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A cross-cultural assessment of similarities in interior Salish myth content Levy, Richard S. 1974

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A CROSS-CULTURAL ASSESSMENT OF SIMILARITIES IN INTERIOR SALISH MYTH CONTENT by RICHARD S. LEVY A.B., University of C a l i f o r n i a , Santa Cruz, 1969 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Richard S. Lew Department o f Anthropology and Sociology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date 1 9 September 1974 ABSTRACT Descriptive s t a t i s t i c a l techniques were applied to the cross-c u l t u r a l study of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h myth content. The use of an e l e c t r o n i c computer has f a c i l i t a t e d the analysis of a large body of myth data. This work i s a departure from t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l l y oriented c r o s s - c u l t u r a l studies in that the e n t i r e mythologies, rather than motifs or tale-types, of peoples are compared. A pragmatic approach necessitated by the s i z e of the corpora analyzed requires that the number of cultures be r e l a t i v e l y small (eight were included i n the analysis) and that the units of analysis be rudimentary (the word i s the unit employed). The computer was used to determine the frequencies of a l l words i n each corpus. Frequential analysis of the myth data was l i m i t e d to three semantic areas: r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l organization, and technology. Two c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were employed. Spearman's Rho (a s t a t i s t i c which measures s i m i l a r i t y of rank orderings) was tested and rejected i n favor of a modified form of Robinson's Index of Agreement (a s t a t i s t i c which measures differences i n percentage frequencies). Both the comparison of r e l a t i v e frequencies of i n d i v i d u a l words and the o v e r a l l assessment of s i m i l a r i t i e s i n frequency through submission of c o r r e l a t i o n matrices to Smallest Space Analysis r e s u l t i n the recognition of two c u l t u r a l groups: a Canadian Plateau group con s i s t i n g of the L i l l o o e t , Lower Thompson, and Upper Thompson corpora and an American Plateau group c o n s i s t i n g of the Okanagon, C o l v i l l e , Sanpoil, K a l i s p e l , and Coeur d'Alene corpora. I l l This d i v i s i o n of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h myth corpora into two geographically d i s t i n c t groups coincides with previously observed c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 1.0 Introduction 1.1 The I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Peoples: L i n g u i s t i c and C u l t u r a l Alignments 1.2 The Geophysical and E c o l o g i c a l Setting 1.3 The Plateau as a F o l k l o r i s t i c Area 1.4 Int e r i o r S a l i s h Myth Data: Quantity and Quality Chapter 2 2.0 The o r e t i c a l Overview 2.1 The Boasian Approach 2.2 The Tale-type Approach 2.3 Levi-Strauss' C r o s s - c u l t u r a l Studies 2.A An Alternative Strategy Chapter 3 3.0 Tools of Content Analysis 3.1 Input Data and Data Preparation 3.2 Computer Programs 3.2.1 LIST 3.2.2 C0UNT 3.2.3 MVTAB 3.2.4 SSA 3.3 Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s V Page No. Chapter 4 4.0 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h 28 4.1 The Po s i t i o n of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h i n the Plateau 28 4.2 S a l i s h Internal C u l t u r a l Relations: Jorgensen's Assessment 31 4.3 Int e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Languages 32 Chapter 5 5.0 Comparative Analysis of Content 38 5.1 Goals of the P i l o t Study 40 5.2 S t a t i s t i c s 41 5.3 Technology Terms 41 5.4 S o c i a l Organization Terms 42 5.5 Religious Terms 43 5.6 Relationship of G^scores to Rho 43 5.7 Results of the P i l o t Study. 44 Chapter 6 6.0 Goals of the Expanded Study 52 6.1 Expansion of the Data Base 52 6.2 Formulation of a Cor r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t 53 6.3 Selection of Words f o r Inclusion i n the Analysis 55 6.4 Comparative Frequency Analysis, R e l i g i o n 57 6.5 Comparative Frequency Analysis, S o c i a l Organization 59 6.6 Comparative Frequency A n a l y s i s , Technology 66 v i Page No. 6.7 Distributional Patterns 73 6.8 Correlation Matrices and Smallest Space Analysis 77 6.9 Myth Content and Ethnographic Data 82 Chapter 7 7.0 Conclusions 132 7.1 Classification of Interior Salish Cultures, Recurrent Patterns 132 7.2 Changes in Word Frequency 136 7.3 Delineation of Folkloristic Areas 138 7.i+ Further Applications of Comparative Frequency Analysis 138 Bibliography 1^1 Appendix 149 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table No. Page No. I. I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Cultures 12 I I . Percentage of Tales with Explanatory Elements 14 I I I . I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth Data 15 IV. The Myth Data 20 V. I n t e r i o r S a l i s h D i a l e c t s 3 5 VI. I n t e r i o r D i v i s i o n , Salishan Stock 36 VII. I n t e r i o r S a l i s h C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 37 VIII. Rank-order Numbers and Frequencies of Technology Terms 4 5 IX. C a l c u l a t i o n of Rho, Technology Terms 4 6 X. Rank-order Numbers and Frequencies of Kin Terms 4 7 XI. Rank-order Numbers and Frequencies of Religious Terms ^ XII. G-scores Compared with Rho 4 9 XIII. Data on Corpus Size f o r Content Analysis 5 ^ XIV. Religious Terms, Frequency 84 XV. Religious Terms, Percentage Figures 85 XVI. S o c i a l Organization Terms, Frequency 86 XVII. S o c i a l Organization Terms, Percentage Figures 9 1 XVIII. Technology Terms, Frequency 96 XIX. Technology Terms, Percentage Figures XX. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l Patterns: Terms with Highest Frequency i n Canadian Plateau H 4 v i i i Table No. Page No. XXI. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l Patterns: Terms with Highest Frequency i n Northern Sector, American Plateau 116 XXII. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l Patterns: Terms with Highest Frequency i n Southern Sector, American Plateau 117 XXIII. Proportion of H-scores i n Tables XX - XXII 118 XXIV. Inter-corpus Agreement on H-scores 119 XXV. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix: Religion „ 120 XXVI. Co r r e l a t i o n Matrix: S o c i a l Organization 121 XXVII. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix: Technology Content 122 XXVIII. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix: Religious-Ceremonial S i m i l a r i t y Extracted from Jorgensen 126 XXIX. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix: S o c i a l Organization Extracted from Jorgensen 127 XXX. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix: Technology-Demography Extracted from Jorgensen 128 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Page No. 1. Scatter Diagram, Rho vs. G 50 2. SSA Plot: Religion Content, I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth 123 3. SSA Plot: S o c i a l Organization Content, I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth 124 4. SSA Plot: Technology Content, I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth 125 5. SSA Pl o t : Religion-Ceremony 129 6. SSA Pl o t : S o c i a l Organization 130 7. SSA Pl o t : Technology-Demography 131 X LIST OF MAPS Map No. Page No. 1. I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Languages H 2. I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Cultures I 3 1 1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n The ma jo r g o a l o f my d i s s e r t a t i o n r e s e a r c h i s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t o t h e c o m p a r a t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d y o f myth c o n t e n t . T h i s c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s i s e f f e c t e d by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f s i m i l a r i t y be tween m y t h i c c o r p o r a on t h e b a s i s o f word f r e q u e n c y . The s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s empldyed h e r e have been g l e a n e d f r o m t h e works o f a number o f a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t s and s t a t i s t i c i a n s . The o r i g i n a l i t y o f t h i s work l i e s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s t o myth d a t a . The f i r s t , and o n l y p r e v i o u s , s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d y o f myth c o n t e n t i n t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a was c a r r i e d o u t by F r a n z Boas ( 1 8 9 5 ) . Boas showed t h a t t h e number o f e p i s o d e s b e l o n g i n g t o a myth c y c l e ( e . g . , t h e Raven C y c l e ) i n c r e a s e d o r d e c r e a s e d as one moved up o r down t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e Raven C y c l e , t h e maximum number o f e p i s o d e s were e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e n o r t h e r n m o s t c u l t u r e s ( T l i n g i t , T s i m s h i a n ) . The number o f e p i s o d e s g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h e s as one moves s o u t h w a r d t o w a r d t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a . S i n c e B o a s ' work l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o s t a t i s t i c a l i n -q u i r y i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f myth i n t h i s a r e a . T h i s work i s , I h o p e , a u s e f u l r e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s i n t o c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f m y t h . The s t a t i s t i c s employed i n t h i s work a r e r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e and a r e u s e d i n a p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e manner . The u s e o f i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s i s e f f e c t i v e l y p r o h i b i t e d by t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . The t e c h n i q u e s employed h e r e have been s e l e c t e d because t h e y p e r m i t 2 comparison of rather large bodies of data. The computer has been an important tool in a l l stages of the research and has facilitated the analysis of corpora totaling more than 250,000 words. This research effort has been carried out in the hope that even larger collections of myth data may some day be analyzed. The s t a t i s t i c a l techniques assembled here have been applied to myth data from the Interior Salish peoples of the Plateau culture area. Classifications of the Interior Salish cultures have been made by an assessment of similarities between myth content of each possible pair of cultures. These classifications have been compared with cla s s i -fications of Interior Salish peoples based upon linguistic and ethno-graphic data. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to the identification of the Interior Salish peoples, their location in broad geophysical and ecological areas, an overview of some of the characteristics of Plateau folklore, and an assessment of the Interior Salish data base. 1.1 The Interior Salish Peoples: Linguistic and Cultural Alignments The seven Interior Salish languages comprise one of the four major subdivisions of the Salishan linguistic stock. Two subgroups of Interior Salish may be recognized. These w i l l be referred to here as Fraser River Salish and Columbia River Salish. The Fraser River Salish group consists of three languages: Lillooet, Thompson, and Shuswap. The Columbia River Salish group consists of four languages: Okanagon, Kalispel, Coeur d'Alene, and Columbia. The locations of these Interior 3 S a l i s h speech communities are shown i n Map 1. Verne F. Ray (1939) has assigned the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h peoples to a number of d i s t i n c t ethnic groups. These ethnic groups were c l u s t e r s of p o l i t i c a l l y autonomous v i l l a g e s r e s i d i n g i n a common habitat, having l i k e customs and values, and. speaking a common d i a l e c t . Intermarriage and j o i n t e x p l o i t a t i o n of economic resources served as un i f y i n g bonds between v i l l a g e communities. The ethnic groups, hereafter r e f e r r e d to as cu l t u r e s , recognized f o r the purposed of t h i s study are given i n Table I and t h e i r geographic locati o n s are shown i n Map 2. Except f o r the recognition of Upper and Lower Thompson as d i s t i n c t e n t i t i e s , the ethnic groups are those recognized by Ray. Analysis of ethnographic data reveals a b i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n of the In t e r i o r S a l i s h cultures (Ray 1939, Jorgensen 1969). Ray i d e n t i f i e s a Canadian Plateau which embraces L i l l o o e t , Thompson, Shuswap, Okanagon, and Kutenai. The remaining Plateau cultures ( I n t e r i o r S a l i s h , Sahaptin, and Chinookan) are assigned to an American Plateau. Jorgensen recognizes a Northwestern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Culture Group composed of L i l l o o e t , Thompson, and Shuswap; and a Southeastern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Group composed of Sanpoil, Columbia, Wenatchi, Sinkaietk^", Coeur d'Alene, K a l i s p e l , and Flathead. The two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are i n f u l l agreement. Ray's Canadian Plateau i s equivalent to Jorgensen's Northwestern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Culture Group; and Ray's American Plateau i s coterminous with Jorgensen's Southeastern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Culture Group. Ray's terminology has been adopted here since i t i s l e s s cumbersome. 4 1.2 The Geophysical and E c o l o g i c a l S e t t i n g The I n t e r i o r S a l i s h peoples occupied p o r t i o n s o f the drainage basins of the Fraser and Columbia R i v e r s east of the e r e s t of the c o a s t a l ranges. A. L. Kroeber (1939:55-57) i n " C u l t u r a l and N a t u r a l Areas of Native North America" l o c a t e s the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h i n three broad e c o l o g i c a l - g e o p h y s i c a l areas. The Thompson, L i l l o o e t , and Shuswap and t h e i r Athapascan neighbors ( C h i l c o t i n , N i c o l a , and C a r r i e r ) are l o c a t e d i n the drainage of the Fraser R i v e r , an area c h a r a c t e r i z e d by sparse f o r e s t and steppe. To the south, the Upper Columbia area i s the home of most of the remaining I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s - s t r e t c h i n g from the t e r r i t o r y o f the Methow i n the Cascade Mountains across the P l a t e a u t o the Rocky Mountains and southward i n the Rockies t o the t e r r i t o r y o f the Flathead. The Upper Columbia drainage i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f o r e s t e d mountainous t e r r a i n w i t h some g r a s s -land i n the r i v e r v a l l e y s . Further south the Wenatchi, Columbia, and Spokane l i k e t h e i r Sahaptin neighbors are assigned t o the Middle Columbia drainage, a r e g i o n of sagebrush-juniper mixed with bunch-grass steppe and having pine f o r e s t s at higher e l e v a t i o n s . Of added s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r some Plateau peoples i s the absence o f salmon from the streams and l a k e s of the Rocky Mountain t e r r i t o r i e s i n h a b i t e d by the Coeur d'Alene and Flathead. These peoples r e l i e d more h e a v i l y on b i g game hunting ( p a r t i c u l a r l y deer, e l k , and bison) than some of t h e i r Plateau neighbors. 5 1.3 The Plateau as a Folkloristic Area Previous cross-cultural studies of Interior Salish mythology (Boas 1898, Boas 1916, Boas £ Chamberlain 1918, Reichard 1947) have been limited to the identification of such units as themes, plots, episodes, motifs, and tale-types within a single-culture corpus and the enumeration of presumed cognates in the mythologies of surrounding cultures in both the Northwest Coast and Plateau culture areas. While l i t t l e attempt has been made at defining mythological subregions within the Plateau, some patterns of areal differentiation have begun to emerge. Several t r a i t s are characteristic of the Plateau as a whole. Coyote i s everywhere the most prominent and most frequently encountered of a l l the mythic personages, setting the Plateau off sharply from the Athapascan peoples to the north, the peoples of the Northern Plains to the east, and the peoples along the Gulf of Georgia to the west where Coyote i s absent from the mythology. The mythic personage "Old One", also known from such Plains peoples as the Blackfoot, i s present in the mythology from the Canadian Plateau in the north to the Klamath of southern Oregon in the south. Explanatory elements are very frequently encountered in Plateau mythology, being present in from 60% to 75% of the myths of some corpora. Waterman's (1914) stati s t i c s for other areas of North America display much lower frequencies with no other area going much above 50% (See Table II). Other tr a i t s can be cited which are limited to subregions within the Plateau. Boas has noted that the mythologies of the Kutenai and Okanagon frequently contain myths of a rather loosely knit character 6 where the only apparent connection between the episodes i s the presence of a sin g l e character i n a l l of the episodes so conjoined. Thompson mythology contrasts sharply i n that myths consist of single well-integrated episodes (Boas 5 Chamberlain 1918). Further study of my own reveals that loosely k n i t epic myths of the type Boas described f o r the Kutenai and Okanagon are present i n the mythologies of a l l the Salishan peoples of the American Plateau culture area, while the single-episode type des-cribed f o r the Thompson i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the other mythologies of the Canadian Plateau as w e l l . In the mythology of the Canadian Plateau there i s a tendency f o r characters to begin the mythic action as humans and to adopt the guise of animals or transform themselves into animals as the action of the myth continues. In the American Plateau, on the other hand, characters are undi f f e r e n t i a t e d animal-people throughout the course of the myth. In the Thompson (TH291) and L i l l o o e t (LI004) versions of "Beaver and Eagle Steal F i r e " , f o r example, two brothers become a beaver and an eagle i n order to s t e a l the f i r e ; while i n the variants of t h i s episode from the American Plateau (SK016, SK017, SP012, SP013, SP050, SP059, CL001) beaver and eagle are animal-people from s t a r t to f i n i s h and are not the 3 products of such a transformation. Within the American Plateau I see two major mythological subareas. In the Rocky Mountains along the eastern edge of the Plateau the Kutenai, K a l i s p e l , Flathead, Coeur d'Alene, and Nez Perce possess decidedly conver-gent mythologies ( c f . Davis 1965). Okanagon, C o l v i l l e , Sinkaietk, and Sanpoil also appear to form a cohesive unit with Columbia and K l i k i t a t as possible candidates f o r i n c l u s i o n . Lack of data on such groups as 7 the Ki t t i t a s , Tenino, Umatilla, Yakima, Palouse, and Wenatchi prevents a definitive statement on the a f f i n i t i e s between Sahaptin and Interior Salish groups. There is much which is shared by the Interior Salish to the exclusion of some of the other peoples of the Plateau, raising the possibility of a partial convergence between linguistic and mythological boundaries. Much more work is needed in the southern portions of the Plateau before any f i n a l conclusions can be reached. Borrowing of myths from cultures outside the Plateau area has also played a part in the past history of Plateau mythology. Boas (1898, 1912) has suggested that the ancestor myths and transformer brothers myths of the Lillooet and Thompson were derived from their down-river Coast Salish neighbors, the Halkomelem-speaking peoples of the lower Fraser River. The Athapascan peoples on the northern periphery of the Plateau seem to have had l i t t l e impact on Interior Salish mythology except for some minor influence on the Shuswap. The mythologies of such Northern Plains groups as the Blackfoot are markedly distinct, though some mythic episodes are shared with the Interior Salish. There seems to be a much stronger a f f i n i t y between the Interior Salish and some of the Oregon and south-west Washington coastal areas, probably occasioned by the diffusion of myths up and down the Columbia River. 1.4 Interior Salish Myth Data: Quantity and Quality Approximately 800 Interior Salish myths and legends (including variants) have been published in the past 100 years. These published myths, along with a small amount of material derived from unpublished 8 sources, c o n s t i t u t e the data base from which m a t e r i a l s used i n t h i s study are d e r i v e d . I would estimate t h a t another 400 myths, legends and v a r i a n t s are extant i n manuscript form. Table I I I provides a count of the number of published myths, legends and v a r i a n t s a v a i l a b l e from each of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s . For reference purposes each myth, legend or v a r i a n t has been assigned a f i v e character i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number c o n s i s t i n g of a two l e t t e r a b b r e v i a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g the c u l t u r e ( a b b r e v i a t i o n s are l i s t e d i n Table I ) f o l l o w e d by a three d i g i t number. A l i s t o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers and myth t i t l e s w i t h source c i t a t i o n i s provided i n the appendix. The I n t e r i o r S a l i s h myth data vary both i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . 4 There are q u a n t i t a t i v e l y adequate corpora f o r the f o l l o w i n g I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s : Upper and Lower L i l l o o e t , Upper and Lower Thompson, Shuswap, Okanagon, S i n k a i e t k , C o l v i l l e , S a n p o i l , K a l i s p e l , and Coeur d'Alene. Corpora fpom the Lakes, Chelan, Spokane, Flathead, and Columbia are too s m a l l t o be of use i n e i t h e r content a n a l y s i s or s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s . There are no published data f o r the Methow, Chewelah, and Wenatchi. In q u a l i t a t i v e terms, too, there are l i m i t s t o the u t i l i t y o f some corpora. Only one c o l l e c t i o n o f I n t e r i o r S a l i s h myth or legend t e x t s has been published i n the o r i g i n a l language (Vogt 1940). Some m a t e r i a l has been published i n German (Boas 1895, Gatschet 1888), but the vast m a j o r i t y of published I n t e r i o r S a l i s h t e x t s were both narrated and recorded i n E n g l i s h . In a few cases t e x t s were apparently narrated i n S a l i s h and t r a n s l a t e d e i t h e r simultaneously (Ray 1933) or subsequently (Reichard 1947). 9 L i t t l e information concerning the circumstances under which the myths and legends were c o l l e c t e d has been provided by those who have published the corpora. In the majority of cases not even the name of the narrator i s given. Over ha l f of the texts probably adhere f a i r l y c l o s e l y to the s t y l e of the narratives as o r i g i n a l l y t o l d . Some of the corpora ( p a r t i c u l a r l y c o l l e c t i o n s by Charles H i l l - T o u t and James T e i t ) , however, seem to contain some myths and legends which are l i t t l e more than abstracts. From a s t y l i s t i c standpoint the corpora from the American Plateau - Sinkaietk (Spier et a l . 1938), Sanpoil (Ray 1933), C o l v i l l e (Mourning Dove 1933), K a l i s p e l (Davis 1965), and Coeur d'Alene (Reichard 1947) - are superior to T e i t ' s Canadian Plateau c o l l e c t i o n s from the L i l l o o e t , Thompson, and Shuswap since T e i t frequently abbreviates the narrative or omits sections of myths r e f e r r i n g the reader to previously published c o l l e c t i o n s . The treatment which the o r a l l i t e r a t u r e of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h has received i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e i s l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y . We know l i t t l e of the circumstances (both s o c i a l and temporal) under which the narration of a myth or legend was considered appropriate. We know nothing concerning the proper behavior of the audience during the narration. Even the number of d i s t i n c t genres i s d i f f i c u l t to determine. The Sinkaietk (Spier et a l . 1938:185) seem to d i s t i n g u i s h between three narrative genres - tcaptTklah, kumaixTts, insTm ?apEluks - which may be termed r e s p e c t i v e l y "myth", ^legend", and "European f o l k - t a l e " . Ray (1933:131-132) claims that the Sanpoil apply the term tcati«kuftu to both 10 "myths" and " t a l e s " i n seeming co n t r a d i c t i o n to other sources (e.g. , Spier et_ a l . 1938, Mourning Dove 1933) who l i m i t the term to "myth". The L i l l o o e t and Shuswap terms f o r myth - s'p't^kwEtl ( H i l l - T o u t 1905:148), and spetakuif(Teit 1909:621) - are apparently l i n g u i s t i c a l l y cognate with the Sinkaietk, Sanpoil, and C o l v i l l e terms. Ray (1933) includes a number of texts under the heading of "Humorous anecdotes" which may constitute yet another narrative genre. Pierre Pichette, a Flathead narrator, distinguished three categories of n a r r a t i v e : myths, legends, and true s t o r i e s (Clark 1966:125). In some corpora texts are assigned to one narrative genre or another, while i n others (most noticeably T e i t ' s c o l l e c t i o n s ) no e f f o r t was made during c o l l e c t i o n to a s c e r t a i n the narra-t i v e genre to which each text properly belongs. In the absence of any d e f i n i t i v e ethnographic statements we can only guess that two conceptually 5 d i s t i n c t n arrative genres existed i n the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h area;.. A "myth" i s a narrative r e f e r r i n g to that period f a r back i n time when men and animals were not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The characters of myths are r e f e r r e d to i n English as "animal-people" and much of t h e i r a c t i o n can be seen as contributing to the preparation of the world f o r the a r r i v a l of the "coming-people", the humans of today. At the close of mythic times the woridiwas much the same as we know i t today. Narratives r e l a t i n g the events which have transpired since the a r r i v a l of the humans on the earth may be termed "legends" o r " t a l e s " . These r e l a t e the h i s t o r y of the people. 11 12 Table I. I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Cultures Language Culture Abbreviation L i l l o o e t L i l l o o e t LI Thompson Thompson TH Upper Thompson UT Lower Thompson LT Shuswap Shuswap SH Okanagon Okanagon OK Sinkaietk SK Lakes LK Sanpoil SP C o l v i l l e CV Methow MT K a l i s p e l Spokane SO Chewelah CH K a l i s p e l KL Flathead FL Coeur d'Alene Coeur d'Alene CA Columbia Columbia CL Wenatchi WN Chelan CE Note: In the analyses of Ray (1939) and Jorgensen (1969) Thompson i s treated as a single unitary e n t i t y because of the lack of consistent d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the respective upper and lower d i v i s i o n s i n T e i t ' s (1906) ethnography. Myth data, however, i s ascribable to the d i v i s i o n s . 13 14 Table I I . Percentage of Tales with Explanatory Elements Plateau Peoples: Shuswap .48 Thompson .71 L i l l o o e t .61 Okanagon .65 C o l v i l l e .92 Sanpoil .84 Sinkaietk .61 Kal i s p e l .54 Coeur d'Alene .42 Flathead 158 Kutenai .22 Nez Perce .41 Other American Indian Peoples: Eskimo .17 Micmac .19 Abnaki .48 0j ibwa .50 Fox .24 Assiniboin .20 Blackfoot .54 Dakota .50 Grosventre .20 Arapaho .32 Omaha-Ponca .30 Ski d i Pawnee .42 Hopi .20 J i c a r i l l a .51 Yana„ .57 Shoshoni .27 Chinook .42 Bella Coola .43 Kwakiutl .44 Haida .43 T l i n g i t .35 Data on Thompson, Shuswap, and non-Plateau peoples extracted from Waterman (1914:25). 15 Table I I I . I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth Data Culture Abbreviation Number of Texts Canadian Plateau: L i l l o o e t LI 74P* Thompson TH 361P Shuswap SH 123P American Plateau: Okanagon OK 40P/50U C o l v i l l e CV 32P Sinkaietk SK 56P Sanpoil SP 59P Lake LK IP Chelan CH 2P Spokane SO 4P K a l i s p e l * * KL 65P Flathead FL 45P Coeur d'Alene CA 76P Columbia CL 2P * P=Published, U=Unpublished. ** Including Pend d ' O r e i l l e . 16 2.0 T h e o r e t i c a l Overview In previous c r o s s - c u l t u r a l studies of North American Indian myth three d i f f e r e n t strategies have been employed. The f i r s t i s t y p i f i e d by Boas' (1916) "Tsimshian Mythology" and procedes by i d e n t i f y i n g " i n c i d e n t s " i n the mythology of a sin g l e people and then s t a t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of those "incid e n t s " i n the mythologies of neighboring peoples. The second approach i s best exemplified by S t i t h Thompson's (1953) "Star Husband" and i s charac-t e r i z e d by the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l examination of the variants of a si n g l e t a l e -type. The c r o s s - c u l t u r a l work of Levi-Strauss' (1964-71) Mythologiques constitutes a t h i r d approach and i s devoted to the exploration of tr a n s f o r -mations which myths undergo at c u l t u r a l boundaries. While a l l of these research strategies are valuable there i s a shortcoming common to a l l . N8-where i s the en t i r e mythology of a people treated h o l i s t i c a l l y and compared with the e n t i r e mythology of another people. In the remaining sections of t h i s chapter these approaches w i l l be b r i e f l y reviewed and a research strategy which involves c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison of mythologies i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y w i l l be outlined. 2.1 The Boasian Approach Several studies of Northwest Indian f o l k l o r e have followed the e s s e n t i a l l y p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c a n a l y t i c a l methodology of Franz Boas. Boas himself conducted research on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the " i n c i d e n t s " discov-ered in the mythologies of the Tsimshian (Boas 1916) and the Kutenai (Boas and Chamberlain 1918). Reichard's (1947) study of Coeur d'Alene mythology likewise follows the Boasian approach. A l l of these studies 17 s u f f e r from a number of inadequacies. The units of analysis ( i n c i d e n t s , t a l e s , p l o t s , episodes, elements) are never p r e c i s e l y defined. Compara-tive notes seldom contain assessments of degrees of s i m i l a r i t y ( i . e . , pre-sumably cognate myths or elements are simply stated to e x i s t ) . No o v e r a l l i n t e g r a t i o n or patterns of i n t e r - c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are recognized. The focus i s on the presumed d i f f u s i o n of elements i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r mythology rather than on the r e l a t i o n s between mythic corpora as wholes. 2 . 2 The Tale-type Approach Prominent among North American studies of t h i s type are S t i t h Thompson's ( 1 9 5 3 ) study of the Star Husband tale and Demetracopoulou's ( 1 9 3 3 ) study of the Loon Woman myth. The focus of these studies i s on the categorization and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of variants of a single t a l e . The analysis of variants i s f a i r l y r e p l i c a b l e but no i n t e g r a t i o n between the v a r i e t i e s of one tale-type and the v a r i e t i e s of another i s sought; nor i s there any attempt to rel a t e v a r i a t i o n d i r e c t l y to c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . 2 . 3 Levi-Strauss' C r o s s - c u l t u r a l Studies The s t r u c t u r a l approach of Levi-Strauss' ( 1 9 6 4 - 7 1 ) Mythologiques i s con-cerned with probing the transformations which myths undergo as they pass from culture to culture. Each myth i s linked to the next i n an a n a l y t i c a l chain. Though he draws on f u l l corpora i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of myths, Levi-Strauss too does not attempt the comparison of whole corpora. 2 . A An Alt e r n a t i v e Strategy There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l between the approaches of Boas and 18 Thompson i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study of f o l k t a l e s and some of the e a r l i e r work of archaeologists. The Boasian analysis of the Tsimshian mythology type i s reminiscent of the early s i t e reports which merely l i s t e d a l l of the a r t i f a c t s found and enumerated other s i t e s at which s i m i l a r objects had been discovered. Thompson's approach, emphasizing the d e f i n i t i o n of the tale-type, i s c l e a r l y analogous to archaeological works which defined pro-j e c t i l e point or pottery types and plotted t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s . What I am proposing here i s the adoption by f o l k l o r i s t s of a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l strategy which recognizes that the mythology of a people can be treated as a whole -a concept equivalent to the notion of a r t i f a c t u a l assemblages i n archaeology. The comparative c r o s s - c u l t u r a l approach i n f o l k l o r e w i l l hopefully nox<r enter a period equivalent to the culture h i s t o r i c a l era of archaeology. A proces-sual approach i s only now being dreamed of. The adoption of a strategy which seeks the comparison of mythic corpora i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y and in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l perspective poses an inherent set of l i m i t a t i o n s . One l i m i t a t i o n arises from the the amount of material to be analyzed,' The more material one analyzes the le s s refined and deta i l e d can be the analysis. An analysis of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h myth data as deta i l e d as Demetracopoulou's (1933) "The Loon Woman Myth" would doubtless consume years of research and run w e l l over 1,000 pages i n the f i n i s h e d product. S i m i l a r l y , the larger the number of peoples studied the more general the conclusions which are drawn. Alan Dundes' (1964) "The Morphology of North American Indian F o l k t a l e s " i n seeking a univ e r s a l set of structures f or a l l North American Indian f o l k t a l e s reveals only very rudimentary and general f o l k t a l e structures (e.g., Lack: Lack Liquidated). Limits, consequently, must be 19 placed on both the number of peoples to be studied and the d e t a i l with which the material can be analyzed. In terms of the geographical scope of t h i s inquiry, the study has been limited to the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h peoples of the Plateau Culture Area. These peoples constitute an h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l unit as the studies of other investigators have shown (Ray 1939, Jorgensen 1969). There i s s u f f i c i e n t s i m i l a r i t y among these peoples to insure many c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . On the other hand, there are s u f f i c i e n t differences to insure an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison. Enough material has been processed to permit the i n c l u s i o n of eight cultures from the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h area. In terms of the degree of refinement possible i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , the data f i l t e r must be of rather course mesh. The i s o l a t i o n of sophisticated a n a l y t i c a l units of form or structure (e.g., Levi-Strauss* mytheme, Propp's function, or Colby's eidon) necessitates s u b s t a n t i a l p r e - e d i t i n g of texts. The cost of such pre-editing, in a temporal sense, i s so great as to p r o h i b i t t h e i r use when hundreds of texts from eight d i f f e r e n t cultures are involved. As a wholly pragmatic s o l u t i o n the word was selected as the most e a s i l y i s o l a b l e unit and the one which best minimized advance text preparation. This study i s based on a f r e q u e n t i a l approach to content p r e c i s e l y because frequencies (of words) could be e a s i l y computed by e l e c t r o n i c computer, f a c i l i t a t i n g the analysis of large corpora. Tihe succeeding chapter i s devoted to the discussion of s t a t i s t i c a l tools and computer programs which enabled the whole corpus comparisons used i n this study. 20 Table IV. The Myth Data Cu l t u r e Myths Used Sources L i l l o o e t Lower Thompson Upper Thompson Okanagon Okanagon 2 C o l v i l l e S a n p o i l K a l i s p e l * LI001-LI038 TH097-TH127 TH025-TH096 OK001-0K034 0K078-0K119 CV006-CV032 SP001-SP025 KL001-KL017 FL001-FL010 ( T e i t 1912b) ( T e i t 1912a) ( T e i t 1917a) ( P i e r r e 6 Bouchard n.d.) ( T e i t 1917b, Gould 1917a, H i l l - T o u t 1911) (Mourning Dove 1933) (Ray 1933) (McDermott 1901, T e i t 1917c) (Weisel 1959) Coeur d'Alene CA001-CA036 (Reichard 1947) ftKalispel and Flathead data were combined t o produce a corpus o f comparable s i z e . Only a f t e r the s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons had been made d i d I l e a r n o f the existence of a d d i t i o n a l K a l i s p e l and Flathead data (Vogt 1940, Davis 1965, Wilson 1866, Hoffmann1883, C l a r k 1966) s u f f i c i e n t i n q u a n t i t y t o permit treatment as separate e n t i t i e s . 21 3.0 Tools of Content Analysis In t h i s chapter a number of tools employed i n the comparative content analysis and other sections of t h i s work are described. Section 3.1 outlines the preparation of the myth corpora f o r data processing. Computer programs are enumerated i n section 3.2 and c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i -cients are discussed i n section 3.3, 3,1 Input Data and Data Preparation The body of myth data upon which the comparative content analyses presented i n Chapters 5 and 6 r e s t i s comprised of nine mythic corpora representing eight I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u ltures. The eight cultures repre-sented are L i l l o o e t , Upper Thompson, Lower Thompson, Okanagon (two corpora), C o l v i l l e , Sanpoil, K a l i s p e l , and Coeur d'Alene. The corpora vary i n length from 42,872 words (Okanagon) to 19,733 words ( K a l i s p e l ) . The length of a l l nine corpora i s included i n Table XIII. The number of texts per corpus varies from seventy-four (Upper Thompson) to twenty-five (Sanpoil). In t o t a l the body of myth data consists of 340 texts and includes over 268,000 words. The myths used and t h e i r sources are c i t e d i n Table IV. 6 The e n t i r e body of texts was keypunched. A l l keypunching was done on IBM029 keypunches. Only a few minor changes (necessitated by the C0UNTI program) were made during the keypunching operation. A l l those words hyphenated at the ends of l i n e s i n the o r i g i n a l printed text were restored to t h e i r proper unbroken shape; the two segments would have otherwise been treated as separate words by C0UNT. The hyphen character 22 when used t o represent a dash was set o f f by a space from the immediately preceding and immediately f o l l o w i n g words t o prevent i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n those words. A l l apostrophes used as " s i n g l e quotes" were r e p l a c e d by another character (|) to d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from the apostrophes used i n c o n t r a c t i o n s . Obvious s p e l l i n g and t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s i n the o r i g i n a l sources were c o r r e c t e d . The term "word" as used i n the f o r e -going d i s c u s s i o n r e f e r s t o any character s t r i n g immediately preceded by and immediately f o l l o w e d by a d e l i m i t e r . The characters designated as d e l i m i t e r s were: blank space ( ) ; , : . " ! ! In a l l other r e s p e c t s the t e x t s were punched verbatim from the o r i g i n a l sources w i t h each t e x t l i n e i n the o r i g i n a l source corresponding to a card i n the punched v e r s i o n wherever; t h i s was p o s s i b l e . In a number of corpora (LT,UT,0K2,CV) an i d e n t i f y i n g number was placed i n the 71st through 80th columns of the punchcard. A two l e t t e r sequence i n columns 71 and 72 i d e n t i f i e s the language group i n question ( L I = L i l l o o e t , TH=Thompson, 0K=0kanagon). A three d i g i t number i s placed i n the 73rd through 75th card columns and a l i n e number i n columns 76 through 79. Column 80 i s f i l l e d w i t h a 0 p r o v i d i n g f o r the a d d i t i o n of m a t e r i a l t o the t e x t . The 87th card of Thompson myth number 89 thus bears the f o l l o w i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number i n columns 71 through 80: TH08900870. In the remaining corpora the number of the myth i s provided only i n the t i t l e card at the beginning of the t e x t and l i n e numbering runs consecu-t i v e l y from the beginning of the corpus t o the end, being provided automa-t i c a l l y by the LIST program. 23 3.2 Computer Programs Four computer programs have been employed during the course of my research with I n t e r i o r S a l i s h mythology. A l l were run on the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Center's IBM 360/67 computer. A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the input and output from each program and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the research e f f o r t as a whole i s given below. 3.2.1 LIST The LIST program was used to prepare the outputs of pages 235-272 i n the appendix from the o r i g i n a l punched cards. These outputs provide a f u l l l i s t i n g of a l l texts composing the various corpora used i n the content analyses of t h i s chapter. 3.2.2 C0UNT The C0UNT program, C0UNT0BJ, was used to determine the frequency of each word i n each of the corpora. A t y p i c a l output from C0UNT0BJ i s provided i n the appendix (pages 273-290). The output from C0UNT0BJ consists of an a l p h a b e t i c a l l y ordered l i s t of a l l words occurring i n the corpus. Each word i s preceded by i t s percentage of occurrence and number of occurrences. The immediately following sector of the output i s the l i s t of a l l words whose number of occurrences i s equal to or greater than the c u t - o f f point s p e c i f i e d on the t h i r d s p e c i f i c a t i o n card. This second l i s t i s followed by a repeat-rate frequency table and a table of summary s t a t i s t i c s (See pages 289-290). 24 3.2.3 MVTAB The use of MVTAB was l i m i t e d to the production of the 171 four c e l l tables presented on pages 150-184. MVTAB (Mu l t i v a r i a t e Contingency Tabulations) was used to make pair-wise comparisons of presence and absence of f i f t y culture t r a i t s i n nineteen Plateau c u l t u r e s . The input data, r e f e r r i n g to s o c i a l organization and r e l i g i o n were derived from Ray's (1939) Tables 1 and 2. Preparation of the input data f o r MVTAB was accomplished by keypunching one card f o r each of the f i f t y t r a i t s . One card column was assigned to each of the cul t u r e s . A 1 was entered whenever a t r a i t was present, a 0 when the t r a i t was absent. Small frequency tables were requested f o r a l l possible p a i r s of cu l t u r e s . A f u l l e r discussion of MVTAB i s av a i l a b l e i n Bjerr i n g et al_. (1970). 3.2.4 SSA The Smallest Space Analysis program (SSA1) was used to determine the patterns o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s . The input data f o r SSA1 consisted of symmetric matrices of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . The Smallest Space Analysis output provides us with a graphic representa-t i o n of the structure of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s present i n the matrix of c o e f f i c i e n t s submitted as input. In t h i s work only one and two-dimensional space analyses were requested. The output of SSA1 provides us with an assessment of the goodness of the f i t between the actu a l structure i n the matrix and the graphic representation provided by the SSA1 program. A number of outputs are contained i n the appendix (pages 186-214). A l l that one needs to know f o r the i n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the SSA 25 p l o t s ( l a s t page of each output) i s t h a t the d i s t a n c e s between p a i r s of p o i n t s (the numbered p o i n t s represent the c u l t u r e s being compared) are p r o p o r t i o n a l to the closeness of the two c u l t u r e s as determined i n the computed input m a t r i x . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d c u l t u r e s , those w i t h r e l a t i v e l y high c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , are c l o s e r together than more d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d ones. For a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of Smallest Space A n a l y s i s see Guttman (1968) and Bloombaura (1970). 3.3 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Three d i f f e r e n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s have been used i n the assessment of i n t e r c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y . D r i v e r ' s G was employed i n the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment o f data from Ray's (1939) monograph (See s e c t i o n 4.1). D r i v e r ' s G i s a l s o the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t used by Jorgensen (1969) i n the computation of s i m i l a r i t i e s i n r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and technology between the v a r i o u s I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s . The major advantage of D r i v e r ' s G over other s i m i l a r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s l i e s i n the avoidance of d i s t o r t i o n a r i s i n g from high values i n the d c e l l o f the four c e l l t a b l e s . In conducting c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison based upon presence and absence of c u l t u r e t r a i t s a four c e l l t a b l e i s constructed f o r each p a i r of c u l t u r e s compared. The four c e l l s are c o n v e n t i o n a l l y l a b e l l e d as f o l l o w s : Absent Present Absent d c Present b a 26 C e l l a contains the number of t r a i t s present i n both c u l t u r e s , c e l l s b and c the numbers of t r a i t s present i n one culture but not the other and c e l l d the number of t r a i t s absent from both. As the number of t r i b e s and t r a i t s i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study increases the number of common absences (d c e l l ) r i s e s and begins to play havoc with such s t a t i s t i c a l measures of ass o c i a t i o n as Yule's 0, Phi and the r e l a t e d Pearson's r . R e l a t i v e l y high c o r r e l a t i o n s can be obtained between cultures which share few t r a i t s i n common. To avoid t h i s p i t f a l l c r o s s - c u l t u r a l methodologists employ a c o e f f i c i e n t often r e f e r r e d to as Driver's G. G i s computed from the following formula: Dis t o r t i o n s a r i s i n g from high values i n the d c e l l are thereby avoided. For further discussion of the merits of G see Driver (1961). The remaining two c o e f f i c i e n t s were employed i n the assessment of s i m i l a r i t i e s i n word frequency between p a i r s of corpora. In my f i r s t i nquiry into comparative analysis of word frequency I employed Spearman's Rho, a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t which provides a numerical assessment of s i m i l a r i t i e s i n two se r i e s of rank-ordered items. Mueller, Schuessler, and Costner (1970) give a good d e s c r i p t i o n of Spearman's Rho. A f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n of the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s s t a t i s t i c i s given i n Chapter 5. The use of Spearman's Rho posed some a n a l y t i c a l problems. R e l a t i v e l y great weight was attached to items of very low frequency and the ana l y s i s was n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d to those items occurring i n a l l corpora under a G = 27 consideration. I t was noted that there was a small number of items of r e l a t i v e l y high frequency and a large number of items of low frequency. A s i m i l a r problem i s t y p i c a l of a r t i f a c t frequencies i n archaeological assemblages. Robinson's c o e f f i c i e n t (Robinson 1951), which was proposed as a so l u t i o n to the archaeological problem, has been modified s l i g h t l y and applied to the assessment of inter-corpus s i m i l a r i t y i n Chapter 6. 28 4.0 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h One of the b a s i c emphases of t h i s work i s the comparison of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h mythologies w i t h l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s produced by previous i n v e s t i g a t o r s . This chap-t e r i s a b r i e f p r e s e n t a t i o n of the v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s produced by e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h language and c u l t u r e . The f i r s t two s e c t i o n s of the chapter (4.1 and 4.2) d e a l w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s . S e c t i o n 4.3 presents an overview of h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h languages. These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s demonstrate th a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i v i d e the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h peoples i n t o two d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e areas (the Canadian Plateau and American Plateau) and t o d i v i d e the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h languages i n t o two d i s t i n c t l i n g u i s t i c groups (the L i l l o o e t and Columbia branches). There i s a n b t i c e a b l e convergence between langugge and c u l t u r e i n terms of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s produced. I t w i l l be argued below th a t comparative f r e q u e n t i a l study of myth content permits the r e c o g n i t i o n of two f o l k -l o r i s t i c areas which h a p p i l y c o i n c i d e w i t h the l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o u t l i n e d here. 4.1 The P o s i t i o n of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h i n the Plateau In h i s assessment of c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the P l a t e a u , Ray (1939) f i n d s two fundamentally d i f f e r e n t s o r t s of subareas. The f i r s t o f these i s l o n g i t u d i n a l and r e s u l t s from the a c q u i s i t i o n of t r a i t s and complexes by peoples on the periphery of the Plateau from neighboring peoples of the 29 Northwest Coast and Plains culture areas. Ray sees the Plains influences on the cultures of the Eastern Plateau (Kutenai south to Nez Perce) as superficial and recent, postdating the acquisition of the horse. Influ-ences from the Northwest Coast, ontthe other hand, were steady and prolonged with profound changes wrought on those cultures with strong ties with the coast (Wishram, Lillooet, and Thompson). The second type of areal differentiation in the Plateau occurs along latitudinal lines. This differentiation i s largely the result of histor-i c a l developments indigenous to the Plateau. Ray distinguishes three areal units. The Athapascan area includes the Carrier, Chilcotin, and Sekani. The Canadian Plateau consists of the Lillooet, Thompson, Shuswap, and Okanagon (the Okanagon culture - not the Okanagon language). The remaining cultural groups are assigned to an American Plateau area. The position of the Kutenai is problematical but they probably align most closely with the groups of the Canadian Plateau. It should be noted that the above defined areal units cross-cut linguistic boundaries. The peoples speaking Columbia River Salish languages a f f i l i a t e with the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y unrelated Sahaptin peoples to the south rather than with the Fraser River Salish. It should be noted, however, that there is a f a i r l y nice correlation between the Fraser River Salish language group and the Canadian Plateau culture area. Similarly, the peoples speaking Columbia River Salish languages, with one exception, f a l l into the American Plateau culture area. Only the Okanagon culture i s anomalous in that we would expect i t to align with other peoples speaking the same language (Sinkaietk, Sanpoil, etc.) in the American Plateau 30 culture area. Since no s t a t i s t i c a l examination of the data presented i n Ray's (1939) monograph has been previously undertaken, I submitted the data presented i n Ray's Tables 1 and 2 (Ray 1939:66, 124) to a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . In these two tables the presence or absence of f i f t y t r a i t s pertaining to s o c i a l organization and r e l i g i o n i s recorded f o r nineteen of the cultures i n the Plateau culture area. The Mul t i v a r i a t e Contingency Tabulations program (UBC MVTAB) was employed to produce 171 four c e l l t a b l e s , one f o r each p a i r of cul t u r e s . (For a write-up of UBC MVTAB see Bjerri n g et_ a l . 1970) In order to avoid the d i s t o r t i o n which would r e s u l t from the generally high values i n the d c e l l (common absence ) of the four c e l l t a b l e s , Driver's G was selected as a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (Driver and Kroeber 1932, Driver 1961). The c o e f f i c i e n t s were hand calculated and the r e s u l t i n g matrix was submitted to Smallest Space Analysis (See Bloombaum 1970). The output from MVTAB i s presented i n the appendix (pages 150 - 185). An examination of the SSA (Smallest Space Analysis) p l o t (appendix, page 190) suggests that" the Plateau culture area may be seen as divided i n t o four subareas: a Canadian Plateau area c o n s i s t i n g of L i l l o o e t , Thompson, and Shuswap; an Athapascan area c o n s i s t i n g of C a r r i e r and C h i l c o t i n ; a Klamath i s o l a t e ; and an American Plateau encompassing the remaining c u l t u r e s . This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i f f e r s very l i t t l e from the p a r t i t i o n of the Plateau into l a t i t u d i n a l units suggested by Ray. Kutenai i s assigned to the American Plateau and Klamath appears as an i s o l a t e ; i n a l l other respects the two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are i d e n t i c a l . Ray's recognition of a marginal area on the eastern edge of the Plateau i s supported by the apparent 31 marginality of Nez Perce and Kutenai within the American Plateau. 4.2 S a l i s h Internal C u l t u r a l Relations: Jorgensen's Assessment In h i s recent study of S a l i s h language and c u l t u r e , J . G. Jorgensen (1969) has examined the c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s e x i s t i n g between twenty-eight S a l i s h cultures drawn from both the Northwest Coast and Plateau culture areas. Jorgensen rated each of the groups on 285 a t t r i b u t e s encompassed by seventy-nine c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n alysis revealed two S a l i s h Culture Areas, an I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Culture Area c o n s i s t i n g of those cultures l y i n g within the Plateau, and a Coast S a l i s h Culture Area encompassing the Salishan peoples of the Northwest Coast. The I n t e r i o r  S a l i s h Culture Area i s further subdivided into a Northwestern I n t e r i o r  S a l i s h Culture Group cons i s t i n g of L i l l o o e t , Thompson, and Shuswap; and a Southeastern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Group composed of Sanpoil, Columbia, Wenatchi, Sinkaietk, Coeur d'Alene, K a l i s p e l , and Flathead. Within these culture groups Thompson and Shuswap form a Thompson Culture Cluster and Sanpoil and Columbia form a Middle Columbia Culture Cluster. The remain-ing cultures of the Southeastern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h are ungrouped. The membership of Jorgensen's two I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Groups coincides with the membership of the l a t i t u d i n a l u n i t s recognized by Ray. The Northwestern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Group i s c l e a r l y the equivalent of Ray's Canadian Plateau. The Southeastern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Group i s composed of those cultures belonging to Ray's American Plateau. A matrix of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s derived from Jorgensen's work 32 has been submitted to Smallest Space Analysis. The matrix and SSA plo t appear i n the appendix as pages 191 to 193. SSA analysis confirms the existence of the Northwestern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Group, the Southeastern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Group, and the Middle Columbia Culture C l u s t e r . The Thompson Culture Cluster i s not va l i d a t e d , probably because of the closer r e l a t i o n s h i p between Thompson and Okanagon (.59) as compared with a lower Shuswap-Okanagon fi g u r e (.44). 4.3 In t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Languages The f i r s t serious comparative study of Salishan languages was Boas' and Haeberlin's (1927) "Sound S h i f t s i n Salishan D i a l e c t s " . Boas and Haeberlin recognized a twofold d i v i s i o n of the Salishan stock i n t o Coastal and I n t e r i o r d i a l e c t groups. Their c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h d i a l e c t s i s presented i n Table V. Although a number of sound s h i f t s were recognized, no attempt at subgrouping the languages was made. Voegelin (1941) revised the e a r l i e r work of Boas and Haeberlin, recognizing eight Coast S a l i s h and seven I n t e r i o r S a l i s h languages. The only s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h d i a l e c t s was the grouping of Spokane, K a l i s p e l , Flathead, and Pend d ' O r e i l l e as a s i n g l e language. In a pioneering paper i n l e x i c o s t a t i s t i c method, Morris Swadesh (1950) calculated percentages of shared cognates between t h i r t y Salishan languages and d i a l e c t s . Since the tes t l i s t s from which these c a l c u l a t i o n s were made have never been published, most subsequent researchers i n Salishan l e x i c o s t a t i s t i c s have l i m i t e d themselves to manipulation of the matrix 33 presented by Swadesh (1950:159). Swadesh recognized four d i v i s i o n s of the Salishan stock: I) B e l l a Coola, II) Coast D i v i s i o n , III) Oregon D i v i s i o n , IV) Interior. D i v i s i o n . Swadesh's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the I n t e r i o r D i v i s i o n , presented here as Table VI, departs from e a r l i e r work i n the proposal of two language groups as subgroups of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . A Thompson group i s composed of the Thompson and Shuswap languages, and an Okanagon group unites the d i a l e c t s of the Okanagon language (Okanagon, C o l v i l l e , Sanpoil, Lake) with those of the K a l i s p e l language (Spokane, K a l i s p e l , Pend d ' O r e i l l e ) . The L i l l o o e t , Columbia, and Coeur d'Alene languages remain as i s o l a t e s coordinate with the two language groups. In a rigorous reanalysis of Swadesh's matrix of percentages of shared cognates, Dyen (1962) suggests that l e x i c a l borrowing has i n f l a t e d a number of cognate percentages (OK-TH, OK-SH, CA-KL, CA-PO). By taking t h i s borrowing into account Dyen produced a new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h (See Table VII) which segments the d i v i s i o n into a L i l l o o e t Branch composed of L i l l o o e t and the ThompsonsGroup, and a Columbia Branch comprised of the Okanagon Group, Columbia, and Coeur d'Alene. Jorgensen (1969) has used Swadesh's matrix of percentages of shared cognates as input data f o r the construction of a dendrogram. The r e s u l t -ant dendrogram agrees i n a l l respects with Dyen's revised c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . In order to insure comparability with other s t a t i s t i c a l analyses i n t h i s work, I have submitted the matrix of percentages of shared cognates (appendix, page 191+) to Smallest Space Analysis. The r e s u l t i n g output i s included i n the appendix (pages 194-196). Dyen's L i l l o o e t and Columbia 34 Branches are e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e . The superimposition of K a l i s p e l , Pend d ' O r e i l l e and Spokane i n the SSA p l o t confirms t h e i r close r e l a t i o n s h i p . The Thompson and Okanagon Groups of the Swadesh and Dyen c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s do not appear i n the SSA p l o t . I n f l a t i o n of percentages of shared cognates (probably a t t r i b u t a b l e to l e x i c a l borrowing) has masked the genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the languages under consideration. The TH-LI percentage seems i n f l a t e d when compared with SH-LI although the i n f l a t i o n (9%) f a l l s short of the 9.5% f i g u r e required f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e by Dyen. OK has probably been moved toward SH and TH i n the p l o t because the OK-SH and OK-TH percentages are s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l a t e d as Dyen has noted. KL, PO and SO have been moved away from OK and toward CA because of s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l a t i o n i n the following percentages of shared cognates: CA-KL, CA-PO, CA-SO. The net r e s u l t of the above d i s t o r t i o n s has been the movement of TH away from SH and toward LI and the movement of KL-PO-SO and OK away from each other. H i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c work employing the Comparative Method (Reichard 1958-60, Kinkade and Sloat 1972) confirms the Dyen c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . Hopefully as h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c work continues and the f u l l h i s t o r i c a l phonology of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h becomes known l e x i c a l borrowing can be eliminated as a d i s t o r t i n g f a c t o r i n the l e x i c o s t a t i s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . 35 Table V. I n t e r i o r S a l i s h D i a l e c t s (Boas and Haeberlin 1927:120) Shuswap L i l l o o e t Thompson Okanagon Okanagon C o l v i l l e Sans P o i l Columbian Columbia Wenatchi Peskwaus Spokane Coeur d'Alene K a l i s p e l Flathead Pend d ' O r e i l l e s Sematuse Flathead Plains S a l i s h 36 Table VI. I n t e r i o r D i v i s i o n , Salishan Stock (Swadesh 1950) IV. I n t e r i o r D i v i s i o n 1) L i l l o o e t 2) Thompson Group a) Thompson b) Shuswap 3) Okanagon Group a) Okanagon-Colville-Sanpoil-Lake b) Spokane-Kalispel-Pend d * O r e i l l e 4) Columbia 5) Coeur d'Alene 37 Table VII. I n t e r i o r S a l i s h C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Dyen 1962) IV. I n t e r i o r D i v i s i o n A. L i l l o o e t Branch 1) L i l l o o e t 2) Thompson-Shuswap B. Columbia Branch 1) Okanagon Group (Okanagon, Spokane-Kalispel-Pend d ' O r e i l l e ) 2) Columbia 3) Coeur d'Alene 38 S.O Comparative A n a l y s i s o f Content -This chapter and the f o l l o w i n g one are concerned w i t h the comparative c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s of word-frequencies i n mythic corpora. The b r i e f a n a l y s i s presented i n t h i s chapter was a p i l o t p r o j e c t f o r the expanded comparative a n a l y s i s of Chapter 6. Both chapters are concerned w i t h the c a l c u l a t i o n of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s d e s c r i b i n g the word-frequency s i m i l a r i t y of three semantic word-classes ( r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and technology) among I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Mythic corpora. The s t r u c t u r e of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s compared w i t h Jorgensen's (1969) assessments of s i m i l a r i t i e s i n r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and technology which are based upon ethnographic data.' I t seems reasonable t o view a mythic n a r r a t i v e as composed of a s e r i e s of s i g n s : words, b o d i l y movements and f a c i a l expressions of the n a r r a t o r , i m i t a t i v e sounds, e t c . Since those who have recorded the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h corpora considered here have l i m i t e d t h e i r work t o the v e r b a l p o r t i o n of the mythic n a r r a t i v e s , no work on non-verbal segments of these n a r r a t i v e s i s p o s s i b l e . We must t h e r e f o r e r e s t r i c t frequency a n a l y s i s t o a s i n g l e c l a s s of s i g n s , i . e . , words. The presence or absence and frequency of any word i s determined by a number of f a c t o r s . The s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of sentences i n the language of n a r r a t i o n w i l l i n sure the high frequency of some l e x i c a l items. C e r t a i n verbs are l i k e l y t o occur f r e q u e n t l y because of the formal sequencing of the minimal u n i t s o f the n a r r a t i v e , mythemes or f u n c t i o n s . S t i l l other items are f r e q u e n t l y encountered because of t h e i r s a l i e n c e f o r the 39 narrator and h i s audience. Since the language of a n a l y s i s , English, remains constant no appreci-able inter-corpus v a r i a t i o n deriving from s y n t a c t i c a l l y induced frequency i s to be expected. There are, on the other hand, s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h culture groups with regard to both narrative structure and salience of p a r t i c u l a r words. It i s these differences which are measured i n comparative analysis of word frequency. The notion of salience has a long h i s t o r y i n the study of myth. It i s c l e a r l y i m p l i c i t i n the notion of " s t r i k i n g moments" i n a narrative so prominent i n early h i s t o r i c a l work. The c o r r e l a t i o n of salience with frequencyhhas been discussed recently i n connection with the evolutionary theory of color terms (Hays et_ a l . 1972). In general, I b e l i e v e , we may accept as highly s a l i e n t those words which occur i n a wide v a r i e t y of contexts within a corpus and which have a high o v e r a l l frequency. In the remainder of t h i s chapter and i n the following chapter f r e -quency w i l l be used as an i n d i c a t o r ( a l b e i t only one of many p o s s i b i l i t i e s ) of the r e l a t i v e salience of words within corpora. Several premises may be set f o r t h which are pertinent to comparative work: 1) The salience of any word i n any mythic corpus i s the r e s u l t of the importance of that word as a symbol to the narrators of the corpus i n question - and, i n a larger sense, to the members of t h e i r culture as a whole. 2) The r e l a t i v e salience of words i n any corpus w i l l tend to approach the r e l a t i v e salience of words of a second corpus insofar as the narrators/cultures from which the corpora 40 derive are s i m i l a r to one another. 3) I f r e l a t i v e frequencies of words i n a corpus are i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r r e l a t i v e saliences.then s i m i l a r i t y of word f r e -quency between two corpora can be expected when the narrators/cultures are s i m i l a r . The two chapters which follow attempt an evaluation of t h i s s e r i e s of premises by comparing measured s i m i l a r i t i e s i n word frequency ( i n three semantic classes) with measured s i m i l a r i t i e s i n cultures derived from ethnographic data. 5.1 Goals of the P i l o t Study My f i r s t attempt at comparative study of word frequency i n I n t e r i o r S a l i s h mythology was addressed to corpora from three I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s . Thompson was represented by TH269 - TH283. The L i l l o o e t corpus consisted of LI001 - LI038. OK001 - OK050 represented Okanagon. These myths were selected because of t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y i n keypunched form rather than through any sampling procedure. The intent of t h i s p i l o t study was merely to examine the f e a s i b i l i t y of using s i m i l a r i t i e s i n r e l a t i v e word frequency between corpora to determine c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of these corpora with respect to technology, s o c i a l organization, and r e l i g i o n . The resultant c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was compared with an ethnographic assessment of s i m i l a r i t y of those c u l t u r e s . 41 5.2 S t a t i s t i c s Rank-ordering was used as a device f o r assessing r e l a t i v e importance of various words within each mythic corpus. Spearman's Rho as described i n Mueller, Schuessler, and Costner's (1970) S t a t i s t i c a l Reasoning i n  Sociology was employed to measure s i m i l a r i t i e s between the various rank-orderings. Since the corpora vary i n siz e my analysis was r e s t r i c t e d to terms occurring i n a l l three corpora. Jorgensen's (1969) assessments of technology-demography s i m i l a r i t y , s o c i a l organization s i m i l a r i t y , and religious-ceremonial s i m i l a r i t y are based upon Driver's G. 5.3 Technology Terms To r e f l e c t the references to technology i n the three corpora, twenty-four terms were selected. These were rank-ordered f o r each corpus (Table VIII) according to t h e i r number of occurrences. Each item was given a rank-order number; median values were assigned i n the event of t i e s . Rho was calculated by the following formula: P - 1-N(N 2 - 1) 2 N i s the number of items ranked (24 i n t h i s instance); D i s the sum of the 24 squared differences (Table IX). The following values were obtained: LI vs. TH +.670 42 LI vs. OK +.574 TH vs. OK +.456 From Jorgensen's G-score matrix of technology-demography s i m i l a r i t y (Jorgensen 1969:74) we may extract the comparable G-scores: LI vs. TH .608 LI vs. OK .260 TH vs. OK .304 The patterns of r e l a t i o n s h i p are fundamentally s i m i l a r . In both cases LI and TH are more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d than e i t h e r i s to Okanagon. 5.4 Social.Organization Terms Twelve k i n terms were selected f o r rank-ordering i n order to charac-t e r i z e s o c i a l organization as represented i n the myths. I regret now that the analysis was r e s t r i c t e d to ki n terms and have some doubts as to how adequately these represent the t o t a l i t y of s o c i a l organization. The scope of t h i s area was d r a s t i c a l l y increased i n Chapter 6. Rho was calculated following the procedures outlined above f o r technology terms. The following values were obtained: LI vs. TH +.815 LI vs. OK +.754 TH vs. OK +.498 Corresponding values from Jorgensen's G-score matrix of s o c i a l organization s i m i l a r i t y (Jorgensen 1969:75) are: LI vs. TH .639 LI vs. OK .479 43 TH vs. OK .599 Both Rho and G are i n agreement on the close r e l a t i o n s h i p between LI and TH. The other two scores are inverted. It seems that the Rho value f o r LI vs. OK i s too high. Further comment w i l l be made i n section 5.6 below. 5.5 Religious Terms To r e f l e c t r e l i g i o n i n the three mythic corpora, t h i r t e e n words were selected. The values f o r Rho calculated on these words are: LI vs. TH +.662 LI vs. OK +.574 TH vs. OK +.504 The corresponding values from Jorgensen's (1969:76) G-score matrix of religious-ceremonial s i m i l a r i t y are: LI vs. TH .566 LI vs. OK .466 TH vs. OK .466 Again, as i n both previous cases, both Rho and G agree i n the closeness of the LI - TH r e l a t i o n s h i p . As i n the previous case, however, we f i n d some disagreement f o r the remaining two pa i r s of cu l t u r e s . LI vs. OK i s again too high. No explanation can be offered at present. 5.6 Relationship of G-scores to Rho To assess the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the G-scores c a l c u -l a t e d by Jorgensen from ethnographic data and the values of Rho cal c u l a t e d 44 from myth data a s c a t t e r diagram (Fig u r e 1) was constructed. Each po i n t on the diagram has been l a b e l e d w i t h the l e t t e r T, S, or R i n d i c a t i n g technology, s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r r e l i g i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t appears t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the G-scores and Rho values may be l i n e a r . Of the nine p o i n t s p l o t t e d a l l o f those r e p r e s e n t i n g r e l i g i o n are very c l o s e t o the t e n t a t i v e s t r a i g h t l i n e and two technology p o i n t s f i t w e l l . A l l three of the p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n seem t o deviate widely. I b e l i e v e t h i s d e v i a t i o n i s a s c r i b a b l e t o the f a c t t h a t the c a l c u l a t i o n o f Rho was based on k i n terms alone and not upon more g e n e r a l i z e d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n terms. 5.7 R e s u l t s of the P i l o t Study On the whole, the p i l o t study revealed a remarkable set of agreements between r e l a t i v e frequencies of terms as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of myth and et h n o g r a p h i c a l l y derived measures of c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y . A much l a r g e r study was undertaken t o f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c r o s s -c u l t u r a l study of word frequency i n myth. This l a r g e r study i s the subject of the f o l l o w i n g chapter. 45 Table VIII. Rank-order Numbers and Frequencies of Technology Terms* Okanagon Thompson L i l l o o e t HOUSE 1 (82) 1 (51) 1 (202) FIRE 2 (53) 2 (42) 3 (71) BASKET 5 (34) 4 (17) 4 (30) ARROW 3 (51) 6 (12) 5 (29) CANOE 4 (40) 8.5 (8) 2 (76) BOW 6.5 (21) 8.5 (8) 6 (19) DAM 6.5 (21) 14 (4) 9 (10) LADDER 13.5 (7) 10.5 (5) 7 (17) BALL 11 (8) 3 (23) 19 (2) MAT 13.5 (7) 10.5 (5) 10 (9) VILLAGE 23.5 (1) 7 (9) 8 (12) ARROW-HEAD 11 (8) 14 (4) 14 (4) GREASE 19 (3) 14 (4) 11.5 (8) DOOR 21.5 (2) 5 (15) 19 (2) PAINT 15 (6) 19 (2) 11.5 (8) ROPE 8 (20) 19 (2) 19 (2) AWL 16 (5) 14 (4) 19 (2) ROOF 17 (4) 14 (4) 19 (2) CLOTHES 9 (12) 23 (1) 19 (2) WALL 19 (3) 19 (2) 15 (3) CACHE 23.5 (1) 19 (2) 13 (5) FISH-DAM 11 (8) 23 (1) 23.5 (1) FIREWOOD 19 (3) 23 (1) 19 (2) NECKLACE 21.5 (2) 19 (2) 23.5 (1) *Rank-order numbers are given on the l e f t , frequencies i n parentheses. 46 Table IX. Cal c u l a t i o n of Rho, Technology Terms Rank-order Numbers Pairwise Differences ... TH LI OK TH-LI TH-OK LI-OK AWL 14 19 16 -5 -2 3 ARROW 6 5 3 1 3 2 ARROW-HEAD 14 14 11 0 3 3 BALL 3 19 11 -16 -8 8 BASKET 4 4 5 0 -1 -1 BOW 8.5 6 6.5 2.5 2 -.5 CACHE 19 13 23.5 6 -»+.5 -10.5 CANOE 8.5 2 4 6.5 4.5 -2 CLOTHES 23 19 9 4 14 10 DAM 14 9 6.5 5 7.5 2.5 DOOR 5 19 21.5 -14 -16.5 -2.5 FIRE 2 3 2 -1 0 1 FIREWOOD 23 19 19 -4 4 0 FISH-DAM 23 23.5 11 -.5 12 12.5 GREASE 14 11.5 19 2.5 -5 7.5 HOUSE 1 1 1 0 0 0 LADDER 10.5 7 13.5 3.5 -3 -6.5 MAT 10.5 10 13.5 .5 -3 -3.5 NECKLACE 19 23.5 21.5 -4.5 -2.5 2 PAINT 19 11.5 15 7.5 4 -3.5 ROOF 14 19 17 -5 -3 2 ROPE 19 19 8 0 11 11 VILLAGE 7 8 23.5 -1 -16.5 -15.5 WALL 19 15 19 4 0 -4 TH-LI TH-OK LI-OK 758 1283.5 979.5 P + .670 + .456 + .574 47 Table X. RankSorder Numbers and Frequencies o f K i n Terms* Okanagon Thompson L i l l o o e t BROTHER 1 (105) 4 (21) 2 (85) WIFE 6 (39) 1 (40) 1 (157) SON 3.5 (72) 2 (36) 4 (54) SISTER 2 (87) 6 (12) 3 (68) DAUGHTER 3.5 (72) 8 (8) 5 (47) FATHER 7 (30) 3 (24) 7 (41) HUSBAND 10 (17) 5 (13) 6 (43) GRANDMOTHER 8 (22) 7 (9) 8 (24) MOTHER 5 (47) 9. 5 (3) 10 (22) PARENT 9 (18) 11. 5 (1) 9 (23) SON-IN-LAW 11 (4) 9. 5 (3) 11 (10) FATHER-IN-LAW 12 (1) 11. 5 (1) 12 (4) *Rank-order numbers are given on the l e f t , frequencies i n parenthe 48 T a b l e X I . R a n k - o r d e r Numbers and F r e q u e n c i e s o f R e l i g i o u s Te rms* Okanagon Thompson L i l l o o e t DEATH a (116) 3 (18) 1 (83) POWER 2 (119) 2 (20) 7.5 (17) TRANSFORM 5 (46) 4 (12) 2.5 (32) MAGIC 8 (24) 1 (22) 4 (28) NAME 6 (41) 6 (9) 2.5 (32) SING 1 (180) 7.5 (7) 6 (22) SWEAT-BATHE 7 (35) 5 (10) 10.5 (10) DANCE 4 (47) 11.5 (3) 7.5 (17) TRAIN 10.5 (4) 7.5 (7) 5 (25) SHAMAN 9 (20) 9.5 (4) 9 (15) BIRTH 12 (3) 11.5 (3) 10.5 (10) CURE 13 (2) 9.5 (4) 12.5 (6) MEDICINE 10.5 (4) 13 (1) 12.5 (6) * R a n k - o r d e r numbers a r e g i v e n on t h e l e f t , f r e q u e n c i e s i n p a r e n t h e 49 Table XII. G-scores (Jorgensen 1969) Compared with Rho Technology S o c i a l Organization Rel i g i o n Rho G Rho G Rho G LI vs. TH + .670 .608 + .815 .639 + .662 .566 TH vs. OK + .456 .304 + .498 .599 + .504 .466 LI vs. OK + .574 .260 + .754 .479 + .574 .466 50 Figure 1. S c a t t e r Diagram, Rho v s . G .900 .800 .700 .600 .500 .400 .300 .200 .100 .000 • • . • • • . . . to CO -P cn oo CO o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Rho 51 Table XIII. Data on Corpus Size f o r Content Analysis LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA Tokens: Reli g i o n 319 109 218 481 119 176 120 118 207-So c i a l Organization 992 557 667 719 556 454 579 295 760 Technology 1024 589 649 771 560 495 604 444 881 Types: Religion 25 18 25 19 22 22 18 13 18 S o c i a l Organization 72 75 73 48 51 51 41 48 53 Technology 117 83 90 62 69 64 67 61 91 Tokens as Percentage of Total Corpus: Reli g i o n .008 .004 .008 .011 .005 .007 .005 .006 .005 So c i a l Organization .026 .023 .024 .017 .021 .019 .022 .015 .019 Technology .026 .024 .023 .018 .022 .021 .025 .023 .022 Corpus Length: LI 38,765 LT 24,289 UT 28,342 OK 42,872 0K2 26,398 CV 23,636 SP 24,863 KL 19,733 CA 39,513 52 6.0 Goals of the Expanded Study The p i l o t study o u t l i n e d i n : Chapter 5 demonstrated the general f e a s i b i l i t y of s t u d i e s aimed at assessment of i n t e r - c o r p u s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n word frequency. The expanded study of Chapter 6 which grew out of the p i l o t study improves upon the p i l o t study i n three ways: 1) increase i n both the number of corpora and the t o t a l body of data, 2) f o r m u l a t i o n of a new c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , and 3) improvement of the c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n of words i n the analyses. 6.1 Expansion of the Data Base The corpora used i n the content analyses of the expanded study have been discussed p r e v i o u s l y i n connection w i t h data p r e p a r a t i o n ( s e c t i o n 3.1) and are enumerated i n Table IV. The eight c u l t u r e s represented by the nine corpora employed here c o n s t i t u t e a f a i r l y good c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s . Much a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l was r e g r e t t a b l y omitted. There are q u a n t i -t a t i v e l y adequate corpora f o r S i n k a i e t k , Shuswap, and Lower L i l l o o e t which might have been included had time and energy permitted. S e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l subgroups o f the Thompson are a l s o adequately represented i n the published myth data. A d d i t i o n a l K a l i s p e l and Flathead m a t e r i a l s have been mentioned p r e v i o u s l y (page 20 )• I n c l u s i o n of a l l o f these m a t e r i a l s would have doubled the q u a n t i t y of data used i n t h i s e f f o r t and would have g r e a t l y expanded the keypunching requirements of t h i s r e s earch. The i n c o r p o r a t i o n of these m a t e r i a l s was t h e r e f o r e r u l e d out on s o l e l y p r a c t i c a l grounds. I b e l i e v e these m a t e r i a l s hold much promise f o r 53 f u t u r e r esearch. 6.2 Formulation o f a C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t C a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of two f a c t o r s m i t i g a t e d against the a p p l i c a -t i o n of Spearman's Rho as a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i n the expanded study of t h i s chapter. Use of rank-ordering provided f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of only those words which occurred i n a l l of the corpora under c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c e the set of words ranked must be c o n s i s t e n t from one corpus t o the next. I t was a l s o r e a d i l y apparent that words of very low frequency had a much gr e a t e r input i n t o the c a l c u l a t i o n of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t than was d e s i r a b l e ; some means of weighting was d e s i r a b l e . Close s c r u t i n y of word frequencies i n the corporaAunder i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t a very s m a l l number of d i f f e r e n t words (types) accounts f o r a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e percentage of the tokens i n the t e x t s . In the S a n p o i l corpus as a whole, f o r example, those types o c c u r r i n g t w e n t y - f i v e times or more - while they represent only 10% of the types present - account f o r 73% of the tokens i n the corpus. I t thus seems that g i v i n g equal weight t o a l l t y p e s , as was done i n the p i l o t study, i s not j u s t i f i a b l e . What i s needed i s a measure of agreement between the percentage d i s t r i b u -t i o n s o f words i n the corpora being compared. As has been noted e a r l i e r ( s e c t i o n 3.3), a c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e s i n the pereentage d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f a r t i f a c t s i n arch-a e o l o g i c a l assemblages. W. S. Robinson (1951) has devised an index o f agreement as a s o l u t i o n t o the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l problem. A modified v e r s i o n of Robinson's c o e f f i c i e n t has been employed here to measure 54 agreement between word frequencies i n pair-wise comparisons of corpora. In Robinson's study the range of possible values of the index of agreement runs from 0 to 200. The index of agreement i s derived second-a r i l y from an index of disagreement. The index of disagreement i s calculated by computing the sum of the absolute values of the di f f e r e n c e s i n percentage frequency. Possible values of t h i s index, of course, run from 0 (complete agreement) to 200 (complete disagreement). The index of agreement i s equal to 200 minus the index of disagreement. I have modified the c a l c u l a t i o n of Robinson's c o e f f i c i e n t i n two minor ways. The index of agreement has been calculated by s e t t i n g per-centages side by side i n columns, each column representing a corpus and each row a d i s t i n c t word (type). These tabular arrangements are provided i n Tables XV, XVII, and XIX. The index of agreement was obtained d i r e c t l y from these tables without Robinson's intervening steppof c a l c u l a t i n g an index of disagreement. When two corpora were being compared t h e i r two respective columns were checked and the l e s s e r of the two percentage values was selected f o r each row. The sum of these l e s s e r values provided the index of agreement. (The resultant index i s equal to one h a l f of that calculated by Robinson's method.) An example may prove h e l p f u l : Type Word LI Column LT Column Lesser Value b i r t h .031 .092 .031 cure .019 .009 .009 dance .053 .037 .037 To t a l = .077 55 While t h i s procedure was done by hand, with the assistance of a c a l c u l a -t o r , a f a i r l y simple computer program might be devised to carry out the c a l c u l a t i o n s . The second modification of Robinson's procedure involved the halving of the sums derived from ad d i t i o n of the l e s s e r values y i e l d i n g a c o e f f i c i e n t ranging from .000 to .500 rather than from .000 to 2.000 as i n Robinson's study. Any of my agreement indices may be converted to Robinson's .000 to 2.000 scale by m u l t i p l i c a t i o n by 4 or to simple per-centages by m u l t i p l i c a t i o n by 2. 6.3 Selection of Words f o r Inclusion i n the Analysis Since i t was my d e s i r e , i n both the p i l o t study and the expanded study, to compare myth content with ethnographically observed patterns of i n t e r - c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p as reckoned by J . G. Jorgensen (1969), my inquiry i n t o mythic content was l i m i t e d to those three areas of cu l t u r e employed by Jorgensen. The three designated areas were: 1) r e l i g i o n and ceremony, 2) s o c i a l organization, and 3) demography and technology. A l l words selected f o r i n c l u s i o n were i n t u i t i v e l y assigned to one of the three categories enumerated above. A l l of the words comprising each of the semantic areas are l i s t e d i n the tables providing frequency data; Tables VIII through XI f o r the p i l o t study and Tables XIV through XIX f o r the expanded study. While assignment of words to these three semantic categories i s admittedly a r b i t r a r y , due consideration was given to semantic categories of the source culture wherever such information was a v a i l a b l e . In the r e l i g i o n sector, f o r example, several d i s t i n c t 56 English words were combined as a sin g l e word f o r purposes of t h i s study since they are a l l variant t r a n s l a t i o n s of a s i n g l e term i n the source cu l t u r e s . The term spirit/power subsumes a l l of the following: s p i r i t , medicine, m e d i c i n e - s p i r i t , power, s p i r i t u a l , and medicine-power. A l l of w these are variant t r a n s l a t i o n s of the sin g l e term sumix (Okanagon language) and i t s cognates. A l l s e l e c t i o n of words was accomplished by the following procedure: Count programs were obtained f o r each corpus. Each count was c a r e f u l l y read and l i s t s were drawn up f o r each of the semantic areas. Where necessary, as i n the case c i t e d above, d i s t i n c t terms i n the English counts were subsumed under a sin g l e representative term. Frequency tables (Tables XIV, XVI, and XVIII) and percentage tables (Tables XV, XVII, and XIX) were drawn up f o r each o f the three semantic areas. The t o t a l frequency f o r eachhword was obtained by adding the frequen-c i e s of a l l of the i n f l e c t e d forms of that word occurring i n the corpus. Percentage f i g u r e s were obtained by d i v i d i n g the fEequency of a given word by the t o t a l number of tokens f o r that semantic category to which i t was assigned i n the p a r t i c u l a r corpus under consideration. The term "brother" occurs i n the LI corpus e i g h t y - f i v e times i n one of four variant i n f l e c t e d forms (brother, brothers, brother's,-brothers'). Its percentage i s obtained by d i v i d i n g by 992, the t o t a l number of tokens assigned to the s o c i a l organization semantic category i n the LI corpus, y i e l d i n g a percentage f i g u r e of .085. In other words, 8.5% o f a l l references to s o c i a l organization are a t t r i b u t a b l e to the word "brother". The numbers of tokens and types assignable t o each semantic category 57 i n each of the nine corpora are given i n Table X I I I . From the reckoning of tokens as percentages of the t o t a l corpora (Table X I I I ) we can conclude t h a t r e l i g i o n i s much l e s s important, a t l e a s t i n terms o f overt r e f e r e n c e s , than both technology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a l l nine corpora. Technology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n seem t o be about equal i n frequency. A f a i r amount of consistency i n these r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s i s e x h i b i t e d from one corpus to the next. In both the p i l o t study and the expanded study a l l work was conducted without disambiguation o f the t e x t s . In my own experience, f o r m u l a t i o n of disambiguation r u l e s and examining of concordances f o r ambiguity consumes vast q u a n t i t i e s o f time. For the s o r t o f a n a l y s i s conducted here, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t ambiguity i s s e r i o u s enough t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r the outcome. In p r a c t i c a l terms many ambiguit i e s which e x i s t may be r u l e d out by j u d i c i o u s e x e r c i s e of i n t u i t i o n . The word "power", f o r example, might r e f e r t o mechanical or e l e c t r i c a l power but such a r e f e r -ence i s u n l i k e l y i n an I n t e r i o r S a l i s h myth t e x t . I have assumed t h a t "power" r e f e r s t o t h a t s o r t o f power one r e c e i v e s from a g u a r d i a n - s p i r i t . Disambiguation i s c e r t a i n l y warranted i n some cases, but t o f u l l y disambiguate the 268.000 words of t e x t would r e q u i r e more time (both man-hours and computer-hours) than I care t o imagine. 6.4 Comparative Frequency A n a l y s i s , R e l i g i o n Upon completion o f the running o f count programs, count outputs were examined f o r the purpose o f s e l e c t i n g a l i s t of r e l i g i o u s terms. I t became c l e a r , as the count outputs were examined, t h a t there was some 58 v a r i a b i l i t y from one corpus to the next i n the labeling of p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s concepts. The terms shaman, medicine-man, and doctor are c l e a r l y synonymous and have been combined under shaman. Likewise sweat-lodge, sweathouse, sweat-house, and sweat-house-man have been subsumed under sweat-lodge. Medicine-power, medicine-spirit, power, s p i r i t , medicine, manitou, and s p i r i t u a l have a l l been subsumed under spirit/power. These terminological differences are the resu l t of the application of different labels by the recorders of the texts and r e f l e c t no actual d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the Interior Salish cultures. A few additional subsumations were performed to simplify the compu-tat i o n of percentage figures and to render the data s l i g h t l y more i n t e l l i -g i b l e . Born was subsumed under b i r t h . Die and dead were subsumed under death. Song and singer were included under sing. Sweat and sweat-bath under sweat-bathe. Transformer and transformation under transform; and magical under magic. No subsumation was involved i n the remaining four words; ghost, soul, god, and t r a i n . Some preliminary notions as to i n t e r - c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences can be gleaned from inspection of percentage figures i n Table XV. A number of words show r e l a t i v e l y high frequencies i n the Canadian Plateau: t r a i n , b i r t h , magic, transform. The lowest values on these same words are found i n the American Plateau cultures which are geographically farthest removed; CV, SP, KL, and CA. The two Okanagon corpora (OK, 0K2) show intermediate values as might be expected from t h e i r geographic po s i t i o n on the northern periphery of the American Plateau. An inverse s i t u a t i o n can be seen i n the words dance and death which 59 exhibit t h e i r greatest frequency i n the SP-CA-KL area and correspondingly lower values i n the LI-LT-UT corpora. Here again, the geographically intervening Okanagon groups have intermediate values. Spirit/power and sing are most frequently encountered i n the center of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h area (OK, 0K2, CV) and exhibit diminished frequencies i n the LI-LT-UT area on the one hand, and i n the SP-CA-KL area on the other. The remain-ing words i n the r e l i g i o u s semantic category (cure, ghost, god, shaman, soul, sweat-bathe, sweat-lodge) do not seem to follow any sort of recognizable pattern i n terms of frequency v a r i a t i o n . It should be pointed out, however, that these problematic words constitute l e s s than 20% of the tokens i n the r e l i g i o u s semantic category. This rather crude inspec-t i o n of the data, then, reveals the existence of three c u l t u r a l groupings: 1) a Canadian Plateau composed of LI, LT, UT; 2) an Okanagon group co n s i s t i n g of OK, 0K2; and, 3) an American Plateau group composed of SP, KL, CA. CV i s generally intermediate between groups 2 and 3. The matrix of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and the Smallest Space Analysis of the r e l i g i o u s semantic category w i l l be presented together with those f o r s o c i a l organization and technology i n section 6.8. 6.5 Comparative Frequency Analysis, S o c i a l Organization Terms selected from the count outputs to represent the s o c i a l organi-zation semantic category number 108. The category was broadly defined i n an attempt to avoid the p i t f a l l of i d e n t i f y i n g s o c i a l organization with kinship alone as t h i s proved a l i a b i l i t y i n the p i l o t study. S o c i a l organization as used here includes terms r e l a t e d to p o l i t i c a l organization, 60 status, residence, property and economics, war, f r i e n d s h i p , games and competition, marriage and kinship. I t i s quite apparent, however, that the j o i n t kinship and marriage sub-category i s by f a r the most important of these sub-categories. Of the aggregate t o t a l of tokens f o r the nine corpora, 67% f a l l within the marriage and kinship sub-category. In examining the s o c i a l organization terms i t becomes cl e a r that the type of o v e r - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n which the r e l i g i o u s semantic category exhibited i s not present i n the s o c i a l organization semantic category. On the contrary, u n d e r - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n seems to be the r u l e . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of kinship terms where, f o r example, older and younger s i b l i n g s remain u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( i n both t h i s analysis and the source texts) despite the very r e a l d i s t i n c t i o n s made i n the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s . Given the l i m i t a t i o n s inherent i n the data, no s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem i s p o s s i b l e . Examination of the percentage figures i n Table XVII i s a b i t more d i f f i c u l t than was the case with the e a r l i e r examination of s i m i l a r per-centages i n the r e l i g i o u s semantic category. The s o c i a l organization semantic category data seem more complex and more random than those of the r e l i g i o u s semantic category. The l a r g e r number of types further complicates the p i c t u r e . To a l l e v i a t e some of these d i f f i c u l t i e s terms w i l l be discussed with reference to p a r t i c u l a r semantic sub-categories. P o l i t i c a l organization i s second only to the kinship and marriage category i n o v e r a l l frequency. In a l l , 13% of the tokens i n the s o c i a l organization category are assigned to p o l i t i c a l organization. These are d i s t r i b u t e d among s i x types ( c h i e f , c h i e f t a i n e s s , c o u n c i l , messenger, 61 t r i b e , v i l l a g e ) . The word c h i e f i s the only p o l i t i c a l organization term with any degree of frequency. It i s r e l a t i v e l y l e s s frequent i n the three Canadian Plateau corpora ( L I , LT, UT) and more frequent i n the American Plateau (OK, 0K2, SP, KL, CA). CV has a lower than expected fi g u r e but makes frequent references to c o u n c i l and c h i e f t a i n e s s , perhaps marking a s h i f t i n emphasis. The remaining f i v e words are sporadic i n both frequency and occurrence and no c l e a r d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern i s d i s c e r n i b l e . In t o t a l , LI and LT are set apart from a l l others in.show-ing r e l a t i v e l y low i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l organization. I suspect that the causative agent may be the prevalence i n these corpora of myths derived from adjacent Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s . Myths of Northwest Coast cultures show a lack of i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l organization. Four terms (name, nickname, servant, slave) were assigned to a status sub-category. Name does not display any s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern. Nickname i s r e s t r i c t e d to a si n g l e corpus. Servant and slave occur i n a l l Canadian Plateau corpora. In the American Plateau t h e i r occurrence i s l i m i t e d to lower frequency occurrences of slave i n CV and 0K2, corpora from cultures on the periphery of the Canadian Plateau. The residence sub-category includes the following words: occupant, inhabitant, neighbor, stranger, guest, v i s i t o r , v i s i t . Of these words, only v i s i t e x h i bits any s i g n i f i c a n t degree of inter-corpus v a r i a b i l i t y . V i s i t i s f a r more frequent i n the three Canadian Plateau corpora (LI, LT, UT) and OK than i n the remaining American Plateau corpora. The property and economics sub-category embraces eighteen terms ( g i f t , trade, buy, s e l l , p o t l a t c h , f e a s t , valuable, wealth, poor, r i c h , 62 wealthy, t h i e f , s t e a l , property, goods, owner, possess, possessions). This sub-category i s t h i r d i n importance but includes only 5% of the tokens i n the aggregate of the nine corpora. Many of the terms i n t h i s l i s t are low-frequency items of spotty occurrence and thus cannot contribute much to a simple v i s u a l inspection of percentage tab l e s . Potlatch i s r e s t r i c t e d to LI, which seems s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n d i c a t i v e of that culture's coastal o r i e n t a t i o n . Feast excedes .5% i n LI, LT, OK, 0K2, and CV; occurs with les s frequency i n UT and SP; and i s absent from KL and CA. Here again we see OK, 0K2 and CV a l i g n i n g with Canadian Plateau groups. Poor exhibits rather high frequency i n 0K2, CV, KL and CA and lower frequencies i n the Canadian Plateau groups and OK. The remaining terms do not appear to show any s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n . Terms r e l a t i n g to war (war, warpath, war-party, war-expedition, war-chief, warrior, v i c t i m , v i c t o r , prisoner, captive, f u g i t i v e , enemy) exhibit problematic d i s t r i b u t i o n s . No p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t patterns emerge except that enemy shows high frequency i n LT, UT and CV with lower frequency elsewhere. These same three groups also exhibit a generally high f i g u r e when a l l war terms are considered as a u n i t . It may well be that the r e l a t i v e l y frequent references to war i n these three corpora can be a t t r i b u t e d to a greater admixture of legends i n these corpora. Stories of wars with neighboring cultures are frequently encountered i n I n t e r i o r S a l i s h legends. As noted earlier,.^narrative genre i s unspecified i n some of the corpora studied here with the r e s u l t that some corpora contain no legends (OK, SP, CA) while most are mixed (LI,LT, UT.0K2, CV, KL). From my own knowledge of what I n t e r i o r S a l i s h narrators would assign to each 63 narrative genre ( i . e . , myth, legend) i t seems that there i s s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n i n the quantity of legend material i n the mixed corpora. The games and competition sub-category includes fourteen terms (gambling-bone, l e h a l , gambler, gamble, r i v a l , opponent, winner, l o s e r , contend, contest, compete, race, racer, racecourse). Gambler excedes 1% i n LI alone. Race excedes 3% i n both OK and CV. A l l other terms i n t h i s category are of sporadic occurrence and low frequency. Totaling the games and competition category reveals r e l a t i v e l y greater s t r e s s on these a c t i v i t i e s i n UT, OK, CV, and KL. SP and CA have extremely low t o t a l s (.7% each) while LI and LT have 2.3% and 2%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The friendship sub-category includes f i v e types ( f r i e n d , companion, comrade, partner, share). Friend i s c l e a r l y the only high frequency term i n t h i s group. It i s most frequent (exceding 3%) i n OK, 0K2, and CV. SP and KL show intermediate values; 2.2% and 2%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The remain-ing groups exhibit lower frequencies. The friendship sub-category as a whole i s markedly more frequent i n the American Plateau (2.7% to 4.7%) than i n the Canadian Plateau (.8% to 1.5%). The kinship and marriage category i s by f a r the most important aspect of s o c i a l organization as revealed by i t s accounting f o r two-thirds of the tokens i n the corpora. Types assigned to t h i s sub-category are: marry, marriage, mistress, s u i t o r , widow, orphan, widower, father-in-law, mother-in-law, husband, wife, brother-in-law, s i s t e r - i n - l a w , son-in-law, daughter-in-law, in-law, uncle, aunt, brother, s i s t e r , cousin, nephew, niece, grandparent, grandfather, grandmother, parent, father, mother, step-mother, o f f s p r i n g , son, daughter, step-daughter, grandchild, grandson, 64 granddaughter, ancestor, descendent, generation, f a m i l y , r e l a t i v e . The terms r e l a t i n g to marriage (marry through widower i n the above l i s t ) are f o r the most part sporadic i n occurrence. Only marry occurs with any degree of frequency. In KL and SP i t excedes 5%, whereas i t never goes above 2.6% elsewhere. Orphan i s present i n only three corpora (LI, UT, OK) but may prove c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Canadian Plateau. Kinship terms pose some i n t e r p r e t a t i v e problems. I t i s quite obvious that the set of terms given above cannot possibly represent adequately the semantic categories of kinship which e x i s t i n the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h languages. It i s even d i f f i c u l t to estimate the magnitude of the problem because only one of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h ethnographies contains a discussion of kinship terminology. The absence of such material i s p a r t i c u l a r l y regrettable i n the work of James T e i t who wrote the only ethnographies we possess on the L i l l o o e t , Thompson, Shuswap, (Northern) Okanagon, Columbia, and Coeur d rAlene. Reading the t e x t s , however, reveals that k i n terms may pose l e s s of a problem than might be a n t i c i p a t e d . The vast majority of k i n references are to r e l a t i o n s h i p s within the nuclear family. The nine terms which indicate r e l a t i o n s h i p s within the nuclear family (husband, wife, brother, s i s t e r , parent, father, mother, son, daughter) account f o r 78% of the tokens within the kinship and marriage sub-category and 52% of the tokens i n the s o c i a l organization category as a whole. There i s no evidence i n the reading of the texts that any of these terms r e f e r s to persons outside the nuclear family. I f these terms are not used i n an "extended" manner i n the texts (although they may well be i n other contexts), 'then the semantic content of nearly 80% of the tokens r e l a t i n g to kinship 65 i s c l a r i f i e d by t h i s p o i n t . V a r i a t i o n i n the frequency of k i n terms i s a f r u i t f u l area of i n q u i r y . A f f i n a l terms are highest i n frequency i n LI and LT, exceding 20% i n both cases. Husband and wife are the most f r e q u e n t l y encountered a f f i n a l terms. Husband has high frequencies i n the Canadian Plateau (4.3% t o 5.9%) and low frequencies i n the American Plateau (1.8% t o 2.9%). Wife e x h i b i t s high frequencies i n L I , LT, and SP, and lower f i g u r e s elsewhere. No s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n i s observable i n the frequency d i s t r i -butions of the remaining a f f i n a l terms. Among the k i n s h i p terms r e f e r r i n g t o consanguineal k i n , f a t h e r , mother, b r o t h e r , s i s t e r , son, daughter, and grandmother e x h i b i t the highest frequencies throughout the nine corpora. Most other consanguineal terms are sporadic i n occurrence or low i n frequency. Father i s very prominent i n KL and CA (8.8% and 2.6%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and d e c i d e l y lower i n frequency i n UT, OK, CV and SP (2.2% t o 3.1%). LI and LT e x h i b i t intermediate frequencies (4.1% and 4.8%). The 6.8% of 0K2 seems aberrant. The p a t t e r n f o r mother i s not as c l e a r - c u t . A very high 10.8% sets CA o f f from a l l the remaining groups. LI shows a remarkably low 2.2% while the remaining corpora range from 3.2% to 5.1%. Brother, s i s t e r , son, and daughter show a great d e a l of v a r i a t i o n from one corpus t o the next but the p a t t e r n s of frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n do not conform to the known patte r n s of i n t e r - c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . I know of no e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the seeming randomness of these frequencies. Grandmother holds an important p o s i t i o n throughout the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h area. Two of the Canadian Plat e a u groups and the two Okanagon corpora f a l l below 3% while a l l of the remaining 66 groups excede that f i g u r e . The terms family and r e l a t i v e , while occurring i n a l l corpora, do not seem to show any obvious d i s t r i b u t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n frequency. Grandchildren are mentioned more often i n CV, SP, KL, and CA (1% to 1.6%) than elsewhere. LI, LT, and UT range from .3% to .4% while OK and 0K2 once again have intermediate values (.8% and .6%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Grand-father i s noticeable only f o r the low frequency i t has by comparison with grandmother. Uncle, aunt, cousin, nephew, and niece are a l l of very low frequency. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y fortunate since t h i s area of kinship i s that which d i f f e r s most markedly from the i d e a l pattern of a one-to-one correspondence between the Egnlish terms (on 'which we must r e l y ) and the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h categorization of k i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In general, the patterns of v a r i a t i o n i n s o c i a l organization term frequency conform f a i r l y well to the known i n t e r - c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t i e s of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h groups. LI, LT, and UT frequently agree i n having r e l a -t i v e l y high or r e l a t i v e l y low scores i n common, contrasting with opposite values i n the American Plateau. The American Plateau groups are f a r l e s s homogeneous i n response. OK and 0K2 frequently deviate from other American Plateau groups and agree with the Canadian Plateau or a l t e r n a -t i v e l y e x h i b i t intermediate frequencies. CV, SP, KL, and CA often agree but c l u s t e r s of SP with KL and KL with CA are also evident. 6.6 Comparative Frequency Ana l y s i s , Technology One hundred ninety-three types were selected from among the words av a i l a b l e i n the count outputs from the nine corpora. A f u l l l i s t i n g of 67 these words i s contained i n Tables XVIII and XIX. Since the number of tokens assigned to the technology semantic category i s l a r g e , frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i l l be discussed by semantic sub-categories. The sub-categories recognized f o r the purposes of t h i s discussion are: a r c h i t e c -ture, woodworking, t e x t i l e s , weapons, hunting, f i s h i n g , navigation, packing, c l o t h i n g , ornamentation, f i r e , c h i l d - c a r e , u t e n s i l s , r i t u a l , firearms, horses, camps, miscellany. In s e l e c t i n g types f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the technology semantic category, i t became apparent that there existed frequent ambiguity between nouns and verbs. Dam (verb) could not be distinguished from dam (noun), except i n c e r t a i n i n f l e c t e d forms. In ac t u a l p r a c t i c e t h i s problem was solved by t r e a t i n g noun-verb homographs as a single e n t i t y . In the frequency and percentage tables (Tables XVIII and XIX) the symbol (n+v) follows a l l types so treated. The various sub-categories vary greatly i n r e l a t i v e importance. Architecture and weapons c l e a r l y dominate, accounting f o r over 40% of the tokens i n the nine corpora. F i r e , f i s h i n g , c l o t h i n g , hunting, t e x t i l e s , and navigation average between 5% and 10% of the technology t o t a l . The remaining sub-categories are r e l a t i v e l y unimportant. The arch i t e c t u r e sub-category includes the following types: door, doorway, f i r e p l a c e , house, ladder, roof, w a l l , lodge-covering, dance-house, dancehall, tepee, house-top, lodge, door-flap, smoke-hole, tent, beam, lodge-pole, f l o o r , s h e l t e r , house-ladder, cabin, pole, cache, food-cache, food-place, sleeping-place. Most of these items are of low frequency and highly sporadic i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . House and lodge pose a problem. They 68 are apparently alternate t r a n s l a t i o n s of a si n g l e term? In the CV and KL corpora lodge i s much higher i n frequency than elsewhere and house hardly occurs at a l l . Vogt's (1940) K a l i s p e l d i c t i o n a r y gives both these terms as a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n s of a si n g l e K a l i s p e l term. For purposes of c a l c u l a t i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t the two have been merged and treated as a si n g l e type. No p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern i s evident f o r e i t h e r of these types or f o r the two treated j o i n t l y . Ladder i s more often encountered i n the Canadian Plateau than i n the American Plateau. Tepee i s l i m i t e d to those cultures who have been most influenced by the peoples of the Plains (CV, SP, KL, CA). The remaining types are too infrequent to allow any d i s t r i b u t i o n a l statement. Woodworking includes the following types: adze, ax, board, box, carve, c h i s e l , d i s h , hammer, hatchet, l i d , wedge. Adze, board, c h i s e l , and hammer are r e s t r i c t e d to the Canadian Plateau. I f ax and hatchet are regarded as equivalent, then a pattern emerges where these are l i m i t e d to CV, SP, KL, and CA. The remaining types i n the sub-category are sporadic i n occurrence. The t e x t i l e s sub-category includes: awl, basket, bag, mat, needle, rope, matting, sack, sew, skin ( v ) , s t r i n g , spin, weave, wool, goat-hair, tan, buckskin, c l o t h . Basket i s the most frequently encountered item i n t h i s category i n seven of the nine corpora. In KL basket does not occur at a l l and i n CA i t comprises only .3% of technology references. It i s probably replaced i n these two corpora by bag and sack, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Wool and goat-hair are r e s t r i c t e d to the Canadian Plateau corpora. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l parameters of the remaining types i n the sub-category are 69 unclear because of low frequencies and sporadic occurrence. Weapons are second only to architecture i n terms of o v e r a l l frequency. The weapons sub-category contains an average of 19.5% of the tokens r e f e r r i n g to technology. Dominant among the types i n t h i s sub-category i s the word arrow. In f i v e corpora arrow excedes 8% (OK, 0K2, CV, SP, KL). CA and the three Canadian Plateau corpora e x h i b i t frequen-ci e s of le s s than 5.3%. Bow e x h i b i t s r e l a t i v e l y high frequency i n CV, SP, and KL. CA stands apart from the other groups with an extremely low .5%. Shoot exhibits frequencies i n excess of 4% throughout the American Plateau and remains below that mark i n the Canadian Plateau. Spear i s of high frequency i n LI, LT, and OK and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r a r e r elsewhere. The remaining types i n the sub-category (arrow-flaker, arrow-head, arrow-s t i c k , arrow-stone, arrow-wood, bowstring, breastplate, club, sheath, slaughter, spearhead, spear-point, weapon) exhibit no s i g n i f i c a n t patterns. The hunting sub-category includes: bear-trap, beaver-spear, snare, trap, hunting-party, hunting-camp, hunt, hunter, hunting t r i p , trapper. Hunt exhibits a very high frequency i n UT and an exceptionally low one i n SP. Hunter i s also very frequent i n UT but SP i s joined i n i t s lower frequency by OK, KL, and CA. The remaining types i n the sub-category are infrequent except for the s t r i k i n g l y higher frequency of trap i n SP. The f i s h i n g sub-category embraces twenty types: dip-net, f i s h - l i n e , f i s h - n e t , fish-spear, f i s h - t r a p , weir, harpoon, f i s h i n g - p l a c e , f i s h i n g -u t e n s i l , f i s h - w e i r , bag-net, f i s h ( v ) , fisherman, f i s h (n), dam, fish-dam, salmon-cache, salmon-house, hook, net. Only two types have wide enough d i s t r i b u t i o n s to be useful f or comparison. F i s h (v) has r e l a t i v e l y high 70 frequencies i n OK, 0K2, and CA. It i s infrequent or absent elsewhere. Fi s h (n) exhibits exceptionally high frequencies i n OK and 0K2 and very low frequencies i n CV and KL. In the aggregate f i s h i n g as a category receives greatest emphasis i n the two Okanagon corpora and l e a s t emphasis i n KL and CV. Navigation includes the following types: boat, canoe, paddle, r a f t . Canoe i s r e l a t i v e l y frequent i n 0K2, LI, and LT and infrequent i n SP and KL. Paddle has a very s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n . Raft occurs i n a single corpus and boat i s l i m i t e d i n occurrence to three cultures of the American Plateau (SP, KL, CA). Packing includes the types: bundle, p a r c e l , pack, pack-strap, packing-line, pack-board, burden. A l l except pack are of r e s t r i c t e d occurrence and low frequency. The frequency of pack, however, i s near constant from one corpus to the next. The c l o t h i n g sub-category embraces the following types: clothes, blanket, breech-clout, handkerchief, moccasin, snowshoe, trousers, pocket, leggings, robe, s h i r t , shoe, mittens, glove, hat. Two words i n the counts, cl o t h i n g and clothes, have been subsumed under the si n g l e type clothes. Clothes i s infrequent i n the two Okanagon corpora and also i n CA. Blanket shows high frequencies i n KL and CA, middle range values i n LI and LT, and lower values i n UT, OK, 0K2, CV, and SP. Robe, while occurring f a i r l y frequently, does not conform i n i t s v a r i a t i o n to any established pattern. The remaining items are too sporadic to be u s e f u l . The ornamentation sub-category includes the following types: bead, e a r r i n g , comb, d e n t a l i a , copper, face-paint, bracelet, r i n g , 71 ornament, necklace, paint , paint-pouch, ta t t o o . The two Okanagon corpora (OK, 0K2) share a r e l a t i v e l y high incidence of the word comb. Copper i s r e s t r i c t e d to three Canadian Plateau groups, CV, and 0K2. Paint i s noticeably l e s s frequent i n SP, KL, and CA than elsewhere. Remaining items i n the sub-category provide no useful d i s t r i b u t i o n a l data. F i r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y important sub-category within the technology semantic category. It ranks t h i r d i n importance and comprises 9% of the average corpus. Types assigned to the f i r e sub-category are: f i r e , firewood, oven, torch, f i r e - s p i t , ashes, coa l s , f i r e - s t o n e , f i r e - d r i l l , camp-fire. Only two types are s u f f i c i e n t l y wide-spread to enable comment. Fi r e varies a good deal i n frequency (5.7% to 9.4%) but t h i s v a r i a t i o n does not coincide with established patterns of c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s . Ashes has higher percentage f i g u r e s i n OK and KL but here again there i s no p a r t i c u l a r coincidence with c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Child-care includes the following types: cradle, basket-cradle, cradle-board, toy, b a l l - s t i c k , hoop, b a l l . A l l of these words are low i n frequency and so r e s t r i c t e d i n occurrence as to p r o h i b i t any meaningful d i s t r i b u t i o n a l statement. Utensils includes the following: spoon, spoonful, cooking-basket, root-digger, p a i l , pan. Occurrence of a l l of these terms i s sporadic. Spoon and spoonful are more frequent i n the Canadian Plateau but occur i n 0K2 and CA. R i t u a l terms are: medicine-mat, medicine-whip, medicine-bow, medicine-pipe, dance-pole, r a t t l e , bear-medicine, tobacco, mask. A l l except r a t t l e and tobacco are l i m i t e d to a sing l e corpus. Rattle ocours 72 i n LI, UT, and CV. Tobacco i s r e s t r i c t e d to the American Plateau, occurring i n OK, SP, KL, and CA. The three items i n the firearms sub-category ( r i f l e , gun, t r i g g e r ) each occur i n a sing l e corpus. The horses subcategory includes two types ( c o r r a l , saddle). C o r r a l occurs i n LT, UT, SP and CA. Saddle i s encountered i n UT, 0K2, and KL. The camps sub-category includes the following terms: camp, camp-s i t e , camping-place. Camping-place occurs only i n UT. Camp-site i s present i n UT, OK, and 0K2. Camp occurs i n a l l nine corpora, e x h i b i t i n g low frequency i n LI, LT, and CA. UT and the remaining American Plateau groups ( i . e . , exclusive of CA) have higher rates of occurrence, which rates reach a maximum i n SP (10.8%) and KL (12.4%). Under miscellany, I have placed the remaining technology terms (glue, l a s s o , trappings, road, s c a f f o l d , grave, t a l l o w ) . A l l of these items are of f a i r l y low frequency and none occurs i n more than f i v e corpora. Tallow i s r e s t r i c t e d to SP, KL, and CA. Glue occurs i n LI and LT. None of the other percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n s seems p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In t o t o , the technology terms manifest the same sorts of d i s t r i b u -t i o n a l patterns which emerged from the r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l organization segments of the study. These d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l i n the following section. 73 6.7 D i s t r i b u t i o n a l Patterns Much reference has been made i n the foregoing three sections to d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns. These patterns can be i d e n t i f i e d by comparison of one type with another. I t i s apparent, upon making such comparisons, that c e r t a i n sets of corpora tend to show s i m i l a r i t y i n frequency on a wide range of types. I t i s apparent, f o r example, that i f a type has a high frequency i n L i l l o o e t i t w i l l u s ually have a high frequency i n Lower Thompson as w e l l . To f a c i l i t a t e such comparison a number of types were selected from each of the three semantic categories. Selection was based upon: 1) o v e r a l l frequency, 2) presence of s i g n i f i c a n t inter-corpus v a r i a t i o n , 3) coincidence between v a r i a t i o n i n term frequency and known c u l t u r a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t was deemed undesirable to l i m i t examination to items occurring i n a l l corpora. The t h i r d c r i t e r i o n given above was introduced to allow f o r i n c l u s i o n of items which were r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r occurrence to a p a r t i c u l a r sub-section of the Plateau by v i r t u e of the f a c t that the c u l t u r a l items or p r a c t i c e s were themselves so l i m i t e d . As an example, the word tepee i s r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the corpora at hand and the area of i t s presence coincides f a i r l y well with the ethnographically observed pattern of d i s t r i b u t i o n of tepees i n the material culture of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . The types selected were arranged i n tables comparable to Tables XV, XVII, and XIX. Each type was examined and the percentage figures f o r the various corpora were compared. Each corpus was then characterized as showing e i t h e r a high or low frequency with respect to each of the f i f t y -74 seven types selected f o r comparison. Since many of the types r e v e a l natural hiatuses i n frequency when the nine corpora are examined, these hiatuses were used i n preference to such a r b i t r a r y c u t - o f f points as medians or means. An example may prove h e l p f u l . Husband occurs i n a l l nine corpora. Its frequency i n each of the corpora i s a v a i l a b l e i n Table XVII. In the three Canadian Plateau corpora we f i n d percentage figures ranking from .043 to .059. None of the other corpora excede the .029 of CA. Since the large hiatus i s apparent, LI, LT, UT form one group and may be characterized as high i n frequency while the American Plateau corpora form another group;and may be characterized as having a low frequency. Tables XX, XXI and XXII.Hist a l l f i f t y - s e v e n of the types selected f o r study of d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns. Each of the c u t - o f f points i s l i s t e d at the r i g h t hand side of the t a b l e . Any corpus having a percen-tage f i g u r e greater than or equal to the c u t - o f f point i s scored as high (H). Any corpus having a percentage f i g u r e l e s s than the c u t - o f f point or lacking the term i s scored as low ( L ) . The corpus which exhibits the highest frequency has i t s H underlined (H). When t i e s hold the highest percentage f i g u r e , a l l t i e d f i g u r e s are underlined. P r i o r to the construction of Tables XX, XXI, and XXII, some i n v e s t i -gations were made with respect to possible sub-groups of corpora. Once the types had been characterized as high or low i n each corpus the patterns of H's and L's could be compared. To elucidate the most immediate rela4> tionships of each of the corpora, those types were examined which had high scores i n two corpora and low scores i n the remaining seven. Nine 75 of the f i f t y - s e v e n types met t h i s c r i t e r i o n . Five p a i r s of corpora emerged. LI and LT had high scores on t r a i n , board, and spear. OK and 0K2 shared high scores on f i s h (n) and comb. OK and CV had high values on race. SP and KL were paired by v i r t u e of shared high values on marry. KL and CA shared high scores on bag-sack and blanket. These f i v e p a i r s when linked together produce a dyad (LI-LT) and two t r i a d s (0K2-0K-GV, SP-KL-CA). UT i s not included i n any of the nine p a i r s . Examination of types with three H's and s i x L's helps to further c l a r i f y immediate r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Four t r i a d s occur i n more than one instance. H i n LI, LT, and UT i s found with husband, ladder, adze, c h i s e l , hammer, and goat-hair. H i n LI, LT, and 0K2 occurs with paddle and canoe. Spirit/power and f r i e n d unite OK, 0K2, and CV. Death, boat, and tallow exhibit H's i n SP, KL, and CA. The above data are s u f f i c i e n t to i d e n t i f y three t r i a d i c subgroups among the corpora. The Canadian Plateau corpora (LI-LT-^UT) form one group. 0K-0K2TCV i s a second group which may be termed the Northern Sector, American Plateau, The t h i r d t r i a d i s composed of SP, KL, and CA and i s termed the Southern Sector, American Plateau. These recognizable subgroups provided a useful way of separating the data presented i n Tables XX, XXI, and XXII. Types were assigned to one of the three tables by v i r t u e of the locus at which that type attained i t s highest frequency (H). Those terms with H i n LI, LT, or UT were placed i n Table XX, f o r example. I f these subgroups have general v a l i d i t y f o r the f i f t y - s e v e n items i n the sample used i n t h i s section^ we would expect a considerable degree 76 of agreement between member corpora within each t r i a d and l e s s e r agree-ment with corpora external to the t r i a d . Another way of looking at Tables XX, XXI, and XXII i s to see them as presenting l i s t s of words c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of each subgroup. We should expect to f i n d that a large proportion of words contained i n Table XX have H's under LI, LT, and UT and smaller proportions of H's i n other columns representing the remain-ing corpora. S i m i l a r l y , the other two tables should exhibit the largest proportionsoof H-scored words under the 0K-0K2-CV and SP-KL-CA t r i a d s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Table XXIII provides the proportion of H's f o r each corpus f o r each of the tables (XX-XXII) and reveals a s t r i k i n g set of agreements. There appear to be three classes of types each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f r e -quent i n one of the three areas; Canadian Plateau, Northern Sector of American Plateau, and Southern Sector of American Plateau. The subgrouping of the corpora into three t r i a d s may also be tested by determining the o v e r a l l agreement between corpora. Each p a i r of corpora was compared and the number of types on which both agreed ( i . e . , shared H or L scores) was determined. The number of agreements was divided by f i f t y - s e v e n (the number of types i n the sample) and a percen-tage fi g u r e was obtained. These figures are contained i n the matrix of Table XXIV. LI, LT, and UT form a decided group i n that they are much more s i m i l a r to one another than any of them i s to any other corpus. The same holds true of SP, KL, and CA. The two Okanagon corpora are c l e a r l y subgrouped but CV i s c l o s e r to SP and KL i n the Southern Sector than to OK and 0K2. CV i s not close enough to CA to warrant i n c l u s i o n i n the Southern Sector subgroup. The r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between these American 77 Plateau corpora i s c l e a r l y analogous to a d i a l e c t chain ( i n the t e c h n i c a l l i n g u i s t i c sense) with two d i s c r e t e subgroups (0K-0K2, SP-KL-CA) lin k e d by CV. It may also be noted, i n passing, that i n both Tables XXIII and XXIV the Northern Sector of the American Plateau i s c l o s e r to the Canadian Plateau than i s the Southern Sector of the American Plateau. This s i m i l -a r i t y coincides n i c e l y with the intermediate geographical p o s i t i o n of the Northern Sector c u l t u r e s . 6.8 C o r r e l a t i o n Matrices and Smallest Space Analysis Following the procedures o u t l i n e d i n section 6.2, c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed f o r each p a i r of corpora to measure s i m i l a r i t y i n frequency i n each of the three semantic categories. A matrix of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s was produced f o r each of the semantic categories ( r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l organization, technology). These matrices are presented i n Tables XXV, XXVI, and XXVII, The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are disappointing i n that there are no highly correlated corpora (including the two Okanagon corpora which are drawn from the same c u l t u r e ) . The range of v a r i a t i o n i s also rather small. C o e f f i c i e n t s range between .223 and .410 i n the r e l i g i o u s semantic category, between .254 and .367 i n the s o c i a l organization category, and between .236 and .380 i n the technology category. I suspect that t h i s rather uniform low-level c o r r e l a t i o n emanates from the quantity and q u a l i t y of the data rather than from the s t a t i s t i c a l techniques employed. One major f a c t o r which contributes to o v e r a l l d i s s i m i l a r i t y i s the 78 i n c l u s i o n among the types of words l i m i t e d to one or a few corpora. Of the 193 types i n the technology semantic category, f o r example, only twenty-two are present i n a l l nine corpora, On the other hand, there are f i f t y - n i n e types i n the technology category which occur i n a s i n g l e corpus. While most of the types withhlimited d i s t r i b u t i o n s are low-frequency terms, the aggregate e f f e c t i s to bring about an o v e r a l l reduction i n s i m i l a r i t y . This problem might be remedied by increasing corpus s i z e since the number of types increases as the length of the corpus increases. Another a l t e r n a t i v e might be to l i m i t inquiry to types present i n a l l corpora. This, however, would d r a s t i c a l l y reduce the number of types a v a i l a b l e f o r comparison. Another f a c t o r which may contribute to the reduction i n s i m i l a r i t y i s the seemingly random v a r i a t i o n i n frequency i n a number of high-frequency types. There are a few high-frequency types i n each semantic category which vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n frequency from one corpus to the next but t h i s v a r i a t i o n does not coincide with any known subgrouping of the cultures from which the corpora derive. This v a r i a t i o n , furthermore, f a i l s to coincide with the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns described i n the preceding section. Conspicuous among words i n t h i s c l a s s are sweat-bathe and sweat-lodge i n the r e l i g i o u s semantic category; brother, s i s t e r , son, and daughter i n the s o c i a l organization semantic category; and f i r e , k n i f e , and house i n the technology semantic category. No explanation can be given f o r the rather p e c u l i a r patterns of v a r i a t i o n exhibited by these types. The absence of subgroups i s another cause f o r disappointment. By 79 subgroup I mean a c l u s t e r of three or more corpora whose i n t e r n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s are greater than a l l r e l a t i o n s of member groups with external corpora. Such c l u s t e r s are not present. Some highly s i g n i f i c a n t patterns of r e l a t i o n s h i p may, however, be gleaned from the matrices. These patterns may be discovered by examining the figures to determine the c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e of each corpus ( i . e . , the corpus with which i t has the highest c o r r e l a t i o n ) on each of the three semantic t e s t s . LI i s most s i m i l a r i n r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l organization to UT and i n technology to LT. Both LT and UT have LI as t h e i r c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e on a l l three t e s t s . In a l l cases, then, the three Canadian Plateau groups have t h e i r highest c o r r e l a t i o n with another Canadian Plateau group. The s i x American Plateau corpora r e s u l t s from the three semantic categories provide us with eighteen c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e s . Out of t h i s number, f i f t e e n of the c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e s are fellow American Plateau corpora. The three remaining c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e s are a l l UT. It seems p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t that UT i s consistent i n showing a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to American Plateau cultures than e i t h e r of i t s fellow Canadian Plateau corpora. OK has as i t s c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e s CV ( r e l i g i o n ) , SP ( s o c i a l organ-i z a t i o n ) , and 0K2 (technology). 0K2 i s linked with UT ( r e l i g i o n ) , KL ( s o c i a l organization), and OK (technology). CV i s c l o s e s t to OK i n r e l i g i o n and technology and to UT i n s o c i a l organization. SP i s most l i k e KL i n r e l i g i o n and technology and 0K2 i n s o c i a l organization. KL i s t i e d with SP i n r e l i g i o n and technology and with 0K2 i n s o c i a l organization. CA has i t s c l o s e s t l i n k s with SP ( r e l i g i o n ) , 0K2 ( s o c i a l organization), and UT 80 (technology). Examining the c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e s of the s i x American Plateau corpora, we f i n d some support f o r the d i v i s i o n of the American Plateau into Northern (0K-0K2-CV) and Southern (SP-KL-CA) sectors. The three Northern Sector groups have other Northern Sector groups as nearest r e l a t i v e i n f i v e out of nine cases. The three Southern Sector groups, a l s o , have Southern Sector c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e s i n f i v e out of nine cases. With respect to the three semantic categories, American Plateau corpora have c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e s i n t h e i r own sectors i n f i v e out of s i x cases i n both r e l i g i o n and technology. The s o c i a l organization semantic category deviates widely, with a l l groups linked to corpora outside t h e i r sector. No expla-nation can be offeredvfor the anomalous pattern exhibited by s o c i a l organization. Inspection of the matrices, then, while f a i l i n g to show any high l e v e l c o r r e l a t i o n s or subgroups, o f f e r s some support f o r d i v i s i o n of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h corpora into three t r i a d s (LI-LT-UT, 0K-0K2-CV, SP-KL-CA). There i s , i n addition, a f a i r l y strong case for separation into two higher l e v e l groupings: a Canadian Plateau group (LI, LT, UT) and an American Plateau (OK, 0K2, CV, SP, KL, CA). A l l of the three matrices were used as input to the Smallest Space Analysis program (See section 3.2.4) and the outputs f o r the three seman-t i c categories of myth content are presented i n the appendix (pages 197-205)- Since the SSA p l o t s presented as part of the program output (pages 199,202,205) are d i s t o r t e d by the p r i n t e r (x and y axes of the plot are of d i f f e r e n t length), two-dimensional p l o t s have been prepared 81 from the Smallest Space coordinates provided i n the outputs. These p l o t s appear as Figures 2, 3, and 4. The SSA p l o t s provide a v i s u a l representation of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n -ships among the corpora as contained i n the input matrices. Examining the p l o t s , we can see that the three Canadian Plateau groups are always r e l a t i v e l y close to one another. It i s also apparent that the i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the three groups are consistent; LI i s p i v o t a l with each of the Thompson corpora (LT, UT) resembling LT more than i t does the other Thompson corpus. The Northern Sector corpora vary a good deal from one semantic cate-gory to the next. In the r e l i g i o n p l o t OK and CV are f a i r l y i s o l a t e d but c l o s e r to one another than to any other corpus. The close proximity of 0K2 to the Canadian Plateau groups separates i t from the other Northern Sector corpora. In the s o c i a l organization p l o t CV i s the deviant corpus, f a r removed from a l l others. There s t i l l appears a d i v i s i o n between American Plateau groups (on the l e f t i n Figure 2) and the Canadian Plateau groups (on the r i g h t ) , though d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of Northern and Southern sectors i n the American Plateau i s absent. The technology p l o t contains a c l e a r c l u s t e r of the two Okanagon corpora with a more distant but s t i l l f a i r l y close CV. The Southern Sector corpora, s i m i l a r l y , e x h i bit v a r i a t i o n from one semantic category to the next. CA i s c o n s i s t e n t l y f a r removed from KL and SP. KL and SP are rather t i g h t l y clustered i n both the r e l i g i o n and technology p l o t s . As noted above, the s o c i a l organization p l o t f a i l s to show a dichotomous r e l a t i o n s h i p between Northern Sector and Southern 82 Sector groups. In the main, then, the SSA p l o t s substantiate the Canadian Plateau group (LI, LT, UT); o f f e r some evidence f o r the Northern Sector c l u s t e r (OK, 0K2, CV), and f o r a c l u s t e r i n g of two of the Southern Sector groups (SP, KL). The s o c i a l organization diagram shows a b i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n between Canadian Plateau and American Plateau groups. 6.9 Myth Content and Ethnographic Data To f a c i l i t a t e comparison of myth content with ethnographically observed patterns of c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h area, data were extracted from Jorgensen's c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study S a l i s h Language  and Culture (Jorgensen 1969). I n t e r i o r S a l i s h data were extracted from Jorgensen's matrices which include both Coast and I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s . The matrices prepared from these extracted data appear as Tables XXVIII, XXIX, and XXX. The matrices were submitted to Smallest Space Analysis and the plo t s contained i n Figures 5, 6, and 7 were prepared from the outputs of SSA (pages 206-21H)* Jorgensen employed ten I n t e r i o r S a l i s h cultures i n his c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study: L i l l o o e t ( L I ) , Thompson (TH), Shuswap (SH), Sinkaietk (SK), Sanpoil (SP), K a l i s p e l (KL), Flathead (FL), Coeur d'Alene (CA), Wenatchi (WN), and Columbia (CL) The ethnographic materiallupon which Jorgensen's TH i s based i s derived from T e i t ' s (1900) ethnography. Since that monograph pertains more to the Upper Thompson than to the Lower Thompson, we may regard Jorgensen's TH as equivalent to the UT of the preceding analysis of myth content. Jorgensen c o n s i s t e n t l y uses Okanagon when r e f e r r i n g to 83 data based upon a Southern Okanagon or Sinkaietk ethnography (Spier et_ al_. 1938). Since there are d e f i n i t e c u l t u r a l differences between Northern Okanagon (OK) and Sinkaietk (SK) according to Spier, i t i s best to t r e a t them as separate e n t i t i e s . Groups represented i n both Jorgensen's study and the above analysis of myth content are LI, UT, SP, KL, and CA. The absence of Northern Sector corpora i s r e g r e t t a b l e . It may be possi b l e , at some point i n the future, to further expand the comparison by including SH, SK, and FL corpora i n the myth a n a l y s i s . Examination of Jorgensen's I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c o e f f i c i e n t s , as assembled here i n Tables XXVIII, XXIX, and XXX reveals only a sin g l e instance i n which three or more cultures form a d i s c r e t e subgroup. LI, SH, and TH are more s i m i l a r to one another than to external groups i n technology. In a l l other cases the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s are c l e a r l y analogous to l i n g u i s -t i c d i a l e c t chains. There does appear, however, to be an area of cleavage separating Canadian Plateau groups (LI, SH, TH) from American Plateau groups (KL, CA, SK, SP, CL, WN, FL). This d i v i s i o n i s apparent i n the SSA plo t s where LI, TH, and SH are grouped together on the r i g h t side of the pl o t and the American Plateau groups are scattered i n the left-hand quadrants. The r e l a t i v e l y t i g h t e r c l u s t e r i n g of Canadian Plateau groups and the scattered configuration of American Plateau groups p a r a l l e l s the s i t u a t i o n encountered i n the content analysis above. 84 Table XIV. Religious Terms, Frequency LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA b i r t h 10 10 7 1 9 2 — — 3 cure 6 1 4 — 2 — — — 1 dance 17 4 14 42 10 21 16 12 18 death 83 24 61 90 42 37 67 63 93 ghost 14 — 4 3 — 2 — 1 god — — 1 2 1 2 3 - - - -magic 28 13 10 24 4 1 — — 1 shaman 22 3 18 16 1 10 6 9 5 sing 22 9 10 139 2 39 12 18 41 soul — — 2 — 1 spirit/power 19 4 23 97 22 41 3 11 20 sweat-bathe 8 7 1 10 3 2 11 1 8 sweat-lodge 5 5 9 10 1 19 1 12 t r a i n 25 6 3 — — 1 transform 60 23 55 46 18 1 — 3 4 Table XV. Religious Terms, Percentage Figures LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA b i r t h .031 .092 .032 .002 .076 .011 — — .014 cure .019 .009 .018 — .017 — — — .005 dance .053 .037 .064 .087 .084 .119 .133 .102 .087 death .260 .220 .280 .187 .353 .210 .558 .534 .449 ghost .044 — — .008 .025 — .017 — .005 god — — .005 .004 .008 .011 .025 — — magic .088 .119 .046 .050 .034 .006 — — .005 shaman .069 .028 .083 .033 .008 .057 .050 .076 .024 sing .069 .082 .046 .289 .017 .222 .100 .153 .198 soul — — .009 — .008 spirit/power .060 .037 .106 .202 .185 .233 .025 .093 .097 sweat-bathe .025 .064 .005 .021 .025 .011 .092 .008 .039 sweat-lodge .016 .046 .041 .021 .008 .108 — .008 .058 t r a i n .078 .055 .014 — — .006 transform .188 .211 .252 .096 .151 .006 —- .025 .019 86 Table XVI. S o c i a l Organization Terms, Frequency LI LT UT OK 0K2 ancestor 11 — 17 -- 4 aunt — 7 — --brother 85 68 40 78 40 brother-in-law 6 —• 6 — 1 buy 2 — 1 — 4 captive -- 1 1 2 chief 52 6 59 105 75 ch i e f t a i n e s s -- — 1 companion 2 1 3 — 1 compete 2 — 6 23 4 comrade — — — — 1 contend — — 1 contest — 3 3 2 . co u n c i l — 1 1 cousin 4 1 2 daughter 48 8 25 72 32 daughter-in-law 2 1 7 descendent 20 -- 7 enemy 6 21 26 7 11 family 15 4 14 12 2 father 41 27 17 21 38 father-in-law 4 — 2 1 87 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA feast 11 5 1 13 9 3 2 f r i e n d 10 7 2 22 20 15 13 6 10 f u g i t i v e — 3 — — 1 gamble 1 1 4 2 — 3 2 3 1 gambler 12 — 3 — — — 1 2 1 gambling-bone — 1 generation 6 3 1 — — 5 g i f t — 1 — 2 1 — — 1 goods 2 1 1 — — l grandchild — 1 — 1 2 2 2 2 7 granddaughter — 1 2 4 1 3 9 — 1 grandfather 6 1 4 1 6 — 7 grandmother 24 10 43 18 15 22 24 10 54 grandparent — 2 2 grandson — 1 2 4 1 3 9 — 1 guest 2 4 2 — — — — 1 1 husband 43 33 34 14 15 8 14 7 22 in-law — — — 2 — — — — 1 inhabitant 6 3 2 — — — l e h a l 6 5 los e r — — 1 marriage 4 2 2 — 3 — — 1 1 marry 26 12 14 1 14 5 31 15 2 messenger 1 1 2 3 — — 3 — 1 88 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA mother 22 26 31 23 18 28 26 15 82 mother-in-law 2 — — 1 — — — — 1 name 32 10 7 33 22 40 13 12 9 neighbor 9 1 1 2 1 nephew 5 13 — — — — 15 — 1 nickname 4 niece — 3 — — 1 occupant — 2 — — — — — — 1 o f f s p r i n g 1 3 1 opponent 1 — — 3 — — 1 2 orphan 2 — 1 4 owner — — 1 — — 1 — 2 5 parent 23 6 20 11 22 8 7 8 8 partner — — — — 1 — — 7 poor 7 1 6 3 9 13 1 4 16 possess 7 2 1 — 2 possessions — 3 1 2 — — — 3 1 p o t l a t c h 5 p r i s o n e r 1 3 — — 3 property 1 2 2 — — — 1 1 race 2 6 23 4 19 3 racecourse — — — — — — — 1 r a c e r — — 1 — — — — 1 89 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA r e l a t i v e 2 4 11 2 3 3 3 1 4 r i c h 6 2 — — 1 — 2 r i v a l 1 1 9 s e l l 1 1 — — — 2 servant 9 4 2 3 share 3 — 1 3 1 1 8 s i s t e r 68 48 34 78 43 23 51 3 57 sister-in-law — — 1 6 3 1 1 slave 8 4 4 1 1 son 54 19 31 63 21 6 19 19 39 son-in-law 10 3 6 4 7 1 1 2 2 st e a l 7 7 8 5 13 6 3 5 4 step-daughter — 1 step-mother — 1 stranger 6 2 2 4 2 4 6 2 — suitor 3 — 3 — — 1 t h i e f 4 1 2 1 2 — trade 1 3 — — 4 tr i b e 13 6 18 — 7 6 — 8 6 uncle 3 2 1 — 3 4 2 — 1 valuable 2 1 2 1 6 victim 4 1 — 2 v i c t o r — 1 v i l l a g e 12 8 12 4 5 — 1 9 90 LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA v i s i t 29 16 13 17 4 6 7 2 4 v i s i t o r 1 1 — 1 3 1 — 1 war — 4 1 4 2 6 2 2 8 war-chief — 1 war-expedition — 1 war-party 1 2 6 — 2 warpath — 1 — — 1 warrior — 7 1 1 4 15 — 2 wealth 2 wealthy 2 ,:2 widow — — — 2 — — — — 1 widower 1 wife 157 84 70 31 66 51 89 21 43 winner — — 1 — — 1 — 2 91 Table XVII. S o c i a l Organization Terms, Percentage Figures LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA ancestor .011 ,026 -.- ,007 -- .002 aunt — .013 — — — -CO© 4 brother .085 .122 .060 .108 .072 .088 .177 .010 .075 brother-in-law .006 — .009 — .002 -- — .003 .012 buy .002 — .001 — .007 .004 captive — .002 — .001 .004 c h i e f .052 .011 .088 .146 .135 .057 .133 .119 .176 chief tainess — -- .001 — -- .024 — -- .005 companion ,002 .002 .004 — .002 -- — — .003 compete — — — .001 — — — .003 comrade — — — — -- — .010 contend — — .001 — — .002 contest — .005 .004 .003 .002 -- — -- .005 coun c i l — .002 .001 — -- .024 — — .005 cousin* .004 .002 .003 — — .004 .002 .014 daughter .048 .014 .037 .100 .058 .009 .078 .064 .071 daughter-in-law .002 .002 — .010 — -- — — .001 descendent .020 — .010 -- -- .007 enemy .006 .038 .039 .010 .020 .037 .003 .010 .009 family .015 .007 .021 .017 .004 .007 .012 .014 .009 father .041 .048 .026 .029 .068 .031 .022 .088 .076 father-in-law .004 -- ,003 .001 — -- — — .001 92 LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA feast .011 .009 .001 .018 .016 .007 .003 — — f r i e n d .010 .013 .003 .031 .036 .033 .022 .020 .013 f u g i t i v e — .005 — — .002 gamble .001 .002 .006 .003 — .007 .003 .010 .001 gambler .012 — .004 — — — .002 .007 .001 gambling-bone — .002 generation .006 .005 .001 — — .011 — — .001 g i f t — — .001 — .004 .002 — — . 001. goods .002 .002 .001 .001] grandchild — .002 — .001 .004 .004 .003 .007 .009 granddaught er — .002 .003 .006 .002 .007 .013 — .001 grandfather .006 .002 .006 — .002 .013 — — .009 grandmother .024 .018 .064 .025 .027 .048 .041 .034 .071 grandparent — .003 .003 — .002 grandson .003 — — .001 — .002 0003 .004 guest .002 .007 .003 — — — .003 — .001 husband .043 .059 .051 .019 .027 .018 ,024 .024 .029 in-law .003 .001 inhabitant .006 .005 .003 l e h a l .006 .009 lo s e r — — .001 marriage .004 .003 .003 — .005 — — .003 .001 marry .026 .021 .021 .001 .025 .011 .054 .051 .003 messenger .001 .002 .003 .004 — — .005 — .001 93 LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA mistress — .005 mother .022 .047 .046 .032 .032 .062 .045 .051 .108 mother-in-law .002 — — .001 — — — — .001 name .032 .018 .010 .046 .040 .088 .022 .041 .012 neighbor .009 .002 .001 .003 — .002 — — .003 nephew .005 .023 — — — — .026 — .001 nickname .004 — — — .005 niece — .005 — — .002 occupant — .004 — — — — — — .001 o f f s p r i n g .001 .005 .001 opponent .001 — — .004 — — .002 .007 orphan .002 — .001 .006 owner — — .001 -- -- .002 — .007 .007 parent .023 .011 .030 .015 .040 .018 .012 .027 .011 partner — — — — .002 — — .024 poor .007 .002 .009 .004 — .029 .002 .014 .021 possess .007 .003 .001 — .004 possessions — .005 .001 .003 — — -- .010 .001 potlatch .005 prisoner .001 .005 — — .005 property .001 .003 .003 — — — .002 .003 race .002 — .009 .032 .007 .042 — .010 racecourse — — — — — — — .003 racer — — .001 — — — — .003 94 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA r e l a t i v e .002 .007 .016 .003 .005 .007 .005 .010 .005 r i c h .006 — .003 — — .002 -- .007 r i v a l .001 .002 .013 s e l l .001 .002 — — — — — .007 servant .009 .007 .003 — .005 share .003 — .001 .004 — .002 — .003 .011 s i s t e r .068 .086 .051 .108 .077 .051 .088 .010 .075 s i s t e r - i n - l a w — — .001 .008 .005 .002 .002 slave .008 .007 .006 — .002 .002 son .054 .034 .046 .087 .038 .013 .035 .064 .051 son-in-law .010 .005 .009 .006 .013 .002 .002 .007 .003 s t e a l .007 .013 .012 .007 .023 .013 .005 .017 .005 step-daughter — ,002 step-mother — .002 — stranger .006 .004 .003 .006 .004 .009 .010 .007 s u i t o r .003 — .004 — — — .002 t h i e f .004 .002 .003 .001 — — — .007 trade .001 — — .004 — — .007 t r i b e .013 .011 .027 — .013 .013 — .027 .008 uncle .003 .003 .001 — .005 .009 .003 — .001 valuable .002 .002 .003 — — .002 — — .008 v i c t i m .004 .002 — .003 v i c t o r — .002 v i l l a g e .ol2 .014 .019 — .007 .011 . . . 0 0 3 .012 95 LI JLT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA v i s i t .029 .029 .019 .024 .007 .013 .012 .007 .005 v i s i t o r — .002 .001 — .002 .007 .002 — .001 war — .007 .001 .006 .004 .013 .003 .007 .011 war-chief — .002 war-expedition — .002 war-party .001 .003 .009 -- .004 warpath — .002 — — .002 warrior — .013 .001 .001 .007 .033 — .007 wealth .002 wealthy .002 .003 widow — — — .003 — — — — .001 widower .001 wife .158 .151 .105 .043 .119 .110 .154 .171 .057 winner — -- .001 — — .002 — .007 96 Table XVIII. Technology Terms, Frequency LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA adze (n+v) 1 3 1 arrow 30 31 17 75 45 47 55 60 30 arrow-flaker — — 7 arrow-head 4 2 2 8 1 5 — 2 3 arrow-stick 2 — --arrow-stone 5 — — — — — — 1 arrow-wood 1 — -- --ashes 1 1 2 12 1 3 2 5 2 awl 2 — 4 5 2 — — — 4 ax — — -- — 1 3 — 4 bag 7 . 5 1 3 5 9 1 bag-net — — 1 b a l l 2 8 1 8 6 — — 2 1 b a l l - s t i c k — 1 basket 32 10 11 33 9 17 11 — 3 basket-cradle 1 bead 5 1 1 7 5 beam — 1 bear-medicine — — — — — — — 1 bear-trap — — — — — — — 1 beaver-spears 1 blanket 24 15 11 12 3 3 7 14 34 97 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA board 4 1 — — — - -boat — — 8 2 5 8 bow 20 11 8 17 12 20 21 15 4 bowstring — — — — — 1 box 11 — — — — — — — 8 bracelet — — — — — — — 1 1 breast-plates 2 breech-clout 3 buckskin — 2 2 — 2 4 1 — 1 bundle 5 — 2 3 1 1 2 — 11 burden 2 1 — — — 2 cabin — — 2 cache 5 1 2 — 1 1 camp (n+v) 14 10 16 18 31 22 65 55 13 camp-fire — — 1 2 2 camp-site — — — .1 camping-place — — 1 canoe 79 36 25 37 35 17 5 4 35 carve 1 — — — 1 1 — — 1 c h i s e l 1 2 1 — cloth — — — — — — — — 1 clothes=clothing 24 11 20 10 7 10 13 11 6 club (n+v) — — 6 8 3 — 4 1 8 coals 1 1 4 2 1 — 98 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA comb (n+v) 5 2 5 9 10 3 2 1 10 cooking-basket — — — 2 — 3 copper 12 3 2 1 1 c o r r a l (n+v) — 1 2 — — — 1 — 2 c r a d l e 1 — — — — 2 6 cradle-board — — — — — 1 — 1 dam (n+v) 12 1 — 19 1 7 4 8 dance-house — — — 16 dance-pole — — — 1 dance h a l l — — — — — — — — 1 d e n t a l i a 5 5 2 1 13 dip-net 2 — 1 — 1 — d i s h (n+V) 5 2 2 — 9 8 door 2 4 13 1 7 — 5 6 24 doo r - f l a p — — — — — 5 doorway — — — — — 10 e a r r i n g — 2 1 — — — — 2 2 fa c e - p a i n t 3 — — — — — f i r e 72 36 61 44 36 35 55 33 76 f i r e - d r i l l — — 2 f i r e - s p i t — — — — — 1 f i r e p l a c e 2 — 1 1 1 — 2 — 2 f i r e s t o n e — 1. — — 5 firewood 2 12 1 2 99 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA f i s h In) 51 31 24 75 51 1 35 6 34 f i s h (v) 4 1 4 19 8 ~ 4 3 13 fish-dam 1 — — 8 f i s h - l i n e 1 f i s h - n e t s 1 — — — — — — — 1 f i s h - s p e a r 3 f i s h - t r a p s 7 — — — 2 f i s h - w e i r — — 1 — 2 fisherman 3 — — — — — 1 f i s h i n g - p l a c e — 1 — — 1 f i s h i n g - u t e n s i l s — 1 1 f l o o r — 3 1 3 i — — 3 food-cache 1 food-places 1 glove 1 glue (n+V) 1 1 g o a t - h a i r 4 1 1 grave — — 2 — 1 — 4 6 gun — — 3 hammer 1 '2 2 handkerchief — — — — — — — — 7 harpoon 1 — 1 — — — — — 1 hat — — 1 — — — — — 2 hatchet — — — -- — — — 2 100 LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA hook In+v) 2 1 2 1 5 hoop 1 — 1 — — — — 4 6 house 177 110 72 76 59 1 30 4 160 house-ladder — — 1 house-top 1 hunt (n+v) 42 23 47 34 26 19 9 19 28 hunter 25 9 37 6 12 9 4 4 1 hunting-camp — — 1 — — 1 hunting-party — — 1 h u n t i n g - t r i p 2 k n i f e 24 11 17 14 1 17 13 11 14 ladder 16 9 10 7 7 — — 4 l a s s o (n+v) — — 1 — — — — — 1 leggings 3 — 1 — — — — 1 l i d 2 1 — 3 — — — — 3 lodge 11 35 54 — 19 69 44 38 lodge-covering — — — — — 1 lodge-pole — 1 mask 7 mat 9 3 10 7 2 — 6 2 matting — — — 1 — — — 2 medicine-bow — — — — — 1 medicine-mat 1 — — — — 1 medicine-pipe — — — — — 1 101 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA medicine-whip — — — — — 1 mittens — — — — — — 3 moccasin 2 1 5 2 2 1 8 4 14 necklace 1 2 1 2 — 3 1 4 4 needle 1 2 — 3 1 3 1 — 10 net 4 1 1 4 3 ornament (n+v) 1 3 3 4 — 3 — — 1 oven 1 — — — — — — — .2 pack (n+v) 9 10 5 13 6 10 5 4 10 pack-board — — — 2 pack-strap 2 — 1 p a c k i n g - l i n e 1 paddle (n+v) 16 9 3 3 8 3 2 1 7 p a i l — — — — — — 2 2 pa i n t (n+v) 13 8 3 8 6 17 1 1 3 paint-pouch 1 — — — 1 pan — — — — 2 — — — 1 p a r c e l — — 2 — — — — — 2 p i l l o w 2 — — — 1 1 9 pla t f o r m — — — — — — 3 pocket — — — — — — 1 — 1 pole (n+v) 8 3 2 11 1 5 13 1 7 r a f t — — 1 r a t t l e (n+v) 1 — 6 3 — — 1 102 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA r i f l e — — — — — — — — 1 r i n g — 3 — — — — 1 3 road — 1 6 — 1 5 24 robe 37 7 14 3 6 13 5 2 — ro o f 2 1 — 4 2 — — — 2 ro o t - d i g g e r — 1 4 — 3 rope 2 — 1 9 8 — 5 sack 1 1 3 3 15 saddle — — 2 — 2 — — 3 salmon-cache 1 salmon-house 1 s c a f f o l d 1 — 2 ~ — — 1 sew 1 1 1 1 — 3 sheath 1 s h e l t e r 2 1 — 1 1 s h i r t 2 — 1 2 3 1 16 shoe 4 — 2 — — — — 1 shoot 21 13 24 46 27 26 26 30 48 s k i n (v) 1 4 -- — 2 3 7 1 3 slaug h t e r 1 5 sle e p i n g - p l a c e 1 smoke-hole — 1 1 3 — 1 snare (n+V) 3 3 3 — — 4 snowshoe 11 1 3 — — 25 1 7 103 LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA spear (n+v) 26 16 4 22 3 1 7 5 8 spear-points — — — — — 1 spearhead — 5 — — — 1 — — 7 spin 2 — — — — 3 — — 1 spoon (n+v) 1 1 1 — 5 — — — 3 spoonful 2 1 1 s t r i n g 5 3 2 5 3 4 tallow — — — _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 14 2 tan 1 1+ __ — __ __ 1 1 tattoo — 1 1 — — 1 tent — 1 1 8 — 1 1 — t e p e e - t i p i — — — — — 28 1 20 1 tobacco — — — 2 — — 4 2 1 torch 3 1 — 6 — — — — 3 toy 3 1 9 trap (n+v) 2 1 6 1 — 29 16 trapper — — 1 trappings — — — — — — — 1 t r i g g e r — — 4 trousers — — — — — — — — 1 wall 3 — 1 3 — 1 1 1 11 wealth 4 weapon 6 5 1 4 4 9 1 1 2 weave 2 1 — 4 104 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA wedge 2 2 — 1 1 weir — — — — 30 — 1 — 1 wool 1 105 Table XIX. Technology Terms, Percentage Figures LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA adze (n+v) .001 .005 .002 arrow .029 .053 .026 .097 .080 0.095 .091 .135 .034 arrow-flaker -- — .011 arrow-head .004 .003 .003 .010 .002 .010 — .005 .003 arrow-stick .002 arrow-stone .005 — — — — -- — .002 arrow-wood .001 ashes .001 .002 .003 .016 .002 .006 .003 .011 .002 awl .002 — .006 .006 .004 — — — .005 ax — — — — — .002 .005 — .005 bag — — .011 .006 .002 .006 .008 .020 .001 bag-net — — .002 b a l l .002 .014 .002 .010 .011 — — .005 .001 b a l l - s t i c k -- .002 basket .031 .017 .017 .043 .016 .034 .018 —. .003 basket-cradle .001 bead — — — — .009 .002 .002 .016 .006 beam — .002 bear-medicine — — -- — — — — .002 bear-trap —• -- -- — — — — — .001 beaver-spears .001 blanket .023 .025 .017 .016 .005 .006 .012 .032 .039 106 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA board .004 .002 boat — — — — — — .003 .011 .009 bow .020 .019 .012 .022 .021 .040 .035 .034 .005 bowstring — — — — — .002 box .011 — — — — — — — .009 bracelet — — — — — — .002 — .001 breast-plates .002 breech-clout .003 buckskin — .002 .003 — .004 .008 .002 — .001 bundle .005 — .003 .004 .002 ..002 .002 — .012 burden .002 .002 — — — .004 cabin — — .003 cache .005 .002 .003 .010 .002 .002 camp (n+v) .014 .017 .025 .023 .055 .044 .108 .124 .015 camp-fire — — .002 .003 .004 camp-site — — — .001 camping-place — — .002 canoe .077 .061 .038 .048 .063 .034 .008 .009 .040 carve .001 — — — .002 .002 — — .001 c h i s e l .001 .003 .002 c l o t h — — — — — — — .001 clothes=clothing .023 .019 .031 .013 .013 .020 .022 .025 .007 club (n+v) — — .009 .010 .005 — .007 .002 .009 coals .001 .002 — — — .008 .003 .002 107 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA comb (n+v) .005 .003 .008 .012 .018 .006 .003 .002 .010 cooking-basket — — — .003 — .006 copper .012 .005 .003 — .002 .002 c o r r a l (n+v) — .002 .003 — — — .002 — .002 cradle .001 — — — — .004 .010 cradle-board — — — — — .002 — .002 dam (n+v) .012 .002 — .025 .002 .014 .007 — .009 dance-house — — — .021 dance-pole — — — .001 dancehall — — — — — — — — .001 de n t a l i a .005 .008 .003 .002 — — — — .015 dip-net .002 — .002 — .002 dish (n+v) .005 .003 .003 — .016 — — — .009 door .002 .007 .020 .001 .013 — — .014 .027 door-flap — — — ~ — .010 doorway — — — — — .020 .008 -- .001 earring — .003 .002 — — — — .005 .002 face-paint .003 f i r e .070 .061 .094 .057 .064 .071 .091 .074 .086 f i r e - d r i l l — — .003 f i r e - s p i t — — — — — .002 f i r e p l a c e .002 — .002 .001 .002 — .003 — .002 f i r e s t o n e -- .002 — — .009 firewood .002 .020 — — .002 .004 108 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA f i s h (n) .050 .053 .037 .097 .093 .002 .058 .014 .039 f i s h (v) .004 .002 .006 .025 .014 — .007 .007 .015 fish-dam .001 — -- .010 f i s h - l i n e .001 fish - n e t s .001 — ~ -- — — — -- .001 fish-spear .003 f i s h - t r a p s .007 — — — -- -- — — .002 fish-weir -- — .002 -- .004 fisherman .003 — — — — .002 fis h i n g - p l a c e — .002 — -- .002 f i s h i n g - u t e n s i l s — .002 .002 f l o o r ~ .005 .002 .001 .005 — — — .003 food-cache .001 food-places .001 glove .001 glue (n+v) .001 .002 -- — — — -- — --goat-hair .004 .002 .002 grave — — .003 — .002 — .007 .014 gun — .005 hammer .001 .003 .003 handkerchief — — — — — — — — .008 harpoon .001 — .002 — — — — — .001 hat — — .002 — — — — — .002 hatchet — — — — — — — .005 109 LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA hook (n+v) .002 .002 — .003 .002 -- — — .006 hoop .001 — .002 — — — -- .009 .007 house .173 .186 .117 .099 .105 .002 .050 ,009 .181 house-ladder — — .002 house-top .001 hunt (n+v) .041 .039 .073 .044 .046 .038 .015 .043 .032 hunter .024 .015 .057 .008 .021 .018 .007 .009 .001 hunting-camp — — .002 — — .002 hunting-party — — .002 hunting-trip .002 knife .023 .019 .026 .018 .002 .034 .022 .025 .016 ladder .016 .015 .015 .009 .013 — — .009 lasso (n+v) — — .002 — — — — -- .001 leggings .003 — .002 — — -- -- .002 l i d .002 .002 — .004 — — — — .003 lodge .011 .059 .083 — .034 .139 .073 .086 lodge-covering — — — — — .002 lodge-pole — .002 mask .007 mat .009 .005 .015 .009 .004 — .010 — .002 matting — — — .001 — — — .005 medicine-bow — — — — — .002 medicine-mat .001 medicine-pipe — — — — — .002 110 LI LT UT OK OK2 CGV SP KL CA medicine-whip — — — — — .002 mittens — — — — — — .005 moccasin .002 .002 .008 .003 .003 .002 .013 .009 .016 necklace .001 .003 .002 .003 — .006 .002 .009 .005 needle .001 .003 — .004 .002 .006 .002 — .011 net .004 .002 .002 — — — .007 — .003 ornament (n+v) .001 .005 .005 .005 — .006 — — .001 oven .001 — — — — — -- -- .002 pack (n+v) .009 .017 .008 .017 .011 .020 .008 .009 .011 pack-board — — — .003 pack-strap .002 — ,002 p a c k i n g - l i n e .001 paddle (n+V) .016 .015 .005 .004 .014 .006 .003 .002 .008 p a i l — — — — — — — .005 .002 p a i n t (n+v) .013 .014 .005 .010 .011 .034 .002 .002 .003 paint-pouch .001 — — — .002 pan — — — — .004 — — — .001 p a r c e l — — .003 — — — — — .002 p i l l o w .002 — — — .002 — .002 — .010 pl a t f o r m — — — — — — .005 pocket — — — — — — .002 — .001 pole (n+v) .008 .005 .003 .014 .002 .010 .022 .002 .008 r a f t -- — .002 r a t t l e (n+v) .001 — .009 — — .006 I l l LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA r i f l e — — — — — — — — .001 r i n g — .005 -- -- — — .002 -- .003 road — .002 .009 — .002 — — .011 .027 robe .037 .012 .021 .004 .011 .026 .008 .005 roof .002 .002 — .005 .004 — — — .002 root-digger — .002 .006 — .005 — — — rope .002 -- .002 .012 — — .013 — .006 saek .001 — .002 — — .006 — .007 .017 saddle — — .003 — .004 — — .007 salmon-cache .001 salmon-house .001 s c a f f o l d .001 — .003 — — — .002 — .003 sew .001 — — — .002 .002 .002 sheath .001 shel t e r .002 .002 — .001 — — — .002 s h i r t .002 — .002 — .004 — .005 .002 .018 shoe .004 — .003 . r-.- — .006 — .002 shoot .021 .022 .037 .060 .048 .053 .043 .068 .054 skin (v) .001 .007 — — .004 .017 .002 .003 slaughter .001 .008 sleeping-place .001 smoke-hole — .002 .002 .004 — .002 snare (n+v) .003 .005 .005 — — — — — .005 snowshoe .011 .002 .005 — -- — .041 .002 .008 112 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA spear (n+v) .025 .027 .006 .029 .D05 .002 .012 .011 .009 spear-points — — — — — .002 spearhead — .008 — — — .002 — — .008 spin .002 — — — -- .006 — -- .001 spoon (n+v) .001 .002 .002 -- .009 — — — .003 spoonful .002 .002 .002 s t r i n g .005 .005 -- — -- .004 .008 .007 .005 tallow — — — — — — .012 .009 .002 tan .001 .007 — — — — .002 — .001 tattoo — — — — — — .002 tent — ~ .002 .001 .014 — .002 .002 tepee=tipi — — — — -- .057 .002 .045 .001 tobacco — — — .003 — — .007 .005 .001 torch .003 .002 — .008 — — -- — .003 toy .003 .002 .014 trap (n+v) .002 .002 — .008 .002 — .048 — .018 trapper — — .002 trappings — — — — — — — .002 t r i g g e r — .007 trousers — — — — . — — — — , 001 wall .003 — .002 .004 — .002 .002 .002 .012 wealth .004 weapon .006 .008 .002 .005 .007 .018 .002 .002 .002 weave .002 .002 — .005 113 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA wedge .002 .003 — .001 — — .002 weir — — — — .054 — .002 — .001 wool .001 114 Table XX. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l Patterns: Terms with Highest Frequency i n Canadian Plateau LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA Cut-off t r a i n H H L L L L L L L .055 b i r t h H H H L H L L L L .031 magic H H H H H L L L L .034 transform H H H H H L L L L .096 servant H H H L H L L L L .003 slave H H H L H H L L L .002 v i s i t H H H H L L L L L .019 potlatch H L L L L L L L L .005 enemy L H H L L H L L L .037 husband H H H L L L L L L .043 ladder H H H L L L L L L .015 adze H H H L L L L L L .001 board H H L L L L L L L .002 c h i s e l H H H L L L L L L .001 hammer H H H L L L L L L .001 wool H L L L L L L L L .001 goat-hair H H H L L L L L L .002 spear H H L H L L L L L .025 hunt L L H L L L L L L .073 hunter L L H L L L L L L .057. canoe H H L L H L L L L .061 115 LI LT UT OK OK2 CV SP KL CA Cut-off paddle H H L L H L L L L .014 clothes H H H L L H H H L .019 copper H H H L H H L L L .002 glue H H L L L L L L L .001 116 Table XXI. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l Patterns: Terms with Highest Frequency i n Northern Sector, American Plateau LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA Cut-oi spirit/power L L L H H H L L L .185 sing L L L H L H H H H .100 feast H H L H H H L L L .007 poor L L L L L H L H H .014 race L L L H L H L L L .032 f r i e n d L L L H H H L L L .031 orphan H L H H L L L L L .001 tepee L L L L L H H H H .001 basket H H H H H H H L L .016 bow L L L L L H H H L .034 f i s h (v) L L L H H L L L H .014 f i s h (n) L L L H H L L L L .093 comb L L L H H L L L L .012 paint H H H H H H L L L .005 117 Table XXII. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l Patterns: Terms with Highest Frequency i n Southern Sector, American Plateau LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA Cut-off dance L L L H H H H H H .084 death L L L L L L H H H .449 chi e f L L L H H L H H H .119 marry L L L L L L H H L .051 wife H H L L L L H H L .151 father L L L L H L L H H .068 mother L L L L L L L L H .108 grandmother L L H L L H H H H .034 grandchildren L L L L L H H H H .010 ax/hatchet L L L L L H H H H .002 bag-sack L L L L L L L H H .018 arrow L L L H H H H H L .080 shoot L L L H H H H H H .043 boat L L L L L L H H H .003 blanket L L L L L L L H H .032 tobacco L L L H L L H H H .001 camp L L H H H H H H L .023 tallow L L L L L L H H H .002 118 Table XXIII. Proportion of H-scores i n Tables XX - XXII Table XX Table XXI Table : LI .880 .286 .056 LT .840 .214 .056 UT .680 ,214 .111 OK .160 .786 .333 OK2 .320 .571 .333 CV .160 .714 .389 SP ,040 .286 .778 KL .040 .286 .944 CA .000 .286 .778 119 Table XXIV. Inter-corpus Agreement on H-scores LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA LI LT .947 UT .737 .7.72 OK .439 .439 .491 OK2 .526 .561 .544 .772 CV .368 .474 .526 .649 .632 SP .298 .333 .421 .579 .491 .719 KL .211 .246 .333 .491 .439 .667 .912 CA .228 .246 .351 .351 .474 .596 ,772 .858 120 Table XXV. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix: Re l i g i o n (Modified Robinson's C o e f f i c i e n t ) LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA LI LT .402 UT .403 .363 OK .298 .281 .305 0K2 .371 .325 .394 .335 CV .253 .240 .282 .391 .290 SP .250 .228 .238 .233 .290 .263 KL .276 .223 .299 .297 .321 .319 .410 CA .278 .264 .300 .333 .282 .354 .365 .421 121 Table XXVI. Cor r e l a t i o n Matrix: S o c i a l Organization (Modified Robinson's C o e f f i c i e n t ) LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL LI — LT .357 — UT .363 .321 — OK .304 .268 .278 0K2 ,358 .328 .345 ,350 CV .309 .308 .322 .297 .307 — SP .336 .336 ,311 .357 .366 .297 — KL .306 .254 .331 .317 .367 .289 .325 — CA .291 .263 .331 .326 .350 .281 .324 .341 122 Table XXVII. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix: Technology Content (Modified Robinson's C o e f f i c i e n t ) LI LT UT OK 0K2 CV SP KL CA LI LT .380 UT ,350 .337 OK .312 ,311 ,282 0K2 ,308 .330 .309 .344 CV ,296 .236 .285 .311 ,305 SP .274 ,267 .279 ,304 .299 .299 KL .238 ,245 .265 .285 ,278 .309 .329 CA ,310 .305 .327 .280 .271 .256 .285 .261 123 Figure 2. SSA P l o t : Religion Content, I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth x . SP • KL LT . • CA "0K2 * UT » LI CV It o0K y 124 Figure 3. SSA P l o t : S o c i a l Organization Content, I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth LT • SP . . CA 0K2 • .LI • KL UT • * OK CV • y 125 Figure 4. SSA Plot: Technology Content, I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth . CA SP • . UT •LI LT • OK 0K2. • KL CV • y 126 Table XXVIII. Co r r e l a t i o n Matrix: Religious-Ceremonial S i m i l a r i t y (Driver's G) Extracted from Jorgensen (1969) LI SH TH KL CA SK SP CL LI • — SH .666 — TH .566 .699 — KL .399 .566 .500 — CA .333 .399 .299 .733 ---SK ,466 .466 .466 ,533 .599 SP .399 .466 .433 .666 .733 .733 — CL .599 .799 .599 1,000 .599 1,000 1.000 — WN .333 ,433 ,399 .633 .666 .666 .833 .799 FL .399 .399 .433 .566 .633 .733 .766 .799 127 Table XXIX, C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix: S o c i a l Organization (Driver's G) Extracted from Jorgensen (1969) LI SH TH KL CA SK SP CL WN LI -.-SH .759 — TH .639 .759 KL .559 .719 .559 r-.~. CA ,399 .639 .559 .719 — SK .479 .519 .599 .719 .639 — SP .559 .599 .479 .679 .639 .599 CL .479 .559 .599 .759 .639 .719 .799 — WN .479 .639 .519 .559 .719 .519 .719 .679 FL .479 .559 .639 .599 .639 .599 .519 .679 .599 128 Table XXX. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix: Technology-Demography (Driver's G) Extracted from Jorgensen (1969) LI SH TH KL CA SK SP CL WN LI — SH .454 — TH .602 .636 — KL .263 .333 .210 — CA .133 .363 .222 .486 —— SK .304 .318 .260 .526 .622 — SP .318 .333 .272 .324 .372 .636 — CL .217 .272 .260 .210 .355 .434 .590 — WN .304 .272 .304 .157 .266 .391 .409 .652 — FL .130 .363 .304 .473 .622 .391 .363 .521 .434 129 Figure 5. SSA Plot: Religion-Ceremony .KL TH • WN • CA . SP SK • .FL SP . CL LI • y 130 gure 6. SSA P l o t : S o c i a l Organization .SK TH « KL » ,CA .CL SP WN .SH LI • 131 Figure 7. SSA P l o t : Technology-Demography .WN CL • SP • TH • .FL SK • LI . .CA •SP KL • y 132 7.0 Conclusions This concluding chapter consists of both a r e i t e r a t i o n of the findings of the previous sections of the work and an enumeration of some of the basic problems r a i s e d by the enquiry. The research reveals a s t r i k i n g agreement between c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h peoples based upon language, ethnographic data, and myth content. The research, furthermore, r a i s e s a number of problems which may prove f r u i t f u l as areas of added i n v e s t i g a t i o n : What factors contribute to changes i n word frequency? Can the type of s t a t i s t i c a l analysis pursued here be used i n the d e l i n e a t i o n of f o l k l o r i s t i c areas? Can comparative frequency analysis be used i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of myth variants or i n the recogn i t i o n of n a r r a t i v e genres? 7.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Cultures, Recurrent Patterns C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h cultures have been presented previously (Chapter 4), A fundamental agreement i s apparent when these various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are compared, whether the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based upon language, ethnographic data, or myth content. The very fa c t that regular patterns emerge throughout suggests the v a l i d i t y of the c l a s s i f i -cations. In the realm of language, three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have been presented. Boas' and Haeberlin's (1927) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Table V) i d e n t i f i e s the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h as separate from Coast S a l i s h and groups a number of d i a l e c t s under the Okanagon, Columbian, and Flathead languages. Swadesh's (1950) l e x i c o s t a t i s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Table VI) i s simply a further step 133 i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The unity of Spokane-Kalispel-Pend d ' O r e i l l e i s recognized and two language groups (Okanagon-Kalispel and Thompson-Shuswap), Dyen's (1962) r e v i s i o n of Swadesh's work (Table VII) c a r r i e s us one step further by unit i n g L i l l o o e t with the Thompson-Shuswap group i n a L i l l o o e t Branch and Columbia and Coeur d'Alene with OkanagonvKalispel i n a Columbia Branch. Dyen's two branched c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s supported by an SSA pl o t (page 195) based on Swadesh's data. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s based on ethnographic data are f i v e i n number. A s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of data presented i n Ray's (1939) C u l t u r a l Relations  i n the Plateau v a l i d a t e s Ray's i n t u i t i v e d i v i s i o n of Plateau cultures into a Canadian Plateau group and an American Plateau group (page 190). L i l l o o e t , Shuswap, and Thompson are assigned to the former. Sinkaietk, Sanpoil, K a l i s p e l , Coeur d'Alene, Wenatchi, and Flathead are members of the l a t t e r . The four remaining ethnographic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are based upon the work of J . G. Jorgensen (1969). Jorgensen employed seventy-nine variables i n ch a r a c t e r i z i n g inter-group s i m i l a r i t y i n r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l organization, technology, and t o t a l c u l t u r e . In each of the four separate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a fundamental d i v i s i o n of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h peoples into two culture groups emerges (pages 206 - 214). The Northwestern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Culture Group consists of L i l l o o e t , Shuswap, and Thompson. The Southeastern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Culture Group consists of Sinkaietk, Sanpoil, K a l i s p e l , Flathead, Coeur d'Alene, Wenatchi, and Columbia. The membership of the Northwestern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Culture Group i n Jorgensen's study i s i d e n t i c a l to Ray's Canadian Plateau, The Southeastern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Culture Group of Jorgensen's study i s equivalent to the American 134 Plateau of Ray's work, The membership of the two groups i s i d e n t i c a l i n the two works, except that Jorgensen adds one a d d i t i o n a l I n t e r i o r S a l i s h culture (Columbia) which f a l l s into the American Plateau. In Chapter 6 of t h i s work, f i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of myth content were presented. Examination of d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns culminated i n two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Three groups of words, and three culture t r i a d s are evident i n the summarization of Table XXIII. L i l l o o e t , Upper Thompson, and Lower Thompson form the f i r s t t r i a d , C o l v i l l e and the two Okanagon corpora comprise the second t r i a d ; the t h i r d t r i a d c o n s i s t s of Sanpoil, K a l i s p e l , and Coeur d'Alene. The second c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of corpora a r i s i n g from the analysis of d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns (as presented i n Table XXIV) again reveals a Lillooet-Upper Thompson-Lower Thompson subgroup. The Southern Sector t r i a d (Sanpoil-Kalispel-Coeur d'Alene) i s also reconfirmed. The two Okanagonr:corpora are united and C o l v i l l e l i n k s these with the Southern Sector t r i a d . The comparative frequency analyses of Chapter 6 are three i n number. Myth content c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are produced f o r r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l organiza-t i o n , and technology. These three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are presented graphi-c a l l y i n the SSA p l o t s of Figures 2, 3, and 4. L i l l o o e t and the two Thompson corpora always form a t i g h t c l u s t e r . The remaining six corpora show some indi c a t i o n s of being a d i s c r e t e group. In most cases (15 out of 18) an American Plateau corpus i s more c l o s e l y t i e d to another American Plateau corpus than to a Canadian Plateau corpus. The American Plateau groups do not form a t i g h t c l u s t e r and no cl e a r pattern of subgrouping i s evident within the American Plateau. 135 There i s a fundamental unity among the various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which may be summarized as follows: 1) In a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a t i g h t c l u s t e r i n g of Canadian Plateau groups i s evident. In the l i n g u i s t i c and ethnographic c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n s the cultures so clustered are L i l l o o e t , Thompson, and Shuswap. The content analysis section demonstrates the existence of a Lillooet-Upper Thompson-Lower Thompson group. 2) A l l remaining groups i n any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are usually aligned with one another i n an American Plateau group. The American Plateau group i s co n s i s t e n t l y l e s s t i g h t l y clustered and the i n t e r n a l arrangement of American Plateau groups changes markedly from one c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to the next. 3) Only the gross l i n g u i s t i c d i s t i n c t i o n between the L i l l o o e t Branch and the Columbia Branch p a r a l l e l s the ethnographic and content analysis c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The Thompson and Shuswap groups of the ethnographic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the two Thompson corpora from the content analysis c l a s s i f i c a t i o n do not form a subgroup i n contrast with L i l l o o e t as might be expected on l i n g u i s t i c grounds. S i m i l a r l y , peoples speaking d i a l e c t s of the Okanagon language (Okanagon, Sinkaietk, C o l v i l l e , Sanpoil) do not form a d i s c r e t e group i n the content and ethnographic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . In summary, then, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s substantiate one another by v i r t u e of the fact that they a l l demonstrate the existence of a fundamental l i n e of cleavage between Canadian Plateau groups on the one hand, and 136 American Plateau groups on the other. 7.2 Changes i n Word Frequency The a b i l i t y of s t a t i s t i c a l treatment to r e v e a l regular d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns i n the inter-corpus v a r i a t i o n i n word frequency c l e a r l y implies some sort of h i s t o r i c a l set of changes i n word frequency whereby more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d cultures come to resemble one another. Such temporal v a r i a t i o n s i n frequency might well be studied by the a p p l i c a t i o n of the methods outlined here to a body of mythic material drawn from a single culture over a long period of time, preferably several centuries. The temporal changes i n word frequency may, in^some instances, be correlated with u n i v e r s a l evolutionary sequences. The work of Hays et a l . (1972) with c o l o r terms suggests such a sequence. Local evolutionary sequences probably also play an important part i n temporal change, as does d i f f u s i o n . The geographical correlates of frequency v a r i a t i o n indicate t h i s . While no study of change, as such, i s presented here, some speculation as to the nature of the processes involved may be advantageous. It seems l o g i c a l to assume that a given work i s introduced into the body of myth belonging to a given c u l t u r e , increases i n frequency u n t i l a peak i n popularity i s reached, and then diminishes u n t i l i t disappears. In a s p a t i a l sense, too, the d i f f u s i o n of a given item of myth (whether an ent i r e myth or some much smaller segment) occasions changes i n frequency i n the corpora which absorb i t . The geographical, area of peak popularity moves during the passage of time, creating the sorts of patterns noted by Boas (1895) i n his study of the episodes of the Raven cy c l e . The 137 combination of s p a t i a l and temporal factors i n change creates a Doppler E f f e c t and suggests the possible u t i l i t y of the mathematical formula used to describe that phenomenon i n physics. One of the most tempting areas f o r further analysis i s the assessment of c o r r e l a t i o n between myth content and ethnographic t r a i t s . At t h i s point i n time i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t t o make proposals regarding such c o r r e l a t i o n s . The Boasian view of myth as a mirror image of the culture of a people (See Reichard 1947, f o r example) i s c l e a r l y inadequate. In examining I n t e r i o r S a l i s h myth content i t i s frequently apparent that there i s a di s c o n t i n u i t y between the culture portrayed i n myth and the culture of the people who t e l l the myths. Flathead myth, f o r example, contains many references to salmon and f i s h i n g , but very l i t t l e d iscussion of bison and bison hunting. The Flathead are bison hunters who do l i t t l e i f any f i s h i n g . A Sanpoil myth mentions tat t o o i n g , a pr a c t i c e denied by the Sanpoil (Ray 1933). Perhaps these d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s are evidence f o r l a g ; myth changing at a slower rate than other areas of cu l t u r e . It seems probable, f o r instance, that the ancestors of the Flathead at one time were more dependent on salmon. In more s p e c i f i c terms one might l i k e to compare the frequency of a given ethnographic p r a c t i c e to the frequency with which that p r a c t i c e i s ref e r r e d to i n myth. Do peoples who do more f i s h i n g r e f e r to i t more frequently i n t h e i r mythologies? Such questions cannot be answered because we lack quantitative assessments i n the ethnographic data. There remain areas of content i n which frequency i s probably not 138 d i r e c t l y r e l a t a b l e to the frequency of any ethnographic p r a c t i c e . What causes the d i f f e r e n t i a l frequency of such words as f i r e or house? Why i s the v a r i a t i o n i n references to various kinsmen so great? Much further work with other bodies of myth must be done before such questions can be answered. The main thrust of t h i s work has been simply the observation of r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the d i f f e r e n t i a l frequencies of v a r i -ous items, i . e , , the recognition of patterns. The explanation of these patterns w i l l require much further research. 7.3 Delineation of F o l k l o r i s t i c Areas The a p p l i c a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l techniques to I n t e r i o r S a l i s h myth content has f a c i l i t a t e d the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the corpora. I t seems highly probable that the same technique would work well i n other areas of NorthaAmerica, allowing us to recognize the existence of f o l k l o r i s t i c areas derived from myth data i n the same manner that culture areas are derived from ethnographic data or l i n g u i s t i c areas from l i n g u i s t i c data. Many other mythic t r a i t s ( i . e . , other than word frequency) could provide useful input f o r such s t a t i s t i c a l analyses. 7.H Further Applications of Comparative Frequency Analysis While word frequency comparison has been l i m i t e d , here, to the assessment of s i m i l a r i t i e s between e n t i r e corpora, i t might prove to be a boon i n the assessment of s i m i l a r i t i e s between myth variants - perhaps y i e l d i n g a r e p l i c a b l e and rapid means of c l a s s i f y i n g v a r i a n t s . On an i n t r a - c u l t u r a l l e v e l comparative frequency analysis might be used i n 139 d i s t i n g u i s h i n g one narrative genre from another. Another u s e f u l area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be the comparison of the narratives of various narra-tors i n an e f f o r t to elucidate those semantic areas stressed by i n d i v i d u a l raconteurs. 140 FOOTNOTES 1. Jorgensen ignores the differences between Okanagon and Sinkaietk and co n s i s t e n t l y uses the term Okanagon to r e f e r to the ethnographic data drawn from the Sinkaietk ethnography (Spier et a l . 1938). Since Spier notes the presence of s i g n i f i c a n t differences -between the two groups, i t seems proper to use Sinkaietk as the most correct i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the culture termed Okanagon i n Jorgensen's study. 2. Ray, of course, was examining a l l of the cultures of the Plateau f or which he had s u f f i c i e n t data and not l i m i t i n g h i s analysis to the Salishan groups. The separation of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h into two groups i s consistent between the two studies. Ray's work i s discussed further i n section 4.1 and Jorgensen's data are presented i n greater d e t a i l i n section 4.2. 3. Myth i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers are explained i n section 1.4. 4. A l l of the corpora l i s t e d as q u a n t i t a t i v e l y adequate consist of more than 20,000 words. 5. The existence of two conceptually d i s t i n c t categories, myth and legend, i s widespread i f not un i v e r s a l among American Indian c u l t u r e s . 6. Some of the keypunching had been previously done. 141 BIBLIOGRAPHY Armstrong, Robert Plant 1959 Content analysis i n f o l k l o r i s t i c s . IN I. de Sola Pool (ed.), Trends i n Content Analysis (pp. 151-170). Urbana: University of I l l i n o i s Press. B j e r r i n g , James; Susan Boyer; John Campbell; and G i l l i a n Starkey 1970 UBC MVTAB: Multivariate Contingency Tabulations. Vancouver: UBC Computing Centre. Bloombaum, Milton 1970 Doing smallest space a n a l y s i s . Journal of C o n f l i c t Resolution 14.3: 409-416. Boas, Franz 1895 Indianische Sagen von der Nord-Pacifischen Kuste Amerikas. 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New Haven: Human Relations Area F i l e s . 143 Driver, Harold E, and A, L. Kroeber 1932 Quantitative expression of c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Publications i n American Archaeology and Ethnology 31: 211-256. Dundes, Alan 1964 The morphology of North American Indian f o l k t a l e s . FF Communications 195, H e l s i n k i : Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia Academia Scientiarum Fenica. Dyen, Isidore 1962 The l e x i c o s t a t i s t i c a l l y determined r e l a t i o n s h i p of a language group. International Journal of American L i n g u i s t i c s 28.3: 153-161. Egan, M, 1971 Is any story a myth? Paper presented to the 1971 meeting of the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association, St. John's, Newfoundland. E l l i o t , W, C. 1939 Lake L i l l o o e t t a l e s , Journal of American Folklore 52: 166-181. Gatschet, A l f r e d S, 1888 Der Tskan-Vogel: Eine mythische Erzahlung der Okinagen-Indianer, m i t g e t h e i l t von Albert S. Gatschet im Washington. Globus: I l l u s t r i r t e Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r Lander- und Fb'lkerkunde Band LI I no. 9: 137-139. ; Gibbs, George 1955 George Gibb's account of Indian mythology i n Oregon and Washington t e r r i t o r i e s , Part I. Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly 56: 293-325. 1 144 Gould, Marian K. 1917a Sanpoil t a l e s . IN Boas 1917: 101-113. 1917b Okanagon t a l e s . IN Boas 1917: 98-100. Guttman, Louis 1968 A general nonmetric technique f o r f i n d i n g the smallest coordinate space f or a configuration of points. Psychometrika 33: 469-506. Hays, David G.; Enid Margolis; Raoul N a r o l l ; and Dale R. Perkins 1972 Color term salience. American Anthropologist 74.5: 1107-1121. H i l l - T o u t , Charles 1899a Notes on the N'tlaka'pmuq of B r i t i s h Columbia, a branch of the great S a l i s h stock of North America. Committee on the Ethnological Survey of Canada. IN Report of the B r i t i s h Association f o r the Advancement of Science 49: 500-584. 1899b Squaktkquaclt, or the Benign-faced, the Oannes of the Ntlakapamuq, B r i t i s h Columbia. Folklore 10: 195-216. 1905 Report on the ethnology of the Stlatlumh. Journal of the Royal  Anthropological I n s t i t u t e 35: 126-218. 1911 Report on the ethnology of the Okanaken of B r i t i s h Columbia, an i n t e r i o r d i v i s i o n of the S a l i s h stock. Journal of the Royal  Anthropological I n s t i t u t e 41: 130-161. Hoffman, Walter James 1883 S e l i s h myths. B u l l e t i n of the Essex I n s t i t u t e 15: 23-40. Irvine, Caleb 1907 Medicine T r e e - H i l l . Contributions to the H i s t o r i c a l Society of Montana 6: 472-473. 145 Jorgensen, Joseph G. 1969 S a l i s h Language and Culture. Language Science Monographs 3. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Kinkade, M. Dale and Clarence Sloat 1972 Prpto-Eastern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h vowels. International Journal  of American L i n g u i s t i c s 38.1: 26-48. Levi-Strauss, Claude 1964-71 Mythologiques. P a r i s : Plon. MacDonald, Angus 1878 The v i s i o n before the b a t t l e . New Northwest. In Clark 1966. Maranda, Pi e r r e Quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e analysis of myths by computer. Mimeo. n.d. 1967 Formal analysis and i n t e r - c u l t u r a l studies. S o c i a l Science  Information 6.4: 7-36. 1971 The computer and the analysis of myths. International S o c i a l  Science Journal 23.2: 228-235. McDermott, Louisa 1901 Folk-lore of the Flathead Indians of Idaho: Adventures of Coyote. Journal of American Folklore 14: 240-251. Mourning Dove 1901 Coyote Sto r i e s . Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton P r i n t e r s . Mueller, J . H.; K. F. Schuessler; and H. L. Costner 1970 S t a t i s t i c a l Reasoning in Sociology. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co. Palmer, V i o l e t 1931 Customs of the Mountain Goat Kin: an Indian myth. Art, H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c Association of Vancouver, B.C. Museum and Art Notes 6: 47-50. 146 P h i l l i p s , E, M. 1930 Columbia River t a l e s , Idaho Farmer; August 7, August 14, September 18, ' Pi e r r e , L. and R. Bouchard (eds.) Okanagan Myths and Legends, ms. Propp, Vladimir 1968 Morphology of the F o l k t a l e . 2nd e d i t i o n . Louis A. Wagner (ed.) Austin: University of Texas Press. Ray, Verne F. 1933 Sanpoil f o l k t a l e s . Journal of American Folklore 46: 129-187. 1939 C u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s i n the Plateau of northwestern America. Publications of the Frederick Webb Hodge Anniversary Fund 3. Los Angeles: The Southwest Museum, Reichard, Gladys A, 1947 Anaanalysis of Coeur d'Alene Indian myths, American Folklore Society Memoir 41 1958-60 A 6omparison of f i v e S a l i s h languages. International Journal of American L i n g u i s t i c s 24: 293-300, 25: 8-15, 25: 90-96^ 25: 154-167, 25: 239-253, 26: 50-61. Robinson, W, S. 1951 A method f o r chronologically ordering archaeological deposits. American Antiquity 16.4: 293-301 Spier, L e s l i e ; et a l . 1938 The Sinkaietk or Southern Okanagon of Washington. Contributions  from the Laboratory of Anthropology 2. 147 Swadesh, Morris 1950 S a l i s h i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . International Journal of  American L i n g u i s t i c s 16.4; 157-167. Thompson, S t i t h 1953 The Star Husband t a l e . Studia Septentrionalia 4: 93-163. T e i t , James A. 1898 Tradi t i o n s of the Thompson River Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. American Folklore Society Memoir 6. 1900 The Thompson River Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. American  Museum of Natural History Memoir 4.2. 1909 The Shuswap, American Museum of Natural History Memoir 4.7. 1912a Mythology of the Thompson Indians. American Museum of Natural  History Memoir 12. 1912b Tradi t i o n s of the L i l l o o e t Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. Journal of American Folklore 25: 287-371. 1916 European t a l e s from the Upper Thompson Indians. Journal of American FolktLore 29: 301-330. 1917a Thompson t a l e s . IN Boas 1917: 1-64. 1917b Okanagon t a l e s . IN Boas 1917: 65-97. 1917c Pend d * O r e i l l e t a l e s . IN Boas 1917: 114-118. 1917d Coeur d'Alene t a l e s . IN Boas 1917: 119-128. 1937 More Thompson Indian t a l e s . Journal of American F o l k l o r e 50: 173-190. Voegelin, C. F. 1941 North American Indian languages s t i l l spoken and t h e i r genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . IN L. Spier (ed.), Language, Culture, and  Personality (pp. 15-40). Menasha; Wisconsin: Banta. 148 Vogt, Hans 1940 The K a l i s p e l Language. Oslo: I Komisjon Hos Jacob Dybwd. Waterman, T. T. 1914 The explanatory element i n the f o l k - t a l e s of the North-American Indians. Journal of American Folklore 27.1: 1-54. Weisel, George F. 1952 A Flathead Indian t a l e . Journal of American Folklore 65: 359-360. 1959 Ten animal myths of the Flathead Indians. Montana State Un i v e r s i t y , Missoula; Anthropology and Sociology Papers 18. Wheeler, 0. D. 1926 The T r a i l of Lewis and Clark, Vol. I I . New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Wilson, Captain 1866 Report on the Indian Tribes inhabiting the country i n the v i c i n i t y of the 49th p a r a l l e l of North l a t i t u d e . Ethnological Society of London, Transactions 4: 275-332. 149 APPENDIX Contents Page N ° . MVTAB Output: Four C e l l Tables, 19 Plateau Cultures 150 SSA Output: Internal Relationships of 19 Plateau Cultures 186 SSA Output: Internal Relationships of 10 I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Cultures 191 SSA Output: Internal Relationships of 9 In t e r i o r S a l i s h Dialects 194 SSA Output: In t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth, Reli g i o n Content 197 SSA Output: I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth, S o c i a l Organization Content 200 SSA Output: I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Myth, Technology - Content 203 SSA Output: I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Cultures, R e l i g i o n -Ceremonial 206 SSA Output: I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Cultures, S o c i a l Organization 209 SSA Output: I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Cultures, Technology-Demography 212 Plateau Myth T i t l e s and Source C i t a t i o n s 215 Myth Text Data, Sample Output (Sanpoil) 235 C0UNT0BJ, Sample Output (Sanpoil) 273 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXxXXXXXXXXXAXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX I RFS NC. 775021 UNIVERSITY JF B C COMPUTING CENTRE rtTS(AN192l i 4 : j f : 3 4 1UE AUG 15/72 j t * 4 4 t « t t * « * i t * n * * * THIS JOB SUBMITTED THROUGH FRONT DESK READER * * « * * * • • » * * • * * * * # • * * «SIG ELL I T=3M P=4U :  **LAST SIGNO.M WAS: 14:05:56 TUE AUG 15//2 USER " E L L I " SIGNED UN AT 14:0?:36 UN TUE AUG 15/72 tRUN *MVTAB EXECLTICN BEGINS CARD CEF ^KLAMATH, S'.ME Z_PERC E , 6= UM AT I LLA , 7=TEN1NU, 8 = ^ 1 SrlRAM i 9 = KL1KITAT, 10=KITTITAS, il=dENATCHIi 12 = S INK A1 ET K, 13=SANPUIL, 1 4=CUEUK_0_ALENE , 15 = K « L I S P E L , 16 = F LATHEAD, l 7 = K U T t N A l , 18=TH0MPS0N, 19=SHUSWAP. 20 = LILLUOET, 21 = CMLCCT IN, 22=CAKKIeR. HEADING TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS L I F E . TABLES (FSI 4- 5,6 , 7, 8, 9, 10 ,11 ,12 ,1 3 ,14 , 1 5 ,16, II, 1 8,1 9 ,2 0 .21 ,22 TABLES (FS) 5-6,7.8,9,10,11,12,13,14.15,16,17,18,19,20.21.22 ' TABLES ( F S 1 6 - 7 , 8 , 9 , i u , 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 1 4 , i j , 1 6 , 1 7 , 1 8 . 1 9 , 20,21,22 TAELES (FS) 7-8,9,10 . 1 1,12,13,14,13,16,17,18,19,20,21,22 TABLES (FS) 8-9 ,1J , 1 1,12, 13, 14, 15, 10, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22 TABLES (FS) 9-10.11.12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22 TABLES (FSI 1J-11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,20,21,22 TABLES (FS) 11-12,13,14,15 ,10 ,17 .18 , 19,20.21,22 TAELES (FS) 12-13,14,15,16,17,13,19,20,21,22 TAELES (FS) 13-14,15,10,17,18,19,20,21,22 TABLES (FS) 14-15,16,17,18,19,20.21,22 TABLES ( F S ) 1 5- 16,1 7, 18, 19, 20 ,21 ,*2 16-17,18,19,20,21,22 17-18,19,20,21,22 TAELES (FS) 18-19,20,21,22 TABLES (FS) 19-2 J.21.22 20-21 ,22 21-22  E N C NC ERRCRS IN CONTROL CARDS TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL' AND RELIGIOUS L I F E RIVARIATE TABLE OF K LA MA TH ( CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 26 10* 36 1* 5 9* 14 ****************************** * 31 19* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF K LA MA TH ( CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 - 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 22 14* 36 1* 6 8* 14 ****************************** * 28 22* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLAMATH! CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 18 18* 36 . 1 * 6 8* 14 ****************************** * 24 26* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF K LA MA TH E CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 26 10* 36 1* 7 7* 14 ********** ******************** * 33 17* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF K LA MA TH ( CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 18 18* 36 1* 6 8* 14 ********** ******************** * 24 26* 50 4) VS NEZ_PERCE(CC 5) 4) VS UMATILLAICC 6) 4) VS TENINOICC 7) 4) VS WISHRAM1CC 8) 4) VS KL I KI TAT! CC 9) f >> - — - PS *<?E 9T * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * » » * * * « « * * * * * * * * * * * M *PT V * l 9E **T2 Z\ *0 ********************************* *T P * 3 1 B V 1 A3N3fl03ad IM 0O)3N31V"O~Wn3O0 SA I* 0 0 1 H 1 V W V 1 X 30 3n9tfl 3i»ld»AI3 PS *SE ST ********************************* . . . _ . . . . . . . . *?T *P 9 »I 9E *L? 6 *0 ********************************* *T P * 3 1 8 V 1 ADN3fl03dd IET OtUIIOdNVS SA {<? 30 318V1 31VId\/AI3 PS *SE ST ***** **************************** *T *6 S *T 9£ *9Z OT *0 ... ... ^ ********************************* *T P * t?T 30>>I13I VXNIS SA (*r 00>H.lVWV"l>l 30 31HV1 31»IdVA13 - • -- PS *ZE 9T ********************************* M *e 9 * T 9E **?Z ?T *0 ********************************* *T fl * 3 1 9 V 1 A3N3n03«3 (TT 00)IH01VN3M SA i * D O I H I V W V I * do s i e v i s i v i a v A i u PS * T f 6T ********************************* _ ... M *R 9 *T 9£ *$Z ET *0 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 4 * 4 t « * t t 4 * * » * t * t V *T 0 * 31QV1 ADN3n03tid — s IOT 00)SVmJT* SA l«? OOIHJVHVIX dO 318»J. 31VIdVMS 3dn s n t m n s a ONV 1VT30S r,V3JVTd 30 S103dSV U D I d A l J r I T Y P I C A L A S P E C T S OF P L A T c A U S O C I A L A N D R E L I G I O U S L I F E B I V A R I A T E T A B L E O F K L AM AT H i C C 4) V S K A L I S P E H C C 15) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E  * 0 1* * * 4 * * * * * * « * * * * * * * # * * * * * * * * * * « « * « * 0* 16 20* 36 1* 4 l u * 14 * * * » * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 20 30* 50 B I V A R I A T E T A B L E OF K L A M A T H ( C C 4) V S F L A T H E A D ! C C 16) FR EQU EN CY T A B L E * 0 1* • • I * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 19 17* 3o ' 1* 7 7* 14 ********************************* 26 24* 50 e i V A R I A T E T A B L E O F K L A M A T H I C C 4) V S K U T E N A I ( C C 171 F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E * 0 X* ^ 0* 24 12* 36 1* 6 8* 14 ********************************* 30 20* 5u i E I V A R I A T E T A B L E O F K L AM AT HI C C 41 V S TH0MPS0N1CC 18) 1 F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E * 0 1* ********************************* 0* 24 12* 30 1* 6 8* 14 ********************************* 30 20* 50 ... ... .... B I V A R I A T E T A B L E OF K L A M A T H ( C C 4) VS SHUSHAP1CC 19) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E * 0 1* ********************************* 0* 21 li>* 3 0 1* 5 9* 14 ********************************* 26 24* 50 V. J TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND: RELIGIOUS L I F E BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLA MA TH (CC 4) VS LILOOETICC 20) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* '• . . *************** - - — - . 0* 2 5 11* 36 1* 7 7* 14. ****************************** * 32 .12* 50 "BIVARIATE TABLE OF K LA MA TH (CC 4 ) VS CHILCOTIMCC 21) FREQUENCY TABLE . # 0 1* ft***************************** 0* 32 4* 36 1* 9 5* 14 ****************************** * 41 9* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLAMATH1CC 4) VS CARRIERICC 22) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 34 2* 36 1* 9 5* 14 ******* ****** ********-**¥<;<:4S!S * 43 7* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF NE Z_PERC E (CC 5 ) VS UMATI LLA( CC . 6) FREQUENCY TA3LE . * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * s * s j 5 t f c $ 0* 24 7* 31 1* 4 15* 19 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * s 4 * * * , * 28 22* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC " 5) VS TENINOICC ' 71 FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* **#*************************** 0* 19 12* 31 1* 5 14* 19 " " ****************************** * .. 24 . 26* 50 . . . . en J TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS L I F E BIVARIATE TA3LE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC 5) VS WISHRAM(CC 8) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * _ . ********** ******************** 0* 25 6* 31 1* 8 11*. 19... ****************************** * 33 17* . 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC 5) VS KLI KI TA T( CC 9) FREQUENCY TABLE . * 0 1* . .. ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * . 0* 19 12* 31 1* 5 14* 19 ****************************** * 24 26* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC 5) VS K1-TTITAS1CC 10) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ********** ******************** 0* 15 16* 31 1* 4 15* 19 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * i * 19 31* 50 BIVARIATE TA3LE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC 5) VS WEN A TCHI ( CC 11) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * . .. ****************************** 0* 14 17* 31 1* 4 15* 19 ****************************** * 18 32* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC 5) VS SINKAI E TK( CC 12) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ********** ******************** 0* 9 22* 31 1* 6 13* 19 ****************************** * 15 35* 50 tri" tri" ) i TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS L I F E BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ******************************_ 0* 9 22* 31 1* 6 13* 19 ****************************** * 15 35* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ********** ********* ****** ***** 0* 1 3 18* 31 1* 3 16* 19 ********** ********* ****** ***** * 16 34* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 15 16* 31 1* 5 14* 19 ****************************** * 20 30* 50 BIVARIATE TA8LE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 19 12* 31 1* 7 12* 19 ****************************** * 26 24* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 22 9* . 31 1* 8 11* 19 ' ****************************** * 30 20*.. 50 5) VS SANPOILICC 13) 5) VS COEUR_D_ALENE( CC 14)' 5) VS KALISPELICC 15) 5) VS FLATHEADICC 16) 5) VS KUTENAI ( CC 17) CD TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS L I F E BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 17 14* 31 1* 13 6* 19 ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 30 20* 50 BI\WR^A^E'^BtB'-o''F1 NEZ_PERCE(CC FREOUENCY TA8LE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 16 15* 31 1* 10 9* 19 ****************************** * 26 24* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ********** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 1 8 13* 1* 14 5* ********** **** ******** # 32 18* BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 29 2* 31 1* 12 7* 19 ****************************** * 41 9* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF NEZ_PERCE(CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 29 2* 31 1* 14 5* 19 ****************************** * 43 7* 50," 5) VS THOMPSON! C C 18) 5) VS SHUSWAPICC 19) 5) VS LILOOETiCC 20) 5) VS CHILCOTINICC 21) 5) VS CARRIERICC 22) TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL ANO REHGIQJS LIFE EIVARIATE TABLE OF UMAT1 LLAl CC 61 VS TENINOICC 7) FRECUENCY TABLE 0 1* ********************************* 0* 22 b* 2d 1* 2 20* 22 E TV AR I AT E TABLE OF UM AT ILL A ( CC 6) VS WISHRAMICC 8) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* «*•«•«»•«**«»»•************•***** 0* 25 3* 28 1* 8 14* 22 ********************************* 33 17* 50 EIVARIATE TABLE OF UMAT ILL A( CC 6) VS KL1K1TATICC 9) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* 0* 20 8* 28> 1* 4 18* 22 ********************************* 24 26* 5v> EIVARIATE TABLE OF UMATI LLAICC 6) VS KITT IT AS tCC 101 FREQUENCY TABLE j * o i * 0* 18 10* 28 1* 1 21* 22 19 31* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMATI LLAICC 6) VS WENATCHUCC 11) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* I * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 17 I T * 28~~ 1* 1 21* 22 ********************************* 18 32* 50 "TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLA TEAO 'SOC I AL AND RELIGIOUS LIF E BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMATILLA1CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ****************************** 0* 11 17* 28 1* 4 18* 22 ****************************** * 15 35* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMA TI LLA ( CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 12. .16* 28 1* 3 19* 22 ****************************** * 15 35* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMA TILLA (CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 13 15* 28 •• 1* 3 19* 22 ********** ******************** * 16 34* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMA TILLA ( CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 14 14* 23 1* 6 16* 22 ****************************** * 20 30* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMA TI LLA { CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 22 6* 28 1* 4 18* 22 ****************************** * 26 24* 50 6) VS SINKAIETK(CC 12) 6) VS .SANPOIL! CC 13) 6) VS COEUR_D_AL ENE(CC 14) 6) VS KALISPEL!CC 15) 6 ) VS FLA THEADi CC 16) i i | TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE 8 I VAR IA TE TABLE OF UMATILLAICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 22 6* 23 1* 8 14* 22 ********** ******************** * 30 . 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMATlLLAiCC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 15 13* 28 1* 15 7* 22 ****************************** * 30 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMATILLAICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 14 14* 28 1* 12 10* 22 ********** ******************** * 26 24* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMATILLAICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ******** ********************** 0* 16 12* 28 1* 16 6* 22 ******** ********************** * 32 . 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMATILLAICC FREQUENCY .TABLE * 0 1 * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * .. . 0* 24 4* 28 1* 17 ' 5 * 22 ****************************** * 41 9* 50 6) VS KUTENAIICC 17) 6) VS THOMPSON! CC 18) 6) VS SHUSWAPICC 19) 6). VS LILOOET(CC 20) 6) VS CHILCOTINICC 21) TYPICAL ASPECTS.OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF UMA TI LLA ( CC 6) VS CARRIERICC 22) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* _ _' . . ****************************** 0* 24 4* 2B 1* 19 3* 22 ****************************** * 43. 7* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF TENINO{CC 7) VS WISHRAMICC 8) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 22 . 2* 24 1* . 11 15* 26 ****************************** * 33 . . 17* . 50 BIVARIATE TABLE. OF TENINOICC 7) VS KL I KI TA Tt CC 9) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 20 4* 24 . 1* 4 22* 26 ****************************** * 2 4 . 2 6* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF TEN I NO (CC 7) VS KITTITASICC 10) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 18 6* 24 1* 1 25* 26 ****************************** * 19 31* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE'OF 'TENINOICC 7 1 VS WENA TCHI ( CC 11) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ********** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* . 17 -7* 24 1* 1 25* 26 ****************************** * 18 . 32* - 50 TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL.AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF TENINOICC 7) VS SINKAIETKICC 12) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ' . ****************************** 0* 11 . 13* 24 1* 4 22* 26 ********** ******************** * 15 35* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF TENINOICC 7) VS SANPOI LICC 1 3 ) ~ FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 13 11* 24 1* 2 24* 26 ****************************** * 15 35* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF TENINOICC 7) VS COEUR_D_ALENE( CC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 . 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ( 0* 12 12* 24 1* 4 22* . 26 ****************************** . * 16. 34* 50 BIVARIATE. TABLE.OF TENINOICC 7) VS KALISPELICC 15) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * " \ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 10 14* 24 1* 10 16* 26 ********** ******************** * 20 30* 50. BIVARIATE TABLE OF TENINOICC. 7) VS FLA THE AO! CC ' l 6 l FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * . 0 * 16 ' 8* 24 1* 10 16* 26 " ********** ******************** * 26 . 24*. 50 TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF TENINOICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0- 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 16 8* 24 1* 14 12* 26 ********** ******************** * 30 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE. OF TENINOICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * *** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 11 13* 24 1* 19 7* 26 ********** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 30 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF TENINOICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 11 13* 24 1* 15 11* 26 ****************************** * 2 6 2 4* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF TENINOICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 12 12* 24 1* 20 6* 26 ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 32 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE. OF TENINOICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ********** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 19 5* 24 1* 22 4* 26 ********** ******************** * 41 9*. . . 50 7) VS KUTENAI (CC - 1-7) 7) VS THOMPSON!CC 18) 7) VS SHUSWAPICC 19) 7) VS LILOOETtCC 20) 7) VS CHILCOTINICC 21) TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF TEN I NO ( CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 19 5* 24 1* 24 2* 26 ****************************** * 43 7* 50 BIVARIATE TASLE OF WISHRAMICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 23 10* 33 1* 1 16* 17 ****************************** * 24 26* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 17 16* 33 1* 2 15* 17 ********** ******************** * 19 31* 50 8IVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * . 0 * 16 17* 33 1* 2 15* 17 ****************************** * 18 32* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 11 22* 33 1* 4 ' 13* 17 ********** ******************** * 15 35* .50 7) VS CARRIERICC 22) 8) VS KLIKI TATICC" 9)' 8) VS KI TTI.TASICC 10) 8) VS WENA X HI ICC 11) 8) VS SINKAIETKICC 12) TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 12 21* 33 1* 3 14* 17 ****************************** * 15 35* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 14 19* 33 -1* 2 15* 17 ****************************** * 16 34* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 14 19* 33 1* 6 11* 17 ********** ******************** * 20 30* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 21 12* 33 1* 5 12* 17 ****************************** * 26 24* - 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ***************************#** 0* 21 12* 33 1* 9 8* 17 ****************************** * 30 20* 50 8) VS SANPOILICC 13) 8) VS COEUR_D_ALENE(CC 14) 8) VS KALISPELICC 15) 8) VS FLA THEADI CC 16) 8) VS KUTENAI I CC 17) TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREOUENCY TABLE'. * 0 1 * ************ ******** ********** 0*... 17 16* 33 1* 13 4* 17 ********** ******************** * 30- . 20* . 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 - 1 * ****************************** 0* 15 18* 33 1* 11 6*. 17 ********** ******************** * 26. 24* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 20 13* 33 1* 12 5* 17 ****************************** * 32 . 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREOUENCY TABLE * . 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 28 • 5* 33 1* 13 4* 17 ****************************** * ,41 9* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WISHRAMICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 28 5* 33 1* 15 2* 17 ****************************** * 43 .7* . 5 0 8) VS THOMPSONICC 18) 8) VS SHUSWAPICC 19) 8) VS LILOOETICC 20) 8) VS CHILCOTINICC 21) 8) VS CARRIERICC 22) " TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLA TEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIF E BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLIKITAT1CC 9) VS KITT1TASICC 10) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 18 6* 24 1* 1 25* 26 ****************************** * 19 31* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF K L IK I TA T( CC 9 ) VS WENATCHKCC 11) ' FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* . 17 7* 24 1* 1 25* 26 ****************************** * 18. 32* 50 . BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLIK1TATICC ' 9) VS SINKAIETKICC 12) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 10 14* 24 .1* 5 21* 26 ****************************** * . 15 35* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLIKITATICC 9) VS SANPOILiCC 13) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 11 13* 24 1* 4 • 22* 26 ****************************** * 15 35* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLIKITATICC 9) VS' COEUR_0_AL ENE (CC 14) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 14 10* 24 1* 2 24* 26 ****************************** * 16 34* . 50 . TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLIKITA.TICC FREOUENCY TABLE, * 0 1* ***********************##***#* 0*, 12 12* 24 1* 8 18* 26 ****************************** * 20 .30* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KL IK I TA T( CC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 16 8* 24 1* 10 . 16* 26 ****************************** * 26 24*. 50 BIVARIATE TABLE .OF KL IK I TA T( CC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 14 10* .24 1* 16 . 10* 26. ****************************** * 30 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLIKITATICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 10 14* 24 1* 20 6* 26-****************************** .* . 30 20* 50.. BIVARIATE TABLE OF KL IK I TA T( CC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 11 13* 24 1* 15 11* 26 ********** ******************** * 26 24* 50 9) VS KALISPELICC 15) 9) VS FLA THEADt CC 16) 9 ) VS KUTENAI (CC 17) 9) VS THOMPSON! CC 18) 9) VS SHUSWAPICC 19) TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS L I F E BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLIKITATICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 . 1 * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 13 11* 24 1* 19 7* 26 ****************************** * 32 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KLIKITATICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0  20 4  24 .1* .21 5* 2 6" ****************************** * 41 . .9* . 50 BIVARIATE - TABLE OF KLIKITATICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 20 4* - 24 1* 23 3* 26 ****************************** * 43 7* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 18 1* 19 1* 0 31* 31 ****************************** * 18 32* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 10 9* 19 1* 5 26* 31 ****************************** * 15 -. 35* 50 9) VS LILOOETICC 20) 9 ) VS CHI LC0TIN1 CC 21) 9) VS CARRIERICC 22) 10) VS WENATCH11CC 11) 10) VS SINKAIETKICC 12) r r CD I TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREOUENCY TABLE .* 0 1* ********** ******************** . 0* 12 7* 19 1* 3 28* 31 ********** ******************** * 15 35* 50 BIVARIATE TA3LE OF KITTITASICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 12 7* 19 1* 4 27* 31 ********** ******************** * . 16 . 34* . . 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ****************************** 0* 11 8* 19 1*. 9 22* 31 ****************************** * 20 . 30* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ****************************** 0* 15 4* 19 1* 11 20* 31 ****************************** * - 26. 24* . . 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 14 5* 19 1* 16 ' 15* 31 ********** ******************** *. . 30 .. 20* 50 10) VS SANPOILICC 13) 10) VS COEUR_D_ALENE(CC 10) VS KALISPELICC 15) 10) VS FLA THEAD1 CC 16) 10) VS KUTENAI (CC 17) .'O TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND R EL IG IOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 8 I L * 19 1* 22 9* 31 ****************************** * 30 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 6 1* ****************************** 0* 8 11* 19 1* 18 13* 31 ********** ******************** * 26 24* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 9 10* 19 1* 23 8* 31 * * * * * * * * * * s * s t * * * t * S 4 t S S » » t « * 32 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 14 5* 19 1* 27 4*. 31 ****************************** * . . 41 9*. 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KITTITASICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* *** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 14 5* 19 1* 29 2* 31 ****************************** * 43 7* 50 10) VS THOMPSONICC 18) 10) VS SHUSWAPICC 19) 10) VS LILOOETICC 20) 10) VS CHILCOTINICC 21) 1 0 ) VS CARRIERICC 22) TYPICAL ASPECTS DF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF WENATCHI (CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ******************************" 0* 10 8* 18 1* 5 2 7* 32 ****************************** * 15 35* . 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WENATCHI (CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 12 6 * 18 1* 3 29* 32 ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 15 '35* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF h WENA TCHI (CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 12 6* 18 1* 4 28* 32 ****************************** * 16 34* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WENATCHKCC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ********** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 11 7* 18 1* 9 2 3* 32 ********** ******************** * 20 30* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF' WENA TCH I (CC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 14 4* 18 1* 12 20* '32 ********** ******************** * 26 24* 50, 11) VS SINKAIETKICC 12) 11) VS SANPOILICC 13) 11) VS COEUR_D_ALENE(CC 11) VS KALISPELICC 15) 11) VS FLATHEAD! CC 16) TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF W.ENA TCHI ( CC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* *************** *************** 0* 14 4* 18 1* 16 16* 32 ****************************** * 30 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WENATCHIICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 8 10* IB 1* 22 10* 32 ********** ******************** * 30 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WENATCHIICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 8 .10* 18 1* 18 14* 32 ********** ******************** * 26 24* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WENATCHIICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 8 10* 18 1* 24 8* 32 ****************************** * 32 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF WENA TCH I < CC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 13 5* 18 1* 28 4* 32 ****************************** * 41 9* 50 11) VS KUTENAKCC 17) 11) VS THOMPSON! CC" 18) 11) VS SHUSWAPfCC 19) 11) VS LILOOETICC 20) 11) VS CHILCOTINICC 21) TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIF E BIVARIATE TABLE OF WENATCHIICC 11) VS CARRIERICC 22) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** " ' 0*"" 1 3 - 5 * 18 1* 30 2* 32 ********** ******************** * 43 7* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF SINKAIETKICC 12) VS SANPOILICC 13) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 12 . 3* 15 1* 3 32* 35 ****************************** * 15 35* 50 . . BIVARIATE TABLE OF SINKAIETKICC 12) VS COEUR_D_AL ENE I CC 14) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 10 5* 15 1* 6 2 9* 35 ****************************** * 16 34* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF SINKAIETKICC 12) VS KALISPELICC 15) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 6 9* 15 1* 14 21* 35 ****************************** * 20 30* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE'OF SINKAIETKICC 12 ) VS FLATHEAD! CC 16) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 9 6* 15 1* 17 18* 3 5 " ' ****************************** * 26 24* 5 0 , TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIF E BIVARIATE TABLE OF SINKAIETKICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 10 5* 15 1* 20 15* 35 ****************************** * 30 20* . 50. BIVARIATE TABLE OF SINKAIETKICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 8 7* 15 1* 22 13* 35 ****************************** * 30 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE DF SINKAIETKICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 8 7* 15 1* 18 17* 35 ********** ******************** * 26 24* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF SINKAIETKICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 9 6* 15 1* 2 3 12* 35 ****************************** * 32 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF SINKAIETKICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0  10 5  151* 31 4* 35 ****************************** * 41 . 9* 50 12) VS KUTENAKCC 17) 12) VS THOMPSON!CC 18) 12) VS SHUSWAPICC 19) 12) VS LILOOETiCC 20) 12) VS CHILCOTINICC 21) TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF SINKAIETKICC . 12) VS CARRIERICC 22) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* "********** ******************** 0* 11 4* 15 1* 32 3* 35 ****************************** * .43 7* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF SANPOILICC FREQUENCY TA3LE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 10 5* 15 1* 6 29* 35 ****************************** * 16 .34* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF SANPOILICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 8 7* 15 1* 12 2 3* 35 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 20 30* 50 13) VS COEUR_D_ALENE(CC 14) 13) VS KALISPELICC* 15) BIVARIATE TABLE OF SANPOILICC 13) VS . FLA THEADI CC 16) FREQUENCY TABLE . ' . * 0 1* _ . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 10 5* 15 1* 16 19* 35 ****************************** * 26 24* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF SANPO IL I CC 13) VS KUTENAIICC 17) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 10 ' 5* 15 1* 20 15* 35' ****************************** * 30 20* 50 C7> TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS L I F E BIVARIATE TABLE OF SANPOILtCC 13) VS THOMPSONfCC 18) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * _. .._. ., * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 7 8* 15 1* 23 12* 35 . ****************************** * 30 20* 50. . BIVARIATE TABLE OF SANPOIUCC 13) V S ' SHUSWAP ( CC 19) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* . 6 9* 15 1* 20 15* 35 ****************************** * * 26, 24* . 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF SANPOIUCC 13) VS LILOOETICC 20) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 7 8* 15 1 1* 25 10* 35' ********** ******************** * 32 18* 50 " . BIVARIATE TABLE OF SANPOIUCC 13) VS. CHI LCOTI N( CC 21) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 9 6* 15 1* 32 3* 35 ****************************** * 41 9* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF SANPOILICC 13) VS CARRIERICC 22) , FREQUENCY' TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 10 5* 15 1* 33 2* 35 ****************************** * .43 7*. • 50 TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS L I F E BIVARIATE TABLE OF C OEUR_D_AL ENE (CC 14) VS KALISPELICC 15) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ********** ******** ***** ******* 0* 11 5* 16 1* 9 25* 34 ********** ******** ***** ******* * 20 30* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF COEUR_D_AL ENE (CC 14) VS FLA THEAD(CC .16) FREOUENCY TABLE . * 0 1* ******** ********************** 0* 11 5* 16 1* 15 19*. .34 ******** ** ******************** * 26 , 24* -50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF C OEUR_D_AL ENE (CC 14) VS KUTENAI (CC 17) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* . ****************************** 0*. 10 , 6* 16 1* 20 ' 14* 34 ********** ******************** * 30 20* .50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF C OEUR_D_AL ENE (CC 14) VS THOMPSONICC 18) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 8 8* 16 1* 22 12* 34 ****************************** * 30 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF C OEUR_D_AL ENE (CC 14 ) VS SHUSWAP ( CC 19 ) . FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 8 8* 16 1* 18 " 16* 34 ****************************** * 26 24* 50 1^ CD j I TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS. L I F E BIVARIATE TABLE OF C OEUR_D_AL ENE (CC 14) VS LILOOETICC 20) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** C* S 8* 16 1# 24 10*. 34 ****************************** , * 32 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF COEUR_D_AL ENE (CC 14) VS CH I LCOTI N( CC 21 FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 11 5* 16 1* 30 4* , .34 ****************************** * 41 9*.. 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF C OEUR_D_AL ENE (CC 14) VS CARRIE.RICC 22) FREQUENCY TABLE " ' " .' ~" * 0 1* "• - . . ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 12 4* 16 1* 31 3* 34. ********** ******************** * 43 7* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KALISPELICC 15) VS FLATHEADICC 16) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* . ****************************** 0* 14 6* 20 1* 12 18* 30 ****************************** * 26 24* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF' KAL IS PEL ( CC .15) VS KU TENAI ( CC • 17)" FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 14 . 6* 20 1* 16 14* 30. ****************************** * 30 20* 50 TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLA.TEAU SOCIAL AND .RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF KALISPELICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1 # ****************************** 0* 11 9* 20 1* 19 11* 30 ****************************** * 30 20* - 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KALISPELICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 11 9* 20 1* 15 15* . 30 ****************************** * 26. 2 4* .50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KALISPELICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 12 8* 20 1* 20. 10* 30 ****************************** * 32 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KALISPELICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ****************************** 0* 16 .4* 20 1* 2 5 5* .. 3.0 ****************************.** *. 41 .9* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KALISPELICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 18 2* 20 1* 2 5 5* 30 ****************************** * 43 7* 50 15 ) VS .THOMPSON! CC 18 ) 15) VS SHUSWAPICC 19) 15) VS LILOOETICC 20) 15) VS CHILCOTINICC 21) 15) VS CARRIERICC 22) TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL ANO RELIGIOUS L I F E BIVARIATE TABLE OF FLATHEADICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ******************************. 0* 21 5* 26 1* 9 15* ,24 ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 30 . 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF FLATHEADICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 16 10* 26 1* 14 10* 24 ********** ******************** * 30 20*. 50 BIVARIATE- TABLE OF FLATHEADICC FREQUENCY , TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 14 12* 26 1* 12 12* 24 ********** ******************** * 26 24* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF FLATHEADICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ********** ******************** 0* 17 9 * - 26 1* 15 9 * - 24 ****************************** * 32 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF FLATHEADICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 22 4* 26 1* 19 5* 24 ****** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 41 9* 50 16) VS KUTENAI (CC 17) 16) VS THOMPSONICC ' 18) 16) VS SHUSWAP1CC- 19) 16) VS LILOOETiCC 20) 16) VS CHILCOTINICC 21) TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE BIVARIATE TABLE OF FLATHEADICC 16) VS CARRIERICC 22) FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 22 4* 26 1* 21 3* 24 ****************************** * 43 7* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF K UTENA I I CC 17) VS - THOMPSON I CC 18 ) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 18 12* 30 1* 12 8* 20 ****************************** * 30 20* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF KUTENAI (CC 17) VS SHUSWAPICC 19) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 18 12* 30 1* 8 12* 20 ********** ******************** . * 26 . 24* 50 " BIVARIATE TABLE OF K UTENA I I CC 17) VS , L I LOOE Tl CC 20) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* . . . . . . . . . ****************************** 0* 18 12* 30 1* 14 6* 20 ********** ******************** * 32 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF K UTENA I I CC 17) VS CHILCQTINiCC 21) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 26 • 4* 30 1* 15 5* 20 . ****************************** * 41 9* 50 * c 00 i TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL ANO RELIGIOUS L I F E " BIVARIATE TABLE OF KUTENAI (CC 171 VS CARRIERICC 22) -FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* _ • ****************************** 0* 26 4* 30-1* 17 3* 20 ****************************** * 43 7* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF THOMPSONICC 18) VS SHUSWAPICC " 19) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* , ' . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 24 6* 30 1* 2 18* 20 ****************************** * 26 24* 50 * BIVARIATE TABLE OF THOMPSON (CC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ********************** 0* 27 3* 30 1* 5 15* 20 ******** ********************** * 32 18* 50 18.) VS LILOOETICC 20) BIVARIATE TABLE.OF THOMPSON (CC 18) VS CHI LCO.TINI CC 21) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * ****************************** 0* 26 4* 30 1* 15 5* 20 ************** *************^-;# * 41 9* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF THOMPSONICC 18) VS CARRIERICC 22) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 . 1* . ********** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ; ( ( * * * * * ' 0* 28 2* 30 1* 15 ' 5* 20 ****************************** * 43 7* 50 CD CO TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS L I F E BIVARIATE TABLE OF SHUSWAPICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ********** ******************** 0* 23 3* 26 1* 9 15* 24 ****************************** * 32 18* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF SHUSWAPICC FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1* ****************************** 0* 24 2* 2 6 1* 17 7* 24 ****************************** * 41 9* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE Or SHUSWAPICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 2 5 1* 26 1* 18 6* 24 ****************************** * 43 7* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF LILOOETICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 28 4* 32 1* 13 5* 18 ********** ******************** * 41 9* 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF LILOOETICC FREQUENCY TABLE * 0 1* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0* 30 2* 32 1* 13 5* 18 ****************************** * 43 7* 50 19) VS LILOOETICC 20) 19) VS CHILCOTINtCC 21) 19) VS CARRIER1CC 22) 20) VS CHILC0TIN1CC 21) 20) VS CARRIERICC 22) CO -p TYPICAL ASPECTS OF PLATEAU SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS L I F E - ' BIVARIATE TABLE OF CH ILCOTIN (CC 21) VS CARRIERICC 22) FREOUENCY TABLE * 0 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ~ ----- - _ . . . . . . . . . . . 0* 40 1* 41 1* 3 6* 9 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 43 7* 50 EXECUTION TERMINATED *SIG • ~00 cn 0 R I G I N A L C 0 E F F I C I E N T S PA 3E NO . 1 OF 3 C C t U f N = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 12 13 1 4 15 l b 17 18 / ? ROW = 1 0 . 0 \ ROW = 2 0 . 5 5 0 . 0 RCW = 3 0 . 5 6 0 . 7 3 0 . 0 ROW = 4 0 . 41 0 . 6 3 0 . 92 0 . 0 RCW = 5 0 . 4 5 0 . 6 1 J . 7 3 0 . 7 1 0 . 0 ROW = 6 0 . 4 1 ' 0 . 6 3 0 . 7b 0 . 85 0 . 7 6 0 . 0 ROW = 7 0 . 3 d 0 . 6 2 0 . 8 0 0 . 8 8 0 . 6 5 0 . 8 8 0 . 0 RCW = a 0 . 3 7 U . 5 7 0 . 7 9 0 . 8 } 0 . 6 4 0 . 8 7 0 . 9 8 0 . 0 ROW = 9 0 . 4 1 0 . 5 0 0 . 6 5 0 . 7 3 0 . 5 3 0 . 7 0 0 . 7 9 0 . 8 1 0 . 0 ROW = 1 0 0 . 3 6 u . 5 u 0 . 6 8 o . a o 0 . 5 / 0 . 7 3 0 . 8 5 o . a r U . 9 1 0 . 0 RCW = u U . 4 6 0 . 6 3 0 . 7 1 0 . 7 4 0 . 6 3 0 . 6 1 0 . 8 3 0 . 8 5 0 . 84 0 . 84 0 . 0 ROW = 12 0 . 5 0 0 . 5 8 J . 62 0 . 5 7 0 . 4 9 0 . 6 4 0 . 7 2 0 . 7 4 0 . 6 5 0 . 7 1 0 . 7 8 J . L ) RCW = 13 0 . 3 3 0 . 5 6 0 . 8 0 0 . 6 4 0 . 5 9 0 . 6 4 0 . 7 3 0 . 7u 0 . 6 2 0 . 6 6 0 . 6 7 0 . 6 7 0 . 0 RCW = 14 0 . 4 8 0 . 5 6 0 . 6 6 0 . 5 2 0 . 4 3 0 . 4 4 0 . 6 0 0 . 6 3 0 . 5 7 0 . 57 0 . 5 4 0 . 5 7 0 . 6 8 J . J ROW = 15 0 . 4 d 0 . 31 0 . 3 3 J . 3 1 0 . 2 2 0 . 2 6 0 . 4 6 0 . 4 U 0 . 4 9 J . 4 5 0 . 4 6 0 . 4 5 0 . 4 6 0 . 4 0 0 . 0 RCW = 16 0 . 4 9 0 . 4 2 0 . 4 3 0 . 4 4 0 . 3 0 0 . 4 4 0 . 4 0 0 . 4 9 0 . 58 0 . 52 0 . 5 6 0 . 5o u . 5 0 0 . 5 5 U . 8 2 U.J ROW = 1 7 0 . 5 7 0 . 2 6 0 . 3 0 0 . 2 8 0 . 2 9 0 . 3 2 0 . 3 1 0 . 3 3 0 . 4 8 0 . 4 u 0 . 4 0 0 . 4 3 0 . 4 1 0 . 3 2 . j . 7 9 U . 6 8 0 . 0 ROW = 1 8 . 0 . 4 5 0 . 5 3 0 . 3 5 U . 2 6 0 . 3 2 0 . 3 2 0 . 2 4 0 . 3 4 0 . 2 3 0 . 19 0 . 2 3 0 . 3 0 0 . 3 4 u . 3 7 0 . 3 7 0 . 4 8 0 . 3 9 0 . 0 O R I G I N A L C O E F F I C I E N T S HAGE NO. 2 OF 3 COLUMN = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I J 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 < ROW = 19 0.51 0 .40 0 . 2 4 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 8 0 . 2 2 0 . 1 4 U . 13 0 . I B 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 9 0 .34 0 .23 0 .25 u . 42 0 .46 0 .43 U.77 03 ^ 3 O R I G I N A L C O E F F I C I E N T S HAib NO. 3 OF 3 C C I U P N 19 RCW = 19 0.0 PLATEAU CULTURAL RELATIONSHIPS GITTPAN-LI NGGES' SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M = 1 (SEMI-STRUNG MGNliTONICI TY) • DIMENSION 1 V»RIABLE 1 21.U01 52.162 2 -40.232 9.071 3 -65.435 34.274 4 -83.526 52.365 5 -luO .0.0 J 68.839 6 -84. 930 53. 769 7 -61.7u4 50.543 9 -71 .344 40.133 . 9 -66. 486 35.326 10 -73.824 42.663 11 -70 .d26 39.665 12 -49. 874 i 8 . 713 % 13 -56.565 2 5 . 4 . 5 14 -42.0o9 1U.B48 15 40.310 71.470 16 7.196 38.357 17 45.759 76.920 18 80.445 111.6j5 19 100.uOO 131.161 GLTTMAN-LINGOES* COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION = 0.25444 IN 15 ITERATIONS. KRUSKAL • S STRESS = 0. 22214 PLATEAU CULTURAL RELATIONSHIPS GUTTMAN-LI NGOE S* SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M = 2 (SEMI-STRONG MONOTONICITY). ~ DIMENS ION 1 2 V*PI«ELE 1 34.623 -43.337 69.628 2 -46. 301 -32. 920 54.307 3 -7u,96b -52.445 43.434 4 -90.928 -4J.250 58.J96 5 -100.UOO -68. 769 76. 734 6 -93.497 -33.422 59.862 7 -85. 122 -26. 731 51.504 9 -80.963 -24. 558 47. 563 00 00 9 10 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 -68 .816 -81. 572 -71.205 -47.201 -55.910 -28.042 26.716 2 . 530 - 5 . 813 -14.922 -9.997 -35.493 -57.560 40.572 53.650 40.430 24.190 22. 831 28.055 92.985 16 1 0 . 8 3 8 1 4 . 5 8 9 6 3 . 1 0 5 17 45.739 3 4 . 7 8 3 1 ^ 2 . 5 8 3 18 6 1 . 7 8 7 - 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 1 8 . 3 6 7 1 9 l O O . J J J -07 .923 1 3 8 . 9 7 7 G L T T M A N - L I N G O E S * C O E F F I C I E N T OF A L I E N A T I O N = 0 . 1 3 4 7 6 IN 4 5 I T E R A T I O N S . K P U S K AL • S S T R E S S = 0 . 1 1 6 6 3 00 VECTOR PLOTS VECTOR 2 PLOTTED AGAINST VECTOR 1 VECTOR 2 -40 -30 -20 •10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 VEC TOR -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 O R I G I N A L C O E F F I C I E N T S P A G E N U . 1 OF 1 C O L U M N = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 y RCW = 1 0 . 0 ROW = 2 0 . 6 4 0 . 0 ROW = 3 0 . 6 0 0 . 7 0 0 . 0 RCW = 4 0 . 4 2 0 . 5 6 0 . 4 4 0 . 0 ROW = 5 0 . 3 0 0 . 4 7 0 . 3 6 0 . 6 7 0 . 0 RCW = 6 0 . 4 2 0 . 4 4 0 . 5 9 J . 6 2 0 . 0 0 . 0 ROW = 7 0 . 4 3 0 . 4 7 0 . 4 0 u . 5 9 0 . 6 0 0 . 6 6 0 . 0 ROW = 8 0 . 3 8 0 . 4 6 0 . 4 5 0 . 5 7 0 . 5 2 0 . 6 2 0 . 7 3 0 . RCW = 9 0 . 3 7 0 . 4 5 0 . 4 1 J . 4 9 0 . 5 6 0 . 5 4 0 . 6 7 0 . 6 8 0 . 0 l O ROW - 1 3 0 . 3 5 u . 4 4 0 . 4 6 ii. 5 5 0 . 6 3 0 . 5 9 0 . 5 7 J . o 2 0 . 5 9 0 . 0 I N T E R I O R S A L I S H T O T A L C U L T U R E G L T T M A N - L I N G U E S ' S M A L L E S T S P A C E C O O R D I N A T E S FOft M = 1 ( S E M I - S T R O N G MONO TUN IC I T V ) . D I M E N S I O N 1 ~ " ' " V A R I A B L E 1 lOu .OOJ 1 1 2 . 1 0 6 2 5 2 . 0 8 5 6 4 . 1 9 2 3 6 8 . 9 0 7 3 1 . 0 1 3 4 - 2 3 . 7 8 7 1 1 . 6 8 1 5 - I U J . J J O 8 7 . 8 9 4 6 1. 3 6 3 1 3 . 4 6 9 7 - 4 2 . 6 8 7 3 0 . 5 8 1 8 - 4 1 . 2 6 5 2 9 . 1 5 9 9 - 6 9 . 6 9 9 5 7 . 5 9 3 10 - 6 5 . 9 7 6 5 3 . 8 7 0 G U T T M A N - L I N G O E S ' C O E F F I C I E N T O F A L I E N A T I O N = 0 . 3 0 0 1 5 IN 16 I T E R A T I O N S . K R U S K A L ' S S T R E S S = 0 . 2 2 7 9 2 I N T E R I O R S A L I S H T O T A L C U L T U R E G U T T X A N - L I N G O E S ' S M A L L E S T S P A C E C O O R O I N A T E S FDR M = 2 ( S E M I - S T R O N G MONOTO.NI C I T Y I . D I M E N S I O N VARIABLE 1 1 0 0 . O J O - I f ) . 5 3 5 1 2 2 . 6 2 9 2 4 9 . 4 7 8 - 7 . J 1 8 7 6 . 9 9 5 3 7 7 . 7 1 7 - 7 3 . 9 2 7 1 0 3 . 7 2 6 4 - 2 7 . 7 1 1 1 0 . 9 1 1 5 1 . 2 0 8 5 - 9 o . 3 5 0 2 4 . 7 V 4 9 9 . 3 u 9 6 - 5 . 7 3 4 - 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 6 1 . 971 7 - 5 6 . 1 4 3 - 4 3 . 7 J 8 3 6 . 1 4 5 8 - 6 2 . 4 7 8 - 5 6 . 5 4 7 4 5 . 4 8 0 9 - 1 0 0 . U O J - 4 0 . 4 1 0 7 9 . 7 8 7 1 0 - 8 0 . 9 3 7 - 9 6 . J 1 4 8 2 . 7 8 4 G U T T M A N-LI NGOE S* C O E F F I C I E N T OF A L I E N A T I O N = 0 . 1 7 3 8 9 IN 4 7 I T E R A T I O N S . K R U S K A L ' S S T R E S S = 0 . 1 4 0 4 8 VECTCP PLOTS VECTOR 2 PLOTTED AGAINST VECTUR VECTOR 2 -IOO -90 -80 -70 -60 •50 -40 -30 -20 •10 10 20 30 40 50 60 60 90 100 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 100 96 92 88 84 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 100 9b 92 38 34 80 76 72 68 64 60 Bo 7o 72 68 64 6u 56 52 48 44 40 36 5b 52 48 44 40 3b 32 28 24 20 16 12 * 5 COEUR D'ALENE 4 KALISPEL 32 28 24 2o 16 12 VECTCR 9 4 1 -4 -8 -12 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 2 SHUSWAP 8 4 -4 -a -12 -16 -20 -24 -28 -32 -36 LILLOOET -16 -20 -24 -23 -32 -36 -40 -44 -48 -52 -56 -60 * 9 WENATCHI * * * * * 7 SANPOIL 8 COLUMBIA -40 -44 -48 -52 -56 -60 -64 -68 -72 -76 -80 -84 •* THOMPSON -64 -68 -72 -76 -80 -84 -88 -92 -96 -100 * * * * * * * -100 -90 10 FLATHEAD -80 * * * * * * * * -70 -60 -50 * * -40 5 * * SINKAIETK <> * * * * * * * * * * * -3D -20 -10 * 10 * * * 20 * * * * 30 40 * * * * 50 * 4 60 * * * 70 * * * * 80 9u * * * *-* * * 100 -88 -92 -96 loo O R I G I N A L C O E F F I C I E N T S PAiE NO. i OF 1 CCLLVN = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ROW = 1 0.0 ROW = 2 0.48 0.0 RCW = 3 0.57 0.75 0.0 ROW = 4 0.27 0.40 0.37 0.0 RCW = 5 0.23 0.32 0.34 u.55 0.0 RCW = 6 0.33 0.50 u.47 0.65 0.44 0.0 ROW = 7 0. 25 0. 34 0.34 0.52 0.50 0.54 0.0 ROW = 8 0.25 0.39 0.38 0.55 0.66 0.52 0.0 RCW = 9 0.27 0.39 0.36 0.85 0.54 0.64 0. 51 0. 86 0.0 LEXICCSTASTIC MATRIX, INTERIOR SALISH GUTTMAN-L INGOES' SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M = 1 ISEMI-STRUNG MONJrONlCITYI. -P OlfENSICN VARIABLE 1 100.000 120.999 2 37. 211 58.210 3 51.583 72.582 4 -54.379 33.381 5 -lOo .U JO 79. j u l 6 -29.884 8.885 7 -85.728 64.729 8 -53.364 32.866 -53.927 32.929 GUTTMAN-LINGQES' COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION = 0.11752 IN 19 ITERATIONS. KRUSKAL'S STRESS = 0.06941 LFXICOSTASTIC MATRIX, INTERIOR SALISH GUTTMAN-L INGOES' SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M = 2 (SEMI-STRONG M0N0T0N1CI TY I. DIPENSICN 1 2 VARIABLE  I 10U.UJJ -35.971 126. 430 2 36.722 -97.094 69 .892 3 49. 8B4 -57.123 73. 766 4 -55.731 -51.920 33.560 5 -100.000 -20.915 86.640 6 -39.814 - l o o . 0 0 0 41. 266 7 -93.160 -91.353 75.387 e -55. 729 -51.928 33.555 9 -55.683 -51.712 33. 582 GL'TTVAIV-LINGOES' COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION = 0.00138 IN 75 ITERATIONS. KRUSKAL'S STRESS = 0.00115 VECTOR P L O T S V E C T C R 2 P L O T T E D A G A I N S T V E C T U * - 1 0 0 - 9 0 - 8 0 - 7 0 VECTOR 2 - 5 0 -40 -30 - 2 0 - 1 0 IJ 20 30 40 50 60 70 90 1U0 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 100 * * * 100 96 * * * 96 92 * * * 92 88 * * * 88 84 * * * a4 8C * * # 80 76 * * * 76 72 * * * 72 68 * * * 68 64 * * * 64 6C * * * 60 56 * * * 56 52 * * * 52 48 * * * 4d 44 * * * 44 40 * * * 43 36 * * « 36 32 * * * 32 28 * * * 28 24 * * * 24 20 * > ..... . * 20 16 * * * 16 12 * * * 12 8 * * * 3 4 * * * 4 VECTCR 1 -4 -8 -12 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * -4 -8 -12 - 16 -20 -24 -28 -32 -36 * 5 COEUR D'ALENE -40 -44 -48 -52 -56 -60 (KALISPEL) 9 SPOKANE (PEHD D'OREILLE) LILLOOET * -16 * -20 * -24 * -2a * -32 * -36 -64 -68 -72 -76 -90 -84 JLTHQMP.SQH_. * -40 * - 4 4 * -4o * -52 * -5b * -6 j * -64 * -6 8 * -72 * -76 * -80 * -84 -88 * - 9 2 * 7 COLUMBIA * -56 * _ * • - 1 0 0 * " ' 6 OKANAGON * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * - 1 0 0 - 9 0 - 8 0 - 7 0 - 6 0 - 5 0 - 4 0 - 3 0 - 2 0 - 1 0 * 10 2 0 1 SHUSWAP * * * * * * * * 30 40 50 * - 8 8 * -92 * -96 *-100 » * * 7u * * * * 80 9u * * * 100 . 199. 3 OM'O-is fl^-J ^ 3* • J- O rj Xj <> o -y d •n si a\ » » «TM o a l ' T . x n rt a C M -d 3 * • — < \j ...... * « «.« « — -u o -I X t> fl -u o J •3 O vi o J o .ru J "VI O i 3 ' ' O l i O 3 : . 3 -• "VI "Vi \ J ./J !^ .n _n q o 1 j D 3 -1 o -v n ^ O R I G I N A L C O E F F I C I E N T S PACE NO. 1 OF 1 COLUMN • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 HOW B 1 0,0 ROW • 2 0.3b 0,0 ROW 8 ) 0.36 0,32 0,0 ROW a 4 0,30 0.27 0.26 0.0 ROW » 5 0,36 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.0 ROW a 6 0.31 0.31 0.32 0,30 0.31 0,0 ROW a 7 0.34 0.34 0,31 0,36 0,37 0.30 0.0 ROW s 6 0.31 0,25 0,33 0.32 0.37 0.29 0,32 0,0 ROW B 9 0.29 0,26 0.33 0.33 0.35 0.26 0.32 0.34 0,0 CONTENT ANALYSIS SOCIAL ORGANIZATION GUTTMAN-LINGOES' SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M s 1 (SEMI-STRONS MONOTONICITY), DIMENSION 1 VARIABLE 1 28.022 38,281 2 72.117 82.376 3 17.878 28.136 4 -90.884 80.625 5 -30.078 19.820 6 100.000 110.258 7 -25,923 15,665 e -63.458 53,200 9 -100.000 89,742 GUTTMAN-LINGOES' COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION 8 0,34774 IN 10 ITERATIONS, KRUSKAL'S STRESS » 0,25055 CONTENT ANALYSIS SOCIAL ORGANIZATION GUTTMAN-LINGOES" SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M • 2 (SEMI-STRONG MONOTONICITY), DIMENSION 1 2 VARIABLE 1 65,226 40.855 69,594 2 100.000 79,216 117,999 3 51.128 -10,555 57.862 4 -96.022 -16.101 101.435 5 -9.354 32.629 18,600 6 19.751 -100,000 126.728 7 -12.344 70.5B8 55,425 8 -48,288 -3.871 52.442 9 -100.000 56,267 107,606 GUTTMAN-LINGOES' COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION » KRUSKAL'S STRESS » 0,16987 ,21329 IN 24 ITERATIONS, o VECTOR PLOTS VECTOR 2 PLOTTED AGAINST VECTOR 1 VECTOR 2 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -10 -30 -20 -10 * 10 20 30 UO 50 60 70 80 90 100 VECTOR 100 • » * 100 96 * * • * 96 92 * * * 92 66 * * * 86 84 * * • 84 80 * * LT* * • 60 7b * • 76 72 * 7 SP * * 72 68 • * * 68 64 • * • 64 60 * 9 CA * * 60 56 * * * 5b 52 * * * 52 48 * * * 48 44 * * » LI • 44 40 * * * 40 36 * 5 * * 36 32 * 0K2 * * 32 26 * * * 28 24 * * * 24 20 * 1 * * 20 16 * * * lb 12 * • • 12 8 • * * 8 4 • • • 4 : 1 -4 * 8 KL * * -4 -8 • * • •8 -12 * OK * 3 UT . * -12 -16 * 4 * * - l b -20 * * * -20 -24 * * * -24 -28 * * * -28 -32 * * • • -32 -36 • * * -3b -40 * * • -40 -44 * * • -44 -48 • * * * -48 -52 * ' * * -52 -5b * * • -56 -60 * * « -60 -64 * * * -64 -68 * * * -68 -72 * * * -72 -76 » * * -76 -80 * * * -60 -84 * * * -84 • 88 * * - * -68 -92 • * * • 92 -96 * * • -96 -100 • * 6 CV *-100 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -SO -40 -30 -20 -10 * 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 O R I G I N A L C O E F F I C I E N T S PAGE NO. t OF 1 COLUMN s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 ROW B 1 0,0 ROW s 2 0,38 0.0 ROW B 3 0.35 0,34 0,0 ROW s 4 0,31 0,31 0.26 0.0 ROW B 5 0,31 0,33 0,31 0.34 0,0 ROW 8 6 0,30 0.24 0.28 0.31 0.30 0,0 ROW a 7 0.27 0.27 0,28 0,30 0,30 0,30 0.0 % ROW s B 0,24 0,24 0,26 0,26 0,28 0.31 0,33 0,0 ROW s 9 0.31 0.30 0,33 0,28 0.27 0.26 0,28 0,26 0,0 8 CONTENT ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGY GUTTMAN-LINGOES' SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M a 1 (SEMI-STRONG MONOTONICITY), DIMENSION 1 VARIABLE 1 -53,167 45,731 2 -67.104 59.667 3 -63.569 56.132 4 5.511 12.948 5 -8.124 0.688 6 52.358 59,794 7 67.165 74,602 8 100.000 107.437 9 -100,000 92.563 GUTTMAN-LINGOES' COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION 8 0,26535 IN 11 ITERATIONS, KRUSKAL'S STRESS s 0,18788 CONTENT ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGY GUTTMAN-LINGOES' SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M B 2 (SEMI-STRONG MONOTONICITY), DIMENSION 1 2 VARIABLE 1 -86,747 -49,838 65,719 2 -96.050 -64.596 78,383 3 -100.000 -23.256 79.718 4 -4.459 -95,907 59,321 5 -28.227 -100,000 61.123 6 6U.979 -87.257 99.276 7 45.401 28.025 95.124 8 100,000 -1,594 127,564 9 -91.923 41,584 106,917 G U T T M A N - L I N G O E S ' C O E F F I C I E N T O F A L I E N A T I O N s 0 , 1 0 3 0 5 I N 7 3 I T E R A T I O N S , K R U S K A L ' S S T R E S S =• 0 , 0 8 0 7 5 O VECTOR PLOTS VECTOR 2 PLOTTED AGAINST VECTOR 1 VECTOR 2 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 90 100 VECTOR O cn •100 -90 .80 -70 -60 -50 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 90 100 CCl 'JPN O R I G I N A L C O E F F I C I E N T S 9 10 PAGE NU. 1 OF I ROW 1 0.0 ROW = 2 0.67 0.0 ROW = 3 0.57 0.70 0.0 ROW = 4 0.40 0.57 0.50 3.0 RCW = 5 0.33 - 0.40 0.30 0.73 0.0 ROW = 6 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.53 0.60 0.0 RCW = 7 0.40 0.47 0.43 0.67 0.73 0.73 0.0 RCW = 8 0.60 U.80 0.60 1.00 0.59901.00 1.00 0.0 to O ROW = 9 0. 33 0.43 0.40 0.63 0.67 0.67 0.83 0.80 0.0 ROW = 10 0.40 0.40 0.43 0.57 0.63 0.73 0.77 0.80 0.70 0.0 G-SCORE MATRIX, REL IG ION-CEREMONIAL SIMILARITY GUTTMAN-LINGOES' SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M = 1 ISEMI-STRONG MONO. TONIC IT Yl. CIM ENS ION 1 VARIABLE 1 2 3 4 5 100.000 46.874 67. 010 -43.127 -10J • J J J 118.147 O5.021 85.156 24.9do dl.853 6 7 8 9 10 -27. 677 -60.712 -20.442 -74. 802 -68.593 9. 530 42.565 2.295 56.655 50.446 GLTTMA N- LINGOE S' COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION = 0.25961 IN 10 ITERATIONS. KRUSKAL'S STRESS = 0. 19851 G-SCCRE MATRIX, RELIGION-CEREMONIAL SIMILARITY GUTTMAN-LINGOES* SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FUR M = 2 <SEN1-STR3NG MONO TUN IC I TY) < DIMENSION r VARIABLE 1 100.000 -lOo.OOO 110.975 2 73.658 - 4 l . o 8 1 71.425 f 3 96.145 6.3d7 lo7.9ol. ' — J 4 -17. 867 10. 82 5 61.391 5 -loo.ooo -43. 309 102.510 6 - 2 . J 0 J - 8 5 . 6 0 3 38.755 7 -35. 269 -45. 132 37. 761 8 6.451 -48.191 4.155 9 -52.904 -29.385 58.113 10 -43. 758 -95.010 66. 548 GUTTMAN-LINGOES' COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION = 0.11126 IN 29 ITERATIONS. KRUSKAL'S STRESS = 0.09296 to O V E C T O R P L O T S V E C T C R 2 P L O T T E D A G A H S T V E C T O R VECTOR 2 •100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 20 30 40 50 7u 80 90 100 * * * * * *~*'~*~~«"~*~* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * » * * « * * * * * * * 4 loo * 96 * 92 * 88 * 84 * lOo 96 92 88 84 80 * * * 8o 76 * * * 76 72 * * * 72 68 * * * 68 64 * * * 64 60 * * * 60 56 * * * 56 52 * * * 52 48 * * * 46 44 if * * 44 40 * * * 40 36 * * * 36 32 * * * 32 28 * * * 28 24 * > * * 24 20 * * 9 20 16 * * * 16 12 * 4 KALISPEL * * 12 8 * * THOMPSON 3 * 8 4 * * * 4 V E C T C R 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * -4 * * * -4 -a * * * -8 -12 * * * -12 -16 « * * -16 -20 * * * -20 -24 * * * -2 4 -28 * * * -28 -32 * 9 WENATCHI * * -32 -36 * * * -3 6 -40 * * * -40 -44 * 5COEUR D'ALENE * 2 SHUSWAP * -44 -48 * 7 SANPOIL * 8 COLUMBIA * -48 -52 * * * -52 -56 * * * -5 6 -60 * * * -60 -64 * * * -64 -68 * * * -6 8 -72 * * * -72 -76 * * * -76 -80 * * * -80 -84 * * * -84 SINKAIETK 6 -88 -92 -96 -100 * * * * * * -100 10 FLATHEAD * * * * - 9 0 * * * » 80 -70 * * * * * - 6 0 -50 * * * * * * * * * * -40 -30 -20 -10 * * * * * * * * * 10 20 > * * 30 * * 50 * * * * 6 0 7o LILLOOET 1 * * * * * * 80 90 100 -88 -92 -96 100 COLUMN = O R I G I N A L C O E F F I C I E N T S 9 10 PAGE NO. 1 OF 1 R C W = 1 O.J ROW = 2 0.76 0.0 ROW 3 0.64 0.76 O . J RCW = 4 0.56 0.72 0.56 0.0 ROW 5 0.40 0.64 0.56 U. 72 O.J RCW 0.48 0.52 0.6u 0.72 0.64 0.0 RCW = 7 0.56 0.60 0.48 0.68 0.64 0.60 0.0 ROW = 8 0.48 0. 56 0.60 0.76 0.64 0.72 0.80 0.0 ro o ID ROW 9 0.48 0.64 0.52 0.56 0.72 0.52 0.72 0.68 0.0 ROW - 10 0.48 0.56 0.64 O.60 0.64 0.60 0.52 0.68 0.60 0.0 G-SCORE MATRIX, SOCIAL ORGANIZATION INTERIOR SALISH GUTT MAN-LINGOES • SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR H = 1 (SEMI-STRONG MONUTONI CI TY). DIMENSION 1 " VARIABLE 1 2 3 4 5 loo.ooo 32.211 34. 826 -4. 246 -61.742 116. 140 48.351 50.966 11. 895 45,6J2 6 7 8 9 10 -1oo.JOJ - 18. 335 -30.505 -38.807 - 74.8J3 83 . 6 6 0 2. 1 95 14.365 22.657 58.663 GL'TTMAN-LINGOES' COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION = 0.35898 IN 18 ITERATIONS. : KRUSKAL'S STRESS = O.29509 G-SCORE MATRIX, SOCIAL ORGANIZATION INTERIOR SALISH GtTT KAN-LI NGOES' SMALLEST SPACE COOK 01 NAT ES FUR M = 2 < S EM I-STRJNG MONOTONIC I TY), CIMENSION VAR TABLE 1 100.000 -56.407 130.857 _ 2 38.563 -51.482 70.319  46.385 25. Iu4 91. 739 ~ ~ — < 4 -35.3o7 -15.556 13.592 5 - l u u . O J J -35.060 73. 082 6 -95.406 32.953 90. 372 7 -50.733 -91.866 69.329 8 -63. 915 -33.65d 37.184 ~9 -80.739 - l o o . 0 0 0 90.745 ~ 10 -34.907 60.201 87.102 GUTTMAN-LINGOES' C O E F F I C I E N T OF A L I E N A T I O N =0.16355 IN 21 ITERATIONS. KR'JSKAL'S STRESS = 0.14085 VECTCR PLOTS VECTOR 2 PLOTTED AGAINST VECTOR VECTUR 2 -100 -90 -80 -70 -50 -40 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * •20 -10 * * * * * * * -30 10 20 30 50 70 90 100 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 100 96 92 88 84 100 9b 92 88 84 90 76 72 68 64 60 10 FLATHEAD 80 76 72 68 64 OU 56 52 48 44 40 36 * * * * 6 SINKAIETK 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 3 THOMPSON 32 28 24 20 lb 12 VECTOR 4 1 -4 -8 -12 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 8 4 -4 -8 -12 -16 -20 -24 -28 -32 -36 4 KALISPEL * 5 COEUR D'ALENE 8 COLUMBIA -16 -20 -24 -28 -32 - 3b -4 0 -44 -48 -52 -56 -60 2 SHUSWAP LILLOOET 1 -64 -6e -72 -76 -80 -94 -40 -44 -48 -52 -56 -oO -64 -6 8 -72 -76 -8o -84 -88 * -92 * -96 * -100 * 9 WENATCHI * * * * * * * * * * * * -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 7 SANPOIL * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 * 10 * * * * * * * * 20 30 40 * * * * * * * 50 60 70 * * 60 * *• * * * * * 9b 100 -88 -92 -96 •100 O R I G I N A L C O E F F I C I E N T S PAiE NO. 1 OF 1 CCLUCN = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ROW = 1 0.0 RCW = 2 0.45 0.0 RCW = 3 0.61 0.64 0.0 ROW = 4 0. 26 0. 33 0.21 0.0 RCW = 5 0.13 0.36 0.22 0.49 0.0 ROW - 6 0.30 0.32 0.26 o. 53 0.62 0.0 ROW = 7 0.32 0.33 0.27 0.32 0.37 0.64 0.0 RCW = 8 0.22 0.27 0.26 a.21 0.35 0.43 0. 59 0.0 ROW = S 0.30 0.27 0.30 0. 16 0.27 0.39 0.41 0.65 0.0 ROW = 10 0.13 0.36 0.30 0.47 0. 62 0.39 0.36 0.52 0.43 '0.0 G SCCRE MATRIX, T ECHN3 L3 GY-DEMOGRA PHY SIMILARITY INTERIOR SALISH GLTTMAN-LINGOES' SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M = 1 CSEMI-STR3NG MONOTONIC I TY». DIMENSION 1 VARIABLE 1 99.484 103.181 2 65 .0 T9 68.776 i 100.000 103. 6 9 8 4 -100.000 96.302 5 -84.500 80.8O2 6 -40. 139 3 6 . 4 4 2 7 -10.903 7 . 2 1 0 8 -12.504 3 . 8 0 6 9 3.960 7. 6 5 8 10 -57.447 5 3 . 7 4 9 GL'TTMA N- LI NGOE S' COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION = 0.33402 IN 13 IT ERAT IONS • KRUSKAL'S STRESS = 0.27290 G SCCRE MATRIX, TECHNOLOGY-DEMOGRAPHY SIMILARITY INTER I OR SAL I SH GUTTMAN-LI NGOE S 1 SMALLEST SPACE COORDINATES FOR M = 2 (SEMI-STRONG MONOTON ICITY). DIPEI«S ICN r VARIABLE 1 100.OOJ -19.540 12J.237 _2 44.314 - 4 0 . 723 73.656 3 d a . 6 9 7 5.7o6 10d.465 4 - 6 0 . 7 7 4 -100.000 104.171 5 -84.084 -48. 928 78. 597 6 -54.316 -16.739 37.124 7 -37.664 21. 570 31.853 _8 -62.473 71.306 87. 199 9 -27.058 90.131 94.897 10 -100.000 -7.306 80.765 G'JTT KAN-LINGOES * COEFFICIENT OF ALIENATION = 0.14283 IN 16 ITERATIONS. K R U S K A L ' S STRESS = 0.11839 t-1 CO i n VECTOR PLOTS VECTOR 2 PLOTTED AGAINST VECTOR 1 VECTOR 2 I C O * " ! J " 8 ° " 7 " ~ 6 U ~ 5 J ^ " 3 0 ~ 2 u ~ l U * * u 2 J 3 " 4 » 50 60 70 80 90 iOO * 96 * * °2 * 9 WENATCHI * 88 * * 84 * * 80 « " « 76 * * 72 * 8 COLUHBIA * 68 * * 64 * * * * 1 JO * 96 * 92 * 88 * 84 60 56 52 * 48 * 44 * 40 * * 80 * 76 * 72 * 66 * 64 * 60 36 * * 2 2 *~ — sr * 56 * 52 * 48 * 44 * 40 * 36 8  * * "* 7 SANPOIL * 20 * * 16 * * 12 * * * 4 * 32 23 24 20 16 12 THOMPSON 3 * 8 VECTOR 1 * * . * „ -12 * *10 FLATHEAD * * -4 * -8 -it * 6~SINKAIETK *- * -12 -20 * * -16 _ 2 4 „ J LILLOOET 1 * -20 -28 * " "-- — - - -- * -32 * * -36 * -24 * -28 - 4 0 — * — % , * - 3 f e * 2 SHUSWAP : * -40 44 * 48 * 5 COEUR D'ALENE * -52 * — - * -56 * -60 * -64 -6 9 -72 * -44 * -48 * -52 * -56 * -5 0 * * -76 * " " ~ ' * -eo * * -84 * * = 8 8 * ~ *--92 * * -64 * -68 * -72 * -76 * - 8 0 * -84 * -38 * -92 * -96 * -96 » « -100 * 4 KALISPEL * »_,,)., * * * * * « * « * * * » * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Zl}> ±L> -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 » 10 20 30 40 50 6J 7u dp 9j loo MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE LILLOOET SOURCES: LIOOl - LI052 < TEIT 1912B LI055 - LI061 < HILL-TOUT 1905 LI053 - LI054 < TEIT 1898 _ LI062 < PALMER 1931 LI063 - LI074 < ELLIOT 1939 ^TITLES: ~LI001 A'TSE'MEL; OR, THE STORV OF THE TRANSFORMERS _LI002 THE BOY AND THE SUN LI003 THE FROG SISTERS _LI004 BEAVER AND EAGLE LI005 THE FIRE PEOPLE S OR, THE MAN WHO INTRODUCED FIRE _LI006 ORIGIN OF LIGHT AND FIRE LI007 THE SALMON MEN; OR, THE ORIGIN OF SALMON _LI008 COYOTE LI009 THE MAN WHO HAD A BRANCH FOR A WIFE _LT010 GLACIER AND CHINOOK WIND LI011 WREN; OR, THE CHAIN OF ARROWS LI012 THE MOSQUITOES AND THUNDER LI013 WREN _JLI014 _ OWL LI 015 THE GIRL AND THE DOG _ LI016 RAVEN LI017 BALD-HEADED EAGLE LI019 THE SLAVE WHO MARRIED BALD-HEAD"S 0AUGHTER LI019 THE GRIZZLY-BEARS AND THE BLACK-BEARS _LI0Z0 _ _ THE MALE GRIZZLY BEAR LI021 THE FAWN _LI022 _ THE LAD WHO KILLED HIS COUSIN LI023 NKIMTCAMU'# LI024 _ THE MAN WHO GOT FOUR WIVES LI025 THE GHOST-MOTHER _LI026 STORY OF THE SISTERS LI027*" THE MEDICINE-MAN AND HIS SWEETHEART LI028 TCIMTCIMI'KIN LI 029 THE LOON AND THE WOMAN LI030 _ THE FAITHLESS WIFE LI031 THE SQUINT-EYED WOMAN; OR, THE MAN WHO OBTAINED A NEW HEAD _LI032 THE GAMBLER _ _ LI033 " THE WOMAN WHO WAS IMPALED ON A TREE-TOP LI034 BROTHER AND SISTER LI035 " THE FLOOD, AND DISTRIBUTION OF PEOPLE LI036 _ THE POOR MAN; OR, THE ORIGIN OF COPPER LI037 " THE S'AMNNUX _ L I 0 3 8 _ _ THE HA ITLO' L AUX AND WOLF PEOPLE, ANCESTORS OF THE LILUET'O LI039 "*~ ' C O Y O T E LI040 _ THE BLACK-BEAR BROTHERS LI041 TSU'NTIA _LI042 _ _ NK#E • OLST EM (FIRST VERSION • L I 0 4 3 N K # E * OLSTEM; OR, NQE' QAUMSTEM MYTH <SECONO VERSION> _LI044 RAVEN; OR, HOW DEATH CAME INTO THE WORLD LI 045 RAVEN AND OLD-ONE, OR CHIEF LI046 ORIGIN OF BANDS OF SOUTHERN SHUSWAP LI047 PORCUPINE; OR, THE STORY OF DEER LI048 THE MAN WHO LIVED WITH THE BEAR L1049 LI050 J.I051 LI052 LI053 LI054 LI055 LI056 LI057 LI 05 8 LI 059 LI060 LI 061 LI062 J.I063 LI 064 LI065 LI 066 LI 067 LI068 JLI069 LI070" LI071 LI 072 LI073 L1074 ORIGIN OF THE LI.LLOOET AND BRIDGE RIVER PEOPLE ORIGIN OF THE SKIMQAI'N PEOPLE ORIGIN OF THE FOUNTAIN PEOPLE KOMAKSTI1MUT THE STORY OF TSU/NTIA STORY OF TSUNTIA'S MOTHER; OR, THE FROG PEOPLE KAIYAM MYTH OF THE ORIGIN OF THE MOUNTAIN-GOAT-KIN MYTH OF THE MAN WHO RESTORED THE DEAD _ 'NKWINKINKEIN, THE GAMBLER " ~ • MYTH OF THE DESERTEO BOY MYTH OF THE DEAD WOMAN WHO BECAME A BEAR MYTH OF MARRIAGE OF NORTH WIND AND SOUTH WIND CUSTOMS OF THE MOUNTAIN GOAT KIN THE SOUTH AND THE NORTH WINDS _ THE TRANSFORMERS LOSER OR GAMBLER SHpMKER AND APLUMSKOUGH: THE TWO GIANTS THE GOLDEN HOOP THE SUN AND THE MOON THE FLOATERS AND A WHALE IN ANDERSON LAKE THE BOY WHO LIVED IN A BOX THE HUNTER THE GREAT BEAR IN THE HEAVENS THE MISSING HUSBAND AND THE SOUP WHO IS COYOTE? MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE THOMPSON SOURCES: TITLES: TH001 - TH024 TH025 - TH096 < TEIT 1917A TH097 - TH268 < TEIT 1912A TH269 - TH320 < TEIT 1896 TH321 - TH338 < TEIT 1916 TH339 - TH345 < TEIT 1937 TH346 - TH350 < BOAS 1895 TH351 - TH360 < HILL-TOUT 1899A TH361 < HILL-TOUT 1899B TH025 TH026 JTH027 TH028' TH029 TH030 TH031 TH032 JTH033 TH034 " TH035 TH036 TH037 THF ORIGIN OF DEATH COYOTE STEALS FIRE COYOTE AND ELK COYOTE AND DEER COYOTE, FOX, AND THE SUN PEOPLE COYOTE TEACHES PEOPLE TO MATE COYOTE AND THE MARMOTS COYOTE IS ATTACKEO BY COMB AND AWL COYOTE AND THE GEESE COYOTE, FOX, AND THE EGG-GATHERERS COYOTE AND HIS GUESTS COYOTE AND HIS ELK WIFE COYOTE AND THE BERRY-PICKERS _TH038_ __ COYOTE DIGS ROOTS TH039 FOX STEALS COYOTE'S FOOD _TH04O FOX STEALS COYOTE'S FOOD TH041 COYOTE WEARS FOX'S RATTLE TH042 _ _ COYOTE AND THE WOODPECKERS TH043 THE MOSQUITOES TH044 _ THE CANNIBAL WHO USED AN ELK AS A DECOY TH045 COYOTE STEALS SWEAT-HOUSE-MAN'S BLANKET _TH046 . COYOTE-BERRIES TH047 COYOTE AND THE ROLLING BOWLDER JTH048 _ COYOTE AND THE RABBITS TH049 THE SISTERS WHO MARRIED COYOTE AND LYNX TH050 _ _ THE COYOTE PEOPLE TH051 OLD-COYOTE AND THE COYOTE PEOPLE JTH052 COYOTE AND THE FLOOD . TH053 SESULIA/N AND SEKU/LIA TH054 _ OWA/UTQWETL AND KOKWE/LA TH055 , THE WIND-MAN TH056 _ MOURNING-DOVE TH057 SEA-GULL _TH058 SUN-FIRE TH059 THE HOT-WIND PEOPLE AND THE COLD-WIND PEOPLE TH060 _ KWESKAPI/NEK TH061 THE BUSH-TAILED RAT TH062 _ MARTEN AND FISHER TH063 THE BALD-HEADED EAGLE JTH064 THE FLEA _ _ TH065 LYNX AND DEER TH066 _ ELK AND ANTELOPE TH067 OWL AND NTSAA/Z TH068 _ THE DOG AND THE GIRL TH069 THE GIRL WHO MARRIED THE CROW _TH070 _ COYOTE ANO BUFFALO _ TH071 WOLVERENE AND THE ELK SKULL TH072 WOLVERENE AND ELK'S SKULL TH073 NKE/KAUMSTEM TH074 _ WOLF-BOY (FIRST VERSION! TH075 WOLF-BOY (SECOND VERSION) TH076 THE LYTTON GIRLS WHO WERE STOLEN BY GIANTS ~TH077 " " THE DEER TH078 _ THE BOY WHO TRAVELLED TO THE SUN TH079 THE DEAD WOMAN AND HER CHILD TH080 THE MAN WHO BROUGHT TO LIFE HIS SWEETHEART TH081 " HOLHOLAKWO/XA OR HOLAKWO/XA TH082 • THE WOMAN WHO WAS CAPTURED BY A GRIZZLY BEAR TH083 " ' THE SNAKE-LOVER TH084 PEQO/S EL EA/PILA TH085 MIGRATION LEGEND -TH086 MIGRATION LEGEND TH087 MIGRATION LEGEND _TH088 ___ THE WOMAN WHO BECAME A HORSE _ _ TH089 '. " THE ORPHANS WHO ASCENDED TO HEAVEN TH090 _ AI/LUL; OR, THE UNLUCKY GAMBLER TH09I " THE MAN WHO MARRIED COLD'S DAUGHTER TH092 COYOTE GOES FISHING TH093 " STRIPED-FACE JTH094 THE HUNTER WHO FOOLED THE GRIZZLV BEAR TH095 A HUNTER WHO FEIGNS DEATH, AND A GRIZZLV BEAR TH096 _ _ SIMON FRASER'S VISIT IN 1808 TH097 NLI/KISENTEM TH098 COYOTE AND HIS GUESTS TH099 COYOTE AND ELK THIOO COYOTE'S VISIT TO SO/IEP TH101 COYOTE ANO THE COLD TH102 " " COYOTE AND WOOD-TICK . ~ '" TH103 _ _ COYOTE JUGGLES WITH HIS EYES T H I C K C O Y O T E AND THE WOMEN _TH105 HE-SPIT-ON-HER-BELLY (PITSEQA/NEKATEMI TH106 NSPATCE/TCEIT; THE FOUR BLACK BEARSS OR, QWA/QTQWAL BROTHERS _TH107 CHILD-OF-HOG-FENNEL (KOKWE/LAHA/ITJ TH108 THE TRANSFORMER " " 7 TH109 THE GREAT CHIEF TH110 THE MOSQUITO AND THE THUNDER TH111 THE MOON AND HIS YOUNGER SISTER TH112 " THE PEOPLE WHO NEVER SLEPT TH113 BEAVER AND EAGLE; OR, THE ORIGIN OF FIRE "TH114 """ BEAVER AND THE FROGS IA FLOOD MYTH I TH115 THE BAD BOY; OR, THE SUN AND THE LAD THllb " THE WAR OF THE FISHES TH117 SWAMP-POBIN " TH118 ' SKUNK _TH119 _ FISHER'S WIFE; OR, MARTEN AND FISHER _ TH120 " T A P P E D - H I S-LEGS ( TSI*E/LAXATEMJ " ' " " TH121 BATTLE OF THE BIRDS TH122 " BATTLE OF THE BIRDS TH123 WREN ITSETSO/I TH124 HARE AND GRISLY BEAR _TH125 BLUEJAY (KWO/KSKWA OR KWAUWE/VAATS) _ _' T H 1 2 6 " X E / N I A X . — ... TH12T _ NTCIMI/KEN TH128 THE GOAT PEOPLE TH129 THE HUNTER AND THE GOATS TH130 THE OLO WOMAN AND THE BOY JH131 . : OWL AND TSA7AU/Z TH132 ' ~. STABBEO-WITH-HIS-LEG TH133 THE LAD WHO SHOT THE SNAKE TH134 CLOSE-CUT-HAIR TH135 THE ORIGIN OF THE WAU/US MASK ~ TH136 •"  THE ORIGIN OF THE TSATSA/KWE MASK - • -_TH137 THE BEAVER WHO MADE PEOPLE TH138 " - THE ORIGIN DF THE SPUZZUM PEOPLE THI39 THE DOG PEOPLE "TH140 ' THE DEEP UNDERGROUND HOUSE TH141 THE WAR-PARTY THAT KILLED THE STURGEON TH142 THE STRANGE PEOPLE DISCOVERED BY THE S7A/TCINKO TH143 THE STRANGE PEOPLE DISCOVERED BY THE HUNTERS " T H 1 4 4 M I N K " TH145 _ SKAIYA/M TH146 " MADE-HER-SIT-DOWN-ON-A-SEAT jLKWO/PATEMI TH147 BUPNED-THEMSELVES (O/IATCU/TI TH148 A7ILU/LH _TH149 _ _ THE FOUR CHILDREN _ TH150'"'" ' THE WONDERFUL BOY TH151 THE COYOTE TH152 NLI/KESENTEM TH153 _ COYOTE AND THE CANNIBAL OWL TH154 " THE DOGS OF COYOTE AND CANNIBAL TH155 _ COYOTE'S DAUGHTERS AND THEIR DOGS TH156 LYNX; OR, THE SISTERS WHO MARRIEO COYOTE AND LYNX TH157 COYOTE AND HIS DAUGHTER 7TH158 COYOTE AND HIS GUESTS TH159 COYOTE AND THE, INTRODUCTION OF SALMON TH160 TH161 _TH162 TH163 TH164 TH165 TH166 TH167 JTH168. TH169 TH170 TH171 TH172 TH173 JTH 174 TH175 _TH176 TH177 TH178 TH179 _TH180_ TH181 TH1B2 TH183 _TH184 TH185 _TH186 TH197 TH188 TH189 TH190 TH 19 1 _TH192 TH193 TH194 THI95 TH196 TH197 JTH198 TH199 " TH200 TH201 TH202 TH203 _TH204 TH205 TH206 TH207 TH208 TH209 TH210 TH211 TH212 TH213 TH214 TH215 TH216 TH217 TH218 TH219 TH220 COYOTE AND BUFFALO COYOTE AND THE CANNIBAL ELK COYOTE AND THE TOBACCO-TREE _ COYOTE AND GOATSUCKER COYOTE IN NICOLA VALLEY COYOTE IS THIRSTY COYOTE IS THIRSTY COYOTE AND SWA/WON COYOTE AND DEER, AND THE EYE-JUGGLING COYOTE AND THE GEESE COYOTE AND THE EGGS COYOTE AND GRISLY BEAR COYOTE AND GRISLY BEAR COYOTE AND XAXA/ COYOTE AND ANTELOPE; OR, STORY OF THE COPPER BALL COYOTE AND THE MONSTER THE QWO/QTQWAL KOKWE/LA, OR KOKWELAHE/IT CREATION OF THE WORLD BY OLD-ONE OLD-ONE AND THE END OF THE WORLD OLO-ONE AND THE EARTH, SUN, AND PEOPLE _ THE CREATION OF THE EARTH BY OLD-ONE OLD-ONE AND THE CREATION OF THE NICOLA COUNTRV OLD-ONE AND WOMEN OLD-ONE AND KU/TUEN OLD-ONE AND SUCKER OLD-ONE AND THE BEAVERS _ _ OLD-ONE TEACHES THE PEOPLE THE USE OF ORNAMENTS T " INTRODUCTION OF DEATH; OR, THE COUNCIL OF SPIDER, ANT AND FLV FROG AND MOON WOLVERINE SNA/NAT. AND THE WIND MEN AND WOMEN _•_ WOMEN AND DEER GIVING BIRTH ' - - - -THE WHITE-FISH ORIGIN OF THE ELK SUN AND HIS QUESTIONER ORIGIN OF LAND AND WATER MVSTERIES BEAVER ANO THE FLOOD NQA/KSAAISATWAUX .- ., ORIGIN OF LIGHT LIGHT AND DARKNESS THUNDER AND TURTLE . ' • ' THUNDER AND MOSQUITO LOON _ _ SUN AND MOON THE ANTS AND THE FLEAS BEAVER AND MUSKRAT BLUE JAY AND SWEAT-HOUSE THE THEFT OF FIRE RATTLE SNAKE-WOMAN _ _ THE RATTLESNAKES AND MESA/I " ~ ~ " WREN AND THE CANNIBAL EAGLE THE BLACK AND THE GRISLY BEARS MARTEN AND FISHER WREN AND THE ELKS MOOSE, BUFFALO, ANTELOPE, AND WHITE—TAILED DEER BALD-HEADED EAGLE THE THREE OWL SISTERS TCINE/I'S WAR FOR THE SALMON; OR, THE INTRODUCTION OF SALMON WAR BETWEEN THE FISHES OF INTERIOR AND OF THE COAST TH221 WAR OF THE NICOLA ANIMALS AND FRASER RIVER FISH .... TH222 THE OKANAGON FISH PEOPLE TH223 THE GIRL AND THE DOG ... _. .... . _ -TH224 THE GIRL AND THE DOG TH225 GRISLY BEAR'S GRANDCHILD; OR, SPETLAMU/LAX TH226 SKELA/UNA TH227 MUSKRAT . . . . . . . . TH228 MUSKRAT " TH229 ELK .... ,. TH230 TURTLE AND GRISLY BEAR TH231 XO/LAKWA/XA, OR AA/OUX TH232 XO/LAKWA/XA TH233 THE ONE GUMMED (ALELHSATEMI . . .- . . . . TH234 NTSIKE/PSATEM TH235 THE SA/TUEN AND THE CLOUD-WOMEN . . _ TH236 THE MAN WHO LIVED WITH THE. EAGLES TH237 THE SNAKE-LOVER; OR, THE WOMAN AND THE SNAKE MYSTERY TH238 THE BROTHER WHO WENT TO THE UNDERGROUND; WORLD TH239 TSOWA/WUS ' . . . • „ .. . . -. TH240 AILU/LH TH241 THE WOUNDED GIANT ..... _ . TH242 THE GIANT WHO STOLE THE KEREMEOUS WOMAN TH243 THE HUNTER AND THE WOLF TH244 THE GRISLY BEAR WHO STOLE A WOMAN TH245 THE SONS WHO SOUGHT THEIR MOTHER . . . . TH246 THE GRISLY BEAR BOY; OP, THE STOLEN GIRLS TH247 THE LAD WHO RAN AWAY FROM HIS PARENTS TH248 THE WOMAN WHO WAS IMPALED ON A TREE TH249 KO/KENALEKS .- . . . . . . _ TH250 PORCUPINE; OR, PORCUPINE AND HORSE TH251 THE YOUNG MAN AND THE CANNIBAL . .- _. . _ _ TH252 THE LAD AND THE WHITE HORSE TH253 ANT AND THE BEADS « _ ._ • • _ . TH254 SNA/NAZ AND THE SHAMAN TH255 THE TURTLES AND THE RUNNER ;. TH256 THE GIRL WHO SOUGHT HER BROTHERS TH257 OLD-ONE; OR, CHIEF AND THE AGED COUPLE TH258 CREATION OF THE HORSE, AND THE STORY OF A/TAM AND "IM TH259 GOD AND THE FLOOD; OR, THE REPEOPLING OF THE EARTH TH260 THE MAKING OF LANGUAGES TH261 DISPERSION OF TRIBES, AND ORIGIN OF LANGUAGES • ,. : _ "TH262 SU/SAKULI, OR SU/SAKRE TH263 WAP STORY (NLKWE/IXEN AND SLEMTI/TSAS • TH264 WAR STORY OF WOMEN AT BOTA/NI TH265 ACCOUNT OF CUMAXA/LTSA TH266 ACCOUNT OF THE LYTTON CHIEFS TH267 TRADITION OF SIMON FRASER'S VISIT IN 1808 • . .. ._ . TH268 " MYTHOLOGICAL VERSION OF THE CAPSIZING OF SIMON FRASER"S CANOE TH269 THE COYOTE AND THE FLOOD TH270 NLI/KSENTEM TH271 THE COYOTE AND THE FOX . ._ . _ TH272 CUKATA/NA; OR, THE COYOTE'S DOG TH273 THE BALL TH274 THE COYOTE'S DAUGHTERS AND THEIR DOGS TH275 STORY OF THE SISTERS WHO MARRIED THE COYOTE AND THE LYNX ' TH276 THE COYOTE AND HIS GUESTS TH277 QOA/QLQAL TH278 STORY OF KOKWE/LA; OR, KOKWE/LA'S SKU/ZAS TH279 STORY OF THE BUSH-TAILED RAT TH281 THE OLD MAN AND THE COYOTE TH282 THE OLD MAN AND THE LAD . . . . . . ; I TH283 STORY DF THE SWAN TH284 ORIGIN OF THE DEER ' TH285 •_ _ THE TALE OF THE BAD BOY; OR, THE SUN AND THE LAD TH286 THE STORY OF THE MAN WHO TRAVELLED TO THE SUN _ TH287 THE SUN AND HIS DAUGHTER TH288 THE HOT AND THE COLD WINDS TH289 THE MOSQUITO AND THE THUNDER TH290 THE BEAVER AND THE EAGLES OR, THE ORIGIN OF FIRE TH291 ORIGIN OF FIRE ... _ _ TH292 STORY OF FIRE AND WATER TH293 THF. SKUNK AND HIS YOUNGER BROTHERS TH294 THE SKUNK AND HIS YOUNGER BROTHERS TH295 STORY OF THE CHIPMUNK ANO THE GRIZZLY BEAR TH296 THE BLACK. BEAR AND THE CHIPMUNK _TH297 THE DOG AND THE GIRL __ TH298 THE OWL TH299 _ THE MARTEN AND THE FISHER " TH300 THE HARE AND THE GRIZZLY BEARS TH301 _ BATTLE OF THE BIRDS TH302 STORY OF OTTER TH303 THE GRIZZLY BEARS AND THE BLACK BEARS TH30*- THE GRIZZLY BEARS AND THE HUNTERS TH305 THE WOLF AND HIS GRANDMOTHER TH306 STORY OF STETSO TH307 _ THE WAR OF THE FISHES WITH THE OKANAGON ~°~TH308 STORY OF TCISKI/KIK TH309 STORY OF THE ANTS AND THE TWO BROTHERS TH310 STORY OF AQ TH311 _ STORY OF NTCI/MKA AND THE CANNIBAL TH312 STORY OF NUKANO/XA, THE WOMAN AND THE HAXAA/TKO TH313 THE YOUNG MEN WHO LOST THEIR MOTHER • TH314 THE SKUNK AND THE BADGER TH315 STORY OF THE LAD WHO CAUGHT THE WIND THE RAVEN THE MOON THE MOON AND HIS YOUNGER SISTER THE MAN WHO STOLE THE HORSE THE BROTHERS STORY OF SPIOLA _ STORY OF EIGHT-HEADS STORY OF THE THREE BROTHERS AND THEIR DOG STORY OF BEAR-BOY; OR, JACK THE BEAR JACK AND THE PRIEST JACK AND THE HAT JACK AND THE CHURCH TH328 JACK AND THE POT TH329 JACK AND THE FAT, OR LARD TH330 STORY OF JACK THE THIEF TH331 STORY OF JACK AND HIS BROTHER TH332 STORY OF THE HORSE-RACER TH333 STORY OF THE HOPS E-RACER (ANOTHER VERSIONS TH334 STORY OF THE RACE WITH THE TURTLES TH335 STORY OF HAND-HAMMER, WOOD-CHISEL, BOIL, AND SPITTLE TH336 STORY OF HAND-HAMMER, WOOD-CHISEL, BOIL? AND SPITTLE TH337 COYOTE AND FOX TH338 LUI AND THE FLOOD TH339 COYOTE AND THE LOST PAPER TH340 COYOTE AND THE FRAGILE CANOE OF HORSE-TAIL REEDS TH341 THE YOUNG HUNTER AND HIS FAITHLESS WIFE TH342 THE BOY AND HIS GRANDMOTHER TH3*3 STORY OF THE FOUR BROTHERS v ' TH316 TH317 TH318 TH319 TH320 TH321 TH322 TH323 TH324 TH325 TH326 TH327 TH344 TH345 TH346 TH347 TH348 TH349 TH350 TH351 TH352 TH353 TH354 TH355 TH356 TH357 JH358 TH359 TH360 TH361 STORY OF ALAHA OR NAKONAKUOL THE YOUNG BOY AND HIS WICKED BROTHERS {JOHN THE BEAR) DIE SONNE _ QOEQTLKOTL DER KRIEG MIT DEM HIMMEL DER KNABE UND DIE SONNE DER COYOTE STORY OF THE ELK-MAIDEN TLA• PAS CIMA'MS; OR, THE FORGOTTEN WIFE STORY _____ COYOTE AND HIS SON, N'I LIKEU'MTUM MATQS OR, THE FIRE MYTH PAINTED BLANKET MYTH KOAKOE/LA5 OR, HUSBAND ROOT MYTH OI/TCUT STORY (SHE BURNS HERSELF) SNU/YA C* PITA/KOETL5 OR, BEAVER STORY STORV OF SNIKIAP, QAI/NON, TZALA/S, AND SPATC STORY OF HA/NNI'S WIFE AND THE REVENGE OF HER SON SQUAKTKTQUACLT; OR, THE BENIGN-FACED MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE SHUSWAP SOURCES: SHOOl - SH016 < DAWSON 1891 SH017 - SH123 < TEIT 1909 SH124 < BOAS 1895 TITLES: SHOOl SH002 SH003 SHOO* SH005 SHOO 6 SH007 SH008 SH009 SH010 SH011 ~SH012 SH013 SH014 SH015 SH016 SH017 SH018 SH019 SH020 SH021 SH022 SH023 SH024 SH025 SH026 SH027 COYOTE RELEASES SALMON COYOTE AND HIS WIVES THE END OF COYOTE COYOTE AND HIS SON KWILYELT KWILYELT, KLESA, AND TOOKIMINELST KWILYELT AT HAT CREEK KWILYELT AND EAGLE KWILYELT AND ELK KWILYELT AND THE WITCHES KWILYELT AND BADGER THE END OF KWILYELT " " "" WOOD-GIRL KWILYELT OBTAINS ARROW-STONE THE SUN MOSQUITO AND THUNDER COYOTE AND HIS SON; OR, THE STORV OF KALHLA/LLST FOX AND HARE; OR, LIBERATION OF THE CHINOOK WIND COYOTE AND GRISLY BEAR MAKE THE SEASONS, AND NIGHT AND DAY COYOTE MAKES WOMEN MENSTRUATE COYOTE AND HIS HOSTS COYOTE AND GRISLY BEAR COYOTE AND THE HUNTING-CANNIBAL _. COYOTE AND HOLXOLI/P COYOTE AND FOX STORY OF COYOTE AND FOX QUARRELLING COYOTE'S DAUGHTER; OR, COYOTE'S DAUGHTER AND HER DOGS SH028 COYOTE AND SALMON SH029 COYOTE AND WOLF SH030 STORY OF COYOTE AND THE SWANS SH03I COYOTE AND THE BLACK BEARS SH032 COYOTE AND HIS NIECE SH033 COYOTE AND THE CANNIBAL BOY SH034 THE WAR OF THE FOUR TRIBES OR OF THE FOUR QUARTERS SH035 ORIGIN OF THE CHILCOTIN CANYON SH036 THE BALL SH037 OLD-ONE AND THE SWEAT-HOUSE SH038 OLD-ONE AND THE BROTHERS SH039 TLEE/SA AND HIS BROTHERS SH040 STORY OF CA/WA SH041 STORY OF THE MOON SH042 STORY OF THE DEER SH043 STORY OF OWL AND CHIPMUNK. SH044 THE LITTLE CHIEF HARE SH0<V5 BEAVER AND PORCUPINE SH046 STORY OF GRASSHOPPER SH047 STOPY OF THE ONE BOUND AND GRASSHOPPER SH068 STORY OF TSOWA/UNA SH049 STORY OF BIGHORN-SHEEP AND HIS WIVES SH050 THE WOMAN AND THE PELICANS SH051 STORY OF THE WOMEN AND MUSKRAT SH052 STORY OF PORCUPINE SH053 STORY OF RED-NOSE AND THE WOODPECKERS SH054 STORY OF BLUEJAY; OR, WAR BETWEEN THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS SH055 STORY OF WOODPECKER'S MARRIAGE; OR, BLUEJAV'S REVENGE SH056 STORY OF TALXA/NA SH057 STORY OF THE LOON SH058 THE MAMMALS STEAL FIRE FROM THE FISHES SH059 STORY OF TSOLHENU/ET'S SON . SH060 THE FISHES AND THE CANNIBAL SH061 WOLF AND WOLVERENE SH062 WOLVERENE AND FISHER SH063 STORY OF AXA/NA; OR, MARTEN AND FISHER SH064 STORY OF SKUNK AND BEAVER SH065 THE HARE AND THE GRISLY BEARS SH066 STORY OF KUTLIXWA/TAXEN OR THE WREN SH067 STORY OF MUSKRAT SH068 STORY OF GRISLY BEAR'S AND BEAVER'S CHILDREN SH069 STORY OF THE LYNX SH070 STORY OF BALD-HEADED EAGLE SH071 THE BROTHERS WHO MARRIED THE GRISLY-BEAR GIRL SH072 THE WOMEN WHO SOUGHT FOR A HUSBAND SH073 SPIDER AND OTTER SH074 STORY OF THE SALMON-BOY SH075 GRISLY BEAR'S GRANDCHILDREN SH076 STORY OF ELHKWA/ SH077 STORY OF OWL SH078 STORY OF FAMINE OR HUNGER SH079 STORY OF THE MOON AND HIS WIVES SH080 STORY OF SNA/NAT. SH081 STORY OF XONISSE/SEST SH082 MOSQUITO AND THUNDER SH083 STORY OF KUXKA/IN SH084 STORY OF HU/PKEN SH085 " DIRTY-LAD AND HIS WIVES SH086 STORY OF NTCE/MKA AND THE GIANT SH087 THE MAN AND THE FOUR CANNIBALS; OR, THE MAGIC ARROWS SH088 THE WOMAN MHO BECAME A GRISLY BEAR a* ----- . - . . SH089 STOPY OF TCOTCU/LCA; OR, THE HUNTER WHO BECAME A WOLF -SH090 STORY OF THE MEN WHO MARRIED THE GRISLY BEAR SH091 THE MAN WHO MARRIED THE SA/TUEN SH092 " THE MAN AND THE DWARFS " . , SH093 THE WOMAN AND HER PARAMOUR SH094 THE WOMAN AND THE WATER-MYSTERY —; — • SH095 THE GAMBLER'S SON AND THE STAR-MAN SH096 THE GAMBLER'S SON AND RED-CAP . . -— — -- . -SH097 STORY OF ALAME/R SH098 STORY OF BUTCETSA/ AND WHITE-CHIEF " ~ " • . - . SH099 THE LAD AND THE CANNIBAL SH100 COYOTE AND HIS NEPHEW • 1 ' " 1 -SHIOl COYOTE AND GRISLY BEAR MAKE THE SEASONS, AND NIGHT AND DAY SH102 " COYOTE AS THE SUN " •-. — • - • • SH103 COYOTE AND HIS HOSTS SH1CK COYOTE AND GROUSE " —— SH105 COYOTE AND THE GIRLS ' SH106 COYOTE, THE YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS, AND FOX . .. . _ .__ SH107 STORY OF COYOTE AND FOX QUARRELLING SH108 COYOTE AND SALMON ' " . - ' - - : • ; • - .- • SH109 COYOTE AND THE CANNIBAL SHllO COYOTE SNOWED IN " ."" "" " " ~ " ." ~ ' .- : SH111 COYOTE ANO HIS WIVES SH112 OLD-ONE • - -- , . . . ... SH113 THE GOAT WOMAN SH114 SKUNK AND PORCUPINE SH115 THE WAR WITH THE SKY PEOPLE SH116 ~ SKUNK AND BADGER "~ ~" " " _ " - . . SH117 WATER-OUZEL AND THE GRISLY BEARS SH118 WREN • - - ' — ... . ._. ... SH119 SKUNK AND FISHER SH120 RED-HEADED WOODPECKER AND HIS WIVES — • ' — - -SH121 SNA/NAK AND SEVEN-HEADS SH122 LHEPASKEN AND LEXHEKST - - -SH123 THE LAOS AND THE CANNIBALS MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE OKANAGON SOURCES: TITLES: OK001 - OK050 OK078 - OK099 OKIOO - OK102 OK103 - OK 116 OKI 17 < PIERRE t BOUCHARD < TEIT 1917B < GOULD 1917A < HILL-TOUT 1911 < GATSCHET 1888 OKOOl OK002 OK003 J1KOOA OK005 OK006 0K007 OK008 THE WAR WITH THE FROGS COYOTE AND WOOD-TICK THE RACE BETWEEN COYOTE AND FROG COYOTE AND BUFFALO COYOTE AND EAGLE " ~ COYOTE'S WINTER DANCE THE LITTLE BIRO AND THE FISH RABBIT AND CHIPMUNK OK009 COYOTEi FOX, AND WATER-MONSTER OKOIO . HOW COYOTE GOT HIS NAME AND HIS POWERS _OK011 COYOTE AND RAVEN _ _ OK012 COYOTE TRAVELS THE LAND OK013 COYOTE AND GRIZZLY 0K014 COYOTE'S SONS AND GRIZZLY'S DAUGHTER OK015 COYOTE AND WHALE ~OK016 HOW COYOTE SPREAD FISH. _0K017 MOUNTAIN GOAT AND COYOTE'S DAUGHTER .. _ OK018 COYOTE AND SNAKE OK019 COYOTE TRAVELS TO ANOTHER LAND OK02O COYOTE AND MAGPIE OK021 COYOTE AND DEER OK022 COYOTE AND FOX _0K023 . WOLF AND GRIZZLY . 0K024 " " LYNX AND HIS SON OK025 SKUNK AND THE GIRLS OK026 MOUSE AND HER SISTERS 0K027 STORY OF THE GRASSHOPPER OK028 SOCKEYE AND HIS SISTERS _OK029 PAIRING OFF TO MAKE PEOPLE _ "OK030 " ' ". THE MAN AND THE LAKE MONSTER 0K031 THE ORIGIN OF INDIAN FOOD OK032 HOW FIRE WAS BROUGHT TO THIS LAND 0K033 HOW THE MOON GOT ITS SPOT OK034 THE ORPHAN AND THE PEOPLE EATER OK035 NHI THETWEL ' X OK036 " " " 7A/TS'X/WULA7XW AND THE SHUSWAPS OK037 _ THE MAN WHO WAS RESCUED BY EAGLES " OK038 THE MAN WHO LIVED WITH GRIZZLIES OK039 SPEAR-THROWING SHUSWAPS " OK040 THE YOUNG MAN WHO FOUGHT WITH GRIZZLY BEARS __OKOM . _ _ FOUR DIFFERENT WAYS OF GIVING _ 0K042 " THE SASQUATCH AND HIS POWER OK043 THE YOUNG MAN WHO WAS BROUGHT UP BV GRIZZLV BEARS OK044 SASQUATCH STORIES OK045 NKW'A7KW'7IKN7 0K0<-6 LEFTY AND THE SHUSWAPS _ OK047 HOW THIS LAND CAME TO BE j OK048 THE MAN WHO WENT TO THE BLACKFOOT COUNTRV OK0A9 K'IYAWTK/N OK050 HOW MOUSE HELPED GRIZZLY BEAR OK078 COYOTE OK079 " " " O R I G I N OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER OK080 COYOTE AND THE WATER OR RAIN . OK081" INTRODUCTION OF SALMON OK082 COYOTE INTRODUCES SALMON 0K083 COYOTE AND THE ST EELHEAD-SALMON CK084 COYOTE MARRIES HIS DAUGHTER IOR NIECEt OK065 " " COYOTE AND THE ICE PEOPLE _OK086 ; COYOTE ANO THE BLACKFEET _ _ _ OK087~~ COYOTE, FOX, AND PANTHER OK088 _ _ COYOTE AND BUFFALO OK099 ~ COYOTE AND OLD-ONE OK090 COYOTE AND GRIZZLY-BEAR "OK091 " " " " OLD-ONE _0K092 THE CREATION 0K093" ORIGIN OF THE EARTH AND PEOPLE 0K094 WAR WITH THE SKY PEOPLE OK095 DIRTY-BOV OK096 THE BEAR-WOMAN OK097 OK09e OK 099 OK100 OK101 OK102 • K103 0K104 0K105 "OK 106 OK 107 0K108 OK 109 OK 110 JK111 0K112 0K113 0K114 0K115 0K116 0K117 EAGLE AND BEAVER THE MOUSE SKWOTILKWOLA'NA KELAUNA LEFT-ARM THE WARRIOR AND HIS FAITHLESS WIFE THE SNOW DANCE OF COYOTE MOUSE AND HER FAMILY COYOTE'S LESSON THE OWL MYTH OF SINKELEP THE COYOTE THE MAKING OF THE SUN STEALING THE FIRE FROM THE UPPER WORLD HOW COYOTE BROUGHT SALMON UP THE COLUMBIA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES MYTH OF SKUNK AND FISHER COYOTE, HIS FOUR SONS AND THE GRIZZLV BEAR COYOTE AND FOX THE LAZY BOY THE GRAND-CHILDREN OF THE MOUNTAIN SHEEP FISHER AND MARTEN TSKAN BIRD MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE SINKAIETK SOURCES J SK001 SK056 < SPIER, ET. AL. 1938 TITLES: SK001 SK002 SK003 SKOO* SK005 SK006 SK007 SK008 SK009 SK010 SKOll" SK012 SK013 SK014 SK015 SK016 SK017 SK01B SK019 SK020 SK021 SK022 SK023 SK024 SK025 SK026 THE ORIGIN OF PEOPLE THE NAMING OF THE ANIMALS (SECOND VERSIONI COYOTE DESTROYS NORTH WIND'S HOUSE (FIRST VERS ION J. COYOTE DESTROYS NORTH WIND'S HOUSE (SECOND VERSION) THE CONTEST OF THE WINDS ~ YOUNGEST WOLF BROTHER AND BIG DEER (FIRST VERSION! YOUNGEST WOLF BROTHER AND BIG DEER (SECOND VERSION! KILLING THE WATER ELK FISHER AND MARTEN CUT OFF THE SEA-MONSTER'S HEAD SKUNK TAKES REVENGE RAVEN AND HIS BROTHER'S WIDOW A BROTHER ANO SISTER COMMIT INCEST THE ORIGIN OF DEATH COYOTE LIBERATES SALMON (FIRST VERSIONI COYOTE LIBERATES SALMON (SECOND VERSION! THEFT OF FIRE (FIRST VERSION! THEFT OF FIRE (SECOND VERSION) TWO BROTHERS WHO CHANGED INTO WOLVES (FIRST VERSION! TWO BROTHERS WHO CHANGED INTO WOLVES [SECOND VERSION! THE THEFT OF SALMON'S WIFE (FIRST VERSIONI THE THEFT OF SALMON'S WIFE (SECOND VERSION) SALMON ENDS RATTLESNAKE'S DESTRUCT IVENESS RATTLESNAKE ANO MICAUI THE MOUNTAINS FIGHT FOR A WIFE THE ROCK WHO WANTED TO MARRY MOSES MOUNTAIN COYOTE KILLS THE CANNIBAL WOMAN SK027 OWL CANNIBAL WOMAN SK028 CHIPMUNK ANU THE CANNIBAL WOMAN _SK029 COYOTE ANO THE CANNIBAL SISTERS SK030 A OOY KILLS CANNIBALS SK031 THE SON OF THE GIANT SK032 COYOTE TRICKS COUGAR INTO PROVIDING FOOD _ SK033 __ COYOTE ATTEMPTS TO CAPTURE THE DEER SK034 " COYOTE IS TRICKED EATING DUCK EGGS SK035 ___ BUNGLING HOST SK036 COYOTE AND THE WATER MONSTER SK037 _ COYOTE AND THE HOUSE OF WOMEN SK03B COYOTE SEEKS A WIFE AMONG THE DEAD SK039 _ BUFFALO AND COYOTE CAPTURE A GIRL SKO^O CRANE AND LOUSE _SK041 COYOTE'S LONG PENIS SK042 TURTLE AND EAGLE PACE SK043 _ CRAWFISH AND FOX RACE SK044 ~ FROG AND TURTLE RACE SK045 THE MAN ABANDONED ON A LEDGE SK046 THE MOUNTAIN GOAT GIRLS __SK047 THE MAN WHO HAD HIS WILL OF A DEER SK048 THE BOY FOSTERED BY BEARS SK049 •_ THE BOY WHO KILLED THE GRIZZLY BEARS " SK050 GRIZZLY ANO RABBIT PLAY THE STICK GAME SK05I THE ORIGIN OF BLACK BEAR SK052 ' ' " A CAPTIVE WOMAN'S SONS GIVE WARNING SK05_3 THE DOG WHOSE BARKING DROWNED PEOPLE SK05* COYOTE AND PORCUPINE DANCE SK055 THE NAMING OF THE ANIMALS IFIRST VERSION)) SK056 ORIGIN OF THE SUN AND MOON MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE SANPOIL .SOURCES: SPOOl - SPOAO < RAY 1933 SP041 - SP057 < GOULD 1917B SP058 - SP059 < CLARK 1953 TITLES! SPOOl SP002 SP003 SP004 _SP005 SP006 SP007 SP008 SP009 SPOIO _SP011_ SP012 SP013 SPOl* SP015 ORIGIN MYTH ORIGIN OF DEATH BROTHER AND SISTER INCEST AND ORIGIN OF DEATH ORIGIN OF SUN AND MOON WILDCAT, MAGPIE AND RAVEN _ SALMON CYCLE " BLUEJ AY AND EAGLE THE UNFAITHFUL BROTHER WOLF STRAIGHTENS HIS SISTER'S HAIR COTTONTAIL STEALS THUNDER'S WIFE ARROW CHAIN AND THEFT OF FIRE IFIRST VERSIONJ ARROW CHAIN AND THEFT OF FIRE ISECOND VERSION) ARROW CHAIN AND THEFT OF FIRE t THIRD VERSION) COYOTE KILLS DANGEROUS BEINGS COYOTE KILLS A DANGEROUS BEING SP016 COYOTE ANO THE BLIZZARD MAN-SP017 COYOTE AND THE WOMAN WRESTLER _SP013 CHIPMUNK, COYOTE, AND THE DANGEROUS BEINGS, OWL SISTERS. _ . SP019" " " COYOTE INTRODUCES SALMON SP02O _ NAMTU/S BRINGS CAMAS _ _ f " SP021 COYOTE'S DAUGHTER _SP022 _ _ COYOTE MARRIES HIS DAUGHTER ' _ ' _ SP023 COYOTE'S MEMBER ^ _SP024 UNSUCCESSFUL SUITOR _ _ . SP025 " BUNGLING HOST SP026 Q'OLA/SKIN . • _ _ I SP027 SMO/XALA SP028 _ THE GRIZZLY-BEAR HUNTER ANO HIS WIFE _ _ _____ j " SP029 THE BROTHERS WHO BECAME A WOLF AND AN OWL _SP030 XUA/UXULKAN . _ _ _ _ _ ; _ _ . SP031 "' """" A MAN KILLS A GHOST SP032 _ KAPU/S ' . . _ SP033 "' WATER SPIRIT OF OMAK LAKE SP034 WATER SPIRIT OF LAKE ANNUM , SP035 ~ ' ~ WATER SPIRITS OF BLUE LAKE ' " ' ' " _SP036 LEFT-HANDED _ _ _' "SP037 ' TRICKING AN OLD MAN '• "" " " ~ " "'. ~ ~ "' . . SP038 _ THE STRETCHING ELK HIDE _ _ _ _ _ _ • SP039 " A TREE ON A HORSE'S BACK SP040 THE BELL ' " SPO^l COYOTE BECOMES CHIEF OF THE SALMON _SP042 THE TICK AND THE DEER :  SP043 THE ROLLING STONE " " " " " "" " " " . " ~ " " , ~ " SP044 HOW THE COLD LOST ITS POWER _ • _ _ _ _ _ _ _ " SP0*5 ™ CHIPMUNK AND MEADOW-LARK " ~ : SP046 THE TOAD ISME/NAPI _ _ _ _ _ SPO*-7 • • _ THE ORIGIN OF DEATH ' " " •" " _SP048 SKUNK AND BADGER _ _ NJ ' SP049 " THE FIVE WOLVES " 7" " " "' " NJ SP050 _' _• THE ORIGIN OF FIRE _ ' ' _ _ ' ' °° SPC51 . — - THE EAGLES " " " . ' ' • " " ' . SP052 THE POISONED ARROWS • _ _ _ " SP053 " THE RACE BETWEEN TURTLE AND FROG . - • • . --• — - —.• - -_SP054 THE ORIGIN OF THE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES SP055 ~ T H E WEEPING WOMAN SP056 J TIMTIMENEE; OR, THE ISLAND OF DEATH . SP057 STARVATION SP058 WHY COYOTE CHANGED THE COURSE OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER " SP059 ~ •• - HOW BEAVER STOLE THE FIRE ~ MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE LAKES SOURCES: LKOOl < CLARK 1959 TITLESS LKOOl HOW COYOTE GOT HIS SPECIAL POWER MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE COLVILLE SOURCES! CVOOl - CV005 < CLARK 1959 _ CV006 - CV032 < MOURNING DOVE 1933 TITLES: " ' CVOOl " HOW COYOTE MADE THE COLUMBIA RIVER CV002 ._ THE ORIGIN OF THE PETRIFIED FOREST CV003 STEAMBOAT ROCK _ CVOOA STEAMBOAT ROCK CV005 ' STEAMBOAT ROCK CV006 _ THE SPIRIT CHIEF NAMES THE ANIMAL PEOPLE CV007 ~ FOX AND COYOTE AND WHALE CV008 COYOTE FIGHTS SOME MONSTERS CV009 CHIPMUNK AND OWL-WOMAN CVOIO _ COYOTE AND THE BUFFALO CVOU WHY THE FLINT-ROCK CANNOT FIGHT BACK _ CV012 HOW TURTLE GOT HIS TAIL „ CV013 WHY SKUNK'S TAIL IS BLACK AND WHITE CVC1* RATTLESNAKE AND SALMUN [ CV015 COYOTE MEETS WIND AND SOME OTHERS CV016 _ WHY GARTERSNAKE WEARS A GREEN BLANKET ~CV017 COYOTE QUARRELS WITH MOLE CV018 HOW COYOTE HAPPENED TO MAKE THE BLACK MOSS FOOD CV019 WHY SPIDER HAS SUCH LONG LEGS CV02O _ _ WHY BADGER IS SO HUMBLE CV021 "~ " COYOTE JUGGLES HIS EYES CV022 ' WHY MARTEN'S FACE IS WRINKLED CV023 " CRAWFISH AND GRIZZLY BEAR CV024 COYOTE ANO WOOD-TICK CV025 WHY MOSQUITOES BITE PEOPLE CV026 THE GODS OF THE SUN AND THE MOON CV027 PORCUPINE LEARNS THE SUN DANCE CV028 EN-AM-TUES, THE WISHING STONE CV029 CHICKADEE MAKES A SHOO'-MESH BOW CV030 COYOTE AND CHICKAOEE CV031 """ ~ THE ARROW TRAIL CV032 _ _ COYOTE IMITATES BEAR AND KINGFISHER MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE SPOKANE SOURCES: SOOOl - SO0O2 < CLARK 1959 S0003 - S0004 . < RUBY C BROWN 1970 TITLES! SOOOl SPOKANE LAKE OF LONG AGO 50002 THE ORIGIN OF THE SPOKANE RIVER 50003 ORIGIN OF SUN ANO MOON _S0004 CREATION MYTH _ MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE KALISPEL SOURCES: KLOOl - KLOll < MCDERMOTT 1901 KL012 - KL017 < TEIT 1917C KL018 - KL041 < DAVIS 1965 KL042 - KL051 < CURTIS 1911 KL052 - KL070 < VOGT 1940 TITLES: KLOOl KL002 KL003 KL004 KL005" JKL006 KL007 KL008 KL009 KL010 KLOll KL012 KL013 KL014 KL015 KL016 KL017 _KL018 KL019 KL020 KL021 KL022 KL023 J<.L024 KL025 ~ KL026 KL027 KL028 KL029 KL030 KL03T KL032 KL033 KL034 KL035 KL036 KL037 KL038 KL039 KL040 WOMEN HOW SPOKANE FALLS WERE MADE COYOTE KILLS THE GIANT COYOTE AND THE TWO SHELLS COYOTE KILLS ANOTHER GIANT COYOTE ANO THE CRYING BABY COYOTE AND THE WOMAN THE MEDICINE TREES COYOTE AND ROCK COYOTE IN THE BUFFALO COUNTRY COYOTE AND FOX SEPARATE COYOTE AND LITTLE PIG COYOTE, WREN, AND GROUSE COYOTE AND THE SNAKE-MONSTER COYOTE AND MOUNTAIN-SHEEP COYOTE AND THE SKUKULA'NA COYOTE AND ELK THE WREN THE ORIGIN OF THE SEASONS BOBCAT AND LYNX BLACK BEAR AND BADGER THE FLYING HEAD MOUNTAIN LION AND COYOTE COYOTE AND BUFFALO BULL COYOTE'S SON-IN-LAW COYOTE AND THE SWEAT LODGE COYOTE AND THE HUNGRY TEETH COYOTE AND CAMP ROBBER THE WOLVES AND THEIR ENEMIES THE WOLVES' SISTER MARRIES SKUNK AND FISHER SKUNK STEALS A WIFE FROG TAKES A MATE KADLEP1E MARRIES SNAKE AND THUNDER JACKRABBIT AND GRIZZLY BEAR BLUEJAY TRAPS THE SUN TWO BROTHERS AND A WIFE THE HEADMAN'S DAUGHTER MOUNTAIN SHEEP BOY WATER MAN AND WOODPECKER NJ CO O KL0«1 THE WHALE SISTERS KLCK2 ORIGIN OH OEATH _ KL043 __ ORIGIN OF SUN AND MOON KL044 " COYOTE DEFEATS THE WOLVES KLCK5 COYOTE KILLS A MONSTER KL046 COYOTE TRANSFORMS EVIL CREATURES KL047 THE LAZY BOY OBTAINS BEAR-MEDICINE KL048 THE POOR MAN OBTAINS HUNTING MEDICINE _ KL049 _ _ _ _ _ WHITE OWL AND HIS FIVE WIVES KL050 TURTLE RACES WITH FROG AND EAGLE KL051 SEEKING MEDICINE, A BOY FINDS A WIFE KL052 FIGHTING GRIZZLY-BEARS KL053 A FISHING TRIP KL054 LEARNING TO DANCE _KL055 PABBIT STEALS THUNDER'S WIFE kL056 WOODPECKER, WOOD-DUCK, AND COYOTE _KL057 RABBIT AND LYNX KL058 SWEAT-LODGE GAMBLES WITH THE MAN-EATERS KL059 _ _ LYNX AND HIS SON KL060 " A MAN AND THE MAN-EATING ANIMALS KL061 COYOTE AND HIS FAMILY KL062 COYOTE'S SONS RACE KL063 ' _ __ • MEADOWLARK NEGLECTS HER CHILDREN KL064 WOLVERINE AND GRIZZLY-BEAR KL065 _ THE MOUNTAIN-SHEEP HUNTERS KL066 KULKULE __KL067 FOX TRICKS COVOTE KL068 THE SISTERS _ KL069 A OREAH KL070 HUNTING BLACK-BEAR MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE FLATHEAD SOURCE 5S - FLOIO _ < WE1SEL 1959 < WEISEL 1952 - FL018 < HOFFMAN 1884 < WILSON 1866 < GIBBS 1955 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ < MACDONALD 1878 < WHEEL ER 1926 < CLARK 1966 < IRVINE 1907 - FL045 < CLARK 1966 T I T L E S : FL001 " ~" BOBCAT AND MAGPIE FL002 THE PILEATED WOODPECKER AND GRIZZLY BEAR BROTHERS FL003 WHY THE MUSKRAT HAS WRINKLED PAWS AND NO HAIR ON HIS TAIL FL004 WHY THE CROSSBILL HAS A PECULIAR BEAK _ FL005 WHY WHITEFISH'S MOUTH IS PUCKERED AND THE SQUAWFI SH IS BONY F1006 WHY THE FLATHEAD HAVE NO SALMON FL007 BLUEJAY AND RAVEN FL008 JAY»S SKINNY LEGS FL001 FLOll FL012 FL019 FL020 FL021 FL022 FL023 FL024 FL025 FL009 COYOTE AND KINGFISHER FLOIO CHICKAUEE AND COYOTE FLOll AC I DA FL012 COYOTE STORY FL013 THE COYOTE AND THE MUD-HEN FL014 HOW THE LYNX GOT HIS BROAD FACE FL015 HOW THE RABBIT HAD HIS LIP CUT FL016 THE COYOTE AND THE FISHES FL017 THE COYOTE AND HIS NEIGHBORS FL 016 THE SALMON AND THE WOLF FL019 THE LITTLE WOLF <I.E. COYOTE> FL020 IN THE BEGINNING FL021 THE VISION BEFORE THE BATTLE FL022 LEWIS AND CLARK AMONG THE FLATHEADS FL023 HOW MISSOULA GOT ITS NAME FL024 MEDICINE TREE HILL FL025 AMOTKEN AND COYOTE FL026 COYOTE AND THE STRANGER FL027 ORIGIN OF THE RED AND WHITE RACES FL028 RAM'S HORN TREE FL029 WHY THERE ARE NO SALMON IN LOLO CREEK FL030 COYOTE'S PROPHECY CONCERNING YELLOWSTONE PARK FL031 THE GREAT FLOOD IN THE FLATHEAD COUNTRY FL032 SHEEP-FACE MOUNTAIN FL033 THE MYSTERY PEOPLE OF FLATHEAD LAKE FL034 BURNING STAR JUMPS INTO THE LAKE FL035 THE BLUEJAY CEREMONIAL DANCE FL036 BLUEJAY BRINGS THE CHINOOK WIND FL037 BLUEJAY AND THE FIRST SKIN TIPI -FL038 HOW BLUEJAY SAVED THE BUFFALO HUNTERS FL039 THE GREAT CANOE IN THE SKY FL040 THE ORIGIN OF THE INDIAN DRUM FL041 THE ORIGIN OF THE BITTFRROOT FL042 HOW MY GRANDMOTHER RECEIVED HER HEALING POWER FL043 FLATHEAD PROPHECY OF THE BLACK ROBES FL044 LITTLE MARY'S VISION FL045 LEWIS AND CLARK AMONG THE FLATHEADS MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE COEUR D'ALENE SOURCES! " """ "" CAOOl - CA050 < RE I CHARD 1947 CA051 - CA076 < TE IT 1917D TITLES: CAOOl "_ CHIEF CHILD OF THE ROOT I TRANSFORMER J CA002 ORIGIN OF INDIAN TRIBES (FROM PARTS OF MONSTER I CA003 COYOTE OVERPOWERS SUN (SECURING SUN DISK) CA004 COYOTE STEALS HIS DAUGHTER-IN-LAW CA0O5 LITTLE BEAVER CA006 COYOTE DEVOURS HIS OWN CHILDREN CA007 COYOTE LOSES HIS EYES (EYE JUGGLING) CA008 COYOTE HUNTS WITH CRANE AND RELEASES SALMON CA009 STORY OF LYNX CO NJ _ CA010 •_ STORY OF LYNX CAOU WAR BETWEEN THE L ANO AND WATER PEOPLE CA012 DOG HUSBAND _ _ _ _ _ COYOTE AND FOX GAMBLE WITH THE FISH COYOTE MARRIES SQUIFREL, SISTER OF GEESE COYOTE IMITATES MAGPIE (BUNGLING HOST) COYOTE AND BADGER CALLING THE OEER CALLING ONE'S KIND _ CALLING ONE'S KIND COYOTE KILLS CRICKET WITH ELK FAT (MISTAKEN KINDNESS) COYOTE AND NIGHTHAWK CHANGE COATS (ROLLING ROCK( CRICKET RIDES COYOTE COYOTE SNARES THE WIND CATBIRD _ SKUNK AND FISHER THE GIRLS WHO STOLE DENTAL IA (KIDNAPPING) THUNDER WATERBIRO CONTESTS FOR WOMAN (GIFT TEST) WATER MONSTER WOMAN LITTLE MOSQUITO _ GRIZZLY AND HIS BROTHERS-IN-LAW MUSKRAT TRESPASSES TOAD SAVES CHILDREN CHIPMUNK ANO SNAKE (CONTEST FOR WINTER AND SPRING) ELK AND SNOWSHOES CONTEST BETWEEN COLD AND HEAT RABBIT AND JACK RABBIT DOG GOES FOR FIRE TURTLE'S WAR PARTY (MOCK PLEA) TWO-HEADED SNAKES THE DWARF MAN CAUGHT IN A FIRE CORRAL CA043 FLATHEAD CHIEF SENDS HIS DAUGHTER TO CHIEF WAXANE/ CA044 __ THE COEUR D'ALENE ATTACKED CA045 TWO WOMEN OVERCOME NEZ PERCE MAN CA046 WOMAN SAVED BY LOOSE SADDLE CINCH CA047 THE COEUR D'ALENE FIGHT THE KUTENAI __CA049 BOY TAKES FOOD CA049 THE PRACTICAL JOKER CA050 __ WAR BETWEEN THE BLACKFOOT ANO THE COEUR D'ALENE CA051 CONDITIONS IN MYTHOLOGICAL TIMES CA052 _ __ OLD-ONE CA053 COYOTE'S SON _CA054 COYOTE AND THE SUN _ CA055 COYOTE INTRODUCES SALMON ' CA056 _ COYOTE ANO WEWEI/TC CA057 DIVISION OF THE CANNIBAL'S BODV CA058 _ THE SUN AND THE MOON CA059 TOAD AND THE MOON , ~ _CA060 THE WIND _ _ \ CA061 " THE HOT AND COLD WINDS CAOfe2 HEAT AND COLD CA063 " THUNDER CA064 ORIGIN OF DEATH CA065 QO/ZQOZT CA066 SGWELKAI/LEN _ CA067 TEMEXA/TCASQAT CA068 _ _ ETSKO/LKOL CA069 TE/EQUL, OR TCATE/NENKWA CA070 TCELEKU/TSEN CA013 _ CA014 CA015 CA016 CA017 CA018 CA019 CA020 CA021 CA022 CA023 CA024 CA025 C»026 CA027 CA028 CA029 CA030 CA031 CA032 CA033 CA034 CA035 CA036 CA037 CA038 CA039 CA040 CA041 CAQ42 C&071 THE ARROW-CHAIN CA0T2 THE WATER MYSTERV JA073 THE WATER-BUFFALO _ CA074 THE NKA/HEMEN WATER-MYSTERY CA075 THE WATER-MYSTERY OF THE UPPER SAN JOE RIVER CA076 THE ROLLING HEAD MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE COLUMBIA SOURCES: . .1 . _ CLOOl - CLO02 < CURTIS 1911 ' TITLES: CLOOl, BEAVER STEALS FIRE CL0O2 CRAWFISH AND GRIZZLY-BEAR CONTEND SOURCES: TITLES: MYTHS" AND LEGENDS OF THE CHELAN CH001 - CH002 < CLARK 1959 _ ,. ; N_ CO 4^ CHOOl _ THE MONSTER AND LAKE CHELAN (FIRST VERSIONI '"CH002" " THE MONSTER AND LAKE CHELAN I SECOND VERSIONS 6 > X > X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x RFS N G . 7 7 5 C 7 7 UNIVERS ITY OF S C COMPUTING CENTRE HTS(ANi92) i 3 : 4 7 : 5 1 W E D A U G 16/72 ^ 4 » t * * « 4 « * » « * « * « * * « THIS JOB SUBMITTED THROUGH FRONT DESK READER ***************«**.* SSIG ELLI P = 70' T=5M **LAST SIGNON WAS: 13:12:34 WEU AUG 16/72 USER " E L L I " SIGNED ON AT 13:47:52 ON WED AUG 16/72 SLIST *SOURCE* 1 MYJHS AND LEGENDS OF THE SANPOIL 2 S O U R C E S : 5 6 7 8" 9 1 0 SP001 - S P 0 4 0 S P O T I - SPu57 "SPJ58 - SP0 59 < R A Y 1933 < GOULD 1917B_ < CLARK 1953" 11 12 13 14 1 5 16 1 7 1 £ 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 29 30 31 12 33 34 35 36 37 36 39 40 TITL ES: SP001 SPG 02 SP003 S? 0 J 4 SP005 SP006 SP00 7 SP008 SP009 SP010 ORIGIN MYTH _ 'ORIGIN UF DEATH ' " " " ' - ~ ~ BROTHER ANO S 1ST ER INCEST AND ORIGIN OF DEATH URIGIN UF SUN ANO MOON SP011 SP012 SPU13 SPOlV SP015 SP016 WILDCAT, MAGPIE AND RAVEN SALMON CYCLE BLUEJAY AND EAGLE THE UNFAITHFUL BROTHER " " ~ " WOLF STRAIGHTENS HIS SISTER'S HAIR COTTONTAIL STEALS THUNDER'S WIFE • SPul 7 SP018 SP019_ SP02 0 SP021 SP022 ARROW CHAI.N AND THEFT OF FIRE (FIRST VERSION! ARROW CHAIN AND THEFT OF FIRE (SECUNO VERSION) ARROW CHAIN AND THEFT OF FIRE (THIRD VERSION) COY-OTc KILLS DANGEROUS BEINGS'""" COYOTE KILLS A DANGEROUS BEING COYOTE ANO THE BLIZZARD MAN ! NJ I CO i cn COYUTE AND THE WOMAN WRESTLER CHIPMUNK, COYOTE, AND THE DANGEROUS BEINGS, OWL SISTERS COYOTE INTRODUCES SALMON "NAMTU/S BRINGS CAMAS " ~ ~ " — COVUTE 'S DAUGHTER CUYOTE MARRIES HIS DAUGHTER SP023 SP024 SP025 SP026 " SP027 SP030 CUYU TE' S MEMBER UNSUCCESSFUL SUITOR BUNGLING HOST O'ULA/SKIN ' SMG/XALA XU A/UXULK AN 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 SP032 SPJ33 SP 03 5 SPC36 SP041 SP042 47 48 49 50 51 52 SP043 SP044 SP045 SPD46 SP047 SP-J48 KAPU/S WATER SPIRIT OF OMAK LAKE WATER S P I R I T S O F BLUE LAKE LEFT-HANDED"" COYOTE BECOMES CHIEF OF THE SALMON THE T1CK AND THE DEER THE ROLLING STUNE HOW THE COLD LOST ITS POWER CHIPMUNK AND MEADOW-LARK THE TOAD ( S.-1E/NAPJ THE ORIGIN OF DEATH SKUNK AND BADGER 53 SPG49 THE FIVE WOLVES 54 SP050 THE ORIGIN OF FIRE 55 SP051 The EAGLE S . 56 SP052 . THE PuISONEO ARROWS 57 SPD53 THE RACE BETWEEN TURTLE AND FROG 56 SPG54 THE ORIGIN OF THE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES 59 SP055 THc WEEPING WOMAN 60 SP056 TIMTIMENEE; OR, THE ISLAND OF OEATH 6 1 SP05 7 STARVATION 62 SP053 • -- - • W H y c a y u T £ C H A,M G t. 0 T H £ COURSE OF THE COLOMBIA RIVER 63 SP059 HOW BcAVER STOLE THE FIRE 64 65 66 SPOOl ORIGIN MYTH 67 SWEAT LODGE WAS A CHIEF LONG, LONG AGO; BUT HE WASN'T CALLED SWEAT 68 " LODGE THEN. HE w AS JUST CALLED CHIEF. HE DECIDED TO CREATE ALL THE 65 ANIMALS AND ALL THE BIRDS. SO HE CHEATED THEM AND NAMED I HE M ALL. HE 70 NAKED EACH ANIMAL AND EACH BIkO. 1HEN HE TOLD EACH ONE OF THEM: "IN 71 TIMES TO CuME, WHEN PEOPLE HAVE BEEN CREATtO, AND THEY SEMD THEIR 72 CHILDREN OUT, DURING Trie DAY OR DURING THE NIGHT, YOU WILL TALK WITH THEM 73 AND TELL THEM WHAT THEY WILL BE ABLE TO 00 WHEN THE Y GROW UP. YUU WILL 74 ~~ TELL THE BOYS THAT THEY ARE TO GET THINGS EASILY, ARE TO BE GOOD HUNTERS. 75 GOOD FISHERMEN, GOOO GAMBLERS, AND SO ON. YOU WILL TELL THE GIRLS THAT 76 THEY W ILL BE ABLE TO GET THINGS EASILY. AT THAT TIME I WILL BE SwEAT LODGE i 77 MYSELF." 78 THEN HE SPOKE TU THEM AGAIN: " I ' L L HAVE NO BODY, NO HEAD, NOR WILL 75 I BE ABLE TO SEE. WHOEVER DESIRES f 0 CONSTRUCT ME WILL HAVE THE RIGHT TU DO 80 " SU. THE ONE 1 HA T BUILUS ME MAY PRAY TO ME FOR GOOD LOOKS, OR WHATEVER 81 HE MAY WISH — THE O.JE THAT MADE ME. I'LL TAKE PITY ON HIM, AND I'LL 82 GIVE HIM WHAT HE REQUESTS — THE ONE THAT MADE ME. PEOPLE MAY APPROACH 83 ME THUS: IF ANYONE IS INJURED, OR IF He IS SICK, OR IF He IS POISUNEO, HE MAY • 84 COME TO ME FOR HELP AND I'LL GIVE IT TO HIM. ALSO, WHEN ANYONE IS DYING, 85 HE MAY COME TO ME, AND I ' L L HELP HIM THEN ALSO. I'LL HELP HIM TO SEE THE 86 NEXT • WORLD. SO IN THIS WORLD I AM SWEAT LODGE, FOR THE HELP OF HUMAN 67 BEINGS." 89 89 SP00 2 UKIGIN OF DEATH 90 RAVEN AT UNE TIME WAS A BIG CHIEF. THERE WERE A LOT OF THEM. A LOT 91 Or PEOPLE WERE CAMPING ANO HE WAS CHIEF OF THEM. THE-tE WAS ANOTHER 92 CHIEF THERE. He WAS AS bIG A CHIEF AS RAVEN. HE WAS A CHIEF IN THE SAME 93 CAMP. THE OTHER CHIEF HAD A SON. HE HAD A VERY GOOD LUUK1NG SON. HIS 94 SON GOT VERY SICK. A L I T T L E WHILE LATER HE DIED. EVERYONE IN THE CAMP 95 WENT TO THE CHIEF'S HOUSE. ALL OF THEM WENT THERE. RAVEN WAS A CHIEF. 96 HE WENT THERE WITH THE REST UF THE PEOPLE. THE CHIEF SAID, "CAN'T ANYONE 97 DO ANYTHING TO MAKE MY SON LIVE AGAIN? DOES HE HAVE TO STAY DEAD? 9 8 " C A N ' T YOU BKI.NG HIM BACK?" NOBODY SAID ANYTHING. 59 THEN RAVEN SPOKE: "IT IS VERY QUEER. MANY, MANY YEARS FROM NOW, 100 WHEN THE COUNTRY IS C I V I L I Z E D , PEOPLE WILL DIE. SOME WILL HAVE TO BE 101 BURIED UNDER THE GRUUND. MY FRIEND, YOU ARE MISTAKEN. YOU WILL HAVE 102 TU BURY YOUR SON." THAT WILL BE THE ENU OF IT." RAVEN TALKED JUEERLY. 103 _ HE DIDN'T TALK PLAIN. HE WAS BOTH A BIG CHIEF A NO A BIG DOCTOR MAN. 1G4 " ' THE OTHER CHIEF SAID TO HIS POWER, "THIS IS WHAT RAVEN D1U TO ME. 105 I HOPE HE LOSES HIS DAUGHTER. HE HAS A GOOD LOOKING DAUGHTER." SOON 106 RAVEN'S DAUGHTER GUT SICK. SHE DIED A LITTLE WHILE LATER. RAVEN CRIED AND 107 CRIED. THE PEOPLE CAMe TO RAVEN'S HOUSE. THE OTHER CHIEF, WHOSE SON 10E HAD DIED, CAME. RAVEN FORGOT WHAT HE HAD SAID, AND WhAT THE OTHER CHIEF 105 _ HAD WISHED. RAVEN GOT EXCITED. HE SAID, "NUW MY DAUGHTER HAS DIED. 110 "•' FEOPKE, WON'T YOU HELP ME TO BRING HER BACK? SHE IS MY ONLY DAUGHTER,"" ~ 111 AND I LOVE HER VERY MUCH. I DON'T WANT HER TO STAY DE AO." 112 THEN THE CHIEF SAID, "LOOK HERE. RAVEN! IT WOULD BE QUEER IF WE COULD 113 BRING HER BACK A FEW HOURS AFTER SHE DI EO. THAT WOULD 3E IMPOSSIBLE. 114 . SOME DAY THE WORLD WILL BE CI V I L I Z E D AND THEN PEOPLE WILL HAVE TO BE 115 BURIED. PEOPLE ARE SURE TO BE DEAD. WHEN THEY DIE, THEY DIE FOREVER." 11S RAVEN SAID, "DON'T SAY THAT! SHE IS MY ONLY CHILD. I THOUGHT THERE 117 WOULD BE SOME WAY TU BRING HER TO L I F E . " THE OTHER CHIEF SAID, "DON'T PAY 118 ANY ATTENTION TO HIM. TAKE THE GIRL AND BURY HER. TAKE HER UP IN THE  U S RUCKS AND BURY HER. I THOUGHT THE SAME WAY THAT HE DID. TAKE HER UP 120 AND BURY HER." 121 SO THE OTHER CHIEF GOT EVEN WITH RAVEN FOR WHAT HE HAD DONE. THEY 122 W E R E BOTH bIG CHIEFS AND BOTH BIG DOCTORS. 123 124 SP003 BROTHER AND SISTER INCEST AND ORIGIN OF DEATH  125 THERE WAS A CHIEF. HE HAD A SON AND A DAUGHTER. THE UAUGHTER WAS 126 LIVING BY HERSELF IN THE PUBERTY HUT. SHE WAS THERE FOR A WHILE. SHE KEPT 127 THINKING, "I DON'T SEE ANYONE THAT I WANT TO MARRY: I DON'T KNOW ANYONE 128 GUOD L00K1 NG 'ENOUGH." He BROTHER WAS THINKING THE SAME THING: "I'M 129 GOOD LOOKING AND SO IS MY SISTER; I'D LIKE TO MARRY HER." HIS SISTER WAS 130 THINKING THE SAME THING.  131 ONE NIGHT K H E N THE BOY WENT TO BATHE, HE WENT TO HIS SISTER'S HUT AND 132 STAYED WITH HER UNTIL NEARLY MORNING. HE CAME HJME AND FELL ASLEEP. 133 HE HADN'T SLEPT_MUCH, SO HIS MOTHER HAD TU WAKE HIM. THE NEXT NIGHT 134 ' he D ID "THE'SAME THING, LEAVING THE LUDGE AFTER THE OTHERS HAD GONE TO 135 SLEEP. THE NEXT MORNING HIS MOTHER HAD TU WAKE HIM AGAIN. HE WOULDN'T 136 ANSWER. He KEPT HIS FACE CUVEREO U P . * HIS MOTHER WENT OVER AND  137 UNCOVERED HIS FACE. SHE SAW U N HIS FACE S.UME OF THE PAINT THAT SHE PUT U N 138 THE GIRL EACH DAY. SHE THOUGHT, "He MUST BE STAYING WITH HIS SISTER. SHE 139 IS THE ONLY GIRL OUTSIDE OF THE CAMP." SHE TOLD THE CHIEF, HER HUSBAND, 140 WHAT SHE THOUGHT. HE LAUGHED AT HER, SAYING, "THE BOY WOULDN'T DO THAT. 141 HE KNOWS BETTER." BUT HIS WIFE WAS SURE, SO THE CHIEF TOLD HER TU WATCi 142 THEIR SON.  142 THAT NIGHT THE PARENTS WENT TO BED; THEY STARTED TO SNO< E . THE BOY 144 GOT. UP AND LEFT. A L I T T L E WHILE LATER THE BOY'S MOTHER GOT UP. SHE W EM T 145 TO THE GIRL'S HUT, AND LISTENED OUTSIDE. SHE HEARD THE TWU INSIDE, LAUGHING 146 " THE GIRL SAID, "YES, 1 LOVE YOU; I DIDN'T SEE ANYONE ELSE WHO WAS GOOD 147 LOOKING ENOUGH FOR ME. I'D JUS T AS SOON MARRY YOU." HER BROTHER 148 ANSWERED, "I FELT THE SAME WAY ABOUT I T . " THE WOMAN WENT BACK AN0 145 CALLED HER HUSBAND. He" WENT BACK WITH HER, AND LISTENED. HE FOUND OUT 150 THAT SHE WAS RIGHT. WnEN THEY GOT BACK TO CAMP THE CHIEF ASKED HIS 151 WIFE WHAT THEY SHOULD DO. "THAT'S UP TO YOU," SHE ANSWERED. "YOU ARE 152 The CHIEF. I LIKE MY CHI LOREN, BUT IT'S UP TO YOU TO DECIDE." AFTER A WH1L 153 HE SAID, "ALL RIGHT, I KNOW WHAT I'LL 00. I'M GOING T3 KILL MY SON. THE 154 PEOPLE WOULD LAUGH IF THE Y HEARD ABOUT I T . " "ALL RIGHT." HIS WIFE ANSWERED. 155 "IT'S UP TU YOU." 156 THEN HE'S HARP EN ED A PIECE U F BONe, AND AFTER THE BOY HAD COME HOME 157 AND GONE TO SLEEP, H E PUT THE BONe ON THE BOY'S HEART AND JABBED IT IN. IN 1 5 8 T H E MORNINo THE CHIEF CALLED COYOTE AND TOLD HIM TO GO ARJUND AND TELL THE 159 PEOPLE THAT THEIR SON w AS DEAD. HE TOLD HIM NOT TO SPEAK LOUDLY, BUT 160 QUIETLY TO TELL EACH LODGE, ANO TELL THEM THAT THE BURIAL WOULD Be HELD AT 161 DAYLIGHT. COYOTE WENT AROUND AND TULD THE PEOPLE. THE CHIEF CUT OFF THE 162 HAIR OF THEIR YOUNGEST DAUGHTER AND MADE HER PROMISE NOT TO TELL HER 163 _ SISTER THAT THEIR BROTHER WAS DEAD. AT DAYLIGHT THEY HELD THE BURIAL. THE 164 " "BODY WAS PUT AT THE BOTTOM OF A C L I F F . LATER THE YOUNG GIRL WAS SENT TO 165 HER OLDER SISTER WITH SOME FOOD. THEY TOLD HER NOT TQ STAY LONG OR TO 166 ANSWER ANY ijUESTlUNS. THE GIRL TOOK THE FOOD TO HER SISTER AND LEFT RIGHT 167 AWAY. 168 THE OLDER GIRL WAITED THAT EVENING FOR HER BROTHER TO COME, BUT He 169 OIDN'T APPEAR. TOWARD MORNING SHE HEARD HER PARENTS CRYING. THEY CRIED 170 . FOR A LONG TIME, THEN STOPPED. SHE WONDERED WHAT HAD HAPPENED. THE 171 NEXT MORNING THE YOUNG GIRL CAME WITH THE FOOD AGAIN • THE OLDER ONE SAT 172 JUST INSIDE THE DOOR, AND THE YOUNG ONE OIDN'T SEE HER. SHE WALKED IN TO 173 SEE IF SHE WERE THERE. HER SISTER GRABBED HER AMD MADE HER TELL WHAT HAD 174 HAPPENED, BY TELLING HER THAT SHE WOULD KILL HER IF SHE DIDN'T. THEN SHE 175 TOLD HcR TU TELL THEIR MOTHER TO SEND HER GOOD BUCKSKIN DRESS, HER BEST 176 RUSE, AND HER •3ELT, BECAUSE SHE WANTED TO BATHfc AND RETURN TJ CAMP. 177 THE YOUNG GIRL TOLD HEK MOTHER, WHO TOOK THE CLOTHES UP HERSELF. THEY 173 WERE RETURNING FROM BATHING. AFTER THEY HAD PASSED THE GIRL'S HUT SHE 179 SAID i HAT SH_ WAN I EO TU GO BACK AND LEAVE HER" OLo DRESS. HER MOTHER 160 LET HER GO AND WENT BACK TO CAMP. 181 INSTEAD OF GOING TU THE HUT THE GIRL RAN TOWARD HER BROTHER'S GRAVE. 182 WHEN HER MOTHER GOT SACK THE CHIEF ASKED WHERE THEIR DAUGHTER WAS. 183 "SHE WENT BACK TO LEAVE HER OLD DRESS," HIS WIFE SAID. "NO. SHE DIDN'T," 1B4 THE CHIEF ANSWERED. HE WAS FEELING UNEASY ALREADY. HE WENT OUTSIDE AND 185 SAW HIS DAUGHTER RUNNING, ALREADY HALF WAY TO THE GRAVE. HE CALLED, 166 "EVERYONE CHASE HER. WHOEVER CATCHES HER CAN HAVE HER. I WANT TU 187 SAVE MY DAUGHTER." ALL THE FASTEST RUNNERS, FOX, COYOTE, WOLF RAN AFTER 188 HER. SHE GOT TO THE C L I F F , AND SAT DOWN AT THE TUP. JUST THEN FOX GRABBED 189 HER ROBE. BUT SHE UNFASTENED IT WHERE IT WAS TIED AT THE NECK, AND JUMPED 190 OVER. SHE FELL RIGHT UN TOP OF HER BROTHER. THEN THEY BOTH LAUGHED. "WE 191 SAID WE'D GET TOGETHER," THEY SAID; "NOW WE HAVE, FOR GUUD. IN TIMES TO 192 COME, OTHER BROTHERS AND SISTERS WILL SOMETIMES DO THE SAME THING." 193 THE PcOPLE WENT BACK. THE CHIEF SAID, "1 WANT MY CHILDREN TO COME 194 TO LIFE AGAIN. SO IN TIMES TO COME PEOPLE CAN DIE AND COME TO L I F E . " BUT 195 RAVEN 0 3 J E C T E J , AND SO DID EAGLE. TJEY SAID THAT PEUPLE WUULD HAVE TU 196 DIE AND STAY DEAD IN THE FUTURE. "ALL RIGHT," ANSWERED THE CHIEF, "WE'LL 197 LET TricM STAY DEAD." RAVEN HAD FUJ R DAUGHTERS. EAGLE HAD F • U R """"SONS^  198 THE C H l t F WAS A DOCTOR. HE WANTED TO GET REVENGE ON RAVEN ANO EAGLE. 199 _ IN A DAY UR TWO ONE OF RAVEN'S DAUGHTERS' DIED. SOON AFTER ONE OF EAGLE'S 200 SUNS DIED. THEY BOTH CRIED OUT, WANTING THEIR CHILDREN BACK. "PEOPLE " 201 KILL HAVE TO BE ABLE TO COME TO LIFE IN THE FUTURE, AFTER THEY ARE DEAD," 202 THEY SA10. "NU," THE CHIEF ANSWERED, "MY CHILDREN ARE ALREADY ROTTING. 203 204 205 206 20 7 203 I CAN' T HAVE THEM BACK COME ." THAT WAS THE BEGINNING OF EVIL DOC TOR IN THERE WILL HAVE TU BE DEAD PERSONS IN TIMES TU OJ 00 SPUD4 ORIGIN OF THE SUN AND MUQN A BROTHER AND SISTER WERE LIVING TOGETHER, ALUNE. EACH DAY THE BOY 209 USED TO GO OUT AND SPEAR SALMUN FROM THE PLATFORM T HAT HE HAD BUILT. 210 ONE DAY HE GOT STINGY. HE DIDN'T TAKE THE SALMUN HUME. HE COUKED AND 211 »TE IT HIMSELF. HE PLACED THE SALMON EGGS AROUND HIS LEG AND WRAPPED 212 THEM THERE. WHEN HE GOT HOME HE TOLD HIS SISTER THAT HE DIDN'T GET ANY' ' 213 ' SALMON. THE NEXT MORNING THE BROTHER WENT OUT FISHING AGAIN. HIS 214 SISTER FIXED HIS BED. SHE FOUND THE SALMON' EGGS IN THE BEDDING. THEN SHE 215 K N E W T H A T H E R B R O T H E R H A D " E A T E N T H E S A L M U N H I M S E L F . S H E D E C I D E D T U 216 L E A V E H E R B R U T H E R . S H E W E N T A W A Y . S H E C R O S S E D T H E R I V E R . H E R B R O T H E R 217 _ S A W H E R . H E C A L L E D T O H E R T U C O M E B A C K . S H E T O L D H I M T H A I H E W A S T O D 218 S T I N G Y A N D " " T H A T S H E W O U L D N ' T S T A Y W I T H H I M . " H E R B R O T H E R T O L D H E R T H A T " H E " 2 19 W U U L D A L W A Y S F E E D H E R A F T E R T H A T , A N D T H A T H E W O U L D N E V E R K E E P T H E 220 S A L M U N F U R H I M S E L F . B U T S H E P A I D N O A T T E N T I O N A N D W E N T O N . H E R B R O T H E R 221 222 223 224 225 226 BEGAN TO CRY. SHE WENT ALONG. SHE FOUND SOME PITCH GUM ANO CHEWED ON IT. THEN SHE MADE A TULt CRADLE AND PUT IT ON HER BACK. SHE PUT THE GUM I NT U THE CRADLE. IT WAS A BUY. IN. A L I T T L E WHILE HE GREW UP. HE WENT FISHING EACH MORNING BEFORE SUNRISE. BUT HE COULDN'T WALK; HIS MOTHER HAD TO CARRY HIM DOWN TO THE STREAM EACH MORNING. A LITTLE WHILE LATER, STILL BEFORE 227 SUNRISE, SHE WENT AND GUT HIM. ONE MORNING HE WAS CATCHING MANY SALMUN 228 AND HIS MOTHER WAS VERY BUSY. SHE FORGUT TO GET HIM. WHEN SHE 2 2 9 - . REMEMBERED AND WENT DOWN SHE ONLY FOUND A PILE OF PITCH. 230 " SHE WENT ALONG. SHE THOUGHT SHE WOULD MAKE ANOTHER SUN. '"SHE CAME'"'" 231 TO A_LAKE AND GATHERED TULES. SHE MADE FIVE TULE BASKET CRADLES OF 232 DIFFERENT S U E S . SHE PUT THEM ONE INSIDE THE OTHER. THEN SHE BUILT A (.. (. ( { vf" lA -O f" CO n> f . rO rO ^ <N r\i r\j o j (\J n j CX* O •—' *M -T ci vT <t <r sj-OJ r\i fM cu o j in <i F> a; o O <r st <r NT in oj (NJ oj nj t\j oj -» CM c i - r i n n i n u i m NI CM n j r o o j o j |f- oo LT o n j I\J r\) (NJ OJ o j r\j N_ !JJ 0 3 t— t— • 3 • t— LU • UJ h~ 71 LU 3 a 3 •—I X 3' X n 3 LU X 3 LU _j J— AS a iU TE oc )— 1— 3 3 • 1— 3 X Z. CX tO cC to 2? 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UJ <i -j; ^ -o -o OJ OJ OJ CM oj 'NI cr« o o j rv. <l h N M ^ - N OJ n j OJ CNI OJ CM Ln r-- co cr r- o - o*1*- <rj (NJ OJ OJ 00 n j OJ N -T l i ^ J J CO tu CO to CC X OJ OJ OJ OJ OJ OJ r- a) tr> o *~4 OJ CC O l CD L/> LT o j o j 0 1 n j O J o j L.._ 293 COYOTc TELLING EVERYONE. "THIS WON'T DO," THE PEOPLE SAID. "IN TIMES TU 294 COME PEOPLE MUST Be ABLE TO DO CERTAIN THINGS WITHOUT OT HERS ' KNOW ING I T . " 255 SO THEY TOOK DOWN COYOTE. 256 THEN THE PEOPLE INQUIRED A30UT THE TWO STRANGERS IN CAMP . SOMEONE 297 SAID THAT TOAD HAD THEM. THE PEOPLE WENT AFTER THEM. "ALL RIGHT," SAID 2 q8 SPUXWA*NI/KA. "YOU, BROTHER, BE THE SUN, AND I'LL BE THE MOON EVEN THOUGH 299 I HAVE TOAD ON ME." HE TOLD HIS BROTHER TO BE THE SUN BECAUSE IT 300 WOULD SHINc SO BRIGHTLY THAT PEOPLE WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO SEE THAT HE HAD 301 ONLY ONE EYE. THE PEOPLE TRIED ONE-EYE FOR SUN. WHEN HE ROSE IT WAS ALL 302 RIGHT, IT WAS ALL RIGHT UNTIL NOON, AND IT WAS ALL RIGHT UNTIL SUNSET. "THAT 303 SUN WILL 00," THE PEOPLE SAID. "NOW WE'LL TRY HIS YOUNGER BROTHER AS 3?^ MOON." WHEN He R OSE IT WAS NOT VERY LIGHT, BUT IT WASN'T TOO COLD. TOA D COULD STILL BE SEEN ON HIS FAC TH ~ COYOTE HAD LAUGHED AT EVERYONE WHO HAD TRIED TO BE SUN. "EVEN I , " HE SAID, "EVEN I COULDN'T MAKE IT." 305 30 6 2C7 308 309 310 SPUD5 _ WILDCAT, MAGPIE AND RAVEN THE CHIEF WAS CAMPED. THE CHIEF HAD LOTS OF PEOPLE. THEY WERE ALL 311 CAMPED. THIS FELLOW WAS NOT IN THE BUNCH. HE WAS CAMPED OUTS IDE" ALL 312 BY HIMSELF. HIS NAME WAS WILDCAT. I * AT WAS THE OLD FELLOW'S NAME. 313 THE CHIfcF IN THE MAIN CAM? HAD A DAUGHTER. WILDCAT HEARD THAT THE 314 CHIEF HAD A DAUGHTER. EVERYONE WANTED TO MARRY HER. SHE WAS VERY 215 BeAUTIFUL. COYOTE AND FOX WANTED TO MARRY HER. SHE WOULDN'T HAVE 316 ANYONE. EVERYONE FROM ALL OVER CAME, BOT SHE WOULDN'T MARRY ANY OF THEM. 317 WILDCAT HEARD ABOUT HER. HE WONDERED WHAT KIND OF A LOOKING GIRL SHE 3 18 WAS. Ht WONDERED WHAT hOUS E SHE STAYED IN. ONE EVENING HE STOLE OVER 315 TO THE MAIN CAMP. HE INQUIRED WHERE THE CHIEF LIVED. NO ONE WANTED TO 320 TALK TO HIM. NO ONE SAID MUCH TO HIM BECAUSE HE WAS SO UGLY LOUKING. 221 HIS FACE WAS ALL DRAWN UP. HE WAS SORE AND SCABBY AND MATTER WAS 322 RUNNING OUT Or THE SORES. HE WAS AN AWFUL SIGHT OF A MAN. HE ASKED O , THE PERSON TOLD Hi M. 'OVER THERE. 323 ONE PERSON WHERE THE CHIcF'S HOUSE WAS. 324 WHAT DO YOU WANT TO KNOW FOR?" 325 WILDCAT WENT OVER AND LOOKED AROUND. HE FUUNO OUT THAT THE CHIEF'S 326 DAUGHTER WASN'T STAYING IN THE MAIN HOOSE, BUT IN A SMALL UNDERGROUND 327 LODGE. Ht FOUND THE HULE IN THE TUP OF THE PLACE AND LOOKED IN. THE GIRL 3 2 8 WAS LYING ON HER BACK, SOUND ASLEEP. HER MOUTH WAS WIDE OPEN. WILDCAT 329 3 30 3 31 332 333 334 335 336 337 ' 338 ' 335 340 WONDERED "WHAT HE COULD DO wTTH HEtC. HE REACHED OVER AND SPIT DOWN IN THE HOLE. IT FELL RIGHT IN HER MOUTH. WHEN SHE WOKE UP SHE SWALLOWED IT. WILDCAT WENT BACK TO HIS HOUSE. IN A COUPLE UF DAYS THE CHIEF'S DAUGHTER BECAME PREGNANT. A FEW DAYS LATER SHE HAD A BABY BOY. THE CHIEF WAS VERY MUCH ASHAMED. SOON He SENT HIS SPOKESMAN OUT TO CALL ALL OF THE PEOPLE TO COME TOGETHER. THE PEOPLE ALL CAMEl THE CHIEF SAID, "I WANT YOU ALL TO COME AND TAKE HOLD OF THE CHILD!" THE BABY WAS CRYING ALL THE TIME. EACH ONE OF THEM TOOK HIM IN HIS ARMS. ANOTHER AN J ANOTHcR CAME AMD TOOK HOLD OF HIM. ALL OF jHc "GOOD "LOUKING FELLOWS CAME. THE BABY KEPT ON CRYING.""" EAGLE CAME AND BEAR CAME, ALL ALONG. COYOTE CAME. HE TOOK THE BABY. IT KEPT ON CRYING. COYOTE SAID. "SH-SH-SIH STUP CRYING!" J[HEN_HE HELD HIS HAND 241 OVER THE BABY'S MOUTH. SOMEONE TOLD HIM TO STOP CHOKING THE BABY; IT 342 WASN'T HIS. SHE WAS A GOOD LOOKING WOMAN • 3^3 EVERYBODY CAME. ALL THE BIRDS AND ALL THE ANIMALS CAME, BUT THE BABY 344 KEPT ON CRYING. THE CHIEF SAID, "I WONDER WHO IT COULD BE. MY DAUGHTER' 345 DID THIS WRONG THING, AND 1 WONDER WHO IT WAS. EVERYBODY IS HERE." 346 THEN SOMEONE SAID, "WILDCAT ISN'T HERE." "OH, HASN'T HE COME YET?" 347 THEN HE SENT SOMEONE TO BRINO HIM. 348 WHEN WILDCAT FOUND OUT WHY THE CHIEF WANTED HIM He DIDN'T WANT TO 345 GO. "NO," He SAID, "1 WON'T GO. ALL OF THOSE GOGO' LOOKING FELLOWS ARE 350 THERE. THAT GIRL WOULDN'T HAVE AN OLD, UGLY, SORE FELLOW LIKE ME. I WOULD 351 EE ASHAMED TO GO." AT THE SAME TIME HE KNEW WHAT HE HAD DONE. THE 352 MESSENGER WcNT BACK AND TOLD THE CHIEF WHAT HE HAD SAID. BUT THE CHIEF SENT HIM BACK TO TELL WILDCAT THAT HE MOST COME. IILDCAT CAME IN THE 354 355 356 357 356 DOOR AND SAT DOWN. THE SPOKESMAN SAID. "THE CHIEF WANTS YOU TO TAKE THE CHILD." "NO," WILDCAT SAID, "I DON'T WANT TQ HOLD THE BABY. 1 DON'T WANT TO DIRTY I T . IT'S NOT MY CHILD." THEY TOOK THE BABY OVER TO WILDCAT. AS SOON AS. IT CAME NEAR IT STOPPED CRYING. THEY PUT IT IN HIS ARMS AND IT SNUGGLED UP TO HIM. 359 THE CHIEF WAS DEEPLY ASHAMED TO HAVE SUCH A FELLOW FOR A SON-IN-LAW. 360 HE HAD THOUGHT IT WOULD BE SOME GOOD LOOKING FELLOW. HE HOPED IT WOULD 361 BE THE SON OF SOME OTHER CHIEF. 362 "~ THAT EVENING THE CHIEF SENT HIS SPOKESMAN OUT TO TELL ALL THE PEOPLE 363 TO GET READY TO MOVE THE NEXT MORNING. "WE'LL ALL MOVE OOT EARLY 364 TOMORROW MORNING. 6c SURE TO LEAVE' THE CAMP CLEAN. DON'T LEAVE A THING 365 AROUND. BE SURE TU POUK" WATER ALL OVER YOUR CAMP FIRES AND SEE THAT 366 THEY ARE ALL OUT. WE'LL JUST LEAVE THIS WOMAN AND HER BABY AND HER 367 H0S8AND." _ 368 THAT NIGHT"" MAGPIE THOUGHT IT WOULD BE VERY HARD ON" W1 LOCA T AND HIS 365 WIFE AND BABY 10 LEAVE THEM LIKE THAT. SO HE TOOK A PIECE OF TWISTED SAGE 37C BRUSH AMU LIT IT. THEN HE GOT A SMALL PIECE OF OLD DRIED WHITE SALMUN. 371 THESE TwO THINGS HE WRAPPED UP TOGETHER. THEN, EARLY THE NEXT MORNING 372 WHEN EVERYONE WAS LEAVING CAMP, HE PASSED WILDCAT AND TOLD HIM 373 THAT HE HAD BURIED SOMETHING BY THE POLE OF HIS CAMP. HE TOLD HIM TO DIG 374 " AND SCRATCH AROUND IN THE GROUND AFTER THEY HAD GONE AND HE WOULD FIND 375 A LITTLE BIT OF FOOD AND SOME FIRE THAT HE PUT THERE. WHEN THE PEOPLE 376 WERE LEAVING THEY ALL PASSED BY WILDCAT. ONE GAVE HIM A COFF ON THE LEG. 377 CNc SCRATCHED HIS FACE. ONE GAVE HIM A KNUCK. ONE GAVE HIM A THUMP. 37E THREE.OR FOUR HUNDRED PEOPLE WENT BY. THEY ALL DID SOMETHING TO HIM. 379 WHEN THEY HhrtE ALL THROUGH WILDCAT WAS BLOODY ALL OVER AND TERRIBLY 38C " BRUISED. THEN THEY ALL LEFT. 381 THEN HE HAD A WILDCAT BLANKET. HE FOLDED THE BABY UP IN ONE BLANKET. 382 EVENING CAME. HIS WIFE WAS NAKED. SHE WAS SITTING ON THE GROUND ALL NO. -F 3S3 DOUBLED UP. SHE WONDERED WHAT SHE COULD DO DURING THE NIGHT. 384 IN THE EVENiNG He REMEMBERED WHAT MAGPIE HAD TOLD HIM. HE DUG 385 WHERE HE HAD TOLD HIM. HE FOUND THE BUNDLE. SURE ENOUGH, THERE WAS 386 THE FIRE AND A LI T T L E PIECE OF WHITE SALMON. HE BROKE OFF A LITTLE PIECE AND 337 GAVE IT TO HIS WIFE. THEN HE BOILT A FIRE. HIS WIFE WENT TO BED. HE TOLD 388 HER TO GO TU BED ANO HE WOULD STAY UP ALL NIGHT AND KEEP THE FIRE BURNING. 3e5 THAT'S ALL THEY WOULD EAT — A LITTLE BIT OF SALMON. THE PEOPLE HAD 390 LEFT ALL THE CAMP POLES THERE. THEY HAD ONLY TAKEN THE MATS. WILDCAT 391 GATHERED WEEDS AND MADE A LODGE. 352 " " IN THE "MORNING HE I OLD HIS WIFE: "I AM GOING TO SWEAT FOR FIVE MORNINGS. 393 I'M GOING TO SWEAT EVERY MORNING BEFORE DAYBREAK. I'LL SEE IF IT MAKES ANY 394 DIFFERENCE. DON'T EVER GO NEAR THE SWEAT LODGE. DON'T G'J SNEAKING AROUND. 395 IF YOU HEAR ME SINGING IN THE SWEAT LODGE, DON'T INTERFERE." THE NEXT 396 MORNING HE WENT TO THE SWEAT LODGE. THE NEXT MORNING WHEN SHE WOKE UP 397 _ _WILDCAT WAS ALREADY GONE. THE SECOND MORNING WHEN WILDCAT'S WIFE _ 3 5 8 ' " " WOKE UP SH E FE L T SOMETHING VERY HEAVY. SHE WONDERED IF IT HAD BEEN 399 SNOWING. SHE LOOKED ANO SAW A BIG BUFFALO ROBE QN TUP Or HER. SHE 4CC LOOKED AROUND AND BUFFALO ROBES WERE PILED ALL OVER IN THE TIPI IN BASKETS. 401 MEAT AND FAT WERE HANGING ON THE WALLS. AT DAYLIGHT WILDCAT CAME BACK. 402 HE HAD A BLANKET OVER HIS BACK AND COVERING HIS FACE. HE LAY DOWN ON 403 HIS STOMACH AND STAYED ALL DAY• HIS WIFE DIDN'T SEE HIS FACE. 404 ~' THE NEXT MORNING BEFURE DAYLIGHT HE WAS GONE AGAIN. WHEN DAYLIGHT 405 CAME HIS WIFE GOT UP AND WENT OUTSIDE. SHE SAW A BIG LODGE MADE FROM 406 TANNED BUFFALO SKIN. IT WAS DECORATED ALL AROUND THE EDGES. SHE STOOD 407 AND LISTENED. IT SOUNDED AS IF MORE THAN ONE PERSON WAS IN THE SWEAT 408 LODGE SINGING. SHE WONDERED WHETHER SHE SHOULD GO AND PEEK IN OR NOT. 409 SHE DECIDED TO GO BACK TO THE HOOSE. BUT WILDCAT KNEW WHAT HIS WIFE 410 WAS THINKING. "" " 411 ON THE FOURTH MORNING SHE HEARO THE SINGING AND WENT TOWARD THE 412 SWEAT LODGE. WILDCAT KNEW SHE WAS COMING. IT WAS TOO BAD. HE THOUGHT, J _ 4 1 3 4 1 4 4 1 5 4 1 6 4 1 7 4 1 8 4 1 9 4 2 0 4 2 1 4 2 2 4 2 3 4 2 4 4 2 5 4 2 6 4 2 7 4 2 8 4 2 9 4 30 4 3 1 4 2 2 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 5 4 3 6 4 3 7 4 3 8 4 2 9 4 4 0 4 4 1 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 6 4 4 7 4 4 ? 4 4 9 4 5 0 4 5 1 4 5 2 4 5 3 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 6 4 5 7 4 5 8 " 4 5 9 4 6 0 ™ " T . J i E * ... , " U _ ^ h I S H i S WHOLE BUOY WAS SILKY ANO FINE AN U T H _ _ E T " C K E N U S U R E S L E F T - B U T H ! S F A " "AS STILL DRAWN U P AROUND TH FIFTH ^JZ° H ' S . r W ' , f n I F S H E H A D H A I T £ 0 U N T 1 L T H E « E ^ M O R N I N G . THE F I r T H H U K N I N G , WOULD HAVE B E E N A FINE LOUKING MAN. HE WASN'T BAD LOOKING. THOUGH. 4 a 4 6 2 462 4 6 4 465 466 467 466 4 6 9 4 7 0 " 471 4 7 2 WILDCAT SAID 10 ALL Or THE ANIMALS, "COME!" HE SAID. "COME ON DEER, COME ON GROUND HOGS, COME O.N EVERYTHING. COME ON INTO THIS DEEP VALLEY. COME ON ANTELOPE AND ELK." -HE CORRALLED THEM ALL IN THIS VALLEY..... HE CLOSED UP BOTH ENDS. ALL THE DUCKS AND ALL THE GEESE AND ALL THE SAGE HENS — EVERYTHING WAS THERE. NOTHING WAS LEFT OUTH THERE IN THE COUNTRY WHERE THOSE PEOPLE HAD GONE.  ALL AT ONCE MAGPIE R E M E M B E R E D WILDCAT AND WONDERED WHAT HE WAS 001NG. HE WAS A L I T T L E FELLOW. HE HAD A BIG, BIG FAMILY. HE HAD TWELVE CR FOURTEEN CHILDREN. HE HAD DRIED UP LEGS. HE WONDERED HOW HIS GRANDCHILD WAS GETTING ALONG. HE DECIDED TO GO OVER THERE. HE SUPPOSED THEY WERE HARD UP. MORNING CAME. HE SNEAKED OUT. THE BOY'S MOTHER HAD TOLD HIM TO BEWARE WHENEVER HE SAW SOME ONE  COMING. IT WOULD BE RAVEN. RAVEN WOULD COME SOME TIME. THE BOY PAD A TALLOW DISK HE PLAYED WITH. IT WAS A PIECE OF T ALLOW THAT HE ROLLED ON THE GROUND. SOME DAY RAVEN WOULD COME ANO GRAB UP THE TALLOW ROLLER, HIS MOTHER TOLD HIM. THE WUHAN WAS SITTING SEWING MOCCASINS. THE BOY GREW UP TO ABOUT FOUR YEARS OLD. ALL AT ONCE THE BO Y. BEGAN TO C RY VERY LOUDLY. "KO/LAKO. KO/LAKO. " THE WOMAN PICKED UP A CLUB AND KAN O'VeR. "RA-RA-RAVEN COME. HE TAKE MY ROLLER," THE BOY WAS STUTTERING. MAGPIE HAD GLASSY EYES. THE WOMAN RECOGNIZED HIM. "OH, IT'S MAGPIE. YOU DON'T WANT THAT.' THROW IT DOWN. IT'S ALL DIRTY." SHE TUOK MAGPIE IN THE HOUSE AND LOADED HIM DOWN WITH GREASE AND MEAT ANO TALLOW. SHE PACKED UP A BIG LDAD OF FOOD FOR HIM TO TAKE. SHE POT IT IN A BAG FUR HIM. MAGPIE SAID THAT ALL THEY EVER HAD TO EAT WAS A L I T T L E BIT OF BLACK PINE MOSS. NOTHING ELSE IN THE COUNTRY TO BE FOUND. MAGPIE PACKED UP THE FOOD AND WENT BACK. IT WAS VERY LATE WHEN HE GOT BACK TO CAMP. AS SOON AS HE WE NT IN THE HOUSE HIS CHILDREN STARTED' CRYING, "WHAT HAVE YOU GOT?" THEY SAW HE WAS ALL LOADED JOWN. "WHAT YOU GOT? WHAT YUU GOT?" THEY CRIED. "BE QUIET, BE 001 El I" MAGPIE CRIED. "RAVEN LIVES JUST OVER THERE, AND HE WILL HEAR YOU. " HE UNDID SOME OF THE FAT. THE CHILDREN'S HEADS STUCK FAR OUT. "AK, AK, WAK, AK, " THEY CRIED. MAGPIE TRIED TO KEEP THEM 0U1ET BUT HE COOLON'T. HE GAVE THEM SOME MEAT AND THEY MADE MORE NOISE THAN EVER. RAVEN LIVED IN THE NEXT HOUSE. Ht HEARD THE NOISE. HE HAD A VERY EIG FAMILY, LIKE MAGPIE. HE WONDERED WHAT WAS HAPPENING OVER AT  MAGPIE'S HOUSE. HE THOUGHT IT SOUNDED AS IF THEY HAD SOMETHING TO EAT. HE TOLD ONE OF HIS CHILDREN, "GO OVER TO MAGPIE'S HOUSE AND SEE WHAT THEY ARE DOING." THE SOY WENT OVER. MAGPIE HEARD HIM COMING. HE GRABBED "ALL THE ME At" AW AY FROM THEM AMU GAVE THEM EACH A LITTLE PINE MUSS. " " " RAVEN'S BOY CAME IN. "PAPA SENT ME OVER TO SEE WHAT WAS The MATTER," h|E_ SAID. "OH, i JUST GAVE THE CHILDREN A LITTLE PINE MOSS ANU THEY'RE THERE WAS ro ! M A K I N G A B I G F U S S O V E R I T , " M A G P I E A N S W E R E D T H E B O Y W E N T H 3 M E . " N O , T H E Y H A V E N ' T G O T A N Y T H I N G . T H E Y ' R E JUST-E A T I N G A L I T T L E P I N E M O S S . " T H E N T H E Y H E A R D T H E N O I S E A G A I N . " W A K U , ,VrKU.*" R A V 2 N i M S , V T SATISFIED. H E S E N T T W O O F ' H I S B O Y S B A C K . ol-J T , U H T H E M 1 0 S I A Y O U T S I D E T H E D O O R W H E N T H E Y S T A R T E D B A C K , A N D P E E K T H R O U G H A N D S E E W H A T H A P P E N E D MAGPIE HEARD THEM CUMING AGAIN. HE TOOK AWAY THE MEAT AND GAV= THEM MOSS. "WHAT'S THE MATTER? WE HEARD A LOT OF NOISE AGAIN " ..RAVEN'S BOY SAID. "OH, THE CHILDREN ARE JUST- EATING SOME PINE MOSS." MAGPIE ANSWERED. RAVEN'S BOYS LEFT"."' ONE OF THEM STAYED JOST OUTSIDE THE DUUR AND PEEKED THROUGH A HOLE. "TOO, TOO, TOO." THEY GRABBED UP THE Mc A T AND STARTED TO EAT IT AGAIN AS SOON AS THEY HAD GONE. RAVEN'S 4 7 3 B O Y SAW T H E M E A T I N G G R E A S E A NO M E A T . H E R O S H E O H O M E . " T H E Y ' R E N O T 4 7 4 . E A T I N G M O S S . T H E Y ' Rt E A T I N G G R E A S E A N D M E A T , " H E C R I E D . 4 7 5 R A V E N G O T OP A N D W A L K E D O V E R TO M A G P I E ' S H O U S E . " W H A T ' S T H E M A T T E R , 4 7 6 M A G P I E ? MY C H I L D R E N S A I D T H A T Y O U W E R E E A T I N G G R E A S E A N D M E A T O V E R 4 7 7 H E R E . " " O H , Y E S , " M A G P I E A N S W E R E D , " I W E N T O U T E A R L Y T H I S M O R N I N G A N D 4 7 8 M A D E A L O N G T R I P , Y O U K N O W , A N D I G O T A L I T T L E B I T O F M E A T T O B R I N G H O M E . 1 4 7 9 " H A S W I L D C A T G O T L O T S O F M E A T A T H I S H O U S E ? " R A V E N A S K E D . " I W E N T 4 8 0 O V E R A N D H E G A V E Mfc J U S T A L I T T L E M E A T T O B R I N G H O M E . H E D I D N ' T G I V E 4 3 1 ME M U C H , J U S T A L I T T L E B I T . M A Y B E I F Y O U W E N T O V E R H E W O U L D G I V E Y O U 4 8 2 S O M E . H E W O U L D P R O B A B L Y G I V E Y O U A W H O L E L O T M O R E T H A N H E G A V E M E , " 4 8 3 M A G P I E S A I D . 4 8 4 R A V E N D I D N ' T S L E E P A N Y T H A T N I G H T . L O N G B E F U R E D A Y B R E A K H E P U T O N 4 8 5 H I S M O C C A S I N S A N O S T A R T E D O F F . I T W A S A L O N G T K I P ; H E D I D N ' T G E T T H E R E U N T I L 486 T H E M I D D L E O F T H E D A Y . " X Q L A / K U , X O L A / K U , " H E C R I E D , A S rit C A M E TO 4 8 7 W I L O C A T S H O U S E . W I L D C A T ' S W I F E H E A R D H I M . S H E G R A B B E D A L A R G E C L U B A N D 488 R A N O U T . R A V E N R A N U P A N D T R I E D TO G R A B T H E T A L L O W R O L L E R T H A T W I L D C A T ' S 4 8 9 BOY P L A Y E D W I T H , B U T W I L D C A T ' S W I F E R A N U P A N D H I T H I M A H A R D B L O W I TH 4 9 0 THE C L U B . H E F E L L O V E R U N C O N S C I O U S . S H E G A V E H I M S U C H A J A R W I T H T H E C L U B 4 9 1 T H A T H I S C O L O N C A M E J U T . W I L D C A T ' S W I F E P I C K E D U P T H E C O L O N . S H E T O U K I T 4 9 2 I N T H E H O U S E A N D S T U F F E D I T F U L L O F T A L L O W . T H E N S H E D I P P E D I T I N T O A K E T T L E 4 9 3 O F H O T G R E A S E , A N D L A I D I T A S I D E T O C O O L . 4 9 4 ' R A V E N »AS' A "siC -.DOCTOR M A N . H E W A S V E R Y M E A N A N D T R I C K Y . H E ~~ 4 5 5 A L W A Y S W A N T E D T O G E T E V E N W I T H P E O P L E * . A F T E R A L I T T L E W H I L E H E B E C A M E 4 5 6 C O N S C I O U S . T H E WOMAN C A L L E D H I M O V E R . S H E G A V E H I M S O M E O L D D R I E D 4 5 7 L U N G S A N D SOMiT D R I E D L I V E R . S H E TO L O H I M TO T A K E T H E M H O M E W I T H H I M . 4 9 8 T H E N S H E G A V E HIM T H E C O L O N F I L L E D W I T H T A L L O W . " H E R E ' S S O M E G R E A S E FOR 4 5 5 Y O U . T A K E T H I S H O M E W I T H Y O U . T O O . " R A V E N T O O K T H E F O O D A N D W E N T H O M E . _ . j C 5 0 0 W H E N H E W E N T I N T O H I S H O U S E H I S C H I L D R E N B E C A M E V E R Y E X C I T E D . T H E Y N3 5 0 1 G R A B B E D T H E G R E A S E FROM H I M . A S S O O N A S T H E Y T O U C H E D I T R A V E N B E G A N TO . i-P 5 0 2 T A K E L O N G B R E A T H S A N D G R O A N . , T H E C H I L D R E N S T A R T E D T O E A T I T . R A V E N F E L L OVER 1 ° * - . 5 0 3 AN T H E G R O U N D , UNCONSCIOUS. O N E OF H I S C H I L D R E N W A L K E D A K O U N D B E H I N D \ 5 0 4 H I M . H E G O T V E R Y E X C I T E D A N D T R I E D T O T A L K B U T H E C U U L D N ' T . H E S T U T T E R E D , ] 5 0 5 " P A P A , W H A T . . . W H A T ' S T H E M A T T E R , W H A T ' S T H E M A T T E R ? T H A T B I G . . . T H A T _ .." \ \ 5 0 6 ' e i G . . . " R A V E N S W I F E WEN T O V E R . " W H Y T H A T ' S Y O U R OWN C O L O N T H E Y ' R E ; 5 0 7 E A T I N G . " S H E G R A B B E D I T A N D P O T I T B A C K . T H E N R A V E N G U T U P . HE WAS A L L j 5 0 8 R I G H T A G A I N . : 5 0 5 W I L D C A T ' S W I F E W E N T ARO'UNO T O A L L O F T H E E M P T Y C A M P S A N D F I L L E D T H E M 5 1 0 W I T H F O O D . S H E W E N T T O H E R F A T H E R ' S C A M P A N D P U T L O T S O F M E A T A N D G R E A S E 5 1 1 T H E R E . T H E N S H E W E N T T O M A G P I E ' S H O U S E A N D S T O C K E D I T W E L L . I N R A V E N ' S 5 1 2 ' C A M P S H E P O T O N L Y D R I E D L U N G S , B O N E S A N D S U C H T H I N G S . 5 1 3 O N E M O R N I N G T H E C H I E F T O L D E V E R Y B O D Y TO G E T R E A D Y T O G O B A C K T O T H E 5 1 4 C L O C A M P . H E S A I D , " W E ' R E A L L G O I N G T O D I E O F S T A R V A T I O N I F WE S T A Y H E R E . 5 1 5 M A Y B E WE C A N C A T C H A R A B B I T O N C E I N A W H I L E I F WE G O B A C K . I T C A N ' T B E 5 1 6 A N Y W O R S E T H A N I T I S H E R E . " R A V E N C A M E W I T H T H E R E S T O F T H E P E O P L E . H E 5 1 7 W E N T F I R S T T O T H E C H I E F ' S C A M P . . W I L D C A T ' S W I F E T O L D H I M T H A T T H A T W A S N ' T , 5 1 8 H I S C A M P , A N D T O M O V E O N . T H E N H E W E N T T O M A G P I E ' S C A M ? B U T W I L D C A T ' S 5 1 5 W I F E C H A S E D H I M O U T OF T H E R E , T O O . " T H E R E ' S Y O U R C A M P , " S H E S A I D , A N D 5 2 0 P O I N T E D TO T H E C A M P W I T H A L L O F T H E P O O R F O O D . 5 2 1 5 2 2 S P 0 U 6 S A L M O N C Y C L E 5 2 3 . _ _ S A L M O N S T A R T E D U P T H E C O L U M B I A R I V E R . H E S T A R T E D F R O M T H E M O U T H O F 5 2 4 T H E W I L L A M E T T E R I V E R . H E GOTTcfA P L A C E N E A R W E N A T C H I . H E MET A N OLO" 5 2 5 M AN WHO WAS L I V I N G T H E R E . T H E O L D M A N WAS S P I D E R . H E WAS M A K I N G A 5 2 6 D I P N E T . H E H A D A P L A T F O R M A L R E A D Y B U I L T TO C A T C H S A L M O N F R O M . S A L M O N 5 2 7 SAW I T . I T W A S N ' T A V E R Y G O O D P L A T F O R M . S A L M O N F I X E D I T U P . H E P I L E D T H E 5 2 8 R O C K S U P W E L L U N D E R I T . T H E N H E W E N T U P T O S P I D E R ' S C A M P . H E SAW 5 2 9 S P I D E R M A K I N G T H E N E T . " W H A T A R E Y O U D O I N G ? " H E A S K E D . " O H , I ' M J O S T 5 3 0 M A K I N G A L I T T L E N E T , " S P I D E R A N S W E R - E D . " I T H O U G H T BY A C C I D E N T I M I G H T 5 3 1 C A T C H A S A L M O N O R TWO, I F T H E Y T O U K P I T Y O N M E . " " W E L L , " S A L M O N S A I D . 5 3 2 " L E T M E S E E T H E N E T A M I N U T E . " H E T O O K I T A N D W E N T DOWN TO T H E R I V E R . 533 FE DIPPED OUT A SALMON AND LAID IT ON THE SHORE. THEN HE WENT BACK. j 534 "WELL," SALMON SAID, "THERE ARE LOTS OF SALMON DOWN THERE. I FIXED IT | . 535 UP FOR YOU. I DIPPED OUT UNE SALMON AND LEFT IT THERE FOR YOU." ! n 536 THE SPIDER TOLD SALMON ABOUT A BIG CAMP OF PEOPLE NEAR WENATCHI, ; 537 (NP "SKW * t/US) . "THERE IS A CHIEF THERE. DOVE » WHO HAS A GOOD LOOKING j 53 6 DAUGHTER. HE HAS FOUR PIECES OF ELK HORN, EACH ONE ABOUT SO LONG. FOR J '" 53? SPEAR POINTS. ANYONE WHO CAN TWIST THE FOUR PIECES UNTIL THEY SPLIT CAN I 540 MARRY HIS DAUGHTER." . i _ 541 SALMON WENT UP TO THE WENATCHI CAMP. MANY PEOPLE WERE AROUND. ALL _ _ . i " ' 542 '"' OF THEM HAD TRIED TQ SPLINTER THE PIECES OF HORN, BUT ALL OF THEM HAD FAILED. 543 "IT'S UP TO YOU," THE PEOPLE SAID TO SALMON. "NO ONE ELSE COULD BREAK 544 THEM." "WELL, IF THE CHIEF ASKS ME, I'LL TRY," SALMON ANSWERED. '"~ 545 THE CHIEF HEARD THAT SALMON WAS THERE AND CALLED HIM. HE ASKED HIM • "546 TO TRY TO SPLIT THE PIECES OF HORN. SALMON WENT IN. THE PIECES WERE LYING j 547 ON A MAT ON THE GROUND. SALMON HAD ALREADY PUT A PIECE Or FLINT UNDER . . . . ', •" 543 ' " ONE OF HIS FINGER NAILS. HE ASKED THE CHIEF, "DU YOU WANT THESE BONES j 545 SPLIT HERE, AND HERE, AND HERE, AND HERE?" EACH TIME HE SPUKE HE MOVED j 550- HIS FINGER NAIL FROM ONE END TO THE OTHER ALONG THE PIECES. THEN He HELD Lj C 551 ONE BONE TO HIS MOUTH AND FILLED IT WITH SALMON OIL. THE OIL SOAKED RIGHT 552 THROUGH. THEN SALMON TWISTED EACH ONE OF THE BONES, AND EACH ONE 553 _ SPLIT INTO SEVERAL P I E C E S . THE CROWD WAS STANDING AROUND WATCHING. 554 ' ' THE MEN THAT HAD TRIED BUT COJLDN'T BREAK THE BONES GOT ANGRY WHEN 5 55 THEY SAW THAT SALMON wAS GOING TO GET THE GIRL. AS SOON AS SALMUN HAD 5 56 FINISHED WITH THE BONES HE LEAPED BEHIND THE MAT WHERE THE GIRL WAS 557 WAITING. HE TOLD HER TO HULD ON TO HIS BELT, AND NOT BE AFRAID. "THE ' i 55E ARROWS WON'T HURT YOU," SALMON SAID; "THEY ARE AFTER ME." THEN HE j 559 RUSHED ACROSS THE FLAT. HE WAS HALF WAY TO THE RIVER BEFORE ANYONE MOVED. I Q 560 THEN THE PEOPLE BEGAN TO TEASE THE MEN WHO HAD FAILED. "THERE! SALMON IS " " ~ . ! 561 GETTING AWAY WITH THE GIRL, AND NONE OF YOU ARE DOING ANYTHING," THEY I 562 SAID. THEN ALL OF T He MEN TH AT HAD LOST GRABBED THEIR BOWS AND ARROWS : ! Ip," 563 AND RAN AFTER SALMON. THEY SHOT AT HIM, BUT HE WAS SO SLICK THAT THE Ijr " 564 ARROWS JUST GLANCED OFF. i 56 5 PORCUPINE WAS SLEEPING IN HIS LODGE A WAY FROM THE CAMP. HE HEARD THE 566 NOISE. HE TOOK A STICK ANO POSHED OPEN THE FLAP OF HIS LODGE. HE SAW ~ " • 567 WHAT WAS GOING ON, AND DECIDED THAT HE OUGHT TO GO DOWN. HE PUT ON HIS 568 MOCCASINS, HIS QUILLS. AND SO ON. He STARTED DOWN THE HILL. HE WAS SLOW.  565 AND HE DIDN'T GET THERE RIGHT AWAY. AT THE SAME TIME RATTLESNAKE LOOKED 570 OUT AND SAW THAT SALMON WAS GOING AWAY WITH THE CHIEF'S DAUGHTER. 571 RATTLESNAKE TOOK JUT ONE OF HIS POISON FANGS AND USED IT AS AN ARROW HEAD. 572 HE HIT SALMON ON THE BACK OF THE HEAD. SALMON FELL OVER, BUT HE SLIPPED 573 ON INTO THE RIVER. 574 HIS WIFE WAS STILL WITH HIM. HE TOLD HER TO SHOVE OUT THEIR CANCE. SHE  575 01 0 , AND THtr GOT IN. THEIR ENEMIES FOLLOWED ALONG THE SHOKc. SALMON 576 TOLD HIS WIFE THAT HE WAS GOING TO LIE DOWN IN THE CANOE ANO GO TO SLEEP. 577 ^ HIS WIFE STEERED THE CANOE. THEY FLOATED ON DOWNSTREAM. _ _ _____ 578 "" 'SALMON' DION' T ANSWER ANYTHING IAHT HIS WIFE ASKED ALL THAT DAY AND ~ ~ 579 NIGHT AND THE NEXT DAY. HIS WIFE WONDERED WHY HE DIDN'T SPEAK. SHE 5 80 UNCOVERED HIS FACE AND SAW HIS EYES AND MOUTH FULL OF MAGGOTS, AND FLY  5S1 BLOWS ON HIS FACE. A LITTLE WHILE LATER SHE SAID, "YUU HAD BETTER WAKE UP." 582 "LET ME SLEEP," SALMUN ANSWERED. "BUT YOU LOOK AWFUL." HIS WIFE 582 __ ANSWERED. "YOU SLEEP TOO MUCH." "YOO TALK TOO MUCH," SALMON SAID, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 584 AND THREW HER OUT ON THE SHORE. " " " 58 5 WOLF AND HIS BROTHER FOUND SALMON'S WIFE AND CARRIED HeR AWAY TO THE 586 MOUNTAINS. THEY WERE GREAT HUNTERS. EACH ONE HAD A SEPARATE SPRING  587 WHERE HE WASHED HIS HANDS WHEN HE CAME BACK FROM HUNTING. 588 THE NEXT SPRING SALMON CAME BACK UP THE RIVER. HE STOPPEO AT OLO 585 MAN SPIDER'S PLACE. SPIDER TOLD HIM THAT THE WOLF BROTHERS HAD TAKEN 590 ' HIS WIFE INTO THE MOUNTAINS WITH THEM, AND THAT THEY WERE VERY CRUEL " " 591 TO HER. HE TOLD HIM WHERE THEY LIVED. "IF YOO WANT YOUR WIFE YOU'LL HAVE 552. TO GO OP ANO GET HER," SPIDER SAID. "OF COURSE, SHE IS ALREADY PREGNANT : J ._ 5 93 FROM WOLF." "WELL, I'M GOING TO GET HER," SALMON ANSWERED. 554 HE WENT UP THE RIVER ANC CAME TO WHITEFISH'S CAMP. WHITEFISH WAS 595 MAKING A THREE-PRONGEu FISH SPEAR. SALMON ASKED HIM WHAT HE WAS 596 CUING. WHITEFISH JUST KEPT ON WHISTLING. SALMON ASKED HIM AGAIN. THEN 597 WHITEFISH GRA3BE0 SALMON ANO PUSHED THE SPEAR DOWN ON HIS ARM. 598 "THI S IS WHAT I'M GOING TO DO WITH I T , " HE SAID, "I'M GOING TO USE IT ON 559 SL ICK -EY ES." "THAT'S HURTING ME," SALMON CRIED. HE TOOK THE SPEAR 60C FROM HIS ARM AND LOOKED AT IT. "THAT'S A PRETTY GOOD SPEAR," HE SAID. 601 THEN SODDENLY HE GRABBED WHITEFISH, PUSHED HIM DOWN AND JABBED THE 602 " SPEAR INTO THE BACK OF HIS NECK. "IN TIMES TO COME," SALMON SAID, "PEOPLE 60 3 WILL DO THAT TO YOU." 604 SALMON WENT ON UP THE RIVER. HE CAME TO RATTLESNAKE'S DEN. HE  605 HEARD RATTLESNAKE INSIDE, SINGING OVER AND OVER AGAIN, "I JUST TRIED MY 606 SHOT ON THE CHIEF, ANO HE FELL DEAD." SALMON PUSHED THROUGH T Ht DOOR. 607 RATTLESNAKE SAW HIM AND STOPPED SINGING. HE SPAT ON HIS HANDS AND 608 ' ROBBED H I S T Y E S . THEN HE SAIO, "I WAS JUST THINKING ABOUT YOU AND HOW 609 YOU WERE KILLED LAST YEAR; IT MADE ME LONE SOME AND I WAS CRYING. "YES. " 6 10 SALMON ANSWERED, "IT'S TOO BAD YOU WERE LONESOME AND I WAS CRYING. "YES. 611 SALMON ANSWERED, "IT'S TOO BAD YOU WERE LONESOME. BUT IN TIMES TO 612 COME YOU WON'T BE ABLE TU KILL PEOPLE AT A DISTANCE. ONLY UNCt IN A WHILE 613 YOU WILL KILL PERSONS. WHEN THEY COME TOO NEAR YOU OR STEP ON YOO. 614 ' WHENEVER"~THtY'"~CATCH ME THEY WON'T SUCK THE BACK OF MY HEAD. IF A 615 PERSON KNOWS THAT HE SHOULDN'T, ANO*YET SUCKS THE BACK OF HY HEAD TO 616 ACT SMART, YOU MAY BITE HIM, OR A THONDER STORM WILL COME UP."  "617 SALMON WENT UP INTO THE MOUNTAINS AND FOUND HIS WIFE. HE WENT INTO 618 THE LUDGE AND SAW HIS WIFE. " SHE WAS ALREADY PRETTY BIG. "WHAT DO YOUR 615 MEN DO WHEN THEY COME BACK FROM HUNTING?" HE ASKED HER. SHE TOLD 620 HIM THAT THEY ALWAYS WASHED IN THE SPRINGS. "WHAT KIND OF A WEAPON 621 HAVE YOU GOT?" HE ASKED. SHE GAVE HIM A LARGE FLINT KNIFE. SALMON TOOK 622 IT. THEN HE WENT DOWN TO ONE OF THE SPRINGS AND HID. -e __n 623 W O L F C A M E B A C K A N D T H K E W H I S M E A T D O W N I N T H E L O D G E . " I S M E L L 624 S A L M O N , " H E S A I D . " H O W C O U L D T H A T B E ? " A S K E D H I S W I F E . " S A L M O N S T A Y 6 2 5 A L O N G T H E R I V E R . T H E R E C O U L D N ' T B E A N Y U P H E R E . Y O U M U S T S T I L L S M E L L 626 T H E O D O R I H A D L A S T F A L L . " " M A Y B E S O , " W O L F S A I D , A N D W E N T D O W N T O W A S H . 627 A G A I N H E S M E L L E D S A L M O N , A N D F E L T U N E A S Y . B U T H E T H O U G H T , " T H A T C A N ' T 628 B E . T H E R E ' S NUTH1NG T O B E A F R A I D O F , " A N D W E N T O N T O T H E S P R I N G . H E 629 PASSED RIGHT BY SALMON. SALMON TOOK THE KNIFE AND THREW IT AT WOLF. 630 HE AIMED IT AT WOLF'S HEAD* BUT HE MISSED. HE HIT HIM JN THE SHOULDER, 631 AND THE KNIFE «ENT RIGHT THROUGH AND CUT HIM IN TWO .PIECES. .. THE OTHER 632 HALF OF WOLF SUUuENLY JUMPED FAR AWAY. 633 A L I T T L E WHILE LATtR THE OTHER WOLF CAME BACK. HE SMELL tD SALMON, TOO, 634 BUT THE WOMAN TULD HIM THE SAME THING. HE WENT DOWN TO WASH, AND 635 SALMON KILLED HIM DEAD. THEN SALMON WENT BACK. HE COT OPEN HIS 636 WIFE'S BELLY WITH THE FLINT KNIFE. HE. TOOK OUT ALL THE WOLF PUPS, THEN 637 _ RUBBED HER BELLY WITH HIS HAND AND IT WAS ALL WELL AGAIN. THEN HE TOOK 638 " "HIS WIFE AND WENT DOWN 10 THE RIVER. HE TOLD HER, "WE'LL PART NUW.. THE 635 CNLY TIME WE'LL BE TOGETHER WILL BE IN THE SUMMER WHEN I COME UP THE 640 RIVER. THE PEOPLE WILL H EAR YOO CRYING, AND WILL SAY, i THE SALMON MUST 641 642 642 644" 645 646 647 64E 645 650 651 652 EE HERE.I" SP 00 7 BLUE JAY AND EAGLE A CHIEF HAD TWO DAUGHTERS. "EAGLE MARRIED THE OLDEST ONE. AFTER A WHILE EAGLE'S WIFE DECIDED THAT HER SISTER SHOULD MARRY HIM TOO. EAGLE WAS A GOOD LOOKING MAN, A GOOD PROVIDER AND SO ON. BUT THE YOUNGER SISTER DIDN'T WANT TO. SHE DIDN'T WANT TO MARRY THE SAME MAN HER SISTER HAD. SHE DIDN'T THINK EAGLE WAS GOOD LOOKING. HE HAD A CROOKED NOSE. BLUE JAY CAME ALONG. HE WAS A PRETTY GOOD LOOKING MAN. ONE DAY THE PEOPLE TOLD THE CHIEF'S DAUGHTER THAT BLUE JAY HAD COME TO SEE HER. SHE SAID THAT THAT WAS ALL RIGHT. IF HE HAD COME TO SEEE HER, SHE WOULD JUST. AS SOON HAVE HIM, SHE SAID. THE BOYS HEARD HER AND WENT SACK ANO TOLD 653 BLUE JAY WHAT SHE HAD SAID. SQ ONE NIGHT BLUE JAY WENT OVER AND GOT 654 INTO BED WITH THE GIRL. THEY LIVED TOGETHER. ONE DAY EAGLE HAD THE 65 5 SPOKESMAN TELL THE PEOPLE TO GET THEIR SNOWSHOtS READY, FUR THERE WOULO °56 Bt A HUNTING TRIP THE SECOND DAY FOLLOW IN G. EVERYONE WENT OUT AND '657 GATHERED MATERIAL FOR SNUWSHOES, AND OTHERS MENDED THEIRS, AND THEIR 658 MOCCASINS. ALL THAT TIME BLUE JAY WAS LYING ON HIS BACK AND LAUGHING. 677 678 675 680 681 682 68 3 684 685 6 36 687 688 655 696 657 698" 659 700 655 EAGLE'S WIFE KEPT AFT EK HER SISTER, TELLING HER TO HAVE HER HUSBAND FIX 660 UP HIS SNOWSHJES. BLUE JAY'S WIFE SAID HE KNEW WHAT HE WAS DOING, AND 661 TOLD HER SISTER TO UU1T BOTHERING. THE NEXT EVENING BLUE JAY WENT OUT 662 " "AND GOT SUME RED WILLOW. HE BENT TWO PIECES TOGETHER AND TIED THEM. 663 THEN HE TIED CORD CARELESSLY BACK AND FORTH. EAGLE'S WIFE CRITICIZED 664 AGAIN. SHE WANTED HER SISTER TO HAVE BLUE JAY FIX HIS SNUWSHOES THE  665 WAY EAGLE HAD HIS. BUT BLUE JAY'S WIFE SAID THAT HER HUSBAND COULD TAKE 666 CARE OF HIS OWN BUSINESS, NOT TO BOTHER ABOUT HIM. 667 EARLY THE NEXT MOKNING THEY STARTED OUT. EAGLE TOOK THE LEAD AND 668 STARTED UP 1 HE MuUNTAIN. WHEN THE REST WERE HALF WAY UP, BLUE JAY 665 STARTED TO PUT UN HIS SNUWSHOES INSIDE THE LODGE • EAGLE'S WIFE TOLD HER 67_0 SISTER NOT- Tu LET BLUE JAY GO — JTHE OTHERS WERE TOO FAR AHEAD. OUT BLUE 671 J A Y ' S W I F E T O L D H E R S I S T E R N O T T O B O T H E R H E R M I N D — H E C O O L D " G O _ I F H E 672 WANTcD TO.. " W H A T D O E S I T M A T T E R I F H E D O E S D I E O U T T H E R E ? " S H E A S K E D . ^ 3 S O B L U E J A Y W E N T A H E A D A N D P U T O N H I S S N U W S H O E S . H E W A L K E D D O T O F 674 T H E L O D G E . H E S T U M B L E D St V E R A L T I M E S B U T H E G O T U P A N D L A U G H E D A N D " " ~ 675 WENT O N . H E W E N T O U T O N E O F T H E P A T H * . I T H A P P E N E D T O B E T H E O N E L E A D I N G T O T H E R E F U S E H E A P . H E K E P T U N F A L L I N G . H E F E L L I N T H E F E C E S , B U T JUST LAUGHED AND WENT UN. WHEN HE GUT TO T HE F OUT OF THE MOUNTAIN THE CT HE RS WERE JUST GOING UVER THc TOP. THEY HAD SCARED UP A HERD OF ELK AND WERE FOLLOWING IT. BLUE JAY WENT ON. IN A L I T T L E WHILE HE FLEW UP INTO THE TScES, SHOOK THEM, AND STARTED A BIG STORM. THEN HE WENT ON. AT THE TOP OF THE MUUNTAIN HE MET THE HUNTERS COMING BACK. THE STURM HAD BLUE JAY GOT SO BAD THAT A PERSON COULD HARDLY SEE, SO THEY HAD GIVEN UP WENT RIGHT ON PAST THEM. "WHY-. ARE YOU GUI NG THAT WAY?" HE AiKED. "THE tLK WcNT THIS OTHER WAY; Y UU CAN'T CATCH THEM BY GOING IN THAT OlRECTiON." HE DIDN'T SEE EAGLE. FARTHER ON HE MET EAGLE COMING BACK, ALL IN. BLUE JAY WENT RIGHT ON BY. "WHAT'S WRONG?" HE ASKED, "WHY DON'T YOU GU AFTER THE ELK? THEY'RE WAY AHEAD OF YOU." BLUE JAY WENT ON AND CAUGHT UP WITH THE ELK. HE KILLED ALL OF THEM, to --F CD 685 ONE AFTER THE OTHER. THEN HE CUT ONE OF THE EARS FROM EACH ELK AND 690 STUFFED THEM IN HIS MITTENS. THE EARS FILLED HIS MITTENS FULL. THEN HE TOOK 651 THE LARGEST ELK, CUT IT OPEN, TOOK OUT THE INS IDES AND MADE A TENT OUT JF 692 THE HIDE. He PUT GRASS ON THE GROUND. THEN HE GOT HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 693 AND PUT HIM INSIDE. HE TOLD HIM TO STAY THERE SO THAT HE WOULDN'T FREEZE. 654 THEN HE FILLED UP THE OPENING WITH THE INS IDES OF THE ELK. HE WENT UN DOWN THE HILL. WHEN HE CAME NEAR THE CAMP HE BEGAN TO CALL OUT. 701 702 703 704 " 705 706 "BLUE JAY IS DEAD; BLUE JAY FROZE TU DEATH," AGAIN AND AGAIN. EAGLE'S WIFE SAID TO HER SISTER, "I TOLD YOU THAT YJ U SHOULD HAVE _KEPT__ "PIM HUME; NOW HE ' S DEAD." HER SISTER ANSWERED," "WELL. WHO CARES IF HE IS DEAD?" SHE WAS NOT WORRIED. SHE KNEW WHAT BLUE JAY COULD DO. WHEN BLUE JAY GOT VERY CLOSE TO THE CAMP HE CALLED. "BLUE JAY'S BROTHER-IN-LAW FRUZE TU DEATH." THEN EAGLE'S WIFE BEGAN TO WORRY. WHEN BLUE JAY CAME IN HE STUMBLED AND FELL TWU OR THREE TIMES, THEN LAY DOWN ON HIS BACK AND LAUGHED. EAGLE'S WIFE TRIED TO TAKE OFF HIS SNUWSHOES FOR HIM, BUT HE GAVE HcK. A PUSH BACK ONTO THE FIRE, AND THEN LAOGHED. SHE PICKED HERSELF UP. SHE HAD BEEN COOKING FOR EAGLE, SO SHE TOOK ALL THE FOOD AND PUT IT BEFORE BLUE JAY. BLUE JAY LOOKED AT IT. HE_TOLD HER 707 T H A T H E D I D N ' T E A T T H A T K I N D O F S T U F F . H E K I C K E D I T O V E R A N D L A U G H E D . 703 T H E N H E T O O K O U T T H E M I T T E N S W I T H E A R S I N T H E M , A N D G A V E T H E M TO 7 C 9 . . . . H I S ' ' J I F E . H E T O L D H E R T O G I V E T H E M T O T H E C H I E F T O C O U N T A N D F I N D O U T HOW 710 M A N Y E L K H E H A D K I L L E D . W H E N H I S W I F E C A M E B A C K "H'ETTOOK O U T S O M E M O S S * 711 A N D T O L D H E R T O C O O K T H A T F O R H I M . S H E W E T T H E M O S S A N D S T U C K I T I N T H E 7 1 2 A S H E S . A L I T T L E W H I L E L A T E R S H E T O O K I T O U T A N D G A V E I T T O B L O E J A Y T O E A T . 713 THEN SLUE JAY TOLD COYOTE TO GO AND TELL THE PEOPLE TO PATCH UP 714 THEIR MOCCASINS, FOR THE NEXT DAY THEY WOULD GO OUT AND GET THE MEAT. 715 COYOTE HAD A LARGE FAMILY. HIS SONS WERE NAMED "JUMP-AFTER-BERRIES". 716 "FALL-LODGE", " SPR IN G-LUDGE" , AND SO ON. COYOTE WENT OUT 717 AND TOLD ALL HIS FAMILY, BUT NO ONE ELSE. HE CAME BACK TO BLUE JAY. SLUE 718 JAY ASKED COYOTE IF HE HAD TOLD THE PEOPLE. "I TOLD MY FAMILY." COY OT E 715 ANSWERED. "NO! I WANT YOU TO TELL.ALL. THE PEOPLE." 8LUE JAY SAID. SU 720 COYOTE WENT OUT AND TOLD THE WHOLE CAMP. 721 THE NEXT DAY THEY L E F T . BLUE JAY WOULD NOT TELL WHAT HAD HAPPENED TO 722 EAGLE. BLUE JAY WAS FALLING ALL UVER HIMSELF, LAUGHING. FINALLY THEY GOT 723 TO THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN AND WENT ON TO THE OTHER SIDE. WHERE THE ELK 724 6ERE. THE ELK WERE ALL IN A CIRCLE. SLOE JAY DISRIBUTED THE MEAT. EACH 725 726 727 728 725 7 30 FAMILY GOT BLUE JAY SHOWS FE SAID. SHE BEEN CUT OPEN WAS IN THERE. BEGAN TO CRY B 731 732 733 734 735 736 CVER AND ASKED RIGHT NEXT TO THROW THIS OTH TOOK THE MEAT SPG03 ELK. THE SISTER-IN-LAW HADN'T BEEN GIVEN ANY. AT LAST D HER THE BIG ELK IN THE MIDDLE. "THAT ONE IS FOR YOU." RUSHED OVER AND TURNED OVER THE ELK. SHE SAW THAT IT HAD SHE PULLEO AWAY THE INSIDES, AND SAW' THAT'HER HUSBAND ALL THE INSIDE WAS DIRTIED WITH FECES. SHE SAT DOWN AND ECAUSE THE MEAT WAS SPOILED. PRETTY SOON HER SISTER CAME HER WHAT SHE WAS CRYING ABOUT • "THERE'S ANOTHER ELK THIS UNE," BLUE JAY'S WIFE SAID. "BUTCHER THAT ONE AND ER UNE AWAY." SO EAGLE'S WIFE CUT UP_THE OTHER ELK AND HUM E . THE UNFAITHFUL BROTHER 737 TWO BROTHERS Wtkc LIVING TOGETHER IN A CAMP THAT ALL THE REST OF THE 738 PEOPLE HAD DESERTED. THE OLDER BROTHER WAS MARRIED BOT THE YOUNGER ONE 735 _ WAS SINGLE. THEY HAU STAYED THERE FOR A LONG TIME, TWO OR THREE YEARS. 740 FOR A YEAR OR SO THE OLDER BROTHER HAD BEEN SUSPICIOUS OF HIS YOUNGER 74! BROTHER. HE HAD CAUGHT HIM WITH HIS WIFE SEVERAL TIMES. BUT EACH TIME 742 HE THOUGHT THAT IT MUST BE FOR SOME FRIENDLY REASON THAT T HtY WERE 743 TOGETHER. 744 THE YOUNGER BROTHER KEPT ASKING THE OLDER UNE TO GO WITH HIM AND 745 KELP HIM GET SUME EAGLE FEATHERS AND CLAWS AND WINGS. THE OLDER BROTHER 746 WOULD ALWAYS ANSnER: "NO, 1 HAVEN'T ANY USE FUR THOSE THINGS. I DON'T 747 WANT THEM SO WHY SHOULD I GO?" BUT THE YOUNGER BROTHER KEPT ASKING 748 HIM SO OFTEN THAT HE FINALLY AGREED AND EARLY ONE MORNING THEY STARTED OUT 745 FOR THE EAGLE'S NEST. THEY WENT TO THE NO RT H SIDE OF OM AK LAKE WHERE 75C THERE WAS AN EAGLE'S NEST ABOUT A THIRD OF THE WAY DOWN A HIGH C L I F F . THEY 751 MADE A ROPE FROM WILLOW BARK AND GOT EVERYTHING READY. THEN THE OLDER 752 BROTHER SAID", "ALL RIGhT, GET READY TO GO DOWN NOW."' "OH, NO,11 THE 753 YOUNGER SAID. "I'M TOO NERVOUS; YOU'LL HAVE TO BE THE ONE TU GU DCwN." 754 THE_Y ARGUED FOR QUITE A WHILE. BUT FINALLY' THE OLDER BROTHER GAVE IN. THE 755 CTHER SAID, "ALL RIGHT, I'LL HOLD THE RUPE TIGHT. I'LL H E IT TO THIS LOG, IN 756 CASE I CAN'T HOLD IT." THEN HIS BROTHER WENT DOWN. WHEN HE REACHED 757 THE EAGLE'S NEST, HE GAVE A TOG ON THE ROPE TO SIGNAL TO HIS BROTHER THAT. 758 HE WAS THERE . WHEN HE DID THAT, THE WHOLE ROPE CAME OVER THE CLIFF AND 7 5 9 FELL DOWN BY HIM. AFTER THAT, THE YOUNGER BROTHER WEN T HUME • 760 WHEN HE REACHED CAMP HE TOLD HIS BROTHER'S WIFE THAT THE ROPE HAD 761 BROKEN, AND THAT HIS BROTHER WAS STUCK u? ON THE CLIFF. HE SAID, "YOU 762 MIGHT AS WELL MAKE UP YOUR MIND TO BE MY WIFE NOW. YOUR HUSBAND 763 WILL NEVER COME BACK. HE'LL STAY THERE AND STARVE TO.DEATH, OR IF HE 764 JOMPS DOWN, HE'LL BE MASHED TO" DEATH ON THE ROCKS BELOW." "ALL RIGHT,'""" 765 THE GIRL ANSWERED. "WE'D BETTER NOT STAY HERE. WE HAD SETTER MOVE 766 CAM? OR HIS GHOST WILL BOTHER OS." HER NEW HUSBAND SAID, SO THEY WENT 767 AWAY. 768 THE OLDER BROTHER, WHO WAS ON THE CLIFF, FOUND TWO EAGLES IN THE NEST, 769 ALMOST FOLL GROWN. HE DID NOT KNOW WHAT TO DO, BUT HE UNTWISTED THE 770 OTHER END OF THE ROPE THAT WAS" TIED TO HIM AND TIED" UP THE YOUNG ONES. 771 BUT HE HAD NO IDEA WHAT HE COOLD DO. HE HAD NO POWER, SO HE HAD NO 772 WAY OF GETTING HELP. HE JUST STAYED THERE IN THE EAGLE'S NEST, WITHOUT 773 MOVING. THAT NIGHT THE FEMALE EAGLE CAME ALONG AN0 LOOKED INTO THE 774 NEST, BUT THE NEST UID NOT LOOK RIGHT, SO SHE JUST FLEW ON. THE NEXT 775 MORNING THE MALE EAGLE CAME AND DID" THE SAME THING. THE BROTHER 776 STAYED THERE ALL THAT DAY AND NIGHT ANO THE NEXT DAY WITHOUT ANYTHING 777 TO EAT OR DRINK. HIS MUUTH WAS DRY AND HIS THROAT WAS BURNING. HE WAS 778 ABOUT READY TO D I E .  779 BUT THAT EVENING THE MOTHER EAGLE CAME BACK AGAIN. THIS TIME THE 780 BROTHER HELD THE YOUNG ONES UPRIGHT SO THEY LOOKED NATURAL ANO THE 781 EAGLE LIT ON THE S1UE OF THE NEST. SHE HAD SOMETHING FOR THE YOUNG UN ES 782 TO EAT, AND THEY HAD THEIR MOUTHS OPEN TO TAKE IT. WHEN SHE WAS GIVING 783 IT TU THEM THE BROTHER REACHED OUT AND GRABBED HER FEET AND TIED HER UP, 7H4 TOO. HE STILL DID NOT KNOW WHAT TO DO. HE STAYED ALL NIGHT WITH THE  785 EAGLES. THAT MADE THREE WHOLE DAYS AND NIGHTS THAT HE HAD BEEN THERE. 786 EARLY THE NEXT MORNING THE MALE EAGLE CAME SACK AND LIT ON THE EDGE 787 OF THE NEST. THE BROTHER CAUGHT IT IN THE SAME WAY THAT HE HAD CAUGHT THE 7 88 " C THE R. THEN Ht THOUGHT, "THIS IS MY LAST CHANCE; 1 AM GOING TO DIE 789 ANYWAY, SO I MIGHT AS WELL TRY TO FLY." HE TOOK ONE OF THE OLD EAGLES AND 750 TRIED TO TIE IT TO HIS SHOULDER.' THE ROPE HAD PR I ED JOT AND I T BR UK E. HE 751 TRIED TO WET IT FROM HIS MOUTH, BUT THAT WAS JUST AS DRY. BUT FINALLY Ht 792 MANAGED TO TIE THE EAGLE TO HIS SHOULDER. THEN HE TIED A SMALL ONE TO HIS 753 _ KNEE ON THE SAME SIDE. ON THE OTHER SIDE HE TIED A YOUNG EAGLE TO HIS 794 ' ' ' SHOULDER AND AN OLD UNE TO HIS KNtE. . THEN HE JUMPED OFF THE C L I F F . HE 795 FELL SO FAST THAT HE LOST CUNSCIUUSNESS. ABOUT A HALF KILE AWAY THERE WAS 756 A SAND KNOLL ON THE EDGE OF THE LAKE. THE EAGLES LANDED THERE, JUST AS THE 797 SUN WAS CUMING UP. 798 THREE OR FOUR HOURS LATER THE BROTHER WOKE UP AND FOUND HIMSELF THERE 755 AT THE EDGE OF THE LAKE. THE EAGLES' MOUTHS WERE OP EN WITH THIRST. He " 800 " LNT l£D THEM AND TOOK THEM TO THE EDGE OF THE LAKE AND GAVE THEM A 801 DRINK. THEN Ht TOLD THEM THAT HE WOULD NEVER FORGET THEM, AND LET 802 THEM GO. THE OLD ONES FLEW OFF AND THE YOUNG ONES RAN AWAY. THEN  803 THE BROTHER STARTED OFF FUR THE CAMP. WHEN Ht REACHED.II HE FOUND HIS 804 BROTHER AND HIS WIFE GUN E. BUT HE SAW THEIR TRACKS AND FOLLOWED THEM. 805 AFTER A WHILE HE CAUGHT UP WITH THEM. NEITHER ONE OF THEM SAID ANYTHING. 806 THEY JUST LOOKED AT HIM. 307 THEN THE OLDER BROTHER SPOKE. "I JUST CAME 3ACK TO GET MY HUNTING 80 3 KNIFE," HE SAID TU HIS WIFE. SHE WAITED A WHILE AND THEN GOT IT. BUT SHE 805 l»AS AFRAID TO GIVE IT TO HIM. SHE LAID IT ON THE GROUND NEARBY. HER 310 HUSBAND WALKED OVER AND PiCKED IT UP. "THAT'S ALL, YOO CAN GO ON NOW," 811 HE SAID, AND WALKED AWAY• 812 HE TRAVELLED TO WHERE HIS UNCLE LIVED, AND TOLD HIM HUW HE HAD SUSPECTED 813 HIS BROTHER FOR A LONG TIME, AND WHAT HAD HAPPENED. "YOO HAVE DONE 814 A GOOD THING," HIS UNCLE SAID. "IT IS BETTER TU HAVE LET THEM GO AND NOT 615 HAVE A FIGHT WITH YOUR BROTHER. AS LONG AS YOUR WIFE WAS UNFAITHFUL." 816 THE NAME OF THE CLIFF IS TOOTIA7MI/ST, WHICH MEANS "WILLING TO KILL 817 _H IMS ELF." ' 8 1 8 " ' " ' "'*""' 315 SP 009 WOLF STRAIGHTENS HIS SISTER'S HAIR 820 THERE WERE TWO BROTHERS. THEY WERE WOLVES. THEY WERE LIVING WITH  821 THEIR SISTER. THEIR SISTER HAD CURLY HAIR. THE BROTHERS WANTED TO MAKE HEK 822 FAIR STRAIGHT. THE Y TRIED TO THINK OF A WAY TO DO IT. THEY KILLED ONE 823 ANIMAL AFT t k ANOTHcR. EACH TIME THEY TOOK THE OIL FROM THE ANIMAL AND 824" " " P U T IT OM HER* HAIR, HOPING THAT HER HAIR WOULD BECOME STRAIGHT, BUT IT 825 STAYED AS CURLY AS EVER. THEN THEY KILLED UNE KIND OF A FISH AFTER ANOTHER, 826 AND TRIED THE OIL FKQM EACH. UNTIL EVERY KINO HAP BEEN TRIED, BUT IT DID 8 2 7 NO GOOD. THEY WERE TRYING TO MAKE THEIR SISTER LOOK PRETTY. THAI'S WHY 828 THEY WANTED TO STRAIGHTEN HER HAIR. FINALLY THEY DECIDED TO KILL THE 829 CANCEROUS BEING, 8 E AV E R, AND TRY THE OIL FROM HIM. THE ELDER BROTHER _ _ 830 "WENT TO THE HEAD OF THE RIVER. HE* FOUND BEAVER COMING 00 T OF HIS HOLE. 831 WOLF HAD HIDDEN BESIDE THE RIVER, AND WHEN BEAVER CAME BY HE STUCK HIS 832 KNIFE INTO HIM. WOLF HUNG ONTO THE KNIFE AND BEAVER CARRIED HIM 833 DOWNSTREAM. 834 BEFORE WOLF LEFT TO GO UP THE RIVER, HE TOLD HIS YOUNGER BROTHER AND .835 HIS SISTER THAT THEY SHOOLD WATCH THE SKY IN THE EAST. " I F THE SKY IS A £36 CLEAR BLUE," He HAD SAID, "IT WILL MEAN THAT I HAVE BEEN KILLED. BUT IF IT IS 837 CLOUDY, AND THE CLOUDS ARE STREAKED, IT WILL MEAN THAT 1 HAVE KILLED 83 6 BEAVER. IN THAT CASE YOU MAY GO DOWN TO THE STREAM."  839 BEAVER CARRIED W3LF DOWNSTREAM AS FAST AS HE COULD SWIM. ALL THE 840 BUSHES AND ALL THE TREES ALONG THE BANK CALLED OUT TO • WOLF TO GRASP HOLD 841 OF THEM. He GRASPED eACH ONE AS He PASSED, BUT EVERYTHING THAT HE TOOK 842 HOLD OF "CAME OUT BY THE ROOTS. FINALLY HE CAME TO CLEMATIS (0' ATS ASUN1/NA7 ) ." 843 CLEMATIS HAD COME DOWN ALL THE WAY FROM THE TOP OF THE 844 MOUNTAIN TU THE SIDE OF THE STREAM TO HELP WOLF. WOLF GRABBED CLEMATIS.  845 BUT SOON IT BEGAN TO BREAK. FIRST IT BROKE NEAR THE TOP. WULF TOOK A NEW 846 GRASP, BUT IT CUNT INUeU TO BREAK, ALL THE WAY TO THE. ROOTS. WOLF WAS 847 CARRIED ON DOWNS T RE AM. HE WAS SURE THAT ALL HOPE WAS LOST NOW, AND 843 THAT HE".WOULD' BE CARRIED ALL THE WAY TO THE OCEAN.' 849 AT HOME WOLF'S SISTER WAS SAYING TO HER BROTHER, "LET'S GO DOWN TO 850 THE STREAM NOW. SEE! THE CLOUDS IN THE SKY ARE DRIFTING INTO LAYERS  851 ALREADY." "NU," HER BROTHER SAID, "THE SKY IS STILL BLUE. WE MUST NOT 852 GO DOWN YET." 853 _ WOLF AND BeA_VER CAME TO RED WILLOW WHO SAID, "HANG UN TO ME." 854 WOLF TOOK HOLD, BUI RED WILLOW BROKE LOOSE. 855 3EF0RE BEAVER HAD STARTED DOWNSTREAM WITH WOLF, THERE HAD BEEN NO 856 BRUSH ALONG THE RIVER. ALL OF THE e'JSHES AND TREES HAD COME TO HELP ;1GLF  857 OUT. 8 5 8 WOLF CAME TO JOINT GRASS. JOINT GRASS TOLD WOLF TO TAKE HOLD. WOLF 859 DID AS He WAS ASKED. ' BcAVER COULDN'T BREAK JOINT GRASS. JOINT GRASS 860 SQUEAKED AND SQUEAKED AND SQUEAKED. SOON BEAVER CAME TO THE SURFACE. 861 HE COULDN'T BREAK JUINT GRASS. HE WAS DEAD. 862 THE SKY BECAME STREAKED WITH DARK LINES. THE GIRL TOLD HER BROTHER TO £63 LOOK AT THE SKY. THEY RUSHED DOWN TO THE RIVER. ALL THREE WENT BACK TO 864 CAMP CARRYING'BcAVER. THEY TOOK THE FAT FROM BEAVER AND RUBBED IT 865 CN THE GIRL'S HAIR. HER HAIR BECAME PERFECTLY STRAIGHT. SHE WAS A VERY 866 " GOOD LOOKING GIRL AFTER THAT. " "" " " " 867 THEN DEER CAME ALONG. HE SAW THE GIRL, AND SAW THAT S H £ aaS GOOD 868 LOOKING. HE DECIDED TO TRY TO GET HER. HE ASKED WOLF IF HE COULD MARRY  869 HIS SISTER. wULF SAIU HE COULD. AFTER THAT DEER LIVED WITH THE THREE. 870 THEY REGULARLY WENT OUT HUNTING TOGETHER. ONE DAY THE OLDEST BROTHER 871 ASKED HIS SISTER TO MAKE MOCCASINS FOR THE THREE. SHE MADE IHREE PAIRS: 872 "' ONE GOOD PAIR, Wl Th" PCI NT ED TOES; AND TWO PAIRS, ONE FOR EACH OF HER 873 BROTHERS, SIMPLY CUT IN AN OVAL SHAPE AND SEWED TUGETHER, WITH ROUND 874 TOES. THEN SHE GAVE EACH ONE HIS MOCCASINS. HER HUSBAND WAS WELL 875 PLEASED WITH HIS. WOLF PICKED OP Tile ONES SHE HAD GIVEN HIM, LOOKED 876 AT THEM, THEN LOOKED AT THOSE OF HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW. H E SAW THAT THEY 877 WERE POINTED AND WELL MADE. THAT MADE HIM ANGRY. THE NEXT DAY THEY _ 878 ALL WENT OOT HUNTING. WOLVES DECIDED TO KILL THEIR BROTHER-IN-LAW. " B U T ' e7S He MANAGED TO GET A WAY FROM THEM. 880 THEN WOLF SAID TO DEER, "IN TIMES TO COME, YOU WILL NOT_ ALWAYS GET 381 AWAY FROM PEOPLE. SOMETIMES PEOPLE WILL KILL YOU." THAT IS WHY NOWADAYS .882 SOMETIMES A DEER CAN Bt KILLED EASILY, BUT AT UT HER TIMES GETS 883 AWAY. _ __ 885 SPU10 COTTONTAIL STEALS THUNDER'S WIFE 886 A BUNCH UF WOMEN WERE DIGGING CAMAS IN A LARGE FIELD. COTTONTAIL  887 WENT UP TO ONE OF THE WOMEN AND ASKED, "WHICH ONE OF THESE WOMEN IS 888 THUNDER'S WIFE? I HAVE COME TO TAKE HER WITH ME." "WHY, YOU CAN'T 889 DO THAT," THE WOMAN ANSWERED. "THUNDER WOULD KILL YOU." "I'M NOT 890 AFRAID OF HIM. YOU TcLL ME WHICH" O N E SHE I S . " COTTONTAIL SAID. THE WOMAN 851 STILL ARGUED. SHE DIDN'T WANT TO TELL HIM, BUT HE INSISTED SO MUCH THAT SHE 892 FINALLY GAVE IN. "THAT IS THUNDER'S WIFE, OVER THERE," SHE SAID. J i t s ISO 8 5 3 COTTONTAIL W E N T O V E R A N O SPOKE TO' T H E WOMAN. S H E D I D N ' T A N S W E R . B U T 3 9 4 K E P I ON D I G G I N G . A G A I N H E S P U K E A N D S T I L L S H E P A I D N O A T T E N T I O N T O H I M . 8 9 5 T H E N H E S A I D , " W E L L , I'M G O I N G B A C K NOW • i C A M E T O Gt T Y O U SQ Y O U H A D 8 9 6 B E T T E R C O M E A L O N G . " T H I S T I M E T H U N D E R ' S W I F E L O O K E D A R O U N D AT H I M A N D 8 9 7 G R U N T E D , " H U H ? " A T T H A T C O T T O N T A I L T O O K H E R B Y T H E A R M A N D D R A G G E D 8 9 8 H E R A L O N G . T H E O T H E R W O M E N LOOKED U N A N D WANTED T O H E L P , 3 Q T T H E Y j 8 5 5 C O U L D D O N O T H I N G . T H U N D E R ' S W I F E S A I D . " Y O U H A D B E T T E R L E T ME G O . M Y N 9 0 0 H U S B A N D W I L L F I X Y O U I F Y U U D O N ' T . " "YOUR H U S B A N D C A N ' T H U R T M E , " 9 0 1 C O T T O N T A I L A N S W E R E D . " H E M I G H T S E A B L E T O K I L L Y O U , B U T I WON • T L E T H I M . " 9 0 2 ' " A F T E R A W H I L E T H U N D E R C A M E T O T H E F I E L D W H E R E T H E W O M E N W E R E D I G G I N G 9 0 3 A N D T H E Y T O L D H I M WHAT H A D H A P P E N E D . H E B E C A M E V E R Y A N G R Y , A N D 5 0 4 S T A R T E D O U T TO G E T C O T T O N T A I L . S O O N I T B E G A N T O T K J N O E R A N D T H E L I G H T N I N G 5 0 5 B E G A N TO F L A S H . T-Hc R A I N P O U R E D D O W N . T H U N D E R R E A C H E D T H E P L A C E W H E R E | 5 0 6 C O T T U N T A I L WAS A N D D E M A N D E D H I S W I F E . C O T T O N T A I L S A I D , "YOU H A D B E T T E R ,' 9 0 7 GO U N ; Y O U C A N ' T H U R T M E A N D I WON'T G I V E Y O U Y O U R W I F E . " T H E N H E W E N T •_ | 9 0 8 " C V E R T O A R O S E B O S H A N D C O V E R E D H I S H E A D W I T H A R O S E L E A F . H E P U T T H E I 9 0 9 WOMAN U N D E R H I S A R M P I T . T H U N D E R 0 1 D E V E R Y T H I N G T H A T H E C O U L D , B U T I T j' 9 1 0 C I D N ' T B O T H E R C O T T O N T A I L . T H E R A I N P O U R E D D O W N . B U T WHEN I T H I T T H E R O S E "_ j 9 1 1 L E A F I T J U S T R A N O F F O N E A C H S I D E , W I T H O U T H U R T I N G C U T T O N T A I L . ' 9 1 2 F I N A L L Y T H U N D E R G O T T I R E D A N D S T A R T E D A W A Y . T H E N C O T T O N T A I L C A M E 9 1 3 O U T A N D S A I D : " N E V E R M O R E W I L L Y U U B E A B L E TQ K I L L P E O P L E . I N T H E SUMMh 5 1 4 " * " T I M E ,'WHEN* 1 T IS H O I A N D T H E B L A C K C L O U D S C O M E , Y O U W I L L T A L K , A N D T H E 9 1 5 P E O P L E W I L L L I S T E N TO Y O U , B U T Y O U WIJ_ L N E V E R K I L L A N Y O N E E X C E P T O N C E IN A 9 1 6 W H I L E , P E R H A P S J U S T U N E P E R S O N . " 5 1 7 5 1 8 S P O i l A R R O W C H A I N A N O T H E F T O F F I R E ( F I R S T V E R S I O N ) 9 1 9 < T O L D B Y J O H N T O M , I N T E R P R E T E D B Y B O B C O V I N G T O N > . 5 2 0 ' A L L T H E A N I M A L S W E R E UN T H E E A R T H . T H E Y H A D NO F I R E AT T H A T T I M E . A L L 9 2 1 T H A T T H E Y C U U L D D O W A S T R A V E L A R O U N D . ! -~ _ 9 _ 2 T H E C H I E F S P O K E T O T H E P EO P L £ : " L E T ' S GO U P TO TH E _ S K Y C O U N T R Y . M A Y B E J ,' Q 5 2 3 WE C A N G E T F I R E . S E N D T H E N E W S A R O U N D T O A L L T H E P ' E O P L E . " T H E P E O P L E < 9 2 4 A L L G A T H E R E D T O G E T H E R . T H E C H I E F S A I D T O T H E M , " M A K E B O W S . E A C H O N E O F 5 2 5 Y O U , A N D M A N Y A R R O W S . T H E N C O M E T O G E T H E R A N D S H O O T A T T H E S K Y . A L L 5 2 6 T H E P E O P L E W I L L S H O O T A T T H E S K Y . W E ' L L S E E I F A N Y O N E C A N H I T T H E S K Y . W E ' L L 9 2 7 S E E I F WE CAN MAKE THE ARROWS REACH TO THE EARTH. THEN W E ' L L CLIMB U P T O 9 2 8 T H E S K Y C O U N T R Y . WE'LL S T E A L S O M E F I R E F R O M T H E S K Y P E O P L E . " T H E P E O P L E 9 2 9 A L L M A D E L O N G . . S T R O N G B O W S . " T H E Y M A D E M A N Y , M A N Y A R R O W S U N T I L 9 3 0 T H E R E W E R E B I G P I L E S O F T H E M . T H E N T H E Y A L L C A M E T O G E T H E R A T O N E P L A C E . 9 3 1 E V E R Y O N E S H O T A T T H E S K Y . B U T N O O N E W A S A B L E T O H I T I T . 9 3 2 W O O D P E C K E R I T S 3 S O A / K AN A ) W A S G O I N G A L O N G T H E R I V E R . H E S A W . E L K 9 3 3 C O M I N G ON T H E O T H E R S I D E . W O O D P E C K E R F L E W O V E R . E L K S T A R T E D A C R O S S T H E _ 9 3 4 R I V E R . W O O D P E C K E R F L E W U O W N A N D L I T Q N E L K ' S N E C K . W H E N E L K WAS H A L F  9 3 5 WAY A C R O S S T H E R I V E R Ht N O T I C E D W O O D P E C K E R . W O O D P E C K E R H A D A L I T T L E 9 3 6 K N I F E . H E C U T E L K ' S N E C K W I T H I T . E L K S T O P P E D . H E F E L L D E A D . W O O D P E C K E R 9 3 7 C U T H I M O P E N . H E T O U K O U T A R I B T O M A K E A BOW. H E M A D E A R I B BOW. THEN _ 9 3 6 " '"'HE M A D E S O M E S E R V I C E B E R K Y A R R O W S . "WHAT C A N I DO F O R SOME ' F E A T H E R S 9 3 9 F O R T H E A R R O W S ? " H E W O N D E R E D . T H E N H E S A W E A G L E . H E SAW B A L D E A G L E . 5 4 C HE T O L D B A L D E A G L E T H A T E A G L E H A D B E E N T A L K I N G A B O U T H I M . S O E A G L E A N D 9 4 1 B A L D E A G L E B E G A N TQ F I G H T . T H E Y F L E W H I G H INTO T H E Al K . M A N Y F E A T H E R S 9 4 2 D R O P P E D D O W N . W O O D P E C K E R S P R E A D O U T A B L A N K E T A N D ' G A T H E R E D A L L O F T H E 5 4 3 _ _ F E A T H E R S . H E T O O K A L L O F T H E F E A T H E R S H O M E W I T H H I M . T H E N H E F I X E D U P 9 4 4 ' " A L L O F H I S A R R O W S W I T H F t A T H E R S . H E H A D TWO B A G S F U L L U F A R R O W S . T H E N 9 4 5 W O O D P E C K E R W O N D E R E D , "WHAT C A N I D O F O R P O I N T S F O R T H E ArUQWS?" H I S 9 4 6 G R A N D MO T H E R T O L D H I M TO G O A N D S E E F L I N T R O C K A N D H A R D R O C K . W O O D P E C K E R  9 4 7 W E N T . H E D I D T H E S A M E T H I N G A G A I N . F L I N T R O C K A N D H A R D R O C K 5 4 8 F O U G H T W I T H E A C H O T H E R . T H E Y B R O K E I N T O C H I P S . W O O D P E C K E R T O O K A L L 9 4 9 O F T H E C H I P S H O M E • Ht F I X E D U P A L L O F H I S A R R O W S W I T H T H E M . 9 5 0 W O O D P E C K E R T O O K H I S BOW A N D A R R O W S A N D W E N T TO T H E M E E T I N G . "" I N TWO 5 5 1 MORE D A Y S T H E Y W E R E G O I N G T O T R Y A G A I N T O H I T T H E S K Y . T H E TWO D A Y S 9 5 2 P A S S E D . T H E P E Q P L E W E N T TO T H E S H O O T I N G P L A C E . W U O D P E C K E R W E N T A L O N G . 952 HE? MET CUYUTt. COYOTE ASKED HIM W HY HE HAD COME. WOO OP ECKER SAID • ) 954 THAT HE CAME TO LOOK ON. COYOTE TOOK WOODPECKER'S BOW • HE LOOKED AT { 955 IT AND SAID THAT IT WOULD SHOOT NOWHERE. EVERYONE MADE FUN OF WOODPECKER. i C 9 5 6 THE CHIEF TOLD THEM TO STOP MAKING FUN OF WOODPECKER. HE [ 557 TOLO THEM TO LET HIM SHOUT. IT WAS LATE IN THE EVENING. NEARLY DARK • THE j 9 5 8 CHIEF CALLED ALL THE PEOPLE. HE CALLED WOODPECKER. WOODPECKER CAME. J 955 HE LAID ALL OF HIS ARROWS DOWN JN THE GROUND. THEN HE PUT A STRING ON ) 560 HIS BOW. "NOW, ALL OF YUU WATCH ME," HE SAID. HE SHOT AN AkROw TOWARD ' ', 961 THE SKY. THEN HE WAITED FUR QUITE A WHILE. IT DIDN'T FALL DOWN. HE SHUT i 5 62 ' ' SOME HOKE ARROWS. NONE OF THEM CAME DOWN • WOODPECKER SHOT ONE , 563 WHOLE BAG FULL. THEN THE PEOPLE COULD SEE THE END OF THE CHAIN. H E i 964 STARTED ON THE SECOND BAG. HE EMPTIED IT. HE HAD SHOT ALL THE ARROWS . _' 565 HE HAD. THE END WAS STILL QUITE A WAY F K O ' K THE GROUND. THE CHIEF TOLD 966 WOODPECKER TO TAKE SOME OF THE OTHERS' ARROWS. HE DID. THEN THE CHAIN ' ' 967 TOUCHED THE GROUND. THE CHIEF SAID, "ALL RIGHT, NOW WE'LL EAT. AFTER _ _ 1 C 568 " THAT WE'LL DECIDE WHO SHALL GO UP." THEY ALL ATE. THEN EAGLE TOOK THE 969 LEAD. HE WENT UP FIRST. THEN THEY ALL WENT UP. BY SUNDOWN ALL HAD j 970 GONE UP. 1 '" 971 WOODPECKER SPOKE: "NOW, I'M NOT A CHIEF, I'M JUST AN ORDINARY - i 972 PERSON, BUT I'LL SAY THIS TO YOU: THERE ARE LOTS OF US HERE. WE ARE A LOT 1 j 9 7 3 OF PEOPLE. DON'T STAY BUNCHED TOGETHi.R. GO ONE BY ONE AROUND ALL OVER. _ .. . J •" 974 ' THAT WAY WE'LL 'be'ABLE TU GET F I R E . " 975 GRIZZLY BEAR *AS THE LAST UNE TO START UP. "I'LL GO TOO," HE SAID. " I ' L L 576 TAKE SOME FUOD ALONG WITH ME." HE FILLED A LARGE BAG WITH FOOD AND , : f 977 FASTENED IT AROUND HIS SHOULDERS WITH A PACK STRAP. THEN HE STARTED UP. I 978 HE TOOK HOLD OF THE BOTTOM ARROW. IT BROKE.IN TWO. BUT GRIZZLY BEAR ; 575 WAS NOT SATISFIED, HE TOUK HOLD OF THE SECOND ARROW. IT BROKE ALSO. HE _ . . . i 980 PULLED OUT SIX ARROwS THAT WAY. THEN HE COULDN'T REACH THE CHAIN ANY l - i 581 MORE» SO HE QUIT TRYING TO GU UP WITH THE REST. : 982 WHEN THEY ALL C A Me DOWN AGAIN THEY COULDN'T REACH THE GROUND. THE 1 _ 933 EIRDS FLEW WHEN THEY REACHED THE BOTTOM OF THE CHAIN. WHEN FISH CAME j 5 64 DOWN HE FELL AND HIT THE GROUND. HE WAS CARRYING ARRUWS ALL AROUND " j 9 8 5 HIMSELF. THE ARROWS WENT RIGHT THROUGH HIS BODY. THAT IS WHY FISH _ j ." 9 8 6 HAVE S O MANY BONES N O * . WHEN SUCKER JUMPED DOWN H E HIT ON H I S " " ~ " \ 987 MOUTH. THAT IS WHY SUCKERS NOW HAVE FLAT MOUTHS. j 998 ALL THE PEOPLE GOT DOwN.' THEY ALL HAD F I R E . THEN EACH ONE OF THEM ; , -985 WENT HOME. THE Y ALL HAD FIRE THEN. 990 ' i 551 SP012 ARROW CHAIN AND THEFT OF FIRE ( S E C O N D VERSION) j „ 952 <TOL0 BY BOB COVINGTUN> " "' I 993 WOODPECKER (T S SS QA/K AN A) LIVED WITH HIS GRANDMOTHER. ALL DAY LONG I 554 HE SAT AROUND AND DID NOTHING. HE NEVER WENT OUT TO HUNT OR FISH. , ! .. 995 "DON'T SIT AROUND ALL THE TIME." HIS GRANDMOTHER COMPLAINED. "GO OUT i 956 INTO THE MOUNTAINS. YUU MIGHT FIND SOMETHING." SHE PESTERED HIM UNTIL J 997 HE FINALLY WENT OUT. B . S F O R E LONG HE CAME UPON A LARGE DEER . AN ELK, _ . _ _ _ .. | .. 593 LYING DEAD. IT HAD BEEN KILLED BY SOMETHING. IT WAS STILL FRESH. WOODPECKER ~ j 999 HAD NO KNIFE WITH HIM. HE HAD NO WAY TO SKIN THE ELK. He BEGAN I 1000 TO SING, WISHING THAT HE HAD A KNIFE. HE SAW WULF. WOLF WAS COMING , _ _ J 7 1001 OVER THE H I L L . HE HEAKD WOODPECKER SINGING. WOLF GREETED WOODPECKER j 1002 "WHAT DO YUU WANT?" HE ASKED. "OH, I DIDN'T WANT ANYTHING," WOODPECKER I 1003 _ ANSWERED. "YOU WERE SINGING F O R SOMETHING," WOLF SAID. "NO, _ . . .. ! ._, 1004 "NO, 1 DIDN'T WANT ANYTHING. 1 WAS JUST SAYING THAT I WOULD LIKE TO HAVE A" . • | 1005 KNIFE TO WHITTLE SOME A R R O W S . " "NO, THAT ISN'T THE REASON YOU W AM TED 1006 A KNIFE. " WOLF ARGUED. "YOU SAID YOU WANTED TO SKIN SOMETHING." "NO. : , j _ 1007 I JUST WANTED TU WHITTLE SOME ARROWS . " WOODPECKER REPEATED. 1008 BUT WOLF TOLD HIM THAT HE KNEW BETTER, AND WOODPECKER SOON SAW THAT 1009 HE WOULD HAVE TO TELL THE TRUTH. HE TOLO WOLF THAT HE WANTED TO SKIN THE _ 1010 ELK. "WHERE IS THE E L K ? " ASKED WOLF. WOODPECKER TOOK HIM OVER TO ~ " " ' ; 1011 WHERE THE.ELK WAS LYING. "NOW I'LL TELL YOU WHAT TO DO," WOLF SAID. 1013 "I LEFT MY FIVE NEPHEWS OVER THE HILL. I HUNG THEM IN A TREE OVER THERE. 1014 YOU GO AND F1 NO THEM, PUT THEM IN THE BASKET THAT IS THERE, ANO BRING 1015 THEM BACK HERE TO ME. WHILE YOU ARE GONE 1 WILL SKIN THE U E E R FUR YOU." 1C16 WOODPECKER WENT AS HE HAD BEEN TOLD. HE FOUND THE FIVE NEPHEWS OF 1017 WOLr HANGING IN THE TREE. HE HIT EACH UNE IN THE EYE, ONE AT A TIME. THEN 1- Cl 8 PUT THEM IN THE BASKET AND RAN AWAY WITH THEM. HE RAN IN THE UPPOSITE 1C19 DIRECTION FROM WHERE HE HAD LEFT WULF. HE RAN TILL HE CAME TO A RIDGE OF 1020 MOUNTAINS. . THERE HE TOOK THE NEPHEWS AND HURLED EACH UNE AGAINST A 1021 ROCK. "NOW I MUST HJRRY , » THOUGHT WUODPECKER. HE RAN BACK TO THE 1022 PLACE W H C R E WOLF WAS SKINNING THE ELK. WHEN HE GOT THERE, HE TOLD WOLF 1023 THAT HE COULD NOT FIND HIS NEPHEWS. WOLF SENT HIM BACK Tu LOOK AGAIN. 1024 WOODPECKER WENT AWAY, THEN RETURNED FOR THE SECOND TIME. HE TOLD 1025 WULF THAT HE CUULD NOT FIND HIS NEPHEWS. WOL F S ENT HIM AWAY ONCE MURE • 1026 HE STAYED AWAY A WHILE, THEN CAME BACK AND TOLD WOLF THAT HE HAD 1027 LOOKED FUR HIS NEPHEWS, BUT S T I L L CUULD NOT FIND THE PLACE WHERE THE Y HAD 1028 BEEN LEFT. THfc.N A FOURTH TIME WOLF SENT HIM AWAY. WOOOPcCKcR RETURNED ' " 1029 AGAIN, AND REPEATED THE SAME STORY. FIVE TIMES, IN ALL. WOLF SENT THE BOY 1C30 AWAY. WHEN HE CAME BACK THE LAST TIME, THE ELK HAD BEEN COMPLETELY 1031 SKINNED, AN U THE FLESH DIVIDED INTO PIECES. " "IT'S QUEER THTA YOU COULDN'T 10 32 FIND MY NEPHEWS," WOLF SAID. "YOU STAY HERE WITH THE UEfcR, BUT DON'T 1033 TOUCH IT. I'LL GO TO FIND MY NEPHEWS." 1C34 AS SOON AS WOLF HAD LEFT, WOODPECKER RAN HOME AS FAST AS P O S S I B L E . ~ 1035 WHEN H E SAW HIS GRANDMOTHER HE TRIED TO SPEAK, BUT ALL THAT HE COULD DO l g 3 6 WAS TO STUTTER. HIS GRANDMOTHER COULDN'T UNDERSTAND HIM. THEN SHE 1037 SPOKE: "WHILE YOU WERE AWAY DID YOU FIND A DEER AND D ID wULF COME 1G38 ALONG AND TAKE IT AWAY FROM YOU?" WOODPECKER TOLD HER THAT THAT WAS 1039 WHAT HAD HAPPENED. THEN HIS GRANDMOTHER TOLD HIM THAT SHE WOULD GO 1040 BACK WITH HIM TO G E T THE DEER. THEY REACHED THE PLACE WHERE THE MEAT 1041 HAD BEEN LcF T . THE GRANDMOTHER MADE AN EFFIGY TO LOOK LIKE WOODPECKER, 1042 AND PLACED I T NEARBY. THEN THEY PACKED UP THE MEAT AND CARRIED IT NO cn 1 0 4 3 A W A Y . T H E Y C A R R I E D I T TO A C A V E I N T H E C L I F F . H E R E I H E Y B U I L T A F I R E A N D 1 C 4 4 C O O K E D A L L T H E M E A T . T H E N T H E Y G A T H E R E D S I X R U C K S T O G E T H E R . 1 0 4 5 W O L F F I N A L L Y F O U N D H I S N E P H E W S W H E R E W O O D P E C K E R H A D L E F T T H E M . H E 1 0 4 6 S A W T H A T T H E Y W E R E A L L M A N G L E D . H E B E C A M E V E R Y A N G R Y . H E R U S H E D 1 0 4 7 B A C K T O W H E R E H E H A D L E F T W O O D P E C K E R . H E F O U N D T H E E F F I G Y A N D B I T I T 1 0 ^ 8 I N T W O . I T W A S N O T H I N G B U T R O T T E N W O O D . T H E N H E T R A C K E D W O O D P E C K E R 1 0 4 9 ANO HIS GRANDMOTHER TU THE CAVE. HE STOPPED AT THE BOTTOM OF THE CLIFF. 1 0 5 0 WOODPECKER AND HIS GRANDMOTHER WERE LAUGHING TOGETHER. WOLF LOOKED 1 0 5 1 UP AT THEM. WUUDPECKER'S GRANDMOTHER WAS SNOWS HOE RABBIT. WOLF 1 0 5 2 CALLED UP TU THEM, "MY NEPHEWS ARE STARVING. THROW DOWN SOME MEAT " 1053 FOR THEM. "ALL RIGHT," WOODPECKER ANSWERED, "THIS WILL F I L L YOUR STOMACHS SO 10.5 FULL THAT YOU WILL HAVE T 0 CURL UP AND L I E DOWN." THEN HE PULLED THE SIX 1056 ROCKS FROM THE F i K E WHERE THEY HAD BEEN PLACED. HE THREW ONE DOWN. 1057 WOLF QPENcD HIS MOUTH AND CAUGHT IT AND SWALLOWED IT. THEN HE Or>EW 1056 " " " UP HIS LEGS AND FEL L OVER. HE GOT UP, BUT FELL OVER AGAIN. HE FELL OVER FIVE 1055 TIMES. THEN HE LAY THERE. 1060 WOODPECKER NEXT CALLED TO ONE OF WOLF'S NEPHEWS. "DO YUU WANT  SOME MEAT, TOO?" "YES. THROW ME SOME." THE NtPHEW ASKED. WOODPECKER THREW DOWN THE SECOND HEATED ROCK. THE SAME THING HAPPENED. THE NEPHEW FEL L OVER TOO. THEN HE THREW A RUCK TU THE SECOND NEPHEW. THE SAME THING HAPPENED. THIS HAPPENED TO ALL OF THEM. WHEN ALL THE 1061 1062 1063 10 64" 1065 1066 KEPHcWS HAD BEEN KILLED, WUODPECKER AND HIS GRANDMOTHER WENT DOWN TO WHERE THEY LAY. THEY SKINNED ALL SIX AND STRETCHED THE IR HIDES. 1067 THEN WOODPECKER GA THERE D A LOT OF ARROWS""" HE WOKKEUT AND MADE A 1 068 GREAT MANY ARROWS. HE FILLED ALL SIX OF THE HIDES WITH ARROWS. THEN HE 1G65 TOOK A DEER RIB, TO USE AS A BOW. HE TOLD HIS GRANDMOTHER THAT HE WAS 1070 GOING AWAY FOR A WHILE. "MAYBE 1 "WILL SEE SOMETHING," HE SAID "OR MAY BE 1071 I WON'T. I'M GOING TO TRY, ANYWAY." SO WQODPECKEk WENT AWAY. ON 1072 THE WAY HE KILLED SUME SNAKES. HE SKINNED THE SNAKES. THEN HE STUCK 1073 THE SKIN UF ONE OF THE SNAKES ON THE BACK OF HIS DEER RIB BOW. HE ALSO FUT 1C74 SOME STRIPS OF SNAKE SKIN AROUNU HIS ARMS. HE PUT SOME OTHER STRIPS 1075 AROUND THE BUNDLES UF ARROWS THAT HE WAS CARRYING ON HIS SACK. 1076 AS HE WAS GOING ALONG HE SUDDENLY MET COYOTE. "HELLO, COMRADE!" 1C77 COYOTE GREETED HIM. "WHAT HAVE YOU GOT THAT YOO WILL TRADE WITH ME?" 1073 "I HAVEN'T ANYTHING TO TRADE," WOODPECKER ANSWERED. "WELL WHERE J \ i 1075 ARE YUU GOING?" COYOTE ASKED. "OH, I'M GOING WAY OFF SQMtWHfcRfc. \ 1080 I DON'T KNOW WHERE," WOODPECKER ANSWERED. " I ' L L TELL YOU WHAT I'LL DO," i 1081 COYOTE SAID: " I ' L L TRADE ARROWS WITH YOU." "OH, NO!" WOODPECKER .. _ 10 8 2 ANSWERED; "YOU COULDN'T HANDLE MY ARROWS." "OH YES, I CAN," SAID 1C83 COYOTE, "I CAN DU ANYTHING." SG WOODPECKER TRADED SOME OF HIS 10 84 ARROWS WITH COYOTE. HE GAVE HIM ONLY ARROWS WITH THE BANDS OF SNAKE 1085. SKIN AROUND THEM. CUYUTL TOOK THEM AND STARTED OFF. "I KNOW WHAT WILL J 103 6 HAPPEN," WOODPECKER SAID TO HIMSELF. "COYOTE IS GOING TU BE DEAD." j 1087 JUST THEN COYOTE STAGGERED AND FELL OVER THE C L I F F . A SNAKE HAD BIT HIM. _ . . i 1083 HE FELL TO "THE BOTTOM OF THE CLIFF AND DItO. 10 99 WOODPECKER WENT ON. AFTER A WHILE HE FOUND LOTS OF PEOPLE. THE PEOPLE i 1090 WERE GETTING READY FOR A WAR. THEY WERE GOING TO HAVE A WAR TO GtT FIRE. i 1051 FOX CAME ALONG. HE CAME ACROSS COYOTE. HE STEPPED OVfcR COYOTE. 1092 COYOTE GOT UP AND SAID, "WELL, I MUST HAVE BEEN ASLEEP." "HUH!" FOX ; 109 3 GRUNTED; "MAYBE NEXT T1 ME YOO'LL TACKLE SOMEONE ELSE." THEN COYOTE _ . _ _ ! 1094 'WENT OFF."" AFTER "A WHILE HE CAUGHT UP WITH WOODPECKER. HE REACHED THE 10 9 5 PLACE WHERE THE PEOPLE WERE SHOOTING AT THE SKY. ! 10 9 6 ALL OF THE PEOPLE SHOT AT THE SKY. NONE OF THEM COULD HIT IT. AFTER A i 1097 WHILE WOODPECKER STARTED TO SHUOT. COYOTE LAUGHED AT HIM, BUT HE 1058 KEPT ON SHOOTING. HE HAD A VERY LONG BOW. HIS ARROWS DID NOT FALL DOWN. 1099 HE HIT THE SKY. FINALLY THE ARROWS REACHED DOWN TO EARTH. FECES WENT 110C LP TU THE SKY COUNTRY FIRST. WHEN HE GOT THERE THE PEOPLE ALL LOOKED i 1101 AROUND AND ASKED, "WHAT SMELLS SO STRONGLY?" THE PEOPLE UP THERE HAD ! 1102 DOGS. THE DOGS SAW FECES, AND PRETTY SOON THEY HAD EATEN HIM ALL UP. : 110 3 THE PEOPLE DOWN BELOW WONDERED WHAT HAD HAPPENED. "FECES MUST i 1104 HAVE FOUND SOMETHING GOOD UP THERE," THEY SAID. "LET'S SEND BEAVER 110 5 UP TO SEE WHAT HAS HAPPENED." .. I 1106 SO BEAVER WENT UP TO THE SKY COUNTRY. WHEN HE GOT THERE, HE LAID DOWN 1107 AMD STRETCHED OUT. HE HELD HIS BREATH AS IF HE WERE DEAD. THE PEOPLE | 1108 FCUND HIM AND SAID, "WHAT IS THIS?" THEY PONCHED HIM, BUT HE DIDN'T 1109 MOVE. THEN THEY GOT A STICK, AND PUNCHcD AROUND. THEY PUKED IT INT3 1110 HIS ANUS, BUT S T I L L HE DIDN'T MOVE. "HE MUST Be DEAD," THE PEOPLE DECIDED. 1111 "LET'S SKIN HIM." SO 1 HEY BEGAN TO SKIN BEAVER. THEY STARTED UN HIS ...... _.. " " 1 1 1 2 BACK, AND SKINNED HIM UP TOWARDS THE HEAD. SOON THEY CAME TO HIS JAWS. 1113 BEAVER THOUGHT THAT ALL HOPE WAS GONE. THEN SUDDENLY HE JUMPED UP 1114 AND TURNED OVER. HE STILL HAD THE SKIN ON ONE OF HIS JAWS. THAT WAS THE 1115 JAW THAT HE TURNED DOWN. 1116 • ' JUST THEN THE PEOPLE SAW EAGLE FLYING OUTSIDE. THEY ALL RAN OUT AND 1117 FOLLOWED EAGLE. AS SOON AS THEY WERE GONE, BEAVER JUMPED UP. HE WAS " 1 1 1 8 " ' ""ALL RIGHT AGAIN." HE STARTED AWAY. AS HE PASSED BY THE FIREPLACE HE 1119 GRABBED A HANDFUL Or COALS. HE PUT SOME OF THEM UNDER HIS FINGERNAILS. 1120 HE HAD VERY LONG FINGERNAILS. THEN HE RAN DOWN TO THE CREEK. HE JUMPED 1121 IN AND WENT DOWN THE CREEK. HE PASSED FIVE BENDS. THE PEOPLE QUIT 1122 CHASING EAGLE AND WENT TO THE CREEK. IT WAS ALL MUDDY. "YES," THcY 1122 SAID, "BEAVcR HAS BEEN HER E." THEY FOLLOWED THE CREEK ALL THE WAY _ 1124 """"DOWN TO WHERE THEWATER BECAME CLEAR. BUT THEY FOUND NOTHING. 1125 ALL THE PEOPLE WENT UP TU THE SKY COUNTRY AFTER EAGLE. THE LAST UNE • 1126 TO GO UP WAS GRIZZLY BEAK. HE PULLED OOT THE ARROWS, SO THAT THE END 1127 OF THE CHAIN WAS LEFT A LONG WAY FROM THE GROUND. WHEN THE PEOPLE CAMe 1128 DOWN AGAIN, THEY HAD TO JUMP. FISH CAME DOWN. HE JUMPED, AND WHEN 1129 HE HIT THE GROUND ALL THE BONES OF HIS BODY WERE ORIVEN IHROOGH HIS FLESH. _, . . . 11 30 THAT IS WHY FISH NOW HAVE SO MANY BONES. 1131 THE PEOPLE BUILT A BIG FIRE. BEAVER SAID, "HERE IS FIRE," ANO TOOK IT v. 1132 FROM UNDER HIS FINGERNAILS. SO THE PEOPLE 801 LT A BIG FIRE. THE SKY PEOPLE • 1123 1134 113. 1136 1137 1136 1139 1140 1141 1142 11 43 1144 1145 I 146 1147 II 4S 1149 1150 1151 1152 11 53 1154.' 1155 11 56 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1163 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 11 83 1134 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 LOOKED DOWN THROUGH A HOLE IN THE SKY. "THERE IS OUR FIRE." THEY SAID, "DOWN IN THE OTHER COUNTRY. WHAT CAN WE DO NOW?" THE HEAD MAN SPOKE: '•»£• LL PUT GUT .1 HE IR FIRE. WE'LL PUT OUT ALL FIRE FOR GOUO. THE N NEITHER DF US WILL HAVE F I R E . " THE HEAD MAN SAID TO EVERYONE, "GO AHEAD. URINATE NOW FUR FIVE DAYS." BELOW THE PEOPLE KEPT PILING MORE AND MORE LUGS ON THE F I R E . THE  FIRE DIDN'T GO OUT. THE PEOPLE GAVE UP TRYING TO KEEP DRV BY THE FIRE. THEY BROUGHT CLOTHES. THEY MADE CLOTHES OF WILLOW BARK AND SAGE BRUSH BARK. THEY USED CLOTHES TO KEEP OFF THE RAIN. THEN THEY STORED AWAY THINGS, TO BE USED AT SUCH A TIME. THEY DID THIS SO THAT LATER ALL PEOPLE — HUMAN BEINGS — COULD USE CLOTHES FUR THEIR PROTECTION. SPG13 ARRUW CHAIN AND THEFT OF FIRE (THIRD VERSION) CHICKADEE WAS UN HIS WAY TU A BIG GATHERING WHERE PEOPLE WERE SHOOTING AT THfc SKY. HE WAS GOING WITH A BUW MADE OF RIB AND ARROWS WITH EAGLt FEATHERS UN THEM. WHILE HE WAS GOING ALONG. HE MET COYOTE. COYOTE ASKED, "WHERE ARE YOU GOING, CHICKADEE?" "OH, I'M GOING TO TH-"HUH! WHAT ARE YOU GO I NG PLACE WHERE PEOPLE ARE SHOOTING AT THE SKY." TO DO? WHY, EVEN I , I COULDN'T HIT THE SKY 1 LET ME SEE YOUR BOW." CHICKADEE SHOWED HIM THE BOW. "HJ HI " COYOTE SAID, "I HAD A GOOD BOW, A BIG LUNG ONE, BUT EVEN WITH THAT I DIDN'T REACH THE SKY. WHY, YOU COULDN'T EVEN HIT ME A HUNuRED PACES AWAY." CHICKADEE ASKED, "DO YOU WANT ME TO TRY IT?" "SURE," COYOTE ANSWERED. HE WALKED ABOUT FIFTY PACES AWAY, TURNED AROUND AND FACED CHICKADEE. BUT CHICKADEE TOLD HIM TU GU FARTHER". CUYOTE SAID HE WOULDN'T EVEN BE ABLE TU REACH HIM, BUT CHICKADEE INSISTED. SO COYOTE WEN X ABOUT FIFTY PACES. FARTHER, AND TURNED HIS SIDE TOWARD CHICKADEE. BUT CHICKADEE TOLD HIM TO GO STILL FARTHER. THIS CONTINUED FUR SO LUNG A TIME THAT COYOTE FORGOT ALL ABOUT CHICKADEE. HE KEPT GOING UNTiL HE REACHED A DRAW IN THE MOUNTAINS. THEN HE HEARD  A WHISTLING SOUND. COYOTE THOUGHT, "THAT SOUNDS JUST AS THE WIND USED TO WHEN IT BLEW UP THE GULLY. IT SURELY SOUNDS GUOU." THEN SUDDENLY HE WAS HIT BY AN ARROW WHICH WENT THROUGH THE MIDDLE UF HIS BODY, AND FE FELL DEAD. HE LAY THcRE. CHICKADEE KEPT GOING ALONG. COYOTE LAY THERE, OEAD. FUX CAME ALONG. HE SAW THE DEAD COYOTE AND THOUGHT. "COYOTE HAD BEEN BOASTING TP  CHICKADEE." FUX S1 EPPEJ "0 VtR ' CUYOTE AND HE CAME'TO L I F E . "HUH!" SAID CUYOTE, "I LAY DOWN HERE FOR A WHILE AND FELL ASLEEP." "YES," SAID FOX "YOU WERE FOULING WITH CHICKADEE." COYOTE WENT ALONG. HE CAME TO CHICKADEE. AGAIN. "HELLO, CHICKADEE," ' HE SAID. "SO I HAVE MET YOU AGAIN." COYOTE- HAD THE JNE ARROW THAT CHICKADEE HAD SHUT AT HIM. HE ASKED CHICKADEE TO GAMBLE, THROWING  ARROWS. "NO," CHICKADEE REPLIED; "THAT'S MY ARROW. 1 DON'T WAN\ TO WIN IT BACK. IT HAS YOUR ODOR UN I T . " CUYOTE ARGUED WITH CHICKADEE. FINALLY CUYOTE PERSUADED HIM TO GAMBLE. COYOTE THREW HIS ARROW FIRST. THEN CHiCKADEs TH3EW HIS BUT D i j N'T HIT IT. CHICKADEE WAS FROM THE KALISPEL CCUNTRY. HE WORE GOOD CLUTHES. CHICKADEE COULDN'T HIT COYOTE'S ARROW WITH ANY OF HIS. HE LUST ALL UF HIS ARROWS, HIS BOW * AND HIS CLUTHES TU COYOTE. CUYOTE PUT UN THE CLUTHES. TOOK THE dUw AND ARRUWS, ANO SAID, "NOW I'M GOING TU THE GATHERING PLACE. I'LL BE THE UNE WHO SUCCEEDS," AND STARTED AWAY. FOLLOWED BEHIND, CRYING. AFTER A WHILE COYOTE REACHED PRAIRIE CHICKEN'S HOUSE. THE OLD PEUPLE WERE AWAY, BUT THE TWU CHILDREN WERE OUTSIDE. _WHEN_THE CHILDREN SAW C H I C K A D E E C O Y O T E T H E Y R A N I N S I D E T H E H U U S E . C O Y U T E w£NT ON U P TO T H E H O U S E A N D W A L K E D I N . " W H E R E I S Y O U R F A T H E R ? " H E A S K E D . T H E C H I L D R E N O N L Y G R U N T E D . "wHERE I S Y O U R M O T H E R ? " T H E Y G R U N T E D A G A I N , T H E N H E A S K - D , "WHAT K I N D O F P E O P L E A R E Y O U , A N Y W A Y ? " H E S C R A P E D A H O L E ' l N T H E C U A L S O F T H E " F I R E , P U T T H E TWO C H I L D R E N I N A N D C O V E R E D T H E M U P . T H E N H E T O O K T H E M O U T A G A I N , C A R R I E D T H E M O U T S I D E A N D F A S T E N E D T H E M U P O N S T I C K S . O N E E N D J i i j I 1193 STUCK UNDER THEIR UPPER H P S , THE OTHER END THRUST INTO THE GROUND. AFTER 1194 THAT HE WENT ON. 1195 WHEN THE PARENTS WERE COMING HOME THEY SAW THE CHILDREN FROM FAR 1196 AWAY. "LOOK! THERE ARE OUR CHILDREN, WAITING FOR US." ONE OF THEM SAID. 1197 BUT WHEN THEY CAME CLOSER THEY SAW THE CHILDREN WERE DEAD. THEY BEGAN 1193 TO CRY. SOON CHICKADEE CAME ALONG. HE WAS CRYING. TOO. HE ASKED THE J 1199 O T H E R S W H A T T R O U B L E D T H E M . T H E Y T U L D H I M T H A T S O M E O N E H A D K I L L E D T H E I R 1200 C H I L D R E N . C H I C K A D L E S A I D I T M U S T H A V E B E E N C O Y O T E , W H O W A S A H E A D 12C1 O F H I M . T H E P A R E N T S B E G G E D C H I C K A D E E T U B R I N G T H E I R C H I L D R E N T O L I F E , A N D 1202 P R O M I S E D T U D U A N Y T H I N G F O R H I M I F H E W O U L D O N L Y 00 S O . " A L L R I G H T . " S A I D 1203 C H I C K A D E E ; " I F Y O U G E T M Y B O W S A N D A R R O W S A N O C L U T H E S B A C K F R O M C O Y O T E 1204 I ' L L B R I N G Y O U R C H I L D R E N T O L I F E . " P R A R I E C H I C K E N A N D H I S W I F E A G R E E D . A N D 1205 FLEW AWAY. CHICKADEE TUUK THE CHILDREN DUWN, STEPPED OVER THEM, AND 1206 THEY CAME TO L I F E . SUUN THE PRAIRIE CHICKENS CAUGHT UP WITH COYOTE, 1207 hHO WAS GOING ALONG, SINGING, NEAR THE EDGE OF A C L I F F . THEY FLEW A SHORT 1208 DISTANCE BEYOND HiM AND LAY OQWN NEAR THE CLIFF, ONE A L I T T L E NEARER THE 1209 EDGE THAN THE OTHER. WHEN COYOTE CAME NEAR THE FIRST CHICKEN FLEW UP 1210 IN FRONT OF HIS FACE , MAKING A LOUD NOISE BY FLAPPING HIS WINGS. CUYOTE 1211 JUMPED FRUM FRIGHT AND NEARLY FELL OVER THE CLIFF. THEN THE OTHER CHICKEN 1212 FLEW UP IN THE S A M C MANNER; CUYOTE JUMPED AGAIN, AND FELL OVER. BEFURE 1213 HE HAD FALLEN TU THE BUTTOM OF THE C L I F F , THE PRAIRIES CHICKENS HAD TAKEN 1214 " ' HIS CLUTHES AN b BO W AND ARROwS FRUM HIM. THEY FLEW BACK WITH THEM AND 1215 RETURNED THEM TO CHICKADEE. CHICKADEE PUT ON THE CLUTHES, TUOK HIS 1216 BUW AND ARROWS, AND LEFT. FINALLY HE REACHED THE MEETING PLACE. 1217 12 18 1219 122C 1221 1222 1223 1224 122 5 1226 1227 1228 FOX WAS GOING AROUND, AND DISCOVERED COYOTE AGAIN. HE STEPPED LIVER HIM AGAIN AND COYOTE UNCE MORE CAME TO L I F E . "HUH! I MUST HAVE FALLEN ASLEEP WHEN I LAY DOWN HERE," HE SAID TO FUX. "YES," FOX REPLIED, "YOU HAD BEEN MEDDLING WITH CHICKADEE AGAIN." COYOTE WENT TO THE GATHER i NG ALSO . cn cn EVERYBODY WAS SHOOTING, BUT NONE CUULD REACH THE SKY. THEY CALLED ON CHICKADEE. "WELL, I ' L L TRY," SAID CHICKADEE, " BUT I DON'T KNOW WHETHER I CAN SUCCEED UR NOT." HE "SHUT UNE ARROW. IT DID NOT FALL BACK. THEN HE SHOT ANOTHER AND ANOTHER, UNTIL ALL WERE GUN E. HE COULD NOW SEE THE END CF THE CHAIN. THEN OTHER PEOPLE SHUT AT THE END. NOW THEY HAD A WAY TO GET TO THE SKY. THEY WERE GOING TO GET FIRE. EVERYBODY CL H B t D UP TO THE SKY- WORLD BUT GRIZZLY BEAR. HE HAD TO CARRY ALONG A GREAT DEAL 1229 CF FOOD FOR HIMSELF SO EVERY TIME HE STARTED UP THE GREAT WEIGHT BROKE THE 1230 CHAIN. FINALLY HE COULD NO LONGER REACH THE CHAIN,SO HE HAD TU STAY UN 1231 EARTH. 1 2 32 THE PEOPLE' STAYED" UP IN THE SKY WURLD A WHILE, THEN THEY BECAME HUNGRY 1233 AND DECIDED TU RETURN TU EARTH. WHEN THEY REACHED THE BOTTOM UF THE 1234 CHAIN THEY COULDN'T GET DOWN. SO EACH ONE CHANGED HIMSELF INTO ONE 1235 THING OR ANOTHER, SUCH AS A STONE UR A PINE CUNE, AND DROPPED TU EARTH. 1236 COYOTE SAID, "PINE NEEDLE," AND BEGAN TO ORUP LIKE AN ARROW. "NO, NO 1237 NO, NO, NU," HE CRIED, "LEAF, LEAF, LEAF, LEAF." THEN HE FLOATED DOWN SLUWLY_ 1 2 3 8 " " A N D EASI LY.""""UNLY BEAVER. AND WUGDPECKEK AND COG AND FECES WERE LEFT 1239 IN THE SKY COUNTRY. BEAVER AND WOODPECKER WERE COMRADES ; DUG AND 1240 FECES WERE ALSO CUMRADES. THEY WERE ALL VERY HUNGRY. DUG SNIFFED AT  1241 HIS CUMRADE. THEN HE BEGAN TO LICK HIM. SOON THERE WAS NOTHING 1242 LEFT OF FECES. THEN DUG WENT DOWN BELOW. PEOPLE ASKED WHERE HIS 1243 COMRADE WAS. HE ANSWERED, " EATEN 1244 BEAVER AND HIS COMRADE DECIDED TO PLAN A WAY TO GET FIRE. BEAVER TULD 1245 WOODPECKER THAT HE WUULD GO UPSTREAM TO A POINT ABOVE THE SITE OF THE 1246 FISH TRAP, THEN FLUAT DUWN, DEAD. HE WOULD THEN FLOAT DUWN AND LAND IN 1247 THE TRAP. THE SKY PEUPLE WOULD TAKE HIM TO THEIR CAMP AND SKIN HIM. 1248 EEAVER TOLD WOODPECKER TO FLY DOWN NEAR THE CAMP JUST AS THE PEUPLE 1249 WERE SKINNING HIM. THE PEUPLE WOULD SEE WOODPECKER AND START AFTER 1250 HIM, BEAVER PLANNED. THcN, WHI LE THEY WERE AWAY, HE COULD ST EAL THE 1251 FIRE. AT THAT TIME wUUDPECKER WAS RED ALL OVER. HE WAS THE KING OF 1 252 SMALL BIRDS. BEAVER DID AS HAD BEEN PLANNED. HE WENT ABUVE THE FISH 1253 TRAP, THEN STARTED TQ FLOAT BACK, DEAD. HE LANDED IN THE FISH TRAP, WHERE 1254 THE PEOPLE LATER FOUND HIM. THEY CARRIED HIM r J CAMP, AND STARTED TO 1255 SKIN AND DRESS THE HIDE. WHILE HE WAS BEING SKINNED BEAVER ANXIOUSLY 1256 WAITEO FOR WOODPECKER TO COME, BUT IN VAIN. BEAVER THUUGHT HE WAS TO 1257 DIE FOR SURE. ALL THAT w AS LEFT OF HIS SKIN WAS A BIT ON ONE SIDE OF HIS HEAD. 12 5 8 JUST THEN WOODPECKER LIT CN THE TREE OUTSIDE AND CALLED. ALL THE PEOPLE 1259 RUSHED OUT AND BEGAN TU SHOOT AT WOODPECKER. BEAVER ROLLcO OVER INTO 1260 HIS SKIN AS S DON AS THEY HAD GONE, SNATCHED SOME FIRE, PUT IT UNDER HIS 1261 FINGERNAIL AND DIVED INTu THE WATER. THEN ALL THE FIRES IN ALL THE CAMPS 1262 " WERE PUT OUT WITH THE WATER. BEAVER FLOATED ON AND ON DOWNSTREAM 1 262 UNTIL HE REACHED HOME AGAIN. THE PEOPLE COULDN'T HIT WOODPECKER WITH 1264 THEIR ARROWS. He FLEW FROM TREE TO TREE, AND BACK AND FORTH, AND FINALLY 1265 HID BENEATH A BRUSH P I L E . 1266 MAGPIE WAS IN CAMP; HE NOTICED ALL THE FIRES GOING OUT. HE TOOK ONE 1267 EMBER AND PUT IT IN A SHELL. WHEN THE PEOPLE CAME BACK TJ CAMP THEY 1268 * SAW THAT ALL THE FIRES WERE UEAD; THEY WQNDEREO WHAT CUULD BE DONE TO 1269 CET FIRE AGAIN. THEN MAGPIE TOLO THEM THAT HE HAD SAVED AN EMBER. 1270 THAT EVENING AN OLD WOMAN WAS GATHERING WOOD. SHE HAPPENED TO PASS  ~1271 THE PLACE WHERE WOODPECKER WAS HIDING AND DISCOVERED HIM. SHE 1272 RETORNED AND TOLD ALL THOSE AT CAM? THAT SHE HAD FOUND HIM. A PARTY 1273 WENT OUT AND CAUGHT WOODPECKER AND BROUGHT HIM BACK TO THEIR CAMP. 1274 THE OLD WOMAN HAD A GRANDDAUGHTER. SHE WANTcQ WOODPECKER TO MARRY 1 2 7 5 HER GRANDDAUGHTER, SO THE TWO WERE MARRIED. THEN THE OLD WOMAN 1276 CECIDED THAT SHE WOULD SPOIL WOODPECKER'S GOOD LOOKS. WOODPECKER WAS T 2 7 7 SITTING AT THE BACK OF THE LODGE, JUST IN FRUNT OF A SMALL HOLE. THE OLD ! 1278 WOMAN BOILT A BIG FIRE OF PITCH WOOD. THE WIND CARRIED THE BLACK, SOOTY j _ 1279 SMOKE TO THE PLACE WHERE WOODPECKER WAS SITTING. SHE PUT MURE AND ......... ' 1280 MORE PITCH ON THE F IRE-, WUODPECKER WONDERED HUW HE COULD SAVE HIS y i 1281 BRIGHT FEATHERS, SO THAT HE WOULD BE REMEMBERED IN TIMES TO COME. HE C D 1282 PUT HIS HAND ON THE TOP OF HIS HEAD AND LEFT IT TIGHTLY THERE. THAT IS WHY : v. 1283 WOODPECKER NOW HAS A RED HEAD, WHILE ALL HIS OTHER FEATHERS ARE BLACK. 1284 1285 SP0i4 COYOTE KILLS DANGEROUS BEINGS 1286 COYOTE WAS GOING AROUND, KILLING ENEMIES OF THE PEOPLE. 1287 GRIZZLY BEAR HAD A CAMP OF HIS OWN. HE HAD A DOG. GRIZZLY BEAR 12 88 KILLED EVERYONE WHO CAME ALONG. HE HAD A BIG PILE UF 3UNE S BY HIS CAMP. 1289 CUYOTE CAME ALONG. HE TOLO GRIZZLY THAT HE W Aj A BET T ck MAN THAN 1290 He WAS. GRIZZLY BEAR KILLED .HIM, AND THREW HIS BONES INTO THE P I L E . FOX 1291 CAME ALONG. He SAW HIS FRIEND. HE STEPPED OVER COYOTE'S BUNES. COYOTE 1292 CAME TO LIFE AND SAID, "I LAY DOWN TO SLEEP." FOX SAID, "YES, YOU TRIED 1253 TO BE SMART; YOU TRIED TU KILL GRIZZLY BEAR. NOBODY HAS EVER KILLED HIM." 1254 CUYOTE WENT ALONG. HE DEFECATED. HIS FECES SAID, " I ' L L BE YOUR DOG T 2 9 l _ AND YOUR FLINT." ONE-EAR WAS THE DOG'S NAME. IT WAS A LITTLE DOG WITH 12Q6 ' CLAWS OF FLINT. CQ YQ Tc WENT BACK TO GRIZZLY BEAR. GRIZZLY BEAR CAME OUT 1257 AND GROWLED AT THE DOG. THE DOG BARKED. COYOTE TOLD GRIZZLY BcAR TO. 1298 WATCH OOT FOR HIMSELF. HE TOLD HIM ONE-EAR MIGHT TAKE HIM. GRIZZLY 1299 BEAR LAUGHED AND SAID, "1 COULD EAT HIM AND YOU TOO." COYOTE SAID. 1300 "LOOK OUT." GRIZZLY BEAK OPENED HIS MOUTH. COYOTE'S DOG JUMPED INTO 1301 HIS M0U1H. HE T Q K E OPEN GRIZZLY BEAK'S INSIOtS WITH HIS FLINT CLAWS AND 1302 HIS BACKBONE, AND CAME OUT HIS ANUS. GRIZZLY BEAR DIED. COYOTE SPOKE 1303 TQ GRIZZLY BEAR: "IN TIMES TO CUME YOU WILL NOT KILL EVERYONE WHO 13 04 COMES ALONG. ONLY ONC e IN A WHILE, WHEN PEOPLE LAUGH AT YOU, WILL YOU 130 5 KILL THEM." THAT WAS THE END OF GRIZZLY BEAR. 1306 COYOTE WENT ON. HE MET ICE. ICE WAS A CANCEROUS BEING. He KILLED 1307 ANYONE WHO CAME ALONG. HE FROZE EVERYONE. CUYOTE SAW A BOY. HE 1308 ASKED HIM HIS NAME. THE BUY ANSWERED, " IC ICLES-UN- THE-HE AD" I SA 7A XALI/LA UXi) N). 1309 COYOTE REPEATED IT, AND LAUGHED. CUYOTE ASKED THE BOY HIS 1310' ' FATHER'S NAME. " I C E-ON-T HE-HE AD" 1 S W IX W AI ANSTK I/N ! . COYOTE ASKED HIM 1311 HIS MOTHER'S NAME. " ICE-ON- THE-ORE SS ( SWI XWAI ANSTA/LKS) . THE BOY 1312 ANSWERED. "I KNOW THEM," COYOTE SAID, "THEY ARE MY RELATIVES." THEN 1313 H E WENT INTO THE LODGE. I N A SHORT TIME HE WAS FROZEN. ICE THREW HIM UUT 1314 FOX C A M E ALONG. H E STEPPED OVER COYOTE. COYOTE CAME T O L I F E . "1 MUST 1315 HAVE 3EEN ASLEEP," HE SAID. 1316 COYOTE WENT ALONG. H E DEFECATED. FECES SAID, "YOU ALWAYS MAKE 1317 TROUBLE." " B E QUIET," COYUTE SAID, " I'LL MAKE I T RAIN AND YOU'LL FALL T O 1313 PIECES." "NO I D O N ' T D U THAT. W E ' L L TELL Y O U WHAT T O DO. W E ' L L TURN T O  1319 PITCH; THEN YOU TAKE IT TU ICE'S LODGE. WHEN YOU GET THERE, LIGHT IT, AND 1320 ICE WILL MELT." COYUTE TOOK THE PITCH ANO WENT BACK T U ICE'S LODGE. H E 1321 MET ICE'S BOY. H E ASKED HIM THE SAME QUESTIONS THAT H E HAD BEFORE • 1322 THEN H E WENT INTO THE LODGE. H E GREETED ICE. "I KNEW YOU LIVcD HERE," 1 3 2 3 H E SAID, " B U T I NEVER HAD TIME T O COME AND CAMP WITH YOU." ICE THOUGHT, 1324 " A H A ! H E ' L L SOON B E FRUZEN." BUT CUYOTE T O O K THE PITCH, LIGHTED I T . AND 1325 PUT IT AROUNU THE ,KUUM. ICE T OLD HIM T O STOP. BUT CUYOTE SAID THAT H E WAS 1326 T O O COLD. ICE MELTED. COYOTE SPOKE: "IN TIMES T O COME. YOU WON'T FREEZE 1327 EVERYBODY. YOU'LL ONLY B E ABLE T O FREEZE A LONE HUNTER ONCE I N A WHILE." 1326 THAT WAS THE END UF ICE. 1 329 COYOTE WENT O N . THERE WAS ANOTHER DANGEROUS BEING. STEELHEAD TROUT 1330 IXUMI/NA7). SHE WAS A GREAT WRESTLER. SHE STOOD UN ICE AND WRESTLED. 1331 SHE THREW AND KILLED EVERYONE xHO CAME ALONG. CUYOTE CAME ALONG. 1332 H E WAS A GREAT FELLOW WITH THE WOMEN. H E JOKED AND TALKED WITH HER. 1333 SHE THOUGHT, " I ' L L KILL HIM." COYOTE ASKED, " C A N WE W R E S T L C TOGETHER?" 1334 "YES," SHE ANSWERED. COYOTE RUBBED AGAINST HER. ""THROW ME FIRST," 1 33 5 SHE SAID. " N U , YUU THROW ME FIRST," COYUTE ANSWERED. SHE THREW HIM 1336 A N D KILLED HIM. HIS H E A D HIT U N THE ICE WHEN H E FELL. S H E THREW H I M  1337 ASIDE. 1338 FOX CAME ALONG. H E STEPPED OVER COYOTE AND BROUGHT HIM T O LIFE 1339 AGAIN. " I ' V E BEEN ASLEEP," COYOTE SAID. "YES, Y O U ' V E BEEN WRESTLING 1340 " WITH STEELHEAD TRDUT," F U X ANSWERED. 1341 COYOTE DEFECATED. FECES SAID, " W E ' L L B E GOOD LOOKS AND SALMON GREASE. J_342 TAKE THE GREASE A N D PUT IT O N THE ICE. THEN YOUR F E E T WILL FREEZE RIGHT 1343 TO THE ICE. W E ' L L B E YOUR STRENGTH." COYUTE WENT BACK. STEELHEAD 1344 TRU'JT THOUGHT, " U N E MURE COYOTE I'LL K I L L . " COYUTE ASKED HER FOR A 1345 MATCH. " A L L RIGHT," SHE ANSWERED. COYOTE THREW THE GREASE A L L AROUND, 1346 AND H E FROZE TU THE ICE. "YOU THROW ME FIRST," COYOTE SAID. " A L L RIGHT." 1 347 SHE ANSWERED. BUT SHE COULDN'T MOVE HIM. THEN SHE SAID, "YOU THROW. 1348 ME." COYUTE THREW H E R . SHE FELL DOWN, WRIGGLING. AND SLIPPED THROUGH 1349 A HULE I N THE ICE. " " N O MURE," COYOTE SAID, "WILL YUU KILL PEOPLE. I N THE 1350 SPRING YOU'LL C O M E U P T H E RIVERS; INDIANS WILL CATCH YOJ, AND KILL YOU, 1351 AND YOU'LL SMELL LIKE ME, T O O . " THAT WAS THE END O F STEELHEAD TRUUT. 1352 "" COYUTE WENT U N . H E WAS GOING ALONG. H E MET A M A N . H E D I D N ' T 1353 KNOW HIM. THE MAN SAID, "HELLO, MY YOUNGER BROTHER." " N U , " COYUTE 13 54 SAID, "I'M WOT Y O U * YOUNGER BROTHER; I'M YUUR OLDER BROTHER." THEN THE 1355 TWO O F THEM ARGUED F U R A WHILE• FINALLY THE MAN SAID, "^UU MAKE THAT 1356 MOUNTAIN MOVE OVER THERE — THEN I'LL BELIEVE YOU." THE MAN GAVE 1357 COYOTE STRENGTH TU D U I T . CUYOTE MUVED THE MOUNTAIN. "NOW MUVE I T 13 58 " BACK," THE MAN SAID. CUYOTE MOVED I T BACK. "YUU S E E , " CUYOTE SAID, 1359 "1 CAN D U ANYTHING YUU ASK; I'M THE OLDER." THEN THE MAN SAID, "NOW 1360 MOVE THAT ISLAND UP THE RIVER." CUYOTE MOVED I T . " S E E . " COYUTE SAID, 1361 "I'M YOUR UL D E R BROTHER." "NOW MOVE" THE MOUNTAIN AGAIN." THE MAN 1362 SAID. COYOTt TRIED BUT H E COULDN'T. H E TRIED SEVERAL TIMES. THEN THE 1363 MAN TOLD HIM TU MOVE THE ISLAND BACK. COYUTE COULDN'T D U I T . THEN THE 1 3 6 4 N A N MUVED THE ISLAND BACK. HE'TAIO. " Y O U S E E , I'M THE OLDER. I'M GOD. * 1365 I'M THE RULER ON EARTH AND I N HEAVEN." COYOTE THOUGHT, "I'M TALKING 1366 T O A GREAT MAN." H E I PRE W HIS HORNS I N I .  1367 GOD SAID, "YOU B E THE SMART MAN HERE O N EARTH; YOU TAKE CARE OF 1366 THINGS HERE. I'LL B E THE SMART MAN I N HEAVEN; I'LL RULE THERE AND LOOK 1369 AFTER EVERYTHING." S O THEY DECIDED AT LAST THAT GOD WAS THE OLDER AND 1370 COYOTE WAS THE YOUNGER. 1371 1372 SPO 15 COYOTE KILLS A DANGEROUS BEING (FRAGMENT)  1373 COYOTE LOOKED AROUND AND SAW THAT THE WORLD WAS GETTING WORSE AND 1374 WORSE. "I DON'T KNOW WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN." HE THOUGHT. "UNLESS 1375 SOMETHING. IS DONE." THEN HE THOUGHT FOR A LONG TIME. AND FINALLY DECIDED 1376 TO ATTEMPT TO KILL A DANGEROUS BEING THAT HAD BEEN DOING A GREAT DEAL OF 1377 HARM, AND WAS K1LLI NG 'ANY THI NG AND EVERYTHING. HE STARTED UN THE 1378 JOURNEY AND TRAVELLED UNTIL HE CAME TO A PLACE NEAR WHERE THE BEING 137S LIVED. HE SAT DOWN THERE TO DECIDE AS TO HOW TO GO AHEAD. HE THOOGHT 1380 AND THOUGHT, BUT HE COULDN'T FIGURE WHAT TO DO. "1 AM ONLY UNE MAN," 1381 HE THOUGHT, "WHAT CAN I DO TO KILL THIS DANGEROUS BEING?" THEN HE 1382 ' ' REMEMBERED HIS FRIEND FOX. "MY! HOW I WISH FOX WOULD COME ALONG. 1363 SURELY HE COULD HELP ME. I CERTAINLY WiSH THAT I COULD SEE HIM. MAYBE 1384 IF I WISH ENOUGH Ht WILL COME. Ht HAS ALwAYS COME BEFORE WHEN I WISHED 1385 FOR A LONG TIMS." 1386 SO COYOTE SAT THERE, WISHING THAT FOX WOULD COME ALONG. A WHILE 1387 LATER HE LOOKED UP, AND SURE ENOUGH, THERE WAS FOX A L I T T L E WAY OFF. "OH, 1368 FOX, MY FRIEND," HE CALLED, "COME HERE! I NEED YOUR HELP." "ALL RIGHT," 1385 FOX ANSWERED, "YOU CO ML OVER HERE. I'M TOO BUSY TO GO OVER THERE." 1390 COYOTE WENT TO WHERE FOX WAS, ANO TOLD HIM HIS TROUBLES. BUT FOX 1391 GAVE HIM NO SYMPATHY OR ADVICE. HE SAID THAT HE WAS A FOUL. AND WOULD 1392 BE KILLED IF HE TRIED SUCH A THING. COYOTE KEPT AT HIM THOUGH AND FOX 1393 FINALLY GAVE IN, SAYING, "OH, ALL RIGHT. YOU DO AS I SAY." 1354"" ' <COVINGT0N STOPPED HERE, SAYING THAT HE CUULD REMEMBER NO MOKE OF THE MYTH.V" 1395 1396 SP016 CUYOTE AND THE BLIZZARD MAN 1357 IN THE OLD DAYS WINTERS WERE VERY LONG AND COLD. MANY PEOPLE 1398 DIED EACH WINTER FROM THE COLD. BLIZZARDS CAME WHICH LASTED FOR ONE OS 1359 TWO OR SOMETIMES THREE MONTHS. FOOD RAN OUT AND PEOPLE STARVED TO 1400 " DEATH AND FROZE TO DEATH. 1401 COYOTE KNEW OF THE B U Z Z A R D MAN AND HOW MUCH TRJU3LE HE BROUGHT 1402 EACH YEAR. HE THOUGHT TO Hi MS t LF, "HOW CAN THE WORLD EVER BE FILLED 1403 WITH PEOPLE, AS IT SHOULD BE SUME DAY, IF SO MANY ARE KILLED EVERY WINTER 1404 BY BLIZZARD?" HE KNEW THAT IF ANYONE COOLD THROW THE BLIZZARD MAN 1405 IN A WRESTLING MATCH, HIS POWER OVER THE COLD WOULD BE LOST, BUT OF 1406 ALL THOSE WHJ HAD TRIED NONE HAD EVER SUCCEEDED. MANY HAD FROZEN TU 14r>7 DEATH BEFORE THE FIGHT EVEN STARTED. NEVERTHELESS CUYOTE DETERMINED TO 1408 CHALLENGE HIM. "I CUULD AT LEAST TRY TO THROW HIM," HE THOUGHT. BEFORE 1405 STARTING FOR THE PLACE WHERE BLIZZARD LIVED HE ASKED FuX FUR ADVICE. FOX 1410 TOLD HIM NOT TO GO FUR Ht WOULD SURELY BE KILLED. BUT WHEN CUYOTE 1411 INSISTED He AGREED TO HELP HIM. HE TOOK MUSCLES FROM HIS ARMS AND LEGS 1412 AND GAVE THEM TQ COYOTE. "THESE WILL MAKE YOUR ARMS STRONG." HE SAID. 1413 THEN Ht TUL D COYOTE TO BE SURE TO THINK OF HIM WHEN HE WAS WRESTLING,-1414 AND THAT WOULD HELP. "ALSO," HE ADDED, "WHEN YOU GET THtKE REACH UP 1415 YOOR ANUS ANU PULL OUT YOUR INTESTINES AND CUT OFF A PIECE ABOUT A FOOT ; [• 1416 LONG. TIE UP ONE END OF IT AND BLOW IT UP. THEN FILL IT WITH WATER AN0 !-.| 14!7 _ HEAT IT OVER THE F I R E . AFTER IT IS HOT TIE UP THE OTHER END AND POT IT UNDER _ _ _ _ * ' ' ; 1418" "'YOUR SHIRT. THEN WHEN THE FIGHT STARTS PULL IT O U T , UNTIE ONE END A N D " """" ' ~ " " """ " " " " " " " " " " " ' j 1415 THROW THE HOT WATER ALL AROUND. THAT WILL MELT THE SLICK ICE WHICH IS i 1420 EVERYWHERE UP THERE, AND YOU WILL BE ABLE TQ GET A FOOTING." ; | 1421 THEN COYOTE TRAVELLED TO THE 3LIZZAKD MAN'S HOUSE AMD CHALLENGED HIM 1422 TO A WRESTLING MATCH. HE FOLLOWED ALL OF THE DIRECTIONS THAT FOX HAD j 1423 ___ GIVEN HIM. JUST AS THEY WtRE ABUUT TO START WRESTLING CUYUTE PULLED THE ! 1424 " H O T WATER FROM UNDER HIS SHIRT AND THREW IT AROUND. THE B L I Z Z A R D MAN " " " 1425 BEGAN TO STEAM AND LOOKED VERY DISCOURAGED. BUT HE HAD ACCEPTED THE 1426 CHALLENGE AND COULDN'T BACK OUT THEN. THEY BEGAN TO WRESTLE 3 UT COYOTE  1427 SOON THREW HIM t A S l L Y WITH THE HELP OF FOX'S MUSCLES. I 1428 THEN COYOTE MADE A SPEECH TO THE PEOPLE WHO WERE STANDING ARCUND. 1429 HE SAID: "THERE, YUU SEE. IS YUUR FRIEND BLIZZARD. THERE HE IS. LYING ON _ 1430 THE GROUND MELTING. HE THOUGHT THAT NU ONE COULD THROW HIM BUT I DID.' " "" " ~ • "' 1431 I AM NOT A BIG CHIEF, BUT I AM A LITTLE CHIEF. AND I AM GOING TO RID THE 143 2 WORLD OF ALL MEN LIKE HIM. HE NEVER THOUGHT OF OTHER PEOPLE. HE WAS 1433 STRONG AND THOUGHT HE CUULON'T BE BEATEN, SO HE WENT OUT EVERY WINTER 1434 AND STAYED FUR A LONG TIME. HE MADE MANY PEUPLE DIE FROM THE COLD BUT 1435 HE DIDN'T CARE. SOME DAY THERE IS GOING TO BE A CHANGE IN THE WORLD. IT 1436 WILL BE A NEW WORLD. THEN THERE WILL BE MANY , MANY PEUPLE UN EARTH, 1437 NUT JUST A FEW HERE AND THERE. I DUN'T KNOW WHEN THAT TIME WILL BE, BUT 14 3 S IT WILL CUME SOME TIME. NO ONE KNOWS BUT THE CHIEF IN THE SKY, AND HE 1439 DOESN'T DARE TELL ANYONE. BUT IF MEN LIKE YOUR FRIEND BLIZZARD WERE LET 1440 LIVE, WHAT WUULD B ECU ME OF ALL THE PEOPLE? I CAN SAY THIS MUCH FOR HIM: 1441 EACH WINTER IT WILL BE COLD FOR A FEW MONTHS — NOT VERY COLD. BUT THERE 1442 ' WILL BE SNOW UN THE GROUND. SOMETIMES THERE WILL BE WHAT PEOPLE CALL 1443 A BLIZZARD. BUT IT WILL NOT LAST MURE THAN ONE OR TWO UR THREE DAYS AT THE 1444 MOST. AND NEVER AGAIN WILL PEOPLE FREEZE TO DEATH EACH WINTER AS THEY  1445 1446 1447 1446 1449 14 50 H A V E D O N E I N T H E P A S T ." S P U 1 7 _ C O Y O T E A N D T H E W O M A N W R E S T L E R coYOT'E""HEARD" O F A W O M A N W R E S T L E R T H A T NO" O N E HAD" E V E R B E E N A B L E T U T H R O W . " T H A T ' S Q U E E R , " H E T H O U G H T . " I H A V E N E V E R K N O W N OF A WOMAN T H A T C O U L D N ' T B E B E A T E N B Y A M A N . " T H E N H E D E C I D E D T H A T H E W O U L D 1451 CHALLENGE HER. HE WAS SURE THAT HE COULD THRUW HER. HE STARTED FOR THE 1452 PLACE WHERE SHE LIVED WHICH WAS UN THE COLUMBIA RIVER A L I T T L E BELOW 1453 EN TI A T. _ 0N_ THE _WA Y HE MET FOX AND TOLD HIM OF HIS PLANS. 1454 "DON'T""oE FOOLISH," FOX SAID TO .HIM. "YUU CAN'NEVER BEAT THAT 1455 WOMAN." "YES, I CAN," COYOTE ANSWERED. "I'M GOING TO TRY IT." FOX 1456. STILL TRIED TO PERSUADE HIM NOT TU GU BUT COYOTE 1NSI STEP. "OH. ALL RIGHT , 1457 THEN," SAID FUX, "BUT FIRST YOU GU TO THAT P I L E UF RUCKS GVtR THERE." HE 1458 POINTED TU A SPOT NEARBY. "THERE YUU Wi LL FI NU A PUT UF BLACK STUFF THAT 1459 I PUT THERE ESPECIALLY FUR YUU. TAKE THAT WITH YOU AND YUU WILL BE ABLE TO 1460 THROW HER. BEFORE YUU MEET HER PUT DUWN THE POT AND COVER IT UP WITH 1461 YOUR SHIRT. THEN JUST AS YUU ARE GETTING READY TO.WRESTLE WITH HER SAY, 1462 IOH! WAIT A MINUTE,I AND RUSH OVER AND GET THE POT AND THROW THE STUFF to LO 1463 ALL AROUND YDU AND THRUW THE PUT DUWN TUO. THEN GO AHEAD AND WRESTLE 1464 AND YOU WILL BEAT HER." THEN FUX WENT ON. 1465 • CUYUTE WENT OVER TU THE ROCK PILE AND FOUND THE PUT. IT WAS FULL UF 1466 A BLACK, OILY SUBSTANCE. HE TOOK IT AND WENT ON UP THE RIVER AND MET THE" 1*67 WOMAN WRESTLER, DU I NG JUST AS FOX HAD TOLD HIM. WHENEVER THIS WOMAN 1468 WAS CHALLENGED, No MATTER WHETHER IT WAS WINTER UR SUMMER. THE RIVER  1469 WOULD FREEZE UVER JUS T AT THAT PLACE WITH A VERY SLICK SHEET UF ICE. THEN 1470 SHE WUULD ALWAYS BE ABLE TO THROW HER OPPONENT BECAUSE SHE COULD STAND 1471 UP UN THE ICE, BUT NO UNE ELSE COULD. BUT WHEN SHE GOT READY TO WRESTLE 14 72 " WITH CD-YOTE HE THREW THE OILY STUFF ALL AROUND, AND WAS ABLE TU STAND 1473 UP EASILY BUT THE WOMAN SLIPPED AND HE THREW HER. THEN CUYUTE SAID 1474 TO HER, "FROM THIS DAY UN NO WOMAN WILL EVER BE ABLE TO BEAT A MAN." 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 14S0 NOWADAYS, WHEN TRAVELLERS ARE GUI NG DOWN THE COLUMBIA RIVER IN CANUES OR BOATS, THEY ALWAYS KNOW WHEN THEY ARE AT THE PLACE WHERE THE WRESTLING MATCH OCCURRED, BECAUSE ALTHOUGH THERE ARE NU RAPIDS AND THE WATER SEEMS PERFECTLY SMOOTH AND CALM AHEAD, THE WATERS ALWAYS BOIL UP AND TURN OVER THE SUA T JUST AS IT REACHES THAT SPOT. 1481 SP018 CHIPMUNK, COYOTE, AND THE DANGEROUS BEINGS, OWL SISTERS 1482 CHIPMUNK WAS LIVING WITH HER GRANDMOTHER, SNOW SHOE RABBIT. HER 14S3 GRANDMOTHER TOLD HER TU GU OUT AND PICK SOME BERR'lES. THE GIRL DIDN'T _ 1 4 8 4 " W A N T TO. SHE SAID THAT OWL ISP A L A ) WOULD GET HER. HER GRANDMUTHER 1485 SAID THAT OWLS DIDN'T COME OUT IN THE DAYTIME, AND NUT TU BE AFRAID. 1486 CHIPMUNK WENT UU T. SHE CLIMBED ON TOP OF A BUSH AMD CR I ED OUT,  1487 "MY BERRIES ARE RIPE, MY BERRIES ARE RIPE," UVER AND OVER. UWL HEARD HER 1488 AND THOUGHT, " I ' L L GET HER; CHILDREN ARE GOOD TO EAT." SHE CAME TO THE • 1489 BUSH WHERE CHIPMUNK WAS. OWL ASKED CHIPMUNK TO COME UN DOWN, 3UT 1490 CHIPMUNK SAID, "NU, I WON'T CUME DUWN FUR ANY OWL."" "I'M NUT OWL;"" 1491 I'M YOUR GRANDMUTHER." "NO, YOU AREN'T. MY GRANDMOTHER ISN'T AS 1492 UGLY AS THAT," CHIPMUNK SAID. "YES, I'M YOUR GRANDMOTHER. COME ON I ! i ' 1493 COVIN," OWL SAID. "ALL RIGHT. IF YOU WILL DIG A HOLE A NJ GET IN IT A NO COVER 1 1454 YOUR HEAD WITH YOUR BASKET, I'LL COME UUWN, " CHIPMUNK ANSWERED. UWL 1495 DID SO, BUT EVERY TIME CHIPMUNK STARTED DOWN, OWL RAISED THE BASKET f~ 1496 OVER UNE EYE SO THAT SHE COULD SEE HER. CHIPMUNK ALWAYS CAUGHT HER, 1497 AND WOULDN'T CUME DOWN. EACH TIME OWL PROMISED NOT TO LOOK, BUT SHE 1458 ALWAYS DID. FINALLY- CHIPMUNK WENT DOWN SLOWLY AND JUMPED TO THE , j C S 1499 GROUND. SHE RAN OVER WHtRE UWL WAS. SHE RAN RIGHT OVER UWL' S BACK, ^ 1500 MAKING A NOISE LIKE A CHIPMUNK. UWL HEARD HER AND JUMPED UP AND j 1501 TRIED TO GRAB HER, BUT ONLY SCRATCHED HER SACK, MAKING THE MARKS THAT . _ . _ . . 1502 '" CHIPMUNK HAS TODAY. ' 1 1503 CHIPMUNK RAN HOME AND TOLD HER GRANDMOTHER TU HIDE HEK. SMOWSHOE I 150 4 FTP HER IN A BASKET, BUT CHIPMUNK WAS SO SCARED THAT SHE KEPT RUNNING ; '" 1505 AROUND AROUND AND MAKING NOISE; SHE WAS SO SCARtD. THEN HER GRANDMOTHER ; 1506 PUT HER UNDER A PILLUW, BUT SHE STILL MADE NOISE. OUTSIDE MEADOW ! 1507 LARK HEARD HER CRYING AND TOLD SNDWSHOE TO POT CHIPMUNK IN A CLAM SHELL. _ j T 1508 SHE DID SO, AND HEARD NO MORE NOISE. THEN SNOW SHOE GAVE MEADOW LARK ' i 15C5 A BLACK NECKLACE IN PAYMENT. THAT IS WHY MEADOW LARK HAS A BLACK RING \ 15J10 AROUND ITS NECK. j f ' 1511 SOON OWL CAME TO THE HJUSE. "WHERE IS THAT LITTLE GIRL?" SHE ASKED. j 1512 "I HAVEN'T SEEN ANY L I T T L E GIRL COME BY HERE," SNOWSHOE ANSWERED. "OH, ! 1513 YES, SHE DID. HER TRACKS LEAD RIGHT UP HERE. IF YCU DON'T BRING HER OUT _ _ j C 1 5 1 4 I ' L L EAT YUU," OWL SAID. THEN MEADUW LARK CAME ALU.NG ANU TOLD OWL THAT * ~ j 1515 CHIPMUNK WAS INSIDE A CLAM SHELL. SNOWS HUE WAS SCARED, AND HAD TO j 1516 BRING CHlPflUNK OUT. SHE ASKED OWL NOT TO BREAK UP ANY UF CHIPMUNK'S ' C 1517 JOINTS, BUT JUST TO EAT THE MEAT. OWL DID SQ, AND GAVE THE BONES BACK. 1 1518 "WHY DO YOU WANT THESE?"- OWL ASKED. "OH, WHEN I'M LONESOME FOR 1515 _ MY GRANDDAUGHTER, I'LL TAKE THEM OUT AND LOOK AT THEM." THEN OWL j ~ 1 5 2 0 NOTICED THAT SNOW SHOE HAD WHITE HANDS. "HOW WHITE YOUR HANDS ARE: ' j 1521 IS YOUR WHOLE BODY THAT WAY? HOW DID YOU GET SU WHITE?" OWL ASKED. ! 1522 "WELL, I'LL TELL YOU," SNOWSHOE SAID. "I PUT PITCH ALL UVER SOME HOT ROCKS. £| .' 1523 THEN MY GRANDDAUGHTER AND I DANCED AROUND THE FIRE AND AFTER A WHILE O 1524 MY GRANDDAUGHTER PUSHED M E OVER ONTO THE ROCKS. 1 TURNED OVER AND UVER j 1525 AND ALL MY BLACK SKIN PEELED OFF AMD LEFT M E WHITE." "I'D LIKE TO DO THAT," * ' ! C 1526 OWL SAID, "LET'S DO I T . " "ALL RIGHT, IF YOU'LL GAT hER THE PITCH," SNOWSHOE - - - . . . . 1527 SAID. OWL GATHERED PITCH. WHILE SHE WAS GONE SNOWSHOE GOT HEK GRANDDAUGHTER | 1 528 ' AND STEPPED OVER HER AND SHE CAME TQ L I F E . THEN THEY DUG A I (.".' 1525 HOLE I.M THE GROUND AND PI LED ROCKS IN IT. THEY BUILT A FIRE OVER T He ROCKS. * j 1530 CHIPMUNK WENT OUT AND GUI TWO FORKED STICKS AND HID THEM NEAR THE I 1531 FIRE. THEN SHE WENT BACK AND HID. SNOWSHOE STAYED BY THE F I R E . _ . | C 1532 OWL RETURNED WITH A BASKET FULL OF PITCH. SHE PUT IT UVtR THE ROCKS. " " I 1533 THE PITCH STARTED TO BURN. SNOWSHOE SAID, "WE'LL DANCE NOW." THEY I 1534 CAN CEP AND SANG AROUND THE F I R E . SNOWSHOE SAID. "WE'LL DANCE AROUND : J _ 1 5 3 5 THREE TIMES. THEN I'LL PUSH YOU IN." "ALL RIGHT." OwL ANSWcRED. THE THIRD I 1536 TIME AKJUND SNOWSHOE PUSHED HER IN. THEN. SHE CALLED CHIPMUNK. EACH j 1 5 3 7 _ OF THEM TOOK A STICK AND HELD OWL .OWN BY THE NECK AND BY THE FEET. OWL _ _ f C 1 5 3 8 ' ' " C R I E D THAT S H E WANTED TO TURN OVER, BUT THEY WOULDN'T LET HER. SHE BURNED " " " "'"" "* " ~ ! 1539 TO DEATH. THEY COVERED HER OP WITH DIRT AND WENT BACK TO THE LODGE. | 1540 SNOWSHOE AND CHIPMUNK WENT TU BED THAT NIGHT. ABOUT MIDNIGHT ONE J /_ 1541 OF OWL'S EYES POPPED. IT MADE A NOISE LIKE A SHOT. THEN 1 HEY HEARD I ~ 1542 HOOTING, LIKE AN OWL. SNOwSHQE SAID; "IN TIMES TO COME YQO WILL HOOT AT j 1543 NIGHT, AND PEOPLE WILL TELL THEIR CHILDREN THAT YOU WILL COME AND GET THEM _ | C 1544 IN YOUR BASKET, BUT YOU WUN' T GG ARUUNU KILLING PEOPLE. YOU WILL BE JUST " j 1545 A COMMON OWL ISNINAI." 1 1546 THE NEXT MORNING SNOWSHOE AND HER GRANDDAUGHTER LEFT CAMP. ! 1547 COYOTE CAME AND MOVED IN. ABOUT THE MIDDLE OF THE DAY THREE SISTERS I 1 54 8 (OWLS), CAME ALONG. ALL OF THEM LAUGHED WHEN THEY SAW THE GKAVE. "OUR j 1545 SISTER HAS LEFT SUME TH I NG FOR US TO EAT." THEY DUG UP THE GRAVE AND STARTED _ I (_ 1550 TO EAT, BUT THE YOUNGEST SISTER WOULDN'T EAT. HER'SISTERS TOLD HER TO EAT, 1551 BUT SHE WOULDN'T. SHE KNEW ALL ABOOT IT, BUT SHE WOULDN'T SAY ANYTHING. L 1552 THE OTHER TWO STARTED TU EAT. AFTER A WHILE THEY FOUND TATTOOING MARKS J -_ I 1553 CN THE WRISTS AND KNEW THAT THEY WERE EATING THEIR OWN SISTER. THAT 1554 MADE THEM ANGRY. THEY STARTED TO FIND OUT WHO HAD KILLED HER. THEY 15 55 TRACKED THEM TO THEIR LODGE. OWLS RUSHED IN TO KILL WHOEVER WAS THERE. 1556 COYOTE SAW THEM AND TURNED HIMSELF INTO A GRANITE ROCK BESIDE THE FIRE. 1557 OWLS SAW NO ONE; BUT THEY STARTED TO BITE THE ROCK. "GO AHEAD, BITE ME, 1558 BUT YOUR MOUTH WILL BE FULL OF MAGGUTS," CUYOTE SAID. OWL LOOKED AWAY. 1555 WHEN SHE LOOKED BACK THE RUCK WAS G U N E . THEN OWL SAw A BOW BETWEEN THE 156C MATS AND POLES UF THE LUUGE • SHE STARTED TO BITE IT, BUT IT FLEW RIGHT OUT THE 1561 TOP OF THE LUDGE, AND AWAY. OWLS CHASED IT FOR A WHILE AND THEN GAVE UP. 1562 ' " OWLS WERE THIRSTY FROM EATING MEAT. SO THEY WENT DOWN TO THE RIVER 1563 TO DRINK. CUYOTE WAS WATCHING THEM. W H E N THE SECOND OLDEST OWL 1564 DRANK, HER TEETH ALL FELL OUT. THEY TURNED INTO M U D HENS AND FLUATED 1565 AWAY. THEN UWLS WERE STILL MORE ANGRY. THEY CHASED CUYOTE ALL OVER 1566 THE COUNTRY TU TRY TU GET HIM AND KILL HIM. COYUTE GUT TIRED. HE DEFECATED. 1567 FECES SAID, "I'LL BE A LUNG HUUSE AND MANY PEOPLE DANCING INSIDE. A LOT 1566 OF FINE Pl'TCri WOOD WILL BE STUCK BETWEEN THE LODGE PULES AND THE MATS, AND 1569 ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE MATS. YOU STAY OUTSIDE ANO WATCH FOR OWLS TO 1570 COME. WHEN THEY GET HcRB TELL THEM ALL TO LOOSEN THEIR BRAIDS AND LET THEIR 1571 HAIR HANG UVER THEIR EYES. TELL THEM TO DANCE WITH THEIR HEADS DUWN AN D 1572 NOT TO LOOK UP. IF THEY FEEL HOT AND BURNING AROUND THEIR NECKS 1573 TELL THEM. TO PAY NU ATTENTION TU IT. IT WILL BE A GUU D LOOKING 'MAN SPITTING 1574 " O N Tri 11 R _ NECK S i ASK THEM TO JUST KEEP THEIR HEADS DOWN ANO DANCE." 1575 WHEN THEY WENT IN AND STARTED TU DANCE CUYOTE LIT ALL THE PITCH AND 1576 THE LODGE STARTED TO BURN. THE YO JN GE ST SISTER WOULDN'T GU IN. SHE KNEW 1577 ALL ABOUT IT. ONLY THE OTHER TWO WENT IN. WHEN THE FIRE WAS BURNING THE 1578 YOUNGEST SISTER CRIED OUT, BUT THEY WERE DANCINb INSIDE AND COULDN'T 1579 HEAR HER. COYOTE SAID, "YOU MAKE TOO MUCH NOISE. LET ME KISS YOU 1580 BEFORE YOU' CRY AGAIN." SHE LET HIM KISS HER. HE BIT OFF HER TONGUE. "THIS 1561 MADE HER ANGRY AND SHE STARTED TO CHASE HIM. THEY RAN FOR A LONG TIME. 1562 FINALLY COYOTE WAS ALL TIRED OUT. -HE RAN INTU A GOPHER HOLE. OWL SAT i CD 1583 DUWN AT THE TOP OF THE HOLE. THEY STAYED THERE FOR A LUNG, LUNG TIME. 1584 COYOTE GUT VERY HUNGRY. HE wOULD TAKE OUT HIS TESTES AND SUCK 1585 CN IT FOR A WHILE, THEN PUT IT BACK. HE CREPT UP AND LOOKED OUT ONCE IN 1 566 ' A WHILE, BUT OWL WAS STILL THERE. HE THUUGHT HE WUULD STARVE. HE 1587 CEFECATEO. FECES SAID, "I.WILL BE A CAMP WITH MANY PEUPLE. IN THE 1583 EVENING THE SPUKESMA.M WILL GO AROUND AND TELL THE PEOPLE THAT NEXT 1589 NCRNING CAMP WILL BE MUVED. IN THE MORNING THEY WILL TAKE DUWN THE 1590 LODGE PULES. THE PULES WILL MAKE A LUUD NUISE WHEN THEY HIT THE GROUND. 1591 THE PEOPLE WILL PADDLE ACROSS THE RIVER, AND THE PADDLES WILL MAKE A LUUD 1 592 NOISE. ON 'THE' OTHER SIDE, WHEN THEY LAND, THE DUGS WILL START BARKING AND" 1593 FUWLING." 1594 "WELL," OWL SAID, "THERE MUST BE ALOT OF PEOPLE DUWN THERE; COYOTE 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 MUST BE HAVING A GOOD TIME." SO SHE LEFT. COYOTE CAME UUT. HE LOOKED AROUND AND SAW THAT UWL WAS GONE. HE STARTED EATING GRASSHOPPERS. . SP019 " CO Vu i E INTRODUCES SALMON ~' ON THE SANPOIL RIVER, A L I T T L E WAY ABOVE THE COLUMBIA, AN OLD MAN AND AN OLD WUMAN LIVED. THE ULD WOMAN WAS SO STOOPED THAT SHE COULD 1601 ALMOST WALK AROUND UN HER KNEES AND ELBOWS WITHOUT BENDING UVER. THE 16C2 OLD MAN WAS CRIPPLED, TUU, BUT HE CUULD HOBBLE ARUUND A L I T T L E BETTER THAN 1603 HIS WIFE. THE OLD PEOPLE HAD A GRANDCHILD THAT LIVED WITH THEM. SHE 1604 " " WAS A VERY GOOD LUCKING GIRL. " 1605 ONE DAY COYOTE CAME ALONG AND SAW THE ULD COUPLE AND THE GIRL. HE 160 6 DECIDED THEN AND THERE THAT HE WANTED THE GIRL FOR HIS WIFE. BUT HE WAS 1607 AFRAID TO ASK THE ULD PEOPLE FOR HER, FOR FEAR THEY WOULD SAY NO. IT WAS 1608 EARLY IN THc MORNING, SO HE DECIDED TO WAIT AROUND UNTIL EVENING AND THEN 1609 ASK THEM. HE SAT ARUUND AND LAY ARUUND ALL DAY LONG. THE ULD MAN AND 161C WOMAN WATCHED HIM. THEY SAW THAT" HIS HAIR WAS LUNG AND BRAIDED ALL THE 1611 WAY DOWN AND THAT HIS F ORE LUCKS WERE CAREFULLY COMBED BACK AND THAT THE 1612 FEW STRANDS OF HAIR IN FRUNT OF HIS EARS WERE COVERED WITH BEADS. THEY f 1613 N O T I C E D TOO T H A T H E WAS T A L L A N D S T R O N G . T H E O L D P E O P L E T A L K E D ABU'JT H I M 1614 TU E A C H O T H E R A N D D E C I D E D T H A T H E M U S T S E A C H I E F OF S O M E K I N D . 1615 ALL D A Y C O Y U T E S T A Y E D T H E R E A N D S A I D N O T H I N G . L A T E I N T H E A F T E K N U O M 1616 H E D E C I D E D TU S P E A K T U T H E O L D M A N . " O L D M A N , " , - H E S A I D , " W H A T I S T H A T 1617 T H I N G D O W N j,M T H E S T R E A M A W A Y ? " " W H Y , T H A T ' S A F I S H T R A P , " T H E O L D M A N I 1618 A N S W E R E D . " A F I S H T R A P ? WHAT I S T H A T ? WHAT DU Y U U OU W I T H IT?" . , f 1619 C O Y O T E A S K E D A S IF H E D I D N ' T K N O W . "UH, I C A T C H A F E W B U L L - H E A D S A N D ' . 1620 S U N - F I S H O N C E IN A W H I L E , " T H E C L 0 M A N A N S W E R E D . C U Y O T E S T I L L P R E T E N D E D : 1621 I G N O R A N C E . " I S T H A T WHAT YOU E A T , T H E N ? I DON'T K N O W T H A T I E V E R H E A R D . j 1622 " O F T H E M ; A R E T H E Y B I G E N O U G H TU E A T ? " "OH, T H E Y ' R E N O T M U C H , B U T WHAT ] 1623 E L S E C A N WE D U ? T H A T ' S A L L WE C A N G E T TO E A T , " T H E O L D M A N S A I D . " O H ! j 1624 S A I D C O Y U T E , A C T I N G S U R P R I S E D . " W E L L , " H E ADDED:, "I G U E S S I ' LL GO U P ON ; ! 1625 T H E H I L L A W H I L E . " IT WAS T H E N A B O U T AN H U U R B E F O R E S U N S E T . j 1626 C O Y U T E W E N T UP O N T H E H I L L N E A R B Y . H E SAW S O M E G R O U S E IN A T R E E . H E , 1627 P I C K E D U P A R U C K A N D T H R E W IT AT T H E M A N D K I L L E D F I V E . H E P I C K E D T H E M _ ' 1626" " U P A N D C A R R I E D T H E M D U W N TO W H E R E H E H A D L E F T T H E O L D COUPLE. " W E L L , " " " ' "" "" " j 1629 L E T ' S E A T , " C O Y O T E S A I D , SHOWING T H E M T H E G R O U S E . " W H A T A R E THOSE ?" ! 1630 A S K E D T H E O L D M A N . H E H A D N E V E R S E E N A N Y G R O U S E B E F O R E . " T H O S E A R E , i 1631 G R O U S E , " S A I D C U Y O T E . "I H A P P E N E D TU B E V E R Y L U C X Y W H I L E I * A S U P UN | 1632 T H E H I L L J U S T NOW A N D I K I L L E D T H E S E W I T H A R O C K . " T H E O L D P E O P L E W E R E | 1633 V E R Y M U C H S U R P R I S E D , B U T T H E Y T O U K OFF T H E F E A T H E R S A N D C U U K E D T H E _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ! 1634 "" G R O U S E . W H E N T H E V W E R E D U N E E V E R Y O N E ATE. I T WAS A R E A L F E A S T F U R T H E " " * " " " ~ " " ! 1635 C L D M A N A N D W O M A N . T H E Y W E R E U S E D TO H A V I N G O N L Y T H E 1=000 T H A T T H E I R i 1636 L I T T L E T R A P W O U L D B R I N G T H E M . " I S T H I S T H E K I N D UF F3 OP T H A T YUU E A T A.L OF : • 1637 T H E T I M E ? " T H E Y A S K E D .CU YU TE . "UH.NO," H E A N S W E R E D . " S O M E T I M E S j 1 6 3 8 I K I L L A F E W G K O U S E , B U T O T H E R T I M E S I E A T B E R R I E S U R R U U T S O R I C A T C H S O M E ! 1639 F I S H A N O E A T T H E M ; NUT L I T T L E F I S H , B U T G R E A T B I G R E A L F I S H , L U N G E R T H A N Y O U R '. 1640 ' " A R M . " Trie U L D P E U P L E ' S E Y E S O P E N E D W I D E A T T H I S . • -- - - . J O , 1641 A W H I L E L A T E R C O Y O T E S A I D , " W E L L , I'LL T E L L Y O U . A P E R S O N S H O U L D N ' T K E E P (O 1642 H I S F E E L I N G S TU H I M S E L F . I F ; YOU W A N T M E , I'LL S T U P H E R E A N D S T A Y W I T H YUO | 1 643 A S L O N G A S YUU L I K E ; BUT I F Y O U DON'T W A N T M E , I'LL GU U N . 1 C A N L E A V E I 1644 TONIGHT I F YUU W I S H . " " W H Y , WHAT D O Y C U M E A N ? " T H E Y A S K E D . " W E L L , i 1645 I ' L L T E L L Y O U , " C O Y O T E A N S W E R E D . "I W A N T Y O U R G R A N D D A U G H T E R F U R M Y _ j 1646 W I F E . " T H E U L D M A M AND ri O M A N L O O K E D A T E A C H OTHER B U T D I D NUT S A Y "' " ". ' j 1647 ANYTHING. C U Y U T E C O U L D T E L L W H A T T H E Y WERE T H I N K I N G T H O U G H , A N D H E j 1646 C E C I O E D T O G U A W A Y F O R A W H I L E A N D L E T T H E M T A L K I T O V E R . H E W E N T A i 1649 L I T T L E WAY O F F A N U W A I T E D . W H I L E H E WAS G O N E T H E O L D M A N S A I D , " W I F E , "j 1650 WHAT D U Y O U T H I N K G F T H I S F E L L O W ? Y O U SAW W H A T H E D I D A L I T T L E W H I L E A G U . ! 1651 I N A F E W M I N U T E S H E W E N T O U T A N D G D T F O O D F O R A G O O D M E A L . M A Y B E I F j 1652 WE L E T H I M M A R R Y O U R D A U G H T E R H E ' L L S T A Y H E R E A N U WE'LL H A V E G O O D FOOD T O ; 1653 E A T . Y O U H E A R D H I M T A L K A B O U T T H O S E B I G F I S H . A N Y W A Y , O U R D A U G H T E R j 16jj_4 W I L L S O O N S E G E T T I N G M A R R I E D T O S O M E O N E . SnE M I G H T G E T S U M E O N E WHO I 1655 W O U L D B E N O G O O D . A N U T H I S M A N S E E M S TO B E A P R E T T Y G O O D F E L L O W . " 1656 " W E L L , H U S B A N D , " A N S W E R E D H I S W I F E , " I ' L L L E A V E I T E N T I R E L Y U P T U Y O U . " 1657 S O O N C U Y O T E R E T U R N E D . H E D E C I O E O NUT T U S A Y A N Y T H I N G T H I S T I M E , B U T _ 1658'"" "TO' LET' THE U L D M A N START " THE CONVERSATION." SUME LITTLE T I M E P A S S E D ~ '" " - - - - - - --1659 B E F U R E T H E O L D M A N S P U K E . H E H A D H I S P I P E I N H I S H A N D S . "HOW I W I S H \ 1660 I H A D A S M O K E ! " H E S A I D . " M Y T O B A C C O R A N O U T Q U I T E A W H I L E B A C K . " " U H . " ; '. 1661 S A I D C O Y O T E . " Y O U WANT A S M O K E ? H E R E ! " H E R E A C H E D I M T U H I S P O C K E T MO i 1662 DREW O U T A B I G B U N C H UF T O B A C C O A N D H A N D E D I T TU T H E M A N . I T nAS R E A L ; 1 6 6 3 T O B A C C O ; N O T T H E M I X T U R E O F G R A S S A N D W E E D S T H A T T H E U L D M A N H A D B E E N _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ' 1664 " U S E D TO S M U K I N G . T H E O L D M A N TOOK IT A N D F I L L E D H I S P I P E , V E R Y M U C H " " ™ " " j 1 665 S U R P R I S E D T H A T C U Y U T E S H U U L D H A V E SO M U C H R E A L T O B A C C O . ' -I 1666' S D U N T H E O L D M A N S P U K E UP. " S A Y , YUU W E R E T A L K I N G U V E R A P R O P U S I T I U N | 1667 A L I T T L E W H I L E A G U . W E L L , MY W I F E A N D I H A V E T A L K E D I T U V E R A N D S H E H A S L E F T | 1668 IT D P TO M E . I H A V E D E C I D E D T O L E T Y U U H A V E O U R D A U G H T E R . WE DON'T 1669 WANT Y O U J U S T T O S T A Y W I T H H E R F U R A FEW D A Y S A N D T H E N GU O N , T H O U G H . 1670 ' '" WE W A N T Y O U TO M A R R Y H E R A N D L I V E H E R E ; UR I F Y UU "GO AW A Y , WE W A N T Y U U " j 1671 T O T A K E H E R W I T H Y U U . HuW A R E WE G O I N G T U KNOW T H A T Y O U W I L L DO T H I S ? " I, 1672 " O H , Y O U N E E D N ' T WORRY A B O U T T H A T , " S A I D C O Y U T E . "I'M T I R E D O F T R A V E L L I N G J 1673 I WANT TU SETTLE DUwN. I'LL STAY HERE FUR THE REST UF MY LIFE IF YOU WISH. 1674 AND 1 REALLY WANT TO MARRY THE GIRL. WHY, JUST A FEW DAYS .AGO I TRIED 1675 THREE OR FOUR TIMES TO GET A WIFE DOWN IN THE LOWER COUNTRY, BUT NONE UF 16 76 THEM WOULD MARRY ME. IF THEY HAD, 1 WOULD BE DOWN THERE NOW, AND 1677 YOU NEVER WOULD HAVE SEEN ME." CUYOTE HAD TO BE VERY CAREFUL WITH THE J A l i WAY HE TALKED BECAUSE HE HAD A CU EE R VOICE. IF HE HADN'T CHANGED IT 1679 THEY WOULD HAVE KNOWN THAT HE WAS COYOTE. BUT THE OLD PEOPLE WERE 163(1 SATISFIED NOW AND COYOTE TOOK THEIR GRANDDAUGHTER FOR HIS WIFE. 1681 COYOTE STAYED WITH HIS WIFE THAT EVENING, MAKING LUVE TO HER. BOT 1682 LATE IN THE EVENING HE SAID TO HER, "I'M GOING OUT FOR A FEW MINUTES; WHEN 1683 I COME BACK WE'LL GO TQ BED." "ALL RIGHT," SHE ANSWERED, AND COYOTE 1684 WENT OUT. HE WENT UJmM THE STREAM TO WHERE THE OLD MAN HAD HIS TRAP. 1685 IN A L I T T L E wHILE HE MADt I T OVER IN THE FORM OF A BASKET TRAP, PILING UP 1686 ROWS O F ROCKS TO GUIDE T H E FISH INTO IT. WHEN HE H A D F i NI SHED HE CALLED 1687 • O U T , "SALMON, 1 WANT T W U O F Y O U TO B E IN THIS TRAP IN T H E MORNING, O N E 1688 M A L E AND GNc " F E M A L t . " T H E N H E WENT" S A C K . 1685 T H E NEXT HORNING COYUTfc ASKED T H E O L D MAN WHAT TIME HE WENT DOWN 1650 TO T H E TRAP. "I USUALLY GO DOWN ABOUT T H E MIDDLE OF T H E MORNING; 1651 SOMETIMES I FIND ONE OR TWO L I T T L E FISH THEN," HE ANSWERED. A LITTLE LATER. 1652 JUST AFTER SUN-UP, CUYOTE TOLD THE OLD MAN THAT HE THOUGHT HE SHOULD GO 1693 DOWN AND LOOK _ AT THE TRAP TO SEE IF ANY FISH WERE IN i T. "THERE WON'T BE 1654 ANY TH I S E ARL YV"T HE OLD MAN ANSWERED. "WELL. I THINK THAT YD U HAD 1695 BETTER GU AND SEE, ANYWAY; I HEARD SOMETHING DURING THE NIGHT AND I 1656 THINK IT WAS SOME FI Sri IN THE TRAP," COYOTE SAID. SU THE OLD MAN WENT 1697 DOWN TO THE TRAP. IT WAS A LITTLE WAY OFF SHORE. BUT FROM THE BANK HE COULD 1656 SEE SOMETHING EiG MOVING AROUND IN THE TRAP. HE' TOOK OFF HIS MOCCASINS 1699 AND WADED IN. SURE ENUJGH, THERE WERE TWO BIG SALMON IN THE TRAP. WHEN 170C THE OLD MAN SAW THEM HE BECAME SO EXCITED THAT HE HARDLY KNEW WHAT TO 17C1 DO. HE FLOUNDERED UUT OF THE WATER AND STUMBLED UP THE TRAIL TUWARDS 17 02. WHERE HE HAD LEFT COYOTE. HE HOBBLED ALONG, HIS BODY ALL BENT OVER, AND 17C3 STUMBLED FRUM UNE SIDE OF THE PATH TO THE OTHER IN HIS EXCITEMENT. WHEN 1704 FE REACHED COYOTE HE CRIED, "SAY, THERE ARE TWU GREAT BIG FISH IN THE TRAP 1 705 — BIGGER THAN I HAVE EVER SEEN." "WHAT?" EXCLAIMED COYOTE. "YOU 17C6 MUST HAVE SOMETHING IN YOUR EYES; YUU MUST BE DREAMING." "HO," THE 1707 OLD MAN INSISTED, "MY EYES ARE CLEAR." HE RUBBED THEM AND SAIO, "YOU 1708 HAD BETTER COME DOWN AND SEE." 1709 "~ COYOTE WENT DOWN WITH HIM. WHEN THEY REACHED THE TRAP COYOTE 1710 LOOKED IN AND SAIO, "SuRE ENOUGH, YOU'RE RIGHT. THESE ARE SALMON, THE 1711 CHIEF OF THE FISH. WE'LL TAKE THEM OVER TQ THAT FLAT PLACE THiHiz AND I'LL 1712 "" ' SHOW YOU WHAT TU DO TO THEM." WHEN THEY REACHED THE OPEN FIELD HE SENT 1713 THE OLD MAN UP THE HILL TO GATHER SUNFLOWER STEMS AND LEAVES • "THOSE 1714 ARE THE SALMON PLANTS," HE SAID; "SALMON MUST ALWAYS BE LA lU UNLY ON  1715 SUNFLOWER STcMS AND LEAVES." THE OLD MAN BROUGHT BACK THE SUNFLOWERS 1716 AND SPREAD THEM OUT ON THE GROUND: THEN THEY PUT THE SALMON DOWN QN 1717 _ THEM. THEN COYOTE SHOWED HIM HCW TQ PREPARE THE FISH.. FIRST HE 1718 SHOWED HIM HUw TO PUT A STICK IN THE MOUTH AND THEN BEND IT BACK ANU* ' 1719 • BREAK OFF THE HEAD. NEXT HE SHOWED HIM HQW TO MAKE LONG SHARP POLES 172C TO STICK IN THE SALMON FUR HOLDING IT OVER THE FIRE AND ROAST ING.  1721 COYOTE SAIO, "NOW, RcritMBER THIS: FOR THE FIRST WEEK GO DOWN TO 17 22 • THE TRAP AND TAKE OUT T H E SALMON, BUT WHEN YOU ARE FIXING UNE TO COOK, 1723 NEVER USE A KNIFE TO CUT IT IN ANY WAY. ALWAYS COOK THE FISH OVER THE FIRE 1724 CN STICKS, THE WAY' I HAVE SHOWED YOU; NEVER BOIL IT. THEN, AFTER IT IS 1725 ROASTED, OPEN IT CAREFULLY AND TAKE OUT THE BACKBONE WITHOUT BREAKING IT. 1726. ALSO SAVE THE SACK PART OF THE HEAD; NEVER EAT THAT. IF YOU DO NOT DO  1727 THESE THINGS AS I HAVE SAID, EITHER A BIG STORM WILL COME UP AND IT WILL 1723 RAIN UNTIL YOU ARE DROWNED, OR YOO WILL BE BITTEN BY A RATTLESNAKE. ONE 1725 CF THESE THINGS WILL BE SURE TO HAPPEN TO YOU. AFTER YOU HAVE TAKEN THE 1730 BACK BONE AND THE BACK UF THE HEAD, WRAP THEM UP CAREFULLY IN TULES' AND 1731 PUT THEM UP SOMEWHERE IN A TREE OR SOME PLACE WHERE THEY CAN'T BE 1732 BOTHERED. IF YOO DU AS I SAY YOU WILL ALWAYS HAVE SALMON IN YOUR TRAP. 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 I'M TELLING YUU THESE THINGS BECAUSE I AM GOING TO DIE SUME TIME AND I WANT YUU TU KNOW WHAT TU DO. AFTER THIS MEN WILL ALWAYS PLACE TRAPS UP AND DUWN THE RIVER TU CATCH SALMUN; THE MAN WHO HAS THE FIRST TRAP IN THE RIVER WILL BE CHIEF AND YOU SHOULD ALWAYS DO ANYTHING THAT HE TELLS YOU TO DO. AFTER THE FIRST WEEK YUU CAN 8UIL YUUR SALMON OR COOK IT ANY WAY YOU WISH, BUT ALWAYS TAKE CARE OF THE BONES; NEVER LEAVE T HEM WHERE 1739 174C 1741 1742 1743 1744 1745 1746 1747 1748 1749 1750 THEY CAN BE STEPPED UN UR OVER." FOR THE NEXT FEW DAYS EACH TIME THE OLD MAN WENT DOWN TU THE TRAP IN THE MORNING HE FOUND TWICE AS MANY SALMON AS UN THE DAY 3EFURE. COYOTE SHOWED HIM HOW TU DRY THEM AND PREPARE THEM FOR USE IN THE WINTER. BEFORE LONG A LARGE SCAFFOLD WAS COVERED WITH THE DRYING SALMON. THE PEUPLE 'ROUND ABOUT SAW THE FI SH AND NOTICED HUw WELL THE OLD MAN AND WOMAN WERE DOING. THEY WENT HUME AND TOLD THE OTHER PEUPLE ABOUT THE BIG RED FISH AND THE TALL Y CU NG STRANGER WHO WAS STAYING WITH THE OLD PEOPLE. SOON A-BUNCH UF THEM WENT TO SEE FUR THEMSELVES. THE OLD MAN AND WOMAN INVITED T HEM IN AND GAVE THEM A FEAST. THEN THEY TULD THEM HOW THEY GOT THE FISH. • 1751 1 752 17 53 1754 1755 1756 SPD20 N A M T U / S B R I N G S C A M A S N A M T U / S W A S A K A L I S P E L G I R L . S H E H E A R D T H A T T H E R E W A S N U C A M A S G R O W I N G I N T H E O K A N U G A N C O U N T R Y S O S H E D E C I D E D T O T A K E S U M E T H E R E A N D P L A N T I T . S H E D U G S U M E C A M A S R U O T S A N D P U T T H E M I N A B A S K E T . T H E N S H E A N D H E R G R A N D M O T H E K T R A V E L L E D T O O K A N O G A N . T H E R E T H E Y C L I M B E D A L A R G E H I L L W H E R E N A M T U / S D E C I D E D T U P L A N T H E R C A M A S . W H E N T H E Y R E A C H E D 1757 THE TOP NAMTU/S SAW A SPRING A LITTLE WAY OFF. SHE TULD HER GRANDMOTHER 1758 THAT SHE vsA S GOING TU GET A DRINK. THERE WAS A POOL AT THE SPRING AMD SHE 1759 LUOKED DUWN AND SAW HER REFLECTION. SHE WAS DUSTY AND DIRTY FRUM THE . .. 176C ' TRIP SU SHE WASHEO HERSELF AND COMBED HER HAIR. WHEN SHE LUUKED UP SHE 1761 SAW TWO YOUNG MEN LOOKING AT HER. SHE WAS ASHAMED AND SAT DUWN AGAIN. 1762 THE MEN BEGAN TU UUARREL UVER WHICH ONE SHOULD HAVE. HER. !-P--17 63 NAMTU/S LOUKEO UVER AT THE OPPOSITE HILL AND SAW COYUTE LUUK ING AT 1764 THEM. WHILE CUYOTE LUOKED ON THE MEN FUUGHT OVER HER. OURiNG THE 1765 FIGHT ONE OF THE MEN, NAMED ILME/XUM, HIT THE OTHER, TCUPA/KXA, A 1766 SLANTING WHACK ON EACH SHOULDER AND HE TURNED INTO A WEDGE SHAPED HILL. 1767 THE HILL IS STILL I HER E IN THAT SAME SHAPE. THIS MADE TCUPA/KXA SU ANGRY 1768 THAT HE HIT ILME/XUM SO HARD THAT HE DROVE HIM RIGHT DOWN INTO THE  T7T9 GROUND AND FLATTENED HIM OUT. THAT IS WHY THE TUP OF THE HILL IS FLAT MOW. 1770 THEN CUYUTE SPUKE AND TOLD NAMTU/S THAT SHE HAD BETTER NUT TRY TO 17 71 GET UP. THEN HE LAUGHED. HE WANTED HER FOR HIMSELF. HE HAD BEEN 1772 JEALOUS UF THE TWU YOUNG MEN AND THAT IS wHY THEY HAD TURNED TO HILLS. 1773 BUT SOON NAMTU/S SAID TU HER GRANDMUTHER THAT SHE DID NOT LIKE THAT 1774 PLACE AND THAT SHE WAS GU I NG BACK HUME AND TAKE HER CAMAS W ITH HER.  1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1730 HER GRANDMOTHER SAID THAI SHE MUST NUT, FOR SHE WANTED HcR TU GU ON UP THE OKANOGAN RIVER AND FIND A HUSBANU. THE GIRL AGREED AND STARTED TU GET UP BUT SHE COULDN'T MOVE. SHE HAD TURNED TU STONE, THE STONE IS STILL THERE IU THIS DAY , SHAPED JUST AS SHE WAS SITTING. THAT IS WHY THERE HAS NEVER 8E_N ANY CAMAS GRUW1NG IN THE OKANOGAN COUNTRY. 1781 SP021 COYOTE'S DAUGHTER 1782 CDYOTE STARTED FROM ASIORIA TO TRAVEL UP THE COLUMBIA RIVER. WHEN 1783 HE REACHED THE DALLES HE MADE A GREAT FALLS IN THE RIVER. THEN Ht SAW A 1764 GROUP OF GIRLS NEAR THE RIVER BANK. THEY WERE GOOD LOOKING AND HE 1785 PICKED OUT UNE THAT HE LIKED. HE DECIDED THAT HE WOULD LIKE TC MARRY HET-1786 SO HE ASKED HER MOTHER IF HE MIGHT HAVE HER FOR HIS WIFE. THE MOTHER 1787 1788 1789 1790 ' 1791 1792 LOOKED AT COYOTE AND SAW THAT HE HAD A LONG NOSE ANO SLANTING EYES WHICH MADE HIM VERY UGLY. SHE TOLD HIM THAT HE COULD NOT HAVE HER DAUGHTER. THEN COYOTE SAID, " I F YOU LET ME MARRY_YOUR DAUGHTER I'LL _ LEAVE THE FALLS HERE SO THAT THE SALMON CAN GO NO FARTHER UP RIVER. ALSO, I'LL TELL THE CHIEF OF THE SEA TO SEND UP FISHES SUCH AS YOU HAVE NEVER SEEN BEFORE." THE MOTHER STILL REFUSED BUT AT THIS THE GIRL'S FATHER SPOKE ' " I i r-17<53 UP, S A V I N G THAT C O Y O T E SEEMED TO HIM TQ BE A GOOD FELLOW AND ASKED HIS 1794 WIFE TO LET HIM HAVE THEIR OAUGHTER FOR HIS WIFE. BUT SHE WAS STUBBURN 1755 LIKE ALL WOMEN AND REFUSED. SHE SAID SHE DIDN'T BELIEVE WHAT HE SAID 1796 ANYWAY. AT THIS COYOTE THREW UP HIS ARMS AND THE FALLS FLEW ALL TQ 1797 PIECES. RUCKS FLEW EVERYWHERE AND LEFT ONLY A RAPIDS. 1798 COYOTE WENT QN UP THE RIVER. HE MADE SEVERAL FALLS ON THE WAY, BUT 1799 THE SAME THING ALWAYS HAP P EN ED. HE WOULD BE REFUSED A WIFE AND THEN 180C HE WOULD DESTROY THE FALLS. FINALLY HE. REACHED THE PLACE WHERE KETTLE • 1801 FALLS'NOW STANDS. HE MADE A FALLS HERE BUT WAS REFUSED AGAIN, WHEN HE 1802 ASKED FOR A* WIFE. THIS TIME WHEN HE BROKE UP THE FALLS A HUGE BOULDER 1803 ROLLED OUT INTO THE MIDDLE OF THE RIVER, MAKING A FALLS ON EACH SIDE. THEN 1804 COYUTE CRIED OUT, "DAUGHTER, OH DAJGHTER! DON'T FACE UPSTREAM; FACE 1805 CUWNSTKcAM!" THE BIG ROC K TURNED COMPLETELY AROUND. THE PART ABOVE 1806 WATER ON THE SIDE FACING DOWNSTREAM HAD A LARGE UVAL SHAPED CREVICE IN IT, 1807 SEVERAL FEET ABOVE THE SURFACE. "FROM NOW ON," COYUTE CONTINUED, 18C8 "WHENEVER THE SALMON COME UPSTREAM TO SPAWN THEY WILL JUMP INTO YOUR 1309 VAGINA WHEN THEY TRY TO GET ABOVE THE FALLS." 1810 THAT IS THE CASE. EVERY SUMMER BIG SALMON JUMP MANY FEET IN THE AIR 1311 18! 2 1813 1314 181 5 1816 AND INTO THE CRACK IN THE ' RUCK IN TRYING TO GET OVER THE FALLS. SPC22 _ _ COYOTE MARRIES HIS DAUGHTER THE DOVE ~S I S T E R S ' w£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tST SISTER SLEPT WITH 1824 HIM. DORING THE NIGHT COYOTE CHANGED HIMSELF INTO A MAN. BEFORE 1325 MORNING HE TURNED HIMSELF INTO A BABY AGAIN. THE GIRL SAID NOTHING 10 1826 HER SISTERS. HE WAS A BABY AGAIN. THE SISTERS TIED HIM UP AND WENT AWAY 1827 TO OIG WILD CARROTS. DURING THE DAY COYOTE WENT TO THE FISH TRAP AND 1828 STARTED TO BREAK IT UP. BEFORE NIGHT HE WENT BACK AGAIN. THE SECOND 1329 NIGHT THE SECOND OLDEST SISTER SLEPT WITH HIM. THE SAME THING HAPPENED AS 1 830 , THE NIGHT BEFORE. THE YOUNGEST SiSTER KNEW ALL A300T WHAT WAS HAPPENING. 1331 SHE WOULDN'T SLEEP WITH COYOTE WHEN HER TURN CAME. SO COYOTE SLEPT 183 2 " ALONE. THE NEXT DAY THE DOVES CAME BACK BEFORE COYOTE DID. THEY 1833 STARTED TO LOOK FOR HIM. THEY FOUND HIM AT THE FISH TRAP. ALL THE DOVES 1334 PEAT COYOTE A*l THE HEAD WITH STICKS, BUT HE HAD PUT A HORN CAP ON HIS 183 5 HEAD AND IT DIDN'T HURT HIM. COYUTE KEPT ON BREAKING UP THE TRAP. HE 1836 LET ALL OF THE FISH THROUGH. "IN TIMES TO COME," COYOTE SAID, "WOMEN 1837 WILL NOT BUILD FISH TRAPS; MEN WILL." 1338 " COYOTE WENT ON UP THE RIVER. HE WAS HUNGRY. HE WISHED 1 HAT A " ' " 1839 SALMON WOULU JUMP OUT OF THE WATER. ONE JUMPED OUT, BUT THE RUCKS 1840 WERE SLICK AND CUYUTE COULDN'T HOLD IT. HE WENT FARTHER UP THE RIVER. HE 1841 CAMt TO A SA-JO BANK. HE WISHED THAT A SALMON WOULD JUMP UUT AGAIN. 1842 HE GUT IT THAT TIME. CUYOTE STARTED TO COOK THE SALMUN. FUX CAME ALONG. 1843 HE SAIO TO COYOTE, "YOU'RE A CHIEF; YOOR ANCESTORS WERE CHIEFS. YOU 1844 "' SHOOLDN'T COOK. LET' ME DO I T . Y O U GO LIE DOWN .AND I'LL COOK THE 1845 SALMON ANU CALL YOU WHEN IT'S READY." CUYOTE WENT TU SLEEP. FUX COOKED 1846 THE SALMUN AND ATE IT. HE RUBBED COYOTE'S HANDS AND MOUTH WITH THE 1847 SALMON SKIN ANU MADE THEM STICKY. THEN HE LEFT. COYOTE K U K E UP. HE 1348 WONDERED WHAT HAD HAP Pt Nc D. HIS HANDS WERE STICKY BUT HE WAS STILL 1849 HUNGRY. He LOOKED AROUND FOR FOX, THEN STARTED OUT TO FIND HIM. COYOTE 1850 FOUND FOX AND TWO BIRDS ASLEEP ON A HILL. THEY HAD BEEN GATHERING EGGS 1851 AT THE LAKE. THEY WERE ROASTING THEM IN THE GROUND. COYOTE DUG THE 1852 EGGS UP. AND ATE THEM. THEN HE RUBBED SOME OF THE YOLK ON THE MOOTHS I I ! ! I f \ 1653 1854 1855 1856 1 857 1858 AND HANDS OF FOX AND THE BIRDS. AFTER THAT HE l-JENT AWAY • HE WENT UP THE RIVER. FOX WOKE UP. HE WAS STILL HUNGRY. COYOTE CAME TO OKANOGAN. HE BUILT A DAM THERE. HE WAS GUING UP THE RIVER TO GET A WIFE. HE COULDN ' T GET A WIFE AT OKANOGAN, SO HE TORE OUT THE DAH. THEN HE WENT TO THE SANPOIL RIVER. HE WENT TU HELLGATE. HE BUILT A DAM. Trie" SAME THING HAPPENED AS A T OKANOGAN. THEN COYOTE ! r 1859 WENT TO KETTLE FALLS. HE BUILT THE DAM THAT IS STILL THERE. HE GOT A WIFE 1 360 THERE. HE MARRIED GOPHER. THEY HAD A DAUGHTER. CJYJTE WANTED TO ! i 1861 MARRY THEIR DAUGHTER. SO HE GOT SICK. HE TOLD HIS WIFE THAT A FRIEND OF 1 i 1862 HIS WAS COMING FROM KOTENAI TO VISIT HIM, AND THAT SHE SHOULD LET HIS 1863 FRIEND MARRY THEIR DAUGHTER. COYOTE TOLD HIS WIFE THAT WHEN HE DIED HE 1664 WANTED HER TO TAKE HIM TO A NEARBY VACANT LODGE AND LEAVE HIM THERE j 18 65 WITH FOOD: 31 TTERROOT, CAMAS, AND SERVICE BERRIES. HE TOLD HER THAT I F SHE 186 6 HEARD FOOD BOILING I N THE LODGE, OR I F SHE SAW SMOKE COMING OUT, IT wUJLD 1 1 867 BE CAUSED BY HIS GHOST. HE ASKED HER NOT TO GO TO THE LODGE AND BOTHER 1S68 HIM. COYOTE DIED. HIS WIFE TOOK HIM TO THE EMPTY LODGE. SHE LEFT FOOD 1 1369 FOR HIM. A L I T T L E LATE* THEIR DAUGHTER SAW SMOKE COMING FROM THE LODGE. ! 1870 SHE TOLD HER MOTHER. HER MOTHER SAID THAT IT MUST BE HER FATHER. 1871 COYOTE WENT UP THE R I V E R . HE DEFECATED. HIS FECES SAID THEY WOULD i j 18 72 BE GOOD LOOKS, LONG HAIR, CLOTHES, PROPERTY, BUCKSKIN, FURS, AND SC FORTH. ' i 1873 COYOTE THOUGHT HE WOULD MAKE A REAL SHOW FOR A L I T T L E WHILE. HE DRESSED _ 1874 ALL UP. THEN Ht WENT DOWN THE RIVER AS A KUTENAI INDIAN. Ht REACHED ~ " ! : 1875- THE CAMP WHfcftE HE LIVED. MOUSE WAS HIS INTERPRETER. SHE WAS THE ONLY ONE 1876 WHO COULD TALK KUTENAI. MOUSE SAID TO HIM, "YOU HAVE A I END HERE: 18 77 COYOTE. HE E X P t C l t D YUU TO COME. HE IS ALREADY DEAD, BUT YOU ARE TO 1878 MARRY HIS DAUGHTER." COYOTE WENT TO THE LODGE WHERE HIS DAUGHTER WAS. 1875 HE MARRIED THE GIRL. HE SLEPT WITH HER THAT NIGHT. THE NEXT MORNING SHE 1880 FOUND COYOTE HAIRS ON HER LEGS. SHE BEGAN•TO BE SUSPICIOUS. 1881 TWO BROTHERS, PRAIRIE CHICKENS, KNEW WHAT HAD HAPPENED. THEY 1882 PLANNED A DANCE. THEY DANCED A LONE F ROM ONE LODGE TO ANOTHER. THEY 1383 WENT IN, DANCED AROUND THE FIRE, AND DANCED OUT AGAIN. THE DANCE WAS 1884 CALLED ST'A/XWA. THtY WERE GUING TO TELL ABOUT COYOTE. THAT IS WHY THEY 1885 DANCED. THtY DANCED ALL THROUGH THE CAMP. THEY WENT INTU COYOTE'S 1886 LODGE, BUT THEY DIDN ' T SAY ANYTHING. THEN THEY WENT AROUND THE SECOND 1687 TIME. THEY WENT INTO COYOTE'S LODGE. WHEN THEY WERE GOING OUT THEY YELLED,. 1868 "COYOTE MARRIED HIS UWN DAUGHTER." THE GIRL WAS VERY MUCH ASHAMED. 1385 SHE JUMPED INTU THE RIVER. SHE FACED UP STREAM. COYOTE CALLED T U HER. 1850 "FACE . DOWNSTREAM AND SPREAD YOUR LEGS APART," HE SAID, "SO THAT FISH 1891 CAN JUMP UP." SHE DID AS HE ASKED. 1852 COYOTE TURNED TO THE PEOPLE AND SAIO: "THIS "IS NOT THE ONLY TIME THIS 1893 WILL HAPPEN. EVERY ONCE IN A WHILE, i N TIMES TO COME, MEN WILL TRY TO 1894 LIVE WITH THEIR OWN DAUGHTERS." 1895 1856 SP023 COYOTE'S MEMBER 1897 COYOTE WAS TRAVELLING UP THE COLUMBIA RIVER. HE HAD A VERY LONG PENIS 135S"~ " ~ AND HE' CARRIED" IT ON HIS BACK ROLLED INTO A LARGE CO I L AND TIED UP Wl TH" ROPE. " 1855 AT ONE PLACE HE SAW THREE GIRLS BATHING ON' THE OTHER SIDE OF THE RIVER, WHERE 1 500 YUU CAN NOW SEE A LEDGE OF RUCK. THEY CALLED TO HIM. " U H , CUYOTE, GIVE 1501 LS SOME U F WHAT YUU HAVE IN YOUR PACK." THEY THOUGHT THAT IT WAS FOOD. 1902 "NO," COYOTE ANSWERED, "YOO C A N ' T HAVE ANY." "GIVE OS JUST A L I T T L E . " 15C3 THE GIRLS WENT O N . "NO," SAID COYOTE, "YOU DON'T WANT ANY OF THIS." BUT 1904 THE GIRLS INSISTED, "WHY BE STINGY? PLEASE GIVE US SOME." "ALL RIGHT." 15C5 COYOTE FINALLY AGREED. " I ' L L SHOW YOU I'M NOT STINGY." HE UNROLLED HIS 1906 PENIS AND STARTED I T ACROSS THE RIVER. THE GIRLS SAW SOMETHING LARGE 1907 SHOOTING TOWARD THEM THROUGH THE WATER. "WHAT IS THAT?" I Ht Y ALL 190 3 ASKED. AND STARTED T O RUN OUT O F THE WATER. THE TWU YOUNGER SISTERS GOT 15 0 5 AWAY BUT THE OLDER ONE, WHU WAS HEAVIER, COULD NOT G O FAST. BEFORE SHE 1910 COULD GET WHERE HER HIPS WERE ABOVE WATER THE THING RE ACHED HER ANO ' ' " " " " " 1911 WENT IN. SHE FELL DOWN IN THE WATER. THE GIRLS WERE ALL FRIGHTENED AND V 1512 DIDN'T KNOW WHAT TO 00. THE OLDEST SISTER WAS IN GREAT PAIN. THEY TRIED J 1913 THEIR 3EST TO PULL IT OUT, BUT THEY COULDN'T MOVE IT. THEN THEY DECIDED TO TRY 1914 TO CUT IT OFF. FIRST THEY TOOK PIECES OF WOOD AND TRIED TU POUND IT IN TWO, 1515 R U T IT DID NO GOOD. NEXT THEY TRIED LAYING IT ON A ROCK AND POUNDING IT 1516 ' WITH ANOTHER ROCK BUT THAT DID NO GOOD EITHER. THE SECOND SISTER THEM 1917 SAIO THAT SHE WOULD GU BACK TO CAMP AND GET THEIR FATHER'S AXE. SHE MET 1918 THEIR FATHER AND ASKED FOR HIS AXE. HE ASK ED HER WHAT SHE WANTED WITH IT  1919 AND Snt SAID THAI SHE JuST WANTED TO CUT SOMETHING. SHE TOOK THE AXE ANO 1920 WENT BACK BUT IT WOULD DU NOTHING MORE THAN DENT THE THING THEY WERE 1521 TRYING TO CUT UFF. 1522 ALL THE TI ME COYOTE WAS LYING DOWN ON HIS SIDE ACROSS THE RIVER. HE 1923 WAS GETTING TIRED, AND WANTED TO G3 ON WITH HIS JOURNEY, SU HE CALLED OUT 19 24 TO THE GIRLS, " G O AND GET ONE OF T H O S E WIDE SAW-EDGED LEAVES AND CUT IT  1925 OFF; I WANT TO GO." THE GIRLS RUSHED TO GET A LEAF , BUT INSTEAD Up TAKING JUST 1926 ONE THEY GATHERED A WHULE BAGFUL. THEY CARRIED THEM BACK TO WHERE 1527 THEIR SISTER WAS. AT THE FIRST STROKE WITH ONE OF T H E L E A V E S IT CUT ALL.THE 1928 WAY THROUGH." " ' ~~ 1929 COYUTE ROLLED UP HIS PENIS AGAIN AND WENT ON. THE GIRLS STARTED BACK 19 30 TO CAMP. THE ULDEST ONE WARNED HER SISTERS TO SAY NOTHING TO THEIR 1931 PARENTS ABOUT WHAT HAD HAPPENED. NOTHING WAS SAID, BUT SUUN THE GIRL 1532 BECAME VERY SICK. HER FATHER CALLED IN MANY DOCTORS BUT NONE WERE ABLE 15 3 3 TO HELP HER ANY. SHE GRADUALLY GREW WORSE AND wA'S GIVEN 0? TO DIE. 1934 ABOUT THAT " T I M E "A" YOUNG STRANGER APPEARED IN HIS CANOE AT THE CAMP 1935 WHERE THE GIRL LIVED. IT WAS COYOTE. HE HAD GONE UP RIVER AND GOT 1936 MANY NEW CLOTHES AND BLANKETS. HE HAD ALSO CHANGED HIS LOOKS SO THAT  1937 HE COULDN'T BE RECOGNIZED. THE PEOPLE WENT DOWN TO MEET HIM AND 1 536 WELCOMED HIM TO THEIR CAMP. BUT COYOTE TALKED A DIFFERENT LANGOAGE AND 1935 THE PEOPLE COOLDN'T UNDERSTAND HIM. HE SAID, "MOKOKO/LA, MUKOKU/LA, 1940 "" MOKOKO/LA." 1941 BUT ONE Or THE PEOPLE WHO HAD COME TU SEE THE STRANGER WAS COYOTE'S 19 42 COUSIN, MOUSE. SHE CUULD TALK HIS LANGUAGE. WHEN THE SICK GIRL HEARD  1543 ABOUT THE STRANGER'S COMING SHE SENT MOUSE TO SEE IF HE WUULO COMt AND 19^4 T R Y TO HELP HER. MOUSE TOOK THE MESSAGE TO COYOTE AND HE AGREED TO VISIT 1945 THE GIRL AND SEE WHAT HE COULD DO. HE WAS TAKEN TO.THE P L A C C WHERE THE 1946 " GIRL WAS LYING SICK. HE SAID HE WOULD TRY HIS BEST. THLN HE STARTED TO 1947 SING HIS SONG. AFTER A WHILE HE STOPPED AND TOLD THEM THAT I T WOULD HAVE . 194 3 TO BE DARK OR HE COULDN ' T DO HIS WORK RIGHT. HE TOLD THEM TO HOLD A  1949 BLANKET UP IN FRONT OF THE GIRL. THEY DID THIS AND Ht WENT BEHIND WITH THE 1950 GIRL. HE TOLD THE OTHERS THAT IF SHE SHOULD CRY OUT, THEY WOULD KNOW SHE 1951 WAS ALL RIGHT; OTHERWISE HE WOULD HAVE TO GIVE UP. THEN HE WORKED AS 1552 " " FAST AS HE COULD. HE COPULATED WITH THE GIRL AND GUT BACK THE END OF HIS 19 53 PENIS. THE GIRL CRIED OUT. THEN COYOTE HURRIED AWAY. IN HIS RUSH HIS 1954 TAIL STRUCK THE END OF MOUSE'S NOSE AND MADE IT THE QUEER SHAPE THAT I T 15 5 5 IS NOW. THEY 'TOOK DOWN THE BLANKET ANO FOUND CUYOTE GONE. A FEW 1556 MINUTES LATER THE PEOPLE HEARD THE CRY OF A COYOTE AND SAW COYOTE 1957 RUNNING ALONG THE S1UE UF THE HILL. THEN THEY KNEW WHO THEIR VISITOR HAD 155? '" "" BEEN. THE GIRL GOT WELL RIGHT AWAY. 1555 1960 SP024 : ONSUCCESSFUL SUITUR  1561 I N THE OLD DAYS THE COLUMBIA RIVER FLOWED DOWN THE GRAND COULEE 1962 INSTEAD OF DOWN ITS P K E S E N T CHANNEL. 1963 COYOTE FELL IN LOVE WITH A GIRL WHO LIVED NEAR THE PLACE WHERE THE RIVER 1964 "" AND THE GRAND COULEE M E L T . T H c G I R L LOVED HIM ALSO ANO HE WANTED TO 1565 MARRY HER, BUT HE WAS AFRAID TO ASK HER PARENTS FOR HER. HE KNEW THAT 1 566 THEY DID NOT LIKE HIM. HE STAY ED AROUND THAT COUNTRY F UK QUITE A WHILE. 1967 BUT HE COULD NOT GET UP THE COURAGE T U AS K THE PEOPLE FOR THEIR DAUGHTER. 1968 FINALLY HE DECIDED TO SEND SOMEONE IN HIS PLACE. HE GOT SOME ONE TO GO 1565 AND TELL THE GIRL'S PARENTS THAT IF THEY WOOLO LET HIM MARRY THEIR DAUGHTER 1970 HE WOULO GIVE THEM AND THE GIRL MANY PRESENTS. THE MESSENGER WENT TU 1971 THE FATHER AND MOTHER OF THE GIRL A N D TOLD THEM WHAT COYOTE HAD SAID. 1572 THE FATHER WAS AGREEABLE A N D WANTED T O LET COYOTE HAVE THEIR DAOGHTER.. 1 9 / 3 • E U T THE M O T H E R W O U L D H E A R N O T H I N G D F I T . T H E M E S S E N G E R W E N T B A C K T U 1 9 7 4 • C U Y O T E . " T H E Y WLiiM' T H A V E Y O U , " H E S A I D . " A L L R I G H T , " C U Y U T E A N S W E R E D , 1 9 7 5 " T H E Y C A N L I V E U N S A G E B R U S H R O U T S A N D T H A T K I N D U F F O O D F U R T H E R E S T O F 1 9 7 6 T H E I R L I V E S . T H A T ' S A L L T H E Y D E S E R V E , A N Y W A Y . " 1 9 7 7 T H E N H E W E N T O U T A N D C H A N G E D T H E C H A N N E L O F T H E R I V E R F R O M T H E G R A N D 1 9 7 8 C O U L E E T O W H E R E I T I S N O W . A L S O , H E T U R N E D T H E S A L M O N T H A T H E H A D W I T H 1 9 7 9 H I M I N T O R U C K S . T H E Y C A N B E S E E N T H E R E T O T H I S D A Y . 1 9 8 0 1 9 S 1 S P 0 2 5 B U N G L I N G H O S T 1 9 8 2 ' " ' C O Y O T E W A S M A R R I E D A N U H A D A F A M I L Y . A L L U F H I S C H I L D R E N W E R E B U Y S ; 1 9 8 3 H E H A D N U D A U G H T E R S A T A L L . H E G A V E A L L O F H I S B O Y S N A M E S . 1 9 S 4 O N E D A Y K I N G F I S H E R S A I D T O H I M S E L F , " I G U E S S I ' L L G O U V E R A N D V I S I T M Y 1 9 8 5 F R I E N D C U Y U T E . " H E W E N T T U C O Y O T E ' S H O U S E , W H I C H W A S N U T F A R A W A Y . 1986 C O Y O T E G R E E T E D H I M . I T W A S W I N T E R T I K E . C O Y O T E H A D N O T H I N G T O G I V E H I S 1 9 8 7 F R I E N D T U E A T B U T A F E W R O S E B E R R I E S . K I N G F I S H E R L O U K E D A T T H E M . H E 1 9 8 8 D I D N ' T W A N T T U E A T T H E M BUT N E I T H E R D I D H E W A N T T U E M B A R R A S S H I S F R I E N D , 1 9 8 9 S O H E A T E A C O U P L E O F T H E M S L O W L Y . A F T E R A W H I L E H E W E N T H U M E . 1 9 9 0 A F E W . D A Y S L A T E R C O Y U T E D E C I D E D T U R E T U R N T H E V I S I T . H E W E N T O V E R T O 1 9 9 1 W H E R E K I N G F I S H E R L I V E D . " W E L L , F R I E N D , " S A I D C D Y U T E , " Y O U C A M E U V E K 1 9 9 2 A M D V I S I T E D M E S O I THOUGHT I ' D C U M E U V E R A N O V I S I T W I T H Y U U . " " S U R E , " 1 9 9 3 S A I D K I N G F I S H E R , " C O M E U N I N . " S O O N K I N G F I S H E R C A L L E D U N E U F H I S S O N S . _ 1 9 9 4 " S O N , " H E S A I D , " G G OUT A N D G E T H E A C O U P L E O F W I L L O W P U L E S A B O U T A S 1 9 9 5 L O N G A 3 M Y A R M . " T H E B U Y W E N T O U T A N D S O O N R E T U R N E D W I T H T H E W I L L O W S . 1 9 9 6 " A R E T H E S E A L L R I G H T ? " H E A S K E D . " S U R E , T H O S E A R E F I N E . " H I S F A T H E R 1 9 9 7 A N S W E R E D . 1998 "NOW," THUUGHT KINGFISHER, " I ' L L SHOW COYOTE HUW WE EAT." HE FLEW 1999 _ LP TD T H E TOP UF T H E PULES OF H I S LUDGE. COYOTE WONDERED WHAT HE COULD 2000' BE ' DOING. '"SOON KINGFISHtR F LE w DUWN U N T U THE ICE NEARBY WHERE HE H A D 2001 CUT A SMALL HOLE THROUGH TO THE WATER. HE.PULLED A SUCKER OUT OF THE HOLE .002 AND PUT IT ON UNE OF THE WILLOWS. A LI T T L E LATER HE CAME BACK INTO THE 2003 HOUSE WITH BOTH PULES FULL U F SUCKERS. THEY TUUK THE SUCKERS F R O M ONE OF 2004 THE POLES, COOKED 1 HEM, ANO HAD A GOOD MEAL. WHEN CUYUTE GUT READY 2005 TD GO HUME KINGFISHER HANDED HIM THE OTHER STRING OF SUCKERS AND SAID 2006 THAT HE HAD BETTER TAKE THEM WITH HIM. COYUTE THANKED HIM AND WENT 2007 FUME. 2008 NOT LONG AFTER THIS VISIT KINGFISHER SAID TO HIS WIFE, "WELL. WIFE.  2009 I THINK I'LL G U UVER AND SEE CUYOTE AGAIN. I K N O W JUST WHAT HE'LL DU WHEN 2010 I GET THERE, TUU. I'VE GUT HIM TRAPPED. HE'LL TRY TO 00 JUST AS I DID AND 2011 GET SOME SUCKERS, AND ALL HE'LL DO IS TD FALL D U W N AND BREAK HIS HEAD." 2C12 "UH, YOU DON'T KNOW WHAT YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT," HIS WIFE SAID. "WELL, 2013 YOU'LL SEE IF I'M N U T RIGHT," HE ANSWERED, ANO WENT DFF. SURE ENOUGH, SOON 2014 AFTER HE G U T TO COYOTE'S HOUSE, COYOTE SAID TO HIS YOUNGEST BOY, "SON,  2015 1 GUESS YUU HAD BETTER GU OUT AND GET ME A COUPLE OF WILLOWS." "WHAT 2016 O U YUU WANT WITH THEM?" THE BUY ASKED. "NEVER MIND," C U Y U T E 2017 ' ANSWERED, "YUU JUST GO OUT AND GET THEM." THE BUY WENT OUT AND BROUGHT 2018 BACK TWO WILLOW PULES. THEN C U Y U T E BEGAN TO SCRAMBLE UP THE CENTER " ' 2019 POLE OF HIS LUDGE, USING HIS HANDS AND FEET TO CLIMB WITH. WHEN HE 20 20 REACHED THE TUP HE SAT THERE FOR A FEW MINUTES THEN JUMPED DOWN.  2021 KINGFISHER AND C U Y O T E ' S SUNS AND HIS WIFE WAITED INSIDE FUR JUI TE A 2022 WHILE AND THEN KINGFISHER SAID, "BOY S * YOU HAD BETTER G3 UUT AND SEE 2023 _ WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO YUUR FATHER. HE HAS BEEN GONE A LONG WHILE." 2024 THE BOYS WENT UUT AND FOUND COYOTE LYING UN THE ICE WHERE HE HAD FALLEN."' 2025 THEY CAME SACK INSIDE, CRYING, AND SAID, "WE HAVEN'T GOT ANY FATHER 2026 ANY MORE. HE'S LYING DEAD UUT THERE ON THE ICE." KINGFISHER WENT UUT  2027 AND FOUND CUYOTE. SURE ENOUGH, HE WAS DEAD. KINGFISHER JUMPED OVER 2028 HIM A FEW TIMES AND HE CAME TU L I F E AGAIN. 2029 _ COYOTE RUBBED HIS EYES AND SAID, "HMM, I MUST HAVE BEEN ASLEEP. I_ _ 2030 " "THOUGHT THAT I WAS IN THE HOUSE." HE LUUKED AROUND THEN AOOEO, " 2031 "OH, YES, 1 WAS CATCHING SUCKERS. THAT'S FUNNY. THIS NEVER HAPPENED 20 32 BEFORE." KINGFISHER SAID TO HIM, "YOU HAD BETTER GU IN THE KUUSE. I'LL 2 0 " CATCH THE SUCKERS." COYOTE WENT IN, AND BEFORE LOND KINGFISHER CAMc IN 2034 WITH THE TWO STRINGS OF SUCKERS. THEY COOKED ONE STRING AND ATE THfcM. 2 0 " WHEN KINGFISHER STARTED TO GO COYOTE OFFERED HlK THE OTHER SlRING. "NO," 2036 KINGFISHER SAID, "YOU KEEP THEM. WE'VE GOT LOTS AT HUME." WHfcN KINoFlSHER 2037 HAD GONE COYOTE SAID, "1 KNEW THAT'S WHAT HE WOULD DO. THAT IS 20 38 WHY I DID IT." — 2C3 c. 2040 SP045 CHIPMUNK AND MEADOW-LARK 2041 AN OLD WOMAN (STIMT1MA) HAD WARNED HER CHILDREN, CHIPMUNK 2042 AND MEADOW-LARK NOT TO GU TOO FAR INTO THE WOODS, BECAUSE A HAIRY 204-3 MONSTER MIGHT KILL THEM. ONE DAY THE CHILDREN DISOBEYED. THE CONST ER SHOT CHIPMUNK, AND, WHEN TRYING TU SEIZE HIM. SCRATCHED HIS 204 4 _., - - _, 204 5 BACK. THE BUY MADE HIS ESCAPE AND HID IN HIS GRA.NDMOT HER'S TENT. 2046 SHE PUT HIM FIRST INTO A BASKET, THEN INTO A BAG. BUT HE WUULD NOT SIT 2047 STILL. SOON THE MONSTER PCUANITIM ARRIVED, AND SEARCHED FUR CHIPMUNK._ 2048 THE OLD" WOMAN DENIED HAVi NG SEEN HIM. THE BUY 1S SISTER, 2049 MEADOW-LARK, FLEW TO THE POLE UF THE TENT, AND SANG, "LOOK IN THE 20-0 CLAM-SHELL UNDER THE BLANKET IN THE BOSOM OF GRANDMOTHER!" THE  2051 MONSTER TOOK OUT THE SHELL AND FOUND CHIPMUNK. 2052 AT THE SAME TIME HE SAW THAT THE SKIN OF THE OLD WOMAN WAS VERY 2053 FAIR. HE ASKED HEK, "WHAT DID YOU DO TO MAKE YOUR SKIN SO WHITE?" 2054 SHE REPLIED THAT SHE DROPPED HUT PITCH ON IT. HE ASKED TO BE TREATED 20 55 IN THE SAME WAY. THE ULD WOMAN HEATED SOME PITCH AN0 HELD THE 20 56 MONSTER DOWN WITH TWO FuRKED STICKS. THEN SHE POURED THE PITCH  2057 OVER HIM, SU THAT HE DIED. 20 5 8 20 59 SPD49 THE FIVE WOLVES 2060 AN ULD WOMAN AND HER GRANDS UN LIVED NEAR A RIVER. THE GRANDSON 2061 WISHED TU CROSS THE RIVER. ANO CALLED THE DEER TU TAKE HIM ACROSS• 2062 _ FINALLY AN OLD BUCK ALLUwEO HIM TO MOUNT HIS BACK, AND CARRIED HIM 2063 ACROSS. WHILE THEY WERE IN THE WATER, THE BUY CUT THE T H R U A r OF THE 2064 BUCK WITH A FLINT KNIFE AND KILLED HIM. 2065 THE OLD WUMAN SKINNED THE BUCK. FIVE WULVES TUUK THE SCENT OF 2066 THE MEAT, AND CAME INTENDING TO STEAL IT. THE OLD WOMAN DRESSED A 2067 PIECE OF ROTTEN WOOD IN SKINS, AND MADE IT LOOK LIKE THE BUY. THEN SHE J_068 WISHED HERSELF, H ER GRANDSON. AND THE M EAT TO BE _C_A RJU ED TO A LEDGE ON ' 2069 THE FACE OF A C L I F F . THIS CLIFF IS POINTED OUT C L U S E T u THE OKANAGON 2070 RIVER, NEAR UROVILLt, WASH. WHEN THE WOLVES ARRIVED, THEY ATTACKED 2071 THE TENT, BUT FUUND THAT WHAT THEY BELIEVED WAS A BOY WAS UNLY ROTTEN 2072 '" WOOD. THEY WERE UNABLE TO REACH THE LEDGE. THEY TRIED TO JUMP UP, 2073. BUT SOUN WEARIED. THEN THEY BEGGED FOR SOME MEAT. THE _2Q74 . GRANDMOTHER TOLD THE BOY TO WRAP A HUT STONE IN SUME SUET. HE THREW 2075 IT DUWN I NT U THE MOUTH UF UNE OF THE WOLVES, AND THUS KILLED HIM. 2076 THUS ALL WERE KILLED EXCEPT THE YOUNGEST. WHEN HE CAUGHT THE HOT 2077 _ STONE, HE COULD NUT SWALLOW IT, AND THE FAT BURNED THE SIDES OF HIS _ _ 2 0 7 e M O U T H . THEREFORE WULVES HAVE DARK MARKS AT THE SIDE OF-THE MOUTH. 2079 THE GRANDMOTHER AND THE BOY CUNT 1NUED TU LIVE ON THE LEDGE. 2080 FINALLY THE BUY HAD USED UP ALL HIS ARROWS AND HAD NU FEATHERS TO  2081 MAKE NEW UN ES . IN ORDER TU OBTAIN FEATHERS, HE CAUSED THE GOLDEN 2082 EAGLE AND THE EAGLE SINAKEN TO QUARREL BY TELLING ONE THAT T HE OTHER ONE 2083 CLAIMED TO BE SWIFTER AND STRONGER THAN HE. THE TWO EAGLES FOUGHT, 2084 ANO THE BUY GAThERED THEIR FEATHERS. HE TULD HIS GRANDMUTHER THAT" 2C85 HE WOULD JOIN THE PEOPLE WHO WERE GOING TO MAKE WAR ON THE SKY. 20g- HE WAS TRANSFORMED INTO A CHiCKADEE.  2087 2088 2089 <l>050 THE URIGIN OF FIRE " ONCE UPON A TIME IT RAINED UNTIL ALL THE FIRES ON EARTH WERE EXTINGUISHED. 2090 THE ANIMALS HELD A CUUNC1L AND DECIDED TU MAKE WAR 2091 AGAINST THE SKY IN ORDER TO BRING BACK THE FIRE. IN SPRING THE PEOPLE 2n92 BEGAN, AND TRIED TO SHOUT THEIR ARROWS UP TO THE SKY. CUYOTE TRIED I I 2053 FIRST, BUT. DID NOT SUCCEEC. FINALLY THF CHICKADEE SUCCEEDED IN REACHING 2094 THE SKY• HE CUNTINUEO TU SHOUT, MAKING A CHAIN OF ARROWS, 5Y 20 55 MEANS OF WHICH THE ANIMALS CLIMBED UP. THE LAST TO CLIMB WAS THE 2096 GRIZZLY-SEAR, WHO, OM ACCOUNT OF HIS WEIGHT, BRUKE OFF THE AnROWS. AND 2057 COULD NUT JOIN THE OTHER ANIMALS. 20 9 8 WHEN THE ANIMALS REACHEO THE SKY, THEY FOUND THEMSELVES IN A VALLEY ) 2099 NEAR A LAKE, WHERE THE PtOPLE OF THE SKY WERE FISHING. CUYOTE Wl SHED : ^ 2100 TU ACT AS SCOUT, BUT WAS CAPTURED. THEN THE MUSKRAT DUG HULLS ALONG j 2101 THE SHORE UF THE LAKE, AND 3EAVER AND EAGLE SET OUT TO OBTAIN THE FIRE. _. . . .. _ _ . . . . . j 2102 'BEAVER ENTERED ONE OF THE FISH-TRAPS AND P K E T E N D E D TO BE DEAD. THEY ; 2103 CARRIED HIM TO THE CHIEF'S HOUSt, WHERE THE PtOPLE BEGAN TO SKIN HIM. I 2104 AT THIS TIME THE EAGLE AL IGHTEO ON A TREE NEAR THE TENT. WHEN THE ...j 2105 PtOPLE SAW THE EAGLE, THEY RAN OOT, AND AT ONCt BEAVER TOOK A CLAM-SHELL i 2106 FULL UF GLOWING COALS ANU RAN AWAY. HE JUMPED INTU THE LAKE, j 2107 AND PtOPLE TRIED TO CATCH HIM IN NETS ; 30T THE WATER WAS DRAINED j 2106 THROUGH THE HOLES MUSKRAT HAD MADE. THEN ANIMALS RAN BACK TU THE ! 2105 ARROW-CHAIN, WHICH THEY FOUND BROKEN.' THEN EACH BIRD TOOK A QUADRUPED i 2110 ON ITS BACK, AND THEY FLEW DOWN WITH THEM. ONLY COYOTE AND i 2111 THE SUCKER WE,\E LEFT ABOVE. COYOTE TIED A PIECE OF BUFFALO ROBE TO 2112 EACH PAW AND JUMPED DOWN. Ht SAILED DOWN UN THE SKIN, AND FINALLY 2113 LANDED ON A PINE-TREE. ON THE FOLLOWING MORNING HE SHOWED OFF HIS 2114 " WINGS, BUT WAS UNABLE TJ TAKE THEM OFF AGAIN,' AND WAS TRANSFORMED 2115 INTO A BAT. THE SUCKER HAD TO JUMP DOWN, AND WAS BROKEN TO PIECES. 2116 THE ANIMALS FITTED HIS BONES TOGETHER; AND, SINCE SOME WERE MISSING, 2117 THEY POT PI NE-NEEDLES INTO HIS TAIL. THtRtFQKE THE SJCKER HAS MANY j 2118 BONES. 2 1 1 9 _ ' 2120 SP G 5 9 H O W Bt AVER STOLE THE F I R E " " " " " " * * - . .- , 2121 IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE ANIMAL PEOPLE, THERE WAS NO FIRE ON THE EARTH. THE J 212? PEOPLE ATE THEIR FOOD RAW OR COOKED IT BY THE HEAT OF THE SUN. THE Y HAD NO _5 2123 FIRE IN THEIR T t P t t S . O 2124 "THERE IS FIRE UP IN THE SKY," EAGLE SAID UN E DAY. "LET US GO Up TO THE I 2125 SKY AND GET i T . " _ ! 2126 SO THE ANIMAL PEOPLE HAD A BIG GATHERING. THEY CAME FROM ALL OVER THE "" * . . . I 2127 COUNTRY. . j 2123 "WE MUST HAVE A WAR DANCE BEFORE WE GO," SOMEONE SAIO. "SOMEONE ' 2129 SING A SUNG THAT Wt CAN DANCE TQ." 2130 SO DIFFERENT ONES WOULD SING. 2131 "OH, THAT ISN'T GOOD ENOUGH," SOMEUNE WOULD SAY. "wE CAN'T DANCE TO 2132 THAT." 2133 MAGPIE SANG HIS SONG. IT WASN'T GOOD ENOUGH. MR. CROW SANG HIS SONG. 2134 THAT WASN'T GOOD ENOUGH. THEY COULDN'T DANCE TO THAT. WOLF SANG HIS 2135 SONG, BUT IT WASN'T GOOD ENOUGH. THEN THE PEOPLE CALLED ON GRIZZLY B E A R 2136 TO SING HIS SONG. 2137 "OH, THAT IS TOO UGLY! WE CAN'T DANCE TO THAT." '2138'" " T H E PEOPLE'KEPT ON SINGING UNTIL IT WAS COYOTE'S TURN T O SING HIS'SONG**" 2135 IT WAS A GOOD ENOUGH SONG, BUT THE PEOPLE DIDN'T LIKE IT. 2140 " I T ' S GOOD ENOUGH," THtY SAID, "BUT WE CAN NEVER DEPEND QN COYOTE. 2141 HE DOESN'T KNOW WHAT HE IS DOING. HE IS LIABLE TO DO ANYTHING AND LOSE 2142 OUT ANYWAY. 2143 "THERE ARE TWO LITTLE FELLOWS WHO HAVEN'T SUNG YET — MR. BAT ANO MR. 2144 CH 1CKADtE — TWO L I T T L E FELLOWS." 2145 SQ THEY CALLED ON THEM. THEY CALLED ON MR. CHICKADEE, BUT HIS SUNG 2146 WASN'T GOOD ENOUGH. THEN THtY CALLED ON MR. BAT. 2147 "OH, I CAN'T SING ANY SONG." 2148 "BUT YOU'VE GOT TO SING." THEY KEPT AFTER HIM. 2145 _ "ALL RIGHT. I'LL TRY." 2150* SO HE STARTED OUT WITH HIS SONG. " WHEN HE HAD FINISHED, ALL THE* PEOPLE 2151 HOLLOED, "THAT'S THE SUNG WE WANT! SING IT AGAIN." 2152 SO THEY JUMPED UP AND WAR DANCED TO MR. BAT'S SONG. r 2152 "NOW WE'LL HAVE TU FIX A ROAD TO GET UP INTO HEAVEN." 2154 UF CUURSE THEY ALL HAD BOWS AND ARROWS. "WE'LL HAVE TU TRY TU MAKE A 2155 RGAD GF ARROWS TO CLIMB UP ON." 2156 THEY TRIED AND TRIED AND TRIED TO MAKE A ROAD. THE BIG ANIMALS USED 2157 ALL THEIR ARROWS, BUT THEY COULDN'T REACH THE SKY. SO THEY CAME TO MR. 2158 RAT AND MR. CHICKADEE AGAIN. 2159 THE BIG ANIMALS LAUGHED WHEN MR. CHICKADEE STEPPED UP WITH HIS BOW 2160 AND ARRUW. HE TuUK AIM AND SHUT CAREFULLY. ALL THE PEOPLE WATCHED. HIS 2161 ARROW REACHED THE SKY AND STUCK THERE. HE SHUT ANOTHER ARROW. IT STUCK 2162. ' IN THE FIRST ARROW AND STAYED THERE. HE SHOT A THIRD ARRUW, AND IT STAYED" 2163 IN THE SECOND ARRUW. HE KEPT ON SHOUTING. WHEN HE HAD EMPTIED HIS TWO 2164 BAGS OF ARROWS, THE CHAIN REACHED ALMOST TO THE GROUND. HE USED UTHER 2165 PEUPLE'S ARRUWS Tu FINISH THE ROAD. 2166 THEN THEY CLIMBED UP TU HEAVEN TO STEAL FIRE AND BRING IT DOWN TO 2167 EARTH. GRIZZLY BEAR WAS THE LAST ONE TO START UP THE ARRUW RUAD. 2168 "I MUST TAKE A BAG OF F ODD WITH ME," HE SAID. "THERE MAY NOT BE ANY " 2169 FQUD UP THERE." 2170 SO GRIZZLY BEAR STARTED UP THE ARROW ROAD WITH A BIG BAG UF FOOD. BUT 2171 KE WAS SU HEAVY THAT HE BROKE THE LADDER AND FELL FLAT ON T