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Versions of the apocalypse in four seventeenth century authors Watson, Charles Ernest 1974

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c. I  VERSIONS OP THE APOCALYPSE IN FOUR SEVENTEENTH CENTURY AUTHORS by Charles Ernest Watson B.A., Arizona State U n i v e r s i t y , 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Comparative L i t e r a t u r e We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard:  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1974  In presenting  this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference  and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may by his representatives.  be granted by the Head of my Department or  It i s understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  id  ABSTRACT In the l i t e r a t u r e of the l a t e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth centuries poets f e l t a s p e c i a l a f f i n i t y with the subject of the end of the world, and u t i l i z e d v i s i o n s of the apocalypse i n t h e i r works.  Examples of such d e s c r i p t i o n s of the f i n a l  d i s s o l u t i o n of the world are to be found i n the major European l i t e r a t u r e s of the period.  In order to stay w i t h i n manageable  l i m i t s , and since t h e i r works are representative of the t r e a t ment of t h i s t o p i c , t h i s study involves an examination of the apocalyptic v i s i o n s of Agrippa d'Aubigne, John Donne, Marc Antoine de Gerard Saint-Amant, and Richard Crashaw.  Specifi-  c a l l y the poems considered are d'Aubigne's Les Tragiques, Donne's "Anniversaries," Saint-Amant*s "Le Contemplateur" and "La S o l i t u d e , " Crashaw's adaptation of the L a t i n hymn e n t i t l e d "The Hymn of the Church, i n Meditation of the Day of Judgment, 'Dies Irae,'" and "The Teresa Poems.," In both the Jewish andcVristian t r a d i t i o n s there are apocalypses that r e v e a l the nature of the end of things.  The  most w e l l known of these apocalypses are the books of "Daniel" and the "Revelation of St. John." . In t h i s study the v i s i o n s of the four authors are considered  i n the l i g h t of t h i s t r a d -  ition. The c r i t i c a l approach i n the f i r s t four chapters.is the examination of each of the authors' poems separately, and  the  d i s c u s s i o n of the primary features of t h e i r apocalyptic descriptions.  This necessitates a consideration of the author's  iii_ a t t i t u d e toward h i s a r t i s t i c purpose, h i s conception of h i s source of i n s p i r a t i o n , h i s exact use of the apocalypse i n the body of h i s poem, and the use of c e r t a i n r h e t o r i c a l techniques that are fundamental to the nature of an a p o c a l y p t i c work.  In  the chapters on d'Aubigne" and Donne the a r t i s t i c purpose and use of the apocalypse i s viewed as propagandist or s e r i o u s l y moral, the source of i n s p i r a t i o n that of the man i n s p i r e d by God, and the r h e t o r i c a l method the exercise of cumulative p i l i n g , harangues, and spectacular language.  Contrasted w i t h  the serious and u n i v e r s a l f u n c t i o n of the apocalypse i n d'Aubigne and Donne, i n the v i s i o n s of Saint—A-mant and Crashaw the source of i n s p i r a t i o n emanates from the poets' own standing of t h e i r imaginative s t a t e .  under-  The v i s i o n s are seen as  more personal, and i n the case of Saint-Amant, as a necessary s t r u c t u r a l element.  In both authors v a r i a t i o n s on the r h e t o r -  i c a l techniques of the other authors are evident. In the f i n a l chapter features of the authors' apocalyptic poems which are also found i n e i t h e r the Jewish or C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s are assessed.  Whereas the poems of d'Aubigne and  Donne are seen as sharing the o v e r a l l moral outlook and d i r e c t i o n with these t r a d i t i o n s , such as a prophetic source of i n s p i r a t i o n and i n t e n t to console, the poems of and Crashaw are not.  Saint-Amant  They are described as i n t r o v e r t e d v e r -  sions i n which the personal and p r i m a r i l y a e s t h e t i c overrides the u n i v e r s a l .  The reasons f o r the appearance of the subject  i n the authors are suggested i n terms of the poets' i n d i v i d u a l motivations and a s c e p t i c a l c r i s i s i n the period.  L a s t l y , the  suggestion i s made that a d e f i n i t i o n and d i s t i n c t i o n be given to the genre and motif of the apocalypse.  V  TABLE OP CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION:  THE END OP THE WORLD  1  CHAPTER I : D'AUBIGNE'S 'LES TRAGIQUES' A.  A R h e t o r i c a l Stance: 1. 2. 3.  B.  C.  The A c t i v i t y of E x i l e ...  The Propagandist Intent The Propagandist Technique D'Aubigne's View of the 'Monde CasseS'  The Second Jonah 1. 2.  D'Aubigne's G i f t of Prophecy The Apocalypse: 'Au Giron de Dieu'  D'Aubigne's Choice of Genre and h i s Use of the B i b l e  CHAPTER I I :  9  JOHN DONNE'S 'ANNIVERSARIES'  9  12 14 ... 17 20 20 26 32 38  A.  John Donne: Introduction to the 'Anniversaries' 38  B.  The Source of I n s p i r a t i o n  42  C.  The Nobles.t Sense  47  D.  Donne's Treatment of E v i l  54  CHAPTER I I I : SAINT-AMANT'S 'LE CONTEMPLATEUR' AND 'LA SOLITUDE' A.  'Le Bon Gros:' Contemplateur'  B.  The Experience of Solitude  67  C.  The P i n a l Synapse  73  1. 2. 3. CHAPTER IV:  Introduction to *Le  63  The Element of 'Ut P i c t u r a Poesis' The Elements of Gongorism The Bacchic Element CRASHAW'S POETIC VISION  63  77 81 85 89  A.  'Unum Ante Thronum'  89  B.  "The Teresa Poems"  98  vi. • CONCLUSION  ..  105  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  113  APPENDIX I  126  vii  NOTE Unless otherwise stated, reference throughout t h i s study i s to the f o l l o w i n g e d i t i o n s ; Aubigne, Theodore Agrippa d'. Oeuvres. ed. Henri Weber. P a r i s : Gallimard, Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade, 1969. Crashaw, Richard. The Complete Poetry, ed. George Walton Williams. Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday & Co., I n c . , 1970. Donne, John. P o e t i c a l Works. 1912. ed. Herbert J.C. Grierson; London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. Saint-Amant, Antoine Gerard, s i e u r de. Oeuvres. 4 v o l s . ed. Jean Lagny. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Marcel D i d i e r , 1967-71.  <5>  INTRODUCTION THE END OF.THE WORLD Quite unexpectedly as Vasserot The armless ambidextrian was l i g h t i n g A match between h i s great and second toe And Ralph the l i o n was engaged i n b i t i n g The neck of Madame Sossman while the drum Pointed, and teeny was about to cough In w a l t z - time swinging Jocko by the thumbQuite unexpectedly the top blew o f f : And there, there overhead, there, there, hung over Those thousands of white faces, those dazed eyes, There i n the s t a r l e s s dark the poise, the hover, There w i t h vast wings across the canceled s k i e s , There i n the sudden blackness the black p a l l Of nothing, nothing, nothing- nothing a t a l l . Poets of the l a t e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth centuries would have f e l t a s p e c i a l a f f i n i t y w i t h the subject of t h i s poem by the modern American poet Archibald MacLeish.  I t was John  Donne who asked, "What i f t h i s present were the world's l a s t night?" and gave, along w i t h many of h i s contemporaries, a desc r i p t i o n of the world becoming "nothing a t a l l . " ^ *  Indeed,  examples of poems that take the apocalypse as t h e i r major t o p i c are t o be found i n many of the major European l i t e r a t u r e s of the period, and include works of Shakespeare, M i l t o n , Donne, Herbert, Crashaw, Theophile de Viau, Saint-Amant, Agrippa d'Aubigne, Malherbe, Gryphius, Kuhlmann, and Greifenbercjf.  Since  my s e l e c t i o n of authors' works has been d i c t a t e d by a desire to keep the o v e r a l l study w i t h i n manageable l i m i t s , the scope of t h i s study, a l b e i t comparative, i s narrower. 'Holy Sonnet X I I I . "  I have l i m i t e d  2 the extent of my study to selected works of two French and two E n g l i s h authors whose poems are representative of the treatment of the apocalypse i n t h i s period.  These four authors  are Agrippa d'Aubigne(1551-1630), John Donne(1572-1631), MarcAnt oine de Gerard Saint-Amant(1594-1661) and Richard Crashaw (1612-1649).  The emphasis given to the apocalyptic poetry of  Richard Crashaw i s not found i n the other comparative works that have dealt with t h i s t o p i c .  Part of the reason f o r t h i s s i t u a -  t i o n i s perhaps the present trend of c r i t i c a l opinion which, f i n d s the poetry of d'Aubign<S, Donne and Saint-Amant i n t e r e s t i n g and worthy of study, but Crashaw*s--esthetic  essentially a p  ^pandering to the basest emotions i n the name of r e l i g i o n . ' In s p i t e of Bertonasco's defense of Crashaw'saesthetic, he i s s t i l l 3 1  regarded as a black sheep.  For my purposes, however, an examin-  a t i o n of Crashaw's apocalyptic poetry makes possible an i n t e r e s t i n g contrast with selected works of Donne and d'Aubigne, and reveals a c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y of s t y l e with the poems of Saint-Amant. Some of the conclusions drawn by the few c r i t i c s who have considered the apocalyptic s e t t i n g s of these authors seem to me generally u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , and t h i s sense of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n has a l s o influenced my s p e c i f i c choices.  These c r i t i c s have had  c l e a r - c u t c r i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s and methodologies, but have a r r i v e d at conclusions that often appear i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c . For instance, 2 Quoted i n M.P. Bertonaseo, Crashaw and t^e Baroque (Montgomery: U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama Press, 1971), p. 4. I b i d . , esp. pp. 94-121.  3  Imbrie Buffvim, i n h i s otherwise e x c e l l e n t Studies i n Baroque from Montaigne to Rotrou. tends to overplay the elements of baroque s e n s i b i l i t y .  Speaking of an apocalyptic s e t t i n g i n a  poem by Saint-Amant he remarks:  "To f e e l simultaneously wonder  and agreeable t e r r o r - t h i s i s a s t a t e thoroughly congenial to the baroque mind."^"  P l a c i n g s i m i l a r emphasis upon the use of  the concept of the baroque, Buffum concludes, i n response t o the question of the predominance of apocalyptic s e t t i n g s i n l a t e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth century poems, that: The C h r i s t i a n and the baroque eMios are i n t i m a t e l y connected; and i t would be impossible to conceive^. of baroque a r t outside of C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . ' Likewise, Frank Warnke, i n a rather free-wheeling d e s c r i p t i o n of the end of the world s e t t i n g s i n many of the same works contends that: These works p a r t i c i p a t e i n the mood of melancholy which i s a recurrent feature of the l i t e r a t u r e of the period, but the apocalyptic preoccupation, as we encounter i t i n such l y r i c poets as Theophile de Viau, Saint-Amant(et a l . ) , often communicates not a sentiment of regret but rather a f e e l i n g of enormous zest and s a t i s f a c t i o n , as i f the accuracy of the poet's imaginative p i c t u r e of the world were somehow confirmed by the i n c l u s i o n of that world's abolition.° Imbrie Buffum, Studies i n Baroque from Montaigne to Rotrou (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957), p. 157. 5  I b i d . , p. 135.  6  Frank Warnke, Versions of Baroque (New Haven: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972), p. 205.  Yale  4 By choosing to deal with the same apocalyptic poems as these c r i t i c s , I hope to j u s t i f y and q u a l i f y a more c l e a r - c u t concept i o n of the apocalyptic i n the four  authors.  In a d d i t i o n to having w r i t t e n apocalyptic poems, a l l of these authors, except perhaps Crashaw, l i v e d eventful l i v e s . The E n g l i s h authors were converts, and were ostracized f o r t h e i r religious beliefs.  Crashaw, the son of a P u r i t a n preacher,  became a convert to Roman Catholicism i n the e a r l y 1630's.  From  the outbreak of the E n g l i s h Civil-War u n t i l h i s death, he l i v e d i n e x i l e on the Continent, at f i r s t i n P a r i s and then l a t e r as a member of the household of Cardinal P a l o t t o , where he attached to the shrine of l o r e t t o i n I t a l y .  was  Donne, r a i s e d a  Roman C a t h o l i c , and educated i n theology and law at Oxford and Cambridge, abandoned Catholicism, and was converted to  Anglicanism.  A f t e r h i s o r d i n a t i o n i n 1615, he l a t e r became a famous Bean of St. Paul's Cathedral.  The French authors a l s o had l i v e s f u l l  of i n c i d e n t and belonged to that breed of men who l i k e Cervantes, l e p r a s v_ armas.  could combine,  Saint-Amant was a c t i v e i n  m i l i t a r y campaigns and was also an o r i g i n a l member of. the Academie Francaise.  A f r e e - t h i n k e r , or l i b e r t i n , he saw h i s f r i e n d  Theophile de Viau formally condemned f o r holding views s i m i l a r 7  to h i s own.  Saint-Amant, who was more d i s c r e e t , managed to  7  For a d i s c u s s i o n of the l i b e r t i n s , see Antoine Adam, Les L i b e r t i n s au X V I I s i e c l e ( P a r i s : Buchet-Chastel, 1964). Of Saint-Amant's part a l l we know f o r c e r t a i n i s that he s u f f i c i ently conformed to orthodoxy, c f . Samuel L. Borton, S i x Modes of S e n s i b i l i t y i n Saint-Amant (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1966), p. 129. e  5 avoid s i m i l a r condemnation.  D'Aubigne at an early age joined  the French Protestant army i n i t s second war against the Cathol i c s , and was f o r f i f t e e n years an inseparable companion of the King of Navarre, l a t e r Henri IV of France.  H i s devotion to  Protestantism, which l e d to h i s break w i t h Henri of Navarre upon the King's l a t e r a b j u r a t i o n of the f a i t h , was also a f a c t o r i n the palinode he wrote which rejected h i s e a r l i e r love poems (Les Tragiaues. I I . 69-76).  The term apocalypse i s derived from the Greek apocaluphis ( L a t i n r e v e l a t i o ) and means "an uncovering, a r e v e l a t i o n . "  The  term i s f l e x i b l e and can r e f e r to the uncovering of anything that was previously hidden or obscured, or can be employed i n the e s c h a t o l o g i c a l sense of an uncovering or r e v e l a t i o n about the nature of the end of things.  I n both the Jewish and C h r i s t i a n  t r a d i t i o n s there are apocalypses i n t h i s l a t t e r sense.  The most  famous of the Jewish apocalypses are the books of "Daniel" (c. 6th. Cent. B.C.) and the Apocryphal " I I Esdras" (c. 250 B.C.150 A.D.); numerous other versions are found i n the Pseudepigrapha. The book of "Daniel," which i s accepted i n the Jewish and The Apocryphal " I I Esdras" or "IV Ezra," and a l l the other known Jewish apocalypses are to be found i n The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, ed. R.H. Charles, v o l . I I (Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1913, r e p r i n t e d 1963), pp. 163-624. " I I Esdras" i s discussed by Bruce M. Metzger i n An Introduction to the 'Apocrypha* (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957), pp. 21-30.  6 C h r i s t i a n canons, i s considered a precursor to the New "Revelation of St. John" (c. A.D.  Testament  95) i n the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . -  Although "Daniel" and the "Revelation of St. John" share c e r t a i n features with other ancient apocalyptic w r i t i n g s , they are considered i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s to be d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d rather than a r t i f i c i a l l y , that i s , p o e t i c a l l y prophetic.  Throughout t h i s  study I w i l l r e f e r d i r e c t l y to these apocalypses,  and w i l l only  use Apocalypse to designate the a c t u a l "Revelation of St. John." Those d e s c r i p t i o n s of the end of things i n c e r t a i n poems of d'Aubigne, Donne, Saint-Amant, and Crashaw w i l l also be c a l l e d apocalypses.  The poems to be considered are d'Aubigne's Les  Tragiques, Donne's "Anniversaries," Saint-Amant's "Le Contemplateur" and "La S o l i t u d e , " Crashaw's adaptation of the L a t i n hymn "Dies Irae" e n t i t l e d "The Hymn of the Church, i n Meditation of the Day of Judgment, 'Dies I r a e , ' " and "The Teresa Poems."  The  noun and a d j e c t i v e "apocalyptic" w i l l r e f e r to those elements of d e s c r i p t i o n , purpose, and v i s i o n i n the Jewish books, the "Revelation of St. John," or works of the four authors, that are l i n k e d with a conception of the d i s s o l u t i o n of the world. The extension of the notion of apocalyptic l i t e r a t u r e by means or archetypes, as proposed by Northrop Prye, i s u s e f u l i n i t s own r i g h t , but i s too a l l encompassing to be applied to the present discussion."*"^ The few apocalypses a t t r i b u t e d to New Testament personnages can be found i n The Apocryphal New Testament, trans. M.R. James Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924), pp. 504-568. Northrop Prye, Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (New York: 1969), esp. pp. 141-162 and pp. 191-206.  Atheneum,  7  My c r i t i c a l approach i n the f i r s t four chapters i s to examine each of the authors' poems separately.  My i n t e n t i o n  i s to characterize the primary features of t h e i r apocalyptic descriptions.  I n order to do t h i s I examine the author's a t t i -  tude toward h i s a r t i s t i c purpose, h i s conception of h i s source of i n s p i r a t i o n , h i s exact use of the apocalypse i n the body of his poem, and the use of c e r t a i n r h e t o r i c a l techniques that are fundamental to the nature of an apocalyptic work.  A l l of these  features involve the author's ethos or p e r s o n a . ^  I n modern  l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m the term persona has been l i b e r a l l y  employed,  and i s often used i n a broad sense to mean the mask "through which the poet learns to think and see," and through which the author can i d e n t i f y the " s e l f with persona, not as a dramatist i d e n t i f i e s himself momentarily with each character w i t h i n a p l o t , 12 but as the very substance of the poem i t s e l f . "  I consider the  author's persona to be the substance of h i s a r t i s t i c purpose and methodology, and employ the term where i t w i l l help to f a c i l i t a t e a d e s c r i p t i o n of the author's a r t i s t i c purpose and techniques. In the case of d'Aubigne' I have substituted the term stance f o r the r h e t o r i c a l concept of persona.  I have here followed the  the  example set by R.L. Regosin i n h i s study of d'Aubigne's 11 For a d i s c u s s i o n of the dramatic s i g n i f i c a n c e of the term, c f . C.S. Baldwin, Ancient Rhetoric and P o e t i c : Interpreted from Representative Works (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1924), pp. 176-180. C h r i s t i n e Brooke-Rose, The Grammar of Metaphor Seeker & Warburg, 1958), pp. 312-313. 1 2  (London:  8 Les  Tragiques.  13  As Donald L. Guss has reminded us, " d e f i n i n g the t r a d i t i o n used hy a poet i s the most precise t o o l we have f o r d i s t i n g u i s h ing the immediate from the p e r i p h e r a l i n h i s a r t . " ^  In the  f i n a l chapter those features of the authors* apocalyptic poems which are a l s o found i n e i t h e r the Jewish or C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s of the apocalypse are assessed.  I suggest that whereas  the poems of d'Aubigne' and Donne share c e r t a i n conceptions  and  techniques with these t r a d i t i o n s , such as a prophetic source of i n s p i r a t i o n , a necessary treatment of e v i l , an i n t e n t to console, and a cumulative r h e t o r i c a l technique, the poems of Saint-Amant and Crashaw do not.  These d i f f e r e n t uses of apocalyptic mater-  i a l s i n the four authors are categorized as the t r a d i t i o n a l mode on the one hand, and the s t r u c t u r a l or personal and p r i m a r i l y a e s t h e t i c mode on the other.  F i n a l l y , I consider what j u s t i f i -  c a t i o n there i s f o r employing apocalypse as a genre designation with reference to an author's a r t i s t i c i n t e n t and method.  13 ^Richard L. Regosin, The Poetry of I n s p i r a t i o n : Agrippa d'Aubigne's 'Les Tragiques.' U n i v e r s i t y of Worth C a r o l i n a Studies i n the Romance Languages and L i t e r a t u r e s , No. 88 (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a Press, 1970), pp. 67-78. The term i s also introduced i n a study of Donne's "Anniversaries" by B.K. Lewalski, Donne*s 'Anniversaries and the Poetry of P r a i s e : The Creation of a Symbolic Mode (Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 197377 esp. pp. 11-41. 1  Donald L. Guss, John Donne: Wayne State Univ. Press^, p. 15.  Petrarchist (Detroit:  CHAPTER I D AUBIGNE'S 'LES TRAGIQUES 1  A.  1  A R h e t o r i c a l Stance:  The A c t i v i t y of E x i l e  The r h e t o r i c a l stance assumed by d'Aubigne i n h i s epic Les Tragiques can be seen as that of an observer of the world who w i l l not hide h i s f e e l i n g s , and who w i l l a c t i v e l y seek to i n t e r p r e t what he can absorb through h i s senses.  The poet's  a t t i t u d e toward h i s p o s i t i o n as an observer i s d i s c l o s e d e a r l y i n the epic.  I n h i s "Preface" d'Aubigne recounts, with a few  a l t e r a t i o n s , a Roman legend i n which a young g i r l t r i e s t o v i s i t her emprisoned mother, yet dies of s t a r v a t i o n before passing the i r o n r a i l i n g of the c e l l . ^  Although n e i t h e r an e x i l e , nor  i n p r i s o n a t the time, the poet used the anecdote t o characterize himself as a kind of Protestant e x i l e who i s forced by circumstance to w r i t e from a state of anonymity and s o l i t u d e . Encores v i v r a i - j e par t o i , Mon f i l s , comme t u v i s par moi; Puis i l f a u t , comme l a nourrice Et f i l l e du Romain g r i s o n , Que t u a l l a i c t e et t u cherisse Ton pere, en e x i l , en prison. (7-12)  S i en mon v o l o n t a i r e e x i l Un juste et severe s o u r c i l Me reprend de l a i s s e r en France Les traces de mon perdu temps: Ce sont l e s f l e u r s et l'esperance Et c e c i l e s f r u i c t s de mes ans. (85-90) Gallimard ed., p. 899, n.2.  10 Employing a motif of separation and s o l i t u d e , . by focusing on h i s own emotional state ("mon  f i l s , " "par moi," "mon...exil,"  "mon perdu temps," "mes ans"), d'Aubigne accounts f o r h i s voluntary " e x i l e " as a time of a c t i v e searching to discover the r e a l s t a t e of the world, and a l l e g o r i c a l l y , the state of the Protestant f a i t h .  This examination of the world's c o n d i t i o n  i s set f o r t h i n the multitude of s i t u a t i o n s observed by the poet, and i n the many verbs of sensing and f e e l i n g : Je sens r a v i r dedans l e s cieux Mon ame a u s s i bien que mes yeux, Quand en ces montagnes j'advise Ces grands coups de l a v e r i t y Et l e s beaux combats de l ' E g l i s e Signalez a l a pauvrete. Je v o i l e s places et l e s champs La ou l ' e f f r o i des brakes camps, Qui de tant de rudes b a t a i l l e s R'apportoyent l e s f e r s triomphans, Purent l e s chiens de l e u r s e n t r a i l l e s , Deffaicl;s de l a main des enfans. (187-198) Je v o i v e n i r avec horreur Le jour qu'au grand temple d'erreur Tu feras r i r e 1'assistance; P u i s , dormant l e dernier e f f o r t . Aux deux colomnes de l a Prance, Tu te baigneras en t a mort. (319-324) In these d e s c r i p t i v e passages d'Aubigne imparts h i s own joy and horror at what he has found (e.g. " . . . j ' a d v i s e . . . l e s beaux combats de l ' E g l i s e / S i g n a l e z a l a pauvrete"; "Purent l e s chiens This i s a standard motif often associated w i t h the landscape of Nature: c f . E.R. C u r t i u s , European L i t e r a t u r e and the L a t i n Middle Ages, trans. W i l l a r d R. Trask (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), pp. 83-85.  de l e u r s e n t r a i l l e s , / D e f f a i c t s de l a main des enfans"; "Je v o i . v e n i r avec horreur").  I n the f i r s t of these passages the poet  balances a d e s c r i p t i o n of the part that he himself w i l l play ("je  sens," " j e advise") with that of the r o l e to he taken by  the  Church ("grands coups...," " l e s beaux combats"). A major feature of d Aubigne s language i s the use of 1  1  adjectives to convey the immensity and grandeur of the s i t u a t i o n s of the protagonists of the epic. are  "Grands" and "beaux"  t y p i c a l terms used to q u a l i f y " v e r i t e " and the Protestant  Church; these adjectives are almost t e p i d compared with the p e j o r a t i v e terms which describe a c t i v i t i e s of the C a t h o l i c Church.  Both passages i l l u s t r a t e d'Aubigneig..,opinion of what  he i s to observe as a "combat" or " b a t a i l l e . "  In the second  passage the poet's f i r s t statement i s general and binary, and i s followed by a t y p i c a l l y v i v i d horror scene.  D*Aubigne  d e l i g h t s i n the idea of " l e s chiens" (the C a t h o l i c s ) as being disemboweled by " l e s enfans" (the P r o t e s t a n t s ) .  He also i n t r o -  duces c e r t a i n images, l i k e " l e s f e r s , " which take on a symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n l a t e r passages of the epic.  They become  symbolic of d e s t r u c t i o n and unavoidable e v i l , while at the same time becoming representative of the power and v i r t u e of the Protestant cause and martyrdoms.  l i k e w i s e , i n the second  passage the poet creates a symbolic and temporal landscape to See V I I , 944; V I I , 1033 f o r " l e s chiens" as the image of the s p i r i t u a l l y l o s t C a t h o l i c s . 5  12  introduce Prance's s i t u a t i o n , and v e r i f y how involved he i s w i t h a l l that i s able to be imagined and observed; the poet's "horreur" i s c o r r e l a t e d with the "mort" of the country. As the judgments and dispensations of God are i n h e r e n t l y rigorous, as we s h a l l observe s h o r t l y , the poet i m p l i e s that his  own thoughts and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of events are t o be severe  and c r i t i c a l .  The poet's w i l l , imbued with the p r i v i l e g e and  a b i l i t y to r e v e a l the t r u t h , assumes the task of uncovering the genuine c o n d i t i o n of the world: Je n'excuse pas mes e s c r i t s Pour ceux-la qui y sont r e p r i s : Mon p l a i s i r est- de l e u r d e s p l a i r e . Amis, j e trouve en l a r a i s o n Pour vous et pour eux f r u i c t c o n t r a i r e , La medicine et l e poison. (367-372)  This i n t e n t i s a l s o brought out i n many passages of the "Preface" which have been r e f e r r e d t o : Je pense a v o i r este sur eux Et pere et juge rigoureux: L'un a regret a eu l a v i e , A mon gre chaste et assez beau; L*autre e n s e v e l i t ma f o l i e Dedans un oublieux tombeau. (79-84)  1.  The Propagandist Intent In a l l the books of Les Tragiques d'Aubigne maintains h i s  p o s i t i o n as observer and voluntary e x i l e .  This p o s i t i o n allows  him c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l advantages, but even more importantly, i t i s a major feature of a propagandist technique i n the poem. As the poet states i n the "Preface," he intends to describe and  13 u l t i m a t e l y reverse the world's scandalous order of events: Du m i l i e u , des extremites de l a Prance, et mesme de plus l o i n , notamment d'un v i e i l pasteur d'Angrongne, p l u s i e u r s e s c r i t s secondoyent l e s . remonstrances de v i v e v o i x par l e s q u e l l e s l e s s e r v i t e u r s de Dieu l u i reprochoyent l e t a l e n t cache, et quelcun en ces termes: "Nous sommes ennuyes de l i v r e s qui enseignent, donnez-nous en pour esmouvoir, en un s i e c l e ou tout zele c h r e s t i e n est p e r i , ou l a d i f f e r e n c e du vray et du mensonge est comme a b o l i e , ou l e s mains des ennemis de l ' E g l i s e cachent l e sang duquel e l l e s sont tachees sous l e s presens, et l e u r s inhumani t i e s sous l a l i b e r a l i t e . " 4 Placed i n the context of the confused r e l i g i o u s climate of the l a t t e r h a l f of the s i x t e e n t h century, which culminated i n a s e r i e s of r e l i g i o u s wars between Catholics and Huguenots, Les Tragioues i s meant to lead up t o a " v i c t o r y of the true Church, unattainable on the b a t t l e f i e l d and i n the court of Prance," yet a successful campaign i n a "world of art.""^ The propagandist element i s c l e a r l y evident; the poet i s w r i t i n g w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of moving h i s audience i n favor of the Protestant cause, and r e l i e s on the d e s c r i p t i v e passages t o i n c i t e emotions and to i n s t r u c t .  The epic " i n s t r u c t s i n order to b r i n g  consolation and joy t o the f a i t h f u l , to awaken sorrow and p i t y i n the hearts of the i n d i f f e r e n t , to arouse t e r r o r i n the breasts of the i n i q u i t o u s . "  D Aubigne's i n t e n t i s to i n s t r u c t 1  as w e l l as to console: "Miseres," "Les Peux," and "Les Pers" 4 Gallimard ed., "Aux Lecteurs," p. 3. 5  *\R.L. Regosin, op. c i t . , p. 14. ^ I b i d . , p. 31.  14  include m a t e r i a l intended s p e c i f i c a l l y to arouse compassion, as "Vengeance" and "Jugement" are meant s p e c i f i c a l l y to arouse t e r r o r through the concluding d e s c r i p t i o n of the Last Judgement and the apocalyptic v i s i o n . 2.  7  The Propagandist Technique In terms of both c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and tone the poet's  stance as an observer makes i t possible f o r d'Aubigne to create a v i v i d tableaux of the major personages and supernatural forces involved i n the c o n f l i c t between the r e l i g i o u s groups.  As he  focuses, through the use of metaphor, on c e r t a i n characters that are repugnant, he o c c a s i o n a l l y i s able to b l u r the d i s t i n c t i o n between the s a t i r i c a l or s a r c a s t i c elements and the a c t u a l or r e a l by c r e a t i n g an i l l u s i o n of d i s i n t e r e s t e d observation, or by p i l i n g up metaphors u n t i l the reader i s overwhelmed by the cumulative e f f e c t .  Many examples could be drawn from each  of the books of the epic to i l l u s t r a t e d'Aubigne's technique i n t h i s sense.  rhetorical  A t y p i c a l passage i s the poet's  i n v e c t i v e against the Pope which i s found i n "Jugement:" V o i c i done, A n t e c h r i s t , l ' e s t r a i c t des f a i t s et gestes: Tes f o r n i c a t i o n s , adulteres, i n c e s t e s , Les peches ou nature est tournee a l'envers La b e s t i a l i t e , l e s grands bourdeaux ouvers, Le t r i b u t exige, l a b u l l e demandee Qui a l a sodomie en este" concedee; La place de tyran conquise par l e f e r , Les fraudes qu'exerca ce grand t i s o n d'enfer, Les empoisonnemens, assassins, calomnies, Cf. "Aux Lecteurs," pp. 6-7 f o r d'Aubigne's own d e s c r i p t i o n of the content of the various books, and h i s comment that " I I ya peu d ' a r t i f i c e en l a d i s p o s i t i o n " (p. 7 ) .  15 Les degats des pai's, des hommes et des v i e s Pour attraper l e s c l e f s ; l e s contracts, l e s marches Des diables s t i p u l a n s subtilement couches. (VII, 811-822) The effect, of the author's cumulative technique i s s i m i l a r to that achieved i n a b i b l i c a l passage found i n Paul's " E p i s t l e to the Romans" (c. A.D.  56).  Describing the r e s u l t of  the G e n t i l e s ' u n i v e r s a l scepticism Paul contends that men  are:  . . . f i l l e d w i t h a l l unrighteousness, f o r n i c a t i o n , wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness, f u l l of envy, murder, s t r i f e , d e c e i t , m a l i g n i t y ; whisperers, Backbiters, haters of God, i n s o l e n t , proud, boasters, inventors of e v i l things, disobedient to parents; Without understanding, covenant breakers, without n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n , implacable, unmerciful. (Rom. 1:29-31) Such a long compilation of a t r o c i t i e s , i n d'Aubigne's passage and that of Paul f i l l the reader with a sense of horror and repulsion.  The author i s aware that a l l of the elements i n h i s  d e s c r i p t i o n have been chosen f o r e i t h e r a s s o c i a t i v e reasons ("diables," 822; "Antechrist," 811; " f e r , " 817), or purely emotive reasons ( " f o r n i c a t i o n s , adulteres, i n c e s t e s , " 812: "Les empoisonnemens, assasins, calomnies," 819), and that the l i s t has been accumulated to persuade the reader to believe i n a d e s c r i p t i o n that he would otherwise r e j e c t .  By the e f f e c t i v e  employment of the trappings of r h e t o r i c , d Aubigne i s also able 1  to p a r t i a l l y conceal h i s own intense prejudice from the reader. D'Aubigne's d e s c r i p t i v e passages are often i n t o apostrophic sections or harangues f o r  transformed  propagandist  16  reasons.  0  The poet hopes that the reader w i l l be moved by the  elements of h i s v i s i o n s through t h e i r sheer cumulative power. D'Aubigne i s able to a t t a i n such charged d e s c r i p t i v e e f f e c t s i n the book "Princes," which i l l u s t r a t e s the foppishness of court l i f e and the l a s c i v i o u s c i r c l e of Henry I I I , or " l e s Eeux," a book which surpasses many medieval poems i n i t s extended use of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n or a l l e g o r y , and i t s catalogues of horror.  The a l t e r n a t i o n between apparently unbiased obser-  v a t i o n and apostrophic comment and elaboration i s found i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the martyrdom.of Bainam, although the d e t a i l s 9  were p a r t i a l l y supplied by Crespin's L ' H i s t o i r e des M a r t y r s : La on v i d un Bainam qui de ses bras p r e s s o i t Les fagots embrases, qui mourant embrassoit Les o u t i l s de sa mort, instruments de sa g l o i r e , Baisant, v i c t o r i e u x , l e s armes de v i c t o i r e . (IV,  J  91-94)  Another representative observational and propagandist passage i s manifest i n : La un prestre apostat, prevoyant et ruse, Veut, en ployant a tous, de tous estre excuse: L'autre, pensionnaire et v a l e t d'une femme, Employe son e s p r i t a engager son ame; L'autre f a i t l e r o y a l et, f l a t t a n t l e s deux p a r t s , Veut t r a h i r l e s Bourbons et tromper l e s Guisards; Un c h a r l a t a n de cour y vend son beau langage, Un bourreau f r o i d , sans i r e , y c o n s e i l l e un carnage, Un boiteux estranger y b a s t i t son thresor. (II,  535-543)  Examples of harangues can be found i n I I , 9-31; IV,  1193-96; and V, 719-730. 9  C f . Gallimard ed., p. 988, n. 2.  In the f i r s t passage one a n t i t h e t i c a l or paradoxical element echoes another (e.g. 92-93), as i n the second passage crime echoes crime.  Hatzfeld and Buffum have l a b e l l e d "echo  device" t h i s r e p e t i t i o n of a key word i n a passage, and f i n d that i t i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d to a fondness f o r v e r b a l conceits and p u n s . ^  D'Aubigne often repeats the key offenses of court  members or r e l i g i o u s personages to create an impression of tedious immorality.  I n the second passage the l e s s than admir-  able a c t i v i t y of "un prestre apostat" i s echoed by that of other such men.  Some terms used i n t h i s passage to i l l u s t r a t e  t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s (e.g. " f l a t t a n t , " " t r a h i r , " "tromper"),  their  character (e.g. "charlatan," "pensionnaire"), and t h e i r major interests  (e.g. "thresor," "femme") are employed i n other  d i a t r i b e s throughout the epic, and are i n a l i m i t e d sense symbolic of types of moral weakness.  I n context with the r e s t  of the epic these sections are introduced as moral asides, and f u n c t i o n l i k e dramatic monologues or s o l i l o q u i e s to j u s t i f y f o r the reader the denunciations of the f i n a l books. 3.  D'Aubi^m'^'s View of the 'Monde casse  1  D'Aubigne's views of the body p o l i t i c as evidenced i n h i s p o r t r a i t s of the protagonists of the epic are not only connected to a s p e c i f i c propagandist  purpose, but to the author's  vision  "^Imbrie Buffum, Agrippa d'Aubigne s 'Les Tragiques: A Study of the Baroque S t y l e i n Poetry (New Haven: Yale Univers i t y Press, 1951), esp. pp. 22-28. See the r e p e t i t i o n of " l e s feux" i n I , 55-58. 1  1  18 of the world i n chaos. of t h i s conception.  There are s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i v e features  Using the v i o l e n c e of Cain as a basis f o r  his argument the poet argues that with h i s crime "Nature has ceased to be h e r s e l f (Nature desnaturee), everything has become topsy-turvy, things are not what they seem to be, t h e i r r o l e s and those of human beings have become interchanged to the 12  detriment of c r e a t i o n . "  Nature i s depicted as having become 13  " b l i n d w i t h the vanishing of j u s t i c e and f a i t h . "  y  Although  according to t r a d i t i o n a l b i b l i c a l exegesis i n Adam's f a l l we sinned a l l , d'Aubigne's choice of the Cain-Abel episode as i t s equivalent i s connected with the s t r e s s on v i o l e n c e and unnaturalness that pervades the e p i c . " ^  One of the main themes  developed i n "Jugement" i s that the r o l e of Cain, and that of other members of the monde desnature : w i l l be reversed: l i s l e v i r e n t 116, l e v o i c i l e s mains hautes, Ses severes s o u r c i l s viennent confer l e u r s fautes; L'innocence a change sa c r a i n t e en majestes, Son roseau en a c i e r trenchant des deux costes, Sa c r o i x au t r i b u n a l de presence d i v i n e ; Le c i e l l ' a couronne, mais ce n'est plus d'espine. Ores vinennent trembler a. cet acte dernier Les condamneurs aux pieds du juste p r i s o n n i e r . (VII, 747-754) ""•Of. C u r t i u s , op. c i t . , pp. 94-98 f o r a h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y survey of the topos of the world as c h a o t i c , and the use of the b a s i c formal p r i n c i p l e of s t r i n g i n g together imposs i b i l i t i e s (kiCv-AToi, impos sib i l i a ) .  A g r i p p a d'Aubigne*, Les Tragi cues, ed. I.D. McFarlane (University of London: The Athlone Press, 1970), " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " p. 29. 12  1 5  I b i d . , p. 29.  1 4  S e e V I I , 1127, 1139 f o r references to Adam.  19  D' Aubigne's view of Nature engenders h i s a t t i t u d e toward C h r i s t ( " I l s l e v i r e n t l i e ) , and members of the C a t h o l i c cause ("les  tyrans v i o l e n s ; " Preface, 265).  His a t t i t u d e toward the  C a t h o l i c Church i s c l e a r l y made known: 0 Desert, promesse des cieux, I n f e r t i l e mais bien heureuxl Tu as une seule abondance, Tu produis l e s c e l e s t e s dons, Et l a f e r t i l i t e de France Ne g i s t qu'en espineux chardons. (Preface, 169-174) In the f i n a l culmination of themes i n "Jugement," a p o r t r a i t of the world and Nature i s painted i n which "man's c i v i l i z e d mask has been removed to r e v e a l h i s e s s e n t i a l bar15  barism.  For the orthodox, i t i s the end of secular u n i t y . "  In a l l the sections of h i s epic d'Aubigne imagines himself as alone capable of conceiving the true state of the world; he alone can see the a c t u a l perspective of things and events. Morally the tableau painted of the world i s i n s p i r e d by a severe examination of the poet's own conscience and h i s propagandist i n t e n t .  S t y l i s t i c a l l y , t h i s e f f e c t i s achieved  through the predominance of cumulative and echo techniques, and the verbs of sensing and f e e l i n g .  Through h i s examination of  the world the poet prepares a bridge from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of those u n j u s t l y accused, the martyrs of "Les Feux," to a f i n a l 15  "llcFarlane, op. c i t . , p. 25.  20 prophetic and apocalyptic v i s t a i n "Hierusalem qui es Babel ensanglantee" ( V I I , 272).  An understanding of the poet's  r h e t o r i c a l stance as observer i s thus fundamental to a d i s cussion of the poet's notion that h i s source of i n s p i r a t i o n and a r t i s t i c d i r e c t i o n i s derived from God Himself.  B. 1.  The Second Jonah  D' AubigneV s. &iffe> of.. Prophecy  •  I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the poet's part as a trumpeter and prophet of God's w i l l are found i n numerous apocalyptic a l l u s i o n s i n the epic, but e s p e c i a l l y i n the f u l l y developed Last Judgment and 16 end of the world s e t t i n g s of "Jugement."  D'Aubigne's i n s i s -  tence upon h i s prophetic a b i l i t y i s a major aspect of h i s 17  rhetorical position,  and combines w i t h h i s view of himself  as an observer i n order to f u r t h e r the propagandist and a r t i s t i c d i r e c t i o n of the epic. D'Aubigne's a f f i r m a t i o n of h i s unique g i f t of prophecy i s c l e a r l y evident i n "Miseres" where the author w i l l " ^ b r i s e r j l e s rochers et l e respect d'erreur"(7), and affirms that: -1  c  A l b e r t i n o Mussato (1261-1329), author of the L a t i n tragedy Ecerinus. states i n h i s seventh e p i s t l e that "the o l d poets were prophets of God and that poetry i s a second theology," c f . C u r t i u s , op. c i t . , p. 216. C f . V, 572 ("la trompette"); V, 948 ("De trompette"); VII, 699 ("la trompette sonne"); V I I , 1053 ("des trompettes l e b r u i t " ) f o r use of the trumpet as a symbol of the poet's prophetic powers. 1 7  21 dessous l e s autels des i d o l e s j'advise Le visage meurtri de l a captive E g l i s e Qui a sa delivrance (aux despense des hazards) M'appelle, m'animant de ses trenchans regards. Mes d e s i r s sont des-ja volez outre l a r i v e Du Rubicon trouble. ( I , 13-18) This passage suggests C h r i s t ' s expulsion of the merchants from the temple, a scene that was popular i n baroque a r t , and would h i n t at a kind of quasi-saviour r o l e on the part of the author. The poet's a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s own s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s regard i s i n d i c a t e d by the manner through which d'Aubigne o f t e n pretends to r e l a y messages from heaven and i t s angels to the reader.  For  example, i n "Les Fers" the poet describes a v i s i o n i n which an angel of God has unlocked heaven's secrets to f o r e t e l l the approaching damnation of the i n i q u i t o u s : Voy de Jerusalem l a nation remise L'Antechrist abattu, en triomphe 1'Eglise. (V, 1413-14) Although d'Aubigne invokes the grace of Melpomene ( I , 79), the muse of tragedy, he l a t e r c a l l s upon the d i v i n e assistance and b l e s s i n g of God: Condui mon oeuvre, 5 Dieu! a. ton nom, donne moy Qu'entre tant de martyrs, champions de l a foy, De chasque sexe, estat ou aage, a ton s a i n c t temple Je puisse conscrer un tableau pour exemple. (IV, 19-22) I n "Vengeances" d'Aubigne's task i s made analogous t o that of 19 Jonah, the b i b l i c a l prophet.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that  18 19 See, f o r example, E l Greco's "Expulsion of the Merchants -Hegosin, c i t . , Np. from the Temple" op. (London, a t51. i o n a l G a l l e r y , c. 1600).  both, h e s i t a t e to answer the c a l l of God: Dieu" (VI, 115).  "Je m'enfuyois de  Both have been s t i r r e d or awakened by God:  "Le doigt de Dieu me leve et l'ame encore vive/M'anime a guerroyer l a puante Ninive" (VI, 137-38). messages of doom.  And both carry  As Jonah was to warn ancient Nineveh,  d'Aubigne intends to warn France of i t s imminent d e s t r u c t i o n . Indeed, P a r i s i s the seat of corruption i n France according to the  poet, and i s considered the modern counterpart of Nineveh:"  " A i n s i l e s v i s i o n s qui seront i c i peintes/Seront exemples v r a i s de nos h i s t o i r e s sainctes" (VI, 89-90).  As the poet's task  i s to announce the f a t e of P a r i s and France, he i s also assigned the  task of v o i c i n g the p l i g h t of the "modern chosen people,"  as d'Aubinge regards the Huguenots, and of g i v i n g utterance to the  f a t e of both the elect and damned i n a v i s i o n of the Last 22 Judgment and apocalypse. XSHK3E3E3£SKK3€S3€3ES=SS5£SXS In the major part of "Jugement" d'Aubigne r e l a t e s step by step the a c t i v i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Last Judgment. He r e c a l l s the t a l e of Gideon, which i s intended as a reminder 20  This h e s i t a t i o n i s often an aspect of the t o p i c of a f f e c t e d modesty, see Curtius, op. c i t . , pp. 83-85. Pi  Jonah i s summoned by God (Jonah 1:1-2), h e s i t a t e s to do God's w i l l (1:3)» i s o l a t e s himself (1:5-6: 1:17), has communion with God during h i s i s o l a t i o n (2:1-10), prophesies (3? 3-4), and f i n a l l y observes the f u l f i l l m e n t of the prophecy (3:5). 22 Regosin, op. c i t . , p. 14. Regosin suggests that the source f o r d'Aubigne's c o r r e l a t i o n between the Huguenots and the t r i b e s of I s r a e l i s to be found i n Henri B u l l i n g e r ' s sixteenth century t r e a t i s e Cent Sermons sur 1'Apocalypse ( c f . pp. 61-67).  that God d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between the e l e c t and the damned.  In  cosmological terms t h i s ordering of the s p i r i t u a l world i s shown i n a s p a c i a l organization of the c e l e s t i a l abode i n which the good are stationed on the r i g h t hand of God, and the wicked on 23 the l e f t . The scene also represents the e l e v a t i o n of the Protestants to a state of b l i s s : y  T e l l e est du sacre" mont l a generation Qui au s e i n de Jacob met son a f f e c t i o n Le jour s'approche auquel auront ces debonnaires Fermes p r o s p e r i t i e s , vp.c^toires o r d i n a i r e s ; Voire dedans l e u r s l i c t s i l faudra qu'on l e s oye S'esgayer en chantant de t r e s s a i l l a n t e joye. (VII,  63-68)  In some of d'Aubigne*s prophetic passages the r h e t o r i c a l device of accumulating verbs, or d e s c r i p t i v e nouns and adjectives i s s t i l l prominent (e.g. "ces debonnaires/Fermes p r o s p e r i t i e s , v i c t o i r e s o r d i n a i r e s ) , although the temporal phase here i s the future ("auront," "faudra").  The f e e l i n g of immediacy which i s  part of many of the previous d e s c r i p t i v e passages i s replaced by a tone of assurance and r e s o l u t i o n about eventual reward and retribution.  There i s a marked d i f f e r e n c e i n the tone of the  f i r s t f i v e books, and that of the f i n a l sections of "Vengeance" and "Jugement" r e s u l t i n g from t h i s s h i f t from the observation of the present i l l s of the Protestants to the a f f i r m a t i o n of d i v i n e r e t r i b u t i o n and the l a s t days. the  In passages r e l a t i n g  future of the Protestant cause the vocabulary of horror i s  replaced by the language of v i c t o r y (e.g. "joye," " p r o s p e r i t i e s , " ^Cf. "L'un recoive l e p r i x , l ' a u t r e l e chastiment" ( I I I , 51). and "A prononcer des bons et mauvais l a sentence" ( V I I , 504). 2  24 and " v i c ' t o i r e s " ) . In an a n t i t h e t i c a l manner d'Aubigne prophesies what i s to become of the antagonists i n Les Tragiques and makes a judgment regarding the justness of the r e t r i b u t i o n : I l s ^Protestants] auront tout d'un temps a l a bouche l e u r s chants Et porteront au poing un g l a i v e a deux tranchans Pour f o u l e r a, l e u r s pieds, pour d e s t r u i r e et d e s f a i r e Des ennemis de Dieu l a c a n a i l l e adversaire Voire pour empoigner et mener p r i s o n n i e r s Les Empereurs, l e s Rois, et princes l e s plus f i e r s , Les mettre aux ceps, aux f e r s , punir l e u r arrogance Par l e s e f f e c t s sanglans d'une jus^e vengeance; S i que ton pied vainqueur tout e n t i e r baignera Dans l e sang qui du meurtre a tas regorgera, Et dedans l e canal de l a t u e r i e extreme Les chiens se gorgeront du sang de l e u r chef mesme. (VII, 69-80) As i n harangues d i r e c t e d at the C a t h o l i c s the language i s that of horror and v i o l e n c e .  In the contrast that i s established  between "leurs chants" (69) and the f a t e of the "ennemis de Dieu" (72), a v i v i d p i c t u r e i s created of the kind of vengeance d'Aubigne' envisions (e.g. " l e sang," " l e s e f f e c t s sanglans," and " l e s chiens se gorgeront du sang de l e u r chef mesme"). A l l the g u i l t y , whether from the court or Chruch, are taken prisoner. The neatness of the i n t e r n a l p a r a l l e l s and binary s t r u c t u r e of the passage marks the d e f i n i t i v e nature of ultimate Protestant retribution. In a d d i t i o n to sections that are a pragmatic confirmation of various stages of the f i n a l Judgment, these sections a l s o serve to disseminate Protestant dogma; d'Aubigne acts as a kind of s p i r i t u a l i n t e r l o c u t o r between the dispensations of God  and  the s u f f e r i n g Protestants who are depicted as being without the  25 support of an a f f i r m a t i o n of f a i t h .  The crux of d'Aubigne's  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of doctrine concerns the r e s u r r e c t i o n of the body, and  begins: N'apportez point i c i , Sadduciens pervers, Les corps manges des loups: qui l e s t i r e des vers Des loups l e s t i r e r a . S i on demande comme Un homme s o r t i r a hors de l a c h a i r de 1'homme Qui l'aura devore.. . (VII, 341-345) Energetic and charged language can be traced throughout  the long s e c t i o n on the r e s u r r e c t i o n of the body since t h i s i s an i n t e r l u d e i n d'Aubigne's d i a t r i b e against the C a t h o l i c s , and he must s u s t a i n the correct emotional tone.  The poet employs  an echo technique with the key word "loup:" i n the context of h i s epic the "wolf" i s symbolic of the moral nature of the C a t h o l i c as the "lamb" i s representative of the P r o t e s t a n t . ^ 2  The use of the word colors the tone of the passage i n l i g h t of what has come before, j u s t as "pervers" i s a generalized echo of the nature of the C a t h o l i c s ' involvement i n the r e l i g i o u s conflict.  As prophetic, the purpose of t h i s passage i s also  meant t o r e a f f i r m that the cause of the C a t h o l i c s w i l l be des2  troyed, j u s t as the state of the monde casse i s to be inverted: L'Eternal jugera et l e s corps et l e s ames, Les benis a l a g l o i r e et l e s autres aux flammes. (VII, 327-28) D'Aubigne, a f t e r having prepared the tone and atmosphere f o r the s e t t i n g of the Last Judgment, and having elaborated on Cf. V I I , 5; V I I , 946. See pp. 5-6 i n t h i s study.  26 the change i n the moral and cosmological order that i s to take place, leads i n t o and p r o p h e t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t s the l a s t sequence of events which i s to take form i n the apocalypse. H i s v i s i o n culminates i n a profound d e s c r i p t i o n of the merveilleux. 2.  The Apocalypse:  'Au Giron de Dieu'  D Aubigne''s program f o r the f i n a l books of h i s epic follows 1  the general order of events i n the "Revelation of St. John:" the v i s i o n of the Son of Man ( V I I , 895-902; Rev. 1:16) i s followed by the opening of the s i x t h s e a l ( V I I , 903-931; Rev. 6:12-17), the throne judgment ( V I I , 727-31; Rev. 20:11-12), the opening of the book of l i f e ( V I I , 797-802; Rev. 20:12), the second death ( V I I , 935-46; Rev. 21:8), the e t e r n a l s u f f e r i n g of the i n i q u i t o u s ( V I I , 1014-28), establishment of a new Jerusalem (VII, 1057-62; Rev. 21:1 - 22:5) and the marriage of the Lamb ( V I I , 1167-1170; Rev. 1 9 : 7 - 9 ) .  26  Apparently p e c u l i a r to  d'Aubigne's v i s i o n of the apocalypse i s a scene i n heaven where various members of the Protestant f a i t h appear before the Judgment seat to t e s t i f y against the e v i l doers who have used 27 them f o r t h e i r own v i l e purposes. The v i s i o n s of the apocalypse do not stand out as the only ?6  For a d i s c u s s i o n of some of -the s t r u c t u r a l problems associated with the order of events i n the "Revelation of S t . John," see Andre F e u i l l e t , The Apocalypse, trans. T.B. Crane (Staten I s l a n d : Society of St. Paul pub. 1964), pp. 23-36, and A u s t i n F a r r e r , The Revelation of St. John the Divine (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1964), pp. 19-23. Cf. V I I , 770-778  27 examples of the extremely v i v i d use of metaphor and imagery, nor are they the only instances of d'Aubigne's communication of the spectacular or merveilleux i n Les Tragiques.  Sufferings  of the Protestant martyrs i n "Les Feux" are described i n the same kind of terms.  The exceptional effectiveness of the  apocalyptic episodes i n c a r r y i n g out the author's  propagandist  i n t e n t are l i n k e d with the emphasis that has been d i r e c t e d toward the c r e a t i o n of dramatic a c t i o n .  D'Aubigne's apocalypse  i s intended as a t h e a t r i c a l representation of the l a s t days i n which the reader w i l l be overwhelmed by the f i n a l sequence of events, and convinced that the poet has resolved the moral c o n f l i c t of the protagonists.  The poet's r h e t o r i c a l method i s  to develop c o n f l i c t by means of metaphor, v e r b a l emphasis, p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , and  dialogue.  As d'Aubigne often employs a cumulative technique w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l passages, the a c t i o n of the apocalypse becomes progressively more dramatic.  In one of the f i r s t apocalyptic  episodes the poet focuses on the t e r r o r kindled i n the hearts 28 of the i n i q u i t o u s by the appearance of the Son of Man: I I s o r t un g l a i v e aigu de l a bouche d i v i n e , L'enfer glouton, bruyant, devant ses pieds chemine. D'une l a i d e t e r r e u r l e s damnables t r a n s i s , Mesmes des l e s o r t i r des tombeaux obscurcis V i r e n t bien d'autres yeux l e c i e l suant de peine, Lors q u ' i l se preparoit a l e u r peine prochaine; Et v o i c i quels yeux v i r e n t l e s condamnes F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the "Son of Man," c f . D.S. R u s s e l l , The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : The Westminster Press, 1964), pp. 324-352. c w  1  28 Les beaux jours de l e u r regne en douleurs termines. (VII,.  29  895-902)  The directness and spectacle of the opening d e s c r i p t i o n , and the p e r s o r C i f i c a t i o n of " l ' e n f e r " i n t e n s i f y the c o n f l i c t of the passage.  The multitude of verbs (e.g. " s o r t , " "bruyant,"  " t r a n s i s , " " s o r t i r , " " v i r e n t , " "se preparoit," " v i r e n t " ) , and references to the eyes (899, 901) and pain (897, 899, 900) heighten the f e e l i n g of spectacle. D'Aubign^'s attempt to create a v i s u a l spectacle becomes even more obvious i n the v i s i o n of the throne of judgment: Toutes ames venues Font l e u r s sieges en rond en l a voute des nues Et l a l e s Oherubins ont au m i l i e u plante Un throne rayonnant de saincte majeste I I n'en sort que m e r v e i l l e et qu'ardente lumiere. (VII, 727-31) The poet seems to d i r e c t the reader's a t t e n t i o n to that spot i n the spectacle ("Et l a " ) where the merveilleux dominates i n terms of radiance and majesty.  The i n t e r a c t i o n between heaven  and earth of the preceding books i s here replaced by the mutual i n t e r a c t i o n between heavenly Cherubs and a l l men who are brought before the throne. D'AubigmS's s t y l e has i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c prophetic stamp.  He elaborates upon the imagery suggested by  29  Cf. Rev. 1:16: "And he had i n h i s r i g h t hand seven s t a r s ; and out of h i s mouth went a sharp two-edged sword; and h i s countenance was as the sun shineth i n i t s strength." Cf. Rev. 20:11-12: "And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God, and the books were opened; and another book was opened, which i s the book of l i f e . And the dead were judged out of those things which were w r i t t e n i n the books, according to t h e i r works./ And the sea gave up the dead that were i n i t , and death and hades d e l i v e r e d up the dead that were i n them; and they were judged every man according to t h e i r works." J  29 the  B i b l e , and considers himself capable of combining a l l the 31  elements i n t o a " t h e a t r i c a l canvas."^  The only t h i n g that i s  missing to make h i s v i s i o n even more spectacular i n v i s u a l splendour and emotional power i s dialogue.  As the tone of  immediacy and impending triumph become c e n t r a l to the d e s c r i p t i o n , dialogue i s indeed more frequent: Mais plus, comme l e s f i l s du c i e l ont au visage La forme de l e u r chef, de C h r i s t l a vive image, Les autres de l e u r pere ont l e t e i n t et l e s t r a i t s , Du prince Belzebub v e r i t a b l e s p o r t r a i t s . A l a premiere mort i l s furent e f f r o y a b l e s , La seconderedouble, ou l e s abominables Orient aux monts cornus: "0 monts, que faites-vous? Esbranlez vos rochers et vous crevez sur nous; Cachez nous, et cachez l'opprobre et l ' i n f a m i e Qui, comme chiens, nous met hors l a cite' de v i e ; Cachez nous pour ne v o i r l a haute majeste De l'Aigneau triomphant sur l e throsne mpnte." (VII, 935-946)^ 2  The recurrent images of " l e s f i l s du C i e l , " " C h r i s t , " "Du Prince Belzebub," " l e s abominables," and "L'Aigneau" culminate i n the triumph of the Lamb.  The poet's r e s o l u t i o n of the moral  dilemma i s also found i n the invocation t o the heavenly Jerusalem where a state of n a t u r a l order i s established i n honor, peace, and happiness: Et l a nouvelle t e r r e , et l a neufve c i t e , Jerusalem l a s a i n c t e , annoncent t a bonte! Tout est p l e i n de ton nom. Sion l a bien-heureuse N'a p i e r r e dans ses murs qui ne s o i t precieuse, The term i s suggested by I . Buff urn, Agrippa d'Aubigne*' s 'Les Tragiques:' A Study of the Baroque S t y l e i n Poetry (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951), p. 58. C f . Rev. 21:8: "But the f e a r f u l and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and the f o r n i c a t o r s , and sorcerers and i d o l a t e r s , and a l l l i a r s , s h a l l have t h e i r part i n the lake which burneth with f i r e and brimstone, which i s the second death. 5 2  Ni citoyen que Sainct, et n'aura pour jamais Que v i c t o i r e , qu'honneur, que p l a i s i r , et que paix. (VII, 1057-1062)Likewise, hyperbolic language appears i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the Lamb: Nul secret ne l e u r peut estre l o r s secret, pource Qu'ils puisoyent l a lumiere a sa premiere source: I l s avoyent pour m i r o i r l ' o e i l qui f a i t v o i r tout o e i l , I l s avoyent pour flambeau l e s o l e i l du s o l e i l (VII,  1167-1170) ^ 5  While heralding the triumph of the Lamb and Jerusalem d*Aubigne informs the reader about what w i l l happen to Protestants under t h i s new moral order.  They w i l l , l i k e  the  heavens themselves, r e t u r n to a state of n a t u r a l order and  per  f e c t i o n , and w i l l be r u l e d by God's d i v i n e love: Tous nos p a r f a i c t s amours r e d u i t s en un amour Comme nos plus beaux jours r e d u i t s en un beau jour. On s'enquiert s i l e f r e r e y connoistra l e f r e r e , La mere son enfant et l a f i l l e son pere, La femme l e mari; l'oubliance en e f f e c t Ne diminuera point un estat s i p a r f a i c t . (VII, 1105-1110^ On the purely personal and p r i v i l e g e d l e v e l , the poet i s now s i l e n t , and i s l e d on h i s own ascent to heaven: Mes sens n'ont plus de sens, 1*esprit de moy s'envole, Le coeur r a v i se t a i s t , ma bouche est sans parole: Tout meurt, l'ame s ' e n f u i t , et reprenant son l i e u Exstatique se pasme au giron de son Dieu. (VII, 1215-18) I t i s f i t t i n g that the poet's "Bouche est sans parole" since •Z'Z  ^ " I l s " ( l l 6 8 f f . ) r e f e r s to the companions with C h r i s t i n the t r i b u l a t i o n . 34  Protestants w i l l also be ruled by perfect memory (VII, 1145-50) and perfect knowledge (VII, 1141-42).  31 a l l human a c t i v i t y ceases with the l a s t stage of the and  s i n c e a l l t h a t the poet has vowed to accomplish  has been f u l f i l l e d .  As d i v i n e epic or tragedy the  brought about the success  apocalypse, i n h i s epic  poet has  of the P r o t e s t a n t cause, and has  r e s t o r e d Prance to her proper place of honor.  thus  Prance, once  35  portrayed as d e s o l a t e i n "Miseres  M > >  0 Prance desolee! 6 t e r r e sanguinaire, Non pas t e r r e , mais cendrel o mere, s i c'est mere Que t r a h i r ses enfans aux douceurs de son s e i n Et quand on l e s m e u r t r i t l e s s e r r e r de sa main, ( I , 89-92) i s r e v i v e d before the a p o c a l y p t i c sequence by a k i n d of dramatic  p e r i p e t e i a of the P r o t e s t a n t s ' s i t u a t i o n .  In moral  terms, the overweening p r i d e or h u b r i s of the C a t h o l i c s , most f u l l y r e v e a l e d i n the g i l d e d s p e c t a c l e of "La Chambre Doree," 37  has been destroyed. God,  Thus, i n the poet's f i n a l union  with  which i s drawn i n sensual imagery (e.g. "Exstatique  se  pasme au g i r o n de son Dieu," V I I , 1218), the p r o p h e t i c c y c l e i s complete and an absolute s t a t e of moral normality r e s t o r e d to  the u n i v e r s e . 35  Prance i s d e s c r i b e d , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , a t once as a v i c t i m , and as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her own s i t u a t i o n , c f . I, 333-62; I, 423-24; I, 179-90; I, 683-88. A r i s t o t l e , De A r t e P o e t i c a (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1965), see 1452:22 f o r a d e f i n i t i o n of p e r i p e t e i a , ?  37 D'Aubigne o r i g i n a l l y intended to c a l l t h i s book of h i s e p i c " U b r i s , " c f . Regosin, op. c i t . , p. 44.  32 c  «  D'Aubigne's Choice of Genre and h i s Use of the B i b l e The development of d'Aubigne's r h e t o r i c a l stance was  a s s i s t e d by h i s choice of genre, and the use of b i b l i c a l p a r a l l e l s and analogies. Although d'Aubigne' died i n 1630, before c r i t i c i s m of the epic, and e s p e c i a l l y the b i b l i c a l epic, reached an apogee, he seems to have perceived c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l advantages of the genre which are h i g h l i g h t e d by t h i s l a t e r criticism.  Using t h i s seventeenth-century c r i t i c i s m as a touch-  stone the advantages of the genre that d'Aubigne must have env i s i o n e d can be seen. In the middle of the seventeenth century Chapelain affirmed the predominant a t t i t u d e of French c r i t i c s toward the r e q u i r e ments of the epic as a l i t e r a r y genre by emphasizing i t s s p e c i a l moral task or f u n c t i o n .  To Chapelain, Marolles, and numerous  other French c r i t i c s , an epic poem was "principalement c e l l e qui chante l e s heros... cherche a. elever l e s coeurs aux actions extraordinaires."  In contrast to tragedy, the epic was not  to be concerned "with the purging of e v i l passions but w i t h the 39  i n s p i r a t i o n of good."  According to these c r i t i c s such an  incitement to goodness was to be e i t h e r predominantly p o l i t i c a l or moral; Marolles voiced the theory that the e f f e c t should be p o l i t i c a l , whereas Chapelain thought that the epic should serve Quoted i n R.A. Sayce, The French B i b l i c a l Epic i n the Seventeenth Century (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1953T, p. 8. Cf. also pp. 7-8 on the possible high esteem i n which the epic was held. 5 9  I b i d . , p. 8.  33 "sur tout a f a i r e concevoir une haute idee de 1'amour de son pais et des respects q u i sont dubs aux L o i x d i v i n e s et humains."^ In e i t h e r case, both views tended to weaken the d i c t a of Horace and A r i s t o t l e that the epic should n e c e s s a r i l y i n c i t e  pleasure  i n the reader's mind by i t s magnification of the concept of utility.  For d'Aubigne, years before c r i t i c i s m of the genre  reached i t s dogmatic stage, the epic genre was chosen because i t allowed him to elaborate upon both the moral and p o l i t i c a l elements i n h i s work.  The n a r r a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the genre  were an i d e a l v e h i c l e f o r r e l a t i n g the i n t r i g u e s of Henry I I I , Catherine de Medici and the French court.  The genre allowed  d'Aubigne to portray and s a t i r i z e aspects of the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n on a l a r g e s c a l e .  Secondly, the epic was i d e a l l y  suited to the poet's conception of himself as a kind of harbinger and prophetic voice of the Protestant v i c t o r y ; the genre, by d e f i n i t i o n , would permit digressions on such topics as the resurr e c t i o n of the soulc. w i t h i n the frame of an 'epic' s p i r i t u a l journey to G-od Himself. In a d d i t i o n to the u t i l i t a r i a n advantages of the epic, d'Aubigne seized upon the use of the merveilleux f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g ^°Quoted by Sayce, op. c i t . , 7-9. ^ " C u r t i u s , op. c i t . , pp. 119-20. Alan of L i l l e ' s A n t i claudianus de A n t i r u f i n o (c. 1182 or 1183) i s discussed as the f i r s t of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l - t h e o l o g i c a l epics, a genre that i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the s c i e n t i f i c or d i d a c t i c poem by i t s use of epic a c t i o n .  0  34 the form of several books i n Les Tragiques. especially that of "Princes" and "Les Feux."  Although seventeenth-century  critics  of the genre did not emphasize the element of the merveilleux to the extent that Tasso implied, they " a l l believed the merveilleux to be an integral part of the epic which helped to 42  give i t i t s special form."  D'Aubigne's use of the merveilleux  have been discussed i n the apocalyptic passages, and are found i n the numerous descriptions of the martyred Protestants and lascivious court members i n the other books.  In one of the  most gruesome scenes of "Miseres" the author relates how  a  peasant begged him to k i l l him as quickly as possible, and  how  he found the man's wife beaten to death and her c h i l d nearly dead from starvation.  The gruesomeness of the description i s  c l e a r l y evident: ...1'horrible anatomie De l a mere assechee: e l l e avoit de dehors Sur ses reins dissipez traine, roule son corps, Jambes et bras rompus, une amour maternelle L'esmouvant pour autrui beaucoup plus que pour e l l e . A tant ell'approcha sa teste du berceau, La releva dessus; i l ne sortoit plus d'eau De ses yeux consumez; de ses playes mortelles Le sang mouilloit 1'enfant. (I, 414-422)^5 ^ Sayce, op. c i t . , p. 12. In seventeenth-century c r i t i c i s m Boileau objected to the merveilleux Chretien since he thought that C h r i s t i a n i t y was weakened by "contact with the f i c t i o n which i s essential to the epic," and his b e l i e f that Christian miracles were either " d u l l or r i d i c u l o u s . " C r i t i c s , l i k e Desmarets de Saint-Sorlin objected to such an opinion on the grounds that as the ancients celebrated their own gods, Christians should examine their own r e l i g i o n for an element of the marvelous. Cf. also I Buffum; op. c i t . , p. 55 for Boileau's probable opinion of Les Tragiques. ^ A l s o quoted by I. Buffum, Agrippa d'Aubigne''s 'Les Tragiques.' [ p. 35.  Such s u f f e r i n g i s d r a m a t i c a l l y opposed to l i f e of members of the c o u r t of Henry I I I : La un prest-re apost-at, prevoyant et ruse, Veut, en ployant a tous, de tous est-re excuse; L'autre, pensionnaire et v a l e t d'une femme, Employe son e s p r i t a engager son ame; L'autre f a i t l e r o y a l et, f l a t t a n t l e s deux p a r t s , Veut t r a h i r l e s Bourbons et tromper l e s Guisards; Un c h a r l a t a n de cour y vend son beau langage Un bourreau f r o i d , sans i r e , y c o n s e i l l e un carnage, Un boiteux estranger y bast-it son t h r e s o r . . . (II, 535-543) 44  Le t i e r s par e l l e Bien f i n mais non Pour s e r v i r a son Un sodomite athee,  f u t n o u r r i en f a i n e a n t , prudent, et v o u l u t , l'enseignant jeu, l u y ordonner pour maistre un maquereau, un t r a i s t r e . ( I I , 865-868)45  Another seventeenth-century  c r i t e r i o n f o r the e p i c , the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of s p e c i f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n m a t e r i a l , i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the context of d'Aubigne's Les Tragiques.  The l o g i c a l r e s u l t  of the arguments f o r C h r i s t i a n m a t e r i a l i s that the source of t h i s m a t e r i a l should be the B i b l e , s i n c e i t i s there that the h e r o i c and miraculous t o be found:  R.A.  elements of the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n are  Sayce f u r t h e r p o i n t s out, "the m a j o r i t y of  c r i t i c s took t h i s view and used only b i b l i c a l examples to support t h e i r arguments." *' 4  b i b l i c a l analogy,  In a d d i t i o n to the use of a c e n t r a l  passages to support a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t of  See Gallimard ed., p. 940,  notes  See G a l l i m a r d ed., p. 947,  n.4.  6-7.  Sayce, op. c i t . , p. 17. J.. T r e n e l devotes an e n t i r e book to L'Element b i b l i q u e dans l'oeuvre poetique d'Agrippa d'Aubigne ( P a r i s : L. C e r f , 19047, and c f . a l s o M.P. Hagiwara, French E p i c Poetry i n the Seventeenth Century (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1972), pp. 204-206.  36 doctrine or conception of Nature, and the influences of b i b l i c a l s t y l i s t i c s , which have been discussed, d'Aubigne used the B i b l e for making other character analogies.  The Roman C a t h o l i c Church  i s c a l l e d Babylon: "Sion ne r e c o i t d'eux que refus et rudesses, Mais Babel l e s ranconne et p i l l e l e u r s r i c h e s s e s : Tels sont l e s monts cornus q u i , a v a r i c i e u x , Monstrent l ' o r aux enfers et l e s neiges aux cieux." ( I , 1301-04) The Pope becomes the beast who f i g h t s with the Lamb, and i s associated w i t h Apollyon, the k i n g of the abyss: Appollyon, t u as en ton impure table Prononce, blasphemant, que C h r i s t e£t une f a b l e ; (VII, 839-40) Drawing h i s imagery at random, but mainly from the Old Testament, d'Aubigne generally c o r r e l a t e s h i s protagonists w i t h b i b l i c a l 47 counterparts.  The E v a n g e l i c a l Church, l i k e the t r i b e s of  I s r a e l i : becomes a pregnant woman who i s forced i n t o the desert to escape her oppressors: Ou s o i t l o r s que de l u y e l l e f u y o i t enceinte Aux l i e u x i n h a b i t e s , aux effroyans deserts, Chassee, et non vaincue, en despit des enfers; ^ ' C e r t a i n passages are simply reminiscent of b i b l i c a l events. The f i r s t of the s t r i c t l y apocalyptic passages, i n Chambre Doree. i n which God descends t o earth amidst t e r r e s t i a l confusion i n response to the prayers of the persecuted Huguenots, r e c a l l s to mind the devastation brought about by the seventh bowl of the wrath of God.in Revelations (Rev. 16:17-21): Perca, passa son chef; a l ' e s c l a i r de ses yeux Les cieux se sont fendus; tremblans, suans de c r a i n t e , Les hauts monts ont c r o u l l e : cette Majes^te sainct-e Paroissant f i t trembler l e s simples elements, Et du monde esbranla l e s stables fondements. ( I l l , 140-144)  37 La mer l a c i r c u i t , et son espoux l u y donne La lune sous l e s pieds, l e s o l e i l pour couronne. (VI,. 150-154)  The B i b l e was the ever-present source i n d'Aubigne-'s mind f o r making an e f f i c i o u s c o r r e l a t i o n between h i s t o r i c a l - r e l i g i o u s materials. To sum up, d'Aubigne had a f i r m grasp of the nature and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the epic genre which he used to e s t a b l i s h h i s stance as a poet, and f u l f i l l h i s propagandist i n t e n t .  The  poet's use of apocalyptic references i n h i s epic, and the apocalyptic power of "Jugement" are an i n t e g r a l part of d'Aubigne's prophetic p o s i t i o n and lead to the l o g i c a l culmination of the themes of h i s epic.  But, i n s p i t e of a propagandist i n t e n t ,  c l e a r l y revealed through the r h e t o r i c a l techniques of the echo, cumulative p i l i n g , verbs of v i o l e n c e , and elements of spectacle, d'Aubigne's epic perhaps approaches c l o s e r to the grandeur of Paradise Lost and the Divina Oommedia than any other epic i n French l i t e r a t u r e .  Rosemund Tuve's statement concerning  Elizabethan authors i s j u s t i f i e d with reference to d'Aubigne's work, and f o r the d i s c u s s i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter of Donne's "Anniversaries:"  "But, even so ( i n s p i t e of t h e i r d i d a c t i c  i n t e n t i o n s ) , poet d i f f e r e d from propagandist l e s s i n aim than i n the depth and scope of h i s v i s i o n , and h i s methods d i f f e r e d l e s s i n kind than i n s u b t l e t y and power."  49  ^ F o r the esteem i n which d'Aubigne's epic has been held, c f . Hagiwara, op. c i t . , pp. 219-223. 49  ^Rosemund Tuve, Elizabethan and Metaphysical Imagery (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1947), p. 116. See a l s o I . Buffum, Agrippa d'Aubigne's 'Les Tragiques.' p. 11.  CHAPTER II JOHN DOME • S.' "ANNIVERSARIES" A.  John Donne:  Introduction to the 'Anniversaries'  In length alone, the "Anniversaries" are greatest among Donne's poems and the most complex of the metaphysical poems. They have been the subject of much l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m  concerning  the nature of the author's a r t i s t i c i n t e n t or purpose, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of "Shee," and t h e i r formal or s t r u c t u r a l organization. Indeed, i t i s probably the d i f f i c u l t y over motive that has proved the most serious obstacle to a proper understanding of the poems.  Unless t h i s question i s resolved, "Shee" or E l i z a -  beth Drury can p o s s i b l y be seen as the object of Donne's s e r v i l e flattery.  But the c r i t i c Frank Manley argues that Donne "was  never a s e r v i l e dependent f l a t t e r i n g the memory of h i s patron's daughter to secure a roof over h i s head, as i s often believed.""*" Quite apart from t h i s question of motive there i s also a d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a consistent structure i n the poems; they have been seen as d i f f u s e and c a r e l e s s l y l i n k e d works by several critics. Manley contends that everyone agrees that the "Anniversaries" have something to do with r e l i g i o n , and that they are i n some way a bridge between Donne's e a r l y and l a t e verse, h i s love p  poetry, and the "Divine Poems."  They are also occasional poems  "*"John Donne: The 'Anniversaries, ' ed. Frank Manley ( B a l timore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1963), p. 5. 2  I b i d . , pp. 9-10.  39 which were w r i t t e n at the request  of the Drury f a m i l y and  i n the e l e g i a c conventions of the day.  In t h i s sense, they  were meant to p r a i s e the dead E l i z a b e t h Drury as openly c o p i o u s l y as p o s s i b l e , and her f a m i l y .  are  and  thus help to assuage the g r i e f of  Of course, Donne's use  of the e l e g i a c genre would  not necessarilj'- mean that Donne f e l t any deep, personal  grief  f o r E l i z a b e t h Drury, or that he could not have i n c o r p o r a t e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l or symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t o the "Shee" of poems.^ and  E. Hardy has  a  the  even s t a t e d that " E l i z a b e t h Drury's death  the barrenness of the world are mere pegs upon which to  hang a l l the manner of things which i n t e r e s t Donne- h i s schol a s t i c knowledge, h i s s t r u g g l i n g philosophy, r e l i g i o n and  admonitions to h i s own and  s o u l , as w e l l as h i s keen  observation 5  of a l l that was  science."  In h i s b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the " A n n i v e r s a r i e s " ft.  E. Hughes has  new  h i s nascent  s t a r t l i n g i n current  c o n f i d e n t l y argued yet inadequately  supported  the b e l i e f that the poems were only provoked by the death of •z  ^See R.C. Bald, Donne and the Drurys (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959), pp. 67-70.  The  4 For a d i s c u s s i o n of v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s and manifestat i o n s of "Shee" i n the " A n n i v e r s a r i e s , " as 'Lady V i r t u e , ' 'Lady Wisdom,' 'Lady J u s t i c e ' or 'Astrea' i n symbolic terms, and i n h i s t o r i c a l terms as the Blessed V i r g i n Mary, Queen E l i z a b e t h , and f i n a l l y the young and innocent E l i z a b e t h Drury, the l a s t I d e a l Woman i n the world, see P.J. Mahony, "A Study i n Donne's • A n n i v e r s a r i e s ' , " (unpub. d i s s . , N.Y.U., 1963), pp. 19-29. A l s o Tuve, op. c i t . , pp. 41-44; 149-50. ^E. Hardy, Donne. A S p i r i t i n C o n f l i c t & Co. L t d . , 1942), p. 133.  (London:  Constable  E l i z a b e t h Drury. Whatever the s i n c e r i t y of h i s g r i e f , i t i s evident that Donne was c a r r y i n g out a moral mission i n the "Anniversaries." In "The f i r s t Anniversary" he r e f e r s to the "opinion" which has caused him to w r i t e : He spake To Moses to d e l i v e r unto a l l , That song, because hee knew they would l e t f a l l The Law, the Prophets, and the H i s t o r y , But keepe the song s t i l l i n t h e i r memory: Such an opinion ( i n due measure) made Me t h i s great O f f i c e b o l d l y to invade. (462-468) The reference to Moses suggests that Donne has anatomized the world i n "The f i r s t Anniversary" i n order to expose i t s 7  weaknesses.  He r e l a t e s the horrors and decrepitude of the  old world, and thereby expresses the.true value of. things: This new world may be s a f e r , being t o l d The dangers and diseases of the o l d : For with due temper men doe then forgoe, Or covet things, when they t h e i r true worth know. (87-90) Donne hopes that h i s "anatomy" w i l l contend against the world Q  and protect mankind from "outward stormes." Secondly, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Moses i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i o n to the Jewish t r a d i t i o n of the a p o c a l y p t i c . A f t e r the R.E. Hughes, The Progress of the Soul: The I n t e r i o r Career of John Donne. (Hew York: W i l l i a m Morrow and Co., Inc., 1968), pp. 196-202. •7  Manley, op. c i t . , see the "Commentary," pp. 167-68. Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 50.  41  3rd  century B.C. these apocalypses were pseudonymous, and a t t r i -  buted t h e i r authorship, to various Old Testament prophets among whom Moses was a prophet without equal.  Indeed, an e n t i r e l i n e  of Jewish apocalypses bore the name of Moses, or Ezra, "the second Moses."  One of these t r a d i t i o n a l w r i t i n g s i s "The 9  Assumption of Moses."  Donne intends to partake of the prophe-  t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Moses; he can derive part of h i s authori t y from h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h such a b i b l i c a l f i g u r e . T h i r d l y , reference to Moses should be viewed i n l i g h t of the  nature of "The second Anniversary." As d Aubigne combined  the  use of the prophetic and apocalyptic i n "Jugement," Donne  1  associates himself with a b i b l i c a l prophet i n order t o prepare the  reader f o r an apocalyptic-prophetic v i s t a i n the second h a l f  of h i s work.  What has been described i n "The f i r s t Anniversary,"  i n l i m i t e d apocalyptic terms, w i l l be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a new idiom i n "The second Anniversary.""^ Hence, i n the second h a l f of the "Anniversaries" Donne i s assigned a d i v i n e commission: Since (God's) w i l l i s , that to p o s t e r i t i e , Thou should'st f o r l i f e , and death, a patterne bee, And that the world should notice have of t h i s , The purpose, and th'Author!tie i s h i s ; Thou a r t the Proclamation; and I am The Trumpet, at whose voyce the people came. (523-28) Donne's a t t i t u d e toward t h i s commission, and h i s a t t i t u d e toward ^See D i c t i o n n a i r e Encyciooedique de l a Bible,ed. Alexandre Westphal (Valence-sur-Rh6ne: Imprimeries reunies, 1956), v o l . 1, pp. 68-69. Eor information regarding the second l i n e of the Jewish apocalyptic t r a d i t i o n , which bore the name of Moses or Ezra, see R u s s e l l , op. c i t . , pp. 113-14.. C f . R.E. Hughes, op. c i t . , pp. 200-201 f o r the use of "idiom" i n a d i f f e r e n t sense. x u  42  himself as poet, are described as conventional by Rosemund Tuve."^  But i t i s j u s t t h i s reference to d i v i n e  commission,  and the movement i n the "Anniversaries" from a w o r l d l y focus to a heavenly focus that makes one possible method of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the moral element i n Donne's work an examination of the author's apocalyptic consciousness.  The major features  of t h i s consciousness are r e f l e c t e d i n the nature of Donne's source of i n s p i r a t i o n and h i s treatment of e v i l . B  «  The Source of I n s p i r a t i o n  One of the recurrent symbols used throughout the B i b l e i s that of the trumpet.  In a non-apocalyptic context, the trumpet  i s designated by God i n the Old Testament as the instrument to be used i n the c a l l i n g of assemblies and the announcing of alarms.  The sound of trumpets on these occasions, and when  blown over s a c r i f i c e s i s intended to be a symbolic represen12 t a t i o n to God of the f a i t h of the t r i b e s of I s r a e l .  In the  B i b l e the trumpet appears f r e q u e n t l y as a harbinger of doom. The most famous Old Testament instance of t h i s occurrence i s the t a l e of the d e s t r u c t i o n of Jericho.  A f t e r the s i g n a l i s  T u v e , op. c i t . , pp. 178-179. Tuve does not read t h i s as irony: "Like most Elizabethan comment, i t asks us to read poems as though language were not a t o o l f o r announcing f a c t s about a p a r t i c u l a r thou or I i n t h e i r character of p a r t i c u l a r phenomena, but a medium f o r i n t i m a t i n g and ordering s i g n i f i cances which p a r t i c u l a r s shadow f o r t h (p. 179)." 11  See Num.  10.  43 given by the trumpets, the I s r a e l i t e s are commanded to shout  13  i n unis3on, and thus hasten the d e s t r u c t i o n of the c i t y .  y  The seven trumpet judgments i n the "Revelation of St. John" are also representative of t h i s use of the instrument."^ Donne himself c a l l s the trumpets f o r t h i n h i s "Holy Sonnet V I I : " At the round earths imagin'd corners, blow Your trumpets, Angells, and a r i s e , a r i s e From death, you numberlesse i n f i n i t i e s Of soules, and to your scattred bodies goe. (1-4) C l o s e l y a l l i e d with an a c t u a l apocalyptic s e t t i n g , yet as part of prophecy, i s the use of the trumpet as a s i g n of the prophet c a l l e d to a state of i n s p i r a t i o n . by a trumpet (Exod. 19:12:19).  Moses i s summoned  The c l e a r and b r i l l i a n t sound  of the trumpet (spargens sonum) i s understood i n the B i b l e as a s i g n that "he that prophesieth speaketh unto men to e d i f i c a t i o n and exhortation, and comfort" (lCor. 14:3).  Paul, i n  h i s discourse on prophesy as a superior g i f t , stated that the prophet's voice must not be uncertain or h e s i t a n t : And even things without l i f e , g i v i n g sound, whether f l u t e or harp, except they give a d i s t i n c t i o n i n the sounds, how s h a l l i t be known what i s piped or harped? For i f the trumpet give an unc e r t a i n sound, who s h a l l prepare himself to the b a t t l e ? (I Cor. 14:7-8) ^Josh. 6:4-6; c f . the d e c i s i v e v i c t o r y of the t r i b e s of I s r a e l over the Midians i n Jud. 7:16. Rev. 8:7-19.  44  Donne's b e l i e f that other men were incapable of p e r c e i v i n g the r e a l disorder of the world, and could not assume the task of exhorting and consoling i s c l e a r l y evident i n the reference to Moses at the conclusion of "The f i r s t  Anniversary:"  He spake To Moses to d e l i v e r unto a l l That song, because hee knew they would l e t f a l l The Law, the Prophets, and the H i s t o r y . (463-465)  Donne considers himself capable of assuming such a task. The "great O f f i c e " taken up by Donne f i n d s i t s source of i n s p i r a t i o n i n the symbolism of the trumpet as a f i g u r e of a personal and quasi-prophetic mission.  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that Donne  envisions as part of h i s d i v i n e commission are i n t e r e s t i n g l y close to those described f o r E z e k i e l , the New Testament prophet and  "watchman:" Again the word of the Lord came unto me, saying, Son of man, speak to the c h i l d r e n of thy people, and say unto them, When I b r i n g the sword upon a land, i f the people of the land take a man of t h e i r borders, and set him f o r t h e i r watchman; I f , when he seeth the sword come upon the land, he blow the trumpet, and warn the people, Then whosoever heareth the sound of the trumpet, and taketh not warning, i f the sword come, and take him away, h i s blood s h a l l be upon h i s own head. (Ezek. 33:1-4) Cf. p. 40 i n t h i s study.  45 L i k e d'Aubigne, Donne combines the prophetic w i t h the apocalyptic f u n c t i o n i n the sense that he i s the watchman who t r e a t s the disorder of the world, and i s u l t i m a t e l y responsible f o r c a l l i n g a l l men to a general r e s u r r e c t i o n .  The use of the past tense  i n the l a s t l i n e s of the "Anniversaries" i s curious, but expresses the f u l f i l l m e n t of Donne's mission i n a general r e s u r rection: Thou a r t the Proclamation; and I am , The Trumpet, at whose voyce the people came. (527-8) b  Donne regards h i s moral task as a necessary duty.  Although  the general s t a t e of the world i s viewed as not worth "our t r a v a i l e , g r i e f e , or p e r i s h i n g " ("The  f i r s t Anniversary," 432),  the q u a l i t i e s of "Shee," who possessed "those r i c h joyes" that are no longer found i n the world, must be proclaimed.  Thus,  Donne's mission i s a l s o drawn p a r t l y from the q u a l i t i e s that are inherent i n "Shee," and from the s i g n i f i c a n c e of her p o s i t i o n as an intermediator between himself and  God:  So these high songs that to thee suited b i n Serve but to sound thy Makers p r a i s e , i n t h i n e . ("To the P r a i s e of the Dead," 35-36) On t h i s l e v e l of i n s p i r a t i o n , "Shee" becomes a type of poetic Muse who i s capable of i n f u s i n g Donne's s p i r i t w i t h a sense of direction: Yet how can I consent the world i s dead While t h i s Muse l i v e s ? which i n h i s s p i r i t s stead -I  c  See Hardy, op. c i t . , p. 134.  46  Seemes to informe a World; and bids i t bee, In s p i t e of l o s s e or f r a i l e m o r t a l i t e ? ("To the Praise of the Dead," 7-10) Yet i n t h i s deluge, grosse and g e n e r a l l , Thou seest me s t r i v e f o r l i f e ; my l i f e s h a l l bee, To be hereafter p r a i s ' d , or praysing thee; Immortall Maid, who though thou would'st refuse The name of Mother, be unto my Muse A Father, since her chast Ambition i s , Yearely to bring f o r t h such a c h i l d as t h i s . ("The  second Anniversary,"  30-36)  Donne a l s o considers the death of "Shee" as adventitious. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the "Anniversaries" i s enhanced by not considering the death of E l i z a b e t h Drury simply as a subject of a f u n e r a l elegy, but as an opportune moment to r e v e a l the secrets of the world's c o n d i t i o n .  The poet's a t t i t u d e toward  the "Shee" of the poems thus shares a b e l i e f i n a sense of opportune r e v e l a t i o n as found i n the Jewish apocalyptic t r a d i tion.  These w r i t i n g s often claim to be d i s c l o s u r e s or r e v e l a -  t i o n s of d i v i n e secrets concerning the s t a t e of the world which are made at the r i g h t time f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n and encouragement 17 of the people. In conclusion, Donne imagines a mutual i n t e r a c t i o n between "Shee," who acts as an intermediator between himself and God's d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n , and h i s own poetic a b i l i t y as i t i s to be 1  ft  fashioned a f t e r h i s love f o r "Shee:" Cf. t.i,t up. d e toward the nature of Donne's moral u s s eMahony's l l , moral op. ac ittmission 107ff. task: R "Donne's i s formidable: to r e t u r n humanity to the I d e a l Woman and goodness," Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 49. 1 7  47 And thou the subject of t h i s welborne thought, Thrice noble maid, couldst not have found nor sought A f i t t e r time to yeeld to thy sad Fate, Then whiles t h i s s p i r i t l i v e s , tha.t can r e l a t e Thy worth so w e l l to our l a s t Nephews eyne, That they s h a l l wonder both a t h i s and thine? Admired match! where s t r i v e s i n mutuall grace The cunning p e n c i l , and the comely face. ("To the Praise of the Dead," 11-18) In h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the devotional character of the "Anniv e r s a r i e s , " P.G. Stanwood has also described the i n s p i r a t i o n a l force of her virtuous soul upon Donne: his  "Donne, who speaks f o r  own and the world's s o u l , sees the lesson to be learned:  she who has shown us the way must i n s p i r e us to work even harder, for the knowledge that grace increases i n Heaven should move 19 us toward r e a l i z i n g the grace here w i t h i n us a l l the more." Donne i s bound to h i s moral task: Two soules move here, and mine (a t h i r d ) must move Paces of admiration, and of love. (1-2) C.  The Noblest Sense  Donne's treatment of e v i l i s one of the main keys to gaining an understanding  of the "Anniversaries."  The two poems  c o n s t i t u t e an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of e v i l i n terms of i t s causes, i t s various manifestations, and the possible s o l u t i o n s or remedies 20 to i t s existence.  Such a concern with the nature of e v i l ,  which i s one of the most d i s t u r b i n g problems of philosophy, i s also an i n t e g r a l element found i n apocalyptic l i t e r a t u r e , and ^P.G. Stanwood, " ' E s s e n t i a l Joy' i n Donne's 'Anniversaries,'" Texas Studies i n L i t e r a t u r e and Language 13 (1971), 233. Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 57.  48 i s one of the major features that d i s t i n g u i s h Donne's "Anniv e r s a r i e s " as a p o c a l y p t i c . Donne's concern with the t o p i c of e v i l can be seen i n the emphasis that he places on the sense of s i g h t , and on several l e v e l s of perception.  As d'Aubigne's r h e t o r i c a l stance involves  an aspect of the poet as observer, i n which the poet becomes capable of r e a l i z i n g the existence and character of i n j u s t i c e , so Donne considers the v i s u a l sense of primary importance i n uncovering the operation of e v i l i n the world.  Both v i s i o n  and perceptions need "continual refocusing i n order f o r man 21 always to see himself as c l e a r l y as he  can."  In contrast to e v i l , "Shee" i s characterized by Donne as the hallmark of v i r t u e .  Only by s t r i v i n g to i m i t a t e the good-  ness and gain the perspective of "Shee" w i l l a man be able u l t i m a t e l y to observe the nature of .Ideal Goodness as exemplified i n "Shee:" (Because since now no other way there i s , But goodnesse, to see her, whom a l l would see, A l l must endeavor to be as good as shee,) ("The f i r s t Anniversary," 16-18) Unencumbered s i g h t i s necessary f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a basic l e v e l of perception which includes the knowledge that the soul 22 exists.  Without e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s existence, there can be no  21 Joan Webber, Contrary Music, (Madison: The Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1963), p. 76. 22 See Arnold S t e i n , John Donne's L y r i c s : The Eloquence of A c t i o n (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota "Press, 1962), pp. 55ff.  49  "progresse."  Donne emphasizes the a c t i v e part that v i s i o n  plays i n the progress of the s o u l , and the uselessness of v i s i o n i f i t i s not accompanied by r e f l e c t i o n and searching: (For who i s sure he hath a Soule; unlesse I t see, and judge, and f o l l o w worthinesse, And by Deedes p r a i s e i t ? hee who doth not t h i s , May lodge an In-mate s o u l , but ' t i s not h i s . ) ("The f i r s t Anniversary," 3-6) ^ Donne has p a r t i a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d and hinted at the sententious q u a l i t y of t h i s statement by separating i t o f f by means of parentheses.  He intends the reader to grasp the importance of  the f i r s t h a l f of the statement as i t i s q u a l i f i e d by the s t r e s s upon "Deedes" rather than simply words.  Throughout "The second  Anniversary" Donne w i l l give an emphasis to the deeds or a c t i v e progress of the i n d i v i d u a l soul which w i l l counteract "motion i n corruption"(22).  His mood, i n t e r r o g a t o r y and d e s c r i p t i v e  i n "The f i r s t Anniversary," w i l l now become imperative.  Donne  w i l l c o n s i s t e n t l y use commands to d i r e c t himself and mankind toward the steps of progress:  "look upward,"(65), "remember  then"(122), "But up unto the watch-towre get,"(294), "Returne not, my Soule"(321), "Up,, up my drowsie Soule"(339)., "But pause, my soule; And study, ere thou f a l l " ( 3 8 3 ) , and "Then, Soule, to thy  f i r s t p i t c h worke up againe"(435).  The m o s t . s t r i k i n g use  of the imperative mood i s the passage i n "The second Anniversary" i n which death i s meant to be p e r s o n i f i e d by a l l mankind 03  ^Cf. Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 65 where he states that "see" and "judge" stand f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of memory and understanding r e s p e c t i v e l y , and that " f o l l o w " and " p r a i s e " i n d i c a t e the a c t i v i t i e s of the w i l l .  50 as "but a Groome,/which brings a Taper t o the outward roome" (85-6): Thinke thee l a i d on thy death-bed, loose and slacke; And thinke t h a t , but unbinding of a packe, To take one precious t h i n g , thy soule from thence. Thinke thy s e l f e parch'd with fevers v i o l e n c e , Anger thine ague more, by c a l l i n g i t Thy physicke; chide the slacknesse of the f i t . Thinke that thou hear'st thy k n e l l , and think no more, But that, as Bels cal'd thee to Church before, So t h i s , to the Triumphant Church, c a l l s thee. (93-101) In t h i s passage the author has employed the cumulative  technique  of p i l i n g up imperatives; such a technique has the e f f e c t of hammering home the point and echoing the meditative atmosphere. This device i s e f f e c t i v e i n amplifying the uncertainty of mankind's predicament, and prepares the way f o r the progressd i r e c t e d imperatives which have been mentioned.  That Donne  c a p i t a l i z e d on the advantages of t h i s technique i s a l s o observed 24  i n i t s place i n h i s prose s t y l e .  The r h e t o r i c a l device of  cumulation and a m p l i f i c a t i o n here serves i n passages that act as "both an emotional d e c l a r a t i o n of man's misery," and as "an i n t e l l e c t u a l statement of the f u t i l i t y of i n t e l l e c t i n an 25  unthinking, p h y s i c a l world." Although motion i s c e n t r a l t o "The second Anniversary," *¥ebber, op. c i t . , p. 191; see pp. 189-191.  2/  25  Use of cumulative p i l i n g i s a l s o at work i n Donne's "Holy Sonnet V I I : " ' A l l whom the f l o o d d i d , and f i r e s h a l l o'er throw, A l l whom warre, dearth, age, agues, tyrannies, Despaire, lav/, chance, hath s l a i n e . ' (5-7)  51  i n "The Harbinger to the Progresse" Donne q u a l i f i e s the progress that the soul i s able to a t t a i n because of man's m o r t a l i t y : No It Or So  s o u l (whilst with the luggage of t h i s c l a y clogged i s ) can f o l l o w the h a l f e way; see [her] f l i g h t , which doth our thoughts outgoe f a s t , that now the l i g h t n i n g moves but slow. (9-12)  The w o r l d l y focus w i l l be adjusted i n "The f i r s t Anniversary" by making a d e t a i l e d observation of the world, yet Donne again q u a l i f i e s the p o t e n t i a l of s i g h t by d i s c u s s i n g the shortness of l i f e .  Mankind, which once enjoyed l o n g e v i t y , has now only  a very l i m i t e d l i f e span.  By drawing an analogy from astronomy,  Donne marks man's shortness of s i g h t as a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of diminishing l i f e t i m e s and s t a t u r e s : When, i f a slow pac'd s t a r r e had stolne away Prom the observers marking, he might stay Two or three hundred years to see't againe, And then make up h i s observation p l a i n e ; When, as the age was long, the s i s e was great; Mans growth confess'd, and recompenc'd the meat; So spacious and l a r g e , that every Soule Did a f a i r e Kingdome, and l a r g e Realme controule: And when the very s t a t u r e , thus erect, Did that soule a good way towards heaven d i r e c t . Where i s t h i s mankinde now? (117-27)  This element of hopelessness i s compounded by the knowledge that the very nature of the world, which v i s i o n i s capable of p e r c e i v i n g , may i n i t s e l f be i l l u s o r y : Sight i s the noblest sense of any one, Yet sight hath only colour to feed on, And colour i s decai'd: summers robe growes Duskie, and l i k e an o f t dyed garment showes. (353-356)  Here Donne has i n mind A r i s t o t l e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of c o l o r ,  which asserted that c o l o r was the e n t i r e surface of the body, and n e c e s s a r i l y included form.  I n seventeenth-century  belief  t h i s form, and hence c o l o r , were considered to be i n a stage of decay.  The import of t h i s b e l i e f i s f a r - r e a c h i n g . I n  Donne's imagination c o l o r , "beauties other second Element" ("The  f i r s t Anniversary," 339), embraces " a l l beauty d i s c e r n i b l e  by sense; c o l o r i s the property of things chosen t o represent t h i s beauty because i t i s the primary stimulus" of the sense 27  of v i s i o n .  Hence, the decay of beauty i n terms of c o l o r  leads to the l o g i c a l d i s t r u s t of the v i s u a l sense.  But, even  though the c o l o r s i n Nature are decayed, Donne s t i l l r e c a l l s the memory of "Shee,"  i n whom a l l white, and red, and blew (Beauties ingredients) voluntary grew, As i n an unvext Paradise; from whom Did a l l things verdure, and t h e i r l u s t r e come, Whose composition was miraculous, Being a l l colour, a l l Diaphanous, (For Ayre, and F i r e but t h i c k grosse bodies were, And l i v e l i e s t stones but drowsie. and pale t o h e r ) . (361-368) 28  The p o t e n t i a l of sight which i s r e s t r i c t e d by man's m o r t a l i t y , the l i m i t a t i o n of an e a r t h l y focus, the decayed s t a t e of the world and by the death of "Shee," f i n d s i t s dimmest and most For the sources of t h i s b e l i e f , see Manley's "Commentary," op. c i t . , pp. 158-160. 27  'Charles M. C o f f i n , John Donne and the New Philosophy (New York: The Humanities Press, 1958), p. 270; c f . Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 63. po  The c o l o r s of "Shee" a l s o represent those of the theolog i c a l beauties, c f . Manley's Commentary," p. 160.  53  b r i l l i a n t l i g h t i n t h i s memory. In a d d i t i o n to the two basic l e v e l s of perception derived from the use of the v i s u a l sense Donne t e l l s us that, j u s t as men observe the mutations of a m a t e r i a l world, so "Shee" oversees mankind's progress, and has the a b i l i t y to assess i t s u n i v e r s a l problem: She whom wise nature had invented then When she observ'd that every sort of men Did i n t h e i r voyage i n t h i s worlds Sea s t r a y , And needed a new compasse f o r t h e i r way. (223-226) The author employs a n a u t i c a l reference that suggests the C h r i s t i a n symbolism of the turbulent sea as representative of the s i n f u l c o n d i t i o n of the world, and the true "compasse" as a sense of s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t i o n that can guide the "ship" of 29 mankind.  Thus, Donne foreshadows the importance that "Shee"  w i l l take as a "new compasse" i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the heavenly focus of "The second Anniversary." He prepares the reader f o r a more d e t a i l e d explanation of her r o l e i n the working out of the i n d i v i d u a l soul's progress. Donne conceives of E l i z a b e t h Drury's soul "as endowed w i t h 'Magnetique f o r c e " ' that i s able "to draw, and fasten sundred parts i n one."(222)  Donne was very f a m i l i a r w i t h W i l l i a m  G i l b e r t of Colchester's book De Magnete(l600), from which he 29  See H.C. Combs and S u l l e n , A Concordance to the English Poems of John Donne (Chicago: Packard and Co., 1940), p. 57, the compass entry. This i s Donne's only use of the image i n such a sense that I have found. C o f f i n , op. c i t . , p. 86.  54 undoubtedly took the idea that "a magnetick vigour e x i s t s then i n the earth just as i n the t e r r e l l a , " and suited i t to f i t h i s conception of E l i z a b e t h Drury's s o u l : The language of the poet d e s c r i b i n g the v i r t u e which E l i z a b e t h Drury's death has taken from the world, i s not u n l i k e that of the s c i e n t i s t when considering "grand magnetick nature of the e a r t h as a power 'innate and d i f f u s e d through a l l her inward parts.'31 1  The poet's " a s p i r i n g thoughts"(31) concerning the soul of "Shee" draw from her p o t e n t i a l to i n c i t e change, and make i t possible f o r the world soul to enjoy a "noble progresse"(28). In s p i t e of the p e s s i m i s t i c character of "The f i r s t Anniversary" Donne describes the soul of "Shee" as constantly hopeful and a s p i r i n g to goodness: And yet moves s t i l l , and s t i l l aspires to see The worlds l a s t day, thy g l o r i e s f u l l degree. ("The Harbinger to the Progresse," 5-6) The poet envies such a state of a s p i r a t i o n : I envie thee (Riche soule) I envy thee Although I cannot yet thy glory see. ("The Harbinger to the Progresse," 17-18) D.  Donne's Treatment of E v i l  The manner i n which Donne conceives the world s o u l , and h i s concern w i t h the v i s u a l sense and l e v e l s of perception are 32 i n t e g r a l features of h i s a c t u a l treatment of e v i l . Throughout C o f f i n , op. c i t . , p. 86. d i s c u s s i o n of G i l b e r t ' s work. 5 1  •50  See pp. 84-87 f o r a f u l l e r  I am indebted i n my d i s c u s s i o n of Donne's conception of the l e v e l s of e v i l to Mahony, op. c i t . , pp. 57-75.  "The f i r s t Anniversary" Donne establishes the apocalyptic background by developing a t r i p a r t i t e conception of the o r i g i n s of e v i l that has an emotional effectiveness as powerful as the d e s c r i p t i o n s of corruption which precede most v i s i o n s of the apocalypse.  The various d e s c r i p t i o n s of the "Sicke World"(55),  w i t h reference to the shortness of l i f e and stature(112-171), the decay and deformity of Nature(199-304),  and the u t t e r state  of disorder i n the world(304-434), are i n the same morbid cast as the v i s i o n s of the seal-plagues, trumpet-plagues, and bowl34  plagues i n "The R e v e l a t i o n of St. John."^ Donne prepares a tableau of primal corruption, s i n f u l n e s s , and s p i r i t u a l d e s o l a t i o n .  Occasionally he employs harangues  that are expected to awaken the reader to h i s s p i r i t u a l l y 35  weakened c o n d i t i o n ; such a device i s s t r i c t l y d i d a c t i c : Thou might'st have b e t t e r spar'd the Sunne, or Man. That wound was deep, but ' t i s more misery, That thou hast l o s t thy sense and memory. 'Twas heavy then to heare thy voyce of mone, But t h i s i s worse, that thou are speechless growne. Thou hast forgot thy name, thou hadst;- thou wast Nothing but shee, and her thou hast o'rpast. (26-32) The major cause of e v i l , which Donne views as primal corruption, has started a chain r e a c t i o n : Then, as mankinde, so i s the worlds whole frame ^ F o r a reference to Donne's t r i p a r t i t e ' s p i r i t u a l e f f o r t , ' see Hughes, op. c i t . , p. 201. 54  5 5  R e v . 6; Rev. 8-9; Rev. 16. C f . also 11. 243-46, and c f . Chapter I , p. 17.  56 Quite out of joynt, almost created lame: For, before God had made a l l the r e s t , Corruption entred, and deprav'd the best: I t seis'd the Angels, and then f i r s t of a l l The world d i d i n her cradle take a f a l l And turn'd her braines, and tooke a general maime Wronging each joynt of t h ' u n i v e r s a l l frame. The noblest part, man, f e l t i t f i r s t ; and then Both beasts and plants, curst i n the curse of man. So d i d the world from the f i r s t hour decay. (191-201) Just as the d e s t r u c t i o n and judgment of the world i s c a r r i e d out with t e r r i b l e swiftness i n the "Revelation of St. John," Donne w r i t e s i n an a u t h o r i t a t i v e tone to describe the l o g i c a l and unavoidable chain of events that have l e f t the world i n a state of unnaturalness and chaos.  Even Donne's choice of images  to connote the world's c o n d i t i o n , i n t h e i r extended development and e l a b o r a t i o n , become a u t h o r i t a t i v e and symbolic:  the world  i s a "cripple"(238), a "monster"(326), and a "Ghost"(370). world i s viewed as upside down:  "Tis a l l i n peeces, a l l  cohaerence gone"(213). The f i r s t reason Donne gives f o r the unnaturalness and corruption of the world i s coupled with the second cause of 36 e v i l i n actual s i n . Because of those s i n s that have been committed since the f i r s t f a l l from grace, the world: to a fever turn'd, And so the world had f i t s ; i t joy'd, i t mourn'd; And, as men thinke, that Agues physick are, And th'Ague being spent, give over care, So thou sicke World, mistak'st thy s e l f e to be W e l l , when a l a s , thou'rt i n a Lethargie. (19-24) A c t u a l sins are those committed by a l l men since the f i r s t f a l l from grace." Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 58.  The  The f a i l u r e of the world to grasp i t s a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n i s s i m i l a r to the unawareness  of the churches i n Smyrna,  Pergamum, and Thyatira, which are addressed i n the "Revelation of St. John," and have "to a fever t u r n ' d " ( l 9 ) .  Most of mankind  too has had the moral sense deadened by a c t u a l s i n s , and i s deceived i n t o b e l i e v i n g that a l l w i l l receive the "crown of life."  But i n the Apocalypse not a l l men w i l l i n h e r i t such a  crown:  "Behold, the d e v i l s h a l l cast some...into prison.."jSt.  John advises,"Be thou f a i t h f u l unto death, and I w i l l give thee a crown of l i f e " (Rev. 2:10).  Part of the immediacy and  forcefulness of Donne's argument and the v i s i o n of St. John i s derived from the prophetic awareness allowed the authors concerning the n a t u r a l r e s u l t s of a c t u a l s i n and f a i t h l e s s n e s s . Donne and St. John o f f e r at once a warning and a r e v e l a t i o n to mankind. T h i r d l y , Donne a t t r i b u t e s e v i l i n the world to the death of "Shee" who has taught mankind that thou a r t Corrupt and m o r t a l l i n thy purest part. (61-62) A f i n a l feature of Donne's o v e r a l l treatment of e v i l i s the  t r a n s i t i o n from a state of apocalyptic gloom i n "The f i r s t  Anniversary" to the state of hope and r e s o l u t i o n that i s estab l i s h e d i n the second. the  This note of consolation i s struck i n  opening l i n e s of "The second Anniversary," and extends i n t o  a statement of f a i t h and confidence i n the progress of the s o u l .  58 The skepticism of "The f i r s t Anniversary," with i t s reference to the i n s e c u r i t y ushered i n by "the new Philosophy"(205), i s replaced by an a f f i r m a t i o n of f a i t h : Nothing could make me sooner to confesse That t h i s world had an everlastingnesse Then to consider, that a yeare i s runne, Since both t h i s lower world's, and the Sunnes Sunne, The l u s t r e , and the v i g o r of t h i s A l l , Did set; 'twere blasphemy to say, d i d f a l l . (1-6) The p e s s i m i s t i c tone i n "The f i r s t Anniversary" i s too sustained, and the moral scope too broad, f o r us to attempt to neglect the aspects of Donne's apocalyptic consciousness.  His  treatment of e v i l n a t u r a l l y leads i n t o "The second Anniversary," which f i t s the s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n of an epitaphium anniversarium, yet can be viewed as a consolatory sequel to the preceding dooms37 day tableau.  As i n the Jewish apocalypses, which were w r i t t e n  i n the forward-looking and precarious intertestamental years, Donne has portrayed the world's misery i n order to o f f e r up a u n i v e r s a l and consolatory s i g n of hope.  L i k e these works he  has given a kind of p e s s i m i s t i c h i s t o r i c a l survey which i s i n need of a transcendental element to make such a survey of u n i For the d e f i n i t i o n and sources to the genre, see Manley's "Commentary" pp. 119-20. Donne d i d not always respect the "precise d i s t i n c t i o n s of the r h e t o r i c i a n s and w r i t e r s of a r t e s poeticae p r e s c r i b i n g the focus and decorum of a poem of praise see Lewalski, op. c i t . , p. 43. J  For hope as a product of persecution, see R u s s e l l , op. c i t . , p. 17. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the m i l i e u , c f . pp. 28-33. J  59 v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n the Jewish apocalypses t h i s transcendental feature i s found i n the b e l i e f i n the transcendent being c a l l e d "the Son of Man," and i n the idea that there i s a l i f e a f t e r death with i t s various l e v e l s of H e l l , Gehenna, Paradise, and Heaven.  At the same time there i s an "increasing  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l i n r e s u r r e c t i o n , judgment and 39 eternal b l i s s . " ^ In Donne a transcendent movement i s i n i t i a t e d by the poet himself. He b l a s t s away the skepticism of "The f i r s t Anniversary," and c a l l s f o r t h the note of hope, a t . l e a s t , the note of courageous s t r i v i n g f o r the assurance and f a i t h - i h a p i r e d v i s i o n which had been eclipsed, by doub.t .in "The f i r s t Anniversary." For the s u c c e s s f u l development of t h i s theme the matter of the new philosophy, with i t s d i s c o n c e r t i n g connotation, can make no c o n t r i b u t i o n . I t i s true that there i s a repercussion of the doubt and uneasiness pervading "The f i r s t A.," but over the conditions inducing the former skepticism there triumphs an expression of p o s i t i v e and constructive faith..40 Donne's transcendent  movement also can be i n t e r p r e t e d  i n l i g h t of the "Revelation of St. John." St.  In the Apocalypse,  John envisions the destiny of the world under the.hand of  Providence, and r e l a t e s h i s own v i s i o n a r y experiences.  Although  there i s not an e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e formal pattern to the "Revelation," the author's v i s i o n s become i n c r e a s i n g l y f r a n t i c , and culminate i n a v i s i o n of the t o t a l conquest of the earth 39 • ^ R u s s e l l , op. c i t . , p. 105. Such b e l i e f s were suited to the purposes of d o c t r i n a l propaganda, see p. 32. 4 0  C o f f i n , op. c i t . , p. 138.  60  by heavenly grace.  I n the "Anniversaries" Donne, through h i s  v i s i o n a r y experience, o f f e r s the consolatory information that thou "shalt see the blessed Mother-maid"(341).  The dismal view  of the p o t e n t i a l of sight i n "The f i r s t Anniversary" i s removed. Donne charges the reader t o s t r i v e f o r a p o s i t i o n of righteousness, the crown that w i l l r e f u t e the e v i l s of the world: Up t o those P a t r i a r c h s , which d i d longer s i t Expecting C h r i s t , then they'have enjoy'd him y e t . Up to those Prophets, which now g l a d l y see Their Prophesies growne to be H i s t o r i e . Up t o th'Apostles, who d i d bravely runne A l l the Suns course, w i t h more l i g h t then the Sunne. Up to those Martyrs, who d i d calmly bleed Oyle t o th'Apostles Lamps, dew t o t h e i r seed. Up t o those V i r g i n s , who thought, that almost They made joyntenants w i t h the Holy Ghost, I f they t o any should h i s Temple give. (345-355)  He thus paves the way f o r the culmination of .his .own v i s i o n i n the doctrine of grace.  Donne, who has been given the prophetic  power "to say this"(522) by the grace of God, leaves the reader on a f i n a l and j o y f u l apocalyptic chord: Only i n Heaven joyes strength i s never spent; And a c c i d e n t a l l things are permanent, i Joy of a soules a r r i v a l l ne'r decaies; For that soule ever joyes and ever s t a i e s . Joy that t h e i r l a s t great Consummation Approaches i n the r e s u r r e c t i o n ; When e a r t h l y bodies more c e l e s t i a l l S h a l l be, then Angels were, f o r they could f a l l ; This kinde of joy doth every day admit Degree of growth, but none of l o s i n g i t . (487-496  The imperativeness of progressing to such a state of grace i s seen i n "Holy Sonnet V I I " where Donne r e f l e c t s that at the end of the word "Tis l a t e t o aske abundance of "j3" o< * ,£ 0 grace."  61  The d i f f i c u l t i e s over the structure and i n t e n t of Donne's "Anniversaries" can be remedied by s t r e s s i n g the purpose of the poet to console and i n s t r u c t i n terms of a doctrine of grace.  Viewed i n such a l i g h t , the "Anniversaries" are two 42  d i s t i n c t yet i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d poems.  "The f i r s t  Anniversary"  deals with the p a r t i c u l a r s of the world's c o n d i t i o n and i s made up of imagery which i s decorous with a s k e p t i c a l and apocalyptic conception of the world's s t a t e .  The imagery must be v i v i d ,  and the treatment harsh, since the outlook of the poet toward the universe i s i n i t s e l f dismal.  But Donne does not leave  the reader with a p i c t u r e i n which a l l must be c a l l e d i n doubt. In "The second Anniversary" he i n d i c a t e s how the reader i s to conceive and make sense of the p a r t i c u l a r s already presented, and leads up t o a statement of a u n i v e r s a l t r u t h . f i n d s i t s crux i n the doctrine of grace.  This t r u t h  A l l j u s t men w i l l be  freed of the s i n f u l state of the world and t h e i r a c t u a l sins by the apocalyptic forcefulness of Donne's e n t i r e v i s i o n , and w i l l open up t h e i r hearts to God's mercy. "The  The language i n  second Anniversary," with the emphasis upon the imperative, 42  Many c r i t i c s have argued f o r a strong correspondence between the two "Anniversaries;" c f . , f o r instance, P. Mahony, "The Structure of Donne's 'Anniversaries' as Companion Poems," Genre. 5(1972), 235-56; A.E. Voss, "The Structure of Donne's 'Anniversaries,'" E n g l i s h Studies i n A f r i c a . 12(1969), 1-30; and Louis L. Martz, "Donne's 'Anniversaries' R e v i s i t e d , " i n That S u b t i l e Wreath: Lectures Presented at the Quartercentenary Celebration of the B i r t h of John Donne, ed. M.W. Pepperdene Hgnes Scott College, 1972), 29-49, esp. p. 41.  i s congruent with the import of mankind's progress.  Donne  has worked out a chain of being and beconeing i n which the l o w l i e s t state of man's existence i s seen t r a n s l a t e d to the highest rung of g l o r y .  Those c r i t i c s who would question  Donne's method i n poems that are openly categorized as f u n e r a l elegies b e l i t t l e the. part that the poet can take i n any genre. Surely i t cannot be argued that "Shee" i s not of c e n t r a l importance to the poems.  By i n t e g r a t i n g the q u a l i t i e s of  "Shee" i n t o h i s v i s i o n of God's own u n i v e r s a l goodness and hopefulness the poet's task i s completed.  CHAPTER I I I SAINT AMANT'S 'LE CONTEMPLATEUR AND 'LA SOLITUDE 1  A.  'Le Bon Gros;'  1  Introduction to 'Le Contemplateur  1  Having examined two major works i n which the moral content i s u n i v e r s a l , the source of i n s p i r a t i o n that of the poeta vates, and the use of the apocalyptic completely  integrated  with the philosophic i n t e n t , I propose to turn now to several poems of an author whose d i s p o s i t i o n and a t t i t u d e toward h i s c r a f t are d i s s i m i l a r - "Le Bon Gros" Saint-Amant."** The poetry of Saint-Amant has generally been met by two kinds of response: disdain.  a sense of d e l i g h t or an a t t i t u d e of  I n s p i t e of the appreciation f o r the author's work  during h i s own time by Paret, Tellemant des Reaux, and Theophile de Viau, judgments no doubt tempered by personal piques and f r i e n d s h i p s , Boileau played a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an unfavorable  a t t i t u d e toward the verse of S a i n t -  Amant i n the 17th century.  Undaunted by any arguments to the  contrary, Boileau, not uncommonly, rejected completely the method and r e s u l t s of the poet's e f f o r t s .  One example of such  c r i t i c i s m was Boileau's use of Longinus' De Sublime to attack Saint-Amant' s verse f o r i t s preoccupation  with detail., a kind  of d e s c r i p t i v e richness that has since been acclaimed as the poet's r e a l f o r t e .  I t i s due to the p u b l i s h i n g of Theophile  Gautier's Les Grotesques(1855) that we owe the rediscovery of """See the i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c and b r i e f biography of the poet by P i e r r e Varenne, Le Bon gros Saint-Amant 1594-1661 (A. Rouen: Lecerf f i l s , 1917).  64 the poet's work a f t e r the almost t o t a l s i l e n c e of the eighteenth century.  Gautier c o n f i d e n t l y opposed Boileau's assessment by  proclaiming that "Saint-Amant est a. coup sur un t r e s grand et t r e s o r i g i n a l poete, digne d'etre c i t e entre l e s m e i l l e u r s dont 2  l a Prance puisse d'honorer." He was a s s i s t e d i n h i s defense by the timely e d i t i o n of the poet's works by Charles L i v e t which gave Sainte-Beuve occasion to reevaluate Saint-Amant's 3  poetry.  The tendency toward reevaluating and reexamining the  author's work has continued down to the present day, and i s evidenced by an ever-expanding c o n t r i b u t i o n to Santamantiana. Although much of Boileau's c r i t i c i s m should probably be dismissed, there are c e r t a i n d i s t u r b i n g aspects of the verse of Saint-Amant.  The reader i s struck by the author's seemingly  serious concern with s u p e r f i c i a l subject matter, as i n the "gastronomical" poems: Quelle odeur sens-je en cette Chambre? Quel doux parfum de Muse et d'Ambre Me v i e n t l e Cerveau r e s j o u i r , Et tout l e Coeur espanouir? Ha bon Dieu! j'en tombe en extase; Ces b e l l e s Pleurs q u i dans ce Vase Parent l e haut de ce b u f f e t , E e r o i e n t - e l l e s bien cet e f f e t ? ("le Melon," 1-8) 4  Theophile Gautier, Les Grotesques ( P a r i s : 1853), p. 157.  M. Levy,  3  Cf. "Summary of Scholarship" i n Samuel Borton, S i x Modes of S e n s i b i l i t y i n Saint-Amant ( P a r i s : Mouton & Co., 1966), pp. 14-40. 4  Erancoise Gourier, Etude des Oeuvres Poetiaues de SaintAmant ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Minard, 1961), pp. 85-91.  65 Such an opinion i s not "completement i n j u s t i f i e e " since "plusieurs protecteurs du poete furent a u s s i ses coiapagnons de 5  debauche."  Indeed, c e r t a i n of the author's poems are unnerving  i n t h e i r tendency to s e r v i l e f l a t t e r y , as i n " S p i s t r e , a Monsieur Le Baron de Melay, G-ouverneur du Chasteau-Trompette, A Bordeaux," t h e i r treatment of debauchery ('"La Debauche," "Le Cidre") and t h e i r c e l e b r a t i o n of the bacchanalian ("Bacchus Conquerant").  C e r t a i n readers might also question the author's  pervasive use of archaic and grotesque language, an apparently unsystematic poetic method, a mixing of genres and e s p e c i a l l y the extended d e s c r i p t i v e passages of the s a t i r i c and burlesque.*' A l l of these elements are of e s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to Saint-Amant's r e l i g i o u s poetry.  Only three of the  author's works are purely r e l i g i o u s : "Le Contemplateur," the "Moyse Sauve," and the "Fragment d'une Meditation sur l e 7  Crucifix."  Of these, "Le Contemplateur," composed i n 1629,  has been seen on the one hand as a poem i n which "theme leads to theme, not i n accordance with any systematic plan but f o l l o w i n g the free play of a l i v e l y mind" where the moral purpose i s of Q  secondary consideration,  and on the other hand as a work i n  Gourier, op. c i t . , p. 85. These problems are brought up by most c r i t i c s , but see e s p e c i a l l y A l i c e W. Rathe, "La Poetique de Saint-Amant" (unpub. d i s s . , U. of T., 1964), pp. 11-24. 7  8  Gourier, op. c i t . , p. 185.  I . Buffum, Studies i n the Baroque from Montaigne to Rotrou, p. 151.  66 which, "contemplative  i n q u i r y leads to a state of self-hypnosis  or trance, a c o n d i t i o n of confused yet sublime consciousness."  9  In the l a t t e r case, the author's purpose i s to impart h i s r e l i g i o u s concerns and to express man's e t h i c a l and moral r e l a t i o n s h i p t o God. ^ 1  According to which d e f i n i t i o n one  accepts, the apocalypse near the conclusion of "Le Contemplateur" i s e i t h e r simply another theme, or a device c a l c u l a t e d to strengthen the author's expression of an ethical-moral r e l a tionship.  Though both of these views have been argued on the  basis of the t e x t , the nature of the author's p h i l o s o p h i c a l and aesthetic i n t e n t i s c l a r i f i e d by an examination of two major facets of Saint-Amant's poem.  These facets reveal the  author's a t t i t u d e toward s e l f - r e v e l a t i o n and experience as i n i t i a t e d i n "La Solitude"(1617), and the connection between s i g h t , imagery, and ideas i n the author's vision..  The r e l a -  t i o n s h i p between s i g h t , imagery,.and ideas involves the theory °f i i i p i c t u r a poesis. features of Gongorism, and a Bacchic element.  Such a study reveals f i r s t that, whereas d'Aubigne  and Donne use apocalyptic m a t e r i a l f o r a d i d a c t i c and u n i v e r s a l end, Saint-Amant's apocalyptic v i s i o n represents the culmination of the poet's discovery of h i s own emotionally charged state which cannot be d i d a c t i c i n a moral sense f o r a l l of mankind. Secondly, the apocalyptic i s used i n Saint-Amant's poem to give ^Samuel L. Borton, op. c i t . , pp. 130-31. 1 0  I b i d . , pp. 128, 135.  a sense of ending or synaptieal. completeness to an otherwise d i s c u r s i v e t r a i n of images, and i s hence a c r u c i a l t e c h n i c a l device. B.  The Experience of Solitude  " l a Solitude"(1617) i s considered to be Saint-Amant s 1  f i r s t poem, and opened the volume of the poet's works which f i r s t appeared i n 1629.^  The scene of the composition of the  poem was Belle-Isle-en-Mer, an i s l a n d o f f the southern coast of B r i t t a n y where the poet o c c a s i o n a l l y accompanied the Due de Retz.  As the t i t l e suggests, "La S o l i t u d e " i s an ode i n praise  of s o l i t u d e , and i s a record of the s i g h t s , d i s c o v e r i e s and adventures that the poet made during one of h i s sojourns on the  island.  This i n i t i a l production of the poet shares several  motifs and poetic techniques w i t h "Le Contemplateur," and might even be considered a preface to the e n t i r e contents of the l a t e r poem. C r i t i c s of Saint-Amant's poetry have shown a p a r t i c u l a r fondness f o r "La S o l i t u d e " and have stressed the poem's unique12 ness.  Theophile Gautier has remarked that "vous ne trouverez  r i e n dans l e s poetes d i t s classiques...qui a i t cette f r a i c h e u r ""•"""Several L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n s were published, and a number of French i m i t a t i o n s , c f . J . Lagny, "Autour de l a 'Solitude' de Saint-Amant: l e s traductions l a t i n e s , " B u l l e t i n du B i b l i o p h i l e et du B i b l i o t h e c a i r e , 25(1956), 110-126. 12 Rathe.  For  example, Buffum, Gautier, de Mourgues, Borton, and  de c o l o r i s , cette transparence de lumiere, cette r e v e r i e f l o t t a n t e et melancolique."  J  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the poem's  o r i g i n s i n l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l sources have been numerous, although most c r i t i c s have argued f o r French or Spanish sources of i t s i n s p i r a t i o n .  For instance, R. Mazzara has found a  c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y between "La S o l i t u d e " and the t r a d i t i o n a l Portuguese saudade or Spanish soledad which express "disappointment, frequently an unrequited or absent love or other worldly desengano. "**' 4  Saint-Amant' s desengstSo. h i s own s p i r i t of  a g i t a t i o n , disappointment, and unrequited s e l f - s e a r c h i n g , i s expressed by the French inquietude: 0 que j'ayme l a Solitude!. Que ces l i e u x sacrez a l a EPu.it, Esloignez du monde et du b r u i t , P l a i s e n t a. mon inquietude! (1-4) Since the poet stands aloof i n "La S o l i t u d e " Mazzara suggests that Gongora, the poet's Spanish contemporary, i s the c l o s e s t parallel.  Both have w r i t t e n poems i n which the poet s t r o l l s  through nature, and o f f e r s d e s c r i p t i o n s of nature i n i t s various forms and c o l o r s . ^ 1  13  Gdngora's "Las Soledades" have l i t t l e  Gautier, op. c i t . , p. 168.  R.A. Mazzara, " I t a l i a n and Spanish Influences i n the L i f e and Works of Saint-Amant" (unpub. d i s s . , U. of Kansas, 1959), p. 38. 14  15  The word appears i n "La Metamorphose"(121), "Les V i s i o n s a Damon"(l6l), "La Jouyssance"{59), "Epigramme a Monseigneur l e Chancelier"(31), "Deux Couplets a Inserer"(2), B a i l b e , Jacques and Jean Lagny, ed. Saint-Amant Oeuvres. 4 v o l s . ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Marcel D i d i e r , 1967-1971). -i r Mazzara, op. c i t . , p. 48.  69 n a r r a t i v e appeal, and have been described as merely convenient pegs "on which Gongora could hang h i s superb d e s c r i p t i o n s , elaborated by a l l the a r t s of metaphor and hyperbole, and 17  interspersed with b e a u t i f u l l y r i c s . " ' Indeed, "La S o l i t u d e " of Saint-Amant i s to be seen as a r e f l e c t i o n of an emerging awareness on the poet's part of the n a t u r a l world where h i s TO  own s e l f - r e v e l a t i o n s are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o l y r i c a l form. The l o c a t i o n of the poet's wanderings i n "La S o l i t u d e " i s a grotto:  the poet's eyes sont contens De v o i r ces Bois q u i se trouverent A l a n a t i v i t e du Temps, Et que tous l e s S i e c l e s reverent, Estre encore a u s s i beaux et vers, Qu'aux premiers jours de l'Univers! (5-10)  The garden-grotto, which had i t s o r i g i n s i n I t a l y , and became the l o c a t i o n f o r the construction of a l l kinds of f a n c i f u l n a t u r a l i s t i c ornaments and d e t a i l s , i s the perfect type of environment f o r the poet to discover an awareness of h i s inmost s e n s i b i l i t i e s . 19 The strange and awesome rock formations /("Ces Monts pendans en p r e c i p i c e s , " 26) and the f i e r c e l y flowing streams ("ces f i e r s Torrents vagabonds," 32) lead the poet to The Solitudes of Don L u i s de Gongora. trans. E.M. Wilson (Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965) "Introduction," p. xv. -j o Saint-Amant's f r i e n d Theophile de Viau also wrote an ode "La S o l i t u d e " about the same date. The element of l i t e r a r y exercise i n the poems should not be overlooked, c f . Theophile de Viaut Selections ed. Remy de Gourmont ( P a r i s : Societe du Mercure de Prance, 1907), pp. 24-31. 19-  i>ee  S.L. Borton, op. c i t . , pp. 49-60.  70 discover s e t t i n g s f a r more imaginative and s u r r e a l i s t i c .  The  s t r o l l through the grotto and the kind of meditations that are ^triggered i n the poet's imagination by such an adventure, leave t h e i r impression not only on the poet, but have provided a 20 common a d j e c t i v e of the romance languages:  grotesque,  l o o k i n g back from the modern vantage point, the very nature of 2' a grotto experience may seem "grotesque"  in its artificiality. '  In "La S o l i t u d e " the d e l i g h t f u l n e s s of the grotto s e t t i n g , and the kind of e f f e c t that i t has upon the poet's mind, depends on i l l u s i o n .  The poet i s convinced i n t o conceiving wonders  that are only r e s t r a i n e d by h i s own imaginative c a p a c i t i e s . These f i c t i o n a l representations of what he observes are, on one l e v e l , mythological: Un gay Zephire l e s ^j'ces B o i s " , 5} caresse D'un mouvement doux et f l a t t e u r ; Rien que l e u r extresme hauteur ^ D e r i v e d from the I t a l i a n g r o t t a and grottesca. the term accompanied the a r r i v a l of the feature i t described. The I t a l i a n word probably derived i n turn from the VulgarL a t i n : "'Grotte' was the popular name i n Rome f o r the chambers of ancient b u i l d i n g s which had been revealed by excavation, and which contained those mural paintings that were t y p i c a l examples of 'grotesque,'" A lew E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y on H i s t o r i c a l P r i n c i p l e s , ed. J.A.H. Murray (Oxford: The Univ. Press, 1901), v o l . 4, pp. 448-49. 21  Many examples of such a r t i f i c i a l i t y could be c i t e d ; consider the water-surprise gardens mentioned i n "Las Soledades" which are s t i l l to be found i n Spain. "Some unsuspecting person would be l u r e d i n t o the grotto and then m e r c i l e s s l y drenched with water from a l l s i d e s . " E.M. Wilson, op. c i t . , "Notes," p. 129. "Las Soledades," I I , 11. 213-222. The same e f f e c t was achieved i n grottos i n I t a l y and France.  71 Ne f a i t remarquer l e u r v i e i l l e s s e : Jadis Pan, et ses Demy-Dieux (Satyrs) Y vindrent chercher du refuge, Quand J u p i t e r o u v r i t l e s Cieux Pour nous envoyer l e Deluge. (11-18) On another l e v e l , the poet's wanderings support a v i s i o n of Nature's own unlimited abundance: La, cent m i l l e Oyseaux aquatiques Vivent, sans craindre en l e u r repos, Le G-iboyeur f i n , et dispos Avec ses mortelles practiques. (51-54) The poet.associates the grotto atmosphere with v i s i o n s of decadence, decay, and fear as w e l l as with these exuberant v i s i o n s of plenty.  He views  l a decadence De ces vieux Chasteaux ruinez, Contre qui l e s Ans mutinez Ont deploye l e u r insolence! (71-74) La se nichent en m i l l e troux Les Couleuvres, et l e s Hyboux.  I L'Orfraye, avec ses o r i s funebres, Mortels augures des Destins, F a i t r i r e , et dancer l e s Lutins Dans ces l i e u x remplis de tenebres. (79-84) Thus, Saint-Amant's reactions to the element of d i s s o l u t i o n p a r t i a l l y emanates from h i s thoughts or ideas concerning i n s t i t u t i o n s and status of mankind.  the  This state of consciousness  i s founded i n a r e a l i s t i c i m i t a t i o n of grotto d e t a i l s , whereas the references to "Les Demons"(76) and " l e C i e l Juge equitable" (91) are purely extensions of the supernatural elements nurtured  "by such r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s .  The supernatural element i n h i s  t r a i n of v i s i o n s f i n d s i t s apogee i n the b r i e f meditation on judgement: Aussi l e C i e l Juge equitable Qui maintient l e s L o i x en vigueur, Prononca contre sa rigueur Une sentence epouventable: Autour de ces vieux ossemens Son Ombre aux peines condamnee, Lamente en longs gemissemens Sa malheureuse destinee, Ayant, pour c r o i s t r e son e f f r o y , Tousjours son crime devant soy. (91-100) I n t e r e s t i n g i s the mingling of C h r i s t i a n (91-94) and pagan (95-100) a t t i t u d e s to s u i c i d e .  Saint-Amant i s f u l l y  conscious that the experiences of s o l i t u d e i n nature, which supply the r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s and s t i m u l i f o r h i s imaginings, are the source f o r h i s poetic i n s p i r a t i o n and poetic i n s t r u c 22 tion.  Throughout the composition he a n t i c i p a t e s each  successive step of such i n s t r u c t i o n , and r e f e r s to h i s own pleasure i n the source i t s e l f ("0 que j'ayme l a S o l i t u d e ; " 1 , 191) as w e l l as i n the s p e c i f i c imaginative scenes r e v e r i e , " 24; " j e prens de p l a i s i r , " 25; "Que "Que  j'ayme a v o i r , " 71; "Que  ( ma H  j'ayme...," 41;  c'est une chose agreable,"  141)  Since the emphasis i n "La S o l i t u d e " i s on personal r e v e l a t i o n rather than d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n , SaintrAmant has endowed h i s v i s i o n s with the force of h i s own f u r o r poeticus. Borton, op. c i t . , p. 58.  His verse  73  i s takentofcathe product of h i s own genius, or daimon. and of 23 the muse of poetry: Je ne cherche que l e s deserts, Ou. revant tout s e u l , j e m'amuse A des discours assez d i s e r t s De mon Genie avec l a Muse. (175-178) Saint-Amant s poetic s p i r i t and s e n s i b i l i t i e s are l i b e r a t e d 1  by such a s t a t e of inquietude so that the r e s u l t s of the poet's v i s i o n a r y experience are indeed f a n t a s t i c : Tu v o l s dans cette Poesie P l e i n e de l i c e n c e , et d'ardeur, Les beaux rayons de l a splendeur Qui m'eclaire l a f a n t a i s i e : Tantost chagrin, tantost joyeux, Selon que l a fureur m'enflame, Et que l ' o b j e t s'off re a. mes yeux, Les propos me naissent en l'ame, Sans contraindre l a l i b e r t e Du Demon qui m'a transporte. (181-190) In "La S o l i t u d e " the poet has established himself as personally inspired" i n "Le Contemplateur" Saint-Amant r e i t e r a t e s the nature of the source of i n s p i r a t i o n which he f i n d s w i t h i n himself.  I n h i s attempt to give a true i m i t a t i o n and presen-  t a t i o n of h i s experiences, the poet follows h i s v i s i o n a r y s t r o l l t o i t s l o g i c a l and most s t a r t l i n g conclusion- an apocalypse. C.  The F i n a l Synapse  In "Le Contemplateur" Saint-Amant probes beyond the l e v e l °Cf. "Le Melon:" - "Car l e Roy d'Helicon ( A p o l l o ) , l e Demon de ma veine" (305), Bailbe and Lagny ed., v o l . 2.  74 of d e s c r i p t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n established i n " l a S o l i t u d e . " He f i n d s i n himself the p o t e n t i a l to unravel the d i v e r s i t y of nature's many forms and to comprehend "tout l'univers"(90) by a process of "recherche profonde"(89).  As i n Donne's "Anniver-  s a r i e s " observation i s an important preliminary a c t i v i t y (e.g. "Je f a i n s un p o r t r a i t a mes yeux," 65; "J'appercoy," 143; "J'y voy...," 155; "Je 1'observe," 305; "Je voy," 402) which precedes r e f l e c t i o n or meditation.. But there i s a marked d i f f e r e n c e between the two works i n terms of the nature of what follows the use of s i g h t .  In Donne we have seen that the author  prepares the way f o r a u n i v e r s a l and prophetic r e f l e c t i o n , whereas i n "Le Contemplateur" the poet f i n d s h i s own impressive thoughts awakened by a number of disparate observations made 24  on h i s r e t u r n to Belle-Isle-en-Mer.  Nature supplies the  poet with a d i v e r s i t y of seemingly v i s u a l phenomena.  To use  a b i o l o g i c a l analogy, each observation i s established as a synapse, or point of contact between adjacent images, by the impulses sent out from the poet's own state of euphoria.  In  other words, i n the h i g h l y personal experience of s o l i t u d e , the poet goes through a t h r e e - f o l d experience of observation, suggestions of ideas t r i g g e r e d by h i s s i g h t , and a concluding or personally e c s t a t i c d e l i g h t i n each of the meditations. The poet's purpose, u n l i k e that of Donne, i s not s e r i o u s l y moral, but r a t h e r , a prolongation and suspension of i n d i v i d u a l 24  For the date and place of composition, see Borton, op. c i t . , pp. 128-29.  75 observations and r e f l e c t i o n s u n t i l the climax of the  apocalypse.  Saint-Amant i s aware of a t h r e e - f o l d c r e a t i v e process, which becomes, u n l i k e i n "La S o l i t u d e , " often more conceptual than d e s c r i p t i v e : Je rends l e s premieres f r i v o l l e s : Voila, comme selon l ' o b j e t Mon e s p r i t changeant de p r o j e t , Saute de pensee en pensee: La d i v e r s i t e p l a i s t aux yeux, St l a veue en f i n est lassee De ne regarder que l e s Cieux. (134-140) Perhaps one of the f i n e s t examples of the poet's imaginative process i s the scene i n which the " f l u s et r e f l u s " of the sea suggests the idea of ebb and flow of a l l created things: La, songeant au f l u s et r e f l u s , Je m'abisme dans cette idee; Son mouvement me rend p e r c l u s , Et mon Ame en est obsed^e. (91-94) Each observation r e s u l t s i n the conception of an idea that obsesses the poet's imagination.  The simple observation of  ships r e c a l l s i n the poet's mind the f a s c i n a t i n g properties of the mariner's compass(101-110) and leads to a f r e n z i e d s t a t e where reason i s made subservient to the poet's emotions. At such moments Saint-Amant frequently expresses himself i n exclamations  (e.g. "0 moeurs! d i s j e , 6 monde b r u t a l ! , "  or becomes h i g h l y interrogative(124, 127,  130):  P a u t - i l que l e plus f i e r metal Plus que toy se montre sensible? E a u t - i l que, sans te reformer, Une p i e r r e dure au p o s s i b l e Te fasse honte en l ' a r t d'aymer? (116-120)  115)  76 Occasionally such e c s t a t i c states cause the poet to r e v e l i n the marvellous properties of God Himself; but such  exclamatory  sections have a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of simply another rendering of the poet's personal and inward-looking progress: 0 bon Dieu! m'escriay-je a l o r s , Que t a puissance est n o n p a r e i l l e , D'avoir en un s i p e t i t corps F a i t une s i grande m e r v e i l l e ! 0 feu! qui tousjours allume, Brusles sans estre consume! B e l l e Escarboucle qui chemines! (221-227) Although "Le Contemplateur"  was w r i t t e n f o r P h i l i p p e  Cospeau, Bishop of Nantes, who became Saint-Amant's s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t o r , and was responsible f o r h i s conversion from Protest a n t i c i s m to Catholicism i n the 1620's (whether h i s conversion was  s p i r i t u a l or expedient), I do not f e e l that one need 25  e f f e c t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of passages l i k e the above.  The  poet's b r i e f e x p o s i t i o n on the properties of God i s too connected w i t h a r a p i d - f i r e set of other observations and r e f l e c t i o n s to be singled out as more s i g n i f i c a n t than the others or of greater moral import.  As Saint-Amant s contemplation of 1  nature tends to heighten h i s sense of rapture, the b r i e f 25  'J.. Lagny has argued that the underlying motivation behind "Le Contemplateur" i s l i t e r a r y rather than r e l i g i o u s : see J . Lagny, "Le Poete Saint-Amant et l e protestantisme," B u l l e t i n de l a Societe de l ' h i s t o i r e du Protestantisme Francais. C I I I (1957), No. 4 ( o c t . - d e c ) , 237-266.  77 contemplation, of God functions i n the same manner.  . Likewise,  even the p o t e n t i a l l y d i d a c t i c device of an apocalyptic v i s i o n i s r e a l l y only the highest point i n the poet's "tableau fantasque," and i s ushered i n by the same process of observat i o n - r e f l e c t i o n - s t a t e of ecstasy as we have j u s t examined.  The  ideas of the Last Judgment and apocalypse a r i s e from the observations of daybreak: Tantost leve devant l e jour, Gontre ma coustume o r d i n a i r e , Pour v o i r recommencer l e tour Au c e l e s t e et grand Luminaire; Je 1'observe au s o r t i r des f l o s , Sous q u i l a n u i t , estant enclos, I I sembloit estre en sepulture; Et voyant son premier rayon, Beny l'Autheur de l a Nature, Dont i l est comme l e crayon. (301-310) That t h i s s e t t i n g i s an aesthetic and emotional climax to the poet's own i n t e r n a l state of a g i t a t i o n i s seen i n several aspects of the apocalyptic imagery. !•  The Element of 'TJt P i c t u r a Poesis' The much quoted s i m i l e of Horace, ut p i c t u r a poesis, has  been subject to successive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s from the beginnings of the I t a l i a n Renaissance to the present day with the r e s u l t that the theory of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i n t i n g and poetry 2 has become "more and more complex, more and more exaggerated." C D . Rolfe has commented that Saint-Amant was "rather too obviously t r y i n g to impress the Bishop of Nantes..." Saint-Amant and the Theory of Ut P i c t u r a Poesis (London: The Modern Humanities Research A s s o c i a t i o n , 1972), p. 23. ilb.ld.; , p. 2.  78  In i t s o r i g i n a l context-in the Ars Poetica Horace's analogy was made to express the idea that i n n e i t h e r poetry nor p a i n t i n g i s i t j u s t i f i a b l e to demand of the a r t i s t , more than he intends to give.  Since that time the theory of ut p i c t u r a  poesis has been u s e f u l i n d i s c u s s i n g those works of l i t e r a t u r e i n which the w r i t e r attempts to i m i t a t e the q u a l i t i e s or techniques of the " s i s t e r a r t " of p a i n t i n g .  As Wellek and  Warren have commented, "though the amount of v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n the reading of poetry i s l i k e l y to be overrated, there were 29  ages and there were poets who did make the reader v i s u a l i z e . " In a l i m i t e d sense such a comment might be made of Saint-Amant's " l e Contemplateur." Saint-Amant makes a d i r e c t reference i n t h i s poem to Michelangelo's "Last Judgment:" L'immortelle et scavante main De ce fameux Peintre Romain, N'a r i e n trace d'emerveillable Que ce penser de l'advenir P l e i n d'une t e r r e u r agreable, Ne ramene en mon souvenir. (325-330) One c r i t e r i o n that Saint-Amant appears to have established f o r h i s own v i s i o n s of the Last Judgment and end of the world i s that of c r e a t i n g "une  t e r r e u r agreable."  His imagery and  d e s c r i p t i o n s are not " p a i n t e r l y " i n the sense that they attempt pQ  W.G. Howard, "'Ut P i c t u r a Poesis.'" P u b l i c a t i o n s of the Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n , x x i v (1909), 40-123. 29  York:  Rene Wellek and A u s t i n Warren, Theoxw of L i t e r a t u r e , New Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1956, p. 126.  79 to reproduce the s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s . o f the painter, the d e t a i l s of the scene, but i n the sense that the poet wishes to impart a f e e l i n g of movement and massiveness to h i s v i s i o n s .  Unlike  the l a s t s e c t i o n of d'Aubigne's "Jugement" Saint-Amant's d e s c r i p t i o n s are not b r i l l i a n t i n terms of p a r t i c u l a r s , but are e f f e c t i v e i n conveying a generalized "impression" of the end of the world. As i n a genre p a i n t i n g , Saint-Amant s t r i v e s to create an atmosphere or f e e l i n g f o r the s e t t i n g , and h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s should be adjudged by the c r i t e r i o n of t h e i r effectiveness i n communicating the most t e r r i b l e of the author's 30  many v i s u a l and emotional experiences. Consider the author's attempt to render the majestic unfolding of h i s f i n a l synapse: A i n s i , mais plus c l a i r et plus beau, Verra t'on comme ce Flambeau Monter au C i e l l e corps du Juste Apres qu'avecques majeste, Dieu seant en son trosne auguste L'aura par sa bouche a r r e s t e . (315-320) The references to "ce Flambeau," " l e corps du Juste," and "son trosne auguste" are not elaborated upon since Saint-Amant i s not p i l i n g up h i s imagery to make a powerful impression on the reader or to console by some kind of moral or s p i r i t u a l revel a t i o n , but rather.to.record the c o n d i t i o n and state of h i s own p r i v a t e v i s i o n .  Even i n the p o t e n t i a l l y powerful d e s c r i p t i o n  But the poet's "Le Contemplateur" i s not a good example of the influence of the Flemish and Dutch genre p a i n t e r s . The apocalypse supplies only l i m i t e d picturesque d e t a i l s . For the i n f l u e n c e of such a r t i s t s , c f . R o l f e , op. c i t . , pp. 61-77 and R.A. Sayce, "Saint-Amant and Poussin," French Studies. 1(1947), 241-333.  80 of "Jesus au m i l i e u du S o l e i l " ( 3 4 0 ) Saint-Amant only employs two imprecise a d j e c t i v e s "espouventable et  magnifique"(339).  tiikewise, the t y p i c a l l y v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t a t e of the damned during the Judgment i s undetailed and aloof i n language: Mais l e s meschans desesperez Pour qui desja sont preparez De l ' E n f e r l e s tourmens enormes, Ne se representent a moy Que s i hideux et s i difformes, Que, mon Ame en t r a n s i t d'effroy. (395-400) Such a d i f f e r e n t perspective does not produce the horror d i s cussed i n d'Aubigne's Les Tragiques and Donne's "Anniversaries." D'Aubigne envisions himself rewarded i n heaven a f t e r h i s prophetic mission has been f u l f i l l e d , while Donne c r e d i t s himself with completing a prophetic task.  But Saint-Amant sees the  f i n a l end of the world as the conclusion to a personal v i s u a l 31 experience, and begs to be spared on that t e r r i b l e day: 0 Dieu! qui me f a i s concevoir Toutes ces futures m e r v e i l l e s Toy s e u l a qui pour mon devoir J ' o f f r i r a y l e s f r u i t s de mes v e i l l e s , Accorde-moy par t a bonte La g l o i r e de l ' E t e r n i t e , A f i n d'en couronner mon ame: Et foy qu'en ce t e r r i b l e Jour In "La S o l i t u d e " the sensual imagery i s employed to e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p , between the poet's i n t r o s p e c t i o n and h i s i n s p i r a t i o n : Mais quand je pense bien a moy Je l a hay pour l a r a i s o n mesme; p o r r o i t me r a v i r L'heur de te v o i r , et te s e r v i r . (197-200)  Je ne brusle point d*autre flame Que de c e l l e de ton amour. (441-450)32 C e r t a i n elements of Gongorism are also c l o s e l y a l l i e d to SaintAmant 's v i s u a l experience. 2.  The Elements of Gongorism Two l i n g u i s t i c features of Gongorism are not emphasized 33  i n "Le Contemplateur."^  The poem, u n l i k e "Las Soledades,"  i s not remarkable f o r a l a t i n i s a t i o n of vocabulary and syntax. Saint-Amant, who was assigned the task of compiling words that were "grotesque" f o r the Academie Francaise, d i d not c a p i t a l i z e on t h i s element i n "Le Contemplateur."  Secondly, although  Gongora took many s y n t a c t i c l i b e r t i e s , and frequently used hyperbata, Greek absolutes and accusatives, and c o n t i n u a l l y d i s t o r t e d normal Spanish word order, Saint-Amant s poem i s not 1  unusual s y n t a c t i c a l l y . The major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which Saint-Amant s poem shares 1  with Gongorism are the frequent r e p e t i t i o n of a key word, the use of a s i n g l e term or metaphor to encompass a v a r i e t y of p a r t i c u l a r shades of meaning, and the expression of the v i s u a l with hyperbolic and exaggerated language.  The f i n e s t example  32  Cf. p. 31 f o r d'Aubigne's j o y f u l a n t i c i p a t i o n of h i s f i n a l union with God. -'-'For my b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of features of Gongorism, I am indebted to E.M. Wilson, op. c i t . , "Introduction," pp. x i i - x x i ; i i l i s h a K. Kane, Gongorism and the Golden Age: A Study of Exuberance and Unrestraint i n the A r t s (Chapel H i l l : U n i v T o f North Carolina Press, 1928), pp. 24-41; and Lucien-Paul Thomas, M M | sur Gongora et l e Gongorisme Tome-VII (Bruxelles: Academie Royale, 1911, 2nd s e r i e s ) , pp. 93-110.  82 of the r e p e t i t i o n of a key word i n "Le Contemplateur" i s the author's use of tantost to lead from one v i s u a l and conceptual experience to another (11. 141, 191, 195, 231, 241, 262, 265, 271, 281, 285, 291, 301): Tantost f a i s a n t a g i r mes sens Sur des sujet de moindre estofe, De marche en autre je descens Dans l e s termes du P h i l o s o f e . (81-84) Tantost nous a l l a n t promener Dans quelque chaloupe a. l a rade, Nous l a i s s o n s apres nous t r a i s n e r Quelaue l i g n e pour l a Dorade. (201-204) The word appears f o r the l a s t time to introduce the poet's d e s c r i p t i o n and thoughts on the Judgment and apocalypse.  In  t h i s case tantost announces, l i k e " l a trompette Serafique"(337), the l a s t of the poet's v i s i o n a r y and conceptual experiences. The f o l l o w i n g passage i l l u s t r a t e s two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Gongorism found i n "Le Contemplateur:" Les E s t o i l l e s tombent des Cieux, Les flammes devorent l a t e r r e , Le Mongibel est en tous l i e u x , Et par tout gronde l e tonnerre: Le Salemandre est sans vertu; L'Asbeste passe pour f e s t u , La Mer brusle comme eau-de-vie, L ' A i r n'est plus que souffre allume, Et l ' A s t r e dont l'Aube est s u i v i e Est par soy-mesme consume. Les Metaux ensemble fondus Eont des r i v i e r e s precieuses; Leurs f l o t s b o u i l l a n t s sont espandus Par l e s campagnes spacieuses. Dans ce feu, l e dernier des maux, Tous l e s t e r r e s t r e s Animaux  83 Se consolent en quelque s o r t e , Du Deluge a demy vangez En voyant ceux que l'onde porte Aussy bien comme eux a f f l i g e z . (411-430)34 There i s a noticeably imprecise character to the language throughout t h i s passage.  Saint-Amant creates a f e e l i n g f o r  the decay and chaos of the apocalypse not by d w e l l i n g upon the many p a r t i c u l a r s of each stage of d i s s o l u t i o n , but by implementing a vocabulary that i s generalized:  no a d j e c t i v e s  q u a l i f y "Cieux," the flames that devour the earth are simply flames.  Indeed, the language i s as basic as the four primary  elements:  " l a t e r r e , " "La Mer," "Les Elammes," and " L ' a i r . "  Nor are the a d j e c t i v e s s t r i k i n g i n the second stanza: "precieuses," "spacieuses," and " t e r r e s t r e s . " more u n s p e c i f i c than " l e s t e r r e s t r e s Animaux"?  What could be Obviously the  passages gain t h e i r exaggerated q u a l i t y from the p i l i n g up of such a p a r a l l e l group of generalized terms, and the plenitude of verbs meant to i m i t a t e the s t a t e of chaos the poet i s imagining:  included i n the f i r s t stanza are "tombent,"  "devorent,"  "est," "passe," "brusle," "n'est plus que souffre  allume," and a f i n a l "est."  The predominance i n the f i r s t  stanza of the verb "to be" coincides n i c e l y with the general •^"L'Etna: Les habitants l e nomment l e Mont-Gibel, & peut-etre est-ce des Arabes qu'est venu l e mot de Gibel. The ancients believed that the salamander could survive f i r e . Asbestos i s ah incombustible mineral. See e d i t i o n v o l . I , "Notes," p. 67. The references t o Etna are common i n Spanish love poetry. i,:  84 nouns:  the poet i s r e s t r i c t i n g himself to c r e a t i n g the basic  atmosphere.  Also noticeable i s the way i n which the nouns,  most of which have been a s i g n i f i c a n t part of the poet's past experiences i n s o l i t u d e , are appearing f o r the l a s t time.  The  poet, who has "chante/De l a Mer en ma Solitude"(151-2), now observes that the sea "brusle comme eau-de-vie."  The ideas  concerning the "Deluge"(62) and "No^"(66) are seen i n a new context of d e s t r u c t i o n .  Saint-Amant, who has already c e l e -  brated many of the elements, " l e plus f i e r m e t a l " ( l l 6 ) , now imagines them as ingredients i n the apocalypse. The reference to "eau-de-vie" i n an apocalyptic s e t t i n g , and the p i l i n g up of terms connected only f o r the sake of g i v i n g an impression or i m i t a t i o n of the apocalypse, l a c k the support 35  of a prophetic doctrine as found i n our other authors.  The  f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the apocalyptic v i s i o n i n "Le Contemp l a t e u r " which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the v i s i o n as a rather p l a y f u l and p e r s o n a l l y aesthetic conception made by Saint-Amant i s the C f . Theophile de Viau's "Ode" i n the S e l e c t i o n s , op. c i t . , pp. 45-56: 5 5  Un corbeau devant moi croasse, Une ombre offusque mes regards; Deux b e l e t t e s et deux renards Traversent l ' e n d r o i t ou je passe. (1-4) His poem i l l u s t r a t e s the same kind of p i l i n g up of images without a d o c t r i n a l i n t e n t , and the use of the "grotesque" as found i n Saint-Amant's "Solitude."  85  the presence of the Bacchic element. 3.  The Bacchic Element I n "Le Contemplateur" apparently serious and f r i v o l o u s  d e t a i l s are o c c a s i o n a l l y combined.  Borton's argument that the  poem i s s e r i o u s l y r e l i g i o u s does not account f o r the manner i n which Saint-Amant mixes the realms of the s p i r i t u a l , a concern w i t h r e l i g i o u s subject matter i n the Last Judgment and apocalypse, and the mundane, a treatment of such subject matter i n a w i l d l y 36 r i b a l d fashion.  In "Le Contemplateur" Saint-Amant quite  n a t u r a l l y records both the serious and humorous d e t a i l s of h i s i n d i v i d u a l v i s i o n s and meditations.  For instance, the  author's d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t r u g g l i n g man whose head s t i c k s out of the ground during the resurrection, of the dead has a touch of the grotesquely comic.  Such vividness surprises the  reader's senses., and lends the v i s i o n a s l i g h t l y humorous character:  L'un m'apparoist un bras devant, L*autre ne montre que l a t e s t e , Et n'estant qu'a moitie v i v a n t , Force 1'obstacle qui l ' a r r e s t e : Cestuy-cy s ' e s v e i l l e en sursaut, Cestuy-la j o i n t l e s mains en haut Implorant l a faveur d i v i n e ; Et 1'autre est a. peine l e v e , Que d'un coeur devot i l s'encline Devers l'Agneau q u i l a sauve. (351-360)  "56 I . Buffum considers such a treatment as another aspect of the baroque mind, see I . Buffum, Studies i n the Baroque, J  pp.  158-59.  86 In the passage d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g that quoted above Saint-Amant continues a d e s c r i p t i o n of the Second Coming that appears unsuited t o the s p i r i t u a l import of such an event.  His picture  i s colored by a l l u s i o n s to i n c e s t and sexual love which normally would be considered inappropriate aspects of the s i t u a t i o n : Pres de l a , l e f r e r e et l a seur, Touchez de ce b r u i t dont tout tremble, D'estre accusez d i n c e s t e ont peur, Pour se trouver couchez ensemble, Icy l a femme et l e mary, Objet l'un de 1*autre chery, Voyons l a c l a r t e souhaitee Semblent s'estonner et gemir D*avoir passe cette nuictee Sans a v o i r r i e n f a i t que dormir. (361-70) 1  A f i n a l instance that should be c i t e d concerning Saint-Amant s 1  use of the unexpected i s the a n t i c l i m a t i c conclusion to the poem.  The author switches from making a prayer and s u p p l i c a t i o n  to God(441-454) and o f f e r s a humble prayer to h i s bishop: Vous, d i s - j e , a qui j e s c r y ces Vers Ou dans l a mort de l'Univers Un haut renom s immortalise, V e u i l l e z estre l e u r Protecteur, Et permettez-moy qu'on y l i s e Que j e suis vostre adorateur. (455-460) 1  1  The o r i g i n f o r such a combination of elements i n one of Saint-Amant s few poems with a r e l i g i o u s subject matter can be 1  sought i n the t r a d i t i o n of the comiaue burlesque or the bacchic. Poems such as " l a Desbauche," "Bacchus Conquerant," "La ^'The t r a d i t i o n of the comique burlesque and caprice are treated i n Gourier, op. c i t . , pp. 119-140; Rathe, op. c i t . , pp. 78-113; R.A. Mazzara, "Saint-Amant, avant-garde precieux poet: •'La Jouyssance,' B a l l State Teachers College Forum, IVU963), 58-63. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of Saint-Amant•s modes of s e n s i b i l i t y , Borton does not include the bacchic or capricious poems.  Naissance de Pantagruel," "La Vigne," "Le Cidre," and  "Les  Pourvens Bachiques" a l l r e v e a l the picturesque richness of Saint-Amant's imagination, and h i s v i r t u o s i t y i n savoring the crude and vulgar.  The humorous r e s u l t s of the poet's  inclin-  ations as"> w r i t t e n about i n "La Naissance de Pantagruel" • Le sucre de Madere en poivre f u t change, Les gigots de mouton en Jambons de Majence, La Terre eut l e hocquet, e l l e en c r i a vengence, Et l a Nature mesme en ardeur s'exhalant Se v i t preste a mourir de l a mort de Rolant; S i bien qu'a, mon exemple, a i n s i que d i t l ' h i s t o i r e , Par tout a gueule ouverte on demandoit a boire A BOIRE, A BOIRE, (22-29P  y  p a r t l y accounts f o r the appearance of "eau-de-vie" and the other l i g h t - h e a r t e d aspects of " l e Contemplateur."  I t might  be argued that Saint-Amant's r e a l i n c l i n a t i o n was not d i r e c t e d toward the w r i t i n g of deeply r e l i g i o u s verse, but to the communication of the author's s p i r i t e d character and  thoughts.  In "Le Contemplateur" Saint-Amant might have been w r i t i n g out of an expedient conversion to Catholicism, which would argue f o r the i n s i n c e r i t y of h i s r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s i n the poem, but h i s persona as seen i n t h i s poem i s c e r t a i n l y consistent w i t h that of the vigorous poet who affirmed Nous perdons l e temps a. rimer Amis, i l ne faut plus chommer, Voicy Bacchus qui nous convie A mener bien une autre v i e , ("La Desbauche, " .1-4) ''Rabelais Oeuvres Completes, ed. P i e r r e Jourda, tome I I ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s Gamier F r e r e s ) , chapter I I , pp. 36-39.  88  and announced that, De L a u r i e r s , de Charmes, de Buis, De Cypres, de f l e u r s , et de f r u i t s , Se forment des murailles v i v e s . ("La Vigne," 39-41) In both "La S o l i t u d e " and "Le Contemplateur" Nature has supplied the  stimulus f o r the poet to b u i l d a "muraille v i v e " of h i s own  imaginative adventures.  The p e r s o n a l i t y or persona of the poet  has not r e a l l y changed i n these works; Saint-Amant integrates the  capricious.and.bacchanalian, as w e l l as the more thoughtful  and contemplative sides of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . i n t o h i s v i s i o n s . But the a c t u a l development of thought i n "Le Contemplateur," as seen i n the a n t i c l i m a t i c prayer to the bishop, does not become more profound or r e l i g i o u s l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  They do,  however, become more grandly v i s i o n a r y , and are a e s t h e t i c a l l y completed by a v i s i o n of the apocalypse.. . . Although my view of one of Saint-Amant, s few " r e l i g i o u s " 1  poems might seem to place the poet i n the rather maligned p o s i t i o n of a l i b e r t i n . I would suggest that h i s imaginative versions of the apocalypse and Last Judgment argue simply f o r a non-religious or undidactic use of these s e t t i n g s .  The poet  was honest and extremely serious about recording the nature of h i s own emotional-aesthetic experiences even i f h i s r e l i g i o u s 39  b e l i e f s are i n doubt. 39  Rathe has an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of Saint-Amant as "honnete homme" with respect to h i s theory of i m i t a t i o n and s t y l e , see op. c i t . , pp. 11-24.  CHAPTER IV CRASHAW S POETIC VISION 1  A.  'Unum Ante Thronum*  As we turn to the l a s t of our authors we w i l l f i n d Richard Crashaw concerned with a s i m i l a r personal rather than u n i v e r s a l a r t i s t i c goal although the persona behind h i s poems i s c l o s e r to the a g i t a t e d and e c s t a t i c s t a t e of St.. John of the Cross or Santa Teresa than that of the inquietude of Saint-Amant."^  -  Secular L a t i n poetry had reached i t s z e n i t h before the early t h i r t e e n t h century, but r e l i g i o u s poetry i n L a t i n had i t s most productive period i n the t h i r t e e n t h century.  Among  the many creations of t h i s age, impressive i n t h e i r solemnity 2 and rhythmic power, i s the "Dies I r a e " of Thomas de Celano. In t h i s hymn the fear of impending judgment and the t e r r o r of the end of the world are communicated with a f o r c e f u l n e s s that i s rare i n the other L a t i n hymns included i n the l i t u r g y , and perhaps only equaled i n poetic beauty by c e r t a i n of the Vulgate psalms.  When one hears that Tube mirum spargens sonum, Per sepulcra regionum Coget omnes ante thronum, (stan. 3) 5  St.  See James B. Anderson, "Richard Crashaw, S t . Teresa, and John of the Cross," Discourse. X, i v (Autumn, 1967), 421-28. 2 C u r t i u s , op. c i t . , p. 318. •5  See Appendix I f o r the f u l l text of t h i s hymn.  90 the famous "Requiem Mass" o f Hector B e r l i o z comes to mind, i n which trumpets are stationed at the "four corners of the earth," and are sounded i n sequence during the "Dies Irae" s e c t i o n , Crashaw translated or f r e e l y paraphrased s i x of the major hymns of the western Church:  "Hymnus de Passione Domini,"  "Sancta Maria Dolorum," "Rhythmus ad Sacram Eucharistiam" and the companion "De V e n e r a b i l i Sacramento i n Festo Corporis C h r i s t i , " "Prosa de Mortuis" or "Dies Irae," and "De Beata Virgine."  4  Crashaw"s renderings, which were published i n 1648  and r e p r i n t e d i n 1652 are of representative pieces from both e a r l y and l a t e medieval poetry, d i f f e r e n t schools of devotion, personal prayers or meditations, and various d o c t r i n a l sequences. A l l of the hymns can be used to exemplify the process i n which Crashaw a l t e r s the sense from the u n i v e r s a l and d o c t r i n a l or d i d a c t i c to the a f f e c t i v e and p a r t i c u l a r or personal.  Sister  Margaret Claydon has argued that the paraphrase of the "Hymnus de Passione Domini" i s most changed i n t h i s respect, but perhaps more s t r i k i n g i s the s h i f t that i s made from the u n i v e r s a l to the personal i n the paraphrase of the "Dies Irae."  In h i s  poem Crashaw d i s p l a y s " h i s propensity f o r nursing an emotion and savouring a l l the sweetness of g r i e f , " and h i s habit of See Francis E. Barker, "The R e l i g i o u s Poetry of Richard Crashaw," Church Quarterly Review. 46 ( A p r i l , 1923), 39-65. 4  ^ S i s t e r Margaret Claydon, op. c i t . , p. 136; Bertonasco, op. c i t . , pp. 74-76. c  78-99.  I b i d . , pp. 111-31.  The "Dies Irae" i s discussed pp.  "worrying out of h i s conceits t h e i r emotional and sensational, 7 rather than t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . " Crashaw establishes the i n t r o s p e c t i v e state and contemp l a t i v e tone that he i s to assume throughout "The Hymn of the Church, i n Meditation of the Day of Judgment" i n the f i r s t l i n e s of the poem: Hears't thou, my s o u l , what serious things Both the Psalm and s y b y l l sings Of a sure judge, from whose sharp Ray The world i n flames s h a l l f l y away, (st.- I) The f i r s t part of the l a t i n hymn, which i s a general and solemnized d e s c r i p t i o n of the eschaton. or events of the l a s t days, i s made l e s s foreboding by the poet's i n t r o d u c t i o n of himself i n t o a poem through h i s invocation to h i s own " s o u l . " Likewise, the adjectives "serious," "sure," and "sharp," associated w i t h the happenings of the l a s t days and the Judge who w i l l preside over these events, are weak and inadequate i n terms of the "dies i r a e " and " f a v i l l a " of the l a t i n .  As  the poem progresses Crashaw s h i f t s from an emphasis on the  "we"  who w i l l c o l l e c t i v e l y face and s u f f e r the "Horror of nature, h e l l and Death!"(5-28), to an elaboration of h i s own place and a n t i c i p a t i o n s at such a time(29-68):  "And thou wouldst be/  Even l o s t thy s e l f i n seeking me"(32), "And t h i s lov'd s o u l " (35),  "With my p r i c e , and not w i t h me"(38), "Mercy (my judge) 7  Joan Bennett, Five Metaphysical Poets: Donne. Herbert. vaughan, Crashaw, M a r v e l l (Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y Press, 3rd ed. 1964), p. 92.  mercy I c r y " ( 4 l ) , "my s i n " ( 4 3 ) , "0 say the word my Soul s h a l l l i v e " ( 4 8 ) , "Hope t e l l s my heart, the same loves b e / S t i l l a l i v e ; and s t i l l f o r me"(52), "my Prayres and teares combine"(53), "they are mine"(55), "saving me"(56), "then c a l l me"(60), "That I i n h e r i t t , " ( 6 4 ) , and "My hope, my f e a r ! my Judge, my Priend!/Take charge of me, and of my END"(67-8). Crashaw*s i n t e n t i n h i s poem i s to describe the emotional s t a t e and persona of a man contemplating the apocalypse who i s a c t u a l l y concerned w i t h the C h r i s t i a n concept of God's mercy. The poem i s both a plea and a r e q u i s i t i o n . red  The poet weeps  tears to s i g n i f y the ashy white c o n t r i t i o n of h i s heart: Mercy (my judge) mercy I cry With blushing Cheek and bleeding ey, The conscious colors of my s i n Are red without and pale w i t h i n , (st. XI)  But the helpless and c e r t a i n l y pathetic s t a t e of the persona s u r p r i s i n g l y becomes that of a man who d i r e c t s God to show him mercy on the Judgment Day since a state of c o n t r i t i o n i s worthless i n i t s e l f : Though both my Prayres and tears combine, Both worthlesse are; For they are mine. But thou thy bounteous s e l f s t i l l be; And show thou art, by saving me, (at. XIV) Let those l i f e - s p e a k i n g l i p p s command That I i n h e r i t t thy r i g h t hand, (st. X V I ) 9  o  Crashaw makes a b i l i n g u a l pun on " c o n t r i t e " i n stanza XVII "And crumbled i n t o c o n t r i t e dust." In L a t i n contritum means "crumbled i n t o dust." See Williams, ed., "Notes," pp. 191, 193. • P. 23 i n t h i s study.  My hope, my fear! my Judge, my Friend! Take charge of me, and of my END! (st. XVII) Unlike d'Aubigne and Donne, Crashaw's consolatory hopes are personal.  The more inclusive "we"  of the f i r s t section-are  only seen participating i n the trumpet and "Book" Judgment where "None can indure, yet none can fly"(20), and are not offered doctrinal or other consolation.  Although the Latin hymn also  involves the personal "me," Crashaw's f i r s t l i n e eliminates the p o s s i b i l i t y that the poet intended his treatment of the topic of the apocalypse  to afford universal consolation.  More than anything else the poet's own fears serve as the impetus f o r the thematic content, and arise out of the i n i t i a l treatment of the Day of Judgment by means of a group of fervent apostrophes:  "0 that f i r e ! " ( 5 ) , "0 those eyes!"(7), "0 that  trump!"(9), "0 that Book!"(17)]- and "0 that Judge!"(19). Through these exclamatory statements the poet's emotional state i s heightened.  Each apostrophe i s followed by an elaboration  that i n t e n s i f i e s the fearfulness of the f i n a l event, and prepares the way for -the change to the interrogative character of stanza VI . Ah then, poor soul, what w i l t thou say? And to what Patron chiise to pray? When starres themselves s h a l l stagger; and The most firm foot no more then stand,10 Cf. Matthew 24:29- "Immediately after the t r i b u l a t i o n of those days s h a l l the sun be darkened, and the moon s h a l l not give i t s l i g h t , and the stars s h a l l f a l l from heaven, and the powers of the heavens s h a l l be shaken."  94 and the switch to the tone of the second section of the poem (29-68). There i s disagreement over Crashaw's s k i l l i n matching i m a g i s t i c and l o g i c a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  There i s even  greater disagreement over the q u a l i t i e s of the poet's imagery. Marc F. Bertonasco o f f e r s perhaps the most sympathetic reading of the poems of Crashaw, and believes that h i s images are "more sensuous and more inherently emotional than Donne's;" they are not to be " v i s u a l i z e d i n a l l . t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s . ""**"*" An opposing view argues that Crashaw loves to elaborate sensations which he often dwells upon unmercifully, and involves the i n t e l l e c t i n h i s poetry "to give l o g i c a l coherence to h i s perception of i d e n t i t y between these things ( i . e . images)."  Another c r i t i c  has suggested that Crashaw was "not often able to command h i s pen so w e l l when he became excited about h i s G-od or h i s r e l i gion" and that h i s "constant s h i f t i n g of metaphor" tends to 13  mar some of the better known poems.  i n s p i t e of the contro-  versy over the merits of Crashaw's images and t h e i r l o g i c a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t can be seen that at l e a s t i n our poem the poet e f f e c t i v e l y communicates h i s emotional s t a t e , and has chosen h i s imagery and metaphors to connect l o g i c a l l y w i t h h i s ""•"""M.F. Bertonasco, op. c i t . , p. 9. 12  B e n n e t t , op. c i t . , p. 105. See pp. 92-108.  ^G.W. Williams, Image and Symbol i n the Sacred Poetry of Richard Crashaw (Columbia: U. of South C a r o l i n a Press 1963), PP. 3, 4.  i n t e n t to console himself by a f a i t h i n God's mercy. his  elaboration of one of the apostrophic and  Consider  parallel  settings: 0 that f i r e ! before whose face Heavn and earth s h a l l f i n d no place. 0 those eyes! whose angry l i g h t Must be the day of that dread Night. (st. I I ) As to be expected Crashaw describes the l a s t Judgment i n terms of l i g h t and dark.  The idea that the l i g h t from the eyes of  the "Judge" must become "the day of that dread Night" i s not found i n the L a t i n .  But as the poem develops t h i s contrast  between l i g h t , representing the forces of goodness and j u s t r e t r i b u t i o n , and darkness, the forces of e v i l and horror, becomes completely integrated i n t o the f i r s t s e c t i o n :  opposed  to God's "sharp Ray" i s a world i n "flames.;" the " c i r c l i n g Sun" w i l l loom over "pale" mankind; a l l w i l l come from t h e i r "caves of n i g h t " to answer the Judgment c a l l ; the " b r i g h t " pages of the "Book" w i l l place the world i n a "severe l i g h t ; " the "eye  ( c f . stanza I I ) of God none can avoid."''''' Crashaw's 1  extended contrast of l i g h t and dark s i g n a l s an i n e v i t a b l e d i v i s i o n that w i l l take place among mankind between the saved and the unsaved.  Thus, having established the " f a c t s " about  the coming judgment, the poet a s s e r t s : But thou g i v ' s t leave ('dread Lord) that we Take s h e l t e r from thy s e l f , i n thee; And with the wings of thine own dove For the imagery of l i g h t - d a r k i n the other hymn transl a t i o n s or paraphrases see #79(55-56), #78(stanzas 1, 4, 5), #80(stanzas 3, 4), #82(3, 4, 21, 34, 35).  Fly  to thy s c e p t e r of s o f t l o v e . (st.  VII)  To reach God's "scepter of s o f t l o v e " the poet's language i n t e n t become h i g h l y p e r s o n a l i z e d and i n t r o v e r t e d .  The  and  con-  templation of an a p o c a l y p t i c s e t t i n g thus a c t s as the stimulus to  i n c i t e the poet's thoughts and hopes concerning h i s p e r s o n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p to C h r i s t ' s m e r c i f u l In  spirit.  the second s e c t i o n of the hymn Crashaw goes beyond h i s  conception of the f e a r f u l nature of C h r i s t by i n t r o d u c i n g the imagery  of the sheepfold and the market p l a c e .  Through the  development of both types of imagery C h r i s t i s conceived of as a " F r i e n d " and "hope" as w e l l as a Judge.  In stanza V I I I  C h r i s t i s a f f e c t i o n a t e l y addressed as "Dear" as the author wishes t o r e c a l l h i s own language  conversion i n terms of the homely  of the good shepherd: Dear, remember i n that Day Who was the cause thou cams't t h i s way. Thy sheep was s t r a y ' d ; and thou wouldst be Even l o s t thy s e l f i n seeking me.  The two a t t r i b u t e s of C h r i s t ' s being as s t e r n Judge and good shepherd  are played upon by the poet i n the hope of g a i n i n g  C h r i s t ' s mercy: 0 when thy l a s t Frown s h a l l p r o c l a i m The f l o c k s of goates to f o l d s of flame, And a l l thy l o s t sheep found s h a l l be, Let come ye b l e s s e d then c a l l me. ( s t . XV) Crashaw's apparent tendency to e l a b o r a t e upon h i s emotions i s no doubt r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t y p i c a l yet not s c a t o l o g i c a l d i r e c t i v e to C h r i s t to " l e t t h i n e own  s o f t bowells pay/Thy  97 s e l f ; And so discharge that day"(45-6)."^  The poet's choice  of a sensual approach to C h r i s t ' s own a f f e c t i o n s stems from h i s supposition that " s i n can sigh"(47) and "love can f o r g i v e " (47); because of C h r i s t ' s a l l benevolent s p i r i t , the poet's own soul should go free at His command. The poet draws upon a l i m i t e d compass of imagery and also imagines the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between himself and C h r i s t i n 16 economic terms.  Crashaw, i n h i s contemplation  of h i s own  s p i r i t u a l worthiness, alludes to the language of the good shepherd n a r r a t i v e : S h a l l a l l that labour, a l l that cost Of l o v e , an ev'n that l o s s e , be l o s t ? And t h i s lov'd s o u l , judg'd worth no l e s s e Then a l l that way, and wearynesse? (st. IX) Only stanza V I (Ah then, poor Soul, what w i l t thou say?) i s interrogative.  Crashaw suggests that the problem of deciding  upon h i s s p i r i t u a l f a t e can be r a t i o n a l l y resolved by equating the poet's s p i r i t u a l worth with the b a r t e r i n g and f i n a l p r i c e of h i s o r i g i n a l conversion (a process of s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n ) rather than h i s own inherent nature or external signs of f a i t h , such as prayers and t e a r s , which "worthlesse  are."  C f . Williams, ed., "Notes," s t . X I I , p. 191: "'bowells: the seat of the sympathetic emotions; 'soft bowells...discharge,' however, by the process of e l i m i n a t i o n , has quite a d i f f e r e n t meaning; i t may be thought not i n the best t a s t e to introduce scatology i n t o eschatology..." Surely Crashaw never intended t h i s passage to be s c a t o l o g i c a l or obscene. 1 5  ^Among the other hymns such imagery i s common, c f . #77 stanzas I , I I ("transfer'd), I I I , V ("costly excellence), V I , V I I I (inherit/That Kingdom..."); #78 stanzas I I I ("payes back"), I V ("borrowed s i n s ) , I X , X . See G.W. Williams, Image & Symbol, pp. 1 2 7 - 2 9 .  98  Thus, Crashaw*s contemplation of the apocalypse may be seen as a process through which the poet c r y s t a l i z e s h i s own hopes concerning the m e r c i f u l nature of C h r i s t as a Judge and Friend who w i l l accept h i s s p i r i t u a l p r i c e .  The knowledge  that Crashaw*s mood i s personal i n t h i s hymn, and that the poet i s possessed by thoughts of s e l f and s i n , i s prefatory to an appreciation of the poetic method i n "The Flaming Heart" and "The Teresa Poems."  B.  "The Teresa Poems"  Crashaw chose as h i s patron St. Teresa of Jesus, of A v i l a , who was one of the most popular s a i n t s of the seventeenth century, and whose i n s p i r a t i o n a l s p i r i t perhaps " f i l l e d Crashaw's 17  f i n e s t poetry and occupied h i s l a s t poetic breath."  The poet  must have been acquainted w i t h the autobiography of the Saint published i n Spanish i n 1 5 8 8 . English t r a n s l a t i o n s were publ i s h e d by W i l l i a m Malone i n 1 6 1 1 , and by S i r Tobias Mathew i n 18  1 6 2 3 and 1 6 4 2 .  That Crashaw drew h e a v i l y upon an i n t e r e s t  i n the Saint i s r e f l e c t e d i n the t r i l o g y of "The Flaming Heart," "The Hymn to St. Teresa," and "An Apology f o r the fore-going Hymn" which he wrote i n her honor.  The three poems have been  noted f o r t h e i r " s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n of sense which i s condensed here i n a portentous, dizzy soaring of red-hot images""''  9  17 18  G.W.  Williams, Image and Symbol, p. 6.  I b i d . , p. 8. Williams, ed., p. 6 1 . 1 9 ^ . Praz, The Flaming Heart (Garden C i t y N.Y.:  1958),  p.  and  262.  Doubleday,  99  as g i v i n g an impression  "at f i r s t reading of soaring rockets 20  s c a t t e r i n g b a l l s of colored f i r e . "  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  observe that c r i t i c s of the poems, even the most sober, seem to be unavoidably touched by the "happy fire-works" ("The Flaming Heart," 18) of Crashaw's poetic s t y l e and w r i t e with an almost 21 equal i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c gusto. "The Flaming Heart," seen t r a d i t i o n a l l y as composed of three parts, i s most a l l i e d to the paraphrase of the "dies i r a e " i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n which i s an exuberant invocation to 22 the Saint.  This s e c t i o n reveals most f u l l y the poet's over-  whelming i n t e r e s t i n h i s own personal s p i r i t u a l state and hopes for salvation: 0 sweet incendiaryI shew here thy a r t , Upon t h i s carcasse of a hard, c o l d , hart, Let a l l thy scatter*d shafts of l i g h t , that play Among the leaves of thy l a r g Books of day, Combin'd against t h i s Brest at once break i n  on  Grierson, Metaphysical L y r i c s and Poems of the Seventeenth Century Donne to B u t l e r (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1958), 1st pub. 1921 "Introduction," p. x l v i . ?1  In a negative'sense problem a t i c poems l i k e "The Weeper" have caused one c r i t i c to comment, "The white of the l i q u i d s , milk and cream, s i g n i f i e s the would-be-pure character of the Weeper. As cream r i s e s to the top of milk, so the tears of the Saint r i s e above the Milky Way, being more excellent than i t . " Williams, op. c i t . , p. 100. L i n e s 1-68 contrast the Seraph and the Saint, l i n e s 6984 mark a change i n mood where the poet celebrates the progress of Teresa, while l i n e s 85-108 o f f e r an invocation to the Saint, see Williams, ed., p. 61; M.S. Rickey, Rhyme and Meaning i n Richard Crashaw (Lexingioft: U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky Press, 1961), p. 36; and A. Warren, Richard Crashaw: A Study i n Baroque Sensibility ( L o u i s i a n a State U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1939), pp. 141-44. 2 2  100 And take away from me my s e l f and s i n , This gratious Robbery s h a l l thy bounty be; And my best fortunes such f a i r s p o i l e s of me. 0 thou undanted daughter of desires I By a l l thy dowr of L i g h t s and F i r e s ; By a l l the eagle i n thee, a l l the dove; By a l l thy l i v e s and deaths of love; By a l l thy l a r g draughts of i n t e l l e c t u a l l day, And by thy t h i r s t s of love more large then they; By a l l thy b r i m - f i l l ' d Bowles of f e i r c e desire By thy l a s t Morning's draughts of l i q u i d f i r e ; By the f u l l kingdome of that f i n a l l k i s s e That seiz'd thy . p a r t i n g Soul, and seal'd thee h i s ; By a l l the heav'ns thou hast i n him ( F a i r s i s t e r of the . SERAPHIM!). By a l l of HIM we have i n THEE;.  .Leave nothing of my  SELF i n  me.  Let me so read thy l i f e , that I Unto a l l l i f e of mine may dy. (85-108) In contrast to the adjectives "hard" and "cold"(86) meant to express the q u a l i t i e s of the poet's dead s e n s i b i l i t i e s i s the invocation to the Saint as an i n s p i r a t i o n a l d e s i r e and love.  source of s p i r i t u a l  The most prominent r h e t o r i c a l feature i s the  anaphora(94-105) which enumerates the dual a t t r i b u t e s of the Saint as i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional, and r e s u l t i n the poet's plea f o r the experience of "transverberation" between himself 23  and the Saint.  The dual nature of the Saint i s that of a l l -  consuming p u r i t y ("Lights," 94) and i n s p i r a t i o n a l vigor ("Fires," 94), s p i r i t u a l strength ("eagle," 95; " i n t e l l e c t u a l l , " 97)  and  love ("dove," 95; " l i v e s and deaths of l o v e , " 96; " t h i r s t s of l o v e , " 98; " f e i r c e d e s i r e , " 99; "draught of l i q u i d f i r e , " " f i n a l k i s s e , " 101).  100;  Crashaw's imagery i s obviously obsessed  here with the sensual rather than i n t e l l e c t u a l reference.  In  23 ^See Williams, ed. p. 62; Saint Teresa's experience of transverberation i s described i n her The Flaming Heart, chap. XXIV (1642).  101 his  apparent apocalyptic preoccupation w i t h the fear of f i n d i n g  himself i n a state outside of grace, the poet can hope f o r comfort hy invoking her name and c a l l i n g f o r a process that, i n i t s very f u l f i l l m e n t , would be the sensual climax to the poet's existence: Leave nothing of my S e l f i n me. Let me so read thy l i f e , that I Unto a l l l i f e of mine may dy. (106-8) Thus, the "gratious Robbery"(91), which would take away the poet's " s e l f and s i n " ( 9 0 ) , i s equivalent to the "Just mercy" (37) envisioned i n the "Hymn to the Church i n Meditation of the Day of Judgment" where the poet begs C h r i s t to "Take charge of me, and of my END."(68) Both meditations f i n d t h e i r r e a l crux not simply i n the invocations to C h r i s t or Saint Teresa, but rather In the poet's thoughts of completion or d i s s o l u t i o n which depend on the poet being granted an inheritance of mercy and forgiveness of s i n s .  I n h i s hymn "To the Name above every  Name, the Name of Jesus" Crashaw gives utterance to the notion that the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of a f a i l u r e t o surrender the s e l f - t o C h r i s t ' s mercy and love i s ultimate d e s t r u c t i o n : Of i f there be such sonns of shame, Alas what w i l l they doe When stubborn Rocks s h a l l bow And H i l l s hang down t h e i r Heavn-saluting Heads To seek f o r humble Beds Of Dust, where i n the Bashf.ull shades of night Next to t h e i r own low Nothing they may l y , And couch before the dazeling l i g h t of thy dread majesty. They that by Love's mild D i c t a t e now W i l l not adore thee, S h a l l then w i t h Just Confusion, bow And break before thee. (228-39)  Crashaw comes c l o s e s t to the use of an apocalyptic motive for d i d a c t i c reasons, to teach those "sonns of shame," i n the f i r s t "Hymn to Sainte Teresa" and "An Apologie f o r the f o r e going Hymne."  The poems, along with "The Flaming Heart," trace  the g l o r i o u s progress and f i n a l martyrdom of the Saint.  But  the poet's e c s t a t i c admiration f o r the Saint also imparts the b e l i e f that "love i s eloquence" ("An Apologie," 8) and that " C h r i s t ' s f a i t h makes but one body,of a l l soules/And love's that body's s o u l , no law c o n t r o u l l s " ("An Apologie," 17-18). Through the contemplation of the Saint's quest f o r the "unvalued Diadem"(48) of C h r i s t ' s love i n "The Hymn to Sainte Teresa" the reader i s prepared f o r the command i n the "Apologie"  to  "scorn the l a z y dust, and things that dy."(28), where the opening address of the "Hymn" to that "Love" which i s the "Absolute sole lord/Of L i f e and Death" (1-2.) i s f u l l y e x p l i c a t e d . The reader, l i k e the nascent Teresa, i s taught "What death with love should have to doe"  ("Hymn," 20).  In Crashaw's "Hymn" the imagery of d e s t r u c t i o n i s opposed to that of j o y .  2 4  Indeed, the images operate, by p h i l o s o p h i c a l  analogy, as t h e s i s and a n t i t h e s i s which are synthesized i n the message of love.  The " g u i l t y sword"(26) and "barbarous knife"(70)  Cf. "Tis Love, not Yeares or Limbs that can/Make the Martyr, or the man "(33-4).  are impotent against the powers of C h r i s t ' s " D a r t " ( 7 9 f f . ) , "th'immortall instrument"(89).  The "blood and sweat"(11) of  the Saint's progress are contrasted with d e s c r i p t i o n s of her soul and being as milky or pure ("milky s o u l , " 14; "white Mistresse," 123-4; "snowy f a m i l y , " 127).  References to death  ("Love, thou a r t Absolute sole lord,/Of L i f e and Death," 1-2; "Speak lowd i n t o the face of death," 8 ) ^ culminate i n the 2  oxymoronic and paradoxical conception of a sweet death that i s "more m y s t i c a l l and high"(76): When These thy DEATHS, so numerous, S h a l l a l l at l a s t dy i n t o one. (110-11) 26  F i n a l l y , Teresa's wounds or "bright scarres"(153) are healed by t h e i r own "Balsom"(109) and C h r i s t ' s love. From the outset of the "Hymn" the imagery associated with the Saint's martyrdom i s m a r t i a l ( 4 f f • ) , whereas the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Saint and C h r i s t i s h i g h l y sensual and reminiscent of the language of the "Song of Songs"(114-28; 171-82): SWEET, not so f a s t i l o thy f a i r Spouse Whom thou seekst with so s w i f t vowes, C a l l s thee back, and bidds thee come T'embrace a milder MARTYRDOM. . (65-68) Crashaw's d e s c r i p t i o n of the Saint's progress c a l l s to mind Donne's "Anniversaries."  S t a r t l i n g l y reminiscent of Donne's  S e e 11. 18, 20, 24, 28, 37, 38, 50, 54, 75, 79, 100, 101, 103, 104, 110, 116, 157, 181, 182. 25  The m y s t i c a l union of the soul with God, See "Note to 1. 76" Ed., p. 56.  104 repeated r e f r a i n s f o r "Shee" are the l i n e s i n the "Hymn to Sainte Teresa:" FAREWEL then, a l l the world! Adieu. TERESA i s no more f o r you. Parewell, a l l pleasures, sports, and joyes, (Never t i l l now esteemed toyes) Parewell what ever deare may bee, MOTHER'S armes or FATHER S knee Farewell house, and f a r e w e l l home! She's f o r the Mores, and MARTYRDOM. 1  (57-64) But, i n s p i t e of t h i s thematic s i m i l a r i t y between the works,. Crashaw's poem i s a c e l e b r a t i o n of the Saint's progress which does not o f f e r a sustained treatment, of e v i l f o r consolatory reasons.  Crashaw i s taught, and other men are p o t e n t i a l l y  taught, the eloquence of love by the poet's own e c s t a t i c and quasi-mystical, rather than quasi-prophetic, e x a l t a t i o n of her history: Thus have I back again to thy b r i g h t name ( F a i r floud of holy f i r e s ! ) transfus'd the flame I took from reading thee; t i s to thy wrong I know, that i n my weak and worthlesse song Thou here a r t s e t t t o shine where thy f u l l day Scarse dawnes. 0 pardon i f I dare to say Thine own dear bookes are g u i l t y . For from thence I l e a r n ' t to know that love i s eloquence. ("An A p o l o g i e , " ~ l - 8 ) Surely Crashaw's verse can best be appreciated when viewed as a f a i r f l o o d of holy f i r e s i n which the poet's passion f o r h i s subject has r i s e n above a l l else.  In "The Teresa Poems" the  poet's r e l i g i o u s enthusiasm, the holy martyrdom of the S a i n t , and the language of exuberance are harmoniously at one.  CONCLUSION There are considerable d i f f e r e n c e s i n the perspective of the apocalypse i n the poetry of d'Aubigne, Donne, Saint-Amant, and Crashaw.  Not only do divergences of personalaesthetics  permit each author to express h i s own emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l a t t i t u d e toward the subject, but there are also d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r t i s t i c i n t e n t and motivation. I t has been pointed out that the apocalyptic i n d'Aubigne' and Donne shares c e r t a i n features with that of Jewish and C h r i s t i a n apocalyptic.  Both authors consider themselves as  r e c e i v i n g t h e i r poetic i n s p i r a t i o n from God; i n "Les Feux" d'Aubigne c a l l s upon d i v i n e b l e s s i n g and assistance, while Donne associates himself with Hoses, a b i b l i c a l prophet, and contends that h i s commission to w r i t e the "Anniversaries" i s God's w i l l .  I n the Jewish and C h r i s t i a n apocalyptic t r a d i t i o n s  the poet-prophet was considered directed.  t o be d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d and  For an apocalypse to have any a u t h o r i t y at a l l i t  was necessary to maintain a b e l i e f i n d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n on the part of the i n d i v i d u a l poet, or at l e a s t to accept h i s connection with a l i n e of prophecy and prophets.  D'Aubigne  i s more vehement than Donne i n upholding h i s d i v i n e poetic a u t h o r i t y , but both authors are t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e i r desire to connect themselves with a source of d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n . D'Aubigne and Donne both t r e a t the subjeet of the disorder of the world, and provide explanations f o r the chaotic s t a t e of  106  the monde casse.  The treatment of e v i l pervades "The f i r s t  Anniversary;" d Aubigne devotes i n d i v i d u a l books of h i s epic 1  to s p e c i f i c instances of C a t h o l i c i n j u s t i c e i n martyrdoms and court offenses.  This thematic element i s necessary t o the  authors' i n d i v i d u a l apocalypses, but i s also an i n t e g r a l part of the t r a d i t i o n a l a p o c a l y p t i c . I n the troubled i n t e r t e s t a mental period, and during the time of the w r i t i n g of the New Testament apocrypha, w r i t e r s drew upon a l l of the p o l i t i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l clashes of t h e i r day.  Such c o n f l i c t s became  the substance of t h e i r v i s i o n s . In t r a d i t i o n a l apocalyptic w r i t i n g s treatments of e v i l are accompanied by a consolatory i n t e n t :  the present body  p o l i t i c and world w i l l go through an ominous period of judgment and f i n a l d i s s o l u t i o n .  The vanquished, to whom these  w r i t i n g s are addressed, are offered the c o n s o l a t i o n and hope of f i n a l r e t r i b u t i o n .  This i n t e n t i s obviously one of the  d i r e c t i n g forces behind d'Aubigne's "Jugement" where Protestants are p r o p h e t i c a l l y assured of the d e s t r u c t i o n of the C a t h o l i c hierarchy.  A thread of r e t r i b u t i o n runs throughout Les  Tragiques, but culminates i n the triumphant scenes of the f i n a l book.  Likewise, i n "The second Anniversary" the reader i s  offered the hope of a t t a i n i n g a higher s p i r i t u a l plane. The r e a l force of the apocalypse i s not to be found i n a f a n t a s t i c v i s i o n , but i n the many p a r t i c u l a r d e s c r i p t i o n s of e v i l intended to prepare the way f o r a s o l u t i o n to the  world's topsy-turvy condition.  D'Aubigne's compilation of  a l i s t of a t r o c i t i e s , and the extended d e s c r i p t i o n of the world's diseased and grotesque state i n Donne, expressed mainly through verbs of violence and elements of spectacle, are  among the most important techniques by which the authors  hammer home t h e i r v i s i o n s of an Immoral world.  L a t e r sections  of t h e i r works c l e a r away t h i s state of e v i l . Since Les Tragiques and the "Anniversaries" are p r e d i cated on the poets* prophetic a b i l i t i e s , and on t h e i r i n t e n t to console, the apocalyptic elements i n these works can be placed alongside the ancient t r a d i t i o n of such w r i t i n g s . works, i n scope and depth, are motivated by . s i m i l a r and philosophic goals.  Both  artistic  I suggest that they be considered as  belonging to a t r a d i t i o n a l mode of such w r i t i n g s , A wide gap separates the treatment of the apocalypse i n the works of d'Aubigne and Donne, and the more personal rendering of the t o p i c i n Saint-Amant and Crashaw.  No longer  i s the moral content u n i v e r s a l , or the source of i n s p i r a t i o n that of the d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d and d i r e c t e d poet.  Rather, i n  Saint-Amant and Crashaw the poem becomes a v e h i c l e through which the poet can release h i s emotional f e r v o r , and create a h i g h l y charged v i s i o n of h i s own imaginative s t a t e .  Both  poets portray themselves as i n s p i r e d by personal emotion; Saint-Amant, i n a moment of inquietude, can sound the depths of h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional experiences. He i s able to induce a s e r i e s of contemplative-imaginative happenings,  108  and he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n f o l l o w i n g such presentations to t h e i r l o g i c a l end.  Crashaw, even more than Saint-Amant, i s an  i n t r o s p e c t i v e poet.  Whereas there i s a good deal of the  p l a y f u l i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l wanderings of Saint-Amant, Crashaw looks i n t o h i s own s p i r i t u a l s t a t e with a serious eye. Crashaw's verse can i n s t i l l i n the reader a f e e l i n g f o r a  man  who fears that he i s t o t a l l y devoid of grace, and u t t e r l y dependent on God's mercy.  In the presence of "serious things"  that "both the Psalm and s y b y l l sings," and the Day of Judgment, he worries out h i s personal g r i e f and hopes of h i s own  seat  at Judgment. In the poetry of Saint-Amant and Crashaw the consolatory hopes offered are personal rather than u n i v e r s a l .  Neither  poet claims to express a u n i v e r s a l message or i d e a l . work i s composed, r a t h e r , of personal i n c i d e n t s and  Their thoughts.  Saint-Amant, e s p e c i a l l y , i s prone to a f l i g h t of fancy.  At  the conclusion of " l e Contemplateur," where the poet's adventures draw to a c l o s e , Saint-Amant i s "rewarded" f o r the imaginative renderings of a l l that he has taken i n by the senses.  Even though sensuous imagery also appears i n the  f i n a l l i n e s of Les Tragiques,• d'Aubigne i s permitted to ascend i n t o the midst of Heaven and the bosom of God as a d i v i n e reward f o r having f u l f i l l e d a prophetic and u n i v e r s a l task. D'Aubigne has created a panorama of the l a s t days i n which a l l things are set r i g h t f o r mankind.  I have argued that the apocalypse appears s p e c i f i c a l l y i n " l e Contemplateur" as a s t r u c t u r a l device.  Although  Borton contends that the poem i l l u s t r a t e s Saint-Amant s 1  discovery of h i s s p i r i t u a l c a p a c i t i e s , h i s verse i s more r e a l i s t i c a l l y viewed as a "muraille v i v e " of the poet's imaginative adventures.  Saint-Amant was fond of the exuberant,  grotesque, and o c c a s i o n a l l y r i b a l d ; he n a t u r a l l y seized upon the apocalypse as a u s e f u l t o p i c to s a t i s f y such i n c l i n a t i o n s . To Crashaw, however, the apocalypse i s not a s t r u c t u r a l device, but rather a way to make known h i s own s p i r i t u a l hopes and expectations.  The growth of scepticism i n France and England i s , i n part, responsible f o r such apocalyptic v i s i o n s .  I n England  maladjustments i n the economic and p o l i t i c a l systems, growing out of the development of c a p i t a l i s m and i n d u s t r i a l enterprise, were i n f l u e n t i a l i n c r e a t i n g a mood of disenchantment among the populace.  The theories of the new science a l s o weakened  the b e l i e f i n e a r l i e r systems which dealt with the nature of man and the universe.  T h i r d l y , M a c h i a v e l l i ' s amoral and  n a t u r a l i s t i c p o l i t i c a l philosophy could not help but have had an e f f e c t on the i n t e l l e c t u a l climate of England.  His s p i r i t  of scepticism and i n t r o s p e c t i o n culminated i n the philosophy of that betphoire, Thomas Hobbes, and was u l t i m a t e l y challenged by Shaftesbury, Hutcheson, and other B r i t i s h moral sense  110  philosophers.  I n France a s i m i l a r s c e p t i c a l c r i s i s i s evident  i n the r i s e of that l i b r e pensee which we have encountered i n Saint-Amant and Theophile de Viau, and which was fueled by the s c e p t i c a l examination  of the human p e r s o n a l i t y by Montaigne.  In both France and England t h i s increase i n scepticism and i n t r o s p e c t i o n perhaps influenced the choice and content of poetic v i s i o n s of the apocalypse.  Nonetheless,  such a tendency  to s c e p t i c a l thought and subject matter, c l o s e l y associated with a tendency ( e s p e c i a l l y i n Jacobean l i t e r a t u r e ) t o the melancholic, can a l s o be dismissed as a passing fashion and l i t e r a r y exaggeration.  From the viewpoint of l i t e r a r y s t y l e s ,  the p a r t i c u l a r nature of baroque a r t and s e n s i b i l i t y , which has been convincingly described by Buffurn, de Mourgues, Raymond and others, can a l s o p a r t l y account f o r the fondness i n the t o p i c .  This source of motivation i s , however, no more  d e c i s i v e a f a c t o r than s c e p t i c a l f e r v o r or concern over the new science. When the compelling motivations behind i n d i v i d u a l desc r i p t i o n s of the end of the world during the period are seen to be established, and c e r t a i n basic features of s t y l e and i n t e n t held i n common w i t h such a r t i s t i c goals, there i s adequate j u s t i f i c a t i o n to employ the apocalypse as a genre of didactic literature.  I f the poet's work manifests the i n t e n t  or techniques of the t r a d i t i o n a l mode already discussed, he i s working with a form of w r i t i n g that has d i s t i n c t i v e  Ill  philosophic and t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  In the case of  d*Aubigne and Donne, the demands made on the poets are obviously not those of form so much as philosophic i n t e n t , the a t t i t u d e toward the source of i n s p i r a t i o n , and the view of e v i l .  In  these instances the genre designation i s dependent upon the i n t r o d u c t i o n of such d i d a c t i c m a t e r i a l .  In order to determine  i f a poem i s apocalyptic i n t h i s sense the work must not simply have a v i s i o n of the d i s s o l u t i o n of the world, but must a l s o e x h i b i t the presence of a persona inseparable from a s e r i o u s l y propagandist or d o c t r i n a l i n t e n t .  However, i n l i g h t of  l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , there may be l i m i t a t i o n s to such a view of genre that would demand a more archetypal set of c r i t e r i a , or use of the term w i t h i n the confines of t r a d i t i o n a l genres of epic, anniversary, l y r i c poem, and t r a n s l a t i o n . The use of the apocalypse must also be accounted f o r i n a tepid C h r i s t i a n as Saint-Amant.  The appearance of a s t r u c -  tured and personalized apocalyptic v i s i o n i n h i s poem, and the s e l f - o r i e n t e d v i s i o n of Crashaw, argues f o r the employment of a p a r t i c u l a r motif which, by d e f i n i t i o n , i s operative i n the more personal, s t r u c t u r a l , and often f r i v o l o u s v i s i o n s .  "Le  Contemplateur" of Saint-Amant, e s p e c i a l l y , drew upon the matter, but not the s p i r i t , of the t r a d i t i o n a l apocalypses. Having examined several apocalypses of the l a t e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s , the reader can sense the almost perverse d e l i g h t i n d e s c r i b i n g the disorder of Nature and impending doom of the world that pervades these works.  The vigorous language, the elements of the grotesque and often the macabre, and the r e t u r n to or h i n t of the consolatory, should receive a sympathetic reading from c r i t i c s i n the present age of anxiety.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l works consulted i n the preparation of t h i s thesis are given below.  For the sake of completeness, c e r t a i n other  works are added and are here  asterisked.  ADAM, Antoine. H i s t o i r e de l a l i t t e r a t u r e francaise du XVII . s i e c l e . 5 v o l s . P a r i s : Del Duca, 1948-52. e  -?  . Les L i b e r t i n s au X V I I s i e c l e . C a s t e l , 196£.. e  Paris:  Buchet-  ADAMS, R.M. "Taste and Bad Taste i n Metaphysical Poetry," Hudson Review. 8 (1955), 61-77. xALLEN, D.C. "John Donne's Knowledge of Renaissance Medicine," JEGP, 42 (1943), 322-42. ALVAREZ, A. The School of Donne. Windus, 1961.  London:  Chatto and  ANDERSON, James Bruce. "Richard Crashaw, St. Teresa, and St. John of the Cross," Discourse. X (IV, Autumn, 1967), 421-28. The Apocryphal New Testament, trans. Montague Rhodes James. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. ARTZ, Frederick B. From the Renaissance to Romanticism: Trends i n Style i n A r t , L i c t e r a t u r e . and Music (1300 to 1830T7 Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1962. ASHLEY, Maurice. England i n the Seventeenth Century, 1967. London*:. Penguin, .1971. ATKINS., J.W.H. English L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : The Renascence. 2nd E d i t i o n . New York: Barnes and Nobles Co., 1951. AUBIGNE, Theodore Agrippa d'. P a r i s : Gallimard, 1969.  Oeuvres. ed. Henri Weber.  . Les Tragiques. 4 v o l s . ed. A. Garnier et J . P l a t t a r d . P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Marcel D i d i e r , 1962-65. . Les Tragiques. ed. I.D. McFarlane. The Athlone Press, 1970.  London:  AUDIBERT, Raoul et Ren£ BOUVIER. Saint-Amant, capitaine Parnasse. P a r i s : La Nouvelle e d i t i o n , 1946.  du  114 BALD, Robert C e c i l . Donne and the Drurys. University Press, 1959. x  . Morpeth:  Cambridge:  The  Donne's Influence i n English Literature. The StT John's College Press, 1932.  BALDWIN, Charles Sears. Ancient Rhetoric and Poetic. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1924. BARKER, Francis E. "The Religious Poetry of Richard Crashaw," Church Quarterly Review. 46 ( A p r i l , 1 9 2 3 ) , 3 9 - 6 5 . BENNETT, Joan (Franfau). Five Metaphysical Poets: Donne. Herbert. Vaughan, Crashaw. and Marvell. Cambridge: The University Press, 1964. BENSIMON, M. "Essai sur Agrippa d'Aubigne: aspiration et c o n f l i c t dans 'Les Tragiques'," Studi Francesi. 21 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 418-37.  BENSON, Donald R. 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WESTPHAL, Alexander, ed. Dictionnaire encyclopedique de l a Bible. 2 vols. Valence-sur-RhSne: Imprimeries Reunies, 1956. WILLEY, B a s i l . Richard Crashaw. Press, 1949.  Cambridge:  The University  The Seventeenth Century Background. City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co. Inc., 1953.  Garden  WILL IMS, George Walton. Image and Symbol i n the Sacred Poetry. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1963. WILLIAMSON, George. Faber, 1965.  Milton and Others.  London:  Faber &  WILIiAMSON, George. Seventeenth-Century Contexts. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1969. WILSON, Dudley B u t l e r . D e s c r i p t i v e Poetry i n France From Biason t o Baroque. New York: Barnes & Noble Inc., 1967. WILSON, E.M. "Spanish and E n g l i s h R e l i g i o u s Poetry of the Seventeenth -Century," Journal of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y . 9 (1958), 38-53. WINNY, J . Preface to Donne.  London:  Longman, 1970.  APPENDIX I "Prosa de Mortuis" or "Dies Irae Dies I l i a " 1.  Dies i r a e , dies i l i a , Solvet saeclum i n f a v i l l a , Teste David cum S i b y l l a .  2.  Quantus tremor est futurus, Quando iudex est venturus, Cuncta s t r i c t e discussurus?  3.  Tuba mirum spargens sonum, Per sepulcra regionum, Coget omnes ante thronum.  4.  Mors stupebit et natura, Gum resurget creatura, I u d i c a n t i responsura.  5.  L i b e r s c r i p t u s proferetur, In quo toturn continetur, Unde mundus i u d i c e t u r .  6.  Iudex ergo cum sedebit, Quidquid l a t e t , apparebit, N i l inultum remanebit.  7.  Quid sum miser tunc d i c t u r u s , Quern patronum rogaturus, Cum v i x i u s t u s s i t securus?  8.  Rex tremendae m a i e s t a t i s , Qui salvandos salvas g r a t i s , Salva me fons p i e t a t i s .  9.  Recordare, Iesu p i e , Quod sum causa tuae v i a e : Ne me perdas i l i a d i e .  10.  Quaerens me s e d i s t i l a s s u s . Redemisti crucem passus: Tantus labor non s i t cassus.  11.  l u s t e iudex u l t i o n i s , Donum fac remissionis Ante diem r a t i o n i s .  12.  Ingemisco tanquam reus, Culpa rubet v u l t u s meus: S u p p l i c a n t i parce Deus.  127 13.  Qui Mariam a b s o l v i s t i , Et latronem e x a u d i s t i , M i h i quoque spem d e d i s t i ,  14.  Preces meae non sunt dignae, Sed t u bonus fac benigne, Ne perenni cremer igne.  15.  I n t e r oves locum praesta, Et ab hoedis me sequestra, Statuens i n parte dextra.  16.  Confutatis m a l e d i c t i s , Plammis acribus a d d i c t i s ; Voca me cum b e n e d i c t i s .  17.  Oro supplex et a c c l i n i s , Cor contritum, quasi c i n i s : Gere curam mei f i n i s .  

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