UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Tennyson and the concept of evolution in Victorian poetry before 1859 Elliott, William Brent 1974

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1974_A8 E45_9.pdf [ 8.53MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093154.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093154-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093154-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093154-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093154-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093154-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093154-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093154-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093154.ris

Full Text

t.l  TENNYSON AND THE CONCEPT OF EVOLUTION IN VICTORIAN POETRY BEFORE 1359 by WILLIAM BRENT ELLIOTT B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master o f A r t s  i n the Department of English  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1974  In presenting an  advanced  the I  i n p a r t i a l  at  University of British  the  agree  that  this  written  i t  may be  representatives. thesis  for  freely  It  is  of  7  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  by  understood  financial gain  Columbia  for  extensive  granted  permission.  Department  fulfilment of  available  permission for  scholarly purposes  by h i s of  degree  thesis  L i b r a r y s h a l l make  further  for  this  the  requirements  Columbia, I  agree  reference  and  copying of  this  be  copying or  for that  study. thesis  H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t  that  shall not  the  or  publication  allowed without  my  i i  ABSTRACT  T h i s D a r w i n i a n  t h e s i s  attempts  e v o l u t i o n a r y  c o n c e n t r a t i n g  on  e x p r e s s i o n  them  by  o t h e r  and  to  poets  c o n t r a s t s  A r n o l d ,  and  The t h e o r y the  the  B e l l  works  h i s ;  S c o t t  i n t r o d u c t i o n  and  any  examined  w i t h  t o  be  o f  e v o l u t i o n i s m  i n  t h e o r i e s  j e c t are  to  b a s i c a l l y  a  by  i n  t r a c e d  o r g a n i c  The from  f i n d i n g of  t e l e o l o g y ,  h i s t o r i c a l i t s  of  p o s i t i o n s  e a r l y  D a r w i n ' s  n o t i o n s  u n i t y  B a i l e y ,  a t t e n t i o n .  schemes,  the  Works  comparisons  between  h i e r a r c h y .  the  f u l l e r  B r o w n i n g ,  p a r t i c u l a r  i s  gave  by  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .  works  by  p r e -  p o e t r y  s i g n i f i c a n t  c o n s i d e r e d  poet  from  one,  embryology,  c o m p o s i t i o n emphasized  t i n c t i o n ,  e a r l y  s t a t i c ,  p r o g r e s s i v e  who  o f  the  who  of  o r i g i n s  n a t u r e , on  and  the  n i n e t e e n t h  s u b century  enumerated. Tennyson's  of  v e r t i c a l  v a r i e t i e s  a v a i l a b l e  f o r  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  development  major  h i s  e v o l u t i o n a r y  and  the  of  use  V i c t o r i a n  d i s t i n g u i s h e s  o f  the  Tennyson,  r e c e i v e  p r o g r e s s i v i s m ,  Romantic  of  i n  v a r i o u s  p r e - D a r w i n i a n  l a t t e r  examine  concents  than  are  to  and  work  i s  shown  n o n - e v o l u t i o n a r y making  use  astronomy,  of  In  the l a t e r  of  Memoriam  s t r u g g l e of  Chambers,  of  the  e x i s t e n c e who  from to  The  impact $nd  proposed  of  a a  development  r e i n c a r n a t i o n .  r e v e a l  f o r  develop  w o r l d - p i c t u r e  images  and  to  drawn stages  L y e l l ,  necessary  e x -  a  of  concept  the p r o g r e s s i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s p e c i e s . posed  t h a t Tennyson found  transcending by u n i t i n g behind  the bleak world-picture offered  ( n o t immanent i n ) t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d . o f I n Memoriam d e v e l o p s  as t h e p r o g r e s s  trends This  i n the early process  E x p a n d i n g on t h i s  human s o c i e t y  nineteenth  reality  The  final  century.  o f e v o l u t i o n c a n be v o l u n t a r i l y  n o t i o n , Tennyson's poetry  i n the shaping  complete.  life.  of the late  participation of  of a higher being.  With  a gradual  hopes f o r t h e p r o c e s s ,  pushing  improvement o f t h e s p e c i e s i n t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y  tant wise,  future,  but remaining  his principle  this  o f e v o l u t i o n i s sub-  H i s l a t e r works r e v e a l  a t t e n u a t i o n o f h i s immediate  aided  f o r m s i n o n e ' s own  development, Tennyson's p h i l o s o p h y  the  Lyell,  toward t h e s p i r i t u a l ,  and 1 & 5 0 ' s demands t h e c o n s c i o u s  stantially  by  t o a number o f p o e t i c and p h i l o s o p h i -  " t y p i n g " t h e h i g h e r , emergent  1340's  a way o f  the idea of evolution  of the n a t u r a l world  a p o s i t i o n analogous  by  i n Chambers' t h e o r y  i t with h i s conception of a s p i r i t u a l  arrangement  cal  I t i s pro-  consistently  meliorist;  dis-  other-  c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e one s e t f o r t h i n  I n Memoriam. The  study  concludes with  win's i n f l u e n c e on l a t e r generally  confused  poets,  a brief  examination  s h o w i n g i t t o have  and t h e r e s u l t  o f Darbeen  of misinterpretation.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter  Page 1  I.  Introduction  II.  T e n n y s o n ' s E a r l y Poems and t h e i r Background  JT.III.  T e n n y s o n ' s Poems o f t h e  1#30's  and t h e i r A n a l o g u e s IV. V. VI. VII.  15 31  I n Memoriam: T h e C o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Poem  53  I n Memoriam: T h e Poem and i t s Analogues  75  F r o m I n Memoriam t o t h e O r i g i n : The P r i n c e s s and Poems o f t h e 1&*50's  99  Conclusion  116  Footnotes  131  Bibliography  150  V  Note  A l l t o  t h e  r e f e r e n c e s  e d i t i o n  prepared  Tennyson  (London:  poems  C h a r l e s  are  by  t o  t h e  (London:  T h i s son,  1973.  by  Tennyson  i s  poems  C h r i s t o p h e r Green,  i n c l u d e d  e d i t i o n  prepared  i n  R i c k s ,  1969). i n by  t h i s  study  The  ere  Poems  References  Poems  by  H a l l a m  Two  o f  t o  B r o t h e r s  Tennyson  1393).  M a c m i l l a n ,  study  Tennyson's  Longmans,  r e p r i n t  who was  examining  t o  d e d i c a t e d  o r i g i n a l l y  committee,  t o  intended  b e f o r e  h i s  the t o  memory be  a  u n t i m e l y  o f  L i o n e l  member death  o f i n  S t e v e n -  t h e December,  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  Modern of  the  the  concept  work  l u t i o n has  has  been  i t s  i n  mind  more the  " s a t u r a t i o n "  r e c o g n i z e d  V i c t o r i a n  p a r t i c u l a r .  i n  i t s  by  an  w i d e r  sense."^  i s  s t i l l  No  idea  the  importance  than  and  idea  poet  of  was  s u b j e c t  the f o r  f o r  of  E v o -  e q u a l  and  debate.  " f o r e s t a l l [ e d ]  the  and  t h a t  noted  by  not  p r e c i s e  Tennyson  rank  Tennyson  p h i l o s o p h i c a l ,  However,  a  the  p o e t r y ,  " W i t h  s a t u r a t e d .  dominated  word,  t h a t  f o r  was  b i o l o g i c a l ,  c l a i m e d  g e n e r a l l y  e v o l u t i o n  Tennyson  t a k i n g  t h i s  been  of  Tennyson's  merely of  of  ever  t h i s ,  c r i t i c i s m  nature It  has  s c i e n t i s t s  i n  2 t h e i r  own  a  y e a r s  few  o t h e r  game," l a t e r  c r i t i c s  i s  not  Darwin  have  s p e c u l a t i o n s .  V a l e r i e  a n t i c i p a t i n g  of  t r a n s m u t a t i o n  Nor  i s  i n g , of  has  Tennyson  Beddoes, Darwin.^  P i t t ,  t r i e d  to  of  alone  and  any  Darwin  P o t t e r  even  a  the  f o r  but  u n t i l  s u b j e c t  Keats  has  r e c o l l e c t i n g t h a t  have  f a c t ,  he  s a i d  a f t e r  i n  t h a t  Lamarck,"^"  remained  h i s Rhe  and  unconvinced  r e a d i n g  D a r w i n . ^  of  t h i s  c o n t r o v e r s y ;  a l l  been  seen  es  end  but  o r i g i n a l i t y  example,  prove  the  information,"-^  t h e o r e t i c a l  s p e c i e s  es  "Tennyson  s u p p l i e d  denied  George the  even  Brown-  f o r e r u n n e r s  1  It  i s  the  purpose  cepts  of  e v o l u t i o n  i n  of  t h i s  study  V i c t o r i a n  t o  p o e t r y  examine  the  use  o f  b e f o r e  the  impact  cono f  2  D a r w i n ' s t h e o r i e s i n 18*59. sistent any  use  of the  of s c i e n t i f i c  S i n c e T e n n y s o n made more  m a t e r i a l s i n h i s w r i t i n g s than  other V i c t o r i a n poets,  major s u b j e c t f o r examination, will  a l s o be  nature  h i s work w i l l  b u t works by  form  other  i n c l u d e d whenever t h e y p r o v i d e  parisons or contrasts with h i s . the  con-  the  poets  important  After a brief  of e v o l u t i o n a r y s p e c u l a t i o n i n the  t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f the use  survey early  of such  the^  the Romantic poets,  the nature  o f Tennyson's  thinking  about s c i e n c e at the b e g i n n i n g  of his career  examined t h r o u g h  his earliest  i n f l u e n c e s at Cambridge.  From t h e n  ceed  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y through  late  18*50's.  The  the treatment  of the  The  and  ation,  indicating  The  by  debate took  the  notice of  history  torian  p o e t r y and  the  the  publication  p l a c e not  not  i n 18*59 o f  o n l y between e v o l u t i o n -  the  o f s c i e n c e but philosophy,  that  S i n c e many p r o b l e m s , also  i n the  crem-  supporters  a confusion of terminology day.  the  necessarily well  b e l i e v e d i n an immutable s p e c i a l  to the present  i n the  by  century.  a l s o b e t w e e n e v o l u t i o n i s t s and  D a r w i n ; t h e r e s u l t was persisted  provide a b r i e f  i s w e l l known, a l t h o u g h  churchmen who  but  pro-  18*30 u n t i l  the major t r e n d s taken  l a t e r part of the  O r i g i n of Species  ists  h i s major  study w i l l  h i s works f r o m  conclusion w i l l  c o n t r o v e r s y provoked  understood.  on t h e  will  o f e v o l u t i o n a r y themes i n h i s p o s t - O r i g i n  works, as w e l l as poets  p u b l i c a t i o n s and  of  nine-  o r i e s by  be  com-  of  has  not  only  d i s c u s s i o n of  Vic-  depend f o r t h e i r  s o l u t i o n on a  knowledge t i o n i s t , The  o f an  what  can  attempt  d i s t i n c t i o n  l e g i t i m a t e l y  at  c l a r i f i c a t i o n  between  the  e v o l u t i o n i s t s  was  p e r c e p t i v e l y  the  the  great  h e i g h t  f a v o r  o f  one  are  z e a l o u s  of  made  by  a  i n  1355,  each be  say  c l e a r e r  by  says:  l i n e  t h r o u g h i n  an  t o  u s ,  p u l s e  by  which  s u c c e s s i o n  of  G e o l o g y  shows  advance  from  mammalian v e r s a l by  n a t u r e , a l l  an  us i t s  f o r m s ;  a  o f  cause  u n i - d i r e c t i o n a l a  of  the the  embryo  have  N a t u r e . ' " ^ of  f o u r  of  g e n e r a l  t a k i n g  I  The  of  most  not  v e r y  d i f f e r e n c e  may  advanced w r i t i n g  development  of  b e i n g  i s  to  nature  of  which  i s  u n -  e q u a l l y  m y s t e r i o u s  passed  e f f l u e n t s  i d e a s :  of t o  c a l l  argument the  i s  ages i t s  to  h i g h e s t  'the  u n i -  c h a r a c t e r -  h i e r a r c h y  development  i n e v i t a b l e  i t s  e x i s t e n c e .  s e r i e s  t o  i m -  t h r o u g h  mature  l o n g  ( i r r e v e r s i b l e )  s u g g e s t i o n  the  of  ventured  b a s i c  the  grades  i n t o  T h i s  then  f o r  c a u t i o u s ,  Chambers,  the  i s  a  hand,  argument  Robert  i n v e r t e b r a t e  t h i s  acceptance  o t h e r  i n  Hooker,  e s p o u s i n g  o f t e n e r  type  ushered  l i n e  humble and  the  are  resembles  u n t i l  each  l i f e - f o r m s ,  on  of  d u r i n g  most  most  i m p u l s e ,  i n d i v i d u a l  grades  g e s t a t i o n an  which  are  are  the  v a r i o u s  who  who  t r a n s m u t a t i o n . "  i t s  L y e l l  those  w h i l e ,  i n t e r n a l  but  C h a r l e s  J .  mode  e v o l u -  o l d - s t y l e  D r .  t h e i r  immediate  the  and  e v o l u t i o n i s t .  " t h e  by  and  D a r w i n  among  examining  as  r e q u i r e d .  " w r i t e r s  p r o g r e s s i o n  of  p r e - D a r w i n i a n  known  to  of  i s  drawn  C.  i n  p r o g r e s s i o n ;  opponents  sought  i z e d  t i m i d ,  advocates  vehement be  n e v e r t h e l e s s  would  d o c t r i n e  (Mr.  d e s c r i b e d  D a r w i n i a n s  d i s p u t e :  t r a n s m u t a t i o n  example) and  of  be  of  common  p r o g r e s s  i n  the  4  analogy w i t h g e s t a t i o n , and an i n t e r n a l impulse which d i r e c t s the whole p r o c e s s . Darwin's t h e o r i e s abandoned a l l f o u r o f these s u p p o s i tions.  He s p e c i f i c a l l y maintained t h a t " n a t u r a l  laws"  were m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f human understanding, r a t h e r than a c t u a l determinants o f b i o l o g i c a l events. again i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a v o i d p e r s o n i f y i n g t h e word  "So N 8 t u r e ;  but I mean by Nature, o n l y the aggregate a c t i o n and product of many n a t u r a l laws, and by laws the sequence o f events as a s c e r t a i n e d by us."^ attempt  The r e s u l t was a r e p u d i a t i o n o f any  t o e s t a b l i s h laws o f i n e v i t a b l e progress from  lower  t o higher forms. Examination o f a passage  from a recent t h e o r e t i c a l work  on e v o l u t i o n may h e l p t o r e v e a l the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f Darwin's position.  "The e v o l u t i o n a r y s p e c i e s . . . i s a p o p u l a t i o n  system which possesses the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  (1)  I t i s a l i n e a g e , an a n c e s t r a l - d e s c e n d a n t sequence o f populat i o n s e x i s t i n g i n space and time.  ( 2 ) The l i n e a g e e v o l v e s  s e p a r a t e l y from other l i n e a g e s , o r , i n o t h e r words, from other s p e c i e s .  ( 3 ) I t has i t s own ' u n i t a r y e v o l u t i o n a r y  r o l e , ' t h a t i s , i t f i t s i n t o i t s own p a r t i c u l a r niche i n a b i o t i c  community.  ecological  ( 4 ) And i t has i t s e v o l u t i o n a r y  t e n d e n c i e s , being s u s c e p t i b l e t o change i n e v o l u t i o n a r y r o l e 10  d u r i n g the course o f i t s h i s t o r y . " l y i n g t h i s statement  The s u p p o s i t i o n s i m n d e r -  are completely opposed t o those o f Cham-  b e r s ' e a r l i e r one. There i s an i m p l i e d e q u a l i t y o f l i f e -  5  forms, lower and  i n s t e a d s p e c i e s ,  an  s u b j e c t  f e a t u r e s  t h a t  t h e o r i e s  of  The  a  v e r t i c a l  l a c k of t o  of  e x t e r n a l the  s p e c i e s word  would  law  have  of  t h i s ,  i s  d i d  i n  Darwin  L y e l l not  was  always  began  O r i g i n ;  u s i n g  capable  of  by  d i d  e a r l i e r the  not  D a r w i n ' s  s u s t a i n i n g  d i s t i n c t i o n  of  the  by  accepted  T e i l h a r d v o c a b u l a r y  t h i s  t h i n k e r s the  he  used  Darwin  above.  so  C h a r d i n . making  non-  of  are  There the  d i s t i n c a f t e r  e d i t i o n  Thus  the  case  s a i d  t o  many t h e o r y i s  have  shown " a n t i -  p r e - D a r w i n i a n  advocated i s  of  t h a t  D a r w i n i a n  b a s i c a l l y  b e i n g  l a b e l s ,  e v o l u t i o n a r y  enough.  s t i l l  the  complex  t r a d i t i o n a l  of  a  t o  of  p a r t i c u l a r l y  was  who  i t  The  work  i s  p o p u -  c o n t e x t  s i x t h  number  f o r  Spencer  f l u i d i t y  between  the  D a r w i n i a n  the  e v o l u t i o n  de  Today  i n  c a r e f u l l y  t h a t  g o a l - d i r e c t e d by  more  any  and  the  h i m s e l f  see  t h e o r i e s  a l l y  d e v e l -  are  the  the  c a l l  apparent,  word  e a r l i e r  i n  quoted  read  o f  mean  Herbert  t o  not  Darwin,  example  and  p r e - D a r w i n i a n  1360's,  and  i f  c i p a t e d "  f o r  when  passage  r e a d i l y  hypotheses;  number  but  t o  c o n s i d e r i n g  the  the  used  p o s s i b l e  f u r t h e r m o r e ,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s people  e v o l u t i o n ,  however.  development;  been  and  was  i n  These  from  s i m p l e ,  1#50's  the  e v o l u t i o n i s t , what  t h i s  change,  i n  necessary i t  h i g h e r  e v o l u t i o n .  g e n e r a l l y  a  of  d e t e r m i n i n g  chance.  D a r w i n i a n  i s  t i m e ,  and  of  " e v o l u t i o n "  the  i t  power  d i s t i n g u i s h  d i r e c t i o n  i n f l u e n c e s  not  l a r i z e d  the  common  i s  of  t i o n  d i s t r i b u t i o n  s i t u a t i o n  concept  mean  a  awareness  opment,  word  of  s t i l l  d i s t i n c t i o n ;  today, no the  generpro-  6  p o s a l  t o  c a l l  D a r w i n ' s  adequate  because  o n l y  of  one  b e t t e r by  the  n a t u r a l methods  s u g g e s t i o n  " s p e c i a t i o n , "  " p o p u l a t i o n  p r o c e s s e s ,  s t i l l  use  t o  but  l u t i o n a r y  thought  f a c t  i t  t h a t  r e s t r i c t e d  the  t o  a  process  of  the  n o t i o n  i n  such  and a  n a t u r e ,  whole  c o r o l l a r y  of  u n i t y ,  which  i n  organism,  w i t h  century,  t h i s  meaning,  but  t h a t  t h i s  type  or  In  the  that  of was  had  become  at  t o  the  a  these  the  t h e o r y seen  as  terms  nature  t h a t i n  i s  seen  b e i n g  the  work  as  part  the  was  l e v e l o f  was of of  century,  at  of  l e a s t o r g a n i c  u n i v e r s a l  C o l e r i d g e ' s  a l l  u n i t e s i t s  process  of  l a r g e l y  ceased  g e n e r a l  h o n o r i f i c  a  i t s e l f  have to  g i v e n  of  m a t u r a t i o n . t o  " p r i n -  p a r t s . "  concept i n  a  c o m p o s i -  e i g h t e e n t h  which  the  evo-  i s  the  and  matter  by  of  e v o l u t i o n  Even  b e i n g  was  and  s m a l l e r -  c e n t u r y  t h e o r i e s  power  changes,  use  some  famous  A  " e v o l u t i o n "  the  l a t e  a l l  as  p l a c e .  f o r  matter  presupposed  i m p l i e d  concept had  most  i s  nature an  e v o l u t i o n  i n -  name.  D8rwin  concept.  l e d  takes word  n i n e t e e n t h  t h e r e f o r e  the  who  o v e r - a l l  i n o r g a n i c  b e l i e f  the  terms  i s  u n d e r s t o o d  l a r g e - s c a l e  a f t e r  common  i n d i v i d u a t i o n , a  the  u n i v e r s e .  c i p l e  i n t o  r e p l a c e  e a r l y  b i o l o g i c a l ,  a l i v e ,  now  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  u n t i l  i n  a l l  i n  s e l e c t i o n " ' '  e v o l u t i o n  s i m i l a r  the  the  become  i s  b i o l o g i s t s  as  p r o g r e s s of  t o  i n v o l v i n g  had  development;  be  b i o l o g i c a l  e n t i r e  p o t e n t i a l l y  which  the  not  Spencer,  l a r g e r t i o n  was  by  and  d i f f i c u l t y  " n a t u r a l  s e l e c t i o n  d e s c r i b e  " e v o l u t i o n "  major  Herbert  would  g e n e t i c s "  s c a l e  The  t h e o r y  be  A  o r g a n i c a  great By  a  c  mid-  s p e c i f i c a p p l i e d  to  7  anything  t h a t e x h i b i t e d u n i t y and  coherence.  race could be p e r s o n i f i e d as a great Comte; periods  The  human  super-organism, as  of h i s t o r y could be c a l l e d " o r g a n i c "  were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by common purpose and  by  i f they  s sense of co-opera-  t i o n , as by C a r l y l e ; works o f a r t or l i t e r a t u r e which  func-  t i o n e d i n ways th8t c o u l d not be e x p l a i n e d  by  eighteenth-century  adequately  "mechanical" standards could be s a i d to  be o r g a n i c a l l y u n i f i e d . * ' ^ The  background o f e v o l u t i o n a r y  s o p h i c a l r a t h e r than s c i e n t i f i c .  t h i n k i n g , then, was  philo-  Even i n Herbert Spencer's  law of e v o l u t i o n , the t r a n s m u t a t i o n hypothesis i s b a s i c a l l y a c o r o l l a r y t o the more g e n e r a l e a r l y nineteenth-century s c r i b e s any  theory  idea of p r o g r e s s i o n .  context,  the word " e v o l u t i o n "  In  the  de-  i n which the world, or i t s c o n s t i t u e n t  p a r t s , i s seen as slowly and  p r o g r e s s i v e l y emergent, i n s t e a d  of having been formed by a s i n g l e , u n i t a r y act o f c r e a t i o n . T h i s m e t a p h y s i c a l b i a s u n d e r l i e s a l a r g e number of p h i l o s o p h i c a l systems, of which three  can be  s e l e c t e d as  representa-  tive. F i r s t , there  i s the p o s i t i o n which was  shape by P h i l i p Henry Gosse i n l i c a l account of c r e a t i o n was world was  created  He  given i t s f i n a l argued t h a t the  l i t e r a l l y t r u e , but  that  Bib-  the  i n the middle of a sequence o f development  t h a t took place i n God's mind.  Thus f o s s i l s represent  crea-  t u r e s t h a t never e x i s t e d i n time, but which were nonetheless part of earth's  development 8S planned by God.  15  This posi-  3  t i o n attempted  a compromise between churchmen and e v o l u t i o n -  i s t s by a c c e p t i n g the l a t t e r ' s arguments as evidence of the d i v i n e p l a n while denying the t e m p o r a l i t y o f the p r o c e s s . The  theory i s i r r e f u t a b l e , but d i d not win p u b l i c Second, there i s the p o s i t i o n o f those who  idea of a temporal  Sometimes God  have c o n v e n i e n t l y c r e a t e d new  the  was  supposed t o  i m p l i e d by L y e l l i n  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the method o f development  l e f t vague, so t h a t nature i t s e l f appeared i n a mysterious way.  the  forms at a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r v a l s ;  such a s e r i e s of s p e c i a l c r e a t i o n was  s i o n was  accepted  process of development w h i l e denying  t r a n s m u t a t i o n of s p e c i e s .  the 1330's.  favour.  was  to be d e v e l o p i n g  I n e i t h e r case, e v o l u t i o n a r y progres-  seen as an a t t r i b u t e of nature as a whole, r a t h e r  than of i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s .  This position i s basically a  s u r v i v a l of the venerable p r i n c i p l e o f the c h a i n o f being, w i t h the a d d i t i o n of s e q u e n t i a l development i n time. was  It  the most w i d e l y held of the e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r i e s . T h i r d , t h e r e i s the p o s i t i o n o f those who  dependent on the transmutation of s p e c i e s .  m8de the process The  theories of  Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck, i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century, are the e a r l i e s t dependently  s u s t a i n e d e x p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s concept; i n -  o f each other, they s t a t e d t h a t a l l l i f e d e v e l -  oped from p r i m i t i v e beginnings, through the agency of the organism's i n t e r n a l needs.  Thus, t o use a famous example,  i f an animal l i v e d i n an environment where the food supply was  mainly l i m i t e d t o t a l l t r e e s , i t would g r a d u a l l y develop  a long neck f o r f e e d i n g , and the a c q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c would  9  be i n h e r i t e d by i t s descendants.  Although  each man  had  his  f o l l o w e r s , n e i t h e r i n f l u e n c e d p u b l i c o p i n i o n g r e a t l y , et 16  l e a s t i n England.  The  f u l l development o f t h i s  position  had t o wait u n t i l the c o n t r o v e r s y over C u v i e r ' s t h e o r i e s had  ended. C u v i e r attempted to r e c o n c i l e the B i b l i c a l account of c r e -  a t i o n w i t h the recent d i s c o v e r i e s of the f o s s i l s o f e x t i n c t species.  A c c o r d i n g t o h i s theory,  i c a l l y devastated  life  on earth was  by great catastrophes t h a t rendered  i f not a l l , o f the e x i s t i n g forms e x t i n c t . catastrophe was  the Noachian deluge,  not r e s u l t i n complete e x t i n c t i o n . extermination,  period-  e i t h e r the few  The  most,  most recent  which, of course,  did  F o l l o w i n g such a mass  c r e a t u r e s remaining  repopulated 17  the e a r t h , or e l s e God T h i s theory was was  i n t e r v e n e d with a new c r e a t i o n .  c h a l l e n g e d i n England, however, where t h e r e  a t r a d i t i o n of u n i f o r m i t a r i a n i s m , the idea t h a t the  o l o g i c a l changes of the past were i d e n t i c a l w i t h those s e r v a b l e i n the p r e s e n t .  geob-  T h i s view, o r i g i n a l l y proposed  James Hutton i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century, was  by  advanced  1&  p e r s u a s i v e l y by C h a r l e s L y e l l i n the 16*30'S.  A f t e r .38 p e r i o d  of  accepted.  r e s i s t a n c e , L y e l l ' s t h e o r i e s were g e n e r a l l y  L y e l l a t t a c k e d Lamarck i n the second volume o f h i s work, but he h i m s e l f was of for  s p e c i e s , and  undecided about the problem o f the  origin  e v e n t u a l l y became a supporter o f Darwin.  a long time the p r e s t i g e o f h i s work may  have m i l i t a t e d  a g a i n s t the p r o p o s a l of t r a n s m u t a t i o n i s t t h e o r i e s . the minor f i g u r e s of W.  But  Apart from 19 C. W e l l s and P a t r i c k Matthew, almost  10  no  t h e o r i s t s  the  i n  anonymous  c r e a t e d  a  But  l e a d i n g  a d d i t i o n a l  m u t a t i o n i s m  W8S  s p e c u l a t i o n  i n  place  had  s o l a r  system  t h e o r y  d i s c o v e r y spread  a  c r e a t i o n  t h e o r y at  f o r m a t i o n  one  of  the  t h a t  of  J o h n  p r i m i t i v e  s o l a r  systems;  ment  c o u l d  be  a p p a r e n t l y  c o n t i n u o u s  he  of  of  o f  b e l i e v e d  d i s c o v e r e d  c o - e x i s t i n g  at  and  c r e a t i o n  u n o r g a n i z e d c l o u d s ,  a l l  mu-  t r a n s -  a  and  the t h i s  H e r s c h e l ' s matter  l e d  him  to  I n s t e a d  o f  g r a d u a l  ' t r a n s -  s t a r s  and  stages the  L a -  o f  E n g l a n d .  simple  t h a t  of  Kant  matter,  p o s i t e d  i n t o  of  a s t r o n o m i c a l  the  i n  C r e a t i o n  Spencer.  resurgence  great  he  o f  when  renewal  development.  time,  matter  a  c e n t u r y ,  H e r s c h e l  i n  16%0's,  H e r b e r t  nature  t h e o r y  u n i v e r s e  moment  of  u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  nebulae, the  a  was  the  n i n e t e e n t h  p r i m a l  i n t o  t o  the  V e s t i g e s  there  p o p u l a r i t y  developed  by  u n t i l  Chambers'  l e a d i n g  e a r l y  a m p l i f i e d the  of  e v o l u t i o n a r y  the  throughout  propose  t o  the  from  of  appeared  a f t e r  f a c t o r  a l r e a d y  was  v e i n  p u b l i c a t i o n  s t o r m .  t a t i o n i s m , An  t h i s  of  one  e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p -  present  moment.  ?0 The  views  t i o n a r y l o n g  time  o r i e s  the  than  of  process  the  word of  as  h i s i t s  b i o l o g i c a l  the  development  f o l l o w e r most  " e v o l u t i o n "  were  thus  i n  more and  e f f e c t  the  No  e a r l y  a  gave  impetus; f e a t u r e  l a t e r  as  N i c h o l  f i x i n g attempt  a to  n i n e t e e n t h  e v o l u f o r  of  a  a s t r o -  b i o l o g i c a l  understood  development.  h y p o t h e s i s .  t h e o r i e s  was  w r i t i n g ,  i n  N i c h o l  f o r c e f u l  g e n e r a l l y  cosmic  e x p l i c i t ,  e v o l u t i o n a r y  and  perhaps  m u t a t i o n i s m  comparison on  H e r s c h e l  t h i n k i n g  n o m i c a l  seme  of  part  made  s e a l  o f  of  the  t h i s a p p r o v a l  understand century  t h e -  can  11  a f f o r d  t o  Such e k r l y  n e g l e c t  was  the  V i c t o r i a n  c l e a r ,  and  statement  i t t o  i n f l u e n c e  background p o e t r y .  was be  the  to  of  e v o l u t i o n a r y  Concepts  p o s s i b l e  accepted  f o r  by  astronomy.  were  an  s p e c u l a t i o n  g e n e r a l l y  ambiguously  opposing  i n  r a t h e r  u n -  phrased  f a c t i o n s ;  thus  Tennyson  21 was by  h a i l e d Owen's  by  R i c h a r d  opponent  Owen  Huxley  as as  a  "champion  " t h e  f i r s t  o f  S c i e n c e "  poet  s i n c e  and  L u c r e t i u s  22 who  has  understood  A c t u a l  s c i e n t i f i c  s o n ' s  background,  enced  by  the  Wordsworth of  the  t i v e  nature  ary  manner;  The  v e r y  a t i o n  u n i t y  p e r s o n a l  t o  p a r i n g  a  of i n  i n  had  but  both  a n y t h i n g  of  images  of  mind, more  the  he  d i d  c o u l d  b a s i c a l l y o r g a n i c  p r o p e r l y  be  ideas  e q u a l l y  i n f l u -  c a l l e d  t o  g e n e r a t i o n . the  d o c t r i n e  pioneered as  t h i s  immutable  was  Tenny-  to  had  apply  growth  however,  o f  p r e c e d i n g  h i s  not  part  was  Wordsworth  t h a t  a  c o n t r i b u t e d  s e e i n g  he  o n l y  poet,  of  n a t u r e .  was  f o r  formed a  poets  nature  way  s c i e n c e . "  es  p o e t r y ,  growth,  p e r s o n ' s  the  the  h i s  use  of  of  approach  of  course;  C o l e r i d g e  organic  h i s  d r i f t  s p e c u l a t i o n  of  ideas  and  h i s t o r i c a l of  the  a  f u n c t i o n  new  an i n  e v o l u t i o n a r y  ideas  p e r s p e c -  e v o l u t i o n essence.  d e s c r i b e  i n f l u e n t i a l  an  the  i n i n  matur-  p r e o t h e r  23 w r i t e r s .  C o l e r i d g e ,  v a c i l l a t i o n , though c i e s . used  he *  an  seems  remained As  e a r l y  image  to  on have  opposed es  1795,  r e m i n i s c e n t  the  o t h e r  been  an  to  the  i n  "The  o f  hand,  d e s p i t e  e v o l u t i o n i s t idea  of  D e s t i n y  Erasmus  of  c o n s i d e r a b l e s o r t s ,  t r a n s m u t a t i o n of  Darwin,  N a t i o n s , " d e s c r i b i n g  a l -  of he a  st>e-  1?  process of c r e a t i o n : "she  the P r o t o p l a s t  beheld / Stand  beauteous on C o n f u s i o n ' s charmed wave" (11. Protoplast  290-291).  The  i m p l i e s e i t h e r an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c r e a t i o n ,  or  25 a d i r e c t i n g power of development. writings, Coleridge  makes use  In h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l  of f i g u r e s , such as the  der, which imply a graded sequence of organic but  t h i s sequence i s not a temporal one,  lad-  life-forms,  being instead a  p r e - e x i s t i n g , P l a t o n i c idea which i s expressed i n the  indi-  v i d u a l organisms. °  be-  tween "a s i n g l e and  He  h i m s e l f makes the d i s t i n c t i o n  temporary Event, a n t e r i o r o f  t o a l l a c t u a l experience, and  necessity  an a s s e r t i o n o f a u n i v e r s a l  progress of the Nature nowjyexi s t i n g , " e m p h a t i c a l l y  endorsing  27 the former. i f i e d by  However, h i s g e n e r a l  concrete i l l u s t r a t i o n s ,  t o be acceptable and  thus may  are  concepts, when not sufficiently  ambiguous  to a l a r g e number o f e v o l u t i o n a r y  have s t i m u l a t e d  evolutionary  clar-  positions,  thinking i n his  readers. Both Keats and S h e l l e y were i n f l u e n c e d by Erasmus Darwin, and  introduced  evolutionary  passages i n t o t h e i r  poetry.  K e a t s s Endymion presents a v i s i o n o f the wreckage on  the  T  ocean-bed, i n c l u d i n g r e l i c s of modern man, generation,"  and  C. W e l l s , who  o f "Saturn's  p r i m i t i v e monsters ( I I I . 1 2 3 - 1 3 6 ) .  Hyperion, a c c o r d i n g W.  man  had  to H. ¥.  Piper,  shows the  His  influence  proposed a t h e o r y i n which master  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u p e r i o r beauty and l e s s h i g h l y developed ones:^9  mental a b i l i t y ,  of races,  supersede  . . . f i r s t i n beauty s h o u l d be f i r s t i n Y e a , by t h a t lav/, a n o t h e r r a c e may d r i v e Our c o n q u e r o r s t o mourn as we d o now.  might:  (II.  In  K e a t s ' s  i n  w i t h  h i s  a  poems,  these  d o c t r i n e  o f  own g e n e r a t i o n S h e l l e y  of  t h e  The  c o n t e n t s  passage  cosmic  t h e  was  adapted  e v o l u t i o n a r y  a  K e a t s ' s  o f  t h e  c a r r i e s  d e s t r u c t i o n :  s p e c u l a t i o n s  development stage  i n  an  sea-bed  e a r t h ' s  o f  survey  o f  t h e  past  of  whole t h e  o r g a n i c  c l u d i n g new  i t e i n may  u n i t y  o f  Prometheus  o f  t h e  i n o r g a n i c ,  t h e most  e v o l u t i o n a r y  C a i n of  t h e  a c t  i s  a  which  d e s c r i p t i o n  Prometheus  Unbound.  t h e o r i e s  o f  epochs summer worms t h e blue g l o b e a c l o a k , and they i s h e d ; o r some G o d passed, a n d c r i e d ,  (IV. based  u n i v e r s e ,  undergo  i n  t i e d  f o r  313-313)  on t h e  a l l  concept  t h i n g s ,  r e g e n e r a t i o n  i n -  and enter  a  l i f e . But  of  f o u r t h  a r e  p r o g r e s s .  a  C u v i e r i a n  I n c r e a s e d and m u l t i p l i e d l i k e On a n abandoned c o r p s e , t i l l Wrapped deluge round i t l i k e Y e l l e d , gasped, and were a b o l Whose throne was i n a comet, 'Be n o t ! '  The  t o  i n  r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f  p o e t r y ,  i n e v i t a b l e  s t r a t a  beasts  229-231)  p r e s e n t s  t h e w o r l d , beings t h e  ideas  t h e  showing  L u c i f e r  e x i s t e d  and most  i n Romantic  reader  who were  p l a y  have  o b v i o u s ,  i t  w i t h t o  e f f a c e d  a  p o e t r y  v i s i o n  was  o f  been  by  c a t a s t r o p h e .  a  t h a t  God (II.  i .  past  i n h a b i t e d  l i f e ,  as  155-156),  treatment  t h a t  t h e  have  s p e c u l a t e s  before  c o n t r o v e r s i a l ,  by A t  a  o f  B y r o n .  h i s t o r y pre-Adamone  p o i n t  p r i n c i p l e , s u g g e s t i n g  t h e  30 i n f l u e n c e t a s i e s  o f  f i l l  Erasmus  D a r w i n ' s  h i s work,  b e i n g  p h r a s e o l o g y .  found  as  w e l l  C u v i e r i a n i n M a n f r e d ,  f a n -  The  Deformed i n  t h i s  T r a n s f o r m e d , l a s t  f a v o u r i t e image  of  way a  These  poem of  are  the  e v o l u t i o n a r y  an  made  e a r l y  have t o  r i v e d c i t  would  case;  S h e l l e y  D a r w i n ' s  and  the  l e s s  ous  and  e a s i l y the  Browning would  p h i l o s o p h i c a l than  as  the  a  been  cosmic  i n  then  to  g e n u i n e l y  m o r a l  and  astronomy f o r  whom  t h e r e f o r e  by  d e -  most  from  m i n o r i t y , ambigu-  d i f f i c u l t  to  Tennyson  i d e a s ; t h i n k i n g  t h e o l o g i c a l  e x p l i -  came  were  e n c o u n t e r i n g  s c i e n t i f i c  had  c e r t a i n l y  l i k e  e v o l u t i o n a r y  he  l e d  the  these  p r o b -  t h a t  w r i t e r s  readers  o f  o t h e r w i s e  s p e c i e s  i s  h i s  i m p r e s s i o n s  almost  o f  the  e x p l o d e d .  concepts  o t h e r  and  or  would  of  young  by  d i s r e p u t a b l e  s p e c u l a t i o n ,  w i t h  i n  However,  i n f l u e n c e d  come  f i r s t  B y r o n ,  were  i s  out  IX);  B y r o n ' s  Tennyson  i n t e r e s t  r a t h e r  It  which  have  system  t h e i r  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a  (Canto  name.  burned  p r o g r e s s i v i s t  statements  to  by  w h i c h  degree.  f o l l o w e r s ,  have  and  from  P a r a c e l s u s some  J u a n  d e s t r u c t i o n  prominent  the  Don t o  has  images  o v e r l o o k e d .  l i k e l y  a s t r o n o m i c a l  r a t h e r  t o  e x t e n t  would  most  i n  d i r e c t  that  d e r i v e d  more  about  Erasmus  cosmic  Tennyson's  and  v i s i o n  statements  termine  have  and  r e f e r r e d  sources  a s t r o n o m i c a l  the  from  s t a r "  main  e n t h u s i a s m ,  f i n a l  i s  s u g g e s t i n g  t h e o r y .  the  been  the  C u v i e r  " w a n d e r i n g  contemporaries  a b l y  " D a r k n e s s , "  i t  d e and  they through as  a  r a m i f i c a t i o n s ,  h y p o t h e s i s .  CHAPTER TENNYSON'S  TOO  EARLY POEMS  AND THEIR BACKGROUND  Tennyson began h i s c a r e e r w i t h  t h e p u b l i c a t i o n , i n 1327,  o f t h e volume Poems b y Two B r o t h e r s . t o n Tennyson, edited  o r some o t h e r member  than  anything  i n the published  cluded  on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t  public  taste.''  current  Charles  p r e f e r s h e a v i l y melodramatic  of time:  or father, Alfred  episodes  that  "The D r u i d ' s  Prophecies,"  praises  didactic  exclamations,  while  a s on t h e  "The D e l l  and  and e f f e c t s  of E — . "  however, t h e volume p r e s e n t s  conventional world-picture,  most b l a t a n t l y  distin-  of subject;  the vastness  a  despite the exoticism of  many o f t h e s u b j e c t s and t h e B y r o n i c are  o f d i c t i o n and  p r e f e r s landscapes  illustrate  Because o f the s e l e c t i o n , fairly  was e x -  show c o n s i d e r -  H i s work c a n f r e q u e n t l y be  from h i s b r o t h e r ' s by t h e c h o i c e  historical  already  styles  guished  death of a s i s t e r  selection,  A l f r e d ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s , so  C 8 n be c e r t a i n ,  independence from then  d e s c r i p t i o n o f nature.  much more  i t was t o o f a r removed f r o m t h e  Even as p u b l i s h e d ,  f a r as t h e a t t r i b u t i o n s  Clay-  o f t h e f a m i l y , may have  t h e book, b e c a u s e a body o f A l f r e d ' s v e r s e ,  innovative  able  The R e v . G e o r g e  stances.  The poems t h a t  are generally p l a t i t u d i n o u s , with  f o r the c r e a t o r ( " A l l joyous  ventional notion o f the a f t e r l i f e  . . . " ) , an e n t i r e l y  ("'Tis  the voice  con-  o f t h e dead"),  16  elementary r e f l e c t i o n s on the r e v e a l i n g q u a l i t i e s of time ("The  eye must catch the p o i n t  . . . " ) , the p a t h e t i c  l a c y ("Boyhood"), and an equation f a i t h and  the beginnings  t o spurn").  of V i c e  fal-  of the l o s s of r e l i g i o u s ( " R e l i g i o n ! tho' we  seem  O r i g i n a l i t y of thought, i n the work of e i t h e r  C h a r l e s or A l f r e d , u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s some aspect  of s c i e n c e .  Tennyson's e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e i s w e l l known and documented. use  I t shows i t s e l f r e g u l a r l y i n h i s poetry,  o f images drawn from b i o l o g y , geology, and  astronomy: "As  i n the  especially  rays of many a r o l l i n g c e n t r a l S t a r /  Aye  f l a s h i n g earthward have not reached us y e t " (from the p u b l i s h e d e a r l y poem, "Among some n a t i o n s " ) .  In t h i s i n -  stance there i s even a foreshadowing o f h i s l a t e r of u s i n g s c i e n t i f i c the processes i s designed i n producing f 8 i n t  and  technique  imagery t o e s t a b l i s h a n a l o g i e s between  of nature  and  the a c t i v i t i e s of man—the s i m i l e  to i l l u s t r a t e the r e c a l c i t r a n c e of some c o u n t r i e s poetry—but  comparatively  should be regarded yet been mastered.  the analogy i n t h i s example i s very u n r e l a t e d t o the s u b j e c t .  as an e x e r c i s e i n a technique Science  f o r general conversation,  a l s o provided and  The  poem  t h a t has  him w i t h  not  subjects  formed p o s s i b l y the most sub-  s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of h i s l e i s u r e r e a d i n g . knowing how  un-  There i s no way  many books on n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and  j e c t s Tennyson read as a young man,  of  r e l a t e d sub-  but h i s c a r e f u l p e r u s a l  of "C. C. C l a r k e " s Hundred Wonders of the World i s documenr  ted,  3  and a copy of B u f f o n was  i n his father's library.  (It  17  i s tempting t o t h i n k t h a t an acquaintance w i t h B u f f o n may have b i a s e d Tennyson toward, e v o l u t i o n a r y s p e c u l a t i o n from the beginning,  but t h e r e i s no evidence  t h a t t h i s was the  case; Buffon's  h i n t s about p r o g r e s s i v e development were  placed c a r e f u l l y through h i s work i n such a f a s h i o n t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o make connections one  between them, and the  e x p l i c i t passage on the s u b j e c t o f s p e c i e s change was  d e l i b e r a t e l y n o n - p r o g r e s s i v i s t , a t t r i b u t i n g such change t o "degeneration."^) Tennyson's s c i e n t i f i c curate; Charles', questionable,  imagery i s u s u a l l y p r e c i s e and a c -  on the other hand, i s g e n e r a l l y vague and  as f o r exemple h i s r e f e r e n c e t o the " a x l e s "  of the s t a r s ("The s t a r s o f yon blue p l a c i d sky") t e n t a t i v e adherence t o t h e concept o f the hollow  or h i s sun ("Phre-  n o l o g y " ) — i . e . , the idea t h e t the flaming gases e x i s t e d only on the outer edges o f the sun's atmosphere, and t h a t underneath there was a s o l i d core w i t h normal c l i m a t e . astronomical  images ere g e n e r a l l y introduced without  Such implied  a n a l o g i e s t o human a f f a i r s . The  scientific  ideas o f the young Tennysons, as shown i n  t h i s f i r s t volume, were standard.  No i n d i c a t i o n o f a b e l i e f  i n e v o l u t i o n i s given, nor even o f a system o f a n a l o g i e s between men and the other ani»mals£( s i n c e t o d e s c r i b e human beings as r e p t i l e s was by t h i s time a c o n v e n t i o n a l term o f d i s paragement) .  Even images o f organic growth are not p a r t i c u -  l a r l y common, though f r u i t / f l o w e r images occur o c c a s i o n a l l y ,  13  as i n "Memory." archy,  The most extended image o f n a t u r a l h i e r -  i n " D i d not thy roseate  l i p s o u t v i e , " i s extremely  tenuous and perhaps not even u n i f o r m l y p r o g r e s s i v e ; the sequence i s : f r u i t , p e a r l - b e a r i n g mollusc,  deer,  angel,  moon, s t a r , s t a r - c l u s t e r ( P l e i a d ) , end sunThe  one important  scientific  e x c e p t i o n to the c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y o f  imagery i s the concept o f the p l u r a l i t y o f worlds,  an idea p o p u l a r i z e d by F o n t e n e l l e i n the previous  century and  a t t r a c t i n g the a t t e n t i o n o f t h i n k e r s es d i f f e r e n t es Byron and the S c o t t i s h clergymen Thomes Chalmers.^ s p e c t a b l e by the 1320*5, t h i s  1  Although f a i r l y r e -  concept was s t i l l  not orthodox  b e l i e f , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the uses t o which Tennyson put i t . I n e a r l y nineteenth-century pected  thought, these other worlds were ex-  t o p l a y some s i g n i f i c a n t e s c h a t o l o g i c a l r o l e ; they were  part o f God's system, and so the q u e s t i o n o f t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y or s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o e a r t h i n the scheme o f t h i n g s was much discussed.  E v e n t u a l l y , they were hypothesized  as being the  7  r e s t i n g - p l a c e s o f the s o u l s o f the dead. Brothers  -  -  I n the Poems by Two  there i s a r e c u r r i n g use o f the word "worlds" t o de-  s c r i b e circumstences  o f the a f t e r l i f e .  I n "Yon s t a r o f eve,"  the j u s t l i v e " i n heppier worlds than t h i s " ; " t h e t e r n a l s o u l T  must r e i g n / I n worlds devoid  o f p a i n , " and the dead see  " b r i g h t e r suns 8 n d b l u e r s k i e s " ("Why at  should we weep . . . " ) ;  some time i n t h e f u t u r e ( a f t e r the Judgment?) t h e r e w i l l be  " b r i g h t e r suns" ("How g a i l y s i n k s . .  .").  These are a d m i t t e d l y tenuous examples, e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n c o n v e n t i o n a l terms, but more emphatic i n s t a n c e s can be found i n  19  Tennyson's unpublished to  poems of t h i s p e r i o d .  "The  Dying  Man  h i s F r i e n d " d e s c r i b e s heaven as a "world more b r i g h t than  t h i s , " " r a d i a n t realms of day";  "The  Coach of Death" takes  place i n a world behind the sun, where the dead see the e a r t h as another world i n "the dead, pale s k i e s . "  The  other worlds p l a i n l y f a s c i n a t e d Tennyson, and  he used the  cept i n the framework i n which i t was  and  of the  con-  afterlife.  r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s are not  easily  separated i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, a b r i e f examination the r e l i g i o u s content of Poems by Two  of  most a c c e p t a b l e , i n con-  n e c t i o n w i t h the standard " o t h e r world" Since s c i e n t i f i c  concept  B r o t h e r s w i l l be  of  useful.  D e s p i t e t h e i r g e n e r a l c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y , c e r t a i n l e s s then  ortho-  dox  i m p l i c a t i o n s make themselves f e l t .  A poem on a s u i c i d e ,  for  example, d i s c u s s e s the f u t u r e of the s o u l , but makes no  r e f e r e n c e to an a f t e r l i f e of punishment ("The cide"). tween God  Grave of a S u i -  O c c a s i o n a l use i s made o f images of s e p a r a t i o n be* and man,  ranging from C h a r l e s ' more c o n v e n t i o n a l  "mystic maze" of God's p l a n ("In  summer, when a l l nature glows")  to A l f r e d ' s " v e i l " ("Memory") and "mortal shore" we weep . . . " ) , which imply, however vaguely, between human consciousness  web  should  a radical  gulf  and the t h i n g s d e s c r i b e d , whether  the other world or t h i s one, the "web  ("Why  seen through memory.  (Compare  of bloody haze" i n "Armageddon," a f o r e r u n n e r of the  drawn a c r o s s the s k i e s i n I n Memoriam.)  used t o d e s c r i b e the world's h o s t i l i t y as the "weste of darkness" " b l a c k g u l f of woe"  Some o f the terms  and i n d i f f e r e n c e ,  ("I wander i n darkness") and  ( " E x i l e of Bassorah"),  such the  although t a k i n g  20  t h e i r  c o l o u r i n g  serve  to  i n  the  s i o n thy  r e i n f o r c e  w o r l d .  o f  from  the  the  lead  i m p r e s s i o n  S i m i l a r  i s  not  one  to  profound e x p e c t ,  a t t i t u d e s of  i m p l i c a t i o n s  " F r i e n d s h i p " w i l l  m i g h t ! " — a l t h o u g h  t r u t h  e m o t i o n a l  deem  i s o l a t i o n can  be  thee  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  i f ,  as  the  n o t i o n  of  seen  o f  e p i g r a p h  the  speakers,  from  T r u t h ,  the  the  of  i n so  meaning the  c o n c l u -  l o v e l y  f r i e n d s h i p  from  f r i e n d s h i p  and  C i c e r o  i s  i s  might  taken  as  an  a b s o l u t e . Two  o f  r e v e a l a l l  the  i t s  complex  argument f o u n d ;  on  the  from  the  cause  he  "suns  and  "The  i s  t h i s  of  the  reason s p i r i t ,  s y s t e m s , "  suggest  e l a b o r a t e l y t h i n k i n g ;  G o d ' s  t h a t  s p e a k e r ' s  out he  i s  a  can  God  l y r i c  i s  not so  by  he  On  from  a s k i n g  can  c o n f i r m  as  to  i s me"  G o d ' s  c o n v e r s a t i o n a l  poem  a  or  God  not t o  hand,  works,  poem  end  requested would  God.  through  the  w o r l d ,  to  b e -  h i s  except  i s  of  depends  p r e c i s e l y  s u r n e r v i s e  n a t u r a l  i n  q u e s t i o n i n g  a p p l i e d  i s  o t h e r  D e i t y , "  as  where  h i m s e l f  t h a t  reveal'd.  a  q u e s t i o n  the  the  e i t h e r  as  r e v e a l e d  r e v e a l i n g  r e v e l a t i o n  to  or  "The  a t t i t u d e s  read  " i m m a t e r i a l "  matter;  were  be  r h e t o r i c a l 1  and  s c i e n t i f i c  begins  C h r i s t .  i n a b i l i t y  " P h r e n o l o g y "  a  absence  s p e l l e d  "0!  It  w i t h o u t of  and  D e i t y "  epithet  not  " P h r e n o l o g y "  r e l i g i o u s  i s  t h a t  t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n  c o u l d  r e l i g i o u s  d e s i g n .  whether  meaning  Perhaps  the  of  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  be  the  c o n t r i b u t i o n s ,  ambivalence.  s i m p l e , the  C h a r l e s '  then  the  i s  w i s h f u l i n d i c s t e  e x i s t e n c e . mocking  the  newly-  q founded by  and  a s k i n g  much  whether  propagendized the  new  p s e u d o - s c i e n c e . '  d i s c i p l i n e  w i l l  u n r a v e l  It  concludes any  o f  the  21  r e a l l y important mysteries of the world, mostly a s t r o n o m i c a l . The  climax of the poem comes when the hypothesis of the h o l -  low sun i s dismissed: "Or may  we  t h a t hypothesis explode,  Led by your s c i e n c e nearer to our God?" s e r i e s i s the o p t i c s of the rainbow. such c l o s e connection with the sun?  Why  The  next item i n the  i s God  mentioned i n  I t would appear t h a t  astronomy holds the most s p i r i t u a l l y important ilarly,  /  secrets.  Sim-  the d e v i l i n A l f r e d ' s e a r l y drama, "The D e v i l end  the  Lady" ( I I . i . 40-57), i s s t i r r e d i n t o r e f l e c t i o n about the nature of e x i s t e n c e , substance  and accidence, and the  atomic  theory by l o o k i n g at the s t a r s : "0 suns and spheres and  stars  and b e l t s and systems, / Are ye r e a l or are ye n o t ? " - - i n the process mocking the p r e t e n s i o n s of a s t r o l o g y . I n g e n e r a l , then Poems by T\io B r o t h e r s shows Tennyson as f a i r l y c o n v e n t i o n a l i n r e l i g i o u s and s c i e n t i f i c  conceptions  before he went up t o Cambridge; the p a r a l l e l s t o l a t e r poems and ways of t h i n k i n g , such as the q u e s t i o n i n g of the d e i t y , the g u l f between man  and God,  do not c a r r y the same weight i n  the e a r l y poems as they do l a t e r , and g e n e r a l l y are so tenuous or hidden by context t h a t they can o n l y be regarded as tial!,  However, an examination  tangen-  of the unpublished work of t h i s  p e r i o d shows t h a t t h i s p i c t u r e of the young Tennyson i s not complete.  An image more suggestive of p r o g r e s s i v e development  than any seen i n the p u b l i s h e d work occurs i n the  "quick-wing'd  gnat" passage d e s c r i b i n g metamorphoses i n the animal kingdom (pupation, s l o u g h i n g of skin) end comparing them w i t h the s t a t e  22  of the s o u l : " a l l low change."^  t h i n g s range / To  What i s d e s c r i b e d  higher!  here i s not,  but I cannot  of course,  evolu-  t i o n ; but as an i n d i c a t i o n of some form of progress i n nature it  i s r e v e a l i n g , and  shows a type of t h i n k i n g not  at a l l i n  evidence i n the s t a t i c world-system of the Poems by Two thers . the  Furthermore, the  Bro-  i m p l i c a t i o n of a d e s i r e d growth of  s o u l i n t o a p u r e l y s p i r i t u a l form ("My  . . . l i k e a caddisworm i n stone . . .  earthly  en e t e r n a l p r i s o n " ) ,  while i n i t s e l f conventional,, foreshadows the i n e v o l u t i o n on the s p i r i t u a l and  spirit  later interest  moral as w e l l as p h y s i c a l  planes. I n 1$2$  Tennyson went up to Cambridge.  His t u t o r was  Wil-  l i a m Whewell, l a t e r to become famous as a Bridgewater t h e o r i s t and  h i s t o r i a n of s c i e n c e ; he was  work on t i d e s , and  during Tennyson's r e s i d e n c e  chair i n Mineralogy.  Although t h i s had  S h e l l e y ' s time, a g e n e r a t i o n e r a l educated p u b l i c was ogy;  then a l r e a d y known f o r h i s he held  been a subject  the since  e a r l i e r , the i n t e r e s t of the  j u s t b e g i n n i n g to be aroused by  Oxford, even more than Cambridge, had  gengeol-  taken the l e a d i n  11  the f i e l d during the e a r l y 1&*20's. was  By Tennyson's time  there  a l s o a separate department of geology et Cambridge, w i t h  Adam Sedgwick h o l d i n g the  chair.  Both Whewell end  Sedgwick  were at T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , where Tennyson r e s i d e d ; h i s i n t e r e s t s would undoubtedly have been s t i m u l a t e d Much has  scientific  during  h i s stay.  been s a i d about the i n f l u e n c e o f the A p o s t l e s  on Tennyson, but  i t has  not been noted t h a t the A p o s t l e s  group shared  23  c e r t a i n ideas and ways of thought w i t h Whewell.  A Kantian  i n most r e s p e c t s , Whewell d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between t h e o r i e s and  f a c t s , or, i n h i s more t e c h n i c a l terminology, between  ideas  (the mental s t r u c t u r e s which determine our method of  p e r c e i v i n g the world or examining i t ) and p u r e l y e m p i r i c a l data).  He  recognized  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n here: "Theories 12 c e r t a i n and  familiar";  still,  sensations  (the  a certain fluidity  of  become F a c t s , by becoming he attempted t o e r e c t  fundamental t h e o r i e s of a l l the s c i e n c e s  on the  the  foundation  of the c a t e g o r i e s ; he wished t o e s t a b l i s h that the r e s u l t s of s c i e n t i f i c method were n e c e s s a r i l y , not  contingently,  F o l l o w i n g Kant, he d i v i d e d the s c i e n c e s  i n t o two  groups:  those dependent on the  ideas of time and  i . e . mathematics), and  those dependent on that of  (mechanical s c i e n c e s ) .  Apostles,  S o c i e t y , had a few  space (pure  causation  Apostles.  p r o p e r l y known as the Cambridge Conversazione  been organized  by John S t e r l i n g and  F. D. Maurice  years e a r l i e r , when they were undergraduates.  both of t h e i r founding f i g u r e s , they had ence of C o l e r i d g e ' s to R e f l e c t i o n . guments and  sciences,  Thus some o f h i s b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n s  p a r a l l e l those of the C o l e r i d g e - i n s p i r e d The  true.  Through  come under the  influ-  metaphysics, p a r t i c u l a r l y that of the  Aids  Some of the a t t i t u d e s , i f not the s p e c i f i c  elaborations,  of t h a t book e x e r c i s e d a  considerable  i n f l u e n c e over Tennyson, d e s p i t e h i s l a t e r disavowals of interest i n Coleridge's  prose; f o r i t s major theme i s the  moval of the argument from design  from the l i s t  ar-  any re-  of evidences  ?4  f o r God's e x i s t e n c e , and i t s replacement  by p e r s o n a l c o n v i c -  t i o n and i n t e r n a l evidence, by "the goings-on i n my The  own  mind." ' 1  4  a f f i n i t i e s w i t h the s t r u c t u r e of argument i n I n Memoriam  should be obvious.  More important f o r the immediate s u b j e c t  of t h i s study, C o l e r i d g e develops a s o r t of e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e ory i n the book; but although h i s d i c t i o n sometimes suggests a temporal process, i t i s more l i k e l y  ( e s p e c i a l l y i n view of h i s  r e j e c t i o n of the idea of the development o f man mates) t h a t he understands  from other n r i -  nature t o operate as a continuous  c h a i n of being, w i t h p o s s i b l y one uniform c r e a t i o n at one  mo-  ment oftime, or perhaps the system of m u l t i p l e c r e a t i o n s t h a t 1 5 was  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y favoured i n the 16^20's. '  I n Aphor-  ism XXXVI, he t r a c e s a l i n e from metal through v e g e t a t i o n t o animal, with each stage a n t i c i p a t i n g the next: "most w o n d e r f u l l y . . . doth the muscular  life  i n the i n s e c t  . . . imitate  t y p i c a l l y rehearse the adaptive Understanding The  ...  and  of  man."  analogy holds a l s o w i t h human i n s t i t u t i o n s : "Every  state  . . . which i s not p r o g r e s s i v e , i s dead, or r e t r o g r a d e " ism XX).  The t e n t h Aphorism on S p i r i t u a l R e l i g i o n i m p l i e s a  temporal process: "Nature evolution.  (Aphor-  i s a l i n e i n constant and  continuous  I t s beginning i s l o s t i n the s u p e r - n a t u r a l : end f o r  our understanding, t h e r e f o r e , i t must appeer as a continuous l i n e without beginning or end."  But,  s t r i c t l y speaking, i t i s  not a g i v e n s p e c i e s but r a t h e r the s p i r i t u a l essence of the world which evolves, from God t e m p o r a l i t y may  to the f i n a l end, o f whatever s o r t ;  be i m p l i e d , but i s not n e c e s s a r i l y intended.  The t e x t i s ambiguous, and while such r e f l e c t i o n s m 8 y heve en-  25  couraged Tennyson's t h i n k i n g on the s u b j e c t , they do not cons t i t u t e a p l a i n statement as, say, Erasmus Darwin's w r i t i n g s do. The A p o s t l e s were s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by C o l e r i d g e ' s moral and  t h e o l o g i c a l arguments.  Tennyson, f o r example, voted i n  t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t an i n t e l l i g i b l e F i r s t Cause could not be deduced from the u n i v e r s e , and t h a t there was a moral p r i n 17 c i p l e beyond g e n e r a l expediency.  Hallam, i n h i s Theodicaea  Novissima, which can be taken as i n d i c a t i v e s o f a t t i t u d e s current before  i t was read i n 1 3 3 1 , d e c l a r e s t h a t man cannot d i s -  cover God by s e a r c h i n g i n the u n i v e r s e , and proposes p r o o f s o f God's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the world based on p e r s o n a l i n t u i t i o n and 1$  (implicitly) a w i l l to believe.  I n t h i s essay  an i n t e r e s t i n g theory o f the nature  he proposes  o f s i n , a c c o r d i n g t o which  the human s o u l becomes p e r f e c t i n i t s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t i t , end t h a t consequently  s i n must be created s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h a t  19  purpose by God. f o r granted,  Furthermore, i f God i s love, as Hallam  then God i s incomplete  namely C h r i s t , who by reason approximation o f God. God  without  takes  an o b j e c t o f love,  o f God's love f o r him becomes an  And s i n c e men are enjoined  t o approach  through the love o f C h r i s t , there i s e s t r o n g i m p l i c a t i o n  t h a t through the power o f love the i n d i v i d u a l person can become analogous to the Incarnate  Christ. ^ 2  Tennyson could have  found i n h i s f r i e n d ' s ideas an extension o f h i s a l r e a d y apparent i n t e r e s t i n s p i r i t u a l P h y s i c a l progress  progress.  as w e l l seems t o have been on Tennyson's  26  mind a t Cambridge.  He propounded the theory  that the " d e v e l -  opment o f the human body" o r "the e v o l u t i o n o f man"  (readings  21 differ) luscous  could be t r a c e d from the " r a d i a t e d , vermicular, and v e r t e b r a t e  organisms"; a suggestion  mol-  t o which H a l -  lam responded, "Do you mean t h a t the human b r a i n i s at f i r s t l i k e a madrepore's, then l i k e a worm's, etc.? but t h i s be f o r they have no b r a i n . "  cannot  A source f o r Tennyson's idea i s  a p a i r o f a r t i c l e s by Southwood Smith i n the Westminster Review f o r 1323, d i s c u s s i n g recent  f i n d i n g s i n neurology.  A t t e n t i o n has been drawn t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f f e t a l b r a i n development i n t h e second a r t i c l e as a source f o r concepts such as that o f the " f o u r changes" i n the c a n c e l l e d stanzas o f "The Palace o f A r t , " but t h i s idea cannot have been what Tennyson r e f e r r e d t o here; Smith t r a c e d the development o f the embryo from a f i s h - l i k e stage, w i t h no resemblance noted t o d i v e r t i c u 23 l a t e forms a t a l l .  Killham speculates  t h a t "he had somehow  come t o r e l a t e the d i s c o v e r y t h a t the human b r a i n seemed t o develop through stages analogous t o the permanent form i n f i s h e s , r e p t i l e s and b i r d s before  reaching  the r e c o g n i z a b l y  human form,  to the very much more s t a r t l i n g idea t h a t the human b r a i n had .  . . evolved";  ^ but no such d a r i n g lean o f thought was neces-  sary f o r Tennyson, s i n c e the a r t i c l e s p e c i f i c a l l y made t h e a n a l 25 ogy  between r a d i a t e g a n g l i a  the  i n c r e a s i n g l y complex b r a i n s o f v a r i o u s animals i n a semi-  progressive  sequence.  and the human b r a i n ,  and discussed  There was ample m a t e r i a l f o r a p o t e n t i a l  e v o l u t i o n i s t t o use i n the a r t i c l e ;  e l l that was r e a l l y  missing  27  was  the n o t i o n of a temporal process or of a graduated  s e r i e s of concrete l i n k s . Among the A p o s t l e s , then, Tennyson was  exposed  to a form of r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l i s m , the beginnings of a theory of e v o l u t i o n . the p r e v a i l i n g assumption  I t may  not o n l y but t o have been  o f Tennyson as w e l l as of most  e v o l u t i o n i s t s at the time, i n c l u d i n g C o l e r i d g e , t h a t the process took p l a c e " i n the mind of God"  or i n nature as an  antecedent essence r a t h e r than i n time, t h a t l i v i n g t h i n g s had been c r e a t e d (or had appeared) showing evidence of a p r o g r e s s i v e o r d e r i n g or h i e r a r c h y even though t h e i r development had not been s e q u e n t i a l ; but the phrase " a t f i r s t " i n Hallam's  r e p l y , quoted above, may  suggest t h a t some form of  temporal development had at l e a s t been hypothesized.  At  any  r a t e , Tennyson would have become extremely f a m i l i a r with the idea of continuous progress as a f a c t of nature as w e l l as, i n C o l e r i d g e ' s scheme, a moral good. The e f f e c t of these i n f l u e n c e s on Tennyson's thought be shown by comparing l a t e d e a r l i e r one. won  may  one o f h i s Cambridge poems w i t h a r e -  I n 1&29,  urged by h i s f a t h e r , Tennyson  the C h a n c e l l o r ' s Gold P r i z e w i t h a poem on the assigned  t o p i c , Timbuctoo.  The poem was  noted f o r i t s " o b s c u r i t y " :  " I f such an e x e r c i s e had been sent up at Oxford, the author would  h8ve  had a b e t t e r chance of being r u s t i c a t e d , w i t h the  view of h i s p a s s i n g a few months at a L u n a t i c Asylum, than o f o b t a i n i n g the p r i z e . " ^ ^  To a i d h i s process o f composition,  Tennyson had sent home f o r an o l d poem o f h i s , "Armageddon,"  on which he  had  worked at about the  age  corporated a l a r g e amount of m a t e r i a l i n t o the about 130  later, including  the  of f i f t e e n .  from the  of  2  "Timbuctoo," on the  with the  f i n a l b a t t l e f o r the  other hand, seems at f i r s t  t o do w i t h i t s avowed s u b j e c t , although the comes c l e a r d u r i n g the v i s i o n .  The  great m o t i v a t i n g f a n t a s i e s  I s l e s of the B l e s s e d , and  anything comparable. him  e a r l i e r poem  lines. ^  b e i g g shown a v i s i o n of the  the  in-  central vision, a section  "Armageddon" i s l a r g e l y s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y ,  of the  He  He  speaker  universe.  to have  little  connection  be-  speaker laments the  of the  loss  past, A t l a n t i s  wonders whether A f r i c a  and  contains  i s then v i s i t e d by an angel who  a v i s i o n of a marvellous c i t y ,  o n l y to lament that  shows dis-  covery w i l l soon cause i t t o s h r i n k t o a c o l l e c t i o n of huts. The  angel i s i d e n t i f i e d as the Both poems use  the  f a m i l i a r theme of the  worlds.  D u r i n g h i s v i s i o n , the  cities,"  and  hears the  "hum  i n unknown tongues, / And worlds" (11.  99-111);  types of s t a r s .  In the  the  l a t e r work, the  p l u r a l i t y of  speaker sees "The  of men  / Or  other things t a l k i n g  notes of busy L i f e i n  e a r l i e r work the  distant of  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s  e n t i r e u n i v e r s e i s coming t o Judgment. other worlds are most probably,  imaginary c i t i e s and  like  islands, beautiful fantasies.  approach seems more s c e p t i c a l than when he was Some of the  Moon's white  "Timbuctoo" adds a d e s c r i p t i o n  passage i s obvious: the I n the  s p i r i t of F a b l e .  omitted m a t e r i a l  His  younger.  from "Armageddon" i s s i g n i f i -  cant f o r Tennyson's i n t e r e s t i n n a t u r a l  history.  The  devils  29  are  d e s c r i b e d as mixing the q u a l i t i e s of man  and beast; i n  one of the manuscripts, the d e v i l s ' p a v i l i o n s c o n t a i n "Mammoth and Mastodonte."  S i m i l a r i t y between man  and  lower  animals i s r e s e r v e d f o r the d e v i l s ' s i d e ; the angel a s s i s t s the speaker i n a temporary removing  process of s p i r i t u a l development,  from h i s s o u l the f e t t e r s o f "bond of c l a y "  " d u l l mortality"  and  ( I I . 1J4-5).  The v i s i o n i t s e l f i s c e n t r a l t o both poems.  I n "Armaged-  don" the speaker's s o u l grows " g o d l i k e " and stands on the "outward verge" of "God's omniscience"; he c o u l d have worshipped h i s own  soul.  The angel p r a i s e s " E v e r l a s t i n g  and thou not l e s s / The E v e r l a s t i n g Man"  God,  and i d e n t i f i e s the  s o u l ' s l i f e w i t h God's, as w e l l as h i n t i n g at r e i n c a r n a t i o n ("former wanderings i n other shapes"). r a d i c a l l y unorthodox grows "mighty" beatitude."  I n "Timbuctoo"  v i s i o n i s toned down; the s o u l  8 n d stands on the "outward verge" o f  There i s no mention  s o u l , and no " E v e r l a s t i n g  the  merely "full  of worshipping one's  own  Man."  The probable reason f o r t h i s i s the extremely p e r s o n a l nature of the e a r l i e r poem. of  Tennyson was  t r a n c e s t a t e which he could produce  subject to a sort  by r e p e a l i n g h i s name;  while under i t s i n f l u e n c e , h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y seemed t o d i s s o l v e , and a c o n v i c t i o n of i m m o r t a l i t y took over; i t was  "no  nebulous e c s t a s y , but a s t a t e of transcendent wonder, asso29  c i a t e d w i t h a b s o l u t e c l e a r n e s s of mind."  The  visionary  s t a t e i n "Armageddon" seems to be a good d e s c r i p t i o n of the  30  feeling,  so t h a t i n the w r i t i n g o f "Timbuctoo," the person-  a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was suppressed, and the v i s i o n was used for  an a r b i t r a r y purpose r a t h e r than a p e r s o n a l Tennyson would have found among the A p o s t l e s  of h i s mystic  statement. a validation  s t a t e s , s i n c e , as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r adherence  t o C o l e r i d g e , they were sympathetic t o i n t e r n a l evidence f o r God.  T h i s concept was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the I d e a l i s t  of phenomenal r e a l i t y .  notion  "The world i s one greet thought, and  I am t h i n k i n g i t , " announced John Kemble, and a s i m i l a r idea can be found i n one o f Tennyson's unpublished p e r i o d , "The I d e a l i s t , " i n which "the s p i r i t  poems o f t h i s o f a man"  c r e a t e s " a l l I hear and see," weaving the u n i v e r s e . A l l e a r t h l y t h i n g s are a t t r i b u t e s or c r e a t i o n s o f the s o u l , whose d w e l l i n g place i s E t e r n i t y ; only God and other i n d i v i d u a l souls are e x t e r n a l t o i t . T h i s poem undoubtedly exaggerates the b a s i c conception  d r a m a t i c a l l y , but the a t t i t u d e i s e v i -  dent i n "Armageddon" and many o f the l a t e r works: r e a l i t y i s the standpoint  from which to judge the world; the  evidence o f the mind, not o f nature, c a l and r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n s . with the reasoning  internal  i s conclusive f o r e t h i -  The mystic  o f the A p o s t l e s  trance,  combined  and t h e i r g u i d i n g  C o l e r i d g e , can a l r e a d y be seen t o provide nyson's i n t e r p r e t e t i o n o f the world.  spirit  the b a s i s f o r Ten-  CHAPTER THREE TENNYSON'S  POEMS OF THE 1830'S  AND THEIR  ANALOGUES  E v o l u t i o n a r y m a t e r i a l i s g r a d u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Tennyson's poetry during the 1#30's. "The  "The Palace o f A r t " and  Two V o i c e s " a r e the key poems i n t h i s r e s p e c t , and the  f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l focus p r i m a r i l y on them, w h i l e a l s o examining other poems f o r t h e i r use o f s c i e n t i f i c  con-  c e p t s , and f o r t h e i r r e v e l a t i o n o f the complex o f r e l i g i o u s and  p h i l o s o p h i c a l ideas t h a t determined the mature form o f  Tennyson's e v o l u t i o n a r y thought.  An analogous use o f e v o l u -  t i o n a r y m a t e r i a l w i l l be explored i n Browning's P a r a c e l s u s , as w e l l as i n some l a t e r , p o s s i b l y d e r i v a t i v e works by other authors. A r t h u r Hallam's 1331 review o f Tennyson's poems p r o v i d e s an important  i n d i c a t i o n o f the ways i n which Tennyson organ-  i z e d t h e s c i e n t i f i c concepts  i n h i s work.  Tennyson f o r two p a r t i c u l a r l y important of  Hallam p r a i s e s  reasons:  " h i s power  embodying h i m s e l f i n i d e a l c h a r a c t e r s o r r a t h e r moods o f  c h a r a c t e r " and " h i s v i v i d ,  picturesque d e l i n e a t i o n of objects,  and t h e p e c u l i a r s k i l l w i t h which he holds a l l o f them fused, to  borrow a metaphor from s c i e n c e , i n a medium o f s t r o n g emo-  tion."'  The f i r s t  o f these, while s u g g e s t i n g i n p a r t 8 per-  s o n a l q u a l i t y o f the poet r a t h e r than o f the verse, i n d i c a t e s  32 the dramatic element  i n Tennyson's poems; statements i n  the poems a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y t o be taken as embodying the poet's own a t t i t u d e s .  The second s t r e s s e s mood end  emotion as opposed t o l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g ; Hallam i s advoc e t i n g a poetry o f i n d i r e c t statement, es opposed t o a d i d a c t i c i s m such as Wordsworth's, whose ^ o r k i s f r e q u e n t l y " f a l s e es poetry" though "good as p h i l o s o p h y . "  In this  recommended poetry, " e l e v a t e d h a b i t s o f thought" can only be " i m p l i e d , " not expressed; ideas are communicated only i n terms o f images.  "These men had no need t o seek; they  l i v e d i n a world o f images; f o r the most important and extensive portion of t h e i r l i f e  c o n s i s t e d i n those  emotions  o which are immediately conversant w i t h s e n s a t i o n . " * On the b a s i s o f t h i s essay, then, i t i s s a f e t o p r e d i c t t h a t Tennyson's e a r l y poems would be concerned not w i t h d i r e c t , d i d a c t i c statement, but w i t h the use o f concepts as a n a l o g i e s t o mental or emotional c o n d i t i o n s .  T h i s i s not  t o say, however, t h a t the i d e a s presented i n the poems ere unimportant.  Hallam and the other A p o s t l e s p i e c e d s p e c i e l  emphesis on the r o l e o f the poet as seer, es cen be seen i n t h i s q u o t e t i o n from F. D. Maurice: "The mind o f a poet o f the h i g h e s t order i s the most p e r f e c t t h a t can belong t o man. . . . The poet i s the great i n t e r p r e t e r o f nature's m y s t e r i e s , not by nerrowing them i n t o the grasp o f the understanding, but by connecting each o f them w i t h the f e e l i n g which changes doubt t o f a i t h .  . . . He cannot be untrue, f o r  33  it  i s h i s high c a l l i n g t o i n t e r p r e t those u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s 3  which e x i s t on e a r t h only i n the forms o f h i s c r e a t i o n . " The Platonism, however d i l u t e d , o f t h i s statement  i s also  evident i n some o f Tennyson's poems, such as "The Poet" and "The  Poet's Mind," which r e l y on images drawn from o r g a n i c  nature t o suggest the poet's grasp o f t r u t h .  I n the former  poem, the poet's seeds (poems) 8re " L i k e to the mother p l a n t i n semblance"; the mother p l a n t i s not p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d , but i s connected by a s e r i e s o f i n t e r l o c k i n g images t o the poet's thoughts and t o t r u t h , which are thus  identified.  T h i s poem f u r t h e r uses a complicated system o f imagery t o d e s c r i b e the a c t i o n o f the i m a g i n a t i o n .  The poet's  thought  e i t h e r produces or comprises " v i e w l e s s arrows" which s i m u l t a n e o u s l y operate on three l e v e l s o f meaning: f i r s t , suggest l o v e — C u p i d ' s arrows;  they  second, they i n t r o d u c e a mar-  t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e which reappears l a t e r i n the poem i n the form o f Wisdom shaking the world; t h i r d , they c a r r y en o r g a n i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , s i n c e they are compared w i t h "the arrow-seeds of the f i e l d f l o w e r " which propagate new p l a n t s .  A l l these  metaphors are drawn t o g e t h e r i n the image o f t h e poem spreadi n g "The winged s h a f t s o f t r u t h . " T h i s poem, i n a d d i t i o n t o demonstrating the manner i n which o r g a n i c — a n d by e x t e n s i o n s c i e n t i f i c — i m a g e s  function'  i n Tennyson's e a r l y poetry, a l s o e x e m p l i f i e s the n o t i o n o f the poet's unique r e l a t i o n t o t r u t h .  Two o f the other poems  i n the 1330 volume add f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s on t h i s s u b j e c t .  "A  34  C h a r a c t e r " i s a s a t i r i c a l s k e t c h of the f a l s e poe%,  whose  p h i l o s o p h i c a l pronouncements are c o n t r a s t e d w i t h h i s narrowness of  understanding: . . . he s a i d , 'The wanderings Of t h i s most i n t r i c a t e Universe Teach me the nothingness of t h i n g s . ' Yet could not a l l c r e a t i o n p i e r c e Beyond the bottom o f h i s eye.  The  f a l s e poet  i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from other men  ent d i f f e r e n c e s but by h i s own  p r i d e : "And  not by i n h e r -  stood a l o o f from  other minds / I n impotence of f a n c i e d power." "The M y s t i c , " on the o t h e r hand, o f f e r s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t r u e i n t e l l e c t u a l power. by h i s nature: "he ft  was  T h i s man  i s separated from others  not one ofyye."  Subject to states r e -  sembling Tennyson's, " l y i n g broad awake, and yet / Remaining from the body," the mystic comprehends i n h i s mind the P l a t o n i c Ideas o f a l l c r e a t i o n , "The  i m p e r i s h a b l e presences  the o n l y s t a t e d l i m i t t o h i s understanding  serene";  i s the l a s t  circle,  which " I n v e s t e t h and i n g i r d s a l l other l i v e s " — e n d on the other s i d e of which i s "an ether o f b l a c k b l u e , " the Ptolemaic universe.  primum mobile,  suggesting  beyond the l i m i t s of the p h y s i c a l  H i s p e r c e p t i o n i s e q u a l l y e x t e n s i v e i n time;  the  i m p l i c a t i o n of the l i n e s d e s c r i b i n g "Time f l o w i n g i n the midd l e o f the n i g h t , / A n d  a l l t h i n g s c r e e p i n g t o a day of doom"  i s t h a t he can f o r e s e e the day of Judgment. These poems o f f e r a c o n s i s t e n t summary o f the r o l e of the poet.  He  p e r c e i v e s and expresses  the t r u t h s of  becoming i n h i s r o l e o f c r e a t o r anelogous t o God.  tthe^mniverse, The  poet's  35  mind i s " h o l y ground" ("The tween God new  Poet's Mind").  and the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n was  nor o r i g i n a l , but had r e c e i v e d a new  The  analogy  of course  be-  neither  impetus from S h e l -  l e y ' s "Defense o f Poetry" and C o l e r i d g e ' s concept  of the  secondary i m a g i n a t i o n ; i t became a means of s a v i n g the  the-  ory of values from the s u b j e c t i v i s m opened up by Kant,  and  i n t h i s sense i t was  soon taken up by C a r l y l e , i n h i s de-  s c r i p t i o n of the d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n o p e r a t i n g i n man.4- I n Tennyson's work the concept  does not develop  f u l l y a l l these  v a r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s , but the b a s i c idea i s s t i l l  present  i n the e a r l y poems. T h i s f a c t i s important Tennyson conceived  because i t has been suggested  of e v o l u t i o n by analogy w i t h the a c t i o n  of the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . ^  But by  1#32  an apparent s h i f t i n h i s idea of the poet's i s i n "The  there was  f u n c t i o n , and i t  s u b s t a n t i a l r e f e r e n c e s t o evo-  l u t i o n a r y t h e o r i e s occur i n Tennyson's v e r s e .  "The  Palace  s p e c i f i c a l l y announced as an a l l e g o r y i n the  d e d i c a t o r y poem attached to i t ,  and was  presumably  by R i c h a r d Chevenix Trench's words, "Tennyson, we in Art."^  already  Palace of A r t , " the most e x p l i c i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of t h i s s h i f t , t h a t the f i r s t  of A r t " was  that  inspired cannot  As many c r i t i c s have argued, Tennyson was  live  i n funda-  mental agreement w i t h Trench on t h i s matter; the poems from the 1330 volume a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d show en important  conflict  between the p l e a s u r e s of a e s t h e t i c i s o l a t i o n and a more s e r i ous commitment t o t r u t h .  "The  Palece of A r t " d e a l s with  the  36  problems f a c e d by en e x c l u s i v e adherence t o the a e s t h e t i c claims o f a p r i v a t e a r t . The  s o u l i s g i v e n a " l o r d l y pleasure-house"  speaker.  by the poet-  Most o f the poem d e s c r i b e s the contents o f t h e  palace, i n which each o f the rooms and c o r r i d o r s has a s p e c i a l symbolic purposely The  decor,  a l t o g e t h e r comprising  a wide, though  s e l e c t i v e , range o f i m a g i n e t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s .  problem w i t h t h i s p r i v a t e world  tempts t o be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t .  i s t h a t the s o u l a t -  The d e c o r a t i o n s o f the palace,  because they a r e a s u b s t i t u t e f o r the r e e l world, adequete support  f o r the i m a g i n a t i o n ; estranged  the s o u l must s u f f e r .  are en i n -  from r e a l i t y ,  Both the i s o l a t i o n and the attempt t o  become l i k e God p r e c i p i t a t e the c r i s i s o f the l a s t  eighty  l i n e s , as a r e s u l t o f which the s o u l l e a v e s the pelece t o purge her g u i l t i n the world pudieted,  outside.  The pelece i s not r e -  simply l e f t u n t i l the s o u l i s worthy t o r e t u r n t o  i t , with o t h e r s ; the poem r e f l e c t s the need f o r poetry t o e x e r c i s e e moral o r s o c i a l consciousness.  I t i s noteworthy  t h a t an a s t r o n o m i c e l image i s used t o d e s c r i b e t h e s o u l d u r i n g her p e r i o d o f s u f f e r i n g ; she resembles e s t a r t h a t  stands  elone i n s t e a d o f moving i n accordance w i t h "one f i x e d law"  (1.  256). I n t h e p u b l i s h e d t e x t o f the poem, t h e r e are, w i t h the exc e p t i o n j u s t noted,  no s p e c i f i c a l l y s c i e n t i f i c  which can be i n t e r p r e t e d as another  images—a  demonstration  adequacy o f the s o u l ' s p r i v a t e world;  feet  o f the i n -  she i s impervious t o  the d i s c o v e r i e s o f s c i e n c e : " F u l l o f t t h e r i d d l e o f the p a i n f u l  37  e a r t h / F l a s h e d through her as she s a t alone" ( 1 1 . without responding.  213-14),  I n a f o o t n o t e to the 1332 volume, how-  ever, Tennyson explained t h a t i f the poem had not been too long a l r e a d y , he would have added a s e t o f l i n e s , which he then reproduced. These l i n e s , d e s c r i b i n g an o b s e r v a t o r y tower where the s o u l goes t o watch the heavens, would have served t o emphasize the s o u l ' s s u p e r f i c i a l a t t i t u d e toward s c i e n c e , s i n c e such astronomy would not have brought her any c l o s e r t o the r e a l world; i n b u i l d i n g the palace, the poet-speaker had mimicked heaven w i t h "hollowed moons of gems" ( 1 . 133). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , one o f Tennyson's notebooks c o n t a i n s a del e t e d passage (reproduced by R i c k s i n a f o o t n o t e t o 11. 136139) which, i f i t had been i n c l u d e d , would have made the s o u l seem more serious-minded than she appears i n the r e v i s e d and published version.  I n these l i n e s , the s o u l sees the " s e c r e t  e n t i t i e s o f F a i t h " "shadowed" i n the form o f a b s t r a c t i o n s t h a t have not y e t entered the phenomenal world: "But always w a i t i n g i n a dusky p l a c e / To c l o t h e themselves i n creeds." The next stanza d e s c r i b e s v a r i o u s types o f philosophy, which are  i m p l i e d to be only p a r t - t r u t h s by the f o l l o w i n g sequence  of g e o l o g i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s : Yet she S8W the E a r t h l a i d open. Furthermore How the s t r o n g Ages had t h e i r w i l l , A range o f G i a n t s b r e a k i n g down the shore And heaving up the h i l l . And l i k e w i s e every l i f e t h a t Nature made, What y e t i s l e f t and what i s gone To where the c l a s s e s v a n i s h , shade by shade, L i f e and h a l f - l i f e , t o none.  38*  "Strong Ages" and "a range of G i a n t s " ere not very s p e c i f i c phrases; i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether g r a d u a l or c a t a s t r o p h i c change i s i m p l i e d , o r whether, lenguage was  more l i k e l y , the  d e l i b e r a t e l y made capable o f s u s t a i n i n g  interpretation.  either  I f the a s t r o n o m i c e l pessege, reproduced i n  the f o o t n o t e i n the 18*32 volume, had d i r e c t l y f o l l o w e d from these l i n e s , the o b s e r v a t i o n o f the heavens would have seemed more s e r i o u s than when detached from t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t . Probably the reason t h e t Tennyson d e l e t e d the passage i s t h e t i t tended t o weaken the i m p r e s s i o n o f s u p e r f i c i a l i t y and e r r o gence on the p e r t o f the s o u l .  The presence o f the nebular  hypothesis i n the footnoted passage--"Regions o f l u c i d matter t a k i n g f o r m s " — i n d i c a t e s a concern w i t h important end versial scientific  contro-  i s s u e s , s i n c e t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was used by  Chambers and o t h e r s t o p r o v i d e an analogy f o r b i o l o g i c a l l u t i o n , and was  evo-  f o r a l o n g time b e f o r e t h e t the most prominent  evolutionary theory i n general discussions. A s i m i l a r p r o c e s s o f r e v i s i o n C 8 n be observed elsewhere i n the poem. but was  I n the 16*32 e d i t i o n , a passage f o l l o w e d l i n e  d e l e t e d i n the 18*42 r e v i s e d v e r s i o n .  minated i n e d e s c r i p t i o n o f orgenic  128*,  The passage  cul-  development:  'From chenge t o chenge f o u r times w i t h i n the womb The b r e i n i s moulded,' she began, 'So through a l l phases o f a l l thought I come I n t o the p e r f e c t D e r i v e d from embryology,  man.'  and t o 8 l e r g e extent borrowed  from  Southwood Smith's a r t i c l e i n the Westminster Review f o r 18*?8*,^  39  they are designed t o show the ceived p r i d e .  The  b 8 s i s  of the s o u l ' s miscon-  f o u r changes r e f e r t o the r e c e n t l y  ob-  served phenomenon o f embryonic r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , i n which v e s t i g i a l t r a i t s of p r e v i o u s e v o l u t i o n a r y stages can be observed  i n the embryo at d i f f e r e n t stages of i t s develop10  ment, f o r example, g i l l s and the v e s t i g i a l t a i l . first  l i n e of the stanza was  The  l a t e r r e v i s e d t o "From shape  to shape a t f i r s t w i t h i n the wombf" probably r e f l e c t i n g 11  Tennyson's wider r e a d i n g ,  which would have shown him  that  the process cannot be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r neat stages, but t h a t the v e s t i g i a l t r a i t s o v e r l a p s e q u e n t i a l l y and  further-  more do not a f f e c t the e n t i r e body s t r u c t u r e .  changes  The  i n the b r a i n , although l e s s easy t o observe t h 8 n the o t h e r s , probably came t o Tennyson's a t t e n t i o n f i r s t ,  through  the  Westminster a r t i c l e ; but even t h e r e the process of development i s not d i v i s i b l e i n t o s p e c i f i c stages analogous  to  1"?  e a r l i e r or "lower"  life-forms.  U s i n g t h i s concept as an analogy f o r the growth o f the human mind, the s o u l launches i n t o  self-adulation:  ' A l l nature widens upward: evermore The s i m p l e r essence lower l i e s . More complex i s more p e r f e c t , owning more D i s c o u r s e , more w i d e l y wise.'  1^  Although some commentators have m i s i n t e r p r e t e d these l i n e s , the concept expressed i s not d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . conceived of as an i n v e r t e d pyramid, widening  ^  Nature i s  out at the top,  w i t h the s i m p l e r forms et the bottom and the more complex, w i t h the s o u l presumably among them, toward  the upper reaches.  40  I n s h o r t , the s o u l i s u s i n g the developmental image as an analogy t o her own i n c r e a s e i n knowledge.  I f " A l l nature"  r e f e r s t o t h e e n t i r e system o f l i v i n g t h i n g s , then the image i s a genuinely  e v o l u t i o n a r y one; but i f i t merely  r e f e r s t o each i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s , i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y s o . Since  the l i n k between the e m b r y o l o g i c a l  image and. the  t o t a l i t y o f nature i s u n s p e c i f i e d , the passage remains ambiguous. The  s o u l ' s c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t she i s u n i q u e l y  detachment, being above a l l t h i n g s as a r e s u l t of development.  o f the process  Her f i n a l statement i n t h i s passage, " I  d w e l l a p a r t , h o l d i n g no forms o f creeds, all,"  fitted for  / But  contemplating  c o n s t i t u t e s the fundamental a c t o f p r i d e .  A f t e r the  18*5© r e v i s i o n , the l i n e was t r a n s f e r r e d t o another p a r t o f the poem ( 1 . 2 1 1 ) , without any p r e c e d i n g l i s h a r a t i o n a l context, i n g no form o f creed,  The  and a l t e r e d t o : " I s i t as God h o l d -  / But contemplating  thus made more arrogant  argument t o estab-  all."  The s o u l i s  than i n the e a r l i e r v e r s i o n .  e f f e c t o f the r e v i s i o n , then, was t o i n c r e a s e the im-  p r e s s i o n o f the s o u l ' s s u p e r f i c i a l i t y and i s o l a t i o n from r e a l i t y by removing a passage which was becoming t o o much a p a r t o f Tennyson's own thought t o be a s c r i b e d t o the s o u l .  The  f u r t h e r development o f t h i s idea can be seen i n "The Two Voi-s ;.. K  ces," which was begun before completed afterward i s a dialogue  the death o f Hallam,  and not p u b l i s h e d  until  16*42,  although The poem  between a p o t e n t i a l s u i c i d e and a " s t i l l  small  41  v o i c e " t h a t tempts him on and d e s t r o y s h i s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s i n favour o f l i f e ; decision for l i f e  a second v o i c e e n t e r s 8 f t e r the  has been made.  As a poem about r e l i g i o u s doubt and f a i t h ,  i t i s a pro-  found advance from the e a r l i e r "Supposed C o n f e s s i o n s . "  In  that work, the doubts a f f l i c t i n g the speaker were l e f t vague, being expressed ity  i n terms o f s e p a r a t i o n from God and i n a b i l -  to believe.  The speaker c o n t r a s t s h i s y o u t h f u l b e l i e f s  w i t h h i s o l d e r d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ; when young, he had d e s i r e d to  "look i n t o the laws / Of l i f e  l y s e / Our double nature,  and compare / A l l creeds" (11.  172-76), while now he i s worried must c l a s p I d o l s . "  and death . . . and ana-  t h a t "everywhere / Some  The 15*30 e d i t i o n a l s o had some l i n e s ,  d e l e t e d l a t e r , which expressed  the hope o f i m m o r t a l i t y i n  i n t e r e s t i n g terms: To stand beside a grave, and see The r e d s m a l l atoms wherewith we Are b u i l t , and smile i n calm, and S 8 y — 'These l i t t l e motes and g r a i n s s h a l l be C l o t h e d on w i t h  immortality.'  These atoms appear t o be blood c o r p u s c l e s , and the immortality  d e s c r i b e d i s b a s i c a l l y an e l a b o r a t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l  "dust t o dust?"  The context makes i t c l e a r t h a t the speaker  i s merely wishing is  t h a t he could f e e l thatsfchis type o f f u t u r e  h o p e f u l ; he does not r e a l i z e ,  o r has l o s t h i s b e l i e f i n ,  the i m m o r t a l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l s o u l . "The  Two V o i c e s " attempts a r e s o l u t i o n o f the problem o f  the v s l u e o f l i f e .  The problem must be s o l v e d e n t i r e l y on  42  the b a s i s of i n t e r n a l evidence interference.  The  ending  ( f 8 i t h ) , without  external  has been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d as  im-  p l y i n g t h a t the speaker has to r e l y on the s i g h t of the people going to church  to r e s t o r e h i s f a i t h ,  but  actually  the scene o u t s i d e the window i s merely a coda, a  confirma-  tion.  f o r "More  life,  The and  speaker wins h i s case when he decides fuller"  (1. 3 9 9 ) , and  the scene o u t s i d e and  the  "hidden hope" o f f e r e d by the second v o i c e come as a f u l f i l ment of h i s wish. The  U h e i s t r u g g l e takes place i n s i d e the  v o i c e of d e s p a i r f r e q u e n t l y makes use  d e r i v e d from o r g a n i c nature, the d r a g o n f l y from the bud. degrading  (11. 3 - 1 5 )  and  of images  such as the metamorphosis o f the emergence of the  These images t e l l  flower  a g a i n s t the speaker by  h i s s t a t u s as a unique c r e a t i o n and  suggesting  t h a t h i s i d e a l s are merely a d a p t a t i o n a l mechanisms, signed to motivate  him  into staying alive into  de-  maturity.  The  v o i c e a l s o uses images of g e n e r a l i z e d developments  art  thou nearer to the l i g h t ,  nite" t i l l .  92-3).  / Because the s c a l e i s  T h i s image i s not i n the f u l l e s t  e v o l u t i o n a r y , because Tennyson had mented w i t h the use  of organic metaphors t o d e s c r i b e  little  1850's.  Again,  more / Than beasts  lower / Than angels"  and  other  sense  the  the d e s c r i p t i o n , "owning but a  . . . Calling thyself a  (11. 1 9 6 - 9 9 ) ,  animals.  infi-  to e x p l o r e i n many  little  being merely a j o i n i n g of  two B i b l i c a l images, makes no inherent connection men  "Nor  not by t h i s time e x p e r i -  development of s o c i e t y , a theme he was poems of the  man.  between  43  The most i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of the poem, f o r the purposes of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , i s the number o f a l t e r n a t i v e , or c o n t r a d i c t o r y , world-systems the speaker uses; the comb i n a t i o n of c o s m o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n and e t h i c a l ^ or exi s t e n t i a l , argument makes i t a b r i e f model f o r I n Memoriam. The speaker begins w i t h a f a i r l y c o n v e n t i o n a l l i b e r a l cosmos:  "Young Nature through f i v e c y c l e s ran, / And i n the  s i x t h she moulded man"  (11.  17-13).  days were a c t u a l l y s i x epochs W8S  The idea that the s i x  f a i r l y standard i n the  1830's;"'^ the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f nature and God was  also  by t h i s time b a s i c a l l y orthodox.  notion,  but one t h a t Tennyson  A more s t a r t l i n g  had used b e f o r e , i s t h a t of the p l u r -  a l i t y o f worlds, as i n " h i s peers / I n yonder hundred l i o n spheres" ( 1 1 .  29-30),  mil-  and "Some y e a r n i n g toward the  15 lamps o f n i g h t " ( 1 .  363).  A more ambiguous r e f e r e n c e i s  to the " I n t e l l i g e n c e s f a i r " which range above the human s t a t e , mentioned  i n the c a n c e l l e d passage f o l l o w i n g 1.  they c o u l d be s p i r i t s ,  349;  or the i n h a b i t a n t s o f o t h e r p l a n e t s ,  or perhaps both, c o n s i d e r i n g Tennyson's  e a r l y use o f the  idea o f other worlds as h a b i t a t i o n s o f the dead. A t h i r d world-view f o l l o w s from the d i s c u s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y e a r l i e r i n the poem.  I n response t o the v o i c e ' s  doubt about the value of the i n d i v i d u a l i n comparison t o the species ( 1 1 .  31-33),  the speaker a s s e r t s t h a t a b s o l u t e unique-  ness c o n f e r s importance upon the i n d i v i d u a l l i f e .  Since t h i s  argument does not f u r t h e r h i s cause, he l a t e r v i r t u a l l y r e -  44  verses i t , arguing t h a t perhaps no l i f e but t h a t a l l l i v e s are somehow l i n k e d view does not imply a developmental  i s merely  individual,  (11. 346-4#).  This  l i n k a g e t o other s p e c i e s ,  although i t does r e c a l l an e i g h t e e n t h - c a n t u r y concent  o f the  c o n t i n u a l development of s o u l s , found i n the poetry of James  16 Thomson.  Instead, i t p o s i t s a theory of r e i n c a r n a t i o n  and the t r a n s m i g r a t i o n of s o u l s , i n which one i s reborn  after  f o r g e t t i n g the present l i f e  un-  doubtedly due  (11. 352-54).  idea was  i n some degree t o the " I n t i m a t i o n s " Ode,  can be found t e n t a t i v e l y s t a t e d elsewhere poems.  The  and  i n Tennyson's e a r l y  " R e c o l l e c t i o n s of the A r a b i a n Nights?'! f o r example,  opens w i t h the n a r r a t o r c a r r i e d back along "The  forward-  f l o w i n g t i d e of time" and becoming a "True Mussulman," which though p r i m a r i l y an e l a b o r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of a dream s t a t e , suggests by i t s d i c t i o n a remembrance of a former  life.  "The  Day-Dream," again, uses a s i m i l e i n v o l v i n g " s p i r i t s f o l d e d i n the womb," dimly p e r c e i v i n g the o u t s i d e world.  But the  ambiguous e l a b o r a t i o n of the idea.comes only i n "The Voices."  The  speaker  lower l i v e s . "  This last p o s s i b i l i t y  hope of s p i r i t u a l All  have a r i s e n  existence.  i s s e i z e d on as p r o v i d i n g  progress.  es hypotheses  The  cause any one  have  "throggh  of these a l t e r n a t i v e world-views are proposed  speaker merely  Two  suggests two a l t e r n a t i v e s : he may  " l a p s e d from n o b l e r p l a c e , " or he may  un-  which may  by the  a f f i r m the value of  r e s o l u t i o n of the poem comes about, not  be-  of them i s accepted as t r u e , but because, by  45  means o f h i s manipulation his  o f them, the speaker i s l e d to  f i n a l a f f i r m a t i o n of l i f e .  They are i n c l u d e d i n the  poem, not as Tennyson's statements about the world, but  as  the stages whereby the speaker recovers h i s f a i t h . S c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l , then,  i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Tennyson's  e a r l y poetry i n the form of a n a l o g i c a l imagery, r e i n f o r c i n g the main c u r r e n t s of thought r a t h e r than p r o v i d i n g new i n t h e i r own  right.  A c o n t r a s t i n g use  Browning's P a r a c e l s u s ,  ones  can be found i n  p u b l i s h e d i n 1335,  which reaches i t s  climax i n a d i r e c t and e x p l i c i t statement of e v o l u t i o n a r y development. The He  f i v e a c t s represent  is first  f i v e stages o f P a r a c e l s u s '  seen " a s p i r i n g , " t h e n i r o n i c a l l y " a t t a i n i n g , " ;  as he d i s c o v e r s t h a t h i s way complete.  life.  H i s attainment  of l i f e  thus f a r has been i n -  c o n s i s t s o f the r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s  d e f e c t s , which he w i l l presumably remedy; but i n s t e a d he i s next seen p r e d i c t i n g h i s own His f i n a l attainment  downfall, which soon f o l l o w s .  comes only on the p o i n t of death, when  he has a v i s i o n of the development o f the vrorld, which, emphasizing man's r o l e as a l i n k i n a long p r o g r e s s i v e r e c o n c i l e s him to h i s own  failures.  Paracelsus'  by series,  original  wish—"Make no more g i a n t s , God,  / But  once!" ( I . 7 7 9 - 3 0 ) — i s f u l f i l l e d  by the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t e l l  nature The  i s developing  e l e v a t e the race et  towerd Godheed by slow  stages.  c l o s i n g v i s i o n i s p a r a l l e l e d by the poet A p r i l e ' s de-  46  s c r i p t i o n o f h i s i d e a l i n the second p a r t o f the poem ( I I .  420-46*7). I n an e x p l i c i t comparison between the poet God,  8nd  who, as the p e r f e c t poet, " i n h i s person a c t s h i s own  c r e a t i o n s , " A p r i l e d e s c r i b e s t h e sequence i n which he would create: f i r s t , world ("no  "The forms o f e a r t h , " second, an i n h a b i t a b l e  ("Woods, v a l l e y s , rocks and p l a i n s " ) , t h i r d ,  speech  thought which ever s t i r r e d / A human b r e a s t should be  u n t o l d " ) , and f i n a l l y , music ("to p e r f e c t and consummate all").  The p r e c i s i o n o f the analogy becomes apparent at  the end o f the poem, when P a r a c e l s u s  r e a l i z e s that t h i s i s  i n f a c t God's own sequence o f c r e a t i o n . S i n c e , s h o r t l y before the v i s i o n , P a r a c e l s u s ' Festus  friend  has made a comparison between the s c i e n t i s t ' s thoughts  and "subterraneous f i r e " e v o l u t i o n of t h e world velopment o f the s o u l . lows: f i r s t  (V. 3 9 5 ) , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the  i s presented  8s analogous t o the de-  The e v o l u t i o n a r y sequence i s as f o l -  v o l c a n i c a c t i v i t y — " T h e c e n t r e - f i r e heaves un-  derneath the e a r t h , / And the e a r t h changes l i k e a human f a c e " (V. 6 5 3 - 5 4 ) — a n d other forms o f g e o l o g i c change, r e p resented by the "wroth sea's waves"; then the emergence o f life. Then a l l i s s t i l l ; e a r t h i s a w i n t r y c l o d ; But spring-wind, l i k e a dancing p s a l t r e s s , passes Over i t s breast t o waken i t , r a r e verdure Buds t e n d e r l y upon rough banks . . .  (V. 665-63) Various  animals are described i n a p r o g r e s s i v e order: i n -  s e c t s , b i r d s , mammals, and f i n a l l y man, " t h e consummation o f  47  t h i s scheme." of  T h i s process i s more than simply a r e c i t a l  the c r e a t i o n myth of G e n e s i s .  f a s h i o n , once God  I n an almost  deistic  has i n i t i a t e d the process, he  merely  " t a s t e s a p l e a s u r e " i n each s u c c e s s i v e stage; the method of  development i s l e f t vague, and i s nowhere s t a t e d t o be  c o n t i n u a l l y under God's d i r e c t management.  I t i s , however,  a r e c a p i t u l a t o r y process; man's " a t t r i b u t e s had here  and  there / Been s c a t t e r e d o'er the v i s i b l e world before, / A s k i n g t o be combined" (V. 6 3 5 - 3 7 ) . the next, and man,  Each stage  anticipates  although the h i g h e s t stage i n c r e a t i o n  so f a r , shows "August a n t i c i p a t i o n s , symbols, types" 775)  of the higher stage t o come; " i n completed  anew / A tendency f e c t man,  t o God."  C h r i s t may  man  (V. begins  have been the per-  but the process w i l l continue even a f t e r a l l men  reach p e r f e c t i o n , when '!begins, man's g e n e r a l i n f a n c y . " Progress i s d e f i n e d as the law of l i f e ;  "these t h i n g s  tend s t i l l upward" (V. 742), and the mode of progress i s shown as the p r o g r e s s i v e i n c a r n a t i o n of God t h i n g s , with man  in living  as the c l o s e s t approximation  so f a r .  a l e t t e r t o F u r n i v a l l , Browning h e l d up P a r a c e l s u s as  In con-  t a i n i n g , i n i t s p r o g r e s s i v e development "from s e n s e l e s s  mat17  ter  t o organized'," a l l t h a t had been proven i n Darwinism.  "At the back," he emphasizes, i s s t i l l  the hand t h a t s t a r t s  the b a l l r o l l i n g ; but the process seems t o operate  without  further outside interference. The h i s t o r i c a l P a r a c e l s u s , whom Browning claimed to be  p o r t r a y i n g a c c u r a t e l y , d e s c r i b e d the f o r m a t i o n of the i n terms of a chemical r e a c t i o n . of  Progressive  world  separations  the prime m a t e r i a l s from each other brought about the  d i f f e r e n t stages through which c r e a t i o n passed. extremely  c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n the s i x t e e n t h and  c e n t u r i e s , t h i s concept  was,  Although  seventeenth  by Browning's time,  somewhat  out of date, because of i t s r e l i a n c e on a l c h e m i c a l ideas such as the quadrature being abandoned.  of the elements, which were g r a d u a l l y  F o r t h i s reason, Browning l e f t the  c i s e mechanism unexplained,,  pre-  and a t t r i b u t e d i t t o a g e n e r a l  law of progress, r a t h e r then to s p e c i f i c a c t s of  God.  Such e v o l u t i o n a r y s p e c u l a t i o n i s not confined t o Tennyson and Browning, however, even though they make use of i t i n a much more h i g h l y developed poets.  form than t h e i r  contemporary  P h i l i p James B e i l e y , f o r exemple, i n h i s c o s m o l o g i c e l  dreme F e s t u s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1 8 3 9 , makes use of C u v i e r ' s str'ophism, 130-131),  end  of e p r o g r e s s i v e sequence of animal  though without  any  cate-  life  (pp.  i m p l i c a t i o n of transmutation  s p e c i e s ; the newer, more c o n t r o v e r s i a l e s t r o n o m i c a l  of  ideas,  such as the d e s t r u c t i o n of w o r l d s — " S y s t e m s a r i s e / 0JF a world  d i e s / Each constant hour i n a i r " — c o n f l i c t with  the 19  orderly, b a s i c e l l y eighteenth-century He  presents.  a l s o adopts the organic metaphor f o r cosmic d e s t r u c t i o n :  "as the f r u i t off  u n i v e r s e he  / Matures, and world by world  / The w r i n k l i n g s t a l k of Time" (p. 27).  f o l l o w e d by John Stanyan Bigg, who  drops mellowed I n t h i s he  was  d e s c r i b e d the u n i v e r s e  as  49  growing from " s e e d l i n g s i n t o suns; from suns t o systems," and r e f e r s ' i f i o "embryotic suns and nebulae" which are the product o f "the great thought / That rayed out i n t o con-  70 s t e l l a t e d worlds."  These authors demonstrate the i n -  c r e a s i n g f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h which e v o l u t i o n a r y concepts came t o be t r e a t e d d u r i n g the middle o f the n i n e t e e n t h century, but do not make use o f them i n p o e t i c a l l y t a n t ways, as Browning and Tennyson do; t h e i r  impor-  imagery  g e n e r a l l y s e r v e s a simply i l l u s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n ,  becoming  an a c c e s s o r y t o the thought, r a t h e r than i t s prime v e h i c l e . Browning,  i t has been seen, thought o f e v o l u t i o n a r y de-  velopment 8S the p r o g r e s s i v e i n c a r n a t i o n o f God i n the world.  No such e x p l i c i t  e a r l y poems of Tennyson,  concept has y e t been seen i n the however; and the new poems pub-  l i s h e d i n 1 8 4 2 g e n e r a l l y use images drawn from the s c i e n c e s e i t h e r f o r w i t t i c i s m , f o r i l l u s t r a t i v e examples ter  i n charac-  sketches, or i n order t o suggest the importance o f s c i -  ence i n modern l i f e .  The few e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s tendency  r e v e a l an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e toward  evolutionary  progress from Browning's. E x t i n c t i o n o f s p e c i e s and i t s p o l a r o p p o s i t e , development, cal  progressive  are drawn upon f o r t h e i r s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i -  applications.  "Nature b r i n g s not back the Mastodon,"  says H a l l i n "The E p i c , " e x p l a i n i n g why he has destroyed h i s e p i c poem, 8nd the unpublished "New Timon, and the Poets, Part 11^'" d a t i n g from the same g e n e r a l p e r i o d , f o r e c a s t s I n  50  Memoriam and the " E p i l o g u e " t o "The Charge of the HeavyBrigade" i n i t s emphasis  on the p o s s i b i l i t y o f human ex-  tinction: T h i s London once was middle sea, Those h i l l s were p l a i n s w i t h i n the past, They w i l l be p l a i n s a g a i n — a n d we, Poor d e v i l s , babble, we s h a l l l a s t . "Love thou thy l a n d , " on the other hand, makes an analogy between p o l i t i c a l freedom and the development body: " F o r Nature a l s o ,  o f the  . . . d e v i s i n g long, / Through  many agents making strong, / Matures the i n d i v i d u a l form." The t e n s i o n between progress and e x t i n c t i o n i s f e l t i n "Morte d'Arthur," where A r t h u r ' s l a s t words imply the possibility  o f p r o g r e s s i o n d e s p i t e , or because of, the de-  s t r u c t i o n o f Camelot. place t o new,  "The o l d order changeth, y i e l d i n g  / And God f u l f i l s h i m s e l f i n many ways, /  L e s t one good custom should corrupt the world'-' (11.  240-4?).  ;?  "The V i s i o n o f S i n " p r e s e n t s an analogous s i t u a t i o n .  The  poem has t r a c e d the d e c l i n e , p h y s i c a l as w e l l as moral, o f a s i n n e r ; a t the end the symbolic landscape of s e c t i o n 3, which showed God's rose of dawn being ignored, i s changed to a scene o f decay: "Below were men  and horses p i e r c e d w i t h  worms, / And s l o w l y quickening i n t o lower forms."  The "lower  forms" r e c a l l the "lower l i v e s " o f "The Two V o i c e s , " and.  21 suggest a r e v e r s a l of the developmental p r o c e s s .  At t h i s  stage, God appears t o have withdrawn from the p h y s i c a l world, and the answer t o the question, " I s there any hope?" i s " i n a tongue no man  could understand."  More than the p l i g h t o f  51  a s i n g l e man who  i s i m p l i e d ; the speakers i n the  are not s t a t e d to have been corrupted  f i n d God's answer incomprehensible. right  i n suggesting  by s i n themselves,  Hallam Tennyson  shown the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of e v o l u t i o n a r y ideas and  Tennyson's poetry,  images i n t o  but none of the p u b l i s h e d works up  t h i s p o i n t o f f e r any unambiguous statements on the The  to  subject.  p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e , however, can be more p r e c i s e l y  observed.  An  e a r l y unpublished  poem, "Youth" (16*33),  cates an u n c e r t a i n t y over the choice o f a course of one  was  proportions.  examination of these e a r l y poems has  gradual  stanza,  t h a t the whole human race i s i n v o l v e d ;  the problem o f s i n assumes cosmic The  last  indi-  life;  set of v o i c e s speaks of hov; " a l l t h i n g s become the  advoceting  s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n i n an a e s t h e t i c world based  memory, while  a "sharper  uncertain goal.  v o i c e " c a l l s th©  "Confused, and  I l o i t e r e d i n the middle wey while  pest," on  speaker on t o  c e a s i n g from my  . . . the p r e s e n t . "  quest,  an /  For a  he contemplates the world: Now i d l y i n my n e t e l bowers, Unvext by doubts I cennot s o l v e , I s i t emong the s c e n t l e s s f l o w e r s And  see and  hear the world  revolve:  but the course of i n d i f f e r e n c e cannot be held f o r very and  long,  soon, i n s p i r e d by a sense t h e t something i s happening,  he comes upon e r e s o l v i n g v i s i o n of g o d l i k e f i g u r e s on mounteins. Resartus,  The  process  the  i s s i m i l a r to the p a t t e r n o f S a r t o r  w i t h the "middle way"  corresponding  t o the  "centre  of i n d i f f e r e n c e " ; l a c k of commitment to an i n t e l l e c t u a l o o s i -  52  t i o n i s p o r t r a y e d 8s at best a temporary worst a b e t r a y a l of o b l i g a t i o n .  v a c i l l a t i o n , at  Whatever the immediate  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the poem i n 18*33, Tennyson's development was  t o take the form of an i n c r e a s i n g commitment t o f a c i n g  and understanding the r e a l i t i e s of the world.  "The  Poet's  Sons," a t a i l p i e c e t o the 18*42 volumes, shows t h i s commitment q u i t e c l e a r l y :  the poet s i n g s " o f what the world w i l l  be / When the years have d i e d away"; h i s theme i s at once the f u t u r e , and the u n d e r l y i n g r e a l i t i e s of the world.  CHAPTER FOUR IN MEMORIAM; THE  COMPOSITION OF THE  POEM  C r i t i c a l o p i n i o n has been d i v i d e d on the q u e s t i o n of the nature and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the " n a t u r a l theology" of I n Memoriam A.H.H. s i z e at one  Tennyson's own  recorded statements  time the p e r s o n a l , e l e g i a c aspects and  emphaat an-  other the more impersonal  p h i l o s o p h i c a l ones.  ber of h i s contemporaries  responded f a v o u r a b l y t o the poem's  q u a l i t i e s of f a i t h , and tions.  A l a r g e num-  even to i t s e v o l u t i o n a r y s p e c u l a -  Romanes p r a i s e d Tennyson as a f o r e r u n n e r o f Darwin,  and s c i e n t i s t s such as Owen and H e r s c h e l "regarded champion of S c i e n c e " ;  1  Henry Sidgwick  regarded  him as a  his belief  t h a t "humanity w i l l not and cannot acquiesce i n a godless world" as a s u c c e s s f u l response Carlyle.  to the problems nosed by  On the other hand, most modern c r i t i c s have been  dubious about the success of Tennyson's c o s m o l o g i c a l The  thought.  most famous comment i s T. S. E l i o t ' s , t h a t " I t s [ j n Me^e  ffi'OJciam'sj, f a i t h i s a poor t h i n g , but i t s doubt i s a very i n t e n s e experience,"-^ a judgment t h a t has been f o l l o w e d by a l a r g e number of c r i t i c s ,  including Christopher Ricks,  c h a r a c t e r i z e s Tennyson's darkest poems as h i s most  who  profound.**"  Even on the more p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n of what b e l i e f s the poem a c t u a l l y shows, o p i n i o n s are d i v i d e d : George P o t t e r and Graham  54 Hough argue t h a t the e v o l u t i o n a r y concept t h a t seems apparent i n some s e c t i o n s of the poem i s r e a l l y ^ust a ment of the standard nature,  idea of natura  develop-  naturans—developing  r a t h e r than e v o l v i n g s p e c i e s ; 5 John K i l l h a m  and  James H a r r i s o n are more f a v o u r a b l y i n c l i n e d t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of transmutation-ism or not Tennyson granted  being used i n the poem, whether  the idea f u l l  acceptance.  P o t t e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n seems t o r e l y too much on h i s assumpt i o n s about the p o p u l a r i t y of e v o l u t i o n a r y s p e c u l a t i o n i n the e a r l y p a r t of the century:, i f i t can be shown t h a t  the  proponents o f mutationism were an obscure m i n o r i t y ,  then  Tennyson could not have been u s i n g t h e i r t h e o r i e s .  "The  'mutetionists'  . . . were not the men  w i t h the h i g h e s t  t a t i o n s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s of study.  repu-  Erasmus Darwin-,  Lamarck, Goethe, Lorenz Oken, G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l e i r e , ¥.  C.  W e l l s , P a t r i c k Matthew, end Robert Chambers . . . were not most femous men  i n s c i e n t i f i c work of t h e i r dey,  no meens the most l e e r n e d or i n t e l l i g e n t informed  Englishman had  i n the year  ...  end were by  I f eny w e l l -  18*50 been asked t o name  the best minds among workers i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s would probably  the  ...  have mentioned none of these names, but  he  rather  C u v i e r , R i c h a r d Owen, L y e l l , the H e r s c h e l s , Sedgwick, Henslow, and L o u i s A g a s s i z — n o t  one  of whom had  the s l i g h t e s t  belief  i n the m u t a b i l i t y o f s p e c i e s before Darwin p u b l i s h e d h i s 7 Origin."  Apart  from the c u r i o u s i n f e r i o r i t y by a s s o c i a t i o n  assigned to some of the f i g u r e s on the e a r l i e r l i s t ,  there  are  55  several misleading  statements here.  F i r s t , l y e l l was  as opposed t o the concept o f transmutation statements made out.  es h i s p u b l i c  A f t e r h i s i n i t i a l r e j e c t i o n of La-  marck, d e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e  vacillation,  he became a muta-  t i o n i s t of s o r t s , spending years s p e c u l a t i n g on the o f whether s p e c i e s were the f i x e d and thought they were.  not  He  continued  r e a l e n t i t i e s he  t o use the vocabulary  " c r e a t i o n , " but only f o r l a c k o f a b e t t e r one; the idea o f a s e r i e s of separate the n a t u r a l p r o c e s s .  problem  he  had of  denied  divine interventions i n  Second, although none o f P o t t e r ' s  second group p u b l i c l y endorsed 8 m u t e t i o n i s t  d o c t r i n e , some  of them c o n t r i b u t e d ideas which were not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h it;  the H e r s c h e l s  formulated  cussed i n a previous  the nebular  chapter,  and A g a s s i z  hypothesis,  dis-  popularized  the  o notion of "prophetic  types"  r e g a r d l e s s of Chambers read, The  1  among animal s p e c i e s .  p u b l i c r e p u t a t i o n , he was  Third, widely  and Tennyson e v i d e n t l y drew important ideas from  him.  ideas of some o f the other m u t s t i o n i s t s were a l s o known  t o Tennyson, s i n c e L y e l l devoted a long s e c t i o n o f h i s P r i n c i p l e s t o a d i s c u s s i o n of Lamarck, and many of Erasmus Darwin's ideas could have been gleaned from S h e l l e y , i f not  from  a r e a d i n g o f t h a t author h i m s e l f . S i n c e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s no immediate reason t o deny the p o s s i b i l i t y of a transmutationist  i n f l u e n c e on Tennyson, i t  should be p o s s i b l e to examine the stages o f development t h a t I n Memoriam went through, with r e f e r e n c e to what i s known  56  of  Tennyson's readings i n e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y .  I t i s not  p o s s i b l e t o be c e r t a i n of the dates o f the m a j o r i t y of the 133  separate poems which make up t h i s long work, but  can be arranged  i n t o v a r i o u s broad groups on the b a s i s o f  t h e i r appearance i n the s u r v i v i n g manuscripts.  A group of  e i g h t c l e a r l y belongs t o 1 8 3 3 . A much l a r g e r group, i n the T r i n i t y MS., 18*37,  belongs predominantly  i n the L i n c o l n MS.,  dated  t o the years 18*33-  18*42,  f a i r copy of most o f the e a r l i e r poems. were added by the time t h a t the t r i a l  along w i t h a  A few more s e c t i o n s  e d i t i o n was  printed i n  and s i x more s t i l l were i n c l u d e d i n the 18*50 p u b l i c a -  t i o n ; these s e c t i o n s cannot The  found  w i t h some p i e c e s o f l a t e r date; a group o f about equal  s i z e appears  18*49,  they  first  be  dated.  group of poems i s c l e a r l y p e r s o n a l , d e a l i n g with  the shock of bereavement end the a n t i c i p a t e d r e t u r n of the s h i p c a r r y i n g A r t h u r Hallam's body. vEven et t h i s e a r l y stage, however, t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the e v e n t u a l poem stand, out: an emphasis on the l i m i t s o f human knowledge, an i n a b i l i t y t o draw c o n s o l a t i o n from the contemplation o f nature, and the c o n t i n u a l tendency on important  subjects.  t o present a l t e r n e t i v e o p i n i o n s  T h i s l a s t t r a i t can be observed i n  s e c t i o n s 3 0 end 3 1 ; w h i l e i n the f i r s t ,  there i s i m p l i e d a  w e l l - d e v e l o p e d b e l i e f i n the a f t e r l i f e ,  the second  denies the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n t y , u s i n g the f i g u r e of the uncommunicat i v e Lazarus.  The  afterlife  i n section 3 0 , incidentally,  shows s t r o n g a f f i n i t i e s t o the p l u r a l i t y - o f - w o r l d s theme ob-  57  served i n Tennyson's f i r s t p u b l i s h e d poems; the "serst>hic f l e m e " — n o t the only occurrence i n I n Memoriam o f Dantesque f i g u r e s — t r a v e l s '!From orb t o orb" w i t h "gathered power," and t h i s image antedates the p u b l i c a t i o n of T a y l o r ' s Physi c a l Theory by approximately t h r e e y e a r s . only drawing  Tennyson was  not  ideas from h i s r e a d i n g , but a l s o adapting i d e a s  c u r r e n t at the time even b e f o r e they were expressed i n publ i s h e d works. A Harvard Notebook d r a f t , a l s o d a t i n g from 1 8 3 3 ,  shows  the d i r e c t i o n Tennyson took i n making p a r t s o f the poem imp e r s o n a l , i n order t o emphasize t h e i r u n i v e r s a l i t y .  Evi-  d e n t l y w r i t t e n before the I n Memoriam stanza had been f i n a l l y decided on, i t shows the world as seen under the i n f l u e n c e of  grief: A c l o u d was drawn a c r o s s the sky, The s t a r s t h e i r courses b l i n d l y run. Out o f the waste p l a c e s came a c r y And murmurs from the dying sun.  When these l i n e s were l a t e r r e c a s t t o form part o f s e c t i o n 3 , t h e i r sentiment was  put i n the mouth o f an a b s t r a c t Sorrow,  and presented an image of the world i n g e n e r a l , r a t h e r than a s i n g l e l o c a l i z e d phenomenon. The next block of s e c t i o n s , those c o l l e c t e d i n the T r i n i t y MS.,  mostly antedate 1 8 3 7 ,  although there are some u n c e r t a i n -  t i e s , and i n t e r n a l evidence a s s i g n s some t o l a t e r dates. Tennyson's prime the s o u l .  concern here i s w i t h the i m m o r t a l i t y o f  Whereas i n the e a r l i e r s e c t i o n 8 5 the speaker imag-  53  ined the dead man's s p i r i t  speaking  t o him, although  aware  of the u n r e a l i t y o f the phenomenon ("so methinks the dead would say; / Or so s h a l l g r i e f w i t h symbols p l a y " ) , i n these poems the r e a l i t y o f the immaterial  spirit  i s i n s i s t e d upon:  "A S p i r i t , not a b r e a t h i n g v o i c e " ( 1 3 ) , "No v i s u a l shade o f some one l o s t ,  / But he, the S p i r i t  himself, may come / Where  a l l the nerve o f sense i s dumb" ( 1 1 3 ) .  Sensory  manifesta-  t i o n s o f ghosts are i l l u s o r y , "but the canker o f the b r a i n " (112).  S p e c u l a t i o n about the nature  o f the a f t e r l i f e  i s t h a t the s p i r i t  continues.  The  g e n e r a l impression  and  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y as w e l l as p h y s i c a l l y , "As f l i e s the  l i g h t e r through the gross"  ascends,  morally  ( 4 1 ) . T h i s i d e a , a development  from the t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f i n the l i g h t n e s s o f the s o u l , was f a m i l i a r a t the time from v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c sources. seph B u t l e r had speculated er and more enlarged  Jo-  t h a t the dead might enter "a h i g h -  state of l i f e  . . . i n which our c a p a c i -  t i e s and sphere o f p e r c e p t i o n , and o f a c t i o n , may be much g r e a t e r than at p r e s e n t . " ^  From such a b e l i e f i t i s a nat-  u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n t o the idea t h a t the s o u l s o f the dead i n h a b i t other worlds, i n the s o l a r system o r o u t s i d e i t , an idea t h a t had a l r e a d y been r e f l e c t e d i n Tennyson's e a r l y poetry, and which probably  r e c e i v e d a new s t r e n g t h from Isaac  P h y s i c a l Theory o f Another L i f e  (1336).  that the a p o s t o l i c d o c t r i n e o f bodies  Taylor  Taylor's  hypothesizes  c e l e s t i a l and t e r r e s t r i a l  r e v e a l s the " u n i v e r s a l law o f the i n t e l l i g e n t c r e a t i o n " — first,  a n a t u r a l body, then,  a development i n t o a s p i r i t u a l  59  form.'' the  T h i s u n i v e r s a l law,  combined w i t h the  concert  p l u r a l i t y of worlds, i m p l i e s t h a t a f t e r death the  ends up  on other p l a n e t s ,  e x i s t s immaterially  of soul  or perhaps, es a s p i r i t u a l being,  i n space, i t s d e s t i n y  the "unseen economy" of the heavens.  12  involved  with  Whether Tennyson 13  found T a y l o r q u i t e as c o n s o l i n g extension life  as Mattes t h i n k s ,  ' the  o f t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n concepts o f the a f t e r -  i n t o the p h y s i c a l universe  c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e d some For example, i n s e c t i o n 4 0 ,  of the s e c t i o n s of In Memor£am.  Hallam p a r t i c i p a t e s i n "those great  o f f i c e s that s u i t /  full-grown  s c e n t i o n 45 shows the  energies of heaven," and  c h i l d l e a r n i n g the use "were f r u i t l e s s "  o f h i s body, s t a t i n g t h a t t o do  i f the whole l e a r n i n g process had  The  so  t o be  re-  peated a f t e r death, so t h a t the purpose of t h i s l i f e i s es a preparation law  f o r the next.  Again, the u n i v e r s a l i t y of  the  i s emphasized i n s e c t i o n 82: " E t e r n a l process moving  From s t a t e to s t a t e the s p i r i t walks"; but not be t r a c e d s o l e l y to T a y l o r ' s reminiscent ces" and  the  t h i s passage can-  i n f l u e n c e , because i t i s  of the r e i n c a r n a t i o n e l passege i n "The e m b r y o l o g i c a l one  on,  i n "The  Two  Voi-  Palace of Art*'" both  of which have been shown t o d e r i v e from e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t sources. ^ 1  24,  Taylor's  i n f l u e n c e can a l s o be seen i n s e c t i o n  i n which the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the past w i l l "orb  perfect  s t 8 r  / We  sew  not, when we  the  moved t h e r e i n " r e i n t r o -  duces the imege of the p l u r a l i t y of worlds, w i t h an analogy t o the  into  c o n d i t i o n of the a f t e r l i f e .  implied  C e r t a i n other  60  passages, such as those d e s c r i b i n g the " c i r c u i t s o f t h i n e (63)  orbit"  and  "tenfold-complicated  image of the s p i r i t  change" (93),  and  the  (91),  as "a f i n e r l i g h t i n l i g h t "  1  t  show the v e s t i g e s of a Dantesque cosmos as w e l l as T a y l o r analogy i m p l i e d , i n s e c t i o n s 43 and 44,  The  c h i l d ' s l o s s of h i s e a r l y memories and  of the " I n t i m a t i o n s "  Ode,  between the  the departed, s p i r i t ' s  c a t c h i n g a memory-trace from i t s mortal reminiscent  s.  existence,  and  M8ttes  seems  has  indi-  cated the i n f l u e n c e of Wordsworth on another set of passages: "My  own  t h i s , / That l i f e  shell  l i v e f o r evermore, / E l s e e e r t h i s darkness et the  core"  (34);  dim  l i f e should  t e a c h me  " I f Death were seen / At f i r s t  been" (35).  es Death, Love hed  not  These l i n e s o f f e r the seme ergument es Words-  worth's, t h e t the sense of i m m o r t e l i t y  i s necessary f o r the  proper development of the a f f e c t i o n s , which otherwise would be stunted by a "hollowness Cwhich] would pervade the whole 16  system o f t h i n g s . " ly ity  how  I t may  be wondered, o f course,  precise-  c o n s o l i n g a point t h i s i s ; i f the b e l i e f i n immortel-  i s progremmed i n t o the mind, i f i t i s necessery f o r  t o b e l i e v e i t , then i t s t r u t h - v a l u e cannot be determined jectively.  But  f o r Tennyson and Wordsworth t h i s  men ob-  criterion  wouldnot have been v a l i d ; both mainteined the supreme importance of s u b j e c t i v e l y determined t r u t h . r e s t a t i n g one i f immortelity  S e c t i o n 34 ends by  o f Tennyson's most f i r m l y held b e l i e f s , i s an i l l u s i o n ,  a n n i h i l e t i o n would be  then l i f e  preferable.  thet  i s p o i n t l e s s , and  61  T h i s s u b j e c t i v i s t standpoint i s developed i n s e c t i o n 33, which d e s c r i b e s the speaker's  i n more d e t a i l f a i t h as hav-  i n g " c e n t r e everywhere, / Nor cares t o f i x i t s e l f t o form." The  experience  d e s c r i b e d does not r e f e r t o Tennyson's t r a n c e -  s t a t e , because the l a s t stanza i d e n t i f i e s i t w i t h "the law w i t h i n , " which must be maintained  by reason; the t r a n c e was  more p u r e l y a phenomenon o f f e e l i n g . t o a s u b j e c t i v e apprehension  These l i n e s must r e f e r  o f t r u t h , presumably r e s u l t i n g  from d i r e c t s p i r i t u a l contact w i t h God, but a t r u t h t h a t can be expressed  and not merely f e l t ,  f o r otherwise  i t could  not be as i n s t r u c t i v e as i t i s stated, t o be i n the l e s t stanze.  The r e f u s a l t o l i n k f a i t h t o "form," w h i l e not  p r o v i d i n g a purer f a i t h than the c o n t r a s t e d one ("Her f a i t h through  form i s pure as t h i n e " ) ,  opens the wey f o r a t r a n s -  cendence o f any s i n g l e creed, end e l s o prepares  f o r the no-  t i o n o f an i m m a t e r i a l God, not r e v e a l e d by the p h y s i c a l u n i verse. A few o f the s e c t i o n s may perhaps showothe i n f l u e n c e o f 17  Tennyson's r e a d i n g o f L y e l l .  '  S e c t i o n 53 warnssof the dan-  gers o f " d i v i n e Philosophy" t r a n s g r e s s i n g her l i m i t s ;  108  r e v e r s e s t h i s a t t i t u d e somewhat, asking "What p r o f i t l i e s i n barren f a i t h ,  / And vacant y e a r n i n g  t i o n cannot be r e l i a b l y dated, it  i t remains debatable  shows the beginning o f the impact  provides the f i r s t  . . .?" Because t h e sec-  of L y e l l .  whether  S e c t i o n 54  f u l l e x p r e s s i o n o f the d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and  s p i r i t u a l anguish t h a t mark many o f the s e c t i o n s produced i n  62  the  succeeding few y e a r s .  part o f the f o u r t h , l i s t  The f i r s t  three  stanzas, and  a s e t o f hopes t h e t are b a s i c t o  the comfortable C h r i s t i a n world system, such as B a i l e y was i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n t o F e s t u s a t about the seme time: t h e t a l l t h i n g s were g o e l - d i r e c t e d , and that the s u f f e r i n g on e e r t h would e v e n t u e l l y be compenseted f o r . end  of t h i s  l i s t there  know not enything";  Towerd the  i s en i n t e r r u p t i o n : "Behold, we  t h i s warning wes o r i g i n e l l y much more  emphatic, s i n c e f o u r e d d i t i o n e l l i n e s denied the e x i s t e n c e of any r e v e l a t i o n o f such an a f t e r l i f e — " d e l e t e d e b l y f o r r e l i g i o u s reasons," says R i c k s . line,  presum-  Following  this  however, i s an i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g o f assurance,  since  the f i n a l image, o f w i n t e r changing t o s p r i n g , i m p l i e s an i n e v i t a b l e process.  But the f i n a l stanza  again removes any  c e r t a i n t y , r e v e a l i n g a l l t h i s t o have been e dreem, end leeves the imege o f the t h i n k e r as a c h i l d , e n t i r e l y  help-  l e s s and dependent: "And w i t h no languege but a c r y . " G e o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e can be observed i n the use o f s c i e n tific  imagery i n some o f the s e c t i o n s ; 43, f o r exemple, uses  asmetaph-arxthat emphesizes the c o n t i n u i t y o f a l l l i f e :  "that  s t i l l garden o f the s o u l s / I n many a f i g u r e d l e e f e n r o l l s / The  t o t a l world s i n c e l i f e  began"; the " f i g u r e d l e e f , " t o -  gether w i t h the " t r a c e s " o f the flower  i n the previous  st8n1 #  za, may d e r i v e from L y e l l * s d i s c u s s i o n o f f o s s i l By  imprints.  c o n t r a s t , the "world-wide f l u c t u a t i o n " o f s e e t i o n 112 may  be p o l i t i c a l ,  or m e t e o r o l o g i c a l .  But two s e c t i o n s make ex-  63  p l i c i t use o f L y e l l ' s theory o f e r o s i o n as the fundamental The streams o f s e c t i o n 3 5,  f o r c e o f g e o l o g i c a l change.  coming from " I o n i a n h i l l s " — t h e  important word  emphasizing  the immense passage o f time L y e l l r e q u i r e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n t change t o take p l a c e — " s o w The  importance  / The dust o f c o n t i n e n t s t o be."  o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s not merely i t s use o f a  s t a r t l i n g new concept, but i t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the emotional meaning o f g e o l o g i c a l time, the r e d u c t i o n o f human e x i s t e n c e to  a b r i e f episode i n world h i s t o r y and the consequent  p i e r c i n g awareness o f death.  I t i s the c h a i n o f s p e c u l a t i o n  roused by t h i s image t h a t r e s u l t s i n the c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the b e l i e f i n i m m o r t a l i t y as a necessary stage o f development. S e c t i o n 1 2 3 begins w i t h b a s i c a l l y the same i d e a ; the impact o f g e o l o g i c a l change: "There  r o l l s the deep where grew  the t r e e . / 0 e a r t h , what changes hast thou seen!" second stanza attempts of  dissolving h i l l s .  dreamlike v i s i o n ,  The  t o d e s c r i b e the changes w i t h an image However, s e t i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the  i s the speaker's d e d i c a t i o n t o another  dream, which he w i l l h o l d t r u e .  G e o l o g i c a l change i s being  used t o suggest the c o n t r a s t between s u b j e c t i v e t r u t h end the d e c e i v i n g facade o f the m a t e r i e l world.  By t h i s p o i n t i n the  poem's development, the speaker i s r e a c h i n g f o r t r u t h s beyond his  i n d i v i d u a l , p e r s o n a l circumstances; es Tennyson s p e c i f i c -  a l l y cautioned the reader, i t " i s not always the euthor speeking f o r h i m s e l f , but the v o i c e o f the human race speak1Q  mg  through him."  7  64  The next stage i n the w r i t i n g o f I n Memoriam can be 1342.  seen i n the s e c t i o n s added to the L i n c o l n MS.  in  Presumably most o f these were w r i t t e n i n 1337  or a f t e r .  The s p e c u l a t i o n s about i m m o r t a l i t y  continue.  sage about the "great I n t e l l i g e n c e s f a i r " may  The pas-  i n s e c t i o n 35  have been w r i t t e n e a r l i e r — R i c k s i s u n c l e a r about the  d a t i n g o f the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the s e c t i o n — b u t "hundred s p i r i t s " 1339.  the  i n the " o r i e n t s t a r " (36) date from  S e c t i o n 47 seems reminiscent  o f Tennyson's  s t a t e when i t d e s c r i b e s the s e l f "Remerging S o u l , " but i t q u i c k l y abandons t h a t idea and the s u r v i v a l o f human i n d i v i d u a l i t y .  The  trance  i n the  general  proclaims  Wordsworthian  j u s t i f i c a t i o n reappears (55), t h i s time however as a quest i o n : "The wish . . . / D e r i v e s The l i k e s t God w i t h i n the s o u l ? "  i t not from what we have / The f u r t h e r question,  "Are God and Nature then at s t r i f e , " r a i s e s d i r e c t l y the q u e s t i o n o f Tennyson's  response to L y e l l .  L y e l l , r e j e c t i n g both the idea o f a s i n g l e c r e a t i o n and t h a t o f a s e r i e s o f d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n s , each r e s u l t i n g i n a new  species—the  p r o g r e s s i v i s t view, a prominent concept  espoused by such men  as Hugh M i l l e r ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the  1340's—adapted Hutton's e a r l i e r b e l i e f i n an unchanging, c o n t i n u a l s t a t e o f c o n d i t i o n s on earth, and advanced the hypothesis  t h a t a l l the g e o l o g i c a l changes which  scientists  were then aware o f were e x p l i c a b l e by assuming the  continued  a c t i o n of e r o s i o n and v o l c a n i c a c t i v i t y , the same g e n e r a l  65 phenomena observable today, over a p e r i o d o f m i l l i o n s o f years.  The consequences o f h i s scheme f o r the b i o l o g i c a l  s c i e n c e s l a y i n h i s r e j e c t i o n o f C u v i e r ' s system o f hypot h e s i z e d p e r i o d i c a l c a t a s t r o p h e s , which, by most e x i s t i n g l i f e ,  obliterating  caused e x t i n c t i o n by d i v i n e f i a t ,  as  20  i t were.  I f extinction  was t o be accommodated t o a u n i -  f o r m i t a r i a n world, then there had t o be e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r it  d i s c o v e r a b l e i n the t y p i c a l contemporary  T h i s thought was ury,  environment.  d i s o r i e n t i n g i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t -  when the most popular view was t h a t the world was  n e a t l y adapted t o meet the needs of a l l c r e a t e d b e i n g s . Nonetheless, L y e l l proceeded t o prove h i s case. He based much o f h i s argument, as Darwin was  t o do  l a t e r , on the s o r t of evidence Malthus had provided t h r e e 21  decades e a r l i e r . for  A l l organisms were engaged  i n a struggle  e x i s t e n c e , competing w i t h each o t h e r f o r food, and i n -  c a p a c i t a t i n g themselves f o r l i f e  by o v e r p o p u l a t i o n .  Limited  g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a f f e c t e d the a b i l i t y t o adept. But, most important o f a l l f o r L y e l l , a s p e c i e s was h e r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from an i n d i v i d u a l .  not i n -  J u s t as there were  l i m i t s beyond which an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d not change and remain a l i v e , so s p e c i e s could not adapt themselves t o the p o i n t of changing t h e i r fundamental nature, which L y e l l at t h i s time regarded as a f i x e d e n t i t y . tinct,  Consequently, specties became ex-  j u s t as i n d i v i d u a l s d i e d .  e l l r e j e c t e d Lamerck's  development  Part o f the reason why  Ly-  h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t the  66  a b o l i t i o n o f t h e concept  o f the s p e c i e s as a r e e l  entity-  would have thrown out h i s analogy;  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f  one  an a t t r a c t i v e  s p e c i e s i n t o another,  although  idea i n  some ways, would have i n t r o d u c e d t o o many c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n t o the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d process o f e x t i n c t i o n as L y e l l 22 conceived i t . At any r a t e , the dominant impression made by L y e l l ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s problem i s t h a t o f i t s i n e v i t a b i l i t y . G e o l o g i c a l change w i l l i n e v i t a b l y  produce e v e n t u a l  climatic  change, and few s p e c i e s w i l l be able t o adapt themselves t o this.  Such i s t h e image o f the world  t h a t Tennyson would  have been l i k e l y t o d e r i v e from a r e a d i n g o f L y e l l .  He had  a l r e a d y r e j e c t e d the argument from design, under t h e i n f l u ence o f C o l e r i d g e and the A p o s t l e s ; the impact o f L y e l l would have been a l l the g r e a t e r i n c a u s i n g him t o q u e s t i o n the bases o f h i s f a i t h .  L y e l l ' s universe, l i k e Laplace's,  was b a s i c a l l y one i n which God was s u p e r f l u o u s , and s e c t i o n 3 o f I n Memoriam r e p r e s e n t s a world "tThe s t a r s , ' she whispers,  o p e r a t i n g at random:  ' b l i n d l y run*'*"  According to  A l f r e d North Whitehead, t h i s l i n e goes t o the heart o f the problems o f s c i e n c e : "Each molecule b l i n d l y runs. body I s i a d c p l l e c t i o n  o f molecules.  The human  T h e r e f o r e , the human body  23 b l i n d l y runs."  But the v a l i d i t y o f the image i s l i m i t e d by  i t s being p l a c e d i n the mouth o f l y i n g Sorrow.  However, some  of the other s e c t i o n s d e a l with the s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e i n a l e s s guarded f a s h i o n .  67  I n s e c t i o n 6 , the f a c t t h a t death i s a commonplace occurrence simply adds t o the speaker's g r i e f .  This fact ac-  quires a L y e l l i a n significance i n section 5 5 . "So  c a r e f u l o f the type  life"—a  Nature  seems  . . . / So c a r e l e s s o f the s i n g l e  p o s i t i o n supported by i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the r a t i o  of b i r t h t o s u r v i v a l . the speaker,  T h i s f a c t alone i s s u f f i c i e n t t o make  or r a t h e r the human race speaking through him,  " f a l t e r where I f i r m l y t r o d " ; f a i t h i s d e s c r i b e d as lame. The e f f e c t o f what might be c a l l e d t h e simple M a l t h u s i a n r e v e l a t i o n i s t o make the sources o f f a i t h " f a i n t . "  But  t h i s e f f e c t i s compounded by the a d d i t i o n o f t h e f u r t h e r Lye l l i a n r e v e l a t i o n , t h a t "A thousand  types are gone" ( 5 6 ) .  The p o s s i b i l i t y occurs t h a t man might e v e n t u a l l y p e r i s h as i n d i v i d u a l s do now, and be " s e a l e d w i t h i n the i r o n Although L y e l l i s a t one p o i n t very c o n s o l i n g about s i b i l i t y o f s u r v i v a l , ^ i t remains 2  just  hills."  the pos-  i n e s c a p a b l e t h a t there i s  no c e r t a i n t y about  the continued e x i s t e n c e o f the human spe-  cies.  o f i m m o r t a l i t y i s experienced at the spe-  The problem  cies level;  i f man becomes e x t i n c t , what p o i n t w i l l there  have been i n human e x i s t e n c e ?  The answer i s unencouraging;  man's h i s t o r y makes him worse than a "dragon morally f i t f o r destruction.  o f the prime,"  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a h o p e f u l  s o l u t i o n i s d e f e r r e d i n d e f i n i t e l y : "behind the v e i l . " I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the major g e o l o g i c a l images o f t h i s p e r i o d , apart from f o s s i l i z a t i o n ,  are c a t a s t r o p h i c .  S e c t i o n 1 1 3 com-  pares g e o l o g i c a l w i t h p o l i t i c a l upheavals, the former being  63 more i n harmony w i t h C u v i e r ' s than with L y e l l ' s world: e a r t h changes o r b i t , w i t h consequent shocks, agonies, energies. and  In section 1 1 3 ,  the end  "They say" t h a t the e a r t h hegen  developed c a t a s t r o p h i c a l l y , the r e s u l t of " c y c l i c  storms"; the shape of the e a r t h i s "seeming-random." volcanic eruptions  and  earthquakes form an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of  L y e l l ' s system, of course,  but not c y c l i c  no l i t e r a l b e l i e f i s i m p l i e d : "They say." —or  the s p e a k e r — i s  Mere  storms.  However,  Perhaps Tennyson  c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e s to  L y e l l ' s ideas p o s s i b l e . S e c t i o n 124  o f f e r s a considered  i s s t i l l very much behind the v e i l ,  r e l i g i o u s statement.  God  but the s u b j e c t i v e appre-  hension of t r u t h i s c o n c l u s i v e ; the i n j u n c t i o n t o " B e l i e v e no more" i s answered by,  "I have f e l t . "  The  contrast  with  the other s e c t i o n s , i n which f e i t h i s being undermined, i s a strong i n d i c a t i o n o f Tennyson's u n c e r t a i n t i e s . It  is likely,  p r e s s i o n evident  as James H a r r i s o n s p e c u l a t e s ,  t h e t the  i n these s e c t i o n s i s the r e s u l t o f the  of e v o l u t i o n a r y content  in Lyell. 5 2  deleek  Whet i s apparent i s t h a t  e v o l u t i o n a r y ideas begin to a s s e r t themselves i n the poem ebout t h i s time.  The  passage i n 1 1 3 about man  being  h e r a l d of a higher race" can be i n t e r p r e t e d simply d i c t i o n of moral progress,  "The  as a pre-  e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the next  8pposite  phrese i s " o f h i m s e l f i n higher p l a c e " ; but the r e f e r e n c e "ape  and t i g e r " i s more than simply  forces.  The  idea t h a t man  was  emblematic o f  to  instinctual  descended from apes was  not  new,  69 and Tennyson was  probably aware of i t ;  i f so, the r e f e r e n c e  t o the ape would be an example o f h i s c o n t i n u a l p r a c t i c e of i n c l u d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r i e s .  Furthermore,  this  prog-  r e s s depends on man's t y p i n g " t h i s work of time / W i t h i n h i m s e l f " — t h e work of time being the e v e n t u a l emergence of man  i n the world, an event without  p r e v i o u s analogy.  The  r e s u l t must be something more than en i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of q u a l i t i e s , such as morel v i r t u e , t h e t ere elreedy present. However, t h e r e i s nothing i n these l i n e s t h a t i m p l i e s the t r a n s m u t a t i o n of s p e c i e s . The word "type" c r e a t e s problems.  The  f i r s t references  i n the O.E.D. t o the b i o l o g i c a l sense o f the word are dated 1850,  but one  of them i s Tennyson's "So  which a c t u a l l y dates from the 1#30's. r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t meanings.  c a r e f u l o f the type," The word can take  I n the e a r l i e r s e c t i o n  33,  f o r example, i t c a r r i e s the more c o n v e n t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s n o t a t i o n s of a n t i c i p a t i o n , symbolic model. The  The  seme sense,  prophecy, end  roughly, eppeers  even  i n the e p i l o g u e .  d i f f e r e n c e i s t h e t i n the e e r l y s e c t i o n Hallam  represents  a g o a l f o r Tennyson t o aim a t , while i n the epilogue he comes h i m s e l f a foreshadowing the r a c e .  con-  be-  of the e v e n t u a l c o n d i t i o n of  The v e r b a l usage i n 118* i s d e r i v e d from the  con-  n o t a t i o n of m o d e l l i n g . The  key p o i n t here i s t h a t man  mals i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n o f e s o u l .  d i f f e r s from the other e n i The  speaker of 120 i s "born  to other t h i n g s " than are d i c t a t e d by h i s mere b i o l o g i c a l  70  nature,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y again r e f e r r e d t o by the f i g u r e of  the ape. life;  The  s o u l exempts man  s e c t i o n s 27  and  63  from the o r d i n a r y f a t e of  (the l a t t e r e a r l i e r ) d i s c o u n t  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f animals i n the e t e r n a l scheme. i c a l nature  i s expressed  the  Man's phys-  by the phrase "magnetic mockeries,"  a r e f e r e n c e t o Mesmer's theory o f animal magnetism es w e l l as t o more r e s p e c t a b l e s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s o f  electrical  27  a c t i o n i n the  nerves.  What i s f o r e i g n t o the modern reader i s the idea t h a t man  can v o l u n t a r i l y take p e r t i n the e v o l u t i o n a r y  S e c t i o n 118  p r e d i c t s the development of the race through  s u f f e r i n g and  moral t e s t i n g ; s e c t i o n 131  o f f e r s the  of a " l i v i n g w i l l " which w i l l produce t r u e f a i t h , comes of s e l f - c o n t r o l . " n a t u r a l and  s e e i n g them i n s t e a d 8S  contained  t i o n s t o the body o f the poem.  The  was  not completed u n t i l  read Chambers, and  some important  most important  i s the s o - c e l l e d e p i l o g u e , which was  nyson had  "that  as-  principle.  t r i a l e d i t i o n of 1849  but a p p e r e n t l y  notion  Tennyson has not d i s s o c i a t e d the  s p i r i t u a l processes,  pects of the same g e n e r a l The  process.  probably  1845.  of  begun i n  addithese 1842  By t h a t time Ten-  h i s f i n a l concept of e v o l u t i o n  crystallizing. Robert Chambers p u b l i s h e d h i s V e s t i g e s of the N a t u r a l H i s 28  t o r y of C r e a t i o n anonymously i n 1844. storm among r e l i g i o u s groups, and  H i s book c r e a t e d a  earned as w e l l the obloquy  o f many r e s p e c t a b l e s c i e n t i s t s , even those  of the e v o l u t i o n -  71  i s t camp.  Darwin was  sympathetic, but Huxley was  indignant  at Chambers' mistakes, and h i s response probably determined the dominant  a t t i t u d e i n t h i s century, as expressed by Hough  when he d e s c r i b e s the V e s t i g e s as "almost the worst k i n d o f scientific popularizating." ^ 2  Still,  the book has more than  merely h i s t o r i c a l importance, although i t has p l e n t y o f t h a t , being the major source f o r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a s i n the p u b l i c consciousness d u r i n g the l£40's.  I t serves as a v a l u a b l e  compendium o f s c i e n t i f i c thought, makes the most famous conn e c t i o n between the nebular h y p o t h e s i s and t h a t o f b i o l o g i c a l development,  and uses many of the arguments t h a t were t o  become standard p r o o f s o f e v o l u t i o n l a t e r i n the century, such as r e c a p i t u l a t i o n t h e o r y and the e x i s t e n c e of rudiment---fcary organs.  I t i s equally f u l l  of mistakes and untenable  i d e a s , such as that o f spontaneous  g e n e r a t i o n , but i t should  be remembered that t h a t p a r t i c u l a r concept was  not  finally  d i s p r o v e n u n t i l the 1860's. The book's g e n e r a l argument i s t h a t t h e r e i s a u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e o f development  from lower i n t o h i g h e r forms,  and  t h a t t h i s can be seen i n a l l phenomena from the o r g a n i z a t i o n of nebulae to the ascent o f man.  The mechanism o f develop-  ment i s b a s i c a l l y Lamarckian; a d a p t a t i o n t o the  environment  by i n d i v i d u a l s a f f e c t s the nature o f the young, presumably i n the embryonic  stage.  L i k e L y e l l , Chambers r e j e c t e d the idea  of complete breaks i n the g e o l o g i c a l process end r e c o r d , but u n l i k e L y e l l , he p l g e e d n l i t b l e emphasis  on the s t r u g g l e f o r  72  e x i s t e n c e , r e g a r d i n g i t as a c c i d e n t a l to the main p l a n o f creation.  H i s was  a t e l e o l o g i c a l l y organized e v o l u t i o n a r y  world. The of  e p i l o g u e to I n Memoriam shows s t r o n g  reminiscences  the V e s t i g e s . A s o u l s h a l l draw from out the vast And s t r i k e h i s being i n t o bounds, And, moved through l i f e of lower phase, R e s u l t i n man, be born and t h i n k , And act and love, a c l o s e r l i n k Betwixt us and the crowning race . . . Whereof the man, t h a t w i t h me t r o d T h i s p l a n e t , was a noble type Appearing ere the times were r i p e . (11.  A c c o r d i n g t o P o t t e r , the phrase  123-123,  "moved through  137-139) life  of  lower  phase" r e f e r s t o von Baer's o b s e r v a t i o n s on e m b r y o l o g i c a l redevelopment. Chambers, however, connects such o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h an e v o l u t i o n a r y h y p o t h e s i s , producing the  recapitulation  theory, a c c o r d i n g t o which embryonic stages are analogous to previous l i f e - f o r m s from which the present animal has d e v e l oped.  T h e r e f o r e , i f Tennyson's phrase  r e f e r s to embryonic  change, the context makes i t c l e a r t h a t the development hypot h e s i s i s being drawn on. concepts  Furthermore, one  i s t h a t a d a p t a t i o n a l l y induced  a f f e c t the embryo so t h a t i t develops  of Chambers' key  changes i n the  i n t o a new  parent  form; the  development of the s p e c i e s and of the i n d i v i d u a l f e t u s are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l , s u b j e c t to the same laws.  T h i s idee pro-  v i d e s the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the " c l o s e r l i n k j " whether i t i s understood  as a c o l l e c t i v e human s o u l or es en  individual  73 developing The  i n t o the new  r e q u i r e d form d u r i n g g e s t e t i o n .  n o t i o n of Hallam as a "type"  o f the h i g h e r race drawsa  both on the r e l i g i o u s u s a g e — a symbolic Chambers' use:  prophecy—and  on  " I s our race but the i n i t i a l of the grand 31  crowning It  seems reasonable,  L y e l l was his  type?"  profoundly  then,  t o argue t h a t the r e a d i n g  depressing  f o r Tennyson because of  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e es  a b l e and  of  inescap-  l i m i t i n g t o the powers of the s p e c i e s , and  that  the r e a d i n g o f Chambers s o l v e d t h i s problem by showing a way  i n which e v o l u t i o n could enable one  v i d u a l or a s p e c i e s ) t o transcend  (whether an  t h i s s t r u g g l e by  indiassisting  i n ^ t h e g r a d u a l development of a higher form of l i f e .  In  moriam ends w i t h a marriage, which i s at once symbolic the union between s o u l s and Chambers had  of  of the mechanism of e v o l u t i o n ;  s t r e s s e d the c r u c i a l importance of the "genera-  t i v e system" i n the development of the s p e c i e s .  Tennyson's  l i t e r a l b e l i e f i n the t r u t h o f Chambers' arguments wes necessery  Me-  f o r t h e i r use  not  i n the consummeting v i s i o n of the  e p i l o g u e , eny more then h i s b e l i e f i n the e l t e r n e t i v e ,  end  sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g , t h e o r i e s of g e o l o g i c a l change wes q u i r e d f o r t h e i r use  i n other s e c t i o n s .  L i k e M i l t o n , Tenny-  son found h i s p o e t i c purpose strengthened t i o n of d i f f e r i n g c o s m o l o g i c a l  systems.  by the  presenta-  However, d e s p i t e  the f a c t t h a t i t i s the v o i c e of the human race, and l y Tennyson h i m s e l f , t h a t i s speaking,  re-  not mere-  h i s recorded states:  74  merits g i v e substance t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the e v o l u t i o n a r y concept was f o r him a p e r s o n a l b e l i e f as w e l l .as a p o e t i c device.  He thought " t h a t the theory o f E v o l u t i o n caused the  world t o regard more c l e a r l y the ' L i f e o f Nature 8 s 8 lower stage i n the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a p r i n c i p l e which i s more f u l l y manifested  i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e o f man, w i t h the  idea t h a t i n t h i s process  o f E v o l u t i o n the lower i s t o be 32  regarded  as a means t o the h i g h e r . ' "  H i s commitment was  c l e a r l y t o the concept o f e v o l u t i o n as a s p i r i t u a l process, of which the b i o l o g i c a l was only one a s p e c t .  Thus the de-  t a i l s o f the transmutation  o f s p e c i e s were secondary t o the  important  o f the concept, t h a t i t allowed  life,  symbolic  quality  and more p a r t i c u l a r l y , man, the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f r e e -  dom from t h e l i m i t s o f m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e , and o f developing i n t o a more s p i r i t u a l form.  Without such  transmutation,  there could be no hope o f the race being able t o shape i t s d e s t i n y i n t o h i g h e r c o n d i t i o n s ; the c o n c e p t i t s e l f , ;  the d e t a i l s a s i d e , i s e s s e n t i e l Memoriam.  leaving  t o the c o n c l u s i o n o f I n  CHAPTER FIVE IN MEMORIAM: THE  The  POEM AND  ITS ANALOGUES  d i s c u s s i o n i n the previous chapter of the  i n the composition  stages  o f I n Memoriam i s o n l y p a r t o f the  a n a l y s i s t h a t must be made i n order t o determine the  sig-  n i f i c a n c e and meaning of the e v o l u t i o n a r y passages i n the poem.  The  obvious  f a c t i s t h a t the f i n a l order o f the  s e c t i o n s , as p u b l i s h e d i n 1 8 5 0 , i s not c h r o n o l o g i c a l , and t h a t the sequence of composition knowledge has  l e d some c r i t i c d ,  has been obscured.  This  f o r example C h r i s t o p h e r  R i c k s , t o c l a i m t h a t the " c h a r t i n g of Tennyson's doubts  and  hopes" i n the poem does not provide i t w i t h e s s e n t i a l u n i t y . Tennyson, however, s p e c i f i c a l l y cautioned t h a t i t was an autobiography,  and Morse Peckham has  s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the  reason Tennyson r e f u s e d t o a l l o w h i s manuscripts l i s h e d was  not  t o be pub-  so t h a t the c o m p o s i t i o n a l sequence would not  d i s t r a c t readers from the meaning of the completed work. Many schemes have been offered, f o r d i v i d i n g the poem i n t o sections. was  Tennyson h i m s e l f e x p l a i n e d t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n  s t r i c t l y c h r o n o l o g i c a l , w i t h the three Christmas  forming  the breaks between the d i v i s i o n s ; he e l a b o r a t e d  p l a n t o James Knowles, w i t h a s l i g h t t h a t there were nine d i v i s i o n s : 53,  Eves  59-71,  72-93,  99-103,  and  discrepancy,  1-8, 9 - 2 0 , 2 1 - 2 7 ,  104-131.  3  Various  this  saying 28-49, 5 0 critics,  76  however, have suggested other s t r u c t u r e s .  Robert Langbaum  proposed 9 5 as the fundamental t u r n i n g p o i n t ; E . D. H.  has  Johnson d i v i d e d i t i n t o 1 - 2 7 , 2 3 - 7 7 ,  73-103,  and 1 0 4 - 1 3 1 ,  elsewhere s e l e c t i n g 3 5 end 1 0 3 as the key s e c t i o n s ; V a l e r i e Pitt  places 4  and  99.  the d i v i s i o n s e t the "dim dawn" s e c t i o n s , 7 2  A l l these arrangements have some v a l i d i t y , i n  t h e t they a l l show the working o f s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s o f thought and imagery throughout the poem; but none are part i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l i n t r a c i n g the working o f the e v o l u t i o n a r y and  scientific  patterns.  try  t o show the c o n t r i b u t i o n these elements make t o the func-  t i o n i n g o f t h e poem.  The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f a n a l y s i s  will  I t i s understood t h a t i t can only  r e v e a l one aspect o f the work's t o t a l i t y ,  and t h a t only es  much o f the l e r g e r context as i s necessary t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s aspect w i l l be undertaken. I n the t r i a l e d i t i o n o f 1 3 4 9 , the prologue preceded the title  page; i n the f i n a l v e r s i o n ,  immediately p r e c e d i n g the f i r s t  i t was moved t o a place  section.  The s i z e a b l e  break i n the e a r l i e r e d i t i o n made the prologue a d e d i c a t i o n , not i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h t h e main body o f t h e work; put into c l o s e r proximity  w i t h the r e s t o f the poem, however, i t  s t r o n g l y suggests the p u b l i c , p r o p h e t i c son  p e r i o d i c a l l y emphasized.  q u a l i t y t h a t Tenny-  Probably one o f the l a s t  sec-  t i o n s t o be composed, i t r e f l e c t s the s t r u g g l e s o f the poem in  i t s references  t o the impermenence o f the m e t e r i a l world,  the transcendent nature o f God, and the n e c e s s i t y  of f a i t h  77  and  love as the sources of t r u t h .  The t h e o l o g i c a l  may  l e a d the reader t o expect a d i d a c t i c poem, arguing  the i s s u e s of f a i t h and s c i e n c e ; an i n t e r e s t i n g  tone  conflict  i s c r e a t e d between t h i s and the e x p e c t a t i o n of a p e r s o n a l elegy, roused by the These two section.  The  title.  5  elements are kept i n balance d u r i n g the opening  first  l i n e , so o f t e n misquoted, r e f e r s t o  Goethe, among whose l e s t words were "from changes t o h i g h e r changes":^ I h e l d i t t r u t h , w i t h him who s i n g s To one c l e a r harp i n d i v e r s tones, That men may r i s e on stepping-stones Of t h e i r dead s e l v e s t o higher t h i n g s . T h i s passage i n t r o d u c e s immediately  the twin themes of per-  s o n a l development through s u f f e r i n g and the l a r g e r ment o f the r a c e .  develop-  By the end o f the s e c t i o n , the focus  narrowed onto the g r i e f s o f the speaker,  has  but the l i n k w i t h  the more u n i v e r s a l problems of mankind has been e s t a b l i s h e d from the b e g i n n i n g . S e c t i o n 3 f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s l i n k ; Sorrow the b i i n d n e s s and meaninglessness s a i d t o be "A  is  e x p r e s s i o n of a r e c u r r i n g theme.  next s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s are devoted  the speaker's  Nature i s  hollow form w i t h empty hands," i n which God  not immanent: the f i r s t The  of the world.  suggests  to an e x p l o r a t i o n of  personal g r i e f , with l i t t l e r e f l e c t i o n  appli-  cable t o the s i t u a t i o n of the r a c e as a whole; however, sect i o n 6 shows t h a t the u n i v e r s a l i t y of bereavement i s i t s e l f  73  a motive f o r sorrow, and  s e c t i o n 27 c o n t r a s t s man  with  beasts t h a t are i n c a p a b l e of e x p e r i e n c i n g the h i g h e r ings.  A l s o , the f i r s t  t r a v e l l e r has reproached  where a  him f o r i n d u l g i n g p r i v a t e g r i e f s  at a time "When S c i e n c e reaches  The  feel-  c a l l t o p u b l i c commitment f o r the  poet has been made, and r e j e c t e d , i n s e c t i o n 21,  from world to  the  f o r t h her arms / To  feel  world."  t e n s i o n i n i t i a t e d i n s e c t i o n 3 w i t h the  suggestion  of the meaninglessness of the world  i s temporarily resolved  i n 33,  "a purer 8 i r , " con-  when the speaker has reached  c e i v i n g of God  as t r a n s c e n d i n g a l l forms, but t h a t t h i s  s o l u t i o n i s only temporary i s shown by the p r a i s e given t o h i s s i s t e r f o r her e q u a l l y p u r e — p e r h a p s through form."  The  next s e c t i o n , 34,  superior--"faith  u n i t e s the  personal  and u n i v e r s a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i m m o r t a l i t y . The  c e r t a i n t y d e r i v e d from p e r s o n a l i n t u i t i o n i s c o n t r a s t e d  w i t h the doubt caused by t h i n k i n g on the enormous s t r e t c h e s of time t o come, with t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n of the cance of man.  Although  weighs the balance  36,  insignifi-  w i t h i t s i n v o c a t i o n of C h r i s t ,  on the s i d e of i n t u i t i v e f a i t h , t h i s group  of s e c t i o n s begins the s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g impact of g e o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n on the  speaker.  S e c t i o n 37 a g a i n examines the r o l e of the poet.  Urania,  the sacred or a s t r o n o m i c a l muse, upbraids the attempt to i n clude philosophy f a m i l i a r matters.  i n an elegy, recommending a r e t u r n to moreMelpomene, here r e p r e s e n t i n g elegy,  admits  79  her u n f i t n e s s f o r high thought, but pardons her s l i p by reminding Urania divine."  t h a t the "dear one dead" s t u d i e d  The poem r e t u r n s t o more p e r s o n a l  "things  concerns i n  the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , but e v e n t u a l l y begins i t s more u n i v e r s a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s once again,  a s s e r t i n g the s u r v i v a l o f  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a f t e r death ( 4 7 ) .  Then, as i f i n  apology f o r the renewed p h i l o s o p h i z i n g , the p r e t e n s i o n s o f the "Short  s w a l l o w - f l i g h t s o f song" t o i n t e l l e c t u a l  cer-  t a i n t y are n e a t l y d e f l a t e d ; Sorrow does not care " t o p a r t and  prove"; the poems are dramatic r a t h e r than d i d a c t i c u t -  terances. Up t o t h i s p o i n t , I n Memoriam has been p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the speaker's i n d i v i d u a l experience;  when,the  human race speaks through him, i t g e n e r a l l y does so with r e f e r e n c e t o p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s . . But, i n s e c t i o n s  53-56,  the u n i v e r s a l e x p l i c i t l y becomes the s u b j e c t matter. f e a r i s expressed t h a t Philosophy and  The  may overrun i t s l i m i t s  l e a d t o d e s p a i r ; promptly, the comfortable  Christian  i d e a l o f e x i s t e n c e , i n which a l l s u f f e r i n g i s rewarded, and all  l i f e has meaning, i s undermined.  Nature seems t o con-  t r a d i c t the speaker's b e l i e f s about God.  The hope o f immor-  t a l i t y , which gave meaning t o Hallam's e x i s t e n c e ,  seems i n -  compatible w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the deaths o f the overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f any l i f e form are e s s e n t i a l f o r the continued existence  o f the s p e c i e s .  But the f u r t h e r r e v e l a t i o n  of the e x t i n c t i o n o f e n t i r e s p e c i e s endangers what l i t t l e  so consolation s t i l l ing  remains.  The  q u e s t i o n i s posed: what mean-  i s t h e r e , not only i n p e r s o n a l e x i s t e n c e but i n the  i s t e n c e of the whole human race, i f mankind w i l l one die  out?  Because God  the p h y s i c a l world, The  next two  i s behind  the v e i l ,  ex-  day  not immanent i n  the answer cannot be known.  s e c t i o n s provide a dying f a l l f o r t h i s temp-  t a t i o n to despair.  S e c t i o n 5 7 , w i t h i t s opening words,  "Peace; come away," r e c a l l s the reader t o the  particular  s i t u a t i o n which has c a l l e d f o r t h these o u t b u r s t s ; the l a n g uage of the f i r s t  two  stanzas i s f u l l  of short phrases  and  i n t e r r u p t i o n s , as though the speaker i s s t r i v i n g t o get cont r o l of h i m s e l f .  The  f r i g h t e n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s of modern  s c i e n c e w i l l not r e t u r n him t o the world do him wrong / To s i n g so w i l d l y " — w h a t  of the l i v i n g :  i s u n f i t t i n g t o be  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the memory of the loved one ted.  "we  i s t o be  rejec-  S e c t i o n 5 3 adds a c o n s o l a t i o n from the " h i g h Muse,"  U r a n i a : "Abide a l i t t l e a nobler l e a v e . "  longer here,  / And  Considering Urania's  thou  shalt  take  classical association  with astronomy, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t what i s i m p l i e d here i s t h a t i f the poet w i l l f a c e the c h a l l e n g e s of d e s p a i r , as i n the preceding  s e c t i o n s , he w i l l f i n d the means of  them; i n which case, the progress from U r a n i a ' s  mastering  original  pearance i n s e c t i o n 3 7 to t h i s p o i n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the ideas and f e e l i n g s are now The  more mature and  poem once again concentrates  many r e f e r e n c e s t o the nature  appoet's  truthful.  on p e r s o n a l themes, w i t h  of the a f t e r l i f e ,  and  to the  81  nature o f p o e t r y .  The poet's r e p l y t o the u p b r a i d i n g  t r a v e l l e r i n s e c t i o n 21 i s r e a f f i r m e d : s o c i a l i n c l u d i n g presumably unimportant  the achievements  realities,  o f s c i e n c e , are  compared w i t h the c r e a t i o n o f songs t h a t  will  be r e c o g n i z e d and responded t o e m o t i o n a l l y by f u t u r e r e a d ers,(77).  Among the many t h i n g s t h a t happen i n t h i s p a r t  of the poem, however, t h e r e i s e v i d e n t a subsidence o f the e a r l i e r extreme g r i e f , and the b e g i n n i n g o f a p e r i o d o f change.  T h i s change o f a t t i t u d e i s symbolized i n s e c t i o n  69, i n which,,8 dream i s recounted: Nature has l o s t i t s powers o f s t i m u l a t i n g growth,  but an angel, g l o s s e d by Ten-  nyson as " t h e D i v i n e T h i n g i n the gloom," b r i n g s a comfort that i s d i f f i c u l t  f o r the dreamer t o understand.  the crown o f t h o r n s , emblematic writes 8bout leaf."  Touching  o f the r o l e o f poet who  death and g r i e f , he seems t o " t o u c h i t i n t o  A movement has begun toward redemption,  both o f the  poem, the poet, and mankind. The f a c t o f death i s no l o n g e r a c h a l l e n g e t o f a i t h (82). Death  i s seen as part o f the " E t e r n a l p r o c e s s , " analogous t o  metamorphosis;  Hallam i s t e n t a t i v e l y supposed  " i n conclusive b l i s s , The  as triumphing  / And t h a t serene r e s u l t o f a l l " ( 3 5 ) .  speaker i s r e a f f i r m i n g h i s d e s i r e f o r l i f e  new f r i e n d s h i p , w i t h Hallam's  i m p l i e d consent.  i n seeking a From t h i s  p o i n t f o r t h , the u n i v e r s a l q u a l i t i e s o f the poem, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the experience o f the e n t i r e human race, become dominant, i n a s e r i e s o f c o n t r a s t s and r e s o l u t i o n s o f d i f f e r -  32  ent images o f cosmic  change, with three d i s t i n c t l e v e l s o f  argument. I n the f i r s t  stage, images o f e s s e n t i a l  non-progressive  change, the " c y c l e d times" o f s e c t i o n 8 5 and the " c l o s i n g c y c l e " o f 1 0 5 , a l t e r n a t e w i t h images suggestive o f development: the nebular h y p o t h e s i s drawn on i n 8 9 f o r the "crimsoncircled  s t a r " and her " f a t h e r , " and the t r a n c e - s t a t e e x p e r i -  ence o f cosmic  process i n 9 5 .  There "The l i v i n g s o u l " en-  wraps the speaker's, and somehow communicates "AEonian measuring  music  out / The steps o f T i m e — t h e shocks o f C h a n c e — /  The blows o f Death."  The p a r i n g down o f syntax, t h e drop-  p i n g o f c o n n e c t i v e s , shows the d i f f i c u l t y o f e x p r e s s i n g i n  7 words the "deep p u l s a t i o n s o f the world."  Both types o f  process are fused i n 106, f o r an a s s e r t i o n o f t r a n s i t i o n which combines the c y c l i c a l — t h e  changing o f the year--with  the p r o g r e s s i v e , and not only g e n e r a l i z e d s o c i a l improvement, but a long-range development toward  "the C h r i s t t h a t i s t o  be." The  second  stage c o n t r a s t s the shock and d e s t r u c t i o n o f  change w i t h the d r i v e toward, improvement. t u a t i o n " and "thousand (112-113)  shocks  "World-wide f l u c -  . . , agonies  . . . energies"  g r a p h i c a l l y express the calamitous nature o f cos-  mic change; by c o n t r a s t , 1 1 0 d e s c r i b e s the vague d e s i r e , of l o v e , "That spurs an i m i t a t i v e w i l l , " marckian  born  s u g g e s t i n g the L a -  impulse t h a t r e g u l a t e s the development o f the spe-  c i e s i n t o i t s necessary h i g h e r forms.  Both o f these  concepts  33  are combined i n s e c t i o n 113, where the development o f the e a r t h , through " c y c l i c storms,"  i s p a r a l l e l e d with  the development o f man as a r e s u l t o f s u f f e r i n g i n t o a higher r a c e . . . . life  i s not as i d l e ore,  But i r o n dug from c e n t r a l gloom, And heated hot w i t h burning f e a r s , And d i p t i n baths o f h i s s i n g t e a r s , And  b a t t e r e d w i t h the shocks o f doom  To shape and use. The  s e c t i o n concludes w i t h the moral imperative t o "work  out the beast, / And l e t the ape and t i g e r d i e . "  The con-  t e x t e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t t h i s advice i s d i r e c t e d not merely t o the i n d i v i d u a l , but t o the race as a whole.  Thus c a t a -  s t r o p h i c d e s t r u c t i o n and the i n t e r n a l d r i v e toward  prog-  r e s s are r e c o n c i l e d . The thirdssfegge develops from the s y n t h e s i s a l r e a d y reached, which i s r e s t a t e d i n 127, where Hallam s m i l e s at overwhelming d e s t r u c t i o n o n s e a r t h — " t h e great Eon blood"—because  the process i s going w e l l *  of r e g r e s s i o n i s f a c e d , and mastered; i n the f l o o d " co-operate toward  sinks i n  The p o s s i b i l i t y  even the " v a s t eddies  the f i n a l end (123).  i n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y o f the p h y s i c a l world i s the l a s t  The  remaining  c o n t r a s t ; "The h i l l s are shadows, and they flow / From form to form"  (123).  Here, g e o l o g i c a l change becomes q u i e t and  g e n t l e , dreamlike, as opposed t o the e a r l i e r images o f storm and d i s a s t e r .  The c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n ( 1 3 1 ) r e c a l l s  passage when i t i d e n t i f i e s the p h y s i c a l world with  this illusion:  0 l i v i n g w i l l t h a t s h a l t endure When a l l t h a t seems s h a l l s u f f e r shock, R i s e i n the s p i r i t u a l rock. The  e v o l u t i o n a r y process, i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the w i l l of  has taken the p l a c e occupied i n P l a t o n i c systems by archetypes.  The  p r o g r e s s i v e and The  God,  static  t r u e i n f o r m i n g p r i n c i p l e of the world i s dynamic.  e p i l o g u e sums up the e n t i r e development i n i t s f i n a l  image o f the m a r r i a g e — l i f e depends on  reproduction--and  the c l o s i n g v i s i o n , i n which the p e r f e c t i o n of mankind, as typed beforehand  by the development of an i n d i v i d u a l  serves as a l i n k w i t h the "crowning  who  r a c e , " i s seen as the  u l t i m a t e purpose of the u n i v e r s e : "one  f a r - o f f d i v i n e event,  /  To which the whole c r e a t i o n moves." T h i s a n a l y s i s has shown the importance  and f u n c t i o n of  e v o l u t i o n a r y passages i n I n Memoriam, at the r i s k of neglect i n g most of i t s tremendous range and  depth.  These  passages,  however, do c o n t r i b u t e an e s s e n t i a l part of the poem's t o t a l power, and make i t the great e v o l u t i o n a r y poem of i t s century. From a t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y p o i n t of view, there are i n c o n g r u i t i e s i n i t which Tennyson was  probably not aware o f ; f o r  example, the f a c t t h a t Hallam appeared times were r i p e "  (epilogue) suggests t h a t nature can make f u n -  damental mistakes. own  as a type "ere the  However, i f one t r i e s t o see i t on i t s  terms, i t develops a c o n s i s t e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l  based  position  on e v o l u t i o n a r y theory, even i f t h i s p o s i t i o n i s held  o n l y by the speaker  1  i n the f i c t i o n of the poem,, not by the  35  poet h i m s e l f .  But t h a t t h i s l a s t s u p p o s i t i o n i s t r u e i s  d o u b t f u l ; although the e l a b o r a t i o n may  be e s s e n t i a l l y f i c -  t i v e and p o e t i c , the g e n e r a l b e l i e f becomes the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n much of Tennyson's other work, and agrees stance with h i s recorded  i n sub-  statements. ii  I n order t o demonstrate the u n i q u e l y e f f e c t i v e way which I n Memoriam u t i l i z e s e v o l u t i o n a r y m a t e r i a l , a  in compari-  son can be made w i t h s i m i l a r works by t h r e e other poets, a l l d a t i n g from the same p e r i o d or s h o r t l y a f t e r : The Year o f the World ( 1 8 4 6 ) by W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t , Empedocles on Etna (1852)  by Matthew A r n o l d , and t h r e e works by P h i l i n  Bailey—nThe  J8mes  Angel World" ( I 8 5 O ) , "The M y s t i c " and "A  i t u a l Legend" ( 1 8 5 5 ) .  Spir-  I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s b r i e f survey  will  show the ways i n which e v o l u t i o n a r y conceptions were being absorbed  by other members of the c u l t u r e of the  The Year o f the World announces i t s dominant in i t s title.  1840's. conception  Greek and E a s t e r n p h i l o s o p h i e s made emphatic  use of the image of a great c e l e s t i a l year compared with which human years are l i k e seconds.  The  reader i s thus  prepared,  not only f o r a poem w i t h a long v i s t a o f time, but f o r a thorough s a t u r a t i o n i n pagan and p r i m i t i v e p h i l o s o p h i c a l concepts.  He  i s not d i s a p p o i n t e d .  The  poem i s b a s i c a l l y a nar-  r a t i v e about a youth i n a n c i e n t Greece who f o r t r u t h and  goes on a quest  i n the process c r o s s e s many c o u n t r i e s and  l e a r n s much a n c i e n t wisdom; furthermore,tthe  explanatory  sub-  86  headings o f the f i v e d i v i s i o n s s e t f o r t h a s e r i e s o f doctr i n e s which the youth l e a r n s i n h i s journey  or a c t s out i n  h i s own person. To  look simply a t these  subheadings c r e a t e s the impres-  s i o n t h a t one i s about t o r e s d the verse e q u i v a l e n t o f a Hegelian t r e a t i s e .  L i k e Hegel, i t begins w i t h pure con-  s c i o u s n e s s , " I n s t i n c t i v e L i f e , " then separates the a c t i v e understanding  from the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l f a c u l t y , thus making  the same p o i n t t h a t Tennyson does i n h i s s e p a r a t i o n o f empiri c a l knowledge from the s u b j e c t i v e apprehension o f t r u t h . Then, d o c t r i n e s o f contemplative and  absorption,  self-elevation,  d i v i n e love f o l l o w i n s e q u e n c e — t h a t i s , withdrawal i n t o  the s e l f , worship o f the s e l f or "comparative best," and wors h i p o f the absolute best, as r e v e a l e d .  The h i s t o r i c a l s e -  quence i s t h a t o f the r i s e o f man from p r i m i t i v e c o n d i t i o n s t o the f o u n d a t i o n  o f h i s t o r i c n a t i o n s , t o the I n c a r n a t i o n —  a c o n t i n u a l progress advent o f C h r i s t .  toward u n i t y , presumably achieved  at the  Although the sequence i s a p p l i e d only t o  h i s t o r i c a l phenomena, i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an e v o l u t i o n a r y one, based on the meeting o f opposing tendencies, sity,  / A n t a g o n i s m , l i f e ™ ( p . 103).  "unity, diver-  " T h i s long s t r i f e /  Through darkness, and i n mythos, and i n f a i t h / And i n the aggrandizement o f s e l f , and i n / The weary work o f knowledge" (p. 6) i n t r o d u c e s the concept o f c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n i n t o poetry.  Moreover, S c o t t suggests,  as Tennyson does not, t h a t  f a i t h i t s e l f i s determined by a stage  i n the process:  "This  37  W i l l w i t h c o - e x i s t e n t f o r c e , e creed / Lends to the mind, —men c a l l i t F a i t h "  (p. 55).  The w i l l i n q u e s t i o n i s  Lsmarckian, as " I n v o l u n t a r y as the a c t s o f Nature?"i. T h i s f a c t suggests why  the sequence j u s t d e s c r i b e d i s  o n l y p a r t of the t o t a l p r o g r e s s . end the s t o r y ; Part V ("The  The  Future")  I n c a r n a t i o n does not begins w i t h the modern  mind, under the i n f l u e n c e of r e v e l a t i o n , d i s c o v e r i n g S c i ence: "A t r u e Beginning."  The  r e s u l t has been confusion:  T h e o r i e s of s p i r i t without b a s i s — T h e o r i e s o f death and r e a s o n l e s s c r e e d s — Reasoning where mere knowledge should be g u i d e , — Seeking knowledge i n the sphere of r e a s o n , — Corrosive c o g i t a t i o n s manifold. • (p.  UO)  But t h i s c o n f u s i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e at the beginning The  d i s t u r b i n g element i s t h a t p o e t r y may  i n f l u e n c e of f a c t , so t h a t "hate / And whom / He  8 f t e r  93),  d e c l i n e under the  sorrow are the muses  f o l l o w s to the shades, or i n t o heaven"  but even here, there i s hope inherent i n the  The  view of progress i s not, however, simply  "Each age  of an e r a .  r e p e a t s , p r o d u c t i v e not the l e s s "  (P.  process.  linear.  (p. 7 ) ; h i s t o r y  is basically cyclical,  although  i t i s u n c l e a r whether t h i s  c y c l i c a l i t y i s present  i n each stage o f the p r o g r e s s i o n ,  whether the whole t h i n g w i l l be e v e n t u a l l y repeated. memories of faded c y c l e s " (p. 3 8 ) , l e s , i m p l i e s the l a t t e r .  still  present, and  a single a l l e g o r i c a l  "Dim  describing c l a s s i c a l fab-  However, the Lamarckian e l e m e n t —  "the W i l l t o r i s e / S h a l l be c r e a t i v e of the power" ( P . — i s  or  i s s y n t h e s i z e d with recurrence  vision.  48) into  33  A r n o l d ' s Empedocles on Etna  nowhere s p e c i f i c a l l y men-  t i o n s e v o l u t i o n , but the tone of the poem i m p l i e s an awareness of the concept and  i t s repercussions.  central figure i s significant. philosopher  Emnedocles was  l i v i n g i n a s c e p t i c a l and  perhaps the f i r s t  choice  One  t r o u b l e d time,  which come t o g e t h e r  and  but organic  o f h i s s u r v i v i n g fragments  s c r i b e s the spontaneous g e n e r a t i o n  of  not only a  p h i l o s o p h e r to propose a theory of  development i n nature.  ing  The  of unconnected  u n i t e under the pressure  de-  parts of a d r i v -  i n t e r n a l f o r c e d e r i v e d from God: '"On E a r t h many f o r e ft  heads without tached,  necks sprang f o r t h , and  b e r e f t of shoulders,  needing brows . . . But  and  arms wandered unat-  eyes s t r a y e d about  as the one  more mingled with the other, these  alone,  d i v i n i t y became more and things f e l l together  as  each chanced, and many other t h i n g s i n a d d i t i o n to these were c o n t i n u o u s l y produced . . . Many c r e a t u r e s were c r e a t e d a f a c e and b r e a s t on both s i d e s " along w i t h v a r i o u s q mismingled c r e a t u r e s . still and  other  U n r e a l i s t i c though'; t h i s theory  q u a l i f i e s as the e a r l i e s t known developmental  with  is, i t  theory,  so the choice o f Empedocles 8S a p r o t a g o n i s t suggests a  concern f o r e v o l u t i o n a r y s p e c u l a t i o n hidden beneath the  sur-  f a c e o f the poem. Empedocles' long song i n Act I, Scene i i — f o r of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n the most important  the purposes  s e c t i o n o f the poem--  suggests the atmosphere of r e l i g i o u s doubt r e s u l t i n g from the r e v o l u t i o n s i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s i n the e a r l y  nineteenth  39  century.  The g e n e r a l symptoms are the same as have been  observed i n Tennyson a f t e r h i s r e a d i n g of L y e l l . toy  Man  is a  blown about by the winds ( 1 . 31), i n c a p a b l e of seeing  r e a l i t y whole self  ( 8 5 ) , i n h a b i t i n g a world f a r o l d e r then him(184-  (131, 208), made f o r other purposes than h i s own  186).  The moral consequence i s t h a t man "hast no r i g h t t o  bliss,  / No t i t l e  from the Gods t o w e l f a r e end repose"  ( 1 6 0 - 6 1 ) ; the s p i r i t u a l consequence i s f T h a t we must f e i g n a b l i s s / Of d o u b t f u l f u t u r e date . . . And r e l e g a t e t o worlds y e t d i s t a n t our repose" (402-6).  The same type o f  s p i r i t u a l problem i s d e a l t w i t h here as i n s e c t i o n s 54-56 of I n Memoriam.  Cellicles'  song p r o v i d e s the framework i n  which Empedocles' a t t i t u d e s ere t o be seen, by denying them: he emphasizes "The r e s t o f immortels, / The a c t i o n of-men" (463-4). Empedocles' a t t i t u d e toward knowledge l e l s Tennyson's.  a l s o somewhat p a r a l -  He a s s e r t s t h a t "Mind i s the s p e l l which  governs e a r t h and heaven" (27), to which Pausanias answers, e x t r a p o l a t i n g from Empedocles' own words, t h a t "Mind i s a l i g h t which the Gods mock us w i t h , / To lead f a l s e those who trust i t " (32-3), p o r t s : "the t h i r s t (168-69), "we tellectual  a p o s i t i o n Empedocles' song i n p a r t supfor bliss  b r i n g / A b i a s with us here" (192-93).  The i n -  r e s u l t o f t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n i s s c e p t i c i s m about the  e x i s t e n c e o f the Gods. The i l l s ' we  / Deep i n man's heart i s born"  "We  . . . Make Gods t o whom to impute /  ought t o bear" (273-30); " t h a t i n man's b r i e f  90  term / He  cannot a l l t h i n g s wiew, / A f f o r d s no ground t o  a f f i r m / That there are Gods who ing  do!"  (347-50).  h y p o t h e t i c a l l y t h a t t h e r e are "Gods we  Even g r a n t -  cannot see"  (236),  Gods whose separate e x i s t e n c e i s somewhat i n v a l i d a t e d by monism Empedocles p r e a c h e s — " A l l t h i n g s . . . s t u f f are spun" ( 2 3 7 - 8 $ ) — t h e i r ure-prone.  Of but  power i s l i m i t e d and  the  one fail-  Empedocles' moral i n j u n c t i o n , to be " n e i t h e r  s a i n t nor s o p h i s t - l e d , but be a man" s i s t e n t enough t o teach to Pausanias,  ( 1 3 6 ) , although i s not  con-  emotionally  s a t i s f y i n g , even to h i m s e l f , as he r e v e a l s i n Act I I , f o r p r i v a t e l y he s t i l l  feels despair.  Arnold's  from Tennyson's i n t h a t he does not avow any t i o n a r y process which c o u l d l i f t the i n d i f f e r e n t L y e l l i a n  one  analysis d i f f e r s f a i t h i n evolu-  out of the torments of  world.  P h i l i p James B a i l e y , who  has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r ,  was  e n j o y i n g a r e v i v a l when he wrote the three works d i s c u s s e d here;  s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n s o f a l l t h r e e were l a t e r i n c o r p o r -  ated i n t o F e s t u s , as t h a t work became more e n c y c l o p e d i c . B a i l e y was its;  an orthodox C h r i s t i a n poet w i t h i n r a t h e r broad  lim-  the u l t i m a t e b a s i s of h i s works i s a theory of atonement 10  s i m i l a r to McLeod Campbell's.  I n order t o assure  a decent  u n i v e r s e , a l l the hopes of Tennyson's s e c t i o n 54 must be filled, tion.  and  every  l i v i n g t h i n g must partake  I n Fesfeus, even the d e v i l i s saved.  ful-  of e v e n t u a l s a l v a Bailey's encyclo-  pedic approach r e q u i r e d him t o i n c l u d e every c o n c e i v a b l e idea i n t o h i s works, subsuming them a l l under C h r i s t i a n i t y .  His  91  t h r e e p r i n c i p a l works of the e a r l y 1#50's do j u s t "The  Angel World" i s b a s i c a l l y a simple  this.  a l l e g o r y of  fall  and redemption, t a k i n g place on another world, where the angels, not men,  are the centre of c r e a t i o n .  Obvious C h r i s -  t i a n symbolism, such as the c r o s s i n t o which the demonic s t a r s i s transformed,  i s mingled w i t h c l a s s i c a l myth, such  as the Perseus myth, and with organic images of cosmic  de-  struction: T h i c k with c h a o t i c matter and u n f o r m e d — L i k e the v o l c a n i c blood which bounds unseen I n v e i n s of l i g h t n i n g through earth's cavernous heart— Mid r u i n e d orbs, l i k e broken ice-lumps, r o l l e d , M e l t i n g . . . (p. 57). Cosmic d e s t r u c t i o n becomes p a r t of God's scheme, and the  de-  s t r u c t i o n of the angel world when i t becomes corrupted i s j u s t one  i n s t a n c e o f a wider benevolent  system.  The  redemp-  t i v e process, seemingly a f a i l u r e because the hero has  had  to abandon the corrupted p l a n e t , i s achieved when the hero t u r n s out t o be an o t h e r - w o r l d l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f C h r i s t , and  secures everybody's s a l v a t i o n by  prayer.  "The M y s t i c " does not d e a l e x p l i c i t l y w i t h C h r i s t i a n at a l l ,  ideas  but presents a world-system based on p r o g r e s s i v e r e -  incarnation.  The  mystic goes through seven p r o g r e s s i v e  stages  of e x i s t e n c e , each more f a n t a s t i c than the preceding;  by  end  stars,  of the poem, he i s r e s u r r e c t e d , o u t s t a r e s a l l the  the  and appears to have become master of the u n i v e r s e - - i n other words, he achieves Godhead.  B a i l e y probably  intended  work as an example of the hidden t r u t h which could be  this communi-  92  cated by myth; i t s l i t e r a l d e t a i l s c o n f l i c t on almost score except  the e t h i c a l w i t h h i s own  beliefs.  every  I t s primary  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h i s study l i e s i n i t s vest conception  of  time, beginning w i t h the pre-Adamic k i n g s , and i t s p r o g r e s s i v e sequence, i n which God  leads man  through stages of s p i r -  i t u a l development, and the powers of the mystic  are sheped  by eech of the environments he i s born i n t o . "A S p i r i t u e l Legend," e much s l i g h t e r work, i s connected w i t h "The  Angel World" i n i t s b a s i c conception.  s i o n of the c r e a t i o n s t o r y , God to  h i s lower angels, who  p l a c e , r e s e r v i n g h i s own  In t h i s  ver-  delegates the job o f c r e a t i o n  i n s t i g a t e a t h e p r o j e c t i n the  first  i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r the c r e a t i o n o f  However, the angels are seduced by the m a t e r i e l world,  man.  and,  s e t t i n g themselves up as i d o l s , f a l l awey from God;  the poem  r e p r e s e n t s B e i l e y ' s ettempt t o selvege the i d e e s o f  clessical  Gnosticism—the  d e v i l as c r e a t o r o f t h i s world--and i n c o r p o r -  ete them i n t o h i s system. to  i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g i s the  which h i s thought remains steatic and  though at one The  The  extent  non-evolutionary,  even  p o i n t a great p r o g r e s s i o n i s r e f e r r e d to (p.  h i n t s at e v o l u t i o n s c a t t e r e d through B a i l e y ' s work ere  simply the r e s u l t of h i s d e s i r e to make h i s p o e t i c corpus comprehend a l l p o s s i b l e systems. D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t they a r r i v e at s t r i k i n g l y  different  c o n c l u s i o n s , Tennyson and A r n o l d d e a l r e c o g n i z a b l y w i t h  the  same w o r l d - p i c t u r e t h a t L y e l l prompted; S c o t t ? s e v o l u t i o n i s m i s d e r i v e d from c l a s s i c a l and E a s t e r n sources, from the encounter w i t h nineteenth-century  r a t h e r than  science.  Unlike  104).  93  S c o t t and B a i l e y , Tennyson does not express h i s ideas i n language o b v i o u s l y d e r i v e d from contemporary sophy,  idealist  philo-  but r a t h e r i n terms which a l r e a d y c a r r y s e v e r a l  l a y e r s of a s s o c i a t i o n i n customary use.  Thus, i n e x p r e s s i n g  a s c i e n t i f i c concept such as the cumulative e f f e c t s of geol o g i c a l change, he uses language which suggests not the process o f a n a l y s i s t h a t the g e o l o g i s t must go through i n order t o reach h i s c o n c l u s i o n s , but i n s t e a d the d i r e c t  ex-  11  perience of an onlooker.  To express r e l i g i o u s doubt,  he  does not say s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t h i s f a i t h i n the concept o f i m m o r t a l i t y i s weakened, but i n s t e a d uses images d e r i v e d physical activity:  ( 55).  " I f a l t e r where I f i r m l y t r o d "  from He  t r a n s l a t e s s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s i n t o the vocabulary most f a m i l i a r t o h i s r e a d e r s : d i n o s a u r s become "Dragons of the p r i m e " ( ( 5 6 ) , and the word "aeonic" i s c o n s t a n t l y used t o suggest h e n s i b l e s t r e t c h e s of time. will,  incompre-  Tennyson's key terms, such as  type, and move, remain ambivalent, charged w i t h v a r i e -  t i e s o f p o s s i b l e meaning, a l l o w i n g m u l t i p l e p a t t e r n s o f thought t o beiforwarded through a s i n g l e image.  It i s this  use of o r d i n a r y language which caused the poem's tremendous impact, which i t could not have had had i t handled the same i d e a s i n the h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l vocabulary of a B a i l e y .  The  r e a d e r s f e l t t h a t t h e i r own knowledge and experience were b e i n g developed i n d i r e c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y unknown t o them. Many c r i t i c s  have f e l t  s i m i l a r i t i e s between the p h i l o s o p h i -  94  c a l approach o f I n Memoriam and those o f other works. Morse Peckham and Robert Langbaum have suggested  Both  a parallel  12 with Kierkegaard. Kierkegaard's  There are obvious a f f i n i t i e s ,  as w i t h  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f God w i t h the unknown, and  h i s c o n t i n u a l emphasis on s u b j e c t i v e standards o f b e l i e f ; but such concepts important  are not e x c l u s i v e t o h i s w r i t i n g s , and h i s  emphasis on the paradox o f an h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s f o r 13  C h r i s t i a n i t y moves i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n from Tennyson. Kierkegaard's t r u t h i s determined  by a s i n g l e r e v e l a t i o n i n  time, which becomes f o r l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s absurd, because o f i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l demands, and t h e r e f o r e must n e c e s s a r i l y be b e l i e v e d ; Tennyson's t r u t h must be i n t u i t a b l e by the s p i r i t u a l consciousness, and must f i n d a c o r r e l a t i v e i n a u n i v e r s a l , dynamic process, as opposed t o a d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n h i s t o r y . H i s r e j e c t i o n o f the type o f h i s t o r i c a l d i a l e c t i c  envisaged  by K i e r k e g a a r d i s obvious i n a change made i n the 18*75 e d i t i o n o f I n Memoriam.  F o l l o w i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n o f The Descent o f  Man, a p p a r e n t l y f e e l i n g t h a t the Eden myth could, no longer be used i n an h i s t o r i c a l context, he he a l t e r e d the l i n e "Since Adam l e f t h i s garden y e t " (24) t o " S i n c e our f i r s t and s e t . "  sun arose  1L  Eugene August has made an even l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e comparison w i t h T e i l h a r d de Chardin, whose s y n t h e s i s o f the s c i e n c e s i s a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y theology t o b i o l o g i c a l data, the i m p o s i t i o n o f a scheme r a t h e r than the 1* > i n t u i t i o n o f one. A r a t h e r more i l l u m i n a t i n g comparison can be made w i t h J  95  f i g u r e s whom Tennyson was i n p e r s o n a l C a r l y l e and Maurice, whose analyses have a concrete  bearing  contact with,  such as  o f the human c o n d i t i o n  on Tennyson's.  Carlyle's descrip-  t i o n o f what might be c a l l e d a c o n v e r s i o n  experience i n  S a r t o r R e s a r t u s i s too w e l l known f o r a d e t a i l e d examination to be necessary. of h i s three  I t should  stages appears i n I n Memoriam: t h e " E v e r l a s t i n g  No," i n the d e f i a n t question life  be r e a d i l y apparent that each  about t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f human  i n the L y e l l i a n world ( 5 6 ) ,  the "Centre o f I n d i f f e r e n c e "  i n the calmer though s p i r i t u a l l y u n c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s from 6 5 to t h e "calm" Christmas Eve i n 7 $ , and t h e " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" i n the f i n a l c e l e b r a t i o n o f p r o g r e s s i v e  development, i n  which the t e r r i f y i n g aspects o f world c o n v u l s i o n by Hallam's s m i l e .  a r e answered  I t i s w e l l known how S a r t o r became the  v i r t u a l b i b l e of innovative  t h i n k e r s o f the ' 4 0 ' s and ' 5 0 ' s ,  from Maurice t o Froude and F r a n c i s Newman; t h a t Tennyson was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d i s apparent from the I d y l l s , i f not from h i s personal  statements.  C a r l y l e ' s a s s e r t i o n o f the fundamental  importance o f f a i t h which s p r i n g s from the d i v i n e i n man, would have met w i t h s t r o n g agreement from Tennyson. Maurice, whom Tennyson defended a t a time when h i s t e a c h i n g was g e t t i n g him i n t o t r o u b l e ice"),  (see "To the Reverend F. D. Maur-  s i m i l a r l y dwelt on the importance o f s u b j e c t i v e  t a i n t y , but w i t h d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s .  cer-  Whereas C a r l y l e ,  f o r a l l h i s c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n through the medium o f " o r g a n i c f i l a m e n t s , " remained u n a l t e r a b l y  opposed t o the thought o f  96  b i o l o g i c a l development, Maurice was  ambivalent,  and some  of h i s comments a l l o w f o r an e v o l u t i o n a r y process i n nature. God's communication to man  i s not only to the  individual  consciousness but to the consciousness of the e n t i r e race, 16  " i t s ground i n an o r i g i n a t i n g W i l l . " double  However, there i s a  i m p l i c a t i o n i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the proper forms o f  knowledge.  Although he d e c l a r e d the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  direct  and presumably unmediated c o n t a c t w i t h the h o l y spirit—w^"- ; r  "know t h a t we life" ?—he 1  know God  . . .  t o know t h i s i s . . , e t e r n a l  n e v e r t h e l e s s opposed t h i s " f 8 c t  o f God's R e v e l a -  t i o n " t o s c i e n t i f i c f a c t , and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y to a vague, 1 8  g e n e r a l i z e d "God  consciousness."  Thi® absolute d i s t i n c t i o n  comes p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e to what has been c a l l e d 8 "doublerealm" theory, the n o t i o n t h a t the d i f f e r e n t aspects o f man's 1 0  consciousness do not d e r i v e from a s i n g l e source. however, by a s s e r t i n g the primacy  '  Maurice,  of s u b j e c t i v e c e r t a i n t y  over e m p i r i c a l , remained committed t o a " s i n g l e - r e a l m " theory, l i k e most i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n the n i n e t e e n t h century; he the need f o r a l l types of thought  t o come from a s i n g l e ,  " o r g a n i c " u n i t y somewhere i n the mind.^O Henry Mansel, i s almost double-realm  the f i r s t  felt  ^  s  g  r e  at  opponent,  c o n s i s t e n t advocate  theory, m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t f a i t h and  o f the  scientific  ?1  reason are mutually e x c l u s i v e and independent.  Maurice's  f r u i t l e s s d u e l w i t h him i n numbers of t r a c t s bears witness t o h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehending the d i f f e r e n c e between the arguments, f o r he could never admit t h a t they were t a l k i n g two  different  languages.  two  97  At t h i s p o i n t , one remembers t h a t a d i s c i p l e o f Mansel, Herbert Spencer, sent Tennyson a copy o f h i s P r i n c i p l e s o f Psychology w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i t c l o s e l y corresponded t o some o f Tennyson's man,  i d e a s , namely, the development  or o f man's mind, through "lower l i v e s . "  occurs, s i n c e Tennyson seems at times  The  8mbivalent  q u e s t i o n o f the value o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge,  of doubt  on the  and s i n c e a  f o l l o w e r o f Mansel found s i m i l a r i t i e s between them, o f whether  hesaccepted the double- or s i n g l e - r e a l m t h e o r y .  The f i r s t  answer, of course, i s t h a t Spencer i s not a con-  s i s t e n t f o l l o w e r o f Mansel; w h i l e u s i n g h i s arguments  to  demonstrate the fundamental mysteries, or incomprehensions, u n d e r l y i n g a l l knowledge and b e l i e f , he nonetheless makes i t h i s e n t e r p r i s e t o determine the s i n g l e ground f o r a l l t h i n k 23 ing.  T h i s ground he f i n d s i n the p r i n c i p l e of b e l i e f ,  which, as he p o i n t s out, a l l knowledge can be reduced t o . ^ 2  T h i s much o f h i s argument i s congruent w i t h Tennyson's  ideas;  Spencer, however, makes h i s c r i t e r i o n o f t r u t h the i n a b i l i t y 25 t o c o n c e i v e the n e g a t i o n o f any p r o p o s i t i o n .  He ends h i s  argument by f o r m u l a t i n g a u n i v e r s a l law of e v o l u t i o n as the "advance from the simple t o the complex, successive  through a process o f  differentiations." ^ 2  I t i s obvious t h a t Tennyson adhered t o the s i n g l e - r e a l m theory.  Reason and f a i t h may  be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from each o t h e r  i n method, but they must be worked i n t o a s i n g l e whole i n order t o c o n s t i t u t e a s a t i s f y i n g t r u t h ; and the f a c t t h a t the  98  t r u t h i s expected t o s a t i s f y , t o be in:.accord w i t h expectations,  shows t h a t s u b j e c t i v e need i s , as i n Maur-  i c e , taken t o be a s u f f i c i e n t value  o f any i d e a .  c r i t e r i o n o f the t r u t h -  Tennyson attempted t o f i n d a p o i n t i n  which a l l h i s d i s p a r a t e conceptions he conceived  one's  could be u n i t e d , and  o f t h i s p o i n t not as a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ,  a  d e l i b e r a t e c r e a t i o n o f h i s own, but r a t h e r as the deep i n n e r t r u t h , the awareness which had u n d e r l a i n h i s a c t i o n s from the b e g i n n i n g . p o i n t i n a theory difficult  H i s attempt t o f i n d t h i s c e n t r a l  of s p i r i t u a l evolution c o n s t i t u t e s a  i n t e l l e c t u a l breakthrough, not only f o r Tennyson,  but f o r h i s p e r i o d .  CHAPTER SIX FROM IN MEMORIAM TO THE ORIGIN: THE PRINCESS AND POEMS OF THE 16*50'S  The  advanced i n t e l l e c t u a l response t o I n Memoriam i n the  years immediately a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n may be i n d i c a t e d by an anonymous poem p u b l i s h e d Night. use  1  i n 16*51, e n t i t l e d The Middle  I t s debt t o Tennyson i s r e a d i l y apparent i n i t s  o f the I n Memoriam stanza,  end i n the three  stanzas o f  s e c t i o n 106 o f t h a t poem ("Ring out the care, the want, the sin  . . .") a f f i x e d as epigraph.  I t deals w i t h t h e problems  of f a i t h which a r e f a m i l i a r from many other preface  sources; the  e x p l a i n s that i t had o r i g i n a l l y been designed es a  s o r t o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l poem about "the s t i r r i n g events o f the times," but t h a t the author had g i v e n up t h e t p r o j e c t because o f i t s d i f f i c u l t y and p u t a t i v e " u n p o e t i e a l " The  quality.  poem as i t stands c o n s i s t s i n s t e a d o f a s e r i e s o f b a s i c -  a l l y r e l i g i o u s meditations,  i n which one can see the events  of the ege r e f l e c t e d , u s u a l l y i n a r a t h e r e b s t r e c t wey. The prefece  makes i t c l e a r t h a t the poem i s t o be read  for i t s  s o c i a l commentary as w e l l as f o r i t s p s y c h o l o g i c e l a n a l y s i s o f the  author. As  i s perhaps t o be expected, metaphors drawn from  nature are used t o d e s c r i b e R e f e r r i n g t o the f i r s t  organic  s o c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l phenomena.  f i f t y years o f the century,  e metaphor  which may draw e i t h e r on L y e l l o r on the L y e l l i a n s e c t i o n s o f  100  I n Memoriam i s used: "We  see the growth o f many seeds /  Which f i f t y suns have brought to f r u i t root / An  . . . but  at  the  i n s e c t t r i b e d e s t r u c t i o n breeds" ( s e c t i o n 4 ) .  A l s o dominant i n the e a r l y s e c t i o n s of the poem i s the f e a r of the d e c l i n e or r e g r e s s i o n concept which was the c e n t u r y . terms: "the ference the  to g a i n power d u r i n g the  l a s t h a l f of  slow signs of s w i f t d e c l i n e , / The (10)  the  "But  calm i n d i f -  c h a r a c t e r i z e both i n d i v i d u a l s and  c o n d i t i o n of a s c e p t i c a l age;  "hoard i n g  a  T h i s d e c l i n e i s g e n e r a l l y f i g u r e d i n moral  of despair"  question  of the human race,  the thought of each  man  l a r g e s t heap of p e l f " (6) provokes the  can you  t h i n k mankind so base?" ( 7 ) .  However,  a more p h y s i c a l metaphor i s a l s o used, t h a t of the sun i n g passed i t s z e n i t h and  hav-  " I n growing heat" (4) b e g i n n i n g to  set. Balanced a g a i n s t  these i n d i c a t i o n s of d e c l i n e , however,  are images o f p r o g r e s s .  The  i n g seeds i s used (27), and "gathering  p r e d i c t a b l e metaphor of  plant-  the more a b s t r a c t prospect  Knowledge by the g r a i n "  (13);  possibilities  of of  i n d i v i d u a l growth,are i l l u s t r a t e d by b i r d s l e a r n i n g t o f l y and  orators  l e a r n i n g to speak (15).  The  most emphatic  p r e s s i o n of b e l i e f i n progress comes i n s e c t i o n 3,  ex-  when i t  i s suggested that the n i n e t e e n t h century w i l l provide  the  b a s i s f o r f u t u r e growth: "The  shall  climb,  / And  heavenward stairway  aiming h i g h e r b l e s s i n g s  live."  men  I t i s not  indi-  cated whether t h i s f i g u r e a p p l i e s tb the race as a whole, or  101  merely t o the g r e a t e r worth o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n the f u t u r e . The poem, i n s h o r t , uses the a b s t r a c t concepts o f progress and d e c l i n e without g i v i n g them the concrete e v o l u t i o n a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t Tennyson does, and employs o r g a n i c metaphors without s u g g e s t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f growth on more than an i n d i v i d u a l  level.  The Middle N i g h t thus shows t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o t a k e Tennyson's poem t o heart without examining  i t s deeper  con-  cepts, but i t a l s o shows t h e t a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f I n Memoriam&s p a t t e r n s o f thought t o s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l problems.  Al-  ready i n s e c t i o n s 113 and 117 o f that work, g e o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l cataclysms are presented as aspects o f the same process, the long-term improvement o f humanity inua roughly b i o l o g i c a l sense.  T h i s tendency becomes more e v i d e n t i n the  work t h a t f o l l o w s the v i r t u a l completion o f I n Memoriam i n 1345,  i n which e v o l u t i o n a r y t h i n k i n g i s i n c r e a s i n g l y  connec-  t e d w i t h t h i n k i n g about the nature o f s o c i e t y and i t s proper management. Although p u b l i s h e d i n 1 3 4 7 , more than two years before I n 3  Memoriam, The P r i n c e s s appears t o have been w r i t t e n I t s s u b t i t l e , "A Medley," i s apt because,  later.  as the f i r s t  o f Ten-  nyson's "modern" long poems, i t mixes genres i n an unprecedented way, m i n g l i n g s a t i r e , medieval romance, " v e r s e - n o v e l , " lyric, attempt  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l poem.  I t s s u b j e c t , an imaginary  t o found a women's u n i v e r s i t y d u r i n g the middle  p r o v i d e s a means o f s u g g e s t i n g remedies  f o r contemporary  ages,  102  s o c i a l problems; but  concomitant w i t h t h i s main s u b j e c t ,  i s a complicated  r e f l e c t i o n about the f u t u r e e v o l u t i o n  the human r a c e .  S i n c e the sources f o r Tennyson's thought  i n t h i s poem are a l r e a d y w e l l known and  of  documented,^ what  i s s a i d i n t h i s chapter need o n l y be a summing-up, r e l a t i n g the m a t e r i a l i n t h i s poem to the development of Tennyson's evolutionary  s p e c u l a t i o n as a whole.  L i k e many others century,  i n the second q u a r t e r  Tennyson was  of Saint-Simon and  o f the  i n f l u e n c e d by the s o c i a l  his followers.  from the eighteenth-century the b a s i c f o r m u l a t i o n s  nineteenth  philosophies  Saint-Simon, d e r i v i n g  philosophe t r a d i t i o n ,  adopted  of Newtonian mechanism and. t r i e d  d i s c o v e r the o p e r a t i o n s  of u n i v e r s a l and  unalterable  to  laws i n  human behaviour, e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s t o r i c a l development.  His  f o l l o w e r s , such as E n f a n t i n and F o u r i e r , tended t o look more favourably  on the concept, g i v e n currency  of an " o r g a n i c "  s o c i e t y , and and  s i d e r a b l e b i a s i n favour  of the o r g a n i c .  v e n i e n t way  Herder,  used t h e i r master's vocabulary  of a l t e r n a t i n g " o r g a n i c "  introduced  by Burke and  "critical"  periods w i t h a conThe  distinction,  i n t o E n g l i s h c u l t u r e by C a r l y l e , allowed a conof e x p l a i n i n g the p o s s i b l e a c t i o n o f e v o l u t i o n at  the s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l l e v e l .  Saint-Simon, together  with his  renegade f o l l o w e r Comte, a l s o helped the e v o l u t i o n a r y mode of explanation ism"  by p e r s o n i f y i n g mankind 8S "the  or "the Great Being,"  c o l l e c t i v e orgen-  s i n c e i f the s p e c i e s  i s seen as a  r e a l e n t i t y r a t h e r than as a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s , i t i s  103  e a s i e r t o imagine h i s t o r i c a l events as a form of progress t h a t i n some way  a f f e c t s the whole s p e c i e s .  I t i s probable  t h a t a b e l i e f i n l i t e r a l s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n i s not p o s s i b l e without some such p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the s p e c i e s or s o c i e t y . Tennyson's sympathy w i t h the S e i n t - S i m o n i a n movement  may  be i n f e r r e d from a y o u t h f u l l e t t e r of h i s , i n which he says t h a t "the e x i s t e n c e of the sect of the S t . S i m o n i s t s i s at once a p r o o f of the immense mass o f e v i l t h a t i s extant i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, and a focus which gathers a l l i t s rays."^  I n t h i s uncommitted sympathy, he can be compered  w i t h F r e d e r i c k Meurice, who  expressed s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s ;  but whatever h i s p r e c i s e f e e l i n g s about the F r e n c h  7  socialist  movements, Tennyson's debt t o C a r l y l e i s - u n d e n i a b l e , and. C a r l y l e drew many of h i s i d e a s from Saint-Simonian sources. The P r i n c e s s draws on these s o c i a l i s t d o c t r i n e s ,  although  l a r g e l y f o r the questions posed r a t h e r than f o r the answers suggested.  The main i s s u e i n the poem, the r o l e o f women i n  s o c i e t y , was  of great concern t o the Seint-Simoniams,  and  could be c o n s i d e r e d as en e x t e n s i o n of e v o l u t i o n e r y theory q as w e l l .  The  c u r r i c u l u m of P r i n c e s s Ida's u n i v e r s i t y i n -  cludes the s c i e n c e s as w e l l as more standard s u b j e c t s . main elements  of a medieval c u r r i c u l u m , however, are c o n s p i c u -  o u s l y absent, and. t h i s anachronism,  l i k e most o t h e r s i n the  poem, suggests the a p p l i c s t i o n of the s t o r y t o problems.  The  contemporary  C e r t a i n l y the content of women's s t u d i e s was  some extent a concern of the s o c i a l i s t s ; the l e a r n i n g o f  to  104  scientific  l a w s — " E l e c t r i c , chemic laws, and a l l the r e s t "  1. 3 6 2 ) — f o r m e d the b a s i s o f any S a i n t - S i m o n i a n p r o -  (II,  10 gram. Princess  Ida c o n s i s t e n t l y demonstrates an i n t e r e s t i n  b i o l o g i c a l and. g e o l o g i c a l change.  "There s i n k s the nebulous  s t a r we c a l l the Sun, / I f t h a t hypothesis o f t h e i r s be sound" (IV, 11. 1 - 2 ) , she says, c a r e f u l l y evading a d e f i n i t e opinion.  Probably the i n t e l l e c t u a l centre  o f the poem i s the  d i s c u s s i o n o f c r e a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s the d i s c o v e r y skeleton.  A l r e a d y , the P r i n c e s s  of a f o s s i l  has wished t h a t human  life  might be prolonged enough t h a t one might "watch / The sandy f o o t p r i n t harden i n t o stone" ( I I I , 11. 253-54) future the  consequences o f her a c t i o n s ; presumably, because o f  time-scale,  implied, the  and see the  b i o l o g i c a l as w e l l as s o c i a l consequences are  i n s o f a r as there  is a distinction.  1 1  The s i g h t o f  f o s s i l sparks the r e f l e c t i o n t h a t , "As these rude bones  to us, are we t o her / That w i l l be" ( I I I , 11. 279-30).  This  hypothesis i s untenable to the P r i n c e , who r e j e c t s the idea of a God. s u b j e c t  t o development: "Dare we dream o f t h a t  Which wrought us, as the workman and h i s work, / That t i c e betters^"  ( I I I , 230-82).  of creation, reminiscent the  o f Raphael's excuses f o r t e l l i n g sequence:  the world es e t o t a l i t y ,  a l l at  once; men who are p a r t s o f t h a t t o t a l i t y and have only t i a l v i s i o n must perceive  prac-  Ida responds w i t h a paradigm  s t o r y o f the war i n heaven i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l  the workmen, God, c r e a t e d  . . .  things  par-  s e q u e n t i a l l y t h a t are s i m u l -  105  taneous i n e t e r n i t y , thus making "One cession"  ( I I I , 1.  p a t t e r n t h a t has  312).  act a phantom of suc-  T h i s paradigm shows c l e a r l y  been observed t a k i n g shape i n previous  nyson poems, t h a t e v o l u t i o n i s seen as the r e s u l t o f entry of God  Ten-  the  i n t o the world, a view s i m i l a r to Browning's  paradigm f o r human l i f e assumption of "Soul reminds one  the  i n S o r d e l l o , based on the  on M a t t e r being  of Gosse's i l l - f a t e d  thrust."  1 ? ~  fundamental  I f i t also  attempt t o r e c o n c i l e geology  13  and S e E i p t u r e , vague and  t h i s f a c t shows the ways i n which a r a t h e r  f l e x i b l e concept could be adapted to a l l i n t e l l e c -  t u a l p o s i t i o n s , and  may  account f o r Tennyson's p o p u l a r i t y at  a l l the c u l t u r a l l e v e l s of h i s time. The The  theory  of e v o l u t i o n i s made evident  e a r l y i n the poem.  a>rgument of the women i s t h a t man's c u r r e n t s u p e r i o r i t y  over women i s the r e s u l t of c o n d i t i o n i n g : "Besides the was  l i k e the hand, and  i f more was  grew / With u s i n g ; thence the man's,  more" ( I I , 1 1 .  134-35).  Women, however, a l s o  have d i s t i n c t n a t u r a l advantages: "But and  her l i f e  /Was  brain  longer"  ( I I , 11.  the poem support t h i s view, and  woman ripened  133-39).  The  earlier,  events of  the p a r t i c u l a r weakness o f  the P r i n c e s s ' system i s t h a t i t f a i l s t o take i n t o account the means of d i r e c t i n g the e v o l u t i o n a r y process, and  marriage.  through  Thus the poem ends w i t h the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  the P r i n c e s s and  P r i n c e , who  has  d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f her  e r — " T h e woman's cause i s man's" (VII, 1.  243).  The  o f the race depends on i t s female members—"If she  be  sex of  helpquality small,  106  s l i g h t - n a t u r e d , m i s e r a b l e , / How  s h a l l men  grow?" (VII, 1 1 .  From a t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y p o i n t of view, t h e r e i s a  249-50).  c u r i o u s c o n f u s i o n i n Tennyson's arguments; mental and emot i o n a l q u a l i t i e s are l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t from the p o i n t of view o f r e p r o d u c t i o n , on which e v o l u t i o n a r y change depends. Tennyson's moral approach t o e v o l u t i o n causes him t o the two of man  independent  mix  c o n d i t i o n s , s i n c e he views the e v o l u t i o n  es n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v i n g s p i r i t u a l development,  and  never r e a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h a t and b i o l o g i c e l chenge. The  r e s u l t of the whole process i n The  Princess i s described  i n lenguege f i l l e d w i t h s e x u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s : Then comes the s t a t e l i e r Eden back t o men: Then r e i g n the world's great b r i d a l s , cheste and calm: Then s p r i n g s the crowning race o f humankind. (VII,  The  11.  277-79)  reader i s l e f t with the t y p i c a l problems of eugenics.  Tennyson thought of femele of men,  he had good reason t o argue t h e t some form  emencipation wes  necessery f o r the proper e v o l u t i o n  but the temptation t o p e r s o n i f y the human race can be  seen i n these l i n e s , w i t h the r e s u l t i n g c o n f u s i o n .  I t i s then  s a i d t h a t t h i s whole process should be "typed" " I n our lives"  own  (VII, 1 1 . 231-32) as a means of b r i n g i n g i t about; the  i m p l i e d c o n n e c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l and s p e c i e s hes e l r e e d y been observed  i n I n Memoriam.  I n post-Darwinien b i o l o g y ,  s p e c i e s chenge i s e f u n c t i o n o f "random," u n d i r e c t e d changes i n the gene p o o l , r a t h e r then e s p e c i e l process w i t h an s e r v a b l e d i r e c t i o n ; but when Tennyson was  writing,  oba  not only  107  was  e v o l u t i o n a r y theory g e n e r a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e from e t h i c a l  and  r e l i g i o u s concerns,  but ideas on s o c i a l reform were  seriously offered i n biological One  f u r t h e r aspect  of The  treatises.  Princess i s relevant to  this  d i s c u s s i o n because i t o f f e r s the most h i g h l y e l a b o r a t e d e x p r e s s i o n of one the s o c i a l i s t  o f Tennyson's e v o l u t i o n a r y concents.  c i r c l e s of the time, the i d e 8 o f the  form of man—who of course was  now  beginning  In  higher  t o emerge i n  accordance w i t h the u n a l t e r a b l e laws of h i s t o r y — a s andro1  gyne was  very much i n the a i r . '  Tennyson, at l e a s t p a r t ,  of the time, seems t o have conceived oping  i n the d i r e c t i o n of a C h r i s t - l i k e man  t h a t i s t o be"), and he regarded 1  to f i n d t h a t i n The t i o n w i l l take  P r i n c e s s one  i s a mingling  (VII, 1 1 .  o f the d i r e c t i o n s e v o l u -  of s e x u a l men  g a i n i n sweetness end  mental breadth"  C h r i s t as combining the  I t i s no s u r p r i s e , t h e r e f o r e ,  " l i k e r they must grow; / The / He  ("the C h r i s t  ft  q u a l i t i e s of both sexes.  man;  of s o c i e t y as d e v e l -  characteristics:  be more of womain, she i n moral height  263-67).  The  of  . . . She  d e s c r i p t i o n mey  leek something i n d e f i n i t i o n , but the whole ergument leads to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n t r u e m a r r i a g e — i n  which the p a r t -  ners type the e v o l u t i o n a r y process w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s — " P u r pose i n purpose, w i l l i n w i l l , and  p e r f e c t animal,  / The  they grow, / The  t w o - c e l l e d heart"  s i n g l e pure  (VII,  287-39).  T h i s concept of the m i n g l i n g of sexes i s never again s t a t e d so e m p h a t i c a l l y  i n Tennyson's w r i t i n g s , although  i t s presence  108  o c c a s i o n a l l y makes i t s e l f f e l t The Saint-Simonians,  i n l a t e r works.  of course, e x e r c i s e d 8 powerful  i n f l u e n c e on many other w r i t e r s , but nowhe.re i n the number of s o c i a l i s t  large  poems d a t i n g from the 1 8 4 0 ' s and  i s t h e r e such a development of the importance f o r s o c i a l development as i n The  Princess.  f  50 s f  of e v o l u t i o n  In fact,  the  most s i g n i f i c a n t b i o l o g i c a l passage i n such poetry denies the p o s s i b i l i t y of v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l over growth, the cept Tennyson e l a b o r a t e d . Claude  con-  I n C l o u g h s Amours de Voyage, T  s p e c u l a t e s t h a t growth depends on  unconsciousness  o f higher p o s s i b i l i t i e s : wtSuld a g r a i n be able to develop t o adulthood "Could i t compare, end r e f l e c t , one t h i n g w i t h another?" While Tennyson was  and examine  (III. ii) .  e x p l o r i n g the s o c i a l and  i m p l i c a t i o n s of e v o l u t i o n , Robert Browning was somewhet d i f f e r e n t epproech.  political taking e  He had a l r e e d y used  politi-  c e l l y r a d i c e l l y i d e a s i n S o r d e l l o , although they are not expressed  i n o r g a n i c terms;  t h e r e , however, he had been con-  cerned, not w i t h the u n i v e r s a l law of progress, but w i t h the " e v e r l a s t i n g minute of c r e a t i o n , " as L u r i a t h a t l i e s behind.  celled  i t (Act V ) ,  S o r d e l l o , e f t e r e x p r e s s i n g e theory o f  p o l i t i c a l p r o g r e s s i n t o e brotherhood  of man,  achieves a  consummating v i s i o n t h a t , u n l i k e P a r e c e l s u s ' , i s b a s i c a l l y n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e — o r r a t h e r , s i n c e he i s a b s t r a c t e d "Quite out of Time and t h i s world," gress t o .  l e a v e s no f u r t h e r stage t o pro-  I n the moment before h i s death, S o r d e l l o l e a r n s  109  that a l l temporal  events, i n c l u d i n g those i n P a r a c e l s u s '  v i s i o n , a r e only "Time's concern." Once having achieved t h i s stage, the problem o f e v o l u t i o n appeared no longer t o i n t e r e s t Browning u n t i l a f t e r the outbreak o f the D a r w i n i s t c o n t r o v e r s y . of  the 1#50's c o n t a i n s an important  But one o f h i s poems r e f l e c t i o n on the sub-  j e c t , and was s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o by Browning i n h i s l e t t e r t o F u r n i v a l l as " a n t i c i p a t i n g " a l l t h a t was proven 17  i n Darwin's t h e o r y .  The poet C l e o n expounds a theory o f  p r o g r e s s i o n i n nature, but i r o n i c a l l y he cannot l o g i c a l consequences of h i s own i d e a s . life  p e r c e i v e the  The development o f  i s s e q u e n t i a l : " a l l e a r t h ' s tenantry, from worm t o  b i r d , / E r e man, her l a s t , appeared upon the stage." furthermore it  a l o g i c a l and i n e v i t a b l e development, i n which  i s p o s s i b l e t o deduce the next step i n the s e r i e s - - " T h o u  wouldst of  It is  have seen them p e r f e c t , and deduced / The n e r f e c t n e s s  others y e t unseen."  Man r e p r e s e n t s the a d d i t i o n o f con-  s c i o u s n e s s - i n - o n e s e l f t o nature, thus t r a n s c e n d i n g mechanics" by the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the s p i r i t . Cleon's understanding  "life's  At t h i s p o i n t ,  o f the process breaks down, and he con-  cludes t h a t the c r e a t i o n o f man was i r r a t i o n a l , man t h e r e ' s f a i l u r e , only s i n c e he l e f t conscious HsicZl forms o f l i f e . "  because " I n  / The lower and i n -  The absence o f the p o s s i b i l -  i t y o f continued growth puts an end t o human a s p i r a t i o n s ; without the c e r t a i n t y o f a l i f e a f t e r death, human s t r u g g l e i s meaningless  f o r Cleon, as i t was f o r a l a r g e number o f  110  people i n the n i n e t e e n t h  century.  The  poem ends w i t h  Cleon's s c o r n f u l d i s m i s s a l of C h r i s t i a n i t y as a which " c o u l d be h e l d by no sane man."  The  d o c t r i n Q  irony i n d i -  cates t h a t C h r i s t i a n r e v e l a t i o n i s the next stage of the process,  a l l o w i n g f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of continued  growth.  Cleon  accept  hup  can i n t u i t the higher stage,  i t when i t i s r e v e a l e d to  human  cannot  him.  Thus Browning, l i k e Tennyson, draws a s o r t of  social  c o n c l u s i o n from the n o t i o n of e v o l u t i o n a r y process: C h r i s t i a n i t y i s the consummation of human development, as i s the consummation of n a t u r a l development.  man  However,  l i k e Tennyson, Browning appears to have become  un-  progres-  s i v e l y l e s s concerned w i t h the workings o f the process, til,  i n "Cleon,"  un-  i t i s v i r t u a l l y an a l t e r n a t e v e r s i o n o f  the s t o r y i n G e n e s i s .  H i s l a t e r c l a i m t o have a n t i c i p a t e d  Darwin shows t h a t he d i d not understand the e s s e n t i a l d i f ference between Darwinian and pre-Darwinian models o f e v o l u tion.  Nonetheless, h i s adoption  of what he thought of as  Darwinian terms i n h i s works f o l l o w i n g 16*71 showstbaescont i n u i t y between the e a r l y p r o g r e s s i v i s t v i s i o n of and the more a p p a r e n t l y  conventional c r e a t i o n i s t  Paracelsus viewpoint  of the works o f h i s m a t u r i t y .  Although Tennyson's p e r i o d of c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the p r e s e n t a t i o n of e v o l u t i o n a r y thought had  direct  l a r g e l y come to an  and with In Memoriam, i t i s not t r u e t o say t h a t h i s l a t e r works do:;not d e a l w i t h e v o l u t i o n a r y themes. ^ 1  The a p p l i c a -  111  t i o n o f e v o l u t i o n t o s o c i a l problems, seen i n The P r i n c e s s , showed the t r e n d o f h i s development, and the b a s i c to be found  concepts  i n t h a t work u n d e r l i e the s o c i a l end p o l i t i c a l  ideas o f a number o f h i s l a t e r works.  T h i s trend  reached  i t s h i g h p o i n t i n the 1 8 5 0 ' s , when Tennyson wrote h i s l a r gest emount o f d i r e c t l y p o l i t i c a l p o e t r y — m u c h o f i t sparked  by the p o s s i b i l i t y o f war w i t h Fra'nce--and when  the theme o f p o l i t i c a l p r o g r e s s i v i s m entered  h i s major  works. By the completion  o f I n Memoriam, i t has been shown,  Tennyson had come t o conceive God  i n t o the world,  The  continuance  "Will"  o f e v o l u t i o n as the e n t r y o f  as Browning had done  d u r i n g the 1330's.  o f t h i s model can be seen i n the s h o r t noem A f t e r I n Memoriam, the word " w i l l "  (1355).  not only i n d i v i d u a l  will-power,  humen w i l l t o develop;  implies  but a l s o 8 more g e n e r e l  the i n d i v i d u a l  and the s p e c i e s a r e  by now i n t e r c o n n e c t e d i n Tennyson's thought by the mysterious correspondence which i s c a l l e d " t y p i n g " i n both I n Memoriam and The P r i n c e s s .  The man whose w i l l i s s t r o n g can endure  the world's "random shock"; the man whose w i l l i s weak "betterjlsjnot  w i t h time,  descended W i l l . "  / C o r r u p t s the s t r e n g t h o f heaven-  The important  phrase i s "heaven-descended,"  showing the d i v i n e element i n man, and i t i s e phrese t h a t becomes important The  i n some o f the l a t e r works.  "Ode on the Death o f the Duke o f W e l l i n g t o n "  (1352)  makes use, i n i t s c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n , o f images o f g e o l o g i c a l  112  change t o emphasize the e t e r n a l q u a l i t i e s o f the Both e r o s i o n — " G i a n t Ages heave the h i l l shore"—and  / And  the p l u r a l i t y of w o r l d s — " w o r l d  myriad myriads  soul.  break  the  on world i n  . . .ceach w i t h d i f f e r e n t powers, / And  other forms of l i f e "  (259-64)—signify  change and  uncer-  t a i n t y , but the i m m o r t a l i t y o f the s o u l i s a f f i r m e d i n the f a c e o f t h e s e . The 1860,  n a r r a t i v e poem "Sea Dreams," not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l although w r i t t e n t h r e e years e a r l i e r ,  reaches i t s  climax w i t h a dream-vision i n which the m i n g l i n g o f s o c i a l and g e o l o g i c a l m o t i f s occurs w i t h a l i t e r a l n e s s t h a t could not be found o u t s i d e a dream.  The  waves b r e a k i n g a g a i n s t a set o f c l i f f s , when the dreamer sees c l e a r l y ,  main image i s o f e r o d i n g them, but  she sees t h a t the  cliffs  are a c t u a l l y a set of c a t h e d r a l s o f every p e r i o d and These symbols o f past r e l i g i o n s crumble,  while men  style.  end  women, t h e i r v o i c e s alweys i n tune with the m u s i c a l  note  which accompanies the whole scene, t r y t o r e - e r e c t them. The  obvious i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the c o l l a p s e o f systems o f  f a i t h i s i n e v i t a b l e and p a r t o f the necessary order of nature, even at the cost of the people whose f a i t h has been destroyed, end who s t r u c t i v e wave.  ere swept ewey by the r e t u r n o f the  The  q u e s t i o n i s whether t h i s  collapse includes C h r i s t i a n i t y .  The  inevitable  dream ends w i t h the  image o f the V i r g i n Mother t o t t e r i n g , w i t h her c h i l d ing  to her.  C a r l y l e had  de-  cling-  long s i n c e d e c l a r e d t h a t C h r i s -  113  t i a n i t y was a worn-out system, i f not o f t o t a l replacement.  badly i n need o f p a t c h i n g Tennyson's poem, however,  leaves i t u n c e r t a i n whether i t i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l  Christia-  n i t y , Roman C a t h o l i c i s m , o r C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f i n g e n e r a l t h a t was t o t t e r i n g .  An i n t e r e s t i n g aspect o f the poem,  commented on a f t e r the n a r r a t i o n o f the dream has ended, i s the harmony o f the music w i t h the " w i l d c r i e s " o f the people: "'Why, t h a t would make our p a s s i o n s f a r t o o l i k e / The d i s c o r d s dear t o the musician'" ( 2 4 9 - 5 0 ) , says her husband.  One o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l a t e poetry  i s the i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on the v i o l e n c e e n t a i l e d by the e v o l u t i o n a r y process, but here, as i n I n Memoriam, the v i o l e n c e i s harmonized w i t h t h e b e l i e f i n p r o g r e s s . More emphatic  doubts  about the nature o f human develop-  ment are put i n the mouth o f the speaker o f Maud.  He i s  obsessed w i t h the e v i l s o f the L y e l l i a n world, which he sees e x e m p l i f i e d i n the s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s o f the day.  "Nature i s  one w i t h r a p i n e , a harm no preacher can h e a l " ( I . i v ) ; the ensuing images o f p r e d a t i o n form the n a t u r a l c o u n t e r p a r t to  the f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h war which forms one o f the main  themes o f the poem, as w e l l as t o the speaker's of  fantasies  the d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e human race: "At war with  and a wretched  myself  r a c e " ( I . x ) , " S t r i k e dead the whole weak  race o f venomous worms, . . . We are not worthy t o l i v e " (II.  i ) . E v e r s i n c e Dr. Mann's V i n d i c a t i o n , p u b l i s h e d a few 1q months a f t e r the poem i t s e l f , i t has been a c r i t i c a l com7  114 monplace to regard the n a r r a t o r as unbalanced  from  beginning, and t o see h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h the of the world  the  inadequacies  as the main source of h i s madness; but Mann  h i m s e l f p o i n t e d out the s a l i e n t f a c t t h a t the hero's cerns r e f l e c t the r e a l i t i e s of the wgrld, than an i n d i v i d u a l njala-Mjustment  con-  so that more  i s involved.  The  per-  s o n i f i c a t i o n of s o c i e t y as a whole, and the concern w i t h the v i o l e n c e of change, u n i t e the p o l i t i c a l end spheres  biological  of develonment: F o r the d r i f t of the Maker i s dark, an I s i s hid by the v e i l . Who knows the ways of the world, how God w i l l b r i n g them about? Our p l a n e t i s one, the suns are many, the world i s wide. S h a l l I weep i f a Poland f a l l ? s h a l l I s h r i e k i f a Hungary f a i l ? Or an i n f a n t c i v i l i s a t i o n be r u l e d w i t h rod or w i t h knout? ( I . iv)  Two  stanzas e a r l i e r , the d i r e c t l y e v o l u t i o n a r y comparison  i s made between man who  and the "monstrous e f t , " the dinosaur,  once r u l e d the world.  The  i d e a s of I n Memoriam are  i n v e r t e d by d e s c r i b i n g the dinosaur as once crowning  "Nature's  r a c e " and by suggesting, not the e v o l u t i o n of a  higher form of man, s p e c i e s : "He  now  but h i s e v e n t u a l replacement  is first,  by a h i g h e r  but i s he the l a s t ? i s he not too  base?" The n a r r e t o r r e s o l v e s h i s c o n f l i c t s by l e a v i n g t o take part i n the Crimean war.  In t h i s he may  seem to be a case  of f a i l e d development, becoming a p a r t of the L y e l l i a n world on i t s own  terms.  Tennyson's own  d e s c r i p t i o n , however,  115  states emphatically  that the c o n c l u s i o n i s a s i g n of  spiri-  t u a l progress:  "when he has at l e n g t h passed through the  f i e r y furnace,  and  had  recovered  h i s reason,  g i v i n g him-  s e l f up to work f o r the good of mankind through the  un-  20  s e l f i s h n e s s born of h i s great p a s s i o n . "  The war  perhaps, then,  on the p a r t of  represent  a s p i r i t u a l quest  the speaker, the f u l f i l m e n t of h i s e a r l y wish, "ah man  t o a r i s e i n me,  (I. x).  / That the man  IS.am may  may  for a  cease to  be!"  However, the s t r o n g element of n a t i o n a l concern  i n t h i s war  leads to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the war  a means of progress  f o r mankind, perhaps one  sand shocks" t h a t s o c i e t y must  itself is  o f the "thou-  experience.  T h i s poem i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g f o r i t s a n t i c i p a t i o n s o f the l a t e r development of Tennyson's poetry, h i s i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on the v i o l e n c e of the process,  and  in  evolutionary  i n the g r a d u a l f a d i n g of the hope f o r the  higher  race i n t o the i n d e f i n i t e f u t u r e , d e s p i t e hfes e s s e n t i a l meliorism.  T h i s g r a d u a l a t t e n u a t i o n of the hopeful  f o l l o w e d the advent o f Darwinism, but by the end Tennyson's e v o l u t i o n a r y thought was  process.  of the  1850's  complete i n i t s e s s e n t i a l  forms; the l a s t stage o f t h i s development was t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l and  vision  the a s s i m i l a -  s o c i a l worlds i n t o the  cosmic  CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSION  The O r i g i n o f S p e c i e s was  p u b l i s h e d i n 1 8 5 9 , and  a t e l y became the c e n t r e o f a c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t was c l e a r - c u t nor w e l l understood. type a t t a c k e d i t because  immedi-  neither  Churchmen o f the W i l b e r f o r c e  i t denied the Genesis account of  c r e a t i o n ; e v o l u t i o n a r y s c i e n t i s t s l i k e Owen and A g a s s i z o b j e c t e d t o i t because  i t denied p r o g r e s s i v i s m , which  the c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e i n t h e i r metaphysic.  was  Probably the  lar-  gest p o r t i o n of the p u b l i c saw the work as simply a confirmat i o n or restatement of the e v o l u t i o n a r y creeds which were already i n existence.  I t took an unexpectedly long time f o r  the O r i g i n t o make an impact  on poetry, and even when i t can  d e f i n i t e l y be shown as an i n f l u e n c e on a poet's t h i n k i n g , i t i s f r e q u e n t l y d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h the r e s u l t s from those of  pre-Darwinian m e t a p h y s i c a l t h e o r i e s . The f i r s t  poem a f t e r 1 8 5 9 t o d e a l c o n c r e t e l y w i t h e v o l u -  t i o n a r y problems was  a v i r t u a l l y f o r g o t t e n B i b l i c a l er>ic by  Edwin A t h e r s t o n e , e n t i t l e d I s r a e l i n Egypt  (1861).  Because  of A t h e r s t o n e ' s r e l i g i o u s b i a s , the h e r e t i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s are  g i v e n t o Satan, thus i n a d v e r t e n t l y making him a more  sympathetic c h a r a c t e r than he would otherwise have been; the suggestions, however, are n o t h i n g new, w r i t t e n at any time s i n c e Byron.  and c o u l d have been  Satan proposes a f i r s t  cause  117  antecedent  t o God, a process o f development which w i l l make  the d e v i l s i n t o d e i t i e s e v e n t u a l l y , and the i d e n t i t y o f organic and i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r .  1  I t might have seemed t o a  contemporary reader t h a t Atherstone was cashing i n on the recent Darwinian  c o n t r o v e r s y , but i f the s e c t i o n was w r i t -  t e n w i t h Darwin i n mind, i t cannot be s a i d t h a t he was a p a r t i c u l a r l y perceptive reader. The  first  poems which seem d e f i n i t e l y t o have been i n -  f l u e n c e d by a study o f Darwin are t o be found i n Browning's Dramatis  Personae,  published i n 1 3 6 4 .  " C a l i b a n upon Setebos,"  although o b v i o u s l y d e r i v i n g i t s c e n t r a l c o n c e p t i o n Shakespeare, appears  from  t o have been w r i t t e n w i t h the contem-  porary debate on the a n t i q u i t y o f man i n mind, and g i v e s an impression o f how a p r i m i t i v e human c r e a t u r e might t h i n k . C a l i b a n has formed h i s conception o f d e i t y i n h i s own image; Setebos i s c r u e l and s p i t e f u l ,  p a r t l y out o f l o n e l i n e s s end  envy o f the contentment o f the s t e r s , p e r t l y out o f pure sadism.  He i s , furthermore,  e l i m i t e d god, s i n c e he o n l y  mede the e e r t h end s o l a r system, not the heavens. t h i n k i n g shows t h e e a r l y t r a c e s o f a P l a t o n i c t h i s a bubble-world  Caliban's  concept—"Makes  t o ape yon r e a l " — a n d o f a s o r t o f prog-  r e s s i n nature, s i n c e Setebos "hath made t h i n g s w o r t h i e r than Himself."  There i s a l s o the beginning of a l e s s  morphic, o r i n t h i s case Celibomorphic,  anthropo-  d e i t y , i n the idee o f  the Quiet which dwells beyond the s t e r s , en e p p e r e n t l y omnipotent being which mey come i n t o a Manicheen c o n f l i c t  with  118  the l e s s e r c r u e l d e i t y .  C a l i b a n worships by sympathetic  magic and s e l f - t o r t u r e as a form o f penitence; oping t r a i n s o f thought are hindered The  by h i s s u p e r s t i t i o n s .  poem p a r t l y s a t i r i z e s eighteenth-century  n a t u r a l theology,  h i s devel-  concepts o f  but a l s o suggests the innate q u a l i t y o f  the b a s i c r e l i g i o u s ideas, even though misunderstood by the p r i m i t i v e c r e a t u r e . L y e l l , however, i s as l i k e l y a source  f o r Browning's  poem as Darwin, who r e f r a i n e d from d i r e c t s p e c u l a t i o n about man's a n c e s t r y f o r over a decade. from the onset  o f the controversy  However, i t was understood t h a t Darwin's views i m p l i e d  the e v o l u t i o n o f man, and the famous debate between Huxley and W i l b e r f o r c e took place on t h a t i s s u e .  Still,  however  much Browning may have been provoked by the Darwinian versy, h i s ideas remained b a s i c a l l y unchanged.  contro-  "Mr. Sludge,  'the Medium,'" i n the same volume, s t a t e s the d o c t r i n e o f a s p i r i t u a l world whidh i s independent o f the m a t e r i a l but nonetheless  a c t s upon i t ,  a conception which Browning saw 2  as conformable t o Darwinism.  He p l a i n l y b e l i e v e d t h a t Dar-  win wes simply o f f e r i n g s c i e n t i f i c c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the e v o l u t i o n a r y metaphysic which he had presented  i n h i s own poetry.  I n h i s l a t e r works, p a r t i c u l a r l y P r i n c e H o h e n s t i e l Schwangau end F i f i n e a t the F a i r , which appeered d u r i n g the controversy  over The Descent o f Men, Browning e l a b o r a t e d  hypotheses o f e v o l u t i o n i n more d e t a i l , without n i f i c a n t l y h i s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d conceptions.  altering  sig-  I n one o f  h i s l a s t works, the " P a r l e y i n g w i t h F r a n c i s F u r i n i , "  Furini  i s made t o propose an a l t e r n a t e , but complementary, way o f approaching the problem o f man's development, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the s i n g l e p e r s o n a l f a c t o f s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , which he deduces God.  from  He f o r e s e e s , o r a t l e a s t suggests,  a f u t u r e stage o f development i n which man w i l l have advanced t o the c o n d i t i o n o f "Prime Mind," but t h i s stage w i l l not be reached without a r a d i c a l change i n the nature of the developmental p r o c e s s — " s o m e f r e s h k i n d o f sun and moon."  Man's cause i s de-anthropomorphized  i n t o an " i n i -  t i a t o r - s p a s m , " but the temporal process i s s t i l l  conceived  of as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l " e t e r n a l moment" o f creation. Poetry i n s p i r e d by Darwin, r a t h e r than by pre-Darvrinian t h e o r i e s , does not r e a l l y appear u n t i l the 1370's, The Descent  after  o f Man had s p e l l e d out the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  natural selection.  Swinburne was t o use the concept o f  man's p r o g r e s s i v e development i n "Hertha" t o suggest the n e c e s s i t y o f p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n ; "Hertha" i s one o f the c e n t r a l poems i n h i s Songs b e f o r e S u n r i s e , and thus becomes 3 part o f a g i g a n t i c hymn t o r e p u b l i c a n i s m . put Darwinism  M e r e d i t h was t o  t o e q u a l l y m e t a p h y s i c a l purposes  i n h i s poetry,  s u g g e s t i n g the e s s e n t i a l goodness o f nature u n d e r l y i n g i t s ambivalent and sometimes t e r r i f y i n g s u r f a c e ; f o r the person who sees the t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f n a t u r a l processes, the encounter w i t h nature i s h e a l t h y and s e l f - a f f i r m i n g , w h i l e  120  f o r those who  approach i t w i t h the f e a r s engendered by-  t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s and t h e i r breakdown, i t i s d i s o r i e n t i n g : " E n t e r these enchanted woods, ye who B l i n d was  dare."* "  Mathilde  1  t o provide a m e l i o r i s t view of e v o l u t i o n f o r  the 1890's, i n which love was  the g u i d i n g power behind  the  process, and the c u r r e n t inhumanities of n a t u r e — s l a u g h t e r , war,  and p e r s o n a l c r u e l t y — w e r e  transcended  temporary stages, to be  as the t r u e power of love became manifest  over  unstated p e r i o d s of time. A l l these, although i n f l u e n c e d by Darwin, were  little  d i f f e r e n t i n substance  from the p r o g r e s s i v i s t views a v a i l -  able before 1859.  l a t e r n i n e t e e n t h century, however,  a l s o saw  The  some more genuinely Darwinian  views appearing i n  poetry, i n the pessimism of Thomas Hardy, whose works s t r e s s the supreme importance o f chance i n  hum8n  l i v e s , and  attempt of John Davidson t o e s t a b l i s h a m a t e r i a l i s t i n which power was men  the highest v a l u e . ^  The  i n the religion  poetry of these  c o u l d not have been w r i t t e n before Darwin's emphasis on  the a c t i o n o f a p p a r e n t l y random causes on the process o f s u r v i v a l and s p e c i a t i o n .  Already, i n Davidson's work,  can  be seen the i n f l u e n c e of " S o c i a l Darwinism," the movement which saw Darwin as p r o v i d i n g a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the  capital-  ist  system, e x p l o i t a t i o n being equated w i t h the s u r v i v a l of  the  fittest. By the end o f the century, new  e v o l u t i o n a r y theory, and  f o r c e s were appearing i n  simple Darwinism g r a d u a l l y ceased  121  t o e x e r c i s e a s i n g l e i n f l u e n c e , becoming mingled  w i t h the  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f F r a z e r and the r e l a t e d  schools  of f o l k l o r i s t s , themselves i n f l u e n c e d by Darwin, and. w i t h the g e n e t i c s o f B a t e s .  The  l a s t works one  can p o i n t to as  being i n f l u e n c e d by "pure" Darwinism are by men growing up when the O r i g i n was  published.  who  were  C h a r l e s Doughty  and Robert B r i d g e s , l a t e i n t h e i r c a r e e r s , both wrote epic poems u s i n g an e s s e n t i a l l y m e l i o r i s t m e t a p h y s i c a l e v o l u t i o n l i k e t h a t of Swinburne or Meredith,  although w i t h  different  results.  Doughty's wartime e p i c , The T i t a n s , shows p r i m i -  t i v e man  t r y i n g t o cope w i t h n a t u r a l f o r c e s beyond h i s con-  t r o l , but being aided by a s o r t of d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n , u n t i l they s y m b o l i c a l l y harness ends.  the defeated T i t a n s f o r t h e i r  B r i d g e s ' Testament of Beauty a f f i r m s the p r o g r e s s i v i s m  of the e v o l u t i o n a r y process i n the f a c e o f the events o f the 7 world war  and modern c y n i c i s m .  By the time these works were  w r i t t e n , however, Darwinism, as known i n the  nineteenth  century, had merged i n the minds o f the younger g e n e r a t i o n with r e l a t i v i t y theory and the p h i l o s o p h i c a l movements i n s p i r e d by N i e t z s c h e , so t h a t Darwin h i m s e l f was  f a s t becoming  a name r a t h e r than a concrete i n f l u e n c e . Tennyson had a r r i v e d at h i s b a s i c e v o l u t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n by the p u b l i c a t i o n of I n Memoriam.  A f t e r the o v e r t l y  political  poetry o f the 1350's, e v o l u t i o n a r y t h i n k i n g remained  implicit  i n h i s work, but i s r a r e l y e l a b o r a t e d i n d e t a i l ; having l i s h e d h i s premises,  he was  estab-  able to use them p o e t i c a l l y w i t h -  122  out needing t o repeat the e n t i r e process o f thought which had l e d t o them.  Thus one f i n d s i n h i s l a t e r poetry con-  t i n u e d r e f e r e n c e s t o the aeons r e q u i r e d f o r development, t o the f r i g h t e n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s c i e n c e s — " A s t r o n o m y and Geology, t e r r i b l e Muses!" ( " P a r n a s s u s " ) — a n d t o the s p i r i t u a l process u n d e r l y i n g the p h y s i c a l one, but l i t t l e t h a t i s r e a l l y a new advance. Whether Tennyson p e r c e i v e d the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between Darwin's theory and the p r o g r e s s i v i s t e v o l u t i o n he had come t o b e l i e v e i n i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine.  When Darwin  v i s i t e d him, he asked whether "'Your theory o f E v o l u t i o n does not make a g a i n s t C h r i s t i a n i t y ' * : and Darwin answered, t a i n l y not.'"  'No,  cer-  The emphasis on '^your theory" may imply t h a t  Tennyson a p p r e c i a t e d i t s r a d i c a l n o v e l t y , but i t may simply have been a way o f asking f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f what he suspected was a view s i m i l a r t o h i s own.  A r e a d i n g o f the l a t e r  poems b r i n g s out s t r o n g l y an emphasis on the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the process, but, as has been shown, t h i s development be seen as b e g i n n i n g w i t h Maud.  could  Poems such as "Despair,"  " L u c r e t i u s , " and "The Dawn" a l l p o r t r a y , i n t h e i r  different  ways, the problems o f f a i t h i n c o n f r o n t i n g the apparent meani n g l e s s n e s s o f the world; i n the f i r s t  two, the problem i s an  i n d i v i d u a l one, a r i s i n g from a l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s p i r i t u a l b a s i s o f the world, but i n "The Dawn" the problem appears t o be Tennyson's.  The c o n t i n u i n g evidence o f man's  inhumanity, perhaps coupled w i t h the emphasis on chance i n  123  Darwin's theory, had the e f f e c t o f pushing the date o f the achievement o f man's h i g h e r stage o f being f a r t h e r i n t o the future: . . . when s h a l l we l a y The Ghost o f the Brute t h a t i s walking and haunting us y e t , and be f r e e ? In a hundred, a thousand winters? Ah, what w i l l our c h i l d r e n be, The men o f a hundred thousand, a m i l l i o n summers away? ("The The  poem's i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t c i v i l i z a t i o n  worse before i t gets b e t t e r .  Still,  Dawn")  i s going t o get  d e s p i t e t h i s sense o f  doubt t h a t i n c r e a s e s i n h i s l a t e r poetry, Tennyson remained q a meliorist. after a l i s t  I n a c a n c e l l e d passage o f "To E. F i t z g e r a l d , " ' o f the d e p r e s s i n g developments immediately i n  s t o r e f o r the world, "years w i t h lawless v o i c e s t o r n , " there is  still . . . one l e a n hope, t h a t at the l a s t P e r c h a n c e — i f t h i s s m e l l world e n d u r e s — Our h e i r s mey f i n d the stormy Pest Has l e f t t h e i r r P r e s e n t purer.  A more i n d i v i d u a l ,  indeed s t r i k i n g l y p e r s o n a l , v a r i a t i o n on  the seme theme i s found i n "By an E v o l u t i o n i s t , " which he wrote while s e v e r e l y i l l :  p a i n and age f r e e the s o u l from  i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and prepare i t f o r "a height t h a t i s h i g h e r , " i n a process t h a t i s compared w i t h e v o l u t i o n a r y development: The Lord l e t the house o f a brute t o the s o u l ex 0 of a man, And the man s a i d 'Am I your debtor?' And the L o r d — ' N o t y e t : but make i t es c l e a n 8S you can, And then I w i l l l e t you a b e t t e r . '  124  At  the same time as t h i s emphasis on the anguish of  t r a n s i t i o n , t h e r e i s an experimentation with newer f a i t h s and t h e o r i e s based on e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o g r e s s .  Spiritualism,  i n which Tennyson e n t e r t a i n e d a b r i e f i n t e r e s t , p r o v i d e d a means of s u g g e s t i n g , as the concept of the p l u r a l i t y of worlds had done i n the e a r l y poems, a development i n t o h i g h e r forms a f t e r death, as i n %l\he R i n g " end "De dis":  "From death t o death through l i f e  Profun-  and l i f e . "  1 0  The  w r i t i n g s of James H i n t o n i n t e r e s t e d him extremely f o r t h e i r 11  c l o s e n e s s t o h i s own for  thought; Hinton's L i f e i n Nature,  i n s t a n c e , uses the same concept of the o r g a n i c and mater-  i a l worldgascssimply one m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the s p i r i t u a l as i s t o be found i n "The Higher Pantheism." " F a i t h beyond the forms of F a i t h " 69)  ("The  The search f o r a  A n c i e n t Sage",  1.  l e d Tennyson t o an i n c r e a s i n g t o l e r a n c e and r e s p e c t f o r  a l l r e l i g i o n s , which he regarded es more or l e s s i m p e r f e c t forms of C h r i s t i a n i t y , and l e d him to propose,  as i n "Akbar's  Dream," a v i r t u a l union of a l l f a i t h s . " L o c k s l e y H a l l S i x t y Years A f t e r " p r o v i d e s an  interesting  comparison between the younger man's ideas end those of the old,  r a t h e r d i s i l l u s i o n e d o l d man.  "Cosmos, Chaos!" i s h i s  repeated theme; t h e r e i s an uneasy balance between the f o r c e s of  e v o l u t i o n and r e v e r s i o n , the temptation t o r e t u r n t o the  beast. may  The p o s s i b i l i t y i s advanced  t h a t "Many an JEon too  pass when e a r t h i s menless and f o r l o r n , " but i s defeated  by the confidence t h a t "That which made us, meant us t o be  125  m i g h t i e r by and by."  The  p o l i t i c a l ideals,  liberalism,  g r a d u a l as opposed t o r e v o l u t i o n a r y change, the o f the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , s p i t e the worsening  still  times.  remain  little  triumph  changed  de-  The major d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t  the f a i t h i n immediate progress, or i n man-controlled progress, i s gone, and the f u t u r e of mankind i s t o a l a r g e extent l e f t  i n the hands o f  God.  'Forward' rang the v o i c e s then, and of the many mine was one. Let us hush t h i s c r y of 'Forward' t i l l t e n thousand years have gone. An i n t e r e s t i n g aspect o f the poem i s the concern f o r the s u f f e r i n g o f animals, 8 n d the i m p l i e d e q u a l i t y of men  and  the beasts they persecute, whereas e a r l i e r the great d i f ference between them was  i n s i s t e d on.  S t . F r a n c i s i s held  up f o r a d m i r a t i o n f o r having c a l l e d "the very f l o w e r s / S i s t e r s , brothers." The  1 2  extent t o which e v o l u t i o n permeated Tennyson's thought  can be found by examining  the I d y l l s of the King, a work not  e x p l i c i t l y concerned with e v o l u t i o n a r y development. son's symbols draw on a wide range o f sources and wider p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , but the two  Tenny-  offer basic  images i n the poem, those o f E x c a l i b u r and o f Camelot, are i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h the s o r t o f p o l i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t h a t has been demonstrated  i n the r e f e r e n c e s t o e v o l u t i o n i n the  poems of the IS^O's.  I n "The Holy G r a i l , " Camelot i s de-  s c r i b e d as having " f o u r great zones of s c u l p t u r e " i n i t s main hall—  126  And i n the And i n the And on the And on the And over a Of A r t h u r ,  lowest beasts are s l a y i n g men, second men are s l a y i n g beasts, t h i r d are w a r r i o r s , p e r f e c t men. f o u r t h are men w i t h growing wings, l l one s t a t u e i n the mould  (11. 234-39)  a d e s c r i p t i o n g l o s s e d by Hallam Tennyson as r e p r e s e n t i n g human progress: "the savage s t a t e of s o c i e t y ; the s t a t e where man of man;  l o r d s i t over the beast; the f u l l  development  the progress toward s p i r i t u a l i d e a l s . "  of these stages are observable  i n the poem.  A l l four  "The  Coming  of A r t h u r " opens w i t h a land i n which " t h e r e grew great t r a c t s of w i l d e r n e s s , / Wherein the beast was and more" (11. 10-11); A r t h u r ' s f i r s t  ever more  a c t i o n s are to  de-  f e a t h i s r i v a l kings and t o open up the w i l d e r n e s s , subduing the beast t h r e a t .  In c o n s t r u c t i n g h i s society,  A r t h u r moves on to the t h i r d vows o f p u r i t y and warriors.  stage, b i n d i n g h i s men  with  l o y a l t y i n order to make them p e r f e c t  Galahad r e p r e s e n t s the f o u r t h stage, but  he  q u i c k l y leaves the world by a c h i e v i n g h i s quest f o r the Grail.  Camelot's e t e r n a l q u a l i t y , as an i n c a r n a t i o n of  the h i g h e r stages of man's progress, i s made evident by M e r l i n i n "Gareth and L y n e t t e " when he d e s c r i b e s the  city  as " b u i l t t o music, t h e r e f o r e never b u i l t at a l l , / And therefore b u i l t  f o r ever."  Galahad can be seen es the pro-  p h e t i c type of the h i g h e r man,  and Camelot as the symbol o f  progress. A r t h u r ' s kingdom, however, i s destroyed.  Arthur  hes  127 d e d i c a t e d h i m s e l f t o the t a s k of s e r v i c e ,  and  confusion  erupts when h i s k n i g h t s go o f f on the quest o f the G r a i l ; they have a p p a r e n t l y f i x e d t h e i r f a i t h on a symbol of a l e v e l o f s p i r i t u a l being which i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o attain.  A r t h u r a l s o has a v i s i o n of the t r u e s p i r i t ,  as he says at the end of the G r a i l I d y l l , t r a n c e s t a t e resembling Tennyson's own, lotted  task.  but,  d e s p i t e a mystic  he keeps t o h i s a l -  However, the s t o r y i s not t h i s simple.  His  court c o l l a p s e s because of the s i n f u l love of L a n c e l o t Guinevere,  or, s i n c e t h i s love i s never d i r e c t l y  and  presented  i n the poem, because of the rumour of s i n ; the c o u r t i s c o r rupted because t h e i r f a i t h i s wanting.  But again, i t has  been made c l e a r from the beginning t h a t A r t h u r ' s power granted f o r a short time o n l y .  The  was  sword E x c a l i b u r i s sym-  b o l i c o f A r t h u r ' s power: . . . on one s i d e , Graven i n the o l d e s t tongue of a l l t h i s world, "Take me," but t u r n the blade and ye s h a l l see, And w r i t t e n i n the speech ye speak y o u r s e l f , "Cast me away!" ("The Coming o f Arthur, 11.  The  impulse  300-304)  t o progress, which E x c a l i b u r r e p r e s e n t s , i s  b a s i c t o the human c o n d i t i o n , but i t appears t o be l i m i t e d the circumstances  by  i n which i t operates; each e f f o r t to c r e a t e  a s o c i e t y seems doomed to f a i l , u a l mode of f a i l u r e t h a t v a r i e s . e v o l u t i o n a r y process?  The  and  i t i s simply the  individ-  What does t h i s do to the  frequent comparisons of A r t h u r  w i t h C h r i s t imply t h a t he has i n some way  embodied the d i v i n e  128  purpose d u r i n g h i s term on e a r t h .  I t should be remembered  t h a t Tennyson h i m s e l f s a i d t h a t the work " i s not the of  one man  or o f one g e n e r a t i o n but of a whole c y c l e o f  generations." d'Arthur"  A r t h u r ' s f i n a l l i n e s , r e t a i n e d from "Morte  over t h i r t y years b e f o r e , c a r r y a s u g g e s t i o n of  C a r l y l e ' s b e l i e f i n the i n e v i t a b l e obsolescence institutions, old  history  and  of human  of the need f o r p e r i o d i c renewal:  order changeth, y i e l d i n g place to new,  "The  / And God  fulfils  h i m s e l f i n many ways, / L e s t one good custom should c o r r u p t the world." s e l f may  Even an a d a p t a t i o n which i s b e n e f i c i a l i n i t -  become harmful to the s p e c i e s i f i t i s not  super*  seded by more advanced or p e r f e c t e d ones. The  c o l l a p s e o f A r t h u r ' s kingdom, then,  i s i t s e l f a stage  i n world progress; the poem reminds one of the systems of C a r l y l e and Comte, i n which the a l t e r n a t i o n o f " o r g a n i c "  and  " i n o r g a n i c " p e r i o d s of h i s t o r y becomes p r o g r e s s i v e , i n t h a t each organic p e r i o d i s somewhat more so than the ones.  The  impression,  previous  framework of the seasonal c y c l e r e i n f o r c e s t h i s i n d i c a t i n g why  the prospect of Camelot  back i n t o the beast" i s not e n t i r e l y p e s s i m i s t i c . such a b r i e f examination  "reeling However,  can only i n d i c a t e a s m a l l p a r t o f  the poem's t o t a l design; the e v o l u t i o n a r y theme i s only aspect of an extremely The  one  complex work.  f l e e t i n g q u a l i t y o f the i d e a l remains a dominant  p r e s s i o n i n the works of Tennyson's o l d age. manhood c l o s e d i n r e a l man,"  im-  Arthur i s "Ideal  a c c o r d i n g to a l i n e added to the  e p i l o g u e i n the f i n a l e d i t i o n ; hence he cannot remain f o r long a potent f o r c e on e a r t h , but must become an i d e a l f o r others  129  to ley  follow.  Poems such as " M e r l i n and the Gleam" and "Locks-  H a l l S i x t y Years A f t e r " express the hope end the p o s s i -  bility  o f d e c e p t i o n i n the p u r s u i t o f the i d e e l ; s t i l l i t i s  the course t h a t man must t a k e .  The p r e c i s e nature o f the  s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y u n d e r l y i n g t h e world o f appearances was always ambiguous and undefined i n Tennyson; i n the l a t e r years, i t becomes q u i t e simply en i d e e l , without e l a b o r a tion.  The o n l y c e r t a i n f a c t i s i t s e x i s t e n c e , and man's  partaking of i t i n h i s soul.  T i l l the end o f h i s l i f e ,  nyson a s s e r t e d the importance  of b e l i e f i n immortality; with-  out i t ,  life  would not be worth l i v i n g .  Ten-  And bound up w i t h  the s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y behind the m a t e r i a l world, end the imm o r t a l i t y o f the s o u l , i s the concept o f man's g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n i n t o a h i g h e r form, a process i n which the i n d i v i d u a l must p a r t i c i p e t e , by " t y p i n g " the h i g h e r forms i n h i s own life. ity  Tennyson never mede i t c l e a r whether t h i s moral  activ-  would produce the e v e n t u a l h i g h e r form, o r whether the  higher form would be n a t u r a l l y more p e r f e c t , without man's conscious involvement  i n the p r o c e s s - - i n other words, which  was cause and which was e f f e c t .  Probably he was never sure  h i m s e l f , but f e l t at l e a s t t h a t the attempt  t o a n t i c i p a t e the  h i g h e r form would be t o t h e good o f the w o r l d .  H i s evolu-  t i o n a r y metaphysic was pre-Darwinien, as d e f i n e d i n the opening  chapter, because  i t was based, on t e l e o l o g i c a l and e t h i c a l  p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r than on s c i e n t i f i c of  i t s progressivism.  hypotheses,  and because  I f the concept appeers vague, p a r t i c u -  130  l a r l y i n the l a t e r works, i t should be remembered t h a t he was t r y i n g ,  so t o speak, to j u s t i f y nature's ways t o man,  and t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y e n t a i l e d Rather  extreme  than i n any sense " a n t i c i p a t i n g "  difficulties. Darwin, he grew up  i n a g e n e r a t i o n i n which the s t a t i c , immutable concept  of  the u n i v e r s e was breaking down, and he provided, a progressivist  solution  t o the r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l problems gen-  erated by the new s c i e n c e of h i s p e r i o d .  FOOTNOTES  CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION  i  'William R . R u t l a n d , "Tennyson and the Theory o f E v o l u t i o n , " E s s a y s and S t u d i e s , 26 (1940), 7. o  rpt.  L i o n e l Stevenson, Darwin among the Poets (1932; New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1963), p. 55. 3  ^G. J . Romanes, quoted i n Hallam Tennyson, I M n e d e s Lord Tennyson: A Memoir (London: M 8 c m i l l a n , 1899), p. 136.  Halerie  Rockliff,  P i t t , Tennyson Laureate (London: B a r r i e and 1962), p. 105.  ^George R . P o t t e r , "Tennyson end the B i o l o g i c a l Theory of M u t a b i l i t y i n S p e c i e s , " PQ, 16 (1937), 321-343. ^ W i l l i a m H a r r o l d , "Robert Browning and E v o l u t i o n , " W i s c o n s i n S t u d i e s i n L i t e r a t u r e , 4 (1967), 5 6 - 6 5 ; Ramsay C o l l e s , quoted i n George R. P o t t e r , "Did Thomas L o v e l l Beddoes B e l i e v e i n the E v o l u t i o n of S p e c i e s ? , " Modern P h i l o l o g y , 21 (1923), 39-90; H. W. P i p e r , The A c t i v e Universe (London: Athlone, 1962), p. 193. ^Charles L y e l l , G e o l o g i c a l Evidences of the A n t i q u i t y of Man (London: John Murrey, 18b1), p. 405. t R obert Chambers,J c h i l l , 1855), pp. 71-2.  Explanations  (London: John Chur-  ^ C h a r l e s Darwin, The O r i g i n o f S p e c i e s , ed. Morse Peckham ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press, 1959), p. 165. The q u o t a t i o n i s from the t h i r d e d i t i o n (1860). V e r n e Grant, P l a n t S p e c i e t i o n (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 197D, p. 38. 1 0  M o r s e Peckham, "Darwinism and D a r w i n i s t i c i s m , " i n The Triumph o f Romanticism (Columbia, S. C : U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n e Press, 1970), pp. 187-139. 11  132  '^Samuel T a y l o r C o l e r i d g e , H i n t s toward the Formation o f a More Comprehensive Theory of L i f e , ed. S e t h B. Watson 3]V[orse Peckham, i n "Toward a Theory of Romanticism," i n The Triumph o f Romanticism, pp. 8 - 1 6 , d i s c u s s e s the emergence of dynamic o r g a n i c i s m and i t s a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h the e v o l u t i o n a r y metaphysic. 1  ^ F o r the development o f t h e o r i e s o f o r g a n i c i s m i n the a r t s , see M. H. Abrams, The M i r r o r and the Lamp (New York: Norton, 1953), pp. 21S-2~2~T. 1  ^ P h i l i p Henry Gosse, Omphalos, or an Attempt t o U n t i e the G e o l o g i c a l Knot (London: John van V o o r s t , 1858)• ^Erasmus Darwin's t h e o r i e s were g i v e n p o e t i c a l express i o n i n The B o t a n i c a l Garden (1739-91) and The Temple o f Nature (1803). F o r a study of Lamarck's i n f l u e n c e i n France, see Franck B o u r d i e r , " G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e versus C u v i e r , " i n C e c i l J . Schneer, ed., Toward 8 H i s t o r y o f Geology (Camb r i d g e , Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1969), pp. 36-61. 1  ^ G e o r g e s L. C u v i e r , E s s a y on the Theory of the E a r t h , t r . Robert K e r r (Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1 8 1 5 ) , pp. 1 3 ? - H 6 . ^ C h a r l e s L y e l l , P r i n c i p l e s o f Geology (London: John Murray, 1830-33). 1  i l l i a m C h a r l e s W e l l s developed a theory o f the comp e t i t i o n and p r o g r e s s i o n of races i n "An Account o f a White Female, Part o f whose S k i n Resembles a Negro," f i r s t presented i n 1813, and i n c l u d e d i n h i s Two E s s a y s : One Upon S i n g l e V i s i o n w i t h Two Eyes; the Other on Dew (London: A. Constable, 1818). P a t r i c k Matthew developed a theory o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n i n On Naval Timber and A r b o r i c u l t u r e (Edinburgh: Adam B l a c k , 1831) . Of)  J o h n P. N i c h o l , Views o f the A r c h i t e c t u r e o f the Heavens (Edinburgh: W i l l i a m T a i t , 1839), pp. 1 5 3 , 203. v  2  lMemoir, p. 2 5 0 .  22  Era  Quoted i n Hugh Walker, The L i t e r a t u r e o f the V i c t o r i a n (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1910), p. 302.  3piper, , 182-186, p r o v i d e s a summary of the i n f l u ence o f Wordsworth's E x c u r s i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t on Keats and Shelley. 2  p p  ^Some examples o f C o l e r i d g e ' s views on the a n t i q u i t y of "the absurd n o t i o n . . . o f Man's having progressed from 2  man:  133  an Ouran Outang s t a t e — s o c o n t r a r y to a l l H i s t o r y , t o a l l R e l i g i o n , nay, to a l l P h i l o s o p h y , " C o l l e c t e d L e t t e r s , ed. E . L^ Griggs' (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1959),XIV, pp. 574-575; " I a t t a c h n e i t h e r b e l i e f nor r e s p e c t to the Theory, which supposes tfe-e human Race t o have been g r a d u a l l y perf e c t i n g i t s e l f from the darkest Savagery, or, s t i l l more b o l d l y t r a c i n g us back t o the b e s t i a l as t o our Larve, contemplates the Man as the l a s t metamorphosis, the gay Imago, of some lucky s p e c i e s of Ape or Baboon," quoted i n A l i c e Snyder, " C o l e r i d g e on Giordano Bruno," MLN, 42, no. 7, 431• 25  ^ C o l e r i d g e ' s l a t e r m a r g i n a l note on t h i s passage, reproduced i n P o e t i c a l Works, ed. E. H. C o l e r i d g e (1912; r p t . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), p. 140, imp l i e s that he had turned away from h i s o r i g i n a l ideas, but was r e l u c t a n t t o admit i t : "hang me, i f I know or ever d i d know the meaning of them, tho' my own composition." Owen B a r f i e l d , What C o l e r i d g e Thought (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971), pp. 54-57. Norman Fruman, i n C o l e r i d g e the Damaged A r c h a n g e l (New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1971) i s led. by an apparent unawareness o f the m u l t i p l e meanings of the word " e v o l u t i o n " t o l a b e l C o l e r i d g e as an a n t i - e v o l u t i o n i s t . 2  7 s nyder, p. 431.  ^ S h e l l e y ' s debts to Erasmus Darwin have been o u t l i n e d , and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h e r e o f somewhat exaggerated, i n C. H. Grabo, A Newton among Poets (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1930). F o r Keats's r e l a t i o n t o Darwin, see Bernard B l a c k s t o n e , The Consecrated Urn (London:, Longmans, 1959), pp. 3-25. P i p e r , p. 1 9 3 ; 25 ( 1 9 4 9 ) , 153-9. 2 9  a l s o h i s "Keats and W. C. W e l l s , " RES,  ^°Brent E l l i o t t , "The Development o f R e l i g i o u s Ideas i n Two o f Byron's P l a y s , " B. A. Honours G r a d u a t i n g Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973.  134  CHAPTER TWO: EARLY POEMS AND  TENNYSON'S THEIR BACKGROUND  D e t a i l s about the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Poems by Two B r o t h e r s can be found i n W. D. Paden, Tennyson i n Egypt (Lawrence: U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas, 1942), pp. 1, 19-20; and Hallam Tennyson, A l f r e d Lord Tennyson, a Memoir (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1899), p. 18. ^Memoir, p. 16, and L i o n e l Stevenson, Darwin among the Poets (New York, R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1963), P. 60. ^Paden,  pp. 2 4 - 2 6 .  ^G. L. L. de B u f f o n , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , t r . W i l l i a m S m e l l i e (Edinburgh: W. Creech, 1780), V I I , pp. 392 f f . ^ S i r John H e r s c h e l , Astronomy, i n The C a b i n e t C y c l o pedia , 7 6 ( 1 8 3 3 ) , p. 203: Sunspots " a r e the dark . . . s o l i d body of the sun i t s e l f , l a i d bare t o our view by those immense f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the luminous r e g i o n s o f i t s atmosphere." ^For Byron's use o f the theme, see the second act o f C a i n ; f o r Dr. Chalmers, see M i l t o n M i l l h a u s e r , "A P l u r a l i t y of A f t e r - w o r l d s , " Hartford. S t u d i e s i n L i t e r a t u r e , 1 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 3 6 f f . ^ M i l l h a u s e r , pp. 39-42. ^There i s s t i l l a h i n t o f the argument from d e s i g n i n t h i s poem, i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f "some" who can "drew strange comfort from the e a r t h " (11. 29-32). However, i t i s not s t a t e d whether the " e a r t h " i n q u e s t i o n i s t h e i r own world, or the e a r t h t h a t can be seen i n the s k i e s . o P h r e n o l o g y was the f i r s t s e r i o u s attempt t o l o c a l i z e the f u n c t i o n s o f the b r a i n , i n s t e a d of assuming t h e t organ to be one u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d mass; the d i s c i p l i n e ' s mistake was i n assuming that the shape and l o c a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l organs must n e c e s s a r i l y be r e f l e c t e d i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the cranium. See the account i n Robert M. Young, Mind, B r a i n and A d e p t e t i o n i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n Press, 1970), pp. 9-53, e s p e c i a l l y 12-14. I t i s a l s o noteworthy t h a t Spurzheim end G e l l (who i s not mentioned i n the poem, but c o u l d have been f e m i l i e r to Tennyson from Southwood Smith's Westminster Review e r t i c l e t o be d i s c u s s e d below) a l s o d i d pioneer work i n t r e e i n g the enelogy o f r e d i e t e end v e r m i c u l a r g e n g l i e t o t h e humen b r a i n . 7  135  10  Hallam Tennyson, M a t e r i a l s f o r a L i f e of A. T. ( p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d , n. d.), I, pp. 35-6. 11 George R. P o t t e r , "Tennyson and the B i o l o g i c a l Theory of M u t a b i l i t y i n S p e c i e s , " PQ, 16 (1937), 323. W i l l i a m Whewell, The Philosophy of the I n d u c t i v e S c i e n c e s (.18471 wrpt. New York: Johnson R e p r i n t , 1967), I , p. 46. 1 2  1^  •^Whewell, pp. 54-73 passim, e s p e c i a l l y 66-73; D P . 82-88 (pure s c i e n c e s ) ; pp. 164-7O (mechanical s c i e n c e s ) . 1  RES,  ^Graham Hough, "The  22 (1947), 254-55.  N a t u r a l Theology of I n Memoriam,"  15craig W. M i l l e r , " C o l e r i d g e ' s Concept o f Nature," J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y of Ideas, 25 (1964), 85-36; Owen B a r f i e l d , What C o l e r i d g e Thought (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971), pp. 22-25, f o r the concept of natura naturans. ^See M i l l e r , pp. 85-36, f o r C o l e r i d g e ' s use of s a l t a t i o n s i n h i s theory o f l i f e . The suggested s i m i l a r i t y between C o l e r i d g e ' s thought and t h a t of modern g e n e t i c s i s more l i k e l y a development of A r i s t o t l e ' s ladder o f n a t u r a l forms, or perhaps even d e r i v e d from C u v i e r ' s d i s c o v e r y of breaks i n the g e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d ; unexplained v a r i a t i o n s could, i n the 1820's, have been accounted f o r by the theory of the i n h e r i t a n c e of a c q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , although there i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t C o l e r i d g e accepted t h i s . 1  17  'Memoir, p. 37. ^The W r i t i n g s of A r t h u r Hallam (New York: MLA America" 1943), p. 201, and see a l s o h i s "Prayer." 1  1 9  H a l l a m , p.  205.  20  H a l l a m , p.  204.  of  21 Memoir, p. 37: "development of the human body"; M a t e r i a l s , I, p. 55: "the e v o l u t i o n o f man." Hallam's somewhat naive r e p l y may be excused on the example of Smith's a r t i c l e i n the Westminster Review, 9 (1828), which c a r e f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s b r a i n and g a n g l i a even though r a t h e r i n c o n s i s t e n t l y p o i n t i n g out the analogy. J o h n K i l l h a m , Tennyson and the P r i n c e s s (London: Athlone Press, 1953), pp. 237-240. 2 2  136  W e s t m i n s t e r Review, 9;, (1323), 46O. 2/  2  <-Killham, pp. 236-37.  5westminster Review, p. 137.  emoir, p. 36: "the b r e t h r e n . . . I t r u s t , are waxing d a i l y i n r e l i g i o n and r a d i c a l i s m " ( S t e r l i n g ) . 27 h a r l e s Wordsworth, quoted i n Memoir, np. 33-39. C  23 C h r i s t o p h e r R i c k s , i n h i s e d i t i o n o f Tennyson's poems, d i s c u s s e s the t e x t u a l h i s t o r y of "Armageddon" i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y note t o that poem; a p o r t i o n found i t s way i n t o " P i e r c e d through w i t h knotted thorns . . ." 29 Memoir, pp. 263, 315-16. The remark quoted on p. 316, " t o assure myself o f the e x i s t e n c e o f my own body, I am sometimes o b l i g e d t o grasp an object,", reminds one of the d e v i l ' s B e r k e l e i a n speculations'.in "The D e v i l and the Lady," A c t I I , Scene i .  137  CHAPTER THREE! TENNYSON'S POEMS OF THE  1330'S AND  THEIR ANALOGUES  The W r i t i n g s of A r t h u r Hallam (New America, 1943), pp. 191-192. 2  H a l l a m , pp.  192,  York: MLA  of  186.  ^F. D. Maurice, quoted i n W. D. Paden, Tennyson i n Egypt (Lawrence: U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas, 1942), pp. 149-50. 4 e e C a r l y l e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , i n the "Old C l o t h e s " chapt e r of S a r t o r Resartus, of man as a temple, "the v i s i b l e M a n i f e s t a t i o n and Impersonation of the D i v i n i t y , " and, i n the chapter on "Organic F i l a m e n t s , " the d e s c r i p t i o n of man's h i s t o r y as "a p e r p e t u a l Evangel," a symbol of the g o d l i k e . S  -tylorse Peckh-am, V i c t o r i a n R e v o l u t i o n a r i e s (New George B r a z i l l e r , 1970), pp. 17-18.  York:  Ms-Mam Tennyson, A l f r e d Lord Tennyson, a Memoir (London: Me.cmillan, 1399), p. 100. ?This passage should be remembered i n any d i s c u s s i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of C a r l y l e on Tennyson, because, d e s p i t e the C a r l y l e a n overtones of e t e r n a l t r u t h s becoming h a l f - t r u t h s or even l i e s as they " c l o t h e themselves" i n creeds, the poem antedates the f i r s t i n s t a l l m e n t of S a r t o r by at l e a s t a year. °Sir John H e r s c h e l , Astronomy, i n The Cabinet C y c l o pedia, 76 (1333), 407: " i s i t nebulous matter p r o g r e s s i v e l y c o n c e n t r a t i n g i t s e l f by the e f f e c t s of i t s own g r a v i t y i n t o masses, or so l a y i n g the foundation of new s i d e r e a l systems?" The passage i n "The Palace of A r t " o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e s Hers c h e l ' s hypothesis r a t h e r than Laplace's because the l a t t e r presents a s i n g l e c r e a t i o n at one s i p a e i f i e & time, es opposed t o a c o n t i n u a l and p r o g r e s s i v e development.  9 John K i l l h a m , Tennyson end the P r i n c e s s (London: lone Press, 1953), pp. 234-40. 1  Ath-  W e s t m i n s t e r Review, 9 (1323), 451-463.  11 Another example of Tennyson's r e v i s i o n s i n the d i r e c t i o n of g r e a t e r s c i e n t i f i c accuracy can be seen i n the f a c t that "the snowy poles on moonless Mars" was changed, i n 1377, after the d i s c o v e r y of Phobos and Deimos, to "the snowy poles and moons of Mars."  133  12  F o r example, r e c a p i t u l a t i o n theory i s upset by the f a c t t h a t the major processes, such as the notochord and mesoderm, are d e r i v e d from completely d i f f e r e n t l a y e r s of t i s s u e i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s ; and the notochord, supposedly a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of p r i m i t i v e chordate stages, i s p a r t i a l l y co-extensive i n time with the c e r v i c a l f l e x u r e , not a f e a t u r e o f p r i m i t i v e chordates at a l l . F o r such reasons, r e c a p i t u l a t i o n theory i s today regarded as l a r g e l y i n v a l i d . ^Andy A n t i p p a s , "Tennyson's S i n f u l S o u l , " Tulane S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , 17 (1969), 124, b l a t a n t l y misreads the l i n e s t o suggest t h a t the "more w i d e l y wise" are at the bottom of the i n v e r t e d pyramid; "the poet-Soul seems a g a i n t o be p l a c i n g man (or the poet) o u t s i d e the n a t u r a l order." 1  ^See W i l l i a m Buckland, Geology and M i n e r a l o g y (BaMies? d e l p h i a : Carey, Lea and Blanchard, 1837), I, pp. 14-15. 1  ^ F o r p e r i o d statements on the p l u r a l i t y of worlds, see Isaac T a y l o r , P h y s i c a l Theory o f Another L i f e (London: W i l l i a m P i c k e r i n g , 1839), pp. 56 f f : " I s there not a l a t e n t , or a h a l f l 8 t e n t i n s t i n c t i n the mind which speaks o f a f u t u r e l i b e r t y of ranging at w i l l through space?" and H e r s c h e l , p. 330: "Now, f o r what purpose are we t o suppose such magnif i c e n t bodies s c a t t e r e d through the abyss of space? S u r e l y not t o i l l u m i n a t e our n i g h t s , " and a l s o pp. 278, 286. 1  ^ G e o r g e R. P o t t e r , "James Thomson and the E v o l u t i o n of S p i r i t s , " E n g l i s c h e S t u d i e n , 61 (1929), pp. 57-65.  17 (New  ' L e t t e r s of Robert Browning C o l l e c t e d by T. J . Wise. Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1933), p. 199.  See W a l t e r Pagel, P a r a c e l s u s ( B a s e l and New York: S. Karger, 1953), pp. 91, 315; A l l e n Debus, The E n g l i s h Perac e l s i a n s (London: Oldbourne, 1965), pp. 24-29, t r a c e s the i n f l u e n c e of P a r a c e l s u s ' d o c t r i n e of c r e a t i o n , and shows the ways i n which i t d i f f e r s from orthodox v e r s i o n s : "Then hee d i v i d e d Waters, from Waters; t h a t i s t o say, the more s u b t i l l , A i r y , and M e r c u r i a l l l i q u o r , from the more T h i c k , Clammy." 19 'Morse Peckham,"Guilt pp. 169-171.  and G l o r y , " D i s s . Princeton,1947,  20  John Stanyan B i g g , Night and the S o u l (London: Groombridge and Sons, 1354), pp. 103, 41. 21 See M i l t o n M i l l h a u s e r , " F i r e and I c e , " Tennyson S o c i e t y Monograph No. 4 ( L i n c o l n : Tennyson Research Centre, 1971), p. 15. 22 Memoir, p. 269.  139  CHAPTER FOUR: IN MEMORIAM THE COMPOSITION OF THE POEM  •i  'Hallam Tennyson, A l f r e d Lord Tennyson, (London: Macmillan, 1899), pp. 186, 250.  a Memoir  2  Memoir, p. 253. 3 T . S. E l i o t , " I n M e m o r i M " i n Essays A n c i e n t and Modern (London: Macmillan, 1936), p. 187. ^ C h r i s t o p h e r R i c k s , Tennyson (New York: Macmillan, 1972), p. 225. ^George R. P o t t e r , "Tennyson and the B i o l o g i c a l Theory of M u t a b i l i t y i n S p e c i e s , " PQ, 16 (1937), 321-343; Graham Hough, "The N a t u r a l Theology o f I n Memoriam," RES, 23 (1947),  244-256.  ^John K i l l h a m , Tennyson and the P r i n c e s s (London: A t h lone, 1958), pp. 241-43, 2 5 0 - 5 8 ; James H a r r i s o n , "Tennyson and E v o l u t i o n , " Durham U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l , 64 (1971), 26-31. ^ P o t t e r , p. 327. C h a r l e s L y e l l , S c i e n t i f i c J o u r n a l s on t h e S p e c i e s Question, ed. Leonard G. W i l s o n (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, T969), pp. x x x i i - x x x i v ; Leonard G. W i l s o n , C h a r l e s L y e l l : The Years t o 1841 (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972), p. 440. 9  F o r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f A g a s s i z ' theory, see l y e M ^ , p. x x x i i . J o s e p h B u t l e r , The Analogy o f R e l i g i o n W i l l i a m C o l l i n s , 1837), p. 203. 1 0  (Glasgow:  I s a a c T a y l o r , P h y s i c a l Theory o f Another L i f e W i l l i a m P i c k e r i n g , 1871), p. 38. 1 1  (London:  T a y l o r , pp. 228, 263. A c u r i o u s f e a t u r e o f T a y l o r ' s cosmology, mentioned on p. 228, i s the idea that there i s a " v a s t world around which a l l suns are supposed t o be r e v o l v ing." Perhaps t h i s i s a r e f e r e n c e t o H e r s c h e l ' s d i s c o v e r y t h a t the s o l a r system was moving away from the c o n s t e l l a t i o n Hercules, but more l i k e l y i t i s j u s t an e l a b o r a t e metaphor. One wonders though. 1 2  ^ E l e a n o r Mattes, IK Memoriam: The Way o f a S o u l ( New  York: E x p o s i t i o n Press,  1951),  pp.  32-36.  14AS has been shown i n the t h i r d chapter of t h i s study, the passage about "lower l i v e s " i n "The Two V o i c e s " i s r e i n c a r n a t i o n e l , and "From s t a t e to s t a t e w i t h i n the womb" d e s c r i b e s e m b r y o l o g i c a l change. 1  ^Killham,  P  .  262.  16 W i l l i a m Wordsworth, "Essay upon E p i t a p h s , " i n The P o e t i c a l Works, ed. Thomas Hutchinson, rev. E. De S e l i n e o u r t (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967), pp. 728-29. "^Tennyson read L y e l l i n 1837;  see Memoir, p.  136.  13 R i c k s , i n h i s e d i t i o n of Tennyson's poems, quotes L y e l l : "Even i f the more s o l i d p a r t s of our s p e c i e s had d i s appeared, the impression of t h e i r form would have remained engraven on the rocks, as have the t r a c e s of the t e n d e r e s t leaves of p l a n t s . " 1  % e m o i r , p. 2 5 5 .  20  The f a c t t h a t s p e c i e s could become e x t i n c t was p e r i o d i c a l l y denied almost up to the time of the O r i g i n . See the e i g h t h chapter of t h a t work, e s p e c i a l l y the s e c t i o n "On Ext i n c t i o n , " f o r a f i r s t - h a n d account of the argument. Thomas Malthus, On P o p u l a t i o n , ed. G. Himmelfarb (New York: Random House" 1960) ; chapters 2 and 8 of the " F i r s t Essay," o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1793, d i s c u s s the r a t i o s o f b i r t h i n c r e a s e and food supply i n c r e a s e . 21  2?  C h a r l e s L y e l l , P r i n c i p l e s of Geology (London: John Murray, 1832), I I , pp. 18-22 e s p e c i a l l y . 03  -'Alfred North Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (1925; r p t . New York: Macmillan, 1960), p. 113. 24 L y e l l , P r i n c i p l e s , I I , p. 2 7 1 : "Assuming the f u t u r e d u r a t i o n o f the p l a n e t to be i n d e f i n i t e l y p r o t r a c t e d , we can f o r e s e e no l i m i t to the p e r p e t u a t i o n of some oi the memorials of man . . . many works of a r t might e n t e r again and 8 g a i n i n t o the formation of s u c c e s s i v e eras, and. escape o b l i t e r a t i o n even though the very rocks i n which they had been f o r ages imbedded were destroyed, j u s t as pebbles i n c l u d e d i n the conglomerates of one epoch o f t e n c o n t a i n the organized, remains of beings which f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g a p r i o r ere." -  2 5  ^ H a r r i s o n , p. 2 8 . 26  F o r example, Washington I r v i n g i n h i s  Knickerbocker's  141  H i s t o r y o f New York (1809), Book I, Chapter i v , r e f e r s t o "the s t a r t l i n g c o n j e c t u r e o f Buffon, H e l v e t i u s , and Darwin, so h i g h l y honorable t o mankind, t h a t the whole human s p e c i e s i s descended from a remarkable f a m i l y o f monkeys!" He i s of course being s a t i r i c a l , but the passage shows t h a t the idea could be d e r i v e d from r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e sources. ? M i l t o n M i l l h a u s e r , "Magnetic Mockeries: The Background o f a Phrase," ELN, 5 (1967), pp. 109-111. 2  ^ C R o b e r t Chambers,U V e s t i g e s o f the N a t u r a l H i s t o r y of C r e a t i o n (London: John C h u r c h i l l , 1844). Tennyson o r dered a copy, saying t h a t " i t seems t o c o n t a i n many s p e c u l a t i o n s with which I have been f a m i l i a r f o r years, and on which I have w r i t t e n more than one poem" (Memoir, p. 186). 2  29  3  Hough, p. 251.  °Potter, p. 339.  -^Chambers, pp. 202, 275. Tennyson's use o f the word "type;"' although d e r i v e d b a s i c a l l y from C h r i s t i a n theology, seems t o owe a great d e a l t o Chambers' i n f l u e n c e . Contrast Hallam as a type o f the crowning race with the more convent i o n a l usage, as i l l u s t r a t e d by Robert Montgomery i n The Messiah (London: J . T u r r i l l , 1832), p. 17: Nor sea and mountain, thunder-storm and cloud, The g l o r i o u s m i r a c l e s o f l i f e and form Which f l o a t the waters, or the e a r t h command,— These are but types o f H i s unutter'd power. Tennyson's use o f the word i s completely opposite t o Montgomery's, implying a f o r e c a s t r a t h e r than a s t a t i c r e f l e c t i o n . "Memoir, p. 271.  142  CHAPTER FIVE: IN MEMORIAM THE POEM AND  ITS ANALOGUES  'Christopher R i c k s , Tennyson (New York: Macmillan,  1972), pp. 213-214.  ^ o r s e Peckham, V i c t o r i a n R e v o l u t i o n a r i e s (New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 197UJ, p. 3 6 . 3  ^Hallam Tennyson, A l f r e d Lord Tennyson, a Memoir (London: Macmillan, 1899), P. 255; James Knowles, "Aspects of Tennyson," Nineteenth Century, 3 3 (18*93), 8 2 . 1  4 obert Langbaum, The Modern S p i r i t (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1970), pp. 64-65; E. D. H. Johnson, ''In Memoriam: The Way o f the Poet," V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s , 2 (1953), pp. 139-40; E. D. H. Johnson, The A l i e n V i s i o n o f V i c t o r i a n Poetry?(1952; r p t . Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1963), P P . 17-21; V a l e r i e P i t t , Tennyson Laureate (London: B a r r i e and R o c k l i f f , 1962), p. W. " R  ^Ricks, i n h i s e d i t i o n of Tennyson's poems, argues t h a t the e a r l i e r arrangement "gave a more accurate impression o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Prologue t o the succeeding poem." ^Memoir, p. 747. Goethe was, as Tennyson probably knew, an e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r i s t , and provided one o f the f i r s t exp e r i m e n t a l c o n f i r m a t i o n s o f e v o l u t i o n a r y theory by h i s d i s covery of the i n t e r m a x i l l a r y bone i n man. ?Alen S i n f i e l d , The Language o f Tennyson's " I n Memoriam" (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1971), pp. 106-107. ^ W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t , The Year o f the World (Edinburgh: W i l l i a m T a i t , 18*46); Matthew A r n o l d , The Poems 1349-18*67 (London: Oxford U i n i v e r s i t y Press, 1937), PP. 94-126; P h i l i p James B a i l e y , The Angel World end Other Poems (London: W i l l i a m P i c k e r i n g , 1850), end The M y s t i c and Other Poems (London: Chapman and H a l l , 18557^ 9Empedocles, Fragment 100, i n K a t h l e e n Freeman, A n c i l l a t o the P r e - S o c r a t i c P h i l o s o p h e r s (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957). J o h n McLoed Campbell, The Nature o f the Atonement (London: Macmillan, 1873). Campbell's views on atonement l e d t o h i s being e x p e l l e d from h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n . 1 0  W a l k e r Gibson, "Behind the V e i l : A D i s t i n c t i o n between P o e t i c and S c i e n t i f i c Language i n Tennyson, L y e l l , and Darwin," V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s , 2 (1953), 60-68. 11  143  12  Peckham, pp. 2-4;  Langbaum, p.  57.  ^ F o r K i e r k e g a a r d ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of God with the unknown, see P h i l o s o p h i c a l Fragments ( P r i n c e t o n UniversityP r e s s , 1962), pp. 54-55; f o r the paradox of h i s t o r i c a l r e v e l a t i o n , pp. 112-138. 1  " ^ L i o n e l Stevenson, Darwin among the Poets (1932; r p t . New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1963), p. 98: "Tennyson had decided t h a t the almost simultaneous p u b l i c a t i o n of The O r i g i n of S p e c i e s and Essays and Reviews had i n v a l i d a t e d the Genesis creation-myth even f o r i n c i d e n t a l f i g u r a t i v e a l l u s i o n s . " He assumes that the l i n e was a l t e r e d i n i860, whereas R i c k s dates the r e v i s i o n at 1875, thus making The Descent of Man the more l i k e l y s t i m u l u s ,  15 Eugene R. August, "Tennyson and T e i l h a r d : The F a i t h of In Memoriam," PMLA, 84 (1969), 217-226. ^ ^ F r e d e r i c k Denison Maurice, The Kingdom o f C h r i s t don: Darton and C l a r k , 1838), I, pp. 102-104.  (Lon-  17 Maurice, F r e d e r i c k Denison Maurice, a Lj.fe Macmillan, 1884), I I , p. 311.  (London:  ^^Maurice, quoted i n O l i v e Brose, F r e d e r i c k Denison Maurice. R e b e l l i o u s Conformist ( U n i v e r s i t y : Ohio U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972), p. 2 7 1 .  19 The s i n g l e - and double-realm t h e o r i e s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n Kenneth Freeman, The Role of Reason i n R e l i g i o n (The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f , 1969), p. 4. 20 Ward H e l l s t r o m , On the Poems o f Tennyson ( G a i n e s v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a Press, 1972), pp. 30-36, d i s c u s s e s other s i g n i f i c a n t p a r a l l e l s between I n Memoriam and the h i s t o r i c a l ideas of the L i b e r a l A n g l i c a n s , e s p e c i a l l y J u l i u s Hare. H e n r y L o n g u e v i l l e Mansel, The L i m i t s of R e l i g i o u s Knowledge, Bamrton L e c t u r e s f o r 1853 (Boston: Gould and L i n c o l n , 21  1859), pp. 44-66. 22 Memoir, p. 347. 23 ^Herbert Spencer, The P r i n c i p l e s of Psychology (London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1855), n. 329: "the u n i t y of composition i n a l l i n t e l l i g e n t phenomena." ^"Spencer, p. 12: "Our s t a r t i n g p o i n t must be, not any s u b s t a n t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n b e l i e v e d , but some canon of b e l i e f i t s e l f " ; p. 14: "Every l o g i c a l act . . . i s a p r e d i c a t i o n — a n a s s e r t i o n that something jLs; and t h i s i s what we c a l l a b e l i e f . "  144  Spencer, p. 3 1 : "a b e l i e f which i s proved by the i n c o n c e i v a b l e n e s s o f the negation t o i n v a r i a b l y e x i s t , i s t r u e . " Note t h a t a b e l i e f i s t r u e more or l e s s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the number o f people who b e l i e v e i t . 26 Spencer, p. 422; the q u o t a t i o n i t s e l f comes from h i s Essays: S c i e n t i f i c , P o l i t i c a l , and S p e c u l a t i v e (London: W i l liams and Newgate, 1868), T] p. 30.  145  CHAPTER SIX: FROM IN MEMORIAM TO THE ORIGIN  [Anon. ,~j The Middle Night (London: W i l l i a m P i c k e r i n g , 1851). A copy i n the p o s s e s s i o n o f Dr. W. E . Fredemen bears a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o F r a n c i s Newman, s t a t i n g t h a t the°author had attended h i s l e c t u r e s . T h i s r a i s e s the i n t e r e s t i n g poss i b i l i t y t h a t the author may have been W a l t e r Bagehot, but t h i s i s admittedly not l i k e l y . o  The b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r a c i a l degeneration became well-known and c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n England, but i n Germany i t became a major i n f l u e n c e on p o l i t i c a l thought, through the i n f l u e n c e o f Gobineau and E r n s t Haeckel, through t h e i r f o l l o w e r , Houston Chamberlain. F o r the impact o f Darwinism, and Haeckel i n p a r t i c u l a r , on l a t e nineteenth-century r a c i s t thought, see D a n i e l Gasman, The S c i e n t i f i c O r i g i n s o f N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m (London: Oldbourne" 1969). o  ^John K i l l h a m , Tennyson and the P r i n c e s s (London: A t h lone, 1953), pp. 243-244. ^"Killham, pp. 44-35 passim, f o r Tennyson's debt t o ' t h e f e m i n i s t controversy end i t s s o c i a l i s t background. ^Maurice Mandelbaum, H i s t o r y , Man, and Reason Johns Hopkins, 1971), p. 67.  (Baltimore:  Memoir, p. 84. See K i l l h a m , p. 25: "he i s s a y i n g no more than t h a t Saint-Simonism i s both a product o f t h e s o c i a l e v i l s abounding a t the time end an attempt t o s o l v e them."  7  O l i v e Brose, F r e d e r i c k Denison Maurice, R e b e l l i o u s Conf o r m i s t ( U n i v e r s i t y : Ohio U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972), pp. 219-223. C a r l y l e t r a n s l a t e d Saint-Simon's Le Nouveau C h r i s t i a n i s m e , although he never p u b l i s h e d i t . % i l l h e m , pp. 263, 288, d i s c u s s e s the a p p l i c e t i o n s of Chembers' t h e o r i e s t o the f e m i n i s t problem. \ i l l h e m , p. 231: "We might i n f e e t b e l i e v e t h e t he wes i l l u s t r e t i n g the k i n d o f educetion women might demend i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s they would one day e s t a b l i s h , an educetion which would enable them t o come c l o s e r t o understanding t h e way s o c i e t y was developing." 1 (  11 An i n t e r e s t i n a l c h e m i c a l methods t o prolong l i f e was s t i l l e x t e n s i v e i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century. The a l c h e m i c e l  146  background t o the thought o f Goethe and S h e l l e y i s w e l l known, and Thomas L o v e l l Beddoes d i r e c t e d much o f h i s a t t e n t i o n t o s i m i l a r problems, p a r t l y through comparative anatomy and p a r t l y through a m y s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the s o u l . The r e s u l t was a plan f o r comprehending the s o u l throughthe study o f the forms o f t h i n g s i n a p r o g r e s s i v e sequence from the c r y s t a l t o man, i n consequence o f which he has been claimed as a forerunner o f Darwin. See J o n Lundin, "T.- L;.' Beddoes a t G o t t i n g e n , " S t u d i a N e o p h i l o l o g i c a , 44 (1971),  434-499. 12  See S o r d e l l o VI: "Small, Great are merely terms we bandy here; / S i n c e t o the s p i r i t ' s absoluteness a l l / Are l i k e , " and other r e f e r e n c e s t o " F i t t i n g t o the f i n i t e h i s infinity." The concept i s h a r d l y new, o f course, as i t can be t r a c e d t o S t . Augustine at l e a s t . ^ P h i l i p Henry Gosse, Omphalos, or an Attempt t o U n t i e the G e o l o g i c a l Knot (London: John van V o o r s t , 1858). 14  Chambers, f o r i n s t a n c e , extended e v o l u t i o n a r y theory i n t o s o c i a l realms, w i t h r e s u l t s s i m i l a r t o the above. See K i l l h a m , p. 261.  15  See Goodwin Barmby, c i t e d and d e s c r i b e d  54.  i n K i l l h a m , p.  Iemoir, p. 274: "What he c a l l e d the 'man-woman'' i n O h r C h r i s t , t h e union o f tenderness and s t r e n g t h , " and Tennyson's l a t e r epigram "On One who A f f e c t e d an E f f e m i n a t e Manner": "I p r i z e t h a t s o u l where man and woman meet . . . But, f r i e n d , man-woman i s not woman-man." 1  17 L e t t e r s o f Robert Browning C o l l e c t e d by Thomas J . Wise (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1933), pp. 199-200: " I n r e a l i t y , a l l t h a t seems proved i n Darwin's scheme was a conc e p t i o n f a m i l i a r t o me from the beginning: see i n P a r a c e l s u s the p r o g r e s s i v e development from s e n s e l e s s matter t o organized, u n t i l man's appearance . . . A l s o i n Cleon, see the order o f " l i f e ' s m e c h a n i c s , " — a n d I daresay i n many passages o f my poetry." Whet Browning regarded es "proved" i n Darwin's s y s tem i s p r e c i s e l y what Darwin r e j e c t e d . F o r en i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Browning t h a t takes h i s words here a t face value, see W i l l i a m H a r r o l d , "Robert Browning and E v o l u t i o n , " Wisconsin Stud* i e s i n L i t e r a t u r e , 4 (1967), $6*65; H a r r o l d does not d i s t i n guish between e v o l u t i o n a r y metaphors and those o f simple o r ganic growth. 13 L i o n e l Stevenson, Darwin among the Poets (1932; r p t . New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1963), p. 94: "During the next t w e n t y - f i v e years he was engaged with the I d y l l s o f the King, the t a l e s o f humble l i f e , and the h i s t o r i c a l dramas, i n t o none o f which could contemporary problems r e e d i l y i n t r u d e . "  147  Robert James Mann, Tennyson's "Maud" V i n d i c a t e d (London: J a r r o l d and Sons, n. d . ) . F o r h i s statement on the r e a l i t y o f the speaker's problems, pp. 76-7: "War does e x i s t i n the great drama o f nature. T h e r e f o r e i t could not be shut out from the l i t t l e drama, which t r e a t s , under the s u g g e s t i o n o f the wider plan, of the meaning and purpose o f moral c o n f l i c t . " ^ H a l l a m Tennysbn, A l f r e d Lord Tennyson, (London: Macmillan, 1899), p. 334.  a Memoir  <14§"  CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSION-  Edwin Atherstone, I s r a e l i n Egypt (London: Longman, Green, Longman^ and Roberts)!, 1861). 1  2 (New  L e t t e r s o f Robert Browning C o l l e c t e d by Thomas J . Wise Haven: Y a l e t U n i y e r s i t y Press, 1933), pp. 199-200.  rpt.  ^Algernon C h a r l e s Swinburne, Songs before S u n r i s e (18*71; London: W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1917), pp. 72-80.  ^George Meredith, "The Woods of Westermain," i n P o e t i c a l Works (London: Constable and Co., 1919), P . 193; t h i s poem was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1883. ^Methilde B l i n d , The Ascent Windus, 1889).  of Man  (London: Chatto  and  Davidson n e a t l y parodied t h e o r i e s of human p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e v o l u t i o n a r y process i n h i s novel E a r l Lavender, but e v e n t u a l l y turned to demanding t h a t man emulate the powers of the u n i v e r s e , f o r example e l e c t r i c i t y , and e x e r c i s e pure f o r c e and dominance of the w i l l . See h i s s e r i e s of Testaments or the two p l a y s of the incomplete Mammon t r i l o g y , a l l publ i s h e d i n the f i r s t decade of t h i s century. 7  C h a r l e s Doughty, The T i t a n s (London: Duckworth and Co,, 1916), c a r r i e s the s u b t i t l e "Subdued to the S e r v i c e of Man" on the h a l f - t i t l e , but not on the t i t l e page. Robert Bridges, The Testament of Beauty i n P o e t i c a l Works,(London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964). laMam Tennyson, A l f r e d Lord ^ennyson, a Memoir (London: Macmillan, 1899), p. 464. ^The c a n c e l l e d passage i s reproduced R i c k s ' e d i t i o n of Tennyson's poems.  10  on page 13?0  of  F o r an account of the Tennyson b r o t h e r s ' i n t e r e s t i n s p i r i t u a l i s m ( F r e d e r i c k became a convinced f o l l o w e r ) , see Katherine H. P o r t e r , Through a G l a s s D a r k l y (Lawrence: U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas, 1958), pp. 117-135. " 11 James Hinton, L i f e i n Nature (London: Smith and E l d e r , 1875), p. 163. On p. 106, he a s s e r t s t h a t "no formative power i s to be a s c r i b e d to those types or standards," thus perhaps i n f l u e n c i n g Tennyson's a t t i t u d e toward "Typing" the e v o l u t i o n a r y process; i n the l a t e r poems, at l e a s t , there i s l e s s emphasis on t y p i n g , and more on f o l l o w i n g the gleam, perhaps two d i f f e r e n t concepts.  '^James Hinton, i n The Mystery of P a i n (London: Smith and E l d e r , 1870), regarded the s u f f e r i n g o f a l l t h i n g s as equal, and t r i e d to j u s t i f y the presence of p a i n as nart of the e v o l u t i o n a r y process: " i f we may look beyond. £our i n d i v i d u a l p a i n j , and see i n our own s u f f e r i n g s , end i n the s u f f e r i n g s of o t h e r s , something i n which mankind e l s o has e stake . . ." (pp. 31-32).  13 Hinton, i n The Mystery of Pain, d i s t i n g u i s h e s three goods: p l e a s u r e , the i n d i v i d u a l good; s e r v i c e to others, the o r d i n a r y good; and d i s i n t e r e s t e d s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , the h i g h e s t or p e r f e c t good.  U  Grail," without  Tennyson s a i d of C h r i s t , with r e f e r e n c e to "The Holy " I t i s enough t o look on C h r i s t as D i v i n e and I d e a l d e f i n i n g more."  150  BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED Primary Sources a) Tennyson Tennyson, A l f r e d L o r d . The Poems of Tennyson, ed. C h r i s topher R i c k s . London: Longmans, Green, 1 9 6 9 . , et a l . Poems by Two B r o t h e r s . mTTTan, 1893 ( 1 8 2 7 ) .  London:  Mac-  b) Romantic and V i c t o r i a n Poetry Anon.  The M i d d l e Night.  London: W i l l i a m P i c k e r i n g ,  A r n o l d , Matthew. The Poems 1 8 4 9 - 1 8 6 7 . U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 3 $ .  1851.  London: Oxford  Atherstone, Edwin. I s r a e l i n Egypt. London: Longman, Green, Longman" and R o b e r t s , 1 8 6 1 . B a i l e y , P h i l i p James. The Angel World and Other Poems. London: W i l l i a m P i c k e r i n g , 1 8 5 0 . .  Festus.  London: W i l l i a m P i c k e r i n g ,  . The M y s t i c and Other Poems. and H e l l , 1 8 5 5 . B i g g , John Stenyan. Night and the S o u l . b r i d g e and Sons, 1 8 5 4 . B l i n d , M a t h i l d e . The Ascent o f Men. Windus, 1 8 8 9 . B r i d g e s , R o b e r t . P o e t i c a l Works. Press, 1 9 6 4 .  1839.  London: Chapman London: Groom-  London: Chetto and  London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  Browning, R o b e r t . L e t t e r s o f Robert Browning C o l l e c t e d by Thomas J . W i s T I New «aven: Y e l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, "1933. . P o e t i c e l Works, ed. Augustine B i r r e l l . Smith end E l d e r , 1 8 9 6 .  London:  151  Byron, George Gordon, L o r d . P o e t i c a l Works. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press" I960. Clough, A r t h u r Hugh.  Poems.  London:  London: Macmillan,  1895.  C o l e r i d g e , Samuel T a y l o r . C o l l e c t e d L e t t e r s , ed. E. L. G r i g g s . Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1959. . H i n t s toward the Formation o f a More ComPrehensive Theory o f L i f e , ed. Seth B. Watson. London: John C h u r c h i l l , T84$. . P o e t i c a l Works, ed. E. H. C o l e r i d g e . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967 (1912). Doughty, C h a r l e s .  1916.  The T i t a n s .  London: Duckworth and  Co.,  Hallam, A r t h u r . The W r i t i n g s o f A r t h u r Hallam. MLA o f America, 1943.  New  Keats, John. P o e t i c a l Works, ed. H. W. Clarendon P r e s s , 1939.  Oxford:  Meredith, George. Co., 1919. Montgomery, R o b e r t .  P o e t i c a l Works. The Messiah.  Garrod.  London: C o n s t a b l e and London: J . T u r r i l l ,  Scott, William B e l l . The Year o f the World. William T a i t , 187^ S h e l l e y , Percy Bysshe.  Poems;,  Swinburne, Algernon C h a r l e s . W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1917  New  York:  183?.  Edinburgh:  York: Random House, n. d.  Songs b e f o r e S u n r i s e . (1871).  London:  Wordsworth, W i l l i a m . P o e t i c a l Works, ed. Thomas Hutchinson, rev. E. De S e l i n c o u r t London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967. f  Secondary a) Tennyson:  Sources  B i o g r a p h i c a l and C r i t i c a l  Antippas, Andy. "Tennyson's S i n f u l S o u l . " E n g l i s h , 17 (1969), 113-134.  Tulane S t u d i e s i n  152  August, Eugene R. "Tennyson and ^ e i l h a r d : The F a i t h o f I n Memoriam." TOLA, 84 (1969), PJ7-226. E l i o t , T. S. Essays Ancient and Modern. m i l l a n , T?W.  London: Mac-  Gibson, Walker. "Behind the V e i l : A D i s t i n c t i o n between P o e t i c and S c i e n t i f i c Language i n Tennyson, L y e l l , and Darwin." V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s , 2 (1958), 60-68. H a r r i s o n , James. "Tennyson and E v o l u t i o n . " v e r s i t y J o u r n a l , 64 (1971), 26-31.  Durham U n i -  H e l l s t r o m , Ward. On the Poems o f Tennyson. U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a Press, 1972.  Gainesville:  Hough, Graham.  "The N a t u r a l Theology o f I n Memoriam."  RES, 23 (1947), 244-256.  Johnson, E. D. H. The A l i e n V i s i o n o f V i c t o r i a n Poetry. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1963 (1952). . " I n Memoriam: The Way S t u d i e s , 2 (1958), 139-148.  o f the Poet."  K i l l h a m , John. Tennyson and the P r i n c e s s . lone Press, 1958. Knowles, James.  33,(1893)  "Aspects o f Tennyson."  Langbaum, R o b e r t . The Modern S p i r i t . U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1970.  Victorian  London: A t h -  Nineteenth Century, New York: Oxford  Mann, Robert James. Tennyson's "Maud" V i n d i c a t e d . J a r r o l d and Sons, n. d.  London:  M i l l h a u s e r , M i l t o n . F i r e and I c e . L i n c o l n : Tennyson Research Centre, 1971. .  "Magnetic Mockeries: The Background o f a Phrase."  ELN, 5 (1967), 103-113. .  "A P l u r a l i t y of A f t e r - w o r l d s . "  in Literature,  1 (1969),  37-49.  Paden, W. D. Tennyson i n Egypt. Kansas, 1942.  Lawrence: U n i v e r s i t y o f  Peckham, Morse. V i c t o r i a n R e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . e o r g e B r a z i l l e r , 1970. G  Hartford Studies  New York:  153  P i t t , V a l e r i e . Tennyson Laureate. R o c k l i f f , 1962".  London: B a r r i e  and  P o t t e r , George R. "Tennyson and the B i o l o g i c a l Theory o f M u t a b i l i t y i n Species." PQ, 16 (1937), 321-343. Ricks, Christopher.  Tennyson.  London: Macmillan,  1972.  Rutland, W i l l i a m R. "Tennyson and the Theory o f E v o l u t i o n . " E s s a y s and S t u d i e s , 26 (1940), 7-29. S i n f i e l d , A l a n . The Language of Tennyson's In Memoriam. Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1971. Tennyson, Hallam. M a t e r i a l s toward a L i f e of A. T. v a t e l y printed"! n. d. ._ A l f r e d Lord Tennyson, a Memoir. Ma c mi1lan, 1899. '  Pri-  London:  b) S c i e n t i f i c and P h i l o s o p h i c a l Works B o u r d i e r , Franck. " G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e versus C u v i e r , " i n C e c i l J . Schneer, ed., Toward a H i s t o r y o f Geology. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1 9 5 9 . Brose, O l i v e . F r e d e r i c k Denison Maurice, R e b e l l i o u s Conf o r m i s t . U n i v e r s i t y : Ohio U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 7 2 . Buckland, W i l l i a m . Geology and Mineralogy. Carey, Lee end Blenchard, 1 8 3 7 .  Philadelphia:  B u f f o n , G. L. L. de. Natural History, t r . William Smellie. Edinburgh: W. Creech, 1780. B u t l e r , Joseph. The Analogy of R e l i g i o n . C o l l i n s , 18T77 Campbell, John McLeod. Macmillen, 1873. Chambers, R o b e r t .  The  Glasgow: W i l l i a m  Nature o f the Atonement. London:  Explanations.  London: John C h u r c h i l l ,  1355. . V e s t i g e s of the N a t u r a l H i s t o r y of C r e a t i o n . London: John C h u r c h i l l , 1844. C u v i e r , Georges L. Robert K e r r .  Essay on the Theory of the E a r t h , t r . Edinburgh: W i l l i a m T a i t , 1815.  154  Darwin, C h a r l e s . O r i g i n o f S p e c i e s , ed. Morse Peckham. P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, 1959. Darwin, Erasmus. 1306~  P o e t i c a l Works.  London: J . Johnson,  Debus, A l l e n . The E n g l i s h P a r a c e l s i a n s . bourne , 1965.  London: O l d -  Freeman, K a t h l e e n . A n c i l l a t o the P r e - S o c r e t i c P h i l o sophers . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. Freeman, l e n n e t h . The Role o f Reason i n R e l i g i o n . Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1969.  The  Gasman, D a n i e l . The S c i e n t i f i c O r i g i n s of N a t i o n a l Soc i a l i s m . London: Oldbourne, 1969. Gosse, P h i l i p Henry. Omphalos, or an Attempt to U n t i e the G e o l o g i c a l Knot', London: John van V o o r s t , T& 58\ 7  Grant, Verne. P l a n t S p e c i a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. H e r s c h e l , S i r John. 76 ( 1833). Hinton, James. 1375. .  Astronomy.  L i f e i n Nature.  New York: Columbia I n The C a b i n e t C y c l o p e d i a , London: Smith and E l d e r ,  The Mystery of P a i n .  London: Smith and E l d e r ,  W?0. I r v i n g , Washington. House, n. d.  Selected Writings.  New York: Random  K i e r k e g a a r d , So'ren. P h i l o s o p h i c a l Fragments. P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1962.  Princeton:  L y e l l , C h a r l e s . G e o l o g i c a l E v i d e n c e s o f the A n t i q u i t y o f Man. London: JohniMurray, 1 861. . P r i n c i p l e s o f Geology. 3 v o l s . , 1830-1833.  London: John Murray,  . S c i e n t i f i c J o u r n a l s on the S p e c i e s Question, ed. Leonard G. W i l s o n . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969.  ^55  Malthus, Thomas. On P o p u l a t i o n , ed. G. Himmelfarb. York: Random House, 1960. Mandelbaum, Maurice. H i s t o r y , Man and Reason. Johns Hopkins, 1971.  New  Baltimore:  Mansel, Henry L o n g u e v i l l e . The L i m i t s o f R e l i g i o u s Knowledge. Boston: Gould and L i n c o l n , 1859. Matthew, P a t r i c k . On Naval Timber and A r b o r i c u l t u r e . Edinburgh: Adam B l a c k , 1831. Maurice, F r e d e r i c k Denison. The Kingdom o f C h r i s t . don: Darton and C l a r k , 1838. . F r e d e r i c k Denison Maurice, a L i f e . Macmillan, 1884.  Lon-  London:  N i c h o l , John. Views o f the A r c h i t e c t u r e o f the Heavens. Edinburgh: W i l l i a m T a i t , 1839. Pagel, W a l t e r . 1953.  Paracelsus.  B a s e l and New York: S. Karger,  Smith, Southwood. Review o f A natomie C onroaree, by S e r r e s , etc. Westminster Review, 9 (1828), 172-198, nnd 451-  480.  Spencer, H e r b e r t . Speculative.  Essays: S c i e n t i f i c ,  P o l i t i c a l , and.  London: W i l l i a m s and Newgate, T36"8.  . The P r i n c i p l e s o f Psychology. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1855. T a y l o r , I s a a c . P h y s i c a l Theory o f Another L i f e . W i l l i a m P i c k e r i n g , 1839.  London:  W e l l s , W i l l i a m C h a r l e s . Two Essays: One upon S i n g l e V i s i o n w i t h Two Eyes; the Other on Dew" London: A. Constable 1818. Whewell, W i l l i a m . The P h i l o s o p h y o f the I n d u c t i v e S c i e n c e s . New York: Johnson R e p r i n t , 1967 (1847). Whitehead, A l f r e d North. S c i e n c e and the Modern World. York: Macmillan, 1960 (1925) . W i l s o n , Leonard G. C h a r l e s L y e l l : The Years t o 1841. New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972. Young, Robert M. Mind, B r a i n and A d a p t a t i o n i n t h e Ninet e e n t h Century^ Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1970.  New  1 56  c) C r i t i c i s m o f Nineteenth-Century Abrams, M. H.  Poetry  The M i r r o r and the Lamp.  New York: Norton,  1953. B e r f i e l d , Owen. What C o l e r i d g e Thought. Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 7 1 . B l a c k s t o n e , Bernard. mans, 1959.  The Consecrated  Middletown, Conn.:  Urn.  London: Long-  E l l i o t t , Brent. "The Development o f R e l i g i o u s Ideas i n Two o f Byron's B l a y s , " unpublished B. A. Honours Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1973.  Fruman, Norman. C o l e r i d g e the Damaged Archangel. George B r a z i l l e r , 1971.  New Y o r k i  Grabo, C. H. A Newton among Poets. Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of South C a r o l i n a Press, 1930. H a r r o l d , W i l l i a m . "Robert Browning and E v o l u t i o n . " Wisc o n s i n S t u d i e s i n L i t e r a t u r e , 4 (1967), 56-65. Lundin, J o n . "T. L. Beddoes at G o t t i n g e n . " p h i l o l o g i c a , 43 (1971), 434-499.  S t u d i a Neo-  M i l l e r , C r a i g W. " C o l e r i d g e ' s Concept o f Nature." J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y o f Ideas, 25 (1964), 77-96. Peckham, Morse. " G u i l t and G l o r y : A Study o f the 1839 Festus, a Nineteenth-Century Poem o f S y n t h e s i s , " D i s s . P r i n c e t o n , 1947. . The Triumph o f Romanticism. Columbia: s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a Press, 1970. P i p e r , H. W.  1962.  .  The A c t i v e U n i v e r s e .  London: Athlone  "Keats and W. C. W e l l s . "  UniverPress,  RES, 25 (1949), 158-9.  P o r t e r , K a t h e r i n e H. Through a G l a s s D a r k l y . U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas, 1958.  Lawrence:  P o t t e r , George R. "Did Thomas L o v e l l Beddoes B e l i e v e i n the E v o l u t i o n of S p e c i e s ? " Modern P h i l o l o g y , 21 (1923) 89-100. . "James Thomson and the E v o l u t i o n o f S p i r i t s . " E n g l i s c h e S t u d i e n , 61 (1929), 57-65.  157  Roppen, Georg. E v o l u t i o n and P o e t i c B e l i e f . Pa.: F o l c r o f t Press, 1 9 6 9 ( 1 9 5 6 ) . Snyder, A l i c e . " C o l e r i d g e 42, no. 7.  Folcroft,  on Giordano Bruno."  Stevenson, L i o n e l . Darwin among the Poets. R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1963 ( 1 9 3 2 ) .  MLN,  Mew York:  Walker, Hugh. The L i t e r a t u r e o f the V i c t o r i a n E r a . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 1 0 .  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093154/manifest

Comment

Related Items