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Byronism in Lermontov’s A hero of our time Cameron, Alan Harwood 1974

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BYRONISM  I N LERMONTOV'S  A HERO OF OUR  TIME  by A L A N HARWOOD CAMERON B.A., M.A.,  University  University  o f C a l g a r y , 1968  of British  Columbia,  1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S  FOR THE DEGREE  DOCTOR OF  in  accept  required  OF  PHILOSOPHY  the Department  SLAVONIC We  OF  this  STUDIES  thesis  as conforming  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF April,  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 1974  to the  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this thesis  advanced degree a t  the  Library  I further for  shall  i n par  the  University  permission  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may his  of  this thesis  written  representatives.  be  Afr,  for f i n a n c i a l gain  of  I  l0  }  the  I t i s understood  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  g r a n t e d by  Columbia  I  f7f  shall  the  requirements  Columbia,  for reference  for extensive  permission.  Department  of B r i t i s h  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  agree t h a t  by  i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  that  not  and  copying of Head o f my  be  I agree  that  study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  Although the  "Russian  the  Byronic  vremeni) that, of  Byron,"  while  novel  Each of  exotic on  the  The  This  the  the  the  Our  study  separate  tales  assessed  against Byronic  evaluated  presents  view  a  the  simple  chapters  expression  traits  and  for  storms,  on  them.  tradition.  to determine  A  Hero  a  the  main  how  the  figure,  Our  and  secondary  others  Finally,  a  commentary  The  and  to  of  poses  i n each p a r t w i t h  "pashas," v i l l a i n s  Pechorin,  i s devoted  t h a t make up  variations  heroines,  presentations of  nashego  them i s e s s e n t i a l  five  examined  some L e r m o n t o v i a n  of  Time, (Geroy  basic Byronic  basic Byronic motifs of  s e t t i n g s are  examination  as  novel.  first  figures,  and  of  i s much more t h a n  comprehension of  of  Hero  i s commonly known  p o i n t no  m o d i f i c a t i o n of  1  Time.  to this  understanding  L e r m o n t o v s own  scrutiny  Lermontov  b e e n made.  the  Byronism,  true  up  features of A  has  3  Mikhail  are  the  are  also  different  analyzed  hero  i s and  is  not  a s c e r t a i n e x a c t l y what the  hero's  Byronic  "Byronic." To  features might prototypes  be,  f o r the  I have used^P.J. Byronic  of  the  traits  of  the  Child  or  the  Gothic  Villain.  By  hero, of  Thorslev's  who  could  Nature,  determining  the how  system  have any Hero o f  of  or a l l Sensibility  Pechorin  fits  into  these categories,  resembles  s h o w s how  first  chapter deals with  Pechorin's love  and  nostalgic  yet  how  his cruel  cation.  Chapter  alterations  Two,  of the  the  description,  on  for evil Beta,  fundamental  focal  i s strikingly  o f Taman ' a s  o u t how  t h e B y r o n i s m o f The  belief Chapter  i n h i s own  Hero  of  story  Our  a  Time,  The  and  free w i l l  S i x concludes the  as a whole and  Byronic love  he  Fatalist how with  mainstream, a  Lermontov's formula; i n  Chapter  last  modifi-  I  have  Pechorin's external  a parody  second  on  Four presents the  chapter  i s filtered  heroic points through  Pechorin reconciles the concept of  study with  and  sensitivity  Maksimych  story,  Byronic.  infallibility.  of the  demonstrates  point of that  interpretation  actions  Mary  constitutes  c o n c e r n s Maksim  myth o f  the  Princess  of nature, egocentric  penchant  ;  a new  i n w h a t way  musings are p a r t of the B y r o n i c  next chapter which  s h o w n how  t o see  a Byronic hero. The  the  i t i s easy  the  fatalism.  a view of the  novel  summation o f t h e B y r o n i c f e a t u r e s o f A '•  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter  Page  INTRODUCTION  1  FOOTNOTES ONE  —  ; PRINCESS  MARY  FOOTNOTES TWO —  114  BE LA  166 MAKSIM  MAKSIMYCH  FOOTNOTES FOUR —  TAMAN'  196 237  THE FATALIST  FOOTNOTES SIX —  169  194  FOOTNOTES FIVE —  8  107  FOOTNOTES THREE —  7  24 0 267  CONCLUSION  270  FOOTNOTES  291  BIBLIOGRAPHY  29 3  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  should  t o my a d v i s e r sight to for  like  Dr. Michael  and assistance  thank  t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e  were  H. F u t r e l l ,  their  help  whose p a t i e n c e ,  invaluable.  Dr. Zbigniew Folejewski  appreciation in-  I would a l s o  and Professor  and i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n  G.H.  like Durrant  of this  study. Without Council  assistance  and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  have been a b l e gratitude  to finish  my w o r k ,  must go o u t t o them Lastly,  library  the financial  I would  o f t h e Canada  Columbia  I would n o t  so an e x p r e s s i o n  of  too.  like  t o thank  of the University of British  especially  those  i n the Interlibrary  assistance  was above a n d beyond  the staff  ofthe  Columbia, and Loan O f f i c e  the c a l l  o f duty.  whose  INTRODUCTION  So the of  many  times  "Russian Byron"  has M i k h a i l  b y s o many  Lermontov been c a l l e d  critics  that  the real  issue  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e works o f t h e E n g l i s h  and  t h e R u s s i a n one has been c l o u d e d  oversimplification. concrete  evidence  by g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and  Some h a v e a s s e r t e d 1  that  the influence  author  with  little  o f Byron on  Lermontov  2  is  obvious.  Others  on  Lermontov,  by  the English  have d e n i e d  stating that author,  Byron's d i r e c t  i fthe l a t t e r  this  influence  were  came  influence  influenced  through  Pushkin. Certain  valuable  h a v e b e e n made. and  contain  efforts to clarify  Many a r e r e s t r i c t e d  little  Shaw's " B y r o n a n d L e r m o n t o v :  W.K.  Matthews'  are an  "The I n f l u e n c e  among t h e e x c e p t i o n s . important  document  chronological  Mtsyvi  (The  Novice)  Lermontov's very "master." of  real  1  lyric  The V e r s e  Tale,"  theses,  and Poetry,"  Shaw's f o r m a l i s t i c s t u d y i s  o f t h e works  desire  poetry.  from  through  (The  Demon)  a  the puerile  fine narrative  a n d Demon  Matthews p o i n t s  Lermontov s  discussion  Two d o c t o r a l  f o r Lermontov s c h o l a r s :  examination  question  o f Byron on Russian  apings o f Byron t o Lermontov's in  t o general  detailed analysis.  J.T.  the  }  achievements Shaw  traces  t o emulate h i s professed out certain Byronic Most  scholars,  features  s u c h a s M.  2 N o l ' m a n , K.  Cherny  discussions  of Lermontov's  There  question  i s no  a n d M.N.  that  Rozanov  have  restricted  "Byronism" to the l y r i c the Byronic  has  said  chez Lermontov,  "Un  trait  As  est particulierement  l a tristesse  poems.  obsession with  centred melancholy pervades Lermontov's poetry. Duchesne  their  pessimistequi  selfE.  frappant  colore  d'une  poems s u c h a s  Parus  3  teinte (The the  sombre s e s e c r i t s . "  Sail), Way)  Vykhozhu  and  Utyos  (The  preoccupation with nature  odin  ya  na  Cliff)  dorogu  privetstvuyu  (Blue  You!)  a n d Rodina  (Native  piece  demon  and o t h e r s  s u c h a s Moy  strate  Lermontov's Byronic  poems h a v e detailed his  a l l been w e l l  analysis  novel  A Hero  a s Mtsyri,  Caucasian  Greet  Land).  strange  (My  Our  Time,  of gory  b u t up  I  master-  Demon)  demon-  Lermontov's  t o now  h a s b e e n made o f t h e B y r o n i c of  love  Siniye  penchant f o r e v i l .  discussed,  Walk  Mountains,  The  Demon  I  the poet's  Lermontov's great  i n such works vast  . . . (Alone  emphasize  loneliness.  i s illustrated  Kavkaza,  Lyric  no  features  which i s the subject of  of  this  study. It with the  i s well  Byron's l i f e  known t h a t and w o r k s .  masses o f l e t t e r s  Byron over t h i r t y person  (Napoleon),  and  times and  --  L e r m o n t o v was  fascinated  In h i s writings,  juvenilia, twice  s i x times  including  Lermontov a l l u d e s  to  a s many a s t o t h e n e x t t h e number o f  references  4  to  Pushkxn.  Byron i s the only  a u t h o r w i t h whom h e  claims  3 any  kind  of spiritual  than one e p i g r a p h .  kinship There  a n d f r o m whom h e t a k e s  i sconsiderable  evidence  more that  Lermontov's passion  f o r Byron's works began a t t h e age o f  thirteen  translations of the English  a s he r e a d  works by Zhukovsky and Kozlov. that  teach he  A.P. S h a n - G i r e y  a f t e r the death o f "Michel's"  Englishman Winson took  poet's  his place  states  tutor Gindrot,  a certain  i n 1829 a n d began t o  t h e young Lermontov E n g l i s h .  I n Shan-Girey's  was a good p u p i l f o r soon he began t o r e a d  opinion  Byron,  Moore  5 and  Scott  i n the original.  read Moore's l i f e he  wrote  had with in  o f Byron  a poem a b o u t  "one s o u l  I t i scertain that  f o r he was s o i m p r e s s e d  i t , which  claimed  that  a n d t h e same s u f f e r i n g s . "  whom L e r m o n t o v w a s v i o l e n t l y  1830 L e r m o n t o v w o u l d  Lermontov  recite  Pushkin  he a n d B y r o n  Y e . A.  i n love,  that  Sushkova,  reported  that  and Lamartine and 7  "was  inseparable  from h i s huge volume o f B y r o n . "  v o l u m e may o r may n o t h a v e b e e n t h e w o r k or  i t could  English any  rate  have  referred t o French  a u t h o r w h i c h were very there  that Net  ya ne Bayron  wants that  claims  a t that  i n c l u d i n g poems w h i c h  that  to reveal he i s s t i l l  . . . (No  3  time.  his  thoughts  claim  F o r example  I'm not a Byron.  he t o o i s an e x i l e  Moore,  translations ofthe  popular  he a n d B y r o n have one s o u l .  poet  b y Thomas  a r e a number o f t r a n s l a t i o n s a n d  from Byron's works,  This  At  adaptations again  i nhis  poem  . . )the  and a wanderer and  t o t h e masses.  unknown; he began e a r l i e r  B u t he  states  than Byron and  4 will the  finish earlier. secrecy of  Yet  "the  h i s thoughts,  i m a g e he  used  significantly  to describe  i s related  to  g an  image from  Byron."  Perhaps author's  attempts  life  that of  at  and  straws.  affairs,  He  at finding Lord  sees  Byron.  At  similarities  predictions  made b y  demonstrates  similarities  striving  to  between h i s  best Lermontov c l u t c h e s i n precocious  scribbling  find  love unhappy  verses.  are hardly  Lermontov d e c l a r e d they were.  L e r m o n t o v was  Russian  fortune t e l l e r s ,  and  these  even  the  resemblances  home c i r c u m s t a n c e s  as  are  e v e n more s i g n i f i c a n t  As  "astonishing"  I t seems c l e a r  and  Shaw  emphasize  that  any  kind  of 9  similarity, It  important or not, i s n o t a b l e how  between h i m s e l f and  little  t h e B y r o n i c f e a t u r e s o f A Hero intend  t o s t u d y mere  rather  I believe  modified  and  suit  h i s own  used  the  of  the  The  into  five and  parallels  Giaour}®  the  has  b e e n made  Our  Time.  I do  author  Russian  in his life  them from  style  study  o f one  l i t e r a r y purposes.  weaving of p l o t s interest,  traits  developed  fragmentary  novel  influences  t h a t though  w i t h many o f B y r o n ' s  of  of  Byron.  their For  story  on  author and  example  did  Naturally  structure I shall  of  The  complex  such  to  division  inter-  poems as  t r y to mention  he  forms  characters to o b t a i n mystery the  identify  Lermontov  telling.  parts with their  not  another;  works,  original  of  and Byron's  a l l the  5 Byronic  features of  fruitful the of  area  of  individual  A  Hero  analysis  and  how  of lies  Our  Time  but  3  the  i n Lermontov's  i t parallels  most  concept  i n many w a y s  the  of ideas  Byron. John  Mersereau  has  stated  T h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n e i t h e r t h a t B y r o n ' s " f a t a l " heroes a r e a l s o p r o m i n e n t l y l o c a t e d on P e c h o r i n ' s f a m i l y t r e e , and i t i s n o t i n c i d e n t a l t h a t B y r o n ' s name a p p e a r s o n f o u r o c c a s i o n s i n A Hero of Our Times. Y e t i t w o u l d be incorrect t o assume t h a t P e c h o r i n ' s B y r o n i c a n c e s t o r s were more i m p o r t a n t i n s h a p i n g h i s c h a r a c t e r t h a n h i s F r e n c h o n e s , f o r a l t h o u g h he e m b o d i e s t h e energy, demonism, r u t h l e s s n e s s , and a r r o g a n c e o f t h e Byroni c h e r o , he a l s o d i s p l a y s t h e u n - B y r o n i c qualities o f i n t r o s p e c t i o n , need f o r c o n f e s s i o n , and remorse i n h e r i t e d from the French s i d e of h i s f a m i l y . P e c h o r i n i s s o m e t h i n g f a r more t h a n a B y r o n i c h e r o , and i t i s n o t b l i n d p a r t i s a n s h i p t o a f f i r m t h a t L e r m o n t o v w e n t much f u r t h e r t h a n h i s E n g l i s h master i n the area o f c h a r a c t e r c r e a t i o n . 11  and  A l t h o u g h L e r m o n t o v was C h i l d e H a r o l d , t h e few i n common w i t h B y r o n ' s coincidental. 12  These it  kind of  i s true  more  than  does  not  a  careful  and  oversimplifications  that a  confuse  Grigory Aleksandrovich  simple  f i t into analysis  Pechorin's  doubtless acquainted with p o i n t s t h a t P e c h o r i n has hero were p r o b a b l y p u r e l y  own  Byronic this of  hero,  development  character  issue.  Pechorin  e x a c t l y how  classification the  the  must of  delineation.  be  the  he  Though  i s much does  and  determined Byronic  hero  by  6  To a c c o m p l i s h for  my  study  Peter  this  J . Thorslev's  Byronic  Hero.  Byronic  hero developed  the  Child  and  the Gothic  that of  o f Nature,  light how  The  the character of the  from the four preromantic  t h e Man  prototypes:  o f F e e l i n g , t h e Gloomy  In addition Thorslev  heroes possess, categories. also exhibits  Egoist  has  proven  i n v a r y i n g degrees,  By d e t e r m i n i n g these  i s and i s n o t a B y r o n i c  traits  t o what  f e a t u r e s I hope t o shed  hero.  discuss Byronic motifs, plots,  illustrate  begin  e x c e l l e n t book  basis  o n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f L e r m o n t o v ' s h e r o a n d show e x a c t l y  he  also  Pechorin  t o use as a  h a s s h o w n how  Villain.  each o f these  extent  to  Thorslev  a l l Byronic  I propose  my  study  expressions  s e t t i n g s and  the Byronism  o f A Hero  w i t h Princess  Mary,  o f Byronism  Naturally I  of  Our  Time;  where t h e most  are evident.  will  characters I  shall  clear  7 FOOTNOTES INTRODUCTION  "''E.g. M.N. R o z a n o v , S. R o d z e v i c h , K. C h e r n y M. N o l ' m a n a n d G e o r g B r a n d e s .  ,  2 E.g.  B. E y k h e n b a u m , V . S p a s o v i c h .  3 E.  Duchesne,  M.I.  Lermontov  . . . ,  (1910), 244.  4  J.T.  Shaw,  "Byron and Lermontov,"  (1950), 435.  5 A.P. sovremennikov,  S h a n - G i r e y i n M. Yu. (1964), 37.  K***  (Prochitav  zhizn  1  Lermontov  Bayrona  v  vospominaniyakh  / napisannuyu  /  Murom). 7  Ye.  A. S u s h k o v a ,  Za^s^.,  (1928), 111.  o J.T.  S h a w , Op.  Cit.,  455.  9 See  A. V e s e l o v s k y , " E t y u d y o b a y r o n i z m e , "  (1905),  208-210.  A Hero  "*"^W.J. E n t w i s t l e , " T h e B y r o n i s m o f of Our Time," (1949), 143. 1 1  John  12 'Ibid.,  M e r s e r e a u , Mikhail•Lermontov, 171,  Lermontov's  (1962), 148.  CHAPTER  PRINCESS  A  Hero  original  than  Oriental  Tales.  heroines, from and  the  pashas,  than  images,  adaptations of  novel  and  Byron  example the  of pasha"  the  action  Princess  (Of  course,  primarily  noted  " v e r s i f i c a t i o n " were especially  longest of  plot  t h a t i s so  i n Byron's  Mary.  the  not  fascin-  five tales  t r i a n g l e of hero  important  verse  to win  Mary's  Grushnitsky.  t a l e s , has  which  love i n order  The  variation  in  the  uncomplicated of  Abydos  intrigues and  Lara.  of  heroine  not such  —  development  called a The  enables  the  previously works as  in "pasha."  hero  to h u m i l i a t e both  in plot  present a psychological insight  —  been a l t e r e d  been changed.  to  Bride  f o r the  G r u s h n i t s k y c o u l d h a r d l y be  t y p i c a l l o v e t r i a n g l e has  intends  The  was  elements  L e r m o n t o v ' s n o v e l . "*" For  "type  the  these  purposes.  These m o d i f i c a t i o n s are Mary,  heroes,  p l o t s , m o t i f s and v e r s i f i c a t i o n  i s i n prose  i n Princess  Byron's  d i r e c t l y borrowing  B y r o n i c School, Lermontov took  the  m a k e up  and  Rather  h i s verse, the q u a l i t i e s of  ating  The  i s a m a t u r e w o r k , much more  Lermontov's p u e r i l e  important.)  of  Time  MARY-  m o d i f i e d t h e m t o s u i t h i s own  since for  OUT  of  ONE  The  her author  found Giaour,  9  The s t o c k Princess the  Mary  Byronic  basis of the story.  threesome Pechorin,  Byronic and  Vera  triangle  formula:  with  as an o b s t a c l e  pasha"  but with  in  variations.  different  the t h i r d  person:  Vera  affair.  spouse makes  Later  safety  —  three  personal  He d e c l a r e s  the  i n winning  Pechorin's  appearance i s  that  he  i t would  with  cannot reveal  weeks have passed  he f e a r s  friendly  raid."  Grushnitsky  Vera's  f o r h i s wife's  r e i n f o r c e d by h i s e n t h u s i a s m skandal  of  i n the story i n  appearance as a  that  heroine  This  shows t h a t he i s o n c l o s e t e r m s w i t h  an a s s u m p t i o n  after  of the  t o the "type  Pechorin  because o f the " C i r c a s s i a n n i g h t  conversation  patterns  His initial  she i s a f r a i d  after  his first  acquaintance.  more  succeeds  He a p p e a r s  tells  than  i t forms a  pursues  closely  aspects.  meet h e r husband, b e c a u s e their  important  and f o l l o w s t h e u s u a l  The h u s b a n d c o r r e s p o n d s  very  less  i n  Consisting of the  the hero amorously  t h e husband  i s present  and h e r husband,  her.  three  formula  b u t i t forms a sub-plot  motivating  traditional  love  short  Pechorin  f o r the duel  i n the restaurant.  The h u s b a n d makes h i s f i n a l  appearance as Vera w r i t e s t o  Pechorin  their  her Vera  that  distress  she confessed over  the duel.  believes the duel  orders  the coach  forever.  The a u t h o r  presents  t o her spouse  I t i s r e v e a l i n g t o note  i s being  t o be r e a d i e d  love  fought and Vera  over her. leaves  V e r a ' s mate as a  The  during that husband  Pechorin modified  10 pasha:  he  i s not  and  t h e r e i s no  and  the hero The  Byron this  and  so  climactic  (usually  in  occurs often  later,  but  as  scene  Byron  between  are used  novel.  To  i n Byron's  Pilg.rimage  be  sure, we  shall  image i t i s i m p o r t a n t i n  i n the works of both  writers.  works mainly to emphasize  o f t h e mood o r s t a t e  Harold's  him  of  o f t h e n a t u r e theme w h i c h  a recurring  Storms  passages  i s with  battle).  a part  t o show p a r a l l e l s  Childe  confrontation  i n Lermontov's  itself  description  d e p i c t e d a s he  storm m o t i f i s p r e v a l e n t i n the poetry  m o t i f makes up  examine  fully  of mind o f  there are  such  a  the hero.  In  flamboyant  as  The s k y i s c h a n g e d ! — a n d s u c h a c h a n g e ! Oh n i g h t , AncT s t o r m , a n d d a r k n e s s , y e a r e w o n d r o u s s t r o n g , Y e t l o v e l y i n y o u r s t r e n g t h , as i s t h e l i g h t O f a d a r k e y e i n woman! Far along, F r o m p e a k t o p e a k , t h e r a t t l i n g c r a g s among Leaps the l i v e thunder! . . . (Ill: 92) Sky, mountains, r i v e r , winds, l a k e , l i g h t n i n g s ! ye! W i t h n i g h t , and c l o u d s , and t h u n d e r , and a s o u l To m a k e t h e s e f e l t a n d f e e l i n g , . . . (Ill: 96) There  a r e many o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h u n d e r ,  tempests, in the  The  t h u n d e r b o l t s and  Giaour,  The  Bride  Abydos  Similar and  s t o r m m o t i f i s common t h r o u g h o u t I n Princess  storm motif, usually the  of  such.  Mary  there are  lightning, images  others.  Byron's  five  In  Two  of  fact  poems.  examples of  contained i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s  surrounding peaks.  appear  the most r e v e a l i n g  the of  are  11 . . . when t h e r e i s a t h u n d e r s t o r m , t h e c l o u d s w i l l d e s c e n d d o w n t o my r o o f . . . . T h e v i e w on t h r e e s i d e s i s m a r v e l l o u s : to the west, the f i v e - p e a k e d Besh Tau looms b l u e l i k e " t h e l a s t thundercloud o f a tempest d i s p e r s e d " ; . . . ( L e r m o n t o v , A Hero of Our Time, V. N a b o k o v , t r a n s l a t o r , p . 81) I am l i k e a s a i l o r b o r n a n d b r e d o n t h e d e c k o f a pirate brig. H i s s o u l i s used t o storms and b a t t l e s , a n d , when c a s t o u t o n t h e s h o r e , he f e e l s b o r e d a n d o p p r e s s e d , n o m a t t e r how t h e s h a d y g r o v e l u r e s h i m , n o m a t t e r how t h e p e a c e f u l s u n s h i n e s on him. {Hero, p. 180) s  The  latter  soul the of  and  passage  state  h e l p s to emphasize  o f mind.  I t i s also  storm motif occurs i n both the  the  B y r o n i c pose and  important to note  first  a l l that  r e c u r r i n g m o t i f i n Lermontov's as  a  literary  is  produced  is  that  of  main-  trating  through the  and  last  as  visions  that  paragraphs  external  cheeks  details  The  noble  to portray  Gulnare  most famous  a i r .  Byron  their  inner  concenselves.  beautiful  typified  a lovely  by  a malicious  grin  The  pashas  o r even  pose  presents  o r Adah a r e  or dark, mysterious eyes. by  important  character depiction  them i n a pose and  femininity  inner wickedness  furrowed  detail.  fixing  i s another  I t i s also  Most of Byron's  Leila, of  i t entails  novel.  f u r r o w e d brow and  external  such  idealized flushed  device.  c h a r a c t e r s by  on  Heroines  their  "stormy"  story. The  his  the hero's  gait, show  a  brow. Like  Byron,  Lermontov  t h r o u g h p o s i n g them and  also  focussing  depicts characters on  external  characteristics.  Pechorin and  on h i s i r o n i c  intention.  outward is  takes  poses according  Other p e r s o n a l i t i e s a r e conveyed by  appearances  their  t o o . Mary has " v e l v e t y eyes";  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the l i t t l e  Werner's  t o h i s mood  Vera  mole on h e r cheek; Dr.  l e g s a r e o f uneven l e n g t h  and  Grushnitsky's 3  "mystique"  seems t o be c o n t a i n e d  solely  Thus b o t h w r i t e r s u s e t h e pose as a For  t h e most p a r t  stereotypes,  idealized  In contemporary terms ideal  initiative,  only  useful  love  the hero.  them i n t o  Byron's heroines  versions i tc o u l d  Mary,  o f two-dimensional  intelligence  true  flesh-and-blood this  i s true  story to a typical  4  they  have  of will.  The  i s to  that might  of the heroines  women c o m p e l l e d  coquette  of  to love  make To Princess  t h e hero.  t h e main heroine  from one o f  As a f u r t h e r statement o f t h e i r  "Mary i s t h e g e n e r a l i z e d  of  Balzac's  literary  o f Princess  . .  traditions,  Mary  by  young t h i n g o f n o v e l e t t e s ,  no a t t e m p t a t i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n  'velvety'  are the  women i s e l i m i n a t e d .  V. N a b o k o v c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e h e r o i n e s saying  creations.  by Byron's heroines  Any commonplace f e a t u r e  who a r e i d e a l i z e d  novels.  of  they  or strength  B. T o m a s h e v s k y h a s c o m p a r e d  with  a r e romantic  be s a i d t h a t  function possessed  c e r t a i n extent  the  motif.  women f i g u r e s f o r t h e " m a l e c h a u v i n i s t " :  little  a  i n h i s overcoat.  except  perhaps h e r  eyes, which however a r e f o r g o t t e n i n t h e course  the story.  Vera  i s a mere phantom, w i t h  a phantom  13 birthmark  on her cheek. . ."  5  These statements  c o r r e c t , but the p o i n t i s t h a t the heroines of Mary  e x i s t to love P e c h o r i n , nothing more.  Princess  The  s h i p s between Mary and P e c h o r i n , and Vera and  are  relation-  Pechorin,  p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o Lermontov's developments of the "Byronic" h e r o i n e . For the s t o r y ' s a c t i o n the p r i n c e s s h e r s e l f i s the more important revolves.  of the two.  I t i s around her t h a t the p l o t  I t i s she t h a t P e c h o r i n w i l l attempt to seduce  and h u m i l i a t e f o r h i s s e l f i s h motives. i n a way  Their a f f a i r  q u i t e t y p i c a l of romance s t o r i e s :  d i s l i k e s Pechorin.  By consummate s k i l l and  a t f i r s t Mary manipulation  P e c h o r i n t u r n s the h a t r e d i n t o c u r i o s i t y , then i n t o then i n t o love  (—  and  finally  begins  affection,  i n t o h a t r e d again!)  As  mentioned above Mary i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d through e x t e r n a l details:  v e l v e t y eyes, v i r g i n a l g a i t , charming movements,  d i g n i f i e d a i r , a b i l i t y to read Byron i n the knowledge of a l g e b r a and boredom.  Her  original,  f i r s t r e a c t i o n to  P e c h o r i n i s v e x a t i o n mixed w i t h i n d i f f e r e n c e . piqued because he has s t o l e n her audience.  She i s  Shortly there-  a f t e r , she d e f i n i t e l y hates P e c h o r i n and composes v i t r i o l i c epigrams a g a i n s t  him.  During the l a s t two days, my a f f a i r s have advanced tremendously. The young p r i n c e s s d e f i n i t e l y hates me: people have a l r e a d y r e p o r t e d to me two or three epigrams aimed a t me, f a i r l y c a u s t i c , but a t the same time v e r y f l a t tering. She f i n d s i t a w f u l l y strange t h a t I, who am used to h i g h s o c i e t y and am on such i n t i m a t e terms w i t h her Petersburg female c o u s i n s and aunts, do not t r y to make her aquaintance. (pp. 98-99)  Later,  on a r i d i n g  counter  Pechorin  dismisses  e x c u r s i o n Mary and G r u s h n i t s k y  dressed  her terror  i n C i r c a s s i a n garb.  with a sarcastic  P e c h o r i n wonders a t t h e motives  en-  The  remark  latter  i n French.  f o r h e r embarrassment  —  7  her  mistake  Pechorin  or h i s insolence.  pays h i s f i r s t  A t Vera's  visit  t o the Ligovskoy  where he i s f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d spurns hide  h i m b u t when P e c h o r i n  her triumphant  contains  comment.  development o f t h e i r  Captain  he g e t s  Thus Mary,  opportunity  to play  from h e r predicament. welcomed  however, has  occurs  into  she cannot  conversation event  when  i n the  Pechorin  t o embarrass the  i n distress"  the cavalier  needing  Pechorin  an  t h e c h i v a l r o u s k n i g h t and rescue h e r After  the household  i s t h a t t h e seed  now b e e n  Mary  r i d o f t h e d r u n k whom t h e  as a "damsel  immediate a s s i s t a n c e , gives  short  A climactic  o f t h e Dragoons had encouraged  princess.  is  h e r t o dance,  Their  relationship  saves Mary's d i g n i t y :  household,  to the princess.  asks  feelings.  much i r o n i c  insistence  this  important  a t any time.  event More  o f Mary's hero-worship  of  Pechorin important Pechorin  sown:  "The o l d p r i n c e s s s t a r t e d t o t e l l o f y o u r e x p l o i t s , a d d i n g h e r own r e m a r k s t o w h a t w a s p r o b a b l y s o c i e t y gossip. Her daughter l i s t e n e d w i t h c u r i o s i t y . In h e r i m a g i n a t i o n , y o u became t h e h e r o o f a n o v e l i n the l a t e s t f a s h i o n . I d i d not contradict the o l d l a d y , t h o u g h I was a w a r e s h e was t a l k i n g n o n s e n s e . " (p. 95)  15 This  d e s i r e f o r hero-worship  significant. is  As  a mere c a d e t ,  she  had  soon as not  she  reduced  assumed, her  on  Mary's p a r t  discovers that to the  romantic  ranks  illusion  is  very  Grushnitsky  for duelling  of  him  as  i s shattered,  8  and is  she  wants nothing  confirmed  the  by  the  young cadet  by  His  psychology  her, did He  u s i n g an  the not  more  continues  t h a t he longer  will  to her  music  instead,  she  tales  bravura.  fascinate  lack  of  the  as  v a n i t y by  an  The less  Grushnitsky, interest  and  i n her  t h a t she  feigning denies  injures  with  indifference.  himself  her  she  leads  distress  Pechorin  remarking  Mary  sentimental  to  self-esteem.  sarcastically  more h i s h e r o i c  her  for  infatuation  more e n t h r a l l e d  This  has  truth.  a i d to digestion.  interested  hypothesis  Mary n o t i c e s t h a t  s i n g i n g , which her  This  the  Mary's  more he  i n Grushnitsky's  the  gaze"  subterfuge:  want him.  namby-pamby p l a t i t u d e s . toward  cold  develops  becomes a l l t h e  her,  w i t h him.  discovery of  i s simple:  interested  of  her  ingenious  to prick  enjoys  and  cleverly  she  listen  "dull  after  Pechorin him  m o r e t o do  is  no  drivel;  with  Pechorin's  adventures becomes i n the  to her  mocking  at Pechorin's  cadet's  attitude apparent  happiness.  I n my p r e s e n c e s h e d o e s n o t d a r e t o l a u n c h u p o n s e n t i m e n t a l d e b a t e s w i t h G r u s h n i t s k i , and has several times already r e p l i e d to h i s s a l l i e s w i t h a mocking smile; but every time t h a t Grushnit s k i comes up t o h e r , I a s s u m e a h u m b l e a i r a n d l e a v e them a l o n e t o g e t h e r . The f i r s t t i m e she was g l a d o f i t o r t r i e d t o m a k e i t s e e m s o ; t h e  16  s e c o n d t i m e s h e b e c a m e c r o s s w i t h me; t h e t h i r d t i m e she became c r o s s w i t h G r u s h n i t s k i . "You h a v e v e r y l i t t l e v a n i t y ! " s h e s a i d t o me yesterday. "Why d o y o u t h i n k t h a t I h a v e m o r e f u n with Grushnitski?" I a n s w e r e d t h a t I was s a c r i f i c i n g t o a p a l ' s h a p p i n e s s , my own p l e a s u r e . "And m i n e , " s h e a d d e d . ( p . 121) During strates  the excursion  f o r "The H o l l o w "  her a t t r a c t i o n to Pechorin  tongue.  despite  Her hero must i n s p i r e f e a r  Mary  demon-  his caustic  i nher.  " Y o u a r e a d a n g e r o u s man!" s h e s a i d t o me. "I w o u l d s o o n e r f i n d m y s e l f i n a wood u n d e r a m u r d e r e r ' s k n i f e t h a n be t h e v i c t i m o f y o u r s h a r p t o n g u e . . . . I a s k y o u s e r i o u s l y , when i t o c c u r s t o y o u t o t a l k b a d l y a b o u t me, b e t t e r t a k e a k n i f e a n d c u t my t h r o a t : I don't think you w i l l f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t . " "Do I l o o k l i k e a m u r d e r e r ? " "You a r e w o r s e . . . . " ( p . 126) This  reveals  her secret  Immediately confesses him.  she  i s so t o u c h e d i s now  knight,  childhood  has been reduced  above,  t o make M a r y  ready  with  t o come  t o her rescue.  has vanished;  d e r i s i o n f o r him.  prefers  Grushnitsky's  represents  status.  now  Mary's  o l d coat  demonstrates her contempt overcoat  He  sorry f o r  affair  and coquetry  Pechorin.  Pechorin  feel  to a state of rapt  that her pride  i n love  Grushnitsky  secret  hero  dominated.  When h e r e l a t e s t h e s t o r y o f h i s l o v e princess  for  t o be  f o l l o w i n g the passage  h i s unhappy  the  Mary  desire  she o n l y  have  disappeared. white  former a f f e c t i o n  has looks  of  s a r c a s t i c remark t h a t  t o h i s new  f o r him, since  her former romantic  Vera,  attention:  i s her bold Mary's  with  epaulettes the cadet's o l d  illusions  of his  she  17 The to  flourish  princess's attraction as Grushnitsky  to Pechorin  unwittingly plays  continues into  Pechorin's  hands: The m a z u r k a b e g a n . Grushnitski kept choosing n o b o d y b u t t h e p r i n c e s s , t h e o t h e r men c h o s e h e r continuously: i t was o b v i o u s l y a c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t me. So much t h e b e t t e r . She wants t o t a l k t o me, t h e y p r e v e n t h e r -- s h e w i l l w a n t i t t w i c e a s much. ( p . 135)  After  the b a l l  slyly  kissing  she of  i s now being  Pechorin  makes t h e u n m i s t a k e a b l e  h e r hand.  His actions  so h o p e l e s s l y  compromised, visits  insistence to obtain  Pechorin  that  i n love with  that  her alone he d o e s  a confession  t h r o w Mary  she f a l l s  of love  into  him, y e t so i l l .  i n the drawing  not respect  advance o f  afraid  Two  days  room.  The  her i s merely  despair;  a  later princess's device  from him.  A d u l l p a l l o r was s p r e a d o v e r t h e p r i n c e s s ' s pretty face. She s t o o d a t t h e p i a n o , l e a n i n g w i t h one hand on t h e back o f an a r m c h a i r : t h a t hand t r e m b l e d ever so s l i g h t l y . I q u i e t l y w e n t up t o her and s a i d : " Y o u a r e a n g r y w i t h me?" S h e r a i s e d u p o n me a l a n g u i d , d e e p g a z e a n d s h o o k her head; h e r l i p s wanted t o u t t e r something, and c o u l d n o t ; h e r eyes f i l l e d w i t h t e a r s ; she sank i n t o t h e armchair and covered h e r face w i t h her hand. "What i s t h e m a t t e r w i t h y o u ? " I said, taking her hand. " Y o u d o n o t r e s p e c t me! . . . O h , l e a v e me alone!" I made a f e w s t e p s . . . . She s t r a i g h t e n e d h e r s e l f up i n h e r c h a i r ; h e r e y e s g l i t t e r e d . ( p . 137)  18 Lermontov again hear  from P e c h o r i n s  presents  own  1  lips  Mary's  that  he  fierce  loves  desire  her,  to  during  9  the  e p i s o d e where they  contact lent he  abashes Mary.  about her  may  ford  be  the  Her  words  f e e l i n g s toward  using  her.  stream.  Perhaps  His  show t h a t  Pechorin, she  physical  she  is  ambiva-  suspecting  that  even d e s i r e s i t .  " E i t h e r y o u d e s p i s e me, o r l o v e me v e r y m u c h ! " she s a i d a t l a s t , i n a v o i c e i n w h i c h t h e r e were tears. " P e r h a p s y o u w a n t t o l a u g h a t me, to t r o u b l e my s o u l , a n d t h e n l e a v e me. ... It w o u l d be so b a s e , so mean, t h a t t h e m e r e s u p p o s i t i o n . . . . Oh n o ! I s n ' t i t t r u e , " she a d d e d i n a t o n e of tender t r u s t , " i s n ' t i t true that there i s nothing i n me t h a t w o u l d p r e c l u d e r e s p e c t ? ... (P. 144) There  is a distinct  to  humiliated. ^*  be  possibility In  1  domineering  the  romantic  h e r o who  —  She  what e l s e out  of  her  after .  .  it (p.  she  expect  r u i n i n g women?  conquered, in  can  ladies.  desires  . . . 144).  convention  this  who  impertinent  I must f o r g i v e  A n s w e r , do  speak,  has  desire type of  i s a p t l y demonstrated  Pechorin's  . I must,  dual  be  inspires fear  f r o m a man  to  to  knows P e c h o r i n ' s  The  i s important  human b e h a v i o u r  sometimes wish  swashbuckling merciless i n a l l the  Mary a c t u a l l y wishes  extremes of  i n d i v i d u a l does  Moreover, Mary admires  that  deed:  by  to  i t you, I want t o  dominated.  of —  and  made a  envy  The  be  conflict  f o r g i v i n g words  insolent  because  so  career  conquer, yet  her  I  1  the  reputation,  woman.  "Your  the  action  allowed  hear your voice!.  . .  19 The ensuing  conversation  Pechorin's real  i n d i f f e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d by Pechorin  refusal  intentions.  about Pechorin's is  that  throws Mary  to declare  a nervous f i t .  h i slove  S h e now r e a l i z e s  for her reveals h i s  that her previous  m o t i v e s was n o t mere f a n c y .  she even thought t h a t  Mary, though  into  "innocent,"  i n the  Pechorin  More  would  d o e s know v e r y  notion important  use h e r .  w e l l the realm  of  12 social  c o u r t s h i p and a f f a i r s Pechorin's  hold  o f a desperate  triumph out  by hearing  what k i n d  of the heart.  s i l e n c e c a t a p u l t s Mary onto emotional Pechorin  she must e i t h e r  s a y t h a t he l o v e s  o f game h e h a s b e e n p l a y i n g .  meet a t t h e w e l l t h e p r i n c e s s Pechorin  crisis:  could  not sleep  does  s h e know t h a t h i s  plot  against  the thresh-  mistakenly  her or  When  they  assumes  that  because o f h e r accusation.  find  Little  i n s o m n i a was c a u s e d  him, and had nothing  by o v e r h e a r i n g 13 t o do w i t h h e r .  I n t h e m o r n i n g , I met t h e p r i n c e s s a t t h e w e l l . " A r e y o u i l l ? " s h e s a i d , l o o k i n g a t me i n t e n t l y . "I d i dn o t sleep a l l n i g h t . " "Nor d i d I . . . I a c c u s e d y o u . . . p e r h a p s , wrongly? But e x p l a i n your behaviour, I may f o r g i v e you e v e r y t h i n g . " "Everything?" "Everything . . . . O n l y t e l l me t h e t r u t h . . . and h u r r y . . . I have t h o u g h t a l o t , t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n , t o j u s t i f y your conduct: perhaps, youa r e a f r a i d o f o b s t a c l e s o n t h e p a r t o f my f a m i l y . . . . I t does n o t matter. When t h e y h e a r o f i t . . . ( h e r v o i c e t r e m b l e d ) my e n t r e a t i e s w i l l c o n v i n c e them . . . . O r i s i t y o u r own s i t u a t i o n . . . . But I want y o u t o know t h a t I c a n s a c r i f i c e a n y t h i n g f o r the one I l o v e . . . . O h , a n s w e r q u i c k . . .. h a v e p i t y . . . . Y o u d o n o t d e s p i s e me, d o y o u ? " ( pp. 147-148)  a  20 Her  passionate  Pechorin's  request  nonchalant reply  Mary i s t o t a l l y "Leave  Mary  .  answer  manage a weak  i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  confesses  he d e c l a r e s  to this  sex impulse  brutal  element.  before  our eyes t h a t  shall love  t h e same i m p u l s e ,  constant  strife  that  she must d e s p i s e  him.  F o r what reason has  Pechorin  question  lies  now t u r n e d i n a  into  subtle  has a s t u t e l y observed  i s always We  scene a t the  meaning o f h e r words.  Wilhelm Stekel  normal  Pechorin  t h a t he h a s u s e d h e r a s  infatuation with  o f the exact Dr.  i n the last  i s " I hate you."  The a n s w e r t o t h i s  analysis  and  he does n o t l o v e h e r .  she can o n l y  i s illustrated  twice  Mary's passionate hatred?  stage  Pechorin  plaything;  Her  humiliated;  final  Princess  Ligovskoys' a  that  results i n  me." The  and  f o r an answer merely  bound w i t h  " . . .  a more o r l e s s  n o t wonder a t t h i s  i f we  keep  and hate a r e t h e e x p r e s s i o n  and t h a t  between w i l l  the  between p a r t n e r s  t o power and w i l l  o f one  there  i s a  t o submis-  14 sion."  F o r Mary  experience  she can have  expression  of i n d i f f e r e n c e ; thus the r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n  love  t o hate.  desire  this  Their  means t h a t  i s t o be h u m i l i a t e d  love  —  hate  humiliate  of  the dual  a n d be h u m i l i a t e d sadomasochistic  Lermontov depicted  such  —  degrading by  Pechorin's  interconnection  t o c o n q u e r y e t be c o n q u e r e d ,  to  t h e most  to hurt  —  a n d be  from the  hurt,  makes up an e s s e n t i a l  relationship.  I believe  a relationship i n the story  part  that between  21 Pechorin than  and Mary w i t h  overtly stated. nevertheless  hero-type  f o r her:  as  a cad.  How t h e n  hero  sterling loving  i s Mary a B y r o n i c  raison  without  no  character  This  her relationship with development.  purpose  of  this  heroine  to  insure the triumph The  qualities and  deeply  Mary, Vera  journal.  Byron's  they  have  because t h e many  true of Princess  Pechorin,  affairs.  Mary,  has v i r t u a l l y a r e no  details  J u s t as t h e heroines  i n the story i s to f a l l i n  Lermontov's o r i g i n a l i t y  of will  heroine  of his  o f Princess  s e ther apart.  loves  understanding  Pechorin's  i nthe creation  i s t h e added d i m e n s i o n o f h e r h u m i l i a t i o n  other  that  through  F o r example t h e r e  of  t h e hero.  Lermontov's  o f t h e hero,  i sdefinitely  Byron, Mary's e n t i r e  However,  b u t no f u n c t i o n o u t s i d e o f  love  with  i s Mary  Generally  about p o s s i b l e previous  love  roots.  heroine?  independently d'etre.  t h e hero.  ofthe  i s a part of Pechorin's  external qualities,  who  because he i s a  she i s a l s o depicted Mary  never e x i s t  i stheir  rather  acid-tongued  as an archetype  i n mind t h a t n o t only  s i n c e Princess  heroines  for Pechorin  subliminal masochistic  concept o f a heroine, eyes,  falls  Mary c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  must be kept  implied  she admires h i s power b u t d e s p i s e s h i m  h a u g h t y woman w i t h it  activity  P r i n c e s s Mary, t h e proud,  coquette  3  the sexual  Pechorin,  which Mary  illustrates  hero. Mary  She t o o i s a proud  but has a great  lacks.  possesses  Since  certain woman  capacityf o r  she i s o l d e r  than  a more m a t u r e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f h e r  22  relations Vera is;  with  i s not she  i n love  sees  Pechorin  through  but  she  she  with  accepts  Pechorin's  him  f o r w h a t he i s .  heroic  "image"  the  v a n i t y of  h e r o - w o r s h i p and  is a  scoundrel  and  a roue.  expresses  distrust  and  reproach  k n o w i n g he  meet a g a i n , lover,  Pechorin:  loves  Pechorin  as  loves  When of  Mary  her  they former  i n s p i t e of h e r s e l f .  "We h a v e n o t s e e n e a c h o t h e r f o r a l o n g t i m e , " said. " Y e s , a l o n g t i m e , a n d we h a v e b o t h c h a n g e d i n many w a y s ! " "So t h i s m e a n s t h a t y o u d o n o t l o v e me a n y m o r e ? . . " I am m a r r i e d ! . . . " She said. "Again? S e v e r a l y e a r s a g o , h o w e v e r , t h e same r e a s o n e x i s t e d , a n d y e t . . . ." She s n a t c h e d h e r h a n d o u t o f m i n e . And h e r c h e e k s flamed. "Perhaps you l o v e your second husband. ..." She d i d n o t a n s w e r a n d t u r n e d away. "Or i s h e v e r y j e a l o u s ? " Silence. "Well? He i s y o u n g , h a n d s o m e , he i s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , r i c h , no d o u b t , and y o u a r e a f r a i d . . . . " I glanced a t h e r a n d was s h o c k e d : her face expressed profound despair, t e a r s sparkled i n her eyes. " T e l l me," s h e w h i s p e r e d a t l a s t , "do y o u f i n d i t v e r y a m u s i n g t o t o r t u r e me? I ought to hate you. Ever s i n c e we h a v e k n o w n e a c h o t h e r , y o u g a v e me: n o t h i n g b u t s u f f e r i n g s . . ." Her v o i c e t r e m b l e d ; she leaned t o w a r d me t o l a y h e r h e a d o n my b r e a s t . ( p p . 10 3 - 1 0 4 ) I  It  i s apparent  tion  play  states  an  that  from t h i s  important she  c a u s e d her."*"^ nevertheless,  should She  she  entrusts  part  in their  "hate"  her  i t and  past  herself to  s u f f e r i n g and  he  f o r the  enjoys  yields  sorrows  Pechorin.  humilia-  r e l a t i o n s h i p too.  Pechorin  believes that  accepts  With a l l of again  passage that  to  i n her She  pain  he  torturing  Vera has her;  him. mind, Vera  persuades  her  once lover  to  gain the acquaintance  frequenting  that  does not h a r a s s to  her  where  Pechorin, though  Vera  she  1  they  P e c h o r i n by  stands  and  not  can  see  making him  each  t h a t he  to  will  that  Vera  fidelity  o b v i o u s l y she  i t .  not  by  other.  swear h i s  for other loves;  resigns herself  believes  will  The Vera s  household,  o r u p b r a i d i n g him she  o f t h e L i g o v s k o y s , so  knows  According  deceive  to  her,  admit i t .  r e a d e r g a i n s the most f a s c i n a t i n g  relationship  w i t h her  l o v e d one  by  insight  these  into  remarkable  statements:  She c o l o r e d and w e n t o n : " Y o u k n o w t h a t I am y o u r s l a v e ; I n e v e r was a b l e t o r e s i s t y o u . . . a n d f o r t h i s I s h a l l be p u n i s h e d . You w i l l cease t o l o v e me; I w i s h , a t l e a s t , t o s a v e my reputation . . . n o t f o r my own s a k e : y o u k n o w t h a t v e r y w e l l ! Oh, I b e s e e c h y o u , d o n o t t o r m e n t me a s b e f o r e w i t h empty doubts and f e i g n e d c o l d n e s s . I s h a l l d i e soon, perhaps. I f e e l m y s e l f g e t t i n g weaker e v e r y day . . and, i n s p i t e of t h a t , I cannot t h i n k of a f u t u r e l i f e , I t h i n k o n l y of you . . . . Y o u men d o n o t understand the d e l i g h t s of a g l a n c e , of a handshake . . . w h i l e I , I swear t o you, I , when l i s t e n i n g t o your v o i c e , I e x p e r i e n c e such deep, s t r a n g e b l i s s t h a t the most a r d e n t k i s s e s c o u l d not r e p l a c e i t . " (p. Vera's is  very different  former his to  willingness  does not  love,  from  to Pechorin's  Mary's haughty  deem i t n e c e s s a r y  admits  hurt her.  to submit  t h a t he  There  i s her  i s no  H9)  blandishments  coquettishness.  The  f o r Pechorin to declare  master,  q u e s t i o n as  and  begs him  t o who  not  dominates  16  their  relationship.  Moreover,  Vera  wants  i t t h a t way:  her  24 declaration for  her  their  that  she  cannot  to r i d h e r s e l f of  the  clandestine affair.  burden of  blame  from her  r e s i s t him guilt  could  that  be  she  a  means  feels  In t h i s  way  she  can  shoulders,  and  lay  i t at  over  remove  the  Pechorin's  feet. Pechorin to  his evil  all  his  this  ingly  result  masculine  of  princess he  pells the  is a  draws Vera  jealous  that  side, since  declares she  confided  night before  jealousy,  attempts her  Vera's  j e a l o u s y by the  ball,  tales.  But  faction  by  gain  will;  that  becomes  love;  the  lover.  temporarily  Vera  regales  Pechorin  t o go has  unaware  to Kislovodsk. another  Mary w i t h  dis-  However,  occasion  his  i t  unfail-  Pechorin,  Lermontov's hero once again clever  she  Mary's  with  His  power and  Nevertheless, to  him  infatuation with  agreeing  when P e c h o r i n  passions."  extraordinary energy  to Pechorin.  i s already  her  wicked  attracted  understands  his indomitable  f o r c e and  Pechorin's  has  of  t h a t V e r a m u s t be  completely  " p e t t y w e a k n e s s e s and  magnetism is  himself  for  extraordinary  q u e l l s her  dissatis-  manipulation:  V e r a n o t i c e d i t a l l : deep m e l a n c h o l y expressed i t s e l f on h e r s i c k l y f a c e : she s a t i n shadow, n e a r t h e window, sunk i n an ample a r m c h a i r . ... I felt sorry f o r her. Then I r e l a t e d t h e whole d r a m a t i c s t o r y o f our acquaintanceship, of our love — naturally, concealing i t u n d e r i n v e n t e d names. So v i v i d l y d i d I p i c t u r e my t e n d e r n e s s , my a n x i e t y , my t r a n s p o r t s , i n s u c h a n a d v a n t a g e o u s l i g h t d i d I present her a c t i o n s , her c h a r a c t e r , t h a t , w i l l y - n i l l y , s h e h a d t o f o r g i v e me my f l i r t a t i o n w i t h t h e p r i n c e s s .  25 Later  on,  princess  though,  P e c h o r i n s c o n t i n u e d advances  prolong Vera s last  meeting  passionate  rendezvous  bedroom.  She  the that  princess, he  because will  gives she  her.  Vera p i t i e s  However,  t h a t he  has  and  humiliation  Vera  demands t o h e a r  been u n f a i t h f u l ;  she  In her  letter  h e r o i n e by  with  a l l h e r body and  Vera  states  that  she  t o t r y and  she  soul, has  caring  undergone  change her  has  that  truly  her  lover  enjoyed  bear  she this  tenderness  epitomizes the  she  about  princess  since  submissively  demonstrating that  the  Pechorin confess  declares  she  Pechorin  that  t o P e c h o r i n a l lVera's here  with  promises"  for loving  i t i s obvious that  devotion are v i s i b l e :  sacrifice  Pechorin, a  "vows and  Mary  wants h i s h a p p i n e s s , she w i l l  "Byronic"  that  accepts the  knows t h e p a i n  endure.  cross.  and  love-making, takes place i n her  but meekly  suffering:  and  jealousy.  between Vera  of  the  reproaches Pechorin f o r h i s f l i r t a t i o n s  h e r own  only  pangs of  1  The  on  1  loves Pechorin  nothing  sufferings from  else. as  a  the s e l f i s h  rogue  he i s : I s h a l l not blame you — y o u t r e a t e d me a s a n y o t h e r man w o u l d h a v e d o n e ; y o u l o v e d me a s y o u r p r o p e r t y , as a s o u r c e o f j o y s , a g i t a t i o n s and s o r r o w s , w h i c h m u t u a l l y r e p l a c e d one a n o t h e r and w i t h o u t w h i c h l i f e would have been d u l l and monotonous. T h i s I understood from the f i r s t ; but you were unhappy, and I s a c r i f i c e d m y s e l f , h o p i n g t h a t s o m e d a y y o u w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e my s a c r i f i c e , t h a t , some d a y y o u w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d my d e e p t e n d e r n e s s , n o t d e p e n d i n g on any c i r c u m s t a n c e s , (pp. 172-173)  26  Furthermore, Vera she  was  states  spoiled for other  that  after  loving  Pechorin,  men:  "We p a r t f o r e v e r ; y e t y o u may b e s u r e t h a t I s h a l l n e v e r l o v e a n o t h e r : my s o u l h a s s p e n t u p o n you a l l i t s t r e a s u r e s , i t s t e a r s and h o p e s . She, who h a s l o v e d y o u o n c e , c a n n o t l o o k w i t h o u t a c e r t a i n c o n t e m p t o n o t h e r men, not because you are b e t t e r than they — oh, no! — but because there i s something s p e c i a l about your nature, p e c u l i a r t o you a l o n e , s o m e t h i n g p r o u d and m y s t e r ious. I n y o u r v o i c e , w h a t e v e r y o u may be saying, t h e r e i s u n c o n q u e r a b l e power. None i s a b l e t o d e s i r e so i n c e s s a n t l y t o be l o v e d ; i n n o n e i s e v i l so a t t r a c t i v e ; t h e g a z e o f none p r o m i s e s so much b l i s s ; none knows b e t t e r t o use h i s a d v a n t a g e s ; and n o n e c a n be so g e n u i n e l y u n h a p p y as y o u , b e c a u s e none t r i e s so h a r d t o c o n v i n c e h i m s e l f o f t h e contrary. (p. 173)  This  declaration i s quite  since  i t is a reflection  Byronic  h e r o has  "Byronic" she  heroine's  an  of  over h i s  cannot have him,  words are  typical  sole  loved  one.  wishes of  the  one  of  Byron's  extraordinary  no  hold  heroines, that  I t exemplifies  function of  she  expression  the  of  l o v i n g the  one.  mysterious  the  hero:  Vera's  the  i f  passionate  power t h a t  Pechorin 17  has  over her,  Thus V e r a  rather  admires  dous power, but understand  her  than  Pechorin's  she  says  torments  Although  a distinct  inflexible  ironically and  character  will  some c r i t i c s  will  that  trait.  and  his  s o m e d a y he  have compassion  have  for  said that Vera  tremenwill her.  possesses  18  great  c h a r m and  Pechorin's  warmth,  i t is difficult  fascination with  two-dimensional  figure with  her, no  simply  to  understand  because  individuality.  she  is  a  Lermontov  provides ground  the reader with l i t t l e  to the love affair.  passion  i n f o r m a t i o n about  One m u s t a c c e p t V e r a ' s  and Pechorin's a f f e c t i o n  conclusion otherwise  occurring their  t h e back-  f o r her as a  previous t o the events  relationship  intense  foregone  i n the story,  h a s no m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e  behind  19 it.  Although  primary  a different  function  character  of loving  development than  woman t h a n M a r y ,  beyond h e r  P e c h o r i n she has even  less  the princess.  Au s u r p l u s , que V e r a s o i t une c r e a t i o n i n c o l o r e , o b s c u r e , d e s s i n e e de t r a i t s vagues e t i n c e r t a i n s , on p e u t l e r e g r e t t e r , mais c e q u i e s t g r a v e , c ' e s t que l ' o n n ' e n t r e p o i n t d a n s l e s s e n t i m e n t s q u ' e l l e i n s p i r e a P e t c h o r i n e . On e s t s u r p r i s d e 1 ' e m o t i o n q u e x c i t e en. l u i l a d e r n i e r e l e t t r e d e V e r a : c e t t e t e n d r e s s e e x a l t e e ne s ' a c c o r d e guere avec c e que n o u s s a v o n s d e s o n c a r a c t e r e . 20 1  Thus t h e two h e r o i n e s o f P r i n c e s s Mary , P e c h o r i n ' s women c o n c e i v e d i n L e r m o n t o v ' s m i n d , a r e d i f f e r e n t , y e t similar.  They b o t h  misconception  r e p r e s e n t t y p e s o f women f r o m  of chauvinistic  woman d e s i r i n g  t o conquer  ideals.  the author's  Mary i s t h e proud  a n d be conquered;  Vera  i s the  s u b m i s s i v e m i s t r e s s who e n j o y s  being dominated.  only  p o w e r o v e r women a n d a s  are  t o demonstrate similar  ture.  t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l h e r o i n e s o f Romantic  I t i s true  life  figures,  that  Lermontov's  the e x t e r n a l possess  t h e hero's  Both  that  but their female  these h e r o i n e s a r e based lack  of character depiction  figures  features that  on  t o emphasize.  the uni-dimensional personality  traits  such  literareal shows  i n P r i n c e s s Mary have  he w i s h e d  exist  only They  o f what t h e  28 author  thought  would  they  should  be,  not  n e c e s s a r i l y what  they  be. Although the female f i g u r e s of the novel occupy an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e , n o t one o f them, h o w e v e r , i s d e p i c t e d i n any s o r t o f f i n a l i z e d f o r m , w h i c h c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d e p e n d e n t e x i s t e n c e . Though they are p o r t r a i t s o f f e m i n i n e g r a c e , each one i s m e r e l y a t r a n s i e n t shadow, f l i t t i n g through Pechorin's l i f e . The f e m a l e p e r s o n a g e s f r o m Princess Mary a r e n o e x c e p t i o n s : f o r example, from h i n t s p r o v i d e d i n the s t o r y , Vera c o u l d have been a profound, w e l l - d e v e l o p e d c h a r a c t e r (witness h e r l a s t l e t t e r t o P e c h o r i n ) , b u t e v e n more t h a n t h e o t h e r s , she p l a y s a s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e i n t h e subject matter. 21  The  two  most i m p o r t a n t  male personages f o r the  i n P r i n c e s s M a r y who  story's a c t i o n next  to  are  Pechorin  22 himself,  are  Grushnitsky  Eykhenbaum has each other: poseur,  suggested  on  one  confides  ean  character of  Both  i n him;  persons  are  the  s t o r y ; both  ten  pages —  Pechorin's The problem.  and  that  i n no  Grushnitsky ist:  way  who  one  the  pseudo-romantic hero  sardonic,  an  and  Mephistophel23  confidant.  equilibrium in first  Werner appears  immediately  after  with  poses a  w a y s he  Grushnitsky. fascinating  resembles the  compare the  traits  the  w i t h i n the  t h a t he  the  author two  c o n s t i t u t e s a parody of  each of  complement  i s Pechorin's  to maintain  c a r i c a t u r e d by  can  i s the  Boris  —  episode  In certain  figures  the  introduced early  young cadet  resemblances are  other,  doctor,  Doctor  initial  two  Pechorin  the  necessary are  Werner.  embodies a parody of  on  the  Doctor  t h a t the  side of  G r u s h n i t s k y , who  who  and  has  the  as  yet  perplexing  hero, to  but  such  equals.  romantic  these  an  extent  Basically sentimental-  i n common w i t h  Pechorin  29 is  exaggerated  to  the  point of  has  stated, Grushnitsky  the  philosophy  of  acts  ridiculousness.  as  Lermontov's  a kind of  As  catalyst  Freeborn for  hero:  He i s P e c h o r i n ' s a l t e r ego i n s e v e r a l s e n s e s -i n the sense of the 'romantic f a n a t i c i s m ' which b r o u g h t h i m t o t h e C a u c a s u s , w h e r e he a f f e c t s a d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t which resembles a parody of Pechorin's c r i p p l i n g d e s p a i r ; i n the sense of r e s e m b l i n g and r i v a l l i n g P e c h o r i n i n h i s d e s i r e t o p r o d u c e an e f f e c t ; i n t h e s e n s e o f b e i n g a solipsistic p o r t r a i t o f a n o v e l e t t i s h h e r o by t h e novel's hero; i n the sense of being the cause of the ' i n t r i g u e , ' without which Pechorin would not have been a b l e t o k i l l him; i n the sense o f bodying f o r t h the o r d i n a r i n e s s , the ingenuousness, the weakness which P e c h o r i n sought a t a l l c o s t s to eradicate i n himself. The r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n them, as r e c o r d e d by P e c h o r i n i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f G r u s h n i t s k y ' s a p p e a r a n c e and c h a r a c t e r , s u g g e s t s an i m m e d i a t e c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e i t i n e r a n t author's d e s c r i p t i o n o f P e c h o r i n , save t h a t P e c h o r i n o s t e n s i b l y understands h i s r i v a l b e t t e r than the i t i n e r a n t author understands t h e h e r o o f h i s own w o r k . 24 It  i s vital  Pechorin's assessed  t o remember t h a t G r u s h n i t s k y eyes;  very The  entire his  to  primary  playing a role, overcoat.  "lack of  value  j u d g m e n t s t h a t he  through  makes must  be  carefully.  e x i s t e n c e and  mysterious His  the  i s depicted  aspect  of  f u n c t i o n i n the which  is chiefly  Under h i s c l o a k  p e r s o n a l i t y and  drape h i m s e l f  Grushnitsky  i n romantic  i s h i s pose:  his  story i s contained depicted through i s nothing  c h a r a c t e r compel c l o t h e s and,  by  but  in  his banality.  Grushnitsky using  a 25  'borrowed' Grushnitsky  image,  to conceal  h i s own  wears h i s s o l d i e r ' s  coat  personal  failings."  t o make p e o p l e  believe  that  he h a s b e e n r e d u c e d  that  he does h i s b e s t  a  literal  of  i n secret" that Grushnitsky  h i s goal  He t a k e s  on h i s pose a t most times,  the Byronic During  an two  exaggerated references  i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d  his initial attempt  hearts.  Pechorin  sees  and  tersely  sky  i s so e n t h r a l l e d  May  mocks h i m w i t h  of Pechorin's  cast  makes  rejection, women's t h e mask  "Poor c o a t ! "  Grushnit  t h a t he d o e s n o t  laconic  jibe.  On  a n n o u n c e s t h a t h e h a s made t h e  of the Ligovskoys,  because o f h i s o l d cloak. but Grushnitsky  of  v a n i t y through  guise  novel.  Pechorin, i n  as a s e a l  a sarcastic  to  and amusing.  s o c i e t y and i n t o  with h i s false  16 t h e y o u n g p o s e u r  opinion,  high  the cadet's  the significance  acquaintance  as the hero o f a  t o . g a i n sympathy, G r u s h n i t s k y  into  both  illusion  y e t when he d o e s  coat  rumour  i s attempting  conversation with  to his soldier's  him entry both  a  a c t s as  c l o a k , he c a n be " q u i t e p l e a s a n t  refusing  realize  The c l o a k  expression of the romantic  assume:  off  forduelling,  t o encourage.  and symbolic  "suffering  t o the ranks  but i s s t i l l  Pechorin fails  openly  at a  disadvantag  declares h i s  to discern the irony i n h i s  words.  "Not y e t . I have t a l k e d t o t h e young p r i n c e s s a c o u p l e o f t i m e s , and more. I t i s kind of e m b a r r a s s i n g t o f i s h f o r an i n v i t a t i o n , y o u know, t h o u g h i t i s done h e r e . . . . I t would have been a n o t h e r m a t t e r , i f I w o r e e p a u l e t s . . . ." "Oh c o m e ! Y o u a r e much more i n t r i g u i n g t h i s way! Y o u s i m p l y d o n ' t k n o w how t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e of your lucky s i t u a t i o n . I n t h e eyes o f any s e n t i m e n t a l young l a d y , your s o l d i e r ' s coat i s b o u n d t o make a h e r o o f y o u , a m a r t y r . "  31 G r u s h n i t s k i s m i l e d smugly. "What n o n s e n s e ! " he s a i d . "I'm s u r e , " I w e n t o n , " t h a t t h e y o u n g p r i n c e s s is already i n love with youi" He b l u s h e d t o t h e e a r s , a n d p u f f e d o u t h i s c h e s t . 0 v a n i t y ! y o u a r e t h e l e v e r by means o f w h i c h Archimedes wished t o l i f t the earth! "You a l w a y s j o k e ! " he s a i d , f e i g n i n g t o be c r o s s . " I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , s h e k n o w s me s o l i t t l e a s y e t . " (p. 100) Though P e c h o r i n  sees  knows G r u s h n i t s k y ' s with  through h i s a c t and i n d i c a t e s t h a t real  a self-satisfied  M a r y may  already  believes  i t , but says  Grushnitsky smeshno) have. is a  the cadet,  i tmust be a j o k e .  admits  t h a t he a l r e a d y  acquaintance.  symbolizing  reacts  suggests  that  the latter Shortly thereafter,  i t w o u l d be " q u i t e a b s u r d "  , The p o s e u r ' s c o n c e i t  casual  fop only  smugness; when P e c h o r i n  be i n l o v e w i t h  himself  t h e young  t o have any hopes, y e t t h i s  so great  coat,  motives,  (oohen'  i s e x a c t l y what he  and b e l i e f calls  he  i n h i s own  h e r "my"  does  pretense  Mary, a f t e r  only  When h e a n d M a r y a r e o u t r i d i n g , t h e  h i sheroic  status, again  plays  a  central  part:  "What i s R u s s i a t o me?" answered h e r companion, "a c o u n t r y w h e r e t h o u s a n d s o f p e o p l e w i l l l o o k o n me w i t h c o n t e m p t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e r i c h e r t h a n I am -- w h e r e a s h e r e — here t h i s t h i c k s o l d i e r ' s coat h a s n o t p r e v e n t e d me f r o m m a k i n g y o u r acquaintance ii  "On t h e c o n t r a r y . . ." s a i d t h e p r i n c e s s , b l u s h i n g . Grushnitski's face portrayed pleasure. (p. 108) After and  Pechorin  has saved  the seed o f her hero-worship  the princess of Pechorin  at the b a l l has been  planted,  Grushnitsky this  has  has  ceased  been the  Grushnitsky's represented  attract  r e v e l a t i o n of  Byronic  the  to  cloak:  myth of  the  her.  the  The  truth  h i s coat, hero or  reason  for  behind  which  martyr,  formerly  now  only  26 symbolizes has  run  i t s course,  receives a  his mediocrity. for a  h i s promotion,  The few  fakery  days  later  his epaulettes  d e n o u e m e n t >to h i s ' r i d i c u l o u s n e s s .  sarcastically cloak will  gave him provide  everyone with of him  p o i n t s out  h i s own  this the  and  N a t u r a l l y the  statement:  he  of  himself  thinks  Little  does G r u s h n i t s k y  means t h a t  was  d e r i s i o n of  former admiration  that  to  needs to  not  had  see  the  same  i s too  the  ask  to  the  but  ranks  s t a t u s has for his  the  sham  garb as  inflated  bitter  f o r Mary's  realize,  reduced  his true she  be  shabby  h i s new  that his epaulettes  s t a t u s he  t h a t he  provide  Werner  individuality, will  coat  Grushnitsky  merely  young poser  social  discovery  now  poor  t h a t , whereas Grushnitsky's  some m y s t e r y  opinions  the  when  Doctor  l e s s g l a m o u r b e c a u s e he  else.  of  truth will  give  hand. princess'  for  duelling,  replaced  the  heroism.  "Oh, I ' v e made a b i t t e r m i s t a k e ! ... I t h o u g h t , i n my f o l l y , t h a t a t l e a s t t h e s e e p a u l e t s w o u l d g i v e me t h e r i g h t t o h o p e . . . No, i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n b e t t e r f o r me h a d I r e m a i n e d a l l my l i f e i n t h a t m i s e r a b l e s o l d i e r ' s c o a t t o w h i c h , maybe, I owed y o u r a t t e n t i o n . " " I n d e e d , t h a t c o a t s u i t e d y o u much b e t t e r . ..." A t t h i s p o i n t I came up a n d b o w e d t o t h e y o u n g princess: she b l u s h e d s l i g h t l y and s a i d q u i c k l y :  33 "Am I n o t r i g h t , M o n s i e u r P e c h o r i n , t h a t t h e g r a y s o l d i e r ' s c o a t was much more b e c o m i n g t o Monsieur Grushnitski?" "I disagree with you," I r e p l i e d . "In this u n i f o r m , he l o o k s e v e n more y o u t h f u l . " G r u s h n i t s k i could n o t bear t h i s blow: like a l l y o u t h s , h e p r o f e s s e s t o b e a n o l d man; h e t h i n k s t h a t deep t r a c e s o f p a s s i o n s r e p l a c e t h e imprint of years. He c a s t o n me a f u r i o u s glance, s t a m p e d h i s f o o t a n d w a l k e d away. "Now c o n f e s s , " I s a i d t o t h e young p r i n c e s s , " t h a t d e s p i t e h i s h a v i n g always been very absurd, s t i l l , quite r e c e n t l y , you thought him i n t e r e s t i n g . . . i n h i s gray coat?" She d r o p p e d h e r e y e s a n d d i d n o t a n s w e r . ( p . 134) In  summary t h e n ,  part  Grushnitsky's  of h i s portrayal  mask t o g i v e not.  overcoat  i n Princess  the impression  The s o l d i e r ' s c o a t  i s t h e most  Mary.  that  He u s e s  i t as a  he i s s o m e t h i n g  almost takes  that  on a c h a r a c t e r  own t o a c t a s a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f G r u s h n i t s k y ' s Ironically,  the cloak  which o r i g i n a l l y  important  served  he i s of i t s  character.  to attract 27  Mary  t o him, contributes Grushnitsky's  of  h i s behaviour.  of  his rival,  directly  affectation colours  In the introductory  Pechorin  notes  awarded a S t . George's c r o s s too  in  that  o f an e x c e p t i o n a l l y  action:  forward  he b r a n d i s h e s  with  courage!"  closed  ( p . 85)  eyes.  a l l the aspects  descriptive  t h e y o u n g man  f o r bravery,  i s i n f e r r e d t o be a mere p o s e :  reputation  to h i s downfall.  but later  Somehow, t h i s full  on  this  has the  I have seen him  h i s s w o r d , he y e l l s ,  Grushnitsky's  had been  "Grushnitski  b r a v e man.  paragraphs  he  rushes  i s not Russian blown oratory  and  long b l i t h e r i n g tirades are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the ordinary 2 y o u n g man a s s u m i n g a n a i r o f s u f f e r i n g a n d e x a l t e d passions.  34 He  almost always  when he until  spies  they  ("uspel his  seems t o o  the  are  pvinyat'  expresses  on  Mary's beauty,  conversation,  reveal ever,  that  Pechorin  he  the  spell  first the  (For of  he  and  waits  their  the  declaims  ironic  short  remarks  intent.  span of  mundane, t o o to  In  their  (particularly  aphorism) which  youth's vain  pose  Later  sardonic  nasty anecdotes  French  attitude  a l l mankind.  Pechorin's  during  the  example  clearly  humbuggery.  s t u p i d and  How-  too  realize  the  full  episode  between P e c h o r i n  and  the  trivial  incident of  import  sarcasm.  with  glass.  at  i n his egocentric  This  the  i s too  For  daughter,  pozu"),  coins  perceives  real.  assumes a d r a m a t i c  to note  Grushnitsky's  Pechorin's  concludes  failing  occasions  Grushnitsky  entangled of  displeasure  three  spoof of  her  be  c l a p t r a p about h a t i n g  he  his  and  to  dramatioheskuyu  on  on  princess  within earshot,  nonsensical  fact,  comic  people  romantic  like  Mary's p i c k i n g  Mary and  illusion,  this  cadet  Grushnitsky,  up  under  incident i s far  from  29 trivial.)  Pechorin  glance  the  obvious tender  that  i s quick  y o u n g man  from h i s remarks glance"  to  gives ("A  notice to  very  that Grushnitsky  the  the  passionate  princess.  angel!")  i s already  and  It is  his  "blurrily  infatuated  with  Mary. Later is  hopelessly  Pechorin  concludes  i n love with  the  that  the  princess,  youthful f o r he  has  charlatan an  35 engraved of  ring  on h i s f i n g e r  a s a memento o f t h e i n c i d e n t  t h e "famous g l a s s , " and becomes v e r y  suggestion  t h a t she w i l l  ascendancy over at  t h e May  22  ball:  remain outside the  beautiful  her.  like  unable  princess through  With  "absurd  Pechorin  exaltation"  feeling  anger.  of tragedy  him.  continues  her  Grushnitsky w i t h h i s eyes"  indifference  and c o l d "  y o u n g man c a n n o t  stop  i s an open i n v i t a t i o n  declare  t h a t Mary  ball a  moment o f t r u t h  on June  remarkably  mediocrity ior.  5.  other  thanks  when he s h o u l d  inanity  be  d o e s n o t make h i m  g a z e t h a t s h e now h a s f o r her, "devouring  Despite  the princess's  sentimental platitudes, the  think?"  The  smitten  i n h i s eyes and a  t o fawn over  fooling  i s madly  totally  f o r no r e a s o n  as she i s s i n g i n g .  to h i s boring  staring at  i n h i s v o i c e , he  The p o s e u r ' s "dull  to  she t o o i s i n l o v e w i t h him.  glittering  comprehend Mary's  ridiculous  t h e windowpane.  f o r s a v i n g Mary a t t h e b a l l ,  expressing  truly  pup, mawkishly  i s convinced  h i s own c o n c e i t , t h a t  ridiculous  looks  day G r u s h n i t s k y ,  than  Pechorin's  t o go i n , he i s c o n t e n t  a faithful  t h e charms o f Mary,  at  o f h i m i f he does n o t g a i n  Grushnitsky  On t h e f o l l o w i n g by  tire  upset  himself.  H i s "What d o y o u  f o r Pechorin  i n love with  to ecstatically  the cadet.  f o r Grushnitsky  comes a t t h e  Lermontov d e p i c t s t h e y o u t h f u l dandy i n  vivid  description  of the late  which epitomizes  adolescent  beneath  the comic  the garish exter-  36 H a l f an h o u r b e f o r e t h e b a l l , G r u s h n i t s k i a p p e a r e d b e f o r e me i n t h e f u l l s p l e n d o r o f a n i n f a n t r y army o f f i c e r ' s u n i f o r m . To t h e t h i r d b u t t o n , he h a d a t t a c h e d a b r o n z e c h a i n l e t f r o m w h i c h hung a double l o r g n e t t e ; e p a u l e t s o f i n c r e d i b l e s i z e were t u r n e d upward l i k e the wings of a cupid; h i s boots squeaked; i n h i s l e f t h a n d , he h e l d a p a i r o f b r o w n k i d g l o v e s and h i s c a p , and w i t h h i s r i g h t h a n d he k e p t f l u f f i n g up, e v e r y moment, h i s s h o c k o f h a i r , w h i c h was w a v e d i n s m a l l c u r l s . Self-satisf a c t i o n a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , a c e r t a i n l a c k o f assurance were expressed i n h i s countenance: h i s f e s t i v e e x t e r i o r , h i s proud g a i t , would h a v e made me b u r s t o u t l a u g h i n g , h a d t h a t b e e n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h my p l a n s . ( p . 131)  At  this  true  ball  Grushnitsky  feelings  directs first  toward  remarks of  he  fails  him.  to understand.  thinks  t o him. he  is a  finally  foppish mantle,  Grushnitsky  now  into  banality basely  totally  agrees The  duel  i s worthy of  to  the  p r o m p t e d by the  i s the note  itself, the  morning of  realizes  instead of on  a p e t t y scheming  visible.  The  Dragoon C a p t a i n the  duel  the  fool,  event the  has  had  to  take  former  pester  that  Mary  dropping  cadet  He  his is  with a l l his  a  Grushnitsky "fixed"  i n Princess events to have any  at  painfully  i s that  through  t h a t i n each of  to  be  she  which  revenge.  result  climactic  Grushnitsky  a t him,  should  insists  princess's  evening  continues  to humiliate Pechorin  It  duel  He  l u d i c r o u s yahoo,  the  derision  condescension  When h e  transformed  d i s c e r n s the  Throughout  s a r c a s m and  Mary, even though her obvious  finally  duel. Mary.  leading been  action.  On  i s disturbed,  up  37  but  when P e c h o r i n  Grushnitsky,  thinking  captain winks that on  they  the  s t a t e s t h a t he  that Pechorin  a t him)  fight.  edge o f  is willing  assumes a  to  negotiate,  i s afraid,  "proud  However, P e c h o r i n s 1  (after  a i r " and  insists  demand t h a t t h e y  a p r e c i p i c e throws Grushnitsky  the  into  duel  a  quandary:  His face kept changing every minute. I had p l a c e d him i n an awkward p o s i t i o n . H a d we f o u g h t u n d e r o r d i n a r y c o n d i t i o n s , he m i g h t h a v e a i m e d a t my l e g , w o u n d e d me l i g h t l y a n d s a t i s f i e d , i n t h i s w a y , his t h i r s t f o r revenge, without burdening h i s conscience t o o h e a v i l y . B u t now h e h a d e i t h e r t o d i s c h a r g e h i s p i s t o l i n t o t h e a i r , o r become a m u r d e r e r , o r l a s t l y , abandon h i s v i l e p l a n and expose h i m s e l f t o e q u a l d a n g e r w i t h me. A t t h i s moment, I w o u l d n o t h a v e w i s h e d t o be i n h i s p l a c e . He l e d t h e c a p t a i n a s i d e and began t o say s o m e t h i n g t o him w i t h g r e a t heat. I saw h i s l i v i d l i p s t r e m b l e , b u t t h e c a p t a i n t u r n e d away f r o m h i m w i t h a c o n t e m p t u o u s s m i l e . (pp. 165-166) Although at  the  is  ashamed  extremely  captain's urging to  disgustedly  shoot  spits  out  offended,  fires,  The  wound and  is  light not  loaded,  adversary. by has  insisting  At on  been boxed  self-esteem  an  but  Grushnitsky u n a r m e d man,  "coward."  an in:  this  the  turn of  decides  t o go  but  Dragoon  The  the  poseur,  o n l y wounds P e c h o r i n  him  and  he  moment P e c h o r i n examination there  intact without  i s no  of  to  gun.  i n the  Captain  knee.  faces  pistol his  Now  card  Grushnitsky  escape w i t h  death.  He  his vanity  p l a y s h i s trump  the  way  facing  calmly  events,  on.  knowledge t h a t Pechorin's  reassures this  a g i t a t e d by  Although  his Pechorin  38  provides face  him an o p p o r t u n i t y  h u m i l i a t i o n and c a s t  chooses  to die.  in  life  real  only  assumed  on a f a l s e  f o r repentance,  o f f h i s heroic mantle,  He m a i n t a i n s  the role before  identity  rather  than Grushnitsky  h i s pose and a c t u a l l y  of the s u f f e r i n g martyr  as make-believe.  t h a t he h a d  Grushnitsky  so much, t h a t he b e l i e v e s  plays  has  taken  i n i ta t the  end.  S e l f - l o v e made h i m b e l i e v e i n t h e i m a g i n a r y love f o r t h e p r i n c e s s and i n h e r l o v e f o r him; s e l f l o v e made h i m s e e P e c h o r i n a s a r i v a l a n d e n e m y ; s e l f - l o v e made h i m d e c i d e t o i n s u l t Pechorin's honour; s e l f - l o v e d i d not permit him t o o b e y t h e v o i c e o f h i s own c o n s c i e n c e a n d f o l l o w h i s good p r i n c i p l e s by a d m i t t i n g h i s p a r t i n t h e c o n s p i r a c y ; s e l f - l o v e made h i m s h o o t a n u n a r m e d man, a n d t h i s s a m e s e l f - l o v e , c o n c e n t r a t i n g a l l t h e power o f h i s b e i n g i n t o one d e c i s i v e moment, f o r c e d h i m t o p r e f e r c e r t a i n d e a t h o v e r c e r t a i n s a l v a t i o n through a confession. T h i s man i s t h e apotheosis o f p e t t y v a n i t y and weakness o f c h a r a c t e r ; o u t o f t h i s come a l l h i s a c t i o n s , a n d even h i s l a s t seemingly h e r o i c deed a r i s e s d i r e c t l y o u t o f t h e w e a k n e s s o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . 30  Thus  from beginning  a heroic  role  ity.  i s a fine  He  to cloak  disgusted  with  qualities  by t r y i n g  t o end G r u s h n i t s k y  has  played  t h e weak commonness o f h i s p e r s o n a l -  example o f t h a t  h i s own m e d i o c r i t y ,  type  of person  stifles  t o be an e x t r a o r d i n a r y  who,  hisreal  human  individual.  Taken t o g e t h e r , G r u s h n i t s k y and P e c h o r i n r e p r e sent c o n t r a s t i n g r e f l e c t i o n s o f the Byronic hero. Pechorin, with h i s courage, assurance, individuality and a l o o f n e s s , embodies t h e i n n e r , d i g n i f y i n g q u a l i t i e s o f t h e type, whereas G r u s h n i t s k y wears o n l y a b a d l y d e s i g n e d B y r o n i c mask u n d e r w h i c h one  39 can glimpse the i n s e c u r e l a t e - a d o l e s c e n t . He has o n l y l e a r n e d t o ape t h e e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e B y r o n i c h e r o , and l a c k i n g t h e i n n e r q u a l i t i e s h i s p e r f o r m a n c e becomes r i d i c u l o u s . P i t t e d a g a i n s t an a n t a g o n i s t s u c h as P e c h o r i n , he i s i n e v i t a b l y d e s t r o y e d . 31  Although play  a great  action,  he  the  part  does  i n the  fulfill  confidant.  By  the  Pechorin  doctor,  After  the  frankly  Doctor  the  important  ironic  also presents  presence  comic  T h e r e has identity  of  Werner does Princess  function of  Doctor  serves  them t o  As as  a  mentioned  a kind above,  to  the  doctor.  A  certain  Doctor  N.M.  Werner.  most i n f o r m a t i v e a r t i c l e  that,  Satin,  N.  was  supposedly  Bronshtein.  upon r e a d i n g  the  He  the  on  this  Mayyer  a  model  appends the  Lermontov's novel,  the  real  Nikolay  acquaintance  w r i t t e n by  of  offset  b e e n much d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g  M a y y e r , whom L e r m o n t o v k n e w t h r o u g h  was  to  pretentiousness.  Vasil'yevich  The  deeds  reader.  as  balance  Pechorin's  and  the  Werner a c t s  not  Mary's  r e v e a l i n g h i s thoughts  f o r Lermontov's hero.  Grushnitsky's  life  of  development of  story's climax,  conscience doctor's  character  mutual for  Doctor  supposition anecdote quipped  32 "pauvre  sire,  obviously than  the  pauvre  talent."  doctor  was  of his  compiles.a  his confidant. s k e p t i c i s m and  i s true,  e v e n more s a r d o n i c  i n Lermontov's d e p i c t i o n of Pechorin  If this  Werner's  then  in real  life  him.  striking  initial  "remarkable"  impression  features  include  m a t e r i a l i s m t e m p e r e d by h i s p o e t i c ;  40 nature.  Though p o s s e s s e d  greatly  admires,  Feeling:  Doctor  o f an a c i d  Werner c a n be a s e n s i t i v e  Lermontov's hero  soldier.  The d o c t o r ' s  most noteworthy  tongue, which  characteristic:  legs crippled  with  small  p e n e t r a t i n g eyes and c l o t h e s o f b l a c k  as  a nickname.  suggestions man.  Pechorin's, in  o f mystery  During it  i s easy  thoughts exactly the that  and  very  their  intelligence  closely  even though  complements  s t a t e s t h a t they  of a plot, i s going  friend  f o l l o w each  they  "read  Pechorin  Doctor  Werner  says  reacts with  other's  t h a t he h a s  immediately  t o be h i s v i c t i m . with  Mary  do n o t b e l i e v e i n  when  about the p r e t t y blonde  mocks  he i s a w o r t h y  f i r s t c o n v e r s a t i o n i n Princess  t h e same t h i n g s :  h i s young  Mephistopheles  be s h r o u d e d i n  but at heart  himself  head,  souls."  Grushnitsky  lightly  analytical  and  lend him a  he b e a r s  t o d i s c e r n t h a t t h e t w o men  beginning  Pechorin  and e v i l ,  dying  i s perhaps h i s  h i s large  a p p e a r a n c e may  f o r the l a t t e r  each other's  Byron";  and, indeed,  Werner's  His incisive,  "like  a  he i s s m a l l , t h i n  frail  Mephisto-like mystique  Man o f  h a s s e e n h i m weep o v e r  e x t e r n a l appearance  Pechorin  A s he  guesses tells  the expressive  discomfort,  face  the doctor  Pechorin:  "A l i t t l e m o l e ! " I m u t t e r e d t h r o u g h my t e e t h . "Really?" The d o c t o r l o o k e d a t me a n d s a i d s o l e m n l y , p l a c i n g h i s h a n d o n my h e a r t : "She i s someone y o u know! . . ." My h e a r t , i n d e e d , w a s b e a t i n g f a s t e r t h a n usual.  41 " I t i s now y o u r t u r n t o t r i u m p h , " I s a i d , " b u t I r e l y o n y o u ; y o u w i l l n o t b e t r a y me. I h a v e n o t s e e n h e r y e t , b u t I am s u r e t h a t I r e c o g n i z e , f r o m y o u r d e p i c t i o n , a c e r t a i n woman whom I l o v e d i n t h e o l d d a y s . Don't t e l l h e r a w o r d a b o u t me; s h o u l d s h e a s k , g i v e a b a d a c c o u n t o f me." "As y o u p l e a s e ! " s a i d Werner w i t h a shrug. (p. 9 7 ) (Note of two  also that the doctor  indifference figures  in  the story until  passage  t o marry  occurs  remark about  i squickly  Grushnitsky's  a n y more  part  approaching.  He  t o a s k about t h e rumour o f t h e impending  t o Mary, w i s h i n g  going  that the  other.)  Werner does n o t take  the climax  i n on Pechorin  marriage  showing once a g a i n  for his sarcastic  e p a u l e t t e s , Doctor  drops  not  as Pechorin,  t h e same k i n d o f g e s t u r e s  o f t e n complement each  Except new  uses  t o be assured  t h e young p r i n c e s s .  a t t h e end o f t h i s  that Pechorin i s A most r e v e a l i n g  section.  " I do n o t s a y i t . . . B u t y o u know t h e r e a r e c a s e s , " he added w i t h a cunning s m i l e , " i n w h i c h a n h o n o u r a b l e man i s o b l i g e d t o m a r r y , a n d t h e r e a r e mammas who d o n o t a t l e a s t a v e r t s u c h c a s e s . T h e r e f o r e , I a d v i s e y o u a s a p a l t o be more c a r e f u l . Here a t t h e s p a t h e atmosphere i s most dangerous: I h a v e s e e n s o many f i n e , y o u n g men, w o r t h y o f a b e t t e r l o t , who h a v e g o n e s t r a i g h t f r o m h e r e t o the a l t a r . Would y o u b e l i e v e i t , t h e r e has even b e e n a n a t t e m p t t o h a v e me m a r r y ! Namely, on t h e p a r t o f a p r o v i n c i a l mamma w h o s e d a u g h t e r w a s v e r y pale. I had had t h e m i s f o r t u n e t o t e l l h e r t h a t her daughter's face would r e g a i n i t s c o l o r a f t e r marriage. Then, w i t h t e a r s o f g r a t i t u d e , she o f f e r e d me h e r d a u g h t e r ' s h a n d a n d t h e i r e n t i r e fortune — f i f t y s e r f s , I b e l i e v e . B u t I answered t h a t I was i n c a p a b l e o f m a r r i a g e . " (pp. 138-139)  42 The  doctor's  Pechorin's teller's of  a  "incapability"  own  of  marriage  f e a r s of wedding b e l l s ,  closely caused  parallels  by  a  pronouncement t h a t P e c h o r i n would d i e a t  "wicked  wife."  Thus t h e y  share  another  fortune the  hands  striking  characteristic. After duel,  he  has  Werner a g a i n  His  keen  sense of  sky  and  and  intend to k i l l  the  Pechorin's agrees  to  long  face.  "the  of  of  falling  into  that  Grushnit-  their  the  the  plan of  t r a p , Werner  designs.  Pechorin scientific  the  suspect  in  skepticism.  Though a p p r e h e n s i v e  not  morning of  But  second  Dragoons have a l t e r e d  the  duel  the  doctor  manages t o c h e e r and  expectation of  illness."  Pechorin's  makes him  Pechorin.  follow his  t o Werner's that  intrigue  Captain  the  t o be  demonstrates h i s p r e v a i l i n g  assurances  On a  agreed  him  philosophical  a violent  personal  death  appears  by  appealing  nature, is a  human a s p e c t s  of  with  stating  genuine the  doctor's  >  character  become m a n i f e s t  when he  asks  Pechorin  i f he  has  33  no  one  final  to  leave  preparations  made c l e a r  as  Grushnitsky toss,  a remembrance t o .  the  he  to  they  duel  from going  expresses  shoot  doctor  that  f o r the  at  d u e l , Werner's concern  him.  once a g a i n  know a b o u t t h e any  Twice  After pleads  conspiracy  further.  during  the  skepticism i s  that Pechorin  may  Grushnitsky  wins  the  with Pechorin  to  reveal  stop  the  i n order  to  permit  43 "It i s time!" the doctor whispered to me, p u l l i n g my s l e e v e . " I f y o u do n o t t e l l t h e m now t h a t we k n o w t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s , a l l i s l o s t . L o o k , he i s a l r e a d y l o a d i n g . . . . I f y o u do not say a n y t h i n g , I myself s h a l l . ..." "Not f o r a n y t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d , d o c t o r ! " I r e p l i e d , h o l d i n g h i m b a c k by t h e arm. "You w o u l d spoil everything. Y o u g a v e me y o u r w o r d n o t t o i n t e r f e r e . . . . What does i t m a t t e r t o you? P e r h a p s , I w i s h t o be k i l l e d . ..." He g l a n c e d a t me w i t h s u r p r i s e . "Oh, t h a t ' s d i f f e r e n t ! . . . O n l y d o n o t b r i n g c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t me i n t h e n e x t w o r l d . " (p. 168) It  i s noteworthy  appealing Pechorin  to the  that Pechorin cold  scientific  s t a t e s t h a t he  may  When G r u s h n i t s k y Pechorin  remarks  t h a t Werner  gives  i t to Pechorin,  killed,  he  turns  Werner  later  bullet  and  ment  in  Mary  coldblooded Pechorin Werner this  he  can  sleep  i n peace This  loads  slightly,  disposal of  ...  His  i s the  only  Since  i s Doctor the  can  state. . .  occasion  for the  pistol  friend  last  i f you  knew a b o u t t h e  conscience  the  young poseur  i s upbraided  Grushnitsky.  positively  a  only  In h i s l e t t e r  disgust for Pechorin's a c t s as  nature:  that his  a g a i n s t him.  where P e c h o r i n  and  the  about the  important.  murder of  clearly  feels  case  you  thinking  " i n horror."  lack of proof  i s very  Princess  after  Pechorin  by  die.  H o w e v e r , he  perhaps  a i r ; but  away  tells  the  "...  Good-by,"  the  his  only  i s "paler than G r u s h n i t s k i  and  into  to  doctor  wounds h i s a d v e r s a r y  been t e n minutes b e f o r e . "  fire  the  side of  wish  had  will  calms  the doctor  and  conspiracy,  n e f a r i o u s deed.  In  f o r Lermontov's hero  and  44 speaks  as the voice of moral The  after  reader  the duel.  inform  proffer  believe a  away.  Werner  Pechorin's  perpetrated  on h i s neck as turns him  h i s conscience  pose,  feeling;  he p o s s e s s e s impulses  Pechorin  and h i s base urges  winout.  i n whom P e c h o r i n c a n  f e a t u r e s w i t h Pechorin and altev  ego:  of marriage  control  profound  like  his spirit.  Pechorin Unlike h i s  t h e d o c t o r h a s n o t a l l o w e d h i m s e l f t o be  taken over Pechorin  by base d e s i r e s .  His final  emphasize • t h e former's  c o n t r a s t demonstrates  no d e s i r e  t o heed  lack  totally  criticisms o f remorse;  definitively  thus  although  h e i s o f t e n a man o f  a dread  s t i l l  to Grushnitsky's  as a person  o f secondary  and s k e p t i c a l ,  noble  mention  Werner's M e p h i s t o - l i k e y e t b a s i c a l l y  as w e l l  stand as a k i n d  the doctor  he makes no  and be r e m o r s e f u l ; t h u s  He s h a r e s m a n y  sarcastic  has  to f a l l  r e f u s e s t o acknowledge t h e  c h a r a c t e r acts as a balance  confide.  he d o e s  I n s t e a d i t i s P e c h o r i n , who h a s  t h e m u r d e r , who  over  ridiculous  stark  liked  P e c h o r i n ' s own c o l d n e s s  blame.  Thus D o c t o r  friend  have  put a t a disadvantage:  to morality  triumphs  but  between two u r g e s :  As the v o i c e o f Pechorin's conscience,  of  can  lodgings to  and o f t h e s u s p i c i o n s o f the  i s caught  gesture.  immediately  noble  Werner on t h e day  h i s h a n d w h e n h e e n t e r s b u t , i f we a r e t o  is  appeal  Doctor  at Pechorin's  illness  Pechorin, would  farewell  glimpses  He a r r i v e s  him o f Mary's  authorities. not  last  outrage.  of the  that Pechorin  the voice of h i s conscience.  45 ****  The  most important  occupation  with Byron  images and  heroines  from Byron are  a true understanding  of  a l l of of  hero  philosophical religion the  and  hero.  hero's  as  an  concepts sex  are  thoughts,  of  views of  Eero  contained not  the  ego's c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h  is  not  simply  e s s e n c e and Before  Byronic for  hero,  determining some s o r t  of  how  the  but  many t y p e s  of  but  will,  perhaps  the  A Eero Pechorin  concepts  existence. n o v e l , he of  Our  Pilgrimage  w i t h the  Pechorin i s  the  Time.  i s and  one  i s not  of  changed person  hero.  hero  cantos  Earold's  and  a  m u s t be e s t a b l i s h e d  heroes;  two  more  people  h i s own  (Compare t h e  first  the  even  with other  i t s own of  through  particular  the  indeed,  Lermontov's  u n d e r g o a m e t a m o r p h o s i s w i t h i n one hero of  key  fundamental  morality,  expressed  criteria  Byronic  the  and,  d e c i d i n g e x a c t l y what c o n s t i t u t e s a B y r o n i c  There are  Motifs,  w i t h i n h i s d e p i c t i o n of  figure  meaning behind  pre-  hero.  Time  A l l of  deeds and,  the  very  Our  Pechorin,  author  central  the  consists of  of  the  of  his relationships  him,  of  love, hate,  words and  through  Lermontov's  important,  individual.  L e r m o n t o v was  important, their  of A  Lermontov's works,  the  of  i s h i s concept  to  idea  aspect  may  work. Childe  in  cantos  46 three of A  and  four.  Pechorin Hero  of  entitled series  I t i s obvious  i s not  Our  the  Peter  Byronic  types  Hero  and  a l s o t h a t the  same i n t h e  Time.)  The  of  34  various parts  J. Thorslev  argues  prototypes  figure  in his  book  convincingly for a  of the  Byronic  hero.  This method i s e x c e l l e n t f o r i t p e r m i t s  a  hero  state of  as  a changing  instead  of  According any  or  a  static  a l l of  consisting  such and  the  the the  of  as  the  not  Child Man  of  Noble Outlaws,  Prometheus have taken The  suddenly static  Byronic  his  the  hero  Faust,  the  embody  Sensibility  Gloomy E g o i s t , romanticism  Cain, Ahasuerus,  literary  develop.  c h a r a c t e r s ; nor  flux,  can  Hero of  various qualities  they  the  patterns.  a c t u a l heroes of  point is.that  appear;  of  eighteenth-century  F e e l i n g and The  study  must f i t i n t o  of.Nature,  Villain.  predecessors. just  a typical  features of  the  Gothic  i n a constant  c h a r a c t e r who  to Thorslev  precursors:  and  figure  of  from  Satan  their  figures  do  Byron's heroes  i s Pechorin,  the  not  are  "hero of  our  time." Thorslev characteristics  p o i n t s out of  the  Child  that Childe Harold of  Nature,  Man  embodies  of Feeling,  35 Gloomy E g o i s t and Cantos  I and  literature having  Gothic  II.  after  emerged  Villain,  T h e r e a f t e r he Byron.  He  "from a union  as  i s depicted  b e c o m e s a new  i s now of  he  a Hero o f  legacy  in to  Sensibility,  s e c u l a r i z e d Gloomy  Egoist  36 with  the  ethically  u n c o m m i t t e d Man  of  Feeling."  In  the  four  Turkish Tales  t h e h e r o e s waver between t h e two  poles  37 of  the Gothic  The  Villain  and t h e Hero o f  heroes o f Byron's O r i e n t a l  Outlaws,  Tales,  a r e men o f a c t i o n a n d p o s s e s s  Sensibility. i . e . , t h e Noble traits  n o t h e l d by  38 Harold,  Cain  o r Manfred.  characteristics Prometheus, Hero  Therefore, Byronic  stage  o f Nature,  o f development,  l o v e , i s d e f i a n t and t h i r s t s  mysterious,  nature.  Thus B y r o n ' s h e r o  characteristics  is  the Byronic  not a simple  modifications  Pechorin  one.  i s such  However,  contains  hero o f Lermontov's  a Child  and a l o v e r a  complex  types,  types.  a complicated  For  he i s a B y r o n i c  hero  i f one a s c e r t a i n s t o w h i c h  I b e l i e v e one c a n s a f e l y  This  con-  figure the  the features of Byronic  novel  ego-  c a n be a p p l i e d t o  i s a  "Byronic"  i ti s true that Pechorin  o f Nature.  defiant,  of Pechorin.  t o what e x t e n t  o f them,  Firstly, as  rebel.  f o r knowledge.  from each o f these  qualities  t o determine  degree Pechorin  the  the romantic  from e a r l i e r  e x a c t l y t h e same p r i n c i p l e  Because process  Satan-  i s the Byronic  i s essentially  taining  analyze  Cain  an o u t c a s t , a r i s t o c r a t i c  g e n e r a l l y a development  study  a maturing  he c a n be e v i l ,  figure,  this  f o r example, has  t h e r e a r e many p o s s i b l e f e a t u r e s t h a t t h e  h e r o may p o s s e s s :  tistical, of  of a Child  and a Hero o f S e n s i b i l i t y .  i n his last  He c a n n o t  Manfred,  heroes o r state  how  hero.  c a n be  i s not on the simple  classified plane  48 of  the  typical  eighteenth-century  f r o m h u m b l e o r i g i n s who aggressive  and  sophisticated  always  sentimental  naive  a. l a R o u s s e a u i s h a n d s o m e , i n l o v e , but  appreciation of  rather  nature  on  as  the  the  man strong/  subtle,  part  of  an  39  aristocrat,  as  i n the  From the evidence of Caucasian  beginning  Pechorin's  splendour,  magnificent  case of of  love  Childe  Harold.  Princess  Mary  of  nature's  for Pechorin  setting  of  his  there  majesty,  i s much i.e.  the  revels in describing  the  story.  T h i s a s p e c t i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by the usage o f t h e motifs of nature i n various parts of the novel. T h e s e m o t i f s a p p e a r t o be one o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l elements of the novel. The b o o k i s c o n c e i v e d as "Caucasian" w i t h i n d i s p e n s i b l e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the Caucasian countryside. The m o u n t a i n b a c k d r o p provides the novel w i t h a s p e c i a l c o l o u r i n g , i . e . a special stylistic tint. Not w i t h o u t r e a s o n d i d t h e C a u c a s i a n d e s c r i p t i o n s i n A Hero of Our Time become c l a s s i c s as w e l l as c u r r e n t i n s c h o o l t e x t b o o k s , and even were r e p r o d u c e d as models f o r d e s c r i p t i v e e p i s t o l a r y p r o s e ( i n Model Writing, 1845) . The l y r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f n a t u r e a r e e q u a l l y present i n the t r a v e l l i n g note-taker's sections and i n P e c h o r i n ' s j o u r n a l . They h a v e one style; even the rhythm of speech i s i d e n t i c a l i n c o r r e s ponding places. 4 0  Pechorin  narrates  ideas  love  end A  of  on  this  kind of  air is one  of  the  section:  joyful  i s p u r e and b r i g h t , the wish?  i n the  Who,  first  Caucasus'  i s blue  here,  to  live  p e r m e a t e s a l l my  fresh, like  the —  gives  n a t u r a l splendour  " I t i s gay  feeling  sky  p e r s o n and  kiss  of  his  own  at  the  i n such  country!  veins.  The  a child,  the  what more, i t seems,  needs passions,  sun  could  desires, regrets?"  49 (pp.  81-82)  P e c h o r i n does not express the  adoration of a naive school-boy, but rather weary a t t i t u d e s trast  of a  between the  sophisticated  intrigues  wide-eyed the world-  man  who  loves  of society  and  the  the  con-  simple  41 freshness of the mountain  air.  There  Child  Harold.  The  of Nature  attitudes  o f b o t h H a r o l d and  Here are b u t in  Childe  i n Childe  t h r e e examples  Harold's  i s much o f  similarities  Pechorin are of the hero's  the in  remarkable. love  of  nature  Pilgrimage:  To s i t o n r o c k s , t o m u s e o ' e r f l o o d a n d fell, To s l o w l y t r a c e t h e f o r e s t ' s s h a d y s c e n e , W h e r e t h i n g s t h a t own n o t m a n ' s d o m i n i o n d w e l l , And m o r t a l f o o t h a t h n e ' e r o r r a r e l y been; To c l i m b t h e t r a c k l e s s m o u n t a i n a l l u n s e e n , With the w i l d f l o c k t h a t never needs a f o l d ; A l o n e o'er s t e e p s and foaming f a l l s t o l e a n ; This i s not s o l i t u d e ; ' t i s but to hold C o n v e r s e w i t h N a t u r e ' s charms, and v i e w h e r stores unroll'd. ( I I : xxv) Dear Nature i s the k i n d e s t mother s t i l l , Though a l w a y s c h a n g i n g i n h e r a s p e c t m i l d ; F r o m h e r b a r e b o s o m l e t me t a k e my f i l l , H e r n e v e r - w e a h d, t h o u g h n o t h e r f a v o u r ' d c h i l d . Oh! she i s f a i r e s t i n h e r f e a t u r e s w i l d , Where n o t h i n g p o l i s h ' d d a r e s p o l l u t e h e r p a t h : To me b y d a y o r n i g h t s h e e v e r s m i l e d , Though I have mark'd h e r when none o t h e r h a t h , And s o u g h t h e r more and more, and l o v e d h e r b e s t in wrath. (II: xxvii) 1  B u t w h e n he saw t h e e v e n i n g s t a r a b o v e L e u c a d i a ' s f a r - p r o j e c t i n g r o c k o f woe, And h a i l ' d t h e l a s t r e s o r t o f f r u i t l e s s l o v e , He f e l t , o r d e e m ' d he f e l t , n o common g l o w : And as t h e s t a t e l y v e s s e l g l i d e d s l o w B e n e a t h t h e shadow o f t h a t a n c i e n t mount, He w a t c h ' d t h e b i l l o w s ' m e l a n c h o l y f l o w , A n d , s u n k a l b e i t i n t h o u g h t a s he was w o n t , More p l a c i d seem'd h i s e y e , and smooth h i s pallid front. (II: x l i )  50 The that  p r e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s c h o l a r M.N.  i n Lermontov these  B y r o n and  that these  m o t i f s are  Rozanov  direct  came o r i g i n a l l y  from  insists  borrowings  from  Jean-Jacques  Rousseau:  Above a l l t h i s l e a d s us t o t h e p r o b l e m o f n a t u r e culture. From Rousseau Byron c o m p l e t e l y mastered t h i s c u l t of nature, t h i s " n a t u r a l i s m " i n the widest s e n s e o f t h e w o r d , w h i c h i s one o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l bases of Rousseau's d o c t r i n e . This c u l t brought w i t h i t the brunt of the e s t h e t i c perception of nature, a fondness f o r everything n a t u r a l , simple and p r i m i t i v e , as w e l l as an a l i e n a t i o n f r o m t h e " m e n d a c i o u s " b l e s s i n g s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and so on. T h i s " n a t u r a l i s m " was m a s t e r e d b y L e r m o n t o v i n i t s g e n e r a l t r a i t s and s t a n d s o u t i n a l l h i s works. As we h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n h i s l o v e f o r n a t u r e a p p e a r e d i n h i s v e r y e a r l y y e a r s , and a l l h i s works a r e f i l l e d w i t h an e s t h e t i c e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e b e a u t i e s o f nature. This intense " f e e l i n g f o r nature," i . e . the s e n s i t i v i t y and e x a c t n e s s o f i t s a r t i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n , r e s u l t e d i n one o f t h e most r e m a r k a b l e d e p i c t i o n s of nature i n world l i t e r a t u r e . Lermontov r i v a l l e d Byron not o n l y w i t h the wide scope of h i s a r t i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n and w i t h t h e b r i l l i a n c e and c l a r i t y o f h i s b e a u t i f u l images, but a l s o w i t h h i s concentrated e n e r g y and t h e p l a s t i c i t y and s c u l p t u r e d v i v i d n e s s o f h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s , he e v e n s u r p a s s e s h i m . 42 and  A before  Pechorin's  However, there an  significant  passage of  first  i t contains  no  i s a description  i n t r o d u c t i o n to the  nature  occurs  meeting w i t h Vera lyrical of  love of  a thunderstorm  "electrically  immediately  i n Princess  nature. which  charged"  Mary.  Instead serves  scene  follows. I t was g e t t i n g h o t ; f u r r y w h i t e c l o u d s w e r e r a p i d l y s c u d d i n g f r o m t h e snowy m o u n t a i n s w i t h the promise of a thunderstorm; the top of Mount Mashuk smoked l i k e an e x t i n g u i s h e d t o r c h ;  as  that  51 around i t there c o i l e d and s l i t h e r e d , like snakes, gray shreds o f c l o u d , which had been d e l a y e d i n t h e i r s u r g e a n d seemed t o have caught i n i t s thorny brush. The a i r was pervaded with e l e c t r i c i t y . I plunged into a v i n y a v e n u e t h a t l e d t o a g r o t t o ; I was s a d . (pp. • 102-103). This  particular  d e s c r i p t i o n shows t h a t  and  other  The  passage w i t h  electric  heroes o f Byron  a i r sets  i sat origin  i t s motifs  o f mountains,  clouds  Harold  and  f o r t h e sudden  and h i s former b e l o v e d .  more r e v e a l i n g i s t h e e m o t i o n a l after  like  a C h i l d o f Nature.  t h e mood o f e x p e c t a t i o n  rendezvous between Pechorin  immediately  Pechorin  lyricism  Even  of the shift  the meeting.  When I r e t u r n e d h o m e , I g o t o n my h o r s e and g a l l o p e d o u t i n t o t h e s t e p p e . I love t o g a l l o p on a s p i r i t e d horse through t a l l grass, a g a i n s t t h e w i n d o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s ; a v i d l y do I s w a l l o w t h e r e d o l e n t a i r a n d d i r e c t my g a z e i n t o the blue remoteness, t r y i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h the n e b u l o u s o u t l i n e s o f o b j e c t s t h a t become, every minute, c l e a r e r and c l e a r e r . Whatever s o r r o w may b u r d e n my h e a r t , w h a t e v e r a n x i e t y may o p p r e s s my m i n d , e v e r y t h i n g i s d i s p e r s e d i n a moment: the soul f e e l s easy, b o d i l y f a t i g u e vanquishes mental worry. T h e r e i s no f e m i n i n e gaze t h a t I would n o t f o r g e t a t t h e s i g h t o f mountains covered w i t h e a r l y v e g e t a t i o n , and i l l u m i n e d by t h e southern sun, a t t h e s i g h t o f the blue s k y , o r a t t h e sound o f a t o r r e n t t h a t f a l l s from crag t o crag. (p. 106)  It  i s significant  that Pechorin  meeting Vera again, t o express gladness  i n h i sheart.  leitmotiv  both  emotional  episode  Vera.  t o nature  the ebullient  Thus n a t u r e  to introduce with  turns  acts  and conclude  after  feelings of  as a k i n d o f the highly  52  A s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e i s expressed by Manfred, who i n h i s youth, a l s o e x h i b i t e d t h i s profound  love o f nature  in h i s soul. My j o y was i n the w i l d e r n e s s , — t o breathe The d i f f i c u l t a i r o f the i c e d mountain's top, Where the b i r d s dare not b u i l d , nor i n s e c t ' s wing F l i t o'er the h e r b l e s s g r a n i t e ; or t o plunge Into the t o r r e n t , and t o r o l l along On the s w i f t w h i r l o f the new breaking wave Of r i v e r - s t r e a m , o r ocean, i n t h e i r flow. {Manfred, A c t I I , scene i i , 6 2 - 6 8 ) Almost any emotional c r i s i s makes P e c h o r i n contemp l a t e nature. his  Storm c l o u d s echo the t u r b u l e n t t o r t u r e s o f  b r a i n , addled by l o n e l i n e s s .  The e x p r e s s i o n s o f the  p a t h e t i c f a l l a c y are not so important  i n themselves  as they  were f o r the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Rousseauesque "Noble Savage," but they do serve t o i l l u s t r a t e Lermontov's m o d i f i c a t i o n s of  the s e n s i t i v i t y to nature i n Pechorin's c h a r a c t e r .  Nature h e l p s t o r e v e a l Pechorin's p e r s o n a l i t y and the s u b t l e 43  p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects o f h i s a t t i t u d e s toward the world. When P e c h o r i n moves t o K i s l o v o d s k and i n t r o d u c e s the area i n h i s d i a r y , he expresses an a d o r a t i o n so naive and s e n t i m e n t a l , t h a t he c l o s e l y resembles  a C h i l d o f Nature:  And, indeed, e v e r y t h i n g here breathes s e c l u s i o n ; e v e r y t h i n g here i s mysterious -- the dense canopies o f l i n d e n avenues t h a t bend over the t o r r e n t which, as i t n o i s i l y and f o a m i l y f a l l s from ledge t o . l e d g e , c u t s f o r i t s e l f a path between the verdant mountains; and the gorges f i l l e d w i t h gloom and s i l e n c e t h a t branch out from here i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s ; and the freshness  53 of t h e a r o m a t i c a i r , l a d e n w i t h t h e e m a n a t i o n s of t a l l s o u t h e r n g r a s s e s and w h i t e a c a c i a s ; and the constant d e l i c i o u s l y somniferous babble of c o o l b r o o k s w h i c h , m e e t i n g a t t h e f a r end o f the v a l l e y , j o i n i n a f r i e n d l y r a c e and, a t l a s t , f a l l i n t o t h e Podkumok R i v e r . On t h i s s i d e t h e gorge widens and t u r n s i n t o a green g l e n ; a dusty road meanders through i t . ( p p . 14 0 - 1 4 1 )  This  description  story's  place of  i s not  merely  a pretty  picture  of  the  action.  . . . and i n t h i s c a s e t h e l a n d s c a p e does not a p p e a r j u s t as t h e d e s i g n a t i o n f o r t h e p l a c e o f a c t i o n , o r as an a r e n a f o r t h e h e r o ' s a c t i v i t y or as a b a c k d r o p f o r h i s movements. Its function here i s mainly p s y c h o l o g i c a l . These and o t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s are given through a prism of sensat i o n s , f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e " j o u r n a l ' s " author. For t h i s reason they are both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y l i n k e d w i t h the l y r i c a l m e d i t a t i o n s and a r e t r a n s p o s e d i n t o them, as i n t h e m a g n i f i c e n t d e s c r i p t i o n of the morning of Pechorin's f i r s t day i n P y a t i g o r s k . 44 Pechorin's of  the  prove in  o v e r t c y n i c i s m s h o w s t h a t he  eighteenth-century prototype, but t h a t Lermontov's hero,  the  Child  of Nature  Another for  i s not  Pechorin s 1  storminess  on  of  lyrical  like  the  these  Byron's,  had  a pure  example  examples his roots  1700's.  passage of  nature  sets the  nocturnal rendezvous with Vera. the mountains epitomizes  stage  The  Pechorin's  excite-  45 ment. the  (The  reader  description,  hero can s t i l l was p i t c h d a r k  may  well  wonder about the  since i t i s "pitch  d i s c e r n t h e c l o u d s on outside. Heavy, c o l d  dark"  logic  outside, yet  of the  the mountains.) "It c l o u d s l a y on t h e  54 summits of a  dying  around  the  surrounding  breeze the  soughed  Hero  of  Our  time  Grushnitsky. contrasts  i n the  restaurant."  Perhaps the  (p.  directly  joyous  powerfully  come.  that  he  We may  see  be  c r e s t s of  now  the  with  before  then '  poplars  the  despair and  the  of  of  duel  in A  with  the d e s c r i p t i o n  the  horror  i n love  his last  passage  the  effervescence  a y o u n g man  spending  and  150)  n i g h t ' s musings about death, to  only  most remarkable nature  occurs The  mountains;  with  previous of  the  life,  events  yet  fearful  moments amongst t h e  natural  46 splendours  of  demonstrates  the  Caucasian  countryside.  a more R o u s s e a u e s q u e C h i l d  tion  of  the  landscape;  his attitude  that  of  the  i n t r o d u c t o r y passage  Here of  Pechorin  Nature  closely  apprecia-  resembles  t o Princess  Mary.  I do n o t r e m e m b e r a b l u e r a n d f r e s h e r m o r n i n g . The s u n h a d j u s t a p p e a r e d f r o m b e h i n d t h e g r e e n summits, and the m e r g i n g o f t h e f i r s t warmth o f i t s rays w i t h the waning coolness of the n i g h t pervaded a l l one's senses w i t h a k i n d of d e l i c i o u s languor. The g l a d b e a m o f t h e y o u n g d a y h a d not yet penetrated i n to the gorge; i t g i l d e d only t h e t o p s o f the c l i f f s t h a t hung on b o t h s i d e s above us. The d e n s e - f o l i a g e d b u s h e s , g r o w i n g i n t h e deep c r e v i c e s , a s p e r g e d us w i t h a s i l v e r r a i n a t the l e a s t breath of wind. I remember t h a t on t h i s o c c a s i o n , more t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , I was i n l o v e w i t h n a t u r e . (pp. 161-162)  After  the  duel  magnificent to  be  however, h i s e f f e r v e s c e n t a d o r a t i o n  countryside  c o l d toward him  s e e m e d t o me  without  has  vanished.  f o r the luster;  deed  he  i t s rays  of  Mother Nature has  done:  d i d not  "The  warm  the seems sun  me."  55  (p.  171)  are  portrayed within a pathetic fallacy  the  m o u n t a i n s and  pain  The  hidden  western  gorge. as  feelings  The  the  mountains;  author  has  landscape  typify has  cloud  i t had  over  attitudes;  he  as  and  despair  nature,  letter:  become d a r k  stones."  used nature the  dully  i.e.  and  sun  had ridge  damp i n  of  the  monotonously With  to express and  own  the  and  (p. 174)  freshness  Pechorin's  "The  t h a t r e s t e d on  Podkumok R i v e r r o a r e d  moods and  after  disillusion  farewell  i n a black  i t made i t s way  skill  of  r a v i n e s , seems t o e c h o P e c h o r i n ' s  upon r e a d i n g Vera's  already the  hero's  great  the  hero's  s e r e n i t y of  verve  before  the  murdered Grushnitsky  Mother  Nature  the  duel,  but  seems t o .  47 be  condemning him.  Pechorin Nature  Nevertheless,  c o n t a i n s many o f  the  i n h i s make-up j u s t The  evolutionary Sensibility.  qualities  as  toward  This  the  type  Byronic  Gloomy E g o i s t and  the  Man  features  men  were e v i d e n t  of  though w i t h he  too  i s at  Feeling. elegiac  In tone  recurring in  the  these  both  the  themes o f  tradition  of  two  two  t o be  Byronic  Pechorin  i s no  sic  an  Hero  expressions:  i n the  cantos and  do.  Once a g a i n ,  's Pilgrimage  first  that  Child:of  i s the  a Gloomy E g o i s t and  Childe,Harold of  hero  Feeling.  f u r t h e r development. times  the  considered  h e r o u s u a l l y had of  of  Byron's heroes  second preromantic step  i t is certain  "the of  ubi  sunt  the  Gloomy E g o i s t o f  the  transit the  a Man  of the  certain hero,  exception: of  general poem, a n d are  very  preceding  the much  century."  Some g o o d e x a m p l e s o f C h i l d e  Gloomy E g o i s t  a r e these:  Harold  as the  Here d i d s t t h o u d w e l l , h e r e schemes o f p l e a s u r e Beneath y o n mountain's ever beauteous brow: B u t now, a s i f a t h i n g u n b l e s t b y M a n , Thy f a i r y d w e l l i n g i s a s l o n e a s t h o u ! Here g i a n t weeds a p a s s a g e s c a r c e allow To h a l l s d e s e r t e d , p o r t a l s g a p i n g w i d e : F r e s h l e s s o n s t o t h e t h i n k i n g b o s o m , how, V a i n a r e t h e p l e a s a u n c e s on e a r t h s u p p l i e d ; Swept i n t o w r e c k s anon by Time's u n g e n t l e t i d e ! (I: x x i i i )  plan,  Look on i t s broken a r c h , i t s r u i n ' d w a l l , I t s chambers d e s o l a t e , and p o r t a l s f o u l : Y e s , t h i s was o n c e A m b i t i o n ' s a i r y h a l l , T h e dome o f T h o u g h t , t h e p a l a c e o f t h e S o u l : Behold through each l a c k - l u s t r e , eyeless hole, The g a y r e c e s s o f W i s d o m a n d o f W i t , And P a s s i o n ' s h o s t , t h a t n e v e r b r o o k ' d c o n t r o l : Can a l l s a i n t , s a g e , o r s o p h i s t e v e r w r i t , People t h i s l o n e l y tower, t h i s tenement r e f i t ? (II: v i ) Oh! e v e r l o v i n g , l o v e l y a n d b e l o v e d ! How s e l f i s h S o r r o w p o n d e r s o n t h e p a s t , A n d c l i n g s t o t h o u g h t s now b e t t e r f a r r e m o v e d ! B u t T i m e s h a l l t e a r t h y s h a d o w f r o m me l a s t . A l l thou c o u l d s t have o f mine, s t e r n Death! thou h a s t ; The p a r e n t , f r i e n d , a n d now t h e m o r e t h a n f r i e n d ; Ne'er y e t f o r one t h i n e arrows f l e w so f a s t , And g r i e f w i t h g r i e f c o n t i n u i n g s t i l l t o b l e n d , Hath snatch'd t h e l i t t l e j o y that l i f e had y e t t o lend (II: xcvi) These  same s e n t i m e n t s a r e e c h o e d  "ruins"  i n Byron's E.J.  i n t h e numerous v e r s e s  works.  Simmons c o m p a r e s P e c h o r i n  B y r o n a s Gloomy  on  Egoists:  with  the heroes o f  57 L i k e C h i l d e Harold, Pechorin has t a s t e d a l l pleasures to the point of satiety. He i s b o r e d w i t h l i f e , and nothing remains except travel. I n a p p e a r a n c e he r e s e m b l e s v e r y c l o s e l y C o n r a d i n The Corsair. He i s o f a v e r a g e h e i g h t b u t p o w e r f u l f r a m e , w i t h a n uncommon f a c e w h i c h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p l e a s i n g t o women. He h a s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c pale and noble forehead, and h i s e y e s do n o t l a u g h when he l a u g h s , — a sign, says Lermontov, o f a wicked nature o r o f a profound and c o n s t a n t sadness. This l a s t t r a i t immediately recalls Lara: "That s m i l e might reach h i s l i p s , b u t pass'd not by, None e ' e r c o u l d t r a c e i t s l a u g h t e r t o h i s e y e . " W h a t e x a c t l y w a s t h e G l o o m y E g o i s t made u p o f ?  50 Primarily,  he m e d i t a t e d  on death.  The a t t r i b u t e s  of the  Gloomy E g o i s t i n c l u d e d m e l a n c h o l i a , s e l f - d r a m a t i z a t i o n , egocentricity; graves, that by  there  r u i n s and other  Gothic  delights.  as  cemeteries,  Pechorin  reveals  he i s a Gloomy E g o i s t , o r r a t h e r a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f i t ,  a few key passages  instances  i n Princess  o f stark Gothic  gloom pervades  the entire  musings on death  Grushnitsky.  occurs  However,  Mary.  T h e r e a r e no  imagery, b u t an atmosphere o f s t o r y ; moreover,  and sadness.  m e d i t a t i o n on death  is  were o f t e n images such  Pechorin's  immediately  here.  most  before  i t i s important  n o t simply musing on death  there  a r e many developed  h i sduel  t o note  There  that  i sa  Promethean d e s i r e f o raccomplishment and purpose, a clear  variation  on t h e pure  Gloomy  Egoist  with  Pechorin  certain certainly  type.  W e l l , w h a t o f i t ? I f I am t o d i e , I ' l l d i e ! The l o s s t o t h e w o r l d w i l l n o t b e l a r g e a n d , a n y w a y , I m y s e l f am s u f f i c i e n t l y b o r e d . I am l i k e a man w h o y a w n s a t a b a l l , a n d d o e s n o t d r i v e home t o s l e e p , o n l y b e c a u s e h i s c a r r i a g e i s not y e t there. B u t now t h e c a r r i a g e i s r e a d y . .  58 good-by! . . . I s c a n my w h o l e p a s t i n m e m o r y a n d i n v o l u n t a r i l y wonder: why d i d I l i v e , f o r w h a t p u r p o s e was I b o r n ? . . . And y e t t h a t p u r p o s e m u s t h a v e e x i s t e d , a n d my d e s t i n a t i o n m u s t h a v e b e e n a l o f t y o n e , f o r I f e e l , i n my s o u l , b o u n d l e s s s t r e n g t h . . .. A n d p e r h a p s t o m o r r o w , I s h a l l d i e ! . . . . . . A f t e r t h i s , i s i t worth the trouble to l i v e ? And y e t one l i v e s — out of c u r i o s i t y . One keeps e x p e c t i n g s o m e t h i n g new . . . A b s u r d a n d v e x a t i o u s ! (pp. 158-159)  Another  occurrence of a  page  during  92  Although really  fixation  on  death can  Pechorin's discussions  i t appears  disgust with  t o be  with  be  Doctor  a preoccupation with  the boredom,  futility  found  and  on  Werner.  death,  i t i s  despair  of  life. The  Gloomy E g o i s t  sadness  and  often  mention  of Vera, through a d i r e c t  "dreadful  sadness"  Mary h e r s e l f countenance: oppressive his  i s also  uncontrollable  constrains  and  melancholy. description  by  a  deep  When h e  hears  of her,  a  Pechorin's heart.  Princess  makes a r e f e r e n c e t o P e c h o r i n ' s gloomy "Who  i s that  gaze?"  ( p . 101)  gentleman  m e l a n c h o l y , w i t n e s s e d by  (grief)  characterized  with  that  unpleasant  Pechorin tends  to wallow  the r e p e t i t i o n  of  grust'  i t s compounds:  ". . . I n t h e e v e n i n g , o n t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i r r i t a t e s my n e r v e s t o o m u c h ; my m o o d b e c o m e s e i t h e r t o o m e l a n c h o l y , o r t o o gay. Both are e x h a u s t i n g , w h e n t h e r e i s no p o s i t i v e c a u s e t o be s a d o r t o be j o y f u l , a n d , m o r e o v e r , m e l a n c h o l y at a s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g i s absurd, w h i l e immoderate g a i e t y i s i m p r o p e r . . . ." (pp. 119-120)  in  During  h i s long-winded  strates  both  attitudes  ego-centricity. centred again The  The  preoccupation  s e t s him  speech  to the  of  Gloomy E g o i s t :  hero e x h i b i t s  Pechorin  apart  demon-  sadness  more t h a n  just  and  a  w i t h moroseness however, and  slightly  expression here  the  doctor  self-  this  from a t r u e Gloomy E g o i s t .  i s more o f  a cynical  disillusion  and  despair.  "... Sad t h i n g s seem t o us f u n n y , f u n n y t h i n g s s e e m t o u s m e l a n c h o l y , a n d g e n e r a l l y we a r e , t o t e l l the t r u t h , rather i n d i f f e r e n t to everything e x c e p t o u r own s e l v e s . Thus, between us t h e r e can be no e x c h a n g e o f f e e l i n g s a n d t h o u g h t s : we k n o w e v e r y t h i n g a b o u t e a c h o t h e r t h a t we w i s h t o k n o w , a n d we d o n o t w i s h t o k n o w a n y t h i n g m o r e . " ( p . 93) Pechorin the  demonstrates h i s k i n s h i p with  the  revelation  of  h i s c h i l d h o o d , w h e r e he  merry e x p l o i t s  of  other  sadness: me,  gloomy —  other The  in  Princess  Vera  Mary  after  he  good and  me:  example of  occurs  has  read  after her  in  his bitter t o be  act of weeping considered  t h e r e w o u l d h a v e t o be the  reader  the  the  The  duel  like  nothing  of  and  caressed was  talkative."  (p.  as  a Gloomy to  127)  Egoist  pursue  hero r e l e a s e s a l l his loss  a child. but  the  I  h i s f u t i l e attempt  some s o r t o f  impression  nobody  Pechorin  letter.  h i s pent-up emotion over  hero  --  in  profound  I became r a n c o r o u s .  of  the  evil  c h i l d r e n were m e r r y and  climactic  contrasts  c h i l d r e n w i t h h i s own  "I f e l t deeply  everybody offended  Gloomy E g o i s t  of  In order  Vera for  a Gloomy E g o i s t ,  fade-out  Pechorin's  here  profound  to  leave  grief.  60  H o w e v e r , we  see  hero's main  feeling  bitterness himself to  see  over  that  he  i s no love  the  over  the  In Pechorin  of  classification variation  on  features of the  he  and,  weeping."  an  disgust  he  is  Taking hero  r e s u l t of  possesses  i s much more t h a n a  pleased  a  cold,  declares  lack of  empty stomach.  t h o u g h he  and  s a r d o n i c a l l y detaches  remarks that  the  the  So  certain  sleep, Pechortraits  simple  type.  conclusion,  had  probably  shows t h a t  this  He  but  h i s c o n d i t i o n , the  duel  Gloomy E g o i s t ,  expression  and  outburst  sadness,  affair.  i s "capable of  a t t i t u d e to  i n 's c y n i c i s m  longer  human s i d e  h i s d i s t r e s s was  excitement  of  a f t e r h i s emotional  the  from the  calculating that  that  the  like  many o f  w h i c h go  back  Gloomy E g o i s t ,  pure manifestation  the to  heroes of the  but  Byron,  preromantic  i n e s s e n c e was  a  of i t .  I t i s true that with Byron these t r a i t s generally were o v e r t l y expressed. B y r o n f u s e d them w i t h the new f e a t u r e s t h a t w e r e t y p i c a l o f h i s p o e t r y , and t h e r e s u l t s p r o d u c e d v a r i a t i o n s on e a r l i e r "gloomy men,". From t h i s , c o n s i d e r i n g the i n d i c a t i o n s o f Lermontov's enthusiasm f o r Byron, i . e . i n d u b i t a b l e t r a c e s of i m i t a t i o n s of him i n Lermontov's y o u t h f u l l y r i c s and poems o f t h e C a u c a s u s , a r i s e s t h e b e l i e f i n t h e " B y r o n i s m " o f P e c h o r i n , b a s e d on h i s s u p e r f i c i a l resemblances to the heroes of Byron. Meanw h i l e , P e c h o r i n , as a h e r o b e l o n g i n g t o t h e literary c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f " g l o o m y men," e x h i b i t s not o n l y t h e c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s o f one c a t e g o r y o f "gloomy men," t h a t i s the B y r o n i c , but a l s o of those other t y p e s who a r o s e i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e eighteenth century [namely S a i n t - P r e u x o f R o u s s e a u and G o e t h e ' s W e r t h e r ] . 51  61 The found  second aspect o f t h e Hero o f S e n s i b i l i t y , i s  i n t h e Man o f F e e l i n g .  characterized  n o t by great  T h e Man o f F e e l i n g i s  intelligence,  extraordinary  deeds o r s e l f - c e n t r e d sadness, b u t by a profound for  feeling  nostalgia  —  be i t a g e n t l e ,  o r , as already  melancholy. separating  t h e two h e r o e s ,  same t y p e .  in  and bored  talist. his  f o rgreat  Lermontov's hero  expresses  pervasive  i s no f i n e  are essentially above P e c h o r i n  sensitivity  feelings,  Through h i s guise  line and t h e  forms o f t h e does  possess  individual;  also.  Pechorin  he  Nevertheless,  frequently  b u t he i s n o t a  of harsh  appear.  a deep  i s masked by h i s open  self-interest.  often  a  i . e . t h e Gloomy E g o i s t  the latter  sentimental  sensitivity  there  o f t h e morose e g o c e n t r i c  the capacity  cynicism  they  that  As demonstrated  characteristics has  since  love,  seen i n t h e Gloomy E g o i s t ,  I t i s obvious  Man o f F e e l i n g ,  tearful  capacity  sentimen-  skepticism,  Moreover,  traces of  unlike  most  52 eighteenth-century, is  not timid  or  lower  examples o f t h i s  or effeminate,  classes.  Like  Pechorin's  expression  o f deep  himself  that  The f i r s t feeling  instance  " 'And d i d y o u n o t a t a l l f e e l  touched  exceedingly of  i s h i s admission  h e was a f f e c t e d b y M a r y ' s  moment h e r s o u l  Pechorin  them, however, he i s n o t  morose.  the  type,  n o r i s h e a member o f t h e m i d d l e  handsome a n d i s o f t e n  —  hero  countenance:  looking  shone i n h e r face?'  'No.'  a t her a t I  lied,  —  to  but  I wanted  to  infuriate  example of  a combination  Egoist  the  and  Man  where P e c h o r i n He  admits  flatly  hears  of  t h a t Vera  i t i n the  (p.  i s no  man  control,  (p.  97)  the  and  i t s memories.  past  quick that  i s past  although the to  echoing  the  age  the  hero of  excellent  of  the  arrived  the  readily  M o r e o v e r , he  necessary  and  made, I  forget  states  past  has  such  preoccupation  with  Paradoxically, Pechorin of  the  feels  past  by  In this I I I and  is  his  statements  things deeply,  declarations i n other  Cantos  passage  i n Pyatigorsk.  97)  whom t h e  Gloomy  i n the  stupidly  when he  h i s a c t i o n s and  has  over  story contradict this. mind  qualities  An  " I am  to rebuff his meditations he  89)  n o s t a l g i a very  phrase  . . . nothing!" that there  the  (p.  Feeling i s contained  his self-centred  summarizes nothing  of  him.'"  (p.  parts  comment P e c h o r i n IV of  Childe  105)  of brings  Harold's  53 Pilgrimage. his  Pechorin's  d e s p a i r upon V e r a s  quite  departure  1  capacity  f o r emotional  right.  beyond  the  setting Although  him  simple apart  Pechorin  disillusion When h e  I t would  and  Man  agitation  Feeling into  from the  ward e x p r e s s i o n of  sensitive  company o f emotion  his  has  a Man  of  eighteenth-century  does have  life  feelings,  f o r c e him  others, the  i s apt  duel  something  seem t h a t P e c h o r i n of  the  demonstrate  outbursts, yet  disgust with  i s i n the  before  t o be  great  is  not  developed Unfeeling, archetype. his  cynicism,  to hide  hero's a shrug  and  them.  most of  out-  the  63  shoulders. destroyed  Pechorin the  noble  ity:  "From t h e i r  iron,  but  best  lost  believes that his cynicism yearnings  crucible,  forever the  blossom of  life."  Nevertheless, Pechorin!s has  Lermontov's hero  other  "Finita  that  he  foul  d e e d he  down t h e  and  and  involuntarily  Pechorin  can  noble  the  as  —  the  For  mask o f u n f e e l i n g  example,  and  his shoulders when he  u n f e e l i n g and  perpetrated.  has  But  glimpses  m u t i l a t e d , but h i s eyes.  after  as  no he  sarcastically presence  others remorse  for  makes h i s  cannot bear  to  B e c a u s e he remorse  of  think  Grushnitsky's  allow h i s true emotion of  he  blood,  i s i n the  a c t i o n i s t o make t h e  shuts  cold  159)  emerge.  he  and  Sensibil-  yearnings  shrugs  and  has  of  i n cold  mountain t r a i l  blood-stained  ardour  hard  youthful Grushnitsky  This  i s cold  t r u e Hero of  I emerged as  l a commedia,"  people.  the  from underneath  emotions can  murdered the  utters  (p.  of  has  the way  corpse,  look  at i t  i s now  alone,  t o be  shown.  At the duel Pechorin's mental c o n d i t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n t e r n a l p r e p a r e d n e s s and keenness of p e r c e p t i o n . T h i s g i v e s him the opport u n i t y a t t h e c l i m a c t i c moments t o be h a r d , r e s o u r c e f u l and t o see t h r o u g h h i s r i v a l and achieve a victory. I t w o u l d seem t h a t P e c h o r i n should have e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n from t h e f a c t t h a t he d i s c o v e r e d t h e c o n s p i r a c y by h i s p e r s o n a l enemies, d i d not a l l o w i t to overwhelm him, and g a i n e d t h e upper hand. But upon s e e i n g the bloody corpse of Grushnitsky, Pechorin experi e n c e d a p o w e r f u l shock t o h i s m o r a l s y s t e m and f e l t t h a t s o m e t h i n g h o r r i b l e and inhuman had h a p p e n e d . 54  64  The  reader  i s also  after  discovering  first  he  me  on a  Man  he of  but  rancour. the  the  conspiracy  hero's  behind  for himself  soon t h i s  emotion  underneath  F e e l i n g where,  this  f o r our  corresponds c l o s e l y to  train  the  ("What d o  i s an  of  they by  At  a l l hate bitterness  unfeeling  f a l s e e x t e r i o r he purposes,  Thorslev's  emotion  duel.  i s replaced  Thus a l t h o u g h P e c h o r i n  outside, of  the  feels sorry  for?"),  and  reminded of  i t is  definition  person  is  s t i l l  important: of  the  Hero  Sensibility.  H i s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e t h a t he i s a l w a y s p a s s i v e , n o t a c t i n g b u t b e i n g a c t e d upon (as was H a r v e y , t h e Man of Feeling); t h a t he i s g i v e n t o p r o l o n g e d , i n t e n s e , and sometimes e v e n m o r b i d s e l f a n a l y s i s , e s p e c i a l l y o f h i s e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s as was P a r s o n Y o r i c k , o r t h e l a t e r W e r t h e r ; t h a t s i n c e he i s always e g o c e n t r i c a l l y self-concerned, the whole w o r l d b e c o m e s c o l o r e d w i t h h i s own p a r t i c u l a r e n n u i and w o r l d - w e a r i n e s s as i s t h e c a s e c e r t a i n l y w i t h Edward Young's p e r s o n a , and i s p r e - e m i n e n t l y t h e c a s e w i t h W e r t h e r ; and f i n a l l y , t h a t most o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s stem from h i s p e c u l i a r p s y c h i c malady o f Weltschmerz: the tension i n h i s p e r s o n a l i t y that r e s u l t s f r o m t h e c o n f l i c t o f two c o n t r a d i c t o r y d r i v e s , one t o w a r d t o t a l c o m m i t m e n t , t o w a r d l o s s o f s e l f i n a v i s i o n of absolutes, the other toward a s k e p t i c a l and e v e n a g g r e s s i v e a s s e r t i o n o f s e l f i n a w o r l d w h i c h r e m a i n s e x t e r n a l and e v e n a l i e n . 55  This way  description fits could  Mary. hero type.  he  This  be  Pechorin  considered  prime  is a distinct  a  very  well  passive  consideration modification  except that  individual in  demonstrates of  the  that  Hero of  in  no  Princess Lermontov's  Sensibility  65 In Byron's works there of  the  Man  of  be  the  figure  Feeling. of  Selim  The from  c o n t a i n s more e f f e m i n a t e Byron's heroes. men  necessary  considered  within this  a  soul of  Cain, ings  too,  can  The  purity  examples  instance would  Bride of  of  Abydos:  feeling  a l l of  probably he  than  most  Byron's  category.  For  to  be  example, Manfred  beneath h i s Gothic  sensitivity  of  leading  deep c a p a c i t y f o r f e e l i n g  sensibility  express  a number o f  best  However, almost  c o n t a i n the  profound  are  especially  has  mask.~^  in his  feel-  for his wife:  My s i s t e r A d a h . — A l l the s t a r s of heaven The d e e p b l u e n o o n o f n i g h t , l i t b y a n o r b Which looks a s p i r i t , or a s p i r i t ' s world — The h u e s o f t w i l i g h t — the Sun's gorgeous coming — His setting indescribable . . . The f o r e s t s h a d e , t h e g r e e n h o u g h , t h e b i r d ' s v o i c e — The v e s p e r b i r d ' s , w h i c h s e e m s t o s i n g o f l o v e , And m i n g l e s w i t h t h e song o f c h e r u b i m , As t h e day c l o s e s o v e r E d e n ' s w a l l s : — A l l t h e s e a r e n o t h i n g , t o my e y e s a n d h e a r t , L i k e Adah's f a c e : I t u r n from e a r t h and heaven To g a z e o n i t . (Cain: A Mystery, Act I I , scene i i ,  11. 259-269)  The a in  later  third  Byronic  h e r o was  eighteenth-century  villain  --  considered Gothic  and  found  the  the  metaphysical  archetype Gothic  literature  t o have any  Villain  the  i n only very  Noble Outlaws of of  preromantic  few  he  that developed  Villain. was  cases  final  c o u l d he  dramas.  or  as  be  i n B y r o n as the  What h a p p e n e d  romantic  i n the  a  remotely  Nevertheless,  expression  Turkish Tales  course,  e x a c t l y t h a t --  heroic features.  his  Of  into  the the rebels  intermediate  s t e p was  that  sensibility" T h u s he  the former v i l l a i n t o combine  could  features  process  i n the works  considered writers the  as h e r o e s .  the  Sotheby  Moreover,  d'etre  s o t o s p e a k , was  c a n t o o f Childe  them,  s t i l l  be  involved  evil  villains  Joanna  Bailey,  that of  could  be  these  a development  from  though  i s very  the a c t u a l  his  the commission of e v i l . Pilgrimage  the  c r i m e s a r e n o t named. to the heroes traced  mysteriousness.  Perpetration  important for Harold's character  Noble Outlaw, was  of the Gothic V i l l a i n ,  In  character  i n t h e m i d s t o f a c o n f e s s i o n o f s i n and  Villain:  Villain,  and  the v i l l a i n s  Harold's  adds a n o t h e r feature.common  The  types.  a long,  figures  itself  prime c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  satiety,  deeds  into  of  forms.  portrayed  Gothic  i t was  Radcliffe,  The  first  is  However,  were m o s t l y r e p e n t a n t ,  earlier  raison  or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of Mrs.  Lewis and W i l l i a m  "soul  have committed  t o d e v e l o p and m o d i f y t h e s t a r k l y  embodied M.L.  as t h e h e r o .  a  from the other  commit c r i m e s o r c o u l d  have t h e r e a d e r ' s sympathy recognized  acquired  the  a direct "single  descendant  from the  of  This from  the  evil  development. Gothic  most p o p u l a r hero o f t h e r o m a n t i c  5 8  movement." the  "secret  crimes, the a  E a c h one sin."  Even  of Byron's Noble Outlaws though  the Giaour's escapist  romantic era. remorseful  The  he  committed  certain  a d v e n t u r e s were p o p u l a r  h e r o o f The  Gothic V i l l a i n .  had  possesses  Giaour  Conrad,  during  i s essentially  t h e l e a d i n g man  of  The  Corsair,  trait  i s a k i n d o f melodramatic  of Childe Harold.  o f many c r i m e s " humane  He a d m i t s  b u t Gonrad  t o be t h e p e r v e r s e  variation  on a  t h a t he i s t h e  por-  "author  seems t o be t o o s e n t i m e n t a l a n d monster that Byron wishes the  59 reader  t o t h i n k he i s .  The q u e s t i o n o f e v i l and  i n Lara  i n P a r i s i n a concerns  reveals biographical analogies  Manfred is  The c a s e  incest  similar.  and h o r r o r  f r o m B y r o n ' s own  also contains possible references  now  i s quite  s t u d i e d more o f t e n f o r i n s i g h t s  to this  into  the  life.  crime  and  author's  60 life the  than  for literary  content.  two l e a d i n g f i g u r e s ,  conjure  u p new v i s i o n s  embody 'Byron's f i n a l  taint  of Gothic  tradition the an  evil  Pechorin,  descended the  melodrama,  they  show t h i s  a metaphysical  self-assertion."^  i n t h e make-up  p l a y s an important  then  i t c a n be s a f e l y  from the prototype  heroes o f Byron.  evil  streak  Mary  concerns  and  murderer, and  Villain: are from  heroic  rebellion i n  Thus, e v i l i s  of the personality of  heroes. If  of  aspect  and t h e f i r s t  r e b e l s , and f r e e as they  f o r what i twas:  important  Mystery  developments o f the Gothic  cause o f Romantic  Byron's  Lucifer  A  of the attractiveness of evil  "They a r e t r u e R o m a n t i c the  I n Cain:  role  i n the character  concluded  of the Gothic  Pechorin  i n his personality.  Villain  does have a The p l o t  t h a t he i s  of  distinctly Princess  h i s d e s t r u c t i o n o f t w o human b e i n g s :  Grushnitsky.  Pechorin  like  Mary  has an overwhelming d e s i r e t o  68  i n f u r i a t e others  and p a r t i c u l a r l y G r u s h n i t s k y .  On page  22  there  Pechorin's  of t h i s study  i s a p e r f e c t example o f  d e l i g h t i n t o r t u r i n g the g e n t l e Vera. that Pechorin  had a s o r d i d p a s t , though mystery  h i s many " c r i m e s . " of e v i l  There a r e i n f e r e n c e s  i n Pechorin's  The a u t h o r  openly  enshrouds  refers to the a l l u r e  character:  I spent the r e s t o f t h e evening a t Vera's s i d e a n d t a l k e d o f o l d t i m e s t o my h e a r t ' s c o n t e n t . What d o e s s h e l o v e me f o r s o much — I r e a l l y d o n ' t know; p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e s h e i s t h e o n l y woman who h a s c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t o o d me w i t h a l l my p e t t y weaknesses and w i c k e d p a s s i o n s . Can e v i l p o s s i b l y be s o a t t r a c t i v e ? (p. 120) I n h i s l o n g d i s c o u r s e on l o v e and s u f f e r i n g i t i s o b v i o u s that Pechorin  has an e g o c e n t r i c a l l y s a d i s t i c s t r a i n i n h i s  c h a r a c t e r ; he e n j o y s and  tormenting  o t h e r s and views t h e i r  sorrow as a n u t r i e n t f o r h i s sustenance:  myself t h i s i n s a t i a b l e a v i d i t y , which engulfs on  i t s way.  only  "I feel i n everything  I l o o k upon t h e s u f f e r i n g s and j o y s o f o t h e r s  i n r e l a t i o n t o m y s e l f as on t h e f o o d s u s t a i n i n g t h e  s t r e n g t h o f my s o u l . " ( p . 123) to a kind o f executioner the  pain  Pechorin  compares  himself  whose p r i m e d u t y i s t o d e s t r o y  lives of others. " I s i t p o s s i b l e , " I t h o u g h t , " t h a t my o n l y f u n c t i o n on e a r t h i s t o r u i n o t h e r p e o p l e ' s h o p e s ? Ever s i n c e I h a v e l i v e d a n d a c t e d , f a t e h a s a l w a y s seemed t o b r i n g me i n a t t h e denouement o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s d r a m a s , a s i f none c o u l d e i t h e r d i e o r d e s p a i r w i t h o u t me! I am t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e p e r s o n a i n t h e f i f t h act; i n v o l u n t a r i l y , I play the miserable part of the executioner or the t r a i t o r . " ( p p . 132-133)  69 E. Childe  Duchesne compares  Harold  respect,  and Pechorin  they are quite  the penchant  and concludes  f o re v i l that  i n both  i n this  comparable:  On p o u r r a i t s o u t e n i r , c r o y o n s - n o u s , s a n s p a r a d o x e , que P e t c h o r i n e , e n t a n t q u ' i l n ' e s t p a s u n e r e p r o d u c t i o n pure e t simple du type byronien, en e s t l e developpement, l e prolongement n a t u r e l e t logique. On s e f i g u r e a i s e m e n t C h i l d e - H a r o l d , d e v o r e p a r 1"ennui, renoncant a chercher dorenavant dans l e s v o y a g e s un remede a s a t r i s t e s s e e t se d e c i d a n t a v i v r e d a n s l e m o n d e , comme p a r l e p a s s e . I I continue r a i t a s ' a n a l y s e r sans p i t i e , a n o u r r i r , dans une m e d i t a t i o n s o l i t a i r e , l e s e n t i m e n t d'une s u p e r i o r i t y peut-etre imaginaire. I I s e d u i r a i t , pour charmer son ennui, d i n n o c e n t e s v i c t i m e s , i l se b o r n e r a i t peut£tre, t a n t i l e s t l a s de c o n q u ^ t e s f a c i l e s , a t r o u b l e r l e u r ame e t a j o u i r d u s p e c t a c l e d e l e u r confusion. I ls ' a i g r i r a i t , d e v i e n d r a i t egoiste e t m e c h a n t . 62 1  Thus P e c h o r i n the  desire  figures  the  he does  they  so without  Gothic  Villain,  motives  element o f the Gothic  and l i k e  many o f B y r o n ' s  While  him close y e t sets  streak  to the original him apart  i ti s evident  from  the "secret  leading  i n  concept o f  upon c l o s e l y  s i n , " they  Pechorin's  Byron's  a n d p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f many B y r o n i c  do p o s s e s s  Villain,  remorse.  i s one f a c e t o f t h e e v i l  which places  characters. the  the basic  t o commit e v i l ,  There nature  contains  examining heroes,  that  are not cruel  63 people.  There  sadistically that  committing  he was f o r c e d  Pechorin;  i s no c a s e o f one o f B y r o n ' s evil;  t o do.  i ti s generally  This  heroes something  i s not t h e case  c r u e l t y i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t  with  of h i spersonality,  70 not  at a l l typical  exaggerated ate  their  list  evil  hero does. while  o f Byron's heroes.  o f "crimes,"  deeds w i t h  Byronic  unnecessary  The c o l d - b l o o d e d  engaged i n h i s charade  Princess  his  Mary  make-up.  Pechorin's over,  evil  t o h u m i l i a t e Mary  side contain  i n shooting  ceased  talking;  never  point  inferences  i s only  down t h e y o u t h -  of stupidity,  wicked my  things  stories  my r a i l l e r y  p a s s e d b y , was w i c k e d After  he h a s s t o l e n t h e p r i n c e s s  tov's  hero  ludicrous  even  i n their  anguish;  supple  people:  were c l e v e r t o t h e  of frenzy."  despair  enough,  who  ( p . 98)  adieu,  and d i s a r r a y :  and he l o o k e d  desperate:  His vanity, i n particular  there  despair!"  a s he l e a v e s  hears her crying. Mary's  Mary  about other  t h a t he  sham h u m i l i t y a s he d e c l a r e s "madman" a n d b i d s  anecdotes  d e l i g h t i n contemplating  distressed.  i n j u r e d ; b u t ,oddly  caustic  More-  Lermon-  h a i r was a l l awry  t h i n k he i s r e a l l y  s e c t i o n s on  from Grushnitsky,  t h e cause o f t h e poseur's  "Grushnitsky's  element i n  directed at the freaks  to the point  shows a w i c k e d  and words  of cruelty.  when he e n t e r t a i n s h i s f r i e n d s w i t h  "I  her  Lermontov's  t h a t he d i s p l a y s  Some o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y q u o t e d  saying  is  cruelty.  that c r u e l t y i s a fundamental  enjoys  I  do n o t p e r p e t  demonstrates by h i sactions  Pechorin  was  their  Grushnitsky. Pechorin  in  heroes  wickedness  matched by h i sb r u t a l savagery ful  Even w i t h  a r e p e o p l e who a r e  (pp. 136-137)  h i sactions i s designed  he b e l i e v e s  Pechorin's  t o be those solely  (and hopes)  of a  t o cause t h a t he  A f t e r t h e hero has p u t h i s arm around  body as they  a r e f o r d i n g t h e Podkumok  River,  71 she  attempts  deliberate savours the  t o have him  refusal  the  misery  throws  thought he  has  declare her  h i s love  into  despair,  t h a t Mary w i l l  caused  f o r her.  not  His  whereupon  sleep  because  he of  her.  And t h e o l d p r i n c e s s i n w a r d l y r e j o i c e d , as she looked at her daughter; yet her daughter was merely having a nervous f i t . She w i l l s p e n d a s l e e p l e s s n i g h t and w i l l weep. This thought g i v e s me b o u n d l e s s d e l i g h t : t h e r e a r e m o m e n t s when I u n d e r s t a n d t h e v a m p i r e . . . . And to t h i n k t h a t I am r e p u t e d t o b e a j o l l y g o o d f e l l o w and t r y t o earn t h a t a p p e l l a t i o n ! (pp. 144-145)  The  statement  entitled  The  considered believe  about the Vampyre:  that  this  Frankenstein.  tale  The  point  There  and  for his  certain Not with  only  had  Byron.  w r i t t e n by  same o c c a s i o n i s that  a  been  thirst  scholars  physician  as  Shelley's  evil  story  mistakenly  Byron's Mary  Pechorin  can  identify  as  the  vampire,  c r e a t i o n of  his  professed  for blood  confessed  horror  Today  fascinating parallel  Pechorin's  A.  which  incarnation of  is a  vampire's murderous  food  was  L e r m o n t o v b e l i e v e d was  master.  force  Tale,  f o r the  such a macabre  which  A  r e f e r s to the  t o have been w r i t t e n by  Doctor P o l i d o r i  with  "vampire"  to  between  the  sustain his  "insatiable  avidity"  lifeas  soul.  von  Gronicka  features with  has  Faust  shown t h a t P e c h o r i n and  does Lermontov's hero  Doctor Werner,  Mephistopheles feel  a Mephisto-like  shares of  Goethe.  close personal  ties  personage,  like  but  72  Faust  he  has  forces.  a  dual  Pechorin's  personality  has  soul which contains unpleasant  a powerful  two  gaze and  effect  on  antithetical  oppressive  Mary.  L i k e Gretchen, Mary f e e l s i n s t i n c t i v e l y the d i a b o l i c a l e v i l i n Pechorin, the b a s i c d i f f e r ence being t h a t P e c h o r i n possesses f o r poor Mary an i r r e s i s t a b l e , a F a u s t i a n a t t r a c t i o n . F o r a l l t h a t , h i s k i n s h i p t o M e p h i s t o i s undeniable. There i s i n him M e p h i s t o ' s c y n i c i s m , M e p h i s t o ' s d i a b o l i c a l c o m p u l s i o n o f c a s t i n g an icy c h i l l of sardonic laughter over genuine emotions, over the enthusiasms of f r i e n d s h i p and o f l o v e . "I laugh at everything i n t h i s world, e s p e c i a l l y I laugh at f e e l i n g s . " He delights Mephisto-like i n goading with contrad i c t i o n , i n w o u n d i n g w i t h b i t i n g i r o n y and b r u i s i n g sarcasm. " I am b o r n , " h e confesses of himself, "with a passion for c o n t r a d i c t i o n , " "I l i e d , but I wanted to i n f u r i a t e him (Grushnitski). C o n t r a d i c t i o n i s w i t h me an i n n a t e p a s s i o n ; my e n t i r e l i f e h a s b e e n a n e n d l e s s c h a i r o f sad and f r u s t r a t i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t o h e a r t and r e a s o n . The p r e s e n c e o f a n e n t h u s i a s t e n v e l o p s me w i t h i c y c o l d n e s s , and contact with a d i s i l l u s i o n e d d u l l a r d would, I t h i n k , m a k e o f me a n e n t h u s i a s t i c v i s i o n a r y . " P e c h o r i n i s i n d e e d t h e "Geist des Widerspruchs."64 Although morbid  c r u e l t y of  from t h i s this  the  tradition  trait.  Pechorin's dously  Byron's  The  Gothic  and  Villain,  modified  an  will-power.  i n Princess  Mary  h e r o who  f o r m s a new  category:  inexorable  h i s hero to  as  T h u s we an  Man  i n i t s power, a c t u a l l y  the  diverged  personify  depicting of  could  extension the  beyond  Lermontov  essential feature  Pechorin  will,  developed  m o d i f i c a t i o n c o n s i s t s of  c r u e l t y as  voracious  l e a d i n g men  of  his  tremen-  consider the  of W i l l . dominates  Byronic This a l l of  Pechorin's his  c h a r a c t e r and determines  personality.  the other  aspects o f  Above a l l , Lermontov's hero has an  insatiable  d e s i r e t o subject e v e r y t h i n g and everyone t o  his  This wish  will.  interconnected traits  areas:  o f t h e hero's  woven i n t o  obsession  people. of  plotting  gets  an almost  psychotic  he w i l l  ( p . 84)  him  a. l a R o c h e f o u c a u l d  his  need  to  others.  t o be c r u e l  ridicule.*"  t o women:  ( p . 88)  despises  witty;  are never t o  anyone w i t h a  and t h e i r takes  vulnerable h i s exaggerated  axiom, Pechorin  w i t h h i s own m a x i m w h i c h "'Mon c h e r , '  'je meprise  c a r autrement  t h e need t o e i t h e r  k i l l  When G r u s h n i t s k y  t o copy h i s manner,  pas l e saimer,  Pechorin  "He i s f a i r l y  never  pose and u t t e r s h i sp o i n t l e s s French  trop  over  satisfaction out  a r e f r e q u e n t l y amusing, b u t they  w o r d ; he d o e s n o t know p e o p l e . . . "  expresses  d o e s n o t know how t o p l a y  on t h e weaknesses o f people:  p o i n t o r venomous:  ne  the hero  t h a t Lermontov's hero  i s that the cadet  the  trying  three  t o ashes w i t h a few p o i n t e d  One o f t h e r e a s o n s  epigrams  spots  These  the emotions and wishes o f other  people  his  single  Mary  and c o n s p i r i n g t o triumph  Grushnitsky cruelly  and sex.  to three  d e s i r e t o dominate a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y  t o conquer  i n reducing  epigrams.  power, c r u e l t y  i n Princess  Pechorin  revels  i n h i sa t t i t u d e s  h i s personality.  Many t i m e s his  i smanifest  emphasizes  I answered  l e s femmes  l avie serait  mocks  pour  un melodrame  Lermontov's hero a l s o a l l u d e s  be c o m p l e t e l y  dominant over  women o r  74  be  despised  by  them.  . . . she w i l l b e g i n t o t o r m e n t you, and after t h a t she w i l l s i m p l y say t h a t she c a n n o t s t a n d you. U n l e s s y o u g a i n some a s c e n d e n c y o v e r h e r , even her f i r s t k i s s w i l l not e n t i t l e you t o a second: she w i l l have h e r f i l l o f f l i r t i n g w i t h you. . . . (pp. 101-102) The  i m p l i c a t i o n of  main purpose other  in life  persons  cation  the  rapacious  i s to  subject  t o h i s own.  f o r h i s ego  will  He  w h e n he  i s clear.  the  Pechorin s 1  d e s i r e s and  especially obtains  conquers h i s  wills  of  gratifi-  foes.  I am v e r y g l a d ; I l o v e my e n e m i e s , a l t h o u g h hot i n a C h r i s t i a n sense: t h e y a m u s e me, t h e y quicken my p u l s e s . To b e a l w a y s o n t h e l o o k o u t , t o i n t e r c e p t every glance, to c a t c h the meaning of every word, to guess i n t e n t i o n s , t o thwart p l o t s , t o p r e t e n d t o be f o o l e d , a n d s u d d e n l y , w i t h one push, t o u p s e t the e n t i r e enormous s t r u c t u r e of c u n n i n g and s c h e m i n g — t h a t i s what I c a l l life. (p. 136) Pechorin's they  goal  promise  foiling  a  their  egocentric  accept the  plot  only  here.  struggle  the  loves he  him.  will  There  Pechorin itself;  victory.  h i s enemies be  v i c t o r i o u s by  is a real  emphasizes he  because  does not  I t i s doubtful  amount  the  final  enjoy  t h a t he  were c e r t a i n t h a t  he  of  the would  unless  he  Submission  to  the  hero's w i l l  forms the e s s e n t i a l  sub-plots  of  the  story.  main i n t r i g u e  final  Princess.  the  he  i n which  plots against  a challenge  and  triumph;  struggle  paranoia  conquest, not challenge,  i s to  would  be  victor.  Mary  3  i . e . to humiliate  The the  princess  and  of  destroy  75 Grushnitsky, Before  he  epitomizes  the  vanquishes both of  Grushnitsky  until  he  tires  Conquest occurs as  a  the  l e i t m o t i v and conversation  Pechorin's stresses  He  toys  game o f  conquer.  with  force.  through  and  Mary  and  "cat-and-mouse."  f r e q u e n t l y i n Princess  Mary  both  I t begins  with  Doctor  Werner.  l o v i n g h i s enemies, where  subterfuge,  upon d i s c o v e r y  must c o n c e a l  is his  the  between Pechorin  victory  he  of  d e c l a r a t i o n about  Mary.  think  t h e m , he  a motivational  comments t o h i m s e l f for  hero's desire to  i s e c h o e d by  of  his  Grushnitsky's  h i s p l o t and  make t h e  he  love  cadet  friend.  G r u s h n i t s k i h i t the t a b l e w i t h h i s f i s t and s t a r t e d t o p a c e up a n d down t h e r o o m . I i n w a r d l y r o a r e d w i t h l a u g h t e r , and even s m i l e d o n c e o r t w i c e , b u t f o r t u n a t e l y he d i d n o t n o t i c e . . . I c o n c e a l e d my d i s c o v e r y . I do n o t w i s h t o f o r c e a c o n f e s s i o n from him. I want him t o choose me f o r a c o n f i d a n t h i m s e l f — and i t i s t h e n t h a t I s h a l l enjoy myself! . . . (p. 102)  As  his plan  wicked  hero  to ensnare the expresses  progressing: greatly annoying single  to  brief trap  the  angry,  wonderfully but  him.  at  the  " M e a n w h i l e , my  b l a z i n g glance  that kind of  i n on  way  . . . "  the  develops, his  the  intrigue  is  his feigned indifference  young p r i n c e s s , as  forcible!  closes  delight at  Mary's anger  pleases  young p r i n c e s s  .  . .  I could Oh,  conversation, (p.  innocent  indifference  118) Mary as  I  conjecture  by  a  understand  mute but Later he  was  on,  expressive, Pechorin's  pours out  the  76 sentimental sympathy. toward  . .  He  gloats  his ultimate  herself; .  h i s t o r y of  she  Oh,  his  this  real  suspicion reacts  unhappy c h i l d h o o d  over h i s victory:  success "She  accuses h e r s e l f of  that  the  i s so  elated  that  with  a  he  in this  having  first,  intentions  to  her.  self-satisfied  first  treated  he  me  i s hardly  He  her step  with  main triumph!"  f r o m M a r y , when she  i s using  gain  i s displeased  i s the  Pechorin hide  his  coldly (p.  129)  able  to  expresses  knows the  truth  the  and  smugness.  ". . . Y o u r i n s o l e n t a c t i o n . . . I must, I must f o r g i v e i t you, because I a l l o w e d i t . . . Answer, do s p e a k , I w a n t t o h e a r y o u r v o i c e ! ..." I n t h e l a s t w o r d s , t h e r e was s u c h f e m i n i n e impatience t h a t I c o u l d not help s m i l i n g . Fortunately, i t was b e g i n n i n g t o g e t d a r k . . . I d i d not answer anything, (p. 144) Pechorin's intense he  enjoyment i n the  that  loses  he  his  barely  that  and  others  maintains  his  his  guise  triumph and  is  f o r an  so instant  composure.  Although things  progress of  Pechorin  triumphing are  over  attempting  delights  i n using  t h e m , he to  do  cannot  the  people stand  same t o  as  the  playthought  him.  . . . And I f e l t a venomous r a n c o u r g r a d u a l l y f i l l i n g my s o u l . "Take c a r e , Mr. Grushnitski!" I k e p t s a y i n g , a s I p a c e d t o a n d f r o i n my r o o m , " I am n o t t o b e t r i f l e d w i t h l i k e t h i s . You may have t o pay d e a r l y f o r the a p p r o v a l o f y o u r s t u p i d cronies. I am n o t a p l a y t h i n g f o r y o u ! " (p. 147)  The references  story's to  the  c l i m a c t i c episode  concepts of  triumph  c o n t a i n s , many over  the  emotions  of  o t h e r human b e i n g s .  hopes,  that  giveness.  Grushnitsky w i l l However,  he was ashamed him  The h e r o  intently;  this  to k i l l  crawl  an unarmed  could  own h a v i n g s u c h a v i l l a i n o u s  a t my  feet,  begging  Pechorin  i s so s u r e t h a t  air  he p e r m i t s h i m s e l f  of  The  fires,  Lermontov's hero Grushnitsky mixture  f o rforgiveness, design?"  fury"  flares  that  he m i g h t  fire  b u t who  into the  death  i n front he h a s  directly  up i n h i s b r e a s t .  grazes Pechorin.  i s understandably  vanity  would  (pp. 167-168)  Grushnitsky aiming  d i d indeed t r y t o k i l l  of injured  he  When P e c h o r i n r e a l i z e s  and sees  but only  colored;  t o me t h a t  to face certain  h i s forehead, "ineffable poseur  "He  I was l o o k i n g a t  Grushnitsky w i l l  t h e y o u n g man's p i s t o l .  made a g r a v e e r r o r at  man.  f o r a moment i t seemed  himself  o r perhaps  t o him and beg f o r f o r -  i s not the case.  throw  that  believes,  that  and  shock  have  and  been denied h i s conquest.  him.  furious: H i s rage  he m i s j u d g e d  fallen  victim  i s a  h i sadversary, t o h i s own  plot  . . . I t was t h e i r r i t a t i o n o f i n j u r e d v a n i t y , a n d contempt, and wrath which arose a t t h e thought t h a t t h i s m a n , n o w l o o k i n g a t me w i t h s u c h c o n f i d e n c e and such c a l m i n s o l e n c e , had t r i e d , two m i n u t e s before, w i t h o u t exposing h i m s e l f t o any danger, t o k i l l me l i k e a d o g , f o r i f I h a d b e e n w o u n d e d i n the l e g a l i t t l e more s e v e r e l y , I w o u l d have c e r t a i n ly f a l l e n o f ft h e c l i f f . (p. 169)  Remarkably, motivating  the idea factor  o f death  itself  i s not the fundamental  i n Pechorin's feelings  of intense  anger.  78 Pechorin his  own  means t h a t trickery  more i m p o r t a n t poseur would would that  not he  was  desperate  f o r him,  have been  his  words.  does not  s t i l l  hate  loved  w o u l d be that  This  malicious  words of  incomplete:  of  The  hero  since  he  love gives  her  him  are  has  of  He  with  her  three  the  find  of final,  final  revealed  to  act  Mary  out  her  to  enjoy  human b e i n g .  Mary's  admitted  she  to marry her, But  fact  importance.  opportunity  I f she  she  fate  denouement  to play  another  wanted him  wants to hear,  the  wishes to  another  The  primary  already  acknowledging defeat.  Pechorin  youthful 1  occurs  important.  and  the  from  that  Grushnitsky s  arrives  her.  suffered  scheme, b u t  herself,  d e s t r u c t i o n of  him  have  to his w i l l .  i s not  princess  subjugation  reaction.  he  h i s conquest of  nearly killed  his intrigue, he  would  within Grushnitsky's  f o r the  Pechorin's  that  only  have been s u b j e c t e d  As  of  not  i n saying  admits  that  that then the he  she words  has  won.  . . . Y o u s e e , I am b a s e i n r e g a r d t o y o u . Am I n o t r i g h t t h a t e v e n i f y o u l o v e d me, from t h i s moment on y o u d e s p i s e me? S h e t u r n e d t o me p a l e a s m a r b l e ; o n l y h e r e y e s glittered marvelously. " I h a t e you," she said. I t h a n k e d h e r , bowed r e s p e c t f u l l y and l e f t . (p. Pechorin's  triumph  slakes his thirst Princess Pechorin's  will  over both Grushnitsky for  Mary  and  Mary  temporarily  power. illustrates  t o power t h a t  a  third  s e t s him  aspect  apart  from  180)  of the  typical he  was  not  author to  Byronic  allowed  included,  sexual  show  the  everyone,  out  and  of  my  wish  for  then  there  overt  desire the  i t  would  that  conquest  to  were  due  probably  be  sexual  acts,  the  of  his  quixotic  his only  be  Although  implied  references  "sexual  passages"  subjugate  realm  of  sex.  These  Pechorin's  g r a t i f i c a t i o n  toward  certain  story.  into  view  would  attitude  portray  the  hero's  i n s i s t  the  to  i n  extends In  his  nevertheless,  conduct  that  stand  hero:  desire  everything sexual to  needs.  to  sexual  l i t t l e  desire  a  Freudian  power  sexual his  behaviour.  take  for  and  stems  If  Pechorin's  p r o c l i v i t i e s ,  for  the  humili-  65 ation  and  destruction  Pechorin's  sexual  great  and  w i l l In  sexual  f i r s t of  t h i r s t  be  i f  carefully  to  the  also.  not  power,  be  overt.  defined. or  principle  as  I a  not  vice  prove  According  sado-masochism of  pleasure  to  (or  of  see his  Pechorin's be  this to  to  versa.  terms  considered To  prefer  reflection  psychological  could  sadism  Psychology  related  for  contemporary  latent  males  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  p r o c l i v i t i e s  sadist,  of  those  the  the  of  terms  Ency  must clopedia  algolagnia)  through  a  is  pain.  Sadism. A sexual anomaly i n which sexual satisf a c t i o n i s a c h i e v e d by i n f l i c t i n g p a i n . The i n t e n s i t y o f t h e a n o m a l y v a r i e s f r o m t h o s e who a r e sexually aroused by p a i n e d f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n to those who achieve organismic r e l i e f only from blood, pain, t o r t u r e and even death. Loosely, the term sadism is used also for pleasure i n c r u e l t y without obvious s e x u a l a r o u s a l o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . 66  80 We h a v e a l r e a d y  s e e n some e x a m p l e s o f t h e d e s i r e o f  L e r m o n t o v ' s h e r o t o d o m i n a t e women b y d e r i s i o n a n d cruelty.  The a c t u a l  infliction  woman i s n o t n e c e s s a r y , sufficient  to obtain  between Vera  of  immediately  sadistic  timid The  sexual  latter  states  before  activity  and submissive  pleasure.  during  the reader  their  The s e x u a l nocturnal  can see the sexual the "fade-out"  activity.  the possibility  i s certainly implied  he does n o t d e s i r e  scene  rendezvous  remarks t o t h e domineering  that  on t h e  c r u e l h u m i l i a t i o n c a n be  sadistic  and Pechorin  fades o u t before However,  since  of physical pain  actual  i n Vera's Pechorin. coitus  67  with of  Mary, o f t e n  the desires  physical either and  t h e case w i t h  c a n come w i t h  o r mental pain.  w e a k women l i k e  be h i s s l a v e  whom h e t h i n k s  sadists.  the i n f l i c t i o n  Pechorin  submit  own v o l i t i o n ,  he c a n master d e s p i t e  selects  t o him readily  o r ones  their  fulfillment  of either  constantly  V e r a who w i l l  of their  The  like  Mary,  external  arrogance. The with  hero himself  a strong  declares  that  he c a n n o t be happy  woman:  I must admit t h a t , i n d e e d , I never cared f o r women w i t h w i l l s o f t h e i r o w n ; i t i s n o t t h e i r department. T r u e , I r e m e m b e r now — o n c e , o n l y o n c e d i d I l o v e a s t r o n g - w i l l e d woman, whom I c o u l d n e v e r conquer. We p a r t e d e n e m i e s — b u t even so, perhaps, had our meeting occurred f i v e years l a t e r , we w o u l d h a v e p a r t e d d i f f e r e n t l y , ( p . 105)  81 These  statements  relationship allow they  reveal that  with  Pechorin  could  not maintain  a  a s t r o n g woman; b e c a u s e s h e w o u l d n o t  h i m t o m a s t e r h e r , h i sego was n o t s a t i s f i e d a n d parted  forms  as enemies.  This  slave-master  t h e u n i f y i n g bond between P e c h o r i n  relationship a n d t h e woman h e  loves.  One t h i n g h a s a l w a y s s t r u c k me a s s t r a n g e : I n e v e r b e c a m e t h e s l a v e o f t h e woman I l o v e d ; o n the c o n t r a r y , I have always gained unconquerable power o v e r t h e i r w i l l a n d h e a r t , w i t h no e f f o r t at a l l . Why i s i t s o ? I s i t b e c a u s e I n e v e r t r e a s u r e d a n y t h i n g t o o much, w h i l e t h e y i n c e s s a n t l y f e a r e d t o l e t me s l i p o u t o f t h e i r h a n d s ? Or i s i t t h e magnetic i n f l u e n c e o f a strong organism? Or d i d I s i m p l y n e v e r s u c c e e d i n e n c o u n t e r i n g a woman w i t h a s t u b b o r n w i l l o f h e r o w n ? ( p . 105) Thus P e c h o r i n ' s his  will  t o power  relationships with  motivating  impulse  The  wish  other  i s not only people,  i n h i s sexual  t o sofejugate  t h e main  i t i s also the primary  a t t i t u d e s and  behaviour.  women i s t h e m a i n s p r i n g  his  p s y c h o l o g i c a l d r i v e f o r power; t h i s  the  classification  o f a Don J u a n .  places  I n i t s pure  form t h e  i s t h e man w h o f u l f i l l s  an  endless  c h a i n o f conquests by c l e v e r seduction.  it  has already  primary  d e s i r e o f t h e hero  seduction sidered theless, this  i sonly  h i ssexual  out that  secondary,  Mary  then Pechorin  a Don J u a n f i g u r e i n t h e s t r i c t e s t b e c a u s e h e d o e s e x h i b i t many  type,  one c o u l d  needs  the victory  i n Princess  say that Pechorin  i n  Pechorin i n  "Don J u a n "  been p o i n t e d  force i n  through Since  i s the  and t h a t c a n n o t be c o n sense.  Never-  of the features of i sa modification  82 of  a Don J u a n .  thrill to  L i k e most o f these  i s i n the conquest:  h i s intrigues  love,  Pechorin's  o n c e a woman h a s f a l l e n  and implores  he no l o n g e r  types,  victim  him f o r a d e c l a r a t i o n of  wants h e r .  And t h e n a g a i n . . . t h e r e i s b o u n d l e s s d e l i g h t i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a young, b a r e l y unfolded soul! I t i s l i k e a f l o w e r whose b e s t f r a g r a n c e emanates t o meet t h e f i r s t r a y o f t h e s u n . I t should be.plucked that very minute and a f t e r i n h a l i n g one's f i l l o f i t , one should throw i t away o n t h e r o a d : p e r c h a n c e someone w i l l p i c k i t u p ! ( p . 123)  There  i slittle  sexual  doubt t h a t g a i n i n g Mary's  overtones,  restricted  although  the sexual  t o a few f u r t i v e  love has d i s t i n c t  activity  itself i s  caresses.  I o f t e n w o n d e r , why do I s o s t u b b o r n l y t r y t o g a i n t h e l o v e o f a l i t t l e m a i d e n whom I d o n o t w i s h t o s e d u c e , a n d whom I s h a l l n e v e r m a r r y ? Why t h i s feminine coquetry? V e r a l o v e s me m o r e t h a n P r i n c e s s Mary w i l l ever l o v e anyone: i f shehad s e e m e d t o me t o b e a n u n c o n q u e r a b l e b e l l e , then perhaps I might have been f a s c i n a t e d b y t h e d i f f i culty of the enterprise. ( p . 122)  The r e a d e r thoughts At  during  gains  his final  a fascinating  conversation with  into  have  fallen  trates  at her feet."  ( p . 179)  the paradoxical mixture  the hero's  character.  another This  minute,  he  o f h u m i l i t y and  says  and I would  confession  Only once before  Pechorin's  the princess.  t h e moment when t h e t e n s i o n i s a t i t s h e i g h t ,  " T h i s was b e c o m i n g u n b e a r a b l e :  in  insight  illus-  arrogance  i n t h e s t o r y was  83 this  submission  t o be found:  Pechorin's  admission  would  fall  on G r u s h n i t s k y ' s neck  enter  into  the Captain's  murderous  scheme.  on n e i t h e r o f these  occasions  does t h e hero  that  through  w i t h h i s impulse  haughty dominance  traditions  of humility;  throughout  Pechorin's  i fthe cadet  refused to  I t i s vital follow  he m a i n t a i n s h i s  the story.  power over  o f t h e Don J u a n  t h a t he  Vera  closely  resembles  the  lover.  The g l i m p s e s o f t h e m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between P e c h o r i n and Vera which a r e presented i n t h e t a l e , expose i t s unfortunate sense. This i s the remarkable p o r t r a i t o f the u n l i m i t e d power o f one person over a n o t h e r — a drama o f absolute s l a v e r y i n love and o f t h e profoundly sweet sorrow o f l o v i n g a person l i k e P e c h o r i n a n d b e i n g t h e o b j e c t o f h i s t o r t u r o u s l o v e . 68 Pechorin expresses to  a sexual dalliance  getting  my o w n w a y "  declaration act  his delight  itself  i nreceiving  i n h i s exclamation  (p. 150).  important,  invitation  "At l a s t  This would  of pleasure a t the anticipation a n d , more  an  I am  seem t o be a o f the sexual  a t t h e female's  final  submission.  P e c h o r i n ' s p o w e r o v e r women, i . e . t h a t d e e p a f f e c t i o n w h i c h he i n s p i r e s i n them, i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t o m o s t o f t h e m "he g a v e n o t h i n g but s u f f e r i n g , " and t h a t P e c h o r i n s t r o v e t o r e t a i n h i s own f r e e d o m , c o m e s i n t o t h e f o r e f r o n t i n P e c h o r i n s a t t i t u d e s t o t h e women c l o s e t o h i m . . . By r e v e a l i n g t h e s e c r e t o f t h i s power a n d b y s h o w i n g why P e c h o r i n w a s l o v e d b y s u c h women a s V e r a a n d Mary, Lermontov g i v e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r and deeper understanding o f t h i s strange man. 69 1  84  In  t h e sphere o f sexual  behaviour Pechorin's attitudes  t o w a r d women e x e m p l i f y t h e s u p r e m e d e s i r e other  people t o h i sp o w e r f u l The  ing  concept o f w i l l  the basic  personality  will. itself  like  power o f P e c h o r i n ' s w i l l  trol  of the fate  the  sexual manhandling  this  power c o n t a i n s  final his  heroes  Villain  beyond  heroes were never maintains  that  the Marquis  The v i s e -  human b e i n g s i n g e n e r a l o r b y  a distinct Byron,  specifically. element  Moreover,  of cruelty  on t h e o t h e r hand,  the essential  who d e f i l e d  hero.  c a n be e x p r e s s e d by h i s con-  o f women  representation.  i s important i n c l a r i f y -  o f Lermontov's  of certain  f o r subjecting  i n i t s developed  rapaciousness of the Gothic  the feminine sex a t every turn.  cruel  t o women.  the B y r o n i c hero  de Sade and t h a t  Byron's  M a r i o P r a z , however,  i sa direct  algolagnia  descendant o f  forms  a  fundamental  70  part  of h i slove-life.  mainly  on p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o Byron's  sadistic into  This assertion  b e h a v i o u r i n t h e bedroom.  serious  but also  doubt  because  life  o f Lady  of gossip  based  and h i s a l l e d g e d  The l a t t e r  n o t o n l y because  o f t h e mountains  seems t o be  c a n be  Byron's  cast  motives  involved i n  71  Mrs. be  Stowe's q u e s t i o n a b l e c o n t e n t i o n s .  made o n t h e c o n f u s i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s  characters with  h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y  More b a s i s is  No c o m m e n t n e e d  t h e penchant  mainly  traits.  f o rt h e Byronic hero's  f o rn e c r o p h i l i a  from a passage  referring  o f Byron's  so-called  and vampirism which  sadism stems  t o t h e curse o f t h e vampire  85 in  The  Giaour  through for by  a  local  long  Byronic  for  colour)  t i m e was  Byron.  ruins,  (added, no  The  hero  doubt,  and  also  i s a sadist  this  that,  Villains present  base  their  cemeteries that  i s nonsense and  though  of the vampire  which  s e r v e as  musings. proves  the Byronic hero  imagery  the  the  of  backdrop  Thorslev points  out  n o t h i n g ; he m a i n t a i n s  i s descended  o f the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y and in his origins,  composed  contentions that  upon the p e r s i s t e n t  the heroes' n o s t a l g i c  that  story  authenticity  m i s t a k e n l y assumed t o have been  critics  g r a v e s and  the  to achieve  i t i s absent  that  from  the Gothic  algolagnia  from h i s  is  fundamental  72 make-up.  He The  ones  i s never  sensitivity  i s easy  cruel  of Byron's  to demonstrate.  cences  over past loves  Harold  has  t o women. heroes  In Childe  Harold's  t h e r e i s a deep and  none o f P e c h o r i n ' s c r u e l t y  toward  tender  toward  the  their  loved  reminisnostalgia; female  sex. N o r was a l l l o v e s h u t f r o m h i m , t h o u g h h i s d a y s Of p a s s i o n h a d c o n s u m e d t h e m s e l v e s t o d u s t . I t i s i n v a i n t h a t we w o u l d c o l d l y g a z e On s u c h a s s m i l e u p o n u s ; t h e h e a r t m u s t Leap k i n d l y back t o k i n d n e s s , though d i s g u s t H a t h wean'd i t f r o m a l l w o r l d l i n g s : t h u s he f e l t , F o r t h e r e was s o f t r e m e m b r a n c e , and s w e e t t r u s t I n o n e f o n d b r e a s t , t o w h i c h h i s own w o u l d m e l t , And i n i t s t e n d e r e r h o u r on t h a t h i s bosom d w e l t .  ********************************************** A n d t h e r e was o n e s o f t b r e a s t , a s h a t h b e e n s a i d , W h i c h u n t o h i s was b o u n d b y s t r o n g e r t i e s Than t h e c h u r c h l i n k s w i t h a l ; and t h o u g h unwed,  86 That l o v e was p u r e , a n d f a r a b o v e d i s g u i s e , Had s t o o d t h e t e s t o f m o r t a l e n m i t i e s S t i l l u n d i v i d e d , and cemented more By p e r i l , d r e a d e d m o s t i n f e m a l e eyes; B u t t h i s was f i r m , a n d f r o m a f o r e i g n s h o r e Well to that heart might h i s these absent g r e e t i n g s pour!  (Childe  The  hero's  striking Gothic  tenderness  i n the  the  because of  Pilgrimage,  and  propensity  toward  there  has  at a l l linked  with  the  and  infamous  very  trace of  and  for Lara  l o v e r ' s k i n d , tender  & lv)  women i s  i s no  for cruelty  love that Kaled  her  I I I , l i i i  courtesy  above passage;  Villain's  Moreover,  not  Harold's  the  violence. is  inspired  gentle  qualities,  Marquis:  Why d i d s h e l o v e h i m ? Curious fool! — be s t i l l — I s human l o v e t h e g r o w t h o f human w i l l ? To h e r he m i g h t b e g e n t l e n e s s ; t h e s t e r n Have d e e p e r t h o u g h t s t h a n y o u r d u l l e y e s d i s c e r n , And when t h e y l o v e , y o u r s m i l e r s g u e s s n o t how B e a t s t h e s t r o n g h e a r t , t h o u g h l e s s t h e l i p s avow. (Lara, I I , 530-535) The  key  his  s e c r e t s i n s may  loved  word  one  sadistic and with  i n the  lines  above  have been, L a r a  f o r h i s kindness l o v e r i n the  Lewis.  The  hero of  The  almost  fragile  violent  death,  his attitude  ment o f  her  possesses tenderness  an  of  the  invincible  i n his love  of  Bride  to  the  the  the of  He  Abydos  of  loves  heroine  and  Zuleika  d i s p l a y s an  his  and  a  Radclif  Though S e l i m meets  most d e f i a n t heroes of  affair.  his  i s not  villains  utmost courtesy  will,  Whatever  i s remembered by  tenderness.  affection.  i s always of one  and  tradition  an  Even Manfred,  i s "gentleness."  a  treat-  kindness. Byron  un-Gothic  who  87 A s t a r t e ! my b e l o v e d I s p e a k t o me: I h a v e so much e n d u r e d — so much e n d u r e — L o o k o n me! t h e g r a v e h a t h n o t c h a n g e d t h e e m o r e T h a n I am c h a n g e d f o r t h e e . T h o u l o v e d s t me T o o m u c h , a s I l o v e d t h e e : we w e r e n o t made To t o r t u r e t h u s e a c h o t h e r , t h o u g h i t w e r e T h e d e a d l i e s t s i n t o l o v e a s we h a v e l o v e d . (Manfred, A c t I I , Scene i v , 118-124)  These words,  a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e now  studied  more f o r  apparent  admission of the incestuous love of Byron  Augusta,  s t i l l  that  even  he  i s a man  cruelty life;  is  / And  correct  . . . "  differs  from  cruel  can  be  voracious  can have  f o r the  my  flower:  after  I  from find  believe  The  that  The  B y r o n i c hero  humiliation that  the Byronic  of Mary  Lermontov's  h i s love of conquest the  sweetness  i s  i s , thus and  hero  This impression i s confirmed  a s he he  averse  n o t make, / B u t  P e c h o r i n , who  for enjoying  s a m e way  n a t u r e was  notion  lover.  o f women.  statements about  woman i n t h e  though  above h e l p t o show t h a t T h o r s l e v  treatment of Vera prove  appetite  that  none o f t h e p e r v e r s e  the Prazian  lover.  admits  I I I , i ,125-127).  tradition.  a sadistic  Pechorin's  away.  this  Manfred  f o r I would  sadistic  not a d e f i l e r  the  fresh  and  affection  "Because  quoted  i n refuting  delicate  has  (Manfred,  for  and  himself  he  yet not c r u e l ;  i s a cruel  simply  Manfred  of the s a d i s t :  the passages  hero  a  loves.  like  of strong w i l l  a desolation that  the kind  a powerful hero  woman t h a t he  illustrate  their  by  and  of a  young  breathes i n the fragrance of  has  had  his f i l l ,  he  tosses i t  88 Pechorin's character. faction wishes  of  this  will:  and  fate  to  lofty  a  plane:  and  desire  f o r power  to  not  have  The  h i s own  the  merely  the  the  demons o f  desire to  Manfred's  of  d e s i r e to control. but  upon  The  have  Byronic i t can  power  one.  over  hell  as  be  his  satisemotions,  hero  has  on  the  Manfred's  e x h i b i t e d when he  of  the  s u b j e c t human  i n Byron  earthly  aspect  a  spiritual  insatiable  expresses  his  his slaves.  but t h e power w h i c h b r o u g h t ye here mine. S l a v e s , s c o f f n o t a t my will! s p i r i t , the Promethean spark, o f my b e i n g , i s a s b r i g h t , f a r d a r t i n g as y o u r own, y i e l d to yours, though coop'd i n c l a y ! i l l t e a c h you what I am. (Manfred, I , i , 152-158)  dominate  f o l l o w i n g passage,  confession  central  i s dependent  desire to  is first  Ye m o c k me — H a t h made y o u The m i n d , t h e The l i g h t n i n g P e r v a d i n g , and And s h a l l n o t Answer, o r I w  Manfred's  that  strong w i l l ,  domain  wish  i s the  A l l his behaviour  traditionally more  will-power  closely  h i s youth  strength of  began  even  paralleling  i n Princess  will  even  with  as  Mary, a  young  his  childhood.  Pechorin's  moody  demonstrates person:  W e l l , t h o u g h i t t o r t u r e me, ' t i s b u t t h e same; My p a n g s h a l l f i n d a v o i c e . F r o m my y o u t h u p w a r d s My s p i r i t w a l k ' d n o t w i t h t h e s o u l s o f men, N o r l o o k ' d u p o n t h e e a r t h w i t h human e y e s ; T h e t h i r s t o f t h e i r a m b i t i o n was n o t m i n e , T h e a i m o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e was n o t m i n e ; My j o y s , my g r i e f s , my p a s s i o n s , a n d my powers, M a d e me a s t r a n g e r ; t h o u g h I w o r e t h e f o r m , I h a d no s y m p a t h y w i t h b r e a t h i n g f l e s h , N o r m i d s t t h e c r e a t u r e s o f c l a y t h a t g i r d e d me Was t h e r e b u t o n e who — but of her anon. (Manfred, II, i i , 49-59)  89 The of  passage  illustrates  being an outcast;  possessed his  n o t swear  ofwill  The s t r e n g t h  demonstrated  the wishes  o f those he f e e l s —  power even heaven  I I , i i ,  extends  imply that that  feature  t h e hero  set himapart  o f Manfred's  t h es p i r i t s  t o bend t o  / Whose  "I will presence  / o f t h o s e w h o s e r v e d me  158-160)  t o defying  from  convictions i s  h e s h o u l d command:  O b e y ! a n d whom?  (Manfred,  Byronic  by h i s defiance and refusal  command, a n d b e t h e s l a v e  Never!"  the typical  t h e "powers"  great strength  f e l l o w men.  best  I  also  —  The h e r o ' s d e s i r e f o r  the spiritual  worlds —  both  and h e l l .  I am p r e p a r e d f o r a l l t h i n g s , b u t d e n y T h e p o w e r w h i c h summons me. Who s e n t t h e e h e r e ? Spirit. T h o u ' I t k n o w a n o n -- Come! come! Manfred. I h a v e commanded Things o f an essence greater f a r than thine, And s t r i v e n w i t h t h y m a s t e r s . G e t thee hence! . . . . . . I d o d e f y y e , — t h o u g h I f e e l my s o u l I s e b b i n g f r o m me, y e t I d o d e f y y e ; Nor w i l l I hence, w h i l e I have e a r t h l y b r e a t h T o b r e a t h e my s c o r n u p o n y e — e a r t h l y s t r e n g t h To w r e s t l e , t h o u g h w i t h s p i r i t s ; w h a t y e t a k e S h a l l be t a ' e n l i m b by l i m b . (Manfred, I I I , i v , 82-86, 99-104) At  t h e e n d o f t h e drama M a n f r e d  the rebel death. ual's  whose f l a m e o f w i l l  He i s a t i t a n i c rebellion  against  dies,  still  i s n o t even  sufferer  defiant,  alone,  extinguished by  and stands f o r the i n d i v i d -  the onslaught o f the universe's  power. In t h e f i n a l a c t , however, Manfred goes one step f u r t h e r than t h e Prometheus o f S h e l l e y o r Goethe i ns o l i t a r y r e b e l l i o n . Byron's Manfred i s i n t h i s r e s p e c t i n t h e same p o s i t i o n a s B y r o n ' s  90 P r o m e t h e u s ; i n h i s t o r m e n t he l e a d s a " s a d unallied existence." The P r o m e t h e u s o f A e s c h y l u s had F a t e and t i m e on h i s s i d e , and S h e l l e y ' s P r o m e t h e u s knew t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y , t h r o u g h D e m o g o r g o n , w o u l d be h i s . B u t B y r o n ' s M a n f r e d and h i s P r o m e t h e u s s t a n d u t t e r l y alone. I f they are to conquer, i t i s o n l y i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e i r own m i n d s , even i n death: "Triumphant where i t dares d e f y , / And m a k i n g D e a t h a V i c t o r y , " o r , as M a n f r e d says to the Abbot: " O l d Man! ' t i s not so d i f f i c u l t t o d i e ! " 73  Thus M a n f r e d crime  i s a Gothic  i s t o have  loved  Villain  turned  hero,  t h e w r o n g woman, b u t  permits  entire  and  a l l i t s power.  the  d e s i r e f o r power i s a g a i n  In theology beyond  of  the  rebellion  Cain the  p l a y has  scope of as  a  lofty  plane,  of  to his w i l l .  Adam t o God,  Cain  of  and  Lucifer  itself  After  he  scorns  The  concept  has  for  Byronic also)  i n the  rebel against  of  desire to  his father's  is  metaphysical  a  more  a thirst  questioned  The  self-assertion  h e r o on has  the  evident.  d i s c u s s e d , but  the wish  another  indeed  power w h i c h e x p r e s s e s thing  study.  fulfillment  (and  stand  been w i d e l y  this  demonstrates that Cain,  to  only  whose  inexorable w i l l universe  him  whose  for  subject  the  every-  submission  acquiescence.  My f a t h e r c o u l d n o t k e e p h i s p l a c e i n E d e n . W h a t h a d 1^ d o n e i n t h i s ? — I was unborn: I s o u g h t n o t t o be b o r n ; n o r l o v e t h e s t a t e To w h i c h t h a t b i r t h h a s b r o u g h t me. Why d i d h e Y i e l d t o t h e s e r p e n t a n d t h e woman? or, Y i e l d i n g , why s u f f e r ? W h a t w a s t h e r e i n t h i s ? T h e t r e e was p l a n t e d , a n d why n o t f o r h i m ? I f n o t , why p l a c e h i m n e a r i t , w h e r e i t g r e w , The f a i r e s t i n t h e c e n t r e ? They h a v e . b u t One a n s w e r t o a l l q u e s t i o n s , "'Twas h i s w i l l , A n d he i s g o o d . " (Cain, I , i , 66-76)  91 The to  hero's defiance i s a p t l y  illustrated  bow d o w n b e f o r e a n y t h i n g ; h e w i l l  God  or  by h i s r e f u s a l  not worship  either  Lucifer:  Lucifer. H a s t t h o u n e ' e r bow'd To h i m ? Cain. Have I n o t s a i d i t ? — need I say i t ? Could n o t t h y mighty knowledge t e a c h thee t h a t ? Lucifer. He who b o w s n o t t o h i m h a s b o w ' d t o me. Cain. But I w i l l bend t o n e i t h e r . {Cain, I , i , 311-314) The  o t h e r h e r o o f Cain,  itual God  counterpart.  and thus  Lucifer's to  t o power  Cain's who  of the realm of  defies  evil.  i s contained i n h i s fierce to subject  Cain,  spir-  opposition  i . e . mankind,  to  control. The  also and  latter  demonstrate  subtle  the hero's  heroes  way.  and h e l l ,  sphere  o f human  a definite  emphasizes will.  that  Cain,  Pilgrimage of defiance  the stage f o r other r e -  Lucifer  and Manfred,  but i n  domains o f  but maintains h i s rebelliousness affairs.  quality  I n Cantos  Three  i n the  and Four  of humanistic self-reliance;  the l a t t e r  Harold's insistence  demonstrates  Byronic qualities  Harold sets  like  Harold's  He d o e s n o t d e f y t h e s p i r i t u a l  heaven  has  t w o c a n t o s o f Childe  self-assertion.  calcitrant a  i s placed i n charge  will  i s basically  He t o o i s a r o m a n t i c r e b e l  God a n d h i s a t t e m p t  his  Lucifer,  Harold i s also  a man o f  on h i s power o f  h i s independent  strength  of  Harold this strong  rationality  character:  92 Y e t l e t us ponder b o l d l y — ' t i s a base Abandonment o f r e a s o n t o r e s i g n Our r i g h t o f t h o u g h t — our l a s t and o n l y p l a c e Of r e f u g e ; t h i s , a t l e a s t , s h a l l s t i l l be m i n e : Though from o u r b i r t h t h e f a c u l t y d i v i n e Is c h a i n ' d and t o r t u r e d — cabin'd, cribb'd, confined, And b r e d i n d a r k n e s s , l e s t t h e t r u t h would s h i n e Too b r i g h t l y o n t h e u n p r e p a r e d m i n d , The beam p o u r s i n , f o r t i m e a n d s k i l l w i l l c o u c h t h e b l i n d .  (Childe  Harold's theless  spirit gives  metaphysical that  they  of self-assertion,  him the status heroes  can even  T h u s we is  the Noble  invariably pursuit  a  exhibit  defy  the universe.  of their  emotions  and wishes,  only  because  evil  and he d e f i l e s power  their be  extended  Cain,  Lucifer  concepts, human are  into  strength  i s marked  who  trait  over  streak  mundane  concerns  thirst  I t may titans  over  metaphysical  such  own  the  such  as  Pechorin's qualities  of the Byronic hero's  of  strive for  to win the heroine.  f o r power  men's  mainstream  as they  domain where  i n the  foes i n  Byronic heroes  contend  and d e s i r e s .  a modification  f o r power  hero  further  of conviction  the Byronic  I n many  the s p i r i t u a l  merely  As a  by a d i s t i n c t  a positive  and Manfred  the Byronic  t o be a d m i r a b l e  strives  f o r example,  not over  emotions  also  women.  i s generally  objective,  own  later  convictions  a r e a l l p o w e r f u l men  d i v e r g e s from  hiswill  that  character.  g o a l s and prove  P e c h o r i n , who  as i t is, never-  i n their  assurance  strong-willed  battle.  for  with  their  I V , 127)  as a h a r b i n g e r o f the  a r e so s t r o n g  Outlaws  Pilgrimage,  limited  who  can state  traditionally  example,  Harold's  as  everyday of  will  strength of  will.  The  development i n Pechorin's  element which apart  from  thirst  (a  the  f o r c o n t r o l over  w h i c h he  the  same p a t h  the  element of  authority, only  Instead  of  his will  cruelty  q u e n c h e d by  heroes.  contains  and  the  i n the  who  —  types.  him The  sadistic  will-power, Gothic  at  his  Villain  roots,  does not of  follow  possessing against  f o r power cross his  objective,  perverse  evil  sets  rebellion  thirst  e n g u l f i n g those  the  in a  Instead  a  for a positive  itself  of  h e r o had  self-assertion  will  a yearning  results  i n his actions)  of most B y r o n i c romantic  hero  Pechorin's  Byronic  transcended  —  which path.  Pechorin's  destruction of  other  beings. A  are  typical  Pechorin's  be of  the  had  expresses  human  is  others.  r e v e r t s to c o n t a i n i n g the  but  will  core  m a i n s t r e a m o f most B y r o n i c  feature that  can  central  f o r power i n Lermontov's hero  obsession which  forms the  character  the  further important  concept of  fatalism.  many r e f e r e n c e s  These demonstrate  aspect  to  the  of  Pechorin's  character  T h r o u g h o u t Princess hero's b e l i e f  that there  Mary  there  i n f a t e and  is a distinct  quality  destiny. of  74  fatalism to  i n the  hero's p e r s o n a l i t y .  predestination occurs  lengthy  d e s c r i p t i o n of  predicts  t h a t he  some m y s t e r i o u s  and  after  the  Pechorin  young poseur  Grushnitsky  circumstances,  will  The  first  reference  has  submitted  his  Grushnitsky.  at  some t i m e ,  oppose each other  He through  and  one  of  75  them w i l l one  day  we  suffer: shall  "I don't meet on  a  like  him  narrow path,  either: and  one  I feel of  us  that will  94 fare  i l l . "  ( p . 85)  I t i s remarkable  comes w i t h i n t h e f i r s t all  the entry  o f May  the  exception  of this  strikes  of the  purposes,  the tale;  hero's b e l i e f  the  intrigue  short  portent  passage  o f doom; t h u s One c o u l d  i n the story  i.e. to increase  i n fate.  mentions  i ts t i l l During  powers t h a t  this  argue  passage  that  strictly for  interest  i n t h e outcome  provides  a glimpse  of  h i sdiscussion with  t h a t he b e l i e v e s  i s not simply  mysterious  Moreover,  11 i s c h e e r f u l a n d l i g h t h e a r t e d w i t h  nevertheless,  Werner P e c h o r i n an  this  this prediction  pages o f t h e n a r r a t i v e .  a n e v e n more ominous n o t e .  Lermontov placed literary  five  that  a coincidence  Doctor  the occurrence  of  b u t was c a u s e d b y  control the universe.  "I hope y o u l e f t h e r under t h i s p l e a s a n t d e l u s i o n . " "Naturally." "We h a v e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p l o t ! " I cried i ndelight. "The d e n o u e m e n t o f t h i s c o m e d y w i l l b e o u r c o n c e r n . F a t e i s o b v i o u s l y t a k i n g c a r e o f my n o t b e i n g b o r e d . " (p. 95) Not  only  does P e c h o r i n  think  t h a t p l o t s and i n t r i g u e s  are  predestined,  he e v e n b e l i e v e s  out  i n advance.  He p o n d e r s t h e p r e s e n c e  old  flame Vera,  wondering  that  love  affairs  a r e marked  i n Pyatigorsk  i f fate brought her there:  When h e l e f t , a d r e a d f u l s a d n e s s c o n s t r a i n e d my heart. Was i t f a t e t h a t w a s b r i n g i n g u s t o g e t h e r a g a i n i n t h e C a u c a s u s , o r h a d s h e come h e r e o n p u r p o s e , k n o w i n g s h e w o u l d m e e t me? A n d how w o u l d we m e e t ? A n d , anyway, was i t she? Presentiments n e v e r d e c e i v e me. ( p . 97)  ofh i s  95  Pechorin's (which  beliefs  i n " p r e d i c t i o n s " and  "never deceive"  him)  are  so  strong  can  p r e d i c t whether or  not  Mary w i l l  him  —  end  he  and  that  i n the  will  "presentiments"  fall  t h a t he  feels  i n love  with  emerge  he  triumphant.  The y o u n g p r i n c e s s t r i u m p h e d ; G r u s h n i t s k i , l i k e wise. H a v e y o u r t r i u m p h , my f r i e n d s , h u r r y — you won't triumph l o n g ! What i s t o be d o n e ? I have a presentiment . . . Whenever I become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a woman, I a l w a y s g u e s s w i t h o u t f a i l , w h e t h e r s h e w i l l f a l l i n l o v e w i t h me or not. (p. 120)  A  f a r more s t r i k i n g  convictions of  deus  is  closely  viously  ex  i s found machina  linked with  is  illustrated  to  subjugate  will. who  So  of  by  the  lives  the  desires  sad of  question  Pechorin's  others  the  his  Moreover,  i n a way  subjects  control  during  i n the  discussed.  example of  and  i t i s an  the  belief  Pechorin's  musings on others.  that  extension wishes,  of  a  kind  concept  w h i c h was  importance of  emotions of  t o h i s own  being  This  of w i l l  fatalistic  pre-  this  section  f a t e compells  him  others  own  to his  will:  i s himself  the  hero,  under  the  universal will.  E v e r s i n c e I have l i v e d and a c t e d , f a t e has a l w a y s s e e m e d t o b r i n g me i n a t t h e d e n o u e m e n t o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s dramas, as i f none c o u l d e i t h e r d i e o r d e s p a i r w i t h o u t me! I am t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e p e r s o n a i n the f i f t h a c t ; i n v o l u n t a r i l y , I p l a y the miserable p a r t of the executioner or the t r a i t o r . What c o u l d be f a t e ' s p u r p o s e i n t h i s ? M i g h t i t n o t be t h a t i t h a d d e s i g n a t e d me t o b e c o m e t h e a u t h o r o f bourgeois t r a g e d i e s and f a m i l y n o v e l s , o r t h e c o l l a b o r a t o r o f some p u r v e y o r o f s t o r i e s f o r t h e " L i b r a r y f o r Reading?" (p. 133)  96 M.  Umanskaya s u g g e s t s  submission  to the  that  is virtually  there  that Pechorin"s  universal control no  i s due  personal  free  fatalism  to his  and  realization  will:  In i t s c o n v e n t i o n a l , romantic m e t a p h o r i c a l form P e c h o r i n ' s own d i s t i n c t i v e f a t a l i s m d i s p l a y s h i s understanding of the l a c k of freedom w i t h i n h i m s e l f , o f t h e power o f e g o t i s t i c a l f e e l i n g s and passions w h i c h , i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m h i s own w i l l , f a t a l l y r e d u c e P e c h o r i n t o become t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f e x e c u t i o n and the d e s t r o y e r of other people's hopes. P e c h o r i n , endowed w i t h h i s keen p s y c h o l o g i c a l perspective, i s c l o s e to the understanding of that w h i c h u n t i l t h e end o n l y t h e a u t h o r o f t h e n o v e l understood: namely t h a t the l o s s of "noble yearnings," — o f "the b e s t f l o w e r o f l i f e " and "the l u r e o f e m p t y and b a s e p a s s i o n s " doomed h i m t o " t h e m i s e r a b l e p a r t of the executioner or t r a i t o r . " 76 L a t e r when P e c h o r i n the  unloaded  pistol,  intervention  by  Grushnitski's that,  had  laughing  i n a d v e r t e n t l y d i s c o v e r s the  fate:  reply.  i t not stock  he  attributes "In a  Cold  these  fools."  demonstrates another  plays  large role  coincidence clear  are  that fate  narrative's  fatalism states the  i n the  of  eagerness,  I  awaited  the  thought  novel.  d e s t i n y are  me  (p. 147)  at  This  where  vital  novel's  coincidence and  plot,  concepts  i t i s  for  the  cohesiveness.  Pechorin  provides  a  when he  presents  h i s disgust f o r marriage.  flatly  the  particular  Because chance  p r e v a l e n t w i t h i n the and  an  I m i g h t have become  occasion  that another  p r i n c e s s ' hand.  For  fascinating  man  would  be  of  discovery to  fury possessed  episode a  tremor  been f o r chance,  of  the  intrigue  insight  into  gratified  Lermontov's hero,  to  however,  his He have the  97 very word marriage  has c o n n o t a t i o n s o f d i s t r u s t and  aversion.  My h e a r t t u r n s t o s t o n e , a n d n o t h i n g c a n w a r m i t again. I am r e a d y t o m a k e a n y s a c r i f i c e e x c e p t t h i s o n e . I may s e t my l i f e u p o n a c a r d t w e n t y t i m e s , a n d e v e n my h o n o u r — but I w i l l not s e l l my f r e e d o m . Why d o I t r e a s u r e i t . s o ? What g o o d i s i t t o me? What do I p r e p a r e m y s e l f f o r ? What do I e x p e c t f r o m t h e f u t u r e ? . . . I n d e e d , n o t h i n g whatever. I t i s a k i n d o f i n n a t e f e a r , an i n e f f a b l e presentiment. A r e n ' t t h e r e p e o p l e who h a v e a n unaccountable fear o f spiders, cockroaches, mice? Shall I confess? When I w a s s t i l l a c h i l d , a n o l d woman t o l d my f o r t u n e t o my m o t h e r . She p r e d i c t e d o f me " d e a t h f r o m a w i c k e d w i f e . " I t made a d e e p i m p r e s s i o n u p o n me t h e n : i n my s o u l w a s b o r n a n insuperable aversion to marriage. Yet something t e l l s me t h a t h e r p r e d i c t i o n w i l l c o m e t r u e , a t l e a s t , I s h a l l d o my b e s t t o h a v e i t come t r u e a s l a t e as p o s s i b l e . (pp. 148-149)  Pechorin belief  hates  because o f h i s f a t a l i s t i c  i n a superstitious.prediction  teller. words  the idea of marriage  The s t r e n g t h o f h i s b e l i e f  "her p r e d i c t i o n  will  made b y a n o l d f o r t u n e i s emphasized  come t r u e , "  w o n d e r i f L e r m o n t o v was i n f e r r i n g  which  a possible  by h i s  makes t h e r e a d e r marriage i n 77  Persia  that occurred shortly  irrepressible a  phobia  dread  equates  f o r spiders,  i s atypical  how d e e p l y  h i s fear  cockroaches  of fatalism  the hero  o f wedding b e l l s  and mice;  of Byronic heroes,  the t r a i t  Later his  titan  before Pechorin's death.  this  with  effeminate  but i s demonstrates  pervades  Pechorin's  returns t o melodramatic  e x i s t e n c e as an i n s t r u m e n t o f  Our  fate.  musing  spirit. over  98 A n d s i n c e t h e n , how m a n y t i m e s I h a v e p l a y e d t h e p a r t o f an axe i n t h e hands o f f a t e ! As an e x e c u t i o n e r ' s t o o l , I would f a l l upon t h e head o f doomed v i c t i m s , o f t e n w i t h o u t m a l i c e , a l w a y s w i t h out r e g r e t . My l o v e b r o u g h t h a p p i n e s s t o n o n e , b e c a u s e I n e v e r g a v e up a n y t h i n g f o r t h e s a k e o f t h o s e whom I l o v e d . (p. 159) This  p a s s a g e r e f e r s once more t o t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n  i n ' s own w i s h e s b y some e x t e r n a l p o w e r ; assertion This of  that  fatalism  i s entrenched  affirmation i s finalized  the duel  Pechorin  with  Grushnitsky.  interprets  during  o f Pechor-  i tconfirms the  deeply  i n h i s character.  the climactic  episode  When t h e y o u n g p o s e u r  stumbles,  i tas a bad s i g n :  S u d d e n l y , s m a l l s t o n e s n o i s i l y r o l l e d down t o our f e e t . What was i t ? G r u s h n i t s k i h a d s t u m b l e d . The b r a n c h w h i c h h e h a d g r a s p e d b r o k e a n d h e w o u l d h a v e s l i d down o n h i s b a c k , h a d n o t h i s s e c o n d s supported him. "Take c a r e ! " I c r i e d t o h i m . "Don't f a l l beforehand: i t ' s a b a d omen. Remember J u l i u s Caesar!" (p. 166)  E v e n t h o u g h he h a s p l a n n e d the  pistol  i s not loaded,  everything  —  Pechorin  so a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  knows t h a t  moment  will  78 summon t h e s e c o n d s t o r e c t i f y , t h e s i t u a t i o n believes nothing to  t h a t t h e outcome o f t h e d u e l else.  Pechorin"s  of  . . 1  show h i m no q u a r t e r  concluded  not  ".  similar  wished  agreements w i t h  concept.  The h e r o  f a t e and d e s t i n y , b u t only  myself me.  Who  the full  but with  right  has not  h i s conscience?"  f a t a l i s m may b e s t r i k i n g ,  a spiritual  Pechorin  depends on f a t e and  t o give  i f f a t e spared  —  (p. 167)  him i t i s  acknowledges t h e power  on t h e l e v e l  of intervention  99 in  human a f f a i r s .  in  Princess  desire will,  or  a  God  with  and  with  such  Satan,  on  fate's  pragmatic  the  Lermontov's  to wrestle  cerned on  Mary  Unlike  power  metaphysical hero  does  not  conceptions a  spiritual  over  himself  heroes express  as  the  Byron,  the  universal  plane. and  of  He  other  is  con-  human  beings  level.  At t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time the s t r u g g l e which a r i s e s i n Pechorin's soul i s not a c o n f l i c t of a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s i n o p p o s i t i o n —• "heaven" and "hell," "good" and " e v i l , " h i g h i d e a l s and b a s e a c t i o n s . The p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h a r e i n conf l i c t i n P e c h o r i n ' s s o u l a r e n o t a b s t r a c t and metaphysical but r a t h e r d i a l e c t i c a l opposites. Their c o n f l i c t m a k e s up t h e h e r o h i m s l e f . The v e r y essence o f P e c h o r i n , b o t h as a s e p a r a t e p e r s o n a l i t y and as a t y p i c a l person of the e r a , i s contained i n the c o n s t a n t combat o f o p p o s i t e p r i n c i p l e s , n o t i n t h e i r e q u a l p r e s e n c e o r t h e v i c t o r y o f o n e o v e r t h e o t h e r . 79  It  i s clear  that  fundamental  concepts  confirmation Fatalist  (The To  If  he  too  it  will  fatalism  of  this  firmly  a  belief  i n Pechorin's will  Fatalist)  what  and  be  make-up.  introduced  i n Chapter  extent  i n p r e d e s t i n a t i o n are  i s the  Even  i n the  study  Pechorin  typical  once  of  Five. Byronic  hero  b e l i e v e s i n p r e d e s t i n a t i o n and  follow that  more  again  a  fatalist?  fate,  continues  then  the  tradition. It Byron's hero.  i s possible to  work In  to  Childe  submit  demonstrate Harold's  the  certain fatalism  Pilgrimage  and  examples of the  the  from  Byronic  passage  100 Y e t t o t h e b e a u t e o u s f o r m h e was n o t b l i n d , T h o u g h now i t m o v e d h i m a s i t m o v e s t h e w i s e : Not t h a t P h i l o s o p h y on s u c h a m i n d E'er deign'd to bend her c h a s t e l y - a w f u l eyes But P a s s i o n raves i t s e l f t o r e s t , or f l i e s ; A n d V i c e , t h a t d i g s h e r own v o l u p t u o u s tomb, Had b u r i e d l o n g h i s h o p e s , no m o r e t o r i s e : Pleasure's pall'd victim! l i f e - a b h o r r i n g gloom W r o t e o n h i s f a d e d b r o w c u r s t C a i n ' s u n r e s t i n g doom. (I, 83)  the  reference  to  "doom" c o u l d  refer either to  fate  or 8 0  judgment.  Thorslev  insisting  that  will  of  of  the  latter  punishment of  " f a t a l i s m " i n Childe  illustrates the  i n t e r p r e t s i t as  i t concerns Harold's  Another occurrence Pilgrimage  clearly  a possible belief  wandering  Harold's i n the  predestined  universe.  O r , i t may b e , w i t h d e m o n s , who impair The s t r e n g t h o f b e t t e r t h o u g h t s , and s e e k t h e i r p r e y I n m e l a n c h o l y bosoms, s u c h as were Of moody t e x t u r e f r o m t h e i r e a r l i e s t day, And l o v e d t o d w e l l i n d a r k n e s s and d i s m a y , D e e m i n g t h e m s e l v e s p r e d e s t i n e d t o a doom W h i c h i s n o t o f t h e pangs t h a t p a s s away; M a k i n g t h e sun l i k e b l o o d , t h e e a r t h a tomb, The t o m b a h e l l , a n d h e l l i t s e l f a m u r k i e r g l o o m . (IV, 34) However,  i n neither of  "doom" o r they  are  general from of  The  the  "predestined"  e x t r a c t s above does  r e f e r to  s t a t e m e n t s made b y status of Giaour  the  Pechorin's  obsession  by  hero  A  the  the  author  contemplates  old  of  meaning hero;  about  the  fascinating quotation  a childhood  with  beliefs  omniscient  universe.  where the  doom made f o r h i m  the  the  the  friend  fortune  a prediction (echoing  teller's  gloomy  101 tale  of nuptial  doom)  demonstrates  that  t h e B y r o n i c h e r o may b e a  another  possibility  fatalist.  . . . I had — Ah! h a v e I now? — a friend! To h i m t h i s p l e d g e I c h a r g e t h e e s e n d , M e m o r i a l o f a y o u t h f u l vow; I w o u l d r e m i n d h i m o f my e n d : Though s o u l s a b s o r b ' d l i k e mine a l l o w B r i e f thought t o d i s t a n t friendship's claim, Y e t d e a r t o h i m my b l i g h t e d name. 'Tis strange — h e p r o p h e s i e d my d o o m , And I have s m i l e d — I then could smile — When P r u d e n c e w o u l d h i s v o i c e a s s u m e , And warn — I r e c k ' d n o t what — the while: B u t now r e m e m b r a n c e w h i s p e r s o ' e r Those a c c e n t s s c a r c e l y mark'd b e f o r e . (The Giaour, 1221-1233) Nevertheless,  i n The  Corsair  expressing  the belief  exhibition  of total  that  the hero  contradicts  any a p p e a l t o f a t e  this  by  i s an  weakness:  . . . So l e t i t be — i t i r k s n o t me t o d i e ; But t h u s t o urge them whence t h e y c a n n o t f l y . My l o t h a t h l o n g h a d l i t t l e o f my c a r e , B u t c h a f e s my p r i d e t h u s b a f f l e d i n t h e s n a r e : I s t h i s my s k i l l ? my c r a f t ? to set at last Hope, power, and l i f e upon a s i n g l e c a s t ? Oh, F a t e ! — accuse t h y f o l l y , not t h y fate! S h e may r e d e e m t h e e s t i l l , n o r y e t t o o l a t e . (The Corsair, I , 333-340) Conrad his as II,  quickly  dismisses this  own c o n v i c t i o n s Selim  can talk  appeal to fate  of strength.  of "Fatal  .A w e a k e r t y p e o f h e r o  Nature"  428) o r o f t h e f a t e w h i c h  as contrary t o  (The Bride  brought  of  such  Abydos,  h i s l o v e d one t o him:  The Haram's l a n g u i d y e a r s o f l i s t l e s s e a s e Are w e l l resign'd f o r cares — f o r joys l i k e Not b l i n d t o f a t e , I s e e , where'er I r o v e ,  these:  102 Unnumber'd p e r i l s — b u t one o n l y l o v e ! Y e t w e l l my t o i l s s h a l l t h a t f o n d b r e a s t r e p a y , Though f o r t u n e frown, o r f a l s e r f r i e n d s b e t r a y . ( I I , 414-419) i Of omizes  a l lByron's  a fatal  hero  —  heroes  L a r a may b e t h e o n e who  p r o b a b l y because  the  Gothic V i l l a i n .  and  strong convictions,  he i s t h e c l o s e s t t o  A l t h o u g h L a r a i s a man o f f i r m he a l m o s t  epit-  blames  fate  will  f o rh i s mis-  fortune:  But haughty s t i l l , and l o t h h i m s e l f t o blame, He c a l l ' d o n N a t u r e ' s s e l f t o s h a r e t h e s h a m e , And c h a r g e d a l l f a u l t s upon t h e f l e s h l y form She g a v e t o c l o g t h e s o u l , a n d f e a s t t h e worm; T i l l he a t l a s t confounded good and i l l , And h a l f m i s t o o k f o r f a t e t h e a c t s o f w i l l : . . . (Lara, I , 331-336) Lara's past  i s portrayed through a series  evoke a f a t a l i s t i c  final  o f images  that  outcome:  Had L a r a f r o m t h a t n i g h t , t o h i m a c c u r s t , P r e p a r e d t o meet, b u t n o t a l o n e , t h e w o r s t : Some r e a s o n u r g e d , w h a t e ' e r i t w a s , t o s h u n I n q u i r y i n t o deeds a t d i s t a n c e done; By m i n g l i n g w i t h h i s own t h e c a u s e o f a l l , E'en i f he f a i l ' d , he s t i l l d e l a y e d h i s f a l l . The s u l l e n c a l m t h a t l o n g h i s b o s o m k e p t , The s t o r m t h a t o n c e h a d s p e n t i t s e l f a n d s l e p t , R o u s e d b y e v e n t s t h a t seem'd f o r e d o o m ' d t o u r g e His gloomy f o r t u n e s t o t h e i r utmost v e r g e , B u r s t f o r t h , a n d made h i m a l l he o n c e h a d b e e n , And i s a g a i n ; . . . (Lara, I I , 236-247)  When L a r a i s b l e e d i n g t o d e a t h is  bending  reference  over  him, Byron  after  the battle  makes a n o t h e r  and Kaled  deterministic  to fate.  However, T h o r s l e v does n o t agree  that  the Byronic  103 hero  is a  fatalist.  protagonist and  uses  crimes,  states  appeals to the  a power o u t s i d e  fatalism  character  status.  attempt  to subject  own  defiant  wishes, would  any  conflict the is  credence  Generally  as  a  will,  scapegoat  Superheroes  like  for his  How  that  he  could  fatalism,  but  rather  that  their  cannot  form of  a  clear  defy  the universe change?  i n Byron may  are  make  the  Thorslev argues a  Manfred,  be  a hero  the hero, but  himself.  since  indeed i f they  person, i . e . the narrator  makes them a b o u t  81  not  Cain or  there would  acknowledged  statements about  does  of the universe to  seem l u d i c r o u s  control  and  speaking, references to fatalism  i s not  strong  are greatly diminished.  i n determinism:  some c e n t r a l  deterministic  this  the u n i v e r s a l  unsympathetic  of metaphysical ideas.  made i n t h e t h i r d  seldom  stature  the w i l l  supreme powers: i f he under  and  supposedly  i s acceptable i n a Gothic V i l l a i n ,  who  placed  i f a  o f h i s own  i s generally  possess a t i t a n i c  that  fates  t h e n h i s power and  Apparently, this  He  hero that  scientific  determinism:  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c B y r o n i c H e r o , t h e n , i s n o t a fatalist. He a c c e p t s t h e b u r d e n o f h i s c o n s c i e n c e w i l l i n g l y , even d e f i a n t l y ; w i t h the p o s s i b l e except i o n o f L a r a , he d o e s n o t a t t e m p t t o e v a d e h i s moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He h a s b o r r o w e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from the Gothic V i l l a i n , i n h i s looks, h i s m y s t e r i o u s p a s t , and h i s s e c r e t s i n s ; and he h a s r e t a i n e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f r o m t h e Man o f f e e l i n g i n h i s t e n d e r s e n s i b i l i t i e s and i n h i s u n d y i n g f i d e l i t y t o t h e woman h e l o v e s — b u t he i s f a r more t h a n these: he i s a l s o a R o m a n t i c r e b e l . The s i n s f o r w h i c h he a c c e p t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e n o t t h o s e o f h i s misdeeds which s o c i e t y c o n s i d e r s most r e p r e h e n s i b l e .  82  104 Thus our confirmed the  fatalist  Byronic  unfounded. believer  could  The  conflict,  the  Byronic  Lermontov's hero  when e x a m i n e d c l o s e l y notions.  of  and  will  Manfred,  Firstly,  defiance,  Pechorin  women t o  d e f i e s heaven or exist  on  executioner  Instead,  Pechorin  through  of  hell,  this  reiterates  or  world  t h a t he  does not he  plays  of  r e b e l as  by  r e b e l and the  part  destroying iron are  wishes  second p o i n t  i s that Pechorin  with  to  subject never  characters role  of  wonders about to act  i t s final  i n human a f f a i r s , loftier  hell,  Pechorin  Grushnitsky.  Byron's  strength  heaven or  refuse to  the  concerned  He  out  relatively^  the  Mary  "fate."  problem?  against  the  him  then,  and  seems t o a c c e p t  He  how,  Cain  and  but  a  hero's  Lucifer,  a rebellion  h e a v e n and  is  is  Byronic  case of  of  nuances of  circumstances  i s a man  The  the  the  a  remains  the  surface,  hell,  Mary and  metaphysical  resolve  i n Princess  earth.  but  i s not,  his will;  f o r c e d on  r e a s o n s why,  humiliating  He  hero  the  while  i s p r i m a r i l y a man  human c o n d i t i o n s . and  of  Pechorin  and  as  mainstream  that  to catch  i n the  i s maintained  authoritarian wills  role.  fatalistic,  were  t h o u g h complex on  subtler  that  latter  i t i s w e l l taken  classify  Pechorin  the  Since  i n fate while  that  f i t i n with  i f the  we  men  contention  hero,  can  simple  original  out  his  act  Thus, he  the  i s not  by  while a  heroes. i s much c l o s e r 8 3  to  the  roots  Gothic are  Villain  present,  of  than most of  Byron's heroes.  course,  their  with  secret sins  The and  105 crimes, but as we have seen Byron's personages a r e never wicked —  not even L u c i f e r , who i s d e p i c t e d as a romantic  r e b e l and not the epitome o f e v i l .  Pechorin i s d e f i n i t e l y  c r u e l , so h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a G o t h i c V i l l a i n are on the of  surface.  Lermontov's  hero may be allowed the q u a l i t y  f a t a l i s m , s i n c e i t does not lower h i s s t a t u s , as i t would  a l o f t i e r hero.  Because h i s r e a l i z a t i o n i s not the same  as the B y r o n i c hero type —  c r u e l t y and f a t a l i s m a r e v i t a l  p a r t s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r make-up —  Pechorin i s a modified  "Byronic hero." In  summary, then, Lermontov  used many o f the  fundamental f e a t u r e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d Byron's but  i n P r i n c e s s Mary  works,  he developed them beyond t h e i r  original  form and purpose t o c r e a t e h i s own romantic genre, B y r o n i c at  i t s r o o t s y e t i n d e l i b l y marked w i t h a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of  Romanticism.  and changed  Lermontov  took the stock love formula  i t i n t o a new " e t e r n a l t r i a n g l e " where the hero  only pretends to love the h e r o i n e i n order t o h u m i l i a t e her.  The c h a r a c t e r o f the "pasha," who p l a y s a c e n t r a l  r o l e i n Byron's works,  i s v i r t u a l l y absent.  Lermontov  f o l l o w s B y r o n i c t r a d i t i o n to the l e t t e r i n p l a c i n g h i s s t o r y i n an e x o t i c " e a s t e r n " environment.  H i s h e r o i n e s , Vera  and Mary, a r e romantic s t e r e o t y p e s who e x i s t o n l y t o love the  hero, j u s t as Byron's h e r o i n e s d i d .  There a r e no  exact c o u n t e r p a r t s i n Byron f o r Doctor Werner and G r u s h n i t sky;  the former a c t s as a Mephistophelean c o n f i d a n t f o r the  106  hero  and  the l a t t e r  poseur  t o be  heros,  P e c h o r i n had  the  Nature  element  Because and  fatalism, Villain with  d e s t r o y e d by  Child,  Villain.  plays  he  the r o l e the hero.  his roots  Man  of Feeling,  his will  idea,  a new  Lermontov's  creation,  "Romanticism."  a new  like  Byron's  Gloomy E g o i s t  of cruelty  i s much c l o s e r  heroes.  and  of  Gothic  a destructive negative  possesses the q u a l i t i e s  a Byronic type of Romanticism analysis  Just  contains  t h a n most o f Byron's  pseudo-romantic  i n the preromantic types  Pechorin's character  final  of a  Thus,  modifications  to the Gothic  though  i n Princess  he  Mary,  resulted  interpretation  and  of the  began i n the  in a  new  concept  107 FOOTNOTES CHAPTER  ONE  T h e u n f i n i s h e d n o v e l - Princess Ligovskaya i s often c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a v a r i a n t o f Princess Mary. However, because o f t h e g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p l o t , s e t t i n g and character, I prefer to consider i t a completely d i f f e r e n t work. S i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e two a r e r a t h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t for the purposes of t h i s study. 2 H e n c e f o r t h , q u o t a t i o n s f r o m N a b o k o v ' s A Hero of Our Time (which i s the best t r a n s l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e ) will c o n t a i n t h e i r page number a t t h e end o f t h e t e x t . 3  V.N. K l u y e v a , 37.  vremeni,"  ^B.  "O  Tomashevsky,  See t h e t r a n s l a t i o n of A khina "Knyazhna 1830-kh godov" p. 59.  yazyke  "Proza  . . . Geroya  Lermontova  nashego  . . . ,"  50 6.  i n t r o d u c t i o n page x v i i i t o Nabokov's Hero of Our Time. S e e a l s o V.A. Y e v z e r i M e r i M. Y u . L e r m o n t o v a i s v e t s k a y a p o v e s t ' Uchonyye Zapiski ( L e n i n g r a d , 1961, V o l . 219),  c  Mersereau disagrees. 127.  Lermontov, 7  Peter  See  Gerlinghoff, .  John  Mersereau,  Frauengestalten  . . .,  118.  8 V.G. B e l i n s k y , Polnoye Sobraniye Sochineni^-, iv, 235. S e e a l s o A n d r e a s G u s k i , M. Ju. Lermontovs Konzeption . . , 198. 9 M e r s e r e a u , Op.Cit., p. 131 c o m p a r e s t h i s p a s s a g e with Gerfaut. 1 0  Gerlinghoff,  1 1  Havelock  Op.  Ellis,  Cit., The  119-120.  Psychology  of  Sex,  199.  12 (K.D.  N.A. Lisenkova Vishnevsky, ed.),  i n Tvorchestvo 195.  M.  Yu.  Lermontova  108 13 B.V. Neyman,  "Zhenskiye  obrazy  . • . ,"40  14 Wilhelm  S t e k e l , Sadism  and Masochism,  40.  15 B.V. Neyman, Op. C ^ t . ,  66.  16 N.A. L i s e n k o v a 1 7  Guski,  i n Op. Cit., 2 1 2 .  Op. Cit., 2 1 4 .  18 N.A. L i s e n k o v a  i n Op. Cit., 2 0 9 .  19 Gerlmghoff,  Op. Cit., 1 2 3 .  20 E.  Duchesne, M.I. Lermontov  . . . . , 175.  21 L.M. M y s h k o v s k a y a , "Geroy nashego v r e m e n i , " 32 $Hrypu p O M a H a H 3 a H H M a r o T B H a r a T e j i b H o e M e c T O , O f l H a K O H H G ^ H a H 3 H H X H e npeflc T a B J i . s e T C O 6 O H cKOJi&KO-Hn6yflb 3 a K O H ^ e H H o r o o6pa3a, o K O T O P O M M O X H O 6HJIO 6 H T O B O P H T B KaK o "XOTH  aceHCKHe  caMOCTOHTejiBHOM H B j i e H H H ; Kaacflan H 3 H H X n p H B e e n r p a n . H 0 3 H O C T H o6jiHKa T O J i b K O M H M O J i e T H a H TeHb, npoMejibKHyBmaa B K H 3 H H IleuopHHa. SCeHCKHe $ H r y p b i H 3 K H . H a e H a Mppg H e c o c T a B J i s i o T H C K j u e m e H H i i . Bepa no O T j i e j i b H M M HaMeKaM, 3aKJiK)MeHHbiM B poMaHe, Morjia 6 M  6biTb rjiyGoKHM H coflepacaTejibHbiM xeHCKHM o6pa30M ( e e nocjieflHee K Ile^opHHy) H O O H a , enje 6ojiee M e M . n p y r n e , 3aHHMaeT  nncbMO  nofl^HHeHHoe  nojipxeHHe  B  ojoaceTe."  22 F o r e v i d e n c e t h a t G r u s h n i t s k y was m o d e l l e d o n N.S. M a r t y n o v ( t h e man who, i r o n i c a l l y , k i l l e d L e r m o n t o v ) s e e A . I . V a s i l * c h i k o v , " N e s k o l ' k o s l o v o k o n c h i n e . . . .," 209. See a l s o S.N. D u r y l i n , Geroy nashego vremeni M, Yu. Lermontova, (1940), 141.  23 B o r i s Eykhenbaum, "^Richard  Freeborn,  Stat'i The Rise  o Levmontove, of the Russian  268-269. Novel,  67-68. 25 G. F r i d l e n d e r , " L e r m o n t o v i r u s s k a y a p o v e s t v o v a t e l n a y a p r o z a , " 4 8 . " . . . 6e3JiH^HOCTb H SecxapaKTepHOCTb no6yxfl,&K>T rpymHHHKoro flpannpoBaTbCtf B p o M a H T H u e c K H e Ofleacflbi C IjejIbK) "3aeMHHM" JIHIJOM npHKpblTb HeflOCTaTOK CO6CTBeHHoro." 2 6  85.  See  B.V. Neyman,  " P o r t r e t v t v o r c h e s t v e Lermontova,"  109 27 B o r i s Lermontova," 2 8  V.N.  29  Eykhenbaum,  "Literaturnaya  Pozitsiya  66. K l u y e v a , Op.  39-40.  Cit.,  S e e J o h n M e r s e r e a u , Op. C i t . p p . 114-115 f o r t h e r o l e that eavesdropping plays i n the novel. 3  important  V . G . B e l i n s k y , Op. C i t . , I V , 257. CaMOJiK>6He y B e p H J i o ero B H e S u B a j i o f t J I K S B H K KHHBCH8 H B JIIO6BH K H H S C H H K HeMy; caMOji»6He 3acTaBHjio ero BHfleTb B IleMopHHe C B o e r o conepHHKa H B p a r a ; caMOJiio6He pemnjio ero Ha 3arOBqp n p o T H B ^tecTH rie^opHHa; caMOjiio6He He a o n y c T H J i o ero noc-JiymaTbCH r o j i o c a CBoeft coBec-Tn H y B J i e ^ b c a C B O H M floGpbiM HauajiOM, ^ T O O H npH3HaTbCH B 3arOBope; caMOjno6He 3 a c T a B H j i o ero Bbic-TpejiHTb B 6e3opyxHoro MejiOBeica: T O see c a M o e caMOJiroSHe H c o c p e f l O T O H H J I O BCK) C H j i y ero .nymn B Taicyro pemHTejibHyio MHHyTy H 3acTaBHJIO n p e f l n o ^ e c T b BepHyio CMepTb BepHOMy c n a c e H H » ^epe3 npH3HaHne. 3 T O T ^ejiOBeic — anoTeo3 H e j i o ^ H o r o caMOJUoSHH H cjiaSocTH xapaKTepa: OTCiofla B e e e r o n o c T y n K H , — H HeC M O T P H Ha K a x y m y i o c H CHJiy e r o nocneflHero n o c T y n i c a , O H Bbimeji npHMO H3 c j i a 6 o c T H e r o x a p a K T e p a . " 3 0  3 1  n  John  Mersereau,  Op.  Cit.,  124-125.  32 N.  Bronshtein,  "Doktor Mayyer,"  492.  33 The g o o d d o c t o r i s p r o b a b l y t h i n k i n g o f V e r a h e r e , s i n c e he h a s a l r e a d y s e e n P e c h o r i n ' s r e a c t i o n when i n f o r m e d of her a r r i v a l .  34 See  L.  Marchand,  Byron's  Poetry,  42-43.  35 Peter 3  J. Thorslev,  ^'ibid. ,  141.  Ibid.,  149.  31  The  Byromo  Hero,  132  and f f .  38 as  a man  T h e r e i s i n d e e d much c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n P e c h o r i n o f a c t i o n a n d O n e g i n who i s n o t .  39 See  40  B.  J.T.  Shaw, " B y r o n a n d  Tomashevsky,  Op.  Cvt.,  Lermontov," 512.  335.  110  Ye. (Izdatel stvo  S o l l e r t i n s k y , i n Tvorohestvo M. "Nauka," Moscow, 1964), 265.  1  Yu.  Lermontova  42 M.N. Rozanov, " B a y r o n i c h e s k i y e motivy v t v o r c h e s t v e Lermontova" i n Venok Lermontovu, 358-359. "3TO, n p e & f l e B c e r o , O T H O C H T C H K n p o 6 j i e M e npHpoflu H K y j i b Typbi. OT P y c c o B a f t p o H BnojiHe y c B O H J i ce6e T O T K y j i b T npHpoflbi, T O T HaTypaJIH3M B I Q H p O K O M C M H C J i e C J I O B a , KOTOpblft H B J i a e T C H O f l H H M H 3 r J i a B H H X O G H O B a H H H flOKTpHHbl p y C C 0 H 3 M a . 3 T O T K V J I b T Beji 3 a COSOK) H a n p H x e H H O C T b s c T e T H ^ e c K o r o B O C I I P H H T H H n p H p o f l b i , n p H C T p a c T H e K O B c e M y ec-TecTBeHHOMy, n p o c T O M y , n e p B 0 6 b i T H 0 M y , O T ^ y s c f l e H H O C T b O T " o o M a H ^ H B b i x " 6 j i a r K y j i b T y p b i is T . J U 3 T O T HaTypajiH3M B O S ^ H X ^epTax ycBoeH is JlepMOHTOBbiM is npoxoflHTb KpacHefi H H T b i o u e p e 3 Bee e r o TBopuecTBO. JIioSoBb K n p H p o f l e , KaK M H ysce BHflejiH, npoaBHJiacb y H e r o c caMbix paHHHx jieT, H Bee e r o npoH3Be^eHH/i U . O J I H H s c T e T H ^ e c K H x BOCToprOB n e p e f l ee KpacoTaMH. 3 T O HanpnaceHHoe " ^ y B C T B O n p H p o f l b i " , 3 T a ^ y T K O C T b IS T O H K O C T b e e X y f l O S C e C T B e H H O r O B O d i p H H T H H CuejiajiH e r o C U H H M H 3 c a M b i x 3aMeuaTejibHbix xHBOiracn,eB n p H p o f l b i B MHpoBofl j i H T e p a T y p e . H J H P O K H M pa3MaxoM C B o e i t xyfloxcecTBeHHoft KHCTH, SjiecKOM, a p K O C T b i o is K p a c o ^ H O C T b E o 6 p a 3 0 B O H c o n e p HH^aeT c BaftpoHOM, a cocpeflOTO^eHHOH oHeprneft, miacTH^HOCTbio is C K y j i b n T y p H O K ) B b m y K j i o c T b K ) C B O H X onHcaHnft O Hflaacen p e BoexoflHT e r o . " 43 92.  G.G. Shevchenko, "O s v o y e o b r a z n S e e a l s o V . A . Y e v z e r i k h i n a , Op. Cit.,  metoda 69-71.  .  .  .  , "  44 Ye. S o l l e r t i n s k y , Op. Cvt., 267. " . . . H nett3asc B 3 T O M c j i y ^ a e ysce He BHCTynaeT K a K o 6 o 3 H a ^ e H n e MecTa fleftcTB H H , K a K a p e H a ^ e H T e j i b H O C T H r e p o n H J I H K a K cpoH S T O H ^eHTejibHOCTH. E r o $ y H K n ; H H 3flecb, rjiaBHbiM o 6 p a 3 0 M , ncKxojiorH^ecKaH, H Te H J I H HHbie o n H c a H H H flaKTCH u e p e 3 n p H 3 M y omymeHHft, ^yBCTB H HacTpoeHHft aBTOpa "acypHajiOB". I I o s T O M y O H H T O npnMO, T O KOCBeHHO c B H 3 a H H H c j i n p H ^ e c K H M H pa3MbinuieHnaMH, nepexo,2J,.aT B HHX, K a K B onHcaHHH poc-Konmoro yTpa nepBoro RISK n p e 6 b i B a H H H Tle^opHHa B I l H T H r o p c K e • "  45  46  47 79,  N.I.  Nikitin,  "Obraz P e c h o r i n a  N.M.  Rozanov,  Op.  I.  Annensky,  "Ob  Cit.,  61,  362,  esteticheskom  o t n o s h e n i i  Ill Thorslev,  4 8  Op. Cit.,  136.  4 9 Russia,  E . J . S i m m o n s , English Literature 303. 50 T h o r s l e v , Op. Cit., 4 6 .  and Culture  in  51 S . I . R o d z e v i c h , Lermontov kak Romanist, 43. " y B a f t p O H a , n p a B f l a , S T H ^ e p T b i n o j i y ^ i a i o T ocoSeHHO n p K o e BHpaaceHHe. B a 8 p o H c j i H B a e T H X C H O B H M H MepTaMH, T H U H ^ H W M H HMeHHO flJltf e r O H 0 3 3 H H , H e r O 06pa3bl BblTeCHHBT H3 II033HH o6pa3bi npeacHnx "CKOP6HHKOB" . OTCiofla, npHHHMan B O B H H M a H n e H y K a 3 a H H e c a M o r o J l e p M O H T O B a H a yBjie^eHHe BaftpoHOM, H caieflu HecoMHeHHoro n c u p a x a H H a euy B K)HOinecKOH jiHpHKe H K a B K a 3 C K H X nosMax, B 0 3 H H K a e T y 6 e 3 K , n e H H O C T b H B " 6 a i i p o H H 3 M e " I l e ^ o p HHa, o c H O B a H H a a Ha n o B e p x H O C T H O M c S j i H x e H H H e r o c repoHMH BaitpoHa; Meac^y TeM, K a K j i H T e p a T y p H b i f t T H H , ITe^opHH, n p H Hafljiexa K THny "cKopSHHKa", OTpaacaeT He T O J I B K O x a p a i c T e p H b i e MepTH OAHOH KaTeropHH "CKOPSHHKOB" — "6afipoHH ^ C K O H " — H O H t^epTH H H H X K a T e r o p H H , HaMe*iaiomHxc,H enje B 2 - f t nojiOBHHe 18-ro Beica." 52 Thorslev,  Op. Cit., 3 9 .  53 Canto  See H a r o l d a s h e a p p e a r s Three especially.  i n the beginning  of  ^ ^ V . G l u k h o v , i n Tvorohestvo M. Yu. Lermontova f l z d a t e l ' s t v o " N a u k a " M o s c o w , 1 9 6 4 ) , 306-307. " T a i c a H ace BHyTeHHHH coSpaHHOCTfa, o c T p o T a BOcnpHHTHH x a p a K T e p H 3 y e T .jjyraeBHoe c o c T O H H H e I l e ^ o p H H a H H a n o e ^ K H K e . 3 T O flaeT eMy B 0 3 M O X H O C T b 6bITb B CaMbie H a n p H X e H H b i e MHHyTH TBepflUM, HaXOfl^HBblM, BHfleTb C B O e r O npOTHBHHKa HaCKBOSb H flOSHTbCH no6eflH. Ka3ajiocb 6 M , I l e M o p H H flOJisceH 6bui HcnbiTaTb 6oJibinoe y f l O B j i e T B O p e H H e O T Toro, MTO O H pa3ra,n,aji 3aMbiceji CBOHX J I H ^ H H X B p a r O B He flaji e M y ocymecTBHTbca H o ^ e p x a j i Bepx. Ho y B H ^ e B O K p o B a B j i e H H H f t Tpyn r p y m m m K o r o , IleMopHH n e p e SCHJI CHjibHoe npaBCTBeHHoe noTpnceHHe, OH nouyBCTBOBaji, mo npoH3omjio He^TO yacacHoe, 6ecHejiOBe^HOe."  5 5  character  T h o r s l e v , Op. Cit., 1 4 1 . T h e name o f t h e H a r l e y h a sbeen m i s p r i n t e d Harvey here.  Ibid.,  56  168.  112 57  5 8  Marchand,  Op. Cit., 4 0 .  Thorslev,  Op.Cit.,  66-67.  59  6 0  Marchand,  Op.Cit.,  65.  Thorslev,  Op.Cit.,  165.  Ibid.,  178.  61  581.  6 2  E.  Duchesne,  6 3  Thorslev,  6 4  A.  Op.Cit.,  Op.Cit.,  von Gronicka,  280. 8.  "Lermontov s  debt t o Goethe,"  1  ^ U n l e s s t h e r e were i n h i s c h a r a c t e r make-up a c e r t a i n amount o f l a t e n t h o m o s e x u a l i t y , he w o u l d n o t d e s i r e t h e h u m i l i a t i o n o f men a l s o . 66 Encyclopaedia 67 Richard  141.  of Psychology,  167.  v o n K r a f f t - E b i n g , Psychopathia  Sexualis,  68 N.A. L i s e n k o v a , Op.Cit., 2 1 2 . "HeBecejibift C M H C J I pa.CKpbiBa.KT is c p p a r M e H T b i B 3 a H M O O T H o m e H H H I l e ^ o p H H a c B e p o M , KOTopbie npHBOflflTCH B n o B e c T H . 3 T O noTpaeaiomaH K a p T H H a 6 e 3 r p a H H ^ H O H B J i a c T H ^ e j i O B e K a U.B.R t*ejiOBeKOM, flpaivra. a 6 -  paScTBa  GOJi»THoro j i i o S o B H o r o c^acTbH  o6i>eKTOM  JIKSHTB uejiOBeKa, e r o My^HTejiBHOft  rjiySoKoro is c j i a ^ K o r o H e no^;o6Horo IleuopHHy is SbiTfe JIIOSBH."  69 N.I.  Nikitin,  Op. Cit.,  56.  " B j i a c T b  IleMOpHHa  KOTopyio B H y m a e T O H H M , HeCMOTpH H a T O , ^ T O S O J I b f f l H H C T B y H 3 H H X " H H ^ e T O He ^ a j i , Kpoivie CTpaflaHHH H C T p e M J i e H H e caMOFO IleMopHHa B O M T O 6bl T O H H C T a J I O C O X p a H H T b CBOK) C B 0 6 0 ^ y BOT U T O BbiCTynaeT H a nepBbift n j i a H B OTHomeHHHx I l e ^ o p H H a c 6 J I H 3 K H M H  Ha.ii;  sceHmHHaMH,  T a r J i y S o K a a  eMy  xceHmHHaMH.  .  .  .  n p z B H 3 a H H O C T b ,  P a c K p t i B a n  c e K p e T  STOH  BJiacTH, n o -  K a 3 b i B a n , 3 a ^CTO JI»6HJIH I l e M o p H H a T a K H e sceHmHHH K a K M s p a H B e p a , J l e p M O H T O B T e M caMHM flaeT B 0 3 M 0 X H 0 C T b , 6jiH»ce H r j i y S n e noHHTb 3 T o r o C T p a H H o r o M e j i O B e K a . " M a r i o P r a z , The Romantic Agony, 76. 7 1  Harriet  Beecher Stowe,  Lady  Byron  Vindicated.  113 72 73  T h o r s l e v ,  Ibid.,  Op.  Cit.,  8.  174.  74 V . F - .  A s m u s  :  ,"Krug  i d e y , L e r m o n t o v a ,  "  100.  75 We f o r m  m u s t  a n dt h a t  r e m e m b e r  t h e s e  76 M. U m a n "B p o M a H T K ^ e c K H  Princess  t h a t  f a t a l i s t i c  Mary  r e f e r e n c e s  i  s w r i t t e n  a r e n o t i n  i n  d i a r y  r e t r o s p e c t .  s u d ' b y i i i r o m a n voli...,"19. M e T a $ o p H ^ e c K O H $ o p M e CBoeo6pa3HHH "(fcaTajiHSM" I l e ^ o p H H a o 6 H a p y s c H B a e T noHHMaHHe H M B H y T p e H H e n H e C B o S o f l M , B J i a c T H o r o H C T H M e c K H x - ^ y B C T B H c T p a c T e f t , $ a T a j i f a H O , He3aBHCHMO O T e r o B O J I H / n p e B p a m a K i K H x Ile^opHHa ,B " o p y f l H e K a 3 H H " H pa3pyniHTejiH nyxnx H a f l e a c / j ; . IleuopHH, HaflejieHHuii O C T P O T O H n c H x o j i o r H M e c K o r o 3 p e H H H , 6 J I H 3 0 K K IIOCTHKeHHK3 T O r O , ^ T O RO K O H U S . H O H f l J I T O J I b K O a B T O p pOMaHai. HMeHHO y T p a T a "6jiaropo,HHbix c T p e M J i e H H H " - " j i y m n e r o H B e T a S C H 3 H H " , "npHMaHKH C T p a c T e f t nycTHx H H e S j i a r o ^ a p H b i x " oSpeicaioT e r o n a "acajiKyro pojib najia^a  HJIH  S e e s e e  "Roman  ycjiOBHOii,  npe#aTejifl".  77  F o r a  209.  s k a y a ,  "  N a b o k o v ' s  f u r t h e r  t r a n s l a t i o n  d i s c u s s i o n  Op.Cit.,  V . A . Y e v z e r i k h i n a ,  o f  A Hero  o f P e c h o r i n  of Our  Time,  a n d m a r r i a g e ,  61.  78 A . K .  B o c h a r o v a  M. Yu. Lermontova 7  "B —  9  G .  e d . ) ,  Op.Cit., 39. 6opt6a, n p o H c x o f l f l m a n  6opb6a  aScTpaKTHbix,  fleficTBHTejibHOCTH. KOTopbie  B  H " a f l a " ,  6opK)TCH  Jjyme  B  flyme  IleHopHHa,  BbicoKoro  Hfleajia  H nojiOKHTejibHHe —  3TO  Ile^opKHa, Ha^aji H  Ha^ajia,  a  flnajieKTH^ecKHe  npoTOBonojioacHOCTH.  6opb6a  e c T b  c a M r e p o f i .  HMeHHO  3TO H  eflHHoSopcTBe HJIH  npoTHBonojioacHbix  noSejje o ^ H o r o  IleuopHHa  H3 H H X Hajj;  H KaK OTjjejibHoM  8  0  T h o r s l e v ,  162.  ^^Ibid.,  163.  flpyrHM  JIHMHOCTH,  Op. Cit.,  ^Ibid.,  HaMaji,  —  "HH3KOH"  H e aScTpaKTHbie,  MeTa$H3H^ecKHe, —  Tvorehestvo  i n  231.  B3aHMOHCKjnouaiomHx  "jjoSpa" H " 3 J i a " , 0TpHH.aTe j i b H b i e  "He6a"  . P e c h o r i n a "  F r i d l e n d e r ,  T O ace B p e M H  3TO H e  " F a t a l i z m  ( K . D . V i s h n e v s k y ,  B  Hx  IIOCTOHHHOM  a He B H X p a B H O B e c H H 3aKjtK)^aeTca c a M a n c y H K a K T n n H M e c K o r o  T b  Jinna  162.  83 N a t u r a l l y t o  t h e G o t h i c  t h o s e  V i l l a i n ,  h e r o e s  e . g .L a r a ,  o f B y r o n p o s s e s s  w h oa r e c l o s e s t m o r e  f a t a l i s m .  SIIOXH."  CHAPTER  TWO  BELA  The of  Princess  of  the  previous  chapter  demonstrated  Mary  chiefly  contained  hero.  was  In Chapter  Byronic  features of  Beta,  Hero  Our  The  of  several  of  Princess  appearing  the thus the  Bela.  i s the  third  unless  of  one  will  One,  keeping A  lies  be  As  as  mentioned  Moreover,  i n Princess  i n Bela  parts  he  the  the  very  To  before,  Pechorin  appears only  i n much t h e  above problems  a b o u t who Byronic s a m e way  in  I n Princess  and matters  confuse  i s  the saying  features as  in  in  Chapter  i n mind.  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n Princes  setting.  Bela,  take  i n one's remarks about certain  the  of  novel,  further complicate  d i s c u s s i o n of  on  difficulties  for his lengthy confession)  careful  The  in  those  Mary  of  their  However,  scheme o f  light.  carried  vital  i n the  setting.  the  dissimilar  have P e c h o r i n  i t i n the  i . e . t o be  w h a t a b o u t whom. Bela  very  five  n a r r a t i v e w i t h i n a n a r r a t i v e can  i s very  characters,  the  though w r i t t e n a f t e r  (except  in a different  both  the  n a r r a t o r but  person  device  f i r s t of  structure."*"  Mary,  after  place before himself  the  the  they  Caucasus as  because of  events and  the  I i n t e n d to examine  are  Byronism  i n the d e l i n e a t i o n  Two  stories  ways, a l t h o u g h  h e r o and arise  Time.  that the  Mary  the  s Mary . a n d plots  and  Bela  intrigues spa  of  are  presented  Pyatigorsk.  gatherings display  i n Bela,  wild  "uncivilized" tribes  geography)  of  f a r away  from  the  Pyatigorsk.  i s definitely  action takes  (at l e a s t  latter  in spirit  point i s very  intrude into  Princess  of  Child  Nature  indications  such  or  as Mary's mistaken  cassian or these  the  fake  impression  raid.  Caucasus passages,  almost  anywhere  relationships  as  i n the  In  of  and  the  relationships  of  but  also with  conquered mountain  exotic lyrical  setting, way  number o f latter,  although  than  nature  perhaps  passages  i s more i m p o r t a n t  and  a c t i o n of  the  setting  Bela  are  itself.  very  f o r the  Russians  i n Princess  not  less  Mary  the  f o r the  important  because  the  expressions  geography as  a  take  this  latter  Cirfor  the  human  point  i s a  only with  that  story  of  themselves  inhabitants. important  The  in  the  a  sheer  includes i n  development of Byronic  Byron's e x o t i c  —  place  story of  because of  Thus, the  in resorts  could  that Pechorin  striking.  in  i f i t were not  i t i s on  c o n t r a s t w i t h Bela  the  the  social  o n l y as  of  It i s a  the  the  not  i f not  Pechorin  Mary  country.  lies,  Mary  fact,  Princess  among R u s s i a n s  easily  place  Russianized environment of  This  can  C a u c a s u s among M o s l e m  elements of  social  This  "wild" the  and  Grushnitsky  the  the  A  like  however, where the areas  milieu society at  salons, balls  Byronic mantle.  case  like  There are  where young poseurs  their  mountain  w i t h i n the  the  the  plot  aspects eastern  of  116 environments Turkish The  tale,  Corsair  which  o f s u c h w o r k s a s The The  Giaour  }  takes p l a c e i n Greece,  wild  the  far-off  Caucasian locales settings  mystery  and prodded  English  Romanticism,  mountain  Bela.  takes p l a c e i n Turkey,  a n d The  and f i g u r e s  Siege  of  i n Bela.  oriental  Corinth^  paralleled  by  Just  as  works provided  the imaginations of the readers of so t h e promise  o f adventure of  by t h e Kabards,  savage  Chechens and  gave e x c i t e m e n t and f a s c i n a t i o n  Moreover,  a  of Abydos,  are closely  o f Byron's  areas inhabited  Ossetians  also  an A r a b i a n n a r r a t i v e  3  the  in  which  Bride  to the readers of  t h e R u s s i a n s were a t t h a t  time  still  t h e process o f conquering these p e o p l e s , so t h e l u r e o f  a d v e n t u r e was v e r y much i n t h e m i n d o f t h e R u s s i a n r e a d e r . In  Bela,  the  just  story.  a s i n many o f B y r o n ' s  The p l o t  itself  develops  works,  the setting i s  from t h i s  exotic  environment.  2 V.A. Y e v z e r l k h m a unusual about girl  a story  involving  by a R u s s i a n o f f i c e r ,  between these g i r l s  h a s shown t h a t  t h e r e was n o t h i n g  the abduction of a  since  at that  and t h e s o l d i e r s  time  native  affairs  seemed t o be  rather  3  common.  This kind  in  tales  various  Byron's  era.  modifications  of intrigue  had been a s t o c k m o t i f  a n d poems i n t h e R o m a n t i c  However, Lermontov  h a s made  vein  during  some  fascinating  o f t h e commonplace B y r o n i c l o v e  The  type o f pasha  the  hero  who  serves as an o b s t a c l e  and heroine's love  i s almost absent  triangle.  i n t h e way o f here.  In  117 Byron's works the type  f i g u r e who  that  the  own  hero  type  and  Of  must break  and  through  father-  provides a  to g a i n the  barrier  heroine.  personal appearance  i t i s at h i s i n v i t a t i o n  M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h go He  i s generally a  hero  m a k e s no  course,  meets B e l a .  pasha  opposes the  father actually  story.  of  t o t h e w e d d i n g and  is a prince, a  rank  in  that  the  Pechorin  Pechorin  that,  Bela's  first  according  to  4  Durylin,  d i d not  But  the  the  kidnapping  of  author  comparable  The  Corsair,  Bela  gain the  her  nature  overcome  the  Kazbich's  from  is  i s the  the local  not  he  and  husband  pasha and  formula  has  tribes.  immediately thus  he  of  after  i s even  i n Princess  figures  The  fact  Mary  Bride  i s m o d i f i e d to the  abducted  love of  and  may  be  Byron's heroines,  heroine's revenge  the  her,  setting  as  young n a t i v e g i r l  of  Abydos,  extent  that  hero,  Pechorin,  P e c h o r i n must  her  heroine  taken  the  The  s t i l l  especially  f o r the  for granted  i n Bela  must  hero  hero  by  must  sub-plot that actually  develops  shows t h e  In.fact, and  the  savage customs  real  crux  of  the  passionate wooing of  submission  t o him,  but  is  the  intrigue  abduction or  and  entire  Lermontov  inhabitants.  Pechorin's  the  stubbornness.  is a  less  such.  obstacle which  Tales, the  of  o l d man  Chechen  W h e r e a s i n many w o r k s o f B y r o n ,  accomplished  very  Vera's  Giaour  love.  w i t h the  o f f the  to the  After  Oriental  exist  h i s daughter  Byronic  herself  overcome.  the  of  The  The  of  kills  a p a s h a t h a n was  not  an  really  of plot  the  rather  118  the  cooling of  demonstrate  the  The Byron,  description not  also  an  only  travelling blizzard, recount  which  suspense, the  clearing  their to  the  last  the At  part of  of  the  Finally,  shows t h e  of  development of  n a r r a t o r has  the  beginning are  his story.  storm,  works  a recurring motif  t h e m o u n t a i n s and  his story, a  scene  i n the  i n the  the  and  the  to give  they  passing  of  this  by  a  opportunity  Then, t o  the  stops  storm  to  achieve climax  by  continue  old captain  second b l i z z a r d  i t i s  meet  delayed  travellers  the  but  in  Maksim  n a r r a t i v e i s broken o f f before  journey.  finish  important  g i v e s Maksim M a k s i m y c h an  first  i t to  It i s also significant  storm  his story.  behind  1  role  which  reasons  Pechorin s personality.  Mary.  i s the  through  the  of  important  through  Maksimych t e l l  the  motif, very  i n Princess  a device  and  subtleties  storm  played  Bela:  h i s ardour  an.occasion  them.^  too,  and  The the  6 narrator serves  p a r t s w i t h Maksim Maksimych.  as  a  literary  device  both  Thus t h e  to provide  an  storm  opportunity  7  for  n a r r a t i o n and As  a  lyrical  w i t h much t h e a  different  is  hardly  of  Princess  any  detail  a build-up of motif  same e f f e c t  narrator.  lyrical Mary and  and  the as  storm  compared  absence of  occurs  i n Princess  Nevertheless,  is virtually  the  suspense.  to the  Mary,  the  first  flowery  threadbare. any  twice  lengthy  in  Bela-  however  with  description storm  There  passages  i s hardly  description  is  119 very n o t a b l e :  ". . . a f i n e r a i n began t o f a l l .  I  b a r e l y had time to throw my f e l t c l o a k over my shoulders, when i t began to snow h e a v i l y . at  the j u n i o r c a p t a i n . " (p. 7)  I looked w i t h  reverence  However, the second example  r e t u r n s t o a more p o e t i c enumeration o f v i v i d d e t a i l and r e v e a l s a much c l o s e r p a r a l l e l t o the l y r i c a l  Byronic  motif. Meanwhile, the clouds had s e t t l e d , i t began t o h a i l and t o snow h e a v i l y ; the wind, b u r s t i n g i n t o the gorges, roared, w h i s t l e d l i k e N i g h t i n g a l e , the Robber, and soon the stone c r o s s disappeared i n the mist, which was r o l l i n g i n from the e a s t , i n b i l l o w s each t h i c k e r and more compact than the one before . . . the b l i z z a r d hummed louder and louder, j u s t l i k e one o f our own i n the n o r t h , o n l y i t s savage melody was more s o r r o w f u l , more p l a i n t i v e , (p. 33) Thus, . . . there i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r each o f Byron's terms i n Lermontov's d e s c r i p t i o n o f the ascent o f Gud-gora, which must have been supremely e x c i t i n g for d w e l l e r s upon the endless Russian p l a i n s . He mentions the storm c l o u d t h a t smoke around the peaks, and the sudden and d e v a s t a t i n g onset o f the tempest, and the b i t t e r winds t h a t c u t down through the gorges. Lermontov's c h a r a c t e r s approach from the south s i d e o f the range, as Byron d i d , under the guidance o f O s s e t i a n d r i v e r s . ( E n t w i s t l e , p. 142) Is  the heroine o f the s t o r y a romantic  stereotype?  Nabokov c e r t a i n l y t h i n k s so, c a l l i n g her "an O r i e n t a l beauty 9 on the l i d o f a box o f T u r k i s h d e l i g h t " t r u e t h a t there i s l i t t l e  (p. x v i i i )  It i s  lengthy d e s c r i p t i o n o f her o r  b a r e l y any i n s i g h t i n t o the workings o f her mind.  The  120 author is  characterizes  limited  to  her  mountain  gazelle"  is  typical  quite  that  of  the  her  dark and of  mainly  eyes her  a  by  which  her  "resembled  slim  figure.  romantic  heroine  Turkish beauty  Leila  beauty.  i n  The and  those  Moreover, of  the  are  once  native  very  Byron's  of  she  Moscow  She u s e d lezginka seen our and once, Nobility, o n l y none her! It  Most love  the  gives  her  Pechorin to at  far  or  St.  love  similar  after  t e l l ,  of  the  at  dancing  the  romantic  concept  and  singing  sophisticated  society  Petersburg.  to  is  he  that  has  once  hero  only  upon  accomplishes  this  after  he  and  gifts.  again  overcome  the  blandishments  to  Giaour.  to s i n g songs f o r us, or dance the . . . A n d how she d a n c e d ! I have young l a d i e s i n p r o v i n c i a l c i t i e s , s i r , I v i s i t e d the Club of the i n M o s c o w , some t w e n t y y e a r s a g o — of them would stand a chance against was a d i f f e r e n t t h i n g a l t o g e t h e r ! (p.  important  hero,  a b i l i t i e s  surpasses  of  473-479)  Giaour,  representative  girl, Bela's  extensive;  ladies  again  this  description  Her e y e ' s dark charm 'twere v a i n to But gaze on that of the Gazelle, It w i l l a s s i s t thy fancy w e l l ; As l a r g e , as l a n g u i s h i n g l y d a r k , But Soul beam'd f o r t h i n every spark That darted from beneath the l i d , B r i g h t as the j e w e l o f G i a m s c h i d .  (The  Even  These,  she  stubbornness.  his  courting  however,  i  only  her  abducts  f i r s t .  exists  35)  Bela do  of by  not  to  Bela her.  resorting work  121 B e s i d e s , P e c h o r i n w o u l d m a k e h e r some p r e s e n t e v e r y day; d u r i n g t h e f i r s t d a y s , she w o u l d s i l e n t l y a n d p r o u d l y p u s h away t h e g i f t s , w h i c h w o u l d t h e n go t o t h e i n n k e e p e r ' s w i f e a n d e x c i t e h e r e l o q u e n c e . Ah, g i f t s ! W h a t w o n ' t a woman d o f o r a b i t o f colored rag. . . . L e t ' s not d i g r e s s , however . . . . F o r a l o n g t i m e , P e c h o r i n w a s t e d h i s e f f o r t s on h e r ; m e a n w h i l e , he was l e a r n i n g T a t a r , a n d s h e was beginning to understand Russian, (pp. 24-25)  After  these  gently  efforts  do  chastises Bela  not  prove  f o r her  t o be  successful,  Pechorin  stubbornness  " L i s t e n t o me, my p e r i , " he w a s s a y i n g . "You know v e r y w e l l t h a t , s o o n e r o r l a t e r , y o u m u s t be m i n e — why t h e n d o y o u k e e p t o r m e n t i n g me? You a r e n o t i n l o v e w i t h some C h e c h e n , a r e y o u ? I f you a r e , I ' l l l e t y o u g o home i m m e d i a t e l y . " She g a v e a h a r d l y p e r c e p t i b l e s t a r t and shook her head. "Or i s i t , " h e w e n t o n , " t h a t I am c o m p l e t e l y h a t e f u l t o y o u ? " She s i g h e d . "Or d o e s y o u r f a i t h f o r b i d y o u t o f a l l i n l o v e w i t h me?" She g r e w p a l e a n d r e m a i n e d s i l e n t . " B e l i e v e me, A l l a h i s t h e s a m e f o r a l l r a c e s , a n d i f h e a l l o w s me t o l o v e y o u , why s h o u l d he f o r b i d you t o r e t u r n my f e e l i n g s ? " S h e l o o k e d i n t e n t l y i n t o his f a c e , a s i f s t r u c k w i t h t h i s new i d e a : h e r e y e s e x p r e s s e d d i s t r u s t a n d t h e d e s i r e t o m a k e s u r e . ( p . 25)  t h e n he has  becomes v e r y  tried  a n g r y when she  unsuccessfully to k i s s  more t r u s t i n g  as  gifts. . Still  she  at  buying  virginity.  by  offering  sorry  for  her  her  her  captor  does not  her.  continues give  i n to  Pechorin  f r e e d o m and  starts The  cry  her  Pechorin's  feel  after  young g i r l  to bribe  finally  making her  to  he  becomes  with  more  attempts  makes B e l a guilty  submit  and  him.  " B e l a ! " h e s a i d , " Y o u k n o w how I l o v e y o u . I dared to c a r r y y o u o f f , t h i n k i n g t h a t when y o u g o t t o k n o w me, y o u w o u l d l o v e me; I h a v e made a m i s t a k e ; farewell! Remain i n complete p o s s e s s i o n of every-  122 t h i n g I o w n ; i f y o u l i k e , g o b a c k t o y o u r f a t h e r -you a r e f r e e . I am g u i l t y b e f o r e y o u , a n d m u s t punish myself. F a r e w e l l , I am g o i n g — w h e r e ? How s h o u l d I know? perchance, I s h a l l n o t be l o n g r u n n i n g a f t e r a b u l l e t o r a sword blow: remember me t h e n , a n d f o r g i v e me." He t u r n e d a w a y a n d e x t e n d e d h i s hand i n f a r e w e l l . She d i d n o t t a k e h i s h a n d , s h e was s i l e n t . ( p . 27)  Thus B e l a It  takes  i s only  slightly  a manipulation  in.  i s a true Byronic  Bela  does l o v e P e c h o r i n  that  forces her to yield. o f a Gulnare  had loved Pechorin  she  confessed  Pechorin,  Bela ardour she  begins  made s u c h  f o r i t shows  that  true  time  they  that  met: "'Yes,  since the day she f i r s t  an impression  to cool.  to the passionate  saw  t o h e r i n dreams, a n d t h a t no  i s understandably  slipping  f o r h i m t o make h e r  t h e y o u n g woman c o n f e s s e s  t o us t h a t ever  i s not deluded  gradually  Moreover,  since the f i r s t  he o f t e n a p p e a r e d  man h a d e v e r  touch  and b r i b e r y .  and i t i s the threat o f l o s i n g him  o r Kaled  she  by g i f t s  of her feelings  give  spirit  This  won o v e r  of her before.'"  disappointed as  Even though  Pechorin's  she i s devoted  by her love and q u i c k l y  ( p . 27)  realizes  t o him he i s  away.  "And w h e r e i s P e c h o r i n ? " I a s k e d . "Out hunting." " D i d he go o u t t o d a y ? " She w a s s i l e n t , a s t h o u g h s h e f o u n d i t difficult to articulate. "No, h e ' s b e e n a w a y s i n c e y e s t e r d a y , " s h e s a i d at l a s t , w i t h a heavy s i g h . "I hope n o t h i n g happened t o him?" "Yesterday, I thought and thought a l l day," she answered t h r o u g h h e r t e a r s , " I i m a g i n e d v a r i o u s accidents: i t w o u l d n o w s e e m t o me t h a t h e h a d b e e n w o u n d e d b y a w i l d b o a r , a n d now, t h a t a C h e c h e n had c a r r i e d h i m o f f t o t h e m o u n t a i n s . A n d t o d a y I'm b e g i n n i n g t o t h i n k t h a t h e d o e s n o t l o v e me." ( p . 3 6 )  Bela  i s a p r o u d woman a n d e m p h a t i c a l l y  as  a princess  is  a great  and n o t Pechorin's  contrast  Pechor i n ' s  t o Vera,  affirms her status  slave.  In this  who r e a d i l y  way s h e  admits t o  being  slave.  "She s t a r t e d t o c r y , t h e n p r o u d l y l i f t e d h e r head, wiped h e r t e a r s and went on: ' I f h e d o e s n o t l o v e me, who p r e v e n t s h i m f r o m s e n d i n g me h o m e ? I don't force him. But i f things go o n l i k e t h i s , I ' l l g o away m y s e l f : I'm n o t h i s s l a v e , I am t h e d a u g h t e r o f a p r i n c e ! ' " ( p p . 3 6 - 3 7 )  This  latter  sincerity devoted a  statement provides  of Bela's  sacrifices  she  loves.)  escaping.  considers  degree o f self-esteem.  who  for  f e e l i n g s toward  t o him and only  certain  a l l her pride Nevertheless,  information Pechorin.  injured  pride  typical  romantic  so much s o i n h e r c a s e  Bela  strong  Bela  that  that Pechorin  She i s d e e p l y  (Contrast  this  she has with  Vera  and s e l f - r e s p e c t f o r t h e one  f o rher devotion heroine,  about the  l e a v i n g because  i s proud  However, l i k e a l l B y r o n i c  the hero proves very  contention  ample  and does  heroines  her love  and she s a c r i f i c e s to Pechorin. loves  the hero  she g a i l y  does n o t love  consider  h e r own  Like the to  dismisses  distraction,  her logical  her, although  merriment does n o t l a s t .  "'You're r i g h t , you're r i g h t ! ' she answered. ' I ' l l be g a y . ' And w i t h a p e a l o f l a u g h t e r , s h e s e i z e d h e r tambourine, and began t o s i n g , dance, a n d s k i p a r o u n d me; b u t t h i s t o o , d i d n o t l a s t ; she f e l l o n t h e b e d a g a i n a n d c o v e r e d h e r f a c e w i t h h e r h a n d s . " ( p . 37)  this  Unlike  Vera,  lengthy  Bela  absence.  does n o t reproach Her gentle  dependent on him t h a t  like  noticeably i fPechorin  final  outcome though,  him  Pechorin  refusal  tain her  her religion,  does n o t c a r e s s  loved  her.  h e r and she g e n t l y  A remarkable  detail  Atthe  reproaches  here  Pechorin  Pechorin,  of character  which  f l o w e r , she  d o e s come t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  she i s i n love with  certain resoluteness  for his  i s so s t r o n g l y  t o become a C h r i s t i a n t o " j o i n  Although a  Bela  does n o t l o v e  i n her delirium.  affection  a w i l d mountain  wilts  that  Pechorin  Bela  i s her i n heaven."  demonstrates  i n h e r d e s i r e t o main-  f o r h e r means t h a t  she w i l l  lose  one i n t h e a f t e r l i f e .  "She b e g a n t o g r i e v e t h a t s h e w a s n o t a C h r i s t i a n , and t h a t i n t h e n e x t w o r l d h e r s o u l w o u l d n o t meet P e c h o r i n ' s s o u l , a n d t h a t some o t h e r woman w o u l d b e h i s sweetheart i n heaven. The t h o u g h t o c c u r r e d t o me t o h a v e h e r b a p t i z e d b e f o r e h e r d e a t h ; t h i s I s u g g e s t e d t o h e r . S h e l o o k e d a t me h e s i t a n t l y , a n d f o r a l o n g time c o u l d n o t say a word; a t l a s t she r e p l i e d t h a t s h e w o u l d d i e i n t h e same f a i t h i n w h i c h s h e was b o r n . " (p. 4 6)  There  i s strength  Pechorin, V,  she  u  i nthis  l o v i n g y o u n g woman s o d e v o t e d t o  y e t steadfastly maintaining  the convictions  -10  i •  believesi n . After  Byronic  a l l though, Bela  heroine  i n her undying  closely  Her p a t h e t i c i n f a t u a t i o n with  her  a n d makes h e r o v e r l o o k  pride  her fate with  hardly  Pechorin  histiring  dominated by h u m i l i t y and submission  accepts  resembles the stock  f a i t h f u l n e s s toward t h e  hero."^  is  that  a whimper.  forestalls  of her.  Pride  as t h e young  woman  Though B e l a  i sa  125 distinctly little of  primitive  girl  concrete detail  h e r as i g n o r a n t  mainstream loving  t o back  savage.  there i s  Bela  does  f i t well  i n her sole  into the purpose o f  the hero.  twelve-page essential  story  that  contrasting  i s the central  figure  the o l dcaptain  i n Bela.  appears  i s seen through the eyes  an  appearance  i n the f i r s t  o f t h e e v e n t s i n Bela.  Maksimych  character  of the  b e a r s h i s name b u t h e i s a l s o  he  bulk  tribe,  up P e c h o r i n ' s d i s m i s s a l  o f the heroines o f Byron  Maksim Maksimych  story  from a "savage"  has been warmly  In the latter  i n two d i f f e r e n t  of the narrator  lights:  and a l s o  person as t h e narrator Lermontov's praised  an  portrayal  b y many R u s s i a n  makes  of the o f Maksim critics  as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f the best elements o f the "grassroots"  of  The p r e s e n c e o f M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h  his to his  Mother stern  Russia.  k i n d n e s s and adds a f u r t h e r  Lermontov's  work,  creative  and  dimension  f o r B y r o n h a d no M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h  i n  works. 12 Maksim Maksimych  person and  i s first  seen  i n the third  as t h e n a r r a t o r meets him t r a v e l l i n g  presents a concise  description  up t h e m o u n t a i n  of h i sexternal  appear-  13 ance. the  The o v e r a l l  impression that  r e a d e r i s o n e o f t h e o l d man's  great  experience i n the Caucasus.  this  robust  detail stature  gives and h i s  126 B e h i n d i t w a l k e d i t s owner p u f f i n g a t a s m a l l Kabardan p i p e mounted w i t h s i l v e r . He w o r e a n o f f i c e r ' s s u r t o u t , w i t h o u t e p a u l e t s , and a C i r c a s s i a n shaggy cap. He s e e m e d a b o u t f i f t y years o l d ; h i s tanned complexion i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i s f a c e had l o n g been a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the TransC a u c a s i a n sun, and h i s p r e m a t u r e l y g r a y e d m u s t a c h e d i d not harmonize w i t h h i s f i r m g a i t and h i s vigorous appearance. I w a l k e d o v e r t o h i m a n d made a bow. He s i l e n t l y a c k n o w l e d g e d my bow a n d exhaled a huge p u f f o f t o b a c c o smoke. ( p . 4)  Maksim Maksimych's itive  tribes  slyness  and  incisive  i s very their  knowledge of  apparent  cheating  as  he  the  berates  region's them f o r  primtheir  ways.  "It's t h i s way s i r : t h e s e A s i a t i c s a r e t e r r i b l e rascals! You t h i n k t h e y a r e t r y i n g t o h e l p w i t h that shouting? B u t t h e d e v i l knows what i t i s t h e y are shouting. The o x e n — they understand; you may h i t c h a s c o r e o f them b u t as s o o n as t h o s e d r i v e r s s t a r t t o s h o u t i n t h e i r own w a y , t h e o x e n w i l l not budge . . . Dreadful rogues! B u t w h a t c a n y o u do to them? T h e y l o v e t o s q u e e z e money o u t o f t r a v e l l e r s . . . They have been s p o i l e d , the r o b b e r s ! You'll see, t h e y ' l l get you t o t i p them, t o o . I know them w e l l , t h e y c a n ' t t a k e me i n ! " (pp . 4-5) (  Maksim Maksimych a l s o has the  Caucasus  states (p. of  knows t h e i r  linguistic  people  i s brought out  that bribery w i l l  her  stop  resisting  the  captain's robustness in battle.  not  Pechorin  The  and  author  again  the  later  work too  as on  he  and  well" .  ways and  on  in  customs correctly  Bela  to  make  In addition to  experience, points out  "very  well  completely.  experience  for Pechorin  language  His p e n e t r a t i n g knowledge of  predicts  eous  solid  constantly interprets  h i m s e l f t h a t he  13) the  f o r he  a  he  i s very  t h a t Maksim  couragMaksimych  127 has  twice  native their  tribes. fierce  peaceful states with  been promoted He  admires  recklessness  Ossetians  that  f o r h i s brave  who  t h e Chechens and but  do  " B o t h h i s own  the t r a v e l l i n g  phrases, which  exploits against  looks  not bear  with  author are f u l l  are t y p i c a l  for a  Kabardans  contempt  arms.  n a r r a t i v e and  on  for the  Mersereau his  conversations  of forceful,  soldier  the  who  mordant  has  spent  14 his  whole  adult  The  old captain obviously  acknowledges local  life  with  fighting  i n a completely  real  admires  masculine  a fighting  admiration  environment."  spirit.  the w i l d courage  He  of  the  inhabitants.  " W e l l , my g o o d s i r , we d i d g e t t i r e d o f t h o s e cut-throats. Nowadays, t h a n k goodness, t h i n g s have q u i e t e d d o w n , b u t t h e way i t u s e d t o b e — you j u s t w a l k e d a hundred paces beyond t h e r a m p a r t , and t h e r e was b o u n d t o b e some s h a g g y d e v i l s i t t i n g a n d watching you: one s e c o n d o f f g u a r d , and i t w o u l d h a p p e n : e i t h e r a l a r i a t w o u l d be a r o u n d y o u r n e c k o r t h e r e w o u l d be a b u l l e t i n t h e b a c k o f y o u r h e a d . B u t w h a t b r a v e f e l l o w s ! . . . " ( p . 8)  Although areas,  he  i s experienced  M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h knows v i r t u a l l y  outside  world,  remarks  about One  character attitude belief aptly  i n t h e ways o f t h e w i l d  —  as w i t n e s s e d  by  nothing  h i s ignorant,  Caucasian  about  yet not  the unexpected,  the English.  o f the most  striking  f a c e t s o f Maksim  e s p e c i a l l y f o r a Russian  toward  drinking.  t h a t vodka demonstrates  acceptance of the  The  simple  does not mix w i t h  —  i s his.  practicality  danger  his straightforward state of things.  soldier  Maksimych's  of his  or loneliness  unhedonistic  His astute  practicality  128  and  simplicity  figure.  Furthermore, Maksim Maksimych's  capacity  f o r both kindness  unbounded he  gives  post  and f i r s t  with  f o r Pechorin  ceremonious with  foolhardy  y o u n g man  Indeed,  feature.  He  Pechorin  Bela  "like  f o r h e r when s h e i s s a d .  experience  with  experience  i n the practical  women i n g r e a t  "'What w a s I t o d o w i t h  anything;  predicament,  is  Pechorin  t o o complex an i n d i v i d u a l  comprehend,  t h o u g h he l i k e s  When P e c h o r i n  uses  frank,  Maksim and i s very that  h i s extensive  women.  I thought and  remained  not think of  silent  . . .  ( p . 37) individual  he a d m i t s  who  uses  t h a t he does n o t  h i m "a b i t o d d . "  Pechorin  f o r Maksim Maksimych t o t h e y o u n g man  open  he  a l l , do y o u know, I ' v e  i s a simple  and c a l l s  the  o f the Caucasus:  sir!"'  straight-forward logic;  understand  stern  h i s lack of  comfort h e r , and c o u l d  Maksim Maksimych honest,  After  f o r some t i m e we b o t h  A most unpleasant  deep  H i s own a d m i s s i o n  affairs  her?  Bela.  contrast with  to deal with  t h o u g h t how I c o u l d  a  t o be  a daughter"  d o e s n o t k n o w how t o c o m f o r t h e r b e l i e s  never had occasion  feels  his big  e v e n when r e p r o a c h i n g  f o r making o f fw i t h  that  a t the out-  and finds i t d i f f i c u l t  M a k s i m y c h comes t o l o v e sorry  arrives  Grushnitsky.  and  i s virtually  b y t h e warm r e c e p t i o n  when t h e l a t t e r  i s h i s most e n d e a r i n g  affection and  h i s duel  un-Byronic  friendliness  and g e n e r o s i t y  evidenced  to Pechorin  after  heart  make M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h a m o s t  logic,  a l l t h e same.  Maksim  Maksimych  129 cannot quarrel with  his  argument.  "'Look h e r e , G r i g o r i y A l e k s a n d r o v i c h , you must a d m i t t h a t i t was n o t a n i c e t h i n g t o do.' 'What w a s n ' t ? ' 'Why, your c a r r y i n g o f f Bela . . .Ah, that b l a c k - g u a r d Azamat! . . . Come o n , own up,' I s a i d t o him. 'Suppose I l i k e h e r ? ' W e l l , w h a t c o u l d one s a y t o t h a t ? . . . I was non p l u s s e d . However, a f t e r a s i l e n c e , I t o l d him t h a t i f t h e f a t h e r demanded h e r b a c k , i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o r e t u r n h e r . 'Not a t a l l n e c e s s a r y . ' ' B u t i f he f i n d s o u t s h e i s h e r e ? ' 'How w i l l he f i n d o u t ? ' I was a g a i n n o n p l u s s e d . 'Look h e r e , M a k s i m Maksimych,' s a i d Pechorin, r a i s i n g h i m s e l f , 'you're a k i n d man, a r e n ' t you? Now i f we g i v e h i s d a u g h t e r back to t h a t savage, h e ' l l e i t h e r s l i t her t h r o a t or s e l l her. W h a t ' s d o n e i s d o n e , l e t ' s n o t go o u t o f o u r way t o m a k e t h i n g s w o r s e t h a t t h e y a r e ; l e t me k e e p B e l a , a n d y o u k e e p my s w o r d . . . .'" (pp. 23-24) The  old  captain's  the  discussion with  society.  The  He the  the  narrator  comprehension of junior  simplicity  captain  smiled  the  realm of  all  can  feel  is  so  painfully  opportunity  to  the  o l d man's two  of  limited  pithy phrases:  these  slyly."  during  subtle  (p.  41)  toward  the  obvious acquire  young  simplicity  opposite that any  the  he  sex.  Moreover, is  completely  has  never  wisdom i n the  and  man.  extends One  "The  distinctions.  Maksim Maksimych's comprehension  i s anger  with  the  out  y o u n g men  feelings for Bela  Maksim Maksimych's relationships  pointed  about the  understand  Pechorin's  beyond he  sums up  d i d not  c o o l i n g of  narrator  society with  shook h i s h e a d and  i s again  into  his  w o n d e r s why seized ways o f  i t  the women,  130 since he  he i s so w i s e  i n other  practical  matters.  Although  m u s t h a v e m e t m a n y n a t i v e women a n d i n d u b i t a b l y h a s a n  eye  f o r beauty,  before,  t h e o l dc a p t a i n confesses,  This  confession  women i s a u g m e n t e d b y h i s been loved  Pechorin.  capacity  never  b y a woman i n t h e w a y t h a t B e l a  loved  a possible reason  sex.  emphasizes  towards  There  the real  for h i s outgoing  strangers  i s , i n fact,  Maksim Maksimych  old  m o u n t a i n man, y e t h e h a s n o e x p e r i e n c e  mountain regions, sophistication This final  hand,  i s the practical  i s an innocent  with  with  former  seasoned women.  i n the wild  women. contrast i sbrought out w e l l a tthe  outcome o f t h e s t o r y .  actions  and  B e l a , who h a s o n c e a g a i n  Pechorin's  impetuousness i n  a s he a n d Maksim Maksimych a r e c h a s i n g  the captain's  Maksimych  b u t even a t h i s young age has c o n s i d e r a b l e  his  with  contrast  d i f f e r e n c e s between Maksim  Pechorin.  on t h e other  and shyness  a two-way  and  Pechorin,  with  comment t h a t h e r e g r e t s  f o rf r i e n d l i n e s s  the female  which  o f a lack o f experience  So t h e e l e m e n t o f l o n e l i n e s s must a l s o be added  to h i s character,  with  seen  t h a t h e d o e s n o t know w h a t t o do when B e l a i s  distraught.  having  a s we h a v e  wise  been abducted,  Kazbich  i s contrasted  practicality.  " I l o o k e d a n d saw P e c h o r i n t a k e a i m a t f u l l gallop. 'Don't f i r e ! I c r i e d t o h i m . 'Save y o u r s h o t , w e ' l l c a t c h up w i t h h i m anyway.' B u t those youngsters, they always l o s e t h e i r heads a t t h e wrong time. The s h o t r a n g o u t a n d t h e 1  131 b u l l e t broke t h e hind l e g o f Kazbich's horse: c a r r i e d on by impetus, i t took another t e n . bounds o r s o , then stumbled and f e l l t o i t s knees. K a z b i c h j u m p e d o f f , a n d t h e n we s a w t h a t h e w a s h o l d i n g i n h i s a r m s a woman w r a p p e d up i n a y a s h m a k . I t was B e l a , p o o r B e l a ! He s h o u t e d s o m e t h i n g a t u s i n h i s own t o n g u e , a n d r a i s e d h i sdagger over her. No t i m e c o u l d b e l o s t ; I f i r e d i n my t u r n , a t r a n d o m . . . . " ( p . 4 3 ) If  Maksim Maksimych's p r a c t i c a l  Pechorin's remained  impetuosity, then  alive.  practicality impression  that  thing,  n o t r e m e m b e r me o n c e ,  her  like  (p.  a father.  truth  touch  points out that  placing  Two s u b t l e  first  forgive  her!  . . . And death?"  impression, the  i t was Maksim Maksimych and n o t f o r Bela's b u r i a l and  a c r o s s on h e r grave. but revealing  passages  i n Beta  of fatalism  example o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l  P e c h o r i n when t h e c a p t a i n exist  "And  before h e r death she  to confirm this  t h a t Maksim Maksimych has a q u a l i t y  really  reproach.  and y e t , i t seems, I h a d l o v e d  W e l l , God w i l l  As a f i n a l  considers  of  simple  of him before her  dismisses this  P e c h o r i n who m a k e s a r r a n g e m e n t s  The  striking  w h o am I t o b e r e m e m b e r e d b y a n y b o d y b e f o r e  47)  author  have  by B e l a ' s death and  s a d d e n e d me:  did  in  Another  her for not thinking  I admit,  over  i t i s P e c h o r i n ' s own l a c k o f  disturbed  However, he q u i c k l y  another  probably  costs Bela her l i f e .  He i s d e e p l y  reproaches  death.  B e l a would  t h a t Maksim Maksimych g i v e s i s h i s  humility. briefly  Ironically  wisdom had triumphed  certain  people  states  show about him.  description  "'You know,  there  t o whom i t i s a s s i g n e d , a t  132 their  birth,  happen  t o have a l l s o r t s o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y  t o them'"  presentiment that  (p. 1 1 ) .  i n Maksim Maksimych's  he knew K a z b i c h  was  espy him d u r i n g  their  added, however,  that both  sciously the  story himself. that  "up  t o no  afternoon  from hindsight,  possibility  There i s a l s o  since  a good d e a l  intuitive  I t must  examples could  the o l d captain  there  i s a  Bela be  come u n c o n -  Maksim Maksimych i s  Nevertheless,  of  statement  g o o d " when he a n d  promenade.  these  things  relating  distinct  has a f a t a l i s t i c  streak  himself. So, practical may  be  man  experienced  shrewd,  i n t h e ways o f t h e C a u c a s u s .  a r e overshadowed by h i s g r e a t  human f e e l i n g  traits  i s a  narrow-minded and s l i g h t l y f a t a l i s t i c ,  qualities of  i n summary, M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h  and humble  but  kindness,  simplicity.  These  It Entwistle  f i g u r e s o f A Hero  w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t who  states  that  of  Our  these abundance  latter  e s p e c i a l l y h a v e made M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h o n e  most remarkable  of the  Time.  not to agree with  " B y r o n h a s no M a k s i m  and  his portraits  but  the r e s t of Lermontov's people have t h e i r  a r e the l e s s permanent  W.J. Maksimych,  f o r l a c k o f him, place  in  15 Byron's world." Lermontov diverges result  that  the qualities  i s a p o i n t where  f a r from the Byronic  his story  Maksimych's humble are  This  that  i n  Bela  ideals with  i s more v i b r a n t and a l i v e .  simplicity  He  and p r a c t i c a l  the  Maksim  ordinariness  lead him f a r from the stream  of  133 Byronic their  heroes,  heroines  and v i l l a i n s .  power, v i g o u r and d e f i a n c e Byron's  mainly men.  romantic  figures,  Byron's heroes  Prometheans buckling cynical  like  like  wanderers men.  Conrad,  like  figures  of great  Lara  consists  o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y people  like  like  assertion not  the point.  an  important  t o Lermontov's  has provided  a  have  less  man  nature,  romantic figure  of a  pre-  t h e work  self-  but this i s Maksim  and h i s e x i s t e n c e  story.  world  like the  and egocentric  o f Byron,  simple,  extraordinary  include a  In this  a c o n t r a s t f o rh i s hero  Maksim Maksimych's presence, valuable.  one-sided  Maksimych  marks  d i f f e r e n c e f r o m B y r o n t h a t l e n d s more  credibility  author  character  mould.  Byron's  practical  greatness  Because o f h i s very  a most un-Byronic  as  I t may b e t h a t  that i s characteristic  is  and  there.  idealistic  of  i s there  performing  Wordsworth o r S c o t t might  with  just  qualities  Maksim Maksimych.  Maksim Maksimych because they  occupation  a r e never  o f uncommon b e a u t y a n d  so a simple,  c a p t a i n h a s no p l a c e  swash-  or disillusioned  are type-cast  human b e i n g  deeds e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y ,  or Selim,  Nowhere i n B y r o n  like  neo-  a r e n o t o f t h e common  villains  evil.  of ordinary  metaphysical  one o f t h e c h i e f  ordinary  writers  the realms  b u t they  are stereotypes  and t h e B y r o n i c  characters are  o r Manfred, o r noble  Harold,  i s that they  B y r o n ' s women t o o , grace,  Lucifer  In fact,  Byron's heroes  f a r beyond  c a n be t i t a n i c  Cain,  outlaws  ordinary  old  Because o f a l l  power  way t h e  and because o f  i s richer  and more  134 Azamat and  Kazbich,  the  two  male Caucasian  figures, 16  are  typical  They a r e  the  upon w h i c h p r o v e he  to  the  His  Azamat  romance and  s a v a g e s who  plot  hinges.  impetuosity  i n no  way  adventure  exemplify  the  Azamat i s the  i n h i s case  i t i s by  is striking:  i s endowed w i t h  h i s age;  fervour  young  i s a man;  bandit. old  characters of  tribal boy  in his actions."  attempt To  "The  the  characterizes  swift the  steed  to hold  idolizes.  impetuosity  to  fierce year  peculiar back  become a b a n d i t  t h a t he  boy's w i l d  aching  fifteen  p r o v e h i s manhood, Azamat e x c h a n g e s h i s s i s t e r Karagyoz,  code  becoming a  a savage o b s t i n a c y  d o e s he 17  stories.  this  and  thus  Bela  for  Lermontov  i n h i s very  first  d e s c r i p t i o n o f him. " A n d w h a t a d a r e d e v i l h e w a s , game f o r a n y t h i n g —p i c k i n g up a c a p a t f u l l g a l l o p o r s h o o t i n g a rifle. T h e r e was o n e t h i n g b a d a b o u t h i m : he had an a w f u l w e a k n e s s f o r money. Once, i n j e s t , P e c h o r i n p r o m i s e d h i m a g o l d p i e c e i f he w o u l d s t e a l the best goat from h i s f a t h e r ' s herd. And w h a t do y o u t h i n k ? The v e r y n e x t n i g h t , t h e r e he came, d r a g g i n g t h e g o a t by t h e h o r n s . And sometimes, we w o u l d s t a r t t e a s i n g h i m , a n d t h e n h i s e y e s w o u l d g e t a l l b l o o d s h o t , and h i s hand w o u l d a t once f l y to h i s dagger. 'Hey, A z a m a t , y o u w o n ' t k e e p y o u r head l o n g on y o u r s h o u l d e r s , ' I would say t o him, 'yaman [ b a d ] i t w i l l b e w i t h y o u r h e a d ! ' " ( p . 11)  Azamat's o b s e s s i o n  with  the  development  plot  f o r he  his  way  to  do  at  the  of  i n the proving  anything root of  t h a t he  f o r him. this  horse  K a r a g y o z i s an  sees  the  i s grown-up.  The  author  obsession.  elegant So,  provides  he  important steed i s  a good  as  willing look  135 "'The f i r s t t i m e I saw y o u r h o r s e , ' Azamat w e n t o n , 'when h e p r a n c e d u n d e r y o u , a n d j u m p e d , d i l a t i n g h i s n o s t r i l s , and f l i n t s p a r k s s p r a y e d from under h i s hooves, something strange happened i n s i d e my s o u l , a n d s i n c e t h e n e v e r y t h i n g b e c a m e d u l l t o me: I l o o k e d a t my f a t h e r ' s b e s t c o u r s e r s w i t h c o n t e m p t , I was a s h a m e d t o b e s e e n o n t h e m , a n d h e a r t a c h e p o s s e s s e d me; a n d , w i t h a c h i n g h e a r t , I w o u l d spend w h o l e d a y s s i t t i n g on t h e t o p o f a c l i f f , a n d e v e r y moment t h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o me, i n thought, that black steed to yours, with h i s g r a c e f u l g a i t , and h i s smooth s p i n e as s t r a i g h t as a n a r r o w ; h i s l i v e l y e y e s l o o k e d i n t o my e y e s , a s t h o u g h he w a n t e d t o u t t e r w o r d s . I ' l l die, Kazbich, i f y o u d o n ' t s e l l h i m t o me!' s a i d Azamat i n a t r e m b l i n g v o i c e . " ( p . 17)  The up  young boy as  a bandit  I n Azamat of  the  the  fierce  member o f sense  does b a r t e r h i s s i s t e r  author  villainous  savagery  l a d i n the  adventure  death,  portrayed  as  and  Russian  fiery  tradition  m i g h t be  misdeeds too  and as  a malicious Caucasian  admiration  been a b l e  f o r w h i c h he  i s obsessed  of  ends  River. concept  a youthful figure for a  in  the  wild  of minor p e r s o n a l i t i e s  considered  more i n l o v e w i t h h i s h o r s e .  has  Terek  typical  i s a Byronic  rival  is  Kazbich  and  of  stories.  Pechorin's  degree of  the  features necessary  i s i n f a t u a t e d with Bela, but  certain  of  horse  the  obsessions  He  he  a  side of  a portrait  tribe.  includes the  Kazbich, Bela's  gives  a primitive  t h a t he  romantic  roaming the  f o r the  to avoid  instrument  a type  savage.  of  Kazbich's  of  pasha  Like  unlike Pechorin,  Pechorin Kazbich  shrewdness  from Maksim  Maksimych:  implication  in  i s responsible.  with his swift  the  steed  certain  L i k e Azamat Karagyoz.  wins  The  he reader  136 can by  feel  a certain  P e c h o r i n and  amount o f  sympathy  for his  victimization  Azamat.  "For a moment, he s t o o d m o t i o n l e s s , u n t i l he was c e r t a i n t h a t he had m i s s e d ; t h e n he u t t e r e d a s h r i l l scream, s t r u c k h i s r i f l e a g a i n s t a stone, s m a s h i n g t h e weapon t o b i t s , f e l l on t h e g r o u n d and began t o sob l i k e a c h i l d . . . Presently p e o p l e f r o m t h e f o r t g a t h e r e d a r o u n d h i m , b u t he did not n o t i c e anyone; they s t o o d around f o r a w h i l e , exchanged v i e w s , and went back: I had t h e money f o r t h e s h e e p p l a c e d n e x t t o h i m ; he n e v e r t o u c h e d i t , b u t r e m a i n e d l y i n g on h i s f a c e , as i f he w e r e d e a d . Would you b e l i e v e i t : he l a y l i k e t h a t u n t i l l a t e a t n i g h t , and t h e w h o l e n i g h t t h r o u g h . " ( p . 22)  However, K a z b i c h ' s savage of  h i s horse  of  Azamat's  i s aptly  brutality  demonstrated  in reprisal by  f o r the  theft  the c o l d - b l o o d e d murder  father.  "'I should t e l l you t h a t Kazbich imagined t h a t Azamat had s t o l e n h i s h o r s e w i t h the f a t h e r ' s consent — t h i s i s , a t l e a s t , what I c o n j e c t u r e . W e l l , t h e r e h e was o n e d a y , w a i t i n g b y t h e r o a d , a c o u p l e o f m i l e s b e y o n d t h e v i l l a g e ; t h e o l d man was r i d i n g home a f t e r a v a i n s e a r c h f o r h i s d a u g h t e r ; his r e t a i n e r s had f a l l e n b e h i n d — i t was d u s k — he was r i d i n g p e n s i v e l y a t a w a l k , when s u d d e n l y K a z b i c h , l i k e a c a t , d a r t e d o u t o f a bush, jumped onto h i s horse behind him, w i t h a t h r u s t o f h i s dagger threw him t o the ground, grabbed the r e i n s , a n d was g o n e . Some o f t h e r e t a i n e r s s a w a l l t h i s from a k n o l l ; they dashed o f f a f t e r him, but c o u l d n o t c a t c h up w i t h h i m ' " ( p . 28)  As  the author emphasizes  since view to  Kazbich cannot because  judged  a double from  according to t r i b a l  avenge h i m s e l f .  napping  be  here,  Caucasian bandit,  his  another  craftiness.  a civilized  customs he  T h i s murder and  of Bela i l l u s t r a t e  standard  had  exists, point the  the subsequent prime  trait  of  of  right kid-  this  137 Kazbich has grown wise w i t h experience; he i s a c r a f t y mountain d w e l l e r . Although he has been suspected o f a ' h o s t i l e ' a t t i t u d e toward the Russians, 'he had never been i n v o l v e d i n any misc h i e f . ' H i s wealth o f v i t a l experience dissuades him from s e l l i n g h i s Karagyoz f o r the woman t h a t he p a s s i o n a t e l y l o v e s . He always a c t s p r u d e n t l y and w i t h c a u t i o n . 18 Kazbich's f i n a l a c t o f revenge innocent B e l a .  i s h i s b r u t a l murder o f the  A f t e r he has committed t h i s l a s t a c t t o  avenge the l o s s o f h i s horse, Kazbich r e t u r n s t o h i s l i f e as a b r i g a n d .  These barbarous  a c t s a r i s e more from the  s e t t i n g than from Kazbich's c h a r a c t e r : c o n f i r m the b r u t a l i t y o f the environment  they serve t o and show the e x o t i c  savagery o f the code o f the mountain t r i b e s .  Kazbich i s  another prototype o f the u n c i v i l i z e d v i l l a i n o f adventure stories.  Thus he emerges as a p a r t o f the mainstream o f  Byronic types. Lermontov's use o f a n a r r a t o r meeting narrator to t e l l  a secondary  the s t o r y as a s e r i e s o f " t r a v e l notes" i s  a common d e v i c e t h a t was o f t e n used by w r i t e r s o f the time. The n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f i s a s u b t l y drawn y e t r e v e a l i n g  figure.  Some c r i t i c s have i d e n t i f i e d the n a r r a t o r as Lermontov h i m s e l f , although t h i s does s t r e t c h the p o i n t somewhat and i s not necessary.  The n a r r a t o r ' s e x c e s s i v e z e a l t o hear  the r e s t o f the s t o r y i s , as Nabokov suggests, a l i t t l e 19 overdone.  However, i t cannot be denied t h a t he expresses  some o f the author's own f e e l i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s l y r i c a l attachment  t o the n a t u r a l majesty o f the Caucasus.  Thus,  138 although Pechorin there the  are  of  as  a C h i l d of  Pechorin  comes i n t h e the  the  narrator  c e r t a i n passages of  narrator  feelings  i s not  natural  Nature  i n Princess  phrases of  this  story,  description  where  closely parallels Mary.  second paragraph of  introductory  of  Beta  The and  Princess  first  follows  the example  i n mood  Mary.  What a d e l i g h t f u l p l a c e , t h a t v a l l e y ! On a l l sides r i s e i n a c c e s s i b l e mountains, reddish c l i f f s , hung o v e r w i t h g r e e n i v y and c r o w n e d w i t h clumps of p l a n e t r e e s ; tawny p r e c i p i c e s s t r e a k e d w i t h washes, and, f a r above, the g o l d e n f r i n g e o f the snows; below, A r a g v a R i v e r , i n f o l d i n g another, nameless, r i v e r which n o i s i l y b u r s t s f o r t h from a black gorge f u l l of gloom, s t r e t c h e s out i n a s i l v e r t h r e a d and g l i s t e n s l i k e t h e s c a l i n g o f a s n a k e , ( p . 3) Just  as  Pechorin  splendour of narrator than  and  region  confesses  i n the  north  the  expresses  the  wild  strong  attachment  to  the  a disdain  the  stars  seem h i g h e r  i n the  This  contrast  between the  civilized  south  i s also  felt  for society,  natural  and  that  north.  a  by  the  so  Beta's Caucasus  narrator.  S t a r s were b e g i n n i n g t o t w i n k l e i n the dark sky, a n d , s t r a n g e t o s a y , t h e y s e e m e d t o me t o b e m u c h h i g h e r t h a n a t home, i n t h e n o r t h . On e i t h e r s i d e of the road, bare, black rocks j u t t e d out; h e r e and t h e r e , f r o m b e n e a t h t h e snow t h e r e emerged s h r u b s ; b u t n o t a s i n g l e d r y l e a f s t i r r e d , and i t was a j o y t o h e a r , a m i d t h e d e a d s l e e p o f nature, the s n o r t i n g o f t h e t h r e e t i r e d p o s t e r s and the i r r e g u l a r j a n g l i n g o f t h e R u s s i a n s h a f t b e l l . ( p . 6)  A  further distinction  between the  by  the  narrator  as mentions  in  the  Caucasus i s " j u s t l i k e  A  that one  north the of  and  south  sound of our  own  a  is  felt  blizzard  i n the  north,  139 only  i t s savage  phrase  occurs  33)  the  author-traveller  ment  This and  a  again  help  Byronic  similar  talks  to  to  of  with  confirm  the  character.  those  more  a s s e r t s the  disappointment  feelings as  key  was  (p.  him.  A  melody  felt  In  by  s o r r o w f u l , more  just the  after wind  this  as  an  like  passage "exile"  n a r r a t o r ' s own society  plaintive."  Pechorin.  of  fact  feelings  Conrad  i n The  like  disillusion-  impression these  as  the  These  narrator are  very  Corsair.  Y e t was n o t C o n r a d t h u s b y N a t u r e s e n t To l e a d t h e g u i l t y — g u i l t ' s w o r s e i n s t r u m e n t — H i s s o u l was c h a n g e d , b e f o r e h i s d e e d s h a d d r i v e n H i m f o r t h t o w a r w i t h man and f o r f e i t heaven, Warp'd by t h e w o r l d i n D i s a p p o i n t m e n t ' s school, I n w o r d s t o o w i s e , i n c o n d u c t there a fool; Too f i r m t o y i e l d , and f a r t o o p r o u d t o s t o o p , Doom'd b y h i s v e r y v i r t u e s f o r a d u p e . . . . (The Corsair, I , 249-256)  Exotic  simplicity  and  later,  during  interval  Maksimych's ebullient a  good  the  story.  the  The  Rousseauesque  d e a l more  naivete  majesty between  of  nature  the  two  narrator himself attraction than  to  i n the  is  emphasized  parts  of  expressed  nature, attitudes  Maksim his  although of  with  Pechorin.  . . . a d e l i g h t f u l kind of f e e l i n g spread along a l l my v e i n s , a n d I f e l t somehow e l a t e d a t b e i n g so f a r above t h e w o r l d — a childish feeling, no d o u b t , b u t , o n g e t t i n g away f r o m s o c i a l conventions a n d c o m i n g c l o s e r t o n a t u r e , we c a n n o t h e l p b e c o m i n g children: a l l the t h i n g s t h a t have been a c q u i r e d a r e shed by t h e s o u l , and i t becomes a g a i n as i t was o n c e , a n d a s i t i s s u r e l y t o b e a g a i n some d a y . (p.  29)  140 These w o r d s , and why  one  should  lyrical  not  is  be  added  much c l o s e r  prototype is  not  of  to the  wonder  Pechorin's  splendours  Mary.  toward  basic sentimentalized Child  beyond  this  society,  n e a r l y as  In fact  fundamental  though present  advanced as  the  of  the  However, i t  narrator's lyricism  eighteenth-century.  disillusionment with i s not  majestic  d i s p l a y e d i n Princess  much d e v e l o p e d  degree,  " i t made o n e  forever" parallels  w i t h the  t h a t the  the  expression  stay here  identification  C a u c a s u s t h a t he should  his later  nature  of  his  character  type, to a  cynical  Nature  for his  certain disappoint-  20 ment o f to  Pechorin with  nature  circles  i s not  as  less,  he  lyrical of  the  so much o f  i t i s of  s t r a n g e r who  has  i s seen nature  area,  as  society.  a naive  never  seen  he  he  narrator's  disillusionmentwith wide-eyed such  i n a kind of  passage as  The  social  adoration of  sights before.  Byronic  attraction  pose  describes the  g a z e s down f r o m a h i g h  in his  a Neverthefinal  majestic  beauty  mountain.  And i n d e e d , I d o u b t i f I s h a l l e v e r see s u c h a panorama anywhere a g a i n : below us, l a y the Koyshaur V a l l e y , c r o s s e d by t h e A r a g v a and by a n o t h e r river, a s by two s i l v e r t h r e a d s ; a p a l e b l u i s h h a z e g l i d e d o v e r i t , h e a d i n g f o r t h e n e i g h b o r i n g c a n y o n s , away f r o m t h e warm r a y s o f m o r n i n g ; r i g h t and l e f t , t h e c r e s t s of mountains, each higher than the next, i n t e r s e c t e d and s t r e t c h e d o u t , c o v e r e d w i t h snow o r s h r u b s ; i n t h e d i s t a n c e , m o r e m o u n t a i n s , b u t no two c l i f f s were a l i k e ; and a l l t h e s e snows b u r n e d w i t h a r u d d y g l o w , s o m e r r i l y s o b r i g h t l y , t h a t i t made o n e w o n d e r why o n e s h o u l d n o t s t a y h e r e f o r e v e r ; t h e s u n peeped from behind a dark-blue mountain which o n l y a p r a c t i c e d eye c o u l d have d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m a storm-cloud; but above t h e s u n t h e r e was a b l o o d r e d b a n d , t o w h i c h my c o m p a n i o n p a i d p a r t i c u l a r attention. (pp. 30-31)  141  The  motif  the  beauty below  so  of  l o o k i n g down f r o m a h i g h m o u n t a i n p e a k  often that  Compare t h e similar  i s a r e c u r r i n g one  i t can  mood o f  effect  Harold's  be  seen as  elation  achieved  a type  i n the  in this  w i t h Byron. of  onto  It  Byronic  occurs  pose.  above passage w i t h  quotation  from  the  Childe  Pilgrimage:  "He who a s c e n d s t o m o u n t a i n - t o p s s h a l l f i n d The l o f t i e s t p e a k s m o s t w r a p t i n c l o u d s a n d s n o w ; He who s u r p a s s e s o r s u b d u e s m a n k i n d , M u s t l o o k down on t h e h a t e o f t h o s e b e l o w . T h o u g h h i g h above the sun o f g l o r y glow, A n d f a r beneath t h e e a r t h and o c e a n s p r e a d , Round h i m a r e i c y r o c k s , a n d l o u d l y b l o w C o n t e n d i n g t e m p e s t s on h i s n a k e d h e a d , And t h u s r e w a r d t h e t o i l s w h i c h t o t h o s e summits l e d . " (Ill: xiv) A t t e n t i o n m u s t now consideration  o f my  hero.  the  of  Since  pre-romantic  Sensibility  Byronic  types,  and  Pechorin  i n Princess  new  "Man  Byronic  the  character  not  narrator of  of  the  story.  be  the most  Pechorin  of  as  out  Nature,  and  typified  then  the  the  used,  each of  can  source so  i t was  a  of the  the  rich  a l s o be  of  Man  of  shown  that as  well used  considered  of m a t e r i a l f o r as  stream  Hero  the  these  important'  Byronic  same m e t h o d s m u s t b e  Pechorin  Bela,  on  Gloomy E g o i s t and  d e p i c t i o n i s not  method can  the  Child  Villain,  Although  similar  Bela,  Mary  i f i n Bela  hero.  focussed  hero developed  the  Gothic  of W i l l , "  determining  of  (embodying the  Feeling)  a  study  be  i n Princess  one  of  the  main  for a  Pechorin's Mary,  remembering t h a t P e c h o r i n  but  as  a is  personalities  142 As  already witnessed  considered of  the  as  wealth  splendour, this  Bela,  to  be  fitting  as  more s u b t l y  Pechorin's delight expressed  of  the  Child  mainly  through  y o u n g man's o u t d o o r  introductory  description  nature:  might  ing  "He  i n the  through him  rain,  and  exhausted,  take on  is  obvious  an  entire  wild the  a wild from  day  animal  boar  this  out  Bela  urge  t o escape  and  exploits.  fond  of  urge  t o go  as  I think  The  hunting:  old captain's  not  he,  would  . . . yet  himself;  get  into  of  or  who  just  as  seen  (p. 10) would  tackle  he  a  he  love  Pechorin cannot  t h e woods a f t e r  boar  of  an  or w i l d  and was  to  and control  of boredom  you,  feel  spend  once turned  ignorance  would  It  vicious  o f boredom w i t h s o c i e t y  already told  hunt-  chilled  I had  . . ."  the wilderness out  at times  It  observations  Pechorin's love  everybody  L a t e r on,  I've  However,  f o r i n s t a n c e , the whole day  d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h her  "Pechorin,  bound  e v i d e n t i n Bela.  i n the pouring r a i n  into  are  Mary.  Maksim Maksimych's  a l l by  Caucasus out  Since  feelings  s i n g l e - h a n d e d , must have a p r o f o u n d  i n the  Caucasian  author-traveller  i n Princess  disillusionment with i t s intrigues, his  the  be  because  Mary.  q u o t a t i o n t h a t a man  "great outdoors."  nature  by  is s t i l l  cold; but  Nature  about the  Nature  emphasized  spend,  i n the  of  than  i n nature  of  i n Princess  i s expressed  P e c h o r i n ' s own  is  statements  P e c h o r i n was  of nature  expressed  n a r r a t o r can  example of C h i l d  of h i s l y r i c a l  just  lyricism  in  a  a b o v e , Bela's  with  savagery. passionately  uncontrollable goats  ..."  143 (p.  36)  This  immediately discover out  follows.  i s confirmed  kidnapped  f o r two  Pechorin  out  hunting  again;  the  y o u n g man  In splendour instance  Bela of  the  attraction  The  has  which  out  that Pechorin  morning  that Bela  to  has  been  is  persuaded Maksim Maksimych to  go  the  latter  that  and  only  observes  enjoys  the  very  astutely  p u r s u i t of  game  even  his delight  with  the  fatigue. expresses once  speech does not  and  scene  has  Pechorin  nature  finds  days.  thoroughly  intense heat  i n the  Maksim Maksimych c o n f r o n t s B e l a  what i s wrong and  hunting  during  attitude  i n h i s own refer  a two-edged  t o any  words.  In  this  specific  meaning.  " S o o n a f t e r , I was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e C a u c a s u s : t h i s was t h e h a p p i e s t t i m e o f my l i f e . I hoped t h a t boredom d i d not e x i s t amid Chechen b u l l e t s . In v a i n ! A f t e r one m o n t h , I g o t so u s e d t o t h e i r b u z z i n g and t o t h e n e a r n e s s o f d e a t h , t h a t , r e a l l y , I p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e mosquitoes, a n d I was e v e n m o r e b o r e d t h a n b e f o r e , b e c a u s e I h a d a l m o s t l o s t my l a s t h o p e . When I s a w B e l a i n my h o m e , w h e n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e I h e l d h e r i n my lap and k i s s e d her b l a c k c u r l s , I — fool that I was — i m a g i n e d s h e w a s a n a n g e l s e n t me by c o m p a s s i o n a t e f a t e . . . " ( p . 40)  As  he  d i d i n Princess  Mary  the  with  an  o p p o r t u n i t y to escape  life  of  St. Petersburg,  adventure eventually  of  a wild  reference  her  abduction.  with  expresses  from the  be  frontier  becomes b o r e d  the  and  hero  amidst  oppressive the  this  too.  delight social  swashbuckling  r e g i o n , even though  t o B e l a where P e c h o r i n He  his  More  infers  he  important  h i s reason  believed that his salvation  lay in  is for the  144  romantic is, of  of  concept  course,  the  Child  of  loving  another  of  a  simple  uncivilized  m o d i f i c a t i o n of  N a t u r e and  the  love of  girl.  the  basic  the  "Noble  This  traits Savage."  21  That t h i s  love  it  seems t o be,  i s , or  because of cynicism himself angel  in  the  other  —  nor  satisfactory f o r Bela)  facets of  of  and  fate")  nature;  natural simplicity  of  loving  disillusionmentwith  Bela.  The  h i s make-up and prototypes  most heroes of  a  stage  of  the  Byron,  an  this  of  Nature  resort  elements  of  woman.  w i t h i n the  i s thus  hero.  a  from  Child  he  very  facet the  Thus l i k e  the  was  shows t h a t  i n h i s development Byronic  "an  romantic  uncivilized  concept  Pechorin  was  in this  in his attitudes Child  she  his last  —  his outright  point i s that  thought  of  framework of  earlier  (he  compassionate  undergoes a metamorphosis  of  The  attraction  Pechorin's  the  by  (although  i s n e i t h e r unexpected  i s i t important.  . . .  for Pechorin  h i s c h a r a c t e r , e.g.  believed wholeheartedly  sent  concept  i s not  Harold  of  Nature 22  are  predominant  Nevertheless,  although  the  splendours  the  outdoors,  of  of  origins he  Lermontov's  does possess  n a t u r a l beauty  Pechorin  of  and  a great  the  i s f a r more t h a n  hero. feeling  attractions simply  a  for  of  Child  Nature. As  was  i n the  a Hero o f  seen engaged  turning  pale  and  Sensibility  in self-centred being  obsessed  i n Princess  Mary  melancholia, w i t h death  the  hero  constantly  like  the  Gloomy  145 Egoist.  He w a s a l s o c a p a b l e  Man o f F e e l i n g . serves  The p o r t r a y a l o f P e c h o r i n  to strengthen For  these  ".  a gust  would be, i n s i s t i n g  Even  banged,  i n this  captain, Nature a  ly  time  h e ' d be s i t t i n g  t h a t he h a d c a u g h t c o l d ; and grow p a l e  description  contains  i n his he  or i f the  . . ."  ( p . 10)  o f t h e hero by t h e o l d  elements o f both  outdoorsman and a t another  the Child of  duality  i s apparent  f o l l o w s t h e one a b o v e  i n another  taciturn  "There were times  :  n o t g e t a word o u t o f him f o r hours,  other  h a n d when he h a p p e n e d  split  your  sides with  agonizing  thirst  final  laughter  water,  Pechorin  her  a drink.  These  were, o f course,  stories  devices  great  During  When s h e c r i e s o u t  as a sheet"  f o r romantic  emotion  you'd  her t e r r i b l e  then  stock descriptions of various  typical  to illustrate  "white  when y o u  (pp. 10-11)  moments o f p o o r B e l a ,  turns  immediate-  but on t h e  telling  . . . "  p o i n t s t o h e r imminent death.  for  writers  to start  time  and anemic.  passage which  could  the  and h i s d i s t i n c t  a n d t h e Man o f F e e l i n g , i . e . h e c a n be a t o n e  robust  This  Pechorin  t h e c o n t r a s t i s drawn  o f w i n d w o u l d come, a n d t h e r e  he'd s t a r t  simple  Bela  Maksimych's  love o f the outdoors  . . a n d some o t h e r  room, and j u s t  shutter  i n Maksim  passage about Pechorin  b e t w e e n t h e y o u n g man's  i n  notions.  example, once again  introductory  frailty:  o f d e e p human e m o t i o n a s a  i n their  fetches palings  fiction characters.  146 In occasions  Princess and  Mary  i t was  under c e r t a i n  shown t h a t , on  conditions, Pechorin  into  a k i n d o f Man  of  U n f e e l i n g i n the  true  to  of  the  the  spirit  emotions very his  real  alone  feelings  the  permits he  has  deeply,  hero  and  read  Vera's  letter  weeps b i t t e r l y .  ing  Pechorin  himself  y o u n g man  did  I notice a  self,  could  not  mask o f  (pp.  f o r a walk along  to  see  (p. of  48)  As  that  I'd  after  However, P e c h o r i n for after  that  not  does prove  the  t o be  d i e d he  a  can  he him-  anything  the  anything  to  once  whether  this  two  Maksim Maksimych  express  B e l a has  Maksimych  example of  d i e s and  Un-  reproach-  listened  seen  and  his  controlling  never  second  Bela  rampart.  was  of  Maksim  "'He  after  of  and  his eyelashes:  The  " h i s face d i d not  Sensibility,  death  i n h i s hands; but  f o r me,  45-46)  the  Man  i s a good p o s s i b i l i t y  t e a r on  and  down  the  her,  h i s emotions:  unfeeling occurs  go  loving  is  over:  breaks  delirium  c r y , o r w h e t h e r he  I d o n ' t know.  more p i t i f u l . ' "  to take  i n her  masked  When h e  emotions  the  although  he  unfeeling  examples of  developed  his  cloak of  two  w i t h h i s head single  felt  t o >hide t h e m .  stopped  that there  had  that,  others  g o o d - b y e , he  i s babbling  i s controlling  in silence,  of  coming because of  f o r having  her  actually  both  Bela  admits  of  There are  i n Bela, As  profound  sense  F e e l i n g he  presence  throws o f f t h i s of  captive.  of  attempted  stream  feeling  Man  i n the  the  certain  soldiers  i s annoyed  unusual." true no  Hero  longer  147 hold  back  the  effeminate  tide  of  e m o t i o n and  outburst of maniacal  breaks  out  into  a  rather  hysteria.  " F i n a l l y he s a t down o n t h e g r o u n d i n t h e s h a d e and began t o t r a c e s o m e t h i n g i n the sand w i t h a bit of stick. I wanted t o comfort him, mainly f o r t h e s a k e o f p r o p r i e t y , d o n ' t y o u know, and s t a r t e d t o s p e a k ; he l i f t e d h i s h e a d a n d laughed. A c h i l l r a n o v e r my s k i n a t t h i s l a u g h t e r . I w e n t o f f t o o r d e r t h e c o f f i n . " ( p . 48)  Later is  on  Pechorin,  unable  to  i n the  separate  tradition  control  from h i s mental h e a l t h . strain  t h a t he  has  deteriorates. weight. of  Bela's  The  and  hero  since Pechorin  this  would  wonder about the  source  h e r o h i m s e l f has  admitted  her.  Could  these  It  kept  feelings  of  Pechorin  felt  the  Pechorin  are  too  to  die  way  he  these  deep  t h a t he  has  crises  be  no  mention  feelings  admitted  probably  out  of  does a  can  since  the  with  death Guilt  i n Princess  stem is  Mary. the  Grushnitsky  Nevertheless,  that his feelings  t h o u g h he  of  One  become b o r e d  treated Bela?  remorse.  loses  profundity  upon B e l a ' s  feel  and  t h a t even upon d e s t r o y i n g  a tinge of  has  time  f o r him.  young p r i n c e s s or murdering  intense —  f o r her,  can  mental  physical condition  a great  unpleasant  has  of F e e l i n g ,  intense  long  had  there  does not  i n mind  only  because not  of  that Pechorin  m u s t be  be  emotional  from remorse at the something  the  i s i l l for a  loss,  Man  his physical condition  Because of  sense of  name a s  the  undergone, Pechorin's  Moreover,  emotion  of  of  say  sense of  for  t h a t he  is  honour —  Bela ready i t  148  should  be  distress  assumed t h a t t h i s i s based  abduction  and  This, i s only not  too  parts  an  the  Pechorin's  assumption,  novel,  of  the  M a c K e n z i e ' s Man  no  more t h a n  an  much more t h a n and  b e c a u s e he  reader the  of  excess a  of  the  of  who  of  the  pines  emotion.  pine  hero of  S.ek  Gloomy E g o i s t .  is  other  superior intense  rather Man  emotional  absurd  dies  Feeling:  Harley  of  the  man.  of F e e l i n g ,  away and  of  also exhibits  The  girl.  Lermontov's hero  away l i k e  robustness  an  the  entire  Pechorin  is a  by  much o f  s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d Man  does not  the  for his actions in  prototype  mental  young n a t i v e  b r o u g h t on  very  by  remorse over  b e l i e v e s he  Feeling,  contains the  The the  blame  s i n c e he  Harley,  in  recovers  the  of  caused  however, because  physical illness  reminds  situation  feeling  subsequent death  keen to take  of  crisis  upon a  deterioration  —  of  i s  he  probably  Child  of  Nature.  characteristics  of  t r u e Gloomy E g o i s t d e v e l o p e d  from  23  a  personal  to  religious  Pechorin  melancholy.  i n Princess  Mary  This  because of  confessional  passages which i l l u s t r a t e  sophical  religious  is  not  and  the  considered that not  "Allah an  case as  the  a religious  i s the  only  the  hero's  passage  of philo-  that could  and  religious  melancholia  this be  i s a prompt d i s m i s s a l  same f o r a l l r a c e s , "  religious  apply  H o w e v e r , i n Bela  expression  a personal  the wealth  i s  into  certainly  melancholy.  states that a transformation occurred  development of Egoist:  because  i n t i m a t i o n of  Thorslev  attitudes.  could well  the  during Gloomy  But the  149 As t h e r a t h e r s t i f f m o r a l savage d e v e l o p e d i n t o t h e R o m a n t i c C h i l d , a n d a s t h e u p r i g h t m o r a l Man of F e e l i n g developed i n t o an e s t h e t i c dabbler i n s e n s i b i l i t i e s , so the true r e l i g i o u s melancholy l o s t i t s motive and developed i n t o a pose, i n t o t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f f e e l i n g f o r i t s own s a k e , a n d the c u l t i v a t i o n o f e i t h e r fashionable melancholy (and t h i s m e r g e d w i t h t h e M i l t o n i c t r a d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t r e m a i n e d more p e r s o n a l ) , o r t h e more v u l g a r s e n s a t i o n a l i s m o f c h a r n e l - h o u s e h o r r o r s . 24  There the  i s i n Bela  a p e r f e c t example o f Pechorin's  Gloomy E g o i s t :  he e x p l o i t s B e l a ' s  attempt t o overcome t h e g i r l ' s The  her feel  He  first  to  brood.  uses  sorry  f e e l i n g s i n an  o f deep emotion as a  f o r him and g i v e  i t by s a y i n g  as  stubbornness and seduce h e r .  h e r o u s e s h i s p o s e a s a man  t o make  pose  he w i l l  ruse  i n t o h i s wishes.  die i fBela  continues  " ' L i s t e n , my d e a r a n d g o o d B e l a ! ' continued Pechorin. ' Y o u s e e how I l o v e y o u ; I'm r e a d y t o g i v e a n y t h i n g t o c h e e r y o u up; I want y o u t o be happy, and i f you s t a r t brooding a g a i n , I s h a l l die. T e l l me, w i l l y o u b e m o r e c h e e r f u l ? ' She lapsed i n t o thought, never t a k i n g her black eyes o f f him, then she s m i l e d s w e e t l y and nodded h e r head i n s i g n o f assent." ( p . 25) The  ultimate  example o f t h i s  melodramatic pose o f profound of her  exploitation sentiment  freedom t o B e l a , where t h e hero p l a y s  o f f e e l i n g s and  i s Pechorin s 1  on h e r g u i l t  f e e l i n g s f o rhim.  "'Bela!' h e s a i d , ' Y o u k n o w how I l o v e y o u . I d a r e d t o c a r r y y o u o f f , t h i n k i n g t h a t when y o u g o t t o k n o w me, y o u w o u l d l o v e me; I h a v e made a m i s t a k e ; f a r e w e l l ! Remain i n complete possession of everything I own; i f y o u l i k e ,  offer and  150  g o b a c k t o y o u r f a t h e r -- y o u a r e f r e e . I am g u i l t y b e f o r e you, and must p u n i s h m y s e l f . Farew e l l , I am g o i n g — where? How s h o u l d I k n o w ? P e r c h a n c e I s h a l l n o t be l o n g r u n n i n g a f t e r a b u l l e t o r a s w o r d b l o w : r e m e m b e r me t h e n , a n d f o r g i v e me.' He t u r n e d a w a y a n d e x t e n d e d h i s hand i n f a r e w e l l . " (pp. 26-27)  T h i s bogus emotion girl.  and  Pechorin  carrying  i s only  you?  he  was,  above  to  propensity  insight  had  this  that  and  i s merely prime  a  was  only  usually  Pechorin,  just  character  T h a t was  the  Gloomy E g o i s t  b e h a v i o u r when one  the  Thorslev's i s very  relevant  o f boredom.  Without  penetrating  B y r o n i c pose:  once a g a i n for  o f t h e Gloomy E g o i s t thoughtful  a reflection  which  of  of Pechorin's character  feeling  death, but  t o o , i s seen  his  trembling  he  effect  cloak.  feature  about  of  answer,  was  (p. 27)  naive  excess  capable  P e c h o r i n assumes h i s melodrama  to meditate i n various thinks  acute  really  melancholy"  discussion  an  he  of i n jest.  "fashionable  fashionable  believes  A  the door;  he was  spoken  this  " H e a r i n g no  t h e L o r d knows!"  toward  that  i t Maksim Maksimych e x p r e s s e d a  into  this  a pose:  I think  the o l d captain's  realizing  he  i n d e l u d i n g the poor,  steps toward  o u t w h a t he  reference  and  I tell  o f man  during  emotion  t o o k a few  shall  kind  succeed  Even Maksim Maksimych r e a l i z e s  feeling  and  does  this  i n melancholy  i s well he  tendency  Most of the  time  c o n t e m p l a t i v e pose  of h i s excessive melancholy.  embodies both  day  poses.  i s his  the C h i l d  illustrated cannot  pose.  by  control  The  duality  of Nature  his  and  erratic  h i s urges  to  in  go  —  151  out  hunting,  would  "he w o u l d b e c o m e p e n s i v e  pace h i s room w i t h  back." is  the next  ( p . 36)  a fine  itself  Childe  h i s hands c l a s p e d Harold  i s almost e n t i r e l y Pechorin  preoccupation  made u p o f  also exhibits traits  through h i s confessions with  to  h i s disappointment  in  others.  his  two  cantos  f o r t h e poem  meditations. o f t h e Gloomy  of disgust with  sorrow,  behind  of the f i r s t  example o f t h e Gloomy E g o i s t ,  Egoist  s o c i e t y and h i s  boredom and p i t y .  t h a t he  again,  i s the cause o f  He  returns  unhappiness  . . . I o n l y k n o w t h a t i f I am a c a u s e o f u n h a p p i n e s s f o r o t h e r s , I am n o l e s s u n h a p p y m y s e l f . N a t u r a l l y , t h a t i s poor c o m f o r t f o r them, nevertheless, this i s a fact. I n my e a r l y y o u t h , f r o m t h e m i n u t e I e m e r g e d f r o m u n d e r my f a m i l y ' s s u p e r v i s i o n , I b e g a n m a d l y --to e n j o y e v e r y p l e a s u r e t h a t m o n e y c o u l d b u y , a n d , n a t u r a l l y , t h o s e p l e a s u r e s became r e p u l s i v e t o me. Then I v e n t u r e d o u t i n t o t h e grand monde a n d , s o o n , I became l i k e w i s e f e d up w i t h society: I have been i n l o v e w i t h f a s h i o n a b l e b e l l e s , and have been l o v e d , b u t t h e i r l o v e o n l y i r r i t a t e d my i m a g i n a t i o n a n d v a n i t y , w h i l e my h e a r t r e m a i n e d empty . . . I b e g a n t o r e a d , t o s t u d y -I got j u s t as sick of studies — I saw t h a t n e i t h e r fame n o r h a p p i n e s s d e p e n d e d o n them i n t h e l e a s t , s i n c e t h e h a p p i e s t p e o p l e a r e d u n c e s , w h i l e fame i s a q u e s t i o n o f l u c k , and i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n i t , you o n l y h a v e t o be n i m b l e . Then I b e g a n t o be b o r e d . . . ( p . 40) 3  The  hero's d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t with  intriguing  and d e s t r u c t i o n o f o t h e r s  Be l a h i s d i s a p p o i n t m e n t makes him s t r i v e love  society results i n Princess  Mary.  i n s o c i e t y and i n h i s l o v e  f o r a kind of i d e a l i s t i c  by i n i t i a t i n g  i n his cynical  his affair  with  a naive  affairs  perfection i n native  In  girl.  The in  means, t h o u g h d i f f e r e n t Princess  Mary,  destruction  o f another  includes Bela's that is  acts  p r o d u c e t h e same e n d r e s u l t :  the  human b e i n g  father).  of h i s selfish  relate  i s responsible f o r Bela's  burst are  (two, i n f a c t ,  The m o s t s t r i k i n g  egocentricity  and a l l people  himself.  of  evil  (This again  after  turned loss  death  Bela's into  death;  Maksimych,  and h i s d e s i r e t o have a l l  to himself: death,  reminds  i f one  revelation  t h e hero g i v e s , i n h i s c o n f e s s i o n t o Maksim  things he  s t i l l  from h i s thoroughly  even  he o n l y  though  feels  pity for  us o f h i s h y s t e r i c a l  the intense  feelings  he  outexpresses  h i m s e l f and a r e not symptomatic o f a  o f another  t o h i s own  person.  Pechorin  can only  s u f f e r i n g s and not t o  relate  sense Bela's  hers.)  " W h e t h e r I am a f o o l o r a v i l l a i n , I d o n ' t k n o w ; b u t o f o n e t h i n g I'm s u r e , t h a t I a l s o d e s e r v e p i t y , e v e n m o r e p e r h a p s t h a n s h e . My s o u l h a s been i m p a i r e d by t h e f a s h i o n a b l e w o r l d , I have a r e s t l e s s fancy, an i n s a t i a b l e h e a r t ; whatever I g e t i s n o t e n o u g h ; I become u s e d a s e a s i l y t o s o r r o w a s t o d e l i g h t , a n d my l i f e b e c o m e s m o r e empty day by day . . . " (pp. 40-41)  There this ing  i s something b i z a r r e l y self-centred  the feelings  deaths o f other  pitiless  b e c a u s e he h a s no g o a l plotted only  young g i r l s  and f e e l s to strive  t o abduct Bela,  f o r h i s own  y o u n g man who  of innocent people,  macabre and grotesque  selfish  then  succeeded  motives  goes around  destroy-  and causes t h e  t h a t he d e s e r v e s for.  about  After  all,  pity Pechorin  i n kidnapping her,  and w i t h o u t  a thought f o r  anyone e l s e . cation that He  of  he  on  h i s own  takes  tries  fist  T h a t he  her  this  t a b l e and  deal he  man  about  with the  not  calls the  her  he  of  i n Princess  had  to  there  certainly  propensity already burial of  a  no  arrangements  the  s c e n e , and  hero's  C h i l d of  made e x t e n s i v e type of  just  the  as  scenes of  traits  modifications of  Byron d i d .  Gloomy E g o i s t  and  But the  —  this  took  of  he  had  42) that  care  a  of  —  the  scene  replica  in the  Bela girl,  That there for  show t h a t stock  no  was  exact  grave of  bliss.  he  although  It  w e r e an  the  "whatever  seems t o be  i t i s obvious Man  great  lengthy  Moreover,  considerations  Nature  explain a  have any  s u r e l y be  other  selfishness  cemeteries.  mourning over  his  woman."  Gloomy E g o i s t  there  i n thought over past  a  (p.  I f he  stands  first.  smashes  young."  for Bela. would  at  see  i n Bela.  shown t h a t Maksim M a k s i m y c h  tantrum  could  does not  graves or  gratifi-  character:  opportunities, there  Gloomy E g o i s t ,  such  was  typical  death  for coffins,  where P e c h o r i n lost  are  "demon n o t  have, you  Pechorin  m e l a n c h o l y m u s i n g s on  to him  that could  h i s mamma w h e n h e  Mary,  temper  r e f u s e s , he  Pechorin's  However, u n l i k e the was  a  the  supreme e g o i s m and  h i s statement  on  the  submit  when she  formation  set his heart  b e e n s p o i l e d by  will  and  Maksim Maksimych notes of  concerned with  n e e d s i s p r o v e n by  when B e l a  to k i s s the  i s only  i s  example, Lermontov  preromantic that  F e e l i n g are  the  traits  present  in  154  Pechorin's of  make-up, and  a Hero of  the  Sensibility  development of The  into  the  I t was  necessary and  how  of  evil.  final  the  found  his  taint  of  i n keeping Hero.  preromantic  type  of  the  of  expression  "secret sins,"  evil  Byronic of  evil,  The  simple  since  w h i c h was  they  h e r o e s and Pechorin  too,  commission of confined the  by  exception  the  young boy  the  as  the  Gothic  of  Mary  t h a t he  hero of  evil  the  by  the  Azamat through  went  the  in his  Villians  and  became above  i n Bela. i n Bela  The is  itself.  torment that  with his  acts  Byron.  mainly  Maksim Maksimych,  abduction  about  dramas.  commission  Lord  demonstrated  Lermontov's hero  Oriental  from  Gothic  his  the  demonstrated  same s e n s i b i l i t y  of  with  i n the  sensibility" was  Villain  himself  greatly  developments of  As  commission  Gothic  Harold  how  character  metaphysical  differed  to minor observations  obvious  type  Noble Outlaws of  "soul of  this  something d i s t i n c t l y puts  and  villains.  evil  figures  most u n l i k e any  Byron are  has  course,  that Pechorin  cruelty  acquired a not  for this  i n Princess  sake,  i n the  heroes of  chapter  was  of  developed  previous  r e b e l s of  type  for evil's hero  also  i n the  the  f u r t h e r demonstrated  of  romantic  or  It  this  whose t r a i t s  the  of  i n such  or  beyond  tradition  exemplified i t i n his extensive  Tales, was  the  soul  H e r o was  evil  In Byron's works,  the  with  the  Byronic  p o i n t e d out  quality  Pechorin  t h e r e f o r e has  a Byronic  realizations  Villain.  t h a t he  with  There  is  Pechorin  excessive  155  teasing. plan the  I t would  seem t h a t ,  to abduct B e l a , the boy  by  fanning the  hero  although  seems t o d e l i g h t  flames  in  of h i s compulsive  Maksim Maksimych n o t i c e s P e c h o r i n ' s the  i t i s a l l in his torturing  desires.  enjoyment of  tormenting  boy. "The c o n v e r s a t i o n t u r n e d t o h o r s e s , a n d P e c h o r i n began t o p r a i s e K a z b i c h ' s mount: i t was so s p i r i t e d , so handsome, a r e g u l a r g a z e l l e . — w e l l , t o h e a r h i m , t h e r e was n o t a n o t h e r l i k e i t i n t h e whole world. 'The l i t t l e M o s l e m ' s e y e s s p a r k l e d , b u t P e c h o r i n seemed n o t t o n o t i c e ; I w o u l d s t a r t s p e a k i n g o f s o m e t h i n g e l s e , b u t b e f o r e y o u k n e w , he h a d s w i t c h e d the t a l k back t o Kazbich's horse. This business w o u l d go o n e v e r y t i m e A z a m a t came o v e r . About t h r e e weeks l a t e r , I began t o n o t i c e t h a t Azamat was g e t t i n g p a l e a n d p i n i n g away, a s i t h a p p e n s from l o v e i n n o v e l s , s i r . I marveled. 'Well, you see, I d i s c o v e r e d the whole t h i n g later: P e c h o r i n had d r i v e n him t o such a p o i n t w i t h h i s t e a s i n g t h a t h e was c l o s e t o j u m p i n g into the water.'" ( p . 20) Unlike  many o f h i s a c t i o n s i n Princess  were committed w i t h e v i l seduction  and  themselves, In  effect  code of  were not  evil  a s s u m e h i s own  his  actions,  assumed,  f o r the  done,  (as he  the  i s to  barbarous  Thus,  from  guise of the  sake of  by the  acts  evil.  cast o f f the  moral  Mary of  t a k i n g on ruthless  standards  of  by  "honour")  s t a n d p o i n t t h a t he  i . e . the p r i m i t i v e  in  doing  a cover-up  code of behaviour  which  abduction,  d i d i n Princess  deeds masked by  and  has  committed  what P e c h o r i n has  inhabitants.  Pechorin's  e v e n t u a l abandonment, though e v i l  civilization,  performing  intent,  Mary  the  through Caucasian himself mountain  156 tribe,  Pechorin  may b e c o n s i d e r e d  ous a c t o f k i d n a p p i n g  an innocent  justified  i nhis villain-  girl.  Up t o t h i s p o i n t i n t h e n o v e l we h a v e s e e n Pechorin as a romantic f i g u r e i n an e x o t i c setting pitting himself chiefly against the n o b l e s a v a g e , and e x h i b i t i n g a s he d o e s , t h e v e r y same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s t h e n o b l e savage h i m s e l f — ruthlessness, daring, guile and a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o have h i s w i l l i n a l l things. This i s c e r t a i n l y true of the Pechorin o f Bela, a n d w h a t we s e e o f h i m i n Maksim Maksimych merely serves t o strengthen this v i e w . 25  Of c o u r s e , haviour a  although  o f a w i l d people,  civilized,  his  he h i m s e l f  The r e m a r k a b l e  the abduction  of Bela  he commits  i n Princess  kidnapping  of the native  though  has taken  c u l t u r e d man a n d m u s t  actions.  behind  Pechorin  selfish  —  Mary  purpose  on t h e b a r b a r i c be-  must  be h e l d  be c o n s i d e r e d  responsible f o r  d i f f e r e n c e between h i s motives and t h e d e s t r u c t i v e deeds  i smalice  girl  as  aforethought.  i s done w i t h  i n mind:  in  h i s s o u l by a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  be  loved  that  The  an i d e a l i s t i c  —  t o rekindle t h e best p r i m i t i v e woman, a n d t o  byh e r .  Pechorin demonstrates w i l l , cunning and decisiveness i n the preparation of h i s abduction of Bela, and p e r s i s t e n c e i n h i sgoal t o arouse mutual f e e l i n g s i n the C i r c a s s i a n g i r l . However, t h e r e a d e r i s made w a r y b y M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t Pechorin's and Azamat's kidnapping of Bela c o n s t i t u t e d a misdeed. But gradually this wariness disappears and both t h e reader and Maksim Maksimych admire t h e s t r e n g t h o f Pechorin's f e e l i n g s t o w a r d B e l a a n d h i s b u r n i n g d e s i r e t o be l o v e d . T h e o l d c a p t a i n r e c o i l s b e f o r e t h e w i l l f u l man w h o i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t i f he does n o t i n s p i r e l o v e f o r h i m s e l f i n t h e C i r c a s s i a n g i r l , she w i l l belong t o no o n e b u t h i m .  157 The C i r c a s s i a n g i r l r e f u s e s f o r a l o n g t i m e , a l t h o u g h P e c h o r i n t r i e s t o remove a l l p o s s i b l e obstacles: he a s s u r e s B e l a o f h i s b u r n i n g l o v e f o r her and c o n v i n c e s her t h a t even her faith c a n n o t s t o p her from l o v i n g him. 26  Thus i t i s t r u e one  vital  Princess  that there  element Mary:  destruction  t h a t was  present  cruelty.  of  at  Mary  i s replaced  This  latter  least  i n w h i c h he  the  kidnapping  This three  i n Bela  trait  way  i s missing  by  was  not  a  has  and  not  is  that  of  thought cannot  argue w i t h  is  ample evidence  to  "he  indifferent  likes  to the  death  man  her,"  of  and  the  father. felt  even mention  other  selfishness,  Princess  offhanded  only  And,  any  number rogue  response simplicity there  completely responsible  o l d c a p t a i n does  remorse at  this  fact  of  course,  discussed  a  Moreover,  directly  The  of  in his  was  that  Pechorin  a primitive  logic.  was  element present  already  in  Here  lives  His  B e l a , h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e toward The  is  this  of Bela's  boredom.  the  in his  Maksim Maksimych  t h a t he  anywhere t h a t P e c h o r i n  of  upset  fact  latter  in  indifference.  do.  suppose t h a t P e c h o r i n  say  tired  hero  society.  and  the  weariness  the  a c t i n g i n a manner b e f i t t i n g  for  does the  i n i t s wake  kind thing to  people  cultivated  left  s e l f i s h n e s s and  of  a  lives  that  actions  Maksim Maksimych's c o n t e n t i o n  s h o w s i n d i f f e r e n c e t h a t he by  i n h i s make-up  cruelty  i s e x h i b i t e d by  dismisses  i n Pechorin's  i t ,  not  nor  i n his confession after  her  has  grown  is appalling.  i n Pechorin's i n the  he  character  s e c t i o n on  of  the  158  Hero o f S e n s i b i l i t y . the  Nevertheless,  y o u n g woman w a s p e r f o r m e d  motives,  and, although  his  goal  only  Pechorin's  theft of  fortotally self-centred  he i s n o t m e r e l y  an e v i l  seducer,  i s t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f h i scharacter  a t Bela's  expense. P e c h o r i n i s a man w h o c a n n o t p u t u p w i t h t h e drudgery o f l i f e i n the Caucasus, without a murmur a s M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h d o e s , n o t s e e i n g a n y meaning i n l i f e , although n e i t h e r t h e dangers n o r the burdens o f such a severe l i f e f r i g h t e n him. The a t t i t u d e o f P e c h o r i n t o w a r d B e l a d e m o n s t r a t e s his p a s s i o n a t e temperament and h i s c a p a c i t y f o r wholly surrendering himself t o the feeling of h i s l o v e , t o b r i n g a t r u e j / o y t o t h e woman h e l o v e s and t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d f e e l h e r s u f f e r i n g s . The f e e l i n g o f t h e hero f o r Bela i s not simply another passion of a society ladykiller, but rather a profound f e e l i n g — t h e means f o r s a v i n g h i m s e l f from the deadly mire e n g u l f i n g h i s l i f e ; t h i s i s why he s t r i v e s s o much f o r a g r e a t m u t u a l l o v e . I t t u r n s o u t t h a t t h e h e r o was m i s t a k e n . The c o n f e s s i o n o f P e c h o r i n i n c l u d e d i n Maksim Maksimy c h 's s t o r y w a s t h e o r i g i n a l mode o f L e r m o n t o v ' s r e a l i s t i c m e t h o d , a n d was o n e o f t h e means o f d i s c l o s i n g t h e h e r o ' s c h a r a c t e r . 27  Therefore  t h e h e r o ' s e g o c e n t r i c i t y a n d d e s i r e t o be  form t h e fundamental m o t i v a t i n g  d r i v e behind  loved  h i s acts i n  Bela. If his  primary  the  category  with  Bela  s e l f i s h n e s s and i n d i f f e r e n c e t o o t h e r s a r e  traits  i n Bela,  of the Gothic  centres  around  stages:  abduction,  are  characteristic  very  how e l s e d o e s P e c h o r i n Villain?  three  deduction  vital  Basically,  f i t into  the affair  and i n s e p a r a b l e  and n e g l e c t .  of the Byronic  hero,  The f i r s t b u t they  two  159  m u s t be the of  performed without  typical  hero of  honour toward  does not  indubitably a  distinct  i t can  and  the  over,  seduction of  this Mary.)  the  the One  roguery  already.  argued  does not  Villains  with  i n the So  the  t h a t she  girl of  exhibit  and  so  on  i n t h e manner i n w h i c h he  t o overcome B e l a ' s  point  stage  Pechorin of  Lord  i s very Byron.  to  distinctly He  has  resemble the  Gothic  Selim  i s the  leader of  chief  of  to h i s l i f e  the  fierce  that  similar  just  Villain  as  a pirate  i n an  outlaw  recklessness of of  the  developed  band,  Byronic  Princess  villainous  the  pose  The  of The  seduction, Noble evil  they:  just  Giaour  as  is  sins  Pechorin  other  Outlaws to  the are  exhibits  a Noble Outlaw i n h i s  Circassian girl.  into  in  Conrad's  so  (Contrast  resistance.  band, the and  in his  their  much as  More-  rapacious  to the  enough o f  hero  token.  used  i . e . the  a r e b e l band o f Arnauts  due  abduction  two,  Never-  Lewis.  affects  she  loved the  intent  wounded s e n s i b i l i t y i s t h a t up  plot.  cruelty  state that Pechorin  hero  since  more t h a n  evil  code  resistance i s  already  Sotheby or  emphasis p l a c e d could  heroine Bela's  any  his  Byronic  i s u n l i k e the  Radcliffe,  woman s i n c e  maintain  traditional  resistance is l i t t l e  Pechorin  Gothic  him  be  to the  However, the  love  m o d i f i c a t i o n of  theless, thus  woman.  inspire  loves  cruelty  Byron must s t r i c t l y  the  need t o  any  daring  qualities  heroes have a l r e a d y  been  160  examined.  I t i s on t h e t h i r d  stage  greatly  from these  Byronic  h e r o t o abandon h i s l o v e d one o r even be  to  her.  life  archetypes.  that Pechorin  I t i s not possible f o r the  H i s courtesy and f i d e l i t y  preclude  this  differs  possibility.  indifferent  t o t h e one l o v e o f h i s  The l a t e  eighteenth-  28 century other  who s e d u c e d  extreme and c l o s e l y  Pechorin he  figure  i n Bela  In fact  for  she bores  Pechorin  stage  the Gothic  Villain. f o r , though  he w o u l d n o t  he s t a t e s t h a t he i s r e a d y him.  i s developed  to die  So i n h i s a t t i t u d e  beyond  Mary  resulted  Villain  i n a c h a r a c t e r who c l o s e l y  resembled  i n h i spenchant f o r d e s t r u c t i o n o f others;  c h a r a c t e r does n o t resemble t h e G o t h i c  but  i s r a t h e r a development It  into  was s t a t e d a b o v e t h a t a v i t a l  o f the hero.  be  made t o g i v e  be  considered  That Bela  i n t o t h e hero's  a s a Man o f W i l l .  for  him t o assert this  are  i n Princess i n Bela.  Mary,  will  Villain  Gothic  i n  Bela  s o much,  differencei n  submissive  tothe  i s n o t and t h a t she must wishes,  means  Although  there are s t i l l  t h a t he must  the occasions  a r e n o t so frequent  The e x t e n t  a  hero  a Man o f I n d i f f e r e n c e .  B y r o n w a s t h a t t h e woman w a s a l r e a d y  tunities  In  Lermontov's m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Byronic  the  desires  toward  t h e Noble Outlaw t o a  t h a t was u n h e a r d o f i n t h e w o r k s o f B y r o n .  Princess type  resembled  by t h e n a t i v e g i r l ,  abandon h e r .  Bela  a b a n d o n e d was o n t h e  comes somewhere i n t h e m i d d l e  h a s become b o r e d  her, only  then  as  they  a number o f o p p o r -  of Pechorin's  power  over  people  is first  Azamat, the desires with  and  i n Bela  own  great  the  fine  his manipulation  skill.  The  Pechorin  handling  young  i s performed with  until  the  p o o r boy  e x a c t l y what P e c h o r i n  of  the  referring  to  desperate  that  wants him  to  do.  In  L e r m o n t o v ' s h e r o knows e x a c t l y what l o g i c superior of  officer,  and  manipulates  r e c e i v i n g a reprimand  captain  himself  keep the  submit  for his  to  plays  boy's  consummate a b i l i t y :  i s so  him  he  the  a to  also,  he  wishes of  will  use so  teases  coveted  like  a c t i o n s , he  h i s own  of  compulsive  horse Karagyoz,  c a j o l e s Azamat, c o n s t a n t l y  horse  by  rowdy C i r c a s s i a n l a d upon whose  to  obsession  evident  do  manner on  his  that  instead  makes t h e letting  old  him  girl.  He c a r r i e s o f f B e l a f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t he l i k e s h e r , and when h i s s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r , M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h , comes t o r e p r i m a n d him o f f i c i a l l y f o r h i s conduct, a l t h o u g h P e c h o r i n does agree to surrender h i s sword, i t i s nevertheless Maksim M a k s i m y c h who i s r e a l l y disarmed. This r e f u s a l to submit to the w i l l of h i s superior o f f i c e r g i v e s us a f o r e t a s t e o f P e c h o r i n ' s l a t e r b e h a v i o u r i n Maksim Maksimy ch . 29  Naturally treatment of her  immediately  since she that  his  she  will  exhibits a  captive. is a  i s held  pleases. Bela  Pechorin  The  The  subjection  prisoner crux  submit  to  of  very of  strong idea  her  that  will  to  and  i s not  free  the  matter  i s , of  his  desires  by  will  to  in  he  kidnaps  his go  his  own  or  do  as  course,  giving  i n to  his  162 seduction.  The  intercourse  by  hero  could  rape.  But  physically Pechorin  force Bela  into  i s much more t h a n  a  30 rapist.  This  Villains.  B e c a u s e he  seduce B e l a : victory  i s too  he  to h i s  of  the  r e v e l s i n the  m u s t make h e r  i s hollow.  submission  typical  Pechorin  violent  triumph,  Gothic  Pechorin  want t o g i v e  i n or  i s determined  to  must  the  achieve  this  will.  "'I've h i r e d the w i f e of our innkeeper: she can speak T a t a r and w i l l t a k e c a r e o f B e l a and a c c u s t o m her t o t h e i d e a t h a t she i s mine, f o r s h e w o n ' t b e l o n g t o a n y b o d y b u t me,' he added, h i t t i n g the t a b l e w i t h h i s f i s t . I agreed to t h i s too . . . . What w o u l d you h a v e me d o ? T h e r e a r e some p e o p l e w i t h whom y o u j u s t m u s t a g r e e . " ( p . 24) It  i s also  important  Maksimych admits is  impossible  Pechorin  that  in this  that Pechorin  to argue w i t h  suffers  than ever  to note  only  Bela  serve  will  has  him.  quotation  a powerful The  will  Maksim and  i t  i n i t i a l setbacks  t o make h i m  voluntarily  that  more  give  that  determined  i n to h i s  wishes.  "Pechorin struck h i s forehead with h i s f i s t and r u s h e d i n t o the n e x t room. I w e n t t h e r e ; he was g l o o m i l y p a c i n g t o a n d f r o , w i t h h i s a r m s f o l d e d on h i s c h e s t . ' W e l l , o l d man?' I s a i d t o him. 'A d e m o n , n o t a woman!' h e a n s w e r e d . 'Only I g i v e y o u my w o r d o f h o n o r t h a t s h e w i l l b e m i n e . . .' I s h o o k my h e a d . 'Would you l i k e t o b e t ? ' he s a i d . 'In a week's time!' 'Agreed!' We shook h a n d s o n i t a n d p a r t e d . " ( p . 26)  Bela  eventually gives  ulating final  her  result  feelings. of  having  in after So the  the  Pechorin Man  heroine  succeeds  of W i l l  i n manip-  does o b t a i n  submit to h i s  wishes  the  by  a skillful  case in  handling  i n Princess  Mary  h i ssexual  o f her love Pechorin  relations  demonstrates.  After  delights.  figure: female; the is  conquering that. the  then  departure modified created  present  love  i n Bela.  seen  i n the previous  traits  Tales  i svital  of the Byronic  se  .  aspects  atmosphere o f t h e w i l d  to the plot.  source  o f comparison  works where an  L e r m o n t o v h a s made  and t h e stock  herself  provides  and t h e pasha personage  The m o t i f  hero and  of literature.  a r e many B y r o n i c  m o d i f i c a t i o n s on t h e p l o t  per  concerned  Lermontov has  o f Byron and other  the heroine  that  Pechorin's  shows t h a t o n c e a g a i n  environment provides; a r i c h  triangle:  hero  enjoys  chapter  l o f t y matters.  The c a v a l i e r  the love a f f a i r  exist  However, t h e B y r o n i c  i n t h e sense t h a t he  conclusion there  setting  certain  i s the conquest of the  a new d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e h i s t o r y  the Oriental  exotic  seek  h a s b e e n made t h e i n t e r e s t i n  or other  the character  Caucasian with  interest  h e r o a s a Man o f W i l l was o f t e n  from t h i s  In  and must  d e s t r o y i n g women; h e i s t o o c o u r t e o u s f o r  I t was a l r e a d y  Byronic  of Bela  t y p i c a l o f t h e Don J u a n  greatly.  figure  with metaphysical  to  sexual  female diminishes  o f h i sconquest  i s very  once t h e triumph  n o t a Don J u a n  p r o v e s t o b e a Man o f W i l l  h e h a s made h e r h i s m i s t r e s s , t h e  This  the chief  A s was t h e  as h i s t o t a l domination  h e r o g r a d u a l l y comes t o t i r e other  f o r him.  o f t h e storm  Byronic  the obstacle  does n o t  i s important  as  a  lyrical  and  the  and  p l o t of  prevalent  clear  indeed, latter  the  that  love  heroines  of  heroine  she  has  f o r him Byron.  of  him  to  her,  i n the  of  an  a Byronic  to  of  quite  fact  love  typical  that  Bela  is a  the  still of  slight  and, the  maintains  an  impassioned  adds  from a  him and  who  a  Byronic  humility  foreign to  and,  the  extraordinary  a u t h o r - t r a v e l l e r him-  f i g u r e but  the  somewhat c y n i c a l  i s w e l l i n the  hero  Maksim Maksimych,  simplicity,  The  i t is  E v e n when  the  character,  swashbuckling  a  Bela,  first  Lermontov's work  d e l i n e a t i o n as  are  Nevertheless,  she  inclusion  characters.  he  at  tradition  extraordinary  shows t h a t  the  a l l along.  practicality,  Byron's  i s not  Nature  however,  formula.  loved  not  adventurous  character  storm motifs  h i s o r d i n a r i n e s s , render  bravado of self  His  atmosphere  English writer.  does e x i s t  The  f o r study  standpoint.  world  tales;  Byronic  most d e f i n i t e l y  above a l l ,  as  the  primitive characters  grows i n d i f f e r e n t  dimension  the  both  h e r o ' s amorous o v e r t u r e s  undying  is  are  from the  that  to  story, just  adventure  the  departure  device  works of  Kazbich  romantic  resists  the  i n the  Azamat and of  dramatic  line  of  extent Child  of  his  of  Byronic  personalities.  in  Bela  that  As  for Pechorin  he  enjoys  h i s time  his love  hunting  spent  i n the  a  great  of  nature  deal  C a u c a s u s was  and the  i s unbounded; confesses happiest  of  165  his  life.  Lermontov's  hero demonstrates the tremendous  c a p a c i t y f o r f e e l i n g , d i s i l l u s i o n e d e g o c e n t r i c i t y and f a s h i o n a b l e melancholy o f the Hero o f S e n s i b i l i t y . c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f Pechorin  The  as a Gothic V i l l a i n are c h i e f l y  c o n f i n e d t o h i s d a r i n g escapades o f kidnapping i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the Noble Outlaws.  Bela much  The c r u e l sexual  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f h i s c a p t i v e and h i s t i r i n g o f her can o n l y be construed  as wickedness, a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the  Gothic V i l l a i n .  F i n a l l y , the hero i s very much a Man o f  W i l l and, i n B e l a , desires.  f r e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t s o t h e r s t o h i s own  166 FOOTNOTES CHAPTER TWO  of  "'"See the d i s c u s s i o n o f the fragmentary the novel i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n .  2 V.A. Y e v z e r i k h i n a , "Bela godov XIX veka," (1960), 63.  1 putevyye  structure  zapiski  30-kh  3  S.N. D u r y l i n i n Kak Rabotal 110, echoes the same thoughts. Ibid.,  (1934)  111.  A  5 V.A. Y e v z e r i k h i n a , Op.Cit., further.  . point  Lermontov,  60, d i s c u s s e s t h i s  See a l s o B. Eykhenbaum, Lermontov,  (1924), 159.  7 The fragmentary s t r u c t u r e o f Byron's v e r s e t a l e s as compared to Lermontov's e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s has been s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l by J.T. Shaw. See h i s Ph.D. T h e s i s "Byron and Lermontov: The Romantic Verse T a l e , " (1950), 32. p  W.J. E n t w i s t l e , A Hero  of Our Time,"  "The Byronism o f Lermontov's  (1949), 142.  Q  The usage o f the T u r k i s h word " p e r i " c o u l d be a d i r e c t borrowing from Byron's B r i d e of Abydos, I : 151. 10  V . A . Y e v z e r i k h i n a , Op.Cit.,  70.  S e e B.V. Neyman, " P o r t r e t v t v o r c h e s t v e Lermontova," (1948), 87. i:L  12 B. Eykhenbaum, "0 smyslovoy nashego  vremeni,"  13 Geroy  R.A. Peace,  nashego  osnove  Geroya  21.  vremeni,"  "The Role o f Taman ' i n Lermontov's 13.  14 15 John Mersereau, M i k h a i l lermontov, W.J. E n t w i s t l e , Op. C i t . , 142.  (1962), 90  167 16  See t h e i n c i s i v e r e m a r k s o f V . S p a s o v i c h , " B a y r o n i z m u P u s h k i n a i Lermontova," (1888), 536. 17 V.A. Y e v z e r i k h m a ,  Op. Cit.,  70.  Ibid., 70. "Ka36im — S T O yMyflpeHHbift onbiTOM, X H T P H H ropeu;, KOToporo X O T H H nO,JJ,03peBaJIH B " H e M H p H O M " OTHOmeHHH K pyCCKHM, H O "OH H H B K a K o S m a j i o c T H He 6biJi 3 a M e v e H " . EoraTHH X H 3 HeHHuft o n b i T - y ^ e p x H B a e T e r o O T T O r o , MTO6H OT^aTt CBoero Kapare3a 3a C T p a c T H O jiK>6HMyio aceHnpiHy. Bcer^a OH AeficTByeT pac^eTJiHBO H OCTOPOXCHO." 18  ^ M . Yil'. L e r m o n t o v , A Hero V . N a b o k o v , 19 9.  by  vremeni,  of Our Time,  translated  20 B. E y k h e n b a u m , "0 s m y s l o v o y o s n o v e Geroya "22. 2 1  K.  Loks,  2 2  P.J.  "Proza  Thorslev,  Ibid.,  44.  Ibid.,  44.  23  24  Lermontova," The Byronio  nashego  (1938), 13.  Hero,  (1962), 34.  25 R.A.  Peace,  Op.Cit.,  26 V.A. Y e v z e r i k h i n a , "BOJUO,  Ke  VM,  pemHTejifaHOCTfa  15. Op.Cit., npoHBHJi  HOXHmeHHH E3JIH, HaCTOHMHBOCTb  65. rie^opHH n p H n o f l r o T O B -  B CTpeMJieHHH  BbI3BaTb  OT-  B e T H o e ^ y B C T B O y MepKemeHKH. OflHaico U H T a T e j i a Hac-TOpaxcHBaeT 3 a M e ^ a H H e MaKCHMa MaKCHMbma o T O M , MTO H e x o p o m e e flejio c o BepinHjiH ne^opHH c A 3 a M a T O M , H O X H T H B B3Jiy. Ho nocTeneHHO 3 T a HacTopoxeHHOCTb c r j i a x H B a e T C H , H U H T a T e j i b B M e c T e c MaKCHMOM MaKCHMbraeM jiioSyeTCH CHJIOS ^ y B C T B a IleMopHHa K Bojie, ero r o p H^HM  xejiaHHeM  3THM  BOJieBHM  JIK>6HMHM.  6biTb  ^eJIOBeKOM,  3 B a T b JHOSOBB K ce6e H H K O M y , KpoMe Hero,  IJIT&SC—KaiiHTaH O T C T y n H J i n e p e f l  SCeJiaBIEHM  BO  MTO 6bl TO H H CTaJIO  BH—  y MepKemeHKH, yBepeHHUM B T O M , ^ T O OHa He 6y&eT n p H H a f l J i e x a T b . Jtojiro c o n p o T H B J i H j i a c b ^ e p K e m e H i c a , x o T a ITe^opHH c T a p a j i c a y c T p a H H T b Bee B 0 3 M 0 » t H b i e n p e n H T C T B H H : y B e p a j i Eojiy B CBoeft r o p a ^ e f t JIK6BH K H e n , y6e*c,n;aji e e , HTO flasce e e B e p a H e M O s c e T noMemaTb  eM  jm6xTh  ero."  168 67-68. " U e ^ o p H H — n e j i O B e K , K O T O P M H He MO»ceT KaK MaKCHM MaKCHMbW, T H H y T b C B O B D JIHMKy H Ha K a B K a 3 e , He B H J J H CMHCJia B S C H 3 H H , X O T H e r o He CTpamaT H H o n a c H O C T H , H H T H r o T H cypoBoM K H 3 H H . OTHomeHHe I l e u o p H H a K Bsjie n o K a 3 H B a e T CTpacTHOCTfa e r o Ha Typhi, cnoco6HOCTt> OTflaBaTbca J J O J I HOCTbK) M y B C T B y J I K ) 6 B H , IipHHOCHTb HCTHHHOe c ^ i a c T b e J I M S H M O M xceHz  TSK  'lbid.  s  6e3pOIIOTHO,  mHHe, noHHMaTB H couyBCTBOBaTb e e C T p a j j , a H H H M . ^ y B C T B O r e p o H K Bsjie — 3T0 He n p o c T O OMepejjHOe y B j i e u e H H e CBeTCKoro B O J I O K H T H , STO TJiySoKoe ^yBCTBO — cpeflCTBO c n a c T H T b O T MepTBoS T H H H , B KOTopyio 3 a c a c H B a j i a e r o XH3Hb, noTOMy r e p o f t TaK Sopojicn 3 a H e r o , floSHBajiCH Sojibffloro O T B e T H o r o H y B C T B a . 0 K a 3 a j i o c b , ^ T O repoS OHIHSCH. H c n o B e ^ b ITeuopHHa, BKJiroueHHaa B p a c c K a 3 MaKCHMa MaKC H M H ^ a , HBJiHHCb o p H r H H a j i b H H M npHeMOM p e a j i H C T H ^ e c K o r o MeTOfla JlepMOHTOBa, HBHJiacb O J J H H M H3 c p e f l C T B p a c K p u T H H x a p a K T e p a r e p o H . "  28 See,  * f o r example Karamzin's E r a s t from Bednaya  R.A.  Peace, Op.Cit.  Liza.  29 3  15.  30 T h i s q u e s t i o n i s f u r t h e r complicated when one c o n s i d e r s t h i s type of s e d u c t i o n as sexual e x p l o i t a t i o n which, as such, i s l i t t l e more than p e t t y rape. Germaine Greer i n her p e r c e p t i v e a r t i c l e "Seduction i s a f o u r - l e t t e r word" i n Playboy, January 1973, p. 80, argues c o n v i n c i n g l y f o r a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s e x p r e s s i o n of h o s t i l i t y to the o p p o s i t e sex as rape. P e c h o r i n , i n h i s s e d u c t i o n and consequent l o s s of i n t e r e s t i n h i s quarry, demonstrates almost as much enmity toward women as any b r u t a l r a p i s t .  CHAPTER THREE  Of Time,  pages  that  i n this  Our  o f view  f o r our  I t i s very short:  only ten  compact form t h e most developed insight  a few simple a c t i o n s  himself  only  utters  the  entire  for  including  describe  story.  about  the story  t h e hero  insight  into  short  seem t h a t  was t o h a v e  i n detail  observant t h i r d  into  throughout  the author's  purpose  o f view  of a  than the unsophisticated  Thus t h e r e a d e r i s g i v e n a t h r e e way  Pechorin's personality:  from t h e p o i n t s o f the cultivated  author-  a n d , o f c o u r s e , f r o m P e c h o r i n ' s own o b s e r v a t i o n s  h i s journal which  tance rests actions,  Pechorin  the opportunity t o  view o f t h e s i m p l e Maksim Maksimych, traveller  In fact,  sentences  from t h e p o i n t  person rather  portrait  h i s character  and phrases.  a dozen  I t would  Maksim Maksimych.  that  of  i n R u s s i a n , twelve i n Nabokov's t r a n s l a t i o n , b u t  through  in  point  remarkable; nevertheless,  P e c h o r i n and a s t r i k i n g  keen  c o m p r i s e A Hero  i s from a l i t e r a r y  i ti s most r e l e v a n t .  contains of  stories  Maksimych  the least  purposes  MAKSIMYCH  the five  Maksim  perhaps  MAKSIM  basically  follows.  Although the story's  on Pechorin's d e s c r i p t i o n  and h i s  t h e r e a r e a number o f o t h e r f e a t u r e s w h i c h  Maksim  Maksimych,  seemingly  insignificant,  impor-  i sa  prove vital  170 piece  i n the  jigsaw puzzle  w h i c h m a k e up At ness of as  a  figure,  could  they  Bela the  developed  very  a  setting  he  has  them a  step  present,  which  takes  place  tionally  the  setting  different  f r o m the. i n t e n s i t y  Maksimych's a be  little  the  excitement  and  exotic,  of  but  itself in  of  certain  Maksim  Bela,  Byronic  original  format.  the  story  a  location  Bela  as  this  the  into to  is  Bela,  and excep-  s t i l l  story i s  night  reader  is  of  of  tribes  Maksimych  adventure of  gives  l u r e s him  setting  and  mountain region  s e r e n i t y of  and  a c t i o n comparable  The of being  same b u t  calm s e t t i n g  deep b r e a t h ,  statement  adventurous environment  N a t u r a l l y , the  the  a l l the  adven-  No  bandits, uncivilized  basically  After  and  Mary  their  "pasha"  i n many p a r t s o f  in a primitive  i n h a b i t e d by  tranquil.  beyond  features  of  story.  concise-  expressed.  contrast to the  soldiers,  such  brigands  taken  but  very  type  d i d i n Princess  great  warring  of  a  from the  In  Caucasus  absence of  heroine,  Byronism  subtly  seem t h a t t h e  the  Maksimych  features are  are  and  As  settings  Time.  i t would  and  true.  c h a r a c t e r s , p l o t s and  faithful  preclude  i n Maksim  and  Byronic  a  motifs  less  Lermontov  Our  glance  triangle,  would  traits  of  Maksimych.  storm  be  Hero  first  Maksim  love  turers  A  of  from  as  day.  Maksim to  take  thinking that there  will  that of  f u l f i l s the  the  a chance  previous  Byronic  story.  criterion  reversion to a V i r g i l i a n  atmos-  171 phere  i ti s almost i d y l l i c  aspect there is  certainly  diminishes  i s no p l a c e  just  i n i t s serenity.  here  too peaceful.  f o r any e x t r a o r d i n a r y happening, i t A l l that really  storm  motifs.  numerous or  In both  instances o f storms  narration.  that  The s t o r m  set the whirlwind  Mary  to reflect  i sa  event.  by t h e l a c k  a n d Bela  there  suspense and p r o v i d e Byronic  atmosphere o f t h e events I n Maksim  i s r e m a r k a b l e by i t s absence.  chance  were  t h e mood o f t h e h e r o  was a p r i m a r y  workings o f t h e hero's mind. motif  i s confirmed  Princess  the narrator, or to build  for  happens  s u r e l y n o t an unusual  ordinariness of the situation  of  last  t h e Byronism o f the atmosphere:  m e e t i n g o f two o l d f r i e n d s , The  This  opportunity feature  and o f t h e  Maksimych Not once  the  storm  i s the quiet  c a l m o f t h e s t o r y ' s mood i n t e r r u p t e d b y a n y k i n d o f t e m p e s t . In  fact  clouds  a r e only mentioned  ity  by u s i n g  the  b i l l o w y cumulo-nimbus clouds The  Maksimych. heroine The  formula a  Byronic  whose  love-triangle  love  necessary  This  plot  intrigue  two  i s also absent  can a t t a i n  i n perspective  f o ra Byronic  Maksimych's  of the other  t o such a great  i s unrecognizable. change  i n stark contrast to  means t h a t t h e r e  the hero  i s modified  complete  Maksim  the e p i t h e t "golden,"  Naturally this  plot  to reinforce the tranquil-  over  extent  stories. from  i s no great  faithful obstacles.  that the Byronic  lack of a triangle since the primary  i s absent.  Maksim  forces  element  The e s s e n c e o f  i s t h e o l d man's  anticipation  of  h i s reunion  tion  from  events are  Pechorin  The u t t e r  c a n be m i s l e a d i n g : within  and h i s subsequent  simplicity many  them.  the author  i n these  Pechorin's  cool  recep-  mundane  subtle psychological  effects  carefully  concerns  a  basic  forthright  of h i s goal  i n considerable  details  on t h e c h a r a c t e r s .  presents  r e l a t i o n s h i p s because  character  o f these  The q u e s t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e i r  Moreover, tion  him.  contained  human  with  distinc-  to reveal  detail.  In e f f e c t Lermontov needed t h i s meeting [between P e c h o r i n and Maksim Maksimych] t o j u s t i f y a detailed d e s c r i p t i o n of Pechorin's looks (once a g a i n , we s e e how c a r e f u l L e r m o n t o v w a s i n j u s t i f y i n g such an e p i s o d e ) , o t h e r w i s e he would have been forced t o renounce such a d e s c r i p t i o n o r t o place i t i n Maksim Maksimych's mouth, w h i c h would have been a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . 1  For  example,  atmosphere subtle  between  distinction  drawn  other sets  met o n l y  i n the story the tone  "like  who  are only  before,  t h e c o n t r a s t between  this  who  know e a c h  superficially,  frigid  other  encounter  only  cordial  o f t h e two a c t u a l  reunion  which Maksim  casual  re-encounter  of the story.  see  i n his  complex:  two o l d f r i e n d s . "  f o r the rest  i s a  by t h e a u t h o r  yet are quite  once  and  there  relationships i n the story,  on the s u r f a c e ,  having  i n setting  Maksimych,  and the a u t h o r - n a r r a t o r ,  acquaintances,  phrase  a n d Maksim  o f t h e human  so simple  Maksimych  each  Bela  yet striking  depiction seem  i n addition to the contrast  This We  o f two  plainly people  and t h e almost  " o l dfriends,"  Pechorin  173  and  Maksim Maksimych.  more n o t e w o r t h y emotion  i n the  reception.  by  The  the  build-up of  o l d c a p t a i n , who  The  plot  m i g h t be  sense t h a t i t i n v o l v e s a refuses ych, his  to express  either  wills, form  of  contains  only  between the  indifference  the  even  intrigue  or  friendly  in  the  Pechorin Maksim  Maksim-  suppression  of  involves a contest greatly  of  modified  plot.  plot  junior  P e c h o r i n , and  valet  i s c o n s i d e r e d , Maksim a l l of  i s s t r u c t u r e d around c a p t a i n and  then  the  reverting  the  Maksimych  them  masculine  interchanges  n a r r a t o r , Maksim  Maksimych  t o Maksim Maksimych  and  author-traveller. It  character figure, as  of w i l l .  four basic characters —  The  a genuinely  considered Byronic  submission  gross  Pechorin's  figures.  the  expects  deep emotion a t meeting  Although  a Byronic  i s made  pathetic anticipatory  i t i s a b a r e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e and  If  and  any  through  emotions.  contradistinction  w o u l d p e r h a p s be analysis  Pechorin's  a kind of  impolite.  of  the  story  valet.  The  Russian  His  has  logical w i t h the author  Figaro, insolent,  rude mien  e x c h a n g e t h a t he  most  i s well  to begin least  the  significant  c h a r a c t e r i z e s him spoiled  expressed  and  through  w i t h Maksim Maksimych and  the  very the author-  traveller .  "I say, f r i e n d , " the j u n i o r c a p t a i n asked him, "whose i s t h i s m a r v e l o u s c a r r i a g e , h e y ? A splendid carriage!" T h e man, w i t h o u t t u r n i n g , muttered s o m e t h i n g u n d e r h i s b r e a t h , w h i l e he u n f a s t e n e d a  174 suitcase. M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h became a n g r y ; he t o u c h e d t h e u n c i v i l f e l l o w on t h e s h o u l d e r and said: " I t ' s y o u I'm t a l k i n g t o , my g o o d fellow. . . . " "Whose c a r r i a g e ? My m a s t e r ' s . . . . "' "And w h a t ' s y o u r m a s t e r ' s name?" "Pechorin." (pp. 52-53) Maksim Maksimych addresses c o u r t e o u s manner and had  a distinct  allows  him  purpose  of  anticipates  barrassment  and  mortification  between him  and  Pechorin.  a d e v i c e i n Bela,  lesser of  importance  so  i s essential  unkindness. this  final  The  Lermontov  outcome.  a t the b r u t a l l y  Thus,  just  as he  cold used  The  the  acts  storm  of  plausibility  of the interchange  the v a l e t  valet  em-  meeting  cannot  be  denied:  f o r m a k i n g t h e mood o f P e c h o r i n ' s  more b e l i e v a b l e .  i t  This  a scene  strengthen the  importance and  and  interchange:  the author u t i l i z e s  between the o l d c a p t a i n it  friendly  t h e o l d c a p t a i n ' s awkward  to further  the main event.  the  in a  with  for including  scene  as  lackey  i s rewarded  to set the tone  unfriendly  the  as  a kind  of  appearance  lens  to  Just  as  2 magnify  the  frigid  Grushnitsky  was  in  Mary,  Princess  master's  haughtiness of the hero.  a parody  arrogance  so  of  the worst  the v a l e t  and  here  elements  i s an  through h i s s t o r y - t e l l i n g .  h o w e v e r , no The  narrator  instance of tells  imitation  of h i s  cynicism.  Once a g a i n t h e a u t h o r - t r a v e l l e r ' s portrayed  of Pechorin  a narrative  the e n t i r e  story  character i s  There within  a  o f Maksim  i s here, narrative. Maksimych  f r o m h i s own prime  the  note-taker  "hero of our was  s o c i e t y who splendour into  the  vein  as  of  a naive  the  category Byron's  zealous second  of  the  the  very  i n Bela  has  mentions  mountains  not  astonishing. finishing the  Bela  The Bela  ebullient  Maksimych.  The  of  lyricism  of  detail  decidedly  who  spare  lyricism  expressed  d i s m i s s a l of  t h a t he sardonic  gives. one:  in his  not  express  and  read."  statistical (p.  the  50)  description  novel  s t r u c k by  by  especially  the  the  his  a descrip-  anything,  immediately  the  shift  author-traveller  description  mood i s f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d by  you  t h a t do  be  contrast  i n only  themselves,  but  same  detail  area,  continues  natural  Maksimych.  little  represent  of  well  remarkable  Maksim  "I s h a l l  cannot help  intensified  fitted  reluctance to extend  reader  to his taciturn  observer  much i n t h e  t h a t d e c i d e d l y nobody would want t o  after  in  spared  been there  o u t r i g h t c y n i c i s m and  from  of  exclamations  who  is  Nature,  for  travelling  f o r the  he  Another  that  —  have not  the  way  the magnificent  for  notes  of  beginning  p i c t u r e s t h a t do  those  I n Bela  In this  is a  perspective  somewhat c y n i c a l  a Child  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  of  above t h i s  unbounded enthusiasm  anything,  The  mentioned  Childe Harold.  at  sentence  a  mountains.  n a r r a t o r , who  tion  As  time."  d e p i c t e d as  had  presented  The  view.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c e i t a l l o w s a new  viewing  is  point of  and  the  additional  The  presentation of  in  this  mundane the  Maksim absence  kind inn i s a  176 I s t o p p e d a t an i n n where a l lt r a v e l e r s s t o p , but where, n o n e t h e l e s s , you c a n n o t f i n d anybody t o r o a s t a p h e a s a n t o r c o o k some c a b b a g e s o u p , s i n c e t h e t h r e e w a r i n v a l i d s , who h a v e b e e n p u t i n c h a r g e o f t h e p l a c e , a r e so s t u p i d o r so drunk t h a t no g o o d w h a t e v e r c a n b e g o t o u t o f t h e m . (p. 50) Later the  on  the author-traveller  grimy Armenians;  presents  a  idealistic  scene  that  portraits  tells  i n a rather contrasts  about  t h e damp c o l d  disillusioned greatly  with  fashion  and he  Bela's  i n i t s everyday ordinary  detail.  The m o r n i n g was f r e s h , b u t f i n e . Golden clouds had a c c u m u l a t e d on t h e m o u n t a i n s l i k e an a d d i t i o n a l , a i r y range. A wide square spread before the gate; b e y o n d i t , a m a r k e t - p l a c e was s e e t h i n g w i t h p e o p l e , i t b e i n g Sunday; b a r e f o o t e d O s s e t i a n l a d s , c a r r y i n g on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s s a c k s o f honey combs, swarmed a r o u n d me; I c h a s e d t h e m a w a y . I c o u l d n o t be b o t h e r e d by them. I was b e g i n n i n g t o s h a r e t h e r e s t l e s s n e s s o f my g o o d c a p t a i n , ( p . 5 5 )  Note  the w r i t e r ' s This  on  his  cynical  the natural  return  tone o f detached attitude  annoyance.  i s interrupted  splendour o f the Caucasus  to the love  by  his  mountains  of nature i s expressed very  remarks  where  clearly  a  in  words. I s a t l o o k i n g o u t o f t h e window. Through the t r e e s a m u l t i t u d e o f s q u a t l i t t l e houses showed h e r e and t h e r e , s c a t t e r e d a l o n g t h e bank o f t h e Terek R i v e r , w h i c h h e r e a b o u t s keeps r u n n i n g w i d e r and w i d e r ; f u r t h e r away b l u e m o u n t a i n s loomed l i k e a c r e n u l a t e d w a l l , and f r o m b e h i n d them p e e r e d f o r t h Mount Kazbek in i t s white cardinalic mitre. I was t a k i n g l e a v e o f them m e n t a l l y ; I had begun t o f e e l s o r r y about i t . (p. 51)  177  Thus a l t h o u g h than  he was  Child  Bela.  of obvious  takes  reason  he  i s s t i l l  very  f o r h i s marked  be P e c h o r i n ' s  disillusionment.  The  latter's  A f t e r the  i n t h e human  much t h e  increase i n  disposition  embarrassing  on t h e i s one  with  attitude i s  i s completely  frustration  b u t he makes a f a s c i n a t i n g  cynical  c a l l o u s adventure  Maksim Maksimych  o u t h i s anger and  enthusiasm  i s much more  the a u t h o r - t r a v e l l e r ' s f i n a l  Pechorin,  note-taker. ing,  could  In effect  author  at heart The  attitude  scene w i t h and  i n Bela,  o f Nature.  sardonic  one  the t r a v e l l i n g  abashed  travelling of  understand-  r e m a r k on t h e d r y i n g up  of  spirit.  We p a r t e d r a t h e r d r i l y . My g o o d M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h had t u r n e d i n t o a s t u b b o r n and grumpy j u n i o r captain! And why? J u s t because Pechorin, out o f a b s e n t - m i n d e d n e s s o r f o r some o t h e r r e a s o n , p r o f e r r e d h i s hand w h i l e Maksim Maksimych wanted t o throw h i m s e l f on P e c h o r i n ' s neck! I t i s sad t o see a y o u t h l o s e h i s f o n d e s t hopes and dreams, when t h e r o s y t u l l e , t h r o u g h w h i c h he h a d l o o k e d upon t h e a c t s a n d f e e l i n g s o f men, i s t o r n a s i d e b e f o r e h i m , e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e i s h o p e t h a t he w i l l r e p l a c e h i s o l d d e l u s i o n s b y new o n e s , n o l e s s f l e e t i n g b u t a l s o n o l e s s sweet. B u t by what c a n one r e p l a c e them a t Maksim Maksimych's age? No w o n d e r t h a t t h e h e a r t h a r d e n s and t h e s o u l f o l d s up. ( p . 62)  It  i s evident  a keen  i n summary t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r i s o n c e a g a i n  observer;  i n a fashion  B y r o n he d e s c r i b e s  the i n t e r n a l  very  reminiscent  -  of  workings of a person's  mind  3  by e x t e r i o r Child in  detail.  The  narrator  i s s t i l l  basically  o f N a t u r e b u t h e h a s much, m o r e o f t h e d r e a d  the t r a d i t i o n  of Harold  and,  i n fact,  a  of society  of Pechorin  himself.  178 It  is  remarkable  the  above  for  Pechorin"s  The  key  remarks,  word  that  expression  of  identifies  he  actually  cold-blooded  the  than  with  this  is  understanding  i n  make  excuses  Maksim  Maksimych.  "absent-mindedness" or  statements  but  to  toward  indifference  narrator's  Pechorin  attempts  behaviour  confirms  ') r a t h e r  seem  he  for  which  (rasseyanost would  that  also  cruelty. are  amount  not  to  It  only  an  an  apologia  4 for  Pechorin's There  omniscience. to  Pechorin  awaiting that the hurt  to  me  before,  The  anomaly  was  careless  he  Pechorin  had  Lermontov office?  about  Obviously  comes  from  that  assume  on he  The the  Pechorin  so  as  flaw  is  only come  at  a 54)  Pechorin  business,  At that since  commandant's  Pechorin that  was  an  (p.  captain.  the  man's  being  and  man  been  p o s s i b i l i t y  i n  that  had  assumes  junior  was  old  name."  o f f i c i a l  young  was  the he  states  following,  would  author  the  conclusion  awaiting  that  distinct  detained  clear the  clear  Maksimych's  a  message  anxiously  remarks  Pechorin  with  narrator's  the  sits  friendship,  that  be  the  sent  man  the  travelling  not  i n  Maksimych himself  more  their  retrospect.  anxiously  necessarily  the  meeting  actually  old  i n  was  Maksim  the  there  i t  but  "It  sure  heard  the  Maksim  about  flaw  Maksimych has  neglect,  that  makes  certain  there,  that  been  he  could was  is  a  detained,  states  is  be  Pechorin.  was  moment  time  though  Maksim  recently  the  ful  After  Pechorin's  run  that  to  see  narrator  t e l l i n g hour  seems  that  Pechorin  by  behaviour.  was  Maksim  a r r i v a l  indifferent.  neglectMaksimych,  would  not  179 I t was was  already demonstrated  certainly  no  Byronic  figure,  t h a t Maksim  and  that  Maksimych  in including  him,  5 Lermontov v a c i l l a t e d  from Byronic  tradition.  Maksim  Maksimych s p e r s o n a l i t y , already w e l l  developed  and  his depiction in  1  remarks  story  that bears  refusal As  we  old he  i n Bela,  to  saw,  h i s name, w h i c h  in this  the  the  o l d c a p t a i n and Maksim Maksimych  even clapped  . . .  These a c t i o n s c o n t i n u e friendliness Moreover, again  the  and  through  impression  setting.  His  itself  during the  captain  gets  Instead  he  a  civil,  that  the  overlook that  angry but  calls  yet  him  "bratets"  stand  with  on  (p.  captain's ceremony.  o l d man  time  of  He  i s so  the  is  was  stay i n  affability  "lyubeznyy," overjoyed  to Pechorin the  51)  the  shows valet:  old  become r u d e o r o f f e n s i v e . and  manners of  his friendship  junior  scene w i t h Pechorin's  does not  f i r m mien.  bad  smile."  to Maksim Maksimych; the  c a r r i a g e belongs the  lengthy  easy-going  anticipatory rude  to  shoulder  t h a t the  detail  Caucasian  i s very  the  the  two  ceremony,  the  lonely  latter  of  a  of  of Maksim Maksimych  to a  the  like  experience  attesting  the  on  semblance of  good a t c o o k i n g ,  events  aspect.  met  pretense  . . .  emphasize h i s r e f u s a l  practical  witnessed  "made no  the  the  particular  note-taker  [the n a r r a t o r ]  t w i s t e d h i s mouth i n t o  the  f u r t h e r a f f i r m s Lermontov's  f o l l o w Byron's path  friends.  and  i s c o n s u m a t e d by  by  t h a t he  lackey.  y o u n g man  maintaining to  find  i s able  It i s  out to  obvious  meant a g r e a t  deal  180  to  him as h i s e f f u s i v e enthusiasm  testifies.  Maksim Maksimych i s a l s o  friendship flatly ning  was i m p o r t a n t  "with  and kindness  is  false  The  he  hope t h a t  the plot  junior captain  he d e c i d e s  that  t o be r e p a i d  to wait  that  that  in.  with  come  expects h i s  hinges. t o see  Pechorin  As t i m e goes by  that  Pechorin  increases.  has been  by h i s m o r t i f i c a t i o n and he j u s t t o l d t h e  were bosom f r i e n d s and  tea out of anxiety,  he i s n o t w o r r i e d  Maksim Maksimych waits  he  goes t o b e d ; he does n o t w i s h  by  discussing  Pechorin's  so  he r e f u s e s  t o go t o bed b e f o r e  until  but to  a t a l l , he  a late  hour  t o be e m b a r r a s s e d  absence with  later  before further  the author-traveller  t h e former  has  retired. 7  Out  o f m o r t i f i c a t i o n and anxiety  amusing anecdote captain's neglecting  him:  abashment t h a t  he c a n n o t  about t h e bedbugs  r e f u s a l to accept rather  sleep.  The  shows t h e j u n i o r  the fact that  than admit  i s keeping  run-  t o h i m a t t h e mere m e n t i o n o f  refuses  that  will  t h e same, a n d i t  especially since  hurry  He a t f i r s t  show t h e n o t e - t a k e r gives  tick  he a n d P e c h o r i n  t h e former would name.  Pechorin  states  and h i s p e t u l a n c e  believes  but as t h e minutes  embarrassment g e t worse, narrator  f o r he  the gate.  becomes more and more w o r r i e d  detained,  also,  i s so anxious  outside  Maksim Maksimych a t f i r s t  his  look"  Pechorin  certain that the  Maksim Maksimych p a t e n t l y  affability on t h i s  to Pechorin  a triumphant  t o see him.  that  about seeing  that  Pechorin  i s  i t i s h i s own  h i m awake, he i n s i s t s  that the  181 bedbugs are him in  very the  blame.  much b u t  The  to  something  accept  believe  the  childlike  his discomfort that  he  y o u n g man's n e g l e c t  his devotion  morning w a i t i n g  refusal  by  to  for his bitter  and  at  and  i s so  friend.  Maksim  disturb  i s up  first  Maksimych's there  i n h i s makeup,  thought  Pechorin  he  t r u t h shows t h a t  stubborn  the  great,  may  that  were not  the as  is  emphasized  narrator close  may  as  not  he  inferred. Later Maksimych at  full  on,  i s so  when i n f o r m e d  anxious  of  Pechorin's  t o meet him  that  he  arrival,  hurries  Maksim  back  speed:  I t u r n e d t o w a r d t h e s q u a r e a n d saw M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h r u n n i n g a s f a s t a s he c o u l d . A few moments l a t e r , h e w a s n e a r u s ; s w e a t was t r i c k l i n g d o w n h i s f a c e ; wet shags o f g r a y h a i r , e s c a p i n g f r o m u n d e r h i s cap, had g l u e d t h e m s e l v e s t o h i s f o r e h e a d ; h i s knees were s h a k i n g , he w a s a b o u t t o f a l l o n P e c h o r i n ' s n e c k , but the l a t t e r , r a t h e r c o o l l y , though w i t h a f r i e n d l y s m i l e , s t r e t c h e d o u t h i s hand. (p. 58)  Maksim Maksimych's unbounded wants him  to  as  throw h i s  "ty ."  Pechorin  embarrassment place that  arms a r o u n d  N a t u r a l l y as  i s not  about  to  increase,  r i g h t i n f r o n t of he  and  f r i e n d l i n e s s shows t h r o u g h :  Pechorin  the  old  captain  particularly the  were  narrator,  intimate  makes Maksim M a k s i m y c h  but  important  to  y o u n g e r man  reciprocate,  coolness more  the  him  he  that  agitation  since  the  feel  and  scene  t o whom h e  and  addresses  realizes  friends.  look  i s that  his  and  has  takes confided  Pechorin's like  understands  he  a  that  fool,  182 Pechorin has not valued When h e f i n a l l y not  feeling  stay  even  realizes  fora little Up t o t h i s  remained  h i s friendly  realizes  how f o o l i s h  on  a s much a s h e .  he r e p r o a c h e s  He a t t e m p t s  p o i n t i n time self.  h u r t by h i s  Now a c h a n g e o c c u r s .  manner.  he r e a c t s i n a  He t a k e s  When h e child-  out h i s frustration  The o l d c a p t a i n t r i e s  v e x a t i o n and i n s i s t s  Pechorin  Maksim Maksimych has  he m u s t a p p e a r ,  but understandable  Pechorin f o r  t o have  w h i l e and i s very  the .author-narrator.  his  friendship  this,  t h e same a s h e .  refusal.  like  their  to conceal  t h a t the c o o l r e c e p t i o n i s unimpor-  tant.  " Y e s , " he s a i d a t l a s t , t r y i n g t o assume a n i n d i f f e r e n t a i r , although a t e a r o f v e x a t i o n would s t i l l s p a r k l e from time t o time on h i s l a s h e s , "of c o u r s e , we u s e d t o b e f r i e n d s , b u t w h a t i s f r i e n d ship i n our times? What c a n I mean t o h i m ? I have n e i t h e r w e a l t h n o r r a n k , n o r am I a t a l l h i s m a t e i n a g e . Look what a dandy he h a s become a f t e r r e v i s i t i n g Petersburg. What a c a l a s h ! How m u c h luggage! A n d s u c h a h a u g h t y v a l e t ! " ( p . 60)  This  childlike  attitude  impression  to Pechorin's  i s maintained  by h i s p e t u l a n t  memoirs:  "He l o o k e d a t me w i t h s u r p r i s e , m u t t e r e d something t h r o u g h h i s t e e t h , a n d b e g a n t o rummage i n a s u i t c a s e ; p r e s e n t l y he t o o k o u t a n o t e b o o k a n d t h r e w i t o n t h e g r o u n d w i t h c o n t e m p t ; a s e c o n d , a t h i r d a n d up t o a t e n t h b o o k r e c e i v e d t h e same t r e a t m e n t . T h e r e was something c h i l d i s h about h i s resentment; I began t o f e e l b o t h amused a n d t o u c h e d . " ( p . 61)  The  feigned indifference  proceeds  i t s logical  Maksim Maksimych d i s m i s s e s Pechorin's  course  friendship  as  until being  183 unimportant  t o him a l s o .  "Here t h e y a r e , a l l o f them," he s a i d , " c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s on your f i n d . . . . " "And I may d o w i t h t h e m a l l I w i s h ? " " Y o u may e v e n p u b l i s h t h e m i n t h e g a z e t t e s . What do I c a r e ? One w o u l d t h i n k I w a s some k i n d of f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e o f h i s . T r u e , we d i d l i v e f o r a l o n g time under one r o o f . . . . B u t h a v e n ' t I h a d a n y number o f r o o m m a t e s ? " ( p . 61)  The  final  expression  frustration ling  author:  is  a t Pechorin's  later  and you're The  tov's  here  under  actions:  you?  you a r e haughty.  together  v e x a t i o n and the travel-  M a k s i m M a k s i m y c h b l a m e s h i m f o r h i s own  f e l l o w s , k e e p up w i t h  fashion,  feelings,  i s i n h i s s c o r n f u l a t t i t u d e toward  mortification old  of h i s hurt  "'How  c a n we,  Y o u a r e y o u n g men o f  I t may b e a l l r i g h t  Circassian fire  while  one  . . . b u t meet y o u  ashamed t o shake hands w i t h  i n c i d e n t s i n Maksim  unschooled  Maksimych  p o r t r a y a l o f t h e o l d man a s a r e a l  u s . ' " ( p . 62)  complete human  Lermon-  character  g with  human f o i b l e s .  control  Instead  o f an e x t r a o r d i n a r y  of having  figure like  the extraordinary Pechorin,  he  reacts  to  h i s embarrassment and h u m i l i a t i o n i n a commonplace  by  striking  capacity  o u t a t those  f o rboth  friendliness  old  man  and  make h i m a l i v i n g  of  reacts  t o these  normal people,  around  him.  and v e x a t i o n  genuine  human  a n d t h e way t h e  emotions round out h i s d e p i c t i o n  human b e i n g ,  with  not at a l l t y p i c a l  stream o f f i g u r e s with  This  way  their  unusual  the ordinary  of the Byronic characteristics  faults main that  184 set  them a p a r t  appearance  from t h e crowd.  i n the novel  complete presentation with  Maksim  i s necessary  o f t h e hero  Maksimych's  not only  to give  a  through h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s  the j u n i o r captain,, b u t a l s o t o give  i t more  credibility  9  by  b r i n g i n g t h e w o r k down t o e a r t h . It  of  i s obvious  the Byronic  contained  detail  features,  remarks  i f a n y , o f Maksim  i n the delineation of Pechorin.  traveller's purposes  from the previous  Maksimych In the  two-page d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e hero  t h e most important  i s used  t o present  part  most are  author-  (for our  of the story),  Pechorin's  that  external  internal characteris-  tics. N a t u r a l l y he [ t h e a u t h o r - t r a v e l l e r ] i n t e n t l y o b s e r v e s e a c h t r a i t a n d f o l l o w s e a c h movement o f t h i s 'strange person' ( i nt h e words o f t h e j u n i o r c a p t a i n ) . The b a s i s upon w h i c h t h e p o r t r a i t i s drawn c o n s t i t u t e s a new p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e e x t e r i o r o f a. p e r s o n a n d h i s c h a r a c t e r a n d m i n d — a present a t i o n i n w h i c h a r e h e a r d t h e e c h o e s o f new p h i l o s o p h i c a l and n a t u r a l s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s . . . Lermontov determines Pechorin's character from t h e b a s i s o f h i s hands, h i s g a i t , h i s w r i n k l e s and the c o l o u r o f h i s h a i r i n comparison w i t h t h a t o f h i s mustache and eyebrows. The m a t e r i a l i s t i c f o u n d a t i o n o f t h i s p o r t r a i t i s o b v i o u s l y emphasized by t h e comparison o f t h i s l a s t d e t a i l w i t h a s i g n o f b r e e d i n g i n a w h i t e h o r s e . 10  W h a t E y k h e n b a u m d o e s n o t m e n t i o n i s t h a t many o f t h e s e acteristics in  this  which The  are typical  In fact,  two-page d e s c r i p t i o n Lermontov p a i n t s a p i c t u r e  could  apply  eyes that  wicked  o f the heroes o f Byron.  char-  nature  to virtually  do n o t l a u g h or a constant  any o r a l l o f Byron's  when he l a u g h s melancholy  betray  heroes.  either a  a n d t h e way he  does  185 not  swing  nature.  h i s arms d e m o n s t r a t e s  a certain  Above a l l ,  exterior  Pechorin's  common t o a l l B y r o n ' s h e r o e s aristocratic  from Lara  does not present  passages about the magnificence Mary.  references that  being gone  was  at  height;  h i s face,  either  subtle  which again  at heart.  In the  suited  later  Pechorin  shows t h a t t h e r e He may  as  who  has of  testified  t o bear a l l the  and t h e changes o f c l i m a t e , and  . . . "  sees  of city  ( p . 56)  that after  I would n o t have g i v e n though  note-  "He w a s  shoulders  by t h e d i s s o l u t i o n  s t i l l  testify  i s depicted  i s most a s s u r e d l y n o t a n a i v e  of the Child  make-up.  lyrical  are certain  and broad  I was  something c h i l d i s h  Thus a l t h o u g h  tion  the pale  as he d i d i n  Pechorin  w h i c h was  of a roving l i f e  three years,  his  of Nature  a slim waist  author-traveller  naivete  of nature  there  of the hero,  constitution  Pechorin  T h e r e was  any l e n g t h y  Maksimych  the tempests of the soul;  the  to Harold:  an e x i s t e n c e c l o s e t o n a t u r e :  undefeated  ways  feature  a n d h a s t h e v i m a n d v i g o u r o f a man  through  a sturdy  Maksim  i s a Child  description  hardships  by  throughout  robust  medium to  Nevertheless,  Pechorin  taker's  has a  b r o w w i t h n o b l e wrinkles."'""'"  Lermontov  Princess  reticence of  yet  "a f i r s t  glance  than  twenty-  to give him  thirty.  about h i s s m i l e . "  himself contains of Nature  or  I n most person,  h i m more  ready  life  little  ( p . 56) of the  i n h i s actions, the descrip-  are vestiges of this have developed  prototype  i n  beyond i t , but a t  186  heart  he  i s very  testament not  to t h i s ,  i n a hurry  paused  to  beauties his  much a C h i l d the  to continue  lyrical  the  Maksimych As  attraction  of  Unfeeling  ( i . e . the  from others  nonetheless  comparison with the  receives  him.  utilizes  a key  Pechorin  immediately  takes  But  encounter does not  and  The  and  over,  at  aspect  of  by  of  excessive them),  old captain  a l o o f manner,  mentions Bela, the  Maksimych  Lermontov  Romantic p e r i o d to  away."  however, as  The the  do  her  as  unfeeling  attempts  Near the  with his  show  name  pose o f  hero  f e i g n i n g a yawn.  a l l what they  to  end  states  as  a man  w i t h h i s u s u a l keen  of  of  that  journal.  h i s words which c o n t a i n the  his character  author-traveller,  necessary  a Man  his  the  w i t h Maksim Maksimych, P e c h o r i n  care  the  feels  pain,: upon h e a r i n g  turned  i t i s h i s a c t i o n s , not  revealing  s t i l l  formal  latter  great  mask h i s s e n s i t i v i t y  he  Sensibility.  e b u l l i e n c e w i t h which Maksim  stock phrase of  slightly  verify  Maksim  as  hides  reception of  in a decidedly  feels  man  which  Hero o f  F e e l i n g who  His  When t h e  was  majestic  in  distinction  yet  in  "paled  young  the  visible the  of  presented. but  final  nature.  Man  friendly  the  to  Pechorin's  is  he  the  F e e l i n g Lermontov's hero possesses  m u s t a l s o be  that  a  region, meditations  character traits  p a l e w r i n k l e d brow.  emotion  h i s journey:  also include features of  a Man  As  i n contemplating  Caucasian  Pechorin's  Nature.  narrator reports that Pechorin  immerse h i m s e l f of  of  most  sensitivity.  sense of  observation,  187 states  clearly  journey, Why  f o r he  then,  insist  —  act  haste  to  so  as  deeply.  only  i n no at the  he  the  has  h i s abruptness  a Hero of  Sensibility  unavoidably  old  captain himself expressed  before;  Maksim Maksimych does not  to for  erase him  person  and  is  clearly  Maksim  The  reader  final  emotional  structure of  so  agonizing  quality  f o r the  t h a t the  events  of  sees final  t h a t the  even a p a s s i n g of  the  Man  of  of  time  the  few  days  the  that  This  point  novel  previous  of  five  a  enough  b e t w e e n Beta  i s not of  has  memories  f r e s h i n the  Bela  the  i s not  turmoil,  sensitivity  outcome o f  very  t h a t , f o r such  departs.  reader  r e a c t i o n s t o them are  easily  by  pause  in his  only a  terrible  the  Maksimych  diminished  such  e s t a b l i s h e d by i s no  captain.  Maksimych  years  hastily  Pechorin's  the  five  and  there  great  t h a t he  s t o r y , and  even  such  taboo  realize  must  h i s emotions  Maksim  to remain,  and  to  Pechorin,  causesPechorin  cannot bear  the  previous  o l d wounds) b r i n g s back  he  itself:  as  junior  feels  and  t h a t he  (as N a b o k o v s u g g e s t s ,  f o r g e t s about  i n the  friend  contained  his old friend  mentions Bela  —  his  grandeur.  d o e s make  the  are  who  clearly  sensitive  hero  met  behind  who  t o resume  Caucasian  i s rather suspect  after  Reencountering  hurry  abruptly with histoid  In a c t u a l fact  leave  reasons  was  to marvel  his insistence  at once?  nature  pauses  d o e s he  leave  The  that Pechorin  and  story  mind.  Pechorin at a l l  years.  F e e l i n g demonstrated  by  The  188  Lermontov's hero effeminacy,  w h i c h we  author-traveller feminine  in this  have, c e r t a i n l y  mentions that  tenderness  coquette of  s t o r y i s h i s tendency  of  not  seen b e f o r e .  "his skin  t e x t u r e " and  toward  had  a kind  compares him  The of  to  a  Balzac:  W h e n he s e t t l e d u p o n t h e b e n c h , h i s s t r a i g h t f i g u r e f l e x e d i n s u c h a way t h a t y o u w o u l d t h i n k t h e r e was n o t a s i n g l e b o n e i n h i s s p i n e ; t h e a t t i t u d e of h i s whole body expressed a k i n d of n e r v o u s d e b i l i t y ; he s a t t h e r e a s a t h i r t y - y e a r old coquette of Balzac's would s i t a f t e r a f a t i g u i n g b a l l , i n h e r a r m c h a i r s t u f f e d w i t h d o w n . ( p . 56) As the  a Hero of  self-centred  Sensibility  world-weariness  Maksim Maksimych's query five  years  bored."  Pechorin This  Pechorin  can  the  demonstrates  Gloomy E g o i s t .  about h i s a c t i v i t i e s only  one-word  of  also  r e p l y "skuchal"  over —  r e p l y summarizes the  To  the  past  " I have  hero's  been  attitude  12  of  cynical  in  even the  previous  disillusionmentwith Caucasian  expressions  splendour  as  search  of  new  Childe  Harold,  is  last  the  indifferent thoughts  the  wave o f  the  hope f o r s a l v a t i o n . statement  P e r s i a and  never  i s h i s reason  the  even  that Pechorin  h i s hand the  will  --  disappointment  i n stark contrast with  h o r i z o n s , much l i k e  impression  world  enjoyment of  Pechorin's  through  t h a t he  remarkable  of  his last  ment i s a f f i r m e d by in  majesty,  the  This  "what f o r ? "  natural  disenchant-  t h a t he  will  wanderings  further.  gives:  y o u n g man  return.  area's  More  his  with  travel  of  Cynicism an  expresses  his  important  and  Pechorin's  ennui  189 with is  t h e w o r l d i s so g r e a t t h a t  not  enough any  narrator's  illustrate for  d i d can  a wicked  f r o m w h a t we  Lermontov's ally,  this  Egoist.  hero  the Caucasian  be  P e c h o r i n ' s eyes altered  n a t u r e and  has  both of  that  a deep and his  toward  only  i s t o s a f e g u a r d h i s own  they  melancholy,  i n him.  of h i s former emotions  Natur-  f o r the  Above a l l , P e c h o r i n i s e g o t i s t i c a l :  indifferent  that  personality,  these elements  feelings  never  constant  i s a necessary feature  the  The  s l i g h t l y t o say  a l r e a d y know a b o u t  melancholy  desire  majesty  more t o make h i m w a n t t o r e t u r n .  observation that  l a u g h e d when he  even  he  Gloomy  i s totally  comrade; by  a  his  hurried  departure. In firms as and  the  last  paragraph  of d e s c r i p t i o n  the wicked nature of h i s hero.  frigid  and  h a r d as  his aristocratic  Outlaw  steel,  typical  Lermontov  His penetrating of a Gothic  h a n d s make P e c h o r i n r e s e m b l e  conglance,  Villain, a  Noble  figure.  I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e y n e v e r l a u g h e d when he was laughing! Have you o b s e r v e d t h i s b i z a r r e t r a i t i n some p e o p l e ? I t i s e i t h e r the sign of a wicked n a t u r e o r o f a deep and c o n s t a n t m e l a n c h o l y . From b e h i n d h a l f - l o w e r e d l a s h e s , t h e y shone w i t h a k i n d of phosphorescent g l i t t e r , i f I can put i t thus. It was n o t t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s o u l ' s g l o w o r o f a n e f f e r v e s c e n t i m a g i n a t i o n ; t h i s was a g l e a m a k i n t o the gleam o f smooth s t e e l , d a z z l i n g but c o l d ; h i s g l a n c e , w h i l e n o t l i n g e r i n g , was p e n e t r a t i n g a n d oppressive, i t l e f t the d i s a g r e e a b l e impression of an i n d i s c r e e t q u e s t i o n and m i g h t have a p p e a r e