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The decree of Kleinias Mark, Gwyneth Anita 1974

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i  THE DECREE OF KLEINIAS by GWYNETH ANITA MARK B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  o f Toronto, 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of Classics  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1974  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this thesis  in partial  advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  the  Library  I further for  shall  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r of British  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  agree that  permission  Columbia,  f o r reference  f o r extensive  I agree  that  and s t u d y .  copying of t h i s  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r  by  h i s representatives.  of  this thesis  written  I t i s understood  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  permission.  Department o f c l a s s i c s  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  2  9  A  P  r i l  >  1 9  ?4  Columbia  shall  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  THE DECREE OF KLEINIAS ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o study the decree o f K l e i n i a s , w i t h a view to d e t e r m i n i n g i t s purpose and date, u s i n g e p i g r a p h i c c r i t e r i a and i n t e r n a l e v i d e n c e .  The arguments from h i s t o r i c a l  t e x t are merely summarized i n Chapter determines the r e a d i n g s .  1, I n t r o d u c t i o n .  Chapter 2  Chapter 3 d i s c u s s e s the evidence of the  l e t t e r - f o r m s and c h a r a c t e r i z e s the mason.  The  chapter i s t h a t a date i n the 430s i s b e s t .  c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s  Chapter 4 d i s c u s s e s the  evidence o f s p e l l i n g , which i s of no h e l p f o r d a t i n g , and which suggest a date i n the l a t e 440s or 430s. r e s t o r a t i o n of the t e x t , and commentary.  formulae,  Chapter 5 g i v e s the  From i n t e r n a l evidence  d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , a date a f t e r 453 necessary.  con-  and b e f o r e 426 i s  The decree seems t o be concerned n o t w i t h r e c a l c i t r a n t  s u b j e c t c i t i e s , but o n l y w i t h d i s h o n e s t y and poor  bookkeeping.  Chapter 6 b r i e f l y r e s t a t e s the evidence found i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter 1:  Introduction  Chapter 2:  The Fragments  5-26  Chapter 3:  The C u t t i n g o f the Stone  27-46  Chapter 4:  S p e l l i n g and Formulae  47-56  Chapter 5:  The T e x t :  57-84  Chapter 6:  Conclusion  Bibliography  R e s t o r a t i o n and Commentary  and A b b r e v i a t i o n s  pages  1-4  85-86 87-93  iv LIST OF FIGURES  F i g u r e 1:  Fragment 1  page 8  F i g u r e 2:  Fragment 2  11  F i g u r e 3:  Fragment 3  18  F i g u r e 4:  Fragment 4  22,  F i g u r e '5,:  L e t t e r - f o r m s i n the Decree o f K l e i n i a s  29, 30,  F i g u r e 6:  Fragment 4:  44  I n t e r m i n g l i n g of Elements  23 31  1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION  The date of the decree of Kleinias has been much discussed, and various proposals have been put forward based on epigraphic arguments and on h i s t o r i c a l context.  The l a t t e r involves a certain  amount of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n the interpretation of the decree, as i s shown by the fact that i t s date could be shifted from the 420s to the 440s upon the discovery of a new fragment that did reveal the name of the mover, but otherwise merely confirmed the tenor of previous restorations.  I, therefore, do not propose to argue the h i s t o r i c a l  context of the decree, but s h a l l summarize here the proposals made and confine the main part of the thesis to epigraphic arguments, i n order to establish upper and lower l i m i t s for the decree.  The se-  cond chapter re-examines the text of the i n s c r i p t i o n to establish readings.  The t h i r d chapter deals with the significance of the  letter-forms used i n this i n s c r i p t i o n , and the fourth with the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s p e l l i n g and formulae.  The f i f t h chapter discusses  the restoration of the decree and gives a commentary on i t .  Finally,  the conclusion gathers together the indications of the previous chapters concerning the date and subject of the decree, but does not produce a d e f i n i t e date and context; i t seems best, since the evidence i s inconclusive, to state merely that the decree cannot be dated epigraphically. B r i e f l y , the h i s t o r i c a l arguments f o r a date have been these. At f i r s t , Meritt assigned the decree to the early 420s, because i t appeared  to come shortly before the decree of Kleonymos, D8, which  2  required the appointment  of c o l l e c t o r s of tribute.''"  Doubt that  the two decrees were passed so close together, however, a r i s i n g from a consideration of the d i f f e r i n g use of the daseia, and of the general appearance of the cutting of the two decrees, was  expressed  2  by Woodward.  The bases for his doubt were i n v a l i d (see below,  chapters 3 and 4), but doubt was reasonable:  both decrees, i t i s  true, concern the c o l l e c t i n g of t r i b u t e , but t h i s need not mean that they must have been passed at about the same time. After the discovery of fragment 4, i n which the name of the mover of the decree, K l e i n i a s , i s preserved, H i l l and Meritt proposed a date before 446, the b a t t l e of Koroneia, for K l e i n i a s was iden3  t i f i e d as the father of Alkibiades, who died there.  Wade-Gery  preferred a s p e c i f i c date, 447; he argued that the decree was passed in reaction to the short q u o t a - l i s t of 447, L i s t 7, and resulted in the long l i s t , L i s t 8, of 446, where the main body of the l i s t shows complete payments for the current year, and arrears of payment 4 are  recorded i n an appendix.  support t h i s re-dating:  The letter-forms were considered to  Raubitschek, even before the discovery of  fragment 4, had proposed a date i n the 440s on that basis.~* This h i s t o r i c a l argument was  elaborated i n A.T.L., I I I , i n a  reconstruction of the events of the early f o r t i e s that involved the 1.  D.A.T., p.  59.  2.  J.H.S., L V I I I (1938), p.  3.  H e s p e r i a , X I I I (1944), pp.  4.  H e s p e r i a , XIV  5.  A.J.P., LXI  108. 8-9.  (1945), pp. 226-228.  (1940), pp. 477-479.  3 Peace of K a l l i a s and The  decree of K l e i n i a s , a c c o r d i n g  to help  to t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , was  passed  of t r i b u t e i n 448/7, a l o n g w i t h the Papyrus Decree,  the Coinage Decree, De  of t r i b u t e i n 449/8.^  r e - e s t a b l i s h A t h e n i a n a u t h o r i t y i n the Empire a f t e r the  imposition and  the r e s u l t a n t r e m i s s i o n  Ste C r o i x has  argued t h a t t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the 440s dated  then.  " I f the decree of C l e i n i a s . . . i s to be dated i n the s p r i n g of as by A.T.L. I l l ,  281,  all  'recalcitrance  allied  honesty which i t was w i t h no r e f e r e n c e i s rather strong  of 449/8 was  not  of K l e i n i a s be there  289.,  the  f a c t t h a t i t g i v e s no 1  but  i n d i c a t i o n at  o n l y of incompetence and  apyupoXoYOl  evidence a g a i n s t  vrjeq  or any  dis-  k i n d of  force,  supposing t h a t the a l l i e s had  been  T h i s forms p a r t of h i s argument t h a t the t r i b u t e  i n fact remitted  at a l l .  i n t e r p r e t e d as p u r e l y  I f , however, the  decree  a book-keeping decree, then  i s no r e a s o n , beyond t h a t of the name of the mover, f o r r e -  t a i n i n g i t i n the 440s; i t c o u l d have been passed Meiggs and  later.  Lewis have a l s o expressed some u n e a s i n e s s about  h i s t o r i c a l case, because some complements  recorded  i n the  t o L i s t 8 have been shown by A.T.L., I I I , 59-61, t o be not  447,  hoped to put r i g h t by more e f f i c i e n t machinery,  to  r e f u s i n g t o pay."^  D13,  D14.  i s wrong, i f the decree of K l e i n i a s i s indeed to be  of any  re-  of r e c a l c i t r a n c e , but  generals  i n the  field.  A.T.L., I l l ,  7.  The  appendix result,  of l a t e r e p o r t i n g of payments made to  They r e t a i n a date i n the 440s, however,  because they f e e l t h a t "the  6.  the  spirit  of K l e i n i a s  pp. 275-300, esp. p.  1  decree s t r o n g l y  281.  O r i g i n s of the P e l o p o n n e s i a n War,  p.  312.  this  4 resembles  that  of the Coinage decree, and  a c c e p t a date i n the e a r l y  forties."  f o r t h a t decree a l s o  we  g  F i n a l l y , M a t t i n g l y would date the decree o f K l e i n i a s t o s h o r t l y a f t e r the decree o f Thoudippos,  the re-assessment  425,  decree  9 of 425/4, A9.  Of a l l the dates proposed,  out c o m p l e t e l y .  t h i s alone can be  ruled  R e f e r e n c e s t o the bases of h i s p r o p o s a l w i l l  be  found from time t o t i m e ; they are n o t v a l i d , and i t can be shown t h a t the decree of K l e i n i a s was D8, which belongs  passed b e f o r e the decree of Kleonymos,  f i r m l y i n 426.  These then are the dates suggested on h i s t o r i c a l  8.  Greek H i s t o r i c a l I n s c r i p t i o n s , pp.  9.  Historia, X  (1961), pp.  bibliography.  120-121.  150-169, esp. pp.  d i s c u s s e s the decree i n s e v e r a l  grounds.  153-154;  other a r t i c l e s ,  he  also  f o r which see the  5 CHAPTER TWO THE FRAGMENTS  Fragment 1 Bibliography : 1  .E.M. 13045; B. D. M e r i t t , D.A.T., p . 49; A. M. Woodward,  J.H.S., L V I I I (1938), pp. 108-109; S t e r l i n g Dow, A.J.A., X L I I (1938), p. 602; A.T.L., I , D7; B. H. H i l l  and B. D. M e r i t t , H e s p e r i a , X I I I  (1944), pp. 7-8; A.T.L., I I , D7. Photographs: II,  B. D. M e r i t t , D.A.T., p . 44; A.T.L., I , p . 121; A.T.L.,  p i . II. 'This fragment was found i n 1926, when t h e p o s t - c l a s s i c a l  to" the west door o f t h e Parthenon were removed, l i s h e d by M e r i t t i n 1937.  additions  and was f i r s t pub-  A c c o r d i n g t o h i s r e p o r t , the stone i s  0.47 metres h i g h , 0.37 metres wide, and about 0.107 metres The stone i s p r e s e r v e d a t the top and on the r i g h t s i d e .  thick. "In i t s  p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n fragment 1 has been reworked... the back has been cut  away w i t h a r u n n i n g d r i l l .  A l o n g b o t h p r e s e r v e d edges o f the  back t h e r e was executed a d r a f t i n g about 0.005 metres t o 0.008 metres wide.  A s i m i l a r d r a f t i n g appears a l s o a t t h e bottom o f t h e obverse  f a c e , where i t runs a l o n g t h e under s u r f a c e o f t h e s t o n e .  I t also  r e t u r n s a c r o s s t h e bottom s u r f a c e below t h e l a t e r a l  Thus i t  face.  appears t h a t t h e p r e s e n t h e i g h t o f t h e b l o c k as p r e s e r v e d dates from the  p e r i o d of the reworking, when the back was chipped away and t h e  rough s u r f a c e s were g i v e n a m a r g i n a l d r e s s i n g .  The stone was a g a i n  1.  The b i b l i o g r a p h y does n o t i n c l u d e mere r e p r i n t i n g s o f t h e t e x t .  2.  D.A.T., pp. 43-60 ( t e x t and commentary).  6 broken b e f o r e b e i n g b u i l t  i n t o the door of the Parthenon  and o n l y  a v e r y s m a l l s e c t i o n o f the d r a f t e d s u r f a c e a l o n g t h e bottom  now  ,.3 remains. In the top r i g h t o f t h i s fragment  t h e r e i s an u n i n s c r i b e d a r e a  seventeen l e t t e r spaces wide and t h i r t e e n l i n e s l o n g . S t e r l i n g Dow,  " I t may  A c c o r d i n g to  be noted t h a t the u n i n s c r i b e d a r e a . . . i s  exactly  4 square, as i f f o r a square or round p a i n t e d f i g u r e . " t h a t t h i s space was  perhaps  Woodward suggests  o c c u p i e d by a p a i n t i n g , presumably  b o l i s i n g some p r o c e s s of the c o l l e c t i o n of t r i b u t e . ~ *  sym-  The use o f  d e c o r a t i o n i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , a t the top r i g h t - h a n d c o r n e r o f the 2 s t e l e , i s found i n I.G.,  I I , 2496, which i s dated t o some time  a f t e r the middle of the f o u r t h c e n t u r y . t e n l i n e s and about stoichedon).  The  s i x t e e n l e t t e r spaces  I t has a s c u l p t u r e occupying (the i n s c r i p t i o n i s non-  t e x t r e c o r d s the purchase of some b u i l d i n g s i n  the Peiiarisus, but the s c u l p t u r e d e c o r a t i n g i t does not appear  t o be  i n s p i r e d by the c o n t e x t .  man,  K i r c h n e r ^ r e p o r t s t h a t i t shows a  p o s s i b l y a hero, w e a r i n g a c l o a k and s e a t e d on a c h a i r ,  stretching  out h i s r i g h t hand t o a woman s t a n d i n g on h i s l e f t , who  i s holding  what may  be a w a l l e t .  Nearer  i n date to the decree of K l e i n i a s i s  another d e c o r a t e d i n s c r i p t i o n , 426.  the decree of Kleonymos, D8,  from  T h i s decree has a s c u l p t u r e d r e l i e f on the top, which p r o b a b l y  shows the j a r s or sacks i n which the t r i b u t e was  carried.  •3.  D.A.T., p.  4.  A.J.A., X L I I  5.  J.H.S., L V I I I (1938), p.  6.  The d e s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n i n the commentary t o I.G.,  These  49. (1938), p.  602. 108. I I , 2496.  7 inscriptions  and  a l l other decorated  tured decorations.  i n s c r i p t i o n s , however, have s c u l p -  As Woodward admits, t h e r e i s no p a r a l l e l f o r a  p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n on an i n s c r i p t i o n , although  p a i n t was  used  on  letters. Woodward t h i n k s he  sees p a r t o f a s h i e l d i n t h r e e - q u a r t e r  i n the photograph p u b l i s h e d by M e r i t t i n D.A.T., p. 44. see any  t r a c e of i t t h e r e , nor  the stone.  i s t h e r e any  I f i n f a c t t h e r e was  view  I cannot  t r a c e of p a i n t l e f t  on  p a i n t i n g i n t h i s space, none of i t 2  remains, and  the example of I.G.,  I I , 2496 shows t h a t i t s s u b j e c t  need n o t have been d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the t e x t of the  inscription.  FIGURE ONE FRAGMENT ONE  16  20  25 A  30  35  40  E  0 Y 0' N  M B T E  n o z  E  Y A A  E  T 0  A  £  Z ft  9 E N A  £ e  A  I n  A M M E E X z •  z  I T 0 M  n  0  A I ZE z  p  0 N  h  0 N  A  N  A n  i A n  .0  n E M n E T  0  A e E N A z E  T I  N  T  0  r P A M M A T E I  p T  0  M <b0 P  ZI A E K  n  0  K A  0  N A n  0  0  0  T 0  N E N T E I B  A i A  E ZI A N n  n E M n E I ZE M E  0  0  0  I E zA N T  A E I X ZA I A  G  E N A I  N T E  A  E  K  ZI h  0  A I T  I ZT 0  0  ZA E A A E I A  I A E "II P 0  N T  0 I  0  M n  0 A  z E A A I n  0  E N A I 0 z A E h E A 0 M E TA z n  0  A E  .1  A N T A  n  A  i  O N T T 16  20  25  30  35  40  9 L i n e 3, s t o i c h o s 22: g i v e n by H i l l  @  Meritt; 0  Hill  and M e r i t t i s accepted  show an e l o n g a t e d ,  and"Meritt.  by a l l other  The r e a d i n g  editors.  The squeezes  s l i g h t l y o f f - c e n t r e d o t , n o t o f t h e same depth  as the r e s t o f the l e t t e r .  Other examples o f t h e t a have n e a t ,  c i s e l y centred dots. Although the l e t t e r i s badly  scarred,  pre-  there  can be no doubt t h a t omicron, undotted, i s the c o r r e c t r e a d i n g . L i n e 10, s t o i c h o s 19:  A  scripsi; A  cett.  I can see i s t h e lower p a r t of the r i g h t A L i n e 12, s t o i c h o s 17: leg  A  On t h e squeezes a l l  l e g of the l e t t e r .  7 McGregor .; The lower p a r t o f t h e r i g h t  was seen on the stone by McGregor, and appears on the squeezes.  L i n e 18, s t o i c h o s 16:  ^  s c r i p s i ; M e r i t t reads n o t h i n g ; P !•  II  •• ••—•  i  cett. A l l  » • i. ••••• -  t h a t can be seen on t h e squeezes i s t h e loop, b u t , s i n c e t h i s form a p a r t o f no other  letter  could  (there i s no t r a c e o f the lower  curve  of b e t a ) , I p r i n t u n d o t t e d r h o . L i n e 23, s t o i c h o s 31: and  A  scripsi; A  Only t h e top i s v i s i b l e ,  t h e r e i s no t r a c e o f a c r o s s b a r .  L i n e 24, s t o i c h o i 36, 37: the top i s v i s i b l e . sometimes c e n t r e d top angle  J-A  scripsi;  IA  cett.  Of the i o t a ,  only  I t i s c e n t r e d , b u t the v e r t i c a l o f lambda i s  i n this inscription also.  Of t h e a l p h a , o n l y t h e  i s visible.  L i n e 26, s t o i c h o s 40:  J  scripsi;  be seen on the squeezes, and t h a t 7.  cett.  T  cett.  Only the c r o s s b a r can  faintly.  A f r e s h examination o f t h e stone was made by McGregor i n 1972;  t h i s and other  comments a r e from h i s notebook.  10 Fragment  2  Bibliography:  E.M. 6578; A. R. Rangabe, A n t . H e l l . ,  K. S. P i t t a k y s , i n fop, j ^  p  x  #  I , no. 277;  , 1854, no. 2071; I.G., I, 39, from 2  t r a n s c r i p t s by U. K o e h l e r and I . V e l s e n ; I.G., I , 66b; B. D. M e r i t t , D.A.T., pp. 43-47; A.T.L., I , D7; S t e r l i n g Dow, A.J.A., X L I I (1938), p. 602; B. D. M e r i t t , E p i g r a p h i c a A t t i c a , p . 38; B. H. H i l l and B. D. M e r i t t , H e s p e r i a , X I I I Photographs:  (1944), pp. 7-8; A.T.L., I I , D7.  B. D. M e r i t t , D.A.T., p . 46; A.T.L., I , p . 121. 2  The the  fragment was found on the A c r o p o l i s .  A c c o r d i n g t o I.G., I , 66b,  stone i s 0.32 metres wide, 0.33 metres h i g h , and 0.13 metres  thick.  These measurements a r e the maximum:  o n u a l l s i d e s and i r r e g u l a r l y shaped.  preserved  (not t h e l e f t ,  A p a r t o f t h e r i g h t edge i s 2  as i s r e p o r t e d i n I.G., I , 66b, n o t e d and  c o r r e c t e d by M e r i t t ) , which z o n t a l l y i n the s t e l e .  t h e stone i s broken  f i x e s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e fragment  hori-  The v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n i s determined by t h e  r e l a t i o n o f t h i s fragment t o fragment 4, s i n c e t h e t e x t o f fragment 2 complements t h e t e x t o f fragment 4. The numbering  o f l i n e s i s t h a t o f A.T.L., I I .  11  FIGURE TWO FRAGMENT TWO  22  30  25  34  35  40  0 A 0 M . EN 0  35  N E ZE  zA  Z A r r: P A ® Z E T A E Z  • •  E K A  zT0Z  0 I K Y P I A E ZT •  A N A E A 0 X  0  zE  I  T A N E Zh 0 T I A N A 0 K A N T I Zn E P I T E N A n •  ZA A I K E I T A Zr P A A TA TA Y TA T 0  zA  E  I N A K I 0 N..A\ E A 45  N T 0  $  0 P 0 K A •  I A n 0A 22  25  •  30  35  40  L i n e 34,  Q  s t o i c h o s 26:  I.G.,  1^,  66b,  Meritt.  The  reading  given  2  by  I.G.,  I , 66b,  or K o e h l e r , but  according i s not  accepted the r e a d i n g ,  to M e r i t t , i s based a p p a r e n t l y  found i n P i t t a k y s or Rangabe.  for  any  Velsen  Meritt  alone  because of evidence t h a t t h i s fragment  have become more damaged s i n c e the o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g was and M e r i t t drop the  on  omicron, because the  l e t t e r ever to have been seen  may  made.  Hill  stone i s too b a d l y damaged  there.  ) 2  L i n e 35, can be  stoichos  35:  T  J_.G., I , 66b;  T  cett.  N o t h i n g at a l l  seen on the photographs; on the squeezes I see a s l a n t e d  a t an odd  a n g l e , r a t h e r below the  letters.  I do n o t b e l i e v e i t i s a p a r t of any  any  trace.  other  l i n e and  not  stroke  as deep as the  other  l e t t e r , nor  I  do  see  2  L i n e 36,  s t o i c h o s 25:  £ i'9_*>  s t o i c h o i 2 7, 28: p a r t o f the right  left  l e g of the  l e g of the  L i n e 37, Hill can  35:  A  cett.  s c r i p s i ; IT  cett.  first  l e t t e r and  Meritt; A  the  Only the  lower  lower p a r t of  the  visible. cett.  Only the  left  leg i s  squeezes.  s t o i c h o s 24:  Meritt.  and M e r i t t , because of the see no  £  second l e t t e r are  stoichos v i s i b l e on the  IT  > 66b;  1  t r a c e of the  M e r i t t ' s reading  i s rejected  " n e c e s s i t i e s of r e s t o r a t i o n ? "  lower l e f t  l e g of the gamma r e p o r t e d  by I  by  Meritt. s t o i c h o s 25: two  ^  lower h o r i z o n t a l s and  therefore  I do not  dot  s t o i c h o s 27:  the £  Pittakys, Meritt;  ^ cett.  T r a c e s of  of the v e r t i c a l are v i s i b l e on the  the  squeezes;  letter. Pittakys;  ®  by P i t t a k y s as sigma are v i s i b l e on the  Meritt.  The  marks i n t e r p r e t e d  squeezes, but  are  clearly  13 scratches. scratches  Meritt's reading of theta also r e s u l t s from mistaking for cuttings.  The scratches  but are not deep enough to be l e t t e r s . i s no trace.  can be seen on the squeezes, Of the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r  H i l l and Meritt rejected Meritt' s e a r l i e r I;  there  reading,  again on the grounds of the necessities of r e s t o r a t i o n . Line 38, stoichos 25:  I.G., I , 66b, M e r i t t ;  0  2  ? cett.  The  omicron i s clear though incomplete on the squeezes and could not be part of any other l e t t e r . 2 stoichos 26:  I.G., I , 66b; j cett.  In t h i s  stoichos  there i s a v e r t i c a l stroke more than usually off-centre for an i o t a , and a very f a i n t , high v e r t i c a l stroke at the r i g h t edge of the stoichos, v i s i b l e on the squeezes.  The second v e r t i c a l  stroke,  however, i s also found on the l i n e below and i s probably a scratch. It i s clear from the squeezes that no c h i s e l cut touched the f i r s t vertical.  The l e t t e r to be read i n t h i s space then i s i o t a . 2 stoichos 2 7:  K  I , 66b; K cett.  The v e r t i c a l  stroke  and the top arm of the kappa are v i s i b l e on the squeezes; no dot i s needed. stoichos 28:  Y omnes.  Meritt reports that the upsilon  i s no longer on the stone, though part of the upright was read by e a r l i e r editors.  The squeezes show part of the upright  stoichos 35:  0 nonnulli.  clearly.  I see no traces of any l e t t e r  in this stoichos on the squeezes. 2 Line 39, stoichos 23: £  cett.  0 I.G., I , 66b; I Pittakys;  £ Meritt;  This stoichos contains scratches, some of which may be  the o r i g i n a l marks of the c h i s e l , which can be interpreted as the faint remains of sigma, mu, or i o t a .  Of the three sigma i s perhaps  the most l i k e l y , b u t I am by no means c e r t a i n ; I p r e f e r t o read nothing.  I t i s c e r t a i n , however, t h a t no d a s e i a was c u t here,  where the r i g h t hand v e r t i c a l been c u t .  should be, the stone has c l e a r l y n o t  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important,  r e s u l t the only u n r e s t o r e d  since,  s i n c e we have here as a  i n s t a n c e i n t h e decree of the omission  of the d a s e i a ; t h i s one omission makes r e s t o r a t i o n s w i t h o u t t h e daseia  the  acceptable. stoichos 24:  0  nonnulli.  stoichos 25:  I  Pittakys; T  T  Velsen, M e r i t t ;  There i s no t r a c e on  squeezes.  L i n e 40, s t o i c h o s 2 2 : merely a h o r i z o n t a l . stoichos 24: N  alii.  cett.  L i n e 41,  Only t h e top angle  cett.  Koehler  reports  Only t h e r i g h t h a l f i s v i s i b l e . A  Rangabe;  Koehler;  n  The fragment seen by Koehler stoichos 22:  T  A  scripsi;  ^  ^  I.G., I , 66b;  i s c l e a r on t h e squeezes. Koehler;  I_.G., 1^,  66b; A  cett.  of the l e t t e r i s v i s i b l e .  s t o i c h o s 24:  E Pittakys; T  s t o i c h o s 22:  E  cett.  2 L i n e 42,  I_.G., I , 66b;  £ cett.  The angle o f t h e  d i a g o n a l s v i s i b l e can only be t h e remains o f a sigma.  2 s t o i c h o s 36: of the l e f t  A  I.G., I , 66b;  A cett.  Only t h e bottom  l e g can be seen.  2 L i n e 43,  stoichos 22:  bottom o f t h e r i g h t  A  I.G., I , 66b, M e r i t t ; A  cett.  Only t h e  l e g can be seen a t the v e r y edge of the break  i n the stone. L i n e 44, stone  stoichos 22:  2 nonnulli.  McGregor r e p o r t s t h a t on the  t h e r e i s a t r a c e of t h e c e n t r e angle,  i n d i c a t i n g a sigma.  and some c o l o u r perhaps  I see no t r a c e o f any l e t t e r on the squeezes.  stoichos 23: see only what may  i l cett.  Of the p i read by other editors, 'M  be the top of the r i g h t v e r t i c a l , but the stone i s  so mutilated that I cannot be sure whether the squeezes show a scar or a c h i s e l - c u t .  McGregor reports the same stroke on the stone, and  considers the reading  doubtful. 2  stoichos 33:  A  I_.G., I , 66b;  A  cett.  Only the v e r t i c a l  i s v i s i b l e on the squeezes. A  Line 45, stoichos 31:  scripsi; A  cett.  Only the top angle i s  v i s i b l e on the squeezes. 2 stoichos 32: I I.G., I , 66b, M e r i t t ; no trace of any l e t t e r on the squeezes. Line 46, stoichos 28: A Meritt; T  cett.  A  A  scripsi; A  I.G.,  I cett.  There i s  2 8 I , 66b, Mattingly ;  A l l that remains i s the apex.  The  context  does not rule out delta or gamma. stoichos 29: ~~  scripsi.  Meritt reports that Pittakys  read additional l e t t e r s on t h i s and on following l i n e s , but that these are to be attributed to blemishes on the stone. editor mentions them, or p r i n t s anything  No  i n t h i s stoichos.  other McGregor,  however, reports a horizontal c h i s e l cut i n the upper l e f t of the stoichos, from the stone, and on the squeezes I see the same c h i s e l cut quite c l e a r l y .  8.  B.S.A., LXV  I t i s not clear of what l e t t e r i t forms a part.  (1970), p.  129.  Fragment 3 Bibliography:  R i c h a r d Pococke, I n s c r i p t i o n u m Antiquarum Graec(arum)  et L a t i n ( a r u m ) L i b e r , p. 52, no. 42; Graecae Velnstissimae, p. 252  Hugh James Rose, I n s c r i p t i o n e s  and p i . x x x i i ; F r i e d e r i c h Osann, S y l l o g e  I n s c r i p t i o n u m Antiquarum Graecarum e t Latinarum,  pp.  11-14, no. I l l ;  August Boeckh, Corpus I n s c r i p t i o n u m Graecarum, I, no. p . 896;  I.G.,  75 w i t h Addenda,  I, 38e, where r e a d i n g s by M u e l l e r a r e used; E. L.  Hicks,  The C o l l e c t i o n of Greek I n s c r i p t i o n s i n the B r i t i s h Museum, I, A t t i k a , 2 no. VI; I.G.,  I, s u p p l . , p. 13, no.  B.S.A., XXXIII (1§33) A.T.L., I, D7; pp.  7-8;  The  thick.  face dressed dressed off  n. 1; B. D. M e r i t t , D.A.T., p. XIII  (1944),  found  on the A c r o p o l i s .  According  metres wide, and  t h i c k n e s s alone i s o r i g i n a l , and smooth, and u n i n s c r i b e d .  The  122.  0.148  shows the  left  to M e r i t t , metres  reverse  edge has  a l s o been  smooth, presumably by the same modern workman who  the top  47;  D7.  i s 0.493 metres h i g h , 0.215  "The  H. T. Wade-Gery,  B. D. M e r i t t , D.A.T., p. 48; A.T.L., I, p.  fragment was  the stone  J_.G., I , 66a;  B. H. H i l l and B. D. M e r i t t , H e s p e r i a ,  A.T.L., I I ,  Photographs:  p. 122,  38a;  squared  (and p o s s i b l y a l s o the bottom) w i t h a view t o making  a shapely p i e c e of marble out of a broken fragment." edge i s p r e s e r v e d , n o t the l e f t :  metres h i g h below the l a s t  right  a l l r e s t o r a t i o n s b e f o r e t h a t of  M e r i t t have the l e f t margin i n t a c t , and l e t t e r s beyond the r i g h t margin.  The  occasionally print  extra  There i s an u n i n s c r i b e d area  l i n e ; t h i s fragment then c o n t a i n s  c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s of the decree.  However, the measurements of  0.115  the both  t h i s u n i n s c r i b e d a r e a and the t o t a l h e i g h t of the fragment are n e c e s s a r i l y approximate, s i n c e i t has been s e t i n a s o c l e of unknown depth i n  the B r i t i s h Museum.  18  FIGURE THREE FRAGMENT THREE  30  27 57  B  0 A  0  £ 0  60  I  A  A E  E  T E  N  Z  ADA  A <X> A  T  A I  T  0  E T I £  T  0 M  n  0  A  0  £  £  $ A  £  K  0  e  A  T  0  K 0  I  N  0  A  £  n  A  E  £  E M E  E X  £  0  0  E A  E T  0  A  E  r P  A <£> E N  i  0  A 0  I A  2  0  A  I  0 N  I  E A N A  K  A  E £  E  £  E  £  A  r o  h  N T  I 0  I  K  A  T E  £ M E  $  0  P O K A  P  0  B 0  II E E 27  £  P I- T  h  A 30  I  E  B  1  I  A  E M '  E  0 N A  £  A A  N  T E £-  K  A  E  N A  n  I  T N  I  h o rp E N A  E T  I  £  A  0 A  E B  0  E  h  0  I  0  P 0  N  0 N A  £ T O M ®  N A  A  0 <E> E  • I  E 0  I  •  £ A  T E N  75  I  E N  X  T  70  N T  E 1  A S T  65  E  r p  A T E  40  35  N Y  £ E  0  £  E  T 0  n  E  P Y  £  £ A  N E  X  E Y £ A E •I  h  Y  £ T  E  P  A  P E  £  E  0 £  X  P  E  35  40  19  Line 57, stoichos 2 7  Boeckh.  stoichos 30  £  Pococke; A  cett.  stoichos 31  I  Pococke; N  cett.  stoichos 37  I  Pococke; 2  cett.  stoichos 38  I  s c r i p s i; I nonnulli.  Only the lower t i p  E  scripsi; E  A l l that can be seen  of the i o t a i s v i s i b l e . Line 59, stoichos 40:  nonnulli.  i s the angle made by the v e r t i c a l and the lowest horizontal, which appears to t i l t upwards s l i g h t l y . Line 60, stoichos 2 7:  N  Boeckh; I  cett.  Line 61, stoichos 40:  A  Mueller i n I.G., I, 38e; A  stoichos 41:  A  Mueller i n I.G., I, 38e, Boeckh; M  cett. I.G., I , 66a.  This stoichos was uninscribed, since the margin i s at stoichos 40. Line 64, stoichoi 27, 28: AE. Pococke, Rose, I.G., I, 38e, Boeckh; A  £  cett.  Line 65, stoichos 38:  M  Rose; N  cett.  Line 66, stoichos 38:  0  Rose;  stoichos 39:  A  Pococke, Rose; p  cett.  Line 72, stoichos 27:  £  Mueller;  g  0 cett.  Rose;  cett. 2  stoichos 41:  A  Boeckh, I.G., I, 38e, I.G., I , 66a.  There  i s not, and cannot be, any l e t t e r i n this space. Line 74, stoichos 27:  P  Meritt, H i l l and M e r i t t ; p  stoichos 40:  X  bmnes (Pocockio excepto). 2  Line 75, stoichos 41:  I  this stoichos.  cett.  3  1  J 66a.  There can be no l e t t e r i n  20 Fragment 4 Bibliography:  E.M.  13044; Gorham P. Stevens, H e s p e r i a , S u p p l . I l l ,  p. 78, f i g . 59; E. P. Blegen, A.J.A., X L I I I (1939), p. 132; M. N. J.H.S., L X I I XIII  (1942), p. 58; B. H. H i l l  (1944), pp. 1-4;  LXV  and B. D. M e r i t t , H e s p e r i a ,  J . and L. Robert, R.E.G.', L V I I (1944), pp.  Stephen B. Luce, A.J.A., X L V I I I  (1944), p. 285; M. N. Tod, J.H.S.,  B. H. H i l l  and B. D. M e r i t t , H e s p e r i a , X I I I (1944),  p. 5; Gorham P. Stevens, H e s p e r i a , S u p p l . I l l , p. 78,  fig.  59; A.T.L.,  p i . II. T h i s fragment was  found i n 1938 by Gorham P. Stevens i n the  south jamb o f the e a s t door o f the Parthenon; by H i l l the  186-187;  (1945), p. 67; A.T.L., I I , D7.  Photographs:  II,  Tod,  and M e r i t t , who  Parthenon.  and 0.148  metres  The  i t was  f i r s t published  g i v e a complete d e s c r i p t i o n of i t s use i n  stone i s 0.82  thick.  "The  metres h i g h , 0.20  metres wide,  t h i c k n e s s i s the o n l y o r i g i n a l - . d i m e n s i o n  f u l l y p r e s e r v e d , and i t corresponds e x a c t l y w i t h the f u l l y p r e s e r v e d o r i g i n a l t h i c k n e s s o f D7,  fragment 3.. . . I t  i n the Parthenon t h a t the b l o c k was dimensions.  f o r i t s use...  c u t t o i t s p r e s e n t form and  I t s r i g h t s i d e and lower end were v e r y r o u g h l y c h i s e l e d  and i n the r e a r h a l f of the l e f t deep and 0.083 metres wide. the  is clearly  s i d e was  T h i s was  finish is distinctly inferior  (0.065 metres w i d e ) l e f t i n t a c t . " top  and on the l e f t  9.  H e s p e r i a , X I I I (1944), p.  9  c u t a r a b b e t t 0.015  c u t w i t h some p r e c i s i o n ,  to the band o f o r i g i n a l The  metres though  surface  stone i s p r e s e r v e d a t the  s i d e , and broken a t the bottom and on the r i g h t  1.  side.  The discovery  of t h i s fragment made necessary a complete r e v i s i o n  of a l l restorations, which previously had been made on the assumption that on the upper l e f t corner of the stone was another uninscribed square.  Thus Meritt calculated that the i n s c r i p t i o n was stoichedon  23 to l i n e 14, and stoichedon 57 thereafter.  This fragment shows  that i n fact the i n s c r i p t i o n i s stoichedon 23 to l i n e 14, and stoichedon 40  thereafter.  FIGURE FOUR FRAGMENT FOUR  ., .  5 1  e.  22  10  E  0  I  E A 0 X £ E N T E I B 0 M 0 i 0 I N E I£ E n P A I A z E r P A M M A T E 5  E n E z T A T E K A E N I 0 A E N K A I T 0 £ .1  n0A E  £ -I K  A  A  • IT  P X 0  £  II i M E A' E £ e A I h 0 n  r E T 10  A  I h 0  E K A £ T  0  T  i\  0 P 0 £ K K A I A nA  2 E X £ Y M B 0 A A A E II P 0 Z T  A  £  n  E I A A I K E 0 P 15  0  N r  "D j.  A  0 A E £ h 0 N  T 0 I Z  0>  £  A  A  £ A A •  r P AM M AT E I 0 N T 0 N A M E N E T 0 I £ Y M B  nA r 0 N T A  •  £  A n0 A 0  N A r N 0 N A I h 0 T  A  M  Y TA N E £ M E T A A I 0 20  zh E  A A  E N 0 T A M I A  E 0 N T A £ A II 0 A 0 £ A  zA ZX  0  P I £ h 0 £ A I  N 0 ZA N A P I r pA 25  T E z  0  A  Z T E T T  £ 0 M E N 0 £ T  N TA £ T  0  M M  FIGURE FOUR FRAGMENT FOUR (CONT'D)  10  5 26  0 M E N A Y 0 11 A E N E P I E P 0 £ T A X E I A I E n I e P A I K E Z E B 0 A E N K A I E Z T 0  30  A E Y E z 8 A I n E P I E I E A N A E T i Z A e N 0 0 P 0 N h 0 N A E i 0 N T 0 I P A  35  <£>  A n A r o  E £ e A i  I 0 N K A i  n P 0 z  T 0 N x z  E Z T E M B 0 A E N Y N E  e 0 A 0 p  K A T A r N 0 I h <E> E P E T 0 E z T  40  N r N 0 M A z n 0 0 M n A e E N E A N T E Z B 0 0 z E I K A TA Y T 0 K  •  0 5  10  23  Line 2, stoichos 13: A of the lambda.  H i l l and M e r i t t ; A  cett.  I see no trace  The squeezes, however, are rather f a i n t ,  especially  at the edges where the stone i s worn, and the photographs are no more clear. Line 3, stoichos 13: Y  omnes.  Line 25, stoichos 13: E  .omnes.  Line 26, stoichos 13: II  omnes.  Line 2 7, stoichos 13: £  omnes.  Line 30, stoichos 13: T  omnes.  •  ______  Of the l e t t e r s reported by a l l other editors for these f i v e lines, I see no trace on the squeezes or photographs.  See above  on l i n e 2. Line 14, stoichos 13: A  scripsi; A  leg i s v i s i b l e on the squeezes; Line 16, stoichos 13: B  cett.  Only the top of the le:  See above on l i n e 2.  scripsi;  B. c e t t .  Only the v e r t i c a l and  the beginning of the top of the f i r s t curve are v i s i b l e . Line 33, stoichos 12: £  omnes.  Line 37, stoichos 10: 0  omnes.  The  Original Stele From a c l o s e examination o f fragment 4, H i l l  the  and M e r i t t made  f o l l o w i n g r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the o r i g i n a l s t e l e .  o f t h i s Parthenon doorway i s l e s s w e l l p r e s e r v e d , t o show t h a t r e p a i r s were e f f e c t e d t h e r e on the south, w i t h a b l o c k w i d t h and t h i c k n e s s ,  side  b u t enough remains  i n j u s t t h e same manner as  l i k e t h e one h e r e under d i s c u s s i o n i n  though only 0.755 metres long....It i s q u i t e  probable that t h i s block of t h e same s t e l e ;  "The n o r t h  (now l o s t ) came from t h e lower l e f t  side  [and] t h a t i t s southern end...was t h e o r i g i n a l  bottom.... "These o b s e r v a t i o n s height  l e a d t o some s p e c u l a t i o n about t h e t o t a l  of the i n s c r i p t i o n ,  f o r i f they a r e c o r r e c t t h e t o t a l  cannot have been l e s s than 1.575  m. (0.82  m. p l u s 0.755i >ml). -  height With  some allowance f o r c u t t i n g one might e s t i m a t e a minimum o f 1.60 This i s s u f f i c i e n t 83.  f o r a t l e a s t 81 l i n e s , more p r o b a b l y f o r 82 o r  I t must be n o t e d , however, t h a t t h e lower p o r t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h  Museum  fragment  (D7,  f r a g . 3)  i s uninscribed.  We do n o t know whether  the o r i g i n a l base o f t h i s fragment i s p r e s e r v e d , we may a s s i g n t o t h i s p i e c e a p o s i t i o n so h i g h only and  m.  f o u r l i n e s i n t e r v e n e between t h e l a s t the f i r s t  l i n e o f D7,  closer together.  f r a g . 3.  Inasmuch as D7,  b u t i n any case  i n t h e stone t h a t  l e t t e r s o f D7,  frag. 2  These stones cannot be moved f r a g . 2 i s t i e d t o t h e new p i e c e  from t h e A k r o p o l i s by i t s r e s t o r a t i o n , an a b s o l u t e minimum o f 71 l i n e s i s determined f o r t h e i n s c r i p t i o n . "If represent  one adds t o t h e s e 71 l i n e s an a d d i t i o n a l f i v e l i n e s t o the bottom p a r t o f the B r i t i s h Museum fragment which i s  s t i l l v i s i b l y uninscribed,  a minimum t h e o r e t i c a l h e i g h t  i n lines  for the o r i g i n a l stele may be determined as 76.  This figure comes  so near to the height i n lines of 82 or 83 which was suggested by adding the lost fragment from the north jamb of the Parthenon door to the preserved fragment from the south jamb, that we believe that d i s p o s i t i o n substantially  correct.  Translated into terms of textual  reconstruction t h i s means that we assume a lacuna of about ten lines between the upper and lower halves of the inscription."''"^  10.  Ibid., pp. 2-4.  27 CHAPTER THREE THE CUTTING OF THE STONE  The Letter-forms The following table of letter-forms extant i n t h i s document gives the largest and smallest sizes, as well as the various shapes of each l e t t e r .  To each letter-form a number has been given; this  refers to the number assigned to that form i n the table of l e t t e r formsccompiled by Walbank from securely dated documents. within each form are designated a, b, c.  1  Variants  These variants do not a f f e c t  the dating of the document, but w i l l be useful i n characterising the mason.  When a form does not f i t Walbank's table, I have employed  the designation v ( a r i a n t ) . To produce the drawings, I made a rubbing of each occurrence of each l e t t e r on the squeezes, selected the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c forms of the l e t t e r , and checked these for accuracy against the squeeze, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of l e t t e r s s i g n i f i c a n t for dating.  These  tracings I then transferred to the f i n a l table. While studying the letter-forms, I counted the number of occurrences of each form.  This, however, seemed to give the false impression  that the forms are always separate and d i s t i n c t , whereas i n fact i t i s often almost impossible to distinguish between forms.  Where  a v a r i a t i o n seemed s i g n i f i c a n t , therefore, I have given a r a t i o , based on rough s t a t i s t i c s , of how often a given form occurs, i n proportion to other forms of the same l e t t e r , and have given actual  10.  M. B. Walbank, Athenian Proxenies, p. 74.  28 statistics  only where these seemed n e c e s s a r y and j u s t i f i e d .  In the d e s c r i p t i o n s , the term " w e l l - c u t " means t h a t j o i n s a r e n e a t l y made, curves a r e smooth, s t r o k e s tical,  and h o r i z o n t a l s h o r i z o n t a l .  t h a t i n some l e t t e r s ,  are true, v e r t i c a l s are ver-  I have taken i t i n t o account  f o r example, nu and p i , v e r t i c a l s a t s l i g h t l y  l e s s than an angle o f 90° may be so c u t d e l i b e r a t e l y , and i n e p s i l o n and  lambda the s l i g h t t i l t i n g  The  o v e r a l l e f f e c t s h o u l d be b a l a n c e d and, where a p p r o p r i a t e ,  cal.  symmetri-  The term " w e l l - c u t " does n o t r e f e r t o whether or n o t a l e t t e r  i s i n proportion I  of h o r i z o n t a l s may a l s o be d e l i b e r a t e .  t o other l e t t e r s i n the same a r e a .  I have n o t e d the c h r o n o l o g i c a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e of each  letter-form  or combination of forms, u s i n g Walbank's " L e t t e r Shapes Found i n Dated F i f t h - c e n t u r y  I n s c r i p t i o n s , " and "Chart D e p i c t i n g  the Appearance  2 or Disappearance o f Key Shapes," which i n c l u d e s undated documents. a t the end of the c h a p t e r .  2.  Walbank, pp. 75, 85.  and a l s o McGregor's note-book, I have summarized t h e e v i d e n c e  FIGURE FIVE LETTER-FORMS IN THE DECREE OF KLEINIAS  FIGURE FIVE LETTER-FORMS IN THE DECREE OF KLEINIAS  (CONT'D)  31  FIGURE FIVE LETTER-FORMS IN THE DECREE OF KLEINIAS  S  S,6  L  L,6  la  lb  PP  S,8  L,8  <  <  S  S,2  L  7  8  9  v  L,l  vv S  L  S,4  L,5  S  L  4  5  L  5  6  7  (CONT'D)  32 Alpha:  3, 4, 5  (4, 5 )  3  Alpha 5 occurs only twice before 445 i n securely dated documents. The exceptions are i n 446. Neither the combination of forms, nor the variety, has any n i f i c a n c e for dating.  The combinations  alpha 4 and alpha 5, are very common.  sig-  alpha 3 and alpha 4, and The combination alpha 3, alpha  4, and alpha 5 i s found i n only two dated i n s c r i p t i o n s , i n 440  and  406; and a combination of three or more forms of alpha occurs i n only five inscriptions. In the decree of K l e i n i a s , alpha 4 occurs about twice as often as alpha 5, and four times as often as alpha 3.  A l l three forms  occur about twice as often small as large, and about four times as often well-cut as not. however, i s an alpha. nearby.  The worst cut l e t t e r i n the i n s c r i p t i o n , Very few are cut ^n proportion to the l e t t e r s  The use of two or more cuts i s often evident on both large  and small l e t t e r s of a l l types. Beta:  3a, 3b Before 445, beta 3 i s found possibly twice, i n 451 and  446.  After 445 beta 3 i s found i n almost every i n s c r i p t i o n . Out of ten examples of the l e t t e r , the type beta 3b i s found only twice.  There i s not much v a r i a t i o n i n height for this l e t t e r ,  but considerable v a r i a t i o n i n width.  The l e t t e r i s well-cut only  once.  3.  The numbers i n parentheses are those assigned to the letter-shapes  by McGregor i n a note-book compiled i n 1967-1968. only when I disagree.  I include them  Gamma: The  1, l a , 2 letter-forms have no s i g n i f i c a n c e for dating.  Gamma 2 occurs only once.  Gamma l a i s found almost as often  as gamma 1, and may be the r e s u l t of a s l i p of the c h i s e l . i s usually small and well-cut. Delta: The  The l e t t e r  Two c h i s e l cuts are r a r e l y evident.  1, 2 (1) letter-forms have no s i g n i f i c a n c e for dating.  Delta 2 occurs only a l i t t l e oftener than delta 1. The l e t t e r i s normally small, and frequently badly cut. may curve at the end,  For example, one line  i n order to meet the end of another; or the  whole l e t t e r may be lopsided, with the horizontal and one leg longer than the other; or the horizontal may t i l t .  The very small deltas  are often, but not always, above the l i n e . Epsilon:  4, 5, two u n c l a s s i f i a b l e variants  (4)  Epsilon 5 does not occur before 435 i n securely dated documents. There are three possible exceptions  i n undated documents.  Epsilon does not occur i n combination very often, but, of the combinations, epsilon 4 and epsilon 5 i s the most common. Epsilon 4 occurs more than three times as often as epsilon 5. Epsilon 4 i s rather more often large than small, about 4:3, and about as often badly cut as well cut.  Epsilon 5 i s about twice as often  large as small, and i s badly cut i n only about half the large versions There are about a dozen variants. In the badly cut l e t t e r s , there are two types of error d i s c e r n i b l In one,  the three horizontal strokes were apparently  cut f i r s t , then  the v e r t i c a l was made with two cuts, one j o i n i n g the f i r s t and second horizontals, and one j o i n i n g the second and t h i r d .  The r e s u l t i s that  34 the v e r t i c a l appears curved.  In the other type, the v e r t i c a l has been  cut f i r s t , and the mason has miscalculated where the horizontals ought to begin, so that they do not j o i n the v e r t i c a l neatly. Zeta:  1 The  letter-form has no significance for dating.  Daseia:  1,2  The  (1)  letter-form has no significance for dating.  Daseia 2 occurs only twice, once small and once large. i s usually small and well-cut. apparently  The l e t t e r  I t occurs badly cut only once, when  the v e r t i c a l s were made i n two strokes each, f i r s t down  to the crossbar, then to the l i n e , with the r e s u l t that they appear curved. Theta:  4  The  letter-form has no s i g n i f i c a n c e for dating.  The  l e t t e r i s usually somewhat irregular  i n shape, although i t  is never badly cut, and the centre dot i s neat and well placed. Iota: An exceptionally large i o t a , extending well below the l i n e , i s found i n fragment 4, l i n e 13.  This may w e l l be the r e s u l t of a s l i p  of the c h i s e l , since i t occurs nowhere else i n this Kappa:  inscription.  2  The  letter-form has no significance for dating.  The  l e t t e r i s usually small.  The v e r t i c a l often appears curved,  probably because i t was cut with two strokes.  There are two large  kappas. Lambda:  4, 5  Lambda 5 does not usually occur before 425, but Walbank notes  35 exceptions i n 447, 431, and 428.  However, I cannot find the exception  from 447 i n the chart of "Letter Shapes Found i n Dated Fifth-century Inscriptions." V a r i a t i o n i n lambda i s f a i r l y common, although the combination of lambda 4 and lambda 5 occurs i n only a t h i r d of the i n s c r i p t i o n s with v a r i a t i o n inllambda after 425. On lambda 5, Raubitschek reports, VLambda with i t s shorter stroke 2 almost h o r i z o n t a l l y engraved occurs i n I.G., I , 19, 20, 529, and on the Koroneia epigram."  I , 19, 20 i s the treaty with  Egesta, which i s dated by Meiggs and Lewis to 458/7"*, but by Mattingly to 418/7.^ The Koroneia epigram i s dated by Bradeen to the mid7 8 2 century , but by Mattingly to the 420s. The reference to I.G., I , 529 i s unclear, since this i n s c r i p t i o n i s undated but has Ionic x i and i s probably l a t e .  Of the i n s c r i p t i o n s studied by McGregor, the ear-  l i e s t with lambda 5 i s I.G.,  2 I , 73, from the late 430s or 420s.  Before that of the i n s c r i p t i o n s described as having f l a t t i s h  lambda 4,  2 the e a r l i e s t i s I_.G., I , 53, from the late 430s.  This letter-form  then tends to be late, although there are some early examples. There are about twice as many examples of lambda 5 as of lambda 4.  Of the examples of lambda 4, only four at most have an angle  at a l l pronounced.  The l e t t e r i s usually small and well-cut, although  4.  A.J.P., LXI (1940), p. 478.  5.  Greek H i s t o r i c a l Inscriptions, pp. 81-82.  6.  H i s t o r i a , XII (1963), pp. 267-268.  7.  C.Q.,  XIX  (1969), pp. 145-159.  8.  H i s t o r i a , XII (1963), pp. 261-2.  36 the horizontal does not always j o i n the v e r t i c a l neatly. Mu:  1, 2 Mu  (2)  1 occurs only twice before 445 i n securely dated  inscriptions,  in the Salamis decree, which i s c e r t a i n l y very early, and again i n 447.  In other inscriptions  then, have any significance  i t issnever very common; i t does not, for dating.  Most examples are mu 2, small. half the time.  Mu  The l e t t e r i s cut badly about  1 occurs d e f i n i t e l y once, and four times the centre  i s cut to a l e v e l with one of the outside strokes.  The other stroke  i s longer, perhaps because of a s l i p of the c h i s e l .  I do not think  i t i s a d e f i n i t e s t y l e , because the mason evidently had d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s l e t t e r , which he normally did not cut i n t h i s way, because there i s evidence elsewhere There i s a tendency Nu:  and  for s l i p p i n g of the c h i s e l .  for this l e t t e r to be lopsided.  3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10  (9, 7, 6, 4)  The s t a t i s t i c s alone speak for the f u t i l i t y of trying to date a document by the forms of nu.  In securely dated documents, nu 3  occurs only once after 445, i n 440. or after 435.  Nu 6 does not occur before 445  Nu 8 does not occur before 445, except once i n 460.  Nu 9 does not occur before 445, except once i n 460. does not occur more than once after 435; i t may again i n 408.  Nu 10 probably  occur i n 425,  and  A l l these have further probable exceptions i n undated  documents. In addition, i t i s often very d i f f i c u l t to decide between two d i f f e r e n t forms of nu.  There are examples of each form i n the docu-  ment, but the number of variants, and theunumber of badly cut examples, imply that this l e t t e r was d i f f i c u l t to cut.  Moreover, the v e r t i c a l s  are often only just o f f the v e r t i c a l , which makes i t d i f f i c u l t to distinguish between nu 7 and nu 10, and nu 6 and nu 8. Both nu 7 and nu 10 occur about f i f t e e n times each. forms p r e v a i l . together,  These two  Nu 4 has two clear examples, and nu 9 a few more;  there are about a dozen examples of nu 4 and nu 9.  Nu 3  has three clear examples, nu 6 has four, and nu 8 has seven. V a r i a t i o n i n nu i s no more h e l p f u l than the forms of nu. In securely dated documents, the occurrence of more than two forms of nu i n one inscription-'cappears to be an early phenomenon, although there are examples found up u n t i l 418.  In documents that are not  securely dated, however, the majority of those showing v a r i a t i o n are found probably a f t e r 434, down to 409. This l e t t e r i s often badly cut, with the use of two or more cuts often evident.  The incompetence of the mason, then, rather than the  date when the stone was cut, accounts for the great v a r i e t y . of the smaller examples of this l e t t e r are cut above the l i n e .  Some The  l e t t e r i s about as often large as small. Omicron: The  1 letter-form has no significance for dating.  The size of the l e t t e r varies i n proportion to the size of the surrounding l e t t e r s .  The l e t t e r i s often well cut, and never very  badly cut. Pi:  l a , lb The  letter-form has no significance for dating.  There are about twice as many examples of lb as of l a . The form l a occurs as often small as large; and lb occurs twice as often small as large.  Rho:  6, 8 The letter-form has no s i g n i f i c a n c e for dating. Rho 8 occurs about twice as often as rho 6.  There are approxi-  mately the same number of large l e t t e r s as small for each type. The curves are usually well made and smooth, but do not always j o i n the v e r t i c a l neatly, and are sometimes out of proportion to the size of the v e r t i c a l . Raubitschek reports, as an early feature, "the rho, which closes against the upright at an acute angle about two-thirds of the way 9 down towards the bottom."  In reply to t h i s Meiggs notes, "Similar 2  rhos can be found i n S_.E.G., X, 81 (Equals I_.G., I , 68/9), very probably to be dated i n 424/3."''"^  I t should also be pointed out that  a rho such as Raubitschek describes occurs perhaps three times, out of at least t h i r t y - f i v e examples of the l e t t e r . Sigma:  7, 8, 9, one variant  (8, 9)  Sigma 7 occurs only once before 445, i n 452. only once before 445, i n 460.  Sigma 8 occurs  Sigma 9 does not occur before 445;  there are no exceptions i n securely dated documents.  After 445, these  forms, especially sigma 7, become the p r e v a i l i n g forms immediately. Three forms of sigma i n one i n s c r i p t i o n are never very common, but examples are found throughout the second h a l f of the f i f t h century. The amount of variety seems to be another i n d i c a t i o n of the lack of s k i l l of the mason. Raubitschek says that "to determine an upper l i m i t [for t h i s  9. 10.  A.J.P., LXI (1940), p. 478. J.H.S., LXXXVI (1966), p. 97.  i n s c r i p t i o n ] , we may p o i n t out t h a t o n l y few p u b l i c (engraved i n A t t i c  script)  inscriptions  of the p e r i o d b e f o r e 449 B.C.  examples of f o u r bar sigma, and i n these i t  contain  appears almost  exclusively  11 i n the h e a d i n g . " There are about the same number of examples of sigma 8 as o f sigma 9.  I n each f o r m , t h e r e areaabout t w i c e as many s m a l l examples  as l a r g e .  Sigma 7 occurs t w i c e d e f i n i t e l y ,  sigma 9, b a d l y c u t .  a l t h o u g h i t may be s i m p l y  There are f o u r examples of t h e v a r i a n t ,  may be sigma 8, w i t h a s l i p of the c h i s e l a c c o u n t i n g f o r the  which length  o f the b o t t o m s t r o k e . Tau:  1, 2  (1)  The l e t t e r - f o r m has no s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r Tau occurs o n l y The l e t t e r  dating.  rarely.  i s c u t b a d l y more than h a l f t h e t i m e .  The most f r e -  quent e r r o r i s t h e c u t t i n g of t h e h o r i z o n t a l o f f - c e n t r e , sloped.  sometimes  Three times t h e h o r i z o n t a l crosses t h e v e r t i c a l below t h e  t o p , and t w i c e the h o r i z o n t a l has been made i n two s e c t i o n s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e v e r t i c a l , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t i t Upsilon:  4 , 5, 6, 7  looks c u r v e d .  ( 4 , 6, 7)  U p s i l o n 4 does n o t occur a f t e r 430, except once i n 414. 5 occurs o n l y t w i c e a f t e r 430, i n 419 and 417.  Upsilon  U p s i l o n 5 i s merely  t h e m i r r o r image o f u p s i l o n 6, w h i c h occurs u n t i l 425, then t w i c e more i n 413 and 412. from undated  These c o n c l u s i o n s are borne out by t h e evidence  inscriptions.  V a r i e t y i n u p s i l o n combining some curved form of the l e t t e r  11.  A . J . P . , L X I ( 1 9 4 0 ) , p. 479.  with  some s t r a i g h t  form i s q u i t e common.  Great v a r i e t y i n u p s i l o n  such  as i s found i n t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y common, and i s found almost e x c l u s i v e l y a f t e r 450, and b e f o r e 433. R a u b i t s c h e k g i v e s as an example o f e a r l y i n s c r i p t i o n u p s i l o n 4.  12'i  letter-forms i n this  Meiggs says, " U p s i l o n w i t h c u r v i n g s t r o k e s  c o n t i n u e s through t h e t h i r t i e s b u t i s extremely r a r e a f t e r 430. The only examples I have found a r e i n Parthenon .  i n v e n t o r i e s o f 414/3  2  and 411/0 (I^G., I , 272 and 253).. . . U n t i l an u p s i l o n w i t h c u r v i n g s t r o k e s i s found it  i n an i n s c r i p t i o n s e c u r e l y dated i n t h e twenties  i s r e a s o n a b l e t o i n s i s t on a date b e f o r e 430 f o r t h e C l e i n i a s  decree." ^ 1  U p s i l o n 4 occurs i n f i v e c l e a r examples, u p s i l o n 5 and u p s i l o n 6 i n f i v e , and u p s i l o n 7 i n o n l y one. Phi:  4, 5  (4)  P h i 5 does n o t occur b e f o r e 445 i n s e c u r e l y dated T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s confirmed by t h e evidence o f undated  inscriptions. inscriptions.  There a r e about an equal number o f examples o f each type, h a l f o f which, i n each case, a r e b a d l y c u t . error.  In t h e f i r s t ,  about  There a r e two types o f  t h e o v a l i s c u t a s y m m e t r i c a l l y , and i s o f f -  c e n t r e on t h e v e r t i c a l .  I n t h e o t h e r , t h e two h a l v e s o f t h e o v a l  have been c u t s e p a r a t e l y , and do n o t j o i n t h e v e r t i c a l a t t h e same points. Chi:  2 The  l e t t e r - f o r m has no s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r d a t i n g .  12.  A.J.P., LXI (1940), p . 479.  13.  J.H.S., LXXXVI (1966), p. 97, and n. 43.  The l e t t e r has a tendency t o be wide and s l i g h t l y The t a l l ,  lopsided.  t h i n chi i s unusual.  The summary o f l e t t e r - f o r m s , as t h e y are s i g n i f i c a n t f o r  dating,  i s as f o l l o w s . Not common b e f o r e 445: . A l p h a 5.  Not common b e f o r e 435:  r  Exceptions:  446,  twice  Beta 3  4 5 1 , 446  Sigma 7  452  Sigma 8  460  Sigma 9  none  Phi 5  none  Epsilon 5 Exceptions:  t h r e e , i n undated documents  Not common b e f o r e 425:  Lambda 5  Exceptions:  4 3 1 , 428, and p o s s i b l y two more  Not common a f t e r 430:  Upsilon 5  Exceptions:  Upsilon 4 Not common a f t e r 425:  Upsilon 6  419, 417 414  Exceptions:  413, 412  I n a d d i t i o n , v a r i e t y i n u p s i l o n i s n o t n o r m a l l y found a f t e r 433. The problem t h e n i s t h a t i n t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n are found forms t h a t are e a r l y , late,  f o r example u p s i l o n , combined w i t h forms t h a t are  f o r example e p s i l o n and lambda.  If  it  i s accepted as a g e n e r a l  r u l e t h a t e a r l y forms may be found l a t e , f o r example, i n made by i n e x p e r i e n c e d s t o n e - c u t t e r s who are s t i l l  inscriptions  i m i t a t i n g forms  c u t by t h e masons from whom t h e y l e a r n e d and have n o t y e t developed a d e f i n i t e s t y l e o f t h e i r own, b u t t h a t l a t e forms are l e s s found e a r l y ,  often  s i n c e once a d e f i n i t e s t y l e has been adopted by a mason  42 he rarely changed i t to accommdate a new  letter-form,  14  then the  t  best period i n which to place this i n s c r i p t i o n according  to the  evidence of the letter-forms i s i n the 430s. Another method of dating based on the cutting of thesstone has been suggested by Meiggs, who says, "The disposition  of the l e t t e r s  over the space i s unlike the style of the twenties but can be p a r a l l e l e d i n the forties."''""' This statement assumes consistent spacing of the l e t t e r s i n the i n s c r i p t i o n .  Since, however, the l e t t e r s vary so much  i n size, both height and width, and i n s t y l e , and since some l e t t e r s , for example mu, nu, and delta, are sometimes on the l i n e , sometimes above i t , such consistency i s impossible.  Thus fragment 3, l i n e 76  i s crowded as are most of the lines towards the end of this fragment, whereas i n fragment 1, l i n e 15, and i n the top of fragment 2, l i n e 34, the  l e t t e r s are smaller and therefore further apart.  No conclusion  for the date of t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n can be drawn from the  disposition  of the l e t t e r s over the space.  The Mason The above conclusion i s based i n part on the assumption that this i n s c r i p t i o n was cut by an inexperienced cutter, and also that i t was cut by only one mason. That the second assumption i s correct i s clear.  The two most  s t r i k i n g elements i n the cutting of this i n s c r i p t i o n are the v a r i a t i o n i n the size of the l e t t e r s , and the forms used.  As to the l e t t e r  14.  Stephen Tracy, G.R.B.S., XI (1970), pp. 321-333.  15.  H.S.C.P., LXVII (1963), p. 22.  43 sizes, although the d i v i s i o n between large and small l e t t e r s i s easy to see on fragment 3, l i n e 69, where small l e t t e r i n g stops, the same d i s t i n c t i o n i s impossible to see on fragment 4, where the l e t t e r s of lines 2 and 3 and lines 14 and 15. are d e f i n i t e l y large, but the l e t t e r s of lines 4 and 5 are not, and the l e t t e r s of lines 11 and 16 are d e f i n i t e l y small.  No d i s t i n c t i o n then between one mason and  another can be made on the basis of l e t t e r - s i z e , and the dividing line on fragment 3 must be attributed to the end of one day's work and the beginning of the next.  Nor can a l i n e be drawn on the basis  of letter-forms or competence i n cutting.  To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , I have  shown on a chart the d i s t r i b u t i o n of epsilon 4 and epsilon 5 on fragment 4, lines 1-28, and i n addition have marked on this chart the l e t t e r s that are exceptionally badly cut.  I t i s clear from the i n t e r -  mingling of these elements that the stone was cut by one mason. That the mason was inexperienced cannot be so c l e a r l y shown, but there i s s u f f i c i e n t evidence of incompetence and indecision over what form to use to make i t at least very l i k e l y that this i s the right conclusion. The amount of variety i n the i n s c r i p t i o n i s the strongest argument for an inexperienced mason.  Inscriptions showing three or more forms  of a l e t t e r , for more than one l e t t e r , are quite uncommon.  In the  16 inscriptions  studied by McGregor  , there are only ten.  In the chart  of securely dated documents given by Walbank, there are eleven. Although these tend to be before 435, there are not enough to use for purposes of dating. 16.  See above, note 3.  Rather, the small number seems to indicate  FIGURE SIX FRAGMENT 4: INTERMINGLING OF ELEMENTS poorly cut l e t t e r s  10  epsilon 4 P 4 epsilon 5  . 5 P P 5  4  4 4  10  15  P 4  20  P P 25  5 .  that with experience a mason dropped some of the variants, which, as I have suggested, may forms.  simply have been unsuccessful attempts at other  This i n s c r i p t i o n i s very unusual i n having four l e t t e r s with  such v a r i a t i o n of three or more forms (alpha, nu, sigma, and u p s i l o n ) . Here then i s a very strong indication of a mason who  has not yet  d e f i n i t e l y established a s t y l e . A necessary r e s u l t of this i s that i t i s highly u n l i k e l y that another i n s c r i p t i o n cut later by the same mason could be i d e n t i f i e d as such, since we cannot know which forms of the l e t t e r s he f i n a l l y decided  on.  In addition, the number of badly made l e t t e r s argues for an inexperienced mason.  There are a number of places where the c h i s e l  seems to have slipped, so that the r e s u l t i n g l e t t e r i s lopsided. There are also several places where an attempt has been made to correct a l e t t e r , for example, i n the curving strokes of some deltas. F i n a l l y , there are several l e t t e r s that are simply badly planned badly executed,  and  of which the most s t r i k i n g example i s on fragment 3,  line 70, the f i r s t alpha. The mason has not yet settled on a method of cutting even the simplest of l e t t e r s .  The crossbar of tau, for example, i s sometimes  made i n a single cut, sometimes i n two cuts. lines that appear to curve may  Some of the straight  have been cut by d r i v i n g the point  of a very short c h i s e l along for an i n d e f i n i t e distance, a method that would explain the s l i p p i n g of the c h i s e l i n , for example, i o t a . It would also explain why  i t i s impossible to decide what tools the  mason used, and thereby to i d e n t i f y other i n s c r i p t i o n s cut by  him,  since, i f he used only straight c h i s e l s of the length of the various  46 straight  l i n e s , he would have had a v e r y l a r g e number  I t seems c l e a r ,  indeed.  then, t h a t t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n was c u t by an i n e x -  p e r i e n c e d mason, s t i l l u s i n g some o f the forms he had, perhaps, taught, b u t a l s o experimenting w i t h some new  forms.  been  47 CHAPTER FOUR SPELLING AND FORMULAE  Spelling In the decrees of the f i f t h century there are various charact e r i s t i c s that can be used as c r i t e r i a for d a t i n g .  1  None of these,  unfortunately, appear i n the decree of K l e i n i a s , whose s p e l l i n g can be p a r a l l e l e d throughout the second half of the f i f t h century.  In  t h i s section, then, I s h a l l simply discuss the types of s p e l l i n g that, because they vary from document to document, might be considered as i n d i c a t i n g some date for an i n s c r i p t i o n , i n order to demonstrate how v a l i d they might be, and how they a f f e c t the dating of the decree of K l e i n i a s . The following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s p e l l i n g w i l l be discussed: the use of __; for X £  > the use of the daseia to represent rough  breathing; and one- and two-syllable dative p l u r a l endings of the f i r s t and second declensions. In addition I s h a l l discuss the s p e l l i n g of the name K l e i n i a s . It i s not clear with whom the f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the s p e l l i n g of a decree rested.  1.  In some decrees i t i s evident that the s p e l l i n g  The most recent discussion of the s p e l l i n g i n A t t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s  i s a thesis by L. L. Threatte, The Phonology of A t t i c Inscriptions (1970), summarized i n H.S.C.P., LXXIV (1970), pp. 344-348.  Another  discussion i s by K. Meisterhans, edited by Eduard Schwyzer, Grammatik der Attische Inschriften (Berlin, 1900) ; see also W. Lademann, De T i t u l i s A t t i c i s Quaestiones Orthographicae et Grammaticae (1915).  48  of some words has been altered; for example, i n the Athenian treaty 2 with Leontini, I.G., placed by  ~  I , 52, l i n e 16, 2  has been deleted and re-  On t h i s occasion, what the mason cut was  but i t i s impossible to decide whether normally h i s own  corrected,  spelling  would stand, should i t d i f f e r from that of the secretary who was  normally  responsible for the f i n a l d r a f t of a decree , or i f s l i g h t aberrations  would be overlooked. the mason may  Further, even when correction has taken place,  have o r i g i n a l l y been following h i s copy rather than  his preference.  Since on many decrees,  including the decree of  K l e i n i a s , the s p e l l i n g i s inconsistent, we may well be dealing with a mixture of the stonecutter's and the secretary's s p e l l i n g , of whom the former may  often have been Ionian, the l a t t e r always Athenian.  Variants and early Ionicisms, then, may not be used as c r i t e r i a for dating.  Only i f a document consistently shows a late form, for  example  £ i n place of X2  , may  the form be taken as a possible  i n d i c a t i o n of late date.  Use of £ than 2  for X2  :  The decree of K l e i n i a s uses X2  on a l l but one occasion; thus  X2 appears i n the text i n  lines 11 and 35, and i s restored i n lines 8, 30, and 31. of  2 for  X2  rather  appears once, i n l i n e 16, CuyaBoXa  •  The  use  Mattingly  has  twice attempted to show that this mixture of spellings indicates a 3  t r a n s i t i o n a l period i n the 420s.  However, the use of both 2  Thesmophoriazusae, l i n e  and  2.  Aristophanes,  432.  3.  Ancient Society and I n s t i t u t i o n s , p. 198; B.C.H., XCII:II (1968),  p.  468.  3  49 2 X£  appears as early as 460,  X£  i s found i n the quota-lists i n 454/3, L i s t 1; 446/5, L i s t  and 445/4, L i s t 10.  i n I.G.,  I , 6, and the use of £  M e r i t t considers that i t was  for 9;  the stonecutter  4 who  decided which form should be used i n .a given i n s c r i p t i o n ;  we  cannot, however, be sure. Use of the daseia:  Rough breathing i s represented by the daseia  i n unrestored text on a l l but one occasion throughout t h i s decree, for example, i n lines 9/10,  h jexaaTOV  A N D  I N  L  I  N  E  1 5 >  -/JO'VTIV.  Only once can the symbol be shown to have been omitted, i n l i n e 39, O T d V  .  That i t was  omitted here i s clear because of the c e r t a i n  restoration; moreover, as was pointed out i n Chapter 1, while i t i s  Cr™  impossible to discern from the impressions on the squeeze what l e t t e r o r i g i n a l l y came before the omicron, i t could not possibly have been a daseia.  This certain example i s important  i n that i t allows the  omission of the daseia i n restoration, for example, i n l i n e 71, eAuxiav . The use of the daseia i n t h i s decree and i n the decree of Kleonymos, D8, appeared to Woodward to indicate a considerable difference i n the dates of the two decrees, since the l a t t e r consistently omits the daseia, while the former, i n the state of preservation i t was then i n , appeared always to use i t ; t h i s observation i s no longer v a l i d , however.~* The use of the daseia i s not important  for the dating of i n s c r i p t i o n s .  "Though there seems to be a period i n the 450s and 440s i n which 4.  Hesperia, XIV  (1945), p. 80.  5.  J.H..S., LVIII (1938), p.  108.  i t was  frequently omitted, there i s no d i s c e r n i b l e pattern of gradually  increasing use or disuse."^ Dative P l u r a l s :  The masculine dative p l u r a l s i n t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n  a l l have one-syllable endings, for example,  A©evaioi<_ .  Such  datives are common at a l l times.T There are also two-syllable dative p l u r a l endings to be found i n some i n s c r i p t i o n s , for example,  *  2  A©£ VCX l'o i a l V 434/3.  in  1  2  > 349 from 437/6, and. I.G., I , 352 from  After t h i s date a l l masculine p l u r a l s i n securely dated  i n s c r i p t i o n s are of the form to be found i n the decree of K l e i n i a s . Feminine dative p l u r a l endings of the f i r s t declension are a l l of two s y l l a b l e s i n t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n . 6/7;  .[iXiXt'aiGl ]  or [y.upi'aiO'l ]  Thus there i s  Teat  i n lines  i n l i n e 37, where the certain  restoration makes necessary the longer version with two iotas, rather than either l i n e 37.  [xiAiacri ] or [ x i x T a i q ]  ; and  [Spctxii ]ecr [ i ] i n  These examples make the two-syllable restoration  he.AA£vOTapt  a [ol ]  i n l i n e 20 v i r t u a l l y c e r t a i n .  s y l l a b l e endings are, however, of no use for dating.  These two"Our evidence  i s . . . t h a t the two s y l l a b l e ending of the dative p l u r a l p e r s i s t s much longer, and more exclusively, than that of the second declension, and then disappears, with great suddenness, KAeviac; for  :  round about the year 420."^  The s p e l l i n g of the name i s of no significance either  i d e n t i f y i n g the mover of the decree, or for dating the decree.  " K A I V I O  i s the s p e l l i n g used on the ostraca of the elder Alcibiades  (c. 460), and i n s c r i p t i o n s on vases of the sixth century provide 6.  Walbank, p. 66, n. 31.  7.  H.'.T. Wade-Gery, J.H.S., L I (1931), p. 81.  s i m i l a r examples;  K\£Vta<_  and K X e i v i a < _  are the forms on stone  g i n s c r i p t i o n s of the l a t e r f i f t h of  century."  The  o n l y o t h e r examples  t h i s name i n i n s c r i p t i o n s from the second h a l f of the f i f t h  concern A l k i b i a d e s .  In one o f them, from about 414, which r e c o r d s  the s a l e o f h i s c o n f i s c a t e d p r o p e r t y , h i s patronymic KAetvTo  century  ; and i n the o t h e r , I.G.,  I , 302, 2  .  The  i s spelled  l i n e 39,  from 416/5,  spelling  KXevtaq  it  i s p l a u s i b l y r e s t o r e d as K X e i y i o  , as  in  our decree, occurs nowhere e l s e , and c o u l d then be e i t h e r y e t a  f u r t h e r v a r i a t i o n on the name w i t h i n the A l k m a i o n i d f a m i l y , or the name of someone from o u t s i d e i t .  Formulae It  i s tempting, s i n c e d a t i n g by l e t t e r - f o r m s and by s p e l l i n g i s  so i n c o n c l u s i v e , t o use d a t i n g by formulae, a l t h o u g h the evidence for  these i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y q u i t e s m a l l .  can s u r e l y be v a l i d  D a t i n g by formulae, however,  o n l y i f t h e r e are two  or more p o s s i b l e  formulae,  one of which ceases t o be used by a c e r t a i n date, a t which the use of  another b e g i n s .  I f s i m i l a r phrases appear  i n two  documents on the  same s u b j e c t , and i f t h e r e a r e no o t h e r documents,on the same s u b j e c t p r e s e r v e d , i i n which a d i f f e r e n t phrase i s used, then the of  phrase i n the f i r s t  two  similarity  documents cannot be c o n s i d e r e d an  t h a t they are t o be dated a t about  indication  the same time.  I have s e l e c t e d o n l y f i v e formulae  for discussion i n this  section,  t h r e e of them used by M a t t i n g l y f o r d a t i n g the decree o f K l e i n i a s , and two  8.  o t h e r s t h a t seem t o be v a l i d  L. L. T h r e a t t e , H.S.C.P., LXXIV  for dating.  Other phrases i n  (1970), pp. 344-5.  the decree are of l i t t l e h e l p . common that rraOev  Where formulae a r e used, they are so  they p r o v i d e no u s e f u l t e r m i n i , as f o r example the phrase  e aJVroTeTffai ]  ( l i n e 41), which appears i n the r e g u l a t i o n s  f o r M i l e t o s , D l l , from 450/49, and i n the d e c r e e o f Kleonymos, D8, from 426/5; where, on the other hand, formulae a r e n o t used, a l t h o u g h appropriate  ones are found i n other documents, t h i s may be pure  chance,  and need n o t i n d i c a t e a date b e f o r e the development of the formulae. Thus, f o r example, i n the decree of Kleonymos, D8, from 426/5, he n a C T a x o O e [ v ] i s used to mean ' y e a r l y , ' but t h i s i s expressed by  Kara  T O V eJviauTOV  i n the f i n a n c i a l decrees of K a l l i a s ,  D2,  l i n e s 26/7, from 434, and s i m i l a r phrases a r e used both i n the Methone d e c r e e s , D4, l i n e 36, from 426/5, and i n the decree of K l e i n i a s , l i n e s 9/10.  F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s I have l i m i t e d my d i s c u s s i o n of formulae  to r e f u t a t i o n of i n v a l i d arguments based on formulae, and s u g g e s t i n g two t h a t seem to me to be p l a u s i b l e .  Line  1:  Geo I  !  In decrees and laws t h i s heading i s found  a f t e r 433/2, when two s e c u r e l y dated i n s t a n c e s  only  of i t are found, i n  2 I.G., I , 51 and 52, the A t h e n i a n t r e a t i e s w i t h Rhegion  and L e o n t i n o i .  2 Thereafter  i t i s found q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y , i n I.G., I , 53 from b e f o r e  2 , 432; I.G., I , 60 from 427/6; the reassessment d e c r e e , A9, from 425/4; I.G., 1 , 84 from 421/0; I.G., I , 94 from 418/7; I.G., I , 101 2  2  2 2 from 412/1, I.G., I , 108 from 410/09; I.G., I , 110a from 410/09; 2 2 I.G., I , 120 from 408/7; and I.G., I , 1 2 8  from b e f o r e 428/7. 2  In accounts the heading i s found somewhat e a r l i e r . from sometime a f t e r 446/5, i s the e a r l i e s t  I.G., I , 376,  example; the next i s from  437/6 where i t i s r e s t o r e d i n the accounts o f the P r o p y l a i a .  It is  also  found, r e s t o r e d , i n the accounts of the P r o p y l a i a from 434/3, 2  i n I.G.,  I , 366,  and u n r e s t o r e d i n the accounts of the Pronaos,  2 I.G., I , 232, from the same y e a r . I t i s not found a g a i n u n t i l 422/1, when i t i s on the stone i n the accounts of the Hekatompedon, 2 I , 264,  I.G.,  and of the Parthenon,  I.G.,  2 I , 280;  i t i s not  i n the e a r l i e r accounts o f e i t h e r o f these b u i l d i n g s . a l s o o c c u r s i n I.G.,  2 I , 370  from 421,  2 I_.G., I , 313  The  found  heading  from 408/7, and  2 I.G.,  I , 355a, o f u n c e r t a i n d a t e . The  evidence of decrees then shows t h a t the use of the heading  i s a phenomenon of the 430s and t h a t i t does appear  l a t e r ; b u i l d i n g accounts  somewhat e a r l i e r i n a s p e c i f i c type of document.  a p x [ o v r a q e v ] TEG J i  L i n e s 6/7:  t h a t t h i s phrase, which a l s o appears from 7450-446, may  i n the p e r i p h r a s i s  Aeevcuov apxoat Perhaps  ev this in i t s e l f  c r i p t i o n was  nokeoi  .  M a t t i n g l y argues  i n the decree of Klearchos,  be an i n d i c a t i o n of l a t e d a t e .  Leonides decree of c. 430 B . C . , appear  demonstrate  ev  ret  the  apXOVTec;  Teat  be  "In the  ev T a t e ;  aXXEOl  first  TTOAE^I  frotTtvec;  rtOkeoi  hwne p o p t ' a t  D14,  (I.G., I , 56, 5 f f . ) . i s a good i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the shorthand des-  9 not yet c u r r e n t . "  The  2  "shorthand d e s c r i p t i o n , "  however,  2 never became a b s o l u t e l y standard usage: from 410/09, the phrase used i s  apxocrt  heuadroTe TOV  apxovTa  i n I.G.,  T O V ev  I , 118, 2  TOV  T  oq  crup/p.axov  £Hia6oi  l i n e 19,  oq  i n I.G.,  apXOVTac,  TO<^  , and a s i m i l a r av  from 409/8.  A n c i e n t S o c i e t y and I n s t i t u t i o n s , p.  lines  AGevatOV  45ff.,  hoi  e n a c r T O T e , i s found  The  c h o i c e of phrase seems have no evidence of  205.  av  phrase,  et  to depend on the whim of the s e c r e t a r y ; we  9.  I , 108,  earlier  l o n g d e s c r i p t i o n s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g r e p l a c e d by a s h o r t e r p h r a s e , and we may on the c o n t r a r y have evidence t h a t e a r l y " s h o r t h a n d in official  descriptions"  language were g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by a g r e a t e r r e g a r d  for  accuracy. Line 22:  hooai  [Sv T i v e t .  M a t t i n g l y has accepted  oaiv].  r e s t o r a t i o n as c e r t a i n , and on the b a s i s o f i t has argued t h a t  this this  decree i s t h e r e f o r e t o be dated c l o s e t o the decree o f Kleonymos, D8,  from 426, where t h e phrase i s found m o s t l y , though n o t  restored (line 52). i s unmistakeable.  completely,  "The v a r i a t i o n from normal i d i o m , though It  c o u l d be a p a s s i n g f a s h i o n o f the 4 2 0 s . "  adds, "The a d d i t i o n o f  T I  v  e  <. g i v e s t h e phrase a d i s t i n c t i v e  an almost p e r s o n a l t r i c k o f s t y l e . " ^  Lines 26-28: ecp'  EAAecfTtovro  ^  T  He has f a i l e d t o show, however, found  1 1  erci Necrov  n a ] i kn\  He flavour--  what t h e normal i d i o m is; and the " p e r s o n a l t r i c k o f s t y l e " i s b o t h i n Homer and i n . H e r o d o t o s .  slight,  Hat  en'  ©pott n e t . :  t ovt'a <.]... '[kni rac, The number o f  geographical  d i s t r i c t s has been used t o date t h e d e c r e e . H i l l and M e r i t t argue, "Inasmuch as one may g a t h e r f r o m l i n e s 26-28 o f t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n t h a t t h e date o f i t must be d u r i n g those y e a r s when t h e r e were f o u r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s o f t h e A t h e n i a n Empire, i t  i s e v i d e n t t h a t i t must be p l a c e d e i t h e r between 450 and 12  446,  or a f t e r 4 3 8 . "  They g i v e a date b e f o r e 447 f o r t h e d e c r e e .  Between 443 and 438 t h e r e were f i v e d i s t r i c t s  of t h e Empire; and t h e r e  10.  A n c i e n t S o c i e t y and I n s t i t u t i o n s , p. 2 0 3 ; p. 2 1 9 , n . 55.  11.  See, f o r example, Odyssey, X, 45, and H e r o d o t o s , I ,  12.  Hesperia, X I I I  ( 1 9 4 4 ) , p.  8.  193.  i s e v i d e n c e , i n a fragment of the assessment o f 454/3 mentioned by K r a t e r o s , and p r e s e r v e d by Stephanos o f B y z a n t i o n , t h a t such a g r o u p i n g 13 went back t o t h e  fifties.  M a t t i n g l y , r e j e c t i n g the e a r l y d a t e , uses t h e number of  districts,  and t h e order i n which they are g i v e n , t o date t h i s d e c r e e , t h a t o f K l e a r c h o s , D14, and P e r i k l e s ' Congress Decree, D12, t o sometime a f t e r 14 438; t h e decree o f K l e i n i a s he dates t o 426. I  do n o t t h i n k t h a t t h i s c r i t e r i o n , t h e number and o r d e r o f  the  d i s t r i c t s i n a g i v e n d e c r e e , can be used f o r a s s i g n i n g a date t o the d e c r e e , s i n c e t h e w o r d i n g o f decrees i s n o t c o n s i s t e n t .  I n the  decrees o f K l e a r c h o s , D14, and P e r i k l e s , D12, K a r i a , though v i s i t e d by t h e h e r a l d f o r I o n i a , i s a t l e a s t m e n t i o n e d ; and the decree o f Thoudippds, A9, t h e reassessment decree of 4 2 5 / 4 , when t h e r e were c e r t a i n l y four d i s t r i c t s ,  a l s o mentions K a r i a .  The q u o t a - l i s t s ,  the o t h e r hand, do n o t m e n t i o n K a r i a a t a l l by t h i s t i m e .  on  Moreover,  the r e s t o r a t i o n of t h e passage i n t h e decree o f K l e i n i a s i s n o t c e r t a i n ,  13. . A . T . L . , I I , A l ; see a l s o A . T . L . , I , p p . 203-204, and A . T . L . , p. 9, and comments, p p . 11-12:  "These g e o g r a p h i c a l headings do n o t ,  o f c o u r s e , i m p l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s ; nor do t h e  geographical  d i v i s i o n s i n t h e l a t e r assessment decrees and quota l i s t s administrative d i s t r i c t s .  Ill,  There i s no r e a s o n , i n f a c t ,  imply  except  that  o f o r d e r l y r e c o r d and bookkeeping convenience, why t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l districts  should ever have appeared i n t h e quota l i s t s ; i n t h e assess-  ment decrees t h e y were p r o b a b l y u s e f u l p r i m a r i l y i n d e f i n i n g r o u t e s o f t h e h e r a l d s who announced the a s s e s s m e n t s . " 14.  H i s t o r i a , X ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p p . 148-188, esp.  166-169.  the  since i t i s possible to restore l i n e 26 to include Karia (see Chapter For a detailed refutation of Mattingly's arguments, see Meritt and Wade-Gery, J.H.S., LXXXII (1962), pp. 67-74. Lines 30/31:  [ x o  U V £  x o < . fieoq  Sv 61a/rpaxO ]| e i :  T  h  i  s  P  h r a s e  i s found i n the decree of Thoudippos, A9, from 425/4, and also occurs, though with CUVEXOc;  separated from the rest by a qualifying phrase,  in the second Methone decree, D4, from 424/3, lines 54-5.  These  provide the basis for the restoration of the phrase i n the decree of Kleinias.  A variant, x f .  c ? u V e  X ^ . hiva 1  T ]a [ x ^ ]e <_ Y[e [ j v o v r a i ,  i s also found i n the decree of Thoudippos. The same sentiment i s expressed, by the use of the phrase  EO)<_ ctv 2  in the second decree of K a l l i a s , D2, line 7, from 434, and i n I.G., I , l i n e 15, from soon after 442/1. in place of the all-purpose  These decrees use a s p e c i f i c verb,  6lCt7Tpax©£l .  The use of the phrase,  then, could go back at least as far as 442. The conclusion of this examination of s p e l l i n g and formulae i s , then, that the former cannot be used as evidence, while the l a t t e r provide two possible bases for dating the decree i n or after 442.  CHAPTER FIVE THE TEXT: Geo ret  'iboxaev  5  IrreaTaTe,  knp [ u r a v e ue ,  6e%-  eypapp-are |ue , . . . 6. .] o v KXevt'[a^  n a i roq  rcoAeai  yerai  nai  xo'up.BoAa  poc,  T a c , 7toAe^,  ev] rea-  xo^uAAe'-  TO e ] T o q  nfara  ]  TOI  AOe'va-  a n lie e x a -  hofixoc,]  6 [ e he]  7TOXIC, ec,  ;  TO [ i i ' > c p o ] p o v , crup,8 [ 6 x o ] I  Top, cp-  a7C07tep,7re'T0  TO Y P  arrofSovat]  vayvovai  /i0Tap,[7ce ] p T o p cpopov Ato[vu]cua  ]iexa  a v aTTOTrep/rte i ,  hovxiv'  TrayovTa^  UTavec;  /z-  6 e TT[O I e'aa ] a e a t ; r -  YPacpaaaa  YPctnP'Ci.TeTov  e-  ~]ITOC,  TOTC; a [ r r a . Y o ] o ' i  aSinev  vap,e've  av  n a i and^yErai  £E-  opov  r e ]p, B -  TOC; [ETTICIHO  /ZO7T[OC,  Z>r]ou-  eiTre"  apxfovraq  /JO cpopoc,  e'nacrTov  et  a  W  a  T  £  T o v  ev T e i BoXei  a/ro6i6oai'  EKHXeaTav  eov  Tac; a7ro6oaa[<5  Top, cpopov  aac,  xopi'c,,  /zoo'ai  vocj  av6pa^  Te'TT[apac,  Te'aovTa^  T[OP-  T o p , p,[e  9. .  eJVTEXE  cpopov  TOV  avtodoGe'vTa  TOT-  Ton t o X -  n a i rac, s A X i / t o -  . . "A© J e v a i ' o c ,  a.7ro/re'p,''TEv  6e  fteXop,e'-  e r r i ] r a ^ /ToXecj  a7To6oQe'vTa rrapa  TOV  a-  Se / c p -  hoi  TTOIEOCLVTOV  a, J T r o S e T x c a i A e e v c u o i c ;  [av. . . .  crep,E-  TOC; 6 e a -  Aee'va^E"  c; ^ e X X E v o T a p u a . [ c a  i Ypa.cpo'op.E'voc, 25  TO]I  nai  61'ac;  7tip,e'Aea'0ai  20  8o[Aei  Oivetc;  i  15  r  p,oi,  oXev  10  RESTORATION AND COMMENTARY  CCVT-  n a ] i a.7tai-  e X X i T r o o " ]OV,  T-  0 p,Ev 6uo  e [rc  TXXEY  ETCI  e p a i K E c j * e[adyev  B O A E V  30  nai e.  AsuEcrGai  v cpopov hov TOT<_  ov  [ T O U T O V  axorre'pxEv  hoi  6 o p [ o v . . . .8. . . 6 p a x p ] i c f [ i  ec,  ypayev  BoAs,  T [ E V  i  TEC_  £  E  n a r ' auro  n[ai  [  h  n a i e ]av  6 E  ri a v  a6iH£i, njaTa  ] i euro  [t  e  evQl-  [ho 6 ' a v ] aXX'  ea]  [a6iHE~!-  S O X C E I  6OH[II  aur]-  T E V a/rafYOYE]-  Ttcj T t s p i  rac, ypaya'lc,  TauTa'  ]v T O cpopo  23  A©£va]-  EOT[o,  nupia  o[r]av  EU0UCJ*]  -  eaa_YovTov]  ]e'Hao"TO<_'  . _ 7t]ivaHiov  20  [ov  p]oAops'vo[t  auTt]oi  T E V 2.ep,t'av  o[Tap,tac; avaYPacpaavTac;  TO ]-  autov Y ]  r i ] c , ay ypd^aera  xavhonXia]^  [TE<_  J -  Ypap,paTEiJ-  earo  hoi r r p u j T a v E c ; ho  e a[7roT Taai*  BOOCJ  hev  p,s T i p a v  EXtai'av  v , Yvopat. no[ieaQov  v  E.<_  be 7rpuTa]v£<_  UVE'O'GO  op, rcaQev  45  T O I  B O A E V  cpspe'ro  A i o v u a i a n a i Bo  kQevale',  [TO<_ TTPUTOCVEC;  [ T E V  na]-  £ xtfuu-pxtxoc; a 6 i n e i 7CEpi  ec, rep,  h[e  T -  ec,' Tsp,]  TTPUTCXVECJ  6 e i |_Tac_ ixoXec, ypacpoaaacj  Trpoc;  ]  heoc, a v Sta/rpax©]-  X C U V E X O C J  i o v n a i rov xc[upuaxov*  naTaYvoi  TOCJ  )IETa  EU©U<_  6EU.OV  andyo[aiv  pacpea©ai  40  be r a u r a  e a v 6e' T I C ; A © [ E v a 7 o c _  Ei'  35  T O [ V  TTEpi  £7ri  T O 6 E 6 U O W I Ta<_ ecp' &XXeon6vro  pis'poc; Taxsicx[<., 1  23  roc, be  X E X [ E U H O P , E ' V  sval[heXXev]  ]-  n a [ i . . . . 8.. . ] 12  [  ]  (c. 1 0 l i n e s lost) [  [av  yrspi  r o v ctTraYOVTOv  [  22  T E V  eoi  h)6aoi  Ji&sTxo'ai Eav  6 ]E'  TIC;  ocps'-  T O I  rop,  [oo]-  be r o v d 7 t a f Y ] -  JaYEYPaV'CiTai  20  [ X O V T E C J  B O X E V  Top, cpopov'  21  [ O V T O V  60  T E U . ]  24  6EU.-  TTOAEOV  a-  [ pep i a Be r e i  TO cpopo  7repi  16  [o6e6oHevai  [TTOAEOC. 65  raq nokec,  [  26  ] 0 a i 6 e p,e  [  26  ]  [1  17  ]  7tpo<. Top- 7 t o \ e p , a p x o v p , e v t  [  26  [Aeu  [  19  12  Iva-  e a v 6 e TIC,  ecfayovrov  a-  be hot  rex; A©e]vatot<.  T e v 6e BoAev 18  Top, c p o p o v  12  [u-aTiOai  e  n a t TO n e p u a -  rr J p o p o A e u e c r a c a v  ]n£pi  ec_ TOV S e p o v  L i n e 1: Qeoi  ho y p -  r e v Se y p a c p e v  TO v e o ] cpopo  [aeveynev [tat  ocpeAero  Top, T t i v a ] n a TEC, p,evuaeo<_  21  [tvo  J  nat r -  excrevai  rap,e]Atovf  ]  rev e A i a t ' a v  [  T O C  Tec;  ]KAe'cre<., /ze B o A e B o 23  [eaayoyec,  75  ]a<_  cpaanocra an-  TO HOIVOV  ]6at  20  [acpaap,evo<_  70  rec, arcob J o t r e o c ; ,  Tet  ex-  huarepa-  T]e<_ ha 1 pe'creoc_ x p e ] vacat.  • F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s h e a d i n g ,  see Chapter 4.  6 e o T o ' l v would g i v e a symmetrical arrangement o f  the l e t t e r s , w i t h one l e t t e r o f t h e i n v o c a t i o n f a l l i n g over every third  l e t t e r o f l i n e 2.  The d a t i v e form used as a h e a d i n g , however,  has no p a r a l l e l i n A t h e n i a n decrees of t h e f i f t h the u s u a l form.  century:  6eoi' i s  Symmetry, moreover, i s o f no apparent concern i n t h e  c u t t i n g of t h i s document. F o r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the meaning and h i s t o r y o f such headings see P a u l Traywick, H.S.C.P., LXXXIII (1969), pp. 325-328.  Line 3: [£rc:]o06 tac; j  Mattingly has used the name of the secretary  to date this decree.  "Timoteles of Acharnai, secretary of Kekropis  in 425/4, came from the t r i b e Oineis. year was  The secretary of Oineis t h i s  a c e r t a i n Spoudias, whose demotic i s unknown.  I think that  this dating must now be accepted for the famous decree of K l e i n i a s . . . . I t becomes very tempting to i d e n t i f y t h i s Spoudias with  Spoudias  Phlyeus, the hellenotamias of 410/09 from Kekropis (I.G., I , 304, A19), though the name i s found with other possible tribes i n the fourth century (PA 12866 and 12868:  SEG XVII, 83).' I f I am r i g h t ,  Oineis and Kekropis w i l l have provided secretaries for each other i n 425/4. lot.  This would of course have been the chance r e s u l t of the  But we find the same phenomenon i n 422/1, when Kekropis apparently  provided the secretary for Aigeis ((Prepis), and Aigeis for Kekropis (Mnesitheos).  Within so short a space of time I again i n c l i n e to  r e j e c t coincidence.  I t looks as though the tribes at the period may  have 'paired o f f ' each year before b a l l o t i n g for the f i r s t period began.  We have no material for checking the theory properly before  403/2, when i t breaks down."^  B r i e f l y , then, h i s argument i s t h i s :  Spoudias i s probably from the .tribe Kekropis.  He i s acting as secretary  for the t r i b e Oineis. We know that i n 425/4 Oineis supplied the secretary for Kekropis.  I f tribes customarily paired o f f to supply  each other with secretaries, as we know happened once, then the decree of K l e i n i a s must be from 425/4. There are two d i f f i c u l t i e s with this argument. have enough evidence to assume such 'pairing o f f ' was  1.  B.C.H., XCII (1968), p. 485.  F i r s t , we do not customary, nor  61 do we have any statement from any ancient author.  Second, the name  Spoudias occurs twice i n i n s c r i p t i o n s from before 440, p r e c i s e l y the  period from which Mattingly wishes to remove the decree of K l e i n i a s . 2  One, I.G., I , 853, i s an unidentified i n s c r i p t i o n of early date. 2 The other, I.G., I , 942, i s a l i s t of the dead from about 446. Between 446 and 410, when Spoudias Phlyeus appears, the name i s found 2 only once, i n I.G., I , 949, a casualty l i s t of about 425; however, this Spoudias i s from the t r i b e Oineis, and, according to Ferguson, the  t r i b e of the secretary and the tribe for which he was secretary 2 were never the same. The evidence of the name of the secretary, then, i s inconclusive.  Line 5:KXevi [ac, ]. been used to date i t .  The name of the man who moved this decree has "[T]he only K l e i n i a s who can be considered  orator of the decree i s the father of Alkibiades.  And inasmuch as  he died i n 447 the prosopographical argument serves to f i x the date s t i l l more p r e c i s e l y i n the early f o r t i e s . cousin of Alkibiades can be ruled out.  Surely the brother and  Alkibiades himself was born  about 450 and h i s brother K l e i n i a s was younger than he.  Consequently  he can hardly have attained the necessary t h i r t y years to e n t i t l e him to a seat on the Council before 426. Nor i s i t probable that  2.  W. S. Ferguson, The Athenian Secretaries, Cornell C l a s s i c a l  Studies, VII (1898), p. 19. This conclusion i s based on the evidence of the  twenty-eight i n s c r i p t i o n s over an eighty-year period, i n which two tribes were never the same, and not on any statement by any  ancient author that t h i s was law.  the cousin belonging to the younger branch of the family should have been s u f f i c i e n t l y old to act as councillor at any time when this 3 decree may have been passed." However, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s by no means certain.  "Apart  from the serious p o s s i b i l i t y that the mover i s otherwise unknown to us, there are s t i l l one or two known bearers of the name...P.A. 8510 i s two persons, Alkibiades' father being d i s t i n c t from the Kleinias of Herodotos VII.17 (P.A. Addenda no. 597).  The l a t t e r who  fought  at Artemision i n 480 was perhaps born between 520 and 510...; he would be something over 60 i n 447, and i t i s possible (though not very l i k e l y ) that the decree i s h i s . He was Alkibiades' great-uncle. It was perhaps the same man whose son was strategos i n 431 and 430: i f not the same, then here i s another claimant of the r i g h t age and standing.  And there i s Kleinias the son of Pedieus, named as xaAoc;  on vases of the second quarter of the century..., who would perhaps be old enough i f the decree i s of 447, and certainly would be i f i t be of 438 or l a t e r .  That i s to say, Alkibiades' father i s not the  4 only K l e i n i a s among the leading Athenians of about t h i s time." In addition, there are a few appearances i n the fourth century of the name K l e i n i a s . i s found.^  In the period 400-350, a Philon son of K l e i n i a s  In 325, K l e i n i a s the son of Philon of the deme Xypetaion  is diaitetes.^  At the end of the fourth century, another Philon  3.  H i l l and Meritt, Hesperia, XIII (1944), p. 9.  4.  Wade-Gery, Hesperia, XIV  5.  P. A., 14814.  6.  P.A.,  8509.  (1945), pp. 216-217, n. 10.  son of Kleinias i s mentioned.'  The reference to the deme makes i t  clear that t h i s family i s not connected with that of Alkibiades. Here then i s evidence of a p o l i t i c a l l y active family, of which the K l e i n i a s of t h i s decree might have been a member. To judge from the number of possible candidates, therefore, a date cannot be determined s o l e l y on the assumption that the mover of the decree i s the father of Alkibiades.  Line 6:  & P X [ovra<_  i n each c i t y .  ] . This term refers to the Athenian o f f i c i a l s  In cases where there were no Athenian o f f i c i a l s ,  r » 'i o f f i c i a l s might be used, but see below, on I^TK CHO'."-,J7COcj. 1  local  The powers  of these l o c a l archontes were limited early, for example, i n lawsuits 2 involving the c i t i z e n s of thei states honoured by Athens, by I.G., I , 16 8 2 (dated perhaps to 465) , and possiblysalso by I.G., I , Z9 (from before 446) . When the Coinage decree, D'14, was passed, the l o c a l archontes i n those c i t i e s that did not have Athenian archontes were made responsible for f u l f i l l i n g the measures of that decree.  Such  c i t i e s were probably to be found i n the Athenian Empire at any time; DZ1,  from 4Z8/7, for example, shows that there were no Athenian 9  o f f i c i a l s i n Therambos. The presence of Athenian archontes i n the c i t i e s need not be considered an i n d i c a t i o n of a date i n the 4Z0s, on the grounds'that 7.  P. A., 14815.  8.  For a discussion of the date, see Wade-Gery, i n Essays i n Greek  History, pp. 180-200. 9.  See the discussion i n A.T.L., I l l , pp. 145-146.  64 10 i t -shows developed i m p e r i a l i s m :  i t i s attested throughout the  second half of the f i f t h century.  Archontes are found i n Miletos,  iU  where they may have been appointed s p e c i f i c a l l y for the task at hand.^ 12 Thucydides mentions t h e i r presence i n Samos i n 440.  They may have  been present there i n connexion with the establishment of a new constitution, that i s , again appointed s p e c i a l l y for the task at hand.  They are f i r s t generally attested i n c i t i e s of the Empire 13 in the decree of Klearchos, which was probably passed i n 449/8. Proxeny-decrees, whose context i s less controversial,  give.more  2 evidence.  I.G., I , 56, from about 440-35, mentions  A0evat'ov  apxoo't  [apxovrecj  ev  rei  from about 445-430.  ev  ret  ftintepopiai  /zu7c]ep[opi'at  ],  ;  ; a similar  ftoiftvec; phrase,  i s restored i n I.G.,  I ,  177,  After 430, these o f f i c i a l s disappear from proxeny-  decrees for a time, and the generals are found looking after the interests of the honorands outside Athens.  They reappear i n I.G., I , 368,  from about 430-415, where they are acting with the generals. 10.  This i s the argument of Mattingly, i n Ancient Society and I n s t i t u t i o n s,  pp. 204-206. 11. D l l , lines 37, 41, 47, 64.  See the discussion of this decree  by Oliver, T.A.P.A., LXVI (1935), 177-198, esp. p. 188;  see also  Bradeen and McGregor, i n Studies i n F i f t h Century A t t i c Epigraphy, pp. 24-70. 12.  Thucydides.,I, 115.  13.  For a summary of the problem of the date of this decree, see  Meiggs and Lewis, Greek H i s t o r i c a l Inscriptions, pp. 114-117. suggestions for a date are after 439.  Other  In addition to the evidence from the f i f t h century for the presence of archontes, there are also two l a t e r references.  Aristotle  says that there were "about seven hundred" Athenian state o f f i c i a l s 14 abroad.  Archontes are also mentioned  I I , T44),  cpopouq  i n Bekker's Anecdota  i n the d e f i n i t i o n of c~;e Kko ye T<_ :  i'va 0 1 apxovTE . AaBcbcJlv.  o i k KM.\Eyov"tE  (A.T.L., c,  rou_  Neither of these references  gives any i n d i c a t i o n of the period to which they belong. The evidence of the decrees and of Thucydides seems to show that throughout the period i n which dates for the decree of K l e i n i a s have been suggested, that i s , from 447 to 425, Athenian archontes were found throughout the Empire.  r' Line 7:  ' i  j_E7tt OHO  JTXOcj  15 _  These are the " t r a v e l l i n g  Commissioners"  who may have carried out the provisions of t h i s decree i n those c i t i e s that did not have Athenian archontes, or have ensured that the l o c a l archontes did so. There are only three fifth-century references to these o f f i c i a l s . Two  of these are i n the regulations for Erythrai,L)D10, from 453/2,  where they are acting i n conjunction with the phrourarch; i n lines 12-16  they are helping to establish a council, after which they w i l l  leave.  The t h i r d reference i s i n Aristophanes' Birds (lines 1022-1026),  produced i n 414, i n which an episkopos arrives apparently to help set up the constitution of the new nation. 14.  A r i s t o t l e , Ath. P o l . , 24, 3; the number has been questioned.  But see A.T.L., I l l , p. 15.  "Aristophanes shows that  146.  Meiggs and Lewis, p. 119; see also O l i v e r , T.A.P.A., LXVI (1935), p.  188.  66 they counted on the support of l o c a l Athenian proxenoi, that they were interested i n legal and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s , and that they expected 16 to be treated with deference."  There i s no reference i n either  to any connection with the c o l l e c t i o n of t r i b u t e .  This suggests  that the decree of Kleinias was passed before there were any o f f i c i a l s whose sole duty i t was to see to the c o l l e c t i o n of tribute, that i s , 17 before the decree of Kleonymos, D8, i n 4Z6. Harpokration refers to two ancient authors who use the term 18 episkopoi, Antiphon and Theophrastos.  His explanation of the term  suggests that they represented tight control over a l l i e d a f f a i r s by the Athenians; their presence, then, from before 450 indicates 'developed imperialism' by that time. Line 11: XCUP-POAO. ; cance of this word.  There i s some dispute about the exact s i g n i f i -  Lewis maintains that what i s meant i s a s t i c k ,  or coin, or something of that sort, broken i n h a l f , of which one h a l f was used by the a l l i e d c i t i e s to seal the grammateion, and the other kept at Athens and used to v e r i f y the impression when the tribute arrived at Athens.  Such an impression would not be as easy to forge  as that of an ordinary state-seal; moreover, there i s no evidence 19 to show that a l l c i t i e s had such seals at this time.  Wallace  16.  A.T.L., I l l , p. 144.  17.  Mattingly gives the decree of K l e i n i a s a date after the decree  of Kleonymos; we may have here an i n d i c a t i o n that t h i s i s wrong. 18.  A.T.L., I I , T14 and T65.  19.  Phoenix, IX (1955), pp. 32-34.  67 agrees that the a l l i e s may not, before this decree, have had special seals, but that by i t s provisions Athens made special seals for them, of which impressions were kept for v e r i f i c a t i o n .  "Why  should states  clumsily use half coins or s t i c k ends to seal with instead of seal-  20 stones which had been i n common use for centuries? The wording of this decree, and the one p a r a l l e l instance of the use of symbola, i n which the wording i s exactly the same (I.G., II , 141, l i n e 19, from 367, honouring the king of Sidon), indicate only that what i s i n question i s something made s p e c i f i c a l l y for the occasion, not state-seals already i n use.  Of the suggestions made,  i t i s impossible to choose, on the basis of the evidence, between seals made especially for the t r i b u t e , and broken seals, which would be easier to use than broken s t i c k s , and harder to forge than seals; perhaps specially-made seals of the ordinary type are more l i k e l y . The seals were used to seal the tablet on which the amount of t r i b u t e was written, not the container i t s e l f , which was quite bulky. 2 For the procedure of v e r i f i c a t i o n , see I.G., I I , 141, lines 18-25.  Lines 16-18.  There i s some disagreement whether the apodektai played  any part i n the receiving of tribute along with the hellenotamiai. In support of this view i s the testimony of Pollux (VIII, 97 = A.T.L., II, T98a), who  20.  21 s p e c i f i c a l l y says that they d i d .  Phoenix, IX (1955), p. 34.  Rhodes, who  See also h i s a r t i c l e i n Phoenix,  III (1949), pp. 70-73. 21.  The view that they did play a part i s presented i n A.T.L.,  I l l , p. 12.  feels  68 that the apodektai were not involved, comments, "In view of Thucydides' contempt for t e c h n i c a l i t i e s and the pre-454 context of the passage this [that the apodektai were not involved] cannot be inferred with certainty from T. I. 96. i i . Pollux indeed would have imperial revenue l i k e domestic paid i n the f i r s t instance to the apodectae... .But desp i t e the C l e i s t h e n i c o r i g i n alleged for the apodectae i n Andr. 324 F 5 they are not mentioned before 418/17...and i f i n the 440s they did exist and receive tribute their absence from M&L of Kleinias] i s s u r p r i s i n g . "  22  46, 16-22  [the decree  2 In 418/17 they are found i n I.G., I , 94,  lines 15-18, where they are to give their revenue,whose source i s not mentioned, to the treasurers of the Other Gods.  In the decree,  of K l e i n i a s , the procedure i s described v i r t u a l l y i n shorthand: the hellenotamiai are not mentioned receiving of the money.  even  i n connection with the actual  I t i s impossible to decide on the basis of  this i n s c r i p t i o n , then, whether or not the apodektai took part i n receiving the a l l i e d t r i b u t e .  Line 22:  [av Tivec; o a i v  [ap, p,£ a7To6o0i*  Ae ]  Ae ]  H  i  l  l  and Meritt, A.T.L., I I , D7;  a p o s s i b i l i t y noted but rejected by H i l l  and Meritt; [av £AAi7TOcrtv' Ae ]  R.G. Thomas, reported i n Meiggs  and Lewis; [ap,- ... 9. ... " Ae ] Meiggs and Lewis. made by Thomas i s redundant even for o f f i c i a l  The restoration  language, although  linew36 of this decree shows that i t i s c e r t a i n l y not impossible. H i l l and Meritt r e j e c t the second suggestion because i t "does not seem to make allowance for p a r t i a l payments."  22.  "The use of the word  P. J. Rhodes,.The Athenian Boule, pp. 98-99, n. 8.  69 [e J v T e A e i n in  full  l i n e 21 i m p l i e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between c i t i e s t h a t p a i d  on the one hand, and c i t i e s whose o b l i g a t i o n s were n o t com23  p l e t e l y met on t h e o t h e r . " Hill  The r e s t o r a t i o n f i n a l l y accepted by  and M e r i t t does n o t add much t o the meaning o f the passage,  u n l e s s i t be taken as, ' a l l , whether they have p a i d n o t h i n g , or even if  they have p a i d i n p a r t , ' o r , ' a l l , whether they have n o t p a i d  through or  inability,  through d i s h o n e s t y on the p a r t o f t h e c o u r i e r ,  through r e c a l c i t r a n c e . '  and  On t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t shows s t e r n n e s s  i n f l e x i b i l i t y on t h e p a r t of t h e A t h e n i a n s .  L i n e s 23-24:  CXVT  |  lypacpaopevoq  .  __ ] - , t  e  g i v i n g of r e c e i p t s i s  a p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e y e a r o f t h i s decree and f o r subsequent  years  a l s o , why a r e they n o t g i v e n t o the b e a r e r s o f the t r i b u t e , a t Athens, to  t a k e home w i t h them again?  o n l y , then how much o f what year? first  follows i s a p r o v i s i o n only f o r t h i s  Why have r e c e i p t s n o t been g i v e n b e f o r e ?  the money e a r l y and have a l r e a d y l e f t  the r e c e i p t s w i l l be brought w i l l be g i v e n i n Athens,  payment  Athens,  t o them, b u t t h a t f o r the f u t u r e they  and t h a t t h i s p r o v i s i o n i s t h e o n l y one t h a t  a p p l i e s only t o t h i s y e a r .  As t o the l a s t ,  the r e c o r d i n g o f the  a t Athens may have been c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t b e f o r e .  H e s p e r i a , X I I I (1944), p. 12.  the u s e o f t h e word eXklrco used  The answer t o the  two q u e s t i o n s may be t h a t f o r t h i s y e a r , s i n c e some o f t h e  t r i b u t e - b e a r e r s brought  23.  I f t h i s i s a p r o v i s i o n f o r t h i s year  i n line  In support o f t h e i r argument i s  | 0'a.c; i n l i n e s 21-22; t h e same word i s  18 o f t h e decree o f Kleonymos, D8, where i t appears t o  summarize the l o n g e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f l i n e s  14-15.  Line 24: [rov  a/toSoGeVra] A.T.L.,  1  1  >>  l^ x  07  A. G r i f f i n , reported i n Meiggs and Lewis.  anob6oeoi  ax  ]  I accept the restoration  of G r i f f i n , because i t allows for the giving of receipts both to those who have paid i n f u l l , and to those who have paid only i n part.  Lines 26-28: [erri  raq  ' [ni £,  rd<_  ecp> txkearcovro  kni  Neaov n a i en' xa ] i kni  lovi'ac;]...  9pai HEC_ .~h restoration e  given i s based on D14, section 9, where the same order occurs, but s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t wording i s used.  I t i s possible, however, to  give a d i f f e r e n t wording, which inc ludes K a r i a : Kapiav  xa t Neaocj  m  ETC' l o v t a v x a i  This restoration receives support from the  fact that the phrase e/ti rac,  krci Ne'cov  i s ° t found elsewhere, n  although the phraseology i s by no means fixed. For a discussion of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the number and order of the d i s t r i c t s see Chapter 4 and the works referred to there.  Lines 30/1:  [xcruvexocj heoq  av  6tarcpax0]ei  '•  F  o  r  a  discussion  of t h i s phrase and the bases of i t s r e s t o r a t i o n here see Chapter 4«  Lines 33/4:  [ecro  aurov y ] pacpeo'Gat rcpoc; [roc,  rcpuravecj ] .  For the procedure here described see A r i s t o t l e , Ath. P o l . , 43, 4. The decree of K l e i n i a s here i s making arrangements  closely p a r a l l e l i n g  those i n p r i v a t e law. Oliver, i n commenting on the decree concerning Miletos, D10, defines epimeletai as "Athenian o f f i c i a l s who received from a l l i e s charges against those persons who  t r i e d to persuade t h e i r government 24  not to f u l f i l l the obligations i n respect to t r i b u t e . "  This decree  71 was probably passed before that of K l e i n i a s , yet we do not find these o f f i c i a l s handling the indictments.  Either therefore they were  responsible only for receiving indictments elsewhere than at Athens, or the indictments mentioned  i n the decree of K l e i n i a s are not against  those trying to prevent the c o l l e c t i o n of t r i b u t e , that i s , attempting to persuade c i t i e s to defy Athens, but against those who  interfere  with the delivery of tribute;va private crime rather than treason, involving defaulting couriers or men  stealing from them, for reasons  of private gain, not p o l i t i c a l disturbance.  In t h i s case, we are  not dealing with r e c a l c i t r a n t c i t i e s at a l l .  Line 37:  [xiXi'atai ]  Meiggs and Lewis; [pup t'a 10*1 ] ' A«T_.L., I I , D7.  The amount of the fine to be restored seems only p a r t i a l l y dependent on the date to be assigned to this decree.  Generally, the larger  amount i s l a t e r , but a fine of ten thousand drachmai i s found i n a 2 decree from before 450, I.G., I , 16, Athenian r e l a t i o n s with Phaselis. The amount of the f i n e has some significance for the procedure prescribed by the subsequent  lines of the decree, and explains why  the boule was not made responsible for the f i n a l decision concerning the penalty.  "Since each of the prytanes could be fined a sum which  must be restored as 1,000  or 10,000 drachmae i f they f a i l e d to bring  the case before the boule, any suitable penalty would obviously be i n excess of the boule's 500 drachmae l i m i t . 24.  T.A.P.A., LXVI (1935)', p. 194.  25.  Rhodes, p. 152.  72 Line 38: [too 6 ' c i v ] nupta  x a T a y v o i to [ e  BOAE,  ue  r;p,av  a u r j o i  ecfTO. There i s no p a r a l l e l i n i n s c r i p t i o n s to this c u r t a i l -  ment of the powers of the boule, although an i n d i c a t i o n that they were sometimes c u r t a i l e d may be found i n the decree concerning Miletos, D l l , l i n e 86: he  BoXe  auTOKpar [op  earo].  A reference to the  r e s t r i c t i o n of the powers of the boule i s found i n A r i s t o t l e , Ath. P o l . , 45, 1, an account of the circumstances i n which the powers were curt a i l e d , but with no indication of when t h i s took place.  Rhodes  argues that the powers of the boule were r e s t r i c t e d from the time when i t was f i r s t given j u d i c i a l powers through the reforms of Ephialtes, but that the r e s t r i c t i o n was not quite as complete as A r i s t o t l e would have us believe, since i n the fourth century i t had authority  26 to impose fines of 500 drachmai. The arrangements described by A r i s t o t l e are not exactly the same as those found i n the decree of K l e i n i a s , but are closer to the decree of Kleonymos, D8, from 426. This may indicate that the decree of Kleinias represents an e a r l i e r stage of court-procedure.  Line 39: [ s A t a t a v ].Rhodes considers that this term i s being used i n a very s p e c i f i c way.  "The development  of the separate & t H a o T r ] p i a J  and reduction of the archons' j u d i c i a l power are poorly attested, but I suspect that the o l d concept of the h e l i a i a as a j u d i c i a l session of the ekklesia lingered f o r some time after i t had become normal for the h e l i a i a to be divided into  6 t xaaTri  p ta.  perhaps the l a s t  active occurrence of the o l d sense of the word i s i t s restoration  26.  Rhodes, pp. 179-207.  73 i n C l i n i a s ' tribute decree.  We cannot, however, deduce t h i s .  61 Haafn pi ov i s more usual, and i s found from 450/49,  The term  i n the decree concerning Miletos, D10, on.  The term e A i a i a  i s used  in only two other decrees, one from 446, the Athenian settlement with Chalkis, D17, line 75, where i t i s described as T e v TOV GecruoeeTOV and the other, A9, from 425/4, line 14, where i t i s not given any further description. qualification.  A9 also uses 6 i Hao*TT)p i ov  three times, without  By t h i s time, then, either the two were being used  synonymously, or they were used of two separate i n s t i t u t i o n s or functions of .the same i n s t i t u t i o n .  How the term i s being used i n the  decree of K l e i n i a s i s impossible to decide, but the use of the term i n other decrees shows that i t c e r t a i n l y need not indicate an^earlyy date.  Line 40: TTO [t e'cGov ]  P. J . Rhodes; 7to[iovrov]  A.T.L., I I , D7.  In j u s t i f i c a t i o n of h i s restoration, Rhodes says, "The prytanes are surely expected to hold a debate i n the boule rather than make pro28 posals on their own account."  For a similar instance, see Thucydides  I I I , 36, 2. Line 42:  TECJ  Booc; e [recj  navhOTcXia^  = "The restoration of  2 TXavhOTtXiac,  [here and i n I_.G., I , 45, the decrees of Brea, and A9,  the reassessment decree of 425/4] rests on evidence of Inschriften von Priene"* i n which Priene votes, shortly before 325 B.C., to send 27.  Rhodes, pp. 168-169.  28.  Rhodes, p. 189, n. 4.  to Athens for each 4-yearly Panathenaia a panoply i n memory of ancient friendship and kinship.  We must probably understand this "ancient  kinship" i n the sense that Priene was a colony of Athens and that she assumes the consequent o b l i g a t i o n . "  In the second Athenian  confederacy, ca 372/1, Paros also sent a cow and panoply, "precisely because they were acknowledged to be Athenian c o l o n i s t s . The obligation i s f i r s t mentioned, aside from the decree of 2 K l e i n i a s , i n the decree for the colonists of Brea, ••I.G., I , 45, i n 445.  I t had probably become the standard contribution of the a l l i e s  after 453/2, when E r y t h r a i as a colony of Athens was required to bring C t T O V  instead.  In 425/4, by a provision of the assessment-  decree, A9, the sending of a cow and panoply i s made an obligation of a l l subject c i t i e s .  Since, however, by this  assessment-decree  some c i t i e s were assessed for the f i r s t time, i t may  simply be exten-  ding the obligation to these c i t i e s also, i n addition to previously assessed c i t i e s who had already come under the obligation; i t need not be extending the obligation to a l l subject c i t i e s for the f i r s t time, and indeed the brevity of the reference seems to indicate that i t i s already a well-known requirement. Line 44: [TTJIVCIHIOV X e A e u K o p e v j o v ] The term TTivavuov in three other i n s c r i p t i o n s of the f i f t h century.  i  S  found  In two of these,  2 DI, l i n e 11, and I.G., I , 127, line 10, i t i s used- of records of 2 debts; i n the t h i r d , I.G., I , 76, l i n e 27, i t i s used of a record of f i r s t f r u i t s at E l e u s i s . 29.  In the decree of Themistokles, the term  Meritt and Wade-Gery, J.H.S., LXXXII (1962), pp."69-70.  75 XeuHCOjiara AeXe  i s used of a l i s t of Athenian c i t i z e n s .  The term TTivavtiov  i s used i n A r i s t o t l e , Ath. P o l . , 48, 20 of that on  UKOP,E'VOV  2 which an individual writes a charge against a magistrate. 1237, line 62 i t i s used to mean simply 'notice board.'  In I.G., II ,  Although the  term may be used i n this straight-forward way, i t may also be used of  accusations; we might therefore expect to find i t used here not  to record the names of those who have paid i n f u l l , but of those c i t i e s that have defaulted, or the names of couriers or others who have offended.  For this reason I have not accepted the restoration  proposed for lines 45-6, [ctTrocpat'vev n a i rev Taxon ]v T O cpopo n a i [Tac,  ] hoaai  7T0Xeq  Line 46:  av arroSoaiv  eVTEXEvxa  aTTOY'f pacpev ] Meiggs and Lewis; anoy'lpdyoat »  E  Meritt, A.T.L., I I , D7; aTTOO Mattingly the  l e t t e r following  Line 57:  ]i. . .  a7l,  °  r e  H  i l l and  . There i s not enough of  to j u s t i f y a v a l i d restoration.  [• • • XPSP-aTlOat  A.T.L., I I , D7; [ ' • •  30  ]  V J l  6e n a i T e p ] BoXev  - H i l l and Meritt,  PoXev Meiggs and Lewis.? For another  use of the verb XPEP-ttT10*at see the f i n a l lines of this decree. ;  Against the restoration of i t here i s simply the fact that we do 'not  know the context, nor even whether the council i s the subject.  Lines 57-58:  r  e  v  eo-tfoo-jav]  For a similar phrase s e e L G . ,  l i n e 31, from 418/7. The restored term i s important f o r the timetable^of action  30.  B.S.A., LXV (1970), p. 129.  I , 94, 2  76 envisaged by the decree.  "Inasmuch as the provisions of the e a r l i e r  l i n e s , notably lines 18-19 with their reference to a meeting of the Ekklesia to be called after the Dionysiac f e s t i v a l , imply a date for the  i n s c r i p t i o n at about the time of the Dionysia i t i s apparent  that the action to be taken by the new council as envisaged i n lines 57 f f . can have been begun only i n midsummer after a lapse of several months. "  3 1  Lines 58-59: [av ]aye YPacpara i  has been the accepted restoration  in l i n e 59 since i t appeared i n C.I.G., I, no. 75. [/ijocroi rtiva.Hiov  rov a T t a f y j o v r o v A0eva£,e  av Jayeypacparat  and Lewis; '[h]6aoi Mattingly;  6e  32  be  [ev r e i  rov  ec; r o  H i l l and Meritt, A.T.L., I I , D7, Meiggs ana[YOMTOV  Top. cpopov ec; rev,- aaviba. .. ]  Oavi 6 1 ] M a t t i n g l y .  ;  33  Thei:restoration given  by H i l l and M e r i t t closely follows the thought of lines 44f,, through the  r e p e t i t i o n of 7tlvaKlOV, and should therefore assume that the  a7taYOVTOV  are the c i t i e s , as they are i n other i n s c r i p t i o n s .  in h i s commentary on D8, lines ZOf., says, "The aTrayovrec; not  Meritt  were  the men who brought the money from the c i t i e s to Athens, but the  c i t i e s themselves.  The form of the p a r t i c i p l e (masculine) i s conditioned  by the type of record which the hellenotamiai made with the c i t i e s listed  34 (as i n the quota l i s t s ) by the nominatives of the ethnic."  31.  Hi11sand Meritt, Hesperia, XIII (1944), p. 14.  32.  C.Q.,  33.  B.S.A.y-LXV (1970), p. 130.  34.  D.A.T., p. 34.  XVI (1966), p. 189:  77 H i l l and Meritt, however, i n their commentary on l i n e 58 of the decree of K l e i n i a s , say, "The word  arret y o v r e c j  a s  n  e  r  e  u s e  d  i s almost a  technical term and this i n s c r i p t i o n makes i t clear that when the apagontes are spoken of the people named are the couriers who transported the money.  Meritt's argument... that they were the c i t i e s who  paid and not the couriers who t r a v e l l e d was correct for the t r i b u t e 35 quota l i s t s but i s not applicable here."  I f the couriers are  referred to, and not the c i t i e s , then the reference to 7rivaHtOV i s perhaps wrong, for i t involves the c i t i e s , not i n d i v i d u a l s , with whom the hellenotamiai of lines 43-44 were i n no way concerned. Mattingly has attempted a d i f f e r e n t solution by giving a restorat i o n closely p a r a l l e l with D8, the decree of Kleonymos.  "The purpose  of the record was presumably to ensure that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y could be brought home — either to the community that gave short measure or. to the agent who played f a l s e .  This was K l e i n i a s ' main aim...D8 ensured  that the couriers' names were l i s t e d , whenever any t r i b u t e was missing, and D7. 58ff. i n fact r e f l e c t s this arrangement.  The discovery that a  clause of D7 depends on D8 means that K l e i n i a s ' decree must be put 36 later than the second prytany of 426/5." lines i s however by no means c e r t a i n .  The restoration of these  I t i s possible to restore  them as a close p a r a l l e l of D3, lines 9-11, thus:  35.  Hesperia, XIII (1944), p. 11.  36.  B.S.A., LXV (1970), p. 131.  /.OCOl  6e T O V  [va]<(r)op, MeOovaTot ocpe I'XOVTE q.  i t i s also possible to restore  them w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e 7ttva.Ka o f l i n e 72, t h u s :  rov  a 7 r a [ Y J o v T o v Aee'va£e ec, rop, Tci'vana nar  /joffot  be  ]ayeypacpaTai.  For t h i s reason I have l e f t the l i n e s u n r e s t o r e d .  Lines 59-60: Meritt,  ocpe' [AOVTEC, e v T e i BOAEI  Ai-T. L . ,  II,  D7;  [na]i  fieixcrai,  H i l l and  en ] i b e i x ^ a i  [eav  6uvovTa]i,  beixaai  37 Mattingly.  M a t t i n g l y has emphasized t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f  restoring  these l i n e s w i t h any c o n f i d e n c e , and f o l l o w i n g his doubt I have  left  them u n r e s t o r e d . Lines 60-61: and L e w i s .  T O i b e ] X j [ o t ] H i l l and M e r i t t , A . T . L . , I I , D7, Meiggs The p o s s i b i l i t y suggested above i s perhaps the most  g i v e n the procedure d e s c r i b e d a t l i n e 2 0 . however, i s  TO t  Another  likely,  possibility,  6 ejifocf t O tj'; f o r an example o f t h i s word used i n  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t r i b u t e see t h e phrase from D3 quoted above, on l i n e s 58-59.  The p a r a l l e l p h r a s i n g from D3 and my f i r s t  suggested  a l t e r n a t e r e s t o r a t i o n o f l i n e 59 support t h i s r e s t o r a t i o n .  I have  p r e f e r r e d t h e r e f o r e t o leave the word u n r e s t o r e d because o f t h e  lack  o f secure c o n t e x t .  Lines 60-61:  fot  &ep,j[oi  n a T a T e v TTOXIV h e y i a a r e v '  eav  file  The f u l l r e s t o r a t i o n o f f e r e d by H i l l and M e r i t t and by A . T . L . , I I , D7 i s based on the r e s t o r a t i o n o f have p o i n t e d o u t .  37.  6e.p,0l  }  which i s n o t c e r t a i n , as I  F u r t h e r m o r e , i t assumes t h a t t h e 6ep,oc; i s  B.S.A., LXV (1970), p.  131, n.9.  that  79 of each i n d i v i d u a l c i t y , and therefore that each c i t y was a democracy, but i t i s more l i k e l y , i f 6ep,ot i s the r i g h t restoration, that the Athenian demos i s meant here, to whom a report concerning the state of arrears or of debt i s being given. c i t y i s referred to by the term  Lines 61-62: a  The assembly of each i n d i v i d u a l  T O  H O I V O V .  [...] D.A.T., A.T.L., I, D7; a j [u.cp t o B E r e i] " K i l l and  Meritt, A.T.L., I I , D7, Meiggs and Lewis.  This restoration was f i r s t  made by Boeckh, who read a mu at the end of l i n e 61. The mu has been relinquished; the restoration, which did not appear i n A.T.L., I, D7 or D.A.T., has since reappeared.  I am not completely s a t i s f i e d that  there are enough l e t t e r s l e f t to make t h i s r e s t o r a t i o n c e r t a i n , a l though the restorations of [Tec; ccxro6 ]oO£Oc; which are mutually confirmatory,  Line 63: [ x t f u v c - Y e a ] 9 a l  T O  HE'VCC  narrow the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for line-61.  Boeckh.  /"  s  Line 63:  and of ccrcf [ 0 6 £ 6 o  H O I V O V .  This can refer simply to the main assembly  of the state as a whole, for example i n A9, l i n e 6 and i n Aristophanes' Knights, l i n e 774, or to the assembly of the state as a f i n a n c i a l l y 2 responsible body, as i n I_.G., I , 116, the Athenian treaty with Selymbria, lines 23-24, from 407.  I t does not mean, as was suggested  by Boeckh, the assembly of the a l l i e s .  Here i t seems to mean the  assembly of the c i t i z e n s of a state, gathered to hear the decree of the Athenians, to learn the extent of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for arrears, and  i f appropriate  to enter protests.  Mattingly  suggests that the  term "surely implies a contrast between community and individuals  l ]  80 (here  oj  arrayovTeq  ?) against whom the ypctcpai  of 66ff. probably  '38 lie."  The HOtvov  then i s apparently responsible for c o l l e c t i n g  the money to send to Athens, not, as later under the provisions of the decree of Kleonymos, D8, Line 65:  lines 8-9,  the c o l l e c t o r s of t r i b u t e .  . . . ] 8 a i D.A.T., A.I.L., I, D7;  [ypacpecf ]Ga i  H i l l and Meritt, A.T.L., I I , D7, Meiggs and Lewis. the restoration  rec, xcup,p,axietc;  i  n  Boeckh,  Hicks, who  accepts  l i n e 64, comments that these  lines "seem to prescribe that disputes should be referred to a general court of the confederation and i n the meantime that other legal 39 proceedings  (ypacpeaGal  ) should be suspended."  His suggestion  may be sound, i n that other proceedings i n the court of the Polemarch (cf.  line 68) may be suspended, although the two passages are rather  widely separated for t h i s .  I t may  a l t e r n a t i v e l y be a r e s t r i c t i o n ,  that t r i a l s not be held elsewhere than at Athens.  The restoration  i s not, however, certain, and I have not printed i t . Line 66: [TO HOIVO Se ]X£. e i7rov ]TOC, . A.T.L., I I , D7, H i l l and Meritt.  Boeckh's restoration, although  probably wrong, demonstrates that the word ending i n -Toc, be dependent on  ocpEAETO ;  Lines 66-67: yp j [acpoiiE'voc, ]  need not  I have therefore not printed any restoration.  Boeckh; y p | [acpaayiEvocj ] D.A.T.,  A.T.L., IJ D7, Meiggs and Lewis;  ho  38.  B.S.A., LXV  n.9.  39.  The C o l l e c t i o n l q f Greek -Inscriptions"in'^the JBritish,Museum,  5  A t t i k a , no. VI.  ]TOC;  Boeckh; [ r o Se ypayev  (1970), p. 131,  YP ) [acpo'ap.e voc;  r e v ri]iev  eav  I,  81 cp£vys l ] - H i l l and M e r i t t , A.T.L., I I , D7.  Line 68:  [rcpoc; r o v  ]  rcoXepiapXOV  from A9, l i n e 13,-.and from D23,  This restoration receives support  lines 20-24, and from A r i s t o t l e ,  Ath. Pol.,58, a l l of which demonstrate  that the Polemarch  handled  cases i n which foreigners were involved; from A9 i n p a r t i c u l a r i t i s clear that he also handled cases involving t r i b u t e . mentions the Polemarch, and says nai  rcov  U-ETCHHCOV,  OUH  7rpoE  fip,£ti|/E  6E  i n view of the mention i n l i n e 69 of i l l u m i n a t i n g , except i n that i t may  iCTTrJHE l TT)V  p,£V  xArjarv.  HXE'CECJ  Photius also Tcov  TE  £E'VCOV  This i s i n t e r e s t i n g  but not p a r t i c u l a r l y  show that the two lines are part  of a provision dealing with the same j u d i c i a l procedure.  Line 68:  [EV  T O I  TapEjAtovi  Boeckh;  [p,evi  Meritt, A.T.L., I I , D7, Meiggs and Lewis.  P a p ^ X o v i ,.Hill and  The r e s t o r a t i o n of the  name of the month i s supported by the evidence of A9, i n which i t i s specified that, during the immediately preceding month of Posideion, decisions are to be made i n the Polemarch's and the f i n a l assessment  of t r i b u t e .  court concerning appeals  If t h i s was  also the case i n  e a r l i e r years, and since appeals could be made concerning assessment i n years other than assessment-years, then the l o g i c a l time for hearing cases concerning incomplete payment due to cheating would be i n the following month.  Moreover, the only other p o s s i b i l i t i e s are Elaphe-  bolion, when the Great Dionysia were held, and Thargelion, two months l a t e r than Elaphebolion and the second last month of the year; i t s restoration then would contradict lines 57-58, i'Tep-J &okev T E V ECU  [ocfav ] .  82 The r e s t o r a t i o n of the month i s i n t e r e s t i n g for the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  the second h a l f of the document.  As can be seen from l i n e 18,  the decree was probably passed just before the Dionysia i n Elaphebolion; Gamelion i s ten months l a t e r , by which time, as the urgency of  the f i r s t part of the decree shows, a l l outstanding money from  the tribute w i l l have been paid.  The decree i s now  concerned with  whether or not some individual was responsible for incomplete payment, and i s ensuring his prosecution and possible reimbursement for  the c i t i e s cheated.  I f t h i s was standard procedure, that the  arrears of t r i b u t e should be paid by the c i t i e s and the reason for the lateness questioned l a t e r , then we cannot expect any i r r e g u l a r i t y of  the type whose causes t h i s decree i s supposed to regulate to appear  i n the quota  lists.  Lines 68-69:  a  [p/p t a Be r e i ] Boeckh, H i l l and Meritt, A.T.L., I I , D7,  Meiggs and Lewis; ct [  ] D.A.T., A.T.L., I, D7;  a  [AAoq ]Mattingly. ° 4  There i s not enough l e f t for any secure restoration.  Lines 69-70: Bo[AeucrctTO ]  Boeckh; Bo [ A e u e ' a O o ]  Bo[Aeuero]  P.-A.T., A.T.L., I, D7;  I.G., I , 66a;  Bo[Aeucrap-eve ]  H i l l and  Meritt, A.T.L., I I , D7, Meiggs and Lewis.  Lines 70-71: I.G., be  40.  I , 66a;  ecraYOvrov  [ . . . AOs ]vct l o i cj  ho 11 [koayoyec,  C.Q.,  XVI  6s ho\  ec,  rev  j  [eaaYOYES;  TOCJ  D.A.T., A.T.L., I, D7;  E A t " a i a v ro<g A o e j v a t o t q  (1966), p. 188.  ocpAovraq  A6e]vut'otc;  eoayovTOV Hill  and  83 M e r i t t , A.T.L., I I , D7, Meiggs and Lewis.  The restoration suggested  Z  by I.G., I , 66a has been retained i n s p i r i t by the restoration of l i n e 72, [ocpeXovTacj ]. Line 72: Nothing i s restored by either D.A.T. or A.T.L., I, D7, except for [ n i ' v a J n a .  toextfec;  [ocpeAOvrac,  Kara  H i l l and Meritt, A.T.L., I I , D7, Meiggs and Lewis. i s by no means certain, since OCpEAOVTac;  fteXOec,  a n  d  Kara  This restoration  i s an alternative for  longer word, eliminating the need for the following  a  i s also possible.  the words  arrayovracj  f o p , Tti'vaJKa  A.T.L., I, D7 and D.A.T. did not restore  TOp which leaves yet more space for an alternative 7  restoration.  Line 72: the  [Kara  TClvctKiov  rop,  TTIVO.  Jxa  The  / r i v a x a does not refer back to  of l i n e 44, although i t may be referred to i n l i n e 59  (see note, above).  The term p / r i v u c i cj  i s used of cases against i n d i -  41 viduals, not states.  Line 72:  H i l l and Meritt, A.T.L., I I , D7, and Meiggs and Lewis a l l  puctuate at the end of the l i n e thus: p,evuo"eocj* e . after  p-EVUtfeoc, i s elsewhere given.  No punctuation  Moreover, i t cannot be assumed  that the word to follow had smooth breathing, since the daseia to show rough breathing i s omitted i n l i n e 39 and might also have been  41.  See, for example, Andokides, ' \-^Z3, and Plato,oLaws, 932d. In  the  decree regulating r e l a t i o n s with Chalkis, D17, the word used  for  'denounce' i s  KCXTEpo  f  ii  n  e  25.  84 omitted here.  Lines 73 - 74:  rre p u c | [ t otl j]  Boeckh.  That the s p e l l i n g of Boeckh  i s wrong, and 7t£ p u o | [ l vo ] right, i s clear from A.T.L., II, p. 30 1  (List 26,  IV, 10).  This passage may perhaps refer to the prosecution  of those who have committed a crime concerning the previous year's t r i b u t e , and w i l l be found to have done so with the tribute of the present year also.  CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION  The indications of date emerging from the preceding chapters are as follows: 1.  From letter-forms, a date somewhere i n the t h i r t i e s i s best  suited to the evidence. 2.  From s p e l l i n g , there i s nothing to conclude.  3.  From formulae, a date at the very end of the 440s or later  seems to f i t the evidence best. 4.  The study of i n d i v i d u a l provisions shows that the decree  was probably passed after 453, when Erythrai was required to bring Ctrov  to the Great Panathenaia (see Chapter 5, on l i n e 42), and  before the decree of Kleonymos, D8, from 426, when c o l l e c t o r s of t r i b u t e were to be appointed (see Chapter 5, on l i n e 63; i n addition, possible evidence from j u d i c i a l procedure, on l i n e 38.) The primary purpose of this decree i s to ensure that couriers s h a l l have no chance to embezzle on the way to Athens; since they are expected to deliver what remains of the money, c l e a r l y only small sums can have been involved, for i n previous years they can scarcely have expected large sums missing to go unnoticed.  The decree of K l e i n i a s  i s not then concerned with the defaulting r e f l e c t e d i n the quota-lists before 447/6. Moreover, the decree of Kleinias emphasizes the speed with which the four men are to c o l l e c t what i s s t i l l owing from the tribute, and c l e a r l y expects no d i f f i c u l t y i n c o l l e c t i n g i t . I conclude then that the decree of K l e i n i a s i s primarily a  86  book-keeping decree, passed to prevent couriers from embezzling t r i b u t e on i t s way to Athens, and i n no way concerned with or expecting r e c a l c i t r a n c e on the part of the c i t i e s ; i t was probably passed some time i n the 440s or 430s.  A more accurate date, or a more detailed  context, cannot be determined on the basis of epigraphic and internal evidence.  87 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS :i ANCIENT AUTHORITIES Aristophanes,  A r i s t o p h a n i s Comoediae, e d i t e d and W.M.  Geldart  Aristoteles  'A6e v a u w  1906-1907). UokiTE  ia  by H. Oppermann (B.T., S t u t t g a r t , Thucydides,  Thucydidis Historiae,  edited  1942).  edited 1961).  by H.S. Jones  and J . E . P o w e l l (0.£.T., second Oxford,  Hall  (O.C.T., 2 volumes,  second e d i t i o n , O x f o r d , A r i s t o t l e , Ath. P o l . ,  by F.W.  edition,  88 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS Z MODERN AUTHORITIES  _.T.L.  see B.D. Meritt, H.T. Wade-Gery, and M.F. McGregor, The Athenian Tribute L i s t s .  E.P. Blegen,  ''News Items from Athens," A.J.A., XLIII (1939), pp. 124-132.  August Boeckh,  Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, I (Berlin, 1828), no. 75 with Addenda, p. 896 (frag. 3)  D.W.  Bradeen,  "The Athenian Casualty L i s t s , "  C.Q.,  XIX (1969), pp. 145-159. D.W.  Bradeen and  McGregor,  M.F. Studies i n Fifth-Century  A t t i c Epigraphy  (Norman, Oklahama, 1973). D.A.T.  see B.D. Meritt, Documents on Athenian Tribute.  Sterling  Dow,  review of Meritt, D.A.T., i n A.J.A., XLII (1938), pp. 601-603.  Ecp.  Apx-  W.S.  Ferguson,  Ecpripeptq Apxct i okoyi  KT\  The Athenian Secretaries, Cornell C l a s s i c a l Studies, VII (1898).  A.W.  Gomme,  A H i s t o r i c a l Commentary on Thucydides, I: Introduction  and Commentary on Book I  (Oxford, 1945). E.L. Hicks,  The C o l l e c t i o n of Ancient Greek Inscriptions i n the B r i t i s h Museum, I, A t t i k a (Oxford, 1874), no. VI (frag. 3).  B.H.  H i l l and B.D. M e r i t t ,  "An Early Decree Concerning Tribute, Hesperia, XIII (1944), pp.  I.G. I.G.,  1-15.  Inscriptiones Graecae. I  Inscriptiones Atticae Anno E u c l i d i s Vetustiores, edited by A. Kirchoff 1873;  I.G.,  I  supplements i n 1877,  1886,  (Berlin,  and 1891).  Inscriptiones A t t i c a e E u c l i d i s Anno Anteriores, editionminor, edited by F. H i l l e r von Gaertringen (Berlin, 1924).  I.G.,  II , 1-3.  Inscriptiones A t t i c a e E u c l i d i s Anno Posteriores, editionminor, edited by J. Kirchner (Berlin, 1913-1940).  J. Kirchner,  Prosopographica A t t i c a (2 volumes, second edition, B e r l i n , 1913).  David M.  Lewis,  "The Public Seal of Athens," Phoenix, IX (1955), pp. 32-34.  Stephen B. Luce,  "Archaeological News arid Discussions," A.J.A., XLVIII  H.B. Mattingly,  (1944), p. 285.  "The Athenian Coinage Decreej," H i s t o r i a , X (1961), pp. 148-188. "The Growth of Athenian  Imperialism,"  H i s t o r i a , XII (1963), pp. 257-273. "Athenian Imperialism and the Founding of Brea;" C.Q.,  N.S.  XVI  (1966), pp. 172-192.  "Periclean Imperialism," i n E. Badia'n (ed.), Ancient Society and I n s t i t u t i o n s : Presented to Victor Ehrenberg  Studies  on h i s 75th  90 Birthday (Oxford, 1966), pp. 192-223. "Athenian Finance i n the Peloponnesian War," B.C.H., XCII (1968), I I , pp. 450-485. "Epigraphically the Twenties are too l a t e , " B.S.A., LXV (1970), pp. 129-149. "Formal Dating C r i t e r i a for F i f t h Century A t t i c I n s c r i p t i o n s , " Acta of the F i f t h International Congress of Greek and L a t i n Epigraphy Cambridge 1967 (Oxford, 1971), pp. 27-33. R. Meiggs,  "The Dating of Fifth-Century A t t i c  Inscriptions,"  J.H.S., LXXXVI (1966), pp. 86-98. "The C r i s i s of Athenian Imperialism," H.S.C.P., LXVII (1963), pp. 1-36. 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