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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Political interpretations of Canada’s national parks policy George, Christopher Brock 1974

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C  • i -  POLITICAL IMTERPREJATI OF  CANADA'S NATIONAL PARKS POLICY  BY  CHRISTOPHER BR&K GEOR3E B.S.F., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  PIASTER OF FORESTRY IN THE F A U L T Y  OP-  FORESTRY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DECEMBER/  1973  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y I further  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  available for  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  r e f e r e n c e and copying of t h i s  It  i s understood that copying or  thesis  permission.  Department  of  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  or  publication  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without' my written  that  study.  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  i ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h e study was t o d e f i n e a number o f s c a l e s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e d i m e n s i o n s t h a t a P l a n n e r i s concerned w i t h i n p l a n n i n g N a t i o n a l P a r k s and t o see i f Canada's Members o f P a r l i a m e n t r e s p o n d t o i t e m s on these s c a l e s i n such a way as to d e f i n e autonomous p o l i c y a r e a s . I t proposed, a l s o , t o examine t h e r e s u l t s a t t a i n e d t o see i f t h e way t h e p o l i t i c i a n responds i s r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and park c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A r e v i e w of t h e h i s t o r i c a l development of t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y was c a r r i e d o u t a s a means of i d e n t i f y i n g those p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s o f p o l i c y w h i c h have been t h e most c r i t i c a l i n d e f i n i n g N a t i o n a l P a r k p u r pose.  The same p o l i c y areas r e m a i n today as those w h i c h p r o v i d e t h e  f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of v i a b l e p l a n s w h i c h a l l o c a t e l a n d - u s e s i n such a way as t o a c h i e v e harmony between p r e s e r v a t i o n and u s e .  Seven p o l i c y a r e a s were i d e n t i f i e d from t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w and from t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p a r k p l a n n e r a s c r i t i c a l  to planning.  These  were: park i n t e g r i t y park zoning park a c c e s s land-based water-based  recreation recreation  urban-style recreation park t o w n s i t e s By p u t t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e form o f q u e s t i o n s , a s c a l e c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d , based on a p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e s , w h i c h  related  ii to t h e p o l i c y a r e a s w h i c h had been i d e n t i f i e d .  I t was r e c o g n i z e d a l s o ,  t h a t c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o t h e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s may be i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g how a p e r s o n responds  and would be s c a l e d .  A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r e p a r e d based on t h e v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s and was sent t o t h e Members o f the House o f Commons, i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e  i f they d i d , i n f a c t , d e f i n e t h e p o l i c y areas i n t h e same  way as t h e P a r k P l a n n e r s .  A s e c t i o n s o l i c i t i n g socio-economic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . socio-economic  and r e l a t e d  Responses t o t h e  s e c t i o n and t h e low r e s p o n s e r a t e o f t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e sample c o l l e c t e d was n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Member of Parliament at l a r g e .  I t was d e c i d e d , however, t o c o n t i n u e t o a n a l y z e  the d a t a , r e a l i z i n g t h a t the r e s u l t s c o u l d n o t be c l a i m e d a s r e p r e s e n t a tive. A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s computer program was used t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a . The d e r i v a t i o n o f r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i c e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e Members of P a r l i a m e n t d i d n o t view t h e seven p o l i c y areas as autonomous, r a t h e r a s e r i e s o f t w e l v e p o l i c y p a t t e r n s emerged w h i c h t h e p o l i t i c i a n as i m p o r t a n t t o h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p o l i c y .  indentified  The t w e l v e were:  r e s o u r c e development i n c o n s p i c u o u s development t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h minimum  impairment  maximum t r a n s p o r t a t i o n development no a i r p o r t development traditional recreation all-terrain vehicles high c o s t , fast-moving recreation  water-based  iii low c o s t , slow-moving w a t e r - b a s e d recreation phasing-out t o w n s i t e s by development  limiting  r e t a i n t o w n s i t e s and m a i n t a i n h i g h standards t o w n s l t e autonomy A f a c t o r s c o r e m a t r i x was produced from t h e computer package w h i c h d e f i n e d s c o r e s ( b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e ) p e r t a i n i n g t o the t w e l v e p o l i c y p a t t e r n s f o r each respondent.  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s  a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s accounted  new  were then  f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s  i n scores. The A u t o m a t i c  I n t e r a c t i o n D e t e c t o r (AID)  t e c h n i q u e was  used to  i d e n t i f y t h e independent v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t i n g f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n scores.  The AID  t e c h n i q u e p r o v i d e s a means of i d e n t i f y i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s  i n order of i n f l u e n c e f o r each s c o r e .  I t was  not p o s s i b l e , however, t o  c a t e g o r i z e t h e v a r i a b l e s r e l a t i v e to the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s c o r e s . A l s o t h e v a r i a b l e s c o u l d not be c a t e g o r i z e d between t h e t w e l v e patterns.  policy  Of the t h i r t e e n r e s p o n d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (independent  a b l e s ) assumed to i n f l u e n c e the r e s p o n s e s d e r i v e d s c o r e s , t e n were found  t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  varithe  to be i n f l u e n t i a l i n v a r i o u s c a s e s .  These were: age income previous occupation education place of childhood number of y e a r s as a Member of  Parliament  iv p o l i t i c a l party province c o n s t i t u e n c y type time o f l a s t v i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park. The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e independent  variables:  d i s t a n c e t o the n e a r e s t  N a t i o n a l P a r k , p a r k age and p e r c e n t a g e o f c o n s t i t u e n c y h a v i n g N a t i o n a l Park s t a t u s , were n o t found t o i n f l u e n c e t h e s c o r e s of the Members of P a r l i a m e n t who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e study.  P r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n and  P r o v i n c e were shown t o be i n f l u e n t i a l i n a m a j o r i t y of c a s e s .  I t i s concluded t h a t w h i l e the p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e P a r k P l a n n e r must r e m a i n f r e e o f p o l i t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , the p l a n s must p r o v i d e r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e s t o counter t h e concerns expressed by t h e p o l i t i c i a n .  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  I.  INTRODUCTION  Study Background  .  Purpose  1 4  The N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t and P o l i c y —  A Brief History  4  1885-1910  4  The D o c t r i n e o f U s e f u l n e s s  6  1911-1930  9  Roads  11  Wildlife  12  1931-1964  14  Post-War  18  The N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y  22  P o l i c y P r e s e n t a t i o n (1964) and Subsequent Y e a r s  23  The S t a n d i n g Committee o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s — 1966-1971 The N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y i n t h e 1970's II.  24 27  STUDY SCOPE  Conceptual Design  30  Scale D e f i n i t i o n  32  Socio-economic D a t a  34 III.  SAMPLING  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Questionnaire  35  Study Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  35  L e v e l s of Response  37  T e s t f o r R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Sample  37  vi IV.  ANALYSIS OF THE DATA  Factor A n a l y s i s  . . .  44  A u t o m a t i c I n t e r a c t i o n D e t e c t o r Technique (AID) V.  46  RESULTS  D e r i v a t i o n of Scores  48  P o l i c y A r e a 1.  (Park I n t e g r i t y )  P o l i c y A r e a 2.  ( P a r k Zoning)  49  P o l i c y A r e a 3.  (Park Access)  50  P o l i c y A r e a 4.  (Land-based R e c r e a t i o n )  50  P o l i c y A r e a 5.  (Water-based R e c r e a t i o n )  51  P o l i c y A r e a 6.  (Urban-Style Recreation)  52  P o l i c y A r e a 7.  (Park Townsites)  52  Identification of Characteristics  .  48  A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Scores  53  Resource Development  53  I n c o n s p i c u o u s Resource Development  58  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h Minimum Impairment  61  Maximum T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development  63  No A i r p o r t Development  65  Traditional Recreation  67  A l l Terrain Vehicles  69  H i g h C o s t , F a s t - M o v i n g Water-Based  Recreation  71  Low C o s t , Slow-Moving, Water-Based  Recreation  74  P h a s i n g Out T o w n s i t e s by L i m i t i n g Development  76  R e t a i n T o w n s i t e s and M a i n t a i n H i g h S t a n d a r d s  78  T o w n s i t e Autonomy  81 VI.  CONCLUSIONS  Summary Application  84 t o Park Planning  93  A r e a s o f F u t u r e Study  94 VII.  LITERATURE CITED  VIII.  APPENDICES  Appendix A.  Study Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Appendix B.  Factor Score M a t r i x  viii LIST OF TABLES Table Table Table Table Table Table  I II III IV V VI  Table Table Table Table  VII VIII IX X  Table XI Table X I I Table Table Table Table  XIII XIV XV XVI  T a b l e XVII Table XVIII T a b l e XIX Table XX T a b l e XXI Table XXII Table X X I I I T a b l e XXIV T a b l e XXV T a b l e XXVI T a b l e XXVII Table XXVIII T a b l e XXIX Table XXX T a b l e XXXI Table XXXII  N a t i o n a l Park V i s i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o l i c y A r e a s and Q u e s t i o n s . . . . . . . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n b y Age R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by P r e v i o u s O c c u p a t i o n . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by E d u c a t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f P a r l i a m e n t R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by P o l i t i c a l P a r t y Representation by Province R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by Type o f C o n s t i t u e n c y R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by D i s t a n c e t o Nearest N a t i o n a l P a r k , Proposed N a t i o n a l P a r k o r N a t i o n a l Park Reserve . . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by P a r k Age R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by P e r c e n t a g e o f C o n s t i t u e n c y as a N a t i o n a l Park D e r i v a t i o n of Dependent V a r i a b l e s ( P a r k I n t e g r i t y ) D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s ( P a r k Zoning) . D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s ( P a r k A c c e s s ) . D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s (Land-Based Recreation) D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s (Water-Based Recreation) D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s ( P a r k T o w n s i t e s ) Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Codes C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g R e s o u r c e Development C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o Resource Development C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g I n c o n s p i c u o u s R e s o u r c e Development C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o I n c o n s p i c u o u s R e s o u r c e Development C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h Minimum Impairment C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed to T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h Minimum Impairment . . . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members of P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Maximum T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed to Maximum T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o A i r p o r t Development C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g A i r p o r t Development C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Traditional Recreation C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed to Traditional Recreation C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e Use  18 30-31 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 42 42 48 49 50 50-51 51 52 54-56 58 58 59 59-61 61 63 63 65 65-67 67 69 69 69-70  ix Table XXXIII T a b l e XXXIV T a b l e XXXV T a b l e XXXVI T a b l e XXXVII T a b l e XXXV I I I T a b l e XXXIX T a b l e XL Table XLI Table X L I I Table XLII I T a b l e XLIV T a b l e XLV T a b l e XLVI  T a b l e XLVII  Table XLVIII T a b l e XLIX Table L Table L I  Table L I I Table L I I I T a b l e LIV  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e Use . . . . . . . . . . . 71 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members of P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g H i g h C o s t , F a s t - M o v i n g Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n . 72 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o H i g h C o s t , F a s t - M o v i n g , Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n 72 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members of P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Low-Cost, Slow-Moving Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n . . 74 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members of P a r l i a m e n t opposed to Low-Cost, Slow-Moving, Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n 74 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Phasing-Out T o w n s i t e s by L i m i t i n g Development . 76 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed to P h a s i n g Out Townsites by L i m i t i n g Development 76-78 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g R e t a i n i n g T o w n s i t e s and M a i n t a i n i n g H i g h Standards 78-79 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed to R e t a i n i n g T o w n s i t e s and M a i n t a i n i n g H i g h Standards 79 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Townsite Autonomy 81 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o Townsite Autonomy 83 R e l a t i o n s h i p between R e s o u r c e Development S c o r e s and Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 87 R e l a t i o n s h i p between I n c o n s p i c u o u s R e s o u r c e Development S c o r e s and Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 87 R e l a t i o n s h i p between T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h Minimum Impairment S c o r e s and Respondent C h a r a c t e r istics 88 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Maximum T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development Scores and Respondent C h a r a c t e r istics 88 R e l a t i o n s h i p between No A i r p o r t Development S c o r e s and Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 89 R e l a t i o n s h i p between T r a d i t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n S c o r e s and Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 89 R e l a t i o n s h i p between A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e Use S c o r e s and Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 90 R e l a t i o n s h i p between H i g h C o s t , F a s t - M o v i n g , WaterBased R e c r e a t i o n Scores and Respondent C h a r a c t e r istics 90 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Low C o s t , Slow-Moving, WaterBased R e c r e a t i o n Scores and Respondent C h a r a c t e r istics 91 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Phasing-Out T o w n s i t e s by L i m i t i n g Development S c o r e s and Respondent Characteristics 91 R e l a t i o n s h i p between R e t a i n i n g T o w n s i t e s and M a i n t a i n i n g H i g h S t a n d a r d s S c o r e s and Respondent Characteristics 92  X  T a b l e LV Table LVI  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Townsite Autonomy S c o r e s and Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . Summary of R e l a t i o n s h i p between Scores and Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  92 93  xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  F i g u r e 10 F i g u r e 11 F i g u r e 12  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Tree f o r Resource ment S c o r e s . . . . . . . . . . .  Develop57  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Tree f o r I n c o n s p i c u o u s Resource Development S c o r e s . .  60  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Tree f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h Minimum Impairment S c o r e s  62  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Tree f o r Maximum T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development Scores  64  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Tree f o r No A i r p o r t Development Scores  66  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Tree f o r T r a d i t i o n a l Scores  68  Recreation  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Tree f o r A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e Scores  70  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Tree f o r H i g h C o s t , F a s t - M o v i n g , Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n S c o r e s  73  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n T r e e f o r Low-Cost, Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n S c o r e s  75  Slow-Moving,  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r P h a s i n g Out T o w n s i t e s by L i m i t i n g Development S c o r e s ...  77  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r R e t a i n i n g Townsites and M a i n t a i n i n g High Standards Scores  80  AID C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Tree f o r Townsite Autonomy Scores  82  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.  Study  Background " I f i t i s t o s e r v e a w o r t h w h i l e purpose as f a r as p l a n n e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e c o n c e r n e d , p o l i c i e s must have s t a b i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y beyond the term o f o f f i c e of a government, the t e n u r e o f a p a r t i c u l a r group of s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s o r the changing demands of commercial interests."  The i n t r o d u c t o r y statement s e r v e s t o d e f i n e a p a r t of the p h i l o s o phy on w h i c h the p r e s e n t N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y i s based. statement o f p o l i c y i s t w o - s i d e d i n t h a t i t must be conceived —  A government  realistically  a t a s k f o r the c i v i l s e r v a n t and, a t the same t i m e ,  p o l i t i c a l l y palatable —  a t a s k f o r the C a b i n e t .  The e x i s t i n g N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y was p r e s e n t e d t o the House of Commons on September 1 8 t h , 1964, by the then M i n i s t e r of N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , t h e Honourable A r t h u r L a i n g .  The  L i b e r a l government r e c e i v e d w i d e s p r e a d c r e d i t f o r t a b l i n g a statement of p o l i c y which was seen as a v e r y n e c e s s a r y and p o s i t i v e s t a n d w i t h regard to N a t i o n a l Parks. the N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e .  The p o l i c y paper was  i n r e a l i t y p r e p a r e d by  Only c i v i l s e r v a n t s a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o  make c h o i c e s o r produce a p o l i c y s i m p l y because o t h e r a g e n c i e s a r e e i t h e r n o t aware t h a t a p o l i c y i s n e c e s s a r y o r a r e n o t  sufficiently  Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development. N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y , Ottawa, 1964, p. 3.  2 i n f o r m e d t o produce one.^ The g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e word p o l i c y  a s , "... a s e t t l e d o r  d e f i n i t e c o u r s e o r method adopted o r f o l l o w e d by a governmental  agency  3 or p u b l i c o f f i c i a l ,  ..."  w i l l suffice.  The c o u r s e d e f i n e d by t h e  N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y was p e r p e t r a t e d by an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n caught i n an expanding  situation.  The numbers o f v i s i t o r s t o t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s had i n c r e a s e d , brought about by i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e time and income.  T h i s produced a  s i t u a t i o n where v i s i t o r numbers a l o n e began t o j e o p a r d i z e t h e n a t u r a l v a l u e s o f t h e p a r k s and cause i n c r e a s e d c o n f l i c t i n p a r k purposes as d e f i n e d by t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t . The c o n f l i c t i n g purposes a r e found i n S e c t i o n 4 o f t h e N a t i o n a l Parks A c t : "The P a r k s a r e hereby d e d i c a t e d t o t h e people o f Canada f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n and enjoyment, s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t and t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , and such P a r k s s h a l l be m a i n t a i n e d and made use o f so as t o l e a v e them u n i m p a i r e d for future generations."^ The a m b i g u i t y o f t h e statement o f g e n e r a l purpose has l e d t o i t s interpretation situations  i n many ways.  D e c i s i o n - m a k e r s have attempted t o r e c t i f y  as they a r o s e and t h e v a r i o u s r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e A c t a r e an  attempt t o h a n d l e t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n s . I t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p e o p l e can be p l a c e d i n t h r e e  J . E. H o d g e t t s . "The C i v i l S e r v i c e and P o l i c y F o r m a t i o n " , Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 23, 1957, p. 469. Ibid.  p. 469.  R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f Canada. S e c t i o n 4.  1952, c. 189, The N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t ,  3 c a t e g o r i e s as f a r as t h e i r v i e w s on N a t i o n a l P a r k s a r e concerned. wilderness purists —  The  t h a t segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n who v i e w t h e  N a t i o n a l P a r k s as i n v i o l a t e s a n c t u a r i e s o f n a t u r e . groups and r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p e r s  —  The o r g a n i z e d  sport  t h a t segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n who do  not r e a l i z e o r concede t h e s p e c i a l n a t u r e  of National Parks.  They a r e  p r e p a r e d t o a l l o w any development t o o c c u r w i t h i n a p a r k , i n c l u d i n g a l l forms o f urban r e c r e a t i o n .  These two groups a r e i n a m i n o r i t y and a r e  a t o p p o s i t e ends o f t h e spectrum.  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ,  however, f a l l s between t h e s e two extremes. probably  The m a j o r i t y v i e w p o i n t i s  c l o s e l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e P o l i c y as i t reads today —  a c c e p t a n c e o f some development and some u r b a n - s t y l e d p r i m a r i l y a p o l i c y of nature p r e s e r v a t i o n . of s a t i s f y i n g everyone  —  the  recreation but  The p o l i c y i s n o t c a p a b l e  l e a s t o f a l l t h e p o l i t i c i a n s whose m o t i v e s  f o r support or o p p o s i t i o n of i t s various sections are probably i m p o s s i b l e t o enumerate. The  N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y provides  the park planner w i t h the  f o u n d a t i o n he r e q u i r e s t o p r e p a r e p l a n s f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and use o f park l a n d s .  The p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r ' s  concern i s f o r the i n t e g r i t y of  the p a r k i n accordance w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s . recognized  It is  t h a t c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s can a l s o p l a y a r o l e i n  the development o f p a r k s .  The a s s u m p t i o n i s made t h a t t h e p o l i t i c i a n ' s  v i e w o f p a r k development i s based i n p a r t on h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and understanding  of park p o l i c i e s .  To d a t e , no attempt has been made t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e way t h a t Members o f P a r l i a m e n t  v i e w p o l i c y areas a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e way  p l a n n e r s v i e w these same p o l i c y a r e a s .  A l s o , no attempt has been made  t o examine the way planning  terms and how  Members of 2.  t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s do v i e w p o l i c y a r e a s d e f i n e d t h i s r e l a t e s t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  in  the  Parliament.  Purpose The  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d e f i n e a number of s c a l e s  that  r e l a t e to the dimensions t h a t a p l a n n e r i s concerned w i t h i n p l a n n i n g p a r k s and  t o see how  the p o l i t i c i a n s respond t o items on t h e s e s c a l e s ;  i n p a r t i c u l a r , i f they v i e w them as d e f i n i n g autonomous p o l i c y a r e a s . I t i s a l s o considered i f the way  i m p o r t a n t to examine the r e s u l t s a t t a i n e d t o  the p o l i t i c i a n responds i s r e l a t e d to p o l i t i c a l ,  see  socio-  economic and park c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s p r o p o s e d , a l s o , to r e v i e w the h i s t o r i c a l development of N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y f o c u s i n g on those areas of r e l e v a n c e  the  t o the p a r k  p l a n n e r of today. 3. 1885  The -  N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t and P o l i c y —  A Brief History  1910  The N a t i o n a l P a r k s of Canada commenced w i t h the r e s e r v a t i o n of a s m a l l p a r c e l of l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g Banff, Alberta.  some hot s p r i n g s near the s t a t i o n of  T h i s l a n d r e s e r v a t i o n of 1885  was  of the " N a t i o n a l P o l i c y " e r a w h i c h began i n 1878 o n l y minor v a r i a t i o n s t o about 1930.  near the  and  beginning  c a r r i e d on  T h i s p o l i c y was  with  concerned w i t h  the development of a sound economy based on the e x p l o i t a t i o n of Canada's n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . were l i m i t l e s s :  The  a v i e w w h i c h was  P o l i c y assumed t h a t the easy to s u b s c r i b e  p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n Canada's h i s t o r y .  to at  resources that  5 The Rocky M o u n t a i n P a r k A c t o f 1887 was enacted  to provide  legisla-  t i v e s a n c t i o n f o r t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f l a n d s a t B a n f f S p r i n g s and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s e t a s i d e by o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l s i n c e 1885 and f o r t h e e x p e n d i t u r e made i n 1887 t o p u t t h e s p r i n g s i n use."* Sir  John A. MacDonald summed up t h e Government's p o s i t i o n i n  s e t t i n g the Banff Springs area aside i n a reserve: thought  i t was o f g r e a t importance  "... t h e Government  - that a l l t h i s s e c t i o n of the  c o u n t r y s h o u l d be brought a t once i n t o u s e f u l n e s s ..."  The Government  f e l t t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e s would e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g about t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a l a r g e town, "... then t h e r e w i l l be a r e n t a l o f t h e w a t e r s ; t h a t i s a p e r e n n i a l s o u r c e o f revenue, and i f c a r e f u l l y managed i t w i l l more than many times r e c u p e r a t e o r recoup t h e Government f o r any p r e s e n t  expendi-  ..7 tures. The concept  o f w i l d e r n e s s was a l i e n t o t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h e t i m e ,  and t h e r e f o r e , B a n f f seemed d e s t i n e d t o become a renowned r e s o r t , managed by t h e Government.  There were o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f  the Rocky M o u n t a i n A c t , however, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h concern t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r was v e s t e d w i t h c e r t a i n powers t o a l l o w r e s o u r c e u s e : "The M i n i s t e r r e s e r v e s t o h i m s e l f t h e u n c o n t r o l l e d power t o g i v e t i m b e r l i c e n c e s and m i n i n g l i c e n c e s t o anybody, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e e x i s t i n g A c t s on t h e s u b j e c t . How can m i n i n g be  R. C. Brown. The D o c t r i n e o f U s e f u l n e s s : N a t u r a l Resource and N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y i n Canada, 1887-1914. The Canadian N a t i o n a l P a r k s : Today and Tomorrow. Paper p r e p a r e d f o r t h e c o n f e r e n c e i n C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , October 9-15, 1968, p. 5. Canada. P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons Debates, 1887, V o l . 2, May 3, 1887, p. 233. Ibid.  p. 233.  6 c a r r i e d on w i t h i n t h i s d i s t r i c t hand-in-hand w i t h t h e k e e p i n g of t h e p l a c e as a p u b l i c r e s o r t ? You cannot have a p u b l i c p a r k , w i t h a l l t h e w i l d a n i m a l s p r e s e r v e d i n i t , and have m i n i n g i n d u s t r i e s g o i n g on a t t h e same t i m e , y o u cannot have t r a d e and t r a f f i c , i n v o l v i n g r a i l w a y s g o i n g t o and from t h e mines, and a t t h e same time keep t h e p l a c e f o r s p o r t . I f y o u i n t e n d t o keep i t as a p a r k , y o u must s h u t o u t t r a d e , t r a f f i c and mining."8 Concern was a l s o e x p r e s s e d t h a t such a P a r k c o u l d o n l y s e r v e t h e w e a l t h y ; as they a l o n e would be a b l e t o a f f o r d t h e expense o f t r a v e l . In f a c t , S i r John A. MacDonald's words f o r e t o l d o f t h e type o f p e r s o n who would be a t t r a c t e d . "As I u n d e r s t a n d , a p o r t i o n o f t h e p a r k o f f e r s some b e a u t i f u l s i t e s f o r v i l l a s , and I b e l i e v e t h e p l a n o f t h e a r c h i t e c t l a y s t h e s e o u t , t o be l e a s e d t o p e o p l e o f w e a l t h , who w i l l e r e c t handsome b u i l d i n g s upon them."9 The s t a t e d purpose o f t h e Rocky Mountain P a r k as enacted on June 2 3 r d , 1887 was t o s e t a s i d e "as a p u b l i c and p l e a s u r e  ground"  some 260 square m i l e s " f o r t h e b e n e f i t , advantage and enjoyment" o f t h e Canadian p e o p l e , b u t t h e powers were t o remain i n t h e hands o f t h e Minister.  The D o c t r i n e o f U s e f u l n e s s A s t u d y o f t h e annual r e p o r t s o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f Rocky Mountain N a t i o n a l P a r k shows how p a r k a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t h i n k i n g has e v o l v e d and how i n t h e 1970's we have i n h e r i t e d p o r t i o n s o f t h e p a s t . The A n n u a l Report o f 1905 i n d i c a t e s t h e d i v e r s i t y o f uses w h i c h had  Ibid.  A p r i l 2 9 t h , 1887, p. 195-196.  Ibid.  May 3 r d , 1887, p. 245.  S t a t u t e s o f Canada. Rocky Mountain P a r k s A c t , Chapter 32, 50-51, V i c t o r i a , June 2 3 r d , 1887, S e c t i o n 2, p. 120.  7 become a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e B a n f f park i n i t s 21-year h i s t o r y . The Town o f Bankhead had sprung up a few m i l e s e a s t o f B a n f f and s e r v e d t h e nearby a n t h r a c i t e c o a l mines. by t h e park  The c o a l mine was d e s c r i b e d  superintendent.  " F a r from b e i n g a d e t r i m e n t t o t h e p a r k , t h e v i l l a g e o f Bankhead adds y e t another t o i t s many a t t r a c t i o n s , and i s a p o p u l a r r e s t i n g p l a c e f o r v i s i t o r s t o and from Lake Minnewanka. " H By 1907, t h e d i s c o v e r y o f d e p o s i t s o f l i m e s t o n e l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a l a r g e cement p l a n t and the a d j o i n i n g t o w n s i t e o f Ekshaw.  Superintendent  Howard Douglas r e p o r t e d :  "The i n d u s t r i a l a s s e t s o f t h e p a r k have been i n c r e a s e d s i n c e l a s t y e a r by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a P o r t l a n d cement m i l l o f l a r g e c a p a c i t y . B e a u t i f u l l y s i t u a t e d on a g e n t l e s l o p e o v e r l o o k i n g L a c des A r c s w i t h a m a g n i f i c e n t v i e w i n every d i r e c t i o n , t h e new Town o f Ekshaw, t h e c e n t r e o f a g r e a t manuf a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y , has a r i s e n from t h e v a l l e y o f t h e Bow R i v e r . The e r e c t i o n o f these l a r g e cement m i l l s w i t h i n t h e p a r k w i l l p r o v e an i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n b u i l d i n g up o f Western Canada." 12  The d o c t r i n e o f u s e f u l n e s s was t o be paramount as these  industrial  e n t e r p r i s e s were d e s c r i b e d i n such terms as " a s s e t s " and " a t t r a c t i o n " and t h e i r s e t t i n g p i c t u r e d as b e i n g i n harmony w i t h t h e n a t u r a l scene. , The i n c l u s i o n o f a s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d :  The Fauna o f t h e P a r k ,  d e s c r i b e s " t h e a n i m a l paddock i n w h i c h a r e k e p t our herd o f b u f f a l o and 13 o t h e r b i g game as w e l l as t h e o t h e r caged a n i m a l s . "  The l i s t o f  Canada Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r . Report o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n P a r k o f Canada. 5-6 Edward V I I . A n n u a l Report o f 1906. Report o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , October 2 5 t h , 1905, p. 4-5. 12 I b i d . A n n u a l Report 1906, p. 14-15. 1 3  Ibid.  p. 12.  1907, Report o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , September 1 s t ,  8 s p e c i e s i n c l u d e b u f f a l o , e l k , mountain l i o n a l o n g w i t h seven o t h e r indigenous  s p e c i e s p l u s P e r s i a n sheep; and Angora g o a t s .  There i s  i n c l u d e d a s t a t u s r e p o r t on t h e a v i a r y w h i c h was b u i l t t o house n o t o n l y such i n d i g e n o u s  s p e c i e s as g o l d e n e a g l e s and g r e a t horned owls  but a l s o t h r e e s p e c i e s o f A s i a n pheasants and numerous European s p e c i e s . The  s t a t u s o f t h e V i l l a g e o f B a n f f , more e s p e c i a l l y t h e h o t e l  accommodation and t h e use o f t h e two h o t s p r i n g s was d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l and emphasis p l a c e d on t h e f a c t t h a t the town i s t r u l y a summer resort.  Each a n n u a l r e p o r t l i s t e d t h e P r o v i n c e , S t a t e and C o u n t r y o f  o r i g i n o f v i s i t o r s t o B a n f f and i n c l u d e d an account o f revenue a c c r u e d t o t h e Government from t h e h o t s p r i n g s , p r o p e r t y timber  rents, coal royalties,  dues, l i v e r y and v a r i o u s o t h e r l i c e n c e s and p e r m i t s .  There i s one i n t e r e s t i n g d e p a r t u r e  from t h e d o c t r i n e o f u s e f u l n e s s  w h i c h i s found i n a s e c t i o n o f t h e 1907 r e p o r t r e l a t i n g t o game preservation. " I would a l s o recommend t h a t no f u r t h e r m i n i n g o r t i m b e r l i c e n c e s be g r a n t e d w i t h i n t h e p a r k , f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t I have found by e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l a r g e camps o f men i n v a r i a b l y l e a d s t o t r a p p i n g and s n a r i n g and i n f a c t t o almost every p o s s i b l e b r e a c h o f laws f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f game."-^ L i k e a l l young n a t i o n s , t h e c i t i z e n s o f Canada were p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h p o l i t i c s and economics.  Economic v i a b i l i t y was then based  on t h e p r i m a r y e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s and t h e g r e a t Canadian w i l d e r n e s s seemed w e l l endowed f o r such v e n t u r e s .  The need f o r n a t u r a l p a r k s must  have been remote i n t h e minds o f most Canadians s i n c e most c i t i e s and towns were surrounded by w i l d l a n d .  Ibid.  p. 16.  The remoteness o f t h e l a r g e w e s t e r n  9 parks must have been q u e s t i o n e d by the m a j o r i t y of Canadians i n the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of the c o u n t r y .  The West was  t u n i t y , e x p a n s i o n and development.  I t was  synonymous w i t h oppor-  i n t h i s e r a t h a t the  N a t i o n a l P a r k s were enacted as the b e g i n n i n g of a p a r k system Banff  (1885), G l a c i e r (1886), Yoho (1886) and W a t e r t o n Lakes  first —  (1895).  By the y e a r 1911, when i m p o r t a n t l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s was  passed  i n the House of Commons, the system had been augmented  by the a d d i t i o n of B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l P a r k near W a i n w r i g h t , A l b e r t a , E l k I s l a n d and S t . Lawrence I s l a n d s N a t i o n a l P a r k s . 1911 -  1930  An i m p o r t a n t s e p a r a t i o n was w r i t t e n i n t o the Dominion F o r e s t Reserves and P a r k s A c t , Chapter  10, 1911.  P r i o r t o t h i s time t h e r e had  been no d i s t i n c t i v e p a r k s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s had been amongst t h e d u t i e s of the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Interior.  of F o r e s t r y w i t h i n the Department of the  The A c t p r o v i d e d the G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l w i t h t h e power " t o  d e s i g n a t e such r e s e r v e s o r areas w i t h i n f o r e s t r e s e r v e s as he sees t o be and be known as Dominion P a r k s . " " ^ the Commissioner of P a r k s .  fit,  The a u t h o r i t y of the p a r k s  was  The G o v e r n o r - i n C o u n c i l was v e s t e d w i t h the  power t o make r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o p r o t e c t i o n , c a r e and management of the p a r k s .  R e g u l a t i o n s c o u l d be e n f o r c e d a l s o p e r t a i n i n g to  "conduct of persons  r e s i d i n g i n or making use of any p a r k ; " " ^ a l s o t o  the l e a s e and s a l e of l a n d , t r a d e and t r a f f i c l i c e n c e s and the c o n s t r u c -  S t a t u t e s of Canada. Dominion F o r e s t Reserves and P a r k s A c t . Chapter 10, 1-2 George V, May 1 9 t h , 1911, S e c t i o n 18-1, p. 137. 16  Ibid.  S e c t i o n 18-2, p.  137.  10 t i o n , o p e r a t i o n and maintenance The Commissioner Study of the f i r s t  of p u b l i c  utilities.  of P a r k s a p p o i n t e d a t t h i s time was J . B. H a r k i n .  ( J u l y 4 t h , 1912) and second  r e p o r t s of the Commissioner  (September 3 0 t h ,  1913)  a r e v a l u a b l e documents i n s h e d d i n g l i g h t  the f u t u r e p o l i c i e s of the Dominion P a r k s Branch.  The P a r k p o l i c y  on  was  e l a b o r a t e d i n the f i r s t r e p o r t w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : "The p o l i c y upon w h i c h the Branch i s c a r r y i n g on i t s d e v e l o p ment work i s based on t h e b e l i e f t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the p e o p l e , Canadians or o t h e r s , who v i s i t the p a r k s a r e used to some degree of comfort and t h a t no m a t t e r how f o n d they may be of n a t u r e they w i l l not t a k e a p a r k t o u r u n l e s s a s s u r e d of some degree of c o m f o r t , convenience and s a f e t y . To meet t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s the P a r k s Branch p o l i c y n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e s to the q u a l i t y of the s e r v i c e of whatever k i n d , r e n d e r e d by those d e a l i n g w i t h the t o u r i s t : c h a r a c t e r of accommodation; a v o i d a n c e of c o n g e s t i o n ; p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e x t o r t i o n ; p r o v i s i o n of minor a t t r a c t i o n s to f i l l i n between the n a t u r e t r i p s ; the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of roads and t r a i l s of f i r s t - c l a s s c h a r a c t e r i n o r d e r t h a t the v a r i o u s a t t r a c t i o n s may be c o m f o r t a b l y and s a f e l y r e a c h e d ; s p e c i a l c a r e i n the m a t t e r of d u s t n u i s a n c e and the rough r o a d n u i s a n c e ; s u p e r v i s i o n over s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s ; w a t e r s u p p l y , h o r s e s and v e h i c l e s , g u i d e s , d r i v e r s , charges and r a t e s ; f u r n i s h i n g s of f u l l and r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n ; and, g e n e r a l l y i n not only reducing d i s c o m f o r t s . " ^ 1  There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t the g e n e r a l v i e w o f the advantages  of N a t i o n -  a l P a r k s l a y i n the f a c t t h a t they a r e a c t u a l l y not u n l i k e c i t y p a r k s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t statement to the a f f e c t i s : "The p e o p l e of Canada p r i m a r i l y s e c u r e ' b e n e f i t , advantage and enjoyment' from t h e i r n a t i o n a l p a r k s through the u n e q u a l l e d means of r e c r e a t i o n t h a t they p r o v i d e . N a t i o n a l P a r k s a r e t o the n a t i o n what l o c a l p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s are t o a c i t y . E v e r y t h i n g t h a t a c i t y p a r k can do as q u i c k a i d to the p e o p l e , the N a t i o n a l P a r k s can do more t h o r o u g h l y and on a l a r g e r s c a l e .  Canada. Department of the I n t e r i o r , Report of the Commissioner of Dominion P a r k s , Annual Report 1912, Ottawa, J u l y 4 t h , 1912, p. 7-8. Ibid.  p.  6.  11 These sentences s e r v e t o sum up t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p o l i c y makers toward t h e l a n d s w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n .  The "advantage"  a c t u a l l y a p h y s i c a l e n t i t y i n terms o f u s i n g t h e l a n d .  was  The l a n d s c a p e  had t o be m a n i p u l a t e d i n such a way t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l advantage c o u l d become a r e a l i t y .  The developments  which the park a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  sought  to i n c l u d e on t h e l a n d s c a p e were n o t as d i v e r s e o r numerous as were t o f o l l o w i n t h e decade a f t e r t h e s e e a r l y r e p o r t s . The a t t i t u d e o f advantage the commercial a s p e c t s .  of the N a t i o n a l Parks leads l o g i c a l l y t o  The t o u r i s t revenue became a l e g i t i m a t e f a c t o r  i n t h e development o f t h e p a r k s .  The r e a l i z a t i o n o f l a r g e sums o f money  spent by t o u r i s t s was t o be one o f t h e g u i d i n g f a c t o r s i n t h e p o l i c y f o r p a r k development over many y e a r s . H a r k i n sheds l i g h t on t h i s  Once a g a i n the w r i t i n g o f  Commissioner  policy:  "The P a r k s Branch has t o develop t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f making t h e i r wonders and b e a u t i e s a v a i l a b l e and a c c e s s i b l e f o r t h e p e o p l e of Canada. Every f a c i l i t y p r o v i d e d i n that connection n a t u r a l l y i s of equal v a l u e to the f o r e i g n t o u r i s t . T h e r e f o r e t h e more t h e Branch can do i n t h e p a r k s t o s e r v e t h e r e c r e a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s of Canadians, t h e more i t does a t t h e same time t o a t t r a c t t o Canada a s h a r e of t h e hundreds o f m i l l i o n s t h a t t h e p u b l i c spends a n n u a l l y on recreation."19 The p a r k s were d e s t i n e d t o become n a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n was t o be u n l i m i t e d .  grounds.  T h i s i n time l e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  and development o f f a c i l i t i e s and means o f a c c e s s . Roads The a u t o m o b i l e was r a p i d l y becoming an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n throughout N o r t h A m e r i c a .  I b i d . p. 7.  T h i s f a c t was q u i c k l y  12 r e c o g n i z e d and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e o v e r a l l p o l i c y o f development o f p a r k s f o r " n a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n " and t o i n c r e a s e t h e f l o w o f t o u r i s t dollars.  The 1913 r e p o r t s t a t e s :  "The P a r k s Branch i s s h a p i n g i t s development work on l i n e c a l c u l a t e d t o make the u n r i v a l l e d scenery o f t h e R o c k i e s a c c e s s i b l e to a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c . C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the expansion of recent y e a r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o motors and m o t o r i n g cannot f a i l t o conv i n c e one t h a t adequate t r u n k roads t h r o u g h t h e mountains w i l l i n e v i t a b l y mean a huge a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c and c o n s e q u e n t l y a l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e o f money by a u t o i s t s . " 2 0 Wildlife The visitor.  p o l i c y on w i l d l i f e was a l s o concerned w i t h t h e advantage t o t h e The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w i l d l i f e was e x t o l l e d i n each a n n u a l r e p o r t  as one o f t h e purposes o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s .  The p o l i c y (and a t t i t u d e ) o f  p r e s e r v i n g w i l d l i f e as g i v e n i n t h e 1915 a n n u a l r e p o r t was: "The p r o t e c t i o n o f w i l d l i f e i n t h i s p a r k ( B a n f f ) adds enormously t o i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e , and from t h e p u r e l y commercial s t a n d p o i n t i t pays because i t i s today a t t r a c t i n g and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o a t t r a c t i n s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s the d o l l a r s o f t h e t o u r i s t . P e o p l e l o v e t o l o o k a t w i l d animals. The crowds t h a t c o n s t a n t l y surround cages i n zoos show t h i s , b u t t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f animals i n t h e i r w i l d s t a t e i s immeasurably g r e a t e r . " 2 1 The need f o r a zoo and a v i a r y a t B a n f f had been r e c o g n i z e d viously.  The zoo was c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1908 and t h e a v i a r y i n 1905. Both  compounds c o n t a i n e d n o t o n l y a v a r i e t y o f i n d i g e n o u s exotics. was  pre-  species but also  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s p o l i c y i s n o t g i v e n b u t presumably  no r e a s o n t h a t e x o t i c s s h o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d i n v i e w o f t h e  a t t i t u d e towards w i l d l i f e as quoted above.  Ibid.  A n n u a l Report 1913, Ottawa, September 3 0 t h , 1913, p. 6.  Ibid.  A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1915, Ottawa, June 3 0 t h , 1915, p. 10.  there  13 A p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of t h e p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g w i l d l i f e w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o n c i l e i s t h e d i v i s i o n o f w i l d a n i m a l s p e c i e s i n t o man-given c a t e g o r i e s o f w i l d l i f e and p r e d a t o r s . the elk,  Under t h e h e a d i n g o f w i l d l i f e i n  r e p o r t s ; t h e r e i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f such s p e c i e s as b i g h o r n sheep, b u f f a l o and b l a c k b e a r .  becoming and how p l e n t i f u l . opposite view.  The r e p o r t d e s c r i b e s how tame they a r e The s e c t i o n d i s c u s s i n g p r e d a t o r s shows an  The h y p o c r i s y o f t h i s i s b e s t shown i n a statement  c o n t a i n e d i n t h e 1919 r e p o r t . "We have been f o r t u n a t e i n d e v e l o p i n g a game warden s e r v i c e w h i c h p o s s e s s e s an e n t h u s i a s t i c l o v e f o r w i l d l i f e and t h e success o f t h e game p r o t e c t i o n p o l i c y i s undoubtedly due t o t h e i r f e a r l e s s and r e l e n t l e s s enforcement o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , as w e l l as t o t h e i r a c t i v e p u r s u i t o f p r e d a t o r y a n i m a l s such as c o y o t e s . " 2 2  An e a r l i e r a n n u a l r e p o r t n o t e d t h a t t h e game wardens had been i s s u e d w i t h r i f l e s and ammunition.  I t was s t a t e d t h a t t h i s would p u t  them "... i n a much b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o d e s t r o y any c a r n i v o r o u s a n i m a l s 23 t h a t may come a c r o s s ..."  The l i s t  i n c l u d e d w o l v e s , l y n x , mountain  l i o n s and c o y o t e s . B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l P a r k n e a r W a i n w r i g h t , A l b e r t a , was an a d d i t i o n t o the  system i n 1907 w i t h t h e purpose o f p r o v i d i n g a s a n c t u a r y f o r b u f f a l o .  The a n i m a l s i n t h e e n c l o s e d p a r k o f 430 square m i l e s i n c l u d e d 620 head of  b u f f a l o , a l s o a number o f moose, e l k , deer and a n t e l o p e .  The term  s a n c t u a r y e v i d e n t l y meant t h e need t o i n i t i a t e a p r e d a t o r c o n t r o l program and t h e s u c c e s s o f w h i c h was t y p i c a l o f t h a t r e p o r t e d i n t h e 22 Ibid. 23  A n n u a l R e p o r t 1919, Ottawa, p. 43.  I b i d . A n n u a l Report 1912, R e p o r t o f C h i e f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f Dominion P a r k s , Edmonton, p. 16.  14 1918 a n n u a l r e p o r t :  " I t was d e c i d e d t o make use o f t r a i n e d hounds f o r  the e x t e r m i n a t i o n and about 65 c o y o t e s were d e s t r o y e d , o r n e a r l y t h r e e 2 Atimes as many as had been s e c u r e d by t r a p s d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . " T h i s e a r l y p e r i o d i n t h e development o f p a r k s w i t h t h e emphasis on the commercial r e c r e a t i o n a s p e c t and i t s b e n e f i t t o t o u r i s t c o n t i n u e d unchecked 1930's.  revenue  throughout t h e 1920's and reached a c l i m a x i n t h e  T h i s whole p e r i o d l e f t t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n w i t h a l e g a c y o f  f a c i l i t i e s and developments  many o f which a r e q u e s t i o n e d t o d a y .  By 1930, the N a t i o n a l P a r k s system encompassed f o u r t e e n a r e a s .  The  N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t was enacted i n t h a t y e a r ; s e r v i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a distinct administrative entity.  The A c t d e f i n e d t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f  e x i s t i n g p a r k s and s e t out p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e i r management.  The b a s i c  purpose o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s was n o t changed i n any way from t h e 1911 Act. I n S e c t i o n 4, t h e purpose o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s i s n o t e d : "The P a r k s a r e hereby d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p e o p l e o f Canada f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n and enjoyment, s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t and t h e R e g u l a t i o n s , and s u c h P a r k s s h a l l be m a i n t a i n e d and made use o f so as t o l e a v e them u n i m p a i r e d f o r t h e enjoyment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . " 2 5 The A c t i s i n no way r e s t r i c t i v e and t h e purpose i s s u b j e c t t o p o l i c y d e f i n i t i o n by t h e v a r i o u s m i n i s t e r s and governments w h i c h were to f o l l o w .  1931 - 1964 T h i s t h i r t y - y e a r p e r i o d w i t n e s s e d t h e g r e a t e s t changes i n p o l i c y  Ibid.  Annual R e p o r t , 1918, Ottawa, p. 43.  S t a t u t e s o f Canada.  The N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t , Chapter 33.  15 i n the h i s t o r y of t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k system. unemployed men  The 1930's saw the use of  i n programs of c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the P a r k s and the i n c o r p -  o r a t i o n of the F e d e r a l t o u r i s t bureau i n t o the P a r k s Branch. The Unemployment R e l i e f A c t of 1930 brought about the h i r i n g of l a r g e numbers of unemployed t o work on v a r i o u s programs i n the P a r k s . The men w o r k i n g under the A c t c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h u n t i l 1940.  During  t h i s t e n - y e a r p e r i o d t h e r e was a major program of c o n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d i n g roads, t r a i l s , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  and government b u i l d i n g s .  The 1936 A n n u a l Report shows a v a r i e d c r o s s - s e c t i o n of p r o j e c t s w h i c h had been c a r r i e d out d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s y e a r s .  The n e c e s s i t y of  p r o v i d i n g work became the i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r and c o n s e q u e n t l y today we have a c q u i r e d many developments w h i c h a r e not c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the p u r pose o f the P a r k s .  Such developments i n c l u d e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a i r -  c r a f t l a n d i n g f i e l d s , g o l f c o u r s e s , community b u i l d i n g s , c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d s and manicured gardens. The system has a l s o a c q u i r e d a l a r g e number o f developments  which  have p r o v e n t o be most c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the p r e s e n t changing emphasis i n Parks p o l i c y .  T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s the m y r i a d of t r a i l s ,  shelters,  warden's c a b i n s and roads t o v a r i o u s n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . The t o u r i s t bureau of the N a t i o n a l Development Bureau was p a r t of the  N a t i o n a l P a r k s Branch f o r two y e a r s , from 1933 t o 1935.  The  bureau  was a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y from the P u b l i c i t y D i v i s i o n of the P a r k s S e r v i c e but the f a c t t h a t the two were p a r t of the same Branch i s n o t e w o r t h y . I t s e r v e s t o r e i n f o r c e the a t t i t u d e of N a t i o n a l P a r k s as a t o u r i s t revenue agency w h i c h had j u d i c i o u s l y been c u l t i v a t e d by Harkin.  Commissioner  16 The work o f t h e P u b l i c i t y D i v i s i o n o f t h e P a r k S e r v i c e was i n t h e words o f t h e Commissioner —  " a c t i v e and a g g r e s s i v e . "  The f o l l o w i n g  o u t l i n e o f a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e s t h e type and e x t e n t o f work c a r r i e d o u t i n one y e a r , 1934. The m o t i o n p i c t u r e l i b r a r y c o n t a i n e d some 799 p r i n t s and were on l o a n t o " v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , n o t a b l y s o c i e t i e s , business  c l u b s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , churches,  conservation s c h o o l s and t h e l i k e ,  26 including volunteer lecturers." agencies  i n 10 c o u n t r i e s .  The d i s t r i b u t i o n l i s t  included  There was a l s o a program f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n  of s l i d e shows, l e c t u r e s , r a d i o p u b l i c i t y , t h e w r i t i n g o f o r i g i n a l musical compositions,  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f pamphlets and e x h i b i t s a t v a r i o u s  f a i r s and e x p o s i t i o n s . P r i n c e A l b e r t and R i d i n g M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s , w h i c h were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e y e a r s j u s t p r i o r t o t h e D e p r e s s i o n , were t o r e c e i v e the maximum e f f e c t s o f t o u r i s t p r o m o t i o n and unemployment r e l i e f work. The g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e time were such as t o see a d e c r e a s e i n p a r k v i s i t o r s throughout t h e system.  These two p a r k s d e v e l o p e d , t h e r e -  f o r e , g e n e r a l l y along the l i n e s of r e g i o n a l parks.  The emphasis was on  l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f summer c o t t a g e s . The number o f v i s i t s showed f l u c t u a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e m i d d l e 1930's as a consequence o f t h e g e n e r a l economic c o n d i t i o n .  The l e v e l o f  a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f World War I I was f o r a s l o w i n c r e a s e i n v i s i t o r s each y e a r , m o s t l y  from t h e l o c a l r e g i o n .  Three w i l d l i f e N a t i o n a l P a r k s were removed from t h e system i n t h e p e r i o d immediately  p r i o r t o and d u r i n g t h e Second World War.  The f i r s t  Canada. Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , N a t i o n a l P a r k s B r a n c h , R e p o r t of t h e Commissioner. N a t i o n a l P a r k s o f Canada, Ottawa, 1934, p. 13.  17 was Wawaskesy N a t i o n a l P a r k i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a . r e s e r v e c o m p r i s i n g 54 square m i l e s . a s a n c t u a r y f o r prong-horned  I t had been an unfenced  The P a r k was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1922  as  a n t e l o p e , a s p e c i e s n a t i v e t o the r e g i o n .  By 1938, the number of a n t e l o p e had g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d t o the p o i n t where i t was deemed not n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t i n u e t h e r e s e r v e .  C o n s e q u e n t l y i t was  d e c i d e d t o a b o l i s h Wawaskesy N a t i o n a l P a r k and a l l o w the a r e a t o r e v e r t t o the P r o v i n c e .  T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by an A c t of P a r l i a m e n t a s s e n t e d  to on June 2 4 t h , 1938. The second p a r k to be a b o l i s h e d was B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l P a r k near Wainwright, A l b e r t a .  The c o n t i n u e d a n i m a l s l a u g h t e r had n o t p r e v e n t e d  the d e t e r i o r a t i n g range c o n d i t i o n s o r d e c r e a s e d the number o f d i s e a s e incidences. i n the P a r k .  I n 1939, i t was d e c i d e d t o e l i m i n a t e a l l t h e l a r g e a n i m a l s A t o t a l of some 5,000 b u f f a l o , e l k , d e e r , moose and yak  were s l a u g h t e r e d . The l a n d i n the P a r k was  s e t a s i d e f o r war  purposes  i n 1940 by t h e Department of N a t i o n a l Defence. Nemiskan N a t i o n a l P a r k was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1922 as a s a n c t u a r y f o r prong-horned  antelope.  The 8.5 square m i l e a r e a remained i n e x i s t e n c e  u n t i l 1944.  The l a n d was removed from p a r k s t a t u s because the a n t e l o p e  were no l o n g e r t h r e a t e n e d w i t h e x t i n c t i o n . The y e a r s 1940 t o 1945 were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s l o w development of the p a r k system.  The l e v e l s of v i s i t a t i o n d e c l i n e d and  financial  r e s t r i c t i o n s a l l o w e d f o r o n l y m i n i m a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . The demand on p a r k f a c i l i t i e s and v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e d s i n c e the average p a r k v i s i t o r was s t a y i n g f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s than i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s . A t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of the N a t i o n a l P a r k s w h i c h had d e v e l o p e d over the y e a r s was  t h e i r use as a l o c a l s p o r t s and g e n e r a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t  18 centre.  The A n n u a l R e p o r t s have r e c o r d e d the v a s t a r r a y of  w h i c h one n o r m a l l y parks.  activities  a s s o c i a t e s w i t h u r b a n a r e a s b e i n g promoted i n  These a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e :  l o c a l boating  r e g a t t a s and  t e n n i s and g o l f tournaments, w i n t e r c a r n i v a l s and  races,  conventions.  Post-War The  post-war p e r i o d i n a l l p a r t s of Canada was  e s s e n t i a l l y a boom  period.  T h i s phenomena was  a l s o f e l t i n the N a t i o n a l P a r k system.  o n l y was  t h e r e i n c r e a s e d development and e x p e n d i t u r e s on the p a r t of  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , but t h e r e was v i s i t o r s w h i c h was  I t was  The  problem was  one  the  t h i s f l o o d of  t o b r i n g about s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  r o l e of the N a t i o n a l P a r k s . system c o n t i n u e  a f l o o d of v i s i t o r s .  Not  of p o l i c y .  future  Could  the  to be the p r o v i d e r of a l l the d e s i r e d forms of outdoor  recreation? The  l e v e l of v i s i t a t i o n showed phenomenal growth as n o t e d i n T a b l e I .  Table I .  National Parks V i s i t s  Year  Number of V i s i t s  1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970  884,386 550,369 1,795,138 3,305,149 4,930,648 9,845,283 12,822,095  -  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o s t u d y the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of Canada and v i s i t o r a t t e n d a n c e i n the p a r k s compared w i t h the a c r e a g e . o f N a t i o n a l Parks.  the  P a r k s e s t a b l i s h e d between the t u r n of the c e n t u r y  and  19 up u n t i l t h e 1920's were s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r a t i o of p a r k acreage t o p o p u l a t i o n and v i s i t o r s throughout t h e 1930's and 1940 s. ?  I n t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g World War I I , t h e i n c r e a s e i n a t t e n -  dance f a r o u t s t r i p p e d t h e normal growth r a t e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e r e s u l t was t h e extreme d e c l i n e i n r a t i o o f p a r k acreage t o v i s i t o r s . There was 0.7 a c r e s o f N a t i o n a l P a r k ( e x c l u d i n g Wood B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l P a r k ) p e r c a p i t a i n 1931. 0.4 a c r e s .  By 1966 t h i s f i g u r e had f a l l e n t o l e s s than  The N a t i o n a l P a r k acreage p e r v i s i t o r i n t h e same p e r i o d  f e l l from 12.4 a c r e s i n 1931 t o 0.67 a c r e s i n 1966. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e post-war p a r k v i s i t o r have been c i t e d i n a number of papers on t h e s u b j e c t o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n t h e p a s t decade.  A p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h had more l e i s u r e t i m e , more income and  g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y l e d t o a need f o r a reassessment o f t h e f u t u r e p o l i c i e s and r o l e o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s . I t became o b v i o u s t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s were t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degree i n danger of l o s i n g t h o s e q u a l i t i e s w h i c h a t t r a c t e d the v i s i t o r s .  initially  S c e n i c f e a t u r e s were l o s i n g t h e i r  a p p e a l and were s u f f e r i n g p h y s i c a l l y from too many p e o p l e .  aesthetic The town-  s i t e s were a t t r a c t i n g v i s i t o r s i n t h e i r own r i g h t and s t i l l s e r v i n g t h e park v i s i t o r .  T y p i c a l l y t h e t o w n s i t e s of t h e mountain p a r k s had become  s m a l l urban c e n t r e s w i t h a l l t h e problems w h i c h a r e g e n e r a t e d by such status. These problems e s s e n t i a l l y were b u i l t i n t o t h e d u a l i t y o f S e c t i o n 4 of t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t .  The problems were r e c o g n i z e d a t many l e v e l s  b u t t h e r e was t h e u s u a l time l a g f a c t o r o f some f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e a p o l i c y was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e p u b l i c .  The Honourable A l v i n H a m i l t o n ,  20 M i n i s t e r o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources from 1957 t o 1960 under t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e Government o f t h e R i g h t Honourable John G. Diefenbaker, Parks.  spoke o f t h e s p e c i f i c problem o f r e c r e a t i o n i n N a t i o n a l  He made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f a c t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n needs were b e -  coming more p r e s s i n g throughout Canada.  The p u b l i c l o o k e d a t t h e  N a t i o n a l P a r k s t o p r o v i d e t h i s f u n c t i o n ; b u t t h e r e were s e r i o u s implications.  Mr. H a m i l t o n s t a t e d :  "... i f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s concept i s t o s u r v i v e t h e c r u s h i n g demand f o r p o p u l a r forms o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . t h e r e must be a p a r a l l e l development a t p r o v i n c i a l and o t h e r l e v e l s o f government by every p o s s i b l e means. The N a t i o n a l P a r k s cannot do t h e whole j o b ; what we need i s an i n t e g r a t e d system o f n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l p a r k s w h i c h w i l l meet t h e demand o f i t s c i t i z e n s . " 2 7 The  i d e a s o f a d i v i s i o n i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n f u n c t i o n was e l a b o r a t e d  f u r t h e r d u r i n g t h e speech.  I t served  t o p r o v i d e a break i n t h e t a n g l e  of problems stemming from t h e mandate g i v e n t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s tration.  adminis-  One o f t h e reasons f o r t h e r e q u i r e d d i v i s i o n was  "... t o g u a r a n t e e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e N a t i o n a l Parks according to the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t . Already i n s e v e r a l o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s t h e r e i s an overshadowing o f the p a r k ' s o r i g i n a l purpose by mass r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e n o t always c o m p a t i b l e . This trend w i l l increase g r e a t l y i n t h e f u t u r e and might w e l l t h r e a t e n t h e e x i s t e n c e of N a t i o n a l P a r k s as i n v i o l a b l e s a n c t u a r i e s o f s c e n i c beauty."28 The M i n i s t e r spoke g e n e r a l l y about N a t i o n a l P a r k s p o l i c y d u r i n g t h e 1960  Department Supply Debate i n t h e House o f Commons.  Hansards f o r  Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . Recreation and T o u r i s t Development: an address by t h e Honourable A l v i n H a m i l t o n a t t h e C o n v o c a t i o n Banquet o f t h e 1959 C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , A s s o c i a t i o n o f O n t a r i o , F o r t W i l l i a m , O n t a r i o , 1959, p. 9. Ibid.  p. 10.  21 J u l y 23rd, 1960 r e c o r d s t h e f o l l o w i n g remarks by Mr. H a m i l t o n : "Hon. Members s h o u l d be aware o f t h e fundamental purpose o f t h e p a r k s , w h i c h i s t o p r e s e r v e , as they were i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , those b e a u t i f u l s c e n i c areas o f our c o u n t r y i n o r d e r t h a t our c h i l d r e n and our c h i l d r e n ' s c h i l d r e n f o r generat i o n s t o come may go t h e r e and f i n d c e r t a i n areas where t h e c o u n t r y i s t h e same as i t s o r i g i n a l d i s c o v e r e r s found i t . That i s t h e p r i m a r y purpose o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s . A t the same time t h e r e i s a second f u n c t i o n o f those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p a r k s , and t h a t i s how t o make these b e a u t i f u l p l a c e s as a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e Canadian p e o p l e as p o s s i b l e . There i s a c l a s h between these two p u r p o s e s . The p a r k department has had t o s t a n d up i n f a v o u r o f these b a s i c purposes a g a i n s t those f o r c e s w h i c h would l i k e t o e x p l o i t t h e p a r k s and use up a l l t h e i r r e s o u r c e s q u i c k l y i n t h e i r l i f e t i m e and l e a v e n o t h i n g f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s t h a t w i l l f o l l o w . I , as M i n i s t e r , want to make i t abundantly c l e a r t h a t I s t a n d f o r t h e p r i m a r y purpose o f these p a r k s . A t t h e same time I w i l l do e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o make these b e a u t i f u l parks a v a i l a b l e t o the p e o p l e o f Canada as they have a f u l l c o n c e p t i o n o f what they a r e t h e r e f o r . " 2 9 The M i n i s t e r spoke f u r t h e r o f p r e s s u r e s upon parks and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a need t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e a r e many areas o u t s i d e the parks w h i c h c o u l d p r o v i d e f o r many o f t h e d i v e r s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y 30 "honky tonk r e c r e a t i o n " his  w h i c h p e o p l e demand.  The M i n i s t e r c o n t i n u e d  speech w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o those members o f P a r l i a m e n t who r e p r e s e n t  c o n s t i t u e n c i e s w h i c h c o n t a i n a park: " I know t h a t hon. members who r e p r e s e n t p a r k c o n s t i t u e n c i e s a r e c o n s t a n t l y under p r e s s u r e from t h e p e o p l e o f t h e a r e a t o t r y t o get c e r t a i n changes made i n park o p e r a t i o n s , b u t I s h o u l d l i k e those members t o be a l l i e s o f mine — men who s t a n d a t my r i g h t and l e f t , as M i n i s t e r , t o t e l l t h e p e o p l e b o l d l y and c l e a r l y what these p a r k s a r e f o r — so they w i l l be g i v e n what they want, i f p o s s i b l e , p r o v i d e d i t i s i n harmony w i t h t h e purposes of t h e p a r k s . I f hon. members do t h a t , I t h i n k they w i l l f i n d  Canada. Hansard's House o f Commons Debates, T h i r d S e s s i o n - Twentyf o u r t h P a r l i a m e n t , 8-9 E l i z a b e t h I IVolume V I , 1960, p. 6857-8. I b i d . p. 6857.  22 t h a t 90 per cent of the p e o p l e i n t h e i r a r e a s w i l l be b e h i n d them."31  The N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y A major s t e p t o the i n i t i a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y came i n 1962  under the recommendations of the G l a s s c o R o y a l Commission on  Government O r g a n i z a t i o n .  The  Commission d i s c u s s e d  f a c i n g the N a t i o n a l P a r k s Branch.  The  the b a s i c problem  q u a l i t y of the A c t i s s t a t e d  as:  "... somewhat of a c o n t r a d i c t i o n of terms, and the p r o v i s i o n of a m e n i t i e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r the f i v e m i l l i o n p e o p l e who a n n u a l l y v i s i t the p a r k has, of n e c e s s i t y , brought about p h y s i c a l changes i n the c o u n t r y s i d e w h i c h rob i t , i n p a r t , of i t s v i r g i n c h a r a c t e r . These two s t a t u t o r y o b j e c t i v e s may w e l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y i r r e c o n c i l a b l e as p u b l i c use i n c r e a s e s , w i t h an accompanying f u r t h e r development of the n i n e e x i s t i n g t o w n s i t e s and c o n t i n u e d c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads and t r a i l s throughout p a r k areas."32 The  two  s p e c i f i c recommendations were:  "1.  A r e v i e w be made of N a t i o n a l P a r k P o l i c y and a compreh e n s i v e s t a t e m e n t of f u t u r e g o a l s be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the r e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n .  2.  The N a t i o n a l P a r k s be a d m i n i s t e r e d by a commission w i t h members chosen from o u t s i d e the p u b l i c s e r v i c e , a p p o i n t e d f o r s p e c i f i c terms and renumerated f o r t h e i r services."33  The N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s Branch began committee meetings i n 1960  t o produce a p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t .  The  committee was  D i r e c t o r of the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s Branch. four d i v i s i o n chiefs —  Ibid.  Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e ,  a p p o i n t e d by  the  Members i n c l u d e d Operations,  p. 6858.  Canada. The R o y a l Commission on Government O r g a n i z a t i o n , Volume 2, 1962, The Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, p. 37. Ibid.  p.  40.  23 E n g i n e e r i n g and P l a n n i n g , the E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r , the P o l i c y Committee S e c r e t a r y and the Chairman, Mr. J . R. B. Coleman, Branch D i r e c t o r .  The E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y t o the M i n i s t e r o f N o r t h e r n  A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources  a t t e n d e d t h e meetings  in a liaison  function. The p o l i c y statement was p r e p a r e d i n d r a f t form and d u r i n g 1960 1961 was  -  r e v i e w e d by v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the Branch and by the Deputy  Minister.  I t underwent r e v i e w f o u r times by the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s i n  C a l g a r y and H a l i f a x . two r e v i e w s . through t o  The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s of the v a r i o u s p a r k s p r e p a r e d  T h i s p r o c e s s of d r a f t p r e p a r a t i o n and r e v i e w c o n t i n u e d  1964.  P o l i c y P r e s e n t a t i o n (1964) and Subsequent Years The f i n a l d r a f t was  a c c e p t e d and a s u b m i s s i o n by the  Honourable  A r t h u r L a i n g , M i n i s t e r of N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , s e n t t o C a b i n e t f o r i t s a p p r o v a l on A p r i l 1 3 t h , 1964. C a b i n e t under Prime M i n i s t e r L e s t e r B. P e a r s o n approved d r a f t on J u l y 2nd, 1964. the p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t .  Liberal  the t e n - p o i n t  The t e n p o i n t s were the c a r d i n a l s e c t i o n s of  C a b i n e t a p p r o v a l was n e c e s s a r y s i n c e t h i s p o l i c y  was n a t i o n a l i n scope and was t r a t i o n of the p a r k s .  The  was  to be b a s i c t o development and  adminis-  The a c t u a l c o n t e n t s of the s u b m i s s i o n are  c l a s s i f i e d by government as c o n f i d e n t i a l . The Honourable  A r t h u r L a i n g p r e s e n t e d a statement on N a t i o n a l P a r k s  P o l i c y as p a r t of the D e p a r t m e n t a l  debate of September 1 8 t h , 1964.  M i n i s t e r made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f a c t t h a t the Government had approved  The  recently  i n p r i n c i p l e a statement of p o l i c y which had been s u b m i t t e d  for approval.  The C a b i n e t p o s i t i o n was  t h a t " t h i s statement  expresses  24 the Government's o p i n i o n on t h e b e s t manner i n w h i c h t h e p a r k s can b e s t 34 be o p e r a t e d , developed and a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s e r v e t h e p u b l i c Mr. L a i n g d i s c u s s e d t h e major p o i n t s o f t h e new p o l i c y  interest." including  the purpose o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s , a c c e s s , v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s , r e c r e a t i o n and residence.  One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s i n t h e speech was t h e  appeal f o r support of the N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y .  He summed up h i s  a p p e a l w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g remarks: " P u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t a r e n e c e s s a r y i f t h e Government i s t o c o n t i n u e i t s s t e w a r d s h i p o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s under a p o l i c y t h a t s e r v e s a n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . I s i n c e r e l y t r u s t t h a t n o t o n l y e v e r y member o f t h i s committee w i l l s u p p o r t i n p r i n c i p l e t h a t p o l i c y we a r e f o l l o w i n g on the N a t i o n a l P a r k s , b u t a l s o t h a t every Canadian w i l l a s s i s t i n p r e s e r v i n g h i s n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e by u n d e r s t a n d i n g , r e s p o n s i b l e and a p p r e c i a t i v e use, and v i g i l a n c e . " 3 5 Support was immediate as t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , newspaper e d i t o r i a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n statements and i n d i v i d u a l s spoke o u t i n f a v o u r o f t h e policy.  The o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p o l i c y was fragmented  r e v o l v e d around  and g e n e r a l l y  t h e s p e c i f i c problem o f l e a s e h o l d s .  The S t a n d i n g Committee o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources — 1966-1971 The S t a n d i n g Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d t o r e v i e w problems and e s t i m a t e s under t h e Department i n c l u d i n g N o r t h e r n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Indian-Eskimo A f f a i r s , N a t i o n a l P a r k s and Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e . The Committee h e a r i n g s began on March 3 1 s t , 1966 as p a r t o f t h e F i r s t S e s s i o n - Twenty-Seventh P a r l i a m e n t and p r o v i d e d f o r e v i d e n c e t o be  Canada. House o f Commons Debates, Second S e s s i o n - T w e n t y - s i x t h P a r l i a m e n t , 13 E l i z a b e t h I I , Volume V I I , 1964, Ottawa, p. 8192. 35 I b i d .  p. 8195.  25 p r e s e n t e d by p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s , c i t i z e n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s and a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The Committee was  empowered t o r e p o r t t o  the House of Commons i t ' s f i n d i n g s and recommendations. The i n i t i a l Committee was  composed of 24 members w i t h changes  t a k i n g p l a c e as v a r i o u s members wished  to question witnesses.  The  Committee c a l l e d a v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w i t n e s s e s . These i n c l u d e d :  The Deputy M i n i s t e r of the Department and the S e n i o r  A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r , J a s p e r R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n , N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , W a t e r t o n P a r k Chamber of Commerce, Canadian W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n and the Canadian Audubon S o c i e t y . b r i e f s p r e s e n t e d covered n e a r l y a l l a s p e c t s of t h e 1964 p o l i c y  The and  though most were i n agreement, i n some c a s e s , a p l e a was made f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g the p o l i c y e s p e c i a l l y i n the g e n e r a l f i e l d of c o n s e r v a t i o n . I n e a r l y December, 1966,  t h e Committee t r a v e l l e d west and  spent  f o u r days i n C a l g a r y , B a n f f and J a s p e r h e a r i n g b r i e f s p r e s e n t e d on  be-  h a l f of v a r i o u s c o u n c i l s , boards, o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s , c l u b s , and p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s f o r a t o t a l of 35 w i t n e s s e s .  A f u r t h e r 25 o t h e r  statements were l a t e r t a b l e d b e f o r e t h e Committee as w r i t t e n b r i e f s . The c o n t e n t of the b r i e f s v a r i e d g r e a t l y a c c o r d i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n or i n d i v i d u a l  concerned.  The most i m p o r t a n t statement  to t h e s e Committee h e a r i n g s came i n  F e b r u a r y of 1967 when t h e S e n i o r A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r p r e s e n t e d  the  Department's p o s i t i o n i n l i g h t of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s by w i t n e s s e s d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s y e a r .  The statement  p o s i t i o n t a k e n by the Departmental  s e r v e d to e l u c i d a t e and s t r e n g t h e n the P o l i c y statement made i n 1964.  The  p a r t i c u l a r areas which were covered i n the Department's paper i n c l u d e d :  26 N a t i o n a l P a r k s purpose, p l a n n i n g and development, l a n d t e n u r e  system,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n problems i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s , N a t i o n a l P a r k g o a l s . The  Standing  Committee p r e s e n t e d  Commons on March 2 1 s t , 1967 d i r e c t l y to N a t i o n a l Parks.  i t s s i x t h r e p o r t t o the House of  c o v e r i n g a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s r e l a t i n g The  Committee supported  the p r i n c i p l e of  p o l i c y as s e t f o r t h i n S e c t i o n 4 of the N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t . favoured  I t also  the concept of z o n i n g N a t i o n a l P a r k s i n t o t h r e e b a s i c a r e a s -  wilderness, semi-wilderness  and v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s c e n t r e s .  The  Committee  a l s o agreed w i t h l o n g - r a n g e p l a n n i n g of the p a r k s and the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y through r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . areas near urban c e n t r e s was  The need f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  a l s o r e c o g n i z e d , as was  the need f o r co-  o p e r a t i o n w i t h p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o r e d i r e c t d e t r i m e n t a l p r e s s u r e s w h i c h a r e p l a c e d on N a t i o n a l P a r k s . The  problem of l e a s e s had c o n t i n u a l l y been brought t o the a t t e n t i o n  of the Committee d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s y e a r by many spokesmen and problems were r e c o g n i z e d  i n the s i x t h r e p o r t .  P a r t i c u l a r l y the m a t t e r  of communication between the town r e s i d e n t s and t h e Department o b v i o u s and changes recommended a c c o r d i n g l y .  the  I t was  was  a l s o deemed  d e s i r a b l e t o t e s t the v a l i d i t y of not renewing p e r p e t u a l renewable l e a s e s i n the c o u r t .  The  c o u r t r u l e d t h a t the p e r p e t u a l renewable  36 l e a s e s would have t o be honoured by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The  growing need f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n the n a t i o n  was  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the recommendation f o r the F e d e r a l Government t o co-  36 Canada, Supreme C o u r t R e p o r t s . Judgement on A p p e a l from the Exchequer C o u r t of Canada, Her M a j e s t y the Queen v. W i l f r e d A l a n Walker and Her M a j e s t y the Queen v. M. E. C l a r k and Son L t d . , 1970, p. 649-679.  27 o r d i n a t e the development of r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s .  The purpose c i t e d b e i n g  to p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s near urban c e n t r e s i n v i e w of the f a c t  that  p r e s s u r e s were b e i n g p l a c e d on N a t i o n a l P a r k s t o p r o v i d e f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h were c o n t r a r y t o t h e i r purpose.  A t the same time i t was  recommended t h a t t h e F e d e r a l Government proceed t o e s t a b l i s h a d d i t i o n a l National Parks. The S t a n d i n g Committee on I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development was r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o l l o w i n g t h e 1968 F e d e r a l g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n .  I n the  p e r i o d 1968 to 1971 the Committee d i d n o t d i s c u s s p a r k p o l i c y as i n p r e v i o u s Committees but r a t h e r concerned i t s e l f w i t h i n d i v i d u a l such as Wood B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l P a r k . to the p a r k l a n d s was  problems  The c l a i m of the A l b e r t a Government  c o n s i d e r e d , a l s o t h e problems  of I n d i a n l a n d c l a i m s  and the need f o r a n o r t h e r n r o a d . D u r i n g 1971 the major a r e a of the Committee's c o n c e r n was B i l l C-187, An A c t R e s p e c t i n g M i n e r a l s i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  The d e s i r a b i l i t y of  e s t a b l i s h i n g a N a t i o n a l P a r k i n the Kluane r e g i o n was d i s c u s s e d i n l i g h t of B i l l C-187.  The N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y i n the 1970's The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f the N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y i n the 1970's can b e s t be judged i n the l i g h t of two areas of c o n c e r n w h i c h have emerged d u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s .  E n v i r o n m e n t a l problems have become  p o p u l a r as i s s u e s of concern f o r b o t h the p u b l i c and the p o l i t i c i a n s . T h i s p o i n t i s apparent from the numerous books, magazines and newspaper a r t i c l e s , t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o programs and the c o n f e r e n c e s and symposia on e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . A t t h e same t i m e , the whole r e c r e a t i o n p i c t u r e i s changing  relative  28 t o the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d .  The F e d e r a l  Government i s i n v o l v e d i n the r e c r e a t i o n f i e l d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h the work o f a number o f Departments.  More c o n c e r n  i s b e i n g shown a l s o by a l l l e v e l s o f governments w i t h attempts t o c l a r i f y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t h e p o i n t where a n a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n scheme o r p l a n may emerge i n t h e f u t u r e . I n the l i g h t o f these p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n s , N a t i o n a l P a r k s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s must a s s e s s t h e i r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the Canadian p u b l i c .  A s t a r t i n t h i s assessment p r o c e s s was  begun w i t h the N a t i o n a l P a r k p u b l i c h e a r i n g s program i n 1970.  The  h e a r i n g s were h e l d t o r e c e i v e t h e p u b l i c ' s v i e w on the p r o v i s i o n a l master p l a n s f o r n i n e o f t h e e x i s t i n g p a r k s .  The h e a r i n g s r e f l e c t e d  the p u b l i c ' s c o n c e r n on e n v i r o n m e n t a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l i s s u e s — p r e s e r v a t i o n and use of N a t i o n a l P a r k l a n d s .  the  A t each o f t h e s e h e a r i n g s ,  i s s u e s and p o i n t s were r a i s e d w h i c h do n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e t o the park i n q u e s t i o n .  R a t h e r , they were p r o p e r l y a m a t t e r o f p o l i c y and o f  c o n c e r n t o a l l t h e p a r k s i n t h e system. Concern was f o c u s s e d on those same p o l i c y a r e a s w h i c h were e v i d e n t i n t h e p r e c e e d i n g h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w and w h i c h remain today as b a s i c t o t h e p l a n n e r ' s t a s k o f p r e p a r i n g p l a n s which r e f l e c t the mandate o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t . These p o l i c y a r e a s a r e p a r k  integrity,  p a r k z o n i n g , p a r k a c c e s s , l a n d - b a s e d r e c r e a t i o n , water-based  recreation,  urban s t y l e r e c r e a t i o n and p a r k t o w n s i t e s .  The p i e c e m e a l approach t o  p o l i c y i n t h e s e v e n t y - n i n e y e a r s p r i o r t o 1964 has r e s u l t e d i n a document w h i c h attempts t o r a t i o n a l i z e o r r e c t i f y p a s t p o l i c i e s and a l s o p r o v i d e a c l e a r statement o f f u t u r e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n .  The c o n t i n u i n g  i n t e r e s t of Members of P a r l i a m e n t  i n p a r k p l a n n i n g and development can  be expected t o i n c r e a s e as v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l issues p r o l i f e r a t e .  and r e c r e a t i o n l a n d  30  CHAPTER 2 STUDY SCOPE 1.  Conceptual Design The concept i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study i s t h a t c e r t a i n f a c t o r s a r e  i m p o r t a n t i n t h e p a r k p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ; namely, t h e seven p o l i c y areas which were noted i n t h e p r e c e e d i n g c h a p t e r .  I t i s assumed t h a t t h e  p l a n n e r views t h e s e a r e a s as b e i n g autonomous and d i s c r e t e , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g a d e f i n i t i v e b a s i s f o r making p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i v e t o land-use a l l o c a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s whether these seven p o l i c y a r e a s a r e i m p o r t a n t to t h e p o l i t i c i a n i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p a r k p l a n n i n g and development.  A second q u e s t i o n i s  whether t h e p o l i t i c i a n views t h e s e p o l i c y areas as b e i n g autonomous o r r a t h e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a r i e t y o f concepts i n v o l v e d i n each, a r e t h e s e areas too fragmented  t o be c o n s i d e r e d autonomous.  The s t r a t e g y proposed t o examine these concerns was t o p r e p a r e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which c o n t a i n e d those q u e s t i o n s t h e p l a n n e r c o n s i d e r s c r i t i c a l t o r e a c h i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e seven p o l i c y a r e a s . types o f q u e s t i o n s i n each p o l i c y a r e a a r e shown i n T a b l e I I .  T a b l e I I . P o l i c y Areas and Q u e s t i o n s  P o l i c y Areas 1.  Park I n t e g r i t y  Areas o f Q u e s t i o n i n g - a c c e p t a b i l i t y of l o g g i n g - r o l e of f o r e s t f i r e s  The  31 T a b l e I I . P o l i c y Areas and Q u e s t i o n s ( c o n t i n u e d )  P o l i c y Areas  Areas of Questioning - a c c e p t a b i l i t y of mining - impairment caused by h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power dams - r o t a t i o n o f campgrounds - i m p o r t a n c e o f sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s  2.  P a r k Zoning  - importance of simple designations - d e s i r a b i l i t y of l e g i s l a t i n g boundaries - l e v e l s o f use w i t h i n v a r i o u s zones  3.  Park Access  -  4.  Land-based R e c r e a t i o n  - motorized versus non-motorized  5.  Water-based R e c r e a t i o n  - motorized versus non-motorized  6.  Urban-Style Recreation  - a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f man-made s p o r t s facilities  7.  Park Townsites  - phasing out of e x i s t i n g townsites - importance of h i g h standards f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance - d e s i r a b i l i t y o f harmonious a r c h i t e c t u r e - t o w n s i t e autonomy  In  n e c e s s i t y of a r t e r i a l access t o parks i m p o r t a n c e o f m i n i m i z i n g impairment l e v e l of road access a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a i r p o r t s i n parks a c c e p t a b i l i t y of transportation corridors - p u b l i c use o f f i r e a c c e s s roads - freeway development i n p a r k s  t h i s manner, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r e p a r e a s c a l e , based on t h e  q u e s t i o n s a s k e d , f o r each p o l i c y a r e a w h i c h would d e f i n e t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c i a n s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y .  The  assumption was made t h a t p l a n n e r s would g i v e a w e l l - d e f i n e d s e t o f answers t o t h e s e same c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s and c o u l d be s c a l e d a c c o r d i n g l y . T h i s would r e s u l t i n those i n f a v o u r o f p a r k i n t e g r i t y , f o r example,  32 h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e s c o r e and those opposed would have a n e g a t i v e s c o r e . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o t h e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s may be i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g how a person  responds  on t h e s c a l e . A socio-economic aire.  s e c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , was i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n -  The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d t o i n f l u e n c e a  respondents'  answers: - Age - Income - Previous  Occupation  - Education - Place of Childhood - Number o f Years as a Member o f P a r l i a m e n t - P o l i t i c a l Party - Province - Type o f C o n s t i t u e n c y - Last V i s i t to a N a t i o n a l Park - Distance to the Nearest N a t i o n a l Park - P a r k Age, i f t h e r e i s a N a t i o n a l P a r k i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n c y - Percentage 2.  of land area of Constituency i n N a t i o n a l Park  Status  Scale D e f i n i t i o n The s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n Table 2 were c o n s i d e r e d  e s s e n t i a l s i n c e each o f t h e seven p o l i c y areas r e s u l t e d from a s e r i e s of secondary  p o l i c y statements  or questions.  F o r example, t h e p o l i c y  on p a r k a c c e s s can o n l y be s t a t e d i n terms o f a group o f s p e c i f i c p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s , such as those r e l a t i n g t o a i r c r a f t , r a i l w a y s , h i g h -  33 ways, e t c e t e r a w h i c h i n c o m b i n a t i o n form a p o l i c y a r e a . When r e v i e w e d i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s and i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r ' s r o l e , such q u e s t i o n s a r e c r i t i c a l t o p o l i c y development.  The change i n purpose o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s  from t h e " d o c t r i n e o f u s e f u l n e s s " i n t h e e a r l y 1900's t o t h e l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n r o l e o f today has r e s u l t e d i n a change i n what t h e p u b l i c , p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s v i e w as b e i n g a c c e p t a b l e l a n d u s e s .  T h i s can  be seen i n the p r e s e n t o p p o s i t i o n i n some q u a r t e r s t o f u r t h e r development w i t h i n p a r k s , when t h e emphasis i s on a c h i e v i n g a b a l a n c e i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and use w h i l e l e a v i n g l a n d s i n an u n i m p a i r e d s t a t e as r e q u i r e d by t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t . The p a r k p l a n n e r ' s r o l e i s t o ensure t h a t l a n d - u s e a l l o c a t i o n i s undertaken i n such a way as t o ensure a minimum o f impairment. can o n l y be a c h i e v e d by r e c o g n i z i n g t h e fundamental q u e s t i o n s w h i c h r e l a t e t o t h e seven p o l i c y a r e a s .  This  importance  o f those  The f a c t t h a t t h e  N a t i o n a l P a r k ' s p o l i c i e s have been w r i t t e n down and p u t t o g e t h e r i n one document i s a major s t e p t o p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e p l a n n e r ' s approach  to parks i n a l l regions of the country.  The c a p a b i l i t y o f p r e p a r i n g a s c a l e and s u b s e q u e n t l y b e i n g a b l e t o d e f i n e t h e p o s i t i o n o f each respondant was based on the assumption  r e l a t i v e to the p o l i c y  areas  t h a t a c e r t a i n p a t t e r n of responses  to a  c o l l e c t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s does i n f a c t d e f i n e an autonomous p o l i c y a r e a . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e s c a l e and the respondents v a l i d i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n s posed.  s c o r e depends on t h e  I t was assumed t h a t those  specific  q u e s t i o n s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y a r e v a l i d and do d e f i n e t h e r e l e v a n t p o l i c y areas i n w h i c h they a r e l o c a t e d .  34 3.  Socio-economic  Data  I t has been acknowledged p r e v i o u s l y t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n n e r s might p o s s i b l y v i e w p o l i c y i s s u e s d i f f e r e n t l y .  The reasons f o r such  d i f f e r e n c e s m i g h t be r e l a t e d t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l o r p a r k factors.  A f a c t o r such as p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n c o u l d be of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e  c o n s i d e r i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a t t i t u d e s towards n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s between p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s .  Age, e d u c a t i o n and p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n can be  seen t o have an i n f l u e n c e on the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . F u r t h e r , f o r t h o s e p o l i t i c i a n s who have a n a t i o n a l p a r k i n t h e i r cons t i t u e n c y or who  have v a c a t i o n e d t h e r e such f a c t o r s as time of l a s t  v i s i t , p a r k age, d i s t a n c e t o t h e p a r k and p e r c e n t a g e of t h e i r uency i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s c o u l d be i n f l u e n t i a l .  constit-  For these reasons, i t i s  i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r s u c h f a c t o r s and t o u t i l i z e some form o f a n a l y s i s w h i c h i n d i c a t e how the p o l i t i c i a n w i l l respond to p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s i n terms of v a r i o u s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and p a r k d a t a .  35  CHAPTER 3 SAMPLING 1. P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Questionnaire  I t was n e c e s s a r y T h i s was i m p o r t a n t fore.  f i r s t to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of the study.  s i n c e t h e a r e a o f i n t e r e s t had n o t been s t u d i e d b e -  I t was d e c i d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o d e v e l o p a s i m p l e  questionnaire  e x p l a i n i n g t h e purpose o f t h e study and a s k i n g t h e Members t o i n d i c a t e their willingness to participate. The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m a i l e d t o each o f t h e 263 Members o f  Parliament.  A t o t a l o f 165 or 62.5% responded t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Those i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o a s s i s t i n t h e s t u d y by  completing  a second q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y t o t a l l e d 78 o r 29.5%.  T h i r t y Members (11.4%) i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would n o t commit  themselves b e f o r e r e a d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . these two g r o u p s , i t was d e c i d e d 2.  Study The  Based on t h e response o f  t h a t a s t u d y c o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n .  Questionnnaire second q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m a i l e d  i n t h e "yes" and " i n d e f i n i t e " groups.  t o those Members o f P a r l i a m e n t  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o m a i l e d  to t h e n i n e t y - e i g h t members who d i d n o t respond t o t h e f i r s t (See Appendix A.)  questionnaire.  The p r o s p e c t i v e respondents were c o n t a c t e d on t h r e e  o c c a s i o n s over a p e r i o d o f one y e a r .  Each t i m e , a copy o f t h e q u e s t i o n n -  a i r e was e n c l o s e d i n o r d e r t o s t i m u l a t e a r e s p o n s e . The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s t r u c t e d from f i v e major s e c t i o n s o f t h e  N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y .  The q u e s t i o n s i n each s e c t i o n were c o n s t r u c t e d  36 p o l i c y statements,  known problem a r e a s , and from a r e p o r t on N a t i o n a l 37  P a r k s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  organized i n t o s i x sections dealing w i t h  p o l i c y m a t t e r s p l u s one o t h e r on s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g 38 to the r e s p o n d e n t s .  I t was  but t h i s was  i f s u f f i c i e n t d a t a was  The mail-back  necessary  recognized  t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was to be  available.  o n l y p r a c t i c a l means of s o l i c i t i n g responses was q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n c e t h e r e was  individual interviews. r e l a t e d t o the m a i l - b a c k  disadvantes  The most o b v i o u s i s the need to  keep the q u e s t i o n s s i m p l e so as t o e l i m i n a t e p e r s o n a l T h i s problem was  through a  no o p p o r t u n i t y t o u n d e r t a k e  There a r e a number of o b v i o u s situation.  long,  encountered i n the study where i t was  interpretations. necessary  to  c a p s u l i z e v a r i o u s paragraphs or s t a t e m e n t s of p o l i c y f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A number of Members of P a r l i a m e n t knowledge of the s u b j e c t p r e v e n t e d  i n d i c a t e d t h a t time and l a c k of  them from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the  study.  They p o i n t e d out t h a t they a r e o f t e n c a l l e d upon to answer q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on a wide range of s u b j e c t s and as a consequence, o n l y a s e l e c t e d few c o u l d be answered. One  f i n a l problem encountered r e l a t i v e t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  The C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y . " W i l l Success S p o i l N a t i o n a l P a r k s ? " A C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e M o n i t o r r e p r i n t , 1968, pgs. 46-53.  in  the  One a d d i t i o n a l a r e a of i n t e r e s t - e d u c a t i o n and a g e n e r a l S e c t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The e d u c a t i o n f a c t o r was not a b l e t o be a n a l y z e d due t o a poor r e s p o n s e . The g e n e r a l S e c t i o n d i d g e n e r a t e a good r e s p o n s e , however i t was d e c i d e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on the p a r t i c u l a r problem under r e v i e w i n t h i s s t u d y .  37 the t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o F r e n c h .  The p o l i c y document was  a v a i l a b l e only i n  E n g l i s h , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , meanings and i n t e n t of p o l i c y were p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t 3.  statements  f o r the t r a n s l a t o r t o c a p t u r e .  L e v e l s of Response The  i n i t i a l m a i l i n g was  t o the 206 Members of P a r l i a m e n t  responded e i t h e r " y e s " or " i n d e f i n i t e " o r who p a r t i c i p a t i o n questionnaire. returned. The  This represented  The  d i d not respond to the  F i f t y - t w o completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were 25.2%  of the t o t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s m a i l e d .  f i r s t f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r and q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  l a t e r and generated  who  s e n t t h r e e months  a r e t u r n of twenty q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o r 34.9%.  second f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r and q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  sent e i g h t  months a f t e r the f i r s t and a f u r t h e r f i f t e e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d complete.  The  t o t a l was  r e p r e s e n t s a 42.2%  e i g h t y - s e v e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s completed.  r a t e of r e t u r n based on the number of Members of  P a r l i a m e n t sampled and 33.1% Members of P a r l i a m e n t was  4.  of the t o t a l number of Members.  The  total  s e t a t 263, due t o a one s e a t vacancy.  Test f o r Representative The  This  c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was  Sample used t o d e t e r m i n e whether the respondents  were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the u n i v e r s e . b a s i s of the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c ,  political  T e s t i n g was  c a r r i e d out on  the  and p a r k f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d i n the 39  previous chapter.  The  r e s u l t s a r e shown below.  In the case of income, p l a c e of c h i l d h o o d and l a s t v i s i t t o a n a t i o n a l p a r k i t was not p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n comparable d a t a f o r a l l Members of P a r l i a m e n t , c o n s e q u e n t l y c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s c o u l d not be u n d e r t a k e n f o r these t h r e e a t t r i b u t e s .  38  Table I I I .  Age  i n Years  21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 > 70  No  response  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by  Age  Sample  Actual  1 17 36 21 7 0  5 45 102 76 31 4  40  5  2  Observed X„ = 27. 41 w i t h 6 degrees of freedom. x = 15. 03 at .05 l e v e l . 2  T a b l e IV.  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by P r e v i o u s  Occupation  Occupation  Sample  Actual  Lawyer P r i v a t e Business Engineer Agriculture B u s i n e s s Management Educator Medicine Blue-collar Clergy Military Journalist Unions  20 10 5 7 18 8 1 2 0 0 0 0  72 43 7 22 60 26 9 8 4 1 7 4  No  16  0  response  Observed X~ = 267.94 w i t h 12 degrees of freedom. X = 21.03 a t .05 l e v e l .  B i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the Members of P a r l i a m e n t was a v a i l a b l e from t h e r e f e r e n c e , Canada's 28th P a r l i a m e n t , A Guide t o the Members, t h e i r C o n s t i t u e n c i e s and t h e i r Government.  T a b l e V.  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by E d u c a t i o n  Education Level  P u b l i c School High School University P o s t Graduate No r e s p o n s e  Observed X  2 »  X  Table V I .  Sample  Actual  2 21 22 34  4 67 97 95  8  0  = 6 7 . 7 9 w i t h 4 degrees o f freedom. = 9.49 a t .05 l e v e l .  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f P a r l i a m e n t  Number o f Y e a r s ' 1- 3 4- 6 7-15 > 16 No response  Sample  Actual  33 18 26 7  98 47 101 17  3  0  Observed X„ = 11.38 w i t h 4 degrees o f freedom. X = 9.49 a t .05 l e v e l .  40 Table V I I .  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by P o l i t i c a l P a r t y  Party  Sample  Liberal Progressive Conservative New D e m o c r a t i c Ralliement C r e d i t i s t e Independent  39 30 11 7 0  Actual  154 72 22 14 1  Observed X„ = 7.84 w i t h 4 degrees of freedom. X = 9.49 a t .05 l e v e l .  Table V I I I .  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by P r o v i n c e  Province  Sample  Actual  The T e r r i t o r i e s B r i t i s h Columbia Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Ontario Quebec New B r u n s w i c k Nova S c o t i a P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d Newfoundland  2 12 10 4 4 23 20 3 4 3 2  2 23 19 13 13 88 74 10 11 4 7  Observed X„ = 12.51 w i t h 10 degrees o f freedom. X = 18.37 a t .05 l e v e l .  41 T a b l e I X . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by Type o f C o n s t i t u e n c y C o n s t i t u e n c y Type  Urban Rural Both No response  Sample  Actual  28 20 37  100 71 92  2  0  Observed X„ = 6.72 w i t h 3 degrees o f freedom. X = 6.25 a t .05 l e v e l .  T a b l e X.  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by D i s t a n c e t o N e a r e s t N a t i o n a l P a r k , Proposed N a t i o n a l P a r k * o r N a t i o n a l P a r k R e s e r v e * *  Distance i n Miles  Sample  Actual  0- 50 51-100 101-150 151-200 201-250 251-300 5" 300  21 23 32 9 1 1 0  50 84 102 15 6 3 3  Observed X„ = 6.88 w i t h 6 degrees of freedom. X = 12.59 a t .05 l e v e l .  Proposed N a t i o n a l P a r k s t a t u s i n c l u d e s t h o s e areas w h i c h , i n 1970, were under a c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a N a t i o n a l P a r k and w h i c h , by t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g , had been so d e s i g n a t e d . N a t i o n a l P a r k Reserve s t a t u s i s used i n t h e case o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k proposed f o r t h e E a s t Arm G r e a t S l a v e Lake a r e a w h i c h became a Reserve i n 1971 and w h i c h w i l l t e r m i n a t e i n 1976. T h i s s i t u a t i o n was d e s i r a b l e t o m i n i m i z e damage t o t h e a r e a p e n d i n g t h e f i v e y e a r s g i v e n to t h e I n d i a n Bands i n the r e g i o n t o s t u d y t h e concepts o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s and t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o p o s a l i n t h e i r a r e a .  42 Table XI.  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by P a r k  Date of E s t a b l i s h m e n t  Sample  Actual  7 3 4  10 9 5  Z 1968 1921-1967 < 1920 Observed X„ = 1.59 X = 5.99  Table X I I .  Age  w i t h 2 degrees of freedom a t .05 l e v e l .  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n by P e r c e n t a g e N a t i o n a l Park.  of C o n s t i t u e n c y  as  Percentage  Sample  Actual  <1% l%-5% >5%  4 7 3  7 11 6  2 Observed X„ = 0.12 X = 5.99  The  sample was  v  w i t h 2 degrees o f freedom. a t .05 l e v e l .  found not t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the b a s i s of  age,  p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , number of y e a r s as a Member of P a r l i a m e n t and type of c o n s t i t u e n c y .  T h i s o c c u r r e d where the  2 X  observed  2 v a l u e s were l a r g e r than the t a b l e X  t i o n was  a t the .05 l e v e l .  Representa-  indicated f o r p o l i t i c a l party, province represented, distance  to n e a r e s t n a t i o n a l p a r k , p a r k age and percentage  of c o n s t i t u e n c y as a  2 N a t i o n a l P a r k , where the observed X v a l u e a t the .05  v a l u e s were s m a l l e r than the t a b l e  level.  A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample can not be c l a i m e d because of the s m a l l response  r a t e (33%) and the number of n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e cases based on  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s . I t i s v a l i d t o proceed w i t h the a n a l y s i s of the d a t a d e s p i t e l a c k of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample.  The  a n a l y s i s w i l l s t i l l f o c u s on  the the  i d e a , t h a t f o r those t h a t d i d not r e s p o n d , d i d they respond as hypot h e s i z e d and does i t g i v e an i n s i g h t i n t o how v i e w i n g the v a r i o u s p o l i c y a r e a s .  The  the p o l i t i c i a n s  end r e s u l t w i l l be t h a t  are any  c o n c l u s i o n s reached can not be c l a i m e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l Members of  Parliament.  44  CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA The number of i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s o b t a i n e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t a l l e d 135 from each o f the r e s p o n d e n t s .  I n o r d e r t o s i m p l i f y the  a n a l y t i c p r o c e d u r e s , the d a t a were coded and s u b s e q u e n t l y punched onto computer c a r d s .  The i n f o r m a t i o n was  computerized a n a l y t i c a l procedures. a n a l y s i s and  then s u b j e c t e d t o a number o f These c o n s i s t e d o f f a c t o r  AID.  Factor Analysis I t has been proposed p r e v i o u s l y t h a t t h e r e a r e seven p o l i c y  areas  of importance to the p a r k p l a n n e r and the o b j e c t of a n a l y s i s i s n o t t o determine i f these a r e autonomous o r o r t h o g o n a l d i m e n s i o n s .  R a t h e r , the  c o n c e r n i s whether each one i s autonomous i n the sense t h a t the q u e s t i o n s t h a t have been l i s t e d a r e answered i n a c o n s i s t e n t way f a c t o r dominates scale.  so t h a t  one  the s t r u c t u r e of the seven areas and t h e r e b y forms a  F a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the answers t o each s e t o f q u e s t i o n s , t h a t  i s seven f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , i s an a p p r o p r i a t e way f a c t o r dominates  t o d e t e r m i n e i f one  the s t r u c t u r e of each of the seven areas and t h e r e b y  has a dominant s c a l e or whether t h a t i s n o t the c a s e . The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s method, as used i n t h i s s t u d y , i n v o l v e s examining the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the v a r i a b l e s (or q u e s t i o n s ) i n each p o l i c y a r e a and s e l e c t i n g those w i t h the h i g h e s t degree of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h each o t h e r .  The g r o u p i n g s of the h i g h l y  inter-  45 c o r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s a r e termed f a c t o r s .  The  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s procedure  w i l l produce f i r s t l y an u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i x and s u b s e q u e n t l y  a  rotated factor matrix. The u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i x i s composed of columns and rows. columns d e f i n e the f a c t o r s ; the rows r e f e r to the v a r i a b l e .  I n the  i n t e r s e c t i o n of row and column i s g i v e n the l o a d i n g f o r the row on the column.  The  The  variable  l o a d i n g s measure w h i c h v a r i a b l e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n  w h i c h f a c t o r p a t t e r n and to what degree. correlation  The  They can be i n t e r p r e t e d l i k e  coefficients.  f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r p a t t e r n d e l i n e a t e s the l a r g e s t p a t t e r n  of r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the d a t a ; the second d e l i n e a t e s the n e x t p a t t e r n t h a t i s u n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the f i r s t .  largest  This p a t t e r n i s continued  in successive factors. The  r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i x attempts  t o maximize the number o f  loadings or c o r r e l a t i o n that r e f l e c t high values.  T h i s r e s u l t s i n the  d e l i n e a t i o n of d i s t i n c t c l u s t e r s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i f such  exist,  u n l i k e the u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i x , t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t a c h e d to f a c t o r o r d e r .  The  f a c t o r s do remain o r t h o g o n a l and the p a t t e r n s  can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v i r t u e of t h e i r h i g h v a l u e l o a d i n g s . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s w i l l produce a f a c t o r s c o r e c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x from w h i c h a f a c t o r s c o r e m a t r i x can be p r e p a r e d . g i v e s a s c o r e f o r each case  The  f a c t o r score matrix  (or respondent) on each f a c t o r p a t t e r n . 41  F a c t o r a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d out u s i n g t h e SPSS  computer package  The computer package used i n t h i s s t u d y i s t a k e n from SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) , by N. N i e , D. H. Bent and C. H. Hull. 1970 M c G r a w - H i l l , pgs. 208-244.  46 and the r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  chapter.  Though the SPSS system does not compute f a c t o r s c o r e s d i r e c t l y , i t does p r o v i d e the a p p r o p r i a t e m a t r i x to be used i n c a l c u l a t i n g f a c t o r s c o r e s . The f a c t o r s c o r e c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x was used w i t h a computer program w i t h the o r i g i n a l d a t a t o produce t h e f a c t o r s c o r e s w h i c h a r e t h e o b j e c t of a n a l y s i s i n t h e second s t a g e .  The purpose of t h e s t u d y i s t o  determine whether the p o l i t i c i a n , l i k e the p a r k p l a n n e r , views p o l i c y a r e a i n such a way  each  t h a t one f a c t o r dominates the s t r u c t u r e .  To  p r o v i d e f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h i s n o t b e i n g the case; i t i s i m p o r t a n t to a l l o w f o r the d e r i v a t i o n of more than one f a c t o r and s c a l e . a l l o w a b l e number of f a c t o r s was  The  e n t e r e d i n t o the computer program as a  consequence o f the number of v a r i a b l e s  ( o r q u e s t i o n s ) i n each p o l i c y  area. Automatic  I n t e r a c t i o n D e t e c t o r Technique  The independent f a c t o r s ) may explaining  variables  (AID)  ( s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and  park  n o t e n t e r i n t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n a s i m p l e l i n e a r way,  p e o p l e s ' responses  t o a l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s .  by  For t h i s  r e a s o n , the use of the M i c h i g a n AID program i s suggested because i t o f f e r s an a n a l y s i s s t r a t e g y  which p e r m i t s an e x p l a n a t i o n of a g i v e n  response i n terms of a number of v a r i a b l e s .  I t w i l l produce a  h i e r a r c h y w h i c h i n d i c a t e s w h i c h v a r i a b l e i s most i m p o r t a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g a g i v e n response, which v a r i a b l e i s second most i m p o r t a n t and so on. The AID  t e c h n i q u e , developed by S o n q i i i s t and Morgan, i s a m u l t i -  v a r i a t e method of a n a l y s i s w h i c h has as i t s purpose t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of d a t a i n t o homogeneous groups.  G i v e n a s e t of d a t a on  independent  47 v a r i a b l e s , t h e AID t e c h n i q u e d e t e r m i n e s what v a r i a b l e s combine t o produce t h e g r e a t e s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n group means o f t h e dependent variable.  The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f independent o b s e r v a t i o n s i s d i v i d e d  through a sequence o f b i n a r y s p l i t s i n m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e t e r m i n a l subgroups.  A t each s t a g e o f t h e sequence, d i c h o t o m i z a t i o n o c c u r s so as  to p r o v i d e t h e l a r g e s t r e d u c t i o n i n t h e u n e x p l a i n e d sum o f squares o f the dependent v a r i a b l e .  The group means t h a t account f o r more o f t h e  t o t a l r e m a i n i n g sum o f squares o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e than t h e means o f any o t h e r p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n o f independent v a r i a b l e s i s chosen.  I n t h i s way, t h e mean v a l u e s o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s w i l l  be as d i f f e r e n t as p o s s i b l e between g r o u p s , b u t as e q u a l as p o s s i b l e w i t h i n groups.  The o u t p u t o f t h e a n a l y s i s i s termed a " t r e e diagram"  w h i c h shows t h e subgroups formed a t each i t e r a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h associated  statistics.  The AID program used i n t h e s t u d y i s n o t t h e package s u p p l i e d by the U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , b u t a v e r s i o n developed by t h e Government of Canada b e f o r e t h e U n i v e r s i t y made t h e program a v a i l a b l e i n a F o r t r a n form.  The r e s u l t s o f AID a n a l y s i s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t C h a p t e r .  48  CHAPTER 5 RESULTS 1.  D e r i v a t i o n of S c o r e s The seven p o l i c y a r e a s were, i n t u r n , f a c t o r a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e  r e s u l t t h a t i n each case t h e r e was n o t a s i n g l e dominant f a c t o r . of  A  total  t w e l v e f a c t o r p a t t e r n s were d e r i v e d from t h e r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i c e s .  Each was d e s i g n a t e d by a t i t l e .  F a c t o r s c o r e s were developed f o r each  of t h e respondents by t h e t w e l v e f a c t o r p a t t e r n s . P o l i c y A r e a 1. Table XLII.  (Park I n t e g r i t y ) D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s ( P a r k I n t e g r i t y )  ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX Variables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  Natural Forest Forest Fires Non-commercial F o r e s t O p e r a t i o n s Timber B e r t h s A c c e p t a b l e Purchase Timber B e r t h s H a r v e s t Prime Timber Commercial L o g g i n g F o r e s t Management Remove M i n e r a l C l a i m s Mining Acceptable Underground M i n i n g A c c e p t a b l e Hydro Dams A c c e p t a b l e Campground R o t a t i o n C o n s t r u c t Sewage Treatment P l a n t s  4 2  I  II  III  * *  * * * * * * * *  ft  -0.563 0.705  *  0.605 0.471  * *  0.721  *  0.526 ft  *  A l l l o a d i n g s below + 0.300 a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y  -0.954  *  0.410 0.321  * *  insignificant  *  ft  * 0.597  * * * * * *  ft ft 0.410  The h i g h f a c t o r l o a d i n g s i n F a c t o r I a r e a l l r e l a t e d t o t h o s e  49  v a r i a b l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e use o r development o f t h e p a r k n a t u r a l resources.  T h i s was d e s i g n a t e d t h e " r e s o u r c e development" f a c t o r .  F a c t o r I I was r e l a t e d t o i n c o n s p i c u o u s r e s o u r c e development. d e s i g n a t e d " i n c o n s p i c u o u s r e s o u r c e development."  T h i s was  The n e g a t i v e f a c t o r  l o a d i n g f o r non-commercial f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s i n F a c t o r I i n d i c a t e s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s t y p e o f a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e framework o f r e s o u r c e exploitation. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r l o a d i n g s were developed f o r the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : viewed  maintenance of a n a t u r a l f o r e s t , f o r e s t f i r e s  as p a r t o f t h e n a t u r a l ecosystem,  f o r e s t management c o m p a t i b l e  w i t h t h e u s e o f an a r e a and r o t a t i o n o f campgrounds t o a v o i d  impairment  and over use.  P o l i c y A r e a 2. T a b l e XIV.  ( P a r k Zoning) D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s ( P a r k Zoning)  ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX Variables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  S i m p l i f i e d Zoning Zoning E x c l u d e s Uses Zoning C o n c e n t r a t e s Uses L e g i s l a t e Zones Wilderness - L i m i t Recreation W i l d e r n e s s - No permanent developments W i l d e r n e s s - More development Zone S u b d i v i s i o n s  Factor I  Loadings II  *  *  ft  0.333 0.664  * 0.362 0.481  * *  0.642 0.510  0.317 ft 0.401  *  The f a c t o r s i n t h i s p o l i c y a r e a were r e j e c t e d because they d i d n o t produce any e v i d e n t p a t t e r n s o f l i n k a g e between t h e v a r i a b l e s .  50 P o l i c y A r e a 3.  T a b l e XV.  (Park Access)  D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent  V a r i a b l e s (Park Access)  ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX Variables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6a. 6b. 6c. 6d. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.  I  A r t e r i a l Highways O u t s i d e P a r k S u f f i c i e n t Road A c c e s s Good S t a n d a r d s M i n i m i z e Impairments Zone C o m p a t i b i l i t y No Commercial A i r p o r t s High Cost of A i r p o r t s Precedence Noise P o l l u t i o n Management Problems Transportation Corridors More T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Systems Develop Freeways Develop A i r p o r t s Private Aircraft Open F i r e A c c e s s Roads  A l l t h r e e f a c t o r s were v i a b l e . development w i t h minimum i m p a i r m e n t .  Factor Loadings II  0.650 0.331 0.904 0.812 0.733 0.503  * * * * * *  0.417  -0.317  * * *  0.386  * *  A  * *  III  * * * *  * * *  0.605 0.787 0.786 0.706 0.709  0.349 0.598 0.622 0.550 0.516 0.630  * * * * *  A  F a c t o r I r e l a t e s to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n F a c t o r I I r e l a t e s t o maximum  development of h i g h speed t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and F a c t o r I I I r e l a t e s t o nona i r p o r t development.  The t h r e e f a c t o r s were d e s i g n e d as " t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  improvements w i t h minimum i m p a i r m e n t , " " h i g h speed t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " and "no a i r p o r t s development." P o l i c y A r e a 4. Table XVI.  (Land-Based R e c r e a t i o n )  D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s (Land-Based R e c r e a t i o n )  ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX Variables 1.  Camping  I 0,. 536  Factor Loadings II A  III *  Table XVI.  51 D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s (Land-Based R e c r e a t i o n ) Continued  ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX Variables 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  Factor Loadings II  I  Driving f o r Pleasure Dune Buggy Racing Hiking Hunt i n g Mountain Climbing Horseback R i d i n g Rock C o l l e c t i n g Scenic Viewing Snowmobiling Skiing  * *  III  A  0.783  A A  0.501 A  A  A  A  A  0.688 0.694  A  A  A  A  A  A  0.769  A  0.525 A  A  0.728  0.319  A  A  0.357  F a c t o r I i n d i c a t e s a s t r o n g tendency t o chose r e c r e a t i o n a l uses w h i c h have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been p a r t o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s . was g i v e n t h e t i t l e " T r a d i t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n . " a l l terrain vehicles. evident.  This factor  F a c t o r I I was r e l a t e d t o  F a c t o r I I I was n o t r e t a i n e d s i n c e l i n k a g e was n o t  F a c t o r I I was d e s i g n a t e d as " a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s . "  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r l o a d i n g s were developed f o r the v a r i a b l e s d r i v i n g f o r p l e a s u r e and h u n t i n g . P o l i c y A r e a 5. Table XVII.  (Water-Based  Recreation)  D e r i v a t i o n of Dependent V a r i a b l e s (Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n ) ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX  Variables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Canoeing Fishing Power B o a t i n g Sailing Waterskiing Swimming  I A A  0.613 0.320 1.065 A  Factor Loadings II 0.915 0.472 A A A  0.473  52 The  two f a c t o r s p o l a r i z e d t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t o two d i s t i n c t groups.  F a c t o r I was concerned w i t h the v a r i o u s f a s t - m o v i n g , h i g h c o s t forms of water-based r e c r e a t i o n .  F a c t o r I I was concerned w i t h t h e slower moving,  low c o s t r e c r e a t i o n u s e s .  They were designed  as " H i g h - F a s t  Recreation"  and "Low-Slow R e c r e a t i o n " r e s p e c t i v e l y .  P o l i c y A r e a 6. The  (Urban-Style  Recreation)  a n a l y s i s o f t h e data i n t h i s p o l i c y area was n o t u n d e r t a k e n  due t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f an e r r o r i n t h e F r e n c h v e r s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n naire.  B i l l i a r d s was o m i t t e d and t h e r e was no means o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  between t h e two t y p e s o f b o w l i n g . P o l i c y A r e a 7.  (Park Townsites)  Table X V I I I .  D e r i v a t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s  ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX  -  PARK TOWNSITES MATRIX  Variables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  Phase-out T o w n s i t e s Limit Services L i m i t Residents L i m i t Townsites Harmonious A r c h i t e c t u r e H i g h Standards Extra Services M u n i c i p a l Self-Government Equitable Rentals V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Only  F a c t o r I r e l a t e s t o phasing-out and s e r v i c e s . high standards.  I 0.355  *  0.999  * * * * * *  0.412  Factor Loadings II  Ill  * * *  -0.456 0.476  * *  ft ft ft 0. 325 0. 554 0. 547  0.562 0.590  * * * *  *  o f t o w n s i t e s by l i m i t i n g r e s i d e n t s  F a c t o r I I r e l a t e s t o r e t a i n i n g t o w n s i t e s and m a i n t a i n i n g Factor I I I r e l a t e s t o m u n i c i p a l self-government.  I was d e s i g n a t e d " l i m i t development," F a c t o r I I was d e s i g n a t e d s t a n d a r d s , " F a c t o r I I I was d e s i g n a t e d "autonomy."  Factor  "high  There was no s i g n i f i -  53 cant l o a d i n g developed f o r the v a r i a b l e l i m i t i n g the number of p a r k t o w n s i t e s to those p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n g . The  f a c t o r s c o r e s w h i c h were d e r i v e d are shown i n Appendix B.  s c o r e can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e same manner as on any s c a l e . respondents who  The  Those  have h i g h p o s i t i v e s c o r e s on " r e s o u r c e development," f o r  example, a r e i n f a v o u r of those a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h compose the f a c t o r p a t t e r n , namely commercial  l o g g i n g , m i n i n g and hydro power developments.  I t i s t h e f a c t o r s c o r e s w h i c h form t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s i n t h e AID analysis.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Scores. The AID respondent  t e c h n i q u e was employed i n an attempt t o f i n d  those  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s on f a c t o r p a t t e r n s . and codes employed a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e The r e s u l t s of t h e AID diagrams ( F i g u r e s 1-12) w h i c h  The respondent  characteristics  XIX.  t e c h n i q u e a r e g i v e n i n the t w e l v e t r e e follow.  The  s t o p p i n g r u l e used was  such  t h a t when a s p l i t r e s u l t e d i n a sub-group w i t h fewer t h a n e i g h t c a s e s , no f u r t h e r s p l i t s were a l l o w e d . c r e d i b i l i t y t o any f u r t h e r  T h i s was  d e s i r a b l e t o p r o v i d e a l e v e l of  splits.  The r e s u l t s can b e s t be i n t e r p r e t e d by f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n those t e r m i n a l groups, w h i c h have p o s i t i v e means or s c o r e s and s c o r e s , and t r a n s l a t i n g c o d i n g f o r each i n t o n a r r a t i v e form. p o l i c y p a t t e r n i t was  on  negative For each  d e c i d e d to g e n e r a l i z e t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s , i n e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e groups, by s e t t i n g a c u t - o f f v a l u e of + 0.250. 1. The  Resource Development t r e e diagram f o r t h e AID  a n a l y s i s of the s c o r e s f o r r e s o u r c e  54 development i s g i v e n a s F i g u r e 1. Figure 1 i s i n t e r p r e t e d as f o l l o w s . p o p u l a t i o n o f 87 r e s p o n d a n t s .  Group 1 ( 1 ) i s the t o t a l  The mean v a l u e of t h e dependent v a r i a b l e ,  t h e l o g a r i t h m s o f t h e r e s o u r c e development s c o r e s , i s M i = 0.0003. A f t e r examining a l l p o s s i b l e p r i m a r y s p l i t s f o r each independent  vari-  a b l e , t h e maximum r e d u c t i o n i n t h e u n e x p l a i n e d sum of squares i s o b t a i n e d by s p l i t t i n g Group 1 o n t h e b a s i s o f income. A l l those members of P a r l i a m e n t w i t h t o t a l f a m i l y income d u r i n g 1968 l e s s t h a n $20,000 a r e i n Group 2 ( n = 4 8 ) . A l l those w i t h income g r e a t e r t h a n or e q u a l t o $20,000 a r e i n Group 3 ( n = 3 9 ) . The mean s c o r e f o r Group 2 i s M2 = -0.296; the mean s c o r e f o r Group 3 i s M3 = 0.365.  A f t e r Step 1, t h e  same p r o c e d u r e t h a t was a p p l i e d t o Group 1 i s a p p l i e d t o Groups 2 and 3. Then t h e p r o c e d u r e i s a g a i n a p p l i e d t o t h e sub-groups formed a t t h e end of Step 2 and so on.  T a b l e XLX. Variable X  2  X, 3  Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Codes  Description  Codes  Age  0 1 2 3 4 5  No response 21-30 y e a r s 31-40 y e a r s 41-50 y e a r s 51-60 y e a r s 61-70 y e a r s  Income  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  No response < $10,000 $10,000 - $14,999 $15,000 - $19,999 $20,000 - $24,999 $25,000 - $29,999 $30,000 - $34,999 $35,000 - $39,999 £ $40,000 !  55 T a b l e X I X . Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Codes ( C o n t i n u e d )  Variable  Codes  Description  X,  Previous Occupation  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  = = = = = = = = =  No r e s p o n s e lawyer private business engineer agriculture b u s i n e s s management educator medicine b l u e - c o l l a r worker  X  Education  1 2 3 4 5  = = = = =  public school high school university post-graduate no r e s p o n s e  Place of Childhood  0 = No r e s p o n s e 1 = metropolis (> 1 m i l l i o n ) 2 = l a r g e c i t y (250,000 t o 1 million) 3 = medium c i t y (50,000-250,000) 4 = s m a l l c i t y (10,000-50,000) 5 = town (1,000-10,000) 6 = v i l l a g e ( < 1,000) 7 = farm  Number o f Y e a r s a s Member o f P a r l i a m e n t  0 1 2 3 4  P o l i t i c a l Party  1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5=  Liberal Progressive Conservative L i b e r a l Labour New D e m o c r a t i c Ralliement C r e d i t i s t e  Province  1 2 3 4 5  The T e r r i t o r i e s B r i t i s h Columbia Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba  c  X  r  X,  = = = = =  = = = = =  No r e s p o n s e 1-3 y e a r s 4-6 y e a r s 7-15 y e a r s - 16 y e a r s  56 Table XIX.  Variable  Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Codes ( C o n t i n u e d )  6 7 8 9 10 11  = = = = = =  Ontario Quebec P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d New B r u n s w i c k Nova S c o t i a Newfoundland  Constituency  0 1 2 3  = = = =  No r e s p o n s e urban rural both  11  Last V i s i t to a N a t i o n a l Park  0 1 2 3 4 5  = = = = = =  No r e s p o n s e < 1 year 1-3 y e a r s 4-6 y e a r s 7-9 y e a r s £10 y e a r s  12  Distance to nearest N a t i o n a l Park  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  = = = = = = =  0-50 m i l e s 51-100 m i l e s 101-150 m i l e s 151-200 m i l e s 201-250 m i l e s 251-300 m i l e s i 301 m i l e s  P a r k Age  1 _=  X,  Province  X  10  X  Codes  Description  X  X  X  13  14  P e r c e n t a g e of C o n s t i t u e n c y as a N a t i o n a l Park  >  2 3  1968 d a t e o f e s t a b l i s h ment 1921-1967 <1920  1 2 3  <1% 1-5% > 5%  T a b l e s XX and XXI show t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Members of P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e t o r e s o u r c e development  i n National Parks.  58 T a b l e XX.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members of P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Resource Development  Number of Respondents  Score 0.895  19  Table XXI.  -0.517  -0.422  -0.336  2.  1.  Income —  g r e a t e r t h a n $20,000/year  2.  Province —  3.  Previous Occupation —  B.C., O n t a r i o , Quebec, P . E . I . , New B r u n s w i c k , Nova S c o t i a , Newfoundland. private business, engineer, a g r i c u l t u r e , b u s i n e s s management.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o Resource Development Number o f Respondents  Score  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r of i m p o r t a n c e )  20  8  18  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r of i m p o r t a n c e ) 1.  Income —  l e s s than $20,000/year ( o r no response)  2.  Province —  1.  Income —  2.  Province —  1.  Income —  2.  Province —  3.  Party —  B.C., Saskatchewan, M a n i t o b a , Nova S c o t i a , P.E.I., New B r u n s w i c k , Newfoundland. g r e a t e r t h a n $20,000/year T e r r i t o r i e s , A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Mani tob a. l e s s t h a n $20,000/year ( o r no response) T e r r i t o r i e s , Alberta, Ontario, Quebec.  L i b e r a l , New D e m o c r a t i c .  I n c o n s p i c u o u s Resource Development  The AID t e c h n i q u e t r e e diagram o f t h e s c o r e s f o r i n c o n s p i c u o u s r e s o u r c e development i s g i v e n as F i g u r e 2.  T a b l e s X X I I and X X I I I show t h e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members of P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e t o i n c o n s p i c u o u s r e s o u r c e development i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s .  59 Table X X I I .  Number o f Respondents  Score 0.842  14  0.342  19  Table XXIII.  Score -0.930  -0.503  -0.327  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g I n c o n s p i c u o u s R e s o u r c e Development  8  12  importance)  1.  childhood —  p o p u l a t i o n o f l e s s than 10,000  2.  previous occupation —  3.  age —  1.  c h i l d h o o d — p o p u l a t i o n o f l e s s t h a n 10,000  2.  previous occupation —  3.  age —  a l l occupations medicine  except  o l d e r than 50 y e a r s .  a l l occupations medicine  except  l e s s t h a n 50 y e a r s .  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members of P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o I n c o n s p i c u o u s Resource Development  Number of Respondents 11  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order o f  importance)  1.  childhood —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  education —  u n i v e r s i t y , no r e s p o n s e .  1.  childhood —  p o p u l a t i o n g r e a t e r than 10,000 ( a l s o no r e s p o n s e )  2.  previous occupation —  3.  province —  1.  childhood —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  education —  p o p u l a t i o n g r e a t e r t h a n 10,000 ( a l s o no r e s p o n s e ) private business, engineer, business management, educator  lawyer, a g r i c u l t u r e , blue-collar  T e r r i t o r i e s , B.C., A l b e r t a , . Nova S c o t i a . p o p u l a t i o n g r e a t e r t h a n 10,000 private business, engineer, business management, educator  high school, u n i v e r s i t y .  I  i  1  j j  | j 1  3 9 d. —  -s  du r'  a"> v-l  |,L d LO  _  M  k X!  L  ,F  ,i  uh r  "jT"  A  A  •  H -H  -l~  —• c  *  H fa CO  |  j  1"J y, ni  4-j  j  HP  CM  J  T  j  1 r  60  1  r  L  "TVC  1 1 Vn  • > 1^  a  » i  HPII  I II fx  1  1 •' _f—  -V  •  s  —'  1  1 II  n  N  7 '—  r 1» ^- N  1  h J  n  j  _T_  a  r-  "jr"  rj  u  1  n  d H JJ 4J  H —1 Pi  a  jd  —  tr  2  Ui  h-l  1  <  (Ju— r  c ? c c  K. P  K, P a  <j c  6  P-  u  p-  n  <1  •i  *i  C -H K o  n  «J  U  -#-V—  u  <  Ti  c H  n  i-H Pi  f\.i  p-t  y p -<!  w  o  fx* i W  ri T  w o 0  L>• * - etn-  fy  H  i«1  lo  Jo  1  k. o  —v>  rt 1 •  M H  2.  fi  &  r  "Oi nH  —CU•->  N  QJ *P 1 to —po a  i  P-  In - B -  tl  i—i  1  Ml  M ™>  o ••iH  -CO-  rn CO  *•«»  0  — -  r*i <\  - 3  •—i 1—'  l  —  JN  ... -  in  >•  •\  N  <  .  1  0  d;  -  <N ""I  «0  T  0  h  M  61 Table X X I I I .  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o I n c o n s p i c u o u s R e s o u r c e Development ( C o n t i n u e d )  Number o f Respondents  Score -0.262  3.  9  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r of importance) 1.  childhood —  p o p u l a t i o n l e s s than 10,000  2.  previous occupation —  medicine,  no r e s p o n s e  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h Minimum Impairment  The AID t e c h n i q u e  t r e e d i a g r a m of t h e s c o r e s r e l a t i v e t o t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n w i t h minimum impairment i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 3.  T a b l e s XXIV and XXV  show t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members of P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e  to transporta-  t i o n w i t h minimum impairment i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s .  T a b l e XXIV.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h Minimum Impairment  Score  Number of Respondents  0.616  19  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of importance) previous occupation —  Province —  0.424  favouring  a l l except p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s and a g r i culture  T e r r i t o r i e s , B.C., O n t a r i o , Quebec, P . E . I . , Nova S c o t i a , Newfoundland  3.  constituency —  no r e s p o n s e , r u r a l , u r b a n  4,  age —  1.  previous occupation —  2.  Province —  3.  constituency —  4.  l a s t v i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park —  o l d e r t h a n 40.  same as 0.616 group  same as 0.616 group mixed l e s s than one y e a r .  63 T a b l e XXV.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h Minimum Impairment  Number o f Respondents  Score -0.481  4.  17  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r o f importance) previous occupation —  p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s and agriculture.  Maximum T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development  The AID t e c h n i q u e t r e e diagram o f t h e s c o r e s f o r maximum t r a n s p o r t a t f o n development i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 4.  T a b l e s XXVI and XXVII show t h e c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s o f t h e Members o f P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e t o maximum t r a n s p o r t a t i o n development i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s .  T a b l e XXVI.  Score 0.921  0.763  0.303  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Maximum T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development  Number o f Respondents  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of  importance)  10  1.  previous occupation —  p r i v a t e business.  9  1.  previous occupation —  a l l groups e x c e p t private business  2.  Province —  3.  l a s t v i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l P a r k — has v i s i t e d a N a t i o n a l Park  4.  education —  1.  previous occupation —  2.  Province —  3.  l a s t v i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park —  4.  Province —  10  T e r r i t o r i e s , O n t a r i o , Quebec, New B r u n s w i c k  high school.  same as 0.763 group  same as 0.763 s c o r e group same as 0.763 group  T e r r i t o r i e s , Quebec, New  Brunswick  1  64  1 jr  1  — V  u U  n  o  rr i~ ir.  c  -it  HI  Hi  i• i•  c ^  II  f  1 •  ri.  -r  1  vd  CM  1  H  >  I  rp  -t-H-"U^—CNI i, 1 n  J  oj  pH  T  I-  —Jjs  <»  - M —  II  I • I  it  1> c  T\  *  ><  1  r  >  . 0  jr  j1  n  H—  i L  in  Hi'  xy  < i —D—  11  5)  IT"  fx  i  o r-r-1  —  •ri H  crj  3 -  5 " .-j 4-  q  CO  -  •r i>< S-  1-1 jj]  M |  fT 1—  -M— »1Q 4J  n  u  id  s. — r  C  cd  4-  H  — —  •rn  c  J 1—1  r  u  0 c  c  ^  -H lj SX  -t —  ^1 ~1—  u  F  CM  3  o  a  <l, H  u  H—-  e•\  «-s>  -M-  |1  tzj  —  (  [  o  ...I J  CSJ  —  L  o  .&cf i a)  "  3  .  i  •0 J  -  S  1 3 d  i — [x| [ ( E —  f h t  c=r1T a} —cF=3  •Si  >,  3—-  y  Y-  I  n— *  s  3-  i s.^  »l] Pi4 —Si^t— tt V  "If  —  c=j—  VI  a — 1  I i—;  -  —  cy-  — _  -Si-  T  til  —i  u •ti  — — — —  -  — >^  s_r •s*  rs if\  r  —»  <  vi  A  c!>Zj=j— •••>  VO  —  "3—p  {  —-VS> 0  —f-  M  -  65 Table XXVII.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members of P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o Maximum T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development  Number of Respondents  Score -0.598  17  -0.374  5.  8  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r of  importance)  1.  previous occupation —  a l l groups e x c e p t private business  2.  Province —  3.  education —  1.  previous occupation —  2.  Province —  3.  l a s t v i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l P a r k — has not v i s i t e d a N a t i o n a l Park  a l l P r o v i n c e s except O n t a r i o , Quebec, New p o s t g r a d u a t e , no  Territories Brunswick response  same as -0.598 group  T e r r i t o r i e s , O n t a r i o , Quebec, New B r u n s w i c k  No A i r p o r t Development  The AID  t e c h n i q u e t r e e diagram of the f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r no  development i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 5.  airport  T a b l e s X X V I I I and XXIX show t h e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Members of P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e to a i r p o r t  develop-  ment i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s .  Table XXVIII.  Score 0.633  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members of P a r l i a m e n t opposed to A i r p o r t Development  Number o f Respondents 18  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r of 1.  Province —  2.  party —  3.  previous occupation —  importance)  B.C., Saskatchewan, M a n i t o b a , O n t a r i o , Quebec, Nova S c o t i a  Progressive Conservative, Democratic  New  private business, a g r i c u l t u r e , business management, e d u c a t o r , blue-collar.  67 Table XXVIII.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t to A i r p o r t Development - Continued)  Number o f Respondents  Score  8  0.500  TABLE XXIX.  -0. 731  -0. 335  -0. 330  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of importance) 1.  Province —  2.  party —  3.  childhood —  same as .633 group  L i b e r a l , Ralliement  10  10  16  Creditiste  no r e s p o n s e , p o p u l a t i o n g r e a t e r than 1 m i l l i o n .  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t A i r p o r t Development  Number of Respondents  Score  opposed  favouring  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order o f i m p o r t a n c e ) 1.  Province —  T e r r i t o r i e s , A l b e r t a , P.E.I., Newfoundland, New B r u n s w i c k  2.  constituency —  1.  Province —  2.  constituency —  1.  Province —  2.  party —  3.  childhood —  4.  Province —  rural  same as -.731 group u r b a n , mixed, no response.  B.C., Saskatchewan, M a n i t o b a , O n t a r i o , Quebec, Nova S c o t i a  L i b e r a l , Ralliement  Creditiste  population l e s s than 1 m i l l i o n B.C., Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o  6. T r a d i t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n The AID t e c h n i q u e  t r e e diagram of t h e s c o r e s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l  r e c r e a t i o n i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 6.  T a b l e s XXX and XXXI show t h e c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s o f t h e Members o f P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e t o t r a d i t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n i n National  Parks.  .6.8  j  "("  1j  | J  j  1J  j  I  nl 1'  I  LJ  VD  1  i -o r H4+ • 4-j  CS OS  »<  "ii  rl,  i JI 1 1 " #1  Hc5 O  J-iU  u  !*  r  "\  1  •>  l  J zr  JU r H •h  1 •  •in  b [I  X it  1  3  u ft*  4 A -  <i  r) • c/<33  j  x— _|Jj hH 4-r  i I  >-  •  y  P. i—( P o u  i*  r  c  c  •r 4-  o  dJ H f d  fc'  T- '  H  H  i-  Xf.  mi  o  ,  •  K. P fll  .©.  H< F4*  I-H J!  o  V  & -rv..—  nil r  c s  1  'O  -tj)I  fx N  o  "111  &  -r-ft—  in'  co cO -i-a-  PJ  «N  -4J) -03 -OJ. "7  o  1  ,(  D ,...  a  J, IS ci  1  \  *  -cr •ni  7  I  a b  1*1 -rcl H) c5 h1 i  e  •  -i  «-»  v1 vj 1  1  o  s«s i,  CN d  i  KJ  J  69 TABLE XXX.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Traditional Recreation  Number of Respondents  Score 0.277  48  T a b l e XXXI.  1.  previous occupation —  2.  income —  3.  previous occupation —  importance)  a l l except p r i v a t e business  a l l categories lawyer, a g r i c u l t u r e , b u s i n e s s management, educator, medicine.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o Traditional Recreation  Number o f Respondents  Score  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order o f  importance)  -0.903  10  1.  previous occupation —  p r i v a t e business  -0.390  10  1.  previous occupation —  a l l groups except p r i v a t e business  2.  income —- no r e s p o n s e .  7.  All-Terrain Vehicles  The AID t e c h n i q u e t r e e diagram o f t h e s c o r e s f o r a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 7.  T a b l e s XXXII and X X X I I I show t h e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members of P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e t o a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s i n N a t i o n a l Parks.  TABLE X X X I I .  Score 1.012  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e Use  Number o f Respondents 9  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of 1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  importance)  Quebec, P.E.I. p r i v a t e business, agriculture, b u s i n e s s management.  70  1 J—!l  — i — — r - y i i  I I  —  J —!-| I 7: m nl 1 I 1 i p l 1^ J | 1 1 1 1 H <ir 1 1 e |«| |I f . i ui | | | S| u 1 — I | — ' •j i-H U-> —1—pti ; t nH 1•ol A |r-N • V - j 1 L *—> i - 4 00 C1 1 rl | III 'til -4* 0 1 1 Ixjl 1 1 j n  1 1 WeaJLj  1  i f  1  ii*  H  !  -J  P  T  Q •  1. I.J OQJ ir ~r—— M M " c 1 rS|c-4i | k b l T\\ • k i- ^ ?- 1' 1 iri In 1 111 ^ • M M 11 M •> 1 tic! I 1 1 id 1 1  11  X|  j ~L j  H  I T•P I—10-  1 1  •'H  1^  H  1 1 ( ©t 1  r li  •H 1 •rl 1 1 1 ptr>  Ml' 1 1 c J1 E r  1  I  1  > H  GL,l  1  II  11  +4  •  4J,  1J 0  UJ  >  <-i w  [_i  I I  "~|w < -  _|Q —TOCO  1 —LbL.  M m  *~'  r1 1-1  >  jco  1 _JtZ  • & JO  4  1  1  1 cu 1  r  r  LCkl  II  *j  !  1  rH •H C  Cri7  "Vi  3  M y  III*" I l l s  1 0  M I R 1 1 1 t-i  N  —iirS m F? Ft1  i  P b  rl  i —to  •<  rt  H 1 i —Sv——— es! ««  n 0 tQIi  1 1 1  f) CO f  1  I1  1  M  lo  1  4 <* t> Cx) Hi  CN  O  ->  Si  a) II  H CO L/j  r\  0 n  &  <»  1  o dl  N rl  1  mi  r—•  »»»  C•  r>  (~  W  h-  <C  1 •»\. v.  1^  •  fY  i  c r-  1  P-  S° V I°I  -<  1 —*  t•j (i t  s  \—  —  71 Table XXXII.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e Use ( C o n t i n u e d )  Number o f Respondents  Score 0.489  10  Table XXXIII.  -0.677  -0.361  -0.315  8.  8  11  22  importance)  1.  Province —  a l l except Quebec and P.E.I.  2.  previous occupation —  private business, agriculture, b u s i n e s s management, educator, b l u e - c o l l a r  3.  constituency —  rural  4.  c h i l d h o o d — p o p u l a t i o n l e s s t h a n 10,000.  urban,  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed to A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e Use  Number of Respondents  Score  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e ( i n o r d e r of 1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  income —  1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  constituency —  1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  income —  H i g h C o s t , Fast-Moving  importance)  a l l except Quebec and P.E.I. no r e s p o n s e , l a w y e r , e n g i n e e r , med i c i n e  g r e a t e r t h a n $25,000/year. a l l e x c e p t Quebec and P.E.I. private business, agriculture, busin e s s management, educator, b l u e - c o l l a r worker  mixed.  a l l except Quebec and P.E.I. no response, l a w y e r , engineer, medicine  l e s s than $25,000/year i n c l u d i n g no response.  Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n  The AID t e c h n i q u e t r e e diagram of t h e s c o r e s f o r h i g h c o s t , f a s t moving water-based r e c r e a t i o n i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 8.  T a b l e s XXXIV and XXXV  show t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Members of P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e t o h i g h c o s t , f a s t - m o v i n g water-based r e c r e a t i o n i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s . T a b l e XXXIV.  Score  Number o f Respondents  1.371  10  0.547  11  0.509  15  T a b l e XXXV.  Score -0.745  -0.308  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e Members of P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g High C o s t , F a s t - M o v i n g Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of 1.  Province — M a n i t o b a ,  2.  income —  1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  constituency —  1.  Province —  2.  income —  importance)  Quebec, Newfoundland  g r e a t e r t h a n $20,000/year. a l l except Manitoba, Newfoundland  Quebec,  private business, agriculture, b u s i n e s s management, b l u e - c o l l a r worker  rural.  Manitoba, no r e s p o n s e ,  Quebec, Newfoundland $10,000-$19,999/year,  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e Members of P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o H i g h - C o s t , F a s t - M o v i n g , Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n  Number of Respondents 27  15  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of 1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  childhood —  1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  importance)  a l l except M a n i t o b a , Newfoundland  Quebec,  no r e s p o n s e , l a w y e r , engineer, educator, medicine  p o p u l a t i o n l e s s than 1 m i l l i o n . same as -0.745 group  constituency —  private business, a g r i c u l t u r e , business management, b l u e c o l l a r worker  urban, mixed.  73  ) 74 9.  Low C o s t , Slow-Moving, Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n  The AID t e c h n i q u e t r e e diagram o f t h e s c o r e s f o r l o w - c o s t , moving, water-based r e c r e a t i o n i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 9. XXXVII show t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  slow-  T a b l e s XXXVI and  o f t h e Members o f P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e t o  l o w - c o s t , slow-moving, w a t e r - b a s e d r e c r e a t i o n i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s .  T a b l e XXXVI.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Low-Cost, Slow-Moving, Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n  Number o f Respondents  Score 0.257  45  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of importance) 1.  party —  L i b e r a l , Progressive Conservative, Ralliement  Table XXXVII.  2.  income —  3.  Province —  Creditiste  g r e a t e r than $10,000/year a l l except M a n i t o b a and Quebec.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t opposed to Low-Cost, Slow-Moving Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n  Number o f Score  Respondents  -0.714 -0.369  11 10  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of importance) 1. 1. 2.  party — party —  New D e m o c r a t i c L i b e r a l , Progressive Conservative, Ralliement C r e d i t i s t e income — no response.  I t i s noted t h a t t h e number of r e s p o n d e n t s i s t h e same as t h e sample s i z e f o r t h e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y Members of P a r l i a m e n t . ance o f s c o r e s , i t cannot be concluded negative  scores.  Due t o t h e v a r i -  t h a t a l l these r e s p o n d e n t s had o n l y  T,r  r 0]0  —  •  I SjLi 7 io  c 3isi  n  5j0  1  — i R 34 1£a Li u G3-1 c  ra)  sP t 1  o vA 1  27  t:  -t it n %• H r ± a'r.:es  sP h rtrt ± n ?" -€rl ou pt  p a n t3r-  xl 8  -( )• -( •>5- A  i n c<3D16  X 3  ( fO ) 2 >3 y,5 »6f i -7r &)-  x  i L, "(± 6- 1 4 -1-0»n =-»3  !> ,6 ) '1  1  1  V  J a  >  pr  ft(<'•a 7  cp.  UJ 0  i  "C -V  J\  V  ~  a r  IA tl >:CL  •pI a  ^ . i.  T"  JD N  :J tt E F. a t:i  =  DW  i>  T>- ; i cW A\)\ I j  "]  II cR FT :i TSG >"(:cR E  76 10.  P h a s i n g Out T o w n s i t e s by L i m i t i n g Development The AID t e c h n i q u e t r e e diagram o f t h e s c o r e s f o r p h a s i n g o u t town-  s i t e s by l i m i t i n g development i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 10.  T a b l e s XXXVIII and  XXXIX show t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e t o p h a s i n g out t o w n s i t e s by l i m i t i n g developments i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s .  Table XXXVIII.  Score 0.799  0.376  Number of Respondents 18  12  T a b l e XXXIX.  Score -0.945  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of 1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  party —  importance)  T e r r i t o r i e s , Saskatchewan, Onta r i o , Quebec, P.E.I., Newfoundland a g r i c u l t u r e , business management, m e d i c i n e , b l u e - c o l l a r worker.  same a s 0.799 group no r e s p o n s e , p r i v a t e business, engineer, l a w y e r , educator  P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e , New Democratic, Ralliement C r e d i t i s t e .  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t Opposed t o P h a s i n g Out T o w n s i t e s by L i m i t i n g Development  Number o f Respondents 9  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Phasing-Out T o w n s i t e s by L i m i t i n g Development  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r of 1.  Province —  2.  income —  importance)  B. C , A l b e r t a , M a n i t o b a , B r u n s w i c k , Nova S c o t i a  New  no r e s p o n s e , l e s s t h a n $15,000/ year.  BeY-eibbmen-s  -Bfaase Qut4Tewpfel-tfc4s 3BDE  roa  mm,SMS).  mm  D$2H2  7^  m  -2)  I-neemei  mm vzOA)  TOGXJRE~mO'  chtldfhbib*  ma M P  m.  mm  ®  (l2  tt  CITAS'S IFIG'AiT ION iTREETHOkT^HasfenDUTrtrOWNSfTiT EatEY LtHBTiINGlDlVMOrfffiNT  78 T a b l e XXXIX.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members of P a r l i a m e n t Opposed to P h a s i n g Out T o w n s i t e s by L i m i t i n g Development (Continued)  Number of Respondents  Score -0.560  14  -0.514  11.  10  R e t a i n Townsites  The AID  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r of  importance)  1.  Province —  same as -0.945 group  2.  income —  3.  childhood —  1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  party —  4.  number of y e a r s as Member of P a r l i a m e n t — no r e s p o n s e , 1-3 y e a r s .  g r e a t e r than $15,000/year p o p u l a t i o n l e s s than 50,000. T e r r i t o r i e s , Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Quebec, P. E. I . , Newfoundland no r e s p o n s e , l a w y e r , private business, e n g i n e e r , educator  Liberal  and M a i n t a i n H i g h  Standards  t e c h n i q u e t r e e diagram o f the s c o r e s f o r r e t a i n i n g  and m a i n t a i n i n g h i g h s t a n d a r d s i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 11.  townsites  T a b l e s XL and  XLI  show t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e Members o f P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e t o r e t a i n i n g t o w n s i t e s and m a i n t a i n i n g h i g h s t a n d a r d s i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s .  T a b l e XL.  Score 0.720  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members of P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g R e t a i n i n g T o w n s i t e s and M a i n t a i n i n g H i g h Standards  Number o f Respondents 11  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r of 1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  income —  importance)  a l l except T e r r i t o r i e s and Ontario lawyer, p r i v a t e business, medicine, b l u e - c o l l a r worker  $10,000 - $19,999.  79 T a b l e XL.  Score 0.382  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g R e t a i n i n g Townsites and M a i n t a i n i n g H i g h Standards (Continued)  Number of Respondents 10  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r o f importance 1.  Province —  a l l except T e r r i t o r i e s and Ontario  0.329  0.262  11  16  Table XLI.  Score -0.815  -0.607  13  previous occupation —  3.  income —  1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  same as 0.720 group  $20,000-$29,999, g r e a t e r t h a n $40,000. T e r r i t o r i e s and O n t a r i o engineer, a g r i c u l t u r e , b u s i n e s s management, educator.  a l l except T e r r i t o r i e s and Ontario no r e s p o n s e , e n g i n e e r , a j r i c u l t u r e , business management, e d u c a t o r  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members of P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o R e t a i n i n g T o w n s i t e s and M a i n t a i n i n g H i g h Standards  Number of Respondents 14  2.  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order o f  importance)  1.  Province —  T e r r i t o r i e s and O n t a r i o .  2.  previous occupation —  1.  Province —  2.  previous occupation —  3.  childhood —  p o p u l a t i o n l e s s t h a n 10,000  4.  education —  university, response.  no r e s p o n s e , l a w y e r , private business, b l u e - c o l l a r worker.  a l l e x c e p t T e r r i t o r i e s and Ontario no r e s p o n s e , e n g i n e e r , a g r i c u l t u r e , business management, e d u c a t o r  p o s t - g r a d u a t e , no  00  o  12.  Townslte  The AID  Autonomy  t e c h n i q u e t r e e diagram of the s c o r e s f o r t o w n s i t e autonomy  i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 12.  T a b l e s X L I I and X L I I I show the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of t h e Members of P a r l i a m e n t r e l a t i v e t o t o w n s i t e autonomy i n N a t i o n a l Parks.  Table X L I I .  Score 0.587  0.448  0.419  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Members of P a r l i a m e n t f a v o u r i n g Townsite Autonomy  Number of Respondents 9  12  11  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n order of  importance)  1.  previous occupation —  p r i v a t e business, engineer, a g r i c u l t u r e , b u s i n e s s management  2.  income —  1.  previous occupation —  2.  Province —  3.  constituency —  1.  previous occupation —  p r i v a t e business, engineer, a g r i c u l t u r e , b u s i n e s s management  2.  income --.no  $10,000-$29,999  3.  age —  g r e a t e r t h a n $30,000/year.  no r e s p o n s e , l a w y e r , educator, medicine, b l u e - c o l l a r worker  B.C., A l b e r t a , M a n i t o b a , B r u n s w i c k , Nova S c o t i a  New  no r e s p o n s e , m i x e d .  response,  o l d e r than 50 y e a r s .  |  I i I j j r '•TV  /•—«  —  w &  —^«  Pn—  —jbi _id  '"' '"L —s-» • 4p 1 -i • tl  —-H  * .T ."1i GO p  1  1 i  H «*•t 1  \C VCN  H  ]  II j*  -p  —4 >  (i  i  -p  -  n <. L  II  Tl  xi  i:  i>  *-*  •Jvt 1  f  H  1  3  #  N  ok  pt*  — 3G  _  t  —>i a Jct-J_ —r  *~  T II  v  II  M  "4  >  82  j  r *»J  1 1*+!-  1 >  4 J  II  h  Tl  **S —to  —«t-  | |  H CO..  |  i *3I>-  j  i=  j I -c Q-  -e -F §  c V.J —-( f 0-  i  3  —  t-l  1-  " Pt—l  - -in •H — •P  IL —c. —H f  c~  CU  y  r  --tj  —i—* _co  —d• — P-  -©-  n y c  •rjl  •t-  —p  ....  n  i-—i  -B-i.  4•r^ 4-J  !P-  J ..( jri  — { •*  h  <I*  V <D  +-«Nj—  t  1  rii  i  rii tU  1  1  5-  —  ©  1  -  »Q<  }j  {—  o  to Tt "FT —o —  •**?  hH ^H-  "si  c  ft  si  <  SI  h-1 -C  —or —N"  1  o — o "O  f h-l  ;—  s.  I-i  c r  T  --dJ-  FH <  s.  CJ  --Or n\ - -Q}-  -  -I- -1-  ...  -•r  --«  00  d b=  N-* ••s  "f H ~) c1 1)  «n v. 1 1  *  o 1  *C  i  1  H  ]  83 Table X L I I I .  Number o f Respondents  Score -0.619  -0.501  -0.350  18  8  9  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Members of P a r l i a m e n t Opposed t o Townsite Autonomy  I n f l u e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r of  importance)  1.  previous occupation —  no r e s p o n s e , l a w y e r , educator, medicine, b l u e - c o l l a r worker  2.  Province —  3.  age —  1.  previous occupation —  private business, engineer, a g r i c u l t u r e , b u s i n e s s management  2.  income —  $10,000 - $29,999  3.  age —  4.  Province —  1.  previous occupation —  2.  Province —  3.  constituency —  T e r r i t o r i e s , Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Quebec, P.E.I.  no response, 31-50 y e a r s .  no r e s p o n s e ,  no r e s p o n s e ,  31-50 y e a r s  T e r r i t o r i e s , Manitoba, Nova S c o t i a .  Ontario,  no r e s p o n s e , l a w y e r , educator, medicine, b l u e - c o l l a r worker  B.C., A l b e r t a , M a n i t o b a , S c o t i a , New B r u n s w i c k urban,  Nova  rural.  Study o f T a b l e s X X - X L I I I i n c l u s i v e shows t h a t f o r any g i v e n p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e s c o r e , i t was p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e v a r i a b l e s and t h e o r d e r of t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n any g i v e n s c o r e .  It  was n o t p o s s i b l e , however, t o i d e n t i f y any g e n e r a l i z e d p a t t e r n s of respondent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s between p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s c o r e groups e i t h e r w i t h i n a g i v e n p o l i c y p a t t e r n o r between p o l i c y p a t t e r n s .  84  CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS Summary T h i s s t u d y h a s f o c u s s e d on Canada's Members o f P a r l i a m e n t and t h e i r understanding of the N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y .  An attempt has been made t o  d e f i n e a number o f s c a l e s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e dimensions  that a planner i s  concerned w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g of n a t i o n a l p a r k s and t o see i f t h e Members of P a r l i a m e n t viewed  t h e s c a l e s as d e f i n i n g autonomous p o l i c y a r e a s .  The  study has, a t t h e same t i m e , examined t h e r e s u l t s a t t a i n e d t o see i f t h e way t h e p o l i t i c i a n responds was r e l a t e d t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , park  p o l i t i c a l and  characteristics. The m a i l - b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e was found t o be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  i n a s s u r i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample.  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e l o w response  r a t e (33%) and t h e r e s u l t s o f c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s o f t h e sample r e l a t i v e to s o c i o - e c o n o m i c ,  p o l i t i c a l and p a r k c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t was c o n c l u d e d  t h a t t h e p r e s e n t sample was n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e whole House of Commons.  As a consequence, though i t i s a c c e p t a b l e t o proceed  a n a l y s i s c e n t r a l t o t h e s t u d y purpose,  with  t h e r e s u l t s c a n n o t be t a k e n a s  b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Members o f P a r l i a m e n t a t l a r g e . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e seven p o l i c y a r e a s was f o u n d t o be a v a l i d means of a n a l y z i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y .  The r e s u l t was t h a t  w i t h i n each p o l i c y a r e a t h e Members o f P a r l i a m e n t who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e study i d e n t i f i e d a s e r i e s o f dimensions responses t o the questions.  o r p o l i c y p a t t e r n s based on t h e i r  T h i s i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e v i e w of t h e park  85 p l a n n e r , who thereby  i n t e r p r e t s the s e v e n p o l i c y a r e a s as b e i n g autonomous and  forming a sound base f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of p a r k p l a n s .  p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c i a n s i n q u e s t i o n i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g as separate p o l i c y -  The forming  concerns: r e s o u r c e development i n c o n s p i c u o u s r e s o u r c e development t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h minimum impairment  -  maximum t r a n s p o r t a t i o n development  -  no a i r p o r t development traditional recreation all-terrain vehicles h i g h c o s t , f a s t moving water-based r e c r e a t i o n  -  low c o s t , slow moving water-based r e c r e a t i o n p h a s i n g out t o w n s i t e s by l i m i t i n g developments  -  r e t a i n t o w n s i t e s and m a i n t a i n h i g h  standards  t o w n s i t e autonomy. Four v a r i a b l e s (non-commercial f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s , d r i v i n g f o r p l e a s u r e , h u n t i n g and l i m i t i n g the number of t o w n s i t e s to those p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n g ) d i d not develop  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l o a d i n g s w i t h i n any  of the p a t t e r n s generated.  I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o draw any  conclusions  from t h e s e r e s u l t s .  The  l o a d i n g s a r e d i v i d e d between the v a r i o u s f a c t o r  patterns generated.  S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l o a d i n g s f o r these v a r i -  a b l e s might have developed  i f a g r e a t e r number of p a t t e r n s had been p r o -  grammed.  Scores were developed policy patterns.  f o r each of the r e s p o n d e n t s on the  The s c a l e of s c o r e i n d i c a t e d how  any one of  twelve the  86 respondents v i e w e d t h e v a r i o u s The AID  patterns.  t e c h n i q u e computer program was  i n f l u e n t i a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and  u s e d to i d e n t i f y the most  p a r k c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h were  most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s . i d e n t i f y the v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r o r d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n given scores.  I t was  I t was  p o s s i b l e to  of i n f l u e n c e w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d  to  not p o s s i b l e , however, to i d e n t i f y  any g e n e r a l i z e d p a t t e r n s of respondent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s between p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e  s c o r e g r o u p s , e i t h e r w i t h i n a g i v e n p o l i c y p a t t e r n o r between  patterns. The most i n f l u e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s (respondent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) r e l a t i v e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s XLIV to LV. summarizes the i n f o r m a t i o n from the p r e v i o u s i n f l u e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s were p r e v i o u s  twelve t a b l e s .  occupation  and  Table The  province.  N a t i o n a l P a r k , p a r k age,  percentage of constituency  were not found to be i n f l u e n t i a l .  two  The  o r i e n t e d v a r i a b l e s ( l a s t v i s i t to a N a t i o n a l Park, d i s t a n c e to  LVI most  park-  nearest  as a N a t i o n a l P a r k )  Such o b v i o u s p o l i t i c a l and  socio-  economic v a r i a b l e s as p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , number of y e a r s as a Member of Parliament, influential.  age,  education  The  and p l a c e of c h i l d h o o d were shown t o be  r e s u l t s would suggest t h a t any  future studies  g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Members of P a r l i a m e n t p o l i c i e s should  concentrate  less  investi-  and N a t i o n a l P a r k  on c l a r i f y i n g the n a t u r e of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p .  87 T a b l e XLIV.  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of Childhood Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency L a s t V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park D i s t a n c e t o n e a r e s t N a t i o n a l Park P a r k Age P e r c e n t a g e o f C o n s t i t u e n c y as a N a t i o n a l Park  T a b l e XLV.  BEST.SCORES  ALL SCORES  2 1  1 2  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCONSPICUOUS RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of Childhood Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency Last V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park Distance t o nearest N a t i o n a l Park P a r k Age P e r c e n t a g e o f C o n s t i t u e n c y as a N a t i o n a l Park  BEST SCORES  ALL SCORES  1  1  2 1 2  4 1 4  88 T a b l e XLVI.  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSPORTATION WITH •MINIMUM IMPAIRMENT SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education Place of Childhood Number of Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency Last V i s i t to a N a t i o n a l Park Distance t o nearest N a t i o n a l Park P a r k Age P e r c e n t a g e o f C o n s t i t u e n c y as a N a t i o n a l Park  Table XLVII.  BEST SCORES  ALL SCORES  1 — 2  — 1  —  —  1 1 — —  1 1 1 —  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAXIMUM TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of C h i l d h o o d Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency L a s t V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park Distance t o nearest N a t i o n a l Park P a r k Age Percentage of C o n s t i t u e n c y as a N a t i o n a l Park  BEST SCORES  — 2 1 —  — 1 — —  ALL SCORES  — 3 1  4 — 3  89 Table XLVIII.  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NO AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of C h i l d h o o d Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l PartyProvince Constituency L a s t V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park D i s t a n c e t o nearest N a t i o n a l Park Park Age Percentage o f Constituency as a N a t i o n a l Park  T a b l e XLIX.  BEST SCORES  ALL SCORES  2 4 1  1 2 1  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRADITIONAL RECREATION SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of C h i l d h o o d Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency L a s t V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park P a r k Age Percentage of Constituency as a N a t i o n a l Park  BEST SCORES 1 3  ALL SCORES 1 1  90  T a b l e L.  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLE USE SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of C h i l d h o o d Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency L a s t V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park P a r k Age P e r c e n t a g e of C o n s t i t u e n c y as a N a t i o n a l Park  Table L I .  BEST SCORES  ALL SCORES  1 2  1 3  ~ —  1 —  2 — —  3 2 —  —  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIGH COST, FAST-MOVING, WATER-BASED RECREATION SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of Childhood Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency L a s t V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park Park Age Percentage of Constituency as a N a t i o n a l Park  BEST SCORES 1 1 1 — 2 —  ALL SCORES 1 2 — — 3 2  91 Table L I I .  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOW COST, SLOW-MOVING, WATER-BASED RECREATION SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e o f Childhood Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency L a s t V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park P a r k Age Percentage of C o n s t i t u e n c y a s a N a t i o n a l Park  Table L I I I .  BEST SCORES  ALL SCORES  1 — — — 2 1 — —  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHASING-OUT TOWNSITES BY LIMITING DEVELOPMENT SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of C h i l d h o o d Number of Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency L a s t V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park P a r k Age P e r c e n t a g e o f C o n s t i t u e n c y as a N a t i o n a l Park  BEST SCORES  ALL SCORES  1 1 —  1 2 1  —  1  — 2 —  2 3 —  —  —  92 T a b l e L I V . RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RETAINING TOWNSITES AND MAINTAINING HIGH STANDARDS SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of C h i l d h o o d Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency Last V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park Park Age Percentage of C o n s t i t u e n c y as a N a t i o n a l Park  T a b l e LV.  BEST SCORES 1 2 — — — — 2 — — —  ALL SCORES 1 4 1 1  4  —  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOWNSITE AUTONOMY SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of C h i l d h o o d Number o f Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency L a s t V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park P a r k Age Percentage o f Constituency as a N a t i o n a l Park  BEST SCORES  ALL SCORES  1 1 2 —  2 2 4 —  —  —  — 1 — — —  3 2 — —  93 Table L V I .  SUMMARY OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SCORES AND RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS Age Income Previous Occupation Education P l a c e of C h i l d h o o d Number of Y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament P o l i t i c a l Party Province Constituency L a s t V i s i t t o a N a t i o n a l Park Distance t o nearest N a t i o n a l Park P a r k Age P e r c e n t a g e of C o n s t i t u e n c y a s a N a t i o n a l Park  BEST SCORES  ALL SCORES  3 9 19 2 2 —  3 10 24 3 8 1  3 16 2 — — — —  6 28 7 4 -  A p p l i c a t i o n to Park Planning A N a t i o n a l Park planner  i s concerned w i t h t h e a l l o c a t i o n of l a n d -  uses i n such a way as t o p r o v i d e an optimum b a l a n c e between p r e s e r v a t i o n and use o f t h e p a r k l a n d .  As a p r o f e s s i o n a l , the p l a n n e r ' s  primary  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s the p r e p a r a t i o n of v i a b l e land-use plans w i t h i n parameters d e f i n e d by t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y .  This requires a consistant  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p o l i c y w h i c h p r o p e r l y r e f l e c t s t h e b a s i c i n t e n t o r purpose o f t h e v a r i o u s p o l i c y a r e a s .  While the p o l i t i c i a n i s not i n -  volved d i r e c t l y i n the planning process, h i s i n f l u e n c e i s often noticed when p a r t i c u l a r p a r k p l a n s a r e r e v i e w e d a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s i n t h e h i e r archy of P a r k s Canada. of P a r l i a m e n t ,  The f a c t t h a t a c e r t a i n segment of t h e Members  as d e f i n e d by t h i s s t u d y , d i d n o t view p o l i c y i n t h e same  manner as t h e p a r k p l a n n e r w o u l d suggest t h a t p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s w i l l demand changes i n t h e p l a n n i n g approach t o p a r k p r e s e r v a t i o n and u s e . The p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n of t h e p a r k p l a n n e r must r e m a i n f r e e of  94 p o l i t i c a l constraints i n the planning process.  However, r e c o g n i z i n g t h e  d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o l i c y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e p l a n n e r must p r e p a r e a p l a n w h i c h p r o v i d e s r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e s t o c o u n t e r t h e concerns  expressed  by t h e p o l i t i c i a n . Areas o f F u t u r e Study The assumption  has been made i n t h e s t u d y t h a t p a r k p l a n n e r s view  t h e v a r i o u s p o l i c y a r e a s as b e i n g i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t such as t o d e f i n e a s i n g l e s c a l e and thereby form autonomous p o l i c y a r e a s . be u n d e r t a k e n  t o v e r i f y t h i s assumption.  A study c o u l d  I t would be d e s i r a b l e t o u s e  the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y l e v e l of cons i s t e n c y between s t u d i e s .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s and respondent  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h o u l d a l s o be e x p l o r e d i n t h e s t u d y . The c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s t u d y p o i n t t o t h e need t o u n d e r t a k e  the same  study a t v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s a s a n e c e s s a r y means o f a s s e s s i n g changes i n i n f l u e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s and i n t h e a s s e s s i n g t h e r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e present c o n c l u s i o n s . The r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s c o u l d a l s o be s t u d i e d i n t h e same manner as was used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y .  The concerns  of t h e p u b l i c e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s a r e r e g a r d e d by P a r k s Canada as an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r o f t h e v i a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l park p l a n s .  The p a s t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s have l e d t o t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n o f  o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p a r k p o l i c i e s and a l s o have shown t h a t a major r e v i e w o f p o l i c y w i l l be r e q u i r e d i n t h e near  future.  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f n a t i o n a l p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y w o u l d p r e s e n t a u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a study to be made o f those who would be concerned  enough t o p r e s e n t b r i e f s a t t h e h e a r i n g s .  people  95 LITERATURE CITED  PUBLIC DOCUMENTS Canada, 1964, Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development, N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y , N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s Branch, Ottawa, 21 p. Canada, 1906, Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , R e p o r t of t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n P a r k o f Canada, R e p o r t o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , A n n u a l R e p o r t of 1906, Ottawa. Canada, 1907, Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , R e p o r t o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n P a r k o f Canada, R e p o r t o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f 1907, Ottawa. Canada, 1912, Department of t h e I n t e r i o r , R e p o r t of t h e Commissioner of Dominion P a r k s , A n n u a l R e p o r t 1912, Ottawa. Canada, 1913, Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , R e p o r t o f t h e Commissioner o f Dominion P a r k s , A n n u a l R e p o r t 1913, Ottawa. Canada, 1915, Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , R e p o r t o f t h e Commissioner o f Dominion P a r k s , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1915, Ottawa. Canada, 1918, Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , R e p o r t of t h e Commisioner of Dominion P a r k s , A n n u a l R e p o r t 1918, Ottawa. Canada, 1919, Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , R e p o r t o f t h e Commissioner o f Dominion P a r k s A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1919, Ottawa. Canada, 1912, Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , R e p o r t of t h e C h i e f S u p e r i n t e n d ent o f Dominion P a r k s , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1912, Edmonton. Canada, 1934, Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , R e p o r t o f t h e Commissioner, N a t i o n a l P a r k s B r a n c h , Ottawa. Canada, 1960, Hansard's House of Commons D e b a t e s , Volume V I , T h i r d S e s s i o n , T w e n t y - f o u r t h P a r l i a m e n t , Ottawa. P. 6857-8. Canada, 1887, House o f Commons Debates, Volume 2, May 3, 1887. P. 233. Canada, 1887, House o f Commons D e b a t e s , Volume 2, A p r i l 29, 1887. P. 195-196. Canada, 1964, House of Commons Debates, Volume V I I , Second S e s s i o n , T w e n t y - s i x t h P a r l i a m e n t , Ottawa. Canada, 1966, House o f Commons, S t a n d i n g Committee on N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , M i n u t e s o f P r o c e e d i n g s and E v i d e n c e , No. 20, F i r s t S e s s i o n , Twenty-seventh P a r l i a m e n t , Ottawa.  96  Canada, 1911, Dominion F o r e s t R e s e r v e s and P a r k s A c t . 1-2 George V (1911) .  S t a t u t e s o f Canada,  Canada, 1930, N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t , Chapter 33, S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 1930. Canada, 1952, The N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t , C. 189, R e v i s e d  S t a t u t e s of Canada.  Canada, 1887, Rocky M o u n t a i n P a r k s A c t , Chapter 32, S t a t u t e s of Canada, 50-51 V i c t o r i a . Canada, 1962, R o y a l Commission on Government O r g a n i z a t i o n , Volume 2, Ottawa. BOOKS Anonymous, 1971, Canada's 2 8 t h P a r l i a m e n t , A Guide t o t h e Members, t h e i r C o n s t i t u e n c i e s and t h e i r Government, Metheun. N i e , N., D. H. B e n t , C. H. H u l l , 1970, SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) , New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , p. 208-244. ARTICLES AND  PERIODICALS  H o d g e t t s , J . E., 1957, "The C i v i l S e r v i c e and P o l i c y F o r m a t i o n . " Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 23, p. 469. REPORTS AND PAPERS Brown, R. C , 1968, The D o c t r i n e o f U s e f u l n e s s : N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s and N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y i n Canada, 1887-1914. The Canadian N a t i o n a l P a r k s : Today and Tomorrow. A paper f o r the C o n f e r e n c e i n C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , O c t o b e r , 1968. 20 p. C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y , " W i l l Success S p o i l t h e N a t i o n a l Parks?" A C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e M o n i t o r R e p r i n t , 1968. H a m i l t o n , Honourable A l v i n , 1959, R e c r e a t i o n and T o u r i s t Development. An a d d r e s s a t t h e C o n v o c a t i o n Banquet of the 1959 Convention of t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l T r u s t e e s A s s o c i a t i o n of O n t a r i o , F o r t W i l l i a m , O n t a r i o . S o u q u i s t , J . A. and J . N. Morgan, 1964, The D e t e c t i o n of I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s ( A I D ) , Monograph #35, Survey R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , I n s t i t u t e of S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n . 162 p.  97 APPENDIX A FACULTY OF FORESTRY UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver NATIONAL PARKS POLICY STUDY  8,  B.C.  Name of  This questionnaire i s sent i n response to your i n d i c a t i o n of willingness to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study.  respondent:  Confidential: A l l information which would permit i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be held s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l ; w i l l be used only f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes for t h i s study and w i l l NOT be disclosed or released to others for any other purpose.  QUESTIONNAIRE THEME  Our present National Park Policy i s the focus of this study. Striving for both preservation and p u b l i c enjoyment presents a dilemma. The prominence of subjective personal elements and the severe l i m i t a t i o n s of technological engineering solutions have a l l i n t e n s i f i e d the uncertainty surrounding National Parks P o l i c y .  GENERAL INFORMATION  One segment of the present p o l i c y - that pertaining to p r i v a t e and commercial leasing of parklands - has been omitted. This was done since i t i s presently before the Supreme Court. The l a s t section requests certain background information about yourself.  INSTRUCTIONS  The study i s based on your OWN personal opinions. Attempt to avoid the expressed feelings of your constituents when answering. Please read each opening statement question as indicated.  c a r e f u l l y and then proceed with each  98 S e c t i o n 1:  PARK INTEGRITY  Present P o l i c y : "Our most fundamental and important o b l i g a t i o n i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the A c t i s t o p r e s e r v e from impairment a l l s i g n i f i c a n t o b j e c t s and f e a t u r e s o f nature i n the parks ... The f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s are d e t r i m e n t a l t o n a t u r a l h i s t o r y v a l u e s and s h o u l d not be p e r m i t t e d i n a N a t i o n a l Park: ( i ) G r a z i n g o f domestic s t o c k ; ( i i ) Pollution of a i r , s o i l o r water; ( i i i ) C o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power i n s t a l l a t i o n s and o t h e r water d i v e r s i o n s o r impoundments f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes; ( i v ) The mining o r h a r v e s t i n g o f the r e s o u r c e s o f l a n d o r water f o r the p r i m a r y purposes o f commercial g a i n . " Do you agree w i t h t h i s p o l i c y ? Yes  •  (1-1)  I f undecided,  No  Q  (1-2)  Undecided  [ ] ] (1-3)  Why?:  Regardless o f answer, check a l l the statements 1-4 1-5  Q £j  1-6  Q  1-7 1-8  | j  1-9  j^j  1-10  Q  1-11  Q  1-12  Q  1-13  Q  1-14  Q  1-1.5  QT.  1-16  Q  1-17 Others:  below w i t h which you  agree;  A w i l d e r n e s s zone s h o u l d c o n t a i n a completely n a t u r a l f o r e s t . F o r e s t f i r e s are p a r t o f the n a t u r a l ecosystem and s h o u l d be permitted to burn. Only f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s which are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the management o f the f o r e s t s f o r p r o t e c t i o n and maintenance o f N a t i o n a l Park v a l u e s s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d . P r e s e n t timber b e r t h s e x i s t i n g i n p a r k s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d . Those timber b e r t h s which were i n e x i s t e n c e p r i o r t o p a r k e s t a b l i s h m e n t must be purchased i n o r d e r t o guarantee maintenance o f park v a l u e s . Those areas which c o n t a i n prime timber s h o u l d be removed from p a r k s t a t u s and timber r i g h t s s o l d . C o n s i d e r i n g the a r e a o f l a n d a v a i l a b l e i n the Western mountain p a r k s , commercial l o g g i n g would not be d e t r i m e n t a l t o p a r k values. The type o f f o r e s t management w i t h i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s depends on the most d e s i r a b l e use o f an a r e a . O u t s t a n d i n g mining c l a i m s which e x i s t w i t h i n a p a r k s h o u l d be removed. Mining s h o u l d be a l l o w e d s i n c e i t s v a l u e exceeds p r e s e r v a t i o n recreation values. Underground mining s h o u l d be allowed; s u r f a c e mining s h o u l d not be. H y d r o - e l e c t r i c power dams do not i m p a i r p a r k v a l u e s and s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t o f t h e i r importance t o the economy. Campgrounds s h o u l d be a l t e r n a t e d as the campgrounds become i m p a i r e d through over-use and abuse. Sewage treatment p l a n t s must be c o n s t r u c t e d t o abate p o l l u t i o n o f r i v e r s adjacent to park townsites.  99 Section 2:  PARK ZONING  Do you hold the view that today wilderness i s valuable? Y e s  •  (2-1)  No  •  (2-2)  Why?:  Do wilderness recreation and symbolic wilderness values have meaning f o r you? Yes  Q  (2-3)  No  (~j (2-4)  Why?:  Park p o l i c y states that a zoning plan f o r each park w i l l be prepared i n accordance with the statement o f purpose f o r that park. For large national parks, the basic breakdown i s : (a) wilderness; and (b) transportation zones, including arteries of t r a v e l and communication and the accommodation and a c t i v i t y centres o f the park. Do you agree with t h i s zoning concept? Yes  Q  (2-5)  No  Q] (2-6)  Undecided Q] (2-7)  I f undecided, Why?:  Regardless o f answer, check a l l those statements below with which you agree: 2-8  0]  The zoning concept should be kept simple so as to f a c i l i t a t e  2-9  Q  ready recognition by the p u b l i c . Zoning might exclude certain uses not defined within such a concept.  2-10 Q 2-11 Q 2-12 []j 2-13 Q 2-14 P ] 2-15 • Others:  Zoning tends to concentrate use. The zones, as are park boundaries, should be delineated by l e g a l descriptions and l e g i s l a t i o n to give them permanence and s e c u r i t y . The wilderness zone should have limited recreation use. The wilderness zone should have no permanent developments (other than t r a i l s ) . Wilderness areas should be developed more than at present, i . e . , road access provided. The t r a n s i t i o n zone i s too broadly defined and should be subdivided into such divisions as semi-wilderness (including recreation centres) and service centres.  100 Section 3:  ACCESS AND VISITOR MANAGEMENT  Park p o l i c y views r a i l r o a d s , commercial highways and airports as impairments o f park values. The most acceptable and preferred forms of access are t r a v e l by waterways, t r a i l s and well-planned park roads. Do you  (3-1) ^\ f u l l y agree (3-2) ] p a r t i a l l y agree with t h i s p o l i c y (3-3) =j f u l l y disagree  I f f u l l y agree, go to 3-A; i f f u l l y disagree, go to 3-B (next page); i f p a r t i a l l y agree, then state Why below:  3-A 3-4 3-5 3-6  3-7 3-8 3-9  3-10  Others:  A r t e r i a l highways should be b u i l t outside parks to f a c i l i t a t e through t r a f f i c which has a non-park destination. The large western national parks presently have s u f f i c i e n t road access. Park roads should be designed to a good standard for safe driving, to provide a sense o f oneness with nature and not f o r high speed t r a v e l . Road location, design and construction must keep impairment o f the landscape to a minimum. The extent o f the park road system within any zone should be i n keeping with the character of that zone. I support a ban on commercial airports because: ' ' costs of construction and maintenance would be too high, could set a precedent i n future parks, are a form o f noise p o l l u t i o n . would merely add to the problems of v i s i t o r management, ^adjacent to railways and a r t e r i a l highways which presently e x i s t i n parks should be removed from park status and control and viewed rather as transport corridors under s t r i c t easement legislation.  Section 3: 3-B  3-13 3-14 3-15  (Cont'd.)  Check those statements with which you agree:  3-11 3-12  ACCESS AND VISITOR MANAGEMENT  • • • •  Transportation systems within parks should be further developed i n t o a l l park acreage so as to f a c i l i t a t e the greatest and easiest movements o f v i s i t o r s possible. High speed roads can be developed i n parks as they do not impair the experience of the v i s i t . Airport f a c i l i t i e s f o r small a i r c r a f t should be developed to allow more v i s i t o r s to v i s i t the park. Airports are necessary as private a i r c r a f t are becoming an increasingly important form o f transport. F i r e access roads should be opened to the p u b l i c as a means of a l l e v i a t i n g pressures on those areas presently being used.  Others:  Though there are no s p e c i f i c p o l i c y statements concerning v i s i t o r management, i t i s a natural extension of the access p o l i c y . I t becomes difficult to maintain park values f o r tie future when today, i n many parks, we s u f f e r from too many people concentrated i n too small an area, From your viewpoint, rank order by broad category and then within each category, from most t o l e a s t desirable, the following proposals: 3-16 • Expansion (a) U (b) Q (c) Q 3-17  •  Expansion of the park system by increasing the number of parks. Provide greater access to more areas i n the present system o f parks. B u i l d more campgrounds, lodges and roads i n present development areas t o take care of more people.  Rationing (a) Q  Ration use on a f i r s t come, f i r s t serve, basis. Increase entrance fees so as to l i m i t the number o f visitors. A permit and reservation system, allowing people to v i s i t the park only during the period on the permit. <*>• The banning o f private automobiles and the provision of a p u b l i c t r a n s i t system. ( « > • Limit the stay i n parks to the number o f days i t takes to see the major attractions, with a maximum o f three days. Reserve most of the campground space and v i s i t o r ( « • f a c i l i t i e s f o r those who l i v e more than 200 miles away. <*>• Take accommodation f a c i l i t i e s out of the parks and encourage t h e i r provision through the private sector outside the park.  (bJQ  :  Section 3:  102  ACCESS AND VISITOR MANAGEMENT (Cont'd.)  What i s to be the r e c r e a t i o n r o l e of n a t i o n a l parks? The problem i s to decide what types of r e c r e a t i o n use are appropriate i n n a t i o n a l parks w i t h i n the concept of p r e s e r v a t i o n of t r u l y n a t i o n a l values. National parks can not be a l l things to a l l people. Consequently, check those r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s which you f e e l SHOULD be allowed and are i n keeping with the b a s i c purpose of our n a t i o n a l parks. A.  Land-oriented a c t i v i t i e s Q • Q • O • Q (_ • ~| O  camping d r i v i n g f o r pleasure dune-buggy racing hiking hunting mountain climbing horseback r i d i n g rock c o l l e c t i n g s c e n i c viewing skidooing snow s k i i n g  B.  Water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s Q canoeing • fishing Qpower boating • sailing • water s k i i n g • swimming (lakes or r i v e r s )  Others:  Others:  C.  Urban-oriented a c t i v i t i e s —, . • tennis Q g jf Q lawn bowling • indoor bowling • billiards • baseball Q f o o t b a l l and soccer • swimming (pool) Others: 0  Should p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n g forms of . r e c r e a t i o n which you have NOT checked , ^ ^ _ , , _ ky phased-out of our n a t i o n a l parks? Agree Q Disagree £_ W h y :  103  Section 4:  TOWNSITES  P o l i c y regarding townsites i n future parks s t a t e s , "A townsite i s an i n t r u s i o n and should be permitted to develop i n a park only i f , by reason of the s e r v i c e s i t provides, the v i s i t o r i s b e t t e r able t o enjoy the park f o r what i t i s . "  This does not resolve the problems connected with those townsites which presently exist. Check those statements with which you agree regarding townsites: 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10  L_l ^2  A l l townsites should be phased-out o f a l l e x i s t i n g parks. number of establishments p r o v i d i n g a s e r v i c e should be s u f f i c i e n t only t o ensure competition and t o s a t i s f y demand. Q Only persons engaged i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the park o r the supply o f necessary v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s and t h e i r dependents should be permitted permanent residence i n the park. 0] h number o f townsites should be l i m i t e d t o those e x i s t i n g now. J ~ J B u i l d i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e should be i n harmony with the n a t u r a l environment. 0] Construction and maintenance standards should be higher i n park townsites than elsewhere. 0] Park townsites should provide a l l the e x t r a entertainment and services common to other urban areas throughout Canada. 0] P r o v i s i o n should be made to f a c i l i t a t e i n a l l park townsites, the operation of municipal self-government. 0] Changes should be i n i t i a t e d i n park r e n t a l and l e a s i n g p o l i c y t o provide f o r the r e c e i p t o f more equitable and r e a l i s t i c r e n t a l s from residents and concessionaires. 0] Only v i s i t o r - o r i e n t e d s e r v i c e s should be permitted i n park townsites.  Others:  T n e  T  e  104 Section  5:  ROLE OF NATIONAL PARKS IN EDUCATION  As n a t i o n a l p a r k s are " d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p e o p l e o f Canada f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n and enjoyment", a p p r o p r i a t e p r o v i s i o n t o c a r r y o u t t h i s educational function i s required. In your o p i n i o n what i s the k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n  r e f e r r e d to?  Specify:  Are  the p a r k s p r e s e n t l y  f u l f i l l i n g this educational  Specify:  How s h o u l d Specify:  t h i s f u n c t i o n be c a r r i e d out?  role;  105 Section 6: 1.  GENERAL  The best long-term management tool with which to minimize the resource protection versus use c o n f l i c t , ever a more serious problem i n the parks, i s the inclusion of maximum park acreage i n wilderness and the adoption o f the planning concept whereby recreation pressures could be redirected i n part, from the parks to the much larger surrounding recreation regions. Do you agree Q  (6-1)  Disagree Q  (6-2)  Undecided Q  (6-3)  Give reasons:  The present national parks system should be expanded i n order to provide representative examples of the nation's various natural landscape types. Do you agree Q  (6-4)  Disagree Q  (6-5)  Undecided Q  (6-6)  Should the National Park Service's suggested c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (that below) be adopted? (i) (ii)  (iii) (iv)  (v)  National Parks - areas of outstanding natural features, preservation would be the f i r s t consideration. National Shorelines - major units o f ocean or very large lake shorelines, which due to t h e i r unique q u a l i t y are o f national significance. National Recreation Areas - areas which are primarily useful for recreational purposes, i n which the obligation to preserve the natural state i s d i s t i n c t l y secondary. National Nature Preserves, S i t e s , or Monuments - areas appropriate for the nation to preserve, but which perhaps due to lack of size or other reasons do not q u a l i f y as National Parks. National H i s t o r i c Sites, Features or Areas.  Do you agree [~J 4.  (6-7)  Disagree Q  (6-8)  Undecided Q  (6-9)  National Parks Policy should be reviewed p e r i o d i c a l l y by: 6-10 Q  (a) an appointed national advisory board made up of c i t i z e n s from across the nation; OR  6-11 Q  (b) by the administrators within the National Park Service.  106 Section 6:  GENERAL (Cont'd.)  National park planning should be subject to p u b l i c hearings to f i n a l i z a t i o n of park master planning. No Q  Yes []]] (6-12)  prior  (6-13)  I f "Yes", check one of t h e following: 6-14  (a)  hearings should be held only within the region of the park; OR  6-15  Q  (b)  hearings should be held at various centres the nation.  across  Do you f e e l there i s a need for a comprehensive National Recreation Study to determine the demand and supply of recreation resources i n Canada? Yes Q  (6-16)  No j~J  (6-17)  No opinion Q  (6-18)  Do you see a need for greater coordination at the Federal l e v e l of agencies concerned with recreation? Yes Q  (6-19)  No •  (6-20)  No opinion £ ]  (6-21)  I f "Yes", what type or form of coordination do you  envisage?:  107 S e c t i o n 7: 1. 2. 3.  • 21-30 • 31-40 • 41-50  4. 5. 6.  SOCIO-ECONOMIC INFORMATION  • • •  51-60 61-70 o v e r 70  6.  (over 1 million) 2. • B i g c i t y (250,000 1 million) 3. • Medium c i t y (50,000 250,000) 4. • Small c i t y (10,000 50,000) 5. • Town (1,000 - 10,000) 6. O V i l l a g e (under 1,000) 7. • Farm 1.  Income: Check the box which corresponds t o your t o t a l f a m i l y income d u r i n g 1968: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  3.  • • • • • • • •  under $10,000 $10,000 - $14,999 $15,000 - $19,999 $20,000 - $24,999 $25,000 - $29,999 $30,000 - $34,999 $35,000 - $39,999 Over $40,000  Number o f y e a r s as a Member o f Parliament:  Your o c c u p a t i o n o u t s i d e o f b e i n g a Member o f P a r l i a m e n t :  Check t h e box below which most c l o s e l y corresponds t o the t y p e o f a r e a i n which your c h i l d h o o d was spent:  7.  • Metropolis  Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s your constituency: 1. Q 2. 3. •  urban rural both  When d i d you l a s t v i s i t one o f Canada's N a t i o n a l P a r k s : E d u c a t i o n : Check the l a s t y e a r o f formal e d u c a t i o n completed: Do you c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f :  Public school 1  2  •  •  3 •  4 •  5  •  6 •  1  2  3 •  •  4 •  5  •  6 •  University 1 •  2 •  3 •  a frequent v i s i t o r an o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t o r a seldom v i s i t o r  to Canada's N a t i o n a l Parks?  High s c h o o l  •  1. • 2.0 3. D  4 •  5+ •  THANKYOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION  APPENDIX B Scores* Respondent Number  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28  1  -606 1026 2412 -589 -634 -618 -660 -606 -601 1241 -515 -634 -541 -551 -515 -487 419 920 -188 -601 -481 59 -481 -603 -101 361 -152 -310  2  -892 -874 1492 1156 -993 1118 1200 -892 -908 -885 -1135 -993 1058 1014 -1135 -1034 -1155 -688 1280 -908 -1050 252 -1050 872 1292 -1268 1029 -1050  3  -1564 -1639 -1366 -806 -56 866 931 612 246 1110 832 775 566 862 713 722 192 767 -1564 -1031 539 354 752 -1564 -1568 -1366 -1564 428  4  -829 950 2080 -1015 -655 -338 -534 -577 -657 2554 -626 -549 -614 984 -508 -659 371 -431 -829 -639 -475 -384 -505 -829 -420 2080 -829 -507  5  -522 -214 -280 250 288 -406 458 -453 -633 259 -105 -12 278 -1099 1097 -152 2309 -969 -522 2397 1172 1384 325 -522 -415 -280 -522 1124  6  252 313 -1164 -954 409 199 294 494 -558 93 252 326 367 379 179 367 367 199 367 252 252 441 379 137 252 93 137 367  7  -420 -681 -1096 -639 -214 -555 -89 -404 -701 2221 -420 -414 -545 855 1171 -545 -545 -555 -545 -420 -420 -539 -278 840 -420 2221 840 -545  8  -673 1593 -665 2031 -673 -894 -673 -673 -673 1385 -673 -673 -673 2031 -673 -665 -673 1385 1385 -673 -887 1385 -894 -673 -665 1385 1385 1372  9  308 -355 279 -233 308 187 308 308 308 239 308 308 308 -233 308 279 308 239 239 308 159 239 187 308 279 239 239 -475  10  977 1028 -1230 -1015 -1389 742 977 -1352 -1174 1160 670 1027 -1156 -1033 785 -1189 -1174 1069 977 1101 803 -1045 -1463 791 -994 -991 -927 813  11  788 223 312 -1215 217 -482 788 827 -1309 -820 389 863 144 -13 213 943 -1309 855 788 695 -654 586 1025 -190 20 -662 -1277 -1034  12  -7 750 188 143 -545 -608 -7 -700 -591 275 -736 772 175 1104 -273 685 -591 1247 -7 759 -1212 7 -511 315 765 1558 1085 28  APPENDIX B Scores  Respondent Number  29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56  1  -482 -634 461 92 647 -398 -361 -283 -481 2377 1456 -481 -78 -601 566 566 -601 -14 2338 -430 2179 1296 -1061 781 -1028 227 -941 1844  2  970 -993 -424 -1071 703 957 -952 -948 -1050 1166 -1044 -1050 1093 -908 957 957 -908 930 -998 -908 1065 675 1076 1085 1162 -788 1174 826  3  -1366 698 -1682 428 333 -1564 821 712 483 695 592 493 296 775 -1458 587 646 -1564 612 221 996 -1366 -1564 -215 . -1564 908 -1415 -1564  4  2080 -369 -67 -507 -193 -829 -566 -484 -401 296 -397 -458 423 -549 -545 -402 802 -829 -577 -482 2632 2080 -829 701 -829 -102 472 -829  5  -280 -1054 -160 1124 -1165 -522 411 110 886 -878 -894 749 1162 -12 -613 -1101 -614 -522 -453 -1282 -249 -280 -522 2133 -522 -122 -667 -522  (continued)  6  252 252 252 379 -369 137 367 494 252 179 367 367 137 367 367 264 441 252 293 367 294 137 -4432 367 252 -1994 -354 252  7  -420 -420 714 -278 -821 840 -545 -404 714 1171 -545 -545 840 -545 -545 981 -539 -420 1906 -545 -89 840 -677 -545 -420 465 -814 714  8  -673 -665 -673 -665 -665 2031 -673 -665 -673 -673 879 -673 -673 -673 -673 2031 -665 -1111 -673 -665 2031 -665 -1179 -1103 -673 1810 -1332 1385  9  308 279 308 279 279 -233 308 279 308 308 -4831 308 308 308 308 -233 279 186 308 279 -233 279 -4763 157 308 -353 65 239  10  -937 1028 903 682 -1174 1088 780 -1119 812 -1045 803 977 -1224 691 -1278 -920 1088 -1011 670 -921 976 835 -1174 909 -920 -1422 744 1067  11  -257 223 316 -209 -1309 -50 831 753 -394 586 -654 788 -589 -1159 659 -148 -50 -89 1029 493 -454 928 -1309 -1278 -148 1016 221 -490  12  -134 750 -16 360 -591 -218 -904 20 49 7 -1212 -7 837 -881 -713 752 -218 -121 -715 773 477 527 -591 -1210 752 -35 -749 1367  APPENDIX B Scores ( c o n t i n u e d )  Respondent Number  57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84  1  -909 -449 238 -601 -555 -81 -738 2332 -382 -601 -941 -634 227 -514 751 2144 -310 -1028 -634 709 -568 -942 -62 41 -233 -235 -481 -397  2  1020 1055 -898 -908 1241 1380 1020 1249 891 -908 1174 -993 -788 -895 . -566 1043 -1050 1162 -993 -1297 1197 934 -583 845 -869 -978 -1050 1197  3  -88 818 350 886 589 972 620 487 70 136 -1 592 -1564 662 537 -1366 775 526 712 -1101 606 -680 592 866 985 707 767 645  4  120 -200 479 -517 11 -54 441 2721 -189 -358 86 -397 -829 -495 1665 2080 -549 920 -484 -34 937 -706 -397 -338 489 -232 -431 -190  5  2475 19 461 35 -787 -497 453 761 -1015 2022 -66 -894 -522 466 -1401 -280 -12 587 110 1640 -1231 -359 -894 -406 -202 -29 -969 1080  6  252 252 252 -443 367 421 179 -3941 367 -4432 409 536 -501 137 536 179 367 379 241 137 -554 252 313 -1132 367 326 313 51  7  714 -420 -420 -827 -545 1187 1171 -157 -545 -677 -214 -73 -273 840 -73 1171 -545 -278 -224 840 725 -420 -681 1199 -545 -414 -681 1890  8  1385 1593 -673 -665 -665 1385 1385 1385 -673 -1179 -1111 1601 -673 1385 -894 1385 -665 -673 -673 -673 -1111 -665 -894 -673 1593 1593 1810 1810  9  239 -355 308 279 279 239 239 239 308 -4763 186 -384 308 239 187 239 279 308 308 308 186 279 187 308 -355 -355 -353 -353  10  729 781 915 812 -1465 937 909 901 855 1027 -1153 744 -1045 -1031 744 -992 -1045 -899 744 -927 833 -1278 -1339 1029 670 -1352 1143 903  11  -486 191 358 -394 321 -1127 -1278 252 23 863 -74 862 586 691 862 -22 -55 -1391 862 -1277 -1814 659 932 -1856 1029 827 687 956  12  -1199 -935 1102 49 -370 794 -1210 147 -938 772 32 -728 7 962 -728 1579 -14 605 -728 1085 -1055 -713 255 -159 -715 -700 1234 6  APPENDIX B Scores ( c o n t i n u e d ) Respondent Number  85 86 87  2208 -601 332  1453 -908 -792  -1366 706 765  2080 -488 198  -280 -97 482  * Scores 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112-  Resource Development I n c o n s p i c u o u s Resource Development T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h Minimum Impairment Maximum T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development No A i r p o r t Development Traditional Recreation A l l Terrain Vehicles High C o s t , F a s t - M o v i n g Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n Low C o s t , Slow-Moving Water-Based R e c r e a t i o n P h a s i n g Out T o w n s i t e s by L i m i t i n g Development R e t a i n T o w n s i t e s and M a i n t a i n H i g h Standards T o w n s i t e Autonomy  51 -407 367  1890 -950 -545  ;947 -665 -673  118 279 308  10  11  12  557 729 1026  524 -486 159  -384 -1199 913  

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