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Versions of the apocalypse in four seventeenth century authors Watson, Charles Ernest 1974

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c. I VERSIONS OP THE APOCALYPSE IN FOUR SEVENTEENTH CENTURY AUTHORS by Charles Ernest Watson B.A., Arizona State University, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Comparative Literature We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1974 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i d ABSTRACT In the l i t e r a t u r e of the l a t e sixteenth and early seven-teenth centuries poets f e l t a special a f f i n i t y with the subject of the end of the world, and u t i l i z e d visions of the apocalypse i n t h e i r works. Examples of such descriptions of the f i n a l d issolution of the world are to be found i n the major European l i t e r a t u r e s of the period. In order to stay within manageable l i m i t s , and since t h e i r works are representative of the treat-ment of t h i s topic, t h i s study involves an examination of the apocalyptic visions of Agrippa d'Aubigne, John Donne, Marc Antoine de Gerard Saint-Amant, and Richard Crashaw. S p e c i f i -c a l l y the poems considered are d'Aubigne's Les Tragiques, Donne's "Anniversaries," Saint-Amant*s "Le Contemplateur" and "La Solitude," Crashaw's adaptation of the L a t i n hymn en t i t l e d "The Hymn of the Church, i n Meditation of the Day of Judgment, 'Dies Irae,'" and "The Teresa Poems.," In both the Jewish andcVristian traditions there are apocalypses that reveal the nature of the end of things. The most well known of these apocalypses are the books of "Daniel" and the "Revelation of St. John." . In this study the visions of the four authors are considered i n the l i g h t of this trad-i t i o n . The c r i t i c a l approach i n the f i r s t four chapters.is the examination of each of the authors' poems separately, and the discussion of the primary features of t h e i r apocalyptic des-cr i p t i o n s . This necessitates a consideration of the author's i i i _ a ttitude toward his a r t i s t i c purpose, his conception of his source of i n s p i r a t i o n , his exact use of the apocalypse i n the body of his poem, and the use of certain r h e t o r i c a l techniques that are fundamental to the nature of an apocalyptic work. In the chapters on d'Aubigne" and Donne the a r t i s t i c purpose and use of the apocalypse i s viewed as propagandist or seriously moral, the source of i n s p i r a t i o n that of the man inspired by God, and the r h e t o r i c a l method the exercise of cumulative p i l i n g , harangues, and spectacular language. Contrasted with the serious and universal function of the apocalypse i n d'Aub-igne and Donne, i n the visions of Saint—A-mant and Crashaw the source of i n s p i r a t i o n emanates from the poets' own under-standing of their imaginative state. The visions are seen as more personal, and i n the case of Saint-Amant, as a necessary stru c t u r a l element. In both authors variations on the rhetor-i c a l techniques of the other authors are evident. In the f i n a l chapter features of the authors' apocalyptic poems which are also found i n either the Jewish or Christian t r a d i t i o n s are assessed. Whereas the poems of d'Aubigne and Donne are seen as sharing the overall moral outlook and d i r -ection with these t r a d i t i o n s , such as a prophetic source of i n s p i r a t i o n and intent to console, the poems of Saint-Amant and Crashaw are not. They are described as introverted ver-sions i n which the personal and primarily aesthetic overrides the universal. The reasons for the appearance of the subject i n the authors are suggested i n terms of the poets' individual motivations and a sceptical c r i s i s i n the period. Lastly, the suggestion i s made that a d e f i n i t i o n and d i s t i n c t i o n be given to the genre and motif of the apocalypse. V TABLE OP CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION: THE END OP THE WORLD 1 CHAPTER I: D'AUBIGNE'S 'LES TRAGIQUES' 9 A. A Rhetorical Stance: The A c t i v i t y of Ex i l e ... 9 1. The Propagandist Intent 12 2. The Propagandist Technique 14 3. D'Aubigne's View of the 'Monde CasseS' ... 17 B. The Second Jonah 20 1. D'Aubigne's G i f t of Prophecy 20 2. The Apocalypse: 'Au Giron de Dieu' 26 C. D'Aubigne's Choice of Genre and his Use of the Bible 32 CHAPTER I I : JOHN DONNE'S 'ANNIVERSARIES' 38 A. John Donne: Introduction to the 'Anniversaries' 38 B. The Source of Inspiration 42 C. The Nobles.t Sense 47 D. Donne's Treatment of E v i l 54 CHAPTER I I I : SAINT-AMANT'S 'LE CONTEMPLATEUR' AND 'LA SOLITUDE' 63 A. 'Le Bon Gros:' Introduction to *Le Contemplateur' 63 B. The Experience of Solitude 67 C. The P i n a l Synapse 73 1. The Element of 'Ut Pictura Poesis' 77 2. The Elements of Gongorism 81 3. The Bacchic Element 85 CHAPTER IV: CRASHAW'S POETIC VISION 89 A. 'Unum Ante Thronum' 89 B. "The Teresa Poems" 98 v i . • CONCLUSION .. 105 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 113 APPENDIX I 126 v i i NOTE Unless otherwise stated, reference throughout t h i s study i s to the following editions; Aubigne, Theodore Agrippa d'. Oeuvres. ed. Henri Weber. Paris: Gallimard, Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade, 1969. Crashaw, Richard. The Complete Poetry, ed. George Walton Williams. Garden Cit y , New York: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1970. Donne, John. Poetical Works. 1912. ed. Herbert J.C. Grierson; London: Oxford University Press, 1971. Saint-Amant, Antoine Gerard, sieur de. Oeuvres. 4 vols. ed. Jean Lagny. Paris: L i b r a i r i e Marcel Didier, 1967-71. <5> INTRODUCTION THE END OF.THE WORLD Quite unexpectedly as Vasserot The armless ambidextrian was l i g h t i n g A match between his great and second toe And Ralph the l i o n was engaged i n b i t i n g The neck of Madame Sossman while the drum Pointed, and teeny was about to cough In waltz- time swinging Jocko by the thumb-Quite unexpectedly the top blew off: And there, there overhead, there, there, hung over Those thousands of white faces, those dazed eyes, There i n the starless dark the poise, the hover, There with vast wings across the canceled skies, There i n the sudden blackness the black p a l l Of nothing, nothing, nothing- nothing at a l l . Poets of the l a t e sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries would have f e l t a special a f f i n i t y with the subject of t h i s poem by the modern American poet Archibald MacLeish. I t was John Donne who asked, "What i f t h i s present were the world's l a s t night?" and gave, along with many of his contemporaries, a des-c r i p t i o n of the world becoming "nothing at a l l . " ^ * Indeed, examples of poems that take the apocalypse as th e i r major topic are to be found i n many of the major European l i t e r a t u r e s of the period, and include works of Shakespeare, Milton, Donne, Herbert, Crashaw, Theophile de Viau, Saint-Amant, Agrippa d'Aubigne, Malherbe, Gryphius, Kuhlmann, and Greifenbercjf. Since my selection of authors' works has been dictated by a desire to keep the overall study within manageable l i m i t s , the scope of thi s study, a l b e i t comparative, i s narrower. I have limi t e d 'Holy Sonnet X I I I . " 2 the extent of my study to selected works of two French and two English authors whose poems are representative of the treatment of the apocalypse i n this period. These four authors are Agrippa d'Aubigne(1551-1630), John Donne(1572-1631), Marc-Ant oine de Gerard Saint-Amant(1594-1661) and Richard Crashaw (1612-1649). The emphasis given to the apocalyptic poetry of Richard Crashaw i s not found i n the other comparative works that have dealt with t h i s topic. Part of the reason for this s i t u a -t i o n i s perhaps the present trend of c r i t i c a l opinion which, finds the poetry of d'Aubign<S, Donne and Saint-Amant interesting and worthy of study, but Crashaw*s--esthetic essentially a p ^pandering to the basest emotions i n the name of religion.' 1 In spite of Bertonasco's defense of Crashaw'saesthetic, he i s s t i l l 3 regarded as a black sheep. For my purposes, however, an examin-ation of Crashaw's apocalyptic poetry makes possible an interesting contrast with selected works of Donne and d'Aubigne, and reveals a certain s i m i l a r i t y of style with the poems of Saint-Amant. Some of the conclusions drawn by the few c r i t i c s who have considered the apocalyptic settings of these authors seem to me generally unsatisfactory, and th i s sense of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n has also influenced my s p e c i f i c choices. These c r i t i c s have had clear-cut c r i t i c a l aspirations and methodologies, but have arrived at conclusions that often appear impressionistic. For instance, 2 Quoted i n M.P. Bertonaseo, Crashaw and t^e Baroque (Montgomery: University of Alabama Press, 1971), p. 4. Ibi d . , esp. pp. 94-121. 3 Imbrie Buff vim, i n his otherwise excellent Studies i n Baroque from Montaigne to Rotrou. tends to overplay the elements of baroque s e n s i b i l i t y . Speaking of an apocalyptic setting i n a poem by Saint-Amant he remarks: "To f e e l simultaneously wonder and agreeable t e r r o r - t h i s i s a state thoroughly congenial to the baroque mind."^" Placing similar emphasis upon the use of the concept of the baroque, Buffum concludes, i n response to the question of the predominance of apocalyptic settings i n l a t e sixteenth and early seventeenth century poems, that: The Christian and the baroque eMios are intimately connected; and i t would be impossible to conceive^. of baroque art outside of Christian c i v i l i z a t i o n . ' Likewise, Frank Warnke, i n a rather free-wheeling description of the end of the world settings i n many of the same works con-tends that: These works participate i n the mood of melancholy which i s a recurrent feature of the l i t e r a t u r e of the period, but the apocalyptic preoccupation, as we encounter i t i n such l y r i c poets as Theophile de Viau, Saint-Amant(et a l . ) , often communicates not a sentiment of regret but rather a fe e l i n g of enormous zest and s a t i s f a c t i o n , as i f the accuracy of the poet's imaginative picture of the world were somehow confirmed by the inclusion of that world's abolition.° Imbrie Buffum, Studies i n Baroque from Montaigne to Rotrou (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957), p. 157. 5 I b i d . , p. 135. 6 Frank Warnke, Versions of Baroque (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972), p. 205. 4 By choosing to deal with the same apocalyptic poems as these c r i t i c s , I hope to j u s t i f y and qualify a more clear-cut concep-t i o n of the apocalyptic i n the four authors. In addition to having written apocalyptic poems, a l l of these authors, except perhaps Crashaw, l i v e d eventful l i v e s . The English authors were converts, and were ostracized for t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . Crashaw, the son of a Puritan preacher, became a convert to Roman Catholicism i n the early 1630's. From the outbreak of the English Civil-War u n t i l his death, he l i v e d i n e x i l e on the Continent, at f i r s t i n Paris and then l a t e r as a member of the household of Cardinal Palotto, where he was attached to the shrine of l o r e t t o i n I t a l y . Donne, raised a Roman Catholic, and educated i n theology and law at Oxford and Cambridge, abandoned Catholicism, and was converted to Anglicanism. After his ordination i n 1615, he l a t e r became a famous Bean of St. Paul's Cathedral. The French authors also had l i v e s f u l l of incident and belonged to that breed of men who could combine, l i k e Cervantes, l e p r a s v_ armas. Saint-Amant was active i n m i l i t a r y campaigns and was also an o r i g i n a l member of. the Academie Francaise. A free-thinker, or l i b e r t i n , he saw his friend Theophile de Viau formally condemned for holding views similar 7 to his own. Saint-Amant, who was more discreet, managed to 7 For a discussion of the l i b e r t i n s , see Antoine Adam, Les  Lib e r t i n s au XVII e s i e c l e (Paris: Buchet-Chastel, 1964). Of Saint-Amant's part a l l we know for certain i s that he s u f f i c i -ently conformed to orthodoxy, cf. Samuel L. Borton, Six Modes  of S e n s i b i l i t y i n Saint-Amant (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1966), p. 129. 5 avoid similar condemnation. D'Aubigne at an early age joined the French Protestant army i n i t s second war against the Catho-l i c s , and was for f i f t e e n years an inseparable companion of the King of Navarre, l a t e r Henri IV of France. His devotion to Protestantism, which led to his break with Henri of Navarre upon the King's l a t e r abjuration of the f a i t h , was also a factor i n the palinode he wrote which rejected his e a r l i e r love poems (Les Tragiaues. I I . 69-76). The term apocalypse i s derived from the Greek apocaluphis (Latin revelatio) and means "an uncovering, a revelation." The term i s f l e x i b l e and can refer to the uncovering of anything that was previously hidden or obscured, or can be employed i n the eschatological sense of an uncovering or revelation about the nature of the end of things. In both the Jewish and Christian traditions there are apocalypses i n this l a t t e r sense. The most famous of the Jewish apocalypses are the books of "Daniel" (c. 6th. Cent. B.C.) and the Apocryphal " I I Esdras" (c. 250 B.C.-150 A.D.); numerous other versions are found i n the Pseudepigrapha. The book of "Daniel," which i s accepted i n the Jewish and The Apocryphal " I I Esdras" or "IV Ezra," and a l l the other known Jewish apocalypses are to be found i n The Apocrypha and  Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, ed. R.H. Charles, v o l . I I (Oxford University Press, 1913, reprinted 1963), pp. 163-624. " I I Esdras" i s discussed by Bruce M. Metzger i n An Introduction  to the 'Apocrypha* (New York: Oxford University Press, 1957), pp. 21-30. 6 Christian canons, i s considered a precursor to the New Testament "Revelation of St. John" (c. A.D. 95) i n the Christian trad i t i o n . -Although "Daniel" and the "Revelation of St. John" share certain features with other ancient apocalyptic writings, they are con-sidered i n th e i r traditions to be div i n e l y inspired rather than a r t i f i c i a l l y , that i s , p o e t i c a l l y prophetic. Throughout th i s study I w i l l refer d i r e c t l y to these apocalypses, and w i l l only use Apocalypse to designate the actual "Revelation of St. John." Those descriptions of the end of things i n certain poems of d'Aubigne, Donne, Saint-Amant, and Crashaw w i l l also be called apocalypses. The poems to be considered are d'Aubigne's Les  Tragiques, Donne's "Anniversaries," Saint-Amant's "Le Contempla-teur" and "La Solitude," Crashaw's adaptation of the L a t i n hymn "Dies Irae" e n t i t l e d "The Hymn of the Church, i n Meditation of the Day of Judgment, 'Dies Irae,'" and "The Teresa Poems." The noun and adjective "apocalyptic" w i l l refer to those elements of description, purpose, and v i s i o n i n the Jewish books, the "Revelation of St. John," or works of the four authors, that are linked with a conception of the dissolution of the world. The extension of the notion of apocalyptic l i t e r a t u r e by means or archetypes, as proposed by Northrop Prye, i s useful i n i t s own r i g h t , but i s too a l l encompassing to be applied to the present discussion."*"^ The few apocalypses attributed to New Testament personnages can be found i n The Apocryphal New Testament, trans. M.R. James Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924), pp. 504-568. Northrop Prye, Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (New York: Atheneum, 1969), esp. pp. 141-162 and pp. 191-206. 7 My c r i t i c a l approach i n the f i r s t four chapters i s to examine each of the authors' poems separately. My intention i s to characterize the primary features of th e i r apocalyptic descriptions. In order to do t h i s I examine the author's a t t i -tude toward his a r t i s t i c purpose, his conception of his source of i n s p i r a t i o n , his exact use of the apocalypse i n the body of his poem, and the use of certain r h e t o r i c a l techniques that are fundamental to the nature of an apocalyptic work. A l l of these features involve the author's ethos or persona.^ In modern l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m the term persona has been l i b e r a l l y employed, and i s often used i n a broad sense to mean the mask "through which the poet learns to think and see," and through which the author can i d e n t i f y the " s e l f with persona, not as a dramatist i d e n t i f i e s himself momentarily with each character within a plot, 12 but as the very substance of the poem i t s e l f . " I consider the author's persona to be the substance of his a r t i s t i c purpose and methodology, and employ the term where i t w i l l help to f a c i l i t a t e a description of the author's a r t i s t i c purpose and techniques. In the case of d'Aubigne' I have substituted the term stance for the r h e t o r i c a l concept of persona. I have here followed the the example set by R.L. Regosin i n his study of d'Aubigne's 11 For a discussion of the dramatic significance of the term, cf. C.S. Baldwin, Ancient Rhetoric and Poetic: Interpreted from  Representative Works (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1924), pp. 176-180. 1 2 C h r i s t i n e Brooke-Rose, The Grammar of Metaphor (London: Seeker & Warburg, 1958), pp. 312-313. 8 13 Les Tragiques. As Donald L. Guss has reminded us, "defining the t r a d i t i o n used hy a poet i s the most precise t o o l we have for distinguish-ing the immediate from the peripheral i n his a r t . " ^ In the f i n a l chapter those features of the authors* apocalyptic poems which are also found i n either the Jewish or Christian t r a d i -tions of the apocalypse are assessed. I suggest that whereas the poems of d'Aubigne' and Donne share certain conceptions and techniques with these t r a d i t i o n s , such as a prophetic source of i n s p i r a t i o n , a necessary treatment of e v i l , an intent to console, and a cumulative r h e t o r i c a l technique, the poems of Saint-Amant and Crashaw do not. These different uses of apocalyptic mater-i a l s i n the four authors are categorized as the t r a d i t i o n a l mode on the one hand, and the st r u c t u r a l or personal and primarily aesthetic mode on the other. F i n a l l y , I consider what j u s t i f i -cation there i s for employing apocalypse as a genre designation with reference to an author's a r t i s t i c intent and method. 13 ^Richard L. Regosin, The Poetry of Inspiration: Agrippa d'Aubigne's 'Les Tragiques.' University of Worth Carolina Studies i n the Romance Languages and Literatures, No. 88 (Chapel H i l l : University of North Carolina Press, 1970), pp. 67-78. The term i s also introduced i n a study of Donne's "Anniversaries" by B.K. Lewalski, Donne*s 'Anniversaries 1 and the Poetry of  Praise: The Creation of a Symbolic Mode (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 197377 esp. pp. 11-41. Donald L. Guss, John Donne: Petrarchist (Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press^, p. 15. CHAPTER I D1AUBIGNE'S 'LES TRAGIQUES1 A. A Rhetorical Stance: The A c t i v i t y of E x i l e The r h e t o r i c a l stance assumed by d'Aubigne i n his epic Les Tragiques can be seen as that of an observer of the world who w i l l not hide his feelings, and who w i l l a c t i v e l y seek to interpret what he can absorb through his senses. The poet's attitude toward his position as an observer i s disclosed early i n the epic. In his "Preface" d'Aubigne recounts, with a few alterations, a Roman legend i n which a young g i r l t r i e s to v i s i t her emprisoned mother, yet dies of starvation before passing the iron r a i l i n g of the c e l l . ^ Although neither an e x i l e , nor i n prison at the time, the poet used the anecdote to characterize himself as a kind of Protestant e x i l e who i s forced by circum-stance to write from a state of anonymity and solitude. Encores v i v r a i - j e par t o i , Mon f i l s , comme tu v i s par moi; Puis i l faut, comme l a nourrice Et f i l l e du Romain grison, Que tu a l l a i c t e et tu cherisse Ton pere, en e x i l , en prison. (7-12) S i en mon volontaire e x i l Un juste et severe s o u r c i l Me reprend de l a i s s e r en France Les traces de mon perdu temps: Ce sont les fleurs et l'esperance Et ceci les f r u i c t s de mes ans. (85-90) Gallimard ed., p. 899, n.2. 10 Employing a motif of separation and solitude, . by focusing on his own emotional state ("mon f i l s , " "par moi," "mon...exil," "mon perdu temps," "mes ans"), d'Aubigne accounts for his voluntary " e x i l e " as a time of active searching to discover the r e a l state of the world, and a l l e g o r i c a l l y , the state of the Protestant f a i t h . This examination of the world's condition i s set f o r t h i n the multitude of situations observed by the poet, and i n the many verbs of sensing and f e e l i n g : Je sens r a v i r dedans l e s cieux Mon ame aussi bien que mes yeux, Quand en ces montagnes j'advise Ces grands coups de l a v e r i t y Et les beaux combats de l ' E g l i s e Signalez a l a pauvrete. Je v o i les places et les champs La ou l ' e f f r o i des brakes camps, Qui de tant de rudes b a t a i l l e s R'apportoyent les fers triomphans, Purent les chiens de leurs e n t r a i l l e s , Deffaicl;s de l a main des enfans. (187-198) Je v o i venir avec horreur Le jour qu'au grand temple d'erreur Tu feras r i r e 1'assistance; Puis, dormant l e dernier e f f o r t . Aux deux colomnes de l a Prance, Tu te baigneras en ta mort. (319-324) In these descriptive passages d'Aubigne imparts h i s own joy and horror at what he has found (e.g. "...j'advise...les beaux combats de l'Eglise/Signalez a l a pauvrete"; "Purent les chiens This i s a standard motif often associated with the land-scape of Nature: cf. E.R. Curtius, European Literature and the  La t i n Middle Ages, trans. Willard R. Trask (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), pp. 83-85. de leurs e n t r a i l l e s , / D e f f a i c t s de l a main des enfans"; "Je v o i . venir avec horreur"). In the f i r s t of these passages the poet balances a description of the part that he himself w i l l play ("je sens," "je advise") with that of the role to he taken by the Church ("grands coups...," "les beaux combats"). A major feature of d 1Aubigne 1s language i s the use of adjectives to convey the immensity and grandeur of the s i t u a -tions of the protagonists of the epic. "Grands" and "beaux" are t y p i c a l terms used to qualify "v e r i t e " and the Protestant Church; these adjectives are almost tepid compared with the pejorative terms which describe a c t i v i t i e s of the Catholic Church. Both passages i l l u s t r a t e d'Aubigneig..,opinion of what he i s to observe as a "combat" or " b a t a i l l e . " In the second passage the poet's f i r s t statement i s general and binary, and i s followed by a t y p i c a l l y v i v i d horror scene. D*Aubigne delights i n the idea of "les chiens" (the Catholics) as being disemboweled by "les enfans" (the Protestants). He also i n t r o -duces certain images, l i k e "les f e r s , " which take on a symbolic significance i n l a t e r passages of the epic. They become symbolic of destruction and unavoidable e v i l , while at the same time becoming representative of the power and virtue of the Protestant cause and martyrdoms. likewise, i n the second passage the poet creates a symbolic and temporal landscape to 5See VII, 944; VII, 1033 for "les chiens" as the image of the s p i r i t u a l l y l o s t Catholics. 12 introduce Prance's s i t u a t i o n , and v e r i f y how involved he i s with a l l that i s able to be imagined and observed; the poet's "horreur" i s correlated with the "mort" of the country. As the judgments and dispensations of God are inherently rigorous, as we s h a l l observe shortly, the poet implies that his own thoughts and interpretations of events are to be severe and c r i t i c a l . The poet's w i l l , imbued with the pri v i l e g e and a b i l i t y to reveal the truth, assumes the task of uncovering the genuine condition of the world: Je n'excuse pas mes es c r i t s Pour ceux-la qui y sont r e p r i s : Mon p l a i s i r est- de leur desplaire. Amis, je trouve en l a raison Pour vous et pour eux f r u i c t contraire, La medicine et l e poison. (367-372) This intent i s also brought out i n many passages of the "Preface" which have been referred to: Je pense avoir este sur eux Et pere et juge rigoureux: L'un a regret a eu l a v i e , A mon gre chaste et assez beau; L*autre ensevelit ma f o l i e Dedans un oublieux tombeau. (79-84) 1. The Propagandist Intent In a l l the books of Les Tragiques d'Aubigne maintains his position as observer and voluntary e x i l e . This position allows him certain technical advantages, but even more importantly, i t i s a major feature of a propagandist technique i n the poem. As the poet states i n the "Preface," he intends to describe and 13 ultimately reverse the world's scandalous order of events: Du milieu, des extremites de l a Prance, et mesme de plus l o i n , notamment d'un v i e i l pasteur d'Angrongne, plusieurs e s c r i t s secondoyent les . remonstrances de vive voix par lesquelles les serviteurs de Dieu l u i reprochoyent l e talent cache, et quelcun en ces termes: "Nous sommes ennuyes de l i v r e s qui enseignent, donnez-nous en pour esmouvoir, en un si e c l e ou tout zele chrestien est p e r i , ou l a difference du vray et du mensonge est comme abolie, ou les mains des ennemis de l ' E g l i s e cachent l e sang duquel e l l e s sont tachees sous l e s presens, et leurs inhuman-i t i e s sous l a l i b e r a l i t e . " 4 Placed i n the context of the confused r e l i g i o u s climate of the l a t t e r half of the sixteenth century, which culminated i n a series of rel i g i o u s wars between Catholics and Huguenots, Les Tragioues i s meant to lead up to a "victory of the true Church, unattainable on the b a t t l e f i e l d and i n the court of Prance," yet a successful campaign i n a "world of art.""^ The propagandist element i s c l e a r l y evident; the poet i s w r i t i n g with the intention of moving his audience i n favor of the Pro-testant cause, and r e l i e s on the descriptive passages to i n c i t e emotions and to inst r u c t . The epic "instructs i n order to bring consolation and joy to the f a i t h f u l , to awaken sorrow and pity i n the hearts of the i n d i f f e r e n t , to arouse terror i n the breasts of the iniquitous." D1Aubigne's intent i s to instr u c t as well as to console: "Miseres," "Les Peux," and "Les Pers" 4 Gallimard ed., "Aux Lecteurs," p. 3. 5 *\R.L. Regosin, op. c i t . , p. 14. ^Ib i d . , p. 31. 14 include material intended s p e c i f i c a l l y to arouse compassion, as "Vengeance" and "Jugement" are meant s p e c i f i c a l l y to arouse terror through the concluding description of the Last Judgement 7 and the apocalyptic v i s i o n . 2 . The Propagandist Technique In terms of both characterization and tone the poet's stance as an observer makes i t possible for d'Aubigne to create a v i v i d tableaux of the major personages and supernatural forces involved i n the c o n f l i c t between the r e l i g i o u s groups. As he focuses, through the use of metaphor, on certain characters that are repugnant, he occasionally i s able to blur the d i s t i n c -t i o n between the s a t i r i c a l or sarcastic elements and the actual or r e a l by creating an i l l u s i o n of disinterested observation, or by p i l i n g up metaphors u n t i l the reader i s overwhelmed by the cumulative effect. Many examples could be drawn from each of the books of the epic to i l l u s t r a t e d'Aubigne's r h e t o r i c a l technique i n t h i s sense. A t y p i c a l passage i s the poet's invective against the Pope which i s found i n "Jugement:" V o i c i done, Antechrist, l ' e s t r a i c t des f a i t s et gestes: Tes fornications, adulteres, incestes, Les peches ou nature est tournee a l'envers La b e s t i a l i t e , les grands bourdeaux ouvers, Le t r i b u t exige, l a bulle demandee Qui a l a sodomie en este" concedee; La place de tyran conquise par l e f e r , Les fraudes qu'exerca ce grand tis o n d'enfer, Les empoisonnemens, assassins, calomnies, Cf. "Aux Lecteurs," pp. 6-7 for d'Aubigne's own descrip-t i o n of the content of the various books, and his comment that " I I ya peu d ' a r t i f i c e en l a dis p o s i t i o n " (p. 7 ) . 15 Les degats des pai's, des hommes et des vies Pour attraper les c l e f s ; l e s contracts, les marches Des diables stipulans subtilement couches. (VII, 811-822) The effect, of the author's cumulative technique i s s i m i l a r to that achieved i n a b i b l i c a l passage found i n Paul's "Epistle to the Romans" (c. A.D. 56). Describing the result of the Gentiles' universal scepticism Paul contends that men are: . . . f i l l e d with a l l unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness, f u l l of envy, murder, s t r i f e , deceit, malignity; whisperers, Backbiters, haters of God, insolent, proud, boasters, inventors of e v i l things, disobedient to parents; Without understanding, covenant breakers, without natural a f f e c t i o n , implacable, unmerciful. (Rom. 1:29-31) Such a long compilation of a t r o c i t i e s , i n d'Aubigne's passage and that of Paul f i l l the reader with a sense of horror and repulsion. The author i s aware that a l l of the elements i n his description have been chosen for either associative reasons ("diables," 822; "Antechrist," 811; " f e r , " 817), or purely emotive reasons ("fornications, adulteres, incestes," 812: "Les empoisonnemens, assasins, calomnies," 819), and that the l i s t has been accumulated to persuade the reader to believe i n a description that he would otherwise r e j e c t . By the effective employment of the trappings of rhetoric, d 1Aubigne i s also able to p a r t i a l l y conceal his own intense prejudice from the reader. D'Aubigne's descriptive passages are often transformed into apostrophic sections or harangues for propagandist 16 reasons. 0 The poet hopes that the reader w i l l be moved by the elements of his visions through th e i r sheer cumulative power. D'Aubigne i s able to a t t a i n such charged descriptive effects i n the book "Princes," which i l l u s t r a t e s the foppishness of court l i f e and the lascivious c i r c l e of Henry I I I , or "les Eeux," a book which surpasses many medieval poems i n i t s ex-tended use of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n or allegory, and i t s catalogues of horror. The alternation between apparently unbiased obser-vation and apostrophic comment and elaboration i s found i n the description of the martyrdom.of Bainam, although the det a i l s 9 were p a r t i a l l y supplied by Crespin's L'Histoire des Martyrs: J La on v i d un Bainam qui de ses bras pressoit Les fagots embrases, qui mourant embrassoit Les o u t i l s de sa mort, instruments de sa g l o i r e , Baisant, victorieux, les armes de v i c t o i r e . (IV, 91-94) Another representative observational and propagandist passage i s manifest i n : La un prestre apostat, prevoyant et ruse, Veut, en ployant a tous, de tous estre excuse: L'autre, pensionnaire et valet d'une femme, Employe son esprit a engager son ame; L'autre f a i t l e royal et, f l a t t a n t l es deux parts, Veut t r a h i r l es Bourbons et tromper les Guisards; Un charlatan de cour y vend son beau langage, Un bourreau f r o i d , sans i r e , y conseille un carnage, Un boiteux estranger y ba s t i t son thresor. ( I I , 535-543) Examples of harangues can be found i n I I , 9-31; IV, 1193-96; and V, 719-730. 9 C f . Gallimard ed., p. 988, n. 2. In the f i r s t passage one a n t i t h e t i c a l or paradoxical element echoes another (e.g. 92-93), as i n the second passage crime echoes crime. Hatzfeld and Buffum have la b e l l e d "echo device" t h i s r e p e t i t i o n of a key word i n a passage, and f i n d that i t i s closely a l l i e d to a fondness for verbal conceits and puns.^ D'Aubigne often repeats the key offenses of court members or re l i g i o u s personages to create an impression of tedious immorality. In the second passage the less than admir-able a c t i v i t y of "un prestre apostat" i s echoed by that of other such men. Some terms used i n this passage to i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s (e.g. " f l a t t a n t , " " t r a h i r , " "tromper"), t h e i r character (e.g. "charlatan," "pensionnaire"), and t h e i r major interests (e.g. "thresor," "femme") are employed i n other diatribes throughout the epic, and are i n a limi t e d sense symbolic of types of moral weakness. In context with the rest of the epic these sections are introduced as moral asides, and function l i k e dramatic monologues or soliloquies to j u s t i f y for the reader the denunciations of the f i n a l books. 3. D'Aubi^m'^'s View of the 'Monde casse 1 D'Aubigne's views of the body p o l i t i c as evidenced i n his portraits of the protagonists of the epic are not only connected to a s p e c i f i c propagandist purpose, but to the author's v i s i o n "^Imbrie Buffum, Agrippa d'Aubigne1 s 'Les Tragiques: 1 A Study of the Baroque Style i n Poetry (New Haven: Yale Univer-s i t y Press, 1951), esp. pp. 22-28. See the re p e t i t i o n of "les feux" i n I, 55-58. 18 of the world i n chaos. There are several d i s t i n c t i v e features of t h i s conception. Using the violence of Cain as a basis for his argument the poet argues that with his crime "Nature has ceased to be herself (Nature desnaturee), everything has become topsy-turvy, things are not what they seem to be, th e i r roles and those of human beings have become interchanged to the 12 detriment of creation." Nature i s depicted as having become 13 "blind with the vanishing of jus t i c e and f a i t h . " y Although according to t r a d i t i o n a l b i b l i c a l exegesis i n Adam's f a l l we sinned a l l , d'Aubigne's choice of the Cain-Abel episode as i t s equivalent i s connected with the stress on violence and unnaturalness that pervades the epic."^ One of the main themes developed i n "Jugement" i s that the role of Cain, and that of other members of the monde desnature : w i l l be reversed: l i s l e virent 116, l e v o i c i l es mains hautes, Ses severes sourcils viennent confer leurs fautes; L'innocence a change sa crainte en majestes, Son roseau en acier trenchant des deux costes, Sa croix au tribunal de presence divine; Le c i e l l ' a couronne, mais ce n'est plus d'espine. Ores vinennent trembler a. cet acte dernier Les condamneurs aux pieds du juste prisonnier. (VII, 747-754) ""•Of. Curtius, op. c i t . , pp. 94-98 for a h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y survey of the topos of the world as chaotic, and the use of the basic formal p r i n c i p l e of stringing together impos-s i b i l i t i e s (kiCv-AToi, impos sib i l i a ) . 1 2Agrippa d'Aubigne*, Les Tragi cues, ed. I.D. McFarlane (University of London: The Athlone Press, 1970), "Introduction," p. 29. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 29. 1 4See VII, 1127, 1139 for references to Adam. 19 D' Aubigne's view of Nature engenders his attitude toward Christ ("Ils l e virent l i e ) , and members of the Catholic cause ("les tyrans violens;" Preface, 265). His attitude toward the Catholic Church i s c l e a r l y made known: 0 Desert, promesse des cieux, I n f e r t i l e mais bien heureuxl Tu as une seule abondance, Tu produis les celestes dons, Et l a f e r t i l i t e de France Ne g i s t qu'en espineux chardons. (Preface, 169-174) In the f i n a l culmination of themes i n "Jugement," a p o r t r a i t of the world and Nature i s painted i n which "man's c i v i l i z e d mask has been removed to reveal his essential bar-15 barism. For the orthodox, i t i s the end of secular unity." In a l l the sections of his epic d'Aubigne imagines himself as alone capable of conceiving the true state of the world; he alone can see the actual perspective of things and events. Morally the tableau painted of the world i s inspired by a severe examination of the poet's own conscience and his pro-pagandist intent. S t y l i s t i c a l l y , t h i s effect i s achieved through the predominance of cumulative and echo techniques, and the verbs of sensing and f e e l i n g . Through his examination of the world the poet prepares a bridge from his description of those unjustly accused, the martyrs of "Les Feux," to a f i n a l 15 "llcFarlane, op. c i t . , p. 25. 20 prophetic and apocalyptic v i s t a i n "Hierusalem qui es Babel ensanglantee" (VII, 272). An understanding of the poet's r h e t o r i c a l stance as observer i s thus fundamental to a d i s -cussion of the poet's notion that his source of i n s p i r a t i o n and a r t i s t i c d i r e c t i o n i s derived from God Himself. B. The Second Jonah 1. D' AubigneV s. &iffe> of.. Prophecy • I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the poet's part as a trumpeter and prophet of God's w i l l are found i n numerous apocalyptic allusions i n the epic, but especially i n the f u l l y developed Last Judgment and 16 end of the world settings of "Jugement." D'Aubigne's i n s i s -tence upon his prophetic a b i l i t y i s a major aspect of his 17 r h e t o r i c a l position, and combines with his view of himself as an observer i n order to further the propagandist and a r t i s t i c d i r e c t i o n of the epic. D'Aubigne's affirmation of his unique g i f t of prophecy i s c l e a r l y evident i n "Miseres" where the author w i l l " ^ b r i s e r j l e s rochers et l e respect d'erreur"(7), and affirms that: -1 c Albertino Mussato (1261-1329), author of the L a t i n tragedy Ecerinus. states i n his seventh e p i s t l e that "the old poets were prophets of God and that poetry i s a second theology," cf. Curtius, op. c i t . , p. 216. 1 7 C f . V, 572 ("la trompette"); V, 948 ("De trompette"); VII, 699 ("la trompette sonne"); VII, 1053 ("des trompettes l e bruit") f or use of the trumpet as a symbol of the poet's prophetic powers. 21 dessous les autels des idoles j'advise Le visage meurtri de l a captive Eglise Qui a sa delivrance (aux despense des hazards) M'appelle, m'animant de ses trenchans regards. Mes desirs sont des-ja volez outre l a r i v e Du Rubicon trouble. ( I , 13-18) This passage suggests Christ's expulsion of the merchants from the temple, a scene that was popular i n baroque a r t , and would hint at a kind of quasi-saviour r o l e on the part of the author. The poet's appreciation of his own significance i n t h i s regard i s indicated by the manner through which d'Aubigne often pretends to relay messages from heaven and i t s angels to the reader. For example, i n "Les Fers" the poet describes a v i s i o n i n which an angel of God has unlocked heaven's secrets to f o r e t e l l the approaching damnation of the iniquitous: Voy de Jerusalem l a nation remise L'Antechrist abattu, en triomphe 1'Eglise. (V, 1413-14) Although d'Aubigne invokes the grace of Melpomene ( I , 79), the muse of tragedy, he l a t e r c a l l s upon the divine assistance and blessing of God: Condui mon oeuvre, 5 Dieu! a. ton nom, donne moy Qu'entre tant de martyrs, champions de l a foy, De chasque sexe, estat ou aage, a ton sainct temple Je puisse conscrer un tableau pour exemple. (IV, 19-22) In "Vengeances" d'Aubigne's task i s made analogous to that of 19 Jonah, the b i b l i c a l prophet. I t i s interesting to note that 1 8 See, for example, E l Greco's "Expulsion of the Merchants from the Temple" (London, National Gallery, c. 1600). 19 -Hegosin, op. c i t . , p. 51. both, hesitate to answer the c a l l of God: "Je m'enfuyois de Dieu" (VI, 115). Both have been s t i r r e d or awakened by God: "Le doigt de Dieu me leve et l'ame encore vive/M'anime a guerroyer l a puante Ninive" (VI, 137-38). And both carry messages of doom. As Jonah was to warn ancient Nineveh, d'Aubigne intends to warn France of i t s imminent destruction. Indeed, Paris i s the seat of corruption i n France according to the poet, and i s considered the modern counterpart of Nineveh:" "Ainsi l es visions qui seront i c i peintes/Seront exemples vrais de nos hi s t o i r e s sainctes" (VI, 89-90). As the poet's task i s to announce the fate of Paris and France, he i s also assigned the task of voicing the plight of the "modern chosen people," as d'Aubinge regards the Huguenots, and of giving utterance to the fate of both the elect and damned i n a v i s i o n of the Last 22 Judgment and apocalypse. XSHK3E3E3£SKK3€S3€3ES=SS5£SXS In the major part of "Jugement" d'Aubigne relates step by step the a c t i v i t y and significance of the Last Judgment. He r e c a l l s the ta l e of Gideon, which i s intended as a reminder 20 This hesitation i s often an aspect of the topic of affected modesty, see Curtius, op. c i t . , pp. 83-85. Pi Jonah i s summoned by God (Jonah 1:1-2), hesitates to do God's w i l l (1:3)» isolates himself (1:5-6: 1:17), has com-munion with God during his i s o l a t i o n (2:1-10), prophesies (3? 3-4), and f i n a l l y observes the f u l f i l l m e n t of the prophecy (3:5). 22 Regosin, op. c i t . , p. 14. Regosin suggests that the source for d'Aubigne's correlation between the Huguenots and the tribes of I s r a e l i s to be found i n Henri Bullinger's sixteenth century tr e a t i s e Cent Sermons sur 1'Apocalypse (cf. pp. 61-67). that God differe n t i a t e s between the elect and the damned. In cosmological terms t h i s ordering of the s p i r i t u a l world i s shown i n a spacial organization of the c e l e s t i a l abode i n which the good are stationed on the right hand of God, and the wicked on 23 the l e f t . y The scene also represents the elevation of the Protestants to a state of b l i s s : Telle est du sacre" mont l a generation Qui au sein de Jacob met son af f e c t i o n Le jour s'approche auquel auront ces debonnaires Fermes prosperities, vp.c^toires ordinaires; Voire dedans leurs l i c t s i l faudra qu'on les oye S'esgayer en chantant de t r e s s a i l l a n t e joye. (VII, 63-68) In some of d'Aubigne*s prophetic passages the r h e t o r i c a l device of accumulating verbs, or descriptive nouns and adjectives i s s t i l l prominent (e.g. "ces debonnaires/Fermes prosperities, v i c t o i r e s ordinaires), although the temporal phase here i s the future ("auront," "faudra"). The f e e l i n g of immediacy which i s part of many of the previous descriptive passages i s replaced by a tone of assurance and resolution about eventual reward and r e t r i b u t i o n . There i s a marked difference i n the tone of the f i r s t f i v e books, and that of the f i n a l sections of "Vengeance" and "Jugement" re s u l t i n g from t h i s s h i f t from the observation of the present i l l s of the Protestants to the affirmation of divine r e t r i b u t i o n and the l a s t days. In passages r e l a t i n g the future of the Protestant cause the vocabulary of horror i s replaced by the language of victo r y (e.g. "joye," "prosperities," 2^Cf. "L'un recoive l e pr i x , l'autre l e chastiment" ( I I I , 51). and "A prononcer des bons et mauvais l a sentence" (VII, 504). 24 and "vic'toires"). In an a n t i t h e t i c a l manner d'Aubigne prophesies what i s to become of the antagonists i n Les Tragiques and makes a judgment regarding the justness of the r e t r i b u t i o n : I l s ^Protestants] auront tout d'un temps a l a bouche leurs chants Et porteront au poing un glaive a deux tranchans Pour fouler a, leurs pieds, pour destruire et desfaire Des ennemis de Dieu l a c a n a i l l e adversaire Voire pour empoigner et mener prisonniers Les Empereurs, les Rois, et princes les plus f i e r s , Les mettre aux ceps, aux f e r s , punir leur arrogance Par les effects sanglans d'une jus^e vengeance; S i que ton pied vainqueur tout entier baignera Dans l e sang qui du meurtre a tas regorgera, Et dedans l e canal de l a tuerie extreme Les chiens se gorgeront du sang de leur chef mesme. (VII, 69-80) As i n harangues directed at the Catholics the language i s that of horror and violence. In the contrast that i s established between "leurs chants" (69) and the fate of the "ennemis de Dieu" (72), a v i v i d picture i s created of the kind of vengeance d'Aubigne' envisions (e.g. " l e sang," "les effects sanglans," and "les chiens se gorgeront du sang de leur chef mesme"). A l l the g u i l t y , whether from the court or Chruch, are taken prisoner. The neatness of the i n t e r n a l p a r a l l e l s and binary structure of the passage marks the d e f i n i t i v e nature of ultimate Protestant r e t r i b u t i o n . In addition to sections that are a pragmatic confirmation of various stages of the f i n a l Judgment, these sections also serve to disseminate Protestant dogma; d'Aubigne acts as a kind of s p i r i t u a l interlocutor between the dispensations of God and the suffering Protestants who are depicted as being without the 25 support of an affirmation of f a i t h . The crux of d'Aubigne's c l a r i f i c a t i o n of doctrine concerns the resurrection of the body, and begins: N'apportez point i c i , Sadduciens pervers, Les corps manges des loups: qui les t i r e des vers Des loups les t i r e r a . S i on demande comme Un homme s o r t i r a hors de l a chair de 1'homme Qui l'aura devore.. . (VII, 341-345) Energetic and charged language can be traced throughout the long section on the resurrection of the body since t h i s i s an interlude i n d'Aubigne's di a t r i b e against the Catholics, and he must sustain the correct emotional tone. The poet employs an echo technique with the key word "loup:" i n the context of his epic the "wolf" i s symbolic of the moral nature of the Catholic as the "lamb" i s representative of the Protestant. 2^ The use of the word colors the tone of the passage i n l i g h t of what has come before, just as "pervers" i s a generalized echo of the nature of the Catholics' involvement i n the r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t . As prophetic, the purpose of thi s passage i s also meant to reaffirm that the cause of the Catholics w i l l be des-2 troyed, just as the state of the monde casse i s to be inverted: L'Eternal jugera et les corps et les ames, Les benis a l a g l o i r e et les autres aux flammes. (VII, 327-28) D'Aubigne, after having prepared the tone and atmosphere for the setting of the Last Judgment, and having elaborated on Cf. VII, 5; VII, 946. See pp. 5-6 i n t h i s study. 26 the change i n the moral and cosmological order that i s to take place, leads into and prophetically interprets the l a s t sequence of events which i s to take form i n the apocalypse. His v i s i o n culminates i n a profound description of the merveilleux. 2. The Apocalypse: 'Au Giron de Dieu' D1 Aubigne''s program for the f i n a l books of his epic follows the general order of events i n the "Revelation of St. John:" the v i s i o n of the Son of Man (VII, 895-902; Rev. 1:16) i s followed by the opening of the s i x t h seal (VII, 903-931; Rev. 6:12-17), the throne judgment (VII, 727-31; Rev. 20:11-12), the opening of the book of l i f e (VII, 797-802; Rev. 20:12), the second death (VII, 935-46; Rev. 21:8), the eternal suffering of the iniquitous (VII, 1014-28), establishment of a new Jeru-salem (VII, 1057-62; Rev. 21:1 - 22:5) and the marriage of the Lamb (VII, 1167-1170; Rev. 19:7-9). 2 6 Apparently peculiar to d'Aubigne's v i s i o n of the apocalypse i s a scene i n heaven where various members of the Protestant f a i t h appear before the Judgment seat to t e s t i f y against the e v i l doers who have used 27 them for t h e i r own v i l e purposes. The visions of the apocalypse do not stand out as the only ?6 For a discussion of some of -the str u c t u r a l problems associated with the order of events i n the "Revelation of St. John," see Andre F e u i l l e t , The Apocalypse, trans. T.B. Crane (Staten Island: Society of St. Paul pub. 1964), pp. 23-36, and Austin Farrer, The Revelation of St. John the Divine (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1964), pp. 19-23. Cf. VII, 770-778 27 examples of the extremely v i v i d use of metaphor and imagery, nor are they the only instances of d'Aubigne's communication of the spectacular or merveilleux i n Les Tragiques. Sufferings 1 of the Protestant martyrs i n "Les Feux" are described i n the same kind of terms. The exceptional effectiveness of the apocalyptic episodes i n carrying out the author's propagandist intent are linked with the emphasis that has been directed toward the creation of dramatic action. D'Aubigne's apocalypse i s intended as a t h e a t r i c a l representation of the l a s t days i n which the reader w i l l be overwhelmed by the f i n a l sequence of events, and convinced that the poet has resolved the moral c o n f l i c t of the protagonists. The poet's r h e t o r i c a l method i s to develop c o n f l i c t by means of metaphor, verbal emphasis, p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , and dialogue. As d'Aubigne often employs a cumulative technique within i n d i v i d u a l passages, the action of the apocalypse becomes progressively more dramatic. In one of the f i r s t apocalyptic episodes the poet focuses on the terror kindled i n the hearts 28 of the iniquitous by the appearance of the Son of Man: I I sort un glaive aigu de l a bouche divine, L'enfer glouton, bruyant, devant ses pieds chemine. D'une laide terreur les damnables transis, Mesmes des l e s o r t i r des tombeaux obscurcis Virent bien d'autres yeux l e c i e l suant de peine, Lors q u ' i l se preparoit a leur peine prochaine; Et v o i c i quels yeux virent les condamnes c w F o r a discussion of the "Son of Man," cf. D.S. Russell, The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1964), pp. 324-352. 28 29 Les beaux jours de leur regne en douleurs termines. (VII,. 895-902) The directness and spectacle of the opening description, and the persorCification of "l'enfer" i n t e n s i f y the c o n f l i c t of the passage. The multitude of verbs (e.g. "sort," "bruyant," "transis," " s o r t i r , " "virent," "se preparoit," " v i r e n t " ) , and references to the eyes (899, 901) and pain (897, 899, 900) heighten the f e e l i n g of spectacle. D'Aubign^'s attempt to create a v i s u a l spectacle becomes even more obvious i n the v i s i o n of the throne of judgment: Toutes ames venues Font leurs sieges en rond en l a voute des nues Et l a l e s Oherubins ont au milieu plante Un throne rayonnant de saincte majeste I I n'en sort que merveille et qu'ardente lumiere. (VII, 727-31) The poet seems to direct the reader's attention to that spot i n the spectacle ("Et l a " ) where the merveilleux dominates i n terms of radiance and majesty. The interaction between heaven and earth of the preceding books i s here replaced by the mutual interaction between heavenly Cherubs and a l l men who are brought before the throne. D'AubigmS's style has i t s characteristic prophetic stamp. He elaborates upon the imagery suggested by 29 Cf. Rev. 1:16: "And he had i n his right hand seven stars; and out of his mouth went a sharp two-edged sword; and his countenance was as the sun shineth i n i t s strength." J Cf. Rev. 20:11-12: "And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God, and the books were opened; and another book was opened, which i s the book of l i f e . And the dead were judged out of those things which were written i n the books, according to t h e i r works./ And the sea gave up the dead that were i n i t , and death and hades delivered up the dead that were i n them; and they were judged every man according to t h e i r works." 29 the B ible, and considers himself capable of combining a l l the 31 elements into a " t h e a t r i c a l canvas."^ The only thing that i s missing to make his v i s i o n even more spectacular i n v i s u a l splendour and emotional power i s dialogue. As the tone of immediacy and impending triumph become central to the descrip-t i o n , dialogue i s indeed more frequent: Mais plus, comme le s f i l s du c i e l ont au visage La forme de leur chef, de Christ l a vive image, Les autres de leur pere ont l e t e i n t et l e s t r a i t s , Du prince Belzebub veritables p o r t r a i t s . A l a premiere mort i l s furent effroyables, La seconderedouble, ou les abominables Orient aux monts cornus: "0 monts, que faites-vous? Esbranlez vos rochers et vous crevez sur nous; Cachez nous, et cachez l'opprobre et l'infamie Qui, comme chiens, nous met hors l a cite' de v i e ; Cachez nous pour ne voir l a haute majeste De l'Aigneau triomphant sur l e throsne mpnte." (VII, 935-946)^ 2 The recurrent images of "les f i l s du C i e l , " "Christ," "Du Prince Belzebub," "les abominables," and "L'Aigneau" culminate i n the triumph of the Lamb. The poet's resolution of the moral dilemma i s also found i n the invocation to the heavenly Jerusalem where a state of natural order i s established i n honor, peace, and happiness: Et l a nouvelle terre, et l a neufve c i t e , Jerusalem l a saincte, annoncent ta bonte! Tout est p l e i n de ton nom. Sion l a bien-heureuse N'a pierre dans ses murs qui ne s o i t precieuse, The term i s suggested by I. Buff urn, Agrippa d'Aubigne*' s 'Les Tragiques:' A Study of the Baroque Style i n Poetry (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1951), p. 58. 5 2 C f . Rev. 21:8: "But the f e a r f u l and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and the fornicators, and sorcerers and ido l a t e r s , and a l l l i a r s , s h a l l have t h e i r part i n the lake which burneth with f i r e and brimstone, which i s the second death. Ni citoyen que Sainct, et n'aura pour jamais Que v i c t o i r e , qu'honneur, que p l a i s i r , et que paix. (VII, 1057-1062)-Likewise, hyperbolic language appears i n the description of the Lamb: Nul secret ne leur peut estre l o r s secret, pource Qu'ils puisoyent l a lumiere a sa premiere source: I l s avoyent pour miroir l ' o e i l qui f a i t v o i r tout o e i l , I l s avoyent pour flambeau l e s o l e i l du s o l e i l -(VII, 1167-1170) 5^ While heralding the triumph of the Lamb and Jerusalem d*Aubigne informs the reader about what w i l l happen to Pro-testants under t h i s new moral order. They w i l l , l i k e the heavens themselves, return to a state of natural order and per fec t i o n , and w i l l be ruled by God's divine love: Tous nos parfaicts amours reduits en un amour Comme nos plus beaux jours reduits en un beau jour. On s'enquiert s i l e frere y connoistra l e frere, La mere son enfant et l a f i l l e son pere, La femme l e mari; l'oubliance en effect Ne diminuera point un estat s i p a r f a i c t . (VII, 1105-1110^ On the purely personal and privileged l e v e l , the poet i s now s i l e n t , and i s led on his own ascent to heaven: Mes sens n'ont plus de sens, 1*esprit de moy s'envole, Le coeur r a v i se t a i s t , ma bouche est sans parole: Tout meurt, l'ame s'enfuit, et reprenant son l i e u Exstatique se pasme au giron de son Dieu. (VII, 1215-18) I t i s f i t t i n g that the poet's "Bouche est sans parole" since •Z'Z ^ " I l s " ( l l 6 8 f f . ) refers to the companions with Christ i n the t r i b u l a t i o n . 34 Protestants w i l l also be ruled by perfect memory (VII, 1145-50) and perfect knowledge (VII, 1141-42). 31 a l l human a c t i v i t y ceases with the l a s t stage of the apocalypse, and since a l l that the poet has vowed to accomplish i n his epic has been f u l f i l l e d . As divine epic or tragedy the poet has brought about the success of the Protestant cause, and has thus restored Prance to her proper place of honor. Prance, once 35 portrayed as desolate i n "Miseres M > > 0 Prance desolee! 6 terre sanguinaire, Non pas terre, mais cendrel o mere, s i c'est mere Que t r a h i r ses enfans aux douceurs de son sein Et quand on l e s meurtrit l e s serrer de sa main, (I, 89-92) i s revived before the apocalyptic sequence by a kind of dramatic peripeteia of the Protestants' s i t u a t i o n . In moral terms, the overweening pride or hubris of the Catholics, most f u l l y revealed i n the gilded spectacle of "La Chambre Doree," 37 has been destroyed. Thus, i n the poet's f i n a l union with God, which i s drawn i n sensual imagery (e.g. "Exstatique se pasme au giron de son Dieu," VII, 1218), the prophetic cycle i s complete and an absolute state of moral normality restored to the universe. 35 Prance i s described, paradoxically, at once as a victim, and as responsible for her own situation, c f. I, 333-62; I, 423-24; I, 179-90; I, 683-88. ? A r i s t o t l e , De Arte Poetica (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1965), see 1452:22 for a d e f i n i t i o n of peripeteia, 37 D'Aubigne o r i g i n a l l y intended to c a l l this book of his epic "Ubris," cf. Regosin, op. c i t . , p. 44. 32 c« D'Aubigne's Choice of Genre and his Use of the Bible The development of d'Aubigne's r h e t o r i c a l stance was assisted by his choice of genre, and the use of b i b l i c a l p a r a l l e l s and analogies. Although d'Aubigne' died i n 1630, before c r i t i c i s m of the epic, and especially the b i b l i c a l epic, reached an apogee, he seems to have perceived certain technical advantages of the genre which are highlighted by t h i s l a t e r c r i t i c i s m . Using t h i s seventeenth-century c r i t i c i s m as a touch-stone the advantages of the genre that d'Aubigne must have en-visioned can be seen. In the middle of the seventeenth century Chapelain affirmed the predominant attitude of French c r i t i c s toward the require-ments of the epic as a l i t e r a r y genre by emphasizing i t s special moral task or function. To Chapelain, Marolles, and numerous other French c r i t i c s , an epic poem was "principalement c e l l e qui chante les heros... cherche a. elever les coeurs aux actions extraordinaires." In contrast to tragedy, the epic was not to be concerned "with the purging of e v i l passions but with the 39 i n s p i r a t i o n of good." According to these c r i t i c s such an incitement to goodness was to be either predominantly p o l i t i c a l or moral; Marolles voiced the theory that the effect should be p o l i t i c a l , whereas Chapelain thought that the epic should serve Quoted i n R.A. Sayce, The French B i b l i c a l Epic i n the  Seventeenth Century (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1953T, p. 8. Cf. also pp. 7-8 on the possible high esteem i n which the epic was held. 5 9 I b i d . , p. 8. 33 "sur tout a f a i r e concevoir une haute idee de 1'amour de son pais et des respects qui sont dubs aux Loix divines et humains."^0 In either case, both views tended to weaken the di c t a of Horace and A r i s t o t l e that the epic should necessarily i n c i t e pleasure i n the reader's mind by i t s magnification of the concept of u t i l i t y . For d'Aubigne, years before c r i t i c i s m of the genre reached i t s dogmatic stage, the epic genre was chosen because i t allowed him to elaborate upon both the moral and p o l i t i c a l elements i n his work. The narrative p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the genre were an i d e a l vehicle for r e l a t i n g the intrigues of Henry I I I , Catherine de Medici and the French court. The genre allowed d'Aubigne to portray and s a t i r i z e aspects of the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n on a large scale. Secondly, the epic was i d e a l l y suited to the poet's conception of himself as a kind of harbinger and prophetic voice of the Protestant v i c t o r y ; the genre, by d e f i n i t i o n , would permit digressions on such topics as the resur-rection of the soulc. within the frame of an 'epic' s p i r i t u a l journey to G-od Himself. In addition to the u t i l i t a r i a n advantages of the epic, d'Aubigne seized upon the use of the merveilleux for establishing ^°Quoted by Sayce, op. c i t . , 7-9. ^"Curtius, op. c i t . , pp. 119-20. Alan of L i l l e ' s A n t i -claudianus de Antirufino (c. 1182 or 1183) i s discussed as the f i r s t of the philosophical-theological epics, a genre that i s distinguished from the s c i e n t i f i c or didactic poem by i t s use of epic action. 34 the form of several books in Les Tragiques. especially that of "Princes" and "Les Feux." Although seventeenth-century c r i t i c s of the genre did not emphasize the element of the merveilleux to the extent that Tasso implied, they " a l l believed the merveilleux to be an integral part of the epic which helped to 42 give i t i t s special form." D'Aubigne's use of the merveilleux have been discussed in the apocalyptic passages, and are found in the numerous descriptions of the martyred Protestants and lascivious court members in the other books. In one of the most gruesome scenes of "Miseres" the author relates how a peasant begged him to k i l l him as quickly as possible, and how he found the man's wife beaten to death and her child nearly dead from starvation. The gruesomeness of the description i s clearly evident: ...1'horrible anatomie De l a mere assechee: elle avoit de dehors Sur ses reins dissipez traine, roule son corps, Jambes et bras rompus, une amour maternelle L'esmouvant pour autrui beaucoup plus que pour elle. A tant ell'approcha sa teste du berceau, La releva dessus; i l ne sortoit plus d'eau De ses yeux consumez; de ses playes mortelles Le sang mouilloit 1'enfant. (I, 414-422)^5 ^ Sayce, op. c i t . , p. 12. In seventeenth-century criticism Boileau objected to the merveilleux Chretien since he thought that Christianity was weakened by "contact with the fi c t i o n which i s essential to the epic," and his belief that Christian miracles were either "dull or ridiculous." Critics, like Desmarets de Saint-Sorlin objected to such an opinion on the grounds that as the ancients celebrated their own gods, Christians should examine their own religion for an element of the marvelous. Cf. also I Buffum; op. c i t . , p. 55 for Boileau's probable opinion of Les  Tragiques. ^ A l s o quoted by I. Buffum, Agrippa d'Aubigne''s 'Les  Tragiques.' [ p. 35. Such suffering i s dramatically opposed to l i f e of members of the court of Henry I I I : La un prest-re apost-at, prevoyant et ruse, Veut, en ployant a tous, de tous est-re excuse; L'autre, pensionnaire et valet d'une femme, Employe son esprit a engager son ame; L'autre f a i t l e royal et, f l a t t a n t l e s deux parts, Veut t r a h i r les Bourbons et tromper les Guisards; Un charlatan de cour y vend son beau langage Un bourreau f r o i d , sans i r e , y consei l l e un carnage, Un boiteux estranger y bast-it son thresor... (II, 535-543) 4 4 Le t i e r s par e l l e fut nourri en faineant, Bien f i n mais non prudent, et voulut, l'enseignant Pour s e r v i r a son jeu, luy ordonner pour maistre Un sodomite athee, un maquereau, un t r a i s t r e . (II, 865-868)45 Another seventeenth-century c r i t e r i o n f o r the epic, the introduction of s p e c i f i c a l l y Christian material, i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the context of d'Aubigne's Les Tragiques. The l o g i c a l r e s u l t of the arguments for Christian material i s that the source of th i s material should be the Bible, since i t i s there that the heroic and miraculous elements of the Christian r e l i g i o n are to be found: R.A. Sayce further points out, "the majority of c r i t i c s took this view and used only b i b l i c a l examples to support their arguments."4*' In addition to the use of a central b i b l i c a l analogy, passages to support a pa r t i c u l a r point of See Gallimard ed., p. 940, notes 6-7. See Gallimard ed., p. 947, n.4. Sayce, op. c i t . , p. 17. J.. Trenel devotes an entire book to L'Element biblique dans l'oeuvre poetique d'Agrippa d'Aubigne (Paris: L. Cerf, 19047, and cf. also M.P. Hagiwara, French Epic Poetry i n the Seventeenth Century (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1972), pp. 204-206. 36 doctrine or conception of Nature, and the influences of b i b l i c a l s t y l i s t i c s , which have been discussed, d'Aubigne used the Bible for making other character analogies. The Roman Catholic Church i s called Babylon: "Sion ne reco i t d'eux que refus et rudesses, Mais Babel les ranconne et p i l l e leurs richesses: Tels sont les monts cornus qui, avaricieux, Monstrent l ' o r aux enfers et les neiges aux cieux." ( I , 1301-04) The Pope becomes the beast who fights with the Lamb, and i s associated with Apollyon, the king of the abyss: Appollyon, tu as en ton impure table Prononce, blasphemant, que Christ e£t une fable; (VII, 839-40) Drawing his imagery at random, but mainly from the Old Testament, d'Aubigne generally correlates his protagonists with b i b l i c a l 47 counterparts. The Evangelical Church, l i k e the tribes of Isra e l i : becomes a pregnant woman who i s forced into the desert to escape her oppressors: Ou s o i t l o r s que de luy e l l e fuyoit enceinte Aux l i e u x inhabites, aux effroyans deserts, Chassee, et non vaincue, en despit des enfers; ^'Certain passages are simply reminiscent of b i b l i c a l events. The f i r s t of the s t r i c t l y apocalyptic passages, i n Chambre Doree. i n which God descends to earth amidst t e r r e s t i a l confusion i n response to the prayers of the persecuted Huguenots, r e c a l l s to mind the devastation brought about by the seventh bowl of the wrath of God.in Revelations (Rev. 16:17-21): Perca, passa son chef; a l ' e s c l a i r de ses yeux Les cieux se sont fendus; tremblans, suans de crainte, Les hauts monts ont cro u l l e : cette Majes^te sainct-e Paroissant f i t trembler l e s simples elements, Et du monde esbranla les stables fondements. ( I l l , 140-144) 37 La mer l a c i r c u i t , et son espoux luy donne La lune sous les pieds, l e s o l e i l pour couronne. (VI,. 150-154) The Bible was the ever-present source i n d'Aubigne-'s mind for making an e f f i c i o u s correlation between h i s t o r i c a l - r e l i g i o u s materials. To sum up, d'Aubigne had a firm grasp of the nature and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the epic genre which he used to establish his stance as a poet, and f u l f i l l his propagandist intent. The poet's use of apocalyptic references i n his epic, and the apocalyptic power of "Jugement" are an i n t e g r a l part of d'Aubigne's prophetic position and lead to the l o g i c a l culmination of the themes of his epic. But, i n spite of a propagandist intent, c l e a r l y revealed through the r h e t o r i c a l techniques of the echo, cumulative p i l i n g , verbs of violence, and elements of spectacle, d'Aubigne's epic perhaps approaches closer to the grandeur of Paradise Lost and the Divina Oommedia than any other epic i n French l i t e r a t u r e . Rosemund Tuve's statement concerning Elizabethan authors i s j u s t i f i e d with reference to d'Aubigne's work, and for the discussion i n the following chapter of Donne's "Anniversaries:" "But, even so ( i n spite of the i r didactic intentions), poet differed from propagandist less i n aim than i n the depth and scope of his v i s i o n , and his methods differed 49 less i n kind than i n subtlety and power." ^ F o r the esteem i n which d'Aubigne's epic has been held, c f . Hagiwara, op. c i t . , pp. 219-223. 49 ^Rosemund Tuve, Elizabethan and Metaphysical Imagery (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1947), p. 116. See also I. Buffum, Agrippa d'Aubigne's 'Les Tragiques.' p. 11. CHAPTER II JOHN DOME • S.' "ANNIVERSARIES" A. John Donne: Introduction to the 'Anniversaries' In length alone, the "Anniversaries" are greatest among Donne's poems and the most complex of the metaphysical poems. They have been the subject of much l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m concerning the nature of the author's a r t i s t i c intent or purpose, the s i g -nificance of "Shee," and t h e i r formal or structural organization. Indeed, i t i s probably the d i f f i c u l t y over motive that has proved the most serious obstacle to a proper understanding of the poems. Unless t h i s question i s resolved, "Shee" or E l i z a -beth Drury can possibly be seen as the object of Donne's s e r v i l e f l a t t e r y . But the c r i t i c Frank Manley argues that Donne "was never a s e r v i l e dependent f l a t t e r i n g the memory of his patron's daughter to secure a roof over his head, as i s often believed.""*" Quite apart from t h i s question of motive there i s also a d i f f i -culty i n finding a consistent structure i n the poems; they have been seen as diffuse and carelessly linked works by several c r i t i c s . Manley contends that everyone agrees that the "Anniversaries" have something to do with r e l i g i o n , and that they are i n some way a bridge between Donne's early and l a t e verse, his love p poetry, and the "Divine Poems." They are also occasional poems "*"John Donne: The 'Anniversaries, ' ed. Frank Manley (Bal-timore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1963), p. 5. 2 I b i d . , pp. 9-10. 39 which were written at the request of the Drury family and are i n the elegiac conventions of the day. In this sense, they were meant to praise the dead Elizabeth Drury as openly and copiously as possible, and thus help to assuage the g r i e f of her family. Of course, Donne's use of the elegiac genre would not necessarilj'- mean that Donne f e l t any deep, personal g r i e f for Elizabeth Drury, or that he could not have incorporated a philosophical or symbolic significance into the "Shee" of the poems.^ E. Hardy has even stated that "Elizabeth Drury's death and the barrenness of the world are mere pegs upon which to hang a l l the manner of things which interest Donne- his scho-l a s t i c knowledge, his struggling philosophy, his nascent r e l i g i o n and admonitions to his own soul, as well as his keen observation of a l l that was new and s t a r t l i n g i n current 5 science." In his b r i e f consideration of the "Anniversaries" ft. E. Hughes has confidently argued yet inadequately supported the b e l i e f that the poems were only provoked by the death of •z ^See R.C. Bald, Donne and the Drurys (Cambridge The University Press, 1959), pp. 67-70. 4 For a discussion of various p o s s i b i l i t i e s and manifesta-tions of "Shee" i n the "Anniversaries," as 'Lady Virtue,' 'Lady Wisdom,' 'Lady Justice' or 'Astrea' i n symbolic terms, and i n h i s t o r i c a l terms as the Blessed V i r g i n Mary, Queen Elizabeth, and f i n a l l y the young and innocent Elizabeth Drury, the l a s t Ideal Woman i n the world, see P.J. Mahony, "A Study i n Donne's •Anniversaries'," (unpub. diss . , N.Y.U., 1963), pp. 19-29. Also Tuve, op. c i t . , pp. 41-44; 149-50. ^E. Hardy, Donne. A S p i r i t i n C o n f l i c t (London: Constable & Co. Ltd., 1942), p. 133. Elizabeth Drury. Whatever the s i n c e r i t y of his g r i e f , i t i s evident that Donne was carrying out a moral mission i n the "Anniversaries." In "The f i r s t Anniversary" he refers to the "opinion" which has caused him to write: He spake To Moses to deliver unto a l l , That song, because hee knew they would l e t f a l l The Law, the Prophets, and the History, But keepe the song s t i l l i n t h e i r memory: Such an opinion ( i n due measure) made Me t h i s great Office boldly to invade. (462-468) The reference to Moses suggests that Donne has anatomized the world i n "The f i r s t Anniversary" i n order to expose i t s 7 weaknesses. He relates the horrors and decrepitude of the old world, and thereby expresses the.true value of. things: This new world may be safer, being t o l d The dangers and diseases of the old: For with due temper men doe then forgoe, Or covet things, when they th e i r true worth know. (87-90) Donne hopes that his "anatomy" w i l l contend against the world Q and protect mankind from "outward stormes." Secondly, the introduction of Moses i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i o n to the Jewish t r a d i t i o n of the apocalyptic. After the R.E. Hughes, The Progress of the Soul: The Interior Career of John Donne. (Hew York: William Morrow and Co., Inc., 1968), pp. 196-202. •7 Manley, op. c i t . , see the "Commentary," pp. 167-68. Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 50. 41 3rd century B.C. these apocalypses were pseudonymous, and a t t r i -buted t h e i r authorship, to various Old Testament prophets among whom Moses was a prophet without equal. Indeed, an entire l i n e of Jewish apocalypses bore the name of Moses, or Ezra, "the second Moses." One of these t r a d i t i o n a l writings i s "The 9 Assumption of Moses." Donne intends to partake of the prophe-t i c characteristics of Moses; he can derive part of his author-i t y from his association with such a b i b l i c a l figure. Thirdly, reference to Moses should be viewed i n l i g h t of the nature of "The second Anniversary." As d 1Aubigne combined the use of the prophetic and apocalyptic i n "Jugement," Donne associates himself with a b i b l i c a l prophet i n order to prepare the reader for an apocalyptic-prophetic v i s t a i n the second half of his work. What has been described i n "The f i r s t Anniversary," i n l i m i t e d apocalyptic terms, w i l l be translated into a new idiom i n "The second Anniversary.""^ Hence, i n the second half of the "Anniversaries" Donne i s assigned a divine commission: Since (God's) w i l l i s , that to p o s t e r i t i e , Thou should'st for l i f e , and death, a patterne bee, And that the world should notice have of t h i s , The purpose, and th'Author!tie i s h i s ; Thou art the Proclamation; and I am The Trumpet, at whose voyce the people came. (523-28) Donne's attitude toward t h i s commission, and his attitude toward ^See Dictionnaire Encyciooedique de l a Bible,ed. Alexandre Westphal (Valence-sur-Rh6ne: Imprimeries reunies, 1956), v o l . 1, pp. 68-69. Eor information regarding the second l i n e of the Jewish apocalyptic t r a d i t i o n , which bore the name of Moses or Ezra, see Russell, op. c i t . , pp. 113-14.. x u C f . R.E. Hughes, op. c i t . , pp. 200-201 for the use of "idiom" i n a different sense. 42 himself as poet, are described as conventional by Rosemund Tuve."^ But i t i s just t h i s reference to divine commission, and the movement i n the "Anniversaries" from a worldly focus to a heavenly focus that makes one possible method of i n t e r -pretation of the moral element i n Donne's work an examination of the author's apocalyptic consciousness. The major features of t h i s consciousness are reflected i n the nature of Donne's source of i n s p i r a t i o n and his treatment of e v i l . B« The Source of Inspiration One of the recurrent symbols used throughout the Bible i s that of the trumpet. In a non-apocalyptic context, the trumpet i s designated by God i n the Old Testament as the instrument to be used i n the c a l l i n g of assemblies and the announcing of alarms. The sound of trumpets on these occasions, and when blown over s a c r i f i c e s i s intended to be a symbolic represen-12 ta t i o n to God of the f a i t h of the tribes of I s r a e l . In the Bible the trumpet appears frequently as a harbinger of doom. The most famous Old Testament instance of this occurrence i s the tale of the destruction of Jericho. After the signal i s 1 1Tuve, op. c i t . , pp. 178-179. Tuve does not read t h i s as irony: "Like most Elizabethan comment, i t asks us to read poems as though language were not a t o o l for announcing facts about a particular thou or I i n their character of particular phenomena, but a medium for intimating and ordering s i g n i f i -cances which particulars shadow forth (p. 179)." See Num. 10. 43 given by the trumpets, the I s r a e l i t e s are commanded to shout 13 i n unis3on, and thus hasten the destruction of the c i t y . y The seven trumpet judgments i n the "Revelation of St. John" are also representative of this use of the instrument."^ Donne himself c a l l s the trumpets f o r t h i n his "Holy Sonnet V I I : " At the round earths imagin'd corners, blow Your trumpets, Angells, and ar i s e , arise From death, you numberlesse i n f i n i t i e s Of soules, and to your scattred bodies goe. (1-4) Closely a l l i e d with an actual apocalyptic setting, yet as part of prophecy, i s the use of the trumpet as a sign of the prophet called to a state of i n s p i r a t i o n . Moses i s summoned by a trumpet (Exod. 19:12:19). The clear and b r i l l i a n t sound of the trumpet (spargens sonum) i s understood i n the Bible as a sign that "he that prophesieth speaketh unto men to e d i f i -cation and exhortation, and comfort" (lCor. 14:3). Paul, i n his discourse on prophesy as a superior g i f t , stated that the prophet's voice must not be uncertain or hesitant: And even things without l i f e , giving sound, whether f l u t e or harp, except they give a d i s t i n c -t i o n i n the sounds, how s h a l l i t be known what i s piped or harped? For i f the trumpet give an un-certain sound, who s h a l l prepare himself to the battle? (I Cor. 14:7-8) ^Josh. 6:4-6; cf. the decisive v i c t o r y of the tribes of I s r a e l over the Midians i n Jud. 7:16. Rev. 8:7-19. 44 Donne's b e l i e f that other men were incapable of perceiving the r e a l disorder of the world, and could not assume the task of exhorting and consoling i s c l e a r l y evident i n the reference to Moses at the conclusion of "The f i r s t Anniversary:" He spake To Moses to deliver unto a l l That song, because hee knew they would l e t f a l l The Law, the Prophets, and the History. (463-465) Donne considers himself capable of assuming such a task. The "great Office" taken up by Donne finds i t s source of i n s p i r -ation i n the symbolism of the trumpet as a figure of a personal and quasi-prophetic mission. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that Donne envisions as part of his divine commission are in t e r e s t i n g l y close to those described for Ezekiel, the New Testament prophet and "watchman:" Again the word of the Lord came unto me, saying, Son of man, speak to the children of thy people, and say unto them, When I bring the sword upon a land, i f the people of the land take a man of th e i r borders, and set him for thei r watchman; I f , when he seeth the sword come upon the land, he blow the trumpet, and warn the people, Then whosoever heareth the sound of the trumpet, and taketh not warning, i f the sword come, and take him away, his blood s h a l l be upon his own head. (Ezek. 33:1-4) Cf. p. 40 i n th i s study. 45 Like d'Aubigne, Donne combines the prophetic with the apocalyptic function i n the sense that he i s the watchman who treats the disorder of the world, and i s ultimately responsible for c a l l i n g a l l men to a general resurrection. The use of the past tense i n the l a s t l i n e s of the "Anniversaries" i s curious, but ex-presses the f u l f i l l m e n t of Donne's mission i n a general resur-rection: Thou art the Proclamation; and I am , The Trumpet, at whose voyce the people came. b (527-8) Donne regards his moral task as a necessary duty. Although the general state of the world i s viewed as not worth "our t r a v a i l e , griefe, or perishing" ("The f i r s t Anniversary," 432), the q u a l i t i e s of "Shee," who possessed "those r i c h joyes" that are no longer found i n the world, must be proclaimed. Thus, Donne's mission i s also drawn partly from the q u a l i t i e s that are inherent i n "Shee," and from the significance of her position as an intermediator between himself and God: So these high songs that to thee suited bin Serve but to sound thy Makers praise, i n thine. ("To the Praise of the Dead," 35-36) On this l e v e l of i n s p i r a t i o n , "Shee" becomes a type of poetic Muse who i s capable of infusing Donne's s p i r i t with a sense of dir e c t i o n : Yet how can I consent the world i s dead While t h i s Muse l i v e s ? which i n his s p i r i t s stead -I c See Hardy, op. c i t . , p. 134. 46 Seemes to informe a World; and bids i t bee, In spite of losse or f r a i l e mortalite? ("To the Praise of the Dead," 7-10) Yet i n t h i s deluge, grosse and generall, Thou seest me s t r i v e for l i f e ; my l i f e s h a l l bee, To be hereafter prais'd, or praysing thee; Immortall Maid, who though thou would'st refuse The name of Mother, be unto my Muse A Father, since her chast Ambition i s , Yearely to bring forth such a c h i l d as t h i s . ("The second Anniversary," 30-36) Donne also considers the death of "Shee" as adventitious. The significance of the "Anniversaries" i s enhanced by not considering the death of Elizabeth Drury simply as a subject of a funeral elegy, but as an opportune moment to reveal the secrets of the world's condition. The poet's attitude toward the "Shee" of the poems thus shares a b e l i e f i n a sense of opportune revelation as found i n the Jewish apocalyptic t r a d i -t i o n . These writings often claim to be disclosures or revela-tions of divine secrets concerning the state of the world which are made at the right time for the i n s t r u c t i o n and encouragement 17 of the people. In conclusion, Donne imagines a mutual interaction between "Shee," who acts as an intermediator between himself and God's divine i n s p i r a t i o n , and his own poetic a b i l i t y as i t i s to be 1 ft fashioned after his love for "Shee:" 1 7 R u s s e l l , op. c i t . , p. 107ff. Cf. Mahony's attitude toward the nature of Donne's moral task: "Donne's moral mission i s formidable: to return humanity to the Ideal Woman and goodness," Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 49. 47 And thou the subject of t h i s welborne thought, Thrice noble maid, couldst not have found nor sought A f i t t e r time to yeeld to thy sad Fate, Then whiles t h i s s p i r i t l i v e s , tha.t can relate Thy worth so well to our l a s t Nephews eyne, That they s h a l l wonder both at his and thine? Admired match! where strives i n mutuall grace The cunning pencil, and the comely face. ("To the Praise of the Dead," 11-18) In his interpretation of the devotional character of the "Anni-versaries," P.G. Stanwood has also described the i n s p i r a t i o n a l force of her virtuous soul upon Donne: "Donne, who speaks for his own and the world's soul, sees the lesson to be learned: she who has shown us the way must inspire us to work even harder, for the knowledge that grace increases i n Heaven should move 19 us toward r e a l i z i n g the grace here within us a l l the more." Donne i s bound to his moral task: Two soules move here, and mine (a third) must move Paces of admiration, and of love. (1-2) C. The Noblest Sense Donne's treatment of e v i l i s one of the main keys to gaining an understanding of the "Anniversaries." The two poems constitute an investigation of e v i l i n terms of i t s causes, i t s various manifestations, and the possible solutions or remedies 20 to i t s existence. Such a concern with the nature of e v i l , which i s one of the most disturbing problems of philosophy, i s also an inte g r a l element found i n apocalyptic l i t e r a t u r e , and ^P.G. Stanwood, "'Essential Joy' i n Donne's 'Anniversaries,'" Texas Studies i n Literature and Language 13 (1971), 233. Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 57. 48 i s one of the major features that distinguish Donne's "Anni-versaries" as apocalyptic. Donne's concern with the topic of e v i l can be seen i n the emphasis that he places on the sense of sight, and on several l e v e l s of perception. As d'Aubigne's r h e t o r i c a l stance involves an aspect of the poet as observer, i n which the poet becomes capable of r e a l i z i n g the existence and character of i n j u s t i c e , so Donne considers the v i s u a l sense of primary importance i n uncovering the operation of e v i l i n the world. Both v i s i o n and perceptions need "continual refocusing i n order for man 21 always to see himself as c l e a r l y as he can." In contrast to e v i l , "Shee" i s characterized by Donne as the hallmark of v i r t u e . Only by s t r i v i n g to imitate the good-ness and gain the perspective of "Shee" w i l l a man be able ultimately to observe the nature of .Ideal Goodness as exemplified i n "Shee:" (Because since now no other way there i s , But goodnesse, to see her, whom a l l would see, A l l must endeavor to be as good as shee,) ("The f i r s t Anniversary," 16-18) Unencumbered sight i s necessary for establishing a basic l e v e l of perception which includes the knowledge that the soul 22 exi s t s . Without establishing i t s existence, there can be no 21 Joan Webber, Contrary Music, (Madison: The Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1963), p. 76. 22 See Arnold Stein, John Donne's L y r i c s : The Eloquence  of Action (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota "Press, 1962), pp. 55ff. 49 "progresse." Donne emphasizes the active part that v i s i o n plays i n the progress of the soul, and the uselessness of v i s i o n i f i t i s not accompanied by r e f l e c t i o n and searching: (For who i s sure he hath a Soule; unlesse I t see, and judge, and follow worthinesse, And by Deedes praise i t ? hee who doth not t h i s , May lodge an In-mate soul, but ' t i s not his.) ("The f i r s t Anniversary," 3-6) ^  Donne has p a r t i a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d and hinted at the sententious quality of t h i s statement by separating i t off by means of parentheses. He intends the reader to grasp the importance of the f i r s t half of the statement as i t i s qu a l i f i e d by the stress upon "Deedes" rather than simply words. Throughout "The second Anniversary" Donne w i l l give an emphasis to the deeds or active progress of the indi v i d u a l soul which w i l l counteract "motion i n corruption"(22). His mood, interrogatory and descriptive i n "The f i r s t Anniversary," w i l l now become imperative. Donne w i l l consistently use commands to direct himself and mankind toward the steps of progress: "look upward,"(65), "remember then"(122), "But up unto the watch-towre get,"(294), "Returne not, my Soule"(321), "Up,, up my drowsie Soule"(339)., "But pause, my soule; And study, ere thou f a l l " ( 3 8 3 ) , and "Then, Soule, to thy f i r s t p i t c h worke up againe"(435). The most.striking use of the imperative mood i s the passage i n "The second Anniver-sary" i n which death i s meant to be personified by a l l mankind 03 ^Cf. Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 65 where he states that "see" and "judge" stand for the a c t i v i t i e s of memory and under-standing respectively, and that "follow" and "praise" indicate the a c t i v i t i e s of the w i l l . 50 as "but a Groome,/which brings a Taper to the outward roome" (85-6): Thinke thee l a i d on thy death-bed, loose and slacke; And thinke that, but unbinding of a packe, To take one precious thing, thy soule from thence. Thinke thy selfe parch'd with fevers violence, Anger thine ague more, by c a l l i n g i t Thy physicke; chide the slacknesse of the f i t . Thinke that thou hear'st thy k n e l l , and think no more, But that, as Bels cal'd thee to Church before, So t h i s , to the Triumphant Church, c a l l s thee. (93-101) In t h i s passage the author has employed the cumulative technique of p i l i n g up imperatives; such a technique has the effect of hammering home the point and echoing the meditative atmosphere. This device i s effective i n amplifying the uncertainty of man-kind's predicament, and prepares the way for the progress-directed imperatives which have been mentioned. That Donne capitalized on the advantages of t h i s technique i s also observed 24 i n i t s place i n his prose s t y l e . The r h e t o r i c a l device of cumulation and amplification here serves i n passages that act as "both an emotional declaration of man's misery," and as "an i n t e l l e c t u a l statement of the f u t i l i t y of i n t e l l e c t i n an 25 unthinking, physical world." Although motion i s central to "The second Anniversary," 2/*¥ebber, op. c i t . , p. 191; see pp. 189-191. 25 Use of cumulative p i l i n g i s also at work i n Donne's "Holy Sonnet VII:" ' A l l whom the flood did, and f i r e s h a l l o'er throw, A l l whom warre, dearth, age, agues, tyrannies, Despaire, lav/, chance, hath slaine.' (5-7) 51 i n "The Harbinger to the Progresse" Donne q u a l i f i e s the progress that the soul i s able to a t t a i n because of man's mortality: No soul (whilst with the luggage of t h i s clay I t clogged i s ) can follow the halfe way; Or see [her] f l i g h t , which doth our thoughts outgoe So f a s t , that now the li g h t n i n g moves but slow. (9-12) The worldly focus w i l l be adjusted i n "The f i r s t Anniversary" by making a detailed observation of the world, yet Donne again q u a l i f i e s the potential of sight by discussing the shortness of l i f e . Mankind, which once enjoyed longevity, has now only a very li m i t e d l i f e span. By drawing an analogy from astronomy, Donne marks man's shortness of sight as a natural r e s u l t of diminishing l i f e t i m e s and statures: When, i f a slow pac'd starre had stolne away Prom the observers marking, he might stay Two or three hundred years to see't againe, And then make up his observation plaine; When, as the age was long, the sise was great; Mans growth confess'd, and recompenc'd the meat; So spacious and large, that every Soule Did a f a i r e Kingdome, and large Realme controule: And when the very stature, thus erect, Did that soule a good way towards heaven d i r e c t . Where i s t h i s mankinde now? (117-27) This element of hopelessness i s compounded by the knowledge that the very nature of the world, which v i s i o n i s capable of perceiving, may i n i t s e l f be i l l u s o r y : Sight i s the noblest sense of any one, Yet sight hath only colour to feed on, And colour i s decai'd: summers robe growes Duskie, and l i k e an oft dyed garment showes. (353-356) Here Donne has i n mind A r i s t o t l e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of color, which asserted that color was the entire surface of the body, and necessarily included form. In seventeenth-century b e l i e f t h i s form, and hence color, were considered to be i n a stage of decay. The import of t h i s b e l i e f i s far-reaching. In Donne's imagination color, "beauties other second Element" ("The f i r s t Anniversary," 339), embraces " a l l beauty discernible by sense; color i s the property of things chosen to represent t h i s beauty because i t i s the primary stimulus" of the sense 27 of v i s i o n . Hence, the decay of beauty i n terms of color leads to the l o g i c a l d i s t r u s t of the v i s u a l sense. But, even though the colors i n Nature are decayed, Donne s t i l l r e c a l l s the memory of "Shee," i n whom a l l white, and red, and blew (Beauties ingredients) voluntary grew, As i n an unvext Paradise; from whom Did a l l things verdure, and thei r l u s t r e come, Whose composition was miraculous, Being a l l colour, a l l Diaphanous, (For Ayre, and Fir e but thick grosse bodies were, And l i v e l i e s t stones but drowsie. and pale to her). (361-368) 2 8 The potential of sight which i s r e s t r i c t e d by man's mortality, the l i m i t a t i o n of an earthly focus, the decayed state of the world and by the death of "Shee," finds i t s dimmest and most For the sources of thi s b e l i e f , see Manley's "Commentary," op. c i t . , pp. 158-160. 27 'Charles M. Coffin, John Donne and the New Philosophy (New York: The Humanities Press, 1958), p. 270; cf. Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 63. po The colors of "Shee" also represent those of the theolo-g i c a l beauties, cf. Manley's Commentary," p. 160. 53 b r i l l i a n t l i g h t i n t h i s memory. In addition to the two basic levels of perception derived from the use of the v i s u a l sense Donne t e l l s us that, just as men observe the mutations of a material world, so "Shee" over-sees mankind's progress, and has the a b i l i t y to assess i t s universal problem: She whom wise nature had invented then When she observ'd that every sort of men Did i n t h e i r voyage i n t h i s worlds Sea stray, And needed a new compasse for t h e i r way. (223-226) The author employs a nautical reference that suggests the Christian symbolism of the turbulent sea as representative of the s i n f u l condition of the world, and the true "compasse" as a sense of s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t i o n that can guide the "ship" of 29 mankind. Thus, Donne foreshadows the importance that "Shee" w i l l take as a "new compasse" i n establishing the heavenly focus of "The second Anniversary." He prepares the reader for a more detailed explanation of her role i n the working out of the in d i v i d u a l soul's progress. Donne conceives of Elizabeth Drury's soul "as endowed with 'Magnetique force"' that i s able "to draw, and fasten sundred parts i n one."(222) Donne was very f a m i l i a r with William Gilbert of Colchester's book De Magnete(l600), from which he 29 See H.C. Combs and Sullen, A Concordance to the English  Poems of John Donne (Chicago: Packard and Co., 1940), p. 57, the compass entry. This i s Donne's only use of the image i n such a sense that I have found. Coffin, op. c i t . , p. 86. 54 undoubtedly took the idea that "a magnetick vigour exists then i n the earth just as i n the t e r r e l l a , " and suited i t to f i t his conception of Elizabeth Drury's soul: The language of the poet describing the vi r t u e which Elizabeth Drury's death has taken from the world, i s not unlike that of the s c i e n t i s t when considering "grand magnetick nature of the earth 1 as a power 'innate and diffused through a l l her inward parts.'31 The poet's "aspiring thoughts"(31) concerning the soul of "Shee" draw from her potential to i n c i t e change, and make i t possible for the world soul to enjoy a "noble progresse"(28). In spite of the pessimistic character of "The f i r s t Anniversary" Donne describes the soul of "Shee" as constantly hopeful and aspiring to goodness: And yet moves s t i l l , and s t i l l aspires to see The worlds l a s t day, thy glories f u l l degree. ("The Harbinger to the Progresse," 5-6) The poet envies such a state of aspiration: I envie thee (Riche soule) I envy thee Although I cannot yet thy glory see. ("The Harbinger to the Progresse," 17-18) D. Donne's Treatment of E v i l The manner i n which Donne conceives the world soul, and his concern with the v i s u a l sense and levels of perception are 32 in t e g r a l features of his actual treatment of e v i l . Throughout 5 1 C o f f i n , op. c i t . , p. 86. See pp. 84-87 for a f u l l e r discussion of Gilbert's work. •50 I am indebted i n my discussion of Donne's conception of the l e v e l s of e v i l to Mahony, op. c i t . , pp. 57-75. "The f i r s t Anniversary" Donne establishes the apocalyptic background by developing a t r i p a r t i t e conception of the origins of e v i l that has an emotional effectiveness as powerful as the descriptions of corruption which precede most visions of the apocalypse. The various descriptions of the "Sicke World" (55) , with reference to the shortness of l i f e and stature(112-171), the decay and deformity of Nature(199-304), and the utter state of disorder i n the world(304-434), are i n the same morbid cast as the visions of the seal-plagues, trumpet-plagues, and bowl-34 plagues i n "The Revelation of St. John."^ Donne prepares a tableau of primal corruption, sinfulness, and s p i r i t u a l desolation. Occasionally he employs harangues that are expected to awaken the reader to his s p i r i t u a l l y 35 weakened condition; such a device i s s t r i c t l y d i dactic: Thou might'st have better spar'd the Sunne, or Man. That wound was deep, but ' t i s more misery, That thou hast l o s t thy sense and memory. 'Twas heavy then to heare thy voyce of mone, But t h i s i s worse, that thou are speechless growne. Thou hast forgot thy name, thou hadst;- thou wast Nothing but shee, and her thou hast o'rpast. (26-32) The major cause of e v i l , which Donne views as primal corruption, has started a chain reaction: Then, as mankinde, so i s the worlds whole frame ^ F o r a reference to Donne's t r i p a r t i t e ' s p i r i t u a l e f f o r t , ' see Hughes, op. c i t . , p. 201. 5 4Rev. 6; Rev. 8-9; Rev. 16. 5 5 C f . also 11. 243-46, and cf. Chapter I, p. 17. 56 Quite out of joynt, almost created lame: For, before God had made a l l the re s t , Corruption entred, and deprav'd the best: I t seis'd the Angels, and then f i r s t of a l l The world did i n her cradle take a f a l l And turn'd her braines, and tooke a general maime Wronging each joynt of th'universall frame. The noblest part, man, f e l t i t f i r s t ; and then Both beasts and plants, curst i n the curse of man. So did the world from the f i r s t hour decay. (191-201) Just as the destruction and judgment of the world i s carried out with t e r r i b l e swiftness i n the "Revelation of St. John," Donne writes i n an authoritative tone to describe the l o g i c a l and unavoidable chain of events that have l e f t the world i n a state of unnaturalness and chaos. Even Donne's choice of images to connote the world's condition, i n the i r extended development and elaboration, become authoritative and symbolic: the world i s a "cripple"(238), a "monster"(326), and a "Ghost"(370). The world i s viewed as upside down: "Tis a l l i n peeces, a l l cohaerence gone"(213). The f i r s t reason Donne gives for the unnaturalness and corruption of the world i s coupled with the second cause of 36 e v i l i n actual s i n . Because of those sins that have been committed since the f i r s t f a l l from grace, the world: to a fever turn'd, And so the world had f i t s ; i t joy'd, i t mourn'd; And, as men thinke, that Agues physick are, And th'Ague being spent, give over care, So thou sicke World, mistak'st thy selfe to be Well, when alas, thou'rt i n a Lethargie. (19-24) Actual sins are those committed by a l l men since the f i r s t f a l l from grace." Mahony, op. c i t . , p. 58. The f a i l u r e of the world to grasp i t s actual condition i s s i m i l a r to the unawareness of the churches i n Smyrna, Pergamum, and Thyatira, which are addressed i n the "Revelation of St. John," and have "to a fever turn'd"(l9). Most of mankind too has had the moral sense deadened by actual sins, and i s deceived into believing that a l l w i l l receive the "crown of l i f e . " But i n the Apocalypse not a l l men w i l l i n h e r i t such a crown: "Behold, the d e v i l s h a l l cast some...into prison.."jSt. John advises,"Be thou f a i t h f u l unto death, and I w i l l give thee a crown of l i f e " (Rev. 2:10). Part of the immediacy and forcefulness of Donne's argument and the v i s i o n of St. John i s derived from the prophetic awareness allowed the authors con-cerning the natural results of actual s i n and faithlessness. Donne and St. John offer at once a warning and a revelation to mankind. Thirdly, Donne attributes e v i l i n the world to the death of "Shee" who has taught mankind that thou art Corrupt and mortall i n thy purest part. (61-62) A f i n a l feature of Donne's overall treatment of e v i l i s the t r a n s i t i o n from a state of apocalyptic gloom i n "The f i r s t Anniversary" to the state of hope and resolution that i s esta-blished i n the second. This note of consolation i s struck i n the opening l i n e s of "The second Anniversary," and extends into a statement of f a i t h and confidence i n the progress of the soul. 58 The skepticism of "The f i r s t Anniversary," with i t s reference to the insecurity ushered i n by "the new Philosophy"(205), i s replaced by an affirmation of f a i t h : Nothing could make me sooner to confesse That this world had an everlastingnesse Then to consider, that a yeare i s runne, Since both this lower world's, and the Sunnes Sunne, The l u s t r e , and the vigor of t h i s A l l , Did set; 'twere blasphemy to say, did f a l l . (1-6) The pessimistic tone i n "The f i r s t Anniversary" i s too sustained, and the moral scope too broad, for us to attempt to neglect the aspects of Donne's apocalyptic consciousness. His treatment of e v i l naturally leads into "The second Anniversary," which f i t s the s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n of an epitaphium anniversarium, yet can be viewed as a consolatory sequel to the preceding dooms-37 day tableau. As i n the Jewish apocalypses, which were written i n the forward-looking and precarious intertestamental years, Donne has portrayed the world's misery i n order to offer up a universal and consolatory sign of hope. Like these works he has given a kind of pessimistic h i s t o r i c a l survey which i s i n need of a transcendental element to make such a survey of uni-J For the d e f i n i t i o n and sources to the genre, see Manley's "Commentary" pp. 119-20. Donne did not always respect the "precise d i s t i n c t i o n s of the rhetoricians and writers of artes  poeticae prescribing the focus and decorum of a poem of praise see Lewalski, op. c i t . , p. 43. J For hope as a product of persecution, see Russell, op. c i t . , p. 17. For a discussion of the milieu, cf. pp. 28-33. 59 versal significance. In the Jewish apocalypses t h i s trans-cendental feature i s found i n the b e l i e f i n the transcendent being called "the Son of Man," and i n the idea that there i s a l i f e after death with i t s various levels of H e l l , Gehenna, Paradise, and Heaven. At the same time there i s an "increasing significance of the in d i v i d u a l i n resurrection, judgment and 39 eternal b l i s s . " ^ In Donne a transcendent movement i s i n i t i a t e d by the poet himself. He blasts away the skepticism of "The f i r s t Anniversary," and c a l l s f o r t h the note of hope, at.le a s t , the note of courageous s t r i v i n g for the assurance and faith-ihapired v i s i o n which had been eclipsed, by doub.t .in "The f i r s t Anniversary." For the successful develop-ment of t h i s theme the matter of the new philosophy, with i t s disconcerting connotation, can make no contribution. I t i s true that there i s a reper-cussion of the doubt and uneasiness pervading "The f i r s t A.," but over the conditions inducing the former skepticism there triumphs an expression of positive and constructive faith..40 Donne's transcendent movement also can be interpreted i n l i g h t of the "Revelation of St. John." In the Apocalypse, St. John envisions the destiny of the world under the.hand of Providence, and relates his own visionary experiences. Although there i s not an easily discernible formal pattern to the "Revelation," the author's visions become increasingly f r a n t i c , and culminate i n a v i s i o n of the t o t a l conquest of the earth 39 •^Russell, op. c i t . , p. 105. Such b e l i e f s were suited to the purposes of doctrinal propaganda, see p. 32. 4 0 C o f f i n , op. c i t . , p. 138. 60 by heavenly grace. In the "Anniversaries" Donne, through his visionary experience, offers the consolatory information that thou "shalt see the blessed Mother-maid"(341). The dismal view of the potential of sight i n "The f i r s t Anniversary" i s removed. Donne charges the reader to s t r i v e for a position of righteous-ness, the crown that w i l l refute the e v i l s of the world: Up to those Patriarchs, which did longer s i t Expecting Christ, then they'have enjoy'd him yet. Up to those Prophets, which now gladly see Their Prophesies growne to be Hi s t o r i e . Up to th'Apostles, who did bravely runne A l l the Suns course, with more l i g h t then the Sunne. Up to those Martyrs, who did calmly bleed Oyle to th'Apostles Lamps, dew to thei r seed. Up to those Virgins, who thought, that almost They made joyntenants with the Holy Ghost, I f they to any should his Temple give. (345-355) He thus paves the way for the culmination of .his .own v i s i o n i n the doctrine of grace. Donne, who has been given the prophetic power "to say this"(522) by the grace of God, leaves the reader on a f i n a l and jo y f u l apocalyptic chord: Only i n Heaven joyes strength i s never spent; And accidentall things are permanent, i Joy of a soules a r r i v a l l ne'r decaies; For that soule ever joyes and ever staies. Joy that t h e i r l a s t great Consummation Approaches i n the resurrection; When earthly bodies more c e l e s t i a l l S hall be, then Angels were, for they could f a l l ; This kinde of joy doth every day admit Degree of growth, but none of losing i t . (487-496 The imperativeness of progressing to such a state of grace i s seen i n "Holy Sonnet VII" where Donne r e f l e c t s that at the end of the word "Tis l a t e to aske abundance of "j3"o<* ,£0 grace." 61 The d i f f i c u l t i e s over the structure and intent of Donne's "Anniversaries" can be remedied by stressing the purpose of the poet to console and instruct i n terms of a doctrine of grace. Viewed i n such a l i g h t , the "Anniversaries" are two 42 d i s t i n c t yet i n t e g r a l l y related poems. "The f i r s t Anniversary" deals with the particulars of the world's condition and i s made up of imagery which i s decorous with a skeptical and apocalyptic conception of the world's state. The imagery must be v i v i d , and the treatment harsh, since the outlook of the poet toward the universe i s i n i t s e l f dismal. But Donne does not leave the reader with a picture i n which a l l must be called i n doubt. In "The second Anniversary" he indicates how the reader i s to conceive and make sense of the particulars already presented, and leads up to a statement of a universal truth. This truth finds i t s crux i n the doctrine of grace. A l l just men w i l l be freed of the s i n f u l state of the world and thei r actual sins by the apocalyptic forcefulness of Donne's entire v i s i o n , and w i l l open up th e i r hearts to God's mercy. The language i n "The second Anniversary," with the emphasis upon the imperative, 42 Many c r i t i c s have argued for a strong correspondence between the two "Anniversaries;" cf., for instance, P. Mahony, "The Structure of Donne's 'Anniversaries' as Companion Poems," Genre. 5(1972), 235-56; A.E. Voss, "The Structure of Donne's 'Anniversaries,'" English Studies i n A f r i c a . 12(1969), 1-30; and Louis L. Martz, "Donne's 'Anniversaries' Revisited," i n That Subtile Wreath: Lectures Presented at the Quartercenten-ary Celebration of the B i r t h of John Donne, ed. M.W. Pepperdene Hgnes Scott College, 1972), 29-49, esp. p. 41. i s congruent with the import of mankind's progress. Donne has worked out a chain of being and beconeing i n which the lowl i e s t state of man's existence i s seen translated to the highest rung of glory. Those c r i t i c s who would question Donne's method i n poems that are openly categorized as funeral elegies b e l i t t l e the. part that the poet can take i n any genre. Surely i t cannot be argued that "Shee" i s not of central importance to the poems. By integrating the q u a l i t i e s of "Shee" into his v i s i o n of God's own universal goodness and hopefulness the poet's task i s completed. CHAPTER I I I SAINT AMANT'S 'LE CONTEMPLATEUR1 AND 'LA SOLITUDE1 A. 'Le Bon Gros;' Introduction to 'Le Contemplateur 1 Having examined two major works i n which the moral content i s universal, the source of i n s p i r a t i o n that of the poeta vates, and the use of the apocalyptic completely integrated with the philosophic intent, I propose to turn now to several poems of an author whose disposition and attitude toward his c r a f t are d i s s i m i l a r - "Le Bon Gros" Saint-Amant."** The poetry of Saint-Amant has generally been met by two kinds of response: a sense of delight or an attitude of disdain. In spite of the appreciation for the author's work during his own time by Paret, Tellemant des Reaux, and Theophile de Viau, judgments no doubt tempered by personal piques and friendships, Boileau played a decisive role i n establishing an unfavorable attitude toward the verse of Saint-Amant i n the 17th century. Undaunted by any arguments to the contrary, Boileau, not uncommonly, rejected completely the method and results of the poet's e f f o r t s . One example of such c r i t i c i s m was Boileau's use of Longinus' De Sublime to attack Saint-Amant' s verse for i t s preoccupation with detail., a kind of descriptive richness that has since been acclaimed as the poet's r e a l f orte. I t i s due to the publishing of Theophile Gautier's Les Grotesques(1855) that we owe the rediscovery of """See the impressionistic and b r i e f biography of the poet by Pierre Varenne, Le Bon gros Saint-Amant 1594-1661 (A. Rouen: Lecerf f i l s , 1917). 64 the poet's work after the almost t o t a l silence of the eighteenth century. Gautier confidently opposed Boileau's assessment by proclaiming that "Saint-Amant est a. coup sur un tres grand et tres o r i g i n a l poete, digne d'etre c i t e entre les meilleurs dont 2 l a Prance puisse d'honorer." He was assisted i n his defense by the timely edition of the poet's works by Charles Livet which gave Sainte-Beuve occasion to reevaluate Saint-Amant's 3 poetry. The tendency toward reevaluating and reexamining the author's work has continued down to the present day, and i s evidenced by an ever-expanding contribution to Santamantiana. Although much of Boileau's c r i t i c i s m should probably be dismissed, there are certain disturbing aspects of the verse of Saint-Amant. The reader i s struck by the author's seemingly serious concern with s u p e r f i c i a l subject matter, as i n the "gastronomical" poems:4 Quelle odeur sens-je en cette Chambre? Quel doux parfum de Muse et d'Ambre Me vient l e Cerveau r e s j o u i r , Et tout l e Coeur espanouir? Ha bon Dieu! j'en tombe en extase; Ces belles Pleurs qui dans ce Vase Parent l e haut de ce buffet, Eeroient-elles bien cet effet? ("le Melon," 1-8) Theophile Gautier, Les Grotesques (Paris: M. Levy, 1853), p. 157. 3 Cf. "Summary of Scholarship" i n Samuel Borton, Six Modes of S e n s i b i l i t y i n Saint-Amant (Paris: Mouton & Co., 1966), pp. 14-40. 4 Erancoise Gourier, Etude des Oeuvres Poetiaues de Saint-Amant (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Minard, 1961), pp. 85-91. 65 Such an opinion i s not "completement i n j u s t i f i e e " since "plusieurs protecteurs du poete furent aussi ses coiapagnons de 5 debauche." Indeed, certain of the author's poems are unnerving i n t h e i r tendency to s e r v i l e f l a t t e r y , as i n "Spistre, a Monsieur Le Baron de Melay, G-ouverneur du Chasteau-Trompette, A Bordeaux," t h e i r treatment of debauchery ('"La Debauche," "Le Cidre") and t h e i r celebration of the bacchanalian ("Bacchus Conquerant"). Certain readers might also question the author's pervasive use of archaic and grotesque language, an apparently unsystematic poetic method, a mixing of genres and especially the extended descriptive passages of the s a t i r i c and burlesque.*' A l l of these elements are of especial significance i n r e l a t i o n to Saint-Amant's r e l i g i o u s poetry. Only three of the author's works are purely r e l i g i o u s : "Le Contemplateur," the "Moyse Sauve," and the "Fragment d'une Meditation sur l e 7 C r u c i f i x . " Of these, "Le Contemplateur," composed i n 1629, has been seen on the one hand as a poem i n which "theme leads to theme, not i n accordance with any systematic plan but following the free play of a l i v e l y mind" where the moral purpose i s of Q secondary consideration, and on the other hand as a work i n Gourier, op. c i t . , p. 85. These problems are brought up by most c r i t i c s , but see especially A l i c e W. Rathe, "La Poetique de Saint-Amant" (unpub. d i s s . , U. of T., 1964), pp. 11-24. 7 Gourier, op. c i t . , p. 185. 8 I. Buffum, Studies i n the Baroque from Montaigne to Rotrou, p. 151. 66 which, "contemplative inquiry leads to a state of self-hypnosis or trance, a condition of confused yet sublime consciousness." 9 In the l a t t e r case, the author's purpose i s to impart his r e l i g i o u s concerns and to express man's eth i c a l and moral relationship to God.1^ According to which d e f i n i t i o n one accepts, the apocalypse near the conclusion of "Le Contemplateur" i s either simply another theme, or a device calculated to strengthen the author's expression of an ethical-moral r e l a -tionship. Though both of these views have been argued on the basis of the text, the nature of the author's philosophical and aesthetic intent i s c l a r i f i e d by an examination of two major facets of Saint-Amant's poem. These facets reveal the author's attitude toward s e l f - r e v e l a t i o n and experience as i n i t i a t e d i n "La Solitude"(1617), and the connection between sight, imagery, and ideas i n the author's vision.. The r e l a -tionship between sight, imagery,.and ideas involves the theory °f i i i pictura poesis. features of Gongorism, and a Bacchic element. Such a study reveals f i r s t that, whereas d'Aubigne and Donne use apocalyptic material for a didactic and universal end, Saint-Amant's apocalyptic v i s i o n represents the culmination of the poet's discovery of his own emotionally charged state which cannot be didactic i n a moral sense for a l l of mankind. Secondly, the apocalyptic i s used i n Saint-Amant's poem to give ^Samuel L. Borton, op. c i t . , pp. 130-31. 1 0 I b i d . , pp. 128, 135. a sense of ending or synaptieal. completeness to an otherwise discursive t r a i n of images, and i s hence a c r u c i a l technical device. B. The Experience of Solitude " l a Solitude"(1617) i s considered to be Saint-Amant 1s f i r s t poem, and opened the volume of the poet's works which f i r s t appeared i n 1629.^ The scene of the composition of the poem was Belle-Isle-en-Mer, an island off the southern coast of Brittany where the poet occasionally accompanied the Due de Retz. As the t i t l e suggests, "La Solitude" i s an ode i n praise of solitude, and i s a record of the sights, discoveries and adventures that the poet made during one of his sojourns on the island. This i n i t i a l production of the poet shares several motifs and poetic techniques with "Le Contemplateur," and might even be considered a preface to the entire contents of the l a t e r poem. C r i t i c s of Saint-Amant's poetry have shown a particular fondness for "La Solitude" and have stressed the poem's unique-12 ness. Theophile Gautier has remarked that "vous ne trouverez r i e n dans les poetes d i t s classiques...qui a i t cette fraicheur ""•"""Several Latin translations were published, and a number of French imitations, cf. J. Lagny, "Autour de l a 'Solitude' de Saint-Amant: l e s traductions l a t i n e s , " B u l l e t i n du B i b l i o -phile et du Bibliothecaire , 25(1956), 110-126. 12 For example, Buffum, Gautier, de Mourgues, Borton, and Rathe. de c o l o r i s , cette transparence de lumiere, cette reverie f l o t t a n t e et melancolique." J Interpretations of the poem's origins i n l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l sources have been numerous, although most c r i t i c s have argued for French or Spanish sources of i t s i n s p i r a t i o n . For instance, R. Mazzara has found a certain s i m i l a r i t y between "La Solitude" and the t r a d i t i o n a l Portuguese saudade or Spanish soledad which express "disappoint-ment, frequently an unrequited or absent love or other worldly desengano. "**'4 Saint-Amant' s desengstSo. his own s p i r i t of agitation, disappointment, and unrequited self-searching, i s expressed by the French inquietude: 0 que j'ayme l a Solitude!. Que ces l i e u x sacrez a l a EPu.it, Esloignez du monde et du b r u i t , Plaisent a. mon inquietude! (1-4) Since the poet stands aloof i n "La Solitude" Mazzara suggests that Gongora, the poet's Spanish contemporary, i s the closest p a r a l l e l . Both have written poems i n which the poet s t r o l l s through nature, and offers descriptions of nature i n i t s various forms and c o l o r s . 1 ^ Gdngora's "Las Soledades" have l i t t l e 13 Gautier, op. c i t . , p. 168. 1 4R.A. Mazzara, " I t a l i a n and Spanish Influences i n the L i f e and Works of Saint-Amant" (unpub. diss., U. of Kansas, 1959), p. 38. 15 The word appears i n "La Metamorphose"(121), "Les Visions a Damon"(l6l), "La Jouyssance"{59), "Epigramme a Monseigneur l e Chancelier"(31), "Deux Couplets a Inserer"(2), Bailbe, Jacques and Jean Lagny, ed. Saint-Amant Oeuvres. 4 vols. (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Marcel Didier, 1967-1971). -i r Mazzara, op. c i t . , p. 48. 69 narrative appeal, and have been described as merely convenient pegs "on which Gongora could hang his superb descriptions, elaborated by a l l the arts of metaphor and hyperbole, and 17 interspersed with beautiful l y r i c s . " ' Indeed, "La Solitude" of Saint-Amant i s to be seen as a r e f l e c t i o n of an emerging awareness on the poet's part of the natural world where his T O own self-revelations are translated into l y r i c a l form. The location of the poet's wanderings i n "La Solitude" i s a grotto: the poet's eyes sont contens De v o i r ces Bois qui se trouverent A l a n a t i v i t e du Temps, Et que tous les Siecles reverent, Estre encore aussi beaux et vers, Qu'aux premiers jours de l'Univers! (5-10) The garden-grotto, which had i t s origins i n I t a l y , and became the location for the construction of a l l kinds of f a n c i f u l n a t u r a l i s t i c ornaments and d e t a i l s , i s the perfect type of environment for the poet to discover an awareness of his inmost 19 / s e n s i b i l i t i e s . The strange and awesome rock formations ("Ces Monts pendans en precipices," 26) and the f i e r c e l y flowing streams ("ces f i e r s Torrents vagabonds," 32) lead the poet to The Solitudes of Don Luis de Gongora. trans. E.M. Wilson (Cambridge: The University Press, 1965) "Introduction," p. xv. -j o Saint-Amant's friend Theophile de Viau also wrote an ode "La Solitude" about the same date. The element of l i t e r a r y exercise i n the poems should not be overlooked, cf. Theophile  de Viaut Selections ed. Remy de Gourmont (Paris: Societe du Mercure de Prance, 1907), pp. 24-31. 19-i>ee S.L. Borton, op. c i t . , pp. 49-60. 70 discover settings far more imaginative and s u r r e a l i s t i c . The s t r o l l through the grotto and the kind of meditations that are ^triggered i n the poet's imagination by such an adventure, leave t h e i r impression not only on the poet, but have provided a 20 common adjective of the romance languages: grotesque, looking back from the modern vantage point, the very nature of 2' a grotto experience may seem "grotesque" i n i t s a r t i f i c i a l i t y . ' In "La Solitude" the delightfulness of the grotto setting, and the kind of effect that i t has upon the poet's mind, depends on i l l u s i o n . The poet i s convinced into conceiving wonders that are only restrained by his own imaginative capacities. These f i c t i o n a l representations of what he observes are, on one l e v e l , mythological: Un gay Zephire les ^j'ces Bois", 5} caresse D'un mouvement doux et f l a t t e u r ; Rien que leur extresme hauteur ^Derived from the I t a l i a n grotta and grottesca. the term accompanied the a r r i v a l of the feature i t described. The I t a l i a n word probably derived i n turn from the Vulgar-L a t i n : "'Grotte' was the popular name i n Rome for the chambers of ancient buildings which had been revealed by excavation, and which contained those mural paintings that were t y p i c a l examples of 'grotesque,'" A lew English Dictionary on H i s t o r i c a l P r i n c i -ples, ed. J.A.H. Murray (Oxford: The Univ. Press, 1901), v o l . 4, pp. 448-49. 21 Many examples of such a r t i f i c i a l i t y could be ci t e d ; consider the water-surprise gardens mentioned i n "Las Soledades" which are s t i l l to be found i n Spain. "Some unsuspecting person would be lured into the grotto and then mercilessly drenched with water from a l l sides." E.M. Wilson, op. c i t . , "Notes," p. 129. "Las Soledades," I I , 11. 213-222. The same effect was achieved i n grottos i n I t a l y and France. 71 Ne f a i t remarquer leur v i e i l l e s s e : Jadis Pan, et ses Demy-Dieux (Satyrs) Y vindrent chercher du refuge, Quand Jupiter ouvrit les Cieux Pour nous envoyer l e Deluge. (11-18) On another l e v e l , the poet's wanderings support a v i s i o n of Nature's own unlimited abundance: La, cent m i l l e Oyseaux aquatiques Vivent, sans craindre en leur repos, Le G-iboyeur f i n , et dispos Avec ses mortelles practiques. (51-54) The poet.associates the grotto atmosphere with visions of decadence, decay, and fear as well as with these exuberant visions of plenty. He views l a decadence De ces vieux Chasteaux ruinez, Contre qui les Ans mutinez Ont deploye leur insolence! (71-74) La se nichent en m i l l e troux Les Couleuvres, et les Hyboux. I L'Orfraye, avec ses ori s funebres, Mortels augures des Destins, Fait r i r e , et dancer les Lutins Dans ces l i e u x remplis de tenebres. (79-84) Thus, Saint-Amant's reactions to the element of dissolution p a r t i a l l y emanates from his thoughts or ideas concerning the i n s t i t u t i o n s and status of mankind. This state of consciousness i s founded i n a r e a l i s t i c imitation of grotto d e t a i l s , whereas the references to "Les Demons"(76) and " l e C i e l Juge equitable" (91) are purely extensions of the supernatural elements nurtured "by such r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s . The supernatural element i n his t r a i n of visions finds i t s apogee i n the b r i e f meditation on judgement: Aussi l e C i e l Juge equitable Qui maintient les Loix en vigueur, Prononca contre sa rigueur Une sentence epouventable: Autour de ces vieux ossemens Son Ombre aux peines condamnee, Lamente en longs gemissemens Sa malheureuse destinee, Ayant, pour c r o i s t r e son effroy, Tousjours son crime devant soy. (91-100) Interesting i s the mingling of Christian (91-94) and pagan (95-100) attitudes to suicide. Saint-Amant i s f u l l y conscious that the experiences of solitude i n nature, which supply the r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s and s t i m u l i for his imaginings, are the source for his poetic i n s p i r a t i o n and poetic instruc-22 t i o n . Throughout the composition he anticipates each successive step of such ins t r u c t i o n , and refers to his own pleasure i n the source i t s e l f ("0 que j'ayme l a Solitude;"1, 191) as well as i n the s p e c i f i c imaginative scenes (Hma reverie," 24; "je prens de p l a i s i r , " 25; "Que j'ayme...," 41; "Que j'ayme a v o i r , " 71; "Que c'est une chose agreable," 141) Since the emphasis i n "La Solitude" i s on personal revelation rather than divine i n s p i r a t i o n , SaintrAmant has endowed his visions with the force of his own furor poeticus. His verse Borton, op. c i t . , p. 58. 73 i s takentofcathe product of his own genius, or daimon. and of 23 the muse of poetry: Je ne cherche que les deserts, Ou. revant tout seul, je m'amuse A des discours assez diserts De mon Genie avec l a Muse. (175-178) Saint-Amant 1s poetic s p i r i t and s e n s i b i l i t i e s are liberated by such a state of inquietude so that the results of the poet's visionary experience are indeed f a n t a s t i c : Tu vols dans cette Poesie Pleine de licence, et d'ardeur, Les beaux rayons de l a splendeur Qui m'eclaire l a f a n t a i s i e : Tantost chagrin, tantost joyeux, Selon que l a fureur m'enflame, Et que l'objet s'off re a. mes yeux, Les propos me naissent en l'ame, Sans contraindre l a l i b e r t e Du Demon qui m'a transporte. (181-190) In "La Solitude" the poet has established himself as personally inspired" i n "Le Contemplateur" Saint-Amant reiterates the nature of the source of in s p i r a t i o n which he finds within himself. In his attempt to give a true imitation and presen-ta t i o n of his experiences, the poet follows his visionary s t r o l l to i t s l o g i c a l and most s t a r t l i n g conclusion- an apocalypse. C. The F i n a l Synapse In "Le Contemplateur" Saint-Amant probes beyond the l e v e l °Cf. "Le Melon:" - "Car l e Roy d'Helicon (Apollo), l e Demon de ma veine" (305), Bailbe and Lagny ed., v o l . 2. 74 of description and r e f l e c t i o n established i n " l a Solitude." He finds i n himself the potential to unravel the d i v e r s i t y of nature's many forms and to comprehend "tout l'univers"(90) by a process of "recherche profonde"(89). As i n Donne's "Anniver-saries" observation i s an important preliminary a c t i v i t y (e.g. "Je fains un p o r t r a i t a mes yeux," 65; "J'appercoy," 143; "J'y voy...," 155; "Je 1'observe," 305; "Je voy," 402) which precedes r e f l e c t i o n or meditation.. But there i s a marked difference between the two works i n terms of the nature of what follows the use of sight. In Donne we have seen that the author prepares the way for a universal and prophetic r e f l e c t i o n , whereas i n "Le Contemplateur" the poet finds his own impressive thoughts awakened by a number of disparate observations made 24 on his return to Belle-Isle-en-Mer. Nature supplies the poet with a d i v e r s i t y of seemingly v i s u a l phenomena. To use a b i o l o g i c a l analogy, each observation i s established as a synapse, or point of contact between adjacent images, by the impulses sent out from the poet's own state of euphoria. In other words, i n the highly personal experience of solitude, the poet goes through a three-fold experience of observation, suggestions of ideas triggered by his sight, and a concluding or personally ecstatic delight i n each of the meditations. The poet's purpose, unlike that of Donne, i s not seriously moral, but rather, a prolongation and suspension of in d i v i d u a l 24 For the date and place of composition, see Borton, op. c i t . , pp. 128-29. 75 observations and r e f l e c t i o n s u n t i l the climax of the apocalypse. Saint-Amant i s aware of a three-fold creative process, which becomes, unlike i n "La Solitude," often more conceptual than descriptive: Je rends les premieres f r i v o l l e s : Voila, comme selon l'objet Mon esprit changeant de projet, Saute de pensee en pensee: La d i v e r s i t e p l a i s t aux yeux, St l a veue en f i n est lassee De ne regarder que les Cieux. (134-140) Perhaps one of the f i n e s t examples of the poet's imaginative process i s the scene i n which the " f l u s et r e f l u s " of the sea suggests the idea of ebb and flow of a l l created things: La, songeant au f l u s et r e f l u s , Je m'abisme dans cette idee; Son mouvement me rend perclus, Et mon Ame en est obsed^e. (91-94) Each observation results i n the conception of an idea that obsesses the poet's imagination. The simple observation of ships r e c a l l s i n the poet's mind the fascinating properties of the mariner's compass(101-110) and leads to a frenzied state where reason i s made subservient to the poet's emotions. At such moments Saint-Amant frequently expresses himself i n exclamations (e.g. "0 moeurs! dis je, 6 monde br u t a l ! , " 115) or becomes highly interrogative(124, 127, 130): P a u t - i l que l e plus f i e r metal Plus que toy se montre sensible? E a u t - i l que, sans te reformer, Une pierre dure au possible Te fasse honte en l ' a r t d'aymer? (116-120) 76 Occasionally such ecstatic states cause the poet to revel i n the marvellous properties of God Himself; but such exclamatory sections have a l l the characteristics of simply another rendering of the poet's personal and inward-looking progress: 0 bon Dieu! m'escriay-je alors, Que ta puissance est nonpareille, D'avoir en un s i p e t i t corps F a i t une s i grande merveille! 0 feu! qui tousjours allume, Brusles sans estre consume! Belle Escarboucle qui chemines! (221-227) Although "Le Contemplateur" was written for Philippe Cospeau, Bishop of Nantes, who became Saint-Amant's s p i r i t u a l director, and was responsible for his conversion from Protes-tanticism to Catholicism i n the 1620's (whether his conversion was s p i r i t u a l or expedient), I do not f e e l that one need 25 effect the interpretation of passages l i k e the above. The poet's b r i e f exposition on the properties of God i s too con-nected with a r a p i d - f i r e set of other observations and r e f l e c -tions to be singled out as more s i g n i f i c a n t than the others or of greater moral import. As Saint-Amant 1s contemplation of nature tends to heighten his sense of rapture, the b r i e f 25 'J.. Lagny has argued that the underlying motivation behind "Le Contemplateur" i s l i t e r a r y rather than r e l i g i o u s : see J. Lagny, "Le Poete Saint-Amant et l e protestantisme," B u l l e t i n de l a Societe de l ' h i s t o i r e du Protestantisme  Francais. CIII (1957), No. 4 (oct.-dec), 237-266. 77 contemplation, of God functions i n the same manner. . Likewise, even the pot e n t i a l l y didactic device of an apocalyptic v i s i o n i s r e a l l y only the highest point i n the poet's "tableau fantasque," and i s ushered i n by the same process of observa-tion - r e f l e c t i o n - s t a t e of ecstasy as we have just examined. The ideas of the Last Judgment and apocalypse arise from the obser-vations of daybreak: Tantost leve devant l e jour, Gontre ma coustume ordinaire, Pour v o i r recommencer l e tour Au celeste et grand Luminaire; Je 1'observe au s o r t i r des f l o s , Sous qui l a nuit, estant enclos, I I sembloit estre en sepulture; Et voyant son premier rayon, Beny l'Autheur de l a Nature, Dont i l est comme l e crayon. (301-310) That t h i s setting i s an aesthetic and emotional climax to the poet's own in t e r n a l state of agitation i s seen i n several aspects of the apocalyptic imagery. !• The Element of 'TJt Pictura Poesis' The much quoted simile of Horace, ut pictura poesis, has been subject to successive interpretations from the beginnings of the I t a l i a n Renaissance to the present day with the res u l t that the theory of the relationship between painting and poetry 2 has become "more and more complex, more and more exaggerated." C D . Rolfe has commented that Saint-Amant was "rather too obviously trying to impress the Bishop of Nantes..." Saint-Amant and the Theory of Ut Pictura Poesis (London: The Modern Humanities Research Association, 1972), p. 23. ilb.ld.; , p. 2. 78 In i t s o r i g i n a l context-in the Ars Poetica Horace's analogy was made to express the idea that i n neither poetry nor painting i s i t j u s t i f i a b l e to demand of the a r t i s t , more than he intends to give. Since that time the theory of ut pictura poesis has been useful i n discussing those works of l i t e r a t u r e i n which the writer attempts to imitate the q u a l i t i e s or techniques of the " s i s t e r a r t " of painting. As Wellek and Warren have commented, "though the amount of v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n the reading of poetry i s l i k e l y to be overrated, there were 29 ages and there were poets who did make the reader v i s u a l i z e . " In a l i m i t e d sense such a comment might be made of Saint-Amant's " l e Contemplateur." Saint-Amant makes a direct reference i n t h i s poem to Michelangelo's "Last Judgment:" L'immortelle et scavante main De ce fameux Peintre Romain, N'a r i e n trace d'emerveillable Que ce penser de l'advenir P l e i n d'une terreur agreable, Ne ramene en mon souvenir. (325-330) One c r i t e r i o n that Saint-Amant appears to have established for his own visions of the Last Judgment and end of the world i s that of creating "une terreur agreable." His imagery and descriptions are not "painterly" i n the sense that they attempt p Q W.G. Howard, "'Ut Pictura Poesis.'" Publications of the  Modern Language Association, xxiv (1909), 40-123. 29 Rene Wellek and Austin Warren, Theoxw of Literature, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1956, p. 126. 79 to reproduce the s p e c i f i c effects.of the painter, the de t a i l s of the scene, but i n the sense that the poet wishes to impart a fe e l i n g of movement and massiveness to his visions. Unlike the l a s t section of d'Aubigne's "Jugement" Saint-Amant's descriptions are not b r i l l i a n t i n terms of par t i c u l a r s , but are effective i n conveying a generalized "impression" of the end of the world. As i n a genre painting, Saint-Amant stri v e s to create an atmosphere or fe e l i n g for the setting, and his descriptions should be adjudged by the c r i t e r i o n of th e i r effectiveness i n communicating the most t e r r i b l e of the author's 3 0 many v i s u a l and emotional experiences. Consider the author's attempt to render the majestic unfolding of his f i n a l synapse: A i n s i , mais plus c l a i r et plus beau, Verra t'on comme ce Flambeau Monter au C i e l l e corps du Juste Apres qu'avecques majeste, Dieu seant en son trosne auguste L'aura par sa bouche arreste. (315-320) The references to "ce Flambeau," " l e corps du Juste," and "son trosne auguste" are not elaborated upon since Saint-Amant i s not p i l i n g up his imagery to make a powerful impression on the reader or to console by some kind of moral or s p i r i t u a l reve-l a t i o n , but rather.to.record the condition and state of his own private v i s i o n . Even i n the pote n t i a l l y powerful description But the poet's "Le Contemplateur" i s not a good example of the influence of the Flemish and Dutch genre painters. The apocalypse supplies only li m i t e d picturesque d e t a i l s . For the influence of such a r t i s t s , cf. Rolfe, op. c i t . , pp. 61-77 and R.A. Sayce, "Saint-Amant and Poussin," French Studies. 1(1947), 241-333. 80 of "Jesus au milieu du Soleil"(340) Saint-Amant only employs two imprecise adjectives "espouventable et magnifique"(339). damned during the Judgment i s undetailed and aloof i n language: Mais les meschans desesperez Pour qui desja sont preparez De l'Enfer les tourmens enormes, Ne se representent a moy Que s i hideux et s i difformes, Que, mon Ame en t r a n s i t d'effroy. Such a different perspective does not produce the horror d i s -cussed i n d'Aubigne's Les Tragiques and Donne's "Anniversaries." D'Aubigne envisions himself rewarded i n heaven after his pro-phetic mission has been f u l f i l l e d , while Donne credits himself with completing a prophetic task. But Saint-Amant sees the f i n a l end of the world as the conclusion to a personal v i s u a l 31 experience, and begs to be spared on that t e r r i b l e day: 0 Dieu! qui me f a i s concevoir Toutes ces futures merveilles Toy seul a qui pour mon devoir J ' o f f r i r a y les f r u i t s de mes v e i l l e s , Accorde-moy par ta bonte La g l o i r e de l ' E t e r n i t e , A f i n d'en couronner mon ame: Et foy qu'en ce t e r r i b l e Jour In "La Solitude" the sensual imagery i s employed to establish the relationship, between the poet's introspection and his i n s p i r a t i o n : tiikewise, the t y p i c a l l y v i v i d description of the state of the (395-400) Mais quand je pense bien a moy Je l a hay pour l a raison mesme; porroit me r a v i r L'heur de te v o i r , et te s e r v i r . (197-200) Je ne brusle point d*autre flame Que de c e l l e de ton amour. (441-450)32 Certain elements of Gongorism are also closely a l l i e d to Saint-Amant 's v i s u a l experience. 2. The Elements of Gongorism Two l i n g u i s t i c features of Gongorism are not emphasized 33 i n "Le Contemplateur."^ The poem, unlike "Las Soledades," i s not remarkable f o r a l a t i n i s a t i o n of vocabulary and syntax. Saint-Amant, who was assigned the task of compiling words that were "grotesque" for the Academie Francaise, did not c a p i t a l i z e on this element i n "Le Contemplateur." Secondly, although Gongora took many syntactic l i b e r t i e s , and frequently used hyperbata, Greek absolutes and accusatives, and continually distorted normal Spanish word order, Saint-Amant 1s poem i s not unusual s y n t a c t i c a l l y . The major characteristics which Saint-Amant 1s poem shares with Gongorism are the frequent r e p e t i t i o n of a key word, the use of a single term or metaphor to encompass a variety of particular shades of meaning, and the expression of the v i s u a l with hyperbolic and exaggerated language. The fi n e s t example 32 Cf. p. 31 for d'Aubigne's jo y f u l anticipation of his f i n a l union with God. -'-'For my b r i e f discussion of features of Gongorism, I am indebted to E.M. Wilson, op. c i t . , "Introduction," pp. x i i - x x i ; i i l i s h a K. Kane, Gongorism and the Golden Age: A Study of Exu-berance and Unrestraint i n the Arts (Chapel H i l l : UnivTof North Carolina Press, 1928), pp. 24-41; and Lucien-Paul Thomas, M M | sur Gongora et l e Gongorisme Tome-VII (Bruxelles: Academie Royale, 1911, 2nd se r i e s ) , pp. 93-110. 82 of the r e p e t i t i o n of a key word i n "Le Contemplateur" i s the author's use of tantost to lead from one v i s u a l and conceptual experience to another (11. 141, 191, 195, 231, 241, 262, 265, 271, 281, 285, 291, 301): Tantost faisant agir mes sens Sur des sujet de moindre estofe, De marche en autre je descens Dans les termes du Philosofe. (81-84) Tantost nous a l l a n t promener Dans quelque chaloupe a. l a rade, Nous laissons apres nous traisner Quelaue ligne pour l a Dorade. (201-204) The word appears for the l a s t time to introduce the poet's description and thoughts on the Judgment and apocalypse. In t h i s case tantost announces, l i k e " l a trompette Serafique"(337), the l a s t of the poet's visionary and conceptual experiences. The following passage i l l u s t r a t e s two characteristics of Gongorism found i n "Le Contemplateur:" Les E s t o i l l e s tombent des Cieux, Les flammes devorent l a terre, Le Mongibel est en tous l i e u x , Et par tout gronde l e tonnerre: Le Salemandre est sans vertu; L'Asbeste passe pour festu, La Mer brusle comme eau-de-vie, L'Air n'est plus que souffre allume, Et l'Astre dont l'Aube est suivie Est par soy-mesme consume. Les Metaux ensemble fondus Eont des r i v i e r e s precieuses; Leurs f l o t s bouillants sont espandus Par les campagnes spacieuses. Dans ce feu, l e dernier des maux, Tous les terrestres Animaux 83 Se consolent en quelque sorte, Du Deluge a demy vangez En voyant ceux que l'onde porte Aussy bien comme eux a f f l i g e z . (411-430)34 There i s a noticeably imprecise character to the language throughout t h i s passage. Saint-Amant creates a f e e l i n g for the decay and chaos of the apocalypse not by dwelling upon the many particulars of each stage of dissolution, but by imple-menting a vocabulary that i s generalized: no adjectives qualify "Cieux," the flames that devour the earth are simply flames. Indeed, the language i s as basic as the four primary elements: " l a terre," "La Mer," "Les Elammes," and " L ' a i r . " Nor are the adjectives s t r i k i n g i n the second stanza: "precieuses," "spacieuses," and "terrestres." What could be more unspecific than "les terrestres Animaux"? Obviously the passages gain t h e i r exaggerated quality from the p i l i n g up of such a p a r a l l e l group of generalized terms, and the plenitude of verbs meant to imitate the state of chaos the poet i s imagining: included i n the f i r s t stanza are "tombent," "devorent," "est," "passe," "brusle," "n'est plus que souffre allume," and a f i n a l "est." The predominance i n the f i r s t stanza of the verb "to be" coincides nicely with the general •^"L'Etna: Les habitants l e nomment l e Mont-Gibel, & peut-etre est-ce des Arabes qu'est venu l e mot de Gibel. i , : The ancients believed that the salamander could survive f i r e . Asbestos i s ah incombustible mineral. See edition v o l . I, "Notes," p. 67. The references to Etna are common i n Spanish love poetry. 84 nouns: the poet i s r e s t r i c t i n g himself to creating the basic atmosphere. Also noticeable i s the way i n which the nouns, most of which have been a s i g n i f i c a n t part of the poet's past experiences i n solitude, are appearing for the l a s t time. The poet, who has "chante/De l a Mer en ma Solitude"(151-2), now observes that the sea "brusle comme eau-de-vie." The ideas concerning the "Deluge"(62) and "No^"(66) are seen i n a new context of destruction. Saint-Amant, who has already cele-brated many of the elements, " l e plus f i e r m e t a l " ( l l 6 ) , now imagines them as ingredients i n the apocalypse. The reference to "eau-de-vie" i n an apocalyptic setting, and the p i l i n g up of terms connected only for the sake of giving an impression or imitation of the apocalypse, lack the support 35 of a prophetic doctrine as found i n our other authors. The f i n a l characteristic of the apocalyptic v i s i o n i n "Le Contem-plateur" which distinguishes the v i s i o n as a rather pl a y f u l and personally aesthetic conception made by Saint-Amant i s the 5 5 C f . Theophile de Viau's "Ode" i n the Selections, op. c i t . , pp. 45-56: Un corbeau devant moi croasse, Une ombre offusque mes regards; Deux belettes et deux renards Traversent l'endroit ou je passe. (1-4) His poem i l l u s t r a t e s the same kind of p i l i n g up of images without a doctrinal intent, and the use of the "grotesque" as found i n Saint-Amant's "Solitude." 8 5 the presence of the Bacchic element. 3. The Bacchic Element In "Le Contemplateur" apparently serious and frivolous d e t a i l s are occasionally combined. Borton's argument that the poem i s seriously r e l i g i o u s does not account for the manner i n which Saint-Amant mixes the realms of the s p i r i t u a l , a concern with r e l i g i o u s subject matter i n the Last Judgment and apocalypse, and the mundane, a treatment of such subject matter i n a w i l d l y 36 r i b a l d fashion. In "Le Contemplateur" Saint-Amant quite naturally records both the serious and humorous de t a i l s of his i n d i v i d u a l visions and meditations. For instance, the author's description of the struggling man whose head sticks out of the ground during the resurrection, of the dead has a touch of the grotesquely comic. Such vividness surprises the reader's senses., and lends the v i s i o n a s l i g h t l y humorous character: L'un m'apparoist un bras devant, L*autre ne montre que l a teste, Et n'estant qu'a moitie vivant, Force 1'obstacle qui l'arreste: Cestuy-cy s'esveille en sursaut, Cestuy-la joi n t l e s mains en haut Implorant l a faveur divine; Et 1'autre est a. peine leve, Que d'un coeur devot i l s'encline Devers l'Agneau qui l a sauve. (351-360) "56 J I. Buffum considers such a treatment as another aspect of the baroque mind, see I. Buffum, Studies i n the Baroque, pp. 158-59. 86 In the passage d i r e c t l y following that quoted above Saint-Amant continues a description of the Second Coming that appears unsuited to the s p i r i t u a l import of such an event. His picture i s colored by allusions to incest and sexual love which normally would be considered inappropriate aspects of the si t u a t i o n : Pres de l a , l e frere et l a seur, Touchez de ce bruit dont tout tremble, D'estre accusez d 1inceste ont peur, Pour se trouver couchez ensemble, Icy l a femme et l e mary, Objet l'un de 1*autre chery, Voyons l a clarte souhaitee Semblent s'estonner et gemir D*avoir passe cette nuictee Sans avoir r i e n f a i t que dormir. (361-70) A f i n a l instance that should be cited concerning Saint-Amant 1s use of the unexpected i s the ant i c l i m a t i c conclusion to the poem. The author switches from making a prayer and supplication to God(441-454) and offers a humble prayer to his bishop: Vous, d i s - j e , a qui j 1 e s c r y ces Vers Ou dans l a mort de l'Univers Un haut renom s 1 immortalise, Veuillez estre leur Protecteur, Et permettez-moy qu'on y l i s e Que je suis vostre adorateur. (455-460) The o r i g i n for such a combination of elements i n one of Saint-Amant 1s few poems with a re l i g i o u s subject matter can be sought i n the t r a d i t i o n of the comiaue burlesque or the bacchic. Poems such as " l a Desbauche," "Bacchus Conquerant," "La ^'The t r a d i t i o n of the comique burlesque and caprice are treated i n Gourier, op. c i t . , pp. 119-140; Rathe, op. c i t . , pp. 78-113; R.A. Mazzara, "Saint-Amant, avant-garde precieux poet: •'La Jouyssance,' B a l l State Teachers College Forum, IVU963), 58-63. In his discussion of Saint-Amant•s modes of s e n s i b i l i t y , Borton does not include the bacchic or capricious poems. Naissance de Pantagruel," "La Vigne," "Le Cidre," and "Les Pourvens Bachiques" a l l reveal the picturesque richness of Saint-Amant's imagination, and his v i r t u o s i t y i n savoring the crude and vulgar. The humorous results of the poet's i n c l i n -ations as"> written about i n "La Naissance de Pantagruel" • Le sucre de Madere en poivre fut change, Les gigots de mouton en Jambons de Majence, La Terre eut l e hocquet, e l l e en c r i a vengence, Et l a Nature mesme en ardeur s'exhalant Se v i t preste a mourir de l a mort de Rolant; S i bien qu'a, mon exemple, a i n s i que d i t l ' h i s t o i r e , Par tout a gueule ouverte on demandoit a boire A BOIRE, A BOIRE, ( 2 2-29P y partly accounts for the appearance of "eau-de-vie" and the other light-hearted aspects of " l e Contemplateur." I t might be argued that Saint-Amant's r e a l i n c l i n a t i o n was not directed toward the w r i t i n g of deeply r e l i g i o u s verse, but to the com-munication of the author's s p i r i t e d character and thoughts. In "Le Contemplateur" Saint-Amant might have been wri t i n g out of an expedient conversion to Catholicism, which would argue for the i n s i n c e r i t y of his r e l i g i o u s interests i n the poem, but his persona as seen i n t h i s poem i s certainly consistent with that of the vigorous poet who affirmed Nous perdons l e temps a. rimer Amis, i l ne faut plus chommer, Voicy Bacchus qui nous convie A mener bien une autre v i e , ("La Desbauche, " .1-4) ''Rabelais Oeuvres Completes, ed. Pierre Jourda, tome I I (Paris: Editions Gamier Freres), chapter I I , pp. 36-39. 88 and announced that, De Lauriers, de Charmes, de Buis, De Cypres, de f l e u r s , et de f r u i t s , Se forment des murailles vives. ("La Vigne," 39-41) In both "La Solitude" and "Le Contemplateur" Nature has supplied the stimulus for the poet to build a "muraille vive" of his own imaginative adventures. The personality or persona of the poet has not r e a l l y changed i n these works; Saint-Amant integrates the capricious.and.bacchanalian, as wel l as the more thoughtful and contemplative sides of his personality.into his visions. But the actual development of thought i n "Le Contemplateur," as seen i n the an t i c l i m a t i c prayer to the bishop, does not become more profound or r e l i g i o u s l y s i g n i f i c a n t . They do, however, become more grandly visionary, and are aesthetically completed by a v i s i o n of the apocalypse.. . . Although my view of one of Saint-Amant,1 s few " r e l i g i o u s " poems might seem to place the poet i n the rather maligned posi-t i o n of a l i b e r t i n . I would suggest that his imaginative versions of the apocalypse and Last Judgment argue simply for a non-religious or undidactic use of these settings. The poet was honest and extremely serious about recording the nature of his own emotional-aesthetic experiences even i f his r e l i g i o u s 39 b e l i e f s are i n doubt. 39 Rathe has an interesting discussion of Saint-Amant as "honnete homme" with respect to his theory of imitation and s t y l e , see op. c i t . , pp. 11-24. CHAPTER IV CRASHAW1S POETIC VISION A. 'Unum Ante Thronum* As we turn to the l a s t of our authors we w i l l f i n d Richard Crashaw concerned with a similar personal rather than universal a r t i s t i c goal although the persona behind his poems i s closer to the agitated and ecstatic state of St.. John of the Cross or Santa Teresa than that of the inquietude of Saint-Amant."^-Secular Latin poetry had reached i t s zenith before the early thirteenth century, but re l i g i o u s poetry i n L a t i n had i t s most productive period i n the thirteenth century. Among the many creations of th i s age, impressive i n t h e i r solemnity 2 and rhythmic power, i s the "Dies Irae" of Thomas de Celano. In t his hymn the fear of impending judgment and the terror of the end of the world are communicated with a forcefulness that i s rare i n the other Latin hymns included i n the l i t u r g y , and perhaps only equaled i n poetic beauty by certain of the Vulgate psalms. When one hears that Tube mirum spargens sonum, Per sepulcra regionum Coget omnes ante thronum, (stan. 3)5 See James B. Anderson, "Richard Crashaw, St. Teresa, and St. John of the Cross," Discourse. X, i v (Autumn, 1967), 421-28. 2 Curtius, op. c i t . , p. 318. •5 See Appendix I for the f u l l text of th i s hymn. 90 the famous "Requiem Mass" of Hector Berlioz comes to mind, i n which trumpets are stationed at the "four corners of the earth," and are sounded i n sequence during the "Dies Irae" section, Crashaw translated or fre e l y paraphrased s i x of the major hymns of the western Church: "Hymnus de Passione Domini," "Sancta Maria Dolorum," "Rhythmus ad Sacram Eucharistiam" and the companion "De Venerabili Sacramento i n Festo Corporis C h r i s t i , " "Prosa de Mortuis" or "Dies Irae," and "De Beata V i r g i n e . " 4 Crashaw"s renderings, which were published i n 1648 and reprinted i n 1652 are of representative pieces from both early and late medieval poetry, different schools of devotion, personal prayers or meditations, and various doctrinal sequences. A l l of the hymns can be used to exemplify the process i n which Crashaw a l t e r s the sense from the universal and doctrinal or didactic to the affective and particular or personal. Sister Margaret Claydon has argued that the paraphrase of the "Hymnus de Passione Domini" i s most changed i n th i s respect, but perhaps more s t r i k i n g i s the s h i f t that i s made from the universal to the personal i n the paraphrase of the "Dies Irae." In his poem Crashaw displays "his propensity for nursing an emotion and savouring a l l the sweetness of g r i e f , " and his habit of 4See Francis E. Barker, "The Religious Poetry of Richard Crashaw," Church Quarterly Review. 46 ( A p r i l , 1923), 39-65. ^Sister Margaret Claydon, op. c i t . , p. 136; Bertonasco, op. c i t . , pp. 74-76. c Ibid., pp. 111-31. The "Dies Irae" i s discussed pp. 78-99. "worrying out of his conceits their emotional and sensational, 7 rather than their i n t e l l e c t u a l implications." Crashaw establishes the introspective state and contem-pla t i v e tone that he i s to assume throughout "The Hymn of the Church, i n Meditation of the Day of Judgment" i n the f i r s t l i n e s of the poem: Hears't thou, my soul, what serious things Both the Psalm and s y b y l l sings Of a sure judge, from whose sharp Ray The world i n flames s h a l l f l y away, (st.- I) The f i r s t part of the l a t i n hymn, which i s a general and solemnized description of the eschaton. or events of the l a s t days, i s made less foreboding by the poet's introduction of himself into a poem through his invocation to his own "soul." Likewise, the adjectives "serious," "sure," and "sharp," associated with the happenings of the l a s t days and the Judge who w i l l preside over these events, are weak and inadequate i n terms of the "dies i r a e " and " f a v i l l a " of the l a t i n . As the poem progresses Crashaw s h i f t s from an emphasis on the "we" who w i l l c o l l e c t i v e l y face and suffer the "Horror of nature, h e l l and Death!"(5-28), to an elaboration of his own place and anticipations at such a time(29-68): "And thou wouldst be/ Even l o s t thy s e l f i n seeking me"(32), "And this lov'd soul" (35), "With my price, and not with me"(38), "Mercy (my judge) 7 Joan Bennett, Five Metaphysical Poets: Donne. Herbert. vaughan, Crashaw, Marvell (Cambridge: The University Press, 3rd ed. 1964), p. 92. mercy I c r y " ( 4 l ) , "my sin"(43), "0 say the word my Soul s h a l l l i v e " ( 4 8 ) , "Hope t e l l s my heart, the same loves b e / S t i l l a l i v e ; and s t i l l for me"(52), "my Prayres and teares combine"(53), "they are mine"(55), "saving me"(56), "then c a l l me"(60), "That I i n h e r i t t , " ( 6 4 ) , and "My hope, my fear! my Judge, my Priend!/Take charge of me, and of my END"(67-8). Crashaw*s intent i n his poem i s to describe the emotional state and persona of a man contemplating the apocalypse who i s actually concerned with the Christian concept of God's mercy. The poem i s both a plea and a r e q u i s i t i o n . The poet weeps red tears to s i g n i f y the ashy white c o n t r i t i o n of his heart: Mercy (my judge) mercy I cry With blushing Cheek and bleeding ey, The conscious colors of my s i n Are red without and pale within, (st. XI) But the helpless and ce r t a i n l y pathetic state of the persona surprisingly becomes that of a man who directs God to show him mercy on the Judgment Day since a state of c o n t r i t i o n i s worth-less i n i t s e l f : Though both my Prayres and tears combine, Both worthlesse are; For they are mine. But thou thy bounteous s e l f s t i l l be; And show thou art , by saving me, (at. XIV) Let those life-speaking l i p p s command That I i n h e r i t t thy right hand, (st. X VI) 9 o Crashaw makes a b i l i n g u a l pun on "contrite" i n stanza XVII "And crumbled into contrite dust." In L a t i n contritum means "crumbled into dust." See Williams, ed., "Notes," pp. 191, 193. • P. 23 i n this study. My hope, my fear! my Judge, my Friend! Take charge of me, and of my END! (st. XVII) Unlike d'Aubigne and Donne, Crashaw's consolatory hopes are personal. The more inclusive "we" of the f i r s t section-are only seen participating in the trumpet and "Book" Judgment where "None can indure, yet none can fly"(20), and are not offered doctrinal or other consolation. Although the Latin hymn also involves the personal "me," Crashaw's f i r s t line eliminates the possibility that the poet intended his treatment of the topic of the apocalypse to afford universal consolation. More than anything else the poet's own fears serve as the impetus for the thematic content, and arise out of the i n i t i a l treatment of the Day of Judgment by means of a group of fervent apostrophes: "0 that fire!"(5), "0 those eyes!"(7), "0 that trump!"(9), "0 that Book!"(17)]- and "0 that Judge!"(19). Through these exclamatory statements the poet's emotional state is heightened. Each apostrophe is followed by an elaboration that intensifies the fearfulness of the fi n a l event, and pre-pares the way for -the change to the interrogative character of stanza VI . Ah then, poor soul, what wilt thou say? And to what Patron chiise to pray? When starres themselves shall stagger; and The most firm foot no more then stand,10 Cf. Matthew 24:29- "Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give i t s light, and the stars shall f a l l from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken." 94 and the switch to the tone of the second section of the poem (29-68). There i s disagreement over Crashaw's s k i l l i n matching imagistic and l o g i c a l interrelationships. There i s even greater disagreement over the q u a l i t i e s of the poet's imagery. Marc F. Bertonasco offers perhaps the most sympathetic reading of the poems of Crashaw, and believes that his images are "more sensuous and more inherently emotional than Donne's;" they are not to be "visualized i n a l l . t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s . ""**"*" An opposing view argues that Crashaw loves to elaborate sensations which he often dwells upon unmercifully, and involves the i n t e l l e c t i n his poetry "to give l o g i c a l coherence to his perception of ide n t i t y between these things ( i . e . images)." Another c r i t i c has suggested that Crashaw was "not often able to command his pen so well when he became excited about his G-od or his r e l i -gion" and that his "constant s h i f t i n g of metaphor" tends to 13 mar some of the better known poems. i n spite of the contro-versy over the merits of Crashaw's images and thei r l o g i c a l interrelationships, i t can be seen that at least i n our poem the poet e f f e c t i v e l y communicates his emotional state, and has chosen his imagery and metaphors to connect l o g i c a l l y with his ""•"""M.F. Bertonasco, op. c i t . , p. 9. 1 2Bennett, op. c i t . , p. 105. See pp. 92-108. G^.W. Williams, Image and Symbol i n the Sacred Poetry of Richard Crashaw (Columbia: U. of South Carolina Press 1963), PP. 3, 4. intent to console himself by a f a i t h i n God's mercy. Consider his elaboration of one of the apostrophic and p a r a l l e l settings: 0 that f i r e ! before whose face Heavn and earth s h a l l find no place. 0 those eyes! whose angry l i g h t Must be the day of that dread Night. (st. II) As to be expected Crashaw describes the l a s t Judgment i n terms of l i g h t and dark. The idea that the l i g h t from the eyes of the "Judge" must become "the day of that dread Night" i s not found i n the Latin. But as the poem develops this contrast between l i g h t , representing the forces of goodness and just r e t r i b u t i o n , and darkness, the forces of e v i l and horror, becomes completely integrated into the f i r s t section: opposed to God's "sharp Ray" i s a world i n "flames.;" the " c i r c l i n g Sun" w i l l loom over "pale" mankind; a l l w i l l come from the i r "caves of night" to answer the Judgment c a l l ; the "bright" pages of the "Book" w i l l place the world i n a "severe l i g h t ; " the "eye (cf. stanza II) of God none can avoid."'''1'' Crashaw's extended contrast of l i g h t and dark signals an inevitable d i v i s i o n that w i l l take place among mankind between the saved and the unsaved. Thus, having established the "facts" about the coming judgment, the poet asserts: But thou giv'st leave ('dread Lord) that we Take shelter from thy s e l f , i n thee; And with the wings of thine own dove For the imagery of light-dark i n the other hymn trans-l a t i o n s or paraphrases see #79(55-56), #78(stanzas 1, 4, 5), #80(stanzas 3, 4), #82(3, 4, 21, 34, 35). Fly to thy scepter of soft love. (st. VII) To reach God's "scepter of soft love" the poet's language and intent become highly personalized and introverted. The con-templation of an apocalyptic setting thus acts as the stimulus to i n c i t e the poet's thoughts and hopes concerning his personal relationship to Christ's merciful s p i r i t . In the second section of the hymn Crashaw goes beyond his conception of the f e a r f u l nature of Christ by introducing the imagery of the sheepfold and the market place. Through the development of both types of imagery Christ i s conceived of as a "Friend" and "hope" as well as a Judge. In stanza VIII Christ i s affectionately addressed as "Dear" as the author wishes to r e c a l l his own conversion i n terms of the homely language of the good shepherd: Dear, remember i n that Day Who was the cause thou cams't this way. Thy sheep was stray'd; and thou wouldst be Even l o s t thy s e l f i n seeking me. The two attributes of Christ's being as stern Judge and good shepherd are played upon by the poet i n the hope of gaining Christ's mercy: 0 when thy l a s t Frown s h a l l proclaim The flocks of goates to folds of flame, And a l l thy l o s t sheep found s h a l l be, Let come ye blessed then c a l l me. (st. XV) Crashaw's apparent tendency to elaborate upon his emotions i s no doubt responsible for the t y p i c a l yet not scatological d i r e c t i v e to Christ to " l e t thine own soft bowells pay/Thy 97 s e l f ; And so discharge that day"(45-6)."^ The poet's choice of a sensual approach to Christ's own affections stems from his supposition that "sin can sigh"(47) and "love can forgive" (47); because of Christ's a l l benevolent s p i r i t , the poet's own soul should go free at His command. The poet draws upon a limi t e d compass of imagery and also imagines the interrelationship between himself and Christ i n 16 economic terms. Crashaw, i n his contemplation of his own s p i r i t u a l worthiness, alludes to the language of the good shepherd narrative: Shall a l l that labour, a l l that cost Of love, an ev'n that losse, be lo s t ? And this lov'd soul, judg'd worth no lesse Then a l l that way, and wearynesse? (st. I X ) Only stanza V I (Ah then, poor Soul, what w i l t thou say?) i s interrogative. Crashaw suggests that the problem of deciding upon his s p i r i t u a l fate can be r a t i o n a l l y resolved by equating the poet's s p i r i t u a l worth with the bartering and f i n a l price of his o r i g i n a l conversion (a process of s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n ) rather than his own inherent nature or external signs of f a i t h , such as prayers and tears, which "worthlesse are." 1 5 C f . Williams, ed., "Notes," s t . X I I , p. 191: "'bowells: the seat of the sympathetic emotions; 'soft bowells...discharge,' however, by the process of elimination, has quite a different meaning; i t may be thought not i n the best taste to introduce scatology into eschatology..." Surely Crashaw never intended t h i s passage to be scatological or obscene. ^Among the other hymns such imagery i s common, cf. #77 stanzas I , I I ("transfer'd), I I I , V ("costly excellence), V I , V I I I (inherit/That Kingdom..."); #78 stanzas I I I ("payes back"), I V ("borrowed s i n s ) , I X , X . See G.W. Williams, Image & Symbol, pp. 1 2 7 - 2 9 . 98 Thus, Crashaw*s contemplation of the apocalypse may be seen as a process through which the poet cr y s t a l i z e s his own hopes concerning the merciful nature of Christ as a Judge and Friend who w i l l accept his s p i r i t u a l price. The knowledge that Crashaw*s mood i s personal i n t h i s hymn, and that the poet i s possessed by thoughts of s e l f and s i n , i s prefatory to an appreciation of the poetic method i n "The Flaming Heart" and "The Teresa Poems." B. "The Teresa Poems" Crashaw chose as his patron St. Teresa of Jesus, of A v i l a , who was one of the most popular saints of the seventeenth century, and whose i n s p i r a t i o n a l s p i r i t perhaps " f i l l e d Crashaw's 17 f i n e s t poetry and occupied his l a s t poetic breath." The poet must have been acquainted with the autobiography of the Saint published i n Spanish i n 1588. English translations were pub-lish e d by William Malone i n 1611, and by S i r Tobias Mathew i n 18 1623 and 1642. That Crashaw drew heavily upon an interest i n the Saint i s reflected i n the t r i l o g y of "The Flaming Heart," "The Hymn to St. Teresa," and "An Apology for the fore-going Hymn" which he wrote i n her honor. The three poems have been noted for th e i r " s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n of sense which i s condensed here i n a portentous, dizzy soaring of red-hot images""''9 and 1 7 G.W. Williams, Image and Symbol, p. 6. 18 Ibid., p. 8. Williams, ed., p. 61. 19^. Praz, The Flaming Heart (Garden City N.Y.: Doubleday, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 262. 99 as giving an impression "at f i r s t reading of soaring rockets 20 scattering b a l l s of colored f i r e . " I t i s interesting to observe that c r i t i c s of the poems, even the most sober, seem to be unavoidably touched by the "happy fire-works" ("The Flaming Heart," 18) of Crashaw's poetic style and write with an almost 21 equal impressionistic gusto. "The Flaming Heart," seen t r a d i t i o n a l l y as composed of three parts, i s most a l l i e d to the paraphrase of the "dies i r a e " i n the f i n a l section which i s an exuberant invocation to 22 the Saint. This section reveals most f u l l y the poet's over-whelming interest i n his own personal s p i r i t u a l state and hopes for salvation: 0 sweet incendiaryI shew here thy art, Upon th i s carcasse of a hard, cold, hart, Let a l l thy scatter*d shafts of l i g h t , that play Among the leaves of thy l a r g Books of day, Combin'd against t h i s Brest at once break i n on Grierson, Metaphysical Lyrics and Poems of the Seven-teenth Century Donne to Butler (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1958), 1st pub. 1921 "Introduction," p. x l v i . ?1 In a negative'sense problem a t i c poems l i k e "The Weeper" have caused one c r i t i c to comment, "The white of the l i q u i d s , milk and cream, s i g n i f i e s the would-be-pure character of the Weeper. As cream r i s e s to the top of milk, so the tears of the Saint r i s e above the Milky Way, being more excellent than i t . " Williams, op. c i t . , p. 100. 2 2 L i n e s 1-68 contrast the Seraph and the Saint, l i n e s 69-84 mark a change i n mood where the poet celebrates the progress of Teresa, while l i n e s 85-108 offer an invocation to the Saint, see Williams, ed., p. 61; M.S. Rickey, Rhyme and Meaning i n Richard Crashaw (Lexingioft: University of Kentucky Press, 1961), p. 36; and A. Warren, Richard Crashaw: A Study i n Baroque Sen- s i b i l i t y (Louisiana State University Press, 1939), pp. 141-44. 100 And take away from me my s e l f and s i n , This gratious Robbery s h a l l thy bounty be; And my best fortunes such f a i r spoiles of me. 0 thou undanted daughter of desires I By a l l thy dowr of Lights and Fire s ; By a l l the eagle i n thee, a l l the dove; By a l l thy l i v e s and deaths of love; By a l l thy l a r g draughts of i n t e l l e c t u a l l day, And by thy t h i r s t s of love more large then they; By a l l thy b r i m - f i l l ' d Bowles of f e i r c e desire By thy l a s t Morning's draughts of l i q u i d f i r e ; By the f u l l kingdome of that f i n a l l kisse That seiz'd thy . parting Soul, and seal'd thee h i s ; By a l l the heav'ns thou hast i n him (Fair s i s t e r of the . SERAPHIM!). By a l l of HIM we have i n THEE;. .Leave nothing of my SELF i n me. Let me so read thy l i f e , that I Unto a l l l i f e of mine may dy. (85-108) In contrast to the adjectives "hard" and "cold"(86) meant to express the q u a l i t i e s of the poet's dead s e n s i b i l i t i e s i s the invocation to the Saint as an i n s p i r a t i o n a l source of s p i r i t u a l desire and love. The most prominent r h e t o r i c a l feature i s the anaphora(94-105) which enumerates the dual attributes of the Saint as i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional, and result i n the poet's plea for the experience of "transverberation" between himself 23 and the Saint. The dual nature of the Saint i s that of a l l -consuming purity ("Lights," 94) and i n s p i r a t i o n a l vigor ("Fires," 94), s p i r i t u a l strength ("eagle," 95; " i n t e l l e c t u a l l , " 97) and love ("dove," 95; " l i v e s and deaths of love," 96; " t h i r s t s of love," 98; "feirce desire," 99; "draught of l i q u i d f i r e , " 100; " f i n a l kisse," 101). Crashaw's imagery i s obviously obsessed here with the sensual rather than i n t e l l e c t u a l reference. In 23 ^See Williams, ed. p. 62; Saint Teresa's experience of transverberation i s described i n her The Flaming Heart, chap. XXIV (1642). 101 his apparent apocalyptic preoccupation with the fear of finding himself i n a state outside of grace, the poet can hope for comfort hy invoking her name and c a l l i n g for a process that, i n i t s very f u l f i l l m e n t , would be the sensual climax to the poet's existence: Leave nothing of my Self i n me. Let me so read thy l i f e , that I Unto a l l l i f e of mine may dy. (106-8) Thus, the "gratious Robbery"(91), which would take away the poet's " s e l f and sin"(90), i s equivalent to the "Just mercy" (37) envisioned i n the "Hymn to the Church i n Meditation of the Day of Judgment" where the poet begs Christ to "Take charge of me, and of my END."(68) Both meditations f i n d t h e i r r e a l crux not simply i n the invocations to Christ or Saint Teresa, but rather In the poet's thoughts of completion or dissolution which depend on the poet being granted an inheritance of mercy and forgiveness of sins. In his hymn "To the Name above every Name, the Name of Jesus" Crashaw gives utterance to the notion that the inevitable result of a f a i l u r e to surrender the s e l f - to Christ's mercy and love i s ultimate destruction: Of i f there be such sonns of shame, Alas what w i l l they doe When stubborn Rocks s h a l l bow And H i l l s hang down t h e i r Heavn-saluting Heads To seek for humble Beds Of Dust, where i n the Bashf.ull shades of night Next to their own low Nothing they may l y , And couch before the dazeling l i g h t of thy dread majesty. They that by Love's mild Dictate now W i l l not adore thee, Shall then with Just Confusion, bow And break before thee. (228-39) Crashaw comes closest to the use of an apocalyptic motive for didactic reasons, to teach those "sonns of shame," i n the f i r s t "Hymn to Sainte Teresa" and "An Apologie for the fore-going Hymne." The poems, along with "The Flaming Heart," trace the glorious progress and f i n a l martyrdom of the Saint. But the poet's ecstatic admiration for the Saint also imparts the b e l i e f that "love i s eloquence" ("An Apologie," 8) and that "Christ's f a i t h makes but one body,of a l l soules/And love's that body's soul, no law controulls" ("An Apologie," 17-18). Through the contemplation of the Saint's quest for the "unvalued Diadem"(48) of Christ's love i n "The Hymn to Sainte Teresa" the reader i s prepared for the command i n the "Apologie" to "scorn the lazy dust, and things that dy."(28), where the opening address of the "Hymn" to that "Love" which i s the "Absolute sole lord/Of L i f e and Death" (1-2.) i s f u l l y explicated. The reader, l i k e the nascent Teresa, i s taught "What death with love should have to doe" ("Hymn," 20). In Crashaw's "Hymn" the imagery of destruction i s opposed to that of j o y . 2 4 Indeed, the images operate, by philosophical analogy, as thesis and antithesis which are synthesized i n the message of love. The " g u i l t y sword"(26) and "barbarous knife"(70) Cf. "Tis Love, not Yeares or Limbs that can/Make the Martyr, or the man "(33-4). are impotent against the powers of Christ's "Dart"(79ff.), "th'immortall instrument"(89). The "blood and sweat"(11) of the Saint's progress are contrasted with descriptions of her soul and being as milky or pure ("milky soul," 14; "white Mistresse," 123-4; "snowy family," 127). References to death ("Love, thou art Absolute sole lord,/Of L i f e and Death," 1-2; "Speak lowd into the face of death," 8 ) 2 ^ culminate i n the oxymoronic and paradoxical conception of a sweet death that i s "more mysticall and high"(76): When These thy DEATHS, so numerous, Shall a l l at l a s t dy into one. (110-11) 2 6 F i n a l l y , Teresa's wounds or "bright scarres"(153) are healed by their own "Balsom"(109) and Christ's love. From the outset of the "Hymn" the imagery associated with the Saint's martyrdom i s m a r t i a l ( 4 f f • ) , whereas the relationship between the Saint and Christ i s highly sensual and reminiscent of the language of the "Song of Songs"(114-28; 171-82): SWEET, not so f a s t i l o thy f a i r Spouse Whom thou seekst with so swift vowes, Calls thee back, and bidds thee come T'embrace a milder MARTYRDOM. . (65-68) Crashaw's description of the Saint's progress c a l l s to mind Donne's "Anniversaries." S t a r t l i n g l y reminiscent of Donne's 2 5See 11. 18, 20, 24, 28, 37, 38, 50, 54, 75, 79, 100, 101, 103, 104, 110, 116, 157, 181, 182. The mystical union of the soul with God, See "Note to 1. 76" Ed., p. 56. 104 repeated refrains for "Shee" are the l i n e s i n the "Hymn to Sainte Teresa:" FAREWEL then, a l l the world! Adieu. TERESA i s no more for you. Parewell, a l l pleasures, sports, and joyes, (Never t i l l now esteemed toyes) Parewell what ever deare may bee, MOTHER'S armes or FATHER1S knee Farewell house, and farewell home! She's for the Mores, and MARTYRDOM. (57-64) But, i n spite of t h i s thematic s i m i l a r i t y between the works,. Crashaw's poem i s a celebration of the Saint's progress which does not offer a sustained treatment, of e v i l for consolatory reasons. Crashaw i s taught, and other men are potentially taught, the eloquence of love by the poet's own ecstatic and quasi-mystical, rather than quasi-prophetic, exaltation of her history: Thus have I back again to thy bright name (Fair floud of holy f i r e s ! ) transfus'd the flame I took from reading thee; t i s to thy wrong I know, that i n my weak and worthlesse song Thou here art sett to shine where thy f u l l day Scarse dawnes. 0 pardon i f I dare to say Thine own dear bookes are g u i l t y . For from thence I learn't to know that love i s eloquence. ("An Apologie,"~l-8) Surely Crashaw's verse can best be appreciated when viewed as a f a i r flood of holy f i r e s i n which the poet's passion for his subject has r i s e n above a l l else. In "The Teresa Poems" the poet's r e l i g i o u s enthusiasm, the holy martyrdom of the Saint, and the language of exuberance are harmoniously at one. CONCLUSION There are considerable differences i n the perspective of the apocalypse i n the poetry of d'Aubigne, Donne, Saint-Amant, and Crashaw. Not only do divergences of personalaesthetics permit each author to express his own emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l attitude toward the subject, but there are also differences i n a r t i s t i c intent and motivation. I t has been pointed out that the apocalyptic i n d'Aubigne' and Donne shares certain features with that of Jewish and Chr i s t i a n apocalyptic. Both authors consider themselves as receiving t h e i r poetic i n s p i r a t i o n from God; i n "Les Feux" d'Aubigne c a l l s upon divine blessing and assistance, while Donne associates himself with Hoses, a b i b l i c a l prophet, and contends that his commission to write the "Anniversaries" i s God's w i l l . In the Jewish and Christian apocalyptic t r a d i t i o n s the poet-prophet was considered to be divin e l y inspired and directed. For an apocalypse to have any authority at a l l i t was necessary to maintain a b e l i e f i n divine i n s p i r a t i o n on the part of the ind i v i d u a l poet, or at least to accept his connection with a l i n e of prophecy and prophets. D'Aubigne i s more vehement than Donne i n upholding his divine poetic authority, but both authors are t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e i r desire to connect themselves with a source of divine i n s p i r a t i o n . D'Aubigne and Donne both treat the subjeet of the disorder of the world, and provide explanations for the chaotic state of 106 the monde casse. The treatment of e v i l pervades "The f i r s t Anniversary;" d 1Aubigne devotes i n d i v i d u a l books of his epic to s p e c i f i c instances of Catholic i n j u s t i c e i n martyrdoms and court offenses. This thematic element i s necessary to the authors' in d i v i d u a l apocalypses, but i s also an i n t e g r a l part of the t r a d i t i o n a l apocalyptic. In the troubled i n t e r t e s t a -mental period, and during the time of the writ i n g of the New Testament apocrypha, writers drew upon a l l of the p o l i t i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l clashes of th e i r day. Such c o n f l i c t s became the substance of th e i r visions. In t r a d i t i o n a l apocalyptic writings treatments of e v i l are accompanied by a consolatory intent: the present body p o l i t i c and world w i l l go through an ominous period of judg-ment and f i n a l dissolution. The vanquished, to whom these writings are addressed, are offered the consolation and hope of f i n a l r e t r i b u t i o n . This intent i s obviously one of the dire c t i n g forces behind d'Aubigne's "Jugement" where Protestants are prophetically assured of the destruction of the Catholic hierarchy. A thread of r e t r i b u t i o n runs throughout Les  Tragiques, but culminates i n the triumphant scenes of the f i n a l book. Likewise, i n "The second Anniversary" the reader i s offered the hope of attaining a higher s p i r i t u a l plane. The r e a l force of the apocalypse i s not to be found i n a fantastic v i s i o n , but i n the many part i c u l a r descriptions of e v i l intended to prepare the way for a solution to the world's topsy-turvy condition. D'Aubigne's compilation of a l i s t of a t r o c i t i e s , and the extended description of the world's diseased and grotesque state i n Donne, expressed mainly through verbs of violence and elements of spectacle, are among the most important techniques by which the authors hammer home t h e i r visions of an Immoral world. Later sections of t h e i r works clear away th i s state of e v i l . Since Les Tragiques and the "Anniversaries" are predi-cated on the poets* prophetic a b i l i t i e s , and on th e i r intent to console, the apocalyptic elements i n these works can be placed alongside the ancient t r a d i t i o n of such writings. Both works, i n scope and depth, are motivated by . similar a r t i s t i c and philosophic goals. I suggest that they be considered as belonging to a t r a d i t i o n a l mode of such writings, A wide gap separates the treatment of the apocalypse i n the works of d'Aubigne and Donne, and the more personal rendering of the topic i n Saint-Amant and Crashaw. No longer i s the moral content universal, or the source of i n s p i r a t i o n that of the divine l y inspired and directed poet. Rather, i n Saint-Amant and Crashaw the poem becomes a vehicle through which the poet can release his emotional fervor, and create a highly charged v i s i o n of his own imaginative state. Both poets portray themselves as inspired by personal emotion; Saint-Amant, i n a moment of inquietude, can sound the depths of his own i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional experiences. He i s able to induce a series of contemplative-imaginative happenings, 108 and he i s interested i n following such presentations to th e i r l o g i c a l end. Crashaw, even more than Saint-Amant, i s an introspective poet. Whereas there i s a good deal of the p l a y f u l i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l wanderings of Saint-Amant, Crashaw looks into his own s p i r i t u a l state with a serious eye. Crashaw's verse can i n s t i l l i n the reader a f e e l i n g for a man who fears that he i s t o t a l l y devoid of grace, and u t t e r l y dependent on God's mercy. In the presence of "serious things" that "both the Psalm and s y b y l l sings," and the Day of Judgment, he worries out his personal g r i e f and hopes of his own seat at Judgment. In the poetry of Saint-Amant and Crashaw the consolatory hopes offered are personal rather than universal. Neither poet claims to express a universal message or i d e a l . Their work i s composed, rather, of personal incidents and thoughts. Saint-Amant, especially, i s prone to a f l i g h t of fancy. At the conclusion of "le Contemplateur," where the poet's adventures draw to a close, Saint-Amant i s "rewarded" for the imaginative renderings of a l l that he has taken i n by the senses. Even though sensuous imagery also appears i n the f i n a l l i n e s of Les Tragiques,• d'Aubigne i s permitted to ascend into the midst of Heaven and the bosom of God as a divine reward for having f u l f i l l e d a prophetic and universal task. D'Aubigne has created a panorama of the l a s t days i n which a l l things are set right for mankind. I have argued that the apocalypse appears s p e c i f i c a l l y i n " l e Contemplateur" as a st r u c t u r a l device. Although Borton contends that the poem i l l u s t r a t e s Saint-Amant 1s discovery of his s p i r i t u a l capacities, his verse i s more r e a l i s t i c a l l y viewed as a "muraille vive" of the poet's imaginative adventures. Saint-Amant was fond of the exuberant, grotesque, and occasionally r i b a l d ; he naturally seized upon the apocalypse as a useful topic to s a t i s f y such i n c l i n a t i o n s . To Crashaw, however, the apocalypse i s not a structural device, but rather a way to make known his own s p i r i t u a l hopes and expectations. The growth of scepticism i n France and England i s , i n part, responsible for such apocalyptic visions. In England maladjustments i n the economic and p o l i t i c a l systems, growing out of the development of capitalism and i n d u s t r i a l enterprise, were i n f l u e n t i a l i n creating a mood of disenchantment among the populace. The theories of the new science also weakened the b e l i e f i n e a r l i e r systems which dealt with the nature of man and the universe. Thirdly, Machiavelli's amoral and n a t u r a l i s t i c p o l i t i c a l philosophy could not help but have had an effect on the i n t e l l e c t u a l climate of England. His s p i r i t of scepticism and introspection culminated i n the philosophy of that betphoire, Thomas Hobbes, and was ultimately challenged by Shaftesbury, Hutcheson, and other B r i t i s h moral sense 110 philosophers. In France a si m i l a r sceptical c r i s i s i s evident i n the r i s e of that l i b r e pensee which we have encountered i n Saint-Amant and Theophile de Viau, and which was fueled by the sceptical examination of the human personality by Montaigne. In both France and England t h i s increase i n scepticism and introspection perhaps influenced the choice and content of poetic visions of the apocalypse. Nonetheless, such a tendency to sc e p t i c a l thought and subject matter, closely associated with a tendency (especially i n Jacobean l i t e r a t u r e ) to the melancholic, can also be dismissed as a passing fashion and l i t e r a r y exaggeration. From the viewpoint of l i t e r a r y s t y l e s , the particular nature of baroque art and s e n s i b i l i t y , which has been convincingly described by Buffurn, de Mourgues, Raymond and others, can also partly account for the fondness i n the topic. This source of motivation i s , however, no more decisive a factor than sceptical fervor or concern over the new science. When the compelling motivations behind in d i v i d u a l des-criptions of the end of the world during the period are seen to be established, and certain basic features of sty l e and intent held i n common with such a r t i s t i c goals, there i s adequate j u s t i f i c a t i o n to employ the apocalypse as a genre of didactic l i t e r a t u r e . I f the poet's work manifests the intent or techniques of the t r a d i t i o n a l mode already discussed, he i s working with a form of wri t i n g that has d i s t i n c t i v e I l l philosophic and technical chara c t e r i s t i c s . In the case of d*Aubigne and Donne, the demands made on the poets are obviously not those of form so much as philosophic intent, the attitude toward the source of i n s p i r a t i o n , and the view of e v i l . In these instances the genre designation i s dependent upon the introduction of such didactic material. In order to determine i f a poem i s apocalyptic i n th i s sense the work must not simply have a v i s i o n of the dissolution of the world, but must also exhibit the presence of a persona inseparable from a seriously propagandist or doctrinal intent. However, i n l i g h t of l i t e r a r y history, there may be l i m i t a t i o n s to such a view of genre that would demand a more archetypal set of c r i t e r i a , or use of the term within the confines of t r a d i t i o n a l genres of epic, anniversary, l y r i c poem, and translation. The use of the apocalypse must also be accounted for i n a tepid Christian as Saint-Amant. The appearance of a struc-tured and personalized apocalyptic v i s i o n i n his poem, and the self-oriented v i s i o n of Crashaw, argues for the employment of a particular motif which, by d e f i n i t i o n , i s operative i n the more personal, s t r u c t u r a l , and often frivolous v i s i o n s . "Le Contemplateur" of Saint-Amant, especially, drew upon the matter, but not the s p i r i t , of the t r a d i t i o n a l apocalypses. Having examined several apocalypses of the lat e sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the reader can sense the almost perverse delight i n describing the disorder of Nature and impending doom of the world that pervades these works. The vigorous language, the elements of the grotesque and often the macabre, and the return to or hint of the consolatory, should receive a sympathetic reading from c r i t i c s i n the present age of anxiety. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l works consulted i n the preparation of t h i s thesis are given below. For the sake of completeness, certain other works are added and are here asterisked. ADAM, Antoine. Histoire de l a l i t t e r a t u r e francaise du  XVII e. s i e c l e . 5 vols. Paris: Del Duca, 1948-52. -? . Les Libertins au XVII e s i e c l e . Paris: Buchet-Castel, 196£.. ADAMS, R.M. "Taste and Bad Taste i n Metaphysical Poetry," Hudson Review. 8 (1955), 61-77. xALLEN, D.C. "John Donne's Knowledge of Renaissance Medicine," JEGP, 42 (1943), 322-42. ALVAREZ, A. The School of Donne. London: Chatto and Windus, 1961. ANDERSON, James Bruce. "Richard Crashaw, St. Teresa, and St. John of the Cross," Discourse. X (IV, Autumn, 1967), 421-28. The Apocryphal New Testament, trans. Montague Rhodes James. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. ARTZ, Frederick B. From the Renaissance to Romanticism: Trends i n Style i n Art, Licterature. and Music (1300  to 1830T7 Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. ASHLEY, Maurice. England i n the Seventeenth Century, 1967. London*:. Penguin, .1971. ATKINS., J.W.H. English L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : The Renascence. 2nd Edition. New York: Barnes and Nobles Co., 1951. AUBIGNE, Theodore Agrippa d'. Oeuvres. ed. Henri Weber. Paris: Gallimard, 1969. . Les Tragiques. 4 vols. ed. A. Garnier et J . Plattard. Paris: L i b r a i r i e Marcel Didier, 1962-65. . Les Tragiques. ed. I.D. McFarlane. London: The Athlone Press, 1970. AUDIBERT, Raoul et Ren£ BOUVIER. Saint-Amant, capitaine du Parnasse. Paris: La Nouvelle edition, 1946. 114 BALD, Robert Cecil. Donne and the Drurys. Cambridge: The University Press, 1959. x . Donne's Influence in English Literature. Morpeth: The StT John's College Press, 1932. BALDWIN, Charles Sears. Ancient Rhetoric and Poetic. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1924. BARKER, Francis E. "The Religious Poetry of Richard Crashaw," Church Quarterly Review. 46 (April, 1923), 3 9 - 6 5 . BENNETT, Joan (Franfau). Five Metaphysical Poets: Donne. Herbert. Vaughan, Crashaw. and Marvell. Cambridge: The University Press, 1964. BENSIMON, M. "Essai sur Agrippa d'Aubigne: aspiration et conflict dans 'Les Tragiques'," Studi Francesi. 21 (1963), 418-37. BENSON, Donald R. "Platonism and Neoclassic Metaphor: Dryden's 'Eleonora' and Donne's 'Anniversaries'," Studies in Philology. 68 (1971), 340-356. BERTONASCO, Marc F. Crashaw and the Baroque. University: University of Alabama Press, 1971. BLACK, M. and H.H. LEY, ed. "Apocalyptic Literature," in Peake's Commentary on the Bible. 1962. London: Nelson, 1962. BOASE, A.M. "Then Malherbe Came," Criterion. 10 (1930-31), 287-306. sBOGAERT, Pierre. Apocalypse de Baroch. 2 vols. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf, 1969. BORGERHOFF, E.B.O. "'Mannerism' and 'Baroque': A Simple Plea," Comparative Literature. 5 (No. 4, Pall 1 9 5 3 ) , 323-31. BORTON, Samuel L. Six Modes of Sensibility in Saint-Amant. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1966. BROOKE-ROSE, Christine. The Grammar of Metaphor. London: Seeker & Warburg Ltd., 1958. BUFFUM, Imbrie. Agrippa d'Aubigne's 'Les Tragiques': A Study of the Baroque Style in Poetry. New Haven: ""Yale University Press, 1951. Studies in the Baroque from Montaigne to Rotrou. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957. 115 BULLINGER, Henri. ,A Hundred Sermons Upon the Apocalypse of Jesus Christ, trans. John Daus. London: John Daye, 1573. BUSH, D. English Literature i n the E a r l i e r Seventeenth  Century. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1945. xCALCATERRA, Carlo. " I I Problema del Barocco," i n Questioni e Correnti d i Storia L i t t e r a r i a : Problem! ed Orientamenti  C r i t i c ! d i Lingua e d i Le t t e r a r i a I t a l i a n a . ed. A. Momigiano. Milano: C. Marzorati, 1948. CASTOR, Grahame. Pleiade Poetics: A Study i n Sixteenth Century Thought and Terminology. Cambridge: The Uni-v e r s i t y Press, 1964. xCAUSSE, A. "Quelques reman.ques sur l a psychologie des prophetes," i n Revue d'Historie et de Philosophie Religieuses. Paris: Presses Universitaries de Prance, 1922, 349-56. CERNY, V. "Le Baroque et l a l i t t e r a t u r e francaise," Critique. 1 (Winter, 1956) winter, 1956. CHARLES, R.H., ed. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the  Old Testament i n English. 1913. 2 vols. New Haven: Oxford University Press, 1963. CICERO. De Inventlone. De Optimo Genere, Oratorum. Tfrpica. trans. H.M. Hubbell. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1949. CIRILLO, A.R. "Crashaw1s "Epiphany Hymn1: The Dawn of Chri s t i a n Time," Studies i n Philology. 67 (1970), 67-88. CLARK, Donald Lemen. Rhetoric and Poetry i n the Renaissance. New York: Columbia University Press, 1922. CLAYDON, Sister Margaret. Richard Crashaw's Paraphrases of  the 'Six Latin Hymns1. Washington, 1964. COPPIN, Charles Monroe. John Donne and the New Philosophy. New York: The Humanities Press, 1958. COMBS, Homer C a r r o l l and Zay Rusk SULLENS. A Concordance to the English Poems of John Donne. Chicago: Packard and Co., 1940. COOGAN, Robert C.F.C. "Petrarch's L a t i n Prose and the English Renaissance," Studies i n Philology. 68 (1971), 270. 116 CRAIG-, Hardin. The Enchanted Glass: The Elizabethan Mind i n Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1936. CRASHAW, Richard. The Complete Poetry, ed. George Walton Williams. Garden City New York: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1970. CROCE, Benedetto. S t o r i a d e l l 'eta Barocca i n I t a l i a . B a r i : G. Laterza & E i g l i , 1929. CROLL, Morris. "The Baroque Style i n Prose," i n Style. Rhetoric, and Rhythm, ed. J. Max Patrick. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1966. CURTIUS, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the L a t i n Middle Ages. 1954. trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. DONNE, John. The Anniversaries. ed. Prank Manley. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1963. . Poetical Works, 1912. ed. Herbert J.C. Grierson. London: Oxford University Press, 1971. DUCHESNE, Juli e n . Histoire des poemes epiques francais du  XVTI e s i e c l e . Geneve: Slatkine Reprints, 1971. EISELEN, Frederick Carl, e_±. a l . , ed. The Abingdon Bible  Commentary. New York: The Abingdon Press, 1929. ELIOT, T.S. Selected Essays. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1950. ELLIOTT, John H. Europe Divided 1559-1598. Great B r i t a i n : C o l l i n s , 1968. ELLRODT, Robert. Les Poetes m^taphysiques anglais. Paris: J. C o r t i , I960. FARRER, Austin. Commentary on 'The Revelation of St. John the Divine'. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1964. FERRY, Anne D., ed. Seventeenth Century English Minor Poets. New York: D e l l Publishing Co., Inc., 1964. FEUILLET, Andre. The Apocalypse, trans. Thomas E. Crane. New York: Society of St. Paul, 1965. FORD, Boris, ed. The Pelican Guide to English Literature: From Donne to Marvell. B r i t a i n : Hazell, Watson & Vinex Ltd., 1956. 117 PORSTER, Leonard W. The Icy F i r e : Five Studies i n European Petrarchism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969. FROST, Stanley Brice. Old Testament Apocalyptic. London: Ep.worth Press, 1952. PRYE, Northrop. A Natural Perspective. New York: Columbia University Press, 1965. . Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m . New York: Atheneum, 1966. GAMIER, Amand. Agrippa d'Aubigne et l e p a r t i protestant. 3 vols. Paris: Erschbacher, 1928. GARDNER, Helen, ed. The Divine Poems. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1952. , ed. The Elegies and the Songs and Sonnets. Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1965. f e (i. The Metaphysical Poets. 1957. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1961. GAUTIER, Theophile. Les Grotesques. Paris: Michel Levy freres, 1853. H G E I S E N D O R P , R.P. Theodore de Beze. Geneve: Droz, 1949. GOLDBERG, Jonathon. "Donne's Journey East: Aspects of a Seventeenth-Century Trope," Studies i n Philology. 68 (1971), 470 GONGORA, Don Luis de. The Solitudes, trans. Edward M. Wilson. Cambrige: The University Press, 1965. GOURIER, Francoise. Etude des oeuvres poetiques de Saint-Amant. Paris: L i b r a i r i e Minard, 1961. GRANSDEN, K.W. John Donne. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1954. GRIERSON, S i r Herbert J.C. Cross Currents i n English Literature of the XVIIth Century. London: Chatto and Windus, 1929. , ed. Metaphysical Lyrics and Poems of the Seventeenth Century. 1921. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1958. 118 GRIFFEN, Robert. "The Rebirth Motive i n Agrippa d'Aubigne's •Le Printemps'," French Studies. 19 (1965), 227-238. GUSS, Donald I . John Donne Petrarchist. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1966. HAGIWARA, Michio Peter. French Epic Poetry i n the Sixteenth  Century. Hague: Mouton & Co., 1972. HALEWOOD, William H. The Poetry of Grace. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970. HARDY, Evelyn. Donne. A S p i r i t i n C o n f l i c t . London: Con-stable & Co. Ltd., 1942. HATZFELD, H. "A C l a r i f i c a t i o n of the Baroque Problem i n Romance Literatures," Comparative Literature. 1 (1949), 113-39. " E l Predominio del E s p i r i t u Espanol i n las Literaturas del Siglo XVII," Revista de F i l o l o g i a  gispanica. 3 (1941), 9-^ 23. HAUSER, A. Mannerism. 2 vols. London: Routledge & Paul, 1965. HERRICE, M.T. The Poetics of A r i s t o t l e i n England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930. HOWARD, W.G. "Ut Pictura poesis," PMLA. XXIV (1909), 40-123. HUGHES, Meritt. "Kidnapping Donne," C a l i f o r n i a Essays i n C r i t i c i s m . 2nd series, 4 (1934), 61-92. HUGHES, Richard E. The Progress of the Soul: The Int e r i o r  Career of John Donne. New York: William Morrow and Co. Inc., 1968. HUSAIN., Itrat.. The .MysMcal Element i n the Metaphysical Poets  of the Seventeenth Century. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1948. KANE, Elis h a K. Gongorism and the Golden Age: A Study of  Exuberance and Unrestrait i n the Arts. Chapel H i l l : The University of North Carolina Press, 1928. KEPLER, Thomas S. The Book of Revelation: A Commentary for  Laymen. 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Contrary Music. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1963. WEBER, Henri. La Creation po^tique au XVI e siecle en France de Maurice Sceve a Agrippa d'Aubigne. Paris: Librairie Nizet, 1956. WELLEK, Rene. "The Concept of Baroque in Literary Scholarship," and "Postscript '62*," in Concepts of Criticism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. WELLEK, Rene and Austin WARREN. Theory of Literature. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc., 1956. WENCELIUS, M.S. "Contribution a 1'etude du baroque: Saint-Amant, " Bulletin de l a Society d*Etude du XVII siecle. 5-6 (1950), 148-163. WESTPHAL, Alexander, ed. Dictionnaire encyclopedique de l a Bible. 2 vols. Valence-sur-RhSne: Imprimeries Reunies, 1956. WILLEY, Basil. Richard Crashaw. Cambridge: The University Press, 1949. The Seventeenth Century Background. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co. Inc., 1953. WILL IMS, George Walton. Image and Symbol in the Sacred Poetry. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1963. WILLIAMSON, George. Milton and Others. London: Faber & Faber, 1965. WILIiAMSON, George. Seventeenth-Century Contexts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. WILSON, Dudley Butler. Descriptive Poetry i n France From Biason to Baroque. New York: Barnes & Noble Inc., 1967. WILSON, E.M. "Spanish and English Religious Poetry of the Seventeenth -Century," Journal of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l History. 9 (1958), 38-53. WINNY, J. Preface to Donne. London: Longman, 1970. APPENDIX I "Prosa de Mortuis" or "Dies Irae Dies I l i a " 1. Dies ir a e , dies i l i a , Solvet saeclum i n f a v i l l a , Teste David cum S i b y l l a . 2. Quantus tremor est futurus, Quando iudex est venturus, Cuncta s t r i c t e discussurus? 3. Tuba mirum spargens sonum, Per sepulcra regionum, Coget omnes ante thronum. 4 . Mors stupebit et natura, Gum resurget creatura, Iudicanti responsura. 5. Liber scriptus proferetur, In quo toturn continetur, Unde mundus iudicetur. 6. Iudex ergo cum sedebit, Quidquid l a t e t , apparebit, N i l inultum remanebit. 7. Quid sum miser tunc dicturus, Quern patronum rogaturus, Cum v i x iustus s i t securus? 8. Rex tremendae maiestatis, Qui salvandos salvas g r a t i s , Salva me fons p i e t a t i s . 9. Recordare, Iesu pie, Quod sum causa tuae viae: Ne me perdas i l i a die. 10. Quaerens me s e d i s t i lassus. Redemisti crucem passus: Tantus labor non s i t cassus. 11. luste iudex u l t i o n i s , Donum fac remissionis Ante diem r a t i o n i s . 12. Ingemisco tanquam reus, Culpa rubet vultus meus: Supplicanti parce Deus. 127 13. Qui Mariam a b s o l v i s t i , Et latronem exaudisti, Mihi quoque spem d e d i s t i , 14. Preces meae non sunt dignae, Sed tu bonus fac benigne, Ne perenni cremer igne. 15. Inter oves locum praesta, Et ab hoedis me sequestra, Statuens i n parte dextra. 16. Confutatis maledictis, Plammis acribus addi c t i s ; Voca me cum benedictis. 17. Oro supplex et a c c l i n i s , Cor contritum, quasi c i n i s : Gere curam mei f i n i s . 

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