " N o h a r m " . T a k e n f r o m t h e I_ C h i n g , i t i s a s y m b o l w h i c h r e i t e r a t e s t h e m a x i m t h e r e i s n o h a r m o r f a u l t i n m a k i n g a m i s t a k e . C o u p l e s w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t , G i n s b u r g a l s o a d d e d t h a t P o u n d ' s o w n a d m i s s i o n o f f a i l u r e w a s i n r e a l i t y 112 a sign of wisdom, according to Buddist teaching, a beginning of the movement toward what Pound would refer to as atasal. It is fascinating to consider that i t may the reader's desire, his audience in other words, to see the great work completed that is the "hang-up" for Pound. After a l l , he has repeatedly made reference to "the clutter" of things as "the bane of men moving", pointed instead to the silence in "the acorn of light" as the bliss of atasal. I may have strayed somewhat from the summary of the paper, but I think not because Ginsberg's insights pull together many of the threads of myth's use I have spoken about in thisdessay. Each time a myth is evoked in The Cantos an instantaneous telescoping of personae and images occurs and the reader becomes caught in a creative vortex that spirals to the center of the being of the poem. To read The Cantos is to be in the process of metamorphosis at every moment, to be caught up in a constant re-discovery of the "eternal", the "flow-ing". This active involvement or constant residence in the realm of forma that I have demonstrated pervades The Cantos is fundamentally meditation, in i t profondest sense. To be constantly involved with forma as Pound i s , is to be constantly at the center of l i f e involved in "active" creativity. The mind gives shape to the ineffable through mythos, through "passive" resistence to phenomena, acting as a pole so that an opposite may produce an energy leap, a creation. We have seen in Pound's experience at Pisa how closely related ants, spiders, birds on wires, clouds, mountains (the "real" world) are to the divine. Pound's adoption in Rock-Drill of the theory of "signatures", and its subsequent 1 1 3 I n v o l v e m e n t i n a l l t h a t c a m e a f t e r i t , i s a n o t h e r r e m i n d e r o f w h a t T h e C a n t o s u l t i m a t e l y a r e a n d w h e r e t h e y l e a d i f r e a d w i t h a n o p e n m i n d . T h e d y n a m i c o f T h e C a n t o s i s m e d i t a t i o n i n i t s m o s t p e r v a s i v e s e n s e a n d a s i l l u s t r a t i o n o f m y p o i n t I w i s h ; t o r e f e r t o a s h o r t Z e n c l a s s i c : S u b h u t i w a s B u d d a ' s d i s c i p l e . H e w a s a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o t e n c y o f e m p t i n e s s , t h e v i e w p o i n t t h a t n o t h i n g e x i s t s e x c e p t i n t h e r e -l a t i o n s h i p o f s u b j e c t i v i t y a n d o b -j e c t i v i t y . O n e d a y S u b h u t i , i n a m o o d o f s u b l i m e e m p t i n e s s , w a s s i t t i n g u n d e r a t r e e . F l o w e r s b e g a n t o f a l l o n h i m . " W e a r e p r a i s i n g y o u f o r y o u r d i s c o u r s e o n e m p t i n e s s , " t h e g o d s w h i s p e r e d t o h i m . " B u t I h a v e n o t s p o k e n o f e m p t i n e s s " , s a i d S u b h u t i . " Y o u h a v e n o t s p o k e n o f e m p t i n e s s , w e . h a v e n o t h e a r d e m p t i n e s s , " r e s p o n d e d t h e g o d s . T h i s i s t h e t r u e e m p t i n e s s " . A n d t h e b l o s s u m s s h o w e r e d d o w n o n S u b h u t i a s r a i n . ^ ^ T h e C a n t o s i s P o u n d ' s " y o g a " , h i s " z e n " , h i s " t r o b a r c l u s " ; a n y s u c h t e r m i n o l o g y w i l l f i t . W h a t t h e y i l l u s t r a t e i s L i f e , a s f l o w i n g , a n d i t i s t o P o u n d ' s c r e d i t t h a t h e h a s d e f i n e d t h e f l o w i n g i n t e r m s o f t h e H u m a n U n i v e r s e : T w o m i c e a n d a m o t h m y g u i d e s — T o h a v e h e a r d t h e f a r f a l l a g a s p i n g a s t o w a r d a b r i d g e o v e r w o r l d s . T h a t t h e k i n g s m e e t i n t h e i r i s l a n d , w h e r e n o f o o d i s a f t e r f l i g h t f r o m t h e p o l e . M i l k w e e d t h e s u s t e n a n c e a s t o e n t e r a r c a n u m . T o b e m e n n o t d e s t r o y e r s . ( C a n t o 1 1 7 , p . 8 0 2 ) 114 FOOTNOTES Charles Olson, Human Universe (San Francisco: Auerhahn Society, 1965), p. 3. ? 2 Ezra Pound, The Cantos (New York: New Dire c t i o n s , 1971), p. 522. A l l subsequent quotations from The Cantos w i l l o r i g i n a t e from this text and the references w i l l follow the quotation. 3 Ezra Pound, The S p i r i t of Romance (Norfolk: New Directions, 1954), p. 8. 4 See Carl Jung, The S p i r i t i n Man, Art and L i t e r a t u r e (New York, 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 95-96. There we see Jung express the idea of the s p e c i a l awareness the creative i n d i v i d u a l has of "catching s i g h t of the figures that people the nightworld - s p i r i t s , demons and gods. In short he catches a glimpse of the psychic world." 5 j i E z r a Pound, The Letters of Ezra Pound 190 7-1941, ed. D.D. Paige (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1950), p. 181. ^ Ezra Pound, L i t e r a r y Essays, ed. T. S. E l i o t (New York: New Di r e c t i o n s , 1968), p. 92. ^ E r i c h Neumann, Art and the Creative Unconscious, trans. Ralph Manheim (New York: Bollingen, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 186. Q T.S. E l i o t , The Four Quartets (London: Faber and Faber, 1944), p. 19. 9 Fredrich Nietzsche, The B i r t h of Tragedy and the Case of  Wagner, trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Random House, 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 42. Ezra Pound, The S p i r i t of Romance, p. 92. A l l subsequent quotations w i l l be takin from t h i s text and the r e f e r e n c e s t w i l l follow the quotation. 115 Charles Olson, The Special View of History (Berkley: Oyez, 19 70), p. 53. 12 Neitzsche, The Birth of Tragedy, p. 60. 13 Ezra Pound, Gaudier-Brzeska: A Memoir (New York: New Directions, 1960), p. 25. ^ Ezra Pound, ABC of Reading (New York: New Directions, 1960), p. 25. Olson, The Special View of History, p. 54. Erich Neumann, "Art and Time," in Man and Time: Papers from  the Eranos Yearbooks, ed. Joseph Campbell (New York: New Directions, 1968), p. 299. Ezra Pound, Guide to Kulchur (New York: New Directions, 1968), p. 299. 18 I employ the idea of "signature" as a construct to show that image and myth are intricately united, for, as I w i l l show later in the thesis, the image is the "concrete" v i s i b l e sign of the ineffable. 19 Ezra Pound, trans., Confucius, The Unwobbling Pivot, The  Great Digest, The Analects (New York: New Directions, 1969), p. 103. 20 Ernst Cassirer, in Richard Ellmann and Charles Feildson Jr. eds., Modern Tradition: Backgrounds of Modern Literature (New York, Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1965), p. 637. 21 Robert Duncan, "Ideas of the Meaning of Form", in Kulchur, No. 4 (1961), p. 62. 22 E l i o t , The Four Quartets, p. 28. 116 23 Duncan, "Ideas of the Meaning of Form", p. 62. 24 See Paul Valery, The Art of Poetry, trans. Denise F o l l i o t (New York: Random House, 1961), p. 67 f f . Valery points out, espec-i a l l y on page 68, the cogent fact of the closeness and immediacy of poetry. Employing a metaphor, the "musical universe", he points out that what the poem i s , is " i n " the person hearing the poem: "The musical universe, therefore, was within you, with a l l i t s associations and proportions - as in a saturated salt solution a crystaline universe awaits the molecular shock of minute crystal in order to  declare i t s e l f . " See also Olson, Selected Writings, p. 69. 25 Carl Jung, The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche (New York: Bollingen, 1957), pp. 247-248. 26 Olson, Human Universe, p. 122. 27 Jane Harrison, Thomas: A Study of the Social Origins of Greek  Religion (London: Cambridge University Press, 1912), p. 328. 2 8 Ibid., p. 328. 29 Charles Olson, Selected Writings ed. Robert Creeley (New York: New Directions, 1968), p. 82. 30 Jose Ortega y Gasset, "The Historical Significance of Einstein" in Relativity Theory: Its Origins and Impact on Modern Thought, ed. L. Pearce Williams (London: Oxford University Press, 1968), p. 151. 31 See Ortega, p. 149. 32 W.H.D. Rouse, ed., Shakespeare's Ovid, being Arthur Golding's  translation of The Metamorphoses (London: Eentaur Press, 1961). 33 George Wright, The Poet in the Poem: A Study of Masks in Yeats, E l i o t , and Pound (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962), p. 27. 117 34 Olson, Selected Writings, p. 52. 35 R. Buckminster Fuller, Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (Carbondale and Edwardsville: University of Southern I l l i n o i s Press, 1968), p. 71. It is also worth noting that his discussion of Einstein's and related scientists' experience re phenomena postulates some unusually complex, yet b r i l l i a n t ideas whose relevance sheds light on the dynamics of the poem. (See pp. 62-67 especially.) 36 Edith Hamilton, Mythology (New York: New American Library Inc. , 1961) , p. 286. 37 Albert Cook, "Rhythm and Person" in New Approaches to Ezra  Pound: A Coordinated Study of Pound's Poetry and Ideas, ed. Eva Hesse (London: Faber & Faber, 1969), p. 359. 38 Neitzsche, Tne Birth of Tragedy, p. 37. 39 Ibid., p. 37. 40 J. Krishnamurdi, Commentaries on Living 3rd. Series ed. D. Rajagopal (Wheaton: Theosophical Publishing House, 1967), p. 95. 41 Cook, "Rhythm and Person", p. 354. 42 Robert Browning, "Fra Lippo Lippi" in Major British Writers  II, ed. G.B. Harrison et. a l . , enl. ed. (New York: Harcourt, Brace sTworld inc., 1954), 11. 282-306, p. 499. 43 Robert Langbaum, The Poetry of Experience (New York: 1958), p. 49. 118 44 My emphasis here is related to mood and it makes it imperative that there is no separation between "the play as everything" and the "facts are nothing". "Play" and "facts" become ore in mythos i f we look at mythos as Jane Harrison has defined it above. 45 See Langbaum, The Poetry of Experience, pp. 49-50. 46 Ezra Pound, Patria Mia and the Treatise on Harmony (Chicago:-. Ralph Fletcher Seymour, 1950), p. 68. 47 Hesse, New Approaches to Ezra Pound, p. 41. 48 Ibid., p. 43. 49 Cassirer in Ellmann, Modern Tradition, p. 639. 50 Ezra Pound, Selected Poems ed. T. S. Eliot (New York: New Directions, 1957), p. 64. 51. T.S. Eliot,"Selected Poems (London: Faber and Faber, 1961), p. 12. 52 Gary Snyder, Earth House Hold (New York: New Directions, 1957), p. 117. 53 Cook, "Rhythm and Person", p. 352. 54 My meaning istthe whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This i£stocbe'<recKaierd with in the context of the actual fabric that, the experience is a part of. You see a "design" in the fabric; you cannot say the fabric is the design nor the design the fabric. One shares in the other's "reality". 55 Pound, Confucius, p. 83. See Appendix B of The Annotated  Index for a translation of what the Chinese script presents. 119 56 Pound, Letters 1907-1941, p. 259. 57 Fuller, Operating Manual for the Spaceship Earth, p. 65. 58 Hesse ed. New Approaches to Ezra Pound, p. 41. 59 Joseph Campbell, The Masks of God: Occidental Mythology (New York: Viking Press, 1964), p. 26. 60 Pound, Confucius, p. 103. 61 Mircea Eliade, Yoga: Immortality and Freedom (New York: Princeton University Press, 1959), p. 215. 62 Here Pound's ideas on forma, the image, and the Vortex may be seen in,greater depth i f we examine Jung's observations about mandala. His discussion in Psychology and Alchemy in Chapter 3, "The Symbolism of the Mandala", pp. 91-98 especially, provides some interesting material that throws some light on the idea of the "trobar clus". He says on p. 92, "The true mandala i s always an inner image which is gradually built up through (active) imagination, at such times when psychic equilibrium i s disturbed or when thought cannot be found and must be sought for, because not contained in holy doctrine." 63 Carl Jung, Man and his Symbols (New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1968), p. 41. 64 Boris de Rachewiltz, "Pagan and Magic Elements in Ezra Pound's Works" in New Approaches to Ezra Pound, p. 186. 65 Hesse, in her introduction to New Approaches to Ezra Pound, p. 127. 66 Forrest Read, "Pound, Joyce and Flaubert: The Odysseans" in New Approaches to Ezra Pound, p. 127. 120 67 de Rachewiltz, p. 186. 68 Noel Stock, Reading The Cantos: A Study of Meaning in Ezra  Pound (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967), p. 30. 69 Ibid. , p. 1 70 Hesse, p. 17. 71 Duncan, "Ideas of the Meaning of Form", p. 71. 72 Ibid., p. 73. 73 Stock, Reading The Cantos, p. 30. 74 Christine Brooke-Rose, A ZBC of Ezra Pound (London: Faber & Faber, 19 71), p. 36. 75 W. B. Yeats, A Vision (New York: MacMillan, 1961), p. 6. 76 See E.R. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational (Boston: Beacon Press, 1957), pp. 17-18. 77 Dodds, p. 18. 78 Homer, The Odyssey, trans,.Samuel Butler, Vol. 4 Great Books of the Western World ed. Robert Maynard Hutchens for Encyclopaedia  Britannica (London: 1952), 11. 229-241, p. 238. A l l subsequent quotations w i l l be taken from this text. 79 A r i t e of passage i s an ancient r i t u a l in which a boy passes to manhood by undertaking an i n i t i a t i o n prescribed by his tribe or society. 121 80 Campbell, Occ identa l Mythology, p . 162. 81 Guy Davenport, "Persephone's E z r a " i n New Approaches to E z r a  Pound, pp. 167-168. 82 See Jane H a r r i s o n , Themis, pp. 1-29, e s p e c i a l l y 24-29. 83 George Dekker, "Myth and Metamorphosis: Two Aspects of Myth i n the Cantos" i n New Approaches to E z r a Pound, pp. 295-296. 84 I b i d . , p. 296. 85 Donald Davie , E z r a Pound: The Poet as Scu lptor (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1964), p . 220i 86 Davie , p . 220. 87 C a r l Jung and C. K e r e n y i , Essays on the Science of Mythology, t r a n s . R . F . C . H u l l (New York: Pr ince ton U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1949), p . 73. 88 H a r r i s o n , Themis, p . 330. 89 The word i s s a i d to come from the w r i t i n g s of Avicenna, a Mohammedan phys i c ian and phi losopher , and means."union with god". See Annotated Index to the Cantos of E z r a Pound I-LXXELV (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press , 1971), p . 12. 90 Davenport, pp. 161-162. 91 I b i d . , p. 162. 92 See her chapter on Demeter i n Prologemena to the Study of  Greek R e l i g i o n (London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1908), pp. 150-162 and pp. 145.-150. (Chapter IV) . . 122 93 Davenport, p. 162. 94 I b i d . , p. 163. 95 I b i d . , pp. 163-164. 9 6 P e r s o n a l Correspondence w i t h James L a u g h l i n , A p r i l 6, 1970. 97 A l l e n Ginsberg speaking to E z r a Pound i n Mi c h a e l Reck, "A Conversation Between Ez r a Pound and A l l e n Ginsberg", Evergreen Review 57 (June, 1968), p. 29. 9 8 de Rachewiltz, p. 186. 99 I b i d . , p. 186. 100 I b i d . , p. 190. 101 Neumann, A r t and the C r e a t i v e Unconscious, p. 204. 102 Olson, The S p e c i a l View of H i s t o r y , p. 57. 103 See de Rachewiltz, p. 184. The h i e r o g l y p h i s found i n Canto 91, p. 612. 104 John Senior, The Way Down and Out ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), pp. 18-19. 105 See Michael Reck, "A Conversation between Ez r a Pound and A l l e n Ginsberg", p. 27. 106 I b i d . , p. 84. 107 P a u l Reps and Nyogen Sensuki compll., Zen F l e s h , Zen Bones (Tokyo: Charles T u t t l e & Sons, 1969), p.. 35. 1 2 3 B I B L I O G R A P H Y A m e s , E d w a r d . T h e P s y c h o l o g y o f R e l i g i o u s E x p e r i e n c e . N e w Y o r k : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o . , 1 9 1 0 . B a u m a n n , W a l t e r . T h e R o s e i n t h e S t e e l D u s t : A n E x a m i n a t i o n o f  T h e C a n t o s o f E z r a P o u n d . B e r n : F r a n c k e , 1 9 6 7 . B r i d s o n , D . G . " A n I n t e r v i e w w i t h E z r a P o u n d " , N e w D i r e c t i o n s 1 7 . N e w Y o r k : N e w D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 6 . 1 . P p . 1 5 9 - 1 8 4 . B r o o k e - R o s e , C h r i s t i n e . A Z B C o f E z r a P o u n d . L o n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r , 1 9 7 1 . C a m p b e l l , J o s e p h . T h e H e r o w i t h a_ T h o u s a n d F a c e s . N e w Y o r k : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s j 1 9 4 9 . ,—._ e d . M a n a n d T i m e : P a p e r s f r o m t h e E r a n o s Y e a r b o o k s . N e w Y o r k : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 . . The M a s k s o f G o d . N e w Y o r k : T h e V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 . C l a r k , T h o m a s . " T h e F o r m a l S t r u c t u r e r o f P o u n d ' s C a n t o s " . E W R 1 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , 9 7 - 1 4 4 . C o w a n , J a m e s C . " T h e C l a s s i c a l F i g u r e a s a n A r c h e t y p e i n P o u n d ' s C a n t o s I - X X X " . T C L 6 ( A p r i l , 1 9 6 0 ) , 2 5 - 3 2 . C r e e l e y , R o b e r t e d . S e l e c t e d E s s a y s o f C h a r l e s O l s o n . N e w Y o r k : N e w D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 6 6 . D a v i e , . D o n a l d . E z r a P o u n d : T h e P o e t a s S c u l p t o r . N e w Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 . D e k k e r , G e o r g e . S a i l i n g A f t e r K n o w l e d g e : T h e C a n t o s o f E z r a P o u n d . L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K . P a u l , 1 9 6 3 . D e N a g y , N i c o l a s C h r i s t o p h . T h e P o e t r y o f E z r a P o u n d : T h e P r e - I m a g i s t  S t a g e . B e r n : F r a n c k e , 1 9 6 0 . D o d d s , E . R . T h e G r e e k s a n d t h e I r r a t i o n a l . B o s t o n : B e a c o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 . D u n c a n , R o b e r t . " I d e a s o f t h e M e a n i n g o f F o r m " . K u l c h u r , N o . 4 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p p . 6 0 - 7 4 . 1 2 4 " N o t e s o n P o e t i c s R e g a r d i n g O l s o n ' s M a x i m u s " T h e R e v i e w . 1 0 ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 4 ) , 3 6 - 4 2 . E d w a r d s , J o h n H . a n d W i l l i a m . W . V a s s e . T h e A n n o t a t e d I n d e x T o T h e C a n t o s o f E z r a P o u n d . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 . E l i a d e , M i r c e a . C o s m o s - . a n d H i s t o r y : T h e M y t h o f E t e r n a l R e t u r n . N e w Y o r k : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 . — . Y o g a . I m m o r t a l i t y a n d F r e e d o m . . N e w . Y o r k : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . E l i o t , T V . i S . T h e F o u r Q u a r t e t s . L o n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r , 1 9 4 4 . . S e l e c t e d E s s a y s . L o n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r , 1 9 5 1 . E l i o t , T . S . S e l e c t e d P o e m s . L o n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r , 1 9 6 1 . E l l m a n n , R i c h a r d a n d C h a r l e s F i e l d s o n . J r . , e d s . . - . . M o d e r n T r a d i t i o n : . B a c k g r o u n d s o f M o d e r n L i t e r a t u r e . N e w Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & C o m p a n y . E s p e y , J o h n . E z r a P o u n d ' s M a u b e r l e y ; A S t u d y i n C o m p o s i t i o n . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 . F a n g , A c h i l l e s . " F e n o l l o s a a n d P o u n d " . H J A S 2 0 ( J u n e 1 9 5 7 ) , 2 1 3 - 2 3 8 . F e n o l l o s a , E r n e s t . T h e C h i n e s e W r i t t e n C h a r a c t e r a s a M e d i u m f o r  P o e t r y . E z r a P o u n d t r a n s . L o n d o n : S . N o t t , 1 9 3 6 . : :— . T h e C l a s s i c N o h T h e a t r e o f J a p a n . E z r a P o u n d t r a n s . N e w Y o r k : N e w D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 5 9 . F o s t e r , J o h n . L . " P o u n d ' s R e v i s i o n s o f C a n t o s I - I I I " . M P 6 3 ( A u g u s t 1 9 6 6 ) , 2 3 6 - 2 4 5 . 1 2 5 F u l l e r , R . B u c k m i n s t e r . , O p e r a t i n g M a n u a l f o r t h e S p a c e s h i p E a r t h . C a r b o n d a l e a n d E d w a r d s v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . G a l l u p , D o n a l d . A B i b l i o g r a p h y o f E z r a P o u n d . L o n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r , 1 9 6 4 . H a m i l t o n , E d i t h . M y t h o l o g y . N e w Y o r k : N e w A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y I n c . , 1 9 6 1 . H a r r i s o n , J a n e E l l e n . P r o l e g o m e n a t o t h e S t u d y o f G r e e k R e l i g i o n . L o n d o n : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 0 8 . . T h e m i s : A S t u d y o f t h e S o c i a l O r i g i n s . o f G r e e k R e l i g i o n . L o n d o n : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 1 2 . H e s s e , E v a . N e w A p p r o a c h e s t o E z r a . P o u n d : A C o o r d i n a t e d S t u d y o f P o u n d ' s P o e t r y a n d I d e a s . L o n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r , 1 9 6 9 7 J o n e s , A . R . " N o t e s T o w a r d s a H i s t o r y o f I m a g i s m : A n E x a m i n a t i o n o f L i t e r a r y S o u r c e s " . S A Q 6 0 ( F a l l , 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 6 2 - 2 8 5 . J u n g , K a r l a n d C . K e r e n y i e d s . E s s a y s o n t h e S c i e n c e o f M y t h o l o g y . N e w Y o r k : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 9 . J u n g , K a r l . M a n a n d h i s S y m b o l s . N e w Y o r k : D e l l P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 6 8 . . P s y c h o l o g y a n d A l c h e m y . R . F . C . H u l l t r a n s . N e w Y o r k : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . . T h e S t r u c t u r e a n d D y n a m i c s o f t h e P s y c h e . N e w Y o r k : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 . K e n n e r , H u g h . T h e P o e t r y o f E z r a P o u n d . N e w Y o r k : F a b e r & F a b e r , 1 9 5 1 . 1 2 6 K r i s h n a m u r t i , J . C o m m e n t a r i e s o n L i v i n g 3 r d S e r i e s . D . R a j a g o p a l e d . W h e a t o n : T h e o s o p h i c a l P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . L a n d i n i , R i c h a r d . " V o r t i c i s m a n d t h e C a n t o s o f E z r a P o u n d " . W H R 1 6 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 6 0 ) , 1 7 3 - 1 8 1 . L e a r y , L o u i s e d . M o t i v e a n d M e t h o d i n t h e C a n t o s o f E z r a P o u n d . N e w Y o r k : 1 9 5 4 . N e i t z s c h e , F r e d r i c h . T h e B i r t h o f T r a g e d y a n d t h e C a s e f o r W a g n e r . W i l l i a m K a u f m a n n t r a n s . N e w Y o r k : R a n d o m H o u s e , 1 9 6 7 . N e u m a n n , E r i c h . A r t a n d t h e C r e a t i v e U n c o n s c i o u s . R a l p h M a n h e i m t r a n s . N e w Y o r k : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . N o r m a n , C h a r l e s . E z r a P o u n d . N e w Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 0 . O l s o n , C h a r l e s . H u m a n U n i v e r s e . S a n F r a n c i s c o : A u e r h a h n S o c i e t y , 1 9 6 5 . , P o e t r y a n d T r u t h : T h e B e l o i t L e c t u r e s . S a n F r a n c i s c o : C o y o t e P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 — . A S p e c i a l V i e w o f H i s t o r y . B e r k e l e y : Oye:z P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 . P e a r l m a h , D a v i d . T h e B a r b o f T i m e . N e w Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 . P o u n d , E z r a . A B C o f R e a d i n g . N e w Y o r k : N e w D i r e c t i o n s , I 9 6 0 . T h e C a n t o s . N e w Y o r k : N e w D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 7 0 . t r a n s . C o n f u c i u s : T h e : : U n w o b b l i n g P i v o t , . T h e . G r e a t  D i g e s t , T h e A n a l e c t s . N e w Y o r k : N e w D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 5 9 . 12 7 Henri-Gaudier Brzeska: A Memoir. New York: New Directions, 1960. Guide to Kulchur. New York: New Directions, 1960. — . Letters 190 7-1941. D.D. Paige ed. London: Faber & Faber, 19 51. Literary Essays. T.S. Elio t ed. New York: New Direc-tions, 1968. Personae: The Collected Poems of Ezra Pound. Norfolk: New Directions, 1950. 22^. Selected Poems. T.S. Eliot ed. New York: New Directions, 1957. The Spirit of Romance. Norfolk: New Directions, 1952. Translations. Enl. ed. New York: New Directions, 1963. Women of Trachis. New York: New Directions, 1967. Quinn, Sister M. Bernadetta. The Metamorphic Tradition of Modern Poetry. New York: Columbia University Press, 1956. Reck, Michael. "A Conversation between Ezra Pound and Allen Ginsberg", Evergreen Review 5 7 (June 1968), 27-29 & 84. Reps, Paul and Nyogen Sensuki, comps. Zen Flesh Zen Bones: A Col- lection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings. Tokyo: Charles Tuttle & Co., 1957. Rouse, W.H.D. ed. Shakespeare's Ovid, being Arthur Golding's translation  of The Metamorphoses. London: Centaur Press, 1961. Russel, Peter ed. An Examination of Ezra Pound. London: Faber and Faber, 1950. 1 2 8 S c h n e i d a u , H e r b e r t N . E z r a P o u n d : T h e I m a g e a n d t h e R e a l . B a t o n R o u g e : L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 . S e n i o r , J o h n . T h e W a y D o w n a n d O u t . I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . S l a t i n , M y l e s . " A H i s t o r y o f P o u n d ' s C a n t o s I - X V T 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 2 5 " . A L 2 5 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 1 8 3 - 1 8 5 . S y n d e r , G a r y . E a r t h H o u s e H o l d . N e w Y o r k : N e w D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 5 7 . S t o c k , N o e l . R e a d i n g T h e C a n t o s : A S t u d y o f . M e a n i n g . i n E z r a . . P o u n d . L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n C o . , 1 9 6 7 . S u l l i v a n , J . P . e d . E z r a P o u n d : A C r i t i c a l A n t h o l o g y . M i d d l e s e x : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 . T o m l i n s o n , C h a r l e s . " I n C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h R o b e r t C r e e l e y " . 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